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Drj;': voa Gabr. C. i :•'. D«iliiger in Einiiadeln 


Portrait of Hetilinger, after Wyrsch. 








B.C. 500 — A.D. 1900 














16, 17 & 18 PICCADILLY W. — I & 2 GRACECHURCH ST. E.G. 




In presenting to my friends and to the public the second volume of the 
Dictionary of Medallists, / wish to express my deep gratitude for the 
very kindly reception given to the first, the sympathy and approbation of 
those who have accepted what has been done, and excused deficieruies , 
errors and oversights, which the wide range of my subject rendered un- 

Still more diffident in my own powers, but not less trusting in the 
generosity of my critics, I venture to send out the present volume. 

I feel I may justly be accused of devoting too much space to the works 
of contemporary medallists, sculptors, and amateurs, who, though they 
tnay be skilful modellers, have never had any training in actual metal 
work, either in casting or in die-engraving, and are not therefore, as were 
the older medallists, masters of the material in which their works are 
finally to appear. 

The inherent, I fear irremediable, defect of the work belongs to its 
original aim and object. My endeavour was to give, of both old and 
nwdern medallists, succinct biographical notices accompanied by concise 
summaries of their productions, following in this the plan of such works 
as Nagler's AUgemeines Kiinstler Lexikon and other similar foreign 
Biographical Dictionaries of artists. And it was therefore impossible for me 
not to include the many artists now working in Europe who have 
established a popularity for medallic art hitherto quite unknown. 



In the case of the older masters, any interested student may, by consulting 
the various sources from which I have drawn my information, obtain all 
that he requires ; but it is not so easy to find out particulars concerning 
contemporary artists, and I have made it a special point not to omit any if 
possible and to mention all their medallic productions kttawn to me. To 
leave out certain artists — and it is a somewhat ungrateful task to dis- 
criminate between the merits of contemporaries — would mean wotinding the 
susceptibilities of many who have very kindly helped me in varied ways. 

In writing of what belongs to the present time it is almost impossible to 
avoid more or less inaccuracy, but I have refrained from undue enthu- 
siasm, and endeavoured to insure correctness in the same degree as in 
writing of things in the past. 

I know that by including the names of modern Engravers and 
Modellers, I shall materially increase the bulk of the work ; on the other 
hand I feel sure that many who are specially interested in contemporary 
Art will be glad to find references to living artists. 

The lists of Mint-tnasters and Engravers zvill I am sure be found of 
great service to numisnmtists, asl have already ascertained. 

With this apology, I commend the present volume to the appreciation of 
all those to whom the work may appeal, and trust it may receive the same 
kind support as its predecessor. 

May 190^. 


p. 22. 6«h line from bottom : Galeano. 

P. 23 J. 4th line from top and under illustration : Director-General. 

P. 383. 2nJ line from bottom : Num. Chron., 1904, Pari I. 

Additional matter will appear in a final Supplement. 




Coin, Gem, ami Seal Engravers, Ancient and Modern, 
u'ith References to their Works. 

B.C. 500 — A.D. 1900 
(Including the names of several hitherto unpublished Artists) 



E. (Greek). Supposed artists signature on coins of Thurium. 

E. Fide EITZE Mint-master at duedlinburg, 1615-1617; also 

E. Fiii.' THOMAS EAST. London Die-sinker and Medallist of the 
second half of the seventeenth century. 

E. Fide EBERHARD. Mint-master at Saalfeld, 1740-1754; also 

E. Fide JOHANN JACOB ENCKE. Mint-master, and Die-sinker at 
Hanau, 1740-1770. 

E. Fide EBLLIHG, JOHANN CHRISTOPH. Die-sinker at Brunswick, 


E. r/iA' TOBIAS ERNST. Die-sinker at Berlin, 1755. 

E. Fide EINHORNING JUNIOR. Die-sinker at Stockholm, 1780- 
1844; also C.E. 

L. FoRREK. — Biographical Noticts of Medallists. — II. I 

— 2 — 

E. Vide. ENEGREN. Die-sinker at Stockholm, from 1815 to about 
1855; also G.A.E. 

£. and a key. Vide CASPAR AYRER. Mint-master at Frankfort-on- 
M., 1618-1625, and Mayence, 1627. 

A. E. Vide ADAM HEINRICH EHRENREICH. Mint-master at Bres- 
lau, I743I75I- 

B. E. Signature of a Niello-engraver whose name and nationaHty 
are unknown. 

B. E. Vide BUDA (Mint) and ECKENBERGER (Kammergraf), 

B. E. Vide BENEDETTO ERIZZO. Rector of Cattaro, 15 74- 15 76. 

CE. Vide CASPAR ENDERLEIN. Medallist of the first half of the 
seventeenth century. 

C. E. Vide CHRISTIAN EMMERICH. Mint-master at Gadebusch, 

C. E. rirf<? CARL ENHORNING. Medallist at Stockholm, 1780-1800. 

C. E. r/W^CARLENHORNING. Medallist at Stockholm, 1809-1844. 

C. E. C. Vide EKEBLAD. Die-sinker at Stockholm, circa 1800. 

C. E. M. Vide CHRISTIAN ERNST MULLER. Die-sinker at Augs- 
burg, 1717-1741, Warden of the Mint at Oettingen, 1759-1761. 

C. E. R. Vide CARL ERNST RIESING. Die-sinker at Wiirzburg, 
about 1793-1798. 

master at Zellerfeld, 1780-1785. 

E. E. Vide E. ERCKRATH. Die-sinker at Offenbach, circa 1880. 

F. E. F/Jc FRANZ ENGEL. Mint-master at Bonn, 1638-1649. 

F. E. Vide FRIEDRICH EBERLE. Warden of the Mint at Mannheim, 

F. E. Vide FRIEDRICH ERHARDT. German Die-sinker, circa 1840. 

E. E. W. Vide FRIEDRICH ERNST WERMUTH. Mint-master at Hild- 
burghausen, 1716-1718. 

G. E. Vide GOTTFRIED EHRLICH. Warden of the Mint at Saalfeld, 
1623, and Sagan, in the service of Wallenstein, 1628-1630. 

— 3 — 
G. E. Fide GREGOR EGERER. Mint-master at Prague, 1694-1709. 

G. E. Fide GEORG EHLE. Die-sinker at Vienna, 1755-1759. 

H. E Fide. HEINRICH ELBERSKIRCHEN. Mint-master at Coblenz, 

H. E. A. Fide HEINRICH ERNST ANGERSTEIN. Mint-master at 
Coburg, 1686-1705. 

I. E. Fide JACOB EISENVALET. Mint-master at Gottingen, 1626- 

I.E. Fide JOHANN ENGELHARD. Polish Die-sinker, circa 1633. 
I. E. Fide JOHANN ELERS. Mint-master at Magdeburg, 1678- 1690. 

I. E. Fide JOHANN ENKE. Mint-master at Hanau, 1740-1770; 
also I. I.E. 

I. E. Fide I. ERICSSON. Swedish Die-sinker, 1860-1868. 

I. E. B. Fide JOHANN EPHRAIM BAUERT. Die-sinker and Medal- 
list of Copenhagen, 1760- 1794, -j* 1800. 

I. E. C. Fide JOHANN ERNST CROLL. Mint-master at Dresden, 

I. E. G. Fide JOHANN ERNST GRAUL. Mint-master to the Princes 
of Anhalt. 1692-1693. 

I. E. K. r/i^ JOHANN ENGELHARD KRULL. Mint-master at Hanau, 
1737-1742, and Brunswick, 1742-1750. 

I. E. Fide I. ENDLETSBERGER. Austrian MedalUst 1 778-1826. 

IE. 0. Fide GIROLAMO ORIO. Rector of Cattaro, 1492-1494. 

I. E. R. Fide JOHANN EGIDIUS ROSCH. Mint-master at Nuremberg, 

I. E. S. Fide JOHANN ERICH SCHILD. Mint-master at Hanover* 

master at Stolberg, 1750-1765, Director of the Erfurt Mint, 1779, 
t 1804. 

K. E. Fide E. KERN (Warden) and EBENAUER (Mint-master) at 
Schwalbach, 175 8- 1765. 

M. E. Fide MICHAEL EDLER. Mint-master at Saalfeld, 1724-173 1; 
also I . M . E . 

— 4 — 
0. E. Vide OEXLEIN. Die-sinker at Nuremberg, 1740- 1787. 
P. E. Vide PAUL EGGERS. Mint-master at Rostock, 1670-1672. 

R. E. Vide RUDOLBH ERNST OECKERMANN. Mint-master at Dan- 
zig, 1760-1766. 

T. E. VideTOmnS EITZE. Mint-master at Quedlinbure, 1615-1617. 

T. E. Vide ELIAS TISCO. Mint-master at Parma, 1 644-1652. 

W. E. Vide EBERHARD WERNER. Mint-master at Minden, 1673, 
Crossen, 1674, and Domitz, 1674-1680. 

W. E. Vide E. WEBER (Warden) and EBERHARD (Mint-master) at 

Wertheim, ij^yi'jj". 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, Erkldning der Abkilr^ungen auj 
Mutt:{en der neuerenZeit, des MiUelalters und des Alterthitns , Berlin, 1896. 

&. A fine medal of 1567, bearing the portrait, facing, of Wolft 
Diirr, is signed JE in exergue. It is the work ot an unknown 
German artist. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure des sech:^ehnten und siebiehnten 
Jahrhuiiderts, Berlin, 1884. 

(E. Signature of a German Medallist of the first half of the six- 
teenth century. This monogram appears on the following struck 
medals : 1530, John the Constant and John Frederick; — 153 3> 
Charles V. and Isabella; — 1534, Steffan Schlick ^. Lorenz and 
Katharina Schlick; — i535,Philipp of Hesse. 

BiBUOGRAPHY. — Erman, op. cit. 

EAGLE (Medailleur a I'aigle) (Jtal.^. There is a series of six 
medals, the reverses of which bear a spread eagle, sometimes sur- 
charged with arms. One of these resembles very much the work 
of Benedetto da Majano. Armand designates the unknown Medal- 
list who executed these, as Medailleur a Vaigle. The medals are : 
Giovanni Gaddi, -\ 1485; — Giovanni Gozzadini, 1477, -J- 1517; 
— Giannantonio Guidi, 1459? f 1501; — Pietro Macchiavelli, 
1460 -J- 15 19; — Maria Mucini; — and Filippo Strozzi, 1426 
t 1491. 

Bibliography. — A. Heiss, Les nu'dailleurs de la Renaissance : Florence et les Flo- 
reuiins, I, Paris, 1891. —Armand, Les Medailleurs italiensdes XV^ et XVI^ siecles, 
Paris, 1885. — Julius Friedlander, Die italienischen SchaumUnien des fiinfielmten 
Jahrunderts, Berlin, 1880- 188 5. 

EAST THOMAS (Brit.). Die-sinker and Seal-engraver to James II. 
He was a pupil of Thomas Simon. His nephew, John Ross, filled 

— 5 — 

the office of Engraver at the Royal Mint until the accession of 
George I. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, ShiTien -{ur Kunstgeschichte der modernen MedaiUen- 
Arheit (142^-1840), Berlin, 1840. — Ruding, Annals of the Coinage of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland, London, 1840. 

EASTMAN, S. (Amer.). Designer of a medal, engraved circa 1856 
by J. B. Longacre, of Commander Duncan Nathaniel Ingraham, 
to commemorate the release of Martin Coszta. 

E. B. Fide ERNST BRABANDT. Die-sinker at Celle, 1670-1705. 

E. B. Vide LPERAI^ BRENN. Mint-master at Warsaw, 1774-1792. 

E. B. C. FzV/^fiTIENNE, BOURGES (Mint-master) CHAMB£RY (Mint), 

EBELING, JOHANN CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Die-sinker, and Coin- 
engraver at the Brunswick Mint, 1750-1766. 

EBENAUER, JOHANN JACOB (G^rw.). Mint-master at Schwalbach, 
1758-1767. His initial E and that of Kern, K, appear on the Con- 
vention Thalers of that Mint between 1759 and 1767. 

Bibliography. — J. L. Ammon, Sammlung beriihmter Medailleurs und Miini- 
meister und ihre Zeichen, Nurnberg, 1778. 

EBER, CONRAD or CUNTZ (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 
1509-11. He appears in 1481 as Goldsmith, 1488 asAssayer; 1493- 
1506, Mint-master at Salzburg under Prince Bishop Leonhardt von 
Keutschach; 1 506-1 508, Mint-master to Duke Albrecht IV. of 

EBERHARD, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (Germ.). Mint-master at Saalfeld, 
1755-1765, and at Bayreuth, 1765-1768. He appears to have also 
worked for Reuss in 1763. His initials I.C.E. appear on the cur- 
rency issued under him. We have seen Convention Thalers and 
Gulden of Henry XXIV. of Reuss-Lobenstein, dated 1765 by this 
engraver, and also coins of John Frederick, of Schwarzburg- 
Rudolstadt, 1764. 

EBERHARD, G. H. (Germ.). Mint-master at Saalfeld, 1740-1754. 

EBERHARD (Germ.). Mint-master at Wertheim, 1765-1777. His 
issues are signed W . E . 

EBERHARD, JOHANN CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-master at Wer- 
theim, 1803. 

EBERHARD, WERNER (Germ.). Born in 1627. He was not only 
Master of the Mint at Crossen, but really Arrendator. From the 

— 6 — 

14''' February to 9'^ November 1674 he issued 8 Groschen pieces 
to the value of 15454 Thalers, and Groschen for 10097 Thlr. 
22 Groschen. 

EBHERHARDUS (Austr.). Monetariuset dispensator. Mint-warden for 
Styria, mentioned in 1166 and 1186. 

EBERHARDUS (Austr.). Mint-master at Eger, fiirca 1279. 

EBERLE, FRIEDRICH {Germ.). Warden of the Mint at Mannheim, 

EBERLEIN, GUSTAV (Germ.). Contemporary BerHn Sculptor. 
There is a commemorative medal by him of the Silver Wedding of 
Crown-Prince Frederick of Germany, and Victoria, Princess- Royal 
of England, 1883. 

Bibliography. — D"" F. P. Weber, Medals and Medallions of the Nineteenth cen- 
tury relating to England, hy foreign Artists, London, 1894. 

EBERLINDS (EBERHARDUS) (Bohem.). Mint-master at Prague, 

EBERSON, L. H. (Belg.). Designer of a medal, engraved by de 
Vries commemorating the centenary of the masonic lodge " De 
Geldersche Broerderschap " at Arnhem, 1886. 

EBICH, BLASIUS (Germ.). Die-cutter at Breslau, before 1592. 

EBRALDUS (Freneh). Moneyer at Troyes, 11 57, under Count 
Henry I. the Generous. He held the office oi magisterium et sculptura 
ferrorum monete. 

Bibliography. — N. Rondot, Les Gravetirs de la Monnaie de Troyes du Xll« au 
XVIlb siecle, Paris, 1892. 

E. C. Vide ERNST DIETRICH CROLL. Mint-master at Weilburg, 
1749-1752, Leipzig, 1753-1763, and Dresden, 1764-1778; also 

ECCLESTON, DANIEL (Brit.). His signature appears on a medal of 
Washington, 1805, and on his token for Lancaster, 1794, which 
exhibits his portrait. 

E. C. D. Vide ERNST CASPAR DIFRR. Die-sinker at Dresden, 
1670-1680, Zerbst, 1683-1692, and afterwards at Stettin and 

ECK, WILHELM VON (Germ.). Mint-master at Elbing, 1650- 

ECKE, HANS VON (Germ.). Mint-master at Andreasberg (for 
Brunswick, Cattenburg) (for Sayn-Wittgenstein) between 16 17 and 

i62i ; afterwards for the Count of Schwarzenberg until 1622, and 
at Osterode. This artist died before 1628. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

ECKFELDT, ADAM (Amer.). Coin-engraver to the United States 
Mint, born in Philadelphia, June 15, 1769. We read in the 
Illustrated History of the United States Mint, p. 115 : "He was 
trained to mechanical pursuits by his father, who was a large 
manufacturer of edge-tools and implements. On the establishment 
of the Mint he was engaged to construct some of the machinery 
for it. He built the first screw-coining presses. The contrivance for 
ejecting the piece from the collar, together with some mechanical 
appliance, were his invention. 

"In an old pay-roll ot 1795, we find the name of " Adam Eck- 
feldt, die Forger and Turner". His official connection dates from 
January i., 1776, when he was appointed Assistant-coiner by 
Director Boudigot, with the consent of President Washington. 
Upon the death of Henry Voigt, Mr. Eckfeldt was appointed to 
succeed him as Chief-coiner and remained in that position until he 
resigned, in 1839. He continued to visit the Mint for some years 
after; and he is yet remembered as a hard worker in the Mint, 
without compensation. For half a century he was one of the cen- 
tral figures of the Mint service. His mechanical skill, his zeal, 
energy, and uprightness, brought him many distinctions, both as 
an officer and a citizen. " 

ECKERT, GEORGE N. (^Amer.), Seventh Director of the United 
States Mint, i. July, 1851 to 4. April 1853. 

Bibliography. — Illustrated History of the United States Mint, 1893. 

Mint at Prague, 1621. 

ECKHOF, MICHAEL (Germ.). Mint-master at Liibeck, circa 1546; 
distinctive mark, an acorn. 

ECKEREN, R. VAN. Dutch Die-sinker of the nineteenth century. 

ECKHARD (Germ.). Engraver of Breslau, who worked at the Mint 
of Glatz in 1807. 

E. D. Vide EMANUELE DIANO. Mint-master at Chamb^ry, 1573- 

E. D. Vide E. DRENTWETT. Die-sinker at Augsburg, eighteenth 

E. D. C. Vide ERNST DIETRICH CROLL. Mint-master at Weilburg, 
1749-1752, Leipzig, 1753-1763, and Dresden^ 1764-1778. 

EDER, ANDRE (G^TW.)- Mint-masterat Gratz (Hofpfenningmeister), 
EDER, THOMAN (Germ.). Mint-master at Gratz, 1632. 

EDLER, JOHANN MICHAEL (Genu.). Mint-master at Saalfeld. 
1724-173 1. His issues are usually signed I.M.E. 

EDLING, JOHANN JOACHIM (Austr.). Mint-master at St. Polten, 
1624; distinctive symbol, a French double-lily. A thaler of 1625 
bears the artist's initials I. I.E. and the lily. In 1627 he undertook 
the management of the Mint of Gitschin, and previous to 1624, he 
had worked the Presburg Mint. On the 15''' of March, 1625, 
M. Fellner was instated Master of the Mint at St Polten, but on 
the 13''' September of the same year, Edling contracted for it again, 
but had to finally give it up at the end of 1625. 

Bibliography. — Regesten :^u J. Newahfs Publimtionen uber osterreichische Mun:(- 
toiagimgen. Mitth. des Clubs derMiinz- und Medaillen-Freunde in Wien, 1890. 

EDMOND, ARTUS (French). Mint-master at Arras, circa 1648. He 
struck gold Louis and silver Half-ecus (30 solpieces) by the mill 
process (par lavoye dumoulin). 

Bibliography. — Revue numisvialique, 1901, XV. 

EDMUND, JOHN (Brit.). Goldsmith, and Coin-engraver at the 
London Mint, appointed by King Richard 11. 

Bibliography. — Ruding, Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain, London, 

E. E. Vide E. ERCKRATH Die-sinker at Offenbach, 1880. 

EDWARDS, D-^ (Amer.). A physician of the end of the eighteenth 
century. In the Bushnell sale (Lot 2768) was a counterfeit Halt-cent 
of 1796, made by this engraver. It is said that after his decease the 
dies and any specimens remaining were destroyed. 

" EEMBRUGGE, RENIER VAN (Belg.). Mint-master for the Province 
of Guelders, 3"* of September 1544 to 29*" of March 1546(1547 
n. s.). 

E. F. F/W^ ENHORNING. Swedish Court Medallist, 1780-1844. 

E. F. or E. FAR. Vide EDGtNE FAROCHON. Die-sinker and Medal- 
list at Paris, 1848-1861. 

E. F. R. Vide ERNST FRIEDRICH RUPSTEIN. Mint-master at Stol- 
berg, 1766-1792. 

E. F. S. Vide ERNST FRIEDRICH SCHNEIDER. Mint-master at 
Coburg, 1 63 6- 1 672, and Magdeburg, 1669 and 1670. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

— 9 - 

EFFINGHAM, EARL OF (Brit.). Master of the Mint under 
George III., anno 29. 

E. G. Fide JACQUES EDOUARD GATTEAUX. French Medallist, 1788 

E. G. Fide ELIAS GERVAIS. Die-sinker at Neuwied and Coblentz, 


Zweibrijcken, 175 4- 1757; later on in the service of the Counts of 
Hanau-Lichtenberg, 1758 and 1759. 

E. G. N. Fide ERNST GEORG NEUBAUER. Mint-master at Berlin, 

EGAS, ALVARO (Port.). Engraver at the Mint of Porto, son of 
Egas Gonsalves, whom he succeeded on the 7''' of March 1488. 

EGAS, GONSALVES (Port.). Engraver at the Mint of Porto, before 
1488, under John II. 

Bibliography. — A. Raczynski, Dictionnaire hisiorico-artistique du Portugal, 
Paris, 1847. 

EGERER, GREGOR (Bokm.). Mint-master at Prague, 1694-1709. 
His initials G.E. appears on coins and medals. 

EGERTON, THOMAS (Brit.). Master of the London Mint under 
Philip and Mary "By a proclamation ot the 20'*' August 1553, 
and an indenture of the same date made with Thomas Egerton, 
Thomas Stanley, and others, it was ordered that the gold coins to 
be thenceforth made were to be the sovereign, which was to be 
current for 30 i". ; the half-sovereign, to be called the royal of 
gold, and to be current for 15 j. ; the angel at 10 j; and the half- 
angel as 5 s. All to be of fine gold, /. e.; of the old standard, 23 cts. 
3 I grs. fine gold to \ gr. alloy. By a proclamation of the 4*'' of 
March 1553-4, the following foreign gold coins were made current 
throughout the kingdom, and were ordered to be paid and received, 
on pain, of imprisonment, at the rates fixed, namely, the 
French crown of the sun at 6 j. 4 rf. ; the crown of the Emperor's 
coin at the same rate ; the double-ducat of Spain, with two faces, at 
135. 4 rf. ; the single ducat at 6 j. % d.\ provided in all cases they 
were of just standard, weight, and fineness. And to these were 
added by a proclamation of May, 1554, three Portuguese coins — the 
single crusade, with the long cross, at 6 j. 8 ^., the same with the 
short cross, aa the same rate ; and the pistolett at 6 j. 2 d. " 

Bibliography. — Kenyon, Gold Coins of England, London, 1884, p. 117. 

— 10 — 

EGGENBERGER, BALTHASAR (Austr.). Mint-master at Gratz. He 
died in prison, 1493. Kreuzerand Four-pfenning pieces, dated 1458, 
are known by him. 

EGGENSCHWYLER (Swiss). Celebrated Sculptor of Soleure ; begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century; pupil of Joux. In 1804, he obtained 
the Grand Prix for Sculpture. He executed some bas-reliefs and 
portrait-medallions in clay. 

EGGENSTEIN, GEORG (Austr.). Warden of the Mint at Hall i. T., 

EGGENSTEIN, TEOM AH (Austr.). Warden of the Mint of Innsbruck 
i. T. 1577 Y 1601. 

EGGERS, PAUL (Germ.). Mint-master at Rostock, 1 670-1672. His 
initials P.E. appears on the coins issued by him. 

EGGL, WOLFGANG (Austr.). Gem, and Seal-engraver of the end of 
the sixteenth century. In 1594 he was appointed to cut the dies at 
the Mint of Hall i, T. under Archduke Ferdinand, but he did not 
retain his post more than three months. 

EGLI, JOSEF (Swiss). Native of Hall in Tyrol (Hall im Ynthal). 
He was sometime Mint-master for the Bishops of Sion, later on for 
the City of Lucerne, 15 77- 15 79. In 1580, it appears from docu- 
ments, that he was dead. 

Bibliography. — D' Theodor von Liebenau, Die Munimeister von Ltiiern, 
Bulletin de la Soci^t6 Suisse de numismatique, 1890. — Th. Haas, Einrichtung der 
Mun:(sldlte Lu{ern, crc, Revue Suisse de numismatique, 1898. 

EGRA, VINCENTZ (Germ.). Mint-master at Frankfort-on-M., 
1 5 46- 1 5 47. He struck Thaler and Half-thaler pieces of these two 

E. H. Vide ERMENEGILDO HAMERANI, 1683-1744. Die-sinker at 

E. H. Vide EHRENREICH HANNIBAL, 1678-1741. Die-sinker at 
Hanover, 1705, and Clausthal, 1715. 

E. H. Vide ENGEL, HARTMANN. Die-sinker at Stockholm, 1740- 

master at Stolberg, 1790-1807. 

EHINGER, DAVID (Germ.), Mint-warden at Oppeln, Silesia, 1669- 

— II — 

EHLE, GLOKG (Austr.). Die-sinker and Medallist at Vienna, 1755- 
1759. In cjnjunction with A. Wideman, he executed in 1759 a 
medal showing portraits of Francis I. and Maria Theresa, with 
their thirteen children. 

Bibliography. — Domanig, Portralmedaillen des Erihauses Oesterreich, Wien, 

EHRENREICH, ADAM HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Breslau, 
1743-175 1 ; the currency is signed either A.E., A. E., or A. H. E. 

EHRLICH, GOTTFRIED {Germ.). Warden of the Mint at Saalfeld, 
1623, and later at Sagan in the service of Wallenstein, 1628-1630. 
His signature on the coins is G. E. He was a native of Freiberg in 
Saxony, and first filled the post of Warden at the Mint of Altenburg, 

EHRENREICH, HANNIBAL (Swed.) Medallist, born in 1678, died 

at Clausthal, 1741. 

Bibliography. — Ris-Paquot, Dictionnaire encydopediqiie des marqiies et mono- 

E. I. F/^<? ERICH JAGER. Mint-master at Zerbst, 1722 and 1725. 

E. I. K. Vide E. I. KRULL. Mint-master at Hanau, eighteenth 

EICHHAUSER, STENZEL {Germ.). In conjunction with his brother- 
in-law, Isaias Jessensky, he worked theTroppau Mint from i6i4to 
1617, and afterwards the Vienna Mint from 1617 to 1619. 

EICHELSTEIN, JOHANN JAKOB {Germ.). Mint-master at Worth 
(Alsace), 1606. 

EICHELSTEIN, JOHANN LUDWIG {Germ.). Brother of the last. 
Mint-master at Zweibriicken, 1585-1605, Worth, 1606, Heidelberg, 
1620, and again at Worth, 1624. 

EILER JAKOB {Germ.). Mint-master at the city of Breslau, 1523 
and following years. 

EIMBCKE {Germ.). Mint-director at Breslau, 1750. 

EISENVALET, JACOB {Germ.). Mint-master at Gottingen, 1626- 
1628. His signature is I. E. on the coins. 

EISEL, G. {Austr.). Die-sinker and Medallist of the middle of the 
nineteenth century. There is a medal by him of 1857 on the Visit 
of the Emperor and Empress of Austria to the Binda Institute at 

— 12 — 

EISELE, GEORG (Germ.). Goldsmith, and Die-sinker, employed 
by the Heidelberg Mint, during the last quarter of the sixteenth 
century. He is mentioned in Mint-documents of 1576, 1578, I579) 
1584, 1585, 1586, and later years for having cut dies for coins, and 
probably also some for medals for Duke William. 

Bibliography. — J. V. Kull, Aus hayerischen Arclnven, Mittheilungen der Baye- 
rischen Numismatischen Gesellschaft, Munchen, 1900. 

EISENDRAHT, JULIUS PHILIP (Germ.). Was employed at the 
Crossen Mint before 1670, and was Mint-master at Zellerfeld 
(Harz) from the 21. August 1672 to his death, in 1677. 

EISKHER, ABRAHAM (Austr.). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Kremnitz; appointed in 1580 by Maximilian 11. He had been 
employed at the Mint since 1564. 

EISLER, CASPAR GOTTLIEB (G^w.). Nuremberg Goldsmith of the 
first half of the eigtheenth century. He was really a copper-plate 
engraver, but is said to have executed several medals, one of which 
bears a portrait of Esther Barbara Sandrart. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cil. — Erman, op. cit. 

EITZE, T. (Germ.). Mint-master at Quedlinburg, 1615-1617. 
His issues are signed T. E. 

EJELHAUS, CASPAR (Germ.). Mint-master at the Court of Bran- 
denburg, circa 1754. 

Bibliography. — Ris-Paquot, Didionnaire des marques et monogrammes. 

E. K. Vide EGIDIUS KRAUWINKEL. Nuremberg Counter-manufac- 
turer, 1 571-1600. 

E. K. Vide ENGELBERT KETTLER. Mint-master at Osnabriick, 
1637, and Miinster, 1638-1656. 

E. K. Vide ENGELHARD JOHANN KRULL. Mint-master at Hanau, 
Kassel, and Frankfort, 1737-1742, and Brunswick, 1742-1750. 
From 1737 to 1739 he signed his issues J. K., and from 1739 either 
EK. or E. K. ; sometimes also E. I. K. 

E. K. Vide ERNST KLEINSTEUBER. Mint-master at Gotha, 1828- 
1838, t 1845. 

EKEBLAD, C. (Swed.) Die-sinker of Stockholm, end of the 
eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth, century. He engraved 
a large number of medallic portraits of Swedish celebrities. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

EKHARDUS (Bohem.). Mint-master at Prague, 1292. 

— 13 — 

EKKENPERGER, ULREICH (Austr.). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Gratz, 1436. 

EKVALL (Germ.). An undated medal of the poet Tegner is signed 
by this Die-sinker. 

E. L. r/J^ EDWARD LEE. Archbishop of York, 153 i-i 541, Inspec- 
tor of the York Mint. 

E. L. r/J^ HIERONYMUS EQUES LUCENTI. MedalHst at Rome, circa 

E. L. Vide ERGOLE LELLI, 1702- 1 7 60. Die-sinker of Bologna. 

ELBERSKIRCHEN, HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Coblenz, 
1669-1675. His signature on the coins is H. E. or EE. 

ELERS, JOHANN (Germ.). Mint-master at Magdeburg, 1678-1690. 
His issues are signed J. E. We have seen his initials on Gulden of 
1690 and 1693 of Frederick III. of Brandenburg (1688-1701). 

ELHAFEN, IGNAZ (Germ.). Ivory-carver, 1 650-1710 (?), who 

produced a number of medallic portraits carved in ivory. 

ELIA DE JANUA, BATTISTA (Ital.). Genoese Medallist, who was 
working circa 1480. Two medals by him are known ; those or 
Battista II. Fregoso, elected Doge of Genoa in 1478, -|- 1502, and 
Cosma Scaglia. The latter is signed : OP.BAPTE . ELIE . DE . lANVA. 
Both medals are illustrated in Friedlander. 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cU. — Friedlander, op. cit. 

ELION, J. (Dutch). Contemporary Die-sinker and Medallist, resid- 
ing at Amsterdam. His signature appears on a medal commemor- 
ating the Third Centenary of Dutch independence, 1872, and on 
another, with portrait of Gisb. van Tienhoven, Burgomaster of 
Amsterdam, 1883. The latter is illustrated in the Revue beige de 
numismatique, pi. xv, 1885. 

ELKINGTON & CO (Brit.). A firm of London and Sheffield Silver- 
smiths, which has from time to time edited medals^The City Cor- 
poration medal of 189 1, commemorating the Visit of the Emperor 
and Empress of Germany to London is signed ELKINGTON & CO, 
and is a fine piece of work; that struck in 1886, on the Colonial 
and Indian Reception, is also by the same firm. The medals on the 
Industrial Exhibition at Toronto, 1879; the Marquis of Lome and 
Princess Louise ; and those produced to celebrate the 1887 Jubilee, 
and 1897 Diamond Jubilee, do not exhibit the same good work- 
manship and execution . Their latest production is a coronation medal 
of King Edward VII., June 1902, engraved by the artist George 
Frampton, R.A. 

— 14 — 

ELLIS, S. (Canad.'). Die-sinker, residing at Toronto, circa 1858. 
He is the author of a masonic medal ot the "Grand Lodge of 
Ancient free and accepted Masons of Canada " and the designer of 
several medals, mostly engraved by C.C.. Wright and J. Willson, 
and others as : Major-General Winfield Scott (Mexican Cam- 
paign); -■ — Major-General Zachary Taylor (Victory of Buena 
Vista), 1847; — President Millard Fillmore, 1850; — President 
Franklin Pierce, 1853 i — President James Buchanan, 1857; — 
President Abraham Lincoln, 1862; — Cornelius Vanderbilt, 1865 ; 

— &c. 

ELLIS & CO, P. W. (Canad.). Firm of Die-sinkers and Medallists, 
at Toronto. Their best known medals are : Montreal Carnival, 
1885; — Canada's Winter Carnival, 1887; — Industrial Exhibi- 
tion of Toronto, 1879; — Ontario Agricultural Exhibition, 1886; 

— S' Andrew's Society of Toronto, 1886; — Lord Lansdowne, 
1885 ; — Temperance Act sustained, 1884; — Toronto Collegiate 
Institute; — Toronto Crystal Palace; — H. E. The Marquis ot 
Lansdowne; — Queen Victoria Diamond Jubilee, 1897; — School 
Prize Medals of Ottawa ; — Opening of the Victoria Hospital, Lon- 
don, Canada ; — Epworth League Societies' Medal ; — Canada's 
Great Victorian Era Exposition and Industrial Fair; — Halifax 
Carnival, 1896, &c. 

P. W. Ellis & Co have during the past twenty years struck a 
large number of commemorative medals of different events in the 
history of Canada, and for distribution as prizes in its institutions 
of learning. Some of these medals have artistic merit, and are perhaps 
the best yet produced in Canada. 

Bibliography. — R. W. Mc Lachlan, Canadian Diamond Jubilee Medals, 1898. 

ELMERICH, CHARLES EDOUARD (French). Painter, Engraver, and 
Sculptor; born at Besancon (Doubs) in 18 13. He is the author of 
some Portrait-medallions in bronze and clay. There is also a medal 
by him " Heur et malheur" exhibited at the Salon of 1870. 

Bibliography. *- Chavignerie et Auvray, Diclionnaire giniral des Artistes de 
Vicole frangxise, Paris, 1882. 

born at Dunkirk in 1797, died at Paris in 1856. At the Salon of 
1834, he exhibited a frame of bronze Portrait-medallions, and again 
in 1835. One of these is a portrait of Napoleon III. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

ELSHOLZ, JOACHIM (Austr.). Die-sinker at Kremnitz before 1598, 
then at Schemnitz, 1601 and 1602. 

— 15 — 

EMANUEL, HARRY (Brit.). London Die-sinker, whose signature 
we liave seen on a medal commemorating the American Alliance 
of 1866. 

EMBLERD, ANDRfi (i'zcm). Mint-master at Geneva, 29''' June 1556 
to 29''' July 1557. 

EMERT, ANDRfi (Siaiss). Mint-master at Geneva, from 1665 to 
1667, again from 167 1 to 1674, ^"'^ ^^'^^ more in 1676. Distinc- 
tive mark : JE. 

Bibliography. — Demole, Histoire vionetaire de Genh-e, 1887. 

EMERY, EDWARD (Brit.). " Collector, and dealer in coins and 
medals, resided in London, and died at Hastings, about 1850. He 
is best known for his forgeries of English gold coins, the dies for 
which were made under his direction. " There is a modern medal 
of Lady Jane Grey, 1 5 5 3 , by him ; a variety existed in the Montagu 
Collection; another was sold at the Pearce Sale, October 1898. 
A medallic coin on the marriage of Mary, Queen of Scots, with 
Darnley, and other concoctions are attributed to him. 

Bibliography. — Franks and Grueber, Medallic Illustrations of British History, 
London, 1885. 

EMERY, JEAN (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, in 1675, again in 
1687, and once more in 1701. His initials LE. appear on the coins. 
Bibliography. — Demole, op. cit. 

EMERY, JEAN (French). 15 19-1526. Jeton-engraver of the first 
half of the sixteenth century. He was probably the father of Nicolas 
Emery. The name is more correctly spelt ESMERY. There is a 
jeton of 1526, bearing the arms of Bishop deComminges, which is 
attributed to this artist. 

EMERY, NICOLAS (French). A Paris Die-sinker of the middle of 
the sixteenth century, born in 15 10. His name should more 

Jeton, or Pattern Testoon, by N. Emery. 

correctly be spelt AYMERY. He was granted permission in 1553 
to engrave jetons with the arms of Mary, Queen of Scots. Burns, 

— i6 — 

(Coinage of Scotland, II, 345) gives the following interesting 
notes : 

" In the register of the mint of Paris occurs the following 
entry, bearing obvious reference to these pieces, described as 
below : 

1. Obv. FM in monogram, crowned, between two waved 
stars, or suns of six points ; legend : -|- DILIGITE IVSTICIAM 
1553. I^. Scottish escutcheon crowned ; legend : DELICIE DNI 
COR HVMILE {illustrated). 

2. Obv. M crowned, between two thistle-heads, both crowned ; 
legend : MARIA DEI G SCOTOR REGINA. ^L. As preceding; 
legend, similar. 

'* Ce jourdhuy dernier jour de Janvier I'an mil cinq censcinquante 
trois a este permys a Nicolas Emery, graveur, de graver une pille 
et ung trousseu a fere gectons aux armes de la royne d'ecosse du 
coste de la pille ; et du coste du trousseau y a une devise qui est 
une F et une M lassees ensemble qui sont romaines et deux soleilz 
au coste de la dite devise. Et autour dudit trousseau est escript 
DILIGITE IVSTICIAM 1553. Et autour est escript MARIA.D.G. 
R.SCOTORVM. " "There seems to be some words om/tted 
after "autour" in the last sentence; as it is evidently intended to 
be there stated that the inscription '* MARIA, &c. " is to be written 
around the pilles " — " The jeton n° 2 is the complement of jeton 
n° I, supplying the name of Mary, with her title as Queen of 
Scots, which had been omitted on the jeton n° i, although so 
stated in the directions given to Emery as at 31" January 1553-4. 
It is clear that some alteration had subsequently taken place in the 
instructions given to Emery, as he had made two jetons instead of 
one, although using the same reverse die for both, with a different 
distribution of the inscriptions from what had originally been 
directed. " 

N. Emery was born in 15 10; he resided at the Palace " sur les 
grands degres". The following jetons were also engraved by him : 
1 5 3 1 , Jeton for the Queen ofNavarre ; — 1550, Jeton : LVDOVIC VS 
VERVS ABBAS (2 var. of^.); — 1553, Jeton with arms of Car- 
dinal Chatillon; — Jeton of Galliot Mandat, 1534, &:c. 

Bibliography. — Burns, Coinage of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1887, p. 345. — 
A. Barre, Graveiirs en midailles de la Renaissance fran^aise, Annuaire de Numisraa- 
tique, 1867. — Franks and Grueber, op. cit. — J.-A. Blanchet, Les Graveurs en 
Bearn,DAx, 1888. 

EMICH, GREGOR (Germ.). Mint-master of Jagerndorf, Silesia, 

EMIL (Ilal.}). This signature occurs on a medal of Pope 
Clement VIII. 

— ty — 

EMMERICH, C. F. (Germ.). Sculptor and Medallist of the first half 
ot the nineteenth century. There is a Portrait-medallion of Kleber by 
him, 1840, and another of Guttenberg, the inventor of printing. 

EMMERT, HANS DAVID (Germ.). Mint-master at Culmbach, 
16 14-1624. His issues are signed H.D.E. or PO.E. These initials 
appear on a Thaler of Christian of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, 15 14. 

EMPIN, LAURENT (Belg.). Goldsmith at Lille, circa 1657. He 
presented a request for obtaining the right to set up a Mint there, 
but his proposals were rejected. 

EMPTMEYER, CLEMENS (Anstr.). Contemporary Die-sinker and 
Medallist residing at Vienna. The following medals are amongst 
his latest productions : Jubilee of the House of Foest, 1890; — 
Memorial of Crown-prince Rudolf of Austria ; — Scientific Society 
of Baden, near Vienna, &c. 

D"" F. P. Weber mentions that ''he worked with the Wyons in 
London about 1880-1887, and that he was employed to engrave 
the following medal at the recommendation of the late Sir Edgar 
Bohem ". 

Roval Jubilee Decoration, 1887. Obv. VICTORIA D.G REGI- 
NA ET IMPERATRIX F.D. Bust of Queen Victoria to 1., after 
Boehm; below, the signature : C. EMPTMEYER. !^. Inscription 
within open wreath, surmounted by a crown : IN COMMEMO- 
VICTORIA 21 JUNE. 1887. 

This medal, was given, in gold, to members of the royal family 
and royal visitors who were present at the Jubilee celebration ; in 
silver, to Ministers of State and other dignitaries ; and in bronze 
to the royal servants. In 1897, ^ clasp bearing the date was added, 
and given to those who received the 1887 decoration. The medal 
is worn with a ribbon, dark blue with two light blue stripes. 

Bibliography. — D"" F. P. Weber, op. cit. 

ENAUD, M"'^ ZOE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Paris ; 
pupil of the celebrated sculptor and medallist, A. Charpentier. 
Since 1881, this artist has exhibited various Portrait-medaUions at 
the Paris Salons. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, o/>. cit. 

ENCKE, JOHANN JACOB (Germ.). Mint-master at Hanau, 1740- 
1770. The coins issued under him bear his initials J.J.E. or 
J.JE. He does not appear to have cut many dies himself, but 
employed the engraver Charlotte Rebecca Damiset of Hanau, His 
initials also appear on coins of Maria, Landgravine of Hesse-Cassel, 
1763, and on a medal of 1765, commemorating the 50 years' 

L. FORRER. — BiographUal Xolices of Medallitts. — II. 2 

- i8 — 

Jubilee of Anton Mathieu, of Lausanne, Minister of the French 
reformed church at Frankfort-on-Main, 1715-1765. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Tobler-Meyer, Die Mim\ 
iind Medaillen Sammhmg des Herrn Hans Wunderly von Muralt, Zurich, 1897-1899. 

ENDERLE, DAVID VON BURGSTADT (Bohem.). Warden of the Mint 
at Prague, in succession to Peter Keckh, 1591-1600. In 1608, he 
was named Inspector of the currency in Bohemia. His distinctive 
symbol is an eagle's head within a shield. 

Bibliography. — Regesten ^u J. Newald's Puhlicationen, &c. 

ENDERLE, DAVID (Austr.). A medal of Stephan, Count Schlick, 
described below, is signed DE. Donebauer attributes to Enderle the 
medals signed thus, and mentions that several members ot the 
Enderle family were Masters of the Mints at Joachimsthal and 
Kuttenberg. Obv. HER + STEIFFAN - SCHLICK + GRAF + ZU + 
BASSAN + Bust ; below i • 5 • 26 ^ • 3 5 . ^L. D ^ LAVRENTIVS x 
ofLaur. and Catherine Schlick; in the field 15-34. 

Medal olC'oiints Stephan and Lorenz SchHck, by Enderle. 

Another medal, of Counts Stephan and Lorenz Schhck, 1533, 
by this engraver, realized 551 Mks. at the sale of Messrs L. & L. 
Hamburger (April 1900). It is illustrated above. 

Bibliography. — Ad. Hess Nachf, Katalog der Medaillen-Satmnlung Eugen 
Felix, 1895. — L. and L. Hamburger, Raritalen Cabinet, 1900. 

ENDERLEIN, KASPAR {Germ.). Wax Modeller, Founder and Lapi- 
dary of Nuremberg, during the first half of the seventeenth century. 
There is only one medal known of this artist; it is his own Portrait- 
medallion ; the legend reads : CASPAR ENDERLEIN SCULPEBAT ; 
on truncation are the letters CE. Enderlein died in 1633. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Erman, op. cit. — Doppelmayr, 
Historische Nachricht von den Nurnbetgischen Mathematics und Kimstlern. Niirnberg, 

- 19 - 

ENDERLIN, JOSEPH LOUIS {French). Sculptor, born at Basle 
(Switzerland); pupil of Jouffroy and Roubaud. He executed a 
bronze portrait medal in 1878 of M, Fenon, and others since, 
which have been exhibited at the Paris Salons. 

Bibliography. — Chavigneiie et Auvray, op. cit. 

ENDERS (Swiss). Mint-master in the service of the three cantons 
of Uri, Schwytz, and Unterwald, arra 1550. 

ENDLETSBERGER, JOHANN (Aiistr.) 1778-1826. Medallist and 
Die-sinker at Vienna. His works are nearly all of a private char- 

ENDRES, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Jagerndorf, Silesia, 1560- 
5. He was also employed at the Breslau Mint before 1574. "His 
distinctive sign appears to have been three hearts. In 155 1 he is 
mentioned as Mint-master at Teschen, and is said to have been 
born at Kassel. 

ENEGREN, GUSTAF ADOLF (Swed.). Medallist of the first half of 
the nineteenth century. He settled at Stockholm, circa 181 5. This 
Die-sinker is the author of jetons and portrait-medals of Joh. Tob. 
Sergell, 1815 ; — Fred. H. A. Chapman, vice-admiral, 1817; — 
Casper Isaac M. Ehrenborg, 1829; — Badge of the Royal Patriotic 
Society, 1824; — Portrait Medals of Charles XIII. and Oscar I, &c. 
His signature on the medals is G. A. E. or ENEGREN. 

Bibliography. - - Catalogue de la Collection de moiinaies defeti Christian Jiirgensen 
TImusen, Bronce-Medailkr, Copenhague, 1889. — Hildebrand, Sveriges och Svenska 
Konungahusels Minnespenningar, &c., Stockholm, 1875. 

ENGEL, FRANZ (Germ). Mint-master at Bonn, 1638-1649. His 
initials F.E. appear on the coins issued by him, and also on the 
currency of Maximilian Henry, Prince-bishop of Cologne (1650- 

ENGEL, JOHANN KARL (Germ). Medallist of the second half of 
the eighteenth century. Bolzenthal does not record any of his 

ENGELBRECHT, JOHAN (Dan.). Mint-master at Copenhagen, 162 1, 

and Frederiksborg, 162 i-i 623. 

ENGELHART, CHRISTOPH (Atistr.). Die-sinker at the Mint of 
Prague, 1625-1626. 

ENGELHART, DANIEL (Germ.). Gem-engraver of the early part of 
the seventeenth century. 

— 10 — 

ENGELHARDT, DAVID (Bohein). Die-cutter at the Mint of Prague, 


ENGELHARDT, HEINRICH (Germ.). Medallist and Die-sinker of 
Breslau. Three medals of John Sigismund Haunold, and others, bear 
his initials. They date of the second half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, although some of them are of 1633. One or two were pro- 
duced in conjunction with the Medallist Kittel. 

ENGELHARDT, HEINRICH (G^rw.). Gem-engraver of the first half 
of the sixteenth century. He resided at Nuremberg, and was a friend 
of Albrecht Diirer. King mentions that he was famous for engraving 
coats-of-arms on gems. 

Bibliography. — Rev. C. W. King, Antique Gems, London, i860. 

ENGELHART, JOHANN REINHOLD (Pol.). Die-sinker and Medallist 
of the seventeenth century. He occupied the post of Mint-master 
in Sweden before 1689, and afterwards resided at Breslau, where 
he produced a number of inferior works. 

A medal commemorating the Fortification of Breslau, in 1693, 
is signed I.E. and ascribed to him. In 1696 he was accused of 
forging old thalers for collectors, and retired to Stettin, where he 
died in 17 13. By him are also : Wadislaus IV. of Poland (fully 
signed; — Siege of Vienna, 1683; — Numerous historical 
medals; — Kaspar Neumann, 1697; — Charles XII. of Sweden, 
1697; — Copenhagen bombarded, 1700; — War between Sweden 
and Denmark, 1700-1701 (sev. types); — Stralsund Luther Medal, 
1700, &c. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Studien \ur schlesischen Medailleiikunde, 1696. 
— Hildebrand, op. cit. 

ENGELHART, OTTO (Germ.). Medallist of the first half of the 
sixteeenth century. Bolzenthal considers him one of the best artists 
of his time. He is the author of a Portrait-medallion of Bishop Eus- 
tace (Wolowtcz) of Wilna. 1525. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

EN6ELLENDER, HANS (G^rw.). Mint-master at Frankfort-on-M., 
1487-1507. He was surnamed " Engellender", but his real name 
was HANS GULDENLEWE. He struck Goldgulden, Thaler, and 
Heller, and was in possession of the Imperial Mint, even for some 
time after 1507. 

Bibliography. — Paul Joseph and Ed. Fellner, Die Miin:(en von Frankfurt am 
Main, 1896. 

ENGRAND, GEORGES (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Aire (Pas-de-Calais, Pupil of Cavelier. In 1878, he was awarded 

— 21 — 

a third-class medal for his exhibit at the Paris Salon of that year. 
He is the author of several Portrait-medallions. 
Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

ENHORNING, CARL {Swed.). Medallist to the Swedish Court, 
1780-1844. He produced a large number of medals to commemorate 
events relating to Sweden and Portrait-medallions of Swedish 
celebrities. I have seen one of Gustavus III., 1788; and another 
of Magnus Lehnberg, 1809, both signed C.E. Of 1797, there is a 
masonic medal by him. He also engraved medals of Gustavus IV. 
Adolphus of 1799, 1808, and other dates, illustrating various 

This artist's father was also a celebrated Die-sinker. 

Hildebrand (^Sveriges och Svenska Konuttgahusets Minnespenningar ^ 
&c., Stockholm, 1875) describes the following medals by this 
engraver : Gustavus I. (2 var.) ; — Erik XIV. ; — John III. ; — 
Sigismund; — Charles IX.; — Christina (executed in 1786); — 
Charles X. Gustavus; — Charles XL; — Charles XII. ; — Ulrica 
Eleonora; — Frederick I. ; — Adolph Frederick ; — Gustavus III. ; 

— Naval Victories over the Russians, 1788 ; — Crown-prince Gus- 
tavus Adolphus, 1789; — Gustavus III., Portrait Medals (3 var., 
engraved in 1792); — Death of Queen Sophia Magdalena, 1813; 
— ■ Portrait Medal of Queen Sophia Magdalena (2 var.) ; — The 
Crown-prince Gustavus Adolphus visits the Stockholm Town Hall 
^791 ; — Portrait Medal of Gustavus IV. Adolphus; — Gust. IV 
Adolphus, accession, 1796 ; — Portrait Badge of the King, 1797 ; 

— Opening of the Swedish Parliament, 1800; — Return of the 
King and Queen from Germany, 1805 ; — Unveiling of a statue 
to Gustavus in. 1808; — Prosperous state of the country; — 
Royal Patriotic Society Badge; — Royal order 'Pro Patria' ; — Royal 
Finnish Agricultural Society, 1799 ; — Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Industry, 1797; — Society of the Greek Torch, 1797; 

— Portrait Medal of King Gustavus IV. Adolphus ; — Queen Fred- 
rika Dorothea Wilhelmina ; — Naval Victory over the Russians, 
17. July 1788 ; — Duke Charles, Prince Regent under the minor- 
ity of King Gustavus IV. Adolphus, 1792; — King Charles XIII., 
1810; — Union of Sweden and Norway, 1814; — Jubilee ot 
Upsal University, 181 5 ; — Third Centenary of Luther, 18 17; — 
Death of King Charles XIII. , 1818; — Medal for Civil Merit; — 
Prosperous state of the country under the reign of Charles XIII. ; 

— Royal Academy of Music; — Administration of Mining Com- 
panies; — Royal Order PRO PATRIA; — Royal Agricultural 
Society Prize Medals (2 var.); — Fire Insurance Medal; — Por- 
trait Medal of Charles XIII. ; — Death of Queen Edwige Elisabeth 
Charlotte, 18 18; — Death of Crown-prince Charles Augustus, 
the adopted son of Charles XIIL, 1810 (3 var.); — Crown-prince 

— 22 — 

Charles XIV. John (2 var.); — The Crown-prince, Chancellor of 
Upsal University, 1810; — The Crown-prince's first visit to Upsal, 
181 1 ; — War with France, 181 3 ; — Battle of Dennewitz, 1813 ; 

— Battle of Leipzig, 1813 ; — The Crown-prince's return to Swed- 
en, 1814; — The Crown-prince visits Orebro, 1814; — Union 
of Sweden and, Norway, with bust of Prince Charles John, 1814; 

— Accession of King Charles XIV. John, 1818; — Coronation, 
18 1 8 (2 var); — Portrait Medal of the King, 1818; — MiHtary 
Reward; — Reward tor Public Services — Prize Medals for 
Industrial Enterprises ; — Scandinavian Fire Insurance Society ; — 
Portrait Medal of King Charles XIV. John ; — Crown-prince Oscar, 
1818. :^. VIRTVTI ADOLESCENTI ; — Visit of the Crown-prince 
to Upsal, 1819 ; — Portrait Medal of King Oscar I. &c. 

This Medallist signed his works : E, or C.E., or C. ENHOR- 
NING and sometimes also ENHORNING. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — 
Hildebrand, op. cit. 

ENKE, JOHANN JAKOB {Germ.). Mint-master at Hanau, 1740- 
1770. His coin - issues are signed I.I.E. or I.E. In 1751, he 
endeavoured unsuccessfully to obtain the same post at Frankfort- 
on-M. He also engraved the following medals : Coronation of 
Charles VII., 1742 ; — Frankfort Ducat, 1749; — 50 years' Jubilee 
of Pastor Mathieu of Frankfort, 1765; — Imperial Diet at Frank- 
fort, 1 74 1, &c. 

Bibliography. — Paul Joseph und E. Fellner, op. cit. 

(Jtal.). A Parmesan Medallist of the second half of the fifteenth 
century. His works are comprised between 1456 and 1475, but he 
was still living in 15 13. Some authors call him PARMIGIANO. 

Armand ascribes to this artist the following medals : Taddeo 
Manfredini, Count of Faenza, Lord oflmola, 146 1 ; — Francesco IV. 
Ordelaffo, surnamed Cecco, Lord ot Imola, 1457; — Piermaria 
Rossi, Count ofBerceto, Parmesan condottiere, 147 1 ; — Piermaria 
Rossi, and Bianca Pellegrini, of Como, his mistress; — Bianca 
Pellegrini, 1457, Obv. DIVAE.BLANCHINAE.CVMANAE. 
SIMVLACRVM.MCCCCLVII. — V.F. Veiled bust of Bianca to 
r. :^. 10 FRANCISCI.PARMENSIS.OPVS. Square turreted 
tower, on which a bird is perched ; — Francesco Sforza, 4''' Duke 
of Milan, 1456; — another with ^L. portrait of Galeazzo Maria 
Sforza, son of Francesco, 1459; — Constanzo Sforza, Lord ot 
Pesaro and his father Alessandro, V' ^. SYDVS.MARTIVM. 
crossing over a bridge defended by two towers ; — 2"*^ V,L. 

— 23 — 


MEN. View of Pesaro citadel; — y^ ^L. QVIES.SECVRITAS. 
— lO.FR.PARMENS.Constanzo Sforza on horseback; — Another, 
obv. Bust of Constanzo 1^. Bust of Alessandro, 1475 ; — I^. of a 
medal without obv, in South Kensington Museum, IHOANNIS. 
between a horseman and two foot soldiers; — Another, IHOAN- 
1467. Four winged Genii playing together (a plaque). 

Enzola also executed the following plaques : Child, nude, 
riding on lion to r. ; — Martyrdom of S' Sebastian ; — Scenes 
from the life of S* Jerome ; — Armed horseman galloping to r. ; — 
Virgin, facing, seated on throne surrounded by cherubs (Plaque 
of almond shape) ; — S' George in armour on horseback to 1 ; — 
Children at play, &c. 

This famous artist was filling the post of maestro delle stampe at 
Ferrara in 1472, under Ercole 1. d'Este. It is not improbable there- 

Doppia of Ercole I. d'Este, by Enzola (?) 

fore that Enzola engraved the dies of the fine gold Doppia (illustrated') 
of that Prince and of his other coins of Ferrara and Reggio. Three 
of the labours of Hercules are depicted on the coins (gold and silver) 
of Ercole I. 

In some of his signatures he styled himself Goldsmith. 

Enzola merits a place of honour amongst the earliest medallists 
of the Renaissance, and Bolzenthal's opinion, that his works have 
not been given all the attention they are worthy of, perhaps still 
holds good in our days. 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Cahn, Medaillen 
und Plaketten der SamniJuno; IV. F. Mel^ler, Frankfurt-am-Main, 1898. — Emile 
Molinier, Les Plaque ties, Paris, 1886. — I. B. Supino, // Medagliere Mediceo, 
Firenze, 1899 — Fntd\inder, op. cit. 

EPHRAIM, ITZIG and SONS (Germ.). A banking firm of Berlin, 
which worked the Breslau Mint, 1755. 

EPITONOS. Fictitious Greek signature on modern gems; it 

— 24 — 

appears amongst others on a Venus Victrix leaning upon a cippus 
in the Thorns Collection. 

EPITYNCHANOS (Greek). Gem-engraver of the early Roman 
imperial period. His authentic signature appears on the following 
camei and intagli : Portrait of Germanicus, signed CPITTfXA 
(broken cameo in the British Museum; formerly in the Fulviu, 
Ursinus, Strozzi, and Blacas Collections); — Bust of young Satyrs 
signed CniTTTXANOT (Amethyst intaglio in the Collection de 
Luynes, Bibliotheque nationale (illustrated) ; — Belierophon riding 
on Pagasos, signed 6ni (Carnelian, of the French Cabinet). 

Bust of young Satyr, by Epitynchanos. 

M. Babelon suggests that this gem-engraver may have been the 
freedman mentioned in an inscription of the columbarium of Livia, 
and called there aurifex. 

This artist's signature has been copied on numerous modern 
gems; one ot these is given by King, and represents the Triumph 
of Venus and Cupid. 

Bibliography. — E. Babelon, Le Cabinet des Antiques. — Id., La Gravure en 
Pierres fines, Paris, 1894. — Id., Art. Gemmae, Daremberg et Saglio, Dictionnaire 
des Antiquit^s grecques et romaines, vol. II, 2^^ Part, p. 1479. — C. W. King, 
AnliqueGems, London, i860. — Id., Handbook of Engraved Gems, London, 1884. — 
Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen, 1900. — D^ Heinrich Brunn, GeschiciHe der Griech- 
ischen Kfmstler, Stuttgart, 1899. 

EPLI (Germ.). Die-sinker of Miinster, during the second half of 
the eighteenth century. His signature appears on a medal commem- 
orating the Laying of the Foundation-stone of Munster Palace 


ERCKRATH, F. D. (Germ.). Contemporary Die-sinker, residing at 
Offenbach. His signature occurs on a medal struck in 1890 for the 
Frankfort Photographic Society. 

master at Prague, 175 5 -1784. 

ERDMAN-N, A. (French). Contemporary Sculptor, residing at 

— 25 — 

Paris. He appears to have modelled several of the medals issued by 
A. de Rivet, and other medallists, and his signature occurs on 
various modern artistic medals : S* George and the Dragon ; — 
Horse Training; — Pigeon Training; — Agricultural Prize 
Medals; — Head of the Republic; — Attributes of Shooting, &c. 

ERHARDT, FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Die-sinker of the second quarter 

of the nineteenth century. 

ERICH, GEORG (Germ.). Warden at the Nuremberg Mint, 1300- 

ERICSSON, JOHAN EDVARD (Swed). Die-sinker at Stockholm, 
between 1845 and 1875. The Thomsen Medal Collection contain- 
ed the following medals engraved by this artist : Charles XV. and 
Louise; — Prize for Music (2 var.); — Jubilee of S' Laurentius' 
Cathedral, 1845, &c. Hildebrand describes the following : Corona- 
tion of King Charles XV. and Queen Louise, i860; — Stockholm 
Exhibition of Fine Arts, 1867; — Second Centenary of Lund Uni- 
versity, 1868; — Royal Military Academy of Goteborg, 1866; — 
Portrait-medal of Charles XV. &c. 

ERIZZO, FRANCESCO. This artist's name is absolutely legendary ; 
its existence rests with a faulty reading of the authors of " Tresor de 
Numismatique et de Glyptique (Medailles italiennes, t. L pi. xv, 
n° 3)", who have read the name ERIX instead of BRIX on a 

master Lazarus Erker; Warden at the same Mint, under Benedikt 
Huebmer, 1610-1614. 

ERKER, LAZAR VON SCHRECKENFELS (Bohem.). Mint-master at 
Prague, 1583-1594. He originated from Annaberg, and was raised 
ro the nobility in 1586 on account of his services to the State. His 
distinctive mark on the coins is a double-lily. 

Lazar Erker and Mint-master at Prague, from her husband's death, 
in 1594, until 1600, when she ceded her rights to HannsLizans. She 
adopted her predecessor's mint-mark. 

Bibliography. — Regesten ^u J. NewaWs Ptiblicationen fiber osUrreichiscJx Mun^- 
prdgutigeu, Mittheilungen des Clubs der Munz und Medaillen-Freunde in Wien, 

ERLACH, J. ANTHONY VON (Su'iss). The coinage of the town or 
canton of Lucerne was farmed out to Erlach and his colleagues, 
from 1549 to 1552. Under him were issued : Dickpfennige, Batzen 

— 26 - 

and Half Batzen, Shillings, Kreutzers, and Half-Shillings, Angsters 
and Plapparts. 

Bibliography. — Haas, Einrichtung der Mun:{stdUe Lu'^ern, &c., Revue suisse 
de numismatique, 1898. 

Plan, 1620-1629, under the Counts of Schlick; distinctive sign, 

ERNESTO (Brazil). Contemporary Die-sinker. In 1871, he 
engraved a masonic medal, in conjunction with Gameiro; it com- 
memorates the aholition of slavery in Brazil, and was presented to 
Viscount of Rio Branco, Grand Master of the Freemasons in that 

Bibliography. — Marvin, The Medals of the Masonic Fraternity, Boston, 1880. 

ERNOUL (5(?/^.). Die-sinker, cited in 14 13, when he was Coin- 
engraver at the Mint of Ghent. He probably succeeded to Jena 
Belin, under Jean sans Peur. Having contracted debts, Ernoul ran 
away with the coining-dies ; all endeavours to find hiin in Flan- 
ders, Holland, Zeeland, and Brabant, were made in vain. This 
engraver is supposed to be the author of a jeton, struck at Ghent in 
1 41 6, for the Chambre des Comptes of Flanders, at Lille ; 299 speci- 
mens in silver, weighing 4 Marks 6 Ounces 12 Esterlins, were 
delivered to Jean Gobelet, private Mint-master of Ghent. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Biographies des graveurs beiges. Revue de la 
numismatique beige, 185 1. 

ERNST TOBIAS (fierm.'). Die-sinker and Coin-engraver at the 
Berlin Mint, 1755. There is a pattern Species-Thaler of Frederick 
the Great by him. 

ERONDELLE, JEAN {French), 1552-1556. This artist was appoint- 
ed, in conjunction with Etienne Delaune, by letters patent of 
25''' of April 1552, Engraver at the Paris Mint. He began reforms in 
the coining process, and was the precursor of Briot and Warin in 
this domain. The following letter addressed to Henry II., King of 
Navarre and quoted by Blanchet, is of sufficient interest in this 
connection, to be reproduced here : 

** Au roi de Navarre, 

" Sire, suivant I'entreprinse du faict de vestre moullin qu'il vous 
pleut dernierement me commander, tous les modelles sont depre- 
sent achevez en boys except^ ung engin pour la justification des 
roUeaux que le roy a reconvert d'Allemaigne, depuis ung pen, 
lequel j'ay trouv^ moyen de voir secrettement et auquel je 
besogne pour le moment, qui est la chose la plus necessaire de 

— 27 — 

tome I'entreprinse, et parleqael Ton pourra employer a faire beson- 
gner touttes petsonnes les premieres trouvees, qui sera ung grand 
sollaigement et une grande advance. 

" Suyvant les ouvriers que je vous avoys promis mener de deca, 
je n'en ay encores voullu parler, tant que mes modelles seront 
achevez, de peur que ce que j'ay toujours faict secrettement feust 
descouvert mais incontinent que mes dits modelles seront achevez, 
qui sera au plus tard dedans huict jours et qu'ils seront en chemin, 
lors je parlerai ausdits ouvriers pour scavoir leur voulunte, et la, ou 
je ne les pourre mener. je me aydere des vostres. 

" Sire, il vous plaira me avoir pour excuse, si je n'ay sceu me 
trouver au temps que je vous avoys promis, car I'envye que j'avoys 
de recouvrer Tengin que je vous mande a este cause de mon tarde- 

" Sire, je prire Dieu vous donner en bonne sant6 tres longue et 
tres heureuse vye. 

" A Paris, le XXIX-= Apvril 1554. 

'* Vostre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur. 

"Jehan Erondelle". 

On the 17*'' of August 1556, Erondelle is mentioned as " Mint- 
master of Pau"; it is evident that the King of Navarre, in reward 
for the engraver's services, took him in his employ. 

It is possible that the coins issued at Pau, about that time, and 
others struck previously at Paris, were engraved by Erondelle. 
Under Jeanne d'Albret, the mill of Pau turned out beautiful coins, 
no doubt with the machinery introduced by this clever artist and 

Guiffrey has published a document, dated, 3"^ October 1541, 
from Dijon, and signed by. Marguerite of France, Queen of 
Navarre, where a certain Guillaume Erondelle, is mentioned as 
Goldsmith to that princess. 

Bibliography. — J. -A. Blanchet, Les Graveurs en Beam, Dax, 1888. 

EROPHILUS. This inscription is found on a cameo in green jas- 
per, presenting a bust of Augustus, and no doubt the work of a 
modern Gem-engraver. 

ERRARD, JEAN {French). Engineer in the service of Henri IV., of 
France, worked at Bar-le-Duc, and was entrusted in 1595 and 
1 599 with the coinage of various moneys, according to the following 
notes in Chevrier's, Histoire civile, politique et litUraire de la Lorraine. 

"II obtint de Henri IV le privilege singulier de faire frapper 
monnoye pariout ou bon lui semblerait, en France, jusqu'a la 
somme de cinquante ecus en sols marques seulement. Les lettres 

— 28 — 

patentes, qui lui confierent ce droit, sont datees de Sancerre, 1795. 
La Chambre des Comptes les enregistra en 1599. 

" L'original de cette concession est ainsi concu : « Aujourd'huy 
vingt-huicti^me Janvier mil cinq cens quatre-vingt onze, le Roy 
estant a Sancere, a permis a Jean Errard, son ingenieur ordinaire, 
de battre et forger en touttes monnoyes et pour en taire ce que bon 
luy semblera, jusquesa la somme de cinq cens escus d'or, de dou- 
blons et deniers en payant par ledit sieur Errard les droicts accou- 
tumez, m'ayant sa Majeste commands d'en expedier le present 
brevet, et qu'elle a, pour ce, voulu signer de sa propre main et 
iceluy contresigne par moy, son conseiller et secrettaire d'Estat de 
son commandement et de ses finances. Signe : HENRI. Et plus 
bas : RUZ£. » 

Bibliography. — Gazette numistnatique frangaise, 1, 1899, p. 106. 

ERTEL, TRAUGOTT (Germ.). Coin-en graVer, by whom exist 
thirteen pattern coins of Munich, the earliest having been executed 
in 1829. 

Bibliography. — Eyb, Die Munien und Medaillen der Stadl Munchen, 1875. 

ERWIN VON STEGE (Justr.). Mint-master at Vienna under 
Charles V. His father Konrad had filled the same post at Frankfort- 
on-Main, 1437-1456. 

ESCHGER ET GHESQUIERE (French). A firm of Die-sinkers and 
Medallists established at Paris, circa 1860-1882. They have issued a 
large number of coins, jetons, medals, tickets, badges, &:c. The 
coinage of Haiti, 1881, engraved by Laforestrie and Roty was 
issued by them. Vide OESCHGER ET MESDAG. 

ESCLAT, JEAN DE L' (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot 
Troyes, 13 57-13 58. 

ESCRIU (Span.). Medallist of the second half of the nineteenth 
century. I have seen by him a medal of the Naval Exhibition of 
Barcelona, 1872 ; another on the Accession of Alfonso XII., &c. 


ESPARBfiS, LOUIS (French). Sculptor, born at Toulouse on the 
^"' of March 1827; pupil of the Fine Art School of his native city. 
He is the author of several Portrait-medallions in clay, one of which 
was exhibited at the Salon of 1870. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerle et Auvray, op. cit. 

ESPERCIEUX, JEAN JOSEPH (French). Sculptor, born at Mar- 
seilles in 1758, died at Paris on the 18''' of March, 1840. This artist 
distinguished himself as a statuary of great merit and also executed 

— 29 — 

Portrait-medallions in clay and Bas-reliefs which were exhibited at 
the Salons of the early part of the nineteenth century. 
Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 


Coin-engraver at the Mint of Troyes, from 1360 to 1361. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les graveurs de la Mounaie de Troyes dii XII^ 
au XVIII^ sikle, Paris, 1892. 

ESPINE, CHARLES PIERRE DE L" (French). Mint-master at Paris, 
from year V of the First Republic to 1820; symbol, a cock. 

This artist was born at Reggio (Emilia) in 1443 ; he is supposed to 
have been the natural son of one of the princes of the Este family. 
His pictures are all destroyed. 

ESZ, FRANZ JOSEF (Auslr.). Sculptor of the second half of the 
eighteenth century. He resided at Munich, where he modelled a 
Portrait-medallion of Andreas Felix von OefFele, a Bavarian numis- 
matist, 1780. 

ETEX, ANTOINE (French). Sculptor of the nineteenth century, 
born in 1808; by him are a bronze Portrait-medallion of Albert 
Lenoir, 1833, and others in clay of Charles Lenormant, Ferdinand 
de Lesseps, Pierre Leroux, Chateaubriand, Berryer, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 


EUDES, EDODARD CHARLES (French). Sculptor and Ivory-carver; 
pupil of Vechte. 

The following Portrait-medallions in ivory were exhibited by 
him at the ParisSalons : 1880, M"" Livalette ; — 1882, M*"' veuve 
Tructin; — The Deliverance of Orleans; — Coronation of 
Charles VII. at Reims ; — Bianca Capello, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

EUDES, LOUIS ADOLPHE (French). Sculptor, born at Ares(Gironde) 
in 1818. Pupil of David d' Angers. This artist has executed some 
fine Medallions in bronze and clay, in imitation of his master's; 
the best known are : Captive des Amours, 1853; — La Meca- 
nique et I'Hvdraulique, 1870; — Portrait of Alphonse Karr, 
1882, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

^ ^0 - 

EUDES, JEAN (^French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Saint-L6 
circa 1625. 

EUELPISTOS. A fictitious Greek signature, whicli appears on two 
modern gems; one is a sard of the Grivaud Collection, representing 
Nemesis ; the other exhibits a two-headed Chimaera, and an ele- 
phant's trunk holding caduceus. 

Bibliography. — King, op. cit. 

EUHEHEROS. Also a fictitious Greek signature, found on a sard, 
formerly in the Collection of the Landgrave of Hesse ; the subject is, 
a Roman Emperor clad in armour. 

Bibliography. — King, op. cit. 

EUKLEIDAS {Greek). A Syracusan Coin-engraver of the period of 
finest art, under Dionysios the Elder and his successors, B.C. 406- 
345 . His productions excel in " in luxury of style and exquisite delicacy 
ot work" ; the best is no doubt a three-quarter-faced head of Pallas, 
which is justly famous ' . 

The signature of this great artist, EYKAEI or EYKAEIAA, appears 
on most of the following coins, and with one exception always on 
the obv. 

I. JK. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eukleidas. 2YPAK0II0I. Female 
head to 1., wearing earring and necklace; hair bound with sphen- 

Syracusan Tetradradrachm by Eukleidas and Evaenetos. 

done, tied above, and ornamented in front with a swan swimming 
to 1., and at the back with stars of eight rays, and with engraver's 
name EVKAEI ; around, four dolphins. ^. by Evaenetos (Fide 
EV^NETOS). British Museum Catalogue Sicily, n° iqo. Du Chastel, 

I . Numismatists now generally agree in considering the names, engraved in 
small characters, sometimes expressed by initial letters only, and often hidden in 
accessories or details of costume as artists' signatures, notwithstanding the strong 
objections which some authors, and especially the learned Danish archaeologist, 
Herr H. F. Kinch, have raised against this view. 

2. M^. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eukleidas. ^YPAKO. Similar; 
ornaments in sphendone and engraver's name not visible. ^. by 
Eumenes {Vide EUMENES). B. M. Cat., Sicily, n° 192. 

3. JK. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eukleidas. 2YPAK0II0I. Female 
head to 1., wearing earring and necklace; hair rolled; beneath chin, 

a diptych, on the tablets of which, ; around, four dolphins. 

I^. by Eumenes (Fide EUMENES). B. M. Cat. Sicily, n° 19). 
— Du Chastel, pi. VI, 62. — Mus. Hunter, t, 52, 17. — Torremu:^:{a 
num. vet. Sic, t. J2, n° 11. 

A variety exists with loop to the diptych. 

4. JR^. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eukleidas. Similar ^. by Evae- 
netos (Vide EV^NETOS); tablet in field; dolphins in ex. Du 
Chastel, pi. VII, 7./. — Spink's Numismatic Circular, May. 1901 


There is a variety of head, with different ]^. Du Chastel, 
pi. VII, 76. 

Tetradrachm by Eukleidas and Eumenes. 

5. /K. Tetradrachm by Eukleidas. Obv. KOIIflN. Female head 
to 1., wearing earring and necklace; hair bound with sphendone, 
over which several tresses fly back ; beneath head, on a scroll, 
slightly incuse, EVKAEI; around, four dolphins : plain border. 
VjL. Quadriga to 1., driven by male figure holding reins in both 

Tetradrachm bv Eukleidas, 

hands, goad in r. ; horses prancing; above, Nike flying to r., about 
to crown the charioteer; in ex., dolphin to 1., border of dots. 
B. M. Cat., n° 194. 

— 32 — 

9- iR. Tetradrachm by Eukleidas. Similar type, without engrav- 
er's name. B. M. Cat., Sicily, n° i^j. Du Chastel, pi. Fill, 

Variety of Tetradrachm by Eukleidas. 

7. iR. Tetradrachm by Eukleidas. Similar type, of better style, 
with single bandeau behind. Du Chastel , pi . Fill, ^4. 

Variety of Tetradrachm by Eukleidas" 

8. iR. Tetradrachm by Eukleidas. Obv. lYP A KOIinN. Head 
of Pallas, three-quarter face to 1., wearing necklace of pendants with 
medallion in centre, and richly ornamented Phrygian helmet 

having three crests, on the front of which, '•'^aAdlV. ^j^ound, 

Tetradrachm by Eukleidas. 

four dolphins : plain border. I^. Quadriga to 1., driven by female 
figure (Persephone) holding flaming torch and reins; above, Nike 
flying to r., about to crown her; the horses in high action; in ex., 
ear of barley to 1. : border of dots. B .M. Cat., Sicily, n° i^S. — 

— 33 — 

Du Chaslel,pl. VIII, n° 90. — P. Knight, num. vet. p. 2ji. K. ). — 
Mus. Borh I. t. j6, 4. 

9. M^. Tetradrachm by Eukleidas. Similar; medallion of neck- 
lace bears a gorgon-head. B. M. Cat., Sicily, n° 199. 

10. ifC. Drachm. Obv. by Eukleidas. Type of the preceding 
coin, without engraver's name. ^. lYPAKOliriN. Leucaspis in 
fighting attitude ; in ex. AEYKAinil. DuChastel, pi. XI, 126. 

11. /R. Hemidrachm, after Eukleidas. Obv. as last. ^L. as n° 8. 
Du Chaslel, pi. XI, i2j. 

12. JE. Obv. Female head to 1., hair bound in sphendone ; in 
front, above forehead, EY- I^. Wheel, within spokes of which 
2Y — PA and two dolphins. (Berlin Museum.) Weil, pi. Ill, 8. 

D' Barclay V. Head {Chronological Sequence of the Coins of Syra- 
cuse, 1874) expresses the following judgment upon the work of 
Eukleidas : " Eukleidas and Kimon excelled in the representation of 
the full-fiice. The head of Pallas by Eukleidas, and that of Arethusa 
by Kimon, are now justly celebrated, especially the latter, while 
the former appears to have been so great a favourite at the time as 
to have been adopted for the drachms and half-drachms of this 
period, the reverses of which are, respectivel}^ Leukaspis, and quad- 
riga. " 

Prof. Rud. Weil describes in the following manner the art of 
the great Syracusan Master in connection with that of his contem- 
poraries : 

" Die jiingere Reihe dersyrakusanischen Stempelschneider, deren 
Kunstweise zu derjenigen der Katanaer, Herakleidas undChoirion, 
in naherer Beziehung steht, hat ihren Hauptvertreter in Kimon. Ein 
Mittglied zwischen diesen Kiinstlern und den oben behandelten 
Syrakusanern (Eumenes, Sosion, Phrygillos, Euth, Evaenetos) 
bildet Eukleidas, indem er mit der Mehrzahl seiner Stempel sich 
noch den alteren Syrakusanern anschliesst, aber wegen seines Tetra- 
drachmon mit dem Pallaskopf von Kimon nicht wohl zu trennen 
ist. Wie die ganze jiingere Gruppe der syrakusanischen Kiinstler 
arbeitet auch Eukleidas nur noch fiir Syrakus. A den Korakopf des 
Phrygillos erinnertsein Frauenkopf mit gerolltem Haar, der Kiinst- 
lername steht hier in vertieften Buchstaben auf einem autgeklappten 

Diptychon -. Zu der zierlichen Hauptseite steht die plumpe 

Quadriga des Eumenes auf der Kehrseite in seltsamen Contrast, und 
doch wird an dem Nebeneinnnderarbeiten Bolder festzuhalten sein. 
An Arethusakopfe mit dem Haar in der Sphendone, wie sie Eume- 
nes and Evaenetos gebildet haben, reiht sich dem letzteren enge 
verwandt ein solcherdes Eukleidas, das breite Stirnband der Sphen- 
done schmiickt hier ein Schwan, den Kiinstlernamen tragt in kaum 
erkennbaren erhabenen Buchstaben ein Streifen der Sphendone 

L. FoRREK. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — II. J 

- 34 — 

hinten am Hals. Die Kehrseite bildet ein Evaenetos-Stempel. Ein 
dem vorigen durchaus ahnlicher Kopf mit EY in dem Stirnband der 
Sphendone stehtauf der icleinen Kupfermuiize (mit dem vierspeich- 
igen Rad und zwei Delphinen als Kehrseite), die einer Serie des 
Phrygillos parallel laufen, ziierst beschrieben von Sallet, Zeitschr. 
f. Num. Ill, 240 (Taf. Ill, n.8, Berlin). Ein weiterer Arethusakopf 
hatfliegendes Haar, miteinem breiten Bande umwunden, das gleich 
der Sphendone vorn mit dem Delphin, hinten mit Sternen ge- 
schmiickt ist ; unterm Kopfsteht auf einer geoffneten RoUe der Kiinst- 
lername EYKAEIAA, dessen letzte Buchstaben durch den Doppel- 
schlag nur in der Unterhalfte sichtbar werden. Mit dem Athenakopf 
gelangen vvir auch in Syrakus zu den Kopfen in Vorderansicht ; die 
Wangen sind mit reichen Locken umgeben, den Kopf bedeckt ein 
Prunkhelm, iiberragt von hohem Biigel und aufgeschlagenen Sei- 
tenklappen und geschmiickt mit reichem Palmettenornament in 

Flachrelief, zwischen dem in feiner erhabener Schrift ^'^AfclA 

sichtbar wird. Ohne beigefiigten Kiinstlernamen ist dieser Typus 
auf Drachmen (Rs. Leukaspis) und Hemidrachm (Rs. Quadriga) 
iibertragen. Von Kehrseitenstempeln ist nur einer mit dem Namen 
des Kiinstlers versehen, eine Q.uadriga mit zwei in voile Vorder- 
ansicht gebrachten Pterdekopfe; der Name steht klein vor den 
Pferden, E etwas hoher, AEIAA iiber der Querleiste. Am nachsten 
konimt diesem Stempel die Quadriga mit der fachelschwingenden 
Wagenlenkerin (Kora), welche als Kehrseite bei dem Athenakopf 
und ahnlich neben Vorderseiten des Phrygillos erscheint. ". 

The head of n° 3 reminds one of that of Kore by Phrygillos, as 
Prof. Weil notices in the above-quoted lines. There is also a great 
analogy between the head of n° i, which is supposed to be that of 
Arethusa, and the creations of similar style by the engravers Eumenes 
and Evaenetos. The facing heads of Pallas by Eukleidas and Are- 
thusa by Kimon are evidently due to the same inspiration and rank 
amongst the finest productions of Greek monetary art. There is 
perhaps more grace and suppleness in Kimon's style, whereas 
Eukleidas still belongs to the period of transition, and for this reason 
there is more strength in his work, which shows uncommon power, 
originality "nd mastery in the e.xecution. One feels the Syracusan 
engraver had a full comprehension of his art ; in his types of god- 
desses' heads, at once graceful and diguilied, we see the exalted 
beauty, the lofty sentiment, and all the grandeur that fascinate us 
in Greek sculpture. 

Bibliography. — D^ Barclay V. Head, Historia Numorum, London, 1887. — 
Id., On the Chronological Sequence of the Coins of Syracuse^ London, 1874. — Regi- 
nald Stuart Poole, Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Vol. I. 
Sicily, London, 1876. — Rudolf Weil, Die Kunstlerinschriften der Sicilischen MUn- 

— 35 — 

^en, Berlin, 1884. — H. F. Kinch, Observations sur les tioms attribue'es a desgraveurs 
de monnaies grecques. Revue numismatique, 1889. — Raoul-Rocliette, Lettre a 
M. le due de Lii\nes sur les graveurs dcs Monnaies grecques, Paris, 1851. — Comte 
Albericdu Cliastel dc la Howardries, Syracuse, ses mommies d' argent et d" or au point 
de vue arlististique, Londres, 1898. — Ad. Holm, GeschichleSiciliens im AUertbum, 
Band III, Leipzig, 1896. — Arthur J. Evans, Syracusan ''Medallions" and their 
Engravers in the light of reunl finds, London 1892. — Torremuz/.a, Siciliae Vt teres 
nummi. Panormi, 1 77 1. — Von Sallet, Die Kiinstlerinschriften auf griechischen 
Mun^en, Berlin, 1871. — L. Forrer, Le grave ur Eukleidas et ses monnaies. Revue 
Suisse de numismatique, 1898. — D^ Heinrich Brunn, Geschichte der Griechisclxn 
KUnstler, Stuttgart, 1899. 

EUMELOS. Fictitious Greek signature on some ancient Syracusan 
forgeries. Both the Due de Blacas and the Due De Luynes collections 
contained specimens of these pieces, undoubtedly old, but plated 
(fourrees). They were the work of contemporary forgers, who imi- 
tated the productions of Eumeiies for the obverses and misspelt the 
name of the artist, whilst they employed types of Camarina and 
others for the reverses. The British Museum also possesses an 
example of one of these curious coins. 

Bibliography. — A. Salinas, Exanun de quelques contrefacons antiques des tetra- 
drachnus de Syracuse et du pre'tendu nom de graveur Eumelus, Revue numismatique, 
1864. — R. Weil, op. ctt. 

EUMENES (Greek). A Syracusan Coin-engraver, who flourished, 
circa B.C. 4 15-400. He belongs to the early school, and is the first 
artist whose name appears only on Syracusan coins. D' B. V. Head, 
referring to the Syracusan coinage under the Democracy, B.C. 
412-406, says : " Particular attention seems to have been now 
devoted to the coinage, and its beauty was regarded as an object of 
public interest. Hence the die-engravers were permitted for the 
first time to sign their work, and we frequently find that the two 
sides of the same coin are by different artists. Eumenes, Soson, and 
Phrygillos were the engravers employed principally upon the 
obverses of the coins which I would place before B.C. 406, and 
Eumenes, Evaenetos, and Euthymos upon the reverses during the 
same years ". 

The following coins, signed by this artist, are in the National 
Collection : 

I. yK. Tetradrachm. Obv. lYPAKOllOH. Female head to 1., 
wearing earring and necklace; hair rolled; across front of head, 

ampyx, on which i^JnI/ ; around, four dolphins. ^. Quadriga 

to I., driven by charioteer, holding goad in r. hand, reins in both ; 
horses galloping in step; above, Nike flying to r., carrying an untied 
wreath, and about to crown the charioteer : border of dots. B. M. 
Catalogue, Sicily, n° 140. — Du Chastel,V\. VI, 66. 

- 36 - 

There is a variety without engraver's name. Du Chastel, PI. M, 

2. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv. IVPAK02I0H. Similar head, without 
ampyx; beneath, EVMHNOV; around, tor dolphins. ^. Similar, 
B. M. Cat., n° 141. — Du Chastel, PI. VI, 68. 

3. ifC. Tetradrachm. Obv. Similar. ^L. Similar type; beneath 
horses, a crane to I. ; in ex., a fish swimming to 1., followed by a 
dolphin. B. M. Cat., n° 142. 

4. JK. Tetradrachm. Obv. lYPAKOIION. Female head to 1., 
wearing earring and necklace; hair bound with a crossed cord, 
locks of hair flying loose over the head; beneath, traces of 
EYMHNOY; around, four dolphins. ^L. Similar type; no symbol ; 
in ex., scallop; same border. B. M. Cat., n° 143. — Du Chastel, 
PI. VI, var. 68. 

5. ^. Tetradrachm. Obv. ZYPAKOIION. Female head to 1., 
wearing earring and necklace ; hair bound with a diadem crossed; 
behind, EVMHNOV; around, four dolphins. ^L. Quadriga to 1., driv- 
en by charioteer, holding goad and reins; horses galloping in step ; 
above, Nike about to crown charioteer with untied wreath; in ex., 
EVMHNOV : border of dots. B. M. Cat., n° 144. 

6. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv. [ZY]PAKOIION. Female head to 1., 
wearing earring and necklace; hair rolled; behind neck, EY; 
around, four dolphins. ^L. Quadriga to 1., driven by charioteer, 
holding reins in both hands, goad in r. ; horses galloping in step; 
above, Nike flying to r., about to crown charioteer ; beneath horses, 
EY; in ex., a fish swimming to r., followed by a dolphin : border 
of dots B. M. Cat., n° 146. 

7. iR. Tetradrachm. Similar; beneath, EY. B. M. Cat., 
n° 147. 

8. ^. Tetradrachm. Obv. By Eumenes. lYPA KOUHN. 
Female head to 1., wearing earring and necklace; hair rolled; 
beneath, EVMENOY; around, four dolphins. ^L. by Evaenetos 
(Fj^^EViENETOS). B. M. Cat., n° ij^^. — Head, PI. Ill, 13. - Du 
Chastel, PI. VI, 64. 

9. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eumenes. ZYPAKOIiriN. 
Female head to 1., wearing earring and necklace; hair bound with 
sphendone, tied above and ornamented with stars; in field below, 
EVMENOY; around, four dolphins. ^. Similar. B. M. Cat., 
n° 150. 

10. M,. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eumenes. ZYPA... Female head 
to 1., wearing earring and necklace; hair rolled; beneath, EV ; 
around, four dolphins. I^. by Evaenetos (Vide EViENETOS). 
B.M. Cat.,n° 151. 

21. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eumenes. Similar type to n° 9; 

— 37 — 

signature, EVMENOY. I^. by Euth... (Fide EUTHYMOS). B. M. 
Cat., n° 152. 

12. JK. Tetrad rachm. Obv. by Eumenes. lYPAKO 2. Head of 
Persephone to 1., wearing earring and necklace to which is attached 
a Hon's head ornament; her hair is rolled and bound with ears of 
barley; beneath, EVM; around, four dolphins. I^. by Euth... 
(Fide EUTHYMOS). B. M. Cat., n° 153. — Du Chastel, PI. VI, 


Tetradrachm by Eumenes and Euthymos. 

13. JK. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Soson. ^L. by Eumenes (?) 
Quadriga to 1. driven by charioteer, holding goad in r. hand, reins 
in both; horses galloping in step; above, Nike flying to r. car- 
rying an untied wreath, and about to crown charioteer ; in ex., two 
dolphins meeting : border of dots. B. M. Cat., n°* 154 and 155. 

14. JK. Drachm, by Eumenes. Obv. lYPAKOIIflN. Female 
head to r., w^earing earring and necklace; hair bound with diadem 
crossed; beneath, EVMENOV; around, tour dolphins to r, I^. 
AEVKAinil. Leukaspis advancing to r., in attitude of attack, wear- 
ing crested helmet with feather at the side, and carrying on 1. arm 
oval shield, and in r. hand sword, the scabbard of which hangs 
behind him, suspended by a strap passing over r. shoulder : border 
of dots. B. M. Cat.. n°' 162 and 163. — Head, PI. Ill, 15. 

15. JR.. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Evaenetos. ^L. by Eumenes (?) 
as n° 13. B. M. Cat., n° 189. 

16. JR. Tetradrachm. Obv, by Eukleidas. j^. by Eumenes, as 
n° 13. B. M. Cat., n° 191. 

17. JR. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eukleidas. ^ by Eumenes. 
Similar; beneath horses, EY. B. M. Cat., n° 192. 

18. JR. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eukleidas. I^. by Eumenes. 
Quadriga tol., driven by charioteer holding goad and reins; horses 
galloping in step; above, Nike flying to r., about to crown chariot- 
eer; in ex., EYMHNOV : border of dots. B. M. Cat., n° 193. — 
Du Chastel, PI. VI, 62. 

Mr Arthur J. Evans has shown that the true spelling of this 
artist's name should be Eumenes, and not Eumenos : " On his 

- 38- 

more archaic coins with the civic inscription lYPAKOIION, this 

artist invariably signs EYMHNOY or ^^q^- On his later types 

associated with reverses by Evaenetos or Euth..., and with the 
inscription lYPAKOIinN, the signature is always EVMENOY. This 
shows that the true form of the name was Eumcms (Ej[j.evf,;), and 

Tetradrachm by Eukleidas and Eunienes. 

not Euminos (E"j;rr;vcc) ". The same writer expresses the opinion 
that Evaenetos and Eukleidas were the pupils of Eumenes, whose 
stj'le is somewhat rude in comparison with that of the later artists. 

Bibliography. — Reginald Stuart Poole, op. cil. — Rud. Weil, op. cit. — 
Oe du Chastel, op. cit., etc. 

EUSEBIUS (Prankish). On a coin of the Bibliotheque Nationale in 
Paris, the name of this moneyer appears; the coin was struck at 
Canterbury, and it bears on obv. the legend EVSEBII MONITA, 
and profile Merovingian bust to 1., and on ^L. + DOROVERNIS 
CIVITAS with cross moline. It is supposed that Eusebius was "a 
Prankish goldsmith who came over to England in the train of Qiieen 
Berchta on her marriage with Aethelberht, king of Kent". 

Bibliography. — C. F. Keary, Catalogue of English Coins in the British Museum. 
Anglo-Saxon Series. Vol. I, Int. XII, XV. 

EUSTACHE, SYLLA (French). Contemporary Medallist, residing at 
Paris. Pupil of Gabriel Guay, Emile Laporte and Gerbier. At the 
Salon of 1898, he exhibited the following beautiful plaques : 
Gelardin ; — Brunetta ; — Chatte Kiribi ; — Sarah Bernhardt, &c. 
At the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1900, this artist showed two 
medals in gold with portrait of M""^ Sarah Bernhardt. 

EUTHUS. Fictitious Greek signature on a modern cameo, repre- 
senting Silenus seated on the ground ; in front, two cupids, one 
playing the lyre, the other the syrinx. 

Bibliography. — King, op. cit. 

EUTHYMOS (Greek). Syracusan Coin-engraver, whose signature 
EY0 appears on several coins of the best period. 

— 39 — 

r. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eumenes. ^. by Euth... Quadriga 
to r., driven by naked winged youth, looking upwards towards 
Nike, flying to 1., who crowns him; in ex., EYO, and SkyHa 

Tetradrachm by Eumenes and Euthymos. 

swimming to r., her r. arm extended towards a fish, which swims 
before her, her 1. holding a trident over her shoulder; behind her, 
a dolphin to r. : border of dots. B. M. Cat., Sicily, n°^ 152 and 


2. JK. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Phrygillos. ^L. by Euth. Similar. 
B. M. Cat., n°' 156 and 157. 

On a coin of Elis, struck before B.C. 421, the engraver's name 
EYO... appears and D' Head thinks that this artist " is not improb- 
ably the same EYO... who was shortly afterwards employed as a 
coin-engraver at Syracuse ". The coin in question has on obv., an 
eagle devouring hare, the I^. is described as follows : Incuse square, 
within which, FA ; Nike with spread wings running to 1. holding 
wreath in outstretched hand; in tront, EYO... 

The Syracusan type by Euthymos shows great resemblance to the 
reverse of one of the latest tetradrachms of Selinus, and this com- 
parison has induced D"^ Weil to regard Euthymos as a Selinuntine 
or Akragantine engraver. M"^ Arthur Evans however does not adopt 
this view, and is inclined on the contrary to believe " that engravers 
of both cities (Syracuse and Selinus) borrowed the type independ- 
ently from that found on a fine series of Kyrenean gold staters, 
which, from the early character of their style and epigraphy, must 
have been struck about the same period as our Sicilian pieces ". 

It is interesting to note that " the Syracusan tetradrachms signed 
EYO, presenting the Kyrenean scheme of the quadriga, seem to 
have been specially selected for imitation by the Siculo-Punic die- 
sinkers during the period of preparation which immediately preced- 
ed the great Carthaginian invasion of 409 B.C. " (A. J. Evans, 
Syracusan "Medallions", p. 63, sqq.) 

It is probable that Euthymos flourished between B.C. 430 and 
409, but whether the artist was of Eleian origin and, attracted by 
the wealth of the Sicilian metropolis, later on settled at Syracuse, 
or whether he was a Syracusan, who was entrusted with the cutting 

— 40 — 

of dies for Elis, it is a question which for the present cannot be 
answered with any certainty. 

Bibliography. — Reginald Stuart Poole, op. cit. — D^ B. V. Head, op. cit. — 
A. J. Evans, op. cit. &c. 

EUTYCHES {Greek). A celebrated Gem-engraver of the Augustan 
age ; he was a son of the famous Dioscorides, whose two other 
sons, Herophilus and Hyllus, also distinguished themselves in the 
glyptic art. Eutyches is the author of a fine intaglio, engraved on 
rock crystal, presenting a facing bust of Athena, holding her robe 
on the breast. This celebrated gem, which is already mentioned by 
Cyriacus of Ancona at the beginning of the fifteenth century, and 
which now is in the Berlin Museum, bears a full signature ot the 
artist : 


From this inscription we learn that Eutyches was the son ot 
Dioscorides, and that he originated from Aegae, in Cilicia. 

In connection with this remarkable gem, King gives some fur- 
ther particulars which are worth quoting here in extenso. " The 
authenticity of the inscription on the gem of Eutyches has been 
recently established in a'most striking manner by unexpected tes- 
timonies, dating from a remote period, which furnish the strongest 
external evidence to Tolken's internal reasons in favour ot the 
genuineness of the inscription. De Rossi has found amongst the 
papers of Cyriac ot Ancona, in the Vatican MS. , the following notice : 
" Eugenii Papae, an. XV 1445) Venetum ser. ab urbe condita 
M. XX. III. (f. e. 1023 years from the founding of Venice). Ad 
crystallinam Alexandri capitis ymaginem. Hec antiquis Grecis lit- 
teris inscriptio consculpta videtur. 




Quae Latine sonant : Eutychus Dioscuridis Aigeaius fecit. " 
According to the words that follow, " Bertutio Delphino Venetum 
Alexandreae classis, praetecto ", the gem appears to have been pre- 
sented by the latter to Cyriac. The opinion of Em. Braun's, that 
the supposed Alexander was no other than our Pallas, has received 
a speedy confirmation by a further communication ot De Rossi's 
out ot another Vatican MS., which proceeds from a contemporary 
of Cyriac's /. e. the beginning of the fifteenth century : ''Ad 
M. Laspomagnum ex K. A. (Kyriaci Anconensis) litterarum parti- 
cula de Alexandri Macedonis in cristallino sigillo comperta nuper 
imagine praescripta cum inscriptione. * Pr^eterea ut insigne admo- 
dum aliquid tibi referam, cum mihi lo. Delphin ille Nau«px°» ^^^^~ 

— 41 — 

gens atque 'I^iAsTrsvw-aTs; apud eum per noctem praetoria sua in 
puppi moranti pleraque nomismata pretiosasquegemmasostentasset, 
alia inter ejusmodi generis supellectiiia nobile mihide cristallo sigil- 
lum ostendit, quod polliciaris digiti magnitudine, galeati Alexandri 
Macedonis imagine pectore tenus, miraque Eutychitis artificis ope, 
alta corporis concavitate, insignitum erat; et expolitae galeae orna- 
mento, bina in fronte arietum capita, certa Ammonii Jovis insignia 
parentis, tortis cornibus impressa : acsummo avertice thyara, cursu 
veloci Aapv-y.oj; molossos hinc inde gerere videtur ; insigni arlis pul- 
chritudine : et sub galea, tenuissimis hinc inde capillamentis prin- 
ceps, subtili velamine et peregrino habitu elaboratis a summitate 
listis amictus, dexteram et nudam cubitenus manum, vesti summo 
a pectore honeste pertentantem, videtur admovisse ; et gestu miri- 
fico facies, regioque aspectu acie obtuitum perferens, vivos nempe 
de lapide nitidissimo vultus, et heroicam quoque suam videtur 
magnitudinem ostentare. Cum et ad lucem solidam gemmae partem 
objectares, ubi cubica corporalitate, intus sublucida et vitrea trans- 
parenti umbra mira pulchritudine membra quoque spirantia enites- 
cere conspectantur; et tam conspicuae rei opificem suprascriptis 
inibi consculptis litteris Graecis atque vetustissimis intelligimus". 
King gives three other gems, of a dubious character, by this engrav- 
er; as other writers do not mention them, it is probable they are 
not genuine : Phoebus in his car, onyx (The Hague) ; — Head of 
a young Roman, calcedony; — and, Minerva putting her vote in 
the urn at the trial of Orestes (Eckhel). 

Bibliography. — Babelon, Pierres gravees, Paris 1894. — King, op. cit. — 
Babelon, Gemmae, Dictionnaire des Antiquites grecques et romaines, p. 1479. — 
King, Handbook of Engraved Gems, 1884. — Furtwangler, Antike Gemnun, Leipzig, 

EViENETOS (Greek). " Kimon is a great artist : Evaenetos is the 
greatest of all in the branch that he has cultivated. He is the Phei- 
dias of coin-engraving ". This is Lenormant's opinion of the cele- 
brated Engraver, whose signature appears, not only on coins of 
Syracuse, but also on some of Camarina and Catana, and whose 
fame is due, above all, to the magnificent dekadrachm, which 
D' B. V. Head calls " the chef d'oeuvre of the art of coin- 
engraving". M"" Poole, in Greek Coins as illustrating Greek Art 
{Num. Chron., 1864, p. 244, sqq.) expresses the view that 
" nothing more delicately finished has been produced by Greek art 
than Evaenetos ' Persephone ", and long before him, Winckelmann, 
quoted by Mr. Arthur Evans, remarked, speaking of this head, 
"It transcends all imagining", and further, he asked, "Might 
not Ratfaelle, who complains that he could not find in Nature any 
beauty worthy to stand for Galatea, have taken her likeness from 
the best Syracusan coins, since in his days — with the exception of the 

— 42 — 

Laocoon — the finest statues were not yet discovered? Beyond 
these coins human comprehension cannot go". 

The following coins were engraved by Evaenetos (Circ. B.C. 



1. N. Piece of 100 Litra or Double Dekadrachm. Obv, 2YPA- 
KOIION. Head of goddess to 1., wearing triple earring and necklace, 
hair in sphendone, adorned with stars ; in the field, behind the 
head, the artist's signature EYA. ^. lYPA Herakles kneeling on 
r. knee, and strangling lion with both arms; behind, club. Weil. 
PI. II, 3. 

2. Another, similar, with signature EYAINE. Revue numismatique, 
Paris, 1840, p. 21. 

3. Another, similar, without signature {illustrated). Some of 
these were also executed by Kimon ; a specimen in the British 
Museum is signed Kl. 

Obv. ot M Double Dekadrachm by Evaenetos. 

4. M. Piece of 50 Litra or Gold Dekadrachm. Obv. lYPAKO- 
2inN. Young male head (the River Anapus) to 1. ; around, border 
of dots. ^L. lYPAKOlinN on a bar beneath an incuse square, 
within which a free horse prancing tor. B. M. Cat., Sicily, n° 169. 

5. Another, similar. Obv. lYPA; behind head E. B. M. Cat., 
n° 172. 

6. Another, similar. Obv. ZYPA ; no signature ; behind head, 
corn-grain. Montagu Catalogue, Greek, Part. I, n° 149. 

Kimon also engraved dies for this piece. 

7. iR. Dekadrachm. Obv. lYPAKOIIflN. Head of Persephone 
to 1., wearing earring and necklace; hair turned up behind, 
arranged in wavy curls, and bound with wreath of corn-leaves; 
around, four dolphins; in field, under chin, A (Aey.aSpaxfjLov) ; 
beneath the whole, EYAINE : border of dots. ^. Quadriga to 1., 
driven by charioteer holding goad and reins ; horses in high 
action; above, Nike flying to r,, about to crown the charioteer; 
in ex., a ledge or step, on and against which is placed a suit of 
defensive armour, consisting of helmet and shield, cuirass and 
greaves; beneath, AOAA : border of dots. B. M. Cat., n° 173. 
Struck probably about 406 B.C. 

— 43 — 

8. Another, similar, without A on obv. Da Chastel, pi. 13. 
n° 146. 

7. Another, similar. Face of different style; AQAA under exer- 
gual line. Dti Chaslel, n° 144. 

Silver Dekadrachm by Evaenetos. 

18. Another, similar. Signature, EYAINETOY in full under 
neck; below, dolphin. Montagu Catalogue, Greek, Parti, n° 150. 

11. Another, similar. Without signature; beneath chin, a dot. 
B. M. Cat., n° 179. 

12. Another, similar. Under chin, a dot; behind neck, a star ot 
four rays. B. M. Cat., n° 182. 

13. Another, similar. Under chin, a dot; behind neck, at star of 
eight rays. B. M. Cat., n° 184. 

14. Another, similar. Under chin, no dot; behind neck, a star 
of eight rays. B. M. Cat., n° 185. 

15. Another, similar. Behind neck, a scallop-shell. B. M. Cat., 
n° 186. Several varieties. 

16. Another, similar. Beneath chin, griffin's head to r. B. M. 
Cat., n° 187. 

17. Another, similar. Behind the head, a griffin's head, and 
beneath the chin, another. Num. Circ, 1896, col. 1559, n° 8. 

18. Another, similar. In front of neck i and behind a scallop- 
shell. Montagu, I, n° 151. 

19. Another, similar. Cockle-shell, turned the reverse way to 
what is generally seen, behind the head. Num. Circ, 1896, 
col. 1559, n° 6. — Du Chastel, pi. 13, n° 144. 

20. Another, similar, described as follows by Mr. Arthur Evans 
and believed by him to be the work of a new artist : Obv. Head of 
Persephone in a severer style, and with more flowing hair. Inscrip- 
tion : lYPAKOIION removed to lower circumference of coin. 
^. Quadriga, Sic, in new style, passing stand (?); action ol horses 

— 44 — 

less high and more rhythmic; arms larger and more ornate; and 
inscription AOAA in large letters above shield. In right hand corner 
of exergue, signature NK or HK in mon (?) in microscopic charac- 
ters. Evans, Syraciisan "■Medallions" and their Engravers, p. i6, 
n° 15. 

20*. J^. Tetradrachm. Exact reproduction of Evaenetos' medal- 
lion on a reduced scale. Carfrae Sale Cat., 1894, n° 68. — A late 
Collector s Sale Cat., 1900, lot 154, realized £ 42. 

These so-called "Medallions" by Evaenetos are considered by 
most connoisseurs as the finest coins ever produced. " Depuis long- 
temps ", wrote Lenormant, " le jugement unanime de tous les 
connaisseurs a proclame ces Pentecontalitra de Syracuse, graves par 
Evenete et Cimon, meme avantqu'on eut su discerner les noms de 
leurs auteurs, le nee plus ultra de I'art monetaire. Des deux gra- 
veurs, Cimon ne doit etre classe que le second, et pourtant ses 
oeuvres surpassent de beaucoup ce qui a ete fait de plus remar- 
quable dans le meme art a la Renaissance... Cimon n'est qu'un 
grand artiste ; Evenete est le plus grand de tous dans la branche qu'il 
a cultivee. II est comme le Phidias de la gravure en monnaies. 
Regardez pendant quelque temps une piece gravee par lui, et bien- 
tot vous oublierez les dimensions exigues de Tobjet que vous tenez 
a la main ; vous croirez avoir sous les yeux quelque fragment 
detache des frises du Parthenon ; c'est le propre de I'art parvenu 
d sa perfection, de donner autant de grandeur aux plus petits 
qu'aux plus immenses objets, et de rassembler sur un flan mone- 
taire de six ou sept centimetres de diametre autant de beauteet de 
puissance que dans une statue colossale (La Monnaiedans VAntiquite, 
III, p. 269). 

21. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv. lYPAKOIION. Female head to 1. 
(Arethusa ?) wearing earring and necklace ; hair bound with sphen- 
done, tied above, and ornamented in front, with a dolphin to 1. 

Tetradrachm hy Evaenetos. 

above waves, and behind, with three stars of eight rays ; around, 
four dolphins; on the lower dolphin in front EYAI. ^. Quadriga 
to r. ; driven by bearded male figure holding goad and reins ) 

— 45 — 

horses galloping ; the rein of the farthest horse broken and trailing 
upon the ground ; above, Nike flying to 1., carrying a wreath with 
which she is about to crown the charioteer, in one hand, and in the 

other, a label suspended by a cord, bearing the legend p-T/-) ; in 

ex., two dolphins meeting : border of dots. B. M. Cat., n° 88 

This coin is the earliest work on record by Evaenetos ; it was 
struck before 420 B.C., and is the prototype of Kimon's earliest 
" medallion ", and of some issues of Himera, before 408 B C. , and 
Segesta, by about 415 B.C. The reverse type of this piece is often 
found associated with obverses by Eumenes and Eukleidas. 

22. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv. bv Eumenes. I^. by Evaenetos, as 
n° 21. 5. M. Cat., n° 148. — Head, PL III, 13. — Du Chaste!, 
PI. VI, 64. 

23. JB^. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eumenes. IJd,. by Evaenetos, 
similar. B. M. Cat. n° 150. 

24. ifL. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eumenes. ^L. by Evaenetos. Quad- 
riga to r., driven by female charioteer holding goad and reins; 
horses galloping ; the rein of the farthest horse broken and trailing 
upon the ground; above, Nike flying to 1., about to crown char- 
ioteer; in ex., a chariot-wheel lying on the ground, and on the 
line of exergue, EYAINETO in minute characters : border of dots. 
B. M. Cat., n" 151. 

25. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Eukleidas. ^L. by Evaenetos. As 
last. B. M. Cat., n" 190. — Du Chaslel, PI. VII, 75. (F/Jg Illustra- 
tion under EUKLEIDAS, n° i). 

26. JK. Tetradrachm. Obv. by Evaenetos. As n" 21. I^. by 
Eumenes (Fide EUMENES ?). B. M. Cat., n° 189. 

27. iR. Hemidrachm. Obv. lYPAKOIIflN. Female head to 1., 
wearing earring, necklace, and sphendone, tied in front ; on either 
side, a dolphin downwards. ^. Quadriga to 1., driven by chariot- 
eer holding reins in both hands, goad in r., horses prancing; the 
rein of the farthest horse broken and trailing ; above, Nike flying to 
r., crowning charioteer; in ex., a chariot- weel lying on the ground : 
border of dots. B. M. Cat., n° 163. — Head, pi. Ill, n° 16. 

Von Sallet and Mr. Arthur Evans agree in the opinion, that 
"between the execution of Evaenetos ' early tetradrachm dies and 
those of his "medallions" there must have elasped a considerable 
period of years (two or three decennia) ". After the Athenian siege, 
the artist is found again at Syracuse, when he engraved the new 
gold hundred and fifty-litra pieces, about 409 B.C. During the 
interval, the artist probably worked at Catana, Camarina, and 
Segesta, on some of the coins of which cities we meet with his 



28. JSL. Tetradrachm. Obv. KATANAION. Head of Apollo tol., 
laureate ; hair turned up behind ; on either side, knotted fillet, with 
bell attached, and cray-fish upwards. ^L. Quadriga to 1., driven by 
charioteer, wearing long chiton, holding reins in both hands, and 
striking horses with goad ; horses in high action ; on this side of 
the chariot, meta; above, Nike, flying to r., bearing wreath and 
tablet inscribed EYAIN ; under horses' feet, pellet; Hne of ex. 
double; in ex., crab : border of dots. B. M. Cat., Sicily, n' 35 

Tetradrachm of Catana by Evacnetos 

29. JB^. Drachm. Obv. AMENAN02. Head of young river-god, 
Amenanos, tol., with short horn, diademed; around, two river- 
fishes and cray-fish; beneath neck, EYAI. ^L. In exergue 

ANAIil p^gj. quaJj-iga iq ^.^ driven by charioteer holding goad 

and reins; rein of farthest horse hangs loose; above, Nike, flying 
to 1., crowning charioteer : border of dots. B. M. Cat., n° 37. 

Two varieties of this type, diftering in style and treatment of 
the head of Amenanos are mentioned by A. v. Sallet in Zeitschrift filr 
Numismatik, 1889, P- 2. 

30. Another, similar. Obv. AMENANOI. Similar head; around, 
three river-fishes; in field, to 1., EYAI. B. M. Cat., n° 39. 


31. iR. Didrachm. Obv. Bust of river-god Hipparis, three-quarter 
face, towards 1. ; having small horn on either side of the forehead, 
hair loose; on neck EYAI ; on either side, a fish, downward; all 
in a circle of waves, ^. KAMAPINA. Nymph Kamarina, seated to 
r., on the back of swan swimming to 1., with wings spread; the 
nymph looks to 1., her r. arm is round the swan's neck, her 
peplos falls over her knees, and she holds the upper part with both 
hands as a sail; beneath swan, waves, amid which, fish to r. ; in 
field to r., fish leaping : border of dots. B. M. Cat., n° 16. 

— 47 — 


32. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv. ZEfEITAIlA, Head of Segesta tor:, 
wearing earring, necklace, and sphendone, ornamented with star, 
behind ; beneath, stalk of barley to 1. ^L. lEFEITAIflN Youth- 
ful hunter to r., standing with 1. foot upon a rock; r. hand resting 
on hip; I. elbow on knee; he wears pilos suspended behind neck, 
a strap round shoulder, cothurni, and over 1. arm chlamys ; carries 
in 1. hand two javelins; at his teet, two hounds to r. ; border of 
dots. B. M. Cat., n° 32. 

From the close analogy besween the obv. type of this coin and 
the head of Arethusa on Evaenetos' early Syracusan dies, 
Mr. Evans concludes that this tetradrachm of Segesta was executed 
by this artist, " or at least by some Syracusan pupil of this engrav- 
er ". 

To Evaenetos, Mr. Evans attributes also a Syracusan Hemi- 
drachm, signed E on ^L., and which he describes as follows : 

33. M^. Hemidrachm ol Syracuse. Obv. Female head to 1., wear- 
ing star-spangled sphendone, necklace, and, apparently, spiral ear- 
ring; on either side, a dolphin downwards; below, 1YPAK02I0N. 
I^. Quadriga to r., much resembling that of Evaenetos' signed 
tetradrachms (5. Af. Cat., n° 188) but without the trailing rein, 
driven by male charioteer, crowned by flyingNike. In ex. E between 
two dolphins. 

It is possible that Evaenetos practised the craft of Gold and Silver- 
smith besides that of Die-Si nker, as they were nearly always asso- 
ciated, and to again quote Mr. Evans, " it seems fairly ascertained 
that he also exercised the profession of a Gem-engraver. ". 

This artist's types have been imitated in the latest issues of 
Syracuse, on the Siculo -Punic series, and on coins of Locri 
Opuntii, Pheneus, Messenia, Pherae in Thessaly, Knossos in 
Crete, Centuripae in Sicily, Metapontum, Arpi in Apulia, Massalia 
in Gaul, and Rhoda in Spain, etc. 

It would appear that the medallions of Kimon and Evaenetos 
were struck out of the silver " poured into the Syracusan trea- 
sury by the successful issue of the war against the Athenians". 
Whether they were used as prize money either for the purpose ot 
rewarding victors in the games or in actual warfare, is a matter of 
conjecture. The writer above-referred to says, " It is in connexion 
with the institution of the New Assinarian Games commemorating 
the Athenian overthrow that the noble fitty-litra pieces were once 
more issued by the Syracusan Mint. The Assinarian Games, as we 
learn from Plutarch, were first celebrated in September, B.C. 412, 
on the first anniversary of the Victory, and it is to this date that 


the first distribution of these noble coins must in all probability be 
referred. " (Evans, Syracusan 'Medallions', pp. 142 and 143.) 

The period of Evaenetos' activity ranges between 425 B.C. and 

As to his style and art, Lenormant : " Comme beaucoup de 
grands maitres, Evenete a progresse constamment dans le cours de 
sa carriere et modifie sa maniere d'une maniere sensible. A ses 
debuts, dans les dernieres annees du v^ siecle, son style et son faire 
participent beaucoup de ceux d'Eumene, avec qui il commence par 
etre associe et qui semble avoir ete son maitre. C'est Raphael dans 
sa premiere maniere, encore sous I'influence du Perugin. Evenete a 
d6ja, de plus qu'Eumene, ce je ne sais quoi de divin ou se sent 
I'artiste de premier ordre; mais il lui emprunte un dernier reste de 
la raideur et de la durete de I'ancien style. Peu a peu son style 
s'assouplit et se perfectionne, il gagne de la douceur et de la 
liberte, mais en gardant toujours un accent de grandeur simple et 
de severite j usque dans la grace, qui atteint au sublime. Comme 
precision et science du modele, il est incomparable; ses tetes de 
divinites respirent un souffle vraiment ideal; il salt etre riche sans 
tomber dans cette serie d'ornements et de details qui finit par rape- 
tisser une oeuvre d'art. Son execution arrive a une finesse egale a 
celle de la gravure des intailles ou des camees sur les gemmes ; cette 
finesse inouie de travail est meme son ecueil, car dans les figures 
de petite dimension des revers des tetradrachmes il la pousse 
presque jusqu'a la secheresse. C'est a ce moment le plus complet du 
developpement de son talent qu'il grave les coins des pentecontali- 
tra. " {La Monnaie dans rAntiquite, III, 270). 

"If nothing survived of all the sculpture of the ancients" said 
the great art-critic, W. J. Stillmann, " Greek coinage alone would 
demonstrate that the race to which it owed its existence was more 
conversant with the qualities of beauty and had a finer spiritual 
constitution than any other race of which we have any kind of 
record. We learn from it that when all surrounding nations were 
buried in the barbarism of wild, or sunk in the heaviness of sensual, 
life, the Greeks were showing the most intense vitality and the 
finest mental susceptibiHties as well as the purest moral qualities 
that mankind have ever shown, and we do not need Plato and the 
poets to assure us that the typical Greek of 400 B.C., and ot some 
generations before and after, was, in all demanded by the balance 
of the qualities belonging to man as the intellectual and spiritual 
being, such as no age before or since, of which we know, has been 
able to show. The complexus of art, as painting, sculpture, poetry, 
music or any other form that may be devised, is the truest and 
most absolute expression of the essential character of man that can 
be made. Its existence as a dominant element of nationality or 

— 49 — 

individuality implies a iiealthy and stirring intellect, a temperament 
open to all the influences of nature, and a more or less vivid sus- 
ceptibility to those moral emotions which are the springs of all 
aspirations and of all ideals, the life of our life, the animus of our 
complex being. The subtlety, the infinite variety, the ineffable 
beauty, the exalted ideal, which pervade Greek art could never 
have had a beginning in men who were materialists, sensualists, 
or dullards. The keen sense of beauty it shows is the proclamation of 
a nature gifted with the keenest and subtlest perceptions of visible 
things as well as of sensibility to the impressions which the mind 
receives from those variations of external form that point to the 

"The origin of coinage was not due to art, although when the 
Greeks took it up it became a favoured vehicle for artistic expression, 
as did all articles of use with a people to whom beauty was the 
main motive of intellectual activity. It came as the proper offspring 
of commerce, its immediate progenitor being the personal seals 
and symbols, the arms, as we may say, of monarchs and commun- 
ities. The impression of a seal on an object, or on a disc of clay 
attached to it, would naturally lead to the employment of the 
same symbols on the coins when the idea of a medium oi exchange 
was put into practice, as the guarantee of value of the sovereign 
who adopted it ; but while in the object whose value was in the 
manufacture, as an earthen pot, the name or mark of the maker 
was the important item, in the piece of bullion, whose value was 
in the certainty of the quantity of metal in it, the mark of the 
guarantor was the only satisfactory one. When the Greek cities 
were the coiners, of course the symbol of the city was the appro- 
priate mark of coinage, and here the fine sense of the race found 
its opportunity to embody, in the purest form of decoration the 
world has ever seen, all the various objects of veneration or prefer- 
ence of all its communities; and under the conditions which deter- 
mined the nature of Greek art, it, in the later days, became ideal, 
as in the Syracusan coins, where the cutter of the dies signed his 
work, and in the head of the nymph Arethusa, of that later period 
when Kimon, Eukleidas and Evaenetos put their names on their 
dies — not for the glory of the nymph, but for their own. To say 
that this marks the decline of art would be, in reference to motive, 
true; but it is not the decline of absolute deterioration, but that 
which follows the severe schools of ideal art, and which may be 
called that of perfect ripeness rather than of decay. This is the 
relation in which the art of Scopas and Praxiteles stood to that of 
Phidias, and in the sense of artistic vitality there is no doubt that 
the former shows a decline of the ideal creative powers. But art is 
not alone conception — it is also expression. Not alone in the 

L. FORRER. — Biographical Not icts of MedalUilt. — l\. 4 

— 50 — 

vaulting imagination is the gift of the poet shown, but in the 
rhythmic ear, the musical sense ; and the analogy holds good in 
graphic art, so that, with an admiration of the severe and intellec- 
tual art of Phidias second to none, I am heretic enough the admit 
that of the full circle of art Scopas and Praxiteles had more than 
Phidias, just as Titian had more than Gian-Bellini. The element of 
the sensuous is as determinate a part of perfect art as any other, 
but the distinction is in the one subordination of it to what we 
must consider the higher, because the more vital, element of intel- 
lectual conception. The art that begins with the sensuous becomes 
sensual and dies there, but that which never becomes sensuous 
dries up, unfruitful stock ; and the art which has nearest attained 
perfection is that which unites all the elements in the highest 

"But the art of the coin-engraver has never the highest attain- 
ment of the intellectual side of art — it belongs by its very purpose 
to the form which succeeds that, and by the analogies of its com- 
position to Scopas rather than to Phidias. The fine taste of the 
Greek is shown here lor it is most interestingly demonstrated by 
Professor Gardner that in the better epochs of coin-designing there 
was no copying of statues — this was reserved for the decline of 
art, when taste had decayed, and the poverty of invention, which 
tollows, had come on the artists. The coin-designer felt his limita- 
tion and his advantages, and his art came to perfection concurrently 
with that form of sculpture which most nearly corresponds with it 
in its element, about 350 B.C. It began later, and, so far as we can 
determine, began to decay earlier, than sculpture. An additional 
reason for this decline in numismatic art would be the general 
acceptation of coins of commercial standard and the decline of local 
mints, whose rivalry in excellence we must suppose to have been 
an element in the art development. " 

Bibliography. — D' B. V. Head, Historia Numorum, London, 1887. — Id., 
Chronological Sequence of the Coins of Syracuse, London, 1874. — A. J. Evans, 
Syracusan "Medallions" and their Engravers, 1892. — R. S. Poole, op.cit. — 
Dr Rud. Weil, op. cit. — A. von Sallet, of>. cit. — Ad. Holm, op. cit. — Raoul 
Rochette, op. cit. — C« du Chastel, op. cit. — G. F. Hill, The Coinage of the 
Gruks, Knowledge, 1895. — Prof. Salinas, op. cit., &c. — W. J. Stillman, Article 
on the Greek Coinage, The Century Magazine, XIIL 

EVARCHIDAS (Greek). Prof. Salinas (Notiiie degli Scavi, 1888, 
p. 307, sqq.) has been the first to read correctly the name of this 
Syracusan artist on the reverse of a coin, the obv, of which is by 
Phrygillos. The signature, EYAPXIAA appears beneath the exergual 
line. On this tetradrachm, Persephone is represented almost full 
face, and driving the chariot; Nike above holds a small aplustre and 
a wreath. The aplustre, Prof. Salinas and Mr. Evans, take to 

~ 51 — 

bear " a distinct allusion to the naval victory of 413 B.C., won by 
the Syracusans over the Athenians in the Great Harbour of the 
city, which left the land forces of the invaders at the mercy of the 
conquerors. " 

D' Weil, and other writers, ascribed this coin to Eukleidas. 

Other specimens present a similar type of reverse, Persephone 
with the torch, and Nike with the aplustre ; they are supposed to 
be the work of Evarchidas, although unsigned. 

Bibliography. — A. J. Evans, Syracusan " Medallions" and their Engravers, 
London, 1892. — Prof. Salinas, Noti:(ie degli Scavi, 1888. 

EVERARDI. r/cfe; h£RARD. 

E. V. H. Signature of an unknown German Medallist of the end 
of the seventeenth century. These initials appear on a religious 
medal with obv. Head of Christ. 1^. Bust of Virgin. 

Bibliography. — D"" Eug. Merzbacher, Kiinst-Medaillen-Katalog , Mai 1900. 

EVODUS (Greek). A celebrated Gem-engraver of the second half of 
the first century A.D. He is the author of a beautiful portrait of 

Julia Titi, gem engraved by Evodus {from the illustration in Babelon, 
" Pier res gravees "). 

Julia, daughter of Titus, engraved on a fine aqua-marine of extraord- 
inary magnitude. This famous intaglio is preserved at the Biblio- 

— y>' — 

theque Nationale ; it bears the artist's signature in the field : €Y0- 
AOC 6nOI€I.The history of this gem is well-known. M. Babelon 
says : " This intaglio, which is one of the jewels of ancient 
glyptics, is known from Carolingian times; it was preserved at the 
Abbey of Saint-Denis, until the Revolution, when in 1791 it was 
transferred to the Medal Cabinet. The gem formed the lop piece of 
a large reliquary called Oratoire de Charlemagne, and Titus's daugh- 
ter filled in mediaeval ages the part of the Virgin Mary whose 
name she had received. " 

" Eudos " writes Prof. Furtwangler, " mit dem Portrat der 
Julia Titi, das noch ein sehr tiichtiges Werk ist, schliesst die Reihe 
der signierten gemmen ab. " 

King mentions other gems by Evodus : Horse's head, sard 
(Baron Roger); — Bust of a Muse, the head bound with a fillet 
half-length (Lippert). No doubt the signature on these gems has 
been added in modern times. 

Bibliography. — Babelon, Pierres gravm, Paris, 1894. — Do, Dictiomiaire des 
Anliquites grecqiies etromaines, etc. — King, op. cit. — Prof. D"" Furtwangler, Die 
antiken Gemmen, Berlin, 1900. 

fiVRARD, GUSTAVE GR£G0IRE (French). Sculptor of the second 
half of the nineteenth century. Pupil of Bosio. At the Salon ot 
1857, he exhibited a Portrait-medallion in clay of Madame Pastor, 
and in 1868, another of Viscount Pemety, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

EVRARD, VICTOR (Fr^m:/;). Sculptor, born at Aire (Pas-de-Calais), 
in 1807, He is the author of some Portrait-medallions, and Bas- 
reliefs in clay; one of them, entitled " Dawn " was much admired 
at the Salon of 1873. 

Bibliography, — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

EYRE, JOHN (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist. At the 
Royal Academy Exhibition of 1899 he exhibited medalhons in 
translucent enamel of Christ in glory and the Four Evangelists. 

EXAKESTIDAS (Greek). Coin-engraver of Camarina, who flour- 
ished at the end ol the fifth century B.C. His signature appears on 
the following coins : 

I. ^. Didrachm. Obv. KAMAPINAION. Bust of river-god Hip- 
paris, to left, having small horn on either side of the torehead, 
hair bound with diadem ; beneath, between two upright strokes on 
a raised band, is the inscription written backwards EZAKE; within 
circle. ^L. KAMAPINA. Nymph Kamarina, draped in short-sleeved 
tunic, seated to r. on swan, swimming to I,, wings spread, her left 
holding inflated peplos; around, waves. R. Weil, op. cit. PL 11, n° 8. 
— Salinas, Rev Num., 1864, pi. xv, 6. 

— 53 — 

2. JK. Tetradrachm. Obv. KAMAPINAION. Head of young 
Herakles to 1., wearino; lion's skin, with the paws tied at the throat. 
^. Quadriga to r., driven by Pallas, wearing crested helmet and 
long chiton ; she holds reins in both hands, goad in r. ; horses 
galloping; above, Nike flying to 1., crowning charioteer; in 
exergue, two amphorae; on exergual line, EZAKEZTIAAZ. B. M. 
Cat., Sicily, n° 14. 

3. iR. Tetradrachm. Obv, Similar legend and type; in front of 
head, diptvch, upon the two leaves of which is found the inscrip- 
tion, EZAKEI. ^L. duadriga to r., driven by Pallas, towering 
above chariot, and holding long goad ; the disposition of the horses 
varies also from last type; in exergue, barley-corn; no signature 
visible. Evans, Syracusan " Medallions", pi. x, n° 4. 

B. M. Cat., n° 15, bears great resemblance to the last piece, and 
is no doubt the work of Exakestidas. 

Mr. Evans remarks : " The inscribed diptych on the obverse field 
of the newly-discovered tetradrachm by Exakestidas recalls that 
containing the name of Eukleidas, which occurs in much the same 
position on a Syracusan piece. The Syracusan tetradrachm type in 
question represents the earliest work of Eukleidas of which we 
have any knowledge, and the two reverses with which it is coupled 
are both signed by Eumenes, and executed in the rude early man- 
ner of that artist. Syracusan influence is very marked on the dies 
of Kamarina, and we have, indeed, the evidence of Evaenetos' 
signature on the most beautiful of the didrachm types of this city 
to show that a colleague of Eukleidas actually worked fo*^ the 
Kamarinaean mint. " 

The Camarina didrachm with the artist's signature E>».^r3 
was in the collection of D"" Imhoof-Blumer, and is now in the Ber- 
lin Museum. 

Bibliography. — Evans, Syracusan '* Medallions" and their Engravers, Lon- 
don, 1892. — R. S. Poole, British Museum Catalogue, Sicily, 1876. — Rud. Weil, 
op. cit. — Salinas, Rei'ue numismatique, 1864. — Von Sallet, op. cit., etc. 

EYCK, CORNEILLE VAN (Belg.). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Antwerp, between 1571 and 1574. He succeeded in this office 
to Arnould Gheelvoet. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Biographies des graveurs beiges. Revue de la numis- 
matique beige, 1855, p. 288. 

EYCKE, HENRI VAN (Belg.). This Coin-engraver is the oldest 
mentioned in Flemish records. In 1389, Henry le tailleur , who was 
in the service of Johanna, Duchess of Brabant, was appointed to 
engrave coins at the Mint of Malines ; afterwards, he worked at 
Vilvorde and Louvain. The last mention made of him dates from 
Christmas 1393. At Vilvorde, van Eycke engraved Double Gros, 

— 54 — 

Gros, Half Gros, of 8, 4, and 2 Esterlins, and at Louvain, silver 
Deniers of one Esterlin, and gold Deniers, called Tours d'or. 
Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, op. cit. 

EYDT (Swiss). Mint-master at Lucerne, before circ. 1597. 

Painter and Sculptor, born at Metz. She is the author of some 
Portrait medallions in clay, which were exhibited at the Paris Salons 
between 1865 and 1880. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

55 -- 

F, Vide FRIEDRICH. Mint-master at Frankfort-on-Main, 1463- 
1476, under the Emperor Frederick III. 

F. Vide FISCHER. Mint-master in Christophsthal, 1622. 

F. also <^ Vide FALCONER. Scottish Mint-master at Edinburgh, 

F. between two fishes. Vide FISCHER, Mint-master at Gotha, 
1683-1690 ; also C. F. 

F. Vide FALTZ. Die-sinker, and Court-medallist at Berlin, 1688- 
1703 ; also Jl. F. 

F. Vide FUNKE, Mint-master at Neustrelitz, 1759-1763; also 
I F. F. 


briicken, 1760. 

F. Vide FORSTER, Mint-master at Nuremberg, 175 5-1764; also 
I. M. F. 

F, Vide FALK. Mint-master at Wismar, 1762, 

F. Vide FISCHER. Mint-master at Erfurt, 1781. 

F. Vide FEHRMANN, Die-sinker at Stockholm, 1740-1809 ; also 
C. G, F. and D. F. 

F. Vide FULDA, Mint-master at Cassel, 1783-183 1; alsoD. F. 

F. Vide FRISCH. Die-sinker at Darmstadt, 1807-1817, 

F. Vide FACIUS. Die-sinker at Weimar, 1812, f 1840. 

F. Vide FRANKE. Die-sinker at Dusseldorf, 18 18, and Berlin, 

F. Vide FERRARI. Die-sinker at Turin, 1828; also 0. F, 

F. F/W^ FRITZ, Die-sinker at Brunswick, 1835. 

-56 - 

F. Fide FISCHER, GDSTAV THEODOR. Mint-master at Dresden, 

A. F. Vide ANGELICA FACIUS. Die-sinker at Weimar, circa 1824- 

A. F. Fide ANTONIO FABRIS. Die-sinker at Venice, 1827-185 6. 

A. F. Fide A. FISCHER. Modeller and Medallist, circa 1861. 

A. F. Fide AGOSTINO FRANCHI. Die-sinker at Venice, 1750. 

A. F. S. Fide A. F. STIELER. Die-sinker at Mayence, nineteenth 

B. F. Fide NICOLAS BRIOT. Medallist and Coin-engraver, at Paris, 
Nancy, and London, 1608-1646; also N. B. 

B F. FzV^ ULRICH BRUPACHER. Die-sinker at Lucerne, 1714- 
1746 ; also U. B. 

B. F. Fide I. M. BUCKLE. Die-sinker at Augsburg, 1764, and 
Durlach, 1778-1811; also I. M. B. 

B. F, These initials appears as those of the Engraver of a medal 
of Johann Valentin Trohe, end of the sixteenth century. (?) 

B. F. F/^g BERNIER. Medallist at Paris, 1790-1797. 

B. F. Fide BRENET. Medallist and Coin-engraver at Paris, 1806- 

B. F, Fide BARRE. Medallist and Coin-engraver at Paris, 1820- 

B. F. Fide B. FORGEAIS. Die-sinker at Paris, 1848. 

B. F. L. =- BOVY FECIT LAUSANNAE. Fide A. BOVY. Swiss Medal- 
list and Coin-engraver, 1824-1877. 

B. F. N. = BUNSEN (Mint-master) FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN (Mint) 
NEUMEISTER (Warden), 1764. 

C. F. Fide CASPAR FOCHTMANN. Mint-master for Saxe- Weimar, 
Warden at Reinhardsbrunn, 1621-1623. 

C. F. between two fishes. Fide CHRISTOPH FISCHER. Mint-master 
at Dresden, 1678-1686. 

C. F. Fide CHRISTIAN FISCHER. Mint-master at Gotha, 1683- 

- 57 — 
C. Fide COTEL Die-sinker at Rome, 1706-17 18 ; also B. C. 

C. F. Vide CARL FALKNER. Mint-master at Eisenach, 1 692-1693 ; 
also I. C. F. 

C. F. Fide GEORG CONRAD FEHR. Mint-master at Darmstadt, 1741- 
1743 and 1752-1766 ; also G. C. F. 


Copenhagen, 1821-1831, 

C. F. K. Fide CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH KRULL. Die-sinker at Bruns- 
wick, 1776-1802. 

C. F. L. Fide CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH LUDERS. Die-sinker at Berlin, 
1 702- 1 742. 

C. F. L. Fide CARL FRIEDRICH LOWS. Die-sinker at Nuremberg, 

D. F. Fide DANIEL FAXEL. Mint-master at Stockholm, 1672- 

D. F. Fide DaMIAN FRITSCH. Mint-master at Coblence, 1746- 
1752, Altenkirchen and Mayence, 1755-1795- 

D. F. FzJ^ DANIEL FEHRMANN, 1710-1780. Medallist at Stock- 
holm, 1740-1764. 

D. F. Fide DIETRICH HEINRICH FULDA. Warden, 1774, then Mint- 
master, 1 783 -1 83 1, at Cassel. 

D. F. Fide J. P. DROZ. Swiss Medallist and Coin-engraver, worked 
at Birmingham, 1787- 1799, and Paris, 1800-1823. 

D. F. Fide DANNENBERG. Die-sinker at Clausthal, 1789-1805 ; also 

D. F. Fide JOEXUfi VEIT DOLL. 1750-1835. Medallist of Suhl, 
worked tor Loos of Berlin. 

D. F. T/W^ DRENTWETT. Medallist at Augsburg, 1845. 

D. F. H. Fide DANIEL FRIEDRICH HEIGELIN. Warden of the Mint 
at Stuttgart, 1760^1794. 

E. F. Fide EUGtNE FAROCHON. Die-sinker at Paris, 18^8-1861. 

E. F. R. Fide ERNST FRIEDRICH RUPSTEIN. Mint-master at Stol- 
berg, 1766-1792. 

- 58 - 
E. F. S. Vide ERNST FRIEDRICH SCHNEIDER. Mint-master at 
Coburg, 1636-1672, and Magdeburg, 165 9- 1670. 

G. F. Fide GIOVANNI FERRARI. Mint-master at Parma, 161 5. 

G. F. Vide GOTTFRIED FROMHOLT. Warden at Crossen, 1668- 
1674; Mint-master at Quedlinburg, 167 5- 1679. 

G. F. Vide GUGLIELMADA. Die-sinker at Rome, 1 660- 1690; also 
I. B. G. 

G. F. Vide GIOVACCHINO FORTINI. Sculptor and Medallist at Flo- 
rence, beginning of the eighteenth century, 1713-1735. 

G. F. Vide GERVAIS. Die-sinker at Neuwied and Coblence, 1750- 
1775 ; also E. G. 

G. F. Vide GIROLAMO FOSCARINI. Mint-inspector at Venice, 

G. F. Vide GIUSEPPE FERRARIS. Die-sinker at Turin, first half of 
the nineteenth century. Circa 1828-1856. 


Mint-masters at Parma, 161 5. 

G. F. B. Vide GEORG BUNSEN. Mint-master at Frankfort-on-Main, 

Parma, 1615. 

G. F. F. or G. F. Vide GIOVACCHINO FORTINI. Die-sinker at Flo- 
rence, 17 1 3-173 5. 

6. F. F. Vide GEORG FRANZ HOFFMANN. Die-sinker at Breslau, 

G. F. L. Vide GEORG FRIEDRICH LOOS. Die-sinker at Nuremberg, 
1742-1756, and Wiirzburg, 1762-1766. 

G. F. H. Vide GEORG FRIEDRICH MICHAEUS. Mint-master at Claus- 
thal, 1802-1807. 

G. F. M. Vide G. F. MORONE. Italian Die-sinker, circa 1628. 

Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1682- 1724. 

G. F. S. Vide GEORG FRIEDRICH STAUDE. Mint-master at Weimar, 
1673-1677, Gotha, 1677-1680, Meiningen, 1687, and Erfurt, 

— 59 — 

G. F. T. Fide GIOVANNI FRANCESCO TRAVANI. Die-sinker at Rome, 
1655-1674 ; also I. F. T. or T. P. 

H. F. Vide HIERONYMUS FEDERER. Die-sinker at Regensburg, 
iC$o, then Mint-master, 1655,7 ^^ly- 

H. F. or H. F. F. Vide HENRI FLtMALLE. Goldsmith and Coin- 
engraver at Liege, 1670. 

H. F. Vide HARTMANN Die-sinker at Stockholm, 1699-1739; 
also G. G. H. 

H. F. Vide EElfiMCE FUCHS. Austrian Medallist, 1716-1720. 

H. F. Vide HASLINGH. Die-sinker at Hamburg, 1730-1749; also 
D. H. F. 

H. F. VideEkHT. Die-sinker atBayreuth, 1742-1776; also I. A. H. 

H. F. Vide LAURENT JOSEPH HART. Medallist who worked at 
Brussels, 1810-1860. 

H. F. H. Vide HEINRICH FRIEDRICH HALTER. Warden at Bruns- 
wick, 1693, Mint-master at Magdeburg, 1698. 

H. FV. Vide H. FUGER, 1752-1818. Viennese Painter and Medal- 


Medallist at Dresden, between 1733 and 1744. 

I. F. Vide JOHANN FREITAG. Mint-master at Frankfort-on-Main, 

I. F. Vide JACHTMANN, 1776-1842. Berlin Medallist. 

I. F. F. Vide JOHANN FRIEDRICH FREUND. Mint-master at Altona, 

I. F. F. Vide I. FUNK. Mint-master at Neustrelitz, 1759-1763. 

at Rome, about 1670-1680. 

I. F. H. or I. F. H. F. Vide JOHANN FRIEDRICH HILKEN. Die-sinker 
at Schwerin, 1703-17 17. 

I. F. H. Vide JACOB FRIEDRICH HEERWAGEN. Mint-contractor at 
Hanau, 1785-1821. 

I. F. K. Vide JOHANN FRANZ KROPST. Die-sinker in Transsylva- 
nia, 1710-1711. 

— 6o — 

I. F. M. Vide JOHANN FRIEDRICH MULLER. Die-sinker at Ansbach, 

I. F. 6 F. Fide JOHANN FRIEDRICH 6 FERAL. Mint-master at Leip- 
zig, 1764-1765. 

Rome, 1549-1589; also F. P. 

I. F. S. Fide JOHANN FRIEDRICH SAUERBREI. Warden, 1701, then 
Mint-master at Berlin, 1713-1718. 

Mitau, 1764-1765 . 

I. F. S. FzW^ JOHANN FRIEDRICH STIELER, 1729-1790. Die-sinker 
at Guben, 1755, then at Dresden, 1755-1790; also F. S. 

Medallist at Rome, 1655-1674; also G. F. T. 

I. F. W. Fide JOHANN FRANZ WAYER. Mint-official at Kutten- 
berg, 1718-1728. 

K. F. Fide KRAFFT Die-sinker at Vienna, 1769-178 1 ; also M. K. 

K. F. Fide KROHN. Medallist at Copenhagen, after 1830; also 
F. K. 

K. F. or C. F. (also in monogram). Fide KARL FISCHER, 1802- 
1865. Die-sinker at Berlin, after 1829. 

L. F. Fide LLETKEH. Die-sinker at S' Petersburg, 1694-1709; 
also IL. L. 

L F. Fide LUNGERBERGER. Die-sinker at S' Petersburg, 1730- 
1745 ; also I. L. F. 

L. F. Fide G. F. LOOS. Medallist at Nuremberg and Wiirzburg, 

L. F. Fide LAVY. Medallist at Turin, 1 796-1 827. 

M, F. These initials appear as those of the Engraver of a religious 
medal of the seventeenth century. They may stand for the signa- 
ture of Mathias Freude of Rostock and Hamburg, 1630-68. 

M. F. (or in monogram) Fide MODESTINUS FACHS. Mint-master 
at Anhalt, 1567-1595. 

M. F. Fide MARTIN FRITSCH. Mint master at Olmiitz, 163 1. 

— 6i — 

M. F. Fide MATHIAS FREUNDT. Mint-master at Hamburg, 1635- 

M. F. Jlde MATHIAS FREDDE. Mint-master at Rostock, 1630, and 

Hamburg, 1637-1668. 

M. F. Fide MATHIAS FREUDE. Son of the last, Mint-master at 
Hamburg, 1668-1673. 

M. F. (or in mon.). Fide MICHAEL FABER. Mint-master at Frank- 
fort-on-Main, 1667-1689. 

M. F. T/V/f MERKEL. Die-sinker at Bamberg, 1682. 

M. F. (or in nion.)- Fide MICHAEL FEDERER. Mint-master at 
Ratisbon, 1674-1700. 

M. F. (or in mon.). Fide MARTIN FISCHER. Die-sinker and Mint- 
master at Bremen, 1743-1747. 

M. F. Fide MANN (Warden) and FORSTER (Mint-master) at 
Nuremberg, 175 5-1760. 

M. F. Fide MARCHIO FOSCARINI. Mint-contractor at Venice, 1764. 

M. F. Fide MAURISSET. Paris Medallist, 1790- 1825. 

M. F. Fide MICHAEL FLOR. Mint-master at Altona, 1787-1818. 

M. F. Fide M. FRUMERIE. Stockholm Medallist, 1801-1841. 

M. F. F/J<? L. MANFREDINI. Medallist at Milan, 1800-1840; also 
L. M. 

M. F. S. S. Fide MICHAEL FEDERER. Die-sinker at Ratisbon, 

N. F. Fide LUDWIG NEUFAHRER. German Medallist, 1537-1560; 
who worked at Vienna, Prague, and other places. 

N. F. Fide NICOLO FRANCHINI. Mmt-master at Ferrara, 1621 ; 
also F. N. or F. R. 

0. F. Fide JOEkJiH FRIEDRICH 6 FERAL. Mint-master at Leipzig, 
1764-176), and at other Saxon Mints, 1734-1764 

P. F. Fide PETER FLOTNER. Die-sinker at Nuremberg, circa 1538. 

P. F. Fide PETER FALZER. Coin-engraver at Breslau, circa 1675. 

P. F. Fide PIERRE FERRIER. Die-sinker at Geneva, 1790- 1798. 

P. F. Fide p£rier. Author of cast medallions of inferior work- 
manship, 1848. 

— 62 — 

p. F. B. Fide PHILIPP BUNSEN. Mint-master at Frankfort-on- 
Main, 1764-1790 ; also P. C. B., or C. P. C. B. N. 

P. F. C. Fide PAUL FRIEDRICH CRUM. Mint-master at Coburg, 

P. F. F. F/W^ PFEUFFER. Die-sinker at Berlin, 1825-1851. 

Q. F. Fide QUIRINOS FRITSCH. Mint-master at Neuwied, 1752- 
1755, and at Altenkirchen, 179$. 

R. F. Fide RAIMUND FALTZ, 1658-1703. Die-sinker and Court- 
medallist at Perlin, 1688-1703 ; also F. 

R. F, Fide RIESING. Die-sinker at Wurzburg, 1763-1789, and 
later; also L V. R. F., or C. E. R. 

R. F. Fide REICH. Die-sinker at Furth, 1758-1814 ; also I. C. R. 

R. F. Fide REMIGIUS FEHR. Mint-master at Darmstadt, 1772- 
1809, f 1810. 

R, F. Fide RIEDEL. Die-sinker at Leipzig, after 1839. 

R. F. rf^RABAUSCH. Die-sinker at Augsburg, after 1840. 

S. F. FideH. SCHAUBEN. Die-sinker at Copenhagen, 1590-1599; 
also NIC. S. 

S. F. Fide SAMUEL FISCHER. Die-sinker at Berne, 1679. 

S. F. r/J^ A. SCHULTZ, Die-sinker at Copenhagen, 1716-1724; 
also A : S. 

S. F. Fide SCHOLZ (Warden) and FORSTER (Mint-master) at 
Nuremberg, 1760-1764. 

S. F. FideSCnXBLL. Die-sinker at Vienna and Venice, 1765-1797; 
also A. S. 

S. F. T. Fide SAMUEL TOMSCHUTZ. Mint-master at Frankfort-on- 
Main, 1836-1837. 

T. F. Fide THOMAS FISCHER. Mint-master at Harzgerode, 1695. 

T. F. Fide TODA. Medallist of Vienna, 1739-1765 ; also G. T. 

V. F. FideG. W. VESTNER. Medallist of Vienna, f 1740. 

V. F. Fide A. VESTNER. Medallist of Vienna, f 1754. 

V. F. or U. F. Fide URBAN FELGENHAUER. Mint-master at Bonn, 
1631-1649, Waldeck, 1652-1654, Hoxter (Corvey), 165 5-1657, 
Einbeck, 1659, and again at Hoxter, 1659. 


V. F. Fide V. FARENBERG. Mint-master at Cassel, 1681-1697; 
also I. V. F. 

W. F. Fide WERNER. Die-sinker at Erfurt, 1724-1762; also 
I. H. W. 

W. F. Fide WOLFGANG FROMMEL. Mint-master at Gehren, 1620, 
and Neustadt a. d. H., 1622-1623. 

W. F. Fide WILHELM FESER. Mint-master at Wurzburg, 1746- 

Z. F. Fide ZORZI FOSCOLO. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1734- 173 5. 

Z. F. B. Fide ZUANO FRANCESCO BRAGADINO. Rector of the Mint 
at Cattaro, 1604-1606. 

Z. F. C. Fide ZUANO FRANCESCO CANALE. Rector of the Mint at 
Cattaro, 1551-1552. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, Erklaerung der Abkur^unqen auf 
Muni^en der neueren Zeit, des Mittelalters and des AUerlhmns, Berlin, 1896. 

F (Germ.). Signature of a Die-sinker who was working at Bruns- 
wick, during the second quarter of the nineteenth century. His ini- 
tial F appears on a masonic medal, with portrait bust of J. F. Lan- 
gerteldt, who was 25 years presiding Master of the Lodge " Charles 
of the Crowned Pillar ". 

Bibliography. — Marvin, The Medals of the Masonic Fraternity, Boston, 1880. 

F {Dutch). Initial of an Artist, probably of Dutch or German 
origin, who engraved a memorial medal of Charles I. of England, 
1649, with I^. seven-headed monster, rampant, which is apparently 
copied from the device of another medal on the same subject. 

Bibliography. — Franics & Grueber, Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great 
Britain and Ireland to the death of George II., London, 1885. 

F., C. DE (French). Signature of a contemporary Die-sinker, who 
engraved a pattern Five Franc piece, with bust of Napoleon IV, and 
dated, 1874. 

F. A. Fide FRIEDRICH ALSING. Die-sinker at Altona, 1826-1844. 

F. A. B. Fide FRAHCLSZO ANTONIO BONTINI. Mint-inspector at 
Venice, 1758. 

F. A. H. Fide (Fecit). ALBERTUS HAMERANUS. Die-sinker at 
Rome, 7 1677. 

F. A. S. Fide FRANZ ANDREAS SCHEGA, 1711-1787. Die-sinker at 
Munich, after 1739. 

- 64- 

LEGIO ; Fide V. M. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FABER, FRANZ, VON ROSENSTOCK (^Mj/r.). Mint-master at Vienna 

in 1659, and again from 1666 to 1679. 

Bibliography. — Die Munistatte fVien unter Leopold /., iSyj-iyO), Mitthei- 
lungen des Clubs der Munz-und Medaillen-Freunde in Wien, Juli 1893. 

FABER, MICHAEL (Germ.'). Mint-master at Frankfort-on-Main, 
from 1667 to 1689. In some instances the coins issued under him 
or engraved by him are signed M. F. in monogram, at least after 
1681 ; his distinctive symbol is a hammer, which is found on 
Thalers, Gulden, Half Thalers, Tournois, Albuses, Kreuzers, &c. 
of that period. 

Bibliography. — P.Joseph & E. Fellner, Die Munjenvon Frankfurt am Maiti, 

FABI, JOSEPH (Austr.). Joint Mint-master with Tobias Johann 
Schobel, at Vienna, 1780, under Maria Theresia. Their initials S. F. 
appear on the thalers of that date, and modern struck Levantine 

FABII, F. M. (Ital.). Gem-engraver of Venice, during the second 
part of the eighteenth century. This artist did not produce any 
work of great merit. 

Bibliography. — E. Babelon, La Gravure en Pierres fines, Paris, 1894. 

FABIO, F. {ItaL). Misread signature, FA.MANT.AQV. of the 
Roman sculptor, FABIUS MARCI ANTONII AQUILI, who was 
a grand-son of the celebrated painter Antonazzo Aquilio, who flour- 
ished under Sixtus IV. This medallist worked during the second 
half of the sixteenth century; the only medal known by him com- 
memorates Hadrianus Caesander, priest and jurisconsult (1598); a 
specimen exists in the British Museum. 

Bibliography. — Alfred Armand, Les Medailleurs Ualiens des XV' el XVI' sikles, 
Paris, 1883- 1 887. — C. F. Keary, A Guide to the Exhibition of Italian Medals at the 
British Museum, London, 1893. 

FABRIS, ANTONIO (ItaL). Venetian Coin-engraver and Medallist 
of the first half of the nineteenth century ; he was employed at 
the Mint of Venice from about 1827, and in 1856, when he struck 
a medal commemorating the visit of the Emperor nnd Empress of 
Austria to Venice, he still filled the same post. This artist was 
born at Udine, learned the goldsmith's art, and first worked at Flo- 
rence, where he came in 1823. By him are several Portrait-medals 
of the great sculptor Canova, which count amongst his earliest 
works; in 1833, he produced a commemorative piece of Grand 

- 65 - 

Duke Peter Leopold of Tuscany, and in 1848, two beautiful medals 
celebrating the stirring epoch of the 1848 Revolution. Of that 
year exist two types of Five Lire pieces, the one, dated 22"'' March, 

Venetian Five Lire Piece, by Fabris. 

and the other, 11*'' August; both are signed by the artist, and were 
issued by the Provisional Government of the Venetian Republic. 
I have also seen with his signature the following medals : Ladislas 
Pyrker, 1827; — Sismonde de Sismondi, 1844; — Vittore Fos- 
sombroni, 1844; — Dante Alighieri; — Vittorino da Feltre; — 
Inauguration of the Academy of Borgo San Sepolcro ; — Academy 
of Architecture of Leghorn ; — Various medals of celebrated 
Painters and Poets &c. He also executed a reduction of Ghiberti's 
famous gates of the Baptistry at Florence. The work of Fabris is 
characterised by great purity of design allied with extreme delicacy 
of execution. 

Bibliography. r= Bolzenthal, Skii^^en ^ur Kunstgeschichle der modernen Medaillen- 
Arbeit {142(^-1840), hixWn, 1840. — Nicolo Papadopoli, Alcune notiiie sugli inla- 
gliatori della ^ecca di Feneiia, Venise, 1888. — Die Medaillen aus der RegkrungST^eil 
Sr. Majestdt des Kaisers Fran^ Josef /, 1892. 

FABY, JOSEF (5o/;fw.). Mint-master at Prague, 1800-1810. 

FACCIOLI, GIROLAMO (Jtal.). Bolzenthal quotes this artist, whose 
name is also found as FACIUOLI, a native of Perugia, who 
worked between 1530 and 1574, as a clever Goldsmith, Copper 
plate-engraver, and Medallist. The author above-mentioned adds 
that Faccioli the Elder must be distinguished trom his son, who 
flourished during the second half ol the sixteenth century. Benve- 
nuto Cellini refers to the elder Faccioli in his Autobiography ^ and 
says that he worked from designs by Francesco Mazzola. We possess 
no medaUic works by this artist. He was Coin-engraver at the Mint 
of Bologna, and on his death, in 1573, was succeeded by Ales- 
sandro Menganti. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Francesco Malaguzzi, La Zecca di 
Bologna, Rivista Italiana di Numismatica, 1898. 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of Medallitis. — II. S 

~ €6 — 

FACHE, REN£ {French). Sculptor, born at Douai (Nord) on the 
ly^ of November, 1816. He was a pupil of David d' Angers. Several 
bronze Portrait-medallions were exhibited by him at the Paris 
Salons during the seventies : M. Pirot; — M. G**** ; — M. A. 
de Saint-O**; — D^ Gellex; — M. Moreau ; — M. Murex ; — 
General Delcambre, &c. There are about a hundred Portrait-medal- 
lions by this artist. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, Dictionmiire general des artistes de 
Yecoh fratifaise, Paris, 1869-1882. 

FACHS, MODESTINUS (Germ.). Mint- master at Anhalt, 15 67-1 595. 
On the coins issued and engraved by him appear his initials M. F., 
generally in monogram. His name is sometimes given as FLAGHS. 

Bibliography. — J. L. Amnion, Samtnlutig beruhmter Medailleui s tind Miin\- 
meister ncbst ihren Zeicheu, Nurnberg, 1778. 

FACIUS, ANGELICA (Germ.). Gem-engraver and iMedallist ; 
daughter of F. W. Facius ; pupil of Ranch ; born in 1806, died at 
Weimar in 1840. Trained by Rauch of Berlin, she surpassed her 
father in skill, and some of her productions are not without merit. 
By her are the following medals : Goethe, 1825; — Death of 

Impression of Goethe's ring, mounted with carnelian, engraved by AngeHca Facius. 

the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar, 1829; — Prof. Benedict 
Wilhelm's Jubilee, 1836; — and other commemorative pieces of 
local interest. Her signature is generally F or sometimes also ANG. 
FACIUS. She was very clever in Gem-engraving. 
Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cil. — Paul Joseph & Ed. Fellner, op. cit. 

FACIUS, FRIEDRICH WILHELM(G<'rw.). Medallist and Gem-engrav- 
er of Weimar, during the earlv part of the nineteenth century. 
His initial F appears on a masonic medal of Weimar, with bust of 
Wieland, 1812; but his full signature FACIUS is found on two 
commemorative pieces of the meeting at Erfurt of Alexander I. of 
Russia and Napoleon I., 1808. This artist's daughter was a medaUist 
of some note. Vide siiprd. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cii. — Edwards, The Napoleon Medals, Lon- 
don, 1837. 

- 67 - 

FACONNET, M"-^ MARIE ANNE EUGEniE {French). Contemporary 
Sculptor, born at Paris. Pupil of J. Lequien J^ She is the author 
of a number of Portrait-medallions in clay which are not without 
merit. One exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1870 is mentioned by 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FADDEGON (Dutch). Contemporary Medallist, of whom I have 
seen a Portrait-plaque of Ruysch van Duchteren. 

FAESCH, SEBASTIAN (Swiss). There is a cast medal in lead of 
Basle, obv. INCLYTA BASILEA. Bust of city to r. ^L. PROVI- 
DENTIA SEN AT VS. Two senators holding between them a statue 
of Peace. Haller states that it is probable that the medal was 
designed by Sebastian Faesch, an artist of the middle years of the 
eighteenth century. 

FAGNIER, GUILLAUME (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot 
Troyes, from the 28''' February 1726 to the 25''' of same month, 
1739. His distinctive mark was a lily. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les ^raveurs de la Monnaie de Troyes, Mdcon, 

FAILLOT, EDMOND NICOLAS (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Auxerre (Yonne). He executed a number of Portrait- 
medallions in clay. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cil. 


FALCKENBURG, REINHER VON (Germ.). Mint-master at Meisen- 
heim, for Count Palatine Ludwig of Zweibriicken, in 1464. He 
appears to have died in the following year. 

Bibliography. — Amnion, op. cit. 

FALCONER, JOHN (Brit.). Mint-master at Edinburgh, in conjunc- 
tion with Nicholas Briot, his father-in-law. He was installed in 
office on the 3"^ of August 1657. After Briot's death, Falconer was 
ratified in the Office of Master in 1646. In 1650, Sir John Falconer 
is directed " to stryk three scoir stane of copper ", and on the 
restoration of Charles II, an Act of Parliament dated I2*^ June 1661 
orders " Sir Johne Falconer, Master of the Conyehouse and Charles 
Maitland of Haltoun, Generall of his Maiesties Mint heer in 
Scotland, to coyne or cause to be coyned in Turners three thousand 
stane weight of good poore copper". Some of Falconer's issues are 
signed F or tj. 

In a note, p. 202, Handbook of the Coins of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Mr. Grueber says : " Whether Falconer actually engraved 

— 68 — 

dies has been questioned. He may have placed his initial on the 
die merely to show that the coins were issued under his authority. 
In any case all the designs appear to have been done by Briot. " 
Bibliography. — Burns, Coinage of Scotland, vol. II, p. 452. 

FALCONET, £tiENNE MAURICE (^French). Sculptor, born at Paris 
in 1716, died there in 1791. He is best known by his famous statue 
of Peter the Great executed for Catherine II. in 1766, and erected 
on a huge block of granite at S' Petersburg. His Milo of Croton at 
the Louvre is very fine. This artist is also the author of some 
Portrait-medallions in clay. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FALIERO, LUCA (ItaL). Mint-inspector at Venice, 1631. His issues 
bear the initials L. F. 

FALIZE, FRfiRES (French). A Paris firm of Jewellers and Gold- 
smiths. They have reproduced a medal of the sixteenth century, with 

bust of Christ and ^L. Hebrew legend, and are well known for 
other medallic works and jewellery of exquisite taste. 

FALK {Germ.). Mint-iriaster at Wismar, 1762. The coins struck 
under him usually bear an F as distinctive symbol. 

FALKENHAYN, CHRISTOPH VON (Germ.). He farmed a Mint in 
1622 in the Principality of Breslau. 

FALKENSTEIN (^Danish). Die-sinker of the second half of the 
seventeenth century. He practised the medallic art as a dilettante, 
and trained a pupil who attained great celebrity, Karlsteen. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

- 69 - 

FALKNER, JOHANN CARL (G^rm.). Mint-master at Eisenach, 1692- 
1693. He signed his issues I.C.F. In 1681, he appears to have 
been Master of the Darmstadt Mint. 

FALOT, E. (French). MedaUist and Coin- engraver to the Mint of 
Mexico, under Maximilian I. By him are some medals ot Napo- 
leon III, on the French intervention in Mexico, 1862-3; Military 
medals of Maximilian I, of various types, &c. 

Bibliography. — Benjamin Betts, Mexican Imperial Coinage, Boston, 1899. 

FALTZ, RAIMUND {Sived.). A celebrated Medallist and Coin- 
engraver of the second half of the seventeenth century. He was born 
at Stockholm on the 4'^ of July, 1658, and died at BerUn, on the 
21" May, 1703. His father was a goldsmith, and under him the 
young artist learned the first elements of engraving. At an early 
age, Faltz visited Copenhagen, Augsburg, Strassburg, and then 
went to Paris to study medallic art under F. Cheron ; there he 
soon attracted attention and gained considerable reputation. He 
even obtained from Louis XIV an annual pension ot 1200 Livres. 
Some time before 1688 he left France, was entrusted with the exe- 
cution of coins and a number of medals for Charles XI. of Sweden 
and Ulrica Eleonora, and finally settled at Berlin, where he spent 
the remainder of his life, in the service of Frederick III., with the 
exception of a few months during which he worked for the court of 

By Faltz are the following medals : The Elector of Branden- 
burg supports the rights of William of Orange to the Crown of 
England, 1688 (2var.); — Victories on the Rhine, 1689; — Foun- 
dation of the Long Bridge, 1692 ; — Laying out of the Het/^garten, 
1693 ; — Foundation of the University of Halle 1694; — Aggrand- 
izement of the City of Berlin, 1701 ; — Prize-medal of the Berlin 
Academy ; — Coronation of Frederick William I, First King of 
Prussia, 1701 (2 var.); — Portrait-medal of Sophia-Charlotte 
(2 var.) ; — Frederick III. and Sophia-Charlotte ; — Philip William, 
Mati^rave of Brandenburg ; — Wax model of King Frederick Wil- 
liam I; — Undated Medal of Frederick William I ^L. PATRIOS. 
lAM.CONCIPIT.IGNES. Eagle;— The Princesses Mathilda and 
Sophia, 170 1 (struck to demonstrate the claims of the Electress 
Sophia to the English throne, through her descent from Matilda, 
daughter of Henry II. ; — Portrait of Louis XIV., 1698 ; — Secret 
of the King's resolutions; — The Glorv of France ; — Defeat of 
the Tripolitan privateers, 1681 ; — Statue on the Place dcs Vic- 
toires; — Bust of the Dauphin ; — Head of the King ; — Ol. 
Thegner, 1687; — George Lewis of Brunswick-Liineburg; — 
George Augustus of Brunswick-Liineburg, 1701 ; — The Belgian 
Campaign of Frederick III., 1690 ; — Building of a Sluice at Berlin, 

— 70 — 

1 694 J &*^- ^ ^'sf o^ other medals is given by Lochner : Second 
Marriage of Wiadislaus IV. of Poland; — Maximilian Emmanuel of 
Bavaria, Battle of Mohacz, 1687; — Taking of Strassburg by the 
French ; — Sophia of Hanover, 170 1 ; — King of Prussia ; — King 
Augustus II. of Poland, &c. 

Hildebrand {Sveriges och Svenska Konungahusets Minnespenningar, 
Stockholm, 1875) describes the following medals connected with 
Sweden and engraved by Faltz : Sweden's prosperity under 
Charles XL, 1687; — others, ^L. PATRIAE— HINC—SALVS— 
QVIESOVE (3 var.); — The Balzar Grill gold Portrait-medal of 
Charles XL, 1694 5 — King Charles XI. and consort Q.ueen Ulrica 
Eleonora(2 var.); — Coronation of Queen Ulrica Eleonora, 1680; — 
Portrait-medals of the Queen, 1689, 1690 (3 var.); — Charles XIL, 
as Crown-prince (3 types) ; — Marriage of Frederick I. with Louisa 
Dorothea Sophia of Brandenburg, 1700, &c. 

Faltz was engaged at the Pomeranian Mint as Coin-engraver by 
Charles XL of Sweden, but he did not fill that office very long. 
His signature on medals appears indifferently as K. F., — FALTZ, 
— R. FALTZ, — R. FALZ, and K F in monogram. 

Flad gives the name of Pfaltz to this medallist, and Postolacca, 
in his Catalogue of the Wellenheim Collection, repeated the error; 
Faltz never used this form of spelling. 

Bolzenthal commends the artist in the following terms : " Faltz 
war korrekt in der Zeichnung, tiichtig in der Technik, und 
erreichte dabei in dem Portrait eine seltene Aehnlichkeit. Von 
seinem Fleiss zeugen die noch aufbewahrten Modelle, die er bis 
ins Kleinste in Wachs ausgefiihrt hat. Was wiirde dieser in vieler 
Hinsicht treffliche Kiinstler geleistet haben, hatte er in einer Zeit 

Thaler of Frederick III. of Brandenburg, by Faltz. 

gelebt, wo die allgemeine Geschmacksbildung, deren Einfliissen der 
Einzelne sich nur hochst selten entzicht, von besserer Art gewesen 
ware : ein Gedanke, der bei der Betrachtung der Werke von Faltz 
unwillkurlich in der Seele aufsteigt. " 

— 71 — 

Prof. D'Menadier in Schaumi'in^n des Houses Hohen:^olkrns writes : 
**Ein neues Ideal, eine neue Kunstansciinuung und Formgebung 
brachte Raimund Faltz zur Geltung. Ein geborener Sclnvede, hatte 
dieser auf ausgedehnten Reisen namentlich in der Werkstatt 
Cheron's als Medailltur sich ausgebildet und war nach der Riick- 
keiir in die Heiinath bei der schwedischen Miinze in Ponimern 
beschaftigt, als Kurfiirst Friedrich III. im Jahre 1688 ihn nach Ber- 
lin berief. Wie er sie in Paris gelernt, hielten eine gefiillige Form 
und leichte Eleganz nunmehr auch in die Berliner Miinze ihren 
Einzug. Von einer unbedingten Naturwahrhaftigkeit und bis 
auf den innersten Kern durclidringenden Charakterisirung zu 
Gunsten des schonen Scheines ein wenig nachlassend, \.ar er ein 
Kiinstler wie geschaffen fiir die glanzvolle Hofhaltung des pracht- 
liebenden ersten Konigs. Mag er immerhin namentlich das Bild des 
Herrschers selbst idealisirt haben, er bewahrte dabei, so oft er das- 
selbe auch wiederholt hat, wie in dem der geistvollen und zugleich 
schonen Herrin eine ausgezeichneie Kunst, welche nicht nur in den 
Wachsmodellen Achtung gebietet, sondern auch in den nach ihnen 
unter technischen Verbesserungen hergestellten Pragungensiegreich 
hervortritt. Und an Auftragen hat es Friedrich weder als Kurfurst 
noch als Konig fehlen lassen : in gleicher Weise bot der am Nie- 
derrhein gegen die Franzosen siegreich gefiihrte Krieg wie die 
Pflege von Kunst und Wissenschaft, insbesondere die reiche Aus- 
stattung der Residenz mit neuen Instituten und grossen Bauwerken 
stets von Neuem die erwiinschte Veranlassung, (lurch die Kunst des 
Medailleurs den eigenen Ruhm zu mehren. Vor AUem aber gait es, 
die Erwerbung der Konigskrone zu feiern und zu verherrlichen. — 
Aber Faltz starb, dem Konige zu fruh, bereits im Jahre 1703. Die 
beiden unter ihm herangebildeten Stemptlschneider Marl und 
Liiders konnten ihn nicht nur in keiner Weise ersetzen, sondern 
sind iiberkaupt nicht mitzurechnen, soweit es sich um Kunst 
handelt ; ihre Schaumunzen sind durchweg robe Machwerke und 
zumeist geradezu Karikaturen. Ihnen geheniiber war der Konig auf 
fremde Kiinstler angewiesen. Vorubergehend war der Niederlan- 
der Boskam in Berlin thiitig, wie im Anfange seiner Regierung 
auch Smeltzingeinige Medaillen zu Friedrich's Ruhm gearbeitet hat. 
Die vornehmlichsten Stiicke aber Hess der Konig durch Christian 
Wermuth in Gotha arbeiten, unter ihnen als die zumeist verbrei- 
tete die Schaumiinze auf den Schluter'schen Neubau des Schlosses 
vom Jahre 1704; ihn an Stelle des Faltz fiir Berlin zu gewinnen, 
gelang jedocht nicht. " 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, of>. cit. — J. -J. Guiffrey, 
La Moniiaie des Me'Jailks, Histoire metalliqtie de Louis XIV et de Louis XV, Revue 
numismatique, 1888. — Lochner, Sammhing meikwurdiger Medaillen. — Kohler, 
Miinihelustigungen. — Nuniophylac. Burckhard. — Lesser, Munieti auf gelehrten 
Gesellschaften. — Flad, Beriihmte Medailleurs. — Hildebrand, op. cit. — Schau- 
miin^en des Houses HohenioUeru, Berlin, 1901. 

— 72 — 

FALZER, PETER (Genu.). Die-sinker at Breslau, circa 1675. His 
works are signed P . F. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 


FANNIERE, FRANQOIS AUGUSTE (French). Sculptor and Goldsmith, 
born at Longwy (Moselle) on the 24'*' of November 1818; died in 
Paris on the 29''' November 1900. Pupil of Drolling. He is the 
author of a number of bronze Portrait-medallions : 1841, Auguste 
Maone; — M. A***; — M. V***; — 1849, M''= A. R***; — 
M/L. F***;— 1853, M""=F**; — 1855, Three medals, n. d.; — 
Soci^te des Regates du Havre; — 1863, Napoleon HI; — 1876, 
Medal, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FANO, PIETRO DA (ltd.). Medallist of the second and third quar- 
ters of the fifteenth century ; his works probably date between 1457 
and 1462; the artist is supposed to have died in 1475 or soon after. 
No biographical details are known. 

Three of his medals are known, two being signed, and the 
third is attributed to him on account of similarity of work, which 
is very characteristic and exhibits all the fine qualities which have 
rendered Renaissance medallic art so conspicuous. 

His signature : OPVS. PETRI DOMO FANI appears on a 
medal of Ludovicus III. of Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua; obv. Bust 
to 1. :^. NOLI ME TANGIERE. A boy seated on rock, holds bow 
and arrow; beside him, a hedgehog; in the field, a crown. This 
medal is very fine ; the representation on ^. is taken from a medal 
by Boldu, who was his contemporary. 

Pietro da Fano is also the author of two medals of Pasquale 
Malipieri, Doge of Venice, and his consort, Giovanna Dandolo : 
a. Obv. Bust of Giovanna, I^. Two female figures, draped, stand- 
ing (signed OPVS. PETR VS. D. DOMO. FANI). — b. Obv. Bust 
of the Doge ; I^. Bust of his consort (not signed, but undoubtedly 
by the same artist). 

Bibliography. — Alois Heiss, Les Medailleurs de Venise, 1887. — D"" Julius 
Friedlander, Die italienischen Schaumun:{en des fnnf\ehnten Jahrhunderts (^i4JO-i^jd), 
Berlin, 1882. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Armand, Les viedailleurs italiens des XV^ 
et XVI^ siecles, Paris, 1885-1887. — G. Castellani, Noti^ie di Pietro da Fano,Meda- 
glista, Rocca S. Casciano, 1898. 

FARAIL, GABRIEL EMMANUEL (French). Sculptor, born at Saint 
Marsal (Pyrenees-Orientales); pupil of Oliva and Farochon. At the 
Salon of 1874, he exhibited a fine Portrait-medallion in bronze of 
M"* Lecoeur. Some medals of no great interest are the work of this 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

— 73 — 

FARBOT, JEHAN (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Grenoble, 
1 524-15 54. He was a goldsmith by profession, and succeeded 
Jacques Gauvain. 

Bibliography. — A. Barre, Graveurs ge'ne'raux et particuUers des Monnaies de 
France, Annuaire numismatique, 1867. — Natalis Rondot, Jacques Gauvain, Paris, 

FARENBERG, I. V. (Germ.). Mint-master at Cassel, 1681-1697. 
His signature appears as VF (in monogram) or I. V.F. on the cur- 
rency issued by him. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FARINET (Siuiss). Forger of 20 Centime pieces, of the years 
1879 and 1880; he worked in the Bas-Valais (Switzerland). 

Bibliography. — Dr Lade, Catalogue des Monnaies et Medailles, Geneve, avril 

FARINOS (Span.). This name appears on a Prize-medal for horti- 
culture at Valencia, 1855, ^^ ^^^ inventor or designer; Navarrete 
was the engraver. 

FARNESI, ADOLFO (ltd.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at Lucca. I have seen his signature on the following 
medals : Inauguration of an equestrian statue of King Victor Emma- 
nuel at Florence, 1890; — D"" Oreste Andrei, 1890; — Death of 
Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta ; — Agostino da Montefeltro, the 
celebrated preacher; — Giuseppe Garibaldi; — Leo Xin.,&c. 

This artist is the author of numerous private and personal 
medals, and agricultural prizes, &c. His full name is Adolfo di 
Nicola Farnesi. 

Bibliography. — A. Comandini, MedagUe Italiane del i8po, Rivista Italiana di 

Numismatica, 1892-3. 

FAROCHON, JEAN BAPTISTE EUGtlNE (French). Medallist and 
Sculptor, born at Paris, on the 10''' of March, 1812 ; died in 1869. 
He was a pupil of David d'Angers and entered the Ecole des Beaux- 
Arts on the 5''' of October 1829. In 1835 he obtained the Prix de 
Rome for medal-engraving; subject : Romulus carrying war- 
spoils; and in 1863 he was elected Professor at the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts. The artist exhibited numerous medals, medallions, 
patterns of coins, jetons, &c. at the Paris Salons between 1833 and 
1868. He is the author of a medal in clay of Christ from which 
was cast the figure adorning the church of Saint-Vincent-de-Paul. 
His statues. Integrity, S' John the Baptist, Firmness, Saint-Remy, 
Hugh Capet, Saint-Leon, Isaias, &c. are amongst the best known. 

The following medals are by Farochon : Liberty and Public 
Order; — Charles X; — Louis-Philippe; — Ingres; — Portraits 
of various pensioners of the French Academy at Rome ; — Casimir 

— 74 — 

Delavigne, 1848 ; — Prize-medals for physical sciences and mathe- 
matics; — D''Barby ; — Four patterns submitted to the 1848 Coinage 
Commission of the Second French Republic {illustrated) ; — Eugene 

Pattern Twenty Francs, 1848. 

Sue; — Various jetons for Private Societies, &c. ; — M. S***, 1853; 

— Fleury ; — Jetons for the Society of French Bibliophiles ; — 
Roumanian Union; — Orfila; — D"" Barby, 1863 ; — Corot, 1864; 

— Portrait-medallions, 1865 and 1866 ; — Ingres, 1868; — M. Stoltz; 

— M™^ Stoltz; — Vernier; — Child laden with fruit, &c. 

Obv. of Pattern Five Francs, 1848. 

Pattern Ten Centimes, i{ 

Bibliography. — R. Marx, Les Me'dailleurs fiattfais, Paris, 1897. — Chavigne- 
rie et Auvray, op. cit. — J.-Adrien Blanchet, Farochon, Grande Encyclop^die. — 
De Saulcy. Souvenirs numismatiques de la Revolution de 1848. 

— 75 - 

FARROR, JOSEPH (Brit.). Issuer of Halfpenny tokens, payable in 
Anglesey, London or Liverpool, 1792. This Joseph Farror is said to 
have bequeathed sixpence per week in perpetuity to keep the statue 
of Lord Nelson clean. 

FARSTER. KONRAD {Germ.). Die-cutter at the Mint of Jagerndorf, 
Silesia, 1563. Fricdensburg, Schlesiens neuere Miii^geschichte, 1900, 
says : " vielleicht dieselbe Person wie Leonhard Wurster. 

FATINELLI (ItaL). Director of the Mint at Ronie under Cle- 
ment XI, circa 171 3. His arms appear on a Scudo of that year, 
with a view of the Piazza della Rotonda on ^. 

FADCHER, GDILLADME (French). Sculptor of the second half of 
the nineteenth century; born at Paris in 1827 ; pupil of A. Dumont 
and Meusnier. He executed a number of Portrait-medallions. Chavi- 
gnerie mentions the following : Feu B***, 1868; — M™' B***, 
i860; — Richard Lenoir; — Young T. S***, 1870. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvrav, op. cit. 

FAUGINET, JACQUES AUGUSTE {French). Sculptor and Medallist, 
born on the 22"** of April, 1809, at Paris; died in 1847. Pupil of 
Gatteaux ; entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 1826. In 1831, he 
obtained the Second Prix for medal-engraving ; subject : Oedipus 
explaining the riddle of the Sphinx. At the Salon of 1833, this 
artist exhibited a frame of Medals, Portrait-medallions, and Gems. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FAUQU£ (French). Die-sinker of Paris, who took part in 1848 in 
the competition for the coinage of the Second French Republic. 
There is a pattern Ten Centimes by him, illustrated in De Saulcy, 
Souvenirs numismatiques de la Revolution de 1848. 

FAULCON, PIERRE (French), 1493-1529, Goldsmith of Spanish 
origin, in the service of Anne of Britanny, Francis I, and Queen 
Claude. He executed some medals (Ymaiges fa^on de metalles) 
which are now lost. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les Medailkurs lyonuais, Lyon, 1896. 

FAULKNER (Brit.). Die-sinker, who was working circa 1821- 
1826. Possibly this Engraver is the same person as Benjamin Raw- 
linson Faulkner, 1787-1849, the well-known Portrait-painter, born 
at Manchester, whose first exhibit at the Royal Academy in 182 1 
was so much admired. 

By this artist are the following medals : Visit of George IV. to 
Edinburgh, 18 12; — Sir Walter Scott (Mudie's National Medals) ; 
— Another, I^. Scene from the " Lady of the Lake " ; — Masonic 

- 76 - 

medal of the Old Lodge S' John's, I anark, 1822; — Lord Byron 
memorial, 1824; — General Viscount Combermere, 1821 ; — 
Surrender of Bhurtpore, 1826; — Death of Frederick, Duke of 
York, 1825 ; — Jones's Love Tokens, of Birmingham, 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Cochran-Patrick, op. cit. — 
H. A. Grueber, English Personal Medals from i'j6o. Numismatic Chronicle, 1888 
and 1890. — W. J. Davis, Token Coinage of fVanvickshire , Birmingham, 1896. 

FAUR, CAPIT. JEHAN (French). Mint-master at St. Palais, 1602- 

FAURE, BERTRAND (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Tou- 
louse, 1 63 7- 1 647. 

FAURE, GUILLAUME (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Tou- 
louse, circa 1603. Another engraver of the same name, was 
employed at the Toulouse Mint, circa 1693. 

FAURE, NICOLAS (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Riom, 
circa 1594. 

FAXEL, DANIEL (Siued.). Mint-master at Stockholm, 1672-1687. 
His initials D.F. appear on the coins issued by him. 

FATOLLE (French). Medallist and Die-sinker, who was established 
in the Galerie de Valois, Palais-Royal, Paris, until circa 1890, when 
he was succeeded by M. E. Pouteau. He dealt mostly in Orders, 
Decorations, &c. 

F. B. Vide FR£d£ric BRIOT. Die-sinker at Montbeliard and Stutt- 
gart, 1 393-1609. 

F. B. Vide FRIEDRICH BRANDT. Mint-master at Rostock, 1782- 

F. B. Vide FILIPPO BALUGANI. Die-sinker at Bologna, 1770- 
1780; also F. B. F. or F. BAL. 

F. B. Vide FRANCESCO BARATTINI. Die-sinker at Bologna, 1770- 

F. B. Vide FRANCESCO BARBARO. Mint-master at Venice, 1796- 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

F. B. (French). Initials of an Engraver, who was working, circa 
1761. They appear on a medal of Louis XVL with ^. View of the 
Mines ot Piegue, Curban and Arzillier. 

Bibliography. — Hennin, Hisloire nutnismalique de la Revolution franfaise, 
Paris, 1826. 

— 77 — 

P. C. Vide FRANQOIS CHARON. Medallist who worked at Rome 
and Paris, 1635-1699. 

F. C. FMenu??0 CROPANESE. Die-sinker at Rome, 1756-1773. 

F. C. Vide FRIEDRICH COMSTADIUS. Die-sinker at Warsaw, 1769- 

F. C. B. Vide F. C. BURCARD. Die-sinker at Basle, circa 1756. 

F. C. F. Vide F. CESARINO. Die-sinker at Rome, circa 1670- 

F. C. H. Vide FRIEDRICH CASPAR HERBACH. Die-sinker at Copen- 
hagen, 1 647- 1 664. His son of the same name was Mint-master 
there, 1663-1670. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

F. C. Vide FED. COC. infra. 

F. D. Vide FILIBERTO DIANO. Mint-master at Borgo in Savoy, 

F. D. Vide FRANCESCO DANDOLO. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1783- 

F. D. Vide VtLlX DUPRfi. Coin-engraver at Liege, 1830. 

F. D. Vide FERNAND DUBOIS. Contemporary Belgian Medallist. 

F. D. S. V. Vide FERDINAND DE SAINT-URBAIN. Medallist who 
worked at Bologna, Rome, and Nancy, -j* 1738. 

F. D. W. Vide T. D. WINTER. English Die-sinker, end of seven- 
teenth century. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

F. E. Vide FRANZ ENGEL. Mint-master at Bonn, 1 638-1 649. 

F. E. Vide FRIEDRICH EBERLE. Warden of the Mannheim Mint, 

F. E. Vide FRIEDRICH ERHARDT. German Die-sinker, t/r^fl 1840. 

F. E. W. Vide FRIEDRICH ERNST WERMUTH. Mint-master at Hild- 
burghausen, 17 16-17 18. 
Bibliography. — Schlikeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FflART ADRIEN (French). Sculptor and Medallist, born at S6dan 
(Ardennes), on the 11''' of April, 1813 ; pupil of Danton. Chavi- 
gnerie mentions the following medals by this artist : Society of reli- 
gious concerts, founded by Prince de la Moskowa; — 1863, Jetons 
for the Naval Insurance Companies, Etoile de la Mer, and Nep- 

-78 - 

tune; — 1865, Summer; — 1867, Spring; — 1870, Portniit-medal 
of M. V***; — 1874, M""^ P. de G***; — M--^ Marie Edmee Pau ; 

— 1875, C. L***; — 1876, Maron-Bretagne, Vice-president of the 
Society for Protection of Animals; — 1877, M""^ la Comtesse 
G. de R*** ; — M. Boisville, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Revue de h Numismalique 
beige, 1874, p. 399. 

FECHTEL, PAUL {Danish). Die-sinker of Lubeck, held the office 
of Coin-engraver at the Mint of Copenhagen, where he was still 
employed in 1599. He is supposed to have engraved a Portrait- 
medal of himself, with the curious inscription : GOD. HEFT. 
velse over Danske Moriter 144S-1SSS, Paul Fechtel's name appears 
as Mint-master at Copenhagen from 1541 to 1565. 

BlBUOGR.\PHY. — Bolzenthal, d/). cii. 

FECHTER, FRIEDRIGH {Swiss). Medallist and Coin-engraver of 
the second quarter of the seventeenth century. He signed his pro- 
ductions F. F., and seems to have resided at Basle, 1629-16)3, as 
most of his works belong to that city. The Wunderly-von-Muralt 
Collection contained the following specimens : Religious Medal 
of Zurich, 1638 (3 var.); — Suppression of the Insurrection of 
the Peasants, Berne, 1653 ; — Medallic Quarter Thaler, with view 
of Basle and bust of Lucius Munatius Plancus ; — Medallic Thaler 
of Basle, so-called " Gliickhennenthaler " ; — Medallic Double 
Thaler of Basle, with representation of Daniel in the den of lions ; 

— School Prize of Basle, 1642; — Small Prize-medal, with view 
of Basle and Dog, 1630 (5 var.) ; — Others, undated (5 var., diffe- 
rent types) ; — Religious medal with David on ^L. ; — Another, 
^L. View of Basle (2 var.); — Octagonal Prize medal, IN GOTT 
MEIN HOFFNUNG; — Another, dated 1643, View of city; — 
Small commemorative medal, ^L. Christ as a Child (2 var.) ; — 
Medal, undated, ^L. King David ; — Conclusion of the Thirty 
Years' War, and Peace of Westphalia, 1648 (5 var.). 

The Swiss Collection at the South Kensington Museum com- 
prises most of these. 

Engel and Lehr (PI. xxxviii, 5) illustrate a piece known as the 
Medal of the 20 Corporations, the obv. of which has been used by 
the engraver Johann Georg Lutz for a medal of Strassburg, publish- 
ed by Herr Julius Feist in the Revue Suisse de Numismatique (1892, 
p. II)). Hildebrand describes several portrait-medals and badges of 
Gustavus Adolphus by this engraver. 

It is not settled whether the F.F. should be interpreted as Frie- 
drich Fechter or Fechter Fecit, but there can be no doubt that these 
letters are the signature of this artist, and not of the engraver 

— 79 — 

Fechter, whose works mostly belong to the beginning of the 
eigiiteenth century. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, o/>. cit. — Wilhelm Tobler-Meyer, Die Miini-imd 
MeiiaiUen-Siimmlung des Herrn Hans IViiiuierlyv. Mimill in Zurich, Zurich, 1897- 
1899. — R. S. Poole, Siciss Coins in the South Kensington Museum, London, 1878. 
— Hildebrand, op. cit. 

FECHTER, JOHANN (Swiss). According to Bolzenthal, the full name 
of this Medallist and Coin-engraver xsjohann Ulrich Fechter. He resided 
at Basle, at the end of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eight- 
eenth, centuries. The following medals are by him: Reward of the City 
of Basle to the Swiss confederates (^. engraved by Friedrich Fechter), 
1709; — Emmanuel Socin of Basle, f 17 17 (signed : J. FECHTER). 

Both Friedrich and Johann Fechter were no doubt employed by 
the Basle Mint, although other engravers, notably, J. de Beyer and 
Handmann, seem to have signed most of the currency of that period. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, o(). cit. — W. Tobler-Meyer, op cit. — R. S. 
Poole, op. cit. 

FED. COC. Vide FEDERIGO COCCOLA, suprd (Vol. I, p. 283). 

FEDERER, HIERONYMUS (Germ.). Mint-master at Regensburg, 
from 1655 to 1673, ^^^^ y^^^ of his death. Coins and medals were 
engraved by him as early as 1650, and are signed, H. F., H. I, P., 
or F. These initials occur on Thalers of that city, dated 1653, and 
1658, and on a Ducat of 1664, which was sold in the Reimmann 
Collection, 1892. 

Bibliography. — Ammon, op. cit. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. - Madai, 
TIjakr Cabinet, n°^ 5097, 5578. — Ad. Hess, Reimmann Sale-Catalogue, n° 7829. 

FEDERIGO. Vide CESARE DA RAGNO (Vol. I, p. 43). 


FEODOROWNA, MARIA (Kuss.). Empress of Russia, widow of 
Paul I., and ^ clever Medallist and Gem-engraver of the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century. She died in 1827. Her works are signed 
MARIA. F., MAR.?., or MAPII.P (Maria Fecit). The Czarina was a 
member of various European Fine Art Academies, and excelling 
herself in the glyptic art, she extended her sovereign protection 
towards the artists who flourished at S' Petersburg during her life- 

Maria Feodorowna was born a Princess of Wiirtemberg, in 1759, 
and married to the Grand Duke Paul, in 1776, but the intrigues of 
the Russian court, under the capricious rule of Catherine II., and the 
sad events w- hich befell the Princess during the last years of her con- 
sort's life, caused her to find in art a solace amidst her afflictions, 
and under the training of Leberecht and other engravers, she 

— 8o — 

became a distinguished artist. Bolzenthal praises her very highly, 
and commenting on the medal which she engraved to commemorate 
the successes of her son, the Czar Alexander I, over the French, 

Medal ot Alexander I. of Russia, by the Czarina Maria Feodorovvna. 

1814, he writes : " This is undoubtedly the most artistic produc- 
tion that was ever executed by a woman's hand. " 

— 8i - 

A gem, bearing her signature, has lately come under my notice; 
it is an intaglio copied from the antique and of exquisite work. I have 
not been able to obtain a list of this distinguished engraver's medals 
and gems, but from all accounts, it is an extensive one, including 
Portrait of Catherine II., 1789, Emperors Paul (i8oi)and Alexan- 
der I., of herself and many other members ot the Russian Imperial 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

FEHR, GEORG CONRAD (G^rm.). Mint-master at Darnstadt, 174 1- 
1743 and 1752-1766. His signature on the coins is C. F. or G. C. F. 
These initials also occur on a piece ofSix Albus of Frankfort-on-M., 

FEHR, R. (Germ.). Mint-master to the Elector Palatine, circa 
1732-1736. His initials R. F., appear on ro and 5 Gulden pieces of 
those years. 

Bibliography. — Amnion, op. cit. 

FEHR, REMIGIUS (Germ.). Mini-master at Darmstadt, 1772-1809; 
died in 1810. His initials R. F. appear on the coins issued by 

FEHRMAN, CARL GDSTAF (Swed.). Son of the Medallist, Daniel 
Fehrman; was born at Stockholm in 1746, where he died in 1809. He 
occupied the post of Medallist to the Swedish Court, and succeeded 
his father as Chief-engraver at the Royal Mint in 1764. The younger 
Fehrman produced a large number of medals, amongst which the 
best known are : Birth of Princess Sophia Albertina, 8. October 1753 ; 

— Restoration to health of Queen Louisa Ulrika, 1767 ; — Death of 
King Adolphus Frederick, 177 1 ; — Foundation of the Academy at 
Stockholm; — Death of Queen Louisa Ulrika, 1782; — Admiral 
Henrik Trolle, 1784; — ■ Daniel Fehrman, 1783 ; — Marriage of 
Crown-Prince Gustavus with Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, 1766 ; 

— Return of Gustavus III. from his travels abroad, 177 1 ; — Coro- 
nation of Gustavus III. 1772 (3 var.); — C. L. Grill, Swedish 
Minister of Commerce, 1767; — Johan von Bierken, 1780; — 
Revolution of 1772; — Abolition of Torture, 1772; — Abroga- 
tion of Land Taxes, 1772 ; — The King and Queen visit the 
Country, 1772; — Establishment of a National Bank, by Royal 
Charter, 1773; — Royal Decrees of the 21. July, 1774; — The 
Kings visits the Czarina Catherine II. at Czarskoieselo, 1777; — 
Birth of Charles Gustavus, 1782; — The King's return from a 
journey to Italy and France, 1784; — Prize Medal for Bravery, 
1785; — Royal Banking Company, confirmed by Decree of 
13. April 1787; — Siege of Goteborg by the Danes, 1788; — 
War Medal for services in the field, 1790; — Naval Victory over 

L. Forres. — Biographical Solicts of Medailisls. — I[. 6 

— 82 — 

the Russians of Svensksund, 1790; — Peace concluded with Rus- 
sia, 1790 (3 var.); — Return of the King trom Finland, 1790 ; — 
Return of the King from Aachen, 1791; — Assassination of 
Gustavus III., 1792 (sev, varieties); — Portrait-medals of Gus- 
tavus III., 1792 (sev. varieties); — Portrait-medals of Gustavus III ; 

— Reward for Valour (2 var.); — Prize Medals of the Swedish 
Academy (7 var.) ; — Prize Medals of the Antiquarian and Histor- 
ical Society (4 var.); — Royal Military Academy, 1786; — 
Administration of Agriculture, 1791; — Jubilee Festivities at 
Upsal, 1793; — King Gustavus IV. Adolphus, 1796; — The King's 
visits to the Stockholm Mint, 1796 and 1797 (2 var.); — Mar- 
riage of the King with Frederika Dorothea Wilhelmina of Baden, 
1797; — Tournament at Stockholm, 1799; — Tournament at 
Drottningholm, 1800; — Agricultural Prize Medal, 1794; — Royal 
College of Music, 1797 (3 var.); — Various Prize Medals, 1794 
and 1797 (3 var.); — Duke Charles, Masonic Medal, 1787; — 
Death ot Prince Frederick Adolphus at Montpellier, 1803 ; — Por- 
trait-medal of Prince Frederick Adolphus; — Princess Sophia 
Albertina, ^. VASORVM SORORI, 1783; — Sophia Albertina, 
Abbess of Quedlinburg, 1787 (2 var.); — Erik V'aderhatt ; — 
Olaf I Bjornsson ; — Edmund Slemme; — Erik Segersall; — J. C, 
Hedlinger; &c. 

The work of this artist is not of very great merit. His usual 
signature was C. G. F., or C. G. FEHRMAN. 

Bibliography. — Bozenthal, op. cit. — Hildebrand, op. cil. — Thomsen, Cata- 
logue of Danish Medals. — Marvin, op. cit. — Schaumun:^en des Hattses Hohen^ol- 
lern, Berlin, 1901. 

FEHRMAN, DANIEL (Siued.). MedaUist, born in 17 10, at Stock- 
holm, where he died in 1780. He was a pupil of the famous Hed- 
linger, and father of C. G. Fehrman. The period of his activity is 
comprised between 1735 and 1764, when he was employed at the 
Stockholm Mint as Medallist and Coin-engraver. The Swedish his- 
torian Jonas Hallenberg has given a list of some of the works of 
this artist, and Hildebrand {Sveriges ochv Senska Koniingahusets Min- 
nespennhigar , ike, Stockolm, 1875) also describes a number of 
them : Foundation of the National Bank, 1668 (engraved in 1755); 

— Marriage of Crown-Prince Adolphus Frederick of Sweden with 
Eleonora Ulrica, 1750; — Promotion of Trade, 1747; — Medals 
and Badges of the Order of the Seraphim, 1748 (5 var.); — Foun- 
dation of Stockholm Observatory, 1748 ; — Increase of the Swed- 
ish Fleet, 1749 ; — Death of King Frederick I. (4 var.) ; — Acces- 
sion of Adolphus Frederick, 1743 ; — Birth of Prince Gustavus, 
1746; — Royal Academy of Science, 1747; — Birth of Prince 
Charles, 1748; — Military School for young Noblemen at Stock- 
holm, 1748; — Birth of Prince Frederick Adolphus, 1750; — Sil- 

-83 - 

ver Mining Works, 1750; — Royal Mining College, 1750 
(2 var.); — Coronation ofKing Adolphus Frederick, 175 1(3 var.) ; 

— Inauguration of Stockholm Observatory, 1753 ; — Birth of Prin- 
cess Sophia Albertina, 1753 ; — Swedish Liberties (1756 (3 var.); 

— Coming of age of Crown-Prince Gustavus, 1762 ; — Foundation 
of a Weaving Factory at Drottningholm. 1762; — Marriage of 
Crown-Prince Gustavus with Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, 
1766 ; — Prize Medal for Weaving; — Prize Medal for the Culture 
of Mulberry Trees, 1755; — Royal Mining College; — Jetons 
with bust of Crown-Princess Louisa Ulrika ; — Coronation of 
Queen Louisa Ulrika, 175 1; — Swedish Academy of Literature, 
1753 ; — Jetons with bust of the Queen ; — Birth of Prince Gusta- 
vus, 1 746 (3 var.) ; — Crown-Prince Gustavus' sixteenth Anniversary, 
1761 ; — Sophia Albertina, Abbess of QuedUnburg, 1753 ; — Olat 
Skotkonung; — Anund Jakob; — Sienkil ; — The two Kings 
Erik; — Ingo the Elder and Halstan ; — Hakan Rode; — Philip 
and Ingo the Younger; — Ragvald Knapfofde; — Magnus I ; — 
Sverker I ; — S' Erik ; — Magnus II ; — Carl VII. Sverkersson ; — 
Knut Eriksson; — Sverker II Carlsson ; — Erik Knutsson; — 
Johann I Sverkersson ; — Erik Eriksson Lapse ; — Waldemar ; — 
Birger Jarl of Bjalbo; — Magnus Ladulas; — Birger Magnusson ; 

— J. C. Hedlinger; — Linnaeus, 1758; — John von Bierken, &c. 
I'his artist's signature appears as F., D. F., D. FEHRMAN, and 


Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, o/». cit. — Marvin, Masonic Medals, Boston, 
1880. — Ammon, op. cit. — W. Tobler-Meyer, op. cit. — Thomsen, Bron:^e- 
Medailhn, Copenhague, 1869. — Hildebrand, op. cit. 

FEJER (^Hung.). Editor of a medal on the assassination of the 
Empress Elizabeth of Austria, 1898. His initial F appears on 
the ^. 

FELGENHAUER, URBAN (Germ.^. Mint-master at Bonn, 163 1, 
1635, 1649, Waldeck, 1652-1654, Hoxter (Corvey), 165 5- 1657, 
Einbeck, 1659, and again at Hoxter in 1659. The name of this 
engraver is also found as FEL6ENHEWER, and his signature appears 
in various forms, as V. F., VF, V. N. H, AFH, \FJ. The Reimmann 
Collection contained a Quarter Thaler of Arnold von Valdois, 
Bishop of Corvey, 1657, by tiiis artist, and also a Thaler of 1656. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Ad. Hess, Mirnien und 
Medaillm-Cahimt des Justi^raths Reimann in Hannover, Frankfurt a M., 1891. 

FELIX {Roman). Gem-engraver, whose signature is found on an inta- 
glio formerly in the Marlborough Collection. The gem represents Dio- 
medes and Ulysses carrying off the Palladium {illustrated). On the 
altar is found in minute letters the artist's name : OHAIZ €nOI€l, 

^ 84 — 

and in the fields above Ulysses' head, that of the owner of this fine 

King calls Felix a freedman of Calpurnius Severus, and mentions 
three other gems bearing his signature : Centaur carrying two bask- 
ets, sard (Odescalchi); — Victory slaughtering a bull (Raspe); — 
Head of Mercury, red Jasper (Bibliotheque Nationale). 

Gem engraved by Felix. 

A Florentine gem-engraver of the eighteenth century, Felice Bar- 
nabe, signed his works 0EAIZ, and M. Babelon says that his pro- 
ductions have often been attributed to the Graeco-Roman artist who 
flourished during the first century of our era. 

Brunn, Geschichte der Griechischen Kiinstler, makes the following 
remarks on the w^orks of Felix : 

" Eine der ausgefiihrtesten Darstellungen des Palladiuniraubes, 
mit den Figuren des Diomedes und Ulysses und der Andeutung 
einer dritten todt am Boden liegenden Figur, so wue mit manchem 
architektonischen Beiwerk, finded sich auf einem Sardonyx der Marl- 
Dorough' schen, friiher der Arundel' schen Sammlung. Im Abschnitt 
liest man die Inschrift ! 


Stosch t. 35, Bracci II, 75 (Gems of Marlb, I, pi. 39), Millin 
gal. myth. t. 171, n. 565 ; Raspe 9433; C- I. 727T. Dass Kohler 
(S. 100) den Sardonyx auf Zeugniss des Bracci hin tiir eine 
Arbeit des Flavio Sirletti erklaren wollte, beruht auf einer Ver- 
wechselung mit einem nachher zu erwahnenden Stein. Die Ver- 
theidihung hat diesmal Stephani Libernommen, der hier eine der 
wenigen echten Steinschneider-Inschriften anzuerkennen geneigt 
ist, wenn, her auch, in Ermangelung eines guten Abdruckes des 
Steines ein entscheidendes Urtheil nicht auszusprechen wagi (Ang. 
Steinschn. S. 238). Der Hauptgrund, welcher fiir die Echtheit 
spricht, liegt in der Passu ng der Inschrift : « Hatte ein Falscher 
durch den Namen des Calpurnius Severus den Vater des Felix 
bezeichnen wollen, so wiirde er auch so gut, wie jeder andere, 
gewusst haben, welche Reihenfolge der Worte dazu nothig ist..: 

Hingegen giebt dieser Genetiv einen guten Sinn, sobald man ihn 
auf den Weihenden oder Schenkenden bezieht (vgl. audi Letronne 
Ann. d. Inst. XVII, p. 274). Den Namen aber eines solchen aut 
diese weise beizufiigen, stimmt nicht mit der Sitte der Falscher 
iiberein; deren Kenntniss wohl nich einmal soweit reichten, und 
dass die Zeile der Inscrift ein spaterer zu der ersten gemachter 
Zusatz sei, wird durch die Vertheilung im Raume, wenn man den 
Abbildungen trauen darf, unwahrscheinlich. Gewiss wird demnach 
dielnschrift so lange tur echt zu gelten haben, als sich nicht durch 
gewichtige Griinde ein Zweifel rechtfertigen lasst. 

'' Auf einer Wiederholung derselben Darstellung findet sich die 



an der Basis, auf welcher Diomenes kauert. Gori besass einen 
Abdruck dieses Steins, wie er meint, aus Andreini's Sammlung, aus 
der er mit anderen verschwunden war. Nicht zu verwechseln ist er 
mit einer andern Wiederholung in florentiner Museum. Diese 
Andreini 'sche Gemme ist es, welche Kohler fiir eine Arbeit des 
Flavio Sirletti erklart : Gori Mus. Fior. II, p. 69 ; Bracci II, p. 105 ; 
Caylus rec. de ^00 tetes pi. 173 ; Raspe 9435 ; Cades III, E. 278; 
C. I, 7271 b. Wohl aus Versehen bezeichnet Worlidge Gems 115 
den Stein mit dem Namen auf der Basis als in Marlborough's Besitz 

" Ein Carneol der Strozzi 'schen Sammlung, Amor und Psyche, 
der capitolinischen Gruppe ziemlich entsprechend, mit der Inscrift 
OHAII ist eine Arbeit des Felix Bernabe, eines Steinchneiders des 
vorigen Jahrunderts : Raspe 7181, pi. 43; Cades XXII, p. 9; 
Stephani bei Kohler S. 286. Diesem ist vielleicht auch das Bild 
eines Centauren mit der Inschritt <t>HA. £CP beizulegen : Raspe 
4445, Ebenfalls modern ist eine angebliche Lucretia mit der In- 
schrift <DHA. Zr bei Cades XXII. P. 10. Dass die Buchstaben 
KO neben einem Mercurkopf mit Raspe 2291 nicht KaXzcupvicu 
♦I>fj/.'.; gedeutet werden durfen, braucht nicht weiter bewiesen zu 
werden. Ebenso konnen hier die Steine mit der lateinischen In- 
schrift FELIX iibergangen werden : Raspe 1758; R, Rochette 
Lettre p. 137, Clarac p. 117". 

Bibliography. — E. Babelon, La Gravure en pierres fines, Paris, 1894. — King, 
Antique Gems, London, i860. — E. Babelon, Gemmae, Dictionnaire des Antiqui- 
t6s grecques et romaines, etc. — H. Brunn, Geschkhte der grieschischen Kunstler. 

FELLNER. MATHIAS VON FELDEGG (Austr.). By an order of the 
13''' of March, 161 2, Fellner was elected Master of the Mint at 

— 86 — 

Vienna, with a stipend of 400 florins per annum, which was rais- 
ed to 500 later on. He filled this post until 1634, and died on the 
21^* of September, 1637, at Margarethen. The coins issued by him 
bear his monogramm M. F. 

Bibliography. — Die Mun:(itaHe Wien unter Rudolph II. i)j6 bis 1608, Mathias 
1608 his iiig als LandesfHrsten von Niederosterreich, uni Ferdinand II. 161 9 bis 
i6j7, Mittheilungen des Clubs der Munz-und Medaillen-Freunde it Wien, 1893. 
— Regesten \u J. Neivald's Publicutionen iiher osterreichische Prdgtingen, 1, c. 1890. 

FELON, JOSEPH (French). Sculptor, Painter, Lithographer, and 
Medallist, born at Bordeaux, 21" August, 1818. The following 
medallic works were exhibited by him at the Paris Salons : 1850, 
Portrait-medallions of M. F***. — P. L***, Keeper of the Bordeaux 
Museum; — A. G*** ; — M"-^ A. J. F***; — 1852, Louis-Napoleon, 
Prince-President of the French Republic; — Amphitrite ; — 1855, 
Six bronze Medallions : Princess Maria of Sardinia, and others. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FENNER, IGNAZ SEBASTIAN (Austr.). Mint-master at Hall in 
Tyrol; elected on his father's resignation 23'''^ April, 1718. 

FENNER, JOHANN SEBASTIAN (Austr.). Mint-master at Hall, 
from 1688, to 1718, when he resigned his office in favour of his 
son, Ignaz Sebastian Fenner. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesten :(ii J. Newdld's Publicationen iiber 
osterreichische Mtmiprdgimgen im ersten Viertel des XVIII. Jahrhunderts, Mittheilun- 
gen des Clubs der Munz-und Medaillen-Freunde, in Wien, 1890. 

FENROTHER, ROBERT (Brit.). Mint-master at the Royal Mint, 
London, in conjunction with Bartholomew Reed, anno 9 of 
Henry VU. 

Bibliography. — Ruding, Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain, London, 

FERWICK, A. (Brit.). Die-sinker and Medallist, residing at Birm- 
ingham ; pupil of Joseph Moore, and a fairly clever Engraver. He 
works for the trade, and is known by some medals commemorat- 
ing Queen Victoria's Jubilees of 1887 and 1897, ^^ ^^^^ ^^ numerous 
badges, prize medals, &c. 

FEODOROFF, MICHEL (Rtus.). Mint-master at S' Petersburg, 

FERAL, JOHANN FRIEDRICH 6 (Germ.). Son of Friedrich Wilhelm 
6 Feral. Mint-master at Leipzig, 1753. Saxon Convention -Thalers 
of 1763 and 1754, issued at that Mint, are signed I. F. 6 F. 

Bibliography. — Ammon, op. cit. — Schlickeysen-Palimann, op. cit. 

- 87 - 

FERAL, FRIEDRICH WILHELM 6 (Gfrw.)- Mint-master at Dresden, 
1734-1764. His signature F. W. 6 F., is found on the Gold coins, 
Thalers, Gulden, and Groschen, issued under him for Saxony and 

Thaler of Frederick Augustus II, issued by F. VV. 6 Feral. 

Bibliography. — Ammon, op. cil. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — 
Ad. Hess, Reimmaiin Catalogue. 

FERDINANDO DA LOTARINGIA (Ital.). Coin-engraver at the Mint 
of Bologna, 1691-1697. Fide SAINT-URBAIN, FERDINAND DE. He 
was succeeded by Thomas Bayard. 

FERME {French). Die-sinker and Medallist of the last quarter of 
the seventeenth century. He resided at Paris, and his nnme occurs 
several times between 1677 and 1680 in the Comptes des Bdtiments 
du Roi, in connection with medal-dies which he engraved for the 
Medallic History of Louis XIV. During those three years the artist 
was paid 1660 livres for work executed on behalf of the King. The 
Mercure mentions several jetons engraved by Le Ferme, or De la 

Bibliography. — J. ]. Guiffrey, La Monnaie des Medailles, Revue numisma- 
tique, 1888. 

FERNANDEZ (Pt)r/z<;^.). Sculptor and Medallist of the second half of 
the nineteenth century, bv whom we have seen a medal of the 
sculptor L. E. Cocheret, and another of Salustiano de Olozaga, 
Spanish minister; also a Prize-medal of the School of Painting and 
Engraving of Barcelona, 1870. 

FERRARI, LUIGI (//a/.). Mint-master at Vercelli, 1548-1564. The 
coins issued by him bear the letters V. L. F. 

FERRARI, GIOVANNI (Jtal). Mint-master at Parma, 1615. 

FERRARIS, GIUSEPPE (^ItaL). Medallist and Coin-engraver of 
Turin. His earliest medal is dated 1828. Under Charles Albert, 
King of Sardinia, he was Chief-engraver of the coins at the Mint 
of Turin, a post which he retained under Victor Emmanuel II, after 
the latter's proclamation as King of Italy and which he still held in 
1869. His signature appears in full, FERRARIS, on the coins engrav- 
ed by him. 

Five Lire Piece of Victor Emmanuel, by Ferraris. 

Ferraris executed also numerous medals, relating mostly to events 
in contemporary Italian history. His busts ot Victor Emmanuel are 
of undisputed merit. The following medals are by him : Mercurin- 
Arboree de Gattinara, Chancellor of Charles V., 1845 5 — Samuel 
Jesi, 1855 i — Cesare Saluzzo, Directore of the Military School at 
Turin, 1854 i — Marriage of Ferdinand I. of Austria with Marian- 
na Pia, 183 1. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Various Sale Catalogues, &c. 

FERRET, EUGENE {French). Contemporary Medallist, born at 
Rouen, in 1825; pupil of J. J. Barre. He exhibited at the Salon 
of 1 90 1 a plaque of Sainte-Blanche. This artist first began as a 
Chaser, but entered the Paris Mint in 1848, where he worked 
under Barre, and was employed until i86r. He later on became 
Engraver to the Ministere des Finances, constructed a Reducing- 
machine, and executed numerous medals, besides making coin-dies. 
He was awarded the following medals : 1858, bronze medal; 1873, 
Universal Exhibition at Vienna, gold, silver and bronze medals; 
1867, Paris Universal Exhibition, two bronze medals, and two in 
1878 ; 1891, silver medal ; 1898, silver-gilt medal. He has exhibit- 
ed sixteen times at the Paris Salons. 

FERRET, GUILLAUME {French). 1636-56. Medallist of the first half 
of the sixteenth century. He engraved the following jetons : 1536, 
Jeton for Cardinal de Chhtillon; — 1563, Jeton for the duchesse 

- 89 - 

d'Estouteville, comtesse de Saint-Pol; — 1556, Jeton for the Due 
de Longueville, &c. 

Bibliography. — A. Barre, Graveurs en medailles de la Renaissance franfaise, 
Annuaire numismatique, 1867. 

FERRIER, PIERRE (Swiss). Die-sinker and Medallist, who was 
working at Geneva, circa 1790-1798. He engraved a number of 
badges, prize-medals, &c., but is best known for his fine medals of 
Bonaparte of which at least eight varieties exist, and which 
represent him as First Consul, Chief of the Army of Italy, Liber- 
ator, &c. ; these are all dated 1796 ; numerous imitations and modern 
copies exist of them. By Pierre Ferrier is also a medal of S. Aug. 
Adet, 1794, a French resident at Geneva, and a Prize medal for 
Music, of 1798. 

Bibliography. — Bulletin & Revue suisses de Numismatique, 1888-1898. 

FERRIER, S. (Swiss). Contemporary Die-sinker of Geneva. He is 
the author of two masonic medals; one for the Lodge " Constante 
et Avenir" of Vevey, 1S97, and the other for the French Lodge 
" La Fraternite " of Geneva, 1897. 

Bibliography. — Revtte suisse de numismatique, 1898. 

FERRIERE. PIERRE. Fide above. 

FERRY, JEAN (French). Mint-master at Nancy, from 12. June 
1574 to 21. June 1582, when he was succeeded by Nicolas Gen- 
netaire, his brother-in-law. 

Bibliography. — Lepage, op. cit. 

FERVILLE-SUAN. CHARLES GEORGES (French). Sculptor, born at 
Mans (Sarthe); pupil of Jeuffroy. In 1872, 1876, 1877 and 1878, 
he has exhibited Portrait-medallions in bronze of various private 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FESER, WILHELM (Germ.). Mint-master at Wiirzburg, 1746- 

FETZER. PETER (Germ.). Die-cutter at the episcopal Mint ot 
Nesse, Silesia. His name appears on a medal of Bishop Frederick 
on the Washing of the Feet. 

FEUCHilRE, JEAN JACQUES (French). Sculptor, born at Paris, 
24''' August, 1807; Jie^j 25*'' July, 1852. He was a pupil of Cortot 
and Ramey. At the Salons of 1833 and 1834 he exhibited some 
Portrait-medallions, and a medal on " Fishing", which are not 
without merit. His Portrait-medal of Guizot, French State Minis- 
ter, 1844, is perhaps the best known of his medaUic works. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

— 90 — 

FEUGtRE DES FORTS, VINCENT tUlLE (French) . Sculptor, born at 
Paris on the 17''' of November, 1825 ; pupil of Heim and Dusei- 
gneur. Between 1840 and 1870, this artist exhibited numerous 
Portrait-medallions at the Paris Salons. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FEURER, PASQUIER (French). Medallist of the third quarter of the 
sixteenth century. He engraved in 1560 a jeton for the English 

Bibliography. — A. Barre, I. c. 

FEUVRIER (French). Die-sinker of the first half of the nineteenth 
century. By him are the following medals : His Grace Claude 
Antoine Gabriel, due de Choiseul, 1828; — Masonic medal of the 
Friends of Order, Paris; — Eynard the great "Philhellene"; — 
H. M. Berton, 1824; — &c. I think that the name on these 
medals has been misread for PEUVRIER (Vide infrd). 

Bibliography. — Marvin, op. cit. — Various Catalogues. 

F. F. Vide FRIEDRICH FECHTER suprd. Coin-engraver at Basle, 

F. F. Vide FRANCESCO FOSCARI. Mint-inspector at Venice, ii|8o. 

F. F. Vide FRIEDRICH FREUND. Mint-master at Altona, 18 19- 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op, cit. 

F. G. Vide FLORIAN GRUEER. Mint-master at Saalfeld, 1585- 
1597, Erfurt, 1599-1607, and Nordhausen, 1615. 

F. G. Vide FRANZ GUICHARD. Die-sinker at Mompelgart, 1610- 
1620, and Stuttgart, 1621-1628. 

F. G. VideYlU??0 GALEOTTI. Mint-master at Gubbio, 1626. 

sinker and Mint-master at Gubbio, 1646- 1673. 

F. G. FiW^ FRIEDRICH GRUNER. Mint-master at Christiana, 1652- 

F. G. Vide FRANZ GILLY. Mint-master at Langernagen, 1690- 
1694, ^^so F.I.G. 

F. G. Videf. GORDILLO Medallist of Mexico, 1808-1824. 

— 91 — 

F. G. D. Fide FR£d£rIC GUILLAUME DUBUT, 1711-1779. Medal- 
list who worked at Dresden, Danzig, and S* Petersburg, -f ijj^ et 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

F. H. Vide FRIEDRICH HAGENAUER. German Medallist of the first 
half of the sixteenth century. 

F. H. B. Vide FRIEDRICH HEINRICH BRANDT. Mint-master at 
Rostock, 1782-1795. 

F. H. K. Vide FRIEDRICH HEINRICH KRUGER. Coin-engraver at 
the Dresden Mint, after 1797. 

F. H. P. Vide FRANZ. HERMANN PRANGHE. Warden of the Wurz- 
burg Mint, 1762-1790. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

F. H. (Swiss'). Signature of a Medallist, who worked at Schaf- 
fhausen, end of the seventeenth century. There is a medal of that 
city by him, with Peace on obv, and I^. View of the town of 
Schafthausen with the Rhine, the bridge, and in the background 
the fortress of Munoth ; legend : DIE WEIL GOTT | MEINE 

Bibliography. — R. S. Poole, Swiss Coins in the South Kensington Museum, 
London, 1878. 

F. H. C. in monogram pt£; (Germ.). This signature appears on 
three small medallic wood-models, which resemble somewhat the 
work of the celebrated medaUist, Friedrich Hagenauer. One ot 
these medals presents the portrait of Raimund Fugger, and is dated 
1534; the other two are of anonymous persons, and were engraved 
between 1534 and 1537. 

Bibliography. — Adolf Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1844. 

F. I. G. Vide FRANZ JOHANN GILLY. Mint-master at Lengenargen, 

Oppeln. 1673-1685. 

F. I. W. Vide F. I. WURSCHBAUER. Viennese Medallist, aV^a 1750. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FICHTBAUER, JOHANN CASPAR (Germ.). Merchant of Riga, 
1815; issued 50 and 10 Kopeck pieces in tin, with his initials 

— 92 — 

FIDELLES, PHILIPPE DE {French). Mint-master at Compiegne, 
1589-15915 ; his distinctive mark A, or ACa), appears on the coins 
struck by him : Henry III, Double Ecus d'or, Ecus d'or, Quarter 
Ecus; -- Henry IV, Double Ecus d'or, Ecus d'or, Quarter Ecus", 
Half Francs, Quarter Francs, Douzains, Gros de Nesle, &c. 

- B^LiobRAPHY. — P. Bordeaux, Ateliers vionetaires de Compiegne et tie Sfelmi, 
Annuairenumismatique, 1895. 

FIEBIG, GOTTFRIED (Germ.). Die-cutter at Breslau, 1726, 173.3. 

FIESEL, CHRISTOPH {Aiisir.). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Kremnitz, circa 1558. He cut the dies of the fine medallic Thalers 
struck at that Mint about this date. 

FIGINO, GIROLAMO {ltd.). Mint-master at Rome, second half of 
the sixteenth century. 

FIGUEREDO or FIGUEIREDO, JEAN DE {Port.). Medallist, born at 
Aveiro, about 1725, died at Lisbon, on the 10''' January 1809. He 
entered the Lisbon arms foundry in 1749, and learned drawing, 
modelling and medal-engraving. Amongst the medals executed by 
Figueredo are : 1775. Medal of Joseph I. representing the King on 
horseback (this piece was copied in various metals and in china by 
Bartolomeo da Costa); — 1782. Portrait-medal of Dona Maria; 
— 1783. Medal of Dona Maria and Don Pedro III., struck on the 
foundation of the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart; — 1785. Prize 
medal of the Academy of Sciences (the Qieen seated presents a 
laurel-wreath to Minerva) ; — 1790. Notre-Damede la Conception 
(prize-medal for ihe students of the College of Nobles) ; — 1791. 
S' John the Baptist (for the students of Crato). Figueredo, towards 
the latter part of his life, received from the Government an annual 
honorarium of 100.000 Reis, besides a pension ot 120G reis per day. 

His son Francis .Xavier was employed at the Royal Mint, and 
died in 1818; another of his pupils, Cyprian da Silva, also cut dies 
for the Portuguese coinage. 

.Bibliography. — A. Raczvnski, Dictionnaire historico-artiAiqtie du Portugal, 
Paris, 1847. 

FILARETE. Vide AVERLINO, ANTONIO (Vol. I, p. 38). This Engrav- 
er executed also some fine plaques. Heiss places the date of his 
birth in 1414. 

Bibliography. — E. MoHnier, Les Plaqiiettes, Paris, 1886. — Heiss, Les Me'dail- 
letirs de la Renaissance, Florence et les Florentius, Paris, 1891. 

FILIBERTI, ANTONIO {ftal.). ^Medallist of the second half of the 
seventeenth century, who worked at Rome, and is said to have 
engraved a medal of Innocent XL with I^. Mater Dolorosa. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

— 93 - 

FILLEUL, CHARLES ALEXANDRE {French). Sculptor, born at Mans 
(Sartlie) ; pupil of Cavellier and A. xMillet. At the Salons of i8Si 
and 1882 he exhibited some portrait-medallions in clay. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Aiivray, op. cit. 

FINIGUERRA, MAZZO (//fl/.)- Niello-engraver of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, born at Florence in 1410, where he died in 1480. His principal 
works are : Adoration of the Magi ; — The Virgin surrounded by 
Angels and Saints; —The Virgin accompanied by S' Sebastian and 
S* Roch; — Baptism of Christ; — Assumption or Coronation of 
the Virgin (Bibliotheque nationale); — Allegory on Love; — 
Allegorical figure, &c. Finiguerra is said to have invented or 
imported into Italy the art of engraving on metal. Some of his 
productions are in the .style of Albrecht Durer. 

"No one", says Mr. Giuliano, in a Paper read before the 
London Society of Arts, Marth 19, 1889, on The Art of the Jewel- 
ler, " no one was ever known to engrave so many figures in so small 
a space, and with such perfect correctness of drawing. Among the 
nielli of silver preserved in the cabinet of bronzes of the Florentine 
Gallery, may be seen a Pax executed by Finiguerra in 1452, for the 
Baptistry of S' John ; this is further curious as being the plate of the 
first engraving ever printed, and of which the Bibliotheque natio- 
nale possesses the only impression. Thus the fame acquired by 
Finiguerra as a skilful goldsmith was justly eclipsed by the glory ot 
having been the inventor of the art ot taking impressions of an 
engraving upon metal. " 

Bibliography. — Duchesne, Essai stir lesNieltes, Paris, 1815. 

FIORAVANTI ARISTOTELLE (Ital.). Bolognese Engineer, Architect 
and Goldsmith, who worked for Pope Paul II, and whom M. G. 
Milanesi regards as the author of a medal of that Pontiff" signed 
A— BO. 


FIORENTINO, NIGCOLO (//rt/.), 1430, 7 1 5 14. Apparently there 
were two medallists of this name, perhaps father and son. Niccolo 
di Forzore Spinelli was bornat Florence in 1430 and died in 15 14; 
his father, who was a goldsmith, died in 1477, and was a nephew 
of the celebrated painter Spinelli of Arezzo, 1 333-1410, whose life 
is to be found in Vasari. The earliest dated work known of this artist 
is a medal of Duziari of 1485 ; Niccolo was then fifty-five years of 
age. It is possible, as Heiss suggests, that he is the Nicolas de Spinel, 
twice mentioned in the accounts of the Dukes of Burgundy, in 
1468, with the title of " tailleur et graveur des sceaux de Mgr ie 


Medal of Lorenzo de' Medici, by Niccolo Fiorentino. 

— 95 — 

due de Bourgogne ». A medallist of the same name, Nicolas de 
Florence, worked at Lyons from 1493 and died there in 1499; he 
was the son-in-law of Louis le Pere, a goldsmith and engraver of 
that city, and in conjunction with him, executed the dies for the 
medal with portraits of Charles VIIL and Anne of Brittany ; this 
artist also engraved, conjointly with Jean Le Pere, the medal of 
Louis XIL, with I^. Porcupine, from the design of Jean Perreal. 
M. Rondot took Nicolas de Florence to be the same person as 
Niccolo Fiorentino, but M. G. Milanesi, after more recent investi- 
gation, has come to the conclusion that they were different artists, 
perhaps father and son. 

Heiss was inclined to attribute to Niccolo Fiorentino medals of 
several celebrities of the court of Charles VIII, and to his son, 
known as Nicolas de Florence or Fleurance, and son-in-law of Loys 
le Pere, only the gold piece with portraits of Charles VIII. and 
Anne of Brittany. 

The following medals bear the artist's signature : Silvestro 
Duziari, Bishop ofChioggia, f 1487? (signed, OPVS.NICOLAI. 
so I. d'Este, Third Duke ofFerrara, dated, MCCCCLXXXXII ; — 

Obv. of Medal of Giovanna Albizzi, by Fiorentino (?) 

Antonio Geraldini, 1456-j- 1589 (signed, OPvs.NIcolai.FOrzorii. 
SPinelli.FIlii) ; — Antonio di Biagio della Leccia (signed NIco- 
lai.Forzorii.Florentii); — Lorenzo de' Medici, the Magnificent, 
obv. Bust to 1., head bare. ^L. TVTELA. PATRIAE. The City of 
Florence seated to r. ; below, FLORENTIA; signed, OPvs.Nlco- 
lai.Forzorii.Spin'elli {illustrated); Another, similar, without^. 
To Niccolo Fiorentino, Heiss and other writers ascribe the unsign- 
ed medals given below : Alberto Belli, f 1482 ; — Leonora 
Altoviti, circa, 1484; — Jean Greudner, 1460 -|- 15 12; — Maria 

- 96 - 

de Morelli; — Rinaldo Orsini, f 1510; — Giovanni P. de Papie; 

— Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, 1463 f ^494 ^- PVLCHRI- 
TVDO. AMOR.VOLVPTAS, The Three Graces; — Antonio 
Pizzamani, 1462 f 1512; — Angelo Ambrogini, surnamed PoH- 
ziano, 1354 "f 1494; — Pohziano and PoHziana ; — PoHziana, 
alone (3 varieties of 1^.); — Niccolo di Michele Puccini da Pescia, 
1450 -J- 1 5 19; — Bianca Riario ; — Girolamo di Lodovico Ridolfi, 
1465 -J- 1526; — Bernardo Salviati, 1404 -|- 1486; — Giovanni 
Tornabuoni (3 var. of ^L.); — Lorenzo Tornabuoni, and his 
consort, Giovanna Albizzi, [466 f 1497; — Lorenzo Tornabuoni ; 

— Giovanna Albizzi (2 var. of ^. obv. illustrated); — Lodovica 
Tornabuoni, daughter of Giovanni Tornabuoni; — Cosimo de' 
Medici, the Great, obv. Bust to 1., ^. PAX LIBERTASQVE 
PVBLICA. Female figure seated on curule chair; below : FLO- 
RENTIA (Brit. Museum Catalogue, n° 30). 

The following French medals executed at Lyons in 1494 are 
given to Niccolo Fiorentino bv Armand, Heiss, Rondot, and others : 
Charles VIIL ^L. VICTORIAM . PAX SEQVETVR; — Another, 
^L. Female standing near column, piercing her breast ; at her feet, 
a dog; — Jean Du Mas, Seigneur de I'lsle; — Jean Matharon de 
Salignac, President of the Council of Provence, f 1495 ; — Beraud 
Stuart d'Aubigny, -|- 1507; — Antoine de Bourgogne, surnamed 
Le Grand Batard de Bourgogne, 1421 -f 1504; — Antoine de 
Gimel; — Gilbert de Bourbon, Count of Montpensier, &c. It is 
true that Armand, in his third volume of Les Medailleurs italiens, 
p. 23, writes : " We know to-day that Niccolo Fiorentino did not 
come to France, and that he has nothing in common with the 
"Nicolas de Florence ", who settled at Lyons, and there is no 
reason for attributing the works above-mentioned to " Nicolas de 
Florence ", whose manner is utterly different, as shown by the medal 
commemorating the visit to Lyons of Queen Anne of Britanny ; " 
he therefore calls the author of those French medals an Italian 
medallist of the court of Charles VIIL But Heiss, who had Armand's 
notes when compiling his second notice of Niccolo Fiorentino {Les 
Medailleurs de la Retiaissance. Florence el les Florentins, Paris, 1891), 
was still inclined to believe that "the son ot Spinelli Forzore might 
have been called to Lyons during the sojourn which the King of 
France made there from the month of March 1494 to the 22"'' of 
August following". 

If. Niccolo Fiorentino was the " Nicolas de Spinel " of the 
Burgundian records, he also engraved the seals of Charles the Bold. 

Fiorentino copied the antique, and excelled in his art ; the quad- 
riga on the I^. ot his medal of Alfonso I. d'Este was designed 
from Athenion's cameo, Gigantomachos in quadriga ; the ^L. of the 
medal of Antonio Geraldini is a reproduction of a I^. type of a 

- 91 - 

Sestertius of' Balbinus, and others of his designs can be traced back 
to the originals. 

Bibliography. — Arniand, op. cit. — Heiss, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — 
Tresor de numismatiqite, vieditilles italiennes, \h partie. — N. Rondot, Les Orfevres 
de Lyon, Paris, 1888. — I. B. Supino, // Medagliere Mediceo, Firenze, 1899. 

FIRLEY (Polish). Treasurer to the Court of Poland, circa 1590; 
his initials I. F. appear on the coinage of that period. 

FISCH, ANTOINE (Belg.). Contemporary Medallist, who resided 
at Brussels, and died on the 12'^' March, 1892. He was born on the 
12''' April, 1827, began his artistic career as a manufacturing 
jeweller, and afterwards studied medal-engraving under Wiirden. 
His medals mostly relate to works of charity and public events in 
Belgian history. On the occasion of the 50*'' Anniversary of the 
Independence of Belgium, he engraved no less than twenty-six 
varieties of commemorative pieces. Between 1869 and 1871, he 
was entrusted with the execution of Jetons de presence distributed 
to the parish councillors of Brussels. Two of his medals are of 
interest to English collectors : London International Exhibition at 
the Crystal Palace 1884 (^L. only); — and Belgian PubHc Works 
Company, 1867, and others are described in Mittheilungen des Clubs 
der Miin:{-und Medailkn-Frcunde in Wien, 1890-1898 : Betrothal 
of the Crownprince of Austria, 1880 (5 var.); — Departure of 
Princess Stephanie from Brussels, 1881 (3 var.), &c. 

Bibliography. — Revue beige de numismalique, 1872 and 1892. — D^ Weber, 

op. cit. 

FISCH. PAUL (Belg.). Contemporary Medallist, residing at 
Brussels. He presented fourteen medals engraved by him to the 
Belgian Numismatic Society on July 2, 1899. ^^ ^'^so undertook 
to engrave the jetons for this Society from 1899 to 1902. His Portrait- 
medal of Houzeau de Lehaic is one of his best works; he also 
engraved : Portrait-medal of Jules de Burlet, 1899 ; — Belgian Fede- 
ration of Gymnasts, 1895 ; — Exhibition of Ghent, 1899. 

FISCHBACH, ORTLIEB VON (Austr.). Moneiurius, 1 187. Mint- 
master for Duke Otacher of Traungauer, who had inherited the 
Mint of Neuenkirch-Fischbach (Styria) from Count Formbach- 

Bibliography. — Th. Uuger, Kleine Beitrdge \ur Munikutide des Kronlandes 
Steiermark, 1890. 

FISCHER (Germ.). Mint-master at Christophsthal, circa 1622. 

FISCHER (Germ.). Mint-master at Erfurt, circa 1781. 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Noticts of Medallists. — II. 7 


FISCHER {Genu.). Die-sinker of the second quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. His initial F appears on a Double Thaler ot 
Ernest 11. ot Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 1847. 

FISCHER, A. {Germ.). Sculptor and Modeller, whose name appears 
on medals, struck at Berlin in 1861, and commemorating the Coro- 
nation of William I., King ot Prussia, and on others ot 1858, 
Marriage of the Crownprince of Prussia with Princess Victoria of 
Great Britain, and, 1859, Birth ot Prince Frederick William Victor 
Albert, the now reigning Kaiser, William II. Vide FERDINAND 

BiBUOGRAPHY. — Schaumun^eii dts Hauses Hohai^ollern, Berlin, 1901. 

FISCHER, CARL {Germ.). Medallist of the second quarter of the 
nineteenth century. His signature K. FISCHER appears on coronation 
medals of Frederick William IV. of Prussia, 1840. F/Jt' JOHANN 

FISCHER, CHRISTIAN {Germ.). Mint-master at Gotha, 1683- 

FISCHER, CHRISTOPH {Germ.). Mint-master at Dresden, 1678- 
1686; distinctive symbol, his initials C-F and two fishes dos-a- 
dos. He was the son of Peter Fischer, Warden of the Gotha Mint, 
and nephew of Christian Preuss, Mint-warden of Dresden. Chris- 
toph Fischer was born at Dresden on the 5''' October, 1620, and 
was employed at the Mint there from 1642; in 1635 he became 
assistant Warden and in 1678, Mint-master. He died on the j'** July, 

Bibliography. — Julius and Albert Erbstein, Erorterungeti au/detn Gehiete der 
sachsichen Mun:^-und Medaillm-Geschichte^ Dresden, 1888. 

FISCHER, FERDINAND AUGUST {Germ.). Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Berlin, 1805, died there in 1866. D"^ Weber mentions that 
he studied in the BerHn Art Academy under Schadow, and was 
afterwards Professor there. This artist designed KuUrich's commem- 
orative medals of the Marriage of the Princess Royal of England 
with the Crownprince of Prussia, 1858, and Birth of the German 
Emperor, William II., 1859. Vide k. FISCHER. 

Bibliography. — D^ F. P. Weber, Medals and Medallions of the nineteenth cen- 
tury relating to England , hy foreign Artists, London, 1894. 

FISCHER, GUSTAV THEODOR {Germ.). Mint-master at Dresden, 

FISCHER, JOHANN KARL {Germ.). Medallist and Gem-engraver of 
BerUn, born in 1802, f 1865; he worked for some time at Loos' 
establishment there, and is no doubt the K. Fischer, mentioned 

— 99 — 

above, who engraved the coronation medals of Frederick 
Wiliam IV. of Prussia, 1840. Ferdinand August Fischer was his 

Fischer's cast medallion of the great sculptor Schadow, is a fine 
piece of work, and executed in the German style. By him are also : 
Portrait-medallion of Queen Elizabeth of Prussia, 1843 ; — Another, 
of 1849; — Commemoration of the Silver Wedding of the King 
and Queen of Prussia, 1848; — Prince Frederick WiUiam ot 
Prussia's service Jubilee, 1857; — Marriage of Princess Louise of 
Prussia with Alexis, Landgrave of Hessen-Philipstal-Barchfeld; — 
Marriage of Princess Louise of Prussia with Frederick, Grand Duke 
of Baden. 

This artist has produced numerous medallic portraits of celebri- 
ties, the finest of these being that of Frederick WiUiam IV., of which 
Bolzenthal says : " Weit iiber die Produktionem fast aller deutschen 
Kunstgenossen erhebt sich das von Fischer in Stahl geschnittene 
Portrait des Kronprinzen von Preussen : so viel WoUkommenheit 
liegt vereinigt darin ausgedriickt. " 

Prof. D"" Menadier remarks in Schaumiinz^en des Hauses Hohen:(ol- 
lern : '* Weit iiberlegen aber war diesen (Jachtmann und Pfeuffer) in 
der Wiedergabe des menschlichen Bildes K. Fischer, der auch in 
Stein-und Elfenbeinschnitte Tiichtiges leistete. Von him war Frede- 
rich Wilhelm IV. schon als Kronprinz in trefilicher Weise auf einer 
Medaille dargestellt. Nach dem Thronwechsel zeichnete er auch als 
Konig ihn dadurch aus, dass er sich und die Konigin fiir neue 
Schaumiinzen von ihm portraitiren liess. So konnte er denn nicht 
nur dem Doppelbildnisse der auf die silberne Hochzeit gefertigten 
Jubelmunze, sondern namentlich auch dem Bildnisse der Konigin aut 
der schonen Gussplakette das AD.VIV. beifiigen. " Vide C. FISCHER. 

Bibliography, — D"" F. P. Weber, o[>. cit. — SchaumutiT^en des Hauses Hohen- 
:(ollern, Berlin, 1901. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

FISCHER, LUDWIG HANNS (Austr.). Contemporary Painter, resid- 
ing at Vienna. He has designed the following medals : Christoph 
Reisser, 1892; — The Benedictine-Institute of Gottweig, 1892; 
— Victor Conradi, 1892; — Herzogenburg, 1893, &c. All these 
medals bear the artist's monogram LHF. 

FISCHER, MARTIN (Germ.). Mint-master and Coin-engraver at 
Bremen, 1743-1747. His initials or monogram appear on the 
coins; I have noticed it on a Double Thaler of 1744 (^lot. 2357, 
Catalog der Ed. Suchsland'schen Thaler Sammlung, 1900). 


FISCHER, SAMUEL (Smiss). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Berne, 
circa 1679. The series of coins, issued there, in that year, with 

-=- 100 — 

eight B's disposed in cruciform fasiiion, were engraved by this die- 
sinker, whose work is very praiseworthy. 

FISCHER, THOMAS (Germ.). Mint-master at Harzgerode, circa 

FISHER, ALEXANDER (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor, MedaUist 
and Enameller. At the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1899, the fol- 
lowing works by this artist attracted considerable attention : The 
Earl of Portsmouth (medallion, enamel on copper); — The 
Annunciation (medaUion, champlev^ enamel on silver); — Trip- 
tych : The Transfiguration (enamel on copper), &c. 

FITZ OTTO, HUGH (Brit.). Coin-engraver at the London Mint 
under Edward I. 

FITZ OTHO, THOMAS (Brit.). Coin-engraver at the London Mint 
(Die Graver in Fee) under Edward L 

FITZ, OTHO (OTTO), WILLIAM (Brit.). Coin-engraver at the Lon- 
don Mint under Henry L, John, and Henry IIL 

FITZ, WILLIAM OTHO (Brit.). Coin-engraver at the London Mint 

under Edward L 

Bibliography, — Ruding, Annals of the Coinage oj Great Britain and its Depend- 
encies, London, 1840. 

F. K. F/^FRIEDRICH KLEINERT. Medallist of Nuremberg, 1633- 

F. K. Fide ANTON FRIEDRICH KONIG. Medallist of the first halfot 
the nineteenth century; he worked at Berlin and then at Dresden; 
also F. K. F., F. KO, or F. KOENIG. 

F. K. Fide FRIEDRICH KARIUS. Goldsmith and Die-sinker at 
Erfurt, circa 18 17. 

F. K. F/W^ FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH KROHN. Danish Medallist of the 
middle years of the nineteenth century. 

F. K. Fide F. KORN. Medallist and Coin-engraver of the second 
half of the nineteenth century ; worked at Frankfort-on-Main and 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

F, L. Fide FILIUS LUTMA. Son of Jan Lutma, who died in 1660; 
Dutch Medallist. 

F. L. Fide FRIEDRICH LOOS. Medallist of the end of the eighteenth 
and begining of the nineteenth, century; died in 1806. 

— lOI — 

F. L. Vide FRIEDRICH LAUTENSACK. Mint-master at Rostock, 


at Danzig and Elbing, 1 760-1767. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FL. TO (French). Signature of a Medallist, who was working circa 
1560; it is found on a medal of Pierre d'Albret, natural son of the 
King of Navarre, Jean d'Albret, 7 1568; obv. Bust to 1. of Pierre 
d'Albret. ^L. VBI.MAGIS.IBI.MINVS. Female, standing, rests on 

Bibliography. — Armand, Les Me'dailleurs italiens des XV^ et XVI^ sikles, 
Paris, 1883. 

and Medallist; born at Lyons; pupil of David d' Angers. In 1839 
he obtained the second Grand prix pour Rome : Hercules crushing 
Antaeus. At the Salons of 1872, 1873, ^^74 ^"d 1875, he exhibit- 
ed several fine statues. None of his medallic works are mentioned 
in Chavignerie, although he is there described as a Medallist only. 
He no doubt executed Portrait-medallions in his master's style. 

FLACHS, MODESTINUS {Germ.). Mint-master in Anhalt, 1569- 
1595 ; his coins are signed M. F. or VP. 

Bibliography. — J.-L. Ammon, Sammlimg beruhmUr Medailkurs und Mutt:^- 
meisUr nebst iliren Zeichen, Nurnberg, 1778. 

FLADNIG, PAUL ANTON {Austr.). Warden of the Mint at Vienna, 

FLANAGAN, JOHN (^m^r.). Contemporary Medallist, whose exhibit 
attracted well-deserved praise at the Paris Salon ot 1899. ^^^^ ^^ 
his latest Portrait-medals is illustrated in M. R. Marx's article on 
The Medallist's Art in the The Studio, vol. XXII, p. 226. 

FLAM AND, 6IRARD LE {French). Engraver at the Mint of Troyes 
after 1330. He died between 1335 and 1337. 

Bibliography. — N. Rondot, Les Graveurs de la Monnaie de Troyes du Xlh au 
XVIII<= sikle, Paris, 1892. 

FLAS, PIERRE {French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Lyons, circa 
1449-1466 ; he is again mentioned in 1452. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les Graveurs de monnaies a Lyon, Macon, 

FLASSIG, JOHANN FERDINAND {Germ.). Gem-engraver of Breslau, 
circa 1699. 

— 102 — 

PLAINER, PETER. VidefLTLR PLOTNER. Medallist of Nuremberg, 

PLAVIO, T. P. LARGONIO (Roman). We find in Don. CI. 8, n° 15. 
the name, T. Flavio T. F. Largonio accompanied by the epithets, 
fabro, flatuario, sigillariario , showing that this engraver was 
employed to cut coin-dies and gems. 

PLAXMAN, JOHN (Brit.), (175 5-1826). One of the "greatest 
English sculptors of the nineteenth century. He was born at York, 
but came to London whilst quite young, where his father carried 
on business as a moulder of plaster figures. He gave early proof of 
his genius and displayed as a child uncommon abilities. He first 
exhibited at the age of 12, and when only 14 years old, he received 
the silver medal of the Royal Academy. For some time, the artist 
worked for the Wedgwoods ; then, in 1787 he went to Rome where 
he resided for some years; in 1810 he was named Professor of 
sculpture to the Royal Academy. Flaxman executed many fine stat- 
ues of eminent men, exquisite bas-reliefs, and a series of designs 
illustrating Homer, Dante, and Aeschylus. He is said to have 
designed most of the cameos produced by Josiah Wedgwood, and 
especially the fine f.eries of Medallion -portraits of contemporary 
celebrities, white upon blue. He also designed various medals for 
engravers, and modelled portraits in clay of numerous personages. 

There is a bronze pattern rupee, executed by a native artist, 
after Flaxman's design : 

Obv. Lion and date tree. 

^L. Bombay, 1828, in an ornament; star. 

(Letter from G. Sparkes Esq. to the late W. Webster, dated 

3, m. 1859.) 

We read the following details of Flaxman's work as a modeller 
of medallions in Professor Church's monograph of " Josiah Wedg- 
wood ", p. 93. 

" It was on the recommendation ofBentley that John Flaxman's 
aid as a designer and modeller was first secured by Wedgwood. The 
project of making large tablets for chimney-pieces wms under dis- 
cussion between the partners in 1775. On the 14''' January in that 
year Wedgwood, in replying to a letter from Bentley, says, " I am 
glad you have met with a modeller, and that Flaxman is so 
valuable an artist. It is but a few years since he was a most supreme 
coxcomb, but a little more experience may have cured him of this 
foible. " Wegdwood who soon learnt to estimate very highly the 
genius on the young sculptor, wrote of him as " the greatest artist of 
the age", and gave him a long series of important commissions. I 
have already indicated, in preceding chapters, how many of the finest 
portrait-medallions and classical figures and groups can be unhesita- 

- 103 — 

tingly assigned to Flaxman, but the sculptor was occupied with 
many other commissions for the potworks of Etruria during the 
whole period 177 5-179 5- 

" The story of Flaxman's life is so well known that the briefest 



Portrait-mcJ-Ulion ot i-laxnian. 
(From Pro!. Church's monograph of " Josiah Wedgwood "). 

summary of the chief incidents of its earlier part is all that need 
be here given. His father was a maker and seller of plaster casts, 
but was occasionally employed as a modeller by Roubiliac, Schee- 
makers, and other sculptors of the time. His second son, the sub- 
ject of this notice, was born on 6''' July, 1755. The boy's health 

— 104 — 

was weak, and his time was spent, except for a brief period, at 
home, and chiefly amongst the casts of his father's shop. We hear, 
however, of the notice taken of him by some of his father's artistic 
and Hterary patrons. He occupied himself in drawing and model- 
ling and in teaching himself classic fables and Latin. When no more 
than twelve years old he gained the first prize for a medal from 
the Society of Arts, which awarded him a similar distinction three 
years later. From 1767 onwards he contributed works to several 
public exhibitions : in 1770 he exhibited a wax model of Neptune 
in the Royal Academy, of which he then became a student. In the 
competition for the gold medal in 1772 the President and Council 
of the Royal Academy awarded it to a rival. This reverse seems to 
have exercised a salutary effect upon the youth, checking his tend- 
ency to self-assertion. In 1775 ^^ began working for Wedgwood, 
who during the last twenty years of his life helped in many ways 
the young sculptor. When Flaxman was twenty-four he executed 
the lifelike portrait of himself which is given here from the speci- 
men at South Kensington ; for this the authorities of the Museum 
gave € 161 14 s. just thirty years ago. A replica of this terra-cotta 
medallion is in the collection of Mr. Propert. 

" His series of monumental designs was commenced in 1780, and 
was continued until his death in 1826. Of his larger works these 
public monuments were the best, but as the marbles were too 
often completed by Italian workmen; the spirit of Flaxman's origin- 
al models frequently evaporated under their hands, a certain 
degree of emptiness and insipidity being the result. In his smaller 
works, especially in the wax portraits and classical bas-reliefs 
executed entirely by his own hand for Wedgwood, the life and 
power ot the sculptor is well seen. By many critics his pen and 
pencil and washed sketches are considered to be Flaxman's most 
characteristic and satisfactory work. Their simplicity and grace 
were caught from antique vase-paintings and bas-reliefs, but these 
drawings, slight though they generally are, are instinct with person- 
al observation, and possess the charm of tender feeling and happy 

"In 1782 Flaxman married Ann Denman ; five years afterwards, 
helped by the recommendations and pecuniary aid of Wedgwood, 
he went to Rome where he remained until 1794; the rest of his 
life was spent in London. " 

FLAXMAN, WILLIAM (Brit.), (1753 ?-i795 ?)• Modeller. He 
contributed to the exhibition of the Free Society of Artists in 1768, 
and those of the Academy at intervals, between 1781 (when he 
sent a portrait of John Flaxman in wax) and 1793. 

Bibliography. — Dictionary of National Biography. 

— I05 — 

FLEISCH, GEORG VON LERCHENBERG (Austr.). Mint-master at 
Kremnitz, 9''' November, 1606 to -f August 1618 ; he was employed 
there before 1600. The Thalers of 16 14 and 161 5 with the Hungar- 
ian arms under the eagle were engraved by him. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesten ^u J. Neu-ald's Publicatiottem uber 
osterreichische Muif^prCigungcn, Wien, 1892. 

Zweibriicken, circa 175 4- 1760; he was also Mint-master there, and 
his initials appear on a thaler of 1754. Ris-Paquot calls him 

Bibliography. — Amnion, op. cit. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FL£malle, HENRI (Bel^.). Goldsmith and Die-sinker of Liege, circa 
1670. There is a medal by him, bearing the above date, and repre- 
senting on one side, the Virgin with Child on her knees, and on 
the other Saint-Roch, angel and dog. This piece is signed H. F. F. 
and is better chased than drawn. Flemalle executed a statue in silver 
of S' Joseph. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Graveurs beiges, Bruxelles, 1870. — Biographie 
tiationale de Bruxelles. 

FLEMMING, CASPER {Dan.). Mint-master at Helsingfor, 1614. 

FLEMMING, HANS {Dan.). Mint-master at Helsingfor, 1607- 

FLEURET, PASQUIER {French). Engraver at the Paris Mint, under 
Charles IX. He is known by a jeton which he executed for the 
English ambassador, Sir Nicholas Throckmorton, in 1560. This 
piece was probably intended as a token of sympathy towards Mary 
on the death of her consort, King Francis II. 

Bibliography. — Franks Sc Graeher, MeddUic Ilhislrations of IIk History of Great 

Britain and Ireland, London, 1885. 

FL£ville, l£ON {French). Contemporary Gem-engraver; pupil of 
Roux, L. Couteau, and Bissinger. At the Salon, this artist exhibit- 
ed a cameo in onyx of Faustina, 1878; in 1879, another, engraved 
on agate, entitled. Study of a head; and again in 1880, a similar 
gem, cut in onyx. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FLINT, NICHOLAS {Brit.). Master of the Mints at Dublin and 
Waterford, under Henry VII. He issued Groats, Half-groats and 
Pennies, the general type being like that of the English coins, 
second type, of the same King. 

Bibliography. — H. A. Grueber, Handbook of the Coins oj Great Britain and 
Ireland, London, 1899. 

— io6 — 
FLEURY, LOUIS (French). Mint-engraver at Moulins, c/Vm 1550. 

FLOR, MICHAEL (GiTw.). Mint-master at Altona. 1787-1818; his 
initials M. F. appear on the coins. 

Bibliography. — C. J. Jorgensen, Beskrivelse over Danske Monter 1448-1488, 
Copenhagen, 1888. 

FLOREN {Germ.). Mint-warden to Count Palatine Louis of Zwei- 
briicken, at Wachenheim, circa 1466. 

FLORENCE, ANTOINE TiY, (French), 1493, f 1501. Engraver at the 
Mints of Grenoble and Montelimar, 1495-1498-1501, and pre- 
viously at Lyons, 1485. His son was Domingius de Florence, a 
goldsmith, settled at Lyons. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les Orfevres de Lyon du XIV^ an XVIII^ sikle, 
Paris, 1888. — Id., Les Graveurs de monnaies a Lyon, Macon, 1897. 

FLORENCE, NICOLAS DE (//«/.), 1493, f 1499 (Vide NICCOLO FIO- 
RENTINO supra). This artist's name occurs also as Nicolas de Fleu- 
rance, Florentin or Le Florentin ; he seems to have settled at Lyons, 
circa 1493, where he married Guillierme (Guilliermine or Guille- 
mine), daughter of Louis le Pere, and died between the 26''' June 
and 17'*' September, 1499. 

Nicolas de Florence is apparently not the same person as Niccolo 
Fiorontino, who may also have worked at Lyons, circa 1492, and 
executed a number of Portrait-medallions of personages of 
Charles VIII's court. 

Nicolas de Florence, in conjunction with his tather-in-law, 
Louis le Pere, engraved in 1494 the dies of the medal with por- 
traits of Charles VIII, and Anne of Britanny, of which a hundred 
specimens were struck and given to this Princess by the Consulate. 
He and is brother-in-law, Jean Le Pere, made the gold cup in 
which the hundred medals were offered to the Queen. 

On the 26''' June, 1499, Jean Le Pere, and Nicolas de Florence, 
undertook to engrave, from the design of Jean Perreal, the gold porcu- 
pine medal which was to be presented to Louis XII. They were 
paid for this work " un mille et ung escu d'or en or faictz au 

A document preserved in the Archives of Lyons mentions 
Louis Lepere and Nicolas de Provence " qui ont fait les coings des- 
dites pieces et ont fait deux fois le coing de la Royne. " 

Bibliography. — Nat. Rondot, op. cii. — Id., Les Me'daiUeurs lyonnais, L5'on, 

FLORET, G. (French). Medallist who worked for Mexico, circa 
1867. There is a medal by him on the return of President Benito 
Juarez to Mexico, 1867. 

Bibliography. — Betts, Mexican Imperial Coinage, 1899. 

— 107 — 

FLORIAN (^Swiss). Contemporary Medallist, by whom I have 
seen a medal on the Centenary of J. J. Rousseau, 1878. 

FLORIS, CORNEILLE, DE VRIENDT (BeJo^.). MedaUist of Antwerp, 
who flourished in the middle years of the sixteenth century, circa 
1550-1575. ToM. Camille Picque, Keeper of the Brussels Museum, 
belongs the honour of having restored him from obHvion. This 
able Die-sinker as produced several Portrait-medallions : Jean Lotin, 
of Bruges; — Antonius de Taxis, Imperial postmaster at Antwerp, 
1552; — Reinart van Busdal; — Christophorus Volckmar (all 
dating circa 1552-1533); — Frans Fioris, &c. 

Corneille Fioris, who died on the 20''' October, 1575, was a 
clever Sculptor as well as Architect; one of his latest works was the 
Jube of Tournai cathedral. Baron Jean Bethune, writing in Revue 
beige de Numismatiqiie, 1894, on the medallion of Jean Lotin says : 
** Ce medaillon est incontestablement I'oeuvre d'un artiste eminent; 
ia nettete du travail, I'habile gradation des plans, la vivacite du 
relief, la pose simple et aisee du modele decelent une main exerc6e 
et douee d'un grand sens esthetique. " 

Bibliography. — C. Picqu6, LArt ancien a VExposition de iSSo. — Id., 
Me'dailks d'art flamandes ine'dites du XVI" sikle, 1 880. 

FLOTNER, PETER (Germ.). Sculptor, Engraver, Architect and 
Medallist, of the first half of the sixteenth century. Until recent 
years very little was known ol this celebrated artist; the works of 
Domamg (Peter Floiner ah Plastiker und MedaiUeur, Berlin, 1895), 
and Lange (Peter FJotner, Berlin, 1897) have called attention to 
him, and although all experts do not agree with some of their 
attributions, as we shall see, there is no doubt that Flotner merits 
a place of honour amongst the distinguished Medallists of Nurem- 
berg, who flourished during the first half of the sixteenth century. 

Peter Flotner and Flodner (also Fledner or Flettner) died at 
Nuremberg on the 23"^ of October, 1546; the date of his birth is 
still unknown. It would appear that his early years were spent at 
Rothenburg, that he was apprenticed to some sculptor of the name 
of Dill Riemenschneider, or Jacob Miihlholzer of Windsheim, that 
he later worked at Ansbach and settled at Nuremberg some time 
before 1523, when he was received a burgher of the city. He is 
supposed to have visited Italy and made a stay at Venice. His third 
and last wife, whom he married in 1532, was Margaretha, widow 
of Gregorius Sonnenschein ; by the first, Anna, he had a son named 
Kaspar. Apparently Flotner died, as he had lived, a poor man. As 
D'' Merzbacher, remarks, German artists of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, who engraved medals, were often but obscure artisans, 
whether they belonged to the sculptor of the goldsmiths ; their 

— io8 — 

activity was displayed in quietness and to their contemporaries and 
immediate successors they passed unobserved. 

The attribution of a number of medals and plaquettes to Flotner 
has been a subject of controversy amongst German savants, espe- 
cially of late years. Erman {Deutsche Medailieure) thinks the 
Nuremberg sculptor owes his reputation as Medallist to the collec- 
tors of the seventeenth century, who, according to a passage of San- 
drart (Teutsche Acad. II, 230), ascribed to him the Nuremberg 
stone models, as they did the wooden ones to Hans Schwartz or 
Diirer, and he adds: " Natiirlich wurden ihm diese ,, sehr vielen 
curiosen Contrafate in Stechstein ,, nur zugeschrieben, well man 
bei Neudorffer las : ^^ Flotner's Lust in taglicher Arbeit war in 
weissen Stein zu schneiden, das waren aber nichts anders dann His- 
torien den Goldschmieden zum Treiben und Giessen damit sie ihre 
Arbeit bekleideten, geordenet. ,, " 

Medals bearing Flotner's signature P. F. are the only works 
ot this kind that may be ascribed to him without uncertainty. 
They are : 

1. Commemorative medal, dated M.D. XXXVIII, of the forti- 
fication of Nuremberg Citadel. Tresor de Num., pi. xxi, 6. Doma- 
nig, pi. Ill, I. Imhoofu, p. 14, 11. 

Obv. Crowned double-eagle and arms ; below, cartouche inscrib- 
in sunk letters P.F. 

^L. Inscription in 17 lines : DEO OPT. MAX. | S.P.Q.N. 

Size : 74 mill. D"" Merzbacher only knows of silver specimens, 
cast and chased, sometimes also gilt. This medal was not cast by 
Flotner, but by Hans Maslitzer. 

2. Salvator medals, also signed P. F. Domanig, p. 10, fig. 10. 
Obv. Bust of Christ to r. ; above, dove surrounded with clouds ; 

inscription on either side of the field : 

ICH = BIN o lo CAPTo 








above, in sunk letters CRISTVS (jtV!); below, to r. P. F. 

— 109 — ' 

^L. Bust of Pope to 1. wearing tiara, to which clings the Devil; 
inscription on either side of the field : 



















D"" Merzbacher possesses a specimen ot this medal (illustrated). 


Salvator Medal, by Peter Flotner. 

A Specimen of this medal has on ^. a representation of the 
Crucifixion (illustrated in Ermann, pi. ii, 9). Notwithstanding 
Erman's attribution to Flotner, this reverse is not by him, as prov- 
ed byLange and D"" Merzbacher. 

A lead model, also signed P. F., in the Germ. National Museum 
at Nuremberg; size 21 X 48 mill., has been ascribed to Flotner by 
Lange (pi. iv, 58). It represents the portraits of Charles V. and his 
consort Isabella (?) and is dated 1532. 

— no — 

Domanig and D' Merzbacher are agreed in considering this 
medal as the work perhaps of Hieronymus Magdeburger or Michael 
Hohenauer; the letters P. F,, might be interpreted Pius Felix. 

3. In the South Kensington Museum, London, there is a model 
in hone-stone, signed P. F., dated 1526, and bearing a portrait of 
Philip, Count Palatine (Jlhistrated). 

Portrait-model in hone-stone of Philip , Count Palatine. 

4. Medal of Carolus de Solario, Dominus Morety. 

AGENS... Bust facing to 1. ; on truncation, traces of signature. 

* On rocky shore, horse rearing in front of dolphin. JE. Old cast. 
58 mill. (Collection of D"" Simonis). 

Prof. Lange gives this model to Peter Flotner. Although D' Merz- 
bacher states that this piece does not exhibit work similar to that 
of the known medals of the artist, he cannot prove the attribution 
to be incorrect. 

Amongst the undoubted productions of Flotner are the following 
Plaquettes, which were intended to serve as models to goldsmiths 

— Ill — 

and still form the most important portion of tlie work know ot this 
celebrated artist. 

5. Noah mocked by his sons, 50X105 mill. 

6. Abraham entertains the angels 52X 103 mill. 

7. Lot and his daughters in the cavern, 97 X 107 mill. 

8. Moses strikes the rock, 51 X 106 mill. 

9. The prophet Jeremiah seated before the walls of Jerusalem, 
46 X63 mill. 

10. Bathsheba bathing, 103 X no mill. 

1 1 . Christ standing with flag and serpent ; in the background, 
The Fall, 65X45 mill. 

12. Baptism of Christ, 46x103 mill. 

13. The Lord and the Samaritan woman at Sychar's well, 
50 X 53 mill. 

14. The Disciples on their way to Emmaus, 46 X 102 mill. 

15-21. The Seven Planet-gods Standings jj X $2 mill. 

15. Saturn with scythe; — 16. Jupiter, bare head, holding 
sword in right hand; — 17. Mars with halberd, sword and helmet; 
— 18. Sol with sceptre and radiated crown; — 18. Venus, holding 
arrow and burning hand. Molinier, 661; — 20. Mercury with 
caduceus ; — 21. Luna with horn and crescent. 

22-23. 1^"^^ Planets riding in Chariots, 65X103 mill. 

22. Mars riding in chariot drawn by wolves; — 23. Venus riding 
in chariot drawn by doves. 

24-32. The Nine Muses Standing, 71X49 mill. 

24. Kalliope ; — 25. Klio; — 26. Euterpe in profile to 1. 
blowing the pipe; before her, a hand-organ; — 27. Melpomene 
reading; — 28. Terpsichore with harp advancing to 1.; — 29. 
Eralo with violin; — 30. Polyhimnia playing the lute; — 31. 
Urania with globe, compasses and astrolabium; — 32. Thalia 
dancing. Molinier, 662. 

32.-40. Nine Nude Genii with Attributes of the Muses, 49 X 33 mill. 

33. CALI-OPE with plate; 34. I-CLIO with books at her 
feet ; — 35. EVT-ERPA with pipe and hand-organ ; — 36. MELPO- 
MEN(e) with book; — 37. TERP(s)-ICHORE with harp; — 38. 
ERATO with violin ; — 39. POL-INMIA (j/c) with two lutes; — 
40. VRANIA with globe and compasses; — 41. THA-LIA gesti- 
culating. Molinier, 658. 

— - 112 -- 

4^. Ate and the Litai, circular, diam. 149 mill. (Illustrated in 
Lange, pi. v, 38). 

43-44. Two Genii of Bacchic Character, circular, diam. 36 mill. 

(These may be termed Venus and Amor; they are in the "Ger- 
manisches Museum " at Nuremberg.) 

45-48. Four Celebrated Ladies of Antiquity, Seated, circular, 
diam. 72 mill. 

45. Jael with hammer and nail; — 46. Dido plunging dagger 
into her breast ; — 47. Lucretia in the same attitude ; — 58. Cleo- 
patra holding snake to her breast. 

49-61. The 12 (i^) Oldest German Kings, Standing, 50 X 37 mill. 

49. Tuiscon; — 50. Mannus; — 51. Wygewon; — 52. Heri- 
won ; — 53. Eusterwon; — 54, Marsus ; — 55. Gambrivius; — 
56, Suevus; — 57. Wandalus; — 58. Ariovistus ; — 59. Armi- 
nius; — 60. Charlemagne; — 61. The Thirteenth (called Armi- 
nius, by Domanig). 

62. Busts of Charles V. and consort Isabella, 22 X 48 mill. 

63-69. The Seven Cardinal Virtues, Seated, 78x66 mill. 

63. Caritas, with two children; — 64. Justitia, with sword and 
scales; — 65. Fides, with cup and cross; — 66. Spes, in prayerful 
attitude; — 67. Fortitudo; behind her, Uon crouching; — 68. 
Temperantia, pouring water into wine; — 69. Patientia, pointing 
to a Lamb. 

70-76. The Seven Small Cardinal Virtues, Seated, circular, 
diam. 35 mill. 

70. Caritas; — 71. Justitia; — 72. Fides; — 73. Spes; — 74. 
Fortitudo; — 75. Temperantia; — 76. Patientia. 

77-84. The Seven Large Cardinal Virtues, Sealed, circular, 
diam. 70 mill. 

77. Prudentia, with janiform head and mirror (stone model in 
the South Kensington Museum); — 78. Caritas, with two chil- 
dren (stone model in the South Kensington Museum); — 79. 
Justitia, with sword and scales; — 80. Fides, with cup and cross; 
— 81. Spes, in prayerful attitude; — 82. Fortitudo, seated on 
crouching lion; — 83. Temperantia, in profile, to 1., pouring 

- Hi - 

water into wine; — 84. Patientia, raising both arms in mournful 
attitude; behind, a conflagration, 

85-91. The Seven Cardinal Virtues, 72x48 mill. 

85. Caritas (^Molinier, 655); — 86. Justitia {Domanig^ p. 20, 
fig- 19)5 — ^7- Fides; — 88. Spes ; — 89. Fortitudo ; — 90. 
Temperantia; — 91. Patientia. 

92-95. Isolated Cardinal Virtues. 

92. Prudentia, with janiform head, mirror, and Amor 58 X 82 
mill. (Donianig, p. 19, fig. 16) ; — 93. Caritas, with two children, 
trapezitorm shape, 84X52 (above) and 25 mill, (below); — 94. 
Spes (?), 53 X40 mill. (Lange is not quite sure whether this plaque 
is by Flotner); — 95. Fortitudo Q) holding a tower in her hand 
(a companion piece to n° 94). 

96-98. Three Very Small Seated Figures from the Series of Virtues 

and Vices. 

96. Spes; — 97. Fides, holding cross in r., and cup in 1. ; — 
98. Voracity, a half-nude figure, vine-leaves entwined around body, 
seated on pig. 

99-105. The Seven Deadly Sins, 71X48 mill. 

99. Pride, with wing of peacock plumage, mirror, and horse; — 
100. Avarice with wings of bat, eyes bound, and holding money- 
satchel and toad; — 10 1. Unchastity, represented as Venus, with 
burning arrow and winged hearts; a bull at her feet; — 102. 
Wrath, a cuirassed winged figure with torch and spear, wearing 
lion's skin headdress, and plunging a crooked dagger into her breast 
{Molinier, 628); — 103. Voracity, a winged female figure with 
vase and pig; — 104. Jealousy, a hag, winged, with hound gnawing 
at a heart; — 105. Laziness, with half-closed eyes, wings hanging 
down, and behind her, an ass. 

1 06-1 12. The Seven Consequences of Drunkenness, 39X64 mill, 
(also round, diam. 62 mill.). 

106. Pride (or Inconsiderateness ?). Wreathed male figure, 
riding on lion, and swinging a crooked sword; — 107. Avarice (or 
Hatred ?). Male figure, seated, looking at a dog barking, two bones 
above, and leaning against cask, the contents of which are flowing 
out; — 108. Unchastity (Lewdness?) Male figure, seated, in 
the act of vomiting, &c. ; behind it, a pig; — 109. Wrath 
(Slander ?) Male figure, seated, grimacing, and with both hands 

L. FoKRER. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — II. 8 

- 114 - 

raised to its ears; — i lo. Voracity. Bacchus lying under a vine and 
reaching a bunch of grapes with his left hand ; — 1 1 1 . Jealousy 
(Gout?) A Drunkard, sticking his right leg in a bottle, and 
advancing to left; — 112. Laziness (Imbecility?) A Drunkard 
sleeping under a tree ; beside him, a sheep. 

1 1 3 - 1 1 5 . Three of the Five Senses. 

113. Smelling, 51X76 mill. A mother wipes her child; another 
female holds her nose; — 114. Sight, 63X87 mill. Noah and his 
family viewing the rainbow; — 115. Feeling, 60x85 mill, (also 
53 X78, or 58 X 9 1, or 65X90). Venus consoling Cupid, who 
has been stung by bees. 

116. Allegory of Feeling, or Jealousy (?) 60x87 mill, (also 
70X95, or 65X90); — 117. Allegory of the Avaricious Regi- 
ment, circular, 63 mill. (South Kensington Museum); — 118. 
Memento mori, 64 X 89 mill. Sleeping youth, near skeleton and 
sand-glass; — 119. The great Temptation of Faith, 110X95 
mill. ; — 120. The minor Temptation of Faith, 52 X 75 mill. ; — 
121. Astronomer in a landscape, 41 X68 mill. 

The above list ofplaquettes is taken from Prof. Lange, who remarks 
that, with the exception of n°* 94 and 95, there can be no doubt 
as to their correct attribution to Flotner. These plaquettes exist 
not only in lead and bronze, but also in silver, copper and pewter, 
and especially in hone-stone. They were destined to be used as 
models, from which goldsmiths "cast and chased" reliefs in 
various metals. {Vide, vol. I, Albrecht Diirefy p. 477.) 

As to Flotner's medals, we have seen that only three may be 
ascribed to him, in so far that they bear his signature. The desire to 
classify under some artists' names the most beautiful medallic pro- 
ductions of the German Renaissance has no doubt prompted such learn- 
ed experts as D' Domanig and Prof. Lange to group certain series 
of medals exhibiting analogy of treatment and execution, in order 
to give them to known Medallists ; as in the present case, to Flotner. 
D*^ Merzbacher does not hold with the conclusions they have 
arrived at concerning the Nuremberg artist's share in the execution 
of these works, but as the medals Prof. Lange describes will prob- 
ably henceforth be known amongst collectors as Flotner's produc- 
tions, we cannot omit to name then here : JR.. Medal of Count 
Palatine Philipp, 1528, 42 mill.; — JE. Otto Heinrich and his 
brother Philipp, 1528, 37 mill.; — JR.. Otto Heinrich, 1528, 
44 mill.; — JR. Ditto, 1530, 21 mill.; — JR. Countess Palatine 
Susanna, 1530, 20 mill.; — JR. Otto Heinrich and consort 
Susanna, 1530, 36 mill.; — JR. Gilt. Countess Palatine Susanna, 
1530, 35 mill.; — iR. LudwigX. of Landshut, 1535,43 mill.; — 

— tl5 — 

JE. Count Palatine Ludwig V., 1535, 44 mill.; — J^. Georg 
Hoffmann, 1528; — Stone, Wilhelm Sshmidmayr, 1531, 38 mill.; 

— ifL. Ulpain Moser, and consort, Apollonia Schwerzin ; — JE. The 
three Friends, Hermann, Riebisch, and Mair, 153 1; — &. Georg 
Hermann, 1527, and 1529; — JE. Konrad Mair, 153 1; — ^. 
Georg Loxan ; — Hieronymus Holzschuher, 1529 ; — JE. Christoph 
and Katharina Scheurl, 1533 ; — Hone-stone, Hans Puchner, 1537 ; 

— ^.SigmundPfinzing, 1536; — ifC. MelchiorPfinzing, 28 mill.; 

— 3^. Castulus Fugger, 1528; — iR. Emperor Charles V. and 
consort Isabella, 1530, &c. 

D"" Karl Domanig of Vienna has, in two articles on *' Peter 
Flotner als Medailleur", published by the Monatsblattjier numisma- 
tischcn Gesellschaft in Wien and the Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1900, 
refuted D"" Merzbacher's conclusions. For a long time to come the 
subject must remain one of discussion between savants unless 
turiher evidence of an undoubted character comes forward in 
support of the theories suggested by the one or the other side. 
D"" Domanig in publishing the recently discovered medal, signed 
by Flotner, of the Simonis Collection, that of Carolus de Solario 
Dominus Morety, describes and illustrates two other medals of John 
Dantiscus which offer a striking analogy in the work and style 
with the signed piece, and which may possibly also belong to Flotner. 

As to Flotner's activity in other directions the interested reader 
will find full particulars in Prof. Lange's admirable monograph on 
the artist. It is beyond doubt that this Nuremberg master's influence 
has been widespread throughout Germany, and as further light is 
thrown on this period, we may learn that Flotner is responsible 
tor more medallic works than even modern writers have been 
ascribing to him. 

Bibliography. — Johann Neudorfer, Schreib-und Rechenmeisters ^11 Nurnberg ; 
Nachrichten von Kunstlern und JVerkleuten daselbst (^iJ4j), Jxrausgegebeti von Lochner ; 
Quellenschriften fur KunslgeschichU und Kunsttechnik da Miltelalters und der Renais- 
sance XS. IIS "'"^ ^2/. — G. K. Nagler, Neues allgemeines Kunsllerlexikon IV 
(1837). — A. Rosenberg, Die Maler der deutschen Renaissance unter dem Einfluss 
Durers, in Dohme's, Kunst und KUnstlern /, 1877, — R. Bergau, NUrnberger Kunst- 
ler des XVI. und XVII. JaMmnderts, Wartburg VII, 1880. — J. Stockbauer, Peter 
Flotnei-, Kunst und Gewcrbe XXI, 1887. — W. Bode, Geschichte der deutschen 
Plastik, 1887. — J. Reimers, Peter Flotner nach seinen Handieichnungen und Hol:^- 
schnitten. 1890. — Karl Domanig, Peter Flotner als Plastiker und Medailleur, 
Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des AUerhochsten Kaiseherhauses, XVI, 
1895. — Erman, Deutsche Mcdailleure, Berlin, 1884. — Bolzenthal, Kunstge- 
schichte der modernen Medaillen-Arbeit, Berlin, 1840. — Domanig, Porlrat-Medaillen 
des Er^lnuses Oesterreich, Wien, 1896. — Ad. Hess Nachf., Medaillen-Sammlnng 
Eugen Felix, Frankfurt a. M., 1895. — D^ E. Merzbacher, Beitrdge ^ur Kritik der 
Deutschen Kunstmedaillen yMunchen, 1900. — D°,Kunst-Medaillen-Katalog, 1900. — 
Konrad Lange, Peter Flotner, Berlin, 1897. — Molinier, Les Plaquettes, I & II. — 
Dr E. Merzbacher, Mittheilungen der Bayerischen numismatischen Gesellschaft, XVIII. 
Jahrgang. — D' Carl Domanig, Peter Flotner als Medailleur, Monatsblatt der] num. 
Gesellschaft in Wien, Juli 1900. — D®, Peter Flotner als Medailleur, Numisma- 
tische Zeitschrift, 1900. 

FLUERKIN (Belg.) Goldsmith of Ghent, who in 1377, engrav- 
ed a seal in silver for Jean d'Audenarde, seigneur of Painele, 1374- 
1379. Fluerkin appears to be the Flemish diminutive form of 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Bibliographie des graveiirs beiges, Revue de la 
numismatique beige, 1852. 

F. M. Fide FEDERIGO MOLINI. Mint-inspector at Venice, circa 

F. M. Fide FRANCESCO MOROSINI. Rector at Cattaro, 1608-1610. 

F. M. Fide FRIEDRIGH MARL. Die-sinker at Berlin, 1704 f 1743. 

F. M. Fide FRANQOIS MARTEAU. Paris Medallist, 1 720-1749. 

F. M. Fide FRIEDRICH MAUL. Mint-master at Diisseldorf, 1738- 


F. M. Fide FRANZ MATZENKOPF. Medallist and Coin-engraver at 
Salzburg, 1738- 1754; also F. M.K. or F. MK. 

F. M. Fide FRANZ MATZENKOPF. Son of the last, and also a Die- 
sinker of Salzburg, 175 5-1796. 

F. M. R. F/i^ FRANCESCO MARIA RIZZI. Mint-inspector at Venice, 
circa 1786. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

F. M F. (Ital.y Signature of a Medallist who was working 
circa 1592, and engraved a medal of Pope Clement VIII. 
^L. GREGEM.NE.DESERAS. Shepherd imploring the protection 
of Heaven upon his flock. M. G. Milanesi thinks the signature 
F. M. F. probably belongs to the Florentine Sculptor FRANCESCO 
MOCHI, whose best works date from the begining of the seven- 
teenth century. 

Bibliography. — Arniand, op. cit. 

F. M. L. (Jtal.^. Signature of a Medallist of the middle years 
of the sixteenth century, circa 1550- 1555. It is found on a medal 
of Pope Julius in., obv. Bust, tor. 1^. Atlas supporting the globe. 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cit. 

F. N. Fide NICOLO FRANCHINI. Mint-master at Ferrara, 1621. 

F. N. r/rf^ FRANZ NOWACK. Mint-master at Breslau, 1698-1717. 

F. N. Fide FRANZ NUBELL. Mint-master and Coin-engraver at 
Schwerin, after 1832. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

— 115-^ 


D"" Lange, in his admirable work on Peter Flotner (Berlin, 1897) 
describes at some length, on page 87, a beautiful medaUion in hone- 
stone, which he wrongly attributes to this artist. He further errone- 
ously identifies the male figure represented on this medallion with 
that of Count Palatine Louis V. 

The medallion in question, when described by D' Lange, was in 
the possession of Messrs J. &S. Goldschmidt of Frankfort-on-Main, 
who had purchased it at the Spitzer Sale (Paris, 1893. N° 2280). 
It has since changed hands, and is, I believe, the specimen now in 
the collection of Mr. Max Rosenheim, F.S.A., of London, the 
well-known antiquarian, through whose kindness I am able to 
rectify an error of attribution which might have been perpetuated 
by others and into which I have fallen myself in my notice of the 
celebrated German medallist's (Flotner's) work. 

Theunfortunate mistake would not have occurred, could D*" Lange 
have seen another hone-stone medallion, or only noticed its descrip- 
tion in the Spitzer Catalogue (N° 2281), that bearing the portrait 
of Johann PhiHp Adler. He would no doubt have been struck with 
the similarity of work and treatment between the two, the resem- 
blance between the portrait of N° 2281 and that of the male figure 
of N° 2280 (which the Spitzer Catalogue points out), and he must 
have inevitably come to the conclusion that the Rosenheim medal- 
lion forms the Reverse of the other one (now in M"" Julius Werner's 
collection); that it does not refer to Count Palatine Louis V. and 
cannot have been Flotner's work, who died on the 23"^ of October 
1546, seven years before the execution of the Adler portrait-piece, 
which is dated 1553. 

The late Mr. Spitzer or some other collector must have cut the 
complete medallion in two, perhaps to enable him to show the two 
sides at the same time, or to enhance its value, but by thus doing 
he has not only caused two portions ot one of the finest productions 
in hone-stone to be separated, but has indirectly led an eminent 
art-critic to ascribe one of the portions to Flotner and from com- 
parison with this, to attribute other Vv'orks to the same artist. 


Our medallion, illustrated below, may now be described as 
follows : 

JOHANN PHILIP ADLER. Hone-stone. Diam. 137 mill. 

Obv. Half-length portrait of Johann Philip Adler, three-quarter 
face to L, wearing long beard and short hair. Clad m a doublet, he 
holds his gloves in the r. hand, with the 1. arm akimbo; a medal- 
lion is suspended from his neck. Legend : lACOBVS.PHILIPPVS. 

Medallion in hone-stone of Johann Philip Adler (reduced size). Obv. 

^L. To L, at the foot of the trunk of a withered tree, is a female, 
in sixteenth century costume, seated, and placing a laurel-wreath 
on the head of a man, asleep, who leans against, her knees in a 
reclining attitude. The male figure, which is represented with a 
long beard and short hair, as on obv., is clad in a doublet; his 
armour and sword are lying beside him. Above, an eagle flying 
under shining sun. 

D*" Lange, as already noticed, took the male figure, on the 
Rosenheim medallion, to represent Count Palatine Louis V., 


with whose various Icnown portraits it very favourably compares; 
whereas it is conclusive that we must identify it with Johann 
Philip Adler. As to the execution and style of the medallion, its 
striking analogy with the work of Flotner, as exhibited on his 
numerous plaquettes depicthig landscapes, led to its erroneous 
attribution to the great Nuremberg sculptor, whose date would 
have fitted in very well with that of the Bavarian Prince named 

Medallion in hone-stone of Johann Philip Adler (reduced size). Rev. 

There is still a good deal of uncertainty as to the extent of 
Flotner's medallic work; D' Lange, D' Domanig, D"" Merzba- 
cher, and other German savants are not likely to agree with each 
other in this respect : comparison of style may help one very oft- 
en, but attributions based on such comparison, must always 
remain more or less open to doubt. 

Of the medals signed P.P., that commemorating the fortification 
of Nuremberg Citadel may not have been cast by Flotner, but by Hans 
Maslitzer ; the lead hiodel bearing the portraits of Charles V. and 
his consort Isabella (?) is ascribed to Hieronymus Magdeburger or 


Michael Hohenauer ; and the hone-stone Portrait-medallion of 
Philip, Count Palatine, dated 1526, and preserved in the South 
Kensington Museum, is, I fear, a modern production. Since writing 
on the subject, I have had an opportunity of closely examining it, 
and I think that this medallion is not the work of Floiner, a 
view which is shared by Mr. Rosenheim and other experts. 

L. F. 


— 117 — 

F. N. (ItaJ.). Signature of a Medallist of the end of the sixteenth 
century. In 1591, he executed a medal of Pope Gregory XIV. 
I^. Busts fiice to face of Christ and the Virgin. M. G. Milanesi 
suggests the artist's name to be FRANCESCO NOVELLINO. 
There is another Medal, probably of 1595, with portrait of Ugo de 
Loubens-Verdala, Grand-Master of the Knights of Malta, bearing 
these initials. 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cit. — C. F. Keary, A Guide to tlx ExMbition 
of Italian Medals at the British Museum, London, 1893. 

F. N. (Dutch). Initials of an Engraver by whom is a medal of 
William (III) of Orange, 1677, and another commemorating the 
Battle of Naerden, 1673. 

Bibliography. — Franks and Grueber, op. cit. — H. Montagu, Manuscript 

Notes on English Medals 

F. 0. nde FRANZ OFFNER. Mint-master at Heidelberg and 
Mannheim, 1732-1750. 

FLYNTE, NICHOLAS (Brit.). Coin-engraver at the Royal Mint, 
London, under Henry VII. He is styled Sculptor de et pro ferris. 
Bibliography. — Ruding, op. cit. 

FOCHTMANN, CASPAR (Germ.). Mint-master to the Court of 
Saxe-Weimar, and Warden of the Mint at Reinhardsbrunn, 1621- 
1623. I have noticed his initials on Thalcrs and Quarter-Tha- 
lers of Johann Ernst and his brothers Friedrich Wilhelm and 
Friedrich, 1622. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FOGELER, DANIEL (Gcrw.). Warden of the Mint at Frankfort-on- 
Main, circa 1490. He issued Turnos, EngUsh and Hellers. 

Bibliography. — P. Joseph u. Ed. Fellner, Die Mtm^en von Frankfurt am Main, 

FOGELBERG, B. E. {Sued). Sculptor of the second half of the 
nineteenth century. His name appears on some medals engraved by 
Leah Ahlborn, as that of the designer or inventor. 

FOGGINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (Jtal.). Mazzucchelli mentions a 
medallion of Vincenzo Viviani by this artist, dating from the 
first half of the eighteenth century. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

FOISIL (French). Contemporary Medallist, whose three latest 
medallic works are mentioned in Gazette numismatique fran^aise, 
1900, p. 429 : Candour (25 mill.); — Universal Exhibition of 
1900 (36 mill.); — L'Aiglon (18 mill.). 

— Il8 — 

FOLIGNO, GIOVAN ANTONIO DA (Ital.). Coin-engraver at the 
Mint of Ferrara (1505-1522) under Alfonso I. d'Este. By this 
artist are probably the following coins : Scudo d'oro, obv. Arms. 
1^. IN-HOCSIGNOVINCES; — Testone, obv. Bust to 1., 
beardless. ^. DE-PORTIDVLCEDO. Seated figure of Samson 
holding lion's head in r. hand; another, with bearded head {illus- 
trated); — Mezzo Testone, obv. Bust to I. V^L. DE MANY LEONI. 

Testone of Alfonso I; Duke of Ferrara. 

Hercules strangling the lion; — Testone. ^. FIDES • TVA • SAL- 
VAM'TE'EECI. Mary Magdalene at the feet of the Saviour; — 
Quattrino, obv. Arms. I^. SM' AVRELIVSPROTEC. Head of 
a Saint, &c. 

Bibliography. — Blanchet, Notweau Manuel de Numisfnatique du nioyen age et 
moderne, Paris, 1890, vol. II, 365, 370. — Catalogo delle Monete italiane del Cav. 
Giancarli di Roma, 1880. 

FOLIGNO, LUDOVICO DA (Ital). Goldsmith and Medallist, re- 
siding at Ferrara, and. mentioned in 1445, 1464 and 1471. From 
documents we learn that he executed the following medals : Sigis- 
mondo d'Este; — Lionello d'Este, 1464; — Marriage of Bona 
di Savoia with Galeazzo Maria Sforza, 1468 ; — Galeazzo Maria 
Sforza, 1461 ; — Bona di Savoia; — Pietro de' Medici, and 
perhaps, Giovanni de' Medici, if the medal known of the former is 
that executed by Ludovico da Foligno. 

Bibliography. — A. Heiss, Les Medailleurs de Florence, Paris, 1891. — 
Armand, op. cit. — Blanchet, op. cit. 

FOLKEMA, JAN JAKOB {Dutch). M. Pinchart attributed to Fol- 
kema a series ot 31 medals of Louis XIV., which however are 
not his work. This artist probably never resided in Paris. The 
only medal M. Rouyer thought might possibly belong to him is 
one commemorating the Peace of Ryswick {Medallic Illustrations, 
II, 178), but Mr Dirks has recently proved that the signature 
/. Folkema, which appears in Van Loon's Plates is that of 
Jakob Folkema, copper-plate engraver and designer of a certain 
number of the blocks which served to illustrate that work. 

— 119 - 

This is a curious instance of how easily mistakes can be perpe- 
trated — the whole biography of a Medallist, who never existed, 
is built upon a signature which does not refer to the medals 
but to the engraver of the plates illustrating them ! 

Bibliography. — Franks & Grueber, o/>. cit. — Alex. Pinchart, Jean-Jacques Fol- 
ketna. Revue de la numismatique beige, 1856. — J. Rouyer, De Vorfhre frison 
Jean-Jacques Folkema en ce qui concerne les me'dailles de Louis XIV, et metres qui Itii 
sonl attribuees, loc. cit., 1885. — C«« Maurin Nahuys, Penningkundig Repertorium 
de M.J. Dirks, loc. cit., 1887. 

FOLONIA, THOMAS DE (French). Mint-master at Chamb^ry, circa 

1420 — 4''' June, 1421. 

Bibliography. — D"" Lade, Contribution a la Numismatique des Dues de Savoie, 
Revue suisse de numismatique, 1896. 

FONS, GUILLAUME (French). Engraver at the Mint of Bayonne, 
circa 1648. 

FONSON, JEAN BARTHfiLEMY (Belg.). Medallist and Gem-engraver 
of the first half of the nineteenth century. Born in 1808, he stud- 
ied under Simon and afterwards largely contributed to this artist's 
" Medallic Gallery of Celebrities of the Netherlands". In 1827, 
Fonson won a prize for Medal-engraving ; his exhibit was a com- 
memorative piece of the marriage of Princess Louise of Prussia 
with Prince Frederick of the Netherlands. After 1830, Fonson 
gave up engraving altogether. Several cameos are known by him. 

Bibliography. — Guioth, Jean Barlhelemy Fonson, Revue de la numismatique 
beige, 1853. 

FONTAINE. MICHELE DE (Ilal.). Die-sinker at Turin, between 
1659 and 1680. His works are signed M. D. F. F. A large medallion 
in bronze of Bruyere, Bishop of Orleans (diam. 169 mill.) which 
I have recently seen is signed FONTAINE. 

BiBUOGRAPHY. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FONTAINE. EMMANUEL (French). Sculptor of modern times, 
born at Abbeville (Somme); pupil of Jouffroy. At the Salons ot 
1877, 1878, 1879, 1880 and 1882 this artist exhibited Portrait- 
medallions in plaster ot various personages, that of M. Vitaux being 
the only one mentioned in full. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FONTANA, ANNIBALE (Ital.). Architect, Sculptor, Goldsmith, 
Gem and Coin-engraver, born in 1540, died at Milan in 1587. He 
is the author of a medal of Ferdinando Francesco d'Avalos, mar- 
quis of Pescara, obv. Half-figure to r. in armour. I^. QVAMVIS 
CVSTODITA DRACONE. Hercules to r. plucking apples in the 

— 120 — 

Garden of the Hesperides. Lomazzo, in Trattato deW Arte delJa 
Pittura ascribes this medal to Annibale Fontana, of whom several 
sculptures are still to be seen at Milan. From the following sonnet 
addressed by Lomazzo to the artist, we gather that the medal of 
Gianpaolo Lomazzo, obv. Bust to 1. I^. VTRIVSQ\'E Lomazzo 
bowing before Fortune to whom he is introduced by Mercury, is also 
by Fontana : 


La Prudenza ch' insieme e la Fortuna 
A cui sto innanzi chin, soprA un roverso 
Por fei d'una medaglia, u con stil terso 
Un mi ritrassse per furor di luna. " 

Bolzenthal and Keary were inclined to attribute to Fontana two 
medals of Giovanni Battista Castaldi, Marquis of Cassano, one with 
I^. LIPPA CAPTA, Lippa seated beneath trophy, and the other 
with ]^. CAPTIS SVBACT . FVSISQ . REG . &c. Female figure to r. 
presenting sceptre to Castaldi. 

Fontana was famous for his camei and intagli ; he received 6000 
scudi for a small coffer in crystal which he made for WiUiam IL, 
Duke of Bavaria. 

M. C. Jolivot has attributed to Annibale Fontana a cast medal 
of Gonzalvo di Cordova. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Blanchet, op. cit. — Babelon, Pierres 
grave'es, Paris, 1894. — King, op. cit. — Armand, op. cit., I, 253, III, 121. — 
Br. Mus. Catal., Italian Medals. — C. Jolivot, Une medailh de Gonialve de Cordoue, 
Revue beige de numismatique, 1890. 

FONTANA, ANTONIO (//a/.), Florentine Medallist of the first half 
of the eighteenth century. He belongs to the school of Silvestri, 
Sarti, Broccetti, Lazari, Franchi, Ciantogni, and others. Bolzenthal 
mentions a large Portrait-medal executed by him of the philosopher 
and physician Bartholommeo Curzj. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

FONTEMENT, RENAUT {French). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot 
Troyes, 1357-58, 1361-63, and 1364-5. 

Bibliography. — N. Rondot, Les Graveurs de la Monnaie de Troyes du XII^ au 
Xllb Steele, Paris, 1892. 

FONTENAY, JDLIEN DE (Fr^Mc/;). Vide CODOKE, vol. I, p. 184. 
Gem-engraver to King Henry IV. ; a pupil of Codor^ or Coldore, 
with whom he has often been confused by his biographers. 
Olivier Coldore came to England before 1600, was employed 
by Queen Elizabeth, and never returned to France; whereas 

— 121 — 

Jnlien de Fontenay's name appears until i6ir on documents con- 
nected with the Royal Estate of Fontainebleau. 

During the second half of the sixteenth centur}^, Julien de Fon- 
tenay, who had a workshop in the Rue Bourg-l'Abbe at Paris, 
followed the profession of a dealer in precious stones and excelled in 
the art of engraving cameos. With the accession of Henry IV., 
he became attached to the Court and was installed at the Castle of 
Fontainebleau. For twenty years after 1590 his names occurs in the 
accounts of the King's house; in 1596, he was qualified "Engraver 
to the King; in 1597, "Engraver in precious stones"; in 1600, he 
became valet de chambre. to His Majesty, and in 1608 his salary was 
raised to one hundred livres, and he was granted the privilege of a 
domicile in the Great Gallery of the Louvre, although he did not 
habitually reside in Paris. " Son talent", says of M. Lhuillier, "le 
placait au rang des artisans les plus renommes et des plus excellents 
maitres du royaume", and Michel de MaroUes, abbot of Villeloin, 
in his Quatrains a qiielques peintres, sculpteurs et ingenieurs loge^^ dans 
les galeries does not forget : 

Julien de Fonteine en ses joyaux si rares. 

Although a very prolific worker, only very few gems, if any, by 
this distinguished artist, are still extant. Even a hundred years after 
his death, the abbot of Fontenay regretted the disappearance of so 
many wonderful treasures. In the Catalogue of Gems of the Biblio- 
theque nationale, Paris, published in 1858, the only stones which 
are attributed to Julien de Fontenay are representations of 
Henry IV., en pied, after Porbus I^. of an antique cameo, — bust 
in armour and with laur. head. — and as Hercules (n°^ 32, 326 
and 2490). By him are also, probably, a cameo with conjoined 
portraits of Henry IV. and Marie de Medicis(n° 334), and a portrait 
as the same Queen (n° 335), both of exquisite workmanship. 

Julien de Fontenay did not survive Henry IV. very long. After 
161 1, at which date the artist was probably in his seventieth year, 
his name disappears from contemporary documents, and it does not 
seem certain whether he died in the Galeries of the Louvre or at 

His son, Claude de Fontenay, was also a talented Gem-engraver; 
in 1644 he is mentioned as "Graveur du Roi en pierreries", but 
nothing more definite appears to be known about his work. 

Bibliography. — Jal, op. cit. — E. Babelon, La Gravure en piei res fines, Paris, 
1894. — Th. Lhuillier, Julien de Fontenay, graveur en pierres fines du roi Henri IV, 
Paris, 18.88. 

FONTENELLE, CHARLES CLAUDE {French). Sculptor, born at St.- 
Marcel-de-F6lines (Loire), on the 16**' June, 181 5, died at Paris, 

— 122 — 

29*'' May, 1866. He was a pupil of David d' Angers, and also pro- 
duced some medallions after his master's style. 
Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cii. 

FOOL, C. (ItaL). Medallist of the second half of the eighteenth 
century. His signature is found on a medal of Charles and Ferdi- 
nand, representing a naval engagement on ^L. 

FOOT & TOBAY (Bril.). Edited a handsome medal on the removal 
ot Temple Bar, 1878 ; it was struck in lead taken from the roof, 
and engraved by C. H. and J. Mabb, sculptors. An illustration of 
this medallion appears in C. Welch's "'Numismata Londinensia", 
pi. VIII. 

Bibliography. — Charles Welch, Medals strtick by the Corporation 0/ London to 
commemorate important Municipal Events, London, 1894. 

FOPPA. Vide CARADOSSO (Vol. I, p. 206). 

FORBES, CAPT. W. N. (Brit.). Mint-master at Calcutta, succeeded 
to Robert Saunders in 1836. The letter F appears on some of the 
Rupees struck under him. 

FORBICI, ANTONIO DALLE (ItaL). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Venice. He is mentioned on a document dated the 21^* December, 
1 391, as having worked there for over sixteen years, under Doge 
Antonio Venier. 

Bibliography. — Niccol6 Papadopoli, Alcune Noti:(ie siigli Intagliatori delta 
Zecca di Venecia, Milano, 1888. 

Contemporary Sculptor, born at S' Maulvis (Somme). He has exe- 
cuted several Portrait-medallions in bronze ; the two best known 
are : J. B. Gribeauval, 1875, and Marie de la Hotoie of Amiens, 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FORD, EDWARD ONSLOW (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Royal Academician, well known for his numerous works of 
statuary. He died on the 23'''' of December 1901. 

*' E. Onslow Ford " says Victor G. Parr, in Men and Women of 
the Time, London, 1899, p. 376, " was born in London, July 27, 
1852, and as a boy, had a great desire to become an artist. In 1870 
he went to Antwerp, and entered ^the School, working his way up 
to the Antique School, where he studied under M. Buffeau. In 
1 87 1 he went to Munich and joined the Academy, still studying 
painting ; but shortly before leaving he gave up painting and took 
to sculpture. In 1874 he returned to England, where he has since 
resided. His principal statues are "Sir Rowland Hill, K.CB. ", 

— 123 — 

i882; "The Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M. P.," 1883; 
"Henry Irving, Esq., as Hamlet," 1883; and "Linus", 1884. 
Besides these he has executed a number of busts, amongst which 
may be mentioned : " Sir John Brown, " 1881 ; " Sir Charles 
Reid " and " Rev. John Rogers", 1882; " The Archbishop of 
York," 1884; and " Lieut. -General Sir Andrew Clarke", 1886. 
In 1885, he exhibited a relief, "In Memoriam, " and his statuette, 
" Folly ", was purchased by the Royal Academy under the terms ot 
the Chantrey Bequest. Among his most recent works are a bronze 
statue of "Applause", and a statue of the Right Hon. W. E. 
Gladstone, and bronze busts of Mr. Arthur Hacker, A.R.A., 
M. Walter Armstrong, the late Sir John Millais, and his fellow- 

Academicians Orchardson, Briton Riviere, and Herkomer, as well 
as the following statues : General Gordon on camel, now at 
Chatham ; the Shelley Memorial, University College, Oxford ; the 
equestrian statue of Lord Strathnairn, Knightsbridge, London ; 
Sir James Gordon, Mysore, India; Sir William Pearse, Glasgow; 
D' Dale, Birmingham. One of his latest works is a bust of Jacob 
Bright Esq. M.P., exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1899. 

In 1893, this artist sent in several designs, at the invitation of 
the committee presiding over a new issue of the coins of the 
realm. Mr. Lewis F. Day, the eminent art-critic, says : "It will be 
seen from his designs that Mr. Onslow Ford goes nearest to 
meeting the demands of reaUsm, especially in his uncrowned head, 
which more than most suggests a study from life. " 

— 124 — 

In a recent article on this artist in the Magazine of Art, we 
read : 

" The most remarkable thing to be said about Onslow Ford is 
that he is a purely British product. He is perhaps the only great 
Anglo-Saxon sculptor who has ever hammered his knowledge all 
out for himself, owing nothing whatever to Continental influence 

Obv. of Half-Crown. I^. of Half-Cro\ 

I^. of Shilling. 

I^. of Half-Crown. 

^L. of Sixpence. 


or schooling. Until two or three years ago he had not even 
paid a visit to Italy, the country that is the cradle of most sculptors 
and the Mecca of all. In the course of a life-time he has made a 
few brief visits to Paris, but has never studied there. When a lad 
his mother gave him a number of months in Antwerp and Munich 
where he took some drawing lessons. At that time they had no 
idea that he would ever become a sculptor. His time of study was 

— 123 — 

short and at an early age he found himself face to face with the 
problem of earning a living in London. " 

The talented young medallist, Mr. Frank Bowcher, was a pupil 
ofE. O. Ford. 

" At Burlington House this year (1901) Mr. Ford exhibited a 
nude figure, very modern in feeling, designed to honour those 
who have fallen in South Africa, and called it " Glory to the Dead ". 

There is no need to enumerate the many portrait busts 
that grew year by year under the sculptor's busy hand, nor to 
discuss at length his imaginative works. The series of studies in 
girlish forms, which began with the " Folly", now in theChantrey 
Bequest Collection, and to which he turned from time to time, 
includes much work that is of a very delicate and poetic charm, and 
some that is curiously lacking in these qualities. His aim was to 
blend the decorative and the realistic. When it was achieved the 
result was bound to give pleasure, for Mr. Ford had a keen sense ot 
beauty and a temperament that impelled him always to strive after 
the beautiful. It was this more than any great originality or power 
in his work that brought it into high favour. M. Ford was elected 
A.R.A. in 1888 and R.A. in 1895. He leaves a widow and a 
family. Two of his sons have already made some mark as artists and 
have had their work exhibited at Burlington House and elsewhere. " 

Bibliography. — Lewis F. Day, The Coin oj the Realm, Magazine of Art, 
1895, and Numismatic Circular, March, 1898. 

FORESTIER, DENIS LE {French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Rouen, betore 1527. 

Bibliography. - A. Barre, Graveurs parliculUrs des tnoniiaies de France, 1867. 

FORFELIER {French). Die-sinker of the second quarter of the 
nineteenth century. In 1833 he engraved a medal for the " Asso- 
ciation de la Jeune France", in imitation of Dupre's coins, with 
Genius on j^. 

FORGEAIS. B. {French). Die-sinker at Paris, circa 1848. He engrav- 
ed a medal on the Vote of the 1848 Constitution; it bears inscrip- 
tions only, on both sides, and is signed B.F. 

Bibliography. — De Saulcy, Souvenirs numismatiques de la Revolution de 1848, 

FORGEOT, CLAUDE-ERNEST {French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Moule (Saone-et-Loire) ; pupil of Rude. He is the author 
of a number of Portrait-medallions ; the only one given by Chavi- 
gnerie is that of M.P.F*** executed in 1877. 

FORME, PIERRE DE {French). Mint-engraver at Troyes, circa 1342. 
Bibliography. — Rondot, op. cit. 

'— 126 — 

Nuremberg artist who flourished between 1529 and 1556. He was 
a modeller, and engraved Coin-dies at the Mint of Nuremberg, 
1535-1542. His death took place on the 7*^ May, 1556. 

Bibliography. — Ammon, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Schlickeysen- 
Pallmann, op. cit. 

FORNENBERGK, JOHANN VON {Germ.). Coin-engraver to Land- 
grave Charles of Hesse, circa 1682. His signature I.V.F. appears on 
some of the currency. 

Bibliography. — J. -A. Blanchet, Nouveau manuel de mimisniatique du moyen 
age et moderne, tome II, Paris, 1890. 

FORSTER, JOHANN MARTIN (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 
circa 17 5 5-1 774. He was still living in 1778. The coins issued by 
him bear his signature F, or M.F. 

Bibliography. — Ammon, op. cit., p. 98, n" 251. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, 
op. cit. 

FORSTER, FRANQOIS ( Swiss). Copper-plate Engraver, born at Le 
Locle in 1790, died in Paris, in 1892. He was apprenticed to an 
Engraver of watch cases, but earned his reputation as a Copper- 
plate Engraver. How much he contributed to Medallic art it is diffi- 
cult to establish, but he no doubt exercised an influence in this 
direction also. 

Bibliography. — Mttse'e muchdlelois, 1873. 

FORTINI, GIOVACCHINO (Ital.). Florentine Sculptor and Medallist 
of the beginning of the eighteenth century. This artist engraved a 
series of Portrait-medals of the Grand Ducal family of Florence. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, of), cit. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FORTISCH, MARCUS DOMINICUS (Germ.). Warden at the Mint of 
Breslau, 1723-9. 

FORTUNE, MfiDAILLEUR A LA (Ital.). Medallist named thus from 
his having used the figure of Fortune holding an inflated veil over 
her head for the reverse type of his medals. One of these is dated 
1495, so that the period of activity of this anonymous artist must 
be placed at the latter end of the fifteenth century and perhaps also 
beginning of the sixteenth. 

The following seven medals are given to him by Armand : 
Lorenzo Cigliamochi, 1495; — Ludovico Lucio of Sienna; — 
Gianozzo Salviati, a Florentine; — Alessandro Vecchietti (obv. 
illustrated); — Unknown, Personage, obv, VOLGLGLIOCHL 
PIATOSI . AI . MIE . LAMENTI . Bust to left of youn^ man bearded, 
wearing biretta, hair long. ^L. POCHE. FORT VNA. VOLE. 

CHECOSI.ISTENSI. Fortune, &c. ; — Francesco Barbolano 
and Giuliano Danielo Nicolai. 

Alessandro Vecchietti, by ^the Medallist known as " M6dailleur k la Fortune". 

On the medal of Lorenzo Cigliamochi appear the letters L.C.M. 
on the I^, ; according to M. Milanesi they are the initials of the 
medallist who probably was Lorenzo Cigliamochi himself, and it is 
not at all unlikely that he is also the author of the six other medals 
with similar reverse. 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cit. — Heiss, Les Medailleurs de la Renaissance, 
Florence, vol. 1, XIV. — I . B. Supino, op. cit. 


FOSCARINI, GIACOMO (Jtal.). Mint-inspector at Venice, 1788-89. 

FOSCARINI, GIROLAMO (ItaL). Mint-inspector at Venice, circa 

FOSCARINI, MARCHIO (ItaL). Mint-master at Venice, circa 1764. 

FOSCARINI, LEONARDO ALOYSIO (Ital.). Mint-inspector at Venice, 

FOSCOLO, ZORZI (Jtal.). Mint-inspector at Venice, 1734-5. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. ctt. 

— 128 — 

fOSSANO, FRANCESCO BERNARDINO {Ital.). Mint-master at Milan, 
in conjunction withlppolitoBonsignore, 8'*' March to a""* July, 1605, 
and alone, from the 31''' July 1613 to 21"' of January, 1614. 

Bibliography. — Gnecchl, Le Monde di Milano, 1884. 

FOSSfi, ATHANASE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Allouville (Somme) ; pupil of Cavelier. He is the author of a 
number of Portrait-medaUions, one of which, that ofM"^ S*** was 
exhibited at the Salon of 1879. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FOUQUET, £MILE FRANCOIS (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Paris on the 13*'' of June, 18 17. He was a pupil of Foyatier. 
This artist produced a number of medallions in wax, clay, and 
bronze, one of which was exhibited at the Salon of 1879. He also 
appears to have engraved medal-dies. 

Marvin describes a masonic medal, or rather an octagonal jeton, 
of the Lodge of the Union of the Family, at Paris, bearing this 
engraver's signature. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Marvin, Masonic Medals, 
Boston, 1888. 

FOULIS, THOMAS (Scotch). Goldsmith and Die-sinker, who was 
employed on the Scottish coinage, at the end of the sixteenth and 
beginning of the seventeenth centuries. Burns informs us that "on 
the 2"'' August 1598, the profits and casualties ol the mint (Edinburgh) 
were let for six years to Thomas Foulis, goldsmith, and Robert 
Jowsie, merchant, burgesses of Edinburgh, at an annual rent ot 
€ 5000 or 7500 merks. The coinage of ten-shilling pieces and 
their parts, and ot the corresponding gold money, which, on the 
expiry of the tack of the Burgh of Edinburgh, had been suspended, 
was now resumed, in the value, weight, and fineness as before". 
But as early as 1 591, we hear of Foulis being employed in the 
capacity of coin-engraver at the same Mint. " By the Act of privy 
council, of the 8"' of March 159 1-2, Thomas FouUis, goldsmith to 
his Majesty, and sinker of the irons at the cunyehouse, was com- 
missioned to contract with sir William Bowes of London or others, 
for the reducing of all the base and the alloyed money, the pennies 
and two penny placks alone excepted. Two thousand four hundred 
stones of base money were to be reduced ; for the reduction and 
refining of which, on every twelve ounces, Thomas Foullis was to 
pay " aucht pennyis Stirling, or sax shillingis Scottis money, 
" thus giving at this time the value of English money as exactly 
nine times that of Scottish money. " 

The dies of the Thistle Noble (1588) of James VL were engrav- 

— 129 — 

ed by him, as also those of the Forty-shilling piece of 1582, the 
portrait of the King being drawn by Lord Seyton's painter. 

In 1605, Thomas Foulis is once more mentioned in contempo- 
rary documents as " Sinker of His Majesties Irines ", 

Bibliography. — Burns, The Coinage of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1887. — H. A. 
Grueber, Handbook of the Coins of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 1899. 

Medallist, born on the 29''' of August 187 1, at Plan (canton de 
Cazeres, Haute-Garonne) ; studied first at Toulouse under the 
sculptor A. Belon ; entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts of that city, 
and worked under A. Fabre, A. Laporte and H. Maurette ; obtained 
fifteen prizes and a mention at the Toulouse School of Fine Arts ; 

a diploma of honour at the International Exhibition of Toulouse 
in 1895 ; a silver medal at the International Exhibition of Bordeaux 
in 1895 ; an" honorable Mention "at the Salon des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 
1899 ; competed twice in sculpture and medal-engraving for the Prix 
de Rome, and gained several prizes at the National School of 
Fine Arts. At Paris, the artist studied under G. J. Thomas, 
H. Dubois and H. L. Marqueste ; he is now an Officierd' Academic. 
M. Fourcade's principal works are : Bas-relief representing " The 
Defence of the Flag", which belongs to the 126''' Infantry Regiment; 

— Bas-relief representing "The Presidential Election of M. Casi- 
mir-Perier, 27 June 1894", belonging to the Ministry of Fine Arts; 

— Bas-relief representing "The Death of Duranti, 11''' February 
1589", acquired by the Direction des Beaux- Arts and presented 
by the State to the Palace of Justice of Toulouse ; — Historical 
panel, "The Parliament of Toulouse in 1444, the Court of Appeal 

L. FoRilER. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — II. J 

• — 130 — 

in 18 ro, and the Court of Appeal in 1896, " the property of the 
Toulouse Court of Appeal; — Historical panel, "The 17*'' Arm\'' 
Corps in 1896," portraits of Generals, belonging to the Military 
School of S' Cyr ; — Bust of Gambetta, and Statue of Agrippina, 
acquired by the Government of French Indo-China ; — Bas-relief 
in bronze, " Visit of President Carnot to Toulouse, " belonging to 
the Department of H'*' Garonne; — Two large Cabinets of French 
Southern Types, one the property of the Tunis Museum and the 
other of the Imperial Museum at S' Petersburg; — Panel represent- 
ing Types of Toulouse, owned by Sir Geo. Faudel Phillips, 

Study of a French Southern Type. 

ex Lord Mayor of London ; — Medal executed for the Central 
Syndicate of French agriculturists, and exhibited at the Universal 
Exhibition of 1900; — Bas-relief in bronze representing "Louis 
Defies composing the " Toulousaine" , acquired by the city of Tou- 
louse (illustrated) ; — Various busts of PoHticians andMiUtary and 
Artistic Celebrities. 

At the Salon of 1901, he has exhibited a Panel representing : 
Farmers; — Defence of the Flag; — Orientals; — Christ dying; 

— Deffes composing tlie Toulousaine; — Young girl with cat; — 
Portrait of M. A. Mercie ; — Portrait of M. Benjamin-Constant; 

— Portrait of M. A. Idrac ; — Portrait of M P. Pujol ; — Portraits 

— 131 — 

Dettes composing the " Toulousaine". 

of M""= Goudouli; — MM. Thillet; — Clausade; — Sarraut; — 
Magre ; — Joube; — Old Woman, and various studies. 
Bibliography. — Information kindly furnished by the artist. 

FOURDRIN, ADRIEN (French). Sculptor of the middle of the 
nineteenth century. At the Salon of 1850, he exhibited a bronze 
medallion, a Study of a head with flowers. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

— 132 — 

FOURNAUX, AUGUSTE (French). Medallist and Gem-engraver ot 
the second half of the nineteenth century. The following works by 
him are recorded in Chavignerie et Auvray : 1865, Portrait of 
M. H***, agate-onyx; — 1879, Cameo-portrait of Henry IV., after 
a medal by Dupre (1606); — Lyric Poetry, agate-onyx cameo; — 
Minerva, agate-onyx cameo ; — Roman Priest, cameo cut on a 
Brazilian agate. 

Fournaux was a pupil of Galbrunner. 

FOURNIER, LOUIS (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
S^ Donat (Drome). He is the author of some fine Portrait-medal 
lions: 1867, M. Omer-la-Croix, General secretary of the Grande 
Aumonerie de France, and other notable personages of the Second 
Empire. He also engraved the following medals : Federal officers' 
Fete, 1822 (2 var.); J. L. Bovy, 1821 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cil. 

FOURNIER-SARLONtlVE, M^e M. (French). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Paris, in 1843. Pupil of M. Mathieu-Meusnier. Chavignerie 
records a Portrait-medallion of xM.A.F.S**, executed by her and 
exhibited at the Salon of i868. 

FOURON, PIERRE or DE FORON (French). Mint-master at Pau, 
Bibliography. — Blanche:, Histoire monetaire du Beam, Paris, 1893. 

FOVET, JEAN (French). Seal-engraver to the Duke of Burgundy, 
Phihppe le Hardi, circa 1360. We possess records of 21 large and 
23 small seals, executed by him for various bailliwicks of the 
County of Burgundy, and note that he was paid 100 francs for his 

Bibliography. — Lecoy dela Marche, Les Sceaiix, Paris, 1889. 

FOVILLE, A. DL(French). Director of the Paris Mint for a number 
of years prior to 1900. He was one of the strongest supporters and 
patrons of the present Renaissance of French medallic art. 

FOX, EDWARD (Brit.). Mint-master at Dublin, under James II. 

FOX, DANIEL M. (Amer.). Superintendent of the United States 
Mint, 1869-1889; f March, 1890. 

Bibliography. — Illustrated History of the United States Mint, 1893. 

FOY, B. (French). Contemporary Jeweller and Medallist, some of 
whose fine works are described in Revue des Arts decoratifs, January 

F. P. Fide FRANCESCO PISANI. Rector of Cattaro, 1548-9. 

— 133 — 

Medallist of Parma, who worked at Rome, 1 549-1 589, and cut 
the celebrated S' Bartholomew Massacre medal, in 1572. 

F. P. r?V/^ FRANCESCO DAL PRATO. Roman Die-sinker, f 1562. 

F. P. Fide FRANCESCO PASQUALIGO. Mint-inspector at Venice, 

F. P. r/Jf FRANCESCO PUTINATI. Milanese Medallist, 1775-1843. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

F. R. Vide FRANCHINI and RIVAROLA. Mint-masters at Ferrara, 

F. R. TzV/^ FRIEDRICH RITTER. Mint-master at Brunswick, 1800- 
1814, and Director of the Mint, 1814-1820. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FR., SA. or F., S. (Genu.). Medallist of the end of the sixteenth 
century. Two medals bear the signature SF on ^. : 1591, Christoph 
Silbereisen, Abbot of Wettingen in Switzerland; and, 1593 Hugo 
Blotius, Imperial librarian at Vienna. The last had the full signature 
onobv., of which only S' FR... are now legible. Erman believes 
the artist to have been a Viennese. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884. 

FRA. AN. BRIX. Vide ANTONIO DA BRESCIA supra, p. 27. 

FRAGNY, LORENZO usually known as LORENZO PARMENSE (Ital.). 
Parmesan Goldsmith, Medallist, Gem and Coin-engraver; employed 
at the Papal Mint of Rome, in the accounts of which he is men- 
tioned in 1572, 1576, and 1586; was still living in 1618. Armand, 
Blanchet, and other biographers, say he distinguished himself in 
imitating ancient coins. 

The following medals, mostly signed LAV. P., or L.P., are by 
this artist : Cristoforo Madruzzo, Cardinal, 1 542-1 578; — Greg- 
ory XIII., obv.— LP. 
Bust of the Pope to 1.; a) ^. DOMVS . MEA . &c . The Lord driv- 
ing the dealers out of the Temple ; F) 1^. No legend. Female 
seated near altar; r) ^L. RESTAVRAVIT TIBER. Bridge over the 
Tiber surmounted bv statue of Madonna ; — d) ^L. ET PORTAE. 
CCELI.APERTAE.SVNT. The Holy Jubilee Gate;— D°, Obv. Simi- 
lar with AN. in. 1^. Bridge over the Tiber, as last; — Obv. GRE- 
P. Bust of Pope to 1., wearing tiara. ^L. VIRGO. TVA. GLORIA. 
PARTVS Madonna and Child; — Obv. GREGORIVS-XUI.&c. 

— 134 — 

ROMA. Angel blowing trumpet before the Holy Gate; b) Christ 
driving the dealers out of the Temple; — Obv. GREGORIVS. 
ROMA. Helmeted female figure seated on arms; — Obv. GRE- 
GORIVS. XIII. PONTIFEX. MAX. A. 1577. LAV. P. ^L. As last; 

— Obv. Similar, of 1578. ^L. PROVIDENTIA CHRISTI. Female 
figure holding spear and rudder; — Obv. Similar of 1583; a) 
^. TVTVM REGIMEN. ROMA. Female seated on arms; — b) 
preaching at Athens; — c) ^L. SECVRITAS.POPVLI.ROMANI. 
Female seated, holding spear; — d) ^L. ANNO.IOBILAEO. 
MDLV— PETRO . APOST . PRINC . Facade of S« Peter's Cathedral ; 

— e) ^L. VERVS.DEI.CVLTVS.S.ROM.AC. Religion holding 
keys; — f) ^L. PROVIDENTIA CHRISTI. Providence;—;^) 
^. ANNONA.PONT. Abundance; — Obv. GREGORIVS. XIII. 
PONTIFEX. MAXIMVS. LAV. PARM. Bust of Pope to 1., head 
bare a) ^.. VIATORVM . SALVTI . ANN . DNI . MDLXXX . 
PELIA. Bridge over the Paglia; — b) ^. SECVRITAS.POPVLI. 
ROMANI. Security seated ; ~ c) ^. SVPER . HANC . PETRAM . 
ROMA . Facade of S' Peter's ;—d)^L. APER VIT . ET . CL AVSIT . 
ANNO. MDLXXV. ROMA. The Holv Jubilee Gate; — ^• 
preaching at Athens; —Obv. GREGORIVS. XIII PONT. OPT. 
LXXII. Ram's head within circle formed by a snake biting his tail; 

1582. Facade of the Church of S' Gregory of Nazianza ; — c) ^L. 
el of the same church ; — Obv. Similar, with some differences in 
the ornaments a) ^L. SVPER. HANC. PETRAM ROMA. Facade 
ofS' Peter's; — b) ^L. AB.REGIBVS.IAPONIOR. PRIMA. AD. 
Sixtus V, 1585-1590. Obv. SIXTVS.V.PONT.OPT.MAX.L. 
PAR. Bust ot Pope to r. a) ^L. NE.DETERIVS. VOBIS.CON- 
TINGAT. Christ addressing a kneeling crowd ; b) I^. BEATI 
QVI.CVSTODIVNT.VIAS.MEAS. Bust of Christ; — c) ^L. 
TVTVM. REGIMEN. ROM A. Helmeted female figure seated on 
arms; beside her, a dragon; — d) ^L. SECVRITAS.POPVLI. 
ROMANI. ALMA. ROMA. Female seated holding spear surmount- 
ed with fleur de lys; — e) ^L. Similar, without ALMA ROMA. 

The Germanisches Museum at Nuremberg acquired at the Sale 
(Raritaten-Cabinet, IV) of MM, L & LL. Hamburger (April 1900) a 
medal of Cardinal Otto Truchsen von Waldburg (illustrated) signed 
L. P. This specimen realized 430 Marks. 

— 135 — 

Lorenzo Parmigiano probably engraved the dies for some of the 
coins of Gregory XIIT., but it might be difficult to prove which 
were executed by him and which by Federigo Parmense and other 
artists, who also worked aj Rome for the same pontiff. We how- 

Medal of Cardinal Otto Truchsen von Walburg. 

ever may take it for certain that the portrait of Gregory XIII. 
on his testoni was cut by this clever artist, who also seems to have 
been a gem-engraver, according to some of the best authorities. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Armand, op. cit. — J.-B. Supino, op. 
cit. — Bertolotti, Artisti Lomhardi & Artisti vene^iani. 

FRAGONARD, JEAN H0N0R£ or NICOLAS {French). Painter of the 
second half of the eighteenth century; he was born at Grassein 1732, 
and died at Paris on the 22"*^ of August, 1806. He was a pupil of 
Boucher, Chardin, &c. Thome says that his pictures are singularly 
characteristic of Parisian society, immediately preceding the revo- 
lution of 1789, and adds : "On his return to Paris, Fragonard 
painted historical subjects ; his large picture, ' Coresus and 
Callirhoe ', excited great admiration, and secured his admission to 
the Academy. But yielding to the fascinations ot society, he took to- 
painting small pictures of bacchanalian and erotic subjects and con- 
versation pieces, which he painted in a light, facile, meretricious 
manner, but with a piquant, refined, and courtly air, wiiich charm- 
ed the brilliant circles of the Parisian salons, and which led to 
their immediate multiplication by the burin. " 

M. J. J. Guiffrey has found the record of several payments made 
to the artist tor designs ot medals engraved at the Paris Medal 

Bibliography. — Revue numismatique, 1886, p. 92. — Imperial Dictionary of 


F^AlKlfi (Belg.). Die-sinker at Brussels, circa 1850-1860. There 
is a medal by him of King Leopold I. of Belgium. 
Bibliography. — Revue de la numismatique beige, 1852, p. 452. 

- 136 - 

FRAMPTON, GEORGE J., A. R. A. (5n7.)- Sculptor, born in i860; 
pupil of the sculptor Frith of Lambeth, and Professor Brown. "In 
1882, says Victor G. Parr (Men and Women of the Time, London, 
1899, p. 384)" Frampton joined the Academy schools, where he 
won prize after prize until 1887, when be went out with the Gold 
medal and i, 200. He was thus enabled to proceed to Paris, where 
he studied sculpture under Dagnan-Bouveret and Mercie. In the 
Salon of 1889 he exhibited his first successful work, the " Ange 
de la Mort ", for which he obtained a medal. Other well-known 
works of his are " The Captive ", and St. Christina ". He has 
been a frequent exhibitor at the Royal Academy. In 1895 he exhibit- 
ed "Mother and Child", a group in bronze, " Music and Danc- 
ing"; low-relief panels in silver; and the "Gold medal tor Glas- 
gow University "; in 1896, a panel for a door, the subject of 
which was " Seven Heroines out of La Mort d'Arthur" ; in 1897 a 
Portrait-medallion in bronze of the late Charles Keene, and a statue 
in bronze and marble of Dame Alice Owen for Owen's School ; in 
1898 a bronze memorial, an enamel, and a bronze bust of John 
Passmore Edwards, Esq., for the Leighton Memorial Museum and 
School at Camberwell. He has done much fine decorative work, 
notably the Terra-cottas in the Constitutional Club. He was made 
A.R.A. in 1896". 

In 1899 this artist exhibited a low-relief panel " Charity" and a 
statue "St. George". His Winchester Quincentenary medal, exe- 
cuted in 1893, is a fairly good piece of work, and also, his gold 
Medal for Glasgow University, 1895. 

In vol. XXI, p. 260, of The Studio, a medal by Frampton is illus- 
trated commemorating the Raising of the City Imperial Volunteers ; 
this medal which was designed and executed for the Corporation 
of the City of London was exhibited in 1901 at the Royal Academy 
with a seal for the Queen Victoria Clergy Fund. 

BiBUOGRAPHY. — Victor G. Parr, op. cii. — The Studio, 1899. 

FRANCE {French). 1528-1529. Coin-engraver " tailheur de 
monoy, graveur", at the Mint of Lyons, from 1528-1529. Accord- 
ing to documents brought to light by M. Rondot, France is prob- 
ably the same as Maitre Fernin or Maitre Fernin le Doyen. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les Graveur s des Monnaies a Lyon du XIII^ 
au XVIlh siecle, Macon, 1897. 

FRANCE, JACQUES {French). Contemporary Medallist. His signa- 
ture appears on a medalet commemorating the Fete of the 14*'' July, 
1882. The head of Liberty is very artistic and well modelled. 

FRANCHI, AGGOSTINO {ltd.). Die-sinker of Venice, first half of 
the eighteenth century. His best known works are two Portrait- 

— 137 — 

medals of the Venetian senator, Flaminio Cornaro, 
Angelo Qiiirini, Cardinal and Italian numismatist. 
Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

1750, and 

FRANCHINI, NICOLO (Jial). Mint-master at Ferrara, 1621. His 
initials N. F. appear on some of the Papal coins of Ferrara, issued 
under Pope Gregory XV. 

Bibliography. — Cinagli, Le Monele dei Papi, Rome, 1848. 

FRANCIA, ANGELO (French). Sculptor, born at Rodez (Aveyron) 
in r833.. He executed a number of Portrait-medallions, three of 
which are mentioned by Chavignerie et Auvray, Dictionnaire des 
artistes frangais : S. 1868, M. Darolle; — S. 1869, M. A. Domalain ; 
— S. 1880, M. Aur^lien Scholl, &c. These medallions are in 
plaster of Paris. 

FRANCIA (Ilal.). One of the leading artists of the Italian 
Renaissance, whose correct name is FRANCESCO RAIBOLINI. 

Fra.ncesco Raibolini 

He was born at Bologna, according to Vasari, in 1450, and died 
there on the 5*'' of January, 15 17. His father, Marco Raibolini, is 
described as an artisan. Young Francesco was first apprenticed as 
a goldsmith to a certain Francia whose name he is said to have 
adopted from gratitude. He studied design under Marco Zoppo and 

- 138 - 

became a pupil ot the celebrated Caradosso, who taught him 

Francia distinguished himself in various branches of art. "In 
him", says a recent writer ', "Bologna was tor the first time to have 
an artist of the highest order, and who would take his place 
among the best Florentines of the day, rivalUng even Perugino's 
genius, and winning the praise of Raphael ; an artist not indeed of 
great inventive faculty or wide range of powers, but w^ho, in pure 
and tender feeling, in elevation of aim and thought, in the expres- 
sion of the deepest religious emotion, was to find few equals in the 
history of art. " 

Felice Italia che in se chiude 

Si sublime ingegno e si bella effigie 

Che fanno al cielo e a natura guerra. 

Thus reads the great artist's epitaph as a testimony of the high 
esteem his contemporaries had tor him. 

Francia was several times elected Steward of the Goldsmiths' 
Guild, and for a number of years he filled the Post ot Master of the 
Zecca or Mint of Bologna, under the Bentivogli and Pope Julius II. 

Vasari states that " the work in which Francia delighted above all 
else and in which he was indeed excellent, was in cutting dies for 
medals ; in this he was highly distinguished and his works are most 
admirable, as may be judged from some on which is the head of 
Pope Julius II., so life-like that these medals will bear comparison 
with those of Caradosso. He also struck medals of Signor Giovanni 
Bentivoglio, which seem to be alive; and of a vast number ot 
princes who, passing through Bologna, made a certain delay, when 
he took their portrait in wax, and afterwards, having finished the 
matrices of the dies, he despatched these to their destination, 
whereby he obtained not only the immortality of fame, but like- 
wise very handsome presents. " 

Vasari's affirms that the whole of the dies for the coinage of the 
Bentivogh were prepared by Raibolini, and also the money struck 
there for Pope Julius II., mentioning as an instance the gold zec- 
chini and silver bolognini thrown to the crowd on the occasion of 
thePope's entry into Bologna in 1 506, with the legends : BON(ONIA). 
P(ER). JUL(IVM). A.TIR ANO.LIBERAT(A) and figure of St. Peter; 
but these statements must be dismissed as erronesus, for D' Luigi 
Frati, Keeper of the Public Museum at Bologna, has established, on 
irrefutable authority, that these special coins were not Francia's work. 
Notwithstanding, a specimen which was sold at Frankfort-on- 
Main in January 1902, for 63 Marks, from the celebrated Gnecchi 
Collection, was still ascribed to Francia by the compilers of the 

I. C. G. Williamson, Francia, London, 1901. 

— 139 — 

What remains certain is that Francia cut coin-dies for Gio- 
vanni II. Bentivoglio and Pope JuHus II., perhaps also for Pope 
Leo X. of whom he executed medals too. By a decision of the 
Bolognese Senate, the artist was appointed on November 19, 1508, 
Director ot the Mint (no doubt only confirmed in the office he had 
held previously under the Bentivogli), and was given the entire 
charge of the provision of money for the city. 

In all probabihty the following coins of Antignate and medals 
were ihe work of the artist : AI. Doppio Zecchino. Obv. lOANNES 
voglio to r., wearing close fitting biretta. I^. MAXIMILIANI. 
IMPERA.MVNVS Arms; helmet and imperial eagle above (illus- 

Double Zecchino of Bologna, by Francia. 

trated) ; — J^. Testone of similar type; — Al. Zecchino, of simi- 
lar type, but with BONONIEN. on obv. and MAXIMILIANI 
MVNVS on 1^. {illustrated) ; — ^R. Thick Doppio Testone. 

Zecchino of Bologna, by Francia. 

MCCCCLXXXXIIII. Weight : 19,5 grammes (the Gnecchi specimen 
realized 455 Marks); — J^. Testone, a variety withlOANNES. 
BENTIVOLVS.BONONIENSIS (without the II); — .R. Mezzo 
Testone. Similar type, with MVNS on 1^. ; — JR.. Quarto Tes- 

— 140 — 

1494- Obv. lOANNI BEKTIVOLO Shield of arms. ^L. CON- 
CESSIO MAXIMILIANI. Crowned imperial ea^le; — JE. 1489. 
Giovanni II. wearing biretta, hair long, cuirassed. I^. MA — 
in six hnes; — JE. 1494. Obv. Similar, j^. MAXIMILIANI— 
Billon. Denaro piccolo. Obv. lOANNI BENTIVO. Arms. ^L. S. 
10. . . . S. EVANGEL. Half-length portrait of the Saint. — Litta 
has reproduced eighteen coins of Giovanni II. Bentivoglio, said to 
have all been engraved by Francia and proceeding from the main 
types described above. 

To Francia, the following coins of Popes Julius 11. and Leo X. 
have been attributed : JULIUS. II., 1503-15 13. N. Zecchino. 
Obv. IVLIVS . II . PONTIFEX . M AXIM\'S . Bust to r . I^. S . P . BO- 
NONIA.DOCET. St. Petronius seated, facing; below, the arms of 
the Papal Legate, Francesco Alidosi ; — JK. Giulio, similar type, 
but arms of Bologna under the Saint's figure on I^. ; — JB^. Testone. 
Obv. Same legend and similar bust. I^. BONONIA . DOCET . 
St. Petronius, as before; below, the arms of Bologna and Alidosi. 
— LEOX., 1513-1521. ^.Testone. Obv. LEO. X. PONTIFEX. 
MAXIMVS. Bust to r. of the Pope, head bare. I^. BONONIA. 
MATER . ST VDIORVM . Lion rampant holding standard and the 
Medici arms. 

Of the numerous medals said to have been executed by Francia, 
Armand and other writers agree as to the following being his 
work : Julius II, size 40 mill., obv. IVLIVS. II. LIGVR. P.M. 
Beardless bust of the Pope to r., head bare. ^L. CONTRA STI- 
MVLVM.NE.CALCITRES. Representation of St. Paul, on the 
road to Damascus, being suddenly struck with blindness (N. and 
JB^.)i varieties are known with IVLIVS. II. (illustrated) . Mr. Keary 

Medal of Julius II., by Francia. 

has pointed out that the portraits of the Pope on the coins and 
medals by Francia are " curiously unlike those by Raphael in the 

— 141 — 

Stanze of the Vatican and Pitti Palace, and that the difference 
does not lie only in the presence of a beard in the later portraits 
by Raphael". This may be explained by the fact that the medals 
were struck between 1505 and 1306 and the portraits painted after 
15 1 1. — Four medals of Julius II. are attributed to Francia, 
besides the two described above, but competent authorities do not 
include them in their lists, except one ot similar obverse, but with 
VATICANVS M. and facade of St. Peter's on ^L. Armand calls 
this reverse a reduction from that of Caradosso's medal of the same 
Pope, and does not think it improbable that the Milanese engraver 
executed both obv. and I^. of this piece. 

D' Julius Friedlander and Armand ascribe to Francia the fine 
medals of Girdinal Alidosi, Bernardo Rossi, Governor of Bologna, 
Ulysses Musotti, and Tommaso Ruggieri : Francesco Alidosi, 
Legate of the City of Bologna. Obv. FR. ALIDOXIVS.CAR.PA- 
nal in biretta and mozette. 1^. HIS.AVIBVS CVRRVQ.. CITO . 
DVCERIS. AD. ASTRA. Jupiter in chariot drawn by two eagles. 
Size : 62 mill, (illustrated). Bernardo Rossi, Count of Berceto, 
Governor of Bologna, in 15 19. Obv. BER.RV.CO.B.EPS. 
TAR.LE.BO.VIC.GV.ET PRAE. Bust in biretta and mozette. 
standing in chariot drawn by eagle and dragon. Size : 66 mill. 
" Both these medals", observes Mr. G. C. Williamson, the latest 
biographer ot Francia, " are powerfully drawn and in very high 
relief. The faces are clear cut, and very full of character, and the 
lettering is big and clear, and they have the special marks of Raibo- 
lini's lettering and classic style of draughtmanship ". Ulysses 
Musotti, a Bolognese lawyer, 1508-15 15. Obv. VLIXES.MVSO- 
TVS . I . D . ANT . FILI VS . Bust to 1., wearing skull cap, hair long. 
ET.VIDVE.FVIT.ADIVTOR. Inkstand, books, globe, torch, &c. 
Size : 68 mill. Tommaso Ruggieri, 15 12-15 21. Obv. RVGERIVS. 
MAE. Type as last. Size : 72 mill. 

Besides these, D"" Jul. Friedlander gives to Francia the following 
pieces, but as his attributions are entirely conjectural, I shall not 
describe them : Marriage of Maximilian I. and Bianca Maria Sforza, 
1494; — Giovanni II. Bentivoglio. ^L. H ANNIBALIS . FI . R . P . 
BONON— PRINCEPS. Arms of the Bentivoglio; — JK. Testone 
of Duke of Ercole of Ferrara, ^L. Hydra of Lerna; — Another, 
B/L. Samson holding lion's head about which hovers a swarm of bees; 
— Another I^. Nude figure on horseback ; — ^R. Testone of Alfonso, 
Duke of Ferrara ^L. The Flight into Egypt; — vR. Testone of 
Julius II. I^. Justice and Vulcan ; — Another ^L. TVTELAShep- 

— 142 — 

herd seated on rock and feeding his floclc; — Loais II., Marquis 
of Saluzzo. ifl.. Testone. ^L. S' Constantius on horseback to r. ; — 
Giovanni Sforza, Lord of Pesaro, JE coin. 

Medal of Cardinal Alidosi, by Francia. 

Mr G. C. Williamson in his nomenclature of Francia's medallic 
productions gives other medals of Julius 11., and Clement VII., but 
it is evident that he has not consulted either Armand, Friedlander, 
nor any of the more competent contemporary writers on this par- 
ticular subject. 

— 143 - 

Francia worked also as a Gem-engraver, and Mr. G. C. William- 
son remarks : ''Fine as Raibolini's medals are, it was not as a 
medallist that he did his best work in these goldsmith days, but as 
a worker in niello " and he adds some interesting information on 
the art, which is worth quoting in extenso : " Niello work, which 
must not be confused with enamel, was a method of producing 
delicate anH minute decoration upon a polished metal surface by 
incised lines, filled in with a black metallic amalgam, the black 
substance differing from true enamel in being metallic and not 
vitreous. In the sixteenth century it was in great vogue, and is 
often mentioned by Vasari, notably in what he has to say as to 
Cellini and Maso Finiguerra. — According to Theophilus, a monk 
who wrote in the twelfth or thirteenth century (" Div. Art. Sch. 
Hendric", edit. 1847), the process was as follows : The design was 
cut with a sharp tool on the metal. An alloy was formed of two 
parts silver, one-third copper, and one-sixth lead. While still in the 
fluid state in the crucible a quantity of sulphur was added, and 
when cold, the brittle amalgam, was pounded fine and sealed up in 
large quills for use. A solution of borax to act nsa flux having been 
brushed over the metal plate and thoroughly worked into its incis- 
ed lines, the powdered amalgam was shaken on to the plate so 
as to completely cover the engraved design. The plate was then 
carefully heated over a charcoal fire, fresh amalgam being added, as 
the powder fused, upon any defective places. When the powder 
had become thoroughly liquid so as to fill up all the lines, the 
plate was allow^ed to cool, and the whole surface was scraped so 
as to remove the superfluous niello, leaving only what had sunk 
into and filled up the engraved pattern. Last of all the nielloed plate 
was very highly polished till it presented the appearance of a 
smooth metal surface enriched with a delicate design in fine gray- 
black fines. The contrast was very vivid between the whiteness of the 
silver and the darkness of the niello, and as the slightest scratch upon 
the metal received the niello and became a distinct black line, orna- 
ment of the most minute and refined description could easily be 
produced. There is much ot this work to be seen in Italy, espe- 
cially in vessels and ornaments intended for ecclesiastical use, and 
RaiboHni became well known for the beauty of the nielli that he 
produced. The art had been known since the days of the Romans, 
and many great artists, as Brunelleschi, Pollajuolo, Cellini, and 
Caradosso, as well as Raibolini practised it with success". Two 
of Francia's nielli are preserved in the rooms of the Secretary of the 
Academy of Fine Arts, Bologna ; they have been reproduced by 
Vallardi of Milan in the Manualedi Calcografica. 

D' Friedlander expresses the following opinion on Francia's style 
in medallic art : " Im Gegensatz zu der derben, oft grossartigen, 

— 144 — 

zuweilen an das Rohe streifenden Behandlung der grossen gegossen- 
en Medallions anderer Kiinstler spricht sich in Francia's Arbeiten, 
sowohl in den Miinzen und den kleinen gepragten Medaillen, als 
in den grosseren Gussmedaillons, die sinnige und teine Idealitat des 
Malers aus. Die Kompositionen der Kehrseiten, besonders der 
Gussmedaillons welche bei ihrem grosseren Umfang der Entfal- 
tung mehr Raum boten, zeigen durch ihren Reichthum und die 
Grazie ihrer schon geschwungenen Linien sogleich den Maler. Die 
Ausfiihrung ist von vollendeter Zierlichkeit, und erinnert durch ihre 
bei aller Scharfe grosse Weichheit und Zartheit an die schonsten 
antiken Miinzen, welche unzweifelhaft seine Vorbilder waren. 
Erschwert ward ihm die Aufgabe durch die fiir Miinzen notige 
Flachheit des Reliefs. Das Technische der Pragung ist von voUkom- 
mener Sauberkeit ; vielleicht stammt diese schone Technik aus 
Mailand, wo man schon in der Munzpragung wie in aller Metall- 
Arbeit der anderen Stiidten vorangeschritten war. " 

Francia is considered one of the greatest painters of Bologna ; 
his style is a medium between that of Perugini and Giovanni Bel- 
lini. His earliest painting dates from 1494, and is now preserved at 
the Bolognese Gallery ; it represents the Virgin enthroned with 
St. Augustine and five other saints. Another, Judith and 
Holofernes is in the style of Mantegna. The London National 
Gallery possesses two beautiful paintings by Francia. Raphael, in a 
letter dated 1508, wrote " that few painters or none had produced 
Madonnas more beautiful, more devout, or better portrayed them, 
than Francia ". 

Francia was a man of great prudence ; he led a most regular life, 
and was of a robust constitution. He was almost worshipped in 
Bologna, where a large number of statues, decorative works in 
plate, paintings, &c. by him may still be seen. At his death in the 
year 15 17, he received honourable interment from his sons. 

Francia had more than 200 pupils. Amongst these Marcantonio 
Raimondi was the most renowned, and others, Lorenzo Costa, 
Amico Asperini, Francia's son, Giacomo, and his cousin, Giulio, 
attained celebrity. 

Bibliography. — C. G. Williamson, Francia, 1901. — Julia Cartwright, 
Francia and Mantegna, 1881. — Francesco Malaguzzi, La Zecca di Bologna, Ri vista 
italiana di numismatica, 1898. — Kriskteller, A//W/i del Francia. — Encyclopaedia 
Britannica, IX. Ed. — Grande Encyclopedie . — Grand Dictionnaire Larotisse. — 
D"" Luigi Frati, SuW erronea AUribw^ione al Francia delle nionete gettate al popolo 
ml solenne ingresso in Bologna di Giulio II. per la cacciata di Gio 11. Bentivoglio, 
Riv. stor., 1897, p. 49. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Armand, op. cit., 1, 103 ; II, 289 ; 
III, 30. — Vasari, Lives of the Painters, 11,294; VI, 141 (Mrs Foster's translation). 
— King, op. cit. — Babelon, Pierres gravees, 1894. — E. Plon, Benvenuto Cellini, 
1884. — Supino, op. cit. — Blanchet, op. cit. — Dr Friedlander, Die Italienischen 
SchaumUnien, 14^0-1^30, Berlin, 1882. — Keary, British Museum Guide to Italian 
Medals. — E. Muntz, Les Arts a la Cour des Popes. — E. Muntz, Histoire de I'Art 

— 145 — 

pendant la Renaissance. — Numismatic Chrotiicle, 1879, p. 204. — E. Saglio, La 
medaille dn cardinal Alidosi et LeFranciade Bologne, Art, 1893. — Calvi, Francesco 
Raiholini, Bologna, 1812. 

FRANCE, JOHANN {Germ.) Mint-master at Bayreuth, 11. Sept. 
1 62 1 to 8. February 1622. 

FRANCOIS, CLAUDE (French). Seal-engraver of Nancy, first half 
of the seventeenth century. He is recorded as having executed in 
1634 s'^ sedls bearing the arms of the city of Nancy. 

Bibliography. — Lepage, Notes et Documents stir les graveurs de monttaies et 
tnedailles des dues de Lorraine, Nancy, 1875. 

FRANGOIS, HENRI LOUIS (French). Contemporary Gem-engraver 
and Medallist, born at Vert-le-Petit (Seine-et-Oise), in 1841, died 
at Paris in 1896. Pupil of Bonnat and Chapu. M. Babelon says 
concerning him : " Cest un maitre veritable, aussi modeste 
qu'habile, qui nous parait avoir, mieux que tout autre, reussi k 
s'inspirer des nobles traditions duxviii^siecle ". He was an ofEcerof 
the Legion of Honour. 

The following works by him may be seen at the Luxembourg 
Museum, Paris : The French Republic, cameo in natural sardonyx 
of two layers; — Veuus emerging from the waves, cameo in agate; 

— Andromeda, onyx cameo of three strata; — Filial Love, agate; 

— Sappho on the rock of Leucas ; — The Genius of Painting inspir- 
ing herself from Truth, cameo in agate. 

Chavignerie and Auvray give a list of this artist's exhibits at the 
annual Salons, between 1867 and 1882 : S. 1867, Duke of Morny, 
cameo; — S. 1868, Venus disarming Cupid, cameo in oriental 
onyx ; — S. 1869, Invocation to Pan; — Portrait of M"^ M.B*** ; — 
Portrait of M. J. C***, after the medallion by Chapu (camei) ; — 
S. 1870, The Spring, after Ingres ; — Study of a Head, after the 
antique ; — Portrait of M. A. Remisy (camei) ; — S. 1872, Liberty, 
cameo in carnelian ; — M""' F***, Portrait-medallion in bronze ; — 
S. 1873, Portrait of M. H. Lahaye, carnelian; — S. 1874, Prome- 
theus, cameo in sardonyx; — S. 1875, Portrait of the Emperor 
Francis Joseph, cameo ; — S' George, cameo in sardonyx ; — 
S. 1876, Greek Head, onyx cameo; — Venus playing with Cupid, 
onyx; — Amour transi, carnelian; — S. 1877, Portrait of M. J. 
Remisy, carnelian; — Eve, onyx cameo; — S. 1880, Venus 
emerging from the waves; — 1881, Butineuse, onyx cameo; — 
S. 1882, Andromeda, onyx; — Portrait ofM. H. Chapu, carnelian; 

— Portrait of D' Henri Claisse, carnelian, &c. 

In connection with the works of this artist, M. Babelon remarks 
in La Revtie de VArt ancien et modenu, 1900, p. 226 : '' A c6t6 de 
VApotheose de Napoleon par Adolphe David, sont exposdes, au 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — II. 10 

— 146 — 

Luxembourg, quelques-unes des oeuvres d'un grand artiste, enleve 
prematurement, il y a peu d'annees, et dont je voudrais voir hono- 
rer la memoire comme celle du precurseur de la renaissance de la 
glyptique moderne, Henri Francois. Le dessin et la composition de 
ses cam^es, Andromeda et Sapho sur k rocher de Leucade, graves sur 
de belles sardonyx a trois couches, sont de la plus grande purete, 
les figures d'une grace exquise, I'execution achevee; les memesqua- 
lit^s se retrouvent dans Le Genie de peintiire s'inspirant de la verite. 
Ces oeuvres, devant lesquelles les amateurs ne s'arretent pas assez, 
doivent etre comptees parmi les meilleures productions de la glyp- 
tique de ce siecle. Le souffle de I'inspiration anime vraiment I'artiste 
et I'afFranchit; il a su tirer un habile parti des couches multicolores 
de gemmes bien choisies; il donne en un mot le signal precurseur 
d'une renovation originale, comparable a celle dont I'art de la 
medaille etait Tobjet a la meme epoque ; moins modeste, Henri 
Frangois eut atteint a la celebrite de novateur et de chef d'ecole". 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, o/>. cit. — E. Babelon, op. cil. — 
L. Benddite, op. cit. 

FRANCES, ROBERT (Hung.) Sculptor and Medallist, residing at 
Zagrel (Croatia-Slavonia). At the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1900, 
he exhibited several works of sculpture and a frame of medals and 
medallions. In the Studio, Vol. XXII, p. 221, is an illustration of 
one of his latest medals. 

FRANKE (Gem.). Die-sinker of the first half of the nineteenth 
century. We find him at Dusseldorf after 1818, and in 1849 he 
removed to Berlin. There is a well-known medal by him on the 
Recovery of Archbishop Count Spiegel, 1833; ^^ ^^ signed : 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Reimmaim Sale Catalogue. 

FRANSSEN, ADRIEN (Belg.) Mint-master at Luxemburg, 10*'' Feb- 
ruary, 1616, to 22"*^ December, 1617. Under him the following 
coins appear to have been struck : i, | and | Patagons, of 48, 24 
and 12 Sous resp., Escalins or 6 Sous, 3 Sous, Sous, Half-Sous, 
and JR. Liards. 

Bibliography. — R. Serrure, Numismatique luxembourgeoise, Annuaire nurais- 
matique, 1893. 

FRANTZ, ALOIS (Bohem). Mint-master at Prague, from 1848 to 
1857. The Mint of Prague (Mint-mark C.) was definitely closed in 
1857. Rossner engraved the coins under him. 

Bibliography. — Fiala, Beschreibung der Sammlung hbhmischer Miln:(en und 
Medaillen, Prag, 1888. — Eduard Fiala, Die Beainteii der Piager Miln-^stdtte, 
Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1898. 

— 147 — 

FRAY, JOSEPH (Brit.). Manufacturing Jeweller and Medallist, 
residing at Birininghani. He has engraved a number of masonic 
medals and badges, and also produced some commemorative pieces 
of the Jubilee, 1887, and Diamond Jubilee, 1891, of H. M. Queen 

FREEMAN, SIR RALPH (Brit.). Mint-master at the Royal Mint, 
London, under Charles I, anni 11-16 of his reign, and again under 
Charles II. Kenyon (Gold Coins of England, p. 169) mentions the 
following fact : " Charles II. upon his restoration made no alteration 
in the coins, except by restoring the type used by his father, with 
a laureated bust substituted for a crowned one. The indenture for 
this coinage was made with Sir Ralph Freeman, on the 20''' ot 
July, 1660, and Unites, Double Crowns, and Britain Crowns were 
made by virtue ol it, the dies being engraved by Simon. " 

Bibliography. — Ruding, Annals of the Coinage, &c. — Kenyon, op. cit. 

FREESE, T. W. (Brit.). Contemporary Ivory-carver, who has 
executed some fine Portrait-medallions of modern celebrities. 

FREI, HANS (Swiss). Contemporary Medallist, and Sculptor. 

Born at Basle on the 30''' of April, 1868, he was destined in his 
first youth to the calling of a copper-plate engraver, and, with that 
object in view, was apprenticed to a professional of his native 
town. While still working under him, he applied himself to design 

and studied modelling, in which he met with uncommon success, 
thanks to his natural ability and a display of extraordinary perse- 
verance under trying circumstances. He then visited Vienna, 
Cologne, and Geneva, where he stayed some years, and finally 
went to Paris. There the young engraver pursued his artistic 
studies as a pupil of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and later of the 
Academie Julian. He also benefited from his training under the 
celebrated sculptors, Charpentier and Puech, and the renowned 

— 148 — 

medallist, O. Roty. In 1895 the artist settled in business on his 
own account, and he resided in the French capital until May, 1899. 
The secret of H. Frei's success as a medallist lies in his strong 
originality and adaptation of mediaeval style to modern technique. 
His work will become popular, in the same way as the productions 
of the contemporary French masters foster, says M. Roger Marx, 
" the ever-growing interest of the masses. " Public taste is becom- 
ing gradually educated to the beauty and value of the medal, as 
is demonstrated by the increase in number of medallists during the 
past few years. 


In his beautiful cast and chased plaque, entitled "Lili", H. Frei 
gives us a truly realistic portrait of a young girl reproduced in all 
the suave candour of innocent girlhood. 

" Lauretta " is the bust of a handsome young woman, in the full 
zenith of her loveliness and grace ; she is conscious of her beauty, 
but there is nothing in the expression that would betray affectation ; 
the limpid eyes accentuate the intensely life-like character of the 
face; the soft contour of the chin, the firm but graceful mouth, 
the thin, delicate nose, and the hair roughly tied in a knot behind, 
form so many traits of a picture altogether charming because so 

— 149 — 

natural. The portraits of " Friiulein Hoflinger" and " Frau Louise 
Bachofen " are of equal merit. 

In the " Holbein" medal we have a beautiful full-face portrait 
of the great painter, whilst the reverse bears a shield against which 
are leaning on either side two German lansquenets in their quaint 
fifteenth century uniform. 

Of greater interest still is the exquisite portrait-plaque of " Eras- 
mus of Rotterdam ". The contemplation*'of this excellent medallic 


picture produces a profound and mysterious impression on the 
mind. The great savant is there seen seated in profile, clad in a 
friar's cloak, and covered with the picturesque mediaeval biretta; 
he holds a pen in his right hand, and the other rests on an open 
volume ; he seems deeply engaged in the subject upon which he is 
writing; the eyes are almost closed; the noble lines of the face are 
uncommonly austere without being hard ; the expression is that of 
the deep thinker, the keen observer, who has studied man tho- 

— 150 — 

roughly, and can with rare insight sound the mysteries of the heart 
or analyse the themes of philosophy. 

If, from thTs masterpiece of glyptic achievement, we turn to the 
charming medallion representing " Helvetia ", we shall get an idea 
of Herr Frei's supple talent, which enables him to depict with such 
success the varied aspects of human expression. Nothing could be 


more tasteful than this fresh, energetic, and graceful bust of Liberty, 
symboHsing a vigorous, valiant, and industrious nation, proud ot 
her past, hopeful of the future, and trusting in God for the contin- 

uance of her glorious traditions. 

The following is a complete list of Herr Frei's medallic pro- 
ductions : 


1894, Marriage Medal, executed for the Society of Germans at 
Basle, 50 mill.; — 1896, 150''' Anniversary of the birth of Pesta- 
lozzi, and Inauguration of his monument at Yverdon, 57 mill. ; — 
Marriage Medal, struck for M. Massonnet, publisher in Paris, 

— 151 — 

32 mill.; — 1897, Inauguration of the Bubenberg Monument at 
Berne, 57 mill. ; — 300''' Anniversary of Holbein, 45 mill, (official 
medal); — 1898, Inauguration of the Swiss National Museum at 
Zurich, 57 mill, (official medal of the Swiss Confederation); — 


Centenary of the Massacres at Stanz, Nidwald, under the French 
invasion, 1798, 38 mill, (official medal); — Helvetia, uniface, and 
varieties, 24 and 18 mill. ; — 1899, Zwyssig, composer, 45 mill, 
(official medal); — Cabral, 400''' Anniversary of Brazil, 57 mill.; 
1900, Opening of the Elbe Canal; — Cantonal Rifle competition 

The Swiss Village at the Paris Universal Exhibition. 

at Basle ; — The Swiss Village at the Paris Universal Exhibition 
(illustrated); — Lausanne Rifle Competition Medal; — 1901, 
Federal Rifle Competition at Lucerne; — Prize Medal of the Exhi- 
bition at Basle. 

— 152 


1895, Pestalozzi, after his monument by Lang, 70 by 100 mill.; 
— Erasmus of Rotterdam, after the portrait by Hans Holbein in 
the Louvre, 70 by 100 mill.; — 1896, Menelik, Emperor of 
Abyssinia; — Lauretta, a study from nature, 130 by 210 mill. ; — 

Cabral, 400''! Anniversary of the Discovery of Brazil. 

Hans Frei, the medallist himself, 35 by 46 mill. ; — 1897, Fer- 
nandi, a study from nature; — Portrait of Fraulein Helena 
Vischer (belongs to the family) ; — Portrait of H. J. Herzog, 
painter; — Portrait of Frau Louise Bachofen (belongs to the 
family); — 1898, Portrait of Dr. Jakob Burckhardt, Protessor at 

— 153 — 

the University of Basle, 90 by 140 mill. ; — 1899, Portrait of Dr. 
Auguste Socin, Professor at the University of Basle, 90 by 130 
mill. ; — Lili, Portrait of a child ; — A young girl picking off the 
petals of a daisy; — Portrait of Dr. H. Angst, Director of the Swiss 
National Museum; — 1901, Fourth Centenary of Basle. 


1894, H. J. Imhoof, President of the Fine Art Society of Basle, 
43 mill. ; — The Basilisk of Basle and View of the City; — 1895, 
Helvetia, 100 mill.; — Erasmus of Rotterdam, 60 mill.; — 
1897, Frriulein Marie Hoflinger; — Hans Holbein, 100 mill.; — 

The Holbein medal. 

1899, ^- Hans Wenk, 300 mill.; — Study of a Head, smiling, 
150 mill.; — Betrothal Souvenir, Portraits of the Artist and his 
fiancee; — Dr. H. Angst, Director of the Swiss National Museum ; 

— 1900, P. A. Zwyssig, composer of the Swiss National Anthem; 

— 1 90 1, Ernest Stiickelberg, Painter (on his seventieth Birthday). 


1 894- 1 896, Armorial bearings, cast and chased (executed for 
various families of Basle); — 1898, Gold watch o( repousse work 
(Prix d'honneur of the Federal Rifle Competition at Neuchatel) ; 
— Gold presentation watch, oi similar work (official gift to 
M. Godet, of Neuchatel); — 1896, Bust of H. Frei, senr., in 

— 154 — 

marble; — 1899, Gold presentation ring with portrait engraved on 

Herr Hans Frei is happily gifted; his productions are a combina- 
tion of the Renaissance style, inspired from the antique, with the 
easy grace of the eighteenth century. As a portraitist he is truthful, 
bold in his definition of the male physiognomy, eminently elegant 
in the picturing of female beauty; in a word, his subjects are 
wonderfully lifelike, yet none the less picturesque. 

Bibliography. — Information kindly supplied hy Herr Hans Frei. — D"" H. J. 
de Dompierre de Chaufepi^, Les Medailles et Plaquettes modernes, Haarlem, 1899. 
— L. Forrer, A Swiss Medallist : Herr Hans Frei, Magazine of Art, November, 
1 901. (^Blocks kindly lent by M. H. Spielmann Esq., Editor of the Ma^a^ine of Art.) 

FREIDINGER, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master of Luckau, Niederlau- 
sitz (Saxony), 1621-22, He issued Heller and Groschlein of 1622. 

Bibliography. — E. Bahrfeldt, Das Mum^wesen der Stadt Luckau in der Nieder- 
lausiti, Wiener Numismatische Zeitschrift, 1884. — Julius und Albert Erbstein, 
Erorternugen aufdem Gebiete der sdchsischen Miini-undMedaillen-Geschichte, Dresden, 

FREITAG, JOHANN JEREMIAS {Germ.). Mint-master at Frankfort- 
on-Main, 1690-17 19. The coins struck by him generally bear his 
initials I.I.F. or I.F. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FREISTEIN, JOHANN {Germ.). Mint-master at Joachimsthal for 
the Counts of Schlick, 1649-1650. His distinctive sign on the 
currency is the forepart of a griffin. 

Bibliography. — Fiala, op. cit. 

FRELLACHER {Germ.). Mint-master at Gratz, 163 1. 

Bibliography. — Th. Unger, Kleine Beitrage \ur Miin^kunde des Kronlandes 
Steiermark, Mittheilungen des Clubs der Miinz-und Medaillenfreunde in Wien, 

• born at Swanbourne, Bucks, on Aug. 12, 1834; third son of the 
late i^* Lord Cottesloe. 

**In 1868 he was appointed Deputy-Master and Comptroller of 
the Royal Mint; and in 1870 was constituted principal executive 
officer of that department, the Mastership of the Mint having by 
the Coinage Act of that year been vested in the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer for the time being. He retired from that appointment 
in 1894. He was appointed, in 1876, a member of the Playfair 
Commission, to inquire into the constitution and management of 
Public Departments, and in 1886 a member of the Royal Com- 
mission on Gold and Silver, which reported on the question of 
bimetallism. Since the date of Sir Charles Fremantle's appointment 

— 155 — 

to the Mint, annual reports have been issued by that department, 
giving full information, not only as to the coinage of the United 
Kingdom, but also as to the coinage and currency nf other nations. 
In 1896 Sir Charles was appointed one of the official directors of 
the Suez Canal Company. " (Victor G. Parr, Men and Women of the 
Time, London, 1899, P- 39 1)- 

Sir Charles Fremantle's successor at the Royal Mint in 1894 
was Horace Seymour Esq., the present Deputy-Master. 

FRfiMIET, EMMANUEL (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris in 1824 ; pupil of Rude; since 1878, Officer of the Legion of 
Honour, He has occasionally executed some medals and especially 
in recent years. At the Luxembourg Museum, there is a medal by 
him. Portrait of a Hunter, cast in bronze. The artist exhibited at 
the Salon of 188 1 a medal of the Grand Conde, and in 1882, ano- 
ther of Stefan-al-Man, Prince of Moldavia. A S' George Medal, 

Medal of Jeanne d'Arc. 

inscribed DEO FORTITVDO MEA, was illustrated in the 
Studio (Oct. 1898,). In Medailleurs contemporains , by M. Roger 
Marx (Plate 22, 4), there is a representation of a medal of 
J. -J. Paul-Rattier, seen on horseback, and dated 1894. 

His medal representing Joan of Arc {illustrated) is one of his 
best known medallic productions. 

M. Premier is a worthy representative of the French school ot 
medallists, which is now playing so important a part in the 
development of modern Art. He belongs to the elite of French 
statuaries, and is, since 1892, a member of the Institut. 

Bibliography. — Roger Marx, Medailleurs francais, Paris, 1897. — L. BJn6- 
dite, op. cit. — R. Marx, Les Medailleurs frangais contemporains. Paris, 1898. — 
The Studio, October 1898. — Art 1894. — Chavignerie et Aubray, 0/). cit. 

FRENCH DANIEL CHESTER (Amer.). Contemporary Sculptor, 
residing at New- York. He is one of the most popular and at 
the same time one of the best sculptors now living in the United 

- 156 - 

States of America. The artist was born in New |Hampshire and 
spent his early life at Concord. 

The Magaxine of Art (1901, p. 311) has devoted an interesting 
article to this brilliant representative of American genius, from 
which an idea may be gathered of his achievements. 

As a Medallist, we known him only as the author of the medal- 
lion offered by the Americans to Admiral Dewey, in 1898. 

Medal presented to Admiral Dewey by the American Government, by D. C. French. 
(filock kindly lent by M. H. Spielmann Esq., Editor of " The Magazine of Art " ). 

'* The versatility of this American Sculptor ", says the writer ot 
the article above mentioned, " is his most remarkable character- 
istic. His little angel reliefs — wonders of poetry and exquisite 
feeling — are in curious contrast to his portrayals of the strenuous 
American life he is so fond of depicting. " 

One of French's most tamous works is the *' Angel of Death 
staying the Hand of the Sculptor ", which was exhibited at the 
World's Fair of Chicago, 1893. 

FR£my, CLAUDE (Belg.). Medallist of the first half of the 
seventeenth century. He was a contemporary of Jacques Zagar, 
Jacques Jonghelinck, J. B. Houwaert and others, but none of his 
works have been deemed worthy of mention by Pinchart. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Graveurs beiges. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

FR£mT, fDOUARD d£sir£ {French). Contemporary Medallist and 
Sculptor, born at Paris in 1827. The following Portrait-medallions 
in bronze were exhibited by him at the annual Salons, between 
1865 and 1882 : S. 1865, M. Pasquier; — S. 1868, M'"'^ Gastat; 
— S. 1869, Irmond Libre Bardin ; — S. 1870, M. Cruet; — S. 
1872, D' Dereins; — S. 1874, M"^ Tisy; — S. 1875, M. Robert; 

— 157 — 

— S. 1876, M""= Ricard; — Clemence Fischer; — S. 1877, 
M""' Fremy-Ricard ; — S. 1878, M. Sene ; — M. A. Gaulet; — 
Mile c. M***; — M. ¥***; — M"' E. Lacarriere ; — Adolphe 
Thiers ; — S. 1879, M. Babinet, Member of the Institut; — S. 
1880, M. Gil-Naza, Actor; — S. 1881, Three Portrait-medallions; 

— S. 1882, M"^ Louise Pasquier; — M"= Andrea Louis, etc. 
Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FRENER, JOHANN BAPTIST {Swiss). Sculptor and Medallist, 
1821-1892; who discharged from 1854 to 1892 the duties ot 
Chief-engraver to the Mint of the Republic of Guatemala. 

Frener was born at Lucerne on the 10''' of December, 1821, 
and was the third son of humble parents, who, to bring up their 
large family of eight children, were obliged to place two or three 
in an orphanage or charitable institution. John Baptist left home in 
his tender years, but he nevertheless received a good general edu- 
cation. At an early age he evinced a marked taste for drawing, and 
his precocious talent did not pass unobserved by his first teachers, 
who encouraged such brilliant natural inclination. He was hardly 
fourteen years old when he was placed as an apprentice or pupil 
with the sculptor. Prof. Frantz Schlatt, under whom he made 
such rapid progress that with the help and protection of some 
friends he obtained a Government grant to pursue his artistic studies. 

Frener's first work of importance, which brought his name into 
public notice, dated from 1839. Aged only eighteen, he modelled 

- 158 - 

the busts of various composers and poets for the facade decoration 
of the Lucerne Theatre. Soon afterwards he was entrusted with the 
erection of a sepulchral monument to State-Councillor Singer. 

About 1840, the young sculptor first turned his thoughts to 
medal-engraving, an art which he studied with his usual energy 
and determination. To it he henceforth devoted his life and the 
resources of his genius. In 1842, he produced an armorial shield 
for the ancient Bernese family, von Vischer, and two medals which 
were exhibited at the Swiss National Fine Art Exhibition that 
took place in the same year. 

In 1843, Frener visited Vienna, and in the following year went 
to Paris, where he made the acquaintance of the medallist 
Antoine Bovy, his countryman, who took a great interest en 
him and procured him work. At the end of 1844, the artist entered 
the ficole des Beaux-Arts and studied there for about twelve 

Federal Rifle Competition Medal of Lucerne, 1863. 

months. From Paris he proceeded to Rome, but it is not known 
exactly how long he resided in Italy. His stay in the land of art 
par excellence was not lost to the fertile mind of Frener, who never 
missed an opportunity to increase his knowledge. While at Rome, 
he received from the Lucerne town-council the order to engrave a 
medal designed by von Schwegler, and intended to commemorate 
the '*Freischaarenzug, " 5'^ of December, 1844, and 31" of March, 

Frener married in 1846 Adelaide Comucci, of Florence, who 
died in 1849. During his sojourn at Florence, he met the famous 
composer, Giuseppe Verdi, of whom he executed a portrait-medal- 
lion. After the death of his wife, the artist travelled for some time 
in Germany and obtained in 1849, at Munich, a first award for 
engraving a medal of King Maximilian II. of Bavaria. Between 1850 
and 1854, he appears to have lived at Lucerne, and from this period 

— 159 — 

of his activity date the following medals : The Lion of Lucerne 
Monument (several varieties) ; — Federal Rifle Competition at 
Lucerne, 1863 (illustrated); — Fifth Centenary of the Admission 
of Berne into the Swiss Confederation, 135 3-185 3 ; Portrait- 
medalHon of D' Kasimir Pfyffer, etc. 

In 1854, Frener accepted an engagement from the Republic of 
Guatemala as Engraver to the Mint. A great task was in store for 
him there, and this responsible post he held with success and honour. 
Not only did he improve the coinage of the Republic, but he reno- 
vated the Mint, its machinery and its working, after modern 
principles, imported from Europe. His untiring efforts were 
recognized on his becoming, in 1879, Master of the Mint of Gua- 
temala. He died on the i" of May, 1892, in the full discharge of 
his duties. 

From a letter, communicated to me by M. Arnold Robert, late 
President of the Conseil des £tats, at Berne, I learn tha Frener 
possessed a collection of medals which he had the injetntion of 
bequeathing to his native town, but as no mention was made of 
the bequest in the artist's will, negotiations had to be entered in- 
to between his family and the town of Lucerne, with what result 
I have as yet been unable to ascertain. 

The coins ot Guatemala issued between 1854 and 1893 were 
mostly engraved by Frener, whose signature appears also on 
several medals and portrait-medallions of the various Presidents ot 
the Republic who succeeded each other during his term of office. 

The Fonrobert collection contained the following coins engraved 
by Frener and all signed by him : Double Peso, Peso and Real of 
1859; Peso, I Peso, Peseta, and Real of i860 ; \ Onza, | Peso, 
Toston, Peseta and Real of 186 1, Peseta, Real and | Real of 1862 ; 
Peso and Toston of 1863 ; AT | Peso, JR, Peso and Peseta of 1864; 
Peso, Toston, Peseta and Real of 1865 ; Peseta and Real of 1866 ; 
Peso, Toston, Peseta, Real and Cuartino ot 1867, Peso, Peseta and 
Real of 1868 ; N | Onza, | Onza, 5 Pesos, Peso and | Real of 
1869; Peso and | Peso of 1870 ; Peso of 1872, signed : LBt. 
FRENER F and Peseta ; Peso, Toston, Peseta, | Real and Cuartino 
of 1873 (various types); N 5 Pesos of 1874, ^"^^ ^^ Liberty, 
signed FRENER, etc. A large number of the coins bear the bust of 
Rafael Carrera, President of the RepubHc of Guatemala, 185 1- 
1865, even after his death. — Some of Frener's currency tor Gua- 
temala was used as obsidional money in the San Salvador Republic 
under President Gerardo Barrios, 185 8- 1865 ; they are counter- 
marked with an R (Revisadd) . 

Frener revisited Europe in 1876, and obtained in 1878 a gold 
award medal at the Paris Universal Exhibition. 

The National Museum of Guatemala is adorned with 24 statues 
executed by this artist. 

— i6o — 

Frener's early career was not without trouble, but he was 
supported through all his woes by a singularly happy and buoyant 
nature. He triumphed over many disappointments, and once his 
lucky star in the ascendant, he enjoyed an ample reward for long 
years of perseverant labour and unflinching energy. 

He cannot, of course, be called a great artist; but he was more 
than a successful artisan. He has cleverly used the graving tool, and 
his portrait heads are remarkable for their individuality and deli- 
cate execution. Had the field of his activity been less restricted, he 
might have produced more and better work. The coinage of Gua- 
temala did not offer the artist a wide scope to display his talent; 
his pieces are not free from the over-minuteness and dryness of 
finish which so often blemish the engraver's work ; nevertheless, 
Frener must rank amongst the first medallists America has as yet 

Bibliography. — F. Haas, Johann Baptist Frener, Revue siiisse de numismatiqiie, 
1892. — Do, Nachtrag \uden bibliographischen Noti-^en fiber J. B. Frener von Lu:ern, 
loc. cit., 1895. — Arnold Robert, Notices biographiques sur lesgraveiirs des midailles 
officielles f rappees d, Voccasion des tirs fe'de'raux, he. cit., 1891. — Ad. Weyl, Die 
Jules Fonrobertsche Sammlnng uherseeischer Miin:(en und Medaillen, Berlin. — JVun- 
derly-von-Muralt Miin^-und Medaillen-Sammlung , vols I-V. — R. S. Poole, Swiss 
Coins in the South Kensington Museum, London, 1878. — L. Forrer, /. B. Frener, 
American Num. and Archeol. Journal, 1900. 

FRENTZEL, JOHANN {Germ.'). Saxon Artist of the second half ot 
the seventeenth century. Several medals of the reign of John 
George II. of Saxony bear his initials MIF {Magister Johannes Frent- 
T^el) as the designer ; they were engraved by Johann Buchheim of 

Bibliography. — Julius u. Albert Erbstein, op. cit. 

FRENTZEL, SALOMON {Germ.). Warden of the Imperial Mint at 
Oppeln, Silesia, 1625. 

FR£RE, jean JULES {French). Sculptor of the second half of the 
nineteenth century ; born at Cambrai (Nord) ; pupil of Cavelier 
and Cordier. He has executed a number of Portrait-medallions, as 
for example : M. G. Locquet, architect; — M. C. du Bacq ; — 
General d'Aigremont, &c. 

FR£rET, JEAN {French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Montpellier, 
before 1608. 

Bibliography. — A. Barre, Graveurs particuliers des monnaies de France, Ann. 
num., 1867. 

FRESCHIRAT, ANTHOINE {French). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot 
Villefranche-en-Rouergue, after 1522. That Mint was closed in 

— i6i — 

FRESNAYE, Mii° MARIE ALPHONSINE {French). Contemporary 
Sculptor, born at Marenla (Pas-dc-Calais) ; pupil of Maindron. At 
the Salon of 1874, she exhibited a Portrait- medallion of M"= A. F***, 
and ill 1875, one entitled, Brothers and Sisters. These are in 

FRESNE, PIERRE DU (Belg.) Goldsmith and Engraver of the second 
half of the seventeenth century; a contemporary ofWarin, Herard 
and Flemalle. He resided at Liege, where he is said to have executed 
some medals, none of which have however been traced by 
M. A. Pinchart. 

Bibliography. — A. Finchim, Graveurs beiges, etc. 

FREUDE, MATHIAS (Girm.). Mint-master at Rostock, 1630, later 
at Hamburg, 163 7-1 668. His initials M. F. appear on the currency 
issued by him. 

FREUDE, MATHIAS (Germ.). Son of the preceding, and his suc- 
cessor as Mint-master at Hamburg, 1668-1673. 

FREUND, JOHANN FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Altona, 
1819-1856. He often signed his coins F. F. or IFF. 
Bibliography. — Jorgenscn, op. cit. 

FREUNDT. MATHIAS (Germ.). Mint-master at Hamburg, 1635- 

FREYBERGER, WOLF (Germ.). Mint-master at Breslau under the 
Emperor Rudolf II., 1 572-1 578. He may have filled the post some 
years before and after the above mentioned dates. But he more prob- 
ably settled after 1578 in Poland. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Schksieiis neuere Mun:(geschichte, Breslau. 1899. 

FREYSEYSEN, JOHANN GEORG (Auslr.). Mint-master at Krem- 
nitz, circa 171 5. 

FREYSTEIN, NIKLAS (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at Gratz, 

FREYTAG, JOHANN JEREMIAS (Germ.). Mint-master atFrankfurt- 

on-Main, 1690-1725. He died in 1736. His initials ilF appears on 

the currency of his period. 

Bibliography. — Paul Joseph u. Eduard Fellner, Die Mun{en von Frankfurt 
am Main, 1896. 

FRIBIL, ADGUSTIN (Gtrm.). Modeller of Breslau, 1592, f 1606. 

FRIEDE, JOACHIM (Germ.) Mint-master at Schauenstein, circa 
1 62 1, for the Margraves of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. 

L. Forrer. — Biographical Noiicts of Mtdallists. — II. ii 

— l62 — 

FRIEDRICH, JOHANN (Germ.) Medallist of the end of the sixteenth 
century. He signed medals of Winse, Stimmel, Griineberg, &c. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. 

Liibeck, 1793-1801. He signed his currency H. D. F. These ini- 
tials appear on Ducats of 1797 and 1801, with title of Emperor 
Francis II. 

FRIEDRICH VON AICHELBURG (Austr.). Interim Mint-master at 
Joachimsthal, in 1535. 
Bibliography. — Fiala, op. cit. 

Gcslar, 1734-1764, and in between at Harzgerodeand Zerbst, 1744- 
1747, and Berlin, 1752. On the coins his initials H. C. R. F, gener- 
ally appear. 

FRIESE, JOHANN HEINRICH (Germ.). Saxon Mint-master, circa 
1669. He seems to have been also in the service of the Archbishops 
of Magdeburg. His currency is signed H. H. F. 

FRINGS (Germ,.). Warden ot the Augsburg Mint, circa 1758- 

FRISCH (Germ.). Die-sinker and Medallist of Darmstadt, 1807- 
1817. His name is mentioned by Schlickeysen, but I have not 
seen any of his works, which are probably of a purely local char- 
acter and do not offer much interest to lovers of Art. 

FRISON, BARTHfiLEMY (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Tournay (Belgium), and naturalized a Frenchman in 1848; pupil 
of Ramey and Dumont. At the Salon of 1863 he exhibited a Por- 
trait-medallion in bronze of his father, which is only one amongst 
many similar that the artist executed during his long career. 

FRITSCH, MARTIN (Austr.) He is responsible for an issue of coins 
at Olmiitz in 1627, for the Duke of Friedland. Schlickeysen men- 
tions him as Mint-master at Olmiitz in 163 1, and gives his initials 
M. F. as being found on Kreuzers of th£ Emperor Ferdinand 11. 

FRITSCH, DAMIAN (Germ.). Mint-master at Coblentz, 1746- 
1752, Altenkirchen and Mayence, 1755-1795. 

FRITSCH, QUIRIN (Germ.). Mint-master at Neuwied, 1752-1755, 
and Altenkirchen in 1795, according to Schlickeysen. He engraved 
a medal in 1752 on the concord between Frederick Alexander and 
Francis Charles Louis, Counts of Wied. 

- i63 - 

FRITZ (Germ.y Die-sinker at Brunswick, circa 1830-185 9. By 
this engraver are the following medals : Erection of the Waterloo 
Column, 1837; — Adolph Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, 1831; 
— Military Reward of King Ernest Augustus of Hanover, 1837 ; — 
George, Crownprince of Hanover, 1843 ; — William, Duke of 
Brunswick, 1838; — Double Thaler of 1856, on the 25*'' Anni- 
versary of William's reign; — Thaler of 1859, &c- Apparently 
this artist was attached to the Brunswick Mint as Coin-and Medal- 
engraver. There is also a masonic medal by Fritz, obv. S* John the 
Baptist in the Wilderness {Marvin y n° CCCLXXI). 

FROBOSE, CONRAD {Germ.'). Coin-engraver at the Minis of Git- 
schin and Sagan, 1632, under Albrecht von Wallenstein, Duke of 

Bibliography. — A. Meyer, Albrecht von Wallenstein, Her^og von Friedland und 
seine MUn^en, yjien, 1886. 

FROHLICH, HANNS (^?ii/.). Styrian Mint-master trom 1620-1628. 

FROHLICH, ZACHARIAS (Atistr.). Mint-master at Nagy-Banya, in 
Transsylvania, after 17 13. 

FROIDEVAUX (French). Mint-master at Bordeaux, from an XIII to 
1809, under Napoleon I. His distinctive mark was a fish. In an 
XIII, he appears as Mint-master at Geneva, with the same sym- 

FROMANGER, ALEXIS HIPPOLYTE (French). Sculptor of the second 

half of the nineteenth century. By him are several Portrait-medal- 
lions exhibited at the Salons between 185 1 and 1870. 
Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

A contemporary manufacturing Jeweller ot Paris ; pupil of Chapu 
and Patey, who has within the last fifty years produced a large 
number of gems, camei in Renaissance or modern styles, intagli 
after the antique, and every variety of artistic jewels. His master- 
piece was the magnificent bust of Napoleon m., cut in aquamarine, 
and which disappeared in the fire of the old Paris H6tel-de-Ville, 
1 87 1. At the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1900, he exhibited a 

Bibliography. — E. Babelon, Pierres grave'es, Paris, 1894. 

FROMHOLD, GOTTFRIED (Germ.). Warden of the Mint ofCrossen, 
1668-1674; Mint-master at QuedUnburg, 1675-1679. 

FROMMEL, WOLFGANG (Germ.). Mint-master at Gehren, 1620, 
and Neustadt a. d. H., 1622-1623. 

— 164 — 

FROMONT, PIERRE (Belg.). Mint-master at Amiens, under Philip 
thd Good of Burgundy, 24. September, 1 417, to 15. February, 

FROSCHL, BENEDIKT (Germ.). Gem-engraver of Augsburg, circa 
1557, who worked for the Munich Mint. 

FROSINO, NICCOLO DI (Ital.). According to Blanchet (Nouveau 
Mamiel de Numistnatiqm du moyen age etmoderne, II, p. 371), Medal- 
list of Pisa, circa 1560. 

FROULLfi, AUGUSTE ADOLPHE (French). Sculptor and Gem-engrav- 
er, born at Paris, on the 15''' July, 1821 ; pupil of M. Naigeon. 
The following exhibits are recorded by Chavignerie et Auvray : S. 
1848, Diogenes, shell cameo; — S. 1852, Mars and Venus; — S. 
1 86 1, The Death of Hyrnetho, wife of Deiphontes, King of Epi- 
daurus, engraved cameo; — S. 1862, Apollo and Thetis, engraved 
cameo; — S. 1864, The Prosperity of the Empire, shell cameo; — 
S. 1866, Alcides conquering Jealousy, cameo; — S. 1869, The 
Olympian Jupiter; — Cleopatra; — S. 1870, Bacchante, bronze 
medal; — S. 1872, The Holy Family, cameo; — S. 1874, The 
Descent from the Cross, cameo; — S. 1875, Adonis starts for the 
Hunt, cameo ; — S. 1876, Triumph of Bacchus, shell cameo ; — S. 
.1877, The judgment of Paris, shell cameo; — S. 1878, Ronald, 
prisoner of Armides, shell cameo, &c. This artist exhibited under 
the name of Varnier. 

- FRUMERIE, C. M. (Swed). Die-sinker and Medallist of Stockholm, 
circa 1801-1843. He worked for the Swedish Court. His signature 
appears on a medallion of King Charles XIV. John, 1843, and on 
medals of A. F. Wedenberg, 1820; — Peter Frigel, musician, 1841 ; 
^ — The Swedish Royal Family, 1829; — Charles XIIL, Protector 
and for 45 years Grand Master of the Masonic Fraternity ot Sweden, 
1818; — Coming of age of Crownprince Oscar of Sweden, 1817. 
This engraver was employed at the Stockholm Mint and was a con- 
temporary of C. Enhorning. He has executed a large number ot 
medallic works commemorating various events of Swedish history 
or giving portraits of members of the Royal family and celebrated 
persons ot the first three or four decades of the nineteenth cen- 

Hildebrand describes the following medals by this artist : Gustavus 
Adolphus IV. (2 types, undated); — Coronation of Charles XIII., 
1809; — Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, 1810; — Luther 
Festivities, 1818; — Death of Charles XIIL; — Various Prize 
Medals; — Vaccine, 1813; — Crownprince Charles John, 1809; 

— Charles XIV. John, 1819; — Birth of Prince Oscar, 1829; — 

- i65 - 

Charles XIV. 's 25 years Jubilee, 1843 (2 types); — Crownprince 
Oscar, 1 8 19; — Centenary of the Academy of Fine Arts, 1835 ; — 
Association of Swedish Hunters; — Prize Medals with bust of 
Oscar I. (numerous types); — Crownprincess Josephina ; &c. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op, cit. — Sclilickeysen-Pallman, op. cit. — 
Marvin, op. cit. — TlMmsen's Catalogue. — Hildebrand, Sveriges och Svenska Konutig- 
ahusels Minnespenttingar, Stockholm, 1875. 

F. S. F/Vc FRIEDRICH STIERBNITZ. Mint-master at Sorau, 1622. 

F. S. Fide FRIEDRICH SCHRATTAUER. Mint-master at Coblentz, 

F. S. Vide FRANCESCO SEVO. Piedmontese Engraver of the eigh- 
teenth century. 

F. S. interlinked. Vide LEOPOLD FERDINAND SCHARFF. Mint- 
master at Prague, 1714-1744. 

F. S. Vide FRIEDRICH SIEGMUND SCHAFER, 1725-1776. Die-sinker 
at Weilburg, 1749-1754; Mint-master at Eisenach, 1755. 

F. S. Vide FRIEDRICH SYLM. Mint-master at Warsaw, 1765- 

F. S. Vide FRIEDRICH SCHULZE. Mint-inspector at Rostock, 1783. 

F. S. Vide FRIEDRICH STIELER. German Medallist of the end ot 
the nineteenth century. 

F. ST. Vide FRANTZ STUCKHART. Medallist, who was working at 
Prague in 1796, and Vienna, from 1801 to 18 16. 

F. S. Vide F. STAUDIGEL. Berlin Medallist, aV^a i860. 
BiBLioGPAPHY. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann,o/». cit. 

T. S. (Ital.). Signature of a Medallist who was working circa 
1588, and which occurs on a medal of Sperone Speroni, a Paduan 
writer. M. G. Milanesi considers this signature to be that of a 
Paduan sculptor in marble and bronze, Francesco Segala, whose 
name occurs on documents of 1565. The Uffizi Gallery at Florence 
possesses a copy of the Speroni medal. 

Bibliography. — Armand, op. cit. — J. B. Supine, op. cit. 

F. T. Vide FRANCESCO TAGLIA PIETRA. Rector at Cattaro, 1525-6. 

F. T. Vide FRANCESCO TREVISANO. Mint-inspector at Venice, 

F. T. Vide FRINGS (Warden) and THIEBADD (Mint-master) at 

Augsburg, 1758. 

— i66 — 

F. U. F'ide FRIEDRICH ULRICH. Warden, then Mint-master, at Cas- 
sel, eighteenth century. 

F. V. Vide FRANCESCO VENERI. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1539. 

F. C. V. Vide FRANZ CARL UHLE. Mint-master at Jagerndorf, 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

FDCHS, EMIL (Brit.'). Contemporary Painter, Sculptor and Medal- 
list of Austrian descent, residing in London. He exhibited several 
Portrait-medals of H. R. H. the Prince ot Wales and various mem- 
bers of the Rothschild family at the " Ausstellung Moderner 
Medaillen " at Frankfort-on-Main (April 1900). Since, he has execut- 
ed Portrait Medals of H. M. the Queen ; — Field Marshal Earl Roberts ; 

General Sir George White. 

— General Sir George White, the Defender of Ladysmith ; — Gene- 
ral Baden-Powell, of Mafeking fame; — a Peace Medal, of very 
creditable work; — Medal of H. M. King Edward VII., as Patron 
of the Society of Arts ; — Coronation-medal of King Edward VII., 
1902, &c. 

At the Royal Academy Exhibition of 190 1, this artist had a case 
of medals comprizing portraits of Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, 
H. M. King Edward VII., Lord Roberts, General Sir George White, 
General Baden-Powell, and the Peace Medal, of which two varieties 

He designed the new Postage Stamps of King Edward VII. which 
have not found much favour with the public as the style is 

Mr. Emil Fuchs was born in 1866, and studied sculpture at the 
Royal Academy of Berlin (Prix de Rome, 1891). In 1896 he 
gained the gold medal at Munich for a group in marble entitled 
*' Mother's Love". During the past year, 1901, the King bestowed 
upon him the Victorian Order (Hon. Fourth Class). Mr. Fuchs, 
before coming to England, was domiciled in Rome, and, having 

— 167 — 

received a commission for a bust in marble from an English lady 
for which she was unable to give in Italy the requisite number of 
sittings, came at her suggestion to England — in the year of the 
Diamond Jubilee — to finish it in this country. Since which he has 
settled in London. 

FUCHS, HEINRICH (Austr.). Medallist of the first half of the 
eighteenth century; contemporary with Donner, Kittel,and Schega; 
he was working in Austria between 171 6 and 1720. His signature 
H. Fuchs appears on a medal, dated 17 19, of Count von Dohna, 
struck in honour of the Emperor Charles VI. This engraver was appar- 
ently employed at the Mint of Vienna and worked for Bohemia. 
He is the author of a number ot medals of Charles VI., two of 
which are described in H. Weifert's paper " Meine Sammlung 
von Medaillen auf die Eroberungen Belgrads in den Jahren 1688, 
1717 und 1789 und den Frieden von Passarowitz" in Mittheilungen 
des Clubs der Milni-und Medaillenfretinde in fVien. One is given by 
Domanig, Peace of Passarowitz, 1718. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cil. — Schlickeysen-Pallman,o/'. cit. 

FUCHS, NIKOLAI BERNHARD (Dan.). Mint-master at Konigsberg, 
1729-35 ; signed his issues NBF ; was relieved of his functions on 
account of insubordination. 

Bibliography. — Jorgensen, Beskrivehe over Datiske Monter, 1448-1888. 

FUETER, CHRISTIAN (Swiss) 1 7 5 2- 1 844 . Medallist, and Mint-master 
at Berne, 1792- 1837, and Engraver of the Coins. 

He was born on the 2"^^ ot June, 1752, in London, the young- 
est son of Daniel Fueter, a Goldsmith, who had taken refuge in 
England for political reasons. 

His family went to New York, 1754, and afterwards resided at 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, where young Fueter received his first 
training in drawing. They returned to Switzerland in 1769 and 
settled on the borders of the Lake of Neuchatel, whilst Christian 
went to his city of origin, Berne. 

He studied the art of engraving on steel and precious stones 
under the celebrated artist Morikofer, and then went to Paris, 
where he made the acquaintance of, and worked for Graff, Schultze, 
the renowned painter Greuze, and others. 

With his father, young Christian had acquired some skill as a 
gold-and silversmith, and he was very clever as an Engraver of 
seals and medals. 

These many qualifications made him worthy of recommendation 
to the post of Master of the Mint at Berne. 

The Bernese government, amongst whom Fueter possessed as 
patrons and friends such men as Jenner von Brunnadern and the 

— i68 — 

old magistrate von Steiger, now took the artist under its protection, 
and sent him, at its own expense, to visit the mints of Strassburg, 
Frankfort, Augsburg, Munich, Nuremberg, Dresden, and London, 
to get the last finishing touch to his technical perfection. 

In 179 1, Fueter returned to Berne and was duly installed as 
Mint-master there. The Mint-building, which had been destroyed 
by fire in 1787, was reconstructed, but not furnished until 1793. 

Some few years before he had married Katharina Canting, by 
whom he had eight children, four of whom died young. " Acht 
Kinder hat mir Gott geschenkt. Ich habe mit Ihm geteilt; viere 
gab ich zuriick ; viere liess er mir. Ich klage nicht ! " 

In his profession, Fueter displayed uncommon skill. Mint- 
reforms gave him much to do. One of his earliest medals was 
engraved in 1786; it commemorates the inauguration of an Orphan- 
age: obv. Arms with supporters between Abundance and Charity; 

^L. Inscription. He executed several medals for private orders. 
Well-known are his medals commemorating the Battle of Laupen, 
and that known as the "Insel-Medaille". 

To our Medallist belongs the honour of having been the means 
to introduce the French system of currency, which was adopted 
at the end of the eighteenth century by Berne and the states 
known as Concordat-cantone. 

On the fall of the Repubhc of Berne in 1798, Fueter was able 
to hide part of the treasury of the Mint from the plundering 

The government of the Helvetic Republic reinstated the Mint- 
master in his post. At that time the currency for the whole ot 

— 169 — 

Switzerland was struck at Berne, Basle, and Soleure, and from the 
dies engraved by Fueter. 

As a medallist, Fueter set Hedlinger before himself as a pattern. 
One of his well-known medals, is executed in Hedlinger's style of 
General Paoli. Landolt ascribes to him the Thaler of the Helvetic 
Republic, struck at Berne, 1799, and by him are also the following 
coins of Appenzell : Thaler of 18 12 {illustrated); — Half-Thaler 
of 1812; — Halt Schweizer Franken of 1809, &c. ; also : 10 Batzen, 
Batzen, and Angster of Lucerne, 181 1, and Thaler of 1813, &c. 
The artist distinguished himself also as a Gem-engraver; one of 
his best cameos is a portrait of Voltaire, 

In 181 1, Fueter is called Miinzmeister in Bern in a document 
of Lucerne relating to the cutting of dies for an issue of ro Batzen 
pieces, Batzen, and Angster, and in 18 13 for 4 Frank Thalers. 

Up to a few years before his death, Fueter remained in office at 

Thaler of Appenzell, engraved by Christian Fueter. 

the Mint, and during his long career produced a large number of 
dies, mostly for coins. As the currency is not signed, it is difficult 
to give an exact list of his works, but one can safely attribute to 
him the larger proportion of the coins issued at Berne during his 
term of office, not only for the canton of Berne, but for other 
cantons of the coinage-confederacy. 

Christian Fueter was a man of sterling qualities, true, wise, 
active, full of lofty aspirations, who took life earnestly and was 
never satisfied until he had gained complete mastery over his diffi- 

He died from old age on the 19'*" of January, 1844. 

There is a Portrait-medal of him by Griiner. 

Bibliography. — Lina von Greyerz, Christian Fueter, Sammlung Bernischer 
Biographien, Bern, 1900. — Stammbaum d. Fueter, NekroJog im Intelligen^hlatt 
vom 24. Jan. 1844. — Bericht von Dubi im Bernertaschenhuch 18^6. — Bulletin de 

— 170 — 

la Socie'te Suisse de numisniatique, 1892, p. 263. — W. Tobler-Meyer, Die Muni-und 
Medaillen Sammlung des Herrn Hans Wunderly-V . Miiralt in Zurich, 1896-8. — 
R. S. Poole, SvAss Coins in the South Kensington Museum. 

FUGER, L. (Austr.). The name of this Artist appears as that oi 
the designer of a medal, engraved by Detler, on the marriage of 
Francis I. of Austria with CaroUne of Bavaria, 18 16. His initials 
L. F. appear on some other medallic works. 

Bibliography. — Fiala, op. cit. 

FULCONIS, VICTOR LOUIS PIERRE (French). Sculptor, born at 
Algiers ; pupil of Jouffroy and Bonassieux. By him are some Portrait- 
medallions, that of Gambetta, executed in 1870, being among the 
best known. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

FDLDA, DIETRICH HEINRICH (Germ.). Warden, 1774, then 
Mint-master at Cassel, 1783-1831. His initials D. F. appear on the 

FULLERTON, COLONEL (Brit.). 1754-1808. Fellow of the Royal 
Societies of London and Edinburgh. A number of pattern tokens 
for Ayrshire (Scotland), and engraved by J. Milton, were issued in 
silver and copper by Colonel Fullerton (or FuUarton) who was 
afterwards Governor of the Island of Trinidad. These are described 
as Halfcrowns, Shillings, Sixpences, Halfpennies and Farthings, 
and bear on obv. the Bust of George, Prince of Wales, as 
Seneschal of Scotland, and on 1^. the Arms of England. Col. 
Fullerton had obtained the sanction of the Prince of Wales, "intend- 
ing to circulate them in Scotland, but from the presumed illegal- 
ity of using the Royal Arms the design was never carried into 
effect, a few proofs only being struck in copper of the larger sized 
pieces, similar to a halfpenny, and a few silver proofs of the 
shilling size ; of the other a few only in soft metal were taken off 
at the time. Afterwards M"" Matthew Young, in whose hands the 
dies remained, had sdhie struck in silver of all the varieties. They 
are of beautiful workmanship, and are still very rare " (Boyne 
Silver Tokens, p. 25). Spink's Catalogue of the Montagu Collection 
describes 3 varieties of Halfcrowns, 2 of Shillings, 3 of Sixpences, 
and 5 of Halfpennies. 

Col. Fullerton also issued a token with helmeted head of 
Wallace, of which w^re issued 4 specimens in silver, 72 proofs in 
copper, and 500 ordinary impressions; and another with profile of 
Adam Smith on obv., a few proofs only having been struck. 

Bibliography. — Boyne, Silver Tokens, London, 1866. — Sharp, Catalogue of 
Sir George Chetwynd's collection, London, 1834. — Spink and Son, Catalogue of 
Mr. Montagu's Collection, etc. 

— lyi — 
FUNK, I. (Germ.). Mint-master at Neustrelitz, 1759-1763. 

FUNCKE, ANDREAS (Germ.). Mint-master at Schneeberg, after 
1499 (?), and before at Zwickau, 1494- 1500, under the Electors 
John Frederick, Mauritius, and Augustus. He is also mentioned in 
1509 and 1522 as Mint-master " im Buchholz " near S* Annaberg. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallman, op. cit. — Amnion, op. cit. — 
Dr Erbstein, Erorterungen, etc. 

FUNCKE, CONRAD (Germ.). Mint-master at Schunberg, 1492- 
1594, and before at Zwickau, 1493 -1478, and Leipsig. 
Bibliography. — D^ Erbstein, op. cit. 

FUNCKE, SEBASTIAN (Germ.). Son of Andreas Funcke, and 
Mint-master at Schneeberg, Buchholz and Zwickau, 1530, 1556, 
and later. He probably died in 1569 or 1570, and was succeeded 
by his son Hans Funcke, who filled the post of Mint-master for six 
months, the Mint of Schneeberg having been closed in 1570. In 
a letter of the Elector Augustus addressed on the 21*' of February, 
1 5 67, to the Emperor Maximilian 11. from the camp before Gotha, he 
is named " Miintzmeister und lieben getrewen Seoastian Funken ". 
Ammon mentions that Funcke's old hause at Schneeberg was still 
called the Mint when he wrote. 

Bibliography. — Ammon, op. cit. — Df Erbstein, op. cit. 

FURET, LOUIS (Swiss). Contemporary Die-sinking establishment 
of Geneva. M. L. Furet was the successor of Marc-Louis Bovy, at 
the old City Mint, Rue Chantepoulet 91, and is now in Rue de 
I'Arquebuse. He has issued a large number of medals, which will 
be found enumerated under the names of the engravers : Hugues 
Bovy, George Hantz, C. Richard, and other artists who are 
working for him. 

Between 1825 and 1848, the Geneva Mint always belonged to a 
member of the Bovy family, whom the government entrusted 
with the issue of its currency. Jean Samuel Bovy was the first, 
from 1825 to 1838, then came Bovy freres et O'' until 1840, and 
between 1840 and 1848 Marc Louis Bovy, the father of the cele- 
brated engraver Antoine Bovy. The decimal coinage of Geneva of 
1838, 1839, 1843, 1846, 1847 and 1848 was issued at the Rue 
Chantepoulet's works. 

The illustration given on p. 173 of the establishment of M. Furet 
has been obligingly lent me by the Editor of " La Patrie Suisse ", 
who first published it in June 1897. 

The machine in the foreground of the picture serves to cut 
the flans or discs of metal destined to receive the impression ; the 
press which occupies the centre of the workshop is used for the 

— 172 — 

striking. The glass cases in the background contain the puncheons, 
dies, collars, &c. 

FURST, MORITZ {Hung.). Medallist of the first half of the 
nineteenth century, born in 1782 near Pressburg in Hungary. 
He studied at Vienna and Milan, and was a pupil of J. N. Wurth. 
In 1807, he went to the United States of America and in the 
following year obtained the appointment of Engraver at the Mint 
of Philadelphia, a post which he still filled in 1838. His signature : 
FURST F. appears on a large number of medals, some of which 
exhibit fair workmanship, according to D' P. F. Weber's opinion : 
Colonel George Croghan, 1835 ; — General Harrison, 18 18. — 
Governor Isaac Shelby, 18 18; — Major-General Scott, 18 14; — 
Major-General Gaines, 1814; — Major-General Porter, 1814; — 
Major-General Brown, 1814 ; — Brigadier-General Miller, 1814; 

— Brigadier-General Ripley, 18 14; — Major-General Macomb 
(Battle of Plattsburg), 18 14; — Major-General Jackson, 1815; — 
Captain Jacob Jones (Action between the '* Wasp " and '* Frolic "), 
18 12; — Captain Stephen Decatur, Capture of the Macedonian, 
18 1 2 ; — Captain Bainbridge, 1812 ; — Captain Lawrence, 18 13; 
Lieutenant Burrows, 18 13; — Lieutenant Mac Call; — Captain 
Perry, 1813 ; — Captain Elliott; — Captain Warrington, 1814; 

— Captain Blakeley, 1814, — Captain Macdonough, 1814; — 
Captain Henley, 1814; — Lieutenant Qissin, 1814; — Captain 
Biddle (Capture of the British Ship " Penguin ", 181 5 ; — Captain 
Stewart, 181 5. " This series of 27 medals ", says D"" F. P. Weber, 
" commemorating American successes during the war between 
England and the United States, 1812-1815, was struck by special 
resolution of Congress ". By him are also a small medal on 
Captain Perry's naval success on Lake Erie, lo*^ Sept., 18 13, 
ana a coronation medal of Queen Victoria, 1838, signed F. F., 
and the following Portrait-medals : President James Monroe, 
1817; — President John Quincy Adams, 1825; — President 
Andrew Jackson, 1829; — President Martin van Buren, 1837; 

Bibliography. — D"" F. P. Weber, Medals and Medallions, etc. — J. R. Snow- 
den, A Description of the Medals oj Washit^ton ; of National and Miscellaneous 
Medals, Philadelphia, 1861. — H. A. Grueher, English Medals, London, 1891. — 
Loubat, The Medallic History of tlx United States of Ametica, iy/6-iSp6. 

FUSSLI, PETER {Szviss). Bell-founder of Zurich, beginning of the 
seventeenth century, who is supposed to have had some connec- 
tion with the Mint and have been employed there as engraver. 
There is a bell at Zug, dated 1619, cast by him, which bears 
fifteen figures of saints, the shield of arms of Zug, and the 





— 174 — 

inscription MONETA NOVA TUGIENSIS. This is perhaps the 
only bell with a monetary legend. 

Bibliography. — Bulletin dela Societe suisse de numismaliqtie, 1887, p. 159. 

FUTTER, KASPAR (Swiss). Mint-master at Lucerne, 15 97-1 606. 
Betore 1592 he was employed at the Mint ot Chur; then he 
became Mint-master at Zug and in the Valais ; fled to Italy ; 
became Mint-master to Count Agostino Spinola. Between 1601 and 
1606, Putter issued currency for 188.000 Gulden. He was received 
a burgher of Lucerne, in 1597. 

Bibliography. — Of Th. von Liebenau, Die Munimeister von Luiern, Bulletin 
de la Societe suisse de iiumismatique, 1890. — F. Haas, Beitrage ;jm einer 
Lu:(ernerischen Miin^eschichte, Revue Suisse de numismatique, 1899. 

F. V. (Ital.'). Signature of a Medallist, who was working circa 
1560. These initials are found on a medal of Edward IL of Portu- 
gal with bust on obv. and ^. HAVD. SIMPLEX. VIRTVTIS. 
OPVS.— BOM. Pallas to 1. The 1^. was cut by Bombarda. 

Bibliography. — Armand, o/j. cit.. Vol. Ill, p. 99. 

F. V. Vide FRANCESCO VENERI, Mint-inspector at Venice, circa 
F. V. C. Vide FRANZ CARL UHLE, Mint-master at Jagrendorf, 1610. 

F. W. Vide FRIEDRICH WENDEL, Mint-Master at Bonn, 1690- 
1726 ; in 1695 at Cologne for Waldeck. 

F. W. Vide FRANZ (XAVER) WURTH, Die-sinker at Wienna, 

F. W. Vide FRIEDRICH WELLE, Mint-master at Arolsen, 1807- 

F. W. 6 F. Vide FRIEDRICH WILHELM 6 FERAL, Mint-master at 
Dresden, 173 5-1763 ; f 1764. 

F. X. M. Vide FRANZ XAVER MATZENKOPF, 1762-1844, Medallist 
of Salzburg and Vienna. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

— 175 


G Vide GRASSLER or GROSSLER or GRASSLIN. Mint-master at 

Augsburg, 1444-1472. 

G Vide GEORGE NEVILLE. Archbishop of York, 1465-1476. 
Pennies of Henry VI. and Edward IV. struck at the ecclesiastical 
Mint ot York occur with a G for George Neville, the Archbishop. 

G Vide GOULAZ. Mint-master at Geneva, 1542-1552. 

G Vide G AST ALTiO. Mint-master at Dezana, 1580-1586. 

G Vide GASPARI CORNAGLIA. Mint-master at Chamb^ry, 1594- 
G Vide GROBERT. Mint-master at Chamb^ry, 1595-1600. 

G Vide GIORGI RAN. Roman Die-sinker, 1590-1610. 

G Vide GRUBER. Mint-master at Erfurt, 1599-1607; also F. G. 

G r/i^ GRONBERGER. Mint-master at Erfurt 1607-1609; also 
H. G. 

G Vide ARNOLD GALL (?). Mint-master at Cassel, 1637. 

G Vide GEORGENS. Mint-master at Liineburg, 16 12- 1645 ; also 
I. G. 

G Vide HEINRICH PETER GROSSKURT. Medallist at Berlin and 
Dresden, 1 694-1734. 

6 FiW^GESSNER. Father and Son, Die-sinkers and Mint-masters 
at Zurich, 1706-1770. 

G Vide GOUIN. Russian Medallist, 1707-17 14. 

G Vide GEORGI. Swedish Medallist, worked at BerUn, 1750-1782 ; 
t 1790. 

G Vide GODECKE. Hamburg Medallist, 1736-1761 ; also P. H. G. 

G Vide GODECKE. Mint-director at Leipzig, 1750-175 3; also 
I. G. G. 

^ 176 ^ 

G nde GRAVENSTEIN. Die-sinker of Mittau, circa 1764. 

G Vide GERVAIS. Die-sinker and Medallist, at Coblenz and 
Neuwied, 1750-1775 ; also E, G. 

6 Vide JOHANN SAMUEL GOTZINGER. Die-sinker at Ansbach, 
1752 f 1791. 

G Vide FRIEDRICH GOTZINGER. Die-sinker at Wiirzburg, circa 

G Vide GARTENBERG. Mint-director at Krakau, 1 765-1 772 ; 
also V. G. 

G Vide JOHANN BALTHASAR GASS. Die-sinker at S' Petersburg, 
1768-1797; also I. B. G. 

G Vide F. W. GASS. Medallist of S' Petersburg, circa 1798. 

G Vide JOHANN GEORG GROHMANN. Mint-master at Dresden, 1833- 
1844. On the rare Saxon thalers of 1844, the G is followed by a 
dot, which signifies that they were struck alter Grohmann's death. 

G r/J^ HEINRICH GUBE. MedaUist at Berlin, 1820, and S' Peters- 
burg, 1830. 

6 r/i^ GOTTLIEB GOETZE. Berlin Die-sinker, «V^^ 1828- 1840. 

G Vide GALEAZZI. Turin Die-sinker, 1846. 

G Vide GORI. Florentine Die-sinker, born in 1838. 

G Vide JONAS GORGENS. Mint-master at Liineburg, 1612-1645. 

GG Vide GEORGE GALE. Mint-master at York, 1 547-1553. 

A. G. Vide ANDREA GABRIEL. Rector and Provisor of Cattaro, 

A. 6. Vide ANTON GROTH. Mint-master at Stockholm, 1641-1645. 

A. G. F/W^ ARNOLD GALL. Mint-master at Cassel, 1637-1657; 
t 1657. 

A. G. Vide ALOYSIO GRITTI. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1688. 

A. G. F/Je ANTOINE GUILLEMARD. Medallist at Prague, 1760- 
1812 ; also A. G. F. 

— 177 — 

A. G.Fidc ALEXANDER GRANDINSON. Mint-master at Stockholm, 
circa 1837. 

A. G. FUe A. GIROMETTI. Medallist at Rome, circa 1848. 

A. G. P. Fide ANTON GOTTFRIED POTT. Mint-master at Miinster 
and Paderborn between 1714 and 1723; Hoxter, 1715, 1721 and 
1725 ; and Cleves, 1742. 

B. G. Fide B. GABRIEL. Rector of the Mint at Cattaro, 1469-1472. 

B. G. Fide GIOVANNI BACCEROTTI. Papal Mint-master at Fuligno, 

B. G. Fide BACCUET and GAINIER. Joint Mint-masters at Geneva, 

C. G. Fide CHRISTIAN GOTTER. Mint-master at Eisleben, Stolberg 
and Ellrich, 1577-82. 

G. G. Fide CHRISTOPH GROSSE. Ducal Mining-director at Saalfeld, 

C. G. Fide CASPAR GIESELER. Mint-master at Moritzburg, near 
Hildesheim, 1628-34. 

C. G. Fide CHRISTIAN GUTTMANN. Mint-master at Bromberg, 

C. G. Fide CASPAR GEELHAAR. Mint-inspector at Konigsberg in 
Prussia, 1667-1670, Warden there, 1692, then Mint-master, 
f 1728. 

C. G. Fide CLOSTER GARS. Private Issuer of tokens &c. 1744. 

C. G. Fide CLADDIO GHERARDINI. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1615. 

C. G. F. Fide CARL GUSTAV FEHRMANN, 1746-1809, Swedish 

C. G. H. Fide CARL GUSTAV HARTMANN. Swedish Medallist, 1699, 
t 1739- 

C. G. K. FideC. G, KORN. Medallist, and Mint-master at Mayence, 
second half of the nineteenth century. 

C. G. L. Fide CARL GOTTLIEB LAUFER. Mint-master at Nuremberg, 

D. G. Fide DOMENICO GRITTI. Rector and Provisor of Cattaro, 

D. G. F/J^ DEGENNARO. Medallist of Naples and Vienna, 1702- 
_I730 ; also De G., or DE GEN. or A. D. I. 

L. FoRREli. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — II. 12 

- 178 - 

D. G. Fide DE GIANELLI. Neapolitan Medallist, 1731-1768. 

E. G. Fide JACQUES EDOUARD GATTEAUX. Medallist of Paris, 
early part of the nineteenth century. 

E. G. or E. G, F. FideLLlkS GERVAIS. Die-sinker of Neuwied and 
Coblentz, 1750- 1775. 

Zweibriicken, 1754- 1757, afterwards in the service of Hanau- 
Lichtenberg, 175 8- 175 9. 

E. G. N. Fide ERNST GEORG NEUBAUER. Mint-master at Berlin, 

F. G. Fide FLORIAN GRUBER. Mint-master at Saalfeld, 159 5- 15 97, 
Erfurt, 1 599-1607, and Nordhausen, 1615. 

F. G. Fide FRANZ GUICHARD. Die-sinker at Mompelgart, 1610- 
1620, and at Stuttgart, until 1628. 

F. G. Fide TILI??0 GALEOTTI. Mini-master at Gubbio, 1626. 

sinker, and Mint-master at Gubbio, 1646- 167 3. 

F. G. r/^ FRIEDRICH GRUNER. Mint-master at Christiania, 1652- 

F. G. FideTRk^Z GILLT. Mint-master at Langenargen, 1690- 1694; 
also F. I. G. 

F. G. Fide GORDILLO. Mexican Die-sinker, early part ot the nine- 
teenth century. 

F. G. D. FideT^tntmC GDILLAOME DUBUT, 171 r- 1799. Die-sinker 
at Dresden, Dantzig and S' Petersburg. 

H. G. Fide HANS GEBHARD. Mint-master at Nuremberg and men- 
tioned as Die-sinker between 1 579-1 588. 

H. G. Fide HIERONYMUS GRONBERGER. Mint-master at Erfurt, 
1 607- 1 609. 

H. G. Fide HANS GRUBER. Die-sinker, and Mint-master at Saal- 
feld, 1 5 82-1 5 84, and Nordhausen, 1618-1624. 

H. G. Fide EKVS GLASER. Mint-master at Schleswig, 1641-1644. 

— 179 — 

B. G. Fide HANS GEBHARD. Austrian Die-sinker, 1603-1633, Mint- 
master at Glatz, 1629. 

H. G. Fide HANS GESSNER. Father and Son, Die-sinkers at Zurich, 

H. G. Fide HEINRICH GUBE. Die-sinker at Berlin, and at S' Peters- 
burg, after 1830. 

H. G. M. Fide HANS GE0R6 MEINHART. Mint-master at Winsen on 
the Luhe, 1620-21, and Moisburg, 1622-1623. 

H. G. {Germ.^. These initials appear on a silver medal of Luther, 

H. G. {Germ.). Initials of a Frankfurt Medallist. They appear on the 
following medals : 1573, Anna Deublingerin; — (1577), Johann 

Georg Weyss von Limburg. 

Faust von Aschaffenburg ; — 1578, Matthias Ritter; — 1579, 
Georg Weyss of Limburg (illustrated); — (1580), Hieronymus 
zum Jungen. These initials occur sometimes in monogram K>- 
Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsclie, Medailkure, Berlin, 1884. 

I. G. (French). Copper-plate-engraver, who worked at Lyons, 
circa 1522-1526. Some have seen in these initials the signature ot 
Jacques Gauvain, the Medallist, but M. Rondot is of opinion that 
they stand for Jean de Gourmont. 

I. G. Fide JACOB GLADEHALS. Goldsmith and Die-sinker of Berlin, 
circa, 1597-1617. 

I. G. Fide. JORG GEITZKOFLER. Mint-master at Joachimsthal, 

I. G. Fide JEAN GOUJON. French Die-sinker, f 1572. 

I. G. Fide JACOB GRYNAEUS of Basle. His initials appear on a 
School-token of 1596. 

— i8o — 

- I. G. Vide JONAS GEORGENS. Mint-master at Steinebeck, near 
Hamburg, 1603-1609, Lauenburg, 1609-1618, Luneburg, 1612- 
1645 and 1649. 

I. 6. T/Wd JOACHIM GADE. Mint-master at Wismar, 1715-1738. 

I. 6. Fide JOACElti GARLIEB. Mint-master at Rostock, 1796. 

I. G. B. Fide JOHANN GEORG BANDEL. Die-sinker at Darmstadt, 
circa 1666. 

I. G. B. or G. B. Fide JOHANN GEORG BUTTNER. Mint-master at 
Cassel, 1 65 7- 1 680. 

I. G. B. Fide JOHANN GEORG BREDER. Die-sinker, and Mint-master 
at Brunswick, 167 5 -1685. 

I. G. B. Fide JOHANN GEORG BUNSEN. Mint-master at Frankbrt- 
on-Main, 1790-183 3. 

I. 6. B. Fide JOEkHH GOTTFRIED BETULIUS. Medallist of Stuttgart, 

I. G. G. Fide JOHANN GEORG GOEDECKE. Mint-director at Leipzig, 
1752-1753, and Altenkirchen, 1747-175 5. 

I. G. H. Fide JOHANN GEORG HOLTZHEY, 1695- 1760. Medallist of 

I. G. H. Fide JOEAHH GEORG HOLTZHEY, 1728- 1808. Medallist of 

I. G. H. Fide JOHANN GOTTFRIED HELD, 1734-1799. Die-sinker 
at Breslau. 

I. G. H. Fide JOEAUfi GERHARD HULLS, 1735-1815. Warden, and 
Mint-master at Cologne. 

I. G. H. Fide I. G. HANCOCK. Birmingham Medallist, 1780-1802. 

I. G. I. Fide JOHANN GEORG JUNKER. Die-sinker at Leipzig, 1708- 

I. 6. I. Fide I. G. JAGER. Medallist of S' Petersburg, second half of 
the eighteenth century. 

I. G. K. Fide JOHANN GOTTLOB KITTEL, 1702-1738. Die-sinker of 

— i8r — 

I. G. M. Fide JOHANN GEORG MADELUNG. Mint-master at Konigs- 
berg, 1797-1807. 

I. G. P. Vide JOHANN GEORG PRAHM. Mint-master at Kongsberg, 

I. G. S. Vide JOHANN GEORG SORBERGER. Die-sinker at Gotha, 

I. G. S. VideJOEkHH GEORG SEIDLITZ. Gem and Medal-engraver at 
Vienna, 1699-1716. 

I. G. S. Vide JOHANN GEORG SCHOMBURG. Mint-master at Gotha, 
1689; Vienna, until 1716; Dresden, 1716-1734; i* 1735. 

I. G. S. Vide JOHANN GOTTFRIED SIEGEL. Mint-master at Harzge- 

rode, 1752-1767, 

I. G. S. Vide JOHANN GOTTFRIED STUDER. Mint-master at Dres- 
den, 1813-1832. 

master at Gotha. 1683-1690. 

I. G. W. Vide JOHANN GEORG WUNSCH. Mint-master at Heidel- 
berg, 1712-1736. 

I. G. W. Vide JOHANN GEORG WACHTER. Medallist, born at Heidel- 
berg in 1724, resided at S' Petersburg, 1741-1791. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, Muti:(^Abkur^ungen, Berlin, 1896. 

I. G. (Gd-rm.). These initials appear on a medal ofWilliam of Baden, 
dated 16 17, which Erman is inclined to attribute to Guichard, 
although the signature does not seem to be FG. 

K. G. VideKARL GRONAU. Mint-master at Warsaw, 1830-1833. 

L. G. Vide LARS GRANDEL. Die-sinker at Stockholm, 1800-1836. 

L. G. Vide L. GENNARI. Die-sinker at Rome, circa 1824. 

L. G. L. Vide LAZARUS GOTTLIEB LADFER. Mint-master at Nurem- 
berg, 1670-1690. 

M. G. VideMlCELLL GROBERT. Mint-master at Chambery, 1583. 

M. G. Vide MICHELE GUARDINI. Mint-master at Parma, 1594- 

— l82 — 

M. G. A. Fide MAGNUS GUSTAV ARBIEN. Medallist of Copenhagen, 

. Bf. G. A. Fide MARINO E. SEPULVEDA. Die-sinker at Madrid, circa 

M. G. or M6 (Germ.'). A number of medals, all dated 1543, 
bear this signature of an unknown Nuremberg Medallist. 
Erman mentions a MATHES GEBEL, whose name is recorded 
as a sculptor (Bildschnitzer) in 1523, and who possibly is the 
author ot these medals, the work on which is quite character- 
istic. These medals are : 1543, Johann van der Aa; — Flo- 
rian Griespeck, Secretary to King Ferdinand; — Augustin 
Hirschvogl, a Nuremberg artist ; — Ulrich Stark ; — Leopold 
Heyperger (illustrated) ; — Ph. Hermann ; — Jacob Seisneckher, 

Leopold Heyperger. 
Court-Painter to Ferdinand I (illustrated') -y — Hans Loffelholz, 

Jacob Seisneckher. 

of Colberg. From a similarity in the treatment and work, the 
following medals may be attributed to the same artist : 1542, Hans 
Loffelholz ^. Armour, helmet and shield ; — 1 542, Hans Christoph 
Loffelholz; — (1542), Felicitas Loffelholz; — 1537, Hans Eisen ; 
— Arnold and Nicholas Vennck ; — Hans Poczke ; — Wolf Pesler ; 
— Bartholomaeus Haller; — 1540. Se bald Cam ere r ; — 1541, A 

- i83 - 

member of the Lira family; — Wilhelm Loffelholz; — 1542, Hans 
Nuykum ; — Ulrich von Kudorff; — 1543, Melchior von Osse; 
Undated, Hans Holzer; — Servatius Etinger ; — Hans Guttetter ; — 
Stephan and Margarethe Praun ; — I544- Jorg Kres; — 1546, 
Friedrich Mulner. 

As a rule the style of this artist is sketchy ; his portraits are rude 
and fugitive ; the decorations rough ; the legends small. Of course, 
it may be, these medals do not belong to one hand, but are the out- 
come of a school ; at any rate, there is a vast difference between 
these inferior productions and the glorious works of the early part of 
the sixteenth century. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884. 

N. G. A. Vide NICOLAS GATTEAUX, 175 I- 183 2. Medallist at Paris, 

P. G. Vide PETER GRUNER. Mint-master at Copenhagen, 1629- 
1643, and Christiania, 1643-1652. 

P. G. Vide PETER GRUNER. Mint-master at Christiania, 1675-1685. 

P. G. Vide PETER GIANELLI, 1761-1806. Medallist at Copenha- 
gen, 1786-1806. 

P. G. N. Vide PAUL GOTTLIEB NURNBERGER. Mint-master at Nu- 
remberg, 1721-1743. 

R. G. Vide ROLANDO GASTALDO. Mint-master at Dezana, 1580- 

T. G. Vide TRIFONE GRADENIGO. Rector at Cattaro, 1532-1533. 

T. G. Vide GEORGE GALE. Mint-master at York, 1547-1553. 

V. G. Vide WOLFGANG GUGLINGER. Mint-director at Kremnitz, 

V. G. Vide URSUS GRAF. Die-sinker at Basle, 15 16-1532. 

V G. Vide VON GARTENBERG. Mint-director at Krakau, 1765- 

V. G. T. Vide GIROLkUO TORRATO. Mint-master at Vercelli, 1544- 

Z. G. Vide ZUANO GARZONI. Rector of Cattaro, 1596-1598. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cil. 

6 (Germ.). The medals of the artist whose initials JG or GOG 
appear on them are all uniface and in silver. They are : 1548, 

— 184 — • ' 

Ludwig von Hutten ; — (1551)- Thomas Loffelholz von Colberg; 
— 1552, Georg Tetzel {illustrated) ; — 1553, Otto Flosser, phy- 

Georg Tetzel, 1552. 

sician; — Mathias LofFelholz von Colbert; — 1555, Michael Bur- 

Erman names JORG GAR, a Nuremberg Goldsmith, born in 15 18, 
as the possible author of these medals. Nagler and other writers 
have suggested Jorg Geitzkofler, but it is now proved that they 
are not his work. 

Bibliography. — Erman, op. cit. — Nagler, Monogiammistetu, &c. 

G (Saxofi). Unknown MedalHst, or Goldsmith, who was w-orking 
in Saxony circa 1530. This initial letter G occurs on a medal of 
Prince-Elector John of Saxony and his son. 

Bibliography. — Nagler, Die Monogramtnisten, 1881. — Tenzel, Tab. V, n" 7. 

G. A. Vide GEORG ANDRAEA. Mint-master at Weimar, 1 620-1 624. 

G. A. C. Vide GIACOMO ANTONIO CONTARINI. Mint-inspector at 
Venice, 1752. 

C. A. D. Vide GOTTLOB AUGUST DIETELBACH. MedalHst of the first 
half of the nineteenth century, w^ho resided at Munich, then at 

G. A. E. Vide GUSTAV ADOLPH ENEGREN. Swedish Medallist of the 
first half of the nineteenth century. 

G. A. F. Vide GIOVANNI ANTONIO FASULO. Die-sinker at Naples, 
circa 1596. 

G. A. H. Vide GEORG ALBRECHT HILLE. Mint-master at Riga, 

- i85 - 

G. A. S. Vide GIROLAMO ANTONIO SORANZO. Mint-inspector at 
Venice, 1760. 

G. A. S. Fide GLORG ANTON SCHRODER. Mint-master at Rethwisch, 
in the Duchy of Plon. 1 761-1762. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

GAAB, G. D. (^Germ.y Medal-chaser and Embosser, of the middle 
of the eighteenth century. He was probably a native of Augsburg, 
and was employed by a Mr HoUis. Mr H. A. Grueber states that 
Gaab's medal of Sir Christopher Wren is the only one which 
bears his signature, and that the workmanship is good. 

The following medals, embossed and chased, are supposed to be 
the work of this artist : Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, 
-j- 1509; — Philip and Mary, 1555; — John Ray, naturalist, 
T 1705, &c. 

Gaab, as well as Stuart, were much employed upon imitations 
of fifteenth and sixteenth century medals. 

Bibliography. — Franks & Grueber, MedalUc Illustrations of British History, 
London, 1885. 

GAAP, JOHANN ADOLPH (Germ.). Modeller and Embosser of the 
second half of the seventeenth century ; died at Augsburg in 1703. 
He resided many years in Italy,- where he executed a medaUion in 
iron with portrait of the celebrated painter Carlo Maratti. Bolzenthal 
adds, this work is perhaps the only one of the kind that we owe 
to this artist. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, Kunstgeschichte der modertun Medaillen- Arbeit. 
Berlin, 1840. 

GABALUS (Germ.). Ammon (Sammlung beriihmter Medailleurs, 
Niirnberg, 1778) mentions this artist's signature on a medal, 
dated 1736, on the canonization of Johannis Nepomuceni. 

GABET, JEAN CLAUDE (French). Mint-master at Lyons, from 
an XI to 1816; distinctive mark, a bee. 

GABET, JOSEPH RAINERY (French). Son of the last, and Mint- 
master at Lyons, from 18 17 to 1823 ; similar symbol. 

GABRIEL, ANDREA (Ital.). Rector and Provisor of the Mint of 
Cattaro, 1586-1588, under the Venetian domination. His initials 
appear on the currency. 

GABRIEL, B. (Ital.). Rector of Cattaro, 1469-1472. Some of the 
coins bear the letters E.G. 

GABRY, JEAN (Belg.). Seal-engraver, circa 1552. He was paid the 
sum of 15 livres by the magistrate of Tournay in 1552 for engrav- 

— i86 — 

ing the large and small seals of the mayor and aldermen of the 
city. The document reads: " A Jehan Gabry, le josne, orphevre, 
pour avoir refaict les grand et petit sceaulx d'argent des mayeur et 
eschevins de ladicte ville. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Bibliographie des graveurs beiges, Revue de la 
numismatique beige, i860. 

GACHET, J. (Swiss). Contemporat}'^ artist, who designed a prize- 
medal of the " Soci^te d'horticulture de la Cote ". His name appears 
on the medal, with that of the engraver, C. Richard, of Geneva. 
The obverse side represents the Castle of Nyon. The piece was 
struck by L. Furet at Geneva. 

Bibliography. — Rei'ue de la societc siiisse de numismatique, 1893. 

GADE, JOACHIM (Germ.). Mint-master at Wismar, 171 5-1738. 

GAGGINI, ANNIBALE (^Ital.). Medallist of Palermo, who worked 
there between 1583 and 1607. The renowned sculptor Antonio 
Gaggini was his uncle. Three medals, all dated 1583, are known 
by this engraver : Marcantonio Colonna, Duke of Paliano, 1535- 
1584; — Cesare Marcello, Archbishop of Palermo, 1578-1588. 
^L. Dove holding olive-branch in its beak flying towards Noah's 
ark; — Another, ^L. Inscription in the field, and date 
A.D.MDLXXXIII. All three medals are described by Armand from 
specimens in the Palermo Museum. 

Bibliography. — Armand, Les medailkiirs italiens des XV^ el XVI<^ siecles, Paris, 
1883-1887. — Blanchet, Notiveau manuel de Numismatique du moyen age et moderne, 
Paris, 1890. 

GAGIA, ALEXANDER DE (Hung.). Mint-warden at Karlsburg 
(Transsylvania), under Maria-Theresia, 1705. 

Bibliography. — Resch, Siebenbiirgische Munien und Medaillen, 1901. 

GAGNEPAIN, JEAN-LOUIS (Belg.). His initials or name appear on 
some of the obsidional coins of Antwerp, 1814. 

GAIOS (Fide CAIUS, vol. I, p. 192). The gem mentioned as this 
artist's work is described as follows, in the Marlborough Sale Cata- 
logue, 1900, Lot 270, and realized i. no. 

"Head of the Dog Sirius, radiated and open-mouthed, in front 
face. A very renowned intaglio, most profoundly cut, and mar- 
vellously finished in a material worthy of it, the kind of carbuncle 
known as the " Syriam " or " Siriam " garnet, as being obtained 
of the finest quality from the neighbourhood of the ancient capital 
of Pegu. 

"On the collar of the dog is the signature TAIOC 6nOI€l. 
Natter first described it in his " Traite de la methode antique de 
graver", &c, N° XVI., and also in the Bessborough Catalogue, 

- i87 - 

N° 40 C, and he acknowledges to have copied it. His copy, in to- 
paz, is at S' Petersburg. Other gems with this subject, some of them 
certainly antique, but similarly treated, exist in different collec- 
tions; one is in the Payne Knight Collection in the British Museum, 
and another in that at Berlin. " 

The Marlborough gem was bought by a dealer who had large 
orders from the Boston Museum, but I carniot say whether it has 
found in America its resting place. 

King, in his Handbook of Engraved Gems, p. 263, adds the 
following interesting particulars concerning the Sirius of the Marl- 
borough Collection. 

" A garnet on which the Head seen in front of a dog, Sirius or 
the Dogstar, with the inscription FAIOC €nOI€l on the collar, is 
very deeply cut, and which formerly belonged to Lord Bessborough 
and afterwards passed with the rest of his gems into the Marlbor- 
ough Collection, belongs to the list of very famous gems. This 
Head is so perfect and spirited a work that one is at a loss what 
most to admire in it, whether the imitation of life here carried to 
the highest point, or the extraordinary skill in the overcoming ot 
all the difficulties, the licking, tender flesh in the muzzle, the inside 
of the jaws, the teeth, the nose, or the tongue that hangs out — 
* ut fessi canes linguam ore de patulo potus aviditate projiciens '. 
Raspe doubted as to the antiquity of this stone ; Natter had prac- 
tised his profession a considerable time in London, and to him has 
this work been ascribed. " Thus speaks Kohler, p. 138. But does 
this report (which Murr expressly points out as resting upon an 
error) possess sufficient weight that, upon the strength of it, we 
should forthwith " number amongst those gems in which both 
work and legend are modern", what Kohler himself styles '* a work 
so carefully finished that neither ancient nor modern tines have 
produced its equal " ? Nevertheless, Natter in the Bessborough 
Catalogue calls the stone a Bohemian garnet; a species, according 
to Kohler, not known to the ancient gem -engravers. On the other 
hand, Clarac, I know not on what authority, calls it a Syrian 
garnet. [It is actually an Oriental garnet of the finest quality, which 
might be taken for a spinel.] Natter, it is true, openly acknow- 
ledges that he did occasionally put Greek names upon his own 
works, yet does he as distinctly deny that he ever passed them off 
for antiques. But the gem in question he calls Greek, and only 
professes (p. 27) to have copied it with some success. Finally, as to 
what concerns the name which Kohler stigmatises as not happily 
chosen, because thereby a Roman engraver — Caius — appears upon 
the scene, on this very account would a forger have made a more 
" happy " choice of a designation. The name, however, in itself, is 
not liable to the objection that we hereafter are obliged to make 

— i88 — 

good against the names '' Quintus" and '* Aulus" : as the example 
of the jurist Gaius can sufficiently prove. In addition to this, it 
cannot be proved in a single case that gems with the name of Gaios 
were known earlier than our Sirius. Upon the Berlin obsidian even 
Winckelmann had overlooked the inscription. Therefore it seems 
to me that as yet no sufficiently valid reasons have been adduced 
for its suspiciousness, although the full certainty of its genuineness 
can only be attained by a repeated examination of the original. But, 
after repeated examination, I fear this noble piece must be given 
to some great artist of the Cinque-cento ; the work displaying none 
of the hieratic stiffness ever characterising this head of the Egyptian 
Solar Lion, Sirius Southis, not uncommon in garnets of Hadrian's 
time. But — the point of most weight with me — the surface 
shows none of the wear of time that bites ever so deeply into the 
antique stone; and here this has certainly not been rectified by 
modern repolishing] ". 

GAILLANDON, ANTHOINE (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot 
Poitiers, 1563-1590. 

GAILLANDON, FRANCOIS (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Poitiers, 1 570-1 583. 

GAILLANDON, JEHAN (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Poitiers, 1544-15 50. 

GAILLANDON, RAPHAEL (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Poitiers, 1555-1563. 

GAILLARD, CYPRIEN (French). Mint-master at Marseilles, from 
an IX to 1809. Distinctive symbol, a star. 


GALABERT, JEAN (Freftch). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Toulouse, 
1693-1698. He fled into Spain after having taken possession ot the 
puncheons belonging to the Mint. 

Bibliography. — Alb. Barre, Graveurs particuliers des monnaies de France, 
Annuaire de la Societe de numismatique, 1867. 

6ALBRUNNER, PAUL CEARLLS (French) . Gem-engraver, Sculptor, 
and Medallist, born in Paris on the iS*'' February, 1823, died in 
1900. He was a pupil of F. Rude and Farocnon, and entered 
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1844. The following works by him 
were exhibited at the annual Paris Salons : 1849, Portrait of 
^me Q** intaglio; — 185 1, Two Portrait-medallions and a Medal; 
— 1853, Portrait of M"'' Pauline L**, agate-onyx; — 1855, Four 
engraved gems. Portraits on carnelian ; — Study, after a coin ot 
Pyrrhus; — 1859, Portraits of the children of M™^ H**, agate-onyx; 

— i89 — 

— Head of Bacchus, agate-onyx, after the antique; — i86r, Bust 
of Antinoiis, Brazilian amethyst; — Spring, onyx cameo; — Head 
of Medusa, agate-onyx cameo; — 1863, Three Portrait camei in 
agate-onyx; — 1866, Portrait of Napoleon III., oriental chalcedony; 

— 1867, the Eucharist, agate-onyx, cameo; — 1869, Two Portrait- 
camei on Brazilian agate-onyx; — Ofterings to Minerva (now at 
the Luxembourg Museum); — 1873, Two Portrait-camei, agate- 
onyx; — 1874, Portrait of M"'^ L**, Medallion in terra cotta; — 
1880, Five Portrait-camei, agate-onyx; — 1881, Portrait-medallion ; 

— 1882, Portrait of the late P. Simonet, cameo in sardonyx, &c. 
At the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1900, this artist exhibited a 
marble bust and one in chalcedony of M"^ M. H**. 

M. Babelon, in Revue de I'Art ancien el vwdcrne, Nov. 1900, 
writes : "M. Galbrunner a, au Luxembourg, une allegorie de 
dimensions modestes, intitulee ''Les Offrandes a Minerve"; le 
sujet correctement traite rappelle certains camees de la Renaissance 
italienne. Ce meme artiste a expose au Grand Palais un excellent 
buste de jeune fille en ronde bosse, sur une calcedoine couleur mine 
de plomb, teinte sombre et mate qui, malheureusement enleve ^ 
I'oeuvre toute espece de charme. " 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvra)', op. cil. — L. Benedite, Catalogue du 
Musee du Luxembourg, Grande Encyclopedic. — Babelon, Pierres gravies, Paris, 

GALEj_GEORGE {Brit.'). Mint-master at York, 1547-15 53. His 
initials ^ G {sic) are met with on a shilling of Edward VL 
{Rud., IX, 10). Hawkins adds " TG are said to be the initials of 
Thomas Gale, Mint-master at York; but this a mistake, for that 
officer's name was George". It is more likely that the monogram 
has been misread. 

Bibliography. — Ruding, Annals of the Coinage oj Great Britain, 1840. — 
Hawkins, 5i7v^r Coins of England, London, 1887. 

GALEAZZI (Ital.). Medallist and Die-sinker at Turin in the middle 
years of the nineteenth century. I have seen his signature on the 
following medals : Josephine TornieUi-Bellini, Italian philanthro- 
pist, 1837; — A. M. Vassali-Landi a celebrated physician; — 
Thomas Valperga de Coluso, Italian scientist, &c. 

GALEAZZO, MONDELLA (Ital.). Gem-engraver at Verona in the 
sixteenth century. 

GALEOTTO, ANTONIO (Ital.). Mint-master at Gubbio under 
Innocent XII., 1691-1700. All the Quattrini of that Pope described 
in Cinagli, under N°' 184-229, were struck at Gubbio by Antonio 
Galeotti and his two brothers, Giuseppe and Michelangelo, and 
some were even issued during the Sede Vacante of 1700. 

Bibliography. — Cinagli, Le Monete dei Papi, 1848. 

— 190 — 

GALEOTTO, GIOVANNI, FRANCESCO (Jtal.). Mint-master at Gubbio 
under Benedict XIII., 1725. He struck Mezzi Baiocchi of the Jubilee 
year 1725. 

GALEOTTO, GIUSEPPE {ltd.). Mint-master at Gubbio under 
Innocent XII., 1691-1700, in conjunction with his two brothers, 
Antonio and Michelangelo. 

GALEOTTO MICHELANGELO {ltd.). Mint-master at Gubbio under 
Innocent XII., and Clement XL, circa 169 1- 1720. This Zecchiere 
issued Quattrini and Mezzi Baiocchi. 

GALEOTTO, PAOLO EMILIO {ltd.). Mint-master and Coin-engraver 
at Gubbio under Pope Innocent X., Alessandro VII., Clement X. and 
Innocent X. circa 1648- 1686. His Quattrini are signed F. G. {Fecit 
Galeottus) or G G {Galeotto Gubbio). 

Bibliography. — Cinagli, op. cit. — Nagler, Monogrammisten, 1881. 

GALEOTTO, PIETRO PAOLO {ltd.). Goldsmith, Coin-and Medal- 
engraver, generally known as PIETRO PAOLO ROMANO. He was born 
at Rome, came quite young to Florence and studied there wood- 
carving and medal-engraving under Maestro Salvestro. The first 
mention of him is dated 1532 ; about 1550 he entered the service 
of Cosimo I., Grand Duke of Tuscany, as Die-cutter at the Mint ot 
Florence, where Giovanni Paolo and Domenico Poggini were 
already employed in a similar capacity. Armand informs us that in 
1575 he became assistant-engraver at the Papal Mint, a post which 
he probably did not fill very long, as he died at Florence on the 
19''' of September, 1584. Vasari praises the artist in very eulo- 
gistic terms and mentions twelve reverses of medals of Duke 
Cosimo, executed by Pietro Paolo Galeotto. He says : " These 
represent Pisa restored by the Duke almost to her pristine condi- 
tion, he having drained the marshes around the city and effected 
other improvements; the Aqueducts whereby Florence has been 
supplied with water brought from divers places; the magnificent 
and beautiful edifice erected for the magistrates ; the Union of the 
States of Florence and Sienna ; the erection of a City and two for- 
tresses in the Island of Elba; the Column brought to Florence from 
Rome, and set up in the Piazza della Trinita ; that work of public 
utility, the preservation, enlargement, and completion of the 
Library of San Lorenzo ; the Institution of the Knights of San Ste- 
fano; the resignation of the government to the Prince; the fortifi- 
cation of the State ; the Militia or armed bands of the country ; and 
finally the Palace of the Pitti with its magnificent and royal gardens, 
fountains, and other decorations. These works are all very beauti- 
ful, and are executed with much care, in a very graceful manner; 

— 191 — 

as is the head of Duke Cosimo, which is a work of perfect beauty ". 
(Vasari, V, 390, note i, and VII, 543.) 

A certain Pietro Paolo Romano received in 1487, in conjunction 
with Emiliano Orfini, a payment on account of the Mint of 
Foligno. This artist may have been our Galeotto's father. 

It is probable that a large number of the coins of Cosimo I. 
were engraved by Galeotto. 

Scudo of Cosimo I., probably engraved by Galeotto. 

Only six of Galeotto's medals bear dates, which comprise the 
period between 1552 and 1570. Judging from the number of his 
productions still extant, he must have been one of the most active 
medallists of the sixteenth century. His signature was PPR or P.P.R. 
and in some instances P.P.RO or PETRVS PAVLVS ROM. The 
following works are nearly all signed by him : Federigo Asinari, 
Count of Camerino; — Annibale Attellami ; — Antonio Calmone, 
2 types ; — Gianbattista Castaldo, a Neapolitan, Count of Piadena, 
one of Charles V.'s generals and Governor of Transsylvania, 155 1- 
1556, -|- 1562; — Ottavio Farnese, second Duke of Parma, and 
Margaret of Austria ; — Goffredo Franco ; — Vincenzo Goletti ; — 
Giovanni Alvise Gonfalonieri and Elisabetta Scotti ; — Cesare Gon- 
zaga, son ot Ferrante Gonzaga, 1523-1575; — Vespasiano Gon- 
zaga, Duke ot Sabbionetta, 1531-1591; — Gianbattista Grimaldi, a 
Genoese nobleman, philosopher, theologian and poet, circa 1565; 
— Francesco Guereri ; — Franco Lercari; — Alberico Lodrone, 
one of Charles V.'s generals; — Giampaolo Lomazzo, a Milanese 
painter and writer, 15 38-1600; — Fulgentia Luzara Cereda, dated 
1560; — Cristoforo Madruzzo, Cardinal, 15 42- 15 78, 3 var. of ^L. 
a.) P . P . RO Harbour, with Shipping, and Neptune ; — b.) TRAN- 
QVILSame type; — c.) VT. VIVAT.— V.E.V. Phoenix; — 
Another, of smaller diameter, and with different bust, dated 1552 
and signed PPR.; — Giorgio Madruzzo, -f 1560; — Fortunato 
Madruzzo ; — Isabelle de Challant, wife of Gianfederigo Madruzzo, 
dated 1557; — Gianantonio Maggi; — Tommaso Marini, Duke of 

— 192 — 

Terranuova; — Jacopo de' Medici, Mar<^uis ofMarignano, one of 
Charles V.'s generals, 1497-15 5 5 ; — Cassandra Marinoni Melilupi, 
witeof Deifobo II, -|- 1575 ; — Giampaolo Melilupi, sonofDeifobo II. 
and Cassandra Marinoni ; — Francesco Cornelio Musso, the Iso- 
crates of Italy, -J- 1574 (^illustrated) — Camillo Orsini, Marquis 

Francesco Cornelio Musso. 

of Lamentana, 1492-1559; — Bianca Pansana Carcania, three 
varieties of j^. a.) Promethus and the vulture ; b.) Small island , 
c) Abundance; — Baldassare Ravoyra, Domino della Croce, dated 
1559 ; — Giuseppe Rossi; — Emmanuel-Philibert, Duke of Savoy; 
1 5 28- 1 5 80; — Faustina Sforza, Consort of Marquis Caravaggio 
Muzio ; — Francesco Sforza, Marquis of Caravaggio ; — Fran- 
cesco Taverna, Count of Landriano, f 1561, two types ; — Chiara 
Taverna ; — Cesare Taverna ; — Fernando Alvares di Toledo, Duke 
of Alba, 1 508-1 5 82 ; — Unknown gentlewoman ^L. Venus in biga, 
and Cupid; — Gianfrancesco Trivulzio, Marquis of Vigevano 

Gianfrancesco Trivulzio, Marquis of Vigevano. 

(illustrated); — Girolamo Cardini, 1550, physician and celebrated 
author; — D. Ruiz Lopez d'Avalos; — Girolamo Calderini, Bolo- 
gnese; — Carlo Caraffa, Cardinal, 1517-1561; — Alessandro 

— 193 — 

Colin, sculptor ofMalines, 1526-1612; — Johannes, Ritter von 
Corenburg; = Don Gabriel de Cueva, Duke of Albuquerque, 
Governor of Milan, 1564-1571 ; — Margaret of Austria, Consort of 
Ottavio Farnese ; — Juan de Figueroa, Goveinor of the Duchy of 
Milan, in 1558; — Camillo Gonfolonieri; — Leonardo de' Marini, 
Archbishop of Lanciano, 1562, Bishop of Alba, in Piedmont, 
1566 ; — Andrea Marini; — Alberto Litta, dated, 1565 ; — Cris- 
tofore Madruzzo, 2 more varieties^, a.) Female near a lake; b.) A 
variety and Bust on obv, differently treated; — Pierantonio Sanse- 
verino, Prince ofBisignano; — Isabella Visconti, dated 1558. 

The attribution of the following medals of Cosimo to Galeotto 
rests on the testimony of Vasari, quoted above. Armand has divid- 
ed them into two groups according to whether they were executed 
before or after 1569, the date of Cosimo's accession to the dignity 
of a Grand Duke. To the first period belong : ^L. PVBLICAE. 
VTILFFATI Gate ; — Completion of the Library of San Lorenzo; 

Institution of the Militia or armed bands ofthe country; — I^. PVL- 
IMPLICATVR, Two hands untying a knot; — ^L. RES.MILITA- 
RIS CONSTITVTA, Distribution of flags to armed soldiers; — 1^. 
the Duke; — 1^. VICTOR VINCITVR, Institution of the Knights 
of San Steflino; — ^L. IVSTITIA VICTRIX. The Column 
brought from Rome to Florence and set up on the Piazza della 
Trinita; — I^. QVO.MELIOR.OPTABILIOR. Aqueducts; — 
NASCENS. Erection of a city and two fortresses in the island of 
Elba. All these medals bear the same bust of Cosimo, accompanied 
by the legend: 
After 1569, the medals have the legend : COS.MED. MAGNVS. 
DVX.ETRVRIAE, but the bust remains the same. The types are : 
^L. EXPLICANDO. IMPLICATVR. Two hands untying a knot ; 

manufactory of the Uffizi; — J^. ETRVRIA PACATA. Union of 
the States of Florence and Sienna ; — ^. P . V . P . M . OB . EXIM . &c. 
The Medici arms ; — ^L. Bust of Francesco de' Medici (2 varieties). 
Besides these, Bolzenthal mentions also a medal of Noel Carpentier, 
and speaks of Galeotto's works as very praiseworthy. Mr Keary in an 
article on ItaUan Medals (Num. Chr., 1879, p. 205) says his pro- 
ductions "are extremely numerous, and belong to quite the later 
development of sixteenth century art ", and he further tells us that 

L. FoRREK. — Biographical Notices of Medallisls. — 11. 15 

— 194 — 

he.- did not execute medals for any of the Popes. It would seem 
therefore that Armand is wrong in stating that Galeotto worked for 
the Papal Mint; he probably confounded Pietro Paolo with one of 
the numerous Galeotti who engraved for a whole century the coins 
issued at Gubbio. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Armand, op. cit. — Domanig, Portrdl- 
medaiUen des Er{hauses Oesleneicli, Wien, 1896. — I. B. Supino, // MedagUere 
Mediceo, Firenze, 1899. — Cinagli, Le Moneie de" Papi, Roma, 1848. — Cahn, 
Medailkn tind Plaketten Sammlung W. P. Met{ler, Frankfort-on-Main, 1898. — 
C. F. Keary, A Guide to the Exhibition of Italian Medals, 1893, Nnmismatic Chronicle, 
— E. Miintz, Les Arts a la Cour des Papes Innocent VIII, Alexandre VI et Paul III. 
Paris, 1898. — Ad. Resch, Siebenbi'irffische Milnien und Medailkn, Hermanstadt, 


GALL, ARNOLD (Germ,). Mint-master at Cassel, 1637-1657. I 
have seen his initials A.G. on a Begrdbniss Thaler and Half-Thaler 
of Amalie Ehzabeth, widow of William V. of Hesse-Cassel, 165 1, 
and on a Thaler of William VI., 1655. His initials occur sometimes 
in monogram. A. G. Vide ARNOLD GALLEN. 

GALLE, ANDR£ {French). Celebrated MedalHst, born at S' Etienne- 
en-Forez (Loire) on the 15''' ot May, 176 1, died at Paris on the 

ly^ ot December, 1844. His father, who was a fairly clever Die- 
sinker and Seal-engraver left S' Etienne in 1773 to settle at Lyons. 

— 195 — 

There he placed his son as apprentice in the button factory of Paul 
Le Cour, at the age of 12 years. Already young Galle was beginning 
to display exceptional disposition for the arts, and he was per- 
mitted to follow the public schools for drawing. This however did 
not satisfy him, and in 1776 he left his master and came to Paris, 
where a better situation had been promised him, but instead of 
which he found himself soon penniless and obliged to enlist in the 
Army. The harsh treatment he was submitted to whilst engaged on 
some government earthworks at S' Denis so thoroughly disgusted 
the young man from his escapade that he was quite pleased and 
thankful, when through his fluher's intervention, he obtained his 
release from service and reinstatement in the Lyons button factory. 
Henceforward Galle, then scarcely 16 years old, gave himself up 

Portrait-medal of Andre Galle, by E. Oudine. 

to work with extraordinary assiduity ; he learned engraving, made 
good progress in designing, and acquired a thorough knowledge ot 
the various branches of industry he was engaged in. Once, his 
master having to absent himself for a few days, entrusted to 
his foreman the impression of a button, engraved for some noble- 
man, and which was to be delivered on the following day. Unfor- 
tunately the die broke during the tempering process. Great conster- 
nation follovv^ed in the workshop, when our young artist offered to 
execute a new die and temper it within the limited time, a feat 
which he accomplished to the delight of every one concerned, and 
not least to that of his chief, who shortly after took him into 

Partnership. Some years later, on the death of his associate, he 
ecame sole head of the factory and began to devote his attention 

— 196 — 

to medal-engraving. In 1792, Galle executed his first medal, repre- 
senting a head of Liberty ; this piece ot delicate workmanship was 
the means of his receiving the honour to be deputed to Paris by 
the city of Lyons on the question of casting bells. It is at this time 
that he produced two patterns for coins struck in bell-metal; one of 
these bears the head of Mirabeau, which is one of the best likenesses 
of the great orator (illustrated). Soon after his arrival in the capital. 

Pattern Coin in bell-metal, engraved by Galle. 

the " Comite de Salut public" ordered kom him a medal the 
subject of which was to be "Hercules; crushing the Hydra," 
symbolizing the French people destroying the abuses of the monar- 
chical system. 

About this time, the artist became acquainted with the celebrated 
engraver Dupre who procured work for him at the Mint; he also 
studied sculpture under Chaudet, in order to attain greater efficiency 
in modelling. 

Conquest of Upper Egypt, by Galle. 

In 1799, Denon,who later became Directorofthe Imperial Museum, 
entrusted Galle with the execution of a commemorative medal of the 
Conquest ot Upper Egypt, which remains one of his best productions. 

Between 1806 and 1839, the artist was a regular exhibitor at 
the Annual Salons : 1806, Conquest of Upper Egypt (illustrated); 

— 197 — 

— Return from Egypt ; — Bonaparte's arrival at Frejus ; — Coro- 
nation of Napoleon (ordered by the Prefecture de la Seine) ; — 
Taking of Vienna and Presburg ; — State Seals ; — 1808, Portrait- 
medallion of H. M. the Emperor and King; — The Mayors ot 
Paris at Schoenbrunn ; — Battle of lena; — Battle of Friedland ; 

— Austria subdued; — Portrait of Xavier Bichat; — Notaries of 
the Arrondissement of Lyons ; — Seal of the King of Naples ; — 
18 ID, Marriage of the Emperor with the Archduchess Marie- 
Louise; — Princess Eliza; — V. Denon ; — 1812, The King of 
Rome ; — Hippocrates ; — Two Portrait-medallions of Ladies ; — 
Battle of Wagram ; — 18 14, Retreat from Russia ; — Memorial to 
the Duke of Montebello ; — Portrait of Jean Goujon ; — Portrait 
of Philibert Delorme ; — State Seals; — " Medaille de Fidelite" to 
Louis XVIIL ; — 1 8 1 6, Return of Louis XVIIL to France ; — Marriage 
of the Due de Berry ; — 1819, Plate for 500 Francs Banknote of the 
Bank of France ; — Medal on the Death of Louis XVL ; — Portrait of 
King Louis XVIIL ; — Lamoignon de Malesherbes ; — Rene Descartes; 

— Baptism of the Duke of Bordeaux ; — Medal presented to the 
Prefect of police by the Paris brokers; — 1822, Louis XVIIL enters 
Paris ; — The End of the Captivity of Madame ; — Jeton of 
the Notaries of the Laon Arrondissement; — Industry promoted 
by Science ; — 1824, The Duchess of Angouleme leaving France ; 

— Portrait of Louis David, 1822 ; — Portrait of Henry Grattan, 
the Irish statesman ; — Portrait of Lamoignon de Malesherbes; — 
Portrait of Michele Colombo, Italian writer ; — Portrait of Ren^ 
Descartes; — Medal for the Mining Company of S' Etienne; — 
Prudence holding mirror surrounded by serpent; — Commemora- 
tion of the erection of a Statue to Louis XIV. at Lyons ; — Study 
of a head; — 1839, Conquest of Algiers; — Peace and Com- 
merce ; — Portrait of Charles X. ; — Portrait of A. M. J. J. Dupin; 

— Portrait of Matthew Boulton (a fine piece of work) ; — Portrait 
of James Watt ; — Memorial of Canning; — 1840, Translation of 
the ashes of Napoleon to the Invalides. When Galle executed this 
last medal, he was eighty years old. 

Galle's signature is invariably found as GALLE or GALLE F. 

As a copper-plate engraver, this artist produced, besides patterns 
for Bank-notes, the portraits of Louis David, Bichat, Watt, Canning, 
Baron Gros, Alexander I., and other notabilities. 

He obtained in 1809 the Decennial Prize, was elected Member of 
the Institut in 18 19, and made a Knight of the Legion of Honour 
in 1825. 

His principal pupils were : Dubourg, Michaut, Oudin^ and 
Adrien Vauthier. 

** Galle", said M. Raoul-Rochette, " fut I'historien en bronze 
du Consulat et de I'Empire et son nom restera eternellement 

— 198 — 

associe aux souvenirs de cette glorieuse periode par autant de 
medailles qu'elle a compte de victoires. " 

The artist, self-taught as he was, was a man of great abilities. 
Larousse has perhaps gone too far in his tribute of praise to the 
artist, but it is nevertheless true that some of his compositions 
compare favourably with the best medallic productions of his con- 
temporaries, and that they betray the hand of a master. 

M. Roger Marx is nearer the mark in his appreciation of Galle's 
talent when he says : " Jusqu'a I'extreme vieillesse, il reste le 
ciseleur de boutons de ses debuts, I'ouvrier impeccable qui ne 
s'epargne aucun detail, et dont I'outil, merveilleusement adroit a 
consigner les minusculites en apparence insaisissables, desesperera la 
patience et I'envie des graveurs a venir. » 

Baron Gros has made a remarkable portrait of the artist, which 
is still kept by the family. 

Bibliography. — Grand Dictionnaire Larousse. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. 
cit. — Magasin encychpedique Millin, 20^ anne'e, 181^, Tome V, p. 214. — D^ F. P. 
Weber, Medals and Medallions of the Nineleenlh Century, relating to England, by 
foreign Artists, London, 1894. — R. W. Cochran-Patrick, Catalogue of the Medals 
of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1884. — E. Edwards, Napoleon Medals, London, 1837. — 
Thomsen's Catalogue, Bronce Medaillier. H. A. Grueher, English Personal Medals 
from 1760, Num. Chronicle, 1888-1891. — Gabet, Dictionnaire des Artistes de 
Ve'cole franfaise, Paris, 183 1. — Bolzenthal, o/». cit. — N. Rondot, Les Graveurs 
de Lyon, Macon, 1897. — R. Marx, Les Me'dailleurs Jranfais depuis 17^9, Paris, 1897. 
— P. Bordeaux, La numismatiqne de Louis XVIII dans les provinces beiges en iSiS, 
Paris, 1902. — A. Evrard de FayoUe, Numismatique de la Chambre de commerce de 
Bordeaux, 1899. 

GALLE, JEAN-BAPTISTE {French). Brother of Andre Galle, and 
like him, also an engraver, was first employed in the Lyons button- 
factory of Paul Le Cour, and then worked tor the founder and 
medallist Jean Marie Mouterde. 

GALLE, GUILLAUME (Belg.). Mint-master at Bruges, eighteenth 

GALLEN, ARNOLD (Germ.). Mint-master at Cassel, 1C37-1657. 
Vide GALL, ARNOLD supra. 

GALLI ERNESTO (Ital.). Roman Die-sinker of the first half of the 
nineteenth century. He engraved a number of medals commemorat- 
ing contemporaneous events of Italian history and portraits of cele- 
brities. I have seen by him : Marriage-medal of Charles IIL of 
Parma with Louise Marie de Bourbon ; — Scipione MafFei ; — 
Giov. Batt. Bodonius; — Pope Gregory XVL ; — 1838, Opening 
of the Stone Bridge on the Nure; — &c. — Galli belonged to the 
celebrated family of artists and painters of that name; his first work 
dates from 181 6 and commemorates the arrival of Marie Louise at 
Parma. Later he was employed as Assistant-engraver at the Mint at 

— 199 — 

Milan. — A certain Galli forged Q.uinarii of the Emperors of the 
Lower Empire, but I cannot say anything more definite about him. 

GALMOLE, THOMAS (Brit.). Master and Worker of the Money of 
Silver in Devylyn (Dublin) and Waterford under Edward IV. In 
1483 " an indenture for Ireland was made with Thomas Galmole, 
gent., miaster and worker of the money of silver, and keeper of the 
exchanges in the cities of Devylyn and Waterford. He was to make 
two sorts of monies : one called a peny, with the king's arms on 
one side, upon a cross trefoyled on every end ; and with this 
inscription REX ANGLIE & FRANCIE, and on the other side the 
arms of Ireland upon a cross with this scripture, DNS HIBERNIE. 
Of such penyes in the pound weight of the Towre iiij c. 1. pecs 
which is in nombre xxxvijx. w]d. The other money to be called the 
halfpenny with the like impression and inscription, and in weight 
one half of the first. All of the old sterling ". His name appears also 
as Thomas Archibold, Master of the Dublin Mint, temp. Richard III. 
and Henry VII. 

Bibliography. — Ruding, Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain, Sec. London, 
1840, p. 289. — Dr Aquila Smith, Irish Coins of Edward III., p. 42, note ; . 


GALY, HIPPOLYTE MARIUS (Freneh). Contemporary Sculptor, 
born at Algiers; a pupil of Jncquot and Corbon. His works ot 
sculpture are very numerous, and at the Salons of 1880 and 1882 
he exhibited Portrait-medallions in bronze. There is also a fine 
medallion of Count Agenor de Gasparin by him executed in 1895. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie ct Auvray, op. cit. 

GAMBARO, PIETRO DI MATTEO DAL {ItaL). From a document, 
dated January 30, 1495, we learn that this goldsmith was named ^ 
cunium et ceccani to assay (or perhaps) engrave the dies for the coins 
of Bologna. In 1498 the Bolognese Mint was 'ceded for a period 
of three years to another goldsmith, Antonio Magnani. 

Bibliography. — Francesco Malagu?zi Valeri, La Zecca di Bologna, Rivista Ita- 
liana di Numismatica, 1897. 

GAMBELLO Vide.. CAMELIO Vol. I, p. 195. 

GAMOONI, ALI {Arab.). Mr. Henry A. Rhind writing in 1862 
says : " There is now at Thebes an archforger of scarabaei — a cer- 
tain Ali Gamooni, whose endeavours, in the manufacture of these 
much sought after relics, have been crowned with the greatest suc- 
cess. Scarabaei of elegant and well finished descriptions, are not 
beyond the range of this curious counterfeiter. These he makes ot 
the same material as the ancients used — a close-grained, easily cut 
lime-stone — which after it is cut into shape and lettered, receives a 

— 200 — 

greenish glaze by being baked on a shovel with brass filings. Ali 
not content with closely imitating, has even aspired to the creat- 
tive; so antiquarians must be on their guard lest they waste their 
time and learning, on antiquities of a very modern date ". 
Bibliography. — Isaac Meyer, Scarabs, New-York, 1885. 

GAMOT, ALARD FRANQOIS JOSEPH (French). Coin-engraver at the 
Mint of Lille, probably from 1745 to 1774. 

GAMPER, A. {Ardent.). Contemporary Die-sinker, residing at 
Buenos Ayres. There is a medal commemorating the new Prison 
Buildings in that city, 1872, cut by him. 

Bibliography. — A. Rosa, Monetario Americano, Buenos Ayres, 1892. 

GAMUS (Rom.). This signature, a fictitious one, appears on a 
gem, representing Hope, cut in emerald (Kestner Collection). 
Bibliography. — Rev. C. \V. King, Antique Gems, London, i860. 

GANDRI, SIMON FRANCOIS (^French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at S' Jean-les-deux-Jumeaux (Seine-et-Marne) ; 
pupil of Hardouin and Perrault. At the Salon of 1875, he exhibited 
a Portrait-medallion in bronze of a young lady, and in 1877, another 
entitled Jeanne. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GANSERT, MARTIN (G^rm.). Mint-master at Lichtenberg (Hanau) 
under Count Frederick Casimir, circa 1673. His initials appear on 
the coins, which he probably engraved himself. 

GAR, JORG (Germ.). Nuremberg Goldsmith, born circa 15 18, son 
ot Sebald Gar, and perhaps theauthor of some medals signed J.G. : 
1548, Ludwig von Hutten ; — I55ij Thomas Loffelholtz von 
Colberg; — 1552, Georg Tetzel; — 15535 Otto Flosser; — 
Mathias Loffelholtz von Colberg; — 155 5, Michael Burgenmaister. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleiire, Berlin, 1884. 

GARAPON (French). Editor of several medals, commemorating 
incidents of the French Revolution of 1848, at Lyons. Two of these 
are illustrated in F. de Saulcy, Souvenirs numismatiques de la Revolu- 
tion de 1848, PL XLii, 6 and u, 2. 

GARRETT, S. (Brit.). Sculptor and Medallist of the first half 01 
the eighteenth century. His signature appears on a fine Portrait- 
medal of Cardinal Fleury, dated 1741, engraved by him in imita- 
tion of the similar work by Roettier. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

— 201 — 

GARCIA, J. (Span.). Engraver of some Republican medals, dated 
1868 and 1869, and also of 1873. 

GARDE, AUGER DE LA (French). Mint-master at Morlaas, 1562- 
Bibliography. — Blanchet, Histoire monetaire du Beam, Paris, 1893. 

GARDEL, LOUIS (French). Sculptor and Medallist of the second 
quarter of the nineteenh century. By him are several Portrait- 
medallions, representing various members of the family of Baron 
Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1837, and at the Salon of 1849 he exhibited 
a Portrait-medallion in clay of M"*" P***. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

6ARDET, JOSEPH ANTOINE (French). Contemporary Medallist of 
the modern schoolof Chaplain and Roty, born at Paris in 1857 where 
he died in 189 1. Some of his medallic productions are exhibited at 
the Luxemburg Museum, and the artist is held in great esteem. 
Medal-engraving does not however seem to have been his favourite 
branch, which no doubt accounts for the scarcity of his medals. 
There is one at the Luxemburg Museum, a cast Portrait-medal of 
the engraver, Jean Patricot, which exhibits beautiful work. 

M. Roger Marx in Les Medailleurs franfais contemporains illustrates 
a Portrait-plaque of the Comtesse J. de Chambrun, another of 
M""' Ernest Hehert, and a medalet with a fine bust of M. de Krugh. 

Bibliography. — R. Marx, Les MedaiUeurs frangais depuis ijS^, Paris, 1897. — 
Id., Les Me'daiUeiirs fratifais contemporains, Paris, 1898. 

GARDET, GEORGES (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medal- 
list of considerable repute. One of his finest productions is the 

G. Gardet. — The Fight (obv.). 

— 2()2 — 

Plaquette illustrated here, representing Stags at fight on one side, 
and at rest on the other; it was executed in commission for the 



G. Gardet. — At Rest (I^.)- 

Societe des Amis de la Medaille fran^aise, on the recommendation of 
M. Roger Marx, the well-known Champion of modern French 

GARDEY, JEAN BL (French). Mint-master at Morlaas, circa 1483. 

GAREAU, JEAN (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Tours, 
circa 1643. 

GARIN, FRANQOIS (French). Private Master ot the Mint of Corna- 
vin at Geneva from May, 145 1, to January, 1453. In 1452 he was 
elected Master of all the Mints north of the Alps (Savoy). 

Bibliography. — D"" Lad^, Contribution a la Numismatiqiie des Dues de Savoie, 
Revue Suisse de numismatique, 1896. 

GARLIEB, JOACHIM (Germ.). Mint-director of the city of Rostock, 

GARMOISE, PIERRE DE LA (French). Mint-master and Coin-engrav- 
er at Troyes, 1 395-1417. 
Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les graveurs de la Monnaie de Troyes, Paris, 

GARNEIRO (Brazil). Contemporary Medallist, whose name is 
found on a masonic medal struck by the Masons of the Grand 
Orient of Brazil on the occasion of the abolition of slavery in that 
country and presented to their Grand Master, the Viscount of Rio 
Branco, who was President of the Imperial Council at the time. 
The medal is dated 1871. 

Bibliography. — Marvin, Masonic Medals, Boston, 1880. 

— 203 — 

GARNER, RICHARD {Brit.) Master of the Royal Mint, London, 
anno 14 ofHenr}' IV., 1413. 

GARNIER, HENRI ADOLPHE (French). Sculptor and Medallist, of 
the middle years of the nineteenth century. At the Salon of 1834 
he exhibited several Portrait-medallions, one of the finest being 
that of M. Armand de Vaudricourt. Between 1830 and 1870, he 
executed a large number of busts, and in 1835 ^ colossal statue 
representing the Nymph Echo. After that date he does not seem to 
have taken a very active part in the yearly art competitions, as 
Chavignerie et Auvray do not mention any of his works posterior to 

1835. His monument to General Marceaux, 1869, deserves recording. 
This artist engraved at least two commemorative medals of the 
French Revolution of 1848, one on the Republican Victory of 
the 24*'' of February (obv. illustrated), and the other to com- 
memorate the creation of the Provisional government. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — F. de Saulcy, Souvenirs 
numismatiqiies dela Revolution de 1S48. 

GARNIER, JEAN (French). Designer and painter, 1632-1705. His 
portraits of Remy, Figuel, Dantan, Balthazar, etc. served as proto- 
types of medals, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GARNIER, JEAN (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist. 
Mr, Roger Marx, in Medailleurs modernes en France et a V^tranger, 
1900, illustrates two very fine medals by this artist : Head of the 
French Republic^ and a St. George killing the Dragon. 

GAROFOLINI, C. A. (Ital.) Coin-engraver at the Papal Mint ot 
Viterbo, circa 1800. There is a very rare Half-Scudo of the Sede 
Vacante, 1799, bearing his initials C. A. G, : obv. FEDELTA — 
RELIGIONE. Bust ot the Virgin, nimbed. J^. L'INCENDIO DI 

— 204 — 

RONCIGLIONE ANNO 1799. View of the burning town ; below 
C. A. G. 

GARSIDE, HENRY {Brit.). Contemporary Numismatist and Expert 
on the British Imperial and Colonial Coinage of the nineteenth 
century. He resides at Accrington (Lancashire). He is the origina- 
tor of a medal, engraved by Mr. John Pinches, illustrated below. 

The obv. bears a portrait of Mr. Robert Trotter Hermon-Hodge, 
who represented the Accrington division of Lancashire from July 1 886 
till July 1892. 

The design of the 1^ is symbolical of the Parliamentary Union 
of Great Britain and Ireland. 

GARTENBERG, VON (Austr.). Mint-director at Krakau, 1765-1772. 
He signed his productions V. G. or v. G. 

GARZONI, ZUANO (ItaL). Rector at Cattaro, 15 96- 15 98. His ini- 
tials Z. G. appears on the coins issued during his term of office. 

GAS. CA... {ItaL). Signature of a Medallist, who worked at the 
end of the sixteenth century. He is the author of a medal of Pope 
Clement VIII. (1592-1605), with bare bust on obv. and on ^. 
DNE. IVBE. ME. AD. TE. VENIRE. Christ walking on the sea. 
Perhaps this artist is the same as Gasparo Cambi. 

Bibliography. — J. B. Supino, // Medagliere Mediceo, Firenze, 1899. 

GASPARI, CORNAGLIA (ItaL). Mint-master at Chamb^ry, 1594- 

GASPARINI (ItaL). Gem-engraver ot the middle years of the 
seventeenth century. None of his productions are of great impor- 

— 205 -^ 

GASQ, PAUL (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, born 
at Dijon (Cote-d'Or) 31. March i860; pupil of Jouffroy, Falguiere, 
Mercie and Hiolle, of whora a Portrait-medallion of M. Joliet is 
mentioned in Art et Decoration, 1899. He began in 1881 to exhibit 
at the Paris Salons, and is, since 1896, a Knight of the Legion of 

Coin-engraver of S' Petersburg, second half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, circa 1768-1793. He entered the S' Petersburg Mint as assis- 
tant-engraver in 1768, and was raised to the post of Chief-engraver 
in 1772 with a salary of 1200 roubles per annum. In 1797, his bad 
state of health obliged him to resign his post and he was granted a 
pension from the government. J. B. Gass worked principally for 
Catherine the Great for whom he cut a number of medals commem- 
orating important events of her reign, and also for the Grand Duke 
Paul. I have met with the following pieces : Foundation of the 
Agricultural Society of S' Petersburg, 1768; — J. W. von Schlatter 
of Zurich. 1768 (1^. only); — The Peter the Great Memorial of 
S' Petersburg, 1770; — Count Alexis Gregorewitch Orlow, 1770; 
— Conquest of Georgia ; — Lanskoy, the celebrated favourite of 
Catherine II. ; — Apraxin ; — Bensman ; — Peace with Turkey ; — 
Peace between Sweden and Russia, 1790; — Portrait-medal of 
Baron G. von Asch I^. Hygiaea, MDCCLXX. 

The Hermitage, and the University of S' Petersburg collections 
contain thirty-two medals by this artist. 

J. B. Gass signed his works IBG. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ad. Hess Kichf.yReimmannSak Cata- 
logue, no 8016. — lOnifl IIBEPCEHA, C.lOBAPb ME;iA.lbEPOB'b II APyPHXTj 

JiimT>, S« Petersburg, 1874. — Ilaoop. B-b Coop. PyccK. Mej., Bbm- — 
Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Iversen, Medaillen auf die Thaten Peters des 
Grossen, S* Petersburg, 1872. — Nagler, Monogrammisten. 

GASS, F. W. (Russ.). Son of the preceding, and also a Medallist. 
He resided at S' Petersburg and was employed at the Mint there in 
the capacity of Coin-engraver and Medallist from 1787; pupil of 
his father and of the Mineralogical College of S* Petersburg. In 1794 
he entered upon the definite service of the Government, but died three 
years after, in October 1797. By him are a number of historical 
medals and portrait-pieces of Russian celebrities, including several 
types of Peter the Great and Catherine II. Most of these medals are 
found in the Imperial Hermitage and in the Collection of the 
S* Petersburg University. 

Bibliography. — As above. 

GASTALDO, ROLANDO (ItaL). Mint-master at Dezana, 1 580-1 586, 
and before, circa 1578, at S* Beninge de Fruttuaria, and Frinco. His 

— 2o6 — 

iniiials R.G. appear at the end of the legends on coins of the 
Counts of Dezana. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Nagler, Monogrammisten. 

GASTAUDI, GIAN PIETRO (Ital.). Mint-master at Turin, 1517- 

of the second half of the nineteenth century ; pupil of Rude, Sarto- 
ris and Menard. At the Salon of 1874 he exhibited a Portrait- 
medallion of a young lady, which is not the only work of the 
kind executed by this artist. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GATET, ANDR£ (French). Die-sinker at Lyons, . . 1693-17 13, was 
employed at the Mint there as Engraver, and cut the dies for a 
coinage in 1709. He also executed medals, jetons, and seals. 

Bibliography. — N. Rondot, Les Graveurs de Lyon, Macon, 1897. 

GATTEAUX, JACQUES £D0UARD (French). Sculptor and Medallist, 
son of N. M. Gatteaux, was born at Paris on the 4*^ November 

1788, where he died on the 9''' February, 188 1. He learned medal- 
engraving with his father, and sculpture under Moitte. In 1809, he 

— 207 — 

obtained the Frix de Rome, and as a pupil of the French Academy 
at Rome, greatly distinguished himself. On his return to France he 
was called to the office of Medallist to Louis XVIII. and executed a 
number of fine medals on the Peace of 1814, the Holy Alliance and 
Portrait-medallions of contemporaneous celebrities. 

Edouard Gatteaux's first medal commemorates the capitulation 
of Mantua, 1797 {illustrated), of which there are two vatieties ; 
it was executed in 1807. 

Capitulation ot Mantua, by E. Gatteaux. 

In 1809, liis medal representing "Mars followed by Victory" 
won for him the Prix de Rome. In 1824, he received a medal, and 
again in 183 1 ; knighted in 1833, and elected a Member of the 
Institute in 1845 ; in 1855 he was granted a medal of the first class 
and in 1861 was created an officer of the Legion of Honour. 

Between 1807 and 1847, when he appears to have engraved his 
last portrait-piece, Gatteaux has executed no less than 289 medals, 
amongst which are the following : Reestablish ment of the French 
School at Rome; — Peace of Paris, 1814, and Restoration of the 
Bourbons ; — Peace of 1 8 1 5 ; — The Holy Alliance ; — 18 17, H. R. H. 
Monsieur, the King's brother ; — Pierre Corneille ; — Montaigne ; — 
La Fontaine ; — Malherbe ; — Richelieu ; — Buffbn ; — J. F. Ducis ; 

— Jean Philippe Rameau; — Pierre Puget; — Inauguration of the 
Louis XIII. Statue on the Place royale, 1829; — 1819, Puget; — 
Rabelais; — Haydn ; — M'"^ de Stael; — Philibert de I'Orme; — 
Jean Varin; — Cassini, 1825 ; — Various jetons; — 1824, Zamois- 
ky, Polish chancellor in 1704; — Gaspard Monge, one of the 
founders of the Ecole polytechnique ; — Massena, Marshal of France ; 

— G . Edelinck, copper-plate engraver ; — Barthelemy ; — Mirabeau ; 

— Coronation of CharlesX. ; — 1827. Journey of Charles X. through 
the provinces; — 1833, Coronation of Louis-Philippe; — Portrait 
of Louis-PhiUppe; — Lafayette; — P. A. Delanneau, Director 
of S'^ Barbe College; — Beethoven; — Nicolas Gatteaux; — 
Taking of Antwerp Citadel ; — Prize Medal of the Ecole royale 

— 208 — 

des Beaux-Arts; — 1835, Surrender of Antwerp Citadel; — Por- 
trait of N. Gatteaux ; — Charles Mercier-Dupaty, French Sculptor, 
1825; — Duke of Enghien, 1804; — Royal Academy of Music, 
1816; — The Deputies of La Vendee, 1820; — Jeton of the 
Chamber ot Notaries of Evreux; — The Comte d'Artois visits the 
Paris Mint, 18 18; — Jean Pierre Cortot; — Modeste Gretry, French 
musician, 18 14; — Jeton of Bordeaux; — Marriage of the Prince 
Royal, 1837; — 1847, Sully. 

Amongst his most important works of sculpture, it may be worth 
mentioning : Bust of Napoleon ; — Bust of Marie-Louise; — Stat- 
ue of Chevalier d'Assas; — Triptolemus ; — Statue of Hippolyte 
Bisson, erected at Lorient, 1833 J — Anne de Beaujeu, Duchess of 
Bourbon nnd Auvergne (Luxemburg Gardens) ; — Minerva after 
the Judgment of Paris, 1839; — Michael Angelo; — Grand Prize 
Medal for Engraving ; — &c. 

In his Notice of Gatteaux, read before the '" Academic des 
Beaux-Arts", M. Chaplain, makes the following remarks : " L'acti- 
vhh de la gravure en medailles, au debut du siecle, fut longtemps 
assez limitee. TioUer et Michaux, a qui Ton doit les monnaies de 
I'Empire, celles de Louis XVIII et de Charles X, n'ont gnere fait 
autre chose. Andrieux, Brenet, Caunois, Petit, ont montre plus de 
soin que d'invention originale; plus tard seulement, a I'epoque ou 
Domard nous a donn^ la monnaie de Louis-Philippe, on vit s'ap- 
pliquer a cet art un plus grand nombre de talents. Barrepere, Bovy, 
Depaulis, Desboeufs, Gayrard. C'est dans ce milieu et a sa date 
au'il faut replacer M. Gatteaux, qui des le premier quart du siecle, 
Qonna I'exemple d'une singuUere application. II a grave 289 medailles. 
Celle de I'ficole des Beaux-Arts est faite d'apres un dessin de 
M. Ingres. Toutes les autres sont exclusivement de lui, depuis la 
medaille commemorative de la capitulation de Mantoue, en 1808, 
jusqu'i celle de Sully, en 1847, la derniere qu'il ait gravee, croyons- 

"II avait tonde la serie des illustrations frangaises ou galerie 
m^taUique; il lui a donne un tres grand nombre de portraits de 
grands hommes : Malherbe, Richelieu, Varin, Gerard Edelinck, 
I'abbe Barthelemy, Cassini, P. Corneille, La Fontaine, Montaigne, 
Buffon, P. Puget, Rabelais, M™'^ de Stael, Philibert de I'Orme, 
Mirabeau, Monge, Mass^na. 

" Le critique et I'artiste etaient assez diff^rents chez M. Gatteaux. 
Le critique comprenait toutes les perfections de la Renaissance, sa 
vari^t^ si vivante, ei, plus tard, il s'eprit de I'art grec, alors qu'on 
commenga a le bien connaitre. L'artiste, plus reserve et plus timide, 
s'en tint d I'id^al que representait surtout I'art romain. C'est 
dans cet esprit que sont congues la plupart de ses oeuvres. On 
s'^tonne de la reserve qu'il s'impose, de la prudence avec laquelle il 

— 209 — 

imite la Renaissance. II adore I'aniiquit^; mais, quand il s'en ins- 
pire, il nous fait penser malgre nous aux poetes classiques et aux 
tragedies du premier Empire. Ce qu'il recherche avant tout, c'est 
une dignite un peu froide, une simplicity qui pourrait etre plus ele- 
gante, si la vie y etait plus naturelle et plus sensible. " 

Ot the medal struck in commemoration of the establishment of 
the Architectural School of Paris, Larousse expresses the following 
opinion : "■ Cette medaille, d'un module enorme, etait moins un 
travail de numismatique qu'un excellent morceau de sculpture. La 
tete de Philibert Delorme, representee sur la face, est, en effet, des- 
sinee et modelee avec une ampleur magistrale, qu'on rencontre 
rarement dans la gravure en medailles. " 

In 1855, Gatteaux obtained a medal for his exhibits at the Salon. 
After that date, he seems to have taken a well-deserved rest. Better 
gifted than his father, he did not, however, surpass him very much 
as a medallist. His numerous works of statuary and sculpture have 
bestowed upon him greater notoriety, and as a critic remarked, 
" his name will ever remain amongst the most distinguished 
names of French Art. " 

Gatteaux was for a long period of years a member of the Consul- 
tative Committee on Coinage. 

He was a collector of taste, but had the sorrow to see a portion 
of his art treasures destroyed during the conflagration that followed 
the insurrection of 1871. At his death, he made an important 
bequest to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cil. — 
D"" F. P. Weber, op. cit. — Thomseti Catalogue. — Hennin, Numismatique de la 
Revolution franfaise, Paris, 1826. — J. C. Chaplain, Notice sur M. Gatteaux, 1881 . 
— Grande Encyclopedie . — Grand Dictionnaire Larousse. — Nouveau Larousse illus- 

GATTEAUX, NICOLAS MARIE {French.). Medallist, born at Paris 
on the 2"'^ ot August, 175 1, died there on the 24'" of June, 1832 ; 
pupil of Delorme and Gros ; elected Medallist to the King in 178 1. 
His father was a locksmith in poor circumstances, so that the 
young artist had to work his way up by perseverance and deter- 
mination of character. At the age of 17, he was left the sole 
support of his family, but thanks to his happy disposition and 
uncommon abilities, he soon obtained a remunerative situation as 
engraver, and some years after, in 1773, he was introduced to 
Decotte, Director of the Paris Medal-Mint, and engaged by him. 
His first medallic work is a portrait of Louis XV., for the Series of 
Kings of France. 

To Gatteaux was entrusted the engraving of the Lottery tickets, 
of the principal Assignats and of the Stamps of the Regie. He is the 
inventor of an ingenious machine of great service to sculptors. 

L. FoRREK. — Biographical Notices of Medal I ills. — II. 14 

— 2 10 

Gatteaux exhibited only once at the Salon, in 179 1. His best 
known medals are : Death of Louis XV. ; — Coronation of 
Louis XVL ; — Foundation of a College of Surgeons; — Birth of 
the Dauphin; — Invention of B.dloons by Montgolfier; — Estab- 

Portrait-Medal of N. M: Gatteaux, by his son E. Gatteaux. 

lishment of a Lazzaretto at Marseilles ; — Travels of Lapey- 
rouse ; — Opening of the Canal of Burgundy ; — Federation of the 
Departments of France ; — Abolition of Privileges; — Passage of 
the Rhine and Danube by Moreau, in an VIII; — Prize Medal of 
the French Academy; — Medals for the United States; — Prize 
Medal of the French School of Medicine, with busts of Ambroise 
Pare and Andre Fernel, \^<)/{{illusi rated); — Portrait-medal of Haydn, 
struck to commemorate the production of his celebrated Oratorio, 
The Creation ; — Comte de Maurepas ; — d'Alembert ; — Lalande; 

— The Three Consuls ; — Seals of the National Assembly, of the 
Conseil des Anciens, of the Conseil des Cinq-Cents; (var. of various 
dates) ; — Independence of the United States of America; — Fete 
des bonnes gens; — Elie de Beaumont; — Conquest of Bavaria; 

— Horace Gates, 1777; — Anthony Weyne; — John Stewart, 
1779; — Reestablishment of the British Roman Catholic College in 
Paris, 1804(2 var.); — Aerostatic Experiments, 1783 ; — Jetons of 
Languedoc, 1785; — Jeton of S' Jean, 1786; — Generality of 
Orleans, 1787; — Jetons with bust of Louis XVL, 1789; — French 
Republic, 1797, — Ecu of the Republic or Royal Academy of 
Music, 1799; — Jeton for Normandy; — Appeal Tribunal of Paris ; 

— Jeton of Bordeaux, with bust of Louis XVL; — Louis XVL, 
Assembly of Nobles at Paris, 30"^ May, 1789; — Louis XVL 

— 2ir — 

and Necker, 1789; — Life-saving Medal to the brave Picard, 
1789; — Louis XVL abandons his Privileges, 1789; — 
Freedom of the Press, 1789; — The Raynal Agricultural Prize, 
17S9J — Medals of the Forts du Port aux bleds of Paris, 1789; 

Medal of the French Scliool of Medicine, by N. M. Gatteaux. 

— Do, ofSoissons, 1790; — Confederation of the French, 1790 
(4 var.); — Ticket for Civil Commissioners, 1790; — Caisse 
patriotique of Paris, 1791; — Pattern Six Livre piece of 179 1 

— 212 

(2 var., one illustrated) ; — To Immortality, 1792 ; — Prize Medal 
tor Virtue, LA BONNE MERE (^ var.) ; — Tribunal de cassation of 
Paris, 1794; — Jetons for the Conseii des Cinq-Cents, 1797; — 

Pattern Six Livre Piece ot 1791, by N. M. Gatteaux. 

The French Republic to its Defenders, 1797 ; — The National 
Lottery, 1797; — Sciences and Arts, 1798; — The School of 
Medicine of Paris, 1798 ; — Agricultural Medals of Bordeaux, Dijon 
and Paris, 1798, and 1799 ; — Concert of Amateurs in Paris, 1799 ; 
— Burgoyne's Surrender at Saratoga, 1777 ; — Storming of Story 
Point, N. Y., 1779; — French National Academy of Music, 1804 
(2 var.). ; — Munificence of the Commerce of Bordeaux, 1807 ; — 
The Grand Master of the Imperial University, 1808 (2 var.); — 
J. Fernel, 1808. 

This artist usually signed his name in full; but his signature 
appears also in very few instances as N.GA. 

Miel {Notice sur N. M. Gatteaux, Paris, 1832) informs us that 
Gatteaux engraved no less than 289 medals between 1773 and 
1802, and adds : « Les ouvrages de Gatteaux denotent une imagi- 
nation vive et brillante, une grande facilite de composition. L'alle- 
gorie dont on a tant abuse, fut toujours employee par lui avec 
discernement, et s'il y eut souvent recours, ce fut toujours en vue 
de rendre avec nettete et precision une idee vraie et forte. Ce qu'il 
y a de remarquable, c'est que sa main ferme et soigneuse ne fut 
jamais entrainee par la vivacite de son esprit. Prompt k concevoir, 
prompt a ex^cuter, il n'en imprima pas nioins a ses ouvrages le 
caractere de la reflexion. Tous sont rendus avec maturite ; tous 
sont finis avec la plus minutieuse attention. Adroit et entrepre- 
nant, il ne recula jamais devant les difficultes quelles qu'elles 
fussent; mais son courage, ainsi que son genie, se.nblait croitre 
avec elles. Aussi a-t-il etendu le domaine de son art. Tout ce qu'il 
a imaging de nouveau pour perfectionner le mecanisme de la gra- 
vure en m^dailles, a ete g^neralement adopts, et ce qui, avant lui, 

— 213 — 

paraissait presque impossible, est aujourd'hui d'lin usage courant. » 
Miel mentions also Gatteaux's invention of a special type of 
copying machine, which served as a prototype to our present 
reducing machine. This is his description : « La gravure en 
medailles n'etant que la sculpture en miniature, I'art du sculpteur 
ne pouvait etre oubliedans les combinaisonsdu graveur-m^canicien. 
Personne n'ignore combien I'ebauche d'un marbre est imparfaite et 
perilleuse par le proccde de la mise a point. Gatteaux fit una 
machine qui remplace avantageusement ce delectueux appareii, et 
qui transporte sur le marbre, avec une precision mathematique, les 
points correspondants du modele, tout en laissant a I'auteur de la 
statue la tache vraiment creatrice de la terminer. Ce mecanisme a 
obtenu le suffrage de la commission de sculpture de I'Academie des 
Beaux-Arts; plusieurs de nos plus habiles statuaires s'en servant 
pour ebaucher leurs ouvrages; il a valu a son auteur, en 1819, une 
medaille d'argent a I'exposition des produits de I'industrie nationale. » 
Larousse, in his Grand Dictionnaire, expresses his opinion of 
the artist in the following manner : « Le burin de Gatteaux 
est gracieux et delicai. Ses medailles rappellent toutes, ou des faits 
historiques, ou les traits des personnages illustres. Dans sesgrandes 
medailles il a deploye toutes les qualites d'un statuaire de premier 
ordre, et jusque dans les plus petites, son style est reste grand, 
Idger et simple. » 

Commenting on the medallists of the latter end of the eighteenth 
century, amongst whom N. M. Gatteaux and the Duviviers stand 
foremost, M. Roger Marx writes : « Tout a I'heure, ils s'attar- 
daient avec d'exquises caresses de burin, a celebrer les rosieres, la 
vertu, ^ conter par le menu I'existence de Louis XVI, les decou- 
vertes, les entreprises, le premier or trouve dans les mines d'Alle- 
mont, la construction du canal du Centre, I'invention des aerostats 
par MM. de Montgolfier... Maintenant, plus d'oeuvres muries a 
loisir, plus de tranquilles images de I'oisivete royale, plus de sujets 
a la Greuze, — La bonne mere, Le bon chef de famille, Le culiivateur 
laborieux, — chers a la vieillesse sentimentale d'un siecle corrompu. 
On exigeait d'eux le souvenir hatif des episodes multiples de I'agi- 
tation contemporaine, la figuration des rues, des places avec la 
houle des foules en mouvement; on leur demandait de revcnir a 
I'antique, d'abandonner le style qui avait marque par I'enrente de 
I'arrangement et le naturel de I'elegance, la medaille fran^aise au 
cours du xviii^ siecle. Besogne ardue que de se plier a la tendance 
nouvelle! >> 

Bibliography, — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Betts, American Medals. — Chavigne- 
rie et Auvray, op. cit. — D"" F. P. Weber, op. cit. — Thomsen Catdogm. — 
Hennin, op. cit. — Gratide Encyclopedie. — Grand Dictionnaire Larousse. — Marx, 
Lesmedailleurs franfais depiiis ijScf, Paris, 1897. — Sale Catalogue, etc. — A. Evrard 
de Fayolle, Hisloire numismatique de la Clximbre de Commeru de Bordeaux, 1901. 

— 214 — 
GARROT. MICELL (French). Mint-master at Angers, 1660-1661. 
Bibliography. — Adrien Planchenault, La tvonuaie d" Angers, 1896. 

GASPARE DE' TOZOLI (liaL). Gem-engraver at the Court of Pope 
Paul II. ; perhaps only a dealer in gems. 

GASPARINI (Ital). Gem-engraver at Mantua, seventeenth cen- 

GATTI (Ital.y Savoyard Mint-master at Geneva (Cornavin), 
1485-1500. On the coins issued by him are the letters G. G. = 

GATZ, PETER {Germ.'). Master of the Mints of Frankfort, Basle and 
Nordlingen under the Emperor Sigismund. He was a native of 
Basle, and appears to have filled the post of Mint-master at Frank- 
fort from 1423 to 1428, but there is no distinctive mark on the 
Gulden coinage of that period that would indicate his tenure ot 

Gatz was installed Mint-master at Basle for a period of five 
years in 1429. His Goldgulden were to be similar to those struck 
at Frankfort, bearing on one side, sceptre and cruciferous orb, 
accompanied by the legend : SIGISMVND « ROMANOR « REX, 
and on the othtr side, Virgin and Child, with : MONETA BASI- 

Goldgulden of Basle, under Sigismund. 

From contemporaneous documents, we learn that the Mint- 
master had to pay to the Royal Treasury ^Gulden for every Mark of 
gold that he coined. We also read : " Er soil vor Niemand zu 
Reclue stehen als vor dem Konige; er soil auch iiber seine Familie 
und Gesinde allein richten, mil Ausnahme von Mord oder Dieb- 
stahl, in welchem Fall der Rath zu Basel richten soil. " 

Under Peter Gatz, the Mint of Basle issued a very important 
series of currency, but already in 143 1, Sigismund mortgaged the 
Mints of Frankfort, Nordlingen and Basle to Conrad von Weinsberg 
for the sum of 5450 Gulden. 

— 21) — 

The name of Gatz is mentioned as late as 1458 in connection 
with the Mint of Basle. 

Bibliography. — A. Sattler, Zur Geschichle der Riichsniun^sldtle ;ii Basel, Bul- 
letin de la Socidte Suisse de numismatique, 1882. — Paul Joseph und Eduard 
Fellner, Die Mun:(en von Frankfurt am Main, 1896. 

GADDENS. AUGUSTIN SAINT- (American). Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at New York, hut of Irish origin ; one of the most clever 
artists and exponents of art in the United States at the present 
time. He studied for a number of years at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 
Paris; his recent exhibits at the Paris Salons have produced quite 
a stir and made the name of the sculptor famous in the world of 

Saint-Gaudens' Medallions are not behind in merit with his works 
of sculpture; the best known are : Robert Louis Stevenson; — 
Charles Beaman ; — Francis Millet; — Martland Amstrong ; — 
Georges Menard ; — Bastien-Lepage; — Mrs. Schuyler van Reusse- 
laer; — Miss Violet Sargeant; — Prescott Hall Butler; — Jacob 
Schiff; — Homer S' Gaudens; — Cornelius Vanderbilt; — Leo 
Mortimer Schiff and Consort ; — Mr. & Mrs. S' Gaudens, the artist's 
parents; — Mr. Sargeant, &c. 

The artist had been commissioned to execute the commemorative 
medal of the Chicago World's Fair, 1893, which he did. The obv. 
represented a young male figure holding wreaths in left hand, and 
lighted torch in right; on the I^. Christopher Columbus was 
depicted, setting foot on American soil and raising his eyes in 
thankfulness to heaven. The xMedal Committee rejected the obv. on 
moral objections, but the ^. was accepted and used with another 
obv. type designed by Mr Barber, Chief-engraver of the United 
States Mint. 

M. Gaston Migeon has appreciated lately the work of Saint- 
Gaudens in the following words, which I extract from " Art et 
Decoration", 1899. 

" Les Medallions en bas-relief, modeles avec une infinie delicatesse, 
avec une entente superieure des jeux de la lumiere constituent une 
serie tres importante de I'oeuvre de M. Saint-Gaudens. C'est la 
charmante figure pensive et poetique de Robert Louis Stevenson, 
le romancier ecossais, represent^ malade, etendu sur ses oreillers 
et dont la main longue et affinee feuillette un cahier ouvert sur ses 
genoux. Ce sont ceux, tous energiques et graves de Ch. Beaman, 
Francis Millet, de Martland Amstrong ou le profil de si grand 
caractere, au nez busque, de Georges Menard C'est aussi le 
medallion de notre Bastien-Lepage execute a Paris en 1880, au 
moment de sa Jeanne d'Arc. Puis la figure si vivante d'ardente 
intelligence et de ferme decision de Mrs Schuyler van Russlaer ou 
la charmante Miss Violet Sargeant tenant uneguitare. Cesont enfin 

— 2l6 — 

ces delicieuses figures d'enfant, ceux de Prescott Hall Butler, 
appuy^s I'un sur I'autre, ceux de Jacob Schiff, tenant en laisse un 
levrier et le petit Homer S' Gaudens, a la figure ronde, a peine 
formee, aux joues encore toutes pleines de lait, et pour laquelle la 
main paternelle a petri et modele la glaiseavec une d^licatesse toute 

** A penetrer I'ceuvre d'Augustin Saint-Gaudens, on se sent 
enclin a la plus profonde sympathie pour cette siucerite, cette 
force concentree, cette simplicite et cette noblesse de sentiment. 
C'est de nos jours un de ceux qui auront porte sur lasociete de leur 
temps et de leur pays, le regard le plus penetrant et le plus con- 
scient de son caractere particulier. " 

M. Roger Marx in his latest work devotes a whole Plate of 
illustrations to the works of this clever American Sculptor and 

Bibliography. — Gaston Migeon, Le sculpteur Aiigiistin Saint-Gaudens, Art et 
Decoration, 1899. — Roger Marx, Les Medailleurs modernes en France et a I'elran- 
ger, Paris, 1901. 

GAUDEFROY, L. M. M™^ (^French). Contemporary Sculptor, and 
Miniaturist, born at Amiens (Somme), in 1856. Pupil of M"''' Leon 
Bertaux, Joseph Carlier, M"^ Gabry Bureau, Mabille, FeHx Martin, 
and others. 

Since 1890, this artist has exhibited at the Paris Salons the follow- 
ing works : Smile of Spring; — Portrait of Marguerite Bulot; — 
Portrait of Ghislaine de Margard ; — Portrait of Felix de Beauville; 

— The Unhappy; — The Happy; — Sre Cecile; — Maternity; 

— Spring; — Simonne and Yvonne de Lymarie ; — Portrait of 
M"^ Gabrielle de Beauville de Gillot, &c. All these are Medallions 
in clay, bronze, or marble. 

Some of M'"^ Gaudefroy's Plaques in pewter are of a highly artistic 
character : Jeannette ; — Portrait of M*"* Gaudefroy sen' ; — Nests 
of Love ; — Marguerite (plaquette in silver); — ^ Prayer; — Cupids 
playing, &c. 

As a Sculptor and Miniaturist, the Artist has obtained several 
medals in London, Versailles, Lille, Paris, and at the Universal 
Exhibition ot 1900 she was awarded the Bronze medal. 

Bibliography. — Information kindly furnished by the artist. 

GAUDOT, JOSU£ {Swiss). King's Councillor at Neuch^tel under 
the reign of Frederick L, King of Prussia. On the jo'*" of 
November 17 12 a contract was passed between the Government 
and Gaudot for the working of the Neuch^ltel Mint. With him 
worked the engraver Jean Patry, who also filled the post 
of Mint-master, his son Jean Francois Patry, and as Warden 
of the Mint, Pierre Chevrier ; all three came from Geneva. The 

— 217 — 

coins struck in 1712 and 1713 bear the initials I. P-, but the dies 
were executed at BerHn. Gaudot received 1200 Frs for the installa- 
tion of the Mint and a yearly income of 6000 Frs. 

Bibliography. — D"" Frhr. von Schrotter, Die Muniprugiitig in Neuenhurg in 
den Jahren ijij, 14 und //, Zeitschrilt fur Numismatik, 1899. 

GAUL, FRANTZ (Aiistr.). Medallist and Director of the K. K. Gra- 
veur-Akademie of Vienna for a number of years; born on the 
27''' of June, 1802, died on the 22"^ of October, 1874. He was a 
pupil of LuigiPichler and Joseph Klieber. He succeeded to J. D. Boehm 
as Director of the Graveur-Akademie in 1866. The Austrian coins 
issued between 1848 and 1857 were engraved by him. He also 
executed a number of medals, the best known of which are those 
of the Empress Elizabeth and Fanny Essler; also one representing 
Hagar in the Wilderness. 

The dies for the Hungarian Gulden pieces of 1870-79, Four 
Kreutzers of 1868-1869, Double Gulden of 1873 on the 25*'' Anni- 
versary of Francis Joseph's reign, Four Ducats of 1857, '58 and 
'59, &c. were also'cut by this eminent artist. 

His initials F. G. appear on the I^. of the Marriage Thaler of 
Francis Joseph of Austria and Princess Elizabeth of Bavaria, 1854 
{illustrated), and his full signature F. GAUL on a medal of the 
Agricultural Society of Klausenburg, undated. 

Marriage Double Gulden of Francis-Joseph I. and Elizabeth of Bavaria. 

His biographer says : "Seine Medaillen sind stilvoll gezeichnet 
und modelHrt, seine Technik ist sicher und kraftvoll. " 

There is a Portrait-medalet of F, Gaul by A. Scharff, executed in 
1866, and reproduced in Mittheilungen des Clubs der Miini- und 
Medaillen-Freunde in IVien, 1895, p. 93. 

Bibliography. — Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Leipz\g, 1878. — Mittheilungen 
des Clubs der Mimi- und Medaillen-Freunde in IVien, 1890-1900. — Ad. Resch, 
op. cit. 

— 2l8 — 

GADLE, MARTIN LE (French). Engraver of jetons, circa 1520. 

GADLARD. TthlX £mILE (French). Gem-engraver and Medallist, 
born at Paris on the 29''' of August, 1S42. Pupil of Levasseur, 
C Salvatelli, and Bissinge. He began, on his own initiative, at the 
age of 27, without a master, tocui precious stones, an art in which 
he became so efficient that he now holds the highest rank as a gem- 

L'ldeal, by F. E. Gaulard. 
(Block kindly ,lent by the Editor of the Revue de VArt ancien et moderne.) 

engraver. At the Universal Exhibition of Paris, 1900, he was 
awarded a gold Medal. 

This artist exhibited the following works at the Salons from 
1866 to 1 90 1 : i86r. Portrait of his Son, shell cameo; — 1867. 
Portrait ot General S***, shell cameo; — Portrait of H. . S***,C 
shell cameo; — 1868. Faust and Marguerite, after A. Scheffer, 
cameo ; — 1869, Hebe ; — Ajax ; two camei; — 1870. La Vierge 

— 219 — 

a la chaise, after Raphael, cameo; — 1874. Ajax, in pietra dura; 
— 1875. Mars, in pietra dura ; — 1876. Moses on the mountain 
watching the fight between the Israelites and Amalekites, cameo in 
carnelian ; — 1877. Portrait of M'"^ X***, onyx ; — 1878. Portrait ot 
M. Emile Gaulard, sardonyx ; — Mucins Scaevola before Porsenna, 
onyx; — 1879. Portrait of the artist's son, Lucien ; bust in sardo- 
nyx ; — 1880. The Torment of Prometheus, sardonyx (acquired 

L'enl^vemenl de Dejanire, by F. E. Gaulard. 
(Illustration kindly lent by the Editor of the Revue de VArl ancimet wodertie.) 

by the State for the Luxembourg Museum); — 1881. Phoebus, 
cameo in opal; — 1882. Dolphins bringing Amphitrite to Nep- 
tune; — 1884, Birth of Minerva, cameo in chalcedony (acquired 
by the State for the Luxembourg Museum; — 1885. The Flag, 
cameo in sardonyx; — 1886. Hebe, agate of four tints; — 1887. 
Hippolyte, agate of six strata; — 1888. Eve, oriental agate; — 
1889. Judith, statuette in pink chalcedony; — 1890, Gallia, stat- 

— 220 — 

uette in burnt topaz (Luxembourg Museum); — 1891. L'Ideal, 
cameo in sardonyx (for which the artist was awarded a medal of 
the second class (illustrated); — 1893. Christ, statuette in green 
Indian jade; height : 18 cm. — 1895. The Rape of Dejaneira, 
cameo in sardonyx (acquired by the State for the Luxembourg 
Museum (illustrated); — 1896. Leda, cameo in sardonyx of three 
strata (acquired by the State for the Luxembourg Museum); — 1897. 
The Return of the Conqueror, sardonyx of five strata; — 1898. 
Hebe, sardonyx of three layers; — 1899. After the contest between 
Ideal Love and Material Instinct, cameo in sardonyx (awarded 
a Medal of the First Class); — 1900. The Dawn of the French 
Republic, cameo and electrotype; — 1901. Portrait of M. Muzet, 
Deputy of the Department of the Seme, onyx cameo, &c. 

M. Gaulard has also executed Portrait-medallions of M. Weiss; 

— M"^ Gille ; — M. Muzet ; — M. le Comte de Valcours ; — of the 
Artist himself, &c., both in clay and bronze. 

At the Paris Universal Exhibition, 1900, this artist exhibited the 
following works : Gallia (statuette in burnt topaze); — The 
Ideal (cameo on sardonyx of three strata) ; — Dawn (cameo on 
natural chalcedony); — Christ (jade); — Rape of Dejanira 
(cameo in sardonyx); — Portrait of M. E. G***. (cameo in sardo- 
nyx); — 7° Portrait of M"'^ G. (cameo); — 8° Leda (cameo in 
sardonyx in three strata); — 9° Return of the Conqueror (cameo 
in sardonyx of five strata); — 10° Hebe (cameo); — 11° After the 
contest between Ideal Love and Material Instinct (cameo in sardo- 
nyx); — Portrait of M. Hubert Weiss (medallion). 

At the Salon of 1901, he further exhibited : Portrait ot 
M. Alexis Muzet, bronze plaque; — Similar portrait, onyx cameo; 

— Chimaera ; — After the Fight, electrotype after a cut stone. 

In 1902, the artist's exhibits were very much admired; they 
consisted of a sardonyx cameo representing Spring, and another 
cameo, entitled " Towards the Unknown " in mosaic, composed of 
pink-sardonyx, blood jasper, Hungarian opal, blue chalcedony from 
the Oural, gold and silver. 

"L'Ideal", remarks M. Babelon in a recent article of the Revue 
de VArt (La Gravure en pi-rrres fines, 10 novembre 1900) " est le reve 
d'un musicien. Le sujet est poetiqueet la composition en est pleine 
de sentiment et d'emotion ; on sent I'inspiration dans I'attitude de 
ce jeune homme agenouille sur leplus hautsommet d'une montagne 
et qui etend les bras en brandissant sa lyre, tandis qu'au-dessus de 
lui, couch^e dans les nuages et bercee par eux, la Gloire endormie 
tient un rameau de laurier ". 

And of Gaulard's fine cameo " L'Enlevement de Dejanire ", the 
same writer says : 

**L'artiste a bien tire parti des dilRrentes couches de la belle et 

— 221 — 

grande gemnie qu'il a su choisir; il y a meme dans son oeuvre de 
la profondeur comme dans une raedaille de Roty, et I'archer qui 
vient de percer d'une fleche le centaure Nessus est bien place dans 
le lointain. " 

M. Gaulard is one of the foremost Gem-engravers of our times, 
and belongs to the school of H. Frangois, Georges Lemaire, 
G. TonneHer, Galbrunner, and B. Hildebrand. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auray, op. cit. — L. B^nedite, Catalogue dn 
Musee dit Luxembourg. — E. Babelon, La Gravure en pierres fines. Revue de I'Art, 
nov. 1900. 

GAULARD, LUCIEN ACHILLE (French). Gem-engraver, born at 
Paris; pupil of M. Frank; resides at Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (Seine-et- 

At the Salon of 1902 he exhibited a figure of Bacchante, on a 
sardonyx cameo of three strata. 

GAUQDifi, HENRI (French). Sculptor, born at Flers-16s-Lille 
(Nord) ; pupil of CaveHer and Fache. At the Salons of 1881 and 
1882 this artist exhibited Portrait-medallions in bronze and 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GAURAMUS ANICETUS. This signature (?) is found on a gem in 
bloodstone, representing a combat between a dog and wild boar. 
King thinks the name may be that of the dog. 

Bibliography. — King, Antique Gems, London, i860. 

GAUSBY, MARRIAN AND (Brit.). A Birmingham firm of Die- 
sinkers, who issued in 1846 several pattern coins. The Montagu 
Collection contained a set of Pattern pieces, comprizing the Ten, 
Five, Two and One Cent pieces; obv. Head of Queen Victoria to 1., 
hair tied in knot behind, plain fillets; MARRIAN & GAUSBY D . 
BIRM. below the head ; no legend; broad rim, within which is a 
beaded circle, on both sides; §6. SMITH ON DECIMAL CUR- 
RENCY 1846; floral ornament each side of date; in the centre in 
two lines, indication of value; edge plain, extremely rare. 


Bibliography. — Spink, Catalogue of Mr. Montagu's Collection oj Coins from 
George 1. to Victoria, London, 1891. 

GAUTHERIN, JEAN (French). Sculptor, born at Ouroux (Nievre), 
on the 19"' of Decem.ber 1840; knighted in 1878. Since 1865, this 
artist has occasionally exhibited Portrait-medallions in clay and 
bronze at the annual Paris Salons. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

— 121 — 

GAUTHERON, ANTHOINE (French). Engraver at the Mint of Mont- 
pellier, during the fourth decade of the seventeenth century. 

Bibliography. — A. Barre, Graveurs parlicuUers des montiaies de Frattce, 
Annuaire de humismatique, 1867. 

GAUTHIER, CHARLES (French). Sculptor, born at Chauvirey-le- 
Chatel (Haute-Saone) on the 7''' of December 1831 ; pupil of Jouf- 
froy ; knighted in 1872. 

By him are various Portrait-medallions in clay and bronze which 
have been exhibited at the Annual Paris Salons since 1854. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cil. 


Goldsmith, Engraver and oi Lyons, where he appears to 
have settled from Picardy. His name is variously spelt : Gauvain, 
Gauveyn, Gauvyn, Gouveyn, Gaveyn, Gavain, Gauvan, Gavan, 
Gauvain and Cavan. In contemporary documents he is also styled ; 
" Jaques Gauvey dit Astrigot, orphevre", and " Maistre Jaques 
I'orfevre " ; on medals with his portrait : lACOBVS GAVVANVS 
and lACOBV'S GAVANVS. Gauvain's first wife was the daughter 
of Jean le Pere, the artist of the celebrated gold porcupine medal 
presented to Louis XIL, 1499, &c. 

In 1 52 1, Gauvain was elected to the office of Coin-engraver to 
the Mint of Grenoble; in 1523, he engraved the dies of the Blancs 
a la couronne or Douzains, and also those ot the Ecus au soleil and 
Testons. He was succeeded in this post by Jehan Farbot in 1524. 
At the same time, Gauvain was carrying on the trade of a gold- 
smith at Lyons, and from a document, we learn that he valued his 
work at one ecu d'or per day (about € 2 of our money). 

We know the following medals by Jacques Gauvain ; they are 
all cast : 

1. Obv. .lACOBVS.GAVANVS.AVRIFABER. Portrait of the 
artist to r. No ^L. (Berlin Cabinet; T.W. Greene Coll.) Size : 
51.6 mill. 

2. Obv. .lACOBVS.GAVVANVS.AVRIFABRI- 1523. Bust to 
r. No^. (T.W. Greene Coll.). Size : 45.6 mill. 

3. Obv. .lACOBVS. GAVVANVS. Bust to r. No ^L. (Louvre 
Mus.) Model in clay. 

4. Medal of Queen Eleonora (now lost). 

5. Medal of the Dauphin Francis (JE specimen in the Collection 
of M. Chabrieres-Arles). 

6. Medal of Chancellor Duprat (now lost). 

These three large medals in gold were presented in 1533 by the 
Consulate of Lyons to Queen Eleonore, the Dauphin Francis and 
the Chancellor Legate of France on their visit to Lyons. 

7. Medal of Margaret of Austria : obv. MARGARITA CAESARIS 

— 223 — 

FORTISSIMA; ex. VIRTVS. Virtue leaning against column; at 
her feet, Fortune prostrate (Cabinets of Brussels and Vienna; Coll. 
Jules Bizot). Size : 39.1 mill. 

The artist was probably residing at Brussels when he was 
entrusted with the execution of this medal. 

M. Rondot surmises Gauvain to be the author of the medals of 
Francois Clouet, Francois do la Colombiere and Thomas de Gadagne 
from the similarity ol style and treatment with those signed by him. 

Jacques Gauvain's name is mentioned for the last time in 1547 ; 
he was then probably a little over seventy years of age. 

1 his artist's work bears some analogy with that of Flemish 
masters, whilst the composition savours of Italian influence. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Jacques Gauvain, orflvre,graveur el medatlleur 
a Lyon au sei^ienic sikle, Lyon, 1887. 

has erronneously ascribed the following medal to an Italian gold-^ 
smith of the first half of the sixteenth century. The name is only the 
latinized form of Jacques Gauvain. JE. Mm. 51. Obv. JACOBVS, 
GAVANVS, AVRIFABER. Bust to r. (described above). 

Bibliography. — D-" Eug. Merzbacher, Kunst-Medailhn-Katatoi, Munchen, 
1900. — Cat. Rolas du Rosey, 2773. 

GAVARDINO (Ital.). Goldsmith, and Niello-engraver of the 
sixteenth century. 

Bibliography. — Duchesne, Les Nielles, Paris, 1825. 

GAVARDINO so-called ; actual names, ANTONIO and FRANCESCO 

BALZANI, father and son (Jtal.) Both occupied the post of Coin- 
engraver at the Mint of Bologna, the former before 1545, the year of 
his death, and Francesco, for a short timeafterw^ards. They are praised 
for having been very efficient in their art. Francesco was succeeded 
by Cornelio Malvasia, who belonged to a noble Bolognese family. 
Bibliography. — Francesco Malaguzzi Valeri, La Zecca di Bologna, 1898. 

GAY, LYDIA (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, of the 
school of Alphonse Legros. At the Royal Academy Exhibition of 
1899, her Portrait-medallion of Miss Lancaster was generally admir- 
ed. She is also the author of Portrait-medallions of Lord Kelvin, 
Prof. Thomas Huxley, and of others, unnamed, exhibited at the 
Society of Medallists' Exhibition in 1897, with Prize-medals, &c. 

GAYRARO, PAUL (French). Son of Raymond Gayrard, born at 
Clermont (Puy-de-D6me), died on the 2"'^ July, i8s5 ; Sculptor and 
Medallist ; pupil ol his father and others ; was awarded medals of the 

— 224 — 

second class in 1834 ^^"^ ^^^^ ^^^ss in i8|6; decorated with the 
Legion of Honour in 1853. 

By him are Portrait-medaUions of pubHc and private persons, 
which were exhibited at the Salons between 183 1 and 1855. The 
Catalogue of 1837 mentions a frame of medals in bronze, which 
are however not described. 

Bibliography. — Jules Duval, Raymond Gayrard, Paris 1859. 

GAYRARD, RAYMOND (French). Sculptor, Medallist and Gem- 
engraver, born at Rodez (Aveyron) on the 25''' of October, 1777 ; 
died at Paris on the 4'*' May, 1858. Of humble birth, Gayrard 
displayed very early an uncommon disposition for artistic pursuits. 
Between 1796 and 1802, he served under the French Republican 
flag in Italy and Switzerland, and was wounded at the Battle of 
Zurich. After the peace of Amiens, he settled down at Paris and 
devoted himself henceforth entirely to chasing and engraving, and 
worked for several goldsmiths, continuing in the meantime to 
stud}' sculpture and the glyptic an under Boizot, Taunay, Jeuf- 
froy and other masters. The artist very soon distinguished himself 
and obtained encouragement from the highest circles. Denon took 
him under his protection, and from 18 10 to the date of his death, 
Gayrard's career was but a long series of success. The French 
government rewarded his talent by knighting him in 1825. 

Gayrard was above all a medallist, but he has done very fine 
work as a sculptor and statuary; he is known also as a poet and 

His biographer, M. Duval, describes 211 medals, 78 statues, 
41 low relievi, 46 busts, 10 1 medallions, 20 gems, a chased vase 
and a fine chalice by him, but he adds that this list does not 
represent the whole of his work, as the medallions alone number 
probably 300 specimens. 

Gayrard cannot be said to have influenced medallic art to a great 
extent; he is not the master of a school, and although a good 
portraitist, he adhered in his style to the old principles of the 
eighteenth century; nevertheless he is worthy to occupy an honour- 
rable place amongst the most eminent artists of his time. 

Of especial interest to English collectors are this medallist's 
commemorative pieces of the Naval Engagement off^ Malaga, 1704 ; 
— The Bridge at Almarez, 181 2; — Roger Bacon ; — The French 
people to the English nation, 1838 (the last engraved in collabora- 
tion with Caqud). 

Though not complete, the following is a fairly representative 
list of Gayrard's meaallic works. 

— 22 = 


1807, Battle of Montenotte, obv. (illustrated); — 1806, Ticket 
for the Masonic Lodge, "LaClemente Amitie" ; — 1807, Road from 
Nice to Rome; — Sebastien Hillaire; — 1808, Imperial Univer- 
sity (jeton); — 1810, Commission of Secret remedies; — Marie- 
Louise and Napoleon; — Another variety, with different busts; — 
Napoleon, Marie-Louise and Francis IL, (2 var.); — 18 12, Heur et 
malheur (jeton, 2 var.); — Love and Fortune (jeton); — Napo- 
leon the Great; — 181 3, The Coal trade (jeton); — 1814, The 
French Empire, obv. Bust of Napoleon, ^. Eagle on fulmen; — 
Francis IL visits the Paris Medal Mint ; — Frederick William III. 
of Prussia visits the Mint ; — Charles Philip of France (Rien nest 
change en France, il ny a quun Fran^ais de plus) ; — 181 5, Charles 
Ferdinand, Duke of Berry (Soldats, ne tire:^ pas; nous somrnes tons 
Frangais); — Louis Antoine, Duke of Angouleme; — Maria The- 

Battle of Montenotte (obv.), by R. Gayrard. 

resa Charlotte, Duchess of Angouleme; — Second Return ot 
Louis XVIII. ; —The Paris Bar; — 1816, Louis XVIIL, King of 
France (Aucun des articles de la Charte ne sera revise) ; — Louis XVIIL 
distributing Colours to the army; — Homage to Louis XVI. ; — 
Transfer of the ashes of the Duke of Enghien to Vincennes Chapel; 

— Caroline-Fernande, Duchess of Berry (Connexa lilia crescunt); 

— The Duke and Duchess of Berry (2 var.); — i8i7,The Famine 
of 1 8 17; — 1 8 18, Retreat of the Allies; — The Count of Toulouse, 
Admiral of France; — Battle of Velez-Malaga; — The Water from 
the Ourcq brought to Paris ; — Reconstruction of the Bridge of 
Millau; — The Church of Notre-Dame de Lorette; — 18 18, 
Louis XVIIL, King of France and Navarre; — Nicolas G^rardin of 
Orleans; — The Slaughter-house ot Orleans; — Building of the 
Chapelle du Temple; — The Fire-engine of Marly; — The Paris 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notica of liedallisit. — II. IJ 

— 226 — 

Custom house (Octroi); — Church of Noisy-le-Sec ; — Church 
of Bercy; — Church of Pres-Saint-Gervais; — Church of Mont- 
rouge ; — Town Hall of Le Mans; — Inauguration of the Law Courts 
of Orleans; — The Corn Exchange of Orleans; — 1817, Exhibi- 
tion Award medal; — Society for the Amelioration of Prisons; 

— 1820, Bridge of Livorno; — Award medal; — Completion of 
the Bridge of Bordeaux; — Quiroga, Spanish general; — Vacci- 
nation in the provinces; — Assassination of the Duke of Berry 
(3 types) ; — The Duchess of Berry (Non est dolor sicut dolor meus; 
niipta ij jun. 1816, orba I4febr. 1S20); — The Duke of Berry ^L. 
Henry IV. ; — Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, Regrets of the 
Society of Friends of Art; — To the Memory of the Bourbons 
who perisJied under the assassin's steel ; — The Department of the 
Nord to the Memory of the Duke of Berry; — Birth of the Duke 
of Bordeaux (6 different types); — Louis XVIII. (Ne dis plus, 6 
Jacobs que le Seigneur sommeille); — 1821, Baptism of the Duke of 
Bordeaux (2 var.); — Treaty of Commerce between France and 
America; — 1822, Re-estabHshment of the statue of Louis XIV. on 
the Place des Victoires ; — Plague of Barcelona; — Ferdinand VII., 
King of Spain; — Cadiz taken; — 1823, Triumphal Entry of the 
Duke of Angouleme in Paris (2 types); — 1824, Lesueur, French 
painter; — Death of Louis XVIII. ; — Saint-Louis, King of France; 

— Re-establishment of the statue of Henry IV. ; — Bust of 
Louis XVIII. ; — Charles X., King of France; — Accession of 
Charles X.; — Charles X. swears to maintain the Constitution ; — 
Agricultural Prize Medal of Senegal; — Church of Saint- Vincent- 
de-Paul; — Bridge of Moissac; — Bridge of Saumur; — Law 
Courts of Perigueux; — Monument at Lege to the memory of 
Charette; — Bridge of Roche-de-Glun (Drome); — Church of 
Saint-Denis au Marais; — Church of Neuilly ; — Cambrai Hall of 
Varieties; — Restoration of Cambrai Hospital; — Restoration of the 
Chamber of Deputies; — Thanksgivings for theaccessionofCharlesX.; 

— Honorary Council of the Royal Museums; — 1825, Coronation 
of Charles X. (5 var. one illuslrated); — The King enters Paris; — 
Bolivia independent; — Monument to Louis XVI.; — 1827, 
Charles X. at Amiens; — The King at Arras; — Charles X. and 
the Dauphin visit Colmar; — 1830, Manufacture of Saint-Gobain 
(jeton); — Algiers taken; — Liberty of the Press (En publiant elk 
eclaire); — Universal fraternity; — Distribution of Colours to the 
Garde nationale by Louis-Philippe; — Bust of Louis-Philippe; — 
1832, Louis-Philippe, King of the French; — Mgr de Quelen ; — 
1839, The " Providence " Fire Insurance; — 1841, The Loire 
Railway (jeton); — 1842, Viscount de Bonald; — 1843, S. E. 
Cardinal du Pont, Archbishop of Bourges; — 1844, John and 
Joseph Darcet; — France crowning Printing; — Exhibition Award 

— 12J — 

Medal; — The Central Railway; — Cardinal du Pont, ^L. S' Gre- 
gory's house at Neuville; — Mgr Affre, Archbishop of Paris; — 
Henry of France; — 1847, Cardinal Giraud, Archbishop ot 
Cambrai; — Mgr Clausel de Montals, Bishop of Chartres ; — Life 
Insurance Society " La Providence "; — Marriage of Leopold, 
King of the Belgians; — 1848, French Republic; — Death of 
Mgr Affre (^Au martyr de la charite chrelienne); — 1849, The 
National Assembly; — Promulgation of the Constitution; — 
French Republic; — 1850, Award Medal of the French Republic; 

— National Agricultural Show (3 types); — Agricultural Society 
of Clermont (Oise); — Industrial Exhibition; — Ministry of 
Agriculture; — Agricultural Society of Chartres; — The Plague 
of 1850; — Eugene de Genoude, Director of the " Gazette de 
France"; — Pius IX. returns to Rome; — Pius IX. visits the 
wounded French soldiers; — Savings Bank of Senlis (jeton); — 
185 1, Victor Emmanuel, King of Sardinia; — The Queen of 
Sardinia; — Reception of the Lord Mayor of London; — 
Fine Art Exhibition; — 1852, France crowning the Fine Arts; 

— Bank of Algeria; — Town of Gray, Plague medal; — H.I.H. 
Princess Mathilda; — Election of Louis-Napoleon; — Con- 
version of the French Rente; — 1855, Queen Victoria visits 
Paris; — The King of Sardinia visits Paris; — The new " Hotel 
de Ville " of Havre; — M™^ Virginie Ancelot; — M""= de Saint- 
Surin-Cendrecourt; — 1856, Peace of Paris; — 1857, S* Theresa; 

By Gayrard are also: 1839, Male portrait; — Female portrait; 

— 1840, Comte de Sabran; — Pelouze, Member of the Institute; 

— Gamier; — Nibelle; — Baillot; — Zimmermann; — du Theil; 

— M"^ Flaugergues; — 1841, Prince Eugene de Beauharnais; — 
^me p***. — 1842, Mrs Julia Fitz-Gerald; — Colonel Carcenac ; 

— Mrs Geraldine Fitz-Gerald; — Dumoutin Celestin; — P. Paris; 

— Emile Deschamps; — F. Reiset; -- Charles de Bousquet; — 
Pierre Jeannin, French jurisconsult; — Inauguration of the Sevres 
Starting post, 1824; — Insurance Company "L'Union", etc. 


Abeilard; — Bacon; — E. de Beauharnais; — Bossuet; — 
Calvin; — Cervantes; — Charles V. of Germany; — Cherubini; 

— Coligny; — General Dampierre; — Dante Alighieri; — 
Duguesclin ; — Fenelon ; — Francis I. ; — GaHleo Galilei ; — Gliick ; 

— Gr^try; — Guttemberg; — Heloise; — General Hoche; — 
Hoche, Commander in chief; — President Jeannin; — Marshal 
Lannes; — Leo X.; — Clement Marot; — Mazarin; — Michael- 
Angelo; — Moliere; — Auger de Montyon; — D"" Etienne 

— 228 — 

Pariset; — Raynal; — M™' de Sevigne; — Tomaso Sgricci; 
SufFren; — De Thou; — Turenne. 


The Comte de Chambordand Henry IV.; — Chateaubriand; — 
M.A***, Greek priest; — Viscount of ArHncourt; — Baillot; — 
Eugene de Barrau ; — Hippolyte de Barrau ; — Bauchesne ; — Beau- 
regard, editor of the " Gazette de France"; — Boissonnade, 
Architect; — Boucharlat, Mathematician; — Charles de Bousquet; 

— Pierre Cabrol; — EHe Cabrol; — Colonel Carcenac; — Viscount 
de Canisy; — Philarete Chasles, Professor at the College of 
France; — Viscountess de Contades (Duchess of Luynes); — 
M"= V"^ de Contades (Duchess of Chevreuse); — Count Max. ot 
Damas; — Abbe Deguerry, curate of the Madeleine at Paris; — 
Edm. Delvincourt; — R.P. Dominique; — Delzers; — Emile 
Deschamps; — M""^ Dumont; — Jules Duval; — M. Dutheil (2 
types); — Count Estourmel; — Ferrand; — Mrs Julia Fitz-Gerald; 

— Miss Geraldine Fitz-Gerald; — M"^ Pauline Flaugergues; — 
^me (jg Fontmichel; — M. Garnier, Painter; — Gustave Gayrard; 
Abbe Gayrard; — M"^ Marie Gayrard; — Girou de Buzareingues; 

— Louis Girou de Buzareingues; — Emile Glandy; — Ch. Gos- 
selin; — M. Guizaid; — M"'= Guizard; — The children ot 
M. Guizard; — Jules Hocede; — Abbe Just; — Armand d'Izam; 

— Charles Lacretelle; — Charles de Ladoucette; — M"'*^ Ch. de 
Ladoucette; — M"^ B. de Ladoucette; — Baron de Lamotte-Lan- 
gon; — Pierre Lamotte; — Latour-Dumoulin; — Guillon-Lethiere; 

— Jean Lemoinne; — D"" Le Saulnier; — Henri de Libessart; — 
de Ligny; — Edouard Loche; — M™^ Savarin Loche; — Paul de 
Lourdoncix; — M"^ de Malleville; — M. de Malleville; — General 
Marcy-Monge; — Monseignat; — Montn^erque; — Celestin 
Moreau; — Baron de MuUer; — Abbe Mutel; — Nibelle, Lawyer; 

— Desire Nisard ; — Oury; — Jules Pagezy, Mayor of Mont- 
pelher; — Sophie Pannier; — Paulin Paris; — Pelouze; — Petit- 
Radel; — de Portets; — Poujoulat; — de Puymaurin, Director 
of the Mint; — Regnault; — M""^ Jacques Reiset; — Frederic 
Reiset; — Jules Reiset; — Count Gustave de Reiset; — Henri de 
Reiset; — Ferdinand Riant; — Abb6 Rozier; — Count Henri de 
Ruolz; — Count de Sabran; — Xavier Saintine; — Seghers, 
Musician; — Adolphe Trebuchet; — Abbe Trebuquet; — Edouard 
Turquety; — D"" Vallerand-Lafosse ; — Viennet, of the French 
Academy; — Berger de Xivrey; — Zimmermann, Composer; etc. 

— 229 — 

In 1848, Gayrard was one of the competitors for the engraving 
of the coins of the Second RepubHc. He submitted to the Mint 

Pattern Five Franc piece, 1841, by Gayrard. 

Patterns for the 20 Franc piece, 5 Francs (illustrated) and Copper 


Helmeted head of Napoleon, onyx cameo; — Napoleon in 
triumphal chariot, onyx cameo; — Napoleon enters Moscow; — 
Henry IV. at Arques (2 var.); — Second return of Louis XVIII. ; 

— Cadiz taken; — Baptism of Our Lord; — Portrait of Alexander I. 
of Russia; — Frederick-William of Prussia; — Murat, King of 
Naples; — Louis XVIII. , King of France; — Comte de Chambord ; 

— Cardinal du Pont; — Cardinal Giraud; — Charles de Ladou- 
cette; — P. Lamotte; — Pelouze; — Raymond Gayrard; — Gus- 
tave Gayrard; — Head of Jesus Christ; — Head of the Virgin; — ■ 
Head of S* Joseph; — Birth of Jesus Christ; — Jesus Christ and 
the Disciples at Emmaiis; — Death of Christ; — Christ in heaven; 
etc. Several of these are shell camei. 

Gayrard was a modest man, and died beloved by all his sur- 
roundings. He has described his life in the following rhymes. 

Quelques flatteurs m'ont dit que j'animais I'argile, 

Que i'acier fut toujours a mon burin docile, 

Et que sous mon ciseau le marbre palpitait. 

Sans croire a ces discours, mon cceurs'en d^lectait... 

Ah ! je dois I'avouer, la louange m'enflamme, 

C'estelle qui seduit, qui subjugue mon ame! 

Pour elle, jeune encor, j'ai quitte le repos; 

Jusqu'a la paix d'Amiens, j'ai suivi nos drapeaux. 

Apr^s la guerre, aux arts j'ai demande la gloire. 

Oui, je te pr^ferais, pacifique victoire! 

Invente, m'6criais-je, invente et tu vivras; 

Et puis j'ai dit au ciel : Seigneur! tu m'aideras. 

— 230 — 

Mais, helas! tout s'eteint, et la froide vieillesse 
Vient blanchir mes cheveux et calmer mon ivresse ; 
Je suis un vieux lutteur, fatigue de combats; 
Sur ce qu'il est, pour Dieu! ne jugez pas mon bras. 
A quiconque voudrait me faire cet outrage 
Je cite mes travaux et rappelle mon age. 

Speaking of Barye, Desboeufs and Gayrard, the eminent critic, 
M. Roger Marx sa3's : *' Ces artistes, sculpteurs et medailleurs tout 
ensemble, proclament I'unite, la solidarite de I'art et c'est comme 
I'espoir d'un relevement prochain. " 

Bibliography. — Jules Duval, Raymond Gayrard, Graveur et statttaire, Paris, 
1859. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — Grande Eucydopedie. — R. Marx, 
Medailleurs franfais, Paris, 1897. — Do, Les Medailleurs modernes en France et a 
I'Etranger. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Franks & Grueber, Medallic Illustrations of 
British History, London, 1885. — H. A. Grueber, British Museum Guide of English 
Medals, London, 1891. — Revue Suisse de numismatique, 1892. — F. de Saulcy, 
Souvenirs numismatiques de la Revolution de 184S. — D"" F. P. Weber, English 
Medals by foreign Artists, London, 1894. — Hennin, Numismatique de la Revolution 
frangaise, Paris. 1826. — Mudie, National Medals. — Thomsen, o/». ci/. — A. Evrard 
de FayoUe, Histoire numismatique de la Chambre de commerce de Bordeaux, 1900. 

G. B. (in monogram) or I. G. B. Vide JOHANN GEORG BUTTNER. 

Mint-master at Cassel, 1657-1680. 

G. B. or . B. . Vide GEORGE BOWER. London Medallist, 1650- 


G. B. Vide GEORG BINNENBOSE (Binnenbohs). Mint-master at 
Hoxter, 1683 -1688, and Steuerwald, near Hildesheim, 1689- 

G. B. Vide GIAMMARIA BASSI. Medallist of Bologna, 1692. 

G. B. Vide GIROLAMO BONLINI. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1757. 

G. B. Vide GEORG BARRIER. Die-sinker at Dusseldorf, 1765- 

G. B. F/Vi^ JOHANN GEORG BUNSEN. Mint-master at Frankfort-on 
M., 1790-1833. 

G. B. Vide GEORG (VALENTIN) BAUERT. Die-sinker at Altona, 

G. BET. Vide I. G. BETULIBS. Die-sinker at Stuttgart, 1786- 

G. B. M. Vide GEORG BEST. Mint-master at Coburg, 1585. 

G. B. P. Vide GIOVANNI BATTISTA POZZO. Die-sinker at Rome, 

— 231 — 

G. B. V.F. G.... Vide BARTOLOMEO VAGGELLI. Die sinker at Flo- 
rence, middle years of the eighteenth century. 

G. B. V. M. F. Vide GYS BERT VAN HOELINGEN. Die-sinker at 
Delft, 1770. 
Bibliography. — SchlickeysenPallmann, op. cit. 

G. B. {Swiss). Initials of an Engraver or Mint-master of Lucerne, 
found on an undated Florin of Forty shiUings of the eighteenth 

G. C. Initials of artist on medal of Frederick VI. of Denmark, 
1833 (In Boston Collection), This medal which presents on ^. a 
portrait of D' Matthias Riben of Stockholm commemorates the 
convalescence of the King. 

G. C. Vide GIRARDINO CAGNASSONE. Mint-master at Turin, 1556- 

G. C. Vide GIUSEPPE CERBARA. Die-sinker at Rome, 1820- 

G. C. B. Vide GEORG CHRISTOPH BUSCH. Mint-master at Ratisbon, 

1773, fiSii. 

G. C. F. Vide GEORG CONRAD FEHR. Mint-master at Darmstadt, 

G. C. R. Vide GEORG CHRISTIAN REUSS. Mint-master at Bremen, 

G. C. W. Vide GEORG CHRISTOPH WACHTER. Die-sinker, born at 
Heidelberg, 1729, worked many years at Mannheim, and was Hving 
in 1 77 1 at S' Petersburg. 

G. C. W. F. Vide G. C. WINKLER. Die-sinker at Esslingen, 1769. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

G. D. Vide GIULIO DONA. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1675. 

G. D. Vide GUILLAUME DUPRfi. Medallist of Paris, 1597-1643. 

G. D. B. VideQi. DE BACKER. Die-sinker at Namur, 1711-1715. 

G. D. R. Vide GEORG DANIEL ROTENBECK. Mint-master and Die- 
sinker at Nuremberg, 1668, 7 1705. 

GDV. Vide GUILLAUME DUPR£. Medallist of Paris, 1597-1643. 

— 232 — 

G. D. Z. Fide GEORG DAVID ZIEGENHORN. Mint-master at Olden- 
burg, Jever, Bielefeld, Zerbst and Minden, 166^-16'j'). 
BiBLiOGR.\PHY. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

G. D. (Gertn.y Signature of a Die-sinker who worked for the 
Bavarian Court, towards the end of the eighteenth century. His 
initials are found on a medal of Charles Theodore, struck on the 
occasion of his marriage with Maria Leopoldine, Archduchess of 

Bibliography, — Domanig, PortrdtmedaiUen des hrihauses Oeskrreich, Wien, 

G. DE B. Fide G. DE BACKER (FoL I, p. 41). 

G D R (3[F() probably GEORG DANIEL ROETENBECK (Fide infra). 
This monogram occurs on three medals : 1668, Georg Schweiger, 
Nuremberg sculptor; — 1671, Religious badge, obv. Christ, ^L. 
Paschal Lamb ; — 1672, Johann Wilhelm Baier, Nuremberg theo- 
logian. Roetenbeck was born at Nuremberg in 1645 and died there 
in 1705. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailkure, Berlin, 1884, — Doppelmayr, 
Historische NacJiricht von den NurnbergiscJjen Matheniaticis und Kfinstlern, Nurnberg, 

G. E, Fide GOTTFRIED EHRLICH, Warden of the Saalfeld Mint 
1623, in the employ of Wallenstein, 1628- 1630. 

G. E. Fide GREGOR EGERER. Mint-master at Prague, 1694-1709. 

G, E, Fide GLO^G EHLE. Die-sinker at Vienna, 1755-1759. 

GEBEL, MATHES (Germ.). Sculptor of Nuremberg, circa 1523. 
Fide MG supra. 

GE6HARD, GLORG {Germ .) . Mint- warden of the Franconian Circle, 

cirt. 1624, 

Bibliography, — D^ Emil Bahrfeld, Das Miuf^-und Geldwesen der Fttrstenthumer 
Holxniollern, Berlin, 1900. 

GEBHARDT, HANS (Germ.). Coin-engraver, circ. 1579-1588; 
1579, Mint-master at Frankfort-on-M, ; Mint-warden of the Fran- 
conian circle, 1597 ; later Mint-master at Nuremberg, " Amtmann 
in derSchau", 1 597-1622, Ammon names him JOHANN GERHARD. 
He appears to have worked in 1623 for Duke Karl of Troppau, 
Riippel suggests this artist as the author of medals of Georg Weiss 
von Limpurg, 1579, and Mathias Ritter, 1588, 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, o/j. cit. — Wills, Nurnbergtsche Mun:(^- 
helusligttngen. — Friedensburg, Studien ^ur schksischen Medaillenkunde, Schlesiens 
Vorzeit in Bild und Schrift, Breslau, 1895. — Nagler, Motwgrammisten. — Rup- 
pel, Ahieichen, Natnen und Initiakn aufaenfur die Stadt Frankfurt gefertigtenMun- 
^en, &c. 

— 233 — 

GEBHARDT, HANS (Austr.). Medallist, and Coin-engraver in 
Austria, 1605-163 3 ; Mint-master at Glatz, circ. 1629. On some 
thalers of Ferdinand III. struck at the Mint of Glatz, which was open- 
ed in 1626, the initials of the engraver H. G. are found. This 
signature appears also on a rare Double Thaler of Eggenberg, 1629, 
issued by Duke John Ulrich (Madai 6786). 

BiBLiOGR.^PHY. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesten ^ii J. Keuuild's Publicationen ubet 
osterreichische Miiu^prdgungen, Wien, 1890. — Schlickevsen-Pallmann, op. cit. — 
Ad. Hess, Reimmann Sale Catalogue, 1892, 

GEBHARD, GEORG {Germ.). Mint-warden at Fiirth, middle years 
of the seventeenth century, succeeded to Georg Wagner. His ini- 
tials occur on the coins. 

Bibliography. — Ammon, Sammlung berfthwier Mcdailleurs mid Mutf^meister 
nebsl then Zeichen, Nurnberg ,1778. 

GEBHART, TOBIAS {Austr.'). Warden of the Mint at Prague, 
1561; elected Mint-master there in 1568. In 1569, on account ot 
an outbreak of plague at rhe Mint, the works were transferred to 
Budweis, where Gebhart exercised his functions until 1577. He then 
returned to Prague, where he again filled the post of Mint-master, 
1 578-1 583. At Budweis his mint-mark was a lion's jaw; at Prague, 
a star of six rays. In 1573, his salary oi 200 Thalers was increased 
by an annual pension of 50 Thalers. The period of Gebhart's activ- 
itv extended over the whole reign of Maximilian II. and part of 
that of Rudolf 11. 

BiBLiOGR.\PHY. — Oesterreicher, he. cit, — Fiala, Besclireibting der Sammlung 
bohmischer Mfinien und Medaillen, Prag, 1888. 

GEBHART, ULRICH (UTZ) (Germ.). Mint-master, Coin-engraver, 
and Medallist, of Saxon origin ; perhaps a relative of Tobias 
Gebhart, named above. In 15 18, he was appointed Mint-master at 
Leipzig, by Duke George of Saxony, and empowered to issue gold 
currency as well as Half Groschen and Hellers. In the following 
year, he entered the service of the Counts of Schlick as Master of 
the Joachimsthal Mint, where, in conjunction with Stephan 
Gemisch, he struck the first Thalergroschen. In 1522, he gave up 
his post, but returned in 1526. Two years after, Gebhart was 
engaged by King Ferdinand, receiving special instructions at Vienna 
on November 30, 1528. During his residence in the Austrian capi- 
tal, he still worked in the capacity of engraver for the Joachim- 
sthal Mint. 1530-31 we find him as Mint-master at Zwickau, and 
in 1532, he was apparently re-instated at Leipzig. 

Gebhart was a clever Engraver. He engraved a large number of 
coin-dies and also several Medals of low-relief. His distinctive signs 
on the currency were : aMaltese cross >h, oracross on crescent + . 

Amongst the medals by this artist, we may mention : Sterbe- 

— 234 — 

thaler of the Count of Schlick ; — Portrait-medals of Christ ; — 
Pestthalers of 1528, obv. The Crucifixion ^L. The brazen Serpent 
(Donebauer 4291, 2 & 3); — ReUgious Medal, obv. The Fall of 
man j^. The Resurrection of Christ, with legend : -\- CHRISTUS 
+ DI + HERIIKET + DES -|- VATRS + KO + 6 ALSO — 
WANDELN + I + COR + 15 + TOI; — Religious Medal, 
Obv. The Crucified Christ between two soldiers J^. The brazen 
Serpent and four Figures, legend : DER.HER.SPRACH.ZV. 
-^ Z VM . ZEIGE . AVF . WER . GEBISE • 1ST . VND . SIT . SI . AN . 
DER.SOL.LEBiE; and others. 

There are many religious medals by Utz Gebhart, some of which 
are rare. 

Lot 236 of D" Merzbachev's Knnst-Medaillen-Katalog (Mai 1900) 
was a medal in lead, without reverse, of Frederick III. and Maximi- 
lian I., by U. Gebhart. Vide GEMISCH, STEPHAN infra. 

Bibliography. — Eduard Fiala, Das Mun:^iL'eseti der Grafen Schlick, Numisma- 
tische Zeitschrift, 1890. — Oesterreicher, op. cit. — Ad. Hess Nachf., Felix 
Sammhing-Katalog . 

GEDEON, SALOMON (Swiss). Engraver, proposed as Master of the 
Lucerne Mint, in 1794. 

GEEFS, ANTOINE (^Belg.). Medallist, born in 1829, died at Schaer- 
beck, on the 27''' August, 1866. He was a pupil of Braemt, Mint- 
engraver at Brussels. Amongst his best known medallic works are : 
International Free Trade Congress in Brussels, 1856 (with heads of 
Sir Robert Peel and Turgot) ; — International Exhibition at Dublin, 
1865. Prize medal; — Portrait-medal of the painter Antoine 
Wiertz; — Correction of the water-course of the Escaut; — Inaug- 
uration of New Railways, 1859; — Abolition of the Octroi, with 
portrait of Frere Orban; &c. — Geefs engraved a number of local 
Prize Medals for agricultural and other shows, which are of little 

Bibliography. — D^F. P. Weber, English Maials by Foreign Artists, 1894. — 
Revue beige de numismatique, 1866, p. 427. 

GEELHAAR, CASPAR (Germ.). Mint-inspector at Konigsberg in 
Prussia, 1667- 1670; Mint- warden, 1692; then Mint-master and 
Mint Councillor, 1722 ; died in 1728. He may be the author of a 
medal of Frederick William of Brandenburg, 1673, and of another 
of Duke George William of Brunswick-Celle. 

GEERTS, EDOUARD LOUIS (Belg.). Medallist of Brussels, born in 
1826, died at Ixelles, 24''' November 1889. He was a pupil of the 

— 235 — 

sculptor van der Stappen, and is known by several fine medals : 
National Health Society, London, 1893; — Portrait of D' Pierre 
Joseph van Beneden, Louvain (Boston coll"); — Professor J. S. G. 
Nypels, 1885 ; — General Saint-Paul de Sin^ay, 1887 (obv. illus- 
trated); — Marriage of Crown-prince Rudolph of Austria with 

General Saint-Paul de Sin^ay, 1887, by Ed. Geerts. 

Princess Stephanie of Belgium, 1881; — Inauguration of the 
Monument to Adrien Francois Servais, 1871 (2 types); — North 
Sea Gmal, Holland. 

Bibliography. — D^ F. P. Weber, op. cit. — Mittheilungen des Clubs der 
Munz-und Medaillen Freunde in Wien, 1890, p. 6. — Revue beige de nuniisma- 
tique, 1886, p. 114. 

GEIS, E. (Chil.). Die-sinker residing at Lima. His name appears 
on a medal struck to commemorate the inauguration of a Line of 
Tramways at Lima, in 1878. 

GEISS, CASPAR (Germ.). The initials C. G. appear on a medal by 
Sebastian Dattler commemorating the Marriage ot Sophie Eleo- 
nore of Saxony with Landgrave George IL of Hesse-Darmstadt. 
Caspar Geiss was the designer of this medal. He was a town coun- 
cillor, and died in 1640. 

Bibliography. — J. & A. Erbstein, Erorterungen aus dent Gebiete der sdchsiscben 
Muni'Und Medaillen-Geschichte, Dresden 1888. 

GEISSLER, JOB ANN (Germ.). Stone-cutter at Munich, mentioned 
in Mint-documents between 1580 and 1586, for having cut 
armorial shields for the three young Margraves of Baden, and 
engraved seals. 

Bibliography. — J. V. KuU, Aus hayeriscJxn Arclnven, 1900. 

— 236 — 

6EISSLER, ANDREAS (GtT;».).Seal-and Gem-engraver, 1561-1569, 
at Munich. 

GEISSLER, JOACHIM (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Munich, 1592- 

GEISSLER, MARTIN (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Munich, 1603. 

MOSS. (Austr.). Mint-master and Coin-engraver, who died 14''' July 
1577. He was of TyroUan origin. On June 8, 1559, Ferdinand I. 
sanctioned at Augsburg the appointment by Archduke Ferdinand 
of Geitzkofler as Warden of the Joachimsthal Mint. After the death 
of Puelacher, June 1563, he became Mint-master. His distinctive 
sign on the coins was a head of a chamois. There are several 
varieties of playing counters engraved by him, with his initials on 
obv. and those of his first and second wives, Barbara, and Ursula 

It is quite evident that the medals signed, IG, Tetzel, 1552, and 
others, are not by this engraver, notwithstanding Nagler'sand other 
writers' attribution. 

Bibliography. — Oesterreicher, Regesten :jm /. Nnuald's Publicalionen, &c. — 
Fiala, op. cit. 

GELDNER, PETER (Germ.). Imperial Inspector of the Mint at Glo- 
gau, 1623. He obtained a lease of the Mint in 1624. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Studien \ur schlesischen Munikunde, Schlesiens 
Vorzeit in Bild und Schrift, 1895. 

GELHAAS, CASPAR (Germ.). Mint-master to the Margraves of 
Brandenburg, «Vc. 1700. 

GELLI (ItaL). Die-sinker of the first half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. D' H. R. Storer has brought to m}'^ knowledge a medal with 
his signature struck on the foundation of a Library ;it Parma, 

GELRE, GODEFROID VAN (Belg.). Goldsmith and Medallist of Brus- 
sels, circ. 1 5 85 -1 604. Philip II. appointed him Councillor and Mint- 
master general, on the 6'*' of March 1585, and he was confirmed in 
his office by the Archdukes on the 7''' of November 1600. 

In 1589, he chased two gold medals with portrait of the King, 
and two others with that of the Duke of Parma, Governor-general 
of the Netherlands, to be presented, in the name of Philip II., by 
Ferdinand Lopez de Villanova, to several personages in Denmark, 
as a reward for services rendered. A few months after, he executed 
another Portrait-medal of the King, with a gold chain, for which 
he was paid 696 Uvres 7 sols. In 1594, he was ordered to make 

- 237 — 

four more, and again, in 1597, he received a further order. Wheth- 
er this medal of Philip II. is that illustrated in Van Loon, vol. I, 
p. 496, remains open to doubt. 

Godefroid van Gelre (also called GODEFROID VAN GELDEREN) was 
qualified in 1600 as Goldsmith to the Court of the Archdukes; he 
was still living in 1604. 

In the Records of the " Chambre des Comptes ", the name of 
HANS VAN GELRE, Goldsmith, is mentioned in 16 13, as having 
supplied silver jetons of lower standard than that agreed to. Hans 
was probably the son of Godefroid van Gelre. 

Bibliography. — A Pinchart, Biographies des graveurs beiges, Revue beige de 
numismatique, 1852, p. 273. — Van Loon, Histoire me'talliqiie des XVIII prm^inces 
des Pays-Bas, depuis Vabdication de Charles-Quint jusqtCa la paix de Bade, IJ16, 
La Haye, i722-i7}7. 

GELUCWYS, JEAN (Belg.). Mint- master at Antwerp, 1478-148 1. 
His distinctive mark was a tower. In 1488 he was elected to the 
office of Keeper of the coins of Luxemburg. 

Bibliography. — Georges Cumont, Jeton de Jean Geluctvys, Gazette numisma- 
tique fran^aise, 1899. 

GEMISCH. STEPHAN (Austr.). Mint-master at Joachimsthal in con- 
junction with Ulrich Gebhart (</. v.), 1519-1522, under Count 
Stephen ofSchlick. They issued Double, Single, Half and Quarter 
Thalergroschen, which were probably engraved by Ulrich Gebhart. 

Joachimsthaler, issued by Stephan Gemisch & Ulrich Gebhart. 

The name of Thaler is supposed to be derived from Joachimsthal, 
where this denomination is said to have been first struck. The 
Joachimsthalers (or Thalers) of 15 19 are undated ; the dated series 
begins with 1520. On the obv. is the legend : ARM A DotniNO- 
Figure of S' Joachim holding shield of arms; and on ^L. LVDO- 

- 238 -^ 

lion rampant to 1. 

I extract from Fiala, p. 394, the following particulars rela- 
ting to the striking of these first Thalergroschen : " Ueber die 
Pragung der ersten Thalergroschen schreibt Mathesius in seiner 
Sarepta : Es ist heut zu tag nicht ein gemeine kunst in der giesz- 
kammerein beschickung zu machen und ordentliche undgebiirliche 
korn und schlag behalten und ein rund und rein gepreg auff ein 
circkel rechte und ebne platten pregen wie auch hiezu vil miihe 
unnd barter arbeit gehoret wenn man die grossen stiick silber mit 
meisseln zuschrottet und in die tiegel eindrenget und darnach das 
rot nach gesetzter prob zusetzet und recht beschicket wie es der 
halt erfordert. Item so man ausz dem zerlassenen werck silber zeinen 
geusset unnd diinne schlegt und nachdem sie wieder gluet fein 
zuschrottet oder schrottling drausz stiickelt unnd mit quetzsch- 
hemmern breit schlegt oder quetzschet und in der gliihpfannen wider 
abgluet und folgend mit der benemscheer beschneidet oder benim- 
met dasz ein jedlichs stiick sein schrot und gewicht behelt. Item 
wenn man solch benummen gelt wider zugleichet und es zum 
drittenmal gluet unnd darauff in den beschlagzangen mit platthem- 
mern beschlegt und kurtz beschlagen gelt drausz macht und nach- 
dem es abermals gegluet und wider gequetscht und beschlagen ist 
zu Churfiirsten machet, drauff es wider gegluet und geklopfft un 
die platten weisz gemacht wenn sie in weinstein gesotten werden. Als 
den werden die platten rein gepreget wenn pregstock und pregeisen 
rein geschnitten und woU aufeinander gefiiget undder preger seiner 
kunst gewiszund fertig ist. Da aber die geschlagene miintz nich rein 
oder zu grund angangen unnd sie keppicht vergriffen verruckt zukeut 
oder suschrickt ist das nennet man von der eisen oder ihrem 
schmidstock der vom schmiden oder stiickeln also genennet cisa- 
lien die setzet man neben den andern so ir schrot korn und gewicht 
nicht haben wider in tigel und guesset und miintzet es vom neuen. 
So vil miihe und arbeit gehoret hiezu wenn man was reines und 
saubers machen wil". 

On the value of the Thalergroschen, the same Mathesius writes : 
" Heut zu tag halten anderthalber alter Joachimstaler zwolf quin- 
tet, so vil gilt ein ungerischer gulden. Darumb gilt heut zu tag das 
gold zwolf mal so vil als das silber; denn was dem golde am grad 
fehlet das gehet dem vermiintzten silber am korn ab. " 

Bibliography. — Fiala, Beschreibung der Sammlung hdhmischer Mun:(enund Medail- 
lendes Max Dotiebatter, Vrag, 1888. — Johannes Mathesius, Bergpostilla oder sarepta. 

GENDRE CLEMENT (^French). Sculptor and Engraver of Lyons, 
1626-1648. In 1633 he was Coin-engraver at the Mint there. Some 
ot the Consular jetons of 1647 are known to be by him, and he is 

— 239 — 

the author of several medals : Charles of Neufville, Marquis of 
Villeroy; — Commemoration of the Building of theChapelle de la 
Confrerie des Penitents blancs de Notre-Dame du Gonfalon ; — 
The H6tel-de-Ville of Lyons (partly the work of Jean Warin, but 
not the celebrated Paris medallist). 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Lts MedaiUeurs lyonnais, Lyon, 1896. — 
Stanislas Lami, Dictiounaire des sciilptetirs de Vecole franfaise, Paris, 1898. — 
N. Rondot, Les Graveurs lyonnais, Mkcon, 1897. 

GENGEMBRE, C. A. I. {French). Coin-engraver at Hamburg, during 
the Napoleonic period. In 1809 currency was issued, during the 
blockade by Marshal Davout, with engraver's signature C.A.I.G. ; 
the same dies were used again in 18 14. 

GENGEMBRE, PHILIPPE (Frf«^/;). Superintendent of the Machinery 
at the Paris Mint (Mecanicien des Monnaies), 1796, and later on 
Inspector-general of the Coins. He invented a machine for counter- 
marking coins, and altering the indication of value of the Two 
Decimes to One Decime, and One Decime to Five Centimes. 
Hennin describes the process as follows : '* Ces machines consis- 
taient principalement en fraises d'acier qui, tournant avec vitesse, 
enlevaient le chifFre 2 et la lettre S au revers des pieces de 
deux decimes, a la maniere de la gravure sur verre; puis en mou- 
tons de petite dimension qui frappaient la contremarque : UN. Des 
moyens mecaniques etaient en outre disposes pour que les pieces 
ne fussent entamees et contremarquees qu aux endroits convenables. 
Ces machines Etaient construites de fagon, et les ouvriers acquirent une 
telle habitude de ce travail, qu'un seul homme, de ceux qui devinrent 
les plus habiles, effagait 17.000 pieces dans une journee de 
dix heures, ou en contremarquait 42.000 dans le meme espace de 
temps. "In 1797 Gengembre invented another machine which cut 
the flan out from the metal and struck the piece in one blow of the 
hammer. Only one centime pieces were struck with this machine. 
There is a pattern issued by this process. 

Obv. LIBERTY L'AN CINQ.. Head of Liberty, wearing Phry- 
gian bonnet, to 1. ^L. In the field : COUP£ ET FRAPPfi EN 
MEME TEMPS PAR PH. GENGEMBRE (sev. varieties). 

— 1^0 — 

In 1799 Gengembre executed a pattern Para for Eg\'pt : Oov 
UN PARA within border ot dots. I^. Lotus branch. This coin 
was made at the request of Bonaparte, but the French occupation of 
Egypt did not last long enough to allow of the striking of a regu- 
lar coinage at the Paris Mint. Of an 8 and an 9 there are pattern 
coins by Gengembre, with bust of Lavoisier, and of an X, with 
bust of Bonaparte (engraved by Jaley). 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Hennin, Hisloire niimiswatiqtie de la 
Revolution fratigaise, Paris, 1826. 

GENNARI, L. (Ital.). Medallist of the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, who worked for the Papal Court under Pius VIL, Leo X., 
and Pius VIIL 

Bibliography. — Bolzeuthal, op. cit. 


(Ital.). Medallist, born at Naples, where he was working in 1702 
for' the King. Between 17 13 and 1725, he resided at Vienna, and 
in 1730, we find him again at Naples. He died in 1744. By a reso- 
lution, dated Vienna, 18. December, 171 3, this engraver was 
appointed " Kays. Miinz Eysenschneider " at the Mint of Vienna, 
with a yearly income of 600 florins; and in 173 1, he became 
Director ot the Vienna " Graveurakad^mie". 

Antonio Magliabecchi, by Gcnnaro. 

Gennaro engraved a number of the coins issued at the Vienna 
Mint under Charles VL, and also worked for Saxony and Poland. 
His initials appear as well on Salzburg Thalers of 1723 and 1724. 

Amongst his most noteworthy medals are : Leopold L (Domanig, 
n° 212); — Empress Amalie, widow of Joseph L, 171 1; — 
Charles VL, Peace of Vienna, 1725; — Antonius Rambaldus Col- 
lalti, 1723 ; — Antonio Magliabecchi, Librarian at Florence, 
163 3-17 14 (illustrated); — Leopold L, Incorporation oi Trans- 

— 241 — 

sylvania into the Holy German Empire, 1690- 1705 ; — Em- 
press Elizabeth Christina, 1723 ; — Another, undated, ^. 
REGNA 10 VIS CONIVNX; — Johann Joseph Graf von Waldstein, 
17 1 6 (the Donebauer specimen realized 175 Mk. at Hamburger's 
Sale, Theil IV, Riiritaten-Cabinet, April 1900, lot 115); — Livius 
Odescakhus; — Marriage of King Charles III. oi Naples, 1738; — 
Antonius Pignatelli of Belmonte, 1727. 

On a bronze medal with portrait of Gennaro is the inscription : 
Caes. Numism. Sculptori i/^S. 

His works are numerous. 

Gennaro's signature appears variously as follows : G. F. ; D. G. F. ; 

Bibliography. — Bolzenihal, op. cil. — Domanig, o/». cit. — Fiala, Beschreibiing 
der Samtnhirig bohmischer Muniin tmd Medaillen des Max Donehaiur, Prag, 1888. 

— Ammon, op. cit. — Kirmis, Handhuch der Polnischen Mnn:;;kunde, Posen, 1892. 

— Ad. Resell, Siebenbiirgische Miin^en iittd Medaillen, Hermanstadt, 1901. 

GENNETAIRE, CLAUDE {French). Master of the Mint at Nancy, 
from the 7''' of July 1620 until 1624. He was the son of Nicolas 
Gennetaire. He issued Testons, Gros, Half, and Quarter Gros, 
Liards, and Double Deniers, engraved by Demenge Crocx. 

BiBLiOGR.\PHY. — H. Lepage, Notes et Documents sur les Graveurs de Montmies 
et Medailles et la fabrication des monnaies des dues de Lorraine, Nancy, 1875. 

GENNETAIRE. NICOLAS {French). Master of theMintat Nancy from 
the 21^' June 1582 to the 7''' of July 1620. He issued gold and sil- 
ver currency, as well as copper coins. Under him worked the 
engravers Florentin Olryet, Philippe Ancelot, Jean Le Poivre, 
Nicolas de Lassus, Julien Maire and Nicolas Briot, The Lorraine 
coins of that period, especially those of Henri II (i 608-1 624), 
mostly the work oi Briot, are very fine. 

BiBLioGR.\PHY. — H. Lepage, op. cit, 

GENTIL, JEAN (French). Coin-engraver and Medallist of the latter 
part of the sixteenth century and first three decades of the seventeenth. 
He was employed at the Mint of Villeneuve-Saint-Andre-lez- 
Avignon from 1581 to 1596, when this mint was closed and 
transferred to Orleans. Later on the artist resided at Paris. A medal 
of 1600, bearing the signature, I. GENTILIS FEC. represents on obv. 
a bust of Henry IV. (legend : HENRICUS III DEI GRATIA 
LIBERTATIS RESTAURATOR), and on ^L. arm holding naked 
svk'ord between two swords in saltire; above, crowned arms of 
France (legend : DEUS DEDIT ET DABIT UTI. 1600). This 

L. FoKRER. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — II. 1 6 

— 242 — 

medal commemorates the war betwen France and Savoy. A Portrait- 
piece of Gustavus-Adolphus of Sweden, with King on horseback on 
obv. and 1^. four cartouches with arms, sword and sceptre, crown 
on roclcs and motto, is dated 163 1 and signed I G L F (/. Gentil 
Lutetian fecit^. 

These medals are cast and chased but the work is of inferior 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — A. Barre, Graveurs particiiliers des 
Monnaies de France, Annuaire de Numismatique, 1867. — Hildebrand, Sveriges 
ocb Svenska Konungabusets Minnespenningar Praktniynt och Beldningsmedaljer 
Stockolni, 1874. 

GENTILLY, ANTHOINE (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot 
Villeneuve-Saint-Andre-lez-Avignon, between 1550 and 1581, 
when he was succeeded by Jean Gentil. 

Bibliography. — A. Barre, loc. cit. 

GENTOT, NICOLAS (Fr^wc/;). 165 2- 1687. Master-engraver at Lyons, 
was employed at the Mint from 1662 to 1670. He is the author of 
some jetons of Lyons. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les Graveurs de la Monnaie a Lyon, Macon, 


GENTZ, JOHANN FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at 
Breslau, 1763, Mint-master, 1764, Mint-director, 1777 j appointed 
Prussian Mint-director-general at Berlin on June 28. 1779, 
f 8 December 18 10. 

GEORG & CO (Swiss). A firm of contemporary booksellers at 
Geneva, who have edited one or two commemorative medals within 
recent years. 

GEORGE (French). Coin-engraver and Medallist oi the early part 
of the nineteenth century. He went to Holland one year before the 
death, at the age of 81, of the Amsterdam engraver John George 
Holtzhey, whose place he took at the Mint there in 1807. The 
period of his activity in the Netherlands is confined to the reign ot 
Louis-Napoleon. He contributed several medals to the Napoleonic 
series, as : Jeton ot the Masonic Lodge " Anacreon ", 1807 (^L. 
L'AMITlt, LES ARTS, LES DAMES) ; — Presentation to Louis- 
Napoleon of the sword of Grand Constable of France, 1806; — 
Occupation of Hamburg, 1806 (1^. only); — Occupation of Ber- 
lin, Warsaw and Koenigsberg, 1807 (^L. only); — Bonaparte 
elected First Consul for life, 1802. 

The Dutch government entrusted George to engrave the dies of 
the coinage of King Louis-Napoleon. His first productions are 

— 243 — 

very imperfect pattern pieces, which have become very rare. Both 
Holtzhey and George competed for the coinage of the new sove- 
reign, but apparently the latter's designs were accepted by the 
monetary commission. 

Of 1807 there are two pattern Daalders of 50 Stuivers and a 
Gulden, bearing the signature GEORGE, whilst a third pattern 
Daalder, with the legend : SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDIC- 
TVMon rim, is by Holtzhey and a pattern Ducat by David van der 
Kellen. The regular Daalder was struck in 1807, but only put in 
circulation in 1808. Of the Mint of Utrecht, we find with the date 
1807 a Double ducat, Ducat, and Rijksdaalder, without name of 
engraver, and probably not by George. In 1808, the following 
coins were struck at the Amsterdam Mint : 20 and 10 Gulden, 
both signed GEORGE F. ; — Ducat, with or without signature ; — 
2 I Gulden (2 var., one with GEORGE F., and the other with G 
only); — Daalder of 50 Stuivers (illustrated) ; — Pattern Gulden, 

Daalder of Louis-Napoleon, 1808, by George. 

with GEORGE F. ; — 10 Stuivers, with and without signature ; — 
I Duit, for Java (2 types unsigned). Of 1809, there is a A^. Ducat, 
Al. 20, 10 and 5 Gulden pieces, JK. Daalder, 2 | Gulden piece, 
Pattern Rijksdaalder (2 types). Gulden, 5 Daalder, and JE Duit for 
Java, all unsigned, and 18 10, Gulden, with GEORGE F. and JE. Duit, 
for Java (2 types). 

I do not suppose that we can rightly attribute to George the 
designing of the Royal Order for Merit, 1806, Royal Order of 
Holland, and Royal Order of the Union, 1807. 

Bibliography. — C«e de Nahuys, Histoire numismatiqtte du roydume de Hollande 
sous Louis-Napoleon, 1855. — Bolzenthal, op. cil. — Edwards, The Napoleon Medals, 
1821. — Reimmann Sale Catalogue, n"' 8199, ^2°^ ^^^ 4- — Hazlitt, Coinage oj tlx 
European Continent, 1892. 

GEORGE (Greek). Engraver of the coins struck at the Island of 
Aegina in 1830 under the Governor Jean Capodistrias after the 

— 244 — 

independence of Greece trom Turkish rule. This George was a 
native of the village of Kariteno, and was surnamed the Master. 

Bibliography. — Information kindly furnished by M. f. P. Lambros. 

GEORGENS, JONAS (G^m.). Mint-master at Steinebeck near Ham- 
burg, 1603-1609, Lauenburg, 1609-1618, and Liineburg, 1612- 
1645 and 1649. Schlickeysen thinks that this Georgens may be 
the same person who signed the Holstein-Pinneberg Groschen 
(I4 Thaler pieces) of 1601. The latter coins are signed I.G., where- 
as Georgens' usual signature was <^. 

GEORGI, NIKOLAUS or NILS (Swede). Medallist, born at Stock- 
holm on the 16* of August 1717, where he died on the 6''' of 
April 1790. He was a pupil of the celebrated Hedlinger, under 
whom he worked for the Royal Mint at Stockolm. Between 1744 
and 1746 he executed various medals for the Court of Russia; 
in 1747 he settled at Berlin, where he was appointed Konigl. Hof- 
medailleur, and resided there until 1782, in which year he returned 
to Sweden. His series of medals commemorating remarkable events 
of the reign of King Frederick II. of Prussia is well-known. 

There is no list of his works in existence, but I have seen the 
artist's signature on the following medals : 1741, Death of Queen 
Ulrica Eleonora of Sweden (2 types); — Adolphus Frederick, Duke 
of Schleswig-Holstein, hereditary prince of Sweden, 1743 ; — 
Accession of King Adolphus Frederick, 175 1; — Jubilee of the 
Academy of Sciences of Berlin, 1750; — Prize-medal for the 
Encouragement of the Silk-industry in Prussia (described in Anti- 
quitdten-Zcitung, 1900, p. 170); — Peace of Hamburg between 
Prussia, Russia, and Sweden, 1762 (2 var.); — Restoration of a 
Monetary Unit in Prussia, 1764; — Marriage of William V. of 
Nassau with Frederica Sophia Wilhelmina, Princess of Prussia, 
1767 ; — 67''' Anniversary of the Queen of Prussia, Sophia 
Dorothea, 1754; — Reform of the Administration of Justice in 
Prussia, 1748 ; — Battles of Lissa and Leuthen, 1757; — Peace of 
Teschen, 1779; — Birth of Prince Frederick William (III) of 
Prussia, 1770; etc. 

One of this engraver's most artistic medals is said to be a Portrait- 
piece of Paul Werner of Colberg in the uniform of a Hussar, 
commemorating the Defence of Colberg, 1760. 

Georgi's signature on the medals appear as GEORGI F. or 
simply G. 

Prof. D"" Menadier gives in Schatwtun:(en des Hausei Hohen:(oIlern 
many interesting particulars concerning the work of Georgi at 

Under Frederick the Great Medallic Art did not make any 
progress, as there were no artists whose productions were good 

— 245 — 

enough to impress the King, and he does not seem to have 
given much attention to the representations of his person. When 
Georgi received the order to execute a commemorative medal of 
the Battle of Hohenfriedberg, Knobelsdorf and Posne, he was 
told " he could make it as he pleased ", showing how Httle Fred- 
erick was concerned in the carrying out of the piece, although he 
was not unaware ot the political importance oi these mementoes 
of his exploits and victories. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — 
Ammon, op. cit. — Revue Suisse de numismatique, 1898. — Reimmann Sale-cata- 
logue, 1892. — Antiquitaten-Zeitung . — Hildebrand, op. cit. — Paul Hcnckel, Die 
P. Henckelsche Sammlung Brandenburg-Preussischer Miinien und Medaillen, Berlin, 
1876. — Information kindly supplied by Herren Ad. Hess Nachf. of Frankfort-on- 
Main. — Schaumunien des Hauses Hoheniollern, Berlin, 1901. — Nagler, Die 
Monogramtnisten, Leipzig, 1881. 

GERAMB, CARL VON (Boheni). Mint-master at Prague, raised to 
the peerage in 1770. His initials are found on Zzvan:(iger of Gratz, 
1770. Between 1767 and 1779 he was also Mint-master at Gratz. 
On the Styrian coins of 1767 he signed himself C.G., but on those 
of 1768, 1769 and 1771, C.V.G. 

Bibliography. — Th. Unger, Kleine Beitrdge :(ur Munikunde des Kronlandes 
Steiermark, Mitth. des Clubs, &c., pp. 15 and 28. 

g£rard, CHARLES LOUIS {French). Medallist and Gem-engraver of 

modern times. By him are the following works, which were 
exhibited at the annual Paris Salons : 1874. Hagar sent away by 
Abraham, after Van Dyck, carnelian cameo; — 1875. Perseus, after 
Benvenuto Cellini, cameo on sardonyx; — The favourite Sheep, 
after Boucher, cameo on carnelian; — 1876. The Lion of Florence, 
onyx cameo; — Jupiter, cameo on pietra dura; — 1877. Christ, 
cameo on agate; — 1878. Henry II. of France, cameo on carne- 
lian ; — Catherine of Russia, cameo on carnelian; — Mercury, after 
Jean de Bologne, cameo on carnelian, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GflRARD, CONSTANTINE JOS£PHINE (French). Daughter of Charles 
Louis Gerard. A contemporary Gem-engraver. At the Salon of 
1876, she exhibited a sardonyx cameo representing Innocence, and 
in 1877, another, of Psyche. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

g£rard, JEAN (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Nancy, 
circa iGij. His name appears as the engraver of jetons for the new 
Councillors and Town-clerks elected in that year. 

Bibliography. — Lepage, op. cit. 

— 246 — 

GERARD, JAMES (Brit.). Chiet-engraver of H.M's seals in 17 19 
(George I). 

Bibliography. — Wyon, Great Seals of England, London, 1887. 

G£rARD DIT guerre, NICOLAS (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, 
circa 1618-1619. 

GERARD DIT GUERRE, PIERRE (Siuiss). Mint-master at Geneva, 
circa 16 18-16 19. 

Bibliography. — Leroux, MMaillier du Canada, Montreal, 1888. 

GERBIER, LOUIS ADOLPHE (French). Contemporary Medallist and 
Gem-engraver, born at Paris, pupil of M. Le Sache. The following 
works by him are mentioned in Chavignerie et Auvray's Dictionary : 
1873. Portrait of M. E. de la Bedoliere, cameo and silver medal; 
— Portrait of M. J. M**, cameo and silver medal; — 1874. Por- 
trait of M™^ Adelina Patti, cameo, and silver medal; — 1876. 
Exhibition of Porto Rico, bronze medal; — "Le Conservateur" 
Assurance Company, bronze medal (in the Boston Collection); — 
1877 Folies-Bergeres, silver medal; Rebuilding of the Church of 
Saint-Louis at Bordeaux, 1874; — The Museum of Bordeaux, 
1875; — Inauguration of the Faculty of Sciences and Letters at 
the Bordeaux University, 1880 (2 var.) ; — Ihe Waters of Budos 
(Gironde) brought to Bordeaux, 1887; — Various Prize-medals 
with arms of Bordeaux; — Medal of the Supreme Council of Peru, 
given to Antonio de Souza-Ferreira, silver medal, &:c. Gerbier's 
signature occurs on a Jeton of the " Societe de Pharmacie " of Bor- 
deaux, issued in 1879, and on an undated " Medaille des Hospices ". 

This engraver executed also a number of agricultural Prize- 
medals, amongst which one of the Agricultural and Industrial 
Exhibition at Quebec, described in Leroux, Medaillier dtt Canada. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. — A. Evrard de Fayolle, 
Jelotis medicaux bordelais, 1901. — Information kindly furnished hy M. de Fayolle. 

GEREMIA CRISTOFORO (IlaL). Sculptor and Medallist of Mantua, 
whose name appears also as Christophorus Hierimia, Chrislophorus 
Hierimiae and Christophorus de Geremiis de Mantua. Filaretus men- 
tions him in 1460 as one of the best contemporary sculptors. The 
probable dates of his birth and death are 1430 and 1473, respective- 
ly; and according to E. Miintz, he may have been a son of the 
goldsmith Nicolino di Geremia. In 1461 the artist went to Rome, 
and until 1465 remained in the service of the Cardinal ot Aquileia, 
Lodovico Scarampi Mezzarota ; after the latter's death, he was 
employed by Pope Paul II., as the following passage in Volaterra- 
nus, Comtnentariorum urbanorum Jibri, Bk 21, quoted by Friedliinder, 
confirms : " Andreas Cremonensis Pium II. iconicum numismate 
expressit, in quem est Campani epigramma; Christophorus autem 

— 247 — 

Mantuanus Paulum 11., Lysippus vero eius nepos adolescens Xis- 
tum nil. Mirumque in ea domo vel feminas nullo praeceptore pic- 
turas omnes ab ipsa natura delineare edoctas, cera etiam fingere 
solitas fuisse. " In 1468, Christophorus was entrusted with the 
restoration of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius which was 
then in San Giovanni Laterano, a work for which he was paid the 
sum of 300 florins, but after this date no mention of him occurs in 
contemporary records, and Rossi surmises that he must have died 
in the early years ot Sixtus IV. 's pontificate, whose medal was 
executed by Lysippus, Christophorus's nephew. 

As a medallist, we only know of two productions by this artist : 
I. Medal of Alfonso V. of Aragon. Diam. 75 mill. Obv. Bust to 
The King, seated on throne, between Bellona and Mars; signed : 
CHRISTOPHORUS. HIERIMIA. The date of this fine work is put down 
to 1453 by Armand, who remarks : " Cette medaille suffirait a pla- 

Medal of Altonso V., by Crisloforo Geremia. 

cer cet artiste au meilleur rang parmi les medailleurs du milieu du 
xv^ siecle. Rapproche des portraits que le Pisanello a laisses sur ses 
celebres medailles du roi de Naples, le buste d'Alphonse V par 
Cristoforo soutient cette comparaison sans inferiorite. " 

2. Medal of the Emperor Augustus. Diam. 73 mill. Obv. Bust 
to r. ^L. CONCORDIA.AVG.S.C. Augustus and Abundance 
shaking hands; signed : CHRISTOPHORUS. HIERIMIAE.F. A specimen 
of this medal was sold at Munich in May 1900 for 80 Marks 
(Merzbacher Sale Catalogue, 1900, Lot 38). 

On these two medals, Miintz remarks : "La medaille d'Al- 
phonse V brille par la science des raccourcis, par une haute dis- 
tinction et une suavite inexprimables qui semblent trahir un 

— 248 — 

artiste familiarise avec de plus hautes taches; I'autre, celle de I'em- 
pereur Auguste, d'une facture tres serr^e, mais d'un style moins 
pur, moins genereux, nous montre I'invasion des souvenirs clas- 

Raphael Maffeius Volaterranus, quoted above, mentions that 
Cristoforo Geremia executed a Portrait-medal of Pope Paul II. ; no 
signed specimen has however come down to us. 

Molinier describes a plaquette by this artist, representing the ^. 
of the medal of Augustus. A specimen is exhibited at the South 
Kensington Museum ; another was sold at the Spitzer Sale. 

One of Christophoro's most distinguished pupils appears to have 
been the artist Meliolus, whose medals bear such striking resem- 
blance in style and execution with his that Friedlander erronneously 
concluded that Cristoforus and Meliolus were one and the same 
person. As already stated, Lysippus was a nephew of our artist, 
and probably also one of his pupils. 

Bibliography. — U. Rossi, Cristoforo Geremia, Archivio Storico dell' Arte, 
anno I. — I. B. Supino, // Meda^lieie Mediceo, Firenze, 1899. — Armand, Les 
Medailleurs italiens, Paris, 1883. — Friedlander, Die Italienischcn Schatimfinien, 
1440-1^^0, Berlin, 1882. — E. Miintz, Les Arts a la Cour des Papes. — Bolzen- 
tha\, Skii:(en :(ur Kunstgeschichte der modernen Medaillen- Arbeit {i42(}- 1840), Berlin, 
1840. — E. Molinier, Les Plaquettes, Paris, 1886. — E. Miintz, Les Arts a la Cour 
des Papes, &c. — E. Miintz, Histoire de I'Art pendant la Renaissance. 

GERGER, JOHANN (Bohem). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Prague, 

GERHARDT (Danish). Mint-master at Copenhagen, circa 1536. 

GERL, CARL (Hung.'). Contemporary Medallist and Coin-engraver 
at the Royal Hungarian Mintot Kremnitz. Amongst his best known 
medals, I may mention : Death of Crown-Prince Rudolph of 
Austria, 1889; — Opening of the Royal Hungarian Mining Acad- 
emy of Kremnitz, 1892 ; — M. Jokai, on the 70*'' Anniversary of 
this celebrated poet, 1893 ; — D' Wekerle (obv. by Gerl, ^, by 
J. Reisner, also a Mint-engraver at Kremnitz), &c. 

H. Cubasch jun. in his paper " Die Mtinzen unter der Regierung 
des Kaisers Franz Joseph I. " mentions the following coins engraved 
by Carl Gerl at Kremnitz : i Gulden, Type 1882, of the years 1882, 
1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 1889 and 1890; Type 1890, 
years 1890, 1891 and 1892, possibly of following years; — 
I Kreutzer, Type 1891, years 1891, 1892, and following years. 

Bibliography. — Mittheilungen des Clubs der Muni- ""'^ Medaillenfreunde in 
fVien, i8po-iS^6. 

GERLACH, CONRAD FREDERICK {Danish). Mint-master at Copen- 
hagen, 1821-1831. His initials G FG appear on the coins. 

Bibliography. — C. T. Jorgenson, Beskrivelse over Danske Monter, 1448-1SS8, 
Kjobenhavn, 1888. 

— 249 — 

GERMAIN, ALPHONSE JOSEPH {French). Sculptor, born at Paris; 
pupil of Gilbert. At the Salon of 1874, ^his artist exhibited a Portrait- 
medallion of M. A. Leroux, and, in 1876, two others of P. Bar- 
bier and C. Duvaux. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 


GERMAIN, GUSTAVE {French). Sculptor, born at Fismes (Marne); 
son of J.-B. Germain; pupil of Gumery and L. Debut. At the 
Salons of i88r, 1882, and following years he exhibited Portrait- 
medallions in clay and bronze. This artist was rewarded with a 
bronze medal in 1889 and had an exhibit at the Paris Universal 
Exhibition, 1900. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GERMAIN, JEAN BAPTISTE {French). Sculptor, born at Fismes 
(Marne); pupil of Dumont and Gumery. At the Salon of 1866, he 
exhibited a Portrait-medallion of M""^ C.H.C*** and he has execut- 
ed several bas-reliefs in silver. He obtained in 1883 a Third-class 
Medal, and had an exhibit at the Paris Universal Exhibition 1900. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GERMAIN, PIERRE {French). Goldsmith and Medal-engraver of 
the second half af the seventeenth century. He was born at Paris in 
1645 and died thereon the 24''' of September, 1684. The Paris Mint 
records show that an engraver of the name of Germain executed in 
1678 and 1679 dies for the " Medallic History of Louis XIV ", and 
that he received, in two payments, the sum of 853 livres 2 sols. 
Whether this Germain, whose christian name is not given, is the 
same person as Pierre Germain, who at about the same time was 
executing important articles of plate for the King, is a question that 
remains still unsettled. This Germain is also the author of a jeton 
for the " Extraordinaire des Guerres ", 1682, and of another of the 
*' Batiments", 1688. Chavignerie attributes to him as well a jeton 
of the Provost of Merchants, bearing the artist's initial G. 

Pierre Germain was a pupil of Le Brun. Colbert entrusted him 
with the engraving of allegorical designs for the gold covers of the 
book " Recueil des Conquetes du Roi". In 1679 the artist was 
given an apartment in the Galerie du Louvre, as a reward for his 
eminent services. 

P. Germain was a son ofFran(;ois Germain, a celebrated goldsmith, 
and his son, Thomas, 1 673-1748, became noted as a chaser. 

M. Germain Bapst, in his important work, itude stir Vorfevrerie 
fratifaise an XVIII^ siecle. Les Germains, Paris, 1887, makes the 
following references to Pierre Germain's activity as an engraver : 

** Durant la periode des victoires du grand siecle, Pierre Germain 

— 250 — 

n'avait pas seulement ete orfevre, il s'etait occupe aussi de gravure. 

" On lui attribua plusieurs medailles representant les conquetes 
de Louis XIV ou retracint les evenements principaux du regne, 
pieces qui semblent avoir disparu comme le reste de son oeuvre. 

" Le dictionnaire de Lempereur et Bolzenthal donne a Ger- 
main le qualificatif d'habile graveur. Tous les biographes, apres 
eux, le lui ont maintenu jusqu'au moment ou Jal lui contesta cette 
qualite, en s'appuyant sur le fait que les conservateurs du Cabinet 
des Medailles ne connaissaient aucune piece a son nom. 

''Nous avons ete assez heureux pour retrouver dans les Coniptes 
des Bdtiments les deux quittances suivantes, qui ne laissent aucun 
doute sur la veracite du dire de Lempereur. 

« Le 8 juillet 1679. a Germain, a compte des poincons qu'il 
grave... 250 1. 

« Le 23 may 1680, a Germain, graveur, parfait payement de 
853 1. 2 s. pour les poincons carrez et medailles qu'il fait pour I'his- 
toire du Roy. ..603 1. 2 s. » 

" Mais il existe encore une preuve plus positive : M. d'Affry de 
la Monnoye, dans ses recherches sur les jetons de I'Echevinage 
parisien, cite un jeton de I'Extraordinaire des Guerres de 1682, sur 
lequel on voitd'un cote I'effigie de Louis XIV, « au revers, un soleil 
brillant et sans nuages, et autour : Et fvlnien sine nvbe parat, pour 
faire connoistre que le Roy, estant au milieu de sa Cour et luy fai- 
sant preparer de nouveaux divertissements, se rend de Fontainebleau 
a Strasbourg. On lit sous I'exergue : « Extraordinaire des guerres, 
1682. Cette gravure est de Germain et la devise de M. de Santeuil. » 

" Au moyen de cette description, M. Babelon, avec une courtoi- 
sie parfaite, a bien voulu guider nos recherches au Cabinet de 
France, a la Bibliotheque nationale, et grace a lui, nous avons trouve 
le jeton en question, qui porte sur sa face I'effigie de Louis XIV, 
avec la signature G. 

"Cette decouverte 6tait pour nous d'une grande importance, 
parce que, d'abord, elle tranche definitivement la question : 
Pierre Germain 6t3.\t graveur en medailles; et, en second lieu, parce 

— 251 — 

que c'est la seule oeuvre de cet artiste qui, croyons-nous, subsiste 
encore. " 

Bibliography. — J. J. Guiffrey, La Monnaiedes Me'dailles, Revue numismatique, 
1888. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cil. — Grande Eitcyclope'die. — Grand Diclion- 
naire Larousse. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Bulletin de Numismatique, t. VI, p. 141. 
— Blanchet, Kouv. maniwl de numismatique, II, p. 397. 

GERSDORF. MAXIMILIAN VON (Germ.). Mint-master to whom the 
Breslau Mint was leased from the 20''' of July 1648 to they'*" of 
October 1652, at which date the direction of the Mint was returned 
to a tormer official, Georg Reichart. Gesdorf struck a very large 
issue of coins. 

Bibliography. — Schhsiens Vor:(eit in Bild und Scltrijt, iSp^. — Friedensburg, 

MUn-^geschichle Schhsiens, &c. 

GERSON, ARON {Sivede). Medallist at Goteborg, during the second 
half of the nineteenth century. He was a native of Goteborg, and 
worked for the Royal Mint of Stockholm. His signature is found 
on a Medal of the Goteborg Exhibition of Fine Arts, 1869, and on 
a Prize-medal of the Goteborg Industrial and Professional Associa- 
tion, 1869. 

Bibliography. — Hildebrand, Sveriges och Svenska Konungahusets Minnespen- 
gar, &c., Siockholm. 1875. 

GERSON, MARIE (Pole). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at Warsaw. She is a daughter of the painter Adalbert 
Gerson ; pupil of M.irczewski, Voydyga and Puech ; and has lately 
executed a medal of the celebrated musician, Fr. Chopin. This 
medal was published by Prof. K. Kozlowski of Posen. At the Uni- 
versal Exhibition in Paris, 1900, Miss Gerson exhibited a fine piece 
of sculpture, " Mater Dolorosa". 

GERSTMAN, CHRISTOPH FRANZ (Germ.). Mint-warden at Oppeln, 
1690, and tilled some post at the Breslau Mint from 1704 to 1731. 

GERVAIS, A. (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, circa 1553. 

GERVAIS, ELIAS (Germ.). Medallist, and Coin-engraver at 
Neuwied and Coblence, 1750-1775. His initials E. G. are found 
on Thalers of Mayence, Treves, and Ellwangen, of 1764, 1765, 
and 1768 (Amnion, Sammlung beriihmter Medailleurs, n° 468). 
I have seen them on the following pieces : Mayence, Conven- 
tions-Thaler of 1765, of Emerich Joseph, Freiherr von Breitbach- 
Biirresheim ; — Treves, Conventions-Thaler of 1764, of Johann 
Philipp, Freiherr von Walderdortf; — Treves, Conventions- 
Thaler, and Half, of 1770, of Clemens Wenzel, Prince of Poland 
and Duke of Saxony; — Ellwangen, Conventions-Thaler, and 
Gulden, of 1765, of Anton Ignaz, Count von Fugger-Glott ; &c. 

— 252 — 

Nagler, Monogramisten, gives the date of his activity at Neuwied 
and Coblence, from 1760 to 1778. 
He signed his productions E. G. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — 
Reimmann Sale-Catalogtie, iSp2. — Madai, Foils latidiges Thaler-Cabinet. 

GESLIN, ERNEST LEOPOLD (French.). Contemporary Sculptor 
and MedaUist, born at Paris; pupil of M. Claudius Marioton. At 
the Salon of 1902 he exhibited two Portrait-medals. 

GESSLER, JAKOB (Germ.). Die-cutter at the Mint of Munich, 

GESSNER, HANS JAKOB (Swiss). Mint-master and Coin-engraver 
at Zurich, from 1706 to 1737. Born in 1677, he was a son of Hans 
Caspar Gessner, second son of Jacob Gessner, Amtmann of Cons- 
tance. Without having received any special instruction, he became, 
through genius and perseverance, one of the most expert coin- 
engravers of his time, and as a medallist, his work ranks 
equally very high. He seems to have excelled in reproducing por- 
traits, and is praised both by Meyer vonKnonau (Gemdlde , II, 100) 
and Fiisslin (Ki'instler-Lexicon) for the perfection of his work. His 
signature generally appears as HIG or HG. 

The following Hst of the artist's signed productions may be 
fairly complete : 

ZURICH. M. 5 Ducats, 1720; — Thaler in gold, 1724 (10 
Ducats); — Similar, of 1725; — JK.. Thalers, 1722 (2 var.) ; 
1723, 1724, 1726, 1727, 1728, 1729, 1730, 1732; — Half- 
thalers, 1720 (2 var.), 1721, 1722, 1723 (2 var.), 1725, 1726, 
1727, 1728, 1730, 1732 (2 var.), 1734, 1736 [1739 (2 var.), 1741 
(2 var.), 1743, 1745, 1748, 1751, 1753, 1756 (2 var.), 1758 
(2 var.), 1761 (2 var.), 1767,1768 (3 var.), 1773]; — Wappen- 
thalers, 1714, 1728, 173 1 (the last, unsigned); — Prize Medal of 
the City of Zurich, circa, 1707, M. weight : 15 Ducats; — An- 
other, weight : 10 Ducats; — Another, weight : 16 Ducats; — 
Another, weight : 24-25 Ducats ; — Another, ^R. from die of the 
15 Ducat piece ; — Large Prize Medal of 1733, ^- 5 — Another of 
1729, M,. and iE. ; — Another, of 1730, J^. ; — ReHgious Medal, 
undated, obv. View of Zurich. ^. Piety ; — Medal commemorating 
the death of the wife of Hans Georg Steiner of Zurich, who was 
daughter and co-heiress of Heinrich Rahn of Winterthur, 1725, 
obv. Arms of the Rahn and Steiner families. ^. FLOS DEFLUIT 
ET REFLUIT. Death to right, mowing with scythe in field of corn 
and flowers; ex. M.D.CCXXV. ; artist's signature HIG.; — 
Commemorative Medal of the Corporation Building " zum Safran ", 
1724 ; — - General Field Marshal Heinrich Biirkli von Hohenburg, 

— 253 — 

1730 ; — Heinrich Bullinger, second centenary ot the Reformation, 
1719J — Heinrich Bullinger, and Ulrich Zwingli, struck on* the 
same occasion, 17 19 {illustrated) ; — Heinrich Escher, Burgomaster 

Medal of Bullinger and Zwingli, by H. I. Gessner, the Elder. 

of Zurich, 1706; — Another, of 1710 (2 var.); — Another, AT. 
weight : 17 Ducats; — Another, JR. gilt, without ^. ; — Con- 
rad Gessner, "the German PHny", 15 16-1565 ; — Johann Heinrich 
Hottinger, Theologian and Orientalist, 1620-1667 (2 var.); — 
Johann Jakob Scheuchzer, Scientist, 1672-1733 (3 var.); — 
Second Centenary of Zwingli, 1719 (7 var. in J^. N, and JEy 
amongst which the so-called " Zwingli Ducat "of 1719) ; — Bur- 
gomaster Andreas Meier, 171 1 ; etc. 

BERNE. Samuel Frisching, 163 8-1 721 (2 var.) ; 

URI. A/". Ducats of 1720 (2 var.), and 1736 ; 

CONSTANCE. Portrait-medals of Prince Bishop Johann Franz 
Schenk von Staufenberg (2 var. ; one dated, 1726) ; 

FISCHINGEN. Jubilee Medals of Abbot Franz Troger, 1688- 
1728 (3 var. in N. and JK.) ; 

MURI. Jubilee Medals of Prince Abbot Placidus von Zurlauben, 
1720 (3 var. in AI. and JR..) ; 

GRAUBUNDEN. Medal on the Alliance of the Graubunden 
with the Republic of Venice, 1706; 

CHUR. Thaler of 1736 of Joseph Benedict Freiherr von Rost, 

MISCELLANEOUS. Medal on the Foundation of the Swiss Con- 
federation ; — Successes of Berne and Zurich arms in the Toggen- 
burger War, 17 12 (5 var.) ; — State of the Swiss Confederation 
in the eighteenth century (2 var.); — Treaty between Zurich, 
Berne, and Venice, 1706 (2 var.) ; — Medal of the eight old 
cantons, 1721 ; — Zurich and its Bailliwicks, 1714; etc. 

— 254 — 

Besides these enumerated works, Gessner engraved dies for a large 
number of coins of Zurich,, Berne, and other Mints, on which his 
signature does not appear. 

Bibliography. — Wilhelm Tobler-Meyer, Die Muti:(-und Medaillen-Sanwilung 
des Herrn Hans Wunderly-v. MuraUin Zurich, / vols, iSpS-iSpS. — R. S. Poole, 
Swiss Coins in the South-Kensington Museum, London, 1878. — Bohenlhal, op. cit. 

— Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit, — Ammon, op. cit. — Bulletin et Revue de la 
Societe numismatique Suisse, 1882-igoo. — Reivnnann Sale-Catalogue. — Ris-Paquot, 
Marques et Monogravimes, n° jigj. — Haller, Schu-ei:(erisches Mun^-und Medaillen- 
Kabinet, Bern, 1780-81. — Meyer von Knonau, Genidlde, II, 100. — Leu, Le.xicon, 
VIII , 482 . — Fusslin , Kunstler- Lexicon . — Information kindly supplied by 
M. Arnold Robert. — NeujaJirsblatt der Stadtbibliothek in Zurich, 1863. 

GESSNER HANS JAKOB {Swiss). Medalhst and Coin-engraver of 
Zurich, son of the preceding. He took his father's place at the 
Zurich Mint, on the latter's death, and although it is possible that 
some of the Elder Gessner's dies remained in use after 1737, I 
should think the younger Gessner engraved the signed Half-thalers 
of Zurich, from 1739 to 1773 and other coins of that period. 

Amongst this engraver's best known works are : Medal on the 
Fourth Centenary of the Establishment of Guilds at Zurich, with 
portrait of their Founder, Burgomaster Rudolf Brun, 1736 (5 var,); 

— Hans Jakob Gessner, Monetarius. 
Bibliography. — Tobler-Meyer, op. cit. 

GESSNER, SALOMON {Swiss). Poet and Painter of Zurich, 1730- 
1788. His name merits a place here as the Designer of various 
coins and medals, amongst others, of the so-called " Gessner tha- 
ler " of 1773, engraved by Voster of Diessenhofen, and of a Prize 
Medal of Zurich, the dies for which were cut by J. C. Morikofer 
of Frauenfeld. 

Bibliography. — Tobler-Meyer, op. cit. 

GEYER, GEORG {Germ.). Contemporary Sculptor, residing at 
Berlin. His signature is found on a medal of the International 
Exhibition of Fine Arts at BerHn, 1891, and engraved by Otto 
Schultz, the engraver of the Transvaal Coins of 1892, signed 0. S. 

GEYTON, WILLIAM {Brit.). Goldsmith and Seal-engraver, men- 
tioned under Richard 11. as having received money for altering 
the great and other seals. 

Bibliography. — Wyon, Great SeaU of England, London, 1887. 

GEWCHRAMER, MICHEL DER {Aust.). Mint-master at Vienna, 

GEYKRAMER, NICOLADS (^«.y/r.). Mint-masterat Vienna, i^o8(?) 
G. F. F/fi?^ GIOVANNI FERRARI. Mint-master at Parma, 161 5. 

— ^)) — 

G. F. Fide GOTTFRIED FROMHOLT, 1 668-1 674. Warden of the 
Mint at Crossen, 1675-1679. Mint-master at Quedlinburg. 

G. F. Vide I. B. 6UGLIELMADA. Die-sinker at Rome, 1660-1690. 

G. F. Vide GIOVACCHINO FORTINI. Architect and Die-sinker at 

Florence, at the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

G. F. Vide E. GERVAIS. Coin-engraver at Neuwied and Coblence, 

G. F. F/ti^ GIROLAMO FOSCARINI. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1787. 

G. F. Vide GIACOMO FOSCARINI. Mint-inspector at Venice, 1788- 

G. F. Vide GIUSEPPE FERRARIS. Coin-engraver at Turin, from 
1828 until after 1875. 


Mint-masters at Parma, 161 5. 

G. (F.) B. Vide GEORG BUNSEN. Mint-master at Frankfort-on- 
Main, 1790- 183 3. 

Parma, 161 5. 

G. F. F. Vide GIOVACCHINO FORTINI. Coin-engraver at Florence, 

circa 171 3-173 5. 

G. F. H. Vide GEORG FRANZ HOFFMANN. Coin-engraver at Breslau, 

G. F. L. Vide GEORG FRIEDRICH LOOS. Coin-engraver at Nurem- 
berg, 1742-17 56, and Wiirzburg, 1762-1766. His signature appears 
also as G. F. LOOS or only LOOS. 

G. F. M. Vide GEORG FRIEDRICH MICHAELIS. Mint-master at 
Clausthal, 1802-1807. 

G. F. N. Vide GEORG FRIEDRICH NURNBERGER. Mint-master, and 

Coin-engraver at Nuremberg, 1 682-1724. 

G. F. S. Vide GEORG FRIEDRICH STAUDE. Mint-master at Weimar, 
1673-1677, Gotha, 1677-1680, Meiningen, 1687, and Erfurt, 

Rome, 1655-1674. 
Bibliography. Schlickeystn-Pallmann, op. cit. 

— 256 — 

G. G. H. (Germ.^. Signature of an unknown Medallist, wlio was 
working at Cologne during the second half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He is the author of a fine medal with portrait of Archbishop 
Joseph Clement of Cologne l^-L. Aaron and Korah, 1689. 

G. G. Vide GATTI. Mint-master, and GINEVRA, Mint, 1485-1500. 

G. G. Vide GEORG GEITZKOFLER. Mint-master at Joachimsthal, 

G. G. Vide GABRIEL GORLOFF. Mint-master at Oppeln, 1647, 
and Teschen, 1648-1653. 

G.G. r/^ GALEOTTI. Mint-master, and GUBBIO. Mint, 1655. 

G. G. F. Vide GIOVANNI GUALTIERI. Die-sinker at Parma, 1673. 
Mint-master before 1708. 

G.G. Vide BERNHARD GODT. Mint-master at Coblence, 1698- 

G. G. F. Vide GIUSEPPE GIRGMETTI. Architect, and Die-sinker at 
Rome, born in 1780. 

G. G. L. Vide GIANNI GIROLAMO LONGO. Mint-inspector at Venice 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallman, op. cit. 

G. H. Vide GEORG BURNER. Warden of the Mint at Breslau, 1645- 

G. H. Vide GOTTFRIED HEYER. Mint-master at Herborn, 1681- 

G. H. r/^g GEORG HAUTSCH. Medallist at Nuremberg, 1683-171 1. 

G. H. Vide GERHARD HULS. Warden of the Mint at Cologne, 

G. H. Vide GEERT HULL. MedalHst at Copenhagen, 1782-1810. 


Mint at Saalfeld, 1732, Mint-master there, 1740-1754. 

G. H. F/i^ GEORG HOLDERMANN. Die-sinker at Nuremberg, 1619. 

G. H. P. Vide GEORG HARTMANN PLAPPERT. Coin-engraver to the 
Westphalian Circle aV^flj 1659, Mint-master at Idstein, 7 1692. 

— 2)7 — 

G. H. S. Fide GEORG HEINRICH SINGER. Warden of the Breslau 
Mint, 1746, and Mint-master there from 1752 to 1760. 
Bibliography. — Sclilickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

G. H. V. F. (Germ.). Signature of an unknown MedalHst of the 
eighteenth century. He is the author of a very large medallion ot 
Marcellus Malaspina ^L Minerva and Themis crowning Malaspi- 
na's bust, 1736. 

GHEELVOET, ARNOULD (Belg.). Mentioned in 1567; died in 
157 1. Coin-engraver ar Antwerp of the currency of Brabant and 
Guelders ; he succeeded Jerome Van den Manacker, who, after the 
death of Jean Noster in 1564, had provisionally filled that office 
until 1567. Under Gheelvoet were struck the gold Real, the Half, 
Fifth, and Tenth silver Philippus Real; also Burgundian Daelders ; 
PhiUppus Daelders, and subdivisions, i. e. Half, Fifth, Tenth, 
Twentieth, and Fortieth Daelders. 

Pinchart quotes the following document which shows that 
Gheelvoet executed coin-dies for the Nymwegen Mint : " Aernt 
Gheelvoet den welcken onse heere de coninck, by oepenen 
besegelde brieven, gecommitteert ende gesteet heeft gehadt totter 
officien van ysersnyder der munten van Nyemeghen. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Biographies des graveurs beiges. Revue de la 
numismatique beige, 1853, P- 289. 

GHfiMAR {Belg.'). M. Chalon in Revw beige de la Numismatique , 
1869, p. loi, describes a satirical jeton, as one of the medallic 
productions of this artist. 

GHERARDINI, CLAUDIO {Ital). Mint-inspector at Venice, 1615. 

GHIBERTI, LORENZO {Ital.). Circa 1378-145 5. Sculptor and 

Designer, born at Florence ; immortalised his name by the execu- 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of Medallisit. — II. 17 

— 258 — 

tion of two doorways, with bas-relief designs, in the Baptistery 
at Florence, a work over which he spent 50 years, and which 
Michael Angelo declared " fit to be the Gates of Paradise ". 

Ghiberti was the first master of Michelozzo Michelozzi, and it is 
presumed that this artist not only had a direct influence upon 
Medallic art, but probably himself designed some of the medals of 
his contemporaries. 

In 1428, he mounted as a seal for Giovanni, son of Cosmo de' 
Medici, a carnelian of the size of a walnut engraved in intaglio, 
which, it was said, had once belonged to the Emperor Nero and 
also mounted gems on the tiara of Pope Hugenius IV. He is one 
of the greatest sculptors of the Renaissance, and classed among 
the first of goldsmiths. 

GHINGHI, FRANCESCO (Ilal.). Neapolitan Gem-engraver of the 
eighteenth century ; his works are mostly without much import- 
ance. He was born at Florence in 1689 and died at Naples in 
1766. He resided at the court of Cosmo III., Duke of Tuscany, 
whose portrait he executed, as also that of Don Carlos, King of the 
Two-Sicilies. The Florence Gallery preserves a fine collection of 
camei engraved by this artist. 

Bibliography. — Nouveau Larousse illustre. 

GHIRLANDAJO, otherwise DOMENICO CURRADI (Ital.) 1449- 
1494. Painter, born at Florence : first acquired celebrity as a 
designer in gold, then devcJted himself to fresco and mosaic work. 
His best known frescoes are " The Massacre of the Innocents " at 


Florence, and " Christ calling Peter and Andrew" at Rome. Michael 
Angelo studied for a time under him. Heiss in Medailleurs de la 
Renaissance, Florence. I, p. 80 remarks that the style of the medals 
executed by the so-called " Medailleur ^ I'Esperance " is that of the 

— 2S9 — 

school of Ghirlandajo, and we shall not, perhaps, err very much, 
in suggesting that these fine works were either produced by the 
great Florentine painter, or by one ot his pupils. Fide HOPE. 


G. I. (in mon.). Fide JORG GEITZKOFLER. Mint-master at 
Joachimsthal, 1563-1577. 

G. I. (in mon.). Fide JONAS GEORGENS. Mint-master at Luneburg, 

1621 ; issued copper currency at Harburg, in conjunction with 
Barthold Bartels. Bahrfeldt, in Beitrdge ^ur MUnigeschichte der Liine- 
burgischen Lande, Wien, 1893, P- 225, illustrates a Portrait-jeton of 
this Mint-master, and Neumann, Kupfermiitf^en, Bd. V. n°' 31534/5 
describes other jetons of him, dated 1628. 

G. I. B. Fidt G. I. BUTTNER. Mint-master at Cassel, 1657-1680. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 


GIAFFIERI (Ital.). Gem-engraver of the seventeenth century. His 
productions, like those of his contemporaries, are of inferior merit, 
and cannot rank with the works of the sixteenth century. 

Bibliography. — Babelon, 'Pierres gravies, Paris, 1884. 


GIANELLI, PIETRO LEONARDO (7/^/.). Medallist and Coin-engraver, 
born at Copenhagen on the 27''' October 1761 ; obtained in 1784 
the small silver medal of the Academy of Fine Arts, and in 1787, the 
large medal. In 1791 he went abroad, where he resided for some 
years. In 1798 he became a Member of the Academy of Fine Arts 
of Copenhagen, and in 1800, was elected Royal Medallist to the 
Copenhagen Mint. He married in 1802 Anne Marguerite Louise 
Boisen, and died on the 23"* December 1807. 

His son Harald Gianelli (1803- 183 2) was a modeller of note and 
was granted the small silver medal of the Academy of Fine Arts. 

The signature of the artist generally appears as P. G. and some- 
limes also as P. GIANELLI. 

The "Cabinet Royal des M^dailles" at Copenhagen preserves 
eight medals engraved by P. L. Gianelli, which are the only ones 
known by him. 

1 . 1792. Medal struck on the occasion ot the Abolition of Slavery 
in the Danish West Indies. 

2. 1800. Prize Medal for attendance at Sunday Schools. 

3. 1 80 1. Medal of Honour to Officers and Privates who distin- 

— 26o — 

guished themselves in the naval engagement oif Copenhagen, on 
the 2"*^ April, 1801. 

4. 1804. Portrait-medal of the botanist Martin Vahl (obv. 

5. Undated. The Large Medal oi the Academy of Fine Arts. 

6. Undated. The small Medal of the Academy of Fine Arts. 

7. Undated. Prize Medal of the Royal Society of Literature. 

8. Undated, Medal of Honour for Members of the Commission of 

All these medals are of great rarity. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cil. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — 
Calahgtie of the Thoinsen Colleciion, Copenhagen, 1873. — Information kindly 
furnished by Herr P. Hauberg, Director of the Royal Coin Cabinet of Copen- 
hagen, and Herr Julius Meili, of Zurich (Switzerland). 



GIANNINI, GIULIANO, also JULIANO JANNINI (Ital.) ...? f after 
1599. Italian, probably Florentine, Goldsmith and Medallist, who 
settled in Belgium, circa 1580, and was still Uving in 1599, although 
very aged and infirm. M. Pinchart has been the first to draw atten- 
tion to this artist in his Recherches sur la vie et les travaux des gra- 
veiirs en medailles, de sceaux et de monnaies des Pays-Bas, and Heiss in 
Medailkurs de la Renaissance has been able to gather further informa- 
tion about him. 

By Giannini, whose signature generally appears as IVLIAN. F. ; 
IVLIAN F. F.; or IVLIANO. F. F., are the following medals : Ottavio 
Farnese, and consort, Margaret of Austria ; — Alessandro Farnese, 
Governor of the Low-Countries. ^. Siege ofMaestricht (2 types); 
— Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, 1568. ^. RELI- 

Medal ot Alexander Farnese, bv Giannini. 

Minerva on chariot drawn by two owls; — The Duke of Parma 
^L. Column, 1585, struck on the occasion of the capture of Ant- 

— 26l — 

werp; — Alexander Farnese ^L. SIVF PACEM SIVE BELLO, 
GERAS. Branches of olive and palm (obv. illustrated); — Philip II, 
1592, from Poggini's portrait. The three last medals are unsigned, 
but ascribed to Giannini by Pinchart oil account of similarity ot 
work. Heiss has omitted them in his description of this artist's 
works. The medal of Ottavio Farnese with veiled bust of Margaret 
of Austria was executed in 1560, under order of Captain Francesco 

Keary, in Italian Medals has given to Giannini a medal on the 
Siege of Antwerp, 1585. 

Bibliography. — Armand, Les Medailleurs italiens, Paris, 1883-1887. — Pin- 
chart, Histoire de la Gravure des Medailles en Belgique, depuis h XV* Steele jusqu'en 
1794, Bruxelles, 1870. — Heiss, Les Medailleurs de la Renaissance. Florence et la 
Toscane sous les Medicis, Paris, 1892, II, 81. 

GIANNOTTI. GIACOMO {ItaL). Goldsmith residing at Rome in the 
middle years of the sixteenth century, and who was employed 
also to do medal work. He was entrusted in 1550, 1551, 1552, 
1553 and 1555 with the making of the Golden Rose. 

Bibliography. — E. Plon, Benvenuto Cellini, Paris, 1883. 

GIESELER. CASPAR (Germ.). Mint-master at Moritzburg near Hil- 
desheim, 1628-1634. 

GIESS, MATTHAEUS (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Breslau, 1678, 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Schlesiens muere Mun:i^eschichte, Breslau, 

GIFFORD, D"^ (Brit.). A number of restrikes, some round, others 
octagonal, exist of the rare Colchester obsidional Shillings, " from 
the original dies which came into the possession ofD' Gifford, by 
whom thev were subsequently deposited in the public library at 
Bristol "." 

Bibliography. — H. A. Grueber, Handbook of the Coins of Great Britain and 
Ireland in the British Museum, London, 1899, p. 125. 

GIGLELMADA mentioned in Ammon; Vide GUGLIELMADA infra. 

GIGOT (French). Die-sinker of the latter part of the eighteenth 
century ; author of Portrait-medals of Drs. G. de Guillaume, and 
Henri de Granjean, Paris, 1780. 

Bibliography. — Duisburg, op. cit., p. 60, CLI and CLII. 

GIL, GERONIMO ANTONIO (M^xzVa«). Coin-engraver and Medallist, 
employed at the Mint of Mexico, during the last quarter of the 
eighteenth century. Besides the coins struck at Mexico under 
Charles III. and Charles IV. of Spain, this clever artist executed 

— 262 — 

a large number of fine medals of which the following are best 
known : Mexican Academy Prize Medal, undated; — Proclamation 
of Charles IV. at Durango, 1790; — Proclamation of Charles IV. at 
Guanajuato, 1790(2 var.); — Another, of Guadalaxara, 1789; — 
Another, of Vera Cruz, 1789; — Another, of San Luis Potosi, 
1790; — Another of Mexico, 1789 (illustrated); — Marquis de 
San Juan de Rayas, 1790; — The Miners of Guanajuato to 
Charles IV. 1790; — Mexican Accession Medal of King 
Charles IV. (5 var. of type and size); — Mexican Archiepiscopal 
Proclamation Medal of Charles IV., 1789 (2 var.); — Proclama- 
tion Medal of the Mexican Consulate, undated; — Mining 
Proclamation Medal of Charles IV., 1789; — The Mexican 
Academy, 1790; — Orizava Proclamation Medal, 1790; — Procla- 
mation Medal of the Inhabitants of Los Angeles (2 var.); — Proc- 
lamation Medal of the City of Los Angeles, 1790; — Queretaro 
Proclamation Medal, 1790 ; — Another of San Miguel el Grande, 

Mexican Proclamation Medal of King Charles IV., by G. A. Gil. 

1791 ; — Another ot Valladolid de Michoacan, 1791 ; — Another 
of Veracruz, 1791 ; — Another of Zacatecas; — Charles III., Pro- 
tector of Sciences; The Royal Academy of Mexico founded, 
1778; — Another, with the King as Protector of the Academy, 
1777; — Birth of Prince D. Carlos, 1780; — Prosperity of the 
Royal Family (2 types of 1784 and 1785); — The Mexican Acad- 
emy to the memory of its founder. King Charles III., 1788; — 
Agricultural Prize Medal for the Philippine Islands, 1782 ; — The 
Mexican Mines to King Charles III. on the birth of his nephew 
Ferdinand (2 types of 1784 and 1785); — Royal Spanish Order 
of Noble Ladies, 1793; — Erection of a statue to Charles IV. at 
Mexico, 1796 (sev. varieties of type and size), etc. 

The signature of this Medallist appears variously as GIL ; G. A. 

— 263 — 


Bibliography. — Rosa, Monetario Americano, Buenos-Aires, 1892. — Betts, 
Contemporary Medals, illustrating American Colonial History, New- York, 1894. — 
Thorn sen Catalogue. — Arturo Pedrals y Moline, Catalogo de la colleccion de Monedas 
y Medallas de Manuel Vidal Quadras y Ramon, de Barcelona, 1892. — Dupriez, 
Ga:^ette numismatique, Oct. 1898. — Medina, Medallas coloniales hispano-americanas 
Santiago de Chile, 1900. 

GIL, J. GABRIEL (Mexican). Son of the preceding; was associated 
with his father in some of the latter's works, and has signed a few 
medals, as for instance the following : Encouragement of Com- 
merce and Industries in the Philippine Islands, 1785 (sev. var.); 
— Military Reward for service in the Philippine Islands; — Proc- 
lamation of Ferdinand VII. at San Luis de Potosi, 1808. 

Bibliography. — Medina, Medallas coloniales hispano-americanas, Santiago de 
Chile, 1900. 

GILBERT (Flem.). Meester Ghysbrecht was appointed Engraver 
of coins at the Mint of Louvain, by the Charter of the 24*'' of 
November, 1380, which decreed the reopening of the Mint for the 
coining of gold Peters, and silver Double Schurmans, Schurmans, 
and Small Schurmans. Nicolas Raest was to be Mint-master, Amelin 
Van Santvoirt, Warden, and Guillaume Van der Berge, Assayer. 
Gilbert had to swear that he would faithfully engrave the coins, 
without altering them in any way, and not to work in any Mint 
without permission of the sovereigns of the good cities of Brabant. 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, Biographies des Graveurs beiges. Revue de la numis- 
matique beige, I, S I, 56 ; I, S II, 402. 

GILBERT, ALFRED {Brit.) R. A., D. C. L. Sculptor, born in Lon- 
don in 1854; studied under Boehm and Cavelier. Besides numerous 
statues, busts, etc. he has executed the tomb of the late Duke of 
Clarence in the Memorial Chapel at Windsor, and the Shaftesbury 
Fountain in the centre of Piccadilly Circus. This great artist has 
exhibited from time to time at the Royal Academy Portrait- 
medallions of various persons, amongst others that of D' Sir 
William Laurence. 

" Mr. Gilbert's medal for the Art Union takes a high place, " 
remarks Mr Spielmann in British Sculpture and Sculptors of to-day, 
London, i^oi. " The fine design and superb execution of Post 
equitem sedet altera cura made such a sensation in the Academy at 
the time of its exhibition that it is hardly likely to be forgotten. " 

GILBAULT, FERDINAND {French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Brest (Finistere) on the 20''' of March, 1837. 
Pupil of the sculptor Hippolyte Maindron. His first studies were 

— 264 — 

conducted at Brest under M. Auger, hut he went to Paris at the 
age of 16, when he was presented to Maindron (author of the 
Velleda) who discovered in him, and fostered, the love of the 
young student for the fine arts. 


For reasons of health, Gilbaut had to abandon at an early age 
statuary for medal-engraving. 

Among his Busts and Portrait-medallions, we may notice : 
£)rs Verchere, de Cours, Naulin, Mallet, E. Dubois, Devis, Monin, 
Rivals, Letourneau, Royer Landais, Donon, Berger, Dehenne, 

Jour de Fete. 

Roblot; — L. Delobeau, Senator; — Vicomtesse de Trentinian ; 
— Auguste Dorchain, the Poet; — Albert Maignan ; — Jean Car- 
lus; — M. & M-= Ehrlich. 

— 26) — 

At the Salon of 1894, the artist exhibited Portrait-medals of 
Children, and at those of 1900 and 1901, I have seen the following 
plaquettes : Breton Girl; — Carlus; — M. Berger ; — Bag-pipe 
Player; — Jean Guiton ; — M"- P. G***; — M. & M™^ Ehrlich ; 
— Robert Kemp; — Albert Maignan ; — Marguerite C.***; — 
Prayer (illustrated); — Jour de Fete {illustrated); — D' Verchere ; 
— Jean Audema; — Jour de Deuil; — The Children of D*" Verchere, 

The Musee du Luxembourg at Paris possesses three silver Por- 
trait-plaques of Jules Valadon, Pa'imtr (illustrated); — Van Dar- 
gent, Breton Painter ; — and Admiral Vallon, Deputy of Brest. 

Jules Valadon. 

The Brest Museum exhibits a case of medals comprising nume- 
rous works by Gilbaut, especially Portrait-medallions of notabilities 
of the country and Breton types of costume. Other medallic pro- 

— 266 — 

ductions of this artist may be seen in the Museums at Quimper, 
Breslau, Brunswick, also in Egypt, Russia, and South America, 
where he resided in succession. 

At the Salon of 1902, Gilbault exhibited a frame of Portrait- 
medals, comprising : Bigouden ; — Arlesian Girl; — M. Berger; 
— D' Dehenne ; — Auguste Dorchain ; — Silvain, of the Comedie 
francaise, etc. 

Gilbault holds a place of honour amongst modern Medallists for 
the exceptional qualities he has developed in that special art of 
Medal engraving. 

Bibliography. — Information kindly furnished by the artist. — Catalogue du 
Musce du Luxembourg. — Revue francaise de numismalique, 1894, p. 359. 

at Choisy-le-Roy (Seine), on the i" of April, 1816; pupil of Cortot. 
Between 1845 and 1880 this artist has exhibited a number of 
Portrait-medallions in bronze and clay of celebrities and private 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GILBERT, JEAN {French). Mint-inspector at La Rochelle, 1740. 

GILBERT, MICHAELL (Brit.). Goldsmith to Mary, Queen of 
Scots; a burgess of Edinburgh. He most probably was the author 
of a medal of George, Lord Seton and Isabella FLamilton, struck 
in 1562. Mr Grueber says that " it is uncertain whether he was a 
medallic artist, or only struck from dies probably executed in 
France ". This nif^dal exists in two sizes, and occurs in gold and in 

The subjects ot this medal are the " loyal and magnanimous " 

Medal of George, Lord Seton, and Isabella Hamilton, by Michaell Gilbert. 

Lord Seton, the devoted adherent of Queen Mary, and his wife, 
Isabella, the daughter of Sir William Hamilton of Sanquhar. A 
record of this piece has been brought to notice by D. Hill Burton, 

— 267 — 

and is published in the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, 
Chronicles and Memorials, Scotland, vol. i, p. 227 : — Apud 
Edinburgh, sexto Januarij, anno, etc., lxij°. In presence of the 
Lords of Secrete Counsale, comperit Michaell Gilbert, burges of 
Edinburch, and producit ane pile and ane tursall maid for 
cuneyeing of certane pecis of gold and silvir, the pile havand sunken 
thairin foure lettris, viz. G S I H, linkand within utheris, and the 
circumscription thairof berand " nemo potest duobus dominis 
servire " ; the tursell havand thre crescentis with ane thirsell closit 
within the samin written about " un dieu, un loy, un foy, un roy ", 
togidder with twa punscheownis, the ane berand the saidis letteris 
GSIH linkit as said is, and the uther berand the saidis crescentis 
and thirsell inclosit as said is ; with the quhilkis pile, tursell, and 
punscheownis he cunyeit certane pecis of gold and silver, quhilkis 
being swa producit wer in presence of the saidis Lordis deliverit 
to Andro Hendersonn, wardane of the cunyehous, to be kepit be 
him unusit or prentit with in tyme cuming. " 

Bibliography. — Franks & Grueber, Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great 
Britain and Ireland to the death of George II, London, 1885, p. 103. 

GILES, S. (Brit.). Engraver of the first half of the eighteenth 
century; he prepared the dies for some of the Vernon Medals, and 
his signature appears on a medal in the British Museum, with full- 
length figure of the Admiral on the obv., and on ^. six ships 
entering Porto Bello harbour, in commemoration of Vernon's 
taking of Porto Bello in 1739. No other particulars are known ol 
this artist. 

Bibliography. — Franks & Grueber, Medallic Illustrations &c. 

GILES, MISS MARGARET (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist; member of the Society of Medallists, at whose exhibition 
in 1897 she had a seal and impression for a Submarine Cable Co. 

GILIBERTO (French). Goldsmith, who worked for Pope Alexan- 
der VI. Borgia, circa 1499. He may have had some office at the 
Papal Mint. His name is recorded as " Giliberto francioso orefice". 

GILLI, NIKOLAUS (Germ.). Director of the Posen Mint, 1660- 1662. 
His initials N.G. appear on coins of Posen of these two dates. 
In 1663, he was accused of having issued money of lower standard, 
and sought refuge in a convent, after which he settled at Fraustadt. 
In 1664 we find him employed at the Mint of Krossen, and 
in 1666, he was chief Mint Director in Brandenburg; after 1674, 
when he was imprisoned, no record of him remains. 

Bibliography. — Kirmis, Handbuch der Polnisclxn MUnikunde, Posen, 1892. — 
Friedcnsburg, Schlesiens neuere MUn^eschichte, Breslau, 1900. 

— 268 — 

GILLY, FRANZ JOHANN (Germ.). Mint-master at Langenargtn, 
1 690- 1 694. His initials F.I.G. appear on some of the currency ot 
Anton, Administrator, of Montfort. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Reimmann Catalogue. 

GIMBERCHIE, MACHAIRE DE {Flemish). Seal-engraver and Gold- 
smith, of the end of the seventeenth century, who resided at Oude- 
narde, for which city he engraved a number of seals. 

Bibliography. — Edmond Vanderstraeten, Notes sur Guillaume et Roland Blans- 
train, graveurs de sceaux, a Andenarde, an seiiieme siecle. Revue de la numismatique 
beige, IIS, V, p. 493. 

GIMBLETT, JOHN (Brit.). A Birmingham Manufacturer of Tokens, 
end of the eighteenth century. He issued Penny-tokens of Birm- 
ingham, engraved by Dixon. 

Bibliography. — Pye, Provincial Coins, London, n. d. 

GINDRA, KARL R. (Aiistr.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist 
residing at Vienna. In 1897, he executed a fine Portrait-medal of 
the scientist and politician, Herr Eduard Suess, and another of 
Paula Mark, opera-singer at Vienna, 1895. 

GINELLI DE (ltd.). Coin-engraver and Medallist at the Mint of 
Naples under Charles III. of Bourbon and Ferdinand IV., 1731-1768. 
Most of t!ie larger coins of that epoch bear the artist's signature : 
DE G, His medals illustrating events of the two reigns above- 
mentioned are not of much importance from an artistic point of view\ 

GINGHAIO, F. (Ital.). Gem-engraver to the last two Dukes ot 
Florence, Giovan Gastone dei zMedici and Francesco III. of Lorraine. 
In 1750 he was living at Naples. His name is sometimes also met 
with as GHINGHI. Vide, suprd. 

Bibliography. — King, Antique Gems, London, i860. 

GIOMETRA (Ital.). MedaUist of the beginning of the sixteenth 
century. A medal of Giovanni II. Bentivoglio of Bologna, dated 
1503, bears his signature on ^. GIOMETRA FE. This interesting 
piece, commemorating the unsuccessful attack ot C^sar Borgia on 
Bologna, was first published by M. Venturi and is described in 
Armand, Medailleurs ilaliens, III, p. 44. The style resembles that 
of Cristoforo Geremia. 

6I0RGI, RAN. (Ital.). Die-sinker, who was residing at Rome, 
circa 1 590-1610. He appears to have worked for the Papal Court 
under Clement VIII. and Paul V. 

GIORGI, LUIGI(//a/.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist resid- 
ing at Florence. I have seen his signature on medals of Ama- 

— 269 — 

deo, Duke of Aosta 7 1890; — Giuseppe Mazzini, Inauguration of 
his Monument at Lucca, 1890; — Prize Medal oftiie "Beatrice" 
Exhibition at Florence, 1890; — Medal of the Capi di Guardia 

Medal of 1885. 

Medal ot 1S95. 

Medal of 1900. 

della Misericordia of Florence, 1885 (illustrated); — Another, of 
1895 {illustrated); — Another, of i<^oo (illustrated); — Dante; — 
Boccacio ; — Petrarca ; — 

Bibliography. — Rivista italhna di Numisnuitica, 18^2, iS^s, 1900. — Num. 
Circular, 1 90 1, cot 462^-46^1. 

GIOVANNI DELLE CORNIOLE. Fide Vol. I, p. 291. M. Babelon 
mentions this Gem- engraver in the following terms in La Gravure 
en Pier res fines, p. 249 : " Giovanni delle Corniole, dont le nom 
comme celui de Domenico, atteste la spdcialite, fut le prot^g^ 
favori de Laurent le Magnifique; il travaillait a Florence, et Ton 
admirait surtout son portrait de Savonarole, qu'il avait intaille sur 
une cornaline, aujourd'hui dans la Galerie des Offices, a Florence. 
Giovanni delle Corniole, qu'il ne faut pas confondre avec son con- 
temporain et son emule Prospero delle Corniole, eut pour principal 

— 270 — 

eleve Domenico di Polo, qui grava a la fois des medailles et des 
pierres fines". 

Vol. I, p. 77. 

Vasari, III, p. 477, says : " Giovanni Bernardi of Castel Bolo- 
gnese, in the course of three years, which time he passed very 
honourably in the service of Alfonso, Duke of Ferrara, brought 
many small works to completion for that prince... ; the first large 
production which he executed was an intaglio in crystal, wherein 
he set forth the whole Battle of the Rampart, a most beautiful thing. 
He afterwards engraved the portrait of the Duke Alfonso in steel, 
for the purpose of making medals, and on the reverse he repre- 
sented Our Saviour Christ, led prisoner by the multitude. 

"Giovanni then repaired to Rome, being induced to do so by 
the advice of Giovio ; and there the intervention of the Cardinals 
Ippolito de' Medici and Giovanni Salviati sufficed to procure him 
an opportunity for taking the portrait of Pope Clement VII. ; where- 
upon he made an intaglio foi medals from the same, which was 
most beautiful, the reverse representing Joseph making himself 
known to his brethren. For this he was rewarded by His Holiness 
with a Max^ti ; the same being an office which he sold during the 
pontificate of Pope Paul III., obtaining two hundred scudi as its 
price. For the same Pope Clement, Giovanni engraved the four 
Evangelists on four round crystals. They were highly commended, 
and caused the master to obtain the favour and friendship of many 
most reverend and distinguished personages ; above all they secured 
for him the good-will of Salviati and of the Cardinal Ippolito de' 
Medici, that sole refuge and unfailing protection of artists, whose 
portrait Giovanni took in steel for medals. He also executed a work 
in crystal for the Cardinal Ippolito, the subject of which was the 
wife of Darius presented to Alexander the Great. 

*' When the Emperor Charles V. repaired to Bologna to be 
crowned, Giovanni made a portrait of that monarch in steel ; and 
having formed a medal of gold with the same, he took it at once 
to the Emperor, who presented him with a hundred golden doub- 
loons, and inquired of the master if he would accompany him into 
Spain. But Giovanni e.xcused himself, affirming that he could not 
abandon the service of Pope Clement and the Cardinal Ippolito, for 
whom he had commenced w^orks which were still incomplete. 

^'Having returned from Bologna to Rome, Giovanni then execut- 
ed for the above-named Cardinal de' Medici a Rape of the Sabines, 
which was most beautiful. For all these things the Cardinal consid- 
ered himself to be much indebted to Giovanni, and therefore show- 
ed him many courtesies, presenting him moreover with nume- 

— 271 — 

rous gifts; but what was more than all, when the Cardinal was 
departing for France, and was conducted to a certain distance by 
many nobles and gentlemen, he turned to Giovanni, who was there 
among the rest, and taking from his own neck a small collar or 
chain, to which was appended a cameo worth more than six hun- 
dred scudi, he gave it to Giovanni, telling him that he was to keep 
it until his return, and with the intention then to reward him 

as he considered his great ability to deserve 

" Giovanni also executed the portrait of Madonna Margherita of 
Austria, the daughter of the Emperor Charles V., who had been 
the wife of the Duke Alessandro de' Medici, and was then the con- 
sort of the Duke Ottavio Farnese; this work he performed in 
competition with Valerio Vicentino. For all these labours executed 
for the Cardinal Farnese, Giovanni received from that prelate as his 
reward, the office of a Janissary, which brought him in a good sum 
of money ; he was besides so much beloved by the Cardmal that he 
obtained many favours at his hands, and the latter never passed 
through Faenza, where Giovanni had built himself a most commo- 
dious house, that he did not go to take up his abode with the 
artist. Having settled himself, therefore, at Faenza, with the pur- 
pose of seeking retirement from the toils of the world, after having 
performed many labours therein, he remained there from that time 
forward, and his first wife having died without leaving him any 
children, he took a second, with whom he lived very happily, 
being in very easy circumstances, and having an income from lands 
and other sources, which amounted to more than four hundred 
scudi. The second wife of Giovanni presented him with two sons 
and a daughter; he lived content to his sixtieth year, and when 
he had attained to that age he resigned his soul to God ; this 
happened on the day of Pentecost, in the year 1555. " 

GIOVANNI DI GIROLAMO {Ital). This Artist's name is found on a 
Portrait-medal of the sixteenth century, described by Sign. Ber- 
nardo Morsolin in Rivista itaiiana di Numismatica, 189J, p. 85 ; 
Bust to 1. of Ginmbartolomeo d'Arzignano. I^. HOC.OPV. 
LXXX.V.III. A dead tree. This medal is now in the Museo Correr 
at Venice. 

GIOVANNI MARIA (Ital.). Coin-engraver at the Papal Mint ot 
Rome, under Pope Alessandro VI. This artist is qualified as 
"sculptor testae S.D.N, pro imprimendis monetis cudendis". He 
was a native of Ferrara, and is the author (not Caradosso) of the 
early coins issued by that Pope. 

Bibliography. — E. Muntz, Les Arts a la Cour des Papes {1484-1 ^oj), Paris 

— 272 — 

GIOVINE, ANDREAS (Span.). Mint-master to King Charles II. of 
Spain at Naples, circa 1683-1693. His initials appear on the coins. 

Bibliography. — Ammon, SammJung heruhmter Medaillenrs und Munimeister 
nebst ibren Zeichen, Niirnberg, 1778. 

GIPFEL, GABRIEL (Germ.). Goldsmith of Dresden, early part of 
the seventeenth century, mentioned in 1606 in connection with a 
medal of Christian II. and consort, of Saxony, made from portrait- 
jewels executed by him. 

GIPFEL, HANNS (Austr.) Mint-master at Joachimsthal, trom 
13''' August, 1604, to II*'' August, 1606. 

GIRARD, CASIMIR (French). Sculptor, born in Paris on the 
10*'' May, 1836; pupil of Duret and Guillaume. At the Salons of 
1870 and 1876, he exhibited Portrait-medallions of various private 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GIRARD, NICOLAS and PIERRE (Swiss). Joint Mint-masters at 
Geneva from the 15*'' of April 16 17 to the 4**' May 1621. On the 
coins their initials NP.G. sometimes occur. 

Bibliography. — E. Demole, Les Mailres, les Graveurs et Jes Essayeurs de la 
Monnaie de Geneve (1535-1792), Bulletin de la soci6i^ Suisse de nuniisraatique, 
1885, p. 22. 

GIRARD, NOEL JULES (French). Sculptor, born at Paris on the 
22""* of August 1816; pupil of David d'Angers and Petitot ; entered 
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts on the 2"'* of October 1837. He model- 
led some Portrait-medallions, which were exhibited at the Paris 
Salons during the second half of the nineteenth century. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GIRARDET, A. G. (French). Contemporary Medallist; he exhibited 
at the Salon of 1899 a Portrait-medal of the Duke of Caxias. 

GIRARDET, ABRAHAM (Swiss). Copper-plate Engraver, born at 
Le Locle (canton Neuchatel) in 1764, died in Paris on the 2"'* ot 
January 1823. One of his engravings is reproduced on the reverse 
of a medal by M. Hugues Bovy of Geneva, commemorating the Cen- 
renary of the Great Fire of La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1794-1894. 

Bibliogr.\phy. — Musee neuchatclois, 1895, p. 186. 

GIRARDIN, P. (French). Die-sinker of the first half of the nine- 
teenth century. His signature appears on a Portrait-medal of Ras- 
pail, 1849. 

— 273 — 

GIRAULT (Freticb). Medallist of the second quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. His signature occurs on some medals of Louis- 

GIROD, JEAN JACQUES (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva; two con- 
tracts were concluded between the City and him, on the 19*^ May 
1750, and y^ of October of the same year for the striking of coins. 
Girod retained his post until August 1762. 

Bibliography. — E. Demole, he. cit. 

GIROMETTI, GIUSEPPE (//rt/.). A celebrated Sculptor, Gem-engrav- 
er and Medallist of the first half of the nineteenth century, born 
in 1780; died 17. Nov. 185 1. He worked at the Papal Mint at 
Rome for Popes Pius VII., Leo XIL, Pius VIII. and Gregory XVI., 
Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, and cut Portrait-medals of the sculptor 
Antonio Ginova; — the poet Giov. Batt. Niccolini, which medal 
Bolzenthal considered as one of the best Italian works of the time; — 
Caesar Baronius; — Petrus Bembus; — Michelangelo Buonarotti; 
— Philippus Brunellescus; — Benvenuto CeUini; — Marcantonio 
Colonna ; — Vittoria Colonna ; — Enrico Dandolo , Doge of 
Venice; — Franciscus de Marchi; — Franciscus Guicciardini ; — 
Macchiavelli ; — Cosmo de' Medici; — Andreas Palladio ; — 
Petrarch; etc. 

Most of these belong to a series of medals of celebrated Itahans 
of all ages, to which Girometti's son, Pietro, and the MedaUist Niccolo 
Cerbara, also contributed. 

Girometti was a pupil of the sculptor Pacetti, President of the 
Academy of Fine Arts, and first executed marbles for the Cathedral 
of Foligno. He then gave up sculpture for Gem-engraving, in which 
Art he soon became facile princeps. His cameos after Canova, Tene- 
rani, &c., those executed from his own designs, reproductions of 
antique gems, portraits of modern and contemporary celebrities are 
all of superior work. Among his portrait-cameos I must notice : 
Raphael ; — Leonardo da Vinci ; — RicheHeu ; — Colbert ; — 
Racine; — La Fontaine; — Washington; — Napoleon, &c. His 
bust offspring" at the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris) is a fine 
example of Girometti's style; by him are also two large cameos with 
heads of Genius and Perseus, after Canova ; others representing 
Terpsichore and Magdalena ; Psyche, after Tenerani, &c. ; and King 
mentions a head of Proserpine and a Diomede with the Palladium, 
surpassing, to his taste, any production of the artists of antiquity in 
this department. 

D"" Storer has brought to my knowledge the following medals by 
Girometti : Congress of Italian Scientists at Genoa, 1846; — 

L. FoRRBR. — Biographical Noltcef ofMettaUists. — II. l8 

— 274 — 

Congress of Italian Scientists at Lucca, 1843 ; — Med. Clin. 
Academy of Ferrara, 1847. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — E. Babelon, op. cit. — King, op. cit. 

— Grande Encyclopedic. 

GIROMETTI, PIETRO (ItaL). Son of Giuseppe Girometti, Gem and 
Medal-engraver of considerable merit, died in London in 1850. 
M. Babelon says of him that he succeeded in raising himself above 
his contemporaries of all countries by the excellence of his works. 
He contributed to the series of medals of celebrated Italians under- 
taken by his father in conjunction with Niccolo Cerbara, and engrav- 
ed several medals of Gregory XVI., Vittoria Colonna, Enrico 
Dandolo and other Italian celebrities. 

In the Morrison Collection there was a cameo, an onyx of two 
strata, white upon green ground, engraved in high relief, with figure 
of a faun supporting upon uplifted foot an infantile faun, which is 
supposed to be the work of Girometti or of his father. 

In the Boston Collection are two medical medals, bearing 
P. Girometti's signature on obv. : D"" Francesco Mandini, Bologna; 

— Santo Spirito Hospital at Rome, 1754. 

GIROT (^French). Die-sinker of the end of the eighteenth, and 
beginning of the nineteenth century. His best known medallic 
work is no doubt a portrait piece of Mirabeau, on his death, 179 1. 
Obv. LE DEMOSTHENES FRANgOIS. Laur. head of Mirabeau 
to 1. ; beneath : GIROT F. I^. HONORE RIQUETTI MIRA- 
BEAU. Sword surmounted with Phrygian cap; in the field : MORT 
LE2 AVRIL1791. 

Bibliography. — Hennin, Hisioire numismaiiquede la Revolution franfuise. Fans, 

GISORS, JEAN or JANIN (French). Engraver at the Mint of Troyes, 

circa 1360. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les Graveurs de la Monnaie de Troyes du 
XII^ ail XF//C sikle, Paris, 1892. 

GITTERMANN, JOHANN CHRISTIAN {Germ.). Mint-master at Esens 
(East Friesland), 1730-1746. His initials I. C. G. appear on coins ot 
Princes George Albert and Carl Edzard. 


G. K. Vide KILIAN KOCH. Die-sinker at Nuremberg (sixteenth cen- 

G. K. Fide GEORG KRUCKENBERG. Mint-master at Cassel, 1637- 
1640, Hoxter, 1646, and Hildesheim, 1 660-1 661. 

— 275 — 

G. K. Fide GEORG KRUGER. Die-sinker and Mint-master at Copen- 
hagen, 1665-1680. 

G. K. F/^^ GEORG (CHRISTOPH)KUSTER. Mint-master at Darm- 
stadt, 1733-1740, and Cleve, 1740-175 5. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. ctt. 

G. K. (Dutch). Signature of an unknown Medallist, who is the 
author of a Portrait-medal of Prince-elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria 
as Stadhouder of the Netherlands (Van Loon IV, p. 83, n° 2), and 
of another on the Arrival of the Stadhouder in the Netherlands, 
1692. (Van Loon p. 85.) 

Bibliography. — Nagler, Monogrammisten. 

G. L. Vide GABRIEL LOMBARDO. Mint-inspector at Venice, circa 

6. L. r/d^ GIROLAMO LUCENTI. Die-sinker at Rome, le-jo-i^-j-j. 

G. L. Vide GOTTFRIED LEYGEBE. Medallist, 1630-1683, who work- 
ed at Nuremberg and Berlin. 

G. L. or 6. L. F. Vide GABRIEL LUNDER. Norwegian Die-sinker 
who worked at Nuremberg, Koenigsberg, and from 1742 to 1782 
at Copenhagen. 

G. L. Vide GUSTAV LIUNGBERGER. Swedish Medallist, who work- 
ed at Stockholm from 1765 to 1801. 

G. L. Vide GOTTFRIED BERNHARD LOOS. Founder of the famous 
Die-sinking establishment of Loos at Berlin, born 1773 ^ 1843. 

G. L. C. Vide GABRIEL LECLERC. Die-sinker at Basle, 1685, then at 
Cassel, and circa 1708 at Berlin; Mint-master at Bremen, 1737 
t 1743- 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

GLADEHALS, JACOB (Germ.). Nicolai, Nachrichten von den Baumeis- 
tern, Bildhauern... in Berlin, Berlin, 1786, informs us that the name 
of this artist occurs in 1597 in the Berlin archives as that of a 
Goldsmith to the Electoral Court. Apparently he was not a native 

— 276 — 

ot this city, but settled there late in life ; he was still living in 
1 6 17, when it is said he was of a great age and in painful circum- 

stances. According to the same writer, we must ascribe to Glade- 
hals the beautiful medallic jewels of John George and his consort, 
dated 1597, and John Sigismund (illustrated), which gems are pre- 
served in the Royal Museum at Berlin. Bolzeinhal, Erman, and also 
D"" Menadier, in his recent work Schaii,miin:^en des Hauses Hohen:{ol- 
lern, have not corrected Nicolai's attribution of these beautiful jewels 
to Gladehals, whose initials he stated he had seen on some 

— 277 — 

examples. Before Gladehals, Peter Wolff of Zurich, who was Court 
Goldsmith at Berlin in 1583, had executed similar works, and after 

him Cornelius von Thale, circa 1613 distinguished himself in the 
same capacity. 

BiBUOGRAPHY. — Bolzcnthal, op. cit. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 

GLAGEMAN, JOHANN HEINRICH (Bohem.). Mint-engraver at Prague 
from 1670 to 1693, under Leopold I. 

GLASBERG, STEPHAN {Germ.') Mint-master at Freiberg in Saxony 

before 1465. 

GLASER, HANS (Gmn.). Mint-master in Schleswig, 1641-1644. 

GLASER, J. (Austr.). Contemporary Medallist residing at Vienna. 
In 1879 he issued a commemorative medal of the Silver Wedding 
of the Emperor and Empress of Austria. 

— 278 — 

GLASERE, MARC DE (Bel^.). Seal-engraver and Goldsmith of the 
first quarter of the sixteenth century, residing at Bruges. He work- 
ed for Margaret of Austria, Dowager Duchess of Savoy and Regent 
of the Low-Countries. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, DicHontiaire des Graveurs beiges, Revue de la 
numismatique beige, 1851, p. 413. 

GLEASON A. (Amer.) Die-sinker of Hielsdale (Mich.) and manu- 
facturer of Mott & Brother's token, Druggists (Anier. Journ. Num. 

GLEDE, MORITZ (Germ.) Die-cutter at the Mint of Moisburg 
(Liineburg), 1622. 

Bibliography. — M. Bahrfeldt, Beitrdge ■{iir MimT^eschichte der Lunehitrgischm 
Lande, Wien, 1893. 

GLEICHEN,COUNTESS FEODORA (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor 
and MedaUist ; she exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1900 a bronze 
relief Memorial to the late General Sir Henry Ponsonby. She is a 
Member of the Society of Medallists, and at this Society's Exhibi- 
tion in 1897, her medallic productions were very much admired : 
The Shropshire Horticultural Society Medal ; — Portrait-medal of 
H.R.H. the Princess of Wales ; — Medal for the Royal Agricultu- 
ral Show at Windsor, 1889; — A Mirror; — Bas-relief in pewter, 
&c. At the Second Exhibition of the Society of MedaUists, 1901 
(November), I noticed the following exhibits : Portrait bust, Queen 
Victoria; — Joan of Arc; — Silver cup; — H. M. The Qiieen, 
when Princess of Wales (a medal) ; — A medal. Queen Victoria 
(lion, reverse). 

The following notice of Countess Gleichen's artistic activity is 
extracted from Mr. Spielmann's British Sculpture and Sculptors of 
To-day, 1901. 

" The Countess Gleichen was the pupil of her father. Prince 
Victor ot Hohenlohe, and of the Slade School at University College 
under Professor Legros, and completed her studies in Rome. Her 
chief work has been the life-size statue of Queen Victoria for the 
Jubilee Hospital, Montreal. It is an imaginative composition, in 
which the Sovereign is represented in royal robes, with a little 
child asleep at her knee, while on the opposite side, on the steps 
of the throne, another child stands with its arm in a sling. Shortly 
before her death Queen Victoria gave sittings to Countess Gleichen 
for the bust now at the Cheltenham Ladies' College. 

" Besides these are the memorial to the artist's father in Sunning- 
dale Church (near Windsor), and a bust of Queen Alexandra, 
when Princess of Wales (Royal Academy, 1895), "ow in possession 
of the Constitutional Club, London. In the same year a statuette of 

— 279 — 

Lady Henry Bentinck was exhibited at the New Gallery, but it 
attracted less attention than the " Satan " shown at the Royal Acad- 
emy in 1894. This fanciful and weird design shows a scaly, 
armed and winged knight, seated on a throne tortuous with snakes. 
The work reveals undoubted skill and invention, although it is 
somewhat overloaded. The statue of "Peace" (1899) showed a 
much purer teeling; and the beautiful hand-mirror of jade and 
bronze of the same period, which first appeared in the Royal Acad 
emy and was sent to the Paris Exhibition of 1900, proved a great- 
er appreciation of design and decoration, and achieved a success 
commensurate with its considerable merit. There are also by Count- 
ess Gleichen a half-length figure of M. KubeUk, the violinist; a 
stone fountain with a life-size nude fieure of a nymph for a garden 
in Paris ; and another in bronze and coloured marbles with a figure 
of Diana, for a garden near Ascot. 

" It is no flattery to the Countess Gleichen to say that many sculp- 
tors, contributing to the exhibitions, have tailed to produce work 
as good as her's. It is highly refined, with charming feeling, and if, 
as in *' The Queen Alexandra ", it is a little timid in treatment, 
we do not resent the weakness which savours of delicacy ; for we 
like a woman's work to be effeminate. Countess Gleichen's early 
tendency to be too smoothed-down, technically called "soapy", 
practically disappeared with the advent of a more modern feeling. 
The lady's sculptural portraits are excellent likenesses, with the 
delightful merit of being elegant and distinguished. These include 
M""" Calve, M" Walter Palmer,and Sir Henry Ponsonby as busts ; 
several bas-reliets, of which one is a memorial to Sir Henry Pon- 
sonby, with figures in armour as supporters; and others are of 
children, in different materials. The silver statuette of a Madonna, in 
an agate and mosaic shrine, should not be passed over ". 

GLEINITZ (^Austr.). Mint-master at Gratz under Archduke Charles, 

GLITZMANN, VOLKMAR and CHRISTIAN (Germ.). Stone-cutters 
who worked at Breslau, 1566 and 1589. They appear to have been 
employed at the Mint to engrave coin-dies. 

Bibliography. — F riedenshur g, Studien :(tir schUsischenMedaillenkunde, 1899. 

GLOWACKI, W. (Austr.). Contemporary Die-sinker residing at 
Krakau. I have seen two medals engraved by him, one on the 
Visit of Emperor Francis Joseph to Krakau in 1880, and the other 
on the Transfer of the body of Mickiewicz to Krakau in 1890. 

GLUME (Germ.). Sculptor and Modeller in wax of the second half 
of the eighteenth century. Bolzenthal mentions a cast Portrait- 

— 28o — 

medallion of D"" Johann Nath. Lieberkiihn, which was executed 
from a wax model by Glume. A specimen is in the Berlin Museum. 

GLYCON (Greek). The signature TAYKGON, which some experts 
doubt, appears on a sard cameo (illustrated) in the Paris Medal represents Amphitrite. 

Cameo said to have been cut by Glycon (Babelon, Pierres gravies ^ 
fig. 126), of the nereid Galene riding on bull-headed sea-monster 
above waves ; around the nymph a dolphin and five Erotes playing. 
'* A poor work", says Kohler, "of the Renaissance, in which the 
accessories are better done than the goddess". 

Bibliography. — Babelon, Pierres grave'es. — H. Brunn, op. cit., t. II, p. 612. 
— Furtwangler, op. cit. — Daremberg et Saglio, op. cit., p. 1478. — King, op. 
cit., p. 219. Handbook of Engraved Gems, 1884. 

G. M. Vide GEORG MEINHART. Mint-master at Eisleben, Halle and 
Stolberg, 1595-1615. 

G. M. (?) FiWg GEORG MEINHOLT. Mint-master at Saalfeld, 1595- 

G. M. Vide GASPARE MOLD. Swiss Medallist, born at Lugano, 
worked at Florence and Rome, 16 ro ^ 1669. A second artist of 
this name lived in the middle years of the eighteenth century. 

G. M. Vide GOTTFRIED (WILHELM) METELLES. Coin-engraver at 
Minden, 1690-1711. 

G. M. Vide GOTTHARD MARTINENGO. Mint-master at Coblenz, 

G. M. Vide GEORG MICHAELIS. Mint-master at Clausthal, 1802- 
1807; also G. F. M. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

— 28l — 

G. N. Fide GEORG NURNBERGER. Mint-master at Frankfort-on- 
Maine, 1644-1646. 

G. N. Vide GEORG NEUMEISTER. Warden of the Mints at Wiirz- 
burg, 1754-1762, and Frankfort-on-Maine, 1763-1777. 

G. N. FidetiLSTl. Die-sinker at Florence, second quarter of the 
nineteenth century. 

BISCHOFF. Mint-master, at Wiirzburg, 1760-1762. 

G. N. R. Fide GEORG NIKOLAUS RIEDNER. Mint-master at Nurem- 
berg, 1764-1793. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

G. N. {Ital.). Signature of a Medallist of the third quarter of the 
sixteenth century. This signature occurs on a Portrait-medal of 
Claudio Brama, with inscription ANNO . ETATIS . SVAE . VIII . on 
^., and described in Armand, op. cit., I, p. 237. 

GNAIOS. Fide CNEIVS. Vol. I, p. 282. 

M. Babelon, in Diet, des ant. grecques et romaines, Gemmae, t. II, 
p. 1479, expresses the opinion that Gnaios seems to have been 
inspired by the works of Polycleites. 

The aquamarine representing the head of Herakles, pubHshed by 
Faberas the signet of Cn. Pompey, has given rise to a heated con- 
troversy between experts. Kohler, quoted by King, says : *'The 
signature on this gem belongs to the best authenticated that we 
have, and we can prove beforehand that it cannot but designate 
an artist, since the work of the head is of that fine quality that would 
justify the engraver in putting his name to it ". D"" Brunn is of a 
different opinion, and his criticism may be worth quoting, as it 
throws light upon the vexed question whether the ancient gem- 
engravers really did sometimes sign their works : 

" Der bekannteste Stein mitdem Namen des Gneius ist ein blau- 
hcher Aquamarin, auf welchem der Kopf des jugendlichen Herakles 
dargestellt ist; neben dem Halse siehtman flach gearbeitet die Keule 
und unter dem Abschnitte des Halses die Inschrift TNAIOC ! 
Stosch t. 23 ; Gori Mus. Flor. II, t. 7, 2 ; Bracci I, 49 ; Winck. 
Descr. II, 1682; Lippert I, 539;Raspe 5458; Cades III, A, 2; 
C.I. 7174. Er kam aus Andreini's Besitz (Gori Col. hb. Liv. 
p. 155), in die Strozzi'sche, spater in die Schellersheim'sche und 
neuerdings in Blacas'sche Sammlung. Aber wir haben von ihm 
noch weit iiltere Kunde. Faber, der Herausgeber von Ursinus 'Illus- 
trium imagines, erwahnt ihn (S. 66), indem er die Inschrift auf 
Pompeius bezieht und den Stein fiir eines der Siegel dieses Rdmers 

— 282 — 

halt. Es macht daher einen sonderbaren Eindruck, wenn Kohler S. 
143 Folgendes bemerkt : 

*' Der Herakleskopf des vorgeblichen Gnaeos konnte folglich 
(weil Kohler die KiJnstlerinschriften der Andreini 'schen Sammlung 
fast sammthch als aus Betrug entstanden betrachtet) aus keiner 
verdachtigeren Quelle herriihren, als aus der Sammlung des 
Andreini, und es leidet keinen Zweifel, dass, hatte sie ihre Auf- 
schrift nicht iiber hundert Jahre vor Andreini bekommen, er gerade 
der Mann gewesen sein wiirde, der am wenigsten gezaudert hatte, 
sie damit zu versehen ". 

" Es leuchtet ein, dass bei einer solchen Befangenheitin den eigen- 
en Vorurtheilen eine Wiirdigung auch der einfachsten vorliegen- 
den Thatsachen geradezu unmoglich wird. So heisst es nun von 
der Inschrift : ** Die Buchstaben des Namens, durch den dieses 
Werk, nach Visconti's Meinung, einem romischen Sclaven oder Frei- 
gelassenen zugeschrieben wird und den schon darum kein Vorur- 
theilsfreier fur alt nehmen kann, sind zwar nich iibel gerathen, tra- 
gen aber durch ihre Aenlichkeit mit so vielen anderen Aufschriften 
vollig das Geprage ihres neuen Ursprungs. " 

"Nachdem er dann spater auf das Unbegriindete der Meinung 
Faber's, dass der Stein zum Siegelringe des Pompeius gedient, 
hingewiesen, schliesst er weiter : ,, es ergiebt sich doch, daraus so 
viel, dass zu Orsini's und Faber's Zeit der Name Gnaeos auf Ver- 
langen eines Schlechturiterrichteten der Gemme in der Absicht 
eingeschnitten war, um sie fur den Siegelring des Pompeius aus- 
zugeben " ; und dabei wird dann auf die Steine des Aetion, Hyllos, 
Hellen, und Aulos hingewiesen, welche damals ein gleiches Schick- 
sal erfahren batten. Weiter heisst es S. 168 : ,, Unnothig ist eszu 
bemerken, warum die Vornamen Cneius und Aulus das nichtanzei- 
gen konnten, was man damit bezweckte ; dass durch sie die Neuheit 
dieser Zugaben nur zu sehr bekraftigt wird ; und dass diese Vorna- 
men, ihrer Unbestimmtheit wegen, nicht einmal geeignet waren, 
die Besitzer der Ringsteine anzuzeigen ; Uebrigens sind die Eigener 
der Ringsteine stets mit alien drei Namen, und seltener im Nomi- 
nativ, als im Genetiv auf ihnen gegraben". Wie hier alles auf 
Vorurtheil beruht, ist nicht schwer nachzuweisen. Ueber die Steine 
mit den Namen des Aetion, Hyllos u. s. w. ist schon friiher 
gehandelt worden. Gesetzt nun aber man hatte zu Orsini's Zeit 
einen Stein durch eine Inschrift zu einem Siegelsteine des Pom- 
peius machen wollen, wie ware man damals, wo gewiss noch 
wenige Gemmeninschriften romischer Namen mit griechischen 
Buchstaben, wohl aber schon eine Zahl rein romischer Inschriften 
bekannt sein mochte, auf den Gedanken gekommen, den Pompeius 
durch seinen Vornamen in griechischer Form bezeichnen zu wol- 
len ? Die einfachste und natiirlichste Folgerung ist vielmehr, dass 

— 283 — 

die Beziehungauf Pompeius erst aus der vorhandenen, vor Augen 
liegenden Inschrift FNAIOC entstanden sei. Auffallend, aber doch 
nur scheinbar auffallend, ist allerdings die Unbestimmtheit des Vor- 
namenszur Bezeichnung einer Person. 

"Aber die Consequenz der Inschriften offentlicher Monumente 
diirfen wir nicht von denen der geschnitteten Steine verlangen, 
welclie dem Privatgebrauche dienten. Gerade durch den Privat- 
gebrauch konnte die Beschrankung auf den Vornamen motivirt 
sein. Eben so konnte aber auch ein beruhmter Steinschneider sich 
durch einen solchen deutlich genug bezeichnet erachten, wie wir in 
der neueren Zeit uns gewohnt haben, eine Menge gerade der 
beriihmtesten Kiinstler, wie Raphael, Michelangelo, Domenichino, 
Marc Anton fast immer nur mit ihren Vornamen zu nennen. Dass 
wir fiir diesen Gebrauch unter den antiken Bildhauern und Malern 
keine Analogien nachweisen konnen, erklart sich einfach daraus, 
dass iiberhaupt nur sehr wenige mit romischen Namen bekannt 
sind. Die Inschrift FNAIOC unter dem Kopfe des Herakles gehort 
demnach zu den am besten beglaubigten, welche wir besitzen ; und 
dass sie einen Kiinstler bezeichne, diirfen wir wenigsiens nicht von 
vorn herein als unmoglich abweisen, indem auch die Arbeit des 
Kopfes von der Art ist, dass sie den Kunstler zur Beifiigung seines 
Namens wohl berechtigen durfte. Zwar urtheilt Kohler S. 144 im 
Gegensatz zu Visconti's emphatischen Lobspruchen, dass,, durch 
den grossen Fleiss, den man in der Ausfiihrung des Gesichtes und 
der Haare verschwendet, das Ganze an Kraft und Geist verloren 
habe". Doch aber erkennt auch er S. 142 an, dass dieser schone 
Jiinglingskopfmitsehr viel Zartheit und Gefiihl dargestellt worden, 
dass die Locken leicht, mannigfaltig und abwechselnd, zugleich 
reich und zierlich gebildet seien". 

The standing Athlete anointing himself, formerly in the Marl- 
borough Collection, has been pronounced by King to be a paste, 
and not a jacinth, undoubtedly antique, and not the work of 
Natter, as Kohler suspects it. D' Brunn considers the work of little 
merit, and although he had not seen it, was inclined to doubt its 
genuineness. D"" Furtwiingler pronounces this gem, and the agate 
representing the Rape ot the Palladium, in the Berlin Museum, 

G. 0. Fide GIACOMO OZEGNI. Die-sinker at Turin, 1622-1625. 

GOZ. Fide JOHANN SAMUEL GOTZINGER, born in 1734, f 1791. 

Coin-engraver at Ansbach. 

G. 0. H. Fide GOTTFRIED OTTO MEYER. Mint-master at Herborn, 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, o/». cit. 

— 284 — 

GOBEL, GEBRUDER {Germ.). Mint-contractors at Danzig. Between 
1578 and 1585 this firm struck Denarii, Schillings, Groschen, Drei- 
groschers. Ducats and some gold coins of higher denominations 
(5 and 10 Ducats), all, which, with the exception of the Denarii, 
bear the annulet, which was the Mint-mark of the Brothers Gobel. 

Bibliography. — Kirmis, Handbuch der Polnischm Mun^kunde, Posen, 1892, 
p. 69. 

GOBELET, JEAN (Belg.). Mint-master at Ghent, circa 1430. On a 
commission, given under the seal of Philip the Good, Duke of Bur- 
gundy, 27**" October, 1430, he is named : Janne Gobelet, muntmeester 
van Brabant. 

Bibliography. — Rante de la num. beige, 1842, p. 311 ; 185 1, p. 144. 

GOBERT DE SAINT-QUENTIN (French). Mint-master at S' Quentin, 

GOBRECHT, CHRISTIAN (Anier.). Coin-engraver at the Philadel- 
phia Mint, from December 21, 1840, until his death, July 23, 
1844. He was born in Hanover, York Co., Pa., December 23, 
1785 ; went to Philadelphia in 181 1, where he became an engraver 
of bank notes, seals, calico-printers' rolls, bookbinders' dies, &c. In 
1836 he was appointed assistant to Mr Kneass, Engraver at the 
U.S.A. Mint, and on the latter's death, he was chosen to fill the 
vacancy. Besides coins, Gobrecht engraved several medals, one of 
which, the Franklin Institute Medal, exhibits very commendable 
work, and another of the New England Society for the Promotion 
ot Manufactures, etc., 1826. 

Bibliography. — Evans, Illustrated History of the United States Mint, Philadel- 
phia, 1892. 

GODARD, A. (French). Editor of artistic medals, residing at Paris, 
and agent for the works of the Medallist Roty, and others. 

GODDARD, THOMAS (Brit.). Mint-master to James II., at Dubhn (?) 
in conjunction with John Trinder, William Talbot, WiUiam 
Brumfield, Francis Rice and Edward Fox. 

60DEBSKI (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at M^ry-sur- 
Cher (Cher). Pupil of Jouffroy. Although not a Medallist, he has 
executed some Portrait-medaUions in clay, as that of M. G. Mail- 
lard, exhibited at the Salon of 1876. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

- 285 - 

GODEL (French). Bolzenthal mentions this Medallist's name with 
those of Veyrat, Henrionnet, Rogat, Masson, Sornet, Peuvrier and 
other artists of the first half of the nineteenth century, who collab- 
orated with others in Durand's Series numistnatica universalis viror urn 
illustrium, and to Medaillier des Francais celebres,XIX^ siecle; Galerie 
de la Fid elite; Collection des hommes il lustres, &c. 

In D' Storer's Collection there is a medal of N. Copernicus by 
him (Durand Series). 

I have seen his signature recently on a Jeton of the Societe du 
Jardin et des Eaux de Sceaux, 1843. 

GODELE, JEAN (Belg.). A clever Chaser of Liege, who lived dur- 
ing the first half of the fifteenth century. 

GODET, HENRI (Fretich). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist. 
Pupil of the ficole nationale des Beaux- Arts, and of M. Mathurin 
Moreau. He was born at Paris. 

At the Salon of 1901 he has exhibited a frame of medals : three 
bas-reliefs in bronze representing Poppies, and three others ot 

Bibliography. — Catalogue du Salon, 1^0 1. 

GODIN (^French). Moneyer of Abbeville, circa 1187. 

GODIN (French). Sculptor, born at Melun (Seine-et-Marne),on the 
21'* of August 1823. Pupil of Toussaint. Entered the £cole des 
Beaux-Arts in 1846. As late as 1876 he exhibited at the Paris Salon 
a Portrait-medallion of M. Cabs, which is not his only work of the 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GODOFFRE, CLAUDE (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot 
Lyons, 1594-1612. Son of Pierre Godoffre. He was appointed on 
the 14*'' of April 1594 " tailleur particulier de la monnaie" and 
obtained from the King, on the 5*'' of May of the same year, con- 
firmation of his nomination. In 1595 this Engraver was actively 
employed in the execution of coin-dies. Testoons struck at Lyons 
in 1602 bear I.E. (for Jean de Bourges, Mint-master) and acres- 
cent with mullet which is probably Godoffre's sign. 

This artist engraved the Jeton of Pierre de Baillon, 1600 and 1601, 
and also satirical medals at the time of the League. Some of the Deniers 
douzains in the name of Charles X. were also engraved by Claude 

Bibliography. — Rondot, Les Graveurs de monnaies d Lyon, Mdcon, 1897. 

GODOFFRE, PIERRE (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Lyons, 
1 5 74- 1 5 94. He engraved the dies for the Deniers douzains issued 

— 286 — 

in the name of Cardinal de Bourbon, proclaimed King in 1589 
under the name of Charles X., and struck until 1594. He resigned 
office in April 1594 in favour of his son Claude Godoffre. His 
name appears on Mint documents as "Tailleur Pierre Godoffre". 
Ill 1 594, the Masters and Officers of the Mint were ordered, " not to 
strike any coins of gold, silver, or billon under charge of lese-majeste, 
except in the name of Henry IV., by the grace of God, King of 
France and Navarre. " 
Bibliography. — Rondot, op. cit. 

GOEDECKE or GODICKE, JOHANN GEORG (Germ.). Mint-master at 
Leipzig, 1752-175 3, and Altenkirchen, 1744-175 5, He signed : 

GOEDECKE, PAUL HEINRICH (Germ.). Medallist of Hamburg, 1730- 
1764. Signed P.H.G. He worked for the Court of Denmark, and is 
the author of a number of Portrait-medals of private persons. One 
of these commemorates the Marriage of Frederick, Prince of Den- 
mark with Princess Louisa, 1743 ; another, of 1759, bears a portrait 
of Frederick Charles ot Holstein. There are also by this artist the 
following medals : Coronation of Charles VII., 1742 ; — Corona- 
tion of Francis L, 1745, Festivities at Hamburg ; — Coronation of 
Adolphus Frederick of Sweden, 1745 ; — Adolphus Frederick and 
Louisa Ulrica, 1744; — Earthquake at Lisbon, 1755 (^L. only); 
— &c. His medals are signed P.H.G. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Paul Joseph u. Eduard Fellner, Die 
Mi'm:(en von Frankfurt am Main, 1896. — Hildebrand, Sveriges och Svenska Konun- 
gahusets Minnespenningar, &c. — Franks and Grueber, Medallic Illustrations, &c. 

GOEDEKING, CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Bres- 
lau, 1 8 10, and appointed in the same year as general Mint-master 
of Prussia. In 1843 a commemorative medal was struck with his 

GOEDT, BERNHARD (Germ.). Mint-master at Coblenz, 1698- 


GOELLNER (Germ.). Contemporary Die-sinker, residing at Stutt- 
gart, and author of a number of prize-medals. 

GOERCE, S. (French.). Die-sinker of the nineteenth century. His 
signature occurs on the obv. of a Portrait-medal of Jacques Beau- 
lieu of Besan^on. 

GOETZ (Germ). Contemporary Die-sinker, whose signature I have 
seen in conjunction with that of Schwenzer on a medal commemor- 
ating the Sixth Centenary of the University of Heidelberg, 1886, 
and on a Portrait-medal of Prof. D' Virchow. 

GOETZE, GOTTLIEB (Germ.). Medallist of the second quarter of the 
nineteenth century. He filled the post of Medallist to the Mint at 

— 287 — 

Berlin, between 1830-1840, when on account of increasing blindness 
he retired to his native town of Suhl. This talented artist would have 
accomplished much more, had not his failing eyesight obliged him 
to give up his profession. One of his best medals, that of the great 
sculptor Thorwaldsen {illustrated) exhibits uncommon skill of execu- 
tion; the drawing is good and the style very bold. By Goetze are 
also : Medal on the Death of Ludwigl., Grand Duke of Hesse, 1830; 
— Prize Medal for Vaccination, after Ranch's model ; — Prize Medal 

The Thorwaldsen Medal, by Goetze. 

of the Society for Encouragement of Industry ; — L. A de Guion- 
neau. Grand Master of the Masons of the Three Globes, 1824; — 
Daniel Frederic Loos, 18 16; — Schinkel's Theatre at Berlin, 
1821 ; — Commemorative Medal of the War of Independence, 
1813-1815, struck in 1822; — Frederick William, Crown Prince of 
Prussia and Consort; — Baron D*^ Georg Christian Gottlieb von 
Wedekind of Darmstadt (Boston Collection); — Establishment ot 
Vaccination in Prussia (Boston Collection). 

Bibliography. — Menadier, Schaumunien des Hatises Hoheniollern, Berlin, 
1901. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Marvin, Masonic Medals, Boston, 1880. — Reim- 
tnann Catalogue. 

GOETZINGER, FRIEDRICH {Germ.'). Coin-engraver at Wiirzburg, 
1795, His initial 6 appears on a Memorial-medal of Bishop Franz 
Ludwigvon Erthal, 1795. 

GOETZINGER, JOHANN SAMUEL {Germ.). Medallist, Coin, and 
Gem-engraver, of the second half of the eighteenth century, 1734- 
179 1. Most of his medals illustrate the history of Margraves Charles 
WiUiam Frederick, and Alexander. As early as 1752, the initial 
G of Goetzinger appears on coins ot Brandenburg. The Reimmann 
Collection comprised the following signed coins and medals by 
this Engraver : Reichsthaler of 1752, with bust of Charles William 

— 288 — 

Frederick of Brandenburg; — Gulden of 1753 (signed I S G); — 
Marriage Medal of Prince Alexander with Princess Frederica Caro- 
line of Saxe-Coburg, 1754; — Conv. Gulden of 1760; — Conv. 
Thaler of Alexander, and Gulden, of 1765; — Medal of 1767 of 
the Bruckberger Porcelain Works; — Medal and Thaler of 1769 
on the Union of the Margraviatesof Culmbach and Ansbach (2 var.); 

— Prize Medal for Clover-growing, 1775; — Conv. Thaler and 
Gulden of 1775, 1777 and 1779; — Thaler of 1779 on the Restor- 
ation of the Order of the Red Eagle ; — Thaler of same date com- 
memorating the Peace of Teschen ; — Conv. Thaler of 1783 ; — 
Commemorative Medal of Margravin Frederica Caroline, 1760, 
struck for the County of Sayn, &c. 

Besides these, D'' Menadier describes in Schaumi'in^en des Hauses 
Hohenxpllern : Thaler of 1769 on the death of Margrave Frederic 
Christian -, — Undated Medal on the Heron Chase ; — Medal on 
the election of Margrave Alexander as Captain of the Franconian 
Circle, 1765 ; — Portrait-medals otthe Margrave Alexander (3 var.). 
Two medals in the Berlin Cabinet are signed GOZINGER IVN. F. ; 
one was struck on the death of Margravine Frederica Louise, 1784, 
and the other is an undated Portrait-medal of Margrave Alexan- 

It is evident that J. S. Gotzinger had a son who worked in the 
same capacity as himself at the Ansbach Mint and perhaps succeeded 
him, but I have found no further information on the subject. 
Whether J. S. Gotzinger's father, whom Ammon calls 
JOHANN GOTZINGER and to whom he attributes medals dated 1728 
and 1735, as well as the earlier of those described above, also filled 
the office of Coin-engraver and Medallist to the Court at Ansbach, 
does not appear quite settled, notwithstanding Bolzenthal's asser- 
tion. In the affirmative case, there would have been three Engrav- 
ers of the name of Gotzinger, as it is not very likely that 
J, S. Gotzinger would have signed himself GOTZINGER IVN. as late 
as 1784 when he had been known over thirty years as a Medallist. 
Bolzenthal states that shortly before Margrave Alexander's abdica- 
tion in 1791, J. S. Gotzinger died at the age of fifty-seven. 

Gotzinger's signature appears in various ways : G, — I.S.G. 


Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Reimmann Catalogue. — Ammon, op. 
cit. — D"" Menadier, op. cit. — Kohler, Munibelustigungen XXII, 217. — Madai, 
op. cit. — Schulthess, op. cit. — Spies, Brandeni. Munxhelust. I, 169; II, 41 & 
253 ; III, Titelblatt. — Bauer's Auserlesme Munien, Nos 16 & 17. — Injormation 
kindly furnished by Mr. Simon Sclmtt-lVallerstein of Frankjurt a. M. 

COFFIN, DANIEL (French). Founder and Engraver, born at 
Givonne, near Sedan (Ardennes). He flourished circa 1614. At about 

— 289 — 

that time, he engraved sixty pairs of dies for the gold, silver and 
copper coinage of Sedan, and for that ot the sovereignties of Rau- 
court, La Tour-i-Glaire, and Chateau-Regnault. This artist, who 
belonged to the protestant faith, undertook in 1627 to execute dies 
for the silver coins which Lambert de Duras, Count of Meldre, 
Governor of Bouillon, had arranged to strike with his arms, by 
edict of the 27''' October of that same year, on his assumption of 

In Poey d'Avant, Monnaies feodales de France, a large number of 
coins of the Duke of Bouillon, Sovereign Lord o\ Sedan and 
Raucourt, struck in 1614 and 1615 from Daniel Coffin's dies;' are 
illustrated on Plates 146 to 148, and exhibit fine workmanship. The 
jetons engraved bv him are, however, of little merit; one of them 
bears his name as ^L legend : ' DANIEL " COFFIN * A " 

It would appear that Coffin cut dies at the Mint of La Vanette, 
for imitations of Spanish, Italian, and German coins, and that on 
the forgeries being found out, Jean de la Noue, the Mint-master, 
was arrested and hanged in 1629. The coins engraved for the Sei- 
gneur Lambert d'Oyembrugge de Duras consisted of One and Six 
Sol pieces, Patagons, Florins, Ecus, Half-reals of the types of Liege 
and the Netherlands, Rycksdalers similar to those of Nuremberg, 
Frankfort and Hamburg, Dalers resembling those of Bouillon, 
Ducats of the type of the Dutch ducats, with the ^L. legend : 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Revue beige de numismatique 184S, p. 55. — 
Chavignerie et Auvrav, op. cil. — J. Rouyer, Unefabriqiu de Jetons d'a parence 
fratifaise a Sedan du temps de Louis Xlll, Revue numismatique, 1887, p. 422. 

GOFFIN, JEAN {French). Mint-master to the Bishop of Liege, 
circa 1650. Probably a relative ot Daniel Coffin. 

Bibliography — Inslruclion et ordonnance snivant laqiielle Jean Goffin, Mattre 
Monnoyeur de S. A. 5™', se devera goiiverner et regler an Jait de la Monnoye £or et 
d'argent que S. A. lui a permis de forger, etc., Revue beige de numism., 1866, 
p. 269. 

GOIS, llTIENNE PIERRE ADRIEN {French). Sculptor and Engraver, 
1731-1823. He is the author of a number of Portrait-medallions 
and Bas-Reliefs in clay and in bronze, as for instance : Portrait of 
Count d'Artois ; — Winter, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GOLDBETER, BARTHOLOMEW (5n7.). Mint-master under Henry V., 
anno IX, and from the first to the eleventh year of Henry VI. 's 
reign, at London, York, Bristol and Calais. He is sometimes called 
Bartholomew Seman Goldbeter. 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — II. 19 

*— 290 — 

In a recent article by Mr. F. A Walters on the Coinage ot 
Henry V. and VI. (^Numismatic Chronicle, 1902) further interesting 
particulars of this Mint-master may be found. 

Bibliography, — Ruding, op. cit.. Vol. I, p. 32. 

GOLDER, LEODEGARI (Swiss). In conjunction with J. Anthoni 
von Erlach, and Sebastian Knab, Leodegari Colder worked the Mint 
at Lucerne, from 1549 to 1552. 

Bibliography. — Revue suisse de numismatique, 1898, p. 163. 

GOLDNER, PETER (Germ.). Steward of, and Under-inspector of 
the Mint at Clogau, in 1623; in the following year he entered a 
contract to work this Mint for the government. Distinctive sign : a 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. 

GOLDSCHMIED, VALENTIN (G^rw.). Coldsmith, 1543, Mint-master 
and Assayer at Neisse, until 1566, He died in 1573. — Another 
Coldschmidt was engraver at the Hechingen Mint. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. — Schlesiens Vorieit in Bild und Schrift, 
1899, p. 55. — Bahrfeldt, MUnien der FUrstenthUmer Hohen\ollern, Berlin, 1900. 

GOLDSCHMIDT, MARX (Germ.). A Nuremberg Coldsmith of the 
early years of the seventeenth century. He cast some of the medals 

Medal ot Johann Philip, Bishop of Bamberg. 

modelled byHeinrich Knopf, and amongst these that of the Bishop 
of Bamberg, Johann Philipp von Gebsattel (illustrated). 
Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884. 

GOLDSMITH, JOHN EDMUND (Brit.). Mint-engraver, under 
Richard l\.,anno XII. He was appointed by the King. This die-cutter 

— 29i — 

was probably a goldsmith by trade, and in this case his name would 

BiBUOGRAPHY. — Ruding, op. cit. 

GOLDSMITH, D. B. (Brit.). In 1396 a grant was issued to Marga- 
ret, Countess of Norfolk, and D. B. Goldsmith, of London, "licen- 
sing them to melt down groats, half-groats, and sterlings, to the 
amount of one hundred pound, and to make thereof a silver vessel 
for the use of the said Margaret ". 

Bibliography. — Ruding, op. cit.. Vol. I, p. 246. 

GOLDSMYTH, HENRY (Brit.). Forger of coins, during the reign 
of Richard II. He resided at Eton, in the county of Bedford. In 
1393 " he was suspected of having counterfeited the coins of gold 
and silver in that village " and was to be taken, " together with 
his engines, instruments, and counterfeit money " and brought 
before the king and council. A Henry Goldsmyth appears also in 
Scotch documents as Forger of false billon of Inverness, etc., under 
James I (1406-1437). 

Bibliography. — Ruding, op. cit. — Burns, Coinage of Scotland, II, p. 54. 

GOLDSMYTH, WILLIAM (Scotch). Moneyer undernames III. (1460- 
1488). He coined "Black-money" Farthings, originally circulating 
for Halfpennies. 

"Bibliography. — Burns, op. cit., II, 168. 

GOLTZIUS, HEINRICH (Dutch). Painter and Line-engraver, born 
at Mulbrecht in 1558, died at Haarlem in 1617, where he had 
settled, after spending some years in Germany and Italy. His father 
taught him drawing, and Coornhaert, engraving. 

Goltzius executed an engraved Portrait-plaque of the Earl of 
Leicester, Governor-General of the Low-Countries, 1586. Mr 
Grueber, describing this medal, remarks : " Goltzius' works with 
the graver are remarkable for their freedom of shading, and at the 
same time for their sharpness of outline. 

As copper-plate engraver, Goltzius marks the highest point of the 
art. To him we owe no less than 330 plates, many of which are 
master-pieces, especially the celebrated set of six in the Munich 

His portrait of Coornhaert, and others in the same style, give 
him a place amongst medallists. 

** Mit dem Tode dieses Meisters " says Prof. Wehnert (Hendrik 
Goltzius, Antiquitaten Zeitung, Nr. 24, p. 185, 1901) " ging ein 
Mann dahin, der eine ganze Reihe Kiinstler als leuchtendes 

— 292 — 

Vorbild gedient hat. Seine VerJienste, die er sich in seinem 
arbeitsreichen Leben erworben hat, werden allseits anerkannt. Seine 
Blatter regen den Eifer jedes Sammlers an und sind fiir den 
Handler ein kostbarer Handelsartikel ". 

BiBUOGRAPHY. — Franks and Grueber, Medallic Illustrations of the History oj 
Great Britain, London, 1885, II, p. 726. — Singer, Allgemeines Kunstler-Lexicon, 
Frankfurt-a-M, 1896. 

GOMANSKI {Riiss.'). A Niello-engraver of the eighteenth century. 

GOMEZ, JEAN BAPTISTE {Port.). Coin-engraver and Medallist, 
who was employed at the Lisbon Mint under John V. Having 
misconducted himself, he fled to Rio de Janeiro, where he lived 
under the assumed name of Thomas Xavier d'Andrade. Later on 
he became Engraver to the Foundry of Villa-Rica. He died in 
1754. Gomez executed numerous Portuguese medals. 

Bibliography. — Raczinski , Dictionnaire historico-artistiqtu du Portugal, 
Paris, 1847. 

GOMEZ, JOSfi {Mexican). Die-sinker of the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. In 1798 he engraved a Portrait-medallion ot 
King Carlos IV. 

Bibliography. — Medina, Medallas Coloniaks Hispano- Americanos, Santiago de 
Chile, 1900. 

GONDRECOURT, HUMBELET DE {French). Master of the Mint of 
Bar, from 1352, until circa 1365. In documents of 1364 he receives 
the title of maistre des tnonnoyes de la contei de Bar. 

Bibliography. — Max Wehrly, Recberches historiques sur les Monnayeurs et les 
Ateliers monitaires du Barrels, Revue beige de num., 1874. 

GONDRECOURT, JOFFROY DE {French). Mint-master at Clermont 
(Bar), before 1354. 
Bibliography. — Max Wehrly, op. cit. 

GONON, EUGilNE {French). Sculptor, born at Paris, on Oct. 17, 
18 14; died on Sept. 11, 1892. He is the author of numerous 
Plaques cast in bronze, two of which, " Bird and Insect ", and 
" Autumn " were exhibited at the Salons of 1857 and 1888. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GONZAGA {Ital.). Forger of Papal coins. His name is mentioned 
in the Rossi Sale Catalogue as the maker of an imitation coin of 
Gregory XII. 

Bibliography. — Sambon, Rossi Sale Catalt^tu Qoi 403) Roma, 1880. 

GONZALVES, EGAS {Port). Engraver at the Mint of Oporto. He 
lived under Edward and Alfonso V., fifteenth century, and cut 

— 293 — 

most of the dies for the coinage of these two reigns, struck at 
Bibliography. — Raczynski, op. cit. 

GONZALVES, JAO DE GUIMARAES, surnamed En^enhoso (Port.). 
Coin-engraver under John III. and Sebastian. This very clever 
artist, not only invented machinery to strike coins and medals, 
but also reformed the coinage of Portugal. A Portuguese gold 
coin, struck in 1562, under Sebastian, is still known as Engenhoso; 
on the obv. are the arms of Portugal and on the 1^. S* George's 
cross, date, and motto : IN HOC SIGNO VINCES; its value is 
500 Reis. 

BiBi.iOGR.\PHY. — Raczynski, op. cit. — F. J. de Santa Rosa de Viterbo, Eluci- 
dario, etc., 7798. — Patriarche, Liste des Artistes. 

GONZALVES, VASCO (Port.). Goldsmith, and Coin -engraver at 
the Mint of Lisbon, under Alfonso V., 1495. He was appointed to 
this office in place of Gil Vasquez. 

Bibliography. — Raczynski, op. cit. 

GONZATE, DAMIANO DA (Ital.). Goldsmith of the first half of 
the sixteenth century. His name, and that of his brother, GIA- 
COMO FILIPPO DA GONZATE, appear in connection with fine 
models in wax and bronze castings, which the two brothers have 
produced. They were natives of Parma, and the period of their 
activity is comprised between 1620 and 1645. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

GOOD, JAMES (Brit.). A Birmingham Manufacturer of Tokens of 
the last decade of the eighteenth century. Amongst his issues are : 
Abergavenny, Birmingliam, Bristol, Eastbourne, Holt, London 
(Clark, Eaton), Lowestoft, Maidstone, Maldon , Monmouth, 
Montrose, and Yarmouth Penny tokens. 

Bibliography. — Pye, Provincial copper Coins, Tokens, etc. 

GOOR, PIERRE WADTIER VAN DE (Bel^.). Coin-engraver, and 
Medallist; born at Antwerp on the 29'^ of January, 1783 , died in 
185 1. He first studied at Paris, and on his return to his native 
country, the government of the Netherlands engaged him as 
Engraver at the Mintof I3ru.ssels, where he cut the dies for the first 
Ten Florin pieces. Later, he was sent to the Utrecht Mint, where 
he engraved the Colonial Half and Quarter Florins for the Dutch 
East Indies. Guioth remarks that Van de Goor was one of the few 
Belgian officials whom the Dutch government retained after the 
Revolution of 1830. 

By Van de Goor are the following medals : Inauguration of the 

— 294 — 

First Railway in Holland, 1839; — Accession of William I., iSvj 
(various medals and jetons issued by the Chamber of Commerce 
of Antwerp and other public institutions); — Meeting of Parlia- 
ment at Brussels, 1816; — Baron Van Derlinden d'Hooghvorst. 
Mayor of Brussels, 1816; — Baron de Thysebaert, 1816; — 
Royal Academy of Fine Arts, 1817 (2 types). 

Bibliography. — Guioth, Gravetirs en tne'dailles anciens et modernes, Revue beige 
de numisniatique, i854,^p. 240. 

60RDILL0, F (Mexican). Coin-engraver and Medallist, of Mexico, 
first quarter of the nineteenth century. The following works bear 

Proclamation Medalet of Augustin I, by F. Gordillo. 

his signature : The College of Santa-Cruz to Fernando VII., 1810; 
— Battle of Del Monte de las Cruces, 18 10; — Antonio (Bergosa 

Proclamation Medal of Ferdinand VII, by Gordillo. 

y Jordan); Bishop of Antioquia, elected Archbishop oi- Mexico, 

— 295 — 

1814; — Prize Medal for Fidelity to Ferdinand VII. (3 var.); — 
Marriage of Ferdinand VII, and Maria Isabel, 1817 ; — Educational 
Prize Medal of Puebla, 1818; — Proclamation Medals of Augus- 
tin I., Emperor of Mexico, 1822, for Oaxaca (2 var.), Queretaro, 
Veracruz and Mexico, 1823; — Proclamation Medals of Ferdi- 
nand VII, 1808, for Mexico (illiistraled), Valladolid de Michoacan, 
Veracruz, Zacatecas, etc; — Board of Health (Protomedicatus), 
City of Mexico, 1813 (Boston Coll"). 

This Medallist's signature appears as F.GORDILLO ; — 
GORDILLO/. M. ; — "^G. en Mxo. ; — or F. G. 

Bibliography. — Alejandro Rosa, Monetario Americano, Buenos Aires, 1892 . — 
Benjamin Belts, Mexican Imperial Coinage, New-York, 1899. — Medina, MedaUas 
Coloniales Hispano- Americanos, Santiago de Chile, 1900. — Arturo Pedrals 
Moline, Catalogo de la Coleccion de Monedas y MedaUas de Manuel Vidal Quadras y 
Ramon de Barcelona, 1892. — P. Krohn, Bronce-Medailler, Thomsen Catalogue, 
Q)penhagen, 1873. 

GORDON, JOSEPH FRANCIS (Brit.). Mint-master at Bruges, 1744. 
In that year he undertook the striking of a copper currency. 

Bibliography. — Revue beige de numismatique, 1897, p. 230. 

GORET, P. (Belg.). The signature of this Die-sinker occurs on a 
medal with portrait of Genevieve d'Urfe, Duchess ofCroy, belong- 
ing to the beginning of the seventeenth century. Nothing appears 
to be known of this artist. 

Bibliography. — Camille Picqud, La medailh de Geneviive d^Urji, Duchesse de 
Croy, Revue beige de numismatique, 1897, p. 74. 

GORGENS, JONAS (Genn.). Mint-master to the city of Luneburg, 
1612-1645. Signature : G. 

GORI, LUIGI (ItaL). Medallist, bom at Florence, in 1838, where 

ID Centesimi of San Marino, by Gori. 

he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts. Besides engraving dies for 
coins, such as the 10 Centesimi of San Marino, 1875 (illustrated), 

— 296 — 

this artist produced numerous medals on commission for govern- 
ments as well as private persons. 

Amongst his more important Portrait-medals, I have seen the 
following : Dante ; — Galileo ; — Prof. D"^ Virchow ; — Miche- 
langelo ; — Giovanni Dupre; — Farini; — Antonio Cecchi; — 
Rossini and other Italian celebrities. 

For the Republic of San Marino he engraved : Medal in honour 
of Carlo Padiglione, the historian (illustrated) ; — Another, of 

Medal of Carlo Padiglione. 

Medal of Francesco Azzurri. 

Francesco Azzurri, Architect of the Government Buildings (illuS' 

— 297 — 
trated) ; — Medal for Military Valour (illustrated) ; — Medal for 

Medal for Military Valour. 

Civil Reward. 
Civil Merit (Reward for Life Saving, or Services in the domain of 

School Prize Medal. 
Arts and Sciences, illustrated'); — School Prize Medal, 1873 

— 298 — 

(illustrated); — Medal of the " Esposizione Beatrice" at Florence, 
1890; — Benedetto Cairoli, 1890; ^General RafFaele Cadorna, 
1890, cScc. 

Gori engraved the coins of the Provisional Government of Flo- 
rence, during the Revolution of 1859. 

Medals of the " Capi di Guardia della Misericordia ". 

Several Medals of the Florentine Institution (three illustrated) oiiht 
*' Capi di Guardia della Misericordia" were cut by Gori, or his son, 
who is also a Die-sinker, in the years 1869, 1887, 1890, 1894 
(signed : LUIGI GORI E FIGLIO INC.), &c. 

Bibliography. — Rivista italiana di Numismalica, 18^2, 189s . — Reimmann 
Catalogue, n° S774. — Spink's Numismatic Circular Aug. 1899, April 1900, and 
May 1901. 

GORLOFF, GARRIEL (Germ.). Mint-master at Oppeln, 1647, and 
Teschen, 1648-165 3. His initials appear on coins of Wladislaus IV., 
1647, for Oppeln. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. 


GORSTEIN, JOHANN (Austr.). Mint-engraver at Vienna ; in 1681 
he cut dies for coins. 

GORTZ, BARON VON (Sived.). Issuer of a series of money of 
pecessity under Charles XII., between 17 15 and 1719. One of 

— 299 — 

these tokens bears a bust of Baron von Gortz on obv. and has 
the following inscription on I^. : « NECESSITAS . CARET 
LEGE; in the field : H^ - DALER — S.M — DE A.15.INCL. 

— 1719- The principal types ot this issue of i Daler tokens are : 
17.15. Crown above date 1^. i. | DALER | S.M; — 1716.PV- 
BLICA FIDES Pallas seated;— 1717.WETT OCN WAPEN. 
Warrior standing ^L. i | DALER | S.M. | 1718.IVPITER ; — 
1718.MARS; — 1718.MERCVRIVS;— 1718.SATVRNVS; — 
1718.PHOEBVS; — r7i8.FLINK OCH FARDIG Warrior; — 
1 7 19. HOPPET.Hope, &c. 

Bibliography. — Mailliet, Monnaies ohsidionahs et de ne'cesiite, Bruxelles, 1870. 

— Neumann, Beschreihung der bekanntesten KupfermunT^m, Prag, 1858. 

GOSCHL, ALEXANDER {Austr.). Partner of the firm of Angerer 
& Goschl, dealers in works of art at Vienna. He died on Aug. 14, 
1900, and his name is mentioned in Die Moderne Medaille, Aug. 
1900. He probably edited medals, although I have not seen his 
signature on any. 

GOSS, S. E. (Swiss'). Architect of Geneva, and Designer of two 
medals of Louis Favre, Engineer of the S* Gothard tunnel, 1893. 
The dies of these medals were cut by C. Richard. 

COSSET. The name of a renowned Huguenot Family of Modellers 
in wax, who were settled in London, and of whom the most conspic- 
uous were : ISAAC COSSET, 1713-99, MATTHEW COSSET, 
1683-1744, and perhaps also GIDEON GOSSET, 1707-1785. 

GOSSET, GEDEON (Brit.). Brother of Isaac Cosset. Supposed to 
have worked as Modeller in wax, but no medals can be traced to 
him. He was descended from Jean Cosset, the refugee, who on his 
adopting the Protestant faith, after 1555, was deprived of his title 
to the Norman nobility, and fled to Jersey, from S* Sauveur or 
St. Lo. 

GOSSET, ISAAC (Brit.). Brother of the preceding; a celebrated 
Modeller in wax, and Medallist, born on the 2"'' of May, 17 13, 
died at Kensington on the 28*'' of November, 1799. He learnt under 
his uncle, Matthew Cosset, and became the best artist of the family. 
" He excelled in modelling cameo portraits, and his works include 
the Royal Family, and many distinguished persons from the reign 
of George 11. to 1780. " 

To this artist are attributed the following wax-medallions, some 
of which have been cast in bronze, or used to make medal-dies 
from, by Kirk, and others : John Vincent Anthony Canganelli, 
Pope Clement XIV. (an exquisite model, probably the best work 

— 300 — 

of the artist) ; — Twelve Roman Emperors : Julius Caesar, Augus- 
tus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, 
Vespasian, Titus and Domitian ; — Twelve Heads in one frame. 
Epicurus, Unknown, Apuleius, Livia, Pompeia, Lepida, Aratus, 
Heraclitus, Zeno, Democritus, Unknown, and Aristophanes; — 

Portrait-medallion of Isaac Gosset. 

Frederick, Prince of Wales ; — Consort of Frederick, Prince of 
Wales ; — George III. ; — Queen Charlotte; — George II. ; — Duke 
of York ; — Duke of Cumberland ; — Lord North ; — Lord-Chan- 
cellor Thurlow ; — Gideon Gosset; — Dr. Gosset; — D"^ Walker; 
— D' Harris ; — Brother of George III. ; — Unknown. A man in a 

— 501 - 

flowing wig; — Unlcnown. A Doctor with a pigtail; — David 
Garrick ; — A Madonna ; — Two recumbent figures of children 
sleeping ; — A bust, said to be of Sir Joshua Reynolds ; — The 
Princess of Wales, mother of George III. ; — Isaac Gosset's son ; — 
General Wolfe (after which Kirk cut his medal, illustrated) ; — 

Medal of General Wolfe, by Kirk, after Gosset's Portrait-medallion. 

H.R.H. Princess Augusta; — The Duke of Sussex; — George, 
Prince Regent ; — Henry Pelham, Prime Minister ot England, 
•\ 1754; — George Grenville, Prime Minister of England, -j* 1770; 

— Robert Carteret, Earl Granville ; — Augustus Henry Fitz Roy, 
Duke of Grafion ; — Sir William Molesworth ; — Henry, Earl 
Bathurst, Lord High Chancellor, 1777; — Dr. Robert Lowth, 
Bishop of London, 1780; — Charles, Lord Maynard, Baron Much 
Easton ; — Unknown ; — Gentleman unknown ; — Richard Trevor, 
Bishop of Durham (the head from which Bartolozzi is said to have, 
made his engraving of the Bishop) ; — Francis Hutcheson, the phil- 
osopher (from this wax model, Antonio Selvi, a Florentine artist, 
cast a medal, which is described in Franks and Gnieber, Medallic 
Illustrations, &c.y Vol. 11, p. 621) ; Kirk also engraved a medal after 
Gosset's medallion, bearing the signature GOSSET M.KIRK S.) ; 

— Earl of Mansfield (from which Kirk engraved a medal) ; — 
Mrs Delany, made about 1776 ; — Charles Townshend, Chancellor 
of the Exchequer ; — Countess of Aylesbury; — The Farnese Her- 
cules; — Lady Mary Coke; — Pope Benedict XIV., 1757 ; — Por- 
trait ot a Nobleman ; — Lord Camden ; — Lord Chesterfield (copied 
by Tassie) ; — George I. ; — Queen Caroline, wife of George 11. ; 

— Henry Fox, Lord Holland ; — William Augustus ; — William 
Pitt, Earl of Chatham; — Frederick, Baron North K.G. ; — Ben- 
jamin Hoadley, Bishop of Winchester (from which Kirk engraved 
a medal), and numerous other Portrait-medallions, described in 

— 302 — 

the Catalogue of the Incorporated Artists' Society as Portraits of Genx 
tlemen, Ladies, &c. 

Lord Clive Medal, by Gosset. 

Several of Gosset's wax models are preserved at Windsor Castle, 
and some in Lady Charlotte Schreiber's Collection in the South 
Kensington Museum. 

A medal of Lord Clive, struck on his Successes in India, 1766, 
bears on 1^. the initials C.G and is attributed by Mr Grueber to 
C. GOSSET, but I have failed to trace the name of this Engraver. 
Cochran-Patrick erroneously attributes the model of the Earl of 
Mansfield's medal, engraved by Kirk, and signed GOSSET M . KIRK 
S. to the same artist, but it is undoubtedly the work of Isaac Gosset. 

Gosset invented a composition of wax, in which he modelled 
portraits with much abiUty. He was a contributor to the first Artists' 
Exhibition in 1760, and was a member of the Incorporated Society 
of Artists. 

Bibliography. — Mary H. Gosset, A Family of Modellers in ffax. Huguenot 
Society Proceedings, London, 1892. — Franks & Grueber, op. cit. — H. A. 
Grueber, English Personal Medals from lyOo, Numismatic Chronicle, 1890, p. 60; 
1892, p. 241. — Do, Guide to the English Medals in the British Museum, London, 
1891. — Cochran-Patrick, Catalogue of the Medals of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1884. — 
Betts, American Colonial History illustrated by Contemporary Medals, New- York, 
1894. — Redgrave, Dictionary of Artists of England. — Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy. — T. HoUis, Memoirs, II, 8} 3. — Gentleman's Magazine, 1799. — Nichols, 
Lit. Illustr., VIII, 570. — Gray, fames and William Tassie, Edinburgh, 1894. 

GOSSET, MATTHEW {Brit.). Wax-modeller, born in 1683, died 
on March 27, 1744. He formed a famous pupil in his nephew, 
Isaac Gosset. 

The only medallions, which can be ascribed with more or less 
certainty to this artist are : The Calydonian Boar Hunt ; — Perseus 
with Medusa's head ; — The Wars of the Titans against the Gods ; 
— Ganymede in the Palace of Jupiter. 

Matthew Gosset was one of the gentlemen of the band of pen- 
sioners of King George 11. and a member of the Spalding Society. 

Bibliography. — Mary H. Gosset, op. cit. 

GOTFRIDUS (^Mj/r.). Moneyer at Egcr, 1281. 

GOTTER, CHRISTIAN (Germ.). Mint-master at Eisleben, Stolberg,^ 
and EUrich, 1577-1582. 

GOTTHARD (Germ.). On obsidional coins ot Livonia, issued 
in 1559 and 15 61, appear the letters G.M.Z.L. (Gotthard, Meister 
:^u Lievland). 

GOTZ^Austr.). Moneyer at Vienna, 1329-1345. 
GOTZ. Fide GOETZE suprd. 

GOUBAULT, ANTOINE (Belg.). Goldsmith of Tournai, employed 
by the Mint of Mons, 1595-96, to cut dies for the coins and lead 
mereaux. In 1573, Goubault engraved a jeton for one of the Magis- 
trates of the town of Mons. 

Bibliography. — Revue de la numismatique beige, 1857, p. 311. 

GOUfiZOU, ACHILLE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
St.-Brieuc (C6tes-du-Nord). At the Salon of 1875, he exhibited a 
Portrait-medallion in bronze of M.E.B.***, in 1876, another of 
M. Boisville; and in 1878, a third of Dr. Piogey. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GOUJON, JEAN (French). A celebrated Sculptor and Architect, 
born at Paris, circa 1520. He did the reliefs on the Fountain of the 
Innocents and the fagade of the old Louvre. He was a Huguenot, 
but died before the Massacre of St. Bartholomew in 1572. 

Bolzenthal, and others writers, have attributed to this great artist 
the medals of Henry II. and Catherine de' Medici, which are 
unsigned; but modern authors ascribe them to Germain Pilon, 
who is much more likely to have cut the dies for these medals. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

GOUIN (Dutch). Coin-engraver at the Mint of S* Petersburg, and 
Medallist to the Russian Court, under Peter the Great, 1708-17 13. 
With Haupt, he engraved the dies for the early coinage of Peter 
the Great which bear the initials G. or H. (O.H.) and he is the 
author of the following medals, signed G. or GOUIN : Battle of 
Leesno (3 var.); — Victory of Poltava (2 var.); — Building and 
Fortification of the Port of Taganrog; — Equipment of the Four 
Fleets (2 var.); — Second Expedition of the Russian Fleet to 

Finland (2 var.) ; 
Admiral Apraxin ; 

— 304 — 

Taking of three Swedish Frigates, 17 19; 
Czarevich Alexis Petrovich, &c. 

Rouble of Peter the Great, by Gouin. 

Gouin was a Fleming by birth. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Iversen, Medaillen auj die ThaUn Peter 
des Grossen, S* Petersburg, 1872. 

GOULAZ, CHARLES (Siuiss). Mint-master at Geneva, in conjunction 
with Andr^ Emblerd, from the 29''' of July, 1557, to the 18''' of 
August 1558 (sign. G) ; alone, from the 23"^ of August, 1558, to 
the 19''' of October, 1559 ; again, from the 28"' of January, 1564, 
to the 9*" of July, 1573; in conjunction with Jean Rosset, from 
the 9*'' of July 1573 to the 24''' of February, 1581. Under this 
Mint-master the fine Genevese sixteenth century thalers, engraved 
by Aim6 des Arts, and Henry Barthelemy, were struck. 

Bibliography. — Eug. Demole, Les Maitres, hs Graveurs et les Essayeurs de la 
Monnaie de Geneve (15 3 5-1 792). — Do, Classement des Tlmlers de Geneve, non dates. 
Bulletin de la Soci^te Suisse de numismatique, 1885. — Do, Histoire monetaire ds 
Geneve. — Tobler-Meyer, Die Muni-und Medailkn-Sammlung des Herrn Hane 
Wunderly-v. Muralt, Zurich, 1898. 

GOULAZ, HENRI (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, from the 24*'' 
of January, 1539, to the 6*'' of December, 1546; again, in conjunc- 
tion with Francois Daniel, and Philip Berthelier, from the 16''' of 
January, 1548, to the iS*** of July, 1555 ; once more alone, from 
the 18''' of July, 1555, to the 29*'' of June, 1556, when he was 
succeeded by Andre Emblerd. Henri Goulaz was the father of 
Charles Goulaz. Distinctive sign : G. He had filled the office of 
Mint- master at Cornavin for Duke Charles II. of Savoy, from May 27, 
1528, to Oct. 29. 1532. The currency issued under him between 
1528 and 1530 bears CG, and between 1530 and 1532 GHG. 

Bibliography. — As above. — D"" Lade, Contribution a Vbistoire niimismatiquf 

— 305 — 

des pays voisins da Leman, Bulletin de la soci^te Suisse de nuinismatique, 1888. — 
Do, Lii premiere marque d' Henri Gonlai, Revue Suisse de num., 1891. 

GOURDEL, JULIEN JEAN {French). Sculptor, born at Veneffles 
(Ille-et-Vilaine) on Nov. 5, 1804, died at Paris on the 13'^ of 
March, 1846. Pupil of Pradier. He executed some Portrait-medallions 
in bronze and clay. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GOURDEL, PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Chateaugiron (Ille-et-Vilaine). Pupil of J. J. Gourdel and Bonas- 
sieux. By him are the following Portrait-medallions : 1874, 
M"^ M***; — Francois Blin, Painter; — 1875, L. R. de Caradeuc 
de la Chalotais; — 1880, Ad. Mouchez, Sec. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GOURNAY, JEAN DE (French)... 1419-1438. Goldsmith, who was 
engaged as Assayer at the Mint of Troyes in 141 9, and appointed 
'* cutter of the dies" at the same Mint, in 1423. He appears to 
have died in 1438. 

Bibliography. — Natalis Rondot, Les Graveurs de Troyes. 

GOUROT, JOSEPH (French). Mint-master at Lille, before 1745. 

GOUSSE, MATHURIN (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Angers, entered into office on the 21. Feb. 1520. 

Bibliography. — Planchenault, La Monnaie d" Angers, 1896. 

GOUY, JEAN DE (Belg.). Seal-engraver, mentioned in 1419, resid- 
ed at Valenciennes, and later at Lille. He cut the seals of Philip 
the Good ot Burgundy. « A Jehan de Gouy, graveur de seaulx, 
demourant a Valenciennes, pour iij mars d'argent qu'il a livrez 
pour faire les seaulx de Monseigneur, et pour ses despens d'estre 
venu de Valenchiennes a Lille devers Monuitseigneur, et pour son 
retour audit lieu a Valenchiennes, en xx escuz d'or : xxj livres. ». 
(Kegistre n° F. Ill, f° xY"^ )^°, de la Chambre des Comptes, aux 
Archives du departement du Nord, a Lille). 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, Biograplnes des graveurs beiges. Revue de la numisraa- 
tique beige, 1861, p. 408. 

GOUY, ROBERT DE (Belg.). Probably a relative of Jean de Gouy. 
Seal-engraver to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, circa 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Noiica of Medallisls. — II. 20 

— 3^6 — 

1419- He cut the seal and signet used by the Duke on his accession 
to the Duchy of Brabant and County of Namur. A document 
of 14 1 9 mentions his name : « A Robert de Gouy, graveur de 
seaulx, la somme de iiij'"'' escuz d'or, qui deubz lui estoient par 
Monseigneur, c'est assavoir : les Lxx escus pour avoir taillie et 
grave le grant seel et contre-seel de Monditseigneur, et les x aultres 
escuz pour ses despens d'estre venu du Quesnoy-le-Conte devers 
Monditseigneur en sa ville de Lille, pour marchander dudit 
ouvrage, et depuis avoir icellui ouvrage raporte en la ville d'Arras 
tons fais par devers Monditseigneur, si comme il appeit par man- 
dement de Monditseigneur, donne a Arras, le ij^ jour de decembre 
mil cccc et xviii).» (Registre n° F, 111 cite, f" vij-^'' xv™.) 
Bibliography. — Pinchart, /. c. 

G. P. Vide GIAN METRO GASTALDI. Mint-master at Turin, 1517- 

G. P. Vide. GEORG PFRUNDT, Medallist of Nuremberg, 1603 -1663. 

G. P. Vide GIOVANNI POZZO. Medallist of the early part of the 
eighteenth century, who resided at Rome. 

G. P. F/Wt;GAETANO PIGNONI. xMedallist of Bologna, 1786-1795. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

G. P.P. (Ital.). Signature of a Medallist, who was working circa 
1590. This signature is found on a Portrait- medal of Girolamo 
Fabrizio d'Acquapendente, Physician and Anatomist, 1537-1619. 
The ^. of this medal represents .^sculapius and Hygieia. 

Bibliography. — ArmanJ, Medailleurs italiens, I, 299. 

G. R. Vide GIUSEPPE RAVASCHIERO. Mint-master at Naples, 

G. R. Vide GIORGIO RAN. Medallist of Rome, 1590-1610. 

G. R. Vide GERHARD ROGGE. Coin-engraver and Mint master at 
Dantzig, 1639-1656, and Thorn, 1645-1648. 

G. R. Vide GEORG RIEDNER. Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1764- 

G. R. Vide GEORG REICH. Mint-master at S' Gall, 1729-1738. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

— 307 — 

G. R. F. (Ital.). Signature of a Medallist, who was working circa 
1580. This signature occurs on a medal with Portrait of Pietro 
Vettori, a Florentine scholar, 1499-585. The medal, which is 
dated depicts on the I^ the contest between Pallas and 

Bibliography. — Armand, o(?. cit., I, 282; III, 153. 

GRAAFT, GOTFRIED (Genn.). Gem-engraver, surnamed // Tedesco, 
worked at Rome, during the early part of the eighteenth century. 
His work does not deserve special commendation. 

Bibliography. — King, Aulique Gems, London, i860, p. 271. 


GRAB, RUDGER VOM {Aiistr.). Mint-master atGratz, circa 1466. 

GRABITZ, VITUS (Auslr.). Die-sinker of the third quarter of the 
eighteenth century. His signature occurs on a Portrait-medal ot 
Archduke Joseph of Austria, 1772. 

GRAEFENSTEIN, G. Z. (Riiss.). Medallist and Coin-engraver to 
Duke Peter of Curland at Mitau, second half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. By him is a medal on the 74*^ Anniversary of the birth of 
Duke Ernest John, another ot Duke Peter, and a third conmiemorat- 
ing the Restoration of Peace in Curland. 

GRAF, URSUS (Swiss). Copper-plate Engraver, Modeller, and Die- 
sinker of Basle, born circa 1485-90 at Soleure, died at Basle in 
1537. He was apprenticed to a Goldsmith at Zurich, and led a very 
adventurous life, fighting with the Swis^ at Marignano, and under- 
going various terms of imprisonment. Between 15 16 and 1532, he 
appears to hnvc worked for the Mint at Basle, and Bolzenthal 
expresses the opinion that he cut the dies for the Basle coinage ot 
that period. In that case he would be the engraver of the Gold- 
gulden of 15 16, 1528, Dickthalers of 1520, 1521, and other coins 
of that time, described in the Wunderly Catalogue, and in that of 
the Townshend Collection, now in the British Museum. His 
signature on wood-carvings occurs as G V in mon. or <d. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Haller, ScJnvei\erisches Mun^-und 
Medaillen-Kahiuct, Bern, 1780. — Singer, Kunstler-Lexikon. — Nevjaliisbldtter, 
Zurich 1863. — Nagler, Die Monogrammlslen, 1881. 

GRAF, PAUL HENRI (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medal- 
list. At the Salon ot 1899 this artist exhibited an oval medal " Emu- 
lation nautique", and in 1902, Portraits of M"'^ Paul Graf; — 
MM. Gerbeau, Senior and Junior; — Ch. Benard; — M"' Andree 
Papillault ; — Prize for Drawing, &c. 

— 3o8 — 

Graf was born at Boulogne-sur-Mer ; and has been a pupil of 
MM. Thomas, Ponscarme and Patey. 

GRAFF, GEORG GABRIEL (Germ.). Mint-warden at Breslau, 
1770-7 1782, January 25. 


GRAHAM, THOMAS (Brit.). Master of the Mint, London, under 
Queen Victoria. In 1869 he caused to be struck a Pattern Half- 
sovereign, or Trial Piece, in Palladium-Hydrogen ; obv. Head ot 
the Queen, as on the current half-sovereign; no legend or date; 
centre between two lines; date 1869. This extraordinary piece 
is said to contain 900 times its volume of hydrogen. Weight : 
35.4 grs. Graham's initials T.^. appear on Pattern Cents for 
the Copper Coinage of Hong Kong, 1862. 

Bibliography. — Numismatic Chronicle, 1865, p. 78. — Spink & Son, Cata- 
logue, of Montagus Collection, p. 141. 

GRAILLE, CHARLES H0N0R£ (Fm^r/;.). Mint-master at Aix, 1776- 

GRALE, C. (Germ.). Medallist of the second half of the seven- 
teenth century, in the service of Prince-Elector Frederick William 
of Brandenburg. By him is a medal on the Prince's accession in 

Bibliography. — Nagler, Monogravimisten. 

GRAMMER (Siuiss). Contemporary Die-sinker of Geneva, by whom 
there is a Portrait-medal of J. J. Rousseau, struck in commemora- 
tion of the Centenary of his death, 1878. 

GRANDAMY, JACQUES (French). Mint-master at Angers, 1610- 

GRANDCHAMP, LOCHEY Bi: (French). 1674- 1690. Coin-engraver and 
Medallist at Lyons, during the third quarter ot the seventeenth 
century. He is said to have executed several Portrait-medallions 
of Louis XIV. and Princes of the Royal House of France, but two 
only are known and both are rare. In 1674, Grandchamp was 
appointed Engraver at the Mint of Neufville; in 1690, he was 
filling a similar office at Montpellier, and later on was transferred 
to the Mint of Riom. The two Portrait-medaUions known by this 
artist represent Louis XIV., and Maria-Theresia ; both are signed : 

Bibliography. — N. Rondot, Les Medailleurs lyonnais, Lyon, 1896. 

— 309 ~ 

GRANDE, R. (Anier.). Contemporary South American Medallist. 
His signature : R. GRANDE appears on the following medals : Memo- 
rial Medal, 1893, on the Recapture of Buenos- Ayres from the English, 
1806; — Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Argentinian Eastern 
Railway, 1882 ; — Foundation of a College at Juarez, 
1882; — Foundation of the School Board Buildings of the 
Province of Buenos-Ayres, 1883 ; — Erection of the Caridad 
Asylum, 1883 ; — Erection of the Ayacucho Hospital, 1884; — 
Inauguration of 54 School Buildings at Buenos Ayres, 1886 ; — 
Inauguration of the Church ot Balcarce, 1886; — Inauguration of 
a Tramway-Line at Cordoba, 1886; — Inauguration of lour 
School Buildings in the Province of San Luis, 1887; — Inaugura- 
tion of the Statue of General Juan Lnvalle, 1887; — Inauguration 
of the Railway to La Magdalena, 1887; — The Railways of the 
Province of Buenos Ayres, 1890; — Second Argentinian Exhibition 
of the Society of Sciences, 1876; — Prize Medal of the Provincial 
Exhibition of San Juan, 1885; — General Exhibition of Entre- 
Rios Parana, 1887; — Prize Medal of the Agricultural and Indus- 
trial Society 01 Argentina, 1889 ; — Commemoration of the 100*'' 
Concert of the German Choral Society of Buenos Ayres, 1889; — 
Cholera in Uruguay, 1887 ; — Cholera in the Argentine Republic, 
1886-7, &c. ' 

The productions of this Medallist are of inferior merit. 

Bibliography. — D^ F. P. Weber, English Medals by foreign Artists. — Rosa, 
Monetario Americano, Buenos Ayres, 1892. 

GRANDEL, LARS (Swede). Medallist of the end of the eighteenth 
and first halt of the nineteenth centuries, resided at Rome from 
1770 to 1800 and at Stockholm between 1800 and 1836. By him 
are the following medals : Medal of Gustavus III., 1772. V^L. Perseus 
and Andromeda; — Revolution ot the 19*'' August, 1772. 
^. CONCORDES REGIQ.FIDELES; — Assassination of Gusta- 
vus III , 1793 ; — King Gustavus IV. Adolphus, Chancellor of the 
Upsala University, 1796; — Coronation of King Gustavus IV. 
Adolphus and Queen Frederica Dorothea at Norrkoping, 1800 
(3 var.) ; — Inauguration of the New Academy Buildings at Abo, 
1802; — Agricultural Prize Medal, 1803 ; — Military Reward for 
Merit, 1806; — Various Prize Medals, 1805-6 ; — George Axel of 
Sillen, 1802 ; — Crown Prince Charles of Sweden installed Chan- 
cellor of Upsala University, 1792 ; — Agricultural Medal with Por- 
trait of Charles XIIL ; — The Royal Agricultural Society, 181 1 ; — 
Coronation of King Charles XIV. John at Stockholm, 1818; — 
Jubilee Thaler of 1821, with busts of Gustavus I., Gustavus II. 
Adolphus, and Frederick I. on V/L. ; — Agricultural Prize Medal of 

— 3^0 — 

Charles XIV. John, 1819 (sev. var.) ; — Arcliaeological Society ot 
Sweden, 1832; — Military Reward of 1825 ; — Royal Agricultur- 
al Society, 1822; — Royal Society PRO PATRIA ; '— Prize 
Medal of 1818 ; — Royal Insurance Society; — Portrait-Medallion 
of Charles XIV. John, King of Sweden. 

Grandel who signed his works : L. GRANDEL, or L. G , or 
L. G. SCULPSIT appears to have worked for some years at the 
Stockholm Mint, and probably engraved some of the dies of King 
Charles XIV. John's coinage, most of which however are the work 
of Carl Magnus Mellgren. 

The date of the artist's death I have been unable to ascertain. 

Bibliography. — Hildebrand, Sveriges Kontingahusets Mitnmpetniingar , 
Stockholm. — Thomsen Catalogue. — Reimmann Catalogue. 

GRANDENIGO, TRIFON (Itnl.). Mint director at Cnttaro, 1532- 

GRANDHOMME (French). Contemporary Painter and Modeller, 
mentioned by M. Roger Marx in MedaiJkurs franfais contemporains 
as a contributor to French modern medallic art. On Plate 32 of 
that work is illustrated a very pretty medalet by this artist, repre- 
senting a female head in quaint headdress. 

GRANDINSON, ALEXANDER (Swede). Mint-master at Stockholm, 

GRANDJEAN (French). This signature occurs on a medal of 18 19 
with portrait of the famous poetess, M""^ Deshoulieres. 

GRANDJEAN, EUGtlNE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born on 
the 14''' of August 1842; pupil of Chardigny. Author of several 
Portrait-medallions, oneot which, that of M. L. N. Vidal was exhib- 
ited at the Salon of 1870. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GRANGER, M»^ GENEVIEVE (French). Contemporary Medallist ot 
exceptional abilities, born at Tulle. Pupil of Henri Dubois and 
Miissoulle. She has exhibited at the Salons of the ''Societe des 
Artistes Francais" since 1895, and also at the Universal Exhibition 
of 1900. In 1899, she obtained a "Mention honorable", and in 
1901 a medal of the third class. 

This artist's speciality is portraits, which M. Lucien Benedite 
calls '• d'un bon esprit sobre et serieux ". Her principal exhibits at 

— 311 — 

the recent Salons were : S'^ Genevieve; — Portraits ; — The Wind 
- The Ocean ; — Poetry ; — Peace ; — M"= M*** ; — M-"*^ W 
_ ^n. £)***. _ Louise Waltz, &c. 






^^^^^^^BA j^*-* ' 



Wry >' i^^B 




Portrait-plaque of M"e Genevieve Granger, by herselt. 

At the Royal Academy of 1902 M"^ Granger exhibited a frame 
of six medals. 

Bibliography. — L. Bent^dite, La Medaille au Salon tie i8gp, Art et Dico- 
lation, II, 1899 — Information kindly furnished by the artist herself. — Catalogue 
j/ the Paris Exhibition, 1900, p. 198. — Catalogueof the Salon, ic^oi (n° 3639). 

GRANS, MICHEL DE (Ital.). Mint-master at Turin, circa 1467. 

GRASS, PHILIPPE (French). Sculptor, born at Volxheim (Bas- 
llhin) on the 6*'' of May, i8or. Pupil ot Omacht and Bosio. Author 
of numerous Portrait-medallions in clay and bronze, amongst which 
I may mention : 183 1, Portrait of a Gentleman; — 1841, Por- 
traits of E. Souvestre; - L. Batissier ; - M™^ B*** ; — 1870, 
Portrait of M-'-^L***. 

BiBLioGR.APHY. — Cluvignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

— 312 — 

GRASSI (Ital.). Contemporary Die-sinker of Bologna, whose 
signature appears on a medal of D' Francesco Rizzoli, of Bologna. 

master at Augsburg, 1444-1472 (or 1477)- His initial G appears on 
Pfennige of Bishop Peter von Schaumburg, and other coins. 

Bibliography. — Nagler, op. cit. 

GRASZ, ANTON (Austr.). Pupil of the Academy for Medal-engraving 
at Vienna, 1752. 

GRASZ, CHRISTOF (Austr.). Engraver at the Vienna Mint, 1765- 

GRASZ, JOHANN (Aiistr.). Pupil of the Academy for Medal- 
engraving at Vienna, 1747. 

GRATSCHEFF, NICOLAUS (Russ.). Mint-master at S* Petersburg, 
1825-1842. On his issues the letters HT. frequently appear. 

GRATELOUP (French). Die-sinker of the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, who resided at Bordeaux. He engraved several 
reverses of medals of the Chamber of Commerce of Bordeaux, 
1706, under Louis XIV., the obverses of which were cut by Mauger 
and Bernard. 

Bibliography. — Fayolle, Histoire numistnatique de la Chambre de commerce dc 
Bordeaux, 1900. 

p. 369. M. Gilleman has published an interesting notice of this 
Medallist in Revue numismatique beige, 1902, p. 518, from which 
I am now able to give further information about the artist. 

De Grave was born at Ghent on the 26''' of May 1770, and died 
on the 9''' of October 1832. In 1792 he obtained the First Prize for 
Drawing at the Academy of his native town. At the Salon of 1817, 
he made the acquaintance of Simon, whom he accompanied to 
Brussels. There he collaborated with him on the series of medals of 
celebrated Dutchmen published by Simon, to which belong the Por- 
trait-pieces of Quentin Matsys, and Pierre Breughel. 

In 1819, De Grave, and Termondois, another pupil of Simon, 
were granted each a pension of 300 Florins of Holland, and Simon's 
succession as Engraver to the King. In that same year, de Grave 
won at Antwerp the gold medal for gem-engraving, the subject 
being a cameo representing the head ot Apollo. He exhibited gems 
and medals at the Brussels Salons between 18 18 and 1821. 

M. Gilleman possesses a cliche with the head of Cybele, signed 
DE GRAVE, and in the library of Ghent University are two designs 
of Prize medals by this artist. 

De Grave seems to have excelled in the art ot gem-engraving. 

— ^n — 

and Draughtsman, born at Paris in 1699, came to England in 1733, 
returned to Paris in 1746, and died there in 1773. This artist 
drew the design for the engraving of the die of the Jernegan's 
Lottery Medal, which was cut by Tanner. 

Bibliography. — Franks and Grueber, Medallic Illustrations , &c. 

GRAVENSTEIN {Germ.). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot Mitau, 
circa 1764. Vide GRAEFENSTEIN supra. 

GRAZIOLI, FRANCESCO (Ital.). Contemporary Medallist, residing 
at Milan. He is the author of the Jubilee Medal of the Ticinese 
Society of Friends of Public Education, with portrait of its founder, 
Stefano Franscini, 1887. By him is also a Prize Medal ot the 
Society for Commercial Exploration in Africa, described in Rivisla 
italiana di numisniatica, 1893, P- 485- 

GREBE. J. G. (Duirb). Silversmith and Modeller ot Rotterdam of 
the first half of the nineteenth century. Bolzenthal commends him 
as a clever artist. 

GRECCHETTO Vide CLSkll, Vol. I, p. 242. D' Merzbacher in his 
Catalogue of the Gutekunst Collection, May 1900, attributes to Cesati 
the following medals, adopting in this D"" Weber's suggestion : 
Priam, Huston obv. I^. ILION Viewol a fortified city; — Dido, 
^L. View of Carthage; — Artemisia, Queen ofCaria, ^L. MAY- 
iflAEION. View of the mausoleum. In the above sale, a bronze 
medal of Pope Paul III., I^. 0EPNH-ZHNOZ. Ganymede, 
realized 40 marks; another of Pope Julius III. I^. A View of the 
Villa Giuliain Fontevergine went for 10 marks. 

GRECO, J. (Ital.). This Engraver's name is found on a medal struck 
in Uruguay on the death of King Victor Emmanuel II., 1878. 

GREENE, EDWARD (Brit.). Coin engraver at the Royal Mint under 
Charles I., anno V. 
Bibliography. — Ruding, op. cit., I, p. 44. — Rymer, XIX, p. 254. 

GREFIN sic (Brit). This signature is found on a medal of Marquis 
de La Rochefoucauld, on the Convention of Universal Peace, Lon- 
don, 1843. 

GREGOIR (Pol.) This signature occurs on a medal of D' N. Coper- 

licus. Gregoir resided at Warsaw. 

— 314 — 

GRfiGOIRE, ALICE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, and Model- 
ler; born at Aix-la-Chapelle; pupil of A. Durand, C. Jacquand, and 
A. Haussmann. She has exhibited a large number of Portrait- 
medallions in wax at the Salons of 1866, 1867, 1868, 1869, 1870, 
1872, 1873, 1874, 1873, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879 and 1880. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GR£G0IR£, CHADJI {Armenian). Engraver ot the coins struck by 
Jean Capodistrias in the island of Aegina, in 1858, and consisting 
of the following pieces; vR. i 4>slv'.^ (equivalent to i Drachma); 
JE 20, 10, 5 and I AszTa (Lepta), 

Bibliography. — lu formation kindly furnished by M. Jean P. Lambros of Athens 

GR£gOIRE(F/-^«^/;). Contemporary Medallist, at present " pcnsion- 
naire" at the Villa Medicis, has done some good work, and gives 
much promise. 

GRENUS, FRANQOIS (Swiss). Mint-master, at Geneva, in conjunc- 
tion with Jean Richard, 4''' of March 1622 to 4"' of April 1625 ; 
distinctive mark RG or GR. 

Bibliography. — Demole, Histoire monetaire de Geneve. — Bulletin de la Societd 
Suisse de niimisniatique, 1885. 

GRESSET, JACQUES (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, by appoint- 
ments of 27. December 1774, 25. August 1775, and 9. April 
1776. Distinctive mark : IG. 

Bibliography. — Demole, op. cit. — Bull. Soc. Suisse num. 

GRESSET, JEAN (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, by appointments 
of 28. August 1762, 22. April 1763, and i. October 1764. Dis- 
tinctive mark Gr. or IG. 

Bibliography. — Demole, op. cit. 

GRET, P. DE. Die-sinker, circa 1477, mentioned by Schlickeysen- 

GREUTTER, HANNS CONRAD (Bohem.). Goldsmith of Prague, and 
Die-cutter at the Mint there, under B. Hu.bmer, 1 601 1625. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesten :^u J. Newald's Publicationen fiber 
oesterreicbische MUu^rdgungen, 1890. — Fiala, op. cit. 

6REVENICH, FRANQOIS ALFRED (French). Sculptor, who died at 
Paris in 1847, He is the author of some Portrait-medallions 
in bronze and Bas-reliefs. 

— 31) — 

GRIESSINGER, FRANQOIS {French). Sculpto and Modeller; 
exhibited in 1900 at Paris a series of engravings on silver and 

Bibliography. — Catalogue of tlx Paris Universal Exhibition, p. 255. 

GRIFFIN, W. (Brit.). A London Die-sinker ol the middle 
of the nineteenth century. His name occurs on a medal of Mark 
Isambart Brunei, 1843, on the completion of the Thames Tunnel. 

GRIFFO, SILVESTRO (//a/.). Mint-engraver at Venice, 1470 1503, 
succeeded by Piero Benintendi. 

Bibliography. — Papadopoli, Alciine Notiiie Intaglialori della Zecca di Vene:;ria, 
Milano, 1888. 

GRILLICHES (Riiss.). Medallist and Coin-engraver at the Mint 
of Wilna, nineteenth century. A self-taught artist, his productions 
include : A one-sided medal in commemoration of Count 
Eustace Tyskiewich ; — a new die for the Grand Medal award- 
ed by the Moscow Society for the Promotion of Cattle- 
breeding; — Engravings for the obverse and reverse of the Medals 
struck in commemoration of Chevkin, and to celebrate the Jubilee 
of the Mining ("Corporate") School. He also engraved a topaz 
cameo representing the features of M. Levinson of St. Petersburg. 

GRIMM {Swiss). Designer of a medal, engraved by J. C. Moriko- 
fer, of the Sedecimviri of the Outer State of Berne, 1757, obv. 
crowned by Mercury. 

GRINGALLET, JEAN {Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, in conjunc- 
tion with Jean Chenu, from the 26'** September 1588 to 1592 
(distinctive marks on the coins : C.G or l3^); alone, from 1593 to 
25 Sept. r6oi (disr. marks (^ or @ or ^); again, from February 
1602 to the I*' March, 1610 (dist. mark -X-) ; 'ii"'<i ov\cq more 
from the 4''' May 1610 to the 6'*" November, 1621, the year of his 
death (dist. mark G). 

Bibliography. — Demole, Histoire nionHaire de Geiuve. — Blavigiiac, op. cit. 
— Bull, dc num., 1885/7, 21, 22 

GRINGALLET, JOSEPH {Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, from the 
10''' of November 1621 to the 4''' of March 1622 (distinctive mark 
Ho). The letter G appears on a i Sol piece of 1622, but this coin 
may be attributed to Jean Gringallet, who was striking One Sol 

- 3i6 - 

pieces a few days before his death and who may already have dated 
ihem 1622. We find Joseph Gringallet again appointed as Mint- 
master on the 25''' of December 1646, a post which he retained 
until the 25'^' of December 1649 (distinctive mark It) t^r &)• 

Bibliography. — As above. 

GRILLADD, JEAN (French). Coin-en, raver at the Mint ot Poitiers, 
before 1719. 

GRILLAUD, JEAN AMBROISE (French). Mint-engraver at Poitiers, 
1724-1744; no doubt a relative of the last, probably his son. 

GRILLET (Germ.). Sculptor and Medallist of the second half o^ 
the seventeenth century. He worked for Prince Elector John Wil- 
liam of the Palatinate, of whom, and of whose consort he engrav- 
ed some medals. His name also appears on an undated Portrait- 
medal of George William, Duke of Brunswick and Liineburg, with 
(Reimmann Catalogue, n° 8928). 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Amnion, op. cit. — Fr. Exter, Ver 
such einer Sammlung von Pjalt^ischen MedailUn, Zweibrucken, 1759-75. 

GRILLON. PIERRE (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Tours, 
before 1539. 

GRIPENHIELM, A. N. (Swede). A Swedish gold Ducat ot 
Charles XL, 1695, known as the "Gripenhjelm Ducat" bears this 
signature in full. 

GRITTI ALOYSIO (Ital.). Mint-inspector at Venice, 1688. 

GRITTI, DGMENICO (7/^/). Mint-director at Cattaro, 1526-7. 

GRIVEAU, CLAUDE (French). Goldsmith, and Die-cutter at Troyes, 
circa 1580. 

GRIVEAU, JEAN (French). . . 1439-i' '479- ^^^ name also appears 
as GRIVEL or GRIVET, Die-engraver at the Mint of Lyons, 1446- 
1450; appointed by the Dauphin (later, Louis XL) on the 
7*'' December, 1430, as Coin-engraver at the Mint of Cr^mieu in 
place of Jacques Vincent. 

Bibliography. — Rondot, Les Graveuis de Lyon. 

GROBERT, MICHEL (French). Mint-master at Chamb^ry, 1583- 

— 317 — 

GROHMANN, JOHANN GEORG (Germ.). Mint-master at Dresden, 
1833-18^4. Distinctive mark on the coins, G. The rare Saxon 
Thalers of 1844, which have a dot after the G were struck after 
Grohmann's death. I have seen a Double Thaler of 1842 of Joseph ot 
Saxe-Altenburg with this Mint-master's initial under the Duke's 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

GROSSKURT, HEINRICH PETER {Germ.), Medallist of the end ot 
the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth centuries (c/Vra 1694- 
1734). He may have resided at Berlin sometime, but finally settled 
at Dresden. He worked for the reigring houses of Brunswick, 
Prussia and Saxony, especially for Frederick Augustus I. and his 
successor Augustus II. ot Poland and Saxony, of whom he execut- 
ed several Portrait-medals, and others. One of his best works is the 
commemorative medal of the Miihlberg Encampment, and not 
without merit are also : Dedication of the Church at Salzdahlum, 
1701; — Withdrawal of the Swedes from Saxony, 1707; — Mar- 
riage of the Prince Elector of Saxony with the Archduchess Maria 
Josepha, 1719; — Marriage of Crownprince Frederick of Prussia 
with Princess Christiana Elizabeth of Brunswick-Liineburg, at 
Salzdahlum, 12. June 1733 (2 var) ; — Portrait-medal of Frederick 
Augustus I., Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, and his 
consort Christiana Eberhardina, on the Birth of the Prince-Elector, 
in 1696; — Alliance of Poland, Prussia and Denmark against Swe- 
den, 1709 ; — Portrait-medallion of Augustus II. ^L. CVM VITA 
DEPONAM; — 50'^ Anniversary of Augustus II., 1720; — Death 
of Augustus II., 1733 ; — Gold Medallion of King Augustus II. ot 
Poland Tweight : 37 ^ Ducats). ^L. Crowned pillar with serpent 
entwined around it, and motto : FVLGITVR PRVDENTIA; — 
Medal of Frederick Augustus I. of Saxony t^. Dea Salus; — 
Medallion on the Foundation of the Order of the White Eagle; — 
Medal on the Foundation of the " Gnadcns-Cassa ", 1707; — 
Interview between the three Kings at Berlin, 1707; — Marriage 
Medal of King Augustus II. Dresden, 1719 ; — Accession of 
King Augustus III. of Poland, 5 Oct. 1733 ^L. Coronation scene; 
dated 1734; — Recovery of Augustus II. of Poland, 1728 (Boston 

'1 hese medals are generally signed : H.P.G.,but on some we find 
KDRT and G. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — 
Ad. Hess Nachf.. Reimmann Catalogue, n"* 3621, 9257, &c. — Ammon, op. cit. — 
Max Kirmis, Handbuch der Pohusclxn Mun:;kunde. — D^Menadier, Schaitnmu::;en des 
Houses Hol}in:^olIern, Berlin, 1901. — MuUer and Singer, Kiliisller Lexicon. — 
Nagler, Monogrammisten. 

- 3i8 - 

GROSS, CHRISTOPH (Germ). Coin-engraver of the Gratz Mint, 
1752. He cut two seals of the Abbot of Admont in that year, and 
eceived 7 florins for his work. 

GROSS, MAXIMILIAN (G<TW.). Mint-engraver at Hall, from 1616 
to 1617, in conjunction with David Ziigl; appointed Die-engraver 
in 16:8 with a salary of 150 florins. 

Bibliography. — Oesterreicher, Ret^esten ;j« /. NeualJ's Pnblicationen uber osler- 
reichische Mhii:;^pragiitigen, Mittheil. des Club, &c., 1890. 

GROSSE, CHRISTOPH (Gfrm.). Saxon ducal Mining-master, whose 
initials appear on coins of Saalfeld, 1597-1610. 

GROSSE, TH. {Germ.). Designer of a medal engraved by W. KuU- 
rich to commemorate the German Victories of 1 870-1 871. 

Bibliography. — D^ Menadier, ScJxiumunien des Haiises Hohen^ollfrn, p. 116. 

GROSSI, ANGELO (ItaL). Neapolitan Gem-engraver, born on the 
18''' of February, 1854. He was a pupil of Alvino and Sista, and 
won numerous prizes for Gem-engraving and Sculpture on wood. 

Bibliography. — Muller and Singer, Allgemeines Ktin slier- Lexikon, Frankfort- 
on-Maine, 1896. 

GROSSI, JEAN (JtaL). Milanese Draughtsman and Modeller, born 
in 1 7 18, died in 1781. He settled in Portugal where he formed a 
School of Modellers, and he is said to have executed medals. 

Bibliography. — Raczynski, Dktioiinaire historico-artistiqtu du Portugal. 

GROSSOT DE VERCY, CAMILLE (French). Sculptor and Modeller, 
born at Paris on the 26**^ October 1838; pupil of Bonnassieux and 
A. Dumont; entered the Lcole des Beaux-Arts in 1863. He exhibit- 
ed at several Salons, and executed some Portrait-medallions which 
are said to be not without merit. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GROTH, ANTON (Swede). Mint-master at Stockolm, 1641-1645. 
He signed : A. G. 


GROTHE (Canad.) Silversmith of Montreal, and publisher of a 
medal commemorating the Cholera epidemic in Canada. 

GROTIOHANN, P. (Germ.). Designer ot a medal, engraved by 
W. KuUrich of Berlin ot the sixth Federal Rifle Shooting Com- 
petition at Diisseldorf, 1878. 

— 319 — 

GROTTOLINI (Ital.) Die-sinker of the first half of the nineteenth 
century. He engraved in 1843 a medal designed by the sculptor 
Piccioli to commemorate the first representation of Rossini's 
Stabal maier. 

GROTZ, HAINREICH {Austr.). " Der Munzer in der Traubotten- 
strass ". Moncyer at Vienna, 1449. 

GRUBER, CONRAD (Gm«.). Mint-master at Neuburg (Palatinate), 

GRUBER, FLORIAN (Germ.). Mint-master at Saalfeld, 1 585-1 597, 
Erfurt, 1599-16G7, and at Nordhausen, 1615. He signed his 
issues : F. 6. 

GRUBER, HANS (G^rm.). Son of the preceding. Mint master and 
Coin-engraver at Saalfeld, 1 582-1 584, and Nordhausen, 1618-1624. 
His issues are signed : H. G. 

GRUEBER, HENRY (Germ.). Contemporary Die-sinker or Publisher 
of medals residing in London. Most of his productions are 
cheap medalets, sold in the streets at a penny apiece. I have 
seen by him : Queen Victoria's Jubilee, 1887; — Silver Wedduig 
of the Prince and Princess of Wales, 1888; — Visit of the German 
Emperor to London, 1S91 ; — Marriage of the Duke and Duchess 
of York, 1893; — Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, 1897; — 
Imitation Pond of President Kruger; — Death of Queen Victoria; 
— Accession of King Edward VIL ; — Coronation of King 
Edward VIL ; — Lactopeptine token (" Patent") ; &c. 

These medalets are made in papier mache covered over with a 
shell struck in thin metal. 

Some of the medalets are signed H. G. & 0°. 

GRUEBER, LEONHART (^M5/r.). Joint Mint-master at Gressdenitzka, 
1532, with Marx Stettner, a burgher of Laibach. 

GAULOIS, ISAAC (Belg.). " Premier garde des coins " at the Mint 
ofTournay, under Philip IV., 1657. 

GRUET, E. (French). Founder, whose name appears on a Plaque 
by Mr. F. Bowcherof D"^ Sir Hermann Weber, of London. 

GRUN, MAURICE (Rtiss.). Medallist, residing in London, and 
working for various firms as Die-engraver, &c. 

GRUN, SAMUEL (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and Modeller 
residing in London. At the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1901, he 
attracted notice by a bronze relief (a plaque) representing a Brit- 
tany girl. 

— 320 — 

At the Salon of 1902, M. Samuel Griin exhibited the following 
medals : Plaquette for the Association ot Siege Engineers; — Pla- 
quette of Concarne; — Portrait of my father Lazare; — Study ot 
a Child's head, &c. 

M. Babelon in a recent article ot the Revue de VArt ancien et 
tnoderneQinn. 1902,11, p. 22), makes the following remark in con- 
nection with M. Griin's exhibits at the Salon of 1902 : " C'est la 
force et la robustesse qui distinguent les figures allegoriques de la 
plaquette de M. S. Grun, pour I'Association des ingenieurs de 
Liege ; ces fcmmes, vigoureusement musclees, symbolisent bien les 
mines et la metallurgie, la mecanique et I'electricite; il y a de 
I'ideal meme et une conception synthetique dans ces scenes 
d'usines, ou le plus grand ecueil des artistes qui veulent etre vrais 
est la vulgarite. " 

He is a pupil of MM. Jedelet, Caniez, J. P. Laurens and Benja- 
min Constant. 


GRUNDLER, JOHANN JEREMIAS {Germ.). Mint-master at Strass 
berg, 1710-1747, and Sangerhausen, 1747-1750, in the County of 
Stolberg. He signed : I.I.G. on Thalers of Henry, Count of Mans- 
feld, 1747, and on currency of Anhalt-Bernburg. I have noticed 
Grundler's initials " Eintrachtsthaler ", 1719, of Christopher 
Frederick and Jobst Christian, engraved by Christian Wermuth, 
Gulden of 1720 and 1729, Jubilee Thaler of 1730; Gulden and 
Half-gulden of Christopher Lewis IL of Stolberg and Frederick 
Botho of Rossis, 1742 and 1745; — Funereal Thaler, Half, and 
Quarter Thaler ofCountErnest of Stolberg-Isenburg, 1710, engraved 
by Chr. Wermuth ; — and other coins of Christian Ernest of Stol- 
berg Wernigerode, 1725, &c. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Amnion, op. cit. 

GRUNDSGHLOSS, DAVID (Germ). A Goldsmith of Fraustadt, who 
superintended the coinage of that city for a short time, circa 1596. 
He is also mentioned as Moneyer to the King of Poland, and from 
documentary evidence we learn that on the 16. February 1622 he 
applied for the post of Mint-master at Glogau. 

Bibliography. — Kirmis, Handhuch der Polnischen Mun^hinde. — Friedensburg, 

op. cit. 

GRUNER, FRIEDRICH {Norwegian). Mint-master at Christiania, 
1 65 2-1 675. Probably a son of Peter Gruner Senior. 

GRUNER, PETER {Norw.). Mint-master at Christiania, 1629-43, 
and Copenhagen, 1643-51. 

— 321 — 

GRUNER, PETER (Norw.). Mint-master at Christiania, 1675-86, 
and afterwards on his own account, until 1695. Probably a son of 
Friedrich Griiner. 

Bibliography. — C. T. Jorgensen, Beskrivelse over Datuke Monter, 1448-1888, 
Q)penhagen, 1888. 

GRUNER, JACOB FRIEDRICH SAMUEL {Swiss). Medallist of the first 
half of the nineteenth century, who resided at Berne, He was born 
in 1803, and is described in the Register of the Guild of Butchers 
as " Graveur". By him are the following medals : Third Centenary 
of the Reformation, 1828 (2 var.); — School Prize Medal (Studien- 
pfenning) of the City and Republic of Berne, obv. Arms ^L. 
Temple; signature : G (several varieties, vide Catalogue of the 
Wunderly von Muralt Sale, n°* 1379, 1381, 1387); — Por- 
trait-medal of Christian Fueter, Mint-master at Berne, 1792-1837, 
and Coin-engraver; — Prize-medal granted by the Canton of 
Unterwald (Nidwald) for Merit, undated and signed GRUNER F. 
(2 var.) ; — Bernische Verdienstmedaille ; — Commemorative 
Medal of the Construction of the Nydeck Bridge at Berne. 

Griiner died in the early sixties; he had been Intendant of the 
Arsenal at Berne. 

Bibliography. — Tobler-Meyer, JVunderly-von Murali Catalogue, Zurich, 1898. 
— Various Sale Catalogues. — Information kindly suftplied by M. Artwld Robert, and 
Herr Adrian, Master of the Mint at Bernt. 

GRUPELLO, GABRIEL DE (Ital.). Sculptor and Medallist born at 
Grammont, 22. May 1644, died at Ehrenbreitstein, near Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, 20. June 1730. He was of Italian origin. In 1673, he was 
appointed Master in the corporation of sculptors, and soon after he 
became Sculptor to King CharlesII.and the city of Brussels; in 1695, 
he was appointed Sculptor to the Elector Palatine John William, for 
whom he worked at Diisseldort, and in 1706, on the death of his 
protector, he returned to Belgium. The Emperor Charles VI. 
reinstated him, by letter of the 19. March 1719, as First Sculptor 
to the Sovereign-Prince of the Netherlands. From documentary 
evidence, we learn that Grupello was paid 48 Livres in 1684 for a 
Portrait-medal of Charles II., which M. Cumont believes to be the 
medal, wrongly attributed to Denis Waterloo by Pinchart, commem- 
orating the Declaration of war against France, 1683, and depict- 
ed in Van Loon, vol. Ill, p. 300. (Dutch edition). 

Bibliography. — G. Cumont, Une tue'daille deClxirUs II d'Espagnepar Grupello, 
Revue beige de numismatique, 1889, p. 202. 

GRUPPE, N. D. (Germ.) This name occurs, conjointly with that of 
F. Hartung Schilling, as the Designer or Engraver of the reverse of 
a medal, issued by the Loos Establishment at BerUn in 1854, in 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of Mtdallists. — II. 21 

— 322 — 

commemoration ot the Visit to Coblentz of Frederick William 
Crown-prince of Prussia and his consort Augusta. 

GRUTER, ANTOINE DE (Belg.). Goldsmith and Seal-engraver, who 
died at Malines in 15 18. He executed the seal of William, Lord of 
Rogghendorf, governor of Friesland for Charles V., and was paid 
40 Flemish Livres for that work. 

Bibliography, — Pinchart, Biographies des graveurs beiges, Revue de la num. 
beige, 1852. 

GRUTER, JEAN DE (Belg.). Son of Antoine de Gruter and also a 
Goldsmith and Seal-engraver, established at MaUnes, during the 
sixteenth century. 

GRUTER, PIERRE OE (Belg.). Goldsmith, Coin, and Seal-engraver 
of Malines; another son of Antoine de Gruter, He was condemned 
to capital punishment in 1536 for having cut dies intended for 
striking imitations of English coins, "pour les crismes, delict et 
mesuz par lui comis et perpetrez d'avoir par deux fois grave 
aucuns fers a forgier monnoye d'Angleterre et iceulx delivre a 
Martin Marmion, lequel en a use, a estre eschaffaulde au-devant 
du palais, et illecq estre flatry an front de I'ung des fers par lui 
gravez, et en oultre banny de tous les pays et seigneuries de I'em- 
pereur, sur le hart, et tous ses biens d^clairez confisquiez. " 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, op. cit. 

GRYNAEUS, JACOB (Swiss). Issuer, at his own expense, of a 
School Pfenning ot Basle, in 1596, His initials, I. G. appear on this 

G. S. Vide GEORG FRIEDRICH STAUDE, Mint-master at Gotha, 

G. S. Vide GREGOR SESEMANN. Mint-master at Copenhagen, 
I 680- I 690. 

G. S. Vide GEORG SCHULER. Die-cutter in Transsylvania, circa 

G. S, Vide HANS JACOB GESSNER. Mint-master, Medallist, and 
Coin-engraver at Zurich, 1706-1737. His son, of the same name, 
and signature, worked there between 1745 and 1770. 

G. S, Vide GOTTFRIED STUDER, Mint-master at Dresden, 1813- 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

G. S. {DiitcJ}). Initials of a Middelburgh Medallist of the end of 
the sixteenth century. These appear on a rare medalet struck to 

— 323 — 

commemorate the Alliance of France and England, and illustrated 
(fig. 147) in Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Vol. I, p. 163. 

G. T. Vide GUGLIELMO TRONO. Superintendent of the Mint at 
Rome, 1578-1596. 

G. T. Vide GIOVANNI TODA. Die-cutter of Florence; worked at 
Vienna, 1739-1765. 

G. T. Vide GIROLAMO TICCATI. Die-cutter ot Florence, f 1734; 
also G.T.F. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

G. T. F. (Ital.'). These initials, which according to Milanesi may 
belong to Girolamo Todeschini, a Venetian Painter, occur on 
medals of the Doges Niccolo Marcello and Giovanni Mocenigo, struck 
in 1474 and 1478, and of other Venetian celebrities. The medals 
are : Zaccaria Barbaro, Bust to 1. ; no I^. ; — Stefano Memmo, 
Bust to 1.; no ^. ; — Doge Niccolo Marcello, 1473-1474, Bust 
to 1. :^. IN • NOMINE • IHV • OMNE • GENV • FLECTATVR • 
CELESTIV-TERESTRIV -INFERNO. Monogram of Jesus, within 
halo of glory ; — Doge Giovanni Mocenigo, 1478-1485, Bust to 1.; 
no ^. 

D"" Friedlander doubted whether the author of these medals was a 
contemporary of the personages he depicted, and was inclined to 
look at his works as retrospective. 

Bibliography, — Armand, op. cit., I, 56; III, 13. — Friedlander, Di^ Italk- 
nischm Schaumiin-^en des fiitiJiehnten Jahrhunderts (^14)0-1^30), Berlin, 1882. 


GUAINIER, DAVID (Swiss). Mint-master at Geneva, in conjunction 
with Augustin Baccuet, from 1638-40. Their joint issues are 
signed GB or BG separated by cinquefoil or crown of spread-eagle. 

Bibliography. — Demole, Histoire monetaire de Geneve. 

GUAINIER, DAVID {Swiss'). Keeper of the Coinage at the Mint of 
Geneva from 17 10 to 23. December 1733. . 

GUALCHERI, GIOVANNI CARLO (Jtal.). Mint-master at Bologna, 
under Pope Alexander VIII., 1689-91. 

GUALCHERI, STEFANO {Ital.). Mint-master at Bologna, after 1709. 

GUALTIERI, GIOVANNI {Ital.). Mint-master, and Die-cutter at 
Parma, 1 673-1708. His initials GG occur on coins of Rainutius II. 
Farnese, for instance on the 1692 Scudo. He appears to have worked 
at Rome also, and was recommended to the Bolognese Mint by the 

— 324 — 

Pontifical Ambassador on the accession of Innocent XL, 1676, in 
place of the Ferrarese Engraver, Angelo Faccini. Gualtieri executed 
coins for the Duke of Modena, Francesco II., circa 1683. 

GUARDINI, MICHELE (Ital.). Mint-master at Parma, 1 594-1 596. 

GUAY, JACQUES {French). Gem-engraver of considerable repute, 
born at Marseilles on the 26'^ September 171 1, died in poverty 
and obscurity at Paris towards 1793. He began his artistic career 
as an apprentice to a goldsmith ol his native town, which he soon 
left for Paris to learn drawing under the celebrated painter, 
Francois Boucher. In the capital he made the acquaintance of a 
renowned collector of engraved stones, Pierre Crozat, Member of 
Parliament, who instilled into the young artist a taste for Gem- 
engraving and thus revealed to him his vocation. In 1742 we find 
Guay at Florence, studying the rich cabinet of gems of the Grand- 
Duke; then at Rome, where he began to produce various works 
after the antique : a head of Octavius, another of Marcus Aurelius, 
and a third of Antinoiis, of which M. Babelon says that it excited 
the admiration of all connoisseurs in Paris, under the name of Je 
Lantin. Recalled from Rome, Gua}^ received important orders, and 
before long came under the notice of M™^ de Pompadour, who not 
only became his Patron, but also his pupil, and provided apartments 
for him at Versailles, where " he executed that interesting series of 
subjects which have transmitted to us the principal events of the 
reign of Louis XV. and the interludes of gallantry provided for the 
King's entertainment. " Under the able tuition of Jacques Guay, 
^me ^jg Pompadour made several intaglios, signed with her name, 
which I shall enumerate in due course. 

Once at Versailles, the successful artist was appointed to the 
post of Gem-engraver to the King, in succession to Barier; but only 
after the production of a master-piece, the carnelian intaglio, com- 
memorating the Victory of Fontenoy (11. May 1745), from the 
design of Bouchardon. "No modern engraver", says King, "has 
ever thrown into his work such spirit as Guay has done in this gem ", 
of which all trace is now lost. To this period belong other histori- 
cal cameos and intaglios : Victory of Lawfeldt (2. July 1747); — 
PreUminaries of Peace, 1748 ; — Birth of the Duke of Burgundy, 
175 1 ; — France's wishes for the restoration to health of the Dau- 
phin; — Thanksgivings on the Dauphin's Recovery, 1752; — 
Death of the Duke of Aquitaine (22. February 1754); — Franco- 
Austrian Alliance ; — Battle of Liitzelberg (10. October 1758); — 
Erection of a Statue of Louis XV. on the Place de la Concorde, 
1763, &c. Amongst Guay's most charming compositions I 
cannot omit : The Genius of Poetry ; — The Rape of Dejanira ; — 
Minerva (M™^ de Pompadour) protecting the Art ot Gem-engrav- 

— 325 — 

ing ; — and Military Genius, a carnelian intaglio, which is the joint 
work of Guay and M™^ de Pompadour, on the former's own testi- 

Guay excelled also as an Engraver of Portrait-cameos, The most 
remarkable of these, one which is considered by M. Babelon as the 
*' chef-d'oeuvre de la glyptique moderne ", is a bust of Louis XV. 
on a fine sardonyx of three strata, which was exhibited at the 
Salon of 1755 and is now preserved in the Cabinet des medailles 
at Paris. Beside this, the artist executed other portraits of Louis XV., 
in relief and in incuse; — also of M"'^ de Pompadour; — the 
Dauphin, Louis, and Maria-Josepha of Saxony (Salon of 1739); 

— Marie- Antoinette ; — Louis XVL ; — the King of Poland; 

— the Prince of Saxe-Gotha; — Cardinal de Rohan ; — Marechale 
de Mirepoix ; — Crebillon, &c., which are all admirable works. 
The Paris Cabinet preserves an interesting seal, signed by Guay, 
which contains a cameo-portrait of M"'*= de Pompadour concealed in 
a medallion. The medallion forms the mounting and is engraved 
with a Cupid and the words : L' AMOUR LES ASSEMBLE. Pro- 
bably the real belonged either to the Marquise or to Louis XV. 
Of a similar character are many of the artist's graceful produc- 
tions : Cu pid as musician ; — Cupid and Psyche ; — Cupid gardening ; 

— Cupid having disarmed the gods presents a wreath to his Hero 
(Louis XV.), &c., which not a little contributed to Guay's 
celebritv and favour at Court. 

Mnie Je Pompadour's Seal, by Guay. 

The early works of Jacques Guay are unsigned; later on he 
signed them GUAY F, or GUAY, and also G.F. These signatures are 
somewhat puzzling, as they vary considerably, the letters being in 
some instances particularly well formed and in others very imper- 
fect by revealing the artist's hand. "It is therefore consi- 
dered ", as Mr. Cyril Davenport observes, " that Guay, who 
was very illiterate, could not have made the inscriptions himself, 
but must have had them cut for him by some other artist (or 
artists) more skilful in this particular. " 

The later years of Guay were spent in obscurity, but until 
1793 his name appears in the " Almanach royal de France 

— 3^ — 

amongst the Academicians, as : " Guay, graveur en pierres, aux 
galeries du Louvre. " This is the last official mention of him. Two 
ol his pupils survived him : Michel and Mayer Simon, but neither 
" was capable to sustain after the Master the Art which he had 
carried to such a high degree of perfection . " 

Reduced Reproduction of the Print in Traite des pienes gravees, by 
P. J. Mariette (Paris, 1750, vol. I. p. 208), representing Guay at 
worii in his studio at Versailles. 

*'Guay's drawing is correct," says King, "and his imitation 
of the Greek style perfect. " M. Babelon calls the artist " the 
cleverest gem-engraver of the eighteenth century " and " a worthy 
rival of Pyrgoteles, Dioscorides, and Valerio Vicentini." Leturcq, 
his principal biographer, praises him for the manner in which he 
treated the portrait, and above all, the historical portrait. He adds : 

" On pent dire, sans crainte d'exageration, qu'il atteignit dans 
cette specialite le supreme degre, et qu'aucun artiste moderne, ni 
dans ses devanciers, ni dans ses successeurs, n'a pu lutter avec lui 
et ne pourra I'egaler. " 

A number of Quay's gems are reproduced in the Collection of 
Prints (Recueil d'estampes) engraved by M"^ de Pompadour. The 
artist did not always compose his subjects, but in many instances 
copied drawings which were supplied to him by Boucher, Vien, 
and Bouchardon. 

The following list of Guay's productions is borrowed from 
Leturcq's Notice sur Jacques Guay (Paris, 1873) : 

Gems preserved in the Cabinet des Medailles, Paris. Portrait- 
cameo of Louis XV. (^illustrated), sardonyx of three strata 
(58 mill.); — Louis XV., laur. bust, sardonyx; — Louis XV., 

— 327 - 

laur. bust in armour, garnet; — Louis XV., laur. bust, sardon3x 
of three strata, signed: GUAY ; — Louis XV., laur. bust, sardonyx 
of two strata, signed G (mounted as a ring); — Cameo-portraits of 
the Dauphin and his Consort; — Birth of the Duke of Burgundy, 
cameo; — The Genius of Music, cameo, signed : POMPADOUR F. 
1752; — AUiance of France with Austria, cameo; — Erection of 

Portrait-cameo of Louis XV., by Guay. 

an equestrian statue of Louis XV. ; ex. 1763 , cameo in agate-onyx ot 
two strata; — Culture of Laurel-trees, cameo; — Faithful Friend- 
ship, Genius playing with a dog ; ex. GUAY F., agate-onyx cameo ot 
two strata ; — Marquise de Pompadour, cameo-portrait in agate- 
onyx of two strata,. signed : GUAY; — Seal described above, with 
carnelian representing Cupid holding lys and rose (illustrated^ ; — 
Victory of Lawfeldt, intaglio ; — Preliminaries of the Peace of 1748, 
intaglio; — Jacquot, Drum-major of the King's regiment, 175 i, 
intaglio ; — France's wishes for the Dauphin's restoration to 
health ; — Minerva (M™* de Pompadour) benefactress and protec- 
tress of the Art of Gem-engraving, intaglio; — M""' de Pompa- 
dour's seal on a topaze of three facets engraved with Love sacrihc- 
ing to Friendship, Love and Friendship, and the Temple of Friend- 
ship ; — Death of the Duke of Aquitaine, son of the Dauphin, 
1754, intaglio; — Victory of Lutzelberg, 10. October 1758, inta- 
glio; — Love and the Soul, intaglio; — Love cultivating a myrtle- 
bush (Cupid gardening), intaglio; — Offering to the god Termi- 

— 328 — 

nus, intaglio ; — A child making a libation on altar placed at the 
feet of Flora, sardonyx intaglio, signed : GUAY FECIT. 

Gem in the Royal Collection, Berlin. Sardonyx cameo 
representing two heads, signed P. (joint work of Guay and M"^ de 

Gems in private Collections. Profile head of Louis XV. to 1., 
carnelian intaglio, signed : GUAY, mounted in a ring; — Profile 
head of the Marquise de Pompadour, carnelian intaglio, signed : 
GUAY; — Louis XV. and M"'^ de Pompadour, carnelian intaglio, 
signed : GUAY, also mounted in a ring; — Marquise de Pompadour, 
oriental carnelian mounted in a ring, and signed GUAY F 1761 and 
I. A. P. POMPADOUR. AN. iSE. 39; — Cupid offering a libation before 
an altar, behind which is the staff of Aesculapius, 1764, intaglio 
in rock crystal ; — Head of Antinoiis, carnelian intaglio, signed : 
GUAY (ring); — The Genius of Poetry, sardonyx intaglio (ring); 

— Leda and the swan, sardonyx intaglio, signed : GUAY F. (ring); 

— Head of Homer, sardonyx intaglio, signed : GUAY F. (ring); — 
Male and female figures entwined within wreath of flowers, carne- 
lian intaglio, signed : G (ring) ; — Profile bust of Marie-Antoinette, 
carnelian intaglio, signed : GUAY F. 1787 (ring) ; — Head of 
Louis XV., cameo in agate-onyx of three strata, signed : POMPA- 
DOUR F. ; — Head of Marie- Antoinette, sardonyx cameo of three 
strata, a splendid gem in the possession of Baron Octave Roger de 
Sivry in 1873 ; — The Genius of France, Allegory to the Victory 
of Liitzelberg, 10. October 1758, carnelian intaglio in Princess 
Soltikoff's collection; — Alexandrine Lenormant d'Etioles, 1754, 
sardonyx intaglio ; — Cupid holding wreath above altar on which 
is a butterfly, sardonyx intaglio, signed : GUAY. 

Stones reproduced in Madame de Pompadour's work and Now 
Lost. The Triumph of Fontenoy ; — Apollo crowning the Genius 
of painting and sculpture; — Head of Augustus; — Portrait of 
M""" de Mirepoix; — Female head; — Portrait of Frederick 
Augustus, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony; — Friendship ; 

— The Genius of Music; — Henry IV.; — Study of a female 
Head; — Cupid playing the double flute; — Marcus Aurelius; — 
Bacchic Vase; — Ciebillon ; — Arms of M. de Calvieres; — Plato; 

— Head of Satyr; — The Prince of Saxe-Gotha; — Cardinal de 
Rohan ; — Cupid disarming the gods and offering a wreath to 
Louis XV. ; — Infant Bacchus; — The Comtesse de Brionne; — 
Rape ofDejaneira; — MiUtary Genius; — Faithful Friendship; — 
Love; — Gardener's Trophy; — Egyptian Priest; — Cupid; — 
Hunting Dog; — Cupid presenting a bunch of flowers; — Seal 
of the King; — Love quieting itself under the reign of Justice; — 
The Dog "Mimi"; -Love; — The Dog "Bebe"; — The Genius 
of Music; — Gardener fetching water. 

— 329 — 
Gems by Guay described in various Catalogues. Portrait of the 
Countess of Bury; — Portrait of M. Plastrier, 1759; — Head of 
Minerva; — A variety ot " La culture des lauriers"; — Portrait ot 
Montesquieu; — Portrait of Voltaire; — An owl; — Copy of the 
intaglio known as " Michael Angelo's seal "; — Cupid seated 
playing with a dog, signed : GUAY, 1760; — Portrait of the King 
of Poland on matrix of emerald ; ex. : GUAY ; — Copy of a gem in 
the French Collection, representing a Bacchanalian scene; — Dia- 
demed head of Homer, signed : GUAY; — Louis XV. (3 var.); — 

— Head of Cicero (?); — Female head, temp. Louis XVL, 
signed : GUAY (2 var.); — Mask and Thyrsus; — Female portrait, 
signed : GUAY F. ; — Portrait of the painter Luders. 

Gems by Guay known from impressions in the LnTURca Collec- 
tion. Profile-portrait of Louis XV., signed : GUAY F. ; — Another, 
with bust in armour, and similar signature ; — Portrait of M""^ de 
Pompadour, signed: GUAY F. 1763; — Variety of the bust ot 
Henry IV. ; — Varieties (2) " of Love and the Soul " ; — Allegori- 
cal subject representing a military scene ; — Wishes for the Recov- 
ery of M™' de Pompadour, 1764; — Accession ot Louis XVL, 
1774; — Portrait of Louis XVL, signed : G. 1785; — Another 
Portrait of Louis XVL ; — Young Female kneeling before altar at 
the foot of Terminal statue ; signed : G. ; — Young Female offer- 
ing fruit and flowers to the god Term ; — Scene of the worship 
of the god Term; — Young Female, nude, seated, in front of a 
table on which is a compass ; — Young Female, nude, in the 
presence of a rustic divinity ; — Cupid holding nest on which a 
hen is lying, signed : GUAY; — Hygiiea, signed : GUAY; — 
Female Bather, signed : G. (4 var.); — Cupids (3 var.); — Por- 
trait of unknown Lady (2 var.); — Head of Apollo, signed : GU. ; 

— Portrait of the Marquise de Pompadour (2 var.); — A variety 
of the gem representing the statue of Louis XV. ; — Portrait of 
Henry IV., after a medal by G. Dupre; — Portrait of Franklin, 
after Nini's terra-cotta medallion ; — Two Portraits of Gentlemen; 

— A Pigeon, with spread wings ; — Faun dancing with a Nymph ; 

— Cupid holding mask; — Cupid seated; — A Dog; — Copy of 
the Cameo on the Triumph ofFontenoy. 

Uncertain, but attributed to Guay by Leturcq.- Fulmen and 
caduceus in saltire, 1738 (in the Cabinet des Medailles) ; — Por- 
trait of Henry IV. on sardonyx (also in the same Collection). 

Jacques Guay was the first Gem-engraver admitted as Member of 
the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. 

Bibliography. — J. F. Leturcq, Notiu siir Jacques Guay, graveur sur pierres fines 
dn roi Louis XV., Paris, 1873. — Babelon, Pierres gravies, Paris, 1894. — King, 
Antique Gems, London, i860. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cii. — Grande Ency- 
pedie. — Muller and Singer, Allgemeines Kfinstler-Lexikon. — Babelon, Histoire 
de la Gravure sur Gemmes en France depuis les origines jusqu'd J'epoque contemporaine, 
Paris, 1902. 

— 330 - 

Sculptor and Medallist, born at Florence in 1435, died in 1493. In 
1464, he was Ginon of the Cathedral of Prato, Collector of Church 
tithes, and Priest of Aiolo, where his church, house and furniture 
were burnt down. Heiss informs us that the artist was in close 
relations with Lorenzo the Magnificent, for w^hom he used to 
procure works ot art. 

The following ten medals are by Guazzalotti : i. Nicholas V., 
obv. Bust to 1. :^. SEDIANNOOCTODI-XX-OBTXXV- 
MAR-MCCCC'LIIII. The Pope, seated in boat inscribed ECCLE- 
SIA; signature : ANDREAS • GVACIALOTIS ; — 2. Calixtus III., obv. 

Medal of Alfonso of Aragon, by Guazzalotti. 

cal arms of the Borgia family; — 3. Pius II., obv. Bust to 1., head 
bare ^. MCCCCLX PONT • ANNO . SECVNDO . Pontifical arms of 
the Piccolomini family; — 4. Pius II. obv. Bust to 1., as last VL. 
Pelican; — 5. Niccolo Palmieri, 1402-1467, obv. Bare head tol. 
I^. Incuse legend : CONTVBERNALISB-P- VIX- AN-LXV- 
OBIIT- A-DM-CCCC-LXVII. Time, under the figure of a youth, 
standing; ex., signature in relief : ANDREAS GVACIALGTVS; — 
6. Alfonso of Aragon, Duke of Calabria, obv. Bust three-quarter 
face, to 1. {illustrated) I^. NEAPOLIS VICTRIX. Alfonso in 
triumphal chariot, accompanied by troops and preceded by captive 
MCCCCLXXXI; ex. : OPVS AND . G . PRATENS . (there is a 
var. of ^L. of this type, with ITALIAQVE RESTITVTA. 1481 ; 

— 331 — 

— 7. Do, Obv. Similar ^L. ALFOS POTES PARCERE SVBIEC- 
TIS ET DEBELLARE SVPERBOS Constancy standing, holding 
spear and leaning against column, at the foot of which are captives 
and various arms; in the field, incuse : MCCCCLXXXI ; ex. : 

Medal of Pope Sixtus IV., by Guazzalotti. 

CONSTANTIA ; — 8. Do, obv. Bust of Alfonso of Aragon, in 
armour, head in biretta. ^L. SVPER 'MONTE IMPERIALI" VI ' 
EXPVGNATO. Mars standing to 1. ; to r. Alfonso armed ; between 
them, priest sacrificing bull ; in background, fortress and camp; in 

— 332 — 

the field : SACRVM" MARTI"; — 9. Sixtus IV., obv. Bust to 1., 
DEBELLARES SVPERBOS. Constancy, somewhat similar to last 
(illustrated) ; — 10. Do, obv. Similar. ^L. CONCOR ET AMATOR 
PACISPON MAX PPP. Augustus standing to 1., draped, laur., 
and holding caduceus; above XT" ; ex. : ECCLESIA. 

Beside these medals, a few others are ascribed to Guazzalotti, on 
account of similarity of work : Dotto of Padua, obv. Bust to r. 
^L. Constancy standing and leaning against column ; — Constance, 
Consort of Antonio Pico della Mirandola, ^L. Similar; — Girolamo 
Santucci, Bishop of Fossombrone ^L. Similar; — Guillaume 
d'Estouteville, 1403-1483, obv. Bust to 1. j^. GLORIA FRAN- 
COR. Genius standing. Milanesi is inclined to attribute the three 
first of these pieces to Costanzo the author of the two fine medals 
of Mohammed II., and the last to the Sculptor Domenico Rosselli 
of Roverzano, 143 9- 1497. 

Heiss, comparing Guazzalotti with Vittore Pisano, remarks : 
*' Le talent du chanoine de Prato est d'un ordre moins eleve que 
celui de son predecesseur, Victor Pisano. II est plus realiste, il sert 
de plus pres la nature, ses tetes sont generalement modelees avec 
une science, une sincerite, une simplicite admirables. Quant au type 
de ses revers, il ne les cherche pas beaucoup, il se contente souvent 
de les prendre au Pisan, comme dans une de ses pieces de Pie II, 
ou a Geremia, dans un de ses bronzes de Sixte IV; quelquefois 
aussi c'est a lui-meme qu'il emprunte soit un droit, soit un revers ; 
Alphonse II et Sixte IV ont un revers commun et le meme buste 
de Sixte IV lui sert, avec une simple modification dans la legende, 
pour deux medailles de diametres differents. II savait tirer plusieurs 
moutures d'un meme sac. " 

The identity of Andrea Guazzalotti and Andrea G. Pratense has 
been established by D"" Friedlander, who quotes a distich from a 
poem by Bishop Campana, in which the artist is mentioned as the 
author of a Portrait-medallion of Pope Pius II : 


Acre Pium Andrea caelas Pratensis et auro, 

Vivo ut credatur vivus in aere loqui. 
Sic oculos, sic ora trahis, numerantur et anni 

Quos notat artifici ruga magisterio. 
Certa manus, quam nee tenuis vel linea fallat, 
Quaeque ipsum posset vincere Pyrgotelem ; 
Ars tamen heu manca est umbrasque effingit inanes, 

Nee summi dotes Principis ilia capit. 
Quippe animum invictuni facundaque pectora nujlo 
Nee tractu potuit sculpere docta manus. 
Tu tamen es dignus cui prospera vota precemur, 
Si minima effingis, maxima cum nequeas. 

— 333 — 

This artist signed himself : ANDREAS GVACIALOTVS ; — 

Gaz;^alotti was celebrated as a Sculptor also, and as a Medallist he 
is one of the earliest at Rome who practised the art of Medal- 

" The art of making dies", says Mr. Keary, " in the degree in 
which it was understood in the fifteenth century, would not permit 
the striking of coins otherwise than in very low relief; it was alto- 
gether unsuited to the production of medals, so that these were, 
in early times, always cast. A model was made in wax, and this 
was first imbedded in fine moulding earth or charcoal. This mate- 
rial must be so fine as to be almost impalpable. When it has fitted 
itself into every crevice of the wax model, it was stiffened 
with some kind of lye, the wax was melted out, and into the 
mould thus left the metal was poured. What does not certainly 
appear is how far the same mould could be used more than once, 
whether it was preserved or broken up, and whether a second 
medal was made from this original mould, or from a fresh one 
taken from the first medal. The first medal taken was very 
frequently, but by no means always, of precious metal, gold or 
silver; but few of these pieces have been preserved. " 

BiBLiOGR.\PHY. — D"" Friedlander, Italienischen Schatimunxen des funfiehuten 
Jahrhttnderls, Berlin, it Si. — A. Heiss, Les MedaiUeurs de la Renaissance. Florettce 
el les Florentins, I, p. 47. — Armand, Les MedaiUeurs italicns des XV^ el XVI^ sikles, 
Paris, 1883-7. — Bolzcntlial, o/». cil. — Perkins, Les Sculpleurs ilaliens, II, p. 437. 
— Supino, // Medagltere del R. Miiseo Naiionale di Firen^e, 1899. — Keary, B. M. 
Guide to the Exhibition of Italian Medals, London, 1893. — D^ Merzbacher, Kunst- 
Medaillen KataJog, Mai 1900. — D' Simonis, L'Art du medailleur en Belgique. 

GUBE, HEINRICH (Germ.). Medallist and Coin-engraver, born at 
Breslau in 1805, died in 1848; known in Russia as Audrey Ignatie- 
wich Gouin. He studied at Vienna, first worked at Berlin, at the 
Dan. Fr. Loos establishment, where he earned a well-merited 
reputation, and in 1830, he was appointed at St Petersburg by 
Imperial command to fill the post of Chief-engraver and Medallist 
at the Mint there. His signature appears on coins of Nicholas I; 
Pattern i| Rouble of 1836 {illustrated); — Memorial Rouble of 
Alexander I., 1834 (illustrated): — Another of 1839. I^. The 
Borodino Column ; and Medals on the Death of Czarina Maria 
Feodorowna; — Golden Wedding of Jacob PhilippLeerse (Sarasin), 
1838 ; — Augusta, Princess of Liegnitz; — Nicholas I. of Russia 
and his consort, 21. April 1836; — Marriage of Prince Charles of 
Prussia and Marie, daughter of the Grand Duke Charles Frederick 
of Saxe- Weimar, 1827 ; — Marriage of Louise, Princess of Prussia, 
with Frederick, Prince of the Netherlands, 1825; — Charles XIV. 
John of Sweden, 1822; on the Opening of the Gota Canal; — 
Jos. Fr. Oscar, Crown Prince of Sweden, Marriage with Josephina, 

— 334 - 

Maximiliana Eugenia, Princess of Leuchtenberg, 1823 ; — Masonic 
Medal of the Lodge Frederic of the Golden Sceptre, Orient of 
Breslau, 1826; — Marriage of Alexander II. (as Czarewitch) with 
Princess Marie of Hesse, 184 1 ; — Jubilee Medal of Emanuel von 

Pattern 11 Rouble of Nicholas I., 1836. 

Schimonski. Prince Bishop of Breslau, 1825; — Prize Medal of 
Nicholas I. ; — Silver Wedding of J. des Arts and L. H., his 
consort, nee Sillem, 1830; — Various medals commemorating the 

Memorial Rouble ot Alexander I., 1834. 

Turkish Campaign ot 1828-29; — a Prize-medal awarded to 
Officers on the completion of their course of scientific training at 
the Military Academy ; — a Medal to celebrate the Termination 
of the Labours of the General School Congress; — the Medal 
struck at the Inauguration (or opening for traffic) of the Moscow 
Triumphal Arch ; — the Medal commemorating the wedding of 
the Emperor Alexander Nicolayevich ; — the Medal struck in 
honour of General Bakhtin, Count Ouvarov and General Ellers; 
— D^ J. Blumenbach of Gottingen (^); — D^ Carl Gottfried 
Hagen of Koenigsberg (Obv.) ; — D^ Johann Wendt of Breslau 
(Obv.); etc. 

— 333 — 

The artist was elected a Member of the BerUn Academy ot 
Fine Arts in 1829. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. n7. — lOATH IIBEPGEHA, CAOBAFb 
MHAAAbEP0B7j II APHrilXt AllU'b, 1874. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, 
op. cit. — Dr Menadier, Schaumfm^en des Hauses Hoheni^ollern, Berlin, 1901. — 
Thomsen Catalogue. — Reimmann Catalogue. — Hildebrand, Sveriges Konungahusets 
Minnespenningar, Stockholm, 1875. — Marvin, Masonic Medals, Boston, i860. — 
Various Sale Catalogues &c. — Muller & Singer, Allgem. Kunstler Lexikon. 

GUBE, IGNAZ (Germ.). Father of Heinrich Gube, the St. Peters- 
burg Medaihst. In 1807 he was a Glass-cutter at the Mint of Glatz, 
and was even employed in cutting coin-dies, in which he did 
not prove very efficient. In 18 12 he removed to Breslau. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Schlesiens MUn-jigeschichte, Dresden, 1900. 

GUBE, MAX (Germ.). Contemporary Medallist, Hofgraveur at 
Munich. I have seen his signature on a medal commemorating the 
Completion of the Palace of Justice at Munich, 1897, and on an- 
other struck on the Marriage of Alphonse of Bavaria with Princess 
Louise d'Orleans, in 189 1 ; also on a centenary Medal of Mozart, 

At the Exhibition of Modern Medals at Vienna, 1899, this artist 
was represented by several Portrait-medals. 

Bibliography. — Die Modeme MedatUe, 1900, p. 5. 

GUEF, PIERRE (French). Mint-master at Chalons-sur-Marne , 
entered on office on i. July 1423. He must have previously suffer- 
ed imprisonment as, on May 28. 1423, he is described as being 
still in prison. 

GUfiRARD, HENRI (French). Contemporary Painter and Medallist, 
residing at Paris. M. Roger Marx in Medailleiirs frangais contempo- 
rains, PI. 31, illustrates three medallions by him, cast, in the style 
of Cazin. 

M. Guerard is one of the few French Painters, who like Cheret, 
Grandhomme and others now and then model a medal in the way 
of recreation. His manner is very realistic. 

GUERCHET (Belg.). Nineteenth century Die-sinker, known by 
his medal " Ambulance de la Presse. Roi des Beiges ". D' Storer 
knows of five other medals by him, of which two are in the Bos- 
ton Collection. 

GUERDAIN, AARON D"^ (Brit.). Mint-master at the Royal Mint, 
London, anni 1-3 of the Commonwealth, in succession to Sir 
Robert Harley, who refused to carry out the alterations in the 
coinage, settled by a resolution of Parliament ordering that money 
of gold and silver should be coined with their style and title. 

- 336 - 

Under D*" Guerdain were issued : N. Unites, Double Crowns, 
and Britain Crowns; — JR.. Crowns, Half-Crowns, Shillings, 
Sixpences, Half-Groats, Pennies, and Halfpennies ; — all these 
coins, of which many varieties are described in Kenyon, Hawkins, 
Ruding, etc., were engraved by Thomas Simon. Patterns of the 
same period were executed by Blondeau and Ramage. 

Bibliography. — Ruding, op. cit. — Kenyon, op. cit. 

GUfiRIN (French). This artist's signature, followed by pinx. appears 
on the obv. of a Portrait-medal of D"" Charles Louis Fleury Pan- 
ckouke of Paris, 1824 (Boston Collection). 

GU£rin, CHRISTOPHE {French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Strassburg, before 1788. He is the father of the two engravers 
Jean and Gabriel Gu^rin. He founded the Strassburg Picture 

GU£rin, jean (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Strassburg, 
before 1760. Probably the father of Christophe Guerin. 

GU£rin (French). Contemporary Medallist of the modern 
School. In 1898 he exhibited two medals: Ecole des Beaux-Arts 
de Marseille (41 mm.), and Conser^'atoire de Musique de Marseille 
(41 mm.) which are of undoubted merit. 

GU£rin, NARCISSE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris ; pupil of Gaillouette and Delagrange. He has executed some 
bronze Portrait-medallions, and Bas-reliefs in repousse work on 
copper. " Christ in the Praetorium ", after Steinle, one of his 
finest productions, was exhibited at the Salon of 1868. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GUfiRIN, PIERRE (French). Mint-master at Grenoble, 1546-15 51. 
Characteristic mark : C on Douzains a la croix blanche and Liards 
au dauphin. 

Bibliography. — Roger Vallentin, Les Diffirents de la Monnaie de Grenoble, 

GUERINO, GIOVANNI (7/fl/.). Mint-engraver at Rome, 1548-1549. 
M. Eug. Miintz identified Giovanni Guerino with the celebrated 
Moderno, from a document of 1548, thus worded : 1548. 12 Sep- 
tembre. Domino Johanni Guerino Moderno alme Urbis Zeccherio 
scuta centum de poulis X pro scuto, sine relentione, ad bonum 
computum sue provisionis occasione dicte Zecche. 

I shall return to this identification, when I come to the bio- 
graphical notice of MODERNO (q. v. infra'). 

Bibliography. — Eug. Muntz, UAlelier monetaire de Rome, Paris, 1884. 

— 337 - 

GUERRE, surname of PIERRE GIRARD (Swiss) who was Mint- 
master at Geneva in conjunction with Nicolas Girard, 15. April 
1617 to 4. May 1621. Mark : NP. G. 

Bibliography. — Demole, Histoire monelairede Getikm. 

GUERRERO, PEDRO JUAN MARIA DE {Mex.) Medallist and Coin- 
engraver at Mexico under Ferdinand VII. of Spain, beginning of the 
nineteenth century, and until after the downfall of Augustin, 
first Emperor of Mexico. 

The following medals bear Guerrero's signature : Royal Badge 
of the Mexican College of San Ildefonso, r8o8; — Royal Badge ot 
Fidelity to King Ferdinand VII., of the Collegium Mexicanum, 
1809; — The Royal University of Mexico, 1809; — Ferdi- 
nand VII., Royal Badge of Allegiance " College of Puebla de Los 
Angelos ", 1809 {illustrated); — Ferdinand VII., Prisoner of the 

Badge of the Royal College of Puebla de Los Angelos, 1809, by Guerrero 

French, 1809; — The Chapter of Nueva Leon to Ferdinand VII., 
undated; — The Seminario Tridentino of Mexico to the captive 
King of Spain, 1809; — The Ecclesiastical Mexican Chapter's 
Homage to Ferdinand VII., 1814; — Election of an Archbishop 
at Mexico, 1814; — Proclamation of Mexican Independence, 1821 ; 
— Augustin I., Emperor of Mexico, 1821 ; — The city of Tolu- 
ca's Proclamation Medal, 1821 ; — Inauguration of Augustin, 
First Emperor of Mexico, 1822; — Proclamation Medal of the City 
of Mexico, 1822; — Oath of Allegiance taken by Mexico, 1823 ; 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Nolica of MedalUsls, — II. 33 

- 338 - 

The coins of the first Empire of Mexico bear the initials J. M. of 
an engraver, whom I suspect to be JOSE MEDINA {vide infra). 

Bibliography. — Rosa, Monetario Americano, Buenos- Ayres, 1892. - - Betts, 
Mexican Imperial Coinage, New York, 1899. — Medina, Medallas Coloniaks His- 
pano- Americanos, Santiago de Chile, 1900. — Chalon, Medaille Hispano-Ame'ri- 
caine de Ferdinand VII, Revue beige de num., 1861. 

GDERSANT, PIERRE SfiBASTIEN {French). Draughtsman and Pain- 
ter, born at Deols, 20. January 1789, died at Paris, 5. April 1853. 
He was a pupil of Cartelier, and distinguished himself by numerous 
works of art, during the first half of the nineteenth century. 

The Paris Mint Accounts show that money was paid out to this 
artist for designs of medals illustrating the History of Napoleon I. 

Bibliography. — Blanchet, Nouveau Manuel de Numismatique, II. p. 389. 

GUEST, WILLIAM (Brit.). A teller in the Bank of England, 
** who was proved to have been in the habit of filing some of the 
guineas in his charge, and afterwards making a newly milled edge 
with an ingenious machine invented by himself. Nearly five pounds' 
weight of gold filings was found in Guest's house ". 

Bibliography. — Maberly Phillips, Tlie Token Money of the Bank of England, 
London, 1901. 

GUESZ, HANS (Austr.). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Kremnitz, 
1618-1648. He prepared dies for a Hungarian coinage of Ducats, 
Thalers, Half, and Quarter-Thalers, of various dates. He also 
engraved several medals, signed H. G. : Portrait-medal of Ferdi- 
nand II., as King of Hungary, 1618; — Prize MeJal for the 
Kremnitz College, 16 18; — Religious medal; — Commemorative 
medal of the Diet of Ratisbon, 1633; — Ferdinand III., 1638; — 
Ferdinand III. and Queen Maria Anna ; — Susanna Hoflinger ; — 
Johann von Wendenstain, 1628; — Hermann Roth von Rothen- 
fels, 1632; — Religious Medal (Talisman) of 1628; — Religious 
medals of 1633, 1634, 1648, and undated, etc. ; — Thalers, Half, 
and Quarter Thalers for Hungary, 1648 ; — Portrait-medal of 
Ferdinand III. ; — Marriage of Ferdinand III. with Maria Leopol- 
dina of Austria, 1648, etc. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der MUni-und Medaillen-Stempel-Sammlung des K. K. 
HauptmUn^amtes in Wien, 1902. 

GUfiTROT, FRANQOIS REN£ {French). Sculptor, born at Ocques 
(Loir-et-Cher). Pupil of A. Calmels. He exhibited the following 
Portrait-medaUions at the Paris Salons : 1864, M"^ M. F.***; — 
1866, M"'^ la Vicomtesse de la R.***; — 1870. Eug. L.***; — 
1870, Eugenie, Empress of the French. 

BiBLioGRArHY. — Chavigneric et Auvray, op. cit. 

— 339 — 

GUGLIELMADA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (//a/.). Usual signature I. G., 
I. B. G. or I. B. G. F. Medallist of the second half of the seven- 
teenth century. He worked for Popes Clement IX. (1667-1669) 
and X. (1670- 1 676), Innocent XI. (1676- 1689), for the Dukes of 
Mantua and Modena, and also for King John Sobieski of Poland, 
of whom he executed a medal on the Peace of 1686 between 
Poland and Russia, with ^. PAX FVNDATA CVM MOSCHIS, 
Pole and Russian, in national costumes, shaking hands. 

According to BruUiot, App. II, n° no, this artist signed his 
works G. F. or G. Fecit. I have also seen the signature GUGLIEL- 

A medal of Pope Innocent XL, with the Washing of Feet ^. is 
mentioned bv Nagler (^Mouogramviisten, p. 1030) and one with 
^L. VENITE"'.ET.VIDETE. OPERA. DOMINI represents the Pope 
receiving an Embassy from Tonkin in 1688 ; another of Cardinal 
Duke Ferdinand of Mantua and Modena, is dated 1686. He also 
executed medals of Prince Caesar Ignatius d'Este, Duke of Modena, 
^L. Eagle and crown, 1687; — Vincenzo Reis. I^. Lamp; — 
Clement X., Bust of St. Paul, 1675. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Nagler, Die Monogrammisten, 1881. 

GUGLIELMO, LANGE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Toulon in 1839. Pupil of Joutlroy. He was rewarded in 1880 
with a Medal of the third Class. 

This artist's best known sculptures are : Innocency; — Abel 
dying; — Giotto revealing to himself his Vocation. 

In 1867, he exhibited at the Salon a Portrait-medallion in bronze 
of M™^ G. L.***, and in 1873 a Plaque representing a " Woman ot 
the environs of Genoa ". 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GUGLIELMUS, C. (Germ.). This signature appears on a medal of 
Prince Bishop Camille. 

6UGLINGER, WOLFGANGUS (Austr.). Director of the Mint at 
Kremnitz, 1542-45. His issues bore his initials V. G, He was Coin- 
engraver at the same Mint before 1536. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der Miini-und MedaiUen-Stempel-Sammlung des K. K. 
Hauptmun:^amh'S in H^ien, Wien, 1902. 

GUIBfi, PAUL (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Modeller, 
born at St. Brieuc (C6tes-du-Nord). Pupil of Barr^ and Og^. He 
has executed a series of Portrait-medallions in plaster and bronze, 
some of which were exhibited at the Paris Salons of 1879, 1880, 
1881 and 1882. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cil. 

— 340 — 

GUIBERT, AYMERI {French). Moneyer at Limoges, 1538 " auquel 
le Roy, par ses lettres patentes doiinees a Villers Costerez, le 
XVP jour d'aoust, a balhe a main ferme la monnaie pour le temps 
de VI ans ". 

Bibliography. — Louis Guibert, La Monnaie de Limoges, 1895. 

GUIBERT, £TIENNE (^French). Mint-master at Limoges, nV^:^ 1525. 

GUIBERT, FRANQOIS (French). Mint-master at Limoges, 1524- 
1525. Another, Coin-engraver there, 1650. 

GUIBERT, GUILMOT {French). Mint-master at Limoges, circa 1525. 

GUIBERT, LEONARD {French). " Monnayeur recoyteur, ouvrier 
assiz de plaine part tant d'or que d'argent de la monnoye " ; son 
ofGrandJehanGuybert. — Another, Mint-master at Limoges, 1648. 

GUICHARD, FRANZ {Germ.). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Montbeliard, 16 10-1620, and at Stuttgart until 1628. The name 
of this artist has been identified by Binder {fViirttembergische Miin:{- 
und-Medaillenkunde, 1846). 

Guichard was Briot's successor at the Court of Wiirtemberg, and 
there is a great analogy in the style and manner of these engravers. 
To Guichard Erman attributes the following medals : 16 10. 
Johann Friedrich of Wiirtemberg (2 medals); — 1610. Ludwig 
Friedrich of Montbeliard (Itzinger coll"); — 161 3. Johann 
Friedrich of Wiirtemberg ; — 1619. Ludwig Friedrich of Mont- 
beliard; — 1630. Ludwig Friedrich, as Administrator; — 1638. 
Anselm Casimir,- Archbishop of Mayence; — Undated. Julius 
Friedrich of Wiirtemberg (1631-1633); — 1634. Eberhard IIL of 
Wurtemberg. These medals are signed : F. G. On a portrait-piece 
of Wilhelm of Baden, 1627, very similar in execution to Gui- 
chard's productions, the artist's signature is I. G. ; this is perhaps 
an error for F. G. The initials F. G. occur also on a Coronation 
Medal of Count Palatine Frederick and Elizabeth of Bohemia, 161 9, 
described in Medal lie Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Vol. I, p. 229. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884. — Franks & 
Grueber, op. cit. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GUICHARD {French). Sculptor of the first half of the nineteenth 
century. Some Portrait-medallions by him are known. In 1817, he 
executed a bas-relief " La Monnaie et les Medailles " for the Bas- 
tille Fountain. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GUIDIZZANI, MARCO (?) {Ital.). Venetian Medallist, who was 
working, circa 1460. His signature : M. GVIDIZZANI occurs on three 

— 341 — 

medals : Bartolommeo Colleone, Condottiere of Bergamo, 1400- 
1475 ; — Orsato Giustiniani, Procurator oi St. Mark at Venice, 
1459-1464; — Pasquale Malipieri, Doge of Venice, 1457-1462. A 
fourth, representing the last-named Doge and his consort Giovanna 
Dandolo, was attributed to this artist by D"" Friedlander, but is really 
the work of Pietro da Fano. 

No biographical details of Guidizzani have come down to us. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, ofy. cit. — Heiss, Les Medailleurs de Venise, 98. — 
Armand. op. cit. — Supino, op. cit. 

GUIDO DANTONIO. T/^f ANTONIO. Vol. I, p. 519. 


GUIQUERO. JEAN LOUIS (French'). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot 

Nantes, in 1718 and after. Symbol, a lily. 

Bibliography. — Camille Amoult, Notice historique sur le Monnayage natiotial 
et r atelier d'Orlratis, i8p8. 

GUIQUERO. JOSEPH AMY (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Orleans, after 178 1 until 1792. Svmbol, a star. There are Pattern 
Colonial copper coins of Louis X\T., 1781, by this Engraver. 

GUIQUERO, MARC AMI (French). Coin-engraver at Orleans, after 
1739. Symbol, lion's head. 

6UILBAUT, GUSTAVE (French). Sculptor, bom at Nantes, on 
June 7, 1842. Author of Portrait-medallions : Salon of 1870, 
Portrait of D' Gu^pin ; — Salon of 1879, M"'"^ P.*** 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvrav, op. cit. 


born at Paris on October 13, 1848. Pupil of D upon t and Chapu. 
In 1867 and 1870, he exhibited Portrait-medallions at the Paris 
Salons, the most notable of which is that of President Lincoln. His 
chief productions in sculpture are : Daphnis and Chloe; — Chris- 
topher Columbus; — Et. Dolet, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

6UILLARD, LOUIS (Su>i.<;s). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Geneva 
from the 2"** to the 29**" of August, 1539. He succeeded Claude de 
Chateauneuf, a goldsmith, who had cut the dies for the coinage of 
Geneva from 1535 to 1539. 

Bibliography. — Demole, Les Maitres, les Graveurs et les Essayeurs de la 
Motmaie de Genh'e (ij jj-iycf2), Geneve, 1885. 

GUILHARD (Germ.). Occupied a post at the Mint of Wiesbaden 

in 1839. 

Bibliography. — D"^ Dannenberg, Mfin^-und Gddwesen der Fiirstenthumer 
HohenioUern, Berlin, 1900. 

— 342 — 

GUILLAUME, VICTOR (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Toulon. Pupil of Cordouan and Vian de Pignano. At the Salon of 
1880, he exhibited a Portrait-medallion of M. G. V.*** 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op cit. 

GUILHEM, FRANQOIS (French). Mint-master at Lyons, 15 19, 
under Francis I. His distinctive mark was a trefoil and F atbeginning 

Teston of Francis I., struck at Lyons, under Guilhem. 

of legends. The engraver of the coins at that date was Francois 
Nicolet dit de Montpancier (i 503-1523). 

Bibliography. — Hoffmann, Mo««ai>5 royales de Fratice, Paris, 1878. 

GUILHERMAYRE, JEAN (French). Silversmith and Medallist of 
Valence, beginning of the sixteenth century. He executed the medal 
which was presentend to Francis I. in 15 16 on his visit to Valence, 
and was paid 4 livres for the work. 

Bibliography. — MazeroUe, Les MedaiUeurs fratifais du XV^ Steele au milieu du 
XFi/e, Paris, 1902. 

GUILLEMARD, ANTON (French). Medallist ot the last quarter of 
the eighteenth century and beginning of the nineteenth. He first 
worked at Paris as Medallist to King Louis XVL According to 
Schlickeysen, he died in 181 2, but Fiala places the date of his death 
in 1820, which is more likely to be correct. D'Domamg mentions 
that he was working at Milan in 1770 or thereabout, whereas it 
would appear that in the previous year he filled the post of Coin- 
engraver at the Mint of Prague, and that he was still in office in 18 10 
and even later. His name appears in 1809 as " K. K. Medailleur 
und Obergraveur beim Miinzamte in Prag; " he had been re-elected 
in 1795 on the definitive constitution of the Prague Mint. 

Amongst Guillemard's best known works are : Visit of Emperor 
Francis IL to Prague, 1804; — Marriage of Archduchess Maria 
Amalia with Ferdinand of Bourbon, Duke of Parma, 1769; — 
Marriage ot the Austrian Emperor with Maria Louise Beatrix of 
Austria-Este, 1808; — Baptismal Medal of Michael Muschek, 1810; 

— 343 - 

— Marriage of Napoleon I. with Marie-Louise, jeton ; — V'accina- 
tion Medal, 1803 ; — Medallic-Calendar for 1807 ; — Love Token, 
1805 (2 var.) ; — Socrates ; — Eleventh Centenary of the Discovery 
of the Toplitz Mineral Springs, 1806; — Maria Theresia and her 
son Joseph IL, 1774. ^. LVCINAPIA; — Gustav Mauritius 
Armfelt, Minister ot War at Stockholm, 1800 ; — Installation of 
Procop Benedict Henniger as Provost of Wisschrad, 1802; — 
Pattarus Buzzacharenus, Prefect of Bergamo, 1775 ; — Portrait- 
plaque of Francis IL ; — Marriage by proxy at Giinzburg of Marie- 
Antoinette, 1770; — Hermolaiis III. of Pisa, Prefect of Verona, 
1791; — Francesco Donato, Prefect of Verona, 1780; — Agricul- 
tural Medal, 1804, for Bohemia ; — Luigi Marchesi, musician, 
1785 ; — Vaccination Commission of Bohemia, 1803 ; — Obstetric 
Schools ot Milan and Mantua, 1774 ; — Baron D' Leopold von 
Berchthold, 1809 ; — Improvements of the old Customs Laws in 
the Mantuan district, 1770; — Prize medal of the Royal Academy 
of Mantua for mechanical studies, 1772 (2 var.); etc. 
He signed most of his productions A. G. 

Bibliography. — Fiala, Donehauer Samnilung von Bohniischen Mun^en und 
Medailkn, Prag. — Domanig, Portrdtmedaillen des Er:(hauses Oesterreich, Wien, 
1899. — Edwards, Napoleon Medals. — Thomsen & Reimmann Catalogues. — Fiala, 
Die Beam ten der Prager Munistdtte, 179S-1857, Num. Zeitschrijt, 1898. — Nagler, 
Monogrammisten. — Katalog der Mun:(-tind Medaillen-Stempel-Sammlung des 
K. K. Hauptmun:^amtes in Wien, 1902. 

GUILLEMOT (French). Engraver of the end of the eigtheenth century. 

GUILLERME (French). Moneyer at Limoges, 1358. 

GUILLERMIN, JEAN (French). Sculptor and Medallist of Lyons, 
who was ordered in 1646 to cut a medal in commemoration ot 
the foundation of the Hotel de Ville of Lyons. 

Bibliography. — Blanchet, Manuel de numistnatiqw du moyen age et moderne. 
Vol. II, p. 387. — N. Rondot, Revue du Lyonnais, 1887, II, 257; 1888, I, 172. 

GUILLIOBE (Brit.). Sculptor and Modeller of the second halt ot 
the eighteenth century. He worked for Wedgwood. His name occurs 
on a Portrait-medallion of George Willisson, Painter, 1722-1797. 

Bibliography. — Grzy, James and William Tassie, Edinburgh, 1894. 

GUILLOD, PERRONNET (French). Mint-master at the Savoyard Mint 
of Bourg-en-Bresse, from 29. January 1457 to 21. Jun. 1497, 
with a short interruption in 1468. He worked under the three 
Dukes of Savoy, Louis, Amedeus IX., and Philibert I. 

Bibliography. — D"" Lad6, Numismatique de la Savoie, Revue Suisse de numis- 
matique, 1896. 

— 344 — 

GUILLOT, JEAN (French). Mint-master at Montpellier, eighteenth 

GUINIER, N. (French). Parisian Goldsmith, to whom M. Mazerolle 
attributes medals of Henry IV. and Marie de Medicis. The period 
of his activity is comprised between 1601 and 16 [4, in which latter 
years he executed silver medals with busts of Louis XIII., Marie de 
Medicis and other personages. His signature appears as N. G. F. or 
N. GVI. 

Bibliography. — Mazerolle, op. cit. 

GUINZANO, CARLO (ItaL). Mint-master at Milan, from 8. June 
1675 to 1681. 

Bibliography. — Gnecchi, Le Monete di Milano, 1884, Int. LXXXIV. 

GUITBERT, RAYMOND (French). Mint-master general for the King 
of England and Prince of Wales, at Limoges, 1365. 
Bibliography. — Louis Guibert, La Monnaie de Limoges, 1893. 

GUITON, GERMAIN (French). Medallist, and Jeton-engraver, men- 
tioned in documents between 15 31 and 1547- 

The following Jetons are mentioned by Mazerolle : 1531, Jetons 
for Fran(;ois Benenaud ; — 15 S3, 1534 and 1537, Jetons for Francis, 
Duke of Brittany, Henry de France, Duke of Orleans, and Charles 
de France, Duke of Orleans, also for the Master of the Chambre 
aux Deniers du Roi ; — 1540, Jetons for Renee de France, Duchess 
of Ferrara, and her officers; ~ 1540, Jetons tor Jean Chassebras, 
seigneur of Brean, and Antoinette Balue, his wife; — 15 43, Jetons 
for Antoine Bohier ; — 1547, Jetons for the Sieur de Burge, &c. 

Bibliography. — A. Barre, Noms de Graveurs en me'daiUes de la Renaissance 
franfaise, Ann. de numismatique, 1867, p. 173. — Blanchet, op. cit., vol. II, 
p. 395. — Mazerolle, op. cit. 

GUITON, GILBERT (French). Jeton-engraver at Paris, circa 1549; 
probably a relative of Germain Guiton. 

GUITTET, GEORGES (French). Contemporary Sculptor and 
Medallist, born at Cholet (Maine-et-Loire); pupil of Roulleau, 
Tureau, and Theodore Riviere. At the Salon of 1902 he exhibited 
a Portrait-medallion of M. Caux. 

GULDEN, PAUL (Dane). Mint-master at the Danish Mint of Fre- 
deriksborg, after 1581, under Frederick IL and Christian IV. 
Bibliography. — Jorgensen, Beskrivelse oiier Danske Monter 1448-18S8. 

master at Frankfort-on-Main, 1487- 1507. Fide. ENGELLENDER 
Vol. II, p. 20. 

— 345 — 

GULDENLIEBEN. PETER (Germ.). Mint-warden at Frankfort-on- 
Main, 1441. In his issues appears a G between tlie legs of S' John 
the Baptist, on Goidgulden of the Emperor Frederick. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, of>. cit. — Ruppel, Ak^eicJien auf 
Frauhfurkr Munien, im Archiv fur Frankfurts Geschichte. Hett 8. S. 59. — Nagler, 
Die Motipgramviislen, 1881. 

GULLEN, CASPAR HIERONYMUS (Germ.). Modeller, born at 
Nuremberg in 1658. In 1686, he executed a Marriage Medal 
(Hochzeitsschilling) for his brother Achatius. He is probably the 
author of some other unsigned Portrait-medallions in hone-stone. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884. — Blanchet, op. 
cit., II, 578. 

GUNDLACH, GEORG (Atistr.). Mint-master at Vienna, 1503. Died 
in 1506. 

GUNDLOCH. ULREICH DER (Austr.). Mint-master at Vienna, 
1420-1423, 1425. 

Bibliography. — Arnold Luschin von Ebengreuth, Muniwesen, Handel und 
Verkehr im spdteren Mittelalter , Wien, 1902. 

GUMERAUER, NIKOLAUS (Bohem.). Mint-master at Eger (Bohe- 
mia) from 1 410 to 141 8. 

GUMERY, CHARLES ALPHONSE (French). Sculptor, born at Paris 
on the 14''' of June 1827. Pupil of Toussaint. In 1850, he earned 
the distinction of the First Grand Prix de Rome. He is the author 
of several Portrait-medallions; that of J. Ampere was exhibited at 
the Salon of 186 1. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

GUMPERTZ, HERZ, MOSES & CO (Germ.). A Jewish Banking Esta- 
blishment, which was granted the privilege to issue coins in 175$ at 
Breslau for the Government. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Neuere Mun:;^eschichte Schlesiens. 

GUNDEL (Austr.). Mint-master (?) at Vienna, circa 1296. 

GURSCHNER, GEORG (Germ.). Seal-cutter and Heraldic-engraver 
of Breslau, 1696-1723. He was employed at the Mint of that city. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. — Schlesiens Vor^eit in Bild und Schrift 

GUSSMANN, WENZEL (Germ.). An Assistant-engraver at the Mint 

of Breslau, 1656. 

— 346 — 

GUTENSON, HANS or JOHANN JOACHIM (Swiss). A native of Son- 
nenberg (Canton St-Gall) ; Mint-master and Coin-engraver at 
Zurich, apparently between 1555 and 1561, then at Altdorf for the 
three Cantons of Uri, Schwytz and Unterwald, until 1564, when 
he sold his work material to the city of St. Gall. In 1565, he was 
engaged by Count Palatine Wolfgang of Zweibriicken as Mint- 
master at Meysenheim, in which office he, was succeeded on his 
death in 1566 by his two sons, David and Thomas. 

The mark of this engraver on the coins of Zurich is f^. We find 
it on a series of undated Thalers and Half Thalers, issued between 
1555 and 1561 ; Double Thalers of 1556 and 1559; Thalers of 1556, 
1557, 1558, 1559 (so-called *' Schnabelthaler ") and 1560 (several 
varieties exist of each date, and some were engraved by Jakob 

" Schnabelthaler " of Zurich, by Gutenson. 

Stampfer) ; Half-Thalers ot 1556, 1557, 1558, 1559 and 1560; 
Quarter Thalers of 1556, 1557 and 1559; Groschen of 1555, 1356, 
1557, 1558, 1559, 1560, and i56i,&c. 

By him are probably also : Thalers of Uri, Schwytz and Unterwald 
1 561, 1562, and 1563, of which several varieties are known. 
Undated Dicken of various types; Doppler ; Dickpfennige (Doppel- 
vierer); Kreutzer and Kronen. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — Poole, Swiss Coins 
in the South Kensington Museum. London, 1878. — Bodecker, Die Thaler von 
Zurich ausdem sechs^ehnten Jalirhundert, Bulletin Suisse de numisinatique, 1887. — 
Sattler, Die von Uri, Sclrwyi und Unterwalden gemeinschaftlich geprdgten Miin:(en, 
Bull. Suisse de num., 1888^ 

GUTENSON, DAVID (Swiss). Son of Hans Gutenson. Mint-master 
at Meysenheim, after 1566. 

GUTENSON, THOMAS (Swiss). Son of Hans Gutenson. Mint-master 
at Meysenheim, in succession to Hans Gutenson, after 1566. He 

— 347 — 

was arrested in 1571 and imprisoned at Zweibriicken for fraud 
in connection with his office. 

Bibliography. — Ammon, op. cit. 

GUTMANN, CHRISTOPH (G^rm.). Mint-master at Bromberg, 1639- 
1653. Distinctive mark : C.G. 

general of Bohemia, 15 33-1 542. Distinctive mark : three stags' 

Bibliography. — Fiala, op. cit., p. 688 A. 

GUTTMANN, CHRISTIAN {Germ.). Seal-cutter and Heraldic- 
engraver of Breslau. He died at the age of 28, in 1696. He worked 
in connection with the Breslau Mint. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. 

GUYBERT. JEAN dit Petit-Jean {French). Moneyer at Limoges, 
1 5 14, in conjunction with Martial Ruaud. 

G. V. Vide GRAF, VRSVS. 

G. W. Vide GEORG WUNSCH. Mint-master at Heidelberg, 1712- 

G. W. Vide GEORG WORSCHLER. Mint-master at Durlach, 1760- 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

* G. W. *. These initials appear on two German medals of the 
first half of the sixteenth century. One represents the creation of 
Eve and the Final judgment, after Holbein's design, with the 
is a Portrait-medal of PhiUp of Hesse, 1535, signed on obv. G.W. 
and on 1^. "R. 

D' Merzbacher describes in Kunst-Medaillen-Katalog, Miinchen, 
1900, n° 261, another medal by the same artist, whom Fiala calls 
a Kremnitz Engraver. This piece is dated 1545 and represents on 
obv. The Adoration of the Magi and on I^. that of the Shepherds 

- 348 - 

(illustrated). Several later imitations and varieties exist of this 
medal. One of tiiein representing probably Florian Griesbech von 

Religious Medal, by G. W., after Holbein. 

Griesbach may be attributed to the Medallist W.G. ofjoachims- 

Another Medallist, who signed G or GW executed the following 
medals : David and Jonathan ; — Religious Medal of 1543, obv. 

— 349 — 

Luna ^. Abundance; — Conversion of Saul of Tarsus, 1558 ; — 
Florian Griesbech, 1567, &c. 

The Adoration of the Magi and Shepherds, by un. .^lasici G«W. 
Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884, p. 45. 

GUY, VANNE or VENNE {French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Troyes, 1309-13 10, and from 13 10-13 11 i" conjunction with Pierre 
La Coste. 

BiBUOGR.\PHY. — Rondot, Graveurs de Troyes, Paris, 1892. 

GUYBERT, PIERRE (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint ot Tours, 

GDYON, GERMAIN (French). Jeton-engraver at Paris, circa 155 i. 
Mazeroile does not think he can be identified with Germain Guiion. 
Guyon is the author of some Jetons ot Raoul Moreau. 

Bibliography. — Mazeroile, op cit. 


GUYOT, HARDOYN (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Angers, 
15. November 1358 to 6. August 1563. 
Bibliography. — Planchenault, La Motiitaie d' Angers, 1896. 

GWORDEN, JOHANN (G^rw.). Mint-assistant at Brieg, 1673. 

GWALCZHOFER, SIGMUND (/i/wj/r.). Mint-master in Austria, whose 
name occurs on documents, 1477, 1479-82, 1484-88, 1491 ; he 
died in 1494. 

Bibliography. — Nentwich, Regesten :^Hr Geschichte der Munistdtte Wien, 1901. 

— Ebengreuih, op. cit. 

GYOT, PIERRE (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Rennes 

GYOT, PIERRE JUNR (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Saint-L6, 1 584-1602. 

— 350 — 
GYOT, PIERRE (^French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Rennes, 

GYR, JU. DE (Dutch). Medallist of the early part of the seventeenth 
century. One of his productions, dated 16 18, represents Peter 
Gyron, Duke of Ossuna, Count of Urena, Viceroy of Sicily, 

Bibliography. — D"* Merzbacher, Ktinst-Medaillen-Katalog , Mai 1900. 

r {Greek). According to Lermann (Athenatypen auf Griechischen 
Miin^en, Miinchen, 1900), this letter represents an Engraver's name 
on coins of Hyria, Pandosia, Thurium, Neapolis, Velia, and 
Rhegium, as well as on gold, silver, and copper coins of Bruttii, 
but I doubt if this attribution is correct. 

— 351 — 


H. {Greek). Possibly an Engraver's signature, which occurs on 
Tarentine staters of the period comprised between 380-345 B.C. 

I. ,<R. Didrachm. Obv. Naked youth galloping to r., grasping 
reins with both hands; plain border. 

^L. TAPA2. Taras astride on dolphin to 1. ; holds acrostolium in 
outstretched r. hand ; on dolphin, artist's signature, H ; plain 
border. Weight : 7.79 grammes. 

Collection M. P. Vlasto; Hunterian Collection (PI. V, ^); Collec- 
tion Seltman ; Paris Medal Cabinet ; Athens Medal Cabinet. 

The reproduction is from M. Flastos specimen, which is the finest 

2. JK. Didrachm. Prototype of Type C. Evans, Horsemen of 
Tarentum, p. 58, with different obverse. Obv. Naked horseman 
with small shield; below, A. 

^L. TAPA2. Taras seated sideways on dolphin; beneath P, and 
on dolphin H. Weight : 7.90 grammes. 

Collection M. P. Vlasto {from the Car f roe Sale). 
3. yR. Didrachm. Cfr. Evans, Type A, n" 2 ; Period H, 
Type E. 2, and p. 120. Also Zeitschrift fur Numismatik, II, i. 

— 352 — 

Obv, Naked horseman crowning his horse; in front, caduceus; 
below horse, A. 

' ^L. TAPAZ. Taras seated on dolphin to r. ; on dolphin H; 
beneath P. Weight : 7.74 grammes. 

Unpublished variety from M. P. Vlastds collection. 
The Imhoof-Blumer specimen, without the caduceus visible, is 
not correctly described in Evans, PI. Ill, i. 

Note. — All the specimens which I reproduce here have been kindly communicated 
to me by Mr. M. P. Vlasto, to whom I wish to tender my best thanks. 

The subject of artists' signatures on Greek coins is a somewhat 
difficult one, and for want of absolute knowledge, it is impossible, 
except in the well-known instan:es on coins of Camarina, Catana, 
Clazomenae, Cydonia, Metapontum, Polyrhenium, Syracuse, 
Terina, Thurium, Velia, &c., to speak of them with anything like 

Mr. Arthur J. Evans has done a great deal towards clearing the 
obscurity that surrounds these engravers and their works, and he 
does not hesitate to attribute to artists many of the numerous signa- 
tures which are found on Tarentine staters. Amongst these is the 
letter H, which appears on the back of the dolphin on the varieties 
reproduced above. Von Sallet was also disposed to consider as the 
initial of an engraver's name the letter E which occurs in the same 
position on a coin in the Berlin Museum. These signatures E, H 
and also A have the same characteristics as EYAI on the small 
dolphin in front of the nymph's head, on the fine Syracusan tetra- 
drachm by Evaenetos, or KIMON on the dolphin ot the fine deca- 
drachm by this artist. 

The following remarks of Mr. Evans in Horsemen of Tarentumy 
p. 120 sqq. are well worth quoting, as they elucidate many diffi- 
cult points in the controversy : 

"There is one side to the question which does not seem to have 
been sufficiently considered by those who have approached the 
subject from the standpoint of pure art criticism. It seems some- 
times to be assumed that the actual engravers only signed in their 
artistic capacity. Modern specializations of calling which separate the 

- ^53 - 

die-sinker's art-work from that of those who actually strike tiie 
coins, and both again perhaps from that of the responsible mint 
official, must not be allowed to pervert our judgment. The whole 
character of the signatures on the Tarentine pieces shows that the 
engravers signed as those responsible for the weight and metal as 
well as the execution of the individual piece that bore their mark. 
This is in perfect keeping with mediaeval analogies, and fits in 
with what we know of the system in vogue at Antioch in Antiochos 
Epiphanes' day', and apparently in other Asiatic Greek cities where 
the coinage was in the hands of private individuals, who, like 
Demetrios the Ephesian, seem to have united the callings of 
moneyer and silversmith or jeweller. The appearance of more than 
one die-sinker's name on the same coin is easily accounted for by 
the existence of -jvEpvaTa'. or companies of moneyers and gold or 
silversmiths, of which we have epigraphic evidence, or even of 
smaller partnerships in business. The appearance of more than one 
signature on the same side of a coin may occasionally afford an 
illustration of a practice not unknown in the allied craft of gem- 
engraving, and of which an instance may be cited in the celebrated 
cameos 'inscribed AAOHOC CYN APEOflNI where EPOIOYN is 
obviously understood. Such a collaboration, so familiar in the great- 
er works of ancient art, enabled either artist to contribute his spe- 
cial faculties towards the production of a composition. On the 
whole, however, it is safer to suppose that in most cases the pre- 
sence of more than one signature on the same die indicates the joint 
responsibility of several maestri working in the same bottega. It is 
further to be observed that in these cases one of the signatures 
occurs at greater length than the others — an indication that this 
more emphatic signature belongs to the actual engraver of the die. 
Thus we find the artists who sign KAA. <J>I and API grouped toge- 
ther in a series of coins of Period IV., all presumably from the same 
atelier, buton coins where <i>\ occupies the principal place on a die we 
find signatures of the others in the abbreviated forms of K or /R. » 
On the fine Thuriumtetradrachm, inscribed I2T0P02 on exergual 
line, we have another striking instance of a second signature in the 
monogram NE which occurs as well on the rump of the bull. 
H. Vide HPA, HPAKAEIAAI injrd. 

H. Vide F. HAGENAUER of Strassburg, Medallist; resided at 
Augsburg, 15 18-1543. Hi^ signature occurs also as F. H. 

I . The story of King Antiochos, going about the city as a private person and 
visiting the workshops of the moneyers ( ip^jyjy.o-v.x) and goldsmiths is ^iven by 
Athenaeos (Lib. 10) on the authority of the 26«'' book of Polybios : " MaXiaxa 81 
Jtpo? TO'.? apyjpoxo-st'o'.; i'jpiixi-o xai ypjaoyooi?, tOpsatXoywv xai 5ptXoTc/vwv 7^005 
Toj; topEjTa; toj; aXXou; T£/viTa; ". The conjunction here with the Toreuta is 

L. FoKRER. — Biographical NoUca of Medallists. — II. 3} 

— 354 — 

H. and trefoil above. Fide HIERONYMUS MAGDEBURGER. Medallist, 
and Mint-master at Freiberg and Annaberg, circa 15 30-1 540. 

H. Fide LUBERTUS HAUSMANN. Mint-engraver at Miihlhausen in 
1616, and at Cassel, 1635-1639. 

H. Fide ALBERTO HAMERANI. Medallist of theseventeenth century; 
worked at Rome; died in 1677. Also A. H. 

H. Fide OTTO HAMERANI. Medallist at Rome, seventeenth cen- 
tury; died in 1768. Also 0. H. 

H. Fide JOHANN HORN. Medallist and Coin-engraver at Danzig in 
1659, afterwards in the service of the Electors of Brandenburg; 
died in 1693 at Langenfuhr, near Danzig. Also I- H. 

H. Fide JOHANN HORN JUNIOR. Medallist of the second halt ot 
the seventeenth century; died in 1693. Also I. H. 

H. Fide GIOVANNI HAMERANI. 1649-1705, Medallist at Rome, 
circa 1677- 1705. 

H. or ^ Fide HAUTSCH. Nuremberg Medallist, 1683-1711. 
Also G. H. 

H. r/Jg GABRIEL ROLLING. Die-sinker at Cassel, 1723-1728. 

H. Fide HARTMANN. Medallist at Stockholm, 1699-173 9. Also 
G. G. H. 

H. FfJg ENGEL HARTMANN. Son of the last-named; Medallist of 
Stockholm, 1731-1760. 

H. Fide HILKEN. Die-sinker at Schwerin, 1703-17 17. Also 
I. F.H. 

H. Fide HAUPT. Medallist and Coin-engraver at St. Petersburg, 
1700-1710. Also T. H. 

H. Fide HANNIBAL. Die-sinker at Hanover and Clausthal, 1705- 
1741. Also E. H. 

H. Fide NORBERT HETLBROUCK. Engraver at the Mint ot Bruges, 
eighteenth century. 

H. Fide HIERONYMUS FORMSGHNEIDER. Nuremberg Modeller, 

H. Fide HEINRICH FRIEDRICH HALTER. Mint-master and coin- 
engraver at Magdeburg, 1698-17 19. 

- 355 — 

H. Vide MARTIN CONRAD HANNIBAL. Die-sinker at Clausthal, 

H. Fide HERMANN. Mint-master at Cologne, 1715-1720. Also 
I. I.H. 

H. Fide HEDLINGER. Swiss Medallist; resided at Stockholm; died 
in 1771. Also I. C. H. 

H. Fide HAAG. Die-sinker in the service of Antony, Count of 
Montfort, 1736. 

H. Fide JOHANN HAAG. Medallist, and Coin-engraver; worked for 
the Bishop of Chur, 1740-1749; was at St. Gall in 1777. Also I. H. 
or 10. HA 

H. Fide HANDMANN. Coin-engraver at the Mint of Basle, 1740- 
1769. Also I. HM. 

H. Fide HANF. Die-sinker at Bayreuth, 1742-1776. Also I. A. H. 

H. Fide HARREWYN. Medallists (3) of Brussels, eighteenth cen- 

H. Fide HOLZHAUSER. Medallist at Warsaw, 1764- 1792. Also 
I. PH. 

H. Fide HABERBACH. Coin-engraver at Goslar, 1764, andatZerbst, 

H. Fide HERMANN HELD. Die-sinker at Magdeburg, 1877. 

H. Fide JOHANN GOTTFRIED HELD. Medallist at Breslau, 1764- 
1799. Also I. G. H. 

H. FiWfLUDWIG HELD. 1805-1839. Die-sinker at Berlin. 

H. Fide HAGEN. Coin-engraver at the Mint of Clausthal, 1776- 

H. Fide. HEIGELIN. Warden at the Stuttgart Mint, 1760-1794. 
Also D. E. H. 

H. Fide HOLTZHEIMER. Die-sinker at Hanau, 1775-1820. 

H. Fide HEIN. Die-sinker at Neustrelitz, end of eighteenth cen- 

H. Fide WENZEL HAINL. Assistant-engraver at the Vienna Mint, 

- 356 - 

fi. Fide HANCOCK. Die-sinker at Birmingham, end of eighteerith 
century and beginning of nineteenth century. Also I. G. H. 

H. Fide HELBIG. Mint-master at Dresden, 1804-1813. Also 
S.G. H. 

H. Fide HEURTHADX. Die-sinker at Paris, 1805-1812. 

H. Fide EASE. Mint-director at Hanover, 1803-18 18. Also 
G. H. H. 

H, Fide HALLIDAY. Die-sinker at Birmingham, beginning of the 
nineteenth century; worked circa 1810-1844. 

H. Fide PHILIPP HUHN. Die-sinker at Darmstadt, 18 17- 1820. 

H. Fide LAURENT JOSEPH HART. 1810-1860, Die-sinker at 

H. Fide HERKNER. Die-sinker at Warsaw, circa 1852. 

H. Fide HILLE. Mint-master at Halberstadt, 1 666-1 674, Bruns- 
wick, 1675-76, again at Halberstadt, 1677-81, Minden 1682-1713, 
and Rendsburg, 1716-1726. Also B. H. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, Ahkui-^ungen auf Mutf^en der neueren 
Zeit, des Mittelalters und des Alter thiivis, Berlin, 1896. 

TCH (mon.)or T. CH. Signature on a Dutch seventeenth century 
Plaque in repouss^ work, representing themy th of Adonis and Venus. 

H. Fide HIERONYMUS MAGDEBURGER. Medallist at Freiberg and 
Annaberg, arm 1530- 1540. 

H. and J^. (fiermS). This signature is found on an oval box-wood 
Medallion of 1523, representing on obv. a female head, and on ^. 
a Centaur. The style and execution are quite in keeping with the 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884. 

HAM. F/<ig ERMENGILDE HAMERANI. Medallist at Rome, 1704-1744. 

H^B {Germ.). Signature of one of the best Medallists of the 
German Renaissance. The period of his activity extended trom 1540 
to 1555, and as his productions mostly represent eminent 
Nuremberg citizens, it is more than likely that Nuremberg was the 
place of his residence. Erman calls attention to the remarkably thin 
hollow casting of his medals. 

Signed by this artist are the following medals : Undated. Ursula 
Durr, of Nuremberg (aet. 46). Stone model in the Berlin Museum, 
accompanied by a notice, written in the eighteenth century : 
,, Vom Augustin Hirschvogl war diese Ursula Durrer in diesen 

— 357 — 

Marmorstein 1530 geschnitten worden. Sieh dessen Zeichen unter 
dem linken arm. "); — 1540. Christoph Scheurl, of Nuremberg 
(Berlin); — 1540- Christoph Tetzel, of Nuremberg (Berlin); — 
1 5 41. Mathes Hes, of Nuremberg (Itzinger Collection; specimen 
sold tor 360 Marks in December 1889) ; — (1546.) Ursula, Countess 
Z.IRS ALTERS IM.XVII. Bust to 1. Tin, uniface (Felix Collec- 
tion, n" 251 of Sale Catalogue, 1895). In connection with this 
medal, Erman remarks : " Die mehrfach besprochene Frage, ob 
auch Abgiisse in Blei oder Zinn in allgemeinem Gebrauch waren, 
glaube ich bejahen zu miissen. So besitzt Herr Itzinger ein hohl 
gegossenes Zinn (die ^L. einer der Solms'schen Medaillen des 
H;j^B), an dessen Alter mir nicht der geringste Zweifel gestattet 
zu sein scheint, und von den Medaillen des Tobias Wolff giebt es 
zahlreiche einseitige Bleiabgiisse, von denen das Gleiche gilt. 
Ebenso wurden nach Neudorffers Angabe (ed. Lochner S. 159) 
1538 in den Grundstein eines Niirnberger Bauwerkes goldene una 
bleierne Exemplare der dazu verfertigten officiellen Denkmiinze 
gelegt. Dazu kommt die Thatsache, dass in einem Thurmknopf zu 
Dresden 1701 ein Depositum gefunden wurde, das fiinf bleierne 
Medaillen enthielt (i Herzog Georgs, 3 seiner Rathe, i Karls V. 
von 1530) und dass sie bei der Erbauung niedergelegt waren, 
bevvies ein dabei liegender Zettel (Tentzel, lin. Alb. S. 223). Damit 
will ich aber natiirlich nicht behaupten, dass alle die scheinbar alten 
Exemplare in unsern Sammlungen Originale sind ; vielmehr weise 
ich ausdriicklich auf die Notiz bei Stetten hin, dass der " selige 
Hertel " Hagenauers Medaillen gesammelt und ** in Bleiabgiissen 

Portrait-medal of Lenhart Kobolt (Berlin). 

bekannter gemacht " habe ". We have seen also that most of 
Flotner's productions are only known in lead impressions, undoubt- 

- 358- 

edly contemporar)'^ ; and likewise some of the medals attributed to 
Diirer, as for instance the Portrait-medallion of Michael Wohl- 
gemuth in the possession of Max Rosenheim Esq., F.S.A. illustr. 
Vol. I, p. 474.) 5 — (1546)- Amalie, Countess Solms-Lich (Felix 
Collection; described in Bergmann); — 1546.... Countess Solms- 
Lich, Lady of Minzenberg (^. only, from theltzinger Collection). 
In the Sale Catalogue (lot 307) this medal is described as probably 
the work of Hans Sebald Beham, and the Cataloguer adds : " Die 
Medaille ist von meisterhafter Arbeit und Ausfuhrung ") ; — 
1547. Lorenz Muiler and Margarete Nesin (Berlin); — IH7- 
Johann Fichard and Frau Elisabeth, of Frankfort (illustr. in Riippel); 
— 1547. Justinian von Holzhausen, of Frankfort (illustr. in Riippel); 
— 1547. Jurig von Hoi '' Kais. Maj. Oberster " (Berlin) ; — 1552. 
Lenhart Kobolt, of Nuremberg (^illustrated); — 1552. Wenzel 

Portrait-medal of Willibald Gebhard. 

Jamnitzer, a Nuremberg artist ; obv. WENCZEL lAMNICZER— 
XLIIII, lAR ALT, IM.MDLIL Bust to r., with long beard ; signa- 
ture on truncation (Berlin ; an impression in lead is described in 

Medal of Stephan Bair. 

D' Merzbacher's Kunst-Medaillen-Katalog , n° 337); — ^553- 
Willibald Gebhard, Clerk to the Nuremberg Town Council 
(Berlin; illustrated); — Mr Max Rosenheim has allowed me to 

— 359 — 

illustrate his specimen of tiiis rare medal. In the Felix Collection 
existed a lead impression of the same medal by Rockl; — 1555. 
Stephan Bair, Clerk to the Town Council ot Nuremberg (Berlin ; 
illustrated); — Undated. Laux Kreler and his consort Elisabeth. 

All the medals mentioned above are of exquisite style; the por- 
traiture on them rivals that of the finest contemporary productions 
of the great masters. Hagenauer, Hans Schwartz, Peter Flotner, 
Tobias Wolff, the artists who sign themselves j{), MH,, H;,^B, 
and others belonging mostly to the first half of the sixteenth century 
have left us true gems of medallic art, worked with all the patience 
and delicacy characteristic of German Renaissance work. They 
remained strangers to all research of ideal beauty, but consciously 
copied nature, and " their medals recommend themselves for their 
poignant accent of living truth and realistic expression of the phy- 
siognomies " . 

Medallists did not always themselves look after both the casting 
and chasing of their medals, and this explains the reason why one 
meets with rude castings which nevertheless are undoubtedly old. 
They were done by unskilled hands, goldsmiths and other artisans, 
at the time, to supply the large demand that then existed for them. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medaillenre, Berlin, 1884. — Bergmann, 
Medailkn auf berulmile Maimer des osterreich. Kaiserstaates, Wien, 1844. — Bolzen- 
thal, op. cit. — Lenormant, Mommies el Medailles, Paris, n. d. — Hess, Sammliing 
des Herrn Eugen Felix in Leip:^ig. — Hess, Sammlung des Herrn Wilhelm It^inger 
in Berlin. — D"" Merzbacher, Kunst-Medaillen-Katalog, Mai 1900. — Ruppel, 
Kescheihung tind Ahhildung der SctMumiin^en, welche :(um Angedenken von Beu'ohnern 
Frankftirts geferligt wtirden, Frankfurt a. M., 1855. 

H (Germ.). Signature on a medal of Frederick IV. of Liegnitz, 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Schlesiens neuere Mfin^eschichle, 1900. 

m and J-R;. Vide HANS REINHARDT. Saxon MedaUist, i 535-1544. 

IH (or IB, or HE). In Tresor de numismaliqne et de Glyptique a fine 
oval medal of John George III. of Saxony is illustrated on PI. 44, 
8, where the signature may be read as above. 

Bibliography. — Erman, op. cit., p. 91. 

H {French). Initial ot an Engraver of the end of the eighteenth 
century. It occurs on a medal commemorating the Death of 
Louis XVI., 1793, and on another with bust of General Bonaparte 
PARTA LIBERTATIS ADSERTOR, struck at the time of the 
Peace of Campo-Formio, 1797. 

Bibliography. — Hennin, Histoire numismatique de la Revolution francaiu, 
Paris, 1826. 

— 3^0 — 

y. Fide HANS DOLLINGER. German Medallist of the first half of 
the sixteenth century. 

A. H. Vide ALBERT HUET. Mint-master in Transsylvania , circa 

A. H. or Ai Vide ALBERTO HAMERANI, 1620 + 1677. Medallist 
at Rome. 

A. H. or AI r/J^ ANDREAS HILLE. Mint-master at Stade, 1670; 
Rostock, 1672-1678; Schleswig, 1674; and Ratzeburg, 1678. 

A. H. Vide HEINIG. Die-sinker at Freiberg, circa 1 730-1740. 

A. G. H. Vide HILLE. Mint-master at Riga, circa 1700. 

A. V. H. Vide AUGUST HAKEBERG. Mint-warden at Minden, 1674- 

B. H. Vide BASTIAN HILLE. Mint-master at Halberstadt, 1666- 
1674; Brunswick, 1675-1676; Halberstadt, 1677-1681 ; Minden, 
1682-1713 ; and Rendsburg, 1716-1726. 

B. H. r/c?^ BEATRICE HAMERANI. Die-sinker at Rome, died in 1703. 

master and Warden of the Mint at Frankfort-on-M., 1790-1825. 
These initials appear on coins of the Grand Duchy of Frankfort, 

Saxony, Goldsmith, Architect and Medallist; worked at Copenha- 
gen; died in 1664. Also F. C. H. 

C. H. Vide CLAUS HINDEIKSEN. Mint-master at Arboga (Sweden), 

C. H. Vide I. C. HEDLINGER. Medallist at Stockholm; died in 1771. 
Also I. C. H. 

C. H. Vide I. C. HEUGELIN. Mint-master at Stuttgart, 1784-1808. 
Also I. C. H. 

C. H. H. Vide CHRISTIAN HEINRICH HASE. Mint-master at Hano- 
ver, 1803-1817; f 1818. 

C. H. I. Vide CHRISTIAN HEINRICH JASTER. Mint-master at Neu- 
strelitz, 1745-1749, and Berlin, 1749-1763. 

C. H. K. Vide CONRAD HEINRICH KUCHLER. Flemish Medallist; 
worked at Darmstadt, 1763-1772; Frankfort-on-M., 1775; and 
later in England, where he died in 1802. Also K. 

- 36i - 

C. H. L. Fide CASPAR HEINRICH LYNG. Mint-master at Altona, 
1771, and Copenhagen, 1783; Mint-director there, 1788; died 
in 1805. 

C. H. M. Vide CHRISTOPH HEINRICH MDLLER. Medallist at Augs- 
burg, eighteenth century. 


Nuremberg Goldsmith, circa 1528. 

C. H) or C. K). F, Fide SAMOLLA JUDIN. Russian Die-sinker, 1704- 

C. H. R. Fide C. H. ROLL (?) Die-sinker at Kremnitz. 

C. H. S. Fide CHRISTOPH HENNIG SCHLUTER. Mint-master at 
Lippe, i658-i66o;Goslar, 1674-1675 ; Mint- Warden of the District 
of Lower Saxony, 1681. 

Hanau, 1757-1758, Dantzig and Elbing, 1759-1761 ; and Mitau, 

sinking Establishment at Prague. 

C. H. S. U. Fide C. H. S. ULITSCH. Die-sinker at Breslau, circa 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

C. H, {Germ.). These initials occur on a medal of 1687 on the 
proposed Building of a Church for French Refugees, at Koenigsberg. 

Bibliography. — D^ Menadier, Schaumun\en des Houses HohenioUern, Berlin, 

D. H. Fide DANIEL HEIGELIN. Warden of the Stuttgart Mint, 
1760-1794. Also D. F. H. 

D. H. F. Fide DANIEL HASLINGH. Die-sinker at Hamburg, 1730- 

D. H. M. Fide DAVID HEINRICH MATTHAUS. Mint-master at 
Stettin, 1685-1688, and Stralsund, 1688-1691. 

E. H. Fide HERMENGILDO HAMERANI, 1 683-1744. Die-sinker at 
Rome, after 1704. 

Die-sinker at Hanover, 1705, and Clausthal, 171 5. 

E. H. Fide ENGEL HARTMANN. Medallist at Stockholm, 1740-1760. 

— 3^2 — 

master at Stolberg, 1790- 1807. 

F. H. FideF. HOHLEISEN. Mint-master at Augsburg, 1764. 

Modeller, 1529-1556. 

F. H. or ;^ or H. Vide FRIEDRICH HAGENAUER. Medallist at 
Augsburg, 1326-1332; still living in 1546. 

F. H. Vide FRINGS (Warden) and HOHLEISEN (Mint-master) at 
Augsburg, 1760-1769, 

F. H. Vide FRIEDRICH HEIGELIN. Warden of the Mint at Stuttgart, 
1760-1794. Also H. or D. F. H. 

F. H. Vide FRIEDRICH HEHRWAGEN. Mint-administrator at Hanau, 
1785-1821. Also I. F. H. 

F. H. Vide FRIEDRICH HOFFMANN. Mint-master at Warsaw, 

Rostock, 1782-1795. 

F. H. K. Vide FRIEDRICH HEINRICH KRUGER. Coin-engraver at 
Dresden, from 1787. 

F. H. P. Vide FRANZ HERMANN PRANGHE. Warden of the Mint • 
at Wiirzburg, 1762- 1790. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

f^ (^Gerni.) This monogram occurs on three small box- wood 
models in the Berlin Cabinet. One ot them, dated 1534, repre- 
sents Raimund Fugger ; the other two are anonymous. From 
similarity of work to the known productions of Hagenauer, these 
medals are ascribed to that renowned artist. 

Bibliography. — Erman, op. cit., p. 39. 

G. H. Vide GEORG HEINECKE or HEINKE. Mint-master at Liegnitz, 
1612-1623. Also G.III.H. or G.(L.) H. 

G. H. Vide GEORG HUBNER. Warden of the Mint at Breslau, 

G. H. Vide GOTTFRIED HEYER. Mint-master at Herborn, 1681- 
1682. Also G. 0. H. 

G. H. Vide GEORG HADTSCH. Medallist at Nuremberg, 1683- 

- 363 - 

G. H. Vide GERHARD HULS. Warden of the Mint at Cologne, 

G. H. Fide GEERT HULL. Medallist nt Copenhagen, 1782-18 10. 

G. H. Vide GIOACCHIMO HAMERANI JUN«. Medallist at Rome, 

Mint at Saalfeld, 1732; Mint-master there, 1740-1754. 

G. H. F. Vide GIOVANNI HAMERANI. Medallist at Rome, 1780- 

G. H. Vide GEORG HOLDERMANN. Die-sinker at Nuremberg, 1619. 

G. H. P. Vide GEORG HARTMANN PLAPPERT. Coin-engraver to 
the Westphalian circle, circa 1659 ; Mint-master atldstein, -f 1692. 

G. H. S. Vide GEORG HEINRICH SINGER. Warden of the Mint at 
Breslau, 1746; Mint-master, 1752-1760. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

•H^and .H. R. H. {Germ.). Vide also E. A. Signature of an excel- 
lent Medallist of the Rhine Province, who worked during the 
second half of the sixteenth century. Erman ascribes to him four 
medals : 1560. Georg Mirdel, " Canonicus Sancti Stephani "; 
perhaps a Dutch ecclesiastic (Berlin Museum); — 1573. Eucharius 
(Kretzer), " Decanus S. Paulini prope Treverim (Dannenberg 
collection^; — 1580. Jacob von Eltz, Arcbishop of Treves (BerHn ; 
illustrated) ; — Undated (?). Daniel Brendel of Homburg, Arch- 

Medal ot Jacob von Eltz, Archbishop of Treves. 

bishop of Mayence (Berlin). 

Erman observes : " Ein vortrefflicher rheinischer Kiinstler; 
seine drei sicher beglaubigten Arbeiten haben trotz der zwanzig- 
jahrigen Differenz noch Gemeinsames ". 

— 3^4 — 

The celebrated Saxon Medallist, Hans Reinhard, whose period of 
activity extends from 1535 to 1547, signed also -j-j^ or FR, and his 
son, Hans Reinhard Jun"", bywhom a medal is known, dated 1582, 
used the monogram IR. 

Bibliography. — Erman, op. cit., p. 66. 

I. H. VideJOST HALTERMANN. Mint-master at Riga, 1660. 

I. H. Vide JOHANN HORN the Elder, Medallist at Danzig, 1636- 

I. H. or H. or JB or EIVN or ^h Fide JOHANN HOHN junior, 
Medallist and Coin-engraver at Danzig and in the service of the 
Electors of Brandenburg; died in 1693 ^^ Langenfuhr, near 

I. H. Vide JOHANN HOFFMANN. Mint-master at Detmold, 1671- 

I. H. Vide JOHANN HORCHER. Mint-assistant at Erturt, 1675- 

I. H. Vide JOHANN HOHN. Die-sinker at Danzig, circa 1697. 

I. H. or I. HF. or 10. H. Vide JOHANNES HAMERANUS, 1649-1705. 
Medallist at Rome, from 1677. 

I. H. Vide JOHANN HERMANN. Mint-master at Cologne, 17 15- 
1720. Also I. I. H. 

I. H. T/V/c JOHANN HITTORF. Mint-master at Bonn, 1733-1738. 

I. H. Vide JOHANN HAAG. Medallist at Tettnang and Langenar- 
gen, 1740-1763. Also H. or 10. HA. 

I. H. Vide JOHANN HANDMANN. Coin-engraver at Basle, 1740- 
1769. Also I. H. M. 

I. H. Vide JOHANN HEIMREICH. Mint-master at Eisenach, 1750- 


I. H. Vide JEAN BAPTISTE HARREWYN. Belgian Medallist, second 
half of the eighteenth century, 1764-1783. 

I. H. Vide JEAN HARDY. Medallist at Paris, under Louis XIV. 

I. H. Vide JOHANN BAPTIST HARNISCH. Medallist at Vienna, 

I. H. B. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH BERG. Mint-master at Rostock, 

- 565 - 

1. fl. F. yide JOflANN HILCKEN. Medallist at Schweriri, I703- 
1717. Also I. F. H. 

I. H. I. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH JACOB. Mint-master at Sagan, 
under Wallenstein, 1629. 

I. H. L. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH LOWE. Mint-master at Ham- 
burg, ijiyijSo, and Stralsund, 1761-1763. 

I. H. L. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH LOWE. Mint-master at Neustre- 
litz, 1769-1786. 

I. HM. Vide JOHANN JACOB HANDMANN. Coin-engraver at 
Basle, 1740-1769. 

I. H. M. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH MADELUNG. Mint-master at 
Oldenburg, 1760-1766; Warden of the Mint at Kongsberg, 1770, 
and Mint-master there, 1773-1776. 

I. H. Vide GIUSEPPE ORTOLANI of Venice, Medallist at Rome, 

I. H. R. Vide GIOVANNI HAMERANI. Medallist at Rome, second 
half of the seventeenth century, 1649- 1705. 

I. H. S. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH SIEGEL. Mint-master at Harzge- 
rode, 1744-175 2. 

I. H. S. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH SCHEPP. Mint- master at Weil- 
burg, 1749- 1 750. 

I. H. S. Vide JOHANN HENNIG SCHLDTER. Mint-master to the 
Landgraves of Hesse, 1750-1760; died at Frankfort-on-M. in 


I. H. S. Vide JOHANN HOLZHAUSER (IN) SLONIN. Medallist in 
Poland, end of eighteenth century. 

I. H. T. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH TAGLANG. Mint-master at 

Zweibriicken, 1621-1626. 

I. H. T. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH THIELE. Coin-engraver at 
Brunswick, 17 14; Warden of the Mint there, 1723, and Mint- 
master, 1729; died in 1732. 

I. H. V. U. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH VON USLAR. Mint-director at 
Hildesheim, 1764-1784; died in 1806. 

I. H. W. Vide JOHANN HEINRICH WERNER. Medallist at Erfurt, 

— 366 — 

I. H. W. Vide JOEAim HENRIK WOLFF, 1727-1788. Coin-engraver 
at Copenhagen, 1760, and Altona, I77i-i779;t 1788. 

Hanover, 17 69-1 781. 

L. H. or H Fide LUBERT HAUSSMANN of Cassel. Mint-master at 
Muhlhausen 1616, and at Cassel, 1635-1638. 

L. H. Fide LUDWIG HELD, 1805-1839. Medallist at Berlin. 

H Fide HAUBOLD LEHENER. Coin-engraver at the Ratisbon 
Mint, 1598-1632. 

L. H. B. Fide LUDWIG HEINRICH BARBIEZ. Medallist at Berlin, 

L. H. L. Fide LUDOLPH HEINRICH LUDERS. Mint-master at Det- 
mold and Brake, 1716-1727. 

M. H. or m Fide MELCHIOR HOFFMANN. Warden of the Mint at 
Berlin, 1589 ; Mint-master, 1602; died in 1620. 

M. H. Fide MICHAEL HODERMANN. Warden of the Mint at Brom- 
berg, 1671-1678. 

M. H. Fide MARTIN HOLTZHEY, 1697-1764. Medallist at Ams- 
terdam, from 17 1 7. 

M. H. Fide MARTIN HANNIBAL. Mint-master at Clausthal, 1741- 

M. H. 0. FideMARTlH HEINRICH OMEIS, 1650-1703. Medallist 
and Coin-engraver at Dresden. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

MH (Germ.') One of a series of rough oval medals, apparently 
all done by the same artist, bears the indistinct monogram MH. 
The author of these medals must have been a Nuremberg 
Medallist who worked at the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
1603. Anthon Geuder (Berlin Museum); — 1603. Magdalene 
Geuder, daughter of the last (Berlin; illustrated); — 1603. 
Christoph Purer, husband of the last (Berlin); — 1603. Hans 
Nutzel (Berlin); — 1603. Paul Diether (Berlin); — Undated. 
Georg Pfintzing (aet. 36) (Berlin); — Undated. Martin Haller 

- 367 - 

(act, 51) (Berlin); — 1603. Jeremias HarsdorfFer and Frau Susanna 
(Berlin) ; — 1603. Paul Harsdorffer (Berlin). 

Medal of Magdalene Geuder. 

According to Erman, two medals of Christoph Purer, dated 
1602 and 1612, and one of Hans Volland, 1604 (all three in the 
Berlin Collection) may possibly belong to the same artist. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche MedaiUeure, p. 77. 

M. H. {Genn.y D"^ Merzbacher in his Sale Catalogue of the 
Gutekunst Medals describes a Portrait-piece of Conrad von Ofen- 
bach, dated 1571, on which he has read the signature M. H. and 
which he attributes to a North German Medallist of the latter 
part of the sixteenth century. 
* Bibliography. — D"" Eug, Merzbacher, Kunst-Medailkn-Katalo^, Mai 1900. 

N. H. Fide NIKOLAUS HONEL. Mint-master at Olkusz in Poland, 

N. H. or NH- Ficie NIKOLAUS HENNIG. Mint-master at Elbing, 

0. H. or H. Fide OTTONE HAMERANI, 1 694-1768. Medallist at 
Rome; Mint-master there, 1734. 

0. H. K. Fide OTTO HEINRICH KNORRE. Mint-master at Schwerin, 
1751-1756, also at the same time and until 1760, Mint-master at 
Stralsund, and at Hamburg, 1761-1805. 

P. H. Fide PETER HEMA. Mint-master at Glatz, circa 1630. 

P. H. Fide HACKL, PHILIP IGNATZ. Mint-master at Krummau, 

— 568 — 

i»H. fiAL. Fide PHILIPPVS BALUGANI, 1734-1780. Die-sinker at 
Bologna. Also F.B. 

P. H. G. Fide PAUL HEINRICH GODECKE. Medallist at Hamburg, 

P. H. L. Fide PETER H. LUNDGREN. Medallist at Stockholm, 
second half of the nineteenth century. 

P. H. M. Fide PHILIPP HEINRICH MULLER, 1650-1718. Medallist, 
and Coin-engraver who worked at Nuremberg and Augsburg. 

PH. R. FideVElLlFP ROETTIERS. Coin-engraver ot the eighteenth 
century; -f 1732. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

^ (Germ.y Monogram of a Modeller ot the second halt ot the 
sixteenth century. This monogram occurs on the stone model of 
a medal of Jacob Mutfel (Dannenberg Collection) and on another 
of a medal ot Georg Roggenbach (Berlin). The last is dated 1575, 
and the personage represented was *' Consulent der RepubHk 
Niirnberg ". 

Nagler mentions medals of Melanchthon signed P. H. 

Bibliography. — Erman, op. cit., p. 55. — Nagler, Motiograinmisten. 

P. H. (Swiss^ Signature of an unknown MedaUist of the beginning 
of the eighteenth century. These initials appear on a medal of 1707 
commemorating the Alliance of the Reformed Cantons. 

Bibliography. — Nagler, op. cit. 

R. H. (Germ.). These initials occur on a Groschl of 1624 struck 
at Breslau. 
Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Schlesiens neuere Mun:^geschichte, Breslau, 1900. 

S. H. FideSkVlUEL HANHARDT. Coin-engraver at Basle, 1624-1654. 

S. H. Fide SEBASTIAN HUGGENBERG. Coin-engraver at Salzdahlen, 

S. H. or S. H. S. Fide SALOMON HAMMERSCHMIDT. Mint-master 
at Breslau, 1666-1690. 

T. H. Fide THEODOR HAUPT. Coin-engraver at S^ Petersburg, 

T. H. or T. H. F. Fide T. HALLIDAY. Die-sinker in London, early 
part of the nineteenth century. 

V. H. Fide DAVID GERHARD VON HACHTEN. Die-sinker at Ham- 
burg, 1 704- 1 726. 

— 369 — 

V. H. Fide VON HAVEN. Mint-master at Copenhagen, I747-1761 . 

V. H. Fide VON HOVEN. Mint-master at Fulda, 1765 -1796. 

W. H. (^Germ.). These initials of a Mint-master or Coin-engraver 
of Cleves, appear on currency issued between 1690 and 1695. 

W. H. or WR. H. Fide JOHANN WERNER HENSCHEL. MedalUst at 
Cassel, circa 1838. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

H. A. Fide HEINRICH ANGERSTEIN. Mmt-master at Coburg, 1686- 
1705. Fide H.E.A. 

H. A. K. Fide HANS ADAM KIENLEN. Mint-master at Ulm, 1663- 

HA misread monogram for HR. Fide HANS REIMER. Goldsmith, 
and Medallist of Munich, who worked for Duke Albert V. ot 
Bavaria, The monogram HR occurs on a medal of Albert V., dated 
1554, ^^'^ o" ^ second one of Margarethe von Fraunhofen. The 
first of these medals used to be ascribed, erroneously, to Anton 
Hundertpfund, who was Mint-master at Munich under Albert V. 
Herr J. V. KuU has established the identity of the author of this 
medal, who is Hans Reimer. 

Medal of Albert V. of Bavaria, signed HR. 

Bibliography. — J. V. KuU, Ein Monogramm anf bayerischen PorlraitmedailUn, 
Mittheilungen der Bayerischen Numisniatischen Gesellschaft, Munchen, 1898. — 
Zimmermann, Die hildenden Kunsle am Hof Her^og Albrechis V von Bayern, Strass- 
burg, 1895. — P. f. Meier, Blatter fur Munifreutide, col. 204s, Note. — Auktion 
Kat.Eug. Felix, P\. II, 64. 

L. FokKEK. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — II. >4 

— 370 ~ 

HAAG, ANTON (Germ.). Coin-engraver for the Counts of Montfort 
before 1736, when he was succeeded by Johann Haag, presumably 
his son. 

HAAG, JOHANN (Germ.). Medallist and Coin-engraver ot the 
second and third quarters of the eighteenth century. According to 
several writers and the testimony ot the coins, this Engraver worked 
for the Count of Montfort, between 1736 and 1752; in 1734 he 
succeeded Jonas Thiebaud as Die-cutter at the Mints ot Langenargen 
and Tetnang, in the service of Prince Frederick William of 
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, with a salary of 52 Florins. He worked 
for the Lucerne and Unt^rwald (Obwald) coinage in 1743; his 
signature occurs on several issues of 1749 of Joseph Benedict 
Freiherr von Rost, Bishop of Chur, and, 1773- 1777, he filled the 
post of Mint-master and Engraver to the Mint of S* Gall, under 
Bishop Beda Anghern von Hagenwyl. 

The following coins engraved by Johann Haag have come under 
my notice. With the signature, I. HAAG : N. 5 Ducats (Trachsel) 
7 Ducats (Poole) of Joseph Benedict Freiherr von Rost, Bishop of 
Chur (1728-1754), dated 1749; — sig. I. HAAG, F. : ^R. Thaler 
of Ernest, Count of Montfort (1734-1788), dated 1749; — JR.. 
Thaler of 1752; — Michaelsgulden of Beromiinster, undated 
(3 varieties) ; — sig, H : AT. Ducal of Beda Anghern von Hagen- 
wyl, Bishop of St, Gall (1767-1796); — JR.. Thaler of 1777; — 
20 Kreutzer piece, 1774; — 12 Kreutzer piece, 1773 ; — Kreutzer, 

Thaler of St. Gall, 1777, by Johann Haag. 

undated ; — A^. Ducat of Joseph Benedict, Bishop of Chur, dated 
1741 (3 var,); — N. Ducat of 1749; — Sig. I. H. : Batzen of 
Lucerne, 1743; — Halt-batzen, 1743; — AT. Ducat of Unterwald 
(Obwald), dated 1743 (2 var,), and silver impression of the Ducat; 
— sig. 'H. : AT. Ducat of Joseph Benedict, Bishop of Chur, dated 

— 371 — 

Haag's signature occurs also on a medal struck in commemora- 
tion of the Removal of the Relics of St. Othmar, first Abbot of 
St. Gall, middle ofthe eighth century, issuedby Abbot Beda, in 1773. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cil. -■ 
C. F. Trachsel, Die Mun:^en und Medaillen Grauhundens , Berlin, 1866. — 
Ad. Inwyler, Die Michelspfennige des Collegialstiftes BeromunsUr, Revue Suisse de 
numismatique, 1898. — Ammon, op. cit. — Tobler-Meyer, IVunderly v. Miiralt 
Catalogue. — Reimmann Catalogue. — Bahrfeldt, Mnnien der Ffirsteiitljfwier Hohen:(ol- 
lern, Berlin, 1900. 

HAASE, CHRISTIAN HEINRICH {Germ.). Mint-master at Hanover, 

HAASE, BDRKHARD (Germ.). 1603, Mint- warden to Duchess 
Anna Maria of Liegnitz; 1614-1616, Mint-master at Troppau ; 
then again in the service of the Princes of Liegnitz-Brieg. His ini- 
tials are found on coins of Reichenstein, dated 16 16, and 1617; 
Brieg, 1621 and 1622. From 1619 to 1621 Haase executed coin- 
dies for the Duke of Oels, &c. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Stuiien \ur schhsischen Medaillenkundey Schle- 
siens Vorzeit in Bild und Schrift, 1897. 

HABERBACH (Germ.). Coin-engraver at the Mmt of Goslar, in 
1764, and at Zerbst, from 1766 to 178 1. His initial H appears on 
some of the currency which he engraved. Nagler calls this artist 

HABERKORN, IGNATZ (Bohem). The obsidional coins issued by the 
French General during the siege of Eger by the Austrians, in 1743, 
were engraved by a belt-maker of the above-name. 

Bibliography. — Fiala, Beschreibung der Sammlung Bohmischtr MUnien und 
Medaillen des Max Donebauer, Prag, 1888. 

HABERLE, A. (Bohem.) Contemporary Die-sinker at Prague. His 
signature appears on several medals which have come under ray 
notice : Prize Medal of the American-Bohemian Athletic Competi- 
tion at Cesky Brod, 1887; — Agricultural Prize Medal of Caslau, 
1879 ; — Medal on the Presentation of a Flag to the Athletic Society 
of Chlumetz, 1885 ; — Twentieth Anniversary of the Athletic 
Society of Pilsen, 1883; — Silver Wedding ofthe Emperor of 
Austria, Francis Joseph and Empress Elizabeth, 1879 (sev. 
var), &c. 

Bibliography. — Fiala, op. cit. 

HACHTEN, DAVID GERHARD VON (Germ.). Medallist and Coin- 
engraver at the Mint of Hamburg, 1704-1726. His initials V. H. or 
the signature : VON HACHTEN, appear on his medals. He also 
worked for the Court of Sweden. By him are the following medals : 

— 372 — 

Hamburg Jubilee Medal, 1717; — Charles XIL, Peace between 
Sweden and Prussia, 1703 ; — Another, on the same event, 1704, 
signed : V. HACHT. ; — Return of King Charles XII. to Stralsund, 
17 14, signed : Hamb. Exc. ab Hachten; — Anniversary of King 
Charles XIL, 28. January 1715 (5 var.) ; — The three Fredericks 
(of Denmark, Prussia and Poland), leagued against Charles XIL, 
1716; — Death of Charles XIL at Friediichsthal, 17 18; — &c. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — Hildebrand, 
op. cit. 

HACKEBERG, AUGUST (G^rm.). Clerk at the Mint ot Berlin, 1672- 
1679 ; worked the Mint at Crossen. His initials HA-B occur on some 
of the currency issued under him. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

HACKHL, PHILIP IGNATZ (Austr.). Administrator, 1677-1681, 
and Master, i68r-i689, of the Krummau Mint, in the ser- 
vice of John Christian, Duke of Krummau, Prince of Eggenberg. 
The coins issued under Hackhl bear his initials P. H. and were 
engraved by the Viennese Die-sinker Hans Georg Muller. 

Bibliography. — Fiala, op. cit. 

HACKWOOD, WILLIAM (Brit.). Modeller and Sculptor of the 
second half of the eighteenth century. He was employed by Wedg- 
wood and Bentley, for whom he executed Portrait-medallions. 

Bibliography. — Gray , James and William Tassie, Edinburgh, 1896. 

HADERMANN, MICHAEL {Germ.). Warden of the Mint at Brom- 
berg, 1 67 1, and 1677- 1685. His issues are signed M. H. 

Bibliography. — D^ Max Kirmis, Handhnch der Polnischen Mun:(kuttde, Posen, 

HADLEY, ROBERT DE (Brit.). Money er of St. Edmundsbury in 
1280, under Edward I. On Pennies issued by him we find his 

" This is the last instance of a moneyer's name forming the 
legend upon any English coin ". 

Penny of Edward I., issued by Robert de Hadley. 

I have not included in my List of Engravers, Mint-masters, &c., 
the names of Anglo-Saxon, Merovingian, etc. Moneyers, in order 

— 373 — 

to avoid overcrowding, but there is no doubt that many of these 
Moneyers, if not most of them, themselves engraved the dies of 
the coins which they issued. On p. 498, Vol. I, I have said a few 
words about the Merovingian moneyer Abbo, who also worked in 
England, and have given there an illustration of a " Coiner at work", 
from a reproduction in Robertson's, Coins of Scotland. I only wish 
to add a few remarks on this subject. The monetarius (mynelere) 
first received official recognition in England with the introduction of 
the Penny, circ. A.D.760, and, observes Mr. Keary in Brit. Mus. 
Catalogue, Anglo-Saxon Series, Vol. I, Int. xxxiii, " the earliest 
mention of the mynetere is in the laws of Aethelstan, where it is 
ordained that the guilty moneyer shall have his hand struck off and 
that it shall be placed over the mint smithy (uppon ba mynet- 
smiddan. " From this, the writer above-named inferred ** that the 
moneyer at this time was the actual fabricator of the coins, not an 
officer made responsible for them ". This supposition seems to be 
confirmed by the fact that occasionallv the name of the moneyer is 
followed by the legend, " me fecit " on the coins; for instance, 
under the reign of Aethelstan II. (878-890) the moneyer Elda, 
signed his currency in this manner; likewise also the moieyers 
Adalbert, Adradus, and Bascic on the memorial coinage of St. 
Eadmund. Mr Grueber in Handbook of the Coins of Great Britain 
and Ireland, p. xxiv adds : " If this was the moneyer's position 
under Aethelstan, we may conclude that it had existed previously. 
When the change to the making of the dies at one centre was 
introduced, the moneyer must have ceased to be a mechanic, as 
there w'as no need ot technical skill in his office. He became now 
an overseer, and he was only responsible for the purity of the 
metal from which the coins were struck and for their proper manu- 
facture. In Domesday we are told that for each month that the 
dies were in use the moneyer had to pay a fine of 20 solidi, 
besides the sum he had already disbursed on receiving the dies. 
To be responsible for so large a sum he must have been a man of 
some substance. Madox, in his Hist, of the Exchequer, gives a good 
deal of information about the monevers during the reigns of 
Henry II. and III. Like the other officers of the mint he was 
elected by the burgesses, and it was a stipulated qualification that 
he should be a trusty and prudent man. It was not required that 
he should have any technical knowledge He was to be a person 
selected for his integrity, to be possessed of means, and one fully 
responsible for the performance of the duties of his office. He was 
also liable to be summoned to Westminster to take part in the 
assays of the coins and in the trials of the Pix, and if necessary to 
bring his workmen with him. His position, therefore, was a very 
different one from that of the moneyer, who for a dishonest act 

— 374 — 

ran the risk of losing a member. As the constitution of the mint 
under Henry 11. appears to have been the same as under WiUiam I. 
and Edward the Confessor, may it not be inferred that the same 
conditions prevailed in the time of Aethelred II., who, judging 
from the nature of his coinage, first instituted the custom of having 
the dies engraved at one central place, and then sent for distribu- 
tion to all the local mints. If this were so, then the change in the 
status of the moneyer dates from his reign, and it continued 
without any material alteration so long as the office lasted ". 

On Merovingian coins, the name ot the mint was very often 
followed by fitur, fitu, fii, fi, or f, to indicate that the coin had 
been struck at the place inscribed on it ; the name of the moneyer 
was accompanied by his title, Mon., Monil., etc. 

M. Blanchet does not agree with the supposition that the 
moneyer, under Merovingian times, was the engraver of the coins 
This however may have been the case up to a certain time, as 
with the Anglo-Saxons. 

By the nature of their profession, goldsmiths were very otten 
entrusted with the cutting of coin-dies. Thus, at the end of the 
sixth century, the clever goldsmith Abbo of Limoges was Moneyer 
at that locality. 

Bibliography. — Hawkins, op. cit. — Keary, Catalogue of English Coins. 
Anglo-Saxon Series, Vol. I, 1887. — Grueber, Handbook, etc. — Blanchet, Non- 
veau manuel de numismatique dii moyen age et moderne, Paris, 1890, p. 31. — Lenor- 
mant, Monnaies et Me'dailles, Paris, n. d. — Ruding, Annals of the Coinage of 
Great Britain and Ireland, II, 20, 21, 22. 


HAESEN, JEAN (Bel^.). Goldsmith, and Coin-engraver at the 
Mint of Maestricht, after the decease of Ulric Peeters.He filled this 
post from the ii*'' February 1523 to the 31" May 1534, which is 
the date of his death. During his tenure of office, the following 
denominations were issued at the mint of Maestricht : N. Reals, 
Halt-reals, and Florins Carolus; JB<. Reals, Half-reals (or pieces of 
3 gros), and Sols; JE. Negenmannekens. 

Haesen was probably a native of Sittard. His receipts are signed : 
Ich Jan Haesen van Syttart, and in a document of 1534 he is 
designated : Janne Ha\en, ysersnydere. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Bic^raphie des Gravetirs beiges. Revue de la 
numismatique beige, 1853, P- 285. 

HAESELER. C. (Germ.). Medallist of the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, who worked for Duke Frederick WiUiam of 
Brunswick. He engraved the Brunswick Waterloo Medal, 181$, 
TREBRAS UND WATERLOO ; in centre : 1815. 

- 375 — 

HAESLING, DANIEL (Dane). Medallist, and Coin-engraver of the 
first half of the eighteenth century. He was a native of East Goth- 
land, and a pupil of the celebrated Hedlinger, From 1730 to 1749 

Victory of Dettingen, 1743, by D. Haesling. 

he filled the post of Coin-engraver at the Mint of Hamburg, and he 
also worked for the Courts of Poland and Denmark. 

This engraver's signature occurs on a medal of George II., com- 
memorating the Battle of Dettingen, 1743, and on a Marriage 
medal of Frederick, Prince of Denmark, with Princess Louisa, the 
voungest daughter of George II., 1743 (full signature on obv. ; on 
I^. D.HAESL.F.)- 

His initials D. H. F. are found on a Banco-Portugaloser of 17^2, 
Half Banco-Portugaloser of 1735, whereas on the Admiralty- 
Portugaloser of 1736, the initials appear on obv. and the full signa- 
ture on I^. 

I have not discovered any medal by this artist, referring to Poland. 

Bibliography. - Bo\ztx\\.\\a.\,KunstgeschkhtedermodernenMedaiUen- Arbeit, 1840. 
— Ammon, Sammlun^ heruhmter Medailleurs, Nurnbero;, 1778. — Schlickeysen- 
Pallmann, op. cit. — Franks and Grueber, Medallic Illustrations of the History of 
Great Britain and Ireland, London, i88$. — Kohler, Ducaten-Cabinet , Hannover, 
1760. — Grueber, Brit. Miis. Guide of English Medals, London. 1891. 

HAFFNER, HEINRICH (Germ.). Medallist, and Die-sinker of 
Nuremberg. Son of Hermann Haffner, born in 1660. Ammon calls 
him a Coin-engraver (Miinz-Eisenschneider). He died on the i" of 
December, 1732, at the age of seventy-two, having succeeded his 
father at the Mint in 169 1. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, of>. cit. — Wills, Niirn- 
beri^ische Miinibelustigungen, P. II, 141. Ill, 9, 10. IV, 367 &c. — Diptycha Capellae 
Beatae Mariae, p. 41 &c. 

HAFFNER, HERMANN (Germ.). Medallist of Nuremberg, born in 
1637, died on the 11"^ of August 1691. He was Engraver of the 
coins, seals, and armorial bearings to the Council of Nuremberg, 
and had studied the Art under Matthaeus Schaffer, 1652-1658. From 

— 376 — 

i68o until his death, he was employed at the Mint, as Assistant- 
engraver to Johann Jakob Wolrab ; Georg Hautsch became his 
colleague at the Mint in 1683. 

The best known medal by Hermann Haffner is that struck in 
honour of the City and Councillors of Nuremberg with a represen- 
tation of the Temple of Wisdom. Another, said to be by him, bears 
the portrait of Sigmund Seifried, Grat von Promnitz, 1595-1654, 
and is signed H. H. 

Bibliography. — C. F. Gebert-Nurnberg, Geschichte der Munistdtte der Reich- 
stadt Nitrnberg, 1891. — Bolzenthal, op. cil. — Ammon, op. cit. — Wills, Nurn- 
bergische Munzbelustigungen, P. IV, 367. — Diptycba Capellae Beatae Mariae 
p. 41 seq. — D"" Eug. Merzbacher, Ktinst-Medaillen-KataJog, Mai 1900(101455). 

HAFFNER, JOHANN (Germ.). Mint-master at NordUngen, Bavaria, 

HAG, BAY11i(Austr.). Privy Counsellor to the Emperors Maximi- 
lian 11. andRudolf II., is mentioned in various documents connected 
with the Mints of Vienna and Kremnitz. He died in 1599. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesten ^u f. NexvaWs Ptiblkatiotmi uber 
oesterreichische Mun:{prdgungen^ Mitth. des Clubs der Miinz-und Medaillen-Freunde 
in Wien, 1890. 

HAGBOLT, T. {Brit.). Wax-modeller of the first half of the nine- 

Portrait of William Tassie, by T. Hagbolt. 

teenth century. At the Royal Academy Exhibition of 1833 his 
Portrait-medallion in wax of William Tassie (illustrated) was very 

— 377 — 

much admired. It is now in the possession of Rev. J. R. Vernon, 
and is marked on the back of its frame : By I. Hagholt of ji Princes 
St., Leicester square. The Duke of Richmond at Goodwood possesses 
another Portrait-medalUon in wax by Hagbolt, of Alexander, 
4'*' Duke of Gordon. 

Bibliography. — J. M. Gny, James & William Tassie, Edinburgh, 1894. 

HAGEMANN. FRIEDRICH {Germ.). Sculptor, born in 1773, died 
in 1806 at Berlin. He was a pupil of Schadow, and a member of 
the Berlin Academy. He is said to have designed and modelled 

HAGEN (Germ.). Die-cutter at the Mint of Clausthal, 1776-1789. 

HAGEN {Germ.). Die-sinker at Clausthal (Brunswick) 1776-1789. 
He was employed at the Mint there, between 1780 and 1789. 
Bibliography. — Nagler, Die Monogrammisten, Leipzig, 188 1. 

HAGENAUER, FRIEDRICH {Germ.). Medallist and Sculptor of the 
first half of the sixteenth century, was probably born at Strassburg, 
worked at Augsburg, circa 1526, and was still living in 1546. This 
great Master is one of the worthiest representatives of German 
Renaissance Medallic Art, and in Nagler's opinion, he stills stands 
unrivalled as a Modeller in miniature. His signature appears in 
various forms pi-|, p-|, H, the letters sometimes accompanied by a 
vine-leaf or branch, or other ornamentation. 

Little is known of Hagenauer's greater works of sculpture, 
although from his correspondence we learn that he was employed 
in such work by the higher clergy, but to use his own terms, " he 
sought to earn his bread as a Medallist ". 

To Bolzenthal is the honour due of having discovered the name 
of Hagenauer, and Bergmann was the first to give a good notice 
of his works. It seems fairly certain that the artist resided at Munich 
and Augsburg between 1525 and 153 i, and that in 1537 he settled 
at Cologne, where he was still working in 1546; he tells us 
himself that he practised his art "at many courts and places". At 
Augsburg his colleagues subjected him to much annoyance as a 
" foreigner ", to which fact we perhaps owe that only his Augs- 
burg productions are signed. Erman had not met with any medals 
by Hagenauer of the years 1533 to 1536; those of the period 
between 1526 and 1532 portray distinguished personages of Augs- 
burg and princely representatives at the imperial diet; after 1537, 
his productions are unsigned, but their style and execution leave no 
doubt as to their authorship. 

Bolzenthal's notice of Hagenauer is of especial interest and worth 
quoting. He says : " It is probable that the medals with the letter H, 

- 378 - 

the reverses of which have only an inscription, or are left quite 
plain, belong to Friedrich Hagenauer, born at Strassburg, who 
about 1530 lived some time in Augsburg. Stettin quotes from the 
city archives that Hagenauer rendered himself famous as a portrait 
painter and sculptor, and acquired much honour by his art in many 
courts, etc. That he should have executed some also in Augsburg, 
for which he was not authorized, proves the circumstance of the 
citizens complaining against him. After what has been said of the 
style of the German masters in the sixteenth centurv, the idea 
presents itself that many artists who carved wood-plates for print- 
ing, mav have done models in this material or in soft stone tor 
medals. Supposing that they knew not how to treat medals, yet 
they knew how to cast moulds for the goldsmiths and how to work 
up the cast. In this manner many works have undoubtedly been 
done, which are the productions of a collective talent, but which 
it is impossible to appropriate from our entire ignorance ot their 
authors. " 

D"" Emil Bahrfeldt informs us that the artist was probably the 
son ot the sculptor Nicolaus von Hagenau of Strassburg, who 
completed in 1501 the High Altar of the Cathedral there. Friedrich 
Hagenauer styled himself " Portraiter und Bildhauer ". He executed 
his models in wood, and his medals were cast in silver, bronze, or 
lead. His productions are not all of equal value; whereas some 
are of the highest artistic merit others betray their hurried and 
superficial execution. 

The early Portrait-medals are large and have characteristic 
reverses, consisting in most cases of some motto and a date ; the 
relief is flat; the casting is thin; and the form of the letters quite 
peculiar. In a few instances, Hagenauer finished the models without 
any legends, adding them atterwards by glueing the letters singly 
on to the flans. 

The following list of Hagenauer's medals, indicated in their 
approximate chronological order, is as complete as I was able to 
compile from the existing literature on the subject : 1526, Lucas 
Furtenagel, Painter at Augsburg (Tresor 6, 10); — 1526, Caspar 
Pircker (Berlin Museum); — (1525), D' Conrad Peutinger (Berlin 
Museum); — Undated, Matthias, according to the inscription a 
Court-jester (Berlin) ; — Undated, Wood model of an unknown 
Person (Berlin) ; — Undated, Similar Wood model (with modern 
addition of the Diirer monogram) ; — Undated, Andreas Gennisch, 
an Augsburger (signed H, 56 mill., FeHx Collection; illustrated); 
— 152$, Walther von Cronberg, Grand Master of the Teutonic 
Order (Dudik, PI. Ill, 35) ; — 1526, Caspar Winzererthe Younger, 
a Knight (Bergmann); — 1526, Georg Ratdolt, of Augsburg 
(Bergmann ; dated 1528, according to Nagler); — 1527, Ambro- 

— 379 — 

sius Hechstetter the Elder, an Augsburg merchant (described by 
D' Habich and illustrated in Mittb. d. Bayer. Num. Ges. 1897/8); 
— Another, of same design, smaller, but without inscription, on 

Portrait-model in wood of Andreas Gcnnisch, by F. Hagenauer. 

which at a later date a legend has been engraved purporting the 
medal to belong to Albert IV. of Bavaria; — 1527, Ambrosius 

Portrait-medal of Anna Rechlinger, by F. Hagenauer. 

Hechstetter the Younger, lead, 20 1/2 gr. (Published by D"^ Habich); 
— 1528, Barbara Hechstetter in, a niece of the elder Hechstetter, 

— 38o — 

and wife of Wolfgang Breischuch, lead, i6 1/2 gr. (Published by 
D' Habich); — 1527, Sibylla Reichingen, ol Augsburg (Publ. by 
Erman); — 1527, Bartholomaeus Schubinger, of St. Gall (Haller I, 
156); — 1527, Wilhelm Neumann (Bergmann); — Undated, 
Johann Neumann (Bergmann). Nagler gives a specimen of this 
medal, dated 1528, and describes it, Johannes Neumann de Villach ; 
— 1527, Sebastian Ligsaltz, of Munich (model in wood); — 1527, 
Ursula Ligsaltz (model in wood); — 1528, Christ of Friedrich Graf 
zu Zollern (Bergmann) ; — 1528, Walther von Cronberg (Dudik, 
PI. IV, 61 ; III, 56); — 1528, HansPfanzelt (Bergmann); — 1529, 
Ulrich Frick, of Ulm (Berlin); — 1529, Anna Rechlinger (Felix 
Coll", illustrated); — 1529, Robert von Croy, Bishop of Cambrai 
(Itzinger Coll"); — 1529, Otto Heinrich, Count Palatine and 
Susanna (Bergmann); — 1529, Caspar von Fruntsperg (two 
varieties of type, described by Bergmann); — 1529, Margarethe 
von Firmian, Consort of Caspar von Fruntsperg (Berlin ; illustrated 
in Zeitschrift fiir Numismatik, XI, PI. VI, i); — 1529, Balthasar von 
Fruntsperg (Berlin); — 1530, Huldrich von Fruntsperg, Knight 
of the Teutonic Order (Felix Collection); — 1530, Bosse von der 
Schulenburg (Tresor, PI. VII, 6). Later casts in soft metal are 
known of this Portrait-medal ; — 1530, Joachim 1. von Branden- 
burg (Tresor, PI. XLV, 2; Felix Coll"); — is 30, Matthaeus 
Schwarz, of Augsburg (Bergmann); — 1530, Lndislaus von Prag 
(Nagler calls this, Lasla a Prag, Barode Winthag) (Tresor, PI. VIII, 
6) ; — 1530, Susanna Olwein (Berlin) ; — 1530, Unknown Lady 
of ecclesiastical rank (Berlin); — 1530, Heinrich von Eppendorff 
(Felix Coll"); — 15 31, Johann Albert, Margrave of Brandenburg- 
Anspach; — 153 1, Franz Welsor, of Augsburg (Tresor, PI. VIII, 
i) ; — 1 5 3 1 , Walther von Cronberg (Tresor, PI. X, 2) ; — 1 5 3 1 , 
Bartholomaeus Lother, Subdeacon of Augsburg, (Tresor, PI. VIII, 
9); — 1 53 1, Magdalene Diem, of Augsburg (Berlin); — 1532, 
Matthias Stefli von Ensisheim {Zeitschr. f. Num. XI, PI. IV, 2); — 
1532, Walther von Cronberg (Berlin); — 1533, Ernest, Margrave 
of Baden (Berlin; Tresor, PL X. 8; Her. XXXVIII, 12);— 1533, 
Bernhard von Baden (Her. XXXVIII, i); — Undated, H. von 
Singen (?), Court-jester (Tresor, PL XV, ro); — Undated, Marga- 
rethe Hirschkernin (Bergmann). 

The following, mostly unsigned, medals, which although some- 
what different from the earlier style of the artist, have many points 
in common with the Augsburg productions, seem to have been 
executed at Cologne, and Erman pronounces them undoubtedly 
the work of Hagenauer. 1537, Wolf Otmar (Berlin); — 1527 
(read 1537), Sibylla von Aich (Berlin); — 1537, Hermann von 
Wied, Archbishop of Cologne (Berlin); — 1538, Johann zu 
Epstein, Cologne (BerHn); — 1538, Peter Hutter (BerHn ; illtiS' 

- 38i - 

trated);— 1539, Dietherich van Drypt (Felix Collection) ; — 1541, 
H. A. Sittard, Hollander (Berlin); — 1542, Sibylla von Straelen 

Portrait-medal of Peter Hutter, by F. Hagenauer. 

(Berlin); ~ 1543, Caspar von MuUem (Berlin);— 1543, Melan- 
chthon (Berlin; Tresor, PI. XVI, 2; illustrated. The Felix speci- 

Portrait-medal of Philip Meianchihon, by F. Hagenauer, 

men, sold at the Wunderly von Muralt Sale, in April 1900, brought 
950 Marks); — i543j The same, ot" smaller size (BerHn ; 
Tresor, PI. XVI, 3); — 1543, Caspar Hedio (Berlin; Tresor, 
PI. XVI, 6). The model is at Brunswick {Zeitschrift fiir Num. 
Bd. XI, p. 133); — 1543, Martin Bucer (BerHn; Tresor, PL XVI, 
5); — i543,Johann Sturm (Tresor, PI. XVI, 4); — Johann 
Pistori, Reformed Minister (Collection of M. Georges Gallet at La 
Chaux-de-Fonds) (illustrated); — Undated, Unknown Personage 
(Model in wood, illustrated in Tresor, PL XLVIII, 2); — 1544, 
William, Duke of Juliers (Itzinger Collection); — 1544, Hans 
Hauschel (Berlin; Felix Coll"); — 1545, Hermann von Wied, Arch- 
bishop of Cologne (Berlin); — 1546, The same, Berlin). 

— 382 — 

Two small medals of 1526, those of Magdalena Roemer me 
Welser (Berlin), and Peter Gleichperger (Berlin), seem, at first 
sight, according to Erman, to be works by Hagenauer; against this 
attribution stand the somewhat unusual size and an incuse P on 

rjn/r ' 

■:rr. 'rr.n r. 

Portrait-medal of Johann Pistori, by F. Hagenauer. 

the second piece. The letter E appears on the j^. (meaning perhaps 
only exemplutn) of two other medals, formerly in the Felix Collec- 
tion, which most probably belong to Hagenauer : 1523, S. Stettner 
(^illustrated), and 1542, Count Johann von Isenburg. 

Portrait-medal of S, Steitner, probably by Hagenauer. 

Erman describes three small wood-models of the Berlin Collec- 
tion, which resemble Hagenauer's later works; they are, 1534, 
Raimund Fugger, and two others, one dated 1537, representing 
anonymous persons, all three bearing the monogram f*^ . As the 
artist's medals, between 1532 and 1543 are not signed, it is impos- 
sible to say whether he altered his signature at that time into the 
monogram depicted above. 

J. V. KuU, in an article of the Mittheilungen der Bayerischm 

- 383 - 

Numismatischen Gesellschaft (VIII, i), entitled " Die Miin^en des 
giaflichen undfiirst lichen Hauses Fngger " ascribes to Hagenauer two 
medals of Raimund Fugger, of 1527, one of which is signed Fi, 
mentions two other medals which undoubtedly belong to Hage- 
nauer's school; they are both of the same type and dated 1530; the 
one is 41 mill, in diameter and the other, which is 21 mill., was 
described in the Numismatic Circular for January 1902. 

Further medals, apparently by Hagenauer, are described in Sale 
Catalogues, &c. : Wolfgang von Griinenstein, Prince-Abbot of 
Kempten, 1535-57 (Tresor, PI. XVII, 6; Felix Coll") ; — 1526, 
Au^ustin Loesch von Hilgertshausen, Bavarian Chancellor (Beierlein, 
I, PI. I, I, lead. Felix Coll"; — Beierlein ascribes this medal to 
Hagenauer ; it certainly bears a striking resemblance to that of 
Peutinger, which Erman gives to our artist); — Anton Rudolff, of 
Augsburg (illustrated in Felix Sale Cat., where it is described, 
" Vorziigliche Arbeit in der Art Hagenauers ") ; — 1526, Ludwig 
Sennfl, Poet at the Court of Duke William IV. of Bavaria (with 
monogram and floral ornamentation); — 1526, Sebastian Jordan; 

— 1530, Wolfgang, Count of Montfort and Rothenfels ; — 1532, 
Jost Veter, 1532 (Inscription on ^L. Do Reiser Carli ist mil dem 
gant-^ remisch Reich uider den Tirken ge^ogen) ; — 1543, Jean Cesaire, 
German physician (published by V, de Munter) ; &c. — 1526, 
Lienhart Seyeigner(Merzb. Cat., n° 194) ; — 1527, Sebastian Ligsalz, 
of Munich; — 1527, Ursula Ligsalz, wife of the last (D' Habich 
has been able to identify Hagenauer's signature in red ink on the 
two last wood-models, which leaves no doubt as to their author- 
ship) ; — Anna, Countess Lodron, consort of Georg von Fruntsperg; 

— 1529, Ulrich Frick, Canonicus at Backnang. 

Portrait-medal of Michael Mercator, by F. Hagenauer. 

D' Julius Cahn attributes also to Hagenauer the Portrait-medals 
of Michael Mercator (Fide Medallic Illustr., I, pp. 41-43) hitherto 
considered to have been executed by Mercator himself. He has, in 
an article on the subject, in Num. Chron., 1903, Part II, given his 
reasons for this attribution. These medals bear the mark of 

- 384 - 

F. Hagenauer, a three-lobed vine-leaf, and in style and form they 
entirely correspond to the German master's work. It is further 
noted that in the years 1539-40 Hagenauer was in the Nether- 
lands, when he probably met Mercator at Venloo. 

The Munich Museum possesses the finest collection of Hage- 
nauer's medals that exists, and I understand that Dr. Habich is 
intending to bring out shortly a monograph of the artist, which 
will no doubt add much information on the subject. 

" Eine eigenartige Erscheinung als Kiinstler von feinster Emp- 
findung, sicherer Beobachtungsaufgabe und unermiidUchem Fleiss 
tritt Friedrich Hagenauer aus der Reihe der deutschcn Medailleure 
hervor ". Thus does D"^ Julius Cahn give his appreciation ot the 
artist, and he adds, " Einige seiner Holzmodellen gehoren zu dem 
Schonsten, was in dieser Kunst geleistet worden ist. " 

Bibliography. — Adoli Ernian, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884. — Nagler, 
Die Monogramtnisten, Band II, n" 2139. — Bolzenthal, Kunslgeschichte der modernen 
Medaillen- Arbeit, Berlin, 1840. — J. Bergmann, Medaillen auf beruhmte und ausge- 
:(eichnete Manner des osterreichischen Kaiser staates, Wien, 1844. — J. B. Beierlein, 
Medaillen auf ausgeieichnete und beruhmte Bayern, in Abbildungen, etc. — Stetten, 
Augsb. Kunst-utui Handwerkgeschichte , S. 279. — Tresor de numismatique et de glyp- 
tique. Clmx de medailles execulees en Alleniagne aux XVI^ et XVll^ siecles, Paris, 
1841. Fol. — Ad. Hess Nachf., Sammlung Eugen Felix. Kunstmedaillen I.Hiupt- 
sdchlich aus der Periode der deutschen Renaissance, Frankfurt a. M., 1895. — 
Dr Georg Habich, Zu Friedrich Hagenauer, Mitth. der Bayer. Num. Gesellschaft, 
1897/8. — Dudik, Des deutschen Ritterordens Mun:^samtnluug in Wien, Wien, 1858, 
40. — Haller, Schweiierisches Mfini-und Medaillenkabinet, Bern, 1780, 2 vols, 8°. 
— Heraeus, Bildnisse der regierenden Fursten und berUhmter Manner... Wien, 1828, 
Fol, — I. B. Supino, // Medagliere Mediceo, Firenze, 1899. — D"" Eugen Merz- 
bacher, Kunst-Medaillen Katalog, Munchen, 1900. — D"" Menadier, Schauitiun^en 
des Hauses Hohem;ollern, Berlin, 1901. — Victor de Munter, La tnedaille de Jean 
Cesaire gravee par Frederic Hagenauer, Revue beige de numismatique, 1893, 
p. 215. — Bahrl'eldt, Munien der Furstenthfimer Hoheniollern, 1899. — D^ Julius 
Cahn, Medaillen u. Plaketten-Sammlung W. Met^ler, Frankfurt a. M., 1898. — 
Dr Emil Bahrfeldt, Das Muni-und Geldwesen der Fiirstenthvimer Hoheniollern, Ber- 
lin, 1900. 

HAGENEL {Dutch.). Mint-master at Enckhuysen, circa 1678. He is 
styled on a document of that date, Muntnieester vande nieuwe mtinte 
tot Enckhuysen. He issued coins called Scheepes-schellingen. 

HAHN, HERMANN (Gfrw.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at Munich. At the Frankfort Exhibition of Modern Medals 
in 1900, I saw a Portrait-medal of Bismarck and Moltke by him, 
executed in imitation of the antique; also another of Pettenkofer. 
These medals, which are struck, are of very pleasing effect, espe- 
cially the latter. 

Bibliography. — Moderne Medaille, 1900, p. S- 

HAIDER, DANIEL (Austr.). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Kremnitz, 
circa 161 5, He was ordered in that year to prepare Patterns for 

-385 - 

the coinage, in conjunction with Ananias Biittner. He succeeded 
Michael Sackh. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesten :(u J. Newald's Publicationen uber 
oesterreichisclx Mfiuiprdgungen, Mitth. des Clubs der Munz- und Medaillenfreunde 
in Wien, 1890. — Katalog der Mhni- und Medaillen-Stempel-Sammlung des K. K. 
Hauptmiin^aiittes in JVten, 1901. 

HAIDLER, CASPAR (Austr.). Gem and Die-engraver of the eariy 
part of the seventeenth century. In i6ro he was attached to the 
Mint at Vienna as Coin-engraver, and in 16 14 he engraved the 
great seal for the Emperor Mathias, a work for which he was paid 
the sum of 95 florins. His signature is found on two medals 
described in the Schulthess-Rechberg Catalogue (n°^ 2432 and 
2438). On the 22. April 1616 he was given the Court goldsmith 
Hanns Georg Ritter as assistant. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, op. cit. 

HAIME (Germ.). A native of Ratisbon, Mint-master at Vienna, 
circa 1330. 

HAIMHAUSEN, SIGMUND Graf von (Germ.). Mint-master general 
for Kuttenplan and Herenberg under Prince-Elector Maximilian 
Joseph III. of Bavaria, 1745-1777. 

Bibliography. — Mittheilungen der Bayerischen Numismatischen Gesellschaft,Vll, 

HAINDL, FRANZ XAVER (Germ.). Mint-warden at Munich, 1839- 
1849. He was born on the 19. September 1778 at Plattling, and 
died at Munich on the i" August 1852. 

Bibliography. — D^ Emil Bahrfeldt, Das Muni- uiui Gelduiesen der Fursten- 
thi'ttner Hohen^olh'rn, Berlin, 1900. 

HAINL, WENZEL (Austr.). Assistant Coin-engraver at the Vienna 
Mint, 1770-1780. His name is found on Pattern 4 Ducat pieces, 
1778; IE soldi, 1776, Quattrini, 1777, Half Soldi, &c. for Milan 
(signed H) ; Jeton on the Marriage of the Archduchess Marie Antoin- 
ette ot Austria with the Dauphin Louis of France, 1770 ; — 
Investiture of Maximilian Franz, 1770; — Marriage jeton of 
Archduke Ferdinand and Maria Beatrix of Modena, 177 1 ; — Death 
of Duchess Caroline of Lorraine and Bar, 1773 ; — Visit of 
Archduke Maximilian to the Vienna Mint, 1774; — Death ot 
Joseph Wenzel, Prince of Liechtenstein, 1772; — Franz, Count 
von Zichy, Bishop of Raab, 1774, etc. 

HAINREICH DER SCHUHELER (Austr.). Mint-master at Vienna, 
1338, and 1340. 

HAIRT, JOHN (Scotch). Moneyer, or Mint-master at Edinburgh, 
under Queen Mary. He appears to have been in office for a short 

L. FoRKES. — Biographical Notices of Medallists. — II. i 5 

— 386 — 

time only, between 1560 and 15 61, during John Achesoun's exile 
in France. In the Hopetoun MS, quoted by Burns, he is stated to 
have coined Ducats, "quhdkfor the maist pairt wes of gold gottin 
of gylt challices and vther Jowellis ", and Testons " of. . .deneyris 
fyne, V in the ounce, ilk pece weyand iiij deneyris xix gr'% having 
cowrse... VS ilk pece, fra the vij of Junij 1561, as the buikis 
beiris, vijcxlj st. vj ounce. " The date of 7''' June 1561 should pro- 
bably read 1560, and Achesoun having been reinstated in office and 
commenced an issue of Portrait -testoons of Mary on the i" July 
1 561, it is probable that Hairt was not more than a year Mint- 
master. The dies for Hairt's issues may possibly have been prepared 
by Guillaume Martin, at Paris {l^ide Hoffmann, Monnaies royales de 
France ^ p. 125). 

Bibliography. — Burns, The Coinage of Scotland, Vol. II, pp. 321 and 324. 

HAKEBERG, AUGUST (Germ.^. Mint-secretary at Berlin, 16. March 
1672 ; then Mint-cashier at Crossen ; he was employed between 1674 
and 1675 as Warden of the Minden Mint by the Abbess of Quedlin- 
burg. His initials A. V. H. are said to appear on some of his issues ; 
but the same letters are also found on coins of Crossen, when 
Hakeberg had no longer any connection with that Mint. 

Bibliography. — F. Friedensburg, Nachlrdge und Berichtiginigen ^u Schlesiens 
Mun^geschichte im Mitlelalter, Berliner Munz- Blatter, December 1899. — Schlesiens 
Vor\eit in Bild und ScJjrifl. 1899. p. 56. 

HALBECK, JEAN VAN (Belg.). Die-cutter at the Brussels Mint, 
1612-1617. Cited by de Witte, Numismatique brabatifontie. 

HALLAICHER, JOHANN ANSELM (Germ.). Mint-master at Wer- 
theim, 1694-1696. From 1696 to 1703 he was probably in the 
service of the Bishop of Wiirzburg. His issues bear the initials I. A. H. 
or lA. H. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cil. 

HALLAICHER, JOHANN LUDWIG {Germ.). Mint-master at Frank- 

fort-on-Main, 1645 -1667; He came from Augsburg, and was at first 

installed for a term of three years only, on the 20. January 1646. 

His distinctive sign consists of three acorns, which are seen on 

coins from 1646 to 1666, as well as on some undated Ducats. 

Besides the Gold Ducats, Hallaicher struck also Doppelthalers, 

Thalers, and Half-Thalers, Schiisselpfennige, Albuses, &c., and 

some medals of 1650 on the Conclusion of Peace at the end of the 

Thirty Years' War, 1652 on the Education of Children, and 1658 

on the Coronation of King Leopold. Hallaicher, in common with 

many of the earlier German mint-masters no doubt engraved his 

own dies. 

Bibliography. — Paul Joseph und Eduard Fellner, Die Mimzen von Frankfurt 
a. M., 1896. 

- 38? - 

HALLE, JOSSET HE (French) . Seal-engraver mentioned in fourteenth 
century documents of Lille and Dijon. His name appears also as 
JEAN DE HELLE and JEAN DE HEYLEM. He worked for the Duke of 
Burgundy Philippe le Hardi, between 1382 and 1404, and cut seals 
for his own use and that of the State. 

Bibliography. — A. Pinchart, Biographies des graveurs beiges, 1861. — Migne, 
Dictionnaire d'orfivrerie, degravure el de ciselure chritiennes, Paris, 1857. 

HALLfi, MISS ELINOR (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and Medal- 
list, who first made her mark at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1884, 
with a low-relief of "Music", and other works, has quitted the 
field of sculpture, says Mr. M. H. Spielmann, in 5n7/j/; Sculptors of 
To-day, first for medal-designing and afterwards for enamelling. 

Miss E. Halle is a Member of the Society of Medallists, at which 
exhibitions she has exhibited some nice works. The Studio, 
Vol. XIII, p. 264, illustrates one of her Panels. 

HALLfi, JULES FERDINAND (Frm^/;). Medallist, and Gem-engraver 
of the second half of the nineteenth century; he was a pupil ot 
Bouvet, who signed some of the Five Franc pieces of Napoleon HI. 
At the Salon of 1879, this artist exhibited a frame containing two 
cameos in sardonyx representing a Head of Medusa, and Corneille 
and Moliere. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

HALLER, BERNHARD PAUL (Germ.). Warden of the Mint at 
Neisse, 1692-1694. He was probably a brother of Leopold Haller, 
who was Mint-master there from 1698 to 1701. 

HALLER, CHRISTIAN (Aiistr.) Coin-engraver at the Mints of 
Vienna, 1777- 1787, and Brussels, 1787-1793. This Engraver, 
" graveur scolaren ", who had been rewarded with a gold medal 
by the Austrian Academy, was engaged at the Mint of Brussels on 
the 7. April 1787 with a yearly stipend of 1000 German florins. 
When in 1793, General Dumouriez occupied Brussels, Haller went 
over to the French, and agreed to strike coins for them, but was 
hindered doing so by the arrival of the Austrians. Haller was born 
at Egenburg, in Lower Austria. 

Besides coins, Haller executed also some medals; one of 1793, 
was struck in honour of Francis II. of Germany on his Prohibition 
of the meetings of the Masonic Fraternity. 

Bibliography. — Kevue beige de numismatiqtie, 1889, pp. 357 sqq. and 475. 

HALLER, GUSTAVE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at 
Paris. Pupil of Carpeaux and Mathieu Meusnier. He has exhibited 
Portrait-medallions in marble, clay, and bronze at the Salons in the 
seventies and eighties of the nineteenth century. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

— 388 — 

HALLER, LEOPOLD (Germ.). Mint-master at Neisse, 1 698-1 701. 
He signed his issues with the initials L.P. H. 

HALLER, PHILIPP (Austr.). Die-cutter at the Mint of Vienna, 
previous to the 21. Nov. 1569. He engraved a medal of Franz 
Ygelshofer, Imperial Councillor of the City of Vienna. 

Bibliography. — Katalog der Muni-und Medaillen-Stempel-Sammlung des K. K. 
Hauplmfiniamtes, Wien, 1901. 

HALLER VON HALLERSTEIN, RUEPRECHT(y^«^/r.). Mint-contractor 
at Pressburg, circa 1522; he was deposed in 1530 for dis- 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, op. cit. 

HALLIDAY, GEORGE (Brit.). Contemporary Cha.ser and Medallist, 
residing at Sheffield. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1899, a 
panel, in copper, repousse, representing a Dancing Girl. 

HALLIDAY, THOMAS (Brit.). Medallist, Token-engraver and 

Manufacturer of buttons, studs, etc., born about 1780, established 
in Newhall street, Birmingham, between 1810 and 1842, or there- 

His signature is usuallv HALLIDAY F. , but also appears as T. H. F., 

Halliday either engraved dies for the trade or engraved 
and manufactured tokens and medals at his own works for 
all traders who wished to issue them : Edward Thomason. 
afterwards Sir Edward, (Birmingham's first Knight), Young & 
Deakin of Sheffield, Younge & Co. Liverpool, and H. Morgan, 
Token Merchant, London, all availed themselves of Halliday 's 
skill. He had a number of apprentices, among whom was Peter 
Wyon, father of the celebrated William Wyon, who, for his 
excellent works was promoted to the rank of R.A. 

It was at Halliday's that William Wyon commenced to learn the 
art of die-engraving under his father Peter Wyon. 

Besides his versatile designs found on the Nineteenth Century 
tokens, Halliday executed some of the finest racing, truck. Society, 
and school tickets which are to be found handed to us from his 
time. His works also include some of the best commemorative 
medals of national and personal events, including Reform, Anti- 
slavery and Public Institution medals. One ot his latest, 1854, ^^ 
illustrated here. 

Thomas Halliday was a successful man who quietly did his work. 
Public questions or position had no attractions for him. 

His will decreed that his principal clerk, one C. Smith, should, if 
he desired, purchase the business at the smallest possible sum. 
This Smith did, but as the demand for die-engraving had fallen 

- 389 - 

off the nature of the business was diverted to that of Stamping and 
Piercing, and in this form it was eventually purchased by Mr. James 
Hinks, the founder of the present famous. firm of Hinks Limited, 
Lamp Manufacturers. 

Prize-medal, by Thomas Halliday. 

Amongst his best-known medals of which I have descriptions, 
are : 1810, Jubilee of George IIL ; — 1812, Lord Brougham 
and Vaux, Repeal of the Orders in Council of 1807 advocated; 
— 181 4, Relief of the Hanseatic Towns, Departure ot Napoleon 

Portrait ot harl Urev, by Halliday. 
(I of actual si^e). 

for Elba, &c; — 1814, Blackburn Pitt Club, with bust of Pitt; 
— 181 5, Battle of Waterloo, with busts of Wellington and 
Bliicher; — 1815, Napoleon Bonaparte, Memorial medal; — 18 r 6, 
Column Erected to Lord Hill at Shrewsbury; — :8i6. Marriage of 
Leopold L, with Charlotte Augusta, daughter of George IIL; — 
18 1 9, Wyken Colliery, Shop Ticket, edited by Whit well (2 var.); 
— 1822, Visit of George IV. to Scotland; — Tables of Kings of 

— 390 — 

England, ^L. George IV. born in 1762; — 1824, Memorial of 
George Gordon, Lord Byron; — 1830, Earl Grey, Parliamentary 
Reform advocated (illustrated) ; — 183 i, The Reform Bill; — 183 1, 
Thomas Attwood, Parliamentary Reform advocated (2 types); — 
New Infirmary of Liverpool (Boston Coll") ; — 1832, J. S. Cromp- 
ton, Ripon Election; — 1832, Jeremy Bentham, Memorial medal; 

— 1832, Earl Grey, The Reform Bill passed; — 1832, Another, with 
jugate heads of Lords Grey, Russell and Brougham; — 1832, Sir 
Walter Scott; — 1837. Foundation of Marischal College, Aber- 
deen; — Prize Medal of the Royal Northern Agricultural Society; 

— 1837, Birmingham Free Grammar School, founded 1552, obv. 
Bust of Edward VI. ; — 1835, Col. J. Bolton, Waterloo Estate 
Medal; — 1835, Daniel de Lisle Brock, Export Privileges of the 
Channel Islands defended; — 1842, Maternal Visit of Queen Vic- 
toria to Scotland (HALLIDAY FECIT ET DIREXIT) ; — Liverpool 
Race Course Ticket ; — Prize Medal (illustrated) ; — Sir George 
Chetwynd, Baronet, 1842, Grendon Halfpenny; — 1839, The 
W. H. Medal to encourage a steady perseverance in Industry, 
Courtesy and Integrity ; — Charles Linnaeus; — D"^ Joseph Hume; 

— Rowland, Lord Hill, 1816 ; — Pope Pius VII. ; — Prince Smo- 
lenski, 1814; — Francis 1. of Austria, 1816; — George Washing- 
ton, 1816; — George III.; — George, Prince of Wales; — M. Wood, 
Lord Mayor of London, 1816, &c. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Franks & Grueber, Medallic Illuslrations, 
&c. — Cochran-Patrick, Medals of Scotland, 1884. — H. A. Grueber, English Per- 
sonal Medals from i^jo. Num. Chron., 1887, 1888, 1890, 1891 and 1892. — 
Thomsen Catalogue of Medals. — Joseph u. Fellner, op. cit. — Davis, Ihe Token 
Coinage of Warwickslnre. — Information kindly supplied by Mr. W. f. Davis of 

HALOU, ALFRED JEAN BAPTISTE PAUL (French). Sculptor, born 
at Blois, on March 23, 1829; pupil of Husson and Duret ; entered 
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1847. At the Salon of 1859, this 
artist exhibited Portrait-medallions of M. de La Saussaie, member 
of the Institute; — Pierre Dupuis; — M. Lafitte; — M. Martin; 

— M. Lancry; — M. Soubeyran, prefect of Loir-et-Cher; — 
M. Vollon ; — M™^ Bourdonneau ; — M. Bourdonneau ; — Doc- 
tor Boulay : in 1863, M»<= M. C***; 1864, M"^ de***; 1868, 
Mile L_ N^*^ etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

HALTER, HEINRICH FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Mint-master, and Coin- 
engraver at the Mint of Magdeburg, from 1698 to 17 19. He exe- 
cuted the following medals : 1707, Birth of Prince Friedrich 
Ludwig, son of the Crown-prince Frederick William of Prussia and 
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, 23. Sept. 1707. and Transfer of the 
Principality of Neuchatel to the House of Prussia, obv. NOVVA 
CASTRVM, King to r., receiving sceptre and palm-branch from the 

— 391 — 

city of Neuch^tel, ex : REGIS FRIDERICI SAP. | REGNVM 
HEROS. Female figure to r. holding infant on I. arm, presents 
laurel-\^reath to the King, wearing ermine cloak over Roman 
armour, etc.; ex : REGIS FRIDERICI | SAP. GENS NEPOTE | 
AVCTA.A.r707. | 23 NOV.; on edge : FORTES GENERAN- 
TVR A FORTIBS ET BONIS ; signature H ; — Another, same 
event, obv. Inscription : O. P. NEPOTE A.S, etc. (sign. HFH). 

This Mint-master's initials H. F. H. or H. occur on the coinage 
of Magdeburg from 1698 to 17 19. 

Bibliography. — Menadier, Schaumunien des Hauses Hohen\olhrn, 1901. — 
R. Stuart Poole, Catalogue 0/ Swiss Coins, etc. — Ad. Hess Nachf., Reimmann 
Catalogue. — Von Schrotter, Das Preussische Mfin:(weseii im 18. Jahrhundert, 
Berlin, 1902. 

HALTERMANN, JOST (G^rw.). Mint-master at Riga, circa 1660. 
Signature : I. H. 
HAMER, SAMUEL HENRY (Brit.). Contemporary Collector of 

Tokens, who issued in 1899 two private medalets (or tokens) as 
Christmas gifts to some of his friends. 

— 392 — 

HAMEL (French.). Die-sinker of the third quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. His name occurs on a medal of Napoleon III. 
commemorating D'^ Jenner. Another medal is signed HAMEL ET 
LECOMPTE (Vide Amer. Journ. of Num. n° 755-6-1015). 

HAMERANI. The name of a celebrated family of Medallists and 
Coin-engravers, who were employed for nearly two centuries at 
the Papal Zecca of Rome. 

JoHANN Andreas Hameran =r Margherita Corradini 
came to Rome from Hermannskirchen, 
A. D. ito5-i62o; died 17. August 1644 

Alberto Hamerani = Maria Aguccia 
b. 10 Oct. 1620 -J- 20 June 1677 

I I 

Giovanni Alberto Hamerani = Brigitta Marchioni Anka H. 

b. 50 Oct. 1649 f 25 June 1705 f aged 37. 

Beatrice H. Ermenegildo H. Ottone H. =:Theresia Velli 

b. 1675 J 1704 b. 1685 -^ circa 1744 b. 1694 f 1768 (?) 

Gioacchimo H. 
worked under Pius VI. and VII. 
until about 1807. 

Bibliography. — Mazzio, Serie dei Conj di Medaglie Potiiificie da Martino V. a tulto il Pontijiciito delta San. Mem. di Pio VII. esistenti nella Ponlificia Zecca 
di Roma, Roma, 1824. — Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, Medallic Illustrations 
of the History of Great Britain and Ireland to the death of George II., London, 1885. 

— Bolzenthal, Ski:(;{en \ur Kunstgesclnchte der modernen Medaillen-Arhcit (142^- 
1840), Berlin, 1840. — Lochner, Sammlung merkwHrdiger Medaillen u. s. w., 
1 74 1. — R. Sainthiil, Papal Medals and the Hamerani family of Engravers, OUa 
Podrida, II, 1853. — R. Venuti, Niimismata Romanorum Pontificum , Roma, 1744. 

— Cinagli, LeMonete de'Papi, Roma, 1848. — Krohn, Thomsen Bronce Medaillen, 
Copenhagen, 1867. — C. F. Keary, British Museum Guide to the Exhibition of 
Italian Medals, London, 1893. — Hildebrand, Sveriges och Svenska Konungahusets 
Minnespenniu^ar Praktmynt och Beloningsmedaljer, Stockholm, 1874. — Nagler, 
Die Monogrammisten, 1881. — Adolph Hess, Munien-und Medaillen-Cahinet des 
fustil\raths Reimmann. Frankfurt-a-M., 1891. — Karl Domanig, Portrdt-Medaillen 
des Er^hauses Oesterreich, Wien, 1896. — Hennin, Histoire numismatique de la 
Revolution franoaise, Paris, 1826. — R. W. Cochran-Patrick, Scottish Medals, 
Edinburgh, 1884. — J. L. Ammon, Sammlung heruhmter Medailleurs und Mun:^- 
meister nebst ihrenZeichen, NArnberg, 1778. — Information kindly furnished by Count 

HAMERANI, ALBERTO (Ital.). Medallist and Coin-engraver, born 
at Rome in 1620, where he died in 1677. His father was Johann 
Andreas Hameran and his mother Margherita Corradini. Appoint- 
ed Medallist to Pope Clement IX., he was confirmed in his office 
by Clement X., under whose pontificate he died. It is probable 
that a number of his earlier medals were not signed, as he worked 
at the Zecca before the accession of Clement IX., and it is there- 

- 393 — 

fore impossible to give a list of them. Besides engraving coins and 
medals for the Holy See, he executed Portrait-medals for private 
persons, and amongst these one of Cardinal Vincenzo Costaguti 
is perhaps the best known. He was singularly skilful in the art of 

His signature appears as : ALBERTO HAMERANI F. ; — ALB. 


By this artist are the following medals : Clement IX (1667- 
1669). Anno I. ^. ALUS NON SIBI CLEMENS. A Pelican 
feeding itsvoung, alluding to the Pontiff's love tor his subjects; — 
Anno I, The Washing of the Feet ; — Anno II. ^L. CLEMENS. 
FOEDERIS. OPVS. Peace and Clemency (struck to commemorate 
the Treaty of Peace between France and Spain through the Po{>e's 
mediation) ; — Anno III, Beatification of the two Saints, St. 
Petrus de Alcantara and Sta. Maria Magdalena de Pazzis (2 types) ; 

— Anno III. ^L. ELIO.PONTE. EXORNATO. Restoration of 
the Aelian Bridge by Cav. Bernini ; — Clement X. (1670-1676). 
Election of the Pontiff. ^. SPIRITV.ORIS.EJVS.OMNIS.VIR- 
TVS.EORVM. The Holy Dove; — 1670. E^. ROMA RESVR- 
GENS. St. Peter assisting St Paul in raising Rome, alluding to 
the Remission of Taxes (2 types); — 1671, The Washing of the 
Feet ; — Anno I. ^L. CVM . ME . L AVDARENT . SIM VL . ASTRA. 
MATVTINA. The Holy Circumcision ; — Anno I, Our Lord 
delivering the kevs to St. Peter; — Anno I, ^L. COLLES PETRA. St. Peter Martyr (allusion to the Pope's 
election wh'ch took place on this Saint's name day); — 1671, 
Beatification of five Saints, S. Filippo Benizi, S. Gaetano Tiene, 
S. Francesco Borgia, S. Lodovico Bertrando, and S. Rosa di Lima 
(3 tvpes), with legends, PLENA EST OMNIS TERRA GLORIA 
GLORIA. SANCTORVM (one of the last by Giovanni Hamerani ; 

— Anno VI. I^. APERVIT. DOMINVS Porta Sancta; — Obv. 
Bust of St. Paul. ^L. Bust of St. Peter. 

None of the coins of the Popes under whom Alberto Hamerani 
worked have his signature ; some of the silver Scudi of Clement X. 
are signed : EQ.HiER.LVCENTI for Cav. Girolamo Lucenti, the 
Engraver, or G. C. G., the initials of the die-cutter at the Mint of 
Bologna. The artist also engraved medals of Queen Christina of 
Sweden in 1659, and had the Swedish word " makalos ", which 
signifies unparalleled, put in in Greek letters, this in order to 
puzzle her courtiers and admirers. Eight various medals were struck 
with this inscription : three by Hamerani (only one signed), three 
by Giovanni Francesco Travani in 1665, one by J. S. Breuer, and 
another by Arvid Karlsten. 

— 394 — 

Alberto Hamerani had two children : Anna and Giovanni 
Alberto. He died at Rome, on the 20. June 1677, and was buried 
in the Campo Santo, near the Vatican. 

HAMERANI, ANNA (Ital.). Daughter of Alberto Hamerano, and 
sister of Giovanni, died in her thirty-seventh year. Sainthill tells 
us : " She was highly skilled in the art of incising, and obtained 
the distinguished praise of sculptors. She was a woman of a mas- 
culine disposition, and thoroughly knew the art of chasing crystals, 
and accomplished many works on glass. She recorded historical 
events chronologically, of which the proofs are certain spherical 
segments, inserted in the gold candelabra, in the court of the Vati- 
can, and in which the skilful hand of the woman was conspicuous. 
She also painted historical subjects in a masterly manner '\ {Olla 
Podrida, II, p. 343). 

HAMERANI, BEATRICE (ItaL). Medal-engraver of some note; 
daughter of Giovanni Hamerani ; born at Rome in 1675, where 
she died in 1704, barely twenty-nine years old. Bolzenthal remarks 
that notwithstanding her youth, the artist left a good name 
behind her; her portrait of Pope Innocent XII. is of noble charac- 
ter, '* though somewhat lightly treated, but at the same time full of 
spirit and expression as a whole ". She excelled in cutting seals, 
and assisted her father in preparing wax models for dies. A Mezzo 
Scudo of Clement XI, is signed B. H., according to Cinagli. 

Beatrice Hamerani signed her medals : BEA. HAMERANI F. ; — 
B. H. 

According to this artist's biographers, the only medals engraved 
by her are : Innocent XII. (1691-1700). Anno III, bust of Pope 
wearing tiara. ^. ERIT.EGENO.SPES.JOB. V. ; beneath : 
MDCXCIV. Rural scenerv and buildings ; — Anno III. V,L. SI- 
NVM . SVVM . APER VIT . EGENIS. Pelican tearing its breast to feed 
its young; signed on obv. BEATRIX HAMERANA. Clement XI.(ijoo- 
172 1 ). Anno II: The Pope sends Monsig. de Tournon (later Car- 
dinal di S. Chiesa) to China, VADE .ET . PR^DICA . MDCCII ; 
— Anno XII. The Washing of the Feet, TV. DOMINVS.ET. 
Beatrice Hamerani died in 1703, unless the signature B. H. is not 
an error for E. H., an old die by her must have been used for the 
last described medal. 

HAMERANI, ERMENEGILDO (ItaL). Medallist and Coin-engraver 
at Rome under Popes Clement XI., Innocent XIII. and Benedict XIII. 
He was the son of Giovanni Hamerani, to whom he succeeded at 
the Papal Zecca in 1705 ; he was born in 1685 and died in 1744. 
Although his reputation procured for him the membership of the 
Academy of S. Luca at Rome, it must be owned that his work is 

— 395 — 
much inferior to that of his father. The medals of that age were 
no longer worthy of the name of artistic productions ; they exhibit 
a sad want of originality in their conventional designs and superficial 
execution. The hard and machine-made look of these struck medals 
contrasts very unfavourably with the older specimens produced by 
casting and chasing. 

This artist signed his works in various forms : HERMENE-. 
— H; — HAM 

The following medals are by E. Hamerani : Clement XL (1700- 
1721) N.d., The Pope's reluctance in accepting the Pontificate, 
Lord succumbing under the weight of the cross. This medal is 
highly praised by Venuti, who mentions that the engraver was then 
only .seventeen years old ; — Restoration of the Basilica of the 
twelve Apostles, AVXILIVM.MEVM- A. DOMINO; ex. NOVA 
Cardinal Tournon to the Chinese. Of this medal his sister Beatrice 
engraved another type ; — Anno III, The Pope's constancy in the 
European War, ROBVR. AB.ASTRIS. Figure of armed Force 
seated with lion at her feet; — Anno V, Building of a Granarv, 
Building of the flight of steps to the Porto di Ripetta, COMMO- 
machine invented by Car. Carlo Fontana to excavate a large granite 

Medal by Ermenegildo Hamerani. 

column buried near the Casa de' Missionarii on Monte Citorio 
DEO. SACRA. RESVRGET (illustrated); — Anno VIII, The 
Altar of S. Crescentino in the Cathedral ot Urbino, IN.HONO- 

— 396 — 

REM.S.CRESCENTINI.MARTYRIS; — Anno Villi, Procession 
with the image of Ssmo Salvatore del Laterano, PORTA VERVNT. 
Albani Chapel dedicated to St. Fabian in the Basilica di S. Sebas- 
Anno XI, The War of the Spanish Succession, DOMINE.DEPRE- 
CABILIS.ESTO, ex. MDCCXI. The Church kneeling on arms; 
— Anno XII, Beatification of SS. Pius V., Andrea d'Avellino, 
Felice da Cantalice and Catherine of Bologna, INTER . SANCTOS . 
SORS.ILLORVM.MDCCXII; — Anno XIII, Building of Baths, 
CONSTRVCTIS; — Anno XIII, Conclusion of Peace between the 
Christian Rulers, IN.VIAM.PACIS, ex MDCCXIII. Moses crossing 
the Red Sea with the Israelites ; — Anno XIV, View of the Church 
and Fabric at the Bagni di Nocera, ECCLESIA . ET . DOMIBVS . 
Anno XIV, Medal placed by the Pope in the foundation-stone of the 
Church of Sacre Stimmate di S. Francesco, ARCHICON.SACR. 
STIGMATVM.F.F. around; in centre : D . O . M . CLEMENS XI. 
TEMB. ANNO. SAL VTIS. MDCCXIV; - Anno XV, Restoration 
of the Church of St. Clement, TEMPLO S . CLEMENTIS . INS- 
TAVRATO; — 1715, Translation of the body of St. Leo the 
Great to the Chapel in the Vatican crypt, CORPORE S.LEONIS. 
XVI, Raising of the Christian Rulers against Achmet III., AVXI- 
LIVM.CHRISTIANORVM. The Holy Virgin del Rosario and 
crowd, kneeling; in the distance, a fleet; — Anno XVII, The 
Holy Virgin after the mosaic bv Maratta in the Court of the Qui- 
The Holv Roman CathoHc Church, SVPER .FVNDAMENTVM. 
Mezzabarba sent on a mission to China, VENTI.ET.MARE. 
OBEDIVNT.EI. Our Lord and his disciples in the boat; — 
Anno XX, The Institute of Sciences at Bologna, BONARVM. 
BONON. View of Buildings ; — Anno XX, Celebration of Cle- 
ment XL's twentieth year of Pontificate, ANNO. SAL. MDCXX. 
PONT. XX. Innocent XIII. (172 1- 1724). Accession of the Pope, 
Anno I, St. Michael killing the Dragon, CONSTITVI.TE.PRIN- 
CIPEM.; — Anno I, Similar type, RENOVABIS.FACIEM. 
TERR^ ; ex. MDCCXXI; — Anno II, The Washing of the Feet; 

— 397 — 

ex. MDCCXXII, Faith holding orb and keys ; — Anno III, Papal 
PR.'ESIDtNTE, Pope enthroned surrounded by the Chiefs of the 
Religious Order of the Minori Osservanti ; — Benedictus XIII. 
(1724-1730). Anno I, Accession of the Pontiff, DOMINVS.ILLV- 
D.IV.IVNII.MDCCXXIV. The Candelabrum of the Temple of 
Jerusalem and Holv Dove ; — Anno I, The Ancestry of the Domi- 
nican Order, QVID. VOLO.NISI. VT. ACCENDATVR. S. Dome- 
nico in glory with the angels ; — Anno I, Jubilee Medal, HAV- 
INDICT. 1724. Faith holding cross and chalice; — Anno I, The 
armorial bearings of the Orsini family, ^L. DE.RORE.COELI. 
The Rose of the Orsini arms; — Jubilee>Mejdal, FLVENT.AD. 
EVM.OMNES GENTES. View of the Vatican; inscription on 
banner- IN.SPLENDORE.STELLARVM ; — Anno II, Pilgrims 
enter the Porta Sancta, PER.ME.SI.QVIS.INTROIERIT.SAL- 
VABITVR ; — Erection of an equestrian statue to Charlemagne by 
the sculptor Agostino Cornacchini Fiorentino, in the Portico of 
the Basilica Vaticano, CAROLO . MAGNO . ROMANCE . ECCLE- 
placed in the foundation stone of S. Gallicano's Hospital, ANNO. 

^L. of Scudo of Clement XI., by Erraenegildo Hamerani. 

— The Pope closing the Porta Sancta, RESER AVIT . ET . CLAV- 
SIT. ANN. JVB. ; — The Pope receiving the Poor, BEAT VS. QVI. 
to the Pope's consecration of churches, altars, vases, &c. EREXIT. 
IN.TITVLVM. ; ex. MDCCXXVI ; —Anno IV., The Church and 

- 398 - 

Hospital of S. Gallicano, COR NOSTRVM . DILATATVM . EST ; 
Anno V, View of the Dungeon near Corneto, ERGASTVLVM. 
of St. John Nepoinucenus, APOTHEOSIS. IN. LATERANO, ex. 
S.JOAN. NEPOM.MDCCXXIX. The Saint crowned by angel ; in 
the distance, the Lateran Church; — Anno VII, The Washing of 
the Feet. 

From the fifth year of Clement XL, Ermenegildo Hamerani 
engraved half the silver coinage ; some of the gold issues bear also 
this engraver's signature, which is equally found on numerous coins 
of Innocent XIII., and Benedict XIII. 

By this artist are also : 1705, Augustus II of Poland (commis- 
sioned to Hamerani by Cardinal Albani) ; — 1720, Nicolaus Duodo, 
Venetian ambassador at Rome. 

HAMERANI, GIOACCHIMO (Ital.). Medallist to Popes Pius VI. 
and VII., end of the eighteenth century and beginning of the 
nineteenth. He was the son of Ottone Hamerani and the last 
representative ot that noted family of engravers. His work is unfor- 
tunately poor. 

This artist's signature appears as G.HAM.F. ; — G.H. ; — G. 
HAM. ; — G.H.F. ; — H ; — G. HAMERANI ; — J. HAMERANI ; — J. 

By him are the following medals : Pius VI. (177 5- 1800). 
Anno XIV, Restoration of the Via Appia, VIA . ALBAN . VELIT . 
Anno XV, Consecration of the Church of Subiaco, TEMPLI. 
assisted by the Clergy consecrating the Church; — Anno XVI., 
Abolition ot Duties, ANNON^. P. R.LIBERTATE.RESTITVTA. 
ex. MDCCXC. Abundance standing; — Anno XVII, Building of 
Canals and drainage of the Pontine Marshes, AGRO.PROMPTIN. 
COLONIS.REST. ex. MDCCXCI. Female figure seated, &c. ; — 
JVSSO. ex. MDCCXCII ; — Anno XIX, The Arsenal of Civita- 
EMISSO. ex. MDCCXCIV. Two rivers uniting their waters ; — 
Anno XXI, The Pontiff receives emigrant French priests, CLERO. 
(1800-1823). Anno I, Accession Medal, ADVENTVI.OPT.PRIN- 
CIPIS.Y.NON.QVINCT. ex. MDCCC. The Triumphal Arch on 
the Piazza del Popolo ; — Anno II, I^. INEVNTE . PONTIFICA- 
TVM.SOLEMNITER. The Holy Dove ; — Anno III, ^. REFVL- 
SIT.SOL. The Sun illuminating the Vatican and St. Peter's; — 

— 399 — 

Anno IV, The Coinage Reforms, MONETA.RESTITVTA. ex. 
MDCCCIII. Helmeted figure of Rome seated ; — Anno V, Free 
Female figure seated; — Anno V, The Virgin, CAVSA.NOS- 
TRAE.LiETITI^; beneath : J.HAMERANI. Bust ot the Virgin; 

— Anno VI, Restoration of the Ponte-Molle, EX. GALLIA. 
beneath : J.HAM.; — Anno VII, Opening of Salt works at Cor- 
Standing figure, &c. 

This artist engraved also a medal of Girdinal Prince Henry 
Stuart (Henry IX) of Great Britain, with ^L. NON.DESIDERIIS. 
HOMINVM.SED.VOLVNTATE.DEI. Religion holding Bible and 
cross; at her feet, a lion ; signed : G.HAM.F. 

Gioachino Hamerani's signature is found on some of the coins 
of Pius VI, the Roman RepubUc, 1798-1799, and Pius VU., also 
on medals of Cicero, 1799, etc. 

HAMERANI, GIOVANNI (ItaL). Medallist and Coin-engraver, born 
at Rome on October 30, 1649, where he died on June 25, 
1705, from apoplexy. He was the son ot Alberto Hamerani, and 
left behind him two sons, Ermenegildo and Ottone and a daughter- 
Beatrice, who all three distinguished themselves as noted medal- 
engravers. Giovanni Hamerani was appointed Medallist after his 
father's death, to Pope Clement X. and later also to Innocent XL, 
Alexander VIIL, Innocent XIL and Clement XL Bolzenthal remarks 
that this artist, in common with his father, possessed a pure artistic 
taste, and in style, expression and strength of execution, was much 
superior to the engravers of his time. 

Giovanni Hamerani's signature is met with in different forms : 

— HAMERAN ; _ J. H. ; — HAMER ; — JOAN HAMERANI. F. ; — 
I.H.F. ; — Jo! HAM. ; -1 HAM. ; — OP.I.H. ; — OPVS HAMER ; — 

To him we owe the following medals : Clement X. (1670-1676). 
Anno II, Beatification ot five Saints, ^L. DECOR EIVS GLORIA 
SANCTORVM; - Anno III, Roman Charity, ^L. VIVIFICAT 
ET BEAT. A girl feeding her old father in prison; — 
Anno IIII, ^L. PER. ME. VITA. EXTRA. ME. MORS. Religion 
holding cross; — Anno IIII, St. Peter and St. Paul, INTERCE- 
DITE. PRO. NOBIS; — Anno IIII, The Pontirs apostolic care in 
providing the Papal States with corn during the famine, UT. 
PORTA. COLLI. Ihe Pope opening the Holy Gate (3 types, with 

— 400 — 

APERI . EIS . THESAVRVM . TVVM and date MDCLXXV or 1 67 5 ; 
Anno VI, Commemoration of the Jubilee Year, FLVENT AD 
EVM OMNES GENTES View of the Vatican (illustraled) ; — 
EJVS. The Pope closing the Porta Sancta ; — Another, on the 
same event, with legend : BENEDIXIT.FILIVS.IN.TE. ; — 
Anno VI. ^L. DOMVS ALTERIA, ex. MDCLXXV, View of the 
Palazzo Alfieri. This medal is praised by Venuti. Innocent XL 
( 1 676-1689). Accession of the new Pontiff, ^L. INNOCENS. 
MANIBUS.ET.MVNDO.CORDE. The Pope seated on the Sedia 


Jubilee Medal of Pope Clement X. 

Gestatoria carried to St. Peter's accompanied by the Sacred College ; 
— 1676, The Pope's intervention for Peace between France and 
Spain, FIAT.PAX.IN.VIRTVTE.TVA; — The noble ancestry 
of the Odescalchi family, ^L. DIVINAENVNCIA MENTIS. The 

Jubilee Medal of Pope Clement X. 

Zodiac with the signs Aquila and Leo; — Anno I., St. Peter walk- 
ing on the sea sustained by Our Lord, SALVA NOS DOMINE 
(2 types); — Anno II, ^L. AVDITE. VOCES. SVPPLICVM 

— 401 — 

St. Peter and St. Paul standing; — Anno III, ^L. NON.DEFI- 
CIET.FIDES/rVA. St. Peter seated; — 1679, ^L. GLORI^E. 
figure seated and flying Genius; — Anno III, ^L. IN.S.£CVLVM. 
STABIT. Faith, veiled, holding cross, &c., and standing; in the 
distance, view of the Vatican ; — Anno IIII, The Washing of the Feet ; 

— Treaty of Peace of Nyniwegen, FECIT . PACEM . SVPER . TER- 
RAM. Piety kneeling with lamb at her feet; — Anno V, RL. IN. 
COELO. SEMPER. ASSISTITVR, St. Michael killing the Dragon; 

— Anno V, Charity, NON.QVAERIT.QVAE.SVA.SVNT; — 
Anno VI,Extinction of Michele Molino's heresy, I^. VNA . SVPER. 
VNVM. The Church holding cross near circular temple; to r., an 
Angel ; — Anno VII, The Roman Catholic Faith, ^L. IN.SAECV- 
LVM. STABIT. Religion standing with keys and cross in her 
hands; above, two angels; — Anno VIII, The Washing of the 
Feet; — Anno XIII, The Turks raise the siege of Vienna, 1683, 
inscription was used by Pius V. for the medal commemorating the 
Victory ofLepanto ; — Anno VIII, Conclusion of an Alliance against 
the Turks by the Pope, Emperor Leopold, John III. of Poland and 
Marc Antonio Giustiniani, Doge of Venice, HABETO.NOS. 
Imperial and Royal crowns, and the Ducal beretta ; — N. d., 
VESTRAE. The Venetian Lion; — Anno VIII, Religion; — 
Anno IX, The Venetians seize the island of S. Maura from the 
Church; — Anno X, St. Peter seated, NON DEFICIET. FIDES. 
TVA. ; — Anno XL Victory over the Turks in Hungary, IN. 
PERPETVVM . CORONATA . TRIVMPHAT. Cross on mount, &c.; 

NOMEN.TVVM. Hope standing; — Anno XIII, The Pope's 
constancy in the troubles of that year, when began the War 
between Christian Princes, and James II. of England was dethron- 
ed, FORTITVDO.MEA. DOMINE. Seated figure of Fortitude. &c. 
Alexander Fill. (1689-1691). 1689, Accession of the Pope, MVNIT 
ET VNIT Orb and Zodiac; 1690, The Pontiff's affability, SVA- 
VITATE; — 1690, The Paschal Feast, DOMINI EST ASSVMP- 
TIO NOSTRA. St. Peter's cathedral; — Anno I, ^L. As last; 
bust different ; — N. d., S. Lorenzo Giustiniani in the attitude of 
blessing, LAVRENTIO . J VST IN . SS . ALBVM RELATO; ex. 
(2 tvpes); — Sede Vacante (i6^i). Medal with heads of St. Peter 
andSt. Paul. ^. VENI . LVMEN . CORDIVM— ROM AE. The Holy 
Dove. Innocent XII. (1691-1700). Anno I, Coronation of the Pope, 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notice} of Medallirts. — U. i6 

— 402 — 

vours of the Pope to pacify the Christian Princes, IVSTITIA. ET. 
ABVNDANTIA.PACIS. Seated figure of 'Justice; — The Pon- 
tiffs good will to the Powers, A. DEO. ET. PRO. DEO Charity; 

— Another, with legend : PACEM.DONES.PROTINVS; — 
Anno II, The Pope enthroned receiving a deputation of poor 
PAVPERES; — Anno III, St. Peter watching over the City ot 
dation of the Apostolic Hospital at Ripa Grande (MDCXCIV); — 
Anno IV (COIDCVC), The Curia Innocenziana on Monte Citorio, 
erected by Bernini and Fontana; legend : IVSTITIAE ET.PIE- 
TATI; — Anno IV, The Church of Santa Maria delle Fornaci, 
AEDIS.D.MARIAE.DEVM. &c. ; — Anno V, The Basilica Anto- 
nina transformed into the Dogana di Terra, QVAESTVS . MAGNVS . 
Pontiff allowing a large sum for Oriental Missions, ANNVN- 
TIATE. INTER. GENTES, Pope seated, &c. ; — Anno VII, Busts 
of St. Peter and St. Paul, FVNDAMENTA.FIDEI; ex. CODCIIC; 

TIO;ex. CIDlbCD The Porta Sancta, ^c. ; — Anno VIII, The 
Washing of the Feet. TV.DOMINVS.ET.MAG. ; ex. EXEMPL. 
DEDI.VOBIS; — 1699, Figure of the Holy Virgin executed in 
mosaic by Giuseppe Conti in the Court of the Quirinal, SVB. 
TVVM.PRiESIDIVM; — 1700 (MDCC), Procession of pilgrims 
entering the Porta Santa, INTROITE. PORTA. EJUS ; — Another 
Jubilee Medal, with I^. IVSTITIA . ET . ABVNDANTIA . PACIS . 
Justice seated. Clement XL (1700-1721). Accession on the 23"^ of 
November 1700, ^L. REPLEVIT.ORBEM.TERRARVM. The 
Holy Dove; — Allusion to the Pope's difhculties in connection 
with the Spanish war of Succession, INFVNDE LVMEN; ex. VT. 
SINT.ASPERA.IN.VIAS.PLANAS. The Holy Dove, and Pon- 
tiiFs arms ; — Anno I, The Pope's endeavours to restore Peace, 
FIAT . PAX . SVPER . ISRAEL 1 70 1 . Kneeling figure of the Church ; 

— 1702, Restoration of the Basilica de Ss. Dodici Apostoli, AVXI- 
APOST.MDCCII; — Anno III, Restoration of the ancient Aque- 
duct of Civitavecchia, HAVRIETIS.IN GAVDIO; — Anno IIH, 
The Reformatory erected by Pope Clement XL near the Hospital of 
St. Michael, VT . ERVANTVR . A . VIA . M ALA . ; — Anno IHI, 
The Granaries enlarged by the addition of the Fabric near S. Ber- 

Giovanni Hamerani executed two medals belonging to the 
English series : 1683, Cardinal Howard, Bust to r. :^.^NE VICTA 
RESVRGANT Hercules searing the decapitated necks of the 
Hydra (Med. 111. I, ||), always cast (JE and lead); — 1689, Inno- 

— 403 — 

cent XI. condoles with James 11., Bust of Pope ^L. FORTITVDO. 
MEA . DOMINE. Fortitude seated to r., caressing a lion (Med. 111. 
I, ^ (.R. and JE.). 

Gold and Silver coins of Innocent XL, Alexander VIII., Inno- 
cent XII., and Clement XI. bear Giovanni Hamerani's signature in 
various forms ; the names of other engravers, as Lucenti on the 
coinage of Innocent XI., Travanus on that of Alexander VIII., 

Scudo of Innocent XI., by Giov. Hamerani. 

P. P. Borner on that of Innocent XII., and St. Urbain on that of 
Clement XI., show that more than one die-cutter was employed 
at the Papal Zecca at the same time. 

The following medals, of which I have seen descriptions, bear 
Giovanni Hamerani's signature : 1673, Louis XIV,, I^. QVIS. 
CONTRA. NOS Massacre of the Huguenots in theCevennes; — 
1680, Christina of Sweden, I^. NE.MI.BISOGNA ; — Another, 
^. Victory ; — Francis I, Duke of Parma. ^. IVNGVNTVR, &c. 

HAMERAN, JOHANN ANDREAS (Germ.). Medallist of the first half 
of the seventeenth century. He was born at Hermannskirchen in 
Bavaria and settled at Rome under the pontificate of Paul V. 
( 1 605-1 621). This engraver was the ancestor of the celebrated 
family of medallists who worked tor the Papal Zecca for nearly two 
centuries. His son Alberto, born in 1620, was the first artist to 
bring the name of Hamerani into prominence, and Giacomo, who 
was still working circa 1807, the last. *' To have continued the same 
occupation for four, or possibly, five generations, would have been 
very unusual in life; but to have retained the same office under 
thirteen successive elective sovereigns, no one of whom was related 
to his predecessor or biased by his predilections, is much more 
remarkable, and may fairly be ascribed to superior talent, which, 
however, had declined under Benedict XIV., and almost vanished 
under Pius VI. " (R. Sainthill. Olla Podrida, II, p. 340). 

— 404 — 

Venuti informs us that John Andrew Hameranus Hermanskerker 
was engaged under Pope Paul V. at the Zecca to strike medals 
and coins. His productions not being signed, it is impossible to 
ascribe any to this artist. According to Sainthill, he married 
twice; by his first wife, Margaret Corradini, he had a son named 
Albert, who succeeded him at the mint ; and by Margaret Aguccia, 
two daughters, Anna-Maria and Theresia. He died at Liburni on 
August 17., 1644. 

HAMERANI, OTTONE (or OTTO). Medallist and Coin-engraver, 
born at Rome on the 5. of November 1694. where he died in 
1768. He was the younger son of Giovanni Hamerani, and held 
the office ot Medallist to Popes Clement XII., Benedict XIV. and 
Clement XUI. As an artist. Otto Hamerani did not come up to his 
father, nor even to his brother. He was an especial favourite of the 
Old Pretender of England, James (III.) Stuart, tor whom he 
struck several medals, and who gave him as a token of esteem and 
admiration a precious ring. He had learned to draw and design 
under Luti ; he then modelled in wax, and finally devoted himself 
entirely to medal-engraving. 

Hamerani held the office of Master of the Mint at Rome from 
1734 until his death in 1768. 

Lochner gives an incomplete list of the productions of Ottone 
and Ermengildo Hamerani, who both worked also tor private 
persons and on foreign orders. 

Ottone Hamerani's signature on medals appears in various forms 
also : HAMERANI ; — OTTO ; — HAMERANVS ; — 0. H. ; — OTTO 

The following medals are by this artist : Clement XII. (1730- 
1740). 173 1, Foundation of the Temple of the Child Jesus on the 
The Church standing; in the distance, the Vatican ; — 1732, The 
Port of Ancona exempted from Taxes, ADJVTOR.IN.OPPOR- 
TVNIT., ex. MDCCXXXII. View of Ancona and harbour; — 
Anno III, The Washing of the Feet; — Anno III, Restoration ot 
the Arch of Constantine, OB. MEMOR- CHRISTIAN. SECVRIT. 
REST., ex. MDCCXXXIII; — Anno III, Addition of a new Por- 
tico to the Church of the Lateran, ADORATE.DOMINVM.IN. 
GALILEVS.ARCHTNV. View of the Facade of S. Giovanni in 
Laterano with Portico inscribed, CLEM. XII. etc.; — Anno III, 
The Corsini Chapel in the Lateran, SACELLO. IN. LATER ANEN. 

— 405 — 

INVENT. ; — Anno III, Lazzaretto built at Ancona by the Pope, 
INVEN. ; — Anno IV, Foundation of the Capitohne Museum, 
IN CAPITOLIO.ERECTIS. Rome seated on orb inscribed 1734, 
etc. ; — 1735, The Mint, B^. EX CONLATICIA . PROBATAQ . 
keys, 1735, and motto : ASSAGIVM.GENERALE ; — Anno V, 
Ravenna protected from inundations, SECVRITAS.POPVLI.RA- 
VENN., ex. MDCCXXXV. Ravenna reclining between two vases, 
representing rivers, and inscribed : MONTO and RONCVS; — 

— Anno VI, The Great Fountain dell'Acqua Vergine built by the 
architect Nicolo Salvi Romano, FONTE. AQViE. VIRGINIS.OR- 
NATO, ex. MDCCXXXVLO.H.; — Anno VI, Foundation of 
the Church of Santa Maria on the Forum of Trajan, SACERDOS. 
ECCL.50.MDCCXXXVI ; — Anno VII, The Palazzo della Con- 
TIONIBVS, ex. MDCCXXXVII.O.H. ; — Anno VII, Beatification 
of St. Vincent de Paul, San Francesco Regis, St. Catherine of 
Genoa and S. Giuliana Falconieri, on the Lateran, ILLOS.ET. 
Pope's generosity, PIA . DOMO . SERVATA. Clement XII. receiving 
mothers with their children. Benedict XIV. (1740-1758). 1740, 
Accession of the Pontiff, JVDICABIT.IN.yEQVITATE.MDCCXL. 
The Church ; — Anno I, Restoration of a new Portico in the Basi- 
EREXIT . BENED . PP . XIV . AN . MDCCXLI . PONT . I. ; — Restor- 
ation of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, BASIL. LIBER. 
PORTIC.REST. ; — Divine Providence, VT.MECVM.SIT.ET. 
MECVM.LABORET. MDCCXLI; — Anno II, The Port of Civi- 
tavecchia freed from Duties, VECTIGALIBVS . REMISSIS, ex. 
AD.CENTVMCELL. 1742. Abundance; — The Tomb of Maria 
Clementina Sobieski in St. Peter's, built by Barrigioni and Bracci, 
CA.1742. Pavilion and keys; ASSAGIVM.GENERALE; — 

— Anno IV, Restoration of the Triclinio Leoniano in the Lateran 

— Anno V, The Schools of design and Statues of the Campidoglio, 
in the distance, the Capitol ; Anno VI, Beatification of the 

— 4o6 — 

Saints, St. Fidel of Sigmaringen, S. Giuseppe da Leonessa, S. 
Camillo de' Lellis, S. Pietro Regalada and S. Catterina de' Ricci, 
CDIDCCXLVI; — Anno VI, Tiie Pope's generosity, PIA.DOMO. 
SERVATA. Benedict XIV. amidst the Poor' and children; — 
Anno VII, The Pope in lectica between Guards carried to Civita- 
CELLAS.PROFECTIO; — Anno VIII, The Pope's wise disposi- 
tions in connection with the Tribunale di Segnatura, EGO.JVS- 
Wisdom, etc. ; — Anno VIII. ^L. EX.COLLECTIS.FRAGMEN- 
TIS MDCCXLVII, Pavilion and keys ; — Anno IX, The Picture 
Gallery at the Capitol, AMPLIORIBONAR. ARTIVM.INCRE- 
Arts, etc. and view of the Picture Gallery ; — Jubilee Medal, 
FLVENT.AD.EVM.OMNES.GENTES. The announcement of 
the Jubilee, view of St. Peter's cathedral; angel holding 
banner inscribed : IN . SPLENDORE . STELLARVM ; —Another. 
^. MDCCL. The Pontiff assisted by the Clergv opening the 
Porta Sancta; — Another. ' }^. INTROITE. PORTA S.EJVS; 
beneath : HAMERANVS F. Procession entering the Porta Sancta; 
— Another. ^L. ET.CLAVSIT, ex. MDCCL. The Pontiff 
closing the Porta Sancta; — Another. ^. AN. MDCCL. FRAN- 
CIS . COMIT . PRAES . The Pope and the Chapter General of the 
Franciscan Order; — Anno XI, Administration of Justice, EGO. 
TVTA. Seated figure of Justice and Genius; — Anno XII, Public 
TAVRATO. Security seated leaning against column, 1752; — 
Anno XIII, Conclusion of a Treaty between the Pope and Venice, 
TITVTIS. The Church shaking hands with the Republic of 
Venice ; — Anno XIV. Settlement of dispute with the Patriarch 
QVILLITAS.RESTITVTA. Two bishops holding cross, etc. ; — 
Anno XIIII, The Washing of the Feet; — Anno, XV, Treaty 
between the Pope and the King of Naples, VOTA. PVBLICA. ex. 
RELIGIONE . AVSPICE . A . MDCCLV. The Pope seated on throne, 
and various figures; — Anno XVI, The Mint, PROVIDENTIA. 
Anno XVI, Flourishing state of Commerce, AVCTO. TERRA. 
MARiaVE.COMMEKCIO, ex. MDCCLVI. Abundance and Nep- 
tune ; — Anno XVII, Restoration of the Pantheon, PANTHEI. 
of the Rotunda restored by the architect Posi ; — Anno XVIII, 

— 407 — 

The Washing of the Feet; — Anno XVni, ^. FRVCTVM. 
SVVM.DEDIT. IN TEMPORE. Cross, at the feet of which two 
angels kneeling. Sede I'acante (1758). :^. SPIRITV.ORIS.EJVS. 
The Holy Dove. Clement XJIL (175 8- 1769). Anno I, Accession, 
ing; - Anno I, Public charity, DEDIT . PAVPERIBVS . ex. 
MDCCLIX. Charity standing; — Anno II, Distribution of corn to 
The Granaries of Termini; — Anno III ([761), New Warehouses 
built at Civitavecchia, MERCIVM.IMPORTANDARVM. COM- 
MODITATI. View of the harbour; — Anno III, ^. GRE- 
NO IN. ALBVM.BEATOR.RELATO. within olive- wreath ; — 
Anno IV, The Pope visits Civitavecchia, ADVENTVS PONTIFI- 
CIS.CENTVMCELL. ; — Anno V, Navigation on the Tiber resu- 
Anno \'I, View of Civitavecchia and fortress, CENTVMCELLIS. 
the Pope to the Capitoline Museum of the two marble Centaurs 
found at the Villa of Hadrian, CVRA . PRINCIPIS • AVCTO . 

The English medallic series claims the following medals by 
Ottone Hamerani : 17 19, Escape of Princess Clementina from 
Innspriick. 28. April (N. S.) 1719. Bust of Princess. ^. FOR- 
BV.MDCCXIX. The Princess in a car drawn by two horses; in 
the distance, Rome (Med. III. II, ^) ; — 17 19, Marriage of James 

(III.), the Old Pretender, and Princess Clementina — ^, I7i9> 

BR.MDCCXIX. Hercules and Venus,attendedbyCupid.(Med.Ill.II, 
^') (iR. and JE.); — 1719; Another medal, on the same event. 
Bust of Prince James. ^. Bust of Princess Clementina (Med. III. 
11,^'). (/K and ^E, illustrated); — 1789, Portrait-medallion of 
Princess Clementina, engraved on steel and set in a brass rim 
(Med. III. n, %) ; •-- 1720, Birth of Prince Charles, Young Pre- 
tender, f Dec. 1720. Busts conjoined. ^. PROVIDENTIA 
VLTIMA A : MDCCXX. Providence, leaning against column, 
holds child in her arms (Med. III. II, §--) (iR and JE); — 1721, 
James (III.), Old Pretender, Appeal against the House of Hano- 
ver, obv. VNICA SALVS. Bust of Prince James to r. ^. Q.VID. 
GRAVIVS.CAPTA. Ex. MDCCXXI. The Hanoverian Horse 
trampling upon Lion and Unicorn; Britannia seated; View of 

— 408 — 

London in the distance (Med. 111. II, ^) (JR. and JE) ; — 1729, 
Prince Charles and Prince Henry, obv. MICAT. INTER. OMNES. 
Bust of Prince Charles. R,. ALTER. AR.ILLO. Bust of Prince 
OS.SACRVM.COELO. (Med. 111. II/-|) (A^, JR. and -JE); — 
1729, The two Princes, obv. NVNC . SALTEM . EVERSO . IVVE- 
NEM. Bust of Prince Charles. 1^. TRIPLICIS.SPES.TERTIA. 
GENTIS. Bust of Prince Henrv (Med. 111. II, '^^). (^and.^). 

Marriage medal of the Elder Pretender and Princess Clementina, 
by Otto Hamerani. 

By Otto Hamerani are also : 17 17, King John V. ot Portugal. 
^. alludes to the participation of the Portuguese fleet in the Vic- 
tory over the Turks in Morea ; — Charles VI, Taking of Temesvar 
and Belgrade; — Birth of Archduke Charles of Austria, 1745 

Obv. of Scudo of Benedict XIV., by Otto Hamerani. 

(executed for the Milanese Mint); — Quarantine Hospital at 
Ancona; D"^ Giuseppe Cervi of Parma (Boston Coll"). 

— 409 — 

Most of the silver coinage of Popes Clement XII., Benedict XIV., 
and Clement XIII. was engraved by Otto Hamerani ; some of the 
Scudi, Half-scudi, and Testoni are signed HAMERANI or H., or also 
0. H. This artist does not appear to have been employed on the 
gold coinage. 

HAMETEL, GUILLAUME DE (French). Mint-master at Troyes for 

the silver coinage, 1338. 

HAMILTON, M" L. VEREKER (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor and 

Medallist. "The artists who have dabbled in medal-making are 
many", says Mr M. H. Spielmann in British Sculptors of To-day, 
*' but few are those who have remained entirely faithful to it. 
Among them is Mrs Vereker Hamilton. Influenced by her master, 
Mr. Legros, and following the bold and apparently rugged and 
lumpy manner of the French medallist M. Charpentier — as opposed 
to the exquisitely refined modern classicism ot M. Roty — she has 
produced an extremely clever series full of character, including 
" Lord Roberts " ; — " Viscount Gort " ; — " Sir Donald Stewart " ; 
— and the " Maharajah of Kapurthala " {illustrated). The last 

The Maharajah of Kapurthala, by M« Hamilton. 

named was purchased for the Luxembourg Museum in Paris. " 

At the Exhibitions of the Society of Medallists this artist has 
shown a series of medals, amongst which were Portrait-medal- 
lions and Medals of Miss Dorothy Swainson ; — Mrs Swainson ; — 
Bretony peasant ; — Field-Marshal Lord Roberts ; — Field-Marshal 
Sir Donald Stewart ; — Major-General Sir Ian Hamilton, etc. 

HAMILTON, JAMES, MARQUIS OF (Brit.). In 1622 a grant was 
confirmed to Ludovic, Duke of Lennox, and James, Marquis of 

— 410 — 

Hamilton, ior the issue of a coinage of Farthing Tokens. These 
tokens had been first issued in 1613 ^^ pursuance of a patent 
granted to John Lord Harrington, of Exton. Fide. HARRINGTON. 

HAMLET (Brit.). Signature of a Die-sinker on a Portrait-medal 
of Rev. Robert Fellowes (Am. J. Num. 1067). 

HAMMANN (^French). This engraver's name occurs on a medal 

struck to commemorate the Inauguration of the Bridge of La Caille 
in Savoy. 

HAMMERSCHIDT, ANTON JOSEF (^M^fr.)- Mint-master at Karlsburg 
(Transsylvania) under Maria Theresia, circa 1765. His initial H 
appears on Ducats of that year, in conjunction with that of Alexan- 
der de Gagia, Mint-warden, G. 

Bibliography. — Ad. Resch, Siebenbiirgische Mim^enund Medaillen, Hermanns- 
tadt, 1 90 1. 

HAMMERSCHMIDT, JOSEF (Austr.). Imperial Mint-warden at Her- 
mannstadt (Transsylvania) from the opening of that Mint until 171 1. 
Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher. op. cit. 

HAMMERSCHMIDT, SALOMON {Germ.). Mint-master at Breslau, 
1666-1690, and perhaps until 171 1, On coins his initials are S. H. 
or S. H. S. His son was " Schmiedemeister " at the same mint from 
1711 to 1726. 

HAMMERSCHMIDT, SIGMDND (Austr.). Warden of the Mint at 
Briinn, then at Vienna. 

HAMMERSMITH & FIELD (Jm^r.). Jewellers of San Francisco (Cali- 
fornia) whose designs for the Medal presented to California Volun- 
teers for services in the Spanish-American War, 1898-99, were 
accepted by the official Committee. I do not know who engraved 
this medal, 

HAMMOND, BONHAM (Brit.). Manufacturer of Tokens, who was 
residing at Birmingham, at the end of the eighteenth century. 
Amongst his issues is a Leith Halfpenny of 1797. 

Bibliography. — Pye, Provincial Copper Coins, London, n. d. 

HANCOCK, JOHN GREGORY (Brit.). Medallist and Die-sinker of the 
latter part of the eighteenth century and first two decades of the 
nineteenth, circ. 1775-1815 ; resided at Birmingham, and owes his 
reputation to his skill as an Engraver of tokens. He worked for 
Matthew Boulton at the Soho Mint, and later for P. Kempson, for 
whom he executed the dies of a series of medals commemorating 
British victories over the French, the Union with Ireland, 
George III., and Statesmen of the time, as well as Prize-medals, 

— 411 — 

badges, tickets, &c. His later productions are of much greater merit 
than the earlier ones. 

I have been unable to obtain a more complete list of this 
engraver's medals, which are nearly all signed : HANCOCK or 
I.G.HANCOCK, but occasionally also I.e. H orH. Several belong 
to Mudie's Series of National Medals. 1795, War with France, 
Defeat of French fleet off" Port d'Orient by Admiral Hood, Lord 
Bridport; — I797> Engagement off Camperdown, with bust of 
Lord Viscount Duncan, Admiral of the White; — 1797, 
Another, with bust of Sir Richard Onslow Bart., Admiral of the 
Blue; — 1802, Peace of Amiens; — 1803, Henry Addington, 
Viscount Sidmouth ; — 1 803 , Earl of Liverpool (Lord Hawkesbury) ; 
— 1 80 1, Campaign in Egypt, Battle of Alexandria (Regimental 
medal struck by order of the officers of the 97*'' or Queen's German 
Regiment, for presentation to the men of the regiment who were 
engaged in that battle); — 1801, Death of Abercromby, 28 March 
1801 ; — 1802, Death ol the Duke of Bedford, 2. March 1802; — 
1814, Samuel Fereday, Peace of Paris; — 1800, Opposition to the 
Union with Ireland, with bust of Fox; — 1800, Richard Greene, 
Memorial; — 1812, Rowland, Viscount Hill, capture of Forts of 
Almare?. (the signature H may stand on this medal for Hopper, the 
sculptor of a bust of Lord Hill, from which Mills engraved the 
portrait. Mr Grueber interprets the H as Hancock, Num. Chron., 
1892, p. 237); — I799> Sir William Sidney Smith, Bonaparte 
repulsed and Siege of Acre raised; — 1783, D' Joseph Priestley 
(^illustrated) ; — Masonic medal on the Union of the two jRites, 

D"- Joseph Priestley, by J. G. Hancock. 

with accolated busts of George, Prince of Wales, and William, 
Duke of Clarence, 1802; — 1800, Charles James Fox ; — 1800, 
George III. preserved from assassination; — 1803, Washmgton 
Memorial medal (illustrated) ;— ly^SySk Henry TroWope, Knight, 
Engagement off Helvoetsluys; — 1798, Admiral, Lord Nelson, 
Victory of the Nile; — Temple, the Actor; — 1802, Marquis 

— 4^2 — 

Cornwallis; — George III.'s Insanity (A. J. N. 1171); — Dr. 
Richard Greene of Lichfield, 1800 {A J. N., 1176). 

The tokens engraved by J. G. Hancock are very numerous. 
Sharp .says of the engraver that among the Artists who produced 

Washington, Memorial Medal, by J. G. Hancock. 

the eighteenth century tokens " his name stands pre-eminent". 
The best known of these signed tokens are: Priestley (2 var.) Wil- 
kinson Iron master ; — Coventry tokens, with bust of Philemon 
Holland, 1801 (7 var.); — Anglesey, Paris Mine Co (sev. var.); 

— Birmingham, G. H. Barker (sev. var.); — Blything Hundred 
Lord Rous; — Brimscombe, T & S. Canal Co; — Bristol, H. Bird; 

— Penny Token issued by Thomas Welch, 1799 (Warwickshire 
Yeomanry); — Caermarthen, J. Morgan; — Chichester, Sharp 
and Chaldecot; — Cambridge, J. Burleigh; — Coventry, E. W. 
Percy; — Edinburgh, T. & A. Hutchison; — Elmsthorpe, R. 
Fowke; — Exeter, S. Kingdon ; — Hull, Garton &Co. ; — Lan- 
caster, Worswick & Son; — Leeds, R. Paley; — Liverpool, J. 
Clarke; — London, J. & R. Davidson; — London, Founders 
Field; — Lichfield, R. Wright; — Macclesfield, Roe Co; — 
Rochdale, J. Kershaw; — Shrewsburg Token, 1793; — Sou- 
thampton, Taylor Co; — Tamworth, John Harding; — Willey, 
J. Wilkinson (sev. var.); — Yarmouth, W. Absolon. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Davis, Token Coinage of Warwichhire. 

— Pye, op. cit. — Grueber, English Personal Medals, Num. Cliron., 1887, 1890, 
91 and 92. — Marvin, op. cit. — Nagler, Monogrammisten, III, no 2437. — Hen- 
nin, Numismalique de la Revolution fraufaise . 

HANCOCK, JOHN GREGORY (Brit.). Son of the preceding, and also 
a clever Die-sinker, especially noted for his precocious talent. At 
the age of seven, he engraved a token of uncommon merit, 
and his subsequent productions, when he was eight and nine years 
old were of great promise. Unfortunately nothing is known of the 
subsequent career of this young artist, and it is indeed beyond 

— 413 — 

comprehension, as Mr W. J. Davis remarks, that all attempts 
should fail to trace what became of him. Amongst his best known 
works, the competent token-collector above-named, gives the 
following : Birmingham Pennies, issued by George Barker — Obv. 
Bust of WiUiam Pitt, Earl of Chatham ; beneath : I.G HANCOCK 
SCULP. AGED -X YEARS. I^. Blank (only four mipressions in tin 
exist of this piece); — Obv. Variety of last bust, with figure 8 in 
inscription beneath. I^. THIS UNPARALLED PRODUCTION 
TION OF GEO. BARKER 1800; — Obv. Similar bust; beneath : 
BORN 1708 DIED 1788 on raised band I^. A beehive and bees, 
YEARS 1800 PENNY TOKEN FOR EXCHANGE, crossed laurel- 
leaves under date ; edge : BY GEORGE BARKER BIRMINGHAM 
K K X (tin and bronze); — Obv. DIVA BRITANNIAE : FAVFRIX 
ARTIVM. Bust of Britannia to r. ^. As last, without the beehive 
and laurel-branches; VTILE DULCI FOR EXCHANGE; edge : 
(24 impressions only, illustrated); — Another variety, with. ^L. 

Token by J. G. Hancock Jun^. 

blank, and inscription on edge : I PROMISE TO PAY ON 
DEMAND THE BEARER ONE PENNY. "Pye tells us that 
doubts having been expressed as to the bona-fides of this work 
being that of young Hancock, induced his father to make an affi- 
davit that they were entirely engraved by his son ; and the gentle- 
man for whom they were made declares they were perfectly con- 
vinced of the truth of this affidavit. " (Davis, The Token Coinage of 
Warwickshire, p. 3). Obv. Bust to 1. ; on broad rim : THE WORK 

— 414 — 

(^illustrated) ; — A variety of the last without inscription and with 
^. blanl<; on edge : ON DEMAND I PROMISE TO PAY THE 
BEARER ONE PENNY. Birmingham Halfpennies : Obv. SIR 

Token by J. G. Hancock Jun^. 

ORIGINAL. Bust to r., with wig; tor. TG.H. l^.THIS IS | MY 
1800. In exergue : INDUSTRY | PRODUCETH | WEALTH 
(Copper and brass, illustrated); — Obv. W. SHAKESPEARE. 

Token by J. G. Hancock Jun"". 

Bust of Shakespeare to 1.; beneath : I.G.HANCOCK AGED 7 
Y'S. ^L. As last (Copper and brass). 

Bibliography. — W. J. Davis, op. cit. — Pye, op. cit. — H. A. Grueber, B. 
M. Guide, English Medals, London, 1891. 

HANCOCK, JOHN (Brit.). Medallist, or Publisher of Tokens and 
Dealer, of the end of the eighteenth century. On his tokens, appar- 
ently engraved by him, he styles himself Umbrella maker and 
Dealer in Coins and Medals, of Leather Lane, Holborn, London. 

HANCOCK, THOMAS (Brit.). This Engraver's name or signature 
occurs on two medals I have met witii : William, third Viscount 
Dudley and Ward, his munificence, 1817; — and Joseph Hume. 

— 415 — 

HANDL, ANDRAE {Aiistr.). Mint-warden at Vienna. 1587; then 
Mint-master, 1605-1611. In 1617, he received an annual pension 
of 300 florins for his twenty-five years' service, and in 1621, he 
was elected Master of the Spanish Mint set up at Vienna by Count 
Ognat, and struck 48 Kreutzer pieces and Kipperthalers, dated 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesien an J. Newald's Puhlicationen, etc. 

HANDL, THOMAN (Austr.). Mint-warden at Vienna, circa 1570; 
received in that year a commission, in conjunction with Mint- 
master Hartmann, to strike 102 Marks 12 Loths of gold in Ducats, 
and 19 Marks 12 Loths of silver in Thalers. On the 29. June 1584, 
Handl was raised to the post of Mint-master. He died in 1587. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, op. cit. 

HANDMANN, JOHANN JAKOB (5"«//.f5). Medallist and Coin-engraver, 

Thaler and Ilalf-Thaler of Basle, by Handmann. 

who was working at Basle, circa 1740- 1770. His signature occurs 
as H., I.H. or I.HM. on coins and Prize medals. The Wunderly 
von Muralt collection contained the following examples of Hand- 
mann's work : BASLE. Thaler in gold, 1741 (weight of 20 Ducats); 
— duarter Thaler in gold, 1740 (weight of 4 Ducats (3 var.); — 
Double Thaler, 1741 ; — Thaler, 1741 ; — Thaler, 1756 (3 var.); 

— ^i6 — 

— Half Thaler, 1741 (4 var. one illustrated'); — Prize Medal 
of 1769 (signed : HANDM.); — Prize Medals (3) of 1770, with 
Mercury and Minerva; and in the Townshend Cabinet, bequeathed 
to the South Kensington Museum, are two undated Half and 
Quarter Ducats of Basle, signed H; — Double Thaler, 1741 ; — 
Thalers, 1741, 1756; — Halt Thalers, 1741, 1765; — Quarter 
Thalers, 1740, &c. 

J. J, Handmann also cut seals. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Tobler-Meyer, op. cit. — Nagler, 
Monogrammisten. — R. Stuatt-Poole, Catalogue of Swiss Coins, London, 1878. 

HANDMANN, J. (^Szuiss). Probably the son of Johann Jakob 
Handmann; worked at Basle between 1770 and 1798, as Coin- 
engraver at the -Mint, Medallist, and Seal-engraver. His signature 
appears on the following coins : Thaler, 1785, 1793 ; — Half 
Thalers, 1785, 1786; — and on the Medal of Merit of 1791 and 
1792, in gold and silver, granted by the City and Republic of Basle 
for services in the field. To this engraver are ascribed the Thalers 
and Half Thalers of 1798, struck at Basle and Soleure, for the 
Government of the Helvetic Republic, but it is not impossible that 
the signature H on these coins stands for J. F. Hueber, who also 

Thaler of 40 Batzen of the Helvetic Republic, 1798. 

worked at Basle at the end of the eighteenth century in the capacity 
of Medallist and Coin-engraver. 

Although very few coins bear Joh. Jak. Handmann and his son's 
signatures, it is quite likely that they engraved a great many ot the 
dies for the coinage issued at Basle between 1740 and 1798, espe- 
cially of the smaller denominations. 

Bibliography. — As above. 

HANDS (Brit.) Die-sinker ot the end of the eighteenth century, 
who resided at Sheffield, and engraved a number of Halfpenny 

— 417 — 

Tokens for currency at that town, in 1794. Three types are illus- 
trated in Pye, Provincial Copper Coins, PI. 44, n°* 4, 5 & 6. 

HANES, GUILLAUME (French). Goldsmith and Coin-engraver to 
the Duke of Lorraine, Rene II., circa 1484-86. He was commis- 
sioned to cut seals for the Duke, and was paid " 28 livres tournois in 
XV escuz d'or" for this work. It is possible that Hanes engraved the 
coinage of Gros doubles, Gros simples, Half Gros, Blancs and 
Mailles issued according to an order of the 3'''* November, 1484. The 
Master of the Mint at Nancy at this time was Jehan Polde. 

Bibliography. — Lepage, Graveurs de Monnaies et Medailles des Dues de 
Lorraine, Nancy, 1875. 

HANF, JOHANN ADAM (Germ.). Medallist, and Coin-engraver of 
Bayreuth, born in 1715, died in 1776. His signature occurs on 
Brandenburg-Bayreuth Ducats, Thalers, &c. of 1742, 46 and 52. 
Amnion mentions that he cut dies for the coinage issued at Bayreuth 
and Stuttgart between 1750 and 1770. A Portrait-medal of 
Frederick, son of the Markgraf George Frederick, commemorating 
his election to the Captaincy of the Franconian Circle, 1742, is 
signed HANF. On other medals and coins, the Engraver's signature 
is H., or H. Fe., or HANF F. 

BiBLiOGR.\PHY. — Ammon, op. cit. — D^ Menadier, Schiumunien des Houses 
HobenioUern, 1901. — Spiesen, Brandenb. Mnnibelustignugen, PI. Ill, 76, 89. — 
Nagler, Monogrammisten. 

HANFELDER, WOLFGANG (Germ.). Mint-master at Dachsbach, 

16. Feb. — Aug., 1622. 
Bibliography. — C. F. Gebert, op. cit. 

HANGLAISE, JEAN FLEURY (French). Sculptor of the second half 
of the nineteenth century, who executed Portrait-medallions, 
amongst others one exhibited at the Salon of 1872 of M"' de 
Saint A***. He was born at Toulon-sur-Arroux, but resided at 

Bibliography. — Chavigneric et Auvray, op. cit. 

HANHARDT, SAMUEL (Swiss). Medallist and Coin-engraver who 
worked at Basle, circa 1654. He is the author of the so-called 
" Gluckhennen Thaler " in gold, of Ten Ducats' weight, with 
view of City on obv. and hen sitting on ^L., signed on both sides 
SH, and of which there are the subdivisions, probably by the same 
artist but without his signature. Hanhardt executed also the well 
known religious Double Thaler of Basle, undated, with view of 
City on obv. and the Judgment of Solomon on ^L. According to 
Tobler-Meyer, this Engraver was a native of Steckborn. 

Bibliography. — Reg. Stuart-Poole, Catalogue 0/ Swiss Coins, London, 1878. 
— Tobler-Meyer, Kalalog der ii'underly von Muralt Sammlung, Zurich, 1896-8. 

L. FoRRER. — Biographeal Notices of MedalUslt. — II. ^7 

— 4i8 — 

HANIN, GUYOT DE {French). Coin-engraver at the Royal Mint of 
Paris, who worked for Lyons, circa 14 12-1427, M. Rondot quotes 
the following extract from a document of 141 5 : 

" 3 Janvier 1415 (1416). Guiot de Hanin, tailleur de la monnoye 
de Paris, apporta au comptoir (des g^neraux maitres de monnaies) 
une paire de fers a or et deux paires a grans blancs, tous pres a 
monnoyer, lesquelx lui avaient este ordonnez de faire pour pt^rter 
4 Lyon pour ilec edifier une monnoye de nouvel ". 

Bibliography. — Abbe Migne, Dictionnaire d'Orfevrerie, Paris, 1857. — 
N. Rondot, Gravetirs lyonnais, Macon, 1897. — Archives nationales, Z ibi.Biblio 
th^que de la Sorbonne, Ms Hi, 9, no 174, fo 107^0. 

HANISCH, WALENTIN {Germ.). Mint-master at Reichenstein, 

HANKMANN, HANS HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Idstein 
(Nassau), 1692. Distinctive mark : H(?)— H. 

Bibliography. — Julius Isenbeck, Das Nassauische Miin\u<esen, Wiesbaden, 

HANNEAUX, E. {French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
residing at Paris, ir Impasse Rousin (152, rue de Vaugirard). He 
entered the ficole des Beaux-Arts in 1876, and is a pupil of Dumont, 
Thomas and Bonnassieux. In 1887 he obtained the first second 
Grand Prix de Rome, and in 1884 he was awarded a Medal ot 
the 3'''^ Class at the Salon of the Societe des Artistes francais for 
a statue in plaster representing " The Woodcutter ". His group 
"Le Drapeau", which was acquired by the State, won for him a 
medal of the 2"'' Class, and in 1894 he received the medal of the 
I'* Class for a marble statue " La Mort d'Orphee", which is now 
exhibited at the Luxembourg Museum. It is only of recent years 
that the artist has made himself conspicuous as a Medallist ; several 
of his Portrait-medallions and plaques may be seen at the Luxem- 
bourg Museum; amongst others : J. J. Henner, the celebrated 
Painter {illustrated); — Mgr. Dupont des Loges, Bishop of Metz; 
— Sebastien LeClerc, the Engraver, &c. ; and various compositions. 
Mercury and Bacchus; — Nereides; — An Idyl; — Love and 
Music, &c. 

"La Plaquette si vivante, si noble dans sa verit^, de M. Henner, 
et celle de I'eveque Dupont des Loges, qui semble inspir^e par la 
statuaire de la cathedrale de Reims, peuvent etre placees parmi les 
plus belles oeuvres du temps present. " (Saunier, La Medaille fran- 
gaise contemporaine, Art decoratif, Nov. 1901, p. 70). 

At the Exposition Universelle of 1900, M. Hanneaux was 
entrusted with several important works, as for instance, two large 
angle groups for the Palais du Genie civil and the bas-reliets of the 

— 419 

pylons of the Chateau d'Eau, for whicn works he obtained a Gold 
Medal and the Knight's cross of the Legion of Honour. He also 

Portrait-plaque of J. J. Henner, by E. Hanneaux. 

exhibited there : Fleur de Sommeil, marble group (acquired by the 
State); — Orpheus; — Mercury and Bacchus; — St. Caecilia, 
high relief. 
Bibliography. — Information kindly supplied by the artist. 

HANNEMANN, ROBERT {Russ.). Medallist, born in 1819, was 
educated at the Russian technical School for Mining at the Techni- 
cological Institute, and was attached to the St. Petersburg Mint in 
1842. He executed a number of copies of medals of the time of Peter 
the Great and his successors down to Catherine 11.; amongst others 
I have seen his signature P. TAHNEM. on the following commem- 
orative pieces : Taking of Azow, 1696; — Building of the Peter 
the Great monument at Weskowo, 1852 (signed p. rAHNEMA'Oi 
— Battle ofPoltawa, 1709; &c. 

— 420 — 

It is well known that numerous later strikes of the Russian 
medals commemorating events of Peter the Great's reign exist, 
bearing various artists' signatures, but depicting the same types. 
The best known copyists are J. B. and F. W. Gass, Leefken, 
S. Judin, P. MeschcrjakofF, J. G. Wachter, Simeon and Timothy 
Iwanoff, A. Ljalin, C. Leberecht, Gouin, 0. K. (perhaps Ottfried 
Konig), I. K. (perhaps Johann Kittel), J. G. Jaeger, KUmentoJff, 
Wassiljeff, and others. 
Bibliography. — J. Iversen, Medaillen aitf die Thaten Peter des Grossen, 1872. 

HANNEQUIN (^French). Goldsmith at Aix, circa 1445, is mention- 
ed in Blanchet's list of French Engravers and Medallists of the 
XV. and XVI. centuries {Numismatique du ?noyen age et moderne, II, 
1893, P- 395)- 

Coin-engraver, born at Stockholm on the 9''' April 1678. He was a 
pupil of Karlsteen and in 1705 became Medallist to the House of 
Brunswick at Hanover; later on he was appointed Master of the 
Mint and Die-cutter of the Clausthal Mint (171 3). He died in 
March 13, 1741, leaving a son, Martin Hannibal, to succeed him 
in office. Bolzenthal states that his reputation was so great in Ger- 
many that he was called upon to work for the Prince -elector of 
Cologne, the King of Prussia, the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
and the City of Hamburg. " Mit Recht gait Hannibal fiir einen 
tiichtigen Produzenten seiner Zeit ", adds his German biographer. 

To the English Medallic Series Hannibal has contributed several 
pieces, which are of course connected with the Hanoverian Royal 
family : 1705, Marriage of George Augustus, Electoral Prince of 
Hanover, (afterwards George II. of England), with Princess Caro- 
line of Anspach (2 var.) ; — 1708, George Louis (afterwards 
George I. of England), Elector of Brunswick; — 1714, Electress 
Sophia of Hanover, mother of George I.; — 17 14, George I., 
proclaimed King; — 17 14, Coronation of George I.; — 1727, 
Accession of George II. ; — 1727, Accession of Queen Caroline 
(illustrated); — 1729, George II. 's Visit to the Hartz Mines; — 
1734, The Weir built at Hameln ; — 1734, University of Gottin- 
gen instituted (University Prize Medal); — 173 7, University of 
Gottingen opened (3 var.). etc. 

On these medals, and others the artist signed hisname in various 
ways : E. H.; — E. Hannibal; — Hannibal; — HANNIBAL; — 

I have also come across Hannibal's signature on the following 
medals and coins : 17 17, Ducat of Hamburg, commemorating the 
second Jubilee of the City; — 1705, Medal on the Death of 

— 421 — 

George William, Duke of Brunswick ; — 1706, Marriage Medal of 
Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George I. with Frederick William, 

Accession of Queen Caroline, by E. Hannibal. 

Crown Prince of Prussia; — 17 10, Duke George Louis elected 
Archtreasurer of Brunswick; — 1700, Charles XII. of Sweden. 
Sveriges och Svenska Konungahusets Minnespennitigar , Stockholm, 
1874, Ij P- 5085 ^° 53) J ~~" 173 ij Convention of Vienna, Bust of 

— 422 — 

George II. RL. Neptune (Knyphausen 3201); — 1722, George II, 
obv. Bust. I^. Landscape (Knigge 3244); — George Louis 

^L. of George II. 's Accession Medal, 1727. 

(afterwards George I), undated, obv. Head; beneath : E. H. 
^L. IN RECTO DECVS. Column and landscape (Knigge 2841). 
According to Ammon, Hannibal's father was a Painter, and his 
surname was Martin ; his mother's name was Christina Lente, and 
that of his wife Anna Maria Hollingen. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — Thomsen Cata- 
logue. — Kohlers Mun:(belusligiingen, P. IX, 9, 49, III, 233, 297. — Kimwphyl. 
Biirkhard. P. II. — Kohler, Diicaten Cabinet. — Vollst. Braiinsclnu. Li'niehurg. 
Mihi:( und Medaillen Cabinet. — Flad, BcrHihmte Mrdailleur. — Lochner, Medaillen 
SamniJuvg. ■ — D"" Menadier, Schaumuu:^en des Haiises Hohen^oUern, Berlin, 1901. 
— Nagler, Monograniniislen, etc. — Knigge, Braunsclnveig. Medaillen. — Informa- 
tion kindly sent by Herr Sally Rosenberg. 

HANNIBAL, MARTIN (Germ.). Son of Ehrenreich Hannibal, and 
his successor as Mint-engraver at Clausthal, from 1741 to 1748, in 
which year he died. He was sent by the Hanoverian Court to 
Sweden to study the art of engraving under the celebrated Hedlin- 
ger. His signature M. HANNIBAL appears on a medal of 1743, 
commemorating the Battle of Dettingen (Franks & Grueber, op. 
cit II iii:'^ 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — Kohlers Mfm^bel., 
PI. IX, 112. XIII. Vorrede, p. III. — Vollstdndiges Brannsclnveig-Liinelrurgisches 
Mi'inz und Medaillen Cabinet. 

HANS (?) (Austr.). Mint-master at Eger, 1485 f 1486. 

— 423 — 

HANS (Austr.). Several moneyers of that name appear in the 
Vienna Mint documents of the first half of the fifteenth century. 

HANS AN DEM CHIENMARKT (Austr.). Mint-master at Vienna, 


HANS DER STEGER (Austr.). Mint-master at Vienna, 1437. 

HANSEN, HANS (Danish). Also called Mester Hans, Mint-master 
at Bergen, 1527, and Opflo, 1525-35. 

Bibliography. — C. J. Jorgensen, Beskrivelse over Dansh Monter 1448-1888. 

HANS VON FDLDA (Germ.). Mint-master at Wiirzburg, in 1407, 
to Bishop John. 

HANSES, GEORG (Germ) Mint-master at Winsen, 29. January 
1625 to 1626. Son of Henning Hanses. 

HANSES, HENNING (Germ.). Mint-master for Nassau-Saarbriick, 
1594; 1601-1605, Mint-master at Hildesheim ; 1604/5 ^" the ser- 
vice of Count Simon of Lippe ; 1604 ''^'^o Mint-master at Altona 
(Holstein) where he remained until 16 18. Between 1609 and 1612 he 
coined money at Altona for Liineburg, and in 16 19 he became 
attached to the Hamburg mint. In 1622 he was called to Winsen 
as Mint-master, and died there in 1623. 

Bibliography. — H. Bahrfeldt, Beitrage ^ur Mfin:^eschichte der Lutuburgiscben 
Lande, Wicn, 1895. 

HANTSCH Vide HAUTSCH. The name of the Medallist Hautsch 
is often misspelt Hantsch in works describing medals by him. 

HANTZ, GEORGES (Swiss). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
Director of the Museum of Decorative Arts, at Geneva ; was born 
at La Chaux-de-Fonds (Canton Neuchatel) on the 4''' of November 
1846, from parents of French origin; settled at Geneva in 1869 
where he studied at the municipal Schools of art. He became a natu- 
ralized Swiss and first started work as an Engraver of decorative 
watch-cases, obtaining then many prizes and rewards at the various 
exhibitions to which he sent. 

Whilst engaged in artistic pursuits, and at his instigation, the 
Administrative Council of the City of Geneva founded the Museum 
of Decorative Arts, of which he became President in November 
1885, and he still enjoys that position. The artist was also several 
times elected President of the Classe des Beaux-Arts of Geneva. 

The following are the principal medallic works executed by 
G. Hantz since 1892 : — 1892, Morel Fatio (61 mill.); — 1893, 
Leo Tolstoi" (6r mill., illustrated); — Colonel Frey, Federal Coun- 
cillor (61 mill); — J. Etienne Dufour, State Councillor of Geneva 

(2 var., 6 1 and 37 mill,); 

— 424 — 
— Adrien Lachenal, Federal Councillor 

Count Leo Tolstoy, by G. Hantz. 

(61 mill.); — Ruchonnet, Federal Councillor (2 var., 61 and 37 
mill.); — 1894. Alphonse de CandoUe (61 mill.); — Cardinal 
Mermillod (61 mill.); — Antoine Carteret; — Belgian Exhibition 
at Geneva (61 mill.); — Daniel CoUadon (61 mill.); — Can- 
tonal Rifle Competition at Lucerne (45 mill.); — H. F. Brandt, 
Jeton ot the Swiss Numismatic Society; — Federal Athletic 
Fete at Lugano (40 mill.); — Helvetia, Jeton of the *' Usine de 
d^grossissage d'or" of Geneva (31 mill., illustrated); — Federal 


Rifle Competition at Winterthur (45 mill.); — Insurance Com- 
pany *' La Genevoise ", Jeton (37 mill.); — 1895. Federal Rifle 
Competition at Rio de la Plata (37 mill.); — 1896. Swiss National 
Exhibition, Souvenir medal (40 mill.); — Another, edited by the 
** Usine de d^grossissage " (45 mill.); — Another, official medal 

— 425 — 

(small size, 45 mill.); — Another, with ^L. of the large medal 
(62 mill.); — Philatelic Society of Geneva (50 mill.); — Medal 
of the Swiss musketry instructors (62 mill.); — Rifle Club oi. 
Buenos Ay res (37 mill.); — Swiss Postage Stamp Association (45 
mill.); — 1897. The Rifle Club " Guidon genevois " ; — Centen- 
ary of the Independence of Canton Vaud (37 mill.); — 1898. 
Centenary of the Lausanne Grenadiers (45 mill.); — Inauguration 
of the Masonic Temple at Geneva, Hiram Festival (37 mill.); 
— 1899, Prize-Medal of King George I. of Greece with loop for 
suspension (in commission for His Majesty); — 1900, Bernese 
Cantonal Rifle meeting at St. Imier (45 mill,); — " Arquebuse et 
Navigation", Inauguration of the Hotel (45 mill.); — Rifle Com- 
petition of the Lausanne Carabineers (27 mill.); — 1901. Male 
Choir, with portrait ot Attenhofer, the Director; 75''' Anniversary; 
Zurich (37 mill.); — The Swiss Village at the Paris Exhibition, 
Head of Helvetia 1^. Swiss country-girl in national costume (37 
mill.); — J. M. Morikofer, Jeton of the Swiss Numismatic Society, 
1901 (27 mill.) ; — 1902. Prize Medal of the Thudichum Boarding 
School " La Chatelaine " ; — Jeton of the Watch Factory Patek 
Philippe & Co of Geneva (37 mill.); — Prize Plaquette tor the 
pupils of the " Pensionnat Hacius ", Chateau de Lancy (39 X 27 | 
mill.); — Plaquette of the Swiss note-issuing Banks, with portrait 
of Friedr. Frei on obv. and I^. Town hall and Bank of Basle (80 
mill.), &c. 

Many of these medals are reproduced in the Revue Suisse de 
numismatique, Moderne Medaille, and the latest works on modern 
Medallists. The artist is highly praised for originality of style, and 
he wrote of himself to me : « J'ai poursuivi avec acharnement le but 
de donner aux objets que nous fabriquons chez nous un caractere 
national par I'introduction des elements d^coratifs si varies que nous 
offre notre nature alpestre. » 

Bibliography. — Information kindly supplied by the Artist. 

HALBECK, JEAN VAN (Bel^.) Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Brussels, 1612-1617. His name occurs also as HALBBECK. 

Bibliography. — A. de Witte, Histoire monelaire des Comtes de Louvain, Dues 
de Brabant, et Marquis du Saint Empire remain, Anvers, 1899. 

HANYN, or HAVYN, PIEBRE (French). 1559-1565. Medallist of 
the third quarter of the sixteenth century, known by two jetons : 
1558, Jeton for the Confraternitv of Notre Dame-de-Bonne- 
Delivrance; legend : ST.ESTIENNE DES GR£S; — 1565, Jeton 
for M* Petremole, Advocate to the Parliament; — 1561, Jetons 
for Queen Mary Stuart; — 1563, Jetons for Cardinal, Charles of 

— 426 — 

Lorraine. One of his ancestors (?), Guyot de Hanyn was Engra- 
ver at the Paris Mint. 

Bibliography. — A. Barre, Noms de gravetirs en medaUles de la Renaissance 
franfaise et indication de quelques-unes de leurs ceiivres, Ann. soc. num., 1867. — 
F. Mazerolle, Les Medailleurs Jranfais du XV<^ siecle an milieu dii XVII^, Paris, 

HAPP, HANNS GEORG (Germ.). Mint-administrator at Onolzbach 
in 1623. 

HARBACH, CASPAR (Danish). Medal-engraver (or Assayer) to the 
Royal Court of Denmark, before 1644, in which year he was still 

Bibliography. — Amnion, op. cit. — Kohler, Muni(bel, PI. xii, 146. 

HARDEGEN, HARDEG (Germ.). Mint-master at Weende near Got- 
tingen, 1621. His initials are said to appear on coins. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

HARDEGG, COUNT FRIEDRICH GEORG (Austr.). Mint-administra- 
tor at Hardegg, 16 18. 

HARDEN, ERNEST (French). Contemporary Sculptor and Medallist, 
born at Paris, pupil of his father and Millet, resides at Aulnay-les- 
Bondy (Seine), Villa des Petits Ponts. At the Salon of 190 1, he 
exhibited a frame of four silver medals. 

HARDER, HANNS (Austr.). Mint-warden at Linz, 1548, Mint- 
administrator at Prague, 1561, and still in office in 1578. His spe- 
cial mark appears on coins, first as a griffin's head, then as O or <j). 

Bibliography. — Osterreicher, op. cit. 

HARDER, JOACHIM (Brit.). Coin-engraver at the Edinburgh Mint 
under Charles II. In 1663, he "was instructed to grave and sink 

Half Merk of Charles II. 

irons agreable to the circumscriptions and impressions of the 
severall pieces above-mentioned with all diligence ". The coinage 
in question, tor which Thomas Simon prepared the puncheons. 

— 427 — 

consisted of Four Merk pieces (issued after 1664), Two Merl<, One 
Merk, and Half Merk pieces, struck in compliance with two orders 
of the Privy Council of 20. Oct. 1663 and 24. March 1664. The 
dates on these coins are 1664, 1665, 1670, 1673, 1674 and 1675. 

Harder only cut dies from Simon's puncheons, and nothing 
more appears to be known concerning his work. 

Bibliography. — Burns, Coinage of Scotland, 1887. — Grueber, Handbook, &c. 

HARDER, SIMON (Austr.). Son of Hanns Harder, Warden at the 
Mint of Prague, 11. July 1 579-1 583. 

HARDMAN, JOHN & C° (Brit.). Die-cutters of Birmmgham. This 
signature occurs on a medal of the Medical Department of Queen's 
College, Birmingham (Atner. Jotirn. of Num., 910). 

HARDOYN, PIERRE {French). Mint-engraver at Angers, before 1558 
(according to Barre). Planchenault (Jm Monnaie d' Angers) does 
not mention him, but gives a HARDOUIN GUYOT, 15. November 
1558 to 6. August 1563 and a HAUDOUYN MATHURIN, who was 
employed at the Angers Mint some time later. 

HARENT, C. {French). Mint-master general (?) under Henry IV. 
of France, end of sixteenth century. 
Bibliography. — F. Mazerolle, op. cit. 

HARDY, HERMANN VON DER {Germ.). Mint-master or Warden at 
Mellen, near Osnabriick, in the County of Tecklenburg, circa 

Bibliography. — Ammon, op. cit. 

HARDY, CLAUDE {French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of Nancy 
from 1698 to 1702. "His work," remarks Lepage {Les Graveurs 
de monnaies et medailles des dues de Lorraine, 1875) "showed taste 
and intelligence, but his early death prevented him from greater 
success". His father (?) had occupied a similar post previously 
{Vide JEAN HARDY). Although Rondot {Les Graveurs de monnaies 
a Lyon, 1897) '^oes not appear to have noticed it, I should think 
this Claude Hardy is the same engraver who was employed at the 
Paris Mint from 1674 to 1676, cut dies for the coinage of Four 
Sol pieces issued at Lyons in 1674, and was appointed, by Royal 
letters of 28*'' November 1686, Die-cutter and Engraver at the Mint 
of Lille. 

HARDY, JEAN {French). First mentioned in 1647 as " Master Gold- 
smith and Engraver" at Nancy, where he cut seals in commission for 
Charles IV., Duke of Lorraine, His initials H. F. are found on a 

— 428 — 

small medal or badge of that Duke, with a view of Nancy on ^L. 
and the date 1660; Fame hovers above the town and the legend 
is : FAMASVA.CIRCVIT-ORBEM. (Lionnois, Histoire de Nancy, 
t. 11, p. 461). Probably the same artist, who died some time pre- 
vious to the ii**^ of October 1684, when his wife received payment 
of 200 Livres for work done by her late husband, is the author of 
the following medals which were engraved in commission for the 
Paris Medal Mint : Portrait of the Due d'Ampville ; legend : FR. 
AMERICiE; signed : J. HARDY, F. 1658 ; — Bust of Louis XIV. ; 
signed : HARDY, F. ; — Portrait ot Gaston of Orleans ; signed : 

Bolzenthal is evidently in error when he gives the year 1669 as 
the date of Hardy's death. 

Dampville, Viceroy ot America, by J. Hardy. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Lepage, op. cit. — J. -J. Guiffrey, La 
Monnale des Medailks, Revue numismatique, 1888, p. 311. — C. Wyllys Betts, 
Atnerican Colonial History illustrated by Contemporary Medals, New- York, 1894. 

HARLEMANN, JOHANN VON(Gm«.). Eighteenth century Medallist, 
and pupil of the celebrated Medallist Hedlinger. He died quite 
young. Also HORLEMAN. 

HARLEY, SIR ROBERT (Brit.). Master of the Royal Mint in Lon- 
don, from the first to the eleventh year of Charles I. and again 
from the eighteenth year to the end of the reign. He was relieved 
ot_ his functions, with other officers of the mint, soon after the 
King's death, D"" Aaron Guerdain being appointed his successor by 
the Commonwealth. He had refused to comply with an order of 
the House, deciding " that money of gold and silver should be 

— 429 -- 

coined with its own style and authority, the type and inscription 
having been settled by a resolution ot the 25''' of April and an Act 
of the 17"^ of July, 1649." 

Bibliography. — Ruding, op. cit. — Kenyon, op. cit., p. 166. 

flARNISCH, JOHANN BAPTIST {Aiistr.). iMedallist of the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century, resided at Vienna, and was 
Director of the School of Engraving, died in 1826 (according to 
Bolzenthal). Schlickeysen gives his date as 1785 -183 3, erroneously 
1 believe. Very little appears to be known about him, except that 
between 1812 and 1826 he was Court Medallist and between 1808 
and 1 8 12 Coin and Medal-engraver at the Vienna Mint. 

By this artist are : Marriage of the Empress Marie-Louise, 18 10; 

— Foundation of the Polytechnic Institute; — Medical Faculty of 
Buda-Pest, 1819; — Foundation of the Bank Buildings; — Foun- 
dation of a Veterinary College at Vienna, 1823 (in Boston Coll"); 

— Entry of the Emperor Francis II. into Vienna, 16. June 18 16; — 
Carolina Augusta of Bavaria, Empress of Austria, and fourth con- 
sort of Francis II. ; — Frederick VI., King of Denmark, Medal of 
Merit, 18 14; — Francis Neumann, Director of the Viennese Coin 
Cabinet, 1816; — First Ascent on the Gross-Glockner, 1799; — 
Rudolph, Count of Wrbna, 1817; — Foundation of the Kaiser 
Joseph Academy at Vienna, 1785; — Convention Thaler of 1820; 

— Medal for Valour in the field, 1805 ; — Marriage of Napoleon 
and Marie-Louise, 1810 ; — Visit of Alexander I. of Russia to Vienna, 
1814; — Visit of Frederick William of Prussia to Vienna, 1814; 

— Visit to Vienna of King Maximilian of Bavaria, 1814; — Visit 
to Vienna of King Frederick of Wurtemberg, 1814; — Visit to 
Vienna of King Frederick of Denmark, 18 14; — Prize Medal of 
the Copenhagen Academy of Fine Arts; — Prize Medal of the Rifle 
Meeting at Innspruck, 1816; — Return of Emperor Francis I. to 
Vienna, 1816; — Marriage of Francis I. with his fourth Consort, 
Carolina Augusta of Bavaria, 1816; — Lemberg University Rec- 
torship, 18 17; — Journey of Francis I. to Italy, 18 19; — Journeys 
of the Emperor and Empress of Austria in Italy, 1 8 1 9 ; — Rectorship 
of the Pesth University, 18 19 ; — Prize Medals for the Theological, 
Legal, Clinical, &c. Students ot Pesth University; — Archduke 
Rudolf Franz, Cardinal Archbishop of Olmiitz, 1819; — The 
Viennese Conservatoire, 1821; — Visit of the Emperor and 
Empress to Pressbourg, 1825 ; etc. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Donianig, op. cit. — Edwards, 
Napoleon Medals, Sec. — Fiala, op. cit. — Domanig, KataJog der Mfin^- und 
Medaillen-Stempel Sammlung des K.K. HauptmUniatnles in Wien, 1901. 

HARNISCH, JOSEPH (Atistr.). Mint-engraver at Vienna, 1827- 
1835, 1844-1848. 

— 430 — 

HARNISCH, MATHIAS (^//5/r.). Mint-engraver at Vienna, 1833- 
1835, 1844-48. 

HARPER {GermJ). Painter of the first half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, designed several medals, amongst others that commemorating 
the Marriage of Princess Charlotte at Berlin, 1733 (engraved by 
Koch) and several Accession medals of Frederick the Great, execut- 
ed by L. H. Barbiez and other Medallists. 

Bibliography. — Menadier, SclMttmunien des Haiises Hoheniollern, Berlin, 1901. 

HARPER {Brit.y London Die-sinker of the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. I have met with his signature on a Volunteer's 
Medal (Reward of Merit) of the 4''' Reg' Loyal London Volunteers, 

HARREWYN, FRANCOIS (BeJg.). Mint-engraver at Brussels, 1725- 
1764. Probably a son of Jean Harrewyn and father of Jean Bap- 
tiste H. He was a Copper-plate Engraver; pupil of Romain de 
Hooghe. According to some, he was born in 1680; he died in 
1764. In 1725, he was appointed Engraver of the coins at the Mint 
of Brussels, and Engraver of the Emperor's seals. To him was 
entrusted the execution of the new seals on the death of Charles 
VL in 1740. In 1730, he had made a prolonged stay in Portugal, 
with a special authorization, and did important work for the King 
of that country. 

By Frangois Harrewyn are the two following medals : Princess 
CaroUne ot Lorraine ; obv. QUAS NUTRIT ARTE; ex. .• CAROL : 
LOT : PRINC : PROTECT. The Princess seated, holding wreath ; 
Tree flanked with two shields representing Architecture and Paint- 
ing; date M.DCC.LX; — Accession of Maria Theresia, 1744, 
imitation of the medal by Jacques Roettiers and s'igned H. 

In 1734, Harrewyn's salary amounted to 438 florins. 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, Histoire de la Gravure des Medailles en Belgique, 
1870. — A. de Witte, Histoire monetaire, etc. 

HARREWYN, JEAN (Belg.). Copper-plate Engraver and Medallist 
of the second half of the seventeenth century and first quarter of 
the eighteenth; he was still working in 1723. Pinchart has seen 
his signature on a Portrait-medal of Princess Anne of Croy ; obv. Bust 
in profile; legend : OBIIT 1660 A AETATIS.70. ^L. Crowned 
shield ofarms ; legend : ANNA D . G . NATDVCISS • SED • POM'&c 
same Engraver is most probably the author of two jetons signed 
H.F, and issued, one in 1675, by the Council of Finances, and the 

— 431 -- 

other in 1686, by the Castellany of Furnes, with the head of King 
Charles II. 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, Histoire de la Gravtire des Medailles, Bruxelles, 

HARREWYN, JEAN BAPTISTE (Belg.). Mint-engraver at Brussels, 
1764-1783. A son of Fran(;ois Harrewyn, was sent to Vienna in 
1753 by the Government ot the Netherlands to study the art of 
engraving, under Matthias Donner, and remained there until 
1764. On his return to Brussels, he was associated with his father, 
and in December 1768 he was appointed to succeed him both as 
Coin and Seal-engraver at the Mint. The works of this Medallist 
are of inferior merit. I have found the description of the following : 
Charles of Lorraine, 1754; — The flourishing State of Belgium. 
trate's jeton of Bruges; — Magistrate's jeton of the Castellany of 
Courtrai ; — Foundation of the Roya4 Academy of Sciences and 
Letters, 1772 (2 var.); — Prize-medal of the Royal Academy; — 
Foundation of a House of Correction, with bust of the Governor- 
general of the Netherlands, 1773 ; — Erection at Brussels of a Statue 
to the Governor-general, 1775; — The Great Seal of Brabant, 
1768, &c. 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, op. cii. — Piot, op. cit. — Revue beJge de nuniisma- 
lique, 1891, 1895, p. 297; 1896, p. 349. — A. de Witte, op. cit. 

HARREYNS. Schlickeysen gives this name as that of a Die-sinker 
of Brussels, 1777. It is probably an error for Jean Baptiste Harre- 

HARRINGTON, LORD (Brit.). Harrington fltrthings constitute the 
first copper currency issued in England, Montagu, Copper Coins of 
England, p. 6, gives the following particulars concerning these coins. 
" James I. had seen the advantage of a copper coinage in Scotland, 
and the beneficial result of the royal issue in Ireland of copper coins 
bearing date 1601 and 1602. A pattern, presumably for a copper 
piece, was struck early in his reign, but was not adopted. Harring- 

• • 

Harrington Farthing. 

ton tarthings or tokens were then coined, and were so-called from 
the fact that the origii 
Exton, in the county 

the fact that the original patent was granted to Lord Harrington of 
nty of Rutland, who secured a portion of the 

— 432 — 

profits of the issue, the rcmahider being reserved for the King. This 
patent was granted in 1613. As each coin was to weigh six grains, 
the profit was immense, and the difference between the nominal 
and the intrinsic value was so great that forgeries were of the ut- 
most prevalence. Lord Harrington died a few months after the patent 
was granted, and his son and successor shortly afterwards, and a 
second grant was made to Lady Anne Harrington, the widow of 
the first patentee. This was followed by a grant to the Duke of 
Lennox and others. Gerard Malynes and William Cockayne at first, 
and subsequently others, became the contractors for the issue. 
These tokens bear : obv. A crown over two sceptres more or less in 
saltire: lACO. D.G.MAG. BRL (or BRIT.). 1^. A crowned harp. 

Bibliography. — Montagu, The Copper, Tin and Bronze Coinage and Patterns 
for Coins of England, London, 1893. 

HARRIOT, JOHN {Amer.): Contemporary Die-sinker of Boston ; 
author of an unsigned medal ot the Boston City Hospital, 1864 
{Amer. Journ. of Num., 153). 

HARRIS, HENRY (Brit.). Engraver at the London Royal Mint, 
anno 32 of Charles IL He is referred to in 17 16 as " His Majesty's 
late (Chief) engraver of public seals ". Bolzenthal, following Evelyn 
{Sculplura, or History and Art of Chalcography and Engraving in 
Copper, &c. London, 1662, 1755, &c.) mentions his name as a 
Medallist, and Babelon (La Gravure en Pierres fines, p. 297) places 
him amongst British Gem-engravers. Apparently none of his works, 
at least no signed ones, have been preserved to us. 

Bibliography. — Ruding, op. cit. Vol. I, p. 45. — Snetling MS. List. — Wyon, 
The Great Seals of England, London, 1887. 

HARRTUNG, VON (Germ.). Sculptor of the middle years of the 
nineteenth century, whose group " Vatcr Rhein und Mosel " is 
reproduced on a medal, engraved by Schilling in 1854, ^^ comme- 
morate the Visit to Coblence of Prince William of Prussia and 

Bibliography. — Menadier, Schaumun:(en des Haiises Hohen^ollern, 1901, p. 118. 

HARRUCKER, JOSEF (Germ.). Imperial Court-councillor, who 
in 17 13 was ordered to coin into imperial Thalers 81.663 Phifippi, 
200.000 Guineas and 1970 Pistoles which had been withdrawn at 
the Augsburg Mint. This was done in conjunction with Prunner, 
Mint- warden at Hall, and Angermeycr, Mint- warden at Munich, 
the result being an issue of Thalers to the value of 753239 fl. 35 kr. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, Regesten etc., Mitt, des Clubs der Miinz- 
und Medaillen-Freunde in Wien, p. 154. 

— 433 — 

HART, LAURENT JOSEPH {Belg.). Medallist of the second and 
third quarters of the nineteenth century ; born at Antwerp in 
November 1810; died at Brussels on the 10*'' of January i860. He 
was a pupil ot Braemt, Veyrat and Jouvenel. Before the Revolution 
of 1830, this artist was attached as Coin-engraver to the Mints ot 
Brussels and Utrecht. Later, he resided at Brussels. His productions 
were numerous, and some rank above the average in merit. The 
following are the best known : 1830, Medal for the Civic Guard 
(2 var.); — To the Defenders of Belgium; — 183 1, General 
Niellon; — Signing of the Treaty of London (7 var.); — 1832, 
Institution of the Order of Leopold ; — Marriage of King Leopold L 
(4 var.); — The King and Queen enter Brussels (2 var.); — 
Anniversary of the 27''' of September 1830 ; — Medallic Award for 
services rendered during the cholera epidemic ; — Siege of the 
Citadel of Antwerp (2 var.) ; — 1833, General Niellon; — Con- 
vention of the 21" of May (3 var.); — Reorganization of the 
Chamber of Representatives ; — Birth of the Crown-Prince ; — 
1834, Death ot the Crown-Prince; — Laying of the Foundation 
Stone of the Church of Molenbeek-St. Jean ; — Gustaf Wappers; 

— The Theatre Royal ot Antwerp ; — The Order of Leopold ; — 
The Order of the Iron Cross; — 1835, Exhibition ot Industrial 
Products (^. only); — Another (^. only); — 1836, Inauguration 
of the Railway from Liege to Verviers ; — Eugene Verboeckhoven ; 

— 1838, The Masonic Precepts; — Society of Volunteer Light 
Cavalry; — The Province of Brabant to the Arts; — Jubilee of 
Notre-Dame d'Hanswyck ; — 1839, Baron Stassart (5 var.); — 
Medal of the Ladies of the Blessed Heart of Mary ; — Nicaise de 
Keyser ; — Mathieu Van Bree ; — 1840, The Province of 
Antwerp to Schools (3 var.); — Jeton for the Rubens Cele- 
bration ; — Portrait-medal of Rubens ( 6 var . ) ; — Medal for 
Senators; — Medal for Members of the Chamber of Representa- 
tives; — 1 84 1, Prize-Medal for the Exhibition of Industrial Pro- 
ducts; — Henri Van Assche; — Foundation of the Church of 
Borgerhout ; — Prize-medals (2 var.) for the Industrial Exhibition ; 

— A. M. Nihoul, Director of the "Harmony" of Tongres; — 

1842, Death of the Duke of Orleans ; — Defacqz, Grand Master of 
the Masonic Order (6 var.); — J. P. Cluysenaar, Architect; — 

1843, Communal Fete at Vilvorde (2 var.) ; — Seal of the Lodge 
" Grand Orient de Belgique " (^. only); — Masonic Reward; — 
For the Ushers of the Bibliotheque royale ; — For the Congrega- 
tion ot Mary, founded by the Jesuits of Brussels ; — Fine Art 
Exhibition at Antwerp ; — Landing of Queen Victoria at Ostend ; 

— Queen Victoria at Bruges; — Queen Victoria at Ghent; — 
Queen Victoria at Brussels ; — Embarkation of Queen Victoria at 
Antwerp ; — Inauguration of the Railway from Verviers to Aix-la- 

L. FOKREK. — Biographical Nolicts of MuLallisls. — II. 28 

— 434 — 

Chapelle ; — Jetons (2 var.) on the same event; — 1844, Foun- 
dation of Brussels Warehouses (2 var.); — Arrival of H. M. Fre- 
derick-Augustus, King ot Saxony, in Belgium ; — Inauguration of 
the Casino at Courtrai ; — Inauguration of the Railway uniting 
the Rhine with the Escaut; — First Communion Souvenir (3 var.); 
— 1845, The Belgian Liberals to Eugene Sue; — Eugene L^* F^ 
Ch% Prince de Ligne, Belgian Ambassador to England, 1838, and 
France, 1842; — Auguste Wahlen (3 var.); — Shield with the 
arms of Louvain ; — Prize Medal of the City of Louvain for Devot- 
edness. Humanity and Courage (2 var.); — Landing of the Queen 
of England, and Embarkation, 1844 ; — 1846, Society of St. Hubert's 

Portrail-medal of King Leopold I. of Belgium, by Hart. 

Galleries ; — Agricultural and Botanical Society of Louvain ; — 
Inauguration of the Railway from Brussels to Paris (2 var.); — 
Medical Society of Antwerp ; — Inauguration of the Antwerp 
Theatre Royal; — 1847, Portrait-Medallion and Medal of King 
Leopold L ; — Louis Jacobs, an Antwerp lawyer; — The Royal 
Arms ; — Belgian Industry (2 var.) ; — Inauguration of the Galleries 
St Hubert ; — Hart's Die-sinking Establishment in the King's 
Gallery; — Inauguration ot the King; — Pattern Five Franc 
Piece; — Agricultural Exhibition, opened under the auspices of 
the Government, by the Linnasan Society; — Masonic Medal (Order 
of the Agathop •'.• Menagerie); — Fruit and Flower Exhibition in 

— 435 — 

the St. Hubert-Galleries; — Medal of Pius IX.; — 1848, Prize- 
medal for Cattle-breeding ; — The '* Garde civique " of the Kingdom 
(2 var.); — Inauguration of the statue of Godefroy de Bouillon; 

— Inauguration of the new Palais de Justice at Mons; — The 
second Grand Master of the ORDRE DES AGATH ••• MENA- 
GERIE (very rare); — 1854, The Crimean War (2 var.); — 1855, 
J. de Pelichy-van Huerne, Burgomaster of Bruges; — Victor 
Emmanuel II., King of Sardinia, later of Italy; — Society ot 
Medical and Natural Sciences of Brussels ; — Medical Society of 
Antwerp; — Cholera in Belgium, 1849 (in Boston Coll"); — D"" 
M. J. Eugene Sue, Paris; — D*" Rambert Dodsens, Societe royale 
d'Horticulture ot Malines (Boston) ; — Linnasus (Linn. Society 
of Brussels). 

Hart's last work is a medal with bust of Leopold I. dedicated to 
the National Congress and Constitution; its diameter is 150 mill, 
and at the time (1859) it was the largest medal ever struck (obv. 
illustrated | si:(ey 

Bibliography, — Immerzeel, De levens en werken der lx>llatidsche en vlaamsche 
kunstschilders, bceWmuwers, graveurs en bouumieesters, Amsterdam, 1843, t. II, p. 17. 

— C. P. Serrure, L. I. Hart, Revue beige de numismatique, 1847, p. 290; 1850, 
p. 195. — Histoire numismatique de la Revolution beige. — Guioth, op. cit. — 
Bolzemhal, op. cit. — Weber, Medals and Medallions oj the nineteenth century, &c. 

— American Journal of Numismatics. 

HARTENPECK, PETER (Germ.). A Portrait-medal of Archduke 
Maximilian, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, bearing the date 
of 1604, is signed by this artist, who was Coin-engraver at the 
Mint of Hall from i. April 1595 to 16. April 1616, the date of his 
death. He succeeded Wolfgang Eggl, Seal-engraver, and in 1597- 
16 12 his yearly salary was 150 Gulden. On May 23. 1603, he 
received 30 Gulden for altering coin-dies. 

Bibliography. — Erman, Deutsche Medailleure, Berlin, 1884. — Ed. Fiala, 
Verschiedenes aus der Haller Mun:(e, Num. Zeitschrift, 1900. — Blanchet, op. cit., 
11,378. — Katalog der Miin:(^-und Medaillen-Stempel-Sammlung des K.K. HauptmHn^- 
amtes in fVien, 1901. 

HARTM ANN, ADAM (Austr.). Mint-master at Reichenstein, from 
1582 to 1585. The Breslau Coin- engraver Mathias Kauerhase 
supplied dies for the coinage of Ducats, issued by this Adam Hart- 
mann von Lesdorf. 

Bibliography. — Fiala, Beschreibung der Sammlung Bohmischer MUn^en und 
Medailkn des Max Donebauer, Prague, 1888. — Schlesiens Vorreit in Bild und 
Schrift, VII. 

HARTMANN, ADAM (Austr.). Son of the Viennese Mint-master 
Andrae Hartmann, and Mint-master himself from 1557 to 1579. 
In 1569 he was commissioned to strike, in conjunction with 

— 4^6 — 

Thomas Handl, Warden, 102 Mark 12 Loth of Gold in Ducats, 
and 19 Mark 12 Loth of Silver in Thalers. He coined silver in 1573 
for the widowed Princess Katharina Bathiaiy, and is mentioned in 
numerous Mint documents until 1579, when he was obliged to 
resign the post of Mint-master. He died in 1582 at the age of 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, loc. cit., p. 58. — D"" Friedrich Kenner, 
/. c. 

HARTMANN, ANDRAE (^«j/r.). Mint-warden of Vienna, installed 
in 1523. He cut coin-dies for the Mints of Vienna and Linz. 
In 1527 he received 66 Fl. 2 Shill. for the engraving of two seals 
of Ferdinand L for Hungary and Bohemia. He refused to undertake 
the working of the Joachimsthal Mint in 1544 for reasons of health, 
but in 1545 he entered into a contract with the government for 
the acquisition of the Vienna Mint, and in 1554 (April 6) he 
was paid for an issue of Hungarian ducats. He died in 1556 and 
was succeeded by his son, Adam Hartmann. His special mark was 
a trefoil. 

Bibliography. — C. Oesterreicher, loc. cit. — D"" Friedrich Kenner, Urkund- 
liche Beitrdge :{ur Geschichle der Mim^en und Medaillen unter Kaiser Ferdinand I 
(1520-1564), Num. Zeit., 1902. 

HARTMAN, CARL GUSTAV {Swed.). Medallist of the first half of 
the eighteenth century; died in 1739. He was a pupil of the cele- 
brated medallist, Karlsteen, and is best known as the author ot 
a series of Medals of the Kings and Queens of Sweden after N. 
Keder. The following of his productions are described by Hilde- 
brand : John IIL ; — Gustavus Adolphus ; — Christina (2 var.) ; 
— Charles XIL, Battle of Narva, 1700 (2 types); — Victory of 
Riga, 1701 ; — Military Badge of Charles XIL %L IE : HOVA 
EST SOLATIVM MEVM; — Death of Charles XIL, 1718 
(2 types) ; — Ulrica Eleonora 1723 ; — Another of 1729, PIETATI 
CONSECRATA ; — Peace with Russia concluded at Nystad, 
1721 ; — Frederick, King of Sweden, 53'''^ Anniversary, 1728; — 
Death of Landgrave Charles of Hesse, 1730; — Frederick and 
Ulrica Eleonora of Sweden (6 types); — Nic. Keder, Archaeologist 
of Stockholm, -^ 1735. 

Hartman did some very commendable work, but he did not reach 
to the excellence of the productions of his master Karlsteen, nor of 
Hedlinger who succeeded Karlsteen as chief-engraver at the 
Stockholm Mint, and under whom Hartman worked for many 

Schlickeysen-Pallmann gives C.G. Hartman's date as 1699- 1739. 

— 437 — 

His usual signature on medals was C. G. M. but it also occurs as 

Bibliography. — Ammon, op. cit. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Hildebrand, Sve- 
riges Kommgahusets Minnespenningar , etc. — Thomsen Catalogue. — Nagler, Mono- 

HARTMAN, ENGEL (Sived.). Son of Carl Gustav Hartinan, and 
likewise a Medallist at Stockholm during the first half of the 
eighteenth century. Ammon mentions that he obtained a poor 
tuition from his father, but notwithstanding gave signs of ability. 
His signature E.H. or E. HARTMAN is to be seen on Birthday 
Medals of Queen Ulrica Eleonora, 1728, 1729, King Frederick, 
1728 ; Portrait-medals of both King and Queen ; Accession of 
Adolph Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, to the throne of 
Sweden, 1743 (2 types), etc. Schlickeysen-Pallmann places the 
period of Engel Hartman's activity between 173 1 and 1760. 

Bibliography. — As above. 

HARTMANN, JOSEF (Swiss). Mint-master at Lucerne, 1620-165 6. 
He was born in 1593 and died in 1673. By trade he was a Gold- 
smith like his father. Between 1620 and 1622 he issued coins to the 
value of 210,800 Gulden. 

HARTMANN, JOST (Swiss). Mint-master at Lucerne, 1605-1616. 
He was a Goldsmith and Die-sinker, and is first mentioned in 1579. 
He died on the 7*'' April 16 16 and was succeeded four years later 
by his son, Josef Hartmann. 

Bibliography. — Bulletin et Revue Suisse de numismatique, 1885-1892. 

HARTWACH, HANS (Germ.). Mint-engraver at Nuremberg, 1580- 

HART WIG (^u'/ji-). Die-sinker of the third quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. His full signature occurs on medals and jettons of 
the National Rifle Meetings of La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1865, Schwytz, 
1867, Zurich, 1872, St-Gall, 1874, Griitli Medal, undated, &c. 

HARTWIG (Swed.). " Fusus ab ". Author of a medal of D' Mathias 

Riben of Stockholm. 


Mint-engraver at Troyes, 1359-1360. 
Bibliography. — Rondot, Graveurs de Troyes. 

HASE, BURKHARD (Aiistr.). Mint-master at Troppau for the 
Princes of Liechtenstein, 1614-1616; in 1603 he had been Warden 
of the Mint at Brieg, and from 16 16 to 16 17 we find him at Rei- 

- 438 -. 

chenstein, 1619-1621 at Oels, 1621-1623 again at Brieg, and after 
1623 in the imperial service. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Schlesiens neuere Mun:(geschichte. 

HASE, CHRISTIAN HEINRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Hanover, 
1802, and Mint-director 1817; he died in 1818. 

HASEROTH, MAX (Germ.). Contemporary Medallist, " Hof gra- 
veur" at Berlin. He is the author of several medals and plaquettes : 
Edmund Gustav Dietrich, of the Lodge Archimedes, 1901 ; — 
Medal of the Berlin Geographical Society, with portrait of Nach- 
tigall, &c. 

HASELER, C. (Gertn.). Medallist of the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. His signature is found on a Waterloo Medal, given by 
Duke Frederick William of Brunswick to soldiers in 181 5. 

HASLINGK, DANIEL (Danish). Die-sinker at Hamburg, 1730-46. 
His signature D.H. occurs on a Medal struck by the Hamburg 
Freemasons when the Senate of the City forbade them to attend 
the meetings at the Lodge "Absalom", 1741, and on another 
struck in honour of the dedication of St George's Lodge in Ham- 
burg, HasHngk was a pupil of HedUnger; he died at St Petersburg 
in 1746. Vii HESLING infra. 

HASLINGK, I. L. (Germ.). Die-sinker of the first halt of the 
eighteenth century, whose signature LL.H. is found on a Masonic 
Medal struck in 1744 in honour of the establishment of the Lodge 
" Jonathan the Pillar " at Brunswick. 

HASQUIN, JEHAN (French). Goldsmith and Seal-engraver at Paris, 
early part of the fifteenth century. 

HASTESANUS (Ital.). Die-sinker of the second quarter of the 
seventeenth century ; probably resided at Rome, where he engraved 
a medal of Pope Urban VIIL 

HASTINGS, WILLIAM LORD (Brit.). Mint-master at London and 
Calais, under Edward IV., anni 1-16. '* Of the King's peculiar 
munificence the same year he had a grant of the office of Master 
of his Mint in the Tower of London, and Town of Calais, for 
twelve years" (Dugdales Baronage, vol. 1, p. 580). "From an 
Indenture of 4*^ E.IV. it appears that Lord Hastings was also 
Keeper of all manner of the King's Eschaunges and Outchaunges 
in the Tower of London, Realm of England, Territory of Ireland, 
and Town of Calais " (Ruding, Annals &c., p. 33, note 36). 

Kenyon mentions two indentures with Lord Hastings, by which 
in 1464 and again in 1465, the weight of the silver coins was altered 
as well as the nominal value of the gold coins. 

— 439 - 

HATTEN, JEAN VAN (Belg.). Coin-engraver and Medallist, died 
in 1 69 1. He was Philippe Roettier's predecessor at the Brussels 
Mint, where since 1672 he combined the functions of Engraver- 
general of the coins of the Netherlands, and Engraver to the Mint 
of Brussels. Pinchart mentions that he has met with this artist's 
signature (I. V. HATTEM) on a pretty jeton of a member of the 
Pipenpoy family. De Witte spells his name Hatten. 

Bibliography. — Pinchart, Histoire de la Gravure des Medailks, Bruxelles, 1870, 
p. 65. — A de Witte, Histoire mouetaire &c. 

HATTEN, JEAN PIERRE VAN {Belg.). Mint-engraver at Brussels, 


HATTON, LORD {Scottish). General of the Mint of Edinburgh, 
temp. Charles II. In 1682 he was removed from his office, with Sir 
John Falconer, Alexander Maitland, and Archibald Falconer, and 
prosecuted for malversation. 

Bibliography. — Bums, TIk Coinage of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1887, p. 501. 

HAUGER, CHRISTOPH SIGMUND {Germ.). Bavarian Mint-warden 
{circa 1674) to Count Palatine Philipp Wilhelm of Neuburg, who 
later became Prince-Elector, 1685-1690. 

HAULTEVILLE, PIERRE DE {Belg.). Mint-master at Ghent, in 
conjunction with Jean Rasoir, after November 8, 1426. 

HAUPT, G. {Germ.). Coin-engraver and Medallist to the Court ot 
St. Petersburg under Peter the Great, in the early period of the 
eighteenth century, from about 1706 to 17 10. His signature H, 
G.H or HAUPT F. appears on some of the roubles and commem- 

Rouble of Peter the Great, by Haupt. 

orative medals issued between these two dates. Iversen {Medaillen 
auf die Thaten Peter des Grossen, St-Petersburg, 1872) mentions the 

— 440 — 

following works by Haupt : Commemorative medals of the Battle 
of Kalisch, 1706 ; — Prize-medal with portrait of Peter the Great; 
— ^L. of Medal on Battle of Leesno, 1708 ; — ^. of Medal on 
Battle of Poltava, 1709 (2 varieties); — ^L. of Medal on the 
Equipment of the four Fleets (2 varieties) ; — Roubles dated 1707, 
1708, 1709 and 1710 in Russian characters. 

Schlickeysen erroneously gives his Christian name as Theodore. 

Bolzenthal remarks, in connection with this artist and his contem- 
porary, Gouin : "The genius of Peter the Great who laid the 
foundation of the fame and power of Russia, darted its revivifying 
rays on all sides. Some engravers of the coinage in his reign, such 
as Gouin and Haupt, failed not in attempts to execute some good 
works; but later artists found means to preserve in a worthy 
manner the memory of this celebrated Prince and his successors. " 

HAUPTMAYER, HANS or HUBMAYER (Germ.). Seal-cutter at 
Breslau, 1567; he is mentioned in documents of the Imperial 
Chamber, dated 1578, 1583, &c. 

HAUSEN, ELIAS VON (Germ.). Mint-warden for Suabia, 1641-1644. 

HAUSEN, MARTIN (Germ.). Mint-master at Wiesbaden, 1592. 
He was a native of Cassel. 

HAUSMANN (Germ.). Contemporary Medallist, who exhibited at 
Frankfort-on-Main (April 1900) a cast Portrait-plaque of the Prel- 
ate D"" Schneider, and another of the Scientist Staniek. 

HAUSMANN, CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-master at Freiberg, 
Saxony. 1541. He died in his first year of office,- and was succeeded 
by Hans Weller, or Molsdorf. Also HAWSMANN. 

HAUSMANN, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Freiberg, Saxony, 
1499-1S41. Distinctive mark : a double lily. He coined money under 
Albrecht derBehertzte, Georg derReiche and Henrich derFromme. 

HAUSMANN, HANS (Germ.). Mint-masterat Cassel, circa 1 5 72- 1 6 10, 
at the same time as Hans Bauer and afterwards Christoph Traubell. 

HAUSSMANN, LUBERT (Germ.). Mint-master and Engraver of the 
coins at the Mint of Miihlhausen, 1616, and at Cassel, 1635-1638. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

HAUSMANN, NICKEL (Germ.). Mint-master at Freiberg, Saxony, 
1492 or '95 to 1499. Also HAWSMANN. 

Bibliography. — Erbstein, Erdrterungen auf dem Gehiete der Sachsischen Mun\- 
und Medaillen-Geschichte, Dresden, 1888. 

HAUTMANN, MICHAEL (Germ.). Mint-engraver ?it Munigh^ i8q2- 
1804. Emit Bahrfeldt ex Mscpt. 

— 441 — 

HAUTSCH, GEORG (Gf /■///.). Medallist of the end of the seventeenth 
century and beginning of the eighteenth. He worked at Nurem- 
berg, his native city, from 1683 to 1712, for Kleinertand Lauffer(at 
the Mint) who issued a series of medals ; then he settled at Vienna, 
where he continued to practise the art of medal-engraving. His 
private mark was a star, and his signature on medals is generally 
G. H. 

To the British medallic series, Hautsch contributed the following 
medals : 1689, Coronation of William III. (signed on I^. L.G.L. 
for Lazarus Gottlieb Laufter, Master of the Nuremberg Mint); — 
1690, Amnesty in Ireland ; — 1691, Congress of the Allies at The 
Hague; — 1691, Pacification of Ireland (two types); — 1692, 
Battle of La Hogue (illustrated) ; — Another, on the same event, 

Battle of La Hogue, by G. Hautsch. 

^. Fame and Victory with History and Time; — 1695, Namur 
retaken; — 1697, Peace of Ryswick (two varieties); — 1702, 
Expedition to Vigo Bay (engraved by Hautsch in conjunction with 
Georg Friedrich Nurnberger); — 1703, Baron de Cohorn ; Bonn 
taken (signed X on obv. and G.F.N, on ^.); — 1704, Prince Louis 
of Baden; Battle of Schellenberg; — 1704, Duke of Marlborough; 
Battle of Blenheim (four types ; three of these medals bear a star on 
truncation, the mark of Georg Hautsch); — 1704, British Victor- 
ies; — 1706, Battle ot Ramillies and Conquest of Brabant (two 
var.); — 1706, Barcelona relieved and Conquest of Brabant (this 
medal belongs to the series issued by Friedrich Kleinert at Nurem- 
berg); — 1708, Attempted Invasion of Scotland by the French; 
— 1709, Battle of Malplaquet; — 1710, Successes of Prince 
Eugene and Marlborough ; &c. 

The star, which was the private mark of Georg Hautsch, was 
adopted by Georg Wilhelm Vestner, after the former's decease in 

— 442 — 

By Hautsch are also : 1697, Medal of Emperor Leopold I. and 
his family; — 1690, Coronation of Emperor Joseph I. ; — 1703, 
Charles XII. of Sweden; his Victories; — 1704, Victories of 
Charles XII., 1700-1706 (two types); — Undated, Charles XII. of 
Sweden,:^. PAR ANIMO ROBVR; — 1688, Capture of Stuhl- 
weissenburg by the Emperor Leopold I.; — 1690, Coronation ot 
Leopold's third consort and son Joseph I. ; — 1701, Coronation of 
Frederick I. of Prussia; — 1703, Medal of Christian Augustus, 
Count Palatine, on his eightieth birthday; — 1687, Hungarian 
Coronation of King Joseph I. at Presburg; — 1691, Portrait-medal 
of John George IV. of Saxony; — Religious Medal, obv. Tobias and 
Samuel ^L. Joseph and Daniel ; — Various Medals on the Devasta- 
tions by the French on the Rhine ; — Medals on various Events in 
Hungary; — Nuremberg " Rathhaus Thaler"; — Double Thalers of 
Nuremberg with busts of the Emperor Joseph, and Charles VI., 
various dates (signed H) ; — Leopold I. and consort Eleonora 
Magdalena Theresia, 1676; — Genealogical Medal of 1697; — 
Capture of Landau, 1702 (2 var.) ; — Another, of 1704; — 
Another, of 1709 ; — Franz Eusebius Thrautson, Count von 
Falkenstein, 171 5. 

Hautsch also engraved coin-dies. His signature occurs on Thalers 
of Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg (according to Ammon). 
He was a pupil of Wolrab. 

Hautsch signed : G. HAVTSCH — G.H. _ H. — X. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cil. — Ammon, op. cit. — Singer, Kunstler 
Lexikon. — Domanig, op. cit. — Franks and Grueber, Medallk Illustrations, &c. 

— Grueber. B. M. Guide to the Exhibition of English Medals, London, 1891. — 
Nagler, Monogrammis ten, 1881 . — Reimmann Sale Catalogue. — Hildebrand, op. cit. 

— Fiala, op. cit. — Betts, op. cit. — Katalog der Miini^- und Medaillen-Stempel- 
Sammlung des K.K. Hauplmfiniamtes in Wien, 1901. — Kull, Repertorium, &c., II, 
p. 703. 

HAVEN, PETER NICOLAUS YOfi (Danish). Mint-master at Copenha- 
gen, 1747-1761. Some of his issues are signed V. H. or P. N. V. H. 
Bibliography. — Nagler, Monogrammisten, Munich, 1881, vol. V, no 1209. 


HAWKESBURY, LORD (Bril.). Mint-master at the Royal Mint ot 
London, under George III., 1799-1801. 

HAWSMANN, CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-master at Freiberg 
(Saxony), 1541. Fide HAUSMANN. 

HAWSMANN, HANS (Germ.). Mint-master at Freiberg (Saxony), 
1499-1541. Vide HAUSMANN. 

HAWSMANN, NICKEL (Germ.). Mint-master at Freiberg (Saxony), 
1492 or 95-1499. Vide HAUSMANN. 
Bibliography. — Erbstein, op. cit. 

— 443 — 

HAY, ADtlLE (Brit.). Contemporary Sculptor who has exhibited 
Bronze Panels in relief; amongst them one entitled " Dawn " at the 
Royal Academy of 1899. I do not know whether she has produced 
any models for medallic work. 

HAYD, SEBASTIAN (Austr.). " Hofpfenningmeister " at Gratz 
circa 1657-1669. Also named HAYDT VON HAYDTEGG. He issued 
Fiinfzehner signed S. H. In 1665 he received instructions to coin 
only Groschen and Kreutzers. 

Bibliography. — Th. Unger, Kleine Beitrdge \ur Mun:(kunde des Kronlandes 
Steiermark, 1891. 

HAYE, NICOLAS DE LA Fide DELAHAYE (Biog. Diet, of Medallists, 
I, p. 371). 

HAYENEUFVE, JEHAN (French). Mint-master at Angers in 1558; 
he died on Nov. 15, 1558. 
Bibliography. — Planchenault, La Monnaie d' Angers, 1896. 

HAYM, HANS JACOB (Germ.). Mint-master at Roth and Eckers- 
miihlen, 1621-1622; circa 1622, in Brandenburg-Anspach. 

HAYM, NICOLAS (Germ.). Medallist, born at Rome; died in 1730. 

HAZEN, JEAN (Dutch.). Mint-engraver at Maestricht, 1524-1533. 

H i|^ B. (Vide supra, p. 356). 

For some supplementary information on the Medallist H -^ B's 
work, I am indebted to D"" Julius Cahn's valuable monograph : 
Frankfurter Medailleure im 16. fahrhiindert, Frankfurt a. M. 1903. 

The critic above-named has not been able to discover the iden- 
tity oftheartist, but he gives D'Th. Hampers suggestion that he may 
have been the Architect and Goldsmith Hans Polsterer or Bolsterer, 
whose name frequently occurs in Nuremberg official documents 
and whose period of activity would exactly fit in with that of the 
Master H -^ B. 

The Master H ^ B began his artistic career at Nuremberg. To 
the period of 1 540-1 541 belong his three medals of Nuremberg 
celebrities : Christoph Scheurl, Christoph Tetzel and Mathes Hes ; 
also a model in hone-stone of Ursula Diirr. In 1546, we find him 
in Frankfort-on-M., and of this year are the two unique medals in 
the Viennese Museum depicting the sisters Ursula and Amalie, 
Countesses oi Solms-Lich, also that of their mother, Countess 
Margaret. The other Frankfort productions of this Medallist are all 
of 1547 : Justinian von Holzhausen; — Johann Fichard and con- 
sort Elisabeth ; — Georg von Holl (original lead model, unsigned, 
in Berlin Museum) ; — Lorenz Miiller and Consort Margarethe ; — 
Anna Rauscher (original model, in a private collection at Frankfort). 

— 444 — 

In 1548, the master -^executed the fine Portrait-medal ofCharlesV., 
AVST. Bust ot the Emperor to r. in beretta and furs; on trunca- 
EST'A^ 1548. Crowned double eagle between two pillars; above 
* PLVS— VLTRA * 49 mill. 

Between 155 1 and 1555, the artist was again at Nuremberg, 
and in addition to the medals of that period generally known as 
his, D"" Cahn describes and illustrates an unpublished Portrait- 
piece in lead of Siegmund von Nanckenreut, 15 61 (British 

The Master H -^ B was, according to D' Cahn, a pupil of Peter 
Flotner, whose style he closely copied. His work, however exhibits 
characteristics which are peculiar to him, and D"" Cahn remarks 
in this connection : *' Meister H -^ B hat einen so eigenartigen, 
ausgebildeten Stil, dass man bei einiger Kentnis seiner Arbeiten 
diese sofort unter anderen erkennen kann, auch wenn sie nicht 
signiert sind. Besonders bewunderswert ist der diinne, hohle Guss 
seiner Medaillen, welchen keiner seiner Zeitgenossen in solcher 
Vollendung zu Stande gebracht hat. Er liebte es, jede Seite der 
Schaustiicke einzeln zu giessen, die dann zusammengesetzt wurden, 
aberauch allein vorkommen. Der Guss ist so fein ausgefiihrt, dass 
selbst die Ornamente der Bekleidung auf den Riickseiten vertieft 
erscheinen; nachziseliert hat er h6:hst selten.Das Relief ist meistens 
nicht sehr hoch, nur auf den friihesten Arbeiten tritt es starker 
hervor. Wahrend er die meisten der darzustellenden Personen, der 
allgemeinen Sitte folgend, im Profil aufgenommen hat, ging er bei 
seinem zweiten Niirnberger Aufenthalt auch dazu uber, sie hie und 
dahalbvon vorn abzubilden, bekanntlich eine hochst schwierige Art 
der ModeUierung die nur wenigcn Kiinstlern gelungen ist. " 

D"" Cahn has always seen the H -^ B form of signature on the 
medals of this Master, where as Erman gives H B. 


H. C. Fide H. CHRISTENSEN. Medallist of Copenhagen, second 
half of the nineteenth century. 

Q Vide HANS VON CULMBACH. Medallist of Nuremberg, 1323. 

master at Sondershausen, 1763-1764, and Harzgerode, i'j6j-i'j^6. 

adjunct at Clausthal, 1702-1711, Mint-director, 1712-1725. 

at Neustrelitz, 1749-1759. 

— 445 — 

H. C H. ride HEINRICH CHRISTOPH HILLE. Mint-master at Clet- 
tenberg, 1684, Arnstadt, 1685, and Brunswick, 1689; died in 1739. 

H. C. M. Vich HENNING CHRISTOPH MEYER. Senior, Mint-warden 
at Miihlhausen, 1676, Mint-master and Engraver at Kongsberg, 

H. C. M. Vide H. C. MEYER, Junior. Mint-master at Kongsberg, 

H. C. M. Fide HEINRICH CHRISTIAN MULLER. Mint-master at 
Herborn, 1682- 1684, Eisenach, 1689- 1690; Mint-warden at 
Konigsberg in Prussia, 1691; died in 1718. 

H. CONR. or H. C. Vide HARALD CONRADSEN, born in 1817. 
Medallist of Copenhagen ; son of JOHANNES CONRADSEN, and father 
of the present Engraver at the Copenhagen Mint. 

master at Goslar, 1734-1764, and during a portion of that time 
(I'i^. 1 744- 1 749) at Harzgerode and Zerbst, and for one year (yis;^. 
1752) at Berlin. 

Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

(H. D.) y. Vide HANS DOLLINGER. {Biog. Diet, oj Medallists, 
Vol. I, p. 414).^ 

This sculptor's medals are not difficult to distinguish. Only three 
types are known, of each of which the Berlin Museum has a speci- 
men : 1522, Philip, Count Palatine (three-quarter-length portrait 

Portrait-medal of Count-Palatiiie Philip, by Hans DoUinger. 

down to the knees); — 1527, Portrait-piece of the same Prince 
{illustrated) ; and Portrait-medal of Otto Heinrich, undated. 
Bibliography. — Ernian, DeutscJie Medailleure^ Berlin, 1884. 

— 446 — 
H. D. Fide HANS DETLEFF. Mint-master at Rostock, 1623- 1630. 

H. D. Vide HEINRICH DEPFERN. Mint-master at Wolfenbuttel, 
1585-1593, Goslar, 1590, and Andreasberg, 1593; died in 1612. 

H. D. Fide HIERONYMUS DAMISET. Medallist of Hanau, 1756- 

H. D. E. Fide HANS DAVID EMMERT. Mint-master at Culmbach, 

Lubeck, 1773-1801. 

H. D. S. Fide HEINRICH DANIEL STUMER. Mint-master at Det 
mold, 1769-1787. 
Bibliography. — Schlickeysen-Pallmann, op. cit. 

H. E. Fide HEINRICH ELBERSKIRCHEN. Mint-master at Coblence, 

H. E. A. Fide HEINRICH ERNST ANGERSTEIN. Mint-master at 
Coburg, 1 686-1705. 

HEBENSTREITT, STEFAN (Austr.y. Assistant Mint engraver at 
Vienna, 1756-1768. 

HEATON, RALPH & SONS [See MINT (The) Birmingham, Limited]. 
This establishment is not to be confused with the late SOHO MINT, 
founded in 1762 by Matthew Boulton, and which, under the name 
of JAMES WATT & C° failed in 1895, ^'i^ minting machinery and 
rolling mills having been secured by the Mint, Birmingham, 
Limited. For an account of the SOHO MINT, Fide BOULTON (Biogra- 
phical Dictionary of Medallists, Vol. I, p. 117) and WATT & C° (James 
Watt & C°) infra. 

The Birmingham Mint has become famous, especially for the 
manufacture of the subsidiary coins, not only for England and the 
British Colonies, but also for important powers as Italy, France 
Russia, South American Republics, &c. Its history has been closely 
connected with that of the coinage of this country for nearly a 
hundred years, having been founded in 18 19, and on account of its 
numismatic interest, I believe it should find a place in the Biograph- 
ical Dictionary of Medallists, although the lives of the individual 
artists, who have done so much to enhance the reputation of the 
firm, cannot be retraced here, no documents being available and 

— 447 — 

no record of their various productions having been kept. The 
present Directors of the Mint are, unfortunately, unable to give 
much information on the early working of the establishment, but, 
thanks to their courtesy, I am enabled to append a list of the 
various coinages issued by them in later years, and especially within 
the last three decades. 

Exterior view of the Mint, Birmingham, Limited. 

'*The importance of the varied operations carried on at the Bir- 
mingham Mint may be inferred from the fact that the Company 
holds special appointments as coiners to the British, French, Italian, 
Russian, and numerous other Governments, and as manufacturers 
of metals or blanks and minting machinery; and for all these 
countries respectively, it has been entrusted from time to time with 
large contracts for the coinage of various metals. The Mint is also 
largely engaged in other branches of metal manufactures — as metal 
of all kinds, rolled, strip, sheet, or blanks; metal and blanks for 
cartridge cases and caps; tubes of copper, brass, and tin, plain and 
ornamental, and seamless copper tubes, manufactured by a patent 
process; wire, gas and meter fittings, stove fittings, stamped orna- 
ments, stampings of all kinds, metallic address labels, metal checks, 
spun copper, &c. , Sec. In these multifarious departments of metal 
manufacture the Biimingham Mint holds a foremost place, and the 
works are an important industrial feature among the products of 
the Great Midland Metropolis. The Mint is in Icknield Street, 
once known as the " Old Roman Road ". At the front of the 
building are offices and warehouses, the minting department is at 
the back, and the central portion of the works comprises casting 
shops, rolling mills, engine and boiler houses, &c. " (Extract from 
the Birmingham Mint's Guide). 

- 448 ~ 

The following is a list of the principal coinages which have been 
undertaken, wholly or in part, by the Company : — Great Britain, 
France, Italy, Denmark, Republic of South Africa (Transvaal), 
Burmah, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, United States of Columbia, Chili, 
Hong Kong, India, Ecuador, Germany, Guatemala, Guernsey, 
Hayti, Ionian Islands, Jamaica, Jersey, Liberia, Mauritius, Norway, 
New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Portugal, Paraguay, 
Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Russia, Roumania, Servia, Bulgaria, 
Sarawak, British North Borneo, Siam, Straits Settlements, Sweden, 
Salvador, Tuscany, Uruguay, and Venezuela. 

These coinages consist of silver, bronze, nickel and copper coins, 
some of which bear the Birmingham Mint-mark, a small H in the 


Arabia. — Silver coinage, 1898, 1900, 1902. 

Bolivia. — Nickel Coinage of 10 and 5 Centavos, 1892 and 1893. 

Brazil. — 5lickel coins of 400, 200 and 100 Reis, 1901-2. 

British north Borneo. — One Cent, Arms with supporters. 
1^. ONE CENT within wreath (signed H), 1882, 1884, 1886, 1894, 
1896; — Half Cent, similar type, 1885, 1886. 

Brunei (Sultanate ot). Copper Coinage of Cents dated 1304. 

Bulgaria. — Copper Coinage of 188 1 (10,5 and 2 Stotinki 
pieces) to the value of 2.100.000 francs. 

Burmah. — Supply of machinery for the Burmese Mint, 1864. 
Issue of Rupees and subdivisions of the Peacock type. 

Burmese Rupee. 

Canada. — " Quebec Bank Penny " Halfpenny Tokens 1852, 
1857; — Bank of Upper Canada, Penny & Halfpenny, 1854, 
coinage of Silver 50, 25, 10 and 5 Cents, 1870-75, 1880-1887, 



Coinage of Bronze Cents 1870-75, 1880- 1887, 1898, 

{--^- Z./ 

Quebec Bank Token. 

Chili. — Centavo and Half centavo, 185 1. Bronze Coinage 
of i860. 

China. — Pattern Dollars and subdivisions in Silver, and Brass 
Cash. (The whole of the iMint-machinery was suppHed by the 
Birmingham Mint in 1887, capable of coining 2.700.000 pieces per 
day, and a staff of workmen sent out to instruct the Chinese how to 
work a Mint in Canton.) — Nankin Dollar and subdivisions in 
Silver, and Brass Cash. (All the Mint-machinery w^as supplied by 
the Mint, Birmingham, in 1897, and workmen sent out to instruct 
the Chinese.) Mints have also been sent out for Hang Chow and 

CoLO.MBiA. — Silver coinage of Halt Dollar pieces, 1892. Nickel 
2 I Centavos, 1881. Nickel i| Centavo, 1874. 

Costa rica. — Silver coinage of 50, 25, 10&5 Centavos in 
1892 and 1893. 

Cyprus. — JE. Piastres, Half and Quarter Piastres, 1881 (to the 
nominal value of € 550), 1882 (£ 500). 

Denmark. — Bronze blanks for a coinage of 5, 2 & i Ore 
pieces, 1874 ^^'^ later. 

Dominica. — Nickel coinage ot 2\ Centavos, 1887 and 1897. 

East Africa C. — Silver coinage of Rupees and Half Rupees, 
1888. Copper coinage of Quarter Annas, 1888. 

East india c°. — Copper coinage of Quarter Annas, 1858. 

Ecuador. — Gold Coinage of Condores 1899 and 1900. Silver 
coinage of Dollars, 50, 20 and 10 Cents, 1884 and later. Nickel coin- 
age of 5, I, and I centavos, 1886. JE 2 and i Centavos in bronze, 

France. — Coinage oi JE 10, 5, 2 and i Centime pieces of 
Napoleon III., 1856, 1857 (from dies cut by Barre). 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Notices of MtdalUsis. — IF. 


— 450 — 

Germany. — Bronze blanks for i and 2 Pfennig pieces, supplied 
to the Mints of Berlin, Frankfort-on-Main, Hamburg, and Hanover, 
1875 and 1876. 

Guatemala. — Silver coinage, 1894. Nickel coinage, 1900, 
1 90 1. 

GuERNESEY. — Brouze coinage, 1885, 1886, 1893, 1898, 1901. 

Hayti. — Billon coinage of the Republic, 1864. Bronze coinage 
of 10 and 5 Centimes, 1881. 

Hongkong. — Silver and Bronze Coins : 20, 10 and 5 Cents; 
Cents, 1874; — 50, 10 and 5 Cents; Cents, 1876 ; — 20, 10 and 
5 Cents, 1877; — 20, 10 and 5 Cents; Cents, 1880, 1882, 1892, 
1897, 1900J 190I5 1902. Bronze Mils, 1865. 

Ionian islands. — Bronze coinage of 1862. 

Italy. — Bronze coinage of i, 2, 5 and 10 Centesimi pieces, 
1 86 1 and 1862 (to the nominal value of 16.000.000 lire). Bronze 
10 Centesimi pieces, 1868(5.000.000 lire). Bronze 10 Centesimi 
pieces, 1893 (6.000.000 lire). 

Jamaica. — Nickel Pennies, Halipenniesand Farthings, 1882. 

Japan. — Machinery supplied to the Mint at Osaka? 

Jersey. — Bronze coinage of Pence, Halfpence and Farthings, 

Liberia. — Silver coinage ol 50, 25 and 10 Cents, Bronze 
2 and I Cents, 1896. 

Mauritius. — Silver coinage of 20 and 10 Cents, ^5,2 and 
I Cents, 1877, 1882 & later. 

Muscat. — Coinage of Copper Quarter Annas, 1898. 

Mombasa — Silver Rupees and subdivisions ; JE Quarter Annas, 

1888 (^Vide EAST AFRICA C°). 

Newfoundland. — Gold coinage of Two Dollar . pieces, 1882. 
Silver 50, 20, 10 and 5 Cents 1872, 1876, 1882 and later. 

— 451 — 
Nicaragua. — Silver coinage of 20, 10 and 5 Centavos, 1880. 

Norway. — Bronze blanks for a coinage ot 5, 2 and i Ore 
pieces, 1875 and later. 

Nova scotia. — Bronze coinage of Penny & Halfpenny tokens, 

Nyassa-land. — Silver coinage of looo and 500 Reis, and 
Bronze 20 and 10 Reis, 1894. 

Paraguay. — Bronze coinage of 4, 2 and i Centesimos, 1870. 

Portugal. — Silver blanks of 500 and 200 Reis supplied to the 
Portuguese government to be struck in Lisbon, 1892 ; also Bronze 
blanks of 20, 10 and 5 Reis, 1892. 

Roumania. — Bronze coinage of 10, 5, 2 & i Bani pieces, 1867 
and 1868. 

Russia. — Copper coinage of 3, 2, i, | and | Copeck pieces, 
1895, 1896, 1897, 1898. 

Salvador. — Nickel coinage of 3 and i Centavos, 1889. 

Sarawak. — Cents, Half Cents, and Quarter cents, 1863, 1870, 
1879, 1880, 1882, 1884, 1890, 1892, 1896. Silver coinage of 50, 
25, 10 and 5 cents of 1900. 

Servia. — Bronze coinage of 10 and 5 Paras, 1880. Nickel 
coinage of 20, 10 and 5 Lepta, 1884. 

10 Para of Servia. 

SiAM. — Bronze coinage oi 2, i & | Atts, 1895. Nickel coinage 
of 20, 10, 5 and 2 1 Stangs, 1898. 

Straits settlements. — Silver coinage of 50, 20, 10 and 
5 Cents, 1874, 1876, 1880, 1882, 1897 and 1900, Copper Cents, 
1874 & later. 

Sweden. — Bronze blanks for the coinage of 5, 2 & i Ore 
pieces in 1874 and later. 

— 452 — 

Transvaal. — (South African Republic). The "Burgers" Pond 
in gold 1874. 

Burgers Pond ot 1874. 

Tunis. — Coinage of JE, dated A.H.1281, of i, |, |, j|, .^, 
g| piastres. 

Tuscany. — Copper coinage for the Provisional Government 
of 5, 2 & I Centesimi pieces, 1859. 

Uruguay. — Copper coinage of 4, 2 and i Ceniesimos, 1870, 

Venezuela. — Bronze and Copper coinage, 1852, i860. 


Centavo of Venezuela. 

At various periods, when the Royal Mint, London, was pressed 
with work, the Birmingham Mint was entrusted with the striking 
of the English bronze coinage of Pence, Halfpence and Farthings, 
1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1881. 

In 1872, this establishment supplied blanks for the silver coinage 
of 1872, amounting to i, i. 000. 000 nominal value. Testimonials 
from Sir Charles W. Freemantle, late Deputy Master and Compt- 
roller of the Royal Mint, speak in high praise of the excellence, 
correctness, and despatch of the work undertaken by the Birming- 
ham mint to his entire satisfaction. In 1874 one hundred tons of 
bronze coins were executed by contract for the Royal Mint ; in 
1875 ^ similar quantity of bronze coins was manufactured, and in 
1 88 1 the greater part of an issue of bronze coins to the value ot 

— 453 — 

i 21,280 were struck at Birmingham. All these coins are distin- 
guished by an " H " under the date. 

Penny of 1876. 

The best known medals issued at the Birmingham Mint within 
recent years are the following : Visit of T.R.H. the Prince and 
Princess of Wales to Birmingham, 1874; — Queen Victoria's 
Jubilee, 1887; — Diamond Jubilee, 1897 ; — Peace Medal, on the 
conclusion of the Anglo-Boer War; — Portrait-medals of Lord 
Roberts,. General White, etc. (the last three by the Medallist Emil 
Fuchs, q. V. Vol. II., Biog. Diet, of Medallists, p. 166); — Coro- 

General Sir George White. 

nation ot King Edward VII., 1902, by George Frampton, R. A. ; 
— Sir David Salomon's Medal, 1888; — 

Some interesting particulars of the process of striking coins are 
given in the Birmingham Mint's little Guide, from which I extract 
the following notes : 

"The dies used by the Mint are all made on the premises by 
skilled workmen specially employed in this department. Two dies 
are required for each coin, for the obverse and reverse respectively. 
The original dies or matrices are made of finest steel, from which 
punches are taken. Working dies are produced from the latter, thus 
avoiding great expense and loss of time in engraving. The engrav- 

— 454 — 

ing of a pair of matrices might occupy an expert die-sinker several 
weeks, and tliese might crack in the coining press after a few 
hours' wear. For this reason " working dies " are used in the press, 
and original matrices are not employed in this machine. 

The mechanical process of "striking" coins is perfectly auto- 
matic. The operator simply drops in good blanks, and the powerful 
— almost noiseless — machinery does the rest. These machines are 
of the most improved type made by the Company, and supplied to 
the Royal Mint, London, the Imperial Mints of Canton and 
Nankin, and many other foreign Governments. They possess great 
advantages over the old style of coining press, for, besides being 
silent and automatic, they require no foundation. In each press is 
a movable steel slide, in the centre of which is a circular hole the 
size of the die, called a " collar". The blanks to be impressed are 
placed in a long tube or feeder, constantly replenished as the work 
proceeds. From this feeder one blank drops into the "collar" 
with each movement of the steel slide, and, the blow being struck, 
the blank receives the requisite impression on both sides at once. 
The coins fall out and are received in a box or receptacle under 
the machine. The coins having been " struck " are carefully examin- 
ed, and any defective pieces rejected. Those approved are conveyed 
to the packing room, where they are counted, weighed, placed in 
bags, and finally packed in strong iron-bound boxes to be forward- 
ed to their destination ". 

As a result of the spread of the Arts and Crafts movement all 
over the world within recent years, the Birmingham Mint has 
also had to break with the bonds of tradition and adopt modern 
principles and notions in connection with medallic art. This is suf- 
ficiently shown by the employment of such artists as Mr. George 
Frampton, Mr. Emil Fuchs, and others, who, with one of the fore- 
most living British medallists, Mr. Frank Bowcher, of London, have 
made themselves the exponents in this country of the French and 
Austrian Schools. The old classic doctrines will die hard, and 
perhaps more so at Birmingham than anywhere else, but the 
rupture, although neither immediate nor sudden, is increasingly felt, 
and the Mint in Birmingham is leading the way there in the new 
path. The greatest hindrance to a more rapid evolution and pro- 
gress lies in the apathy, and even dislike, of the British public in 
general, to the new style, so-called, which has strong enemies even 
in the highest quarters. It is however a matter for rejoicing that 
the medallist's art is in course of transformation in Kngland also, 
and advancing towards an enfranchisement from the old rou- 
tine to a better comprehension of Art in that particular domain. 

HfiBERT, LOUIS GEORGE (French). Sculptor, born at Caen (Cal- 
vados) in 1 84 1. He has also cut a number of gems. Amongst his 

— 455 — 

best known medallic and glyptic works, Chavignerie mentions : 
1867, Portrait-medallion ofM. B***; — 1870, Medallion represent- 
ing Medusa; — 1876, onyx camei, comic and dramatic masks; 
— 1880, Medallion, A Study, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvrav, Diclionnaire genhal des Artistes de 

VEcoh' frati(aise, Paris, 1882. 

h£BERT PIERRE (French). Contemporary Sculptor, born at Vil- 
labe (Seine-et-Oise) on the 31. October 1804; died at Paris on the 
15. September 1869. By him are several medallic works : 1850, 
Portrait- medallion of M. D***; — 1868, Portrait-medallion of 
M. S***, &c. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

HUBERT. PIERRE EUGtNE flMILE (French). Contemporary Sculp- 
tor, son of the last, born at Paris on the 12. October 1828. To this 
artist we owe : 1867, Poland, bronze medallion, and Portrait-pieces 
in clay and bronze. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

HECHENGARTEN, PETER (Aiistr.). Mint-engraver at Carlsburg, 

HECHT, ERNST PETER (Germ.). Mint-master at Zellerfeld, Bruns- 
wick, 1723-173 1. Between 1693 ^^^ I7i4> he filled the post ot 
Mint-master at Leipzig. Distinctive mark : E. P. H. 

HECHT, JOHANN BENJAMIN (Germ.). Mint-master at- Zellerfeld, 
Brunswick, 173 9- 1769. 

HECK, ROCHUS (Germ.). Coiner at the xMint of Brieg (Silesia), 
1622. An Imperial Dreier of 1624 is signed R. H., which initials 
may stand for Heck. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. 

HEDLINGER, JOHANN KARL (Stviss). One of the foremost Medal- 
lists of the eighteenth century ; was born at Schwytz on the 28''' 
of March 1691, where he died on the 14''' of March 177 1, from a 
stroke of apoplexy. He claimed descent from the noble Fon Hett- 
lingen family, whose name was derived from the village of Hettlin- 
gen, near Winterthur, in canton Zurich. One of his ancestors settled 
at Schwytz in 1575 during the religious wars. The name of his 
father was Johann Baptist Hedlinger, an artist, who between 1700 
and 1708 filled the post of Inspector of Mines at Bolentz in Ger- 

- 456 — 

many ; that of his mother, Anna EHsabetha Betschart, a native oi 
Immenfeld. The MedalUst was the third of a family of four. 

During his residence at Bolentz, Johann Karl visited the schools, 
studied the classics, and developed uncommon abilities for dravv'ing 
and engraving, which he learned without a master. On his parents 
moving to Sion, in canton Valais (1708), he was placed as an 
apprentice with Wilhelm Krauer of Lucerne, a goldsmith who was 
at that time Mint-master at Sion. Two years afterwards, he tollowed 
Krauer to Lucerne and carried on the trade of a gold-and silversmith 
at that place. His father died in 1711 and shortly after his mother 
also. The Toggenburger war put a sudden stop, happily of short 
duration, to the young man's artistic career. He gallantly fought at 
Villmergen and saved an officer's life, 25. July 17 12. This same 
year, we find him again with Krauer at Lucerne, who on the 31. 
March 17 13 entered into a contract with the town for the working 
of the Mint. HedHnger tells us that he now began to be employed 
in the cutting of dies for the Lucerne coinage and also engraved 
medals. One ot these, dated 17 14, is known, and presents on obv. 
a view of the city of Lucerne and on ^L shield of arms with two 
Nimrods as supporters. The Thaler of 1714, Half Thaler of 1713, 
and Ten-Kreuzer piece of 171 5, are most probably his work, and if 
so, they testify to the skill of the young artist. 

In 171 5, the Mint-master and City authorities quarrelled over 
some questions connected with the coinage, the result of which 
was the temporary closing of the Mint, and Krauer accepted the 
working of the Mints of Montbeliard and Porrentruy, where 
HedUnger was transferred in January 17 16. Here he first had the 
opportunity of drawing from life the portraits of the Rulers of 
both states for their currency; and here he executed, to use his own 
words " a so-called medal of the Bishop of Basle, " whose seat was 
then at Porrentruy. A specimen of this medal, dated 171 5, may be 
seen in the Lucerne Coin and Medal Collection; it is of oval shape 
and in the form of a badge. 

The time had come when the young Medallist found out that 
he could no longer learn anything from his old master, Wilhelm 
Krauer, and with the desire of increasing his general knowledge 
and perfecting himself in his art, he set out, on the 26''' July 
1716, on his European journeyings. His first stopping place was 
Nancy, where he wished to meet St. Urbain, the famous 
Medallist, who was then considered as one of the best artists of 
his time. It appears that St. Urbain at first refused to receive him, 
but later on engaged him as a die-cutter at the Mint. There he did 
not stay long, and instead of accompanying St. Urbain to Rome, 
he preferred to go to Paris, May 1717. His first acquaintance 
in the French capital was Professor de Lancre, who introduced 

Dniek T<!0_ti«br._C * N. lientiier in.Einn.iel 

Portrait of Hedlinger, after Wyrsch. 

- 458 - 

him to De Launay, Director of the Medal-Mint and procured 
work for him there. In 1781, he was entrusted with the execution 
of a medal for the Duke of Orleans, but suffered the disappointment 
of being prevented from finishing it in time, owing to illness. 
During his eighteen months' stay in Paris, the young artist 
enjoyed the close friendship of Roettiers and de Launay, for 
whom he is said to have engraved the dies of several medals 
belonging to the " Medallic Series of Louis XIV ". The King pre- 
sented him with a gold snuff box, as a special mark of favour. 

In 1718, Baron Goertz, Minister ot Charles XII. of Sweden, who 
was in the French capital on important affairs of State, and at the 
same time looking out for young artists on behalf of his Royal 
Master, met Hedlinger and induced him to accompany him to 
Sweden, which he willingly did, as for some time he had been 
thinking of leaving Paris. He however would not accept an engage- 
ment until he had had an opportunity of showing to the King 
some of his work. Charles XII. was so satisfied that he at once 
appointed him to the post of Chief-engraver at the Stockholm 
Mint, this post having become vacant through the death of Karls- 
teen. In a letter to his brother, dated 25. October 17 18, Hedlinger 
wrote : "My circumstances are now in order. I am Medallist to 
the King and Engraver of the coins, for which I receive a yearly 
income of 750 Thalers with residence at the Mint.^^ 

Not long after Hedlinger's arrival in Sweden, Charles XII. 
died, but Queen Ulrica Eleonora, his successor, continued to 
extend Royal patronage to the artist and honoured him with her 
esteem and special kindness. He engraved a number of portrait- 
medals of her, as well as of her predecessor, and his signature is 
also found on coins of that period. 

In 1723, Peter the Great sought in vain to attract HedHnger 
to St. Petersburg. Notwithstanding the considerable advantages 
which he would have thus secured, the artist preferred to remain 
faithful to the Swedish court, to which he was sincerely attached. 
Three years after, he was granted a lengthened leave of absence 
to revisit the continent, and especially to study the antiques in 
Italy. He crossed over to Germany, stayed a little time in 
Holland and Switzerland, spent several months in Rome, Naples, 
and other Italian towns, returning via Venice, the Tyrol, Suabia, 
Bavaria, Austria, stopping at Vienna, and from there going on to 
Breslau, Prague, Dresden, Leipzig, Berlin, Hamburg and Copen- 
hagen, arriving at Stockholm after eighteen months' absence. 
During his travels, he made the acquaintance of several artists 
of mark, notably Sohmena of Naples, Rusconi of Rome, Trevisani, 
Caval. Ghezzi, the antiquarian Ficoroni, and the engraver Jacques 
Frey. At Rome, he executed the Portrait-medal of Pope Benedict 

— 459 — 

Xin., from memory, and was decorated by the Pontiff with the 
Cross of the Order of Christ. 

The curious medal with the inscription AAPOM, engraved by 
Hedlinger in imitation of the antique, on his return from Italy, is 
considered one of his best works ; and, according to Mechel's 
testimony, it even deceived antiquarians, until the artist disclosed 
its authorship. From this period also date the various Jettons com- 
memorating the Commerce, Manufactures, and Mines ot Sweden, 
and the Medallic Series of Kings and Queens of Sweden to which 
Daniel Fehrmann, Hedlinger's pupil, largely contributed. 

Thaler of Lucerne,'i7i4. 

In 1728, Augustus I., King of Poland, endeavoured in vain to 
obtain the services of the Medallist, and two years later, the Czar- 
ina, Anne Ivanowna, made him an offer of 1000 Ducats per 
annum, beyond his yearly salary, if he settled at St Petersburg. 
Finding that she was unable to tempt him, she begged from the 
King of Sweden that the artist might be spared for a little time. 

Tiic " Lagom " Medal, by Hedlinger. 

and with the Royal assent, he went to St. Petersburg in 1735, 
where he engraved a beautiful Portrait-medal of the Empress and 

— 460 — 

others of various celebrities of her entourage. Two years later he 
was recalled to Stockholm, and left the Russian Court laden with 
presents from the Czarina. Further attempts to draw him to 
bt. Petersburg were made by Princess Anne of Mecklenburg, on 
her accession to the regency, and later, the Empress Elizabeth, 
also finding it impossible to secure his services, sent him her por- 
trait for a medal, which he executed to her entire satisfaction, 
" surpassing even the original in its likeness". 

Hedlinger had now been 23 years away from his native coun- 
try; it was natural therefore that he should wish to revisit it, and 
he was allowed a prolonged leave of absence. During his stay in 
Switzerland, he married in 1741 Maria Rosa von Schorno, his 
brother's wife's sister. The next year, he made a journey to Berlin, 
where the King of Prussia would gladly have retained him ; then 
he went back to Schwytz, resided for two years at Fribourg, and 
in 1743, returned alone to Sweden, but not to remain very long. 
The King of Sweden, as a token of his esteem and pleasure at 
seeing him again, made him a Court Steward and procured his 
admission to the Stockholm Academy of Sciences. However the 
news of his wife's illness, and his own failing health, decided 
the artist to rejoin his family and to seek in retirement the rest which 
his advancing year demanded. He left Stockholm in November 1745, 
suffered shipwreck whilst crossing the .sea to Copenhagen, and arrived 
safely at Fribourg on New year's eve 1746. As Chief-engraver at 
the Swedish Mint he had left his pupil, Daniel Fehrmann, to take 
his place. 

In Switzerland, Hedlinger settled at Schwytz. There he did not 
forget his favourite occupations, but accepted orders from foreign 
governments. In 1748 he undertook a short journey to Nurem- 
berg, where he finished the medal of Landgrave William of 
Hesse-Cassel, wiiich he had begun at Stockholm. While in Ger- 
many, he executed another to commemorate the foundation of the 
Academy of Berlin, of which he was unanimously elected a member. 
On his return to Schwytz, he engraved a large Portrait-medal of 
the King of Prussia, and two other medals, one of the Republic ot 
Berne, and the other on the occasion of the Secular Jubilee of the 
Consecration of the Chapel of Notre Dame des Hermites. 

The years 1753, '54 and '55 brought great trials to Hedlinger. 
His friend. Baron Karl von Horleman, died in 1753 ; in the following 
year, his brother, and also his beloved wife, were taken from him. 
His daughter, the only child of their marriage, proved a solace 
to the artist in his irreparable loss, and to her he devoted the 
remainder of his life. Hedlinger has recorded the features of his 
wife, as well as of his daughter, on several medals. 

The Medallist's m.otto was " Nulla dies sine linea " and to the 

— 4^^ — 

end of his career he laboured untiringly and the quaUty ot his 
work was maintained. His later medals, that of the Academy of 
Sciences or Stockholm, 1760, the Portrait-medal of George II., 
1765, those of the Empress-Q.ueen Maria Theresia, Charles XII., 
and of the artist's friend, Keder, betray no sign of waning powers. 

Hedlinger died at Schwytz, on the 14'^ of March 1771, from an 
apoplectic fit, at the age of eighty. " His memory ", says Bolzen- 
thal, " is also to be honoured as a man ". 

Not long before his death, the artist executed a fine medal of his 
rriend and protector, the Swedish Count Tessin ; this piece bears 
on I^. SCULPSIT SENEX | J. C. HEDLINGER. He had also 
undertaken to give the history of his own country in a series of 
medals, of which only two were struck, those commemorating the 
Battle of Morgarten, and Nicolas von der Flue, &:c. 

Hedlinger's signature occurs variously as : I. C. H. ; — HEDL.F. ; — 
H. F. ; — I. C. HEDLINGER F. ; — H. 

This Medallist, without being the head of a school, had 
numerous pupils, amongst whom several attained celebrity : Daniel 
Fehrmann, Chief-engraver and Medallist to the Swedish Court, 
1746-1764 ; Nils Georgi, Court- medallist to the King of Prussia, at 
Berlin, 1747-1782; Hartmann, Medallist at Stockholm, -|- 1739; 
Daniel Hesling, for 12 years Medallist to the City of Hamburg, 
and who died at St Petersburg in 1746; Arbien, Medallist at 
Copenhagen, -j- 1760; Johann Wickmann, Coin-engraver; Johann 
Horleman ; Vol, Medallist at Copenhagen, and others. 

*' Mit Hedlinger's Tod " remarks Pfarrer Amberg, the artist's 
latest biographer " schloss ein reiches Kiinstlerleben, besonders 
bedeutsam fur die Kunstgeschichte der Medaille. Hedlinger war ein 
Kiinstler von Gottes Gnaden. Das reiche Talent, womit ihn der 
Schopfer ausgestattet, war auf das kriiftigste unterstiitzt von einem 
unermiidlichen, rastlosen Streben nach VoUkommenheit, nach den 
hochsten Zielen der Kunst, und dahin brach er sich siegreich Bahn, 
obwohl ihm als Anfanger ein eigentlicher Lehrmeister fehlte. 

" Die eigenthche Grosse Hedlinger's griindet sich auf seine 
Behandlung der Kopfe, wie schon Kupferstecher Wille richtig 
bemerkt. Es giebt Reverse dieses Meisters, welche man jetzt mit 
gemischten Gefiihlen betrachten kann, fur seine Kopfe aber kennen 
wir nur das siisse Gefuhl des Wohlgefallens, welches sich in seinea 
besten Werken zur Bewunderung, ja zum Entziicken steigert. 
Wer Hedlinger's Biisten betrachtet, vergisst den harten Stahl, aus 
dem sie heraus gemeisselt sind. Es ist als batten sie gar keine 
Muhe gekostet und als hiitte der Kiinstler es hier mit einer weichen 
fiigsamen Masse zu thun gehabt, der er zwanglos jegliche noch so 
feine Form verliehen. Und doch, bei aller Weichheit, ist alles so 

— 462 — 

kriiftig, klar und bestimmt, Weich und durchscheinend ist das 
Fleisch, es ist, als ob organisches Leben darin pulsirie. Ueber den 
Bildern liegt eine hohe Anmuth und Schonheit, wie ein zarter 
Hauch auf Rosenbliithen ; ihnen hat der Kiinstler als zweiter 
Schopfer Geist und Leben eingegossen. Dazu kommt ein Adel und 
eine Reinheit der Formen, ein vom hochsten Schonheitssinn 
geleiietes Masshalten, ein Zug der Wiirde und Erhabenheit, wie 
man solches nur in den edclsten Kunstgebilden wahrnehmen kann 
und wodurch Hedlinger seine Kopfe weit iiber die Bedeutung des 
Portrats hinaushebt. Das Relief ist zwar nicht besonders erhaben, 
und doch erscheint alles rund ". 

List of Hedlinger'sworks, alphabetically arranged (T/;^ dates 
indicate the year or period when they were executed). 

Jeton ot the Academy of Abo; — Portrait-medalet of Adolt 
Frederick, Crown Prince of Sweden, and Consort Louise Ulrica, 
1744; — Accession to the Swedish throne of Adolph Frederick of 
Holstein, 175 1; — Medalet of Albert, King of Sweden, 1728-45; 

— Anne, Czarina of Russia; large medal with I^. Minerva, 1736; 

— Another, ]^. Trophies, 1736-38; — Another, small medal 
with B^. Minerva, 1739; — Commemorative Medal of the Augs- 
burg Confession, 1730; — Building of a Bank at Stockholm, 1730 ; 

Pope Benedict XIIL, 1726 ; — Portrait-Jcton of Saint Charles 

Borromaus, 1726; — Erich Benzelius, Bishop of Linkog, 1744-45 ; 
Karl Renald Berch, an Antiqiiniinn and friend of the artist; — 

Portrait-medal of Karl Renald Berch, by Hedlinger. 

Jeton of the Falun Mining Works, 1728-45 ; — Mining Works ot 
Nordmark, 1726 ; — The Academv of Berlin, 1747-174^ ^ — Bern- 
ese Medal ^L. VIRTUTI ET PRUDENTIA, 1742-52; — Medal- 
et of Biorno, King of Sweden, 1728-45 ; — Medalet of Birger, 
Count of Bialbo, King of Sweden, 1745-60; — Another, of the 
same King; — Portrait-medal of Count von Biron, 1736-37; — 
Medalet of Canut, King of Sweden, 1745-60; —Portrait-medal or 
Christian Louis, Duke of Mecklenburg, 1743;— Christian VL ot 

— 463 — 

Denmark^. The Fleet, 1732-33; — Another, Accession Medal, 
1732-33 ; — Eleventh Anniversary of King Christian VI'.s marriage 
with his consort Sophia Magdalena, 1732-33; — Medalet of 
Christiernl., King of Sweden, 1728-45; — Medalet oiChristiern II., 
1728-45 ; — Medalet of Christina, Queen of Sweden (2 var.); — 

— Medalet of Christoph of Bavaria, King of Sweden, 1731-45 ; — 
Count Gustav Cronhiclm, 173 i; — Portrait-medal of Elizabeth, 
Czarina of Russia, 1 744-45 ; — Another, with the Empress represented 
as Diana, 1736-37 ; — Medalet of the two Eriks, Kings ot Sweden, 
1745-60; — Medalet of Erik Aethikus, King of Sweden, 1745-60; 

— Erik, the Saint, K. ot S., 1745-60; — Erik, Lespe, K. of S., 
1745-60; — Erik of Pomerania, K. ofS., 1728-45; — Erik XIV., 
K. of S., 1728-45 ; — Erik, King of Sweden, 1728-45 ; — Nicho- 
las von der Fliie (two varieties) ; one with inscription ; the other 
representing his vision, 1728; — Another, medalet with inscrip- 
tion; — Frederick the Great, King of Prussia (two varieties); one 
with 1^. Eagle, the other with inscription, 1 747-1750; — Fred- 
erick, King of Sweden, Coronation Medal, 1720; — Another, Com- 
memorative Medal, struck on his death, BONO SVBDIT, 1754; 
Another, Medal on his return from Hesse, 173 1; — Another, 
Medal on the Peace of Rystadt (two varieties), 1721 ; — Another, 
Prize Medal, SACRVM VIRTVT.PRAEMIVM, 1 721 ; — Another, 
Medal commemorating the King's journey to Hesse, 173 1; — 
Another, on his Jubilee, 1721; — Thalers of 1731 (2 var); — ■ 
Pattern tor a small coin of Frederick of Sweden ; — Medalet with 

Thaler of Frederick and Ulrica Eleouora, 1731, by Hediinger. 

portrait of Frederick (1728-45); — Prize Medals and Jetons with 
portraits of King Frederick, for the Academy of Sciences, Academy 
of Fine Arts, Mint, Mining Industries, Manufactures, Commerce, 
Knights' Palace, Parliament, Return from Hesse, &c. ; — Frederick 
and Ulrica, Marriage Medal, 1720?; — Medalet, on the same 

— 4^4 — 

event; — Medals with their portraits and two varieties of ^., one 
commemorating the House of Vasa, and the other the Assembly of 
State; — Thaler, on their Marriage, 173 1 (illustrated); — Antonio 

Medal of George II., by Hedlinger. 

Maria Gennaro, Medallist, 1739-41 ; — Portrait-medal of George II., 
King of England, commemorating the State of the Country, 1760 
(illustrated); — Nicholas Golowin, Russian admiral; — Gusta- 

— 465 — 

vus I., King of Sweden; Jubilee Medal, 1721 ; — Portrait-medalet 
of Gustavus I. (belonging to the series of Kings and Queens of 
Sweden), 1728-45; — Portrait-medalet of Gustavus Adolphus, 
King of Sweden, I1728-1745 ; — Jeton 'for Commerce and Indus- 
try, 1728-45; — Portrait-medalet of Haquinus, King of Sweden, 
1728-45; — Portrait-medalet of Haquinus, Rode, King of Sweden, 
1745-60; — Portrait-medal of the Artist, a cast piece, 1727-34?; 
— Another, with mirror, 1730; — Hedlinger and his wife 
(two I^. varieties), 1741-62 ; — Johann Joseph Hedlinger (two I^. 
varieties, with arms and female figure) ; — Portrait-medalet of 
Lars Hesling, 1744; — The Marriage Feast at Cana, obv. only 
(a trial piece); — Baron Karl Horleman, a friend of the artist (two 
^L. varieties), 1737; — Portrait-medalet of Baron Horleman and 
his mother, 1728-45 ; — Count Arvid Horn, Medal with J^. five 
altars, 1720; and Jeton with I^, cornucopiae, 1728-45 ; — Our 
Lord with His disciples in the boat, 1730; — Portrait-medalet of 
Ingo the Elder andHalstan, King of Sweden, 1745-60; — Portrait- 
medalet of Ingo the Younger, King of Sweden, 1745-60; — 
Portrait-medalets of Kings John I., John II., John III., Charles VII., 
Charles VIII. , Charles IX., Charles Gustavus, and Charles XI of 
Sweden (8); — Emperor Charles VI., 1723-25 ; — Medalet of the 
Academy of Lunden, with portrait of Charles XL ; — Charles XII., 
King of Sweden, Medal on his Betrothal; — Another, ^L. Lion 
bound, 1718; — Portrait-medalets of the same King, with two ^s. 
club and inscription, 17 18; — Medalet, of the Series of Kings, 
1728-45; — Arvid Karlsteen, Medallist, 1725 (illustrated); — 



i I.MA<HN£M' 


^ HE1.V36TIV6 • 


Portrait-medal of Arvid Karlsteen, by Hedlinger. 

Nicolaus Keder, Antiquarian (two varieties ot ^.), one with 
Saturn on ruins and the other with Atlas supporting the Globe, 
1728; — Another, I^. Saturn, 1725 ; — Another, cast, 1728; — 
Another,:^. Inscription, 1766; — Another, a medalet, ^L. Phoenix, 

L. FoRRER. — Biographical Nolias of MedallUlt, — II. 


— 466 — 

1728-45; — Katharina Magdalena Krell, 1725; — Jeton of the 
Stockholm Academy of Fine Arts, 1728-45 ; — The so-caWed Lagom 
Medals, 5 varieties with ^L. Owl, 1730?, Inscription, 1733, Cur- 
tain, 1746, Mirror, 1756-57, Lagom as a skull with inscription, 
1770; — General Lewenhaupt, 1733-35; — Portrait-medalet of 
Louise Ulrika, Princess of Sweden 1^. Eagle with pearl, 1744; — 
Another, struck on her Wedding 1744; — Two trials of dies for 
a medal representing lions; — Louis XV., King of France, two 
varieties of ^L. ; — Jeton of the Academy of Lunden ; — Prize 
Medal of Lucerne, 1714; — Various Coins of Lucerne, 1714-15 ; 
— Portrait-medalets of Kings Magnus L, Magnus IL, and 
Magnus IIL, of Sweden, 1745-60 (3); — Magnus Erik Smeck 
1731-45 ; — Jeton ot Manufactures, 1728-45 ; — Portrait-medal of 
Margaretha, Queen of Sweden, 1731-45; — Portrait-medal of 
Maria Theresia, Empress, 1761-68; — St. Meinrad; — Commemo- 
rative Medal of the Battle of Morgarten, 1734; — Jeton of the 
Mint, 1728-45 ; — Medal with legend NIL H AEC CONN VBl A TVR- 
BET; — Count Ostermann, Portrait-medal, 1738 ; — Palmstierna, 
Portrait-medal, 1741 ; — Portrait-medalet of Philip and Ingo the 
Younger, 1745-60; — Portrait-medalet of King Raynaldus of 
Sweden, 1745-60; — The four States of Parliament, 1739 ?; — The 
Palace of Knights of Sweden, Medal and Jeton, 1728-45 ; — Por- 
trait-medal of Joseph Charles Roettier, 1734-36 (illustrated); — 

Portrait-medal of J. C. Roettier, by Hedlinger. 

Portrait-medal and medalet of Wilhelm Rumpf, Belgian Minister 
to Sweden, 1728; — Russian Seals of State, 1736-37; — 
Portrait-medalet of Baroness de Sack, 1728-45 ; — Marriage Medal 
of Maria Rosa Franziska Schorno, Hedlinger's wife (two varieties of 
]^.), arms and inscription; — Commemorative Medal on the Death 
ot the last-named person, 1755 ; — State-seals of Canton Schwytz, 
1728; — Various seals, one of them belonging to the Medallic 

— 467 — 

series of Kings and Queens of Sweden ; — Seals for Buxtorf and 
Sinner, 1753; — Portrait-medalet of Sigismund, King of Sweden 
and Poland, 1731-45; — Commemorative Medal of the Eclipse of 
the Sun in 1748; — Portrait-medal of Sophia Magdalena, Queen 
of Denmark, 1732-33; — Portrait-medal of Count Stenbock; — 
Portrait-medalets of King Stenkillus of Sweden and Administrators 
Steno Siure the Elder and Younger, 1731-45 ; — Portrait-medal of 
Baron Stiernkrona ; — Medal of the Stockholm Academy of Sciences ; 

— Portrait-medal of Philip, Baron von Stosch, 1728; — Por- 
trait-medal of Administrator Svante Sture, 1731-45; — Portrait- 
medalets of Sverker I. and 11. , Kings of Sweden, 1745-60; — The 
Tartar Envoys to Sweden, 1727-34?; — The Baptism of Christ, 
1771; — Count Karl Tessin, several varieties, with plumb-line, 
inscription, arms, compass, and with blank ^L. ; medals executed 
ta various dates between 1728 and 1771; — Nicodemus Tessin, 
Portrait -medal I^. Minerva, 1727-32?; — Medalet of the same, 
I^. Lily, 1725; — John Baron Thegner; — The Turkish Envoy 
to Stockholm, 1727-34?; — Queen Ulrika Eleonora, three varie- 
ties of I^. Lioness and her young, Zodiac, and Echpse of the sun; 

— Another, with PONDERE TVTA SVO, three varieties of ^. 
Rose-bush, star, and inscription (medalets); — Jeton of the Acad- 
emy of Upsala ; — Portrait-medalet of King Waldemar of Sweden, 
1745-60; — Watrangh, Finance Minister, 1733 ; — Portrait-medal 
of William, Prince of Hesse, 1747; — Count de Buffon (in Boston 

Hedlinger engraved also numerous seals. 

Bibliography. — Johannes Amberg, DerMedailhurJohann Karl Hedlinger, Einsie- 
deln, 1887. — Chretien de Mechel, CEuvre du chevalier Hedlinger ouRecmildes tnedailles 
de ce celebre artiste, gravies en taille douce, accompagnees d'une explication historique et 
critique et precedees de la vie de I'auteur, Bale, 1776. — Des Kilters Job. Karl. Hed' 
linger' s Medaillen- IVerke, ge^eichnet von Johann Kaspar Fuessli und in scfnvar:(er Kiinst 
bearbeitet von Johann Elias Haid, Augsburg, 1781. — Lebensabriss des berUhmten 
Medailleurs Ritter Johann Karl Hedlinger (v. Hetllin^en)von Schwy^, Numismatische 
Zeitung, Blatter fur Munz-, Wappen- und Siegelkunde Nr. 18, 19 and 20, 
Vol. XXXIX, 1872. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Fuessli, Collection complete de toutes 
les tnedailles de J. C. Hedlinger, 1789. — Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, Medallic 
Illustrations oj the History of Great Britain, &c., London, 1885. — Tobler-Meyer, 
Die Mun\- und Medaillen-Sammlung des Herrn Hans Wunderly- V. Muralt in Zurich, 
1898. — Revue beige de numismatique, 1891, p. 264, 1894, p. 84. — Bulletin et 
Revue suisses de numismatique. 1882-87. — Ammon, op. cit. — Domanig, op. cit. 

— Menadier, Schaumunien des Hauses Hoheniollern, 190 1. — Hildebrand, Sveriges 
och Svenska Konungahusets Minntspenningar Praktmynt och Beloningsnudaljer , Stock- 
holm, 1874. 

HEDMANN, J. (Swiss). Designer of a medal commemorating the 
20*^' Anniversary of the Rifle Club " Amis du Mannequin " of 
Geneva, 1893. The medal was engraved by C. Richard. 

— 468 — 

HEDWIGER, CHRISTOPH (Germ.). Mint-administrator at Gels, 
1611-12, afterwards Mint-master at Reichenstein-Ohlau, until 
August 6, 1620, then in the same year, at Neissen and Schweidnitz. 
Distinctive mark : stork on globe above three stars. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. 

HEEL, JOHANN (Germ.). Bolzenthal gives the following notice ot 
this Engraver, who worked during the second half of the seventeenth 
century, and died in 1709. 

"Johann Heel of Augsburg established himself in Nuremberg 
for some time ; he was an excellent goldsmith, and Doppelmayr 
expressly places him among the casters of coins, without however 
mentioning any of his works. We are inclined to agree with Mohsen, 
and to consider Heel as the author of a medal with the portrait of 
the physician Gregor Hilling, 1670, at which time Heel had taken 
up his abode at Nuremberg. " 

Migne, Dictionnaire d'Orfevrerie chretienne, p. 922, mentions 
Heel, as a Goldsmith and Engraver, who worked at Nuremberg, 
circa 1664, 1665, and produced several pieces of religious plate. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Ammon, op. cit. — Doppelmayr, 
Nilchricht von Nurnhergischen Malhematicis und Ki'instleni, p. 226. — 

HEERT, LAURENT JOSEPH. Schlickeysen erroneously gives the 
name of this Engraver, which should be spelt HART q. v. 

HEERWAGEN, FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Mint-administrator at Hanau, 
1785-1821. I have noticed his initials F. H. on a Bieberer Mining 
Thaler ofLandgrave William IX., ofHesse, 1787. Also HEHRWAGEN. 

HEID, CHRISTOPH VON HEIDENPURG (Atistr.). Mint-master at 
Ensisheim, 1591. In 1603 he was ordered to send all blanks for the 
coinage to Hall to be examined and tried. 

HEIDLER, ANDREAS FERDINAND (Atistr.). Mining-master and 
Coin-engraver in the service of the Counts ot Schlick, at the Mint 
of Plan, 1649-1665. He was a clever artist; one of his first pro- 
ductions is a Groschen of 1649, which bears his distinctive mark, 
a working miner, and initials A. H. 

Bibliography. — Ed. Fiala, Das Mun:^wesen der Grafen Schlick, Num. 
Zeit., 1890. 

HEIDEGGER, SEBASTIAN (Swiss). Goldsmith and Modeller of 
Zurich, who worked at Vienna. There is a medal by him, with his 
likeness and the date 1536, which shews the period of his activity. 
He was the son of Erhard Heidegger, the first burgher of Zurich 
of that name. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Tobler-Meyer, Wunderly Catalogue, 
no 998. 

— 4^9 — 

of armorial bearings at Breslau, 1 579-1 586; also mentioned as 
Coiner in 1570. 

HEIGELIN, DANIEL (G^rw.). Mint-warden at Stuttgart, 1760-1794. 
Some of the coins issued under him bear the letters H, or D. E. H. 

HEIMREICH, JOHANN (Germ.). Mint-master at Eisenach, 1750- 
1754. Signature : I. H. 

HEIM (French). Artist of the early part of the nineteenth century, 
who designed and executed models for medals of the Napoleonic 

Bibliography. — Blanchet, Num. du moyen age et moderne, II, p. 389. 

HEIN (Germ.). Die-sinker at Neustrelitz, 1794. 

HEINCKE, GEORG (Germ.). Goldsmith at Liegnitz, where he 
worked for the Mint. He engraved dies for coins of Liegnitz, 1622 
and 1623, and his initials GH occur also on two issues of the 
Goldberg Mint; in 1623 he designed a Groschen of George Rudolf. 
Schlickeysen's suggestion that Heincke was Mint-master in 16 12 is 
an error. Distinctive sign G(L)H or G. H. 

HEINE or HEIN Vide suprd. 


HEINICKE, G. B. (Germ.). MedaUist at Cassel, circa 1863, and 
partner in the firm of Schuchardt & Heinicke. His name occurs 
on a medal of the Masonic Lodge of Unity and Constancy, Orient 
of Cassel, 1866, dedicated to the brethren by Br. Julius Hahlo. 

HEINIG, A (Germ.). Medallist at Freiberg im Erzgebirge, circa 
1730- 1 740 (?). His signature occurs on a Coronation medal of 
Charles VL, struck to order of the city of Hamburg, 171 1, and on 
a Portrait-medal of King Augustus IL of Poland and consort, Chris- 
tiana Eberhardina, 1699. Ammon gives his name as HEINIVS. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, 0/). cit. — Menadier, op. cit. — Joseph u. Fellner, 
Die Miin^en von Frankfurl-a.M., 1896. 



HEINRICH, BENEDIKT (Swiss) of Steinbriicken, Mint-master at 

Lucerne, 1560. 

HEINRICH, KASPAR (Germ.). Mint-master at Jiigerndorf, 161 3. 

— 470 — 

HEINRICH, FLORIAN (Germ.). Mint-worker at Bernstadt, Silesia, 

HEINRICH DER WURFEL (Austr.). Mint-master at Vienna, 1349. 

HEINRICH DER MUNZER (Austr.). Die-cutter at the Mint ot 
Vienna, 1400. 

HEINRICH DER MUNZER (Swiss). Die-cutter at Zofingen, 1286. 

Bibliography. — D^ Carl Brun, Schmierisches Kunstler-Lexicon, Frauenteld, 

HEIOS. A fictitious signature of a Greek Gem-engraver, found on 
modern gems : Diana the huntress, sard (Stosch); — Dying 
Amazon, sard (Raspe) ; — Head of youth with curly hair, sard 
(Lord Greville) ; — Minerva, nicolo (Raspe); — Ulysses and Dio- 
mede killing Dolon (Blacas). 

Bibliography. — Babelon, La Gravure en pierres fines, Paris, 1894. — A. Furt- 
vangler, Studien fiber die Gemmen mil Kunstlerinscliriften, in lahrhitch des Kais. 
Deutsch. Archaeol. Instituts, 1888-9. — C. W. King, Antique Gems, i860. 

HEJDA (Austr.). Contemporary Sculptor and Author of a cast 
bronze Portrait-plaquette of August Duesberg, 1896. 

HELBIG, S. G. (Germ.). Mint-master at Dresden, 1804-1813. 

HELD, AUGUST LUDWIG (Germ.). Medallist of the early part ot 
the nineteenth century. He was born in 1805, and died quite 
young, on 17. September 1839. "He has left a considerable 
number of works", says Bolzenthal, " in which some richness of 
composition is to be observed ; he was however too rapid to be 
able to execute anything important. " He resided at Berlin, but came 
from Altenburg, and worked for Gottfried Bernhard Loos. 
Ludwig Held's signature occurs on the following medals which 
have come under my observation : Jubilee of Alexander Baron von 
Vrints-Berberich, 1835; — Prince Metternich, 1835 (2 var.) ; — 
Schleiermacher; — Vaccination in Prussia (Boston Coll"); — 
Coronation Medal of Ferdinand V. resp. L, King of Bohemia, 1836, 
iii,c. The Medallist Christoph Carl Pfeuffer succeeded him at the 
Loos Medal-Mint. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Friedensburg, op. cit. 

HELD, FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at Nuremberg, 1622. 

HELD, HERMANN (Germ.). Contemporary Medallist at Magdeburg. 
His signature : H. HELD MAGDEB occurs on a medal commemora- 
ting the centenary of Froebel's birth, 1882, and H. HELD on another 

— 471 — 
of the semicentennial Convention of German Naturalists and Phy- 
sicists, Leipzig, 1872. 

HELD, JOHANN (Germ.). Medallist to the Breslau Mint, under 
Frederick the Great, 1747-1769. By him are the large medal of 
Burg and that on the Siege of Breslau, 1760. Bolzenthal gives his 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, Sludien \ur schlesisclxn MedaiUenhinde. 

HELD, JOHANN (Germ.). Son of the last, born in 1734; died on 
October 17, 1808, at Kreutzburg. Medallist to the Breslau Mint, 
where he first worked with his father, as early as 1768. He is the 
author of the following medals : General von Farrat; — Christian 
Garve, Philosopher; — Prince Hohenlohe; — Honicke; — Minister 
von Floyen ; — Christian L. Ludovici; — Bernhard von Sternen- 
heim of Brieg, 1771 ; — General von Tauentzien ; — Weger ; — 
Extinction of the Piasts, 1775 ; — Medal of Olf, 1768, &c. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, oj). cit. — Nagler, op. cit. — Bahrfeldt, op. cil. 

HELDEN, FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Mint-contractor at Nuremberg, 
1 62 1, for a copper coinage. 

HELFRICHT, EMIL (Germ.). Son of F.F. Helfricht, and also a 
MedaUist, who in 1894 was working in London. Fie is the author 
of a medal of Bayard Taylor, the American author, on his death at 
Berlin, in 1878, and he engraved the ^. otthe medal commemora- 
ting Duke Ernest II. 's golden wedding in 1892. Flis signature 
I noticed also on a Portrait-medal of the Orientalist W. Pertsch. 

HELFRICHT, FRIEDRICH FERDINAND (Germ.). Court-medallist at 
Gotha, born on 8. September 1809, died on 17. May 1892. ''His 
talent for medallic work", says D"" F. P.Weber," showed itself in 
early life, and his medal of the Gotha statesman, Lindenau, attracted 
the attention of Duke Ernest I. of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, by whose 
aid he was able to study at the Berlin Academy. There, under the 
sculptor Shadow, his love for the antique was developed, and this 
taste is well shown in his marriage-medal of Duke Ernest II. of 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1842), one of his finest medals. The medal 
on the golden wedding of Duke Ernest II. (1892) is Helfricht's last 
medal, the reverse of which is by his son Emil Helfricht. Many of 
Ferd. Helfricht's medals may be seen at the South Kensington 
Museum. " 

Since 183 1, Prof. Helfricht was Engraver at the Mint of Gotha. 

Amongst this artist's best known works, we find : Marriage ot 
Queen Victoria with Prince Albert of Coburg-Gotha, 1840; — 
Visit of Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort to Ohrdruf, 1845: 

— 472 — 

— Marriage of Princess Charlotte of Prussia with Duke George 11. , 
of Saxe-Meiningen, 1850; — Confirmation of Princes Ernest and 
Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 1835 ; — Semi-centennial of the 
S' John's Lodge at Gotha, 1856; — Homage to Prince Ernest ot 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 1826; — Martin Luther; — Schiller; — D"" 
Karl Friedrich von Kielmeyer of Stuttgart; — Medal of Merit of the 
Ernestine Branch of the Saxon Ducal House, with bust of Duke 
Friedrich (sev. var.) ; — Duke Ernest (sev. var.) ; — Duke Bernhard 
Erich Freund; — Duke George, etc.; — Silver Medal for female 
Merit ; — and various other Prize Medals. 

Helfricht was employed for some time at Loos' Die-sinking 
Establishment at Berlin. Bolzenthal remarks that he executed a 
series of medals which show his acquaintance with the works of 
antiquity, and which are highly meritorious. 

Bibliography. — D'' F. P. Weber, Medals and Medallions of the nineteenth 
century, relating to England, by foreign artists, London, 1894. — D"" R. Hodermann, 
General An^eiger, Gotha, 1893. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. — Reimviann Catalogue. — 
Menadier, op. cit. 

HELLE, JEAN DE (Flam.). Seal-engraver to the Dukes of Bur- 
gundy, tourteenth century. He is mentioned by De Laborde, with 
Arnoul Clotin and Thierri von Staveren, as a clever specialist, 
whose work is remarkable for its fineness and elegance. 

Bibliography. — Lecoy de la Marche, Les Sceaux, Paris, 1889. 

HELLECK, JOHANN (Germ.). Goldsmith, and Seal-engraver, of the 
middle years of the seventeenth century. He lived at Nuremberg. 
Bibliography. — Migne, op. cit. 

HELLEMMES, JACQUES DE (Belg.). Mint-master at Namur ; in 
conjunction with Jean Bernard, 24. July 1426 to 30. November 
1426 ; alone, i. December 1426 to Easter 1427. 

HELLEMMES, MARC DE (Belg.). Son of Jacques de Hellemmes ; 
Mint-master at Namur, 10. June 1426 to 16. May 1433; again, in 
conjunction with Nicaise de Hellemmes, 30. May 1433 to 10. Octo- 
ber of same year. 

HELLEN. A fictitious signature of a Greek artist on modern gems. 
It occurs on the following pieces : Bust of Antinous as Harpocrates, 
sard (Stosch Collection); — Comic mask (Blacas); — Full face ot 
young Faun, EAAHNOV. The Bust of Antinous is praised by 
Kohler as of the finest antique stamp and finished wdth inconceiv- 
able delicacy. King suspects EAAHN in its origin to be but the 
signature of the famous Alessandro II Greco, a most natural dis- 
guise for that artist to have assumed. 

Bibliography. — King, op. cit. — Babelon, op. cit. 

— 473 — 

HELLENBACH Fide HOLLENBACH, I. C. (Germ.). Medallist of Ber- 
lin, first half of the nineteenth century. His name occurs on 
Masonic, Agricultural, and Personal Medals. 

HELLER, PHILIPP (Austr.). Mint-engraver at Vienna, 1564. 

HELLER, FLORENT ANTOINE (French). Sculptor, Painter, Medal- 
list, and Silversmith, born at Saverne (Alsace). He was brought up 
in Paris where he served his apprenticeship as an Engraver of armor- 
ial bearings and seals, ex-libris, etc., for such men as Edmond 
About, Sarcey, and others. Baron de Bussieres, Director of the 
Paris Mint, 1861-1879, recommended the young artist as a pupil 
to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he was received as pensionnaire 
of Saverne, and studied under Laemlein, Farochon, and especially 
Jean Leon Gerome. In June 1870 he obtained a Gold Medal at the 
same time as Chaplain, his fellow apprentice in steel-engraving. 
He engraved, in that year, Gerome's "Cockfight", cameo; also 
his "Faun", modernised antique. On the outbreak of the Franco- 
German war, Heller had to serve, and on his return, after the 
declaration of peace, his pension was stopped by the Govern- 
ment, Alsace having been incorporated into the German Empire. 
He then left France for America, settled at New York, where he 
worked forTiffan}' and executed a set of dish covers, « Olympia », 
purchased by the Prince of Wales, and for which he was awarded 
a Gold medal. Afterwards, the artist returned to Gorham & C° and 
produced there several silver Dinner services : The Raphael pattern; 
the Fontainebleau (medal at the Salon of 1883); the Versailles; 
the Coligny; the Medicis; the beautiful service "Mythology" 

The Genius of France, by Heller. 

(rewarded with a gold medal of the 2"** class and now exhibited at 
the Luxemburg Museum); the Paris (gold medal at the Buffalo 
Exhibition 1901). 

— 474 — 

After Heller's return to Paris, he executed also a number ofpla- 
quettes and medals : Alsace ; — The Slave ; — Time and the Sea- 
sons; — Low relief portrait of Erkmann, the novelist; — Apotheosis 
of Carnot; — The Election of Carnot; — Comedy and Trag- 
edy; — Battle of Froeschwiller (Plaquette, " Honneur aux braves 
de Froeschwiller"); — Montmartre and its legend; — The Night 
of Bethlehem (oval plaquette) ; — Frieze, the Deadly Sins, &c. 

Chavignerie et Auvray's JDictionary of French Artists, gives a list 
of a number ofmedallic works, and several camei by F. A. Heller: 
Salon 1865, The Vision of Zacharias, camei, after Laemlein's pic- 
ture ; — S. 1866, Cupid ; — The Amateur Monkey, camei; — S. 
1867, Diogenes, cameo; — S. 1868, A. Guard; — Portrait of 
M. X. P***; — Hercules and Hebe ; — Melpomene, camei, the last 
of which was made for M"^ Agar; — S. 1869, Portrait-medallion 
of Baron de L*** ; — Childish Plays, camei ; — Medal for the 
Societe des Gens de Lettres; — S. 1870, Portrait-medallions and 
camei of M. H***, M'"^ Z**'; — Medal for a Fine Art Society; — 
Portrait-medallion of M"^ Algar ; — S. 1872, Portrait-medallion of 
M"^ V. E. About; — A Bird, cameo; — S. 1875, Portrait-medal- 
lions of M''« V. P***, M''« A. G. G***; — Neptune as a child, intag- 
lio; — S. 1876, Commemorative medal of the Centenary of Amer- 
ican Independence; — New York bringing Abundance to Paris in 
1871, JR. medal. At the Universal Exhibition of 1878, the artist 
exhibited a frame containing 31 medals. 

At the Paris "Exposition Universelle" of 1900, Heller exhibited a 
frame containing 50 medals, amongst which were : Bacchanales ; 
— Medee; — Portrait of M. Erkmann ; — Saverne; — Mont- 
martre ; — Athenee ; — Com6die et Tragedie ; — Froeschwiller ; — 
Herodiade; — Frieses &c.; and at the Salon of 1901, I noticed : 
Idylle ; — Les Inseparables ; — Au Lever ; — Ex- Veto de la Butte, 
plaquette, &c. 

The three medals : Reve d'Alsace; — Salve Gallia; — and Zeus, 
exhibited by Heller at the Salon of 1902 are very fine. 

M. Roger Marx, who in Medailleurs frangais cantemporains gives 
a Plate of reproductions ot Heller's plaquettes and medals, describes 
this artist's work as "original et divers", and in a recent article, 
oi Art et Decoration, 1899, P- 52, M. Leonce Benedite, Keeper of 
the Luxemburg Museum, gave the following appreciation of 
M. Heller's talent : "M. Heller a, malgre ses lacunes et ses exces, 
une forte saveur romantique, parfois d'un gout un peu sauvage, 
mais parfois aussi d'une chaude couleur. C'est un vaillant burineur 
qui travaille directement I'acier. Dans les envois un peu inegaux 
de son cadre (au Salon de 1899), on remarquera surtout deux pla- 
quettes ^'Herodiade, en particulier celle qui represente la danse de 
Salome, levant son voile devant le tetrarque, composition bien 6qui- 

— 475 ~ 

libree, quoique mouvement^e, qui rappelle I'esprit de peinture de 
Vien. " 

At the Salon of 1903, Heller exhibited three medals : Vigils on 
Mount Calvary; — The three sailing Vessels of Columbus; — 
New Error; — Portrait-m.edallions (6). 

Heller has in recent years produced some fine work in plate, as, 
for instance, a Goblet for Falize, which is now at the Museum ot 
Decorative Arts, since 1896. 

Bibliography. — Information kindly supplied hy the Artist. — Chavignerie et 

Auvray, op. cit. — Various Art Magazines, &c. 

HELLMANN, FRIEDRICH (Germ.). Mint-master at St. Petersburg, 
1803-1811 and 1817; signature S. T. 

HELLWIG, BLASIUS (Germ.). Mint-warden to the Franconian 

Circle, end of the sixteenth century. 

HEMA, PETER (Germ.). Die-sinker and Contractor, of Dutch extrac- 
tion ; he worked at the Mint of D.mtzig, with his brother Henry, 
in the service of his cousin Jacob Jacobsen, circa 1620. In 1623, 
he went to Glatz, first as Assayer, and was afterwards promoted to 
Mint-master. Between March and April 1630, he worked the Mint 
of Breslau. In 1631, we find him again at Glatz, until 1634. The 
coins of Olmiitz of that period, signed H P, may have been issued 

under him. His distinctive sign was p within circle or Hf! FP. 

Bibliography. — Friedensburg, op. cit. — Fiala, op. cit. — C. Oesterreicher, 
Regesten etc. 

HEMANN. PETER Vide HEMA. This Breslau Mint-master's name 
is variously spelt as Hema, Heman (on Glatz documents), and even 

HEMING & CO (Brit.). Publishers ot a medal of William Blades, 

Prize Medal, by Heming & Co. 

the celebrated Printer, and Collector of typographical medals, 1890, 

— 476 — 

and various Prize Medals, one of which {illustrated) bears the 
monogram of George J. Frampton, the Sculptor. 

HEMSTERHUIS (Dutch). Designer of a Medal of D"" Pieter Camper 
of Ley den {A. J. N. i^i^). 

HENAULT, JHEROME (BeJg.). Jeton-engraver, employed at the 
Mint ot Mons, 1580-81. Jacques de Surhon was Mint-master at the 

Bibliography. — Revm de la numismatique heJge, 1857, p. 309. 

HENDERSON, JOHN (Brit.). Dentist in London, Collector ot Coins 
and Medals, and amateur Modeller of portraits in wax, in the style 
of the Tassies, early part of the nineteenth century. 

Bibliography. — Gray, op. cit. 

HENDERSONN, ANDRO (Scotch). " Warden of the cunyehous " at 
Edinburgh, 1562. 

HENDERT (Canad.). Contemporary Die-sinker of Montreal, whose 
signature occurs on a medal of the Cercle Jacques Cartier, with 

HENDRICY, MARTIN (French). Medallist of Lyons, 1614-62, who 
is known also as a Sculptor, Painter, and Architect. He was born 
at Liege in 16 14, but spent twenty-nine years of his life at Lyons. 
Rondot describes him as a servile imitator of Claude Warin. 

In 1648, he obtained the title of Sculptor to the city, and in 1659, 
his letters of naturalization. He worked for the churches and was 
for a long time occupied at the Hotel de Ville. 

Bibliography. — Rondot, Lalyame, Hendricy el Mimerel, Sculpteurs et Medail- 
leursdLyon, 1888. 

HENDRT (Canad.). Engraver of medals awarded to Canadian 
Indians, The same probably as HENDERY, supra. 

Bibliography. — Mac Lachlan, Medals awarded to Canadian Indians, p. 29. 

HENDTSCHEL, BENEDIKT (Austr.). Die-sinker at the Mint ot 
Joachimsthal, 1620. He engraved the dies for a Bohemian Heller 
of 1620. 

HENNEQUIN, GUSTAVE NICOLAS (French). Painter and Sculptor, 
born at Metz, on the 22. January, 1834; pupil of Rouillard and 
Jacquot. He executed various Portrait-medallions of M. Deflou, 
1874, E- Rigaut, 1875, M""= Meyer, 1880, etc. 

Bibliography. — Chavignerie et Auvray, op. cit. 

— 477 — 

HENNEQUIN, JEAN (French). Painter of the Renaissance period, 
whose name M. Blanchet mentions in a Note stir des peint res du XV" 
et du X^P sieck ayant execute des projets de monnaies et de tnedailleSy 
with that of another miniaturist, Jean Bourdichon, showing tlie 
close connection between the miniatures of the manuscript of Anne 
de Bretagne and certain coins of Nantes. 

Bibliography. — Rapport du Cong res de Vhistou e de Vart (seance du 26juillet ipoi). 

HENNIG, NIKOLAUS (Gi'/w.)- ^int-ni^ster at Elbing, 1652-1662. 
He signed NH or m. 

HENNL, HANS {Austr.). Mint-master at Vienna, 1478. 

HENNIN, JEAN DE (French). Coin-engraver at the Mint of 
Tournai, 1427-1464. 

HENNING, JOHN (Brit.). Sculptor, Medallist and Modeller in wax, 
born at Paisley in 1771, died in London in 185 1. "It was by him", 
says J. M. Gray, the biographer of the Tassies, "that the modelling 
of wax portrait medallions from the life, in the manner ot the 
Tassies, but usually cast in white biscuit porcelain, was most 
exclusively and successfully continued till almost our own time. 
A manuscript Catalogue of his works of this kind that I have 
compiled contains nearly ninety items; and it might probably be 
extended by further research. Ranging from 1802 to 18 13, his 
medallions include portraits of Lord Brougham, 1802 ; — the Rev. 
D' Archibald Alison, 1808 ; — the Rev. D' Alexander Carlyle, of 
Inveresk, 1808; — Sir William Forbes, 1808; — Mrs Siddons, 
1808; — Francis Horner, 1808; — Sir Walter Scott, 1809; — 
David, Earl of Buchan, 1810; — James Watt, 1810; — Lord 
Jeffrey, 1813 ; — Protessor Dugald Stewart, 18 13 ; — of the artist 
himself; and of various other persons of distinction : and his works 
form an interesting addition to our national portraiture. " 

I have noticed Henning's signature on the following medals : 
H. R. H. The Duke of Clarence as Lord High Admiral; — The 
Duke of Wellington, 1827, medal published by S. Parker ot 
London ; — President Abraham Lincoln ; &c. 

Bibliography. — J. M. Gray, Janies and fVilliaiu Tassie, Edinburgh, 1894. 

HENNING, HANS (Genu.) and HENNING GIESSEL. Mint-masters 
of Nassau-Saarbriicken and Nassau-Wiesbaden, 1594. 

HENRICVS (v4«j/r.). Moneyer at Vienna, died in 1342. 

Bibliography. — Arnold Luschin von Ebengreuth, Wiens Muniwesen, Handel 
und Verketir im spdteren Mittelaller, Wien, 1902. 

HENRIONNET (French). Medallist of the first half ot the nineteenth 

- 478 - 

century. He collaborated with Veyrat, Godel, Rogat, Masson, 
Peuvrier, and others on Durand's Series of personal medals " Series 
numismatica universalis virorum illustrium ", and '* Galerie metal- 
lique des grands hommes francais ", etc 

I have noticed Henrionnets' signature on the following medals : 
Debuire-du-Bas, Song-writer of Lille, 1851; — Choral Society 
" Concordia du Nord ", 186 1 ; — Louis XVIIL, Charter of 18 14 ; 

— Rene Descartes (obv. only — Durand Series, 1822) ; — Christ- 
ian Huyghens, 1821 ; &c. 

Bibliography. — Bolzenthal, op. cit. 

HENRY, j£R0NYME {French). .. 1503-1539. Goldsmith and 
Medallist of Lyons. His name occurs also as jfiROME HENRY. His 
father was the Goldsmith Pierre Henry. He executed several articles 
of plate for Pomponne de Trivulce, Governor of Lyons, 1533, 
Antoine du Bourg, Chancellor ol France, on his visit to Lyons 
in 1536, etc. This artist may have executed several medals, dated 
1 5 18, amongst which those of Jean de Talaru ; — Jacques de Vitri; 

— Antoine de Tolede ; — and perhaps also the anonymous medal 
of the Florentine merchant, Bartolomeo Panciatichi, who founded 
a chapel in the Church of Notre-Dame de Confort at Lyons in 
15 17; also that of Rene de Marye, Abbot of St. Mihiel. " Henry ", 
observes Rondot, *'has followed the traces of Candida, but the 
influence of Flemish art is very marked in his work. The most 
superficial comparison brings out the incomparable talent of the 
Italian artist. Jeronyme Henry has neither the same firmness nor 
vivacity in the likeness and expression. " 

Bibliography. — N. Rondot, Les Medailkurs lyonnais du XV^ au XVII^ Steele, 
1896. — F. MazeroUe, 1^5 Medailkurs frangais du XV^ au XV 11^ sikle, Paris, 1902. 

HENZL (Bohem."). Die-cutter at the Mint of Kuttenberg, 1523- 

HEPPE, E {Belg.y Contemporary Die-sinker of Brussels, whose 
signature I have noticed on a commemorative medal on the 
Marriage of Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria with Princess Ste- 
phanie of Belgium, 1 88 1. 

HERA (HPA) {Greek). Signature of Coin-engraver, perhaps 
HPAKAEIAA2, who worked at Veha, circa 400-350. 

A Didrachm in the British Museum Collection, with the 
engraver's signature HPA is thus described in the Catalogue, Italy, 
p. 308, n° 38. 

Obv. Head of Pallas to r., wearing necklace and crested Athen- 
ian helmet, high in upper part Hke the Phrygian, adorned with 
olive-wreath; on upper part of helmet, HPA; above, E. 

— 479 — 
^L. YE AHTEH N. Lion seizing stag ; behind stag, A- 


Didrachm of Velia. by HPA. 

A Velian Didrachm of the same period bears the letter H, which 
however probably designates a magistrate. 

Bibliography. — Head, Hisloria Nuniorum, p. 74. — L. Forrer, An Unpub- 
lished Didrachm oj Velia with a new Artist's signature. Numismatic Circular, 1902, 
col. 5067. 

HERAKLEIDAS (HPAKAEIAAI) (Greek). Coin-engraver at Catana, 
during the period comprised between B.C, 400 and 336. His signa- 
ture occurs on the following coins : 

J^. Tetradrachm. Obv. Head ot Apollo, three-quarter face 
towards I., laur. ; hair long and loose; in field, to r., HEPAKLEI- 

I^- KATANAinN (in ex.). Quadriga to 1., driven b); male char- 
ioteer, holding reins in both hands ; horses in high action ; above, 
Nike, holding wreath and fillet, is flying to r., crowning charioteer; 
in ex., fish to 1. (B. M. Cat., Sicily, p. 46, n° 31. — Salinas, Le 
Monete delle antiche Citla di Siciiia, Palermo, 1867, PL xix, 2 varie- 
ties, n°* 17 and 20). 

Tetradrachm of Catana, by Herakleidas. 

This same obv. type, with the die-cutter's signature occurs with 
two other varieties of ^., described in B. M. Cat., Sicily y p. 47, 
n°^ 32 and 33. Another, with full signature is described and repro- 
duced by Mr. Macdonald, Catalogue of the Hiinterian Collection. 

Other varieties exist without the signature. 

The signature HPAKAEIAA is also found on the ^L. of a Drachm 
of Catana, the obv. of which is signed by the engraver XOI (PinN). 
This coin is described as follows : 

— 480 — 

JK. Drachm. Obv. AM EN A... Young head or river-god Amena- 
nos, three-quarter face towards L, hair diademed and wavy; on 
either side, cray-fish and fish ; beneath neck, XOI. 

I^. TA (in ex.). Fast quadriga r., driven by female charioteer, 
holding spear in r. and shield in 1. ; above, Nike, flying to 1., 
crowning charioteer; in ex.; marauder pattern; in field to r., 
HPAKAEIAA (B. M. Cat., Sicily, p. 49, n° 42). 

A Tetradrachm, with H in exergue, described by D"^ Imhoof- 

Tetradrachm ot Catana, in the style of Herakleidas. 

Blumer and Salinas, is attributed to the same artist, Herakleidas, 
on account of the similarity ot treatment of the head, and style of ^. 
The earlier tetradrachms of Catana. ot the archaic period, signed 
H or X, do not of course belong to Herakleidas. 

Bibliography. — Head, Hisforia Numorum, p. 116. — Percy Gardner, B. M. 
Cat., Sicily (jCatana), pp. 46-49. — Rud. Weil, Die Kiinsllerinschiiften der Sici- 
lischen Miinien, Berlin, 1884. — L. Forrer, A variety of the Tetradrachm of Catana 
with facing head oj Apollo, Num. Circ, 1903, col. 5813. 

HERAKLEIDAS (Greek). Gem-engraver, probably a Dorian Greek 
of Sicily or Southern Italy, whose date according to epigraphy and 
style, may be placed* between the third and second centuries before 
Christ. His signature occurs on the following gem of the Naples 
collection. Head of a beardless Roman cut in a mixed metal let 
into a massy gold ring, found a few years back near Capua ; com- 
pared by Em. Braun, for the beauty of the work, to a " certain coin 
of Catania ". The signature behind the head in minute characters 
is: ...AKAEIAAC €n06l. 

Bibliography. — C. W. King, Handbook of Engraved Gems, London 1885. — 
Prof. Furtwangler, Anlike Gemiiien, I, p. 163, pi. xxx, 15. 

HfiRARD, GfiRARD LEONARD (Belg.). Sculptor and Medallist, born 
at Liege in 1630; died at Paris on November 8, 1675. He was 
admitted a member of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture 
of Paris, on the 16''' of October 1670, at the same