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TATTOOING IN THE 
MARQUESAS 

BY 
WILLOWDEAN CHATTERSON HANDY 



Bkrnice p. Bishop Museum 
Bulletin i 

WITH 38 PLATES 



BAYARD DOMINICK EXPEDITION 
Publication Numbrr x 



an 3 oH-'^ 



honoluj.u, hawaii 

Published by the Museum 

1922 



50 7. 9S 9 



TATTOOING IN THE 
MARQUESAS 

BY 
WILLOWDEAN CHATTERSON HANDY 



Bernice p. Bishop Museum 
Bulletin i 



WITH 3» PLATES 



BAYARD DOMINICK EXPEDITION 
Publication Numbbr 3 



4v- ^ 'c 



honolulu, hawaii 

Published by the Museum 

1922 



WiLLOWDEAN ChaTTERSON HaNDY SERVED AS 

Volunteer Associate with the Marquesas 

PARTY OE THE BaYARD DoMINICK EXPEDITION, 

1920-1921. She has taken skillful advan- 
tage OF HER OPPORTUNITY TO OBTAIN WHAT IS 
BELIEVED TO BE AN UNUSUALLY COMPLETE AND 
INTIMATE RECORD OF TATTOOING DESIGNS. 



Tattooing in the Marquesas 

By WiLLowDEAN Chatterson Handy 



INTRODUCTION 

Drawings and photographs of tattooing patterns on the bodies of 
natives were made by the author during a residence in the Marquesas 
Islands in 1921. As tattooing is now forbidden by the laws of the country 
and the art is consequently dying out, this collection of the last specimens 
of tattooing patterns which exist today in the Marquesas has seemed to 
demand a complementary collection of information regarding the practice 
of the art, to the end that the beautiful motives might at least be partly 
accounted for and might some day take their merited place in the history 
of art. The data have been drawn from natives who have been decorated, 
from one old tuhuna, or artist, who has practised tattooing, and from 
literary sources, thus piecing together a fairly accurate picture of the 
practice. Discussion of the design itself, of which the natives know 
nothing today beyond the nomenclature, is undertaken in a spirit of ap- 
preciation and with the hope that the suggestions offered regarding the 
evolution and significance of this form of decoration may uncover other 
possibilities and lead to a more conclusive interpretation of the art. 

THE PRACTICE OF THE ART 

It would appear that this form of body decoration was not confined to 
certain ranks or classes in the Marquesas, though what might be called 
a property qualification limited somewhat the complete covering and finer 
work to the wealthy who could afford to employ the best artists and stand 
the attendant expense of feeding them and their assistants as well as the 
large band of ka'ioi who erected the special house for the occasion. A 
father prepared long in advance for the payment for tattooing of his first- 
born, raising pigs, and planting ute, paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyri- 
fera), for the making of tapa as gifts for both the ka'ioi and the tuhuna. 
Payment also took the form of ornaments, war clubs, and more recently, 
guns. Langsdorflf says that they paid for their decorations according to 
the greater or less quantity of them, and to the trouble the figures re- 
quired ; that during the thirty or forty years when the body was gone over 
again and again with the tattooing bones until the skin was completely 
covered, the cost became considerable ; and that such all-over decoration 
necessarily indicated a person of great weahh (10 p. 120Y. It follows 

^ Throughout this paper the numbers in parentheses refer to the bibliography on 
page 26. 



4 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

naturally that it also appeared only upon people of advanced years (6, p. 
130; 13, p. 102-103), a circumstance which undoubtedly led to Captain 
Chanal's conclusion that the marks had no relation to anything but age 
(II, p. III). 

While the tuhnna was paid generously for work on an opou. the eldest 
son of a wealthy man, no payment was asked of the kdioi, a more or 
less unorganized group of younger sons and daughters, who took such 
part in the preparations as raiding for food and building the special house, 
and who slipped in to have designs punctured upon them gratis when the 
opou was resting or recuperating from the effects of the operation. It is 
perhaps these ka'ioi to whom Melville (12, p. 49) refers in speaking of 
the common fellows who were practiced on. Langsdorff was apparently 
unaware of this custom, for he says that those who could not afford tat- 
tooing went without : 

The poorer islanders who have not a superabundance of hogs to dispose of in 
luxuries, but live chiefly themselves upon breadfruit, are operated upon by novices in 
the art, who take them at a very low price as subjects for practice. The lowest class 
of all, the fishermen principally, are often not able to afford even the pay required by 
a novice, and are therefore not tattooed at all. (10, p. 120.) 

With the lower classes noticeably less tattooed than the higher, the 
conclusion was often drawn by early visitors that this form of decoration 
pointed out noble or distinguished persons (8, p. 155 and 13, p. 84). 
Berchon, writing in 1859, avows that all classes were tattooed at that 
time, but that formerly it was a sign of nobility and distinction. From 
what is to be gathered today from living informants, this is a miscon- 
ception, in the main, based on the fact that wealth was in the hands of 
chiefs and distinguished men. 

Melville (13, p. 102) at one time assigns tattooing to the warrior 
class, but present information states that the untattooed as well as the 
tattooed went to war. That warriors, as well as other groups, wore 
special designs as badges is stated by modern informants as true in a 
few instances, and is frequently suggested by the early voyagers to the 
Marquesas. Spirals over the eyes (PI. v, 7) are today described as be- 
longing to all warriors in ancient times, while spirals called kokoata on 
cheeks and hips indicated chiefs, as do the tiny pinlike marks (PI. xxxviii, 
G. d) to be seen today on the inside of the left ankle. After a battle 
these marks — according to the informants — were sought for by the priest 
of a victorious army on the ankles of the slain to determine whether a 
chief had been killed and a great battle fought. Beyond these distinguish- 
ing marks, living informants make no mention of the badges described 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 5 

by early visitors, such as the mata-komoe distinguishing a hero ( lo, PI. 
VIII, fig. 9; p. XV ), the marks of high birth put upon the arms of women 
in famihes of chiefs (18, p. 222-223), the tattooed right hand and left foot 
of women as a sign of wedlock (13, p. 221-222). Mr. Linton was told 
that only chiefs had their feet tattooed; but this is not borne out in the 
late practice of the art nor corroborated by other informants. The con- 
fusion probably arises either from the distinguishing chiefly marks being 
upon the ankle, or from the custom of tattooing the body of the opou 
from the feet up, contrary-wise to that of the ka'ioi. 

The only distinguishing feature of the tattooing of a ka'ioi, as re- 
ported today, is the order in which the designs were put on, the face 
being decorated first. The reason assigned by a Pua Ma'u informant for 
the custom of beginning with the feet of the opou was that the face if 
tattooed first was liable to become infected and cause a stoppage of the 
operation. It is possible that the reverse order in the case of the ka'ioi was 
the result of indifference as to their fortunes, but it is also possible that 
there was here a fundamental class distinction. There is no proof today 
that the work was not of the same pattern as that of the opou, though 
Melville thought he distinguished a difference in the quality of the work 
put upon "inferior natives," their designs appearing to him like daubs of a 
house-painter's brush (13, p. 250). 

Berchon says that tattooing was an obligation rather than a mark of 
distinction for women, that the right hand must be tattooed by the age 
of twelve so that it might be used in making popoi, in making pakoko (the 
circular movement of two fingers in taking up popoi to eat it) and in 
rubbing dead bodies with coconut oil (i, p. 114-115). Natives today say 
that an untattooed hand could not make popoi nor eat it from the same 
bowl as a tattooed hand, that a tattooed man could not eat with a woman, and 
that a man with all his designs finished could not eat with a man whose 
designs were unfinished ; but any reason for these requisites beyond their 
being "pretty" is unknown. Women would not marry untattooed men, 
probably because the decoration represented either wealth, endurance of 
pain, style, or ail three. 

A special effort was made to find some trace of banqueting societies 
distinguished by marks tattooed on the chest, which Krusenstern, Langs- 
dorff, and Melville' describe (8, p. 159-160; 10, p. 121-122; 12, p. 50-51) ; 
but no memory of anything in the nature of such fraternal orders supported 
by the chief and tattooed gratis is discoverable today. With Berchon's con- 



' All of the detailed information of Krusenstern and Langsdorff came from two 
white sailors living among the natives, whose accounts are in many instances un- 
mistakably erroneous and exaggerated. It would not surprise me in the least if 



6 Bcrnicc P. Bisliofi Museum — Bulletin 

elusion that the faet reported must have heen "quite exceptional" we must 
agree. It was customary, however, during famine times, for people to 
seek the service of chiefs in order to be fed, and it may have been the 
whim of some chief to have a particular mark tattooed upon them, but 
this was certainly not a general custom. Indeed, Melville relates the "Hana- 
manoo" episode as an especial and unusual case ; and it does not seem 
unlikely that the same story is at the basis of both his and the Russians' 
accounts. They have probably misinterpreted the ordinary custom of the 
father of the opoti during the period of tattooing feeding the ka'ioi, who 
were no more closely organized as a society than is our own "younger set," 
to whom they were somewhat analogous. This would fit, too, with the 
custom of the tuhuna's giving them samples of their art gratis during the 
rest periods of the o{>ou. 

A careful search for any possible significance of face designs as tribal 
marks, corroborative of Porter's statement to this effect (14, p. 114), 
calls forth today, except in one instance only, vociferous refutation. How- 
ever, that face patterns were insular during a later period of the art is 
certain, the oblique paheke belonging to Nuku Hiva, the horizontal bands 
called ti'ati'apu being worn by Hiva Oans, and the latter's variant, the 
ihnepo, whose central band covers the nostrils themselves, being prevalent 
on Fatu Hiva. Lacassagne (9, p. 79) quotes Lombroso as declaring that 
face tattooing on Nuku Hiva distinguished two enemy factions, the one be- 
ing marked by a triangle, the other by a circle. Triangles are associated 
with the tattooing of the inhabitants of Tai-pi Valley by Melville and Ber- 
chon, and these Tai-pi were powerful enemies of the tribes of Tai o Hae 
Valley. More than one present-day informant has stated that men of a cer- 
tain tribe living in Tai o Hae were marked with a great black circle on the 
face (PI. V, 10). Seeing the two styles and finding them associated with two 
enemy factions, it might be natural to conclude that face decoration was 
to distinguish enemies ; but this is the one instance in which a tribal 
significance is assigned today to a face design. 

That the operation of tattooing was performed during propitious sea- 
sons or at times of importance in the life of the individual to be decorated 
has been reported by Desgraz (18, p. 223). Living Marquesas informants 
place its practice during the dry season when there was no breadfruit to 
be harvested, during the months of October, November, December and 
early January. The women, whose tattooing may still be examined, place 
the beginning of their work at from seven to twelve years of age; the 



Melville made up his story of the "Hananianoo" episode after having read Langs- 
dorfT or Krusenstcrn. 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 7 

men, from fifteen to twenty. Within these Hmits fall the more or less 
definite statements of such early writers as Garcia, Desgraz, and Ber- 
chon. Porter interpreting the time as "when they are able to bear the 
pain." All imply — and Krusenstern (8, p. 155) definitely states — that 
the beginning of the operation was connected with the period of adoles- 
cence. Berchon (i, p. 113) tells us that pregnancy would hinder the 
success of the work and that it was never undertaken for a woman when 
she was in that condition, from which we may again infer that the coming 
of puberty was the time for starting the bodily decoration. There seems 
at the present time to be no definite connection in the mind of the Mar- 
quesan between the two, and the fact that tattooing was practiced during 
the growing or maturing season of the land just before harvest-time 
seems also to have no significance at present. However, the celebrations 
associated with the harvest and with the completion of the tattooing of the 
adolescent youth of the land were united in a great ko'ina or feast. It 
may be remarked, too, that there is at present no indication that important 
times in the life of the individual, other than adolescence, were the oc- 
casions for tattooing, although Langsdorff, in a description of the enata 
design, says that it was put on when an enemy had been killed or eaten 
(10, p. XV). 

As has been stated, preparations for the tattooing of an opoit- began 
with the raising of pigs and planting of tite for gifts and payment for 
tuhuna and ka'ioi. Several days before the beginning of the operation, 
the father announced that the oho'au tiki, or special house for the occasion, 
was to be built. About one o'clock on the morning on which the erection 
of this structure was to take place, two great drums (pahu) and two small 
ones (hutu) were beaten on the public festival place, to declare the be- 
ginning of the tapic and to summon the ka'ioi. These, usually from 
forty to eighty in number, immediately gathered at the festival place and 
together proceeded, under direction of the tuhuna, to raid the place of 
the opou's father. They demolished his houses and those of his relatives, 
with the exception of the sleeping houses ; they seized not only material 
for the building of the oho'au, but that for making tapa, or the tapa 
itself in the event of its already having been made. Enough pigs and 
other food, sufficient to last for the entire period of the operation, its 
length depending upon the sickness of the opou, were taken for the feed- 
ing of the ka'ioi, tuhuna, and all those who were to stay in the oho'au. 
Not only was the father of the opou the victim of this fao or seizure of 
food, but also his father's sisters and even other relatives of the father and 
mother, if the duration of the operation was extended ; and it was these 
relatives who cooked the food durino- the entire time. 



8 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — BuUctin 

The olw'au tiki, together with a sleeping house and a cook house, 
which were placed on a stone paepae near a me'ae (sacred place), or a 
tohua (public place), was erected for the first-born or adopted boy 
(matahiapo), other sons usually being ka'ioi and achieving their tattooing 
piecemeal and gratis in the oho'au of the opou. This house, which be- 
longed with all its appurtenances to the opou and not to the ka'ioi who 
built it — although they slept in it during the period of the operation — was 
carefully built, though it was lashed with the coarse strips of hibiscus bark 
rather than with the finely braided pu'ukaha or coconut fiber cord usual 
in other dwellings. Melville might seem to suggest a different custom 
in Hiva Oa from that of Nuku Hiva in the description of the tattooing's be- 
ing performed in large houses belonging to the tuhuna themselves (12, 
p. 48-49) ; but all modern recollection in Hiva Oa is of the similar custom 
of building the special oho'au for the opou. It may be said in passing 
that neither Melville's descriptions of the spacious houses of the tuhuna 
with their numerous small apartments set apart by screens of tapa for 
private patients and of the small tents of coarse tapa erected by itinerant 
tuhuna for patients at the times of religious festivals, nor Langsdorff's 
account of the operation for persons in middling station being performed 
in houses erected for the purpose by the tattooers and tabooed by authority 
(10, p. 120), are corroborated in the information gathered last year in 
the Marquesas. The Russian says further that the women were not, like 
the men, shut up in a tabooed house during the operation, but that 
it was performed without ceremony in their own houses or in those of 
relatives. This is corroborated today, particularly on Nuku Hiva; though 
sometimes, we are told, a small house called the fa'e po'a (po'a, coconut 
thatching^ was built alongside the family dwelling for the tattooing of a 
girl and in it lived the whole family during the entire period of the 
operation, the main house being tapu, though the fa'e po'a was not. 

The oho'au tiki, itself, which we must take as the usual scene of the 
operation, was very tapu to outsiders. Those who entered it could have 
nothing to do with women, who were spoken of at this time as vehine 
pu'atea (pu'atea, a kind of tree with soft wood). Indeed these men must 
hide if a woman were even sighted at a distance, and it was necessary for 
them to cook for themselves. The men who held the legs and arms of 
the opou, and who fanned flies during the work, were especially tapu 
and had to be served with special food. There seems to have been no 
regular food tapu for the patients during the period of the operation, 
though according to early visitors, there were dietary restrictions ap- 
parently for the sake of health. Garcia says the patients were forbidden 
for several days to take certain kinds of nourishment, such as pig and 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 9 

kava, and Melville speaks of the small portions of food that were pushed 
under the curtain by unseen hands to the taptd patients within the apart- 
ments, the restriction in food being intended to reduce the blood and so 
diminish inflammation ; Langsdorff reports that the patient must drink very 
little for fear of inflammation, and must not eat early in the morning. 

The work was performed by tuhuna patu tiki (patu, to mark or strike ; 
tiki, designs), artists, evidently trained in the school of experience, some of 
them coming to enjoy great vogue on more than one island. Although 
Garcia states that the office was hereditary, each great family having its 
family of tattooers trained from generation to generation for its use, 
nothing of the sort can be traced today. According to modern informants, 
skill alone was qualification for practice and requisite for patronage. 
Langsdorfif tells of novices who, for practice, operated upon poor people 
at very small charge, and Melville reports even the hiring of "vile fel- 
lows" as models on whom they could practice. 

All present-day information denies Melville's statement that there were 
orders of tattooing artists. It is more likely that there were itinerant 
members of the profession, as he states. All seem to have practiced quite 
independently, although there was probably the kind of bond between them 
that followers of any profession feel. It is said in Ua Pou that there were 
different tuhuna for men and women because of the rule of tapu which 
ascribed to men greater sacredness than to women, but this was not true 
during the latter days of the art. No woman tuhuna was ever heard of. 
There were evidently contests between tuhuna, two or three working at 
the same time in an oho'au, attempting to excel one another in rapidity of 
execution and delicacy of designs. In the light of knowledge about the 
ancient native training in other artistic lines, it is possible to hazard the 
guess that to be accepted at all as a tuhuna, a thorough acquaintance with 
all the conventional units of the art was requisite; for, although individual 
tuhuna certainly varied and elaborated designs at will, yet they did not 
stray from the basic units. 

A tuhuna was aided in his work by four or five assistants called ou'a 
(or kou'a — translated by Dordillon, pupil, disciple — meaning also shrimp). 
He was consulted as to the choice of designs, his decision apparently be- 
ing usually accepted, although the opou was free to select his patterns. 
He outlined the designs upon the body with a piece of charcoal. But it 
was the ou'a who held the arms and legs of the patient, who stretched the 
skin to make a smooth surface upon which to work, who fanned the 
flies from the bleeding wounds, and who often, it is reported, filled in the 
outlined designs. 



lO Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Before the coming- of the tuhnna, the father of the opou had pre- 
pared the pigment (liinu). The preparation of this was a very tapit 
operation, the man making it being forbidden all relationship with women 
during the period; and, according to Lesson (i, p. 107-108), it was 
necessary for a virgin to aid him in the work. The shells of the ama nut 
(Aleurites triloba) were heated so as to open easily (7, p. 45), and the 
kernels placed over a fire in a kind of pocket of stones which allowed 
the smoke to ascend through a small passageway in order to collect on a 
smooth stone (pa'e hinu). Upon this stone a constant tapping was kept 
up while the soot collected to the depth of about an inch. This process, 
according to Berchon, was called amahi ama. The soot-covered pa'e hinu 
was then placed on a banana leaf and left in the sun to dry, being kept 
thus until the tuhnna arrived for his work. Thereupon, the father, ac- 
cording to present-day information, mixed the soot with plain water in 
a small coconut shell (ipu hinu) and gave it to the artist. Marchand 
Langsdorfif, and Porter agree upon water as the solvent; but Berchon 
further rejxjrts that the ink, which he calls kaaki, was made by mixing the 
soot with coconut oil; while Melville (13, p. 246) gives vegetable juice 
as the liquid. He and Langsdorff describe the use of the ashes, rather 
than the soot, of this nut kernel, and Porter thought burnt and powdered 
coconut shell was used, but apparently no other pigment save carbon was 
ever employed in the Marquesas, as all early voyagers remark only the 
dark blue or blackish coloring. (See 15, p. 16; 14, p. 78; 10, p. 118; 
8. P- 155; 13, P- 158). Jardin (7) speaks of carbonizing and pulverizing the 
kernels of the ama and mixing the powder with water to trace the de- 
signs on the body, and it may be that the residue of the burnt nuts was 
so used. 

When the tuhnna arrived, bringing his instruments in a bamboo case 
seven or eight inches long (pukohe fan hinu), stoppered with a wad of 
tapa, he spread them out upon a piece of tapa on the ground, ready for 
use. The instrument is generally known as ta (to strike), but Berchon 
(i, p. no) gives the following nomenclature for its various parts: ta'a 
(a point) for the toothed end. kakaho (reed or cane) for the horizontal 
support of the teeth, and ta-tiki (strike-//^/) for the baton (Berchon, p. 
no). There was always an assortment of these toothed ends of varying 
fineness or coarseness appropriate for all grades of work from the delicate 
hair lines to solid patches. The flat instruments for straight lines and 
gradual curves were of human bone, sometimes of the bones of enemy 
sacrifices (izn heana). They were about three inches long, flat and 
slightly wedge-shaped, and toothed or comblike at the end. Instruments 
for the smaller curves were of the bones of the kena (Sula piscatrix), 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas ii 

or of a tapu bird on the small island of Fatu Uku, the leg bones having 
been used (at least they are used for the instruments seen today), and 
according to Langsdorfif, wing bones also. Marchand describes these ta as 
sometimes of tortoise-shell; Berchon adds, of fish bone; and Melville men- 
tions sharks' teeth: but no trace of combs other than of human or bird 
bone remains today. The number of teeth varied from three to about 
twenty — Melville saw some with a single fine point — according to the size 
and use of the instrument. Melville says that some had points disposed 
in small figures, so that the whole design was printed at a single blow. 

These bone combs were inserted into a slit in a piece of reed stalk, 
bamboo (lo, p. ii8), or ironwood (ii, p. no; i, p. 109), six or seven 
inches long, which acted as a horizontal handle (see, however, 12, p. 51, 
note), held, while in use, in the left hand of the tuhuna. This was, as 
far as could be ascertained today, straight, though Melville speaks of 
curved ones. The baton, about three quarters of an inch thick and from 
a foot to eighteen inches long, was of hibiscus wood. 

Although everything connected with the operation itself was extremely 
tapu, tattooers in general, in Nuku Hiva at least, being under the auspices 
of the god Hamatakee (2), Tahu being the god of the tuhuna and the 
ka'ioi, Pupuke of the ou'a, yet there are no records of opening ceremonies. 
The patient, clad only in a girdle, was simply laid upon the floor, arms and 
legs held by four ou'a. When a design had been sketched in charcoal 
upon the body, the tuhuna, or an assistant, held in his left hand the 
toothed hammer and a piece of tapa, with which by a dextrous twist of 
this hand he wiped away the blood as it flowed from the punctures made 
in the skin by the gentle tapping on the top of the comb with the baton 
held in the right hand. As he worked, he kept a sufficient supply of pig- 
ment upon the teeth by dipping two fingers of his right hand into the 
ink and rubbing them upon the comb. Garcia, Marchand, and Berchon 
agree with this procedure ; but Langsdorff and Krusenstern declare that 
the punctures were made in the skin until the blood oozed out and then 
the dye was rubbed in. While the tapping went on, the operator chanted 
in rhythm to his strokes the following words to allay the pain of the 
open: 

Ua tuki-e, ua tuki-e. ua tuki-e, It is struck, it is struck, it is struck, 

Ua tuki-a, to tiki-e, It is struck, your design, 

Poparara' to tiki-e, Tap-tapping your design, 

O te tunane o te kui-a, The brother of the mother, 

O te tuehine o te kui-a, The sister of the mother, 

To'u tiki-e. My design. 



' Poparara is onomatopoetic, the sound of tapping. 



12 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Chants for women do not seem to be general. At some time during the 
operation, the opou was given a new name, referred to as patiki. This was 
taken from some personal defect of his own, such as a blind eye, for example, 
or from some imaginary peculiarity of the genital organs of his father or 
mother. 

The operation, as may be imagined, was extremely painful and the 
patient cried and screamed without restraint. Berchon notes that after 
each sitting, there were from eight to twelve days of local inflammation, 
followed by fever and sometimes swellings, which were at times fatal. 
Light inflammation and swelling and ulcers lasting for several days (6, p. 132 ; 
II, p. no; 10, p. 118) seem to have been usually the most serious results 
of the rigorous treatment. The juice of the banana stem was used as 
an ointment (paku) to hasten healing. Berchon says an emollient of 
hibiscus leaves was applied to relieve the inflammation. 

The duration of the operation depended largely upon the fortitude 
and health of the patient. A Nuku Hiva man is reported to have been 
completely covered in three days ; the legs and back of one man of Hana- 
menu were done in seven days ; but as a rule the designs were put on 
in more leisurely fashion, a section of the body being covered at a sitting, 
with three-day rest periods called days of blood (a toto) after each, so 
that the operation covered from two weeks to four months. Under such 
conditions a woman's lips and shoulder might be decorated in a day, a 
man's legs from knees to ankles, or perhaps his thighs and buttocks. 
Langsdorff says that the first sitting usually lasted from three to four 
weeks and that only the groundwork of the principal figures upon the 
breast, arms, back, and thighs, was laid the first year, additions, however, 
being made for years at intervals of from three to six months. 

After the operation, fruits of noni (Morinda citrofolia) the most usual 
healing agent, were offered at the me'ae or sacred place ; the tuhuna was 
paid ; and, when the tapu was lifted, the sacred oho'au tiki was burned 
(though not the common house of women) ; and all those participating in 
the operation, who had not been allowed to bathe during the entire time, 
now went first to the sea to bathe, afterwards to the river. This ac- 
complished, they covered themselves with fragrant ointment, which turned 
the skin yellow so that their new patterns showed brilliantly. Meanwhile, 
relatives had prepared such ornaments as tortoise-shell crowns, girdles 
of tapa, feather head ornaments, earrings, and the like. These they left 
outside their houses on the night before the festival (Ko'iua tuhi tiki: 
Ko'ina, feast; tuhi, show; tiki, design), which was always given to cele- 
brate the completion of the work, and the newly decorated girls and 
boys donned them before their apjjearance on the leaved floor of the 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 13 

festival place where admiring friends and relatives were gathered to view 
them. There, two large drums (pahu ana-ana) and three small ones 
(tutu) were beaten, the opoti marching with the ka'ioi around the paved 
area to show his designs. While two men and two women danced, the 
ka'ioi accompanied them with handclapping and the chanting of a putu 
or special chant for the oho'au patu tiki. In an unpublished manuscript 
Dordillon and Pere Pierre state that at this feast a human victim was 
sacrificed and eaten. When a man gave a feast in celebration of his wife's 
acquisition of a bit of tattooing, as Langsdorff reports was sometimes done 
(10, p. 121), she was allowed to eat hog's flesh as a very special privilege. 

THE DESIGN 

Any attempt today to make a first-hand study of tattooing design must 
be based upon the examination of not more than a hundred and twenty- 
five persons who are the only living examples of the practice and whose 
designs represent for the most part a late development of the art, and 
upon their explanations and descriptions, and those of the single surviving 
practitioner of the art, whose actual practice ceased many years ago. The 
practice was forbidden by the French in 1884 and the edict was enforced 
as strictly as possible from that time on in the group of Nuku Hiva and 
Ua Pou, where the government was in occupation. On Hiva Oa, Tahu Ata, 
Fatu Hiva, and Ua Huka, the practice continued some years thereafter in 
the absence of authority to abolish it. As a consequence, one finds in the 
northwestern group that the majority of examples is the work of tuhuna 
of the southeastern islands, a few very old people, alone, representing 
that of the former islands. Just as these northwestern natives now 
living went surreptitiously to tuliinia of the other group to be tattooed 
upon parts of the body that would not show beneath their clothes, so in 
the southeastern group those who continued the practice after the pro- 
hibition was actually enforced there, about twenty-five years later than in 
the more closely espionaged islands, were decorated chiefly upon the legs 
from hips to ankles where dress or trousers would cover the pattern. 
Gradually, even this practice ceased, and today the only tattooing that is 
done is now and then of names in print upon the arm. It will be seen 
from this, that only upon very old people can anything approaching a full 
suit of tattooing be seen. Though there is but one man living who, as far 
as I know, might be called fully tattooed, still there are to be found on 
different subjects designs for practically all parts of the body originally 
covered. There still remain several women fully tattooed, probably for 
the reason that their designs are less conspicuous. The plates herewith 



14 Ber)iice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

represent about as full a collection as could be obtained today of the 
tattoo designs of the Marquesas. What may be learned of the history 
and meaning of the art from the study of these designs may be of interest. 

The parts of the body ornamented differ today, as they have always, 
for men and women, a complete suit of tattooing for the men (PI. i) 
covering the crown of the head (PI. v, 9), face (Pis. iii, iv, v) including the 
eyelids, often the inside of the nostrils, tongue, palms and back of the 
hand (Pis. viii, A; xi, C), arms (Pis. xii-xni), legs (Pis. xxix-xxxviii), 
and the entire trunk (PI. xiv) but not the penis, which all save one of our 
modern informants deny ever to have been tattooed. (See also: 15, p. 16; 
4, p. 14; 5, p. 232; 14, pp. 78, 114; II, p. in; 10, pp. 122-123; 8, p. 155; 
17, p. 306; 13, pp. 83-84, 90-91 ; 18, p. 222.) At the present day, the one 
man who might be said to be fully tattooed or nioho, is lacking the crown 
piece, save for a section, and the tongue and palm coverings. From the 
earliest times accounts such as those of Cook, Marchand, Langsdorff, 
Krusenstern, Melville, Berchon and Porter note the simpler decoration of 
the women, G. Forster observing none on them. On the bodies of women 
observed today, patterns are found on the lips running back to the 
base of the gums (Pis. 11, A; vi. A), on the ear lobes, behind the ears 
(PI. VI, C; Porter, p. 114), on the curve of the shoulder (PI. vi, B; see 
also 13, p. 95; 6, p. 132), on the lower back of which but one example 
remains, as far as known (PI. xv), on the hands (Pis. vii-xi) and on the 
legs from the buttocks down (Pis. xvi-xxvin). One old woman of Nuku 
Hiva describes the tattooing on women as covering also, formerly, the 
whole length of the arms on the inside, the buttocks, and the abdomen. 
She, as well as all others hving today, declares that the vulva was never 
tattooed, although one woman reports a girdle that came around in front. 

Various reasons are given for covering different parts of the body. 
The decorated hand was noticeable in kneading and eating popoi. The 
under-arm pattern made a fine showing when the arms were uplifted to 
strike with the war club. Shoulder and chest decorations were displayed 
when men walked with arms crossed behind the back. Circular motives 
on the inside of the knees were in evidence when men sat cross-legged. 
The inside thighs where the loin cloth hung and covered them were often 
left vacant. 

There are numerous indications both in the types of design to be seen 
today and in descriptions and stories of natives and of visitors to the 
islands, that fashion in this mode of decoration was no exception to 
the rule of fashion's fickleness. There are to be seen naturalistic, 
geometric, and conventional motives, both symmetrically and irregularly 
arranged ; there are stories of inter-island exchange of motives and of 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 15 

the teaching of the tuhitna of the northwestern group by those of the 
southeastern ; there are to be found in Hterary sources accounts of the 
vogue of different artists and statements from which may be deduced 
complete changes in the type of design. With a view to discovering how 
dependent style was upon the taste and originality of individual artists, the 
names of all artists who executed the designs recorded were noted. When 
two pieces of work done by the same tuhuna were found, the choice of 
pattern seemed sometimes to be identical (PI. xi, C), sometimes altogether 
different (Pis, ix, B and x. A), while the work of different tuhuna was 
sometimes identical (PI. xiii, B). It would seem that all tuhuna^ drew, 
more or less at their will, from a single body of design. 

In the hope of making as clear as possible the probable evolution of 
this art in the Marquesas towards the elaborate conventional design that 
prevailed when it was forbidden thirty-eight years ago, the following de- 
tails are set down. 

Quiros records in his description of Mendana's visit to the south- 
eastern islands in 1595, the observation of "fish and other patterns painted" 
upon the faces and bodies of the natives. This is corroborated by a living 
informant who says that formerly women had birds and fish behind their 
ears and on their legs, and men are reported to have had lizards on their 
faces. The next word from a voyager that comes to us of this group 
is dated nearly two centuries later when Forster observes in 1772 that 
the motives in Tahu Ata are not naturalistic but geometric, taking the 
form of "blotches, spirals, bars, chequers, and lines;" while J. R. Forster 
confirms this analysis, adding however, "circles," and Marchand in 1790 
reiterates the two lists and swells them with "parts of circles .... square 
or oval figures .... inclined and variously crossed lines." It would 
appear, then, that in the southeastern islands during these himdred and 
eighty-odd years, there had been in the type of design a change from the 
naturalistic to the geometric. 

We have no similar statements regarding what was happening in the 
northwestern group during the early period, the first observations there 
being set down by Marchand in 1790, who visited both groups. Though 
Marchand touched for a short time at only two bays in the northwestern 
islands, still it is valuable to have his statement that he finds in Ua Pou 
the same custom of tattooing as in Tahu Ata but not so general, few 
tattooed individuals being seen (11, p. 167). Unfortunately he does not 
define the types of motives there as he does in Tahu Ata. Just a few 
years later, however, in 1803, Langsdorff gives a number of drawings 
from the northwestern group with explanations of them (10: PI. vi, p. 
117; PI. vii, p. 119; PI. VIII, p. 122; pp. XIV, XV, XVI ). which show that 



i6 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

by the beginning of the nineteenth century, designs in Nuku Hiva were a 
combination of purely geometric figures with all save two of the principal 
conventional units of the latest phase of the art that at the present day 
is universally attributed by the natives to the southeastern islands, which 
for convenience may be referred to as the Hiva Oa development. Dor- 
dillon (3) gives the names of many motives which have completely disap- 
peared today, most of them recorded in the northwestern group. Of 
these, several would indicate naturalistic treatment : a'akitu, line of sea 
builders; aukohuliu, a seaweed; haha'ua, a kind of ray fish; homae, a 
fish ; koao, a fish ; matiiku, a bird ; keehcu, wing ; .tikau'e, fly ; toetoe, crab. 
Furthermore, in 1843 Melville saw fish and birds and an artu(?) tree 
tattooed on natives of Nuku Hiva (13, p. 157) ; Desgraz, the same year, 
describes fish and shells (18, p. 223); Garcia in 1845, fish; Berchon, in 
1859, boots, gloves, suns, sharks, cockroaches, coconuts, lizards. In ad- 
dition to these naturalistic motives, all these visitors also saw geometric 
patterns, showing that in the northwestern group as long as we have any 
record of tattooing there, the two types have existed side by side as 
they do today. (For naturalistic motives see Pis. xviii ; xx, B, c; xi, D; 
XXX, /; for geometric, Pis. xviii, xix, xx. A, b; xxi, D, a). 

On the other hand the earliest drawings obtainable that are known 
to be of the Hiva Oa type are those drawn by Proiho and an old tuhuna 
pain tiki of Fatu Hiva (Pis. ix, A; xii, C; xiv, B; xvi ; xxx). These 
are impossible to place chronologically and are no longer found upon the 
body in exactly these forms. Among them is found but one genuinely 
naturalistic motive (PI. xxx, ;) but a combination of geometric figures 
such as squares (PI. xii, C, b and e), bars (PI. xxx, C). oblique (PI. 
xxx, d) and variously crossed lines (PI. xvi, d; xxx, a; xxx, k), with 
simple forms of all the modern conventional motives save the matakomoe 
of Langsdorflf, now called po'i'i (PI. xxxiii, c) and the flower-like or 
sunlike disk variously called pnahitu, pualiue and huctai (PI. xxxiv, e), 
both of which are to be found in primitive form in the early Nuku Hiva 
art (PI. XXIX, /, c). Today three naturalistic designs, and these very 
crude, are to be found in the southeastern group, and these are all the 
work of the same artist. (Pis. x. A, 2, 0; xxviii, D, B). The designs 
described as belonging to former Nuku Hiva and Fatu Hiva styles have 
in common several units, many of them in primitive form which are to 
be found today in the Hiva Oa style: for example, the koheta (Pis. xxx, a: 
XXIX, o and b; xxxiv, a and b); the ka'ake (Pis. xxx, i; xxix, h; 
xxxiv, o- insets) ; the hikuhiku aiu (Pis. xxix, b; xxx, g; xxxiii, h) ; and 
the inata hoata (Pis. xxx, e. lower a: xxix, i:,: i, D. thigh) : and what I 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 17 

conceive to be the forerunner of the underarm ipiioto, the original po'i'i or 
sliellfish motive (PI. ix, A, a; xii. A, B, D). 

An examination of the extant examples of the art shows a distinct 
cleavage between the two groups in their conception of design, that of the 
southeastern being purely conventional with but minor relics of the geo- 
metric and the slightest trace of the naturalistic ; that of the northwestern 
showing several examples of naturalistic art, many of the geometric, and 
a simpler form of the conventional than the other. Marquesans are all 
agreed, that, as far as tattooing customs went, the islands were divided 
into two groups : Nuku Hiva and Ua Pou forming one ; Hiva Oa, Tahu 
Ata, Fatu Hiva and Ua Huka — because of its close intercourse with the 
north and west coast of Hiva Oa — forming the other. It may be re- 
marked that Fatu Hiva is accepted as the home of carving and modern 
tattooing; but, being regarded as a kind of suburb of Hiva Oa, the latter 
island is referred to as the center. Several trustworthy informants de- 
clare that before the whites came, tuhuna patu tiki went from Hiva Oa to 
Nuku Hiva to teach them the art there, as before this time the Nuku 
Hivans used only "dirty black patches." We know that, by Melville's 
time, a transfer from the one to the other group was taking place, for he 
says that when he was in Nuku Hiva in 1843 (12, p. 48), Hiva Oa 
enjoyed a reputation for tattooing in the whole group. At the time of 
its discontinuance as a practice, it was certainly Hiva Oa tattooing that 
prevailed over the whole group. 

Face patterns seem to have followed the same general lines of develop- 
ment, with a period at least of divergent styles in the two groups. Some 
Hiva Oa natives say that lizard motives were anciently used on the face ; 
but early voyagers indicate only geometric figures, Marchand — the first 
to attempt to define them — speaking vaguely of various lines on the fore- 
head representing kinds of hieroglyphics or characters of Chinese writing 
(16, Vol. n, PI. 133; 10, PI. VI, p. 117). Langsdorff pictures a man with a 
spiral on his cheek (10, PI. vi, p. 117) and this convention is confirmed 
by living informants who describe these kokoata (PI. v, 7) on the faces 
of warriors and chiefs. Today, naturalistic motives are not to be seen 
upon the face, but what may be a descendant of the spiral occurs on 
Ua Pou in a fine design on the nostril (PI. iv, 7, 10; V, 4). The prevalent 
style called ti'ati'apu, to encircle several times, consists of three solid 
stripes, sometimes seen as unfinished half-stripes, banding the face hori- 
zontally, one across the forehead, one across the eyes and the third across 
the mouth. (See Pis. in-v.) This is everywhere declared to be a Hiva Oa 
style and there is a variant where the mouth band covers the nostrils, 



l8 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

said to belong to Fatu Hiva. Of this but one living example could be 
found (PI. V, 8). Of the old Nuku Hiva pahcke, distinguished by an oblique 
band running from the right center of the forehead across the left eye 
and cheek (PI. v, 5), there remain today but two examples. What form 
the transition from spiral to band may have taken can only be conjec- 
tured. A reliable Hiva Oa informant describes a former convention of that 
island which seems to be a combination of over-eye arcs — perhaps a relic 
of the spiral — , of peheke and ti'ati'apu (PI. v, 6; see also Langsdorfif's 
description and PI. viii, figs. 10, 11, p. xi). In Melville's time, both the 
modern styles were seen on Nuku Hiva, and in the tattooing to be seen 
today, the Hiva Oa has replaced the Nuku Hiva design completely. In the 
fine inset and inter-band motives are to be found both geometric and con- 
ventional motives, never naturalistic. 

How may this divergence between groups and the growth from the 
naturalistic through the geometric to the conventional — as seems to be 
the probable development — be accounted for? 

Perhaps it may be postulated that before the seventeenth century 
naturalistic motives were used in both groups, that during the two un- 
recorded centuries geometric figures appeared in the southeastern group, 
that these gradually replaced the naturalistic there or transformed them 
into the conventional, and that at each stage of development the new 
styles were carried to the northwest where they did not so completely 
obliterate or amalgamate the native patterns, some of which persist to 
this day in their old form. 

Influences which may have contributed to such a development are 
suggested by an examination of adzing and carving motives. Ornamental 
adzing in simple geometric patterns seems to have been the primitive 
form of wood decoration. Imitation of its technique as well as the use 
of its motives on the body is evident. The former is seen in the filling 
of spaces, ordinarily made solid in color, with parallel, oblique, zigzag 
or wavy lines (PI. iii^ 7, inset in eye band; xxi, B, b; xxxvi, insets 
in e and g; xxxv, inset barred teeth in /; xxx, d) ; in the use of the inter- 
section of adzing lines to form the motive called kopito (PI. xxiii. A, d; 
possibly also the inset in the forehead band in PI. in, 8). In tattooing 
are found such housepost motives as the cross formed by adzing oi? the 
corners of a square (PI. xii, C, b), concentric circles (PI. xii-£, b) and 
concentric half-ovals (PI. xxviii, £; xviii, a). It is possible that the 
use of four triangles in a square or oblong, as well as the conception of 
design in bands may have come from this art of adzing wood. When it 
is remembered that wood was scorched before a pattern was adzed or 
car\'ed upon it, so that the design was in natural wood color, the back- 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 19 

ground in black, the conclusion suggests itself that such motives as the 
pahito (PI. XXIII, A, j and k, left and right) and the flamelike ends of 
triangles (xviii, xix A) may be copies of the black background left by 
gouging alongside a line in the one case and by cutting short lines 
vertically out from a straight line in the other. It seems as if the 
checkerboard pattern, of which but one example is extant, must have 
originally been carved on wood (PI. xxi, D, a). Parallel and wavy 
lines and other adzing and carving concepts are used on the body, as 
seen in the preceding example. It will be noticed that most of these 
coincidences are found in Nuku Hiva, Ua Pou or early Fatu Hiva types, 
rather than in the prevalent modern patterns, though among these are 
two examples of the scroll so prominent in carving (see also Pis. xxxviii, 
D; xxxv, c). 

Wood carving, as distinguished from adzing, which decorated bowls, 
paddles, clubs, etc., seems to be a mixture of adzing patterns, geometric 
squarish spirals and a few of the conventional motives usual in tattooing. 
Of carving technique copies such as the veining along a midrib (PI. 
xxviii E) are found in tattooing; of carving design, similarities to old 
war club patterns (PI. vi, B; x. A, 2, a; the tava, which was formerly 
burned on a plank in the house of the inspirational priest (PI. xvi, m) ; 
and such small units as the tiki in forehead and mouth bands of Plate ill, 7. 
Common to both carving and tattooing are such conventional motives as 
the honu kea or woodlouse, the 7nata hoata or brilliant eye, the ka'ake 
or underarm curve, the poka'a or wooden block for carrying a load on 
the shoulder, the enafa or man. Whether these motives originated as 
wood carving patterns or as body decoration and in which direction the 
transfer and adaption was made it is impossible to say definitely. 

Several interesting possibilities are suggested by an analysis of the 
various motives called kea today. It would appear that the kea of com- 
mon occurrence on wood is really a conventionalization of the hoim kea 
or woodlouse with its six legs and two antennae. This was seen but 
once in tattooing, on the wrist of an old woman of Fatu Hiva (PI. vii. A, 
J, a) and was drawn by an artist of Fatu Hiva as a former unit there 
(PI. XVI, K). On the other hand, the usual body kea (PI. xxii, B, b 
center) may very well be a simple conventionalization of one of the 
carved tortoise-shell plaques of the paekea or crown — a carved product 
of Hiva Oa — the motive having been borrowed from shell rather than from 
wood carving. There is a motive found today in tattooing on Ua Pou ( PI. 
XX, A, e ; xxi, D, h) and depicted also as an early Fatu Hiva unit (PI. ix, 
A, b) which resembles the e honu, tortoise, drawn by Langsdorff, and 
this, which has disappeared from Hiva Oa tattooing, may perhaps be said 



20 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

to be the only conventional derivative of a naturalistic portrayal of the 
tortoise and probably the only pure body motive among the variants called 
kea. The southeastern carving motive is the kea which prevails today. 

Another usual conventional motive appearing both in carving and 
tattooing, the mata Iwata, or brilliant eye (PI. xxvi, A. c), would appear 
to have originated in neither, being, in its simplest form, a copy of the eyes, 
ears and nostrils of a tiki or image face. Only on wood is this simple copy 
found today, and on wood we find all the transition stages of its develop- 
ment to the highly conventionalized unit common in tattooing today; 
whence it would appear that the mata hoata originated in sculpture, was 
copied upon wood, and transferred to the body, where it gradually was 
elaborated and more highly conventionalized. (For development see PI. 
xxXj b, which is found only on wood today; xi, A, c; xviii, h; xxxiv, h; 
XXXIII, c; XXIII, B, f, a; xxiii. A, a, center.) 

Of conventional motives the ka'ake is perhaps the most widely used. 
Dordillon gives kakekake as one of the words used to designate tattooing 
which is entirely finished. He spells the word "kake," but it seems better 
to adopt the spelling "ka'ake" for the following reasons : The distinguish- 
ing feature of the motive is its never varying curve which seems to cor- 
respond to the line of the under-arm curve or arm-pit for which the 
native term is ka'ake. The assumption that this curve of the body origi- 
nally gave the name to the motive is borne out by several lines of rea- 
soning. In the first place, Langsdorfif assigns the placing of this motive 
originally to the inside arm and ribs (lo, p. xv) ; in the second place, 
we have described for us this simple under-arm curve as its earliest 
form (PI. XXIX, h; xxx, i) ; and in the third place, the elaborations of 
this curve, as the motive grew in complexity, are representations of the 
enaia or man with upraised arms (PI. vi, B, center bottom), and of the 
poka'a (PI. IX, B at base of fingers) or curved wooden object placed on 
the shoulders on which to rest a pole in carrying a heavy load. The associa- 
tion of ideas seems obvious and we find them associated today as minor deco- 
rations in the under-arm pattern ( IM. xiii, B. o. b : xiii, C", c and d; 
XIV, A). This combination is especially marked in the simpler forms of 
the ka'ake as found on Ua Pou (PI. xx, B, b) and Nuka Hiva (PI. xv, a). 
Although this unit appears upon wood, it seems reasonable to suggest that 
it was originally a body pattern. 

There are certain body motives which seem never or rarely to have 
been used upon wood, such as the hiietai (PI. xxxiv, e) and the po'i'i 
(PI. xxxiii, e; XXVI, A, d, center), which are associated with early Nuku 
Hiva, not Hiva Oa, art ; and there are .some which are just beginning 
to be transferred to wood at the present time, as the ipu'oto. another unit 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 21 

found in early Nuku Hiva design (PI. xiii) ; but it seems impossible 
definitely to assign particular conventional motives to the one medium or 
the other. However, it may perhaps be stated that geometric elements 
did originate on wood, and that the influence of geometric adzing and 
carving appears in tattooing both in certain transferred elements and in 
a general conventionalization of the primitive naturalistic motives. Inas- 
much as Fatu Hiva is known to be the carving center, we may further 
define the geometric influence as springing directly from wood-carvers 
of the southeastern group. 

The use of solid patches may be traced with interest, as here again 
we find a different treatment in the two groups. Some modern infor- 
mants describe the men of Nuku Hiva as formerly having half of the body 
entirely black (PI. xii, B) ; one remembers seeing a man with solid- 
black legs ; several testify that when a man was completely tattooed in 
design, if he could bear it, the spaces were gone over and filled in until 
all pattern was obliterated and he was completely black. In corroborat- 
ing this custom in Nuku Hiva, Langsdoriif says that he saw some old men 
who were punctured over and over to such a degree that the outlines of 
each separate figure were scarcely to be distinguished and the body had 
an almost negro-like appearance. (See also 14, p. 78; 8, p. 155; 17, p. 
306; I, p. 106.) There are no accounts of such a practice in the south- 
eastern islands, and this seems to point to an aesthetic sense there, which 
was lacking in the northwest, for certainly people with sufficient artistic 
sense to originate these beautiful patterns would not have covered them 
afterwards and considered the results the "height of perfection in orna- 
ment," as did the tuhuna of Nuku Hiva, according to Langsdorff and the 
other early voyagers. 

Desgraz, who was in Nuku Hiva at approximately the same time as 
Melville, when Hiva Oa tattooing was the vogue, describes the use there 
of black bands containing delicate figures. These are today the funda- 
mentally distinguishing feature of the Hiva Oa type of body design as 
well as of the face pattern. On the other hand, both from descriptions 
of natives today and from examination of the tattooing of the only old 
man and old woman to be found, whose patterns were put on by Nuku 
Hiva tuhuna, the basic principle of the Nuku Hiva type seems to have been 
solid patches. Leg patterns for women found today fall into three dis- 
tinct types: that of Nuku Hiva (Pis. xvii-xix), Ua Pou (Pis. xx-xxi), and 
Hiva Oa (Pis. xxii-xxvm). The first is distinguished by triangular patches 
of different sizes fitted together with half inch spaces between them, the 
only regularity of arrangement being their placing so as to form a straight 
line down the center front of the leg. Flamelike edges, inset teeth, and 



22 Bcniicc P. Bislwp Museum — BuUcliu 

geometric linings, with here and there a naturalistic unit, break up the heavy 
patches and add to their irregular and fancy appearance. Examination of 
the leg motives of this very tapw Nuku Hiva chiefess, who must have em- 
ployed the best artist obtainable, provokes the suggestion that these insets 
were crude and inartistic attempts at a style from the southeast which had 
perhaps just been introduced into Nuku Hiva and with which the Nuku Hiva 
tuhuna was not acquainted or perhaps to which he was not equal. The 
second type, that of Ua Pou, is put on below the knee only, in horizontal 
bands of delicately lined patterns, the motives on either side of the center, 
front and back, being exactly alike. The whole may be conceived of in front 
and back longitudinal sections of symmetrical halves, which meet in the 
middle of either side of the leg. Naturalistic, geometric and conventional 
treatments are all present. The third type, that of Hiva Oa, which was 
the prevalent style at the time of the discontinuance of the art, is similar 
in arrangement to that of Ua Pou, extending however high up onto the 
thigh, and presents a mean between the two former in heaviness of 
treatment, the fine lines swelling into black curves. The mode is almost 
purely conventional. The two latter may be characterized as curvilinear; 
the former, as angular in design. 

The leg patterns to be seen on living men fall into two types, a single 
example representing that of Nuku Hiva (PI. xxxi), all the rest being 
of the Hiva Oa type (Pis. xxxii-xxxviii). The former is characterized 
by unadorned heavy patches, triangular and oblong in shape, fitted together 
obliquely with no plan of arrangement save the formation of a straight 
intersection down the front of the leg. Teeth are the only insets. The 
Hiva Oa examples show the style to be of horizontal bands extending 
around three quarters of the leg, the inside front quarter being filled 
with triangles in the Nuku Hiva style (PI. xxxiv, e-j), indicating, per- 
haps, a borrowing from the heavy black patches of that group. The thigh 
band and the underknee band are always composed either of four triangles 
or of triangles and parallelograms with insets of teeth ; but beyond this, 
this style is totally different from the Nuku Hiva example, variations of 
the same fine line motives used in Hiva Oa for women being set into 
pahilo so that the heavy bands become merely a framework for them. 
The Nuku Hiva pattern drawn from life stands quite apart from that 
pictured by early navigators (lo, pp. 117, 119; 16, PI. 132) and described 
by a modern informant on Fatu Hiva (See PI. xxix). It is a pity that no 
other living example of the work of a Nuku Hiva artist could be found, 
as it is unsafe to make any general statement about it. 

At the present time, there is but one type of back decoration for men 
(PI. XIV, C) : eight heavy rectangular patches arranged in pairs along the 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 23 

back bone with fine line insets and a girdle. These are called peka tua, 
back cross, by an informant of Nuku Hiva and may be an outgrowth of 
the cross on the back described by Langsdorff (10, p. 123), though the 
present mode bears no resemblance to a cross, being rather another 
example of band construction. 

With the band construction of the present day, then, are associated 
exact technique, perfect symmetry, an evident understanding of anatomy 
and fitting of design to the body, and motives which are akin in name 
and formation to those carved on bowls, paddles, canoes, and similar 
objects. The distinguishing features accompanying the oblique patch type 
are irregularity, no sense of the design as a whole, no fitting of the 
motives to the body, naturalistic units, fussy, elaborate, non-aesthetic, fine- 
line insets. 

A survey of these two types of body decoration leads naturally to the 
suggestion that there was a fundamental difference of concept between the 
two groups regarding the reason for its use. Plainly, there was an 
emphasis upon endurance and fortitude in the mind of the northwesterner 
when he braved the pain of a completely perforated skin ; while the south- 
easterner looked upon the art as more purely decorative. Dordillon gives 
the word iie'onc'o as meaning "what inspires horror (in speaking of a 
wound)," and "to cry a long time;" and this word with the addition of 
the phrase. "/ tc tiki" means "completely covered with tattooing." It is 
the pain of which the people of the Marquesas speak today when dis- 
playing their decorations, and it must be admitted that this is as true in 
the one group as in the other. 

The only practical reason for tattooing that was suggested by living 
informants came from a man of Nuku Hiva, who, in describing an old 
mode of the northwestern group of tattooing half of the entire body solid 
black, accounts for this style by saying that such a one turned his black 
side towards the enemy during a battle, so that he could not be dis- 
tinguished or recognized. 

Inquiry into the naming of motives may throw some light upon their 
significance in the native mind. Appreciation of the anatomy of the 
body is often of such paramount importance as to give the name of the 
body part to the motive which is fitted to it, the fatina (joint) or knee 
jointure pattern (PI. xxxiv, f) being a case in point. The same sense of 
body form is approached from a slightly different angle, as in the naming 
of the buttock patlern, tifa (cover) (PI. xxxv, c), the convex of the 
body part resembling the cover of a calabash. Motives are sometimes 
referred to in purely technical terms of form: such as paka (PI. xxxv, h) 
a splinter; kopito (PI. xxiii, A, d. left and right) zigzag; or in terms of 



24 Dcniicc P. Bishop Muscuiii — Bulletin 

the parts they play in the pattern as a whole, such as the ka^ava (PI. x, B, 
I, g) ; beam supporting the timbers of a house, which performs just this 
function in the hand pattern; or the iti'iti'i (PI. xxvi, B, h) which encircles 
the leg, binding together the side motives. 

Many of the design names * then, are names given by artists in terms 
of their particular medium ; but motives are also named for objects in 
nature or in the material culture, of which they were probably originally 
naturalistic copies. Prominent among these are the eiiata (PI. xxni, B, h) 
or man; the nihoniho pcata (PI. in, 6, c) or shark's teeth; the hikuhiku 
atu (PI. XXXIV, k) or bonito tails; the pakiei (PI. xx, B, f) or crab; the 
fa'amana (PI. xvi, h) or pandanus branches; the makamaka (PI. xx. A, c), 
branches; the kaka'a (PI. xx, B, c), hzard; the poka'a (PI. ix, B at base 
of fingers ) or shoulder rest for a carrying pole, which is sometimes repre- 
sented with the carrying pole in the socket as in the finger motives of 
PI. IX, C I. 

A third department of names seems to relate to legends and beliefs ; 
such being the vai o Kena (PI. xxvi. A, g, center) water of Kena; the 
vai ta keetu (PI. xvi, c), sacred bathing place of chiefs; the vai me'ama 
(PI. XX, A, d), water moon; the Pohu (PI. xxii, B, g, center), a legendary 
hero; the peke'oumei and the fanaua (PI. xv, c), or evil spirits. 

Whether these and the naturalistic motives had magical significance is 
not known today, though there is reason to believe that the fanaua were 
put upon the back of this one woman to protect her from these evil 
spirits. The only positive statement regarding the significance of tattooing 
design in the Marquesas that can be made upon the basis of the data 
available today is that it was considered purely decorative at the time of 
the cessation of the practice of the art. And it is as pure design that it 
should be studied and appreciated. 

* In the explanation of the plates the names of the motives are those given by the 
persons on whose bodies they are found. It is impossible to secure accurate transla- 
tions of the majority of design names from natives today, since these have become 
simply names to them. The names given here are only those which a knowledge of 
the language and information from natives and from Dordillon seem to make reliable. 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 



25 



TRANSLATIONS OF DESIGN NAMES 



aa fanaua 


row of evil spirits 


paka oto 




(of a certain 


pakiei 




kind) 


pana'o 


akaaka fa'a 


pandanus roots 




enata 


man 


papua 


fa'a mana 


pandanus branches 




fanaua 


a kind of evil spirit 


papua au ti 


fatina 


jointure 




hei ta'avaha 


a diadem of cock's 


papua enata 




plumes 


peata 


hei po'i'i 


shellfish (of a cer- 


peka tua 




tain circular 


peke ou mei 




kind) wreath 


pia'o tiu 


hikuhiku atu 


tails of the bonito 






fish 


Pohu 


honu 


tortoise 




hue ao 


calabash bottom 


po'i'i 


hue epo 


dirty calabash 




hue tai 


compass 


poka'a 


ihu epo 


dirty nose 




ikeike 


a kind of shrub 




ipu ani 


sky bowl 




ipu ao 


bowl bottom 


pu 


ipu oto 


inside the bowl 


puaina, puainga 


iti'iti'i 


binding 


pua hitu 


ka'ake 
ka'ava 


armpit 




ridge pole 


pua hue 


kaka'a 


lizard 


puha puaka 


kea 


woodlouse, or tor- 


puto'o 




toise or a 


tamau 




carved 


tapu vae 




plaque of 


ti'ati'a pu 




tortoise shell 




kikipu 


lips 


tifa 


kikomata 


eyes 


tiki 


kikutu 


lips 


tiki ae 


kohe ta 


sword 


tou pae 


kohe tua 


back knife 




kopiko 


zigzag 


tumu ima 


koua'ehi 


coconut leaves 


vahana ae 


makamaka 


branches 


vai me'ama 


mata 


eyes_ 


vai Kena 


mata hoata 


brilliant eye 




niho or nihoniho 


teeth 




nihoniho peata 


shark's teeth 


vai ta keetu 


nutu kaha 


mouth or muzzle 




omuo puaina 


a kind of carved 






bone earring 


veo 


pahito 


ancient patch 


vi'i po'i'i 


paka 


splinter 





inside places 

crab 

cut in small slices, 
traced 

enclosure or gar- 
den 

enclosure of ti 
leaves 

native enclosure 

shark 

back cross 

a kind of evil spirit 

to fold or make 

into bundles 

a legendary char- 
acter 

a kind of coiled 
shell fish 

a shaped wooden 
shoulder 
rest for a 
carrying pole 

conch shell 

ear 

flower of olden 
times 

flower calabash 

pig's thigh 

buttocks 

ring 

sacred foot 

to encircle several 
times 

cover 

image 

forehead image 

three head orna- 
ments 

hand tree 

half a forehead 

water moon 

water of Kena, a 
legendary 
hero 

sacred bathing 
place of 
chiefs 

tail 

to turn the shell 
fish 



26 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. Berchon, Le tatouagc aux lies Marquises: Bull. Soc. d'Anthr., vol. i, pp. 99-T17, 

Paris, i860. 

2. Ch.\ui.et, Pierre, Manuscript in possession of the Catliolic Mission in the Mar- 

quesas. 

3. DoRDiLLON, I. R., Grammaire et dictioiniaire de la langue des lies Marquises, 

Paris, 1904. 

4. FoRSTER, G., A Voyage round the World: vol. 2. London, 1777. 

5. FoRSTER, J. R., Observations made during a voyage round the World, London, 

1778. 

6. G.\RCiA [Gr,\cia?], Mathias, Le P., Letters sur les lies Marquises: Paris, 1843. 

7. Jardin, Edelestant, Essai sur I'histoire naturelle de I'archipel des Marquises, Paris 

et Cherbourg, 1862. 

8. Krusenstern, a. J. von. Voyage round the world in the years 1803, 1804, 1805, 

and i8o6, vol. i, translated from the original German by Richard Belgrave 
Hoppner, London, 1813. 

9. LacassacnE, a., Lcs Tatouages, etude anthropologique et medico-legalc : Paris 

1881. 

10. Lancsdorff, G. H. von. Voyages and travels in various parts of the world during 

the years 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, and 1807, London, 1813. 

11. Marchand, Etienne, Voyage autour du Monde pendant les annees 1790, 1791 

et 1792, vol. I, Paris an vi-viii [6th to 8th years of the Republic — 1797- 
1800]. 

12. Melville, Herman, Omoo, a narrative of adventure in tlic South Seas: New 

York, 1863. 

13. Melville, Herman, Typee, A peep at Polynesian life during a four months' 

residence in a valley of the Marquesas, New York, 1876. 

14. Porter, David, A voyage in the South Seas, London, 1823. 

15. QuiROS, Pedro Fernandez de. The Voyages of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros, 1595 

to 1606: Hakluyt Soc, 2nd ser., vols. 14, 15, translated and edited by Sir 
Clements Markhamj^ London, 1904. 

16. RiENZi, M. G. L. Donieny de. Oceanic on cinquiemc partie du Monde, vol. 2, 

Paris, 1863. 

17. Stewart, C. S., A visit to the South Seas in the U. S. Ship Vincennes during 

the years 1829 and 1830, vol. I, New York, 1831. 

18. Vincendon-Dumoulin and Desgraz, C, lies Marquises ou Nouka-IIiva, histoire, 

geographic, moeurs, Paris, 1843. 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 27 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 
(From drawings by the author except where otherwise indicated.) 

Plate I. — Photographs of a tattooed man of the Marquesas. 

The patterns on half the body of Eotafa of Ta'a Oa, Hiva Oa — the most fully 
tattooed man seen in the Marquesas by the author — the motives being brought out 
by painting them with black paint. Identical patterns on the unpainted half of the 
man's body do not appear in the photograph. 

Plate II. — Photographs of a tattooed woman of the Marquesas. 

Typical modern patterns for women, on the body of Tuuakena at Atu Ona, 
Hiva Oa : A. Front and side view of face, showing lip and ear patterns. B-E. Front 
and rear views of legs showing patterns on the painted portions. 

Plate III. — Face patterns for men. 

Examples of the Hiva Oa style of three horizontal face bands, ti'a ti'a pu: 1. An 
unfinished example from Pua Ma'u, Hiva Oa. — 2. From Haka Hetau, Ua Pou, show- 
ing ciicita motive ((.i). — 3. From Haka Hetau, Ua Pou, showing a half band on the 
forehead. — 4. From Hokatu, L^a Hiika, showing the motives tiki ae (a), kikomata (b) 
tiki pu (c), and pariho (inset in c). — 5. From Pua Ma'u, Hiva Oa, showing a band 
over one eye, mata (a), and a mouth band, mitu kaha (b). — 6. From Vai Paee, Ua 
Huka, showing the motives vahana ae (a), mata (b), nihoniho peata (c left), name 
unknown (c, right), detail of c right (e), and the kikutu (d). — 7. from Vai Paee, 
Ua Huka. — 8. From Hane, Ua Huka. 

Plate IV. — Face patterns for men. 

Examples of the Hiva Oa style of three horizontal face bands, ti'ati'a pu: 
I. From Omoa, Fatu Hiva. — 2. From Hanavava, Fatu Hiva, showing on inter-band 
the nihoniho peata motive. — 3. From Hatiheu, Nuku Hiva (after a sketch by 
E. S. Handy). — 4. From A'akapa, Nuku Hiva (after a sketch by E. S. Handy). — 
5. From Hana Vave, Fatu Hiva, showing detail of a chainlike design (a). — 6. From 
Hana Vave, Fatu Hiva, the three bands here called as a whole tou pae. — 7. From Haka 
Hetau, Ua Pou, showing mata (a), veo (b), kiki pu (c), cnata (d), detail of b (c), 
detail of d (f). — 8. From Hooumi, Nuku Hiva (after a sketch by E. S. Handy). — 
9. From Haapa, Nuku Hiva (after a sketch by E. S. Handy). — 10 and 11. From 
Haka Hau, Ua Pou. 

Plate V. — Face and head patterns for men. 

Examples of various styles of different periods : I. From Hana lapa, Hiva Oa, 
showing an unusually shaped eye band and an unfinished mouth band. — 2. From 
Atu Ona, Hiva Oa, showing shoulder and chest patterns mounting the neck to join 
the face bands. — 3. From Haka Hau, Ua Pou : an unfinished pattern, showing the 
probable sequence of execution — one eye being allowed to Jieal while half of the 
mouth was done, and so on. — 4 From Ha'a Kuti, Ua Pou (after a sketch by 
E. S. Handy). — 5. From Tai o Hae, Nuku Hiva, one of two extant examples show- 
ing the Nuku Hiva style of an oblique band (pa heke) crossing the face. — 6. A former 
Hiva Oa pattern (after a description by an Atuona informant). — 7. An old pattern 
for warriors of all the islands (after a description by an informant of Fatu Hiva. — 
8. A variant of the ti'ati'a pu, with nostrils covered, belonging to Fatu Hiva and 
called ihu epo (after a sketch by E. S. Handy). — 9. A pattern formerly used on the 
crown of the head (after a painting on a sculptured figure which once served as a 
house post in Ta'a Oa. Hiva Oa, and is now in possession of M. Chadourne of 
Papeete, Tahiti. — 10. The hue epo pattern, an example of a former style of the people 
of Tai o Hae, Nuku Hiva (after a description by a Nuku Hiva informant). — 11. An 
old Nuku Hiva pattern (after a description by an informant of Fatu Hiva). 



28 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Plate VI. — Head and shoulder patterns for women. 

A. Typical face patterns for women : lip marks, koniho, and an ear pattern, 

omua puaina. 

B. A band across the arm just below the fall of the shoulder, on a woman of 
Tai-pi Vai, Nnku Hiva (after a sketch by E. S. Handy). 

C. Ear patterns: i. On a woman of Hakaui, Nuku Hiva. — 2. Of Atu Ona, Hiva 

Oa, showing the omuo puaina design around the lobe and the kea design at 
the back of the car. — 3. Of Tai-pi Vai, showing the puainga design (after a 
sketch by E. S. Handy). — 4. Of Pua Ma'u, Hiva Oa, showing around the 
lobe the aniatiu (anihaupcka, Dordillon) motive and back of the ear the 
po'opito ua puaina. — 5. Of Hiva Oa. — 6. A woman's pattern on a man of Pua 
Ma'u, Hiva Oa — a rare occurrence. 

Plate VII. — Hand patterns. Motives from Fatu Hiva and Taiiu Ata. 

A. On a woman of Fatu Hiva: i. The back of the hand. — 2. The palm, show- 
ing the pariho motive on the underwrist around the palm, the mata (a), the 
tamau (b), and the pariho (c). 

B. On a woman of Tabu Ata : I. The back, showing the poka'a motive at the 
base of the middle finger, the pihau (tumu ima, Langsdorff) (a) and the 
mata (b). — 2. The underwrist 

Plate VIII. — Hand patterns. Motives from Nuku Hiva and Hiva Oa. 

A. On a man of Nuku Hiva. 

B. On a woman of Hiva Oa, showing the taina van motive between the thumb 
and index finger, e tua poou (a), ti'i kao (b), and the paa viho (c) around 
the palm. 

Plate IX. — Hand patterns. Motives from Fatu Hiva and Tahu Ata. 

A. An old pattern of Fatu Hiva called kohi'u (after a drawing made by an old 
tuhana of Fatu Hiva), showing finger motives, mata va'u ; finger and upper 
hand units inclusive, nutu kaha; po'i'i (a); kea po'i'i (b) ; hei po'i'i (€),■] 
and hei ta'avaha (d) around the palm. 

B. On the left hand of a woman of Tahu Ata (for the design on her right 
hand see Plate X, A), showing the poka'a motive at the base of the fingers ; 
the po'i'i (a), Pohu (b), and the eia va'u (c). 

C. On a woman of Hiva Oa, done by a tuhuna of Fatu Hiva: i. The back of 
the hand showing the central oval, the po'i'i motive ; the poka'a at the base 
of the fingers and the thumb ; matua hce moa (a), ama opea between the 
thumb and index finger; and the fanaua (b, c). — 2. The palm showing the 
fanaua motive around the palm, the po'i'i (a), and the piaoliu (b). 

Plate X. — Hand patterns. Motives from Tahu Ata. 

A. On a woman of Tahu Ata: i. The back of the hand, showing the ka'ava 
motive at the base of the middle finger to the wrist, kou'u (a), poka'a (b), 
mohovaha (c), and the mata (d). — 2. The underwrist, koua'chi (a). 

B. On a woman of Tahu Ata. (The tattooing was done by the same tuhuna 
whose work is shown in Plates X, A and IX, B.) i. The back, showing the 
motives papua (a), c tua poou (b), paka (c), ka'ava (center), fanaua (e), Pohu 
(f), and ka'ake (g). — 2 Underwrist, showing the motives paa niho around the 
palm ; papua au ti (b), and the vai o Kena (c). 

Plate XI. — Hand patterns. Variant motives. 

A. Principal units on the hand of a woman of Nuku Hiva, showing the motives 
mata putona (a), kea (b) , and the mata io (c). (After a sketch by E. S. Handy.) 

B. A representation of a bird on the underwrist of a woman of Nuku Hiva. 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 29 

C. Pattern on two men of Ua Pou. 

D. On a man of Hiva Oa, tattooing done by a tuhiina of Fatu Hiva (after a 
sketch by E. S. Handy). 

E. On the underwrist of a woman of Hiva Oa, an unusual kea motive. 

Plate XII. — Arm and breast patterns for men. Evolutionary types. 

A. An old style of Fatu Hiva (after a drawing by a tuhuna of Fatu Hiva) show- 
ing breast stripes, H'i heke. 

B. An old style of Nuku Hiva (after a sketch by E. S. Handy from the description 

of an artist of Fatu Hiva). 

C. Detailed drawing of A, showing the motives kea (a), the etua pool (b), the 
poka'a or paliito (c) , fa'amana (d), ipu ao (e), and the vi'i po'i'i (d and e). 

D. The present style; under-arm, ipu oto ; shoulder disk, puha puaka; chest, 
ka mo'ehu. 

E. Detailed drawings of B showing the motives nihoniho (a) , po'i'i (b, c). 

Plate XIII. — Arm patterns for men. Typical modern motives, ipu oto. 

A. On a man of Ua Huka. 

B. On three men of Ua Pou showing a variant of the armpit motive, the poka'a (a), 

and the enata (b). Three pairs of squarish ovals, similar to those in A com- 
plete this arm pattern. 

C. On a man of Fatu Hiva showing the motives puaina (a) ; ti'i o'oka (b) ; 
the three pairs of ovals, ipu oto: the arm-pit unit, ipu ao; poka'a (c) ; and 
enata (d). 

Plate XIV. — Body patterns For men. Old and new types. 

A. An unfinished example from Nuku Hiva, typical of all islands at the present 
time, showing the arm-pit design, ipu katu and chest, teeva. 

B. An old style in back and side patterns from Fatu Hiva (after a drawing by 
a tuhuna of Fatu Hiva) showing back patches, pahito; ipu oto (a); pahito 
(b) ; mata (c) : inata (d) ; kohe tua (e), a girdle and leg stripe. 

C. An unfinished back pattern, peka tua, from Nuku Hiva but common to all 
the Marquesas islands. On Ua Pou this pattern is called moho. 

Plate XV. — A back pattern for women. 

A girdle on a chiefess of Nuku Hiva, showing the motives ka'ake (a), mata (b), 
and fanaua (c). 

Plate XVI. — Leg motives for women. 

Motives formerly used in Fatu Hiva: koniho (a), mata hoata (b), vai ta keetu 
(c), pana'o (d), ikeike (e), hei po'i'i (f), akaaka fa'a (g), fa'a mana (h) worn on the 
inner ankle, mata omo'e (i) worn on the inside of the knee, like the present pahito, 
puha tahi (j) worn below the knee on the inside of the leg, eia va'u (k) worn on the 
inside of the calf, nutu kaha (I), tava (m) worn on the inside of the leg above the 
ankle (after drawings by a tuhuna of Fatu Hiva). 

Plate XVII. — A leg pattern for women. 

The only surviving example, so far as known, of an old style of Nuku Hiva. 

A. Front and side views of the left leg. 

B. Back and side views of the right leg. 

Plate XVIII. — A leg pattern for women. 

Detail of the motives shown in Plate XVH, A. 



30 Bernke P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Plate XIX. — Detailed studies of a leg pattern for women. 

A. Of motives in Plate XVII. B. 

B. Back thigh units of both legs of patterns in Plate XVII. 

C. Ankle motives of the right leg of pattern in Plate XVII, the rest of the ankle 

and foot pattern being identical with those of the left. 

Plate XX. — A leg pattern for women. 

Detail of the right leg motives of an old style of Ua Pou, the only surviving 
example to be found today. 

A. Front: paka (a), mata io (b), makamaka (c), vai me'ama (d), honu (e). 

B. Back: po'i'i (a), ku'nke (b), kaka'a (c), mata io (d), vai me'ama (e), pakiei (f), 

pu (g). 

Plate XXI. — A leg pattern for women. 

Detail of the left leg motives of the preceding example : 

A. Front, knee to ankle : iiuita (a), ka'ake (b), pakiei (c), vai me'ama (d). 

B. Back, knee to ankle: ka'ake (a), mata io (b), vai me'ama (cj. 

C. General view of the left leg. 

D. Ankle band. 

E. General view of the right leg, of which detail is shown in Plate XX. 

Plate XXII. — A leg p.\ttern for women. The modern type. 

Typical motives indicating the color of the tattooing as it appears on the skin. 

A. Back pattern: vai pahu (a, left), ka'ake (a, center), mata hoata (b), ka'ake (c). 
mata hoata (d), ipu ani (e), vai o Kena (f), mata hoata (g), ka'ake (h) and (j), 
Pohu (i), ipu ani (k, center), ka'ake (k, left and right). 

B. Front pattern: mata hoata (a), po'okohe (h, left and right), kea (b, center), 

ka'ake (c, left and right), pahito (d, left and right), ipu ani (d, center), 
mata mei nei (e), ka'ake (f, left and right), vai o Kena, sometimes called 
potia hue or peke ou mei (f, center), Pohu (g, center), mata hoata (h), 
pahito (i and /, left and right), ka'ake (i and j, center), ipu ani (k), mata 
hoata (I), ctua poon, sometimes Pohu (m). 
Plate XXIII. — A leg pattern for women. A varl\nt arrangement on 
a woman of Pua Ma'u, Hiva Oa. 

A. Front pattern: ka'ake (a, left and right), mata hoata (a, center), aniatiu (h, 
left and right), ka'ake (b, center), hopiko (d, left and right), po'i'i (d, center), 
ka'ake (c, left and right), mata hoata if, center), ka'ake (g), etua poou (h), 
mata hoata (i), pahito (j, left and right), pahito (k, left and right), ka'ake (j 
and k, center), po'i'i (I), mata hoata (m). 

B. Back pattern: mata hoata (a), ka'ake (b), mata hoata (c), po'i'i (d), ka'ake 

(c), mata hoata (f), ka'ake (g), paa niho (h, around the foot). 

Plate XXIV. — Leg motives for women. 

A and C. Detail of upper tliigh motives omitted from the leg but burned instead 

upon bamboo. 
B. A general view showing how the motives in Plate XXIII are arranged on 

the leg. 

Plate XXV. — A leg pattern for women. 

Front and rear views of an elaborate leg pattern from Pau Ma'u, showing a com- 
bination of the fine motives and heavy patches usually worn by men. 

Plate XXVI. — A leg pattern for women. 

A. Detailed study of the motives in the front pattern of Plate XXV : nutu kaha 
(a-c inclusive), kea (a, center), ka'ake (b), kea (c, center), pahito (d, left 



Handy — Tattooing in the Marquesas 31 

and right), po'i'i (d, center), mata hoata (e), tu'u po'o, sometimes vai o Kena 
on Fatu Hiva (f), vai o Kena (g, center), ka'ake (g, left and right), mata hoata 
(h), (lahito (i and /, left and right), ka'ake and peke ou mei (i and ;', center), 
po'i'i (k), mata hoata (I), tu'u po'o (m). 
B. Back pattern: oiiiho (a), paka (b), pahito (c), papua (d), pahito (e), mata 
hoata if), po'i'i (g), iti'iti'i (h), mata hoata (i), ka'ake (j and /), peke ou mei 
(k), ka'ake (m, left and right), po'i'i (m, center). 

Plate XXVII. — Leg motives for women. Variants. 
A, B, and C. Ntitu kaha, variations of the thigh pattern. 

D. A band encircling the ankle of a woman of Nuku Hiva. 

E. A band encircling the ankle of a woman of Tabu Ata, 

F. Onilio, a band outlining the sole of the foot of a woman of Ua Huka. 

Plate XXVIII. — Leg motives for women. Other variations. 

A. An elaborate po'i'i on the knee of a woman of Tabu Ata. 

B. A front shin pattern of unusual arrangement and combination. 

[Note the use of the vai Kena on its side (a, center), and the combination of 
mata and vai Kena (b).'] 

C. A variant of the aniatiu of Plate XXIII, A: left and right (b and c). 

D. Crude representations of the pa'a'oa (fish) found on the knees of a woman of 
Tahu Ata. 

E. An upper thigh motive, piihi, on a woman of Tahu Ata. 

F. An unusual extension of the ka'ake (a), a variant of Plate XXIII, A, h, found 

on a woman of Ua Huna ; a binding motive (h) from Ua Huka, a variant of 
the iti'iti'i of Plate XXVI, B, h. 

Pl.\te XXIX. — Leg motives for men. 

Motives formerly used in Nuku Hiva : the kohe ta, or sword motive, consisting 
of a girdle across the back and a stripe down the side of the leg (a, b), hikuhiku atu (b) , 
pua hitu (c), pahito (d), huetai (e), po'i'i (f), mata hoata (g), and the ka'ake (h). 
(After drawings by an artist of Fatu Hiva). 

Plate XXX. — Leg motives for men. 

Motives formerly used in Fatu Hiva (after drawings by a tuhuna of Fatu Hiva) : 
aa fanaua, worn on the upper front thigh (a) ; mata hoata (b) ; pahito (c), vai o Kena 
(b and c), worn on the back of the leg below the bend of the knee; papua enata (d), 
worn on the inside calf just above the ankle; mata hoata (e), worn on the upper thigh 
alongside the aa fanaua: ti'i hoehoc (f), worn ou the bend of the knee; paka'a (g), 
worn on the back of the calf; nihoniho (h), worn on the inside calf; ka'ake (i), pua 
hue and ikeike (j); pia'o tiu (k), worn around the ankle; ti'i kakao (I), worn on the 
foot. 

Plate XXXI. — A leg pattern for men. 

The Nuku Hiva style of leg pattern, done by a tuhuna of Nuku Hiva and found 
on only one man : ornamental band on the thigh, puhi puha; the heavy patches, pai- 
pai io. 

Plate XXXII. — Leg patterns for men. 

The Hiva Oa style, in vogue on all the islands at the time of the discontinuance 
of the art : 

A. Side view of a leg with motives from Ua Huka. The buttock and inside front 
quarter of the leg pattern are lacking, as is usual in modern examples. 

B. Front and side views of a leg with motives from Fatu Hiva, the inside front 
quarter of the leg pattern, below the knee, being present. 



32 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

C. Back view of a leg with motives from Ua Pou, the buttock pattern being 
present. 

PlATF, XXXIII. A LEG PATTERN FOR MEN. 

Detailed study of Plate XXXII, A: kohe la (a, h, and c), kea (h), mata io (c), 
puto'o (<l), kautupa (e), fatiiia (f), pahito with po'i'i inset (g), hikuhiku atu (h), pahito 
(i and j), auhoi (k), tapu vae (k and I). 

Plate XXXIV. — A leg pattern for men. 

Detailed study of motives on Plate XXXII, B: kohe la (a and b) ; puto'o (c) ; 
pahito with mata hoata, ka'akc, and tiki insets (d) ; mata vaho, the half oval; pua hue 
(e) ; fatina (f) ; pahito with po'i'i and ka'ake insets (g); paka oto (h, i, j); hikuhiku 
atu (k); pahito, with mata and ka'ake insets (I), tapu vae (m). 

Plate XXXV. — A leg pattern for men. 

A detailed study of the motives of Plate XXXII, C: kohe ta (a and h) ; tifa (c), 
containing a mata hoata, cnata, and a kea in the center at the bottom ; puto'o (d); 
pahito (e) ; fatina with elaborate double rows of cross-barred teeth inset (f); pahito 
(g) ! paka (h), in place of the usual hikuhiku atu; pahito (i) ; tapu vae (j); auhoi (k). 

Plate XXXVI. — A leg pattern For men. 

An elaborated pattern of the Hiva Oa style found at Ua Huka : kohe tine (a-c), 
complicated by two meta io (b and c), puto'o, lightened by a mata io inset (d), pahito 
broken by a ka'ake and a po'i'i inset (fj. 

Plate XXXVII. — A leg pattern for men. 

A more complicated pattern from Hiva Oa, rendered almost as lacclike as those 
for women by the numerous fine-line insets in the heavy patches : puto'o (a, b, c,) with 
insets of cross-barred teeth, double rows of (I'^i, and a vai o Kena; pahito with mata 
hoata, ka'ake, and po'i'i insets (d) ; fatina with mata inset (e); pahito with po'i'i and 
ka'ake insets (f); hikuhiku atu (g) with flourishes at the points; pahito (h), whose 
simple lines are almost lost in the elaborate insets of vai o Kena and mata. 

Plate XXXVIII. — Leg motives for men. 

A. Kohe ta from Fatu Hiva. 

B. A thigh pattern from Nuku Hiva (after a sketch by E. S. Handy) : mata (a), 

hue ao (b). 

C. Two bands for the foot : pia'otiu and kakao. 

D. An inside knee motive, mata vaho, from Fatu Hiva. 

E. and F. Ankle bone decorations, auhoi. 

G. An ankle band from Fatu Hiva: Tapu vae (a); hikuhiku atu (b); pahito with 

ka'ake, mata io, and tiki insets (c). 
H. An elaborated pahito from Fatu Hiva with ka'ake, cnata, and mata io insets. 



Bernicic p. Bishop JU'SEUM 



Bulletin i, Plate II 





TATTOO Dl'SlC.XS IN TllE MARQUIiSAS 




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I 




Hernice p. BisHoi- Museum 



Bulletin i. Plate VX 



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Bulletin i, Plate XXIV 




TAITDO niCSIGNS IN TlIK MAKQUESAS 



Beenice p. Bishop Museum 



Bulletin i, Plate XXXV 




TATTOO DESIGNS IN THE MARQUESAS 



Bernicc p. Bishop Museum 



Bulletin i, Plate XXXVI 




TATTOO DICSIGNS IN TIIK, MAUQUUSAS 



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EARLY REFERENCES TO HAWAIIAN 
ENTOMOLOGY 



BY 



J. F. ILLINGWORTH 



Bernice p. Bishop Museum 
Bulletin 2 



^^^05C 



honolulu, hawaii 

Published by the Museum 

1923 



EGl.^bq 



EARLY REFERENCES TO HAWAIIAN 
ENTOMOLOGY 



BY 

J. F. ILLINGWORTH 



Bernice p. Bishop Museum 
Bulletin 2 



Zl?>oS^ 



honolulu, hawaii 

Published by the Museum 

1923 



Early References To Hawaiian Entomology 

By J. F. Illingworth 



INTRODUCTION 

While examining the narratives of the early voyages of the Pacific, I 
came across several entomological references so interesting that I decided 
to extend the search and present the results in a form more readily avail- 
able to workers in this field. 

As the investigation proceeded, references multiplied so rapidly that 
I decided to call a halt with the year 1900, as the numerous papers ap- 
pearing since that time are fairly well known. 

In preparing the bibliography an effort has been made to examine all 
available printed matter dealing directly or indirectly with Hawaii, but it 
is not unlikely that some references have been overlooked, especially in the 
earlier writings of the missionaries. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the assistance received — particularly in 
regard to the more recent publications — from the published bibliography 
by D. L. Van Dine (224)^ and from the card catalogues that have been 
gradually built up in Hawaiian institutions. 

The subject of the distribution of organisms, especially in the Pacific, 
has a most important bearing upon our life here in the Hawaiian islands. 
Among insects, practically all of our pests have gradually arrived along 
the lines of commerce ; and even now, with our strict quarantine system, 
new ones continue to gain an entrance every year. 

Hence, such a review of the literature is especially interesting and valu- 
able, because it aids in determining the time of introduction and also the 
distribution of the various organisms found in Hawaii. 

DISCUSSION OF THE LITERATURE 
In reviewing tlie written history of these islands, I naturally began with 
the account of the voyages of Captain Cook (2), who discovered the Ha- 
waiian islands in 1778. Diligent search failed to locate any reference to 
insects, although dogs, hogs, rats, and birds are mentioned. However, in 
a separate narrative, William Ellis, the assistant surgeon of this voyage of 
1778, indicates clearly that at least house flies were troublesome. In de- 
scribing the natives, Ellis says (i, Vol. II, p. 156), 

They have also a kind of fly-flap, made of a bunch of feathers fixed to the 
end of a thin piece of smooth and polished wood ; they are generally made of the 

'The references in parentheses refer to works listed in the bibliography on 
pages 19 to 50. 



4 Beniice P. Bishop Museitm — Bulletin 

tail feathers of the cock but the better sort of people have them of the tropick 
birds' feathers, or those belonging to a black and yellow bird called Mo-ho. The 
handle is very frequently made of the bones of the arm or leg of those whom they 
have killed in battle, curiously inlaid with tortoise-shell ; these they deem very val- 
uable and will not part with them under great price. This ornament is common to 
superiors of both sexes. 

Later, Captain Nathaniel Portlock referred to these brushes (4, p. 88) 

when describing the suppHes purchased from the natives: 

Curiosities, too, found their way to market and I purchased two very curious 
fly-flaps, the upper part composed of very beautiful variegated feathers ; the handles 
were human bone, inlaid with tortoise-shell in the neatest manner which gave them 
the appearance of fineered (veneered) work. 

Captain George Dixon, who was as.sociated with Portlock refers to 
these objects (3, p. 272) as follows: 

Fans and fly-flaps are used by both sexes . . . The fly-flaps are very 
curious ; the handles are decorated with alternate pieces of wood and bone which 
at a distance has the appearance of fineered work ; the upper part or flap is the 
feathers of the man-of-war bird. 

Vancouver, also, mentions fly-flaps (6, Vol. Ill, p. 42) for the dispersal 
of oflf ending insects ; but makes no further references to entomology. 

Apparently, the first entomological work in Hawaii was done by Doctor 
Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz, who at the age of 22, in the capacity of 
physician and naturalist, accompanied the Russian explorer Otto von Kotze- 
bue on his first voyage. This brilliant student, upon his return to his 
native country was appointed professor of anatomy and afterwards direc- 
tor of the zoological museum of the university at the University of Dorpat, 
his native city. Kotzebue himself, though only an intelligent sailor, makes 
.several interesting allusions (7, Vol. I, p. 306) to the fauna of the group: 

"The chief employment of the royal ladies consists in smoking tobacco, 
combing their hair, driving away the flies with a fan and eating." Speak- 
ing of the king's daughter (7, Vol. I, p. 307), he says: "Behind her stood 
a little negro boy, holding a silk umbrella over her head to protect her 
from the rays of the sun ; two other boys with tufts of red feathers, drove 
away the flies from her." And in describing how the sailors were enter- 
tained at dinner ashore, Kotzebue (7, Vol. I, p. 311) relates: "Each of 
them had, like us, a kanaka standing behind him with a ttift of red feathers 
to drive away the flies." Finally he speaks more directly of the fauna 
(7, Vol. Ill, p. 237), "The only original wild quadrupeds of the Sandwich 
Lslands are a small bat and the rat. To these is added our common mouse, 
besides the flea, some species of Blatta and other noxious parasites." 

In the appendix of the third volume of the narrative of Kotzebue's 
voyage (7, p. 376) is the description by Eschscholtz of our native Ha- 
waiian butterfly, Vanessa taineamca and descriptions of all the new butter- 
flies collected in the various countries visited. The other orders of in- 



Illingzvorth — Barly references to Haivadian entomology 5 

sects, taken during the voyage, were described later in separate papers, of 
which the most important are his "Entomographien" (8). 

A missionary, James Montgomery, states that the boat used by his party 
swarmed with cockroaches at the time of its arrival in Hawaii (1822) 
(15, Vol. I, p. 365). In describing a gathering at a mission service, he 
says (15, Vol. I, p. 417), "... members of the royal family had 
servants in attendance with fly-flaps and fans of peacock's feathers to 
cool their faces and drive away the troublesome insects." He says also 
(15, Vol. I, p. 434): 

There are no mosquitoes here; neither are there any bugs. When the latter 
are brought on shore in bedding or packages from shipboard, they presently die; 
the climate of the Society Islands is equally fatal to them. Flies are very numerous 
and annoying, . . . The few spiders, moths and dragon flies which we have 
seen, much resemble those of the South Sea Islands. 

In referring to the table manners of the natives, Montgomery (Vol. I, 

p. 472) writes: 

When a common fly was found drowned in their messes, they seemed at once 
to grow sick and turn away their faces with no equivocal expression of utter 
loathing. Flies, indeed, may be said to be an abomination with these savages — 
probably from some superstitious prejudice, for vermin far more disgusting are 
greedily picked by them from their own bodies — nay, from the very dogs — and 
devoured. 

Gilbert F. Mathison, an English traveler, also retnarked upon the 
troublesome house flies. In speaking of the chiefs in their home life 
(9, p. 365), he says he found "some asleep, some fanning away the flies 
. . . " He further states that the queen at the mission service "was 
attended by several female servants, carrying fly-fans" (9, p. 378). When 
dining with the natives, he notes (9. p. 401), "One brushed away 
the flies . . ." 

C. S. Stewart, a London missionary who spent several years in the 
islands, also made reference (11, p. 153) to these annoying insects, de- 
scribing the natives as "eating poe surrounded by swarms of flies . . ." 
Further, in referring to the unsanitary conditions and skin diseases of the 
people, he remarked the prevalence of head-lice, saying: 

Dozens may, at any time, be seen sporting among the decorated locks of 
ignoble heads ; while, not infrequently, a privileged few wend their way through 
the garlands of princes of the blood, or trimuphantly mount the coronets of majesty 
itself. 

As to the servants of the chiefs and the common people, we think ourselves 
fortunate indeed, if, after a call of a few minutes, we do not find living testimonies 
of their visit, on our mats and floors, and even on our clothes and persons ! The 
bare relation of the fact, without the experience of it, is sufficiently shocking. But 
the half is not told ; and, I scarce dare let the truth, here, run to its climax. The 
lower classes not only suffer their heads and tapas to harbour these vermin ; but 
they openly and unblushingly eat them! Yet so fastidious are they in point of 
cleanliness, than an emetic could scarce be more efficaciously administered than to 
cause them to eat from a dish in which a fly had been drowned ! So much for 
the force of custom, and the power of habit ! 



6 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

In 1824, Kotzebue made a second voyage to the Hawaiian islands and 
was accompanied, as before, by the naturalist, Professor Eschscholtz. 
Again this navigator remarked on the house flies, which were evidently 
abundant. He states, "Two young girls lightly dressed, sat cross-legged 
by the side of the queen, flapping away the flies with bunches of feathers," 
and that the queen ate, "Whilst two boys flapped away the flies with large 
bunches of feathers" (13, Vol. H, p. 207). 

In the appendix of this second volume, Eschscholtz (13, Vol. II, p. 357) 
alludes to the entomological material collected in the Hawaiian islands: 

The number of insects is small, as is indeed the case with all land animals ; it 
is therefore creditable to our industry, that we were able to muster twenty sorts' of 
beetles. A small Platyniis is the only Carabide; in the water, two Colymbetes and a 
Hydrophilus were found. The only Elater belongs to a species (Agrypnus N) in 
whicli we reckon various specimens found only in the old world, such as Elater 
tormcntosus, fuscipcs, sencgalcnsis, etc. ; beetles which have two deep furrows in 
the lower part of the neck-shield, to receive the feelers, and which go in search of 
their food at night. They resemble many of the European springing beetles cov- 
ered with scales and included by Megerle under the name Lepidotus ; such are 
fasciatus, tnuiimus, varius. Two Aphodii were found ; one of the size of the 
Psammodius porcahis, but very flat, lives under the bark of a decayed tree, the 
wood of which has become soft. Another has the almost prickly shoulders of the 
Apltodius stcrcorator and asper; of these we form the species stcnocncmis and in- 
clude therein four new varieties found in Brazil and Luzon. It may be here 
observed that Psammodius sabulcti and cylindricus N, must be classed with Aegialia 
which, on account of the horny nature of the jaws, and the projection of the upper 
lip, enter into the same class with the Trox; the remaining kinds of Psammodius, 
however, do not at all agree with the character given them by Gyllenhal, and ought 
in their turn to be classed with Aphodius. Among the remaining beetles, all of 
which dwell under the bark of trees, a Paraiidra was the largest. 

A few remarks on the various beetles mentioned by Eschscholtz will 
not be out of place here. The carabid, platymis, is probably one of the 
numerous small native Hawaiian species of Anchomenus. The two Colym- 
betes are undoubtedly our Coplatus parvulus (Esch.) and Rhantus pacifi- 
cus (Esch.) ; possibly both introduced very early. The hydrophylid was 
later described by Eschschlotz as Hydrophilus seniicylindricus, though it 
is now placed in the genus Hydrobius. Blackburn considered it an immi- 
grant. The elatrid, Agrypnus N., is undoubtedly the Agrypnus modestus. 
MacL., which is now placed in the genus Adelocera. This species is said 
to be widely distributed in Polynesia and elsewhere. I have had more diffi- 
culty in trying to place the two Aphodii mentioned. It is hard to say what 
the flattened species is; but the one with the "almost prickly shoulders" 
is probably Ataenius stcrcorator Fab. This widely distributed species, 
Blackburn states, is not rare in the neighborhood of Honolulu, yet no 
specimens of it are in the Hawaiian collections. 

Finally, the cerainbycid, Parandra, is undoubtedly Parandra puncticeps 
Sharp, which Blackburn and Sharp (120) state is closely allied to a species 
occurring in the Philippine Islands. 



Illiugworih — Early references to Haivaiian entomology 7 

Lord Byron, though on a mission of mercy to the Hawaiian Govern- 
ment, spent some time during 1825 in exploration. In his narrative there 
are a few interesting references to the fauna and flora of the Hawaiian 
group. Andrew Bloxam, an enthusiastic student just out of Oxford, was 
naturahst on the voyage and though a botanist by preference, he collected 
many zoological specimens during the eighteen months spent in Hawaii. 
This material was deposited in the British Museum. Probably based on 
information supplied by Bloxam, Lord Byron (10, p. 252) states: 

We met with only one Papilio, which Kotzebue has described under the name 
Vanessa tamehainelta (tameamea). We caught one sphinx moth; brown, with a 
purple stripe on each side of its body, which glitters in the sun. There are several 
minute moths, several varieties of Libeilula (dragon-flies), one species of Cicada, 
a black earwig, a wood spider and innumerable fleas. 

It would be interesting to know what the cicada mentioned is, also the 
sphinx ; no moth answering that description is in the Hawaiian collections. 

Captain F. W. Beechey (14), an English explorer, who visited Hawaii 
in 1826 and 1827, apparently made no reference to the insect fauna, though 
his remarks (14, Vol. II, pp. 100 and 112) on the first export of a cargo of 
sugar to California are of interest, considering the prominence which the 
sugar industry has now attained. 

In the Reminiscences of Rev. Sereno Edward Bishop I found two inter- 
esting references. Describing the customs of the chief. Bishop says: (16, 

P- 30) : 

Objects much in evidence among the natives, when visiting or at meetings as 
well as in their homes were their fans, and their fly brushes or kahilis. The fans 
were made from the ends of young coconut leaves. The broad end being elastic, 
threw the air far more efficiently than the stiff fans now commonly braided. Get 
an old-fashioned native fan for comfortable use. Small fly-brushes were used by all 
the people. They were about four feet long, the upper half of the stick having the 
tail feathers of fowls tied on. The kahilis of the chiefs were larger and more 
elaborate. The long handles were often beautifully encased with tubes and rings of 
human bone and whale-tooth, also turtle shell, all finely polished. .A. high-chief 
always had two or more attendants armed with such fly-brushes. 

In discussing (p. j,y) the destruction of the trees of the islands, Bishop 

remarks ; 

About i860, a minute insect called "red spider" came to infest the under-side of 
the leaves to such an extent as in the course of a year to destroy every kou tree, 
not only in Lahaina, but throughout the group. The timber of the dead trees was 
cut and used for furniture, much being sent to Germany. The chief's great cala- 
bash bowls of kou are now rare and choice. Young trees of the species exist here 
and there. The trees have always succumbed to the insect pest before attaining 
any considerable size. 

"Moolele Hawaii," written about 1832 by David Malo, a native, has 
interesting references (17, p. 65). Malo says: 

The following are the flying things (birds, iiuiini) that are not eatable: The 
o-pea pea or bat, the pinao or dragon-fly, the okai, (a butterfly), the lepe-lepe-ahina 
(a moth or butterfly), the pu-lele hua (a butterfly), the nalo, or common house-fly, 



8 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

the nalol'aka or wasp. None of these creatures are tit to be eaten. The uhini or 
grasshopper, however, is used as food. 

The following are wild creeping things; the mouse or rat, (iolc), the makaula 
(a species of dark lizard), the elelu, or cockroach, the fioki-poki (sow-bug), the 
koe (earthworm), the lo (a species of long black bug with sharp claws) the aha 
or ear- wig, the l<una-ivele-ti<clc or spider, the lalana (a species of spider), the nuhe 
or caterpillar, the [>oko (a species of worm or caterpillar), the mw-nao or ant, the 
mu (a brown-black bug or beetle that bores into wood), the kua-paa (a worm that 
eats vegetables), the uku-poo or head-louse, the uku-kapa or body louse. 

Whence comes these little creatures? From the soil no doubt, but who knows? 

Speaking of the animals impoited from foreign lands during the time 

of Kamehameha I and as late as the time of Kamehameha III, Malo 

(17, p. 66), after enumerating those valuable for food continues: 

There are also some flying things that are not good for food : such as the 
mosquito (makika), the small roach (clelu liilii). the large flat cockroach (elelu- 
papa), the flea (ukulele, jumping louse). The following are things that crawl: the 
rabbit, or iole-lapaki, which makes excellent food, the rat or iole- nui, the mouse or 
iole-liilii, the centipede (kauapi) the moo-niho-niva (probably the scorpion for there 
are no serpents in Hawaii). These things are late importations; the number of 
such things will doubtless increase in the future. 

This prophecy has been abundantly fulfilled, for even now with our 
efficient quarantine, new organisms frequently gain entrance. 

F. D. Bennet, an English naturalist, who came to the Pacific primarily 
to investigate the anatomy and habits of the whales of the Southern Pacific 
and to collect natural history material, discusses the insect fauna of Hawaii 
(24, p. 252) as follows: 

Insects are not more numerous here than at the Society Islands ; they present, 
also, nearly the same genera, and are equally remarkable for the apparent addition 
of many exotic kinds to those few which were found on the soil by our navigators 
when this archipelago was first discovered. Together with some smaller butter- 
flies, we find at Oahu a Vcncssa, closely resembling the V. atalanta of Europe; as 
well as a second species, differing in no appreciable respect from V. cardui; and 
as the habitat of the latter insect is the thistle in the northern parts of the globe, 
so here the analogous species resorts to the prickly foliage of the Argemone Mexi- 
cana. A hawk-moth, (Sphinx pungciis) similar to that inhabiting the Society Islands, 
is very common on tlie pastures in the vicinity of the coast. Its larva is large, of 
a green colour witli longitudinal and oblique lilac bands on the sides, and has the 
characteristic horn on the back. The habits of the perfect insect are similar to 
those of the humming bird, hawk-moth. Sphinx macroglossum. It flies by day, 
and appears to seek the warmth and brightness of the noontide sun ; and flitting 
from flower to flower, on which it seldom alights, it drains the nectar from the 
blossoms with its proboscis as it floats in the air with a rapid, vibratory motion of 
the wings. On one occasion, when I was endeavouring to capture this coqueting 
insect, a native came to my assistance and undertook the task in his own way ; 
gathering two of the elegant blue convolvulus flowers around which the moth had 
been fluttering, and holding one in each hand in an inviting position, he cautiously 
approached or followed the insect to tempt it within his reach. The active but 
stealthy movements of the young and scantily-clad islander, as he pursued his shy 
game over the plains; the seducing attitudes he assumed, and the insinuating man- 
ner in which he presented the flowers to the moth when opportunities offered, afforded 
a very ludicrous scene. Although the exertions of my entomological friend were 
at this time fruitless, I have often seen the plan he adopted successfully employed 
by other natives ; the hawk-moth, approaching the proffered blossoms, protrudes its 
long proboscis, which is seized with the fingers and the creature secured. 



Illingworth — Early references to Hawaiian entomology 9 

The insects we noticed here, though not at any of the other Polynesian Islands 
we visited, were large tarantula spiders, {Lycosa Sp.) the millipede or wood-louse, 
{Oniscus asellus) and centipedes, eight or ten inches long, their colour brown- 
yellow, the sides and abdomen blue. The luminous centipede {Scolopendra elcc- 
trica) is also found in the houses at Honoruru, emitting its characteristic phosphor- 
escent light, and leaving behind it a trail of luminous matter. 

In a footnote Bennet gives this additional information : 

Ships are, doubtless, the active, though involuntary agents in disseminating in- 
sects over remote regions of the globe. After we had been at sea for several weeks, 
or even months, it was not uncommon to find on board the Tuscan many kinds of 
land-insects in a living state, from the hardy beetle to the delicate and more ephem- 
eral butterfly, whose germs had probably been received on board together with sup- 
plies of fruit and vegetables. 

The statement quoted from Bennet is one of the earhest definite refer- 
ences that I have been able to find bearing upon the introduction of the 
cosmopolitan butterfly, Vanessa cardni Linn., other than the unverified re- 
port of four speciinens sent to the British Museum, two collected by Cap- 
tain Byron in 1825 and two by Captain Beechey in 1827. (See Bibliography 
Nos. 27 and 65.) 

Dr. Alonzo Chapin, a resident missionary, in writing on the diseases 
of the Hawaiian islands in 1838, remarks (22, p. 253) upon the absence of 
malaria as follows : 

Before going out to the Sandwich Islands. I spent several years in our 
southern states, much of the time in the low country of South Carolina ; and 
was, during the hot seasons of the year, accustomed to recoil at every standitig 
body of water, on account of the poisonous exhaltions which they there emit, 
endangering the lives of every individual exposed to their influence. On my ar- 
rival at the islands, I more than once made the inquiry, "why the numerous kalo 
(taro) ponds are not productive of sickness." Thousands of acres are entirely 
converted into ponds of standing water in which the natives cultivate their kalo, 
while their houses are built on the narrow spaces between. These are never 
dry, and are often so numerous as to exhaust entire rivers in keeping them filled. 
I could not at once reconcile my mind to the belief of their innoxious tendency, 
notwithstanding circumstances are such as to make the fact very obvious. Though 
the ponds are subject to the perpetual influence of a torrid sun, they cannot be- 
come putrid by reason of the continual supply of fresh water, and multitudes of 
fish live and thrive in them, such is their freshness and purity. 

The streams originate from springs and rain on the summits of the moun- 
tains, pour down their sides with great impetuosity and after a few meanderings 
are turned aside from their courses to irrigate the lands and replenish the ponds, 
or are discharged directly into the sea ; and I know of no body of water emitting 
sufficient miasma to create sickness along its borders. I have occasionally met 
with stagnant ponds, which emit a foul and offensive odour, and could in no way 
satisfy myself of the reason for the exemption of the inhabitants along their 
borders from fevers, but by supposing the efiluvia to be diluted and rendered 
inert by the continual currents of winds. 

Small marshes abound but are fed by springs, and the pure mountain streams, 
and are thus prevented becoming noxious. They speedily dry up during a few 
weeks absence of rain ; and the rivers also disappear unless kept alive by fre- 
quent showers, and the small pools, which remain at such times and which abound 
after every rainy season, do not become sufliciently putrid to exhale a fever- 
generating miasm. 



lO Beriiicc P. Bislw(' Museum — Bulletin 

If any one variety of soil has a specific power to produce malaria it does 
not appear to exist at those islands. The upland soil is there formed of de- 
composed lava, the lowland plains along the sea are constituted of a mixture of 
alluvion washed from the mountains, and decomposed coral. Its immunity from 
noxious exhalations is the same, whether parched with drought, or merely moist, 
as when the evaporation is most abundant, after the rains. 

The habitations of the natives are for the most part considerably scattered, 
but are in a few instances crowded together in such numbers as to exhibit the 
dense appearance of our large towns and villages. There is, however, through- 
out, an entire exemption from those pestiferous exhalations which, so extensively, 
poison the atmosphere of populous places in hot climates. All animal and vege- 
table substances thrown away by the people, or cast up by the sea, are quickly 
devoured by the multitudes of starving dogs and swine, so that no detriment is 
experienced from their putrefaction. 

With so entire an exemption from the existence of miasmata, there is also 
an entire exemption from those affections induced by it. Malignant bilious 
fevers do not occur, and as I shall, hereafter, have occasion more particularly to 
state, derangements of the liver and biliary organs do not prevail, neither is the 
stomach and intestinal canal, and other organs of the abdominal viscera subject 
to the numerous and complicated affections so common in every miasmatic region. 

It .should be borne in mind, however, that Chapin wrote before the re- 
lation of mosquitoes to malaria was known, and that probably these insects 
had not become generally distributed in Hawaii at that date. 

Jarves' notes (23, p. 70) on the beginning of the silk industry in Ha- 
waii are also of interest: 

In 18.36 Messrs. Ladd & Co. leased a portion of their land to Messrs. Peck 
and Titcomb. for the purpose of cultivating the mulberry and raising silk. The; 
have now upwards of forty thousand trees, which at nine months growth, are as 
thrifty and forward as those of several years, in New England. As yet they 
have been disappointed in obtaining the silk worm, but are daily expecting a 
supply of eggs from China. 

The following (23, p. 75) gives some indications of the proportions of 

the new industry: 

At Mouna Silika, the mulberry-plantation, 85,200 of the black mulberry 
(Morus multicaulis) have been planted, and the ground and slips prepared for 
many more. Many thousands of the white mulberry (Morus alba) have also 
been set out. The average age of 42,000 of the former is six months, and it is 
computed that they will afford thirty and a half tons of leaves, sufficient to feed 
1,200,000 worms. The leaves of one tree of eight months growth, weighed three 
and a half pounds, and a leaf of three months growth measured seven inches in 
length. The trees that were plucked, leaved out again in si.x weeks so fully, that 
they could not be distinguished from those in the same row which were left 
unplucked. They are planted in hedge rows, ten feet apart, and two feet separate 
in the row. The silkworm of the white species, which produces the finest silk, 
has been received from China, but the proprietors do not intend to raise them 
in numbers until the plantation is thoroughly stocked with trees, and the neces- 
sary arrangements for buildings, machinery, reeling, etc., be made in the United 
States, which one of the proprietors, Mr. Peck, is upon the point of visiting, for 
that purpose. If the natives can be taught the art of reeling silk, this branch of 
industry will be of infinite benefit to them, as the raising of cocoons is attended 
with so little expense and trouble. Women and children are particularly adapted 
to it, as well as old and infirm persons. Thus it will afford occupation to many 
who are incapacitated from entering into any laborious trade. The amount of 
land in the plantation is l)etween three and four hundred acres, undulating 
partly w'ooded, and well watered. 



Illing'cvorfh — Early references to Haivaiian entomology ii 

These citations by James J. Jarves, who came here from Boston in 
search of health in 1837, are only a prelude to his later writing on Hawaii. 
In his history (25, p. 10) discussing the fauna, Jarves writes: 

Insects are few, though mostly of a destructive or troublesome character. 
A species of caterpillar at certain seasons destroys vegetation to a great extent, 
eating even the grass to its very roots. A slug deposits its eggs in the cotton 
blossoms, which, when ripe, are pierced through by the young insects, and the 
staple entirely destroyed. Large spiders are very numerous and mischievous 
weaving strong webs upon shrubs and young trees, in such quantities as to check 
their growth, and even impede the passage through an orchard. A species of 
woodlouse fastens upon the limbs, entirely covering them, and which speedil) 
exhausts the juices; and their growth is for the time effectually checked. A 
black rust, firm, hard, and stiff, like strong paper, resembling soot in its appear- 
ance, attacks many varieties of trees and plants, covering the bark, and even the 
leaves, giving them the singular appearance of being clothed in mourning. This 
causes no permanent damage, and while it disfigures fruit, does not appear seri- 
ously to injure it. Rats damage the sugar-cane to a considerable extent, annually. 
Though the Hawaiian agriculturist escapes many of the evils incidental to other 
tropical climes, enough exist here to make his labours no sinecure. The noxious 
vermin, such as mosquitoes, fleas, cockroaches, scorpions, and centipedes, are a 
modern importation, and have extensively increased. The bite of the two latter 
causes no perrnanent injury, and is not more injurious than the sting of a com- 
mon wasp. They are very abundant about the seaports. No serpents, frogs, or 
toads, have as yet reached the islands. A small lizard is common. 

Later, in his Scenes and Scenery in the Hawaiian Islands, Jarves refers 
to the extensive silk industry and the many difficulties that beset it. (See 
28, pp. 105-112 and 164-9.) 

The United States Exploring Expedition being principally a marine 
investigation, hardly touched upon the land fauna of Hawaii, yet I found 
two valuable references in the Races of Man by the naturalist, Charles 
Pickering. Discussing animals and plants of aboriginal introduction (26, 
p. 314) he says: 

There are, however, uninvited attendants on human migrations; such as, a 
small species of rat, whose presence throughout Tropical Polynesia, seems nearly 
universal. On some of the more remote coral islets, the presence of this animal, 
proved to be the only remaining evidence of the visits of man. 

On the other hand, the house fly, which so abounds at certain coral islands, 
was uniformly absent from the uninhabited ones. Various other insects, have 
doubtless been transferred from island to island by human means. 

This, too, was probably the case with the lizards (Scincidae) ; for the 
agency of drift-wood, seems insufiicient to account for their universal presence. 

In referring to animals and plants of European introduction, Pickering 
(26, p. 333) writes: 

We were informed at the Hawaiian Islands, that the centipede, was "intro- 
duced five years previously from Mazatlan." It has greatly multiplied at Hono- 
lulu ; and during our visit, it made its first appearance on Maui. 

The house scorpion, likewise abounds at Honolulu ; and its introduction was 
equally attributed to vessels from Mazatlan. The other Polynesian groups, re- 
main free from the above two pests. 

The natives of the Hawaiian Islands, attributed the introduction of the mos- 
quito to the same quarter; and we obtained evidence of the possibility of such 
an occurence, in the larva continuing on shipboard for many days after we left 
Honolulu. One or more native species of mosquito, were observed at the other 
Polynesian groups. 



12 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Tt will be noted that these observations coincide with those of all the 
earlier navigators, that flies were evidently a native introduction previous 
to the appearance of European ships. That the house fly, Musca domestica 
Linn., will travel long distances by small boats is now a matter of common 
observation. Moreover, on this point there is the conclusive evidence by 
S. C. Ball (225), who recently investigated the migration of insects over 
sea. along the coast of Florida. 

Since the natives in their wanderings in the Pacific previous to the 
appearance of white men, evidently took along their hogs and dogs, to- 
gether with coconuts and other plants, it is only natural to conclude that 
flies also traveled from place to place with them. 

That flies very early made their appearance in the Hawaiian islands, is 
further indicated by the great development of the kahilis or fly flaps. Dr. 
Brigham amplifies this point in his comprehensive review of Hawaiian 
feather work (193, p- 14), in which he says: 

It is probable that a bunch of feathers used as a fly-flap was the primal 
form of feather work. Flies (iwlo) were here though not in such abundance as 
found by early explorers on other islands of the Pacific; but even for this useful 
purpose the bunch of feathers was no doubt preceded by a bunch of leaves, 
and the prototype of the kahili seems to have been a stem of that most useful 
plant the ki {Cordylinc tcnninalis Kunth). On many of the islands of the Pacific, 
a branch of ki was the symbol of peace and on the Hawaiian islands it shared 
in early times with a coconut leaf the representation of high rank .... 

Very early the hand plumes became symliols of rank and on all public oc- 
casions kahili bearers attended a chief, or while he ate or slept a kaakui brushed 
away with small ones all troublesome insects. In public they were tokens ; in 
private fly-flaps. 

Indeed, it is hardly necessary to draw upon the imagination to under- 
stand the gradual development of the immense, symbolic kahilis with 
shafts of twenty feet or more in length, used at funerals of royalty ; 
especially when it is known that small fly-flaps of similar construction 
have always been waved over the body at funerals in Hawaii to keep away 
these obnoxious insects. 

In describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1850, Henry T. Cheever (33, pp. 
105-6) says: 

Not a noxious beast, reptile, or insect existed on the islands when first made 
known to Europeans. Now they have mosquitoes, fleas, centipedes, and scor- 
pions. 

The snake, toad, bee, and all stinging insects of the latter sort are still un- 
known. One would think the flea certainly indigenous, where now it is found 
so much at home both with man and beast ; but the natives have an amusing 
story of the first time they got ashore from a ship, through the trick of a sailor, 
which is better to be imagined than told. 

Whether that be true or not, the name by which they call the flea is pretty 
convincing evidence that it has not been known as long as some other things. 
It is called uku lete, or the jumping louse, the uku being an old settler from 
time immemorial, and nothing else they knew so much like the imported flea. 
So they named the stranger the jumping tiku: it is one of the first aboriginals 



Illingzvorth — £0^/3; references to Hazvaiian entomology 13 

a traveler becomes acquainted with in going about among Hawaiians and sleep- 
ing in native houses, and it is the last he is so glad to bid good-by to when he 
comes away, though it is ten chances to one if they do not insist upon keeping 
him company and making themselves familiar half the voyage home. 

The Royal Hawaiian Agricultural Society organized in 1850 did splen- 
did work for several years. In the Transactions of this society I found a 
number of references to entomology. William Duncan (36) suggested 
good cultivation and clean culture for the eradication of insects and urged 
that land adjoining sugar plantations be either kept fallow or burned to 
keep away caterpillars. 

Dr. Wesley Newcomb also contributed to the Transactions (37) an 
interesting paper in which (p. 95) he states that Vanessa cardui was intro- 
duced presumably at the same time as Argenione mexicana (poppy or 
thistle) though he does not suggest the date. Among other insects, he 
mentions three species of Sphynx, one of them, S. pugnans, being common 
at Honolulu. Of the small moths he recognized seven species as enemies 
of agriculture and gives the larval characters of the principal cut-worms. 
The corn leaf-hopper, or corn-fly, he records as a serious pest at that time. 
He mentions also the red spider as destructive to the leaves of many plants 
and a microscopic white fly (from his description difficult to determine) 
destructive to the leaves of melons. Mention, too, is made of a small 
caterpillar that bores into the stalks of tobacco — undoubtedly the tobacco 
split worm, Phthorimaea opercidclla Z. a rather serious pest in more recent 
years. The description of a wormlike borer of the sweet potato suggests 
the larva of our common pest, the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius 
Fab. Newcomb states that he was not able to detect any true aphids, but 
he recognizes that the numerous ants filling the soil play an important 
part in the destruction of the larvae of pestiferious moths and of other 
insects. 

At meetings of the Society in 1851, the introduction of the common 
honey bee was considered, and the next year it was reported (38) that 
three hives were coming from New Zealand by the first vessel direct to 
Honolulu. I could find no statement indicating that these ever arrived, 
but the record (42) shows that two years later an attempt to import two 
hives of bees from Boston proved unsuccessful because of the ravages of 
the bee moth on the way. In 1855, a report was presented to the Society 
upon the economic relation of insects to crops with suggestions for the 
importation of natural enemies of these from abroad (45). The report 
states that though wasps are abundant, bees have not yet been success- 
fully introduced. 

At a meeting in 1856 a very valuable paper was presented by the well- 
known botanist, Dr. William Hillebrand (46). This paper written by 
Valdemar Knudsen, deals primarily with the control of cutworms which 



14 Bcrnicc P. Dishol' Museum — Bulletin 

were evidently very mmieroiis at that time. Descriptions (46, p. 96) are 
given of five kinds as follows: 

1st. Brown, with a white stripe on tlie back and white belly. It grows to the 
largest size, fully 2j^ inches long and one-quarter inch tliick. It is very vora- 
cious, and a single worm will strip a large plant, leaving nothing but the ribs. 

2nd. Gray, with a brown back of a bright, shining appearance ; it does not 
grow as large as No. i. It is the regular cutworm that seems to enjoy nothing 
but the juice of the stems, which it will often cut off when quite large and hard. 

3d. It is destructive as the former, and also like it in color and size, only 
not bright or shining on its back. 

4th. Is bluish-gray, with head and tail white — rather rare. 

Sth. Mud-colored ; is the one that appears every year, and seems able to do 
with less wet soil. It is not quite as voracious, nor does it attain the size of 
the former ones, but still is very destructive. 

It is interesting to note that the cutworms were excessively abundant 
on land that had been flooded for a few days. This observation agrees 
with my experiences in North Queensland. The only explanation that 
I am able to suggest is that flooding in some way interferes with the 
natural enemies of these pests. 

A great impulse was given to the investigation of the Pacific fauna by 
the coming of the Swedish Frigate "Eugenie" with a staflf of trained in- 
vestigators. These scientists arrived in Hawaii in August, 1852 and though 
their stay in the islands was short, they evidently improved the opportunity, 
for among the insects collected were about twenty new species, belonging 
to several orders. Unfortunately no record was made of their catches 
except of the new species. These records were worked up several years 
later — the Coleoptera by C. H. Boheman, the Orthoptera and Hemiptera 
by Carl Stal, the Lepidoptera by D. J. Wallengren, the Hymenoptera by 
A. E. Holmgren, and the Diptera by C. G. Thoin.son (49). 

The coming of the energetic student, Rev. Thomas Blackburn, in 1877 
marked a new epoch in the history of systematic entomology in Hawaii. 
Though his special hobby was Coleoptera, Blackburn collected all orders 
of insects and published papers on most of them (67). The extent of 
his scientific work during the six years of his stay is marvelous especially 
considering that it was all done at odd moments whenever his strenuous 
duties to the Church would permit. Indeed, so abundant were his catches 
that he kept almost a dozen specialists (principally in the British Museum) 
busy describing his material, in addition to all the descriptions that he 
himself prepared for the press. A glance at the bibliography (pp. ) will 
give a suggestion of the extent of these labors. The following specialists 
assisted him in publishing his material: Bormans (105) handled the Or- 
thoptera; McLachlan (no, in, 138) helped with the Neuroptera includ- 
ing the Odonata : White (71, 81, 88, 100) did part of the Hemiptera; 
Butler (74, 90. 96, 106, 108), Meyrick (112, 122, 131) and Tuely (79, 80) 
all worked on the Lepidoptera; Sharp (75, 76, 77, 78, 85. 93, 99, 119, 



Iliiiigivorth — Early references to Hazvaiian entomology 15 

120, 124) and Waterhouse (87), part of the Coleoptera; while Smith (86) 
and Cameron (97, 109, 125, 127) helped with the Hymenoptera. 

In 1882 J. E. Chamberlin published an interesting paper dealing- with 
the devastating hordes of cutworms, or army worms, on Oahu (104). 
The outbreak of this pest is said to have extended from the sandy beach 
to the mountains. The land over which the worms had fed appeared 
bare, as if scorched; cattle starved to death. Blackburn identified the 
species as Prodenia ingloria Walker, a cutworm known in Australia ; yet 
all evidence goes to show that this pest was an old resident in Hawaii. I 
was particularly interested in the following statement by Chamberlin: 
"Whenever a tract is burned, a great flight of moths appeared immediately ; 
and an army of worms shortly followed, entirely destroying the tender 
grass." This was exactly my experience with a similar species in North 
Queensland. Whenever an accidental fire ran through the growing cane, 
a scurge of cutworms soon followed to wipe out the crop just as it was 
beginning to recover from the burn. The only explanation that I was able 
to oflFer was that those abnormal conditions in some way upset the natural 
controlling factors so that the development of the pest, for a time, was 
not hindered by them. 

The investigations of the Challenger Expedition were primarily marine. 
Small attention apparently was given to land fauna and few references 
to insects appear in the published works. Kirby, in describing the Hy- 
menoptera collected, mentioned only three from Hawaii. (This is the only 
reference that I have been able to find.) But among the pelagic insects 
belonging to the genus Halobates, monographed by White (114), are 
several species found in Hawaiian waters. These were described and 
figured in colored plates, making their determination easy. 

As a young graduate just out of the University of Oxford, the inde- 
fatiguable worker, R. C. L. Perkins, came to the islands in 1892 ( ?). The 
results of his work of more than twenty years stand as a monument to the 
hardships that he endured and the efforts that he put forth. During these 
years numerous papers were published, but the general results from the 
study of the tremendous amount of material he collected appear in the 
three large volumes of the Fauna Hawaiiensis. Of this work the follow- 
ing parts were published previous to the year 190a: Macrolepidoptera by 
E. Meyrick ; Hymenoptera Aculeata by R. C. L- Perkins ; Formcidae by 
August Forel ; Orthoptera, Neuroptera and Coleoptera Rhynchophora, 
Proterhinidae, Heteromera and Ciodae by R. C. L. Perkins ; and the 
Coleoptera Phytophaga by David Sharp. Since the Fauna Hawaiiensis 
is available in the principal libraries. I have not taken space to list the 
numerous species described. 



i6 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

IMPORTANT IMMIGRANT INSECTS 

Among the instroductions by European commerce was the night mos- 
quito (Culcx quinquetasciatus Say), a pest of first importance especially 
as a carrier of disease. Though it has been generally understood that 
these insects came to us from the coast of Mexico, it is interesting to read 
the following account by Osten Sacken (ii8): 

About 1828-30 an old ship from Mazatlan, Mexico, was abandoned on the 
coast of one of the Sandwich Islands. Larvae of Culex were probably imported 
in the water-tanks upon it. The natives soon became aware of the appearance 
round the spot of a — to them unknown — blood sucking insect ; it so far excited 
their curiosity that they used to congregate in the evening in order to enjoy the 
novelty. Since then the species spread in different localities, and in some cases 
became a nuisance. 

This was related to me by Mr. T. R. Peale, the well known American ento- 
mologist and artist, who visited the Sandwich Islands a few years later with the 
United States Exploring Expedition under command of Captain C. Wilkes 
(1838-40). A distinguished American, who spent many years on the islands and 
whose acquaintance I made in Washington, confirmed the story to me, and told 
me that he remembered positively that there were no mosquitoes on the islands 
about 1823. 

This version is at any rate more probable than another which I read in the 
German periodical, "Die Natur," that gnats were intentionally imported into 
those islands by a mischiveous sea-captain, in vengeance against the inhabitants. 

Another pest of importance in Hawaii is the sugar-cane borer, Rhab- 
docncmis obscurus Boisd., which was evidently introduced from some of 
the Pacific islands; Boisduval (20) in 1835 described the species from 
New Ireland and Fairmaire (32) later recorded it from Tahiti. This 
borer began to make inroads upon the sugar industry of Hawaii apparently 
(hiring the early eighties (107, 113), rapidly spreading until brought 
under control by the introduced tachinid parasite (Ceromasia sphenophori 
Vill.). The species was recorded by Blackburn and Sharp (120) with a 
few brief systematic notes. The first careful study of the life history and 
economic relations was that by C. V. Riley (132), the specimens being 
sent to this celebrated entomologist at the request of his Majesty, King 
Kalakaua. 

Another cosmopolitan insect found in Hawaii during recent years, 
though of little economic importance compared with the cane borer, is the 
milkweed butterfly, Daiiaida archippus Fab. This insect was not mentioned 
by any of the early voyagers and in fact the first reference to its presence 
in the islands is from Blackburn's material in 1878 (74). The geographi- 
cal distribution of this .species was reviewed in 1886 by Walker (126), who 
stated that these butterflies were abundant and well established in Hawaii 
at that date. 

In the early nineties exotic scale insects began to command attention 
(134) and during the following decade fully fifty species had been re- 



Illiiigworth — Early references to Hazi'aiiaii ciiloinology 17 

corded in Hawaii. Icerya purchasi Mask, is thought to have made its 
appearance in the islands during the spring of 1889. By 1890 it had be- 
come widely distributed in the gardens of Honolulu. During the follow- 
ing year, C. V. Riley (137) reported that it had been successfully con- 
trolled by the Vedalia beetle introduced from California. Nevertheless, 
other coccids began to make themselves felt, even attacking the cofifee, 
which was so seriously affected that Mr. Albert Koebele, who had been so 
successful with the California State Board of Horticulture, was engaged 
in 1893 by the Hawaiian Government to search Australia for its natural 
enemies (143, 145)- His work proved eminently successful and by 1895 
there was a marked decrease in many of the scale insects owing to the 
natural enemies introduced ( 1 54 ) . Chief among these friendly insects 
were lady bird beetles (Coccinellidae), fully three dozen species being in 
the list (153). As new scales continued to make their appearance in the 
islands, coming in on frequent plant and fruit importations, Koebele's valu- 
able services were retained. By 1897 he had brought in fully 200 species 
of ladybird beetles besides many other natural enemies of various harmful 
insects (175). 

The numerous scale insects were fairly well under control and Koebele 
began to turn his attention more seriously to other pests. In 1899 Koebele 
(202) wrote: 

About the middle of April my attention was called to a troublesome fly upon 
cattle and on the 26th of the same month, the first specimens were brought to me 
. . . and during the summer it spread over all the islands. 

This pest later proved to be the European horn-fly, Haematobia irritans 
Linn, which had reached the mainland of the United States about ten 
years earlier. Koebele further relates : "The first flies were noticed on 
the island of Oahu during February 1898, by Mr. J. P. Mendonca of the 
Kaneohe ranch." During 1900, pests of various crops were studied and 
the introduction of natural enemies was continued (215). It was at this 
time that a tineid larva of cotton balls was first reported, which eventually 
was found to be the pink boll-worm, Geleckia gossypiella Sndrs. 

The Japanese Beetle {Adoreius slnicus Burm.) is reported to have come 
into the islands about 1891, probably in soil from Japan (142). Four 
years later it had already become such a pest that serious consideration was 
given to the introduction of such natural enemies as moles, bats, and toads 
(153). In 1897, 600 bats were introduced from California but apparently 
they never became established (175). Better results were secured by the 
introduction of toads from California and frogs from Japan. These re- 
produced freely in the streams here. But the spread of the beetle was 
rapid and by 1897 it was also reported from Maui and Kauai. Koebele 



l8 Bernice P. Bishop Mnseuiit — Bulletin 

introduced a fungus that proved destructive to the beetle under wet sur- 
roundings (175), but unfortunately it appeared immune to this disease 
in the drier portions of the islands. During 1900 the Japanese beetles were 
reported (215) from the island of Hawaii, thus extending their range 
throughout the group, injuring the foliage of a large variety of cultivated 
trees and other plants. 

It is reported that previous to 1898, all forms of melons, cucumbers and 
squashes could be grown in Hawaii with comparative ease. About this 
time a new pest that has come to be known as the melon fly (Dacus cucur- 
bitae Coq.) began to make itself felt. Mr. Byron O. Clark who was the 
first to observe the flies said that they made their appearance during the 
summer of 1897 and that by 1898 and 1899 the melon industry was prac- 
tically destroyed. The first published reference to the subject is in the 
form of correspondence printed in a weekly newspaper in Honolulu. The 
original is now almost unobtainable and so it is fortunate that the complete 
account has been reproduced in at least two scientific papers dealing with 
this serious pest. (See 184.) 

DEVELOPMENT OF QUARANTINE SYSTEM 

The entrance of so many noxious pests naturally stimulated a desire to 
shut out further introductions of these undesirable immigrants. During 
the reign of King Kalakua we find the beginning of this system in an 
Act dated July 16, 1890, relating to the suppression of plant diseases, blights, 
and insect pests (134). Again, in 1892, similar regulations were adopted 
in an Act to establish a Bureau of Agriculture and Forestry (139). 

No one recognized the need of such regulations better than Professor 
A. Koebele who had devoted many years to a study of these organisms in 
various parts of the world. As official entomologist of the Hawaiian 
islands, in a letter (191) to Dr. Maxwell, who was special agent of the 
United States here at the time, he said. 

Strict attention should be paid towards guarding against the introduction of 
melolontids. claterid beetles, etc., destructive to living roots of plants, as well as 
to any fungoid diseases destructive to vegetation that are liable to reach the islands 
with soil or plants imported. 

From these begimiings has grown up the efficient quarantine system 
that we find in the islands today. 



I llingivorth^Barly references to Hawaiian entomology 19 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The following list is arranged chronologically and the names of authors are in 
alphabetical order under each year. For the convenience of workers resident in 
Hawaii the Honolulu libraries in which the publications cited may be found are 
indicated by the following abbreviations : AF, Board of Agriculture and Forestry ; 
BM, Bishop Museuin ; DPI, Division of Plant Inspection, Board of Agriculture and 
Forestry; HS, Historical Society; HSPA, Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment 
Station ; PL, Library of Hawaii ; UH, University of Hawaii ; US, Hawaii Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station. References to publications indicated by an asterisk (*) 
have not been verified. 

1. Ellis, W(illiam), An authentic narrative of a voyage performed 

by Captain Cook and Captain Gierke ; ... in search of a 
northwest passage between the continents of Asia and America. 
Including a faithful account of all their discoveries, and the un- 
fortunate death of Captain Cook .... 2 vols., London, 
1782. (BM) 

2. Cook, James, A voyage to the Pacific Ocean, undertaken by the 

command of His Majesty, for making discoveries in the North- 
ern Hemisphere. Performed under the direction of Captains 
Cook, Clerke, and Gore, in His Majesty's ships "Resolution" 
and "Discovery"; in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780. 
3 vols. ; vols. I and 2 written by Captain jaines Cook, F.R.S., 
vol. 3 by Captain James King, LL.D. and F.R.S. ; 2d ed., Lon- 
don, 1785. (BM) 

3. Dixon, George, A voyage round the world but more particularly to 

to the northwest coast of America, performed in 1785, 1786, 
1787, and 1788, in the "King George" and "Queen Charlotte," 
Captains Portlock and Dixon .... London, 1789. (BM) 
The expedition visited Hawaii in 1786. 

4. Portlock, Nathan, A voyage round the world but more particular- 

ly to the northwest coast of America, performed in 1785, 1786, 
1787, and 1788, in the "King George" and "Queen Charlotte," 
Captains Portlock and Dixon .... London, 1789. (BM) 
The members of the expedition were in Hawaii from May 26 to June 
13, 1786. 

5. *Fabricius, J. C, Entomologica systematica .... Hafniae 

(Copenhagen). 4 vols., 1792-4. 

References to Hawaiian species' in vol. 2, p. 269 (Odyiierus radula Fab.), 
and in vol. 3. p. 463. 

6. Vancouver, George, A voyage of discovery to the North Pacific 

Ocean, and round the world ; . . . performed in the years 
1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794, and 1795, in the "Discovery," 
sloop of war, and armed tender "Chatham." ... 3 vols. 
London, 1798. (BM) 
Vancouver arrived in Hawaii March 2. 1792. 

7. KoTZEBUE, Otto von, A voyage of discovery into the South Sea and 

Beering's Straits, for the purpose of exploring a northeast 
passage, undertaken in the years 1815-1818, ... in the 



JO Bcniicc P. Bishof^ Museum — BitUctin 

ship "Rurick" .... translated edition by H. E. Lloyd. 

3 vols., London, 1821. (BM) 

Original, published in German at Weimar, 1821, contains colored plates 
of butterflies described by Eschscholtz. English translation by H. E. Lloyd. 
3 vols. London, 1821. (BM) 

The expedition arrived in Hawaii November 22, 1816. 

8. *EscHSCHOLTZ, JoH.^NN Friedrich. Entomographien, i Lieferung, 

128, iii p., II col. pi., 231/2 cm., Berlin, G. Reiiner, 1822. 
The Hawaiian species described are: Hyihal^liilus sciiiicliiidricus (p. 42), 
and BUita I'liiulala (p. 86), which is a synonym of Pyciioscclus suriniimensis 
(Linn.). 

9. Mathison, G. F., Narrative of a visit to Brazil, Chile, Peru, and 

the Sandwich Islands, during the years 1821 and 1822. . . . 

London, 1825. (BM) 

Mathison arrived in Hawaii June 24, 1822. 

10. BvRON, Lord, Voyage of H.M.S. "Blonde" to the Sandwich Islands, 

in the years 1824-5. London, 1826. (BM) 

11. Stewart, C. S., Journal of a residence in the Sandwich Islands, dur- 

ing the years 1823, 1824, and 1825 London, 1828. 

(BM) 

12. Eschscholtz, Friedrich, Zoologischer Atlas. Kotzebue's second 

voyage, 1823-6, Berlin, 1829. (HS) 

No Hawaiian insects appear to be discussed, but beetles and other ani- 
mal forms from other Pacific islands are described and illustrated by colored 
plates. 

13. KoTZEBUE, Otto von, A new voyage round the world, in the years 

1823, 1824, 1825, 1826. 2 vols., London, 1830. (BM) 

14. BeechEy, Captain F. W., Narrative of a voyage to the Pacific 

. . . 1825-8. 2 vols. London, 1831. (BM) 

The first export of sugar to California discussed (vol. 2. pp. 100 and 
112) ; no Hawaiian insects mentioned. 

15. Montgomery, James, Journal of voj'ages and travels by the Rev. 

Daniel Tyerman and George Bennet, Esq. . . . London 
Missionary Society, ... in the South Sea islands, China, 
India, etc., between the years 1821 and 1829. ... 2 vols. 
London, 1831. (BM) 
Tyerman and Bennet reached Hawaii in April, 1822. 

16. Bishop, SerEno E., Reminiscences of old Hawaii. Originally pub- 

lished in the Friend (BM) and in the Honolulu Advertiser 
1901-1902. Reprinted in book forin, Honolulu, 1916. (BM) 
The Reminiscences relate chiefly to the period 1830-1860. 

17. Malo, David, Hawaiian antiquities, (Moolelo Hawaii), translated 

from the original Hawaiian by Dr. N. B. Emerson : B. P. Bish- 
op Mus. Special Ptibl. 2, Honolulu, 1903. (BM) 
Most of Moolelo Hawaii was written 1835-36. Parts of it were printed 
in 1838, 1839, and 1858. 



IlUngzvorth—Barly references to Haivaiian entomology 21 

18. BuRMEisTER, Hermann, Rhyngota sen Hemiptera. Beitrage zur 

Zoologie gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde, von Dr. 
F. J. F. Meyen, pp. 285-306. Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop., 
Breslau und Bonn, 1834. (BM) 
Burmeister describes Asopus griscus Burm. (p. 293). 

19. Erickson, H. W., Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. Beitrage zur Zoolo- 

gie gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erde, von Dr. F. J. F. 
Meyen, pp. 219-284. Nova Acta Acad. Caes, Leop. . . . 
Breslau und Bonn, 1834. (BM) 
Erickson describes Anchomenus corruscus Erichs. (p. 223). 

20. BoiSDUVAL, J. A., Voyage de I'Astrolabe, pendant les annees 1826-29, 

faune entomologique de I'ocean Pacifique, Coleopteres, Paris, 
1835, (BM) (AF) 

Colymbctcs pacificus Esch. and Colymbctcs parvnlus Esch. (p. So) are 
described. 

21. *Dejean, p. F. M. a.. Catalogue des coleopteres de la collection de 

M. le Compte Dejean. . . , 3d ed., p. 503, Paris, 1837. 

References to Hawaiian species are Colymbctcs pacificus Esch. p. 55, and 
C. parvuius Esch., p. 56. 

22. Chapin, Alonzo (M.D.), Remarks on the Sandwich Islands; their 

situation, climate, diseases. . .: Hawaiian Spectator, vol. i, 
No. 3, pp. 248-267, Honolulu, 1838. (BM) (HS) 

23. Jarves, J. J., Sketches of Kauai: Hawaiian Spectator, vol. i, No. i, 

pp. 66-86, Honolulu, 1838. (B:\I) (HS) 

24. BennET, F. D., Narrative of a whaling voyage round the globe 

from the years 1833 to 1836, London, 1840. (BM) 
Bennet arrived in Hawaii April 16, 1834. 

25. Jarves, James J., History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands. 

. . , Boston, 1843. (BM) 

26. Pickering, Charles, The races of men and their geographical 

distribution : U. S. Exploring expedition . . . IX, Phil- 
adelphia, 1848. (BM) (HS) 

This expedition made a brief call at Hawaii in September, 1840. 

27. *DouBLED.AY, Edward, First list of British Museum butterflies, 

London, i844( ?) 

Describes four specimens of I'aiicssa cardiii (p. 79) from Hawaii, two 
brought by Captain Byron in 1825 and two by Captain Beechey in 1827. 

28. Jarves, James J., Scenes and Scenery in the Sandwich Islands . . . 
Boston, 1844. (BM) 

Describes the attempt to establish a silk industry at Koloa in 1837- 
1841, rendered unsuccessful by the ravages of aphid, or wood louse, which 
destroyed the mulberry trees and consequently starved the silk worms (pp. 
105-111). The "silk plantation" at Hanalei is also discussed (pp. 164-169). 



22 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

29. MoTsCHLLSKY, V'iCToR DE, Observations siir le Miisee Kntomologique 

de I'universite imperiale de Moscou : Soc. Imper. Nat. Moscou 
Bull., vol. 18, pp. 332-388, pis. 5-7, 1845- (AF) 
This paper discusses the beetles collected hy Eschscholtz during his 
two voyages around the world, Plagithmysus n. g. for Stoiopterus piilver- 
ulentus Esch. (pp. 369-70), PI. 6, 5 figs. In error described from California. 

30. MoTscHULSKY, ViCTOR DE, Remarqucs sur la collection de coleop- 

teres russes da Victor Motschulsky: Soc. Imper. Nat. Moscou 

Bull, vol 28, pp. 1-85, pis. 1-3, 1845. (AF) 

Stcnoptcrus pidvendcntus Esch. is erroneously recorded from Cali- 
fornia, p. 250. 

31. *DouBLEDAY, Edward, The genera of diurnal Lepidoptera, compris- 

ing their generic characters, a notice of their habits and trans- 
formations, and a catalog of the species of each genus. 2 vols., 
86 pis. (85 col.), London, 1846. 
Reference to Vanessa cardui from Hawaii is found on page 205. 

32. Fairmaire, M. Leon, Essai des Coleopteres de la Polynesie: Rev. 

et Mag. de Zool., June, 1849. (HSPA) (AF) (US) 
Hydrobius scmicylindrkus Esch. was collected in a taro plantation on 

Oahu (p. 30 of Sep. = 434 of original). Hetcrophaga mauritanka Fabr. 

is recorded (p. 42) ; also Calaiidra obscura Boisd. from Tahiti (p. 70). 

This species of Calandra, originally described from New Ireland, is the well 

known cane-borer in Hawaii : now placed in the genus Rhabdocnemis. 

33. CheEver, Henry T., The island world of the Pacific, New York. 

1851. (BM) 

34. *Fairmaire, M. L., Rev. et Mag. de Zool., p. 51, 1850. 

35. Dallas, W. S., List of specimens of Hemiptera in the British 

Museum, pt. i, London, 1851 ; pt. 2, 1852. (AF) 
The species F.ysairoris instilaris, pt. 1, p. 228 and Rhyparocliromus 
nigriccps, pt. 2, p. 577, are described. 

36. Dltncan, William, On the prevention and eradication of worms: 

Roy. Haw. Agric. Soc. Trans., vol. i. No. 3, pp. 71-86, Hono- 
lulu, 1852. (BM) 

This paper, excellent for tliat period, deals only with the economic 
phases of the subject. 

37. Newcomb, Wesley (M. D.), Report of the committee on worms 

and other injurious vermin : Roy. Haw. Agric. Soc. Trans., 
vol. I, No. 3, pp. 94-97, Honolulu, 1852. (BM) 
This is a valuable paper dealing rather specifically with the insect pests 
of agriculture. 

38. Thierry, Baron de, Report on bees: Roy. Haw. Agric. Soc. Trans., 

vol. I, No. 3, p. 116, Honolulu, 1852. (BM) 
Records the first attempt to introduce bees direct from New Zealand. 



Illingzi'orth — Early references to Hmvaiian entomology 23 

39. *Walker, F. a., Catalog of the specimens of neuropterous insects 

in the collection of the British Museum, London, 1852. 
Myrineloii perjurus n. sp., p. 340; M. violcntus n. sp., p. 348, are 
described. 

40. MoTscHULSKY, ViCTOR DE, Etudes entomologiques, 1852: Soc. Lit. 

Finnoise, 1853. (AF) 

Under synonymies (p. 76), the author states: "Ptagithmysus pulveru- 
lentus Esch. decrit et figure dans le nieme ouvrage, appartient au genre Oene- 
mona Newman." 

41. Smith, Frederick, Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the col- 

lection of the British Museum, London, 1853. (HSPA) 
Prosopis antliracina n.sp. and P. flavipes n.sp., from the Hawaiian 
islands, are described (pt. i, p. 23). 

42. Chamberlain, Warren, Report of the committee on the honey bee: 

Roy. Haw. Agric. Soc. Trans., vol. 2, No. i, pp. 53-57, also 
letter from C. R. Bishop, pp. 57-60, Honolulu, 1854. (BM) 
This paper discusses the difficulties encountered in an attempt to in- 
troduce honey bees. 

43. SiGNORET, DocTEUR V., Revue iconographique des Tettigonides : 

Soc. Ent. France Ann., p. 15, pi. i (colored), fig. 15, 1854. 
(HSPA) 
Describes Tettigoniu vcvicolor n.sp., Honolulu, coll. Boheman et Sig- 
noret. 

44. *Stal, Carl. Nya Hemiptera: Ofv. af K. Vet.-Ak. Forh.. vol. 9. 

1854. 
Includes a reference to Dclphax pulchra Stal. 

45. Marsh, J. W., Report on birds, bees, insects, and worms : Roy. 

Agric. Soc. Trans., vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 47-50, Honolulu, 1855. 
(BM) 

This is a purely economic paper dealing with pests and suggesting the 
introduction of natural enemies, various' sorts being enumerated. 

46. KnudsEn, ValdEmar, Report on worms: Roy. Haw. Agric. Sec. 

Trans., vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 94-97, Honolulu, 1856. (BM) 
Contains interesting suggestions for the control of cutworms by pro- 
tecting natural enemies and importing others, such as the black ant of North 
America. 

47. Smith, Frederick, Catalogtie of hymenoterous insects in the col- 

lections of the British Museum, London, 1856. (HSPA) 
Crabro unicolor (pt. 4, p. 421), C. distinctus (p. 422), and Mimcsa 
antennata (p. 431), described from the "Sandwich Islands." 

48. BoHEMAN^ C. H., Coleoptera: Voyage de "I'Eugenie." Insecta, pp. 

1-112, pi. I, Stockholm. 1858. (BM) 

The following species' are described from Honolulu : Calleida insularis, 
p. 4. also found in Tahiti; Calleida amoemtlo, p. 4; Lebia insularis, p. 6, 
also found in Tahiti ; Selenophorus insularis, p. 10 ; Selenophorus picinus, p. 
II; Trechus fasciatus, p. 17; Canthon balteatus, p. 41; Onthophagus nuitictis, 
p. 48; Ammophorus insularis, p. 89. 



24 Bcrnicc P. Bishol> Miiscuiii — Biillrlin 

49. Virgin, C. A., Voyage autour du monde sur la fregate Suedoise 

"I'Eugenie," .... 1851-53, sous le commandemcnt de C. A. 

Virgin. . . . Zoologie I. Insecta, 617 pp., 9 Pis. Stockholm, 

1858-68. 

The following groups of insects are discussed : Colcoptera, by C. H. 
Bohenian, pp. 1-218, 1858; Heniiptera, by C. Stal, pp. 219-298, 1859; Orth- 
optera, by C. Stal, pp. 299-350, i860; Lepidoptera, by H. D. J. Wallengren, 
PP- 351-390, 1861 ; Hymenoptera, by A. E. Holmgren, pp. 391-442, 1868; 
Diptera, by C. G. Thomson, pp. 443-614. 1868. 

50. BoHEMAN, C. H., Coleoptera : Voyage de "I'Eugenie," Insecta, pp. 

II 3-2 18, PI. 2, Stockholm, 1859. (BM) 

The following genera and species described from Honolulu : Oodcmas 
n. gen. (p. 138) created for Oodcmas aciicsccits, p. 138; Rliyiicolus loiigulus, 
p. 149; Rhyncolus gracilis, p. 150; Megascelis suhtilis, p. 152; Luperus in- 
sularis, p. 182; Graptodcra vcrticalis, also found in California and Tahiti, p. 
187; Crepidodcra pubcnih, also found in California and Tahiti, p. 196; 
Hyperaspis annuiaris. also found in California, p. 205: Scyninus kiiibcrgi, 
p. 209. 

51. St.\l, C(arl), Hempitera: Voyage de "I'Eugenie," Insecta, pp. 

219-298, pis. 3 and 4, Stockholm, 1859. (BM) 

The following .species described from Honolulu: Anna patniclis, p. 

220; Arma pacifica, p. 221; N^ysius coeiiosulus, p. 243; Capsus pcllucidus, p. 

255; Delphax pukhra, p. 275; Bythoscopus viduus, p. 291. 

52. St.\l, C(arl), Orthoptera: Voyage de "I'Eugenie." Insecta, pp. 299- 

350, PI. 5. Stockholm, i860. (BM) 
Gomphoccrus (Hyalopteryx) picbcjns is described from Honolulu, p. 339. 

53. Osten-Sacken, Baron, Einfuhrung von Mucken (Culex) auf den 

Sandwich-Inseln : Stett. Ent. Zeit.. vol. 22, pp. 51, ^2. 1861. 
(HSPA) 

Describes the introduction of mosquitoes (Culc.x), about 1828-30. in an 
old ship from Mazatlan, Mexico. 

54. Wallengren, H. D. J., Lepidoptera, Voyage de "I'Engenie," In- 

secta, pp. 351-390, pis. 6 and 7, Stockholm. 1861. (BM) 
The following species are described from Honolulu: Colias ponteni, 
p. 351; HcHothis inflata, p. 376; Salbia contijiiiatalis, p. 381. 

55. *Hagen, H. A., Notizen beim Studium von Brauers Novara-Neu- 

ropteren: Verb. Zool. bot. Ges. Wien., vol. 17, p. 34, 1867. 

From Oahu are recorded: Aiiax strenuus n.sp. and Aihix juuiiis n.sp. 
Specimens of 3 Junius in Berlin Museum are labeled A. ocellatus, A. sevcrus, 
and Alschua prasina. 

56. Holmgren, A. E., Hymenoptera, Voyage de "I'Eugenie." Insecta, 

pp. 391-442, pi. 8, Stockholm, 1868. (BM) 

The following species are described from Honolulu: Echllnoinorpha 
maculipennis, p. 406, and Rhygchium nigripcnne, p. 441. 

57. ScuDDER, S. H., A century of Orthoptera. Decade i, Gryllides: Bos- 

ton Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc, vol. 12, pp. 139-143, Boston, 1868. 

(BM) 

Trigonidinm pacificum is described from the Hawaiian Islands, p. 139. 



Illiiigz^'orth — Early references to Ha'uviiivi entomology 25 

58. Thomson, C. G., Diptera. Voyage de "I'Eugenie," Insecta, pp. 

443-614, pi. 9, Stockholm, 1868. (BM) 

The following species are described from Honolulu : Sarcol^haga bar- 
bata, p. 533; Sarcofliaga dux, p. S34; Sacroptmga pallinervis, p. 535; Cata- 
picepliala limbipcnnis, p. 541; Musca flavinervis, var. ? p. 547; Lispe mcta- 
tarsalis, p. 562 ; Trypeta crassipes, p. 583. 

59. *Stal, Carl, Ennumeratio Hemipterorum I : K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. 

Handl., vol. 9, pp. 1-121, 1870. 
Dysdercus peniviaiius Guer. is recorded from Hawaii. 

60. WaterhousB, C. O., On a new genus and species of Coleoptera be- 

longing to the family Lucanidae, from the Sandwich Islands : 

Ent. Soc. London Trans., p. 315, 1871. 

Mr. Harper Pease sent two specimens of a new beetle from Honolulu, 
for which Waterhouse created the genus Apterocyclus, naming the new 
species A. honolulucnsis. These specimens were from the mountains of 
KauaL 

61. Butler, A. G., List of the diurnal Lepidoptera of the South-Sea 

Islands: Zool. Soc. London Proc. pp. 274-291, pi. 44 (col- 
ored), May 5, 1874. (BM) 

The following species from the Hawaiian islands are included : Pyra- 
tncis iammeamea Eschscholtz, p. 284; Cohiis poiitcni Wallengren, p. 287; 
Papilio sarpedoH Linnaeus, recorded from the Hawaiian islands by Beechey, 
p. 290. No mention is made of Vanessa cardtii Linn, which was undoubt- 
edly in the islands. (See 24, 27 and 37.) 

62. McLachlan, Robert, Note on some Odonata (dragon-flies) from 

the Hawaiian Islands . . . Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 11, p. 92, 

1874. (A) (HSPA) 

Anax Junius Drury, Pantala fhncsccns Fab., and Trcmca lacerata Hagen 
are noted as abundant, and said to prey on the produce of what the Hawaiians 
call the army worm, a species of Hadena, which occurs in multitudes. 

63. *Stal, Carl, Ennumeratio Hemipterorum IV: Svensk. Vet. Ak. 

Handl., vol. 12, pp. 121 and 152, 1874. 

Includes notes on Nysius caenosulus and Paincra nigriccps from Hawaii. 

64. Thrum, Thomas, Notes on the history of cofifee culture in Hawai- 

ian Islands: Haw. Ann. for 1876, pp. 46-52, 1875. (BM) 
Refers to the coffee blight with a discussion of control measures, p. 49. 

65. ScuDDER, S. H., A cosmopolitan butterfly, its birthplace and natural 

history: Amer. Nat., July, 1876. (AF) 

Refers to the single citation of Vanessa cardui Linn, from the Hawaiian 
islands, which appeared in the first list of the British Museum Butterflies', 
where (p. 79) Mr. Doubleday credits four specimens to those islands, two 
brought by Captain Byron and two by Captain Beechey. Scudder states: 

"I am informed by Mr. F.utler that there is now only one specimen in the museum 
from the Sandwich Islands, and the reference upon the ticket' is to the oldest manuscript 
register, not now to be found. Bvron and Beechey were at the islands in 1825-27. Mr. 
W. T. Brigham informs me that F. cardui was not found by Mr. Mann and himself dur- 
ing a twelve month's residence at the islands ten years ago, and I can find no authority 
for its present existence. Dr. Pickering writes that it was unknown when the Wilkes ex- 
pedition visited the islands 1840-41. The 'Vincennes,' to which Dr. Pickering was at- 



26 Bcrnlcc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

tached, was at the islands from the end of September to the beginning of April. Byron 
and Bcechey's visits were between the latter part of January and the middle of July. 
Mr. Butler does not consider the specimen in the British Museum, nor the record of 
Doubleday, sufhcient authority to include this insect in his list of South Sea butterflies. 
Upon the whole, we cannot fairly accept the present authority for the presence of this 
insect in the P.icific Islands." (See also J4, 17. and 37.) 

66. Wallace, A. R., Geographical distribution of animals, 2 vols., Lon- 

don, 1876. 
Contains a brief note on Apterocyclus (vol. i, p. 446). 

67. Blackburn, Thomas. Insect-notes from the Sandwich Isles: Ent. 

Month. Mag., vol. 13, pp. 227-228, London, 1877. (AF) 
In discussing his first impressions of the insect fauna of the islands, 
Blackburn states : 



"Coleoptera are distinctly not common; Orthoptera, chiefly earwigs and cockroaches, 
in considerable variety; a fair number of Hymenoptera; too many Diptera of the mos- 
quito type; a few Ilemiptera; and many Lepidoptera, but only two butterflies, a large 
Papilio and Vanessa kammeamea." 

68. Blackburn, Thomas, Characters of a new genus and descriptions 

of two new species of Cossonidae from the Sandwich Islands: 
Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 14, pp. 4-5, London, 1827. (AF) 
Anotheorus n.gen., A. montauus n.sp., Oodcmus liallicoidcs, n.sp. are 
described. 

69. Blackburn, Thomas, Characters of a new genus, and descriptions 

of new species, of Geodephaga from the Sandwich Islands, I : 
Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 14, pp. 142-148, London, 1877. (AF) 

The following insects are described ; Saronychium n.gen., S. incon- 
spictiuin, n.sp., Anchomenus muscicola n.sp., A. epicunis n.sp., A. protcrvtis 
n.sp., A scrupulostts n.sp., A. fraternus n.sp., A. meticulosus n.sp., A. cunei- 
pennis n.sp., A. fossipennis n.sp., A oceanicus n.sp., A. tardus n.sp., A. fugi- 
tivus n.sp., A. mysticus n.sp., Dyscolus taiilalits n.sp., D. pahnae n.sp., D. 
mutabilis n.sp., D. caliginosus n.sp. 

70. Butler, A. G., List of heterocerous Lepidoptera recently collected 

by the Rev. T. Blackburn in the Hawaiian Islands : Ent. Month. 
Mag., vol. 14, pp. 47-50, London, 1877. (AF) 

The forms described are: Deilephila livoniica Esper., Protopaixe cin- 
gulata Fab., Leucania dislocata Walker, Prodenia iiigloria Walker, Plusia 
verticillala Guenee, Hypeiia obsolcta n.sp., H. insignis n.sp., Hcrminia 
caencusalis Walker, Botys blackbunii n.sp., B. acccpta n.sp., Pyralis achatina 
n.sp., Rhodaria despecta n.sp., Hymenia recurvalis Fab., Ephcstia cliitelta 
Hub., Argyresthia sp., Laverna sp. 

71. White, F. B., Descriptions of new species of heteropterous Hemip- 

tera collected in Hawaiian Islands by Blackburn, No. i : An- 
nals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., vol. 20, pp. 110-114, 1877. 
(HSPA) 

The species described arc Cydnidae : Gcotomus subtristis n.sp., G. 
jucundus n.sp. — Anthrocoridae : Tripleps perscqiiens n.sp., Cardiasthethus 
mundulus n.sp. — Nabidae ; Nobis iuuotatus n.sp., N. subnifus n.sp.. A', lus- 
ciosus n.sp. — Emesidae : Lutcva insolida n.sp. — Hebridae : Merragata n.gen., 
M. hebroides n.sp. — Corixidae : Corixa blackbunii n.sp. 



Illingivorth — Early references to Haivaiian entomology 27 

yz. Blackburn, Thomas, Some observations on the genus Oodemas of 
the family Cossonidae with descriptions of new species : Soc. 
Ent. Belgique Ann., pp. 73-76, 1878. (AF) 
The following species are described : Oodemas nivicola n.sp., O. acne- 

scens Boh., O. sculpturatum n.sp., O. insulare n.sp., O. robustum n.sp., 0. 

obscurum n.sp., O. angustum n.sp., O. niauicnse n.sp., O. borrei n.sp., O. hal- 

ticoides Blackb. 

■^T,. Blackburn, Thomas, Characters of new genera and descriptions of 

new species of Geodephaga from the Hawaiian islands, II : 

Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 15, pp. 1 19-123 and 156-158, London, 

1878. (AF) 

The following are described ; Atrachycnemis, n.gen., A. sliarpi ji.sp., 

Disenochus n.gen., D. anomalus, n.sp., Anchomenus insociabilis n.sp., A. erro 

n.sp., A. sharpi n.sp., A rupicola n.sp., Cyclothorax montivagus n.sp., C. 

micans n.sp., C. muhipunctatus n.sp., C. brevis Sharp, C. oahuensis n.sp., C. 

simiolus n.sp., C. obscuricolor n.sp. 

74. Butler, A. G., On Lepidoptera from the Hawaiian islands : Ent. 

Month. Mag., vol. 14, p. 185, London, 1878. (AF) 
Descriptions are given of the following species : Danais archippus Fab., 
Leucania dislocata Wlalk., Plusia verticillata Guenee, Botys blackburni Butler, 

B. accepta Butler. 

75. Sharp, David, Descriptions of some new species and a new genus 

of rhyncophorous Coleoptera from Hawaiian Islands : Ent. Soc. 

London, Trans., for 1878, pp. 15-26, 1878. (AF) 
The following insects were collected by Thomas Blackburn: Proterhinus 
vcstitus n.sp., P. blackburni n.sp., P. simplex n.sp., P. obscurus n.sp., P. 
oscillans n.sp., P. dcbilis n.sp, Dryophthorus squalidus n.sp., D. gravidus n.sp., 
D. crassus n.sp., D. declivia n.sp., D modestus nsp., D. pusillus n.sp., D. 
insignis n.sp., P entarthrum prolixum n.sp., P. obscurum n.sp., P. blackburni 
n.sp. 

76. Sharp, David, On some Nitidulidae from the Hawaiian Islands: 

Ent. Soc. London, Trans, for 1878, pp. 127-140, 1878. (AF) 
Descriptions are given of the following beetles collected by Blackburn : 

Gonidryctus latus n.sp., G. blackburni n.sp., G. monticola n.sp., Brachypeplus 

discendens n.sp., B. pttncticeps n.sp., B. robustus n.sp., B. reitteri n.sp., B. 

infirmus n.sp., B. impressus n.sp. B. inaequalis n.sp., B. omalioides n.sp., B. 

brevis n.sp., B. asper n.sp., Carpophilus hemipterus Linn., C. dimidiatus Er., 

C. maculatus Murray, Haptoncus tetragonus Murray, and H. mundus n.sp. 

77. Sharp, David, On some longicorn Coleoptera from the Hawaiian 

islands: Ent. Soc. London, Trans, for 1878, pp. 201, 210, 1878. 
(AF) 

Descriptions are given of the following beetles collected by Blackburn : 
Parandra puncticeps n.sp., Stenocorus simplex Gyll., Astrinius n.gen., A. ob- 
scurus n.sp., Sotenus n.gen., S. setiger n.sp., Clytarlus n.gen., C. robustus 
n.sp., C. cristaius n.sp., Micracantha nutans n.sp., Oopsis nutator Fab., and 
Lagochirus araneiformis Linn. 

78. Sharp, David, Description of new species probably indicating a new 

genus of Anchomenidae from the Sandwich Islands : Ent. 
Month. Mag., vol. 14, pp. 179-180, 1878. (AF) ' 

Describes Blackburnia insignis n.sp. 



28 Bcniicc P. Bishop Mnsciiiii — Bulletin 

79. TuELY, N. C, Description of new species of butterfly from Sandwich 

Islands: Ent. Month. Ma^., vol. 15, pp. 9-10, 1878. (AK) 
Describes Ilolochihi bUickbiiini n.sp. 

80. TuELY, N. C, Description of the larvae of Pyraiiicis liiintcri: Ent. 

Month. Mag., vol. 15, pp. 16-17, 1878. (AF) 

81. White, F. B., Descriptions of new species of heteropterous Hemipt- 

era collected in the Hawaiian islands by the Rev. T. Blackburn, 

No. 2: Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist.. 5th ser., vol. i, pp. 365-374, 

1878. (HSPA) 

The Hemiptera described are Asopidae: Oecliulia patntelis Stal. — 
Lygaeidae : Xysius dalhisi n.sp., N. delectus n.sp.. A', arboricola n.sp., A^. 
coenosulns Stal, Pcnncra iiigriccps Dall, CIcrada uficicoruis Sign., Reclada 
n.gen., R. }iiocsta n.sp., Metrarga n. gen., M. nuda n.sp., M. villosa n.sp. 
Capsidae : Cutstis l>cllucidus Stal. — .\ntbocordidae : Cardiiutethus sodalis 
n.sp. Acantliiidae: Acaiithia lecttilaria Linn.— Saldidae ; Salda cxulaus n.sp. 
— Nabidae: Xabis blackburni n.sp. — Veliidae : Microvelia vagaus n.sp. 

82. Blackburn, Thomas, Characters of new genera and descriptions 

of new species of Geodephaga from the Hawaiian islands, HI : 

Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 16, pp. 104-109, London, 1879. (AF) 

Blackburn describes Anchomenidae: Anchomcuus lucifetcns n.sp., A. 

incendiarius n.sp., Cyclothorax I'cle n.sp., C. bcmbidioidcs n.sp., C. I'liiadoxus 

n.sp., C. dcvcrifli n.sp., C. vulcanus n.sp. — Bembidiidac : Bcmbidium (Lofha) 

ignicola n.sp. 

83. Blackburn, Thomas, l^aucssa carditi in Hawaii : Ent. Montli. Mag., 

vol. 16, p. 161, London, 1879. (AF) 
From the paper by Blackburn the following is quoted : 
Referring to the paper headed "The Recent Abundance of Vaticssa 
cardui," in the August number of this magazine, it may be of interest to note 
that I have observed the species in considerable abundance (but not in com- 
pact swarms) at various points on the Hawaiian Archipelago, between Feb- 
ruary and July this year (1879), — though I have not previously noticed it dur- 
ing the three years I have been living on the islands. Its near ally, V. hun- 
teri, has occurred in about the usual numbers. The season has been here, 
probably, as much cloudier and more showery than usual as in Great Britain. 
V. cardui has been recorded, I believe, as occurring on the Hawaiian Islands, 
but I cannot at this moment lay my hands on the authority. (See 24, 27, 
37, and 65.) 

84. Butler, A. G., On heterocerous Lepidoptera collected in the Hawai- 

ian islands by the Rev. T. Blackburn: Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 

15, pp. 269-273, London. 1879. (AF) 

The species described are Leucaniidac: Lcucania l^lwtof'liila n.sp. — Noc- 
tuidae: Agrotis suffusa W.V., A. arciiivolaiis n.sp. — Hydrocampidae : Oligo- 
stigma curta n.sp. — Botydidae : 5oh'.J accefta Butl., B. caiitiuuntalis (Salbia 
continuatalis Wllgr.), B. dcmanitalis Walk., Mccyna e.vigua n.sp. — Larentiidae: 
Larcntia insularis n.sp., Pscudocoremia paludicola n.sp., Scotosia rara n.sp. 
— Phycidae : Plodia interpuncttiVts Hiib. — Tineidae : Scardia lignivora n.sp. 

85. Sharp, David, On some Coleoptera from the Hawaiian islands : Ent. 

Soc. Trans., pp. 77-105, London, 1879. (AF) 
Descriptions are given of the beetles collected by Blackburn. They repre- 
sent Hydrophilidae : Omicrus n.gen., O. brci'ipes n.sp., Hydrophilus semicylin- 



Illing-iVorth — Early rcfci-ciiccs to Hiruaiiaii entomology 29 

dricus Esch., Cyclonotum subquadratum Fairm., Sphaeridium abdominale Fab. 
— Nitidulidae : Brachypephis tinctus n.sp., B. explanatus n.sp., B. protinoides 
n.sp. — Cucuj'idae : Monanus n.gen., M. crenatus n.sp. — Colydiidae : Antilissus 
n.gen., A. asper n.sp. — Mycetophagidae : Litargus vcstitus n.sp., Propalticus 
n.gen., P. oculatus n.sp. — Scarabaeidae : Aphodius pacKcus n.sp. — Cioidae : 
Cis alienus n.sp., C. paciticus n.sp. C. procatus n.sp., C. signatus n.sp. C. bi- 
color n.sp. C. tabidus n.sp., C. diniiiiutivus n.sp., C. laeticulus n.sp., C. evaiics- 
ceiis n.sp. — Aglycyderidae : Prolerhinus nigricans n.sp. P. collaris n.sp. P. hu- 
meralis n.sp. P. pusillus n.sp., P. longulus n.sp., P. basalis n.sp., P. sicrnalis 
n.sp., P. lecontei n.sp., P. paradoxus n.sp. — Scolytidae: Hypotheiiemus macu- 
licollis n.sp. — Cerambycidae : Clylarliis iiiicrogaster n.sp.. and C. luodcstus 
n.sp. 

86. Smith, Frederick, Descriptions of new species of aculeate Hy- 

menoptera collected by the Rev. Thos. Blackburn in the Sand- 
wich islands: Linn. See. London Journ., vol. 14, pp. 674-685, 
1879. (BM) 

The species described are as follows: Formicidae : Camponolus scx- 
guttatus Fab., Phcnolepis clandcstiua Mayr.— Poneridae : Poiiera contracta 
Latr. — Myrmicidae Tctramorium guinccnse Fab., Phcidole pusilla Heer., 
Solenopsis gemmata Mayr. and Roger. — Sphegidae ; Pelopoeits flavipes 
Fab. — Larridae: Pison iridipennis n.sp., P. hospes n.sp. — Crabronidae: 
Crabro affinis n.sp., C. mandibularis n.sp., C. dcnticornis n.sp., C. unicolor 
Smith. — Eumenidae: Odynenis localis n.sp., O. maurus n.sp., O. rubritinctus 
n.sp., O. montanus n.sp., O. coiigrnus n.sp., O. dubiosiis n.sp., O. agilis n.ip. — 
Vespidae; Polistes aurifcr Sauss. — .^ndrenidae : Prosopis blackbunii n.sp., 
P. fuscipeiinis n.sp., P. facilis n.sp., P. hilaris n.sp., P. volatilis n.sp. — Apidae : 
Megachile diligens n.sp., Xylocopa acncipennis De Geer, and Apis mcllifica 
Linn. 

87. Waterhouse, C. O., Description of a new genus and species of 

heteromerous Coleoptera of the family Cistelidae from Hono- 
lulu : Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 15. pp. 267-268, London, 1879. 
The genns and species described are: Labetis n.gen., L. tibialis n.sp. 

88. White, F. B., Descriptions of new Anthocoridae : Ent. Month. 

Mag., vol. 16, pp. 142-148, London, 1879. 

The following are described from Hawaii : Dilasia denigrata n.sp., 
Hawaii, 3,000 feet ; D. decolor n.sp., Honolulu ; Lilia n.gen. ; L. dilecta n.sp., 
Maui, 5,000 feet. 

89. Blackburn, Thomas, and Kirby, W. F., Notes on species of acu- 

leate Hymenoptera occurring in the Hawaiian islands : Ent. 

Month. Mag., vol. 17, pp. 85-89, London, 1880. (AF) 
The following species are discussed: Prosopis blackbunii Sni., P. fnsci- 
pennis Sm., P. facilis Sm., P. hilaris Sm., P. volitalis Sm., P. flavifrons n.sp., 
Xylocopa aeneipeunis De G., Apis meMca Linn., Pelopacus ftavipes Fab., 
Odynenis localis Sm., O. maurus Sm., O. rubritinctus Sm., O. blackburni 
n.sp., O. montanus Sm., O. congruus Sm., O. dubiosus Sm., O. agilis Sm., 
Crabro atinis Sm.. C. mandibularis Sm., C. denticornis Sm., C. unicolor Sm., 
C. stigius n.sp., Pison irridipcnnis Sm.. P. hospes Sm., Polistes aurifcr Sauss'., 
Camponotus sexguttatus Mayr., Prenolcpsis clandcstina Mayr., Ponera con- 
tracta Latr., Leptogenys insularis Sm., Tetraniorium guineense Fab., Phei- 
dole pusilla Heer., Solenopsis geininata Fab., Evania laevigata Latr. 



30 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

90. Butler, Arthur G., On two small consignments of Lepidoptera 

from the Hawaiian Islands: Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 17, pp. 6-9, 

London, 1880. 

The following species collected by Blackburn are described: Daiiais 
archippus Fab., Protoparcc bkickbitnii n.sp., Dcilcphila livornica Esper., 
Lcucania dislocata Walk., L. cxtranca Guen., Prodcnia iitgloria Walk.. Car- 
adiiia vcnosa n.sp., Agrutis stiffusa Gmel., Spaelotis htckolens n.sp., .S. cre- 
mata n.sp., Hcliothis confcrta Walk., Plusia vcrticillata Guen., Toxocampa 
noctivohms n.sp., Scotosia vara Bull., Hypena obsolcta Bull.. H. iiisigiiis Bull., 
H. fascialis Cram., Scapula exigua n.sp., 5. altivolatis n.sp. 

91. Harold, E. von, Einige neue Coleopteren: Miinchener Ent. Ver. 

Mitth., vol. 4, pp. 148-181, 1880. (AF) 

Von Harold describes ClyUirlus Huschi n.sp. von den Sandwich-Inseln 
(Finsch!) (p. 166). This species is now in the genus Plagithmysus. [J.F.I.] 

92. RiLF.Y, C. v.. Note: Amer. Ent., vol. 3, p. 150, 1880. (HSPA) 

Riley states : Mr. T. Blackburn of Honolulu comttiunicated that Vanes- 
sa cardui appeared quite frequently in the year 1879, on the island of Hawaii, 
during the month of February till July. He never before observed the 
species on the island mentioned above. 

93. Sh.^RP, David, On some Coleoptera from the Hawaiian Islands : Ent. 

Soc. London Trans., pp. 37-54, 1880. (AF) 

Th following species are described : Falagria currax n.sp., Tachyusa 
pumila n.sp. Diestota plana n.sp., D. parva n.sp., D. latifrons n.sp., D. pal- 
palis n.sp., D. puncticeps n.sp., D. corinata n.sp., D. rufesccns n.sp., Phlaeo- 
pora cingulata n.sp., P. diluta n.sp., Oligota clariconiis n.sp., O. polita n.sp.. 
O. glabra n.sp., O. mutanda n.sp., Liophacna gracilipes n.sp., L. flaviceps n.sp.. 
Myllaena vicina n.sp., M. familiaris n.sp., M. curtipes n.sp., ,1/. discidcns n.sp., 
Pachycorynus discedens n.sp., Oxytelus advena n.sp., Trogophlaeus senilis 
n.sp., T. frontinalis n.sp., T. abdominalis n.sp., Glyptoma blackburni n.sp., 
G. brevipenne n.sp., Lispinodes explicandus n.sp. 

94. Blackburn, Thomas, Description of four new species of Cossoni- 

dae from the Hawaiian Islands: Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 17, 
pp. 199-201, London, 1881. (AF) 

The four species are: Oodcmas olindac n.sp.. O. substrictiim n.sp.. O. 
infernum n.sp., O. ignavus n.sp. 

95. Blackburn, Thomas, Characters of new genera and descriptions of 

new species of Geodephaga from the Hawaiian Islands, IV: 

Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 17, pp. 226-229, London, 1881. (AF) 

The following are described : Anchomenidae : Disenochus terebratus 

n.sp., Anchomenus putealis n.sp., Cyclothorax uncius n.sp., C. laelus n.sp., 

C. robustus n.sp. — Bembidiidae: Bembidium (Notaphus^ spurcum n.sp., B. 

teres n.sp. 

96. Bi^TLER, A. G., On a collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera from the 

Hawaiian Islands : Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 5th sen, vol. 

7. pp. 317-333. 1881. (AF) (HSPA) 

Descriptions are given of the following species collected by Blackburn : 
Sphingidae : Deilephila calida n.sp. — Larentiidae : Scotosia corticea n.sp., 
Bupithecia monticolens n.sp. — Noctuidae : Spoelotis crinigera n.sp., Apa- 
meidae chersotoides n.sp., A. cinctipennis n.sp. — Heliothidae : Hcliothis ar- 



IllingK'orth— Early references to Hawaiian entomology 31 

migera Hub. — Hypenidae: Hypena obsoleta Butl., H. altivolans But!., var. 
simplex. — Hercynidae : Boreophila minuscula n.sp., Aporodes micacea n.sp. — 
Margarodidae : Margaronia glaticulalis Guenee. — Botididae: Anemosa aurora 
n.sp., Mecyna cnnycliioides n.sp., M. nigresceiis n.sp., M. exigua Butl., M. 
virescens n.sp. — Scopariidae : Scoparia hawaicnsis n.sp., 5". jucunda n.sp., var. 
formosa, S. frigida n.sp., 6*. coarctata Zellcr, S. veuosa n.sp. — Phycidae : 
Bphestia humeralis n.sp., B. albosparsa n.sp. 

97. Cameron, Peter, Notes on Hymenoptera, with descriptions of new 

species: Ent. Soc. London Trans., pp. 555-563, 1881. (AF) 
The following species, collected by Blackburn, are described from Hono- 
lulu : Sierola n.gen., S. testaceipcs n.sp. — Braconidae : Chelonus carinatus n.sp., 
MoHolexis palliatus n.sp. — Chalcidae : CInilcis polynesialls n.sp., and Crab- 
ronidae : Craho polynesialls n.sp. 

98. Karsch, F., Zur Kaferfauna der Sandwich-Marsliall-und Gilberts- 

Inseln: Berlin Ent. Zeit., vol. 25, pp. 1-14, pi. i, 1881. (AF) 
(US) 

The following species are recorded from Hawaii: Acupalpus biscriatiis 
n.sp., Platynus planus n.sp., Calpodes octoocellatus n.sp., Anisodactylus cuneatus 
n.sp., Promccoderus fossulatus n.sp., Corymbites coruscus n.sp., Elatcr limncralis 
n.sp., Trypopitys capuchms n.sp., Epitragus dircmptus n.sp., Rhyncolus opacus 
n.sp., Aegosoma rcflexum n.sp., Stasilca curvicoriiis n.sp., Clytarlus finschi Har., 
C. ptilvillatus n.sp. 

99. Sharp, David, On some new Coleoptera from the Hawaiian 
Islands: Ent. Soc. London Trans., pp. 507-534, 1881. (AF) 

Descriptions are given of the following beetles collected by Blackburn ; 
Nitidulidae : Brachypeplus inauratns n.sp., B. affinis n.sp., B. bidens n.sp., 

B. vestitus n.sp., B. metallesccns n.sp., 5. varius n.sp., B. guttatus n.sp., B. 
sordidiis n.sp., B strialus n.sp, B. obsoletus n.sp., B. blackburni n.sp. — 
Anobiidae : Xyletobius n.gen., X. mannoratus n.sp., X. nigrinus n.sp., X. 
osculatus n.sp., Holcobius' n.gen., H. gronulatus n.sp., H. glabricollis n.sp.. 
H. major n.sp., Mirosternus n.gen., M. punctatus n.sp., M. obscurus n.sp., 
M. muticus n.sp., M. carinatus n.sp., M. glabripennis n.sp., M. debilis n.sp., 
M. bicolor n.sp. — Aglycyderidae : Protcrltiiius hystrix n.sp., P. dispar n.sp., 
P. gracilis n.sp., P. angularis n.sp., P. punctipcnnis n.sp., P. validus n.sp. — 
Cerambycidae : Clytarlus pcnnatus n.sp., and T. fragilis n.sp. 

100. White, F. B., Descriptions of new species of heteropterous Hemip- 
tera collected in the Hawaiian Islands by the Rev. T. Black- 
burn, No. 3 : Annals and Mas^. Nat. Hist., 5th ser., vol. 7, pp. 
52-59, 1881. (HSPA) 

The species described are : Scutelleridae : Colcolichus blackburniae n.sp. 
— Lygaeidae : Nysius blackburni n.sp., N. nitidus n.sp., A'^. nemorivagus n.sp., 
N. nibesccns n.sp., A^. ptcridicola n.sp., A^ vtilcan n.sp., Cymus calvus n.sp., 

C. criniger n.sp. — Anthrocoridae : Dilasia denigrata White, D. decolor White, 
Lilia dilecta White. — Emesidae : Ploiariodes n.gen., P. zvttitei (Blk.M.S.)n.sp. 

loi. Blackburn, Thomas, Descriptions of the larvae of Hawaiian Lepi- 
doptera: Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 19, pp. 55-56, 1882. (AF) 

The species discussed are; Vanessa tammaemea Eschscholtz, Holochila 
blackburni Tuely, Agrotis cremata Butler and Rhodaria dcspecta Butler. 



32 Bcniicc P. Bisluip Miisciiin — Bulletin 

102. Blackburn, Thomas, Characters of new genera and descriptions of 

new species of Geodephaga from the Hawaiian Islands, V: 

Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 19, pp. 62-64, London, 1882. Continued 

from vol. 17, p. 229. 

The following species are described Anchomenidae : Cyclothorax 
harschi n.sp., Acuf>alptis biserialus Karsch, Platynus planus Karsch, Colpodes 
ociocellatus Karsch, Anisodactylus cuneatus Karsch. 

103. Blackburn, Thomas, Hawaiian entomology: Haw. Ann. for 

1882, pp. 58-61, Honolulu. 1881. (BM) 

Blackburn says that Hawaii is a comparatively une.xplorcd field of nat- 
ural history. His statements may be summarized as follows : The Orth- 
optera are represented by few species ; no true grasshoppers and no Man- 
tidae are known ; about 500 species of Coleoptera have been collected, 80 
per cent of them apparently native; the Neuroptera (including Odonata) 
have been little studied ; the order Hymenotera is richer than other orders ; 
ants are numerous, the Madeira house ants, Pheidolc pusilUi Heer, being the 
most abundant ; the Lepidoptera are little known, but about 100 species have 
been described — not a quarter of those that might be collected ; Hemiptera 
and Homoptera are represented in collections by about 100 species ; there 
are probably hundreds of species of Diptera, but scarcely 50 are represented 
in collections; mosquitoes, (house) flies, and fleas are pests. Blackburn's 
paper includes a bibliography of Hawaiian entomology. 

104. Chamberlain, J. E., The peelua or army worm of the Hawaiian 

Islands: Haw. Ann. for 1883, pp. 44-50, Honolulu, 1882. (BM) 

A valuable historical paper upon tlic activities of Prodriiiii iiii^lorin 
Walk, as a pest of grasses, 

105. BoRMANS, Aug. de, Faune orthopterologique des lies Hawai ou 

Sandwich: Genoa Mus. Civ. di St. Nat. Ann., vol. 18. 11 

Luglio, pp. 338-348, 1882. (AF) (US) 

The following species collected by Blackburn are discussed :__ Forlicularia ; 
Anisolabis Uttorea White, A. maritima Bonelli, Labia pygidiata Dub., Clic- 
iisoclics morio Fab., Forficiila hawaiensis n.sp. — Blattaria : Blatta hiero- 
alyphica Brunn., Pcriplaneta dccorata Brunn., P. Iit;ata Brunn., P. amciicana 
Linn., Elcuthcroda dytiscoidcs Serv., Panchlora sur'uiamensis Linn., Onis- 
cosoma pallida Brunn., Euthyrrapha pacifica Coquebert. — Locustodea : Eli- 
maea appcndiculata Brunn., Conoccphalus blackbunti n.sp. Gryllodea: Gryl- 
lt(S iniiotabilis Walk., Trigoiiidiiim pacificuiii Scud. 

106. Butler, .-K. G., On a small collection of Lepidoptera from the Ha- 

waiian Islands: Ent. Soc. London Trans., \^\i. 51-45, 1882. 

(AF) 

Descriptions are given of the following Lepidoptera collected by Black- 
burn: Lycaenidae ; Polyommatus boeticus Linn. — Leucaniidae : Lcucania 
extranea Gucnee. — Gonopteridae : Gonitis hawaiiensis n.sp. — Hypocalidae : 
Hypocala vclans Walk. — Pyralidae: Locastra monticolciis n.sp. — Steniidae : 
Metasia abnormis n.sp., Scotomcra hydrophila n.sp. — Botididae : Mestalobes 
n.gen., M. aenone n.sp., M. simaethina n.sp., M. semiochrca n.sp.. Scapula 
constricta n.sp. — Scopariidae : Scoparia coarctata Zell. — Crambidae : Eromene 
bella Hubn. — Tortricidae : Teras illepida n.sp., Proteoptcryx walsinghamii 
n.sp. — Tineidae: Tinea simulans n.sp. — Elachistidae : La-cerna parda Butler, 
var, montivolans, L. aspcrsa n.sp. — Pterophoridae : Platyptilus liltoralis n.sp. 



Illingworth — Early references to Haivaiian entomology 33 

107. Whitney, H. M., The cane borer: Haw. Planters' Monthly, vol. 

I, pp. 145-146, Honolulu, 1882. (BM) (HSPA) 
A popular economic article — recommends burning. 

108. Butler, A. G., On a small series of Lepidoptera from the Hawaiian 

Islands: Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 19, pp. 176-180, London, 1883. 
(AF) 

The following species are described : Scotorythra n.gen., S. arbor- 
icoleits n.sp., — Pyrales: Sco/'uki lilorca n.sp., Orthoniecyim n.gen., O. albicau- 
data n.sp., O. exigua, var. ciipreipennis, Melanomecyna n.gen., M. stellata 
n.sp., Gesneria floricolens n.sp., — Tineina ; Depressaria sp.. Azinis bilarclla 
Walk. 

109. Cameron, Peter, Descriptions of new genera and species of Hy- 

menoptera: Ent. Soc. London Trans., pp. 187-193, 1883. (AF) 
Descriptions are given of the following Hymenoptera collected by 
Blackburn: Chalcididae: Epitranns lacteipennis n.sp., Moranila n.gen., M. tes- 
taceiceps n.sp., Solindena n.gen., S. picticornis n.sp., Eupelmus flavipes n.sp. 
— Evaniidae : Bvania scricea n.sp. — Ichneumonidae : Litnneria polynesialis 
n.sp., L. blackburni n.sp., Ophion lincatus n.sp., O. nigricans n.sp. 

no. McLachl.^n, Robert, Neuroptera of the Hawaiian Islands: Annals 
and Mag. Nat. Hist., 5th ser., vol. 12. pp. 226-240, 1883. 
(HSPA) 

Descriptions are given of the following neuropteroid insects collected 
by Blackburn : Termitidae : Calotennes castaneus Burm., C. marginipennis 
Latr. — Embidae: Oligotoma iiisularis n.sp. — Psocidae : Psocus sp., Elipsocus 
vinosus n.sp., Odonata, Pantala fliircscois Fab., Trninea Uicerata Hagen, 
Lepthemis blackburni n.sp., Anax Junius Drury, A. strenuus Hagen, Agrion 
xanthomelas Selys., A. hawaiiensis n.sp., A. pacificum n.sp., A. deceptor n.sp., 
A. calliphya n.sp., Megalagrion n.gen., M. blackburni n.sp., M. oceanicum 
n.sp. 

111. McLachlan, Robert, Neuroptera of the Hawaiian Islands, Part 

II, Planipennia, with general summary : Annals and Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 5th ser., vol. 12, pp. 298-303, 1883. (HSPA) 

This paper includes descriptions of neuropteroid insects collected by 
Blackburn : Hemerobiidae : Megalomus sp. — Chrysopidae : Anomalochrysa 
n.gen., A. hepatica n.sp., A. rufescens n.sp., Chrysopa microphya n.sp., C. 
oceanica Walk.— Myrmeleontidae : Fonnicatco perjurus Walk. 

112. Meyrick, Edward, Notes on Hawaiian Microlepidoptera : Ent. 

Month. Mag., vol. 20, pp. 31-36, 1883. (AF) 
Descriptions' are given of the following moths collected by Blackburn : 
Conchylidae : Heterocossa achroana n.sp. — Gelechidae : Depressaria indecora 
Butl., Thyrocopa n.gen., T. {Depressaria) usitata Butl., Synomotis n.gen., 5. 
epicapna n.sp., Automola n.gen., A. pelodes n.sp., Parasia sedata Butl., 
Diplosara n.gen., D. (Sardia) lignivora Butl.— Tineidae : Bkibophanes longelUi 
Walk. 

113. Smith, W. O., Cane borer: Planters' Monthly, vol. 2, pp. 56-57, 

Honolulu, 1883. (HSPA) 

This is a popular article, which includes suggestive discussion of con- 
trol measures. 



34 Bcrnicc P. Bis/iof> .][iiscum — Bulletin 

114. White, F. B., Report on the pelagic Heniiptera procured during the 

voyage of H.M.S. "Challenger," in the years 1873-76: Rept. 
Voyage H.M.S. "Challenger," Zoolog)-, vol. 7, 82 pp., 3 pis. 
(2 col.), London, 1883. (BM) 

Describes Holobutes sericcus Esch., the principal species occurring in 
the waters about Hawaii. (See pp. 47-48. PI. i, fig. 7.) 

115. Bl.\ckburn, Thomas, Notes on some Hawaiian Carabidae: Ent. 

Month. Mag., vol. 21, pp. 25-26, London, 1884. (AF) 

Discusses Atrachynemis, Anchomcnus iiiuscicola Blackb., and Mauna 
n.gen. created for the insect hitherto called Blackbiinii frigida Blackb. 

116. Blachburn, Thomas, Notes on Hawaiian Neuroptera with descrip- 

tions of new species: Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist. 5th ser., 
vol. 14, pp. 412-421, 1884. (HSPA) 

The species described are : Odonata : Agrion satelles n.sp., A. oahuense 
n.sp., A. nigro-hamatum n.sp., A. koclcnse n.sp., A. fiacificuin Macl. — Hem- 
erobiidae : Megalomus spp. — Chrysopidae : Anomalochrysa maclachlani n.sp.. 
A. moiitaini n.sp., A. ornatipennis n.sp. 

117. KiRBY, W. F., On the Hymenoptera collected during the recent ex- 

pedition of H.M.S. "Challenger": Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

5th ser., vol. 13, p. 402, 1884. (HSPA) 

This paper includes the following references to Hawaiian insects : 
Evaniidae Evaiiia laevigata Latr. (p. 403). — Vespidae- Polistes aurifcr 
Sauss. (p. 410), P. carnifex Fab. (p. 411). 

118. Osten-Sacken, C. R.. Facts concerning the importation or non- 

importation of Diptera into distant countries : Ent. Soc. Lon- 
don Trans., pp. 489-496, 1884. (AF) 

These interesting historical notes relate to tlic introduction of the night 
mosquito, Cttlcx qninqucfasiatus Say. 

119. Sharp, David, On some genera of the subfamily .\nchomenini 

(Platynini Horn.) from the Hawaiian Islands: Ent. Month. 

Mag., vol. 20, pp. 217-219, London, 1884. (AF) 
The following genera are discussed : Metronienus n.gen., Colpodiscus n. 
gen., Barypristus n.gen., Blackburni, Disenochus, Atrachycnemis and Cy- 
clothorax. 

120. Blackburn, Thomas, and Sharp, D.wid, Memoirs on the Coleop- 

tera of the Hawaiian Islands : Roy. Dublin Soc. Trans., 2d 
ser., vol. 3, pp. 119-290, pis. 4 and 5, 1885. (BM) (AF) 
(HSPA) 
This' resume of knowledge of the Coleoptera of Hawaii includes de- 
scriptions of the following new genera and species: Dytiscidae : Coplatus 
iiiauieiisis n.sp. — Staphylinidae : Bolitochara iiiipacta n.sp., Dicstola montana 
n.sp., D. incognita n.sp., Myllacna facifica n.sp., M. oahuensis n.sp., Oligota 
kauaiensis n.sp., O. longipennis n.sp., O simulans n.sp., O. variegata n.sp., 
O. proHxa n.sp., Lithocharis incompta n.sp., Oxytclus bledioides n.sp., Lis- 
pinodi's quadratus n.sp., L. pallesccns n.sp., — Corylophidae : Corylophus ro- 
tundus n.sp., C. suttiralis n.sp., Sericodcnis basalis n.sp., 5'. pubipeniiis n.sp., 
Ortlwperus aCQualis n.sp. — Histeridac : Bacanius atoniariiis n.sp., B. confusus 
n.sp., Acritus insularis n.sp., Acletes longipcs n.sp., A. concentricus n.sp., A. 



Illiugivorth — Early references to Hazvaiian entomology 35 

monticola n.sp., A. facilis n.sp. — Nitidulidae : Gonioryctus fugitivus n.sp., G. 
similis n.sp., Brachypeplus olmda n.sp., B. torvus, n.sp., B. koelensis n.sp., 

B. floricola n.sp., B. celatus n.sp., B. apertiis n.sp., S. quadracallis n.sp., B. 
parallelus n.sp., S. expers n.sp., B. spretus n.sp., S. bicolor, n.sp., B. rfi'j- 
cedens Sh.var., kauaiensis n.var., and B. blackbunii Sh.var. lanciicnsis n.var. — 
Colydiidae : Eiilachus hispidtis n.sp., — Cucujidae; Brontolaemus n.gen., B. 
elegans n.sp., Laemorphlocus aciieus n.sp., Monanus breviconiis n.sp., T^/^- 
phanus insularis n.sp., T. paUidipcnnis n.sp. — Crytophagidae : Telmatophilus 
debilis n.sp. — Erotylidae : Hw.rf j<M.y minor n.sp., Eidoreus n.gen., £. minutus 
n.sp. — Coccinellidae : Scymuus vividus n.sp., 5. ocellatus n.sp., 6". discendens 
n.sp. — Dermestidae : Attagenus plebeius n.sp., Labrocerus n.gen., i. jayitei 
n.sp., Z,. concolor n.sp., Z,. obscurus n.sp., Cryptorhopalum brevicorne n.sp., 

C. terminale n.sp. — Eucnemidae : Fornax bonvouloiri n.sp., F. sculpturatus 
n.sp., F. parallelus n.sp., F. longicornis n.sp., F. obtusus n.sp.- — Elateridae : 
Eopenthes n.gen., £. basalis n.sp., £. obscurus n.sp., £. debilis n.sp., £. konae 
n.sp., ii. ambiguus n.sp., H. satcllcs n.sp., Itodacnus n.gen., /. gracilis n.sp. — 
Malacodermidae : Helcogaster pcctinatus n.sp.,Caccodes n.gen., C. debilis 
n.sp. — Ptinidae : Xyletobius insignis n.sp.. A', affinis n.sp., X. serricornis n.sp., 
X. lincatus n.sp., Catorama pusilla n.sp., Mirosternus acutus n.sp. — Bostrich- 
idae : Bostrichus migrator n.sp. — Cioidae : C/.? bimaculatus n.sp., C. nigro- 
fasciatus n.sp., C longipennis, n.sp., C. apicalis n.sp., C setarius n.sp., C 
concolor n.sp., C. chloroticus n.sp., C. calidus n.sp., C. insularis n.sp., C. 
roridus n.sp., C. attcnuatus n.sp., C. cphistcmoides n.sp., C. vagepunctatus 
n.sp. — Tenebrionidae : Platydema obscuruin n.sp., Sciophagus n.gen. for 
Heterophaga pandanicola Esch., Labctcs tibialis Wat., Cisteta crassicornis 
n.sp., Anthicus mundnlus n.sp., Ananca collaris n.sp. — Aglyceleridae : Proter- 
hinus linearis n.sp., P. scutatus n.sp., P. similis n.sp., P. laticollis n.sp., P. 
tarsalis n.sp., P robustus n.sp., P. ineptus n.sp., P. integer n.sp., P. detritus 
n.sp., P. longicornis n.sp., P. insignis n.sp. — Curculonidae : Rhyncogonus n. 
gen., i?. blackburni n.sp., i?. vestitus n.sp., Acalles lateralis n.sp., .<4. duplex 
n.sp., /4. angusticollis n.sp., ^. mauiensis n.sp., /4. ignotus n.sp., /4. decoratus 
n.sp., Chaenosternum n.gen., C konanum n.sp,, Hyperomorpha n.gen., //. 
squamosa n.sp., Calandra remota n.sp., Oodemas tardum n.sp., O. aequale 
n.sp., O. crassicorne n.sp., Hetcraniphus n.gen., //. n'ollastoni n.sp., //. fovcatus 
n.sp., //. hirtcllus n.sp., //. cylindricus n.sp., Pseudolns n.gen., for Rhyncolus 
tongillus Boh., Dolicliotelus n.gen., D. apicalis n.sp. — Scolytidae : Xylcborus 
obliquus n.sp., X. truncatus n.sp.. A', rugatus n.sp., X. insularis n.sp.. A'. 
immaturus n.sp., X. frigidus n.sp., Hypotlienentus griseus n.sp. — Anthribidae : 
Mauia n.gen.. A/, satcllcs n.sp. — Cerambycidae : Clytarlus blackburni n.sp., C 
filipes n.sp. 

121. Hagen, H. a., Monograph of the Embidina: Can. Ent., vol. 17, 

pp. 141-155- 1885. (HSPA) (AF) (UH) 

Records Ologotoma insularis McLachl., in alcohol, from Honolulu, 
taken in a private garden greenhouse. (See p. 143.) 

122. Meyrick, Edward, Descriptions of New Zealand Micro-lepidoptera 

VII, Tortricina: N. Zeal. Inst. Trans., vol. 17, pp. 141-149 
(1885). (BM) 

Chiloidcs straminea Butl.. originally described from Hawaii, is here 
recorded also in New Zealand (p. 142). 

123. *Reuter, O. M., Monographia anthocoridarum orbis terrestis: Acta 

Soc. Sci. Fenn., vol. 14, pp. 555-758, 1885. 

124. Sharp, David, Note on the genus Plagithmysus Motsch. : Soc. Ent. 

Belg. Bull, for 1885, pp. lxxiv-lxxv (Compt. rend.), 1885. 
This paper clears up the synonomy of this genus. 



36 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — BuUctin 

125. Blackburn, Thomas, and Cameron, Peter, On the Hymenoptera 

of the Hawaiian Islands: Manchester Lit. Sec. Mem., ser. 3, 
vol. 10, pp. 194-244, 1886. (BM) 

This excellent paper includes the following descriptions: Anthophila : 
Andrenidae : Prosofis fuscipennis Smith, P. satellus n.sp., P. blackburni 
Smith, /'. facilis Smith, P. flavifrons Kirby, P. kona n.sp., I'. coiiiccl>s n.sp.. 
P. rugiventris n.sp., P. hikiris Smith, P. volatilis Smith, P. anthracina Smith, 
/■". flavipcs Smith. — .-Xpidae : Mcnitchilc diligcns Smith, Xylocopii tioteipciiiiis 
De Geer. — Fossores : Vcspidae : Polistcs uurifcr Sauss. P. hcbnicus Fab.. 
Odyncrus radula Fab., O. cxtrancus Kirby, O. nigripennis Holmgren, O. 
dromedarius n.sp., O. vulcaitus n.sp., O. haivaiioisis n.sp., O. haleakalae n.sp., 
O. congruus Smith. O. duhiosus Smith O. rubritinctus Smith, O. blackburni 
Kirby, O. montanus Smith, O. cardinalis n.sp., O. pacificns n.sp., O. rubro- 
pustnlatus n.sp., O. obscitrc-punctalus n.sp., O. diversus n.sp., O. agilis Smith, 
O. iitsulicola n.sp. — Crabronidae : Crabro affiiiis Smith, C. iiiaiiicitsis n.sp.. 
C. distincius Smith, C. mandibularis Smith, C. polynesialis Cameron, C. ab- 
nortnis, n.sp., C. unicolor Smith, C. stygius Kirby, C. adspectans n.sp., C. 
rubro-caudatus n.sp. — Larridae : Pison iridipennis Smith, P. bospcs Smith. — 
Sphegidae; Pelopacus cacmcntarius Drury, Miincsa antennata Smith. — 
Heterogena : Formicidae : Camponotus sexguttatus Fab., Tapinoma mclano- 
cepltala Fab., Prcnolepis longicornis Latr., P. ubscura Mayr. — Poneridac : 
Poncra contracta Latr., Lcptogcnys insularis Smith. — Myrmicidae : Mono- 
morium spccularis Mayr. Tctramorittm guinecnse Fab., Pheidolc megacephala 
Fab., SolcHOpsis gcminata Fab. — O.xyura: Scleroderma polyncsialis Saunders, 
Sicrola testaccipes Cameron, 5. monticola n.sp., 5. Icuconcura n.sp. — Tere- 
brantia : Ichneumonidae : Pimplides. Echthromorpha maculipcnnis Holmgren, 
E. flavo-orbitalis n.sp., Piinpla lum'aiioisis n.sp. — Tryphonides : Mctacoclus 
feinorattis Grav. — Ophionides : Ophion lincatus Cameron, O. nigricans Cam- 
eron, Limneria polyncsialis Cameron, L. blackburni Cameron, L. hawaiiensis 
n.sp. — Braconidae : Chelonus blackburni Cameron, Monolexis? palliatus Cam- 
eron. — Evaniidae : Evania sericea Cameron, E. laevigata Latr. — Chalcididae : 
Epitranus lacteipennis Cameron, Chalcis polyncsialis Cameron, Spalangia 
hirta Haliday, Moranila tcstaceipcs Cameron, Solindenia picticornis Cameron. 
Eupehiius flavipcs Cameron, Encyrtus insularis n.sp. 

126. Walker, J. J., Anosia plexippus Linn. (Danais archippus Fabr. ) : 

A study in geographical distribution: Ent. Month. Mag., vol." 

22, pp. 217-224, London, 1886. (AF) 

Walker states that Anosia plexippus, "unobserved by the early voy- 
agers to the Sandwich Islands, it is now abundant and firmly established 
there." (p. 219). 

127. Cameron, Peter, Note on the Hymenoptera of the Hawaiian Islands: 

Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 23, p. 195, London, 1887. (AF) 
The species' discussed are: Odyncrus nautaruin=0. iiisulicola Sni.. 
Odyncrus sandivichensis=0. rubritinctus Sm. 

128. Bailey, Edward, The flora and fauna of the Hawaiian Islands: 

Haw. Ann. for 1888, pp. 49-54, Honolulu, 1887. 

Contains a brief interesting account of the insects of the islands'. 

129 *Bic,ot, J. M. F., Dipteres nouveaux ou peu connus, 3* partie, xli, 
Tachinidac: Soc. Ent. France Ann., ser. 6, vol. 8, pp. 77-101, 
1888. 

Chaetogacdia monticola is described. 



Illingworth — Early references to Hawaiian entomology 37 

130. Blackburn, Thomas, Notes on the Hemiptera of the Hawaiian 

Islands : Linn. Soc. N. S. W. Proc, 2d ser., vol. 3, pp. 343- 
354, 1888. (BM) (HSPA) (AF) 

The following species are included : Scutatina : Aechalia sp., Coleo- 
tichus sp., Geotomus siibtristis Wliite, and G. jucundus White. — Lygaeina : 
Nysius loHgicollis n.sp., N. mauiensis n.sp., A'", zvhitei n.sp., Metrarga con- 
tracta n.sp., M. obscuro n.sp., Cafsiiui sp. — .'\nthrocorina : Acanthia Icctularici 
L., Cardiastethis sp., Lilia sp., Dilasia sp. — Emesidae : Ploiariodes rubro- 
maculata n.sp., P. pukhra n.sp. — Nabina : Nobis rubritinctus n.sp., N. oscil- 
lans, n.sp., A', innotatus White, A'^. koelensis n.sp.. A'', subrufus White, A^. 
curtipennis n.sp. — Saldina : Salda oahuensis n.sp. 

131. Meyeick, Edward, On Pyralidina of the Hawaiian Islands: Ent. 

Soc. London Trans., pp. 209-246, 1888. (AF) (US) 
The material for this extensive list of moths was collected by Black- 
burn during his six-years' residence in the islands, 1877-1883. Some inter- 
esting notes on origin and distribution are included. The list follows : 
Pyralididae : Asopia gerontialis Walk. — Hydrocampidae : Paropony.v linaelis 
Gn. — Botydidae : Margarodes exaula n.sp., Omiodes blackburni Butl., O. 
(Botys) acccpta Butl., O. (Salbia) continuataUs Wallgr,. O. (Botys) de- 
maratalis Walk., O. monogona n.sp., O. liodyta n.sp., O. (Botys) localis Butl., 
Zinckenia recurvalis P., Scapula eucrena n.sp., S. (Locastra) tnonticolans 
Butl., 6". (Aporodes) micacea Butl., S. (Mecyna) nigrescens Butl., S. 
(Mecyna) ennychioides Butl., S. (Melanomecyna) stcllata Butl., S. argos- 
celis n.sp., S. (Rhodaria) dcspecta Butl., Protocolletis n.gen., P. (Scapula) 
constricta Butl., Mecyna (Anemosa) aurara Butl., M. virescens Butl., Orth- 
omecyna albicaudata Butl., O. (Mecyna) exigua Butl.. O. aphanapis n.sp., 
Mestalobes (Metasia) abnormis Butl., M. semiachrea Butl., M. minuscula 
Butl., Eurycreon litarea Butl. — Scopariadae : Scoparia frigida Butl., Xerocopa 
venasa Butl., X. melanapis n.sp., A^. ambrodes n.sp., X. demodes n.sp., X. 
ischnias n.sp., X. hazvaiensis Butl., X. pachysema n.sp., X. mesoleuca n.sp., 
X. (Scoparia) farmosa Butl., X. (Scaparia) jacunda Butl. — Pterophoridae : 
Trichoptilus (Aciptilia) hazvaieiisis Butl., Platyptilia rhynchophora n.sp., P. 
cosmodactyla Hb., P. brachyniorpha nsp., P. (Platyptilus) littoralis Butl. — 
Crambidae : Eramene ocellea Hw., Hednata (Gesneria) floricalens (rect. 
floricolans) Butl., H. (Scotamera) hydrophila Butl., H. oxyptera n.sp. — 
Phycitidae : Ephestia (Pladia) interpunctella Hb., E. desuetella Walk., E. 
eulella Hb., Hamaeasama (Ephestia) humcraUs Butl., Genophantis n.gen., G. 
iodora n.sp. — Galleriadae : Achroca grisella F. 

132. Riley, C. V., A Sandwich Island sugar-cane borer, Sphenophorus 

obscurus Boisd. : Insect Life, vol. i, pp. 185-189, illns., 1888. 
(HSPA) (UH) (BM) 

This paper gives a description of the several stages of development 
with references to the literature. 

1^3. Dalla Torre, K. W. v., Hymenopterolgische Notizen : Wien. Ent. 
Zeit., vol. 8, p. 124, 1889. (HSPA) 

Contains the following note : "Odynerus cardinalis Blackb. u. Cam. 
1886) non Mor. (1885) =0. rudolphi M." 

134. Kalakaua Rex, An act relating to the suppression of plant dis- 
eases, blight, and insect pests: Laws of the Hawaiian Islands, 
chap. 2, 1890. 

Section 2 relates to the prevention of introduction of any plant disease, 
blight, or insect pests injurious to vegetation, and extermination of such as 



38 Bcniicc P. Bishop Mnsciim — Bulletin 

were already established. Section 3 deals specifically with the landing of 
plants or soil by the masters of vessels entering Hawaiian ports and makes 
provision for inspection. Section 4 provides for destruction of imported 
plants or other material found to be infested. Section s requires every 
person to immediately report infestation of vegetation wherever discovered. 
Section 6 provides for the enactment of further regulations preventing the 
introduction and spread of plant diseases, blight, and insect pests. 

135. CoQUiLLETT, D. W., Icerya in Honolulu: Insect Life, vol. 3, p. 329, 

1891. 

Icerya is said to have made its appearance in the Hawaiian islands 
during the spring of 1889, but widely distributed in i8go — in about 50 gar- 
dens in Honolulu. The pest is thought to have come in on fruit from Cal- 
ifornia. The predaceous Vedalia beetle was introduced from California, and 
by November, 1890, Icerya was rare. 

136. Riley, C. V., Rept. of the Ent., Rept. U. S. Dept. Agric. to Sec. 

Agric, p. 234, 1891. 

Mr. Koebele left specimens of Chilocorus bivulncrus at Honolulu, while 
on his way from California to Sydney. 

137. Riley, C. V., and Howard, L. O., Introduction of Icei^a into Ho- 

nolulu: Insect Life, vol. 3, p. 307, 1891. (HSPA) 

Refers to the introduction of Icerya from California and its successful 
control by introducing the Vedalia. 

138. McLachl.^n, Robert, Supplementary note on the Neuroptera of the 

Hawaiian Islands : Annals and Mag. Nat. Hi.st., 6th ser., vol. 

10, pp. 176-178, 1892. (HSPA) 

McLachlan suggests that Dciclut fasciata Kirby is probably a mistaken 
locality — since this dragon fly does not occur in Hawaii (p. 177). A new 
Myrmeleonidae, Formicaleo witsoni n.sp., from Lanai, is described. 

139. Kalakaua Rex, An act to establish a bureau of agriculture and 

forestry: Laws of the Hawaiian Islands, Chapter 81, Sec. 4, 

1892. 

The act provides for guarding against the introduction of plant dis- 
eases or insect pests and the suppression of those already affecting agri- 
cultural products and live stock. 

140. Warren, W., Description of new genera and species of Pyralidae: 

Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist. Ann., ser. 6, vol. 9, pp. 429-442, 
1892. 

A new genus. Loxocreon, is created for Meyrick's Omiodes of the 
Hawaiian islands. Type L. continuutalis Wllngrn. (Salbia). 

140CT. KoEisEi.E, Alber']', Studies of parasitic and predaceous insects in 

New Zealand, Australia, and adjacent islands: U. S. Dept. 

Agric, [Report No. 51] Washington, 1893. (BM) 

Work in Honolulu is referred to on page 5 and again on page II, 

where the following pests are discussed : Dactylopius spp., Pulvinaria 

t'sidii Mask., Lccmtiuin acuminatum Sign., L. dcl'rcssum Sign., and L. 

tongulum Dougl. The introduction of Cryptolacmus montrouzieri Muls. and 

Rhizobius spp. is recommended. Koebele further states that a number of 

Chilocorus bivulcncrus Muls. were turned loose in good condition. He also 

found internal parasites preying upon the various species of Lecanidae in 



IlUngzvorth — Early references to Hazvaiian entomology 39 

Honolulu, and one of these he took to California in considerable numbers, 
liberating them in an orange orchard infested with Lecanium oleae Burni. 
and L. hesperiduin Linn. A few species of Scymnids and Coccinella abdomi- 
nalis Say. were also found. These insects are discussed also on page 23, 
where it is stated that the Coccinella abdoiniiiales was sent to California and 
liberated on Lecanium licsperiduin Linn.; and that three small Scymnids were 
found among the insects sent from Honolulu. 

141. Maskell, W. M., Further coccid notes: with descriptions of new 

species from Australia, India, Sandwich Islands, Demerara, 

and South Pacific: N. ZeaL Inst. Trans., vol. 25, pp. 201-252, 

pis. 11-18, 1893. 

The following Hawaiian species are described: Lecanium acuminatum 
Sign., L. longnlum Dougl., Pulvinaria psidii n.sp., Sphaerococcus batnbusae 
n.sp. 

142. Riley, C. V., and Howard, L. O., An injurious Hawaiian beetle 

(Adoretus umbrosus) : Insect Life, vol. 6, p. 43, 1893. (HSPA) 

(UH) 

This species was first noticed in Hawaii about i8gi and in 1893 it 
had already become a serious pest, riddling the leaves of many trees and 
plants. 

143. Thrum, Thomas, Bureau of Agriculture and Forestry : Haw. Ann. 

for 1894, pp. 92-94, Honolulu, 1893. (BM) (PL) (UH) 
Refers to the engagement of Prof. A. Koebele to study the blight 
and insect enemies of vegetation and to discover remedies for them. Men- 
tions consignments of coccinellids and toads from California. 

144. Dyar, H. G., Preparatory stages of Lephygama flauimaculata Harv., 

and other notes: Can. Ent., vol. 26, pp. 65-69, 1894. (HSPA)' 
(AF) (UH) 
Includes description of all stages. 

145. Cooper, Elwood, Address of the president: Calif. Sta. Bd. Hort, 

4th Bien. Rept. 1893-4, pp. 240-250, Sacramento, 1894. (HSPA) 
(AF) 

Refers to the engagement of Koebele by the Hawaiian Government to 
search for parasites in Australia (p. 246). 

146. Craw, Alexander, Entomology and quarantine: Calif. Sta. Bd. 

Hort., 4th Bien. Rept. 1893-4, pp. 79-109, Sacramento, 1894, 
(US) (HSPA) (AF) 

Records oleanders from Honolulu infested with scale, Aspidiotus sp. 
(pp. 79-80). 

147. Thrum, Thomas, Coffee outlook in Hawaii: Haw. Ann. for 1895, 

pp. 65-68, Honolulu, 1894, (BM) 

A brief discussion of coffee blight and its control by introduced in- 
sects. 

148. Brunner, V. Wattenwvl, On the Orthoptera of the Sandwich 

Islands: Zool. Soc. London Proc, pp. 891-897, 1895. (BM) 

(AF) (US) 



40 Bcntice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

The following species are included: Dermaptera : Anisolabis littorea 
White, A. maritima Bon., A. pacHica Erichs., A. annulipes Luc, Labia 
pygidiata Dubr., Cbelisochcs morio Fab., ForHcula hawaiensis Borm. — 
Blattodea : Phyllodromiu liciroglyphica Brun., P. obtusata, n.sp., Stylopyga 
dccoiata Brun., Methana ligatn Brun., Pcriphiiieta amcricana L., PJeutheroda 
dytiscoides Serv., Leucopliaca suiimimensis Fab., Oniscosoma pallida Brun., 
Euthyrrapha pacifica Conqueb. — Acridiodca: Oxya vclox Fab. — Locustodea : 
Elimaca appcndiciilata Brun., Brachymctopa discolor Redtcnb., B. bhickbunii 
Bonn., B. deptanata n.sp., B. nitida n.sp., Xiphidium fuscum Fab. — Gryllodea : 
Gryllus innotabilis Walk., G. pocyi Sauss., Paratrigoiiidium pacificum 
(Scudd.), P. atroferrugineum n.sp., Prognathogryllus n.gen. ex tribu Pro- 
doscirtiuni, P. alattis n.sp., P. forficutaris n.sp. ; the last two figured. 

149. CocKERELL, T. D. A., Notes on the geographical distribution of 

scale insects: U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc, vol. 17, pp. 615-625, 

1895. (BM) (UH) 

The following are included from Hawaii (p. 621) : Dactytopius ciiri, 
Lecanium hcsperidum, L. depressum, L. oleae, L. acuminatum, Asterole-< 
canium pustulans, Piilvinaria psidii, and Sphaerococcus bambusae. Only the 
last two were originally described from Hawaiian specimens. 

150. CocKERELL, T. D. A., Miscellaneous notes on Coccidae: Can. Ent., 

vol. 27, pp. 253-261, 1895. (HSPA) (US) 

Mentions Astcrolccanium pustnlims (Ckll.) on oleander from Hono- 
lulu (p. 259). 

151. Dv.^R, H. G., Preparatory stages of Phlegrtlwntius cingulata 

(Sphinx com'oh'nli) : Ent. News, vol. 6, p. 95, 1895. (AF) 
(UH) (HSPA) 
Includes descriptions of all stages. 

152. KoEBELE, Albert, Report of the entomologist: Republic of Hawaii, 

Min. of Interior, Rept. for 1894, pp. 98-104, Honolulu, 1894. 
(US) 

The report discusses injurious insects in Hawaii. Koebele says that 
though these are numerous they may be controlled by introducing natural 
enemies. He mentions some of the principal scale pests and reviews the 
numerous species of ladybird beetles sent from California to prey upon them. 

153. Marsden, Joseph, Blights and insect pests: Republic of Hawaii, 

Min. Int. Rept. for the nine months ending Dec. 31, 1894, pp. 

31-38, Honolulu, 1895. 

This paper lists about three dozen species of CoccincUidae which were 
successfully sent from Australia and liberated in Hawaii to prey upon plant 
lice, scale insects, and red spiders. Control measures are discussed for the 
Japanese beetle (Adoretus) with su,ggestions for the introduction of moles, 
bats, and toads. Notes a suggestion from University of California that the 
caneborer (Rhabdocnriiiis nbscurus Boisd.) is a native of New Ireland, and 
that this island is the place to search for parasites. Discusses the damage 
done by this pest in Fiji. 

154. Marsden, Joseph, Blights and insect pests: Report to commis- 

sioners of Agriculture and Forestry: Rept. Min. Int. Repub. 
Haw., for 1895, pp. 11 8- 120, 1896. 

Records a marked decrease in scale pests, due to the introduction of 
natural enemies. This is particularly true in regard to the coffee scale, which 



Illingivorth — Early references to Haivaiian entomology 41 

is said to be a thing of the past. The Japanese beetle is reported trouble- 
some, also the red spider (Tetranyclnis telarius) on coffee, and cutworms' on 
the canaigre plant. 

155. Maskell, W. M., Synoptical list of Coccidae reported from Austra- 

lasia and the Pacific Islands up to December, 1894: N. Zeal. 

Inst. Trans., vol. 27, pp. 1-35, 1895. (BM) 

The following are mentioned from Hawaii: Aspidiotus aurantii Mask., 
A. longisfiiia Morg., A. iicni Bouche, Dicispis boisduvatii Sign., D. rosae 
Sandb., Mytilaspis flava Targioni-Tozzetti, var. Iiawaiiensis Mask., M. pallida 
Green, var. (?) Mask., M. pomorum Bouche, Chionaspis (f) biclavis Comst., 
var. detecta Mask., C. prunicola Mask., Lecanium acuminatum Sign., L. longu- 
lum Dougl., L. nigrum Niet., var. depressum Targioni-Tozzetti, L. oleae Bern., 
Pulvinaria mammeae Mask., P. psidii Mask., Dactylopius vastator Mask., 
Sphaerococcus bambusae Mask., Icerya purchasi Mask. 

156. Maskell. W. M., Further coccid notes with description of new 

species from New Zealand, Australia, Sandwich Islands, and 

elsewhere, and remarks upon species already reported: N. 

Zeal. Inst. Trans., vol. 27, pp. 36-75, pis. 1-7, 1895. (BM) 

The following species concern Hawaii : Aspidiotus longispina Morg., 

Diaspis boisduvatii Sign., Mytilaspis pallida Green, M. flava Targioni-Tozzetti, 

Chionaspis prunicola n. sp., C. biclavis Comst., var. detecta n. var., Pulvinaria 

mammeae n. sp., Dactylopius vastator n. sp. 

157. Sharp. David, Cambridge Natural History, vol. 5, Insects, part i. 

pp. 83-584, and vol. 6, Insects part 2, pp. 1-625, London, 1895. 

(BM) (UH) 

In part i, reference is made to Oligotoma insularis (p. 354) and to the 
numerous chrysopides in Hawaii (p. 47i). The pecularities of Hawaiian 
Odonata are discussed (pp. 425-426). In part 2, the Hawaiian bees (Prosopis, 
pp. 21-22) and the peculiarities of Hawaiian wasps (Odynerus, pp. 76-77) are 
discussed. 

158. Tryon, Henry, New cane varieties and new diseases: The Plant- 

ters' Monthly, vol. 14, pp. 449-459, Honolulu, 1895. 

Discusses the distribution of the beetle-borer (Rhabdocncmis obscurus 
Boisd.). This New Guinea borer is said to occur also in New Ireland, Ta- 
hiti, Fiji, and Hawaii. 

159. AlFkEn, J. D., Zur Insectenfauna der Hawaiischen und Neusee- 

landischen Inseln. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific 
(Schauinsland 1896-7): Zool. Jahrb., 19 Band, Heft 5 (1903). 
(BM) (HSPA) 
Includes notes on the various insects collected on the Hawaiian islands, 
including Laysan. 

160. Alfken, J. D., Neue Orthopteren von Neuseeland und der Ha- 

waiischen Inseln, nebst kritischen Bemerkungen zu einigen be- 
kannten Arten. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific 
(Schauinsland 1896-7): Abh. nat. Ver. Bremen, vol. 17, pp. 
141-152 (1901). (BM) 
Paranemobius n.gen. and P. schuuinslandi n.sp. are described (p. 145). 



42 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — BiiUctin 

i6i. CocKERELL, T. D. A., A check-list of the Coccidae: 111. Sta. Lab. 
Nat. Hist. Bull. 4, pp. 318-339, 1896. (HSPA) 
Lists the following from Sandwich Islands : Dactylopius vastator Mask, 
(p. 326), Sphaerococcus bumbusac Mask. (p. 329), Ptilvinaria mammeae Mask, 
(p- 330). Mytilaspis fiava, var. hawaiicnsis Mask, (p.336). 

162. Craw^ Alexander, A list of scale insects found upon plants enter- 

ing the port of San Francisco: U. S. Dept. Agric. Div. Ent. 
Bull. 4, Tech. ser., pp. 40-41, 1896. (AF) (UH) 
The following arc listed from Honolululu : Aspidiotus nerii Bouche, on 
palms; Astcrolccanium piistulaiis Ckll., on oleander; Ceropkutes nifcf iii Mask., 
on Asplenium fern ; Diaspis patcllacformis Sasak., on shrub ; Dactylopius al- 
bizsiac Mask., on orange ; Iccrya purchasi Mask., on rose ; Lccanium hes- 
peridum Linn., on orange ; Lccanium longulum Dougl., on Carica papaya; Le- 
canium perforatum Newst., on palms; Lccanium tesseUatum Sign., on ferns; 
Lccanium olcae Bern., on deciduous magnolia ; Fulvinaria psidii Mask., on 
ferns, orange, coffee, pomegranate and avocado. 

163. Craw, Alexander, Injurious insect-pests found on trees and plants 

from foreign countries: Calif. Sta. Bd. Hort., 5th Bien. Rept. 
for 1895-6. pp. 33-55, pis. 6-8, Sacramento, 1896. (US) 

The following references to Hawaii: Chionaspis delccta Mask. (p. 37), 
Diaspis patcUiformis? Sasak. (p. 39), Planchonia (^Astcrolccanium) pustulans 
Cock. (p. 43), Ccroplastcs rubcns Mask. (p. 44), Lccanium nigrum Niet., L. 
perforatum News, and L. tessclatum Sign. (p. 46), Pulvinaria psidii Mask., 
and Adoretus umbrosus Z. (p. 47). 

164. Craw, Alexander, Entomology and quarantine : Calif. State Bd. 

Hort., 5th Bien. Rept. for 1895-6, pp. 127-135. Sacramento, 

1896. (US) 

Includes the following references to Hawaii: Lccanium longulum Doug., 
taken on papaws (Carica papaya), and Ccroplastcs rubcns Mask, on ferns 
(pp. 127-8), and the mongoose (p. 135). 

165. Howard, L. O., and Marl.\tt, C. L., The San Jose scale: U. S. 

Dept. Agric, Div. Ent. Bull. 3, n. sen, pp. 1-80, 1896. (HSPA) 
Mr. Koebele found this scale on the island of Kauai upon prune and 
peach trees imported from California, some trees having been utterly de- 
stroyed by the scale and others badly infested. 

166. KoRBELE, Albert, Report on insect pests : Haw. Planters' Monthly, 

vol. 15, pp. 590-598, Honolulu, 1896. (HSPA) (US) 
The following pests arc discussed and suggestions given for their con- 
trol : the cane borer, Sphcnophorus obscurus Boisd. ; the coffee borer, Aego- 
soma rcflcxum Karsch. ; the coconut pyralid, Botys sp. ; the cut-worm, La- 
phygma frugipcrda Hub.; the mole cricket, Gryllotalpa sp., the sligarcane 
mealy bug, Dactylopius calceolaria Mask. ; and plant lice, Aphis sp. 

167. Marl.vtt, C. L., Insect control in California : U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Yearbk., pp. 217-236, 1896. (BM) 

Includes a reference to the introduction of Cryptolactnus montrouzieri 
Muls., which had been very successful in Hawaii in ridding coffee plantations 
of Pulvinaria psidii (p. 226). 



Illingzvorfh — Early references to Hazvaiian entomology 43 

168. Perkins, R. C. L., A collecting trip on Haleakala, Maui, Sandwich 

Islands : Ent. Month. Mag., 2d ser., vol. 7, pp. 190-195, 1896. 
(BM) (AF) 

169. Sharp, David, On Plagithmysus, a Hawaiian gemis of longicorn 

Coleoptera: Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 32, pp. 237-240, 241-245, 

271-274, London, 1896. 

The following species are described : Plagithmysus vitticollis n. .sp., P. 
iietvelli n. sp., P. concolor n. sp., P. solitarius n. sp., P. cuneatus n. sp., P. 
{Clytarlus) hnsclti Har., P. pulverulentus Motsch., P. bisliopi n. sp., P. vi- 
cinus n. sp., P. bilineatus n. sp., P. lanaiensis n. sp., P. pcrlcinsi n. sp., P. vari- 
ans n.sp., P. dariviniamis n.sp., P. (Clytarlus) blackburni Sharp, P. sul- 
phurescenes n. sp., P. speculifer n. sp., P. aestivus n. sp., P. funebris n. sp., 
P. aequalis n. sp., P. arachnipes n. sp., P. {Clytarlus) cristalus Sharp. 

170. TowNSEND, C. H. T., Some Mexican and Japanese injurious insects 

liable to be introduced into the United States : U. S. Dept. 
Agric. Div. Ent. Bull. 4, Tech. ser., pp. 9-25, 1896. 
Includes several brief references to species occurring in the Sandwich 
Islands. 

171. CocKERELL, T. D. A., San Jose scale and its nearest allies: U. S. 

Dept. Agric, Bur. Ent. Bull. 6, Tech. ser., 1897. (UH) 
Morganella n. subg. is proposed for maskelli n.sp. (p. 22). 

172. CocKERELL, T. D. A., Food plants of scale insects: U. S. Nat. 

Mus. Proc, vol. 19, pp. 725-785, 1897. (BM) 

Most of the Hawaiian species are included in this extensive list. 

173. CoQUiLLETT, D. W., Revision of the Tachinidae of America north 

of Mexico: U. S. Dept. Agric, Bur. Ent. Bull. 7, Tech. ser., 
1897. (UH) 
Chaetogaedia moiiticola Bigot is recorded from Hawaii, pp. 11 and 137. 

1730. GuppY, H. B., On the summit of Mauna Loa : Nature, vol. 57, 
p. 21, London, Nov. 4, 1897. 

174. Hampson, G. F., On the classification of two subfamilies of moths of 

the family Pyralidae : the Hydrocampinae and Scoparianae : 
Ent. Soc. London, Trans., pp. 127-240, 1897. (HSPA) 
The following references are given to Hawaiian species: on p. 227 — 
Xeroscopa inclanopis Meyr., A', ombrodcs Meyr., A', ichnias Meyr., X. demodes 
Meyr., X. pachysema Meyr., X. mesoleuca Meyr., X. venosa Bull., X. hawaien- 
sis Butl., X. jucunda Bull. ; on p. 229 — Mcstolobes abnormis Butl., M. minus- 
cula Butl., M. scmiochrea Butl. ; on p. 2Zi—Scoparia frigida Butl., and S. 
montana Butl. 

175. KoEBELE, Albert, Report of the entomologist of the Hawaiian Gov- 

ernment: Haw. Planters' Month., vol. 16, pp. 65-85, Honolulu, 

1897. (BM) (US) (HSPA) 

This valuable paper deals with the work of Koebele from the time of 
appointment to December 31, 1896. Report is made upon the success of the 
introduced Australian ladybird beetle, Crytolaemus montrousieri Muls., in 
controlling the following scale insects : Dactylopius vastator Mask., D. cert- 



44 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museuin — Bulletin 

ferus News., D. chalceolariae Mask., D. adonidum Linn., and Pulvinaria psidit 
Mask. Other scale insects mentioned are : Aspidioius aurantii Mask., A. 
longispino Morg., A. duplex Cock., A. camelliac Sign., A. ncrii Bouche, and 
several species of this genus; Parlatoria zizyphi News., P. pcrgandci Comst., 
Mytilaspis citricola Pack., M. gloverii Pack., M. pallida Green, M. flava Targ.- 
Toz., M. pomorum Bouche, Diaspis rosae Sandb., D. bnisduvalii Sign., Chion- 
aspis biclavis Comst., C. euseiiiae Mask., C. prunicola Mask., Diaspis patellt- 
formis Sasaki, D. ainygdali Tryon, Fiorinia camelliac Comst., Ceroplastcs 
ruhens Mask., C. ccrifenis Ander., C. floridcnsis Comst., Lccanium acumi- 
natum Sign., L. tilicum Boisd., L. hemisphacricum Targ.-Toz., L. coffea Niet., 
L. hesperidum Linn., L. longulum Doug., L. mori Sign., L. nigrum Niet., L. 
oleae Bern., /,. tesscUatum Sign., Pulvinaria mamcac Mask, Eryococcus arau- 
cariae Mask., and Iccrya purchasi Mask., also other undetermined coccids 
present in the islands. About 200 species of ladybirds had been introduced 
to prey upon the scale insects, also two species of fungi destructive to all the 
Lecanidae. Remarking upon the introduced Coccinellidae, Koebele says that 
only 3 species were present in Blacklnirn's time: CoccincUa abdominalis Say, 
Scymnus occllatus Sharp, and S. vividus Sharp, and that these were evidently 
introduced very early. Extensive notes are given upon the habits of the 
various other exotic species introduced by the author. Of the other in- 
troduced predators and parasites Koeliele mentions syrphids and chrysopid 
flies as established, and says Clialcis obscurata Walk, is active against various 
pyralid and tortricid larvae. Mention is also made of the introduction of 
bats from California — 600 of which reached Hawaii alive but were apparently 
not established. Toads from California and frogs from Japan reproduced 
freely. Among cutworms the Agrotis ypsilon Rott., A. saucia Hbn.. Lecania 
unipuncta Ha'w., Plusia verticillata Guen., Laphygma frugipcrda Hbn., are 
mentioned; these have few parasites. Coffee trees are reported badly infested 
by a white fly, Aleurodes sp. ; natural enemies of these were introduced. Ado- 
retus umbrosus F., probably introduced from Japan in soil, was reported from 
Oahu, Maui, and Kauai. These insects will be controlled by the fungus in 
the wet districts. Notes are given on life history, food plants, and natural 
enemies, with full discussion of the experiments with fungus. The small 
green tincid larvae destructive to tlie leaves of sweet potatoes (native "po- 
nallo") and the somewhat allied Plutclla crucifcrarum Z. are mentioned 
briefly. 

176. MaskEll, W. M., Further coccid notes with new species and dis- 

cussion of points of interest : N. Zeal. Inst. Trans., vol. 29, 
pp. 293-331, pis. 18-22, 1897. (BM) 

The species described which concern Hawaii are: Chionaspis eugeniae 
Mask and Ceroplastcs rubens Mask. 

177. MASKErx, W. M., On a collection of Coccidae, principally from 

China and Japan: Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 3^, pp. 239-244, 

London, 1897. (AF) (HSPA) 

The following species are recorded from Hawaii: Aspidioius cydoniae 
Comst., on casuarina ; same, var. tccta, n. var., on ohia trees ; Aspidiotus 
tongispina Morg., on kukui trees; Lccanium licspcridum Linn., on papaya and 
on ohia trees. 

178. Perkins, R. C. L., The introduction of beneficial insects in the Ha- 

waiian Islands: Nature, vol. 55, pp. 499-500, 1897. (BM) 
This article deals principally with scale insects and the reasons for the 
success of their introduced natural enemies. Perkins says: "Few countries 
have been more plagued by the importation of insect pests than the Hawai- 



Illingivorth — Early references to Haiuaiian entoinologv 45 

ian Islands ; in none have such extraordinarj' results followed the introduction 
of beneficial species to destroy them," 

179. Perkins, R. C. L., Notes on Oligotoma insnlaris McLach. (Embii- 

dae) and its immature conditions: Ent. Month. Mag., 2d ser., 
vol. 8, pp. 56-58, London, 1897. (BM) (AF) 
Discusses development and habits. 

180. *Perkins, R. C. L-, Notes on some Hawaiian insects: Phil. Soc. 

Cambridge Proc, vol. 9, pp. 373-380, 1897. 

181. Sh.\rp, D.wid, On Plagithmysus, a Hawaiian genus of longicorn 

Coleoptera: Ent. Month. Mag., vol. 33, suppl. p. 12, London, 

1897. (AF) (HSPA) 

Description given of Plagithmysus albertisi n. sp., collected in West Ho- 
nolulu by Signor d'Albertis in 1874. 

182. Walsingham, Lord, Western equitorial African Microlepidoptera : 

Ent. Soc. London Trans., pp. 33-67, pis. 2, 3, 1897. 
Describes Monopis Hb. {Blabophancs Z.) longella Wlk. recorded from 
the Hawaiian islands (Honolulu). 

183. Alfken, J. D., Megachile schauinslandi n.sp. Eine neu Megachile- 

art aus Honolulu: Ent. Nachr., vol. 24, pp. 340-341, 1898. 
(HSPA) 

184. Clark, B. O., Official bulletin of the Bureau of Agriculture: The 

Hawaiian, vol. i, p. 6, Honolulu, Aug. 13, 1898. 

The Hawaiian was a weekly newspaper which started February 12. l8g8, 
its object being to advertise the islands. Mr. Clark, then secretary and com- 
missioner of the Hawaiian Bureau of Agriculture, edited a page dealing with 
agricultural subjects. The only complete file, so far as known is owned by 
Mrs. B. J. Mesick, 2029 Beckley Street, Honolulu, widow of the editor, L. H. 
Mesick. This; the first reference dealing with the melon fly {Dacus cu- 
curbitac Coq.) in Hawaii or elsewhere, consists of correspondence. A letter 
dated August 8, 1898, from L. C. Swain, Laupahoehoe, Hawaii, described this 
new pest, which he had observed affecting pumpkins, squashes, beans, to- 
matoes, and watermelons. Mr. Clark, in his' reply gave the life history of 
the flies, which he had observed carefully the previous year near Honolulu ; 
he also suggested measures of control. 

A complete copy of this correspondence appears in Haw. Agric. Exp. 
Sta. Rept. for 1907, pp. 30-31, also in U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 491, pp. 57-58. 
1917. 

185. CoCKERELL, T. D. A., The Coccidae of the Sandwich Islands: Ent., 

vol. 31, pp. 239-240, London, 1898. 

The species described are : Icerya purchasi Mask., Sphacrococcus bam- 
busae Mask,, Astcrolecaniiim pustulans Ckll., Dactylopins cilri Risso., D. al- 
bizziae Mask., D. vastator Mask., D. virgatus Mask. (syn. ceriferus Newst.), 
Ceroplastes rubens Mask., Lecanium nigrum Nietn., L. nigrum, var, depres- 
sum Targ., L. hesperidum L., L. oleae Bern., L. acuminatum Sign., L. longu- 
lum Dough, Pulvinaria mammeae Mask., P. psidii Mask., Aspidiotus aurantii 
Mask., A. longispina Morg., A. hederae Vail., var. nerii Bouche, A. cydoniac 
Comst., A. maskelli Ckll, A. persearum n. sp. A. perniciosus Comst., Mytilaspis 
gloverii Pack., M. hawaiiensis Mask., (as var. of flava), M. pomorum 
Bouche, M. pallida Green, var, maskelli Ckll., Howardia biclavis Comst., var. 



46 Bcrnice P. Bisho(< Museum — Bulletin 

detecia Mask.. Chioiiaspis prunicola Mask. (syn. of Diaspis amygdali Tryon), 
C. cugcniae Mask., Fiorinia fioriiiiac Targ., Aulascaspis boisduvalii Sign., A. 
rosae Bouche. 

186. Hampson, G. F., a revision of the moths of the superfamily Pyrau- 
stinae and family Pyralidae : Zool. Soc. London Proc, pp. 590- 
761, 1898. 

The following Hawaiian species are included: Xacolcin blackburni Butl., 
N. accepta Butl., A', continentalis Wllgrn., A^. demaratalis Wlk., and A', localis 
Butl. (p. 699). 

187 Howard, L. O., On some new parasitic insects of the subfamily 
Encyrtinae: U. S. Nat. ]\Ius. Proc, vol. 21, pp. 231-248, 1898. 
(BM) 
BIcpynis maisde)ii n. sp. is described from Honolulu (p. 234). 

188. KiRBY, W. F., Description of a new genus of Odonata: Annals and 

Mag. Nat. Hist., 7th ser., vol. 2, pp. 346-348, 1898. (HSPA) 
Describes Nesogonia n.gen.. A', blackbunii McL. Also published in Haw. 

Planters' Mo. vol. 17. pp. 208-219 and 2=;8-269, Honolulu, 1898. (BM) (US) 

(HSPA). 

189. KoEBELE, Albert, Report of Prof. Albert Koebele, Entomologist of 

the Hawaiian Government : Rept. Min. Int. Repub. Haw. for 

1897, PP- 105-137, Honolulu, 1898. (BM) (US) (HSPA) 

Most of this report is a repetition of the valuable report presented by 

this author the previous year (see No. 175). New matter, starting on page 

130, deals with natural enemies of pests observed in California, Arizona, and 

Mexico. 

190. Maskell, W. M.. Further coccid notes with descriptions of new 

species and discussion of points of interest: N. Zeal. Inst. 
Trans., vol. 30, pp. 219-252, 1898. (BM) 

Includes a discussion of Aspidiotus cydomac Comstock, var. tecta n. var., 
from Hawaii (p. 224). 

191. Maxwell, Walter, The Hawaiian Islands: U. S. Dept. Agric. 

Yearbook for 1898, pp. 563-582, 1899. 

Includes a brief note on quarantine against insect pests and plant dis- 
eases and a letter from Mr. Koebele (p. .S74)- 

192. AlFkEn, J. D., Die Xylocopa-art der Hawaiian Islands: Ent. Nachr., 

vol. 25, pp. 317-318, 1899. (HSPA) 

The introduced bee, commonly known in Hawaii as Xylocopa aencipen- 
nis Deg., is here considered to be the Asiatic species. A', chloroptera Lep. 

193. Brigham, W. T.. Hawaiian feather work: B. P. Bishop Mus. Mem., 

vol. I, No. I, Honolulu, 1899. 

Contains interesting references to the development of kahilis and their 
relation to house flies. 

194. CockERELl, T. D. a., The Coccidae of the Sandwich Islands: Ent, 

vol. 32, pp. 93, 164, 1899. (AF) 

Discussed the distribution of what were considered endemic Hawaiian 
species, namely: Kcrmicus (formerly Sphaerococcus) bambusae, which also 



Illingzvorfh — Early references to Haivaiian entomology 47 

occurs in Ceylon, Mauritius, and Brazil; Dactylof'ius vastator, also found in 
Mauritius ; and Mytilaspis hawaiieiisis, which has been found at Amoy, 
China. The following are to be added to the Hawaiian list : Ast'idiotus 
{Evaspidiottts) iransparcns Green, A. (Hcmiberlcsia) greeni Ckll., and a 
young Icerya, indeterminable. Cockerell adds the following species from 
Koebele's report to his list of Hawaiian coccids : Dactylopius calceolariac 
Mask., D. adonidum Linn, (but probably citri), Eriococcits araucariae Mask., 
Ccroplastes cerifcrus Anders., C. florideiisis Comst. (these two often intro- 
duced but not established), Lecaniian hemisphaericum Targ., L. mori Sign., 
L. tcssellatum Sign., Paiiatoria ziayphis Luc, P. protcus, var. pcrgandci 
Comst, Mytilaspis beckii E. Newman (.1/. cifricola Pack.), Aspidiohts rapax 
Comst., A. duplex Ckll. (p. 164). There are also mentioned two imidenti- 
fied species of Pulvinaria. 

195. *CocKERELL, T. D. A., A check-list of the Coccidae. First supple- 

ment : 111. Sta. Lab. Nat. Hist. Bull. 5, pp. 389-398, 1899. 

196. CoouiLLETT, D. W., A new trypetid from Hawaii : Ent. News, vol. 

10, pp. 129-130, 1899. 

Describes Dacus cucurbitae n.sp. : two males and two females bred by 
George Compere from larvae in green cucumbers. 

197. Emery. Carlos, Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauins- 

land 1896-97), Formiciden: Zool. Jahrb., vol. 12, Syst., pp. 

438-440. 1899. (HSPA) 

Describes four species of ants collected from Laysan : Monomoriiim 
graciUimum F.Sm., Tetramorium guineense Fabr.. Tapinoma melaiw-cephalum 
Fabr., Ponera punctatissima Rog., schauniiistandi n.subsp. 

198. FoREL, August, Heterogyna (Formicidae) : Fauna Haw., vol. i, 

pp. 1 16-122. 1899. 

199. H.AUGHS, David, Insect pests and diseases: Report Commissioner of 

Agriculture : Rept. Min. Int. Repub. Haw. for bien. period 

ending 1899, pp. 120-123, Honolulu, 1900. (US) (AF) 

Consists of a report by Professor Koebele of a trip to Australia in 

search of parasites, primarily for the cane-borer. The Mediterranean fruit 

fly is noted as a bad pest in Australia, a condition which led to a quarantine 

of Australian fruit. Other exotic fruit flies are also discussed. 

200. *HowARD, L. O., Economic status of insects as a class: Sci.. n.s., 

vol. 9, p. 241, 1899. 

201. KiRKALDY, G. W., Eine neue hawaiische Fulgoriden-Gattung imd 

Art: Ent. Nachr., vol. 25, p. 359, 1899. (HSPA) 
Phalainesthes n.gen., P. schauinslandi n.sp., are described from Hilo. 

202. Koebele, Albert, Report of the entomologist : Republic of Hawaii, 

Min. of Int.. Rept. for 1898. pp. 84-87. Honolulu. 1899. (US) 
(AF) 
Records the introduction of the hornfly. Hacinatobia irritans Linn. 

203. *Koningsberger, J. C, Erste overzicht der schadelijke en nuttige 

Icesten van Java : Mededeelingen uit 's lands plantentuin, vol. 
22. pp. 1-53. 1899. 



48 Beriiice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

204. Meyrick, Edward, Macrolepidoptera : Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. i, 

pp. 123-275, pis. 3-7, 1899. 

This is the most extensive work on this group ; it includes descriptions 
of many new species. 

205. Perkins, R. C. L., Hymenoptera aculeata : Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. 

I, pp. 1-122, pis. I, 2, 1899. 

This is the most extensive work on this group ; it contains descriptions 
of many new species. 

206. Perkins, R. C. L., Orthoptera : Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. 2, pp. 1-30, 

pis. I, 2, 1899. 

This is the most extensive work on Orthoptera ; it contains descrip- 
tions of many new species. 

207. Perkins, R. C. L., Neuroptera : Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. 2, pp. 31- 

89, pis. 3-5, 1899. 

This is the most extensive work on Neuroptera ; it contains descrip- 
tions of many new species. 

208. Schauinsland, H., Drei Monate auf einer Korallen-Insel (Laysan), 

Bremen, 1899. (HSPA) 

The insects listed are Lepidoptera : Noctuidae : Apamea chersotoides 
But]., Spaelotis crinigera Butl. — Pyralidae : Zinckcnia rccurvalis F., also an 
undetermined tineid. — Hemiptera : Nabis sp.— Hymenoptera : Chelonus ca- 
meroni D.T. (=cariiiatus Cam.). — Colcoptcra : Dcniicstcs doiiicsticus Garni., 
Clytus criiiiconiis Chevr., Sihviuis surinamcnsis Linn., TriboUuin fcrrugiiteum 
Fab., also an abundance of roaches, Periplaneta (pp. 102-103). The flies 
and ants are not included in this paper. 

209. Ash MEAD, W. H., Notes on some New Zealand and Australian par- 

asitic Hymenoptera: Linn, Soc. N.S.W. Proc, vol. 25, pp. 327- 
360, 1900. 

Describes the Pteromalid. Tnmocera califontica, parasite for Lecanium 
oleae, p. 345. 

210. DvAR. H. G., Larvae from Hawaii — a correction: Can. Ent., vol. 32, 

pp. 156-158. (HSPA) (AF) (UH) 

Spodoptera mauritia Boisd. is described as Lapliygma flavimaculata 
Harv. in Can. Ent., vol. 26, p. 65, 1894. Other caterpillars described are: 
Lycaena boetica Linn., Plusia chalcites Esp., and Omiodcs blackburni Butl. 
It is also noted that Sphinx con-eolvuH is the insect described as Pblcgethon- 
tius cingulata in Ent. News, vol. 6, p. 95. 

2ii. *Frank, a. B., and KruegER, F., Schildlausbuch . . . Berlin, p. 
120, 19CX). 
Records Aspidiotus pernicosus frmn Hawaii, p. 70. 

212. H()W.\RD, L. O., A dipterous enemy of cucurbits in the Hawaiain 
Islands : U. S. Dept. Agric, Div. Ent. Bull. 22, n.ser., pp. 93- 
94, 1900. 

Specimens were received March 13, 1899, from George Compere, Hono- 
lulu, of what is locally known as the melon fly. This was pronounced by 
Coquillett to be a new species, to which he gave the name, Dactis cucurbitae. 



Ulingivorth — Early references to Hira'aiiiUi entomology 49 

213. KoEBELE, Albert, Report: Haw. Sugar Planters" Exp. Sta. Rept., 

pp. 40-42, 1900. (US) 

Records an examination of the dying roots of sugarcane : no organic 
disease could be found, though the epidermis of roots had been broken, 
probably by wind. 

214. KoEBELE, Albert, Diseases of the cane : The Planters' Monthly, 

vol. 19, pp. 519-524. 1900. 

Discusses the distribution, food plants, habits, and control measures of 
the sugar cane beetle borer, Rhahdocnemis obscurus; also includes brief 
notes on the pyralid moth Omiodes accepta Butl. 

215. KoEBELE, Albert, Report of Prof. Albert Koebele, entomologist: 

Rept. Comr. Agric. and Forestry for 1900, pp. 36-49, 1901. 

(US) 

Koebele reports the introduction of parasites from California for Pieris 
rapae, Plutella cruciferarum, and various cutworms. Salamanders were also 
brought over. Notes Lecanidae kept in clieck now by many ladybirds ; 
other predators and parasites sent from Fiji and Australia. A brief review 
of exotic fruit flies is included, with remedies. Fuller's rose beetle, Arami- 
gus fulleri Horn, is found to be the same as the so-called Olinda bug. A 
tineid larva of cotton bolls (Gclcckia gossypiclla Sndrs.) is reported; a 
tortricid, also bred from cotton bolls, and a common beetle, Aiaeocerus 
fasciculaius De.G. Japanese beetles are reported from all parts of the islands. 
Suggestions on various phases of the production of silk as an industry for 
the islands terminates this paper. 

216. Koebele, Albert, Destruction of forest trees : Rept. Comr. Agric. 

and Forestry Hawaii, for 1900, pp. 50-60, 1901. (US) 
Discusses the depredation of insects' on forest trees of Hawaii. Icerya 
purchasi Mask, is under control, the ladybird beetle, Vedalia cardinalis, be- 
ing abundant. Other scale insects mentioned are Lecaiiium nigrum Neit., 
L. toiiguhiiu Doug., and Pnhinaria psiJii Mask, which are also well checked by 
introduced natural enemies. The same is said in regard to the mealy bugs, 
Dactylopius ceriferus News., on Erythrina monospcnna. Notes on the span 
worm, Scotorythra idolias, a tortricid, and on a Bruchus destructive to the 
seed of the koa tree. The list of Cerambycid beetles noted includes : Pla- 
githmysus varians Shp., P. pulverulentus Motsch., P. cristatus Shp., P. 
aequalis Shp., P. arachnipes Shp., P. darwinianus Shp., P. blackburni Shp., 
P. funebris Shp., P. bilineatus Shp., P. bishopi Shp. P. vicinus Shp., P. col- 
laris Shp., P. diana Shp., P. finschi Har., P. pulvillatus Karsch, P. lanaiensis 
Shp., P. acstivus Shp., P. concolor Shp., P. permundus Shp., P. pcrkinsi Shp., 
P. lamarckianus Shp., Clytarlus filipes Shp., C. viediocris Shp., C. debilis 
Shp., C. claviger Shp., C. nodifer Shp.. C. modestus Shp., C. laticollis Shp., 
C. pennatus Shp., C. fragiUs Shp., C. longipcs Shp., C. auiuctcns Shp., and 
Callithmysus microgastcr Shp. Koebele considers the worst pest of the 
native forest to be cattle (pp. 57-59). 

217. Koebele, Albert, Notes on insects affecting the koa trees . . .: 

Rept. Bd. Comr. Agric. and Forestry, Hawaii, 1900, pp. 61-66, 

1901, (US) 

The insects noted are: Parandra pttncticeps Sharp, Aegosoma reflextmi 
Karsch in the dead wood of the decaying forest. The living trees affected 
by the "Olinda bug," Pandamorus oUndac Perk., by tortricid and geometrid 
larvae, and by a fungoid disease. 



50 Bcrnicc P. Bisho(> Miiscnin — BuUctin 

218. KoEBELE, Albert, Hawaii's forest foes: Haw. Ann. for 1901, pp. 

90-97, Honolulu, 1900. 

Discusses causes' of the disappearing forests of the islands, describing 
the various species of insects that attack trees, with their natural enemies. 

219. Meyrick, Edw.\rd, New Hawaiian Lepidoptera : Ent. Month. Mag., 

vol. 36, pp. 257-258, 1900. (HSPA) (AF) 

The specimens described were collected by Professor Scliauinsland. 
Agrotis ercmioides n.sp. and A. procellaris n.sp., were obtained at Laysan, 
and Scotorythra dicerauin'a n.sp.. S. triscia Meyr.. Phlyctaenia synasira Meyr. 
came from Molokai. 

220. *Perkins, R. C. L., Introduction of beneficial insects into the Ha- 

waiian Islands : Berlin Ent. Zeit., pp. 45-46, 1900. 
This is a resume of an article tlial appeared in Nature, vol. 55. pp. 499- 
Soo, 1897. 

221. Perkins, R. C. L., Coleoptera, Rhynchophora, Proterhinidae, Hete- 

romera, and Cioidae: Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. 2, pp. 117-270, 

pis. 7-10, 1900. 

The most extensive work dealing with these groups ; it contains descrip- 
tions of many new species. 

222. Sharp, David, Coleoptera Phytophaga : Fauna Hawaiiensis, vol. 2, 

pp. 91-116, pi. 6, 1900. 

The most extensive work on this group; it contains descriptions of 
many new species. 

223. Thomas, W. B., Farming in Hawaii: Haw. Ann. for 1901, pp. 124- 

128, 1900. (BM) 

Includes a brief reference to insect pests which are said to make it al- 
most impossible to grow certain vegetables (p. 127). 

224. Van Dine, D. L., A partial bibliography of Hawaiian entomology: 

U. S. Dept. Agric, Office Exj). Stations Bull. 170, pp. 52-59. 
1906. 

225. Ball, S. C, Migration of insects to Rebecca Shoal Light-Station 

and the Tortugas Islands, with special references to mosquitoes 
and flies: Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. No. 252. pp. 193-212. 
1918. 

Contains an interesting note on the observation of house flies migrating 
long distances in a small boat (p. 208). 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF GENERA 



51 



Page 
A 

Acalles 35 

Acanthia 28,37 

Achroea 37 

Aciptilia 37 

Acritus 34 

Acupalpus 31, 32 

Adelocera 6 

Adoretus 17, 39. 4°, 42, 44 

Aechalia 37 

Aegosoma 31, 42, 49 

Aeletes 34 

Ageialia 6 

Agrion 33.34 

Agrotis 28, 30, 31, 44, so 

Agrypnus 6 

Aleurodes 44 

Alschua 24 

Ammophorus 23 

Ananca 35 

Anax 24, 25, 33 

Anchomenus 6, 21, 26, 27, 28, 30, 34 

Anemosa 31, 37 

Anisodactylus 31, 32 

Anisolabis 32, 40 

Anomalochrysa 33, 34 

Anosia 36 

Anotheorus 26 

Anthicus 35 

Antilissus 29 

Apamea 48 

Aphis 42 

Aphodius 6, 29 

Apis 29 

Aporodes 31, 37 

Apterocyclus 25, 26 

Araeocerus 49 

Aramigus 49 

Argyresthia 26 

Arma 24 

Asopia 37 

Aspidiotus 39, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 

Asopus _ 21 

Asterolecanium 40, 42, 45 

Astrimus 27 

Ataenius 6 

Atrachycnemis 27, 34 

Attagenus 35 

Aulascaspis 46 

Aiitomola 33 

Azinus 33 

B 

Bacanius 34 

Barypristus' 34 

Bembidium 28, 30 

Blaboplianes 33, 45 

Blackburnia 27 

Blatta 20, 32 



Page 

Blepyrus 46 

Bolitochara 34 

Boreophila 3' 

Bostrichus 35 

Botys 26, 27, 28, 37, 42 

Brachymetopa 4° 

Brachypeplus 27, 29, 31, 35 

Brontolaemus 35 

Bythoscopus 24 

C 

Caccodes 35 

Calandra 22,35 

Calleida 23 

Callithmysus 49 

Calotermes 33 

Calpodes 31 

Camponotus 29, 36 

Canthon 23 

Capsus' 24,28 

Caradina 30 

Cardiastethus 26, 28, 37 

Carpophilus 27 

Catapicephala 25 

Catorama 35 

Ceromasia 16 

Ceroplastes 42, 44, 45, 47 

Chaenosternuni 35 

Chaetogaedia 36,43 

Chalcis 31, 36, 44 

Chelisoches 32,40 

Chelonus 31. 36. 48 

Chilocorus 38 

Chiloides 35 

Chionaspis 41, 42, 44, 46 

Chrysopa 33 

Cicada 7 

Cis 29,35 

Cistela 35 

Clerada 28 

Clytarlus 27, 29, 30, 31, 35, 43, 49 

Coccinella 39.44 

Clytus 48 

Coleolichus 31.37 

Colias 24,25 

Colpodes 32 

Colpodiscus 34 

Colymbetes 6, 21 

Conocephalus 32 

Coplatus 6, 34 

Corixa 26 

Corylophus 34 

Corymbites 31 

Crabro 23, 29, 31, 36 

Crepidodera 24 

Cryptolaenius 38, 42, 43 

Cryptorhopalum 35 

Culex 24, 34 



52 



Beniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



Page 

Cyclonotum 29 

Cyclothorax 27, 28, 30, 32, 34 

Cylas 13 

Cyimis 31 

D 

Dactylopius 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 47, 49 

Dacus 18, 45, 47, 48 

Danaida 16 

Danais 27. 30, 36 

Deielia 38 

Deilephila 26, 30 

Delphax 23,24 

Depressaria 33 

Dermestes 48 

Diaspis 41 , 42, 44, 46 

Diestota 30, 34 

Dilasia 29, 31, 37 

Diplosara 33 

Disenochus 27, 30, 34 

Dolichotelus 35 

Dryophthorus 27 

Dyscolus : 26 

Dysdercus 25 

E 

Echthromorpha 24.36 

Eidoreus 35 

Elater 6, 31 

Eleutheroda 32,40 

Elimaea 32,40 

Elipsocus 33 

Encyrtus 36 

Eopenthes 33 

Ephestia 26, 31. 37 

Epitragus 31 

Epitranus 33.36 

Eriococcus 44,47 

Eroniene 32,37 

Eulachus 35 

Eupelmus 33, 36 

Eupithecia 30 

Eurycreon 37 

Euthyrrapha 32.40 

Euxestus 35 

Evania 29, 33, 34. 36 

Evaspidiotus 47 

Eysarcoris 22 

F 

Falagria 30 

Fiorinia 44, 46 

Forficula 32,40 

Formicaleo 33, 38 

Fornax 35 

G 

Geleckia 17, 49 

Genophantis 37 



Page 

Geodephaga 27,28 

Gcotomus 26, 37 

Gesneria 33.37 

Glyptoma 30 

Gomphocerus 24 

Gonioryctus 27, 35 

Gonitis 32 

Graptodera 24 

Gryllotalpa 42 

Grylhis 32.40 

H 

Hadena 25 

Haematobia 17, 47 

Halobates IS. 34 

Haptoncus 27 

Hednota 37 

Helcogaster 35 

Heliothis .24.30 

Hemilierlesia 47 

Herminia 26 

Heteramphus 35 

Heterocossa 33 

Heterophaga 22, 35 

Holochila 28,31 

Holcobius 31 

Homoeosoma 37 

Howardia 45 

Hyalopteryx 24 

Hydrobius 6, 22 

Hydrophilus 6, 20, 28 

Hymenia 26 

Hypena 26, 30, 31 

Hyperaspis 24 

Hyperomorpha 35 

Hypocala 32 

Hypotlienemus 29, 35 

I 

Icerya 17. 38, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47. 49 

Itodacnus 35 

K 
Kermicus 46 

L • 

Labetis 29,35 

Labia 23, 32, 40 

Labrocerus 35 

Laemorphloeus 35 

Lagochirus 27 

Laphygma 42, 44, 48 

Larentia 28 

Laverna 26, 32 

Leucania 26, 27, 28, 30, 32 

Lecanium ....38, 39, 40.41. 42. 44. 45. 47. 48, 49 

Lephygama 39 

Lepidotus 6 

Lepthcmis 33 



List of Genera 



53 



Page 

Leptogenys 29, 36 

Leucophaea 40 

Libellula 7 

Lilia 29, 31, 37 

Limneria 33, 36 

Liophaena 30 

Lispe 25 

Lispinodes 30, 34 

LitarguS 29 

Lithocharis 34 

Locastra 32. 37 

Lopha 28 

Loxocreon 38 

Luperus 24 

Luteva 26 

Lycaena 48 

Lycosa 9 

M 

Margarodes 37 

Margaronia 31 

Mauia 35 

Manna 34 

Mecyna 28, 31, 37 

Megachile 29, 36, 45 

Megalagrion 33 

Megalomus 33, 34 

Megascelis 24 

Melanomecyna 33, 3; 

Merragata 26 

Mestalobes 32, 37, 43 

Metacoelus 36 

Metasia 32, 37 

Methana .„ 40 

Metrarga 28, 37 

Metromenus 34 

Mimesa 23, 36 

Micracantha 27 

Mirosternus 31, 35 

Microvelia 28 

Monanus' 29, 35 

Monolexis 31, 36 

Monomorium 36, 47 

Monopis 45 

Moranila ^3, 36 

Morganella 43 

Musca 12, 25 

Myllaena 30, 34 

Myrmelon 23 

Mytilaspis 41, 42. 44, 45, 47 

N 

Nabis 26. 28, 37, 48 

Nacoleia 46 

Nesogonia 46 

Notaphus 30 

Nysius 24, 25, 28, 31, 37 

O 

Odynerus 19, 29, 36, 37, 41 

Oechalia 28 



Page 

Oenemona 23 

Oligota 30,34 

Oligostigma 28 

Oligitoma 33, 35. 4^, 45 

Omicrus 28 

Omiodes 37, 38, 48, 49 

Oniscosoma 32, 40 

Oniscus 9 

Onthophagus 23 

Oodemas 24, 26, 27, 30, 35 

Oopsis 27 

Ophion 33,36 

Orthomecyna 33, 37 

Orthoperus 34 

Oxya 40 

Oxvtelus 30,34 

P 

Pachycorynus 30 

Palistes 34 

Paniera 25, 28 

Panchlora 32 

Pandamorus 49 

Pantala 25,33 

Papilio 7, 25, 26 

Paranemobius 41 

Parandra 6, 27, 49 

Paraponyx 37 

Parasia 33 

Paratrigonidium 40 

Parlatoria 44, 47 

Pelopoeus 29, 36 

Pentarthrum 27 

Periplaneta 32, 40, 48 

Phalainesthes 47 

Pheidole 29, 32, 36 

Phenolepis 29 

Phlaeopora 30 

PhlegethontiuS 40,48 

Phlyctaenia 50 

Phthorimaea 13 

Phyllodromia 40 

Pieris 49 

Pimpla 36 

Pison 29, 36 

Plagithmysus 22, 23, 30, 35, 43, 45, 49 

Planchonia 42 

Platydema 35 

Platynus 6, 31, 32 

Platyptilus 32, 37 

Ploiariodes 31, 37 

Plodia 28, 37 

Plusia 26, 27, 30, 44, 48 

Plutella 44, 49 

Polistes 29, 36 

Polyommatus 32 

Ponera 29, 36, 47 

Prenolepsis 29, 36 

Prodenia 15, 26, 30, 32 

Prognathogryllus 40 

Promecoderus 31 



54 



Bcnticc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



Page 

Propalticus 29 

Protoparce 26, 30 

Prosopis 23, 29, 36, 41 

Proteopteryx 32 

Proterhinus 27, 29, 31, 35 

Protocolletis 37 

Psammodius 6 

Pseudocoremia 28 

Pseudolus 35 

Psocus 3.3 

Pulvinaria 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47, 49 

Pycnoscelys 20 

Pyralis 26 

Pyrameis 25,28 

R 

Reclada 28 

Rhabdocnemis 16, 22, 40, 41, 49 

Rhodaria 26. 31 , 37 

RhyncoRonus 35 

RhyRchium 24 

Rhyncoliis 24, 31, 35 

Rliypardchronnis 22 

s 

Salbia 24,37 

Salda 28 

Sarcophaga 25 

Sardia 37 

Saronychium 26 

Scardia 28 

Sciophagus 35 

Scleroderma 36 

Scolopendra 9 

Scoparia 31, 32, 37, 43 

Scopula 30, 32, 33, 37 

Scotoniera 32,37 

Scotorythra 33, 49, 50 

Scotosia 28,30 

Scymnus 24, 35, 44 

Selbia 28 

Selda 37 

Selenophorus 23 

Sericoderus 34 

Sierola 31.36 

Silvanus 48 

Solenopsis 29, 36 

Solindena 33, 36 

Sotenus 27 

Spaclotys 48 

SpalanRia 36 



Page 

Sphaeridium 29 

Sphaerococcus 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 46 

Sphenophorus 37, 42 

Sphinx 8, 13, 40, 48 

Spaelotius 30 

Spodoptera 48 

Spoelotis 30 

Stasilea 31 

Stenocorus 27 

Stenopterus 22 

Stylopyga 40 

Synomotis 33 

T 

Tachyusa 30 

Tapinoma 36,47 

Telephanus 35 

Telmatophilus 35 

Teras 32 

Tetramorium 29, 36, 47 

Tetranychus 40,41 

Tettigonia 23 

Thyrocopa 33 

Tinea 32 

Tomocera 48 

Toxocampa 30 

Tramea 25,33 

Trechus 23, 

Tribolium 48 

Trichoptilus 37 

Trigonidium 24, 33 

Tripleps 26 

Trogophlaeus 30 

Trox 6 

Trypeta 25 

Trypopitys 31 

V 

Vanessa ..4, 7, 8, 9, 13, 21, 22, 25, 26, 28, 30, 31 
Vedalia 38,49 

X 

Xeroscopa 43, 46 

Xiphidium 40 

Xylebonis 35 

Xyletobius 31, 35 

Xylocopa 29. 36, 37 

Z 

Zinckcnia 37.4? 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF 
SPECIES 



55 



A 

Page 

Abdominale, Sphaeridium 29 

Abdominalis, Coccinella 39,44 

Trogophlaeus' 30 

Abnormis, Crabro 36 

Mestolobes 37, 43 

Metasia 32 

Accepta, Botys 26, 27, 28 

Nacoleia 46 

Omiodes 37, 49 

Achatina, Pyralis 26 

Achroana, Heterocossa 33 

Acuminatum, Lecanium 38,39,40,41,44,45 

Acutus, Mirosternus 35 

Adonidum, Dactylopius 44, 47 

Adspectans, Crabro 36 

Advena, Oxytelus 30 

Aeneipennis, Xylocopa 29, 36, 46 

Aenescens, Oodemas 24, 27 

Aeneus, Laemorphloeus 35 

Aenone, Mestolobes 32 

Aequale, Oodemas 35 

Aequalis, Orthoperus 34 

Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Aestivus, Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Affinis, Brachypeplus 31 

Crabro 29, 36 

Xyletobius ._.. 35 

Agilis, Odynerus 29, 36 

Alatus, Prognathogryllus 40 

Albertisi, Plagithmysus 45 

Albicaudata, Orthomecyna 33, 27 

Albizziae, Dactylopius 42,45 

Albosparsa, Ephestia 31 

Alienus, Cis 29 

Altivolans, Hypena var. simplex 31 

Scopula 30 

Ambiguus, Eopenthus 35 

Ambrodes, Xerocopa 37 

Americana, Periplaneta 32, 40 

Amoenula. Calleida 23 

Amygadali, Diaspis 44,46 

Angularis, Proterhinus 31 

Angusticollis, Acalles 35 

Angustum, Oodemas 27 

Annectens, Clytarlus ^ 49 

Annularis, Hyperaspis 24 

Annulipes, Anisolabis 40 

Anomalus, Disenochus" 27 

Antennata, Misesa 23, 36 

Anthracina, Prosopis 23, 36 

Apertus, Brachypeplus 35 

Aphanopis, Orthomecyna 37 

Apicalis, Cis 35 

Dolichotelus 35 

Apicicornis, Clerada 28 



Page 

Appendiculata, Elimaea 32, 40 

Arachnipes, Plagithmysus 43,49 

Araneiformis, Lagochirus 27 

Araucariae, Eriococcus 44, 47 

Arboricola, Nysius 28 

Arboricolens, Scotorythra 33 

Archippus, Danaida 16 

Danais 27, 30, 36 

Arenivolans, Agrotis 28 

Argoscelis, Scopula 37 

Armigera, Heliothis 30 

Asellus, Oniscus 9 

Asper, Antilissus 29 

Aphodius 6 

Brachypeplus 27 

Aspersa, Laverna 32 

Atalanta, Vanessa 8 

Atomarius, Bacanius 34 

Atroferrugineum, Paratrigonidium .... 40 

Attenuatus, Cis 35 

Aurantii, Aspidiotus 41,44,45 

Aurifer, Palistes 29, 34, 36 

Aurora, Anemosa 31 

Mecyna 37 

B 

Balteatus, Canthon 23 

Bambusae, Kermicus 46 

Sphaerococcus 39, 40, 41 , 42, 45 

Barbata, Sarcophaga 25 

Bardus, Anchomenus 26 

Basalis, Eopenthes 35 

Proterhinus 29 

Sericoderus 34 

Beckii, Mytilaspis 47 

Bella, Eromene 32 

Bembidioides, Cyclothorax 28 

Biclavis, Chionaspis 44 

var. detecta 41 

Howardia var. detecta 45' 

Bicolor, Brachypeplus 35 

Cis 29 

Mirosternus 31 

Bidens, Brachypeplus 31 

Bilineatus, Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Bimaculatus, Cis 35 

Biseriatus, Acupalpus 31, 32 

Bishopi, Playithmysus 43, 49 

Bivulnerus, Chilocorus 38 

Blackburni, Botys' 26, 27 

Brachypeplus 31 

var. lanaiensis 35 

Brachymetopa 40 

Chelonus 36 

Clytarlus 35 

Conocephalus 32 

Corixa 26 



S6 



Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



Page 

Gonioryctus 27 

GlyptQma 30 

Holochila 28, 31 

Lepthemis 33 

Limncria 33, 36 

Megalagrion 33 

Nabis 28 

Nacoleia 46 

Nesogonia 46 

Nysius 31 

Odynerus 29, 36 

Omiodes , 3", 48 

Pentarthrum 27 

Plagithmysiis 43. 49 

Prosopis 29, 36 

Proterhinus 27 

Protoparce 30 

Rhyncogomis 35 

Blackburniae, Coleolichus 31 

Bledioides, Oxytelus 34 

Boetica, Lycaena 48 

Boeticus, Polymmatus 32 

Boisduvalii, Aulascaspis 46 

Diaspis 41, 44 

Bonvouloiri, Fornax 35 

Borrei, Oodemas 27 

Brachymorpha, Platyptilia 37 

Brevicorne, Cryptorhopalum 35 

Brevicornis, Monanus 35 

Brevipenne, Glyptoma ^ 30 

Brevipes. Omicrus 28 

Brevis, Brachypeplus 27 

Oyclothorax 27 

C 

Caementarius. Pclopaeus 36 

Caeneusalis, Hcrminia 26 

Caenosulus, Nysius 25 

Calceolaria, Dactylopius 42, 47 

Calida, Deilephila 30 

Calidus, Cis 35 

Californica, Tomocera 48 

Caliginosus, Dyscolus 26 

Calliphya, Agrion 33 

Calvus', CynniB 31 

Camelliae, Aspediotus 44 

Fiorinia 44 

Cameroni, Chclonus 48 

Capucinus, Trypopitys 31 

Cardinalis. Odynerus 36. 37 

Vedalia 49 

Cardui, Vanessa 8, 9, 13, 21, 22, 25, 28, 30 

Carinatus, Chclonus 31 

Mirosternus 31 

Carinata, Diestota 30 

Carinatus. Clielonus 48 

Castaneus, Calotermes a 

Celatus, Brachypeplus 35 

Ceriferus, Ceroplastes 44, 47 

Dactylopius 43. 45. 49 



Page 

Chalceolariae, Dactylopius 44 

Chalcites, Plusia 48 

Chersotoides, Apamea 30,48 

Chloroptera, Xylocopa 46 

Chloroticus, Cis 35 

Cinctipennis, Apameidae 30 

Cingulata, Phlaeopora 30 

Protoparce 26 

Phlegethontius 40, 48 

Citri, Dactylopius 40, 45, 47 

Citricola, Mytilaspis 47 

Cladestina, Phenolepis 29 

Clavicornis. Oligota 30 

Claviger, Clytarlus 49 

Coarctata, Scoparia 31,32 

Coenosulus, Nysius 24, 28 

CofFea, Lecanium 44 

CoUaris, Ananca 35 

Plagithmysus 49 

Proterhinus 29 

Concentricus, Aeletes 34 

Concolor, Cis 35 

Labrocerus 35 

Plagithmysus' 43, 49 

Conferta. Heliothis 30 

Confussus, Bacanius 34 

Congruus, Odynerus 29, 36 

Coniceps, Prosopis 36 

Constricta, ProtocoUetis 37 

Scopula 32 

Continuatalis', Botys 28 

Loxocreon 38 

Nacoleia 46 

Omiodes yj 

Salbia 24,28 

Contracta, Mctrarga 37 

Ponera 29, 36 

Convolvuli. Sphinx 40, 48 

Corticea, Scotosia 30 

Corruscus, Anchomenus 21 

Corynibites 31 

Cosmodactyla, Platyptilia 37 

Cranifex, Palistes 34 

Crassicorne. Oodemas 35 

Crassicornis, Cistela 35 

Crassipes, Trypeta 25 

Crassus, Dryophthorus 27 

Cremata, Agrotis 31 

Spaelotis 30 

Crenatus, Monanus 29 

Crinicornis, Clytus 48 

Criniger, Cymus 31 

Crinigera, Spoelotis 30,48 

Cristatus, Clytarlus 27 

Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Cruciferarum, Plutella 44, 49 

Cucurbitae, Dacus 18, 45, 47, 48 

Cuneatus, Anisodactylus 31,32 

Plagithmysus 43 

Cuneipennis, Anchomenus 26 



List of Species 



57 



Page 

Currax, Falagria 3° 

Curta, Oligostigma 28 

Curtipes, Myllaena 30 

Curvicornis, Stasilea 31 

Curtipennis, Nabis 37 

Cydoniae, Aspidiotus 44, 45 

var. tecta 44, 45 

Cylindricus, Heteramphus 35 

Psammodius 6 

Cytricola, Mytilaspis 44 

D 

Dallas!, Nysius 28 

Darwinianus, Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Debilis, Caccodes 35 

Clytarlus 49 

Eopenthes 35 

Mirosternus 31 

Proterhinus 27 

Telmatophilus 35 

Deceptor, Agrion 33 

Declivia, Dryophthorus 27 

Decolor, Dilasia 29,31 

Decorata, Periplaneta 32 

Stylopyga 40 

Decoratus, AcalleS 35 

Delecta, Chionaspis 42 

Delectus, Nysius 28 

Demaratalis, Botys 28 

Nacoleia 46 

Omiodes 37 

Demodes, Xerocopa 37,43 

Denigrata, Dilasia 29, 31 

Denticornis, Crabro 29 

Deplanata, Brachymetopa 40 

Depressum, Lecanium 38, 40 

Despecta, Rhodaria 26, 31 

Scopula 37 

Desuetella, Ephestia 37 

Detritus, Proterhinus 35 

Deverilli, Cyclothorax 28 

Diana, Plagithmysus 49 

Diceraunia, Scotorythra 50 

Dilecta, Lilia 29, 31 

Diligens, Magachile 29, 36 

Diluta, Phlaeopora 30 

Diniidiatus, Carpophilus 27 

Diniinutivus, Cis 29 

Diremptus, Epitragus 31 

Discedens, Brachypeplus 27 

var. kauaiensis 35 

Myllaena 30 

Pachycorynus 30 

Scymnus 35 

Discolor, Brachymetopa 40 

Dislocata, Leucania 26, 27, 30 

Dispar, Proterhinus 31 

Distinctus, Crabro 23, 36 

Diversus, Odynerus 36 

Domestica, Musca 12 



Domesticus, Dermestes 48 

Dromedarius, Odynerus 36 

Dubiosus', Odynerus 29, 36 

Duplex, Acalles 35 

Aspediotus 44, 47 

Dux, Sarcophaga 25 

Dytiscoides, Eleutheroda 32, 40 

E 

Electrica, Scolopendra 9 

Elegans, Brontolaemus 35 

Elutella, Ephestia 26 

Ennychioides, Mecyna 31 

Scopula 37 

Ephistemoides, Cis 35 

Epicapna, Synomotis 33 

Epicurus, Anchomenus 26 

Eremioides, Agrotis' SO 

Erro, Anchomenus 27 

Eucrena, Scopula 37 

Eugeniae, Chionaspis 44, 46 

Eulella, Ephestia 37 

Evanescens, Cis 29 

Exaula, Margarodes 37 

Exigua. Mecyna 28, 31 

Orthomecyna 37 

Orthomecyna var. cupreipennis.... 33 

Scopula , 30 

Expers, Brachypeplus 35 

Explanatus, Brachypeplus 29 

Explicandus, Lispinodes 30 

Extranea, Leucania 30, 32 

Extraneus', Odynerus 36 

Exulans, Salda 28 

F 

Facilis, Aeletes 35 

Prosopis 29, 36 

Familiaris, Myllaena 30 

Fascialis, Hypena 30 

Fasciata, Deielia 38 

Fasciatus, Lepidotus 6 

Trechus 23 

Fasciculatus, Araeocerus 49 

Femoratus, Metacoelus' 36 

Ferrugineum, Tribolium 48 

Filicuni, Lecanium 44 

Filipes, Clytarlus 35, 49 

Finschi, Clytarlus 30,31 

Playithmysus 43, 49 

Fioriniae, Fiorinia 46 

Flava, Mytilaspis 41,42,45 

var. hawaiiensis 41,42 

Flavescens, Pantala 25, 33 

Flaviceps, Liophaena 30 

Flavifrons, Prosopis 29,36 

Flavimaculata, Lephygama 39, 48 

Flavinervis; var.? Musca 25 

Flavipes, Eupelmus 33,36 

Prosopis 23, 29, 36 



58 



Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



Page 

Flavo-orbitalis, Echthromorpha 36 

Floricola, Brachypeplus 35 

Floricolens, Gesneria 33 

Hednota 37 

Floridensis, Ceroplastes 44, 47 

Forticularis, Prognathogryllus 40 

Formicarius, Cylas 13 

Formosa, Xerocopa 37 

Fossipennis, Anchomenus 26 

Fossulatus, Promecoderus 31 

Foveatus. Heteramphus 35 

Fragilis. Clytarlus 31.49 

Fraternus, Anchomenus 26 

Frigida, Blackburni 34 

Scoparia 31, 37, 43 

Frigidus, Xyleborus 35 

Frontinalis', Trogophlaeus 30 

Frugiperda, Laphygma 42, 44 

Fugitivus, Anchomenus 26 

Gonioryatus 35 

Fulleri, Aramigus 49 

Funebris, Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Fuscipennis, Prosopis 29, 36 

Fuscipes, Elater 6 

Fuscum, Xiphidium 40 

G 

Geminata, Solenopsis 29. 36 

Gerontialis, Asopia 37 

Glabra, Oligota 30 

Glabricollis, Holcobius 31 

Glabripennis, Mirosternus' 31 

Glauculalis, Margaronia 31 

Gloverii, Mytilaspis 44,45 

Gossypiella, Gelechia I7,49 

Gracilipes, Liophaena 30 

Gracilis, Ttodacnus 35 

Proterhinus 3' 

Rhyncolus 24 

Gracillimum, Monomorium 47 

Granulatus, Holcobius 31 

Gravidus, Dryophthorus 27 

Grecni, Aspidiotus 47 

Grisella, Achroea y? 

Griseus, Asopus 21 

Hypothenemus 35 

Guineense, Tetramorium 29, 36, 47 

Guttatus, Brachypeplus 31 

H 

Malticoidcs. Oodcmas 26, 27 

Haleakalae, Odynerus 36 

Harschi, Cyclothorax 32 

Hawaiiensis, Agrion 33 

Forficula 32, 40 

Gonitis 32 

Limneria 36 

Mytilaspis 45, 47 

OdjTierus 36 

Pimpla 36 



Page 

Scoparia 31 

Trichoptilus 37 

Xerocopa ^y, 43 

Hebraeus, Polistes 36 

Hebroides, Merragata 26 

Hederae, Aspidiotus var. nerii 45 

Hepatica, Anomalochrysa a 

Hemipterus, Carpophilus 27 

Hemisphaericum, Lecanium 44, 47 

Hesperidum, Lecanium 39, 40, 44, 45 

Hieroglyphica, Blatta Z2 

Phyllodromia 40 

Hilarella, Azinus 33 

Hilaris, Prosopis 29, 36 

Hirta, Spalangia 36 

Hirtellus, Heteramphus 35 

Hispidus, Eulachus 35 

Honoluluensis, Apterocydus 25 

Hospes, Pison 29, 36 

Humeralis, Elater 31 

Ephestia 31 

Homoeosoma 37 

Proterhinus 29 

Hunteri, Pyrameis 28 

Vanessa 28 

Hydrophila, Hednota 37 

Scotomera 32 

Hystrix, Proterhinus 31 

I 

Ichnias, Xeroscopa 43 

Idolias, Scotorythra 49 

Ignavus, Oodemas 30 

Ignicola, Bembidium 28 

Ignotus, Acalles 35 

lUepida, Teras 32 

Immaturus, Xyleborus 35 

Impacta, Bolitochara 34 

Impressus, Brachypeplus 27 

Inaequalis, Brachypeplus 27 

Inauratus, Brachypeplus 31 

Incendiarius, Anchomenus 28 

Incognita, Diestola 34 

Incompta, Lithocharis 34 

Inconspicuum, Saronychium 26 

Tndecora, Depressaria 33 

Ineptus, Proterhinus 35 

Infernum, Oodemas 30 

Infirmus, Brachypeplus 27 

Inflata, Hcliothis 24 

Tngloria, Prodenia 15, 26, 30, 32 

Innotabilis, Gryllus 32, 40 

Innotatus, Nabis 26,37 

Insignis, Blackburnia 27 

Dryophthorus 27 

Hypcna 26, 30 

Proterhinus 35 

Xyletobius 35 

Insociabilis, Anchomenus 27 

Insolida, Luteva 26 



List of Species 



59 



Page 

Insulare, Oodemas 27 

Insularis, Acritus 34 

Ammophorus 23 

Calleida 23 

Cis 35 

Encyrtus 36 

Erysarcoris 22 

Lebia 23 

Larentia 28 

Leptogenys 29, 36 

Luperus 24 

Oligotoma 33, 35. 4i, 45 

Selenophorus 23 

Telephanus 35 

Xyleborus 35 

Instilicola, Odynerus 36 

Integer, Proterhinus 35 

Interpunctalis, Plodia 28 

Interpunctella, Ephestia 37 

lodora, Genophantis 37 

Iridipennis, Pison 29, 36 

Irritans, Haematobia I7>47 

Ischnias, Xerocopa 37 

J 

Jacunda, Xerocopa 37,43 

Jaynei, Labrocerus 35 

Jucunda, Scoparia var. formosa 31 

Jucundus, Geotomus 26, 37 

Junius, Anax 24, 25, 33 

K 
Kammeamea, Vanessa (see tammeamea) 

Kauaiensis, Oligota 34 

Kinbergi, Scymnus 24 

Koelense, Agrion .^ 34 

Koelensis, Brachypeplus 35 

Koelensis, Nabis 37 

Kona, Prosopis 36 

Konae, Eopenthes 35 

Konanum, Chaenosternum 35 

L 

Lacteipennis, Epitranus 36 

Lacerata, Tramea 25, 33 

Laeticulus, Cis 29 

Laetus, Cyclothorax 30 

Laevigata, Evania 29, 34, 36 

Laniarckianus, Plagithmysus 49 

Lanaiensis, Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Lacteipennis, Epitranus 33 

Lateralis, Acalles 35 

Laticollis, Clytarlus 49 

Proterhinus 35 

Latrifrons, Diestota 30 

Latus, Gonioryctus 27 

Lecontei, Proterhinus 29 

Lectularia, Acanthia 28, 37 

Leuconeura, Sierola 36 

Lictorea, Anisolabis 32 



Page 

Ligata, Methana 40 

Pariplaneta 32 

Lignivora, Diplosara 33 

Scardia 28 

Litnbipennis, Catapicephala 25 

Linealis, Paropanyx 37 

Linearis, Proterhinus 35 

Lineatus, Ophion 33, 36 

Xyletobius 35 

Liodyta, Omiodes' 37 

Litorea, Eurycreon 37 

Scopula 33 

Littorea, Anisolabis 40 

Littoralis, Platyptilus 32, 37 

Livornica, Deilephila 26, 30 

Localis, Nacoleia 46 

Odynerus 29 

Omiodes 37 

Longella, Blabophanes 33 

Monopis 45 

Longicollis, Nysius 37 

Longicornis, Fornax 35 

Prenolepis 36 

Proterhinus 35 

Longillus, Pseudolus 35 

Longipennis, Cis 35 

Oligota 34 

Longipes, Aeletes 34 

Clytarlus 49 

Longispina, Aspidiotus 41,44,45 

Longulus, Proterhinus 29 

Rhyncolus 24 

Longulum, Lecanium 38,39,41,42,44.45,49 

Lucicolens, Spaelotis 30 

Lucipetens, Anchomenus 28 

Lusciosus, Nabis 26 

M 

Maclachlani, Anomalochrysa 34 

Macroglossum, Sphinx 8 

Maculatus, Carpophilus 27 

Maculicollis, Hypothenemus 29 

Maculipennis, Echthromorpha 24, 36 

Major, Holcobius 31 

Mammeae, Pulvinaria 41,42,44,45 

Mandibularis, Crabro 29,36 

Marginipennis, Calotermes 33 

Marmoratus, Xyletobius 31 

Maritima, Anisolabis 32, 40 

Marsdeni, Blepyrus 46 

Maskelli, Aspidiotus 45 

Morganella 43 

Mauiense, Oodemas 27 

Mauiensis, Acalles 35 

Coplatus 34 

Crabro 36 

Nysius 37 

Mauritanica, Heterophaga 22 

Mauritia, Spodoptera 48 

Maurus, Odynerus 29 



6o 



Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



Page 

Mediocris, Clytarlus 49 

Megacephala, Pheidole 36 

Melanocephala, Tapinoma 36, 47 

Melanopis, Xerocopa 37, 43 

Melifica, Apis 29 

Mcsoleuca, Xerocopa 37, 43 

Metallescens, Brachypepliis 31 

Metatarsals, Lispe 25 

Meticulosus, Anchomenus 26 

Micacea, Aporodes 31 

Scopula 37 

Micans, Cyclothorax 27 

Microgaster, Callithmysus 49 

Clytarlus 29 

Microphya, Chrysopa 33 

Migrator, Bostrichus' 35 

Minor, Euxestus 35 

Minuscula, Boreophila 31 

Mestolobes 37, 43 

Minutus, Eidoreus 35 

Modestus, Agrypnus 6 

Clytarlus 29, 49 

Dryophthorus 27 

Moesta, Reclada 28 

Monogona, Omiodes 37 

Montana, Anomalochrysa 34 

Diestola 34 

Scoparia 43 

Montanus, Anotheorus 26 

Odynerus 29, 36 

Monticola, Aeletes 35 

Chaetogaedia 36, 43 

Gonioryctus 27 

Sierola 36 

Monticolans, Scopula 37 

Eupithecia 30 

Locastra 32 

Montivagus, Cyclothorax 27 

Montrouzieri, Cryptolaemus 38,42,43 

Mori, Lccanium 44, 47 

Morio, Chelisoches 32,40 

Multipunctatus, Cyclothorax 27 

Mundulus, Anthicus 35 

Cardiastethus 26 

Mundus, Heptoncus 27 

Murimus, Lepidotus' 6 

Muscicola, Anchomenus 26, 34 

Mutabilis, Dyscolus 26 

Mutanda, Oligota 30 

Muticus, Mirosternus 31 

Onthophagus 23 

Mysticus, Anchomenus 26 

N 

Nautarum, Odynerus 36 

Nemorivagus, Nysius 31 

Nerii, Aspcdiotus 41,42,44 

Newelli, Playithmysus 43 

Nigrescens, Mecyna 31 

Scopula 37 



Page 
Nigricans, Ophion 33,36 

Proterhinus 29 

Nigriceps, Pamera ^5, 28 

Rhyparochromus 22 

Nigrinus, Xyletobius 31 

Nigripenne, Rhygchium 24 

Nigripennis, Odynerus 36 

Nigrofasciatus, Cis 35 

Nigro-hamatum, Agrion 34 

Nigrum, Lccanium ^,44,45,49 

var. dcpressum 41.45 

Nitida, Brachymetopa 40 

Nitidus', Nysius 31 

Nivicola, (Dodemas 27 

Noctivolans, Toxocampa 30 

Nodifer, Clytarlus .^ 49 

Nuda, Metrarga 28 

Nutans, Micracantha 27 

Nutator, Oopsis 27 

O 

Oahuense, Agrion 34 

Oahuensis, Cyclothorax 27 

Myllaena 34 

Selda 37 

Obliquus, Xyleborus 35 

Obscura, Calandra 22 

Metrarga 37 

Prenolepis 36 

Obscurata, Chalcis 44 

Obscure-punctatus, Odynerus' 36 

Obscuricolor, Cyclothorax 27 

Obscurum, Oodemas 27 

Pentarthrum 27 

Platydema 35 

Obscurus, Astrimus 27 

Eopenthes 35 

Labrocerus 35 

Mirosternus 31 

Proterhinus 27 

Rhabdocnemis 16, 40, 41, 49 

Sphenophorus 37, 42 

Obsoleta, Hypena 26, 30, 31 

Obsoletus, Brachypeplus 31 

Obtusata, Phillodromia 40 

Obtusus, Fornax 35 

Oceanica, Chrysopa 33 

Oceanicus, Anchomenus 26 

Oceanicum, Megalagrion 33 

Ocellatus, Anax ,,. 24 

Scymnus 35, 44 

Ocellea, Eromenc 37 

Octoocellatus, Calpodes 31,32 

Oculatus, Propalticus 29 

Oleae, Lecanium 39,40,41,42,44,45,48 

Olinda, Brachypeplus 35 

Olindae, Oodemas 30 

Pandomorus 49 

Omalioides, Brachypeplus 27 

Ombrodes; Xeroscopa 43 



List of Species 



6i 



Page 

Opacus, Rhyncolus 31 

Opurculella, Phthorimaea 13 

Ornatipennis, Anomalochrysa 34 

Oscillans, Nabis 37 

Proterhinus 27 

Osculatus, Xyletobius 31 

Oxyptera, Hednota S7 

P 

Pachysema, Xerocopa 37, 43 

Pacifica, Anisolabis 40 

Arma 24 

Euthyrrapha 32, 40 

Myllaena 34 

Pacificus, Aphodius 29 

Cis 29 

Colymbetes' 21 

Odynerus 36 

Rhantus 6 

Pacificum, Agrion 33, 34 

Paratrigonidium 40 

Trigonidium 24, 32 

Pallescens, Lispinodes 34 

Palliatus, Monolexis 31,36 

Pallida, Mytilaspis 41,44 

var. Maskelli 45 

Oiiiscosonia 32, 40 

Pallidipennis, Telephanus 35 

Pallinervis, Sarcophaga 25 

Palmae, Dyscolus' 26 

Palpalis, Diestota 30 

Paludicola, Pseudocoremia 28 

Pandanicola, Sciophagus 35 

Paradoxus, Cyclothorax 28 

Proterhinus 29 

Parallelus, Brachypeplus 35 

Fornax 35 

Parda, Laverna var. montivolans 32 

Parvulus, Colymbetes 21 

Coplatus 6 

Parva, Diestota 30 

Patellaeformis, Diaspis' 42, 44 

Patruelis, Arma 24 

Oechalia 28 

Pectinatus, Helcogaster 35 

Pele, Cyclothorax 28 

Pellucidus, Capsus 24, 28 

Pelodes, Automola 33 

Pennatus, Clytarlus 31,49 

Perforatum, Lecanium 42 

Pergandei, Parlatoria 44 

Perjurus, Formicaleo 33 

Myrmelon 23 

Perkinsi, Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Permundus, Plagithmysus' 49 

Perniciosus, Aspidiotus 45, 48 

Persearum, Aspidiotus 45 

Persequens, Tripleps 26 

Peruvianus, Dysdercus 25 

Photophila, Leucania 28 



Page 

Picinus, Selenophorus 23 

Picticornis, Solindenia 33, 36 

Plana, Diestota 30 

Planus, Platynus 31,32 

Plebeius; Attagenus 35 

Plebejus, Gomphocerus 24 

Plexippus, Anosia 36 

Poeyi, Gryllus 40 

Polita, Oligota 30 

Polynesians, Chalcis 31, 36 

Crabro 31, 36 

Limneria 33, 36 

Scleroderma 36 

Pomorum, Mytilaspis 41, 44, 45 

Ponteni, Colias 24, 25 

Porcalus, Psammodius 6 

Prasina, Alschua 24 

Procatus, Cis 29 

Procellaris, Agrotis 50 

Prolixa, Oligota 34 

Prolixum, Pentarthrum 27 

Protervus, Anchomenus 26 

Proteus, Parlatoria var. pergandei .... 47 

Protinoides, Brachypeplus 29 

Prunicola, Chionaspis 41,44,46 

Psidii, Pulvinaria 38,39.40,41,42,44,45,49 

Pteridicola, Nysius 31 

Puberula, Crepidodera 24 

Pubipennis, Sericoderus 34 

Pulchra, Delphax 23, 24 

Ploiariodes 37 

Pulverulentus, Plagithmysus 23, 43, 49 

Stenopterus 22 

Pulvillatus, Clytarlus 31 

Pumila, Tachyusa 30 

Punctatissima, Ponera sub-sp. 

schauninslandi 47 

Punctata, Blata 20 

Punctatus, Mirosternus 31 

Puncticeps, Brachypeplus 27 

Diestota 30 

Parandra 6, 27, 49 

Punctipennis, Proterhinus 31 

Pungeus, Sphinx 8, 13 

Purchasi. Icerya 17,41,42,44,45,49 

Pusilla, Catorama 35 

Pheidole 29, 32 

Pusillus, Dryophthorus 27 

Proterhinus 29 

Pustulans, Asterolecanium 40. 42, 45 

Putealis, Anchomenus 30 

Pygidiata. Labia 32,40 

Q 

Quadracallis, Brachypeplus 35 

Quadratus, Lispinodes 34 

Quinquefasciatus, Culex 34 

R 

Radula. Odynerus ?I9, 36 

Rapae, Pieris 49 



62 



Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



Page 

Rapax, Aspidiotus 47 

Rara, Scotosia 28, 30 

Rccnrvalis, Hymenia 26 

Zinckenia 37, 48 

Refloxuiii, Aegosoma 31,42,49 

Reitteri, Brachypeplus 27 

Remota, Calandra 35 

Rhynchophora, Platyptilia 37 

Robustus, Brachypeplus 27 

Clytarlus 27 

Cyclothorax 30 

Proterhinus 35 

Robustum, Oodemas 27 

Rosae. Aulascaspis 46 

Diaspis 41, 44 

Roridus, Cis 35 

Rotundus. Corylophus 34 

Rubens, Ceroplastes 42,44,45 

Rubescens, Nysius 31 

Rubritinctus, Nabis 37 

Odynerus 29, 36 

Rubro-caudatus, Crabro 36 

Rubromaculata, Ploiariodes 37 

Rubro-pustulatus, Odynerus 36 

Rudolphi. Odynerus 37 

Rufescens, Anomalochrysa 33 

Diestota 30 

Rugatus, Xyleborus 35 

Rugiventris, Prosopis 36 

Rupicola, Anchomenus 27 

s 

Sabuleti, Psammodkis 6 

Sandwicensis, Odynerus 36 

Sarpendon, Papilio .^ 25 

Satelles, Agrion 34 

Eopenthes 35 

Satellus, Mauia 25 

Satellum, Prosopis 36 

Saucia, Agrotis 44 

Schauinslandi, Megachile 45 

Paranemobius 41 

Phalainesthes 47 

Sculpturatuni, Oodemas 27 

Scrupulos\is, Anchomenus 26 

Sculptnratus, Fornax 35 

Scutatus, Proterhinus 35 

Sedata, Parasia 33 

Semiochrea, Mestolobes 32,37,43 

Semicylindricus, Hydrophihis ...6. 20, 22, 28 

Senegalensis, Elater 6 

Senilis, Trogophlaeus 30 

Sericea. Evania 33, 36 

Sericeus, Halobates 34 

Serricornis, Xyletobius 35 

Setarius. Cis 35 

Setiger, Sotenus 27 

Severus, Anax 24 

Sexgiittatus, Camponotus 29, 36 

Sharpi, Anchomenus 27 



Page 

Atrachycnemis 27 

Signatus, Cis 29 

Simaethina, Mestolobes 32 

Similis, Gonioryatus 35 

Proterhinus 35 

Simiolus, Cyclothorax 27 

Simplex, Proterhinus 27 

Simulans, Oligota 34 

Tinea 32 

Sinicus, Adoretus 17 

Sodalis, Cardiastethus 28 

Solitarius, Plagithmysus 43 

Sordidus, Brachypeplus 31 

Specularis, Monomorium 36 

Speculifera. Plagithmysus 43 

Sphenophori. Ceromasia 16 

Spretns, Brachypeplus 35 

Spurcum, Bembidium 30 

Squalidus, Dryophthorus 27 

Squamosa, Hyperomorpha 35 

Stellata, Melanomecyna 33 

Scopula 37 

Stenocnemis, Aphodius 6 

Stercorator, Aphodius 6 

Sternalis, Proterhinus 29 

Stigius, Crabro 29 

Straminea, Chiloides 35 

Strenuus, Anax 24,33 

Striatus, Brachypeplus 31 

Stygius, Crabro 36 

Subquadratum, Cyclonotum 29 

Subrufus, Nabis 26, 37 

Substrictum, Oodemas 36 

Subtilis, Megascelis 24 

Subtristis, Geotomus 26, 37 

Suffusa, Agrotis 28, 30 

Sulphurescens, Plagithmysus 43 

Surinamensis. Panchlora 32 

Leucophaea 40 

Pycnoscelus 20 

Silvanus 48 

Suturalis, Corylophus 34 

Synastra, Phlyctaenia 50 

T 

Tabidus, Cis 29 

Tammeamea. Vanessa 4, 7, 26, 31 

Pyrameis 25 

Tantalus, Dyscolus 26 

Tardum. Oodemas 35 

Tarsalis, Proterhinus 35 

TelariuS, Tetranychus 40, 41 

Terebratus, Disenochus 30 

Teres, Bembidium 30 

Terminalc, Cryptorhopalum 35 

Tesselatum, Lccanium 42,44,47 

Testaceiceps, Moranila 33, 36 

Testaceipcs, Sicrola 31, 36 

Tetragonus, Heptoncus 27 

Tibialis, Labetis 29, 35 



List of Species 



63 



Page 

Tinctus, Brachypeplus 29 

Tormentosus, Elater 6 

Torvus, Brachypeplus 35 

Transparens, Aspidiotus 47 

Triscia, Scotorythra 50 

Truncatus, Xyleborus 35 

U 

Umbrosus, Adoretus 39, 42, 44 

Unctus, Cyclothorax 30 

Unicolor, Crabro 23, 29, 36 

Unipuncta, Lecania 44 

Usitata, Thyrocopa 33 

V 

Vagans, Microvelia 28 

Vagepunctatus, Cis' 35 

Varicolor. Tettigonia 23 

Validus, Proterhinus 31 

Variegata, Oligota 34 

Varians, Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Varius, Brachypeplus 31 

Lepidotus 6 

Vastator, Dactylopius 41,45,47 

Velaiis, Hypocala 32 

Velox, Oxya 40 

Venosa, Caradina 30 

Scoparia 31 

Xerocopa 37, 43 

Verticalis, Graptodera 24 

Verticillata, Plusia 26,27,30,44 

Vestator, Dactylopius' 42, 43 

Vestitus, Brachypeplus 31 



Page 

Litargus 29 

Proterhinus 27 

Rhyncogonus 35 

Vicina, Myllaena 30 

Vicinus, Plagithmysus 43, 49 

Viduus, Bythoscopus 24 

Villosa, Metrarga 28 

Vinosus, Elipsocus 33 

Violentus, Myrmelon 23 

Virescens, Mecyna 31, 37 

Virgatus, Dactylopius 45 

Vitticollis, Plagithmysus 43 

Vividus, Scymnus 35,44 

Volitalis, Prosopis „ 29, 36 

Vulcan, Nysius 31 

Vulcanus, Cyclothorax 28 

Odynerus 36 

W 

Walsinghamii, Proteopteryx 32 

Whitei, Nysius 37 

Ploiariodes 31 

Wilsoni, Forniicaleo 38 

Wollastoni, Heteramphus 35 

X 

Xanthomelas, Agrion 33 

Y 
Ypsilon, Agrotis 44 

Z 

Zizyphi. Parlatoria 44,47 



HAWAIIAN LEGENDS 



BY 

WILLIAM HYDE RICE 



Bernice p. Bishop Museum 

Bui^LETIN 3 



honolulu^ hawaii 

Published by the Museum 

19^3 



scnMbR 



HAWAIIAN LEGENDS 



BY 

WILLIAM HYDE RICE 



Bernice p. Bishop Museum 
Bulletin 3 



honolulu, hawaii 

Published by the Museum 

1923 



^^?yO'^\ 



COPYRIGHT 1923, BY 

BERNICE P. BISHOP MUSEUM 

FOR 

WILLIAM HYDE RICE. LTD. 




<^- 




Mx^ 



(/Uajl 



CONTENTS 

Page 
Preface 3 

The Goddess Pele 7 

The rainbow princess [8 

Ulukaa. the rolling island 19 

The stones of Kane 32 

The Menehune 33 

The bird man 47 

The small wise boy and the little fool 49 

Kamapuaa 5' 

Kawelo of Kauai 54 

The destruction of the akua on Niihau 68 

Paakaa and his son Ku-a-paakaa 69 

Holua-manu 90 

The girl and the mo-o 91 

Naraaka-o-ka-opae 92 

Kana 93 

Kaili-lau-o-kekoa 106 

The rain heiaii - - 109 

Pun ka mo-o 1 10 

Mano-niho-kahi ill 

Laniloa, the mo-o XI2 

Manuwahi 113 

Makuakaumana 116 

Glossary _ 133 



PREFACE 

The collection of Hawaiian legends of which a translation is given in 
the following pages represents the work of many years by William Hyde 
Rice of Kauai. However, it is only within the last few years that Mr. 
Rice has translated the legends from his Hawaiian manuscripts. He has 
tried to make his version as literal as possible, preserving at the same time 
the spirit of the original Hawaiian, its flavor, rhythm, and phrasing. He 
has avoided adding modern embroidery of fancy, as well as figures of 
speech foreign to the Hawaiian language and to its mode of thought and 
expression. 

For the furtherance of this aim, Mr. Rice has spent much of the past 
year in a complete review of his translation, adding and rejecting, and in 
every way attempting to approximate the spirit and letter of the Hawaiian. 

Mr. Rice has been exceptionally well prepared for this work, as he has 
been familiar with the Hawaiian language from his earliest childhood. In 
fact until he was twenty, he never thought in English but always in 
Hawaiian, translating mentally into his mother tongue. In 1870 when he 
became a member of the House of Representatives, during the reign of 
Kamehameha V, Governor Paul Kanoa and S. M. Kamakau, the historian, 
lx)th well-known Hawaiian scholars, gave Mr. Rice much help with his 
Hawaiian, especially teaching him the proper use of various complicated 
grammatical constructions, and explaining" obscure variations in pronuncia- 
tion and meaning. 

The sources of the legends in this collection are varied. A number of 
the stories Mr. Rice remembers having heard as a child, and other rarer 
ones were gathered in later years. Many are from more than one source, 
but have corresponded even in details, and almost word for word. The 
legend of Kamapuaa, for instance, is one of the first which Mr. Rice 
remembers hearing. When a boy, the places mentioned in this story were 
pointed out to him : the spot where the demi-god landed, where he found 
the hidden spring, and where he rooted up the natives' sugar-cane and 
sweet potatoes. The story of "The Small Wise Boy and the Little Fool" 
he has also been familiar with since childhood. The places mentioned in 
this tale can likewise be pointed out. 

Most of the legends are from Kauai sources, but a number have been 
gathered from the other islands of the group. Whenever Mr. Rice heard 
of an old Hawaiian who knew any legends, he went to him, sometimes 
going to several to trace a special story, as for instance, the "Jonah and 
the Whale" story, "Makuakaumana", which after a long search he finally 
procured from Mr. Westervelt. This curious story seems to be more 
modern than the others of the collection. While hunting for a reliable 



4 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — BnUctin 

version of this story, Mr. Rice incidentally heard the story of "Manuvvahi" 
at Heeia from an old Hawaiian. 

"The Bird Man", "Holuamanu", "The Destruction of Niihau's Akua", 
and "The Girl and the Mo-o", were obtained mainly from Mr. Francis 
Gay, who is one of the best living scholars of the Hawaiian language. The 
Niihau legend was heard from several other sources as well. Mr. Gay 
also gave the legends of the "Rainbow Princess" and the "Shrimp's Eyes" ; 
the ti plants mentioned in the latter legend can still be pointed out, growing 
at the mouth of a little valley near Holuamanu. The Hawaiian manu- 
script of part of the Menehune story was obtained from J. A. Akina, while 
the story of the "Rain Heiau" was told to him in 1912 by a man named 
Naialau, who has since died at Kaiaupapa. "How Lizards Came to Molo- 
kai" and "Paakaa and Ku-a-paakaa" were told Mr. Rice by a man from 
Hawaii named Wiu, while the Rev. S. K. Kaulili, who is still living at 
Koloa, Kauai, gave him the most complete version of the "Rolling Island". 

During Mr. George Carter's term as Governor, a reception was given 
in his honor, at Hanalei, where Mr. Rice was much interested in the very 
fine oli (chanting) of an old Hawaiian, named Kaululua. From him he 
obtained a number of legends, including that of "Ulukaa" and correspond- 
ing versions of others already in his collection. Other legends have been 
lost forever on account of ill-timed ridiculing by some chance companion, 
for Mr. Rice has found that the old people who know the legends are 
very sensitive, and when they find an unsympathetic auditor, refuse to 
continue their stories. 

Mr. Rice's theory as to the origin of these legends is based on the 
fact that in the old days, before the discovery of the islands by Captain 
Cook, there were bards and story-tellers, either itinerant or attached to 
the courts of the chiefs, similar to the minstrels and tale-tellers of medieval 
Europe. These men formed a distinct class, and lived only at the courts 
of the high chiefs. Accordingly, their stories were heard by none except 
those people attached to the service of the chiefs. This accounts for the 
loss of many legends, in later years, as they were not commonly known. 
These bards or story-tellers sometimes used historical incidents or natural 
phenomena for the foundation of their stories, which were handed down 
from generation to generation. Other legends were simply fabrications 
of the imagination, in which the greatest "teller of tales" was awarded 
the highest place in the chief's favor. .Ml these elements, fiction combined 
with fact, and shrouded in the mists of antiquity, came, by repetition, to 
be more or less believed as true. 

This class of men were skillful in the art of the a(>o. that is, "catch- 
ing" literally, or memorizing instantly at the first hearing. One man 



Rice — Haz^mian Legends 5 

would recite or chant for two or three hours at a stretch, and when he 
had finished, his auditor would start at the beginning of the chant and go 
through the whole of the inele or story without missing or changing a 
word. These trained men received through their ears as we receive through 
our eyes, and in that way the ancient Hawaiians had a spoken literature, 
much as we have a written one. Mr. Rice has several times seen per- 
formances similar to the one described, where the two men were complete 
strangers to each other. 

To the readers of this collection of Hawaiian legends the following 
biographical information will be of interest : 

William Hyde Rice, the only son of William Harrison and Mary Hyde 
Rice, was born at Punahou, Honolulu, Hawaii, on July 23, 1846. .^.t that 
time his parents, who had come to the islands as missionaries in 1840, 
were teachers at the school which had been established at Punahou in 
1842 for the children of missionaries. 

In 1854 the family moved to Lihue, Kauai, where the greater part of 
Mr. Rice's life has been spent. Besides his sisters his only young com- 
panions were Hawaiian boys, from whom as well as from his nurse, he 
readily learned the language. After a few years of teaching at home 
the boy was sent to Koloa, Kauai, to attend the boarding school of the 
Rev. Daniel Dole, whose son, Sanford Ballard Dole, was one of the boy's 
closest companions. Later, Mr. Rice attended Oahu College, Punahou, and 
Braton's College in Oakland, California. 

Mr. Rice served in the House of Representatives from 1870 to 1872 
(the year of his marriage to Miss Mary Waterhouse in Honolulu), 1873, 
1882, 1887, 1889, and 1890, and as a member of the Senate from 1895 
to 1898. He was one of the thirteen committeemen who waited upon 
King Kalakaua, giving him twenty-four hours to sign the constitution, 
and was Governor of Kauai under Queen Liliuokalani until after the 
revolution in 1893. 

In the present translation Mr. Rice has received much able and sympa- 
thetic assistance from Miss Katherine Mclntyre in a secretarial capacity, 
extending over a period of several years. Miss Ethel Damon has been 
of inestimable value in her sound judgments and encouragement, and it 
has been my privilege to assist my grandfather during the past year. No 
one who has only read these legends can fully appreciate the charm of 
them as told by Mr. Rice in person. Many of them he still recites word 
for word in Hawaiian. One of the most vivid memories of my childhood 
will always be that of hearing my grandfather tell these legends, as he 
pointed out to us the places mentioned in the stories. 
Lihue, January, 1923. Edith J. K. Rice. 



HAWAIIAN LEGENDS 

By William Hyde Rice 



THE GODDESS PELE 

Pele was the daughter of Moemo and Haumea, both well-known names 
in the oldest Hawaiian legends. Many other children were born to this 
couple, seven illustrious sons and six distinguished daughters. The young- 
est sister of Pele, Hiiaka-ika-poli-o-Pele, was born into the world as an 
egg. Pele concealed this egg under her arm until the child was hatched, 
and ever afterwards showed great affection for her. 

When Pele had grown to womanhood, she begged her parents' consent 
to travel. This was granted, and wrapping Hiiaka in her pa-u, or tapa 
skirt, the adventurous Pele set forth. 

She traveled first to the kingdom of her brother, Kamohoalii. Champion 
of the King. When he inquired where she was going Pele replied, "I shall 
first find Pola-pola. From there I shall go to the land of Kauihelani, 
where Kane hides the islands. I shall then find the far-reaching lands, the 
kingdom of Kaoahi, the Fire-Thrower — Niihau." 

To help his sister in this long journey Kamohoalii gave her the canoe 
of their brother, the Whirlwind, Pu-ahiuhiu, and his paddlers, the Tide, 
Keaulawe, and the Currents, Keau-ka. Stepping into this canoe Pele was 
snatched away at once by the wind. Kamohoalii looked after her and 
called, "Go your way. I shall soon follow with your relations." 

In a short time Pele, borne by the magic canoe, reached Niihau. She 
ordered the canoe to return to her brother as she hoped the queen would 
give her another one. Then, crossing the salt marshes, she came at eve- 
ning to the dwelling of the queen, Kaoahi, whose guards cried out that a 
beautiful stranger was coming. When Pele was brought before Kaoahi her 
beauty astonished the queen, who had never before seen a woman whose 
back was as straight as a pali and whose breasts were rounded like the 
moon. 

Great aloha grew in the heart of the queen for her guest, and before 
eating together they took the oath of friendship. Then they retired to the 
beds made of fine Niihau mats where they slept until the cocks crowed. 

Early in the morning the queen sent forth her messengers to summon 
the konohiki, the overseers of the land, who were ordered to instruct all 



8 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

the people of the island to bring presents for Kaoahi's great friend. Each 
person brought his gift to Pele without a word of complaining. 

Every day for ten days Pele entered into the games, the hula dancing, 
the surf-board riding, and the other pleasures of the people. Everyone 
was eager to talk with the beautiful stranger, and Pele saw all that was 
in their minds. 

One day the beautiful guest disappeared. The (jueen thought she had 
gone to visit one of the chiefs. No amount of search could reveal her hid- 
ing place. The kahuna were called together to divine where the woman 
had gone. At last they said to Kaoahi, "O Queen! the Night tells us that 
Pele is not a human being like you. She is an akiia. She has many bodies." 

These words aroused great wonder on Niihau as to how Pele had come 
and where she had gone. 

After her sudden disappearance Pele went to Point Papaa from where 
she looked across to Kauai. Taking on her spirit body, she quickly passed 
through Mana and the mountains back of W'aimea and came to Haena. 

As darkness fell she heard the hula drums beating. Following the 
call of the music Pele came to a rude enclosure where the people were 
gathered for sports. In the crowd she saw a very handsome man, Lohiau, 
the king of Kauai, whom she suddenly resolved to seek for her husband. 

The assembly was startled by hearing a beautiful voice chanting a meh 
of the hills, and by seeing at the door a woman of wondrous beauty and 
charm. 

Lohiau ordered the people to stand aside so that the stranger could 
enter. The chiefs of Kauai crowded around Pele, wondering who she was. 
Lohiau was surprised when his unknown guest asked him to become her 
husband. He did not consent until he heard that she was Pele, the mortal. 

Then Lohiau bade his servants prepare the tables for a feast, and he 
invited Pele to sit with him and partake of the food. .After the meal was 
eaten Pele told Lohiau that slie could not live with him until she had found 
a suitable home for them. The king of Kauai was rather ashamed to have 
his wife prepare the home, but he consented. 

Kaleiapaoa. Lohiau's best and truest friend, was summoned to see Pele. 
But before he looked upon her he hurried to the king's sister, the cele- 
brated tapa maker of Kalalau, and asked for a pa-u. She gave him one 
she had just made by beating with lauae, the fragrant cabbage fern, from 
the clifTs of Honopu. Pele was very much pleased with this pa-u because 
it was so sweet scented. When she had finished admiring it, she said to 
Lohiau, "Now I shall go to prepare our house." 

At once she began to dig a cave, but striking water she left it. She 
tried again and, meeting with the same results, left Haena and came to 



Rice-Haicaiiau Legends 9 

the kukni grove near Pilaa. Pleased with tliis spot she turned to the 
mountains where she dug as before, but met with unsatisfactory resuUs. 

Taking the form of an old woman, Pele hurried to Koloa. There she 
again struck water. Repeated efi'orts to dig a dry cave having failed, she 
decided to leave Kauai and to find on Oahu a suitable place for her home. 

Pele landed at Kaena on Oahu. Near the hill Kapolei she again began 
to search for a home. As before she soon struck water. Discouragement 
filled her heart and looking toward Kauai she wept for her loved one 
there. 

Walking through the wiliwili trees Pele reached Kuwalaka-i where 
she took her egg-like sister, Hiiaka, from her pa-u and placing her safely 
on the ground hurried to the sea for limii, or sea-weed, from which she 
squeezed the juice for drinking water. 

Pele decided to spend the night in this place. She called the flowers 
which grew there "the pa-u of Hiiaka" and she crowned Iier fair head 
with a lei of them. As she slept, her lover appeared before her. This 
vision brought courage to Pele and early in the morning she hurried on 
her way. 

On the heights of Moanalua, near Honolulu, Pele tried again to dig 
a dry cave. Striking salt water, she called the place Alia-paakai, the Salt- 
Marsh. When she came to Makapuu she saw the chiefess Malei, the 
Wreath, stringing flowers for a lei, while her subjects were cleaning the 
fish they had just brought from the sea. 

At the little harbor of Hanauma a canoe was being prepared for a trip 
to Molokai. There Pele shook off her spirit body and as a beautiful 
woman greeted the men. At the sight of her great beauty they all 
fainted. When they had recovered, Pele asked them to take her to Molo- 
kai with them. They readily consented. 

When Pele jumped ashore on Molokai, she became invisible and dis- 
appeared. The captain of the crew told the king about the beautiful 
woman who had come with him from Oahu. The whole island was 
searched, but Pele could not be found. 

In the meantime Pele had dug a cave between Kalaupapa and Kalawao. 
Finding water, she left Molokai and hurried to Maui. She traveled over 
Maui from end to end hunting for a suitable place for her home. Finding 
none, she was greatly grieved and filled the whole island with Pele's smoke, 
and then hastened on to Hawaii. 

Pele landed at Puna on Hawaii. She decided to call first on the god 
of the island, Ailaau, the Wood-Eater, who had his dwelling at Kilauea. 
When Ailaau saw Pele coming towards his home, he disappeared because 
he was afraid of her. 



10 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Pele began to dig. At last success crowned her efforts. Digging day 
and night, she came to fire and knew that this spot would be suitable for 
the long-sought home. She decided to make a home large enough for all 
her many brothers and sisters. 

After the fiery pit was dug, Pele changed her egg-like sister, Hiiaka, 
into human form and the two lived happily in her new home. 

One day Hiiaka went down to the forest of Panaewa near Hilo. There 
she .saw a girl so skilled in making leis of lehua blossoms that she longed 
to make of her a personal friend. Hiiaka learned that her name was 
Hopoe, and she spoke to her in these words, "Now that we are friends you 
must go wherever I go. Wherever I sleep you shall sleep. We shall never 
be parted." 

Hopoe was very happy and answered, "I spend my time making leis. I 
have planted two groves of trees, one white and one red. These I give 
to you." 

So Hiiaka returned to Kilauea with her friend who pleased Pele very 
much by teaching her to make leis of lehua flowers. Soon all Pele's 
household was busily stringing the flowers. 

As Pele worked she heard the voice of her beloved Lohiau calling 
her, for the wind carried his sad song to her ears. So Pele called her 
sisters to her and asked each one to go to Kauai to find her husband. All 
refused. Then Pele commanded Hiiaka, "Go to Kauai and bring my hus- 
band to me. Do not dare to kiss him, lest some dire disaster befall you. 
Be gone no longer than forty days." All agreed that it was wise for 
Hiiaka to go, as she was the youngest. 

Stretching out her right hand to her sister, Pele bestowed upon hei 
all the supernatural powers she possessed, so that the journey could be 
accomplished in safety. 

Hiiaka prepared for the journey and as she worked she sang a incle 
in which she voiced her complaint that she should go alone to Haena for 
the handsome Lohiau. Pele heard her and cheered her by saying that 
she would meet someone who would go with her. 

So with a sad heart Hiiaka set forth on her sister's errand. Looking 
back she saw her home in the volcano where her brothers and sisters were 
sitting like .stone images. She called to them to care for her beloved grove 
of lehua trees. 

As she entered the forest alxjve Hilo she met Wahine-omao, the Stead- 
fast-Woman, who was on her way to carry gifts of pig and sugar cane 
as a sacrifice to Pele. Thinking that Hiiaka was Pele, Wahine-omao laid 
her gifts before her. Hiiaka saw that the stranger was mistaken and 
spoke these words to her: "I am not Pele. She is still in Kilauea. Carry 



Rice-Hazuaiian Legends 11 

your presents there. After you have reached Kilauea descend into Hale- 
maumau where you will see many beautiful women bedecked with lehua 
leis. Sacrifice your gifts to an old woman lying on a pillow made of 
wiliwili wood and covered with Puna mats, for she is Pele." 

Wahine-omao, still believing that Pele stood before her, replied, "Do 
not deal falsely with me. No doubt you are Pele. I shall give you my 
gifts and so spare myself the long journey." 

Finally Hiiaka made it clear that she was not Pele, and the woman 
departed with her gifts. With the aid of her supernatural powers Hiiaka 
put such speed into her feet that she traveled as fast as the whirlwind, and 
in no time came to Halemaumau and gave her gifts to the old woman. At 
once old age left Pele and she became the most beautiful of all in the pit. 

Then Pele asked the stranger, "Did you meet a woman as you came? 
Go back and meet her again. Become friendly with her and travel with 
her." 

Wahine-omao did as she was told and soon overtook Hiiaka whom she 
told what Pele had commanded. Looking back the lonely Hiiaka saw the 
smoke rising from the home of Pele. She saw her sisters and friend going 
to the sea. She saw her beloved grove of lehua trees being destroyed by 
a lava flow. Bitterness filled her heart and she wept over her fate. 

Wahine-omao, who could not see what her companion saw, upbraided 
her with these words, "How do you know these things? We are in the 
forest and cannot see beyond its limits. Complain no more, for you 
weary me." 

So in silence they walked on until they came to Hilo where the king 
was having games. In the midst of the people two beautiful women 
decorated with leis of seafoam were singing. As the eyes of the king fell 
upon Hiiaka and her companion, he was startled to see how far their 
beauty surpassed the beauty of the singers. 

When Hiiaka saw the beautiful women she said, "These are not 
women. They are akiia." 

The king replied, "Akiia would not come at midday and eat and drink 
with us. These women refused to sing until we had given them presents." 

Hiiaka still contended that they were not what they appeared to be and 
asked the king, "Allow me to try them. If I look at them and they depart, 
you will know that they are akua. If they stay you will know that they 
are human." 

To this request the king replied, "What wager will you place that they 
are not human?" 

Hiiaka answered, "My companion and I have no property, but we will 
wager our bodies." 



12 Bernice P. Bisliof' Museum — Bulletin 

Whereupon a man in the crowd called, "It is not good to wager one's 
body. Let me back your wager with my property." 

To the king's question as to what his property consisted of he rci)lied 
that he owned a canoe, a fishing net, a patch of sugar cane, several taro 
patches and a pig. Against all these things the king wagered two store- 
houses filled with food and tapa and the land on which these buildings 
stood. 

As soon as these wagers had been placed, Hiiaka approached the women. 
When they .saw her, one said, "She is our lord." \\'hereupon they ran. 
Hiiaka followed and put them lx)th to death as her supernatural powers 
were greater than theirs. 

As she returned to the king the crowd cheered her for her beauty and 
bravery. The king paid his wager and Hiiaka gave it to the man who had 
helped her. Calling Wahine-omao. Hiiaka hurried on to the river Wai- 
luku, where they saw a man ferrying freight. He agreed to take them 
across the river, and so the friends left Hilo and entered the forest, where 
their path was beset by akua trying to delay them. Hiiaka killed all who 
blocked their way and came at last to the plains of Makiki. 

By this time the forty days allotted for making the journey to Kauai 
had expired, but Hiiaka decided to go on anyway. More troubles befell 
them. A certain king, Maka'ukiu, tried to block their way by causing 
huge waves to break over the cliffs so that they could not swim around 
the point. Hiiaka prayed and the sea became calm. 

So they traveled on. A bird flew over them carrying a spray of be- 
gonia in its bill. Hiiaka sang a niele in which she expressed a wish for 
a safe journey on the errand of her powerful sister Pele. 

Finally they came upon some men loading a canoe with gifts which 
they said were to be taken to Olepau, the king of Maui. The women 
asked to be taken in the canoe. The men consented and the next morning 
they reached Kahikinui on Maui. 

As soon as the canoe grated on the beach, the two young women sprang 
ashore and called to the canoe-men that they were going to search for a 
bath. In fact they hurried on to Keala where the plains had been burned 
off. There the natives were catching plover with baited sticks. Hiiaka 
startled them with these words, "I am sorry for the king of Maui. He is 
dead. You are so engrossed in catching plover and grasshoppers that you 
have no time for your king." 

The people could not believe these words, but nevertheless, they re- 
turned home and found that they were indeed true. Their king was dead. 
They hurried to the celebrated prophet and told him that two young 
women had made know'n to them the king's death. When he had heard 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 13 

the description of the women, the prophet said that they were Hiiaka and 
Wahine-omao. He sent messengers as swift as arrows shot from the bow 
to overtake them. 

When Hiiaka saw these messengers following her she changed herself 
and her companion into feeble old women. Soon the messengers overtook 
them and asked if they had seen anything of two beautiful young women. 

Hiiaka answered that two such women had passed them long before. 
The messengers hurried on but, overtaking no one, they returned to the 
prophet and told him their experience. 

The prophet knew that the old women were Hiiaka and Wahine-omao 
in disguise. He said that they must be brought back before the king could 
come to life. This time he did not trust their capture to messengers, but 
he himself swam around the point and met them coming from the other 
direction. 

Hiiaka consented to return and restore the king to life. She told the 
prophet to go ahead and gather all the sweet smelling herbs. This he did 
in the twinkling of an eye, but Hiiaka and her friend had reached the king 
and brought him to life before the prophet got there. Then the prophet 
knew that the women were akua. 

Inquiring whither they were bound he learned that they were on their 
way to Haena to find Lohiau. The prophet ordered the king's canoe-men 
to bring out the canoe and to take the travelers to Koolau on Oahu. 

After an uneventful trip of a day and a night the friends were landed 
at Koolau. The canoe-men asked them where they were going and were 
told that Ewa was their destination. The men answered that Ewa was 
kapu for them, so they rested near the sea. 

Then Hiiaka began her journey to the Nuuanu Pali. The woman in 
charge of the Pali tried to delay her, but was struck down by the prowess 
of the stranger. 

After this there were no difficulties encountered as they made their 
way to Kalihi. There they saw a great many people diving for clams. 
Nearby two men were preparing a canoe for a trip to Kauai. Hiiaka told 
them that she had heard many times of Kauai but had no way of going 
there. The men, noticing that the speaker and her friend were young and 
beautiful, generously offered them a seat in their canoe. 

As the sea was rough Hiiaka wanted to help with the paddling, but 
the men were strong and never became tired. They landed at Wailua and 
encountered many difficulties in traveling from there to Haena. 

First a certain Kuptia, the demi-god of the locality, guarding the surf, 
saw them coming and sent messengers to see if they walked over the ti 
leaf without breaking it, which was a sign that they were supernatural 



14 Beniice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

beings — akua. Hiiaka deceived them by sending- Wahine-omao ahead as 
she was more human and her feet tore the leaves. The messengers returned 
and reported that the strangers were human beings. 

Next they came upon a Knpua swollen to twice his natural size, but he 
was unable to stop them. 

Near Kealia they came upon a man cooking his luau or young tare 
leaves to eat with his poi. Hiiaka by her magic power cooked the luau 
in a few minutes. 

Looking into the man's house Hiiaka saw a very sick woman whom all 
the kahuna had been unable to help. Hiiaka uttered a prayer and at once 
health was given back to the woman. 

Having done this act of kindness, Hiiaka went on her way to Hanalei. 
At the valley of Kiaiakua the akua were lying in wait to stop them. As 
one tried to block their way, Hiiaka gave him a blow like a stroke of 
lightning and he fell back stunned. 

At the mouth of the Hanalei River they again met resistance from an 
angry akua, who was struck to earth as the others had been. 

Coming to Kealahula they saw Hoohila comoing her hair. She, too, 
tried to delay their journey by making the sea break over the cliflf. 
Wahine-omao threw sand into the eyes of the akua, and this difficulty 
was overcome. 

Near Wainiha they were treated more kindly. The great fisherman 
of the place killed his favorite dog for them and then gave games in their 
honor. 

So the travelers were nearing their journey's end. As they came to 
the wet caves dug by Pele in her efiforts to find a suitable home for herself 
and Lohiau, Kilioe, the sister of Lohiau, saw them, covered with lehua 
leis, and knew that they had come for her brother. Kilioe was the great 
hula dancer and teacher. No one could hula in public on Kauai unless 
approved by her and given the unikc. the sign which served in place of a 
diploma. 

But, alas, the beloved Lohiau was dead and in a incle Kilioe made 
known this sad fact to Hiiaka. Hiiaka was not discouraged, for magic 
power was in her hands and she set alx)ut overcoming this ditificulty, 
apparently the greatest of all. 

As luck would have it, she saw the spirit of Lohiau flying over one 
of the points nearby. He was beckoning to her. Hiiaka gave to Wahine- 
omao swiftness of flight and together they chased the elusive spirit over 
many a steep pali. When they came to the ladder of Nualolo, the weary 
W'ahine-omao cried, "Indeed you must love this Lohiau greatly." 



Rice — Hazmiian Legends 15 

At last Hiiaka caught the spirit in a flower and hurried back to the 
pali above the wet caves where the body of Lohiau had been laid. Then 
she began her task of putting the spirit back into the body. 

Kaleiapaoa was fashing and grieving over the death of his truest friend. 
Looking towards the mountains he was startled to see a fire. At first he 
thought it was only the spirit body of Lohiau, but as it continued to burn 
he thought that someone must be attempting to steal the body of his 
chief. Quickly coming ashore he silently climbed up the paJi and was 
greatly surprised to see two beautiful women trying to put the spirit back 
into Lohiau's body. This sight filled him with gladness and he returned 
to his home, where he told his wife what was being done by the strangers. 

In the meantime Hiiaka was patiently accomplishing her task. She 
put the spirit back into the body through an incision in the great toe, but 
she found it very difficult to get the spirit past the ankles and the knee 
joints. However, after she had worked for eight days Lohiau was restored 
to life. Hiiaka carried him to his home and bathed him in the sea on five 
successive nights, as was the custom. At the end of that time he was 
purified, so that he could again mingle with his friends. 

Then for the first time in many days Hiiaka and Wahine-omao slept 
very soundly. Lohiau's sister passed by the house and, seeing the door 
open, entered. She was surprised to see her brother sleeping soundly. She 
beat the drum and made known to all the people that Lohiau, their chief, 
was alive again. Many came, bringing gifts with grateful hearts. 

Hiiaka was very anxious to start for Hawaii, as the forty days allotted 
her had long since expired and she feared that Pele would be angry. 

At Kealia the chief entertained the three guests with sports in which 
Lohiau was very skillful. Reaching Kapaa, they met the king, who gave 
them a canoe to carry them to Oahu. 

After a short stay on this island, where there was much dancing and 
royal feasting, the travelers left for Hawaii. As they were passing Molokai, 
Hiiaka saw a chiefess standing near the shore and asked her to give them 
fish. The chiefess replied, "I have no fish for you, proud slave." These 
words so angered Hiiaka that she swam ashore and killed her. 

After this adventure they went on quietly until they reached Hawaii, 
where they landed at Puna and then hastened on towards the home of 
Pele and to a relentless fate. 

When they came to the brink of the volcano, Hiiaka sent Wahine-omao 
ahead to greet Pele while she and Lohiau stayed behind. There in full 
view of Pele and her other sisters, Hiiaka, suddenly overcome with emotion 
for the man she had grown to love, threw her arms around him and 
kissed him. 



16 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Pele's anger knew no bounds. She cried, "Why did she not kiss Lohiau 
while they were on Kauai? She does it before my eyes to laugh at me." 

Seeking revenge, Pele sent her sisters to destroy her lover by means 
of a lava flow. They put on their fire robes and went forth rather unwill- 
ingly. When they came near and saw how handsome Lohiau was, pity 
took hold of them and they cast only a few cinders at his feet and returned 
to Pele in fear. Hiiaka knew that the falling cinders would be followed 
by fire and so she told Lohiau to pray. 

When Pele saw her people returning from their unaccomplished errand 
she sent them back, commanding them to put aside their pity for the hand- 
some man. So the five burst forth again and gradually surrounded 
Lohiau. At last the rocky lava covered his body. 

When Hiiaka saw what her sister had done, she was so angry that 
she dug a tunnel from the volcano to the sea, through which she poured 
the fire, leaving only a little in the crater. This small amount was kept 
by one of her brothers under his arm. 

Seeing what Hiiaka was doing, Pele became alarmed and sent Wahine- 
omao to beg her to spare her sisters. Hiiaka did not heed her friend 
and Pele cried, "This is a punishment sent upon me because I did not 
care for Hiiaka's friend, and I allowed her lehua trees to be burned." 

Wahine-omao again entreated Hiiaka to spare Pele, recalling to her 
mind the many days of travel they had spent together. At last Hiiaka 
promised to spare Pele but refused to see her again. 

As soon as possible she returned to Kauai and told the faithful Kaleia- 
paoa what Pele had done. This true friend of Lohiau made a solemn vow 
to pull out the eyelashes of Pele and to fill her mouth with dirt. 

Led by the magic power of Hiiaka, Kaleiapaoa soon reached the outer 
brink of the crater and began to attack Pele with vile names. Pele answered 
by urging him to come down and carry out his oath. Attempting many 
times to descend and punish Pele, he was always forced back. At last 
Pele allowed him to come before her, but he no longer wished to carry 
out his threat. Pele had conquered him by her beauty and charm. After 
he had remained in the crater four days, he was persuaded to return to 
Kauai with Hiiaka as his wife. 

Two brothers of Pele who had come from foreign lands, saw Lohiau's 
body lying as a stone where the lava flow had overtaken him. Pity welled 
up in their hearts and they brought Lohiau to life again. One of these 
brothers made his own body into a canoe and carried the unfortunate 
Lohiau to Kauai, where he was put ashore at Ahukini. 

Coming to Hanamaulu, Lohiau found all the bouses but one closed. In 
that one were two old men, one of whom recognized him and asked him to 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 17 

enter. The men were making tapa which they expected to carry soon to 
Kapaa, where games were being held in honor of Kaleiapaoa and his bride, 
Hiiaka. 

As soon as the tapa was prepared, the men, joined by Lohiau, started 
for the sports. At the Waihia River discussion arose. Lohiau wanted to 
swim across, but the men insisted on carrying him over on the pahris of 
their outstretched hands. 

When they reached WaipouH, Lohiau suggested that the men carry 
the tapa over a stick, so that he could be concealed between its folds. This 
was done and at last they came close to Hiiaka. 

Lohiau told the men to enter the kilu^ game. Lohiau promised to oU 
for them in case they were struck. First the old man was struck, and 
from his hiding place Lohiau sang a song that he and Hiiaka had sung 
in their travels. The next night in the game the other old man was struck, 
and Lohiau sang the song that he and Hiiaka had composed as they neared 
the volcano. 

Hiiaka knew that these were the songs that she and Lohiau had sung 
together during their days of travel. She lifted up the tapa and saw again 
Lohiau — the man twice restored to life from death, the lover for whom she 
had dared the wrath of Pele, the mate whom she now encircled with 
loving arms. 

When Kaleiapaoa saw that his old friend had returned, his shame and 
sorrow were so great that he hastened to the sea and threw himself into 
the water to meet his death. 

So, at last, Hiiaka and Lohiau were united and lived happily at Haena 
for many years. 

'See glossarj'. 



18 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

THE RAINBOW PRINCESS 

A LEGEND OF KAUAI 

A family of Hawaiians were moving into the valley of Nualolo, on 
the Napali coast. To reach this valley it was necessary to climb up a 
swinging ladder, which hung over the cliff. One man was carrying a 
baby girl, and as he swung on to the swaying ladder he dropped the child. 
The parents, in agony, watched their baby falling but were overjoyed to 
.see the akua of the rainbow catch her up before she struck the water, 
and carry her on the rainbow over the mountains down to Waimea valley. 
In this valley, they placed her in a small cave beneath a waterfall. There 
she lived, watched over by the akua, who always .sent the rainbow to 
care for her. There .she grew, at length, into beautiful womanhood, and 
every day she sat in the sunshine on the rocks alxive the cave with a rain- 
bow above her head. 

Then it happened that a prince from \\'aimea fell deeply in love with 
the beautiful Rainbow princess, as she was called. He would hasten to 
the rocks above the waterfall and try to woo her. But his efforts were all 
in vain, for with a merry laugh she would dive into the water and call 
to him, "When you can call me by name, I will come to you." 

At last, growing sick with longing for the princess, he journeyed to 
Maui and Hawaii to consult the kaluina in regard to the girl's name. 
.\las, none could help him ! 

In despair he returned to \\'aimea and called on his old grandmother 
who inquired the reason for his great sadness. The prince replied, "I love 
the Rainbow Princess who lives in the waterfall. She only laughs at me 
and tells me that when I can call her by name she will be my wife. I have 
consulted all the kahuna and none can tell me her name." 

With these words the grandmother cheered the heart of the sorrowing 
prince, "If you had come to me I could have told you her name. Go to 
the waterfall. When the princess laughs at you, call her U-a, which means 
rain." 

The prince hastened to the waterfall and when he called "U-a" the 
beautiful maiden weiU to him. They were married and lived together 
many happy years. 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 19 

ULUKAA, THE ROLLING ISLAND 

Kaeweaoho, the king of Waipio, Hawaii, was greatly beloved by his 
people because he give them a beneficent government. After he had reigned a 
short time he chose two men from his people as his personal fishermen. 
Fishing was one of his favorite sports. He often asked his fishermen to 
allow him to go fishing with them, but they always refused to take him 
because they feared some accident might befall them at sea, and their king 
would be in danger. 

The king showed such favoritism to his fishermen that his head steward 
became very jealous and in his heart plotted injury to them. One day 
when the men were away fishing the head steward left no food at their 
homes. When the fishermen returned from the king's fishing with baskets 
full of fish they found no food at their homes. Being very hungry they 
kept a few of the smaller fish from the king's basket. 

The next morning they went fishing as usual. They returned at night 
and again found no food at their homes. This time they believed that 
the king had given his order that no food be left for them. They could 
not understand the king's neglect, for they had always served him faith- 
fully and had brought to him their entire catch of fish. Anger against 
their lord grew in their hearts and they decided to get revenge in this 
manner : The next time the king asked to go fishing with them, they would 
take him and would leave him in the deep sea. They prepared their canoe. 
They placed in it four paddles and two gourd bailers. Lender their fishing 
tackle they concealed two paddles and one gourd. 

Early the next morning the young king, Kaeweaoho, came to his 
fishermen and begged them to take him with them as the sea was very 
smooth. They answered, "Yes, O King, today you shall go with us for the 
sea is smooth and we have too often refused your request." 

They got into the canoe and paddled out until the sea hid the land. 
The king often asked, "Where are your fishing grounds?" 

To this question the fishermen replied, "See the white caps yonder. 
There we shall find the best fishing. Where the sea drinks in the point 
of Hanakaki, there lies Hina's canoe. There we shall drop anchor." 

The king thought that fish were to be found nearer land, but they 
told him that only poopaa, the easiest fish to catch, were in the shallow 
water. In the deep sea all the best fish lived. 

When land could no longer be seen, the two fishermen began to carry 
out their cruel plan. One man dropped his paddle, saying that a wave had 
Icnocked it from his hand. Then the gourd and the other paddle were 
dropped into the sea and were carried away by the waves. 



20 Bcniicc P. Bishop Miisciiin — Bulletin 

The king, seeing the danger they were in, said, "I am the youngest 
man here. Let me swim for the paddles, which are still close by. Then 
we can go safely home." 

One of the men replied, "Do not jump into the sea. The big fish will 
devour you." But the king heeded not and was soon swimming for the 
paddles. Then the fishermen took out their hidden paddles and turned the 
canoe towards land. 

The bewildered king called to them, "Come and save your king. If 
I have done wrong I shall right it. You shall have lands. Come and get 
me or I shall die." 

The fishermen paddled away as fast as they could. Then the king 
looked about him and saw no signs of land. He wept bitterly, fearing that 
he would never again see his parents. While the unhappy king was weep- 
ing in great distress, the rainbow, the fine mist, and the red glow, all 
signs that he was a high chief, hung over him. 

As Kaeweaoho was swimming, Kuwahailo, Kaanaelike's grandfather, 
looked down from the sky and seeing the high chief signs hovering over 
a swimmer knew that the man must be a very high chief or a king who 
would make a suitable husband for his favorite granddaughter, who lived 
on Ulukaa. So he decided to save the swimmer. 

At once a great storm arose on the sea, and Kuwahailo moved the 
rolling island close to the young king. Kaeweaoho was alarmed when he 
heard the big waves breaking on the land. He thought it was the big fish 
coming to devour him. Just as his strength was failing a breaker rolled 
him upon the soft sand where he lay as one dead. 

When life returned to him he was greatly surprised to find himself 
on land. He tried to rise but was scarcely able to do so, as his limbs were 
cramped from the many hours he had spent in the water. He fell back 
on the warm sand and slept for many hours. At last the heat of the .sun 
awakened him. He stood up and saw that the land was very beautiful. 
As he was looking about hunger whispered to him, "Do not tarry to admire 
the landscape. Walk on until you find something to eat." The king did 
as hunger bade him and finding ripe bananas ate of them, and strength 
returned to him. 

After Kaeweaoho had eaten he decided to go on to see if he could find 
who inhabited this beautiful land. He had not gone far before he came 
upon a large taro patch, the banks of which were covered with breadfruit, 
sweet potatoes, sugar-cane, and bananas. The king eagerly partook of 
food and his beauty returned like the beauty of the young banana leaf. 

Kaeweaoho saw no signs of any house. He wondered to whom such 
a beautiful island belonged. While he was wondering, the queen of the 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 21 

island, Kaanaelike, was watching him secretly, admiring his beauty and 
rejoicing over the coming of such a handsome creature. She had never 
seen a man before. At last her curiosity led her to speak thus to the 
stranger: "I grieve to see you eating food which is poisonous, food which 
only birds should eat. We of this land eat only berries." These words 
carried to Kaeweaoho the knowledge that all these fruits had not been 
planted by the hand of man. 

When the queen asked the stranger whence he had come, he answered, 
"I have long heard of the beauties of this land. Now I hear the music 
of your voice. If I speak in the language of my land you will ridicule 
me. I came from the sea where a cruel wave wrecked my canoe. Give 
me food, for I am hungry." 

Kaanaelike led the way to her house from which she brought out 
berries for the king to eat. The king told her that he could not eat raw 
food, and asked her why she did not cook the fruit. The queen replied 
that cooking was unknown to her and also to her parents, who were in 
the mountains gathering berries. 

Kaeweaoho saw many dead trees nearby so he gathered the dry boughs 
and after having made an imu he rubbed two dry sticks together as he had 
seen his servants do in his far away island. He found it difficult to get 
a spark of fire but at last he was successful. He then bent over the tiny 
flame to strengthen it by blowing in it. Suddenly it blazed up and burnt 
ofif his eyebrows. The first fire of the king was not a very successful one, 
but he made another which proved to be a good one. After the king had 
placed the food in the imu to cook, he went to fish. When he had caught 
a few fish he came back and lying down beside the imu, fell asleep. 

The queen found him there and believing him dead, cried, "Why did 
you labor so hard? You have killed yourself, my beautiful one." 

These words awakened the king, who hurriedly uncovered his imu. He 
took out the taro and after peeling it ate the first food he had ever 
cooked. Busy thoughts filled his mind, thoughts of how changed his life 
was. As a king he had been born to every luxury. Now he was an out- 
cast working to find food to keep his body alive. 

Soon he put aside these sad thoughts and called to Kaanaelike to come 
and taste the cooked food. She feared it would poison her and that she 
would never see her parents again, but the king told her it would make 
her grow more beautiful. At last he persuaded her to try first the taro, 
then the breadfruit. After a time Kaanaelike tasted the sweet potato, which 
the king said would give her great strength and beauty. She was surprised 
to find that no harm came to her. 



22 Bcriiice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Kaanaelike asked the Man-from-the-Sea, as she called the king^ to go 
home with her. When he reached her house he found it filled with berries. 
These the queen threw out, and making a bed of mats gave the stranger 
a room. Thus they lived for two months. Daily he cooked food and fish 
in his imu and the queen eating thereof grew more beautiful. 

At the end of two months Kaanaelike's parents sent messengers from 
the mountains with packs loaded with berries. As they neared the house 
they saw their queen eating the cooked food, so dropping their packs 
they rushed back to the mountains crying, "The queen will be killed! The 
queen will be killed !" 

As soon as the queen's parents heard these words they ordered everyone 
to follow them to the seashore. 

When Kaanaelike saw the messengers running back to the mountains 
she spoke to Kaeweaoho in this manner : "Man-from-the-Sea, dig a hole 
under my room. We will line it with mats and there you can hide so that 
my parents will not kill you when they come." This they did and she hid 
the king. 

When her parents came Kaanaelike ate the cooked food. At once they 
and their followers began to wail, thinking that she would die. She told 
her parents that she would not die. She had eaten of this food for two 
months, and they could see that she was more beautiful and stronger than 
before. She persuaded them to eat of the cooked food and she gave the 
remainder to the followers. 

Then her parents asked Kaanaelike how she had learned to cook food. 
She told them that the Man-from-the-Sea, who had been very kind to her, 
had taught her. Her parents said, "If these things you tell us are true the 
Man-from-the-Sea must be very good." 

No longer fearing for his life, Kaanaelike removed the mats and led 
forth the king, whom she said she loved and w'ish to marry. Her parents 
told her that this could not be without the consent of her grandfather. 
Kaanaelike asked where her grandfather lived, and learned that his home 
was in the sky. 

In order to visit her grandfather to gain his consent, Kaanaelike was 
directed to a large calabash which concealed a small coconut tree. This 
tree she was told to climb. Before she began to climb it her parents gave 
her the sacred pa-u, or skirt, which she was to hold on her lap and no harm 
would ever befall her. 

No sooner had the queen climbed into the tree than it began to grow. 
It grew and grew until it reached the deep blue of heaven. In the sky she 
found an opening which led into the kingdom of her grandfather. She 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 23 

went in, and as soon as she had left the tree it grew smaller and smaller, 
until it reached its original size. 

After watching the coconut tree disappear Kaanaelike saw a path which 
she followed until she came to two guards keeping watch over a large stone 
hollowed out like a huge pot. The guards urged this woman to depart 
at once before their master came, for he spared neither man, woman, nor 
child; all shared the same cruel death in the pot. 

Kaanaelike did not obey them but asked for her grandfather, Kuwahailo. 
The guards replied, "You are asking for our lord. He has gone to hunt 
for more victims to fill his pot. He takes any person he finds, old or 
young, until his pot is full. He heats a huge stone until it is red hot, 
then he rolls it into the pot, and so cooks his victims. You see all about 
you the bones of many victims. Therefore, be advised, you who are 
young and beautiful. If you wish to live return at once by the path you 
came." 

But Kaanaelike was determined to see her grandfather and asked which 
way he had gone. The guards said that he had gone to the East looking 
for victims to hurl into his pot. Then the granddaughter asked where their 
lord slept and they answered, "It is not known to us. His home is held 
sacred. It is kapu for us, his servants, to go there. We have warned 
you. Now depart if you wish to live." 

Still Kaanaelike questioned them : "When does your mighty lord 
return ?" 

To this they answered that she would know, for the land would quake, 
the trees would be bent over, and the wind would blow. First his tongue 
would come with vtctims in its hollow. Then his body would follow. 

After Kaanaelike had heard all these things she followed a path which 
led to a cave. In the cave was a pile of bones of chiefs whom the king 
had eaten. Nearby was a smooth stone used as a pillow by the king. The 
queen was becoming very weary and so she rolled up her sacred pa-u, and 
using it as a pillow, lay down on the mats to rest. Suddenly she felt the 
earth quake and heard the wind blowing. Then she remembered that 
these were the signs of the coming of her grandfather. 

When Kuwahailo reached his guards he called out in a loud voice, "I 
smell the blood of a mortal !" 

In fear the guards answered, "We have seen no one pass by. Someone 
may have passed behind us. We saw no one as we were busy guarding 
the pot." 

The angry king said, "If you lie to me I shall eat you both !" Then 
he looked to the east, and west, and south. He saw no one. As he turned 



24 Bcniicc P. Bishop Xluscuni — Bidlctin 

towards his home, he cried, "The presumptuous mortal has dared to enter 
my cave. He will answer for this by his death!" 

Before entering his home the king unfastened his huge tongue and 
hung it at the side of the cave. As soon as he stepped into the cave he 
saw a woman lying on his bed. \'iolent anger possessed him. He tried 
to seize her, but when he touched her he received a severe shock, almost 
like a kick. The sacred pa-u was protecting Kaanaelike. Kuvvahailo knew 
that this was no ordinary mortal. He looked closely at her and saw that 
she was his own granddaughter. He cried, "Arise, my child. Why did 
you come to visit me without my knowledge? I have always warned your 
parents to inform me when to expect visits from you. Had I known you 
were coming I would have cleaned my cave." 

Kaanaelike was angry and without replying she struck the side of the 
cave with such force that all the hangings and decorations fell from the 
walls. 

The king cried, "What an angry granddaughter I have here. See, you 
have knocked from the walls the sacred bones of your ancestors." 

These words drove away anger from her heart, and Kaanaelike sat on 
the sacred lap of her grandfather, who inquired what great object had 
brought her to him. She told him that she had come to gain his permission 
to marry the man who had come to her island from the sea. 

The king was silent for a few minutes before replying, "NeitBer you 
nor your parents brought that man to your island. I sent him there. I 
saw him swimming in the sea. The signs of a high chief were hovering 
over him and I knew he would be a suitable husband for you. So I rolled 
Ulukaa up to him. Therefore, go back and take him as your husband. 
Do not make him work for you, for I shall take your life if you do." 

Kaanaelike answered her grandfather thus: ".All you say is good. I 
shall obey all your commands. But I have power as well as you. If I 
promise to obey you, you must likewise promise to obey me. You must 
not eat any more people." "That is only fair, my granddaughter," 
answered the king. 

At once he went to his guards and told them to release the victims 
from the pot, to send them home, and then to go home themselves. Then 
he returned to his granddaughter, who asked where the path to her island 
lay. The king took his tongue from the side of the cave and fastened it 
in his mouth. Taking her sacred pa-u with her, Kaanaelike sat on the 
crook of the tongue, while the giant slowly lowered her to the Rolling 
Island. As soon as she was safely home the tongue disappeared. 

Kaanaelike hastened to her parents to tell them the outcome of her 
visit. She told them how her grandfather had rolled her island up to the 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 25 

man struggling in the sea, and had selected him as a husband for her 
whom they must all obey. 

Her parents said, "Now great happiness dwells with us. If your grand- 
father had refused to allow you to marry the man from the sea, we would 
have given him to your younger sister." 

The marriage of Kaanaelike and Kaeweaoho was celebrated by a great 
luau. 

During the years that Kaewaeoho had ruled his people on Hawaii his 
fame had spread to all the islands, for he had cared tenderly for his sub- 
jects and had given them a wise and just rule. 

At his disappearance his bird sisters had flown over the world hunting 
for him. At last, after he had been married to Kaanaelike for six months, 
they found him on Ulukaa. As he lay on the sand they cast him into 
deep sleep. A dream came to him. He heard a voice saying, "You are 
living in peace with your beautiful wife while your people far away are 
going up and down the land mourning for you. Your sacred temple has 
been desecrated ; your bundles of tapa have been used by evil ones ; your 
atva has been drunk; your sacred landing has been used; your parents 
mourn so that they are no longer able to eat, and sleep comes not often to 
them. O King, beloved by all, sleep now, but when you awake return to 
your land for which you had such great aloha." 

When Kaeweaoho awoke he was surprised to find that he had heard 
this voice in a dream. Three times the same dream came to him. He be- 
came very heavy-hearted. He wanted to return to Hawaii, but he had no 
canoe. Hourly this dream, like an image, haunted him. As he remembered 
his aged, grief-stricken parents and his unhappy subjects, tears filled his 
eyes. 

When his wife noticed his sad demeanor, she cried, "O my Man-from- 
the-Sea, why do your tears flow? Have my parents been unkind to you?" 

To these words her husband replied, "Your parents have not been 
unkind to me. I weep because I pine for my native land. On your island 
I am called the Man-from-the-Sea. In my land I am a great king. The 
island of Hawaii is my kingdom." 

Kaanaelike went weeping to her parents and told them that her hus- 
band was the king of Hawaii, and that grief because of his treatment on 
their island filled her heart. 

Her parents knew that the king of Hawaii was called Kaeweaoho. They 
told their daughter to ask her husband his name. If he replied "Kae- 
weaoho," she would know that he was not deceiving her. 



26 Bcntice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

As soon as Kaanaelike asked her husband this question he answered, 
"In your land I am called the Man-froni-the-Sea. In my land I am called 
Kaeweaoho, King of Hawaii." 

Then Kaanaelike's parents knew that their daughter was not deceived, 
for they had heard much of the wise and just rule of this king. 

Kaanaelike begged her husband not to return to Hawaii. "Wait until 
old age dims our eyes before you leave me for your native land," she wept. 

Her husband answered, "Hawaii calls me. My people need me. I shall 
go. If a son is born to us call him Eye-Brows-Burnt-Oflf, Na-kue-maka- 
pauikeahi. If a daughter is born to us you may name her as it pleases 
you. My love for you is great, but I cannot remain here. I must return 
to my people and my country." 

By these words the unhappy Kaanaelike knew that her husband would 
leave her, and so she prepared to carry out his wishes. She ordered a 
canoe to be built for him. This canoe was to be built in one day, cut in 
the early morning, and ready for the sea by sunset. This canoe was to be 
red, with a red mast, red sails, red ropes, and the sailors were to be 
dressed in red tapa. 

At sunset Kaeweaoho and his sailors got into the canoe. Kaanaelike 
warned them not to look back lest some dire calamity befall them on their 
journey. As the canoe glided over the sea, Kaanaelike rolled her island 
along close to it until she saw the waves breaking on the shores of Hawaii. 
Then she rolled her island back into the sea. Kaeweaoho looked back and 
saw only the vast water. 

As Kaeweaoho approached his sacred landing he heard the crowd cry- 
ing, "The kapn is broken. Now anyone can use the king's landing." Then 
he knew that his dream was true. 

When the people saw Kaewaeoho they at once recognized their lost 
king, and with tears of joy they rushed to the sea, and, seizing the canoe, 
carried it into the palace yard on their shoulders, with the king and all 
the sailors in it. Before the palace they lowered the canoe. The king 
gave his great aloha to all. He entered his home, and greeted his 
parents and all his chiefs, whom he found living in filth and want, mourn- 
ing his long absence. 

Kaeweaoho issued a proclamation saying that all the sacred places 
which had been desecrated should be returned to their kapu or again set 
apart, and that all lands set aside for the king's use should be reserved for 
him as before. He then sent his messengers to find and bring before him 
the two fishermen who had deserted him at sea. 

The messengers easily found these men, for they had not heard of the 
king's return. \\'hen they were brought before the king they knew him 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 27 

to be the one they had left to die in the deep sea. Terror filled their 
hearts. 

The king spoke to them in these words, "Why did you leave me at sea 
when I swam for the paddles? Were you angry with me? Had I done 
you any wrong?" 

The terrified men answered. "Yes, you had done us a great wrong. 
Day after day, while we were fishing for you, no food was left at our 
homes by your orders." 

These words greatly troubled the king. He sent for his head steward 
who allotted each man's food. When the steward came before the king 
he crawled on his hands and knees. He could not reply to the king's 
questions, and so he was ordered to be put to death. The king left the 
punishment of his fishermen to his subjects. They sentenced them to die 
also. So the three men were executed that day. 

After Kaeweaoho had departed from Ulukaa, Kaanaelike was very 
troubled. She wondered what she would say to her child when it asked 
for its father. After her husband had been gone three years a son was 
born to the queen, whom she named Eye-Brows-Burnt-Of?. When he was 
two days old he could walk, and when three days old he could talk. On 
the sixth day of his life he could play ke'a pua- with the large boys. That 
day he said to his mother, "Where is my father?" 

Kaanaelike replied, "You have no father." 

Her son replied, "Yes, I must have a father. Was I not named Eye- 
Brows-Burnt-Oflf because my father burned off his eyebrows making an 
imu?" 

Then Kaanaelike knew that her secret had been made known to her 
son and she told him that his father was the king of Hawaii. 

Eye-Brows-Burnt-Off wanted to seek his father at once. His mother 
told him that he could go when the canoe returned from Hawaii. Kaanae- 
like read the signs in the heavens and knew that her son would die if he 
went to Hawaii. This she told him but he only replied, "If I go to seek 
my father and die, it is well. If I live it is well." 

So Kaanaelike prepared the canoe for her son as she had prepared it 
for her husband. As the boy entered it she cried to him, "Go and find 
your father. Give him my aloha. I fear you will never see him. You 
will be killed by his subjects. Do not look back. Let nothing stop you 
until you reach your father." 

Then she followed the canoe with her rolling island until she could 
see the sacred landing of the king. 

'This game is described in the legend of the Menehuiie. 



28 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

When the people on shore saw a red canoe nearing the beach they 
cried, "Kill anyone who attempts to land. No man, woman, or child shall 
desecrate the king's landing place." 

As Eye-Brows-Burnt-Off came closer to land he said to his sailors, 
"Paddle no farther. I shall go ashore alone. If I am killed, return at 
once to Ulukaa. If I die it is well. If I reach land safely I shall build 
a fire. If the smoke blows towards the sea I live. If it blows towards 
land I die." 

After he had spoken these words, the boy jumped into the sea and 
swam ashore. Someone tore off his clothes, but he jumped on the heads 
of the people standing close together in the crowd, and ran on them until 
he reached the gate to the palace yard. There, Eye-Brows-Burnt-OfF tried 
to slip past the guards, who had the power of life and death over anyone 
entering the yard. One kindly guard wanted to let the child pass, but 
the other guard struck him as he ran by. 

Eye-Brows-Burnt-Off breathlessly entered the room where his father 
was sleeping. Twelve kahili bearers were gently waving their kahili over 
the sleeping king. As the toy s])rang up and sat on his father's lap the 
priest, who had mystic powers, recognized him as the king's son and warned 
the attendants to treat him well. When the king awoke he said, "Who is 
this on my lap?" 

The boy answered. "I am Eye-Brows-Burnt-Off. Your wife, Kaanaelike, 
sent her aloha to you. Behold, I am wounded at the hands of your 
people." 

Kaeweaoho was very angry to think that anyone had laid hands on his 
son, and quickly ordered any person who had harmed him to be put to 
death. The unkind guard and many others were executed. At last Eye- 
Brows-Burnt-Off begged his father not to kill any more. 

The king then prepared a great feast for his son from Ulukaa. As 
they lit the imu the smoke rose and was swept to the sea by the breeze 
from the mountains. Thus the paddlers knew that their master lived. 

When the feast was spread and all were seated, Eye-Brows-Burnt-Off 
said, "I cannot enjoy this luau. My faithful paddlers are still at sea. I 
had forgotten them." 

The king sent at once for these men, who were given places at the 
feast, where they were treated as honored guests by all the chiefs of 
Hawaii. After the meal, they were sent to the houses they had occupied 
on their former visit to Hawaii, when they had brought the king home. 

When evening came, Eye-Brows-Burnt-Off told his father that at sun- 
rise on the following day he would return to Ulukaa. The king urged him 



Rice — Hazvahan Legends 29 

to stay with him but the boy answered, "If I remain you will die. My 
mother has gathered all her sisters together to try you. After I am gone 
you must build eleven houses for them. They will come here and each one 
will pretend that she is your wife. You must send each one to the house 
you have prepared for her. When the youngest sister, Keahiwela, who 
is the most beautiful, comes, you will think that she is your wife. You 
must tell her that even her whole body is not as beautiful as your wife's 
eyes. Kaanaelike will be the last to come ashore. If she sits on your lap 
and kisses you, you will know that she is your wife, and your life will be 
spared. If you do not do as I say, death will be your fate." 

Early the next morning Eye-Brows-Burnt-Off got into his canoe and 
started for Ulukaa. As they neared the Rolling Island the boy saw the 
eleven beautiful women. His mother was looking at them from the top 
of her house. She was preparing to go to Hawaii to avenge the injuries 
done her son by her husband's subjects. 

As soon as the boy stepped ashore, the beautiful women got into the 
canoe. Kaanaelike was the last to enter. She moved the Rolling Island 
close to Hawaii. Just at daj^break her island disappeared, and with her 
sisters concealed in the canoe, the angry queen paddled toward the shore. 
When the natives saw the canoe coming to the king's sacred landing they 
cried, "The canoe comes which took the prince away. A woman is paddling 
it." 

After the canoe had reached the shore one of the beautiful sisters 
stepped on land. The people cried, "What a beautiful woman. She must 
be the king's wife. Take her to the palace." 

But the king remembering his son's words, said, "She is not my wife. 
Lead her to her house." 

When the sixth sister stepped ashore the people cried, "This is your 
wife. Admit her to the palace. There are no more beautiful women in the 
canoe." 

She looked so much like Kaanaelike that even the king thought she was 
his wife, but his kahuna warned him, "Take her not. She is not your 
wife. If you admit her you will die. The sea will cover your land." 

She was sent to her house. 

When the youngest sister came, the king was certain she was his wife. 
But as before his kahuna warned him to remember his son's words. So she 
was sent to her house, having first been told that her beauty could not 
compare with that of Kaanaelike. 

At last Kaanaelike came to the palace of her king. Her beauty was as 
blinding as the sun. The people were unable to look upon her. Then 
Kaeweaoho knew that she was his wife. His son had spoken truthfully, 



30 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

and a great aloha for the boy filled the father's heart. Kaanaelike sat 
on her husband's lap and kissed him, and he knew that he would live. 

Kaanaelike made known her plans. She said that when the sun rose 
on the following day, the king should return with her to Ulukaa. The 
king agreed to this. At sunrise the king and queen paddled away from 
Hawaii, which was left in the hands of Kaeweaoho's father. The father 
ruled until all the chiefs of Hawaii had died. At his own death, the king- 
dom passed into the hands of twins from Kauai. 

After Kaanaelike and her husband had reached Ulukaa, the queen sent 
all her sisters home to their own islands except the youngest sister, Kea- 
hiwela, Hot-Fire, who lived with her by the sea. 

In a short time Kaanaelike saw that her husband was paying too much 
attention to her beautiful sister, so .^he took him to live under the watchful 
eye of lier parents. 

One day the king asked permission to go fishing. His wife prepared 
his bait and fishing lines. He went to the sea and caught twelve fish. 
Before going home he went to the home of his wife's sister. He wakened 
her, but she warned him to go away, or his wife with her supernatural 
powers would see him. The king listened to her and departed, leaving her 
seven of the fish. 

Towards evening the king returned home with the other five fish. 
Kaanaelike felt the fish and seeing that they were dry, asked her husband 
where he had been. He replied that the sun had been very hot, and he had 
walked slowly. Then his wife looked at his fishing lines and saw that 
twelve fish had been caught. When Kaanaelike asked where the other fish 
were Kaeweaoho answered that his canoe had capsized and he had lost all 
Init the five which she had. 

A few days later the king asked to go to catch birds. His wife pre- 
pared the gum for him, and he went through the forest putting gum on the 
flowers. Instead of waiting for the birds to come he hurried to the 
younger sister's house and stayed all day with her. .\t sunset he went 
home and when his wife asked for the birds he told her that he had had 
an unlucky day. She looked at the gum and said, "Plenty of birds have 
been caught but no one was there to collect them." 

The next day Kaeweaoho went again to the house of the beautiful 
sister. This time his wife followed him. When she saw her husband 
and si.ster together, she spat between them, and fire broke out which de- 
stroyed the king and spread rapidly over the island, wiping out everything 
and evcrylx)dy. Keahiwela turned herself into a pile of stones, so that the 
fire could not destroy her. Kaanaelike put out the fire to save the life of 



Rice— Hawaiian Legends 31 

her son, Eye-Brows-Burnt-Off. When the fire was out. she saw the pile 
of stones and knew that her sister still lived in it. 

Just at this moment the foster parents of Keahiwela, who had become 
greatly alarmed over her long absence, sent their dog to find her. He was 
named Kuilio-loa, My-Long-Dog. Everywhere this dog went, the country 
was polluted. With one bound he landed on Ulukaa and saw that all the 
people on the island had been destroyed. He returned to his master, telHng 
him that Keahiwela was dead. The master sent him back to Ulukaa with 
power to kill Kaanaelike. He jumped back to the island with his mouth 
wide open to bite Kaanaelike. Keahiwela saw him and, shaking off the 
rocks that covered her, jumped into the dog's mouth. When Kaanaelike 
saw the dog with bloody teeth she took her sacred pa-u and struck him, 
cutting off his tail and ears. From that day to this bob-tailed dogs have 
lived on the islands. This dog took Keahiwela home to her parents, and 
then he jumped across to Kauai where he lived until his death. 

When Eye-Brows-Burnt-Off saw all that had happened on Ulukaa, he 
said to his mother, "You have brought all this trouble to the land. There 
are no people left for me to rule over. I shall go to some other land 
where there are people. You must live here alone to the end of your life." 

The old Hawaiians believe that Kaanaelike still lives on the Rolling 
Island, Ulukaa, which can be seen, a cloud-like vision, with the other eleven 
islands, on the horizon at sunrise or at sunset. At sunrise the island of 
Ulukaa has a reddish tinge, which shows that it is still burning. Because 
they are sacred islands, it is bad luck to point at them. 



32 Bcniicc P. Bishop Muscinii — Bulletin 

THE STONES OF KANE 

A LKGEND OF KAUAI 

In the beginning, a woman and her two brothers, Pohakiiloa and Pohakii. 
in the form of stones, came through the water from distant lands. When 
they reached the reef off Haena the sister wanted to stay there, but one of 
the brothers urged her to go on, saying, "If you stay here the Hmii will 
cover 3'ou, the opihi will cling to you, and the people coming to fish will 
climb over you." 

To this the sister replied, "If you go into the mountains the birds will 
light on you and the lizards will crawl over you." 

So the sister stayed in the sea where at low tide she is still to be 
.seen. The Hawaiians call the rock O-o-aa, the Fast-Rooted. The brothers 
swam towards land. When about two hundred yards inland from the 
shore one became tired and lay down to rest, and there he can be seen 
to this day lying, covered with moss, among the ptiltala trees. He is 
called Pohakuloa, Long-Stone. The sand beneath Pohakuloa was used 
as a burial place for common people. The other brother went on and 
began to climb up the steep mountain side. The great god, Kane, saw him 
and, taking pity on him, threw him up on the top of the ridge where he is 
today known as the Stone of Kane, Pohaku-o-Kane. 



Rice — Hazuaiiaii Legends 33 

THE MENEHUNE 

A LEGEND OF KAUAI 

The belief of the Hawaiians of ancient times was that there was one 
great continent, stretcliing from Hawaii, including Samoa, Lalakoa, a'ad 
reaching as far as New Zealand, also taking in Fiji. And there were some 
lowlands in between these higher lands. All this was called by one name, 
that is Ka-houpo-o-Kane, the Solar-Plexus-of-Kane (the great god), and 
was also called Moana-nui-kai-oo, the Great-Engulfing-Ocean. This is the 
same that is mentioned in the prayer used by the kahuna ana-ana, who 
can pray to death, and who can also defend from death, when they pray 
in these words to ward off the evil that is keeping the sick one down : 

To You, Who are the Breath of the Eighth Night: 

To You, Kane, the Yellow Edge of Night: 

To You Kane, the Thunder that Rumbles at Night : 

To You, Kane, Kamohoalii, Brother of Pole, Sea of Forgiveness : 

To You, Ku, Kane, and all the other Gods that hold up the Heavens : 

And likewise the Ku, the Goddess women that hold up the Night : 

To You, Kane, Who is bristling, to Ku, and to.Lono: 

To You, Lono, Who is awakening as the sun rises : 

To All of You in the Night: Stand up! 

Let the Night pass, and Daylight come to me, the Kahuna. 

Look at our sick one : If he be dying from food eaten in the day, 

Or from tapa, or from what he has said, 

Or from pleasures he has had a part in. 

Or from walking on the high-way. 

From walking, or frotn sitting down. 

Or from the bait that has been taken. 

Or from parts of food that he has left. 

Or from his evil thoughts of others. 

Or from finding fault, or from evils within. 

From all deaths; Deliver and forgive! 

Take away all great faults, and all small faults. 

Throw them all into Moana-nui-kai-oo, the great ocean ! 

If Ku is there, or Hina : Hold back death ! 

Let out the big life, the small life. 

Let out the long life, for all time : 

That is the life from the Gods. 

This is the ending of my pra3'er 
It is finished; Amaina no iioa. 

This is what they thought in regard to the land of Ka-houpo-o-Kane, 
which is related in the most ancient tradition, that has been handed down 
for countless generations, the tradition known as "Ke Kumulipo", "the 
Tradition that comes from the Dark Aees." 



34 Bcniice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

The great flood came, Kai-a-ka-hina-alii, the Sea-that-Made-the-Chiefs- 
Fall-Down, (that destroyed the chiefs), submerging all the lower lands, 
leaving only specks of higher land, now known as islands, above the waters. 
The lower lands were covered by Moana-nui-kai-oo. Niui, a powerful 
kahuna, saved a great many people. 

After the Deluge there were three i)eoi)les : the Menehune, who were 
dwarfs or pygmies ; the Ke-na-mu and the Ke-na-\va. A great part of 
these other peoples were destroyed by the Menehune. One of the chiefs 
of the Ke-na-mu had come to Hawaii from Kahiki. The name of this 
chief was Kualu-nui-kini-akua. Big-Kualu-of-the-Four-Thousand-Gods. 
He had a son Kualu-nui-pauku-moku-moku, Big-Kualu-of-the-Broken-Rope, 
the father of Ola, Life. They came from Kapaia-haa, otherwise called Ka- 
hiki-moe. the land that is now called New Zealand. They came to the land 
of Ka-ma-wae-lua-lani nei, that is now called Kauai-a-mano-ka-lani-po. That 
was the land where the three peoples had their home, the Ke-na-mu, the 
Ke-na-wa, and the Menehune. They lived there and emigrated thence 
as the people of more recent times have lived and travelled. At one time 
the Menehune journeyed until they reached the land of Kahiki-ka-paia- 
haa (New Zealand). That is why some people believe that they came 
originally from New Zealand, but that is not so. They were natives of 
Hawaii. 

In the ancient tradition of "Kumulipo" it is told that there were a great 
many men and women from Ka-houpo-o-kane who went to Kahiki-ka-paia- 
haa, and in those emigrations, there was one called He-ma, the progenitor 
of the Maori race. When He-ma went, at about that time, the Menehune 
people went, too, from Kauai-a-mano-ka-Iani-po. 

At that time Ma-oli-ku-laiakea or Maori-tu-raiatea, in the New Zealand 
language, was the king of the Menehune. He went with his people, 
accompanied by their chief, Aliikilola, and his wife, Lepoa. This was in 
the time of He-ma. And from the first part of the name of the king of the 
Menehune, the New Zealanders called themselves Maori. From the last 
part of the same name a place in New Zealand is called Raiatea. That is 
what is told in the most ancient of all traditions, called "Ke-Kumulipo." 

When the Menehune returned to Kauai, they began to increase. The 
tribe grew until there were enough grown men to form two rows, reaching 
all the way from Makaweli to Wailua. They were so many, counting the 
women and children, that the only fish of which each could have one to 
himself, was the shrimp. 

The Menehune were a small people, but they were broad and muscular 
and possessed of great strength. Contrary to common belief they were 
not possessed of any supernatural powers, but it was solely on account of 



Rice — Hazmiian Legends 35 

their tremendous strength and energy and their great numbers that they 
were able to accompHsh the wonderful things they did. These pygmy 
people were both obedient and industrious, always obeying their leaders. 
Their average height was only from two feet, six inches, to three feet, 
but they were intelligent and well organized. They took no food from 
other lands, but cultivated enough for themselves. As they were hard 
workers, they always had plenty of food. Their favorite foods were hau- 
pia, a pudding made of arrow-root, sweetened with coconut milk; pala-ai, 
the squash, and ko-ele-pa-lau, or sweet potato pudding. They were also 
very fond of luau, the cooked young leaves of the taro, fern-fronds, and 
other greens. They had elaborately made and carved wooden dishes and 
utensils for their food. 

One curious thing about the Menehune was that they never worked 
in daylight, as they never wanted to be seen. It was their rule that any 
enterprise they undertook had to be finished in a single night. If this 
could not be done they never returned to that piece of work. Being such 
a strong people, they almost always finished the task in one night. It is 
not known where their houses were, but it is said that they lived in caves 
and hollow logs, and as soon as it began to be daylight, they all disappeared. 
One great thing that they did was to cultivate the wild taro, either on the 
pali or in the swamps, for they planted anywhere they could find room for 
a single plant. 

On the cliffs of Kauai are still seen many paths and roads which were 
built by them, and which are still called Ke-ala-pii-a-ka-Menehune, the 
Trails-of-the-Menehune. These trails are still to be seen above Hanapepe, 
Makaweli, Mana, Napali, Milolii, Nualolo and Hanapu. In the little 
hollows on the cliffs, they planted wild taro, yams, ferns, and bananas. 
No cliff was too steep for them to climb. 

They also built many heiaus, including those of Elekuna, Polihale, and 
Kapa-ula, near Mana, Malae at Wailua, on the Lihue side of the river, just 
above the road, and Poli-ahu on the high land, between the branching of the 
Wailua river and the Opai-kaa stream. All the stones for these heiaus were 
brought from Makaweli. The Menehune formed two lines, and passed 
the stones from man to man. They also built the heiau at Kiha-wahine 
on Niihau. It is built of coral rock and is oblong in shape, with two 
corners fenced in as kapu places ; one for the sacrificial altar, and the other 
for the kahitna, or high priest. 

The Menehune hewed out two stone canoes, which were called by the 
Hawaiians, Waa-o-kau-meli-eli. These canoes, covered with earth, are 
still to be found at the Mana side of the Waimea Hotel. 



36 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

At OIK- time the Mcnehune hollowed out a huge stone, and carried it to 
Waimea, where the head Mcnehune fisherman used it as a house. It was 
called Papa-ena-ena, from his name. He sat in this house, and watched his 
men fish. 

It was their custom to place in the streams big stones on which to 
pound their food. One of these big stones is to be seen far up the Hanalei 
River. Another was carried from Mahaulepu across Kipukai to Huleia. 
Still another was placed near the mountain of Maunahina in a little brook, 
above Wainiha, where to this day, natives leave offerings of lehua branches 
to the Kupua. or demi-god, of the locality. On this stone, Lahi and his 
son lived, after Lahi had been defeated in Waimea. His story is told in 
the legend of "The Bird Man." From his life came the saying, "Tear the 
bird, the water is rippling." The explanation of this proverb is that if 
anyone stepped into the brook, the ripples could be seen along its whole 
course. Therefore, when the water rippled, the boy knew that someone 
was wading through the stream,, and said, "Tear the bird." meaning, "Eat 
at once," so that they would be prepared, in case it were the enemy 
approaching. 

At one time the Meneliune built two canoes of koa in the mountains 
near Puu-ka-Pele. As they were dragging them down to the lowlands, 
they were caught by a heavy rain-storm, and were forced to leave the 
canoes across a little valley. The storm covered the canoes with debris, 
and later, a road was built across them, over which all the materials to 
build the village of Waimea were hauled. 

While these canoes were being placed in this valley one of the Mcne- 
hune broke a law, and was condemned to die. He was turned into a 
stone which is still called Poha'-kina-pua'a, and can be .seen on the Waimea 
Canyon road, not far below Puu-ka-Pele. As the stone was being placed, 
such a shout was raised that it frightened the ducks on the Kawainui pond 
near Kailua, on Oahu. At Mahaulepu, on Kauai, another Menehune was 
turned to stone for stealing watermelons. The Menehune regarded a 
thief with great contempt, and the penalty for such a crime was death by 
being turned into stone. 

It is believed that this happened before the Menehune left Kauai 
and journeyed to New Zealand. When a son, Ola, was born to the king 
of Waimea, the headman, Kuahi-nui-pauku-moku-moku, hastened to the 
far-lying islands of New Zealand, and brought the Menehune back to Kauai. 

After their return the Menehune built the wall of the Alakoko fish 
pond at Niumalu. Standing in two rows they passed the stones from hand 
to hand all the way from Makaweli to Niumalu. Daylight came before 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 37 

they had finished the work, and two gaps were left in the wall. These 
were filled in by Chinamen in late years, and the pond is still in use. 

Ola, the king, obtained the promise of the Menehune that they would 
build a waterlead at Waimea, if all the people stayed in their houses, the 
dogs muzzled, and the chickens shut in calabashes, so that there would be 
no sound on the appointed night. This was done, and the Menehune 
completed the water-course before daybreak. It has stood the storms of 
many years, and is still called Kiki-a-Ola, Ola's- Water-Lead. 

The Menehune also carried large flat stones from Koloa to Kalalau, 
where they built a big heiau, which stands to this day. 

The favorite sport of these small men was to jump off cliffs into the 
sea. They carried stones from the mountains to their bathing places, where 
they placed them in piles. Then, throwing a stone into the sea, the skillful 
swimmer would dive after it. This was repeated until all the stones had 
disappeared. 

One of their bathing places was at Ninini, a little beach, surrounded by 
cliffs, just inside the point where the larger Nawiliwili lighthouse now 
stands. While the Menehune were carrying a large rock from Kipukai 
to Ninini, half of it broke off, and fell into the Huleia River, where it is 
still used as a bridge called Kipapa-o-ka-Menehune, the Causeway-of-the- 
Menehune. The other half of the rock is still at Ninini. 

From Ninini the swimmers went to Homai-ka-waa, Bring-the-Canoe, 
the next valley beyond Kealia. While they were bathing there a very large 
shark almost caught A-a-ka, one of the Menehune. They all swam ashore 
to a plain still known as A-a-ka, where they discussed plans to get revenge. 
Soon all the Menehune were ordered to gather morning-glory vine, of 
which a large basket was made. This, filled with bait, was lowered into 
the sea, and the shark was caught. Then he was towed around to a reef beyond 
Anahola. The odor of the shark soon brought so many land and sea birds 
to feast upon the flesh that the reef was called A-li-o-ma-nu, Where-the- 
Water-is-made-still-by-the-Oil-from-the-Shark, and is still known by this 
name. 

The Menehune never again bathed at Ho-mai-ka-waa, but they built 
there the big heiau where Kawelo worshipped his shark god. The story 
of Kawelo is told in the legend of that name. They also erected a pile 
of stones at A-li-o-ma-nu in memory of their delivery from the shark. 
This pile of stones is called Ka-hua-a-li-ko. 

At Molowaa, the Dry-Canoe, stones were piled up, and a bathing place 
called Uluoma was made. While the men were bathing there, the lima, 
or head man, saw that one Menehune, named Maliu, was missing. He 
quickly sent out a searching party. In the meantime the missing one, who 



38 Bcniice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

had been visiting at some Hawaiian home, saw the searchers, and began 
digging at the spot where a spring came out from a coral rock. There 
he was found, and he explained that he had discovered this spring, where 
they could all drink good water. So his life was spared. The spring was 
called Ka-wai-a-Maliu, the Water-of-Maliu, and is still to be seen. 

Traveling on, the Menehune moved a big stone to Kahili, below 
Kilauea, which they used to dive from. At Mokuaeae, the island off the 
present Kilauea lighthouse, they began to fill in the channel between the 
island and the mainland. They were just able to touch the bottom with a 
paddle when morning dawned, and their task was left unfinished. 

Near Kalihiwai a cave was dug, called Wa-ka-ulua. This became a well- 
known spot for catching ulua. At Hanalei, a large narrow stone, called 
Lani-ho-eho, Brushed-off-the-Heavens, was placed near the point of Pooku 
by one of the little men, none of his companions being willing to help him. 
At the point of Kealahula, at Lumahai, these wonderful men made a small 
hill on the seashore, by cutting off part of the point. You can still see 
the bare place on the ridge, where the earth was sliced off. At the base 
of this small hill, the Menehune placed a large stone, which they used 
as a jumping-off place. The hill is called ATa-ka-ihu-waa, the Landing- 
Place-of-the-Canoes. 

On the plain above the Lumahai River the Menehune made their 
homes for a time. There one of the small men began to build a heiau 
which he called Ka-i-li-o-o-pa-ia. As he was working, the big owl of Kane 
came and sat on the stones. This bird was large enough to carry off a 
man, and, naturally, it frightened away the little workman. He returned 
next day, only to see the huge bird flying over the spot, croaking. He also 
saw the great monster dog, Kuilio-loa, My-Long-Dog, running about the 
heiau. These evil omens caused the Menehune to believe that the heiau 
was polluted, so he gave up his work. 

One day, as the Menehune were bathing at Lumahai, one of them 
caught a large ulua. The fish tried to escape, but the little man struggled 
bravely, and finally killed it. The man was so badly wounded, however, 
that his blood flowed over the spot, and turned the earth and stones red. 
This place is still called Ka-a-le-le, from the name of the wounded man. 

Weli, a bow-legged, deep-voiced Menehune konohiki, king's sheriff or 
executor, is remembered as an agriculturist. On the plain of Lumahai he 
planted breadfruit trees, which are there to this day. They were called 
Na-ulu-a-Weli, after the Menehune. 

The small explorers soon found their way to the head of the Lumahai 
Valley, whence they crossed over to Wainiha. There they found an 
immense rock, one side of which was gray, and the other black. This they 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 39 

hewed out into the shape of a poi board, and placed it near the falls of the 
Lumahai River. To this day, the wi, or fresh water shell-fish, come out 
on the gray side in the day-time, and on the black side at night. Even 
now no woman can successfully fish there unless she wears a certain lei 
of shredded ti leaves or breaks off two lehua branches, crying to the 
Kupua, as she throws one to the mauka side or towards the mountains, 
and one to the rnakai side or toward the sea, "Pa-na-a-na-a, give us 
luck!" If a man fishes there, he first throws two small stones into the 
water, asking for success. 

The next nocturnal enterprise of these little men was to span the river 
with a bridge of flat stones, but freshets have since removed all traces 
of this work. 

During their stay at Lumahai one of the Menehune who was skilled 
in stone carving, tried to escape by climbing up the cliffs towards Waia- 
leale. The konohiki sent his men to capture him. They overtook him at 
about the middle of the cliff, and the usual punishment was meted out to 
him — his body was turned into stone and placed on the spot where he was 
captured. It is there today, a huge stone in the form of a man with a 
gray body and a white head. The path the pursuers followed zigzags up 
the steep pali to the stone, which is called Ma-i-na-ke-ha-u, the Man-Out- 
of-Breath. 

The Menehune then went on to Wainiha, where they placed a stone 
in the middle of the ridge, leaving such a narrow space to pass that in 
after years the Hawaiians had to hold on to the stone, and make them- 
selves as small as possible in order to edge around it. So the stone be- 
came known as the "Hungry Stone." In the Wainiha River a flat stone 
was placed which reaches from bank to bank, and part of which is always 
above water. 

Hurrying on to the top of Kilohana, the Menehune built on the plain 
there a little hill about ten feet high called Po-po-pii. There they amused 
themselves by rolling down its slopes. They made so much noise at this 
sport that the birds at Kahuku, on Oahu, were frightened. 

Ka-u-ki-u-ki, the Angry-one, a Menehune, declared that he could go 
to the top of this hill and catch the legs of the moon. This boast was 
ridiculed, and when he was unable to carry it out, he was turned into 
stone. This stone was often covered with maile and lehua branches by the 
natives, so that the rain and fog would not prevent their carrying out 
their plans. 

In the valley of Lanihuli the Menehune lived for some time, planting 
it with different varieties of plants which are still there. Several times 



40 Bcruicc P. Bishop Muscinn — Bulletin 

Hawaiians tried to steal their food, and were always turned into stone on 
the spot where they were overtaken. 

After they had been living in this valley for some time the king found 
that many of his men were marrying Hawaiian women. This worried 
him greatly as he was anxious to keep his race pure. At last he decided 
to leave the islands. Summoning his counselors, his astrologers, and his 
leading men, he told them his plans. They agreed with their king, and a 
proclamation was issued calling all the Menehune together on the night 
of the full moon. 

On the appointed night such a crowd gathered on the plain of Ma-hi-e 
that the vegetation there was trampled down, and the place, to this day, 
is barren. 

There, in the moonlight, the king saw all the Menehunc and their first- 
born sons, and he addressed them with these words, "My people, you whom 
I love, I have called you together to explain my plans for leaving this 
island. I desire that we keep our race distinct from others, and in order 
to do this we must go to other lands. You must leave behind you, your 
wives chosen from the Hawaiian race. You may take with you only your 
older sons. The food we have planted in this valley is ripe. It shall be 
left for your wives." 

As soon as the king had finished speaking, a man called Mo-hi-ki-a said, 
"We have heard your words, O King. I have married a Hawaiian woman 
and we have a son grown to manhood. I have taught him all the skill 
I possess in making stone and koa canoes. He can polish them as well as 
hew them out. I beg you to take him in my place. He holds in his right 
hand the stone adz for making stone canoes, and in his left hand the adz 
for koa canoes. I have had mighty strength. No stone was too large for 
me to move. No tree was too tall for me to cut down, and make into a 
canoe. My son has strength, as I have had. Take him in my place. If at 
any time you need me, send a messenger for me. My son can be that 
messenger. He has been taught to run." 

Having heard this request, Kii-la-mi-ki, the speaker of the Menehune, 
rose and answered in this manner : "You who beg to be left behind to live 
with your Hawaiian wife, listen ! That woman has only lately come into 
your life. The king has always been in your life. We see your first-born 
there, but none of us have seen him work, and we do not know what he 
can do. You say that you have taught him all you know in canoe building, 
but we have never seen him work. We do not know that he can take 
your place. We all feel that you must go with us." 

These words were echoed by a great chorus from the crowd: "He 
shall not stay! He shall go!" 



Rice — Hazvaiiaii Legends 41 

When at last the Menehune were quieted they heard the voice of the 
high sheriff saying, "One word from the king, and we shall obey in every- 
thing. It is only by listening to his words, and by obeying him that our 
race shall be kept together. Otherwise rebellion will come. All must be 
done as he says." 

Then a great stillness fell upon the assembled people. The herald of 
the king rose, and cried out, "Let no word be spoken ! Words are kapu. 
Meha melta^ be absolutely still! The heavens speak through the voice of 
your king. Lie down on your faces before him!" 

After seeing these signs of his people's obedience the king rose and 
said, "Listen, my people, to these words which shall come from my mouth. 
I deny the request of Mo-ho-ki-a. I ask you not to leave him behind. We 
shall start on our way tomorrow night. Take only what food you need for 
a few days. Leave all the growing crops for the Hawaiian women you 
have taken as wives, lest criticism fall upon us. Before we depart I wish 
a monument to be erected to show that we have lived here." 

As soon as the people had heard these words they began to build a pile 
of stones on the top of the mountain. When they had finished their work 
they placed a grooved stone on top, as a monument to the Menehune king 
and his leaders. Not far from it was dug a square hole, with caves in its 
sides. This was the monument to the Menehune of common birth. 

When these last works of their hands were completed, the little men 
raised such a great shout that the fish in the pond of Nomilu, across the 
island, jumped in fright, and the moi, the wary fish, left the beaches. 

The rest of the night was used by the konohiki, who separated the men 
into twenty divisions of sixteen thousand each. The women were divided 
into eight divisions of twenty thousand each. Besides these, there were 
ten thousand half-grown boys, and of girls up to the age of seventeen 
there were ten thousand six hundred. Each division was placed under a 
leader. The work of the first division was to clear the road of logs, and 
similar obstructions. That of the second was to lower the hills. The third 
was to sweep the path. Another division had to carry the sleds and sleep- 
ing mats, for the king. One division had charge of the food and another 
of the planting. One division was composed of kahuna, soothsayers, and 
astrologers. Still another was made up of story-tellers, fun-makers, 
minstrels, and musicians, who furnished amusement for the king. Some of 
the musicians played the nose-flute, which was one and a half spans long, 
and half an inch in diameter, and made of bamboo. One end was closed, 
and about two inches below, was the hole into which they breathed, and 
blew out the music. About the middle of the flute was another hole which 
they fingered, to make the different notes. Others blew the ti-leaf trumpets. 



42 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

which were made by ripping a ti leaf part away along the middle ridge, 
and rolling over the torn piece. Through this they blew, varying the 
sound by fingering. Others played crude stringed instruments of pliable 
black hau wood with strings of tough olo-iia fiber. These, called ukeke, 
they held in their mouths, and twanged the strings, with their fingers. 
Still others beat drums of shark skin, stretched taut over the ends of 
hollow tree trunks. 

When all was arranged, orders were given for starting the following 
night. 

At the appointed time the Menehune .set forth. Many obstructions 
were found but each division did its work of cutting, clearing, and sweep- 
ing the path. They also planted wild taro, yams, and other food-producing 
plants all along the way. After they had climbed to the top of the moun- 
tain, they encamped at a place called Kanaloa-huluhulu. the Hairy-Devil, 
and sent men back to fish. 

It happened that while they were resting there one of the chiefesses, 
Hanakapiai, gave birth to a child. When the child was a week old the 
mother died. Her body was turned into stone, and a valley was named 
after her. A few days later another chiefess, Hanakeao, stepped on a 
stone, which rolled down into the next valley, hurling her to death. That 
valley bears the name of the unfortunate one. As these women had been 
dearly loved, the king ordered a period of mourning which was to last 
sixty days. During that time no sports were to be indulged in. 

All the fishermen were sent back to Haena to fish. There they found 
a great many small fish, so many in fact, that they could not carry all. 
So they took part of the catch, and left them on the plain, near the pali. 
When they returned with the remainder of the fish, they saw that the akua 
had stolen all the first half, and had disappeared through a hole in the 
mountain. The fishermen divided into two groups, one following the 
thieves into the hole, and the other began digging a cave near the supposed 
outlet of the hole. In a short time a huge cave was dug, and then they 
came upon the offending akua who were promptly put to death. This dry 
cave is still to be seen at Haena, and the natives call it Maniniholo, after 
the head fisherman of the Menehune, or Kahauna, from the smell of the 
dead bodies of the akua. 

When at last the sixty days of mourning were ended, the king ordered 
the ilamoku, the marshal, to proclaim a big feast to be followed by sports 
of many kinds. 

Some of these were: spinning tops, or olo-liu, made of small gourds or 
kukui nuts, or sometimes carved of wiliwili wood, boxing, wrestling, and 
similar games such as uiiw, or hulakulai. This was played by the two 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 43 

opponents stretching at full length, face down, on the ground, with their 
heads together, and their bodies in opposite directions. Each leaned on 
his right elbow, and grasped the other's right hand, firmly. Then each 
tried to twist the other's arm back, until the back of his opponent's hand 
touched the ground, meantime keeping his own body flat on the ground. 
This game could be played with the left hand, as well as with the right. 

They also played maika-, a game resembling discus throwing, played 
with evenly-rounded, perfectly balanced stones, from two to eight inches 
across, and thicker in the middle than on the edge. On Kauai the maika 
were made of black stone, but on the other islands they were generally of 
sand-stone. They were always highly polished. The maika were thrown 
to see how far they would go, but sometimes the men would race with 
the maika. 

Another game they played was ke'a-pita, in which they took the straight 
.shafts of the sugar-cane tassels, and shot them like arrows from a whip- 
like contrivance. This was made of a stick about three feet long, with a 
string five or six feet long, attached. The end of this string, doubled 
over, was folded around the shaft, and the remainder wound around 
smoothly and evenly, so as not to catch. The shaft was laid on the 
ground, with the point a little raised, and then whipped ofif. If it was 
well-balanced, it flew several hundred feet. The person whose kea-pua 
shot furthest, won, and he kept his arrow, which was called Hia-pai-ole, 
the Arrow-which-could-not-be-Beaten. 

The queen's favorite game was puhcnchenc. This was played by placing 
five piles of tapa on the ground. A little flat stone, called the noa, was 
hidden in one of the piles, while the opponent watched the nimble fingers 
and movements of the arm muscles of his rival. Then he had to guess 
under which pile it was hidden, and point his stick at it. The queen usually 
won from the king, laughing at him, thus giving the game its name, which 
means "jeering." 

Another sport was the tug-of-war. When one side was about to be 
beaten, others jumped in, and helped them. On the ninth and tenth nights 
of their celebration the Menehune had foot-races. In these, two Mene- 
hune raced at a time. The two last to race were Pakia and Luhau. These 
were known to be so swift that they could run around Kauai six times in 
one day. Pakia won the race, beating Luhau by three fathoms. The peo- 
ple stood up and cheered when the decision was given, and picked up the 
champion, and carried him on their shoulders. 

The next night they were to have sled races. They were to race down 
the steep hill-side of a little valley that leads into Hanakapiai. If the course 
for the races was not slippery enough, they covered it with very fine rushes 



44 Bcniice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

to make the sleds slide easily and swiftly. The first to race were Pahuku 
and Pohaha. The sled of Pahuku tipped, and he was thrown of?, so Po- 
haha reached the goal first, and won the race. The next race was between 
two women, who were noted for their skill, Kapa'i, and Mukea. Kapa'i 
won this race, and Mukea joined in cheerinsj her opponent. Next came 
a race between Mohihi, the queen, and Manu, a chief. Mohihi won, by 
only half a length, and Manu joined in the applause. The king and all 
the chiefs were very much pleased that the queen had won the race. It 
was a great thing for her to beat Manu, for he was supposed to be the 
champion of all the Menehune people. That was the last of the races. 

Then the father of Manu came to the king, and suggested that they 
make a big pile of stones at this spot, as a monument. Then all the 
Menehunes clapped their hands, and agreed to do so. There was great 
rejoicing among them, and so they built up a huge pile of stones, which 
they finished just at daybreak. Then the Menehune left that place, and 
traveled on their way. 

THE STORY OF OLA 

As we have already been told, the king of the Ke-na-mu on Kauai-a- 
mano-ka-lani-po, was K u a 1 u-n u i-p a u k u-moku-moku, Big-Kualu-of-the- 
P)roken-Rope. While he was living in Waimea, he met and fell in love with 
a beautiful princess, Kuhapuola, who had come from Peapea, above Hana- 
pepe, on the Waimea side. At length, after having spent many happy days 
with her, the king decided to return to his kingly duties at Kekaha. He 
called the lovely girl to his side, and gave her his fiuilo and lei palaoa, a 
necklace of many braided strands of human hair, fastened by a hooked 
ivory ornament. This could be worn only by high chiefs, and was one of 
the signs of royalty. He told her that if a boy were born to her, she 
should name him after the king's family, but if a girl were born, she might 
select the name herself. 

.Vfter a time the princess gave birth to a boy, whom she called Kualu- 
inii, as she had been told. As the child grew older he became very mis- 
chievous and head-strong. He refused to regard the hapu of the kahuna 
and was always in trouble. 

.^t one time the people had gathered to make a kahc or fish-trap in the 
Makaweli River to catch the fish which the freshet would carry down. 

An order was issued that no one was to touch the kahe until the 
kahuna had removed the kapu. But the boy disregarded this order and ate 
of the fish that had been caught. In great anger the kahuna caught him, 
and took him to Kekaha where he was tried the following day before 
the king. 



Rice — Hazi'aiian Legends 45 

Hearing that her son was in trouble, the princess hurried to her kahuna, 
asking what she should do to save her boy. The kahuna answered, "Take 
the nmlo and the lei palaoa of the king and six kukiii nuts. You must walk 
to Kekaha, and as you go you must be ever tossing the six nuts into the 
air and catching them. If you drop one, your child will die. If you catch 
all, his life will be spared." The princess at once set out for Kekaha. Her 
journey was successful, for not once did she let fall a nut. 

When she came into the presence of the king, who was sitting in the 
heiau of Hauola, she saw her son bound, ready to be offered as a sacrifice, 
for his crime of breaking the sacred kapu. Going before the king, she 
showed him his malo and lei palaoa. He at once recognized the princess 
and spared the life of his son whom he called Ola, or Life, and named him 
as his successor. 

Upon the death of the king, Ola succeeded to the kingdom. His first 
thought was for his people whose troubles he well knew. They had had 
a great deal of diiificulty in bringing the water from the Waimea River 
down to their taro patches in the Waimea flats, as none of their flumes 
had lasted. 

Wishing to remove this trouble Ola consulted his kahuna, Pi, who gave 
him this advice: "Establish a kapu so that no one can go out of his house 
at night. Then I shall summon the Menehune to build a stone water-lead 
around the point of the Waimea River so that your people will always have 
an abundant water supply." 

Ola established the kapu. No man, woman, or child was to go out of 
his house at night. Then Pi summoned the Menehune to come from 
foreign lands and make the water-lead in one night. 

Beforehand Pi had arranged the stones in a cliff, every one of the same 
size and shape. From this cliflf each Menehune took one stone which he 
called Haawe-a-Pi, the Pack-of-Pi, and placed it in the lead. This water 
course is still called Kiki-a-Ola, and it has stood the floods of many years. 

When this task was finished a great feast was given at the heiau of 
Hauola. The Menehune made such a great noise that the ducks in the 
pond of Kawainui, at Kailua, Oahu, were frightened. 

Ola next ordered the Menehune to build a large canoe house in the 
mountains. When it was finished they hewed out canoes, which they took 
to the king as he asked for them. One night as two canoes were being 
dragged from the mountains, they broke into two pieces and filled up the 
mouth of the valley of Kawaa-haki. Debris collected around the broken 
canoes until a road was made. 



46 Bcniice P. Bishop Museum — Bullctm 

Later, Ola sent the Menehune to build a heiau at the mouth of the 
Wailua River, which was to be called Hauola, after the famous city of 
refuge of his father at Kekaha. 

The Menehune encamped above Haena on the flats which they called 
Kanaloa-hulu-hulu. At Ola's request they planted taro on the cliffs of 
Kalalau, where it is still growing. Between Kalalau and Waimea they 
built a big inin, called Kapuahi-a-Ola, and the Fire-Sacred-to-Ola. 

Ola was ever thinking of improvements for his people, and his faithful 
laborers, the Menehune, carried them out. Many roads were built by 
them. One was a road of short sticks through the swamps of Alakai from 
Waimea to the heights above Wainiha. This road is still the only path 
across the otherwise impassable swamp. 



Rice — Hazcaiian Legends 47 

THE BIRD MAN 

A LEGEND OF KAUAI 

Lahi, or Lauhaka, as he is sometimes called, lived in Wainiha valley. 
From childhood he had refused to eat any food but the meat of birds. As 
he grew older the meat of small birds would not satisfy him, and so his 
uncle. Kanealohi, the Slow-Man, took him to the top of Kilohana, where 
the inva'u nested. These uwa'u were about the size of chickens. They 
were gray-feathered, with white breasts, with beaks like those of sea-gulls. 
Daylight blinded them, and though they were great fishers, they always 
returned to their nests in the mountains before dawn. Their name comes 
from the sound of their call or croak, "Uwa'u." While they were in the 
mountains, the uncle and boy made birds' nests, so that the iizva'u would 
be well cared for. 

While they were living there, a giant came who tore the nests and 
tried to kill the men. The boy planned to get rid of their tormentor, and 
explained his plan to his uncle in these words, "I sEall dig a long hole 
in the mountain. You crawl into it, dragging with you, by its tail, a bird. 
When the giant reaches for the bird, you draw it a little further in. When 
the giant is thus caught in the hole I shall kill him." The plan was carried 
out, and the giant was put to death. 

But, in the meantime, the king had heard that the boy and his uncle 
\\-ere destroying the nests of the uzva'ii. So there was more trouble in 
store for them, for he had gathered together four hundred soldiers to do 
battle with the two bird-catchers on Kilohana. 

Now Lahi and his uncle had moved to the head of a very narrow valley 
through which flowed a small stream. If anyone stepped into this stream 
at any place in its course, the water at the source would ripple. In this 
way a warning of the coming of friend or foe was always given, and if 
they were eating birds, the boy would call, "Tear the bird, Kanealohi, the 
water is rippling." 

One day, as they were roasting birds, the boy saw the water rippling, 
and called out his warning. The uncle at first replied that no one was 
coming, but looking again, he saw the dark shadows in the water. Then, 
in a few minutes, they saw the king and his four hundred men advancing. 
In despair, Kanealohi cast himself over the cliff, but, as he was falling, 
the boy caught him and put him behind him out of sight. 

The pass was so narrow that only one man could ascend at a time. 
And so the boy killed the soldiers, one by one, as they attempted to come 
up, until the four hundred were thrown over the cliff. The last one to 



48 B entice P. Bi^hol> MuseiiDi — Bulletin 

come up was the king. He recognized the boy as his own son and begged, 
"Give me Hfe in the name of your mother!" 

Lahi therefore spared his life. The king thanked him with these 
words, "I will return to Waimea and there build a house for you. When 
it is finished, I shall send for you to come to me." 

Returning to Waimea, the king ordered his men to dig a very deep 
hole. Over it, he had them erect an oblong-shaped house with only one 
entrance. Then he stretched a mat over the hole, and seated his subjects 
all around the edges to hold it taut. This done, he sent for his son, whose 
death he was seeking. 

As the boy drew near the entrance, his father, from within the liouse, 
called to him to enter. Suspicious, Lahi thrust his spear through the mat 
and discovered the treachery. So, quickly closing the door, he set fire 
to the house, and destroyed his treacherous father and all his faithless 
subjects. Then Lahi became king. 



Rice — Hazvaiiaii Legends 49 

THE SMALL WISE BOY AND THE LITTLE FOOL 

A LEGEND OE KAUAI 

There were two brothers wlio lived on the flats at Nukole, between 
Hanamauki and the Wailoa stream. Their names were Waa-waa-iki-naau- 
ao, The-Wise-One, and Waa-waa-iki-na-aopo, The-Stupid-One. 

One day they decided to go to Waialeale, to exploit their bird pre- 
serves. In those days, each person had his special bird grounds as well 
as fishing grounds. No one could trespass on their rights. As they were 
starting out, The-Wise-One said to The-Stupid-One, "When we catch 
the birds, every bird that has two holes in its beak belongs to me. That 
is my mark. Those that have only one hole belong to you." 

So every bird that The-Stupid-One caught, he gave to his brother, for 
they all had two holes in their beaks. He would say, "This is yours, it 
has your mark." So, when they started home. The-Wise-One had all the 
birds, and The-Stupid-One had none. 

Then The-Stupid-One went crying to his mother, saying, "All the 
birds we caught today belong to my brother. They had his mark. I had 
none to bring home." 

After he had explained to his mother about the marks, she comforted 
him in these words, "That is all right. We will fix it so that you get all 
the birds next time." 

Then she got a lot of bread-fruit gum, and told The-Stupid-One to take 
it with him. When he caught a bird, he must pull all the feathers off 
before he gave it to his brother. Then when they were ready to start 
home, he would have a big pile of feathers. He must let The-Wise-One 
go first, with the pack of birds. Then The-Stupid-One must smear the 
gum all over himself, and roll in the feathers. They would stick to him, 
and he would be completed covered. Then he must follow his brother 
very quietly, until they got to the path that crosses the top of the hill, 
Ka-ili-hina-lea. When he reached this spot, The-Stupid-One must rush 
up behind his brother, crying in a loud voice, "Apau! The akua of the 
mountain is after you ! He will grab you !" 

The mother continued in these words, "Then your brother will look 
back and see you, and be frightened. He will drop the birds, and run. 
Then you can pick up the birds and bring them home. You will have them 
all, and you will have only a little way to carry them." 

The-Stupid-One carried out his mother's instructions. All happened 
as she had said. So that time The-Stupid-One had the best of it in the 
end. 



50 Bcrnicc P. B'tshoj^ Museum — Bulletin 

Another time tlie two hoys went fishing. The-Wise-One told The- 
Stupid-One that all the fish witli two eyes belonged to him. All the fish 
with one eye, The-Stupid-One could have. The-Stupid-One gave all the 
fish he caught to his brother, as they had his mark. So The-Wise-One 
liad a l)ig pile of fish. But at last The-Stupid-One caught a fish from the 
deep sea that had only one eye. So he had something to take home. 



Rice — Hatn'anan Legends 51 

KAMAPUAA 

A LEGEND OE KAUAI 

Kamapuaa came to Kipukai, on the southeast coast of Kauai, in the 
form of a large fish called by the Hawaiians hmnuhmnu-a-puaa. This is 
a black fish, with a long snout like that of a hog. As soon as Kamapuaa 
had landed at Point Kipu-ike he changed himself into a hog, and rooted 
in the sand to get a drink of water. At low tide fresh water is still to be 
found at Point Kipu-ike. 

After Kamapuaa had rested a while, he tried to climb a small, steep 
cliff nearby, but was unable to do so. When darkness hid him, he ate all 
the sweet potatoes and sugar-cane belonging to the natives. Then he 
crossed over to a big rock on the side of the hill to the west, and lay 
down to sleep. 

When the natives wakened in the morning, they found their sugar-cane 
and potatoes gone. Seeing in the fields the tracks of a large hog, they 
followed them with their dogs until they came upon the hog, fast asleep. 
They quickly tied his feet together with strong ropes. He was so large 
that twenty men had to carry him to the village, where they prepared an 
imn in which to cook him. 

When the imu was red hot, the men brought a rope to strangle their 
victim. Then the hog stretched himself, breaking the ropes, and walked 
away as a man. The men were so astonished that they did not dare to 
follow. Even in the form of a man, Kamapuaa retained something of the 
hog. Although his face was very handsome, he still had stiff black bristles 
down his back. However, he always wore a cape to cover the bristles. 

Kamapuaa went on until he came to the hidden spring of Kemamo, over 
which two kupua kept watch. Being thirsty, the stranger asked for water. 
When the kupua refused to give him any, he turned himself into a hog 
again, and rooted in the earth until he found a spring. Then he seized 
the kupua and threw them across the valley, where they were turned into 
two large rocks, which can be seen to this day. The water of this spring 
was very famous for its sparkle, and in the old days, it was taken in gourds 
to the other islands for special occasions. 

Later, Kamapuaa found another spring, in which he lay down and 
went to sleep. The water of this spring is still so bitter that no animal 
will drink it, and it is still called Wai-a-ka-puaa, the Water-of-the-Pig. 
While Kamapuaa was sleeping, the giant Limaloa, Long-Arm, from 
Kekaha, saw the huge creature lying in the mud, and so he put his back 
to a large boulder to roll it down on the hog and crush him. As the stone 



52 Bernicc P. Bishop .]Jiiseu)n — Bulletin 

came near, Kamapuaa awoke and threw a small stone under it, which 
wedged the great boulder on the hillside, so that it did not fall on him. 
These stones can still be pointed out on the Kipukai trail. 

Then Limaloa saw that the object he was trying to kill was a man. 
He made friends with Kamapuaa, and told him that on the other side 
of the ridge, there were two beautiful women, whom he had been courting. 
They had rejected his suit, but since Kamapuaa was so much more hand- 
some, he might be successful should he attempt his fortune. 

The two men crossed from Kipukai, over the gap of Kemamo. As 
they were coming down the hill on the Lihue side, Kamapuaa slid on a big 
rock; the groove that his hoof made, can still be seen. The friends saw the 
two beautiful sisters washing their faces and combing their hair at the 
two clear pools, like basins, called Ka-wai-o-ka-pakilokilo, the Waters- 
where-the-Image-is-Reflected. The pools were in a large rock on the hill- 
side and can still be seen at the left of where the paved trail begins. 
Kamapuaa slid down the slope, and, standing where his reflection could 
be seen, began to sing. 

The sisters were greatly impressed by the beautiful reflection in the 
water. They looked up, and seeing the handsome stranger, they fell in 
love with him at first sight, and invited him to go home with them. 
Kamapuaa said that he would go with them, if his akua could accompany 
him. To this the sisters gladly consented. But when they saw the rejected 
Limaloa, they cried, "That man is no akua. He is the one who has been 
annoying us by his attentions and presents. We do not care for him." 

However, Kamapuaa would not go without his new found friend. So, 
in order to have the handsome stranger, the sisters allowed Limaloa to 
follow to the home of their brother, who was king of the Puna side of 
Kauai. This .stretched from Kipukai to .Knahola. The king soon gave his 
sisters to Kamapuaa in marriage. 

At this time the Puna side was engaged in a battle with the Kona side, 
which included all the country from Koloa to Mana. Kamapuaa would 
wait in the house until all the men had gone to the battlefield. Then, 
after having made all his body invisible, except his hands, which held a 
club, he would follow the Puna men to battle, and strike the Kona chiefs 
on the head. From the dead chiefs he would take their feather capes and 
helmets. Then he w-ould return home as a hog, and dirty the floormats. 
When the two beautiful sisters had gone down to the stream to wash the 
mats the hog had befouled, Kamapuaa would hide the capes and helmets 
under the punci, or beds, which were made with frameworks of lau- 
hala logs, covered with many finely-woven mats. Gradually the pu7iei 



Rice — Hazvamn Legends 53 

grew higher and higher, for he continued steahng and hiding the capes 
and hehiiets for days, until he had collected a huge store of them. 

The king began to miss these things, which were always his perquisites 
from the booty taken. But he was unable to find who was stealing them, 
or where they were hidden. Finally he called his kahuna to help him 
find the guilty person. The kahuna told the king to build a platform, 
and then to summon all his people, for it was known that the hand which 
had killed so many chiefs had one day been wounded on the thumb by a 
spear. The king would stand on the platform, and order everyone to raise 
his hands. Then he could easily see the wounded hand, and so find the 
thief. 

The king followed out the instructions of his kahuna. At a given signal 
all hands were raised. There was no wounded hand to be seen. Then 
the king was told that his brother-in-law, Kamapuaa, was not there. So 
his house was searched, and he was found. Behold, his hand was wounded ! 

Upon further search, the feather capes and helmets were found. The 
king was very angry. He gave Kamapuaa his choice of either leaving his 
home, or being put to death. Kamapuaa wisely chose the former punish- 
ment. He next went to Oahu, then to Maui, and Hawaii, where he had 
many adventures, but he never returned to Kauai. Limaloa returned to 
Kekaha, where, it is said, that, to this day, at dawn at certain times of the 
year, he can be seen at Kaunalewa, near Waiawa. Dressed in a yellow 
feather cloak and helmet he comes out of the phantom houses, which can 
be dimly seen near the coconut trees, and strides along with his spear. 



54 Beniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

KAWELO OF KAUAI 

Kawelo, the V\'aving-of-the-Flag, the great opponent of Kauahoa, the 
giant of Hanalei, was the son of Maihuna and Malaiakalani. He was 
born in Hanamauhi, Kauai. He had two older brothers, one older sister, 
and one younger brother, Kamalama. Kawelo was such a good son that 
he was known as Kawelo-Lei-Makua, Kawelo-Who-Cherished-His-Parents. 

The maternal grandparents of Kawelo were celebrated for their skill 
in phrenology. So when still a small boy Kawelo was taken by his 
parents to them, and they foretold that he would be a good soldier, a strong 
man, a conqueror, a son who would bring life to their bones. 

Wishing to care tenderly for such a grandson, his grandparents took 
him to live with them at Wailua where lived Aikanaka, the young prince, 
and Kauahoa, boys of the same age as Kawelo, with whom he played. 

Kawelo developed a great appetite. He would eat the contents of an 
imu, or oven, of food at one time. His grandparents grew weary of trying 
to satisfy this huge appetite, and so they tried to divert the boy's mind. 
They gave him a canoe to paddle up and down the Wailua River. 

As soon as Kauahoa saw Kawelo enjoying his canoe, he made a kite 
and flew it. At once Kawelo asked his grandparents to make him a kite. So 
the two boys flew their kites together until one day Kawelo's caught in the 
string of his friend's and broke it, freeing the kite, which flew off and lit 
at a place above Koloa. still called Hooleinapea, the Fall-of-the-Kite. The 
ridge still shows the dent where the kite struck it. 

Kawelo feared that Kauahoa would be angry and punish him, as Kaua- 
hoa was the larger of the two, but Kauahoa said nothing about the kite, 
and Kawelo decided that the young giant was afraid of him. 

Aikanaka, Man-Eater,' the prince, ruled over his two friends even as 
boys. Whatever he asked them to do they did. So they grew to manhood. 

In the meantime the older brothers of Kawelo went to Oahu where 
Kakuhihewa was ruling. This king had among his retainers a very 
strong man, the strongest wrestler in the islands. The boys very often 
went surf-board-riding, and when this exercise was over, they would 
wrestle with the great champion. 

After these boys had been away some years, their grandparents had 
a great desire to see them, so taking Kawelo with them the old people 
paddled to Oahu and landed at Waikiki. 

On Oahu Kawelo met and soon married Kanewahineikiaoha and in 
order to provide food for himself and his wife he worked every day in the 
taro patch. 

'Aikanaka is used tigiiratively. Tlie Hawaiians were not cannibals. 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 55 

One day as he was at work he heard great shouting down by the sea. 
His grandparents told him that his brothers were wresthng with the king's 
strong man. When one of them was thrown down the people shouted. 

At once Kawelo longed to see the sport, but his grandparents forbade 
his going. So he waited until they were away and then he hurried to the 
sea, where he saw his brothers surfing. He borrowed a surf-board and 
joined his brothers and later followed them to the wrestling place. When 
he stood up to wrestle with the strong man, his brothers tried to prevent 
him by saying that he was too young, that he was not strong enough. 
Kawelo did not listen to them and to everyone's surprise he threw the 
king's great wrestler. This angered the brothers, who were ashamed of 
their lack of strength, and so they hurried to their grandparents, and told 
them that Kawelo had been throwing stones at them. Receiving little sym- 
pathy they decided to return to Kauai. 

Then Kawelo began to desire other accomplishments. First he longed 
to be able to hula, which meant a training in an art far more diversified 
than mere dancing. After long schooling the pupils had to pass a strict 
examination before they could appear in public. But this graceful and 
difficult art Kawelo could not master, so he turned his mind to other 
things. His father-in-law taught him, and his wife as well, all manner of 
spear throwing. Next he wanted to learn to fish well. Makuakeke, the 
celebrated fisherman, became his teacher. 

At dawn Kawelo awakened his teacher with these words, "Makuakeke, 
awake ! The sun is high. Bring the fish-hooks and the nets. Let us 
fish." 

So the fisherman prepared everything. They got into a canoe and 
paddled out to deep water. .A.s they were going, the older man called out, 
"Kawelo, the lei of his parents, my king fisherman of Kauai, we will fish 
here." 

But Kawelo answered, "Not here. We shall go on until we reach the 
point of Kaena. Hold on to the canoe." 

Then with one mighty stroke of the paddle the canoe lay off Honolulu 
harbor, with two strokes it neared Puuloa, and with three it reached 
Waianae. There Kawelo chewed some kukui nuts and blew the oil over the 
sea so that the water became calm and they could see the bottom. The 
canoe drifted from the shallow water into the deep as the men fished 
for ulua. 

As it grew late Makuakeke urged Kawelo to return home, for he knew 
that it was time for Uhumakaikai, the fish god, to appear and he greatly 
feared this fish. 



56 Bernicc P. Bishop Miiseiiin — Bulletin 

So the tired fishermen went home. After Kawelo had bathed, he 
ordered his steward to bring him his evening meal. Forty calabashes of 
poi, and forty laiilau, or bundles, of pig, wrapped in ti leaves and cooked 
in an underground iinii, or oven, were set before him, but this was not 
enough to satisfy his huge appetite. The same amount was set before him 
the second time, and having eaten it he lay down to sleep. 

As the sun was setting, Kawelo awoke and ordered the mats to be 
spread, and the pillows and bed tapas to be prepared. Before retiring he 
read the signs of the heavens and learned that Haupu and Kalanipuu, two 
mountain peaks near Nawiliwili Bay, were being burned up. "Alas!" he 
cried, "My love for my parents is coming to me. They may be in trouble. 
I fear that they are being killed." 

His wife, who did not know that her husband was able to read the 
heavens, asked, "How are you able to go to Kauai and back so soon?" 

Kawelo answered, "If your parents were in trouble you would weep. 
Your tears would flow. You care not for my beloved ones." 

Early the next morning Kawelo called the fisherman and paddled out 
to their fishing waters. Soon Makuakeke saw the storm clouds gathering 
in the sky and knew that the fish god was coming. As the huge fish swam 
towards them Kawelo threw his net and caught him. Then the fish, pulling 
the canoe with him, swam out to sea until the men could no longer .see 
their homes or the surf beating on the shore. They went so rapidly that 
they soon came to Kauai, where the fish turned and swam back with them 
to Waikiki. There at last the men were able to kill him. 

As Kawelo jumped ashore, he saw two messengers from Kauai stand- 
ing near his six soldiers, who were very skilled in throwing the spear. 
Kawelo noticed that these .soldiers were drawing their spears, and he 
heard one of the messengers cry, "They are trying to spear Kawelo before 
he is ready. H they do, our journey to Oahu will have been in vain." 

Kamalama, Kawelo's younger brother, answered, "Watch. You will 
see that the spears thrown at him will be like water." 

First two of the soldiers threw their spears in vain at Kawelo. When 
they were weary, two others, more skilled, took their turns, and so on 
until all had tried. But this was only a game to Kawelo. 

Then Kamalama was told by his brother to bring the sharp spears 
with which they could do battle. Taking the celebrated spears he cried, 
"Kawelo, keep your eyes wide open. If you wink your eyes once I will 
spear you." 

Bracing himself, he threw the spear at Kawelo with all his might. 
Kawelo dodged it, and it flew on until it came to the surf at Waikiki, so 
great had been the force which sent it. Then Kamalama was told to 



Rice — Haivaiian Legends 57 

throw the second spear directly at the stomach of his brother. Again 
Kawelo dodged it and this time it flew beyond the surf. 

When the messengers from Kauai had seen Kawelo's skill in dodging 
spears, they marvelled at his strength and declared that he would be the 
conqueror of the islands. After so much exercise Kawelo hurried to his 
bath and then sat down to eat his forty calabashes of poi and forty 
latilcm of pig. As before, his hunger was not satisfied until he had been 
served the same amount again. Then, calling the messengers to him, he 
inquired what had brought them from Kauai. 

They answered, "Kawelo, we have come to take you home to your 
parents, who are in sore need. They have been driven from their homes 
and have nothing to eat. You must return to fight with x^i-kanaka, the 
cruel prince." 

Without replying to them, Kawelo ordered his wife to secure from her 
father spears, bows and arrows used for shooting rats, and the ax that 
he used for hewing out canoes. All these things he would need on Kauai. 

After his wife had crossed the stream and walked beyond the coconut 
trees, Kawelo told Kamalama to follow her, concealed, and to listen to the 
words of her father. 

When Kanewahine came to her father's house she found that he had 
gone to prepare awa for the gods. Now the building where he was work- 
ing was kapH for women, so the mother approached as near as she dared 
and then wailed loudly to attract his attention. Ceasing his prayers to 
the gods, the father hurried to his daughter, and asked, "What great thing 
has brought you here? Are you not afraid of the akua which hover 
about?" 

Kanewahine answered, "I came to get the spears, the bows and arrows, 
and the ax for my husband who must go to Kauai to do battle." 

Her father began to berate his son-in-law in these words: "Your hus- 
band is a plover with small feet. He is a bird that runs along the beach 
and is overthrown by the beating surf. He is like a banana tree without 
strength; he is like a puhala tree growing with its roots out of the ground. 
He is not strong like me, your father, large from head to feet, whom 
neither the Kona storms nor the wind from the mountains can harm." 

"Be careful how you speak of my husband," warned Kanewahine. "He 
will know whatever you say." 

"What wonderful ears he must have!" jeered the angry father. "He 
is on the Kona side and we are at Koolau." 

His daughter replied, "My husband's powerful god, Kalanikilo, has 
heard your words and he will tell. My husband knows everything. Noth- 
ing is hidden from him." 



58 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

"If that is the case," said her father, "someone must be listening who 
will carry my words to him. Come, my sons, and we will find the guilty 
one." 

And so they searched everywliere but no one was to be found for as 
soon as Kamalama had seen them coming he had hurried to tell Kawelo 
all he had heard. When he began his story his brother stopped him, saying 
that he knew all. This made Kamalama very angry and he cried, "If you 
have such good ears why did you send me to that place where I have no 
friends? I wish to eat." 

The head steward carried out forty sweet potatoes and forty laulau of 
pig. While they were eating, the father-in-law with his sons arrived and 
Kawelo told him all he had said. 

"See! It is as I said," cried Kanewahine, "his god is very powerful." 

"Yes," answered the father, "I .see that your husband can hear in Kona 
what has been said in Koolau." 

Then Kawelo, anxious to punish his father-in-law, said that they must 
try spear-throwing. His father-in-law told one of his sons to try first, 
but Kawelo would not hear of this. "The teacher must first try with the 
scholar," he said. "Then it will be seen which one is stronger." 

So the man and his sons were on one side against Kawelo. His father- 
in-law threw the first spear which was warded off, and flying back, hit the 
thrower, knocking his down. As his father-in-law rolled over in the 
sand, Kawelo cried, "My spear, Kuikaa, is stronger than yours. It has hit 
your jaw. You are being punished for what you said of me. A rooster 
fed in the sun is stronger than one fed in the shade. One kick from the 
rooster fed in the sun will knock you down." 

Seeing her father lying on the sand, Kanewahine ran to him and, 
pouring water on his head, restored him to consciousness. 

After this trial of spears, Kawelo sent his brother and his wife with 
two soldiers to Puuloa to beg a canoe from Kakuhihewa, the king of Oahu. 
When they came before the king, Kanewahine stated their mission. The 
king gladly gave them a large double canoe because he feared Kawelo 
and was glad to hear that he was leaving for Kauai to do battle witli 
.\ikanaka. 

So they returned to Waikiki in the canoe and Kawelo began his prepa- 
rations for leaving. As .soon as all was ready they set sail and went ashore 
at Waianae where they built a heiau to Kawelo's gods. After Kawelo had 
placed his gods in this heiau he asked advice from them, for he was un- 
certain in his mind about this journey. The feathers on one god, Kane-i- 
ka-pualena, the Yellow-Feathered-God, stood straight up. .showing that he 
was not afraid of the task before them. The other god, Kalauihehu, the 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 59 

Scatterer-of-the-Heavens, gave no sign. But Kawelo believed he had seen 
a propitious omen and at evening he left Oahu. 

Before morning Kawelo saw Keaolewa, the clouds on the top of Haupu, 
floating towards them like a great white bird. Soon Kalanipuu came into 
sight. 

These sights were not visible to the other passengers of the canoe 
and Kawelo's uncle exclaimed, "You must be telling us falsely. We have 
often been on this voyage with your parents, but always one night and 
half a day passed before we could see Keaolewa flying towards us like a 
bird. You say you see it before dawn." 

But at daybreak all were able to see that Kawelo was speaking truth- 
fully and in a short time the canoe lay off Hanamaulu, where the messengers 
urged Kawelo to land so that he could see his parents and friends before 
going to battle with Aikanaka. Kawelo refused to do this and ordered 
Kamalama to turn the canoe towards Wailua. 

As the canoe anchored at Wailua, Kawelo told his brother to feed all 
the men so that they would be strong for the work before them. 

The people on Nounou saw the canoe, and .\ikanaka sent his messengers 
to find out what sort of canoe it might be, friendly or warlike. If friendly, 
the passengers were to be given food, tapas, and shelter. If warlike, the 
two great generals of Aaikanaka were to give battle at once. 

In the meantime Kawelo, wrapped in mats, had been placed on the 
pola, the platform joining the double canoes, where he was covered with 
coconut leaves. When Kamalama saw the messengers swimming out to 
them, he called to Kawelo, "A man from our king is coming. He is swim- 
ming towards us." 

As the messenger climbed aboard he asked, "Why have these canoes 
come ?" 

"To give battle," answered Kamalama, boldly. 

"Who is the general?" incjuired the man. 

"I," said Kamalama. 

"Where is Kawelo?" 

"He is on Oahu." 

"What is that bundle on the pola?" 

"That is our food and clothing for this trip." 

The messenger, a little suspicious, stepped on the bundle, but, as it 
did not move, he was deceived. 

Then Kamalama asked how the king wished to give battle. He was 
told to go ashore where, after they had rested, eaten, and put on their war 
malo, they could begin the battle. 



60 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

"But," warned the messenger, "you cannot win. We feared only 
Kawelo. Since he is not here you cannot iiope for victory. You would do 
well to return to Oahu. This is not a canoe fit for doing battle with Kauai. 
Such a canoe must needs be a big canoe, a long canoe, and a wide canoe." 

During this conversation crowds of people had gathered on the beach 
with the two head warriors. Each warrior had four hundred soldiers — 
not to mention the women and children — all clamoring to begin the fight 
at once. 

But the messenger, mindful of his promise to Kamalama, ordered them 
back while some of his men carried the enemy's canoe up on the dry sand. 

While this was going on Kawelo had secretly told his brother to loosen 
the rope that bound his feet. This done, he stood up with his mighty 
spear, Kuikaa, the Whizzing-Point, in his hand. Seeing him, his followers 
cried out, "Kawelo is on the canoe !" 

The word Kawelo aroused such great fear in the hearts of the men 
who were carrying the canoe that they dropped it, killing several. At once 
the soldiers of Aikanaka surrounded the canoe. 

Kawelo thrust his spear on the right side of the canoe and killed a 
great number. Then he turned to the left and killed many more. As soon 
as the Kauai soldiers saw how great the slaughter was, they retreated to 
the hill of Nounou. There they met great numbers of men hurrying to re- 
enforce their friends by the sea. 

After the retreat Kawelo ordered his brother to push the canoe back 
into the sea where he could watch the battle. Then Kamalama arranged 
the soldiers skillfully as he had been directed. Kawelo's adopted child, 
Kauluiki, Little-Rolling-Stone, led the right wing, and another adopted 
child, Kalaumeki, Meki-Leaf, led the left. 

Seeing that Kawelo was not on land, the soldiers of Kauai came forward 
again, and engaged in furious strife. Kamalama was in the thickest of 
the battle, fighting with great courage. Kauluiki retreated to the shore but 
Kalaumeki kept on fighting, killing many. 

When Kawelo saw how things were going, he called out in a loud 
voice, "When we conquer the island, Kamalama shall have all the Kona 
side of Kauai and Kalaumeki shall have all the Koolau side." 

Hearing these words, Kauluiki grieved deeply because he had retreated. 
"It would have been better to have stayed on Oahu," he mourned. "There 
I at least had taro to eat. Here I have nothing." 

When the messenger saw that the generals and best soldiers of his 
king had been killed he hurried to carry this news to Aikanaka. Kawelo 
asked Kamalama to follow the messenger and when he overtook him to 
scratch him with his spear, to mark him, but to let him go on his errand. 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 61 

Kamalama overtook the messenger before he was half way up the hill. 
Tearing ofif his clothes, he beat him and then let him go. As the poor man 
ran to his king he cried, "We have no men left. All are killed. When I 
swam out to the canoe, Kamalama was the leader. Kawelo was nowhere 
to be seen. When the canoe came ashore, Kawelo appeared." 

This news was a great surprise to Aikanaka because when he had heard 
that messengers had been sent to Oahu for Kawelo he had called together 
his bravest and most valiant warriors. Kauahoa had also been ordered 
to join them on the hill of Nounou, which had been well fortified. There 
provisions had been stored. The hill teemed with the celebrated soldiers 
of Kauai, 

As the king was listening to the report of his messenger, two of his 
head soldiers, Kaiupepe, Flat-Nose, and Mano, Shark, asked if they 
could go down to the sea with eight hundred soldiers and engage in battle 
with the invaders. They asked only for the king's messenger as guide. 
The king granted this request and they advanced to join in battle. 

The fresh troops met Kamalama's men and were slaughtered. Only the 
messenger escaped. He hurried to carry the news of this disaster to his 
king. "That is not a battle yonder." he cried, "it is a fire. Kamalama can 
throw his spear through ten men." 

Great anger filled the heart of Aikanaka. Two other generals boasted 
of their strength and begged to be allowed to fight with their four hundred 
soldiers. As they advanced, Kamalama met them. In the battle which 
followed the men from Oahu showed their wonderful skill in spear throw- 
ing. They could spear an ant or a fly. Easily they killed all but the two 
generals. Then the hand of one of these men was speared. 

But this battle had been so furious that Kamalama and Kalaumeki 
were beginning to be weary, and they were being hard pressed by the 
enemy. Kawelo saw this and called to them to retreat. While they were 
retreating, Kawelo ordered his paddlers to paddle the canoe to the shore. 
There he learned that most of the Kauai soldiers had been killed. The 
rest were about to retreat. 

Kawelo then angered his brother by granting more land to his step-son. 
Kamalama left the battlefield, but was brought back by these flattering 
words, "Why do you depart, my young brother? You are the greatest 
soldier of all. You are hungry now ; so your strength is waning." 

Just then reinforcements came from Nounou and the Oahu soldiers 
retreated to the spot where Kawelo was standing. Seeing Walaheeikio, 
one of Kauai's most celebrated soldiers, advancing, Kawelo thus addressed 
him, "If you will join my forces, I will give you my sister as your wife." 



62 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

This promise made the warrior think that Kawelo feared him. So he 
replied, "It is not for you to give me a wife. I shall kill you, and Aikanaka 
will ofTer your body as a sacrifice to his gods. I and my men will eat 
cooked taro on Kauai." 

This vain boasting amused Kawelo, who warned, "Break the point off 
your spear before you thrust it at Kawelo." 

"I will not have to break my spear to strike you," laughed the soldier. 
"You are as large as the end of a house. I must be an awkward animal 
if I miss you." 

"You cannot hit a flying flag," ridiculed Kawelo. "You might hit my 
waving male. Your shameful boasting will make you weep." 

The two warriors raised their spears at the same time and threw them. 
Kawelo dodged the spear which just touched his malo and passed on into 
the ground. With shame, Walaheeikio turned to hasten back to Nounou 
but Kawelo threw his spear at his back and killed him. 

So only Maomaoikio was left. Pity for the lone warrior filled Kawelo's 
heart and he offered him a wife if he would desert Aikanaka. But this 
soldier answered as his companion had answered, and threw his spear at 
Kawelo. Kawelo dodged it and threw hi.s mighty spear at the king's 
faithful soldier. Then his canoe was left to drift without its paddler. 

The messenger ran to Nounou and reported to Aikanaka, the boasting 
of his generals and their death at the hands of Kawelo. Then the king 
cried, "Now a cold chill numbs my bones. The house that gave us shelter 
is broken." 

A soldier, Kahakaloa, skilled in throwing and dodging spears cheered 
the broken king with these words, "When did Kawelo learn to fight? We 
all lived here together and he was no more .skilled than others. He has 
not been on Oahu very long. How can he be so skilled even though his 
father-in-law has been teaching him? I have fought with his father-in-law 
and neither could win from the other. How then can Kawelo defeat me? 
So, O King, give me five forties of men and I .shall join battle with Kawelo 
and his younger brother." 

Permission was gladly given by the king and Kahakaloa advanced to 
the foot of Nounou where he met Kamalama. In the battle which ensued, 
his strength and valor w^ere shown, for he pressed his rival back to the 
spot where Kawelo was standing. There Kawelo angered him by calling 
him names, "Lai-paa! branded, son of a slave! Ai-opala, eater of rubbish! 
Dog! Ai-hemu, eater of leavings!" This was a great insult to a high chief 
of Kauai. 



Rice — Hazvaiiai! Legends 63 

At length the two warriors stood ready for the encounter. Their spears 
were thrown at the same time. Kawelo was struck and stunned and his 
body rolled in the dust. Kahakaloa lost one ear and a little finger. 

The king's messenger urged the soldier to strike the fallen Kawelo 
again, as his eyes were still open, but Kahakaloa answered, "He is killed 
by one blow from a young man. I shall not strike him again or he will 
go down to Milu and boast that I had to strike him twice. Now let us go 
home to eat. After that we shall return and finish our enemy." 

Kamalama ran to his brother, for he believed that he had been killed. 
But in a short time Kawelo sat up. His dizziness left him. He asked 
where his antagonist had gone. Then he strengthened himself with food. 

Kahakaloa, in the meantime, had hurried to his king, where he boasted 
that he had killed the mighty Kawelo, and that he would soon go back to 
the sea to put out his light forever. Hearing that his great rival was no 
more, Aikanaka ordered his steward to place the choicest food before the 
valiant soldier and the faithful messenger. 

While this was being prepared, the king noticed that Kahakaloa had 
lost a finger and he inquired how the accident had happened. 

'"That was a branch on the outside which was easily struck," answered 
the soldier. 

"And how about your ear?" 

"Oh, that was a branch on top also easily cut oflf," replied the wounded 
man. 

After Kahakaloa had eaten the food from the calabash he placed the 
empty vessel on his head as a helmet and went forth to destroy his rival. 

Seeing someone coming, Kamalama called to his brother, "A bald- 
headed man is advancing. I can see the sun shining on his forehead." 

But Kawelo was not deceived. He recognized his former antagonist 
and planned revenge. As Kahakaloa came before him, Kawelo struck the 
calabash on his head. Being broken, it fell over his eyes so that he could 
not see, and he was easily killed. 

Again the messenger had to carry news of defeat to his king, whose 
only comment was, "How could he live, so wounded? He was only 
Kawelo's pig." 

There still remained on Xounou, Kauahoa, the strongest of all the 
king's soldiers. He was known all over the islands for his size. He it 
was whom Kawelo feared most of all. However, Kawelo remembered 
their boyhood days when he had broken his friend's kite and had escaped 
unpunished. If Kauahoa feared him as a boy, possibly he still did. This 
thought cheered him and he planned how he could gain a victory over his 
old-time opponent. 



64 Beniice P. Bishop Museum— BuUclin 

Now when Kaiialioa heard that Kahakaloa had fallen in the dust, he 
vowed to seek revenge with his spear, a whole koa tree from Kahihikolo, 
above Kilauea, so large that the birds sang in its branches while it was 
being carried. The giant stripped some of the branches from this tree, 
and they are growing at Kahihikolo now. 

As this giant with his huge spear came down from Xounou he was so 
large that he hid the sun. A cold chill numbed the Iwnes of Kawelo. Fear 
filled his brave heart. But he prepared for battle. 

On his right he placed his wife with her pikoi.* On his left he sta- 
tioned Kamalama. Behind him he ordered his foster sons to wait. Thus 
Kawelo stood with his mighty spear, ten fathoms long. 

Kawelo knew that by skill only could he hope for victory. He decided 
not to wait long. Then he called out : 

I remember the days when we were young. 

Swelled now is the limit of Hanalei. 

Swelled above the eyes is the cloud of morning. 

In vain is the battle at the hands of children. 

The great battle will follow, 

As the deep sea follows the shallow water. 

In vain are the clouds dispersed. 

O Kauahoa. the strong one of Hanalei ! 

Awake, O Kamalama. the strong one of Kualoa ! 

Awake, Kawelo, the strong one of Waikiki ! 

Awake, Kaelehapuna, the strong one of Ewa ! 

Awake, Kalaumcki, the strong one of Waimea ! 

We will all gather together at noonday. 

Postpone the battle, my brother. Leave me. 

This is not the day for us to give an exhibition of battle. 

Friend of my boyhood days, with whom I made Ichua leis 

At Waikaee for our lord and older brothers. 

Awake, O Hanalei, the land of cliill and rain. 

The land where the clouds hover ! 

Awake O Kauahoa, the handsome one of Hanalei ! 

To these words the giant of Hanalei answered, "To-day we will give 
battle. To-day either my spear will seek your death or your spear will 
seek mine. To-day on one of us must fall the heavy sickness." 

This answer alarmed Kawelo, but he fanned his flickering courage 
with the remembrance of the kite incident and replied : 

Hanalei, the land of cold and wet. 

Hanalei, the land where the clouds hover ! 

The Ukiiikiu, the northerly storm, of Hanakoa. 

The cliffs of Kalehuaweki are in vain. 

Tlic lama and Zi.'i!i~<-ili arc in flower. 

Tlie rain tliat flies lieyond Mamalahoa 

Is like Kauahoa, tlie man that Kamalama will defeat. 

*See Glossary. 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 65 

Having spoken thus. Kawelo said to his wife, "Throw your pikoi high 
as the ridge pole of Kauai is high. If we l<ill this giant, Kauai is ours. 
We shall cover ourselves with the fine mats of Niihau, and shall eat of the 
birds of Kaula." 

Placing his brother and his foster children behind him, Kawelo at 
last was ready. Then, as Kauahoa threw his spear, Kawelo's wife caught 
it and drew it to one side with her pikoi. enabling her husband to dodge 
it. As the giant stooped down to pick up his spear, Kawelo cut him in 
two. So died the last of the strong men of Aikanaka. 

That night Kawelo said to his wife, "I and my brother will go up to 
the hill of Nounou. If you see a fire burning you will know that we have 
conquered Kauai." 

Ascending Nounou, Kawelo called out, ".\ikanaka, let us be friends. 
Let us sleep together on the mats of Niihau." 

The king did not reply. His men told him that Kawelo was tired and 
would soon be asleep. But they heard Kawelo asking if there were no 
men left on Kauai. 

Aikanaka answered that only twelve soldiers were left. Then he 
begged his kahuna to let him go and meet Kawelo. They replied that a 
king could not fight with a servant whose duty, it was to count cockroaches. 

Kawelo heard these words, which filled him with such shame that he 
started to roll down the hill. His wife threw her pikoi and kept him back, 
saying, "Why should you be ashamed? If you are really a slave, kill 
yourself. If you had been a slave, you would have been killed during this 
battle. The roosters are kings because they sleep on the top of the house. 
They waken you in the morning." 

The kahuna told Aikanaka to answer that roosters were slaves. 

"Oh, no," replied Kawelo, "you use the feathers of roosters to make 
kahili to wave over your kings." 

Suddenly, a stillness fell on Nounou. Aikanaka and his men had fled 
to Hanapepe. Then Kawelo built a big fire on the hill. Seeing this, his 
brother and sons knew that Kauai belonged to him and so they hurried to 
the hill. There Kawelo divided the island, giving Koolau to Kalaumeki, 
Puna to Kaeleha, and Kona to Kamalama. The whole island was under the 
supervision of Kawelo, who lived in peace with his parents at Hanamaulu. 

Aikanaka was living at Hanapepe with no honor, no food, no tapa. 
With his own hands he had to cultivate the taro patches. After he had 
been living in this manner for some time, Kaeleha left Kapaa and came to 
Hanapepe. There he met Aikanaka, who gave him food. A friendship 
grew between them and the former king gave his daughter in marriage 
to his conqueror's foster son. 



66 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

As time went on Kaelelia grieved because he had nothing to give in 
return for so much kindness. At last his shame was so great that he 
decided to lessen it by telling Aikanaka that he could conquer Kawelo by 
throwing stones at him. This secret brought gladness to the king's heart 
and he cried, "My bones shall live again!" So Aikanaka and Kaeleha 
counseled together. The king sent his men to pile up stones near Wahiawa. 

In the meantime these plans had been carried to Kawelo, who sent to 
find out from Kamalama if they were true. Kamalama hurried to Wa- 
hiawa, where he saw a great many people on the plains gathering and piling 
up stones. While he watched, a man approached him and said that these 
stones were being gathered to give battle to Kawelo, the usurper. 

Kamalama sent this report to Kawelo, who was filled with anger. lie 
hastened to Wahiawa, where he discovered Kaeleha's war canoes concealed 
behind the great pile of stones. There, too, he saw many men armed with 
stones, ready to give battle. Kawelo had only his spear and his wife's 
pikoi. He and his wife had to fight with all of Aikanaka's men. It was 
impossible for the valiant Kawelo to dodge all the stones which were flying 
at him from all directions. They piled up over his head. Several times he 
shook them off. At last he became weak and the stones were as a grave to 
him. His wife, wailing loudly, fled. 

Believing that he was dead, the men removed the stones and beat his 
bruised body with sticks until they could feel no more pulse. Then mes- 
sengers were sent to proclaim Aikanaka king of Kauai again. 

Men carried the body of Kawelo to Koloa, where Aikanaka had built 
a heiau. There they laid the body and covered it with banana leaves, 
planning to return in the morning to oflfer the sacrifice. 

The heat created by the banana leaves brought warmth to the cold body, 
and at midnight Kawelo returned to life. He got slowly to his feet and 
walked about the enclosure waiting for daylight. 

The guard heard the footsteps in the heiau and fear took hold of him. 
for he believed that Kawelo's ghost had returned to seek vengeance. 
Creeping up to the wall he saw Kawelo standing and so he called, "Is 
that in truth you, Kawelo? Has death departed from you?" 

.\ voice answered, "Where is Aikanaka with his men? \\here am I?" 
When he heard these words, the guard knew that Kawelo was not dead. 

"They are far distant," replied the guard. "They are sleeping. At 
sunrise they return to place your body on the altar and to offer you as 
a sacrifice to Aikanaka's god. It is wonderful that you live. I will help 
you in any way I can, even if in .so doing, death come to my bones." 

These words cheered Kawelo and he asked for his mighty spear. Then 
he directed the guard in these words, "Towards morning I shall lie down. 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 67 

You cover me again with the banana leaves. When Aikanaka and his 
friends enter the heiau whisper to me." 

So Kawelo lay concealed under the banana leaves. Aikanaka did not 
come until noon and the hidden man was greatly annoyed as he was very 
uncomfortable. 

At last he heard the guard whisper, "Kawelo, Kawelo, awake ! 
Aikanaka, your treacherous son, and all their soldiers are in the heiau !" 
Then pulling off the banana leaves the guard called aloud as Kawelo stood 
up, "Behold! Kawelo has come to life!" Utter astonishment seized the 
men. They could not believe that this was he whom they had left as dead. 

Stepping towards Kaeleha, Kawelo cried, "My son whom I fed and 
cared for, why did you turn against me? Today you shall pay the cost. 
And you, Aikanaka, shall die today, too." 

Then Kawelo hurled his faithful spear and killed all but the guard. 
To him he gave Koloa, where he should reign as high chief. 

Kawelo returned to Hananiaulu and there lived in peace until the day 
of his death. 



68 Bernice P. Bishop Miisciiiii — Bulletin 

THE DESTRUCTION OF THE AKUA OX XHHAU 

The people of the islands of Kauai and Niihau were accustomed to 
going to one end of Niihau to fish. But it often happened that while they 
were sleeping on the sand after a hard ilay's fishing, the akua would come 
and devour many of the men. 

.■\t last one brave man declared that he would destroy the akua and rid 
the island of this danger. So he built a long house, similar to a canoe 
house, leaving only one entrance. Then he made mapy bii, or wooden 
images of people, placing in the heads mottled gray and black eyes of opihi, 
or mussel, shell. These images he put in the house, concealing himself 
outside. 

At night the akua began to come for their usual meal. Lx)oking into 
the house they saw the kii with their shining eyes. At first this surprised 
them, but as the images lay very still, the akua decided that the Kauai men 
slept with their eyes open, and so they entered and tried to eat the images, 
with dire results. Their teeth were caught in the wood, and while they 
were struggling to free them, the crafty Kauai man quickly shut the door 
and set fire to the house, and all the cruel akua were burned to death. 

Thereafter Niihau became safe for fishermen, and this part of the island 
still bears the name Kii. 



Rice — Ha'iVaiian Legends 69 

PAAKAA AND HIS SON KU-A-PAAKAA 

Kua-anuanu, Cold-Back, was the head steward of Keawe-nui-a-unii, 
the Great-One-in-Umi"s-Presence, son of Umi, king of Hawaii, and god of 
all the winds, which he kept in a huge calabash. The king loved his stew- 
ard greatly and placed great confidence in everything he did. 

One day the desire to visit the other islands of the group came to Kua- 
anuanu, and so as he waited on his king he said to him, "My Lord the 
King, if you have any love in your heart for me you will allow me to visit 
the other islands. You will not miss me, for you have many servants. If 
you need me at any time send a messenger and I shall gladly return." 

When the king had heard these words he was very sad at heart for his 
steward was very skilled in serving him. Nevertheless, he gave his permis- 
sion and bade his servant farewell, with these words, "Aloha. May the 
spirits of our ancestors keep you until we meet again." 

Kua-anuanu prepared his tapa and fnalo for the journey. Then getting 
into his canoe, he paddled well and soon came to Lahaina, where he went 
ashore under the breadfruit trees. Being a chief, he was entertained by the 
chiefs in a manner befitting his station. He entered into all the sports of 
the Maui chiefs. 

One day when the sea was smooth, Kua-anuanu went surfing with the 
other chiefs at Uo, the celebrated surfing place. There he showed his 
wonderful skill. He could gracefully ride the surf board, standing or 
kneeling, and come to land without the spray even touching his body. 
Naturally his fame spread to all the islands. 

After having spent two months on Maui, Kua-anuanu went to Oahu and 
landed at Waikiki, where the high chiefs lived. When it was known that 
the head servant of the king of Hawaii had come, the king of Oahu enter- 
tained him in royal fashion. He also ordered his people to bring clothing, 
mats, and food for the distinguished guest. 

When Kua-anuanu had visited here for several weeks and had partaken 
of the kindness of the king, he decided to travel on to Kauai, where he 
landed at Kapaa. 

Near the sea he built himself a home and there men, women, and 
children flocked to see the stranger. In the midst of the crowd Kua-anuanu 
saw a very beautiful woman, who was called Laamaomao, and whom he at 
once longed to make his wife. Laamaomao consented and after twenty 
days they were married. 

This marriage angered the parents of Laamaomao greatly, for, though 
they held a high social position through their relationship to the kahuna, 
nevertheless, they were very poor, and had hoped to marry their beautiful 



70 Beniicc P. Bishop Miiscuw — Bulletin 

daughter to one of the wealthy princes of the island with whom they could 
live and spend their old age. Now, their daughter had married a tramp, 
a stranger with nothing, and they tiicmselves were without food. 

The princes of Kauai were also angry, as they had wished to win 
Laamaomao's hand, and so the stranger from Hawaii was hated by all. 

Soon, however, Kua-anuanu had planted taro, potatoes, sugar cane, 
and bananas to provide food for his wife and her family. When they had 
lived thus for two months, a messenger from the king of Hawaii came to 
Kua-anuanu and said, "By the order of the king I come to take you home. 
The servants whom you left in your place are not skilled in providing for 
the king. Your lord says that you have traveled long enough." 

Hearing these words, Kua-anuanu wept bitterly because his king was 
in trouble. At last he answered, "I will return with you. On this island 
I have married. I have planted food for my wife and her parents. It is 
not ripe yet. If I go my wife will be in great need. She will be forced to 
crawl to others' doors and beg for food. But my love for my king calls 
me. These bones are his. He has the power to take my head if he so 
chooses. I cannot disobey any of his commands." 

That evening Kua-anuanu told Laaniaomao that he must return to his 
king but she must stay on Kauai. He explained to her that he was not a 
conmion tramp as her parents believed, but a chief and the backbone of a 
king. To be known as the backbone of the king was the highest honor 
a chief could attain. He talked over the probable birth of a child to them, 
telling her to name a girl after her friends, but to name a boy Paakaa, 
which means the skin of his king cracked with drinking mva. 

All these things made the beautiful Laamaomao weep bitterly, but she 
sumbitted to her cruel fate and the next day bade her husband aloha as 
he departed with the messenger. 

After a time a boy was born to Laamaomao and she called him Paakaa, 
as she had been commanded by the father. The happy mother thought that 
now the anger of her parents would be appeased, but they refused to receive 
her and called the baby the child of a servant. They could not forget the 
plans they had made for their daughter to marry a chief of Kauai. 

And so Laamaomao lived on alone where the pali rises from the sea at 
Kapaa, and there she brought up her boy. 

When Mailou, Laamaomao's brother, who love<l her dearly, saw how his 
sister was being treated, he stayed with her and helped her care for her boy. 
Mailou was very skillful in catching birds, as his name signifies, and in this 
way he made a living for them all. 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 71 

At one time when they were in great trouble Laamaomao sent Mailou to 
her brothers and sisters begging for help. They provided for their outcast 
sister without letting their parents know. 

As Paakaa grew older he began to wonder where his father was, and 
so one day, he asked his mother about him. The mother, not wishing to 
explain to the boy the father's going, told him that Mailou was his father. 
This the child would not believe, saying. "He cannot be my father. He 
is very small and I am very large." 

After many such questions Laamaomao was forced to tell Paakaa the 
truth. She said to him, "Look where the sun rises. There your father lives. 
We feel the wind which is sent from there by the king, the keeper of all 
the winds." 

So the boy believed his mother and resolved that when he become older 
he would seek his father. 

Meanwhile he tried to increase his skill in all things which add to man- 
hood. He became very skillful in farming, fishing, surfing, and hewing 
out canoes, but he decided to become a fisherman. 

When the king's fishermen were driving the flying fish, Paakaa would 
follow the fishermen and they always gave him a few fish. He complained 
to his mother that he was given only a few fish while all the others received 
many. She told him that this was because the fishermen considered Mailou 
very lazy and did not want to help him. 

Then Paakaa began to beg his mother to allow him to join the fisher- 
men. She feared that he was too small and could not swim well enough. 
But the boy assured his mother that he could swim as well as any of the 
men. At last she promised to get her brother's canoe for the boy. 

As Paakaa watched the fishermen he noticed how difficult it was to 
paddle the canoes out to the deep sea, so he tried to find a way to lessen the 
labor. Day and night he dreamed. At last a thought came to him. He 
found and cut two slender, straight sticks nine feet in length. Then he 
took a roll of lanhala and wove a small square mat. This finished, he tied 
its ends to the sticks, thus making a sail as he had dreamed of doing, so 
that his shoulders would not ache from paddling his canoe. Then the boy 
went home to await his uncle's return. Thus was the first sail made. 

After Mailou had brought birds from the mountains the little family 
partook of the evening meal. Then Laamaomao told her brother that on 
the morning he must help lift Paakaa in his canoe into the sea. Mailou 
complained, saying that he was able to supply enough birds and that they 
did not need fish. Laamaomao, too, beginning again to fear for her child's 
safety, urged him to stay at home. But the boy, having the same determi- 
nation which had led his mother to marry without her parent's consent, 



72 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

could not be dissuaded from his plan, and his elders reluctantly consented. 

Early the next morning Mailou lifted the canoe into the water. Seeing 
the strange-looking lanhala mat, he asked the boy what it was. But Paakaa 
told him to wait and see. His uncle answered by saying that the fishermen 
would laugh at him if he went fishing with such a strange object. So the 
boy explained what it was, and setting up the mast, pushed out the boom. 
The early morning breeze from the mountains filled the sail and carried 
the canoe along. Paakaa .steered the canoe and it glided gracefully 
through the water as if it were a living thing. 

Mailou was astonished. When he saw what the boy had done he called 
out to him that history would remember him as the first person to sail 
a canoe. 

As Paakaa neared the fishermen, he concealed his sail. They were sur- 
prised to see the boy and wondered why his uncle had not come with him. 

The drive of the flying fish began. Paakaa's canoe was in the middle 
of the fleet. He soon saw that the men on the outside got the first fish 
caught in the nets, so he paddled to the outside. The older men called 
to him that his place was not there, but he went on lifting up the net and 
getting many fish. When they started home the boy had eighty fish in his 
canoe. 

Paakaa urged the men to race to land, placing all the fish as the wager. 
After much wrangling, a large canoe paddled by eight men accepted the 
boy's challenge, first placing all their fish in his canoe, for he insisted that 
they might take advantage of his size and keep the fish, even though they 
lost the race. 

The signal to start was given and in no time the eight paddlers left 
Paakaa far behind. When they saw the boy turning the bow of his boat 
to the wind and arranging a mat they jeered at him and asked where his 
boasted strength was. 

As soon as Paakaa had hoisted his sail, he turned his canoe toward 
land. The wind filled the sail and the canoe began to skim over the deep 
sea. When he neared the large boat, the men began to paddle with all 
their strength but the little canoe sailed quickly by them, and they heard 
the boy calling, "Use more strength so that sooner you may drink the 
water of Wailua. Paakaa, the first born, will eat the flying fish." 

Paakaa reached the dry sand long before the others and so the one 
hundred and sixty fish in the canoe were his. He shared them with the 
people who crowded around to see the strange sail, and who wondered 
at his cleverness. Then rolling up the sail, and putting the fish in a bag, 
Paakaa hurried home to tell his mother and uncle of his good fortune. 



Rice — Haivaiian Legends 73 

Laamaomao's happiness was very great and she said to her son, "1 
am rewarded for my care of you. You will bring life to my bones." 
Mailou was no less happy and it was a very cheerful family which that 
night enjoyed an evening meal of fish. Laamaomao did not forget her 
neighbors in her good fortune and they all were given some of the boy's 
first fish. 

At this time Paiea was king of Kauai. One day the desire to visit 
all the islands came to him, so he sent for his kahuna and soothsayers to 
learn from them the propitious time for starting on such a journey. 

These wise men informed him that the time for such an undertaking 
was at hand, but they advised him first to travel around his own island, 
Kauai. This advice the king accepted. 

Upon hearing of the king's intended journey, his retainers at Kapaa 
prepared to accompany him to Oahu, Maui and Hawaii. Paakaa's interest 
in these preparations was intense, and he begged to be allowed to go with 
them. He won their consent and at last his mother's also, though she 
feared that the king might abuse her son. 

When it became known that Paiea would visit his people, food and 
fish in abundance were prepared for the entertainment not only of the king 
but of his retainers and followers as well. 

Six months were spent in traveling around Kauai. Paakaa followed 
the king and his retainers, doing errands cheerfully and humbly. When 
the division of food was made he was never given any, but so much was 
wasted by others that he always had enough to eat. He was determined 
to be so useful that the retainers would take him to the other islands. 

As the time for leaving Kauai came near, Paakaa explained to his 
mother how eager he was to reach Hawaii where his father lived. And 
the mother wisely advised her son to go in meekness and not in pride, 
willing to serve others. Thus would he come to the valley of Waipio, on 
Hawaii, where his father dwelt with the king. 

There, she said, "You will see two aged, white-haired men, the king 
wearing a feather cloak and lei, and your father, holding a kahili. Without 
fear, sit on your father's lap, tell him that you are Paakaa, and then he 
will receive you and grant you all the blessings of life, property, and honor. 
At last, my child, you will come into your own as the son of the chief of 
Hawaii and the backbone of the king." 

Having spoken these words Laamaomao gave Paakaa a very finely 
polished calabash in a koko, or net, which she said contained the bones 
of his grandmother, Loa, and also the winds which blow from Hawaii 
and the winds which blow from Kaula, Bird Island. Paakaa took the cala- 
bash, and in surprise heard his mother say, "In her life your grandmother 



74 Beriiice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

controlled the winds. Before her death she put all tlie winds into this 
calabash and gave it to me. She told me that after her death her tones 
were to be concealed in the calabash with the winds. This I was to keep 
carefully until my son should need it. Now I place it in your keeping. 
You will find it very useful on your journey. If becalmed, )ou can sum- 
mon any wind you wish. If ridiculed, open the calabash and call for a 
fair wind which will carry you safely to land. This power to control the 
winds will win you much fame with kings." 

Then Laamaomao taught Paakaa the names of all the winds and the 
prayers and mcle used with each. Thus was her only son preparetl to go 
in search of the father he had never seen. 

In the meantime Paiea had collected a great crowd of high and low 
chiefs, retainers, and followers. So many canoes were needed to transport 
this crowd that when they put to sea the water between Kauai and Oahu 
became calm. The canoes looked like a great mass of clouds. 

This fleet of canoes landed at VVaikiki where the king was entertained 
with great pomp. After a few days Paiea went on to Molokai and Maui 
and came finally to Hawaii where a landing was made at Kohala. Here 
the people became alarmed upon seeing so many canoes and, believing it 
to be a battle fleet, prepared to attack the enemy. 

However, as soon as they recognized Paiea they sent word to their 
king, who ordered messengers to conduct him to Waipio. There he was 
given a great welcome. The people gladly brought presents of food so 
that the guests from Kauai had more than they could eat. That day the 
smoke from the many imu where pigs, chickens, taro. and bananas were 
cooking, obscured the sun. 

This hospitality did not last. The streams which had poured in food 
began to grow dry. Want came and Paiea's followers had to hunt food 
for themselves. So it always was. The first days of the stranger's visit 
were over supplied, the last days were neglected. 

As the days went by and the shortage of fo<id came, Paakaa, every- 
body's slave, was often hungry. Looking at the king and his chief advisor 
the boy would greatly amuse the crowd by saying, "If I can reach those 
two old men yonder I can have all I want." For these words he was ridi- 
culed. How could he ever hope to reach men so well guarded? Did he 
not know that to go into the king's presence meant death? 

But Paakaa waited his opportunity. One day he put on a fresh malo 
and tapa and watched for a moment when the soldiers were not looking. 
In an unguarded second he passed them and ran rapidly to his father and 
jumped onto his lap. 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 75 

Among the old Hawaiians it was the law of the land that only his own 
child could sit on his father's lap. So Kua-anuanu asked the name of 
this boy who had dared to break the kapit. When he heard the name, 
Paakaa, he knew that this was his son, born to the beloved wife he had 
left on Kauai and named by her as he had ordered. He pressed the boy 
to his heart and wept bitterly for the absent mother. 

Then he told the king of his marriage on Kauai. The king was de- 
lighted with Paakaa and said, "You must teach your son all you know so 
that if you sleep the long sleep before I do he can care for me." Messengers 
were sent to order the people to bring gifts for Paakaa, the king's new 
steward. They came with great rejoicing, carrying many presents of food 
and clothing. 

When Paiea and his followers saw into what a position Paakaa had 
fallen, they were afraid, for they recalled their unkind treatment of the 
boy. But Paakaa was forgiving and gladly divided all his gifts among 
the king and his retainers, according to the social standing of each person. 

So the son of Laamaomao had come into his own. As he grew in 
stature be became very handsome. In cultivation of the land, in navigation, 
in fishing, in astrology, Paakaa excelled all others. This skill brought 
him great favor with the king who gave him lands. Many of Paiea's 
retainers preferred to stay with him when their king returned to Kauai, and 
so he became next to the highest chief on Hawaii. 

In his good fortune Paakaa did not forget his mother and when Paiea 
went home he sent canoes loaded with gifts to her. Many times after- 
wards he sent canoe loads of presents to her, so that her days of want 
were ended. In adversity Laamaomao had had no friends. In prosperity 
many claimed relationship with her and attached themselves to her house- 
hold. 

\\'hen Paakaa had reached his twenty-fifth year his father fell ill. The 
kahuna who were summoned said that nothing could be done for him. 
Knowing that death was near, the faithful old chief called his son to his 
side and said, "My days on earth on growing few. I leave my king in 
your care. Listen to his commands at all times. Care for the food which 
is not eaten. Dry it and place it in calabashes. Care for the fish and the 
growing a<iva. Care for the king's subjects, high and low." 

After death had claimed Kua-anuanu there was great mourning in the 
land. The king and all his subjects wept bitterly for him, the most beloved 
of all on Hawaii. When the days of mourning were over Paakaa took his 
father's place. He was made head chamberlain, diviner, treasurer and navi- 
gator. He became the izvi-kiia-nioo, the backbone of the king. 



76 Bernicc P. Bishop Miiscuin — Bulletin 

At this time Kahikuokanioku, the prime minister, divided the govern- 
ment of the island into five sections, each section Ijeing placed under a 
chief. Under this system and Paakaa's guidance, Hawaii was at peace. 
The high and low loved Paakaa dearly, as he was very just in all his 
dealings. The king loved liim because he had even more ability than his 
father. 

However, as always happens, Paakaa had enemies who tried to under- 
mine him with the king. These were two men, Hookele-i-hilo, Navigator- 
to-Hilo, and Hookele-i-puna, Navigator-to-Puna, skillful navigators who 
could sail the seas and who could foretell weather conditions. In fact 
they knew almost as much about navigation as Paakaa did, but they lacked 
the calabash of winds. They wished for themselves the power and honor 
that belonged to the youthful Paakaa. So at every opportunity they com- 
plained and lied to the king about Paakaa and boasted of their own ability. 

Little by little the king was deceived by these lies and began to turn 
against his faithful servant, who never dreamed w-hat was going on. At 
last the time came when the king took away all Paakaa's canoes and all 
his land except two small lots, giving these possessions into the keeping of 
the boy's enemies. Paakaa was now only treasurer of the king and care- 
taker of his houses. 

Poor Paakaa was sore at heart, for he knew that he was unjustly 
treated. Soon the chiefs followed the king's example and gave him no 
honor and tried to find fault with him. Then Paakaa decided to go away. 
He placed some of the king's most beautiful malo in the calabash with the 
winds and set forth in his canoe. 

When his enemies saw him leaving they tried to capsize his canoe, 
but he escaped probable death by lashing mats to the canoe. Fortunately 
a fair wind followed him and lie reached Hilo safely where his cousin, 
I-apakahoe, the Flash-of-the-Paddle, was living, taking charge of Paakaa's 
lands there. Paakaa explained to Lapakahoe that he had fallen into dis- 
favor and was going away from Hawaii and the enemies he had un- 
wittingly made. So, alone, the discouraged Paakaa paddled his canoe and 
came in due time to Molokai, where a strange fate -lay in wait for him. 

0\\ Molokai lived a very beautiful woman, Hikauhi, the daughter of 
Hoolehua and Ilali. Now it happened that the girl's father had promised 
her hand to Palaau, the chief of that part of the island. But as soon as 
she had seen Paakaa, she forgot all about her former lover and demanded 
that the stranger be given to her. Palaau very generously consented, and 
.so they all lived in peace. Paakaa cultivated the lands well, fished skill- 
fully, and brought great prosperity to his wife and her family. 



Rice — Hazmiian Legends 77 

When a son was born to Hikauhi, Paakaa named him Ku-a-paakaa, 
Standing-in-the-Place-of-Paakaa, for his father and his grandfather. This 
child was brought up very carefully. His father taught him all the mele 
he had made for the king of Hawaii, for he believed that in time the king 
would miss him and would send for him, and he wanted the boy to be 
preparecl- He also taught the boy the names of all the winds of the 
islands as his mother, Laamaomao had taught him long before. 

In the meantime things were not going very smoothly with the king of 
Hawaii. At first his new servants had taken very good care of him but 
soon they became careless. After Paakaa had been gone several months, 
the king realized that these men were working only for themselves and 
were neglecting him sorely. He was patient as long as he could be, but 
ait last he decided to go in search of his faithful Paakaa. Summoning his 
soothsayers, his kahuna, and his diviners he asked them where to find 
Paakaa. They communed with the spirits of their ancestors and learned 
that Paakaa was still living, but his dwelling place was not known to them. 
They urged the king to delay his departure until a large fleet of canoes had 
been hewn out. 

So the king ordered all his people to join the canoe cutters and to hurry 
to the mountains. All those who were not able to go must prepare the 
food supply. The king hoped that these preparations could be easily and 
quickly made. He was doomed to disappointment. 

As soon as the first tree had been cut, two birds flew upon the branches, 
which was a sign that the tree was hollow. A second tree was cut, and 
again it was seen to be hollow. The cutters went from tree to tree, always 
with the same result. 

Then the king sent for the skilled sling throwers and the net catchers 
and the gum catchers but they were all unable to catch the two birds 
who were, in fact, ancestors of Paakaa, and who were trying to prove the 
king's aloha for the boy. 

At last from Kauai came Pikoi-a-kaalala, the Ambitious-One, the 
most skilled of all in shooting the bow and arrow. He could shoot off 
the head of a flower. He never missed a bird on the fly. 

The king greeted Pikoi warmly and made known to him the trouble 
he was having with the birds. Taking his bow and arrow, the skillful 
hunter hurried to the forest where the trees were being cut down and 
shot both birds. In vain he looked for the bodies of the troublesome birds. 
However, with the shooting of them, all difficulty was removed and two 
beautiful canoes were soon prepared for the king, and others were made 
ready for his retainers. 



78 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

In the meantime, on Molokai, I'aakaa had heard that the king was 
about to set forth to find him. This news pleased Paakaa very much and 
that night he dreamed that tlie spirit of the king came to him and told 
him that he was searching for him. In his dream Paakaa told the king 
that he would find him at Kaula. When he awoke and recalled his dream 
Paakaa was very sorry that he had directed the king wrongly. He decided 
that if his former lord passed Molokai, he would urge him to land there, 
for he knew that his son would be a great help to him. He also plotted 
in his heart revenge on his two enemies. 

Now it happened that Paakaa's house was too small to entertain the 
king and his retainers, and so Paakaa took his son with him into the 
mountains where they cut down trees to build larger houses. In a short 
time they had finished six houses of pili grass, one for each division of 
the island of Hawaii. 

As soon as the houses were finished Paakaa and his son planted six 
ridges of sweet potatoes and six of sugar-cane so that the king would 
have enough to eat. The king's delay because of the birds gave Paakaa 
ample time to finish his plans for the king's entertainment. 

On the night before the king was to leave Hawaii he dreamed that 
Paakaa's spirit came to him and said that he would find him on Kaula. In 
the morning all the kahuna, and paddlers, and steerers were summoned 
and told the dream. They declared that Paakaa was not on Kaula. The 
king dreamed again that Paakaa was on Kaula. When his kahuna still 
insisted that the dream was not true, the king decided to land on each 
island so that he could not miss his beloved servant. 

At last the canoes set out, the single canoes leading, the double canoes 
with supplies following. Next were the canoes with the head soldiers, the 
women, the common soldiers. Then capie the six chiefs, followed last of 
all by the king and his prime minister. .-X stately fleet whose going showed 
how well the king loved Paakaa. 

The first landing was made at Lahaina. There it was learned that 
Paakaa did not live on Maui, so the fleet went on. \\'hen Paakaa saw the 
canoes leaving ]\Iaui he called his son to go fishing with him. They got 
into their canoe, Paakaa sitting in the bow with his head so bowed that 
the king could not recognize him, the boy paddling. As they neared the 
fishing grounds they caught the first glimpse of the king's fleet. As the 
canoes came nearer Paakaa recognized those belonging to the six chiefs 
who were not real chiefs and whom he ridiculed by calling out, "You are 
an under-chief. You hid behind the sugar cane and ate sugar cane. And 
you also are only an eel catcher." So he ridiculed all the chiefs in order 
to arouse their anger. 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 79 

Ku-a-paakaa was anxious to know when the king would pass by, and 
his father told him that when the sun rose the king would come in a double 
canoe. On the pola of the canoe would be seen a large house for the 
king's god, Kaili, the Snatcher ; a small one for himself, and a still smaller 
one for the women. 

At last the king's canoe appeared and Paakaa called out, "As you pass 
by hold up your paddle, Lapakahoe." 

These words were told to the king by his messenger and the pilots 
received orders to approach Paakaa's canoe. As they neared Paakaa, he 
told his son to ask them to come ashore as a storm was coming. He also 
bade the boy ask them whom they were seeking. To this question some 
one answered, "We seek Paakaa, a servant of the king." 

This answer surprised Ku-a-paakaa, who said to his father, "They say 
that you are a servant. You told me you were a chief." 

Paakaa told his son to ask the question again, and this time he re- 
ceived this answer from the king, "He is not a real servant. He is a 
kahili bearer and my backbone." 

This answer made Ku-a-paakaa very happy and he sang a inelc in 
which he said that these canoes must be made from the great Hawaii of 
Kane, where the sun rises from the point of Haehae bringing aloha to the 
king, a friend in days of want when there is no food on the land. 

The prime minister answered the boy's mele in these words, "Do you 
not see, O boy. that these are the canoes of Ku and Lono, of Kane and 
Kanaloa, and all the multitude of gods? These canoes came from Hilo, 
the land of heavy rain, which makes the leaves fall from the trees. The 
land where leis are made from the hah' blossoms of Hapae." 

Now Ku-a-paakaa began to sing mele urging the canoes to come 
ashore as the clouds brought by the winds from Ha-o and Ha-ea were 
gathering on Kawainui, above Wailau, which foretold a storm. 

But the king's pilot answered, "Why should we listen to this boy? If 
we go ashore the canoes will be cracked and we will take the boy's bones 
to stop the leaks." 

Paakaa told his son to reply in this manner, "No one fills the cracks 
of canoes with the bones of a boy. Everyone takes a stone adz and cuts 
down a tree. When the tree is felled he cuts ofif the branches and then 
hews out the canoe. The bones of a dog or a pig are used to give polish 
to the canoe." 

The king's companions were surprised to hear the boy answer so wisely. 
Thinking that he probably knew the weather signs of his own island, the 
prime minister asked him to tell them. 



80 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Miisciivi — Bidlclin 

Ku-a-paakaa replied, "A storm will come. The wind will turn your 
canoes around and bring you back. So far. the wind from Hawaii has 
helped you. Soon an adverse wind will roughen tlie sea." 

Then Kua-a-paakaa recited the names of all the winds of Hawaii, and 
also all the winds of Oahu and Kauai. When asked how he happened to 
know all the winds he answered that all the boys knew them. 

To this one of the paddlers cried out, "That is not true. Only two 
people know all the winds, my cousin, Paakaa, and I. Do you know where 
Paakaa is? Is he on this island?" 

But the boy would not tell the hiding ])lace of his father, saying that 
he had heard that it was on Kaula. 

When the prime minister asked who was in the Ixjw of his canoe the 
boy replied, "That is m)- father who is deaf and does not hear your 
words." 

All this delay was very annoying to the paddlers who were anxious 
to be oflf, even though their king urged them to go ashore. They vowed 
that if they ever reached Oahu safely, they would return and put the 
impudent boy to death. 

The king was very much interested in the boy and asked his name. 
"Come ashore and you shall hear my name," was the only answer he 
received. 

In siMte of all his efforts the boy was unable to persuade the paddlers 
to land. So he tried something more powerful than words. Opening his 
calabash of winds he called, "Blow winds from Kauai against them. Blow 
winds of Oahu and Hawaii from the side. Blow winds of Maui and Molo- 
kai behind them." 

At once the clouds arose, the heavens became dark, the thunder roared, 
the lightning flashed, and the sea became very rough. 

When the kii^g saw these signs of bad weather he was very angry 
with his paddlers who had told him that clear weather would prevail. He 
called out, "The wind is coming, the stones are rolling, a great storm is 
at hand. I urged you to listen to the boy, but you only ridiculed him. Now 
the deep sea will engulf us and we shall be lost. Would that we had gone 
ashore." 

No sooner had he spoken than the storm struck the first canoes, cap- 
sizing some of them and the strong current carried many of the sailors 
away. Soon the sea filled all the canoes. As the king's canoes went to 
the help of the smaller ones death came very near to the great king of 
Hawaii. The sea washed away the food and fish and clothing. The men 
and their king clinig to the canoes though they were chilled to the bone 



Rice—Haicaiiaii Legends 81 

by the cold rain. Then the king in anger called for Paakaa, his beloved 
servant, the only person who could take him safely on a journey. 

As soon as Paakaa sav^f the sad plight of the king he ordered his son 
to close the calabash of winds. At once the sea became calm. The sun 
shone brightly. The sailors swam back to their canoes and began to bail 
out the water. 

The king looked about and seeing that Molokai was the only land near 
them, he ordered the canoes to return to the place where the boy was 
fishing. 

As the canoes approached, Paakaa told his son to say that the entrance 
to their harbor was very crooked. If they would enter it safely they must 
follow him. 

Reaching the boy the king called out. "It came to pass as you said. 
The storm rose and our canoes were badly damaged. Now we have come 
back to you for help." 

Remembering his father's warning Ku-a-paakaa replied, "If you had 
come into the harbor when I warned you there would have been no dan- 
ger. Now the tide is high and we must go carefully or your canoes will 
be cast on the rocks and you will have none with which to find Paakaa or 
to return to Hawaii." 

So they followed the boy, and the first canoes safely reached the sandy 
beach. 

No sooner had Paakaa's canoe touched land then he jumped ashore 
and ran as quickly as possible to the house where he had stored the food, 
for he hoped to hide himself there. It happened that Lapakahoe saw him 
running and noticed how much he resembled Paakaa. 

By evening of this day all the canoes had returned and were safely 
landed. The king sat on the pola. wet and unhappy, for all his clothing 
had been lost. 

Seeing the king's sad state Ku-a-paakaa hurried to his father and told 
him. Paakaa sent the king's own clothing, which he had brought with 
him from Hawaii, to the unhappy king who was surprised to see clothing 
which so much resembled his own. He gave the boy his wet nuiio which 
he carried to his father. Paakaa hung it over the door, so that no one 
would dare to enter the room made kapit by the king's clothing. 

Paakaa also sent to his king the tapas he had brought from Hawaii, 
telling his son to say that his mother had made them and scented them 
with sweet smelling herbs. 

As vi'ith the inalo the king thought that the tapa looked familiar and 
remarked, "Only on Hawaii is this tapa made. Paakaa always took care 
of my tapas. Can he be on this island?" 



82 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

But the boy replied that his mother had made them in an inaccessible 
valley for him, her only son and a high chief. 

Ku-a-paakaa directed each of the six chiefs to the houses which had 
been prepared by his father and where nothing was lacking for his comfort. 

The king was waited upon by the boy whose adroitness very much 
pleased him. As night fell the boy heard him say, "My aloha for Paakaa 
is great. At this time of evening he was wont to prepare the sweet azva 
that brought happy dreams. Together we drank and then lay down to 
sleep." 

These words Ku-a-paakaa told to his father, who at once sent him 
to the king with the awa strainer, the prepared awa, and a large piece of 
axva root. When the king ordered him to chew the otca the boy was to 
pretend to do so, but instead he was to give him the prepared aiva. This 
would be done so quickly that the king would be greatly pleased. Then 
he was to run to the sea and bring live fish for the king. 

Ku-a-paakaa did all these things as he was told and the king's admira- 
tion was great, for the boy had done his work like a man. Happier than 
he had been for some time, the king drank the an'a and lay down to 
happy dreams. All his followers, wearied by events of the day, followed 
his example and soon sleep claimed them all. 

As they slept, Ku-a-paakaa released some of the winds and a great 
storm arose which would delay their going. 

Then Paaka and his son counseled together how they could destroy the 
king's two navigators who had so unjustly taken Paakaa's place. 

After much thought Paakaa explained his plan to his son thus, "Take 
this hollow log to your grandfather's house. When the food which we have 
supplied for each chief is gone we shall give each one a ridge planted 
with potatoes. Ask them not to throw away any of the small potatoes. 
These must be cooked and given to your grandfather who will store them 
carefully away in the hollow log. He will also store away dried fish and 
will fill the gourds with water. When the day for leaving comes the king 
will urge you to accompany him. Consent if he allows you to take your 
bundle with you. Besides the log you must take a large stone fastened to 
a coil of rope. After you have passed through the channel between Oahu 
and Kauai and have neared Waimea, release some stormy winds from the 
calabash. Then cast the stone into the sea and anchor the canoes. When 
the cold winds have chilled the men. give all but my two enemies a palm 
leaf to shield themselves from the rain. .\lso give them dried fish, potatoes, 
and water. Keep doing this until the two navigators are chilled almost 
to death. Then cover the calabash of winds and take the king back to 
Hawaii." 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 83 

The boy listened carefully to his father's words and prepared to do as 
he was told. 

When the stormy month of February had passed one of the chiefs re- 
ported to the king that their food was all gone. The king then summoned 
Ku-a-paakaa and asked for food. The boy told the king that he had six 
hills of potatoes and six hills of sugar-cane on the uplands ready for him. 

"How can six hills of potatoes and six hills of sugar-cane supply my 
many people?" asked the king. 

The boy answered that when the potatoes and cane saw the number of 
people, they would bear abundantly, and so all the people must go up into 
the highlands. He told this tale so that the lazy ones would work. 

The king sent only half the men to do the work. They were surprised 
when they saw the fields of potatoes and sugar-cane stretching away farther 
than the eye could reach. Messengers were sent for the rest of the men 
and they were all soon busy digging. Ku-a-paakaa told them to take all, 
big and small, for he wanted the small ones dried. "You will have eaten 
all my growing food during the stormy months and I must have dried 
food until I can plant some more," he explained, wishing to keep his 
father's plan secret. 

At last when all preparations were made the calabash was closed and 
the sea became calm. Ku-a-paakaa ordered the chiefs to lash the canoes 
together and to float them in the bay, ready to sail them when the morning 
star appeared. They lay down to sleep until the king's crier should awaken 
them. 

Very early Ku-a-paakaa called them saying, "Awake ! Awake ! It is 
half way between night and day. Your weariness is gone. The morning 
star is rising." 

When they realized that it was only the boy calling them, they were 
very angry and refused to get up. But he kept calling them until at last 
he aroused them, and the six chiefs left without their king. They had had 
so little sleep that when they lay off Leahi, Diamond Head, they fell 
asleep. Then the winds were sent which turned their canoes around and 
drove them back to the coast of Hawaii. There they met their families 
and there was great rejoicing for they had been given up as lost. 

Meantime on Molokai the king and his followers slept until day dawned. 
Then the king sent for Ku-a-paakaa and asked him to go with them. At 
first the boy refused, saying that he must stay with his old people. At 
last he consented to go if he could take his bundles with him. The king 
sent two messengers for these bundles. The messengers were greatly sur- 



84 Beniicc P. Bisliop Miisciiin — DitUctin 

prised when they saw a heavy stone and the hollow log as long as the 
canoe. 

"The king would never have consented to take your bundles if he had 
seen their size. You are indeed a strange boy to call a stone and a log 
bundles. We have been working for the king from childhood up and we 
have never seen bundles like these,'' cried one messenger. 

To this complaint Ku-a-paakaa answered, "Did you not bring womep 
with you? Were they not like stones which never work?" 

And so the messengers carried the strange bundles to the paddlers. 
who were very angry and said that the king would refuse to take them. 
I>ut the king did not interfere, and at la.st the bundles were loaded on the 
canoe. 

Then Ku-a-paakaa hurried to the hiding place of his father and told 
him that everything was ready. Paakaa urged his son to remember all 
that he had made known to him. 

"I am only a boy. If I am killed it is well. If I kill your enemies 
then you will be avenged," was the son's reply to his father. 

So he returned to the king and a fair wind drove the canoes gently 
along. The skill of the paddlers pleased the boy greatly and he asked to 
hold one of the paddles but was refused. 

After they had passed Oahu and lay ofif Waimea on Kauai, Ku-a-paakaa 
opened his calabash of winds and released some stormy winds which quickly 
blew the canoes out to sea. As before, the sea grew angry, and great 
waves dashed against the canoes, driving them out to the deep water. 
But the king was not afraid. Peace filled his mind because Ku-a-paakaa 
was with him. When the king asked what to do, the boy replied, "Anchor 
the canoe with my big stone which will keep us in one place, so that we 
shall not be blown out of sight of land. When the storm is over we can 
reach land." 

Then the byy carried out all the plans his father had so carefully made 
known to him. 

He gave food and water to the men. He gave them the palm leaves 
to protect themselves against the wind. The two enemies of his father 
were given nothing. The enemies realized that death would probably 
overtake them, but they patiently suffered and asked for nothing. As 
Ku-a-paakaa saw them growing colder and colder, he knew that his 
father would soon be avenged. 

At last Hookele-i-hilo fell into the sea. The people cried, "Alas!" but 
they were too busy saving themselves to grieve. Soon Hookele-i-puna 
followed his friend and again the people exclaimed, "Alas!" So these 
two false friends of the king died the death they had plotted for Paakaa. 



Rice — Haivaiian Legends 85 

When Ku-a-paakaa knew that his father's enemies were dead he cov- 
ered his calabash and at once the sea became calm. The king asked him 
to take the place of the dead navigators, and so the boy was in command. 

The sun shone brightly and, warming up the king and his followers, 
soon put them all to sleep. Then Ku-a-paakaa turned the canoe toward 
Molokai and released from the calabash a fair wind which carried them 
swiftly along. 

At dawn the king was surprised to find the canoe lying off Hawaii. 
Great excitement prevailed in the canoe and on land, for often it had 
seemed that there would be no returning. 

The men in the canoe were anxious to land at once. Ku-a-paakaa 
knew that in the glad homecoming he would be forgotten and so, indeed, 
it came to pass. Each man was welcomed by his own. The great crowd 
was filled with joy to see the king again. As soon as the wailing and the 
reciting of mele was ended all hurried to their homes. No one thought 
of the boy who was left alone in the canoe. As he saw the smoke rising 
from the intu he realized how hungry he was, and hoped that someone 
would remember him. But the king thought the people were caring for 
him and the people thought that he was surely with the king. 

Thus it happened that Ku-a-paakaa found himself at evening alone and 
forgotten. He prepared to spend the night in the canoe and to eat what 
he could find in the hollow log. Great loneliness filled his heart and he 
longed for his home. 

For several days the boy saw no one. Then he heard the head fisher- 
man ordering all the men to prepare the canoes for a flying-fish drive. He 
asked to be allowed to accompany them, promising to bail out the water 
and not to claim any share in the fish caught. So it came about that Ku-a- 
paakaa, plotting much in his heart, was taken into one of the canoes. 

The fish drive was very successful. Each man was given forty fish 
and started for his own landing. Ku-a-paakaa, paddling with two com- 
panions, saw a larger canoe with six paddlers. He at once challenged this 
canoe to a race, the fish being placed as the wager. His friends were not 
eager to paddle against so many, so he told them to join the others and he 
would paddle alone. He took the precaution his father had taken so many 
years before of insisting that all the fish be placed in his canoe. 

Then the race began. At first the eight paddlers quickly out-distanced 
the one. But Ku-a-paakaa prayed to his grandmother, "Give me a large 
surf so that I can reach the shore safely. Then we shall eat flying fish 
together." 



86 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Looking back he saw a liuge wave which carried him swiftly to shore 
and landed him safely on the sand. Then he carried all the fish to the 
king's canoe where he concealed them. 

The paddlers in the larger canoe feared to ride such a big surf. They 
felt sure that the boy would wreck his canoe. So they waited until the 
quiet water followed the big wave and then they paddled ashore. When 
they saw that all the fish were gone they were very angry and challenged 
the boy to another race. 

Ku-a-paakaa consented to a second race, but said that he had nothing 
to wager. They replied that they would wager their bones. The boy 
said, "I do not want to wager my bones. I am a wanderer here. I have 
no friends. If you lose the race and are killed your families and friends 
will wail for you. I'll wager those two double canoes yonder." 

"But those canoes belong to the king. How can you wager them ?" 
they asked. 

The boy replied. "The king was a passenger with me. I have cared 
for the canoes for many days." 

Still they insisted that only bodies should be wagered and at last 
Ku-a-paakaa consented, saying that no blame could be placed on him for 
laying this wager. 

They set the day of Kau. Midsummer Day, for the race. Each con- 
testant was to have a canoe six fathoms long. The loser was to pay the 
penalty by death in an iniii. 

Ku-a-paakaa, knowing that these eight fishermen had received positions 
at the hands of his father's enemies, saw his father's complete revenge 
growing nearer. 

The story of the coming race spread all over the island. Eight fisher- 
men had been beaten by a small unknown boy! They would again try 
their luck on the day of Kau! Such was the news which reached the 
king's ears and great was his astonishment, for strange as it may seem, 
he never once remembered the wonderful boy who had saved his life. 

People gathered from all over Hawaii to .see the race. Men, women, 
and children hurried to the place of interest bringing with them pigs, 
dogs, feather cloaks, tapas, and other things, A few wanted to wager on 
the boy ; many risked everything on the eight fishermen. 

As the sun rose on the day of Kau. it saw the king's fishermen lifting 
their canoe into the water, preparing the iviu and collecting the wood to 
cook their victim. When everything was prepared they called Ku-a-paakaa 
to begin the race. 

But the boy replied, "First we must have ready two surf boards. The 
ones who reach the shore first must come in on the surf board four times." 



Rice — Ha'caiiaii Legends 87 

Tlie fishermen were so eager to be off that they consented. In their 
excitement the length of the course was not determined upon. So they 
paddled out until they could just see the tops of the houses. Ku-a-paakaa 
had asked to stop before this, but they would not listen to him. 

As they turned their canoes around the boy said to them, "If you had 
chosen a shorter course you might have beaten me. Now I shall win. 
Already I feel pity for your families." 

The command to start was given. In their excitement the king's fisher- 
men did not paddle together as skilled paddlers. Seeing their confusion, 
Ku-a-paakaa knew that he would win. He followed in the swell of their 
canoe, having only to steer his canoe, ^\'hen the fishermen saw him close 
behind them they paddled with might and main. 

"Paddle! Paddle for your lives!" called out Ku-a-paakaa. 

As the canoes neared the shore the crowd saw the king's fishermen 
ahead and a shout of joy went up from their friends. But the fishermen 
were very weary. Some had dropped their paddles ; some had no strength 
left to lift the paddles which hung from their hands. Then the boy shot 
ahead and the cry, "The boy is ahead! He is winning!" aroused anger in 
the hearts of those who were supporting the king's fishermen. 

After Ku-a-paakaa had touched land, he ran for a surf board and rode 
the breakers four times as had been arranged. 

\\'hen the eight fishermen had brought their canoe ashore, they threw 
themselves on the sand and bitterly regretted having wagered their bones. 
They saw the iinu ready to receive them and knew that death would soon 
be their fate. A great aloha for their wives, and children, and friends 
filled their hearts. They wept bitterly as they saw the unknown boy collect- 
ing the rich rewards of his victory. 

A messenger had hurried to the king with the news of the boy's victory. 
Then the king remembered the boy who had saved his life and had 
brought him safely back to Hawaii, and so he sent his servant to conduct 
the boy to him. 

Ku-a-paakaa gladly hurried into the king's presence. At once the king 
recognized the bo\' who had saved him from a bitter death at sea and 
called him to come before him. The boy, remembering the kapu, hesitated, 
but the king removed the kapii and Ku-a-paakaa crawled before him. The 
king embraced him and wept over him. regretting that he had forgotten 
him in his happy return home. 

Then the head steward was called to prepare a meal of the best food 
from the king's own table. As Ku-a-paakaa ate he told the king how he 
had lived in the canoe, eating the food left from the voyage. 



88 Beniice P. Bishop Museiiin — Bulletin 

"Ainve, ainve! cried the king. '"Unhappy man that I am to have thus 
rewarded one who saved my bones and brought me home from a strange 
land. You foretold that you would be left where the canoes were drawn 
up and so it has come about. It is my fault and not the fault of my men. 
Is it you who raced with my eight fishermen? Tell me the wager." 

Ku-a-paakaa told him that in the first race the wager had been their 
fish, in the second it had been their bones. He continued, "When I left the 
shore the imu was being prepared. The men are to be thrown in when it 
is red hot." 

The king wept bitterly for his men. The boy told him that this wager 
was of their own choosing. He had wanted to wager canoes. 

The king cried, "O boy, if you have aloha for me, spare the lives of 
my eight fishermen who supply me with fish. They are very skillful and 
never go out without bringing in fish." 

To this prayer the boy answered, "I do love you, but I nuist not spare 
the lives of these men. If you wish to see Paakaa again you cannot spare 
the lives of these men." 

The king replied, "Bring Paakaa to me. When I see him I shall con 
sent to the death of my fishermen." 

"Do you recall the first time we met at sea?" asked the boy. "You saw 
an old man sitting in the bow of my canoe. That was Paakaa. He did not 
wish to return to Hawaii until his enemies were killed. I am Paakaa's son. 
My name is Ku-a-paakaa — so named from the cracks in your skin. The 
tapas which I gave you when you were wet from the sea were those that 
my father had carried with him from Hawaii." 

The king was filled with delight at these words, for he knew that he 
would see his beloved Paakaa again. He ordered his eight fishermen 
thrown into the imu. He started the boy off for IMolokai at once to bring 
Paakaa to him. 

When Ku-a-paakaa had left Molokai with the king, his mother had 
bitterly reproached his father for allowing their only child to go away 
from them. She knew that death at sea would overtake her only son. 
Paakaa told her not to grieve for the boy would return. He urged her to 
look towards Maui and she would soon see the mat sail of a canoe. The 
canoe would belong to the boy who had sent death to the two navigators 
and the eight fishermen. Then they would know that all those who had 
estranged him from the king were dead. 

All these assurances of her son's safety failed to lessen the mother's 
anxiety. Nevertheless, she spent h^r days looking for the mat sail of a 



Rice — Hatvaiian Legends 89 

canoe. At last she saw it. Father and mother were overcome with joy. 
As their son stepped ashore his mother pressed him to her heart. 

Paakaa heard the story of the boy's adventures from the day he had 
left Molokai until his return. When he heard the king's command that 
he return to Hawaii he asked, "What gifts did the king give you?" 

"He gave me nothing," replied Ku-a-paakaa. "He will give you boun- 
tiful gifts when you return." 

"Without promised gifts there is no use in my returning," answered 
Paakaa. "Better that I stay on Alolokai where I have something to call 
my own." 

In vain Ku-a-paakaa urged his father to return with him to care for the 
king who had lost all his servants. Paakaa said that when the king had 
restored his position and lands, then only would he return. 

Ku-a-paakaa stayed with his parents for three days, resting and prepar- 
ing to go back to the king. When he had not returned by the evening of 
the second day, the king sent his prime minister with many canoes to con- 
duct Paakaa and his son back to Hawaii. 

When the sun had reached its zenith on the third day, Paakaa saw the 
canoes nearing the land and he knew that the king had sent for his son. 

As Lapakahoe, now the prime minister, saw his cousin, Paakaa, he 
threw his arms about him and they wailed together. After this greeting 
the prime minister asked his old friend why he had not made himself 
known to the king before. Paakaa replied that he had wanted to test the 
king's aloha for him and to get his revenge on those who had wronged 
him. 

Then he called his wife, the daughter of a chief of Molokai, whom he 
had married when he had come as a stranger to the island, and introduced 
her to the king's men. 

Paakaa promised to return to Hawaii if the king would restore his 
lands and position. The prime minister promised all in the name of the 
king, and with his canoes loaded with gifts set out for home. 

When the king saw his men returning without Paakaa he was very 
sad. But when he had heard Paakaa's promise he ordered his men to 
prepare a fleet of two hundred canoes to go for his beloved servant. He 
kept Ku-a-paakaa with him. 

As this great fleet neared Molokai, the people there thought that it 
must be a f^eet fishing for flying fish. But they soon realized that it had 
come for Paakaa, who returned to Hawaii like a king with friends and 
retainers. His king wept over him and gave him position and lands be- 
fitting so faithful a servant. So Paakaa lived in peace and honor for 
many years. 



90 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

HOLUA-MANU 

A LEGEND OF KAUAI 

Manu, Bird, lived with his parents in the mountains above Waimea 
valley. His greatest delight was to slide down the steep pali sides on his 
sled. 

This sport caused his parents a great deal of worry, for they feared 
that he would meet with some accident. So they placed two immense 
rocks on the path he used most. But Manu could not be stopped by this. 
He jumped over the rocks, and struck the path below. However, he did 
not enjoy the jar, so he climbed back, and rolled one of the rocks down 
to the river, where it stands today, as large as a house. 

Manu's parents prevented his crossing the river by sending a freshet 
to stop him. The freshet would start at the same moment that Manu 
started to slide and it would always reach the river first. 

At last, discouraged, Manu took his sled, and went to the highest pali 
of the Waimea valley, where he enjoyed his sport, without interruption. 
This s{K)t is still called Ka-holua-manu, or the SHde-of-Manu. 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 91 

THE GIRL AND THE MO-O 

A LEGEND OF KAUAI 

Living at Holuamanu in the mountains above Makaweli, was a family 
in which there was one child, a girl, who caused her parents much annoy- 
ance by her continual crying. In a cave beneath a waterfall nearby lived 
a mo-o, which looked like a huge lizard or crocodile. One day when the 
child was crying as usual, her father in anger pushed her out of the 
house, saying thoughtlessly, "Go to the mo-o and live with him." 

The child hurried to the cave and was welcomed by the mo-o who 
gladly cared for her and carefully brought her up. On warm, sunny days 
the girl and the monster would come out above the waterfall and sun 
themselves. If anyone approached, the mo-o would jump over the fall 
into the cave, and the girl would spring through a hole which led into it. 

As the years went by the girl's parents grew more and more anxious 
to recover their child. Asking advice of the kahuna, they were told to 
cover the hole above the waterfall with a net, to trap her. One day they 
did as they were told. Soon the mo-o and the girl came out. The parents 
approached and the mo-o safely jumped over the waterfall, but the girl 
was caught in the net. Realizing that there was no escape for her, she 
cried, "In my youth you drove me from you. The mo-o cared for me. 
Now, why do you want me again?" 

She was like a wild animal, struggling to be free. Not daring to keep 
her so near the cave the parents moved to Waimea, where gradually they 
tamed the girl, until she grew accustomed to her old life. She had become 
very beautiful and later she was married to the prince of Waimea. 



92 Bernice P. Bishof^ Museum — Bulletin 

NAMAKA-O-KA-OPAE 

A LECliXD OF KAUAI 

Tliere lived at Holtiamanu a women whose husliand had been enticed 
away by another. Seeking advice, the unhappy wife went to her grand- 
mother, who was a kahuna, Uving at the mouth of a little valley near 
Holiiamanu. The grandmother told her to bring two // leaves and she 
would show her how to destroy her rival. 

When the girl returned her grandmother noticed that she had two 
stalks of ti instead of two leaves, so she tore off the leaves she wanted 
and threw the stalks away. One fell to the right of a little waterfall 
nearby and one to the left where they are growing to this day. 

Then the old woman gave these instructions to the girl, "Take these 
leaves. Make them clean, and glossy and smooth. Place them on the 
crest of the waterfall. Go below and sit perfectly still on the rocks. Wait 
there until your rival comes. When she comes she will pick up a stone to 
throw at you. Not seeing the glossy // leaves, she will slip on them and 
fall at your feet." 

The miserable wife quickly followed out her grandmother's instruc- 
tions and in a short time her rival was lying at her feet. Snatching a 
large stone she threw it on to the woman's stomach and killed her. Today 
in the clear water of the stream is seen a rock in the shape of a woman 
on whose stomach still lies the rock thrown by the angry wife. 

After having killed her rival, the wife tore out the eyes from the dead 
body and, wrapping them in ti leaves, she threw them into the w-ater. 
Then she followed the stream until she came to a second small waterfall 
under which she saw her husband sitting. She dropped a rock on his head 
which crushed in his skull and left his mouth wide open. By this time 
her rival's eyes had floated down stream. She placed the eyes in her hus- 
band's mouth, saying, "Here is your meat." 

He was also turned to stone, and this rock, lying in the stream, can 
still be seen by passersby. From the ledge above, it looks like the crushed- 
in skull of a inan, with open mouth, and bulging eyes that glitter still as if 
alive. By the Hawaiians, this rock is still called Namaka-o-ka-opae, the 
Eyes-of-the-Shrimp. 



Rice — Hazcaiian Legends 93 

KAN A 

A LEGEND OF HAWAII 

Kana was the grandson of Uli, the supernatural womaB who was mar- 
ried to the god Ku. UH was born in Hilo. One of her brothers, Manua, 
hved in the underworld. Another brother, Wakea, had his home in the 
land where all the islands were born. They were all very high chiefs. 

To Uli and Ku was born a very beautiful child whom they called 
Haka-lani-leo, the Listener-to-the-Heavenly- Voice. As Haka-lani-leo grew 
older, she became the most beautiful woman of her time. Her skin was 
like the sun as it rises, or like the feathers of the iiiaiiio. 

Haka-lani-leo married Ha'ka, King of Hilo, and to this union twelve 
sons were born. Eleven of these children possessed supernatural powers. 
Ten of them were ten feet tall. The eleventh son, Niheu, was much 
shorter than his brothers, being only five feet in height. Great wisdom was 
given to him. He could count even the hairs of his head. 

These boys liked to test their strength by trying to lift a large ulua, 
ten fathoms and a yard long, that lived in the pond at Waiakea. Each boy 
would try to lift this fish to his shoulder. None succeeded but the small 
Niheu. 

The twelfth and )oungest son of Haka-lani-leo, Kana, came into the 
world in the form of a piece of rope and was at once thrown into the pig 
pen. The spirit of this child went to his grandmother, Uli, and begged 
her to save him. Uli departed at once for Hilo. 

When the people saw her coming they called, "There comes the old 
woman, Uli. What brings her here? She has never come when her other 
grandsons were born." 

As soon as Uli reached her daughter's home she asked, "Where is 
the little stranger that has come?" 

"No stranger has come. We saw only a piece of rope which we threw 
into the pig pen," someone answered. "What do you want it for?" 

Uli was led to the spot where the rope had been thrown. A pig was 
just about to devour this strange looking object, but Uli picked it up and 
placed it in her calabash. When she reached her home she put the piece 
of rope into a calabash of water, saying, "It will never do if you come 
forth from the water with a pig"s snout." 

Uli watched the water closely and when she saw a snout appearing she 
quickly placed the rope in another calabash of water and soon a child 
appeared. 



94 Beniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

The happy grandmother placed the baby on the mats, and made a 
bower of maile, ieie and lehua branches to shade it from the sun. Then 
UH went to work in her garden, which was very dear to her. and in whicli 
she was always busy. 

About noon, the grandmother returned and stopped the child's crying 
by food. So Uli cared for her youngest grandson for forty days. By that 
time he was forty fathoms long. As he grew in stature she enlarged the 
bovver over him. 

On the celebrated hill. Haupu, on the island of Molokai, lived Keoloewa, 
the king. With him were Pepee, Crooked-One, his general ; Mo-i, High- 
Chief, his kahuna; Moikeha, the High-Chief-who-Objects, his astrologer; 
and his three plover messengers, Kolea, or Plover: Ulili, or Sand-Piper; 
and Akekeke, or Snipe. 

One day the king decided that he would marry, so he sent his bird 
messengers to find the most beautiful woman on earth, whose skin should 
be like the rising sun. The birds flew everywhere, looking for a woman 
who would answer the king's description. They found none until they had 
returned to Hilo and there they saw Haka-lani-leo, the most beautiful 
woman in the world, bathing in the sea by night. 

At once the birds flew back to their king and told him that they had 
seen a woman whose skin was like the oo and all the other beautiful birds 
of Hawaii. 

Keoloewa decided that this wonderful woman should be his wife. He 
ordered a double canoe prepared for the journey. The birds flew ahead 
to show the way. They came to the harbor of Hilo just at dusk. There 
they waited patiently until the first cock crowed, and then they heard a 
sweet voice singing. The canoe was drifting in the water, where this 
beautiful woman usually rode the surf. 

Just as Haka-lani-leo noticed the dark object, a voice called to her, 
"O beautiful woman, come here and rest before you ride the surf." 

The woman swam to the canoe and getting into it was lost in admira- 
tion of its decorations which were made of the feathers of beautiful birds. 
It was not until the canoe was being rapidly paddled for Molokai, that 
she realized that she was being carried away. Then she began to mourn 
for her husband and her home at Hilo. 

As the days passed and his wife did not return, Ha'ka sent his people 
to hunt on land and sea for her. She had disappeared completely. No 
one could find her. 

Then the king called his eleven sons together and asked each one what 
he should do to find their beautiful mother. He came at last to Niheu 
who, absently stirring up the fire with a long stick, answered in these 



Rice — Ha-a'ciiian Legoids 95 

words : "The sea divides Hawaii from Alolokai, where the wife you are 
weeping for is held a prisoner in the strong fortress of Haupu." 

This answer made the king angry with Niheu whom he taunted because 
of his size. Niheu showed that even though he was small he was very 
strong. He jumped to the top of his house and, seizing the rafters, pulled 
the building down. Then he beat the ground with his stick and formed 
eight valleys with precipices so high that only the koac, the huge white 
tropic birds, could fly to their summits. 

After he had done these things he said to his father, "Now you have 
seen what strength I have. But, alas, my strength is great only on this 
island. If my mother were on Hawaii I could get her for you, but she 
is on Molokai." 

One day when Uli and her grandson, Kana, were working in their 
garden in the mountains they heard a great shouting coming from the 
seashore. Uli said that Kana's brothers were trying to lift the large ulua. 

When Kana heard what his brothers were doing he was very anxious 
to test his strength with them. So he waited until his grandmother was 
busy, and then, after having shortened his body, he secretly hurried to- 
wards the spot where the boys were trying to lift the fish to their shoulders. 

As he neared the pond of Waiakea, Kana asked the children why there 
was such a great noise. They replied that the chiefs were trying to lift 
the big fish, but only the smallest chief could do it. 

Kana was greatly surprised that his tall brothers could not lift the 
fish, and said to the children, "Those men must be very weak if they can- 
not lift that fish." 

One of the children told the chiefs that an unknown boy was making 
fun of their strength. He was led before them and one of the brothers 
asked, "Did you say that we were weaklings because we could not carry 
this fish? Try to lift the fish yourself, if such strength belongs to you." 

Kana at once jumped into the pond and turned the head of the fish 
towards the deep water. As the fish swam into the sea Kana held on to 
its tail and was carried to Keahua and then back to the pond again. There 
he easily lifted the fish to his shoulder, and walked away with it. 

When the astonished crowd saw this demonstration of strength, they 
cried, "This is the strongest boy of all." 

These words angered the older chiefs, who felt that their strength had 
been ridiculed in the eyes of the people, for strength was possessed by 
those of high birth only, and to have a boy of unknown parentage surpass 
them was a great insult. 

So Niheu cried that the boy was carrying the fish, belonging to the 
chiefs, to his heiau, where he would sacrifice it in gratitude for his strength. 



96 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

In fact Kana's only thought was to carry his prize home to his grand- 
mother. As he passed the heiau of Niheu, Kana was seized and carried 
into the heiau wliere he was tied to the main post. Leaving him there, 
his captors carried the fish back to the pond. It had been out of water 
so long that it was very weak. 

As Uli was working in her fields, the thought came to her that all was 
not well with her grandson, Kana. So, not finding him at home, she 
hurried to her other grandchildren. 

When Niheu saw her he asked, "Do you know who that boy is, who 
tried to steal our fish? We have tied him up in the heiau for attempting 
to carry off the chiefs' fish." 

Uli looked at the captive and at once saw that he was Kana. Turning 
to Niheu she replied, "That boy is no thief. I le is your lord. You were 
born as a child. He was born as a piece of rope. That is the reason 
you did not know your brother." 

Then Uli told Kana to walk. At once all his ropes fell off, and in hi3 
anger he began to tear down the heiau. Uli, fearing that the boy would 
entirely destroy the sacred place, ordered him to return with her to their 
mountain home. 

As soon as the brothers had recovered from their surprise over the 
knowledge that Kana was living with their grandmother, Niheu told them 
that he was going into the mountains to build canoes with which to go to 
Molokai in search of his mother. 

In the mountains he looked for timber suitable for his canoe. He soon 
found two wiliwili trees, seven feet in diameter. 

The following day he felled these trees with two mighty strokes of his 
ax and commenced hewing them out. By evening he had almost finisbed 
them, so he decided to return in the morning. 

Niheu was unable to sleep that night because he was very anxious about 
his canoes. As soon as daylight came, he hurried to the place where he 
was building them and was greatly astonished to find them standing up 
and growing again. He left them and looked for other trees suitable for 
canoes. 

Having found two koa trees, Niheu cut them down with two strokes 
and, as on the previous day, almost finished the canoes by evening. .A-gain 
he went home for the night. 

At daylight he returned to the spot where he had left his unfinished 
canoes. He found these standing up and growing. The boy was very 
angry and muttered to himself, "This is the work of my grandmother, Uli. 
She wishes to bring my work to naught. She is a cruel woman to cast this 
spell upon nie. I shall kill her." 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 97 

For four days Niheii wandered here and there in the woods, hunting 
for Uli's home. At last UH came upon him and asked : "Why have you 
wandered in the forest so long?" 

Niheu replied, "You will soon see why I am here. I am going to kill 
you now." 

To these words of her grandson, Uli replied, "Is death the gift you 
bring to me? I have done you no wrong. Why did you not come to me 
and tell me that you needed canoes? I would have told you how to build 
them. It is not I, but your forefathers, the first builders of canoes, who 
are now in the nether world, who will not allow you to fell the trees for 
canoes until they have been appeased. Kill me, if you wish, but then 
you will never be able to build canoes. Spare me, come home with me, 
and eat and drink. Then you shall go home and find a black pig without 
any white hairs. While you are gone, I shall prepare the azva root, the 
large calabash, and the grass to strain the awa. Thus with my help you 
can succeed." 

These words appeased Niheu and he followed his grandmother into 
her house. While he was eating, he looked about for his new found 
brother, Kana, but did not see him. As soon as he was refreshed, he 
hurried home and, finding the things Uli had mentioned, he brought them 
back and laid them at her feet. Then Uli told him to search in the forest 
until he found two lehua trees. After having felled and topped these, he 
should return to her. 

Niheu followed his grandmother's instructions. Then she gave him 
the aura root and the black pig, which he carried to the place where the 
trees were lying. Flaving built an iniu he killed and cooked the pig and 
prepared the azva. When all was ready Niheu called his ancestors to come 
and eat the food he had prepared for them. Then Niheu concealed him- 
self under the branches of the trees. 

Soon he saw his strange looking forefathers gathering around the table. 
After they had eaten the food one of their number, Kaikupakee by name, 
tried to put the tops of the trees onto the trees again. Niheu caught him 
and held him, saying that he was going to kill him. Kaikupakee answered 
that if he were killed Niheu's canoe would never be finished. So he was 
released and at once called out, "I will not build your canoes!" 

Poor Niheu was very much discouraged, and hurried to his grand- 
mother to tell her his troubles. Uli comforted the boy with these words : 
"Your canoes will be finished. Take this flag to the place where the trees 
lie, and with it mark out the size you wish the canoes to be." 



98 Beniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Niheii did as Uli said, and then waited until darknes-s fell. Nothing- 
was done to the trees that night, but the following night he heard voices 
saying, "Come, let us finish Niheu's canoes." 

Then a wonderful thing happened. The canoes were instantly finished 
and a canoe house was built. After the ancestors had pulled the canoes 
under shelter they disappeared. 

Early in the morning Niheu went to see what had been done and was 
greatly astonished to see everything finished. Happiness filled his heart. 
Looking for food, he came upon a house which he entered. There he 
saw several coils of rope. Niheu was very glad to see this rope for he 
needed it to pull his canoes to the sea. He also saw two sticks bent suit- 
ably for lashing his canoes together. 

Just as Niheu was congratulating himself on his good luck the rope 
began to uncoil and Kana stood before his astonished brother, who was 
so frightened that he ran and jumped down a high pali. Kana stretched 
out his arms and rescued the falling boy. Bringing liim back, he asked 
why he had jumped over the pali. 

Niheu replied, "I jumped over that pali because I was anxious to see 
the handsome people who live down below. You caught me before I saw 
them." 

To this falsehood Kana answered, "You are not speaking the truth. 
You ran because you saw my big eyes looking at you." 

Niheu confessed this to be true. Then he hurried back to his grand- 
mother and told her that the canoes had been finished as she had foretold. 
He asked her where the grandson lived, who had carried the ulua and 
whom she had called the lord of himself and his brothers, for that grand- 
son must go to Molokai in search of his beautiful mother. 

Uli at first did not want Niheu to take Kana away, but at last she 
consented, on condition that he be well treated. 

Niheu found Kana and made known his errand. Kana consented to 
help his brother and explained the details of his phn. Niheu was to 
arrange his brothers and their followers in a long line extending from the 
mountains to the sea, with himself nearest the sea. These men must all 
be strong as the canoes were to slide down their shoulders to the sea. 

When Kana saw that the long line of men was arranged he pushed the 
canoes with such force that they slid towards the sea like the wind, de- 
stroying everything in their way. The men tried to stop the canoes but 
were knocked down and killed. 

As the canoes were sliding by Xiheu, he caught hold of the nianu, 
the carved prows, and tried to stop them, but was unable to do so until 
he had been carried out to deep water. After he had anchored the canoes, 



Rice — Ha-iVaiian Legends 99 

he swam ashore and heard the great wailing over the sudden death of his 
older brothers. 

Niheu hurried to Uli and Kana to tell them the sad news. Kana then 
told his brother to call the astrologer and the crews for the canoes. After 
everything was prepared, the people carried Kana to the sea. 

Mo-i, the famous kahuna of Molokai, saw all these preparations to 
rescue Haka-lani-leo going on, on Hawaii. He called the plover and said, 
"Go to our lord, the King, and say that I have had a dream. If he wishes 
to escape harm he must return the woman he has stolen. If he refuses to 
do this, dire calamity will befall him. The crop of coconuts and taro will 
fail. A-a, small lava stones, will cover the land." 

The plover flew to the entrance of the palace and made known to the 
king the dream of his kahuna. The king answered that no soldier was 
brave enough to come to Molokai and attempt to conquer her king. 

Soon after, Mo-i slept and dreamed again. The plover, seeing his lips 
move, awakened him and asked why he was muttering in his sleep. Mo-i 
sent the plover to warn the king to send back the woman before the wards 
of Uli should come to rescue her, and to bring disaster to Molokai. 

The king, in anger, sent his messenger to tell Mo-i to dream no more, 
or he would be punished. 

Keoloewa then called his body guard of plovers, and told them to fly 
over the world to see if any soldiers were preparing for a trip to Molokai. 
The plovers flew everywhere and, seeing no soldiers, all but one returned 
to the king. This one plover remained on Hawaii. He flew into the house 
of Uli. Then he w^ent to Hilo and ran along the beach until he became 
thirsty. After he had gone to a stream for a drink, he flew back to the 
beach where he saw the tracks of a man in the sand. Each track was 
a fathom long and a yard wide. 

With this information the plover returned to Molokai where he found 
that the king had built a big fire, to put to death the bird messengers 
because they had brought no news to him. When the king heard the 
report of the one plover who had stayed behind, he put out the fire and 
spared the lives of the others. He believed that there was no strong man 
on Hawaii as the messengers had seen none. 

In the meantime Mo-i dreamed again and as before sent the plover to 
the king with this message : "O King, return the woman within three days, 
or the war canoes will be seen approaching our island. In my dream I 
saw a figure flying above the fortress of Haupu. The head was higher 
than the mountain. The eyes were as bright as the evening star." 



100 Beniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

The king was very angry and ordered his soldiers to bring Mo-i before 
him. Then he sent for Moikeha, the sister of Mo-i, who could tell him if 
there was any truth in the words of her brother. 

When Moikeha came before the king, he told her of the frequent warn- 
ings he had received from Mo-i. He said that he did not desire to return 
tlie beautiful woman he had stolen. 

After hearing the king's message. Moikeha began her rites. She took 
a large calabash full of water and covered it with tapa. While she was 
doing this she heard the voice of Mo-i muttering: "Look well to what 
you are doing and you will see the big eyes of a man standing in the sea. 
He is coming for the woman who is held here without good cause. If 
he reaches the island, all will be destroyed. He is .so tall that his head 
is higher than the fortress of Haupu." 

As soon as Mo-i had ceased talking, his sister began to pray. While 
she prayed, a violent earthquake shook the land. When Moikeha removed 
the tapa from the calabash, she and Mo-i saw a pair of eyes as bright as 
the moon .shining in the water. Then Moikeha knew that the dreams of 
her brother were true and she warned the king to return his captive to 
Hawaii. 

The king would not listen to this advice and answered, "I will not re- 
turn my prize. I am able to lift up my island until the fortress reaches 
the clouds. No man is tall enough to overlook it then." 

Mo-i answered that the ward of Uli was able to become taller than 
any fortress. In fear, the people prepared for the day when the war 
canoes would reach their island. The king still listened not to the earnest 
entreaties of his generals and soldiers to return Haka-lani-leo. the beautiful 
woman of Hawaii. 

Meanwhile, on Hawaii, Kana was making his preparations for the 
journey. He told Niheu to leave behind all the soldiers and paddlers, and 
to take with them only Pohaku, the Stone, a trusted companion. When 
all was prepared, the people wrapped Kana in mats, using one thousand of 
them to cover him. Then they placed him on the polo, the frame joining 
the double canoe. 

As they put out to sea, the tide and the currents were against them. 
Many evil akiia of the sea tried to delay them. The sword-fish tried to 
destroy the canoe, but Pohaku lowered himself to the side of the canoe 
and the fish, striking against the stone of his Ixidy. was destroyed. This 
was the last of their troubles. 

Soon they lay off Molokai. The people watching for war canoes were 
surprised to see a canoe with only one man paddling. A messenger was 
sent to ask if this was a war or a pleasure canoe. When Niheu answered 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 101 

that it was a war canoe, the king ordered war preparations to be carried 
out. In a short time the fortress was filled with soldiers ready to fight for 
their king. 

In the meantime the canoe had landed, and Niheu had commenced to 
climb up the steep clifif by the aid of his long spear. The people believed 
that this small man was only a boy, but they wondered at the size of his 
spear. 

Haka-lani-leo, safely guarded in the fortress, heard the words of the 
soldiers and, ordering them to stand aside, saw the man scaling the cliff 
and recognized her son, Niheu. Bitterly she wailed for the dear husband 
and strong sons from whom she had been torn. 

The king gave his order to kill Niheu should he try to enter the fortress. 
But when the soldiers refused to allow him to enter, he struck them down 
with his spear. Then, using his spear as a bridge, he entered the fortress 
and rescued his mother. Placing her on his back, he crossed again on 
his spear and walked safely away. 

As Mo-i saw the mother and her son going down the cliflf, he called 
to the plover, "Anyone who is brave enough to pull some hairs from the 
head of Niheu can destroy his strength." 

One of the plovers bravely descended the hill, and pulled five hairs 
from Niheu's head. Niheu stopped to count his hairs and, finding that 
five were gone, he cried out^ "What slave has dared to steal some of my 
hair?" 

In his anger Niheu dropped his mother and at once the soldiers seized 
her and carried her back to the fortress. Poor Niheu ! He had lost both 
hair and mother ! He was most unhappy. He sent his spear to find the 
person who had stolen his five precious hairs. It soon caught the plover 
and brought him, pinioned on its sharp point, to earth at Niheu's feet. 

Niheu then rolled down the cliff, breaking his arm and injuring his 
leg. Weeping, he came to the canoe, and accused his brother of having 
sent him on this errand because he was small. 

Kana was very angry, for he knew that now they would have a great 
deal of trouble in rescuing their mother again. Kana turned over in the 
mats and having thus broken the ropes, stood up. The king saw that this 
man was taller than his fortress, just as Mo-i had said. He ordered his 
turtles to raise the fortress. As Haupu was slowly raised higher and 
higher, Kana stretched his body, first his human body, then his rope body, 
next his convolvulus-vine body, his banana body, and last his spider web 
body. 



102 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

When Niheu saw his hrother in this strange form, lie l>egan to cry that 
he had been killed. He called out, "Kana, come down again to Uli." 

Kana heard his brother's words and lowered his head into Hilo while 
his feet were still on Molokai. Uli knew that her grandchild was in some 
trouble, and she was very angry with Niheu, who had thought more of a 
few hairs of his head than of saving his beautiful mother. 

Uli brought food to Kana. He ate all the food that was in the cala- 
bash. He ate all the food that was in the garden, — taro, potatoes and 
bananas. As Kana took this nourishment his feet on Molokai began to 
grow. When Niheu saw the feet growing, he began to chop at them with 
a stone. 

Kana called to his grandmother, "My feet are in pain. What is the 
trouble?" 

Uli explained to him that Niheu was angry because he was hungry. 
So Kana promised to take him a hill of sweet potatoes. 

Uli also explained to Kana that he must return to Molokai and break 
the backs of the turtles, so that they could not lift Haupu any higher. 

Having heard these words Kana raised his head, and when the turtles 
tried to lift up the fortress he crushed them to death and pressed the 
mountain down to its original size. Niheu then climbed up and carried 
his mother down to the canoe. 

The terrified people tried to escape but were driven over the pali by 
the big eyes of Kana. Only Mo-i and his sister escaped. 

Kana cut Haupu off from the mainland. He gave the kingdom of 
Molokai to Hookekua, the king of Kekaha. Then he sent Niheu to 
Hawaii with his mother, and began his travels. 

From Molokai Kana crossed to Oahu whence he soon went to Kipukai, 
on Kauai. There he saw the beautiful sisters of Kaneike. He traveled 
on until he reached Kalalau, where lie frightened Kahuanui, Big-Founda- 
tions, who was making tapa, by stretching himself luitil his head reached 
the clouds. 

Niihau was next visited by the traveler. After seeing the celebrated 
mat-weaver and the interesting points he stepped back to Kauai at a place 
called Ke'e, near Kalalau, which is called to this day, Kapuai-a-Kana, The- 
Imprint-of-Kana's-Foot. Wherever Kana traveled on Kauai and Niihau 
he killed the akua who were destroying the people. 

At last Kana returned to Hawaii, where he found all the chiefs living 
happily. Niheu asked him to go around Hawaii with him. While they 
were staying in Kona, Niheu heard the people complaining because their 
king, Kahoalei, the Fricnd-of-the-Lei, made them cook food and fish for 



Rice — Hazcaiiait Legends 103 

him. Niheu decided to talk with the king's messenger when he came with 
orders for the people, and so called to the man, but he ran away. Niheu 
followed and catching the poor fellow broke his back. 

After this little adventure Niheu returned to Hilo. There his grand- 
mother greeted him with these words: "You have been up to mischief. 
Your actions will bring trouble to us. Bring your brother to me before 
the calamity befalls us." 

In the meantime Kahoalei had waited until midnight of the third night 
for the return of his messenger. At that hour the messenger crawled 
before his king, begging mercy and saying that he had been badly treated 
by the grandson of Uli. 

Kahoalei was very angry and cried, "I shall punish Niheu. I shall take 
from Hawaii the sun, the moon, and the stars. Only where I am, shall 
there be light." 

After Uli had sent Niheu to find Kana, she fastened a rope to the door 
of her house and then carried the rope to the sea, so that if the threatened 
darkness befell the land, she could find her way to and from the ocean. 
The people, seeing this, wondered what Uli was doing. 

As soon as Niheu found his brother he started for Hilo with Kana on 
his back. They had gone only a short distance, when the sun was taken 
from the heavens and they had to feel their way. Kana then stretched his 
head about the clouds and so reached Uli's house. 

"So you have come," said his grandmother. "I sent for you because I 
knew you were the only person who could recover the sun. Go now and 
find it. It is hidden under the earth. Before you go, see if there is any 
Hght in the sky. If there is, come and tell me." 

Kana stretched his body until he reached the sky, where he found light. 
When he had reported this to Uli she said, "Take your brother with you 
and go up as far as your body will take you. The place that you will touch 
when you bend over will be Kahiki, and there you will find a spring. If 
anyone asks you your name, say ,'I am yours and Uli's.' " 

With these instructions Kana started on his wonderful journey. When 
they reached the heavens, Niheu was chilled through and through, and so 
was left behind to die. Kana fell to Kahiki. The two old people there 
were startled by the noise of his fall, and each tried to make the other find 
what had fallen near them. 

At last the old woman went out and seeing a white object in the 
spring tried to catch it with a stick. Failing to do this, she asked the 
object what it was and was surprised to hear it answer, "I am yours and 
Uh's." 



104 Beniicc P. Bishop Mtiseuin — Bulletin 

Crying, "Oh my grandson !" the old woman carried Kana to her hus- 
band. They fed him until his strength returned and then asked him if 
he had come for the sun. When he replied that such was his errand, they 
gave him two guides who led the way. They sent a fire in front to show 
them the way and a wind behind to help them on. 

When they reached the line dividing the kingdom from the land of the 
keepers of the spring, the guides left Kana, telling him to go wherever 
the wind directed. 

So Kana journeyed on alone until he came to the guard, Manu-a, sitting 
by the king's door. Manu-a was friendly, and, urging the stranger to sit 
down by him, told him how he had to sit there, and watch the king and his 
followers eat and play while the cold rain fell upon him. 

Kana was greatly interested. Soon he saw how the king got his food. 
He lifted a stone that covered a large hole in the sky and lowered his 
hand which was quickly filled with food by the people below. 

While the king and his men were eating, the guard said to Kana, 
"Wait with me until they have finished. Then they will return the 
dishes and what remains of the food. Prop up the stone with your foot. 
They will think the hole is closed and will go back to their game. Then 
we may eat." 

Kana did as he was told, and when they were alone he lowered his 
hand through the hole. As he did so the people saw a large black hand 
and they knew it was not the king's hand. Someone said, "This hand 
must belong to a soldier. No wonder it is fat. He sits and plays games 
all day while we labor for him. Perhaps even now he is demanding more 
food." 

However, Kana's relatives recognized his hand, and filled it with food. 
Manu-a told him to drop the food. Then his hand was filled with water. 
This Kana also dropped. They next tried birds which the guard ordered 
up. These birds called out, "Kiawea," the call of the long-legged fish- 
hawk, and the friends of the king thought that day had come. The king 
told them that there were no birds there. 

Kana again lowered his hand, and it was filled with stars, which he 
threw into the heavens where they gave light. Then the moon was placed 
in his hand. Kana put it into the blue sky, where it remained giving light. 
He was next given all kinds of birds and fowl, and for the first time the 
rooster broke the morning stillness by crowing. 

Yet again Kana lowered his hand through the magic hole in the sky. 
This time he was given the sun, which he placed in the sky, having received 
its solemn promise never to disappear again. Since that day no magic 
power has been able to deprive the people on earth of the great sun. 



Rice — Hazcaiian Legends 105 

When the sun rose the king hurried out to see who was interfering 
with his powers. Kana was about to kill him, but was stopped by the 
king's promise to bring Niheu to life again. 

As soon as Niheu was restored to life, Kana, accompanied by the king, 
stretched his body and returned to the house of Uli. 

This was the king's first visit to this part of his kingdom, and so he 
planned to visit all parts of it. A canoe made of white chicken feathers 
carried him from place to place. So he traveled over the world for two 
years, conquering all lands. At the end of that time he returned to 
Hawaii and wcfs deeply grieved to hear that the mighty Niheu and the 
artful Kana had died. He established his kingdom on the island of 
Hawaii, and collecting worthy ministers, ruled for many years. 

K.\UAI LEGENDS OF K.\NA 

When Kana came from Oahu, wading through the sea, to Kipukai, 
Kauai, the turtles were raising up the hill of Haupu. Kana was afraid 
that it would reach too high, so he stretched himself up until his body was 
no larger than a spider's web. When he was tall enough, he put his foot 
on top of the mountain and crushed it down. So, now, three ridges run 
out from Haupu. He found his brother Niheu starving in Kipukai, and 
so he said he could relieve his brother's hunger. He lay down and stretched 
his body until his head reached the place where his grandmother was living, 
on the hills back of Wahiawa. Then he called to his brother to cut his 
toe, and when Uli fed Kana poi, it ran through his body, and reached 
Kipukai, where Niheu sucked it out. Thus he saved his brother's life. 

After Niheu had been fed, Kana found that his grandmother was 
making tapa, but the sun came up and went down so fast that there was 
no time for the tapa to dry. So Kana said he could make the days longer. 
He ordered all the people on the western side of the island to save all the 
coconut fiber and to braid it into ropes. When plenty of rope had been 
made, Kana stood on the top of the hill with the ropes coiled near him, and 
when the sun came up he lassoed it, and broke off some of the spokes. 
To this day, when the sun comes up, you can see that some of its spokes 
are shorter than the others, and those are the spokes which Kana broke. 
The sun then begged him to let it go. Kana said he would if the sun 
would promise to go slower, so as to make the days longer so that Uli 
would have time to dry her tapa. The sun agreed, and to this day has 
kept its promise. So we have to thank Kana for our long days. 



106 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

KAILI-LAU-O-KEKOA 

A LEGEND OF KAUAI 

KaiIi-Iau-0-kekoa, The-Covering-of-the-Koa-Leaf, was the only daughter 
of Moikeha and Hooipo, two very high chiefs of Kauai. Her parents 
loved the child greatly, and gave her every care, engaging a nurse, or 
kahti, to be with her always. As Kaili-lau-o-kekoa grew, her beauty 
increased. After she had ridden the surf at Maka'iwa, near Waipouli, or 
had played konane, a complicated game resembling chess, her cheeks 
glowed like the rising sun. 

One day, when her parents had gone to cultivate taro in Kapahi, 
Kaili-lau-o-kekoa was alone, playing konane with her nurse. Suddenly a 
strange man stood before the door. He asked the girl if she enjoyed 
konane very much. When she answered that she did, he suggested that 
she play a game with him. Kaili-lau-o-kekoa won the game by a score 
of nine to four. She said to the stranger, "You have been defeated by the 
daughter of Moikeha." 

The man asked, "Is Moikeha still living?" 

"Yes," answered Kaili-lau-o-kekoa. "He has gone to the taro i)atches 
now. Moikeha loves surf-riding and my mother. He will stay on Kauai 
till he dies." 

After the stranger had heard these words, he said, "I believed that he 
was dead. I regret not being able to take him back to Molokai with me. 
When he returns, tell him that the high chief of Molokai has been here, 
and has been defeated by Moikeha's daughter in a game. Give your father 
and mother the aloha of Heaa-kekoa." 

When the chief from Molokai had spoken the.se words, he got into his 
canoe, and started for his island. 

Now, at Pihanakalani, where all good things abounded, — a legendary 
spot on Kauai above the Wailua river, that cannot be found nowadays — 
there lived two very high chiefs : Kaua-kahi-alii, The-Battle-of-the-Lone- 
Chief, and his sister Ka-hale-lehua. The-House-of-Lehua. In this garden- 
spot of Pihanakalani was the far-famed fountain of Wai-o-ke-ola, Water-of- 
Life, which could restore the dead to life, and renew the youth of the 
aged. Kaua-kahi-alii owned a very loud-soiuiding tUite called Kanika'wi, 
which could be heard as far away as Kapaa. 

One night Kaili-lau-o-kekoa had been playing konane with her nurse 
until midnight. That night, while the girl slept, the nurse heard the flute 
crying. "Kaili-lau-o-kekoa, do you sleep?" 



Rice — Hawaiian Legetids 107 

When the girl awoke in the morning her nurse told her the words she 
had heard. Kaili-lau-o-kekoa was greatly excited and said, "Today we 
shall sleep all day so that I may be awake at midnight, for I must hear 
this voice from the hills when it calls me." 

So they slept until evening. Then they played koiuuie to keep them- 
selves awake. At midnight they heard the flute voice calling, "Kaili- 
lau-o-kekoa, do you sleep in Puna? Is not the surf high?" 

"I do not sleep. I shall search for you until I find you," answered the 
breathless Kaili-lau-o-kekoa. 

Then she and her nurse started on their search. They climbed up the 
mountain side and at daylight reached Kuamoo. 

When the sister of the flute player saw these two women coming, she 
sent the heavy mist and the blinding rain to delay their journey. They 
found shelter in a hollow tree and when the rain had ceased they went on. 
Kaili-lau-o-kekoa soon saw a house where a bright fire was burning. 

As the two women approached the house of Ka-hale-lehua, the sister 
of the flute-player, she took pity on them, and welcomed them. She took 
ofif their wet clothes, and gave them each a dry pa'tc. Then she prepared 
a meal for her unbidden guests. She placed before them a platter of 
Hpoa limn, choice sea-weed, and little striped manini fish, still alive. 
Kaili-lau-o-kekoa was greatly surprised to see the live fish, and said to her 
nurse, "We live near the sea yet we never have live fish. This place is 
far from the sea. How is it that the fish are still alive?" 

Her hostess answered her by saying that she and her brother had 
a fish pond near their house. 

After the meal was finished Kaili-lau-o-kekoa went in search of the 
flute that had called her away from home. She came to the room of 
Kaua-kahi-alii and found the flute hidden in his breast. At once a great 
love for this chief filled the heart of the girl, and she forgot her fond 
parents and stayed with him. 

When the parents of Kaili-lau-o-kekoa found that their daughter was 
gone, they began to search for her. At last they came to the house where 
she was living with the young chief, and carried them both to Kapaa. 
There they tied the chief to a post in a house. 

The first day he was given nothing to eat. On the second day a boy 
passed by, and, seeing the prisoner, asked if he had been given any food 
or water. When he heard that he had received none, he returned to his 
parents and made known to them the chief's condition. They ordered 
their son to put water in a coconut shell, and to get another one for food, 



108 Beniice P. Bishop Mitscnm— Bulletin 

so that he could throw them to the prisoner. With these he crawled 
through the rushes so that no one would see him. 

The boy carried out his parents' instructions on that day, and on many 
following days. The chief began to look well again. 

When the father of Kaili-lau-o-kekoa had recovered from his anger he 
called his daughter to him and asked her to explain how she came to be 
in the mountains. She told him that she had heard the flute calling to 
her, and had wanted to make of the man who played it either a husband or 
a friend. 

Her parents decided to allow the kahuna to settle the matter. When 
they were called together, and had heard the story they all agreed that 
Kaili-lau-o-kekoa should marry the chief if he could give his genealogy. 
As soon as Kaua-kahi-alii was called before them, he proved that he was a 
very high chief, and so the beautiful cliiefess was given to him in 
marriage. 

The boy who had carried food and water to the chief in prison became 
his great friend and was made luna. or head-man, over all his lands. 



Rice—Hazcaiiai! Legends 109 

THE RAIN HEIAU 

A LEGEND OF MOLOKAI 

On Molokai there is an interesting heiau/' called Ka-iinu-kalua-ua. 
In a little cave opposite lived the woman Pauulea. Nearby her two broth- 
ers Kaoliu and Mavve lived in the form of hills. 

Pauulea made tapa in the cave and spread it out to dry. As soon as 
she had spread it in the sun her brothers would send rain to wet the tapa 
and tease her. 

This happened many times and at last Pauulea foimd a way out of her 
difficulty. Taking small oblong stones, she built a heiau. As the rain fell 
she caught the drops in the stones and cooked them. Thus she always 
had fair weather to dry her tapa. 



"This heiau is situated on the edge of a little valley, about a mile northwest of 
the place where Mr. George Cooke now lives. Mr. Cooke has enclosed it with a 
fence, so that none of the stones will be removed. 



110 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

PUU KA MO-O 

now LIZARDS CAME TO xMOLOKAI 

In one of the valleys of Molokai lived the most beautiful woman of 
the island. It happened that every night she was visited by a man who 
always left before daylight so that she was not able to discover who he 
was. This suspense began to tell on her and she slowly wasted away. 

In their anxiety her parents summoned a kahuna to see if he could 
tell the cause of their daughter's ill health. He made known the girl's 
secret and said that during the day this nightly visitor was a mo-o, or 
monster lizard; only at night could he take a human form. 

The kahuna arranged this plan to destroy the girl's tormentor. He was 
to hide in the house where the girl slept. The girl was to keep her visitor 
awake as long as possible, so that when he slept he would sleep soundly. 
Then when deep sleep held him the kahuna would tie white tapa rags to 
his back. At daylight the man would be turned into a mo-o, and crawl off, 
through the bushes, leaving his trail marked by white tapa rags. 

This plan was carried out. The kahuna and his men followed the 
trail of the mo-o until they came to a rocky hill still known as Puu ka 
Mo-o.« 

There, surrounded by stones, they saw the monster l)ing in the sun fast 
asleep. All the people were ordered to collect wood. This was placed 
around the mo-o and set afire. As the heat of the fire burned the 
body of the mo-o, it burst open and myriads of small mo-o were thrown 
out and ran away among the bushes. 

Thus was the beautiful girl saved from her nightly visitor, and thus 
were the little worm-like lizards introduced into the islands. The hill is 
still known as Puu ka Mo-o, the Hill-of-the-Monster-Lizard. 

"Pmi ka Mo-o is situattd about a mile and a quarter northwest of Iilr. George 
Cooke's home, Kauluwai. 



Rice — Ha7i'aiiaii Legends 111 

MANO-NIHO-KAHI 

A LEGEND OF OAHU 

Near the water hole in Malae-kahana, between Laie and Kahuku, Hved 
a man called Mano-niho-kahi, who was possessed of the power to turn 
himself into a shark. Mano-niho-kahi appeared as other men except that he 
always wore a tapa cloth which concealed the shark's mouth in his back. 

Whenever he saw women going to the sea to fish or to get Ii)iiH lie 
would call out, "Are you going into the sea to fish?" 

Upon hearing that they were, he would hasten in a roundabout way to 
reach the sea, where he would come upon them and, biting them with his 
one shark's tooth, kill them. 

This happened many times. Many women were killed by Mano-niho- 
kahi. At last the chief of the region became alarmed and ordered all the 
people to gather together on the plain. Standing with his kahuna, the chief 
commanded all the people to disrobe. All obeyed but Mano-niho-kahi, 
Shark-with-One-Tooth. So his tapa was dragged off and there on his 
back was seen the shark's mouth. He was put to death at once and there 
were no more deaths among the women. 



112 Bernice P. Bishop Hfiiscinn — Bitllcliii 

LANILOA, THE MO-O 

A Ll'X.END OK OAHU 

Laniloa is the name given to a point of land which extends into the 
ocean from Laie. In ancient times this point was a mo-o, standing- upright, 
ready to kill the passerby. 

After Kana and liis brother had rescued their mother from Molokai 
and had taken her hack to Hawaii, Kana set out on a journey around the 
islands to kill all the mo-o. In due time he reached Laie, where the 
mo-o was killing many people. Kana had no (Hfficulty in destroying this 
monster. Taking its head, he cut it into five pieces and threw them into 
the sea, where they can be seen today as the five small islands lying oflF 
Malae-kahana : Malualai, Keauakaluapaaa, Pulemoku, Mokuaaniwa and 
Kihewamoku. 

At the spot where Kana severed the head of the mo-o is a deep hole 
which even to this day has never been fathomed. 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 113 

MANUVVAHI 

A LEGEND OF OAHU 

At Laie lived Manuvvahi, Free Gift, with his son, Ka-haku-loa, The- 
Lord-of-a-Long-Land ; his grandson, Kaiawa, Bitter Sea, and his great- 
grandson, Kauhale-kua, The-Village-on-the-Ridge. These men were the 
keepers of the akua at Laie. Manuwahi and his children were hairless 
and were possessed of supernatural powers. 

Manuwahi planted black and white azva far up in the mountains for the 
use of the akua. Every awa root planted was given one of these names, 
Kaluaka, The-Hole-That-Gives-a-Shadow ; Kumumu, Blunt-Edged ; Ka- 
hiwa, Best-Awa, or Kumilipo, The Root-of-Unconsciousness. This was 
done so than Manuwahi, when sending one of his sons for a piece of azca 
could designate the exact one he wished. 

When the aiva was given to him, Manuwahi would prepare it, and then 
summon the akua from the North, South, East, and West, as well as from 
above and below, to drink of it. They prayed in this wise, before they 
drank : 

Gods of the Morning, 

Gods of the Night, 

Look at your progeny : 

Grant them health, 

Grant them long life ; 

Ainaina iia noa — it is free! 

It happened that during this time, Kamehameha I. had come to conquer 
Oahu. He had succeeded in subduing all the island except Malae-kahana, 
between Laie and Kahuku. Determined to add this place to his conquests, 
the king sent one of his body guard, Ka-hala-iu, In-the-Shadow-of-tlie- 
Hala-Tree, with many of his bravest soldiers to subdue Malae-kahana. 

Ka-hala-iu marched as far as Hanapepe the first day, where he spent 
the night. Early the next morning he set out and meeting Manuwahi, 
whom he did not recognize, asked him where the powerful kahuna of 
Malae-kahana lived. 

Manuwahi answered. "Pass over the river and you will see a spring 
and nearby a hut with trees about it. This is his home." 

Ka-hala-iu did as he was told and had soon surrounded the hut with 
his soldiers. When Manuwahi's son came out Ka-hala-iu asked him. 
"Where is your father?" 

"Did you meet a bald-headed man?" asked the boy in turn. 

"Yes," replied Ka-hala-iu. 

"Well, that was my father. Why did you come here?" 



114 Bernice P. Bishop Musctim — Bulletin 

"I came to kill your father by the orders of King Kamehaineha," 
answered the King's man. Deciding it would profit them nothing to kill 
the son, the soldiers departed for Hanapepe by the makai side of the hill, 
and failed to meet Manuwahi, who had returned to his home by the 
mauka side. 

The next morning the King's body-guard again surrounded with his 
soldiers the home of the kahuna. Manuwahi came out and asked, "What 
are you here for? Did you come for battle?" 

"Yes," answered the fearless soldier, "We came to kill you." 

Whereupon Manuwahi called to his assistance all the akua from the 
North, South, East and West as well as those from above and below. 
They came at once and gave battle to the soldiers of the king. The akua 
fought by biting and scratching their assailants and before long they had 
killed all but Ka-hala-iu. 

Ka-hala-iu cried out, "Spare my life, kahuna of the gods, and I will 
stay with you." 

"What can you do if you stay with me?" asked Manuwahi. 

"I will plant aziHi for you. I came from Hawaii, where I lived by 
planting awa," answered Ka-hala-iu. 

But Manuwahi said, "I do not need you. Go back and tell your king 
that even his bravest soldiers were not able to conquer Malae-kahana. 
Tell him that all but you were killed by the akua there." 

When Kamehameha had heard these words he sent Ka-hala-iu back 
with another body of soldiers with orders that he must conquer Malae- 
kahana. 

In the meantime, Manuwahi had moved with his sons up to the cave 
of Kaukana-leau, where the natives made their stone adzes. There the 
King's soldiers met them. As before, Manuwahi called all the akua to his 
aid. Again the soldiers were quickly put to death and only Ka-hala-iu 
was left. So Malae-kahana was not conquered. 

Ka-hala-iu respected and admired Manuwahi so much that he was very 
anxious to remain with him, and .so he asked again to be allowed to remain 
as an awa grower. Manuwahi consented this time and gave him one side 
of the valley to cultivate in oti'd. 

One day as Ka-hala-iu was preparing liie side hill for its cultivation, 
he noticed that on the opposite side of the valley, trees and bushes were 
falling in every direction, as if a whirlwind were uprooting them. This 
frightened him very much, as he could not understand the phenomenon, so 
he ran in great haste to Manuwahi, and asked what it meant. Manuwahi 
told him that his akua were helping in the clearing of the side hill, and 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 115 

that if he wished them to help him, they would gladly do so. Ka-hala-iu 
was only too happy to have help, so he called upon the akua, and in a 
short time both sides of the valley were cleared, and were growing luxur- 
iantly with the most beautiful anva. 

After the battle, between Ka-hala-iu and the akiia for the possession 
of Malae-kahana, Manu-ka, Frightener-of-Birds, one of Manuwahi's 
sons, moved to Kaneohe, where he died some time later. He was buried 
makai of the present road. The natives dug a very large grave, but before 
they could cover the body, the akua brought red dirt from Ewa, in a 
cloud, which filled the grave, and made a red hill above it, which can be 
seen to this day. There is no other red dirt in that district. 



116 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

MAKUAKAUMANA 

A LEGEND OF OAHU 

The story of a man who was swallowed by the big 
fish, and of this man's gods, Kane and Kanaloa. 

Maktiakavimana was a farmer, planting anv, bananas, and sugar cane 
for his gods, and taro and sweet potatoes for liimself and his friends. He 
and his wife lived at Kauluanui in the district of Koolau, on Oahu. They 
had one child, a boy, and when this boy was twelve years old his mother 
died. 

After the death of his wife, IMakuakaumana went alone to his farm in 
the mountains, leaving his son in charge of his house. Whenever Makua 
ate, or slept, or worked, he prayed to his gods, Kane and Kanaloa, but he 
did not know exactly how to end his prayers, for he always omitted the 
words "amama ua noa:"' 

The gods had noticed Makua's strict observance of prayer and so they 
had decided to take him to live with them on Ulukoa, the land that was 
hidden from the sight of man, and called the Island-Hidden-by-Kane. The 
people who lived on this island were the direct descendants of Kane. 
They were 0-Kane, Kanaloa, Kane-of-the-Water-of-Life, Kane-of-Thun- 
der, Kane-that-Breaks-the-Heaven, Kane-of-the-Rocks, Kane-of-the-Roll- 
ing-Thunder, Kane-of-the-Rough-Cave, Kane-of-the-White-Cave, Kane- 
that-Sleeps-in-the-Road, Kane-that-Sleeps-in-the-Water, Kane-that-Shakes- 
the-Earth, Kane-of-the-Light, Kane-in-the-Break-of-Day, Kane-in-the-Twi- 
light, Kane-in-the-Whirlwind, Kane-in-the-Sun, Kane-in-the-Prayers, Kane- 
the-Skilful, Kane-the-Jumper, Kane-the-Brave-One, Kane-Who-Hid-the- 
Island, Kane-the-Watchman, Kane-that-Ran-on-the-Cliff, and Kane-the- 
Eyeball-of-the-Sun. 

Each of these gods had his own tasks to perform as indicated by his 
name. These gods lived in bodies of men on the beautiful land of 
Ulukoa. There all food grew without cultivation. There everyone was 
happy. There no weeping, no wailing, no pain, no sickness, no death was 
known. There the inhabitants lived forever and when they became very 
old, their bodies were changed into spirit bodies without tasting of death, 
and then they become gods and lived in the clouds. From their home in 
the clouds their spirits could come to earth in men's bodies or in spirit 
bodies as they preferred. 

'"Amama ua noa," "The prayer is finished, or freed." This is almost equivalent 
to "Amen," but its use antedates any Christian influence. 



Rice — Haivaiian Legends 117 

It happened that a great fish had come ashore in the bay of Kahana, 
Koolau, near the village. His body was covered with stones on which grew 
opihi sheOs and many varieties of liiiiii. The people were walking on 
his body. 

As Makua was working alone on his farm, two men ran to him and 
asked, "Why do you keep on working in your garden? Do you not know 
that a big fish has come ashore at Kahana and that all the people are 
hurrying to see it?" 

Makua noticed that these men were carrying staffs. He inquired 
whence they had come and how they had heard of the big fish. 

They replied that they had come from Kahana. 

Then Makua said, "You must be very spry to come so quickly such a 
great distance. How did you know my name? You are strangers to me. 
I have never seen you before." 

The strangers answered that the people in the village had told them 
his name, saying that he was the only one to cultivate anything in the 
mountains and that they were looking for azva, bananas and sugar cane, 
for which things they were longing greatly. 

Makua said, "I have plenty of awa, bananas and sugar cane, but I have 
planted all these things for my gods, Kane and Kanaloa." 

Hearing these words, the strangers winked at each other and asked, 
"Have you ever seen your gods?" 

"No," replied Makua, "I have never seen them, but I am told that they 
are very kind-hearted and full of love for anyone that worships them. 
That is why I have chosen them for my gods and planted these things for 
them." 

"If anyone besides your gods eats these things, what will become of 
him?" asked the strangers. 

"No one will come and take the things I have planted for the gods. 
It is not the right of anyone," repHed Makua. 

"But, suppose you will allow anyone to eat of the food you have 
planted for your gods, how then can trouble be avoided?" continued the 
strangers. 

"By praying to my gods," Makua answered. 

"How shall they pray?" inquired the strangers. 

"Thus," said Makua : 

O, Kane, O, Kanaloa, 
Here is the taro, the banana, 
Here the sugar-cane, the azva. 
See, we are eating it now. 

Then the strangers laughed and said, "Such a short prayer will not 
tire you much. It is only a few words." 



118 Bcnticc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

"Yes," said Makua, "iny prayer is short. Xo one lias taught me how 
to pray, so that I can make a longer prayer. But I think my gods accept 
my prayers. If they do not accept them because they are short, that is no 
excuse for me to cease praying. As long as I live I shall pray to my 
gods. I am now half way through my life, and I have prayed at all 
times. Should I stop now, all my prayers would be lost, and I should 
receive no blessing from my gods." 

"What blessing do you expect to receive from your gods for your 
devotion?" asked the strangers. 

"I shall have enough to eat. All things will grow well on my farm 
without too much hard work. All that I plant will bear abundantly for 
my gods, and they in turn will grant me long life," said Makua. 

"Then why did your wife die, if the gods have power to grant long 
life?" persisted the strangers. 

Hearing this question, Makua hung his head and tears dropped from 
his eyes as he answered, "Because my wife died, one cannot say that the 
gods have no power to grant long life. All men must go by the same 
path, all from the old man to the child that cannot even creep." 

When the strangers heard this answer, they said, "You will not be 
disappointed in the blessing you hope to receive from your gods, for we 
see that you have great faith. Now prepare banana, a'va and sugar cane 
for us. Before we eat, pray to your gods so that we may hear your 
prayer and commit it to memory, and so learn to worship your gods." 

Makua was filled with joy to think that these men wanted to worship 
his gods. So he quickly prepared the food, and as he placed it before 
them, he prayed thus : 

Kane and Kanaloa. 

1 am eating with my strangers 
The banana and the sugar cane. 

As the men ate, Makua asked tliem what they thought of his prayer. 

They repled, "There is nothing amiss in your prayer, for we know 
your great faith and your good works. We believe your gods will approve 
of your prayer as we do. What would be gained by our changing the 
language of your prayer?" 

The strangers said that they must depart. One presented Makua with 
a staff, saying, "This stafY I received from my ancestors. It is a great 
help in the cultivation of land. Dig a hole with it and place a plant in the 
hole and it will grow very fast. A potato will grow so large that no one 
will be able to carry it." 

The other stranger said, "Mere is my present to you. This staff is an 
heirloom from my ancestors. Its great property is to carry loads, lessen- 



Rice — Haumian Legends 119 

ing their weight. You can carry with it many rows of potatoes without 
feeling their weight in the least. But I warn you that when you go to the 
sea to bathe, you should tell your son the uses and values of these staffs, 
so that when you are absent he will care for them, and then your gods will 
never lack for food. Your son will never grow tired at work and will 
never be hungry." 

Makua seemed very doubtful about the truth of these wonderful words. 
He said, "You seem to have the bodies of men. Where have you 
received the power to endow these staffs with the supernatural powers 
you say they possess?" 

One man replied, "You are right. We have no power. The power 
came from our ancestors. Now to dispel your doubts about the properties 
of the staffs, go, and with the digging stick, dig up all the azva in the 
fields in front of you. Into each hole throw a slip of awa." 

Makua quickly did as he was told. The awa came from its hole as 
though it were thrown from the ground. Makua could feel no resistance 
as he dug. He kept on digging and planting until half of the field was 
finished and he felt no weariness. 

Then Makua began to wonder how he could carry so many bundles of 
azva, for one bundle was all he had been able to lift. He decided that it 
would take four hundred people to carry all he had dug with this wonder- 
ful staff. 

But the stranger urged him to keep on, saying, "How will you know 
the value of the stick? Keep on until you have dug up the whole field or 
I shall take the staff from you and you will only have been helped in the 
planting of the azva." 

So Makua finished the whole field. Then the strangers pulled off from 
the fence much kozmli or convolvulus plant and told Makua to throw 
it over the azva. Makua did as he was told, throwing the vine over the 
azva root and when he had reached the other side of the field he noticed 
that the vine had grown over the azva and had gathered it all into two big 
piles. Makua was amazed at this and as he stood looking at the piles 
and thinking that the men had done the work, one called out to him, 
"Come and get my lifting stick and see if my gift is of any value." 

Makua took the staff with grave doubts. He felt it could not lift so 
great a burden. But he placed the ends of the stick in the piles of azva. 
As he straightened himself to lift the load, he felt only the weight of the 
staff, — none of the weight of the azva. Then he began to walk toward 
the sea, but his feet hardly touched the earth and he felt almost as if he 
were flying. So he lost sight of his guests and in a very short time he 



120 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

found that he was near his home by the sea. As he lowered his bundle 
to the ground, he saw again his two friends who asked what he thought 
of tlieir gifts. 

Makua replied, "These staffs will he niv parents. 1 came here as a 
bird flies, feeling no weight and with great speed. Usually darkness falls 
before I reach mj' home. Now it is still daylight. I thank you, and have no 
longer any doubts as to their usefulness." 

The man who had given Makua the digging stick said, "You will not 
see the real value of my gift until tomorrow when you return to your 
farm. I warn you to care for these sticks most diligently, but do not 
injure others through their power or take others' property. You must 
observe the laws of these sticks. If you do wrong with them, they will lose 
their magic properties and you will return to your life of hard labor. 
But if you do as I say, these staffs will retain their power and you may 
bequeath them to your descendants who in turn must care for them and do 
no injury to them and they too will receive a blessing from them." 

Then the strangers said that they must depart, but Makua urged them 
to tarry until they had eaten. They replied that they would stay longer 
when they came again, for then he would have the means of entertaining 
strangers without trouble. So saying, they disappeared behind the house. 
Makua followed, hoping to see in what direction they went, but they were 
nowhere to be seen and he wondered about their supernatural disappearance. 

Now these strangers were Makua's gods, Kane, who had presented 
the 0-0, or digging stick, and Kanaloa, who had presented the auamo, or 
lifting stick. They had come because they had noticed Makua's weariness 
after his hard work and also because tliey wanted to try his faith, after the 
death of his wife. 

Calling his son to him, Makua explained the power of the sticks and the 
care wiiich must be taken of them. ?Te said that on the following day 
they would go to the farm, and the boy should see how well he could 
use them. Food enough for forty men to carry would be prepared and the 
boy should carry it with the magic staff. This pleased the boy, for he 
thought that men would wonder at his great strength. 

So they ate their evening meal and retired to rest, Makua first offering 
prayers to his gods. At daybreak, they hurried to the farm, where they 
were astonished to see that in each hole where the awa had been planted the 
previous day three big bunches were growing. 

Then Makua realized for the first time that his visitors were not men 
and he cried out, "The men who came were not strangers. They must 
have been my gods. No man would have had power to do these things. 
The strangers are none other than my gods!" 



Rice — Haivaiian Legends 121 

So saying, he thanked his gods for having revealed themselves to him 
and then quickly set to work. He gave the o-o stick to his son, telling him 
to dig in all the fields for all the food plants. In a short time the food 
was thrown into bundles and was covered with the koivali vine which 
quickly tied the food into two larger bundles. Taking the anamo stick and 
placing its ends under the bundles, the boy lifted them as easily as his 
father had done, feeling no weight. Makua laughed with joy and said, 
"This is the life which my gods have granted to us, in return for my 
faith in them and care of them." 

So father and son turned towards their home. In a short time the boy 
with his big load was far ahead of his father, who tried to overtake him, 
but could not, and the boy reached home before Makua was half way. 

Reaching home, Makua as usual prepared his meal and also a meal for 
his gods. Then he saw two very old men approaching and he invited them 
to eat with him. Makua asked these men if they had any gods and they 
replied that they had Kane-huli, or Seeking-Kane ; Kane-puaa, Hog-Kane ; 
Hina-puku-ai, Hina-Gatherer-of-Food ; and Hina-puku-ia, Hina-Gatherer- 
of-Fish. 

This number of gods surprised Makua and he inquired why they had 
so many gods. The old men promised to explain after they had eaten and 
then Makua prayed thus, "O Kane, O Kanaloa, hear. My son, my 
guests, and I will eat bananas and sugar cane, things you like." 

"Your prayer is not right," said the old men. "We must first pray 
correctly and then we shall eat. This food has been prepared for your 
gods. They must first eat or some dire disaster will befall you and your 
son. No harm will come to us as we are only strangers here." 

These words made Makua very angry because he thought that these 
old men did not have faith in his gods, so he decided to kill them. They 
could see what was passing in his mind, and when he tried to lay hold of 
them, they called out, "Do not touch us, for we are old men without 
strength who have only a few more days to live. Your gods do not like to 
have their followers shed blood." 

Makua was filled with fear and prayed, "O Kane and Kanaloa, I have 
sinned in thinking to break your laws. May the old men forgive me and 
teach me to pray." 

The men forgave Makua and taught him this prayer: 

O Kane and Kanaloa, 
Here is the awa for You, 
Here is the sugar cane, 
Here is the banana. 
We shall eat and drink by Your power. 



122 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

You give life to ine. 

Do not shorten this life. 

Grant me the life which does not wane, 

And You shall have the kapu. 

Then they drank the three cups of anv and they ate the food which 
Makna had prepared and explained that their gods were Kane-huH-honua, 
the-Giver-of-Great-Lands ; Kane-puaa, the God-of-Sacrifices ; Hina-puku-ai, 
who granted sufficient food, and Hina-puku-ia, who suppHed the food 
from the sea. 

"You must worship your gods not only by prayer, but also by sacri- 
fices," they said. "When offering food, ask Hina-puku-ai to carry it to 
your gods, Kane and Kanaloa. If you are offering fish, call upon Hina- 
puku-ia, for to her belongs the power over the fi.sh." 

Makua was very happy to learn from these old men that he should 
worship his gods by sacrifices, for he had not known this before, and the 
knowledge gave him new life. 

The men told him that there were many more useful things he should 
add to his worship which they could not teach him, but someone might 
come in the future who could teach him more. 

Then they prepared to depart, and as night was at hand Makua urged 
them to stay until morning, but they said that they must hurry on to see 
the strange fish which had come to land. Makua asked if this fish was 
good to eat and they said they did not know, as they had not seen it and 
had only heard of it through others. 

So these old men departed. They were very high gods, Kane-huli- 
honua and Kane-puaa, and they had come to teach Makua the proper way 
to pray and to sacrifice. They also wished to interest Makua in the great 
fish. 

When Makua awoke the ne.xt day, he told his son to remain at home 
while he went to Kahana to .see the big fish he had heard of. As he 
came near the fish, he saw a great crowd about it. They all thought it 
was dead. A man explained that the stone pali, or cliff, extending to the 
sea was the fish. When it had come ashore, its tail and its back had been 
seen, but now it was covered with sand and looked like a pali. 

While Makua was looking at it, he heard a great noise and saw a great 
crowd of men and women covered with leis coming to see the fish. When 
they reached it, they climbed upon its back and jumped from it into the 
water. They had been to see the fish before and had now returned to 
dive from it, covered with leis as their custom was. They were enjoying 
it greatly, as the fish gave them their first opportunity to dive, for up to 
this time there had been no cliffs on their shore. 



Rice — Haivaiian Legends 123 

Seeing the grand time his friends were having, Makua decided to 
hurry home to prepare himself for diving. 

At home he found his son looking very happy because he had been 
to the farm and had found that everything which had been planted with 
the 0-0 stick had grown rapidly and was ready to be harvested. The sugar 
cane had grown so high, it had fallen over and had grown up again. 

Makua told his son not to be surprised at such blessings, for they 
would receive them continually, if they followed the gods' instructions. 
Then he explained all the gods had told him about the use and care of the 
sticks. The boy promised to follow these instructions and Makua was very 
much pleased, saying, "Blessings will follow you, my son. You will not die. 
nor yet grow old." 

Makua was anxious to see for himself how the farm looked, so he 
forgot for the time being about the fish, and went to the farm. There 
standing by his door, he saw two very strange and beautiful men. No one 
in Koolau could equal them. One held a malo-piiakai, the red-dyed loin- 
cloth for surfing, the other a knina-ka pa-papa' it, the thick bed-covering of 
many colors. Makua gave them his aloha, yet he was filled with fear, 
for he thought that they must be great chiefs from the island of Hawaii, 
for they wore the cloaks of beautiful feathers from Hawaii. Makua feared 
that he would make mistakes in their presence. The strangers saw all that 
was passing in his mind. 

Makua had thought that he would always be able to recognize his gods, 
having seen them once, but he did not know them now and took them for 
chiefs. 

The men asked for food. Makua told his son to bring the aiva. He 
quickly got it from the pile and prepared three cups of it as he was very 
.skillful. He also prepared three joints of cane and three bananas. 

When Makua saw these things being prepared which belonged to his 
gods, he cried out, "Did you pray to our gods?" 

"No, I did not," answered the boy, "because I am very hungry. Not 
since the day of my birth have I so longed for food." 

"As a punishment for this crime I must put you to death, and sacrifice 
you to my gods, or the penalty will fall on me," sadly replied Makua. 

He began to prepare a big fire for the sacrifice. Aleanwhile, the 
strangers were watching and gave the boy power to speak. 

He asked, "Will you kill me in that fire?" 

"No, I shall kill you first by means of a stone adz, and then when you 
are dead, I shall throw vou into the fire !" 



124 Bernicc P. Bisliop Museum — Bulletin 

The boy cried out with a loiul voice, and the stranger with the kuina- 
kapa. who was Kanaloa, gave power to ]iini to resist his father and he 
asked. "In wliose name will you kill me, and to whom will you sacrifice 
me?"' 

Wakua replied, "I shall kill you in the name of Hina-puku-ia, and I 
shall sacrifice )ou to Kane and Kanaloa." 

The boy stood before his father, saying, "Aloha, will you look at my 
body? What part of it is like a fish, or like food, that you sacrifice nie to 
Hina-puku-ia and Hina-puku-ai ? Neither has i)ower over the body of 
man." 

These words troubled Makua, for he knew that his son was right, and 
that he should not kill him nor throw him into the fire in the name of the 
Hina. So he decided to do it without calling on them, for he was angry 
that his son had disobeyed him. He tied the boy with a rope. 

The strangers, seeing the boy tied, gave him power to call out, so 
that his father would have compassion on him, "O Mother ! I am to be 
burned today in the fire, and shall go into your presence with a body 
burned by fire. Why did not my father kill me while I was yet small? 
He has allowed me to grow up, and now wishes to slay me. O Mother! 
Come and rescue me. I am bound up. I shall be killed with an adz, and 
shall be thrown into the fire. I shall die today." 

These words caused Makua to weep. He could no longer conceal his 
love for his son because the boy's prayers had recalled fond memories. 
He kissed his son and said, "Alas, my son, I cannot refuse to do what T 
have promised the gods in return for their wonderful .gifts." 

So saying, he placed the boy on the ground and taking his stone adz, 
prayed, "I am fulfilling my promise to you by sacrificing my only son. 
Receive this sacrifice, and grant me in turn life which shall never cease." 

Having finished this prayer, Makua struck at his son with the adz, but 
he could not strike him. Three times he missed his aim. the adz falling 
to the ground, each time. Failing to kill the boy, Makua untied him and 
hurled his body against a great stone. Three times he did this and each 
time the boy was unharmed, having no mark even upon his body. .\s the 
angry father seized him the fourth time, Kane called out, "Makua, stop! 
Do not touch the lx)y again. Your gods will pardon your sin. There 
is a law among your gods that if a man tries three times to keep his 
promise and fails, the sin will no longer be held against him. But if he 
tries the fourth time, then the sin will be his own. So we command you 
to take your child into the house and, before we eat. pray to your gods 
for a blessing on this food, and thank them for not allowing you to kill 
your only son." 



Rice — Haimiian Legends 125 

These words were like a calabash of cool water poured over Makua's 
head. They cooled all his troubled thoughts and took away the desire to 
kill his son. He knew that the stranger spoke the truth and, taking his 
son into the house, he said, "Aloha, my boy, you shall live. I have for- 
gotten my desire to kill you. I know that I am forgiven by my gods." 

Then Makua prepared the food and as his guests sat down before it, 
he prayed as the old men had taught him. Kanaloa teasingly asked who 
had taught him to pray, and told him that his prayers were good. He 
said the gods would try his faithfulness to them three times. 

Makua asked why he was to be tried three times and Kanaloa replied, 
"Because there are three worlds where men who worship the gods will live. 
First, this world that we are living on ; second, the world hidden from the 
eyes of man, belonging to Kane-huna-moku, Hider-of-the-Island ; third, 
the world where Kane lives and where he takes men good enough to 
become gods." 

"Where do bad people go?" asked Makua. 

"First, such people go to a world where men have done neither good 
nor evil and where they wait to be rescued ; second, to the world where 
they see joy and sorrow ; third, to the world where they shall weep 
because of the heat which lasts day and night," explained Kanaloa. 

"In what bodies shall men pass to these worlds?" inquired Makua. 

"In spirit bodies," answered Kane. 

Makua realized that he would be tried three times. We have seen him 
tried twice — first, on his farm, then in suffering the sacrifice of his son. 
There is yet one trial for him to endure. 

As the strangers left the house, one gave his malo-pua-kai to Makua, 
saying, "This is my gift to you for your entertainment. Its value is that 
it shall make you invisible to the eyes of man." 

The other gave Makua his sleeping tapa, saying, "This is my gift to 
you. Its value is that it shall take away from your body the heat of the 
sun." 

Makua was very happy to have received these new gifts. He said, 
"This is the third time that I have entertained strangers. First, my gods. 
Then, the old men who taught me how to pray and sacrifice to my gods. 
Now these handsome men with the kapn of the chief." 

Now Makua lost all interest in going to his farm to work. He did not 
have to plant as everything grew luxuriantly. He had plenty of taro, 
sugar cane, and bananas. He told his son that their days of hard labor 
were over, life would henceforth be easy for them. And so Makua 
decided to go again to see the big fish. He tied the malo around his waist 



126 Benticc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

and placed the tapa over his shoulders. As he kissed his son farewell, the 
boy began to weep, saying, "I feel that you will not come back. Fear 
takes hold of me. I fear this trip will separate us. Something^ is about 
to befall you." 

The father reassured the boy with these words, "Fear not. We are not 
men without gods. You have seen with your own eyes that our gods have 
visited us. Have they not given us gifts? Be cheerful and await my 
return." 

The boy dried his tears and put away fear. 

Makua hurried to Kahana. There the people were gathered and they 
were greatly surprised to see him wearing a iiialo and tapa. They asked 
him if he were cold. He replied that these were gifts from his gods who 
had come to his house a few days before. So the men all made iiialo and 
tapas for themselves and from that day began to wear them. 

Then they asked Makua why he had come and he said that he might 
jump of? the stone pali of the fish into the sea. They thought he would 
ruin his beautiful gifts in the water, but Makua said that he would swim 
without them. 

Then the people asked him to wait until the next day, so that they could 
all join him. He consented and rested and feasted that day. 

The next day they all climbed along the back of the fish as they sup- 
posed it to be dead. Alakua saw many opihi, or mussels, clinging to the 
stones on the fish's back. He began to break the opihi ofT with a stone. 
He forgot about his plan to leap into the water from the fish. He did not 
notice the others in the water. Suddenly, he heard his friends calling 
loudly, "Jump off and come here. The stones are falling from the pali." 

Makua then saw that the fish had moved away from the land several 
fathoms. Realizing his danger, he jumped into the sea to swim back to 
the land. Then the people on land saw a strange sight — the fish opened 
its mouth and swallowed Makua. .\ great wail arose, "Makua is dead ! 
The great fish has swallowed him !" 

The fish swam straight for the open sea, making the foam fly. When 
he reached deep water, he dived down and was lost to the sight of the 
anxious watchers. He swam toward the land of Kane-huna-moku. the 
hidden land of Kane. 

All the people believed, of course, that Alakua was dead. They car- 
ried this news to his son who was crazed with grief. He ran down to the 
seashore and hunted on each rocky point for his father's body, thinking 
that the fish might have eaten only a part of it. On one point he saw an 
object, but when he had reached it, found it to be only a log. He con- 
tinued to search until the shadows from the mountains warned him that 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 127 

darkness was near. Then he went home, and falling exhausted by the 
door, slept until late the following afternoon. At last, a voice awakened 
him, calling, "Arise, sleeping boy, I can give you good news about your 
father." 

Sitting up, he was very much astonished to see the handsome strangers 
whom his father had recently entertained. One said, "Arise, fatherless 
boy. We came to tell you not to grieve. Your father is not dead as the 
people believe. He has been swallowed by the big fish and has been carried 
to the beautiful island of deathless people, where he has been thrown up 
on land, and where he has been received by the inhabitants and where he 
will be happy." 

These words lightened the boy's sadness, but he asked, "When will my 
father return ?" 

The stranger replied, "We do not know when, but we have lived in 
that land and know how fortunate are those who live there. There men 
never die. So you should rejoice over your father's fate. We cannot say 
if he will always live there, for we departed before he had had his trials. 
If lie remains steadfast, and does not fail in his trial, and does not 
violate any of the laws of the land, he shall remain there until the end of 
the world. But should he fail, you will see him again, for he will be 
quickly sent away." 

The boy asked how far away that wonderful land was, how many days 
distant from the shore. 

The strangers replied, "If the gods permit the land to be moved close 
to the earth, it takes only an hour to reach it ; but if they do not. you 
may sail the ocean until you are grey-haired, and you will never see it." 

When the strangers asked for azva and food, the boy prepared it for 
them and before he placed it before them, he prayed as his father had 
taught him. 

After having finished their meal, the strangers said to the boy, "We are 
leaving you now, our young friend. Live with hope as you pray to the 
powerful gods of your father, Kane and Kanaloa. We will care for you 
so well that you shall not miss your father. No one shall harm you." 

Then their bodies began to grow taller and taller until their heads were 
hidden in the blue sky and their feet slowly disappeared. People passing 
saw this and thought that the ghosts were returning to frighten the boy, 
but the boy realized that the strangers were indeed the gods of his 
father, and he was filled with joy and no longer sorrowed for him. 

When Makua had been swallowed by the fish, he had become uncon- 
scious. He knew nothing until he was thrown up on land where he was 
met by two men. Then the gods Kane-huna-moku and Kane-huli-honua 



128 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

came to Makua, and the men went back to comfort his son. His new 
friends took him to their home, where Makua saw many kinds of fruits 
and vegetables, bananas, and sugar cane of great size. The taro grew 
until it had no eyes. He also saw a beautiful, clear lake in which swam 
many varieties of fish. But he saw no houses and no people and so he 
asked where they were. The gods told him that the houses were inland 
and he was not allowed to see anyone until he had been tried. If he did 
not fail in his trial, then he would live forever and at last pass to another 
world. 

Makua was eager to hear the laws of the land, but his guides told him 
that it was not allowed them to explain. They had the power to refuse 
him entrance, and to hide the land from the heaven above and the earth 
beneath. 

Then Makua asked, "Should I break the law of this land through 
ignorance, would I be punished?" 

"No," the men answered, "that wrong will not cling to you, but to 
the one who did not explain the laws. As we draw near to the houses, 
others will take charge of you, and they will have the power to explain 
the laws." 

Soon Makua was surprised to see two beautiful houses before him. 
Two men who looked exactly like his guides came out and greeted him, 
saying, "You have been allowed to set your foot on our land. You shall 
have one of these beautiful houses which you see. Everything is for you. 
You will not have to fish, to build, to work. Only one thing is forbidden 
here. You must not weep nor wail, no tears must fall from your eyes, 
you must make no noise of sorrow." 

Makua asked why no sorrow should be there. His guides replied. "You 
have no labor here and so the gods will be angry if you weep. We 
remember the prayers you made when you lived in the land of death." 

Makua realized that he was speaking to gods and he wanted to kneel 
before them. But before his knees touched the ground, he was told to 
rise in these words, "You do not need to pray here. You have finished 
your prayers on earth. Here is only joy. That is the reward of the man 
who has been faithful on earth. You must first endure your trials. Then 
if you do not fail, you will be received into the fellowship of the gods." 

Then the guides left Makua in charge of the new men. Their bodies 
began to grow and grow until they reached the sky and they slowly 
disappeared and Makua heard a voice from above saying, "We shall re- 
joice to receive you when you have passed your trials." 



Rice — Hawaiian Legends 129 

Makua cried out, "I am in great doubt. What must I do this day? 
This voice from above has startled me and made me fearful of the trials 
I must pass through." 

One of the gods answered and said, "This day we will tell you all. 
You will become a god with us, if you pass the trials. If not, then you 
will become a messenger and will tell to men the beauties of this land." 

These words were like a calabash of cool water thrown over Makua. 
They soothed his agitated feelings and he cried, "I am no longer afraid 
of the tests. I know my gods have faith in me. I am ready to endure the 
trials. I have faith that I shall resist all temptations. When you are 
ready, I am ready." 

These words surprised the men and they smiled, saying, "We have 
not the power to try you. That is given to others. But it will not harm 
you to be ready at all times. You will not know when you are being tried." 

Then they took Makua into a house where he saw many delicious 
looking foods which he had never seen before. There on the table was a 
pig still steaming, as if it had just been taken from the oven. Makua 
asked for the people of the house and was told that he would see them 
after he had eaten. Gods of the same rank as Kane had prepared this 
meal, Kane Nee-nee and Kane-Paina. 

When Makua had finished his meal, he was taken to a beautiful seat 
from where he noticed a woman and a boy enter. He again asked for 
his trial, but was told as before not to be anxious, he would not know when 
it would be, he should have faith that lie would stand fast during his 
temptation. 

The woman and the boy who had entered were still in the background. 
The woman was none other than the spirit of Makua's wife. The boy 
was his son whom he had left at home. He had been put to sleep in his 
house and his spirit had been brought here by the gods. Both wife and 
son had been told all that they should do in the presence of Makua, who 
was about to be tried. 

Makua heard the woman asking the boy how he had reached this land 
hidden from mortals, and heard her warning him that he would be killed, 
if discovered. He heard the boy's reply that he had swum hither because 
he was told that his father, who had been eaten by a big fish, had been 
thrown up there. 

Listening eagerly, Makua heard the boy say further, "I cannot swim 
back. I have just escaped death from the cold water. My body became 
stiff and if I had not been washed ashore, I should have perished." 



130 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

The woman replied, "Then we must both swim across the great sea so 
that you can return to live with your father." 

The boy answered, "My father is dead. A big fish swallowed him." 

His mother urged him to leave with her before he was killed by the 
guards and she quickly led him out of the house. 

Makua asked his guide if he might follow to see what the woman was 
doing with the boy. The guard told him he might become lost and when 
the time came for his trial, his examiners would grow weary looking for 
him. But Makua promised not to wander far off. So he followed the 
woman and boy and soon recognized them as his wife, long since dead, 
and his son, whom he had left safe at home. Love for them surged up in 
liis heart. Tears came to his eyes, but remembering the law of the land, 
he refrained from weeping. He thought that the gods liad brought his 
wife to life again, but he feared to speak to her, thinking he might weep, 
and so he followed far behind them until he came to the beach where the 
big fish had thrown him upon the sand. 

There he saw his wife trying to force the boy into the sea to swim 
across the water to his home. Noticing that his wife did not show affec- 
tion for the boy, the father was about to interfere, but he feared he would 
be recognized. So the boy was forced into the sea, and when he reached 
the deep water, he cried out, "Oh, Mother, the sharks will eat me." 
Instantly, he was caught by a shark who swallowed all but his head, and 
swam off with him. His wife followed the boy into the water and soon 
Makua saw the big surf roll her over and over, and heard her cry out, 
"Oh, Makua, my beloved husband, you are watching me die. If I die, 
you will never see me again." 

Makua could endure this agony no longer, and as the waves carried 
the body of his beloved one up on the sand, he lifted it onto dry land and 
bathed the face. Tears rolled down his cheeks, but he still refrained from 
loud cries of sorrow, as he did not want his guides to hear him. Wonder- 
ing what to do with the body, he was surprised to see that there was still 
life in it. Slowly, his wife grew strong and throwing her arm about his 
neck, she wept bitterly. Makua then realized that he had failed in his 
trial and could not live in this land of the gods, — so he led his wife 
toward the beautiful house. 

When they reached the spot where it had been, they were surprised to 
find that it had vanished. They rested under the branches of a big tree 
and there fell aslee]). Soon a voice calling, "Makua, where are you?" 
awakened him. 

Makua at first could see no one, but he was afraid because he had not 
been strong enough in the temptation which had come to him. He knew 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 131 

that he must return to earth, and tell his friends there about the beauties 
of the hidden land and the power of the gods. As Makua looked, he saw 
that his wife had disappeared and he also saw eight men all exactly alike 
coming toward him, and he told them how his great love for his wife had 
made him weep when he saw her in danger. 

One of the men said to him, "Hear now the sentence we shall give 
you. Because you have broken the laws of this land, you must be sent 
back to the land where men die. When you are very old, death shall 
befall you. Your body will be destroyed, but your spirit will come to us, 
though you cannot become a god. Your son will become a god, and he 
will rescue you from those who keep you in bondage and will rescue your 
wife's spirit, too. You and your wife will live again through the good 
deeds of your son." 

Suddenly a very dazzling light shone. The eight men disappeared. 
Makua saw that the heavens were open and he beheld two bodies clothed 
in light and accompanied by many spirits arrayed in glorious raiment, but 
with sorrowful countenances. The spirits spoke, saying, "Dust to dust," 
and then the doors of the heavens closed. 

Makua realized that the people of heaven were very sad because he 
had not been strong enough to resist his weakness. 

He hurried into the beautiful wood, where he met the men whom he 
had seen when he had been thrown upon the sand. They asked where he 
was going, and Makua replied that he did not know, as there was no one 
to guide him. They then told him to follow a road which led to the sea 
where he would find many men and women bathing. 

So Makua walked on and he saw that he was on a point of land run- 
ning out into the sea where people were bathing. As he stood there, he 
heard a voice calling, "Do not stand on the big fish of your gods. Do you 
not see that you are standing on the scales of the fish which brought you 
here?" 

Then Makua feared that he would again he swallowed by the fish. The 
fish seemed like a canoe leaving the beach where it had been tied. As it 
sped swiftly from the land, the people called aloha. The fish swam 
toward Koolau, and Makua, overcome with sleep, lay down and fell into a 
deep sleep. For three days and three nights the fish carried the sleeping 
man and then safely landed him on the sand at Koolau and waited near 
until he was found by a man, who thought him to be a ghost, and who 
ran quickly to tell his friends that he had seen Makua's ghost. 

Others hurried to the spot and heard his deep breathing. As they 
wakened him, he heard them saying, "This is not Makua's body. It is the 
body of a spirit. We have seen him swallowed by the big fish." 



132 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Makua opened his eyes and saw a great crowd curiously watching him. 
His friends took him to their home and having given him food, asked 
him to tell all his experiences, and how he had come back from death. 

So Makua told all that had happened to him from the moment he had 
been swallowed by the fish. His friends considered him very foolish to 
have broken the laws of the land that is hidden from the eyes of man. 

Now we shall see what Kane and Kanaloa had been doing. They had 
put the boy to sleep and had taken his spirit to the hidden land to meet 
his mother. The boy slept peacefully until the shark bit his body in 
two. This wakened him, and remembering his dream, he was very sad. 
But he recalled the words of the gods, and was comforted by the thought 
that his father was happy in the land of the blest. So he went to the 
farm, where he again fell asleep and in his dreams saw his father's return 
and knew all his story. This great joy awakened him, and he was sad 
to find it only a dream. So he took his carrying stick and returned home 
with his burden. There he was greatly astonished to see his father sitting 
before the door and wailing — he ran to him and heard his story. 

Makua was now too old to work. The boy labored for him, getting 
food and fish. In due time the father died and the boy, wrapping the body 
in tapa, carried it to a cave near Koolaupoko and there Makua was buried. 



Rice — Hazvaiian Legends 133 



GLOSSARY 

It is the purpose of this glossary to give the meaning of the Hawaiian 
words used in the text and to serve as a guide to pronunciation. The vowel 
sounds in Hawaiian — with a f "w exceptions — are as follows : 

a (ah), as in father, alms, 
e (eh), as in obey, prey. 
i (ee), as in sheet, meet. 
o (oh), as in open, bone, 
u ( 00), as in loot, too, fool. 

Although each vowel is generally pronounced separately, the following combi- 
nations are sometimes pronounced together in a single syllable: 
ai, as i in quiet, or as y in fly. 
au, as ow in cow. 
ei, as ay in day. 
iau, as yow in yowl, 
oi as oy in boy. 

A-a (a'-a') : Rough lava stones. 

Akua (a-ku'a) : The name of any supernatural being, the object of fear or wor- 
ship — a god, a ghost, a demi-god, a spirit. 

Aloha (a-lo'-ha) : A word expressing different feelings or emotions such as: love, 
affection, gratitude, kindness, pity, tenderness, compassion, grief; also the 
common salutation at parting or meeting for greeting or farewell. 

Apau (a-pa'u) : Beware. 

Auamo (au-a'-mo) : A lifting or carrying stick, like a yoke; a staff or pole for 
carrying a burden; [au: a handle, and amo: to carry]. 

Awa (a'-wa): 1. Kava (Piper methysticum), a bitter, acrid tasting plant from the 
root of which an intoxicating drink is made. 2. The liquor expressed from the 
root of the plant. The drinking of awa causes the skin to crack and flake off. 

Day of Kau (Ka-u'): The longest day in the year. Midsummer Day. 

Hala (ha'-Ia): The puhala or screw-pine tree (Pandanus odoratissimis) from the 
dried leaves of which mats are woven. Puhala really means a group or 
clump of hala trees. As they usually grow together, puhala is the word gen- 
erally used. 

Halemaumau (Ha'-Ie-mau-mau) : The crater of Kilauea volcano — "the home of 
enduring fire." [Hale: house, home, habitation, and maumau: constant, 
enduring.] 

Heiau (hei'-a'u): A sacred place or temple for the worship of one or more of the 
Hawaiian gods. [The three principal gods were Ku, god of the land; Lono, 
god of the sea; and Kane, the supreme god.] The large public heiaus were 
usually enclosed with stone walls. One of the six houses of every chief's 
regular establishment served as a private heiau. A heiau was sometimes 
called an nnu,. 

Hula (hu'-la): 1. To dance; to play an instrument and dance; to sing and 
dance. 2. The dance itself. To be proficient in the art of the hula meant a 
long and arduous training in the various dances, as well as a knowledge of 
inele and musical instruments. The novice was subject to a number of strict 
rules as to diet, habits, etc. For instance, a pupil was not allowed to eat 



134 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Bugar-cane, as it might spoil the voice, nor to sit on a stone tor fear of stiff- 
ness. Before being allowed to perform in public, the would-be dancers had to 
pass a severe examination, after which they received the uniki, the secret 
sign or religious ceremony. Some of the hulas and musical instruments used 
with them were: the hula-ula-uli, in which the dancers rattled small double 
gourds, filled with pebl)les, and trimmed with feathers; the hula-apuwai, 
which was accompanied by the beating of hands on double calabashes, which 
stood from two and a half to three feet high; the hula-ka-la-au, in which a 
long, resounding stick was struck with other sticks, in time. A large drum 
made from the hollowed trunk of a coconut tree over which a shark's skin was 
stretched was frequently used. Another dance was the hula-puili in which the 
dancers were seated on the ground, holding in their hands joints of split 
bamboo, which rattled as the dancers beat with them and passed them from 
one to another. With all these hulas there was an accompaniment of singing 
or chanting, called the oli, sometimes sung by the dancers themselves and 
sometimes by others. In learning the art of the hula, each pupil had also to 
learn the art of the r/po, "catching" or committing to memory, which was 
to repeat exactly, word for word, after hearing it only once, a viele, which 
sometimes took hours to recite. 

lele (i'e-i'-e): Freycinetia arnotti, a climbing shrub which has a rigid stem about 
an inch in diameter, numerous climbing and aerial roots, stiff rough leaves 
from one to three feet long, and a large, handsome leaf-like flower, rose and 
Vermillion in color. Ropes and baskets were made of the woven roots. 

Imu (i'-mu): A place or oven for baking meats and vegetables underground by 
means of heated stones. 

Iwi-kua-moo (I'-wi-ku'-a-mo'-o) : Literally, the backbone of the king; that Is, 
his chief retainer. This title was the highest honor a king could confer on a 
subject. 

Kahili (ka-hi'li): A brush made of feathers tied to a long stick, used as a 
symbol of royalty. The smaller kahili were waved over a king or high chief; 
the large ones were carried in royal processions. They somewhat resembled 
large feather-dusters. 

Kahu (ka'-hu): An attendant on a person of high rank. The relation between 
the kahu and his chief was very close, and permanent, and extended to the 
whole family of the kahu. At the death of a chief, a specially favored kahu, 
called moe-puu, was killed that his spirit might not be alone on his journey 
to the next world. To be a moe-puu was esteemed a great honor. 

Kahuna (ka-hu'-na) : 1. A priest, one who offers sacrifice, a physician, an astrol- 
oger, a sorcerer, a diviner. 2. A term applied to such persons as are masters 
of their craft, trade, art, or profession. For example — kahuna kalaiwaa, head 
canoe maker. 

Kapu (ka'-pu) or tapu (ta'-pu): Eng. tapu, tabu, taboo: 1. A general name of 
the system of religion that formerly existed in the Hawaiian islands. The 
system was based on numerous restrictions or prohibitions, keeping the c.om- 
mon people in obedience to the chiefs and priests, though many of the kapu 
Included all classes of people. 2. Prohibited, forbidden. 3. To set apart, to 
prohibit from use, to make sacred or holy, or consecrated. 

Kea-pua (ke'-apu'a) : A game in which an arrow made of the shaft of a sugar- 
cane blossom was shot or thrown from a whip like contrivance. 

Kli (ki'-i): An image or images. 

Kllu (ki'lu): A game, in which a stick, lied to a string, was swung around a 
circle of people. Whoever was hit had to sing, or oh. 

Koa (ko'-a): Acacia koa, a large hard-wood tree growing in the mountains. 
Canoes and utensils are made from the wood, which takes a high polish and 



Rice — Haivaiian Legends 135 

IB sometimes called Hawaiian mahogany. The leaf is silvery green and 
crescent-shaped. 

Koae (ko-ae'): Phaeton rubricauda or lepturus (if white); variously called the 
tropic, frigate or bo'sun bird. A large white bird with two long, slender red 
feathers in its tail; in one variety the two feathers are white. It makes its 
nest in the cliffs. 

Koko (ko'-ko) : Network of braided strings used for carrying a calabash. 

Konane (ko-na'-ne): A game resembling checkers or chess but more compli- 
cated than checkers. It was played with pebbles, or sea-beans, on a marked 
rock. 

KonohikI (ko-no-hi'-ki) : An overseer of the land under the chiefs— the principal 
man of a village. 

Koali, also kowali: The convolvulus vine, the morning glory. 

Kuina-kapa (ku-l'-na-ka'-pa), or kuina kapa papa'u: A set of sleeping tapas, 
generally five beaten or fastened together at one edge, answering the purpose 
of bed-coverings. They were very warm. When a favored guest came to a 
house, he was given a new set, and he was expected to take it with him 
when he left. 

Kukui (ku-ku'-i): The name of a tree, Aleurites moluccana, and also of its nut. 
The nut, which was very oily, was used to burn for lights or was strung on 
bamboo for torches. The tree produces a gum. In ancient times the trunks 
were sometimes made into canoes, but the wood was not very durable; the 
bark of the root was used in coloring canoes black. The kukui is sometimes 
called the candlenut tree. 

Kupua (ku'pu-a): The demi-god of a locality, beneficent or evil, as the case 
might be. A localized spirit, often embodied in a rock or a tree or even in a 
point of land, to be propitiated by specified offerings. A derived meaning 
signifies a sorcerer. 

Lama (la'ma) : Mabu sandwicensis, a species of forest tree of very hard wood, 
used in building houses for the gods. It has a handsome red berry. 

Lauae (lau-a'e): The cabbage fern, which grows only on Kauai and has a de- 
lightful fragrance. Tapa was beaten with lauae leaves to scent it {maile, 
mokihana, and sandalwood were also used for this purpose). 

Lauhala (lau-ha'-la) : The pandanus or hala tree; more properly the leaf of the 
hala tree, which, when dried, is used for weaving mats and for other pur- 
poses. 

Laulau: Bundles of pork wrapped in ti leaves and cooked in an imu. 

Lehua (le-hu'-a) or ohia lehua: Metrosideros polymorpha, a valuable hard- 
wood tree, growing on the uplands of all the islands. It bears a beautiful 
blossom, generally scarlet, but some trees bear orange, yellow, or white 
flowers. 

Lei (lei): A wreath or garland; an ornamental headdress or necklace. Leis 
are made of beads, seeds, nuts, feathers, green leaves, flowers, and other 
materials. 

Leilehua (le'i-le-hu'-a) : A wreath of lehua blossoms. (See lei and lehua.) 

Lei palaoa (le'i-pa-la'o-a) : A necklace, made of many strands of braided human 
hair, from which depended a carved hooklike ornament of whale or walrus 
tusk, wood, or human bone, preferably that of an enemy chief. Kuoloa lands 
of Oahu were always reserved by the king for his own use, because dead 
whales or walrus were likely to come ashore there. 



136 Bcniicc P. Bishop Miisciiiii— Bulletin 

Limu (li'-mu): 1. An edible sea-weed. 2. A general name for every kind of 
edible herb that grows in the sea. 

Lipoa limu (li-po'-a li'-mu): A choice, scented, edible seaweed. It is rose pink 
in color, and found only at certain seasons. 

Luau (lu'au): 1. A feast. (Paina is the better word for feast, but luau is the 
modern term. 2. The young leaf of the kalo or taro. 3. Boiled taro leaves. 

Luna (lu'-na): A person who is over others in office or command. Hence, an 
overseer, an officer, a director, a herald or a messenger, one sent on business 
by a chief, an ambassador, an executive officer of any kind. 

Maile (ma'i-Ie): Alyxia olivaeformis, a vine with fragrant green leaves of which 
wreaths are made. 

Malo (ma'-lo): A strip of tapa or cloth girded about the loins of men. In for- 
mer times the malo was the only garment worn by men at work. 

Malo-pua-kal (ma'-lo-pu'-aka'i) : Literally, flower of the sea. A red malo used 
for surfing; made waterproof and dyed red by soaking in a mixture otkamani 
oil and crushed hame or haa berries. 

Mamo (ma'-mo): Drepanis pacifica. a species of bird with yellow feathers 
under each wing, which were much valued for cloaks, helmets, and other 
feather work. 

Manu (ma'-nu) : The carved prows of a canoe. 

Mele (me'-le): 1. A song; the words or subject of a song, epic in character. 
2. To chant or sing. 

Menehune (mene-hu'-ne) : A race of mythical dwarfs from two to three feet in 
height, who were possessed of great strength; a race of pygmies who were 
squat, tremendously strong, powerfully built, and very ugly of face. They 
were credited with the building of many temples, roads, and other structures. 
Trades among them were well systematized, every Menehune being restricted 
to his own particular craft in which he was a master. It was believed that 
they would work only one night on a construction and if unable to complete 
the work, it was left undone. 

Mo-o (mo'-o): A huge mythical lizard or monster worm. 

Oli (o'-li): 1. A song, a singing; a chant, a chanting. 2. To sing; to chant. 

Oo (o'-o) : An instrument made of hard wood anciently used in cultivating the 
ground. It was long and flattened at one end to form a digger. 

O-o (o'-o) : Moho nobilis. A species of bird found formerly in great numbers in 
Hawaii. The yellow feathers were much valued for making cloaks, helmets, 
and other articles for the chiefs. 

Opae (o-pa'e): The shrimp (Macrobachium grandimanus). 

Opihi (o-pi'-hi): A limpet (Helcioniscus exaratus), a species of small shell-fish 
with mottled black, gray and white shell, generally found clinging to moss- 
grown rocks on the sea-coast. 

Pall (pa'-U): A precipice, a high cliff or cliffs, the side of a steep ravine, a steep 
hill. 

Pa-u (pa-u): A skirt of tapa worn by the women, or dancers — the principal 
garment of Hawaiian women in former times. It generally consisted of a 
number of pieces of tapa, usually five, wound around the waist, and reaching 
to about the knee. 



Rice-Hazvaiiaii Legends 137 

Pikoi (pi-koi) : A weapon used in warfare and in robbing or plundering. It 
was made of a piece of hard wood about two feet long, to which was attached 
a long rope, the other end of which was tied to the wielder's wrist. When 
the pikoi was thrown, the rope entangled the victim. 

PHi grass (pi-li) : Andropogon contortus, a long, coarse grass used in thatching 
houses. 

Poi: A paste-like substance, generally made of the gray root of the kalo or 
taro, but is sometimes made of sweet potato or breadfruit. Poi made from 
taro was the chief food of the Hawaiians. 

Poi board: A board on which poi was pounded or prepared. 

Pola (po'-la): The high seat or platform between the canoes of a double canoe 
or a platform built across a single canoe. 

Poopaa (po-o-pa'-a) : [Literally: hard heads.] An Hawaiian fish, very easy to 
catch. Sometimes called oopu-kai (Cirrhitus marmoratus). 

Puhala (pu-ha'-la): The pandanus; a group of hala trees. 

Punei mats (pu-ne'i): The mats of a punei or bed, serving as springs and mat- 
tress. 

Tapa (ta'-pa) or kapa: 1. The cloth beaten from the bark of the wauki, or paper 
mulberry, and other similar trees. 2. Clothes in general; a cloak or shawl. 

Taro (ta-ro) or kalo: (Colocasia antiquorum v. esculentum.) A well-known 
starchy vegetable of the Hawaiian islands, of which there are at least thirty- 
six varieties. It is a species of arum esculentum, cultivated in artificial 
water-beds and also on high, mellow, upland soil. It is commonly made into 
a food by baking and pounding Into a hard paste. After fermenting and 
slightly souring, it is diluted with water, then becoming poi. 

Tl or ki: (Cordyline terminalis), a plant, growing to twelve feet in height with 
long, shiny green leaves, often used in cooking and in carrying bundles of 
food; sometimes also for thatching roofs. 

Ukiuki (u'-ki-u'-ki) : A shrub or plant, braided into a strong rope, often used to 
bind the thatching of houses. 

Ulua (u-Iu'-a) : A large Hawaiian fish of the genus Carangus,, very much prized 
for eating. In the dedication of a new heiau an ulua was the preferred sacri- 
fice. If one could not be caught, the moo (executioner) took the first man he 
met, for the sacrifice. A hook was placed in the victim's mouth, as if he had 
been a fish. 

Uniki (u-ni'-ki) : A secret sign; a religious ceremony for initiation. 

Uwau (u-wa'u): A water fowl. 

Wl (wi) : Neritina granosa, a fresh water snail or shell fish. 

Wiliwili (wi'-li-wi'-li) : Erythrina monosperma, a large tree, the timber of 
which is, for its buoyancy made into outriggers for canoes. In former times 
the best surf-boards were also made of wiliwili. The tree has a handsome 
flower, generally scarlet, but more rarely orange, yellow, or white. 



REPORT 
OF THE DIRECTOR FOR 

1922 



BY 



HERBERT E. GREGORY 



Bernice p. BtsHOP Museum 

UUt.LETIM 4 



HONOLULU^ HAWAII 

PUBt.ISHKD BY THE A[l.;sP;u>r 

1923 



/. ^''-^-^^'M^^ 



BERNICE p. BISHOP MUSEUM 



Tlie Beniice P. Bishop Museum is a memorial to the Princess 

' Pauahi (1831-1884), last of the Kamehameha family of the Chiefs 

of Hawaii. It was founded in 1889 by her husband, Charles Reed 

Bishop (1822-1915), who for nearly 50 years took a prominent 

part in the business and public affairs of Hawaii. 

The Museum is devoted to the subjects of "Polynesian and 
kindred antiquities, ethnology, and natural history." The collec- 
tions of the Museum include exhibition and study material from 
Polynesia and from other Pacific islands, but the Hawaiian collec- 
tions are the largest and the most important. 

The Museum staff is engaged in caring for the collections, 
and in investigating scientific problems which coifte within the 
scope of its activities. When funds are available, expeditions 
are sent out to various parts of the Pacific. 






^cn.qbs 



REPORT 
OF THE DIRECTOR FOR 

1922 



BY 



HERBERT E. GREGORY 



Bernice p. Bishop Museum 

BULLETIN 4 



honolltlu, hawaii 

Published by the Museum 

1923 




BERNICE P. BISHOP MUSEUM 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Albert F. Judd, President 
E. Faxon Bishop, Vice-President J. M. Dowsett, Treasurer 

Henry Holmes Willl\m O. Smith 

Richard H. Trent William Williamson, Secretary 

MEMBERS OF THE STAFF 
Herbert E. Gregory, Ph.D. -------- Director 

William T. Brigham, Sc.D. ----- Director Emeritus 

William H. Dall, Ph.D ------ Consulting Naturalist 

Elmer D. Merrill, M.S. ------ Consulting Botanist 

Otto H. Svvezey, M.S. ----- Consulting Entomologist 

Clark Wissler, Ph.D. ----- Consulting Anthropologist 

Robert T. Aitken, B.S. - - - Research Associate in Ethnology 
Stanley C. B.vll, Ph.D. ------ Curator of Collections 

Forest B. H. Brown, Ph.D. -------- Botanist 

Elizabeth Wuist Brown, Ph.D. - - Research As.sociate in Botany 
Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., B.S., Ph.B. - - - - Assistant Entomologist 

C. Montague Cooke, Jr., Ph.D. ------ Malacologist 

Henry E. Crampton, Ph.D. - - - Research Associate in Zoology 
Charles H. Edmondson, Ph.D. ------- Zoologist 

Kenneth P. Emory, B.S. ----- Assistant Ethnologist 

Henry W. Fowler ------- Bishop Museum Fellow 

Ruth H. Greiner, A.B. . - - - - Bishop Museum Fellow 

E. S. Craighill Handy, Ph.D. ------- Ethnologist 

WiLLOWDEAN C. Handy - - - Associate in Polynesian Folkways 
Elizabeth B. Higgins ------ Librarian and Editor 

N. E. A. Hinds, A.B. ------ Bishop Museum Fellow 

Hans G. Hornbostel -------- . Collector 

J. F. Illingworth, Ph.D - - Research Associate in Entomology 
Bertha Metzger ----------- Assistant to Director 

George C. Munro ------ Associate in Ornithology 

Marie C. Neal, A.B. ------ Assistant Malacologist 

Carl Skottsberg, Ph.D. ------ Bishop Museum Fellow 

F. L. Stevens, Ph.D. ------ BishoD Museum Fellow 

Tohn F. G. Stokes ---------- Ethnologist 

Louis R. Sullivan, RLA. - - Research Associate in Anthropology 
John W. Thompson --------- Preparator 

Thomas G. Thrum - - - - Associate in Hawaiian Folklore 

Stephen S. Visher, Ph.D ----- Bishop Museum Fellow 

Lahilahi Webb ------------- Guide to Exhibits 

Gerrit p. Wilder -------- Associate in Botany 

Anna Ho ---------- Janitor and Guide 

Hong Chi Ho- ------ Janitor 



Report of the Director for 1922 



WORK OF THE STAFF 



The Director, Herbert E. Gregory, has given attention to the work of 
field parties, to editorial supervision, and to plans for organization and de- 
velopment. Brief trips were made to the islands of Lanai and Maui and 
the Napali coast of Kauai was explored with a view to later study. The 
month of January was spent on the Atlantic coast and in Canada in con- 
ference with government officials and with scientists interested in Pacific 
problems. Six weeks in August and September were given to geological 
work in southern Utah ; and to fulfill obligations of the co-operative agree- 
ment between the Museum and Yale University, the time from September 
20th to the end of the year was devoted to classroom work at New Haven. 

The Director has continued his work as Chairman of the Committee 
on Pacific Investigations of the National Research Council, which is actively 
engaged in perfecting international arrangements for exploration and for 
conservation of marine life, and in assisting the Australian National Re- 
search Council in the organization of a Pan-Pacific Scientific Congress to 
be held at Melbourne and Sydney, August 13 to September 2, 1923. 

In addition to public lectures and papers read before scientific socie- 
ties, three articles and nine reviews have been prepared for publication and 
progress has been made on a manuscript which is to form part of a volume 
on the history of Hawaii. 

William T. Brigham, Director Emeritus, reports progress in the prep- 
aration of a series of essays on Hawaiian ethnology. 

William H. Dall, Consulting Naturalist, has completed his study of 
collections comprising more than twelve hundred species and varieties of 
Mollusca and has submitted an extensive manuscript on the marine shell- 
bearing Mollusca and Brachiopoda of Hawaii. 

In connection with the work of the Philippine Bureau of Science, 
Elmer D. Merrill, Consulting Botanist, has identified large collections of 
plants from Samoa and Tahiti and has devoted considerable time to the 
preparation of a bibliography of Polynesian botany and to a card index of 
references to systematic literature. Dr. Merrill has added to the herbar- 
ium about four hundred sheets of Philippine plants and assisted in the 
identification of the Polynesian collections. He has generously offered to 
supply the Museum with a duplicate set of his index cards. 

In addition to his exacting duties as entomologist of the Hawaiian 
Sugar Planters' Experimental Station, Otto H. Swezey, Consulting Ento- 
mologist, has generously given much time and thought to increasing the 



6 Bcrnicc P. Bisliop Museum — Bulletin 

value of the rapidly growing collections of insects. Much progress has 
been made in working up and arranging material accumulated during the 
past years. In the identification of species, the friendly assistance of Ha- 
waiian entomologists has been enlisted and arrangements have been made 
for reports on beetles of the genus .A.pterocyclus by Prof. E. C. Van Dyke 
of the University of California ; on Dermaptera and Orthoptera by Dr. 
Morgan liebard of the Philadelphia Academy of Science (p. 13) ; on 
Cixiidae by W. M. Giflfard ; on Heteroptera by E. P. Van Duzee of the 
California Academy of Sciences ; on Jassidae by Prof. Hebert Osborn of 
Ohio State University. Special studies have been made by Mr. Swezey on 
the Hawaiian Lepidoptera. 

By correspondence and personal interviews, Clark Wissler. Consult- 
ing Anthropologist, has rendered important service as a sympathetic critic 
of the Museum's administrative plans, personnel, and program of work. 
His desire to enlarge the usefulness of the Museum has resulted in 
strengthening the helpful co-operative relations with the American Museum 
of Natural History, particularly in providing the services of Louis R. Sulli- 
van. (See p. 11). 

Robert T. Aitken, Research Associate in Ethnology, returned on 
August 8 from a two years' field trip in the Austral Islands as a member 
of the Bayard Dominick Expedition. A few days were spent at Raivavae 
and brief visits were made to islands in the Society and Paumotu groups. 
The remainder of the time available for field work was devoted to investi- 
gations on the island of Tubuai. At the end of the year his manuscript 
on the ethnology of Tubuai was near completion. During October Mr. 
Aitken addressed the Social Science Club and also the Natural Science 
Club on the "Natives of Tubuai in the .'Kustral Islands." 

In addition to his work as Curator of Collections, Stanley C. Ball 
served as Acting Director from January 1 to Febniary 7, and from August 
12 to the end of the year. He also devoted time to plans for buildings and 
equipment. Accompanied by Charles IT. Edmondson, Mr. Ball made a 
collecting trip to Molokai in February ( ]). 7). and during July and August 
made an expedition to Fanning island (p. 19). An abstract of Mr. Ball's 
.'\nnual Report is printed on page 26. 

Forest B. H. Brown, Botanist, returned to Honolulu on December 16, 
1922, after a period of two years spent in the Marquesas and neighboring 
parts of the Pacific as a member of the Bayard Dominick Expedition. 
His work has resulted in filling a conspicuous gap in the knowledge of 
Pacific flora and should lead to the preparation of a standard treatise based 
on his collections, which comprise 9000 sheets of material and 395 photo- 
graphs. During the year a paper by Mr. Brown on "The secondary xylem 



Report of the Director for ig22 7 

of Hawaiian trees" (Occasional Papers, Vol. VIII, No. 6) was issued 
by the Museum. 

Elizabeth Wuist Brown, Research Associate in Botany, was a member 
of the Marquesas party of the Bayard Dominick Expedition for the years 
1920-21 and 1921-22. Her attention was given chiefly to investigation of 
the cryptogamic flora. 

The time of Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., Assistant Entomologist, has been 
given partly to the care and study of the collections of insects and partly 
to general Museum duties. Considerable progress has been made in the 
preparation of a paper on Hawaiian Diptera, which includes descriptions 
of all species recorded in the Territory', and also on a card catalog of the 
entomological literature in Honolulu. For collecting insects trips were 
made to the Napali region on Kauai and to parts of Oahu. 

C. Montague Cooke, Jr., Malacologist, spent the first half of the year 
at the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences in dissecting specimens 
of Endodontidae and Zonitidae, preparatory to the preparation of a mono- 
graph on these families. In the Museum laboratory the most important 
work accomplished was the cataloging of the Wilder collection of 48,291 
specimens, one of the largest and most valuable collections of Oahuan 
Achatinellidae. Field trips were made to the Waianae Mountains, Oahu, 
and to the islands of Kauai, Maui and Molokai. Through the efforts of 
Mr. Cooke much valuable shell material has been received during the year. 

Henry E. Crampton, Research Associate in Zoology, has continued 
his investigation of the collections of Partula obtained in 1920 from Guam 
and the Marianas Islands. The statistical analysis of the material has 
been entirely completed, and substantial progress has been made in the 
writing of a monograph. 

Charles H. Edmondson, Zoologist, has been engaged in the classifica- 
tion and arrangement of the zoological material stored in the Museum 
buildings. His field work during the year included collection trips to 
Molokai and Fanning islands (pp. 6, 19) and investigations of marine 
fauna at Kahana Bay, Kawailoa, and Waikiki on the island of Oahu. He 
has arranged for exchanges of identified material with the Australian 
Museum and the Zoological Survey of India. For the identification of 
Hawaiian collections, he has enlisted the generous assistance of Dr. Her- 
bert L. Clark of the Museum of Comparative Anatomy, Dr. Henry A. 
Pilsbry of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Science, Dr. A. A. Tread- 
well of Vassar College, and also of Miss Mary J. Rathburn, Dr. Waldo L. 
Schmitt, Clarence R. Shoemaker and Dr. Paul Bartsch of the National 
Museum. 



8 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

The work of Mr. Edniondson at tlic Marine Biological laboratory of 
the University of Hawaii is briefly described as follows : 

In October a year's record of the daily plankton hauls over a known area on 
the reef was completed and the materials collected were made available for examina- 
tion. Studies of the embrynic stages and the life histories of reef organisms have 
been continued. Advanced students are pursuing studies on the hermit crabs of the 
Hawaiian islands and on the reaction of corals to extremes of temperature, to sitn- 
light, to silt, to density of water, and to other environmental factors. Records of the 
growth of corals planted during 1921 were tabulated and provision was made for a 
continuation of this work until the rate of growth of as many local specimens of 
corals as possible has been determined. Co-operating with the Department of 
Botany of the University of Hawaii and with Miss Marie Neal as graduate student 
of that department, a more thorough biological investigation of the reef at Waikiki 
has been undertaken. Squares are being laid out from the shore line to the edge 
of the reef or as far as possible, and intensive studies of plants and animals and the 
relations of plants to animals will be made within these squares. 

The course of twelve semi-popular lectures on phases of marine zoo- 
logy, begun in 1921, was continued. 

Kenneth P. Emory, Assistant Ethnologist, spent the first half of the 
year in the preparation of a inanuscript on the archaeology and ethnology 
of the island of Lanai. In connection with this work, field trips were made 
to Kaupo and Lahaina, Maui, and to Molokai. On July 27 Mr. Emory 
left Honolulu on a year's leave of absence to pursue graduate studies at 
Harvard University. 

Henry W. Fowler, Ichthyologist of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Science and Bishop Museum Fellow for 1922-1923, devoted his attention 
to the study, identification and labeling of the Museum collection of fish, 
which he reports as "embracing upwards of 12,000 specimens and forming 
the most representative lot of fishes from Oceania that I know of." A 
preliminary paper descriptive of new forms was prepared for publication 
and progress made on a more comprehensive study. 

Before leaving for the mainland in .'\ugust, Ruth II. Greiner, Bishop 
Museum Fellow for 1921-1922, submitted manuscript on Polynesian designs 
which comprises an extensive study of Hawaiian. Samoan. Tongan. and 
Maori decorative elements and comparisons with art as developed in other 
parts of Polynesia and in selected islands of Melanesia. 

The time of E. S. Craighill Handy, Ethnologist, was given largely 
to the preparation of manuscript resulting from his field work in the 
Marquesas during 1920 and 1921 as a member of the Bayard Dominick 
Expedition. At the close of the year his papers on "The native culture 



Report of the Director for IQSS 9 

of the Marquesas" and "Rediscoveries in Polynesia" were ready for the 
press ; and a manuscript entitled "An interpretative study of the religion 
of the Polynesian people" was practically finished. A course of lectures 
on ethnology was delivered by Mr. Handy at the University of Hawaii. 

Willowdean C. Handy. Associate in Polynesian Folkways and \'olun- 
teer Assistant with the Bayard Dominick Expedition, completed a manu- 
script on "Tattooing in the Marquesas" (p. 13) and made considerable 
progress with her studies of Polynesian string figures. Her paper on "The 
Marquesans: fact vs. fiction" appeared in the Yale Review for July. 

Early in April Lieut. Hans G. Hornbostel began his work as Collec- 
tor and has been unusually successful in obtaining anthropological material 
from Guam and neighboring islands. (See p. 21 and p. 33). 

Elizabeth B. Higgins, Librarian and Editor, has continued to care for 
the needs of the library and to share the burden of editing mansucript, 
proof reading, and of distributing publications. During the year a history 
of the library has been prepared for the Museum files and progress has 
been made in making a much needed inventory. Excerpts from the report 
by Miss Higgins appear on pages 36-38. 

Norman E. A. Hinds, Instructor in Geology, Harvard University and 
Bishop Museum Fellow for 1922-23, spent six months on Kauai, continu- 
ing his work of the previous year on the geology of that island. A brief 
abstract of his forthcoming report appeared in the Bulletin of the Geo- 
logical Society of America volume 33, number i, 1922. 

J. F. Illingworth, Research Associate in Entomology, has given gener- 
ously of his time in furthering the interests of the Museum. During the 
year five papers on economic phases of entomology were prepared for the 
Hawaiian Entomological Society and one for the United States Department 
of Agriculture. A manuscript on early references to Hawaiian entomology 
was submitted to the Museum. Li a report submitted to the Director, 
Mr. Illingworth makes the following interesting observations : 

The indications are that the Hawaiian fauna, insects as well as men, are immi- 
grants from the south and west. With this idea in mind, I have taken the oppor- 
tunity to make a comparative study of the insect fauna of Hawaii with that of other 
parts of the Pacific. For this investigation I have used the vast amount of material 
collected by me in Fiji and in Australia during four years' residence in Queensland, 
the well-known Helms collection and other materials in the Bishop Museum, the 
collections of Mr. D. T. Fullaway loaned by the United States E.xperiment Station, 
and collections made by Mr. F. Muir from countries bordering the Pacific loaned 
by the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station. 

A study of flies throws some interesting side lights upon the origin of man 
in Hawaii. House flies have ever been closely associated with human beings. In 
fact so much so that they are not found on uninhabited islands, and the United 
States Exploring Expedition, in 1840, reported that flies' were a sure indication of 



lO Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

the presence of natives on an island. I found that the common house fly of Hawaii 
was not that of Europe and the United States, as formerly supposed, but a variety 
of a distinctly different species, appearing along the western shores of the Pacific. 
Since it is known that these flies will follow man, even in small boats, and since 
there is evidence that house flies were in Hawaii when Captain Cook arrived, one 
may fairly conclude that they came with the natives along their lines of migration. 
It is interesting to note that our evidence of the migration of these insects exactly 
coincides with what is now presumed to have been the line of migration of the 
earliest pcoi)U-s reacliin,^ the shores of tlie Hawaiian islands. 

In addition to her routine duties, Bertha Metzger, Assistant to the 
Director, has acted as critic of papers submitted for publication. Assisted 
by Lahilahi Webb, Thomas G. Thrum, C. F. Gessler, and other members 
of the staff, she assumed the difficult task of editing the manuscript and 
reading the proof of the Hawaiian Dictionary. Miss Metzger wrote an 
article, "Sayings of the South Seas," which was published in the Paradise 
of the Pacific, December, 1922. 

George C. Munro, Associate in Ornithology, has continued his success- 
ful search for rare birds. He observes that the native forest birds of 
Hawaii are still thriving and some of the species, at least, appear to be 
increasing in number. 

Marie C. Neal, Assistant Malacologist, continued her laboratory work 
of preparing material for study and of arranging specimens for exchange. 
Much time was given to cataloging the Wilder collection of Hawaiian land 
shells. The field work of Miss Neal included collecting trips to Hawaii 
and to the Waianae Mountains of Oahu. In connection with her investi- 
gations, graduate work was done in the University of Hawaii. 

Carl Skottsberg, Director Botanical Garden, Gothenburg, Sweden, 
and Bishop Museum Fellow for 1922-23, spent four months in a study 
of indigenous Hawaiian plants with reference to the general subject 
of plant distribution in the Pacific. Collections of mosses, hepatics, and 
lichens were made and distributed among specialists for determination. 
Dr. Skottsberg prepared a memorandum on the present condition of the 
herbarium and on the plans for its development. 

F. L. Stephens, Professor of Botany, University of Illinois, and Bish- 
op Museum Fellow for 1921-22, reports the practical completion of a manu- 
script resulting from field study of fungi on the islands of Hawaii, Kauai. 
Oahu, and Maui. 

John F. G. Stokes, Ethnologist, returned to Honolulu in November, 
after a two years' absence in the Austral Islands as a member of the Bayard 
Dominick Expedition. His particular field was the islands of Rapa, 
Rurutu, and Raivavae, where the material culture and archaelogy were 
studied and anthropometrical data collected. Some time was also given to 



Report of the Director for 1922 il 

Tahiti, Rimatara, and islands in the eastern Tuamotus. Abstracts of 
selected parts of the preliminary report of Mr. Stokes follow : 

In Rurutu the dialect seems phonetically to be the most emasculated among 
the Polynesians. The consonants 'k,' 'ng,' and the aspirates are lacking. 

In Rapa tlie mortuary customs have some interesting features' in connection 
with the drying of bodies. The sepulchers yielded specimens of garments, one of 
which, a fragment of the early Rapa dress, is in technique identical with the Maori 
rain cloak. The hill forts or fortified villages, analogous to the Maori pa, show 
primitive engineering features'. Stone fish weirs are common and one of the old 
marae (temples) remains. The clans of former times still exist, but with much 
intermixture. Land is communal with the clan. The Rapa customs are interesting 
on account of the absence of certain Polynesian features. It is said that there 
were no tattooing, no awa drinking, no fish-poisoning, no mat-making, no feather- 
work, no pigs' and no dogs. Other Polynesian characteristics but slightly developed 
were temples, priestcraft, veneration for chiefs, knowledge of great Polynesian 
heroes, and stone platforms for houses. The original dialect retained the 'k' and 
'ng,' but dropped the 'h.' 

Raivavae has a population of 380 and presents an appearance of great pros- 
perity, in strong contrast with Rapa. The material culture has changed to a greater 
extent than elsewhere in the Austral Group. The island has a special interest on 
account of its archaeology. Many large stone images hewn out of red tufa remained 
until the decade 1890-1900, when they were cut into building blocks for a church 
structure. More than sixty images or fragments of images were found, the largest 
of which stood eight and a half feet above ground. About sixty temples were noted 
and it is not improbable that about one hundred of these establishments were for- 
merly maintained. War retreats in the mountains were also found. The Raivavae 
genealogies indicate a common origin of the chiefs of the Austral Group. In the 
original dialect the Polynesian 'k' had been dropped, the 'ng' was in process of 
changing to 'n,' and the 'r' was pronounced as '1,' 'gh,' or 'g.' 

Physical measurements of 335 people were obtained — 133 in Rurutu, 113 in 
Rapa, and 89 in Raivavae. 

The customs of the Austral Islanders have been greatly modified through their 
conversion to Christianity by native missionaries from the Society Group. The 
latter, themselves Polynesians, imposed upon the people a Tahitian civilization partly 
modified by the secular teachings of the white missionaries from England. In the 
process, which has been under way since 1821, a complex has been formed which 
makes it extremely difficult to differentiate Austral Island ethnology from that of 
the Society Group. (See also Annual Report of the Director for 1921 ; Occ. Papers 
Vol. VIII, No. 5, pp. 206-207, 1922.) 

Louis R. Sullivan, Research Associate in Anthropology, in co-opera- 
tion with the American Museum of Natural History, has continued his 
investigations of the physical characteristics of the Pacific races. During 
the year the results of his studies on Tongan somatology were published. 
(See p. 13.) A manuscript on Marquesan somatology was submitted 
for publication and considerable progress made on a study of Hawaiian 
racial relations. A popular article, "New light on Polynesian races," was 



12 Bcniicc P. Bishop Miisciiin — Bulletin 

prepared for the January ( 1923 ) number of Asia. In speaking of Mr. 
Sullivan'.s work with tiie Bayard Dominick Expedition, Charles B. Daven- 
]X)rt, Director of the Department of Genetics, Carnegie Institute of Wash- 
ington, remarks, "I feel that Sullivan's two contributions to Polynesian 
somatology have advanced the subject more in one year than all the other 
researches of the past twenty-five years." 

John W. Thompson, Preparator, has modeled eighteen fishes, painted 
thirteen fishes and three eels and has prepared and painted crabs and sea- 
weed accessories for use in a projected marine group. The years of con- 
tact which Mr. Thompson has had with the markets while selecting fishes 
for the collections have placed him in a position to aid Mr. Fowler very 
considerably in his studies on the fish collections. It is largely to his 
credit that the Hawaiian fish fauna is so remarkably well represented in 
the Museum's preserved material, as well as in the excellent series of 
models. 

Thomas G. Thrum, Associate in Hawaiian Folklore, completed the 
"Geographic place names" for the revision of Andrews' Hawaiian Dic- 
tionarv. (See p. 25.) He also made a critical analysis of the forty-two 
manuscripts in the Poepoe Collection and a translation of Kamakau's his- 
tory of Kamahemeha, which appeared originally in the Ka Nupepa Kuokoa 
in 1866-1871. Progress was made in a study of the star lore of the ancient 
Hawaiians, especially with reference to navigation. 

Stephen S. .\'isher, Bishop Museum Fellow for 1921-22, returned to 
his duties as Professor of Geography, University of Indiana, after a field 
trip to Honolulu, Fiji, Manila, Hongkong, Shanghai, Kobe, and Tokyo. 
Progress was made in the preparation of a monograph on the tropical 
cyclones of the Pacific and their effects. Two Papers — "Tropical cyclones 
in Australia and the South Pacific and Indian Oceans" and "Tropical 
cyclones in the Northeast Pacific between Hawaii and Mexico," were pub- 
lished in the Monthly Weather Review (Vol. 50, 1922 pp. 288-297). 

In addition to her work as Guide to Exhibits and hostess to an even 
larger number of visitors than in 192T, Mrs. Lahilahi Webb gave lectures 
to many classes of school children. She was of invaluable service in edit- 
ing the Hawaiian Dictionary and to members of the staff in their studies 
of Hawaiian lore. In the exhibition Iialls she has been ably assisted by 
Miss Anna Ho. 

Gerrit P. Wilder, Associate in Botaii)-. has added valuable specimens 
to the Museum collection and continued his work of providing correct 
labels for the casts of fruits in the exhibition halls. His knowledge of 
the Hawaiian Bird Reservation has been utilized in planning an expedi- 
tion for the coming year. 



Report of the Director for 1922 13 

PUBLICATIONS 

During 1922 the following publications were issued: 

Memoirs Volume VIII, Number 3. The grasses of Hawaii, by A. S. Hitchcock, 
137 pages, s plates, no figures. 

A description of 50 genera of native and introduced grasses. 
Memoirs Volume VIII, Number 4. A contribution to Tongan somatology, by Louis' 
R. Sullivan, 35 pages, 4 plates, 2 figures. 

Describes the physical characteristics of 225 Tongans, and discusses the 
relation of Tongans to Samoans and to Melanesians. 

Occasional Papers Volume VII, Number 14. Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Ha- 
waii, by Morgan Hebard, 76 pages, 2 plates, I figure. 

A study based on 688 specimens representing 40 of the 41 genera and all 
but two of the adventive species recorded for Hawaii. 
Occasional Papers Volume VIII, Number 2. Hawaiian Dromiidae. by Charles 
Howard Edmondson, 10 pages, 2 plates. 

Discussion of the taxonomic position, characteristics, and distribution of the 
Dromiidae of Hawaiian waters. One new subspecies is described. 
Occasional Papers Volume VIII, Number 3. The proverbial sayings of the Ton- 
gans, by E. E. V. Collocott and John Havea, 115 pages. 

An epitome of Tongan mental reactions as expressed in 633 proverbs given 
in the Tongan dialect with translation and comment in English. 
Occasional Papers Volume VIII, Number 4. Tongan astronomy and calendar, by 
E. E. V. Collocott, I" pages. 

A study of the astronomy and calendar of the early Tongans. and defini- 
tion of native names and phrases. 

Occasional Papers Volume VIII, Number 5. Report of the Director for 1931, by 

Herbert E. Gregory, 39 pages. 
Occasional Papers Volume VIII, No. 6. The secondary xylem of Hawaiian trees, 

by Forest Buffen Harkness Brown, 157 pages, 11 figures. 1922. 

A treatise of the systematic anatomy of Hawaiian woody plants, with a 

short preface on the origin of the Hawaiian flora. 

Bulletin i. Tattooing in the Marquesas, by Willowdean Chatterton Handy, 32 
pages, 38 plates. 

A study of the art of tattooing, the designs employed, and the nomen- 
clature. 

A paper on archaelogical work in Hawaii, by Gerard Fowke, pub- 
lished by the Bureau of American Ethnology (Bull. 76, 1922, 21 pp., 8 
plates) is a description of ancient Hawaiian structures, particularly on the 
island of Molokai. The Museum accepted the opportunity of assisting 
Mr. Fowke in his field investigation. 

The following publications are in press : 

Memoirs Volume IX, Number i. The Moriori of Chatham Islands, by H. D. 
Skinner. 1923. 

Describes the material culture of Moriori of Chatham Islands. 

Occasional Papers Volume VIII, Number 7. New or little-known Hawaiian fishes, 
by Henry W. Fowler, 20 pages, 1923. 

Preliminary descriptions of new species of fish in the collections of Bishop 
Museum, and a list of names of those already described elsewhere. 



14 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Bulletin Tlic native culture in tlie Marquesas, by E. S. Craghill Handy, 

1923. 

A study of the native culture in tlie Marquesas based on original research 

during a nine months' residence, supplemented by knowledge derived from 

printed sources and unpublished manuscripts. 
A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language, by Lorrin Andrews, Revised by Henry 

H. Parker. Published for the Board of Commissioners of Public Archives. 

(See p. 25.) 
Table of Contents and Index for Occasional Papers, Volume VIII. 

The following papers are in the hands of the PubHcation Committee 
or of the Editor: 

The material culture of the natives of the Marquesas Islands, by Ralph Linton 

Tongan Myths and Talcs, by Edward Winslow GifTard 

Tongan Place Names, by Edward Winslow Giffard 

Polynesian design elements, by Ruth H. Greiner 

Early references to Hawaiian Entoinolog>-, by J. F, lUingworth 

Hawaiian legends, by William H. Rice 

Papers in preparation include the following : 

An archaelogical and ethnological survey of Lanai, by Kenneth P. Emory 

The marine shell-bearing MoUusca and Brachipoda of the Hawaii.m Isl.inds, by 

William Healey Dall 
An interpretative study of the religion of the Polynesian people, by E. S. Craighill 

Handy 
Tongan society and religion, by Edward Winslow GifTard 
Tongan material culture and archaeology, by W. C. McKern 
Studies in Hawaiian anthropology, by Louis R. Sullivan 
Hawaiian fungi, by F. L. Stevens 
A statistical analysis of Partula of Guam and Marianas islands, by Henry E. 

Crampton 
Geology of Kauai, by Norman E. A. Hinds 
A study of Hawaiian plants with reference to plant distrilnition in the Pacific, by 

Carl Skottsberg 
A study of Hawaiian fishes, by Henry W. Fowler 
Flora of the Marquesas Islands, by Forest B. H. Brown 
Ethnology of Tubuai, by Robert T. Aitken 
A study of Hawaiian Diptera, by Edwin H. Bryan, Jr. 
An ethnological survey of Rapa, by John F. G. Stokes 
Report of the Director for 1922 

In the Museum publications three clianges have been made: (i) the 
books and pamphlets heretofore hsted as Miscellaneous Publications have 
become Special Pubhcations, (2) the series of Occasional papers will be 
discontinued after the completion of Volume VIII, (3) a new series to be 
known as Bulletins has been establisiied. No chan<je is contemplated in 
the Memoirs. 

During the year, 1894 numbers of the Memoirs were distributed, in- 
cluding 30 complete sets; of Occasional Papers 3782, including 13 com- 
plete sets ; of Special Publications 903, including 22 complete sets of 
Fauna Hawaiiensis. The regular distribution of publications at time of 
issue has varied from 317 to 461. 



Report of the Director for i()22 15 

To the regular exchange hst which now numbers 184 the following 
names have been added : Academy of Science of St. Louis ; Mr. Percy 
S. Allen, Editor of Pacific Islands Handbook; Asia Publishing Company; 
Auckland Public Library, Art Gallery and Old Colonists' Museum ; 
Australian Central Weather Bureau ; Botanical Survey of South Africa ; 
Colorado College ; Dove Marine Laboratory ; Folk-Lore Society ; For- 
mosan Government Research Institute ; Matson Navigation Company ; 
Mexico Direccion de Estudios Biologices ; Pacific Biological Station ; 
Philippine Bureau of Agriculture ; Pomona College ; Princeton University 
Library ; Royal Geographical Society ; Royal Society of London ; Royal 
Society of Tasmania : Scripps Institution for Biological Research ; So- 
ciedade Brasileira de Sciencias ; Transvaal Museum : Library, L^. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

The contract to print the publications of the Museum, which termi- 
nated April I. has been re -a warded to the Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Limited. 

By vote of the Trustees the Museum staff has undertaken the prepara- 
tion of a Handbook descriptive of the collections in the exhibition halls and 
of a pamphlet containing a sketch of the history, scope, and policy of the 
institution. 

SPECIAL TOPICS 
Expedition's 

During the first ten years of the Museum activities, no systematic field 
exploration appears to have been undertaken by the staff. The Trustees, 
however, early recognized the desirability of building up extensive collec- 
tions which might serve as basis for scientific study. Their liberal financial 
support was given for a comprehensive study of the land fauna of Hawaii 
(1892-1901) — a series of investigations which resulted in the publication of 
Fauna Hawaiiensis, notable alike for its scientific value and for its demon- 
stration of the advantage of co-operation. 

In his report for 1899 the Director expressed the hope that studies 
similar to those represented by Fauna Hawaiiensis might be extended to 
regions outside of the Hawaiian Islands. In response to this suggestion 
provision was made in 1900 for a study of the birds and fishes of Guam 
by Alvin Scale, which resulted in large additions to the Museum collec- 
tions (See Report of a mission to Guam: Occ. Papers, Vol. i, p. 17-128), 
During 1902 William Alanson Bryan spent one week on the little known 
Marcus Island and two days on Midway Island making collections which 
led to the publication of "A monograph of Marcus Island" (Occ. Papers 
II, No. I, p. 77-139, 1903) and "A report of a visit to Midway Island" 
(Occ. Papers II, No. 4, pp. 37-45, 1906). On Mr. Scale's return from 
Guam his services were again obtained for an expedition to the South 



l6 Bcniice P. Bisluif> .^fuscHin — BuUctin 

Pacific, which had for its primary purpose liie collection of fishes. During 
the period November 9, 1900 to September 21, 1903, visits were made by 
Mr. Seale to the Society, Marquesas, Tuamotu, Gambier, Austral, New 
Hebrides and Solomon island groups and 1550 specimens representing 375 
species of fishes were obtained. ( See Fishes of the South Pacific : Occ. 
Papers, Vol. IV, No. i, pp. 3-89, 1906). 

During each year of the period 1909-1913 Charles N. Forbes, Bota- 
nist, devoted approximately three consecutive months to systematic ex- 
ploration on Kauai (1909), Maui (1910), Hawaii (1911), Molokai (1912). 
and Lanai (1913) ; and in 1913 Mr. Cooke made an excursion to Palmyra 
Island. With these exceptions, field work during the period 1903-1919 
appears to have consisted of short trips by members of the staff for the 
purpose of increasing the collections and to procure data needed in the 
preparation of manuscript for publication. 

In general, the records show that the collections belonging to the 
Museum have been acquired chiefly by gift and purchase and that much 
of the valuable material contributed by members of the staff has been 
gathered incidentally and not infrequently in vacation periods and at the 
expense of the collector. 

It seems unlikely tliat materials a(le(|uatc for scientific invcstis^ation 
are to be continuously obtained through the methods heretofore utilized. 
Gifts of valuable small collections will doubtless increase with the increase 
in the number of the friends of the Museum ; but most of the desirable 
private collections have already found a permanent place in the halls of 
scientific institutions, and miscellaneous collections resulting from brief 
field trips will not serve the needs of investigators dealing with the ex- 
panding problems within the scope of the activities of the Museum. 
Future enlargement of the collections for study and for exhibition must 
come chiefly from definitely organized field work by the staff, from ex- 
changes, and from institutions associated with the Museum in co-operative 
exploration. 

With these ideas in mind the policy has been adopted of making 
systematic field surveys in anthropology, botany, and zoology, under ar- 
rangements which provide time and funds for the completion of the 
project in hand. (See Report of the Director for 1919: Occ. Papers, 
Vol. VII, No. 8, 1920.) The results have been satisfactory. During 1919 
a botanical survey of east Maui and a study of the ancient asylum of 
refuge at Honaunau were completed. During 1920 an ethnological survey 
of Haleakela was completed, and the field work of the Bayard Dominick 
Expedition began — a series of investigations which, continued through 



Ref'ort of the Director for 1^22 17 

192 1 and 1922, constitute doubtless the most important anthropological 
study so far made in Polynesia. (See p. 21). During 1921 the land shell 
fauna of Guam and Saipan were studied, the fungi of Hawaii were sys- 
tematically collected and an ethnological survey of Lanai was completed — 
the first such survey of any Hawaiian island. During 1922 a geological 
survey of Kauai and a botanical survey of the Marquesas were completed, 
an expedition was sent to Fanning Island, and remarkably large collections 
were made in Guam. 

Plans for 1923 include a systematic scientific survey of Johnston 
Island, Wake Island and of fifteen islands and reefs lying between Niihau 
and Ocean islands ; an ethnological expedition to Tahiti ; and a collecting 
expedition to the Marianas and to the Caroline Islands. All these expedi- 
tions serve not only to enlarge and to fill gaps in the collections now on 
hand, but also to meet the needs of other institutions and to furnish data 
for increasing the value of the Museum publications. 

Survey of the Hawaiian Bird Reservation 

Preliminary arrangements have been made for a scientific survey of 
the scattered islands included within the roughly defined Hawaiian Bird 
Reservation (Latitudes 22°-28°N, Longitude 161 "-175° W). Conferences 
with officials in Washingfton and at Pearl Harbor indicate the prob- 
ability that the Navy Department will provide a ship for conducting re- 
searches during the months of April, May, and June, 1923, under the 
auspices of the United States Biological Survey and the Bishop Museum. 
The position of these islands, the large differences in their topography, 
shores, and surrounding waters, and the interesting zoological, botanical, 
and ethnological materials so far obtained from them suggest that the pro- 
posed expedition may yield important contributions to science. 

The Whitney South Seas Expedition 

A generous gift of Mr. Harry Payne Whitney has enabled the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History to organize a zoological expedition on an 
unusually comprehensive scale. Under the direction of a committee of 
eminent ornithologists — Dr. Leonard C. Sanford, Dr. Frank M. Chapman 
and Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy — the field party, in charge of Mr. Rollo 
H. Beck, established headquarters at Papeete late in 1920. During 192 1 
extensive collections were made in Tahiti and other islands of the Society 
group, at Christmas Island, at the Marquesas, and on several islets of the 
Tuamotu group. During 1922 the schooner "France," purchased by the 
expedition, was used for continuing investigations in the Marquesas, 
Austral, and Gambler island groups and at Pitcairn, Henderson, Oeno, 
Elizabeth and Ducie islands. 



l8 Bcniicc P. Bishop Miiscitiii — Bullclin 

The committee in charge of the expedition has formulated its plans 
and conducted its field operations with a view solely to the advancement 
of scientific research in the Pacific. To quote from the report of Dr. 
Murphy : 

While the expedition is primarily ornithological, no opportunity has been lost 
to obtain desirable material and data in other branches of science, particularly at 
the many Polynesian islands where the native peoples and fauna are rapidly dying 
out or are altering materially with changing conditions. With this object in mind, 
the Museum has co-operated in all possible ways with other institutions that are 
carrying on research in the Pacific. The Bernice P. Bishop Museum of Honolulu, 
for example, is now a center of Pacific investigations, coordinated under the ad- 
ministration of Professor Herbert E. Gregory, who is serving as Director. The 
Committee of the Whitney Expedition lias been from the beginning in close touch 
with Professor Gregory and has sought his advice on many details. The members 
of the Expedition have been instructed to undertake special lines of collecting 
which do not interfere with their main objects, to offer transportation whenever 
possible to the field workers of the Bishop Museum and of other scientific organiza- 
tions, and in general to further the cause of Pacific investigation by selecting fields 
of endeavor which lead toward cooperation rather than competition. It has been 
decided, for instance, to leave the ornithological investigation of the Hawaiian 
islands and of certain neighboring groups, such as Midway. Johnston, Palmyra and 
Washington islands, to the Bishop Museum, and to confine the efforts of the Whitney 
Expedition, for the present at least, to the southerly and easterly islands of Poly- 
nesia, from Samoa and the Marquesas southward and eastward to the Austral group 
and Easter Island. In order that the American Museum of Natural History may 
obtain a full representation of the avian fauna of the Pacific Basin, however, a com- 
prehensive exchange of material has been arranged, and the Museum has already 
received from Honolulu an important collection of Hawaiian birds, which gives it 
a very nearly complete series of the scarce or extinct Drcpanididae as well as other 
interesting and peculiar birds of the archipelago. 

The first two years of the Whitney South Sea Expedition indicate the 
remarkable zoological and geographical results to be anticipated. More 
than three thousand bird skins with representative collections of nests, eggs 
and stomachs have been obtained : botanical, zoological and ethnological 
material has been gathered at many islands ; and a mass of geogra]5hic in- 
formation has been recorded. 

The collections show that the birds of the South Pacific trade wind 
belt are for the most part specifically and generically distinct from those in 
the southern "horse latitudes" and that each large insular group and 
even some small islets have distinctive species. Several of the species of 
birds collected have been heretofore listed as extinct. 

Investig.m'ioxs in the Society Isl.ands 

Extensive researches in the Marquesas and the Austral Islands, and 
reconnaissance studies in Tahiti indicate the need of fuller knowledge of 



Report of the Director for IQ22 19 

the islands lying westward. From the Society Islands in particular more 
precise information is needed of the physical characters of the people, of 
the sequence of the overlapping immigrations and the cultural differences 
in the native populations of various islands of the group. 

To meet this need provision has been made for undertaking an ethno- 
logical survey by a party consisting of E. S. Craighill Handy, Ethnologist ; 
Willowdean C. Handy, Associate in Polynesian Folkways : and Miss Jane 
Winne, Volunteer Assistant, who will devote her time to recording native 
music. Local field assistants will be added to the party. For compara- 
tive studies Mr. Handy will visit the islands of Upolu. Vavau, Haapai, 
Nukuolofa, and the Maori settlements in New Zealand. 

Fanning Isl.\nd Expedition 

Studies now in progress on the distribution and relationship of cer- 
tain organisms have made it desirable to investigate the fauna and flora 
of Fanning Island which lies in Latitude 3°-S4' North. The island lies 
outside of the routes of commercial steamship lines, but is visited at inter- 
vals by copra schooners and by the supply ship of the Pacific Cable Board. 

With the approval of Mr. J. Milward, Pacific Manager of the Pacific 
Cable Board, an invitation was received from Captain M. Menmuir to 
make use of his ship, the "Tangaroa." for transporting men and equip- 
ment to Fanning Island. The invitation was gratefully accepted and 
Stanley C. Ball and Charles H. Edmondson were chosen to represent the 
Museum. 

While on the island, Mr. Ball and Mr. Edmondson enjoyed the hos- 
pitality of the Fanning Island Station of the Cable Board and of the 
copra company. Fanning Island Limited. At the station. Superintendent 
T. R. Blackley, Deputy Commissioner Mr. Johnson, Mr. Walker, Mr. and 
Mrs. Sherlock, Mr. Kemp, Dr. Kinney, Mr. Chapman, Mr. Wood and 
others rendered generous assistance. Superintendent A. R. Foster of the 
copra company and his assistant, Mr. Ward, provided boats and men and 
equipment. Mr. William Greig served as host and with Mr. Hugh Greig 
furnished a native boat crew including the intelligent guide, Kotuku. 
Their intimate knowledge of the island and of Polynesian languages and 
customs was the source of valuable information regarding the names and 
distribution of plants and animals. 

The collections obtained at Fanning Island include marine and ter- 
restrail crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, insects, and other invertebrates 
and also skins of land and sea birds and a representative series of plants. 
Many of the zoological specimens constitute new records for that part of 
the Pacific. 



20 Bcniicc P. Bislwp Museum — Bulletin 

Supplementing the researches at Fanning Island, the Museum has 
profited through the generosity of Mr. L. A. Thurston who, in company 
with Mr. David Thaanum and Mr. V'asconcellos, conducted a survey of 
Palmyra Island, lying three hundred miles northwest of Fanning Island. 
Among the fishes and crabs collected are several not heretofore recorded 
from the Palmyra region ; some are new to science. 

Reconnaissance of the Napali Coast, Kauai 

The Napali district on the island of Kauai, including the valleys of 
Nualolo, Awawapuhi, and Honopu, is peculiarly difficult of access. Its 
seaward margin is formed by precepitious wave-cut cliffs and inland the 
area is sharply dissected into box-headed canyons and "knife-edge" ridges. 

Each of the three ways of access — a "hand hold" trail up the sea cliflf 
at Honopu, the Kamaile cliflf trail, and the rope ladder at Nualolo beach 
— is available only to experienced climbers. 

Information obtained from Hawaiians and from the few white men 
who have visited these valleys indicated that the irrigation systems, house 
platforms, burial caves and other evidences of former occupation have been 
undisturbed and that an unusual opportunity was afforded for a study 
of ancient Hawaiian life. Arrangements were therefore made for a pre- 
liminary exploration of Nualolo, Awawapuhi. Honopu and Kalalau val- 
le)'s — a ten day's reconnaissance — which has revealed much of interest 
in archaelogy and natural history. By selecting feasible trails and recon- 
structing the ancient rope ladder, the way has been prepared for a 
systematic investigation of this little known region. 

This exploring expedition was made possible through the skill and 
enthusiastic interest of Lindsay A. Faye, I/irrin P. Thurston. Herman 
Von Holt, and Ronald Von Holt. 

Collections From Guam 

The existence of monolithic ruins on the island of Tiniaii has been 
known for a century, and similar objects have from time to time been 
reported from Rota and from Guam, but the few sling stones and other 
artifacts which have found their way to museums and the brief descrip- 
tions scattered through the literature have given little indication of the 
richness of those islands as fields for archealogical study. Through the 
generosity of Commander J. C. Thomjjson, of the United States Naval 
Hospital, Lt. H. G. Hornbostel of the Museum staflf was given the op- 
portunity to undertake a systematic exploration of Guam, with a view to 
obtaining information regarding an ancient people whose position in the 
group of Pacific races remains to be determined. As the result of this 



Report of the Director for 1922 21 

work the Museum is in possession of maps, diagrams, and descriptive 
notes of ancient burial grounds, house sites, fishing grounds, and caves, 
and has added to its collections some 2,000 specimens, including mortars, 
lamps, adzes, knives and much skeletal material. In the collection is a 
burial monument with capital weighing about two and a quarter tons. 

In carrying on his work Mr. Hornbostel has had the experienced 
advice of Commander Thompson, and the generous co-operation of the 
Navy officials who assisted in excavations and in making collections, and 
assumed the responsibility of transporting the material to Honolulu. 

It is planned to extend field work in this region to include the south- 
ern islands of the A'larianas group and parts of the Carolines. 

Bayard Dominick Expedition 

At the end of the year the work of the Bayard Dominick Expedition 
had reached the following stage : the field work had been completed ; most 
of the collections, maps, manuscripts, photographs, and field notes had 
been arranged for study ; three papers had been published ; two papers 
were in press, four papers had been submitted for publication and sub- 
stantial progress had been made in the preparation of six other papers. 

The systematic investigation of the origin, migration, and culture of 
the Polynesian peoples, which constitutes the program of the Bayard 
Dominick Expedition, was made possible by a generous gift of Bayard 
Dominick, Jr., of New York — funds given to Yale University and placed 
by the University at the disposal of Bishop Museum. During the summer 
of 1920 four field parties began their work- — the first in Tonga, the second 
in the Marquesas, the third in Rurutu, Raivavai, Tubuai and Rapa of 
the Austral Islands, the fourth in islands of the Hawaiian group. Through 
co-operative arrangements with scientists of New Zealand, physical 
measurements of the Maori and a complete survey of the Moriori of 
Chatham Islands form part of the program. 

In formulating the plans for the expedition, it was recognized that 
the origin and migrations of a people constitute a problem made up of many 
diverse elements — a problem which involves contributions not only from 
physical anthropology, material culture, archaeology, philology and legends, 
but also from economic botany, geography and zoology. A profit- 
able search for Polynesian origins obviously involves fundamental re- 
search in two distinct fields: (i) the source of the physical racial 
characteristics which have combined to make the different Polynesian 
types; (2) the source of the original elements in the customs, habits and 
beliefs — in a word, the culture of the Polynesians. The problem of origin 



22 Bcniicc P. Bishop Miiscuiii — Bulletin 

approaches solution to the extent that orijj^inal physical characteristics may 
be correlated with original cultural elements. 

Although the results obtained by the members of the Bayard Dominick 
Expedition have not as yet been subjected to critical analysis and com- 
parison, some interesting general conclusions have been reached. 

The Polynesian population consists of at least two basic elements 
and the failure to recognize them appears to account for the wide diversity 
of opinion regarding origin and affinities of the Pacific races. 

Type A, which may be considered Polynesian proper, is a Caucasoid 
element with physical characteristics intermediate between some Causasians 
and some Mongols. It may prove to be a very primitive Causasian type 
related to the earliest inhabitants of Micronesia, Melanesia. Indonesia, and 
to the Aino of Japan and to some primitive Americans. It is probably 
the oldest type in central and eastern Pacific and occupied all the Poly- 
nesian islands. At present it is strongest in southern Polynesia. 

The characteristic features of Type A are (i) tall stature, (2) 
moderately long heads, (3) relatively high, narrow faces, (4) relatively 
high, narrow noses, (5) straight or wavy black hair of medium texture, 
(6) well-developed moustache and moderate beard on the chin, (7) 
moderate amount of hair on the body and limbs, (8) light brown skin, (9) 
incisor rim present occasionally, (10) femur flattened. (11) tibia flattened. 
(12) ulna flattened, (13) lips above average in thickness. 

Type B is the Indonesian element typically developed in the region 
of the Celebes. It is a Mongoloid type but unlike the Malay, is strongly 
divergent in the direction of the Negro. Hybrids of Type A and Type !'> 
are much more Mongoloid in appearance than is either of the parental 
types. Type B is strongest in northern and central Polynesia. 

The essential physical characteristics of Type B are: (i) shorter 
stature, (2) shorter heads, (3) low, broad faces, (4) low, broad noses, 
(5) wavier hair, (6) undeveloped beard, (7) body hair rare except on 
the legs, (8) darker brown skin, (9) incisor rim rare, (10), (11), (12) 
femur, tibia and ulna less flattened (data meager, results inferred). (1,^1 
lips well above the average in thickness. 

Type A, Polynesian, and Type B, Indonesian, are not closely related 
in a physical sense. 

A third element in the Polynesian population is characterized by 
extremely short heads, narrow faces, narrow noses, light skin and well 
developed beard and body hair. Representatives of this element have 
not been found in Polynesia in sufficient numbers to justify specific des- 
cription. When studied in a region where it is well represented, this 
element may prove of sufficient importance to be recognized as Type C. 



Report of the Director for 1922 23 

This element has probably contributed some of the Caucasoid traits to 
Polynesians. 

There is a basic Polynesian culture for the present termed Culture 
"A" over which has been superposed a later culture (Culture "B"). 
The most important elements of Culture "A" are: (i) a rectangular 
house with end posts and bed space; (2) a canoe made of five parts; 
(3) a tanged adze; (4) cooking by means of heated stones in ground 
ovens; (5) the use of stone pestles for pounding food; (6) the use of 
wood, gourd, and coconut shell, rather than pottery, for containers; (7) 
skillful woodworking and carving; (8) tattooing; (9) the making of 
tapa, or bark cloth; (10) a characteristic relationship system; (11) the 
custom of adopting and betrothing children; (12) systematic agriculture 
and fishing, taro and potato cultures; (13) professional craftsmanship 
and leadership in industry; (14) tribal government of simple patriarchal 
communism; (15) preserving heads of enemies as trophies, and cannibal- 
ism; (16) ancestor worship, the preservation of genealogies, and the 
hiding of skeletal remains; (17) inspirational diviners; (18) a speculative 
creation mythology conceived on the principle of dualism, expressed in 
terms of male and female agencies. Culture "A" is distributed through- 
out Polynesia, but is most clearly distinguished in New Zealand and the 
Marquesas — marginal regions little affected by later influences. 

As compared with Culture "A." Culture "B" is cliaracterized by a 
higher social and religious development rather than a higher technical 
development, and is dominent in northern and central Polynesia. It is 
considered not as the culture of a race unrelated to the Polynesians, but 
as the culture of a second migrating wave of a people closely related to 
those represented by Culture "A." In addition to the elements listed for 
Culture "A," Culture "B" is characterized by other elements among which 
are: {19) the oval house; (20) wooden head rests; (21) utensils with 
legs; (22) organized government; (23) a rigid social classification; (24) 
complicated systems of land division and ownership; (25) great sacred- 
ness of chiefs and elaborate etiquette; (26) organized dancing as a social 
and religious institution; {2y) organized religious ceremonial and priest- 
hood; (28) a generation cult and seasonal rites; (29) haruspication. 

It is interesting to note that the basal Polynesian physical type (Type 
A) is universally distributed, but strongest in the south, and that the 
original culture ( Culture "A", also universally distributed, is clearest in 
the south (New Zealand) and in the east (the Marquesas). Also physical 
Type B is strongest in north and central Polynesia, the same region in 
which elements in Culture "B" are dominant. This demonstrated parallel- 
ism of racial types and cultural stratification rests on conclusions arrived 



24 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

at independently by members of the Museum staff working in widely 
separated fields with no opportunity for consultation. It is regarded as a 
very important contribution to the method of attack on the Polynesian 
problem. Another contribution is the definition of characteristics and 
elements belonging to the respective types and cultures — a prerequisite to 
comparative studies. 

The archaeological work of the Bayard Doniinick E.xpedition reveals 
no very ancient human habitation in the central and south Pacific. 
For the Polynesian settlement the evidence serves to substantiate the con- 
clusions of William Churchill, based on linguistic and cultural study. The 
following dates are considered reasonable estimates : A.D. o, the first 
important Polynesian migratory movement ; A.D. 600, second migration ; 
and A.D. 1000, a period of great Polynesian expansion. 

As regards the sources of these racial types and cultural elements 
and the routes by which they came to Polynesia, the evidence in hand 
indicates the region of the Malay archiperago (Indonesia) and southeast 
Asia as that from which the Polynesian ancestors began their eastward 
drift. There is no evidence of definite migrations to or from the Ameri- 
can continents. 

The Bayard Dominick Expedition is the most comprehensive investi- 
gation so far made of any Pacific people : it has filled in gaps and expanded 
the boundaries of the knowledge of the Polynesian race. It is believed 
that the publications resulting from the two years of intensive study will 
serve as a basis for intelligent criticism of the observations and theories of 
previous workers and a giiide for later detailed studies. 

H.\w.\iiAN Provkrbs 

The ]iaper by E. E. CoUocotl. "Proverbial sayings of the Tongans" 
(Occ. Papers, Vol. VIII, No. 3, 1922) has proved to be of interest not 
only for its intrinsic merit, but also as a demonstration of a method of 
presenting the philosophy and guiding thoughts of a people. It has 
seemed, therefore, desirable to arrange for the preparation of similar 
papers based on material from other groups of the Polj'uesian race. 

For Hawaiian proverbs a nucleus exists in a manuscript by the late 
Dr. N. B. Emerson, presented to the Museum by Mrs. Sarah B. Emerson. 
A considerable number of proverbs has been supplied through the generous 
co-operation of Mr. Theodore Kelsey and his co-workers. Other proverbs 
and connundrums have been supplied by Mrs. E. A. Nawahi, Mrs. Lahi- 
lahi Webb, and Mr. Albert Judd. It is hoped that the Museum will re- 
ceive contributions from many other sources. 



Report of tli^ Director for ip22 25 

Study of Pacific Languages 

During the days of active missionary expansion, 1820-1860, much at- 
tention was given to preparing word Hsts and generalized grammars of 
various Pacific dialects, and the theories of language relation expounded 
by Max Miiller appear to have led some scholars to undertake philological 
researches in the language of Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia. For 
Polynesia the Maori Comparative Dictionary by Tregear (1891), the 
Maori Dictionary by Williams (1892). the Tongan Vocabulary and 
Grammar, by Rev. Shirley Baker (1897); the Samoan Grammar and 
Dictionary, by Rev. George Pratt (revised edition 1911); A Dictionary 
of the Hawaiian Language, by Lorrin Andrews (1865, revised 1922) ; the 
Polynesian Wanderings and Easter Island Rapanui Speech, by William 
Churchill ; and the dictionaries for the dialects of French Oceania, com- 
piled by the Catholic fathers, are standard works. Studies by S. Percy 
Smith, Sidney Ray and other contributors to the journal of the Polynesian 
Society have served to elucidate many doubtful points. But increase in 
the knowledge of the Polynesian and related languages has not kept 
pace with researches in other branches of anthropology, and the death of 
William Churchill in 1920 and of S. Percy Smith in 1922 has removed 
two of the most distinguished students of Polynesian philology. 

As anthropological work proceeds, the call becomes insistant for a 
court of final appeal for spelling, meaning, and origin of words and 
phrases that inclose within themselves a picture of the migrating ideas and 
give significance to words which at present represent merely groups of 
letters or sounds. There is need for trained scholars who will devote a 
lifetime of effort to fundamental researches in philology of the Polynesian 
dialects. 

Perhaps the first work of such a scholar would be to edit the several 
dictionaries and the grammars now in manuscript form. Similar studies 
could then be made of native dialects for which no adequate word lists are 
in existence. 

Since the inadequacy of philological research is felt by all institutions 
interested in Pacific work, it is not improbable that support could be ob- 
tained through some co-operative arrangement. 

Hawaiian Diction.'^ry 

In 1913 the Legislature of the Territory of Hawaii made provision 
for the "compiling, printing, binding, and publishing in book form a 
Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language" to replace Andrews' Dictionary, 
which had long been out of print. Supported by legislative grants in 
1913, 1917, 1919, amounting to $25,000, revision has been in progress 



26 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bullctiu 

since 191 5, under tlie direction of tlie Board of Commissioners of Public 
Archives, who placed Rev. Henry H. Parker in charge of the work. 

Early in 192 1 the manuscript cards were transmitted by the Board 
of Archives to the Bishop Museum, which consented to do the editorial 
work necessary to prepare the volume for the press and also agreed to 
furnish a list of Hawaiian geographical names with pronunciation and 
definition. To cover the cost of printing, the Board placed at the dis- 
posal of the Museum the unexpended balance of $4,500. 

As the editorial work proceeded it was found that the manuscript 
was incomplete in several essential features, thus demanding an unexpected 
amount of work on the part of the Museum stafT and of Mr. Joseph S. 
Emerson. Mr. Stephen Mahaulu. Mr. L. .A. Dickey. Mr. Thomas C. White, 
and Mr. Theodore Kelsey, who gave freely of their store of knowledge. 

The Dictionary is substantially a reprint of the work compiled by 
Mr. Lorrin Andrews in 1865. The value of the older volume has been 
increased by incorporating the scholarly studies of Lorenzo Lyons, by the 
addition of diacritical marks, by the elimination of irrelevant matter, and 
by the rearrangement of words and definitions. The revised Dictionary is 
obviously incomplete and the way is open for the preparation of a volume 
that will draw material from all available sources. 

REPORT OF THE CURATOR OF COLLECTIONS 
The Curator of Collections, Stanley C. Ball, has submitted the fol- 
lowing report: 

Accessions 1922 
anthropological material 
.\dditions to the collections representing Hawaiian physical anthropology in- 
clude material from Molokai, presented by Mr. F. A. Danforth ; from Oahu, pre- 
sented by Mrs. E. A. Fennel and by Mr. C. A. McWayne; from Kauai, collected 
by Herbert E. Gregory and Gerrit P. Wilder; and from Lanai, presented by Mr. 
Hector Munro. Four skulls and other bones were collected in the Austral Islands 
by John F. G. Stokes and more than a hundred skeletons from Guam were col- 
lected and presented to the Museum by Dr. J. C. Thompson and Hans G. Horn- 
bostel. 

The ethnological collections have been increased by gifts as follows: Mr. 
Spencer Bickerton, stone hatchet from .\ustralia ; Captain V. A. Brisson, pestle from 
Rimatara, adz from Pitcairn ; Lieutenant Fish, musical bow from Guam ; Mrs. W. M. 
Giflfard, Samoan mat; Mrs. Margaret C. Jackson, Russian harness; Mr. A. F. Judd, 
portion of a Hawaiian bone ornament: Mr. Ernest Kaai. guitar from India and 
Koran bible from Java; Mr. Kaeniona through Mr. Lindsay Faye, stone scraper from 
Kauai ; The Liliuokalani Estate, 3 ancient royal kaliilis taken from the Mausoleum ; 
Dr. H. F. Lyon, dancing wand from Solomon Islands ; Mr. Joseph Marciel, 2 adz 
heads from Maui ; Miss Mary Y Moore, metal vase from Java ; Mr. G. C. Munro, 
piece of plaster from Hawaiian oven. Lanai; Mr. William Weinrich, wooden tool 
for stripping fiber, Mexico; Mrs. Lilly West, Hawaiian tobaccco pipe. 



Report of the Director for i<)22 27 

The following persons have loaned specimens to the Museum: Mr. D. Wesley 
Garber, fish net, sinker and 29 stone adz heads from Samoa; Dr. George Herbert, 
helmet, 2 spears, 2 wooden bowls and a phallic stone from Hawaii ; Mr. Frank 
Marciel, Hawaiian adz head and polishing stone ; Mr. N. G. Smith, kukui lei, brooch 
and earrings : Mr. William Wagener, Hawaiian stone image. 

Ethnological material purchased during 1922 includes the valuable collection of 
Mrs. Victoria Buffandeau which embraces 8 feather leis, 10 kapas, 19 wooden bowls, 
2 cuspidors, finger bowl, pig platter, tobacco pipe, 3 ivory leis, 2 makaloa mats, 
poi pounder, net for suspending calabash (all Hawaiian), 2 Samoan mats, 12 co- 
conut bowls, a poi pounder and a gourd bowl from Tahiti; from E. Block, 11 war 
clubs from Samoa and Fiji, sword from Caroline Islands, 3 dishes and a bowl 
from Fiji, mat dress from Samoa, 3 tapa beaters of which one is triangular in 
section (locality unknown) and a piece of bark cloth from Uganda, Africa; from 
the Emma Dreier Estate, a large wooden Hawaiian plate ; from Mr. Maihui, net for 
suspending calabash ; from Mr. Nam Ja Sung, collection of Hawaiian stone imple- 
ments ; from Mrs'. Helen Widemann, 4 Hawaiian calabashes. 

Members of the staff have increased the collections as follows : R. T. Aitken, 
180 specimens of native implements, tapas, baskets and materials collected in Tu- 
buai and Raivavae, Austral Islands (see notes on collections) ; John F. G. Stokes, 
a large number of artifacts collected chiefly in Rurutu, Raivavae and Rapa (re- 
served for description in the 1923 Report); Kenneth P. Emory, collected on Lanai. 
T. H., during 1921, 421 specimens among which may be mentioned several pieces of 
wood from old houses and canoes, tapa anvil and beater, poi pounders, S lamps 
and a pillow of stone, 19 anchors. 30 sinkers. 8 grindstones, 8 whetstones, 35 bowling 
stones, 34 adz heads, ^J polishing stones, 4 stones bearing petroglyphs of great age, 
Zi stone hammers, stone dish, stone for cooking birds, 3 bath rubbing stones and a 
stone knife. Mr. Emory also collected in 1922 on Molokai a stone hammer, 3 
bowling stones, 3 sling stones', 2 adzes, a net sinker and a cowry lure. 

Hans G. Hornbostel has had remarkable success in obtaining valuable specimens 
illustrating the material culture of the Chamorros. The material already received 
from Guam includes hundreds of sling stones, large numbers of adzes and chisels, 
hammers, pestles, whetstones, several stone vessels', knives, ornaments, fishing 
equipment and other artifacts, as well as specimens of the massive stone capitals 
from the tops of pillars marking burial sites (see p. 21). An exploring party consist- 
ing of Herbert E. Gre.gory. Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., of the Museum staff and Herman 
Von Holt, Ronard K. Von Holt, Lindsay Faye, and Lorrin P. Thurston, volunteer 
assistants, brought back from the Nepali coast of Kauai s poi poimders, 2 poi 
boards, 6 cowry lures, 2 sinkers, adz head, stone knife, polishing stone and canoe 
fragments. C. Montague Cooke and party consisting of C. M. Cooke III, Harrison 
Cooke and Benjamin Oliveira secured a number of stone and shell implements on 
the western end of Molokai. 

By exchange the Museum has received from Baron N. Kanda of Japan a col- 
lection of adzes, arrowheads, pieces of pottery, snow shoes, and 2 stone ornaments 
(Magatama and Kudatama), illustrating the culture of the ancestors of the present 
Japanese race, and several adzes and other artifacts from Formosa ; from Mr. E. 
L. Moseley a series of North American Indian relics. 



Specimens have been added to the ornithological collection by members of the 
staff as follows : Stanley C. Ball and Charles H. Edmondson, man-o'-war bird 
(Fregata aquila), booby (Sula cyanof's), nestling and 2 eggs of the latter, 3 terns 
iProcelsterna cerulea), bristle-thighed curlew {Numeiiius tahitiensis), 3 warblers 
(Conopoderas pistor), nest of the latter, 11 paroquets (Vini kiihli) collected on 



28 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum— Bulletin 

Fanninj; Island; E. W. Giffard, 3 shearwaters (Puffinus chororhynchus) collected 
in Tonga ; John F. G. Stokes, rail obtained in Austral Islands. 

Birds have been presented to the Museum as follows; from Mr. G. P. Cooke, Jr., 
an apapane (Himntione sanguiuca) found dead on Molokai ; Mr. Hung Luni Chung. 
3 finches (Carl^odaciis tncxicainis ohscunis) shot at Experiment Station; Mr. H. S. 
Hayward, feathers of red-tailed tropic bird and others; Mr. W. H. Smith, dark- 
rumped petrel (Aestrelata t'haeofygia). 

INSECTS 

The report of Edwin H. Brj'an, Jr., Assistant Entomologist, records the acces- 
sion of 8445 insects, 5140 of which came from the Hawaiian islands, a larger pro- 
portion than during 1921. 

Collections by members of the Museum staff include 265 specimens from Fan- 
ning Island collected by Stanley C. Ball and Charles H. Edmondson, 923 specimens 
collected on Kauai by Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., approximately 900 insects obtained from 
tlie Austral Islands througli John F. G. Stokes, and 298 flies c<ilUcled in various 
parts of Hawaii by Otto H. Swezey. 

Specimens received in exchange came from the following sources: Mr. E. W. 
Ferguson, 1 1 .Australian Tabanidae ; Mr. E. L. Moseley, 78 insects from Ohio ; Mr, 
W. S. Patton, 47 Muscidae ; Mr. A. J. Turner, 67 Australian moths. 

The following donations have been gratefully received ; 6 specimens from Hale- 
akala, Maui, given by Miss A. M. Alexander ; 329 North American and Tahitian in- 
sects from Charles H. Edmondson ; 41 Hawaiian Diptera, and 35 Hawaiian Bruchi- 
dae from the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Experiment Station; 122 Hawaiian Diptera 
and 39 other insects from Mr. Walter M. Giffard; 295 Australian specimens from 
Mr. G. F. Hill; 70 Hawaiian insects from Mr. W. H. Meinecke ; 21 North American 
Drosopliilidae from Mr. A. H. Sturtevant ; 53 specimens collected for the Museum 
on Palmyra island by Mr. L. A. Thurston ; 68 Hawaiian Diptera from the University 
of Hawaii. 

An important collection of insects has been received from J. F. lUingworth, 
partly as a gift and partly as a deposit. It embraces 1240 insects collected in Fiji 
by Mr. Illingworth and determined by liim with the aid of other specialists. This 
collection promises to be of great value in further research in the oceanic field. 

The Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station has lent to the Museum 605 in- 
sects collected in Guam by Mr. David T. Fullaway. 

Mr. Bryan further reports : 

"Besides these accessions, as listed, consideral)lc local material, totaling 3537 
specimens, has been collected and turned in by the following members of the staff 
and friends of the Museum : Stanley C. Ball, Spencer Bickerton. Edwin H. Bryan. 
Jr., B. Clarke, A. G. Clarke. C. Montague Cooke, Jr., Rutli H. Grcinor. .Anne Gregory, 
J. F. Illingworth, A. F.Judd, W. H. Meinecke, E. L. Moseley. Marie C. Neal, Otto 
H. Swezey, John W. Thompson, Gerrit P. Wilder." 

^I..^NTs 

Approximately 40,000 specimens have l)een added to the botanical collections 
during the year. Of Hawaiian plants gifts have been received as follows: From 
Mr. E. L. Caum, type specimens of Pritchardia kahanae and P. mantioidcs: Mr. 
Henry Davis, fruit of the "Waialua" orange ; Mr. A. D. Hitchcock, set of mounted 
grasses ; Mr. A. F. Judd, fungi from Molokai and a mounted specimen of the 
fungas, Meliola juddiana Stevens ; Dr. J. R. Judd, a set of ferns collected by Mrs. 
Stew^art Dodge in 1874 ; Mr. W. H. Meinecke, a specimen of silver-sword from 
Hawaii. 



Report of the Director for I032 29 

Hawaiian plants received from members of the staff include a large number of 
rusts and other fungi collected and determined by F. L. Stevens, specimens of 
Abutilon collected by Otto H, Swezey, and three plants' collected on Haw^aii by 
Gerrit P. Wilder. 

The large and important collection of approximately 28,000 specimens brought 
together at the Station of the Board of Agriculture and Forestry and at the Uni- 
versity of Hawaii by J. F. Rock was transferred to the Museum by arrangement 
with these institutions. 

From the Austral Islands, Robert T. .-Mtken and John F. G. Stokes, members 
of the Bayard Dominick E-xpendition, brought back approximately 1,600 dried plants 
and 120 wood samples. A. J. Fames obtained about i.ooo sheets of specimens dur- 
ing his short stay in Samoa in 1920. By far the largest accession is that of 9,000 
specimens of dried plants and 120 wood samples collected by Forest B. H. Brown 
and Elizabeth Wuist Brown during two years of field work in the Marquesas. Tua- 
motu archipelago and New Zealand. 

Collections of plants procured outside of Hawaii include also several hundred 
specimens collected in southern Polynesia by the Whitney South Seas Expedition 
and received in exchange from the American Museum of Natural History ; 80 
specimens collected on Fanning Island by Stanley C. Ball and Charles' H. Edmond- 
son of the Bishop Museum staff ; 274 plants from Borneo purchased from their 
collector, Mr. A. E. D. Elmer : 300 specimens collected and donated by Mr. D. 
Wesley Garber of Samoa, 390 Philippine specimens given by Mr. E. D. Merrill, and 
131 Samoan plants collected and presented by Professor W. A. Setchell of the Uni- 
versity of California. 

SHELLS 

From the report of C. Montague Cooke, Jr., Malacologist, the following notes 
on accessions have been abstracted : 

Exchanges have been arranged with the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences, the American Museum of Natural History and the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology. From the Philadelphia Academy specimens of Pacific zonitoids and 
endodonts and paratypes of two species of tornatellids' were received. From the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 135 lots of shells were received, among them the 
paratypes of species established by Pease, Gulick, and Newcomb. The type speci- 
mens of Planamastra prostrata and P. depressiformis found in the collection of this 
Museum proved to be non-Hawaiian species. (See Nautilus, vol. XXXVI, 1922). 
Mr. W. F. Clapp, Curator of MoUusca, contributed additional material. 

From the American Museum 16 lots of shells were received. Probably the rarest 
species acquired is the Carclia liyaltiana, of which but seven specimens are known. 
The one we received has been carefully compared with the type specimen in the 
collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and there is no doubt 
that the identification is correct. Other important species from the American 
Museum are Amastra pctricola and pusilla. The former, as far as I know, has not 
been collected since Newcomb, in 1850 or 1851, found his original lot, and as these 
specimens were received by the American Museum from Newcomb, they may be 
considered as paratypes. The Boston Society of Natural History gave to the 
Museum a small but very valuable series of Endodontidae. which contains a single 
specimen of Thaumatodon stcllula from the Mayo collection. 

Collections were made by Marie C. Neal on Kauai, and on Hawaii, in Kohala 
district and near the Volcano House. The material from Kauai included a new 
genus of operculate land shells. Collecting expeditions were made by C. Montague 
Cooke, Jr., to Kauai, Maui, and to the Waianae Mountains. Oaliu. Mr. Cooke 
reports : 



30 



Bcrnicc P. Bishof' Museum — HuUctin 



"A trip to the eastern end of the Waianae Mountains by Miss N'eal and myself, 
made possible by the kindness of Mr. and Mrs. Von Holt, yielded quite a large 
number of shells. We were fortunate in finding specimens of Lcptachaliiia oml>ha- 
lodcs. Only four specimens of this species had even been taken, two of which are 
unfortunately lost, the remaining two coming to our Museutai in the Ancey col- 
lection. About 60 specimens of this extremely interesting and rare species were 
collected, all of thetn dead ; but with the clue to their habitat living specimens may 
l)e expected to be found." 

On Kauai several new fossil beds were found, and pro!)abIy one of the most 
important results of the trip was the rediscovery of Carelia cochlea. 

Mr. A. Gouveia has found on the island of Hawaii living examples of Amastra 
pagodula, a species which had formerly been known only as a fossil. 

Among the uncatalogued material in the Museum is a very sttiall but important 
collection from the Austral Islands, received through John F. G. Stokes of the 
Bayard Dominick Expedition. Among the specimens is what is probably a type 
species of the genus Microcystis. As a number of our Hawaiian Zonitidae were 
formerly placed in this genus and later separated by Skyes into tlie genus Philonesia, 
the relationship of our Hawaiian forms to the central Pacific genus can now be 
accurately determined. Interesting specimens of Tornatellinidac were also collected 
on Rapa. 

The most valuable uncatalogued acquisition is the Baldwin collection obtained 
by purchase. For a number of years Mr. D. D. Baldwin was an authority on Ha- 
waiian shells and contributed a few papers describing a number of species. His 
collection contains paratypes of nearly all his species and his identification of the 
species of other authors. 

Other uncatalogued material has been received from Miss A. M. Alexander 
(Maui), Stanley C. Ball and Charles H. Edmondson (Molokai, Fanning Islands). 
H. F. Bergman, and D. Larnach (Oahu), E. H. Bryan, Jr. (Oahu), C. M. Cooke. 
Jr. (Oahu, Molokai, Kauai), F. A. Danforth (Molokai), K. P. Emory (Lanai), 
D. W. Garber (Samoa), A. Gouveia (Hawaii), A. F. Judd (Oahu and Molokai), 
C. S. Judd (Oahu), W. H. Meinccke (Oahu and Hawaii), M. C. Ncal (Oahu and 
Hawaii), Commander Picking (Wake Island), Otto Swezey (Kauai), D. Thaanum 
(Palmyra), J. C. Thompson (Guam). J. W. Thompson (Oahu). E. D. Baldwin 
(Oahu and Maui). 

The source and the amount of tlie cataloged material is as follows. 



RECEIVED FROM 
W. D. Wilder Estate 



C. M.Cooke, Jr. 

(L. L. Cooke, L. Mac- 

farlane. R. Von Holt, 

M. Neal) 
M. C. Neal, 

E. Davis, B. Metzgcr, 

E. Day) 
O. Sorenson 
Iv W. Thwing 
Museum of Compa- 

time Zoology 

I). Thaanum 



LOCALITY 

Oahu, Molokai, 
Lanai, Maui, 
Hawaii, Niihau 
Oahu, Maui 



Hawaii 
Hawaii 
Kauai, Oahu. 
Maui, Molokai 
Hawaii, Jamaica 
Oahu, Molokai 
Maui, Hawaii 



HOW NUMRER OF NOS. 

RECEIVED SPECIMENS CATALOG 

By purchase 48,291 1,792 

Collected '4.731 465 

Collected a.i39 89 

By gift 1,28s 8 

By gift 294 11 

By exchange 287 136 

By gift for naming . 179 So 



Report of the Director for ig22. 



A. F. Judd Hawaii By gift 

K. P. Emory Lanai Collected 

Academy of Natural Kauai, Oahu, By exchange and 

Sciences of Molokai, Hawaii, gift 

Philadelphia Rarotonga 

Arthur Greenvvell Hawaii By gift 

American Museum of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, By exchange 

Natural History Maui, Lanai 

Boston Society of Hawaii By gift 

Natural History 

H. K. Gregory Hawaii Collected 

C. S. Judd Hawaii By gift 

L. A. Thurston Hawaii By gift for naming.. 

W. H. Meinecke Oahu By gift 

. Thurston or Hawaii By gift for naming.. 



D. Thaanum 



ZOOLOGICAL MATERL\L 



Charles H. Edmondson, Zoologist, reports that in connection with his work at 
Kahana Bay, Kawailoa and Waikiki, Oahu, he has collected 314 specimens of crus- 
taceans, 100 specimens of worms, 25 specimens of echinoderms and a number of 
coelenterates and fishes. 

Concerning material secured by three expeditions he writes as follows: 

"In February Stanley C. Ball, and I made a short trip to Molokai, during which 
zoological material was collected on land and on the reef, including insects, lizards, 
crustaceans, mollusks, and echinoderms. Among the 128 specimens of marine 
crustaceans are some very rare forms and some new records for this part of the 
Pacific. 

"Zoological collections in the Museum have been considerably increased during 
the year as a result of an expedition to Palmyra Island by L. A. Thurston and 
D. Thaanum of Honolulu. Approximately 190 specimens of crustaceans, some of 
which are new species, about 100 specimens of echinoderms and 80 specimens of 
fishes besides some specimens of lizards, worms, corals', mollusks, insects and spiders 
are included in the material presented to the Museum. 

"During July and August Stanley C. Ball and I made a general biological sur- 
vey of Fanning Island. A considerable amount of biological material, both plants and 
animals, was collected on the land in the lagoon and on the outer reef. The animal 
forms taken included birds, lizards, myriapods, earthworms, crustaceans, mollusks, 
echinoderms, fishes, and a few other marine organisms. Approximately 800 speci- 
mens of marine crustaceans, nearly 200 specimens of echinoderms and 1000 speci- 
mens of shells of marine mollusks are included in the collections from Fanning 
Island. 

"The lagoon at Fanning Island was dredged for bottom deposits, the material 
of which has been submitted to Dr. J. A. Cushman for the determination of fora- 
niinifera. Much tow material was taken from the surface waters' of the lagoon. 
The microorganisms of this material have not \'et been determined." 

Zoological specimens have been collected by members of the Museum staff as 
follows: Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., shell of green turtle (Chelone mydas) ; C. Montague 
Cooke, Jr., 9 parasitic isopods (Cymothoa) from tongue of fish; C. Montague 
Cooke, Jr., C. M. Cooke, III, and Henry W. Fowler, several fishes from Laie, 
Oahu: Hawaiian Electric Company, nudibranch mollusk (Doris); J. F. Illing- 
worth, skin of Rattns ratttis ; John F. G. Stokes, rats, lizards, scorpions, and coral 
from Austral Islands'; O. H. Swezey, planarians from Moanalua Valley, Oahu; 



32 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

John W. Thompson, crabs and sponges from Honolulu harbor and Pearl Harbor ; 
Gerrit P. Wilder, a crab (Chitrybdis crylhroditctyht) and a small lish from shores 
of Oahu. 

John W. Thompson purchased in the Honolulu markets and presented to the 
Museum 17 Hawaiian fishes and i from Palmyra, 5 crustaceans, and i echinoderm. 
He has given also a piece of fossil coral and 2 moUusks from China. In behalf of 
the Museum he has purchased 9 fishes and has been instrumental in obtaining others. 

Donations to the zoological collections have been made as follows : Captain 
V. A. Brisson, coral from Mangareva ; Mr. E. M. Ehrhorn, coconut crab (Birgus 
latro) from Palmyra; Kamehameha School students, 3 fishes; Mr. T. Kawaguchi. 
fish from Palmyra; Mr. Orlando Lyman, porcupine fish (Diodoii liisti-i.r) ; Com- 
mander Picking, mollusk, corals, and hermit crabs from Wake Island; Mr. H. L. 
Kclley, a frog-fish (Antennarius) ; Mr. Matsujiro Otani, a trigger fish from Pal- 
myra ; Mr. J. P. Ponte, crab (Dromia niinfihii) caught at Waianae, Oahu; Mr. 
C. A. Reeves, fish {Caranx kuhli) caught off Oahu; Mr. L. A. Thurston, crab 
(Raniiia serrata) from Honolulu market; Mr. Manuel Vasconcellos, large eel skin 
from Palmyra ; Mr. J. M. Westgate, an eel caught ofif Diamond Head, Oahu. 

Mr. Edmondson further reports tRat "As a result of the exchange policy there 
virere added to the crustacean collection 104 specimens from the Australian Museum, 
and 123 specimens from the Zoological Survey of India. The Museum recipro- 
cated by presenting these institutions with collections of Hawaiian Crustacea from 
our exchange material." 

Other material received in exchange includes SO lizards, collected by the Whit- 
ney South Seas Expedition, given by the American Museum of Natural History; 
several skins of birds and small mammals, alcoholic specimens of amphibians and 
mollusks from Eastern North America, and a piece of mammoth skin from Rus- 
sia given by Mr. E. L. Mosely. 

From Mr. Matsujiro Otani the Museum purcliased a fine specimen of tlie 
moon-fish (Laiuf'iis hina) caught off Waianae, Oahu. 

MISCIi:LL.\NEOUS M.'\TERIAL 

To the collections of miscellaneous material, gifts have been made by various 
persons as follows : 

Mr. R. W. Atkinson, rock fragments containing crystals of olivene ; Mr. .\rthur 
Coyne, royal standard and house flag of the Hawaiian Monarchy; Mr. C. P. 
laukea, daguerreotype of Mr. Gorham D. Gilman, 1861 ; Dr. E. K. Johnstone, oil 
painting by Princess Kaiulani ; Mr. William Wagener, boulder containing prisms 
of basalt; Mr. William Weinrich, collection of fiber samples and products from 
many parts of the world; Mrs. Lilly West, wooden cane: Mr. H. M. Wliituey. 
block and die for Hawaiian and United States 13-cent postage stamp, 1854. 

By exchange the Museum received from Mr. Spencer Bickerton a Copley 
medal given by the Royal Society of London to Rt. Hon. Sir J. Banks, and one 
given to Captain James Cook ; from Mr. E. L. Moseley, rock specimens from Ohio 
and vicinity. 

Eight drawings and water color paintings done by J. Webber, artist of the 
last voyage of Captain James Cook (1776-80), were purchased in London. Each 
illustrates an event or subject witnessed in Hawaii by Webber. Some of them are 
reproduced in the atlas accompanying the account of Cook's voyages. Three of 



Report of the Director for 1923 33 

them are untiuished, the sketch lines indicating perhaps that the artist had in- 
tended fuller treatinent. The titles of the pictures are as follows : 



Young woman of the Sandwich Islands (reproduced in atlas. Bishop Museum Library) 

Canoe of the Sandwich Islands, the rowers masked (reproduced in atlas) 

Sandwich islander — half of face tattooed (unpublished) 

Men of the Sandwich Islands dancing (one figure reproduced in atlas) 

Sailing canoe. Sandwich Islands (unpublished) 

Boxing match between Sandwich Islanders before Captain Cook (unpublished) 

Tereboo, King of Owyhee, bringing presents to Captain Cook; (reproduced in atlas) 

An offering before Captain Cook, in the Sandwich Islands; (reproduced in atlas). 

NOTES ON COLLECTIONS 

Attention may be drawn to the large and important collections resulting from 
the Bayard Dominick Expedition. In addition to the material recorded in the 
Report of the Curator of Collections for 1921, collections have been received during 
1922 from Robert T. .-Kitken, John F. G. Stokes, Forest B. H. Brown, Elizabeth 
VVuist Brown, and A. J. Fames — all members of the expedition. 

The material brought back by Robert T. Aitken from Tubuai includes a sec- 
tion of a house post carved with a striking design of circular and stellate figures, 
some remarkable wooden planks carved in bold herringbone pattern, five wooden 
bowls of characteristic oval form, baskets, hats, fans, canoe parts, fishhooks and 
sandals. An instructive feature is a series showing stages in the manufacture of 
sennit from coconut husk to finished product. Among the numerous stone imple- 
ments are adz heads, chisels, polishing stones and food pounders. The tapa in- 
dustry is illustrated by a series of tapa beaters of casuarina wood and partly pre- 
pared bark of the paper mulberry (Broussonetia l>apyrifera). At Raivavae Mr. 
Aitken obtained several adzes, tapa beaters, and 13 food pounders showing as many 
different shapes of handles. In addition to ethnological material, dried specimens 
of native flora including a series of wood samples' were collected. 

The large ethnological collections brought by John F. G. Stokes from Rurutu, 
Raivavae, and Rapa must await special record in the Annual Report for 1923, but 
mention may be made of approximately 1600 plant specimens and wood samples and 
other natural history specimens. 

The Museum has received a collection of 1000 plants obtained by A. J. Fames 
in Samoa in 1920. 

The largest addition to the botanical collections made by the Bayard Dominick 
Expedition naturally was contributed by Forest B. H. and Elizabeth Wuist Brown, 
who had devoted two years almost entirely to a study of the endemic and intro- 
duced plants of the Marquesas. While en route Mr. and Mrs. Brown made col- 
lections at the Tuamotus, Tahiti, Rarotonga, and New Zealand. The entire col- 
lection ambraces about 9000 specimens'. 

The Museum has been fortunate in the interest displayed in its activities by 
men in other occupations. Commander J. C. Thompson, stationed at the U. S. 
Naval Hospital in Guam, has been untiring in his efforts to obtain specimens of 
the native culture of the Marianas Islands. Through his influence the interest and 
energy of Mr. and Mrs. H. G. Hornbostal have been enlisted. Mr. Hornbostel 
became a member of the Museum staff and with the aid of Dr. Thompson and 
many friends has collected an enormous amount of anthropological material from 
Guam. This includes over a hundred more or less complete skeletons of a people 
whose large stature is striking. Several instances of pathologic effects are evident. 
Among the artifacts mention may be made of 3 large hemispherical stone capitals 



_^4 Rcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

which once crowned the tops of pillars in the native burial grounds. Excavations 
at their feet uncovered quantities of stone and shell adzes, chisels, sling stones and 
other implements. Several stone dishes are noteworthy, while many objects of more 
recent origin serve to illustrate methods of by-gone times. Further contributions 
from this field are anticipated with interest. 

The botanical collections in the Museum liave been enriched from several 
sources. Mr. D. Wesley Garber, in carrying out his generous offer to procure for 
the Museum such specimens and data as his duties at the Naval Hospital in Apia 
will allow, has already sent in about 300 preserved plants from Samoa. From still 
farther westward have come two collections that should prove valuable in tracing 
tlie origin of the Polynesian flora. Of these, one, consisting of nearly 400 Philippine 
plants, is a gift from Mr. E. D. Merrill, Director of the Bureau of Science in 
Manila. The other, purchased from Mr. A. E. D. Elmer, gives our herbarium 274 
representative plants from Borneo. 

Supplementing the botanical collection made by members of the Bayard Domi- 
nick Expedition are several large lots of specimens collected in southern Poly- 
nesia by the Whitney South Seas Expedition and forwarded to the Bishop Museum 
by the American Museum of Natural History in New York. After determination by 
Forest B. H. Brown the names will be sent to the American Museum, which has 
retained a duplicate set of the plants. 

In tlic transfer of the J. F. Rock collection from the University of Hawaii, 
the Museum became the custodian of approximately 2800 well labeled native plants. 
The importance of this herbarium cannot be too strongly emphasized. 

The purchase of the Victoria Buffandeau collection of ethnological material 
added many old Hawaiian speciincns, which are valued both for their quality and 
for their association with the Kamehameha and Sumner families. Included with 
these are several objects that once Felonged to the royal Pomare line of Tahiti. 
Attention may be called to the considerable number of zoological specimens 
collected and presented by Mr. L. A. Thurston and Mr. David Thaanum. A large 
proportion of these came from the little-studied island of Palmyra and its sur- 
rounding waters. C. Montague Cooke, Jr. has dwelt upon the importance of the 
D. D. and E. D. Baldwin collection of Hawaiian land and marine shells which was 
purchased for the Museum. (See p. 30.) 

fixniiirriox ii.\li,s 

While progress in the exhibition halls has not during the year reached the 
stage anticipated, some encouragement has been derived from the continued op- 
portunities for studying the impressions made upon visitors by the exhibits as they 
are. Many have been glad on request to express their estimates of the halls as a 
whole and to point out in particular those features which met their approval. A 
few have been willing to explain wherein they have felt that from their stand- 
point modifications would bring added comfort and ease of comprehension. 

In a number of instances the experience of members of the Museum staff, 
corroborated by teachers who have brought classes of students, has made evident 
the desirability of changing the location of specimens so as to bring them into 
closer relation to others with which they might well be associated. In this way 
certain topics could be more clearly presented, not only to school classes but to 
the general visitor as well. Something toward this end has already been done. 



Report of the Director for ig32 35 

In order to test its fitness as a background for ethnological specimens the 
interior of one exhibition case in Hawaiian vestibule was painted cream buff. Be- 
sides lending a warmer atmosphere to the environment this treatment promises' to 
provide a fortunate setting for the majority of specimens and to render less 
troublesome the shadows at the tops and ends of the cases. 

Among the fish models' added during the year to the large series on display 
may be mentioned that of the brilliant moonfish, Lampris luna. The original was 
caught in local waters in February. After being on exhibition at Aala Market for 
several days it was brought to the Museum. Mr. Thompson's reproduction shows 
the vivid crimson of the fins and the characteristic mottling of silver. As far as 
can be learned, this specimen is the second caught in Hawaii, its predecessor having 
been captured about twenty-five years ago. Another notable model is that of a true 
swordfish, Xiphias gladius, cast from a small specimen taken by local fishermen in 
December. 

The Victoria Buffandeau collection of Hawaiian and Tahitian ethnological 
material described on page 27 was placed on exhibition. A representative group 
of implements, weapons, vessels and other artifacts received from Guam was in- 
stalled temporarily in Hawaiian Vestibule. In a nearby case the eight original 
drawings of Hawaiian s'ubjects made by J. Webber, artist on Captain Cook's third 
voyage (1776-80) have been on view. Two of the royal kahilis given by the Liliuo- 
kalani Estate made an appropriate addition to the throne exhibit in the upper 
gallery of Hawaiian Hall. 

A special effort to entertain the members of the Pan-Pacific Commercial Con- 
ference was made on the occasion of their visit in November. During the year a 
number of distinguished visitors have been conducted through the Exhibition 
Halls. The use of a book in which the names of visitors were recorded was dis- 
continued at the beginning of the year. 

ATTENDANCE 

Lahilahi Webb, Guide to Exhibits, reports the attendance of 33,303 visitors to 
the exhibition halls during 1922 — an increase of 2,061 over 1921 and the largest in 
the history of the Museum. Among the visitors were 5,156 school children, a very 
satisfactory record compared with the figures for 1921 (1,625) — a result which ap- 
pears to be due to the effort of the Museum and of the school authorities to make 
the exhibits of greater usefulness in education. 

Distributed among the races the figures for attendance are as follows: Whites 
(including Portuguese) 17,899 (53.7 percent) ; Japanese, 6,445 (19.3 percent) ; 
Hawaiians, 5,567 (16.7 percent) ; Chinese, 2,644 (7.9 percent) ; others 748 (3.2 
percent), showing for each race an increase over the corresponding figures for 
1921 which were respectively: 16.993; 5,696; 4,847; 2,148; and 629. 

For the first time an attempt has been made to distinguish the tourist from 
the local attendance, excluding school pupils. The numbers recorded, 6,365 and 
21,782, are doubtless fairly approximate. 



^6 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Muscidii — Bulletin 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN 

From the report of the Librarian, Miss Elizabeth B. Higgins, the 
following records ha\e been taken : 

ACCESSIONS 



Special menlion should be made of a few of the gifts. Among the manu- 
scripts were the Lawson, MS, relating to the Marquesas, and the Andrews' Compara- 
tive Vocabular)' of Hawaiian Words, both the gift of Mr. Arthur Alexander. A 
collection of Hawaiian proverbs, compiled by Dr. Nathaniel Emerson and given by 
Mrs. Emerson and her son, is an especially valuable acquisition. Through the 
courtesy of Mr. R. B. Doom of Tahiti, the Museum was granted the privilege of 
making a copy of the manuscript "History of the Island of Borabora" by Tati 
Salmon. Among the maps were 13 advance sheets of surveys of the Hawaiian 
islands, showing the position of artifacts on Hawaii, Maui, and Molokai. The gifts 
of photographs include 25 views of New Zealand scenery and natives— the gift of 
Dr. W. T. Brigham; 59 portraits of Honolulu residents (taken about 1870) — the 
gift of Mrs. Walter Giflfard; 59 portraits of about the same date— the gift of Mr. 
Albert F. Judd; 14 Hawaiian photographs of ethnological interest — the gift of 
Mr. Theodore Kelsey; 12 views of Wake Island— the gift of Commander Picking 
of the U. S. subtender "Beaver"; 14 portraits of early residents of Hawaii— the gift 
of Col. C. P. laukea; 48 portraits and views in an album— the gift of Mrs. L. Webb. 
The gifts of pamphlets included 128 separates and papers on subjects within 
the Museum field — the gift of the Director; 103 papers on entomoIog\' — the gift of 
J. F. Illingworth; 8 entomological papers (author's separates) — the gift of Mr. 
Gerald Hill; 12 papers on marine zoology — the gift of Mr. James Hornell ; and 
22 author's separates, papers on insects of Australia — the gift of Mr. Eustace W. 
Ferguson. 

The gifts of books included a complete set of the Proceedings of the Wash- 
ington Academy of Science.s — the gift of the Smithsonian Institution and a glos- 
sary of the Rarotongan language — gift of the Carnegie Institution. 

For valuable gifts of books, pamphlets, photographs and manuscripts the 
Museum is indebted to the following : 

Mr. A. C. Alexander, 2 manuscripts ; Argentine Republic Government, i 
pamphlet; Australian Government, S volumes; .Australian Museum, 6 volumes. 5 
pamphlets, and 1 manuscript; Mr, Frank C. Baker. 8 separates; Mr. Elsdon Best. 4 
separates; Bishop Estate office, i manuscript; Dr. W. T. Brigham, 3 pamphlets 
and 25 photographs ; Mr. Edwin H. Bryan, Jr., 19 pamphlets ; California State 
Library, 4 pamphlets ; Carnegie Institution of Washington, i volume ; Carnegie 
Institution of Washington — Geopliysical Laboratory, 8 pamplilets ; Mr. Frederick 
Chapman, 5 separates; Dr. Charles Chilton, i volume; Chosen Government, i vol- 
ume ; Cincinnati Museum, 1 pamphlet ; Colombo Museum, i volume ; Dr. C. 
Montague Cooke, Jr., 1 separate ; Czechoslovak Republic. 6 volumes and 7 pamphlets ; 
Mr. Hans Damm, 1 separate; Detroit Institute of .Arts. 5 pamphlets; Mr. R. B. 
Doom. 1 manuscript; Dr. Charles H. Edmondson. 1 separate; Mrs. Sarah E. and 
Mr. .Arthur W. Emerson, i manuscript; Mr. Carl Elschner. i pamphlet; Mr. Ken- 
neth P. Emory, 3 pamphlets; Mr. Johannes Felix, 2 separates; Mr. Eustace W. 



Report of the Director for 1922 37 

Ferguson, 22 separates; Mr. Frederic W. Goding, 3 pamphlets; Mrs'. Walter M. 
Giffard, 60 photographs; Mr. George K. Greene, 3 pamphlets and i volume; Dr. 
H. E. Gregory, 128 pamphlets and i map; Miss Ruth Greiner, 7 maps; Hawaiian 
Government, 1 pamphlet; Mr. Gerald F. Hill, 8 separates; Mr. James Hornell, 2 
volumes and 12 pamphlets ; Colonel C. P. laukea, i pamphlet, 4 manuscripts, and 
14 photographs; Dr. J. F. Illingworth, 103 pamphlets, i book, and i manuscript; 
Commodore A. C. James, i volume ; Japan Imperial Earthquake Investigation 
Committee, 3 pamphlets ; Japan National Research Council, 6 pamphlets ; Mr. 
A. F. Judd, 59 photographs; Mr. C. S. Judd, 2 photographs; Mr. Theodore Kel- 
sey, 14 photographs ; Library of Hawaii, i volume ; Louisiana Museum, i pam- 
phlet; Dr. H. L. Lyon, 15 pamphlets; Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, 
3 pamphlets; Mr. M. D. Monsarrat, 2 manuscripts and 1 pamphlet; National Re- 
search Council, 2 pamphlets ; New Bedford Library, 1 pamphlet ; New York Zoo- 
logical Society, 11 pamphlets; New Zealand Government Statistician, 4 volumes'; 
Norwich Castle Museum, 1 pamphlet ; Messrs. M. and H. H. Peach, i pamphlet ; 
Dr. R. C. L. Perkins, 2 separates ; Commander Picking, 12 photographs ; Portland 
Society of Natural History, i pamphlet ; Rochdale Literary Society, i volume ; 
Royal Ontario Museum, i pamphlet; Mr. Otto Schlagenhaufen, i pamphlet; Dr. 
Carl Skottsberg, 7 pamphlets ; Mr. W. J. Smithies, i photograph ; Smithsonian 
Institution, II volumes' and 4 pamphlets; Mr. Thomas Thomsen, 2 pamphlets; 
Mr. Stephen Taber, i separate; Mr. Thomas G. Thrum, 2 volumes and i separate; 
Mr. Alfredo J. Torcelli, 1 volume ; United States Geological Survey, 6 pamphlets 
and 13 maps; Mr. Henry Lorenz Viereck, i volume; Mr. Max Weber and Dr. L. F. 
deBeaufort, i volume ; Yale University, 4 pamphlets. 

EXCHANGES 

In addition to the current volumes regularly received from institutions on an 
exchange basis, a number of sets, more or less complete, have been received from 
the institutions added to the Museum exchange list during the year and during 
1921. Among these sets were 27 volumes of the Biological Bulletin of the Marine 
Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole ; 8 volumes of Hayata's Icones plantarum 
Formosanarum from the Formosan Government ; ig volumes of the University 
Studies of the University of Nebraska ; 25 volumes of the Bulletin of the Paris 
Museum of Natural History — a complete set to date ; 10 volumes each of the two 
series of the Review of Applied Entomology — complete set; 12 early volumes from 
the Vienna Natural History Museum to complete the set of Annalen ; 8 volumes of 
Memoires of the Brussels Royal Museum of Natural History — a complete set ; 27 
volumes from The Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali de Milan ; and 10 volumes 
of the Journal of Zoology from Pomona College, California. 

The number of serial publications to be currently received has been increased 
by 23 by reason of the new exchanges. Classified by subjects the new serials are: 
geography and history 5 ; natural history, 7 ; botany. 3 ; zoology, 7 ; folk-lore, I. 
The list of new exchanges may be found on page 15. 

Besides the volumes and parts received as regular exchanges from societies 
and institutions, a considerable number of accessions have come in by special ex- 
change — that is to say, by special arrangement for special items. For example 
the Editor of Stewart's Handbook of the Pacific Islands has sent a number of the 
handbooks in return for Museum publications that he desired. Special e«changes 



38 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

of this sort have also been made with Mr. Spencer Bickerton for photographs and 
books relating to the Pacific, with Prof. C. A. Kofoid for zoological books, and 
with Mr. Cyril Smith for a set of Wilkes Exploring Expedition. Other similar 
exchanges ha\c been made. 

piRcii.\si;s 

The books acquired by purchase in 1922 have been chiefly of general reference, 
maps, atlases, a gazetteer, and zoological hooks and pamphlets. Tlie atlases have 
been much needed. The scientific journals currently received by subscription are 
22, including 13 American and 9 foreign periodicals. The subjects represented are 
general science 3, anthropology and archaeology 3, botany 7, geography 2, library 
science i, zoology 6. 

A summary of accessions in 1922 is shown in the following table: 

Parts and 

Volumes Pamphlets Photographs Maps Manuscripts 

Exchange .i!ii mSj 17 ^5 

Purchase (i.S ^5 4 

Gift 33 535 234 "4 

449 2013 251 29 14 

LO.ANS AND DEPOSITS 

In 1921 Mr. A. F. Judd placed on deposit at the Museum his colleclion 
of Hawaiiana. A card index has been made of 280 of the books. These are now 
available for use. Mrs. Victoria Buffandeau has placed on deposit a number of 
manuscripts relating to the history of the Sumner family. 

-\ valuable loan was received from the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 
manuscripts, papers, maps, literary notes and other materials including 38 items 
bequeathed to the Carnegie Institution by Mr. William Churchill. One item of this 
loan is 30 boxes of cards representing the progress Mr. Churchill had made toward 
the preparation of a Samoan-English Dictionary. The manuscript dictionary is 
considered by the Carnegie Institution the most valuable portion of the betpiest. 

CIRCUL.\TION .\ND USE OF BOOKS 

The number of books taken out of the library for use by the members of the 
stafT and others has largely increased in the past two years. Several Museum 
associates living on the mainland and elsewhere have had the use of books for long 
periods and books have been borrowed by Honolulu libraries. In 1922 the zoo- 
logical books and the accounts of voyages were most in use. 



>;^'PVfl'^-^:/';/^:*|'*''^^S^ ><:?='■ ':^:::''-''------ .'■''■■■''' v^ 



CRUSTACEA FROM 

PALMYRA AND FANNING 

ISLANDS 



BY 

CHARLES HOWARD EDMONDSON 

WITH 

DicscRiPTioxs OF New Species of Crabs from Palmyra Island 
BY Mary J. Rathbun 



Bernice p. Bishop Museum 
Bulletin 5 

WITH 2 riATES 



2.^^0 5S 



honolulu, hawaii 

Published by thb Museum 

1923 



50T.Sk9 



CRUSTACEA FROM 

PALMYRA AND FANNING 

ISLANDS 



BY 

CHARLES HOWARD EDMONDSON 

WITH 

Descriptions of New Species of Crabs from Palmyra Island 
BY Mary T- Rathbun 



Bernice p. Bishop Museum 
Bulletin 5 

WITH 2 PLATES 






honolulu, hawaii 

Published by the Museum 

1923 



Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning 
Islands 



By 
Charles Howard Edmondson 



INTRODUCTION 

From a geographical point of view the atolls of Palmyra and Fanning 
in the north equatorial region of the Pacific Ocean belong to the same 
group of islands, a group which also includes Washington and Christmas 
Islands in addition to Kingman Reef. This short chain of atolls with a 
northwest-southeast trend is somewhat parallel with the Hawaiian Group 
but about one thousand miles south of the latter and in close proximity to 
the equator. 

Of the four main islands Palmyra is the most northern and western 
with a position of 5° 49' 4" N. Lat. and approximately 162° 11' 30" W. 
Long., and Christmas Island is the most eastern and also nearest the equa- 
tor, being 1° 57' N. Lat. and 157° 27' W. Long. Fanning Island lies about 
145 miles northwest of Christmas Island in latitude 3° 51' 25", and 66 miles 
northwest of Fanning is Washington Island with Palmyra 126 miles to the 
northwest of it. Kingman Reef, of coral formation and very small area 
exposed above the surface of the ocean, is about 40 miles north of Palmyra. 

Although Fanning Island was discovered in 1798 and Palmyra Island 
in 1802 very little reliable information regarding either of them was avail- 
able until recent times, and it has only been within the past few years that 
efforts have been made to carry out comprehensive scientific investigations 
of these typically mid-Pacific atolls. 

The earliest contribution to the biology of the islands of this group was 
made in 1877^^ based on material collected by Dr. Thomas H. Streets and 
Dr. William H. Jones, surgeons in the United States Navy, during a sur- 
vey of the islands of the North Pacific by the United States ship Ports- 
mouth in 1873-74. This systematic report includes 13 species of plants, 13 
of birds, 36 of fishes and 10 of crustaceans collected at Palmyra, Washing- 
ton, Fanning and Christmas Islands. That a larger collection of invertebrate 
fauna was made at this time is indicated by Dr. Streets when he says" 
"Excepting the crustaceans, the invertebrate portion of the collection is 
excluded from this bulletin." 



' Streets, Thomas H., Contributions to the natural history of the Hawaiian and 
Fanning Islands and Lower California : Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 7, 1877. 
^ Op. cit., footnote, p. 7. 



4 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Another publication having reference to the natural history of this group 
of islands was issued by Emmanuel Rougier in 1914 under the title "He 
Christmas, South Seas"," This booklet of 158 pages includes a discussion 
of the topography, climate and natural resources of the island, and a con- 
siderable amount of information regarding its flora and fauna. 

In July 1913 a party from Honolulu, including Hon. Henry E. Cooper, 
the owner of Palmyra Island, Dr. C. M. Cooke, Jr., conchologist of the 
Bishop Museum, and Professor Joseph F. Rock, botanist of the College 
of Hawaii, proceeded to Palmyra with the purpose in view of exploring 
the atoll and investigating the fauna and flora found on and about the 
numerous islets of the group. 

As a result of this expedition a large amount of biological material was 
collected and turned over to the Bishop Museum, and Professor Rock, in 
co-operation with other botanists, published a paper entitled "Palmyra 
Island with a description of its flora".* In this account brief historical 
and general descriptions of Palmyra are followed by a systematic discus- 
sion of the flora of the atoll. The paper is well illustrated with numerous 
photographs taken by the author and is accompanied by a chart, revised 
from two older ones, of the entire group of islets forming the atoll as it 
was observed by members of the expedition of 1913. 

In the paper by Professor Rock, which is primarily a botanical report, 
some reference is also made to the animal life of Palmyra. The fauna of 
the shallow water about the islands is mentioned in a very general way 
and more specific, but l)rief. consideration is given to birds, insects and land 
crustaceans. 

More recently, in a ])ublication entitled "Some shoal-water corals from 
Murray Island (Australia), Cocos- Kneeling Islands, and Fanning Island",^ 
T. W. Vaughan gives consideration to 26 species and i variety of corals 
collected at Fanning Island, and points out the importance of this locality 
as a connecting link in the distribution of corals between regions south of 
the equator and Hawaii. 

The four papers cited a1)0ve are. so far as I have been able to discover, 
the only ones publislied having direct reference to tlic natural history of 
this group of atolls. 

An additional lot of crustaceans have recently l)ecn presented to the 
Bishop Museum by Dr. H. E. Lyon, botanist of the Hawaiian Sugar 
Planters' Association. These specimens, chiefly amphipods and isopods. 
saved from marine algae collected by Professor Rock at Palmyra Island 

'Rougier, Emmanuel, He Christmas, .South Seas, Brioudc, France, L. Watel. 1914. 
* College of Hawaii, Bull. No. 4, 1916. 

' Papers from the Department of Marine Biology of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, vol. 9, pp. 49-234, 74 pis. and 2 figs. 1918. 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 5 

in 1913 and turned over to Dr. Lyon for identification, have been tenta- 
tively placed in genera by Mr. Clarence R. Shoemaker of the United States 
National Museum prior to a more complete determination, and are so listed 
in the present paper. It is hoped that a more complete report may be made 
upon these forms at some future time. 

More recent collections of marine fauna were taken at Palmyra Island 
by Mr. L. A. Thurston and Mr. D. Thaanum of Honolulu during the early 
summer of 1922. A considerable amount of material from this expedition, 
including fishes, crustaceans, echinoderms, mollusks, and other forms of 
marine life was received by the Bishop Museum. The crustaceans in this 
lot are included in the present report. 

Fanning Island was discovered by Captain Edmund Fanning in 1798^ 
and, although the island has been for many years an industrial and com- 
mercial center of some importance, very little has been reported about its 
flora and fauna. 

In July 1922 the Bishop Museum commissioned me to make a bio- 
logical survey of Fanning Island with S. C. Ball, Curator of Collections. 
During July and August we spent ten days on the island, making as com- 
plete biological investigations and as representative collections of land and 
marine flora and fauna as time permitted. 

The island is of the atoll type with a lagoon about 9 miles in length 
and approximately one-half that breadth with the long diameter in a 
northwest-southeast direction. The land rim surrounding the lagoon aver- 
ages about half a mile wide with a maximum elevation of less than 10 
feet. The lagoon, in depth, ranges down to nearly 60 feet, although it is 
very shallow over much of its area. It is well filled with coral much of 
which, especially near the west shore, has apparently recently died. Plate 
I. B shows a typical section of the beach of the lagoon, and Plate II. B 
one of the numerous tide-flats. (See also fig. i.) 

On the outer or ocean side of the land area a narrow, rocky shelf, 
doubtless one time a living coral reef, extends about the western and 
southern shores. This shelf is well exposed in many places at low tide 
and is more or less completely covered by thin slabs of limestone of coral 
formation, worn smooth by the action of water and laid down in shingled 
layers. (See PI. II, A). The slope from the shelf to deep water is gradual 
making possible safe anchorage for ships at a considerable distance from 
the shore. 



' Fanning, Edmund, Voyages Round the World, with selected sketches of voyages 
to the South Seas, North and South Pacific Oceans, China, . . . , chapter 12. 
New York, Collins and Hannay, 1833. 



Beniicc P. Bishop Museum — B,illctiii 



Tliere are three breaks in the land rim which connects the lagoon with 
the sea — the north and south canoe passages, both of which are very 
shallow, and a much wider and deeper channel on the southwest side which 
is navigable for vessels of light draft. (See PI. I, A). The lagoon shore 
is, in most places, a narrow, sandy beach. 



NORTH R\SSAGE 




Figure i. Outline map of Fanning Island, based on a survey by Clarence A. 
Brown. The length of the lagoon is approximately 9 miles. 

The island is now occupied by the Fanning Island Limited — an English 
copra company — and by a cable station of the Pacific Cable Board, the 
station being an important relay on the cable line between Sydney and 
Bamfield, B. C. Acknowledgment is hereby made of the courtesy and 
generosity of the managements of the.se two establishments through whose 
assistance the survey was made possible. 

During the survey of Fanning Island general collection of plants and 
animals were made on the land, the outer shore, and in the lagoon. The 
paucity of seaweeds in the waters about the island was very noticeable. 
A few small varieties of filamentous algae attached and free-floating seemed 



Eduwndson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 7 

to be the only representatives of the group. Both the outer shore and the 
lagoon were found to be rich in invertebrate fauna, especially of the 
echinoderm, molluscan and crustacean phyla and many species of each of 
these were taken. This paper deals only with the crustaceans. 

The surface waters of the lagoon were found to be teeming with ento- 
mostracan crustaceans, larvae of mollusks, crabs, and such like which no 
doubt serve as food for the numerous fishes. Determination of the species 
of the tow material collected has been made only in part and few forms 
from that source are included in the Hst which follows. 

Although by no means an exhaustive one, and very limited in respect 
to certain groups, the systematic record following may be considered fairly 
representative of the crustacean fauna of atolls of the mid-Pacific region. 
The data relative to the distribution of the species is sufficient to disclose 
the very extensive range of many of the forms taken at Palmyra and Fan- 
ning Islands. A similarity of the crustacean fauna of the Indian Ocean 
to that of these two islands is obvious. It will also be noted that many 
species are common to Fanning and Palmyra Islands and Hawaii. 

The Indo-Pacific crustacean fauna has clearly extended eastward in the 
Pacific as far as the Marquesas and the Tuamotus and some species have 
reached Easter Island. Its influence also includes the Hawaiian Group and 
a few species .^have apparently reached the American coast and more that 
of Japan, while a few other species, having even a wider distribution, are 
included in the fauna of the warmer waters of the Atlantic as well as 
that of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is also evident, so far as our 
present knowledge goes, that Palmyra and Fanning islands mark the 
northern distributional limit in the mid-Pacific region of certain Indo- 
Pacific species. 

In addition to previous acknowledgments credit is due Drs. Mary J. 
Rathbun and Waldo L. Schmitt of the United States National Museum 
for services rendered in the identification of certain species included in this 
paper. Rathbun also described two new species of crabs from Palmyra 
Island. (See p. 38.) For the outline drawing of Fanning Island (fig. i) 
and for three photographs Plate \,A,B. and Plate 11,5 I am endebted to 
Mr. Clarence Brown, a civil engineer of Honolulu who completed a topo- 
graphical survey of the atoll in 19 19. 

The systematic report is based upon approximately 800 specimens col- 
lected at Palmyra Island in 1913 by C. Montague Cooke, Jr. and Joseph 
F. Rock ; 190 specimens taken by Messrs. Lorrin Thurston and David 
Thaanum at the same island in 1922, and 800 specimens collected at Fan- 
ning Island by Stanley C. Ball and me in 1922. 



8 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

TAXONOMY 

Order DECAPODA 

Suborder REPTANTIA 

Tribe BRACHYURA 

Family OCYPODIDAE 
Ocypode ceratophthalma (Pallas). 

Ocyf<0(ic ceratophthalma Alcock, Jouni. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 69, p. 345, 1900. 

The species ranges from Mauritius through the Indian Ocean to India, 
and in the Pacific from the Philippines and Murray Inland, Australia, east- 
ward as far as the Tuamotus and northward to Hawaii. It was previously 
reported by Streets from the Fanning Group. Fifteen specimens were 
taken at Palmyra and 3 at Fanning Island. The species is common on 
the sandy beaches facing the open ocean or lagoons. 

Uca tetragonon (Herbst). 

Gclasimus tetragonon .'Mcock, Jouni. .\siat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 69, p. 357, 1900. 

The range of the species is from Mauritius to the Red Sea, through 
the Indian Ocean to Torres Straits and through the Pacific eastward to 
the Society Islands and northward as far as Hawaii. Forty-seven speci- 
mens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Uca annulipes (Milne Edwards). 

Cclasinnis auntilif<cs Alcock, Journ. .Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 69, p. 353, 1900. 

The species is widely distributed, ranging from Zanzibar through the 
Indian and Pacific Oceans to the coasts of South America, Lower Cali- 
fornia, and Vancouver. No records are known for Hawaii. Eight speci- 
mens were collected at Palmyra and 51 from Fanning Island. It is very 
common on Fanning, burrowing in the mud flats near the Cable Station 
and elsewhere. Judging from the collections made at Palmyra it would 
seem that this species is not so common as the preceding one on that island. 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands g 

Family GECARCINIDAE 

Cardisoma rotundum (Quoy and Gaimard). 

Cardisoma hirtipcs Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol, 13, Crust., p. 376, 1852; pi. 24, 
fig. 2, 1855. 

The species is known from Madagascar, Farquhar Atoll, and numerous 
other localities in the Indian Ocean. In the Pacific it ranges from the Liu 
Kiu Islands eastward to Guam, Fiji, Auckland, Tahiti, and Hawaii. Three 
specimens were taken at Palmyra and i at Fanning Island. 

Cardisoma carnSfex (Herbst). 

Cardisoma caniifcx Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 69, p. 455. 1900. 

The species is known from Madagascar throughout the Indian Ocean 
to the Andamans and Pondicherry. Its range through the Pacific is east- 
ward to the Society Islands and the Tuamotus. Streets previously reported 
the species from the Fanning Group. Palmyra probably represents the 
northern limit of its distribution. The species does not inhabit Hawaii. 
In the Bishop Museum are 2 specimens from Palmyra and i6 from Fan- 
ning Island. This burrowing land crab is very abundant on both of these 
islands. Although the species functions as a scavenger it has become very 
obnoxious to the human inhabitants of Fanning Island by reason of its 
numbers and habits. 

Family GRAPSIDAE 
Grapsus grapsus tenuicrustatus (Herbst). 

Grapsus maculatns var. tenuicrustatus Kingsley, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. 
1880, p. 193. 

Records of the species are from Ceylon, the Bonin Islands, Marcus 
Island, Guam, the Tuamotus and Hawaii. Streets recorded it from the 
Fanning Group as Grapsus rudis Milne. Edwards. According to Rathbun' 
the subspecies is characteristic of the islands of the Pacific while the species 
Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus) is confined to the continental border of 
America. Six specimens were taken at Palmyra and i6 at Fanning Island. 



' Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., vol. 23, pt. 3. p. 838. 1906. 



10 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Geograpsus crinipes (Dana). 

Geograpsus crinipes Alcock. Journ. Asial. Soc. Bengal, vol. 69, p. 396, 1900. 

The species is well known through the central and eastern sections of 
tlie Indian Ocean, and also from the Caroline and Marshall Islands, from 
Funafuti, the Tuamotus, Tahiti and northward to Hawaii and Marcus 
Island. Streets previously reported it from the Fanning Group. It is 
commonly found on rocky shore lines where it is associated with the pre- 
ceding subspecies within the common range. Eight specimens were col- 
lected at Palmyra and 7 at Fanning Island. 

Paohygrapsus plicatus (Milne Edwards). 

Pachygyapsus plicatus Kingsley, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. 1880. p. 200. 

The species is known from the southeastern coast of Africa, the Chagos 
Archipelago, the Liu Kiu Islands, New Caledonia, the Caroline Islands 
and eastward to the Paumotus and northward to Hawaii and Marcus 
Island. One specimen was taken at Palmyra and i at Fanning Island. 

Pachygrapsus minutus A. M. Edwards. 

Pachygrapsus minutus Alcock, Jouni. .Asiat. Soc. Bengal., vol. 69. p. 399, 1900. 

Previous records of the species are from the Chagos and Mergui Archi- 
pelagoes, New Caledonia, the Caroline Islands, Fiji and Hawaii. Twenty 
specimens were taken at Palmyra and 3 at Fanning Island. 

Metopograpsus messor (Forskal). 

Mctopograpsus messor Alcock, Journ. .Xsiat. Soc. Bengal, vol, 69. p. 397, 1900. 

The species ranges from the African coast and the Red Sea through 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans to Fiji, Samoa, Tahiti, and Hawaii. It is 
common in Hawaii. It has also been recorded from the west shore of 
Africa. Seven specimens were collected at Fanning Island. 

Cyclograpsus audouinii (Milne Edwards). 

Cyclograpsus audouinii Dana. U. S. Expl. Rxped.. vol. 13. Crust., p. 359, 1852: 
pi. 23, fig. 2, 1855. 

Edwards lists the species from New Guinea. Dana was in doubt about 
the locality of his material as he says "Fiji Islands or New Zealand, jjrob- 
ably the latter." Stimpson records it from Port Jackson, Australia. 

Two specimens were taken at ?\a]myra and 5 at Fanning Island. 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Faiiiiiiig Islands ii 

Pseudograpsus albus Stimpson. 

Pseudogral^sus albus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. 1858, p. 104. 

The species has previously been recorded from Japanese waters by 
Stimpson, from New Caledonia by A. M. Edwards, and from the Tuamotus 
by Rathbun. The "Challenger" Expedition collected the species at Fiji. 

Nineteen specimens were collected at Palmyra and 12 at Fanning 
Island. 

Percnon planissimum (Herbst). 

Lciolophus planissimum Alfock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 69, p. 439. 1900. 

The species is widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific area and 
ranges from Japan to the coasts of California, Chili and New Zealand. It 
is very common in Hawaii. In the Atlantic it ranges from the shores of 
Brazil through the West Indies to Florida, the Azores, Madeira, Spain, 
Portugal and to the western and southern coasts of Africa. Eight speci- 
mens were taken at Palmyra and 2 at Fanning Island. 

Percnon abbreviatum (Dana). 

Acanthopus abbreviatus Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 373, 1852; 
pi. 23, fig. 11, 1855. 

Previous records of the species include localities in the Indian Ocean, 
Tahiti and Hawaii. It is not uncommon on the reefs of Oahu. One 
specimen was collected at Fanning Island. 

Family PILUMNIDAE 

Carpilius convexus (Forskal). 

Carpilius convexus Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 80, 1898. 

The species is widely distributed, ranging from the Red Sea through 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans to the shores of Japan and eastward to 
Hawaii and the Tuamotus. One specimen was taken at Palmyra and i at 
Fanning Island. 

Carpilius maculatus (Linnaeus). 

Carpilius maculatus Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 79, 1898. 

The species ranges from Madagascar and Mauritius through the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans to Japan and Hawaii and eastward to Tahiti and the 
Tuamotus. One specimen was collected at Fanning Island. 



12 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Carpilodes monticulosus A. M. Edwards. 

Carpilodcs »wnticulosus Alcock, Jouni. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 86, 1898. 

The species is known from the Indian Ocean and ranges through the 
Pacific to the Tuamotus and to Hawaii where it is very common. 
One speciment was taken at Fanning Island. 

Carpilodes pallidus Borradaile. 

Carpilodcs pallidus Borradaile, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1900, p. 586, pi. 40, fig. 1. 

Previous records are from the Chagos and Maldive Archipelagoes in 
the Indian Ocean and Rotuma in the Pacific. Four specimens were col- 
lected at Palmyra and 3 at Fanning Island. 

Carpilodes viallantinus (A. M. Edwards). 

Carpilodes viallantinus Alcock, Journ. .\siat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 85. 1898. 

The species ranges from Mauritius through the Indian Ocean and is 
known in the Pacific from Fiji, Samoa and Hawaii. Eleven specimens 
were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Carpilodes cariosus Alcock. 

Carpilodcs cariosus Alcock. Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67. p. 86. 1898. 

The species is recorded by Alcock from off Ceylon in 261^-34 fathoms, 
and oflf Andamans in 10-15 fathoms. Rathbun reports it from Salomon 
and Amirante Islands and other localities in the western Indian Ocean at 
depths down to 80 fathoms. Borradaile records the species from the Mal- 
dive Archipelago at depths from 20-40 fathoms. Caiman reports it from 
Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean. Two specimens collected at Pal- 
myra Island, one by C. Montague Cooke in 1913 and one by Mr. L. A. 
Thurston in 1922, correspond very closely both in structural features and 
coloration with Alcock's description of this species. From previously re- 
ported localities, the normal habitat of the species would seem, however, 
to be at somewhat greater depths than the shallow water of the reef from 
which the Palmyra specimens were taken. 

Liomera cinctimana (White). 

Liomera ciiirtinuina .\lcock, Journ. .\siat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67. p. 88, 1898. 

The species ranges from Mauritius through the Indian and Pacific 
Oceans to the west coast of North America. No records are known for 
Hawaii. There is one specimen in the Bishop Museum from Palmyra 
Island. 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 13 

Platypodia eydouxi (A. M. Edwards). 

Lofihactaea e\donxi A. M. Edwards, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris, I, p. 248, 
pi. 16, fig. 2. 1865. 

The species is apparently distributed from the SuKi Sea and the coast 
of Japan through the Pacific to Tahiti, including Hawaii where is is com- 
mon. Two specimens were taken at Palmyra Island. 

Platypodia digitalis Rathbun. 

Platypodia digitalis Rathbun, Mem. Mus. Conip. Zool., vol. 35, p. 38, pi. 1, fig. 6: 
pi. 9, figs. 4, 4a, 1907. 

Previous records of the species include the Caroline Islands and Tahiti. 
One specimen was collected at Palmyra Island. 

Platypodia fissa (Henderson). 

Lophactaea fissa Henderson, Trans. Linn. Soc. Zoology, Vol. 5, p. 355, pi. 36, 
figs. 8, 8a, 1893. 

The type is recorded from Tuticorin, Bay of Bengal, by Henderson. 
Alcock* says "It appears to me possible that this, which seems to be found- 
ed on a single specimen, is onlj' an individual variation of Lophactaea 
granidosa." 

After carefully comparing the specimen in the Bishop Museum with 
Henderson's description and figure, I am inclined, however, to believe that 
his species is a good one. One specimen was collected at Palmyra Island. 

Lophozozymus pulchellus A. M. Edwards. 

Lophncocymus pulchellus A. M. Edwards, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, (4), vol. 7, 
p. 273, 1867; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, vol. 9, p. 205, pi. 7, fig. 3, 
1873.— Rathbun, Trans. Linn. Soc, (2), vol. 14, p. 214, 1910-1912. 

Rathbun records the species from the Seychelles and the Chagos Archi- 
pelago in the Indian Ocean. It probably occurs in many localities in the 
Pacific. There are two specimens in the Bishop Museum from Hawaii. 
One specimen was collected at Fanning Island. 

Xantho crassimanus A. M. Edwards. 

Xantho (Leptodius) crossiinainis Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67. p. 
120, 1898. 

Localities from which the species has previously been reported include 
the Andamans, Karachi, Ceylon and Hawaii. There is a specimen in the 
Bishop Museum from Australia which has a carapace 46 mm. in breadth. 
Smaller specimens have frequently been taken on Waikiki reef, Oahu. 
Two specimens were collected at Fanning Island. 

'Journ. Assiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 103, 1898. 



14 Bernicc P. Bishop Miiscitin — Bulletin 

Leptodius sanguineus (Milne Edwards). 

Chlorodius sangiiiiieus Dana, U. S. Expl. Expcd., vol. 13, Crust., p. 207. 1852; 
pi. 11, figs, lla-d, 1855. 

The species ranges from the Chagos Archijielago and the Persian Gulf 
through the Indian and Pacific Oceans to the Liu Kiu Islands and east- 
ward to the Tuamotus including Marcus Island and Hawaii. 

It is very abundant on the reefs of Oahu, Hawaii. Eleven specimens 
were collected at Palmyra and 86 at Fanning Island. 

Leptodius gracilis (Dana). 

Chlorodius gyacills Dana, U. S. Expl. Expcd., vol. 13, Crust., p. 210. 1852; pi. 11. 
fig. 13, 1855. 

Previous records of the species include the Chagos Archipelago, Hong 
Kong, Japan, the Caroline Islands, Wake Island and Hawaii. Five speci- 
mens were collected at Palmyra and 3 at Fanning Island. 

Leptodius nudipes (Dana). 

Xuntlio (Leptodius) nudipes Alcock. Joinn Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 121, 
1898. 

The species has previously been recorded from the western Indian 
Ocean, from the Andamans, the Mergui Archipelago and from Hawaii. 
One specimen was collected at Palmyra Island. 

Leptodius exaratus acutidens Stimpson. 

Leptodius exaratus var. acutidens Stimpson. Sniitlisonian Miscell. Coll.. \'ol. 49. 
p. 55, pi. 6. fi.s;. 7, 1907. 

The type locality is the Liu Kiu Islands. It has frequently been taken 
on Waikiki reef, Oahu. One specimen was collected at Fanning Island. 

Leptodius molokaiensis Rathlnm. 

Leptodius molokaiensis Ratlibun, Bull. U. S. Fish Comni., vol. 23, pt. 3. p. 847. 
pi. 9, fig. 1 and text-fig. 10, 1906. 

Rathbun has recorded the species from off the coast of JMolokai of the 
Hawaiian Group, which is the type locality, and from Salomon and Amir- 
ante Islands in the Indian Ocean. I have not found published reports of 
the species from other localities. It has been taken, however, on Waikiki 
reef, Honolulu. One specimen was collected at Palmyra and i at Fanning 
Island. These are both large, well developed specimens with the specific 
characteristics clearlv marked. 



Edinondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 15 

Etisodes electra (Herbst). 

Etisodcs electra Alcock, Journ, Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 133, 1898. 

The species is known from Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Chagos Archi- 
pelago and the Red Sea eastward through the Indian Ocean, and in the 
Pacific from Murray Island, Australia, to the Tuamotus and northward to 
Hawaii. Five specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Actaea affinis (Dana). 

Actaeodes affinis Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 197, 1852; pi. 11, 
fig. 3, 185S. 

The species is known from the Chagos Archipelago and the Nicobars 
but is apparently not widely distributed through the Indian Ocean. In the 
Pacific there are records from the Philippines, Japan, Rotuma, the Society 
Islands, the Tuamotus and Hawaii. It is very common in Hawaii. Six 
specimens were collected at Palmyra and 37 at Fanning Island. 

Actaea rufopunctata (Milne Edwards), 

Actaea rufopunctata .\lcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 142, 1898. 

The species ranges froin Mauritius and the Red Sea through the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans to China, Fiji, Funafuti, Tahiti, the Tuamotus and 
Hawaii. It is also known from the Mediterranean, the Canaries, Madeira, 
and the South Atlantic. 

Two specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Actaea hirsutissima (Riippell). 

Actaea hirsutissima Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 141, 1898. 

The species is distributed through the Indian Ocean and into the 
Pacific to Japan, northeast Australia, Samoa, Tahiti and Hawaii. Three 
specimens were taken at Palmyra Island. 

Actaea ruppellii (Krauss). 

Actaea ruppellii Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 144, 1898. 

The species is widely distributed through the Indian Ocean and has also 
been reported from the Malay Archipelago and from north and north- 
east Australia. One specimen was collected at Palmyra Island. 



i6 Renticc P. Bishop Museum— Bulletin 

Actaea speciosa (Dana). 

Aclaea speciosa Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 143, 1898. 

The species is distributed from the Persian Gulf and the Central Indian 
Ocean to Ceylon and is also known from Guam, Samoa, Funafuti and 
northward to Hawaii. Four specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Actaea garretti Rathbun. 

Actaea garretti Rathbun, Bull. U. S. Fish. Conini., vol. 23. pt. 3. p. 852, pi. 9. 
fig. 8, 1906. 

Previous records of the species are from such widely separated regions 
as Mauritius, the Chagos .Archipelago, Kingsniill Islands, the Society 
Islands and Hawaii. 

One specimen was taken at Palmyra Island. 

Actaea cavipes (Dana). 

Aetaeodes cavipes Dana. U. S. Expl. Exped.. vol. 13. Crust., p. 199, 1852; pi. 11. 
figs. Sa and 5b, 1855. 

The species is known from Mauritius and the Chagos .\rchipelago to 
the Persian Gulf and eastward to India. Records in the Pacific include 
Funafuti, Fiji, Samoa, the Society Islands and the Tuamotus. Five speci- 
mens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Daira perlata (Herbst). 

Daira perlata Alcock, Journ. .Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 155, 1898. 

The species is known from Mauritius, Christmas Island, the Chagos 
Archipelago and through the Indo-Pacific region to the Liu Kiu Islands 
and eastward to Samoa and Tahiti. No records are known for Hawaii. 
Five specimens were collected at Palmyr.-i and 3 at Fanning Island. 

Xanthias lamarckii (Milne F.dwards). 

Xaiithodes lamarckii .Alcock, Journ. .Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67. p. 157, 1898. 

The range of the species in the Indian Ocean is from Madagascar and 
Mauritius to Ceylon. Localities in the Pacific from which it has been 
reported include the Philippines, Torres Straits, Funafuti, Samoa, the 
Society Islands and the Tuamotus. No record is known for Hawaii. 

One specimen was taken at Palmyra and 2~ at Fanning Island. 



Bdmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 17 

Lioxantho tumidus Alcock. 

Lio.vaiitho tumidus Alcock, Jourii. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 91, 1898. 

The species has been reported by Alcock from the Andamans and 
Samoa. One specimen was collected at Fanning Island. 

Micropanope sexlobata Rathbun. 

Microl^aHOl>e sexlobata Rathbun, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., vol. 23, pt. 3, p. 856, 
pi. 9, fig. 13, 1906. 

The species has been reported by Rathbun from the type locality in the 
vicinity of Laysan Island. Three specimens were taken at Palmyra Island. 

Chlorodiella niger (Forskal). 

CMorodiella niger Alcock, Journ. .\siat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 160, 1898. 

The species ranges from Christmas Island, the Seychelles and the Red 
Sea through the Indian Ocean and is also known from the Liu Kiu and 
Caroline Islands, Torres Straits, Australia, Lord Howe Island, Funafuti, 
Fiji, the Society Islands, the Tuamotus and northward to Hawaii and 
Wake Island. 

Thirty-five specimens were taken at Palmyra and 36 at Fanning Island. 

Phymodius nitidus (Dana). 

Pilodius nitidus Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 218, 1852; pi. 12, 
fig. 7, 1855. 

The species has been reported from the Indian Ocean, from Samoa, 
and from Hawaii where it is very common. Twelve specimens were col- 
lected at Palmyra and 3 at Fanning Island. 

Phymodius ungulatus (Milne Edwards). 

Phymodius ungulatus Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 162, 1898. 

The species ranges through the Indian and Pacific Oceans from Mauri- 
tius to the Tuamotus and Hawaii. Twenty-one specimens were collected 
at Palmyra Island. 

Chlorodopsis scabriculus (Dana). 

Pilodius scabriculus Dana, U. S. E.xpl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 220, 1852; pi. 
12, fig. 9, 1855. 

The species has been reported from Coetivy. Indian Ocean, the Bali- 
bac Passage, Tahiti, the Tuamotus and Hawaii. Ten specimens were taken 
at Palmyra and 3 at Fanning Island. 



l8 Bcrnice P. BisJiofi Museum — Bulletin 

Cymo quadrilobatus Miers. 

Cyfiio <itiii(lriloh<itiis Alcock, Jouni. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67. p. 175, 1898. 

The species is known from the Chagos Archipelago, Little Andaman, 
Palk Strait and Funafuti. No records are known for Hawaii. Five speci- 
mens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Cymo melanodactylus De Haan. 

Cymo nieIa)iodactylus Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67. p. 174, 1898. 

The species is apparently widely distributed through the central and 
eastern sections of the Indian Ocean and eastward to China, Japan and 
the Bonin Islands. It is also known from Australia, Fiji, the Society 
Islands and the Tuamotus. No records are from Hawaii. One specimen 
was collected at Palmyra and 2 at Fanning Island. At Fanning the species 
is associated with dead coral in the lagoon. 

Cymo andreossyi (Audouin). 

Cymo andreossyi Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67. p. 17,^. 1898 

The species has a very wide distribution through the Indian and Pacific 
Oceans. In the Pacific it is known from the shores of Japan eastward to 
Tahiti. No records are from Hawaii. Twenty-one specimens were col- 
lected at Palmyra Island. 

Pseudozius caystrus (Adams and White). 

Pseudoziiis caystrus .'\lcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p 181. 1898. 

The species ranges from the Red Sea through the eastern Indian Ocean 
and is also known from the Philippines, Samoa, the Tuamotus and Wake 
Island. It has not been recorded from Hawaii. Fifty-nine specimens were 
taken at Palmyra and 74 at Fanning Island. At Fanning it is one of the 
most common species under the stones in shallow water, both in the la- 
goon and on the outer reef. 

Pseudozius inomatus Dana. 

Pseudozius inomatus Dana, U. S. E.xpl. E.Kped., vol. 13. Crust., p. 234. 1852 ; 
pi. 13, figs'. 7a-7c, 18SS. 

The species has previously been reixirted from Hawaii. Eighty-six 
specimens were taken at Fanning Island. 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Panning Islands 19 

Lydia annu'lipes (Milne Edwards). 

Osius (BurupdUa) annulipes Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 188, 
1898. 

The species is recorded by Alcock from Muscat and Samoa, and from 
Hawaii by Rathbun. There is a specimen in the Bishop Museum from 
Marcus Island obtained by W. A. Bryan. Stimpson reports it from the 
Liu Kiu Islands. Eight specimens were taken at Palmyra and 6 at Fan- 
ning Island. 

Pilumnus andersoni de Man. 

Pilumnus andersoni de Man, Journ. Linu. Soc, Zool., vol. 22, p. 59, pi. 3, figs. 
5 and 6, 1888. 

The species has a very extensive range from the western Indian Ocean 
to near Laysan Island in the North Pacific. Recorded localities in this 
range are Minikoi, Maldive Archipelago, Karachi, Ceylon, Mergui Archi- 
pelago, Gasper Strait, the Caroline Islands and Funafuti. Twelve speci- 
mens were collected at Fanning Island. 

Maldivia palmyrensis Rathbun (New species)." 

Type locality. Palmyra Island. Collected by C. Montagxie Cooke Jr. 
in 1913. Type specimen, Bishop Museum, No. 312. 

Eriphia sebana (Shaw). 

Eriphia laci'iinaim Alcock, Journ, Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 214, 1898. 

The species ranges from the east coast of Africa and Mauritius through 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans to China and Japan, and from Australia 
northward to Hawaii and eastward to the Tuamotus. 

Two specimens were taken at Palmyra and 13 at Fanning Island. On 
the outer reef of Fanning this species is one of the most common of the 
larger crabs found in the holes in the rocks in shallow water. 

Eriphia scabricula Dana. 

Eriphia scabricula Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 247. 1852. pi. 14, 
figs. 5a and 5b, 1855. 

The species ranges through the Indian Ocean to Ceylon and the Sulu 
Sea, and from Australia through the Pacific to the Society Islands and the 
Tuamotus. One specimen was collected at Palmyra and 44 at Fanning 
Island. The species is very common at Fanning on the outer reef under 
the flat stones in shallow water. It is much smaller than E. sebana. 



' Described by Mary J. Rathbun on p. 38 of this Bulletin. 



20 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Trapezia cymodoce (Herbst). 

'rrufc~ia cymodoce Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67. p. 219, 1898. 

The species is widely distributed througbout the Indian and Pacific 
Oceans wherever there are coral reefs, ranging northward in the Pacific 
to Hawaii. With other species of the genus it is associated with living 
coral. Thirty-five specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. No collec- 
tions of animals as.sociated with living coral were made at Fanning Island. 
Hence there are in the Bishop Museum no representatives of Trapezia from 
Fanning. 

Trapezia cymodoce ferruginea (Latreille). 

Trapezia feirugiiieiis Alcock, Jouni. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 220, 1898. 

The range of the species is from the Chagos Archipelago, the Sey- 
chelles and the Red Sea to Ceylon and through the Pacific to Hawaii, the 
Tuamotus and Easter Island. It is also known from the shores of Mexico 
and Panama Bay. It is associated with living coral. One hundred and 
two specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Trapezia cymodoce intermedia Miers. 

Trapcsia ferruginea var. iiitenncdia Miers, Vovage of tlie Cliallenger, vol. 17, 
Brachyura, p. 168, pi. 12, fig 2, 1886. 

Previous records are from the Chagos Archipelago, from off the coast 
of Burma, and from Hawaii where it is very common, associated with the 
corals. Pocilhpora lignlata Dana, and PociUopora \neandrina var. nohilis. 
Verrill. Four specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Trapezia rufopunctata (Herbst). 

Trapezia rufopunctata Alcock, Journ. .Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol, 67. p. 222, 1898. 

The range of the species is from the Red Sea, the Amirante Islands 
and the Chagos Archipelago through the Indian and Pacific Oceans to the 
Tuamotus and to Hawaii, It is associated with T. ferruginea. Eight 
specimens are in the Bishop Museum from Palmvra Island. 

Trapezia digitalis (LatreilleJ. 

Trapezia digitalis Alcock, Journ. .Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 222, 1898. 

Previous records of the .species are from Mauritius, Christmas Island, 
the Chagos Archipelago and the Red Sea, also from localities in the east- 
ern Indian Ocean, from Palk Strait, Ceylon, Funafuti and Hawaii. It is 
also known from Cape St. Lucas. Mexico and Panama Bav, In Hawaii 



Bdmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Panning Islands 21 

it is very common, being associated with corals of the genus Pocillopora. 
Thirty-nine specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Tetralia glaberrima (Herbst). 

Tetralia glaberrima Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 223, 1898. 

The species ranges through the Indian Ocean and is known from Hong 
Kong eastward through the Pacific to the Society Islands, the Tuamotus 
and the Marquesas. No records are known for Hawaii. Forty-four speci- 
mens were taken at Palmyra Island. 

Domecia hispida Eydoux and Souleyet. 

Domecia hispida Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 67, p. 230, 1898. 

The species is reported from the central and eastern sections of the 
Indian Ocean, and from Funafuti, Tahiti, the Tuamotus and Hawaii as 
far north as Laysan Island. It is also known from the West Indies. The 
Bishop Museum has 33 specimens from Palmyra Island. 

Lybia tesselata (Latreille). 

Melia tesselata Borradaile, Fauna and Geogr. Maldive and Laccadive Archipela- 
goes, vol. 1, p. 250, fig. 49, 1903. 

The species is known from Mauritius, Christmas Island, the Chagos 
Archipelago and the eastern Indian Ocean. Recorded localities in the 
Pacific are not numerous. Its northern limit of distribution seems to be 
Hawaii where it has frequently been taken. The species usually carries 
a sea anemone in one or both chelipeds. Thirteen specimens were collected 
at Palmyra and 5 at Fanning Island. 

Family PORTUNIDAE 

Lissocarcinus orbicularis Dana. 

Lissocarcinus orbicularis Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 68, p. 20, 1899. 

The species is known from the Indian Ocean and from Fiji and Hawaii 
in the Pacific. Two specimens were collected on the outer reef at Fanning 

Island. 

Carupa laeviuscula Heller. 

Carupa laeviuscula Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 68, p. 26, 1899. 

The range of the species is from Mauritius through the Indian Ocean, 
and from Samoa northward as far as Laysan Island, and eastward to the 



22 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Tiiamotiis. It is not uncommon on Waikiki reef, Honolulu. One speci- 
men was collected at Fanning; Island. 

Portunus pubescens (Dana). 

Lufii pubcsci-na Dana, U. S. Expl, Expcd., vol. 13, Crust., p. 274, 1852; pi. 16. 
fig. 9, 1855. 

The previous records are from Hawaii where it is a fairly common 
form. One specimen was collected at Palmyra Island. 

Portunus (Achelous) granulatus (A. M. Edwards). 

Neptunus (Achelous) granulatus Alcoek. Journ, Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 68, p. 45. 
1899. 

The species is widely distributed, ranging from east Africa and the 
Red Sea through the Indian and Pacific Oceans to New Caledonia and 
Japan and eastward to Fiji, the Society Islands and the Tuamotus and 
northward to Hawaii as far as Laysan Island. It was previously reported 
by Streets from the Fanning Group. 

One specimen was collected at Palmyra Island in 1922. 

Charybdis (Charybdis) cookei Rathbun (new species).'" 

Type locality, Palmyra Island. Collected by C. Montague Cooke Jr. 
in 191 3. Type specimen in the Bishop Museum, No. 983. 

Thalamita edwardsi Borradaile. 

Thalamita edwardsi Borradaile, Proc. Zool. Soc, London. 1900, p. 579; Fauna 
and Geogr. Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, vol. 1, p. 202, 1902: Rath- 
bun, Bull. U. S. Fish Comtn., vol. 23, pt. 3, p. 873, 1906, 

The species is known from the Indian Ocean, from Funafuti and from 
Hawaii. It is very abundant in shallow water on the reefs of Oahu. One 
specimen was collected at Palmyra Island. 

Thalamita auauensis Rathbun. 

Thalamita auauensis Rathbun, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., vol. 23, pt. 3, p. 847, 1906. 

The previous record of the species is from Hawaii. 
Seven specimens corresponding very closely to this species were taken 
at Palmyra Island. 



"Described by Mary J. Rathbun on page 39. 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Panning Islands 23 

Thalamita cooperi Borradaile. 

Thalamita cooperi Borradaile, Fauna and Geogr. Maldive and Laccadive Archi- 
pelagoes, vol. 1, p. 206, text fig. 37, 1903. 

The species has previously been recorded from the Amirante Islands, 
Goidu, Hulule and Minikoi — atolls in the Indian Ocean. One specimen 
was collected at Palmyra Island. 

Thalamita prymna Milne Edwards. 

Thalamita t>iv)nna Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., vol. 1, p. 461, 1837: 
Streets, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 7, p. 108, 1877 

The species has been recorded from localities in the Indian Ocean, the 
East Indies, the Philippines, Australia, Lord Howe Island, the Liu Kiu 
Islands, Japan, Tongatabu and Palmyra, the latter locality being reported 
by Streets. 

The species was not taken by the expeditions of 1913 and 1922, but is 
listed here in consideration of Streets' previous record. 

Assecla holothuricola Streets. 

Assecla holothuricola Streets, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 7, p. Ill, 1877. 

The type locality, as reported by Streets, is Palmyra Island where it 
was taken from the digestive tract of a holothurian. No specimens were 
collected by the expedition of 191 3 and 1922 but the species is listed here 
in consideration of Streets' record. 

Podophthalmus vigil (Fabricius). 

Podophthahnus vigil Miers, Vovage of the Challenger, vol. 17, Brachyura, p. 207, 
1886. 

According to Miers the species is distributed throughout the Indo- 
Pacific region. It was reported from the Fanning Group by Streets. No 
specimens were collected by the expedition of 191 3 and 1922 but the 
species is listed here in consideration of Streets' previous record. 



Family INACHIDAE 

Menaethius monoceros (Latreille). 

Menaethius moHoccros Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 64, p. 197. 1895. 

The species has a wide distribution ranging from the east coast of 
Africa and the Red Sea through the Indian and Pacific Oceans to New 
Caledonia, northeast Australia, Lord Howe Island, Japan, Samoa, Tonga- 



24 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

tabu, the Tuamotus and northward to Hawaii. One specimen was collected 
at Fanning Island. 

Family CALAPPIDAE 

Calappa spinosissima Milne Edwards. 

Cahif'f'a spi>iosissima Akock, Journ. .•\siat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 65, p. 144, 1896. 

The previous records are from the Indian Ocean. Two specimens were 
collected at Palmyra Island. 

Family LEUCOSIIDAE 
Nucia speciosa Dana. 

Xiicia sfcciosu Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13. Crust., p. 397, 1852; pi. 25. 
fig. 5, 1855. 

The previous record of the species is from Hawaii. It has frequently 
been taken on Waikiki reef, Honolulu. 

One specimen was collected at Fanning Island. 

Family HAPALOCARCINIDAE 
Hapalocarcinus marsupialis Stimpson. 

Hapalocarcinus marsupialus Stimpson, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, p. 
412, 1856-58: Caiman, Trans. Linn. Soc, Zoology-, vol. 8, p. 43. 1900: Potts. 
Papers from Dept. marine Biology of the Carnegie Institution of Washing- 
ton, vol. 8, p. 35. 1915." 

The species is known from the Indian Ocean, Torres Straits and gen- 
erally through the Pacific northward to Hawaii where it is very abundant. 
It was first described by Stimpson from Hilo, Hawaii. The female crab 
forms galls on certain species of corals of the genera Pocillopora, Seria- 
topora, Stylophora, Sideropora and Millepora. Caiman states that coral 
galls, possibly due to this species, have also been reported from the Red 
Sea, Ceylon and the China Sea. Two specimens were collected at Palmyra 
Island. 

Tribe ANOMURA 

Family PORCELLANIDAE 
Petrolisthes speciosa (Dana). 

PovccUomi speciosa Dana. U. S. Expl, Expcd.. vol. 13. Crust., p. 417, 1852; pi. 26, 
fig. 8, 1855. 

The recorded range of the species seems to be from Balabac Straits 
through the Pacific to Hong Kong, Japan, the Bonin Islands and eastward 

"The paper bj' Potts includes investigations on the development, life history and 
habits of this gall-forming species. 



Bdniondson— Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 25 

to Wake Island, the Kingsmill Group and the Tuamotus. Bryan reports a 
variety of the species from Marcus Island. It has also been recorded from 
West Africa. No records are known for Hawaii. 

Five specimens were taken at Palmyra and 70 at Fanning Island where 
the species is very abundant under the stones at the shore line on the outer 
reef. 

Family HIPPIDAE 
Remipes pacificus Dana. 

Remipes pacificus Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13. Crust., p. 407. 1852; pi. 25, 
fig. 7 a-g, 1855. 

The species has been reported from the Maldive Archipelago and Mini- 
koi in the Indian Ocean and from a number of localities in the Pacific 
including New Caledonia, Rotuma, Fiji, Funafuti. Samoa, Hawaii, and 
from Charles Island of the Galapagos. Five specimens were collected at 
Palmyra and i at Fanning Island. 

Family COENOBITIDAE 
Coenobita oliviera Owen. 

Cocnobitci oliz'icra Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 470, 1852. 

The localities from which the species has previously been reported in- 
clude Madras, the Nicobars, Funafuti, the Society Islands, the Tuamotus 
and Fanning Island, Streets recorded the species from Fanning. Bryan 
collected the species at Marcus Island. No records are from Hawaii. 
This large land hermit commonly inhabits the shells of species of Turbo. 
Twenty-nine specimens were collected at Palmyra and 3 at Fanning 
Island by the expedition of 1913 and 1922. 

Coenobita breVimanus Dana. 

Coenobita clypeata var. brevimanus Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., 
p. 473, 1852; pi. 30, fig. 4b, 1855. 

The species is recorded by Dana from Balabac Passage. On Palmyra 
and Fanning Islands it has the habits of C. oliviera, but is much less 
numerous. Ten specimens were collected at Palmyra and 3 at Fanning 
Island. 

Coenobita rugosa Milne Edwards. 

Coenobita rugosa Dana, U S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 471, 1852; pi. 30, 
fig. 1, 1855. 

The species has a wide distribution in the Indian Ocean and is known 
from the Malay Archipelago and the Sulu Sea eastward to New Caledonia, 



26 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

the Bonin Islands, Rotunia, Fiji, Funafuti, Samoa and the Tuamotus. Its 
range does not include Hawaii. Nineteen specimens were collected at Pal- 
myra and 74 at Fanning Island. The species is the most common of all 
the hermit crabs on Fanning Island where it may be found in great num- 
bers on the ocean beaches just above the high tide line. It inhabits the 
shells of many species of mollusks. 

Family PAGURIDAE 
Clibanarius corallinus (Milne Edwards). 

CUbanarius corallinus Alcock, Cat. Indian Decapod Crust., pt. 2, fasc. 1, p. 48. 
pi. 5, fig. 1, 1905. 

The species is known from the Andamans, the Nicobars, the Malay 
Archipelago and ranges from the Liu Kiu Islands eastward to Wake 
Island, Rotuma, Fiji, Funafuti and Tahiti. Ten specimens were taken at 
Fanning Island in shallow water on the outer reef. 

Calcinus herbstii de Man. 

Calcinus iibicen Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 457, 1852. 
Calcinus herbstii Alcock, Cat. Indian Decapod Crust., pt. 2, fasc. 1, p. 53. pi. 5, 
fig. 4, 1905. 

Previous records of the species are from numerous localities in the 
Indian Ocean, from Balabac Straits, Liu Kiu Islands, Japan, Bonin 
Islands, Wake Island, Samoa, Funafuti, the Society Islands, the Tuamotus 
and Hawaii. It is also known from Ecuador and the West Indies. The 
species is the most common of the hermit crabs on the reefs of Oahu, 
Hawaii. Thirty-six specimens were collected at Fanning Island. 

Calcinus elegans (Milne Edwards). 

Calcinus clcgans Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 458, 1852; pi. 28, 
fig. 10 a-c, 1855: Alcock, Cat. Indian Decapod Crust., pt. 2, fasc. 1. p. 55. 
pi. 5, fig. 2, 1905. 

The species has a range extending from the east coast of Africa 
through the Indian and Pacific Oceans to Hawaii. One specimen was col- 
lected at Palmyra and 5 at Fanning Island. 

Calcinus latens Randall. 

Calcinus latens, Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 459, 1852; pi. 28. 
fig. 11, 1855: Alcock, Cat. Indian Decapod, Crust., pt. 2, fasc. 1. p. 58, pi. 5. 
fig. 5, 1905, 

The range of the species is from the east coast of Africa and the Red 
Sea through the Indian Ocean. Records are from the Liu Kiu Islands. 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 27 

and from Australia northward through the Pacific as far as Laysan 
Island. Three specimens were taken at Palmyra Island. 

Calcinus terrae-reginae Haswell. 

Calcinus terrae-reginae Haswell, Proc. Linn, Soc. N. S. W., vol. 6, p. 760, 1881- 
82; Alcock, Cat. Indian Decapod Crust., pt. 2, fasc. 1, p. 57, pi. 5, fig. 7, 1905. 

The previous records of the species include the Maldive Archipelago, 
Minikoi, the Mergui Archipelago, and Queensland. Three specimens were 
collected at Palmyra Island. 

Pagurus punctulatus Olivier. 

Pagnrus punctulatus Alcock. Cat. Indian Decapod Crust., pt. 2, fasc. 1, p. 81, 
pi. 8, fig. 1, 1905. 

The species has a wide distribution ranging from the east coast of 
Africa and the Red Sea through the Indian Ocean, and in the Pacific from 
the Liu Kiu Islands and Australia to Hawaii. Four specimens were col- 
lected at Palmyra Island. 

Birgus latro Leach. 

Birgus latro Dana, U. S. Expl. E.xped., vol. 13. Crust., p. 474. 1852; pi. 30. figs. 
Sa and 5b, 1855. 

The "coconut crab" ranges from Mauritius through the Indian Ocean 
to the islands of the Pacific where it is widely dispersed. Among locali- 
ties in the Pacific from which it has previously been reported are New 
Caledonia, Guam, Fiji, Funafuti, the Tuamotus, the Marquesas, Washing- 
ton, and Fanning Islands. The species does not inhabit Hawaii. Streets 
reported it from the Fanning group. In addition to two specimens frotn 
Palmyra Island there are specimens in the Bishop Museum from Guam, 
the Marquesas and Fanning Island. On Fanning the species is becom- 
ing depleted as it is highly prized as an article of food by the Gilbertese 
laborers. 

Family AXIIDAE 

Axius serratifrons A. M. Edwards. 

Axius serratifrons A. M. Edwards, Journ. Mus. Godeffrov. Heft iv, 3, p. 87, Taf. 
2, fig. 6 (p. 263, Taf. 13), 1873. 

The species is recorded by Edwards from Upolu, Samoa, and from 
Hawaii. One specimen was collected at Fanning Island on the outer reef. 



28 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Tribe PALINURA 
Family SCYLLARIDAE 

Parabacus antarcticus (Lund). 

Piuabacus aiitarcticiis Dana, U. S. Expl, Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 517, 1852; 
pi. 32, fig. 6, 1855. 

Previous records of the species include New Caledonia, the Loyalty 
Islands, Samoa and Hawaii. One small specimen was collected at Palmyra 
Island. 

Suborder NATANTIA 

Tribe CARIDES 
Family CRANGONIDAE 

Crangon obesomanus (Dana). 

Alpheus obeso)iwinis Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13. Crust., p. 547, 1852; 
pi. 34, fig. 7 a-f, 1855. 

Dana records the species from Fiji. It has also been reported from 
Madagascar, the Seychelles, New Britain, and the Loyalty Islands. Two 
specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Crangon paradentipes (Coutiere). 

Alflieus faradcntifi's Coutiere, Fauna and Gcogr. Maklive and Laccadive Archi- 
pelagoes, vol. 2, p. 880, pi. 74, fig. 17, 1906. 

The species has previously been recorded from the Maldive Archi- 
pelago. One specimen was collected at Paliriyra Island. 

Crangon collumianus (Stimpson). 

Alpheus collumianus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 30. 

The species has been recorded from the Maldive and Laccadive Archi- 
pelagoes, New Caledonia, the Bonin Islands, Japan, Murray Island, and 
Funafuti. Six specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Crangon macrochirus (Richters). 

Alpheus macrochirus Richters, Meercsfauna Ins. Mauritius, p. 164, pi. 17, 1880. 

The species is well distributed from Madagascar and Mauritius through 
the Indian Ocean. There are also records from Rotuma, Tahiti and the 
Gulf of California. There is one specimen in the Bishop Museum taken 



Edinondson — Crustacea from Palmyra mid Fanning Islands 29 

at Palmyra Island which, in the opinion of Dr. Waldo L. Schmitt, is prob- 
ably of this species. 

Crangon ventrosus (Milne Edwards). 

Alpheus ventrosus Milne Edwards, Hist. Nat. des Crust., vol. 2. p. 352, 1837. 

This species is the most common and most widely distributed of the 
genus having a general range, according to Coutiere, from Madagascar to 
the Red Sea, eastward to the Philippines, through the Pacific to the So- 
ciety Islands and northward to Hawaii and the Gulf of California. Twenty- 
seven specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Crangon pachychirus (Stimpson). 

Alpheus pachychirus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 30. 

The species is known from the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, 
the Liu Kiu Islands and Rotuma. Three specimens were collected at 
Palmyra Island. 

Crangon bucephalus (Coutiere). 

Alpheus bucephalus Coutiere, Fauna and Geogr. Maldive and Laccadive Archi- 
pelagoes, vol. 2, p. 890, pi. 78, fig. 29, 1906. 

Previous records are from Mahe, Jibouti, Maldive Archipelago, Minikoi, 
Balabac Straits and olT Manila. One specimen was collected at Palmyra 
Island. 

Crangon paracrinitus (Miers). 

Alpheus paracrinitus Miers, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), vol. 8, p. 365, pi. 16, 
fig. 6, 1881. 

The species has been reported from Senegambia and Jibouti. Four 
specimens were taken at Palmyra Island. 

Crangon paracrinitus (Miers) var. near var. bengalensis (Coutiere). 

Alpheus paracrinitus var. bengalensis Coutiere, Fauna and Geogr. Maldi\'e and 
Laccadive Archipelagos, vol. 2, p. 901, 1906. 

The var. boigalcnsis of Coutiere with which, according to Dr. Waldo 
L. Schmitt, the Palmyra variety is a close affinity, has been recorded from 
Minikoi in the Indian Ocean. One specimen was collected at Palmyra 
Island. 



30 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Synalpheus paroneomeris Couticre. 

Synalpheus paroneomeris Coutierc, Fauna and Geogr. Maldivc and Laccadive 
Archipelagoes, vol. 2, p. 872, pi. 71, fig. 7. 1906. 

Previous records are from Mahe, Mu.scat, Jibouti, the Maldive Archi- 
pelago, and MiniUoi. Two specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Family HIPPOLYTIDAE 

Saron marmorata (Olivier). 

Saron maiiiioratii Kemp, Rec. Indian ^luscuni. vol. 10. p. 84. 1914. 

The species is widely distributed ranging from the east coast of Africa 
and the Red Sea through the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean east- 
ward to Tahiti and northward to Hawaii. Two specimens were taken at 
Palmyra Island. 

Family GNATHOPHYLLIDAE 

Gnathophyllum fasciolatum Stimpson. 

Giiathophylhim fasciolatum Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila., 1860, p. 28. 

The type locality of the species is recorded at Port Jackson, Australia. 
The species has also been reported from Hawaii. Two specimens were 
collected at Palmyra Island in 1922. 

Family HYMENOCERIDAE 

Hymenocera elegans Heller, (figs. 2; 3, a-f). 

Ilynioioccra cicgans Heller, Verh. zool. botan. Ges. Wien., Br. 11. p. 25. 1861; 
Sitz. Ber. Acad. Wiss. Wien., 44, 1, p. 264, pi. 3, tigs. 9-14, 1861. 

The species has been recorded from the Red Sea, which is the type 
locality, and from Mauritius, Mozambique, Matema Island, and the Sey- 
chelles in the Indian Ocean. It has more recently been reported by 
de Man" in material from the "Siboga" Expedition. I have not had 
access to de Man's article and am in doubt as to the locality from which 
the author reports the species. 

Three specimens, all females, of a form which, except in certain de- 
tails noted below, corresponds very closely with Heller's description of 
Hymenocera elegans, were collected at Palmyra Island in 1922. Although 
there may be specific differences regarding features not mentioned in the 
description of the type speciinen, I am retaining the Palmyra Island form, 
temporarily at least, within this species. 

" (Resnlts Explor. "Siboga" 39a3, p. 191). 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 31 




Figure 2. Camera lucida drawings of structural features of Hyiuenocera elcg- 
gans Heller; a. lateral view of carapace and abdomen X 2; b, eye-stalk X 6; r, 
mandible with rudimentary palp X 27 ; rf, first maxilla X 15; c, second maxilla X 13; 
f, first maxilliped X 16 ; g, second maxilliped X 16 ; /;, second walking leg of left 
side X 4; !. second walking leg of right side X 4 ; /, antennule of left side X 5. 



32 



Benticc P. Bishop Museum — BuUcliii 




Figure 3. Camera lucida drawings of features of Hyiiicnod-ro clcgims, and 
telsons of Gonodactyhis chiragra and Gonodactylus chiragra var. siiiithii: a. third 
maxillipcd of left side X 6; fr. serrated spinulc of medial border of second segment 
of third maxilliped (greatly enlarged) ; c, terminal segments of first walking leg X 
10; d, posterior walking leg X 6: c, dorsal surface of telson X 6; f, uropod of left 
side X 5\ g, telson of Gonodactylus chiragra var. smithii X g; h, telson of Gonod- 
actylus chiragra X 10. 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 33 

Heller's description of the type specimen is sufficient and complete in 
most particulars but his accompanying figures are in many respects quite 
inadequate. I am, therefore, presenting more complete figures of this 
remarkable form and supplementing previous descriptions by some observa- 
tions on the Palmyra specimens. 

In all of the specimens collected at Palmyra the rostrum has 8 teeth 
on its upper border and 2 on its lower border. The mandibular palp is 
rudimentary, so much so that without close scrutiny it may be overlooked. 
No information is at hand regarding the mandibular palp in the type 
specimen. Since the presence of this appendage is a family characteristic, 
the condition of its development may possibly amount to a specific dififer- 
ence. 

In the only specimen taken at Palmyra Island in which both of the 
second walking legs are intact, the appendage on the left side of the body 
is approximately one-fifth larger and longer than that on the right side. 
No mention is made in any of the descriptions that I have seen, of an in- 
equality in size and length of the second walking legs. More material is 
necessary, I believe, to determine this inequality as a constant feature. 

Heller states that the hand of the second walking leg is somewhat 
shorter than the arm segment. In the Palmyra specimens the palm is 
slightly longer than the merus, the length of the two segments being in 
the ratio of 4:3. 

The presence of a papilla on the dorsal extremity of the corneal area, 
and a black pigment spot on the same side at the base of the cornea 
characterize the eye in the Palmyra specimens. These features, if they 
are present in the type specimen, are not mentioned in the description of it. 

The color of the type specimen is given as grayish-white, in preserved 
condition. The Palmyra Island specimens, in alcohol, are pale yellowish- 
brown. Heller reports the type specimen to be 9.5 lines in length. The 
largest of the three specimens taken at Palmyra Island, an ovigerous 
female, measures 35 mm. from the tip of the rostrum to the extremity of 
the telson, with the abdomen straightened as much as possible. 

Apparently the only other species of the genus known is Hymenocera 
picta Dana,^-* collected at Raraka Island, one of the Tuamotus. Dana's 
figures were made from the living specimen which was, however, subse- 
quently lost in the wreck of the "Peacock." 

The chief difference between Dana's species and Hymenocera elegans 
is, as other writers have noted, in the greater expansion of the segments 
of the third maxilliped in the latter. 

" Dana, James D., U. S. Expl. Exped., vol.' 13, Crust., p. 592, 1852 ; pi. 39, fig. 3. 
a-c, 1855. 



34 Bernicc P. Bishop Mitscitiii — Bulletin 



Famil)- PONTONIIDAE 

Harpilius depressus Stinipson. 

Hdipiliiis depressus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., i860, p. 38. 

The type locality is Hawaii where the species is very common. Other 
records are from various localities in the eastern and western Indian 
Ocean and the Red Sea. One specimen was collected at Palmyra Island. 

Coralliocaris graminea (Dana). 

Oedipus grainineus Dana, V. S. E.xpl. Expcd., vol. 13, Crust., p. 574. 1852; pi. 
37, fig. 3, 1855. 

The species ranges from Mozambique and Zanzibar through the Indian 
Ocean and the Red Sea to Hong Kong and Japan, and eastward In Fiji 
and Samoa. Five specimens were taken at Palmyra Island. 

Coralliocaris lucina Nohili. 

Coralliocaris lucina Nobili, .\iiii. Mus. Univ. Kapoli. (n.s.), 1. Xo. 3, p. 5. 1901; 
Kemp, Rec. Indian Musenni, vol. 24. pt. 2, p. 276. 1922. 

The species is apparently widely di.stribuicd in the Indian Ocean and 
adjacent waters, having been recorded from Saya de Alalha. tlie Chagos 
Archipelago, the south coast of Arabia, numerous localities in the Red 
Sea, the Maldive Achipelago, the Andamans, the coast of Ceylon and 
Ternatc. I have no information of previous records in the Pacific Ocean. 
Thirty-three specimens were collected at Palmyra Island where the species 
is apparently common. 

Coralliocaris tridentata Miers. 

Coralliocaris tridentata Miers, Zoological Colleclions of H. M. S. ".\lert,"' Crust.. 

p. 294, pi. 32, fig. C, 1884. 
The species has previously been recorded from the t)pe locality, 
Thursday Island. Two specimens were collected at Palmyra Island. 

Family PALAEMONIDAE 

Palaemonella tenuipes Dana. 

Palaemonella tenuipes Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13. Crust., p. 582, 1852; 
pi. 38, fig. 3 a-d, 1855. 

The earlier records of the species are from the Sulu Sea and Hawaii. 
Borradaile and Nobili reported the species as P. tridentata. the former 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Fanning Islands 35 

from Funafuti, and the latter from New Guinea. Other records are from 
the Red Sea and the Liu Kiu Islands. Seven specimens were collected 
at Palmyra Island. 

Tribe STENOPIDES 
Family STENOPIDAE 

Stenopus Kispidus (Olivier). 

Slcnotus Insipidus Rathbun, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., vol. 20. pt. 2. p. 99, 1900. 

The species ranges through the Indian Ocean and from the Balabac 
Passage, the coasts of Borneo and the Philippines to the China Sea and 
eastward to the Tuamotus and northward to Hawaii. The species also 
has a wide distribution in the Atlantic ranging from the Bermudas to 
the Bahamas, the Dry Tortugas and southeastward through the West 
Indies as far as St. Lucia. One specimen was collected at Palmyra Island. 

Tribe PENEIDES 
Family SERGESTIDAE 

Leucifer reynaudi Milne Edwards. 

Lucifer reynaudi Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., vol. 13, Crust., p. 672, 1852; pi. 45. 
figs. 1 a-d. 1855. 

The species has a very wide distribution, being known from numerous 
localities in the tropical Atlantic, and many records from the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans include the Mergui Archipelago, the Philippines, New 
Hebrides, Funafuti and Fiji. Two specimens were taken in the tow from 
the surface waters of the lagoon at Fanning Island. 

Order STOMATOPODA 
Family CHLORIDELIDAE 

Pseudosquilla ciliata Miers. 

Pseudosquitla ciliata Miers, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (5), vol. 5, p. 108, pi. 3. 
figs'. 7, 8, 1880. 

The species has a wide distribution in the tropical Atlantic, ranging 
from the Bahamas to the Florida Keys and Porto Rico. It is also known 
from Mauritius and the Red Sea through the Indian and Pacific Oceans to 
Hawaii where it is a common form. One specimen was collected at 
Palinyra Island. 



36 Bernice P. Bishof' Museum — Bulletin 

Gonodactylus chiragra (Fabricius). 

Gonodactylus cliiiagra Kemp. Mem. Indian Museum, vol. 4, p. 155, pi. 9, fig. 
107, 1913. 

The species is distributed throughout the Indian Ocean and ranges in 
the Pacific Ocean from Austraha northward to Japan and eastward to 
Tahiti. A single specimen whicli corresponds in its chief features with 
the typical form of this species was collected at Palmyra Island by 
C. Montague Cooke Jr. in 1913. 

The telson is narrow, its dorsal surface marked by five prominent 
carinae ; median carina without a posterior spine but with well defined 
anchor-flukes ; submedian carinae elongate, in line with the long carinae 
supporting the submedian teeth of the posterior border; intermediate car- 
inae continuous throughout the length of the telson; lateral margins 
carinate. 

Submedian teeth of the posterior border broad and prominent, ternn- 
nating in small movable spines ; intermediate teeth represented by rounded 
points without spines at their tips; lateral notches distinct. The distal 
extremity of the dactylus of the cheliped is strongly curved. Total length 
of the specimen, measured from the tip of the rostral spine to the ter- 
minating spines of the submedian teeth, is 30 millimeters. Figure 3, h. 
represents the telson of the Palmyra Island specimen. 



Gonodactylus chiragra var. smithii Pocock. 

Gonodactylus smithii Pocock. Ann. M:ig. X;il. lli.-l. (0.). vol. 11. p. 475, pi. 20, 

B, fig. 1, 1893. 
Gonodactylus chiragra var. smithii, Lanchester, Fauna and Geogr. Maldivc and 

Laccadive Archipelagoe.';, vol. 1, p. 447, pi. 23, fig. 4 and 4a, 1903. 

The localities in the Indian Ocean from which the var. smithii has 
been recorded include Zanzibar, Salomon, Peros, the Maldive and Mergui 
Archipelagoes, the Andamans and the coasts of Burma and Ceylon. 
Previous records from the Pacific Ocean include a locality north of 
Australia, the Loyalty Islands and Rotunia. 

Two specimens, females, having the characteristics of this variety 
were collected at Palmyra Island. Both are very small, the larger being 
30 mm. in length. In both specimens the median carina of the telson 
terminates posteriorly in a spine and the anchor-flukes are distinct. Figure 
3, g, represents the features of the telson of a Palmyra specimen. 



Edmondson — Crustacea from Palmyra and Panning Islands 2i7 

Order AMPHIPODA" 

Family GAMMARIDAE 
Elasmopus sp. 

Eighteen specimens are in the Bishop Museum from Pahnyra Island. 

Order ISOPODA" 

Family TANAIDAE 
A Tanaid. 

There is one specimen from Palmyra Island in the Bishop Museum. 

Leptognatha sp. 

One specimen collected at Palmyra Island is in the Bishop Museum. 

Family CIROLANIDAE 
Cirolana sp. 

There are 50 specimens in the Bishop Museum from Palmyra Island. 



" The amphipods and isopods here listed were taken from marine algae collected 
at Pahnyra Island by Joseph F. Rock. The generic determinations were made by 
Clarence R. Shoemaker to whom specimens were submitted for identification. A 
more complete report may be made upon them at a later date. 



38 Bern'uc P. Bishop Mitseum — BuUctin 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF CRABS 
FROM PALMYRA ISLAND 

Bv Mary J. Ratiibix 

Maldivia palmyrensis, sp. no v. 

Type. — Female; Palmyra Island: C. M. Cooke, collector: type-speci- 
men in Bishop Museum, No. 312. 

Carapace transversely oval, very convex from side to side, less so from 
front to back, the margin of the front visible in dorsal view. Indications 
of regions almost absent. Frontal and antero-lateral regions granulate. 
Front thin, edge granulate, nearly straight, outer corners rounded off, a 
slight median emargination, prolonged backward in a short groove. Of 
the 4 antero-lateral spinules, including that at the orbital angle, the second 
and third each have smaller spinules on their outer margins. 

Chelipeds very unequal : merus short, armed with a longish spine at 
the distal end of the inner margin, two other, smaller, distal spines above, 
a subdistal spine on the upper margin ; carpus, and upper and greater 
part of outer surface of manus armed with short, sharp, conical spines ; 
the carpus has a large spine at the inner angle, a smaller marginal spine 
above and nearer the distal end. The spines of the manus are seriate, 
and for the most part arranged in alternating rows of large and small 
spines. The fingers are similar in the two chelae, white in the preserved 
specimen, bent slightly downward, their prehensile edges armed with a 
few unequal teeth which meet when the fingers are closed, while the tips 
cross. The roughness of the palms is continued on the dactyle in three 
superior rows of spines, reaching nearly half the length in the major chela, 
but more than half in the minor chela. The ambulatory legs are furnished 
with fine hairs, very scanty except on the dactylus ; this terminates in a 
long, transparent, horny tip; besides the hairs, the segment is armed with a 
number of horny bristles ; of these, two long stout ones are attached side 
by side over the nail and overlap the nail, reaching at least half way down 
its dorsal face ; a few short bristles are further back, while two longi- 
tudinal rows of about four weak bristles each are on the lower or concave 
side of the dactylus. The armature would be very useful in clinging to 
algae or branching coelenterates. 

Length of carapace of type female 3 mm. width 4.3 mm. 

The genus Maldivia" contains two earlier species, M. syiitbiotica 
Borradaile,^* the type species, found on a white gorgonian in 8 fathoms 

"Borraclaile, I''auiKi and (jcogr. Maldivc aiul Laccadive .Xrcli.. vol. 1. pari 3, 
1902, p. 269. 

"'0^ c-it.. p. 270, te.xt-fig. 60. 



Ediiiondsoii — Cnislacai from Palmyra and faiiiiiitg Islands 39 

at the Maldive Islands; and ^1/. i;^ardin('ri Ratlibun," from Salomon Island, 
western Indian Ocean. In ^1/. symbioticai the length and width of the 
carapace are subequal and the chelipeds of equal size. M. gardineri is 
more nearly like the new species, having an oval carapace and unequal 
chelipedes : it has, however, a more deflexed front with a slighter median 
emargination ; the antero-lateral margin is smoother, without spinules 
between the interspaces of the four teeth ; the whole outer surface of the 
nianus is rough, the protuberances of the major manus being bead-like 
tubercles and granules, while those of the minor manus are more or less 
conical, but not so sharp and spinelike as in ('almyrensis ; the fingers of 
major chela are rough except near the tips, tubercles beadlike or slightly 
pointed ; the fingers of the minor chela are broader than in palmyrensis, 
prehensile edges entire, immovable finger smooth and punctate. In both 
of the oval species, the merus of the outer maxilliped is broader than long; 
in gardineri the anterior margin is nearly straight outside the notch and 
rounds into the outer margin ; in [>almyrcnsis the anterior margin is con- 
vex outside the notch. 

The armature of the ambulatory dactyls is similar in these two species, 
indicating a habitat akin to that of the type-species. 

Charybdis (Charybdis) cookei, sp. nov. 

Type. — Male; Palmyra Island; C. M. Cooke,- collector ; type-specimen 
in Bishop Museum, No. 983. 

In the subgenus Charybdis (=Goniosoma Alcock)'^ there are combined 
the following characters: The antennal flagellum is completely excluded 
from the orbital hiatus ; the ridge that bounds the dorsum of the carapace 
posteriorly forms a curve with the postero-lateral borders ; and there is 
no spine on the posterior border of the arm. Our species belongs to that 
section of the subgenus which has a ridge on the cardiac region and to 
that subsection which has also a ridge or two on the posterior half of the 
branchial region. 

The species is of small size ; carapace pubescent, the three anterior 
transverse ridges strong, the cardiac ridge blunter, continuous, the single 
branchial ridge short, not far from, and a little in advance of, the cardiac 
ridge. Of the frontal teeth, those of the median pair are narrow, arcuate ; 
those of the submedian pair wide, subtruncate, a little oblique, less ad- 
vanced ; antennal pair narrower, more triangular and still less advanced ; 
orbital pair least advanced, broad, obliquely triangular, tip rounded. Upper 
margin of orbit with two open, triangular marginations. Five antero- 

" Trans. Linn. Soc. London, ser. 2. vol. 14. 19n. p. 233, pi. 19, tigs. 5 and 6. 
''Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. 68. 1899. p. 49. 



40 Dcrnicc P. Bishop MiiseiDii — Bulletin 

lateral teeth, the first three similar, the fiftli smaller, the fourth the smallest, 
very slender and crowded toward the third. Lobe on basal antennal seg- 
ment, low, rounded. Imier sulwrbital angle obtuse. 

Dorsal aspect of cheliped pubescent and granulate. Three spines on 
inner margin of merus. Inner spine of carpus strong, two spines on outer 
side of anterior margin, the lower very small, one spine on outer surface. 
Four spines on nianus, t)ne at articulation of carpus, two on the inner 
ridge of the upper surface and one on the outer ridge, the customary 
distal spine of this ridge being suppressed ; three ridges on outer surface, 
the upper of which is incompleted and forms the boundary of the pubes- 
cent area ; below it the surface is smooth ; the second ridge is in line 
with the space between the fingers, the lowest ridge is continued to the 
extremity of the immovable finger. 

The merus of the swimming leg is armed below with a strong subdistal 
spine while the propodus with a row of slender spines. The sixth segment 
of the male abdomen has arcuate lateral margins, the terminal segment 
is equilaterally triangular. Extreme length of the carapace of type male 
8.2mm., width of same between tips of last (or posterior) lateral teeth 
12.2 mm. 

C. loiii^ifroiis (A. Milne Edwards)'" is the only other species of the 
some subsection of the subgenus Charybdis, which has just five antero- 
lateral teeth : it has however, six elongate frontal teeth of nearly equal 
size, the wrist and the palm are each armed with five teeth, and the spine 
at the lateral angle of the carapace is the longest of that series. The 
species is, moreover, larger and coarser than C. cookci. 



" Goniosuma loitgifroiis A. Milne Iidw;irds. Xouv. Arch. Miis. Hist. Nat., Paris, 
vol. S, 1869, p. ISS, pi. 7, figs. 1-5. 



INDEX 



Acanthopus abbreviatus n 

Actaea affinis '5 

cavipes I° 

garretti I" 

hirsutissima '5 

rufopunctata '5 

ruppellii I5 

speciosa lo 

Actaeodes affinis i5 

cavipes i" 

Alpheus bucephalus 29 

collumiaiius 28 

macrochirus 28 

obeso-manus 28 

pachychirus 29 

parocrinitus 29 

var. bengalensis 29 

paradentipes 28 

venlrosus 29 

Amphipoda 37 

Anomura 24 

Assecla holothuricola 23 

Axiidae 27 

Axius serratifrons 27 

B 

Birgus latro 27 

Brachyura ° 



Calappa spinosissinia 24 

Calappidae 24 

Calcinus elegans 26 

herbstii 26 

latens 26 

terrae-reginae 27 

Calcinus tibicen 26 

Cardisoma carnifex 9 

Cardisoma hirtipcs 9 

Cardisoma rotundum 9 

Carides 28 

Carpilodes cariosus 12 

monticulosus 12 

pallidus 12 

viallantinus 12 

Carpilius convexus 11 

maculatus u 

Carupa laeviuscula 21 

Coenobita brevimanus 25 

Coenobita clypeata var. brevimanus.... 25 

Coenobita oliviera 25 

rugosa 25 

Coenobitidae 25 

Charybdis 39 

Charybdis (Charybdis) cookei 22,39 



Page 

Charvbdis longifroiis 4° 

Chloridelidae - 35 

Chlorodiella niger I7 

Chlorodius gracilis '4 

Chlorodius sanguineus 14 

Chlorodopsis scabriculus I7 

Cirolana sp 37 

Cirolanidae 37 

Clibinarius corallinus 26 

Coralliocaris graminea 34 

tridentata 34 

lucina •_- 34 

Crangon bucephalus 29 

collumianus 28 

macrochirus .- 28 

obesomanus' 28 

pachychirus 29 

paracrinitus ,- 29 

var. near var. bengalensis 29 

paradentipes 28 

ventrosus 29 

Crangonidae 28 

Cyclograpsus audouinii 10 

Cymo andreossyi 18 

melanodactj'lus 18 

quadrilobatus 18 

D 

Daria perlata 16 

Decapoda 8 

Domecia hispida 21 

E 

Elasmopus sp i7 

Eriphia laevimana 19 

Eriphia scabricula - 19 

sebana i9 

Etisodes electra I5 

G 

Ganimaridae 37 

Gecarcinidae 9 

Gelasimus annulipes 8 

tetragonon 8 

Geograpsus crinipes 10 

Gnalhophyllidae 30 

Gnathophyllum fasciolatum _ 30 

Goniosoma 39 

Goniosonia longifrons 40 

Gonodactylus chiragra 36 

chiragra var. swiithii 36 

Gonodactylus smithii 36 

Grapsidae 9 

Grapsiis grapsus 9 

Grapsus grapsus tenuicru^tatus 9 

Grapsus maculatus var. tcnuicrustatus 9 

I Grapsus rudis 9 



42 



Beruicc P. Bishop — Museum 



H 

Page 

Hapalocarcinidae 24 

Hapalocarcinus niarsupialus 24 

Harpilius depressus 34 

Hippidae 25 

Hippolytidae 3° 

Hyim-iiocera clegans 3° 

Hymcnoccra picta 33 

Hynieiioecridae 30 

I 

Inachidae 

Isopoda 37 

L 

Lciolophus flanissimum II 

Lcptodius exaratus acutidens 14 

Leptoditis exaratus var. acutidens 14 

Leptodius gracilis 14 

molokaiensis 14 

nudipes 14 

sanguineus 14 

Lcucosiidac 24 

Liomera cinctimana 12 

Lioxantho tumidus I7 

Lissocarcinus orbicularis 21 

Lophactacu eydouxi 13 

fissa 13 

granulosa 13 

Lophozozymus pulchellus 13 

Lcucifer reynaudi 35 

Lupa pubcscens 22 

Lybia tcssclata 21 

Lydia annulipes 19 

M 

Maldivia 38 

Maidivia gardineri 39 

Maldivia palmyrensis 19, 38 

MaldiTia symhiotica 38 

Mclia tcssclata 21 

Mcnaetliius nionoceros' 23 

Metopograpsus messor 10 

Micropanopc scxlobata 17 

Millepora 24 

N 

Natantia 28 

Neptunus (Achclous) granulatus 22 

Nucia specissa 24 

O 

Ocypode ccratophthalma 8 

Ocypodidae 8 

Oedipus grainineus 34 

Ozius (liurupcllia) annulipes 19 



P 

Page 

Pachygrapsus minutus 10 

plicatus 10 

Paguridae 26 

Pagurus punctulatus 27 

Palaenionella tenuipes 34 

Palaenionidae 34 

Palinura 28 

Parabacus antarcticus 28 

Peneides 35 

Percnon abbreviatum ll 

planissimum n 

Petrolisthes speciosa 24 

Phymodius nitidus 17 

ungulatus 17 

Pilodius nitidus 17 

Pilodius scabriculus 17 

Pilumuidae 1 1 

Pilumnus andersoni 19 

Platypodia digitalis 13 

eydouxi 13 

fissa 13 

Pocillopora 21 

Pocillopora ligulata 20 

meandrina var. nobilis 20 

Podophthalmus vigil 23 

Pontoniidae 34 

PorceUana speciosa 24 

Porcellanidae 24 

Portunidae 21 

Portunus (Achelous) granulatus 22 

Portunus pubescens' 22 

Pseudograpsus albus 11 

Pseudosquilla ciliata . 35 

Pseudozius caystrus 18 

inornatus 18 

R 

Remipes pacificus 23 

Reptantia 8 

S 

Saron marmorata 30 

Scyllaridae 28 

Sergestidae 35 

Seriatopora 24 

Sideropora 24 

Stenopidae 35 

Stenopides .^ 35 

Stenopus hispidus 35 

Stomatopoda 35 

Stylophora 24 

Synalplicus paromeomeris 30 

T 

Tanaidae 37 

Tanaid, A 37 

Tetralia glaberrima 21 



Index 



43 



Thalaraita auauensis 22 

cooperi 23 

edwardsi 22 

prymna 23 

Trapezia cymodoce 20 

ferruginea 20 

Trapezia cymodoce intermedia 20 

Trapezia digitalis 20 

Trapezia ferrugineus 20 

Trapezia ferruginea var. intermedia.... 20 

Trapezia rufopunctata 20 

Turbo 25 



U 

Page 

Uca annulipes 8 

tetragonon 8 

X 

Xanthias lamarckii 16 

Xantho crassimanus 13 

Xaiitho iLeptodius) crassimanus 13 

nudipes 14 

Xanthodes lamarckii 16 



Pevnice P. liisliop Mvi 



Bulletin 5, Plate I. 



1 





SHORE LINES, FANNING ISLAND. 
In view A the camera is directed northward into the lagoon, through the main 
channel at English Harbor; view B shows the sandy beach of the lagoon near 
English Harbor. On such beaches Ocj'pode ceratophthalma is common ; at niglit 
the beach is lined with myriads of burrowing land crabs, Cardisoma carnifex. 
— Photographs by Clarence A. Brown. 



Urniict: 1'. llishnp Miistuil 



riulk-tin 5. Plate iL 




A 




B 



SIKlUK l.INI';S. I-'AN\I\C. ISI.AMi. 
View .! is typical of llic outer shore line on tlie soutluvest side of ihe island. 
Shinglc-like stones, once living coral heads, are piled high on the heacli and offer 
concealment for numerous forms of marine invertebrates. The line of breakers in 
the background indicates the outer rim of the rocky shelf which surrounds this part 
of the island. (Photograph by Charles H. Edmondson.) In view B the camera is 
directed toward the ocean near the south end of the island, across one of the 
numerous sandy tide flats, on which the burrowing "fiddler cr.ib." Uca annulipes, is 
abundant. (Photograph by Clarence A. Brown). 




''"^^'^iimf'p 



TONGAN 
PLACE NAMES 

BY 

EDWARD WINSLOW GIFFORD 



Bernick i'. iiiSHOP Museum 
Bulletin 6 



BAYARD DOMINICK EXPEDITION 
Publication Number 7 



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HONOLULU, FIAWAII 

Published by the Museum 
1923 



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TONGAN 
PLACE NAMES 



BY 
EDWARD WINSLOW GIFFORD 



■' Bernice p. Bishop Museum 
Bulletin 6 



BAYARD DOMINICK EXPEDITION 
Publication Number 7 






honolulu, hawaii 

Published by the Museum 

1923 



Edward Winslow Gifford was in charge of the 

TONGAN PARTY OF THE BaYARD DoMINICK EXPEDITION, 

1920-21. His attention was given largely to a study 
of society, religion and ethnogeography. tongan 
Place Names is presented as a contribution to the 

PROBLEM OF THE origin AND MIGRATIONS OF THE POLY- 
NESIANS. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Introduction 3 

The Tonga or Friendly islands 4 

Tongan geographic poems 5 

Distribution of place names in relation to Tongan history 19 

Samoan place names in Tonga 23 

Remarks on the gazetteer 25 

Gazetteer of Tonga 30 

TEXT FIGURES 

Figure i. Outline map showing the villages of the Vavau group 25 

Figure 2. Outline map showing the villages of the island of Tongatabu 26 



Tongan Place Names 

By Edward Winslow Gifford 



INTRODUCTION 

One avenue of approach to the problem of the origin and migrations 
of the Polynesians lies in a careful study and comparison of place names 
from various parts of Polynesia. With large series of names from the 
several groups of Polynesia it will be possible to put the comparison on a 
firm statistical basis. Moreover, if it were found that Tonga had eighty 
per cent of her place names in common with Samoa and forty per cent in 
common with New Zealand, the closer connection with Samoa would be 
self evident. With large series of place names in hand it will become 
possible therefore to work out the ethnogeographic interrelations of each 
Polynesian group with all other Polynesian groups. It is hardly necessary 
to point out the value of these data in defining the movements of the 
Polynesian peoples. Until the expeditions of the Bishop Museum in the 
Pacific have been completed it is premature to attempt a comparison on a 
statistical basis as suggested above. Consequently, the present paper pre- 
sents the Tongan data without attempting a detailed comparison with 
other groups of Polynesia. Tongan intrarelations alone are studied. Four 
thousand seven hundred and seventy-six place names, utilized for more 
than eight thousand two hundred locations, are presented. These have 
been studied as to geographic distribution and frequency of occurrence in 
diflferent parts of the Tongon archipelago. One aim of this study is to 
determine if possible the direction of movement within the archipelago — 
that it, whether from north to south or from south to north. 

Several thousand place names were obtained from the records in the 
Tongan Lands Ofiice, which were courteously put at my disposal by the 
Honorable William Tungi, Minister for Lands. Mr. A. B. Wallace. 
Minister for Works, gave me access to the maps showing the location of 
hereditary lands in the Kingdom. The Reverend E. E. V. Collocott sent 
me in 1922 a list of names from the island of Niuafoou, which corroborated 
the Niuafoou list I made in Nukualofa (the capital of Tonga) and fur- 
nished forty new names. 

For the translation of place names I am indebted to several residents 
of Tonga: namely, Mrs. May Laurence, Mr. Solomon Ata, Mr. August 
Hettig, Miss Beatrice Shirley Baker, Mr. Alphonse J. Gaffney. and Mr. 
William Tungi. The translations have been studied by the author with 
the aid of two excellent dictionaries of the Tongan language, one compiled 



4 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

by the Catholic Missionaries of the Marist Brotherhood^ and the other by 
the Rev. Shirley W. Baker.2 

With one exception the Tongan orthography followed in this paper is 
that set forth on pages i and 2 of the Dictionnaire Toga-Francais. Sixteen 
symbols in all are used, of which five represent vowels and eleven con- 
sonants. The vowels are a, e, i, 0, and u and the consonants are /, h, k, I, 
in, n, ng, />, s, t, and i-. A^^ ^* is used in this paper in place of the g em- 
ployed in both the Dictionnaire Toga-Francais and in Baker's Dictionary. 

Baker's Dictionary differs from the Dictionnaire Toga-Francais in using 
both b and /> instead of p alone ; and j and / instead of s alone. 

Owing to the fact that practically all of the place names presented in 
this paper are drawn from government records, charts, and various Tongan 
manuscripts and are recorded in varying orthographies and largely without 
diacritical marks, it is impossible to consistently indicate by diacritical 
marks the exact pronunciation of each word. For particulars concerning 
Tongan phonetics the reader should consult the dictionaries. 

THE TONGA OR FRIENDLY ISLANDS 

The group named the Friendly Islands by the famous navigator Cook 
lies between the parallels of 15° and 23° south latitude and between the 
173rd and 176th meridians west of Greenwich. 

The name Tonga as applied to the whole group is derived from the 
name of the largest island of the group, generally known as Tongatabu.^ 

With the exception of the outlying volcanic island of Niuafoou approxi- 
mately in latitude 16° S and longitude 176° W, the islands of the Tongan 
archipelago lie in two parallel chains stretching from north to south. The 
eastern chain is of coral formation. The western chain is volcanic. 

The eastern chain includes more than one hundred islands, most of 
them low-lying — in fact, little more than uplifted coral reefs. They are 
exceedingly fertile and bear the great bulk of the Tongan population. 

The western volcanic islands are not numerous. They are from south 
to north: Ata (1165 feet elevation), the twin islands of Hunga Tonga 
and Hunga Haapai (respectively 490 and 400 feet elevation), Tofua (1670 



' Missionnaires Maristes, Dictionnaire Toga-Francais et Francais-Toga-Anglais. 
Precede d'une Grammaire et de Quelques Notes sur L'Archipel par les Missionnaires 
Maristes, revu et mis en ordre par le P. A. C. s.tn. Publication de I'oeuvre dc Saint- 
Jerome, Librairie-Editeur, Paris. Cliadenat, 1890. 

" An English and Tongan Vocabulary, also a Tongan and English Vocabulary, 
with a list of Idiomatic Phrases ; and Tongan Grammar, Auckland, N. Z., 1897. 

'The spelling Tongatabu has been unfortunately adopted by official geographic 
boards and gazetteers. The correct orthography is Tongatapu. 

^« In the arrangement of the gazetteer, ng follows n. 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 5 

feet elevation), Kao (3380 feet elevation), Late (1700 feet elevation), 
Fonualei (600 feet elevation), Niiiatoputapu (350 feet elevation), and 
Tafahi (2000 feet elevation). 

Two of the coralline islands are quite elevated ; Eua attains the height 
of 1070 feet and Vavau the height of 670 feet. 

Most of the Tonga islands fall both politically and geographically into 
three divisions. From south to north they are the Tongatabu group, the 
Haapai group, and the Vavau group. Geographically these groups em- 
brace only the coral islands, but politically Kao and Tofua are parts of 
Haapai, and Late is a part of Vavau, though all three are volcanic and lie 
thirty or forty miles west of Haapai and Vavau proper. 

The southernmost portion of the Haapai group is cut off from the main 
portion by about ten miles of deep water. It is often dignified geographi- 
cally with the term Nomuka group. It is here treated, however, as a por- 
tion of Haapai. 

TONGAN GEOGRAPHIC POEMS 

Tongan poets are much given to the composition of verses dealing en- 
tirely with Tongan geography; in fact, the feeling for the beauties of 
nature is one of the marked cultural characteristics of the Tongan people. 
Martin * has published two such compositions, and a number of poems 
dealing with the islands of the Tongatabu, Haapai, and Vavau groups are 
presented in the following pages of this paper. 

"Koe Otu Motu o Haapai" is a fragment of ancient verse evidently ex- 
pressing the feeling of monotony which had overcome the poet, after a long 
sojourn on the small and low island of Lifuka in the Haapai group. With 
the high volcanic islands of Tofua and Kao in sight to the westward his appe- 
tite for wandering got the best of him. He at last obtained surcease for his 
feelings by sailing to Auhangamea, a deep passage between the islands of 
Uoleva and Tatafa. From thence he appears to have gone to rugged 
Tofua, where he scaled the rocky hills and viewed an active volcano and 
the great crater lake, which occupies the center of the island — a change, 
indeed, from the gentle charms of low-lying, coconut-enshrouded Lifuka. 



'Martin, John (M.D.), .^n account of the natives of the Tonga Islands in the 
South Pacific Ocean, with an original grammar and vocabulary of their language. 
Compiled and arranged from the extensive communications of Mr. William Mariner, 
several years resident in those islands, 2nd ed., vol. i, p. 293; vol. 2, p. 321, Lon- 
don, John Murray, 1818. 



Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — BuUetin 



KoB Otu Motu o Haapai^ 

Nofo i Lifuka peau velenga, 
Fakapo hoto fie eveeva. 
Ne pauu taki Auhangamea. 
Lofia e, 
Taaki Lofia e, 
Lokavailahi e. 



The Islands of Haapai 

I dwelt in Lifuka and I wished, 

Oh, murder ! how I wished for a change. 

I mischievously lead to Auhangamea. 

O volcano of Tofua ! 

O eradicating volcano! 

O crater lake of Tofua! 



Koe Fakanaanaa oe Fanau a IHukalala deals with the charms of \^avau 
and is reminiscent of the song that Martin « reproduces. Both songs date 
from the period of Mariner's sojourn in Tonga. Tlie Ulukalala referred to 
in the heading of the following lullaby is Mariner's patron — Finau. The 
lullaby has a mournful strain running through it, for it is the evening song 
of Ulukalala's children in exile in Tongatabu. The song that Martin and 
Mariner reproduce is the cheerful ebullition of a poet actually enjoying the 
beauties of ^^avau, not merely calling them to mind when far distant. 



Fakanaanaa 

KoK Fakanaanaa of, Fanau a 

Ulukalala i Hona Fakale- 

LEA MAI ki Pea kia Takai mo 

Fae iHE HiLi OE Tau I Fele- 

TOA I X'aVAU^ 



Ka malu pea tau e kakapu 

Ihe otu motulalo o Vavau. 

Pea hange pe oku te folau 

O kau ka viki hangofia atu. 

Neu tuu he toa i Longoniapu 

Tepa ki he Fakafanuaamanu 

Ki he utu niai ae mounga ko Talau 

Moe konga vao i Pahalau. 

Ohuafi langaia ehe hahau 

Kuo tulekina ehe tokelau, 

O tokoto hifo i Tolungahaku. 

Fclcfata moe hala malumalu 

Kalo ki Koloa moe Otufangavalu ; 

O maniata he loto ko Utuafu. 

Hau ta tukua e Hala Ngutungulu ; 

Kata kalo ki Tulukingavavau 

Mo sii hifonga i Anaefu 

Fanongoa mci Anapupu 

Sii ngala ae Utukalongalu. 



Lullaby .... 
The Lullaby of the Children 
OF Ulukalala in Their Exile 
AT Pea, in Charge of the 
Chiefs Takai and Fae, After 
the Battle at Feletoa in 
\'avau. 

It is calm and the mist settles 

On the outer islands of Vavau. 

It seems as' if I were sailing 

When I praise it to you. 

I stand at the ironwood tree in Longomapu 

And glance from Fakafanuaamanu 

To where rises the mount of Talau 

And the woods in Pahalau. 

The smoke stirred by the dew 

And tilted by the northern wind, 

Lies low at Tolungahaku. 

Felefata and the shady road 

Leading to Koloa and Otufangavalu. 

There we will see the pool Utuafu. 

Come, let us leave the ClifT Road ; 

Let us go to Tulukingavavau 

And descend into the cave .^naefu 

And listen from the cave Anapupu 

To the roar of the underground stream. 



' From the manuscript of the Rev. Dr. J. E. Moulton, made available by the Rev. 
E. E. V. Collocott and Rev. R. C. G. Page, of the Methodist Church, Nukualofa, 
Tonga. Translated by Miss Beatrice Shirley Raker. 

'Op. cit. vol. I, p. 293. 

' From a manuscript belonging to the late John Panuve Maatu, Noble of Ninato- 
putapu. Translated by Her Majesty Charlotte Tupou, Queen of Tonga. 



Gift or d — Tons'an Place Names 



Fakapo kuo langa a atu, 

Kuo fakalolo ki tokelau. 

Kuo kapa talifaki a manu 

I Tuungasika mo Luafatu, 

Luamoko moe motu ko Kitu. 

Sii falo ae mounga ko Vou 

Kuo tafitonga ehe malu. 

Uoisoiike ! naa koha mala, 

Hoto ofa ki Vavau kuo langa, 

He fonua ne ngali katoanga. 

Nae taha pe ki ai e tala 

The lautele moe folivaka ; 

Mo hono lelei fai evaanga. 

Kapau ha Haafuluhao hena taha 

Pea hau mua o fanongo he taanga. 

Viki ka to lulunga. 

Alo i tua Hunga 

Ka ko Totokafoiiua. 

Te tuu i Tauta o mamata ki Taula 

Mo sii siale o Muomua. 

Ha mau ko e i ikai a matatua ; 

Ko loto ke tuku a Tongatapu 

Moe mata hangale kau alu, 

Koeuhi ke lelu ai sioku ofa, 

Ki he liku i Matuanua. 

Sii manu siu e ene nga 

Koe mohe ape e ki Likua ; 

Kae a ki he Fonongatoa 

O sio hifo he Toalofa 

Ki he mapuna hake ae laa 

Ihe hake anga o Lepuha. 

Kau hake he ki Maluhola 

Kau Iiifo ki Finekahoafa 

O toli he vao kulukona 

Ke omi ke fiuhekina e taha, 

Maama teunga fakaniua, 

Ke ngangatu ho tau po hiva. 



Oh ! the bonito have come and departed, 

And have gone to the north. 

The birds are hovering 

In Tuungasika and Luafatu, 

In Luamoko and the island of Kitu. 

The expanse of the hills of Vou 

Is cleared by the calmness. 

Alas ! it may be bad luck. 

But my love for Vavau is unbearable. 

For the land of feasting and joy. 

Vavau is the one place that is discussed 

In shooting and sailing; 

Its' beauties are for pleasure trips. 

If one of you came from Haafuluhao 

Approach and listen to the song. 

Praise will be too for the west. 

I paddle around the back of Hunga 

And to Totokafonua. 

I stand on Tauta and look to Taula 

And to the gardenia of Muomua. 

This poet is not well informed ; 

He may have left Tongatapu 

And the hangale trees and gone. 

Just to weary my love, 

To the liku of Matuanua. 

The fishing bird is crying 

And is going to rest at Likua ; 

But it will awaken to fly to Fonongatoa 

.-Xnd look down to Toalofa 

To the rising of the sun 

At the ascending place of Lepuha. 

I'll turn up here to Maluhola 

And descend to Finekahoafa 

To pick flowers at the kulukona woods 

And bring them for someone to plait. 

To decorate us for the fakaniua dance, 

To perfume us in our night singing. 



The six poems on the following pages were composed by men now 
dead. Two of the poems are by Tufui. Koe Ngaahi Motu o Tongatapu 
deals with the islands of the Tongatabu group and Koe Taanga eni a Tufui 
treats specifically of the weather shore, or liku, of Tongatabu island. Koe 
Taanga eni a Futa likewise deals with the weather shore of Tonga- 
tabu. The poet Falepapalangi is responsible for two poems: a chant 
which deals with Lifuka island in the Haapai group, and a chant which 
•describes a trip in which both the Tongatabu and the Vavau groups are 
visited. The sixth poem is anonymous. Although it bears the title "Koe 
Fa" (The Pandanus) comparatively little of it actually deals with that 
tree and its fruit ; most of the verses deal with features of the natural 
scenery. 



8 



Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



KoE Ngaahi Motu Tongatabu; 
KoE Lavbofo — KoE Fatu e 

TUFUI ^ 
Kc fanongo mai, e kanokanona, 
Kau lave motu pe te ke iloa ; 

Ki homautolu Fangalongonoa. 
Ne fua i Onevai he totoka ; 
Koe motu lelei ia o Tonga, 
Lataanga oe fakahakonoa. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Mokotuu ena, mo Velitoa ; 
Hange ha vakatou kuo hola, 
Ae tomohopo a Malinoa 
Oka tuu matahavili a Tonga. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Velitoahihifo mo Monuafe, 
Ngata mei Tanoa mo Feleave ; 
Naa ita i loto oe punake, 
He oku vikia ae mata hangale, 

Kau foki pe au ki Hahake. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Ko Ata koe motua fonua. 
Mo Eueiki pea mo Eua ; 
Nae fusi e Maui ki olunga. 
Ko Kalau, e motu ngali niua, 

Ne fekei ai ae ongo otua. 
Ta koe fingota e fiemua, 
Kuo tuku hono ngeesi i uta, 
Ka ka alu o hcke telefua. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Ko Lotuma mo Folokolupe, 
Ko Lekiafaitau nofo ne : 
Tangaloa e tuu niakehe pe, 
Ko Puleniafi mo Ongolatc. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 



>* From Koe Makasini a Koliji, vol. 
Shirley Baker. 

9 Hangale tree here symbolizes the 
the beaches of which it grows. 



The Islands of Tongatabu: The 
Wonder-Chant — The Com- 
position OF TuFui 
Listen, oh, alto singers, 
I will sing of the islands and see if you 

know them ; 
Yonder the beach of Fangalongonoa. 
It was made by Onevai to be calm ; 
That is' the best island of Tonga, 
The place allures for a pleasure trip. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Mokotuu there, and Velitoa ; 
Like a vessel that has absconded, 
Tlie falling and rising of Malinoa 
When Tonga stands facing the wind. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Velitoa-west and Monuafe, 
Ending with Tanoa and Feleave ; 
Lest becomes angry the mind of the poet, 
Because is praised the bud of the hangale 

trec.u 
I will return to the east country. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Ata is the oldest land 
And Eueiki and Eua ; 
Was pulled up by Maui. 
Kalau, an island appearing to have plenty 

of coconuts. 
Quarrelled over by two gods. 
Why it was a shellfish and cunning. 
And left its empty shell on shore. 
While it went and crawled naked. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Lotuma and Folokolupe, 
Lekiafaitau stands here : 
There stands Tangaloa sliding, 
Puleniafi and Ongolate. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

3, p. 9, 1876. Translated by Miss Beatrice- 
Hihifo (west) district of Tongatabu, along 



Giiford — Tonzan Place Names 



Nuku, Hee, Lili, pea mo Nuku; 
Nae hola ki ai ae nofo hu, 
Oka mohe hake e Fakatupu, 
Ki he hoko oe toenga umu. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

Kg Pangaimotu mo Makahaa, 
Tuu mai ae motu ko Fafa, 
Nae fai ai e ta maka, 
O uta ki Langi Taetaea, 

Moe otu langi fua o Mua. 
Angi ae matangi tonga, 
He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 
He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

Niuui, ho ke fakaofoofo ! 
Nae tala hono hingoa i he fono 
Pea mao ai e lea ki loto, 
"Oku ia ae niu fuongongoo" 
Ta oku ikai ha foi ngono. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

Oneata fetaki mo Manima. 
Kau aa keu mohe ki Fasia, 
O mamata he lafoi oe ika. 

Oku alu kovi, koe malaia ! 
Ta koe inasi pe ia. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

Kuo puli ai a Ngaunoho : 
Pe ha esi pe muitolotolo. 

Nukunukumotu mo Fuumilo; 
Kohai e aa moe ungako? 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

Utuloa, pe ha esi pe ha motu ; 
Nukunave pea Motu Foou ; 
Ne lelei fakafuonounou. 
Koe vaka e ka alu ki motu, 
Ki Mounu ki he taumafa fonu. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 



Nuku, Hee, Lili, and to Nuku ; 
Fled there the suer for pardon, 
When the Creator went to sleep above. 
At the joining of the remnant of food. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

The islands Pangaimotu and Makahaa, 
And stands forward the island of Fafa, 
The cutting of stone was done there, 
And taken (the stones) to the royal tomb 

Taetaea, 
And all the row of royal tombs at Mua. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-Ia ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a I 

Niuui, you are beautiful ! 
Your name was told at the proclamation 
And penetrated the words into the mind, 
"There are there coconuts of large size." 
But there are not even young coconuts. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

Oneata is hand in hand with Manima 
While I ford to go and sleep at Fasia, 
And watch the throwing of the net for 

the fish. 
If it goes wrong, it is accursed ! 
But that is the portion. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la I 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a I 

Which causes Ngaunoho to disappear : 
And only the mound at the promontory 

is seen. 
Nukunukumotu and Fuumilo ; 
Who will ford with the spiny ungako P" 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

Utuloa, is it a mound or is it an island ; 
Nukunave and the New Island ; 
Which was only nice a short time. 
There is a vessel that will go to the island, 
To the reef Mounu for the chief's turtle. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 



" A small marine sessile animal with sharp spines dangerous to human feet. 



10 



Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



Ko Motutala mo Mataabo ; 
Haangakafa ne mei ngalo; 
Talakite fcangai mo Moho; 
Nae tuu ai ae toa ongo, 
Nae holo ai pe e ao. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Ko Niumotuu mo Nukulave, 
Pea toll! aki Vaomaile. 
E motu ko Fanakavaaotua, 
Nae tuu pe i he loto kouta. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-Ia! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Tongomotu pea mo Ngofonua ! 
Namolimu e tuu potu ki uta ; 
Nae tuu ai e hamatefua, 
Nae uli o tai Muomua. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Muikuku fcangai mo Nahafu. 
E motu lelei ko Moungatapu ; 
Nae nofo ai Putufakatau, 
Ko siono motu to i he hau. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Ko Nuku mo Kanatea tacofa ; 
Nae nofo ai Mapafietoa. 
Naa ne taui Tui Lalotonga, 
Ne ikai tali mai ka ka hola. 

Angi ac matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Lau ai moe motu ko Pakola, 
Nae tuu pe ikai iloa, 
I he muivai o Veitoloa, 
Koe nofoanga oe Tui Tonga. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Fakimamana te mau tala 
Koeuhi pe hono hingoa — 
Ka kuo ikai hono tuunga. 
Nae tuu i Atele he puna, 
Nc holoki i he tan otua. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 
He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 
He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 



Motutala and Mataaho; 
Haangakafa was nearly forgotten, 
Talakite opposite to Moho ; 
There stood the casuarina tree that listened. 
Over which the clouds passed in quick 
succession. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Niumotuu and Nukulave, 
And Vaomaile makes a third. 
The island of Fanakavaaotua, 
Which stood in the middle of the mangroves. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Tongomotu and Ngofonua ! 
Namolimu stands nearest the shore ; 
There stood there a small sailing canoe. 
Which sailed and struck Muomua. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Muikuku which stands opposite Nahafu. 
A delightful island is Moungatapu ; 
There dwelt there Putufakatau, 
His poor island given to him by the ruler. 

When blows the soutli wind. 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Nuku and Kanatea the unkind ; 
There dwelt there Mapafietoa. 
He fought Tui Lalotonga, 
Who did not wait for him but fled. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 
Counting in the island of Pakola, 
Wliich stood, then disappeared, 
At the end of the water of Veitoloa. 
The dwelling place of the Tui Tonga. 

When blows the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a! 
Fakimamana we will mention 
Because of its name — 
Why it has no place. 
It stood at Atele then flew away, 
Then was thrown down in the war of 
the gods. 

When blow's the south wind, 

He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 

He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 



afford — Tongan Place Names 



11 



Vakangotoika, Vakautangu, 

Nae tuu i he fanga i Pahu. 
Ke fanongo mai ho mau, 
Koe ngataanga ia oe niotu. 

Ka ikai taui pea ke hu. 

Angi ae matangi tonga, 
He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 
He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

KoE Fakamatala 
Koe mea ki Niuui : oku lau nae fai 
ae tufa oe ngaahi motu o Tongatapu, 
pea i he fanongo e he eiki e taha ki he 
hnigoa Niuui naa ne mahalo koe lau ki 
he niu oku i ai, o ne kalanga leva 
"Ooku ia." Ka i heene alu ki ai ke 
vakai hono totia kuo to, ta oku ikai ha 
fuu niu e taha e tuu ai. 

"Kanatea taeofa." Nae ui pehe koe 
nofo ai ae otua tahi ko Tui Lalotonga, 
aia naa ne faa keina ae kakai (naa ko 
ha fuu tenifa). Pea nae ai ha eiki 
nae nofo i Nuku, ko Mapafietoa hono 
hingoa: pea nae mole ha taha i heene 
fanau koe ngaue kovi a Tui Lalotonga. 
Pea mamahi ai a Mapa, o ne talatau 
ki he faahikehe— ka ai hano toa ke ne 
hau ke na fai. Pea fakamata e Mapa 
mo hono kakai honau tao, pea nau 
alu hifo ki tahi; he naa nau pehe kuo 
pau ke tali he koe otua pea talaehai 
te ne foi. Ka nae ikai iloa ai ae faa- 
hikehe ; pea ita a Mapafietoa o ne aa 
mo hono kakai ki Havelu o nau tutu 
hono fale nae tuu ai. 



The vessel that sank the fish and the vessel 

loaded with yams. 
That stood at the beach of Pahu. 
Listen to me you. 
These are all the islands. 

If not contested, then sue for pardon." 
When blows the south wind 
He-a-e-i-a-ho-la ! 
He-he-i-a-he-he-a ! 

The Explanation 

As regards Niuui: it is said, when 
the islands of Tongatabu were portioned 
out, and when a certain chief heard the 
name Niuui, he thought that it referred 
to the coconuts that were there, and he 
shouted, "I will have it." When he went 
to see his inheritance he found that there 
was not a single coconut tree standing 
there. 

"Kanatea the unkind." It was called by 
that name because there dwelt there a 
god of the sea, Tui Lalotonga, who always 
ate the people (perhaps it was a shark). 
There dwelt at Nuku a chief by the name 
of Mapafietoa, and one of his' children was 
lost through the fault of Tui Lalotonga. 
.And Mapa was much grieved and he told 
the god, if he had any warrior to send him 
to fight. And Mapa and his people sharp- 
ened their spears, and they went down to 
the sea, and they thought that Tui Lalo- 
tonga was sure to accept the challenge 
because he was a god ; and who could 
say that he would be overcome. But the 
god was not found there, and Mapafietoa 
was angry and he forded with his people 
to Havelu and burnt the god's' house that 
stood there. 



Koe Taanga fiNi A TuFui" 



A Chant by Tufui 



I. Ke fanongo mai e lau loto na 
Kau lave au ki he Tuatonga. 

Ki hoo mautolu liku he totoka 
Ta vikia hono tokalinoa. 



I. Listen you who sing bass 

While I chant to you about the weather 

shore of Tonga. 
When our weather shore is calm 
We will praise its floating jelly-fish. 



" The expression means : if another poet cannot outdo this composition then let 
him sue for pardon. 

"From manuscript in the possession of Mrs. Rachel Tonga, Pangai, Lifuka. 
Translated by Miss Beatrice Shirley Baker. 



12 



Bcnike P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



2. Etc viki ka fua mei he Toa, 
Haangongo pea moe Tanoa, 
Hufangalupe ke mou iloa ; 

Koe mea lelei ia o Tonga ; 
Hola anga e lupe a Tangaloa. 

3. Utuvetevete koe vai pango 
Utufia ehe folau aalo; 

Kg Vaiangahele nofo kau fano. 
Fakaofa e hafu ae hingano. 

4. Kg Tukutukunga mo Anatetea, 
Kg Fakaraalunga siutafea. 

Kau ta kamakama he telea 

He telia e matangi kuo hema. 

5. Koe Moa pea mo makatcfua: 
Kapakau mate tuu ki hiliinga, 
Ne lavea he tolo mei Etia. 
Makatangi pea moe loto na, 
Ko Fakahakengaatu ta tukua. 

6. Fakapotu moe Lotoautongi 
Ki siono vai fakahaaloli ; 

Ta tukua mo hono hingoa kovi ; 
Foilulu pea mo Maloloi. 

7. Touhuni mo Makasialetafa 

Tuu ai o mamata ki moana. 
Ene melo e folau tafaanga ; 

Kg atu ni kuo tuku tafatafa. 

8. Ngalu fanifo maka lomia 
Feangai moe otu maka hiva ; 
Fasi mei lalo Talaahoia. 

Ta fanifoa kata evehia. 



9. Makatautau mo Puhamomala, 
Ko Kahana pea mo Halakakala, 
Ko Nuanga moe Halafakatafa, 
Ne uta kiai e kau tangata. 

10. Ko Keviki mo Faihavamotua, 
Tafe ki moana e vai mapuna, 
Fasi he maahi ufi toofua ; 
Ko Utufufu ta fakalanua. 



2. My praising will start from Toa, 
Haangongo and Tanoa, 

Sanctuary of the Pigeon be it known 

to you ; 
These are the nice things of Tonga ; 
Fled there the pigeon of Tangaloa. 

3. Utuvetevete the unlucky water 
Baled out by the paddling canoes; 
Vaiangahele stay while I go. 
Was pitiful the dropping of the 

hingano flowers'. 

4. To Tukutukunga and the Whitish cave. 
To Fakamalunga where the boat race 

is held. 
There I'll catch rock crabs in the 

crevices 
For the wind is from the northwest." 

5. The Fowl and all the stones : 

The dead wing stands on the west side, 
Wounded by (Maui's) throw f rom Eua. 
Makatangi and the deep sea, 
Fakahakengaatu we go and leave. 

6. Fakapotu and Lotoautongi 

Whose water is scattered with loli 

shellfish ; 
We two will leave it and its bad name ; 
Foilulu and Maloloi. 

7. Touhuni and the Rock of the Siale- 

tafa 
Stand there and look to the ocean. 
It is brown with the fleet of fishing 

canoes ; 
The bonitos are jumping at their sides. 

8. The surf plays on the rock submerged 
Opposite to the row of nine stones ; 
The breakers roll from below Tala- 
ahoia. 

We will swim in the surf then go for 
a walk. 

9. Makatautau and Puhamomala, 
Kahana and Halakakala, 
Nuanga and Hnlaf.ikatafa, 
The favorite places of men. 

10. Keviki and Faikavamotua, 

Flow to the ocean the running waters. 
Break and roar the waves as' they run; 
At Utufufu we two will rinse off the 
salt water. 



13 The northwest wind makes it calm on the southern shore, so that crab fishing 
and boat racing are possible. 



Gifford — Tonmn Place Names 



13 



11. Ana f ale pea mo Otaongo, 
Vaitafe nofo ne ka ma o 
Matalave e muitolotolo 

Hake ai ki Vakatauoho. 

12. Ko Makaakiu pea mo Lafai, 

Hoto ofa he Fakaaungalahi ; 
Ko Nuha mo Nuha fakafeangai. 
Ta hakea Tafulava ki uta ni. 

13. Koe Niu hono vai kaukau. 
Ko Fakamoui nofo kau alu 

Ko Taanga moe Tufu fakalanu 

Moe toa malele ki hakau. 

14. Mahumei moe Koloneulo, 
Hoto ofa ki Anafeleoko; 
Talotunu ene fasi paolo 
Moe maka ko Lefiopopoto. 

15. Tufunua hono vai fakakata, 

Fakahafu" ai Tui Haatala ; 

Ene lupe ne fokotuu he maka 
Ne iloa ehe vaka tuku kafa. 

Ngata ai e viki matafanga ; 
Ka manatu e pea mate taha. 



11. Anafale and Otaongo, 

O stream stay while we two go 
To Matalave at the end of the 

promontory 
And ascend the shore at Vakatauoho. 

12. The Rock of the Plover and the water 

of Latai, 
My love to the surf Fakaaungalahi ; 
Nuha and Nuha face each other. 
We will go by Tafulava to the shore. 

13. Niu is his bathing water. 
Fakamoui, remain while I go 

To Taanga and the Tufu stream of 

bathing water 
And the casuarina tree that bends to 

the reef. 

14. The surf Mahumei and Koloneulo, 
My love to the Sheltering Cave ; 

The wave Talotunu breaks and creeps 
And the rock Lefiopopoto. 

15. Tufunua and its waters that make one 

laugh, 
Tui Haatala submerged his head there ; 

His pigeon was placed on a stone 
And was' found by a vessel putting 

down the fishing net. 
That ends the praising of the seashore; 
li anyone remembers it all he will die. 



Koe Taanga eni a Futa'' 

1. Ke fanongo mai e loto matala, 
Kau lave au ki he otu fanga, 
Ki hoo mautolu liku fakalata; 
Naa viki kehea mai e taha. 

2. Ete viki ka fua he Likutapu, 

Anahulu ena mo Tukuatu, 

Fotumoko feangai moe Ngalu, 
Holaanga o Hina mo Sinilau. 

3. Nukumalolo ka ko Laulea 
Feangai moe Pupuamatea ; 
Fasi mei lalo a Fakaleleva. 
Ta fanifoa ka tau hakea. 



A Chant by Futa 

1. Listen you with intelligent minds. 
While I sing of the sea shore, 

Of our weather shore that entices ; 
Lest some one else should praise it first. 

2. My praise will be for the Sacred 

Weather Shore, 
The Illuminated Cave there and 

Tukuatu, 
Fotumoko which is opposite Ngalu, 
The place to which Hina and Sinilau 

fled. 

3. Nukumalolo now called Famous 

Is opposite the deadly whirlpool Pupua ; 
With breakers below stands Fakaleleva. 
Let us play in the surf, then go ashore. 



" Fakahafu is the act of lying on the back in the water, submerging the head, 
and bringing it up quickly, so that all the hair lies straight back. 

" From manuscript in the possession of Mrs. Rachel Tonga, Pangai, Lifuka. 
Translated by Miss Beatrice Shirley Baker. 



14 



Bi-niicr P. Bislioft ^^llscllnl — Bulletin 



4. Faknuhmafa moe Toalcka ; 
Ko loto Ilouma e niea koena. 

Ene va e fanifo hekea. 

5. Ko Veingangana moe Lotoua ; 
Tuu ai e vai hingoa hua. 

Ko Anaholia hau ta tukua ; 
Ta hakea Hikutavake ki uta. 

6. Anaafitu mo Anaumata, 

Xgukula e vai o Siufanga, 
Feangai mo Finekahoamapa, 
Paki ae siale he matanga. 

7. Touhiini ena mo Fuemotu ; 
Koe Fanakava ia o Pulotu. 
Umuifi pea mo Anapulou. 

8. Ko Vale mo Halaika motua 
Tuu ai o mamata ki Eua ; 
Manu koe Katafa a siene puna 
Ko atu ka tuku atu ki fanua. 

9. Fangapeka ena moe Toa 
Feangai moe Hinganoleka, 
Moe esi o Sisihalaika ; 

He niu i Mataimanuka. 

10. Likisia mo Makamakauuli, 
Ko Tau moe vai koe Huni, 
Fakafeangai mo kau Hanmi 
Fine tou siale ene uufi. 



II. Houtolu moe Avatafaanga 
Tuu ai o mamata ki moana ; 

Ko atu ni kuo tuku tafatafa. 



4. I";ikauluiiafa and Toaleka ; 

Tliat is the middle of Houma over 

there. 
They laugh when the surf player slips. 

5. Veingangana and Lotoua ; 

Stands the water called by a laughable 

name. 
The Cave of Desire let us' put away ; 
We two will ascend by Hikutavake to 

the land. 

6. The Winding Cave and the Cave of 

the Rainbow, 

Ngukula by the water of Siufanga, 

Opposite Finekahoamapa, 

Where are plucked the gardenias be- 
cause of their withering. 

7. Touhuni is there and Fuemotu ; 
It is the Fanakava of Pulotu. 
Umuifi and the Covered Cave. 

8. Vale and the old Fish Road 
Stand there and look towards Eua ; 
See the bird Katafa in its flight 

And the bonitos leaping for the shore. 

9. Flying-fox Beach there and Toa 
Opposite to Hinganoleka, 

And the mound called the Girdle of 

the Fish Road ; 
The coconuts at Mataimanuka. 

10. Likisia and Makamakauuli, 

Tau and the Water called Huni, 
Opposite to the Haumi 
Tlie woman plucking the gardenias 
that cover the tree. 

11. Houtolu and Avatafaanga 

Stand there and look towards the 

ocean ; 
The bonitos have scattered. 



12. Makaahoia mo Fangafukave, 
Tua liku Tonga, ene valevale. 

\ai manu o Kalau kuo ake ; 

Fakaofa e paki ae siale. 

13. Makatautau mo Siuatama, 
Feangai mo Taukolokivaka, 

Ko Hule moe vai ko Lakanga 
Moe tolotolo i Faleaata. 



12. Makaahoia and Fangafukave, 

Weather shore of Tonga, thou arousest 

desire. 
The fishing birds of Kalau have re- 
turned; 
Piti.ible is the plucking of the gar- 
denias. 

1.?. The Hanging Rock and Siuatama, 
Opposite to Taukolokivaka, 
And Hule and tlic water called Lakanga 
-And the cape at Faleaata. 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 



15 



14. Kepeliki ena mo Neiafu, 
Tuulanga uta fasi ke maau. 

He telia e matangi tokelau, 
Fakaofa e hingano ene hafu. 

15. Ko Ovaka pea mo Feauaki, 
Nukunamo e Hifonga moe Api ; 
Ko Loutokoto ka fasi maahi 
Ta fanifoa kata hake mai. 

16. Anafungavai nofo ne, 

Anafale mo Einetapate 
Makapapa moe ulu siale. 

Hake ai ki Ngutuofafine. 

17. Laka mei Eua mo fanga lahi, 
Tufu mangamanga ko siono vai : 
Kau kefu ene hake taulaki. 

Neiloa he vaka tuku meai. 
Ngata ai e viki matatahi. 

Ka manatu e pea ke mahaki. 



14. Kepeliki there and Neiafu, 

Where the waves of the shore break 

and roll in succession. 
When the north wind blows, 
Pitiful is the dropping of the hingano 

flowers. 

15. Ovaka and Feauaki, 
Nukunamo at Hifonga and Api ; 

At Loutokoto where the waves break 
We two will play in the surf, then go 
ashore. 

16. Cave at the top of the water, stay 

while we go. 
And Anafale and Finetapate 
And Makapapa and the row of 

gardenias 
Let us go up to the place called 

Ngutuofafine. 
I". Passing from Eua and the big beach, 
Brackish and spread open its water : 
Yellowish as though one had washed 

his head with clay. 
The vessel found the meai fish. 
That is the end of my praising the sea 

shore. 
If you remember it all you will die. 



A Chant About Lifuka — By Falepapalangi ^^ 



Hoto ofa talai ki he matangi. 
He mea koa he hua o hai 
A etau nonofo he fonua ni. 
Sani mai e fanga ko Keitahi, 
Moe ongo o Tausisii vakai. 
Kohai koa kei lata ai? 
Ke hange koe otu Haapai : 
Ka havili pea fengalomaki, 
Ka malu pea fekitengaki ; 
Tau vakaia siene fetaki 
Hange ha hua feilongaki. 
Amusia Lofia i Vailahi, 

Nae tulekina ene ohu afi. 
Pea tau mohe lulunga ki ai, 
Tau ki Paluki ki he Kasivaki, 
Mohe kia Loupua ki Pangai. 
Hengihengi pea felangaaki 

Ae fefine oka tangitangi 



My love tell to the wind, 

Which will spread it and fasten 

Our dwelling in this land. 

Beautiful is the beach at Keitahi, 

Where the tidings of Tausisii are heard. 

Who still wishes to stay there? 

See the group of Haapai islands : 

When stormy they are hidden from view. 

When calm they are in sight of each other ; 

Then we see them going hand in hand 

Like friends who have met. 

Envious of Tofua's volcano at the Big 

Lake, 
Who pushes out her smoke. 
We will sleep to the west of it. 
Anchor at Paluki at the Kasivaki beach, 
And next night sleep at Loupua in Pangai. 
Early in the morning we'll go about, and 

see 
The woman when she plucks the opening 

bud. 



" From the Reverend Dr. J. E. Moulton's manuscript, made available by Rev. E. 
E. V. Collocott and Rev. R. C. G. Page, of the Methodist Church, Nukualofa, Tonga. 
Translated by Miss Beatrice Shirley Baker. 



16 



Bcntice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletiu 



Toli ae siale oka mapaki. 
Tui pea tau kahoa ki tahi. 

mamata he vaka papalangi 
Pea moe taulanga tongiaki. 

Ka fiinga Toku leva e matangi, 

Pea fanongoa mei lotoa 
Kuo peaua e loto fanga, 
Fakanamuli kuo kaiiia. 
Te tiiii i Alaimuitoa 
Pea ulu alo mai e pua 

1 he funga vai i Velitoa. 
Hange ha kumi oku folofola 
Ae tuu ae Tongoleleka. 
Oka teitei to e laa 

Pea hama e niu i Lifuka. 

Oka tauloniaki e tonga 
Tepa he mounga o Tofua 
Mo tokona Kao kuo kaina. 



And the blown gardenias which are falling. 
Threads she the flower garlands for us 

when we go to sea. 
Let us have a look at the European vessel 
And the double sailing canoe at the 

anchorage. 
While the north wind blows from the isle 

of Toku, 
There is heard from the chief's enclosure 
The roar of the waves on the beach, 
Which is peopled with strangers. 
Let us stand at the beach .•\laimuitoa 
When blows the wind 
Over the top of the well at Velitoa. 
Like a piece of black tapa spread out 
Lies the beach of Tongoleleka. 
When the sun is nearly setting 
Stand out like the masts of vessels the 

coconuts of Lifuka. 
When the south wind blows 
The moitntains of Tofua are seen 
And the summit of Kao seems peopled. 



Matangi ke tua Koloa 

Ke ke haha he taulanga vaka 

Hau ta vikia Nukualofa. 
Ke ta hake i Tongataeapa 
O fehui ki he otu lotoa, 
"Koefe nai Onenialama?" 
Nae ai e fa tuutaha 
He esi o Pua mo Fefinea, 
He vai ko Finenaakakala. 
He lotolo ae ngingie uta, 

Nga ae manu koe toloa. 
Oka langaia he faikava, 

Hau ta tukua veitata ; 

Ka ta hake i tukunga tokelau, 

Fale tuuloto mo vakahahau, 

Moe vai ika tokua ne tanu. 

Puli ange ha mca iate au, 
He ko sii viki a sii Vavau? 
Oka tonga e matangi kau alu 



A Chant — By F.\lep.apal.\ngi '" 

O wind, blow from the back of Koloa 

island 
So that you may make rough the anchor- 
age. 
Come, we will praise Nukualofa. 
We will land at Tongataeapa 
And ask at the different enclosures, 
"Oh, where is Onenialama?" 
There was there a pandanus standing alone 
Near the mounds of Pua and Fefinea, 
By the pool of Finenaakakala. 
Where the ngingie plant grows on the 

bank. 
There cries the wild bird called duck. 
When preparation is started for the kava 

party, 
Come, we two will go together; 
We will go up to the north end. 
To the bouse standing in the middle and 

to the vessel of mist. 
And to the fish pond that was buried, it is 

said. 
Is there anything that is forgotten by me. 
When I praise slightly poor Vavau ? 
When tlic wind blows from the south, to 
Vavau I go 



" From the Reverend Dr. J. E. Moulton's manuscript, made available by Rev. E. 
E. V. Collocott and Rev. R. C. G. Page, of the Metliodist Church. Nukualofa, Tonga. 
Translated by Miss Beatrice Shirley Baker. 



Gifford — Tonmn Place Names 



17 



Ofakahahano mei Anamanu 
Mahina hala ni ene kakau, 
Huhulu he otu lotoa tapu. 
Hoko ki Vavau foki mai mua, 

Naa ngalo a Veimusieua 
Toa tuii loto api ko Napua 

Pea nioe Vaokahikaiuta. 
Kuo pitli ai hono atamai. 
Ko Malaealoa ki tahi ; 
Faitoka ko Faletuipapai. 
Tuu mei uta Pulepulekai. 
Kuo puputuu sioku loto, 
He ikai ha niea kei ilo. 
He sia ko Tupouveiongo 
Felemaka i hono fakalalo. 
Pea mo nonofo a ka ma o, 
He kuou ofa ki Mataloko 
Ngalulahi mo Sisilouango. 
Neu tuu he Tatauoalo 

mamata ki Falefilimoto. 
Va ae fine touhingano 

1 he liku o Haafuluhao. 
Kuo tuku ai sioku loto, 
Kae hau pe a foi sino, 
Tangi loimata hono fakapo; 
Ala he taealoalo. 

He mamahi he tae fienofo. 



And admire, from the cave Anamanu, 
The road of the moon swimming in the sea. 
Lighting up the row of sacred enclosures. 
After visiting Vavau, I'll return [to Ton- 

gatabu]. 
Lest you forget Veimusieua 
And the cas'uarina tree that stands in the 

tract Napua 
And Vaokahikaiuta. 
The poet has lost there his mind. 
The cemetery Malaealoa is near the sea ; 
Therein the tomb called Faletuipapai. 
Stands inland the tract Pulepulekai. 
My mind is confused, 
Not knowing anything more. 
There stands the mount Tupouveiongo 
With Felemaka intervening. 
You remain while we two go, 
For I have a longing to see Mataloko 
And Ngalulahi and Sisilouango. 
I stood on the summit of Tatauoalo 
And looked towards Falefilimoto. 
Laughed the women plucking flowers 
On the weather shore of Haafuluhao. 
My soul was left there. 
While only my body came. 
Crying tear drops at the parting; 
Oh, dear, that it should be so. 
The grief of not being able to stay. 



KoE F..\ *' 

1. Fuhi fa malama i Anamanu 

Ngangana he toli e he peau. 

Fuhi fa malama i Mataloko 

Ufia taufia e he ngongo. 
Fuhi fa malama i Keitahi 

Ngangana he toli e he matangi. 

2. Sia ko Kafoa alu i Talau, 
Ko eku tatau eni kau alu. 
Ka ilonga ha ikai teu hau, 
Kuo kelekele aki Tongatapu. 

3. Tuha pe pipi tongi lolo hea 
Mo siete tauaalo tafea. 



The Pandanus 

1. The cluster of pandanus fruit glitters at 

the Bird Cave 
Fallen off through the plucking of the 

waves 
The cluster of pandanus fruit glitters' at 

Mataloko 
Hiding the (nesting) noddy tern. 
The cluster of pandanus fruit glitters at 

Keitahi 
Fallen off through the plucking of the 

wind. 

2. Mount Kafoa goes with Mount Talau, 
I remark upon it then go. 

Should it happen that I do not return 
It is because I have become the soil of 
Tongatabu. 

3. Like the carved pipi flower and the hea 

oil 
Is my poor chant that is carried away by 
the stream. 



18 From Koe Makasini a Koliji, vol. 2, pp. 54, 55, 95, 1875. 



18 



Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



4. Keitahi mo Falefilimoto, 
Langa siu e folau aalo. 

5. Fine taumelo hake ki Matoto, 
Ko siene mata mahina hopo. 

6. Fine tangi loi i Utumalama 
Hukena he tokelau lafalafa. 

7. Ka ko Tuniloa ene tafe 

I lalo he matanga o Tele. 

8. Oneone o Fangamofuike, 
Nae tongione nai fefine. 

9. E fefine kumi ho lelei koe, 
He oku to vale i he too fohe : 
Ha mea e ao ai ho loto 

He oku te uli taengaholo. 

10. Tui e he taukei o omai. 

Toli e he sola nioe vulangi, 

Tui e he taukei o omai. 
Talaange ki he manu launoa, 
Tui e he taukei o omai. 

Ke oua naa kovi ho loto na, 
I hoo fanongo i ha talanoa. 
He nae ikai teu mahaloa 
Ha foou oku bu vosa loa ; 

Koe ongoongo pe ia ae sola, 
Moe taukei oe liku Tonga. 

Hoo fie fetau ki Maluhola 

Ka ta eveeva ki Fonongatoa, 
O tufi he heamapo i Holonga. 

Ka pouli ta mohe i Feletoa, 

vala ha fifua silopa. 
Mate ofa he tuinga falahola, 

Nae hui o tuku he kaliloa : 

Tata Otaongo pe ko Polopola 

1 hano ngatuvai e ange moona. 
Anga ae fefine o tua fonua, 

Ka mamata leva ki ha fano na 
Kuo au nianoa he tuula. 
Ko lupc ni kuo pakakaua; 
Tuu leva o tali ke ne heua. 



4. Keitahi and Falefilimoto, 
Originated a rowing race. 

5. Woman full grown climbed to Matoto, 
To watch the moon rise. 

6. Woman pretending to cry at Utumalama 
Was blown flat by the north wind. 

7. But it was Tuniloa flowing by 
Below the cliff of Tele. 

8. The sand of the beach Fangamofuike, 
Perhaps the woman was making marks 

on the sand. 

9. O woman seek your own good. 

As I do not know how to use an oar: 
Do anything that will satisfy your mind 
Because I am steering without making 
headway. 

10. Threaded by an expert and then 

brought. 
Plucked by a stranger and one not 

accustomed, 
Threaded by an expert then brought. 
Tell the bird that talks nonsense. 
Threaded by an expert and then 

brought. 
Do not be bad minded, 
When you hear any reports. 
I did not think 
I would appear again to speak of the 

past; 
That was the report of a stranger. 
One familiar with the weather shore of 

Tonga. 
Oh how I would like to meet you at 

Maluhola 
Let us two go for a walk to Fonongatoa, 
And collect the vain-boasting hea flower 

at Holonga. 
When it is dark we will sleep at Feletoa, 
And have girdles of the si leaves. 
Oh how I love the garland of falahola 

flowers. 
Which was taken off and left by the 

Jong pillow : 
Cover Otaongo or Polopola 
With its pigment and give it to her. 
The way of the woman is back to the 

land 
When she once sees extended the 
String that tics the bird to tlie roost. 
The pigeon evades the boundary fence; 
Stand and receive because it is caught. 



afford — Tongan Place Names 



19 



Koe lau ape, tokua, e uha. 
Mea hake mua oku fetuua, 
Pea oku i langi e Aloua, 
Pea oku tafitonga e afua : 

Matangi ke funga Alakifonua, 

Pea talolo he funga Eua. 

Ka hoko o hema pea toki uha. 

Koe mala eni o ha po uha ; 
Fai ai e afe fakamalua, 

A ena ape oku manatua. 

11. He nai manu oe pale, 
Ake mai kuo vale. 
Nai manu oe kaho, 
Ake mai kuo aho. 

12. Liku Tonga, liku tapu, 

Laulea moe ngalu. 
ij. Oku tangi e tua ke tau he toa : 

Kae toatoa toe tua pe. 



It is said, by some, it will rain. 
Please observe it is starry, 
And the star Aloua stands in the sky. 
When the wind is from the south it 

will be fine : 
The wind is from the direction of 

Alakifonua, 
And it dies away on the top of Eua. 
When it is from the left then it will 

rain. 
The misfortune of a rainy night ; 
When it comes, the turning aside for 

shelter, 
Which perhaps' j'ou remember. 

11. Strayed perhaps the bird of the prize. 
Revived it was silly. 

Perhaps the bird of the reed. 
Revived when it was day 

12. Weather shore of Tonga, the sacred 

weather shore, 
Much talked of and its surf. 

13. The commoner cries to fight to be a 

brave : 
And if a brave falls he becomes a 
commoner. 



DISTRIBUTION OF PLACE NAMES IN RELATION TO TONGAN HISTORY 

The 4776 place names recorded for the kingdom of Tonga are dis- 
tributed between the five island groups : Tongatabu, Haapai, Vavau, Niua- 
foou, and Niuatoputapu. Of the total 4776 names, 3922 are limited to single 
island groups and 854 are common to two or more groups. The total 
number of names in each group is governed in large measure by the size 
of the groups, a large area naturally having more names than a small one. 
In Table i the number of names peculiar to each group and the number 
shared with other groups are shown : 



T.\BLE I. NAMES IN EACH GROUP 

Peculiar Shared Total 

Tongatabu 1561 703 2264 

Haapai 1069 541 1610 

Vavau 940 573 1513 

Niuafoou 252 167 419 

Niuatoputapu 100 92 192 

Table 2 shows the percentage of names in each group peculiar to the 

group and the percentage of names shared with other groups. 



20 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

TABLE 2. PliRCKNTAGE OF PECULIAR AND SHARED NAMES IN EACH GROUP 

Peculiar Shared 

Tongatabu 6g 31 

Haapai 66 34 

Vavau 62 38 

Niuafoou 60 40 

\iuatoputapu 52 48 

The variation in percentage of peculiar names shown in Table 2 may 
in some measure be correlated with the political importance of the several 
groups. The Tongatabu group, with its relatively large land masses, has 
always been, so far as known, the political center of gravity of the king- 
dom, a condition which might well be instrumental in developing a wealth 
of peculiar place names. 

Table 3 shows the total number of names in common for each two 
groups. The most striking feature of this table is the relatively small 
number of names which Vavau and Haapai have in common, considering 
that they are adjacent groups. This becomes especially apparent by con- 
trast if one examines the figures of Table i : Vavau shares 97 out of 
remote Niuafoou's 167 shared names, but only 168 out of neighboring 
Haapai's 541 shared names. The situation is made clearer in Tables 
4 and 5. 

TABLE 3. — NUMBER OF NAMES IN COMMON BETWEEN EACH TWO GROUPS 

Tongatabu Haapai Vavau Niuafoou 

Tongatabu 

Haapai 425 

Vavau 446 168 

Niuafoou 123 gi 97 

Xiuatoputapu 59 53 62 27 

Table 4 shows the number of names in common between each two 
groups, expressed in percentages of the number of shared names in each 
of the groups. This table should be read downward, the name at the 
head of each column being that of the group under consideration : Thus, 
Vavau has jy per cent of its shared names in common with Tongatabu, 
but Tongatabu has only 63 per cent of its shared names in common with 
Vavau. 

TABLE 4. — PERCE.N'TAGE OF NA.MES SHARED BY EACH TWO GROUPS 

Tongatabu Haapai \'avau Niuafoou Niuatoputapu 

Tongatabu 78 77 7i 64 

Haapai 60 29 54 57 

Vavau 63 31 58 67 

Niuafoou 17 16 16 29 

Niuatoputapu 8 9 10 16 



afford — Tougan Place Names 21 

Table 5 is based on the same principle as Table 4, but the total of 
names in each group is taken as the basis instead of shared names. Like 
Table 4, Table 5 should be read downward, the name at the head of each 
column being that of the group under consideration. Thus, Vavau has 
29 per cent of all its names in common with Tongatabu, but Tongatabu 
has only 19 per cent of its names in common with Vavau. 

TABLE 5. — PERCEXT,\GE OF NAMES COMMON TO EACH TWO GROUPS ON B.\SIS 
OF TOTAL, NAMES OF EACH GROUP 

Tongatabu Haapai Vavau Niuafoou Niuatoputapu 

Tongatabu 26 29 2g 30 

Haapai 18 11 2i 27 

Vavau ig 10 23 32 

Niuafoou 556 14 

Niuatoputapu 2346 

Table 6 presents the average percentage indexes of the interrelations of 
the island groups. The upper diagonal half of the table employs the per- 
centages presented in Table 4 based on shared names only. The lowei 
diagonal half of the table employs the percentages presented in table 5 
based on all names in each group. The so-called average percentage index 
is the average of the two percentages of relationship for each two groups. 
Thus, in Table 4, Tongatabu has 60 per cent of its shared names in com- 
mon with Haapai ; Haapai has 78 per cent of its shared names in common 
with Tongatabu ; the average percentage index for the two groups, based 
on shared names, is therefore 60 plus 78, divided by 2, or 6g, which is 
the figure entered in Table 6. It would appear that the average percentage 
indexes based on all names in each group express more nearly the relation 
which subsists between each two groups than do the percentage indexes 
based on shared names, since the percentage of shared names varies in 
each group (see Table 2), whereas the percentage of total names in each 
group is always 100. 

TABLE 6. — AVERAGE PERCENTAGE INDEXES OF INTERREL.KTIONS OF ISLAND 

GROUPS 

Tongatabu Haapai Vavau Niuafoou Niuatoputapu 

^ — — ___^^^ BASED ON SHARED NAMES 

Tongatabu ....ZiT^--^^^ 69 70 45 36.S 

Haapai 22 — ~~-— ~-_^° ^^ ^^ 

Vavau 24 10.5 ^ — ^^^^ 37 385 

Niuafoou 17 13 14.S ^~~^ — --_^^ 22.5 

Niuatoputapu 16 15 18 k 

BASED ON ALL NAMES 

Whether we base the indexes of group interrelations upon the per- 
centage of shared names or upon the percentage of all names, certain 
significant breaks in our series of figures appear. 



22 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Table 6 reveals the fact that Vavau is more closely tied to Tongatabu 
than is Haapai, whether the index is considered as based on total names 
or on shared names only. The index differences are not large, being two 
in the first instance and one in the second. They would seem to indicate 
that intercourse between Tongatabu and Vavau has been fully as great 
or slightly greater than between Tongatabu and Haapai. The names ex- 
clusively shared by Tongatabu and Vavau total 212, by Tongatabu and 
Haapai 193 ; whereas the names exclusively shared by these three groups 
total only 132. Perhaps the explanation of this lies in the supreme poli- 
tical position of Tongatabu, from which the emissaries of the Tui Tonga 
were continually going forth to the other groups to collect tribute and to 
carry out many other missions. On the other hand the fact must not be 
overlooked that the high index figures which connect Haapai, \'avau, and 
Niuafoou most closely with Tongatabu are to some extent due to the 
great number of place names in Tongatabu (2264) increasing the chances 
for a high percentage of shared names. The only group that fails in this 
regard is Niuatoputapu, which by both reckonings (in Table 6) has most 
in common with Vavau ; Tongatabu runs a close second — only two index 
units below Vavau — whether it is considered from the standpoint of all 
names or shared names only. Apparently the propinquity of Niuatoputapu 
and Vavau may be adduced as the explanation. 

While speaking of Niuatoputapu in relation to Vavau, it might be well 
to note the aloofness that appears to exist between Niuatoputapu and Niu- 
afoou shown in Table 6 by the two lowest index figures, 10 and 22.5. 
Apparently the two Niuas were concerned more with Vavau, Haapai, and 
Tongatabu than with each other. This again would seem likely to be 
correlated with the larger population and greater political importance of 
the three main groups of the archipelago. Of the three main groups 
Tongatabu and Vavau have more in common with the outlying Niuas than 
has Haapai. 

The position of centrally located Haapai is anomalous. It has been 
already noted that she has less in common with Tongatabu than has Vavau. 
Just above it has been noted that she has less in common with the two 
Niuas than have Tongatabu and Vavau. Now comes the third negative 
correlation and by far the most significant of all: Her lack of relation- 
ship with the remote Niuas is quite eclipsed by the aloofness she displays 
towards her northern neighbor Vavau. Whether the indexes based on all 
names is used or that on shared names only, the situation is the same and 
glaringly apparent — in both Haapai has relatively less in common with 
Vavau than with the other four groups of the kingdom, thus violating 
expectancy based on the law of chanre and expectancy based on geo- 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 23 

graphic propinquity. Actually Haapai and Vavau have only 86 names ex- 
clusively in common, while Haapai and Tongatabu have 193, and Tonga- 
tabu and Vavau 212. The evidence seems to point to some disturbing 
historical factor, perhaps intermittent hostility such as was rife between 
Haapai and Vavau during Mariner's sojourn in Tonga. 

The situation revealed by the distribution of Tongan place names is 
roughly shown by the accompanying diagram which is based on the 
assumption that the principal diffusion has been from the large groups 
to the small ones. Numerous minor diffusions have doubtless taken 
place, many of them being reciprocated — that is, for example, not only 
have names flowed outward from Tongatabu, but they have likewise flowed 
inward to Tongatabu. 

Niuatoputapu, 
Niuafoou. -" ' 




IbngatdbiP 

The diagram, and in fact this whole discussion, tacitly assumes a pri- 
macy for Tongatabu, not only politically, but also in length of period of 
human occupation. In regard to this last point I should like to state that 
kitchen middens several feet in depth are to be found in a number of 
places in the Tongatabu group. With the exception of a thin surface of 
blackened soil with scattered shell, which I observed on Euakafa island in 
the Vavau group, I failed to find either in Haapai or Vavau any evidences 
of prolonged occupancy comparable with those in Tongatabu. Of course, 
the Tongatabu shell heaps may be interpreted as indicating a denser popu- 
lation, but it would be rash to entirely cast aside the theory of longer 
occupancy. Quite likely the magnitude of the shell heaps is due to both 
factors, longer occupancy and denser population. 

SAMO.\N PLACE NAMES IN TONGA 

Five hundred and sixteen place names mentioned by Kramer'^ have 
been examined for Tongan parallels. One hundred and one of the Samoan 



19 Kramer, Augustin, Die Samoa-Iiiseln, Stuttgart, 1902, 1903. 



24 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

names, or nearly twenty per cent, are employed in Tonga, being distributed 
among the five groups as follows: Tongatabu 71, \'avau 47, Haapai 40. 
Niuafoou 15, and Niuatoputapu 9. 

The order of frequency of Samoan names in Tonga is very nearly the 
order of frequency of Tongan names. (See Table i.) Again Haapai is 
out of accord with expectancy. Haapai has 1610 names against \'avau's 
1 5 13, yet \'avau has 47 names in common with Samoa against Haapai's 
40. A full gazetteer of Samoan place names would probably maintain the 
proportions revealed by the present sample. Here, perhaps, is another 
clue to the anomalous position of Haapai in reference to the rest of Tonga. 
Tongatabu and Vavau have absorbed more Samoan place names than 
Haapai, or conversely, perhaps, Samoa has borrowed more names from 
Tongatabu and Vavau, than from Haapai. 

The high proportion of Samoan names found in Tongatabu is probably 
due in some measure to the large number of place names (2264) in Tonga- 
tabu, increasing the chances for Samoan parallels. On the other hand 
there are some Tongatabuans with Samoan blood in their veins. Even 
the line of Tui Kanokupolu chiefs now supreme in Tonga, sprang from a 
Samoan woman, the mother of Ngata the first Tui Kanokupolu, who was 
probably appointed about 1610. It is this line of rulers, half Samoan in 
origin, who today hold the throne of Tonga, Her Majesty Queen Char- 
lotte Tupou being the 21st Tui Kanokupolu. It seems clear therefore that 
the high percentage of Samoan names in Tongatabu, more than a tenth 
of those listed for Samoa by Kramer, is due to something more than the 
operation of the law of chance. 

It is worthy of note in this connection that of names shared exclusively 
by Samoa and one Tongan group, Tongatabu and Samoa have 27, Haapai 
and Samoa 7, \'avau and Samoa 7. In other words, of the 71 names 
common to Samoa and Tongatabu, 27 are shared by Samoa and Tongatabu 
to the exclusion of other Tongan groups. This is very likely correlated 
with the direct infusion of Samoan blood into the population of Tongatabu- 



afford — Toiigan Place Names 
REMARKS ON THE GAZETTEER 



25 



In compiling the list of Tongan place names, the following information, 
when available, is recorded: (i) the feature to which the name is ap- 
plied; (2) the group of islands in which the feature occurs; (3) the 
island on which the place is located; (4) the village near which it is 
located; (5) the name of the landlord; (6) the meaning of the name; 
and (7) miscellaneous data. 







- ' 

o 

Figure i. — Outline m-»p showing the villages of the Vavau group. 



In the Gazetteer the largest number of names are of tracts (a/»() and 
village tracts (apikolo) and were obtained from the Tongan land ofifice 
records. The tracts are the farm lands of the population, and each tract 
listed is today held by a Tongan tenant. Most of the tract names seem 
to be ancient. Not so the village tract names, many of which are of for- 
eign countries ; for village life in Tonga is only a century and a quarter 
old, the population formerly dwelling scattered over the land. Civil war. 



26 



y 



Bcniice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 



to 



P 2 




Gilford — Tongan Place Names 27 

convenience in attending frequent church services, and the copra trade are 
probably the chief factors responsible for the growth of the villages and 
for the degeneration of agriculture. Today the Tongan resides in a village 
from which he makes the necessary excursions to his farm. Anciently he re- 
sided on the farm {api) and there were no villages. Needless to say, the 
extent of cultivated land is much diminished. 

Too much faith should not be placed in the meanings of place names 
listed. The average Tongan appears to give no more thought to the mean- 
ing of his place names than we do. If asked what a name means, it is 
an even chance he will not know. The meanings of almost all place names 
in this paper were worked out by Tongan scholars, European and native. 
These meanings have all been studied by the author and modified where 
it seemed necessary. Nevertheless, some meanings are undoubtedly forced, 
and, what is more, it sometimes happens that a name is open to more than 
one interpretation. 

Even with these short-comings in mind it is apparent that the meanings 
of names fall roughly into two great classes, descriptive and commemo- 
rative. The former refer to some feature of the locality, the latter to some 
event, usually trivial enough. There are also names of foreign places. 
Undoubtedly when comparison with other regions is made these will 
increase many fold. Apparently some names express in sarcasm or 
irony the injured feelings of the tenant of the tract, for it must be re- 
membered that land is not owned by the rank and file of the population. 
It is leased from the government and from the nobility, there being in all 
some thirty such landlords. The rentals paid today in coin replace the 
ancient tribute of produce paid to the lords of the land. 

The name of the landlord has been recorded for every tract ; the 
absence of a personal name signifies that the government is the landlord. 

So far as Tonga alone is concerned, the names of the landlords appear 
of slight significance in solving the problem of Tongan origins. Here and 
there a place name appears definitely associated with a landlord, as the 
place name Haatalafale with the landlord Tui Pelehake. I believe, how- 
ever, that the recording of the landlord names will prove exceedingly 
valuable when comparisons are made with other parts of Oceania. 

In the gazetteer the several occurrences of a single name are listed 
from the Tongatabu group in the south to Niuafoou in the north. Roughly 
the order of listing the occurrences on several islands in a group, or near 
several villages on an island, is from south to north and from west to east. 
The reason for selecting the southern or Tongatabu group as the start- 
ing point is the fact that it seems always to have been the political and 
cultural center of the Tongan kingdom. The names of the five groups of 



28 Bcniicc P. Bisho[> Museum — Bulletin 

the Tongan arcliipelago are represented tliroiiglioiit the gazetteer by the 
following abbreviations in parentheses: (T) Tongatabu : (H) Ilaapai ; 
(V) Vavau; (NT) Niuatoputapu : (NF) Niuafoou. 

The Tongan and scientific names of Tongan birds liave been derived 
from two papers, one by Finsch and Hartlaub,=° the other by Graffe.^' 
I. H. Burkill's Flora of Vavau^- gives the Tongan as well as the scientific 
names of a dozen Vavau plants. To a slight degree the scientific names 
of Samoan plants and animals were utilized for their apparent Tongan 
equivalents where the native names in the two archipelagoes were similar. 
Such a proceeding, however, is unsound and has not been carried far by 
the author. The few names utilized were derived from Pratt^' and from 
Kramer.-'' The location of villages on the island of Tongatabu and on 
the islands of the Vavau group is shown on the maps (fig. i and fig. 2). 

No charts were available for showing the position of the villages on 
the island of Niuafoou, namely : Mua, Tongamamao, Sapaata, Mataaho, 
Fataulua, Angaha. Ahau, and Petani : nor for those on the island of Niua- 
toputapu, namely: Vaipoa, Hihifo, Matavai, and Falehau. 

For the location of islands, reefs, channels, hills, and other geographic 
features within the Tongan Archipelago, standard atlases, British Admir- 
alty charts, and the following charts issued by the Hydrographic Office of 
the United States Navy may be consulted : 

No. 1500, Pacific Ocean, scale 3/16 in.^i° of longitude. Shows the entire kingdom 
of Tonga, from Ata (Pylstaart) island in the south to Niuafoou in the north. 
No. 2021, Fiji Islands to Samoa Islands, scale 2 9/16 in.=i° of longitude. Shows 
the entire kingdom of Tonga except the southernmost island, Ata (Pylstaart). 
No. 2016, Tonga, or Friendly Islands, scale 1/8 in. = i nautical mile. Shows the en- 
tire kingdom of Tonga, except the northern islands: Niuafoou, Niuatoputapu. and 
Tafahi. 

No. 2013. Tongatabu, scale 2 in.= i nautical mile. Shows the northern half of Tonga- 
tabu and the northern islands of the Tongatabu group including Eueiki. Eua and 
Kalau islands are not shown. 

No. 2010, Nukualofa Anchorage and Nomuka Harbor, scale 4 in.=i nautical mile; 
Eua Island, i in.= i nautical mile; Falcon Island, I 14/16 in.=i nautical mile. De- 
tails of Tongatabu harbor and of Nomuka (in Haapai) and neighboring islands are 
also shown. Tlie village of Kolomaile on Eua island is designated as Haatua. 
No. 2006. Xanuika group, scaue I in. = i nautical mile. Shows the southernmost por- 
tion of the modern province of Haapai; namely, Nomuka and adjacent islands'. 
No. 2008, Haapai group, southern portion, scale I in. = i nautical mile. Shows the 



""Finsch, O. and Hartlaub. G. : Zur Ornitliologic dcr Tonga-Inscln, Journ. fiir 
Ornith., pp. 1 19-140, 1870. 

" Griiffe, Edward. Ornithologische Mittheilungen aus Central Polyncsien, I. Die 
■Vogelwelt dcr Tonga-Inseln, Journ, fiir Ornith., pp. 401-420, 1870. 

"Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 35. pp. 20-65, ipoi. 

" Pratt's Grammar and Dictionary of tlie Samoan Language. 4th cd., Lon- 
don Missionary Society, Malua, Samoa, 191 1. 

" Kramer, Augustin, Die Samoa Inschi, Stuttgart. 1902, 1903. 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 29 

islands of the central portion of the modern province of Haapai. The four villages 

of Lifuka Island are shown. On Uiha island, the southerly town is Felemea ; the 

northerly, Uiha. 

No. 200", Haapai group, northern portion, scale i in.=i nautical mile. Shows the 

northern third of the modern province of Haapai, including the islands of Foa and 

Haano. From south to north the villages on Foa are: Fangaleounga (shown as 

Fongingonga on the chart), Fotua (shown as Alaki Fonua), Lotofoa, and Faleloa. 

From south to north the villages of Haano are: Fakakakai (spelled Fakakai on the 

chart), Pukotala (spelled Bukutala), Haano, and Muitoa. 

No. 2012, Vavau group, scale i in. = i nautical mile. Shows geographic details and 

the location of some villages. 

No. 2009, Lifuka Island Anchorage, scale 4 3/16 inches=i nautical mile. A large 

scale map of Lifuka Island, Haapai. 

No. 1983, Neiafu Harbor and approaches; Ofolanga Island and anchorage, scale 

S 14/16 inches=i nautical mile. A large scale map of Ofolanga Island, Haapai, and 

Neiafu harbor. Vavau group. 

Star names not already listed by Collocott"" are included in the 
gazetteer. 



■' Collocott, E. E. v., Tongan astronomy and calendar : B. P. Bishop Mus., Occ. 
paper, vol. 8, pp. 158-162, 1922. 



30 Bcntice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

GAZETTEER OF TONGA 

Aa. To ford. Island (V). Tract near Vakataumai, village on Kapa island (V). 

Aali. Transparent, visible in the water. Tract on Ofu island (V) — Tui Lakepa, 
landlord. 

Afa. A hurricane. Village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Afaiva. An enclosure for amusements [a, enclosure; faiva, amusement]. Tract 
in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Site of the Nukualofa Club. 
Named by the Rev. S. W. Baker. 

Afala. A mat fence [a, fence; fala, mat]. Tract near Lapaha, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Afamoana. An ocean storm [afa, storm; moana, ocean]. Tract on Nomuka is- 
land (H). 

Afeafemua. To wrap or coil around the body formerly [afeafe, to wrap or coil 
around the body; mau, formerly]. Tract on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Afeihau. To turn aside in arriving [afe, to turn aside; i, in; hau, to arrive]. 
Tract near Matamaka, village on Nuapapu island (V). 

Afekaeso. To turn aside for to flirt [afe, to turn aside; kae, for; so, to flirt]. 
Tract near Fatumu, village on Tongatabu island (T). Tract near Tuanuku, 
village on Vavau island (V) — Ulukalala, landlord. 

Afenoa. To turn aside at random [afe, to turn aside; noa, random]. Tract on 
Hunga island (V). Also tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island 
(NT) — Maatu, landlord. Also tract on Niuafoou island (NF) — Fusitua, land- 
lord. 

Afikitauhi. A protected enclosure of fig trees [a, enclosure; tiki, fig tree; tauhi, 
to protect]. Tract near Mataika, village on Vavau island (V). 

Afinemata. An enclosure for maidens [a, enclosure; fine, women; mala, raw, 
green, unripe]. Tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Afitu. Seven fences [a, fence; fitu, seven]. Tract near Taoa, village on Vavau 
island (V). Also tract near Makave village on Vavau island — Tui Afitu, land- 
lord. 

Afo. A fish line. Island (V). 

Afonua. A village enclosure [a, enclosure; fonua, village]. Tract near Haakanie, 
village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Afoteau. One hundred spools of sinnet cord [afo, a small rope; teau, one hun- 
dred]. Group of mounds in Malapo, village on Tongatabu island (T). Name 
derived from one mound on which stood the house of Fasiapule, half brother of 
Tui Tonga Tuitatui. This house is said to have had one hundred spools of 
sinnet used in its construction. 

Afungalu. The spray rising from waves dashing upon the rocks [afu, the spray 
or mist of the sea when breaking upon the rocks; ngalu, waves]. Reef (H). 

Ahannatalo. Cemetery in Pangai, village on Lituka island (H). 

Ahanga. A ford or shallow strait between two islands. Ford between Uoleva 
and Lifuka islands (H). Also ford between Lifuka and Foa islands (H) and 
ford between Pangaimotu and Vavau islands (V). 

Ahau. The enclosure of the reigning chief [a, enclosure; hau, reigning chief]. 
Tract near Ohonua, village on Eua island (T). Also village on Tongatabu 
island and tracts near villages on Tongatabu island: near Ahau. Houma — 
Vaea, landlord, Nukualofa, Folaha, Vaini — Maafu, landlord, Tatakamotonga 
— Tungi, landlord, Talafoou — Lauaki, landlord, Lolotelie, Afa, and Niutoua. 
Tract on Nomuka island (H), also inlet and former village on Nomuka island. 
Tract in Hihifo, village on Lifuka island (H). Tract and district near Pangai, 
village on Lifuka island. Tract near Pangai, village on Pangaimotu island (V). 
Tract on Ofu island (V)— Tui Lakepa, landlord. Tract near Taoa, village on 
Vavau island (V). Tract near Utui, village on Vavau island (V) — Ahomee, land- 



afford — Toitgan Place Names 31 

lord. Tract near Haakio, village on Vavau island. Tract near Holonga, village 

on Vavau island (V). Tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT) 

— Maatu, landlord. Tract on Tafahi island (NT). Village on Niuafoou island 

(NF). Tract near Mua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Ahauano. Marshy enclosure of the reigning chief [a, enclosure; hau, reigning 

chief; ano, marsh]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, 

landlord. Tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, 

landlord. Tract near Fue, village on Vavau island (V). 
Ahaulahi. Large enclosure of the reigning chief [a, enclosure; hau, reigning 

chief; lahi, large]. Tract near Tongamamao, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Tract near Mataaho, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Ahea. Hedge of hea trees [a. hedge or fence; hea, a tree (probably Parinarium 

insularum)]. Tract near Mua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Ahila. Fence looking askance or, perhaps, watchful fence [a, fence; hila, to look 

askance]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Tract on Niuafoou island. (NF). 
Ahivao. A grove of sandalwood trees [ahi, sandalwood; vao, grove, wood, bush]. 

Tract near Holonga, village on Vavau Island. 
Ahoa. To meet a companion [a, to meet; hoa, a companion]. Tract near Ohonua, 

village on Eua island (T). Tract near Haateiho, village on Tongatabu island — 

Tui Haateiho, landlord. Tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 
Ahoahoveka. Bright and shining rail or fish [ahoaho, bright, shining (as the 

moon in a clear night); veka, the rail (Rallus pectoralis) also the name of a 

fish]. Tract near Foui, village on Tongatabu island (T)- — Vahai, landlord. 

Tract near Taanea, village on Vavau island (V) — Vahai, landlord. 
Ahoaunga. Day of agreeing to meet at a specified time and place [aho, day; 

aunga, to agree to meet at a specified time and place]. Tract near Fahefa, 

village on Tongatabu island (T) — Veehala, landlord. Tract near Puke, village 

on Tongatabu island — Fohe, landlord. 
Ahoeva. Day of walking about [aho, day; eva, to walk about]. Tract near Fa- 

taulua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Ahofakasiu. Day of preparing to fish [aho, day; fakasiu, to prepare to fish]. 

Tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island. The site of the Tui Tonga's 

house. Tract near Hihifo, village on Lifuka island (H). Tract In Mataika, 

village on Vavau island (V). 
Ahofanifo. Day of surf bathing [aho, day; fanifo, surf bathing]. Tract near 

Haavakatolo, village on Tongatabu island — Ahomee, landlord. 
Ahofatu. Day of plaiting [aho, day; fatu, to plait]. Tract near Maufanga, village 

on Tongatabu island — Fakafanua, landlord. 
Ahohiva. Day of song [aho, day; hiva, song]. Tract near Kolonga, village on 

Tongatabu island (T) — Nuku, landlord. 
Ahoika. Day of catching an abundance of fish [aho, day; ika, fish]. Tract near 

Holopeka, village on Lifuka island — Tui Afitu, landlord. Tract near Faleloa, 

village on Foa island (H) — Tuita, landlord. 
Ahokai. Day of eating [aho, day; kai, to eat]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha 

island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Ahokaiika. Day of eating fish [aho, day; kai, to eat; ika, fish]. Tract in Kano- 

kupolu, village on Tongatabu island (T). Tract on Eueiki island (T). Tract on 

Moungaone island (H). Tract near Pangai, village on Pangaimotu island (V). 

Tract near Makave, village on Vavau island (V) — Tui Afitu, landlord. 
Ahokaimoa. Day of eating chicken [aho, day; kai, to eat; moa, chicken]. Tract 

near Leimatua, village on Vavau (V) — Fotu, landlord. 
Ahokata. Day of laughing [aho, day; kata, to laugh]. Tract near Kolonga, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T) — Nuku, landlord. Also tract near Pangai, village 



32 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

on Lifuka island (H). Also tract near Pangai, village on Pangaimotu island 
(V). Also tract near Leimatua, village on Vavau island (V) — Fotu, landlord. 
Also tract near Fataulua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). Also tract near 
Mua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Ahokava. Day of kava [aho, day; kava, a beverage, also the plant. Piper methy- 
sticuni, from which the beverage is made]. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — 
Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Aholafo. Day of casting the net [aho, day; lafo, to cast the net]. Tract on Haa- 
feva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Aholea. Day of speaking [aho, day; lea, to speak]. Tract near Ngaakau, village 
on Vavau island (V) — Fakafanua, landlord. 

Aholiko. Day of fishing with the liko net [aho, day; like, a kind of fishing net]. 
Tract on Nomuka island (H). 

Ahomahu. Day of abundance [aho, day; mahu, abundance]. Tract near Otea, 
village on Kapa island (V). 

Ahomalae. Day of the green [aho, day; malae, green, place of assembly]. Tract 
near Holonga, village on Vavau island (V). 

Ahomalanga. Day of preaching [aho, day; malanga, to preach]. Tract near Tata- 
kamotonga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. 

Ahomatakimoana. Day of looking towards the ocean [aho, day; mata, to be seen; 
ki, towards; moana, ocean], a great fishing day when people from many places 
assembled to watch the fishers. Cemetery on Lifuka island (H). 

Ahomatanga. Day of peeling or excoriating [aho, day; matanga, to be peeled or 
excoriated]. Tract near Fuaamotu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, 
landlord. Also tract on Moungaone island (H). 

Ahomatavaka. Day of viewing vessels [aho, day; mata, to be seen; vaka, ves- 
sel]. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Ahomohe. Day of sleeping [aho, day; mohe, to sleep]. Tract near Kolonga, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T) — Nuku, landlord. 

Ahomoli. Day of moving [aho, day; moli, to move]. Tract near Fotua, village 
on Foa island (H). Also tract near Faleloa, village on Foa (H). Also tract 
in Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Ahopani. Day of anointing the head [aho, day; pani, to anoint the head]. Tract 
on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Ahopanilolo. Day of anointing the head with oil [aho, day; pani, to anoint the 
head; lolo, oil]. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Tract 
near Tefisi, village on Vavau island (V) — Luani, landlord. 

Ahosi. Rnclosure for horses [a, enclosure; hosi, horse]. Tract in Nukualofa and 
Pea, villages on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract in Neiafu, village on Vavau 
island (V). 

Ahotalakoloa. Day of telling of wealth [aho, day; tala, to tell; koloa, wealth]. 
Tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Ahotalanoa. Day of conversing [aho, day; talanoa. to converse]. Tract near 
Fanonpjahina, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Lasike, landlord. 

Ahotauhoi. Day of reaching Hoi [aho, day; tau, to reach; Hoi, a village in Ton- 
gatabu]. Tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Pangia, land- 
lord. Also tract near Talaslu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Lakepa, 
landlord. 

Ahotefa. Day of caressing [aho, day; tefa, caressing manner]. Tract near Pan- 
gal, village on Pangaimotu island (V). 

Ahoteme. Day of bustling [aho, day; teme, abbreviation of tateme, to bustle]. 
Tract near Ohonua, village on Eua island (T). 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 33 

Ahotokelau. Day of the north [aho, day; tokelau, north]. Tract near Pea, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island — Lavaka, landlord. Also tract on Hunga island (V) 
— Fulivai, landlord. 

Ahoua. Day of warding off [aho, day; ua, to ward off]. Tract on Lape island (V). 

Ahovalea. Day of the game valea [aho, day; valea, a game]. Tract near Malapo, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Ahovali. Day of painting [aho, day; vail, to paint]. Tract near Feletoa, village 
on Vavau island (V) — Fulivai, landlord. Also tract near Leimatua, village on 
Vavau island (V) — Fotu, landlord. 

Ahovalu. Day of scraping [aho, day; valu, to scrape]. Tract near Folaha, village 
on Tongatabu island (T). 

Ahovanilolo. Day of oily flattery [aho, day; vani, flattery; lolo, oily]. Tract near 
Tongamamao, village on Niuafoou island (NF) 

Ai. A tree and its fruit, vernacularly called almond by English-speaking residents 
of Tonga. Tract near Haakame, village on Tongatapu island (T). Also tract 
near Utulei, village on Pangaimotu island (V). Also tract near Neiafu, village 
on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V) — 
Ulukalala, landlord. 

Alau. To place thatch [al, to place; au, thatch]. Tract near Fakakakai, village 
on Haano island (H). 

Alkasipi. An ai tree covered with a sipi vine [ai, a tree; sipi, the vine from 
which the flat beans called paanga are obtained; ka, meaning uncertain]. 
Tree near Mt. Talau on Vavau island (V). 

Ainiaku. To surround with earth thrown with the hands [al, to surround; ni, 
this; aku, to throw up loose earth with the hands]. Tract near Uiha, village 
on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Alva. To place two objects at a distance from one another [ai, to place; va, the 
distance between two given objects]. Tract near Haano, village on Haano 
island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Aka. Root of a tree. Rock near Kao and Totua islands (H). 

Akaho. Enclosure of reeds [a, enclosure; kaho, reed]. Tract on Okoa island (V). 
Also tracts near Houma, Haakio, Taanea— Vahai, landlord, Tafeuni, and Haa- 
laufuli, villages on Vavau island (V). 

Akalmaile. Root of the myrtle shrub [aka, root; i, of; malle, a shrub vernac- 
ularly called myrtle by English-speaking residents of Tonga]. Tract near 
Holonga, village on Vavau island (V). 

Akamau. Moving root [aka, root; mau, to move]. Tract in Leimatua, village 
on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island 
(NT)— Maatu, landlord. 

Akamaulalo. Lower Akamau [akamau, see preceding name; lalo, below, down, 
beneath]. Tract near Leimatua, village on Vavau island (V) — Fotu, landlord. 

Akana. Enclosure of a certain kind of marine plant [a, enclosure; kana, a ma- 
rine plant used in polishing wood]. Tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu 
island (T)— Vaea, landlord. Also tract near Folaha, village on Tongatapu 
island (T). Also tract near Lolotelie, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also 
tract near Taoa, village on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Leimatua, vil- 
lage on Vavau island (V) — Fotu, landlord. 

Akauika. Fish club [akau, club; ika, fish]. Tract near Utungake, village on 
Utungake island (V) — Tuita, landlord. 

Akauvell. Itch-producing tree [akau, tree; veil, to itch]. Tract near Kolomaile, 
village on Eua island (T). Also tract near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu 
Island (T). 



34 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Akava. Enclosure of kava shrubs [a, enclosure; kava, the shrub, Piper methy- 
sticum]. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also tract near 
Vaimalo, village on Vavau island (V). 

Akihekai. To be awake for the food [a, to be awake; kihe, to the; kai, food]. 
Tract near Fakakakai, village on Haano island (H). 

Ako. To teach. Tract near Uiha. village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Akumi. Enclosure of black tapa [a, enclosure; kumi, black tapa]. Tract near 
Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Alafla. Suitable. Tract on Tofua island (H). 

Alafola. Suitable to spread out [ala, suitable; fola, to spread out]. Tract near 
Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V) — Ulukalala, landlord. 

Alafolau. Boat shed. Tract near Utui, village on Vavau island (V) — Ahomee, 
landlord. Tract near Haakio, village on Vavau island (V). 

Alafolo. Suitable to swallow [ala, suitable; folo, to swallow]. Tract near Uiha, 
village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Alahi. Large enclosure [a, enclosure; lahi, large]. Tract near Toula, village on 
Vavau island (V). 

Alaimuitoa. To sit carelessly at Muitoa [alai, to sit carelessly and in improper 
places; muitoa, a place name, which see]. Beach on Lifuka island (H). Tract 
near Leimatua, village on Vavau island (V) — Potu, landlord. 

Alaivakataha. To sit carelessly in one boat [alai, to sit carelessly; vaka, boat; 
taha, one]. Tract near Kanokupolu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Alaki. To angle with small hooks for [ala, to angle with small hooks; ki, for]. 
Alaki is said to be an abbreviation of the name Alakifonua; at least such is 
the case so far as the village of Alaki on Tongatabu island is concerned. 
Fonua means land ; hence the full name would mean "to angle with small 
hooks for land." Perhaps the name refers to the mythical fishing of the Maui, 
whereby Tongatabu island was hauled to the surface. Island (T). Also village 
on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Vaini, village on Tongatabu island 
(T) — Maafu, landlord. Also tract on Nomuka island (H). Also tract near 
Hihifo, village on Lifuka island (H). Tract near Pangai, village on Lifuka 
island (H). Cemetery on eastern side of Lifuka. The cemetery is said to 
have been once owned by Tui Pelehake. Reputed to be named after the vll- 
large of Alaki on Tongatabu island. 

Alakifonua. Full name of village of Alaki on Tongatabu island (T). For meaning 
and origin, see Alaki. Also village on Foa island (H), otherwise known as 
Fotua. 

Alakipeau. To angle with small hooka in the waves [ala, to angle with small 
hooks; ki, in; peau, waves]. Island (T). 

Alakisiale. Suitable for gardenias [ala, suitable; ki, for; siale, gardenia]. Tract 
near Koloa, village on Koloa Island (V). 

Alalae. To touch the forehead [ala, to touch; lae, forehead]. Tract near Utulau, 
village on Tongatapu island (T). 

Alaloa. Suitable red pigment, used for smearing over the body [ala, suitable; loa, 
red pigment, used for smearing over the body]. Tract near Lakepa, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Lasike, landlord. Also tract near Holonga, village on 
Tongatabu island (T). Also tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho. land- 
lord. Also tract near Leimatua, village on Vavau island (V) — Fotu, landlord. 

Alaoo. To angle with small hooks for oo fish [ala, to angle with small hooks; oo, 
a species of fish]. Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Alatonu. To angle with small hooks for tonu fish [ala, to angle with small 
hooks; tonu, a species of fish]. Tract near Matamaka, village on Nuapapu 
island (V). 

Alatuka. To touch standing suddenly [ala, to touch; tuka, to stand on a sudden]. 



Gilford— Tongan Place Names 35 

Tract on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Tangipa, landlord. 

Aleakula. Conversation about the kula bird [alea, conversation; kula, a small 
bird with red feathers, apparently not a Tongan species]. Tract near Koloa, 
village on Koloa island (V). 

Alefa. Hunger. Tract near Faleloa, village on Foa (H). Also tract near Faka- 
kakai, village on Haano island (H). 

Aleipata. Pull hard for the gravelly beach [alei, (?); pata, rough sand]. Beach 
on Haano island (H). Only the stem pata seems to occur in modern Tongan. 
It means rough sand or gravel. In Samoan pata means coarse, in reference 
to sand. In Samoan alei means to drive, to chase. It is used as an entreaty 
to persons pulling in a boat against the wind to make haste: Push the boat, 
drive her, fight the wind. Hence the whole name may mean "pull hard for 
the gravelly beach." Tongan mythology attributes to the name a Samoan 
origin. The beach is reputed to be the place where the bonito, brought from 
Samoa, first appeared in Tonga. The name was given to commemorate the 
putative Samoan origin of the fish. The meaning of Aleipata also reflects an 
incident in the story of the coming of the bonito, in which a human hero urges 
a nearly exhausted Fijian attendant to continue his efforts to swim to the 
shore. 

Aleipata. Tract near Kapa, village on Kapa island (V). Also tract near Tuane- 
kivale, village on Vavau island (V). 

Alele. Enclosure of sugar cane [a, enclosure; lele, a kind of sugar canej. Tract 
near Tatakamotonga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. Also 
tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also 
tract near Vakataumai, village on Kapa island (V). Also tract near Neiafu, 
village on Vavau island (V). Also district on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Alepea. Arabia. Tract near Ohonua, village on Eua island (T). Also tract in 
Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Site of the stone government office 
building. Also tract in Kolonga, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also 
tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Aleva. To be awake at once [a, to be awake; leva, at once]. Tract near Ma- 
kave, village on Vavau island (V) — Tui Afitu, landlord. 

Allnonga. Peaceful baldness [all, baldness; nonga, peaceful]. Island (V). 

Alio. To carry ali fish [all, a transparent fish of the genus Rhomboidichthys, o, 
to carry]. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Alo. Height. Name of summit of Mt. Talau on Vavau island (V). 

Alofaki. To sit in a row. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Alofi. Kava ring. Tract near Vaotuu, village near Tongatabu island (T) — Tui 
Vakano, landlord. Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, 
landlord. Also tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Alofia. To overtake. Tract on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Tangipa, landlord. 

Alofitai. Circular kava ring [alofi, kava ring; tai, circular]. Tract near Ohonua, 
village on Eua island (T). 

Alofitaoa. Kava ring surrounded by spears [alofi, kava ring; tao, spear; a, to 
surround]. Tract near Fotua, village on Foa island (H) — Tui Pelehake, land- 
lord. 

Aloloa. Long fence [a, fence; loloa, long]. Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui 
Haateiho, landlord. 

Alomaloaa. Fine height (the grave mound) of indolence [alo, height; malo, fine; 
aa, indolence]. Cemetery on Tongatabu island (T). Perhaps a euphemism 
for the graveyard. Cemetery of the family of the chief Lomu. 

Alomanukia. Reviled child of rank [alo, child of rank; manukia, to revile]. Tract 
near Angaha, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Aloofa. Compassion, mercy. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 



36 Bcrnicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Aloua. Two children of rank [alo, child of rank; ua, two]. Stars. Alternative 
meaning is "two paddling in a boat," alo (to paddle), ua two). Identity of 
stars not ascertained. 

Alovalu. Eight children of rank, or eight paddling in a boat [alo, child of rank, 
to paddle; valu, eight]. Stars. 

Alu. A creeping plant, used in making superior baskets. Tract near Lotofoa, 
village on Foa island (H). 

Aluavale. The going of a fool [alu, to go; a, of; vale, fool]. Tract near Havelu, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fielakepa, landlord. 

Alulalo. To go down [alu, to go; lalo, down]. Tract on Hunga island (V) — Fuli- 
vai, landlord. 

Alumoeika. To go with fish [alu, to go; moe, and the; ika, fish]. Tract near 
Holonga, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Alumoeufi. To go with yams [alu, to go; moe, and the; ufi, yam]. Tract in 
Pea, village on Tongatabu island (T) 

Aluotaka. To go and see [alu, to go; o, and; taka, to see]. Tract on Hunga 
island (V) — Fulivai, landlord. 

Alupua. To go to the pua tree [alu, to go; pua, a tree (perhaps Hernandia pel- 
tata)]. Tract near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu Island (T). 

Amaekl. Withered hedge wishing to be noticed [a, hedge; mae, withered; ki, 
wishing to be noticed]. Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tul Haateiho, land- 
lord. Possibly this name is a misspelling of Amaleki. 

Amaile. Enclosure of myrtle shrubs la, enclosure; malle, a shrub (vernacularly 
called myrtle by English-speaking residents of Tonga)]. Tract in Nukualofa, 
village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhe- 
toka, landlord. Also tract near Hihifo, village on Lifuka island (H). Also tract 
near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Maatu, landlord. 

Amaleki. Biblical name — Amalek. Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, 
landlord. 

Amanaklnoa. Worthless expectation [amanaki, expectation; noa, worthless]. 
Tract in Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Amanave. To bind flambeaux [ama, flambeau (used by fishermen); nave (prob- 
ably a misspelling of navei, to bind)]. Tract near Navutoka, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. 

Amatuku. A rope on port side of a vessel [ama, port side of vessel; tuku, a rope 
in a vessel]. Tract near Nuapapu, village on Nuapapu island (V). 

Amoa. Enclosure for chickens [a, enclosure; moa, chicken]. Tract near Koulo, 
village on Lifuka island (H). 

Amoli. Enclosure of orange trees [a, enclosure; moll, orange trees]. Tract 
in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Ana. Cave, den, cabin, any snug place. Tract near Nukualofa, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T). Also tract near Hofoa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also 
tract on Hunga island (V)— Fulivai, landlord. Tract near Pangai, village on 
Pangaimotu island (V). Also tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 
Also tract near Kei, village on Vavau island (V). 

Anaafltu. Winding cave, literally, "cave of seven fences or enclosures" [ana, cave; 
a, fence or enclosure; fitu, seven]. Cave on weather shore of Tongatabu 
island (T). 

Anaefu. Dusty cave [ana, cave; efu, dust]. Cave on Vavau island (V). 

Anafakaata. Cave of taking aim [ana, cave; fakaata, to take aim]. Cave near 
Haasini, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Anafale. Cave like a house [ana, cave; fale, house]. Cave and beach on 
weather shore of Tongatabu Island (T). 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 37 

Anafata. Cave of the loft [ana, cave; fata, loft]. Tract on Hunga island (V)— 

Fulivai, landlord. 
Anafeleoko. Cave used as food storehouse [ana, cave; feleoko, house where the 

fruits of the earth are stored]. Cave on Tongatabu island (T). On weather 

shore. 

Anafoitava. Cave of the single tava tree [ana, cave; foi, a single one; tava, a 
tree (Pometia pinnata)]. Tract near Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island (V). 

Anafungaval. Cave at the surface of the water [ana, cave; funga, surface; vai, 
water]. Cave on Tongatabu island (T). On weather shore. 

AnaholTa. Cave of earnest desire to meet [ana, cave; holi, earnest desire; a, to 
meet]. Cave on Tongatabu island (T). On weather shore. 

Anaholo. Comfortable cave [ana, cave; holo, comfortable]. Tract near Tuaneki- 
vale, village on Vavau island (V). 

Anahololalo. Lower comfortable cave [ana, cave; holo, comfortable; lalo, below]. 
Tract near Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island (V). 

Anahui. Cave of bones [ana, cave; hui, bone]. Cave on Nomuka island (H). 
Anahui contains human bones. Also tract near Holopeka, village on Lifuka 
island (H). 

Anahiilu. Cave of dried leaves [ana, cave; hulu, dead and dried leaves]. Cave 
near Hamula, village on Tongatabu island (T). The cave is so dark that a 
light is required. Bundles of dry coconut leaves are brought to burn as a 
torch. Also tract near Hamula, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, land- 
lord. 

Anakava. Cave of kava [ana, cave; kava, a shrub (Piper methysticum) and the 
beverage made from its root]. Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, 
landlord. 

Anakilikili. Cave of small pebbles [ana, cave; kilikili, small pebbles]. Tract near 
Faleloa, village on Foa island (H). 

Anakumetekava. Cave of the kava bowl [ana, cave; kumete, bowl; kava, kava]. 
Cave near Maufanga, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Analahi. Large cave [ana, cave; lahi, large]. Cave on Eua island (T). On north- 
east shore. 

Analei. Cave of the whale's tooth [ana, cave; lei, whale's tooth]. Tract near 
Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Anamanu. Cave of birds [ana, cave; manu, birds]. Tract near Pea, village on 
Tongatabu island (T). Also cave on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Haa- 
laufuli, village on Vavau island (V) — Afu Haalaufuli, landlord. 

Anamanutauhia. Cave of birds (or other animals) that are to be attended to 
[ana, cave; manu, animals, birds; tauhia, to be attended to]. Tract near 
Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island (V). 

Anamatangi. Cave of the wind [ana, cave; matangi, wind]. Tract near Haalau- 
fuli, village on Vavau island (V). 

Anamate. Cave of death [ana, cave; mate, death]. Tract near Fatumu, village 
on Tongatabu island (T). 

Anameana. Cave of things feared [ana, cave; mea, things; na, fear]. Well on 
Tongatabu island (T). Near a place called Tongia, in eastern Tongatabu. 

Anamoana. Ocean cave [ana, cave; moana, ocean]. Tract near Veltongo, village 
on Tongatabu island (T). 

Anana. Cave of fear [ana, cave; na, fear]. Place near Maufanga, village on 
Tongatabu island (T). On Maufanga shore of great lagoon. 

Anangongo. Cave of noddy terns [ana, cave; ngongo, noddy terns (Anous stoli- 
dus and Micranous)]. Tract near Vaini, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Maa- 
fu, landlord. 



38 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Anaotua. Cave of the god [ana, cave; otua, god]. Cave near Toula, village on 
Vavau island (V). 

Anapekapeka. Cave of the swifts [ana, cave; pekapeka, swift (Callocalia spo- 
diopyga)]. Cave near Nakolo, village on Tongatabu island (T). Inhabited by 
swifts, vernacularly called swallows by English-speaking residents of Tonga. 
Also cave on Kapa island (V). The famous Swallows' Cave, visited by tourists. 

Anapoutaha. Cave of one pillar [ana, cave; pou, pillar; taha, one]. Cave near 
Maufanga, village on Tongatabu island (T). A stalactite and a stalagmite In 
the cave have united, forming a single pillar. 

Anapu. Cave of bad words [ana, cave; pu, bad word]. Tract on Ovaka island 
(V). 

Anapulou. Veiled cave [ana, cave; pulou, to veil or cover the face]. Cave on 
Tongatabu Island (T). On weather shore. 

Anapupu. Cave of long-continued sound [ana, cave; pupu, long-continued sound]. 
Cave on Vavau island (V). In this cave can be heard the roar of the under- 
ground stream Utukalongalu. 

Anapusi. Cat cave [ana, cave; pusi, cat]. Cave near Maufanga, village on Tong- 
atabu island (T). 

Anasisilea. Cave of speaking commands [ana, cave; sisi, to command; lea, to 
speak]. Tract on Ofu island (V). 

Anasisipa. Cave of the sound of commands [ana, cave; sisi, to command; pa, 
sound]. Tract on Ofu island (V). 

Anatatangi. Cave of tinkling [ana, cave; tatangi, to tinkle]. Cemetery near 
Koulo, village on Lifuka island (H). 

Anatelea. Cave of the dreary passage [ana, cave; telea, dreary passage] Cave 
on Tongatabu island (T). On the weather shore. 

Anatofa. Cave of sleep [ana, cave; tofa, sleep (used only to chiefs)]. Tract near 
Utulau, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Anatuli. Cave of the deaf [ana, cave; tuli, deaf]. Cave near Ohonua, village on 
Eua island (T). 

Anauha. Cave of the rain [ana, cave; uha, rain]. Tract on Ovaka island (V). 

Anaumata. Cave of the rainbow [ana, cave; umata, rainbow]. Cave on Tonga- 
tabu island (T). On the weather shore. 

Anaupa. Cave of the resounding report [ana, cave; u, to sound; pa, a report]. 
Tract near Lolotelie. village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Ano. Lake, pool, marsh. Tracts near villages on Tongatabu island (T) : near 
Ahau, Fatal, in Nukualofa, near Maufanga — Fakafanua. landlord, Folaha, and 
Lolotelie. Also tract on Kotu island (H). Also tract on Haafeva island (H) — 
Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also tract on Niniva island (H). Also tract on Ofo- 
langa island (H). Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, 
landlord; also tract, district and old village near Lotofoa, village on Foa 
island (H). Also district near B''otua, village on Foa island (H). Also tract 
near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also 
tract on Ofu island (V) — Tui Lakepa, landlord. Also tract near Vakataumai, 
village on Kapa island (V). Also tract near Falevai, village on Kapa island 
(V). Also lake near Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V). Also tract near 
Makave, village on Vavau island (V) — Tui Afitu, landlord. 

Anoapi. Marshy tract [ano, marsh; api, tract]. Tract on Ofolanga island (H). 

Anoava. Lake of the ava fish [ano, lake; ava, a fish resembling the salmon]. 
Lake on Nomuka island (H). The ava fish is said to be peculiar to the lake, 
which is named after it. 

Anohaamea. Pool of Haamea [ano, pool; Haamea, a district in the vicinity of 
Fatal, central Tongatabu]. Tract on Nomuka island (H). 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 39 

Anomate. Pool of death [ano, pool; mate, death]. Tract near Tuanuku, village 

on Vavau island (V) — Ulukalala, landlord. 
Anopepe. Marsh of the butterfly [ano, marsh; pepe, butterfly]. Marsh on Eua 

island (T). A small body of water and marsh in a deep impression in the 

uplands. 
Anovai. Watery marsh [ano, marsh; vai, water]. Tract near Haatafu, village on 

Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Pea, village on Tongatabu island (T) 

— Lavaka, landlord. Also tract on Nomuka island (H). 
Angaaetamasii. The manner of a little boy [anga, manner; ae, of a; tamasii, 

little boy]. Tract near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also 

tract near Havelu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fielakepa, landlord. 
Angaaiaho. The manner of the day in that place [anga, manner; ai, in that place; 

aho, day]. Tract near Havelu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fielakepa, 

landlord. 
Angaangamofai. A species of shark. Rock between Kolomaile and Tufuvai, vil- 
lages on Eua island (T). The rock is said to resemble the fish in shape. It is 

described by Eua informants as having the head of a stingray (fai) and the 

tail of a shark (anga). The rock is inland, near the mound Lefelefevalu. 
Angaha. Appearance of the shark [anga, shark; ha, appearance]. Tract near 

Alaki, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Pelehake, landlord. Also tract 

near Haveluliku, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Fuaamotu, 

village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. Also tract near Haano, 

village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also village on Niua- 

foou island (NP). 
Angaifo. Taste of shark [anga, shark; ifo, taste]. Tract on Moungaone island 

(H). 
Anganofo. Submission. Tract near Fangaleounga, village on Foa island (H) — 

Niukapu, landlord. 
Angiangi. To spring up, as a breeze. Tract near XJiha, village on Uiha island 

(H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Angihoa. To superintend a boa game [angi, to superintend; hoa, a kind of game]. 

Tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Maatu, landlord. 
Angina. To be carried away with the wind. Tract near Nukuhitulu, village on 

Tongatabu island (T). Also tract on Lofanga island (H). Also tract near 

Makave, village on Vavau island (V) — Tui Afitu, landlord. 
Angitoa. To come from the casuarina tree [angi, to come from; tea, tree, ver- 

naculary called ironwood by English-speaking residents of Tonga (Casuarina 

equisetifolia)]. Tract near Haalaufuli, village on Vavau island (V) — Afu 

Haalaufuli, landlord. 
Ango. Turmeric plant (Curcuma longa). Place on Tongatabu island (T). In 

central part. Also tract near Mataika, village on Vavau island (V). Also 

tract on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Angoi. A spot on which the foot is placed in certain games. Tract near Utu- 

lau, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Aofatu. The folding cloud [ao, cloud; fatu, to fold]. Tract near Maufanga, village 

on Tongatabu island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. 
Aofi. Covering. Tract near Fuaamotu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, 

landlord. Also tract near Hihifo, village on Lifuka island (H). 
Aokai. To beg food. Tract near Longoteme, village on Tongatabu island (T) — 

Veikune, landlord. Also tract on Eueiki island (T). Also tract near Uiha, 

village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Aoko. To chase the ko bird [ao, to chase; ko, a bird (probably Pachycephala 

jacquinoti)]. Tract near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also 



40 Bcrnke P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

tract near Kolonga, village on Tongatabu Island (T) — Nuku, landlord. Also 
tract on Niuafoou island (NF) — Fotofill, landlord. 

Aomotu. Broken cloud [ao, cloud; motu, broken]. Tract near Falevai, village on 
Kapa island (V) — Fakatulolo, landlord. 

Apaapa. Tui Tonga's kava ring. Tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Apakula. To venerate the kula bird [apa, to venerate; kula, a kind of bird, ap- 
parently not Tongan]. Tracts near villages on Tongatabu island (T): near 
Malapo — Pangia, landlord, Holonga, Alaki — Tui Pelehake, landlord, Navutoka — 
Tungi, landlord. Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, 
landlord. 

Api. Tract, home, plantation. Place on Tongatabu island (T). On weather 
shore. Also tract near Longomapu, village on Vavau island (V) — Veikune, 
landlord. 

Apia. Surrounded home [api, home; a, to surround]; or perhaps named lor 
Apia, Samoa. Tract in Hautu, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract 
near Nukunuku, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. Also 
tract in Fuaamotu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

ApifihI. Bushy tract [api, tract; flhl, bushy]. Tract near Malapo, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Apifoou. New home [api, home; foou, new]. Tracts near villages on Tongatabu 
island (T): in Hautu, near Fahefa — Veehala, landlord, Fatal, Haakame. Fano- 
ngahina — Lasike, landlord, Pea — Lavaka, Indlord, Lapaha — Pangia, landlord, and 
Nukuleka. Also tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. Also 
tract near Feleniea, village on Uiha island (H). Also tract near Uiha, village 
on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. Also tract near Hihifo, village on Li- 
fuka island (H). Also tracts in and near Pangai, village on Lifuka island (H). 
Also tract on Ovaka island (V). Also tract on Hunga island (V) — Fulival, 
landlord. Also tracts near villages on Vavau island (V) : in Neiafu, near Toula, 
Utui — Ahomee, landlord, and Mataika. Also tract near Matavai, village on 
Niuatoputapu island (NT). 

Aplkafa. Home of sinnet cordage [api, home; kafa, sinnet cordage]. Tract near 
Alaki, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Pelehake, landlord. 

Apikakai. Crowded home [api, home; kakai, crowded]. Former village on north- 
western part of Kao island (H). 

Apikakala. Home of sweet-scented flowers [api, home; kakala, sweet-scented 
flowers]. Tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, land- 
lord. Also tract near Lolotelie, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Apilahi. Large tract [api, tract; lahl, large]. Tract near Masilamea, village on 
Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Navutoka, village on Tongatabu island 
(T) — Tungi, landlord. Also tract near Faleloa, village on Foa island (H). Also 
tract near Ngaunoho, village on Utungake island (V) — Motuapuaka, landlord. 
Also tracts near villages on Vavau island (V): near Neiafu, Mataika, and 
Feletoa. Also tract on Niuafoou island (NF) — Fotofili, landlord. 

Apilata. Home of the lata shrub [api, home; lata, a shrub]. Tract near Ha- 
velu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fielakepa, landlord. 

Apimamao. Distant home [api, home; mamao, distant]. Tract near Nukualofa, 
village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Apimua. Old home [api, home; mua, aforetime, formerly]. Tract near Fotua, 
village on Foa island (H) — Tui Pelehake, landlord. 

Aplsil. Small home [api, home; sii, small]. Tract near Maufanga, village on 
Tongatabu Island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. Also tract near Neiafu, village 
on Vavau island (V). 

Apltahi. Home near the sea [api, home; tahi, sea]. Tract near Petani, village 
on Niuafoou island (NE). 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 41 

Apitaki. Bartered home [api, home; taki, to barter]. Tracts near villages on 
Tongatabu island (T) : near Houma — Vaea, landlord, Haateiho — Tui Haateiho, 
landlord, Havelu — Fielakepa, landlord, Folaha, and Nukuleka — Pangia, land- 
lord. Also tract near Pangai, village on Lifuka island (H). Also tract near 
Fangaleounga, village on Foa island (H) — Niukapu, landlord. 

Apitalatala. Home or tract with thorny, prickly undergrowth [api, home; talatala, 
thorny, prickly]. Tract near Utulau, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Apitamaikiia. Home possessed of children [api, home; tamaiki, children; i, 
with; a, belonging to]. Tract near Longomapu, village on Vavau island (V) 
Veikune, landlord. 

Apivao. Home in the woods (bush) [api, home; vao, woods, bush]. Tract near 
Haavakatolo, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Ahomee, landlord. Also tract 
near Pea, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Lavaka, landlord. Also tract near 
Navutoka, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. Also tract near 
Leimatua, village on Vavau island (V) — Fotu, landlord. 

Apivaolalo. The lower home in the woods [api, home; vao, woods; lalo, below]. 
Tract near Navutoka, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. 

Apo. To burn lights in the night with one very ill or one dead. Tract on Ofu 
island (V) — Tui Lakepa, landlord. 

Aponima. To feast five times following the reception of something valuable 
[apo, to feast upon the reception of something valuable; nima, five]. Tract 
near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Apopo. Rotten fence [a, fence; pope, rotten]. Tract near Nukualofa, village on 
Tongatabu island (T). 

Asiale. Enclosure of gardenias [a, enclosure; siale, gardenia]. Tract in Fa- 
heta, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Asiu. A shrub (Cucumis acidus). Tract on Niuatoou island (NF) — Fusitua, land- 

Ata. A shadow. Island. Pylstaart, the southernmost Tongan island, eleva- 
tion 1165 feet. Also tract near Teekiu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Mo- 
tuapuaka, landlord. Also tract near Utulau, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Tract near Fataulua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Ata. Space, room. Island (T). On reef lying north of Tongatabu. 

Ataatahau. Approaching twilight [ataata, twilight; hau, to come, to arrive]. 
Tract near Kolovai, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Ata, landlord. Also 
tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vaea, landlord. Also 
tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Atafau. Space in which to gather things in bundles [ata, space, room; fau, to 
gather in bundles]. Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Atafolo. To swallow a shadow [ata, shadow; folo, to swallow]. Tract near Uiha, 
village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Atalama. Shining reflection [ata, to reflect as a mirror; lama, to shine, the re- 
flection or light from a distance]. Tract near Koloa, village on Koloa island 
(V). 

Atalanga. To erect, or to originate, space [ata, space; langa, to erect, to origi- 
nate]. Tract near Koloa, village on Koloa island (V). The reputed home of 
Maui Atalanga, the deity who thrust up the sky, which, mythology says, once 
lay so close over the earth that human beings could not walk upright. 

Atalao. Perhaps a misspelling of Ataloa, which means "space without bounds." 
Tract near Makave, village on Vavau island (V) — Tui Afitu, landlord. 

Atamaiotua. Mind of god [atamai, mind; otua, god]. Tract near Mua, village on 
Niuafoou island (NF). 

Atata. Shadow of the curved end of a Tongan house [ata, shadow; ta, curved 
end of a Tongan house]. Island (T). Also tract near Kolovai, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Ata, landlord. 



42 Bcruice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Atatuka. Shadow suddenly cast [ata, shadow; tuka, to stand on a sudden]. 

Tract on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Tangipa, landlord. 
Atavahea. Shadow as a dividing fence [ata, shadow; vahe, to divide; a, fence]. 

Well on Tongatabu island (T). 
Ataveha. Tract near Afa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Ate. A species of long grass. Tract near Pea, village on Tongatabu island (T) 

— Lavaka, landlord. Also tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) 

— Pangia, landlord. 
Atele. A planed fence [a, fence; tele, to plane]. Tract near Kolonga, village on 

Tongatabu island (T). 
Atonu. Straight fence [a, fence; tonu, straight]. Tract on Niuatoputapu island 

(NT). 
Atoto. Enclosure of toto trees [a, enclosure; toto, a kind of tree]. Tract near 

Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Maatu, landlord. 
Atua. Enclosure of tua yams [a, enclosure; tua, a kind of yam]. Tract near 

Nukunuku, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. Also tract 

near Kolonga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Nuku, landlord. Also tract 

near Pangai, village on Pangaimotu island (V). 
Atualo. A species of bonito. Tract near Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V) 

— Ulukalala, landlord. 
Atulau. To fling leaves [atu, to fling, lau, leaves]. Tract near Navutoka, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. 
Atulaua. Bonito to be counted [atu, bonito (Thynnus pelamys) ; laua, to be 

counted]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Atumata. Face of the bonito [atu, bonito; mata, face]. Tract near Tokomololo, 

village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Atupauna. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Atutunu. Broiled bonito [atu, bonito; tunu, broiled]. Tract on Fotuhaa island (H). 
Auauha. Corruption. Tract near Navutoka, village on Tongatabu island (T) — 

Tungi, landlord. 
Auehau. To come flowing rapidly by [au, to flow rapidly, as the current; e, by; 

hau, to come]. Tract near Matahau, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Auha. Destroyed, extinct. Tract near Tatakamotonga, village on Tongatabu 

island (T) — Tungi, landlord. 
Auhangamea. Panting to destroy things [auha, destroyed; nga, to pant; tnea, 

things; perhaps referring to the heaving of the billows from the open ocean]. 

Strait between Tatata and Uoleva islands (H). 
Auhatoto. Appearance of blood flowing [au, to flow; ha, appearance; toto, blood]. 

Tract near Lavengatonga, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Ava. An opening, a crevice, a passage for vessels. Tract near Haalaufull, village 

on Vavau island (V) — Afu Haalaufuli, landlord. Also tract on Niuatoou island 

(NF)— Fotofili, landlord. 
Avaelangi. Passage to the sky [ava, passage; e, by; langi, sky]. Tract near 

Feletoa, village on Vavau island (V). 
Avafonuaika. Fish-land strait [ava, strait, passage; fonua, land; ika, fish]. 

Strait near Fonuaika island (H). Passage into Haapai group from the south. 
Avafonuaunga. Passage of the land of the unga shellfish [ava, passage; fonua, 

land; unga, a kind of shellfish]. Strait (V). Passage into Vavau group from 

southeast. 
Avaiki. Small passage or opening [ava, passage or opening; iki, small]. Tract 

on Moungaone island (H). 
Avakeaua. Passage of the two bread-fruit trees [ava, passage; kea, a kind of 

breadfruit tree; ua, two]. Islet (H). 



Gilford — Totigaii Place Names 43 

Avalanga. Erected passage [ava, passage; langa, to erect]. Tract near Uiha, 

village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Avalau. Noisy enclosure [a, enclosure; valau, noise]. Tract near Maufanga, 

village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. Also tract near Haano, 

village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also tract on Ovaka 

island (V). Also tract near Taoa, village on Vavau island (V). Also tract on 

Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Tangipa, landlord. Also tract on Niuafoou island 

(NF). 
Avalimumoto. Passage o£ budding seaweed [ava, passage; limu, seaweed; moto, 

to bud]. Passage between reefs, leading to Pangai, Lifuka island (H). 
Avalu. Eight enclosures [a, enclosure; valu, eight]. Tract near Uiha, village on 

Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Avalua. Vomiting passage [ava, passage; lua, to vomit; (perhaps in reference 

to a swift current)]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, 

landlord. Also tract near Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island (V). Also 

tract near Falehau, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT). 
Avamatamataveka. Passage resembling a veka fish [ava, passage; matamata, to 

resemble; veka, a kind of fish]. A passage south of the Uonuku islands (H). 
Avamatanukupule. Passage along the edge of Nukupule [ava, passage; mata, 

edge; Nukupule, name of an island]. Passage between the reef Hakaulahi and 

Lofanga island (H). 
Avamuikuku. Passage of holding fast the buttocks with the hands [ava, passage; 

mui, buttocks; kuku, to hold fast in the hands]. An approach to Lifuka island 

(H) past the reef called Muikuku. Mythology says that here a goddess held 

her buttocks to prevent the extrusion of two yams, which she had swallowed 

in Samoa and was transporting to Tonga to plant. 
Avamutu. Passage that has been cut across [ava, passage; mutu, to cut or tear 

across]. Passage between reefs, to Hihifo, Lifuka island (H). 
Avaniu. Hollow coconut [ava, hollow; niu, coconut]. Tract on Fonoifua island 

(H)— Tui Afitu, landlord. 
Avaomalau. Passage of the malau bird [ava, passage; o, of; malau, a bird pecu- 
liar to Niuafoou (Megapodius burnabyi)]. Tract on Niuafoou island (NF) — 

Fotofili, landlord. 
Avapulepulekai. Passage of the biting pulepule shellfish [ava, passage; pulepule, 

a kind of shellfish; kai, to bite]. Strait (V). Southwestern approach to 

Vavau harbor. 
Avapupu. Crowded passage, perhaps referring to rocks in the channel [ava, 

passage; pupu, a crowd of persons]. Strait to south of Lekeleka island (H). 
Avatafaanga. Passage for fishing canoes [ava, passage; tafaanga, fishing canoe]. 

Passage on Tongatabu island (T). On weather shore. 
Avatai. Row of crevices [ava, crevice; tai, a row]. Tract near Neiafu, village 

on Vavau island (V). 
Avatauoifi. Passage of restless curling waves [ava, passage; tauoi, restless; fi, 

to curl]. Strait between Fotuhaa and Fatuinanangi islands (H). 
Avatonga. South passage [ava, passage; tonga, south]. Place on Tongatabu 

island (T). Formerly called Fota; on the lagoon. 
Avatongo. Crevice with preparation for turning the hair red [ava, crevice; tongo, 

preparation for turning the hair red]. Cemetery near Otea, village on Kapa 

island (V). On the tract called Houmakalae. 
Avatupu. Growing passage [ava, passage; tupu, to grow]. An approach between 

reefs on the west side of Lifuka island (H). 
Avaui. The opening which calls [ava, opening; ui, to call]. Temple near Taka- 

kamotonga, village on Tongatabu island (T). A temple of the god Taliai Tupou. 



44 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Avavahaafonua. Passage between lands [ava, passage; vahaa, short distance 
between islands; fonua, land]. Strait between Luangahu and Hakauata Islands 
(H). 

Aveta. To be deprived of a row ot bananas [ave, to deprive of; ta, row of 
bananas]. Tract near Utui, village on Vavau island (V)— Ahomee, landlord. 

Avokaia. Avocadoes (alligator pears) in abundance [avoka, avocado; ia, to 
abound]. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Ee. Name of a fish. Tract on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Efeso. Biblical name Ephesus. Tract on Matuku island (H) — Tui Haateiho, 
landlord. 

Eiesi. English proper name Elsie. Tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu 
island (T) — Vaea, landlord. 

Eli. The word may be keli with the k dropped as in Samoan, in which case Its 
probable meaning is "ditch." Tract on Okoa island (V). Also tract near 
Utulei, village on Pangaimotu island (V). Also tract near Neiafu, village on 
Vavau island (V). Also tract near Tefisi, village on Vavau island (V) — Luani, 
landlord. 

Elili. Certain of the species of the genus Turbo, univalve shells. Tract on 
Lotanga island (H). 

Elimi. Biblical name Elim. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Eneio. Two persons to go and report something with the design ot causing 
laughter [enei, to report anything with the design of causing laughter; o, to 
go, applied to two or more]. Beach near Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island 
(V). 

Esia. The handle of any tool. Tract in Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 
Also district on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Eslomoheofo. Mound of the chief wife of the Tui Tonga [esi, artificial mound; 
o, of; moheofo, chief wife of the Tui Tonga]. Mound near Pangai, village on 
Eua island (T). On weather side, east of the village of Pangai. The mound 
Is said to have been made by the people of Eua for the first moheofo who 
resided in Eua and who is said to have chosen Eua as a residence because of 
the cooler dwelling sites offered by the hills and valleys of the island in 
contrast to flat Tongatabu. It is probable that the moheofo referred to is the 
historic Tupoumoheofo, the wife of Tui Tonga Pau of Captain Cook's time. 

Eua. Belonging to the corner of an axe [eu, corner of an axe; a, belonging to]. 
Island (T). The name probably alludes to the mythical origin of Eua, which 
is said to have been formed of the dust from the grindstone of the god Tanga- 
loa Tufunga, which was poured down from the sky. Tract near Lapaha, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. Also tract near Makaunga, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. Also tract near Manuka, 
village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island 
(H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Euakafa. Coconut-fiber rope of Eua [eua, see above; kafa, cordage made from 
the fibers of the coconut husk]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) 
— Malupo, landlord. Also tract near Pangai, village on Lifuka island (H). 
Also island (V). Tract near Holonga, village on Vavau island (V). 

Euelkl. Little Eua [eue, equals eua with vowel changed, name of large island of 
Tongatabu group; iki, little, small]. Island (T). Also tract near Kolonga, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Nuku, landlord. Also island (V). Tract near 
Haalaufuli, village on Vavau island (V) — Afu Haalaufuli, landlord. 

Eveeva. To walk at pleasure. Tract near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu 
island (T). Also tract near Tefisi, village on Vavau island (V) — Luani, land- 
lord. 



afford — Tongan Place Names 45 

Fa. Pandanus. Tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vaea, land- 
lord. Also tract near Holonga, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract 
on Lofanga island (H). Also tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — 
Tul Haangana, landlord. Also tract near Mataaho, village on Niuafoou island 
(NF). 

FaaangahihI. The habit of frequently speaking evil of others [faa, frequently; 
anga, habit; hihl, to speak evil of others]. Tract near Ngaunoho, village on 
Utungake island (V). 

Faafefine. A vifoman industrious in agriculture [faa, industrious in agriculture; 
fefine, woman]. Tract on Hunga island (V) — Fulivai, landlord. 

Faakape. Industrious in kape growing [faa, industrious in agriculture; kape, an 
edible plant (Arum costatum)]. Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island 
(H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also tract near Makave, village on Vavau 
Island (V) — Tui Afitu, landlord. Also tract near Leimatua, village on Vavau 
island (V) — Fotu, landlord. 

Faakofe. Industrious in bamboo growing [faa, industrious in agriculture; kofe, 
bamboo]. Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, 
landlord. 

Faalofani. To be constantly on loving terms [faa, constant; lofani, loving terras]. 
This meaning, vouched for by two Tongan informants, cannot be verified by 
the dictionaries. Tract on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Tangipa, landlord. 

Faatoto. Frequent bleeding [faa, frequent; toto, to bleed]. Well near Koulo, 
village on Lifuka island (H). The water hole of the god Tangakina. 

Faelemotaeaonga. Brought forth but useless [faele, to bring forth; mo, and; 
taeaonga, useless]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, 
landlord. 

Fafa. To feel the way. Island (T). An island of the chain stretching along 
the northern face of Tongatabu island. Perhaps the name of the island refers 
to its position. It is the westernmost of the chain connected by reefs. Tau 
island is at the other extremity of the chain. Also tract near Vaini, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Maafu, landlord. 

Fafao. To stretch. Tract near Nukunuku, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui 
Vakano, landlord. 

Fafasi. To break as waves in succession. Tract near Nukunuku, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. Also tract on Haafeva island 
(H)— Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Fafine. Women. Tract near Tafeuni, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fafini. The name is from an Admiralty chart and is probably a misspelling of 
"fafine," which means "women." Islet near Vavau island (V). An islet in 
east central part of the Vavau group. 

Fahamofaha. Yam and yam [fata, a kind of yam; mo, and]. Reefs or rocks near 
or on Uoleva island (H). 

Fahefa. Split grass [fa, split; hefa, a kind of grass]. Village on Tongatabu 
island (T). Also tract near Fangalecunga, village on Foa island (H) — Niu- 
kapu, landlord. Also tract on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Fahilelaa. Split by the sun [fahi, to split; le, an archaic word equivalent to 
e, by; laa, sun]. Tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tul 
Haangana, landlord. 

Fahina. The white pandanus [fa, pandanus; hina, white]. Tract on Nomuka 
island (H). Also tract on Oloua island (V). 

Faia. To go to meet someone and execute a command [faia, to execute; a, to 
meet]. Landing on Tofua island (H). The name probably refers to the 
Samoan Faia's being sent by Tui Tofua to the chief of Tofua island with 
instructions how to receive the sharks. So named because here Faia, a Sa- 



46 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

moan companion of Tui Tofua, a chief's son who became a shark, landed after 

refusing to make the metamorphosis of his leader and companions. See also 

the place name Vaivaia. 
Faiafa. The act of exaggeration [fal, to do; afa, to wish to astonish others with 

what is of daily occurrence]. Tract on Niuafoou island (NF) — Fotofili, land- 
lord. 
Faiafo. To put one course or range of thatch on a Tongan house [fai, to do; 

afo, one course or range of thatch on a Tongan house]. Tract near Utulau. 

village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Falahomohe. To sleep during the day [fai, to do; aho, day; mohe, to sleep]. 

Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 
Faiana. To perform in a cave [fai, to perform; ana, cave]. Tract near Kalaau, 

village on Tongatabu island (T). Also sea cave on Eua island (T). Also 

tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 
Faiapu. Tract near Kanokupolu, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract 

near Haavakatolo, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Ahomee, landlord. 
Faiapuuta. The inland Faiapu [uta, inland]. Tract near Kanokupolu, village on 

Tongatabu island (T). 
Faifai. To become evident. Tract near Haakio, village on Vavau island (V). 
Faifaifiu. Fatigue becoming evident [faifai, to become evident; fiu, fatigue]. 

Tract near Tefisi, village on Vavau island (V) — Luani, landlord. 
Faifekau. One who executes commands, a missionary, a delegate. Tract on Tu- 

ngua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. Also tract on Haafeva island (H) 

— Tuuhetoka, landlord. 
Faifononga. To do a journey [fai, to do; fononga, a journey]. Tract near Ho- 

longa, village on Vavau island (V). 
Faihau. Performance of the reigning prince [fal, performance; hau, reigning 

prince]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Faihava. Completed passage [fai, to do, to perform, to execute; hava, passage, 

according to one Tongan informant. The dictionaries give ava]. Tract near 

Fahefa, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Veehala, landlord. Also tract on 

Ponoifua island (H) — Tui Afitu. landlord. Also the northern point of Ofolanga 

Island (H). Also tract on Ovaka island (V). Also tract on Taunga island (V) 

— Akauola, landlord. Also tract on Ofu island (V) — Tui Lakepa, landlord. Also 

strait near Vavau island (V). Also northwestern approach to Vavau harbor. 

Also tract on Niuafoou island (NF). 
FaiHiavafoa. Completed fractured passage [fai, to do, to perform, to discharge, 

to execute; hava, passage; foa, to fracture]. Inlet of lagoon in Tongatabu 

island (T). Also tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 
Faihavahili. Completed terminal passage [fai, to do, to perform, to discharge, 

to execute; hava, passage; hili, the end or termination]. Tract near Nuku- 

hitulu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Faihavamotua. Completed old passage [fai, to do, to perform, to discharge, to 

execute; hava, passage; motua, old]. Place on the weather shore of Tonga- 
tabu island (T). 
Faihavamusie. Completed grassy passage [fal, to do, to perform, to discharge, to 

execute; hava, passage; musie, grass]. Tract in Folaha, village on Tongatabu 

island (T). 
Faihavata. Completed hewn passage [fai, to do, to perform, to discharge, to 

execute; hava, passage; ta, to hew]. Inlet of lagoon in Tongatabu island (T). 
Falhavatoto. Completed bloody passage [fai ,to do, to perform, to discharge, to 

execute; hava, passage; toto, blood]. Tract near Siesia, village on Nukunuku- 

motu island (T). 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 47 

Faihavaumea. Completed clayey passage [fai, to do, to perform, to discharge, 

to execute; hava, passage; umea, clay]. Tract near Taoa, village on Vavau 

Island (V). 
Faihonge. In the grip of famine [fai, performance, execution; honge, famine]. 

Tract near Haatafu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Faiipa. To do it on the shield. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu 

Island (T). 
Faikakai. A food preparation of softened breadfruit cooked with coconut oil, 

or of kape (Arum costatum) cooked with coconut oil. Tract near Nukua- 
lofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Pangai, village on 

Lifuka island (H). 
Faikuku. To do with clenched fist [fai, to do; kuku, to clench the fist]. Tract 

near Haakili, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Failautohi. To do with schools [fai, to do; lautohi, school]. Tract on Tungua 

island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. Also tract on Matuku, island (H) — Tui 

Haateiho, landlord. Also tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Also district near Fakakakai, village on Haano island (H). 
Failelei. To do good [fai, to do; lelei, good]. Tract on Nluafoou island (NF). 
Failo. To do with ants ffai, to do; io, the ant]. Tract near Uiha, village on 

Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Failolo. To do with oil [fai, to do; lolo, oil]. Tract near Vaini, village on 

Tongatabu island (T) — Maafu, landlord. 
Failoto. Performed with the mind [fai, to perform; loto, the mind]. Former 

village on Foa island (H). Tract near Lotofoa, village on Foa island (H)^ — 

Tui Pelehake, landlord. Also tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island 

(NT) — Maatu, landlord. Also tract on Nluafoou island (NF). 
Failotu. To say prayers [fai, to do; lotu, prayer]. Tract near Houma, village on 

Tongatabu island (T) — Vaea, landlord. 
Failula. It has sufficient taro leaves [fai, sufficient; lu, taro leaves; ia, it]. Tract 

near Tatakamotonga, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Tungi, landlord. Also 

tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 
Failupe. Sufficient pigeons [fai, sufficient; lupe, the fruit pigeon (Carpophaga 

paciflca]. Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, 

landlord. 
Faimanako. To do what one likes [fai, to do; manako, to like]. Tract on Atata 

island (T) — Ata, landlord. 
Faimata. To prepare uncooked food [fai, to do; mata, uncooked]. Tract on Eue- 

iki island (T). Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, 

landlord. 
Faimolau. To work and talk at the same time [fai, to do; mo, and; lau, to talk]. 

Tract in Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V) — Ulukalala, landlord. 
Fainafui. To do repeatedly [fai, to do; nafui, to repeat]. Tract near Makaunga, 

village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 
Fainapiu. Pineapple (according to two Tongan informants). Tract near Lapaha, 

village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 
Fainiaku. To make this by throwing up loose earth with the hands [fai, to do; 

ni, this; aku, to throw up loose earth with the hands]. Tract near Uiha, vil- 
lage on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Fainoa. To be mistaken. Tract near Haatafu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Also tract near Fotua, village on Foa island (H) — Tui Pelehake, landlord. 
Faioa. To be awake and doing [fai, to do, to perform; o, and; a, to be awake]. 

Tract near Haavakatolo, village on Tongatapu island (T) — Ahomee, landlord. 

Also tract near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near 



48 Dernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangla, landlord. Also island (V). 
Also tract near Mataika, village on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Ho- 
longa, village on Vavau island (V). Also tract on Oloua island (V). Also 
tract near Sapaata, village on Niuatoou island (NF). 

Faingaa. To persevere in being awake [fainga, to do with perseverance; a, to be 
awake]. Stone near Toula, village on Vavau island (V). One of two stones 
formerly standing at village of Toula. One stone has been destroyed. The 
two stones were believed to be the incarnation of the deities Sisi and Faingaa. 

Faioalalo. Lower Faioa [(see preceding); lalo, below]. Tract near Hihifo, vil- 
lage on Lifuka island (H). 

Faioauta. Inland Faioa [uta, inland]. Tract near Hihifo, village on Lifuka island 
(H). 

Faiohomohe. The eating of supper [fai, performance, execution; ohomohe, sup- 
per]. Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haaugana, land- 
lord. 

Faipa. Tract near Kapa, village on Kapa island (V). 

Faitavale. To work without order [fai, to work; tavale, without order]. Tract 
near Tongamamao, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Faite. The ancient sitting posture of Tongan women, which consisted of sitting 
with both legs partially under the body and flexed at the knees to either the 
right or the left. Beach and tract near Talafoou, village on Tongatabu 
island (T) — Lauaki, landlord. The beach at Talafoou (new tidings) is called 
Faite because here a woman sat in faite fashion when conveying news of the 
murder of the Tui Tonga Takalaua to his children. I have one record of the 
place name as Talafaite instead of Faite. The stem tala means "to tell"; 
hence the full meaning would be "to tell while sitting in faite fashion." 

Faitoakalali. To scrape the bark of the casuarina tree and use it with water to 
dye the hair a reddish color |fai, to do; toa, casuarina tree; kalali, to scratch]. 
Tract near Ahau, village on Tongatabu Island (T) — Lasike, landlord. 

Faitokalahi. Large burying ground [faitoka, burying ground; lahi, large]. Tract_ 
near Hihifo, village on Lifuka island (H). Also tract near Lotofoa, village on 
Foa island (H). 

Faitokolahi. The performance or work of a multitude of people [fai, performance; 
tokolahl, muUitudel. Tract near Niutoua, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Faituunga. To make a foundation [fai, to do, to perform, to execute; tuunga, a 
foundation]. Tract near Haalaufuli, village on Vavau island (V) — Afu Haalau- 
fuli, landlord. Also tract near Holonga, village on Vavau island (V). 

Falulu. Ten stingrays [fai, stingray; ulu, ten]. Tract near Tefisi, village on 
Vavau island (V) — Luani, landlord. 

Faivavale. Slimy stingray [fai, stingray; vavale, slimy] Tract near Pangai, vil- 
lage on Lifuka island (H). 

Fakaaala. Anything which looks best at a distance. Tract near Haalalo, village 
on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fakaahotaha. To do a thing on one certain day [fakaaho, to do on certain days; 
taha, one]. Tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu Island (NT) — Maatu, 
landlord. 

Fakaahuahu. To cause a great smoke, as a signal. Tract between Kolomaile and 
Tutuvai, villages on Eua island (T). On this tract is situate the mound Pona- 
hiva and near It is the present race course. Perhaps the name refers to the 
great fire built upon the death of the Tui Tonga Tuitatui in Eua. The Tui 
Tonga's half brother Fasiapule, returning to Tongatabu island from Fiji, saw 
the fire and realizing that it must herald an event of importance, proceeded 
forthwith to Eua. where he learned of his brother's death. 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 49 

Fakaamu. A wish, longing desire; to wish, to desire. Tract near Uiha, village 
on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Fakaamumei. To desire breadfruit [fakaamu, to desire; mei, breadfruit]. Anchor- 
age at northern end of Lifuka island (H). At the anchorage Fakaamumei, 
mythology says the goddess Fehuluni, travelling from Samoa to Tonga, desired 
breadfruit; hence the name. Also tract near Koulo, village on Lifuka island 
(H). Also tract near Lotofoa, village on Foa island (H). 

Fakaamunoa. Trivial desire [fakaamu, desire; noa, trivial]. Tract near Uiha, 
village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Fakaamuvaka. To wish for a boat [fakaamu, to wish; vaka, boat]. Tract near 
Maufanga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. 

Fakaanu. To be in the water. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — 
Malupo, landlord. 

Fakaangatonu. To criticize correctly [fakaanga, to criticize; tonu, correct]. Tract 
near Nukuleka, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Fakaangiangi. To hang or place anything in the wind to dry. Tract on Haafeva 
island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island 
(H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Fakaata. To take aim. Tract near Talafoou, village on Tongatabu island (T) — 
Lauaki, landlord. 

Fakaatumahina. The disappearance of the moon [fakaatu, to cease for a time; 
mahina, moon]. Tract near Fuaamotu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — 
Tungi, landlord. 

Fakaaungalahi. To arrange a large gathering of people at a specified time and 
place [faka, to cause; aunga, to agree to meet at a specified time and place; 
lahi, large]. Place on weather shore of Tongatabu island (T), where there is 
surf. 

Fakaeteete. To walk softly, without noise. Tract near Houma, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T) — Vaea, landlord. 

Fakafafa. To sling on a stick and carry over the shoulder. One of two huge 
upright monoliths on Tafahi island (NT). These two monoliths are 
compared by native informants to the two uprights of the trilithon on Tongatabu 
island. Like that trilithon the Tafahi monoliths are said to have been the 
burden of Maui; hence the name Fakafafa. 

Fakafai. To cause to do. District near Pangai, village on Lifuka island (H). 

Fakafaifekau. Like one who executes commands [faka, like; faifekau, one who 
executes commands]. District on Lofanga island (H). 

Fakafanua. Like the sea coast in contrast to the depths of the sea [faka, like; 
fanua, the sea coast in contrast to the depths of the sea]. Tract near Nuku- 
nuku, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. 

Fakafanuaamanu. Flock of birds so large as to resemble the sea coast [faka, 
like; fanua, the sea coast in contrast to the depths of the sea; a, of; manu, 
birds]. Tract near Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V) — Ulukalala, land- 
lord. Also hillside near Longomapu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fakafefaahi. Two parties, one opposing the other in play, work, or war. Two 
Tongan informants vouch for this meaning, which cannot be verified by the 
dictionaries. Tract near Pea, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Lavaka, land- 
lord. 

Fakafihi. To confuse, to entangle. Tract near Taoa, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fakafiu. Tiresome, wearisome. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu 
island (T). 

Fakafua. To fructify. Tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fakafuenga. To deal out in proportion. This meaning, from a single Tongan 
informant, remains unverified. Tract near Foui, village on Tongatabu Island (T) 



50 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

— Vahal, landlord. Also tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu Island (T) — 

Vaea, landlord. 
Fakahake. To remove things out of the water to the shore. Tract near Utun- 

gake, village on Utungake island (V)— Tuita, landlord. Also tract near Ngau- 

noho, village on Utungake Island (V). 
Fakahakengaatu. Landing place of the bonlto [fakahake, to land; atu, bonito]. 

Cliff on the weather shore of Tongatabu island (T). 
Fakahalu. To order others to seek fish. Tract near Uiha, village on Ulha island 

(H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Fakahavill. To sit in a strong wind [havill, strong wind, gale, blast]. Tracts 

near villages on Tongatabu island (T): near Kalaau, Nukunuku — Tui Vakano, 

landlord, Houma — Vaea, landlord, Haalalo, and Hofoa. Also tract on Oua 

island (H). Also tract near Faleloa, village on Foa island (H). Also tract 

near Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Feletoa, village 

on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island 

(NT)— Maatu, landlord. 
Fakaheka. To load a vessel. Tract on Moungaone island (H). 
Fakahekeheke. To deceive by flattery. Tract near Pangai, village on Pangairaotu 

island (V). 
Fakahiku. To make an end [faka, to make; hiku, end]. Tract near Malapo, 

village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. Also tract in Navu- 

toka, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Falevai, village on Kapa 

island (V) — Fakatulolo, landlord. Also tract near Utui, village on Vavau island 

(V) — Veikune, landlord. 
Fakahingu. The top is like a fish tail [faka, to make, resembling; hingu, like a 

tail]. This meaning is from a single Tongan informant and remains unsub- 
stantiated. Island (H). A small island 65 feet high. 
Fakahivili. To make a point. Tract near Mua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Fakahoko. Application. Tract near Kapa, village on Kapa island (V). 
Fakahokonoa. Random application [fakahoko, application; noa, random]. Tract 

near Haavakatolo, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Ahomee, landlord. 
Fakahotaho. Tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Maatu, 

landlord. 
Fakahualolo. To tack and lower the sail in strong wind [fakahua, to tack about 

in sailing; lolo, to lower the sail in strong wind]. Tract near Hautu, village 

on Tongatabu island (T). 
Fakailoika. To discover fish [fakailo, to discover; ika, fish]. Tracts near Malapo 

and Lapaha, villages on Tongatabu Island (T)— Pangia, landlord. Also tract 

near Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island (V). 
Fakakakai. Peopled, inhabited. Village on Haano island (H). 
Fakakolo. Like a fortress [faka, like, resembling; kolo, fortress]. Tract near 

Vaimalo, village on Vavau island (V). 
Fakakovi. Calumny, aspersion, detraction. Tract in Ngaunoho, village on 

Vavau island (V). 
Fakalaa. E.xposed to the sun. Tracts near villages on Tongatabu island (T): 

near Haavakatolo — Ahomee, landlord, Hautu, Longoteme — Veikune, landlord, 

Alaki — Tui Pelehake, landlord, and Niutoua. Also tract near Siesia, village on 

Nukunukumotu island (T). Also tract on Nomuka island (H). Also tract 

near Mua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Fakalalo. An intercessor. Tract near Lolotelie, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Fakalanua. To dye (according to two Tongan informants) [fakalanu, rinse; a, 

liquid |. Tract near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Fakalauta. To arrange In order. Tract near Ahau, village on Tongatabu island 

(T) — Lasike, landlord. 



afford — Tongan Place Names 51 

Fakalava. To lie longways. Tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) 

— Pangla, landlord. Also tract near Haveluliku, village on Tongatabu island 

(T). 
Fakalavalalo. Lower Fakalava [see fakalava; lalo, below, down]. Tract near 

Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 
Fakalavelave. To do at a venture. Tract on Lofanga island (H). 
Fakalelenga. A canoe entrance on a reef. Tract in Feletoa, village on Vavau 

island (V). 
Fakaleleva. To go in a straight line. A sea cliff near Fatumu, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T). 
Fakalofa. To swing round by the arm. Tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuato- 

putapu island (NT) — Maatu, landlord. 
Fakalongo. To be quiet. Tract near Vaotuu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — 

Tui Vakano, landlord. Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — 

Malupo, landlord. Also tract on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Fakalotu. To convert. Beach on the weather side of Tongatabu island (T). 
Fakamaangi. To come from modesty [fakama, modesty; angi, to come from]. 

Tract near Puke, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fohe, landlord. Also tract 

near Longoteme, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Veikune, landlord. Also 

tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 
Fakamafua. A bush or shrub used to decoy and take pigeons. Place on or near 

Mt. Kafoa on Vavau island (V). 
Fakamahalo. To deceive one's self. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island 

(H) — Malupo, landlord. Also tract near Lotofoa, village on Foa island (H) — 

Tui Pelehake, landlord. Also tract near Taanea, village on Vavau island (V) 

— Vahai, landlord. 
Fakamalama. To cause to flame. Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island 

(H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 
Fakamalunga. The sheltering place [fakamalu, to screen, to shade]. Place on 

the weather shore of Tongatabu island (T). 
Fakamangi. To e.xpose to a breeze. Tract near Longoteme, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T) — Veikune, landlord. 
Fakamango. To make dry. Tract near Nuapapu, village on Nuapapu island (V). 
Fakamanusi. To cause to be crushed. Tract near Haano, village on Haano island 

(H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 
Fakamata. To sharpen. Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui 

Haangana, landlord. 
Fakamatemate. To subside. Tract near Fatumu, village on Tongatabu island 

(T). 
Fakamau. To establish. Tract near Fue, village on Vavau island (V). 
Fakamelino. To perpetuate peace. Tract near Matamaka, village on Nuapapu 

island (V). 
Fakamenimani. Well near Maufanga, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Falemohokoi. House of the mohokoi tree [fale, house; mohokoi, (Cananga odo- 

rata) a tree with very fragrant flowers]. Cemetery near Maufanga, village on 

Tongatabu island (T). 
Fakamokou. To do it properly. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — 

Malupo, landlord. 
Fakamotu. To cut off, to terminate. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) 

— Malupo, landlord. 
Fakamoui. To heal. Place on the weather shore of Tongatabu island (T). 
Fakamua. To act the gentleman. Tract near Folaha, village on Tongatabu island 
(T). 



52 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Fakamuila. Like the end of a sail [faka, like; mui, end; la, sail]. Tract near 
Mataika, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fakanonga. To make sheltered I faka, to make; nonga, sheltered]. Tracts near 
Haakanie and Nukualofa, villages on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fakaofoofa. Beautiful. Tract near Kanokupolu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fakaongomai. To await the bringing of commands [fakaonga, to await com- 
mands; mai, to bring]. Tract near Teekiu, village on Tongatabu island (T) 
— Motuapuaka, landlord. 

Fakaope. To drive or pitch on the mark in certain games. Tract on Hunga 
island (V) — Fulivai, landlord. 

Fakaosifau. To finish fastening up the hair [fakaosi, to finish; fau, to fasten up 
the hair]. Tract on Ovaka island (V). 

Fakaosikato. To finish a basket [fakaosi, to finish; kato, a basket]. Tract on 
Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Fakapaia. To put upright. Tract on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Tangipa, land- 
lord. 

Fakapale. Like a prize [faka, like; pale, prize]. Tract near Pangai, village on 
Lifuka island (H). 

Fakapele. To make a pet [faka, to make; pele, a pet]. Tract on Eueiki island 
(T). 

Fakapenau. To be begrudged. This meaning was given by a single Tongan In- 
formant and remains unsubstantiated. Tract near Otea, village on Kapa 
island (V). 

Fakapotu. To divide into spaces. Tract near Fangaleounga, village on Foa 
island (H) — Niukapu, landlord. 

Fakaslasl. Like a church [faka, like; slasi, church]. Tract near Haateiho, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Fakatafa. To go aside. Tract near Haatafu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Also tract on Tungua island (H)— Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Fakatafenga. The draining place [faketafe, to drain]. Tract on Tungua island 
(H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Fakatangata. Manly. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fakataualofa. To try to show mercy [fakatau, to try; aloofa, to show mercy]. 
Tract near Kolovai, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Ata, landlord. 

Fakateepuaka. To prepare the pandanus and paongo leaves for weaving mats; 
literally, to make like pig droppings [faka, to make like; tee, dung of animals; 
puaka, pig]. Tract on Niuafoou island (NF) — Fotofili, landlord. 

Fakatefaahi. To run canoes and be able to lift or carry them [fakate, to run 
canoes; faahi, to be able to lift or carry]. Tract near Pea, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T)— Lavaka, landlord. 

Fakatefua. To assemble together. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, 
landlord. Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H)— Malupo, land- 
lord. 

Fakatehaalal. Part of an army from Alai (a place). Tract in Lotofoa. village 
on Foa island (H). 

Fakatoafa. To cultivate what was once waste land. Tract near Matamaka, vil- 
lage on Nuapapu island (V). 

Fakatofu. To cease blowing; to die away, as the wind. Tract near Felemea, 
village on Uiha island (H). 

Fakatokoua. Like a brother (or sister) [faka, like; tokoua, man's brother, 
woman's sister]. Tract near Tokomololo, village on Tongatabu island (T) — 
Maafu, landlord. 



afford — Tongan Place Names 53 

Fakatolotu. To cause to come over to pray [fakato, to cause to come over; 
lotu, to pray]. Tract near Mataika, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fakatonga. According to Tongan fashion. Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui 
Haateiho, landlord. Also tract near Lotofoa, village on Foa island (H). 

Fakatouesiafi. Both to bring fire [fakatou, both; esiafi, to bring fire]. Tract 
near Talafoou, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Lauaki, landlord. 

Fakatoumamana. Both to be in love [fakatou, both; mamana, to be in love]. 
Tract near Holopeka, village on Lifuka island (H) — Tui Afitu, landlord. 

Fakatouongo. Both to feel [fakatou, both; ongo, to feel]. Tract near Mua, vill- 
age on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Fakatoutoa. Both courageous [fakatou, both; toa, courageous]. Part of the sea 
near Nomuka island (H) where rough water is frequently encountered. 

Fakatouuta. Both inland [fakatou, both; uta, inland]. Tract near Pangai, village 
on Lifuka island (H). 

Fakatuafonu. To expect turtle [fakatua, to expect; fonu, turtle]. Tract in 
Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fakatupu. To beget, to engender, to originate, to create. Tract near Hihifo, 
village on Lifuka island (H). 

Fakatuva. To heap in a confused mass. Tract on Niuafoou island (NP). 

Fakauamuli. The rolling stern of a vessel at sea [fakaua, to roll as a vessel at 
sea; muli, abbreviation of taumuli, stern; or perhaps an archaic form of mui, 
the end, the hind part]. Tract on Taunga island (V) — Akauola, landlord. 

Fakaula. Clever, dexterous. Tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui 
Haangana, landlord. 

Fakaulunafa. Drum used in the war custom of carrying slain enemies and placing 
them in order before the house of a god [fakaulu, the above custom; nafa, 
drum]. Tract on Tongatabu island (T). On southeast shore. Also tract near 
Otea, village on Kapa island (V). Also tract near Holonga, village on Vavau 
island (V). 

Fakauta. Choice. Tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haa- 
ngana, landlord. Also tract near Nuapapu, village on Nuapapu island (V). Also 
tract near Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V) — Malupo, landlord. 

Fakautuutu. To increase, to grow. Tract on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Tan- 
gipa, landlord. 

Fakavamofafine. To sport or play with women [fakava, to sport, to play; mo, 
with; fafine, women]. Tract near Haalaufuli, village on Vavau island (V) — 
Afu Haalaufuli, landlord. 

Fakavaua. Two playing [fakava, to play; ua, two]. Tract on Niuafoou island 
(NF)— Tuita, landlord. 

Fakaveleatenge. To desire death; to provoke punishment. Tract near Pea, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fakavelinga. The place of lessening sail by drawing up the lower part [faka- 
veli, to lessen the sail by drawing up the lower part]. Tract near Lolotelie, 
village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fakikava. To break off kava [faki, to break off; kava, kava]. Tract near Fale- 
hau, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT). 

Fakimamana. To rely upon a lover [faki, to rely upon; mamana, lover]. Tract 
near Kolonga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Nuku, landlord. 

Fakosi. To feel and cut with scissors [fa, to feel after anything; kosi, to cut 
with scissors]. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Falafalaata. Shadow of the falafala yam [falafala, a kind of yam; ata, shadow]. 
Tract near Pakakakai, village on Haano island (H). 

Falafuka. Mat banner [fala, mat; fuka, banner]. Tract on Ofu island (V). 



54 Bcniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Falafuta. A mat which Is boasted about [fala, mat; futa, to boast]. Tract near 

Koloa, village on Koloa island (V). 
Falaita. Displeasing mat [fala, mat; ita, displeasure]. Tract near Koloval, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T) — Ata, landlord. 
Falaleu. Ripe pandanus I fala, pandanus; leu, ripe]. Tract in Neiafu, village 

on Vavau island (V). Said to be an Uvean name bestowed by Uvean exiles. 
Falanlse. France. Tract near Haakarae, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Falase. A Tongan dance (meke) in which sticks are used. Tract near Toko- 

mololo, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Maafu, landlord. Also tract on Haa- 

feva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also tract on Lofanga island (H). 
Falaull. A dirty mat [fala, mat; uli, dirty]. Tract near Falevai, village on 

Kapa island (V) — Fakatulolo, landlord. 
Faleaata. Plenty of space [falea, plentiful; ata, space]. Place on Tongatabu 

island (T). On the weather shore. 
Faleaka. House rooted in the earth [fale, house; aka, to take root in the earth]. 

Tract near Ahau, village on Niuafoou island (NF) — Fotoflli, landlord. 
Falealili. House of anger [fale, house; a, of; llli, anger]. Tract on Kotu island. 
Falealupo. Many lupo fish [falea, many; lupo, a small fish]. Tract near Hou- 

ma, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vaea, landlord. 
Falefa. Many pandanus trees [fale, house, but here in the sense of numerous, 

thus forming shelter like a house; fa, pandanus]. Tract on Fonoifua island 

(H) — Tui Afitu, landlord. Also tract near Taoa, village on Vavau island (V). 
Falefata. Carried house [fale, house; fata, to carry]. Tract on Ofu island (V) 

— Tui Lakepa, landlord. Also tract near Longomapu, village on Vavau island 

(V) — Veikune, landlord. 
Falefau. House of hibiscus wood [fale, house; fau, a tree, Hibiscus tiliaceus]. 

Tracts near villages on Tongatabu island (T): near Kanokupolu, Kolovai — Ata, 

landlord, Maufanga — Fakatanua, landlord, Vaini — Maafu, landlord. Also tract 

near Fangaleounga, village on Foa island (H) — Niukapu, landlord. Also tract 

near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 
Falefilimoto. House that chooses the buds [fale, house; fill, to choose; moto, 

buds]. Sea cliff on Vavau island (V). 
Falefoou. New house |fale, house; foou, new|. Tract in Nukualofa, village 

on Tongatabu island (T). 
Falefusi. Banana house [fale, house; fusi, generic terra for all bananas]. Tract 

on Hunga island (V) — Fulivai, landlord. 
Falehau. House of the ruler [fale, house; hau, reigning chief]. Tract near Puko- 

tala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also village on 

Niuatoputapu island (NT). 
Faleholisi. Reeded house [fale, house; holisi, to reed a house]. Tract on Tungua 

Island (H)— Tui Haateiho, landlord. 
Falekaho. Reed house [fale, house; kaho, reed]. Tract near Lotofoa, village on 

Foa island (H). 
Falekai. Dining room. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

The site of the premier's office. 
Falekofe. Bamboo house [fale, house; kofe, bamboo]. Tracts near villages on 

Tongatabu island (T) : near Foui — Vahai, landlord, Malapo, Lapaha — Pangia, 

landlord. Also tract on Hunga island (V)— Fulivai, landlord. Also tract in 

Utungake, village on Utungake island (V). Also tract near Holonga, village 

on Vavau island (V). 
Falekolonga. The house of awaiting the coming of [fale, house; kolonga, to 

await the coming of]. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Also landing on or near Mt. Kafoa, Vavau island (V). 



Gifford — Toiigan Place Names 55 

Falelahi. Large house [fale, house; lahi, large]. Tract near Koloval, village on 

Tongatabu Island (T) — Ata, landlord. Also tract near Holopeka, village on 

Lifuka island (H) — Tul Afitu, landlord. Also tract on Ovaka island (V). Also 

tract on Ofu island (V) — Tui Lakepa, landlord. 
Falelalava. House bound with sennit cord [fale, house; lalava, to bind with sen- 
nit cord]. Tracts near Taoa and Neiatu, village on Vavau island (V). 
Faleloa. Dark house [fale, house; loa, darkness]. Village on Foa island (H). 
Falelofla. Covered house [fale, house; lofia, to cover, to overspread]. Tract on 

Oua island (H). 
Faleloto. Center house [fale, house; loto, center]. Tract near Nukuhitulu, village 

on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) 

— Tui Haangana, landlord. 
Falemamange. House of mamange shrub [fale, house; mamange, a shrub]. Tract 

near Maufanga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. 
Falematangl. Windy house [fale, house; matangi, wind]. Tract near Havelu- 

liku, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Lavengatonga, village 

on Tongatabu island (T). 
Falemee. Dance house [fale, house; mee, dance]. Tract near Haano, village on 

Haano island (H). 
Falemei. House of breadfruit wood [fale, house; mei, breadfruit]. Tract in 

Pea, village en Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Niutoua, village 

on Tongatabu island (T). Also anchorage at Haano island (H). Also tract 

near Taoa. village on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Sapaata, village on 

Niuafoou island (NF). 
Falemllo. House of milo wood [fale, house; milo, a tree (Thespesia populnea)]. 

Tract near Fataulua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Falenlu. House of coconut wood [fale, house; nlu, coconut]. Tract near Kano- 

kupolu, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Havelu, village on 

Tongatabu island (T) — Fielakepa, landlord. Also tract near Hihifo, village on 

Lifuka island (H). 
Faleolo. House of ensnaring [fale, house; olo, to ensnare]. Tract on Ovaka 

island (V). 
Faleone. House of sand [fale, house; one, sand]. Tract near Pangai, village on 

Lifuka island (H). 
Faleono. Six houses [fale, house; ono, six]. Village on Vavau island (V). 
Faleosinilau. House of Sinilau [fale, house; o, of; SInilau, a god]. Tract near 

Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island (V). 
Faleplu. House of fan-palm wood [fale, house; piu, fan-palm (Pritchardia paci 

fica)1. Tract in Neiafu. village on Vavau island (V). 
Faleslale. House of gardenias [fale, house; slale, gardenia]. Tract near Pangai, 

village on Lifuka island (H). So named because of many gardenias growing 

there. 
Falesiu. Place to wait the return of the fisherman. Tract near Petani, village on 

Niuafoou island (NF). 
Faletaa. House of the taa fish [fale, house; taa, a fish]. Tract on Ofolanga 

island (H). 
Faletakafalu. House of takafalu wood [fale, house; takafalu, a tree]. Tract near 

Leimatua, village on Vavau island (V) — Potu, landlord. 
Faletanu. Concealed house [fale, house; tanu, to conceal]. Tract near Ahau, 

village on Niuafoou island (NF) — Fotofili, landlord. 
Faletapu. Consecrated house [fale, house; tapu, consecrated]. Tract near Fuaa- 

motu, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Tungi, landlord. Also tract near 

Fotua, village on Foa island (H) — Tui Pelehake, landlord. Also tract and 



56 Bcnikc P. Disliofy Miiseuin — Bulletin 

former village near Lotofoa, village on Foa Island (H). Also tract in Holonga, 
village on Vavau island (V). 

Faletoa. House of casuarina wood ffale, house; toa, casuarina tree (Casuarina 
equisetifolia) I. Tract near Lotofoa, village on Foa island (H). Also tract 
near Ngaunoho, village on Utungake island (V). 

Faletolu. Three houses [fale, house; tolu, three]. Tract near Nukualofa, village 
on Tongatabu island (T). 

Faletongo. House of mangrove wood [fale, house; tongo, mangrove]. Tract near 
Vaotuu, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Tui Vakano, landlord. Also tract 
near Fuaamotu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. 

Faletoonga. House of rites [fale, house; toonga, rites]. Tract near Lapaha, 
village on Torfgatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. The site of the temple 
of the god Pulotu Katoa. 

Faletuipapal. Houses laid out in order [fale, house; tui, placed; papal, laid out 
in order]. The vault, in which is buried King Josiah Tupou (Aleamotua), in 
the cemetery Malaealoa near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Faleua. Two houses [fale, house; ua, two]. Tract near Haakili, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T). Also tract near Kolovai, village on Tongatabu island (T) — 
Ata, landlord. 

Faleuhi. House of uhi shrubs [fale, house; uhi, a strong smelling shrub, (Evo- 
dia hortensis)]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, land- 
lord. Also tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, 
landlord. 

Faleull. Dirty house [fale, house; ull, dirty]. Tract near Malapo, village on 
Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island 
(T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Falevai. Water house [fale, house; vai, water]. Tract near Longoteme, village 
on Tongatabu island (T) — Veikune, landlord. Also village on Kapa island (V). 

Falevaitahi. Falevai near the sea [falevai, see above; tahl, sea]. Tract near 
Falevai, village on Kapa island (V). 

Faliallkl. Tract near Toula, village on Vavau island (V). 

Falikl. Flooring. Tract on Niuafoou island (NF) — Fusitua, landlord. 

Fallli. Powerful. Tract on Fotuhaa island (H). 

Fallua. To wipe the hind parts of two infants [fall, to wipe the hind parts of an 
infant; ua, two]. Tract near Folaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Faloehau. To enlarge the kingdom [falo, to stretch out; e, by; hau, conquerer]. 
Tract near Tateuni, village on Vavau island (V). 

Faluha. Something that is in abundance. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha 
island (H) — Malupo, landlord. Also tract on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Falulele. Something that goes quickly. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island 
(H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Famokai. To reach for food and eat it [fa, to feel after anything; mo, and; kai, 
to eat]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. Also 
tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Famotu. Broken pandanus tree [fa, pandanus tree; motu, broken]. Tract on 
Niuafoou island (NP). 

Famotufale. Broken pandanus house [fa, pandanus; motu, broken; fale, house]. 
Tract near Fataulua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Fanakava. Mast of kava |fana, mast of a vessel]. Tract near Teekiu, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Motuapuaka, landlord. Also sanctuary of the god 
Pinautauiku near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near 
Talafoou, village on Tongatabu Island (T) — Lauaki, landlord. Also tract on 
Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. Also tract near Uiha, village on 
Uiha Island (H) — Malupo, landlord. Also tract near Lotofoa, village on Foa 



afford — Toiigan Place Names 57 

island (H). Also tract and sanctuary of the god Hikuleo near Haano, village 

on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also tract near Holonga, village 

on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Matavai, village on Niuatoputapu island 

(NT). Also tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Maatu, 

landlord. 
Fanakavaootua. Mast of kava of the god [fanakava, see preceding; o, of; otua, 

god]. Islet (T). This islet Is in the middle of mangroves; probably in lagoon 

of Tongatabu island. 
Fanamatu. To shoot matu fish [fana, to shoot; matu, a species of fish]. Tract 

on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 
Fanonga. Hearing. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also 

tract near Mua, village on Niuatoou island (NP). 
Fanongaai. Perhaps fanongoai, to hear there [fanongo, to hear; ai, there]. Tract 

near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Fanongahina. A good anchorage. Village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Fanualai. Land of the lai fish [fanua, land; lai, a species of fish]. Island (V). 
Fanuatapu. Sacred land [fanua, land; tapu, sacred]. Island (V). 
Fanga. A landing place. Tract near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Also tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 
Fangaangapuaka. Where pigs are fed [fangaanga, feeding place; puaka, pig]. 

Tract near Tatakamotonga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. 
Fangaata. Reflection of land in the water [fanga, sea shore; ata, reflection]. 

Fortress on Eua island (T). Also tract near Hihifo, village on Lifuka island 

(H). Also hill on Kapa island (V). 
Fangaeva. Sea shore suitable for walking about [fanga, shore; eva, to walk 

about]. Tract and district near Utui, village on Vavau island (V) — Veikune, 

landlord. 
Fangafanga. To be near. Tract on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Fangafeatu. Stream. Streamlet near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Fangafuana. Sea shore that is high. Tract near Muitoa, village on Haano island 

(H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 
Fangafukave. A landing place that is far away. Beach on Tongatabu island (T). 

On weather shore. Also tract on Oloua island (V). 
Fangahahau. A misty landing place [fanga, landing place; hahau, mist]. Tract 

near Haateiho, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 
Fangaheaki. Tract near Nuapapu, village on Nuapapu island (V). 
Fangahina. Mouth of a gourd [fanga, mouth or opening; hina, gourd]. Tract near 

Hamula, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 
Fangahiva. Nine landing places [fanga, landing place; hiva, nine]. Tract near 

Fangaleounga, village on Foa island (H) — Niukapu, landlord. 
Fangakaka. Landing place where climbing is necessary [fanga, landing place; 

kaka, to climb]. Tract on Okoa island (V) — Tui Lakepa, landlord. 
Fangakakau. Landing place where swimming is necessary [fanga, landing place; 

kakau, to swim]. Narrow strait running east and west and connecting eastern 

and western bays of Tongatabu lagoon. These bays are on some maps desig- 
nated as Bay of Mua and Bay of Pea respectively. 
Fangakima. Overmatched landing place [fanga, landing place; kima, to be over- 
matched]. Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. Also tract 

near Vakataumai, village on Kapa island (V). 
Fangakimo. Landing place in the glare of the sun as seen in very hot weather 

[fanga, landing place; kimo, glare of sun as seen in very hot weather]. Tract 

on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 



58 Bernice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Fangakoka. Landing place with koka trees [fanga, landing place; koka, a tree 
(Blschoffla javanica)]. Tract on Ofu or Okoa island (V) — Tul Lakepa, land- 
lord. 

Fangalahi. Great landing place [fanga, landing place; lahi, great]. Tract near 
Kolomaile, village on Eua island (T). Also tract near Veitongo, village on 
Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Hoi, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Also tract near Siesia, village on Nukunukumotu island (T). Also tract on 
Nomuka island (H). Also tract on Kapa island (V). 

Fangalekileki. Landing place at which there are lekileki trees [fanga, landing 
place; lekileki, a species of tree]. Tract near Mautanga, village on Tongatabu 
island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. 

Fangalele. The sugar cane mouth of a basket trap [fanga, the mouth of a basket 
trap; lele, a kind of sugar cane]. Tract on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Fangaleounga. Landing place of the sound of crying [fanga, landing place; leo, 
sound; unga, to cry]. Village on Foa island (H). 

Fangaleoungalalo. Lower Fangaleounga [lalo, below, down, beneath]. Tract near 
Longomapu, village on Vavau island (V) — Veikune, landlord. 

Fangaleoungauta. Inland Fangaleounga [uta, inland]. Tract near Longomapu, 
village on Vavau island (V) — Veikune, landlord. 

Fangalepa. Landing place at which there are lepa trees [fanga, landing place; 
lepa, a species of tree]. Tract near Nukunuku, village on Tongatabu island 
(T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. Also tract on Nomuka island (H). Also tract on 
Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. Also tract near Feletoa, village 
on Vavau island (V) — Pulivai, landlord. 

Fangaliki. Small landing place [fanga, landing place; llki, abbreviation of liki- 
likl, small divisions of land]. Tract on Atata island (T) — Ata, landlord. Also 
inlet on Vavau island (V). On north side of Vavau harbor. 

Fangaliku. Landing place on the weather shore [fanga, landing place; liku, 
weather shore]. Tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haan- 
gana, landlord. 

Fangaloa. Dark landing place [fanga, landing place; loa, darkness preceding a 
squall]. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also tract near 
Pangai, village on Lifuka island (H). Also tract near Faleloa, village on Foa 
island (H). 

Fangalongonoa. Naturally peaceful landing place [fanga, landing place; longo, 
peaceful; noa, undesigned]. Beach near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island 

Fangaloto. Deep anchorage (landing place) (fanga, landing place; loto, deep]. 
Tract near Folaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Tefisi, 
village on Vavau island (V) — Luani, landlord. 

Fangamata. Boundry landing place [fanga, landing place; mata, boundary]. 
Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Fangamato. Cliff landing place [fanga, landing place; mato, edge or boundary of 
a high perpendicular rock]. Tract in Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fangamea. Landing place of property [fanga, landing place; mea, property]. 
Tract near Haateiho, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Fangamu. Many butterflies [fanga, sign of the plural, used generally of irra- 
tional creatures; mu, a species of butterfly]. Tract on Moungaone Island (H). 

Fanganei. Tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fanganeki. Landing place that Is near. Tract near Koloa, village on Koloa 
island (V). 

Fanganiu. Landing place where there are many coconut trees [fanga, landing 
place; nlu, coconut]. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also 
tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 



afford — Tongan Place Names 59 

Fanganono. Many winged white ants [fanga, sign of the plural, used generally 
of irrational creatures; nono, winged white ant]. Tract in Pangai, village 
on Lifuka island (H). Now called Haato. 

Fanganonu. Landing place where there are many nonu trees [fanga, landing 
place; nonu, a tree (Morinda citrifolia)]. Tract in Pangai, village on Li- 
fuka island (H). 

Fanganuku. Town landing place [fanga, landing place; nuku, a stem found in 
neither Tongan dictionary, but doubtless equivalent with Samoan nu'u]. Tract 
near Fuaamotu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. Also tract 
near Haalaufuli, village on Vavau island (V) — Afu Haalaufuli, landlord. 

Fanganukuuta. Inland Fanganuku [see preceding; uta, inland]. Tract near Tu- 
anekivale, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fangangana. Well known landing place [fanga, landing place; ngana, to spread 
abroad, as a name]. Tract near Tofoa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also 
tract near Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fangaoa. Landing place of the basket for fish [fanga, landing place; oa, a 
basket for fish]. Tract near Fuaamotu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — 
Tungi, landlord. Also tract near Holeva, village on Koloa island (V). 

Fangaoneone. Sandy landing place [fanga, landing place; oneone, sand]. Tract 
near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. Also tract 
near Hoi, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fangapeka. Landing place of fiying foxes [fanga, landing place; peka, flying fox 
(Pteropus keraudrenii)]. Place (T). On the weather shore. 

Fangapou. Landing place of the post [fanga, landing place; pou, post]. Tract 
and district on Nomuka island (H). 

Fangapua. Landing place at which there are pua trees [fanga, landing place; 
pua, a kind of tree (Hernandia peltata)]. Tract near Faleloa, village on Foa 
island (H). 

Fangasiale. Landing place where there are gardenias [fanga, landing place; 
siale, gardenia]. Tract on Ofolanga island (H). 

Fangasii. Small landing place [fanga, landing place; sii, small]. Tract near 
Siesia, village on Nukunukumotu island (T). Also tract on Ovaka island (V). 

Fangasito. Landing place where si shrubs are planted [fanga, landing place; si, 
a plant (Cordyline terminalis) ; to, the act of planting]. Islet (V). 

Fangasitotauhi. Protected landing place where si shrubs are planted [fangasito, 
see preceding; tauhi, protected]. Tract near Holonga, village on Vavau island 
(V). 

Fangataki. Landing place of leading boats [fanga, landing place; taki, to lead]. 
Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. The Tamaha's house 
faced the sea at this place. When one passed in a boat he had to get over- 
board and lead it until past the house. 

Fangatepatauhf. Protected landing place to which one looks across [fanga, land- 
ing place; tepa, to look across; tauhi, protected]. Tract near Holonga, village 
on Vavau island (V). 

Fangatoaki. Unwilling landing place [fanga, landing place; toaki, unwilling] 
Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Fangatokai. Landing place to windward [fanga, landing place; tokai, right ahead 
(in reference to the wind)]. Tract near Muitoa, village on Haano island (H) 
— Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Fangatumau. Landing place which stands fast [fanga, landing place; tumau, to 
stand fast (in Samoan)]. Tracts near villages on Vavau island (V): near 
Vaimalo and Taoa. 



60 Bcrnice P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Fangatuoua. Landing place of the very fine mats from Samoa [fanga, landing 
place; tuoua, the very fine mats from Samoa]. Tract near Uiha, village on 
Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Fangaua. Two landing places [fanga, landing place; ua, two]. Tract near Kano- 
kupolu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fangauta. Landlocked anchorage (or landing place) [fanga, landing place; uta, 
inland]. Inner arms of Tongatabu lagoon (T). 

Fangauvea. Uvean landing place [fanga, landing place; uvea, Uvea or Wallis 
island]. Tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, land- 
lord. 

Fangavahe. Divided landing place [fanga, landing place; vahe, to separate]. 
Cave near Vaini, village on Tongatabu island (T). In hill Hufangalupe. 

Fangavale. Foolish landing place Ifanga, landing place; vale, foolish]. Tract 
near Haakame, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Tataka- 
motonga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. Also tract on 
Niuafoou island (NF). 

Fangavehi. Desired landing place [fanga, landing place; vehi, to desire]. Tract 
near Folaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fangavei. Landing place where there is a streamlet [fanga, landing place; vei, 
streamlet]. Tract near Veitongo, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fangiatu. Tract near Holopeka, village on Lituka island (H) — Tui Afitu, land- 
lord. 

Fanguna. To awaken. Tract near Haavakatolo, village on Tongatabu island (T) 
— Ahomee, landlord. 

Fao. Naked, fruitless (applied to coconut trees). Tract near Fahefa, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Veehala, landlord. 

Faokula. Red nails [fao, nails; kula, red]. Tract near Kolonga, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T) — Nuku, landlord. Also tract near Holonga, village on Vavau 
island (V). 

Fape. Pandanus only [fa, pandanus; pe, only]. Tract near Lotofoa, village on 
Foa island (H) — Tui Pelehake, landlord. Tract on Ovaka island (V). Tract 
near Taoa, village on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Haalautuli, village on 
Vavau island (V) — Atu Haalaufuli, landlord. 

Fapeuta. Inland Fape [uta, inland] Tract near Fotua, village on Foa island (H) 
— Tui Pelehake, landlord. 

Fasi. To break. Tract near Foul, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vahai, land- 
lord. Also tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (V). Also tract 
near Lotofoa, village on Foa island (H) — Tui Pelehake, landlord. Also tract 
near Utungake, village on Utungake island (V) — Tuita, landlord. 

Fasia. A bight. Tract near Siesia, village on Nukunukumotu island (T). Also 
tract on Oua island (H). Also tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, land- 
lord. 

Fasiaa. To ford a bay or bight on the shore [fasia, bay or bight on the shore; 
aa, to ford]. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Fasialimu. The bay of seaweed [fasia, bay or bight; limu, seaweed]. Tract near 
Pangai, village on Lituka island (H). Also tract near Haano, village on Haano 
island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Fasiapule. To cheat, to outdo. Tract near Nukunuku, village on Tongatabu 
island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. Also stone near Lapaha, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T). In the cemetery Langi Taetaea. 

Faslatea. The shallow bay [fasia, bay or bight; tea, whitish]. Tract near Mau- 
fanga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fakatanua. landlord. 

Fasii. Narrow. District on Lofanga island (H). 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 61 

Fasikiato. Broken outrigger sticks [fasi, to break; kiato, sticks extending from 
the canoe to which the outrigger is fastened]. Mound near Tufuvai, village 
on Eua island (T). On hill above the mound Lefelefevalu. between Tufuvai 
and Kolomaile. See Lefelefevalu and Ponahiva. 

Fasiloka. Rough breaking waves [fasi, to break; loka, rough, wavy, full of 
waves]. Tract near Afa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fasipou. Broken post [fasi, to break; pou, post]. Tract near Haalaufuli, village 
on Vavau island (V) — Afu Haalaufuli, landlord. 

Fasitou. Broken tou tree [fasi, to break; tou, a tree (Cordia aspera)]. Tract 
near Kapa, village on Kapa island (V). 

Fata. Bier, loft. Tract near Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V)— Ulukalala, 
landlord. Also southwesternmost promontory of Vavau island (V). 

Fatafata. The chest. Tract near Vaini, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Maafu, 
landlord. 

Fatal. A climbing plant. Tract near Masilamea, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Also tract near Kolonga, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Nuku, landlord. 
Also village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Hihifo, village on 
Lifuka island (H). Also tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — 
Tui Haangana, landlord. Also tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fatailalo. Lower Fatal [see preceding; lalo, below, beneath, under]. Tract near 
Fatai, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fatailoto. Middle Fatai [see preceding; loto, middle]. Tract in Fatai, village 
on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fataiuta. Inland Fatai [see preceding; uta, inland]. Tract near Fatai, village on 
Tongatabu island (T). 

Fatakalapu. Or Fatukalapu. Rock (NT). Said to be one of two rocks rather 
distant from Niuatoputapu ; the home of the god Fatuulu. The other rock is 
Fatukau. 

Fatamasi. Loft of masi wood [fata, loft; masi, a tree]. Tract near XJtulau, vill- 
age on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fataulua. To carry an ulua [fata, to carry; ulua, a large fish]. Tract near 
Haatoa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Nukunuku, village 
on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. Also tract near Muitoa, 
village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also village on Niua- 
foou island (NF). 

Fatongi. Carved pandanus fruit [fa, pandanus; tongi, to carve]. Tract near 
Utulau, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fatu. To commence plaiting mats. Tract near Ahau, village on Tongatabu 
island (T). Also tract near Fuaamotu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, 
landlord. Also tract near Fakakakai, village on Haano island (H). Also tract 
near Fataulua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Fatuauho. Thick kava made from the small roots of the plant [fatu, thick; a, 
of; uho, root of the kava plant]. Tract near Foul, village on Tongatabu island 
(T)— Vahai, landlord. 

Fatufala. To prepare tapa and a fine mat in a parcel as at present. Beach on 
Tongatabu island (T). In lagoon. Also tract near Taoa, village on Vavau 
island (V). 

Fatuinanangi. Island (H). 

Fatukaeafe. To complain although turning aside [fatu, to complain; kae, al- 
though; afe, to turn aside]. Tract near Foul, village on Tongatabu island (T) 
— Vahai, landlord. Also tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island 
(NT)— Maatu, landlord. 



62 Beniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Fatukau. Rock (NT). Said to be one of two rocks rather distant from Niua- 
toputapu; the home of the god Fatuulu. The other rock is Fatakalapu. 

Fatulele. To commence plaiting mats of sugar cane [fatu, to commence plaiting 
mats; lele, a kind of sugar cane]. Tract near Nukunuku, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. Also tract on Haafeva Island (H) — 
Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Ma- 
lupo, landlord. 

Fatuli. To lash together the rafters of a Tongan bouse [fatu, to tie the rafters 
of a Tongan house; li, to lash together]. Tract near Hoi, village on Tongatabu 
island (H). 

Fatuloa. To besmear the abdomen [fatu, abdomen; loa, to besmear the body]. 
Tract near Falehau, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT). Also tract near Ta- 
fahi, village on Tafahi Island (NT). 

Fatumahua. Biliousness [fatu, the abdomen; mahua, to be spilt]. Tract near 
Haakame, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fatumalua. To murmur but to cringe [fatu, to murmur; tnalua, to cringe]. Tract 
on Lofanga island (H). Also tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — 
Tui Haangana, landlord. Also tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu 
island (NT) — Maatu, landlord. 

Fatumanga. To fold that which is spreading [fatu, to told; manga, spreading]. 
Island (V). 

Fatumu. Rotten pandanus [fa, pandanus; tumu, rotten]. Village on Tongatabu 
island (T). 

Fatungakoa. Murmuring foam [fatunga, to murmur; koa, foam. In reference to 
inability of attackers to capture gate]. Fortress gate near Feletoa, village on 
Vavau island (V). The eastern gateway of the fortress of Feletoa. 

Fatuulu. To enter the abdomen [fatu, abdomen; ulu, to enter]. Rock on Niua- 
toputapu island (NT). Rock sacred to the god Fatuulu. 

Fatuvale. Fond of the stomach, i. e. epicurean [fatu. abdomen; vale, fondness]. 
Tract near Utungake, village on Utungake island (V) — Tuita, landlord. Also 
tract near Ngaakau, village on Vavau island (V)— Fakafanua, landlord. 

Fau. A tree. Hibiscus tiliaceus. Tracts near villages on Tongatabu island (T): 
near Nukualofa, Teekiu — Motuapuaka, landlord; Nukunuku — Tui Vakano, land- 
lord; Houma — Vaea, landlord; Haalalo, Tofoa, Folaha, Holonga, Tatakamo- 
tonga — Tungi, landlord, and Hamula — Pangia, landlord. Tract on Ofu island 
(V). Also tracts near villages on Vavau island (V) : near Tuanuku — Uluka- 
lala, landlord, Leimatua — Tui Peleheke, landlord, and Utui. 

Fauapu. Or Fauopu. Tract on Ofolanga Island (H). 

Fauaua. To build two fences [fau, to build; a, fence; ua, two]. Tract near Ma- 
kave, village on Vavau island (V) — Tui Afitu, landlord. 

Fauiava. To repair a boat in a passage [fau, to repair; I, in; ava, passage, chan- 
nel]. Tract near Haalaufuli, village on Vavau island (V)— Afu Haalaufull, 
landlord. 

Faulo. Bursting into flame [fa, burst; ulo, flame]. Tract near Haatafu, village 
on Tongatabu island (T). 

Faumaka. To build with stone [fau, to build, maka, stone]. Tract near Lotofoa, 
village on Foa island (H). 

Faumakauta. Inland Faumaka [faumaka, see preceding; uta, stone]. Tract near 
Fakakakal, village on Haano island. 

Faumotu. Broken fau tree [fau, a tree; motu, broken]. Tract in Ngaunoho, 
village on Utungake Island (V). 



afford — Tongan Place Names 63 

Fautapu. Sacred fau tree [fau, a tree; tapu, sacred]. Place on Eua island (T). 
At this place tradition says Fasiapule put down the dead body of his half 
brother Tui Tonga Tuitatui and tied it with fau fiber to make it easier to 
carry. Because of its application to the dead Tui Tonga's body it became the 
sacred fau. See also Holotapu, Motutapu, and Moungatapu. 

Fauvaka. To build a boat [fau, to build; vaka, boat]. Tract near Manuka, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island 
(H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Fave. Tract near Niutoua, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Favela. Burned pandanus [fa, pandanus; vela, to burn]. Tract near Mataika, 
village on Vavau island (V). 

Feaomoevaka. To guard a boat [feao, to guard; moe, and; vaka, boat]. Tract 
near Utungake, village on Utungake island (V) — Tuita, landlord. 

Feauaki. Meeting place. Pool and beach on Tongatabu island (T). On weather 
shore. 

Feauhihoa. To strive for the mastery in pairs [feauhi, to strive for the mastery; 
hoa, pair]. Tract near Siesia, village on Nukunukumotu island (T). 

Feavaki. Full of holes. Tract near Manuka, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Also tract near Faleloa, village on Foa island (H). 

Feavasi. Anything which has many holes. Tract near Faleloa, village on Foa 
island (H) — Tuita, landlord. 

Fefe. To die (referring to the king). Tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau isl- 
and (V). 

Fefinea. Full of women [fefine, women]. Mound on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fehi. To open oysters. Tract near Haakame, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fehiahekai. To hate because eaten [fehia, to hate; he, because; kai, to eat]. 
Tract near Faleloa, village on Foa island (H). 

Fehiakaeafe. Hating, but nevertheless, turning aside; [fehia, to hate; kae, but, 
nevertheless; afe, to turn aside]. Tract near Koulo, village on Lifuka island 
(H). 

Feifai. Name of a tree. Tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu island (T) — 
Vaea, landlord. Also tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Feilo. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. Also tract 
near Lotofoa, village on Foa island (H) — Tui Pelehake, landlord. Also tract 
near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Feiloasi. Tract near Fakakakai, village on Haano island (H). 

Feiloehau. The hunger of the ruler [fe, wish; ilo, to eat (applied to chiefs); 
hau, ruler]. Tract on Ofu island (V). 

Feilofeilo. Wishing to know. Tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu island 
(T)— Vaea, landlord. 

Feingaamoa. Earnest desire for a chicken [feinga. earnest desire; a, of, belong- 
ing to; moa, chicken]. Tract near Kapa, village on Kapa island (V). 

Feingaeitu. To desire earnestly a half [feinga, to desire earnestly; eitu, a half]. 
Tract on Nomuka island (H). 

Feingafono. To earnestly desire the food eaten at a kava drinking [feinga, to 
earnestly desire; fono, food eaten at a kava drinking]. Tract near Foui, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T) — Vahai, landlord. Also tract near Hofoa, village 
on Tongatabu island (T). 

Feingahili. To earnestly desire the preparation of arrowroot [feinga, to desire 
earnestly; hili, the preparation of arrowroot]. Tract near Holonga, village on 
Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Feingakotone. To earnestly desire a ketone tree [feinga, to earnestly desire; 
ketone, a kind of tree]. Green near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Where festivals of the Tui Tonga were held. 



64 Bcrnicc P. Bislwl^ Miiscuiu — Bulletin 

Feingatau. Battle field. Tract in Fahefa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Feitamamua. First pregnancy [feitama, a state of pregnancy; mua, first]. Tract 
near Holonga, village on Vavau island (V). 

Feke. Octopus. Tract on Niniva island (H). Also tract on Lofanga island (H). 
Also tract near Hihito, village on Lifuka island (H). 

Fekei. To quarrel, to debate, to contend. Tract near Lapaha, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T)— Pangia, landlord. Also tracts near villages on Vavau island 
(V): near Neiafu, Tuanekivale, and Holonga. 

Feketua. Octopus from the deep sea [feke, octopus; tua, the outside of any- 
thing]. Tract near Fuaamotu, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Tungi, land- 
lord. 

Fekika. Name of a tree. Tracts near villages on Tongatabu island (T): near 
Kolovai— Ata, landlord; Foui— Vahai, landlord; Teekiu— Motuapuaka, landlord; 
Matatonua — Tui Vakano, landlord; Haakame, Havelu — Fielakepa, landlord; 
Fatumu, Fuaamotu — Tungi, landlord. Also tract near Nuapapu, village on 
Nuapapu island (V). Also tract near Kei, village on Vavau island (V). Also 
tract near Leimatua, village on Vavau island (V) — Tui Pelehake, landlord. 

Fekita. To kiss. Tract near Puke, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Fohe, land- 
lord. 

Fekitaki. To meet. Tract near Haalaufuli, village on Vavau island (V)— Afu 
Haalaufuli, landlord. 

Felaiaki. Probably telaikiaki, to break up each other's property. Tract on No- 
muka island (H). 

Felatani. To live agreeably with each other. Tract near Koloa, village on Koloa 
island (V). 

Feleakau. Scattered trees [fele, to be scattered; akau, tree]. Tract on Haafeva 
island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Feleave. To deprive of and scatter [fele, to be scattered; ave, to deprive of]. 
Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Lapaha, 
village on Tongatabu island (T)— Pangia, landlord. 

Felefao. Scattered nails |fele, to be scattered; fao, nails]. Tract near Houma, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vaea, landlord. 

Felefata. Anything scattered on the ratters of a house [fele, to be scattered 
about; fata, rafters of a house]. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, 
landlord. Also tract on Ofu island (V)— Tui Lakepa, landlord. 

Felefonu. Scattered turtles [fele, to be scattered; fonu, turtle]. Tract near Vainl, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Maafu, landlord. Also well near Vaini vil- 
lage (T). On the tract Hafekivaka. Also tract near Haano, village on Haano 
island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Felefonua. Scattered laud [fele, to be scattered; fonua, land]. Tract near Tonga- 
mamao, village on Niuatoou island (NF). 

Felehollsi. A badly reeded house [fele, to lay in a confused manner; holisi, the 
reeding of a house]. Tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Felehunga. Stones formed from sand, scattered here and there [fele, to be 
scattered; hunga, sand formed into stones]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha 
island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Felekaho. Scattered reeds [fele, to be scattered; kaho, the reed]. Tract on Oua 
island (H). 

Felekaka. Scattered coconut membrane [fele, to be scattered; kaka, a thin mem- 
braneous substance found round the young coconut]. Tract near Hamula. 
village on Tongatabu island (T)— Pangia, landlord. 

Felekie. Scattered mats [fele, to be scattered; kie, mat]. Tract near Pangal, 
village on Eua island (T). 



Gifford — Toiigaii Place Names 65 

Felekofe. Scattered bamboo [fele, to be scattered; kofe. bamboo]. Tract on 
Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Felekolonga. Scattered to bide the coming of [fele, to be scattered; kolonga, to 
bide the coming of. Scattered mounds (fide Miss B. S. Baker)]. Tract on 
Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Felelei. To run (two or more). Tract and former village near Lotofoa, village 
on Foa island (H). 

Feleleimoeveka. Running with the rail [felelei, to run (two or more); moe, and 
the; veka, rail (Rallus pectoralis)]. Road near Haatafu, village on Tongatabu 
island (T) ; so called because there the hero Muni followed a rail. 

Felemaka. Scattered stones [fele, to be scattered; maka, stone]. Tract near 
Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). On south slope of Mt. Zion. 

Felemea. Scattered property [fele, to be scattered; mea, property]. Village on 
Uiha island (H). 

Felemei. Scattered breadfruit trees [fele, to be scattered; mel, breadfruit]. 
Tract in Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near 
Ngaunoho, village on Utungake island (V). Also tract near Utungake, village 
on Utungake island (V) — Tuita, landlord. Also tract near Tafeuni, village on 
Vavau island (V). 

Felemoataane. Scattered roosters [fele, to be scattered; moataane, rooster]. 
Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Felengataea. Hedge of scattered ngatae trees [fele, to be scattered; ngatae, a 
tree( Erythrina indica) ; a, hedge]. Tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatopu- 
tapu island (NT) — Maatu, landlord. 

Felengesl. Scattered ngesi trees [fele, to be scattered; ngesi, a hardwood tree]. 
Tract near Kanokupolu, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near 
Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island (V). 

Felepata. Scattered gravel [fele, to be scattered; pata, gravel]. Tract on Haa- 
feva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Felepule. Scattered cowries [fele, to be scattered; pule, cowry]. Tract and green 
near Haateiho, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tracts near villages on 
Tongatabu island (T): near Kolonga — Nuku, landlord, Lapaha — Pangia, land- 
lord; Navutoka — Tungi, landlord, and Manuka. Also tract on Tungua island 
(H)— Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Felepunga. Scattered large pieces of coral [fele, to be scattered; punga, a large 
piece of coral]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, land- 
lord. 

Feletoa. Scattered ironwood trees [fele, to be scattered; toa, ironwood (Casua- 
rina equisetifolia)]. Tract near Hautu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Tract near Pea, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Lavaka, landlord. 
Also tract near Hamula, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 
Also tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also tract and 
cemetery near Pangai, village on Lifuka island (H). Also village on Vavau 
island (V). Also tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT)— 
Maatu, landlord. 

Feletongo. Scattered mangroves [fele, to be scattered; tongo, mangrove tree]. 
Tract near Vaotuu, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Tui Vakano, landlord. 
Also Pangai, village on Pangaimotu island (V). 

Feleuhl. Scattered uhi shrubs [fele, to be scattered; uhi, a strong smelling 
shrub (Evodia hortensis)]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — 
Malupo, landlord. Also tract near Pangai, village on Lifuka island (H). 

Feleunga. Scattered hermit crabs [fele, to be scattered; unga, the hermit crab]. 
Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 



66 Bcrnicc P. Bisho[> Museum — Bulletin 

Felevainga. Scattered sports Ifele, to be scattered; vainga, sport, play]. Tract 
near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Felevafta. Scattered sailing vessels [fele, to be scattered; vaka, a sailing vessel]. 
Tract near Tefisi, village on Vavau island (V) — Luani, landlord. 

Feleveinga, Place of scattered streamlets [fele, to be scattered; vei, water]. 
Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Feleveve. Scattered with rubbish [fele, to be scattered; veve, rubbish]. Tract 
near Utungake, village on Utungake island (V)— Tuita, landlord. 

Fellvai. Rapidly running water [fell, to succeed in rapid order; vai, water]. 
Inlet on Nomuka island (H). 

Fengaltu. Tract on Nomuka island (H). 

Fepaki. To jostle, to jar, to clash. Tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu 
island (T) — Vaea, landlord. Also tract near Maufanga, village on Tongatabu 
island (T) — Fakatanua, landlord. Also tract near Muitoa, village on Haano 
island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also tract on Hunga island (V) — Fuli- 
vai, landlord. Also tract near Utungake, village on Utungake island (V) — Tui- 
ta, landlord. Also tract near Taanea, village on Vavau island (V) — Vahai, 
landlord. Also tract near Vaipoa, village on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Maatu, 
landlord. 

Feslmai. To break towards me [fesii, to break; mal, towards (used before pro- 
nouns of the first person)]. Tract on Moungaone island (H). 

Fetaanu. A kind of sugar cane. Tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu island 
(T)— Vaea, landlord. 

Fetalaakllalo. Lower Fetalaaki [fetalaaki, to tell, to make known from one to 
another; lalo, below, beneath, down]. Tract near Otea, village on Kapa 
island (V). 

Fetalaakiuta. Inland Fetalaaki [see preceding; uta, inland]. Tract near Otea, 
village on Kapa island (V). 

Fetanglhi. To cry or weep together. Tract near Fatumu, village on Tongatabu 
island (T). 

Fetoa. Name of reputed Fijian origin. Tract near Nukunuku, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. Also tract near Talafoou, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Lauaki, landlord. Also village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Also island (H). Also tract near Hihifo, village on Lifuka island (H). Also 
tract near Mua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Fetoko. Abbreviation of fetokiaki, to push a canoe to and fro with long rods. 
Tract near Otea, village on Kapa island (V). Also tract on Ofu island (V) — 
Tui Lakepa, landlord. Also tract on Oloua island (V). 

Fetokopunga. To push along a canoe over coral with a long rod ffetoko, see 
preceding; punga, a large piece of coral]. Tract (H). 

Fetuu. A star. Tract near Toula, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fetuuaho. Morning Star [fetuu, star; aho, day]. Star. 

Feuki. To seek. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Feuku. To dive. Tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, 
landlord. Also tract near Talasiu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui 
Lakepa, landlord. Also tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuketoka, landlord. 
Also tract near Mataaho, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Feumasi. To kiss each other. Tract near Nukunuku, village on Tongatabu island 
(T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. 

Feutakl. To hold mutually. Tract near Kolovai, village on Tongatabu island (T) 
— Ata, landlord. 



afford — Tongan Place Names 67 

Fiehua. Desiring to turn up the earth [fie, to desire; hua, to turn up the earth]. 

Tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). Premises of the god 

Finautauiku; see Fanakava. Also tract near Pangai, village on Lifuka island 

(H). Also tract on Ofu island (V) — Tui Lakepa, landlord. Also tract near 

Ahau, village on Niuafoou island (NF) — Fotofili, landlord. 
Fieilo. Inquisitiveness. Tract on Ovaka Island (V). 
Fiekaia. Hunger. Tract near Faleloa, village on Foa island (H). 
Fifihaha. To braid and beat, applied to plaiting rope [fifi, to braid; haha, to 

beat]. Tract near Kolovai, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Ata, landlord. 
Fihaki. To pluck and plait fatal creepers [fi, to plait; haki, the act of plucking 

fatal creeps]. Tract near Muitoa, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haan- 

gana, landlord. Also tract near Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V) — Ulu- 

kalala, landlord. 
Filiaki. To choose beforehand. Tract near Longomapu, village on Vavau island 

(V) — Veikune, landlord. 
Filiki. Tract near Tuanuku, village on Vavau island (V) — Ulukalala, landlord. 
Filimoimaka. To choose to escort a stone [fill, to choose; moi, to escort; maka, 

stone]. A large circular coral slab forming part of wall at Fonuamotu, near 

Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Filimomama. To choose for the world [fili, to choose; mo, for; mama, world]. 

Tract on Niuatoputapu island (NT) — Tangipa, landlord. 
Filofioha. Twisted appearance [filofilo, to twist, as thread; ha, appearance]. 

Tract near Talafoou, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Lauaki, landlord. 
Finau Patches. Named after Finau Ulukalala. After the steamer "Taveuni" was 

wrecked at Finau Patches, Finau came with the schooner "Banui" and salv- 
aged the cargo. Reefs (V). 
Fineeva. Woman walking about [fine, woman; eva, to walk about]. Tract near 

Hofoa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Finefakauha. Woman exposed to the rain [fine, woman; fakauha, to expose to 

the rain]. A large stone on the tract Makafakianga, south of Felemea, village 

on Uiha island (H). 
Finefekai. Ferocious woman [fine, woman; fekai, ferocious]. Tract in Nuku- 
alofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Site of Smith's ice cream parlor. 

So named by Wellington Ngu. 
Finehlka. Woman with straight hair [fine, woman; hika, straight, stiff on end 

(applied to the hair)]. Tract near Matafonua, village on Tongatabu island 

(T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. Also tract near Fakakakai, village on Haano island 

(H). 
Fineifa. Lean woman [fine, woman; ifa, to contract or draw in the belly]. Tract 

near Vaotuu, village on. Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. 
Fineitaloi. A woman who pretends to be angry [fine, woman; ita, angry; loi, 

lie]. Tract near Angaha, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Finekahoamapa. Woman having on a garland of scented mapa fruit [fine, woman; 

kahoa, necklace; mapa, the name of a tree and its fruit]. Place on Tongatabu 

island (T). On weather shore. 
Finekata. A laughing woman [fine, woman; kata, laugh]. Tract near Ngaunoho, 

village on Utungake island (V). Also tract near Tefisl, village on Vavau 

island (V) — Luani, landlord. Also lagoon near Makave, village on Vavau 

island (V). 
Finelalau. A woman who pinches [fine, woman; lalau, to pinch]. Tract near 

Nukunuku, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. 
Finelangatotoa. Woman in bloody pain of child-birth [fine, woman; langa, the 

pain of child-birth; totoa, bloody]. Islet (H). 



68 Beniicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Finelaufusi. A woman who talks about bananas [fine, woman; lau, to talk; fusi, 
banana]. Tract near Mataaho, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Finelaukau. A stylish woman [fine, woman; laul<au, stylish]. Tract near Vei- 
tongo, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Finemataanga. Woman with a sagacious countenance [fine, woman; mata, count- 
tenance; anga, sagacious]. Tract in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu islsuid 
(T). 

Finemataki. Spying woman [fine, woman; mataki, to spy]. Tract near Koloval, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Ata, landlord. 

Finemotuananivi. Old woman who acts fondly [fine, woman; motua, old; nanivi, 
to act fondly]. Tract near Kalaau, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Finemui. Young woman [fine, woman; mui, unripe, immature]. Tract near 
Houma, village on Eua island (T). Also tract near Tuuhetoka, village on 
Haafeva island (H). 

Finemuna. A woman who acts the fool [fine, woman; muna, to act as one in- 
sane]. Tract on Nomuka island (H). 

Finenaakakala. A woman who ceased crying when given a garland of scented 
flowers [fine, woman; naa, to hush; kakala, a garland of scented flowers]. 
Well on Tongatabu island (T). 

Finenavuenga. Woman with head dressed with turmeric [fine, woman; navu, to 
dress the head for cleaning; enga, turmeric]. Place on Vavau island (V). On 
or near Mt. Kafoa. 

Fineofamai. A woman who loves me [fine, woman; ofa, love; mai, towards (used 
before pronouns of the first person)]. Tract near Napua, village on Tongatabu 
island (T). 

Finepani. Anointed woman [fine, woman; pani, to anoint the head]. Tract near 
Maufanga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. 

Finepanllalo. Lower Finepani |see preceding; lalo, below, down, beneath]. Tract 
on Ovaka island (V). 

Finetai. A thrashed woman [fine, woman; tai, to strike, to beat]. Tract near 
Koloa, village on Koloa island (V). 

Finetala. A woman who tells [fine, woman; tala, to report, to tell]. Tract near 
Fulivai, village on Hunga island (V). 

Finetalifolau. A woman who receives voyagers [fine, woman; tali, to receive; 
folau, voyagers]. Tract near Fataulua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Finetanglloi. A woman who pretends to weep [fine, woman; tangi, to weep; lol, 
to lie]. Tract on Nomuka island (H). 

Finetapate. Splashing woman [fine, woman; tapate, to splash]. Beach on Tonga- 
tabu island (T). On weather shore. 

Finetofusi. Running woman [fine, woman; tofusi, to run]. Tract on Uiha island 
(11). Premises of the god Taufamangumoetoto. 

Fineupepe. Woman who shelters the butterfly [fine, woman; u, to shelter; pepe, 
butterfly]. Tract near Maufanga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Faka- 
fanua, landlord. 

Finevalapilllolo. Woman's garment saturated with oil [fine, woman; vala, gar- 
ment; pilllolo, saturated with oil]. Pigeon mound on Uoleva island (H). 
Also tract near Hihifo, village on Lifuka island (H). 

Finevalienga. Woman smeared with turmeric Iflne, woman; vali, to smear; enga, 
turmeric]. Pool on Vavau island (V). Near Mt. Kafoa. 

Finevasia. Woman who acts the sycophant [fine, woman; vasia, to act the syco- 
phant]. Tract near Hoi, village on Tongatabu island (T). 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 69 

Fisi. A flower. Tract near Kanokupolu, village on Tongatabu island. Also tract 
near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also tract 
near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fisiata. To bloom in the air [fisi, to bloom; ata, the air]. Tract near Uiha, vil- 
lage on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Fislate. Flower of the ate grass [fisi, flower; ate, a long grass]. Tract near 
Tatakamotonga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tungi, landlord. 

Fisiatea. Whitish flower [fisi, flower; a, of; tea, whitish]. Tract near Lapaha, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Fisikailapu. Fijian who eats and flatters [fisi, Fijian; kai, to eat; lapu, to flatter]. 
Tract near Falevai, village on Kapa island (V) — Fakatulolo, landlord. 

Fisikuoliele. Ensnared Fijian [fisi, Fijian; kuo, sign of the past tense; hele, to 
ensnare]. Tract near Petani, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 

Fisilalo. To bloom below [fisi, to bloom; lalo, below]. Tracts near villages on 
Tongatabu island (T) : near Tatakamotonga — Tungi, landlord, Haveluliku, and 
Fatumu. Also tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. Also tract 
near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fislloto. To bloom in the center [fisi, to bloom; loto, center]. Tract on Tungua 
Island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Fiuhemasiva. To grow weary because of poverty [fiu, to grow weary; he, be- 
cause; tnasiva, poverty]. Tract near Hihifo, village on Lifuka island (H). 

Fiuhonge. To grow weary of famine [fiu, to grow weary; lionge, famine]. Tract 
near Houma, village on Tongatabu island (T) — ^Vaea, landlord. 

Fiupeaalu. To eat enough and go [fiu, to eat enough; pea, and; alu, to go]. Tract 
near Foui, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vahai, landlord. 

Foa. A fracture, a flaw, a crack. Tract near Kolonga, village on Tongatabu 
island (T) — Nuku, landlord. Also tract near Pangai, village on Lifuka island 
(H). Also island (H). Also tract near Vakataumai, village on Kapa island 
(V). 

Foaangamaka. Quarry; literally, the place of breaking stone. Tract near Koloua, 
village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Lapaha, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Foavaka. Vessel breaker [foa, to fracture, to crack, to make an opening; vaka, 
vessel; said to refer to a rock in a boat passage]. Tract near Uiha, village 
on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Foeata. Earliest dawn. Tract on Hunga island (V) — Fulivai, landlord. 

Foelifuka. Tract near Haasini, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also island 
(V) — Fulivai, landlord. 

Fofoa. To crack into several pieces. Tract on Hunga island (V) — Fulivai, land- 
lord. Island (V). 

Foiata. Island (V). A round shadow. 

Foifakamoana. A coward because of the ocean [foi, a coward; faka, to cause; 
moana, ocean]. Tract near Vaotuu. village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui 
Vakano, landlord. 

Foihefa. Seeds of the hefa grass [foi, seeds; liefa, a kind of grass]. Tract near 
Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia. landlord. Also tract near 
Nukuleka, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Foikaio. To eat a single o fish [foi, a single one; kai, to eat; o, a kind of fish 
(more correctly spelt oo)]. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — 
Malupo, landlord. 



70 Bcruicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Foikau. Fruit of the kau tree [foi, fruit; kau, a fruit tree]. Tracts near villages 
on Tongatabu island (T) : in and near Pea — Lavaka, landlord, Alaki — 
Tui Pelehake, landlord, Tatakamotonga, — Tungi, landlord, and Niutoua. Also 
tract on Fetoa island (H). Also tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, 
landlord. Also tract near Uilia, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Also tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 
Also tract near Holeva, village on Koloa island (V). 

Foilehau. Tract near Tateuni, village on Vavau island (V). 

Foiloki. A single room [foi, a single one; loki, room]. Tract near Haakio, vil- 
lage on Vavau island (V). 

Foilulu. A single owl [foi, a single one; lulu, the owl (Strix delicatula)). Tract 
on Tongatabu island (T). On the weather shore. 

Foimata. A single eye [foi, a single one; mata, eye]. Tract near Uiha, village 
on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Folmoa. An egg! Tract near Otea, village on Kapa island (V). 

Foipipi. The fruit of the pipi tree |foi, fruit; pipi, a tree]. Tract near Nngau- 
noho^ village on Utungake island (V)— Motuapuaka, landlord. 

Fokaavavau. Tract near Longoteme, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Veikune, 
landlord. 

Fokiangapaea. The place from which a friendless person turned back [foklanga, 
the place from which one turned back; paea, a friendless person]. Tract on 
Niuafoou island (NF) — Fotofili, landlord. 

Fokitautau. To turn back and hang [foki, to turn back; tatau, to hang]. Tract 
near Tatakamotonga, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Tungi, landlord. 

Fokolulu. To lie in sickness (a deprecating term in speaking to a superior). 
Tract on Lofanga island (H). 

Fokotoa. To kill everyone. Tract near Haavakatolo, village on Tongatabu island 
(T) — Ahomee, landlord. Also tract near Tuanekivale, village on Vavau island 
(V). 

Fola. To spread out. Tract in Utui, village on Vavau island (V). 

Folaha. Spread out appearance [fola, to spread out; ha, appearance or to ap- 
pear in sight]. Tract near Ohonua, village on Eua island (T). Also village 
on Tongatabu island (T). 

Folahanga. To spread out a span length [fola, to spread out; hanga, a span 
length, i.e. of the hand]. Tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Also tract near Utui, village on Vavau island (V)— Ahomee, landlord. 

Folamei. Scattered breadfruit [fola. to spread out; mei, breafruit]. Tract near 
Falevai, village on Kapa island (V)— Fakatulolo, landlord. 

Foleva. To wash clothes at once [fo, to wash clothes; leva, at once]. Tract 
near Malapo, village on Tongatabu island (T)— Fangia, landlord. 

Folo. To swallow. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, land- 
lord. 

Folofola. The speech of the Tui Tonga. Tract near Havelu, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T)— Fielakepa, landlord. 

Folokoheku. The swallowing of a proud and lazy person [folo, to swallow; ko, 
a prefix used before proper names; heku, a proud and lazy person]. Tract 
near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H)— Malupo, landlord. 

Folokolupe. The swallowing of a pigeon [folo, to swallow; ko, a prefix used be- 
fore proper nouns; lupe, i)igeon (Carpophaga pacifica)]. Islet (T). 

Folokotoa. To swallow the whole mass [folo, to swallow; kotoa, the whole mass]. 
Place on Tongatabu island (T). On the lagoon. 

Folukaehau. To go then return. Tract near Uiha, village on Uiha island (H) — 
Malupo, landlord. 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 71 

Fomalo. The process of dyeing. Tract near Houma, village on Tongatabu island 
(T)— Vaea, landlord. 

Fonoi. To advise. Tract near Mataika, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fonoifua. To advise everyone [fonoi, to advise; fua, everyone]. Tracts near vil- 
lages on Tongatabu island (T): near Nukuhitulu, Lapaha — Pangia, landlord, 
and Makaunga — Pangia, landlord. Also island (H). Also tract on Fotuhaa 
island (H). Also tract near Makave, village on Vavau island (V) — Tui Afltu, 
landlord. 

Fonoimuka. The people that go first. Island (H). 

Fononga. A journey. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Fonongaai. To travel there [fononga, to travel; ai, there]. Tract near Uiha, vil- 
lage on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Fonongahihifo. To travel west [fononga, to travel; hihifo, west]. Tract near 
Maufanga, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. 

Fonongatoa. Courageous traveller [fononga, traveller; toa, courageous]. Place 
on Vavau island (V). 

Fonua. Land. Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tul Haan- 
gana, landlord. 

Fonuaeiki. The land of chiefs [fonua, land; eiki, chief]. Tract near Nukua- 
lofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Maufanga, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. 

Fonuafisi. The land of flowers [fonua, land; fisi, flower]. Tract near Holopeka, 
village on Lifuka island (H) — Tui Afitu, landlord. 

Fonuafoou. The new land [fonua, land; foou, new]. Tract near Haateiho, village 
on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. Also tract near Haano, vil- 
lage on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also tract near Makave, 
village on Vavau island (V) — Tui Afltu, landlord. 

Fonuafusi. The land of bananas [fonua, land; fusi, the generic term for all 
bananas]. Tract near Holopeka, village on Lifuka island (H) — Tui Afitu, land- 
lord. 

Fonuafuu. The large land [fonua, land; fuu, large]. Island (V). 

Fonuahao. The pleasing land [fonua, land; hao, pleasing]. Tract near Houma, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vaea, landlord. Also tract on Tungua island 
(H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. Also tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island 
(V). 

Fonuakula. The red land [fonua, land; kula, red]. Tract near Lapaha, village on 
Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. Also tract near Felemea, village on 
Uiha island (H). 

Fonuaika. The land of fish [fonua, land; ika, fish]. Island (H). 

Fonualai. The land of the lai fish [fonua, land; lai, the name of a fish]. Island 
(V). 

Fonualava. The land of fish bait [fonua, land; lava, a bait for fish]. Tract and 
district near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Fonualei. The land of ivory [fonua, land; lei, ivory]. Tract near Houma, village 
on Tongatabu island (T) — Vaea, landlord. Also tract near Taoa, village on Va- 
vau island (V). Also volcanic island, 600 ft. high, between Vavau and Niua- 
toputapu. 

Fonuamalu. The mild land, 1. e. in regard to wind [fonua, land; malu, mild (ap- 
plied to the wind)]. Tract on Felemea, village on Uiha island (H). 

Fonuamau. The possessed land [fonua, land; mau, to possess]. Tract near Kolo- 
vai, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Ata, landlord. Also tract near Foui, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vahai, landlord. 



72 Bcniicc P. Bisliof' Rfiisciiin — Bulletin 

Fonuamoa. The land of chickens [fonua, land; moa, chicken]. Tract near Nukua- 
lofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fonuamotu. Separate land [fonua, land; motu, separated or apart from]. Tract 
on Eueiki, island (T). Also tract near Teekiu, village on Tongatabu island 
(T) — Motuapuaka, landlord. Also tract near Lapaha, village on Tongatabu 
island (T). Also tract on Tungua island (H) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Fonuangongo. The land of the noddy tern [fonua, land; ngongo, noddy tern]. 
Tract near Neiafu, village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Fonuaoneone. Sandy land [fonua, land; oneone, sand]. Tract near Lavenga- 
tonga, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also island (V). 

Fonuatapu. The sacred land [fonua, land; tapu, sacred]. Tract near Foui, village 
on Tongatabu island (T) — Vahai, landlord. Also tract near Maufanga, village 
on Tongatabu island (T) — Fakafanua, landlord. 

Fonuauliuli. The black laud [fonua, land; uliuli, black]. Tract near Kolovai, vil- 
lage on Tongatabu island (T) — Ata. landlord. 

Fonuaunga. The land of hermit crabs [fonua, land; unga, hermit crab]. Island 
(V). Also tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fonumouha. Turtle and rain [fonu, turtle; mo, and; uha, rain]. Tract near Ha- 
mula, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Fongato. To set false hair [fonga, false hair; to, to set]. Tract near Tuaneki- 
vale, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fongava. To laugh about false hair [fonga, false hair; va, to laugh and make a 
noise]. Tract near Felemea, village on XJiha island (H). 

Fonginongo. Perhaps the misspelling of Fangaleounga. Name taken from Admir- 
alty chart. Village on Foa island (H). 

Fongolca. The long landing place [fongo, landing place (?) ; loa, abbreviation of 
loloa, long]. Tract near Haatoa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract 
and landing in Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract 
near Falevai, village on Kapa island (V) — Fakatulolo, landlord. Also tract near 
Fue, village on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Haakio, village on Vavau 
island (V). 

Fongolongo. The quiet landing place [fongo, landing place (?); longo, quiet]. 
Tract on Uiha island (H). Site of the house of Toke the eel god; the house 
was called Hakaumama. 

Fongotofe. The landing place of pearl oyster [fongo, landing place (?); tofe, the 
pearl oyster]. Tract near Fahefa, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Veehala, 
landlord. Also tract near Utui, village on Vavau island (V) — Veikune, landlord. 

Fongotongo. The landing place amongst the mangrove trees [fongo, landing 
place (?); tongo, mangrove tree]. Tract near Koloa, village on Koloa island 
(V). 

Fongotupu. The fruitful landing place [fongo, landing place (?) ; tupu, to grow, 
to sprout]. Tract on Oua island (H). 

Fongoulu. The bushy landing place [fongo, landing place (?); ulu, bushy]. Tract 
near Ngaunoho, village on Utungake island (V). 

Foofoou. New. Tract on Niuafoou island. 

Fota. Massage. Place on Tongatabu island (T). Now called Avatonga. On 
lagoon. 

Fotu. Kava or some other thing taken as a present and introduction to a per- 
son. Tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). 

Fotua. The name of a fish. Tract near Ohonua, village on Eua island (T). Also 
village on Foa island (H). Also called Alakifonua. It is in the hereditary 
land of the Tui Pelehake which Is called Haatalafale. Also tract on Okoa 
island (V). 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 73 

Fotuaangakovi. Ill-natured fotua fish [fotua, a fish; angakovi, ill-natured]. Tract 

near Kei, village on Vavau island (V). 
Fotuafae. Mother of fotua fish [fotua, a fish; fae, mother]. Tract near Lakepa, 
Fotuafehia. To detest the fotua fish [fotua, a fish; fehia, to detest]. Tract on 

Niuafoou island (NF). 
Fotuafeiloaki. The appearance of knowing each other [fotu, to appear; a, of; 

feiloaki, to know each other]. Tract near Utungake, village on Utungake 

island (V)— Tuita, landlord. 
Fotuaika. The appearance of fish |fotua, to appear; a, of; ika, fish]. Tract near 

Nukualofa, village on Tongatabu island (T). 
Fotuaikamamaha. The appearance of fish at ebb tide [fotu, to appear; a, of; 

ika, fish; mamaha, ebb tide]. Sunken reef (V). 
Fotuaikamoana. The appearance of fish in the ocean [fotu, to appear; a, of; 

ika, fish; moana, ocean]. Sunken reef (V). 
Fotuakaloanga. The appearance of the place of avoiding danger [fotu, to appear; 

a, of; kalo, to avoid danger; anga, place]. Tract near Hihifo, village on Lifuka 

island (H). 
Fotuakamui. To appear like an immature root [fotu, to appear; aka, root; mui, 

immature]. Tract near Pataulua, village on Niuafoou island (NF). 
Fotuakava. The appearance of kava [fotu, to appear; a, of; kava]. Tract near 

Taanea, village on Vavau island (V) — Vahai, landlord. 
Fotuamaka. The appearance of stone [fotu, to appear; a, of; maka, stone]. Tract 

near Holopeka, village on Lifuka island (H). 
Fotuamaumau. The appearance of destruction [fotu, to appear; a, of; maumau, 

destruction!. Tract near Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haa- 

ngana, landlord. 
Fotuamei. The appearance of breadfruit [fotu, to appear; a, of; mei, breadfruit]. 

Tract on Kotu island (H). Also tract on Fotuhaa island (H). 
Fotuamua. The appearance of a chiefly attendant (mua) [fotu, to appear; a, 

of; mua, an individual of rank intermediate between a chief and an attendant. 

or, in other words, a high-class attendant]. Tract near Fatal, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T). Also tract near Fakakakai, village on Haano island (H) : the 

portion of the tract Levenga occupied by the house of the god Haelefeke. 
Fotuangakovi. The appearance of wickedness [fotu, to appear; a, of; angakovi, 

wickedness]. Tract near Foui, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vahai, land- 
lord. 
Fotuapauu. The appearance of mischief [fotu, to appear; a, of; pauu, mischief]. 
Fotuatama. The appearance of a child [fotu, to appear; a, of; tama, child]. 

Tract on Niuafoou island (NF) — Potofili, landlord. 
Fotuavakatefua. The appearance of assembled vessels [fotu, to appear; a, of; 

vaka, vessels; tefua, to be assembled]. Tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhe- 

toka, landlord. 
Fotuhaa. To appear large [fotu, to appear; haa, large]. Island (H). Also tract 

on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 
Fotuhamumu. The appearance of carelessness [fotu, to appear; hamumu, to do 

anything without paying due attention, to be agitated]. Tract near Uiha, vil- 
lage on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 
Fotuika. The appearance of fish [fotu, to appear; ika, fish]. Tract near Longo- 

mapu, village on Vavau island (V) — Veikune, landlord. Also tract near Utui, 

village on Vavau island (V) — Veikune, landlord. 
Fotu la. To go without anyone knowing. Islet (V). 



74 Bernicc P. Bishop Museum — Bulletin 

Fotulelea. To appear driven by the wind [fotu, to appear; lelea, to be driven by 
the wind]. Tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, 
landlord. 

Fotuloua. A kind of tree. Tract near Otea, village on Kapa island (V). Named 
after a large tree behind which Taufaahau (King George I. Tupou) and Peter 
VI took shelter when conversing with the inmates of the beleaguered fortress 
of Otea. 

Fotumoe. Tract near Hamula, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Pangia, landlord. 

Fotumoeumu. To appear with basket of cooked food [fotu, to appear; moe, and 
the; umu, basket of cooked food]. Tract near Puke, village on Tongatabu 
island (T) — Fohe, landlord. 

Fotumoko. The appearance of the gecko [fotu, to appear; moko, gecko]. Tract 
on Tongatabu Island (T). On the weather shore of the eastern district 
(Hahake). 

Fotunoa. To appear worthless [fotu, to appear; noa, worthless]. Tract near 
Pukotala, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. 

Fotungofua. To appear free or unprohibited [fotu, to appear; ngofua, free, un- 
prohibited]. Tract near Vaotuu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, 
landlord. 

Fotuvale. To appear foolish [fotu, to appear; vale, foolish]. Tract near Kapa, 
village on Kapa island (V). 

Foua. To go anywhere. Island (H). 

Fouheki. To go and push out [fou, to go; heki, to push out]. Place near Fatal, 
village on Tongatabu island (T). 

Foui. The name of a tree. Village on Tongatabu (T). Also tracts near villages 
on Tongatabu island (T): near Utulau, Malapo — • Luani, landlord, Kolonga — 
Nuku, landlord, and Haasini. 

Fuaa. Jealousy. Tract near Nukuhitulu, village on Tongatabu island (T). Also 
tract on Haafeva island (H) — Tuuhetoka, landlord. 

Fuaamotu. Produce of an island [fua, produce; a, of; motu, island]. See fuamotu. 
Village on Tongatabu island (T). Also island (V). Also tract near Utungake, 
village on Utungake island (V) — Tuita, landlord. Also tract near Neiafu, vil- 
lage on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Tafahi, village on TafaM island 
(NT). 

Fuafonua. To measure land [fua, to measure; fonua, land]. Tract on Eueiki 
island (T). 

Fuai. Tract near UIha, village on Uiha island (H) — Malupo, landlord. 

Fuaihaakupu. Tract near Ohonua, village on Eua island (T). 

Fualu. Clapping while walking [fu, to clap hands; alu, to go]. Tract in Pea, 
village on Tongatabu island (T). Also tract near Pea, village on Tonga- 
tabu island (T) — Lavaka, landlord. Also tract on Lofanga island (H). Also 
tract near Haano, village on Haano island (H) — Tui Haangana, landlord. Also 
district near Haano, village on Haano island (H). Also tract near Holonga, 
village on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Tongamamao, village on Niua- 
foou island (NF). 

Fuamei. To bear breadfruit [fua, to bear; mel, breadfruit]. Tract near Haalau- 
fuli, village on Vavau island (V) — Afu Haalaufuli, landlord. 

Fuamotu. To measure an island [fua, to measure; motu, island]. Usually spelled 
Fuaamotu. Village on Tongatabu island (T). Also island (V). 

Fuamui. To bear unripe fruit [fua, to bear; mui, unripe]. Tract near Houma, 
village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vaea, landlord. 

Fuatalatau. To carry a war tale [fua, to carry; tale, tale; tau, war]. Tract near 
Vaotuu, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Vakano, landlord. 



Gifford — Tongan Place Names 75 

Fuatangaua. Two lengths of tapa [futanga, a length o£ tapa; ua, two]. Tract 
near Foui, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Vahai, landlord. 

Fue. A vine. Tract near Neiafu, village on Vavau island (V). Also village on 
Vavau island (V). Part of Neiafu. 

Fueafonua. Vine of the land [fue, vine; a, of; fonua, land]. Tract near Haa- 
teiho, village on Tongatabu island (T) — Tui Haateiho, landlord. 

Fuemea. Brown vine [fue, vine; mea, brown]. Tract near Pangai, village on 
Lifuka island (H). 

Fuemotu. Broken vine [fue, vine; motu, broken]. Place on Tongatabu island (T). 
On the weather shore. A place in Pulotu, the land of the gods, bears the same 
name. It is spoken of as the Fanakava of Pulotu. The Fanakava on earth 
is at Lapaha, Tongatabu, and was a sanctuary for mortals. The Fanakava of 
Pulotu is a sanctuary for the gods. 

Fuetahi. Sea vine [fue, vine; tahi, sea]. Tract near Koloa, village on Koloa 
island (V). 

Fufutau. To swell out. Well. In a portion of Pulotu, the land of the gods, 
known as Pulotu Tuumau. 

Fuhu. Name of a shellfish. Southwestern extremity of Foa Island (H). Also 
abandoned village on Vavau island (V). Also tract near Holonga, village on 
Vav