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C. S." STEWAliT, A.M., U. S. X., 

AfT'loK OF 

"Sail forth Into the sea, O ship! 
Through wind and wave ripht onward itccrl 
The moisttncd eye, the trerrtblinj; lip, 
Are not the signs of doubt and fear. — 
Sail forth, nor fear to breast the sea ! 
Our hearts, our hopes, are all with tace ! " 


G . P.PUTNAM & C . , 3 2 1 B Pt O A P W A Y. 

185G. ^ i%.^9^rl 

. <: 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S56, 
By O. p. PUTNAM & CO., 
the Clerk's Oflicc of tlie District Court of the Unitod Stiitca for tlic Southern 
District of New Yorlc. 

JoiiM P. Trow, 

uid SleroolypiT, 311 & :19 BronJwny, 
XiiTinr of ll'iUt itrttl. 






Two induccmcuts have led to the puLlieation of the 
following volume: one, the fiivor with which similar 
works from my pen have been received ; the other, the 
belief that a book of tlict, for light reading, would be wel- 
come to many, amid the floods of fiction of the present 

It was with no purpose of making a book, that the 
record from which the volume is drawn was kept ; on the 
contrary, the chief difficulty I have found, in fitting it for 
the press, has arisen, from its being so strictly personal 
and private. To remodel the manuscript so as to change 
its character in these respects, would have been a labor 
which I was unwilling to undertake ; and to select from it 
such matter as might be at once suitable for jiuljlication, 
and acceptable to the general reader, without afiecting the 
connection and unity of the whole, has proved a task not 
easily acorn plished. In attempting it, I may have erred 
in judgment by putting into prmt, in some instances. 


what might better have been omitted ; and again perhaps, 
in others by omitting what would have been welcomed by 
the reader. 

Besides such matter as was essential in giving an out- 
line of the cruise of the Congress, and such observation 
of the places visited by her, as would be expected in a 
work of the kind, I have thought it proper to retain of that 
which related specifically to the ship, sufficient to convey a 
general idea of life on board a man-of-war ; and also, of 
that which referred to myself in my office, enough to 
throw light upon the position, duties, and influence of a 
chaplain in the naval service. 

Should the volume meet with any degree of accept- 
ance from the public in general, I shall be grateful ; and 
should its circulation be Umited to the decks of a man-of- 
war, or to the forecastle of a merchant-ship, the object in 
its publication will not be entirely lost. 

C. S. S. 

Ri'vERPTDE, 185G. 




Departure from Cape ITenry— Pacrificcs in Naval Life — Evening Trayers— First Ca- 
eaalty — Sabbath at Sea— Scene in the Gull" Stream— My Ship and Shipmates— The 
Crew, 1 


Great Caycos— Case of Punishment— The Cnt-o"-nine Tails- Moral Effects of tlic Laeh 
— Evening on board a Man-of-War — Sccnca off Havana — Entrance into Port, . 13 


The Prisoners of Contoy — Excitement at Havana — The Captain General and Chief of 
Police— Visits of Ceremony— Drive on Shore— The Volante — Paseo and Champs 
de Mars— Evening Promenade— Visit to llegia by Night— The Captive Filibusters 
—Destiny of Cuba, 26 


Gulf of Florida— The Wreekers— Incidents in the Sick P.iy— Maury's Wind and Cur- 
rent Charts— The Doldrums— Crot^ing the Line — Neptune Aboanl— Dreams of 
Home— Impediments to Piety on board a Man-of-War— Giving up Grog, . . 4a 


Cope Frio — Coast Scene— Bay of Bio— Reminiscence of the Past— City of Rio— Yel- 
low Fever — Equipages— Drive to Botafogo — A Tropleal Home, .... 68 


First Impressions at Rio— Mixture of Races— Senate Chamber— Imperiid Lcgl.>ilatnro 
-Form of Government— Council of State— Ministry-Nobility— The Court In 
State — The Emperor and Empress, 70 




Cemetery of Gamboa— Governor Kent— Tomb of tlie Hon. AVilliam Tudor— Island 
and Fortress of Villegaguon — Discovery of lirazil — Huguenot Colonists — Treach- 
ery of \' illigagnon— Progress in Civilization- State of the Enii.ire— Its Dangers 
and Safeguards, 80 


Praya Grande and Praya San Domingo— Bay of St. Francis Xavier— Passage to the 
Plata — Montevideo — Sea-Dirds — Cape Pigeon — Albatross — Booby — Stormy Pe- 
trel— Dolphin— Nautilus— Portuguese Man-of-War, 90 


Rio do Janeiro— The City Palace— Scenes at Court— Mode of Presentation— Charac- 
ter of the Emperor and Empress — Their Habits of Life. — Suppression of Slave 
Trade — Illness of a Sailor-boy — First Death on board tlic Congress, . . . 104 


All Souls' Day— Church and Convent of San Antonio— Commemoration of the Dead 
—Manner of preserving the Bones of the Dead— Ascent of the Corcovado— Pano- 
ramic View— Sources of the Aqueduct— Its Construction and History— Descent of 
the Hill of Santa Theresa, IIT 


Prisons and Prison Discipline— Ball on Ship-board— Fete at the American Ainba.ssa- 

dor's— Western Suburbs of Rio— Country Seat of Mr. R British Flag-Ship 

— Admiral and Mr. Reynolds— Garden of Don Juan M Madame M . 123 


Weather at Rio— Meteorological Changes— Mountain AValks— Shops and Shopping 
— Restrictions upon Females by Custom— Slaves at Auction— Birthday ot Don 
Pedro II.— National Hymn and Air— A Yankee Captain's Opinion of Court State 
— Th.'. Kiiiprror 143 

niAl'Ti:U .XIII. 

Wedding at the American Consulate— Marriage at the Orphan Asylum— Foundling 
Hospital— i'oriign Coiiiimrce— .Vrrivals in Port— U. S. Sloop St. Mary— CaptJiln 
Magruder— Botiiuioal Garden— Storm from the Corcova<lo— Fete at the Chapel 
Santa Lucia— (•hurdles on Ihristiiias Eve— Twelfth Night Party— Youthful Piety 
In MiliUiry Life, 154 


Monttnideo— It.s Political Condition— First lmpres.«ion9 on Shore— Mr. II and 

Family— British Church and Services, '.CC 




Buenos Ayres — Mode of Landing — Recoiition of Coinmodoro McKccvor — Kvcning 
Drive — Xegro Washerwonu-n — Carts of tlie Tanipa-s — Wasbinfrton's BIrtliday — 
Mr. Ilarrls, American Cliarj;^' d'Affaires — Quinta of I'alernio — Dona Manuelita do 
Kofos — Pleasure Grounds — Inierview with Kosas — His Appoarance and Conver- 
saUon, 1T3 


The Arpentinc Confederation— Early Life of P.osns— A Tl,^)c of tho Peoide— Life in 
the Pampas— Police of Buenos Ayres— Description of tho City— Visit to tho 
Conde de Bessi— Nuncio from the Pope, 183 


Montevideo — Store-ship Southampton— Dr. C , Fleet Surgeon — The Poor of 

Montevideo— French Troo|>s— Dress of tho Guacho — Mr. and Madame L 

Mrs. Z Pamperos at Montevideo— Discises of the Climate — Marriage of Dr. 

K of the St. Louis— Funeral of Mrs. S Protestant Burlal-Ground, . 198 


Island of St. Catherine — Scenery at Santa Cruz — Captain Cathcart aclina: Consnl — 
City of Desterro— Its Public Square — .Market Place — Hotel— Civility of tho In- 
habitants—Manufactures of Flowers in Feathers and Shells— Dinner— Waiter and 
"Waitress — Walks at Santa Cruz — An Unexpected Recognition — Dangerous Walk- 
ing Ground, 209 


Return to Rio de J.inciro — Winter Weather there— The Larangoiras or Orange Val- 
ley — Walk along the Aqueduct — Festivals of tho Romish Church — Corpus Chrlstl 
and St. John's Days — Marriages at the Or[>han Asylum — llo.-^pital of the .Miscra- 

c<>rdia — Mngniflccnce of the New Building— Country Seat of Mr. M Scenes 

at a Wedding— Lieut li Smuggled Liquor and the Con.sequcncc— A Reproof 

to Despondency, . . . . ' 220 


Political State of Montevideo^Defection of Urqiiiza — Addrcs.s of Rosas — Retreat of 
Oribc— Visit to the Mount— Pacification at Montevideo— Termination of the Siege 
— Scenes in the Streets and Suburbs, 287 


Visit to Urqniza— His Encampment at Pantanoso — Marqnei of Commander-in-Chief 
— Travelling Carri.ige and Baggage Wagon— Adjutant on Duty— Reception— Per- 
son.ll .\ppearancc of I'rquiza — His Pet Ma-stitf— Professed Purposes of the Libera- 
tor—His pa.-;t History and Domestic Relations— The Cerrilo and its Fortress- 
Town of Restoracion— A Ride— Guacho Soldiers in Camp— Their D^es^ 
Pastime and Subsistence— Mode of Slaughtering Cattle— ProcUiination by Urquiza, 249 




Ectiim to nrnzil— Assault of a Runner on board the Confess— Captain Mcintosh— 
His Transfer to the Falmouth— Departure for the United States— Making Daylight 
—Ship's Library— Sailors as Readers— Street Calls in Rio— Civility and Patience of 
the People- Disinclination to locomotion— Omnibuses— Mules and Omnibus 
Drivers, 206 


Ban Alieso— Mr. and Mrs. M Steam Packet— Pa-sscnfrers—Imafre Venders — San 

Antonio— Superstition of the People- E.xperience in Miracles— Admiral T 

Luncheon— Negro Valet— Piedade— An American Wagon— White Mules— Turn- 
pike-Character of the Scenery— Town of Majc;— Private Road of Mr. M 

Cotton Factory and American House — Sabbath at San Alie.xo — Romish Clergy — 
Peak Valky awl River- Rain in the Mountains— Sudden Rise in the Streams— 
Mandioca Mill — Dilliculties encountered by Mr. M , 275 


Christmas— Marriage of Miss K Negroes in the Holidays— Scene of Revelry in 

the Larangeiras — Amusing Street Scene — Custom-Houso Regulations — Character- 
istic want of Confidence — Security of Property and Person — Criminal Prosecu- 
tions — Forms in Court — Manner of taking the Oath — Public executions — Return 
to Montevideo — State of Affairs in the Plata — Invasion of Buenos Ayrcs by Ur- 
quiza — Tragic Fate of Missionaries in Terra del Fucgo, 291 


Overthrow of Rosas — Dona Manuelita at Palermo — Her Escape at Night in Disguise 
on board an Engli-sh Man-of-War — Pillage in Ruenos Ayrcs — First Checked by the 
Marines of the Congi-ess and Jamestown — Summary Punishment of the Marau- 
ders — Urquiza at Palermo — General Tcrero — Visit to the Wounded in the Hospi- 
tal-Suburbs of the City— English liurial-Ground— Government House built by 
Rosas, 307* 


Battle field of Monte Caseros— Scenes on the AVay— Santos Lngarcs— Anecdotes of 
the Conflict— Triumphal Entry of the Allied Armies into Buenos Ayres- Tc 
Deum at the Cathedral and Thanksgiving Sermon, 822 


Hospitality in Buenos Ayrcs— Return to Montevideo— Public Rejoicings— Admirals 
Lcpredourand GrcnfLll— Deep-Sea Soundings— Sea Scene— Walks at Dcsterro— 
Praya Compreda— .V Yankee Cobbler— Ride to San Peilro d'Alrantara- Intloor 
Scenes— Our Host and his Housemaid— Preparations for the Niirht— Chapel and 
Cemetery— Mountain Scenery— Morning Visit to a German Family— A Feat of 
Agility— Luncheon— .Milk an<l .Mandioca— Departure from San P<;.lro— Ride by 
Night, 834 




DesteiTO — Mr. Wells— Funeral of a Child— Evonins Walk— A Novena— Singular 
Usaffe — Auction at the Church — Mock Emperor-— Evening Uide — Mounyiin View 
— Habita In Rural Life — Indians — Venomous Snakes — Antidote for the Poison of 
Snakca — Whit-Sunday — Coronation of the M<.>ck Emp«.'ror — President of Su Cathe- 
rine — Preaching by the Vicar — Appointment and Sujiport of the Clergy — Pastimo 

at Santa Cruz — Impoverished Germans — Estate of Las Palmas — Senor de L 

Antonio de L Conp tfEtat by Urquiza — Ecv. Mr. and Mrs. Lore — Protes- 
tant Churches — Rural Scenes— Native Cows— lion. Mr. Schenck— Rev. Mr. and 
ilia. Fletcher, 859 


Juscentof the Sierra of the Orpin Mountains— Frie*<-hal—T-'J Drirriera— Mules and Mule- 
teers—Mountain Wood in Flower— Boa Vista— II Hall— Arrival at Constantia 

— Mr. Heath — His Estate — Slaves and their Treatment — Morning and Evening 
Benedictions— Mountain Route to Petropolis— Woodland Scenery— Monkeys- 
Isolated Peaks— Valley of Piabanha— Mule Riding— Petropolis — German Protes- 
tant Church, 401 


Buenos Ayres in 1S53 — Revolution and Civil War — Mode of Conducting It — ^Savage 
Atrocities of the Outside Party— Failure of all Mediations in effecting a Pacifica- 
tion — Final Departure of Coinmo<loro McKeever and Suite — Homeward Bound, . 413 




U. S. Suip C0.NGRK83, Capes of Visgixia. 

June Sth, 1850. — The time for ray promised record baa 
arrived : the Congress is at sea. This afternoon, with light and 
baffling winds, in a most lazy and listless manner she gained a 
distance of ten miles outside of Cape Henry, where, a breeze 
springing up sufficiently fresh to insure an offing before nightfall, 
the pilot took his leave for the laud and we filled away u])on the 

The 8tb of June thus becomes for a second time an anniver- 
sary with me. Twenty years ago to-day, amid the bright beauty 
of a summer's afternoon, I entered the bay of New York from a 
voyage of the world. But, in what wide contrast were the feel- 
ings of that hour with those of thi.s in which I now write ! Then, 
the sunshine of the soul, beaming from face to face and reflected 
from eye to eye, outrivallod the brightness of the joyous scene 
around. We were safely at home, after a long and adventurous 
absence, and within reach of the salutations and embraces of 


those we most loved. Now, there is sunshine neither without nor 
within : without, a thick and gloomy haze obscures its smiles, 
and within, the sadness of separation for years from home and 
country, with all the uncertainty of its issues, entirely beclouds 
them. There is nothing joyous to us in the " glad sea : " it docs 
not dance in our eyes as it was wont, or as we have, at times at 
least, imagined it to do. 

Little do they who may envy the lot of an oflSccr in the navy 
— in its opportunities of varied travel, the knowledge it affords 
of men and things, and observation of nature in her most im- 
pressive forms — know at what a sacrifice of the affections, in their 
choicest exercise, and by what a penalty of wearisome duty, in 
irksome routine, the privileges of the position are bought. A 
sacrifice and a penalty which, when the novelty of travel and 

" The magic charm of foreign land " 

are passed, and the enthusiasm of youth is chastened by the ex- 
periences of maturer years, are felt with a keenness which, to be 
justly appreciated, must be personally known. The long con- 
viction of this has been impressed afresh upon my mind by an 

incident of the passing hour. Mr. B , a gentleman of wealth 

and distinguished social position in one of our principal cities, 
has for some days past been a guest of the ward-room mess, as 
the close friend of a fellow oflficer. He chose to accompany us 
to the open sea, and risk the discomfort of a night on board the 
pilot boat in a return to the shore, rather than take leave at an 
earlier moment. While the little craft was still hovering around 
us, waiting the signal to approach and take off its master and his 
passenger, the officer referred to, in momentary expectation of 
this second leavetaking of home, as it were, in parting from one 
who was going directly to his family, approaching me, exclaimed, 
in a spirit of half desperation — '' Oh ! Mr. S , if I were in cir- 
cumstances to live on shore with my family independently of my 
profession, I would go straight over the sides of the ship into 


that boat, and throw my commission to the winds. When I think 
of my wife and children, I feel as if I would dig and grub — do 
any thing for an honest living — rather than thus for three years 
leave them for a drudgery so distasteful to me as life on board 
a man-of-war in time of peace, with scarce an object but to 
get through an irksome duty." Such must be the feelings, in a 
greater or less degree, of every sea-officer who has reached the 
meridian of life ; and such would be my own, were there not con- 
nected with my office and its duties, issues, in hope at least, 
sufficient to outbalance all earthly considerations. 

June lOth. — Little worthy of record, even in a journal for 
home, can be anticipated in a passage to Cuba ; yet an incident 
has already occurred, which I would not pass over without notice. 

When 31 r. B and the pilot left us on Saturday, the shades 

of a sombre evening were settling around us, and, as is customary 
on board a man-of-war in ordinary cruising, we reefed topsails for 
the night. This done, as the lighthouse fires began to gleam 
over the dark waters, from Cape Henry at one point and from 
Cape Charles at another, all hands were called to our first evening 
prayer on the quarter-deck. The deep twilight and the gloomy 
sky made the service the more impressive. Few on board, even 
among the officers, knew of the intention of Captain Mcintosh 
with the sanction of Commodore McKeever, to have daily evening 
worship. One or two of those who did, had never witnessed such 
an observance on board ship, and doubted its expediency. But 
the impression made by it was at once effective and conclusive on 
the minds of those even who had most doubted. This they 
readily admitted to others as well as to myself: and while saying 
that it was the first time they had ever been present at such a 
service in the navy, added a hope that it would never be discon- 
tinued on board the Congress. 

I was cheered by this frank avowal from those whose judg- 
ment I prized, and whose high-toned character carries with it 
predominating influence among their associates. Long eiperience 
warrants me in regarding this appointment as a most important 


auxiliary in the work of a chaplaincy, and an efficient promoter 
of discipline and good order on board a man-of-war. It is 
honorable to the principles and moral perceptions of those who 
framed the existing laws of the navy, that the second article in 
the code enjoins a daily service of worship on board every ship 
having a chaplain ; and it is to be regretted that an injunction 
so salutary, in the moral economy of a crew, and in its general 
tendency, should in so few instances have been carried into effect. 
The evening worship of the Cotter's fireside — ^where, 

" Kneeling down to Heaven's Eternal King, 
The saint, the father, and the husband prays," 

presents a picture which might well call forth the inspiration of 
the poet. In every grade of life, the social altar, encircled in the 
sincerity and simplicity of the Gospel, is in like manner an ele- 
vating and a touching sight. But if impressive in the comparative 
security of the shore, far from the fitful changes and dangers of 
the sea, how much more so when exhibited in the floating dwell- 
ings of those whose " home is on the deep." If He, who alone 
" commands the winds and the waves, and they obey " — He, who 
" rides upon the whirlwind and directs the storm," is the receiver 
of our thanksgiving and the only hearer of prayer, who sooner 
than the sailor should be found in supplication, or who be more 
frequent, or more fervent than he in praise ? 

Whatever may be the ultimate results in individual cases of 
such a service, few persons have for a first time witnessed it, 
without bearing testimony to its imprcssivencss on the eye, 
whatever may have been the influence felt upon the heart. But, 
it is not without cause, that I ever look for something more 
from it. The man-of-wars-man with all his recklessness, and, 
too often, degrading vices, has, in many cases, moral sensibilities 
and afl'cctions which bring him, where the means of grace are 
enjoyed, within the pale of hope ; and I have never yet been 
long on board a ship where, to the preaching of the Gospel on 


the Sabbath, there has been added this daily evening prayer, 
without hearing from some troubled spirit the inquiry, " What 
shall I do to be saved ? " followed, not unfrcquently, by the 
resolution of the repenting prodigal, '' I will arise and go to my 
Father, and will say to him. Father, I have sinned against Heaven 
and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son." 

The excitement incident to our departure and the tedium of 
a listless day, with little progress till we were at sea, disposed all 
on board not on watch, to retire early ; and for the most part such 
were soundly asleep, myself among the number, when suddenly 
aroused at midnight by the cry, " A man overboard ! " There 
was little wind and not much sea; but the darkness was Egyptian; 
the rain poured in torrents ; and while the booming thunder of an 
approaching gust rolled heavily over the deep, occasional flashes 
of vivid lightning added double intensity, in the intervals, to the 
blackness around. The rescue of the perishing man seemed 
hopeless. Supposing him of course to be one of the crew — 
perhaps the most active and gallant of their number, who had 
lost his foothold in some eflfort of duty in preparation for the 
coming squall — I felt disheartened by so sad a casualty at the 
very outset of our cruise. I thought of our evening prayer, and 
of the deep feeling with which, in its brief worship, we had sup- 
plicated the defences of the Almighty, and in confiding trust 
committed ourselves to his protecting care. Had the Lord not 
had respect to our oflferiug — had the Almighty not regarded our 
prayer ? 

In the midst of thoughts such as these, it was a relief, though 
a melancholy one indeed, to learn that the wretch overboard was 
not any of the fine fellows whose physical aspect and general 
bearing had already won from me, in my position, a deep interest, 
but a poor drunkard, who had been brought on board in a state 
of delirium tremens, from the receiving ship, the day we left 
Norfolk; and who had at once been consigned, in care of the 
surgeons, to the sick-bay. In a paroxysm of madness, he had 
now rushed from his keepers below to the gun-deck ; and, knock- 


ing down with a billet of wood caught up at the galley, one in 
pursuit, had plunged headforemost through an open bridle-port, 
to be seen and heard of no more. 

The life-buoys were cut away, the ship put about, boats 
lowered and sent off, at the risk of life both to officers and men, 
in the pitchy darkness and rapidly approaching squall : blue lights 
were burned, and repeated shouts through a trumpet made, in 
hope of some response, but all in vain, in rescuing him from his 
doom. After the first plunge, nothing was seen or heard from 
him. A miserable madman from strong drink, the accompani- 
ments of his end on earth — the midnight gloom, the angry light- 
ning, the muttering thunder, and the moaning wind, were befitting 
the fate of an immortal spirit " unanointed — unannealed," thus 
passing into the eternal world. He was an old man-of-wars-man, 
and, three years ago, in a similar condition and near the same 
place, jumped overboard from a frigate the first night from port, 
and was with great difficulty saved. How faithful the admoni- 
tion, " He that being often reproved hardeneth his neck, shall 
suddenly be destroyed, and that without remedy." 

Yesterday, the Sabbath, was a bright and beautiful day, with 
favoring winds and a smooth sea. The quarter-deck, screened 
from the sun by awnings, was our chapel ; the capstan, spread 
with the stripes and stars of an ensign, our reading desk and 
pulpit; and the band, with sacred music, both our organ and 
choir. My sermon, suggested by the incident of the preceding 
night, was an exposition of the evils, physical, moral and spiri- 
tual, of intemperance, and the frightful condition of such as 
become its hopeless victims. The fatal proofs of the truths ad- 
vanced, in the bodily and mental state of him who had just per- 
ished before our eyes as it were, caused the most fixed attention 
to be given to what was said, both by the officers and men. 

I was happy to be told by the captain, immediately after the 
service, that it had been officially reported to him the day before, 
that more than three hundred of the crew, or two thirds of the 
whole number of foremast hands, did not draw tho ration of rum 


furnished them by the government : this of their own voluntary 
choice, no persuasion having yet been used on board to influence 
any one on the subject. An encouraging fact certainly, at the 
ofiset, in this essential point in the morals of the sailor, and one 
that ought to be suggestive to our national legislators of the 
duty of striking at once from the list of naval allowances, a 
poison tending to the destruction of both body and soul. The 
day was a happy one to me, in the retirement of my own little 
room, as well as in the public discharge of my duties. A long 
and kind letter from an officer, in answer to a note with which I 
had returned one given to me to read, was so encouraging to me 
in my office, and so full of promise spiritually for himself, as 
deeply to affect me. I could but regard it as a token of grace 
from Him in whose hands arc all hearts, and as an intimation of 
the good that may bo accomplished on board, even in the most 
influential quarters. 

Our worship, at sunset, was commenced, after an air of sacred 
music from the band, by the reading of Addison's beautiful 
h^Tun — 

" How are thy servants blest, Lord ! 
How sure is their defence ! 
Eternal Wisdom is their {rnide, 
Their help, Omnipotence." 

To-day we are crossing the gulf stream under a fresh breeze 
amounting almost to a gale : a '' smoky southwester"' with a short 
and high sea, into which the frigate plunges deeply, taking in 
large quantities of water forward. This rushing aft, as the ship 
rises, makes the gun as well as the spar-deck wet and uncomfort- 
able. The wardroom, with all the stern and air-ports closed, 
is dark and stifling in its atmosphere, and every thing on board 
partakes largely of the disagreeable at sea. The motion is so 
great that nothing can be left by itself; and, at breakfast, each of 
us secured, as best he could, the very indifferent fare that came 
in his way . bread like so much lead ; biscuits which, bagged and 


netted, might have passed inspection as grape-shot ; rancid butter ; 
addled eggs ; and execrable stuff under the names of tea and 
coffee ! As I cast my eyes over the mess-table and its surround- 
ings, in the gloomy twilight falling from the hatchway above, and 
upon a disconsolate-looking and silent set of companions, I could 
not avoid contrasting the whole, involuntarily, with a breakfiist room 
in my mind, on shore, in the fresh beauty of a morning in June — 
with a brightly gleaming lawn in front ; the mingled bloom of the 
rose and the honeysuckle at the windows; the cheerful family 
group ; and the varied fare fresh from the garden, the farm-house, 
and the dairy — and sigh at the difference in the pictures. Such 
a day as this, on shipboard in the gulf stream, with its discomfort 
in almost every form, would be enough to make a landsman con- 
tent, for the rest of his life, with the blessings of the shore. 

Apropos of our steward. We have been sadly imposed on 
by the professed qualifications of this important functionary. 
Claiming to be perfect in all, we find he knows nothing of any of 
his appropriate duties. The day we left Norfolk he gave a char- 
acteristic proof of his fitness for the office. It was at dinner, 

our guest Mr. E being of the number. Among the courses 

was a salad dressed by our maitre dliote. Mr. B was 

first served with it. I was the next to take from the dish, and 
in doing so, happening to look towards the vi.sitor, was struck 
by a very peculiar expression of the eye and countenance as he 
tasted it — a blending of surprise, comical inquiry, and effort at 
self-command, while the fork was very quietly returned to his 
plate, as if he were done with it. Suspecting the salad to be 
the origin of all this, and hastily testing the point by a mouthful, 
I found to my utter disgust, that, in obedience to the direction of 
the caterer to use plenty of oil in the dressing, he had, in ignor- 
ance of any other, dashed the whole most copiously with the 
vilest lamp oil! The effect upon the palate can be more readily 
imagined than described. 

June Vlth. — A breeze from the north-east, which set in last 
night, promises to prove a regular trade-wind, and we are running 


rapidly before it on our course. You may easily follow our track, 
by niarkiug, on a map, a pretty straigbt line from tbc moutb of 
the Chesapeake to the channel of the sea, between the Islands of St. 
Domingo and Porto Rico. It is our intention to pass between 
these, by what is named on the charts of the West Indies, the 
Mona Passage, and then lay a course by the south side of Cuba 
to Havana. Should it be asked why we go, seemingly, so much 
out of our way and so far round ; I answer, that for a large ship, 
it is not only the safest, but, in point of time, the shortest route. 
The strong and adverse current of the gulf stream, and the in- 
tricate and hazardous navigation of the Florida channel, are the 
objections to the direct course along the coast. The weather is 
now fine — in strong contrast with that last described ; and, at 
night, we have a splendid moon, enticing to constant visits in 
thought and aflfection to lliverside. Beautiful as moonlight is at 
sea, I must confess to a preference, in the enjoyment of it in the 
month of June, for the south-west corner of a verandah on the 
banks of the Hudson. 

I have, thus far, been giving my time chiefly to visits through 
my floating parish — from the quarters of the Commodore to those 
of " Jemmy Ducks," and " Jack of the dust," as the feeder of the 
pigs and poultry, and the sweeper of the Purser's store-rooms, in 
shipboard nomenclature, are respectively styled. Almost every 
day, since coming on board, I have discovered here and there a 
shipmate of some former cruise; and perceive hourly evidence of 
having through these — in part at least — already gained the marked 
good will of the crew. I am quite at home in all my walks 
among them ; and have every reason to be more than satisfied — 
to be truly thankful — in my ofiicial relation with them. 

The Congress, a fifty-gun ship, is one of the finest vessels 
of her class. She is a model of strength and symmetry in 
hull and spars, and of imposing and efl*ective equipment in her 
batteries and armament : never failing to attract the notice of 
all who have an eye to appreciate a chef d'ocuvre in naval archi- 


tecture. She is, too, a swift messenger over the waters, as well 
as a tower of strength and beauty on the sea. 

The intellectual and moral tastes of many of my immediate 
associates and equals in naval rank, are such as not only to 
make them agreeable companions, but also to give to our mess 
in general, by their example and influence, a high-toned and 
elevated character ; and I regard it a providence of special kind- 
ness that, in those chief in authority and executive power, I find 
cordial friends personally, and firm supporters in my duty ofli- 
cially. Their views, too, and their purposes, in regard to disci- 
pline and naval reform, harmonize with my own, in the persua- 
sion that kindness is the surest key to the human heart; and that, in 
government, the law of love is more efi'ectual than the rule of fear. 
I felt this particularly, in a long conversation with the commodore 
this morning, during a walk on the quarter-deck, and at breakfast 
with him afterwards. On this point I like his views much ; and 
augur great good from them, in the support they will lead him to 
extend, officially, to the executive officer of the ship, in carrying 
out a system of internal rule based upon the principle of kindness 
and good will, of the practical well-working of which he h 
entirely persuaded. 

The crew, physcically, are a fine set of men : healthful, 
athletic and young, the average age of the four hundred fore- 
mast hands scarcely exceeding twenty-five years. This general 
youthfulness of the ship's company encourages me to hope much 
from them as subjects of moral culture. They are more likely, 
than seamen of a more advanced age, to have had the benefit of 
a religious training in the Sabbath schools now so universally es- 
tablished in most sections of our country; and, thus, be more 
susceptible to moral impressions and persuasion, should they not 
have already felt the influence of the general improvement in the 
character of sailors which, confessedly, has taken place within 
the last ten or fifteen years. Still, at best, a man-of-war is a 
sterile and rocky field for spiritual labor. There is ever on board 
a large ship of the kind, a greater or lejss number of reckless 


and desperately wicked men : some who have been convicts and 
the inmates of state prisons and penitentiaries, and more who, 
long under the surveillance of the police, and pressed by close pur- 
suit, have sought refuge at the rendezvous and receiving ship, from 
the merited penalties of the law. Of these last we are certain 
of having quite a company, composed pretty equally of ' South- 
wark killers,' ' Schuylkill rangers,' ' Baltimore rowdies,' ' Bowery 
boys,' and ' Five Pointers.' The whole number of both these 
classes, however, does not amount to more than fifty; the hun- 
dreds of others on board are either honest-hearted and true sailors, 
or inexperienced and raw landsmen : 'good men,' according to the 
ethics of the sea. The " baser sort," though comparatively so 
few in number, are ever first in gaining prominence and notoriety 
on board, by bringing themselves, through a manifestation of their 
evil propensities, in contact with the discipline of the ship, while 
the true sailor and old man-of- wars-man, in the quiet discharge of 
their duty remain for a time unappreciated, and perhaps person- 
ally imkuown. 

To an inexperienced eye, a man-of-war with her crew of five 
hundred, seems only like a bee-hive full of confusion and uproar, 
while, in truth, there is throughout in every department perfect 
organisation and order. Every individual has his class, his 
number, and his station; the duty of each in his place is clearly 
defined ; and whatever is to be done is accomplished with much 
of the regularity of a machine operating through the same 
number of wheels. To the same eye there would appear no 
signs of caste or grades of distinction, moral or social, in the 
general : there would be only so many hundred sailors, 
seemingly alike in all respects. Little would be dreamed of the 
extremes, not only of moral character, existing among thera, but 
of social distinction also — from the exclusives of the '* upper ten," 
priding themselves on moving only in the first circles, through 
three or four marked sets to the canaille, utterly below recognition 
or social intercourse. There is a marked diff"erence, too, among 
many, in the outer man. Though the dress of all is uniform in 


color and general material, still there is often the widest differ- 
ence iu the quality, fitting, and make of the entire wardrobe ; and, 
while one is so careless and slovenly in his attire, as to require the 
daily inspection of an officer, others are perfect sea-dandies, as fas- 
tidiously neat and clean in person, as the whole series of brushes 
known to the toilette-table can make them ; and as fond of being 
assured of this, by repeated inspections and last glances in the 
miniature mirrors carried in their hats, or about their persons, as a 
beau of the first water on shore, before a Psyche in preparation 
for the ball or opera. 

After the public worship of the last Sabbath, Mr. T , the 

first lieutenant, who has had long experience in Sabbath schools, 
both as a teacher and superintendent, aided me in the formation 
of one among the twenty-four boys on board, from ten to fifteen 
years of age : each of us taking charge of a class of twelve. 
The value of a voluntary agency of this kind, from an officer of 
commanding influence, can scarcely be over-estimated. My next 
attempt, as a means of good, will be the establishment of 13ible 
classes among the men. If successful in this, I am happy to 
know that others of the officers stand ready to assist mQ in the 
like manner. 

It is an interesting fact, and one strikingly illustrative of the 
improved and elevated tone of morals in the navy, that of the 
fourteen gentlemen constituting the wardroom mess, five are pro- 
fessedly religious men of consistent and exemplary character. 


, At Sea. 

June 19M. — Two days ago, at noon, land was descried from 
the mast-head. We were approaching the Bahama Islands, not 
in the direction of the Mona Passage, but in that of the Cajcos, 
more to the west, the wind having headed us off from our first 
course. During the previous night, we had passed over a point 
on the ocean, memorable in its historic interest, where, on the 
very eve of joyful triumph, the illustrious discoverer of the 
western world suffered the severest trial of his daring voyage. It 
was h*e that the discouragement and fears of his followers in 
their frail barks, approached desperation and open mutiny ; and 
confident hope had well nigh ended in disappointment, and tri- 
umphant success in failure. It was impossible to traverse the 
same waters, without recalling vividly to muid the scene of trial 
and conflict which they had witnessed more than three hundred 
and fifty years before, and sympathizing afresh with the great 
navigator in his distress; or to hear the cry, "land ho! " with- 
out recurring in thought to the devout exultations of his heart, 
when, in the watches of the night, the interrupted glimmerings of 
a distant light peered upon eyes eagerly searching its gloom, dis- 
pelling for ever the fears of his companions, and crowning his 
adventurous enterprise with imperishable honor. 

The land descried aloft, soon became visible from the deck. 
It was the great Caycos, the most eastern of the Bahamas, a 


low, flat island of sand, surrounded by extensive shoals. There 
was little to interest in its appearance ; a mere tufting of bushes 
on the water, along the line of the horizon, of which we soon 
lost sight. The next morning, and for the rest of the day, the 
west end of St. Domingo wa.s in view, furnishing in its turn 
abundant subjects for musing in the tragic scenes of the revolt 
of 1791. Before nightfall the eas^tern extremity of Cuba was also 
in sight. Both are lofty and mountainous, but less picturesque 
in general outline than the islands of the South Seas. The sail 
of the afternoon and evening was delightful, — the perfection of 
its kind. The trade-wind was fresh and balmy, and so steady, 
that the lofty mass of canvas we spread to it was as motionless 
as if it were a fixture on the sea ; while the ocean, of the most 
beautiful tuit of marine blue, was every where gemmed -with 
white-caps of the brilliancy of so much snow. 

June 20^A. — Hitherto the duty of the ship has been carried on 
admirably under a kind and humane discipline. The lash, formerly 
in such constant requisition on board a man-of-war, in bringing a 
new crew under ready control, has neither been heard nor seen. 
A fight, however, which came off a day or two since, between 
two of the marines, led to a kind of drumhead court-martial, 
yesterday, and to tlie punishment of the parties this morning, 
with the cat-o'-nine-tails. It is the first instance with us of such 
a revolting spectacle, and I most devoutly hope it may be the 
last. I am sure it will, unless there be those on board so incor- 
rigible and so determined to subject themselves to it, that no 
other mode of discipline will meet their case. Before we left 
port. Captain Mcintosh, in an excellent address, after the first 
reading in public of the " articles of war," a.s8ured the crew with 
deep feeling, that nothing could give him greater pleasure than to 
return to the United States and have it in his power to report to 
the Navy Department that a lash had never been given on board 
the Congress during the He reiterated the same sentiment 
tills morning to the ship's company, nmstered to witness tha pun- 
ishment, with the fresh avowal of his utter unwillingness to resort 


to 80 degrading a mode of chastisement : adding " that the exist- 
ing law, however, made the duty imperative upon him as an ul- 
timate means of enforcing his command, and protecting his ship 
from insubordination and misrule ; and that it should be remem- 
bered by all, whenever the necessity was forced on him of admin- 
istering this punishment, that it would only be through the deli- 
berate purpose and choice of any one subjecting himself to it." 

The cat-o'-nine-tails, as a mode of punishment, is a relic of 
barbarism disgraceful to the age in which we live, and antagonis- 
tic to its entire spirit. The wonder is, not that men-of-wars men 
are scarce, and recruits for the navy fe\v, but that, with such a 
bar^Darous punishment legalized, an American sailor can be found 
willing to place himself in a position in which he can, by any con- 
tingency, be exposed to the disgrace of its infliction. 

In place of attempting a description of the spectacle, as just 
witnessed by us, I will substitute one, which happens to be before 
me, of a similar scene, from the pen of an officer in the British 
Navy. It is more graphic than any I could furnish, and as truth- 
ful to the reality, in its leading features, as can well be pictured. 
It is drawn from his early experience as a midshipman. '' I had 
not been many days on board," he says, " before I heard a hollow 
sound reverberating round the frigate's decks, and which seemed 
to bring a shade of gloom over the faces of all around me. 
Again the words were repeated, " All hands, Ahoy! " I eagerly 
inquired the meaning of this mystery, and was answered by a lad 
about sixteen years of age, ' It is all hands to punishment, my 
boy ; you are going to see a man flogged.' 

" The idea of a man being flogged at all, under any possible 
circumstances, had never before entered my brain. I had as yet 
no notions that such a degree of barbarity could exist ; I had 
indeed kno\vn that boys were flogged, but how they could horse a 
man was to me a mystery. My reflections were broken in upon 
by observing all my messmates busily engaged in putting on their 
cockgd-hats and side-arms. And as this was the first time I had 
pported my new dirk, I felt very strange and mingled sensations, 


as I stepped forth on the quarter-deck. The marines were drawn 
up on the Larboard side of the deck, with their bayonets fixed, 
and their officers with their swords drawn, and resting against 
their shoulders. On the main deck the seamen had all assembled 
in a dense crowd around the hatchway, and the said hatchway 
was ornamented with several gratings fixed up on one end, evi- 
dently for some purpose which I had never yet seen accomplished. 
The officers in their full uniforms, with swords, and cocked hats, 
were pacing the decks : but all was still and solemn silence. At 
length the captain came forth from his cabin, the marines carry- 
ing arms at his first appearance on the quarter-deck. The first 
lieutenant, taking off his hat, approached him, and reported that 
* all was ready.' 

" As the captain came up to the gangway, he removed his 
hat; which was followed by all the men and officers becoming 
uncovered. Then, taking a printed copy of the articles of war, 
he read aloud a few lines, which denounced the judgment of a 
court-martial on any person who should be guilty of some par- 
ticular offence, the nature of which I did not understand. This 
done, he ordered Edward Williams to strip ; adding, ' You have 
been guilty of neglect of duty, sir, in not laying in ofi' the fore- 
topsail yard when the first lieutenant ordered you; and I will give 

you a d d good flogging.' By this time the poor fellow had 

taken off his jacket and shirt, which was thrown over his 
shoulders by the master-at-arms, while two quartermasters lashed 
the poor fellow's elbows to the gratings, so that he could not stir 
beyond an inch or two either way. It was in vain that he begged 
and besought the captain and first lieutenant to forgive him; 
protesting that he did not hear himself called, in consequence of 
having a bad cold, which rendered him almost deaf. Ilis en- 
treaties were unheeded ] and at the words, ' Boatswain's mate, 
give him a dozen,' a tall, strong fellow came forward with a cat- 
o'-uinc-tails, and, having taken off his own jacket, and carefully 
measured his distance, so as to be able to strike with tlve full 
swing of his arm, he flung the tails of the cat around his head, 


and with all the energy of his body brought them down upon the 
fair, white, plump back of poor Williams. A sudden jerk of the poor 
fellow almost tore away the gratings from their position ; he gave 
a scream of agony, and again begged the captain, for the sake of 
Jesus Christ, to let him off. I was horror-struck on seeing nine 
large welts, as big as my fingers, raised on his back, spreading 
from his shoulder-blades nearly to his loins; but my feelings 
were doomed to be still more harrowed. For as soon as the tall 
boatswain's mate had completed the task of running his fingers 
through the cords to clear tKem and prevent the chance of a 
single lash being spared the wretched sufferer, he again flung 
them around his head to repeat the blow. Another slashing 
sound upon the naked flesh, another shriek and struggle to get 
free succeeded, — and then another and another, till the comple- 
ment of twelve agonizing lashes was completed. The back was, 
by this time, nearly covered with deep red gashes; the skin 
roughed up and curled in many parts, as it does when a violent 
blow causes an extensive abrasion. The poor man looked up 
with an imploring eye toward the first lieutenant, and groaned 
out, ' Indeed, sir, as I hope to be saved, I did not hear you call 
me.' The only reply was on the part of the captain, who gave 
the word, ' another boatswain's mate ! ' ' Oh, God, sir, have 
mercy on me ! ' was again the cry of the poor man : ' Boat- 
swain's mate, go on ; and mind that you do your duty ! ' the 
only answer. 

" The effect of one hundred and eight cuts upon his bare 
back had rendered it a fearful sight, but when these had been 
repeated with all the vigor of a fresh and untired arm, the poor 
fellow exhibited a sad spectacle indeed. The dark red of the 
wounds had assumed a livid purple, the flesh stood up in mangled 
ridges, and the blood trickled here and there like the breaking 
out of an old wound. The pipes of the boatswain and his mates 
now sounded, and they called ' all hands up anchor ! ' The grat- 
ings were quickly removed, and of all the human beings who had 
witnessed the cruel torture on the body of poor Edward Wil- 


liams, not one seemed in the slightest degree affected. All was 
bustle and activity and apparent merriment as they went to work 
in obedience to the call." 

In this account there is no exaggeration : no exaggeration of 
the usual manner of inflicting such punishment ; no exaggeration 
of the trivialty of the alleged offence ; no exaggeration of the 
earnest asseveration of innocence ; no exaggeration of the hard- 
ening effect of the scene upon the spectators. I have known men 
to be thus flogged for acts or omissions equally if not more trivial 
— not only singly, but, in one instance at least, a dozen at a time, 
and that, too, where it was known that one only of the number 
was really in fault. Because some one of a quarter watch in 
the top did a careless and lubberly thing, in the estimation of 
an ofl&cor, though doubtless, from the circumstances of tlie case, 
accidentally, and none of his topmates would give up his name, 
the whole watch were ordered on deck, and, in succession, re- 
ceived a dozen lashes each. 

The entire experience of the writer of the above account, as 
to this punishment, corroborates fully the opinion I have formed 
from my own observation as to its effects — that in all its bearings 
it has a tendency to demoralize and harden rather than to 
reform. He proceeds to state that the captain under whose com- 
mand the case of flogging described occurred, changed ships not 
long afterwards with one who abominated the system of corporal 
punishment ; and adds, " For four years I served under bis 
orders, and witnessed no more of the inhuman practice. The 
men were allowed to go on shore frequently sixty and seventy at 
a time, and in all respects were treated so kindly that but one 
case of desertion occurred during all tliat period. The captain 
made it a point to visit the whole crew wlien at dinner, to 
see, himself, that they had every thing they required to make 
them comfortable. This he did every day ; and the sick were 
always fed from his own table. The result of this was that our 
ship was the smartest frigate on the station, and fought one of 
the most glorious actions which ever graced the annals of the 
British Navy." 


His experience in the matter did not end here. He thus pro- 
ceeds : " I joined another ship, the captain of which was wont to 
say, ' I never forgive a first ofieuce — for if there was no first offence 
there could be no second.' Profane swearing and drunkenness, 
he never by any accident forgave. The result was a flogging 
match every Monday morning, and very frequently once or twice 
in the week besides. The crew grew worse and worse from this 
treatment, till, at length, there was scarcely a sober seaman or 
mai^ne on board the ship, though her complement was about six 
hundred men and boys. The more drunken they became the 
more he flogged them ; but the crime and punishment seemed to 
react on each other, and the ship became at last so very notorious 
for the cat that he was jested upon it by his fellow captains, and 
the men deserted at every opportunity." 

I believe the experience, thus presented, of these two ships, to 
be a fair exposition of the general and direct tendency of the 
two systems. Revolting as punishment with the ' colt ' and ' cat ' 
ever has been to me, and often as my blood has been made to 
boil in witnessing it, a want of practical knowledge in the case led 
me, for a time, reluctantly to acquiesce itt the opinion universally 
held, so far as I could discover, by those most experienced in 
naval rule, that it was indispensable as a means of discipline on 
board a man-of-war. But the teachings of my nature, that this 
is an error, have been corroborated by long observation; and 
had no previous conviction of this been fastened on my mind, the 
success of the executive officer of the Congress in devising and 
substituting more humanizing modes of punishment for trans- 
gressions of law and delinquencies in duty, would have gone far 
in persuading me to it. I doubt not that should the law of the 
la.«h be abrogated by our national legislature to-morrow,* and the 
change be met by the enactment of a wise and philanthropic code 
of naval rule, the discipline and efficiency of the service would 
be more perfect than ever before, 

* Flogging was abolished, both in the navy and mercantile marine, a few 
months after the above was written. 


June 24:ih.— 

, " The twilight is sad and cloudy, 
The wind blows wild and free, 
And like the wings of sea-birds 
Flash the white caps of the sea." 

So sings Longfellow, and such is the imagery around us from 
the passing of a heavy squall. The rushing wind and the 
dampness brought with it, from the approaching rain, are wel- 
come and most refreshing, after two or three days and nights on 
the south side of Cuba, sultry almost to suffocation. Whether 
correct in our recollections or not, all hands agree that, in no j^art 
of the world in which we have been, either on land or at sea, 
have we before suffered so much from the intensity of the heat. 
Notwithstanding, I was never in the enjoyment of more vigorous 
health or in more elastic spirits. 

In the afternoon of my last date, we had a distant view of a 
part of the island of Jamaica, as well as of San Domingo and 
Cuba : a sail, too, was in sight, and the smoke of a steamer 
marked on the horizon — ^all taking much from the solitariness of 
our position. The next morning we were slowly advancing west- 
ward, along the lofty, but mist covered and cloud obscured 
mountain i-ange of the Sierra do Cobra, beneath a point in which 
lie the port and city of St. Jago dc Cuba. At sunset the same 
evening we were directly abreast Cape de Cruz, in full view of the 
coast, but at too great a distance to make out the distinctive 
features of the landscape, even with the best glasses. We are 
now off the Isle of Pines, famed in the annals of the Buccaneers 
of the olden time, and a haunt of pirates in our own day. 

Light and baflliug winds, with alternate calms, have made our 
progress slow. Tlie tedium of the time has been relieved in part 
by a first interchange of dinner parties between the wardroom 
mess and the commodore ami captain. The kindest feeling exists 
among the officers of all grades on board, and these reunions, 
where the formality of official intercourse gives place for the time 


to the free intercbaDge of thought and feeling, and of sympathy 
in intellect and taste, are salutary in their influences on both 
mind and heart. The Sabbath is the day usually chosen on board 
a man-of-war for these courtesies ; but it has been unanimously 
decided, by our mess, that the entertainments given in the ward- 
room shall be on a week' day. 

During the continuance of moonlight in the evening and 
early part of the night, the enjoyment of it on deck in quiet 
musings, after the heat of the day, seemed the prevailing mood of 
the ship's company. The band in whole or in part, at times, 
added music to the sympathies which were sending our thoughts 
and affections homeward by the way of the moon. But now that 
she is on the wane, and reserves her beams for the later watches 
of the night, the sailors cheer themselves in the darkness, by 
singing on the spar-deck, grouped in their respective limits from 
the fife-rail to the forecastle. Last evening, even the quarter- 
deck was invaded, under the sanction of an officer, by a party 
of negro minstrels : not such mock performers as are heard on 
shore under the name, but of the genuine type, consisting of the 
servants of the wardroom. For half an hour or more they sang, 
in practised harmony and with effect, many of the more sentimen- 
tal and popular of the negro melodies ; while forward and in the 
gangways there was echoed forth, in varied song, the feats of 
warrior knights and the love of ladies fair. Others of the crew 
were, at the same time, listening in groups between the guns along 
the entire deck, to a rehearsal by their shipmates of tragic stories 
of shipwreck, piracy and murder; to recitations from tragedies 
and comedies ; to close arguments on various topics — naviga- 
tion and seamanship, politics, morals and religion — and, at one 
point, to a lecture on historj', of which I overheard enough to 
learn the subject to be the life and achievements of the brave 
Wallace, dilated upon in the broad dialect of the " land o' 
cukes ! " 

Light-hearted ness and contentment seem every where to pre- 


vail, and all manifest by their conduct, as -well as by word, that 
they feel themselves to be on board a favored ship. 

Had I time for the record, you would be amused by many 
things I hourly hear and see, in my walks of leisure. To-day, 
while on the quarter-deck after the men's dinner, I overheard one 
of the messenger boys, who had just come from this meal, say to 
a companion, " I tell you what, Jim, I couldn't cat much of that 
dinner : old mahogany and hard tack, is what I call pretty tough 
eating. To-morrow too is bean day, and I wouldn't give a penny 
for a bushel of them." A sprightly young sailor who completed 
an apprenticeship in the service, happening to pass at the time, 
stopped for a moment, and with an assumed air of indignant re- 
proof, exclaimed, " Why, you ungrateful young cub ! — you growl- 
ing at Uncle Sam's grub ? why you ought to be down upon your 
knees thanking God that you have so good an uncle to give you 
any thing ! " 

Just afterwards, I fell into conversation with an old salt who 
had been with me, in the Delaware linc-of-battle ship, in 1833. 
After mutual inquiries of various officers and men who were 
shipmates with us then ; what had become of this one and 
what of that — he said, in all honesty of heart, and with a most 

lugubrious expression of face, " And there was Lieut. M 

too : they tell me, sir, he stepped out entirely, the other day at 
the Hospital ! " — meaning that he had died there. I never 
heard the expression in such a connection before, and could not 
avoid being struck, not only with its oddity, but also with its force. 

June 29th. — Just at nightfall, on my last date, we doubled 
Cape Antonio, the extreme westerly point of Cuba, at a distance 
of ten or twelve miles. It is long and low, covered with dark 
woods, and, in general aspect, not unlike the coasts of Long 
Island and New Jersey, as seen from the sea. As soon as our 
course was turned northward for Havana, the regular wind 
became adverse to us, and the next morning we were in the 
Florida Channel, far from the land and a hundred miles and more 
from our port. The tcdiousness of a dead beat to windward was 


relieved, however, by the greater freshness and elasticity of the 
air, in coiuparison with that on the south side of Cuba. For two 
or three evenings, here, the sunsets were among the most gorgeous 
I recollect. The whole western hemisphere, filled with fantastic 
and richly colored clouds, glowed with a brilliancy and glare of 
crimsou light, as if the entire sea beneath were one vast bed of 
vulcanic fire. 

After two days we again made the land, with fine views during 
the afternoon, of two lofty ranges of mountains in the interior 
of the island — the Sierra del llosario and the Sierra de los 
Organos or Organ mountains; but it was not till last night that 
we reached the parallel of Havana. At 10 o'clock the Moro light, 
at the entrance of the port, was descried, some fifteen miles dis- 
tant. Its brilliant flashings, through the darkness of an un- 
settled sky, came cheerily upon the sight over the troubled water, 
in the assurance they gave of our true position, amid the changing 
currents and hazardous navigation of these straits. 

Before daybreak this morning we fell in with and spoke the 
sloop-of-war Gerraantown, Captain Lowndes, cruising ofiF the 
harbor. I was early on deck. The morning was fresh and 
beautiful, but the shores less bold and striking than I had antici- 
pated ; and the mountains in view were more remote. Still the 
landscape was pleasing in its verdure, though neither varied nor 
picturesque in its outline. Having been lying to for the night, 
we were still eight or ten miles from the entrance of the harbor ; 
but the Moro Castle and city were in distinct view — the former, 
surmounted by its pharos towering loftily on a precipitous cliff 
of rock on the left of the entrance, and the latter stretching 
beneath it to the right, in a long line of whiteness on a level with 
the sea. 

The scene increased momentarily in interest. A fresh trade- 
wind, creating a sea which, in the brightness of the sun, tossed 
up jets of diamonds on every side, hurried us rapidly forward, 
under topsails and topgallant-sails only : the Geruiantown, a 
beautiful craft, followed closely in our wake, fluttering over the 


water with the lightness and buoyancy of a bird. There were 
besides some eight or ten square-rigged merchant vessels in sight, 
under various dcgi-ees of sail — some entering and others leaving 
port. While in the midst of these, the Gerniantown and Congress 
interchanged salutes, with pretty effect on the general picture. 

The wind had now increased to a half gale ; a pilot had 
boarded us, and we bore away with a rush for the More, which 
immediately overhangs the entrance to the port. This is narrow 
— very narrow ; seemingly a mere creek, a few ships' length only 
in width. It runs at right angles with the line of coast along which 
we were flying. This made it necessary in entering, to haul 
suddenly, from a free course, closely on the wind. We did so, at 
the speed of a race-horse, almost grazing the surf-lashed rocks 
over which tower the frowning battlements of the More, and 
within biscuit throw, as it were, of the batteries of the Punta on 
the opposite side — the pilot, momentarily alternating the ex- 
clamation " Hard a port ! " " Hard a starboard ! " " Steady — 
steady ! " kept the men at the helm on the full spring in 
shifting the wheel from side to side ; while at the same time the 
yards were filled with the crew reducing sail to bare poles, as if 
by magic, under the trumpet orders of the first lieutenant. I 
thought it one of the most exciting moments, and one of the most 
beautiful sights, in the navigation of so large a ship, I had ever 

In less time than is required thus to state it, we were trans- 
ferred from the tossings of a rough sea, to the glassy surface of 
an apparent river. The scene on either hand was picturesque and 
animated. Ou one side, were the terraced heiglits adjoining the 
Moro, grim with the defences of war, relieved here and there by 
sentries and groups of soldiers, lounging about the battericfe ; and, 
on the other, level with the water, a range of stone quays, lined 
with shipping and coasting craft, and covered with sailors, 
boatmen, negro porters, and stevedores. Ucyoud rose the 
buildings of the city, painted in every variety of light and gay 
colors, and overtopped by the time-stained domes and towers of 


the churches and other public structures. The aspect of the 
whole was so entirely transatlantic, that I could scarce resist the 
illusion that I was again in old Spain, and that it was " fair Cadiz" 
I saw stretched before me. The gallantry of our entrance had 
attracted the gaze of the thousands crowding the quay in its 
whole length, and murmurs of admiration were every where 
heard at the beauty of our frigate, and the dashing style in which 
she glided rapidly along under the headway brought in by her 
from the sea. 

At the end of half a mile, the straight and narrow inlet ex- 
pands into a round basin, five or six miles in circumference. Near 
the centre of this we dropped anchor : having the city and its 
defences towards the sea on one side of us, and green hills tufted 
with palm-trees and dotted with cottages and country seats on 
the other. The harbor is a gem of beauty, capable of containing 
the navies of half the world. Five Spanish men-of-war, includ- 
ing a ship-of-the-line, are moored within pistol shot of us, and the 
Germantown immediately at our stern. The dropping of the 
anchor was followed by salutes from our batteries of twenty-one 
guns to the flag of Spain, seventeen to that of the Spanish ad- 
miral, in command, and nine in honor of Mr, -Campbell, the 
American consul, who soon boarded the Congress. 



July \st. — The object of a visit by the Congress to Cuba, 
before proceeding to her station on the coast of Brazil, is 
to bring to a close the negotiations which have been for some 
time pending with the authorities here, in reference to our fili- 
bustering compatriots, the prisoners of Contoy. 

The report made by Captain Lowndes of the Gcrmantown, . 
on boarding us in the offing, and by Mr. Campbell afterwards, 
of the state of public feeling in reference to these, and to the 
citizens of the United States in general, led us to apprehend 
there would be great difficulty in securing an amicable arrange- 
ment of the point at issue — the disposition to be made of the 
prisoners. The excitement and indignation of the Spanish pop- 
ulation of the city, on the subject of the attempted invasion, had 
been great ; and manifested especially, within a few days, against 
Mr. Campbell, for sentiments on the subject, exposed in a cor- 
respondence between him and the Secretary of State, recently 
called for by Congress, printed in the newspapers in the United 
States, and republished here. At one time the consulate was 
believed to be in great danger of violence from the mob ; and 
the excitement is still far from being allayed. In view of this 
representation we apprehended a long delay. The first interview, 
however, between Commodore McKcever and the captain-gen- 
eral, the Conde d'Alcoy, relieved us from all fear of this. Every 
disposition was manifested to receive favorably the mission of the 


Congress ; and the belief is that the special matter of negotia- 
tion will be speedily adjusted. 

The commodore and suite were received, at the vice-recal 
palace, in the most frank and cordial manner, and the personal 
relations of the treating parties placed, at once, on a friendly 
footing. The governor-general treated lightly the fear that had 
been suggested, of violence to the consulate, avowing that all 
property and life in the city and island were in the keeping of 
the government ; and that safety in both was more sure to none, 
than to the representatives and citizens of the United States. 
Summoning the chief of police at once to his presence, the fol- 
lowing dialogue in subetance took place between them. " Have 
you heard, sir, of an apprehended attack by the populace upon 
the American consulate ? " " No, sir." " Do you believe, sir, 
that any such danger exists ? " " No, sir." " Could a project 
of the kind be in agitation without your knowledge ? " " No, 
sir." " See to it, sir," added the count, with an intonation of voice 
not to be mistaken, as he dismissed the functionary, " that 
nothing of the kind takes place ! " 

The truth is, the warmth of sympathy felt by some of our 
fellow-citizens for the would-be revolutionists within Cuba and the 
marauding filibusters without, backed by visions of national and 
it may be personal aggrandizement, through annexation, lead 
them to magnify every grievance imaginary or real, and to fan 
into a flame each spark of ill will elicited by the collisions that 
occur, in the hope of embroiling our government with the crown 
of Spain ; and, through conflict and conquest, of making sure 
to us this choicest gem left in her colonial tiara. 

That the Cubans are most fearfully oppressed by the vice- 
regal rulers here, and that the government under which they suffer 
is the most rigorous military despotism in the civilized world, no 
one with the slightest knowledge of the condition of the island can 
doubt. The simple fact that twenty-four millions of dollars are 
annually wrung, by various forms of taxation, from a white popu- 
lation of little more than six hundred thousand, proves it, with- 


out an enumeration of the different unjust monopolies, the pro- 
hibitory imposts upon the first necessaries of life, the depreciating 
levies on all the products of labor, and the vampire presence of 
a foreign soldiery, sufficient to furnish a constant sentinel, it is 
said, to every four white men in the country ; or, a reference to the 
fact that there are no common schools — no liberty of the press, 
no liberty of speech, and scarce the liberty of thought. Still, 
sad as the truth of such a condition is, it does not justify pirati- 
cal invasion from without, or agitating and revolutionizing influ- 
ence on our part witliin. 

The probability is that tlie stay of the Congress will be very 
brief; and that, consequent!}^, my personal knowledge of Havana 
and the Habaneros will be limited to a hasty glance, through such 
loop-holes of observation as I may accidentally light upon. 

The beauty of the panorama from the anchorage is so varied 
and so striking, that in the enjoyment of it, I have been satis- 
fied thus f\ir without a visit to the shore, though this is the third 
day, including the Sabbath, since our arrival. "While examining 
closely with a glass again and again, every feature of the open 
country to the cast and south, I could but indulge in many a re- 
miniscence of tropical life at the Sandwich Islands and South 
Seas, awakened by the plumed palm and broad-leafed banana, 
the brightly gleaming hill sides and velvet-like slopes character- 
istic of the scenery. On the opposite sides of the harbor, the 
city and its fortresses, — its private dwelluigs and public buildings, 
its towers and domes and embattled walls, — are open to like in- 
spection through the same medium, a sea-telescope of surpassing 

While in the midst of these observations this morning, 
screened from the mid-day sun by the well-spread awnings of the 
poop-deck, my attention was drawn to a movement near at hand 
on board, occasioned by a succession of visits of ceremony from 
the " powers that be " in this viceroyal dependency, to our com- 
mander-in-chief and our captain. I am told, whether correctly 
or not, that the same policy which of yore prevented Ferdinand 


and Isabella from keeping faith witli Columbus, in his appoint- 
ment as viceroy of the New "World with undivided power, is 
still adhered to by the Spanish throne. The supreme authority, 
in place of being vested in one representative of the crown, is 
distributed among three — one at the head of the civil affairs, 
another chief in those' that arc military, and a third supreme in 
the control of the marine. Each is in his own department inde- 
pendent of the other, and keeps check on his compeers in any 
assumption of undue authority. The captain-general, however, 
has precedence in matters of ceremony, and is the nominal head 
of the government. He does not visit vessels of war, and the 
courtesy on his part is expressed through an aide-de-camp. The 
visitor in his stead on this occasion, was the Conde Villencuva, 
a fine-looking young man, in a richly embroidered dress of blue 
and silver, but without military decorations. He had scarcely 
been ushered on the deck, with the usual ceremony, when a 
barge, still more stately in the number of its oarsmen and the 
dimensions of its banner of " blood and gold," than that by 
which he had arrived, was reported by the quarter-master. This 
bore the Intendante, or Military Chief, who crossed the gangway 
in full costume, with a magnificent star on the breast and three or 
four crosses and badges of knighthood at the button holes. Nei- 
ther name uor title was announced with sufficient distinctness to 
be heard, and in view of the number and brilliancy of his deco- 
rations, I felt authorized in giving him precedence of the count, 
by at least one grade in the peerage, and set him down for a 
marquis : especially as the state in which the next dignitary 
approached would lead to the supposition that he could be noth- 
ing less than a duke — a grandee of the first rank. He came in 
a superb sixteen-oarcd barge of the purest white, picked out in 
gold. He was a stately old gentleman, portly in person, 
fresh in complexion for a Spaniard, and of the most court ier-liko 
and finished manners. Three magnificently jewelled stars deco- 
rated his left breast, with the crosses of twice as many orders 
pendant beneath, and over all the broad ribbon and insignia of 


the Golden Fleece, It was the Commandant-general of Marine, 
or Naval Chieftain, These visits of mere ceremony were brief, 
referring in conversation to the most common-place topics, fol- 
lowed by a departure in the order of arrival. 

The weather since we have been here has been like that of the 
finest days in June on the Hudson : the sun very hot, the sky 
glowingly bright, the breeze fresh and seemingly pure, with heavy 
showers occasionally in the afternoons. In the evenings and at 
night the scene from shipboard is striking and impressive. 
Long lines of brilliant gas-lights, marking the walls of the city 
abreast of us, with the gleamings of others from fortress and 
tower reflected by the glassy waters of the bay in streams of 
gold, and a glorious canopy of sparkling stars above, compensate 
in a degree for the absence of the moon ; while a fine military 
band stationed on the ramparts nearly opposite us discourses elo- 
quently, till nine o'clock, the compositions of the masters in 

July Sth. — My first visit on shore was in company with my 

messmate F , after the heat of the day had begun to pass. 

The low quays of a yellowish stone which face the water, are 
thickly lined with the smaller craft, engaged in the commerce of 
the port. We made our way along these for some distance, 
through an atmosphere redolent of tar and pitch and cordage — 
coff"ec and tobacco, — amid soldiers and sailors and throngs of 
brawny negroes, more tlian half naked and reeking with perspi- 
ration, in the labor of loading and unloading cargoes. On 
turning into a narrow street leading into the city, we soon dis- 
covered, that the buildings which from our moorings meet the 
eye so strikingly in their gay tintings of sky-blue, pea-green, 
peach-blossom, lemon and straw colors, with their mouldings, cor- 
nices and balustrades of the purest white, are thickly inter- 
spersed with others, dingy, shabby, decayed and dirty : barn-like, 
stable-like and prison-like. To an untravelled visitor from the 
Northern States, this last characteristic would be the first peculi- 
arity in the aspect of the houses to attract his attention. Every 


man's dwelling here is literally bis castle, the defences of which 
give to its exterior, on the ground floor especially, the appearance 
of a jail at liome. The heavy doors opening on the street, are 
of the most massive make, and bossed and studded with iron so as 
to be bullet-proof, while the lower windows are universally guard- 
ed from top to bottom' by strong bars and network of the same 
material. The general style of building is the Spanish-Morescan, 
many of the dwellings being only one story in height. The 
streets are straight and regular, but very narrow, scarcely admit- 
ting two vehicles to pass each other, while the sidewalks, as termed 
by us, are on a level with the way for carriages, and a foot or 
eighteen inches only in width. 

A short walk from the point at which we left the quay, 
brought us upon a small but pretty and artistic square, called the 
Plaza de Armas. It is enclosed with a handsome iron railing, is 
regularly laid out in walks, bordered with gay flowers and 
shrubbery overhung by the silvery trunks and long pendant 
branches of the palm-tree, and ornamented in the centre with a 
fountain and statue of Ferdmand VII. of Spain. Its south- 
ern side is faced in its whole length by the palace of the governor- 
general, a spacious and handsome quadrangular structure of stone, 
stuccoed and painted sky-blue, with pilasters, cornice and balus- 
trade around its flat roof, of white. 

Our chief object in going on shore was the enjoyment of a 
drive outside the walls. The vicinity of the Plaza furnished us 
with the opportunity of a choice of equipage for the purpose. Lines 
and groups of vehicles were standing along its sides and at the cor- 
ners. An omnibus of American fashion and manufacture was seen 
on its route, and a carriage of modern style passing here and 
there, but those on the stand were exclusively the common vehicle 
of the city and country, the volante — a two-wheeled clumsy-look- 
ing machine of by-gone times drawn on ordinary occasions by 
one horse. The body is larger than that of an American gig or 
chaise, hung very low like an old-fashioned phaeton, and so 
delicately poised on springs of great elasticity as to sway about, 


under the slightest impulse, with a most buoyant and luxurious 

I find even a pen-and-ink sketch so much more satisfactory 
than verbal description, in conveying just ideas of novelties such 
as this, that I am more than half disposed to attempt one here, 
at the double hazard of defacing my paper and bringing in con- 
tempt my skill in the arts. I -will try it. The experiment is not 
quite so successful and effective as I could wish it to be, but it 
will answer the purpose. Do not think it, however, defective in 
the proportions exhibited, either in regard to man and beast, or 
to the distance of both from the body of the carriage. The 
wheels in their size and height, in comparison with the top of the 
volante, the length of the shafts, and the bulk of the black cal- 
esero, or postillion, in contrast with that of the little pony he 
bestrides, are all true to the reality, rather underdrawn than 
exaggerated. You must not suppose either that the little horse 
is without a tail : for though not very distinctly visible in the 
sketch, the tail is there ; neatly plaited and closely twisted round 
the hip, like the braid of a lady's hair around her ear, and made 
fast by a gay ribbon to the postillion's saddle. 

The colors of these carriages, in body, shafts and wheels, are 
more varied than those of the rainbow : scarlet, yellow, blue, 
green — in endless tintings, contrasting showily with mountings 
of silver or silver-gilt, in greater or less profusion and massive- 
ness, according to the rank or riches of the owner. The harness 
to our eyes appears complicated and heavy. It also is ornament- 
ed more or less elaborately with silver or gilt platings. As to 
the postillion, picture to yourself the most perfect personification 
of Congo blackness you ever saw, in the form of a stout muscular 
negro, with features and heels to match ; put him in a very short- 
waisted jacket — scarlet, blue, yellow or parti-colored, and gay 
with worsted lace for livery, and into very high riding boots, large 
enough for Goliath, and with the sketch, you will have a tolerable 
idea of the equipage in which F and I set off from the Caf6 


Dominica, not far from the Plaza dc Armas, for a drive in tlie 

At the end of a half mile, it may be, through the narrow 
streets, •with shops and counting-rooms and dwellings on either 
side, widely open and within reaching distance by the hand, we 
came to the principal gateway in the western walls, leading directly 
upon the Paseo de Isabella II., the fashionable promenade and 
drivci without the walls : the Hyde Park and Champs Elysee of 
the Habaneros. This extends the whole length of the western side 
of the city, and is garden-like and beautiful in its trees, shrubbery 
p and flowers. Two broad carriage ways run from end to end with 
four or more gravelled walks between them ; a fountain ornaments 
either extremity, and in the centre is a statuette of Isabella II., 
erected shortly after her succession when a child : the more wel- 
come from associations of purity and innocence, which an image 
of her majesty in later years would be little calculated to suggest. 

A range of stately buildings on the west, faces and overlooks 
this point of aristocratic and fashionable reunion : an opera house 
and palatial caf6 with other imposing structures, giving quite a 
metropolitan air to the scene. The first two mentioned bear the 
name of Tacon, in honor of the captain-general of that name, 
during whose rule they were built, and whose administration a 
few years ago, was distinguished by such signal reforms in the 
police of the cit}-, and the entire suppression of the cut-throat 
outrages before so common. The enlarged views, public spirit, 
energy and determination which characterized Lis measures, 
stamped his name indelibly on the city ; and to these is the pop- 
ulation indebted, not only for the efi"ectual suppression of crime, 
but for much also of the ornamental architecture which it boasts. 

South of the Paseo is the Champ de Mars, an extensive 
parade ground, lined with spacious barracks and other govern- 
mental buildings. Passing these we drove three or four miles 
over a broad and well-kept macadamized avenue, filled with 
animated life in every form, and lined with suburban residences 
luxuriant in the richness and beauty of tropical growth in tree, 


shrub and flower : all in such wide contrast with scenes witnessed 
in a drive of like length in the suburbs of a city with us, as 
to excite the wonder, why more of our citizens of wealth and 
leisure do not take the short trip to Havana in the winter, to be 
amused and instructed by its novelties, and charmed by the 
blandness of its climate and the splendor of its vegetable life 
Although the soil in this section of the island is of an inferior 
quality to that of most other regions, there are evidences on every 
hand of the richness and beauty which have secured to Cuba the 
proud and winning title of " Queen of the Antilles," and make 
her the choicest colonial possession left to Spain. 

From the heat of the climate, the construction of the houses, 
in general, is such as to make them little more than so many open 
pavilions, from which as you drive by, you unavoidably catch not 
only the 

" Manners living :is they rise," 

but many, if not all, the habits of life of the inmates. The eye 
penetrates at a glance, as it were, the entire domestic economy 
of the household. The dwellings are, for the most part, one 
story only in height, with a tower or mirador at one end or 
corner, for a " look-out." Externally they seem all door and 
window. These are very wide, and extend from the ceiling to the 
floor, on a level with the street. Thrown widely open in the 
cool of the day, the interior becomes fully exposed : furniture 
and inmates — the whole family group in full dress or dishabille 
as the case may be — a scene on the stage of life, as open to in- 
spection as one from a drama on the boards of a theatre. This is 
as true of the dwellings of the rich as of the poor. In seeing 
the whole diagram of the interior thus exposed without any 
appearance of bed or bedroom, the wonder in my mind was where 
the people could sleep ? On expressing some curiosity on this 
point, I was told that in many cases, the beds of the family con- 
sist of mats or mattresses, spread at night on the iloor, or in cots 


in the reception-rooms, while in most houses an inner court is 
encircled by small sleeping and dressing-rooms. 

Many of the residences of the gentry and moneyed aristocracy 
in the suburbs are luxurious and princely ; exhibiting long suites 
of spacious and elegantly furnished apartments, with floors of 
polished marble and the oriental luxury of jetting fountains and 
clustering flowers, endless in the variety of their tint and per- 
^fumc. The gardens attached to some of these are laid out with 
taste, and kept in the nicest order, filled with an exuberance of 
choice plants known to us at the North only in the dwarfish and 
stunted growth of the conservatory. Indeed, many which are 
cherished exotics with us, are here seen in rank profusion in the 
hedges and by the roadside, like the thorn and the thistle of our 
ruder climate. 

By the time of our return, the hour for the drive and prom- 
enade of the citizens had arrived ; and, as we approached the 
Paseo, we were met and passed by great numbers of equipages 
of varied style. Some were altogether American and European 
in their appointments; but most were the native volante in 
greater or less elegance and richnes.s — some with one horse only, 
and others with two. When two are u.sed, the second is placed of the one in the shafts and ridden by the calesero. 
Each carriage contained from one to three females, in full dress 
as if at a party — low necks and very short sleeves : to which 
may be added, very fat figures and very dark skins. Bonnets 
are not worn of course with this costume, nor indeed with any 
other. The coiff'ure at this season is of ribbons, gauzes, laces and 
other zephyr-like materials, with flowers and jewelry ; but, in the 
winter, I am told, these give place to head-dresses of velvet and 
satin, with ostrich plumes, pearls and diamonds. As the volantea 
pass and repass along the carriage drive, salutations are exchanged 
between the ladies in the vehicles with each other, and with 
acquaintances and friends among the gentlemen on foot or on 
horseback, by the eyes, the fan and hat, more than with the 
voice ; but, so far as I obs(!rved. the ladies diil not alight as is 


the custom in Europe in many places of the kind, to join in the 
promenade on foot, or form groups for conversation. At night- 
fall there is a return to the city, where, for an hour or two, the 
ladies amuse themselves in driving from shop to shop, to have 
such articles as they ask for brought to their carriages for inspec- 
tion, or, proceeding to the Plaza de Armas, again join their 
associates of the beau monde in display and flirtation by lamp- 
light or moonlight as the case may be, while a regimental band in 
front of the governmental palace gives a free concert of instru- 
mental music till nine o'clock. The evening on this occasion was 
delightful, and we prolonged our stay and observations till that hour. 

So well pleased was F as well as I with this first peep 

on shore, that we repeated the visit two days after, driving as far 
as the Bishop's garden, the principal attraction of the kind in 
the neighborhood of the city. Since then there has been much 
heavy rain. The trade wind at the same time ceased, causing a 
closeness of atmosphere that has been very oppressive, and made 
me more than content to remain for the most part quietly on 
board ship : I say for the most part, for I went once into the 
city, on a solitary pilgrimage to the tomb of the good and great, 
and ever to be honored, discoverer of the New World. As you 
know, his remains were removed at intervals of time of various 
length, from Valladolid where he died, to Seville, and from 
Seville to St. Domingo, the resting-place designated for them in 
his win. On the cession of that island to France in 1796, they 
were brought to Cuba, and deposited with great ceremony in the 
cathedral of Havana. A medallion likeness in marble, with a 
short inscription on a mural tablet, marks the spot in the chan- 
cel near the high altar where they have found, as it is to be hoped, 
a lasting sepulchre. No American can stand near them un- 
moved : or without a recurrence in thought to the sublime vision 
of an unkuovra world, which so long filled the mind, and amid 
endless discouragements and disappointments sustained the hopes 
and energies of the adventurous navigator, till it issued in a 
glorious reality ; or without deep sympathy in the vicissi- 


tades and trials of his after life, and the neglect and injustice 
which brought his gray hairs with sorrow to the tomb. Near by 
are exhibited — I was about to say the ignominious, but I recall 
the epithet — the ennobled fetters with which an ungrateful 
monarch permitted a jealous rival and enemy to manacle his 
. lirnks. 

On another occasion I left the ship after night, for a row 

across the harbor with Lieut. T in his gig. It had been 

our intention to pass the evening in the city, in a visit to some 
families of his acquaintance to whom he wished to introduce me, 
but the heat and dampness of a debilitating and sickening atmos- 
phere during the day, determined us to postpone this till the 
return of a more invigorating and elastic air. Our row was from 
the anchorage of the men-of-war through that of the merchant 
ships, at another point in the harbor, to a landing near the town of 
Regla opp<isite the city ; a place of no enviable notoriety, in times 
past, as a kind of city of refuge through the indulgent winkings 
of government officials, first for the pirates who once infested 
these regions, and more recently for dealers in the slave trade. 
Here also is one of the principal amphitheatres for the exhibi- 
tion of the favorite national amusement, the bull fight. The 
special object of the trip, on the part of my companion, had some 
reference to the disposition of the slush of the Congress, if you 
can comprehend the import of so elegant a term in a ship's econ- 
omy : mine partly the pleasure of his company, and partly to 
inquire the state of the sick in a private hospital for cases of 
yellow fever, and to learn the practicability of visiting any 
American seamen, who might be sufiering there from this pest of 
Havana, already beginning its annual ravages. 

The night was very dark for a tropical region, and the most 
striking imagery discernible, as we threaded our way amidst the 
shipping, was the black masses of spars and rigging pencilled 
against the sky above us ; the long line of brilliant lights mark- 
ing the walls of the city reflected in .streams of tire on the 
glassy wat<'r ; and the alternate dim glimmerings and blinding 


jflashes of the revolving pharos, .surmounting the lofty tower of the 

July \Oth. — Bright weather has returned, and with it the 
regular trade wind from the sea. We rejoice in this, not only 
from the greater comfort it insures, but also from the promise it 
holds out of continued health in our ship's company. The 
change induced Lieut. T and myself to make our contem- 
plated visit on shore last evening. For a couple of hours before 
nightfall, we drove in a volante a circuit of some milcS through 
the environs, amid scenes and scenery of unceasing no^ielty and 
endless variety, embracing the attractive and beautiful ; the 
grotesque and ludicrous ; elegance and magnificence, filth, naked- 
ness and degradation, strangely commingled. Here, a splendid 
equipage as perfect in its appointments as any to be met in New 
York or London ; there, a vehicle as rude and clumsy as if be- 
longing to the birthday of invention. Here a cabalero admirably 
mounted, riding a blooded horse with all the stately solemnity of 
a grandee of the first order ; there, a negro or montero, in rags 
and half nakedness urging onward, at a most sorry pace, as 
broken down a skeleton of a pony or jackass as ever contrived 
to put one foot before another. Here a squad of well-equipped 
soldiers; there a gang of manacled and ruffian-looking galley- 
slaves — thus without end, exciting alternate admiration and dis- 
gust, smiles and pity. Before commencing the visits of the 
evening, we took a bird's-eye view of the fiishionable movements 
in the Paseo, from the upper balconies of the Cafe Tacon which 
overlook it, and of the magnificent panorama of the city, the sur- 
rounding country, and the sea, commanded from the leads of its 
flat roof, and then proceeded to meet an engagement at the con- 
sulate for tea. 

July 11th. — It has been known for two or three days past, 
that the object of our visit was well nigh accomplished, and that 
the prisoners of Contoy were to be delivered to the keeping of 
our flag, on the condition of their immediate transportation to 
the United States. The U. S. steamer Vixen came into port 


yesterday, bringing Commodore Morris as an additional agent of 
our government in the negotiation of this matter, but too late for 
the object of his mission, the work being already done. 
^ At twelve o'clock this morning, the prisoners were brought 
on board the Congress in the boats of the Spanish ship-of-the-line 
near iis. They are some forty-two or three in number, appearing 
a sorry-looking set of adventurers indeed, as they crossed the 
ship's sides to be mustered in the gangways, and turned over to 
our charge by the Spanish officer bringing them. Most of them 
are young — many mere boys — and a majority evidently scape- 
graces, including a few wild-looking, muscular and wiry Western 
men, tall Kentuckians and Mississippi black-legs. They have 
been well fed and well taken care of, it is said ; but they all 
looked pale, and some seemed nervously agitated. This is to be 
attributed, it is probable, to the uncertainty till the very moment, 
of the result of the sudden summons they had received from 
their keepers to prepare for some event of which they were kept 
ignorant, and which they had more reason to fear might be 
death under the fire of a platoon of soldiers, than liberty 
beneath the flag of their country. During their captivity they 
had been denied all intercourse with others, and had no means 
of learning their probable fate. At times, the most intelli- 
gent among them had been subject to threats of immediate 
execution, seemingly in the hope of extorting some confession 
differing from the general attestation, that they had been en- 
trapped into the expedition, under a contract of being conveyed 
to the isthmus, on their way to California, and on discovering 
the imposition had refused to take part in the attempted invasion. 
The most cheering hopes that had reached them were derivt-d 
from the salutes, in honor of the 4th of July. They inferred 
from these the presence of American men-of-war of heavy metal, 
and that their case was neither forgotten nor neglected by the 
American government. I well recollect thinking and feeling, 
at the time, that the repeated thunder of the heavy butteries of 
the Congress, from sunrise to sunset on that day, re-echoed by all 


the men-of-war in port, must have brought them hope with 
no uncertain sound, whether it reached their ears in the hold 
of the guard-ship or the dungeons of the Moro castle : for even 
the place of their confinement was withheld from us. At three 
o'clock this afternoon, the whole number was transferred to the 
sloop-of-war Albany, for passage to Pensacola. She is to sail 
to-morrow morning at daybreak, and it is announced that the 
Congress will leave the harbor in company with her, and proceed 
to her destination on the coast of Brazil. 

Great credit is due to Commodore McKeever for the speedy 
adjustment of this difficulty. His courteousness and amenity at 
once made smooth the way to negotiation. He is a man of peace- 
falness and good will, more disposed to pour the oil of kindness 
on troubled waters than to cast in any new element of agitation, 
and to his firmness and gentleness combined, are to be attributed 
the early and desirable result attained. 

Thus terminates this filibustering invasion of Cuba. But is 
it the end ? The enterprise, as projected and fitted out, was most 
ill-judged and piratical. But is it true that its origin and means 
of equipment were entirely from abroad ? Is there no deep 
sympathy with such an adventure among the Creole inhabitants 
of the island themselves ? Is the spirit of patriotism and of 
liberty here dead ? Are there no groanings beneath the galling 
chains of a cruel and grinding despotism ? No sense of degra- 
dation, no purpose to be free, among the intelligent and aspiring 
of the native population ? It is impossible that there should 
not be. The prosperity and the glory of the unfettered nation 
immediately facing them are too near, and too brilliant, not to be 
reflected eventually in attractive splendor, through every valley, 
and over every mountain top of this gem of the seas. An 
atmosphere of freedom so near, must impart something of its 
elasticity and its power even to the depressing vapors of such a 
despotism. The Cuban in his summer visits of business or of 
pleasure to the United States, inhales and carries it back with 
him, and the American in his winter sojourn here, insensibly bears 


it wherever he goes. The breath of liberty has been, and will 
contii^e to bo inspired by the natives of the island ; and unless 
the mother country, with timely wisdom, changes her colonial 
policy and ameliorates her iron rule, restlessness, agitation and 
revolt, must be the issue, and Cuba become independent in self- 
rule, or free by voluntary annexation to the nation to which, 
geographically at least, she rightfully belongs. 


Guu or Flobiba. 

July l'2th. — True to the announcement last night, all hands 
were called to weigh anchor at daybreak this morning ; and, by 
sunrise, under the double impulse of a light land breeze, and the 
oars of a long line of man-of-war boats having the Congress in tow, 
we made our way, through the narrow entrance of the port, to 
the open sea. 

Many merchant ships also were taking their departure. The 
shrill calls of the bugle from barrack and fortress ; the unfurling 
of signal and banner from mast-head, battlement and tower; 
strains of military music from different points ; the lively move- 
ment in all directions of boats and small craft on the water ; and 
the rising hum of active life from the city, gave exciting animation 
to the picture, while the purple hues of the morning and its 
balmy breath, added a fresh charm to the whole. 

After enjoying the scene till we were outside the harbor, I 
went below, intending to return to the deck in time for a farewell 
view, not only of the island, but of the Moro castle and city also. 
So rapid was our course, however, from a strong current, as well 
as a fresh breeze, that, on reaching the poop for this purpose, 
" the blue above and the blue below" were alone to be seen ; and 
undisguised satisfaction was every where manifested that, not only 
the sickly, though beautiful port, but the entire island had been 
left out of sight behind us. 


The first object that met my eyes this evening, at the close of 
our accustomed •worship on deck, was the silver crescent of a 
new moon beaotifolly defined in the empurpled sky ; and, I inter- 
preted the mild and benignant beamings sent down upon us, from 
its young course, as an omen of gx»d in our voyage across the 
wide sea, 

July 22rf, N. Lat 37", W. Long. 59". — We made our way 
gently* and pleasantly through the Straits of Florida : sighting, 
during successive nights, on either sides of the channel, while 
making long stretches against a head wind, the lights of Key 
West and Sand Key, Carysfort Reef, and Gun Key. These 
numerous beacons speak the perilous navigation of the region- 
It b peculiarly the empire of the wreckers, whose lives are spent 
in constant search along the reefs, which for two hundred miles 
here edge the coast, for the vessels which in great numbers are 
ye&rly cast upon them by storms, or the treacherous ctirrents of a 
calm. The value of the commerce -which annually passes through 
the Gulf of Florida is estimated at four hundred millions of 
dollars, of which not less than half a million, each year, is lost by 
^ipwreck, notwithstanding the vigilance and prompt exertion of 
the amphibious and heroic race, whose business is the rescue of 
the lives and property here endangered. 

For three days after regaining a latitude which admitted of 
plain sailing, we had boisterous weather and a wild sea, but 
an unclouded sky. The elastic and invigorating atmosphere at- 
tending it, was most welcome after the heats of Cuba, At such 
times the ocean, in it3 ever-varjring forms of beauty and changing 
shades of prismatic light in the sunshine, often outrivals in at- 
tractiveness the still life of a wide-spread landscape on shore 
There is, too, a voice of mxisic breathing over it ; for, not less 
truthfully than poetically, has it been said of the ocean, there is 

" In its deep a melodj. 
And in its march a pakfan." 

Now, however, in place of the 

" Restless, se«thing. storm^r sea,* 


we have on every side an illimitable plain of the deepest blue, 
with scarce a perception of those giant heavings from beneath, 
which ever, in a greater or less degree, tell of an unfathomable 
abyss of waters. Over tliis we are hurried, without a conscious- 
ness of motion, at the rate of ten miles the hour, by a breeze as 
balmy, if not as fragrant, as the zephyrs of " Araby the blest." 
Add to these surroundings, the moon, at night, riding the heavens 
above in sublime tranquillity, and you will not be surprised, if, at 
times at least, I am ready with the poet to exclaim — 

" Oh ! what pleasant visions haunt mo, 
As I gaze upon the sea, 
All the old romantic legends — 

All my dreams come back to me ! " 

July 2Qth. — Happily I am not unfitted for mental occupation ; 
by being on shipboard, as is the case with many, and, with the 
prospect of a voyage of fifty or sixty days, I have set myself 
closely to work. The early part of the day I give to the graver 
studies of my profession, and the later to lighter reading ; visits 
to the sick, when there are such; exercise on deck with some 
fellow-officer ; and such " walks of usefulness " as I can light 
upon among the crew, in difierent parts of the ship in the evening, 
fill up the intervals of leisure till bed-time. 

One of our young officers. Midshipman L , has the mis- 
fortune to be incapacitated for duty, by a nervous affection of the 
eyes and head, the consequence of three separate attacks of fever 
in the Gulf of Mexico. The surgeons interdict to him all use 
of the eyes ; and, to relieve the ennui into which he is thus 
thrown, I have invited him to my room for an hour or two every 
day, that by my reading aloud he may have the benefit of such 
works as I am running over ; travels and biography — Maxwell's 
Russia, Irving's Mahomet, and the excellent books of Miss 
Mcintosh, the accomplished sister of the captain of the Congress, 
interspersed with those of a more serious character, such as An- 
gell James' " Young Man from Home" and Pike's " Persuasives 


to Early Piety" — have thus far occupied these hours. The touches 
of deep feeling frequently met in the writings of Miss Mcintosh, 
in her lifelike and instructive delineations of character, have been 
the means of bringing into exercise sympathies, the involuntary 
betrayal of which to each -other, has led to quite an intimate 
friendship, considering the disparity of our years. 

For^a week after leaving port, we had every reason to hope 
that it had been with entire impunity, in regard to health, that 
we had been exposed to the burning sun, and, at this season of 
the year, pestilential air of Havana. But on the eighth day, just 
as we were congratulating ourselves on the certainty of our escape 
from all infection, a light fever made its appearance among both 
officers and men. Some dozen in number were brought down 
by it. It was the yellow fever, but of so modified a type, that, 
in a few days, all were convalescent and no new cases occurred. 

Sickness, whether of a serious nature or not, presents an 
opportunity of approach, and often gives access to the confidence 
which I am careful to improve. I was much interested, a day or 
two ago, in an interview with a fine-looking young man of the 
crew, under the influence of the prevailing epidemic. He had 
evidently been familiar with better associations than those of a 
man-of-war ; and, I soon learned from him that he was the prod- 
igal son of a pious mother, by whom he had been carefully trained 
and cherished, and was a child of many prayers. The first glance 
of his eye, as I approached his cot, told me by the starting tears 
— not from alarm, for no danger was apprehended in his case, but 
from remembrances of the past — that he was in a state of mind 
to open his heart to me ; and, in the admissions and confessions 
of a long conversation, I became deeply interested in the peni- 
tence and purposes of future well-doing which he avowed. 

In a hammock near by I found a middle-aged Scotchman, of 
intelligent and respectable appearance, who was equally open to 
religious conversation. He told me he had been long deeply 
sensible of his guilt and misery as a sinner, and greatly troubled 
in mind and conscience ; that a conflict had been going on in liis 


soul, as if a good and an evil spirit were ever in contest there for the 
mastery over him : but that the good at last had gained the tri- 
umph, and he was " at peace with the Father, through the Son 
and Spirit, and feared no evil — not death itself" 

August 1th, N. Lat. 12°, W. Long. 38°. — Delicious seems the 
only epithet descriptive of the atmosphere we are now breathing, 
and " delicious — delicious ! " is the stereotyped exclamation of 
every one, as he mounts to the deck from below and drinks in the 
pure ether, as if it were the very elixir of life. The morning is 
in all respects lovely. The heavens have a look of infinity. A 
snow-white cloud alone floats here and there in them ; and, as, 
rushing over the blue sea, before the fresh trade-wind, we dash 
the foam widely from our prow, unnumbered flying fish spring 
into the air, and skim the surface of the water before and around 
us, like so many birds of silver gleaming brightly in the sun. 

August 28th, N. lat. 3° 30', W. Long. 25°.— The region, 
through which we have been making our way, for the last ten 
days, is known among seamen by the very unsentimental name 
of the " doldrums." The origin of the epithet it might be diffi- 
cult to trace. It is an equatorial belt, characterized by light 
weather and head-winds ; by alternate calms and squalls, clouds 
and rain. Hence every thing on board and without, is, and has 
been, in as wide contrast as possible with that of my last date. 
The whole ship is saturated, both on deck and below, with rain, 
and the washings of the sea through the ports and hawser-holes. 
The air on deck is close and oppressive, and below stifling and 
musty, and the tossings and pitchings and rolling of the ship 
any thing but agreeable to the fastidious stomachs of many 
on board — especially to my friend T , who, though famil- 
iar for more than twenty years with the caprices of the 
deep, is in a most annoying state of discomfort at every re- 
turn of rough weather. The progress made on our course is 
small, averaging not more than twenty-five or thirty miles in the 
twenty-four hours, though we sail by tacks in that period, from 
a hundred to a hundred and fifty. We are navigating by Lieut. 

Maury's charts. 47 

Maury's wind and current charts, and notwithstanding the seeming 
tedium of our progress, in beating against what he denominates 
the south-west monsoons of these latitudes, are satisfactorily 
demonstrating the truth of his theory and the correctness of his 
sailing directions in conformity with it. 

It is now some six or eight years since this distinguished 
young officer, whose attainments in abstruse and practical science 
have reflected such high honor not only on his profession but on his 
country, conceived the idea of collecting as many of the log-books 
of navigators as could be secured, with a view of collating them, 
and of projecting upon charts, to aid in tliu better navigation of the 
sea, the general experience in winds and currents, at all periods 
of the year, in the different regions of the ocean. He at the same 
time urged upon the masters of ships, the importance of adding 
to the usual subject-matter of their logs, the temperature of the 
water, the set of currents, and the depth of the bed of the ocean 
when it was practicable to obtain soundings. As an incentive to 
the trouble of thus keeping a log, and of furnishing an abstract of it 
to the National Observatory at Washington, the promise was given 
that each shipmaster complying with the suggestion, should re- 
ceive gratuitously from the government, a copy of the charts and 
sailing directions which might be the result. 

Not fully alive to the object or aware of its great importance, 
the response was slow and imperfect. In the course- of a few 
years, however, sufficient data were secured ; and the first practical 
result was the shortening by ten days of the voyage to the 
equator, and consequently to Rio de Janeiro. From the earliest 
times this passage, from North America, had been made by run- 
ning obliquely across the Atlantic to the longitude of the Cape 
de Verde Islands, before venturing to strike the north-east trade- 
wind. A traditionary report and belief in the existence of 
strong adverse currents along the South American coast, and 
the fear of not being able to double Cape St. Roque, should the 
equator not be crossed far to the Kast, led to this. It re«iuired no 
little moral courage and determination in one of a claiss prover- 


bially wedded to custom and subject to superstition, to venture 
the trial of the new route. Such an one was found, however, and 
the result was most satisfactory. The opinion is now firmly 
entertained by many of the most experienced navigators, that by 
following the direction of the wind and current charts, the length 
of the voyage is diminished one fifth. This is an immense saving 
of time in a commercial point of view. Doubtless the patient perse- 
verance of the accomplished astronomer, in this new field of dis- 
covery, with the aids which are now rapidly placed in his posses- 
sion, will lead to similar results on all the grand routes of 
navigation over every ocean, and place the commercial world in 
indebtedness to his genius for savings in time, and consequently 
in money, of incalculable amounts. 

Last night, from nine till ten o'clock, we enjoyed a beautiful 
spectacle, in a halo around the moon of colors as vivid as those 
of an ordinary rainbow, and in concentric circles most clearly 
defined. The moon, near the full, retained her face of silver in 
the midst of a field of gold, shadowing towards the outer edge 
into a delicate amber and then into the deepest maroon. A belt 
of the purest blue intervened, when the encircling colors were 
repeated in fainter hues ; apparently, though not philosophically, a 
reflection of the first. The phenomenon was so striking, and so 

singularly beautiful, that Lieut R , the ofl&cer of the deck at 

the time — one ever alive to the poetic and impressive in nature, 
as well as to the scientific and practical in his profession — dis- 
patched a messenger hurriedly for me. The commodore and 
captain were also summoned, and soon, with most of the other 
officers, joined us on the poop, while the whole crew, from dificr- 
ent parts of the ship, shared in the admiration excited by the 
scene. It is the first exhibition of any thing unusual in sky or 
sea that has thus far marked our passage. A humid atmosphere 
and a thin fleecy scud were its accompaniments. 

August 2Sd. — In the course of the night of the 22d inst. we 
took the south-cast trade-wind, three degrees north of the equator, 
and at once bade adieu to the doldrums. We crossed the line at 


liigh noon, yesterday, on the parallel of 28° 30' W. long, without 
any very perceptible 'jolt;' and arc rushing on our course at the 
rate of ten niiks the hour. 

Just in the edge of the evening, after hammocks had been piped 
down, the .ship was hailed loudly from the bows, and it was reported 
to the officer of the deck, that " Neptune was alongside and request- 
ed permission to come on board." This was granted, and very 
unexpectedly to me this monarch of the seas, his queen and suite 
made their appearance on deck. They were soon enthroned on 
the forecastle, with an immense bathing tub filled with salt water 
in front of them, in readiness for the presentation of those of the 
crew who had never before been in this section of their watery 
dominions. The sun being long set, and the moon, for the time, 
obscured, I could not make out very well the costume of their 
majesties further than to judge it to be of the latest marine 
fashion. The most conspicuous article in that of Neptune was 
a full bottomed wig of white mauilla grass, closely curled, like 
that of a lord chancellor on the woolsack, but covering not only 
his head, face and shoulders, but his entire figure, giving him the 
aspect in general of a polar bear with the head and mane of a 
lion. Ho bore himself with imperial dignity, while Madame 
Amphitrite, of very sturdy and Dutch-like make, sat meekly by 
his side, in a fashionably made dress of coarse canvas, or sacking, 
with a shepherdess hat of the same material, hair in long ringlets 
'i\ I'Anglaise,' cheeks highly rouged, low neck and short sleeves, 
with bare arms which bore a very suspicious reseuiblanre, in 
muscle and color, to those of one of our most brawny forecastle 

The commodore, with whom I was walking on the poop-deck, 
being informed of the presence of the distinguished company, 
made his way to the forecastle, claiming courteously from the 
monarch the privilege of the entree, from having crossed the equa- 
tor already some dozen of times. This Neptune most graciously 
conceded, with the flattering remark that he " recollected his 
countenance perfectly, and was very glad to sec hini.^ The 


interview, like most others on state occasions, was brief, conclud- 
ing on the commodore's part by his saying, " he presumed the 
presentations of the evening would be numerous," Neptune reply- 
ing " yes," that he had " never seen so many green-horns on 
board one ship in his life ! " A call of the names of candidates 
for the honor was now begun, and the gentlemen of the court, 
disguised in dress and with blackened faces, began to drag from 
every hiding place many an unwilling, but vainly resisting sub- 
ject, who had never before entered the southern hemisphere. 
Forced into the presence with good-nature and laughter, by over- 
powering numbers, and blindfolded and seated on the edge of the 
tub, the victim was hailed by Neptune with stentorian voice 
through an immense paste-board trumpet, in the questions — 
" What is your name ? " " Where are you from ? " " Were you 
ever in these parts before ? " While in the act of answering 
each of these respectively, a coarse brush dipped in a mixture of 
tar, slush, and lampblack was hastily passed over the mouth of 
the respondent. The court barber was then called to do his duty 
in shaving the gentleman with No. 5, No. 9, or No. 15, refer- 
ring to the qualities of the razor; this being determined by 
the degree of submissiveness and good-nature, or the surliness 
and resistance of the subject in hand. The lathering brush 
was something of the form and softness of a broom of split 
hickory, the lather the composition before described, and the 
razors, two or three feet in length, of diflerent degrees of edge, 
from the smoothness of straight wood to the roughness of a jagged 
piece of iron hoop. When an order for dressing the hair was 
added, in penalty of special refractoriness and ill-hum(ir, the 
brush used was formed of long wooden pegs fixed in a board with 
a handle, like a hatchcl for dressing flax ; tlie pomatum, tar ; to 
which, in extreme cases, was added a powdering of flour in the 
style of " '76," the whole winding up with a sudden souse, back- 
wards, heels over head into the tub of salt water. The presenta- 
tion thus completed, the new courtier, half drowned, and dripping 


like a water god, was left at liberty to free himself at leisure 
from the tar and hunpbhick, and dry himself as best he could. 

The case of all others, in which the least sympathy was 
elicited, was that of a young Landsman, who, after long impunity, 
had been detected some tinie before as a thief — supplying his own 
wardrobe very freely from the clothes-bags of his shipmates. The 
answer to the usual question, " who is this ? " when he was brought 
fi irwarfl, " Jackson the thief ! " was received with a general shout 
of applause, and the following dialogue ensued. " What is your 
name ? " '' Jackson." " Yes, sir ; and the sooner you slip your- 
self out of one so illustrious the better." " Where are you 
from ? " " ." " And a disgrace you are to so respect- 
able a place. Were you ever in my dominions before? " " No." 
'' I knew it : and take care you are never found in them again ; 
or, if you are, look out how you fill your bag with otlier men's 
clothes for an outfit ! " " Barber, do your duty : give him No. 15, 
and see that you dress his hair in the first style ! " 

The striking of eight bells and the calling of the first night 
watch brought the rough sport to an end. I have not time to- 
night to moralize on the subject or to speculate upon the pro- 
priety of the indulgence. By whose authority it was sanctioned 
I do not know. Many of the officers regarded it I believe with 
disapprobation, as a species of saturnalia unsuited to the rigid 
discipline of a man-of-war, and liable to be abused, while others 
defended it on the ground of old usage among sailors, and as an 
amusing relief to the tedium of a long voyage. By a little 
management I succeeded in screening from observation, till all 
hands were called to duty, two or three youngsters who were 
anxious to escape the annoying process. 

August "Ibth. — Sailing in the latitudes of the south-east 
trade-winds is the very perfection of life at sea. The waters, as 
smooth and level as a prairie, are of the deepest tint of blue, with 
the addition in certain declinations of the sun, of a dash of rose 
color, imparting to the whole, for a time, the appearance of a 
plain of velvet of the true Tyrian purple. Though moving with 


great rapidity, through a wide and deep furrow of sparkling foam 
cast up by our bows, the sails of our frigate, fully set from the 
deck to the royal-mast-heads fore and aft, sleep by the hour, 
without the slightest apparent motion, as if, in place of canvas 
spread to the breeze, they were a like quantity of chiselled 
marble. Then, at night, such a moon ! with the southern cross 
in marked beauty inviting to the sublimest meditations. The 
Magellan clouds, too, are in sight : small spots of fleecy whiteness in 
the sky, similar in general aspect to the ncbulaa of the milky 
way. Indeed, with the mercury by Farenheit at 66° the whole 
Southern hemisphere is in brilliant exhibition, many of the 
most conspicuous stars flashing on the eye, not only with the 
brightness, but apparently with the varying tints of the dia- 

The smoothness of the sea and steadiness of the wind have 
afforded a good opportunity for exercise at the batteries, and in 
the various evolutions incident to an engagement in battle. The 
station of a chaplain, in action, is with the surgeons in the cock- 
pit in attendance upon the wounded and dying ; or, at his option 
perhaps, on the quarter-deck, in taking notes of the conflict. In 
these sham engagements, at least, I prefer the deck : and have 
stood with the commodore and captain, while broadside after 
broadside has been fired, till the whole ship has been enveloped 
in smoke, and I found myself at the end as well powdered as a 
miller, though not in such whiteness. A^ evening or two since 
trial was made in throwing shell with the Paixhan guns. The 
explosion took place eight seconds after the discharge, with 
beautiful effect. The tendency of all these exhibitions, though 
only as an exercise, is ever to make me regard with fresh horror 
and abhorrence the entire system of war — its principles, spirtt, 
implements and cruel results. 

August dOth. — The prevailing thoughts and feelings of my 
mind and heart this morning, traceable to visions of the night, 
may be best expressed, perhaps, by the familiar quotation — 


" Who has not felt how sadly sweet 

The dream of home — the dream of home 
Steals o'er the heart too soon — too fleet, 
' When far oVr sea, or land wo roam ! 
Sunlight more soft may o'er us fall, 

To greener-shores our bark may come, 
But far more bright, more dear than all. 

That dream of home — that dream of home ! " 

Little as I may have coufcssed it, " Riverside ! " — " lliversido ! " 
is the coustaut echoing of my heart, and my home is ever in 
bright vision before me. I breakfast with you every moruiui'-, 
sit by moonlight with you in the verandah every evening : walk 
with you every day to '* Prospect Rock " — to " Gortlec " — to the 
upper fields beneath the mountain, and drive with you, if at no 
other time, at least- every Sunday to your little church, along the 
magnificent terrace of the river-road. 

I say, I breakfast with you every morning. Did you know 
exactly the state of the larder and store-room of our mess, you 
would wonder that I do not include all my meals in the avowal. 
For some time past, on each successive day, the giving out of 
article after article for our table, has been reported, till nothing 
now remains but salt beef, so hard as fully to justify the sailor's 
cognomen of " Uncle Sam's Mahogany," and salt pork as rusty 
as the beef is hard. No potatoes or other vegetables, no butter 
better than rancid lard, and no bread fit to be eaten except the 
ship's " hard tack," arc left. Dried beans and peas we have, but 
both filled with weevil, which the cook has devised no means of 
separating, before being served, from the article itself. The con- 
sequence is, that when they come to us in the form of soup, the 
floating insects drowned and overdone, are the most conspicuous 
part of the mess, and when baked, give to the the appear- 
ance of being already well peppered. I can join very cheerfully 
in a jest over such untempting fare, and think of home ; but 
cannot, like some of my messmates, persuade myself into the 
illusion that the little black insects speckling our board are only 


a rich condiment to give zest to the repast, and with them par- 
take of it con gusto. 

Yesterday our last turkey, after having given flavor to a tu- 
reen of watery soup, was served as a boiled dish. As we were 
about taking our scats at the table, a suggestion, made either seri- 
ously or in mischief, that the poor bird had not waited for the 
cook to bring its head to the block, but had died unexpectedly 
of its own accord, put a participation of either soup or meat, on 
my part, out of the question ; and led, by the time the report 
had made the circuit of the table, to a kind of impromptu Court 
of Inquiry in the case. The steward was at once summoned by 
the head of the mess, who, fond of a joke, and knowing that the 
fat and shining negro, now honored with this office, like many 
of the more imitative and aspiring of his race, was somewhat 
grandiloquent in his language, put to him the question — " Stew- 
ard, are you quite sure that the old fellow under this cover was 
entirely vigorous when he was taken from the coop ? " " No ! 
sir, he wasn't wigorous at all ! he was perfectly good ! " " Why, 
steward, what do you suppose I mean by vigorous ? " "I don't 
know, sir, but I suppose from the way you ask me, something 
bad." " Well, steward, I do not wish to be too particular in 
this investigation, but just tell me this much, could the old fel- 
low really stand on his legs when he was killed ? " " Sartain, 

sir, he could." " Then, gentlemen," says Mr. , addressing 

himself to the mess, " I go for the turkey," and lifting the cover 
disclosed to view a mere skeleton in a shrivelled bag of skin, 
with scarce an ounce of flesh on the whole carcass. 

You must not infer, either from the feelings expressed at the 
beginning of this date, or from the dietetic disclosure into which 
I have been incidentally betrayed, that I am otherwise than 
entirely content and happy : as much so as I well can be in this 
world of imperfection and sin. This is attributable, however, 
chiefly if not solely to the conviction in mind and heart, that 
I am at the post of duty — 


" The shepherd of a wandering flock 
That hus the ocean for its wold — 
That has the vessel for its fold ; " 

and am, as I trust, iu a spirit cheerfully and faithfully to meet 
its responsibilities. Whether to any high result or visible effect, 
it is not in the power of man to say. The sufficiency for this is 
of Gfod alone. I am thankful that I feel no discouragement in 
the use of the means for moral reformation and spiritual grace 
in those around me. Nothing but personal experience could per- 
suade one of the almost insurmountable obstacles that exist, on 
board a man-of-war, to the conversion of any of the crew, and 
to a life of godliness in one of their number, or make him credit 
without close observation, the number and the power of 

" The secret currents that here flow 
With such resistless under-tow, 
And hft and drift with terrible force 
The will from its moorings and its course." 

Nothing less than a miracle, humanly speaking, could achieve 
such a result ; but, as the conversion of any soul, and a life of 
godliness in any heart, anywhere, are miracles of grace, I do not 
allow myself to despair of such results ultimately through the 
word and Spirit of God, whether I ever know them or not. So 
firmly is hand joined in hand among the crew, against every thing 
savoring of a profession of or pretension to personal religion, 
that it would require no ordinary degree of moral courage, in 
any one — whatever might be his secret convictions, feelings or 
purposes — to disclose or avow it. Many cheerfully give counte- 
nance, both by their words and conduct to good morals in others; 
but all seem tacitly at least to say " thus far only shalt thou go." 
Though it is by no means unusual to see one and another in dif- 
ferent parts of the ship reading a Bible or a Testament either 
alone or aloud to others ; though tracts, and religious papers, and 
books, are eagerly accepted and seriously read, still, to get the 


name of a ' Bible-man ' by joining a class for reading under the 
chaplain, or of a psalm-singing and praying man, from being 
known to practise such devotion, is as much dreaded as would be 
a scurrilous reproach. From this feeling it is, that I have thus 
far attempted iu vain to establish Bible-classes or secure a meet- 
ing for moral and religious instruction, beyond the public worship 
of the Sabbath and our daily evening prayer : and from the same 
fear of man it is that one or tAvo spiritually-minded members of 
a church, whom T have discovered among the ship's company, are 
unwilling to have their true character and profession known. 

The purpose of those chief in authority, to abandon as far as 
practicable, in the discipline of the ship, the iron rule, and in 
place of the " cats" and the " colt," the kick and the curse, to 
substitute a treatment less degrading to man and more befitting 
him as a moral agent and an intelligent being, has been carried 
out. Thus far the experiment has been successful ; and we have 
a cheerful, obedient, active and efficient crew. We are also de- 
monstrating the fact by experience, that a crew can be content and 
happy without having served to them the ration of grog furnished 
by government. Knowing that two thirds of all the evil aud mis- 
ery to which sailors, as a class, are subject both at sea aud on 
shore, arises from the use of strong drink, I, early after the com- 
mencement of our cruise, made efi'orts by private argument as 
well as by public addresses, to demonstrate the magnitude of the 
evils arising from intemperance, and to persuade all to follow the 
example of those who had stopped drawing rum. In securing 
so desirable an object, I have had the warm support of those iu 
authority, whose opinion and influence would be likely to have 
most effect. Commodore McKeever and Captain Mcintosh have 
both given me their aid; and the former has twice publicly 
addressed the ship's company on the subject. The consequence is, 
we shall enter port without the name of an individual on tiic 
grog list ; with the uuiver.sal admission that the ship's company, 
to say the least, arc as content aud happy without the rum as 
they were with it, and certainly more quiet and orderly. 


In the course of my canvass on the subject, I had, not only, 
many interesting, but many amusing conversations and arguments 
with various individuals. Before yielding, there was a great 
struggle in the minds of some half a dozen old topers — old meii- 
of-wars-men, perfect sea-dogs, who, for half a century have drunk 
their grog as regularly as the roll of the drum announcing its 
readiness was heard, and felt that they could not live without it. 
I really pitied some of these old fellows, in the mental struggle 
they suffered, between conscience and a desire to follow the ad- 
vice of those they honor, and the continued craving of an appe- 
tite strengthened by the habit of a whole life. I fell in with two 
of these one day immediately after one of the addresses of the 
Commodore. They were looking most doleful — as a true sailor 
seldom does look except in some great moral extremity. Sus- 
pecting the cause, I opened a conversation in which one of them 
met my persuasions by saying, with a most appealing look, 

" AVhy, Mr. S , I haven't been without my grog every day 

for fifty years. Why, sir, I should die without it. I was 
brought up on it ; my father kept a public house, and I sucked 
the tumblers, sir, from the time I was a baby ! " But the old 
man soon joined the rest of his shipmates in the resolution to 
banish the grog tub. Ue has now gone a long time without his 
rum ; and, in place of dying from the want of it, as he said he 
should, came up to me yesterday, looking hale and hearty, and 

with a bright smile and sparkling eye, said, " Mr. S , I 

wouldn't have believed it — but, it's true. I don't miss my 
grog at all. You told me I would live through it, if I did knock 
it off. And so I have, and I feel ten times better without it 
than I ever did with it ! " 


Eio DE Janeieo. 

Sept. 4th. — Land was descried at ten o'clock, on the morning 
of the 1st inst., and before noon we had Cape Frio in full view, 
twenty miles distant. Isolated from other highlands of the 
coast, it stands out boldly and loftily in the ocean ; and, after 
being once seen, is not easily to be mistaken in its outline. We 
were rushing onward, before a fresh trade-wind beneath a brilliant 
sky, at the rate of eleven miles the hour ; and at twelve o'clock, 
hauling closely round the Cope to the westward, opened a lofty 
and picturesque mountain coast on our right. 

The speed at which we were sailing was in itself sufficient 
to produce great exhilaration. Add to this, the beauty of the 
sportive sea — leaping, foaming, and sparkling around us ; the 
varied and noble outlines of the shore ; the objects of increasing 
interest coming hourly in view, with the assurance of an early 
termination of our passage, and you can readily imagine that 
by nightfall, the continued excitement became almost painful. 
As darkness began to gather round us, the faint outlines of tlie 
famed Sugar Loaf marking the entrance to the harbor of llio, 
were discernible ; and the first gloamings of the light on Rasa 
Island, some seven miles seaward from it, came cheerily upon the 
eye. The wind still continued fresh, and we had the prospect of 
entering the port at night ; but, just as we were attempting to do 
so by heading into the channel, ^he breeze died suddenly away, 


and we dropped anchor on what is called the " rolling ground." 
The appropriateness of this name was fully demonstrated to us 
before morning, by a depth of rolling on the part of our good 
ship in a dead calm, which we had not before experienced in the 
heaviest weather at sea. ' 

As for myself, I was more than content to pass a restless 
night.from this cause, rather than lose the opportunity of enter- 
ing the harbor by daylight. I was anxious to test the fidelity 
of the impressions received twenty years ago from the same 
scenery ; and to determine how far the magnificent picture, still 
lingering in my memory, was justified by the reality, or how far 
it was to be attributed to the enthusiasm of younger years and 
the freshness of less experienced travel. The early light of the 
morning quickly determined the point. I was hurried to the 

deck by a message from Lieut. R already there ; and do not 

recollect ever to have been impressed with higher admiration by 
any picture in still life, than by the group of mountains and the 
coast scene, meeting ray eyes on the left, as I ascended the poop. 
The wildness and sublimity of outline of the Pao d'Assucar, Duos 
Hermanos, Gavia and Corcovado, and their fantastic combinations, 
from the point at which we viewed them, can scarce be rivalled, 
while the richness and beauty of coloring thrown over and 
around the whole in purple and gold, rose color and ethereal 
blue, were all that the varied and glowing tints of the rising day 
ever impart. No fancy sketch of fairy land could surpass this 
scene, and we stood gazing upon it as if fascinated by the work of 
a master hand. 

The pyramidal hills on the eastern side of the channel are 
less lofty and less wild than these, but impressive in their mas- 
siveness, and beautiful in the verdure of various growth clinging 
to their steep sides and mantling their summits. Together they 
form a portal to Rio worthy, not only the city, but the vast and 
magnificent empire of which it is the metropolis. 

There was full leisure for the enjoyment of the scene, for the 
sea-breeze did not set in, with sufficient strength to enable us to 


get under way, till after mid-day. In the mean time I secured 
a drawing, while a thorough ship-cleaning was going on, both in- 
side and out. This was bo satisfactorily accomplished by four 
hundred busy hands, before the breeze would allow of taking our 
anchor, that, with the crew freshly dressed in a uniform of white 
and new summer hats, we looked, on taking our position among 
the men-of-war at anchor, more like a ship on a gala-day in port, 
than one just arrived from sea. 

The width of the entrance is a mile, though the loftiness of 
the granite shafts by which it is formed, gives the impression of 
its being much narrower. The Sugar Loaf on the left — the naked 
peak of a mouatain of rock whose broad base lies far below in 
the great deep — rises, with a slight leaning westward, to an eleva- 
tion of twelve hundred and ninety-two feet according to the 
measurement of Captain lieechy. The corresponding mass on 
the eastern side, less isolated and more rounded, is six or 
seven hundred only. At the base of this, upon a tongue of rock 
projecting into the channel, is the strong and massively built for- 
tress of Santa Cruz, against whose Cyclopean foundations the 
swell from the open sea beats heavily. Its white walls and 
embattled parapets, pharos lantern and telegraph fixtures, with the 
imperial flag of green and gold flaunting iu the breeze, are the 
first features of civilization meeting the eye : all else along the 
coast looks as primitive and untamed as on the day it was first 

From the point at which we were at anchor, little within the 
harbor could be seen : a small fortified islet or two, the tall 
masts of the shipping at the man-of-war anchorage, distant five 
miles, and the faint outlines of the Organ mountains in the far 
north. But on passing the Sugar Loaf and fort the bay opens, 
and the extent and luagnificence of its leading features are 
rapidly disclosed. The mountain group, which so impressed us 
in the morning and seemed to belong exclusively to the outside, is 
found to constitute in new aspects and relative positions, the 
grand outline of the western side within. 


To these aspects of nature there was soon added the charm of 
art. Long lines of imposing edifices edge the shores; white 
cottages and villas sjirinkle the hill-sides and crest the mountain 
ridges ; while church steeples and convent towers and the thick- 
ened ma.s,ses of huilding in the city gradually rise to view. 

As our ship moved gently onward the effect was like the uu- 
fulding of a panoramic picture. First came the land-locked bay 
of Botafogo, backed and overhung by the lofty peaks of the Her- 
manos and Gavia — its circular shores and sweeping saud-beach 
being embellished with a palace-like hospital and numerous 
suburban residences of the aristocratic and wealthy. Then the 
green and picturesque valley of the Larangeiras, with cottages 
hanging like birds' nests on its hill-sides, beneath the wooded cliifs 
and naked summit of the Corcovado ; followed quickly by the 
bay of Flamengo, the Gloria hill, the hills of Santa Theresa and 
San Antonio crowned by their convents, Castle hill with its 
Capuchin monastery and old bastions, the hill of San Bento, 
and the entire city overtopped by the mountainous range and 
bell-shaped peak of Tejuca. 

While these objects on the left successively absorb the atten- 
tion, on the right a precipitous range of granite hills, extending 
two or three miles northward from the fortress of Santa Cruz, 
falls sheer into the water like the Highlands of the Hudson. It 
terminates in a bold promontory which divides a deep, circular 
inlet, called the bay of St. Francis Xavier, from the chief harbor, 
and which from some points of view is strikingly in the form of a 
colossal lion couchaut, with the head settled backward in stateli- 
ness upon the shoulders. At the further distance of a mile a 
picturesque cliff-bound little islet — evidently once a part of the 
adjoining mainland — marks the northern entrance to this inner 
bay. Surmounted by a white chapel facing the sea, dedicated to 
"our Lady of good voyages," the special patroness of the sailor, 
it is a conspicuous and interesting feature in the topograjdiy, the 
tirst and the last upon which the ignorant and superstitious among 
voyagers and seafaring men, have long been accustomed to fix 


their eyes on entering and on leaving port. Beyond this, upon a 
widely sweeping beach, stretch the populous rural suburbs of 
Praya Domingo and Praya Grande, immediately facing the city. 
These terminate in a lofty rounded hill, partly under cultivation 
and partly in wood, which cuts off all further view northward, 
except clusters of islands on the distant waters, and the far-off 
mountains rising six thousand feet against the sky. The whole 
was seen by us under the strong lights and shades of the after- 
noon, as with a light sea-breeze we floated gently up and dropped 
anchor abreast the city, midway from either shore. A cluster of 
men-of-war were moored inside of us, from whose mast-heads 
floated the national flags of England, Portugal and Brazil, but 
none bearing the stripes and stars of the United States. 

Towards night the coloring thrown over mountains and val- 
leys, city and bay, was most gorgeous. A light haze, like that of 
Indian summer at home, characterized the atmo.sphere ; through 
this the sun shone in fiery redness, empurpling the mountains, 
gilding dome and steeple and convent tower, and spreading a 
crimson glow over the entire bay. I have been thus minute in 
the description of the panorama surrounding us, because these 
winding shores and curving beaches, these verdant hills and 
towering mountains, are for many months in two or three suc- 
cessive years, to be the objects of hourly observation and the 
haunts of my daily rambles. The Sugar Loaf and the Corcovado, 
the Gavia and the Peak of Tejuca, Gloria hill, Botafogo, Praya 
Grande and the Organ mountains, will become in my communica- 
tions to you, familiar as household words. 

Admiration of the natural scenery was not the only feeling 
of which I was conscious, in advancing up the harbor. Remem- 
brances of the past came unbidden to my mind and heart. With 
the first opening view of the Praya Flamengo, I was quick in 
my search with a glass among its mansions, for the dwelling which 
during my former visit had been to me a happy home. It was 
easily distinguished in its unchanged exterior. But where was 


the brilliant and accomplished diplomatist, whose genial spirit 
and polished mind gave such charm to its hospitalities ? Long a 
tenant of the tomb ! and I could not but recall the fact, that, with 
hira, ever J one whose acquaintance I had here made — an acquaint- 
anceship which, in some 'instances, from after intercourse, ripened 
into mature friendship — was also in the world of spirits : Tudor, 
Otwty, Inglefield and ^yalsh, all gone. A generation had well- 
nigh passed away ; and all was changed. A new Emperor was on 
the throne — a new Bishop over the see : there was no one to meet, 
and no one to look upon, whom I had ever seen before. 

It was the predominance of feelings such as these that led, in 
my first visit on shore, to a solitary pilgrimage to the former 
p]mbassy, to look once more upon its familiar portal — now in pos- 
session of strangers, — and on my return at eventide through the 
embowered pathways of the Gloria hill, to think what a dream is 
life, and how vain as an abiding good, the highest attainments and 
most honored positions gained by man on earth. 

September Qtih. — Rio de Janeiro, if not built like Rome on 
seven hills, can boast an equal number around the bases of which 
her streets and dwellings closely cluster. The bright verdure of 
these — in tufted groves and shrubbery and in gleaming turf — as 
they rise abruptly here and there, from one to two hundred feet 
above the red-tiled penthouse roofs of the dwellings and the som- 
bre turret and towers of church and convent, adds greatly to the 
beauty of the city, whether seen from shipboard, or in vistas at 
the end of the streets, on shore. One of the most conspicuous and 
lofty is Castle hill, so called from being surmounted at one of its 
angles, by the ramparts and dismantled batteries of a small fort, 
erected by the first colonists. It is also called by foreigners, 
Signal hill — from being the telegraphic station to which the move- 
ments of all shipping in the offing is made known, by signals 
from other stations at the entrance of the harbor and along the 
coast. Besides the ruin of the ancient fortress and the fixtures 
of the telegraph, it is conspicuously marked by the double-pin- 
nacled church of a former Capuchin monastery, and by the old 


college of the Jesuits, both now converted to the use of the 
public — the one as a military hospital, and the other a medical 
school. The hill juts so closely on the bay as to interrupt, for a 
half a mile, the line of the city along the water, and to leave 
room only for a single street. This is not built upon, but being 
open to the sea-breeze and commanding a fine water view, is much 
frequented as a drive and promenade in the afternoon and eve- 
ning. Inland from Castle hill, and separated from it by what 
was once a deep glen, but now a densely inhabited part of the 
city, rises the hill of San Antonio, so called from being the posses- 
sion of a brotherhood of that name, whose convent stands in mas- 
sive dimensions on its brow. These hills occupy the centre of 
the city, while that of San Beuto, also crowned by a stately con- 
vent ; that known as the Bishop's hill, from being surmounted by 
the Episcopal palace ; and the hill of Lavradio, are on its northern 
side. The hills of Santa Theresa and Grloria, thus named — the 
one from a nunnery, and the other from a church dedicated 
to our Lady of Glory, ai'e on the south. All originally rose 
from and encircled a marsh, the site of the present metropolis. 
Till within the last half century, the whole city then containing 
only some thirty thousand inhabitants, lay between Castle hill 
and the hill of San Bento, a distance of less than a half mile as 
a water front, in a parallelogram of rectangular streets extending 
about as far inland. This section is still regular ; but in most 
others since built, the streets follow the curvature of tlie hills at 
their bases, and straggle from these, in every direction, up the 
ravines intervening between the spurs running from the mountains 
to the plain. The streets in general are narrow, and roughly 
paved with cobble-stones : the sidewalks being comfortable for 
two persons only abreast. The population is now about 200,000 
— including the suburbs which are very extensive, and reach south 
some five miles and nearly the same distance west; while Praja 
Domingo and Praya Grande, on the opposite side of the b;iy, form 
quite a town in themselves. 

The general climate of Hrazil from its great equality has been 


regarded as one of the most salubrious and healthful of the tropical 
regions of the world. Before the Congress left the United 
States, however, it was known that within the last year the yel- 
low fever had made its appearance along the seaboard, and had 
raged with great mortality in the principal cities ; especially in 
Pernambuco, Bahia, and Rio de Janeiro. We were uncertain 
what the state of health might be on our arrival ; and were thank- 
ful to' learn, by the first boat boarding us, that the epidemic 
had ceased, after frightful ravages among natives and foreigners, 
both afloat and' on shore. The business of the port was almost 
suspended by its virulence for six or eight months ; the citizens 
in great numbers having fled to the country, while the shipping put 
to sea. The general health is now good, public confidence is 
restored, and the inhabitants have returned to their shops and 

The origin of the pestilence is a mooted point here, among me- 
dical men of the most distinguished talent and experience. Some 
contend that it was imported from Africa by slave ships; 
others that it was introduced at Pernambuco in a ship from New 
Orleans ; and others again believe it to be of domestic genera- 
tion, connected with atmospherical phenomena, thus far inscru- 
table to the ob.servatious of man. This last opinion is sup- 
ported by changes of a meteorological character universally ac- 
knowledged : one the interruption, amounting almost to an entire 
cessation, of thunder-storms in the afternoons, formerly of such 
regular daily occurrence, that appointments for business or 
pleasure were made in reference to them, as to taking place 
" before " or " after the shower." It is a fact alto attested by 
medical men, that of late years, marked modifications for the 
worse have been observed in the types of fever prevalent, till 
their malignancy reached the climax just experienced. There 
was, too, at the commencement and during the continuation of the 
pestilence, a stagnation and want of elasticity in the atmosphere, 
from the cessation to a great degree of the fresh and regular 
winds from the sea, very perceptible and very oppressive : all 


confirmatory of the belief that the sickness was atmospheric and 
indigenous. History and tradition are also brought to support 
this supposition; nearly a century ago, a similar pestilence is said 
to have prevailed in Hio, with the same devastating efiFect ; and 
records of the years 1666, 1686, and 1694, bear testimony to 
visitations of a like kind. There is reason therefore to hope that 
the scourge will disappear as it has done before, and not become 
annual and endemic as in the West Indies. 

The weather now is as delightful as can be imagined, with a 
clearness and brilliancy of atmosphere like that on the Hudson 
in the month of June, throwing an enchantment around the 
scenery of the bay perfectly irresistible. 

September 10th. The first two or three days after our arrival 
were marked chiefly by an interchange of visits of ceremony, 
between the officers chief in command of the foreign squadrons 
near us and our ship; accompanied by a succession of salutes 
deafening to the cars, filling the pure atmosphere of the heavens 
with smoke and sulphur, and awakening in tones of thunder the 
ten thousand echoes of the adjoining mountains. In no harbor 
in the world, perhaps, is more pawder wasted in the course of a 
year than in this. There seems ever to be among the Brazilians 
some new occasion for a salute. On the day of our arrival, in 
the course of a half hour the Congress alone fired eighty 
heavily charged thirty-four pounders : all of which were answered 
in the same space of time, gun for gun. Two of the intervening 
days since have been fete days on shore, calling for three separate 
salutes — morning, noon, and night — of twenty-one guns from all 
the forts and Brazilian men-of-war in the harbor, and at mid-day 
a general one of the same number, from all the flag-ships of the 
foreign squadrons. A commutation for the powder thus annually 
wasted, would be a princely income for any one securing it. 

These observances of etiquette afloat well through with, 
Cotnmodore McKeevcr invited me yesterday morning to join 

him, Captain Mcintosh and Lieut T , in visits on shore to 

the American Ambassador, and others of our countrymen in offi- 


cial positions, and to Mr. H , a leading English merchant, who 

had called ou board the Congress early after our arrival. In 
1S29, and till within a year or two past, the principal landing 
was in the centre of the city upon an inclined plane of solid 
masonry, descending into the water so as to be accessible by 
boats at any state of the tide ; this conducted to a fine mole of 
granite, parapetted with stone, and forming one side of the 
palace square. Against the flush wall of this mole the water rose 
high, carrying off into the current, in its reflow, the offensive 
matter, which in want of sewers is cast along the shores of the 
city at night. An extension of the sqnurc on the bay is now in 
progress, however, by the driving of piles and filling in with 
earth and rubbish ; and the landing is at a temporary stairs and 
platform of wood, at an adjoining point, in the midst of outpourings 
of filth disgusting to the senses, and making impressions on the 
stranger most unfavorable as to the purity and civilization of the 
imperial city. A carriage had been ordered for us here, and in 
its style and appointments we had evidence, at once, of the im- 
provement in eq^uipages which has been made since my last visit. 
Then, the old-fashioned Portugese Calesa, or chaise, and a clumsy 
close-carriage on leathern braces, of a similar style and date, were 
universaUy in use. I do not recollect to have seen vehicles of 
any other kind, except the imperial carriages and those of the 
British Ambassador. Now, although the Calesa is still fre- 
quently met, and occasionally its con-frere in antiquity, the low 
open four-wheeled carriage of the fashion and finish of those 
most modern in New York, London and Paris, and equal to them 
in all their appointments, is in general use. Besides many livery 
stables at which these may be found, stands of them occupy the 
Palace Square and other public points at all hours of the day. 
Twenty years ago, mules only were driven, except in the 
instances above mentioned ; but, now, fine showy horses are as 
often seen in the turn-out. The carriage we entered was drawn 
by a pair of spirited, sleek, long-tailed blacks. The coachman in 
a livery of sky-blue and silver, made aware, by the broad pennant 


of the many-oared barge in wbicli we came on shore, and by the 
lace and epaulettes of my companions, of the rank of some of the 
})arty, dashed off with a flourish of whip and a prancing of his 
beasts that won the admiration of the bystanders. He kept 
for the whole morning a Jehu speed characteristic of the manner 
of driving here ; and significant, it would seem, by its accelerated 
rapidity, of the degree of rank of those it hurries along, from the 
Emperor down. 

The route we took, is one of the finest the city and its envi- 
rons afford, leading three or four miles southward, immediately 
along the bay, by a continuous street bearing different names 
in different sections, to Botafogo, the most beautiful of the sub- 
urbs. The green and palm-tufted hills overhanging the way 
inland; the luxuriant little valleys receding, here and there, 
from it, and terminating in wild and inaccessible ravines ; the 
flower gardens and shrubberies, encircling the better residences, 
with beauty in endless forms, and the perfume of everlasting 
spring ; the gay coloring, novel, and in some instances fantastic 
architecture of the houses; the vases and statuary and statuettes 
around and surmounting them ; and the stately and ornamental 
gateways, opening into fine avenues of old trees terminating in 
embowered perspective at inviting residences remote from the 
road, with magnificent views at one point and another of the 
mountains on the one side and of the bay on the other, made 
the drive both in going and returning inspiriting and delightful. 

Botafogo itself is a gem of beauty : a seeming lake, three or 
four miles in circumference. The one half is as untamed and 
wild as granite-bound shores bristling into mountains can make 
it ; the other, a semicircular beach of white saud overhung with 
trees, and lined by a succession of fine residences. From the 
curving street on which these stand others run westward, forming 
a village-like settlement. On one of them we found the mansion 

of Mr. II , a spacious establishment with an air of aristocratic 

elegance approaching magnificence. Besides the lofty entrance 
hall and stately drawing-room into which we were ushered, there 


were glimpses tlirougli different vistas of a fine library, a music 
room, dining hall and billiard room of proportionate dimensions 
and appropriate appointments. Situated immediately beneath the 
pyramidal shaft of the Corcovado, with a view of other mountain 
peaks, the waters of Botafogo at near access on one side, and 
those of the ocean not far distant on the other, and bloom and 
blossom on every hand — the rustling banana around and the 
plumed palm above — the whole presented a tempting picture of a 
home in the tropics. 

It was late in the afternoon before we again reached the city. 
On inquiring the charge for the carriage for the four hours we 
had it in use, I was rather surprised, notwithstanding the large 
number " eight thousand," that met the ear in answer, that the 
whole was only four Spanish dollars, the thousand being reis, a 
nominal term in the currency of the country, one thousand of 
which constitute a mille-reis, a silver coin of the size and about 
the value of an American half dollar. 


Eio DE Janeiro. 

September 12th.— On returning from the drive of Monday, I 
did not accompany the party to the ship, but gave the remainder 
of the afternoon to a stroll in the city. Its two principal and 
most attractive streets are the Rua Direita and Rua Ouvidor. The 
first runs north and south, parallel with the water, forming in its 
course the western side of the Palace Square ; the other is at 
right angles with this, running east and west from a point near 
the square. A central section of the Direita is quite wide, and 
beside the palace contains the imperial chapel adjoining it, the 
Church of the Carmelites, used as a Cathedral, and that of the 
Holy Cross : in it also are the Custom House and Exchange, the 
Post Office and Commercial Reading-rooms, and the offices of 
the principal brokers and money-changers. It is in fact .the 
Lombard-street and the Wall-street of Rio ; while the Ouvi- 
dor, a mile in length, filled from end to end with shops of 
all kinds— fancy goods and millinery, prints and pictures, jewelry, 
articles of vertu and bijouterie— is its Bond-street and its 

The Rua Ouvidor terminates in a small open square, having 
on one side the fine facade of the church of St. Francisco de Paulo, 
and on another a more modern and well built structure, in Gre- 
cian architecture, used as a military school. A short street leads 
from this into a larger square diagonal to it, called the Roscio, in 


which is the Opera House ; and a quarter of a mile further west 
lies the grand sijuare of the Canipo D'Acclauiacao, so named from 
the proclamation in it of the independence of Brazil in 182'2. 
My walk extended to this. It is a rectangular common of large 
extent, but partially built upon, and is distinguished by some fine 
public edifices. On the side next the city are the Treasury, the 
Museum and the Courts of Justice; on that opposite, the Senate 
Chamber of the Imperial Legislature ; and on a third, a long line 
of Barracks. Roads and foot-paths cross it irregularly in vari- 
ous directions; but, ungraded and uuplanted, it oflPers little 
attraction to the eye, being covered with coarse grass and weeds, 
mud-puddles and rubbish. Though thus neglected and shabby 
in itself, the views from it of the encircling hills and more dis- 
tant mountains are full of freshness and beauty. 

The Senate Chamber, a large square building of stone, is 
without architectural beauty or ornament. Originally the pri- 
vate residence of a governor of Bahia, when in the metropolis, 
it was sold by him to the government for its present uses. In it, 
in 1829, I witnessed the opening of the Imperial Legislature by 
Don Pedro I. ; and learning incidentally this morning when on 
shore, that the same body was to be prorogued to-day by the 
present Emperor, I turned my steps again in that direction : 
partly for the accomplishment of my purpose of a walk, and part- 
ly for such observation as I might secure as an outside spectator. 
It was too late to seek a ticket of admission to the house, at the 
Embassy or elsewhere, and the Brazilian who gave me informa- 
tion of the ceremony, thought I could not without one gain ad- 
mittance to the interior, in the ordinary morning dress I wore. 
There would, however, it was probable, be a gathering of the 
populace to the scene; and with an opportunity of the study 
this might afford, I was content It is the remark of a biog- 
rapher of the brothers Humboldt, I think, that, " however fertile 
nature may be, man is always its most interesting and its most 
important feature ; *' and, after the almost exclusive observation 
of inanimate objects, from their surpassing magnificenc for a week 


and more, I felt doubly inclined to avail myself of the chance 
of scrutinizing my follows in new aspects of life. 

The first impression made on an intelligent stranger on land- 
ing at Rio would, probably, arise from the numbers, evident dif- 
ference in condition, the variety of employments, dress and un- 
dress, almost to nakedness, of the negro and slave population. 
Such figures, such groupings, such costumes, as are exhibited by 
these on every side, it would be difficult to picture or describe : 
the rapid lope and monotonous grunt of the coffee-bag carriers, 
their naked bodies reeking with oily sweat; the jingling and 
drumming of the tin rattles or gourds borne by the leaders of 
gangs, transporting on their heads all manner of articles — chairs, 
tables, sofas and bedsteads, the entire furniture of a household ; 
the dull recitative, followed by the loud chorus, with which they 
move along; the laborious cry of others, tugging and hauling 
and pushing over the rough pavements heavily laden trucks and 
carts, an overload for an ccjual number of mules or horses, all 
crowd on the observation. Others, both male and female, more 
favored in their occupation, are seen as pedlers, carrying in the 
same manner, trunks and boxes of tin, containing various mer- 
chandise ; glass cases filled with fancy articles and jewelry; 
trays with cakes and confectionery; and baskets with fruit, 
flowers and birds. And yet again others of the same color and 
race, more fortunate still, in being free — the street-vender, the 
mechanic, the tradesman, the soldier ; the merchant with the 
dress and manner of a gentleman ; the officer in uniform and the 
priest in his frock ; all by their contrasts filling the mind with 
speculation and opening channels for thought. 

An impression which would follow this first one, in quick suc- 
cession, would be derived from the fearfully mongrel aspect of 
much of the population, claiming to be white. Mulattoes, quad- 
roons, and demi-quadroons, and every other degree of tinted 
complexion and crisped hair, met, at every turn, indicate an al- 
most unlimited extent of mixed blood. This cannot fail to be 
revoltinnr, at least to a vi.sitor from the Northern States of our 


ooantry ; especially as exhibited in the female portion of the 
lower orders of the conimunitj, as they hang over the uuder half 
of the doors of their houses, gazing up and down the street, or 
lean — blaek. white, and gray, three and four together, in the 
closest juxtaposition from their latticed windows. 

A striking exhibition of this incongruous mingling of races 
and mixture of blood, was presented in the first object upon which 
my eye fell, on entering the Campo D"Acclamacao on my way 
to the Senate Chamber. A squadron of dragoons in a scarlet 
uniform, had just been placed in line on one side of the square. 
A mounted band in Hussar dress of the same color was in at- 
tendance. I took a station for a moment near this. It was 
composed of sixteen performers ; and in the number included 
every shade of complexion, from the blackest ebony of Africa, 
through demi, quarter, and demi-quarter blood to the purely 
swarthy Portuguese and Brazilian, and the clear red and white 
of the Saxon, with blue eyes and flaxen hair. Such, in a greater 
or less degree, is the mixture seen in every sphere of common 
life — domestic, social, civil and military ; and scarce less fre- 
quently than elsewhere, in the vestibule of the palace and at the 
altars of the church. 

With the exception of this body of horse-guards and its band, 
there was but little indication in the square of the approaching 
spectacle. Two or three hundred idlers only, in addition to the 
ordinary movements on the common, were seen loitering about. 
Those who had begun to assemble, however, were in clean and 
holiday garb. The Senate Hall, which last evening looked 
deserted and shabby enough in its exterior, appeared now in gala 
dress. All the lofty windows above and below, were decorated 
on the outside with hangings of crimson silk ; and the doors, 
throwTi wide open, were screened by draperies of green cloth, 
embroidered in the centre with the imperial arms in colors. A 
body-guard of Halberdiers, in liveries of green and gold, stood in 
groups about the entrance — their lofty spears, surmounted with 
glittering battle-axes, being at rest near at hand. 


Numbers of well-dressed citizens began to arrive and enter the 
building by a side door. Perceiving among them one and another 
in costumes not differing much from my own, I made bold to follow, 
leaving it for the door-keepers to question my right of admission. 
I knew not where I might be led, and after a long ascent by a 
dark, circular staircase, very unexpectedly found myself in an 
open gallery in the middle front of the hall, in a line with the 
diplomatic tribune on one side, and that appropriated to the 
Empress and her ladies on such occasions, on the other. All the 
best places in this gallery were already filled. As I was looking 
about for a choice in such as remained unoccupied, a Brazilian 
gentleman, recognizing me as a stranger, though there was nothing 
in my dress to indicate either my nation or profession, immediately 
approached and insisted on relinquishing to me his seat. It was 
in vain that I objected to dispossessing him, till, overcome by his 
courteous manners and unyielding purpose of civility, I bowed 
my way into it. The point of view was one of the best in the 
house, being immediately in front of the throne and the chairs 
at its foot, for the ministers and chief officers of the household. 
Besides the whole interior, it commanded also, through a large 
open window, the avenue, by which the imperial cortege would 
make its approach in state from San Christovao, the country 
palace, three or four miles west of the city. 

The Chamber has been remodelled since 1829. Instead of 
being oblong as then, it is now semicircular, like the Senate 
Chamber at Washington. The canopy and hangings of the throne 
and the draperies of the windows, are of velvet and silk in green 
and gold, the national colors. 

The members of both Houses began soon to enter ; many in 
magnificent attire — naval and military uniforms stiff with embroi- 
deries of gold, various court-dresses and priestly robes — and 
many in a full dress of black alone, with an abundance of glitter- 
ing stars and crosses, and the broad ribbons of different orders. 
In the number were many men of mark, not only in name and 
title, but in talent and popular influence. There was no friend 


near me, however, as on the former occasion, to point them out 
individually ; and I had only the unsatisfactory assurance, from 
the circumstances of the case, of seeing before me not only the 
ministers of state and other officers of the government, but the 
leading politicians and ecclesiastics of the empire. Among them 
were many heads and countenances indicative of talent and un- 
mistakable intellect, with a refinement and dignity of bearing 
that gave a most favorable impression of the whole as a legis- 
lative body. 

You are aware that the government of Brazil is a constitu- 
tional monarchy, similar in its limitations and general organization 
to that of Great Britain. A Council of State consisting of three 
members holding office for life, corresponds to the Privy Council 
of Her Majesty. The ministry-, composed of the heads of six de- 
partments — those of the Empire, Justice, Foreign Affairs, Marine, 
War, and Finance — is appointed by the Emperor. The Legisla- 
ture consists of two chambers, the Senate and the House 
of Deputies, and is elected by the different cities and provinces. 
The Senators, titled and untitled, the proportion of each being 
limited by law, are fifty-four in number, and like the Counsellors 
of State hold office for life. The deputies amount to more than 
one hundred and serve for a limited time. Titles, of which there 
are a considerable number, of the various grades of Marquis, 
Count, Viscount and Baron, besides those of different orders 
of knighthood, are not hereditary, and there is no right of pri- 
mogeniture in the descent of property. 

The Legislature in its two branches, like the Parliament of 
England and the Congress of the United States, has cognizance 
of the entire business of the empire. Its discussions and debates 
on every subject, are as free as those of the two bodies named, 
and, I am told, are often marked with distinguished ability, varied 
learning and accomplishment, and true parliamentary eloquence. 
The temperament of the Brazilians is impulsive, and often leads 
to displays of impassioned oratory, on points eliciting the sectional 
jealousies of tlie Senators and Deputies. With an empire as 


widely spread as our own, and the centralization of the entire 
revenue at 11 io, occasions often occur in which this feeling in 
regard to appropriations and other legislative measures is mani- 
fested. In times past, the ground of the strongest and warmest 
partisanship, was found in the early rivalry between the old 
Portuguese population and the native Brazilians, from the absorp- 
tion by the former of the chief offices and emoluments of the coun- 
try when a colony, and the patronage and favoritism extended by 
the crown to those who accompanied and followed John VI., in the 
transfer of the court from Lisbon in 1808. This cause of party 
irritation is now, however, rapidly disappearing. The native party 
with its purely native policy and views is entirely predominant, 
and can never again lose its power and influence. 

A flourish of trumpets and a general bustle outside soon 
intimated the approach of the Emperor ; and, tlirough the open 
window before mentioned, I had a view of the procession of state. 
A company of lancers in rapid movement cleared the way. 
These were followed by a detachment of horse guards, in a 
uniform of white and gold with scarlet plumes, accompanied by 
a mounted band playing the national air ; then came six coaches- 
and-six — each flanked and followed by its guard of honor — contain- 
ing the great officers of the household. The state carriage of 
the Phnpress and her ladies, drawn by eight iron grays, next made 
its appearance ; after which came the imperial state coach with a 
like number of horses ; a long cavalcade of troops completing the 
cortege. Each pair of horses had its postillion, and each carriage 
its coachman and three footmen. All were in state liveries 
of green, stift' with lace and embroideries in silver. The 
postillions wore jockey caps fitting closely to the head, with lace 
and embroideries to correspond with the livery, and the coachmen 
and footmen, old-fashioned cocked hats broadly laced and fringed 
with white ostrich feathers. The postillions, mostly handsome 
young lads, and the coaclimen and footmen wore powder, and the 
liead of each carriage-horse was surmounted by three ostrich 
feathers arranged like the Prince of Wales' plume. The panels 


and top of the Emperor's carriage were of crimson velvet ; but 
all other parts, the wheels iucluded, of the heaviest carving, richly 
gilt ; — the pattern and style of the whole reminding me of the 
state coaches of his great ancestor, Emanuel of Portugal, in the 
palmiest days of his reign, which I recollect to have had pointed 
out to me, as matters of antiquity, in the Eoyal Mews at Lisbon. 

A procession of courtiers now appeared, in an upper corridor, 
open* to view from the gallery, and, by a double line, formed a 
passage way for the Empress and ladies in waiting, to the 
tribune appropriated to her. This was screened in front by 
curtains. As Her Majesty entered these were drawn, and all in 
the gallery rising and bowing, remained standing. In the mean 
time the hall below became deserted, the senators and deputies 
having left it to escort the Emperor from the robing room. They 
returned in procession in a few moments, with His Majesty at the 
head in full coronation attire, wearing the crown and bearing the 
sceptre or gilded staff of state. While he mounted the steps of 
the throne the members filed off on either side to their respective 
places. Bowing to them, as he turned to face the assembly, the 
Emperor bade them be seated, and rested himself on his chair of 
state. A secretary then presented him with a sheet of letter 
paper in a portfolio, from which he read an address some five 
minutes in length. At its close, rising and again bowing, he de- 
scended and passed through the centre of the hall as he had 
entered, followed in procession by the entire body. 

Don Pedro II., whom I saw as a child of three years, beside 
his father at a presentation on my former visit in llio, is now a 
tall and stalwart young man of twenty-five, standing among 
those around him, like Saul in Israel, " higher than any of the 
people from his shoulders and upward.'' He is finely and 
massively built, with great breadth of shoulders and fulness of 
chest. His German descent, through his mother, the Arch- 
duchess Leopoldiua of Austria, is strikingly manifest in his light 
hair, blue eyes and fair complexion. There is nothing either in 
the features or expression of his face to remind one that, on his 


father's side, he is a direct representative of the united blood of 
Braganza and Castile. His countenance, in repose, is heavy and 
inexpressive, and in the .reading of his speech exhibited little 
flexibility. A fixed and, seemingly, determined indifference was 
all that could be inferred from his enunciations and intonations. 
I could not detect the slightest emotion of any kind or perceive 
a ray of feeling in his eye, as he went mechanically through it. 
How far this might be attributed to the subject matter, I am 
unable to say ; it was in Portuguese, which I do not understand, 
and I have not yet seen a report of it in French in the daily 
journals. Still he is known to be a man of mind and character ; 
has been most carefully and thoroughly educated ; is extensively 
read ; scientific in his studies and pursuits ; and of exemplary 
correctness in his moral principles and character. 

The Empress Dona Theresa is a Bourbon of Naples, a younger 
sister of the present King of the two Sicilies, and, of course, of 
Christina, Queen Dowager of Spain. She is apparently some 
four or five years the senior of her lord. In person she is short 
and stout, full in face, with well-defined features, and great amia- 
bility and benevolence of expression. Her walk and general 
mien, however, are not particularly marked with the high bearing 
and finished air, which give such grace and such prestige of regal 
birth and training to some of her compeers in rank, whom I have 
seen in Europe. She was in court costume — an under dress of 
white satin heavily embroidered with gold, with a profusion of 
rich lace falling deeply over the corsage and forming its sleeves. 
These were looped with bands of diamonds magnificent in size 
and lustre. The train was of green velvet with embroideries 
in gold, corresponding with those of the skirt. Her head-dress, 
with the hair worn in long ringlets in front, was a wreath of 
diamonds and emeralds, in the shape of flowers, rising into the 
form of a coronet over the forehead, and from which a white 
ostrich feather fell on one side gracefully to the shoulder. A 
broad sash, the combined ribbons of difi'crent orders — scarlet, 
purple, and green — crossed the bust from the right shoulder to 


the waist, above which a mass of emeralds and diamonds of the 
first water sparkled on her bosom. The ladies in waiting were 
also in dresses of green and gold of corresponding character. 

By the time the gallery was suflBciently cleared to allow of 
a comfortable descent, the procession was formed for a return, in 
the same order in which it had arrived. The Empress was 
entering her carriage at a canopied doorway, as I gained the open 
air. Some amusing incident had just occurred, and in taking her 
seat she indulged in (juite a laugh with her companions. This 
entirely confirmed the impression of her good looks and amiabil- 
ity. Ten years of apparent age were at once thrown off, and 
both vivacity of mind and sweetness of manner indicated by it. 
A pleasant break upon the frigidity of imperial etiquette, having 
the effect of a burst of sunshine on a cloudy day, over a land- 
scape whose chief beauty till then had been in shade. 

A lowering morning by this time began to settle into a heavy 
rain ; and a heavy rain here is a rain indeed. It soon poured in 
torrents ; and it seemed a pity, in an economical point of view, at 
least, as the long display moved off for a ride of three miles to 
San Christovao, that so much gilding and embroidery, so much lace 
and velvet, and so many fine feathers should be exposed to the 
peltinga of the storm. 


Eio UK .Iankiiio. 

September Wffi. — There is no seaman's chaplain or other 
American clergyman, at present at Rio ; and the religious services 
of the Sabbath on board the Congress, since our arrival, have 
been attended by many of our compatriots, both ladies and gen- 
tlemen, residents here, including the Ambassador and Consul and 
their families. Occasions occur not unfrapeutly both in the 
shipping and on shore, calling for the special services of a Pro- 
testant minister of the Gospel. This has been the case within 
the passing week. The commander of an American schooner 
spoken by us the day we crossed the line, but which did not 
arrive till ten days after the Congress, died suddenly of apoplexy 
the morning he entered port. The schooner was put in quaran- 
tine, immediately, by the health officer ; and it was with, great 
difficulty permission was obtained from the authorities for the 
burial of the body on shore. Mr. Kent, the consul, formerly 
Governor of the State of Maine, solicited my attendance officially 
at the interment. This took place at the Protestant cemetery 
at Gamboa, a northern suburb of the city, situated on a broad 
indenture on the western side of the bay. Here the body had 
been carried by water. Gov. Kent took me in a calcsa by land. 
The drive is through a mean and unattractive part of the city, 
by a winding course from street to street, between the hill of 
San Bento and that surmounted by the Bishop's Palace. 


This burial-ground was purchased by the foreign residents 
of Rio tweuty-tivc or thirty years ago. It was then, and 
still is, comparatively, a secluded and rural spot, upon a hill-side 
overhung and crowned with trees, and coiumanding a beautiful 
view northward of the ujiper bay and its many islands ; of the 
rich valleys to the west; and of the Organ Mountains sweeping 
majestically round iu the distance. It is enclosed with high 
and substantial walls of stone, and is entered by an ornamental 
gateway of iron. From this a winding avenue of trees marks 
the ascent to a neat little chapel on a terrace near the centre of 
the ground. Here such religious services as may be desired, or 
can be secured, before committing the dead to the grave; are 
usually observed. 

The morning was wet and gloomy, according well with the 
object of our visit, and the peculiar circumstances in which the 
burial was to take place. A funeral more sad in its desolateuess 
could scarcely be : that of a stranger, in a strange land, un- 
wept and unattended by any one who had ever seen, or ever 
heard of him when living. The consul, the undertaker, the 
grave-digger and I, as chaplain, being the only persons brought 
to the spot either by duty or humanity. The officers and crew 
of the schooner wore in quarantine, and, from some omission or 
mistake in the arrangements, no representative from other Ameri- 
can vessels iu port was present. 

The kindness of Gov. Kent, in giving his personal attend- 
ance, was at a sacrifice of feeling which could not fail to elicit 
my sympathy, though a stranger to him till within a few days 
past. It is but a very brief period, scarcely a month, since he 
committed to the newly-made grave near which we were standing, 
an only son of great just verging into manhood : one of 
the last of the victims of the late epidemic. The associations 
of the passing scene could not but revive in painful freshness a 
sorrow that has not yet lost its keenness. 

The rain, and the wetness in every pathway, prevented all 
observation, except a general gknce aruuiid, or any lingering 


among the memorials of those who rest here, far from the sepul- 
chres of their, fathers. It had been my purpose, before being 
called thus by duty to the spot, early to visit in it the tomb of my 
friend Tudor. This was the only one I now sought, to stand a 
moment beside it in remembrance of the dead, and, in thoughts 
of the living, who most loved him, but who may never be per- 
mitted to look upon his grave. It is marked by a plain while 
obelisk of Italian marble, bearing the following simple inscrip- 
tion : 


GcLiELMi Tudor 

Rerump : Feed : Amcricaj Sept : 


Natus Bostonicc A. D. MDCCLXXIX. 

Mortuus est 

Rio Janiero A. D. MDCCCXXX. 

Multis ille bonis 

flebilis Occidit. 

September l^th. — The objects, at Rio, of historic interest to 
the stranger, or suggestive to him of thoughts of the past, arc 
few. There is, however, at least one entitled in these respects 
to a passing notice from a Protestant. It is a small island, 
situated a short distance seaward from our anchorage, beneath the 
green heights of Castle Hill, a half mile from the shore. Its 
entire area is occupied by a fortress, whose white ramparts, demi- 
turrcted angles, and floating banner, form conspicuous objects in 
coming up the harbor. My eye never consciously rests upon it 
without recurrence to a fact in the early history of Rio, insepa- 
rably associated with the name which both island and fortress now 
bear — that of Villcgagnon. However imposing and aristocratic 
in sound, it is synonymous in its application here, with treachery, 
and not less surreptitious — to compare small things with great. — 
as regards the name of the noble old Huguenot Coligny, first 
given to them, than that of Americus, borne by half the globe, 
instead of one in honor of the true Ouder of the western world. 


Brazil was first discovered by Vinccutc Piuzou, one of the 
compauious of Columbus iu his first voyage, on the 2(3th of Jan- 
uary, 1490. The land descried by him was Cape St. Augustine 
in the vicinity of the present city of Pernambuco. He took pos- 
session of the country in the name of the crown of Castile, whose 
flag he bore, and, coasting northward to the mouth of the Ama- 
zon, returned to Spain without forming a sottlemeiit. About 
the ^me period Pedro Cabral was fitting out a large fleet in the 
Tagus, to be conducted to India by the newly known route of 
the Cape of Good Hope. Fearful of the calms in the Atlantic 
oft' the coast of Africa, in pursuing the voyage, he ran so far to 
the west as to make, on the '2bth of April, 1506, the same shores 
Pinzon had, some degrees fui'ther to the south. Entering a fine 
bay, in imitation of Columbus, he erected a wooden cross on the 
shore, before which he and his followers prostrated themselves, 
and high mass being performed, possession of the country was 
taken in the name of his sovereign Emanuel of Portugal. He 
gave to the bay the name of Porto Seguro, since changed in honor 
of him to Cubralia, and to the country that of the Terra de Vera 
Cruz — the Land of the Holy Cross. This appellation, however, 
was soon lost iu that of Brazil, from the abundance of the wood of 
that name found in it and the high value placed upon the article 
in Europe : a result pathetically deplored by a pioits Jesuit, in 
the lamentation that '' the cupidity of man by unworthy traflBc, 
should change the wood of the cross, red with the real blood of 
Christ, for that of another wood which resembled it only in 

The harbor of Bio de Janeiro was not discovered till 1516. 
De Solis, in search of a western passage to the Pacific, looked 
into it, in that year, as he coasted his way to the Bio de la Plata 
where he lost his life. He gave to it no name, however, and it 
remained unvisited again till De Sousa entered it in 1531. Under 
the impression that it was the outlet of a great river, this naviga- 
tor called it Bio de Janeiro, the day on which he made the sup- 
posed discovery being the first of the new year. It did not. 


however, particularly attract the notice of the Portuguese, and 
still remained unoccupied by them. 

In the mean time adventurers and traders from France made 
their way to this part of the New World, and secured the good 
will and friendship of the natives. Among them was Villegaguon, 
a knight of Malta, who had seen service in the east, was an officer 
of distinction in the Fi-ench navy, and had commanded the vessel 
which carried Mary Queen of Scots and her retinue from France 
on her return to her kingdom. His visit to Brazil inspired him 
with the ambition of establishing a colony at Rio. Desirous of 
the favor and aid of the crown in this project, and believing the 
influence of Coligny with the king the surest means of accomplish- 
ing this end, to winjiis confidence and co-operation he professed a 
deep interest in the condition of the Protestants of France, and 
avowed the purpose of making the proposed colony a refuge to 
them, from the persecutions to which they were subject at home. 
The king was led by his friendship for Coligny, to regard the pro- 
position with such favor as to grant to Yilogagnon two vessels for 
the expedition, while the admiral interested himself in securing a 
number of respectable Protestants to accompany it as colonists. 

On arriving at Rio in 1555, Villegagnon first took possession 
of the small island Lage near the mouth of the harbor ; but 
soon finding this too much exposed to the sea, removed to one 
larger near the site of the present city, to which, with the fort 
erected upon it, he gave the name of Coligny. The vessels 
were sent back to France for reinforcements. Great interest in 
the enterprise had in the mean time been excited among the 
Protestants there. Two clergymen and fourteen students of the- 
ology had been selected in Geneva to secure the spiritual good 
of the colony, and were received, preparatory to their embarka- 
tion, at the chateau of Coligny near Cliatillon, with great atten- 
tion. Large numbers of respectable emigrants joined them, and 
sanguine hopes were entertained that the principles of the refor- 
mation would be surely implanted in the New World. 

Early after the arrival of this reinforcement, Villegagnon, 


believing himself sure of the support of the crown in the further 
prosecution of his object, under the pretence of having returned 
to his old faith, commenced so bitter a persecution of the Prot- 
estants, that, in place of the peaceful enjoyment of freedom of 
conscience for which they had been led so far from their native 
land, they found themselves in a worse condition in this respect 
than they were at home. They were driven, at length, to the 
determiuatiou of returning to France. The only vessel, however, 
granted to them for the purpose was so old and so ill found for 
the voyage, that five of the number, after going on board, refused 
to venture their lives in her. Of these, three were afterwards 
put to death by Villegagnon, and the others, flying for refuge to 
the Portuguese settlements, were constrained to apostatize to save 
their lives. The company who embarked reached France only 
after having suffered all but death from starvation. At the time 
of their return, ten thousand of their brethren were in readiness, 
under the auspices of Culigny, to embark for the new colony. The 
report brought by them of the treachery of him who was to have 
been their leader at once changed their purpose ; and the project 
of a Protestant colony in ' France Antarctique,' as the region had 
already been styled, was abandoned. Thus it was that the re- 
ligious and civil destiny of one of the richest sections of the New 
AVorld was changed for centuries now past, and, it may be, for 
centuries yet to come. 

With the remembrance of this ftxilure in establishing the 
Reformed religion here, and of the direct cause which led to it, 
I often find myself speculating, as to the possible and pro- 
bable results which would have followed the successful estab- 
lishment of Protestantism during the three hundred years 
which have intervened. With the wealth and power and in- 
creasing prosperity of the United States before us as the fruits, 
at the end of two hundred years, of the colonization of a few 
feeble bands of Protestants on the comparatively bleak and barren 
-lore of the Northern Continent, there is no prcsuuiiition in the 
belief that, had a people of similar faith, similar morals, similar 


habits of industry and enterprise, gained an abiding footing in 
so genial a climate and on so exuberant a soil, long ago, the 
still unexplored and impenetrable wildernesses of the interior 
would have bloomed and blossomed in civilization as the rose, and 
Brazil from the sea-coast to the Andes become one of the gardens 
of the world. But the germ which might have led to this was 
crushed by the bad faith and malice of Villegagnon ; and, as 
I look on the spot which, by bearing his name, in the eyes 
of a Protestant at least perpetuates his reproach, the two or 
three solitary palms which lift their tufted heads above the em- 
battled walls, and furnish the only evidence of vegetation on the 
island, seem, instead of plumed warriors in the midst of their 
defences, like sentinels of grief mourning the blighted hopes of 
the long past. 

The conduct of Villegagnon soon met its just recompense. 
The course he pursued towards the Huguenots led to the early and 
utter failure of his enterprise. Had he been true to his followers 
of the lleformed faith, the colony, in place of being weakened by 
the return of any to France, would bave been so strengthened and 
established by the ten thousand prepared to join them, that the 
Portuguese would never have been able to dislodge and supplant 
them. Needing reinforcements, Villegagnon proceeded himself 
to France to secure more settlers and the further aid of the gov- 
ernment. Every thing there was adverse to his object. He had 
forfeited the favor of Coligny, and put an effectual end to the 
emigration of Protestants to Brazil. The king was too much 
occupied with the civil war existing to give heed to him. While 
thus delayed the Portuguese fitted out a strong expedition under 
Mem de Sa from Bahia. This was successful. The French were 
driven to their ships, and the Portuguese, possessing themselves 
of the island on which they had been established, gained such 
foothold as never afterwards to be displaced. This occurred on 
tlie 20th of Jan. 15GU, St. Sebastian's day, under the patronage 
of which saint the expedition had been placed: and in whose 
honor the city afterwards built on tlie mainland, received the 


name of St. Sebastian. This is now, however, entirely .sup- 
planted by that of Kio de Janeiro. 

In 1G7G the city had become so populous as to be made the 
see of a Bis^hop, and the palace now crowning the brow of the 
Bishop's Hill was built. At that time, and for more than a 
hundred years afterwards, Bahia was the seat of chief authority 
in the captaincies of Brazil; but in 1763, so greatly had the 
wealth and influence of Rio increased, from the discovery of the 
gold and diamond mines, whose products were poured into her 
bosom as a market, that the residence of the Viceroy was trans- 
ferred from Bahia and became permanently fixed here. 

It was not, however, till the arrival of the royal family of Por- 
tugal, in their flight from Lisbon before the French army in 1808, 
that the prosperity and true progress of Rio, and Brazil in gene- 
ral, may be said to have commenced. Till then, the whole country 
had been subject to the restrictive and depressing influences of 
the policy adopted by the mother country, in the government of her 
colonies : all foreign trade interdicted, heavy import and export 
duties imposed on the commerce with Portugal herself, grasping 
monopolies claimed by the crown at home, and extortionate per- 
quisites exacted by its representatives on the ground. There were 
no press, no newspapers, no books, no schools. The whole country 
was in a state of darkness and ignorance beyond that of the 
Middle Ages ; and Rio an unenlightened, unrefined, and demora- 
lized provincial town. But with the Prince Regent of Portugal, 
the Queen mother, the court, and more than twenty thou-sand 
followers, European manners and customs, and the habits and 
usages of modern civilized life were introduced. Commerce was 
opened to all nations ; and the press, literature and the arts estab- 
lished. The changes efiected in Rio were almost miraculous; and 
so constant and so rapid have been the improvements to the pres-cnt 
time, that she now presents to the visitor, in many of her leading 
features, an aspect becoming the metropolis of a great Kuipire. 

The progress of enlightened government, enlarged liberty and 
extended commerce, has been commensurate with the advances in 


civilization, intellectual culture and the refinements of life. The 
measure of throwing the ports open to all nations, so wise and so 
essential, at once adopted and proclaimed by the Prince Regent — 
afterwards John VI. — in 1808, was followed by him in 1815 by 
the no less important step of elevating the colony in its united 
provinces to a distinct kingdom, on an equality in its rights and 
privileges with those of Portugal and Algarves, under the one 

In 1822, Brazil became an independent empire under Don 
Pedro I. with a constitution which guaranteed to her a represen- 
tative legislature, and the largest liberty compatible wath the 
immunities of the limited monarchy by which she is still governed. 

This political progress was not made without obstacles and 
threatened anarchy and disaster. The return to Portugal of 
John VI. in 1821, was followed in 1831, by the abdication of Don 
Pedro I. in favor of his son, a child four years of age ; and par- 
tisan conflicts, during the regency which followed, made necessary 
the sudden termination, in 1840, of the minority of Don Pedro 
II., at the age of 14, in violation of an article of the constitution 
fixing the majority of an heir to the throne at eighteen. Since 
then, however, general tranquillity and progressive prosperity have 
prevailed. After years of deficiency in the revenue there is now 
a surplus ; the receipts of the imperial treasury for the last year 
being seventeen millions and a half of dollars, and the expendi- 
tures little more than fifteen millions. The national debt is sixty 
millions, but with increasing exports and an enlarging commerce 
this may soon be liquidated ; and the finances of the country be 
placed iu unfettered condition. The revenue is derived from 
duties on exports as well as imports ; those on exports being ap- 
plicable alike to the internal commerce of the empire between 
province and province, and to that with foreign countries. The 
export duty on coflfce, transferred from one province to another, 
is ten per cent. On shipments of the same article for foreign 
ports, there is an additional duty of two per cent. Every pro- 
duct — rice, sugar, cotton, farina — is thus taxed. The export duty 


ui» luandfoca, the staff of life of the country, is regulated by the 
luarket value of the article, and not by fixed per centage. 

There is no direct tax ou lauded property, but, in lieu of it, 
a levy of ten per cent, on every transfer of real estate. There 
is also an annual tax on slaves throughout the empire at the 
rate of two milreis a head. 

The greatest danger to which the empire seems exposed, arises 
from the vastness of its extent, and the obstacles which have 
hitherto existed to a ready intercourse, between its different sec- 
tions and the central power at Rio de Janeiro. But steam 
navigation already established along its coast, and soon to be 
introduced on its northern rivers, with projected railroads and 
telegraphic routes, promises to overcome this difficulty ; and, as in 
the United States, so to facilitate communication, and so closely 
and firmly to bind the different provinces in a whole, as to secure 
the perpetuity and integrity of the empire. 


At Sea. 

Sejptemher 23d — 

" The sea again ! the swift, bright sea ! " — 

and, at the rate of twelve miles the hour, 

" Away, away upon the nishing tide 
We hurry faster than the foam we ride, 
Dashing afar the waves, which round us cling, 
With strength like that which lifts the eagle's wing. 
Where the stars dazzle and the angels smg. 
We scatter the spray. 

And break through the billows, 
As the wind makes way 

Through the leaves of willows ! " 

We had expected to iiiect at Rio de Janeiro, the frigate 
Braudywinc, the ship the Congress came to relieve ; but instead, 
Commodore McKeever found orders awaiting him there to pro- 
ceed to Montevideo. In obedience to these we got under way, 
early on the ITth inst. ; but, after dropping down the bay a couple 
of miles, the land breeze failed us and we again came to anchor. 
For three successive days, we made a like attempt to get to sea, 
but to no purpose ; and, on the morning of the 21st, employed a 
steam tug to tow us out. The British Admiral had previously 
proffered the use of a small steamer, in attendance upon his llag; 


and now sent her, to aid the little tow-boat in stemming with her 
stately burden, the tide just beginning to set in. AVhen well out- 
side we took a smacking breeze ; and, though scarce two days at 
sea, have 'run five hundred miles — nearly half the distance to 

There was no special reason for regret at the delay in getting 
oflf. The position we occupied while detained was the finest pos- 
sible 'for the study of the imagery amidst which we lay. But for 
some accidental cause of the kind, we should not have had an 
opportunity of enjoying it, and I availed myself of the chauco to 
secure a panoramic drawing, embracing points of beauty not 
commanded from the customary anchorage of men-of-war. Dur- 
ing the detention. Captain Mcintosh took me with him in two 
or three excursions upon the water in his gig, followed by walks 
on shore of interest and novelty. One of these was to Praya 
Grande, opposite Rio ; and another to the bay of St. Francis 
Xavier, called by the English Five-fathom Bay, on the same 
side of the water, but nearer the sea. 

The formation of the land on the eastern side of the harbor 
is less bold and lofty than that on which the city lies. The 
mountains arc more distant, and the spurs from them come down 
in rounded hills, interspersed with valleys and broad interval lands. 
Praya Grande and Praya San Domingo form one gently curving 
beach on this shore, some three miles in length, extending north- 
ward from the fragmentary islet — on the bluff crest of which is 
perched the little chapel of Boa Viagem — to a beautifully 
rounded promontory jutting far westward into the bay. They 
are contiguous parishes, seemingly but one settlement, and are 
rural and village like. The green banks along the water side are 
overhung with trees, and the houses every where interspersed 
with large gardens and ornamented enclosures. The population 
of the two places amounts to about three thousand. The resi- 
dences, for the most part, are well built, and many of them taste- 
ful in architecture, and fanciful in their embellihhment. In com- 
parison with the city opposite, the whole district is pure aud 


cleanly ; and, in place of the villanous smells too often met there, 
abounds with the mingled fragrance of the orange, cape jessa- 
mine, heliotrope, and unuunibcred other blossoms — constituting 
a sweetness more fresh and grateful than the choicest ' mille fleurs' 
of tlic perfumist. Wild roses, multiflora, and clustering flowers of 
varied hues, mantle the tops and fringe the sides of the hedges 
of myrtle and mimosa, aloes and cacti which border the roads, 
while many of the pleasure gardens, of which we had glimpses 
through the iron railings and open gateways, are adorned with 
plants and shrubs of novel forms and gorgeous bloom, amidst foun- 
tains of greater or less beauty. 

We made our way into the open country, meeting, at one 
or two points, features in the scenery quite homelike : one — a 
meadow of coarse grass edged by a copse and thickets inter- 
spersed with single trees ; and another, a large field on a hill-side 
having the earth freshly turned up, like newly ploughed ground 
with us, over which noble mango trees, with their thickly set 
leaves, and rounded tops, were scattered like oaks in an English 
park. On every hand there was a great variety of growth in 
shrub and tree, and it was with no slight degree of pleasure that 
I recognized among others, as old friends at the Sandwich 
Islands, not only the cocoa-nut, palm and banana, but also the 
bread-fruit, the tamai'ind, and aluerites triloba — or candle tree. 

Not knowing how far the road we were following might lead, 
before it would again conduct towards the water, we were about 
to retrace our steps the same way, when, a question accidentally put 
to a negro passing, led to a return under his guidance over a hill, by 
a wild and romantic bridle-path. This was so overhung by densely 
interwoven growth, that the glare of midday soon became twi- 
light to us, and the heat of a burning sun tempered to the cool- 
ness of a grotto. At many points of the entire walk, the views 
of the bay and city in the distance, and of the mountains over- 
hanging them were of unsurpassed beauty. Indeed, there was 
no end to the forms of loveliness by which we were surrounded, and 
to the associations in memory and affection brought to my mind 


bj them. With the expectation of spending many a tedious 
mouth of our long exile on the adjoining -waters, it was a delight 
to know that walks of such freshness and beauty are so near and 
so accessible. 

The row to the bay of St. Francis Xavier was made the suc- 
ceeding afternoon. A bold and strongly defined promontory of 
granite, separates this sheet from the waters of the general harbor, 
and makes it so land-locked as to give to it the aspect of a 
secluded lake. Till we had doubled this, I had no idea of the 
depth to which the bay sweeps seaward behind the promontory, 
or of the feeling of remoteness from civilized life which its gen- 
eral features at once impart. The wild mountains, with a rude 
hut clinging here and there to their uncultivated sides; the 
primitive look of the lowly cottages of fishermen stretched along 
a distant beach ; and the canoes drawn up on the sands, or resting 
lightly upon the water, again transported me to the South Seas, 
and I felt as if at the 3Iarqucsau or Society Islands, rather than 
within a half a dozen miles of the metropolis of a magnificent 
empire. Just so untamed, just so Indian-like, I am told, were 
the entire surroundings of the bay of Rio, till within the last 
thirty or forty years. 

The eastern side of this inlet is formed by a long curving 
beach of sand, called the Praya Carahy. It fronts an extensive 
plain of low alluvial ground through which, at either end, two 
streams from the mountains make their way. Landing at the mouth 
of the most southern of these, with orders for the boat to meet 
us at that to the north, we walked upon the sands the interven- 
ing distance, in alternate admiration of the scenery inland, on the 
one side, and the sportiugs of a heavy surf on the other. This 
illumined by the rays of the declining sun, rose high in emerald 
nasses, till, cresting into ten thousand diamonds, it thundered on 
the beach and came rushing to our feet in sheets of foam. 

September '21ih. — The fresh wind mentioned in my last date 
brought us, the next evening, on soundings ofi" the Kio de la 
Plata. A change then suddenly occurred with every indication 


of heavy weather. The mercury in the barometer fell low ; and 
during the night there was heavy rain, with a good deal of thun- 
der and lightning, while meteors, called by seamen, corapesaut — 
a corruption of corpo santo or holy body — flitted about the yard- 
arms and mast-heads of the ship. All these were forerunners of 
weather more like a gale than any thing experienced since leav- 
ing Norfolk : indeed, a regular pampero, a storm of wind so called 
from the pampas or boundless plains between the Rio la Plata 
and Patagonia, over which the cold south and south-west winds 
from the polar regions sweep, corresponding in force and temper- 
ature to our fiercest north-west winds at home. The storm was 
not of long continuance, and yesterday afternoon we made the 
land near Cape St. Mary, the northern entrance to the river. 
We lay ofi" shore for the night, and sighting the land again this 
morning, soon after made the little islet of Lobos, a chief land- 
mark in entering the Plata from the north, seventy miles from 
Montevideo. It derives its name from the multitude of seal fre- 
quenting it. Many of these were seen, as we approached, bask- 
ing on the rocky shores and swimming about in the water. A 
strong and offensive odor was also very perceptible. The island 
is a governmental possession of the Republic of Uruguay, but 
leased for a long term of years to a gentleman of Montevideo, 
and yields a handsome income in skins and oil. 

The river is here one hundred and twenty miles wide. Its 
northern shore only, of course, is visible. This is low and sandy, 
marked here and there by a green hillock. With a glass, great 
numbers of horses, in vast droves as if wild, could be seen graz- 
ing in the distance ; also the church towers of Maldouado, the 
town next in size in the Republic to Montevideo. From all we 
can learn, it is in such decay and depoinilation at present, that 
the euphony of its name is its chief attraction. 

Midway between the island of Lobos and Montevideo are the 
highlands of Monte Negro. The next landmark is the isle of 
Flores, surmounted by a light-house, fifteen miles distant from the 


anchorage. This light we are in momentary expectation of 

Montevideo, October 1st. — On the night of the 29th ult., 
after having run a sufficient distance beyond the light of Flores 
to bring us abreast of Montevideo, we dropped anchor without 
having caught sight of any shipping in the roadstead, or discov- 
ering any signs of the town. On the lifting of a dense fog the 
next morning, the first objects discernible were the men-of-war of 
a French squadron about five miles in shore of us. Shortly 
after, the Mount — a conical hill situated on the western side of a 
circular indenture in the river, constituting the harbor — which 
gives name to the place, was disclosed ; and lastly, the town itself 
on a point opposite, distant from it a mile or more, in a direct 
line across the water. The whole landscape is as different as pos- 
sible from that at Rio de Janeiro. It is low and level, without 
rock or tree: a soft verdure covered the shore and gleamed in 
the sun, like so much velvet, as it came peering on the eye 
through the fog bank. 

The Mount is an isolated hill rising gradually and regularly 
on all sides, at an angle of 45°, to a height of 480 or 90 feet. 
It is crowned by a small rectangular fortress, above which the 
lantern of a pharos rises some twenty or thirty feet. Being in 
possession of a besieging force, no light is shown from it, that 
additional embarrassment may be placed on the commerce of the 
port. Midway between the Mount on the west and the town on 
the east, a smaller hill rises two or three miles inland, in like 
manner in regular lines from the plain. This too is crowned 
by a little fort, which, like the other, is in possession of the 
besieging party. It is called the " Cerrito," or little hill, in 
contradistinction to the other, known as the " Cerro," or hill par 
excellence. The town is situated on a peninsula of tufa rock, a 
half mile in length by a quarter in width, rising gently from the 
water on three sides to an elevation of eighty or a hundred feet, 
much in the shape of a tortoise's back. From a distance it pre- 
sents a mass of compactly built, white, flat-topped houses, one 


and two stories high, of Spanish aspect, with multitudes of 
small, square turrets or miradors overtopping them, from the jnidst 
of which, on the central height, rise the lofty roofs, dome and 
double towers of a cathedral. 

It was in vain we searched among the shipping of the outer 
roads, where alone there is sufficient depth of water for a frigate, 
for the broad pennant of Commodore Storer. The sloop-of-war 
St. Louis, however, was recognized in the inner harbor. On 
communicating with her, we learned that the Brandywiue had 
sailed for Rio de Janeiro ten days ago, again leaving orders for 
the Congress to follow. Our trip has thus been for naught. 
We sail again for Brazil, with the first fair wind, and I shall 
defer all observation in the city to the more favorable oppor- 
tunities of an after visit. 

The general view around us is more homelike than any thing 
seen by us since leaving the United States. The growth is no 
longer tropical. The sky, the temperature of the air, the tinting 
of the clouds at sunrise and sunset are all those of the Northern 
States. Yesterday, the Sabbath, was altogether like a fine, 
bright, fresh and transparent dny in October on the Hudson ; 
though, while October there is the gradual freshening of autumn 
into winter, here it is the softening of spring into summer. The 
mercury in Fahrenheit has not yet fallen below 50° ; still the 
change from the heat of llio was felt so sensibly, on reaching the 
latitude of the river, that flannels, cloth clothes, and overcoats 
were found comfortable, if not absolutely necessary. The region 
of the La Plata is famed for the transparency of its atmosphere 
in fine weather. To this probably is to be attributed, in part at 
least, the great beauty of the sunsets at this place. We have 
been delighted by two already gazed on; the one remarkable for 
the exijui^ite delicacy of its tints in blue and gold, amber, pink 
and pearl, and the other, equally soft and beautiful at first, but 
afterwards gorgeous to sublimily, from the reflections in crimson 
and gold of a canopy of fleecy clouds spread widely over the 


At Ska. 

October Vlth. — We made an attempt to leave Montevideo 
on the 2d inst., but succeeded in making a small change only 
in our anchorage. At the end of throe days, we had scarcely 
pa.s.sed the island of Flores, fifteen miles from the city, though 
we had weighed anchor not less than three times each day in the 
hope of taking a final departure. The diflaculty was caused by 
a succession of calms, thick fogs, head winds and adverse tides 
characteristic of the season here. It was not till the 6th that 
we again passed Lobos and were fairly outside. 

Since clearing Cape St. Mary, we have been experiencing all 
the vicissitudes of the sea : first in a long stretch, off our course, 
far to the south-east, close hauled upon a head wind ; and, since 
the 9th inst., when this changed in our fiivor, in a rapid but bois- 
terous run of more than half the distance to Rio de Janeiro. 
While thus careering on our way, in addition to the ever-varying 
rush and roar — the cresting, breaking and foaming of the billows 
behind and around us, we have found an interesting relaxation on 
deck in watching the sportings and unwearied movements of 
unnumbered sea-birds, following closely in the broad and troubled 
wake of our ship, in pursuit of the fragments of food thrown 
overboard from the different messes at all hours of the day. It is 
not often that so rich a windfall as the waste of such a ship falls 
to their lot. To this fact they seem fully alive, and were inde- 
fatigable in making the best of their good fortune. Amidst 
flocks of beautiful Cape pigeons, outrivalling in numbers the 
crows of Crum Elbow * in an autumnal evening, were to be seen 
the gigantic albatross, sweeping round on wide-expanded and 
motionless wing ; the sea-mew and man-of-war bird, black as 
ravens ; the booby, and any quantity of the stormy petrel, tread- 
ing the water more confidently and more securely than did the 
unbelieving Peter. 

* A well know-n point on the Hudson Ri%'er, overhung by precipitous clififs, 
u favorite resort of crows. 



The Cape pigeon — Procellaria Capensis — is beautiful ou the 
wing or as seen tossing gracefully on the water. Its size is that 
of a large dove. Its breast is snow-white, with back, wings and 
tail of slate color, thickly set with oval spots of white, having 
much the effect on the eye of a tasteful dress in second mourning. 
Several were taken with hook and line, baited with pork, and 
one by the mere entanglement of its wings in a line. They are 
not so pretty or symmetrically formed, on close inspection as at a 
distance ; and in place of the gentleness of the dove, which they 
at first so much resemble, are as snappish and resentful in spirit 
against their captors as the most carnivorous of their species. 

The albatross — Diomedia Exulans — is white, with wings 
and back varying in different birds from black to a light brown. 
It is an ugly-looking bird, about the size of a domestic goose, 
with large head and great goggle eyes. The wings are very 
long — from eleven to fourteen feet from tip to tip. This inter- 
feres much with the facility of rising when seated on the water. 
It is only with evident effort and an awkward floundering that 
they mount again after having alighted ; but then, it is a wonder 
to observe the ease and rapidity of their flight, and their ability, 
with seemingly motionless wing, to sweep in wide circuit round 
and round the ship, and still kcop up with her in her swiftest 
career ; and this day after day, without apparent exhaustion or 
fatigue, though sailing at the rate of two hundred miles and more 
in the twenty-four hours. The fiercer the winds and the more 
tumultuous the towering and thundering of the waves, the more 
joyous are their sportings, and the more triumphant their mastery 
of the elements. 

The booby — Sula Bassana — is somewhat like the alba- 
tross in general appearance, but less clumsy, smaller, more angu- 
lar in outline and pinion, and less majestic in flight. The man- 
of-war bird — Fregaia Pelicana — is less adventurous in its wan- 
derings over tlie sea. Its form is more that of the eagle — hence 
one of its names, Tachrjpetes Aquilas — with long feathers on 
the wings and tail, and its color a jetty black. It owes its English 


name to a supposition of the ignorant, that in returning to the 
land it heralds the approach of a ship ; but, only from the fact 
that, like the ship it seeks the shelter of the port on the approach 
of a storm, and makes an earlier and surer arrival. 

The most constant in its companionship with us, in every lati- 
tude and in all states of the weather, is the little petrol — Thelas- 
sadrorna Pelagica — a small swallow-tailed bird, about the size, 
with much of the appearance, of the common house martin. 
"Wilson in his ornithology gives a graphic description of these 
birds as seen in a gale, " coursing over the waves, down the 
declivities and up the ascents of the foaming surge, that threat- 
ens to bury them, as it bursts over their heads ; sweeping again 
through the hollow trough of the sea, as in a sheltered valley, 
and again mounting with the rising billow, skimming just above 
its surface, occasionally dipping their feet in the water and throw- 
ing it up with additional force : sometimes leaping, with their 
legs parallel on the surface of the roughest wave, for yards in 
succession ; meanwhile continually coursing from side to side of 
the ship's wake, making excursions far and wide to the right and 
to the left — now a great way ahead, now shooting far astern and 
returning again as if the vessel was stationary, though often nm- 
niug at the rate of ten knots the hour," 

The most singular faculty of these birds, however, is that of 
standing, and of running on the face of the water, with the great- 
est apparent facility. When any greasy matter is thrown over- 
board they instantly collect around it with greedy and clamorous 
chatterings ; and, facing to the windward, with their long wings 
expanded and their little webbed feet pattering the water, eagerly 
seize the booty. It is the lightness of their bodies and the force 
of the wind against th^ir wings that enable them so readily to do 
this. In calm weather they perform the same manoeuvre, by 
keeping their wings just so much in action as to prevent their 
feet from sinking below the surface. According to BufTon, it is 
this habit which has given to the whole genus the name they bear, 
from the walking on the water of the Apostle Peter, It is amiLs- 


ing, and partly vexatious, to see a clumsy albatross or great booby 
come swooping down among them, while they arc thus collected 
around their food, and, flapping them away with its monstrous 
wings, at one mouthful rob them of a whole meal. Greasy sub- 
stances are their choicest food, and their little bodies become a 
mass of oil : so much so, that dried and strung on a skewer, they 
are burned on some of the islands of the Atlantic as a substitute 
for candles. 

The boisterousness of the weather has made the frequent 
reduction of sail necessary — at times, almost to bare poles. This 
has aftbrded a more than ordinary opportunity of witnessing the 
exposure and daring intrepidity required from the sailor in the 
discharge of his duty. The taking in of sail and the reefing of 
topsails in so large a ship, by a crew of four hundred men, emu- 
lous of excelling in skill and expertness, is an exciting scene 
even in a moderate breeze. AVhen this occurs amidst the 
rushing winds and howling storm, with such masses of heavy 
canvas as compose our sails, flapping seemingly in unmanage- 
able force, and snapping like thunder in the gale, it is frightful to 
look aloft. While the masts are bending to the wind and 
the ship careening in the water, you see the yards covered with 
hundreds of the crew with no guard from destruction in the giddy 
height, but the habit of keeping their feet firmly on the foot- 
ropes, while their hands and arms are occupied in overcoming the 
fearful thrashings of the sails, and in gathering in the canvas and 
binding it down with the reef-points. Some of them on the 
upper spars, like birds in the topmost branches of a tree, sweep 
to and fro over the roaring gulf below; and, occasionally a 
man or boy is beheld clinging to a slender spar or single sheet at 
the very mast-head, two hundred feet from the deck, disen- 
tangling a halliard or conductor — causing one's nerves to shake 
under the apprehension of seeing him hurled, in some pitch or 
roll of the frigate, far overboard into the raging sea, or dashed to 
death at your feet on deck. 


October liMh. — The mountains and islets around the harbor 
of Rio are in full view, and I will close tliis section of my record. 
In doinj this, I must follow the subject matter of my last date — 
the birds of the sea — by a word on some of its fishes. In 
a calm yesterday we were surrounded by a great number of 
dolphin — Cyroph(pna hippuris — certainly, as seen moving in its 
blue waters, the most beautiful of the inhabitants of the deep. 
Wheo-full grown, it is from two to three feet in length, elegant 
and symmetrical in shape, and brilliant in colors : the prevailing 
hue being mazarine blue, or Pompadour, shading from the back 
to the under parts into emerald and gold, with fins and tail of 
green running rapidly into a bright yellow. Its motions are easy 
and graceful, and were watched, in great numbers, under the ad- 
vantages of a smooth sea and brilliant sun. Dolphin are so 
common in all tropical latitudes, and so frequently seen, that I 
might not have thought of taking note of them in this instance, 
but for an assertion respecting them recently met in a book on 
natural history, which, emanating from a fellow of Oxford, ought 
to be of good authority. After stating the fact that the shape of 
this fish, as given in heraldic and classic representations, is entirely 
poetical and untrue, the author — Wood — adds : " indeed almost 
the whole history of the dolphin is imaginary — very poetical, but 
very untrue. The red and blue of the heraldic lion are not less 
fabulous than the changing colors of the dying dolphin, so dear 
to poetry. Alas ! our unpoetical dolphin, when we have har- 
pooned him and brought him to the deck is only black and white, 
and all the change that he makes is that the black becomes 
brown in time, and the white gray." This assertion I know, from 
personal observation in company with many witnesses, to be an 
error. In the first voyage I ever made, I had an opportunity of 
observing and admiring the varying and beautiful colors of the 
dolphin while dying ; and now, fully proved to myself the truth- 
fulness of the record of it then made. Mr. G , secretary to 

our commander-in-chief, caught one with a hook and line, and 


quickly drew bim over the stern on deck. I happened to be 
present, and, though the dying throes even of a soulless fish can 
scarcely be looked on without sympathy, the effect on its coloring 
could not be watched without admiration. The first chauge 
which took place, after the fish reached the deck, was of the whole 
surface into a bright yellow or gold, spotted, like the speckled 
trout, with deep blue ; then the whole became blue again, the 
spots of a deeper hue still remaining distinctly marked ; a third 
change was into a pure and spotless silver, over which prismatic 
colors, like those in an opal under a shifting light, passed rapidly 
and tremulously for a few moments, when the beautiful dolphin 
became brown and gray like any other dead fish. 

It is possible that, when struck with a harpoon, the violence 
of the shock may be such as to produce death so suddenly that 
these changes have passed away, before the fish can be drawn on 
board, as their duration is but momentary. Either this is the 
truth, or Mr. Wood is not authority in the case. You may still 
believe therefore that 

" The dolphin, 'mid expiring throes, 
More exquisite in beauty grows, 

As fades the strength of life : 
And tintings bright of sapphire blue. 
And rainbow lights of every hue 
More exquisite each moment shew, 

As fainter grows the strife." 

Portuguese men-of-war — Physalia physalis — have also been 
floating past us. These are moluseas with long feelers, and fur- 
nished with an air-bag which they have the power of inflating at 
pleasure when moving on the surface. This is provided with 
apertures at either end, by which they can expel the air, or take 
in sail, as a seaman would say, when they wish to sink. This air 
bag, when inflated, is of an oval shape, and of the tenuity almost 
of a soap-bubble, and exhibits like it, though in stronger shades, 
many of the hues of the prism. The beauty discoverable in many 


of these animals is said by naturalists to equal any thing in or- 
ganic nature. 

A passage in Montgomery's Pelican Island applied to the 
convoluted nautilus, which rises and floats on the surface of the 
water, but spreads no sail, is perhaps more truthfully descriptive 
of this man-of-war : 

• " Light as a flako of foam upon the wind, 

Keel upwards, from the deep emerged a shell. 
Shaped like the moon ere half her horn is filled ; 
Fraught with yonng life, it righted as it rose, 
And moved at will along the yieldiug water. 
The native pilot of this little bark. 
Put out a tier of oars on either side ; 
Spread to the wafting breeze a two-fold sail, 
And mounted up, imd glided down the billow 
In happy freedom, pleased to feel the air, 
And wander in the luxurj' of light." 

Should you be disposed to think that such commonplace 
observations indicate the tedium and monotony of sea life — 
the paucity of its resources for occupation and amusement — and 
are not worth the time required for the record, I must take 
shelter from the reproach in the example of a voyager no less 
illustrious than Uuraboldt, who, at the end of forty years, con- 
fesses to the delight still afforded by reminiscences of such pastime 
on the sea. True, we may not, like him, mingle our admiration 
with thoughts of deep philosophy, or make our observations sub- 
servient to generalizations in science ; still, we can take equal 
delight in the varied phenomena of the sea, and, in humble adora- 
tion, thus " look through nature up to nature's God," and rejoice 
in the infinitude and perfection of his manifold works. 



October 2Qth. — Ou entering the harbor on the IGth inst. the 
lofty masts of the Brandy wine were soon descried through a mist 
and vapor wliich, to a great degree, enshrouded the general 
scenery. Hauling down our broad pennant of blue, while yet 
three or four miles distant, that of Commodore Storer was 
saluted by us, and one of red was run up to the masthead of the 
Congress. To this only Commodore McKecver is entitled in the 
presence of a superior in command. The Brandywine at once 
returned the salute, and, soon afterward, greeted our arrival with 
" Hail Columbia " from a band, as, passing alongside of her, we 
dropt anchor under her stern. 

The early return of the Congress was quite a surprise, the Bran- 
djwine herself having but just arrived. We had made the trip 
down and back again in the same number of days — eighteen — 
which had been occupied by her in the one passage. Though a 
surprise, it was, however, a greater joy to her officers and crew. 
They are more than three years from home, and have long been 
waiting a relief. Moreover, Commodore Storer had given the 
assurance, before we were sighted, that they should be under way, 
homeward-bound, the next day but one after the Congress should 
arrive. True to his word, his anchors were up with the early 
dawn of the 18th inst. The departure, with its associations, was 


quite an exciting scene. The mist and fog of the two preceding 
days had disappeared, and Ihe whole panorama of city and bay 
was in the perfection of its beauty in light, shades, and coloring. 
As with the first rays of the sun the frigate swung from her 
moorings, the Congress gOrVe a salute. With the first echoings of 
this, her rigging was filled by the crew, clustered together like 
bees -in a swarm, sending forth three cheers for the homeward- 
bouud, with a feeling and will that swept every chord of tho 
heart. Then came '' Hail Columbia " from our band : the whole 
quickly followed by the salute, the cheers, and the music of 
" Home, sweet home," from the Brandywine. By this time 
she was completely enveloped in a broad and lofty pyramid of 
convoluting and pearly smoke, beautifully illumined by the sun. 
I thought it a good time to bid her adieu, while thus lost to 
sight in a glory of her own creation, and descending to my state- 
room, left her to make her way out of the harbor as she best 

The 19th inst. was a court-day at the palace. Commodore 
McKecver availed himself of it for a presentation to the Emperor 
and Empress, as the new commander-in-chief of the United States 
Naval Force on this station. I made one of his suite ; and left 
the ship at noon for the ceremony, with a party of ten, including 
Lieutenant McKeever of the U. S. army, a son of the commodore, 
who, on furlough for six months after service in Florida, came to 
Brazil in the Congress on a visit to a brother connected with a 
principal mercantile house in Rio. 

The palace fronts immediately upon the chief landing-place, 
a few hundred yards only from the water. It is an old building, 
originally the viceregal residence, appropriated to the court of 
Portugal on its immigration in 1808. It is of stone, stuccoed 
and painted yellow, in part two and in part three stories in 
height, and without architectural pretension. The front, occupied 
on the ground floor by a vestibule leading to the grand staircase, 
is scarce a hundred feet in width ; but the building, enclosing a 
small quadrangle in the centre, runs back along the public stjuare, 


about five or six hundred feet to the Rue Direita. Over this 
a gallery — thrown from the second story — communicates with 
a still older range of structures on that street, at right an- 
gles with the other, extending also some five or six hundred 
feet to the royal library and imperial chapel, both appendages of 
the palace. The rooms of state and the throne-room occupy the 
whole length of the second floor, on the side overlooking the 
square ; and the imperial apartments and private rooms the whole 
of that on the other side of the quadrangle. The only use made 
of the palace is for receptions, at levees and drawing-rooms, and 
the giving occasionally of a state-ball : the family seldom if ever 
lodge in town. Having, in September, twice witnessed the ar- 
rival of the Emperor and Empress in state, from their residence 
at Boa Vista, I lost nothing of the usual spectacle on court-days, 
by not being on shore in time for this, on the present occasion. 
In both instances I happened to be crossing the square, when the 
approach of the cortege was signalled by a call, from bugle and 
drum, for the guard and bands in attendance to turn out for the 
reception. The degree of state and the splendor of equipage 
vary on different occasions. Sometimes mules only arc driven ; 
sometimes horses only — sometimes both attached to different 
carriages. The general display, at all times of ceremony, is much 
the same as that described at the prorogation of the legislature, 
a month ago. As the cavalcade approaches, the halberdiers with 
their battle-axes at rest, form, in single lines, on either side of 
the principal entrance, through the vestibule to the foot of the 
grand staircase. No objection was made to my taking a position, 
almost in a line with these, and within touching distance of their 
majesties as they passed. On the drawing up of the carriages 
at the entrance, the great officers of the household and ministers 
of the empire descending from the waiting-rooms, form a line on 
either side, within those of the guard, from the carriage door to 
the staircase. Immediately on the alighting, a kissing of hands 
by these is commenced. The Emperor, a step or two in advance 
of the Empress, presents his riglit linnd for tliis ])urpose, on 


one side and then on the other, the Empress following in the 
same manner with a constant short and quick bow of the head, and 
an expression of great kindness and benignancy. Both occasion- 
ally extend a hand beyond the courtiers to individuals among the 
halberdiers on the qui vive for the honor. As they thus pass, 
the grandees of the court close in after them, and the ladies and 
gentlemen in attendance, and in procession, mount the broad stair- 

This guard of halberdiers is not of hireling soldiery, but of 
volunteers of respectability from the middle ranks of life in the 
city ; and the indulgence accorded by them of so near an approach 
of spectators as was allowed me, affords an opportunity for many 
a poor subject to place a petition in the hands of the Emperor or 
Empress, without the intervention of an oflBcial or courtier. I 
was pleased with the readiness and condescension with which two 
or three were received by the Emperor, from women of the 
humblest class in evident distress, and were placed in the crown 
of his chapeau, while kisses, tears, and thanks were showered on 
his hand. 

On entering the palace we were received by Mr. Tod, the 
American ambassador, in the diplomatic saloon — the richest of 
the apartments excepting the throne-room. The imperial party 
were in the chapel at mass. Mr. Tod proposed to conduct us 
there, by the corridor over the Rua Direita, and we followed him 
in that direction, through a long succession of rooms, till met by 
several of the foreign ministers returning with the report, that 
the diplomatic tribune in the chapel was undergoing some repairs, 
and was closed. We therefore retraced our steps to await the 
close of the religious service. This was not long ; and Don Pedro 
and Donna Theresa, followed by some twenty or thirty attendants, 
soon made their appearance on their way through the long suite 
of rooms to the audience chamber. The court dress of the ladies 
here, as in Russia, is a uniform : a white brocade embroidered in 
gold, train of green velvet with corresponding embroideries, and 
head-dress of ostrich plumes and diuraouds. This is a sensible 


regulation promotive of ocouoniy, by an avoidance of the rivalry 
in expense and display, among the ladies, though at a sacrifice of 
the picturesque, from variety in taste and elegance in such a 
spectacle. Among the ladies in attendance was one more than 
eighty years of age, a venerable condessa, who accompanied the 
royal family from Portugal in 1808, and has been a leader of the 
fashion in the court circles, through the change of four dynasties, 
to the present time. 

The Emperor led the suite a little in advance of the Empress. 
He is in stature truly a splendid specimen of humanity. The 
maturity of liis countenance, as well as figure, leads to a supposi- 
tion of his being full ten years older than ho really is. An im- 
perturbable gravity and unbending dignity contribute to this im- 

The diplomatic corps and our party fell into line on one side 
of the room, and saluted the Emperor and Empress as they passed 
by a bow, receiving a stately return from eacli, accompanied by 
a very decided look of scrutiny at such as were perceived to be 
strangers. A long range of apartments was to be passed 
througl), before reaching the throne-room, and it was some 
minutes before a chamberlain announced to Mr. Tod — the senior 
ambassador in residence, and thus entitled to lead the diplomatic 
procession — that their majesties were on the throne. 

The intervening rooms were thronged with Brazilians, repre- 
senting in strong force the church, the army, the navy and 
judiciary, with many in civil life, in distinctive uniforms and 
varied court dress ; but I missed in the throng much of the pic- 
turesque variety noticed in 1829. There were now no barefooted 
friars nor mendicant monks — no Augustines in white, nor Fran- 
ciscans in gray, with corded belts and dangling cross and rosary. 
It was manifest that, at court at least, the monkish days are past : 
the higli dignitaries of the church in purple and scarlet, in satins 
and lace, were the only representatives of the religious orders. 

The state apartments in general appeared naked and unattrac- 
tive compared with the recollections of 1829. The best paintings 


have been removed ; one or two only worthy of attention remain. 
One, the martyrdom of St. Sebastian, is impressive, and the work 
of a master in the art. There arc also some good battle-pieces 
illustrative of Portuguese history, in the oldon times. The two 
largest pictures represent respectively the coronation of Don 
Pedro I., and the marriage of the present Emperor aiid Empress. 
Thoy arc coarse and inartistic in execution, but valuable from the 
number of portraits they contain, the principal figures introduced 
being from sittings to the painter of the personages delineated. 

The throne-room is a large and magnificent apartment, the 
predominating colors in the finish and furniture being green and 
gold. The lofty, vaulted ceiling, among other embellishments in 
fresco, presents medallion portraits, real or fictitious, of all the 
sovereigns of the House of Braganza, from the establishment of 
the kingdom of Portugal to the present time. 

The occasion of the court was the anniversary of the marriage 
of their majesties, and the address of congratulation, from the 
diplomatic corps, devolved on Mr. Tod. Entering the room with 
a bow, — followed by those to be presented by him — he advanced 
midway from the door to the throne, where making another bow, 
he took his station, with our party grouped around. He con- 
cluded his speech of felicitation by adding, that " Commodore 
McKeevcr, on assuming the command in chief of the U. S. Naval 
Force on this station, availed himself — with the oflBcersof his ship 
— of the opportunity for a presentation to their majesties. The 
Emperor's reply in Portuguese was brief, and of course courteous. 
Immediately on its close, a band in the vestibule struck up the na- 
tional air : and filing oiF before the throne, we each in succession 
bowed respectively to the Emperor and Empress, and moving back- 
ward in a semicircular sweep from the door by which we had en- 
tered, bowed ourselves, through another corresponding to it, from 
the presence to an ante-room. Being in clerical robes, I might 
perhaps have claimed the privilege of a straightforward exit. It 
is said that, owing to the fall backwards, in tlie royal presence, of 
a bishop-legate from Rome — a hundred and more years ago — 


from treading on the tail of his gown, in retreating from the 
throne at a levee in Lisbon, a permit was issued excusing, there- 
after, all clergy in robes from the established etiqu,ette. Not 
having ascertained however whether the privilege had been trans- 
mitted to the court of Brazil, I thought it most safe to con- 
form to the general usage, though at the risk, in accomplishing 
a distance of forty or more feet in the manner of a crab, of suf- 
fering a disaster similar to that of the bishop. 

The rest of the foreign ministers and their suite followed us 
rapidly. After these came the hundreds of Brazilians, according 
to their rank and j)recedence, each kneeling on a step of the 
throne and kissing the extended hand of their sovereigns: a 
ceremony which, between wedding-days and birth-days, saints' 
days and days of independence occurs, on an average, at least 
once a month during the whole year. 

This bow before the throne will doubtless be the nearest 
approach to personal intercourse with their majesties that I shall 
enjoy ; and I may, at once, in connection with it, give such intel- 
ligence, in regard to them, as I have derived from those having 
the best opportunities for correct information on the subject. 
Their personal appearance I have before described. The power 
vested in the Emperor by the constitution is very limited : 
almost nominal indeed, with less influence through the right of 
appointments and political patronage in general, than is possessed 
by the l*resideut of the United States. So carefully restricted 
and so jealously guarded are the prerogatives of the throne, that 
the abuse of them, by despotic rule or usurpation, would be im- 
practicable. The liereditary descent of the crown is the strongest 
monarchical feature in the government : and it is to this alone, 
doubtless, tliat Brazil is indebted for an exemption from the 
anarchy and bloodshed which have proved so destructive to the 
advance of liberty and civilization, in all sections of South 
America. While it places an effectual check upon the reckless 
ambition of selfish politicians and patriots, falsely so called, it 
forms a point of permanency around which the wise and good 


may rally, in the support and in the defence of true liberty. It 
is not impossible that the constitutional restrictions resting on 
the Emperor, and an accompanying feeling of irresponsibility, may 
cause, in some degree, the seeming nonchalance which marks his 
air and deportment in public, and also induce to some extent, at 
least, to the quietude and seclusion of his ordinary life. From 
all I'leam, nothing can be more simple and domestic than the 
habits of himself and family. The library, and its cabinets, the 
pleasure-grounds and gardens of San Christovao, chiefly oc- 
cupy their leisure-time, and are principal sources of their happi- 

Prudent and high-minded as a ruler, cultivated and accom- 
plished as a scholar, benevolent as a man, and pure and irre- 
proachable as a husband and father, the Empert)r is justly 
regarded with honor and aflfection by his people; while the 
Empress, no less exemplary in all the relations of life, through 
her amiability and kindness of heart shares largely with him in 
general popularity and good will. 

The annual stipend of the Emperor is four hundred thousand 
dollars, and the allowance to the Empress fifty thousand. The 
civil list is small, the ladies and gentlemen of the household 
being few in number. They live with prudence and economy ; 
seldom entertain except by an occasional ball at the palace in 
town. With the lessons on the vicissitudes of empire and the 
instability of thrones, so frequently given in these modern times, 
it is wise in them thus to hu.sband their resources, and to familiar- 
ize themselves of choice with habits of life which, by possibil- 
ity, may yet become those of necessity. They have already 
been afflicted by the loss of two or three children; one, the Prince 
Imperial and heir to the crown. Though two young princesses 
are left to them, this may have had a chastening effect on their 
hopes in life, by placing the succession in a female, and thu» 
rendering the perpetuity of their dynasty less certain, than if 
t^vre were a male heir to the empire. 

It must not be inferred from what I have stated of the out- 


ward bearing of the Emperor, or of bis babits in private life, that 
be takes no interest in the policy of tbe government or active 
part in its executive administration. While content under the 
constitutional restrictions of his power, and with the prerogatives 
accorded to the throne, he holds his position and exercises his in- 
fluence firmly and with a noble regard to what be believes to be 
the highest interest of tbe nation ; and gives the strength of a 
mind, endowed with more than ordinary natural gifts, to the 
promotion of measures calculated to advance tbe honor, dignity 
and prosperity of the empire. This has been strikingly manifested 
recently, in successful efforts to persuade those around him of 
paramount influence in the various provinces, of the evil and 
reproach of a continued connivance — in disregard of national faith 
given by treaty — at the slave trade, and of tbe ultimate in- 
evitable disadvantage and disaster to tbe country of a more ex- 
tended slave population. So zealously and so wisely has he 
urged his views of public policy on this point — though in the face 
of long-established national prejudice as to tbe necessity of slave 
labor — that the legislature, sustained in the measure by their con- 
stituents, have pronounced tbe slave trade piracy, and enacted 
rigorous penal laws against it. This has been accomplished 
by demonstrating to the agriculturists of the empire, the 
economy and advantages of free labor, through colonization from 
Europe, over that of slaves, and by enactments for the en- 
couragement of immigration from abroad. This is a most im- 
portant and most desirable step forward in national good, and is 
sufficient alone to mark the reign of the young monarch with 
true and enduring honor. 

October "22(1. — Night before last, wliilc walking the poop-deck, 
just before our usual evening worship, I met, engaged in some 
momentary duty there, a young man named Ramsey, whose frank 
and open-hearted face, bright smile, and confiding look and manner 
towards me had long ago attracted my notice, and led to more 
familiar intercourse with liim tliaii with most others of tbe crew. 
Stout in figure, and strong and muscular n limb, be might have 


been selected as a personification of health and buoyant youth. 
In various conversations I hail learned something of his history : 
the place of residence, circumstances, and position in life of his 
parents and family. He had been religiously trained, was a tee- 
totaler in principle and practice from the example of his iiither, 
and, so far as I could learn, free from the open vices which too 
often ilegrade the sailor, 

lu addition to the prepossession in his favor, from an attractive 
exterior, and from the promptness and activity with which ho 
was observed to discharge his duty, he had early won the praise 
and good will of all on board, both officers and men, by saving, 
at the risk of his own life, that of a small boy, who fell overboard 
from the Congress when at anchor in the stream at Norfolk. 
The boy could not swim, and a strong tide was carrying him rapidly 
away when ilamsey jumped after him and succeeded in sustain- 
ing him half-drowned, till both were rescued by a boat. 

A few evenings ago I had observed that one of his eyes was 
inflamed and swollen from a cold, and, now, in reference to this, 
asked him if he were well again. " Oh, yes, sir — all right — 
never better in my life," was his reply, as with his accustomed 
bright smile he passed down to the quarter-deck, where his ship- 
mates were assembling for prayers. 

>Iy usual time for exercise on shore is in the afternoon, but 
yesterday, being engaged to the Commodore at a dinner given by 
him to the British admiral and family, I took the morning for a 
walk. On coming on board ship at three o'clock, Dr. Williamson, 
the fleet surgeon, mentioned to me that one of the crew had been 
taken ill with symptoms of the cholera. It was but a moment 
after hearing the name — Ramsey — in answer to the question who 
it was ? before I was beside his cot on the berthdeck. He had 
been relieved from cramp and pain, by the treatment adopted ; the 
pulse which had intermitted was restored, and he supposed to be 
altogether better. It was not yet twenty hours since I had met 
him seemingly in the fullest health ; but how altered now, and 
how utterly prostrate ! He looked rather than spoke his gladness 


at seeing me, and listened to my conversation with interest 
and satisfaction. It was evident that he was still under great 
physical oppression, and though endeavoring, occasionally, to rally 
his spirits, was dejected and sad — his eyes filling with tears as he 
pressed again and again the hand I had given to him at first, 
and which he continued to retain in his own as I remained by his 
side for a couple of hours, attempting to soothe him by words of 
consolation and by whispered prayer. 

The sympathies which had been awakened by this unexpected 
scene forbade any enjoyment of the party in the cabin, and at 
the earliest moment practicable I excused myself from the table 
and returned to the poor fellow, not to leave him again till he 
should be out of danger. He was much in the state in which I 
had left him : had, if any thing, a stronger pulse and more natural 
state of the general surface. I again conversed tenderly with 
him and encouraged him to look in penitence and faith to Him 
from whom alone help cometh in time of trouble. I never wit- 
nessed greater submission and patience, and the tones of his voice 
and whole manner were as gentle as a lamb. In seeming apology 
for the irresistible depression he felt, though he considered him- 
self to be relieved and better, he said to me with a look and accent 

I cannot soon forget — " Oh ! Mr. S , I was never sick 

before, and it makes me too down-hearted — too dowu-hearted ! " 
Poor fellow ! who uuder the same circumstances would not have 
been down-hearted — stricken down, in an hour as it were, from 
the very fulness of health and strength, and in the bloom and 
buoyancy of early manhood, to the feebleness of the merest infant, 
and to the very borders of the grave ! 

The surgeons had told me that every thing in his case de- 
pended upon the fidelity of those in attendance upon him to the 
directions given ; and that there should be no failure here, I at 
once took the place of nurse in administering the prescriptions, 
and gave myself entirely to him. As the night wore away I 
could not discover the change for the better I wished, though I 
was not conscious of any for the worse. Dr. Howell, the assiutaut 


burgeon, who visited him every two hours, encouraged me to con- 
tinued vigilance and hope. One, among other injunctions from 
the surgeons, was on no account to give any water to the patient, 
and only occasioually a mouthful of a tea prepared for the 
purpose. But he longed for water, and at one time well-nigh 
overcame my purpose of rigid obedience to the orders given. He 
had b^en almost covered with cataplasms, and had on him besides 
two or three large blisters ; and the tenderness of his entreaty 
in gentle Scotch dialect, after having been once refused — as he 

looked up with pleading eyes and said, " Oh ! Mr. S , one 

wee drop, for I am all on fire ! " touched my very heart. Poor 
fellow ! from the best of motives and in the hope of soon seeing 
him better I reasoned with him and pertuadcd him to submission: 
but now lament it. The indulgence would have given him tem- 
porary comfort and could have done him no harm : for in a short 
time afterwards a return of cramps threw him into convulsions, 
and I saw that the stroke of death had been given. Unwilling 
unavailingly to watch the rapid changes which betokened too 
surely the flight of the soul, with the hand which so often dm-ing 
the day and the night by its warm "pressure had given assurance 
of the comfort imparted by my presence still cla:«ping mine, 1 
kneeled by his cot, now surrounded by the surgeons and many of 
his messmates, and in tears and in strong though silent supplica- 
tion plead with Him who alone is mighty to save, to spare the 
immortal spirit of the dying man from the sorrows of the second 
death. I do not recollect ever to have been sensible of a nearer 
access by faith to the only Hearer of prayer, and never saw more 
clearly how it is possible for Him, in the sovereignty and bound- 
less riches of his grace, in the eleventh hour even to have " mercy 
on whom he will have mercy." At four o'clock this morning, 
he gently breathed his last without a struggle or a groan. 

Such is the first of death's doings among us, and such was the 
last on earth of this poor sailor boy. I am devoutly thank- 
ful that though he died in a foreign land far from his home, 
I have it in my power to assure those who most loved him, that 


while all was done that the highest professional skill could devise 
to save him, but in vain, he did not die uncomforted, unprayed 
for or unwept. 

His funeral took place this afternoon. Captain Mcintosh, 
with the Christian kindness of heart characteristic of him, led the 
procession in his gig — the flag of the Congress, as well as those 
of the boats leaving the ship, being at half mast. The body was 
buried in the beautiful cemetery of Gamboa, 

" where palm and cypress wave 
On higli, o'er many a stranger's grave, 
To canopy the dead ; nor wantuag there 
Flowers to the tuif, nor fragrance to the air." 


Bio de Jakeibo. 

November 2d. — This is " All Souls day," an anniversary of 
the church of Home in commemoration of the dead, when masses 
are specially said for the repose of their souls ; or, as an Irish 
servant, in explainmg its character to me, says, " the day when all 
the dead stand round waiting for our prayers." It is one on 
which here, as in other Catholic countries, the living also visit the 
tombs of their departed friends. As the observance is universal, 
and all the churches are open, we thought it a good opportunity, 
not only for viewing the interior of the principal edifices them- 
selves, but also for observations of the people ; and a party left 
tho ship for this purpose early after breakfast. 

The number of churches in the city amounts to forty-five or 
fifty. Scarce a half dozen of them, however, arc worthy of 
notice either for their external architecture or internal decorations 
in sculpture and paintings, especially to those familiar with the 
treasures, in these respects, of the churches of Italy, Spain, and 
other European countries. The imperial chapel and a church 
adjoining it, formerly belonging to the barefooted Carmelites, 
and now a cathedral ; the church of the Candelaria, so named 
from its being the chief place for the consecration of candles on 
Candlemas Day ; and that of San Francisco de Paulo at tho head 
of the Rua de Ouvidor, are the principal. 


Having been told that the Emperor and Empress would attend 
mass at the church of Sau Antonio, where the remains of their 
infant children are deposited, we made our way first there. This 
church is attached to the convent of that name, and forms one end 
of the extensive and imposing establishment which so conspicu- 
ously crowns, with its lofty and massive walls, and terraced 
gardens and shrubberies, the hill to which it gives name in the 
centre of the city. The broad platform in front of the church 
and convent, paved and parapetted with stone, commands mag- 
nificent views of the city and bay ; as does the entire front of the 
convent. This is three stories in height, with a tier of balconied 
windows running the whole length of each. Within, each story 
opens upon a cloistered quadrangle ; while the church with two 
or three smaller chapels, various vesting rooms, sacristies and 
corridors form another end of the pile. Every part of the 
building on this occasion was open to inspection. The floors of 
the corridors surrounding the quadrangle, and those of the 
churches and chapels are formed of loose planks, six feet in length 
and of the width of a grave; each being fitted with a mortised 
hole at one end, that it may be the more readily lifted for the 
deposit beneath of body after body of the dead : so that none walk 
here without literally 

" Marking with each step a tomb." 

That which first arrested the eye on entering was the range, on 
either side through the church, chapels and corridors, of miniature 
cabinets, urns and sarcophagi of ebony and other valuable wood, 
containing the bones of the dead thus preserved, after having 
been freed from the flesh by the action of quicklime. These 
receptacles arc of various sizes, forms and degrees of elaborate 
workmanship. Each bears a plate of silver or gold with an in- 
scription, and is furnished with a door which gives access to 
the ghastly memorials. They were arranged — some on rich tables 
and platforms and others on the pavement and floor — with more 


or less display of ornament : lighted wax candles in massive 
candlestick* of silver, interspersed in some instances with other 
pieces of silver plate, were clustered around them, and the whole 
garlanded and festooned with wreaths of the purple globe ama- 
ranthus and other flowers- of the tribe " immortelle/' Each 
cabinet, or urn, was in charge of a well-dressed negro servant or 
other humble domestic of the family to whom the relics apper- 
tained. I was forcibly reminded by the scene of the custom of 
the Sandwich Islanders, in their heathen state, of preserving the 
bones of the dead in a similar manner. It was this usage, and 
the care and veneration with which the relics of their monarchs and 
chiefs were guarded, that enabled Rihoriho — Kamehameha II — 
to restore to England, on his visit to that country in 1825, the 
skeleton of Captain Cook. After his assassination the principal 
bones of his body were prepared according to their custom, and 
placed with those of their race of kings. . 

The principal church and the adjoining chapels were decorated 
profusely with artificial flowers, and with hangings of silk and 
velvet, and of gold and silver tissue ; the high altars, shrines, 
tribunes, and organ-lofts of all were one blaze of wax lights. One 
of the chapels is covered throughout with elaborate carvings 
in wood trebly gilt. In the centre of this a lofty catafalque was 
erected, surmounted by a colossal sarcophagus covered with a 
superb pall. A was in progress as we entered ; after which 
a procession of monks headed by a party of ecclesiastics — each 
bearing a wax candle of the size and length of a stout walking 
stick, and all vociferating a chant — marched slowly from chapel 
to chapel, and from shrine to shrine, through the corridors lined 
with the memorials of the departed, stopping at various points to 
scatter incense and utter prayers for the dead. Every spot was 
thronged with spectators ; but I could detect no feeling of devo- 
tion, no sensibility in the affections, no solemnity in any one. The 
only object of the assemblage seemed to be to witness a show, and 
to examine with the curiosity observable at a fair, or the ex- 
hibition of an institute, the varied ornamental display. Three 


fourths of the crowd were negroes, male and female. Here and 
there, in two or three instances, I recognized a party of ladies in 
full dress in black with mantillas of lace, but a majority of the 
Brazilians and Portuguese present was evidently of the lower 
orders. We afterwards entered the churches of San Francisco de 
Paulo, the Candclaria and the Carmelites, where the bishop of 
Rio was officiating, but without witnessing any thing essentially 
different from what we had already seen. 

All observation of the day confirms me in the impression 
before received, that a great change has taken place, since 1829, in 
the respect paid by the people to the superstitious ceremonies of 
the religion of the country. There is now little in the general 
aspect of things in the streets, even on days of religious festivals, 
to remind one of being in a Romish city. A monk or even 
ecclesiastic is scarce ever met, and whenever I have entered a 
church during service, a few poor negroes, sick persons, and 
beggars have constituted the principal part of the assemblage. 

November 4th. — I have just accomplished quite a pedestrian 
feat, in the ascent of the Corcovado. After two days of such 
rain as the tropics only often witness, the weather this morning 
was as fine as possible, the atmosphere clear and transparent, very 
like the most brilliant days of June in the Northern States, when the 
wind is from the north-west. Lieutenant R , Mr. G (secre- 
tary of Commodore McKecver), Prof Le Froy of the British flag 
ship, and I, were induced by it to attempt the excursion, though it 
was not in our power to set off before two o'clock in the afternoon 
— a late hour for the accomplishment of a walk of nine miles, to 
the top of a mountain, two thousand three hundred and six feet 
high, according to the measurement of Beechy, and two thousand 
three hundred and thirty-nine, by that of Captains King and 

The Corcovado is one of the lofty shafts of granite which, in 
a greater or less degree of isolation, are characteristic of the 
geological formation in this region. Its relative position to the 
range of mountains of which it forms so conspicuous a part, and 


the height to which it towers above it, can best be compared, 
perhaps, to a colossal buttress standing against a massive buildiug, 
with a piuuaclod top rising high above the adjoining roof. As 
looked up to, from its eastern base in a green valley by the sea- 
side, it appears, as it there, really is, an utterly inaccessible mass 
of perpendicular rock. On the west, however, it is so joined to 
an angle of the general range for two thirds of its height, as to 
be comparatively easy of ascent. The first half of the distance 
from the city may be made by either of two ways: the one, 
through the valley of the Larangeiras, and the other, by the spur 
of mountain along which the aqueduct descends into the heart of 
the town, near the nunnery of Santa Theresa. We chose this 
last. At the outset, the ascent is a sharp pitch, but after gaining 
a height of one or two hundred feet, is so gradual for four miles 
as scarcely to be perceptible. The way leads along the flattened 
ridge of the hill by a bridle path immediately beside the aque- 
duct, the refreshing sound of Avhose waters, as they murmur and 
rumble in their covered channel, is a pleasant accompaniment to 
the sea-breeze sweeping by. It is overhung by embowering trees 
which, while they form a screen against the sun overhead, are 
too lofty to interfere by their branches with a full view of the 
prospects on either hand. These, for the whole distance, surpass in 
beauty and variety any of a similar nature I recollect ever to have 
met. As we gradually gained terrace after terrace of the spur, the 
pictures opening immediately beneath us in the ravines on the right 
— up which the suburbs straggle in tasteful dwellings and bloom- 
ing gardens; in the broad and bright valley of Engenho Velho be- 
yond, thickly sprinkled with the country residences of the wealthy, 
and adorned by the imperial palace ; in the city itself — the upper 
bay and its islands ; the Organ Mountains and whole panorama, 
are beyond the powers of description. At the end of two and a 
half or three miles, the aqueduct, sinking to a level with the 
surface of the ground, crosses the ridge which it has thus far been 
following, and leaving the course of this, runs along the face of 
the mountain at an elevation of a thousand feet. The pathway 


follows it, and I can compare the suddenness in the change of the 
prospect to nothing that will give a better idea of it, than a new 
combination in a kaleidoscope, by a turn of the instrument. It 
is entire. By a single step, as it were, in place of the above 
pictures, which are at once lost sight of, you have the southern 
sections of the city — Gloria Hill, Flamengo, Catcte, Larangieras 
and Botafogo, the lower bay with its moving imagery, the Sugar 
Loaf and its companion at the entrance of the harbor, the islets in 
the offing and along the coast, and the boundless sea. The walk 
for a mile here, with this picture beneath you on one side, and 
the beautifully wooded mountain cliflfs above, on the other, is a 
terraced avenue worthy of fairy land itself. Of it Dr. AValsh 
justly remarks — " Without exaggeration, it may be said, that there 
is not in the world so noble and beautiful a combination of nature 
and art, as the prospect it presents." 

Five miles from the city, near a natural reservoir in a ledge 
of granite where the aqueduct originally commenced, the direct 
pathway to the summit leaves the water-course and strikes steeply 
up the mountain. Here it is stony and rough, and was now wet 
from the recent rain. The angle of elevation, equal to that of 
an ordinary staircase, made the ascent fatiguing : but it is 
adorned at points by noble specimens of the primeval growth of 
the forest, reminding me of the finest of tlio old elms occasionally 
left standing by the pioneer settlers in Western New York, as I 
recollect to have been impressed by them thirty years ago. A 
mile and a half through this wood brought us to a clearing of 
some extent, with a rancho or cottage, formerly a place of refresh- 
ment for those making the ascent. It has been purchased 
recently by the Emperor, and the land is designed by him for a 
plantation of foreign pines and other evergreens, which he is 
introducing. It lies in a dip or notch between the general chain 
of mountains and the peak of the Corcovado ; and the cottage, in 
full view from the city and harbor, forms a picturesque object 
from the anchorage of the Congress, though seemingly, in its airy 
height, but a bird's nest clinging to the wooded cliffs. 


Here the ascent of the Corcovado proper commences — the 
distance to the summit about two miles. The way is steep and 
wearisome, especially after so forced a march over the preceding 
part, as we had made ; but we pressed on, notwithstanding the 
heat and fatigue, cheered bj' the exhortation and promise of the 
poet — 

" Let thy foot 
Fail not from weariness, for on the top 
The l)eauty and the majestj' of earth 
Spread wide beneath, shall make thee to forget 
Tlie steep and toilsome way. There thy expanding heart 
Shall feel a kindred with that loftier world, 
To which thou art translated, and partake 
The enlargement of thy vision." 

In less than three hours from the city, the bare peak rose 
directly before us — a pinnacled platform of rock scarcely twenty 
feet square, separated from the general mass by a broad and deep 
fissure, over which a rude wooden bridge is thrown. As the peak 
has been known to be frequently struck by lightning, it is supposed 
that this chasm was originally caused by a thunderbolt. A 
rail, supported by iron posts soldered into the solid granite, fur- 
nishes a guard on three sides to the precipices descending perpen- 
dicularly from them. 

The panorama commanded by it, embracing as it does all the 
imagery that combines in securing to llio de Janeiro its world- 
wide celebrity for wonderful beauty, could not fail — under the 
advantages of the brilliant atmosphere, bright sunshine and 
lengthened shadows in which we gazed on it — to meet our expecta- 
tions. The entire city and its suburbs lay at our feet; and, like 
a map, the bay — near a hundred miles in circuit — its many 
picturesque headlands and islands and the Organ Mountains and 
chain along the coast, the peak of Tejuca, the Sugar Loaf reduced 
to insignificant dimensions, the Gavia, the outer islets and the 
illimitable sea ! The silence one is disposed to keep, in view of 
such a scene from such a point, best expresses perhaps the kind 


of admiration felt. Had Br3ant in an inspiration of his genius 
stood with us, he might possibly have given utterance to a de- 
scription more sublime but to none more graphic or minutely 
true to the scene, than one already recorded by his pen — 

" Steep is the western side, shaggy and wild, 
AVith mossy trees, and pinnacles of flint, 
And many a hanging crag. But to the East, 
Sheer to the vale, go down the bare old cliffs — 
Hugo pillars, that in middle heaven up bear 
Their weather-beaten capitals, here dark 
With moss, the growth of centuries, and there 
Of chalky whiteness, where the thunder bolt 
Has splintered them. It is a fearful thing 
To stand upon the beetling verge, and see 
Where storm and lightning, from that huge gray wall, 
Have tumbled down vast blocks, and at the base 
Dashed them in fragments, and to lay thine ear 
O'er the dizzy depth, and hear the sound 
Of winds that struggle with the woods below. 
Come up with ocean murmurs." 

There is danger, in the impressiveness of a scene of such 
mingled beauty and sublimity, of forgetting the risk of taking 
cold, even in the finest weather — after the unavoidable heat and 
temporary exhaustion of the ascent — from the reduced temperature 
of the elevation, and the freshness of the sea-breeze sweeping over 
and around the rock in strong eddies. But reminded of this by 
a sense of chilliness, and aware of the lateness of the day, at the 
end of a half hour — grateful for the favorable auspices under 
which we had enjoyed the view — we gave a farewell gaze and 
turned our faces for the descent. 

I omitted to state that, before reaching the plantation of 
the Emperor in the dip of the mountains, we had again fallen 
upon the line of the aqueduct. At this point it passes to the 
southern side of the range, which here makes an angle in that 
direction ; and Mr. Lcfroy, familiar in his walks with ail the 


region, proposed that before descending we should follow it 
at least a short distance : with the assurance that we would 
tind it ei^ual, in picturesque wildncss and beauty, to any 
thing we had yet seen. Though already pretty well fagged, 
and a walk of seven miles yet to be made in reaching the city, 
we readily assented ; and most amply indeed were we rewarded. 
The scenery on every hand — above, beneath and around us, in 
the strong contrasts of bright sunsjiine and deep shade, was like 
pictures of fancy, with a variety and richness of foliage to be 
found only in the tropics. The aqueduct and path beside it, 
sciii-pcd on the very face of the precipitous mountain, wind round 
the head of a deep glen, at an elevation of two thousand feet 
above the valleys beneath and the surf of the ocean ; and com- 
mand uninterrupted views, far and wide, over land and sea, of 
indescribable beauty and grandeur. Parasitical plants and run- 
ning vines add to the rich drapery of the woods overhead and 
beneath the feet, and hang in long pendants from the rocks and 
ia festoons from tree to tree, while, here and there, the tree fern — 
a novelty to me till now — rises rankly to a height of twenty and 
thirty feet : throwing out its closely feathered leaves in an 
umbrella-shaped top, proportionate in size to the height of the 

Tempted from point to point, by one new object of admiration 
or another, we were led two miles amid this luxury of beauty 
before aware of it, almost to the very sources of the work. At 
one point, from the impossibility of securing space in the face of 
the precipice for stone work, the water is led along in small 
wooden troughs, and the footpath, constructed of planks supported 
by strong bolts of iron fastened into the rock, is suspended in 
the air, with a frightful depth beneath. There is no partic- 
ular spring or fountain head, from which there is a supply of 
water, but from the beginning of the aqueduct, the smallest 
streamlet that trickles down the mountain summit is carefully 
collected by side troughs, and the drippings of every crevice, 
as well as the gushings of more abundant springs, fully secured. 


This aqueduct is a magnificent work for the period at which 
it was constructed — a hundred and thirty years ago. It is of 
solid granite- with a semicircular bottom for the water-course, 
and is four feet in width and the same in height ; at places 
entirely above, and at others partially beneath the ground. It 
is capped with granite in the form of a roof, is furnished with 
ventilators protected by iron gratings at regular intervals, and is 
accessible fur the use of the water at different points, by doors 
under lock and key. The honor of having projected and accom- 
plished so important a work is due to Albuquerque, captain- 
general of the province at the period — 1719-23. A record of 
this is made on a tablet on the front of the fountain of the Carioca, 
near the convent of San Antonio, above which is the reservoir in 
which the work terminates. The inscription is of a rudeness 
of outline and execution characteristic of the art of writing in 
Brazil a century ago ; and undecipherable, except by an anti- 
quarian like Dr. Walsh, familiar, from his favorite studies, with 
the abbreviations and readings without a division into syllables 
and words, of olden times. 

The following is the translation of this inscription as given by 
Dr. Walsh. " In the reign of the high and powerful king Don 
John the Fifth, Ayres de Saldanha and Albuquerque, being 
governor and captain-general of tliis place, by his directions this 
work was made, which was begun in the year 1719 and completed 
in the year 1723." 

The most magnificent and costly section of the aqueduct — 
and one which the now well-known principle in hydraulics, that 
water will rise to the level of its head, shows to have been useless 
both in labor and expense — is a lofty arcade, a conspicuous orna- 
ment of the city, by which the aqueduct is carried across a deep 
valley from the hill of Santa Theresa to that of San Antonio 
opposite. It consists of two ranges of arches one above the 
other, the lower six hundred and the upper eight hundred and 
forty feet in length, and forty feet in height. Next to the Roman 
remains of the Pont du Garde in Languedoc, the aqueduct 


across the Alcantara at Lisbon, and the High Bridge at Harlem, 
it is the finest structure of the kind I have seen. 

It was near sundown before we reluctantly turned our backs 
upon the surprising beauty which still enticed us forward. By a 
forced march we accomplished the stony and staircase descent 
through the woods, while there was yet sufficient daylight to make 
good our footsteps over the rough and slippery way. Safely at 
this point, though the night soon gathered around us, we had no 
difficulty in keeping the path under the brilliant starlight of the 
evening, and reached the city at eight o'clock, having accomplished 
the trip of twenty-two miles in six hours. 



November 9th. — Saturday more than any other is a day 
trying to my spirits. It is that whicli I appropriate to special 
preparation for my professional duties on the Sabbath ; and with 
it, the hardness and seeming barrenness of my field of labor is, 
unavoidably, brought painfully to view. The moral condition 
of our ship is equal, probably, if not in advance of that of men- 
of-war in general, in our own or any other service ; and the dis- 
cipline and general order on board good. Indeed, we regard our- 
selves, and are regarded by others around us, in these respects as 
a peculiarly favored and a happy ship. But mere external pro- 
priety of conduct does not satisfy my expectation, or meet my 
hopes. I look for evidences of higher results, from the preaching 
of the Gospel and other means of religious influence established 
among us, but look in vain ; and instead, especially when in port, 
find daily discouragements which would lead a spirit, less elastic 
than ray own, utterly to despair of being instrumental in any 
spiritual good. 

During the last fortnight, the crew in successive detachments 
have been on shore, on a general liberty of forty-eight hours. 
The drunkenness and debauchery of many, incident to this^ 
unavoidably obtruded on my notice in a greater or less degree, 
have filled my heart with sadness, and my lips — at the end of a 


miuistry of six month? — with the desponding language of the 
prophet. '' Who hath believed our report ? and to •whom hath the 
arm of the Lord been revealed'?" This has not escaped the 
observation of the men themselves, and yesterday, one of them as 
spokesman of a group with whom I fell into conversation, said to 

me — '• We are afraid, 3Ir. S , that you will become so 

disgusted with our wickedness that you will leave the ship, and 
give us up to the devil altogether : but we hope not." To do 
this would be to act the part of a coward and a traitor ; and 
knowing in whom alone is the sufficiency for these things, I must 
still labor — bear and forbear — preach with fidelity and love, pray 
without fainting, and hope against hope. 

The privileges of the shore over, all were settling down into 
customary contentment and quietude when, by some means last 
evening, a large quantity of strong drink was successfully smuggled 
into the ship. There is ever in a man-of-war a greater or less 
degree of unmitigated rascality which, on such occasions, does 
not fail to manifest itself, giving the executive of the ship an 
abundance of trouble, and bringing reproach upon the better por- 
tions of the crew. The consequence of the successful strategy was 
a good deal of disorder last night among " the baser sort " of the 
ship's company, and a nervous headache and a heartache this 
morning to me. 

One result of the liberty on shore, was the incarceration for 
drunkenness and riotous conduct, of a half dozen or more of our 
men, in the calabouqa or common jail of the city. An early 
intimation of the dilemma in which these were placed reached 
me, with an appeal for aid in procuring their release. A visit to 
them for this purpose, gave me the opportunity of a personal 
inspection of the prison. While confessing and lamenting the 
folly which had brought them there, they complained most 
grievously, as well they might, of the horrible place. It is time 
indeed for some Howard to arise in Brazil ; and I rejoice to learn 
that the state of her prisons and the subject of prison discipline, 
or rather the fact of an utter want of all discipline, is attracting 


the attention of some of her philanthropists and statesmen. Our 
fellows, at the end of two or three days, were almost starved. No 
food is served to the prisoners by authority. They are entirely 
dependent on their own resources, the kindness of any friends 
they may happen to have, or the supplies furnished gratuitously 
by some of the brotherhoods of benevolence in the city. I found 
those from the Congress — chargeable only with having broken the 
peace in a drunken brawl — in a filthy room of horrible smells, 
crowded with eighty or a hundred felons, black, white and colored 
of every hue. Among these were robbers, and murderers, and 
criminals of the most desperate character : without classification 
in age or crime — beardless boys, arrested for the most trifling 
and venial offences, being placed side by side with gray-headed 
veterans in vice.. Our men had stripped themselves more than 
half naked, that their clothes might furnish no ambush for the 
vermin with which the place was filled ; and gave pitiful 
accounts of the nights they had spent, in stifling heat, amid clouds 
of mosquitoes and other insects, with no beds but the rough 
plank of the floors, open in large crevices to the effluvia from the 
common cesspool of the whole prison immediately beneath. A 
civil and intelligent young man of their number told me that, 
till " this spree," he had not tasted strong drink for two years 
past ; and had been well punLshed, for the indulgence, by a week 
in this frightful and disgusting hole. Giving them the means of 
relief from immediate hunger, I promised to do what I could for 
their liberation ; and the youngster referred to, the last — from 
some mistake in his name — to gain a release, has just come thank- 
fully on board. 

November Vlili. — A ball on board the Congress and a soiree at 
the American Embassy have atibrded, within the week past, our 
first opportunities of mingling in the society of llio. It required 
but a short time to transform the quarter-deck of the frigate 
from a grim battery into a brilliant ball-room. The guns having 
been run out of sight on the forecastle, the awnings screened by 
the flags of all nations, in flutiugs overhead and in festoons at 


the sides, and the decks artistically chalked in colors, the interior 
soon presented the aspect of a spacious and gay saloon. In this, 
at diflerent points, muskets arranged in thick clusters with a candle 
in each muzzle, formed glittering and becoming candelabra ; and 
pistols and bayonets similarly arrayed and mounted, made brackets 
for lights along the sides and chandeliers above, while a grace- 
ful am*;mty was thrown over these implements of death, by wreaths 
of evergreen intermingled with bouquets of flowers rich in color 
and perfume. The poop-deck overlooking this dancing room, was 
tran.sfonued by similar decorations into a lofty, tented pavilion, 
from which those not disposed to join in the amusement below, 
might view the spectacle and enjoy each other's society in con- 

The ship was illuminated outside, by lines of lights running 
up each mast and by lanterns suspended from the yard-arms. 
While the company were assembling, rockets were sent up, to add 
to the brilliancy, and blue lights burned on the arrival of the 
most distinguished of the guests. Thus the efiect without, in 
approaching in the dark, was scarce less striking and beautiful 
than the coup d'oeil within, on crossing the gangway. The only 
interest I took in the preparations was in having the draperies, 
which separated these brilliant apartments from the forward deck, 
so arranged as to allow the crew — who would be kept from their 
hammocks till a late hour by the entertainment — to be spectators 
of the scene. This indulgence was readily accorded ; and, 
during the whole evening, our hardy tars in a uniform dress of 
white and blue, clustered in thick rows from the mainmast for- 
ward, formed by no means the least striking feature in the 
spectacle. Indeed, their fine physical aspect and becoming de- 
portment attracted much observation ; and elicited the most 
complimentary remarks upon them, as a body of men, from the 
most distinguished strangers on board. 

The company on this occasion consisted principally of resident 
foreigners, diplomatists, and their families, and the officers of the 
national ships in pnrt. There were few native Brazilians among 


them. Under the impression that the entertainment given by- 
Mr. and Mrs. Tod would embrace the higher circles of the native 
society, I joined the party from the ship attending it. The man- 
sion occupied by the Legation is at Praya Flamengo, •where I was 
80 much at home in 1829. It is spacious and lofty, with a stately 
suite of reception-rooms on the second floor, which command 
fine views of the bay and its chief features near the sea. It was 
illuminated in front, and brilliantly lighted and tastefully decorated 
with flowers within. According to ]5razilian custom on occasions 
of fete, the tesselated pavement of the vestibule and hall, and 
the marble staircase leading to the reception-rooms, were strewn 
with the fresh leaves of the mango tree and various aromatic 
plants which, under the pressure of the feet, send forth a grateful 
perfume. A garden in the rear, filled with myrtle and orange 
trees, and gay with the blossoms of the pomegranate and olean- 
der, was also illuminated, and seen opening in perspective 
from the hall, with pretty efiect. The company was large; 
exhibiting a good deal of dress among the ladies, in the latest modes 
of Paris, and some fine diamonds. There was, too. a sprinkling of 
title and nobillt}', and a little beauty, but nothing more distinc- 
tively Brazilian, or characteristic of nationality, than in the party 
on board the Congress. 

At an early hour after the civilities of the reception, and a gen- 
eral interchange of salutations, dancing was commenced and con- 
tinued to be the chief amusement of the There was no- 
thing in the scene with which I could sympathize, and I withdrew 
from the crowded and heated rooms to the terraced-walk fronting 
the beach. Here, a land breeze, deliciously fresh and fragrant, 
came fanning down the mountain's side ; and I passed two hours 
and more in the enjoyment of it, in a promenade back and forth 
of a quarter of a mile, beneath a gloriously lighted sky, while 
every thing was hushed to a midnight repose, except the sounds 
of the distant music of the dance, and the rush, and roar, and 
the thunder at my feet of the foaming surf. 

On returning to the house I met Mr. Tod in the lower rooms, 


the supper-rooui being about to be tlirown open. The bantjuet 
•was profuse and luxurious. A chief novelty among its delicacies, 
at cither end of the principal table, was the choicest fish of the 
ailjoiniug seas — the garoupa. It is very large, and, on the 
present occa.sion, was baked whole and served cold. From the 
general demand for it, especially among the ladies, I should have 
judged the dish to be in high estimation, without the assurance 
of the fact. It is a rarity, and itg^market price very high. Sums, 
I am told, are sometimes given for it which I dare not venture 
to state, without further inquiry, lest either my veracity or 
credulity, or both, might be put in question. 

November loth. — Yesterday afternoon I accompanied Captain 

Mcintosh, Lieut. P of the British flag ship, and Lieut. T 

of the Congress, in a drive of five miles to the country resi- 
dence of Mr. II , an English gentleman, a partner in one of 

the wealthiest mercantile houses iu Rio. An invitation to an 

evening party had been received from Mrs. R , a few days 

before, and the call we now made was in acknowledgment of the 
civility. The direction of the drive was westward, through the 
rich and broad valley which extends seven or eight miles from 
the city, to the foot of the mountains of Tojuca. High walls of 
brick and stone, or lofty hedges equally impenetrable to the eye, 
cut oflF the view of the pleasure gardens and grounds surrounding 
the residences in the suburbs, from those seated iu the low 
carriages at present iu fashion, and I chose a more elevated seat 
beside the coachman — though at the risk, iu a black dress and 
white cravat, of being taken for a servant out of livery — rather 
than forego the advantage of this better point for observation ; 
especially as there was no inconvenience from the sun, the after- 
noon being overcast and gray, such as do not often occur here 
without rain. But for this position I should have lost much of 
the enjoyment of the drive. 

Half the distance is a continued suburb of the city; and the 
remainder a succession of cottages, villas, and mansions in a 
greater or less degree of proximity — the residences of the aristo- 


cratic and wealthy, both natives and foreigners. A predominating 
fancy with these seems to be the exhibition of showy entrances 
and gateways, little in keeping in their stateliness, in many 
instances, with the inferior style and dimensions of the dwellings 
themselves. Some of these last, however, are quite palatial. One 
of this kind was pointed out, as an evidence of the talent for 
business, and the prosperous fortunes of a colored man. The 
gardens and grounds on every side are luxuriant in the display 
of flowers, shrubbery and trees, and often tastefully embellished 
with vases, casts, statuary and fountains of graceful and classic 
model. The rapidity of vegetation in weeds and grass, as well as 
in more valuable growth is such, however, as to make perfect 
neatness and good keeping in the grounds difficult. One great 
defect in them, which cannot fail to arrest the eye unaccus- 
tomed to it, is the entire absence of the close sod and velvet turf, 
which give such smoothness and softness to lawns and pleasure 
grouuds in the United States and in England. The burning sun 
of this latitude kills the roots of such growth, and there is no 
close set grass here. All that is native is coarse, tufted, and 
straggling. The site of the city was originally a marsh, and this 
interval laud, between the bay and the mountains, is low and wet. 
The soil, a stiff clay, causes the roads in rainy weather soon to be 
so cut up as to become almost impassable, and in dry, to be both 
rough and dusty. 

The residence of ]Mr. Ft , crowning a gently swelling hill 

in the midst of a lovely valley, rises conspicuously to the view 
while yet a mile from it. It is an old Brazilian house of unpre- 
tending and cottage-like aspect, soon to give place to a new build- 
ing : but looked rural and attractive, and commands a splendid 
panorama. Here the gateway is of a simplicity corresponding 
with that of the house. It opens, at the distance of a quarter 
of a mile from this, into an avenue of young mango trees, winding 
gradually up the ascent and bordered on either side by a hedge 
of the double scarlet hibiscus, whose polished leaves of green 
were studded with bright flowers. 


A long and lofty saloon, so well furnished with windows as 
to be readily converted almost into an open pavilion, occupies 
the whole front of the house. A flight of stone steps at either 
end ascends from the carriage drive to this. A similar apartment 
in the rear forms the dining-room ; while between these, and 
lighted only through them, is the drawing-room. In a colder 
climatp an apartment thus situated would, in the day time, be 
dark and gloomy ; but here, where for a great part of the year a 
glaring and glowing sun pours down upon every thing, it forms a 
welcome retreat into which the light comes only in subdued and 
grateful shade. 

We had made the acquaintance of Mrs. and Miss R at 

the entertainments mentioned under my last date ; and, on being 
u^^hered into the saloon were received by them in a most frank 

and courteous manner. Mrs. R , though a native Brazilian, 

has been much in England, and 3Iiss R has but lately com- 
pleted her education there. Both are of pleasing address and 
most gentle and amiable. After a half hour in conversation a 
walk in the grounds was proposed, the freshness of the evening 
with a land breeze from the mountains having set in. We had 
already discovered the views in every direction to be lovely : 
embracing the rich valley through which we had driven, the 
mountains bordering it on one side and the fantastic peaks in 
which they terminate at its head behind ; with cottages and 
country houses scattered thickly around, and the imperial palace 
of San Christovao encircled with plantations in full view. 
Glimpses of the city were caught in the far distance in front ; 
and, with a glass, the tapering masts of the Congress, surmounted 
by her broad pennant, rising high above the tallest of its towers 
and steeples. 

From the end of the saloon opposite to that at which we had 
entered, an embowered grapery leads to a stream at the foot of 
the hill, overhung with trees and beautifully fringed with the 
lofty and graceful bamboo. Along the green banks of thi.'^, the 
gardens, tilled with the greatest variety of shrub and flower, 


spread widely among fruit-bearing and ornamental trees, includ- 
ing a succession of orange groves. Through these we sauntered 
with great delight, tasting of the various fruits; examining, in 
the fine display of the botanical kingdom around, things old 
and new ; resting upon a rustic seat here and there ; and finally 
becoming grouped in a picturesque bower of living bamboo, whose 
thickly clustered stems at the sides and feathery tops interlaced 
orerhead effectually exclude the sun, and secure, even at mid- 
day, a retreat of refreshing coolness. Among entire novelties to 
us were the Jaca or jack fruit — ariocarpus Indicus — or East 
India bread fruit, and the Brazilian plum. 

We were here joined by Mr. R and his sons, by Lieut. 

F of our ship, and Mr. Lawrence McKeever, a son of the 
commodore, an attache of an American partner of the house in 
which Mr. R is the English principal. Mr. E, to the re- 
putation of an able and successful merchant adds that of a well- 
read man, thoroughly furnished with intelligence in regard to all 
subjects of local and general interest in Brazil. His conversa- 
tion is thus both interesting and instructive. 

As twilight began to gather round us, we returned to the 
house, and were summoned to a tea-table in the dining-hall well 
spread as in the olden times at home, not only with every delicacy 
appropriate to the repast, but with such substantial dishes, also, 
as those who had been riding and driving and walking, since an 
early dinner, might be disposed to welcome. There was an air 
of genuine hospitality in the well-covered length of the board, 
which carried me back to the tables of our friends of Massena 
and of the Lakelands in former days, telling that like theirs it 
was no unaccustomed thing thus to be drawn out to its full length 
by the presence of some eight or ten unexpected guests, in addi- 
tion to a large family circle. With a number of well-trained and 
neatly-dressed negro servants iu attendance, the whole scene was 
more like that of an ordinary exhibition of American hospitality, 
as I recollect it in boyhood, even in the Northern States, than any 
thing I have for a long time witnessed. It was half past nine 


o'clock before we took leave ; yet, such is the Jehu style of driving 
that we were not only at the landing in the city, where the 
captain's gig was in waiting for us, but safely on board ship by 

The rainy season is not so strongly marked at Rio as in many 
tropical regions, though at this period of the year more rain falls 
than afany other. To-day it poured in torrents from the early 
morning, while an impenetrable fog has been rushing from the 
sea, before a driving wind. The worst of this state of things, to 
some of us on board the Congress, was an engagement of several 
days' standing to a dinner with Admiral Reynolds, the English 
commander-in-chief on this station. "We looked in vain as the 
appointed hour approached, for any abatement in the wind and 
rain, or the arrival of a messenger to say we would not be ex- 
pected ; and, at a quarter to six, the barge was called away and 
Commodore McKeever, Captain Mcintosh and I, with such 
protection as our boat cloaks could give, were in the midst of the 
storm pulling for the flag ship. Fortunately the distance was 
scarcely more than a quarter of a mile. We escaped getting wet, 
and in the shelter and elegant appointments of the admiral's 
cabins soon forgot the discomfort of the pull on board. 

The want of a higher grade of rank in the navy of the United 
States than that of post captain, while in the British service and 
that of other nations there is not only that of admiral, but six 
degrees of advancement in that rank, often leads to embarrassment 
and an unpleasant state of feeling between those bearing other 
flags and our commanders-in-chief. The preposterous expectation 
and, in many instances, pertinacious claim of equality in rank 
and reciprocity in official honors, where there is confessedly an 
inferiority of commission, and in contravention of the established 
rules of military etiquette, not unfrequently limit the intercourse 
between American commodores and European admirals to the 
cold formalities of an official visit. Where this is the case, the 
association of the officers of the respective squadrons is, in a 
greater or less degree, of the same character. Happily for myself 


I have never been placed in this position. On the contrary, in 
all the ships to which I have been attached, the most friendly 
relations have been established with English ships of war, on the 
same station. Such is the case with the Congress and the South- 
ampton. By mutual courtesy and good will, the official and 
social intercourse of the two commanders-in-chief was on our 
arrival at once placed on a desirable footing. The consequence is, 
that the officers of the respective ships are left to an unembar- 
rassed association. This has proved cordial, and many in both 
ships visit each other with the intimacy and informality of con- 
genial neighbors on shore. 

Mrs. Reynolds accompanied the admiral from England and 
lives on board ship. She is a person of intelligent and cultivated 
mind and of frank and pleasing address ; and the birds and 
flowers, the drawings and cabinets in natural history which, in 
addition to a choice library, adorn the apartments of the South- 
ampton, at once bespeak the presence and taste of an accomplished 
woman. In addition to the military family of the admiral, which 
consists of the captain of the ship, the flag-lieutenant and the 
secretary who are regularly at his table, we had the company 

of two or three other officers, including the Rev. Mr. P , 

the chaplain. Besides this gentleman, I was happy to meet in 
the party others whom I found to be enlightened and spiritual 
Christians, as well as agreeable and well-bred men. It is un- 
necessary to say that the entertainment was sumptuous : served 
in plate, with all the appointments of the table in the elegant 
keeping of English aristocratic life. The summons to the dining 
cabin was by music from a fine band; and with the removal of 
the cloth and her majesty's health, we had " God save the Queen," 
followed by " Hail Columbia " and a succession of passages from 
the choicest operas. Our reception was the more cordial, perhaps, 
from the badness of the weather ; and the whole evening marked 
with such free interchange of thought and feeling that it seemed 
a family party at home. The eff'ect to me of such an hnpression in 
this far oil land, has been an irresistible fit of the " 7nal du pays.''^ 


November 20ih. — The Praya San Domingo and Praya Grande 
on the eastern side of the bay, continue to be favorite resorts with 
us, especially when Captain Mcintosh is leader of the party. 
He holds in abhorrence the filth of the city side. The interest 
of our visits has been much increased by the acquaintance 
accidentally formed with a Portuguese family, shortly after the 
return pf the Congress from the Plata. In a stroll we were 
taking there, we passed a plantation, the extent and thriftiness 
of which had before attracted our notice. The principal gateway 
now stood open, exhibiting, in long vista, an avenue of young 
palms, whose interlacing branches coniph lely over-arched the walk 
beneath. A group of slaves were at work just within; and 
coupling our admiration with a question as to the privilege of en- 
tering, we had scarcely received an af&rmative reply, before the pro- 
prietor, Don Juan M ,made his appearance from a wilderness of 

luxuriant growth on one side, courteously bidding us welcome, and 
becoming himself our guide. There is nothing artistic or par- 
ticularly tasteful in the manner in which the grounds are laid 
out ; but they arc in high cultivation, and the variety and exuber- 
ance of the growth, and the novelty to us of many of its forms, 
made them very attractive. Fruits, flowers, and vegetables — 
Bhrubs, plants, and trees are so closely intermingled, as to shut 
out all view, except in each immediate path, or at the intersecting 
angles of the larger alleys. In other places endless beds, so 
arranged as to be easily irrigated, are filled with every kind of 
vegetable in the greatest profusion ; while above wave the broad 
leaves of the banana and plantain, the feathery palm, and the 
closely set, and pinnated foliage of the mango. Many of the 
paths are bordered with cofi"ee trees, now in full bloom. These are 
allowed to grow to a height of ten or fifteen feet, and are in the 
form of a bush. The blossoms, of the purest white, appear in 
general eff"ect like those of the double jessamine. They cluster 
thickly over the branches, and contrast beautifully with the dark 
green of the polislied leaves. Among the exotics are the cinna- 


mon, clove, and nutmeg, and the climbing vine of the black 

In the course of our ramble we came upon the wash-house of 
the establishment — an open, tile-covered lodge or verandah, sup- 
ported by pillars of brick, and furnished with a wide and deep 
tank or reservoir of water, troughs, tubs and slabs of stone for 
the various operations of the laundry. Three or four negresses 
were engaged in the appropriate work of the place, with their 
children at play around. Near one of the mothers, in a flat 
basket on the ground, lay, kicking and crowing as if ready to 
spring out of its skin, an entirely naked and shining little negro, 
six or eight months of age — one of the brightest and cleanest 
looking little rogues I ever saw. It was black as the purest 
ebony, and in a perfection of form fitting it for the model of a 
cupid, or infant Apollo, or Adonis. It looked so healthy, and so 
wholesome, and so perfectly pure, as to be provocative almost of a 
kiss ; and one of our party — who, in strong remembrance of his 
own little ones at home, has a perfect passion for every child he 
meets, whether black or white — was so delighted that I thought 
he would scarcely rest satisfied in his caressing, short of such an 
evidence of admiration. 

At the end of a half hour we came again into the principal 
avenue, leading from the gate to the base of a steep hill, or rather 
clifi", overhanging the gardens, from the brow of which the dwell- 
ing of Don Juan looks down as upon a map. Detained already, 
it appeared, from an appointment of business by his attentions 
to us, he here apologized for the necessity of taking leave, but 
begged us to continue our walk up the hill, from which wo would 
have a magnificent view ; and called a negro lad to guide us. 
We willingly complied, and advanced by a winding path up the 
steep. Among the growth not before noticed, we here observed 
the peach, apple, and pomegranate, interspersed with grove after 
grove of orange trees, lieavily laden with golden fruit. The 
house is a long, tile-roofed cottage of one story, surrounded by 
broad piazzas, opening upon flagged terraces. The pointed top 

MADAME M . 141 

of the hill has been cut down to a platform, sufficient only in 
extent for the area of the dwelling, with a shrubbery and flower 
garden on one side, and a dovecote and quarters for the house- 
negroes on the other. The whole is perched upon the angular 
point of a precipitous promontory overlooking the bay of St. 
Francis Xavier, from which a heavy surf rolls beneath, breaking, 
in port, amid a cluster of fantastic and columnar rocks, and in 
part upon a white sand beach. To reach the best point for a 
panoramic view at the end of the flower garden, we were con- 
ducted through the reception rooms, in the centre of the cottage, 
furnished with some showy articles of French manufacture — a 
piano, sofa, vases of painted china. The landscape and water 
view at every point are superb— especially on the garden front, 
with the wild surf beneath, and the islet of Boa Viagem for 
a foreground — its fantastic clifis of strongly colored earths 
draped with bright verdure, and crowned by its picturesque little 
chapel. The varied movements of sail in the lower harbor ; the 
bright gloamings of the city along the shores of Flamengo and 
Botafogo ; with the Sugar-loaf and adjoining hills, and the Gavia 
and Corcovado iu sublime groupings iu the distance, formed 
together a picture of xuirivalled beauty. The coloring, and 
effective shades of a sunset of crimson and gold, exhibited the 
whole with gorgeous effect ; and we stood fascinated by it, till the 
gathering twilight hastened us to our boat. 

Commodore McKeever and Mr. G accompanied us in a 

second visit which Ave were invited by Don Juan to make, a few 
evenings afterwards. We were welcomed with the cordiality of 
old friends, and after a walk through the grounds, were conducted 

to the house, introduced to Madame M , and served with 

coffee, sweetmeats and liqueurs. We soon discovered the mistress 
of the establishment to be of the order of women, so graphically 
described by the wise man — " she seeketh wool and flax, and 
wnrketh willingly with her hands. She looketh well to the ways 
of her household, and eatetli not the bread of idleness. Her 
children arise and call her ble.ssed, her liusl>and also, and he 


praiseth her." Through the open windows of the verandah, as 
we entered, we saw her busily engaged, amid a group of female 
slaves, old and young, in the cutting and fitting of garments which 
they were sewing ; and learned from her husband that her agency, 
as well as supervision, was thus exercised in the whole economy 
of the establishment. In dress, she was in the dishabille common 
among the females, and males too, in this climate, at least till a 
late hour of the day ; a loose wrapper with a colored silk pocket- 
handkerchief over the head. On the summons of Don Juan, she 
joined us without apology in regard to her toilette ; and after the 
refreshments were served, while we were enjoying the view at the 
point of the promontory, gathered and arranged for each of us a 
choice and beautiful bouquet. 

In acknowledgment of the kindness of thus throwing open 
their grounds and house to us, an invitation was given for a visit 
to the Congress. This was readily accepted, and they have since 
passed a morning on board. It was their first visit to a man-of- 
war, and they professed to take more interest in it, and to feel 
themselves more highly honored from its bearing the stripes and 
stars of the United States, than they could under any other flag. 
AVe scarcely recognized the Dona at first, under the aspect of 
a visitor. In place of the Portuguese neglig^, in which we were 
received by her at home, she now appeared in the latest style 
of Parisian promenade costume : with silks and laces and ex- 
pensive embroideries, in a correctness of taste and good-keeping, 
that proved her by no means unaccustomed to the elegancies of 
the toilette. Don Juan is a man of intelligence and of much 
practical good sense and observation. Amoug many things on 
board, which attracted his attention, aside from the equipment 
and peculiar character of our ship in military appointment, was 
a small homoeopathic medicine chest in the captain's cabin. He 
is a warm advocate of this system, and a practitioner of it in his 
own family / and he informed us that in forty cases of fever, 
among his slaves, during the late epidemic, he allowed of no other 
treatment, and did not lose a single patient, tliough many negroes 
around him died of tlu; pestilence under allopathic practice. 

en APT Ell XII. 

KlO DE Janeiko. 

November 2Gth. — The heat of the mornings on shore is be- 
coming so intense as to make walking oppressive. Till the set- 
ting in of the sea-breeze about mid-day, the ship is altogether 
more desirable than any other place accessible to us. Moored 
in the direct line of the -winds from the sea, her decks with awn- 
ings spread fore and aft, form a delightful lounging-place ; one 
never without attractions, in the constant movements on the bay, 
and the varying and beautiful effects produced upon its imagery, 
by hourly atmospheric changes. This you can readily understand 
from daily experience at Riverside. Like the verandah there, 
the poop of the Congress here commands a wide-spread panorama 
of water, mountain, and valley, ever varying in its aspects of lights 
and shade, sunshine and clouds, tints and coloring, and tempting 
one to give too much time to mere admiration of the changing 

When the atmosphere is peculiarly brilliant, the mountains 
stand out with a nearness and strength of light that exposes to 
clear view the chiscllings of their minutest features. With a 
good glass, every rock and tree, and almost every shrub, of the 
nearer ranges is then brought, seemingly, within touch; while the 
sublime chain, forty and fifty miles distant in the nortli, exhibits, 
through the same medium, not only the fantastic spikes and fin- 


gets from which it derives its name, but the minuter formations 
of the wooded sides also, furrowed by water-courses, and streaked 
here and there with the silver line of a cataract in a deep glen. 
Then again, the whole stand, with undistinguishable features, like 
massive walls of purple and blue, the upper profile only of their 
jagged outlines being marked boldly against the sky. 

In the morning, the whole bay is smooth and glassy as a lake : 
one vast mirror, along whose edges are repictured in strong and 
unbroken reflection, mountain and city, church-tower, fortress, and 
convent, in minute fidelity, while all the men-of-war, and the 
little craft floating by with useless sails, lie in duplicate around. 
The sun glares hotly — not a breath of air is stirring, and every 
one is oppressed. But watching seaward, the topsails of the 
inward-bound in the far ofl&ng are seen, by and by, to be gently 
filling with a breeze ; presently, ' cats-paw ' after * cats-paw ' comes 
creeping through the channel and up the bay ; till soon, in place of 
a glaring and oppressive calm, its surface is dancing with ' white- 
caps ; ' the lateen sail boats, careening to the wind and dashing 
the spray from their bows, rush past and around us like " playful 
things of life ; " the inward-bound with wide-spread wings come 
hastening to the anchorage ; every one drinks in with delight 
the welcome draught; and for the rest .of the day, new aspects 
and new life are imparted to every thing and every body. At 
times, this sea-breeze is supplanted by a half gale from the same 
direction, causing so much of a swell as to raise breakers between 
us and the landing, and partially to interrupt communication 
with the shore. This was the case a day or two since, when the 
surf rolled along nearly the whole length of the city. The 
change in the temperature too, is frequently so great as to lead 
to the substitution of cloth clothing for that of light summer 
wear, and to the buttoning closely of the coat to avoid a sense 
of chilliness. 

Towards evening the sea-breeze ordinarily dies away; and, by 
sunset, a glassy surface again reflects the gorgeous coloring which 
now mantles the mountains, and gilds with brightness the promi- 


neut architecture of the city. As the short twilight settles into 
darkness, regular Hues of brilliant lamps gleam for miles along 
the shores ou either side of the bay, and up the ridges and over 
the tops of the hills in the city ; the bright radiance of unnum- 
bered stars falls from above ; and the land-breeze, gently fanning 
down the mountain sides, brings with it the freshness and fra- 
grance of their woods and flowers. 

Often a thunder-storm of thick blackness, with forked light- 
ning, is seen raging among the mountain peaks without approaching 
nearer ; and oftener still, magnificently cuhuinating summer clouds, 
heaped pile upon pile above them, exhibit a play of electric light, 
of a beauty and splendor sufficient for the pastime of the even- 
ing. We had a remarkable display of this kind a night or two 
ago ; the flashes were more vivid and more uicessant than I 
recollect ever before to have witnessed. Masses of black clouds, 
towering to the zenith on every side, made the night exceedingly 
dark. In the momentary intervals between the flashes there was 
a darkness that might almost be felt — utterly impenetrable even 
at the shortest distance — and making inexpressibly grand and 
beautiful the more than mid-day brightness which instantly fol- 
lowed, disclosing to microscopic view every object far and near. 

From the cause named at the beginning of this date — the heat 
of the mornings — my visits ou shore, for the long walk which you 
know to be an essential daily enjoyment to me, are chiefly in the later 
hours of the afternoon and evening. As the last regular boat of 
the ship leaves the shore punctually at sunset, this necessity of 
choosing so late a period of the day would subject me to the 
inconvenience of coming off" in a shore boat, and the disgust of 
breathing the atmosphere by which the vicinity of the common 
lauding is nightly polluted, were it not for the social arrangements 
of the Commodore. Intimacy with the Ambassador and his 
family, and other American friends in the same neighborhood, 

lead.s him with Mr. G to most of his evenings at the 

Praya Flamcugo. His barge awaits him regularl}', at nine o'clock, 
:it a sheltered and pleasant landing uear the Gloria Hill. A seat 


in this is always in reserve for me ; and, whether visiting with him 
or not, I am sure of a passage in good season to the ship. I am 
thus left at liberty to range the hills and valleys at my pleasure 
towards the close of day, and to take my fill of such delights as 
nature, in her exuberance and ever-varying beauty in ten thou- 
sand forms, here affords. A chief drawback to the pleasure is 
the want of a companion in my rambles. Such of my messmates 
as have a round of ship's duty in their order, find sufficient exer- 
cise in pacing the decks in its discharge, and are often too much 
fatigued to start in search of the picturesque ; others, though at 
leisure, less inured to fatigue than I am, think the beauty of the 
upland haunts I most frequent, scarcely worth the effort required 
at all points, in the first sharp ascent of a half mile, by which 
only they are attained. Hence my evening strolls of this kind 
are solitary : still — 

" My steps are not alone 
In these bright walks ; the sweet southwest, at play, 
Flies, rusthng, where the tropic leaves are strewn 
Along the winding way. 
And far in heaven the while, 
The sun that sends the gale to wander here, 
Pours out on the fair earth the quiet smile — 
That sweetens all the year." 

The row, at night, of two miles and more to the ship is of 
itself a pleasure : sometimes beneath a bright moon, with the palm- 
topped trees and convent towers of Santa Theresa on our left, 
marked in silver against the sky ; sometimes amid a darkness which 
leaves nothing for our guide but the signal lanterns for the Com- 
modore, at the peak of the far-off Congress; and sometimes 
again, amid a display of phosphorescence in the water, sufficient 
to excite both admiration and surprise. The regular dip of the 
oars, then, creates splendid coruscations : streams of apparent fire 
run from the uplifted blades, while the barge, under the impulse 
of fourteen stalwart oarsmen, rushes on through a wide trough 
seemingly of molten silver. 


But I am forgetting the object for ■which I opened my journal 
— to say, that in despite of the heat, I have spent two mornings, 
within the past week, in a stroll along the shaded side of the Rua 
Ouvidor, in company with the Commodore, Captain and Mr. 

(i , on a visit of curiosity to the various shops with which it 

is lined. The show windows of these rival those of Broadway, 
in the display of rich fancy goods of English, French, and German 
manufacture, and of jewelry, articles of vertu, drawings, engrav- 
ings, and bijouterie. Among the jewellers' shops which we entered 
was one, having for its sign the imperial arms and crown in rich 
gilding — thus indicating the special patronage of their majesties 
and the court. The person in attendance received us most polite- 
ly, and, though we at once apprised him that our object was not 
to purchase, exhibited his choicest caskets, from those valued at 
a few hundred dollars to those at as many tens of thousands. Most 
of the contents were native diamonds and other precious stones 
tastefully arranged and artistically set. The workmen here arc 
celebrated for skill in this respect, and for the delicacy and finish 
of their filagree in silver, and chasings in gold, Rio is also cele- 
brated for the manufacture of artificial flowers from feathers. 
Those most valued arc of the choicest and rarest humming birds. 
The changing tints of some of these arc more rich and varied 
than those of the opal. Such are much prized and are expensive. 
The counterpart of a set recently ordered by the Princess de 
Joinville was as costly as so much jewelry. The manufactories 
are in large shops open entirely in front to the street, and, the 
artisans being chiefly young girls, are favorite resorts and loung- 
ing places of shoppers and idlers. 

It must not be inferred that in thus spending a morning in 
shopping, we were encroaching on the prerogatives of the ladies of 
Brazil. The usage of the country denies them this pastime. Por- 
tuguese and Spanish views of the liberty of outdoor locomotion to 
be allowed to females — traceable to the Moorish estimate of their 
trust worthiness and virtue — prohibit to them here in a great degree 
the privileges of the street. In the early morning they maybe seen, 


dressed in black, and attended by a servant or cliild, walking to 
and from cliurcli ; and on the Sabbatb, likewise, in long family 
procession, in performance of a like duty ; but, to take a prome- 
nade as such, for pleasure or display, or to pass from shop to shop 
looking at fine goods by the hour, without finding the article 
sought, or any thing to suit the fancy, would be regarded as an 
indecorum, and an unmistakable mark of vulgar boldness. Na- 
tive prejudice on this point, has doubtless been modified by the 
example of numerous foreign residents and visitors ; still, when 
a lady is met in the streets in promenade, it may be safely in- 
ferred that she is not a Brazilian : if wearing a bonnet, it may be 
deemed certain. 

Aside from the light thrown upon the general estimate of 
female virtue, by this prohibition, from usage, there are habits of 
indecency among the people, witnessed even in the most public 
thoroughfares, sufficient to justify it, so long as the nuisance is 
permitted ; moreover, a lady in walking is subjected to an im- 
pudent stare and look of libertinism from shopkeepers, and 
clerks, and passers-by, which is in itself an insult, without the 
addition of the remarks of levity which at times may be heard. 
There has been an advance in civilization of late in this respect ; 
still, efi"rontery enough is left in connection with it to ofi'cnd the 
delicacy of a woman in walking, and to excite the indignation of 
any male friend accompanying her. 

The native female of the better classes is, therefore, still to be 
regarded as a kind of house prisoner ; she may stand against or 
lean over the railing of an upper balcony by the hour — as is 
much the custom — gazing in listless silence upon whatever is 
taking place in the street ; but a promenade below, with the chance 
of a flirtation, is denied her. 

How then, you will ask, is the shopping of the ladies for fine 
dresses and fine feathers accomplished ? I answer, either by hus- 
bands and fathers, who I am told are well versed by experience 
in the business, or by a running to and from shop to drawing-room 
of boys and porters with pattern-books and pieces. A lady from 


the country will drive to the house of some friend, or secure a 
hired room, and, sending forth a servant, will put the errand-boys 
of half the shops in the city, in motion for the day. 

On one of these mornings, we entered- a common auction-room 
for a moment, and accidentally stumbled on the humiliating and 
reproachful sight of a sale of men and women by a fellow man. 
Not the sale, as till within a few years past might here have been the 
case, of newly imported captives from Africa, but of natives of 
Rio, thus passing under the hammer from owner to owner like 
any article of merchandise. They were eight or ten in number of 
both sexes, varying in age from boyhood and girlhood to years of 
maturity and middle life. They stood meekly and submissively, 
though evidently anxious and sad, under the interrogations and 
examinations of the bidders, and a rehearsal and laudation by the 
auctioneer of their different available working qualities and dis- 
positions : their health, strength and power of endurance. All, 
in their turn were made to mount an elevated platform, to display 
their limbs almost to nakedness, and exhibit their muscular powers 
by various gymnastics, like a his movements and action, 
before the bidders at Tattersall's. 

They were rapidly knocked down at prices varying from two 
hundred to a thousand and more milreis : that is, from one to five 
hundred and more dollars. As we turned away, the indignation 
of one of our party found vent in the exclamation : " Such a 
spectacle is a disgrace to human nature. It makes one sick at 
heart, and ready to fear that in the retributive justice of the 
Almighty the time may come, when the blacks here will put up 
the whites for sale in the same manner ! " And why not ? Why 
should the blood boil at the mere suggestion of the thought in 
the one case, and yet flow coolly and tranquilly on, in view of the 
other ? 

Happily Brazil has been arou.«ed, through the influence of 
her Emperor and the wisest of her statesmen and legislators, to 
earnestness in that suppression of the traffic in slaves to which she 
has so long stood pledged by treaty. It is no longer in name 


only that the trade is a piracy. The landing of a cargo any 
where in the Empire subjects it to forfeiture. A high premium 
is given to an informer in a case of smuggling of the kind, and 
the law cuts off all recovery of payment for the proceeds of a 
sale that may have been effected. The consequence is, that the 
millionnaires of Rio, whose coffers have been filled to repletion 
with the price of blood, finding the government in earnest in the 
execution of the laws, are forsaking their gilded palaces here — 
some of them among the most luxurious and ornate residences of 
the city — for homes where they may pursue their nefiirious busi- 
ness with less reproach to reputation, and less liability to the pen- 
alty of the laws. It is said that there are residents here, entitled 
by birth and citizenship to stand beneath the protecting folds of 
the stripes and stars of our country, who till now have been 
active agents in, and have shared largely in the emoluments of 
this wicked outrage on the rights of man. 

December \Oth. — The 2d inst. was the Emperor's birth-day, a 
chief gala among the anniversaries of Rio. His Majesty then 
completed his twenty-fifth year. The day was fine, and the cele- 
bration consisted of a grand military procession of regular troops 
and national guards through the palace square; a Te Deum in 
the imperial chapel, at which the Emperor and Empress assisted, 
as the phraseology is ; a review of the troops by their Majesties 
from a balcony of the palace; a levee for hand-kissing after- 
wards, for such as are entitled to the entree; and at night a visit 
of the Court in state, to the opera. The whole accompanied by 
the firing, morning, noon and night, afloat and on shore, of 
unnumbered cannon. 

I was in Captain Mcintosh's party in going on shore. He 
has a horror of crowds, which to me afford some of the best oppor- 
tunities of judging of the character of a pcoj^le, and after seeing 
him comfortably seated in a balcony commanding the square, 
Lieut. T and I sallied forth "among the horses," as he ex- 
pressed it, to be in closer proximity to the populace. 

The Brazilians are manifestly an orderly, civil, good-natured, 


tiruid, and temperate people ; contrasting favorably in their man- 
ners, language, indulgences and general deportment, on similar occa- 
sions, with the masses in large cities, in the United States. I saw 
nothing rude or coarse in any one, nothing offensive or insulting : 
no protauity, no intoxication, no quarelliug, no call for the inter- 
ference of the police. 

«In the course of the morning, among various other experiences, 
we elbowed his Majesty and the ministers of the household, the 
metropolitan and his chapter of the priesthood, and the great 
officers of state in the Imperial chapel ; scrutinized the Empress 
and her ladies in their tribune ; listened to the effective music of 
the Te Deum, performed by the chief singers of the opera corn- 
pan}' ; witnessed the return of the court in procession from the 
chapel to the throne room ; and gained a point of observation for 
the review, so near Don Pedro and Dona Theresa as to have been 
able readily to have carried on a conversation with them, had it 
been according to rule. 

The regular army of Brazil consists of some twenty thousand 
troops. Very few of these are at present here. The great mass 
of those under arms on the present occasion, amounting to some 
five thousand, was of municipal guards, corresponding to the 
volunteer companies of New York. They were in neat and 
handsome uniforms, are well appointed, and well drilled; but are 
small and light in figure, without an appearance of much phys- 
ical force, and most motley in complexion and the mixture of blood. 
An abundant supply of fine bands was in attendance. Negroes 
and mulattoes predominated in these, testifying to the gift of 
musical taste in the race here, as with us in the United States. 

There was a partial illumination in the evening, but to no 
striking effect, except in the streets leading from the palace to the 
opera-house. The progress of the court in state through these 
was a showy spectacle. The glaring flambeaux of liveried out- 
riders, preceding and flanking the open carriages, themselves 
brilliantly lighted, and the illuminated houses, exhibited the 
diamonds of the Empress and her attendants to great advantage. 


The left breast of the Emperor's coat, too, flashed with the 
brilliants of the many orders with which it was decorated. The 
vivas of the multitudes were tolerably loyal, and the spirited 
strains of the national air, caught, as the cortege approached, 
from band to band, stationed at various points on the route, quite 
spirit-stirring. The music of this air is a composition of Don 
Pedro I., who was a master in the science. It is one of the most 
animated, spirit-moving national airs I know — equal almost in 
this respect to the Marseillaise. The words of the anthem to 
which it is set arc said to be also from the pen of his late Majesty ; 
and, in the native language, are scarce less incitive than the tune, 
to emotions of patriotism and valor — 

la podeis, fillios da patria, 

Ver contentc a mai gentil, 
la raiou a liberdade, 

No horizonte do Brazil. 

Brava gente Braziliera 

Longe vai temor servil ! 
Ou ficar a patria livrc, 

Ou mourer pelo Brazil. 

I could not be otherwise than amused by an incident, char- 
acteristic of the too widely spread spirit of my countrymen, 
which came under my observation just after reaching the shore. 
The court were alighting at the palace, on their arrival in state 
from San Christovao : the turn-out, in equipages and their appoint- 
ments, the same as described at the prorogation of the legislature 
in September. The hurried rush across the square of the mounted 
guard in advance ; the flourish of trumpets and striking up of the 
bands; the glitter of postillions and coachmen in livery, stiff" with 
lacings of silver ; the tossings of the plumed heads of the long 
lines of richly caparisoned horses; and the ceremonies of the 
vestibule, in the salutations and kissing of hands at aligliting, 
were just occurring, as a rough specimen of our comjiatriots, in 
the character of a Yankee sea-captain happened by. He stood 


near me for a moment gazing at the pageant, evidently with less 
of admiration than of contempt, and, as he passed on with a 
significant '' Humph ! " I heard him add in half soliloquy — " I tell 
you what, there is a little too much nonsense here ; it is time 
this people were annexed ! " 

To-day the weather has been wet and stormy. Notwith- 
standing, a Brazilian naval officer came on board the Congress 
before breakfast, to say that the Emperor would be afloat in an 
excursion on the bay. It is customary on such occasions for the 
national vessels in the harbor to fire a royal salute. That 
they may be in readiness for this, on the appearance of the im- 
perial standard, the official notice mentioned is given. The 
Brazilian men-of-war man their yards also, and nine cheers are 
given for their sovereign as he passes. At 11 o'clock the firing 
was commenced by the Brazilian flag-ship; and, on going on deck 
I found myself surrounded by a blaze from guns on every quarter. 
At the same time, a procession of state barges was seen moving 
from the naval arsenal near the convent of San Bento, to a steamer 
not far from us. The barge of his 3Iajesty, of white and green, 
was magnificently gilded, and furnished with a standing canopy 
of green and gold over the stern sheets, surmounted by the im- 
perial crown. A naval officer in epaulets and chapcau acted as 
coxswain, the boat being handsomely pulled by twenty-four fine- 
looking oarsmen in a uniform of white. The object of the excur- 
sion was a visit in the steamer to a foundry and steam-engine 
manufactory at Praya Grande, on the opposite side of the bay ; 
where, in proof of the rapid advancement of the empire in 
scientific works and national power, native talent and enterprise 
is successfully competing with foreign skill, in the construction and 
equipment of men-of-war and other steamers. 


Eio Dz Janeibo. 

December l'6ih. — On the morning of the 17th iust. I was called 
to officiate at a marriage on shore. The ceremony took place at 
the American Consulate, where a d<':jeuner a la fourchette was 
given to the party by Gov. and Mrs. Kent. The groom, a native 
Brazilian, a young physician, had attended a course of medical 
and surgical lectures in New York. He became there a member 
of the Protestant Episcopal church ; and was altogether so much 
interested in our institutions, as to file, in the proper office, an 
intention of becoming a naturalized citizen of the United States. 
These circumstances led him to desire a marriage ceremony in the 
Protestant form, under the American flag, though, the bride being 
a Romanist, they had already been united by the rites of her 

While on shore on this occasion, I came near being a spec- 
tator, accidentally, of a more interesting scene of the kind. In 
passing the foundling hospital, which fronts an open, irregular 
space not far from the ordinary landing, beneath Castle Ilill, I 
perceived the grated windows of the second and third stories to 
be filled with females of diftcrent ages, from childhood to maturity, 
in holiday dress, evidently awaiting the occupancy and departure 
of a couple of private carriages, drawn up before the principal 
entrance. Stepping into the opon vestibule of tlie building — in 


one corner of vrhich is the roda, or turning-box, for the deposit of 
the infants chindestinely left — I rightly conjectured from the 
white gloves, waistcoats, and breast-knots of two or three young 
men present, that the occasion was one of marriage, and learned 
that the ceremony had just taken place in the chapel of the 
hospital. This, which opened from the vestibule, was, however, 
nov^ empty. An aged female of dignified appearance, in a 
monastic dress of white, was walking back and forth in a small 
corridor behind a grated door. She appeared to be waiting to 
unlock this. Almost immediately the bride and groom, in the 
significant garb of the newly wedded, were seen to approach from 
the interior. They were both quite young. An elderly lady, 
evidently of distinction, attired in purple velvet with a display 
of rich laces, jewelry and ostrich plumes, accompanied them, and 
was herself followed by a dignified and well-dressed gentleman, 
who appeared to be her husband. A crowd of the inmates of 
the institution quickly filled the entire corridor behind. The 
bride was in tears, as she hurriedly gave a farewell embrace to 
one and another of the youthful companions crowding around her, 
and, on coming to the aged female at the door, dropped on her 
knees, and covered her hands with and tears. The groom 
hurried her from tliis scene to the first carriage, and drove off 
rapidly, followed by the second containing the fine folks, probably 
the god-mother and god-father, or the patron and patroness of the 
bride. The whole explained to me a usage, in connection with this 
establishment, of which I had heard. A recolhiemeuto, or female 
oqjhan a.sylum is an appendage of the foundling hospital, many 
of its deves being selected from the inmates of the latter. In 
addition to the nurture and education of the orphans, care is 
taken to provide for their settlement in life, with the bestowment 
of a marriage portion, varying from one to two hundred dollars. 
That an opportunity may be afforded for young men of respectable 
character to make choice of a wife from the inmates, the establish- 
ment is open to visitors one day in every year — that of the anni- 
vcr.^ary of St. Klizabeth, the patrouc.vs of the a.'^ylum. Before a 


union is sanctioned, however, satisfactory testimonials of good 
character in the applicant for marriage must be furnished, and 
guaranties of ability to support a wife be given. Such was the 
origin of the marriage which had just taken place. The dress 
and lady-like bearing of the bride, the respectable appearance and 
manners of the groom, the rich attire, equipages, and evident 
position in life of those under whose patronage they appeared, all 
indicated, in this case, something in her lot above the destiny 
of common orphanage. 

While the establishment of a home for the friendless young 
is one of the most self-commending of charities, the philanthropy 
which provides an asylum for the secret reception of foundlings 
is no longer questionable, in the judgment of the wisely benevo- 
lent and truly good. It is but to foster vice, and to encourage 
the unnatural and depraved in the abandonment of their oflfspring. 
This is well known here, and readily admitted to be the effect. 
The number yearly left in the roda, or turning-box, of this 
hospital, amounts, I am told, by those best informed, to five and 
six hundred — white, black and mongrel of every degree. More 
than half of these soon perish from diseases seated upon them 
before being abandoned ; from the impossibility of securing 
natural nourishment for the feeble ; and fi-om the various ills to 
which early infancy under the most favored auspices is subject. 

December 20^7i. — One source of agreeable excitement with 
us, is the daily anticipation and frequent arrival of sailing vessels 
and steamers, governmental and mercantile, from the United 
States and various parts of the world. The number of vessels 
entering the port of Kio annually, besides those engaged in the 
coasting trade, which are very numerous, averages about eight 
hundred : importing cargoes to the amount of some two hundred 
thousand tons. Of course, scarcely a day passes without the 
entry of two or three foreign vessels in the regular trade, 
besides such as merely touch for repairs or refreshment. 

It is a remarkable fact — especially in view of the achievements 
in navigation, of the Portuguese of old, and the boldness and 


enterprise with which for centuries they sustained their part in 
the commerce of the world — that their descendants here should 
have yielded that of the empire, which is foreign, entirely to the 
vessels of other nations. It is extremely rare for a Brazilian ship 
to cross the Atlantic, or double Cape Horn, or the Cape of Good 
Hope; and I learn, from Gov. Kent, that not a single vessel of the 
oouiKry has cleared for the United States, since he has been consul 
here. Their trading vessels, though small, are generally well 
built, strong, and well modelled ; and are navigated with care and 
safety along the extended coasts of the continent, from the Plata 
to the Amazon. But, as the consul remarks, " the native naviga- 
tors seem afraid to compete on the high seas, with the vessels of 
this age of hurry and locomotion — with the reckless driving of 
the ' Flying Clouds ' and ' White Squalls,' the ' Sea Witches,' 
and other wild birds of the ocean, and yield, without a struggle, 
the enterprises in foreign commerce to the hardy northmen — the 
unwearied and ever-present Yankee, and the pushing and exacting 
Englishman." The truth is, as he adds, the Brazilian is not by 
nature a trader or experimenter. He thinks it sufficient for him 
to raise coffee and get it to a market : he lacks the energy, the indus- 
try — the earnest, long-continued, unwearied effort which leads one 
willingly to sacrifice present ease, comfort, and quiet, to the pros- 
pect of future gain, and which makes the successful merchant. " Go 
ahead," ''strive," '' s'truggle," " compete" — arc words not belong- 
ing to his vocabulary. He shrugs his shoulders at the very mention 
of them — not in contempt, but in despair; and prefers sitting in 
bis easy chair, or lolling out of the window, to the tussle of life 
common with us, of which the very thought would throw him 
into a perspiration. '* Let the negroes work," is his motto; "and 
let what they cannot do remain undone." The Yankee character, 
as exhibited here within the year or two past, in the rush by of 
the thousands of emigrants on their way to California, struck the 
people with astonishment. They were looked upon as most reck- 
less and daring adventurers, who, born in suow-d rifts and cradled 
in ice, had a hardihood and enterprise it was in vain to attempt 


to rival. But I am forgetting tlie subject with which I com- 

The telegraphic station on Castle Hill, to and from which the 
appearance of all sail in the offing is reported, is in full view fiom 
our moorings. The quarter-masters of the Congress are furnished 
with explanations of the various flags used, and the combinations 
by which the nation, character, and position of the sail in sight 
are made known. Few moments of the day pass without a turn 
of the glass in that direction. The distinguishing flag for an 
American vessel is a long, pointed pennant of white and deep 
blue in closely-arranged perpendicular stripes, giving to it the 
appearance, as it flutters in the wind, of being riug-streaked. With 
a Yankee fondness for sobriquets having a political or national 
import. Jack has dubbed this pennant " the coon's tail," from a 
fancied resemblance to the well-known emblem of the party of 
which the great statesman of Kentucky was so long an illustrious 
leader ; and, " the coon's tail is up I " or " there goes the coon's 
tail ! " is the regular announcement of an American ship in the 

Among uncounted merchant vessels which have thus been 
reported since our return from the Plata, there have also been 
the frigate Raritan, storeship Relief, and sloops-of-war Saratoga 
and St. Mary of the navy. The St. Mary was especially wel- 
come from the number of officers attached to her, clcsely associ- 
ated in friendship with several on board the Congress. Captain 
Magruder, her commander, is of this number; and is justly held 
in high estimation. The intercourse on his part with our ship 
has been most intimate. After an interchange of civilities by 
various parties on board both vessels, Captain Mcintosh and I 
took dinner informally with him to-day, with the purpose of a 
drive afterwards to the Botanic Gardens. These lie six or eight 
miles south-west from the city, on the sea-shore, beneath the range 
of mountains, of which the Corcovado and the Gavia are such 
conspicuous points. For three miles the way is the same described 
in a visit to Botafogo. The remainder does not diflbr materially 


from it, except that the suburbs of the place change gradually, 
by the greater distances intervening between the villas and 
country houses which adorn the sides of the road, into a thinly- 
occupied and open country. At the distance of five miles, the 
interval between the mountains and the sea is taken up chiefly by 
a lake or lagoon called Kodrigo de Freitas. A short drive hence 
over a sandy plain brought us to the gates of the garden. This 
was originally a pleasure-ground of the royal family in the time 
of John VI., and was appropriated by him to its present use, 
on the accidental arrival in 1809 of various cases of exotics from 
the Isle of France, in a vessel which brought to Rio a company 
of Portuguese prisoners. The collection was afterwards augmented, 
at the order of the king, by additions from Cayenne, then under 
his rule ; and eventually by the importation of the tea-plant from 
China, with a company of Chinese laborers skilled in its cultiv'a- 
tion and in the preparation of the leaf for use. The attempt proved 
a failure ; not so much from a want of adaptation in the soil and 
climate, or from the quality of the tea produced, as from the 
expense above the cost of the imported article. Both here, and 
at Santa Cruz — an imperial estate fifty miles west of Kio, where 
also a plantation was formed — the culture has been abandoned ; a 
few plats of stunted, mildewed, and neglected bushes only are 
left as a botanical curiosity. 

The gardens cover some fifty acres of ground — an alluvial 
flat of rich soil, and constitute a nursery from which plants of the 
cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, camphor, allspice, and tea, originally in- 
troduced here, have been widely di.spersed through the empire. 
Specimens of all these were examined by us. 

The cinnamon and camphor trees are of the laurel family — 
the la ur us cinnamonum, and laurus camphora ; — the nutmeg, 
clove, and allspice, of the myrtle. The cinnamon grows to a 
height of fifteen or twenty feet. The stem and branches are 
of a light green ; the leaves, of the shape of the laurel, are alM> 
light green, and are pliant and tender. When they finst bud forth 
they are of a light red, and gradually become green as they 


advance in growth. The blossoms are white. There is no per- 
ceptible fragrance, cither in the stem or leaf, till bruised or broken, 
but both when bitten have the cinnamon flavor. The clove is the 
flower-bud of the caryophyllus aromaticus. The tree was in 
blossom and the bud very strong in its peculiar taste. Specimens 
of all these in branch, blossom, and fruit, were readily furnished 
by a negro in attendance, who expected a trifling gratuity in 

Long avenues of the Sumatra nut — vernicia montana — fur- 
nish abundant shade, and yield great quantities of nuts. The 
mulberry tree is also introduced for the purpose of shade. The 
bread-fruit — artocarpus incisa — so familiar to me iii the South 
Seas, was also conspicuous in the beauty of its strongly-marked, 
shining, and digitated foliage, and its ponderous fruit of light 

The whole garden, though a national property, for the good 
keeping of which an annual appropriation is made by the imperial 
legislature, appeared in a neglected state. There is nothing 
strikingly tasteful or artistic in the arrangement or embellish- 
ment of the ground. At the western end, a mountain stream 
comes brawling down a rocky channel, and on reaching the 
level, meanders lazily eastward, between banks beautifully fringed 
with bamboo, and overhung by the dense foliage of loftier growth. 
Where this mountain stream enters, there is an attempt, on 
a small scale, at landscape gardening. A little basin of water 
with projecting points, and an islet or two, overhung by willows, 
represents a miniature lake ; and near by, on an artificial and 
terraced mound, is a chapel-like summer house, formed of the 
flat cedar or arbor vita;, so planted and so trained as to be per- 
fectly architectural in its outline, and to appear to be an old ruin 
overrun with living green. That, however, which more than any 
other ornamental feature of the place attracted our notice, was an 
avenue of royal palms, a quarter of a mile and more in length, 
leading in a straiglit line from the principal gate, and crossed at 
right angles, midway of the distance, by another corresponding 


with it. The trees are at perfectly regular distances from each 
other ; are all of one size, and, either by nature or by artificial 
training, rise from uniformly shaped swelling bases, into perpeii- 
dicular shafts, forty or fifty feet in height. The silver-gray 
trunks, marked in their- whole length by rings, showing the 
growth of each year, terminate in plumed capitals of true Corin- 
thian magnificence. The efi"ect of the perspective is very beauti- 
ful : strikingly like that which we would imagine a colonnade of 
equal length in Egyptian or Asiatic architecture to be. 

As a botanical garden, the place is unworthy the name, and 
u.seless as such to the cause of science. The realization of one 
here, such as John VI. projected, would be exceedingly interest- 
ing and important. There is no empire in the world in which a 
botanical garden on a magnificent scale could be more readily 
established, or whose native vegetable kingdom is so rich, and so 
full of novelties to the scientific world. 

When we left the city the weather was magnificent ; the 
atmosphere clear and pure, clastic and bracing, and the lights 
and shades on the scenery in perfection. But ere we were aware 
of it, an entire change occurred. The Corcovado towers in gi- 
gantic altitude over the garden, and, almost without warning, 
a violent storm came rushing down its precipices, bearing with it 
masses of cloud of impenetrable blackness, surcharged with tor- 
rents of rain, which were poured upon us with unabating fury 
during the entire drive back to the city. Notwithstanding the 
individual discomfort incident to such showers, they are wel- 
comed with joy by the people in general, as indications of contin- 
ued health. Previous to the epidemic of the last year, they were 
almost as regular in their return as the afternoon itself. 13ut 
during the pestilence they intermitted almost entirely. The reg- 
ularity of the sea breeze also was greatly interrupted ; and light- 
ning and thunder for the most part ceased. Believing that these 
meteorological changes were connected in some way with the in- 
fection existing in the atmosphere, a return of the showers of old 
is regarded as an indication of the accustomed salubrity of the air. 


Decemher 27th. — The little chapel of Santa Lucia fronts the 
bay at the southern end of the promenade beneath Castle Hill. 
This saint is a kind of deputy-patroness of seafaring men, under 
Our Lady of Good Voyages, whose shrine crowns so conspicuously 
the little islet of Bonviagem. In my usual walk two or three even- 
ings ago, I accidentally fell upon an anniversary fete here ; the 
birthday of her saiutship. The chapel is the parish church of the 
neighborhood, and I could scarcely have believed, without the ocu- 
lar proof, that within hearing of the hum of the busy metropolis 
a gathering of people so entirely rustic and village-like, could 
have been brought together. Great preparation for the celebra- 
tion had been made. Long avenues of young palm-trees, twenty 
or thirty feet in height, and from which brilliant lamps were sus- 
pended, were planted beside the road along the water ; alternating 
with these, were lofty flag-staffs, from which varied colored ban- 
ners and streamers floated in the breeze. Frameworks with com- 
plicated pyrotechnic preparations were placed thickly around, as 
in the parks and squares of New York on the Fourth of July. 
Indeed, the whole aspect of things — the crowds of people in holi- 
day dress, the many venders of refreshments in fruit and confec- 
tionery, cakes, orangeade and orgeat, the talk and the laugh, and 
the general hilarity — was that of a general muster, or other simi- 
lar holiday, in tlie United States. The little chapel was in a 
flutter of flags and gay hangings without, and witliin, gaudy in 
the profusion of gilt paper and tinsel, and coarse artiflcial flowers. 
It was, too, one blaze of light from a pyramid of wax candles on 
the high altar. 

An animated sale of engravings of Santa Lucia was going 
on. These were in difiercnt degrees of artistic execution, and on 
various qualities of paper to suit the taste and finances of the 
purchasers. Men, women, and children, black and white, master 
and mistress, freeman and slave, crowded with equal earnestness 
around the priest, seated behind a counter for the sale, all scem- 
iug alike delighted to secure the consecrated likeness, as, deposit- 


ing their money, one after another were served with it, and then 
struggled back through the throng. 

A service of music took place at eight o'clock ; and as this 
hour approached, the little church became crowded to suffocation. 
The females were admitted, to a portion of the nave, nearest the 
chancel, separated from the rest of the area by a rail. They sat 
in full dress on the carpeted pavement, as closely crowded as pos- 
fiible, while the men outside of this separating line stood as 
thickly packed. The music, both instrumental and vocal, was 
that of a regular opera, and delightfully performed. The festiv- 
ities continued till midnight : and, as wo returned by boat to the 
ship at a later hour than usual, rockets in constant succession 
were seen rushing to the sky, and bursting in glittering corusca- 
tions of colored lights ; balls of fire were flying through the air ; 
Chinese crackers every where exploding; and fiery serpents hiss- 
ing along the ground. But there was no intoxication, no quar- 
relling, no rudeness; in their stead, general civility, decorum, 
and light-heartedness. 

On Christmas eve, I visited the cathedral on the Palace 
Square, and the church of San Francisco de Paulo in the square 
of the Koscio. The former was first open. It was of course 
richly ornamented with tapestries of brocade and velvet, and 
hangings of cloth of silver and gold, and was brilliantly illumi- 
nated with wax lights, amid a profusion of artificial flowers. The 
chancel was filled with the dignitaries of the church, in striking 
costumes of scarlet and purple silk, with any (juantity of the rich- 
est lace in the form of capes and togas. The Bishop, wearing a 
mitre studded with jewels of immense size, and holding a massive 
gilded crosier, was seated on his throne on one side of the high 
altar : presenting, with the encircling groups of Dean and Chap- 
ter and ofl&ciating priests, a scene of hierarchical stateliness and 
splendor, befitting the palmiest days of papal supremacy. The 
music here is always of the first order : it was on this occasion, 
iw usual, altogether operatic in style and execution. 

The church of St. Francis is much more spacious than this 


of the Carmelites. The interior is unbroken by galleries or col- 
onnades, and the coup-d'oeil, on entering, was now brilliant and 
eflfective. A ball-room for a civic fete could not have been deco- 
rated with more taste and richness, or with greater regard to 
effect on the eye. Lines of closely-arranged lights marked the 
general architecture of the whole interior; while, midway be- 
tween the pavement and loftily-arched ceilings, beautiful clus- 
ters in brackets, gave a dazzling brilliancy to the walls. The 
display upon and above the high altar was magnificent. The 
music was fine ; and the throng greater than at the cathedral, 
more mixed in its character, and full of levity. A third of the 
nave was appropriated exclusively to females. The various per- 
sonal attractions and deportment of these, seated closely together 
in full evening dress, seemed chiefly to occupy the attention of 
the men ; while innuendo, badinage, and loose remarks upon them 
were freely passed in whispers by one and another. The place 
seemed little like one of devotion, and any other than a house of 

January Sth. — We arc once more at sea. The weather for 
the last few days, though magnificent in clearness and brilliancy, 
has beeu too excessively hot for us to remain longer with comfort 
at Rio. A rumor, too, of the reappearance of the epidemic of the 
last year, was becoming prevalent, and the region of the Plata 
was deemed in every respect most desirable for the ship. At 
this season of the year, light winds and calms are characteristic 
of the weather at sea, in the latitudes between Rio de Janeiro and 
the Rio La Plata : it is probable, therefore, that our passage of 
ten days or a fortnight thither, will be destitute of any thing 
worthy of record. 

The cordiality which I mentioned as existing between the offi- 
cers of the Congress and those of the British flag-ship, Southamp- 
ton, continued to the last. A banquet, surpassing in its appoint- 
ments any thing upon so large a scale that I recollect to have wit- 
nessed on board ship, was given some time since by the officers 
of her gun-room to those of the Congress — embracing as guests, 


the commanders-in-chief and captains of both vessels ; and night 
before last, Admiral and Mrs. Reynolds gave a farewell dinner to 
Commodore McKeever, Captain Mcintosh, and one or two others 
from our ship. It was Twelfth-night, the last of the Christmas 
holidays; but it was in vain,that I attempted to bring into exercise 
any associations of the season, in connection with my thoughts of 
home. "While suffering here more than midsummer heat, it is 
difficult to reconcile even the imagination to a picture of festivi- 
ties on the same occasion, with the accompaniments of howling 
winds and drifting snows — a frozen river in front of you, and a 
leafless grove behind. 

This farewell entertainment was even more genial in its sym- 
pathies than any of those previously enjoyed. The company 
embraced a number of intelligent and spirituallj'-minded Chris- 
tians. A seat between two of these fell to me, and I was most 
agreeably and profitably entertained. It is ever a delight to me 
to find intelligent piety openly professed and consistently main- 
tained by a young officer, especially where an elevated position 
in social life, as well as the military profession, exposes the indi- 
vidual to peculiar temptations from the world. Such is the case 

with young W , and such that of his chosen companions. He 

lent me, a few days since, a memoir of a young friend, an offi- 
cer in the army, printed like that of your early companion, M — 

C , for private circulation only. Like hers, it is a portraiture 

from life of gifted and devoted youthful piety. Lieut. St. J , 

the subject of it, went to India on duty, in the war of Afghanistan. 
The cholera broke out in his regiment when on march there. 
Fearless of consequences, and trustful in faith and Christian hope, 
he gave himself up at once to unremitted, personal attendance 
upon the sick and dying soldiers. Though but a youth of twenty- 
two, the parting breath of many of these was spent in blessings 
upon him, as a minister of consolation and spiritual grace to 
them, till seized at last himself, he was carried off at the cud of 
six hours, with the triumphant exclamation on his lips, " All's 



January 30^A, 1851. — Our passage "down," as the phrase is, 
was devoid of incideat. We arrived on the night of the 20th 
inst., and are at anchor in the outer roadstead. In October, I 
described the general aspect of the mount, the city, and the sur- 
rounding country from this ; and reminded you of the existence 
of a civil war, and the close siege of the city, for eight years 
past, by Oribe, a citizen of Montevideo, and formerly President of 
the Republic of which it is the capital. The right to this office, 
though once resigned and abandoned by him, he still claims ; and 
to enforce it, invaded the State with an army of Argentines, fur- 
nished by Rosas, Governor of Buenos Ayres, and minister of 
foreign aifairs for the Argentine States. With this he would 
have gained possession of the town long ago, had it not been for 
the armed intervention, in 1845, of England and France ; and the 
continued guardianship of the place by the latter, with a squad- 
ron, in the roadstead, and a body of fifteen hundred or two 
thousand troops on shore. 

The principal European powers, rejecting the pretensions of 
Oribe, acknowledge the constituted authorities of the inside, or 
city party only, as the government of the Republic. The policy 
of the United States being a strict neutrality. Commodore 
McKeever pays a like respect to both ; and, under au escort fur- 


nished by Oribe, has paid an official visit to him at his camp 
outside of the lines, as well as one to the President within, at the 
government house in the city. 

When here in October, an armistice had existed for some 
time, in connection with -the negotiations then pending between 
the belligerent parties and Admiral Le Predour. commander-in- 
chief of the French force. "We had not heard of its termination : 
but a movement of the troops on shore at daylight, the morning 
after our arrival, attracted the notice of those on board on watch, 
and led to the supposition that an engagement was about to take 

place. A messenger from my ever mindful friend R , the 

officer of the deck at the time, summoned me to witness it; and 
for an hour, with other officers of the ship, I gazed through a glass 
upon what seemed a spirited conflict, between the outside and 
inside forces. We learned afterwards, however, that it was only 
a sham battle between different parties of the French troops, 
and the Moutevidean soldiery, composed of a foreign legion of 
Ba&jues and Italians, and a native regiment of negroes. So far 
as the effect upon the eye, and, under our misapprehension, upon 
the heart was concerned, there was, in the manoeuvres of the 
battle field — the rapid charge, the roar of cannon, the sharp 
rattle of musketry, and the flying through the air and the burst- 
ing of shells — much of the reality of an actual engagement. 

Poor Montevideo, for nearly a half century past, has been 
singularly ill-fated, even for a South American city. The greater 
part of that period, it has been the victim of calamitous wars, 
either foreign or civil. In 1807, while yet a colonial dependency 
of Spain, it was besieged, bombarded, and carried by storm by 
the English, under Sir Samuel Achmuty. After the inglorious 
defeat of Gen. "NVhithead at Buenos Ay res in 1808, and the 
consequent expulsion of the British from the Plata, as a colonial 
city faithful to the crown of Spain it was besieged from 1810 
to 1814, and eventually made to capitulate to the troops of the 
then revolted and republican province of Buenos Ayres. Shortly 
afterwards, the republican forces being withdrawn, it fell into the 


Lands of the bandit Artigas, a native chieftain, so lawless and 
marauding in his rule at home, and in his depredations on the 
adjoining frontiers of Brazil, as to give just cause for invasion by 
the Portuguese of that kingdom, who gained possession of the 
city in 1817, 

This occupation of the place led to a warfare of more than 
ten years, between the royalists of Brazil, and the republicans of 
Buenos Ayres, the chief disasters of which centred in Monte- 
video ; till, in 1829, through the intervention of England, a peace 
was effected, by the withdrawal, by both parties, of all claim to 
the territory in dispute — known then by the name of the Banda 
Oriental — on condition that it should constitute an independent 
llepublic, to be called Uruguay, after the great river which forms 
the western boundary between it and the Argentine States. 

From that period till the year 1 842, the territory enjoyed 
peace. Under a constitutional government, with a president, 
ministry, judiciary, and legislatui-e of two houses, both city and 
country had great prosperity. The population of the city 
increased rapidly from fifteen to fifty thousand, and that of the 
state to two hundred and fifty thousand. The exports in a few 
years amounted to six millions of dollars, and the imports to five 
millions. Fortunes were readily accumulated ; fine buildings in 
great numbers were erected within the city ; and beautiful 
country houses, with tasteful and luxurious surroundings, spread 
over the environs without. Poverty and want were unknown, and 
the evil days seemed entirely past. But the civil war, into which 
the republic was plunged by Oribe, soon produced a sad change. 
The invading Argentines speedily devastated the entire country, 
and by the wanton destruction of vast herds of horses and 
cattle — the chief sources of its wealth and commerce in hides, 
jerked beef, and tallow — and the plunder of their estancias or 
farm^s, paralyzed the enterprise of the inhabitants, and forced 
them to emigrate ; while the close siege of the town, intercepting 
all supplies for support and all means of commerce, at once 
sa])ped the sources of its prosperity, and drove the citizens by tens 


of thousands elsewhere for maintenance and life. The result 
upon the wealth and population of the port may be readily 
imagined. I do not recollect ever before to have been so deeply 
impressed with the desolateness of any place as on first landing 
here, and on taking a stroll through its streets, and the limited 
subm-bs within the lines of defence. The mole, once alive with 
busy commerce, was as deserted and silent as a churchyard ; and 
excepting at Pompeii, I never wandered through streets which 
seemed to be more truly those of a city of the dead. 

This impression, however, I afterwards discovered to be iu 
some degree deceptive, owmg, partly, to the hour of the day ; 
that for the universal siesta. Scarcely an individual was to be 
seen anywhere. With screened windows and closed doors, the 
inhabitants, young and old, rich and poor, were yielding them- 
selves to the insinuating influences of the dolce far nieute, or to 
the more oblivious indulgences of sound sleep. It is now mid- 
summer here ; the day was hot, for this latitude, and every thing 
iu a state of Spanish repose customary in such weather, after an 
early dinner. The dilapidation and decay on every side, the 
manifest poverty, and the seemingly utter desertion of dwelling 
after dwelling, through whole streets, were so saddening and 
oppressive, that, for the time, I felt that I would never wish to 
visit the shore again. As to the suburbs without the walls, ex- 
cavated Pompeii itself is scarcely more a region of ruin and 

An hour at the American consulate afterwards — where our 
party received the most frank and hospitable welcome from Mr. 
and Mrs. Hamilton and family; an application there within 
fifteen minutes, for my official services from a stranger in the 
marriage ceremony — showing that bad as the state of things iu 
Montevideo is, the voice of the bride and of the bridegroom is 
still to be heard in her streets — with other assurances of a better 
state in general than I had been led to infer, changed iu some 
degree the current of my sympathies. Still, however deceptive 
the first impressions on landing may have been, there is too much 


reality in the wretchedness to which hundreds and thousands of 
the inhabitants are reduced, to allow them to be at once dis- 

The city is finely situated upon a peninsula of granite, which, 
in its form, has been compared, not inaptly, to the shape of a 
tortoise's back : an area a half mile square descending gradually 
on three sides, from a central height of a hundred feet or more, 
to the level of the surrounding water. This, though only a river, is 
seemingly a sea; for, a hundred miles in width, it presents a hori- 
zon on the south as boundless as the ocean. Like most towns of 
Spanish origin, the streets are rectangular, with an open square or 
plaza in the centre, on which stand the principal church and the 
cabilda, or town hall and prison. It is well built. Many of the 
private residences are spacious, and the principal public buildings, 
the cathedral, and an unfinished hospital, are rather imposing in 
their architecture. From long disuse the streets are in many 
places tufted with grass, and in others, the pavements are so torn 
up and broken as to be impassable with wheels. 

One redeeming fact, in regard to the general want of interest 
in the place, has very unexpectedly presented itself to me per- 
sonally, in an invitation from the standing committee of the 
British Episcopal Church, to officiate for them in public worship 
on the Sabbath. Tliis I have already done, and shall continue 
to do whenever the Congress shall be in the Plata. The English 
government, with commendable interest for the spiritual good of 
its subjects abroad, makes a liberal provision, under certain con- 
ditions, for the maintenance of the ministry and its ordinances 
where they may be. Its chief embassies in foreign lands are 
furnished with regular chaplains; and, wherever British subjects 
abroad contribute to a fund for the ministrations of the Gospel 
among them, the same amount, to a specified limit — four hundred 
pounds is the maximum, I believe — is allowed by act of parliament 
for the same object. 

Eight or ten years ago, Samuel Lafone, Esq., a principal 
English merchant hero, and a chief capitalist and landed propri- 


etor in the Uruguay, secured from the authorities the privilege 
of erectiug a chapel for Protestant worship. The site of an 
elevated circular bastion, overlooking the rocky shores of the 
river, on the south side of the town, was chosen for the purpose, 
and purchased by him. -Upon this, at a cost of forty-five or fifty 
thousand dollars, he erected a fine edifice in Grecian architecture. 
It is of brick, stuccoed, and painted in imitation of Portland 
stone, and is ornamented in the front by a well proportioned pedi- 
ment, supported by four lofty Doric columns, and altogether is 
one of the most conspicuous architectural ornaments of the city. 
The interior is spacious and lofty, the wood-work — the pews, 
chancel-railing, the reading desk, pulpit, and organ-loft — being of 
solid mahogany, and is capable of accommodating an audience of 
several hundreds. When completed, Mr. Lafone made an uncon- 
ditional gift of it to the British community resident here. These 
joined by the few Americans engaged in commerce, raised a fund 
suflicient, with the governmental gratuity, for the comfortable 
support of a rector. The Rev. Mr. Armstrong ofliciated for 
several years in that capacity, and till ill health obliged him and 
his family, not long since, to seek a difierent climate. The Rev. 
Mr. Lenhart of the Methodist Church, my predecessor as chap- 
lain of the American squadron on this station, was invited by the 
standing committee to occupy the pulpit thus left vacant : and 
now, with equal ecclesiastic liberality, on the part of the com- 
mittee and church, I am invested with a like temporary rector- 

•It is customary to have but one service on the Sabbath. This 
takes place at one o'clock, the carlie^Jt hour practicable for me to 
be on shore, after the discharge of my official duties on board 
the Congress. 

The interruptions to commerce, and the disasters attending 
the long siege, have reduced the Protestant residents of Monte- 
video comparatively to a mere handful, and the usual audience 
composed of English, Scotch and American worshippers, male and 
female, numbers only from sixty to eighty persons. Still it is a 


privilege to minister in holy things, cv.en to so small au assem- 
blage, with 'none to hurt or make afraid' amidst a people once 
wholly given to superstition and bigotry, and to witness a depth 
of interest and solemnity of devotion characteristic of spiritual 
Christianity. I have already been called to officiate at two 
marriages, and have twice administered the ordinance of baptism. 
Thus, though a Presbyterian of the ' straightcst sect,' I feel it not 
only a privilege and happiness, but a duty, under the circum- 
stances, to follow the prescribed ritual of the English prayer-book 
in worship, and — in surplice and bands — to pray statedl}'^, not only 
" for all in authority," but specifically, for " the most gracious 
Lady the Queen Victoria, His Royal Highness Prince Albert, 
Albert, Prince of Wales, and all the royal family." 


BiTESos Atees. 

February '2\st. — I am unexpectedly in Buenos Ayres, having 
accompanied Commodore McKeever in an official visit to General 
Rosas, the sagacious but unscrupulous despot of the Argentine 

The distance from Montevideo is about a hundred miles due 
■west. The intervening navigation is rendered intricate by sand 
banks and shoals, and the general shallowness of the river ; and, 
for the last forty miles, is impracticable for a frigate. In making 
the trip, therefore, the broad pennant of the Congress was trans- 
ferred to the sloop-of-war St. Louis, on board which the commo- 
dore and his party became, for the passage, the guests of her com- 
mander. Captain Cock. The U. S. Brig Bainbridge, Lieut. Man- 
ning, accompanied the flag. 

We left Montevideo on the evening of the 18th inst. The run 
is usually made in a night, but the wind being light, the current 
strong, and the St. Louis not in sailing trim, we did not reach the 
outer roadstead here till the morning of the 20th. The passage 
was pleasant. Though it is midsummer, the temperature is cool 
and bracing, with clear skies and a brilliant atmosphere, remark- 
able for the magnificence of its coloring along the horizon, at 
sunrise and sunset. There is, too, a full moon at present ; and 
though the river from mid-channel is often seemingly shoreless, 


and its waters of the veritable mud-puddle hue. the scene from 
the deck of the St. Louis, both by night and by day, was not 
without attractions : especially in the companionship of the Bain- 
bridge. This is a beautiful little craft; and was as buoyant and 
graceful on the waters as a bird in the air, as with greatly 
reduced sail, to avoid passing us by her superior speed, she at 
times fell far behind, and then again, with newly spread wings, 
rushed forward closely in our wake. Various other sail were in 
sight, at greater or less distances, some ascending and some de- 
scending the river, with no little display of nautical evolution, 
in making the best of their way. 

Early yesterday morning, Buenos Ayres was in sight, at a 
distance of ten or twelve miles ; gleaming showily in the sun, 
from the whiteness of the general architecture, and the number 
of its lofty and finely- proportioned domes and church towers. It 
is situated on a bluff, which extends along the river a couple 
of miles, and rises at the highest point eighty or a hundred feet 
above its level. At the distance, however, from which wc first saw 
the city, this formation of the shore was scarcely perceptible : it 
seemed to be resting, like Venice, upon the water, while a tufting 
of tree-tops, in long stretches on either side, showed the general 
flatness of the surrounding country. The river is here twenty- 
five miles wide, and its northern shores, equally low as the south- 
ern, are not ordinarily visible. But for the smoothness of the 
water, and its muddy hue, we might have thought ourselves still 
upon the open sea. 

A first surprise is the very great distance from the city — ^five, 
six, and nine miles — at which vessels of moderate tonnage even, 
are obliged, in the midst of such an expanse of waters, to come 
to anchor. A long shoal stretches out thus far in front of the 
city, preventing nearer approach, except by vessels of light draught. 
When the water is high, such can cross the shoal, and, at other 
times, find a channel by a circuitous route to an inner roadstead, 
where there is anchorage for vessels of different draught, respective- 
ly, one, two, and thjce miles from the landing. In the outer road- 


Stead, for a distance of miles, tall masts rose above the waters 
like steeples on a populous plain, while quite a fleet of small 
vessels was lying three miles within. The St. Louis eame 
to, six miles or more from the city ; and, after an exchange of 
salutes with the flag of. Buenos Ayres, and those of France and 
Sardinia, borne by ships-of-war of these respective nations near 
us, we left her in a procession of small boats. 

The formation of the shore in front of the city, and for a 
considerable distance above and below it, is a flat tufa rock which 
extends irregularly, far out upon the sands. Its surface is fretted 
and broken, and, when the water is low, boats cannot approach 
the landing nearer than from a quarter to a half mile. At such 
times the intermediate distance is made iij strongly-constructed, 
high- wheeled carts, drawn by two horses, one of which is mounted 
by a wild-looking postilion. These carts, like hacks at home, are 
in attendance in great numbers, for the transportation of passen- 
gers and freight from the boats to the shore ; and often present a 
scene of strife and rivalry in the water, between the drivers, 
similar to those witnessed in the rush of carriages, the brandish- 
ing of whips, and the exercise of lungs at a pier in New York, 
on the arrival of a steamer. It seemed now to be high water, 
and we were apprehensive that we should miss this novel mode 
of debarkation, and thus lose, for the time, a spectacle character- 
istic of the place. Our fears were unfounded, however ; for 
soon, a CQcked hat of portentous dimensions, with other insignia 
of official and military dignity in the wearer — himself of no 
ordinary dimensions in height or rotundity — was seen rising 
above the water. It was that of Don Pedro Ximenes, the captain 
of the port, who had been deputized by his imperious master to 
receive the commodore ; and was patiently waiting in a cart, far 
out in the stream, the approach of the barge. Mr. Graham of 
Ohio, the American Consul, was also in attendance. The floor 
of the clumsy, high-sided vehicle, was scarcely above the surface 
of the water, as we rowed ' handsomely ' alongside its open back, 
and stepping aboard, were transferred from the protecting shadow 


of the broad pennant, to that of Don Pedro's cocked hat. In 
this novel reception-room, the ceremonies of an official introduc- 
tion took place ; and we were soon plunging and tumbling through 
the splashing waters — a wheel on either side rolling, first up and 
then down, over the rough tufa bottom — with an artistic lashing 
of whip and vociferation by the postilion, till, backed up, accord- 
ing to custom, in coal-cart style, we were dumped on an inclined 
plane descending ten or twelve feet fx-om the Alemeda, or public 
walk in front of tlie city, to the water. 

A large crowd had gathered to witness the arrival — foreign 
merchants and native citizens, soldiers, sailors, porters, peons and 
boatmen. In the number, were many in the demi-savage dress 
of gauchos — the peasjants of the country. This is picturesque 
and showy ; and, with many other things which met the sight, 
gave promise of a more novel field for observation than we had 
yet lighted on. A glaring red coach, something of the dimension 
and style of those employed by hotels in New York, in conveying 
guests to and from the steamboats and railroad stations, was in 
waiting, by order of the government, and quickly conveyed the 
commodore to the Hotel de Provence, in an adjoining street, 
llooms had been secured for us there, and a hospitable welcome 
was extended to the party, including Captain Cock, to the mess- 
table of a private club, consisting of Mr. Harris of Virginia, 
American charge d'affiiires to the Argentine Confederation ; Mr. 
Graham, American Consul, Count Frolich, Swedish Consul-gen- 
eral ; and two or three American gentlemen, connected here 
with the principal mercantile houses engaged in the South Amer- 
ican trade. 

Every thing in the general aspect of the city is Spanish : 
with the addition to the universal whitewash on all that is stone, 
of an equally universal display of red on all that is wood or iron. 
This color of blood has been for twenty years the prescribed 
signs of adhesion to the remarkable man who maintains here an 
undisputed reign of terror : hence the red waistcoats, red hat- 
bands, red breast-knots, universally seen — the red doors, red 


window-frames, red bases to the houses, red lamp-posts, red carts, 
red railing.s, and red fixtures on every thing. 

The place is subject, at all seasons of the year, to occasional 
high winds of two or three days' continuance. Then the tumul- 
tuous seas which roll over, the shallow bed of the river cut off all 
communication between the shipping and the shore; and the city 
and its suburbs are filled with driving dust. Weather of this 
character set in yesterday, shortly after we lauded, and has kept 
us housed much of the time since, principally at the reading 
rooms of a club, where we were introduced, and where we found 
files of the American and European papers, and the latest 

This evening, notwithstanding the wind, Mr. D of New 

York, one of the mess at the Provence, took me a drive in his 
tilbury. Our route was westward, along the course of the river, 
in the direction of Palermo de San Benito, the quinta, or country 
seat of Rosas. Policy — by such demonstration of courtly atten- 
tion to the supreme chief — as well as pleasure, leads all who drive 
or ride, to take that direction ; and as we descended from the 
heights of the town, through the Alemeda fronting the river, to 
the road along its banks, the whirl of carriages and gigs, and the 
prancing and galloping of gay riders on horseback, was quite 
metropolitan. The speed of all was very much that of Gilpin — 
the females being mounted in the in-door costume of short 
dresses, barp arms, bare necks and bare heads : with the excep- 
tion, in some cases, of the partial covering of a silk handkerchief 
on the head, tied under the chin. I saw none in the hat and habit 
worn in England and America, though doubtless in a city where 
foreign fashions are so extensively introduced, these have been 
adopted, to some extent at least, by the higher classes.* 

On gaining the level of the beach, the road passes over a flat 
and marshy common, without any enclosure of fence or hedge on 
either side. Here, by the river's side on the right, was presented, 
for a mile and more, a striking spectacle, in hundreds after hun- 
dreds — I had almost said thousands of negro washerwomen, in- 


describable in their costumes — scrubbing, beating, slapping, rinsing, 
and bleaching ten thousand articles of clothing. It is a natural 
laundry, to which the soiled linen of the whole city is brought 
for cleansing. The soft rock of the shores is filled with holes, 
some natural and others artificial, which, on every flow of the 
tide, are filled with fresh water. These are converted into 
wash-tubs, and, after being used, are left to be. emptied of the 
suds by the next flood, and to be refilled with clean water by its 
ebb. Each washerwoman has her own little reservoir of this 
kind, to which she gains the exclusive right, by the payment of a 
small fee to the government. The wind was blowing a balf gale, 
lashing the river into foam, and dashing the spray far on the 
shore ; while clouds of dust on the laud were driven before it, 
like drifting snow in a winter's storm at home. When on our 
way back tlie whole company, spread along the banks for a mile 
or more, were preparing to return to the city ; and such a Babel, 
in the varied intonations and chatter, the laugh and the wrangle, 
the shout and the jeer, I scai'cely recollect to have heard ; while the 
oddity of the packages and bundles, the trays and baskets, borne 
on their heads, the endless form and color of the rags and tatters 
they wore — their old hats and old shoes, presented a scene gro- 
tesque bej-ond description. 

Another novel scene was vast numbers of the lofty, cumbrous, 
reed-sided and hide-roofed carts of the pampas, arranged in a 
kind of camp on either side of the road. They are " the ships 
of the desert " here, by wliich the whole produce of the interior, 
for hundreds of miles, is brought to the market, and by which 
the returns of foreign import are carried to the remotest 
districts of the Confederation. They constitute the only habi- 
tations and homes of their owners and their families : bear 
with them all the household furniture and worldly goods of 
these ; and, in addition, often have lashed to tlieir tops or under 
their axles the trunk and branches of a tree, for wood with 
which to prepare, whenever a halt is made, the indispensable 
mate, or native tea. Their wheels are from six to eight feet 


in diameter, and their covered tops rise fifteen feet from the 
ground. They are long and narrow, of most heavy and clumsy 
construction, with tongues of rough-hewn timber, each in itself a 
load for a beast. They are drawn by oxen, attached by ropes of 
hide, in any number of pairs requisite for the draught. As means 
of transportation, they correspond well in their massive clumsiness 
and ponderous weight with the elephant of India, or the burden- 
bearing camel of Eg^\'pt and Turkey : and as they move in long 
Hues over pampas of almost unlimited extent, form a feature not 
less striking, and not less in harmony with the surrounding scene, 
than the caravan in the deserts of Arabia, or the elephant on the 
plains of Bengal. 

February 'lAih. — On Washington's birthday, the 22d inst., 
Mr. Harris, the American charg6 d'affaires, gave a banquet to 
Commodore McKeever, and others of his fellow countrymen, 
visitors and residents in the city. The evening of the same day 
had been appointed for the reception of the commodore by " the 
governor," as Rosas is here styled. A government-house, cover- 
ing the area of half a square, in the centre of the city, has recently 
been completed by the chieftain. It encloses quadrangle after 
quadrangle of spacious and elegantly furnished apartments, but is 
visited only occasionally by him for a few brief hours, at uncertain 
times. His chosen, and, indeed, only residence, properly so 
called, is the palatial quinta, or country-house of Palermo de 
San Benito, situated in the midst of an extensive domain, on the 
banks of the Plata, three or four miles west of the city. I most 
readily accepted an invitation to be of the party, glad to avail 
myself of the opportunity for a sight of the tiger in his den. 
Pardon the figure, but I have heard so much of his bloody ferocity 
in subduing the people to his abject rule, that no other will so 
well express my sense of his nature, and of the mysterious and 
guarded retirement of his present life : an unchained monster, 
in the security of a well-protected lair. The prospect of the 
interview revived in fresh force all I had ever heard and read 
of his atrocious deeds ; and the anticipation of being in hia 


presence, was not without the superstitious feeling of being ex- 
posed by it to the hazard of the " evil eye." There was no cer- 
tainty, however, notwithstanding the appointment, that an interview 
with him would take place. He is so arbitrary and so capricious 
in his imperious rule, as to pay little regard to the ordinary 
civilities of life ; and makes not only his own ministers and people 
abide his whims and pleasure, but diplomatic agents and foreign 
ambassadors also, are often obliged to dance attendance by the 
hour in his ante-rooms, without an audience, if such be his will. 
In the exercise of this despotic habit, however, one redeeming, 
and — socially, if not diplomatically — compensating indulgence 
is ever granted to such persons : the presence and smiles, the 
spirited conversation and the winning grace and manner of his 
accomplished daughter, the Dona Manuelita de llosas. Of a re- 
ception by her we were sure. 

We set off at a sufficiently early hour to allow time for a view 
of the grounds of Palermo before nightfall ; and followed the 

same route I had taken with Mr. D . At the distance of a 

mile from the city, after having crossed the common along the 
beach, we entered a broad and straight macadamized avenue, 
scientifically constructed, and in fine order. It is enclosed on 
either side by a neat iron railing, and is bordered with plantations 
of willow, and furnished with handsome lamp-posts and lamps for 
the night. It is a public road, constructed by llosas : com- 
mencing at Palermo and to be extended to the city, and is still 
in progress. At the end of a mile and a half, a similar, but 
more beautiful avenue branches from this, and forms the private 
entrance to the domain, leading directly in front of the palace-like 
domicil of the Dictator. It is a half mile in length, is lined with 
orange trees in addition to the willows; and, besides these, is 
separated from the public road which runs- parallel with it, by a 
broad and deep canal of brick-work. This private road is formed 
of sea-shell, and is as white and hard as so much marble. All 
dust is kept down by the .sprinkling of water ; while the sward on 
either side, dipt with tlie care of an English lawn, through the 



same means is ever in living freshness. The orange trees are 
nurtured with great care, and are frequently washed with brush 
and soap-suds, leaf by leaf, by persons in charge of them. As 
we passed, numerous peons, in the gay and picturesque dress of 
the country, were seen engaged in this process on a kind of step 
hidder, by which access was had to every part of each tree. 
Ivjual care is taken of them in the winter season, by enclosing 
each in a temporary house, to guard against the eftcct of frost. 
A nearer approach brought us to a cantonment of soldiers, con- 
sisting of a village of regularly disposed brick huts, of uniform 
construction. A park of artillery was near by, and clusters 
of soldiers in scarlet ponchos and petticoat-like chirepas were 
grouped on every side. These multiplied in number to the very 
doors of the villa. 

The first impression, as we drove rapidly through this im- 
agery, was striking and peculiar : the picture, in its still life, was 
oac of high civilization and princely expenditure not anticipated ; 
but one, strongly marked in all that gave animation to it, with 
evidences of a demi-savage state. But for these — the Indian-like 
costume, the dark and wild countenances, and the savage knives 
seen sticking in the belts of the soldiers and peons — one might 
almost have believed himself on the shores of the Zuyder Zee : 
so dead is the level of the ground ; while the broad and deep 
canals of finished workmanship, the artificial lakelets, aquatic 
plants and water-fowl, the gay parterres and embanked terraces, 
presented imagery answering well to a scene in Holland. Every 
thing, too, was in straight lines ; roads, canals, plantations, and 
the villa itself. This is a parallelogram, having a rectangular 
pavilion projecting from each angle. It stands on one corner of 
two intersecting avenues, presenting a facade of two hundred and 
sixty feet front and rear, by one of two hundred and fifty on 
either side. It is one story in height, and the architecture through- 
out uniform. A wide corridor, supported by iicavy arches, runs 
around the whole. All the apartments open by doors and French 
windows upon this, as well as upon a quadrangular court withiu. 


The roof is flat, and is surrounded by au iron balustrade, ornamented 
at regular and short intervals by a kind of demi-turret, having the 
effect of a like number of chimneys, a purpose to which many of them 
are, in fact, appropriated. The preparations for the reception, in 
a guard of honor, to present arms as the commodore should alight, 
were not at the principal front, but at the farthest angle of the 
most western pavilion, on the garden front. We thus passed 
two sides of the structure before being set down. We were then 
conducted through a spacious saloon of state, to the corridor or 
arcade on the east end of the building, again through the length 
of this to the extreme eastern pavilion on the front, past which 
we had first driven — thus making the circuit of the entire estab- 
lishment, before being ushered into the private drawing-room of 
DoTia Manuelita. We found her standing here with two female 
companions in waiting, and were received with the cordiality and 
affability of long acquaintance. 

This daughter of " the governor " is probably the most re- 
markable woman in South America : certainly so, as the impei-- 
sonation of a government, which she confessedly is, and the only 
visible agent of its influence and power. llosas himself, in 
his ofiicial position, is a kind of invisible personage — never, on 
any occasion, or under any circumstances, making his appearance 
publicly. It is said there are thousands of people in Buenos 
Ayres who have never seen him. A sight of him may often 
be caught in his grounds, superintending a gang of workmen, 
or perhaps witnessing the punishment, even to death, of a soldier, 
or some victim who is suffering, justly or iiujustly, the penalty 
of the law or of his displeasure. He may be seen, too, at times, 
talking and jesting with the fishermen along the shore of the 
river on his domain, or driving Jchu-like, iu the dead of the 
night, from Palermo to the city, or from the city to Palermo : it 
being his habit, from motives of policy, to make his appearance 
suddenly, at an hour, and under circumstances least to be ex- 
pected ; but never in public, in his appropriate place as chief 
magistrate and head of the people. On all public occasions, and 


in all public places, Manuelita alone appears as his representa- 
tive ; and as the embodiment of his will and the channel of his 
favor, receives the homage of sovereignty. While she acts no 
unimportant part in the negotiations of diplomacy and in foreign 
affairs, she is, virtually, the minister both of the " Interior " and 
of " Justice " in the government, tempering with mercy, as for as 
in her power, every act of oppression, and diffusing, in name at 
least, a semblance of benevolence wherever her influence reaches. 
Four hours of each morning are appropriated by her, to the 
receipt of petitions, the hearing of individual grievances and 
applications for redress. For this object, a bureau with a regular 
set of secretaries is established, where records arc made of all 
cases brought before her, for her own decision, or for the inter- 
vention of her influence with her father. As may be rightly 
inferred from these facts, she is a woman of talent and judgment, 
and of infinite tact. Her age is thirty-five. She is of good 
height and fine figure, has regular and good features, black hair 
and eyes, with a beaming and benignant expression, and in com- 
plexion is a Spanish brunette. Her manners are graceful and 
winning, her conversation animated and playful, with a word 
of complaisance and a smile of kindness to all who approach, and 
are around her. Though a polished and elegant woman, she afiects 
nothing of the stately dignity and lofty bearing of some of the 
aristocratic and high-bred whom I have seen — but has the easy, 
self-possessed, frank and cordial air, often met in every-day soci- 
ety. She is said to be exceedingly popular, and to be sincerely 
beloved by the people : as well she may be, if she does, indeed, 
exert the immense influence for good, which is reported of, and 
claimed by her friends for her, in softening, by acts of clemency 
and womanly mercy, the iron rule of her father. 

Scarlet, or the veritable blood-tint, is the prescribed color of 
the government, and the silent, though exacted pledge of alle- 
giance to the chief in power. Every man and boy under his 
rule, must don at all times the scarlet waistcoat, scarlet hat- 
band, and the scarlet breast-ribbon, stamped with the motto of 


death to his political opponents. Women and girls, also, of 
every rank and all ages, must exhibit the scarlet ribbon in their 
hair or head-dress. It was no surprise, therefore, to see the 
Dona and her ladies, on a hot evening in midsummer, arrayed in 
scarlet silk bareges of large plaid, over under-dresses of white, 
with the scarlet ribbon and its savage motto, streaming among 
the tresses of their black hair. The predominating hue of the 
reception room — in the hangings of the walls, the draperies of 
the windows, and the carpet, was of the same color. This 
apartment is lofty and spacious. A grand piano and harp were 
conspicuous among its furniture. 

The usual apology was made, — the pressure of important bu- 
siness — for the delay in the appearance of the governor, with the 
gracious assurance, however, that he would give audience to the 
commodore ; and it was proposed, in the mean time, to take a view 
of the grounds, before nightfall. This we did, under the guid- 
ance of the sprightly and accomplished mistress of ceremonies 
and her ladies. They are very extensive, in a perfection of 
order, and in many respects novel and striking ; but are too full 
of straight lines for beauty and artistic effect. The whole 
domain is a dead level — a swamp redeemed by draining and em- 
bankments from the overflowings of the river, and the quagmires 
of a marsh. The sums expended in transforming it into a para- 
dise, compared with every thing around, are -beyond all estimate; 
and make the place, at least in the outlay of money and labor, 
the most princely estate in either North or South America. 
The predominating growth in trees is the willow, imparting 
to the whole a sombre aspect ; but the flower-gardens and shrub- 
beries are brilliant in the display of colors, and sweet in the 
variety and richness of their perfume. A paved court extends 
along the arcades around the whole building. On the two sides 
communicating with the lawns, this court is enclosed by par- 
terres of choice flowers, elevated three or four feet upon walls, 
and ornamented at regular distances by classically modelled urns 



and vases, also crowned and festooned witb floral beauty. The 
effect of both is ornamental and pretty. 

A rustic arbor with a dome-shaped top, overrun with cluster- 
ing roses, woodbine, and swcetbricr, and encircled with busts in 
marble on pedestals, and one or two full-length figures in plaster, 
wa^ specially commended to our notice, as the favorite retreat of 
Dona 3Iauuclita. Not far from it, on the lawn, is a humble 
whitewashed cottage — the first domicil of Rosas on taking pos- 
sesaioD of the estate. It is scarcely superior, in its aspect and 
accommodations, to the rancho of a common peon : but is retained 
in its original state as a memento of the past, or possibly for con- 
trast with the courtly splendor of the present establishment. 

Some years ago, an American brigantiue, at anchor in the 
river, was driven by a violent storm and flood, high and dry into 
the woods of Palermo. Its restoration to the water was imprac- 
ticable. She was still stanch and uninjured, both in hull and 
spars, and Rosas, in place of permitting her to be broken up for 
the sale of the material, purchased the craft with the purpose of 
converting her, as she stood, mto a pavilion of pleasure. Brought 
to an even keel, she was substantially underpinned ; and thus 
firmly moored, and, remodelled between decks into a dancing 
saloon and refreshment rooms, is a ftivorite place for the enter- 
tainment of select parties in summer. It is situated a half mile 
from the house, and our walk extended to it. 

As we retOrned to the quinta, the shades of the evening were 
beginning to fall. Two of the pavilions mentioned as being 
attacli^jd to the angles of the main building — those on the garden 
front — are unenclosed by walls, each forming an open saloon, fur- 
nished with ranges of crimson sofa.<5, on which beneath the pro- 
tecting roof, the cool of the evening may be enjoyed with unin- 
terrupted views on every side. Into the most retired of these 
we were now conducted ; and, while standing in a group in the 
centre, with our faces directed to the lawn and shrubbery, I 
perceived a figure stealthily approaching from behind, witliout the 
warning even of a footfall, till a little pliant riding-whip of 


polished whalebone, mounted with red coral, was playfully tapped 
on the bare shoulder of the Dona. Turning suddenly, as if in 
surprise, she exclaimed in a tone of pleasure and affection — 
" Tatita ! " a diminutive of fondness by which she addresses and 
speaks of her father ; and following her example in a change of 
position, we found ourselves in the presence of the far-famed 
lluler. Though the place and circumstances of our presentation 
were seemingly thus accidental, both doubtless were of previous 
arrangement, to give greater informality to the audience. Rostis 
is now a thick-set, portly man of sixty, of medium height, with 
finely marked and well chiselled features, and of florid com- 
plexion. In youth and middle age he is said to have been re- 
ii\arkably handsome. The feature which first and most deeply 
arrested my attention was a piercing, restless, fiery eye of grayish 
blue. Whether from previous prejudice or not, to me its ex- 
pression seemed singularly devoid of ingenuousness and benignity 
— indeed, to be positively sinister and tiger-like. His dress was 
a round-jacket of dark blue, with small military buttons; the 
inevitable scarlet waistcoat, ribbon, and motto ; and an undress 
military cap, with the visor drawn low over his eyebrows. His 
manner and address were common-place and familiar, without any 
mingling of the dignity of the Spanish Hidalgo in high posi- 

After an interchange of salutations, and some brief conversa- 
tion on indifferent topics, he led the way, with Commodore 
McKeever by his side, through the long, intervening arcade to 
the drawing room in the front pavilion, in which we had fiii>t been 
received. Here, seated in an angle of the lofty apartment, with 
the leading gentlemen of our party on his right, and his daughter 
and her ladies on the left, lie at once took the lead in conversa- 
tion, running loquaciously from subject to subject of trifling 
importance, and often interlarding his statements and opinions 
with low anecdote and vulgar details, unfit " for ears polite," much 
less for the hearing of women of delicacy and refinement. 


So full of conversation was he, and seemingly so anxious to 
please, that our stay was prolonged beyond all expectation ; and 
we were disappointed in the pleasure of an evening with Mr. and 

^Irs. C . whose country-seat lies between Palermo and the 



Bpenos Atkbs. 

February 25th. — The Argentine confederation, composed 
originally of thirteen states, joined together in compact, but not 
by constitution, under the style of the United Provinces of La 
Plata, has become practically consolidated and merged in the 
State of Buenos Ayres. Being the only province possessed of a 
sea-port, and enjoying an extended commerce, she was encharged 
by the others with the management of the foreign relations of 
the confederacy. This naturally made her the controlling power ; 
she increased while the rest decreased. The result was a division 
of the people of the provinces into two parties, and speedy con- 
flict and anarchy. At this juncture Rosas raised his standard, 
and subdued the whole to his sway ; and though nominally only 
governor of the city and province of Buenos Ayres, encharged 
with the sole ministration of the foreign affairs of the confedera- 
cy, he is, in fact, the despotic ruler of the whole. 

He is the most remarkable chieftain in South America; 
possessing all the elements of character essential to the successful 
despot : firmness, energy, shrewdness, subtlety, unscrupulous 
purpose, and unfaltering cruelty. Sprung from a Spanish family 
of respectability in Buenos Ayres, the recklessness of his early 
youth led to his removal by them to what is here termed the 
" Camp " — the open country of the pampas, over which are scattered 


the esUmdas, or estates of landed proprietors, for the raising of 
cattle, sheep, and horses. Here, among the gauchos. or demi- 
sarage peasants of the interior, he was made an overseer bj a 
wealthy relative in Buenos Ayres. Adopting the usages and 
habits of savage life of the people, he became, in the course of 
years, thoroughly a gaucho ; and distinguished himself by the 
control he acquired over his associates, and over the scarcely more 
untamed Indians of the southern territory. He excelled in all 
the personal qualities and feats of skill most prixed by them, and 
gained their unlimited favor. The reputation thus established, 
first called the attention of partisan leaders in the confederacy to 
him ; and secured for him. as early as 1S20. from the party in power 
the appointment of colonel of the militia of the southern frontier. 
In this position he gained additional reputation and new popularity; 
till, fired with ambition, he began in 1S29 to lav the foundations for 
the despotism which he has since exercised. Having secured the 
favor of the good among the people, by the evidences he had 
given of a power to win the confidence and to control the will of 
the wild men around him, he is charged with the determination 
of gaining that of the evil, by making his camp the sanctuary of 
every class of criminals ; and thus surrounding himself — with the 
deliberate purpose of making the use of them he afterwards did — 
by an organired band of a.'ssassin.s. "VVhether this be true or not, it 
is an undoubted feet that, after being placed at the head of the 
government, he soon put an end to all hazard of rivalry in power, 
by processes of bloodshed and assassination throush such minions 
of his favor, almost beyond belief Volumes might be written, 
as volumes already have been, upon the tragedies with which, from 
time to time in his early rule, he startled and terrified the com- 
munity, till every one was brought to the subjection of abject 
fear : all this, too, under the pretence and plausible plea of sus- 
taining the law and securing public quietude and order. 

The justification which he himself pleads, for acts of cruelty 
which are admitted, is that '• the Argentines can only be governed 
with the knife at their throats ; '' and the highest vindication of 


his character which I have heard from some foreigners, who do 
not believe in the extent of tlie atrocities with which he is charged, 
and are disjiosed even to admire him as a man and a ruler, is that 
his faults are to be attributed to the defects of his education and 
his habits as a gaucho — that he is but a type of the people. 
This may be true ; but what is the state and character of the 
people — the gauchos of whom he is the type ? The best descrip- 
tion I have seen of them, is in a pamphlet by the Chevalier de 
St. Robert, a French gentleman, who visited the Plata officially. 
This you may not be able to refer to, and I furnish the extract 
in point. 

He says : " There is nothing to be found in the Pampas — 
those immense plains which extend over a space of more than 
seven hundred leagues, from the extreme north to the extreme 
south of the Argentine Confederation — but estancias, or farms, 
scattered here and there, which form so many petty republics, 
isolated from the rest of the world, living by themselves, and 
separated from each other by the desert. Alone in the midst of 
those over whom he is a complete master, the estanciero is out 
of every kind of society whatsoever, with no other law than that 
of force, with no other rules to guide him but those that are 
self-imposed, and with no other motive to influence than his own 
caprice. There is nothing to disturb his repose, nothing to dis- 
pute his power, or interfere Avith his tranquillity, except the tiger 
that may lurk about his grounds, or the wild Indian that may 
occasionally make a hostile incursion on his domains. His chil- 
dren and his domestics, gauchos like himself, pass the same sort 
of life ; that is to say, without ambition, without desires, and 
without any species of agricultural labor. All they have to do 
is to mark and to kill, at certain periods, the herds of oxen and 
flocks of sheep which constitute the fortune of the estanciero, and 
that satisfy the wants of all. Purely carnivorous, the gaucho'a 
only food consists of flesh and water — bread and spirituous liquors 
are as much unknown to him as the simplest elements of social 


" In a country in which the only wealth of the inhabitants 
arises from the incessant destruction of innumerable herds and 
flocks, it can easily be understood how their sanguinary occupa- 
tion must tend to obliterate every sentiment of pity, and induce 
an indiflferencc to the pejpetratiou of acts of cruelty. The readi- 
ness to shed blood — a ferocity which is at the same time obdurate 
and brutal— constitutes the prominent feature in the character 
of the pure gaucho. The first instrument his infantile hand 
grasps is the knife — the first things that attract his attention as a 
child, are the pouring out of blood and the palpitating flesh of 
animals. From his earliest years, as soon as he is able to walk, 
he is taught how he may with the greatest skill approach the 
living beast, hough it, and, if he has strength, kill it. Such are 
the sports of his childhood : he pursues them ardently, and amid 
the approving smiles of his family. As soon as he acquires 
suflBcient strength, he takes part in the labors of the estancia ; 
they are the sole arts he has to study, and he concentrates all his 
intellectual powers in mastering them. From that time forth he 
arms himself with a large knife, and for a single moment of his 
life he never parts with it. It is to his hand an additional limb — 
he makes use of it always, in all cases, in every circumstance, and 
constantly with wonderful skill and address. The same knife that 
in the morning has been used to slaughter a bullock, or to kill a 
tiger, aids him in the daytime to cut his dinner, and at night to 
carve out a skin tent, or else to repair his saddle, or to mend his 

" With the gaucho the knife is often used as an argument in 
support of his opinions. In the midst of a conversation, appa- 
rently carried on in amity, the formidable knife glitters on a 
sudden in the hands of one of the speakers, the ponclios are rolled 
around the left arm, and a conflict commences. Soon deep gashes 
are seen on the face, the blood gushes forth, and, not unfrequently, 
one of the combatants falls lifeless to the earth; but no one 
thinks of interfering with the combat, and when it is over, the 
conversation is resumed as if nothing extraordinary had occurred. 


No person is disturbed by it — not even the women, who remain 
as cold, unmoved spectators of the affray ! It may easily be 
surmised what sort of persons they must be, of which such a 
scene is but a specimen of their domestic manners. 

" Thus the savage education of the estancia produces in the 
gaucho a complete indifference as to human life, by familiarizing 
him from his most tender years to the contemplation of a violent 
death, whether it is that he inflicts it on another, or receives it 
himself. He lifts his knife against a man with the same indiffer- 
ence that he strikes down a bullock. The idea which everywhere 
else attaches to the crime of homicide does not exist in his mind ; 
for in slaying another, he yields not less to habit than to the 
impulse of his wild and barbarous nature. If perchance a murder 
of this kind is committed so close to a town that there is reason 
to apprehend the pursuit of justice, every one is eager to favor 
the flight of the guilty person. The fleetest horse is at his 
service, and he departs, certain to find, wherever he goes, the favor 
and sympathy of all. Then, with that marvellous instinct which 
is common to all the savage races, he feels no hesitation in ventur- 
ing into the numerous plains of the pampas. Alone, in the midst 
of a boundless desert, and in which the eye strains itself in vain 
to discover a boundary, he advances without the slightest feeling 
of uneasiness : he does so watching the course of the stars, listen- 
ing to the winds, discovering the cause of the slightest noise that 
reaches his ears, and at length arrives at the place he sought, 
without even straying from it, for a moment. The lasso which is 
rolled around his horse's neck ; the holas suspended from his 
saddle, and the inseparable knife, suflSce to insure him food, and 
to secure him against every danger, even against the tiger. 
When he is hungry, he selects one out of the herds of beeves that 
cover the plain, pursues it, lassos it, kills it, cuts out of it a piece 
of flesh, which he eats raw, or possibly cooks, and thus refreshes 
himself for the journey of the following day. 

" If murder be a connnon incident in the life of a gancho, it 
often also becomes the means to him of emerging from obscurity, 


and of obtaining renown among his associates. When he has 
rendered himself remarkable by his audacity and address in single 
combats, companions gather round him, and he soon finds himself 
at the head of a considerable party. He ' commences a cam- 
paign,' sets himself in open defiance of the laws, and in a short 
time acquires a celebrity which rallies a crowd about him, and 
makes hira a chieftain." Such are the people of whom Rosas is 
the type, and such the processes, in a qualified degree at least, 
by which he attained, and still holds his supremacy. 

Are you not afraid of your life even in Buenos Ayres ? you 
will be ready to ask, after reading such a description of the 
people who surround, and have the military guardianship of the 
city. I reply, that there probably is not a city in the civilized 
world, in which all, not suspected of political or partisan ofiense, 
are more perfectly secure in life, limb, and property. The police 
is perfect. The stranger and foreigner especially, may move about 
the streets at any hour of the night, with perfect impunity. 
Theft, robbery, and burglary are unheard of; and a pocket-hand- 
kerchief/ or purse dropped in the street, if bearing any mark 
which indicates its owner, will be sure to be returned to him, or 
quickly be found in the keeping of the police, 

February 'Idth. — The impressions made by Buenos Ayres in 
its external aspect, are increasingly favorable. The plan of 
the town is rectangular, like that of Philadelphia. Every street is 
of the same width, and every st^uare of the same dimensions. The 
streets are narrow, just wide enough for two vehicles to pass each 
other, and the sidewalks comfortable only for those moving in 
Indian file. In walking two abreast, or arm in arm, there is a 
constant jostling against passers-by. In some parts of the town 
the sidewalks are elevated two or three feet above the level of the 
carriage-way. The city being a dead level, and the streets 
straight, long vistas in them are every where commanded. Some 
of these are striking, and where the domes and fine towers of the 
old Spanish churches come in as leading features, are quite 
I'juropean. These stately old structures are scattered about in 


various localities, aud, with the citadel on the highest rise of 
ground overlooking the river, are the chief, if not the only sombre 
objects in the architecture of the place : still retaining the natural 
color of the brick of which they are built, or exhibiting time- 
stained surfaces of stone or stucco, and roofs covered with moss, 
lichens, and grass. Till within a few years, the houses were uni- 
formly one story only in height. This is still the case in many 
quarters, but in others, successive blocks and almost entire streets 
are now composed of those of two stories. The general plan of 
all is the same : the Spanish, or rather Moorish quadrangle, upon 
which all the apartments open, with a cisteru^Tmd sometimes a 
fountain in the centre. In many of the establishments of the 
wealthy, there are a succession of these quadrangles. Filled with 
shrubbery and flowers, and often ornamented by a fountain, the 
view from "the street through them, terminating not unfrequently 
in an assimilating scene in fresco against a wall in the far per- 
spective, is quite impressive in stage effect. The custom of con- 
stantly applying fresh whitewash to buildings new and old, gives 
to the whole city a clean and bright look. Here and there, 
however, in almost every street, a quaint and antiquated building 
is seen, contrasting with later structures, in the manner of the 
old Dutch houses still remaining, a few j^cars ago, in New York 
aud Albany, with those of modern date. These are a single story 
in height, with slanting, instead of flat roofs, covered with tile. 
Over the central door, however, there is a kind of demi-tower, 
furnished with a window and projecting balcony, as a look-out and 
place of parley with an outsider whose motive for demanding 
admittance might be questioned. In many cases these look-outs 
are quite tasteful in their architecture, aud pleasing to the eye 
from the air they bear of the " olden time." Lichens, air- 
plants, and tufting grass clinging to the cornices and mouldings 
and ornamented pinnacles, give to them a venerable, moustached, 
and bearded aspect, tliat cannot fail to arrest the eye of the lover 
of the antique. 

Great improvements have been made of late years, both in the 



external architecture and internal arrangements of private dwell- 
ings. Many of the mansions recently erected -would scarcely 
suffer, in point of richness and elegance, by comparison with some 
of the most luxurious of the Fifth Avenue in New York. This 

is especially true of one, just being completed by Gen. P , the 

minister of war : though the lofty and massive entrance-gates, in 
complicated and artistic patterns of east-iron bronzed, and the 
colonnades of Moorish arches surrounding its quadrangular courts 
within, would not entirely harmonize with the prevailing archi- 
tecture of that street of palaces. 

Every house here is necessarily a castle, having its windows 
on the street barred and grated, with portals not easily to be 
forced, and parapets, upon the flat roof, capable of effective de- 
fence against assailants below. Being without cellars or basement- 
rooms, the level of the floors is elevated but little above that of 
the street, and as no railing or area intervenes between the side- 
walks and the large windows, which descend to the floors, the interior 
of the room is as open to the inspection of the passers by, as to 
the inmates themselves. In some residences of wealth and taste, 
a vista of room after room in long suites, richly furnished, is thus 
exposed to view. The apartments on the street, with scarcely an 
exception, are reception and drawing-rooms ; and, in the after- 
noons and evenings, the promenaders in the street are thus fur- 
nished with a succession of tableaux vivans of females — not 
occupied as with us in conversation, or reading, or fancy work, or 
other employments of leisure and taste, and grouped with husbands, 
and fathers, and brothers, and sous, and other male friends — 
but seated in formal rows, or in a semicircle around the windows, 
in a greater or less degree of ' full dress,' with little interchange 
of conversation among themselves, and evidently for the mere 
purpose of seeing and being seen. Every thing in their dress and 
manner shows the studied purpose of exciting admiration. These 
exhibitions, however, are only in hours of costume. Till late in 
the day the ladies of the country in general are invisible ; very 


mucli in undress, lounging, and idling, and sipping Paraguay tea 
through the silver tube of the inat6 cup. 

An American or Englishman cannot fail to be struck with 
the seemingly slight intercourse of the male and female members 
of a family. The latter are to all external appearance without 
husbands, fathers, brothers, or sons. You meet them in numbers 
in the morning, going to and returning from mass, followed by a 
servant or servants, but seldom, if ever, attended by a male 
relative. The evening is a favorite time for shopping, and the 
streets are often crowded in some sections, with ladies thus en- 
gaged, but unattended by a gentleman in escort. And in the 
hundreds of parlors and drawing-rooms into which I have looked 
in passing, I do not recollect ever to have seen a gentleman, old 
or young, in the groupings of a family circle. 

A week being the extent of the leave of absence which I feel 
willing to take from my charge on board ship, and from the volun- 
tary duty I have assumed at the chapel in Montevideo ; with the 
purpose of returning to the Congress to-morrow, I gave therefore 
the mornings of yesterday and to-day to calls in acknowledgment 
of the civilities from our fellow-countrymen, and various foreign 
residents, in which, as. one of Commodore McKcever's party, I 
have shared. In the course of these, I accompanied the Com- 
modore and Mr. G in a visit to the Coude de Bessi, 

bishop of a diocese of unpronounceable name and unknown 
region, and nuncio from the Pope to llosas. The disregard 
which Rosas has shown in ecclesiastical matters for the supremacy 
of the Pope, and the sacrilege, in the view of the Romish Church, 
of some of his acts, led long ago to his excommunication, and the 
withdrawal by the Papal States from all diplomatic 
with him. The Conde de Bessi has recently arrived, with over- 
tures of reconciliation. Though every civility has been paid to 
him in his official character, by the government, and a house ele- 
gantly fitted and furnished been appropriated to his use, with 
other marks of courtesy — carriages and horses at his service — he 
has not yet been admitted to an audience, and, it is believed, will 


not be. The preliminary to negotiation which the nuncio de- 
mands — the release of the clergy from the obligation of wearing 
the red ribbon, stamped with the motto of death to the political 
opponents of the dictator, which they are forced to do, even 
while officiating at the altar — is one that will not be accorded ; 
and unless the legate yields on this point, he will fail in his 

Our visit being announced, we were ushered into the cabinet 
of his excellency — first through a large and elegantly furnished 
saloon, and then through a smaller apartment, fitted as a chapel 
with all the appliances of Romish worship. The reception of 
our party by the count was most courteous, and the conversation 
in French which ensued, animated, and on his part, most compli- 
mentary to the United States, as to her prosperity and her power. 
He appears to be about forty years of age ; is very plump and 
healthful, with little that is ascetic in look or manner. He is very 
handsome, with a face as fresh and smooth and round as that of 
a female, and an expression beaming with benignity and high 
breeding. His voice and intonation are of the most silvery 
softness, and his whole manner as feminine and polished as that 
of a duchess. Indeed, so remarkably was this the case, that as 
I looked at him in his silken robe of purple reaching to the heels, 
and with a cap of velvet on his head, of corresponding color, I 
found it dijficult to disabuse myself of the impression tliat the 
interview was with one of the fair sex. 



May 30^A. — Scarcely any duty in naval service can be 
more destitute of interest, than such as the Congress is perform- 
ing off Montevideo at the present time. To the close invest- 
ment of the city by land, a practical blockade is added, from a 
decree of Rosas, by which every vessel touching here on her way 
up the Plata is denied entry at Buenos Ayrcs. The consequence 
is — there being little demand for imports and nothing to export 
at Montevideo — that no vessel in the trade of the Plata comes 
into the port except from necessity, and the arrivals are limited, 
for the most part, to a man-of-war, occasionally, and the regular 
mail-steamer from England, by the way of Rio do Janeiro, once 
each month. My chaplaincy on board, and the additional service 
of worship each Sabbath on shore, furnish the only variation in 
my duty ; and an occasional row or sail to the city for a walk or 
the visit of an hour, in a limited circle of acquaintance, my only 
recreation. For opportunities of visiting the shore I am indebted 
chiefly to the kindness of Commodore McKccver : Captain 
Mcintosh, so frequently the companion of my walks at Rio, here 
scarcely ever leaves the ship. 

The recent arrival in which we were most interested was that 

of the U. S. storeship Southampton. It brought Dr. C to the 

Congress as fleet surgeon, in place of Dr. W , who returned 


home invalided, shortly after our arrival on the station. This 
loss to the medical corps of the ship and to our mess was regretted. 
In the substitute furnished, we are greatly favored. As a physician 
and surgeon Dr. C is worthy of all confidence ; and as a gen- 
tleman and Christian, carries with him predominating influence. 
The value of such an accession to a naval mess-tahle and to the 
associations of the gun-room of a man-of-war, can scarcely be 

Anotlier circumstance connected with the Southampton, in 
which we felt great interest, proved less happy in the issue. The 
Congress, through a mistake not discovered till she was at sea, 
left the United States without a suitable library for the use of 
the crew. As soon as this was known, I took measures to have 
one sent after us. This was shipped by the Southampton and 
arrived safely here ; but from an oversight of the oflGieer in 
charge, was carried again to sea by her, on proceeding to her des- 
tination in the Pacific. The disappointment to the crew is great, 
and only to be remedied by patiently waiting for the return of 
a fresh order to the United States. 

My vi.-Jits on shore are most unvarying in their character. 
Sometimes I take a solitary stroll through the less public streets 
of the city ; but never without feelings of commiseration for 
the depressed and suffering condition of the poorer classes. The 
pale and haggard faces of the females, seen at the doors and win- 
dows, tell one story of privation and want — of listless despondency 
and gloom. The extent and degree of destitution, from the long 
suspension of all business, is fearful, among those even who have 
been accustomed to independence, if not to affluence and luxury. 
Among such, the poorest scraps that fall from the tables of the 
more fortunate are most thankfully received ; and any kind of em- 
ployment is eagerly sought. Females of the first respectability are 
glad to be employed in making up linen in a most finished .style, 
at a half dollar a shirt, and at six and eight cents a collar. The 
demoralization among all classes, in consequence of the pressure 


of want, is very great, I am told, and of a character fatal to the 
purity and self-respect of individuals and whole families. 

The only semblance of general cheerfulness observable, is in 
the daily evening promenade to witness the relief of guard. 
This takes place at the inner lines without the walls, every even- 
ing at sunset. During the previous hour, in fine weather, hun- 
dreds of the better classes of the citizens both foreigners and 
natives, in a greater or less display of dress, may be seen issuing 
through the ancient gateway of the northern wall, for the walk 
of a mile through the broad and straight street, leading froni it 
to a battery where the relief of guard takes place, and to listen 
to the music of the bands with which this is accompanied. 

I have mentioned the presence here of fifteen hundred or two 
thousand French troops with their officers. They are quartered 
in barracks, a part within and a part without the walls of the old 
city ; and may be seen in groups and small parties in the streets 
at almost all times of the day and evening. Well dressed and 
well fed, young and athletic, fresh and healthful in look, and 
cheerful and animated in movement and manner, they constitute 
quite a redeeming feature in the aspect of the city. They have 
a parade-ground just without the walls, and are regularly and 
severely drilled, but take no part in the military duty of the 
place, and perform no patrol. This devolves exclusively upon the 
Montevidcan soldiery. These, amounting to three tliousand, con- 
sist chiefly of a foreign legion, composed, of emigrants — Italians 
from the vicinity of Genoa, and from Piedmont, and Basques 
from the frontiers of Spain and France ; and of a negro regiment 
under the command of native officers. The negroes, till the com- 
mencement of the war were slaves ; but were then liberated by a 
decree of the government, without compensation to their masters, 
on condition of entering the army for the continuance of tlie war, 
with a right to a bounty of land on the restoration of peace. 

The foreign legion form the municipal or national guard. They 
consist of artisans, porters, laborers and boatmen, who, in succes- 
sive companies are ou duty as a patrol one day in three, and en- 


gaged in their various callings the rest of the time. The negroes 
are regular soldiers. They are said to be brave and laitliful, 
and have proved themselves most reliable on post and in battle. 
The dress of the foreigners is that of their every-day labor — 
the jacket and trowsers and Pelasgic cap of the Ba.sques ; but the 
negro regiment are in uniform — the dress of the gauchos, or 
Indio-Spaniards, of the country. This is striking and pictur- 
es<|ue, though Indian-like and savage in its general efieet : at best 
barbarism, ' picked out,' — as carriage painters say — with civiliza- 
tion. It is composed of a red flannel shirt, beneath a poncho of 
red of the same material, lined with green ; a green cheripa, or 
swaddling blanket for the loins and lower limbs ; drawers of 
white cotton terminating in wide pantalets ornamented with in- 
Bertings of lace work, and a deep fringe falling over the ankles 
and bare feet : the covering of the head being a conical cap of 
green cloth, without visor, laced with yellow cord. It is seen to 
the best efi'ect at Buenos Ayres, where there is in the soldiers 
more of the Indian and less of African blood ; and where, 
exhibited on horseback, the long black hair and streaming pon- 
chos of the riders are in keeping with the flowing manes and 
tails of the horses, as they scamper with the fleetness of the wind 
along the beach and over the plain. 

The free hospitality of two or three houses, both English and 
American, in addition to the Consulate, is extended to us ; and 
usually, after the relief of guard, we join the family of one or 
another of these for tea. It is pleasant in a strange land thus 
to be received informally in a home circle, and to be made wel- 
come, in this, the winter of the year, to the elegant comforts of 
carpeted floors and curtained windows — of the glowing grate of 
the fireside, and the hissing urn of the tea-table, and for the hour 
to share in the social enjoyments of conversation and music. The 
chief drawback to the pleasure, is the remembrance forced upon 
us by such scenes, of our distant homes, and the vision in fancy of 
■what we there lose. This was particularly the case in the visits of 

the last evening. I made an early call at Mr. L 's, and, on 



entering the drawing-room, found Madame L at the piano. 

After giving the accustomed kind welcome, she was prevailed 
upon to continue at the instrument. Though the mother of a 
fine family of carefully educated and intelligent children — gath- 
ered at the time in various amusements round a centre-table of 
the saloon — she has not thrown aside her music, but is still in 
good practice. Her touch and execution are very much in the 

style of Mademoiselle E, , and in some fine passages from 

Verdi and other masters, brilliantly given, carried me at once to 

I do not recollect to have mentioned the romance of the 

honey-moon of Mr. and Madame L at Buenos Ayres, in the 

early days of the despotism of Rosas. Madame L , previ- 
ously the Signorita , a native of the city, and member of the 

Romish church, ventured to be married to Mr. L by an 

American missionary, without the consent of the Dictator. This 
was contrary to an existing law ; and the consequence was that the 
bride was very unceremoniously immured for three months in a 
nunnery, while the groom and clergyman were as summarily ar- 
rested, and thrown into prison. Mr. L was then established 

in mercantile business at Buenos Ayres. But indignant at such 
an interference with the rights of conscience and personal freedom, 
on regaining his liberty, he withdrew with his wife to Montevideo, 
and is now a chief capitalist in this section of South America. 

On joining the Commodore at Mrs. Z 's, I found quite a 

party of the H 's and other friends. The ladies were in 

more dress than usual ; the rooms were well lighted ; and the 
tea-table richly and elegantly appointed ; and in the enjoyments 
of an evening of music, both vocal and instrumental, including 
some fine chants and psalmody, we were tempted for the time to 
forget our exile. 

The private dwellings in Montevideo, whether only one, or 
two stories high, are all built in the Spanish-Morescau style, 
having a quadrangle within, enclosing a pateo, or open square in 
the centre. Upon this, where there is but one story, and upon an 


encircling verandah or corridor, above where there arc two, all 
the apartments open, through doors and French windows. The 
pateos in the one case, and the verandahs in the other, are usually 
filled with running vines, and flowering plants and shrubs, in boxes 
of earth, or in urns and vases. The parapeted walls of the flat 
roofs are also often ornamented by vases, containing aloes and 
various cacti ; and I have often been struck, on passing to the 
,-taircase in leaving, with the ornamental and picturesque efiect 
of these — especially in bright moonlight — as they stand out in 
strong relief against the sky. 

However good the promise of fair weather may have been in 
going on shore, we never take leave for a return to the ship at 
night, without a greater or less degree of uncertainty, as to the 
manner and circumstances in which we may get on board. The 
shallowness of the roadstead obliges vessels of the draught of 
the Congress to lie two or three miles from the shore ; and even 
then, such are often cradled at low water in a bed of mud three 
or four feet deep ; but the distance is a trifle, compared with the 
obstacle to a visit to the shore, either for exercise or pleasure, 
arising from the frequency and suddenness of the south and 
south-west winds, called pamperos. These often burst over the 
water with little or no warning, and by their fierceness and the sea 
they raise, cut off, for twenty-four hours or more, all communica- 
tion between the ship and the shore. Twice within the first week 
of our arrival, a party in the Commodore's barge was detained a 
night and a day on shore under such circumstances ; and other 
boats sent on shore on various objects of duty, at least as many 
times. Fortunately for some of us, Mr. Frazier, of the American 
house of Frazier, Zimmerman & Co., being without other family 
than the employd-es of the counting-room, had it in his power to 
offer some of us, on those occasions, an asylum in the well-apH 
pointed residence in which he dispenses a liberal and generous 
hospitality. The few hotels in the place, kept principally by 
Frenchmen and Italians, are comfortless, especially in their 
accommodations for sleeping. 


A few nights ago, on reaching the mole, a high and piercing 
wind was blowing, very much from the point we wished to steer, 
tumbling a rough and wild sea before it. We could not lay 
our course for the ship within several points : leaving a long and 
heavy pull for the oarsmen, after we should take in sail. Close 
hauled upon the wind, and plunging into the head sea, all hands 
were well showered, even as far aft as the stern-sheets, by the 
spray dashed from the bows. In disgust at this winding up of 
the pleasures of the evening, the Commodore exclaimed that it 
would be " the last of his night expeditions from the shore ; " 
that hereafter he would limit his visits to the daytime, and then 
to fine weather. However, the barge is a beautiful sea-boat, 
riding the swelling waves — whether propelled by oars or canvas 
— like a duck, and under sail, skimming the crested waters like 
a sea-bird. When obliged at last to take to the oars, the pull to 
the ship was not so long, or the trouble in getting on board on the 
lee-side so great, as we had apprehended. The next morning 
the weather was tranquil as a summer's day ; and the Commodore, 
beckoning mo to join him on the poop as he was taking a turn 

before breakfast, said, " Why, Mr. S , the getting off last 

night was not so bad after all. I must take back my hard 
speeches about the place and weather, and recall my rash vows. 
I think we may still venture an evening's visit." This we soon 
did, and our return on board, for that and two or three succes- 
sive nights, was the very perfection of every thing lovely in 
moonliglit upon the water. The air was mild and balmy ; the 
river, smooth and glassy as a lake, seemed beneath the moon, 
beams, a very sea of silver ; a fair and gentle land-breeze kept 
the sails of the boat just steadily full — wafting us imperceptibly 
along, while every thing above, beneath, and around us, was so 
tranquil, so bright, and so pure, that we were charmed by it into a 
musing mood of the profoundcst silence. 

The prevailing weatlicr, at present, is like that of the finest 
October at home, with which season — that of autumn — it corre- 


sponds. The mornings are cool, bracing, and brilliant ; at noon, 
the temperature is almost hot, and the nights are humid and cold. 
The sunsets are equal, in the beauty and softness of the tintings 
and colors, to any I recollect to have observed in any part of the 
world. To judge from the apparent purity and elasticity of the 
atmosphere, it would seem that the climate could not be other- 
wise than healthful ; yet the sick list on board the Congress, from 
catarrhs, inflammation of the lungs, and rheumatism, is greater 
than at any time since the beginning of our cruise. Somo 
of the cases of pneumonia are very severe, and threaten to prove 
fatal. This increase of sickness and its character, are attribut- 
able, probably, to the frequent recurrence, amidst all this bright- 
ness, of wintry storms of two or three days' continuance : like a 
cold and boisterous equinoctial gale in the United States, with 
pouring rain and piping winds. Indeed, the anchorage here is a 
terrible place for winds at all seasons of the year : terrible, not 
from danger to the ships — for the whole bottom is a soft and 
tenacious mud, into which large vet^sels safely cradle — but in the 
discomfort on board in a storm, and the inconvenience of com- 
municating with the shore. 

The special interruptions to the monotony of a daily routine 
on my own part, have been a series of infant baptisms, in the 
families of various foreign residents, English, Scotch, and Ger- 
man ; three marriages in which the grooms were foreigners also — 
American and English ; and the funeral of an American lady, 
long a resident of Montevideo. The groom at one of the wed- 
dings was Dr. K of the navy, surgeon of the St. Louis ; 

his bride, the Signorita L , daughter of Don Juan L , 

Secretary to the Senate of the llepublic of Uruguay. The cere- 
mony was private, Commodore McKeever, the captain of the St. 
Louis, one or two other naval officers, Madame L , the god- 
mother of the bride, and the immediate members of the family 
constituting the party. Another of the marriages was in the pre- 
sence of a large company, and was followed by a general reception 
of the society of Montevideo, and a ball. The parties being 


English, the presence of the representative of the British govern- 
ment was necessary, to give validity to the rite, according to act 
of parliament; and the ceremony was followed by the making 
out of a certificate, at a centre-table of the drawing-room, oa a 
folio sheet of paper, to which, as first Avitness, the Hon. Mr. Gore, 
H, M. Charge d' Affaires, attached his name officially. Nearly 
the whole company, both ladies and gentlemen, gave witness to tlie 
event in a similar manner, 80 that, in the end, the document, in 
its length of signatures, rivalled a Magna Charta or Declaration 
of Independence. It was the first occasion, except at the chapel, 
in which I had met so large a company of Montevideans, or in 
which there was a mingling of the native Americo-Spauish society. 
The ladies of this blood have been celebrated by travellers for 
their beauty, and for sprightliness and grace of manner ; and 
justly, I would say, were I to judge in the matter, from one at 

least, of those present on this occasion : Mrs. R , the Avife of 

a young, but retired captain in the British uaA-y, a son of Admiral 

Sir J R . She is beautiful, and apparently truly lovely, 

with more of the bearing and manners of polished life than most 
other ladies I have met since I left the United States. Others 
equally favored may have joined the party afterwards, but of this 
I cannot speak. The general company were only beginning to 
arrive, as, under the guidance of Mr. Gore, I left for the 
Consulate, to officiate in the baptism of a child, which had been 
appointed for the same evening. 

The first funeral I have been called to attend, was at the 
house in Avhich I performed the first marriage ceremony after our 
arrival. The mother of the young and lovely bride, an American 
lady, was, at the time, in so feeble a state from consumption, as 
scarce to be able to be present. She has failed rapidly since, and 
was buried on the IGth. 

During the years of prosperity in Montevideo, a Protestant 
burial-ground was laid out, a half mile beyond the outer gate, 
along the edge of a narrow ravine and watercourse. It was 
enclosed by a handsome wall of brick, planted with trees and 


shrubbery, contained many tombstones and monuments of marble, 
and was one of the most attractive spots in the suburbs. It was 
found, however, on the commencement of hostilities, that the 
walls and trees g.ave shelter to the assailants, in their apin-oachea 
to the city, and interfered with the efi'oct of the batteries of the 
besieged. The walls consequently were razed, and the trees cut 
down by the inside party. The result is an entire ruin. The 
tombs and monuments are mostly overturned and destroyed, and 
tlie place, though still appropriated to its original'use, is utterly 
desecrated. Scarce a stone is standing, and not a vestige of 
oniament or beauty remains. I could not avoid being struck, 
amid other objects in the scene — at the funeral, with the appear- 
ance of the hearse — the best the city now afibrds, and emblematic 
of all its attempts at display. Its curtains of velvet, once doubt- 
less black, are now faded to a muddy orange^ and are all tattered 
and torn ; and what were, originally, plumes of ostrich feathers, 
nodding gracefully at each corner, are now only bristling quills, 
from which every feather has fallen in decay. It was drawn by 
two miserable, starved mules in a wretched harness, and altogether 
was a mockery of the pomp and pageantry of the grave. 

The subject reminds me to mention the receipt by the last 
English mail, of a letter from the family of Ramsey, in whose 
fate you express an interest, from the account given of his sudden 
death, last October. It is in answer to one by which I commimi- 
cated the -bereavement. He was of a pious household, who 
were deeply afflicted by the intclligflice sent, but consoled by the 
assurance, that every possible attention had been paid to him. 
The letter is from a young man, the only surviving son of the 
family. He says, " It is impossible to attempt a description of 
the scene exhibited, as I endeavored to read aloud the heart- 
rending account of the death of one we loved so dearly. It can 
never be forgotten by any one present. The whole family were 
overwhelmed, and I myself entirely unmanned ; " and adds in 
another part — " the night after we received the melancholy 
tidings, a most touching incident occurred : caused by my youngest 


sister Jessie, a child of six years, when preparing to retire to 
rest. She had not been told the sad news, and while on her 
knees by my mother's side praying aloud, her little hands resting 
upon her lap, she prayed, as was her custom, that God would keep 
and bless her dear brother at sea, and bring him in safety home 
to us. The scene that ensued was most afflicting ; we all wept 
most bitterly, while the little one cried as if her heart would 
break, when told that the poor brother, for whom she prayed, 
was lost to her for ever in this world. 



June lih. — The tedium of the long stay of the Congress at 
Montevideo was relieved once, by a cruise of three weeks off 
the Plata. The chief object in this, was to exercise the crew at 
the sails and in working ship, and to give practice at sea with the 
great guns and small arms. The effect of the change was good, 
both morally and physically. The vicinity of a port, so free to 
dissipation as Montevideo, is demoralizing both to oflBcers and 
men ; and it is well, as Commodore 3IcKeever remarked to me 
in speaking on the subject, occasionally at least to put the broad 
sea between the ship and the seductions of the shore. 

On the 2iJd ult. we again set sail for this place. The island 
lies closely on the coast about midway between the Plata and 
Rio de Janeiro. It is twenty-eight miles long, from four to 
eight wide, and is separated from the main by a narrow and 
irregular strait, varying in breadth from one and two, to three and 
more miles. It was settled earlier than any part of the conti- 
nent in this section, and gives name to the province on the main 
opposite, within whose boundaries it is included. Its harbor is 
one of the best in the Empire, and was once a great resort for 
shipping, especially for refreshment and repairs by those engaged 
in the whale fishery. The principal town, called Nossa Scnhora 
do Desterro, or " Our Lady of Banishment or Exile," contam- 


ing a population of eiglit or ten thousand inhabitants, is the cap- 
ital of the province and the residence of its President. 

On the morning of the 2d inst., the island, overtopped by the 
loftier mountains of the main, was in view at a distance of thirty 
miles ; and coasting along it we entered the straits and came to 
anchor by nightfall. The land is broken and lofty, and beauti- 
fully verdant : the eastern shores next the sea presenting, as we 
sailed along them, alternate stretches of white sand beach and 
projecting promontories of rocks crowned with woods. There is 
not a sufficient depth of water for a frigate to pass through the 
channel, and the entrance for large ships is by the north end of 
the island. It is winding, and with the mountains of the island 
and the main on either side, presents the features of a magnifi- 
cent harbor rather than the appearance of an arm of the sea. 
We were delighted with the varied outlines and general beauty 
of the whole, in contrast with the scenery of the Plata, though 
but few evidences of civilization are visible; a small habitation 
here and there along the shore, being the only indications of the 
presence of man. 

The next morning the whole surface of the water, glassy as a 
mirror, was dotted two or three miles south of us with the canoes 
of fishermen ; their white hats, shirts, and drawers contrasting 
strongly in the early sun with the black sides of their canoes. 
We were some miles from the customary anchorage, and the pres- 
ence of so large a ship as the Congress even, attracted no atten- 
tion from them, and brought no canoe with the milk and eggs and 
tropical fruits for which we were longing. Soon after breakfast 
wo ran some miles further south to our present anchorage just 
inside of two forts, one — that of San Jose — on the island, and the 
other — that of Santa Cruz — on an islet of the same name near 
the main. The panorama surrounding us is truly beautiful — 
approaching, in some respects, even that of Rio de Janeiro, 
though less wild and sublime in outline. The lofty and massive 
mountains on the main, jutting down to the water in bold pro- 
montories, indent the shore with little white-beached coves whose 


overhanging cliffs are crested with palm-trees and festooned with 
creepers. The white dwellings of the inhabitants, sprinkled 
along the shore, and the checkered cultivation of the uplands 
behind, combine in furnishing attractive imagery to the eye and 
associations of rural comfort and simplicity to the heart. The 
symmetrical outlines of the old fortresses on either side, and their 
moss-covered and grass-tufted parapets and ramparts, give an air 
of antiquity to some points of the scene, while the primitive 
canoe of the aborigines, under paddle or rude sail on the water, 
tells us significantly of a state of semi-civilization only. "With the 
brightly gleaming sun of the morning, there was a freshness and 
elasticity of atmosphere, welcome and most exhilarating. 

The present acting American consul of St. Catherine resides 
at Santa Cruz, the name of the anchorage at which we are. His 
name is Cathcart, formerly the master of an American whale- 
ship, but now long a resident of this part of Brazil, where he 
married a native of the country, and has a family of children, 
and extensive possessions in lands and slaves. 

His residence is nearly abreast of us on the main, a mile or 
more distant. It is situated on an elevated platform above the 
beach, in a beautiful little cove, with a glen in the rear : the 
whole overhung by a wooded mountain. I availed myself of the 
first opportunity of visiting the shore, and accompanied Purser 

■\V and Lieut. R who went on duty. Mr. Cathcart was 

on the beach to receive us and conduct us to his house. With 
the exception of this structure — which is of stone, stuccoed, and 
whitewashed, and roofed with tile — every thing here, in general 
aspect, is so like the South Seas, that I felt as if suddenly trans- 
ported there, apd again amidst the scenes and places .so familiar 
and so dear to me twenty years ago. The palm-tree, tossing its 
plumed branches in the wind, the broad leaves of the banana 
rustling in the breeze, the perfume of the orange blossoms and 
cape jessamine, the sugar cane and coffee plant, the cotton bush, 
the palma christi and guava — the light canoe upon the water, 
and the rude huts dotting the shore — all hurried me in imagi- 


nation to the Marquesas, the Society and the Sandwich Isl- 

As the Consul proposed returniug to the ship with us our stay 
was but short. I, however, accomplished my purpose of a ram- 
ble for half an hour. This I found quite sufficient for the time. 
The hills descend so abruptly at all points to the water, and are 
so furrowed with ravines, that one can proceed scarcely a hundred 
rods in any direction along the shore, without making ascents 
and descents of such steepness, as soon to induce fatigue, and 
make a short walk go far in point of exercise. 

Large ships cannot approach nearer to the port and city of 
Desterro than the anchorage of Santa Cruz ; a distance of twelve 
miles. The day after our arrival, a party of officers made a 
trip to that place in one of the ship's boats ; and on the 4th inst. 
I joined another, by a similar conveyance. The morning was bril- 
liant, with a cool and bracing air. There was no wind, but with 
ten stout and willing oarsmen we made good progress, though the 
tide, for a portion of the distance, was against us. Two beautiful 
wooded islets lie midway in the straits, or bay, as the water — twelve 
miles in length and from three to five in width — appears here to 
be. The largest of these has a battery planted on the north end, 
the site of which is scarped from the solid rock, about half the 
height from the water line to the summit of the islet. With the 
exception of this battery, and two or three buildings connected 
with it, the whole is one mass of foliage interspersed with boulders 
of granite. We rowed closely along its western side, and were 
charmed with the freshness of the verdure and the variety and 
richness of its growth ; especially in the drapery and festooning 
of parasites and creepers. As we approached our destination we 
fancied a striking resemblance, in the formation and general as- 
pect of the western side on the mainland, to the section of the 
Hudson lying between Tarry town and the entrance to the High- 
lands. This led to a comparison of the scenery of the straits in 
general with that of the Hudson. Beautiful indeed as this St. 


Catherine is, all who liad scon both, admitted a close rivalry at 
least on the part of the other. 

A promontory of the island projecting far eastward into the 
straits, cuts oflF the view of the town from the north — excepting 
a church tower or two over the land — and gives to the water the 
appearance of being land-locked. It is not till sweeping through 
a narrow channel past the bluflF point, you find yourself in a 
horse-shoe bay, — a half mile perhaps in diameter, with the city 
encircling its sandy beach. 

The view of the town is striking, as, on doubling the point, it 
opens thus abruptly to the sight. It contains eight thousand in- 
habitants. It is prettily situated on the widely curving shore, 
and, facing the straits southward, is flanked on the east by lofty, 
verdant, and overhanging hills. A double-towered church, ris- 
ing from the centre of the city, and a spacious snow-white hospital, 
crowning a terrace on the eastern side, are the most conspicuous 
of the public buildings. 

A small platform of plank on piles, forms the landing for the 
boats of the shipping ; but the canoes of the country are gener- 
ally run upon the beach. There was a cleanliness about this, and 
in the market-place adjohiing, truly welcome in Brazil, and pre- 
pared us to be. most pleasantly impressed with the general aspect 
of a spacious, unenclosed square — like the green, or common of 
a New England village — upon which we immediately entered. 
This lies close by the water and in the middle of the town. The 
principal church or cathedral, whose towers we had seen over the 
land, ornaments it on the north side. It stands upon a terrace plat- 
form, having circular enclosures on either side, filled with plants 
and shrubbery, and overtopped by two or throe graceful palms, 
and an Australian pine. On the west side near this, is the palace 
or Governmental House, occupied by the President of the pro- 
vince ; the dwellings of two or three wealthy citizens; and a 
hotel near the water. From the balconies of the last, tlic party, 
who had preceded us the day before, were beckoning to us a wel- 
nime. The establishment is in charge of an American from New 


England, married to a native of the place. It is more homelike 
in general appearance and better kept than any public-house 
we have seen in South America, excepting the Hotel de Provence 
in Buenos Ayres. 

As it was my purpose to return to the Congress the same 
evening, there was little time to search for objects of special 
interest, if indeed there were such ; and I contented myself with 
a walk through and around the place. The streets are laid out 
with regularity, but are ungraded and pass over hill and through 
hollow, according to the original surface of the ground. The 
buildings stand upon them at irregular distances from each other ; 
and many having gardens and yards about them, the whole has 
a village-like aspect, not indicative of the amount of population em- 
braced within the boundaries of the town. The people seem kind 
and well disposed ; are simple in their habits and courteous in man- 
ners. Though my dress furnished no badge of naval service, or 
distinctive mark of my profession, yet, recognized as a stranger, I 
was every where saluted as such with the greatest deference and 
respect. I had been told that a new cemetery, situated on a hill 
on the western side of the bay, commanded a fine general view of 
the city and surrounding country. Under the impression that I had 
reached tliis, I passed through a fine gateway, and by a flight of steps 
to a terrace walk, but at once perceived that I was in the grounds 
of a private residence, and was retreating to the road again, when in- 
vited by some attendants near to enter and stroll over the place at 
my pleasure. This I did. It was tastefully laid out in lawns and 
flower gardens, and abounded in fruit. On expressing thanks to 
the Portuguese gardener when taking leave, he added to my ob- 
ligation by presenting a choice bouquet, with an ofibr of oranges 
&nd other fvu'it adlibHum : adding, tliat the signer, his master, 
would have been happy to receive me liad he been at home, and 
would be pleased at any time with a visit from me. 

The day was cxeeedingly fine, and my ramble of an hour and 
more in the suburbs, over smooth paths and through hedge-shaded 
and flower-scented lanes, was most grateful after the dreary mo- 


notony of the scenery in the Plata and the tedium of long confine- 
ment on board a ship. 

The females of Desterro are celebrated for their skill in the 
manufacture of artificial flowers from feathers, beetle wings, fish 
scales, and sea shells ; and an arrival of strangers in the place 
causes the doors, and halls, and rooms of the hotel to be thronged 
with negroes and negresses, bearing tray-loads and boxes of these 
articles for sale. Many of them are tasteful and ornamental ; 
especially those formed from the polished wings of the beetle. 
Those of fish-scales wrought into necklaces, armlets, wreaths and 
bouquets are also pretty ; and, were the material not known, would 
appear costlj'. The first of these 1 ever saw were worn by a 
bride at Montevideo ; the effect by candle-light was much that of a 
set of pearls, which I at first supposed the ornaments to be. A 
coarse but serviceable thread lace, is also a manufacture of the 
place. The chief article of commerce is coff"ee, that of St. Cath- 
erine being of superior quality. 

At 3 o'clock we sat down to a profusely spread table d'hdte, 
one of the most tempting public boards I have seen since leaving 
the United States, consisting of a variety of fish, oysters, lobster, 
difi'crent kinds of meats, chickens, turkey and birds, cooked and 
served in American style. The bread was excellent, and upon it 
alone, with the delicious fresh butter from the German settlement 
of San Pedro d'Alcantara, twenty miles distant in the mountains 
on the main, I could have made a most satisfactory repast. The 
interest of the feast was enhanced by some intelligence communi- 
cated in regard to the chief attendants on the table : the head 
waitress was no less a personage than a Princess Royal of Cab- 
inda, eldest daughter of the monarch of that style, and niece of 
" King John," chief of the Kroomen. She is a fine intelligent- 
looking woman of thirty years, whose mien and general bear- 
ing were by no means unbecoming the rank she held in her native 
land. Another of the servants was a male slave of the same age, 
full of activity and .spirit, and seemingly very clieerful and happy. 
By industry and economy, and the gratuities Im.' has received, for 


civility and fidelity in his situation, he has laid up the amount of 
liis purchase-money, with the exception of a small sum. He 
expects soon to be free ; and, having caught a spirit of adven- 
ture and enterprise from the many of our compatriots, who of 
late years have touched at St. Catherine's for refreshment on their 
way to California, designs pushing his fortunes in that golden re- 
gion — an example of adventure, in purpose at least, almost without 
parallel, I am told, among the Brazilians of Portuguese blood. 
"W^hile the whole world has been excited to enterprise by the 
modern discoveries of gold, not a vessel, I learn, has been fitted 
out from Brazil in quest of fortune in this way, and scarcely a 
Brazilian tempted to join the thousands who have touched here 
and at Ilio on their way to California. 

The next day I joined Commodore McKcever and his secre- 
tary in a stroll on shore at Santa Cruz. Captain Cathcart met 
us on the beach, and, becoming our cicerone, first led us up a 
romantic little glen in the rear of his dwelling, by a well kept 
pathway overshaded with orange trees and palms, and bordered 
by coffee-plants and bananas. It followed the course of a mur- 
nmriiig and babbling mountain stream, which fretted its way over 
a bed of rocks, and beneath and around massive boulders of gran- 
ite. The pathway itself was sufficiently attractive to have in- 
duced us to take the walk, but there was, as we found, a special 
object for pursuing it. It leads to the graves of two sisters of 
the ages of fifteen and seventeen, daughters of Major Gaines, 
Governor of Oregon, who died here a year ago on their way to 
that territory, after a few days' illness with yellow fever, con- 
tracted during a brief stay at Ilio. Their sudden death, within 
a day of each other, in the opening bloom of youth, and their 
burial by the wayside, as it were, in a strange and undesired 
land, with the many affecting incidents related to us connected 
with the event, tlirew a toucliing interest around the spot, and 
caused us to linger with deep sympathy near their graves. They 
lie side by side within a small, [licketed enclosure, where tlie rose 
and willow and other appropriate growth, planted by the hand of 



the Consul, are already spreading in tropical luxuriance. They 
are said to have been iutelligent and accomplished, and full of 
the buoyancy and hope of young life. The bereavement under 
the circumstances must have been desolating to the parents, and 
their burial on these strange shores a most aflective trial. 

After the examination of a maudioca and coflfee plantation, 
and of a fruit yard, we strolled over a spur of the mountain to 
an adjoining cove in ^Yhich Captain Cathcart formerly resided, 
and which is still his possession. His former dwelling is con- 
verted into a school-houie for his own children and those of two 
or three of his neighbors. The tutor, a young Brazilian, is em- 
jdoyed by the Consul at his individual expense. The books and 
school apparatus were most primitive, and limited to the merest 
elements of instruction ; still, the scene presented by the assem- 
bled group of scholars and their young teacher, had more of pro- 
mise in it for the future, than any thing before met in this rcgioo. 

I spent yesterday morning in going over the same ground 
with Captain Mcintosh, who had not previously been on shore. 
We extended our walk across two or three additional ridges of the 
hills, which feather down from the mountains to the water, and 
break up the shore, by their projecting points, into numerous little 
coves encircled by interval lands and bright glades. In these 
chiefly are nestled the humble cottages of the poor, in single dwell- 
ings or in hamlets of three and four. The views from the side- 
liills above are varied and beautiful, and ever bring with them to 
me strong associations of the South Seas. 

In the afternoon, accompanied by Dr. C and one or two 

others, I took a walk northward from the consulate, first across a 
natural meadow running inland a half-mile from the beach, and after- 
wards, by a mule-path, over a steep and thickly-wooded hill of the 
primitive growth — the whole mountain of which this is a spur, dense- 
ly covered with wood, presenting in many points masses of foliage 
of great richness and beauty. Our walk terminated at a clear- 
ing, where preparations were making for the erection of a shanty 
of small timber, wattled at the sides and ends, preparatory to 


being filled in with clay. The scene reminded me of parts of 
Otsego near Cooperstown in my boyhood, where the felling, and 
logging, and burning of trees by the first settlers were in progress. 
The timber here, however, is by no means so tall and heavy as 
the white pine and old hemlock of that region, and appears to be 
exclusively of hard wood. We saw, at too great a distance to 
admit of examination, two flowering trees with blossoms of most 
brilliant hues ; and were afterwards shown at the consulate a 
branch of an azalia, loaded with flowers of the purest white varie- 
gated with bright cherry color. 

I must not omit to mention the very unexpected recognition 
of each other, by Captain Cathcart and myself yesterday. After 

taking leave of him the evening before, I said to Dr. C -, 

" The oftener I see the Consul, the more I am persuaded I have 
met him before : it must have been at the Sandwich Islands." 
A similar impression it seems was on his mind ; and he remarked 
to a party of officers, as the boat in which I was, shoved off", " I 

am sure I have known Mr. S somewhere ; but I have not 

been out of Brazil for twenty years — it must have been when I 
was whaling." To this, one replied, " it may have been at the 

Sandwich Islands, when Mr. S was a missionary there." " A 

missionary ! is it possible that this Mr. S is the same : now, 

I know all about him. I remember him well ; the first time I 
was on shore he invited me to church, and though I was an en- 
tire stranger to him, only a boat-steerer, he took me afterwards to 
dine with him and his lady." This being repeated to me, gave 
identity to my own reminiscence, and led to a very cordial greet- 
ing the next morning as old friends. 

My last walk, in this short visit of a week, was taken this 
afternoon, in company with Commodore McKcever and Dr. 

C . It was on the island. We landed at one end of a long 

curving beach, beneath the rocky bluff which is surmounted by the 
dilapidated fortress of San Jose, now dismantled and abandoned. 
After enjoying the view from its parapets, we followed a path 
leading up the ridge of the hill, till we gained a lofty point of 


rock, commanding a -wide stretch of country to the eastward not 
in view from the ship. A part of this, embracing a circuit of 
many miles, was level. It appeared to be well fitted for the cul- 
ture of rice, much of which is grown in St. Catherine, but appa- 
rently is unredeemed;- a vast jungle in a state of nature, with- 
out indication of an inhabitant. The evening was very fine, 
and the air so exhilarating, that we skipped and jumped from 
rock to rock, amidst bush and bramble, with a freedom we would 
not have ventured had we known what we afterwards learnt, that 
the spot is noted for the venomous reptiles with which it abounds. 
Of these we saw none, however, and indulged in our gymnastics 
without fear. Indeed, I have not seen a living serpent or rep- 
tile of any kind since I have been in Brazil : not a scorpion, and 
but one centipede, and that in a ship-chandler's in Rio de Janeiro. 
On our return we passed, near the beach, grove after grove of 
orange trees, so laden with fruit that the ground beneath was cov- 
ered, as in an apple-orchard at home, after the trees have been 
shaken in the gathering season. 


ElO PE Janeieo. 

June 20/7i. — On entering this port on the 16th inst., we all 
felt anew the exciting influence of its wild and magnificent scenery, 
and were constrained again to pronounce it unrivalled, by any 
thing seen by us in any part of the world. 

The last report of the health of the place which had reached 
us at Montevideo, was favorable. The yellow fever, after having 
prevailed a second season as an epidemic, was said to have dis- 
appeared. Our apprehensions on this point were excited for a 
time, however, as we came in, by perceiving the man-of-war 
anchorage to be entirely deserted. In place of three or four 
difl'crent squadrons, English, French, Brazilian, Portuguese and 
American, riding at their moorings, like a flock of water-fowl, not 
a solitary ship was discoverable : nor was there a sign of move- 
ment of any kind, on the whole bay. This we thought ominous 
of bad news, but happily without just cause. The first boat 
from the shore, assured us of the good health of the port. What- 
ever malaria may exist has lost its malignancy, and exhibits itself 
only in cases of imprudence and special exposure, in the milder 
types of intermittent fever. It is the winter season, or period at 
which the sun has reached its farthest remove in this latitude", 
and all nature is in double freshness and brilliancy. The coloring 
of the skies in the mornings and evenings is beautiful : this is 


especially the case after sunset, when at times a golden and ver- 
milion glory has filled the west with a splendor I do not recollect 
to have seen surpassed. The effect of this upon the pinnacled 
rocks and precipices of the mountains — brought into bold relief 
by the shades of the hour — and upon the promontories and islets 
of the bay, the church and convent towers, and the leading 
architecture of the city, is gorgeous. This was particularly the 

case, an evening or two ago, while Dr. C and I were enjoying 

a stroll over Gloria Hill. Our progress was arrested by it : and 
after standing for some time in silent admiration of the picture 
presented, from the elevated terraces in front of the church, we 
joined in the exclamation, " no words in our own or any other 
language can describe such a scene : painting itself could do no 
justice to it 1 " 

The temperature now, even at mid-day, is not too hot for ex- 
ercise, the mean height of the thermometer being 73° Fahrenheit. 
The weather resembles that of the finest in June at home ; the even- 
ings and nights, however, are cooler. This is the general character 
of the weather from March to September ; and nothing in climate 
can be finer. During the rest of the year, the heat, with the 
mercury at mid-day at 90°, is oppressive and debilitating. 

We have renewed our acquaintance pleasantly with Don Juan 

and Doiia M , and are disposed to regard- the simplicity of 

mind and heart, evidenced by them, the kindness of their 
manners, and the cordiality of their hospitality, as character- 
istic of the people tf the country in general ; and to believe that 
they would be manifested to all foreigners of respectability, as 
readily as to us, under circumstances to call them into exercise. 
Our friends of Praya Domingo, however, make no secret of the 
fact that our nationality is a strong recommendation to them. 
Both profess great admiration of the United States as a nation, 
not from what they have seen of its citizens — for we are the first 
and only Americans they have known — but from what tliey have 
heard and read of our history and condition, and the practical 
working of our institutions. 


I have taken but one new walk : this was through the valley of 
the Larangeiras, in company with Captain Mcintosh and Dr. 
C . Much as I had often admired its general features, in pass- 
ing through the open street of the Catete, from which it branches 
westward to the mountains, the heat of the weather, and its dis- 
tance from the ordinary landing, prevented a visit to it. It is a 
half mile, perhaps, in width at the entrance, but soon becomes 
only a narrow glen, terminating at the end of a couple or more 
miles, beneath the steep sides of the overhanging mountain. A 
fine carriage road winds through it, crossing and recrossing 
repeatedly a sparkling mountain stream, which brawls and bab- 
bles and murmurs, from side to side. It is charming through- 
out : so quiet and secluded, so embowered and rural, so fresh 
in atmosphere and luxuriant in growth, and so varied in the 
architecture of its dwellings, from the ornamented villa and 
sculptured palace, to the simplest and most humble of cottages. 
The orange and coffee tree, the banana and other broad-leaved 
vegetation of the tropics, cluster thickly around ; and are over- 
shadowed by the loftier growth of the magnificent mango, the 
towering palm, the feathery foliage of the tamarind and acacia, 
and here and there that of the thorny cotton-tree or Bombax, with 
its trunk and limbs well guarded by the defences which give to 
it a descriptive name. 

Roses and jessamines, and brilliantly flowering creepers ; the 
gay hybiscus, the thick-set bloom of the purple bignonia, and 
the gorgeous glare of the poinsetta, meet the eye at every turn, 
and fill the air with sweet perfumes. In contrast with our im- 
prisonment on board ship at Montevideo, it was a luxury scarcely 
appreciable by others, to stroll amidst such imagery ; with an 
occasional glimpse, through an open gateway or the ornamental 
railings of an enclosure, of the fountains and grottoes, the alcoves 
and bowers, the gravelled walks and tessclated pavements, the 
busts, the statues and statuettes, which embellish the grounds of 
those " rich in this world's goods." 

Near the head of the valley, a winding pathway on one side 


leads up the acclivity by steep ascent, to the line of the aque- 
duct, fifteen hundred feet above the level below. One section of 
this is peculiarly beautiful. It overhangs the valley, and em- 
bowered overhead, reniiuded me forcibly and pleasantly in many 
of its features — with the exception of the tropical growth — of the 
gravelled terrace of the old road at Cooperstown, which leads to 
the '' Mount Vison " of Cooper's Pioneers. In a secluded nook 
near by, is the residence of the British minister : an irregular 
cottage, buried in shade, and vocal with the murmurings of water- 
courses. After passing this, as we gained height after height, 
and looked down with bird's-eye view, the Larangeiras and its 
surroundings seemed, in the lights and shades of the hour, like a 
sketch in fairy land. 

The fatality in the city, of the late epidemic, has led to the 
construction, recently, of great numbers of residences along the 
spurs and sides of the mountains. One of these is just finished, 
near the point at which we reached the aqueduct. The site is 
superb ; and, while resting from the fatigue of the sharp ascent, 
we greatly enjoyed the magnificent prospect of both land and sea 
which it commands. From this point, the descent of five miles 
along the aqueduct to the city is so gradual, for the greater part 
of the way, as to be almost imperceptible. For two miles the 
pathway is a lofty terrace, cut in the face of the mountain for the 
course of the aqueduct, from which, beneath overhanging trees, 
you look up on one side, upon steep rocks and wild woods, and 
down on the other, as from the parapets of a lofty castle, upon 
a succession of views of cultivated and surprising beauty. In- 
deed, the whole walk seemed to me like that through a picture- 
gallery of magnificently drawn, and gorgeously colored landscapes. 
The aqueduct does not follow a straight line, but runs zigzag, at 
long, obtuse angles. The pathway is beside it, and in following 
its course, new and varied vistas, both before and bthiud, are 
constantly presented. The massive masonry, and finished work- 
manship of the time-marked, and moss-covered old structure, 
contrast strongly in their aspect of civilization, with the wild- 


ness of the overhanging cliffs and forests, while in many places, 
the gay coloring of the endless variety of lichens and orchidas 
■which cover it, gives to the surface the appearance of richly 
variegated marble. 

Before we reached the city, the shades of the evening had 
gathered around us, as deeply as the moon near her second quarter 
would allow. Many of the objects around and above us, were 
thus brought in bold outline against the sky. This effect was 
particularly beautiful, where the palm or cocoa-nut tree spread 
its long and graceful plumage, in dark masses upon the light 

The last striking picture which met the eye as we descended 
the hill of Santa Theresa, was that of a family, grouped in an 
arbor of roses and honeysuckle, canopied with clustering bigno- 
nia, on the angle of a wall twenty feet above our heads, silently 
enjoying in the twilight the last fannings of the sea-breeze, while 
from the towers of the convent close by, the vesper bell sent 
forth its silvery sounds in invitations to prayer. 

June 2Qth. — It is to the Romish Church that we are here 
chiefly indebted for every thing in the way of spectacle. Two 
principal feast days have occurred within the week past : that of 
Corpus Christi on the 19th, and that of St. John the Baptist on 
the 2-tth iust. The fete of Corpus Christi was observed with 
great display. It was instituted by Urban IV., six hundred 
years ago, in honor of the then newly adopted doctrine of transub- 
stantiation, and conse(|uent adoration of the host. Its legendary 
origin is traced to Juliana, a nun of Liege, who, while looking at 
the full moon, saw a gap in its orb, and by peculiar revelation 
from heaven, learned that the moon represented the Christian 
Church, and the gap the want of a festival for the adoration of 
the body of Christ, in the consecrated wafer. This she was to 
begin to celebrate, and to announce to the world. The authori- 
zation of the festival by papal bull, was induced by the following 
miraculous incident. While a priest, who did not believe in the 
change of the bread into the body of Christ, was going through 


the ceremony of benediction, drops of blood fell upon his sur- 
plice, which, when he endeavored to conceal them in the folds of 
his garment, were formed into bloody images of the host. His 
scepticism was thus overcome ; and the bull of Urban, authoriz- 
ing the adoration, was published. This occurred in 1264, and 
the bloody surplice is still shown at Civita Vecchia as a relic ! 

In Rio de Janeiro, as in all papal countries. Corpus Christi 
is a chief festival in the year. Its celebration was commenced 
at the dawn of day, by a general peal of the bells from every 
church and convent tower, by the booming of cannon along the 
shores, and the hissing and crackling of rockets in the sky. 
Flags were every where unfurled ; draperies of silk and satin, of 
gold and silver tissue, of damask and velvet of every hue, were 
displayed, from the windows and balconies of the houses in the 
principal streets ; and the windows of the palace ornamented on 
the outside with rich hangings of crimson damask. High mass 
was performed in the imperial chapel at 11 o'clock. This was 
now opened for the first time, after having been for a year undergo- 
ing a thorough renovation, by regilding and new painting in fresco. 
The effect is rich and cha.ste. On either side of the nave, between 
the entrance and the transept, are the shrines of the apostolic 
saints, above which hang paintings of each, with the accustomed 
emblems of their individuality. " The Supper," by a master, 
ornaments the altar of a side chapel at one end of the transept, 
and a beautifully executed and classically draped eflBgy of St. 
Julian in wax, in a sarcophagus of glass, adorns the other. The 
altar-piece of the grand altar covers the entire end of the chapel 
within the chancel. The subject is the assumption of the Vir- 
gin. The royal family of Portugal — at the time of the immigra- 
tion — in attitudes of adoration, occupy the foreground : the 
Queen mother, John VI. and his wife, Carlota of Spain, and 
Don Pedro I., then a lad, being the chief figures. 

The imperial body-guard in state dre.-ises, with halberds at 
rest, early formed in lines on either side of the nave from the 
entrance to the tran.sept. The intervening space, newly car- 


pctcd, wa3 in reserve for the ministers of state, the officers of 
the household, and other dignitaries of the Empire. A proces- 
sion of these soon made its appearance from a vestlug-room com- 
municating with the palace, and opened in file along the nave for 
the passage of the bishop and his ecclesiastical attendants to 
the chancel, and of the Emperor, who followed them, to a cano- 
pied throne near the high altar. The Empress and her ladies 
had already entered the imperial tribune facing the throne. The 
bishop was in full prelatic dress, wearing his mitre and bearing 
the gilded crosier emblematic of his office. When the chapel 
was thus filled, the coup d'ceil presented a brilliant scene in the 
masses of rich embroideries in gold ; the jewelled decorations of 
the dignitaries of state ; and the court dresses of the different 
classes of the aristocracy. These last were chiefly of velvet in rich 
hues, lined with white silk — purple, maroon, mazarine and sky 
blue, light and dark green, and here and there a suit of the same 
of plain black. 

The orchestra was full, and embraced the best performers of 
the opera company, both vocal and instrumental. As the service 
proceeded, the varied attitudes and groupings in the chancel and 
at the altar, of the officiating priests 

" Glaring in gems and gay in woven gold ; " 

the floating incense ; the harmony of the duo, tlie trio, and the 
quartette ; tlic touching strains of the solo; and the burst of the 
full chorus, could scarcely fail to impress the senses. And 
when added to this general effect, at the elevation of the host 
each halberdier, with battle-axe reversed, dropped on his 
bended knee ; every courtier bowed his foreliead to the ground ; 
the humbled himself at the steps of the altar, and the 
Emperor kneeled on the platform of his throne ; the whole ta^ 
blcau was one most striking in its dramatic show. Externally all 
was a profoundness of adoration, wliich, directed spiritually to 
the Godhead, would have been irresistibly impressive; but 


addressed to a mere wafer, and to be regarded as gross idolatry, 
it was both paiuful to the inind and saddening to the heart. 

Long before the termination of the mass, a procession was 
marshalled in front of the chapel in the palace-square, await- 
infT the addition from -the church of the ecclesiastics and the 
court, before moving through some of the principal streets. The 
leading group was unique ; and apparently the most attractive 
part to the surrounding crowds. It consisted of a colossal effigy 
of St. George, in knightly armor, mounted upon a splendidly 
caparisoned charger from the Emperor's stud, led by a groom in 
oriental dress. An armor-bearer in black mail, and other attend- 
ants in characteristic costume, formed the suite ; while a dozen 
led horses in housings of green cloth, stifif with the imperial arms 
in massive silver, completed the cortege of the pasteboard saint 
All else in the show was purely ecclesiastic, with a great display of 
the varied costumes and emblematic devices of the Romish 
Church. At the end of the religious service, the dignitaries, both 
of Church and State, fell into the line, and were followed by the 
host, borne by the bishop beneath a fringed and tasselled canopy 
of cloth of gold, one of the gilt supporters of which was held 
by the Emperor with uncovered, head. 

Don Pedro, wherever seen, bears inspection well ; and carries 
with him as much of the impress of his station as any monarch I 
have seen. 

There was no public procession on St. John's day, but its 
approach was heralded by a great setting oft' of rockets and other 
fireworks the night previous, and the glare of bonfires in diflferent 
parts of the city. These were seen with fine effect from the ship ; 
especially the rockets, with the dark mountains for a back- 
ground. The evening following was observed in a similar man- 
ner : altogether like the night of the fourth of July at home. 
At every respectable-looking house, fireworks of more or less 
elaborate workmanship were displayed; rockets of all descriptions 
were shooting in brilliant corruscations through the air; and illu- 
minated balloons sent up, while colored lumpsi thickly clustered 


upon the convents crowning the hills, flashed through the dark- 
ness like diadems of diamonds. 

July Id. — On a former visit at Rio, I gave you some account 
of the Foundling Hosjijital and Female Orphan Asylum, in con- 
nection with the marriage of an eleve of the last. This is the 
second of July, the fete day of St. Elizabeth — that on which 
the asylum is open to visitors, and on which, usually, the mar- 
riages of such of the inmates as are under engagement take 
place. The Emperor and Empress were among the visitors to- 
day, and sanctioned by their presence the marriage of four couples 
in the chapel. The anniversary had been fixed upon, for throw- 
ing open to public inspection a new building for the Hospital of 
the Misericordia, of which both the Foundling Hospital and 
Orphan Asylum are appendages. I improved the opportunity 
to pass through the wards of the sick. These were in the 
most perfect order and neatness. Every possible provision seemed 
to be made for the care and comfort of the inmates ; and the 
whole establishment gave evidence of fulfilling the benevolence 
of its design. 

The practical benevolence of the Romish Church is exhibited 
in no foi-m more general and comijiondable, than in the care which 
is taken of the poor and the sick. Rio abounds in hospitals for 
these. Some are connected with convents or monasteries, and 
others are separate and independent institutions. They are 
founded and sustained by incorporated societies, corresponding in 
their general features with the voluntary organizations with us at 
home for philanthropic and charitable purposes, but here called 
brotherhoods. These are of various names \ that of the Miseri- 
cordia or " House of Mercy," is the largest and most wealthy, 
and owes its origin, nearly three centuries ago, to the piety and 
benevolence of the celebrated Jesuit, Anchieta. The hospital is 
situated on the bay beneath Castle Hill. Its doors arc open at all 
hours, night and day, to the sick of both sexes, of all religiouE 
and of every country and color, without any form or condition of 
admittance : all .receive gratuitously the ablest medical attend- 


ance and the best nursing and care. The numbers of its patients 
amount to thousands yearly, the proportion of deaths occurring 
being about one-fifth of the whole received. 

The original building is old, and has been long insuflScient in 
its dimensions and convenience, for the numerous applicants for 
relief. A new structure has been for ten years and more in pro- 
gress on an adjoining site. A large section of this, two-thirds of 
the whole plan, is now completed, and was opened to the public 
for the first time to-day. The edifice is a noble structure. The 
fa^'ade on the street of the part finished being four hundred feet. 
It is four stories in height, and is surmounted, in the centre, by a 
finely proportioned and symmetrical dome. The whole presents 
the finest architectural feature of the city, in the approach 
from the sea. The interior throughout is palace-like. The plan 
is admirably arranged for ventilation and light, and embraces 
every modern improvement for the insurance of cleanliness and 
purity. The structure is quadrangular. The parts already fin- 
ished enclose two spacious courts, beautifully laid out in walks 
intermingled with flower-gardens and shrubberies, as places of 
exercise for the convalescent. Each is ornamented with a foun- 
tain ; when the building shall be completed, corresponding courts 
on the new part are to be added. The perspective through the 
long corridors and the lofty wards, which communicate with each 
other the wliole length by folding-doors, is exceedingly fine : 
indeed, the whole structure is a credit to the civilization of the 
age, and is a splendid monument of the munificence and bene- 
volence of the Brotherhood of Mercy. 

The institution embraces a department for the insane. For 
the separate accommodation of such patients, another imperial-like 
structure is in progress and nearly completed, on the beautiful 
bay of Botafogo. It already attracts the eye of the stranger 
entering the port, more than any other object in the surrounding 
panorama. Of this the Emperor has been a principal and muni- 
ficent patron. 

The possessions and funded capital of the Misericordia arc 


very great. Tlie dying bequests of the charitable, in money and 
in real estate, for the long period of centuries, with the advance 
of value in property, make it one of the most richly endowed in- 
stitutions of the Empire, and insui'e perpetuity to its worthy and 
Christ-like charities. Membership is secured by the payment of 
an initiation fee and an annual subscription : this guarantees the 
right to a support in sickness and in poverty, and to the religious 
services of the church in burial. Members to the brotherhoods 
are received at any age, even that of the merest childhood. On one 
occasion, I witnessed the ceremonies of an initiation to the frater^- 
nity of the Carmelites. It took place with much ceremony in the 
church of the order. A very large number were received, and in- 
cluded boys from the ages of five and six years to full manhood. 
Assembled in the sacristy, each placed over his ordinary dress 
a cape or mantle of silk, the badge of the order on occasions of 
ceremony, and each receiving from the appointed officers a conse- 
crated amulet, a girdle of patent leather, and a rosary, walked 
in procession to the grand altar of the church. The whole build- 
ing was in high decoration, with a superb display of gold and sil- 
ver plate on the altar, and of reading desks of solid silver in the 
chancel. The dresses of the officiating priests, and the officers of 
the society, were new and rich ; and the music of the first order. 
The ceremonies of the initiation consisted in verbal pledges on 
the part of the novitiates, anointings, crossings, sprinklings with 
holy water, and perfuming with incense, and were followed with 
showers of rose-leaves scattered widely from silver salvers, over 
the newly received. 

July 'I'ld. — The .principal incident of the last few days has 

been a wedding, on the 20th, in the family of Mr. R , the 

bride being Miss 11 , his daughter. The marriage took place 

at the residence of ]Mr M , the maternal grandfather of the 

lady, who holds a chief place among the merchant princes of 
llio. It is situated seven or eight miles westward from the city, 
beyond the valley of Eiigonho Velho, beneath the mountains of 
Tejuca. Our commauder-iu-chief, to a seat with whom I had been 


invited, is a man of great simplicity in his habits of life, and 
averse to any thing like display in his movement.s. The appear- 
ance, tlierefore, of a showy equipage with four horses — as the car- 
riage which he had directed to be in waiting at the landing — took 
him quite by surprise, and led to an order immediately for the 
dismissal of two of the animals ; but to this the coachman objected 
so strongly, with the assurance from his master that the four 
would be found necessary before reaching our destination, and 

that no one ever drove to Mr. M 's with a single pair, that 

the Commodore was obliged to submit. So, ordering his valet, 
who happened to be in attendance, to mount to his place — that 
there might be some keeping in the turn-out — we were ofl' with 
a whirl, four-in-hand. 

The drive, for the greater part of the way, was the same we 

had made in our visits to the country-seat of Mr. R . While 

yet a couple of miles from our destination, we had full proof of 
the desirableness at least, of having four horses to the carriage. 
Though there has scarcely been any rain for a fortnight past, the 
road through the flat valley, in a soil of stiff clay, became so 
heavy that it was diflScult for the four to save us from being fixed 
in the mire, in which the wheels at times were sunk to the hubs. 
In due time, however, we reached the stately gateway, by which 
the broad domain of Mr. M is entered. This is a semicir- 
cular structure of white marble, with massive gates and railing 
of cast iron in rich patterns : erected at a cost of more than seven 
thousand dollars. The drive from this to the house is a broad 
avenue of closely planted mango trees. The mango is one of 
the noblest of what may be called the civilized trees of the coun- 
try, in contradistinction to the natives of the forest. In its lofti- 
ness, roundness of top, wide-spread limbs, and thickset foliage 
of deep green, it resembles the black ash of the Middle States, 
more than any tree familiar to you, which occurs to my recollec- 
tion at the moment : the general outline is perhaps more spreading. 
It is the season of its blossoms, though these arc not yet in full 
display. The flowers come out in spikes, like those of the horse 


chestnut, and rise thickly over the whole tree. Their color, while 
now yet in bud, varies from a light pea-green to a brownish red, 
the general effect being like that of the common chestnut when 
in bloom ; when fully blown, however, the flowers are white. 
These, when close at hand, contrast beautifully with the dark 
green of the leaf; but, at a distance, present an almost indistin- 
guishable mass of whiteness. 

The want of neatness and good keeping in the grounds of 
Brazilian country-houses is observable, even in those of Mr. 

M , though his residence is quite a palace, and his wealth 

estimated by millions. The mansion is of stone, massively built, 
and about eighty feet square. The general height is two stories, 
but a central section, having an ornamented pediment and entab- 
lature, rises to three. It is in the Italian style, with balustrades 
around the flat roof surmounted by marble vases filled with aloes. 
The facade in extent and in general effect reminds me of the 
President's house at "Washington. A spacious portico with tes- 
selatcd pavements, leads into a lofty hall, from which a staircase 
with a double flight of steps conducts to the draw ing-rooms, on the 
second floor. The principal rooms of the ground floor are a din- 
ing-hall, ball-room, music-room, and chapel. The views are beau- 
tiful. That in front commands the entire plain, filled with the 
country-houses of the rich and their surroundings, the spires and 
towers of llio, and the mountains across the bay, in the distance ; 
and that in the rear, a great variety of wild mountain scenery, in 
primitive luxuriance and solitude, close at hand. 

We were among the first to arrive, but were quickly followed 
by a large company, among whom were many richly attired ladies. 
Rich and fashionable dress is here peculiarly a passion with the 
sex ; and I was told by a gentleman present, when speaking on 
the subject, that a lady would not think of moving in general 
society in llio, without an allowance for the toilette of at least 
two thousand dollars a year. 

The groom being an Englishman, the marriage as a civil con- 
tract had taken place early in the day, at the British Consulate : 


he being a Protestant also, while the bride is a Roman Catholic, 
the religious rites were twofold — Romish and Protestant Episco- 
pal. Contrary to the usage at home, the bridal party joined 
the general company in the drawing-rooms while the guests were 

assembling. When all expected had arrived, Mr. M , the 

grandfather, who in the Romish ceremony was to give away the 
bride, approached, and taking her by the hand, led the long pro- 
cession to the private chapel below. The service was performed 
by the priest of the Parish, who is also the family- chaplain, in 
the sacerdotal robes of his grade. 

It was in the Portuguese language, and much abreviated, we 
were told, from the fact that one of the parties was a Protestant. 
Immediately after the benediction, when the parties had been pro- 
claimed man and wife, female servants in the rear of the chapel 
scattered from baskets of silver, over the bride and her party, as 
she turned from the altar to meet the embraces of her friends, 
handfuls of freshly gathered rose-leaves and orange-blossoms. 
The effect, as fluttering lightly through the air they fell in thick 
showers on the group and the whole company, was poetic and 

The Protestant ceremony, conducted by the Rev. Mr. Graham, 
Rector of the British church in the city, took place immediately 
afterwards in the principal drawing-room, a magnificent apart- 
ment, with hangings and furniture of crimson damask and dec- 
orations of gold. The closing scene here, in place of the shower 
of rose-leaves and orange-flowers of the chapel, was the tableau 
presented by the bride kneeling on a rich footstool in the midst 
of her bridesmaids, receiWng with bowed head and tearful eyes 
the touching blessing with which the Episcopal rite ends. 

The marriage-feast, of sixty covers, was served in the ball- 
room, a lofty hall with decorations in white and gold. The en- 
tertainment, in the display of china, glas.s, and plate, and of flow- 
ers in vases of Sevres manufacture ; in ornamental confectionery, 
and the profusion of luxurious viands, was all that wealth in its 
liberality and taste in its artistic exercise could command. 


On shipboard, two incidents of more than commonplace inte- 
rest have occurred since my last date. One is the departure for 

the United States of Lieut. E, in ill health from the effects of 

the climate. In this, the wardroom mess and the ship sustain a 
great loss. He is one of the most interesting young men I have 
known in the service. Firm in principle, cultivated in mind, clear 
iu judgment, prudent in action, and accomplished in his profession, 
he exhibits great symmetry of character as an officer, while the 
frankness and polish of his manners, and the warmth of his affec- 
tions, make him attractive as a companion and dear as a friend. 

My last interview with him before he left the ship was most 
gratifying to me, from the assurance it gave, that to the many 
other attractions of his character there would be added, imme- 
diately on bis arrival home, that of openly avowed membersliip 
with the Church of Christ. Nothing during our cruise has im- 
parted to me such unfeigned satisfaction : indeed the result of our 
conversation on this subject, was a joy I cannot well express. 

The other incident was of a painfully different nature : one 
of those outbreaks, which, so long as strong drink holds its sway 
over so many seamen, no precaution or vigilance can, at all times, 
effectually guard against on board a man-of-war. For a long 
time the Congress has been under the most favorable auspices in 
regard to discipline and general good conduct. Contentment, 
cheerfulness, and ready obedience, seemed to be the prevailing 
feelings of the crew. But, on the evening of the 18th inst., just 
as the last guests of a party — similar to that of which I gave an 
account in October, had left the ship, it became known that 
liquor in large quantities had been smuggled on board, and that 
many of the men were intoxicated. Sixty or seventy were soon 
beyond all self-control, and, maddened by rum, were most insolent 
and insubordinate to the officers who attempted to restrain them. 
In the darkness of the deck, it was difficult to distinguish the 
ringleaders ; and after these were secured in double irons, they 
made the rest of the niglit hideous, by their boisterous profanity 
and drunken ribaldry. 


The investigation of the matter showed that the ' dinkey,' a 
small boat used as a tender by the messenger-boys and servants in 
communicating with the shore, had inadvertently been left afloat 
astern, in place of being hoisted from the water as usual, before 
dark. One or two of the crew made their way to this, and suc- 
ceeded in bringing off from the shore, liquor suflacient to have 
intoxicated the whole ship's company. It was freely offered to all, 
but sixty or seventy only would partake of it ; a fiict speaking well 
for the mass in contradistinction to the few. Still, such an 
outbreak, though limited to a small number, and those the veriest 
vagabonds on board, is disheartening to those who believe in the 
practicability of maintaining the discipline and good order of a 
ship, by a rule of kindness. 

The consetjuence of this conduct was a kind of quarantine of 
the ship the next day ; no boats were allowed to leave for the 
shore, and both officers and men remained on board. It was Satur- 
day, and I had not sufficiently recovered from the shock before 
the Sabbath, to throw off a despondency in regard to any high 
results from the preaching of the Gospel to such hearers, or to 
overcome a feeling that I was speaking but to the wind. There 
is never a want, however, of the listening ear ; and I felt reproved 
for my unbelief by the first chapter of the Bible read at the 
service, in which occurs the declaration : 

" As the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven. 
And retumeth not thitlier, 
Bnt watereth the earth. 
And maketh it bring forth and bud. 

That it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater ; 
So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth : 
It shall not return unto me void, 
Bnt it shall accomplish that which I please, 
And it shall prosper in the thing whereunto I send it. 
Instead of the thorn — shall come up the fir tree, 
And instead of the brier — shall come up the myrtle tree. 
And it shall be to the Lord for a name. 
For an everlasting sign, that shall not be cut off." 


I was the more impressed with this reproof to my despon- 
dency, on returning to my room, by accidentally falling upon a 
paraphrase of the same truth, in the following verses : 

" Ye who think the Truth ye sow 
Lost beneath the winter's snow, 
Doubt not Time's unerring law 
Yet shall bring the genial thaw. 

God in nature ye can trust : 

Is the God of grace less just ? 

Workers on the barren soil, 
Yours may seem a thankless toil ; 
Sick at heart ivith hope deferred, 
Listen to the cheering word : 

" Now the faithful sower grieves — 
Soon he'll bind his golden sheaves." 

If the Almighty have decreed — 
Man may labor, yet the seed 
Never in his life shall grow, 
Shall the sower cease to sow ? 

The fairest fruit may yet be borne 

On tlie resurrection mom ! " 



Sepiemher BOth. — Xew aspects in the political aflfairs of the 
La Plata, led to the return of the Congress to this place, early 
last month. Previous to our departure from Rio de Janeiro, 
the U. S. steamer Susquehanna, bearing the flag of Commo- 
dore Aulick, of the East Indian squadron, arrived there, bring- 
ing as passengers, the Hon. Mr. Schenck, charge d'afiiiires at 
the court of Brazil, and the Hon. Mr. Pendleton, commissioned 
with the same office to the Argentine Confederation. This last 
gentleman came to Montevideo in the Congress, on his way to 
Buenos Ay res. 

The French Government not having sanctioned the articles of 
pacification, agreed upon by Admiral Le Predour and General 
Oribe, a year and more ago, the armistice between the belliger- 
ent parties on shore is terminated. Hostilities are again com- 
menced by the interchange of occa.sional shots between the out- 
posts, and now and then a slight skirmish, in which a few persons 
on both sides are wounded, and sometimes one or two killed. 

The change would be comparatively of little importance, as 
to the promise of any speedy issue, were it not for simultaneous 
movements connected with it, on the part of Brazil on the one 
side, and two of the principal States of the Argentine Confederacy 
— those of Entre-Rios and Corrientes — on the other. By refer- 


ence to an atlas, it will be perceived that the chief rivers, whose 
confluent waters form the 11 io de la Plata — the Uruguay, the 
Parana, and the Paraguay, corresponding in their extent and 
their importance to the broad valleys through which they flow 
with the Ohio, the Missouri, and the Mississippi of the Northern 
Continent — have their rise in Brazil, and, in their course, border 
her territories for long distances. The free navigation of these is 
essential to her interests. One chief object in the policy of Rosas, 
however, has been to keep them closed to all foreign commerce, 
that the trade of the confederacy might centre exclusively in 
Buenos Ayrcs; and thus to enrich and aggrandize her, at the sac- 
rifice of the interest both of Brazil and of the sister republics of 
the confederation. All negotiation on the part of the court of 
Brazil, to secure free access to the interior of the Empire by the 
tributaries of the Plata, having proved abortive, that ggvern- 
ment has determined to try the efi"ect of arms. General Urquiza, 
the President of the States of Entre-Rios and Corrientcs, long 
the principal coadjutor of Rosas, and the most successful and 
distinguished of his soldiers, w^eary of his tyranny, and opposed 
to his narrow-minded and selfish policy, has entered into a com- 
pact with Brazil to aid in the accomplishment of her purpose. 
The first object to be attained is the overthrow of Oribe, and 
the consequent relief of Montevideo from siege; and thus to lay 
the basis for a joint attack on Buenos A3Tes. Urquiza, with a 
force of fifteen or twenty thousand Entre-Rians and Corrientans, 
is approaching in one direction ; and the Baron Caxias, having an 
equal force of Brazilian infantry and artillery, in another : while 
a squadron, consisting of a frigate, two sloops of war and tliree 
steamers, under the command of Admiral Grenfell, has arrived 
from Rio, and is at anchor near us. 

This determination of Urquiza, as the governor of two of the 
principal Argentine States, and the public measure by which it 
was avowed, have led to a striking proof of the mendacity, by 
which it is charged that Rosas has hitherto sustained his despotic 
sway. It is said, and with no little show of truth, that his whole 


system of government — ^notwithstanding the boasted patriotism, 
disinterested and self-sacrificing toil in the public service, which 
the press and archives of the confederacy printed by his order and 
under his immediate personal control, attribute to him — is but 
a cunningly devised ti&>ue of deception and falsity. 

For years, it has been the custom of Rosas formally to ten- 
der to the representatives of the confederation, the resignation of 
his ofBce as Minister for Foreign Affairs, pleading to be released 
from it, on the grounds of the great burden of the charge, his 
advancing age, broken constitution, and declining health. This 
iij invariably followed by the most laudatory and fulsome pane- 
gyrics, from the leading members of the House, upon his charac- 
ter — the value of his past services, and the necessity of their con- 
tinuance, and the unanimous resolution that he shall still fill the 
office : it being well known that not a member dare — even if he 
had the secret will — to move or second the acceptance of the prof- 
fered resignation. The Archivo Argentino, or Government Regis- 
ter, printed in English, and French, and Spanish, and sent widely 
over the civilized world, is filled with the record of these political 
farces. This year, however, Urquiza, as the President or Gover- 
nor of Entre-Rios and Corrientes, promptly accepted the resigna- 
tion; and by pubjic proclamation, released Rosas from all further 
charge of the foreign relations of those States. The address of 
Rosas to the House of Representatives, in view of this defection, 
has just been issued. It is strikingly characteristic of the man, 
and is a curiosity, both as a literary production and a document 
of State. As such, I furnish it to you entire, though not respon- 
sible for the translation ; that is by ' authority,' and is taken 
from the official print. 

The first two lines of the motto it bears are the prescribed 
caption of every official paper, from the most important to the 
most trifling; and are stamped on the badges, hitherto universally 
worn by the Argentines. The third line is an addition just de- 
creed. The terms " Unitarian" and " Federal," designate the 
original parties in the confederation ; the first being applied to 


those who are in favor of a consolidated government, similar to 
that of the United States, and the last to those who advocate 
that of the compact at present existing. Under llosas, the Uni- 
tarian party became outlawed and in effect exterminated. 
Long Live the Argentine Confederation ! 
Death to the Ruthless, Loathsome Unitarians ! 
Death to the Insane Traitor, the Ruthless Unitarian 
Urquiza ! 
Palermo de San Benito, Sept. 15th, 1851 — 
Year the 42d of Liberty, 3Gth of our Independence, and 22d of 

the Argentine Confederation — 
To the Honorable House of Representatives — 
Messieurs Representatives : — 

To command the Republic during a long period of agitation 
and social disorder ; to save the country from fratricidal war ; to 
accompany it in the glorious defence of its liberties ; and contri- 
bute to preserve it from the ambition of the destructive and 
treacherous band of ruthless unitarians, was the eminently hon- 
orable mission that the Argentine people imposed upon me, and 
which I gratefully accepted with the enthusiasm and love due to 
my country and to my fellow-citizens. 

After a memorable epoch, in which was assigned to the Argen- 
tine Confederation the glory of consolidating its independence, 
overwhelming its enemies ; and to the undersigned, the distin- 
guished honor of presiding over it ; after the Republic had sup- 
pressed internal anarchy and was in the enjoyment of peace, de- 
veloping its elements of prosperity, I considered the moment had 
arrived to resign the supreme command, to which I had been ex- 
alted by the spontaneous, reiterated suffrage of my countrymen, 
— and I earnestly requested you to appoint another citizen as 
my successor. 

You refused to admit my fervent prayer — the inhabitants of 
til is province also opposed it with kind firmness, and exercising the 
right of petition, begged your honors to persist in not acceding 
to my repeated tenders of resignation ; and the Provinces of the 


Confederation, expressing their wishes tliroiigh their Honorable 
Legislatures and Governments, likewise exacted, with generous 
interest, my continuation at the head of the national afiairs, as 
the means of insuring the present happ}' condition of the Repub- 
lic, and of preparing foe it a glorious future. 

Overpowered by such decision, and so much benevolence; 
oppressed b}' a deep-felt gratitude toward the Argentine Federals, 
yet destitute of words becomingly to express those feelings, I pre- 
sented to your honors, to my fellow-citizens, and to the confeder- 
ate provinces, the homage of my most ardent and profound 
acknowledgment — I recognized with veneration the immense 
debt which the magnanimous vote of the republic imposed upon 
me, but unwilling to sacrifice to grateful emotions the sacred 
interests of my country, I continued vehemently yet respectfully 
to demand from your honors and the confederate provinces a suc- 
cessor, who, unbiassed by the scruples arising from my republican 
views, could co-operate more effieaciousl}^ than myself, to the 
aggrandizement of our dearly beloved country. 

The tranquillity which the Republic experienced, the union 
which prevailed throughout its provinces, the wisdom with which, 
aujcliurating its institutions, it expanded the resources of its wel- 
fare, and the external peace which its loj-al, upriglit and generous 
policy towards all nations foreshadowed, indicated to me that the 
moment had presented itself for resigning the command, without 
injury to the nation. 

Animated by so cheering a conviction, I insisted in my fervid 
renunciation before your honors, and the confederate Provinces, 
believing that my prayer, the sinccirity of my words, and the 
cogency of my reasons, would duly influence the minds of the 
Argentine people, and induce them to accede to my separation 
from the supreme autliority. 

But while I expected this, and the undisturbed state of the 

Republic warranted me to entertain such a hope ; at this very 

moment, the insane traitor, the ruthles.s unitarian Urquiza, raised 

the standard of rebellion and anarchy. A.spiring to .sever, with his 



degraded sword, the bonds that unite the people of Entre-Rioa 
to the confederation, and to constitute himself the arbiter of the 
Argentines, he ignominiously sold himself to the Brazilian Govern- 
ment, that, persisting in its obstinate ambition, has invaded and 
attacked, with unprecedented treachery, the territory and the 
Independence of the Republics of the Plata. 

In so solemn a crisis for the Argentine community, when its 
loyal sons, displaying, as at all times, their renowned valor, rise 
in arms to resist and chastise their enemies, avenging so many 
and such scandalous outrages ; when they prepare themselves with 
sublime self-denial for the most honorable eflforts, I have received 
a new declaration from the Confederate Provinces, that perempto- 
rily demands my continuance in the supreme command, and of 
which you will be informed by the correspondence that I will 
have the honor of presenting. 

And since the nation so demands it of me, in such critical 
moments for its tranquillity ; since in the presence of violent for- 
eign aggressions, and an unexampled rebellion, my comi)atriots 
request me to accompany them in the post I occupy, to defend 
our independence and national honor ; since the llepublie, exas- 
perated by the audacious hostilities of the Brazilian Government, 
and the treason of the ruthless Unitarians, prepares to retaliate 
the war which they have precipitated; at so notable an epoch I 
cannot refuse, nor do I refuse, honorable Ilepresentatives, my 
continuance in the Government, provided your honors, niy com- 
patriots, and the Confederate Provinces consider that it may bo 
useful and necessary to the national welfare. 

Consi.stently with my principles, my obligations, and my repu- 
tation, I cheerfully defer to the call of the Republic in the actual 
circumstances, and thus continuing in the supreme command, I 
also will have the signal honor of accompanying my beloved fed- 
eral compatriots, in their heroic resolution of vindicating the 
national independence and glory, attacked by the perfidious Bra- 
zilian Cabinet, by the ruthless, loathsome Unitarians, and by the 
despicable insane traitor, the ruthless unitarian Urquiza. 


In accordance with this cU'tonnination, I therefore present 
myself, iu the same manner as the hiyal Argentines, resolved to 
fultil once more my reiterated pledge, of suerilicing all in defence 
of the order, the liherty, and the honor of the Confederation. 

My fellow-citizens, who have always found me participating 
in their difBculties, will now tind me the same, with sound and 
ruhust health, and always consistent with those principles. They 
will see that, if when the llepublic enjoyed peace and tranquillity, 
I desired to withdraw from the supreme command, to continue 
my ser^-ices in some other subaltern post, where I might have 
performed them to advantage, now that new enemies of the Con- 
federation appear, and that the loathsome band of the ruthless 
Unitarians, headed by the insane traitor, ruthless unitarian 
Urquiza, dares to raise its bloody standard, here I am, ready at 
the call of the nation, and with energy equal to my duties, and 
to the hopes of the public, willing to contend in union with the 
virtuous Argentine Federals, till we have left triumphant and 
consolidated, the independence, the rights, the dignity, and the 
future fate of the nation. 

This, Messrs. Representatives, is the resolution I have adopt- 
ed in view of the present events and circumstances. 

And desiring ere now to transmit it to your knowledge, I had 
the honor of announcing it verbally to the Honorable President, 
and to one of -the deputy secretaries of your honorable Corpora- 
tion, requesting the former, on reporting it to the Honorable 
Representatives, at the first session they might have, to reiterate 
to them my profound gratitude. 

God preserve your honors for many years. 

Jr.w .Mani KL DE Rosas. 

October dth. — .\fiairs nii shore are rapidly ajiproaching a crisis. 
Oribe, who led his troops westward some days ago, to meet tho 
advancing force of Unjuiza, has been driven back into what has 
been so long his besieging camp; and, cut off both from the in- 
terior and the river, he is virtually the besieged instead of the 


;er. Deserted already by some of bis troops, who have 
joiued the advancing enemy ; limited iu the supply of provisions 
for those who remain ; and daily more and more closely encircled, 
he must speedily capitulate, or fall in an unequal conflict. 

The external aspect of the region about the Mount is com- 
pletely changed. Instead of the utter desertion which has hith- 
erto marked it, without a sign of man or beast over its whole 
extent, it now exhibits every where the animation and activity of 
a bee-hive. A detachment of Urquiza's cavalry, in charge of 
vast herds of cattle for the subsistence of his army, has taken 
possession of the Mount ; and their horses, tethered and grazing, 
are passing up and down its sides, from the beach to the little for- 
tress on the summit, and run straying about in every direction. 
The intervening heights of the country, are crested with 
mounted videttes, almost within gun-shot of the encampment and 
batteries of Oribe, as if the force of which they are the advance 
guard was already in battle array ; presenting, through a, 
picturesque and striking objects, as they stand with poised lances 
and fluttering pennons, in strong relief against the sky. It was 
confidently expected, from the general appearance of things, that 
an assault would take place last night; but it passed without 
any thing more than a random shot occasionally from a musket, 
and now and then the booming of a great gun. 

During the long siege of nine years, a large town, numbering 
eight or ten thousand inhabitants, has grown up in the vicinity 
of the encampment of Oribc. It is called " llestoracion," in 
reference to the object of this chieftain — the restoration of him- 
self to supreme power, or the restoration, as he may consider it. 
of peace and prosperity to the Republic. It is a port of entry, 
■with an open roadstead, called the IJuceo, five miles cast of Mon- 
tevideo. The greatest consternation prevailed there at first, when 
Oribc, breaking up his encampment, marclied forth to meet Ur- 
quiza, with orders for his whole force to follow : leaving Restora- 
cion entirely unprotected. It was industriously rumored that the 
departure of his troopa would be the signal for an attack by the 



soldiers of Montevideo, with liberty from their coiiimanding offi- 
cers of pillage aud rapine, llepreseutatious of this were made 
to the various foreign squadrons here, aud a vessel of war from 
each was despatched to the Bu(;eo. to aflord protection to any of 
the inhabitants who might seek an asylum, by flying to them. 
The alarm, however, has in a great degree subsided, from the re- 
turn of Uribe, and a proclamation by the Government of Monte- 
video, with orders under the severest penalties, against every act 
of aggression and violence by the soldiery in case of the <jccupa- 
tion of the place by them. 

The Mount being now, for the first time since our arrival in the 
Plata, free of access without an apprehension of risk or annoyance 

of any kind, Captain Mcintosh gave Dr. C and me a row 

in his gig to vi;;it it. It was a great treat to ramble freely over 
the hitherto forbidden ground, and from the summit to command, 
at a single glance, the topography of the whole country for miles, 
as if it were a map before us : all, too, robed in the fresh aud bright 
green of the opening spring. The general surface of the region 
iu view here, as indeed throughout the republic, is a rolling prairie. 
Co\>;red now with vast herds of cattle and droves of horses, and 
the rude encampments of the liberating army, in bivouac here 
and there iu the distance, it reminded me much of some of Cat- 
lin's pictures, illustrative of scenes aud scenery in the BuflFalo 
and Indian rOgions of the far West. Oribe's encampments and 
defences, with the town of llestoraciou and its port, were in dis- 
tinct view in the east, over and beyond Montevideo. There was 
less appearance of immediate hostilities, than on the day previ- 
ous. An armistice of twenty-four hours for negotiation, had 
been agreed upon. The videttes and reconnoitring parties had 
been withdrawn, and tlie detachments of troops hi sight were 
dismounted, and lounging about among their grazing horses and 
cattle. Some two or three hundred German troops, mercenaries 
in the employ of Brazil, who had arrived by water, wore on the 
beaeh imuKdiately beneath us, iu entire readiness tor marching 
— their baggage-carts and other appliances of war prepared for 


iiiiinediate movement. They are a fine-looking corps; young, 
liealtbful, and frcsL, enlisted in Holstein with the expectation of 
remaining in the country as settlers. The day was bright and 
beautiful, and the excursion of an hour or two, exceedingly 

Ocioher \i)ili. — The pacification hoped for, has actually taken 
place, by the unconditional surrender of Oribe, with his entire 
force, amounting to some fifteen thousand men to Urquiza. This 
occurred on the 8th inst., and was oflBcially proclaimed throughout 
the city the same evening. The ringing of all the bells of the 
place, the firing of cannon and musketry, the setting oflf of rock- 
ets and the glaring of bonfires, assured us on board ship of the 
reality. The next morning the whole city seemed but a floating 
mass of flags, thrown to the breeze from every pinnacle and house- 
top, exhibiting all the colors of the rainbow, in the devices of 
every civilized banner ; English, French, and American, Austri- 
an, Prussian and Sardinian, Peruvian and Chilian, Dutch, Monte- 
vidcan and Brazilian. Captain Mcintosh took me early on shore 
with him. A .suspension of all business, and the general holiday 
of a week, had been proclaimed by the government; and the peo- 
ple both within the city and without, were half mad with joy. 
And well might they be, after nine years of non-intercourse — 
those within, pent up for tliat length of time in the narrow lim- 
its of their walls and fortified lines, and those without, cut off 
from all communication with the town. The consequence has 
been a general rush of men, women and children, from the town 
to the country, now in all the freshness and bright verdure of 
Hpring ; while the outsiders, so long excluded, have hastened with 
like eagerness, if not in equal numbers, to the streets and squares 
of the city. The scene presented was one of great and some- 
times touching excitement, in the meeting for the first time in 
years, of those bound to each other in the closest ties of relation- 
sliip. Husbands and wives, parents and children, brothers and 
sisters, lovers and friends, who had been thus separated, rushed 
into each other's arms in the open streets. An American lady 


told me she could never have imagined such a spectacle ; and 
could seareely do any thing for the day, but stand iu the balcony 
of her house, alternately in laughter and in tears, at the scenes, 
comic and tragic, taking place around her. The enjoyment of a 
pic-nic seemed the prevailing passion of the citizens. Whole fam- 
ilies were met by us in numbers setting off on foot, with baskets 
of refreshments, attended, in some instances, by servants bearing 
side-saddles for the ladies ; horses being procurable outside, not 
for the hire of a day only, but in full possession at a price of 
one or two dollars. Some of the riders, we were afterwards told, 
were placed in rather an awkward predicament, however, after 
having proceeded some distance on their new purchases, by hav- 
ing the animals reclaimed and seized by their true owners, the 
soldiers from whom they had been bought having stolen them. 

It is a subject fur devout thankfulness, that thus far this im- 
portant change has taken place without an instance, so far as is 
known, of violence or outrage. Those, who, a week ago, were 
ready to cut each other's throat.s, arc embracing as they meet, and 
rejoicing together, that for the time being at least, " the sword is 
turned into the ploughshare, and the spear into the pruning hook." 
There are, however, among those who have unconditionally capit- 
ulated, twenty or thirty officers who are trembling for their lives. 
One of, who is particularly obnoxious to the Montevideans, 
as a deserter from their service to that of Oribe, reached the 
American consulate just as we entered. Partly in disguise, he 
had ridden at full speed through the strejts, and dashing, without 
dismounting, through the open portal into the inner court, threw 
himself on the mercy of the consul for the protection of his life. 
He feared that to be recognized would be but to die by the 
hands of the first one of the citizens who could lay hold on him. 
lie is a fine-looking fellow, and was splendidly mounted, but was 
in a tremor of agitation. 

In the course of the morning, I took a stroll some distance 
beyond the city gates, and found abundant subjects for observa- 
tion in the endlesd variety of costume, colors, and character ex- 


liiblted by the outsiders — civilians and soldiers, men, women and 
children, who were thronging to the city in great numbers ; all, 
of course, on horseback, for in this country even the beggars are 
mounted. In many instances, it is true, two persons rode the 
same horse ; in some cases three ; and in one even four — a man 
and his wife with each a child in their arms : the entire family, 
it is probable, thus seeking a glimpse of the city. The most 
amusing spectacle of the kind I noticed, was a cavalier quite 
dashingly equipped, with a goodly-sized live hog tied to the saddle 
behind him, in the manner of a valise in travelling. The head 
of the animal — quietly submissive to his destiny — hung down on 
one side, and the netlier limbs on the other, while the equili- 
brium of the whole was presei'ved by a firm grasp of the cap- 
tive's tail in the left hand of the rider ! 



October \^th. — Yesterday, in company with Lieut. T of 

the Congress, and Mr.Z- , Consul for the Hanseatic towns, I 

made a vi.sit to Urtjuiza, the chieftain of the Plata, whose star is 
now so much in the ascendant. His head-quarters are at Panta- 
Doso, where his troops are encamped three leagues westward from 
the city. By the raising of the siege, horses are once more to 

be obtained in Montevideo. Mr. Z was nobly mounted 

upon the fine animal, on which the officer from the out.side, men- 
tioned under the former date, da.shed through the portal of the 
American con.sulate the first day of the pacification. Mr. Ham- 
ilton had succeeded in procuring a to Buenos Ayres fur 
him; and, purchasing his charger, made a present of it to Mr. 

Z , his son-in-law. Lieut. T and I were provided with 

animals at a livery stable, just opened, to which we walked 
to make our choice. The keeper, who, hin)self, acted as hostler 
and groom for us, is no less a personage than an authenticated 
Austrian baron, of an old family among the nobility of tlie 
empire ; and who. reduced in fortune, is a.-hamed to beg, but not 
thus to occupy himself for an livelihoord, in a foreign land. 
It was from him I now received my first lesson in the horseman- 
ship of the country, being instructed to guide my Rosiiiantc, not 
by pulling the rein of the bridle on the side I wished to turn 


him, as with us, but by keeping both reins of an equal length in 
the hand, and touching the neck of the animal with that opposite 
to the direction he is to go. 

The weather was delightful. In the early morning the sun 
threatened to be hot ; but afterwards a veil of gauze-like cloud, 
without shading too much the brilliancy of a day like June at 
home, prevented any discomfort from it. After clearing the line 
of the city walls, perceiving it to be low-water in the bay, we 
struck down from the ordinary road, to the hard sand of the 
beach, which sweeps in wide curvature in the direction of the 
Mount, and dashed off on a full gallop across it. Parties of na- 
tive horsemen were scampering in both directions over the same 
ground, looking — with their ponchos and long hair streaming in 
the wind behind them — as wild and picturesque as so many Arabs 
of the desert. 

At the end of a mile we turned up the bunk into the high- 
way. This is wide, level, hard and di-y, with hedges of aloes and 
cacti on either side. There is scarcely a tree of any kind to be 
seen ; but now and then a fruit tree, a row of trim poplars, or a 
clump of weeping willows just in full leaf, reminded us of home. 
This was especially the case with the willows, the first graceful 
wave of their fresh, long branches, setting me down at once be- 
neath those at liiver.side. The soil seemed to be of great richness, 
a black mould which bears every growth in exuberance. I never 
saw fig trees equal in height and .spreading tops, to those passed 
in one enclosure. Evidences of the long civil war were every 
where seen in the ruins of houses, and in deserted grounds ; but, 
occasionally, we came to a quinta or country-seat, still in good 
repair, whose massive gateways, tesselated courts, balustraded ter- 
races, surmounted by vases filled with air-plants and gay flowers 
gave proof of the taste and elegance which .once characterized 
the suburban residences of Montevideo. 

We now came upon an open country, without hedge or enclo- 
sure of any kind. The whole surface was covered with rich ver- 
dure, brightly enamelled by ten thousand flowers of every hue. 


and fragrant with the perfumes of spring. As we caracoled 
gently along, or, again, following the custom of the land, dashed 
forward at full speed, groups of people, peasants and soldiers, on 
foot and on horseback, were passing and repassing ; and not uufre- 
quently clustered thickly around the dark and dirty entrances of 
the pulperias, or grog-shops, which here, as elsewhere where man is, 
are ever to be found — the whole presenting, in features and in form, 
in costume and in colors, a constant study for the sculptor and 
the painter. 

The region of country around the bay — along the shores of 
which we still continued — is well watered ; and we crossed two 
or three streams in the course of our ride. As we ascended 
from the bed of one of these to the general level, we came in view 
of another, along the gently rising banks of which, on either side, 
lay stretched in irregular detachments three or four thousand 
troops. This encampment, in all its appointments, had a most 
primitive and unscientific aspect. The tents, such as they were 
— ^very much of a gipsy character — did not appear sufficient for 
the shelter, in sleeping and in bad weather, of half the number of 
soldiers ; and the whole equipage of the camp was as rude as that 
of so many Indians. The predominance of scarlet in the color 
of every thing appertaining to it, imparted, however, a gay and 
brilliant air to the whole. A park of artillery, planted on a gen- 
tle swell of ground, commanded the approaches, and had more 
the appearance of modern warfare than any thiug else attracting 
the observation. 

On inquiring for head-quarters, two or three tents were 
pointed out on a knoll, on the opposite side of the rivulet, quite 
separate from the general encampment. A company of lancers 
were clustered irregularly at no great distance in the rear of 
these — their long and effective-looking spears, with a scarlet pen- 
non floating from the top of each, being staked in lines in front 
of them. 

As we approached, we perceived the marquee of the com- 
mander-in-chief to be di.stinguished from the rest, by broad stripes 


of white and blue, and by tlie artistic manner in which it was 
pitclied. Behind it stood an immense vehicle, more massive and 
ponderous in its structure than the heaviest omnibus ever seen at 
home — the travelling carriage of his excellency, evidently fitted 
for hard service, by such bracings with raw-hide ropes about the 
springs, whipple-trees and axles, and such bindings of green hide 
around the hubs and spokes and wheel-tires, as would create a 
sensation in a civilized country. Near by, stood a gigantic cart 
with wattled sides, and a roof fifteen or twenty feet in height : 
the baggage-wagon, doubtless, for the peedful provender of the 
gencral-in-chicf and suite. 

AYhen we drew up, we were approached by a noble-looking adju- 
tant, tall and stalwart, with boots to his hips, a steel-scabbarded 
sword, which might hav-c served for a Goliath, and spurs of mas- 
sive silver, that — in want of marbled pavement or planked floor 
for the effect — caused the very ground beneath him to rattle. My 
companions, haviug made known their official character and our 
nationality, and the desire of paying our respects personally to the 
chieftain, we were poHtely requested to dismount, our horses de- 
livered to the charge of the guard, and our cards taken, prepara- 
tory to an announcement. Immediately on the presentation of 
our names, we were conducted to the front of the tent and ush- 
ered into the presence of the general. He rose to receive us 
with courteous salutations, and a cordial shake of the hand. The 
tent was small, but exceedingly neat. Its poles were bamboo, 
that in the centre which raised the canvas to a peak, being sur- 
rounded by a square camp table, on which lay a round black hat 
with the scarlet band of the confederation, a pair of black kid 
gloves, a riding-whip, and a magnificent bouquet of fresh flowers 
— a propitiatory gift, probably, from some fair hand in the neigh- 
borhood. Three tent bedsteads — one on cither side and one at 
the farther end — one or two camp stools, and a square of ingrain 
carpet on the grass, constituted the furniture. 

AVe became seated on the bedsteads at the sides, while Urquiza 
took a position by the table in the centre, llo was in a milita; y 


dress coat of blue, the collar and cuffs being handsomely decorated 
with embroideries in gold of the oak leaf and acorn. A waist- 
coat of scarlet damask, pantaloons of blue with a red stripe down 
the seams, and well polished boots, completed his costume. He is 
of moderate height, but stout, broad-chested, and finely formed, 
aud has a Spanish roundness of face and limb. He was smoothly 
shaved, and without the moustache usually worn here, both by 
military men, and by the people in general. In feature, he is 
decidedly handsome, with fine mouth aud teeth, large, dark eyes 
full of vivacity, and a complexion clear and glowing with manly 
health, but bronzed by exposure. 

His expression is open and frank — one that a physiognomist 
would trust for honesty and magnanimity ; and his manners and 
address courteous and gentlemanly, without being courtier-like or 
artificial. I know not when I have been more favorably im- 
pre.>-.sed on a first interview, with any one, either in public or 
private life. Personally, he is evidently one to be admired ; and, 
if his character, morally and intellectually, is at all in harmony 
with his physical advantages, I can readily perceive how the 
])opularity he has already won, in the part he is now acting, may 
run into enthusiasm. He must be nearly fifty years of age ; but, 
were it not for the thinness of his hair on the top of the head, I 
should say he was not more than forty. 

A favorite mastiff, a noble-looking animal, lay stretched at 
his ease on the carpet, and attracting our notice became the 
subject of our conversation. He originally belonged to another offi- 
cer ; but, on meeting Urquiza, left his master and attached himself 
to him with a pertinacity which resisted every attempt to drive 
him away. He has cou.stituted him.self the especial guardian of 
his person, and has for years been his companion, night and day. 
Several remarkable anecdotes, of feats in the camp and on the 
battle-field, told of him, paved the way for a free and animated 
conversation on more important topics — embracing the present 
state of affairs in the Republics of the Plata — the results thus 
far, of Urquiza's own movements as a liberator, aud purposes 


designed by him, yet unachieved. " It is time," ho justly re- 
marked, " that the contracted and narrow-minded policy, dictated 
by tlie selfish views of the rulers of the Plata, should be made to 
give way to measures more in unison with the spirit of the age ; 
and that the wide rivers and rich plains of these magnificent 
countries, should be thrown open to the commerce, and be made 
free to the immigration of people from all nations." 

The hope was expressed, that when he should reach Monte- 
video — where it was taken for granted he would make a public 
entry — he would visit the Congress ; but, before the word Monte- 
video was Avell uttered, he hastily interrupted the sentence by 
exclaiming, " Montevideo ! — No — no, I shall not go. to Monte- 
video ! " He, it seems, studiously avoids every appearance of 
courting popularity, and of making a display of himself unneces- 
sarily ; averring that the only object for which he comes into the 
country, is to free the Montevidcans from the thraldom of the 
tyranny by which they have so long suffered. Having accom- 
plished this, he says he has nothing further to ask or desire, ex- 
cept that they may be prosperous and happy, united and free. 
The early career of Urquiza as a partisan of Rosas, and as the 
victor over the Monte videaus themselves, in the beginning of the 
invasion by the Argentines, is said to have been as bloodthirsty 
and cruel as that of any of his compeers, in -the civil contentions 
of the States of the Plata. But great apparent humanity, as 
well as consummate policy, has thus far marked all his pres- 
ent measures and movements. In the beginning of his march 
against Oribe, he proclaimed the anxiety he felt to prevent all 
effusion of blood ; that he came as a friend, not as a foe ; that his 
mission was one of peace and of patriotism in a common cause. 
The consequence of this annunciation in advance, was a general 
gathering to his standard in his progress, and the desertion to 
liim, at every opportunity, of whole detachments of the troops sent 
to oppose him. On expressing the surprise which we felt at 
being told by him, that the thousands of soldiers immediately 
around, and constituting his only guard, were exclusively those 


who, but a low din's before, had hiid down their arms to him, and, 
who till then were conmiissioned to cut his throat — he said — 
" We are all brothers now — one people and one blood : it only re- 
mains for us to free our common country from a common tyrant," 
referring of course to, Rosas. The nearest detachment of the 
troops brought with him from Entre-Rios was quite two miles 

At the end of a half hour, we took leave, greatly interested 
in all we had seen and hoard during the interview. As a rigid 
moralist, I am bound perhaps to qualify, in a degree, my admira- 
tion of this chieftain, from the knowledge I have gained of some 
of the particulars of his private history. An inquiry made by 
one of our party, led the General to say, that though he had no 
wife living he had a large family ; and that the mother of some 
of his children, having recently died, he regarded himself as a 
widower. The truth is, he has never been married. It is by no 
means unusual for persons here to live long together without the 
marriage-tie, and often with entire fidelity to each other. It is to 
a relation of this kind he referred, and in which he had a numer- 
ous family born to him ; but he admits the claims of paternity in 
a large number besides ; and so justly, it is said, that the title 
of the novel, "' A child of thirty-six fathers,"' may with a slight 
transposition, be applied with literal truthfulness to him, as 
"The father of thirty-six children'' — the exact number, I am 
told, of his acknowledged offspring. So much for this chieftain 
for the present ; we shall doubtless hear much of him, and per- 
haps meet him again, before takhig a final leave of the Plata. 

Oribe ha.s been permitted, since the capitulation, to retire on 
parole to his country-seat, situated on the shore of the bay, in the 

neighborhood of his former encampment. Lieut T and I, as 

neutrals in the partisan conflicts of the country, felt some dis- 
position to call upon him in his reverse of fortune ; but the 

antipathies of Mr. Z , arising from a knowledge of his history 

and character, and the long endurance of evil by the Montevidoans 
at his hands, would not permit him to join us in a visit of the 


kind. As condolence under capitulation and overthrow would 
have been more difficult to present acceptably, than the felicitations 
we had just addressed to the fortunate rival, we did well, perhaps, 
to content ourselves with the view in the di^stance of the white 
walls of his dwelling, in the midst of extensive plantations of 
poplar and willow. If all that is said of his past acts of cruelty 
be true, he well merits the reverse he has suffered, and the con- 
tempt into which he has fallen. 

The ride, on our return, was constantly enlivened as before, 
by passers by, both on foot and on horseback, forming a great 
variety of groupings, and an endless diversity of costume. One 
common mode of transporting burdens was of a most primitive 
kind : a hide spread on the ground, and attached to the saddle or 
person of the horseman by a long leathern rope. Whatever was 
to be carried was piled upon and made fast to this simple sledge, 
and thus dragged along. 

At the end of a couple of miles from the head-quarters at 
Pantanoso, we turned inland for a short distance from the direct 
road, to inspect the fort of the " Cerrito" or little hill, so recently 
evacuated by Oribe. Tlie rise of ground to it is very gentle 
on every side, and the central point of elevation two hundred and 
fifty or three hundred feet only, above the level of the bay. The 
little fort cresting the apex is abandoned, except by a single 
keeper. It is old and dilapidated ; and defective in its original 
construction, in the leading principles of modern engineering. It 
appeared incapable of standing a salute by its own guns, much 
less the fire of artillery in an attack. The view from the parapets 
is extensive in all directions; and, in the freshness and verdure 
of the spring, peculiarly beautiful. It embraces a fine iidand 
view, the Mount, the bay and shipping ; the massive walls and 
towers of Montevideo; and the new town of llostoracion. At 
the base of the hill on tlie east, lay, in a quadrangular village, the 
little huts of mud, thatclied with grass, which have for years been 
tlio ([uarters of the besieging soldiery. They must have been 


wretched enough in appearance at any time ; but are doubly so, in 
their present state of desertion and half demolition. 

The ride of a mile from this cantonment brought us to Restora- 
cion. This, till the capitulation, was (juite a thriving place, having 
attracted, by its port of -entry at the Bu(,-eo, the little produce the 
country', in its devastated condition, could furnish for exportation. 
]iut its vocation is now gone. The port is already closed by 
decree of the government, and the decline of Restoracion will be 
even more rapid than its rise. All business will necessarily flow 
into its old channels in the city ; and the new town, at best, be 
only an impoverished .suburb of the old. 

It is well laid out.: its streets very wide, regular, and well 
built. Its chief architectural feature is a very fine structure : a 
spacious quadrangle, enclosing double courts, and ornamented by 
a lofty tower. It is called " the college;" and was designed by 
Oribe for an institution of learning, but appears thus far to have 
been used only as a town hall, for the accommodation of the 
municipal officers and the police. 

This brings me to the comical part of our excursion. Having 
dismounted Tor the observation of the place on foot, the in- 
spection of the building just mentioned, and of a new church of 
some merit in its architecture, we again took horse to meet an 
appointment for dinner in Montevideo, three miles distant. 
We had scarcely reached the centre of the town, however, before 
my horse came suddenly to a dead stand. He had travelled 
beautifully all the morning, without the slightest evidence of a 
stubborn or vicious disposition, or any bad habit. It was in 
vain, however, that I now urged him forward. All the effect of 
doing so was to cause him to turn abruptly to the one side or the 
other, or completely around; and, when I resorted to the whip 
and spur, neither of which had before been required, he da.shed 
upon the sidewalk to the right or to the left, and rushed head- 
foremost into the shop-doors and wuidows, putting men, women, 
and children to flight in every direction. Of tlie crowd of boys 
soon gathered near, I heard some, by way of commiseration, 


exclaim, " What a wicked horse ! " others less courteous, and 
with knowing looks as to the merits of the case, " What a poor 
rider ! " till Lt. T , a Virginia cavalier, insisted on an ex- 
change of animals. This we made, but without securing a better 
issue. The horse he had ridden behaved in the same manner, 
or when started, persisted in dashing round the first corner come 
to, and in rushing into the first enclosure or stable-yard open to 
him. I kept him going, however, from point to point, as best I 
could — first down one street and then up another; around this 
corner and around that — with my friends in full gallop behind, 
till all three were brought to a stand by getting between two 
walls, which formed a kind of cul de sac. By this time we had 
fairly roused the whole place, without gaining the advance of a 

rod towards Montevideo, and Mr. Z proposed that I should 

make the further trial of his horse. The excitement of the chase 
after me, the hurraing of the boys, the shrieks of the women, and 
the general tumult, had fired the spirit of this fine animal, and 
the moment I had gained the saddle, headed in the direction we 
wished to go, he started at full speed through the principal street, 
while — 

" 'J'lic dogs dill baric, the children screamed, 
Ug flew the windows all ; 
And every soiil cried out ' Well done ! ' 
As loud as he could bawl." 

Finding myself thus well started, I was determined to allow 
my steed no chance of a halt in the gait he had chosen, at least 
till well in sight of the city, and kept him on the full spring. 
My friends were in close pursuit ; and the nearer they came 
the faster I fled, till we well-nigh fell from our horses in con- 
vulsions of laughter, at the Gilpin-likc appearance of the chase. 
Had I worn hat and wig, I should have lost them ; and, as it 
was, doubtless presented a comical sight, in my eflbrts at once to 
retain my seat in the saddle, and to keep a naval cap on my 
head, and the spectacles on my nose. All the amusement, how- 


ever, did not ceutre on nic. Mr. Z is ininiensely tall and 

slender. The stirrups of the saddle exchanged with nie for his 
own, were too short for him by at least a half length. He had 
not altered them ; and in sitting on the horse, his knees were 
brought well up to his- chin, making him, at the rate we were 
riding, far from the least comical figure of the party. 

The cause of this incident in our adventures was ascertained 
to be the fact that, till the day previous, the only ho;i.e of the 

two horses ridden by Lt. T and me, had been at Restora- 

cion ; and, on reaching their old haunts, they had no will, after 
a ride of fifteen miles, to leave them :'^ain, even for the more 
dignified quarters of the Baron, their new master in the city. 

October 2'2d. — For two or three days past, the troops of 
Urquiza, in detachment after detachment, have been thickly 
clustering around the base and on the sides of the Mount — like 
the settling of flocks of pigeons on the ground, in the migrating 
season at home. The whole region in sight from our ship is now 
little else than a tented field, so covered with figures in glaring 
red as to remind me vividly, by the brilliant coloring thus thrown 
over the landscape, of the fields of scarlet poppies I have seen 
in some parts of Europe. The nearest of these encampments is 
b}- the water's edge, within a couple of miles of our anchorage. 

Yesterday morning Captain Mcintosh invited Dr. C and 

myself, to accompany him and Captain Corey of the " South- 
ampton " in a visit to it. The morning was beautiful in weather, 
and the opportunity for observation exceedingly interesting. 

We landed at a point where, at the commencement of the 
civil war, there had been an extensive manufactory connected with 
the staple productions of the Republic — hides and tallow. Every 
thing here bore evidences of the devastation which has swept over 
the whole country in its industrial pursuits : roofless buildings 
and crumbling walls, uprooted pavements, overthrown furnaces, 
and rust-eaten boilers. Some of the stone enclosures still staii J- 
ing, presented a common but singular sight, in a capping, twelve 
or eighteen bchea in depth, formed of the horns and the frontal 


bones of cattle, so arranged and interlocked, as to produce, in 
their regularity, and in the whiteness into which the whole is 
bleached by the weather, quite a striking and picturesque eflFect — 
as suggestive of taste and beauty in fence building, as the droop- 
ing leaves of the acanthus are said to have been in the finish of 
the Corinthian column. Beyond the curving sand-beach of a 
little cove, a quarter of a mile from this landing, the nearest 
encampment was spread over the bright verdure of a gently 
swelling knoll. The scene presented by it was novel, and 
strikingly picturesque. The snowy whiteness of the tents ; the 
bright green of the grass; and the glowing red of the caps, 
mantles, and chiripas, or swaddling blankets, worn in place of 
trowsers by the soldiers, were brought out in brilliant contrast 
by the morning's sun ; while the pennons of scarlet, fluttering 
from the tops of the lances, stuck in long lines and in thick 
clusters over the ground, gave an air of lively animation to the 

No check was placed on our movements, nor on the scrutiny of 
such observations as we chose to make. The uniforms of my com- 
panions led to constant military salutes from such as recognized 
their presence; and we were treated with unvarying civility. 
We were much struck with the physical aspect of these troops. 
They are an uncommonly fine race ; large, muscular, and athletic : 
a powerful set of men, whom — perfect centaurs as they are on 
horseback — it would be a fearful thing to meet as lancers on full 
charge in battle. They arc very dark and Indian-like in com- 
plexion ; their faces covered with bushy whiskers and mustaches, 
and their long, black, uncombed hair flowing in the freedom 
of nature over their shoulders. Occupied in all the various 
employments of semi-civilized soldiery in camp, they furnished, 
individually and in groups, studies of whicli an artist would have 
rejoiced to avail himself Some splitting billets of wood for 
cooking, some roasting meat, and some eating it at their fires ; 
some washing their clothes in a rivulet, just by, and some 
bringing water from a spring; a few were lounging on the grass 


in conversatiou, ami a few walking listlessly about ; but the 
greater number — nine out of ten — were gambling with cards. 
Seated in numbers, from four to seven, around a poucho spread on 
the grass, with the money at stake upon it^ they shuffled, dealt, 
and played, while groups of double the numbers, standing around 
and over them, threw down their dollars at hazard, and wait- 
ed the issue of the game. So entirely were the players and 
betters absorbed in their games, that they took no notice whatever 
of us as strangers, nor of any thing occurring around them. The 
importance of the political struggle now commenced, insures 
good payment to the troops. A large distribution of cash has 
recently been made, and the soldiers seem very flush in pocket, 
and very free in the disposal of their funds. Card-playing is a 
chief amusument, and gambling a ruling passion among all classes 
of the people. 

The subsistence of the soldiers consists solely of fresh beef : 
eaten without bread, or vegetables, or even salt. Morning, noon, 
and night, beef, and beef alone, furnishes their repast. The 
manner of cooking it is this. A small circular hole, three or 
four inches in depth, is made in the ground, and a fire kindled in 
it. A long, slender stick or wooden skewer, sharpened to a point 
at both ends, is run through a piece of meat, and one end of the 
stick so fastened in the ground on one side of the hole, that the 
meat hangs at a low angle over the flame and coals of the fire. 
The outside thus soon becomes scorched and burnt, and in a few 
minutes, one of the mess removes it from the fire, by taking hold 
of the upper end of the stick with the left hand, while his ever- 
ready knife is in the right. Seizing the meat with his teeth, as he 
holds it up before him, he cuts ofl" a mouthful by a single quick 
stroke of his knife, and passes the skewer and its burden to his 
next messmate. Each of the group thus in turn takes his share 
of the part roasted. That which remains raw is again placed 
over the fire, and a similar process gone through with, till the 
hungry are all satisfied, or the supply consumed. We were very 
courteously invited by one group, to take seats upon the sheep- 


skins spread for tlaem, and to partake of their primitive meal ; but 
excused ourselves from accepting such kind hospitality, by the 
plea of a want of appetite. 

The encampment stretched, in greater or less regularity and 
compactness, from the point at which we were, three miles and 
more northward, to the head-quarters of the commander-in-chief; 
and from thence again westward by the banks of a stream, the 
like distance around the Mount to the Plata. The inspection of 
one portion gave us the characteristic and leading features of the 
whole ; and, after an hour's stroll through the nearer sections, we 
ascended the Mount, to enjoy from the ramparts of the fortress, 
the wide landscape they command under its new aspects of ani- 
mated life. This was exceedingly picturesque in the varied dis- 
play of so large a force in camp and bivouac. The smoke of 
fires, in preparation for the noonday meal, rose in pearly columns 
on every side ; and thousands of tethered horses, and unnumbered 
herds of cattle were grazing every where over the rich plains. 

Immediately beneath the walls of the fort, on the northern 
side, within stone's throw beneath us, is a corral — an enclosure 
for the keeping of cattle, surrounded by high walls, with a barred 
entrance at one corner. It was now filled with hundreds of fine 
animals. As we stood looking down upon this, three horsemen, 
followed by three men on foot, entered it ; and we unexpectedly 
became witnesses of the manner of butchering an animal here, 
wlijuther taken wild on the open prairie, or, as at present, penned 
up in a corral. The uses of the lasso and holas, and the dexterity 
of the South Americans in the management of them, are familiar 
to every school-boy. It was with the lasso the horsemen now 
operated. The animal designated for slaughter, was, in a few 
moments, artfully detached from the general herd, and made 
captive by the horns, with the unerring lasso, thrown at the same 
moment by two of the horsemen — the third having as readily 
entangled him by the hind legs as he ran. The tliree horses 
trained to the business, the moment the lassos were thrown, braced 
themselves firmly by their forefeet against the ground, bringing 


the lassos perfectly ' taut ' in three different directions, and tlius 
holding the beast as unniovable, as if staked by the head and 
heels. As he became thus fixed, with his hind legs drawn closely 
together, one of the men on foot sprang quickly behind him, and 
by a single sweep of his Jong and murderous knife, severed the 
hamstrings of both legs, bringing the hinder part of the animal 
to the ground, as if by a stroke of lightning. lie still stood on 
his fore legs; but, in as quick time almost, the butcher was at his 
head, and by one plunge of the same instrument, sent his heart's 
blood gushing over the ground, and the fore legs staggering, gave 
way. 13y a skilful movement of the lassos by the horsemen he 
was jerked on his side as he full, and the men on foot, seating 
themselves upon the quivering, and still living carcass, at once 
commenced their incisions, and the dissection of the skin. The 
whole process of this catching, killing, flaying and cutting up an 
animal, is often the work of less than ten minutes. The spectacle 
is barbarous and disgusting ; yet the saledaros, or general 
slaughter-houses, are often visited by foreigners, for the purpose 
of witnessing it, as a matter of curiosity. 

October 24th. — Earl}' in September, Commodore McKeever 
was called to Buenos Ayres by official duty. He made the 
passage in the U. S. sloop Jamestown, to which his flag was trans- 
ferred, and returned on the 22d in the American propeller 
" Manuelita de Rosas," now running as a packet between Buenos 
Ayres and Moutevi^. Mr. Harris, late charge d'afiaires, 
on his way to the U«ked States accompanied him ; and it is 
officially announced, thAthe Congress will sail immediately for 
Kio de Janeiro, to carry iiim that far on his passage home. 

The visit to Urquiza, and the stroll through the camp of his 
followers, it will tlius be seen, were made in fortunate time. Had 
they been delnyed longer, 1 should have had no opportunity for 
the observations they afforded. We are to return to the Plata ; 
but not till the successful revolutionist and his troops will long 
have left the neighborhood of Montevideo. On the 2"Jd he issued 
a proclamation to the inhabitants of the republic. I like its stylo 


and spirit much. In it be has thrown aside the accustomed 
verbosity and grandiloquence, characteristic of the state papers 
of this section of the world, and the barbarous vituperations of 
partisanship ; and avows his principles and purposes in a manly 
and patriotic manner. I close this section of my record with a 
hasty translation. 

" The Governor and Captain-general of the Province of 
Kntre-Rios, General and Chief of its army, and General of the 
vanguard of the allied armies of operation, to the inhabitants of 
the oriental Republic of Uruguay : 

" Orientals ! I promised to fight for your liberty and national 
independence, and I have fulfilled my word. The chains with 
which the tyrant of my country enslaved you are rent in pieces. 
It only remains for me to break those which bind the unhappy 
people of liuenos Ayres, where a hateful rule still oppresses the 
Argentines. For this the soldiers of liberty must still combat. 

" I am about to leave you, but wherever destiny may carry 
me — whether to the field of battle, to the quietude of private 
life, or to the guardianship of the tranquillity and glory of my 
country, I shall ever pray for your prosperity, and for the per- 
petuity of those blessings which I have recovered for you, after 
the long and disastrous struggle which has desolated the rich 
plains of your country, and crimsoned them with the blood of 
your brothers. These precious blessings are your liberty and 
your independence. 

" Orientals ! Be free, by submitting yourselves to the author- 
ity of that citizen whom constitutional sufi'rage shall elevate to 
the chair of the chief magistracy, and by upholding the laws 
which protect the lives and property of the people. Be inde- 
pendent by living unitedly beneath the glorious banner, which is 
the symbol of your nationality, that other governnjcnts observing 
it niav respect you ; and that you may merit the admiration of 
those who have sworn to exterminate a bloody tyranny, and firmly 
to establish an empire of liberty and law, in the llepublics of the 


"Orientals! In union is strength ; in peace prosperity; and 
iu the oblivion of civil discord and the exercise of republican 
virtues, the happiness of your children and the perpetuity of your 
national institutions. 

" Orientals ! Union, peace, and fraternity among all, is the 
charge to you from him who has the glory of having contributed 
to the restoration of your liberty and independence. 

" He ad- Quarters of Pantanoso, October 21st, 1851." 

Thus closes the first act in the political drama now in per- 
formance on the banks of the Plata. 



Kio DE Janeiro. 

December lO^A. — The Congress has been a mouth at moorings 
here. Nothing worthy of special notice has occurred on shore in 
the interval. The court and church, by the customary pageants 
on gala and fete days, have furnished the chief objects for sight- 
seeing, and varied walks by the water side and on the mountains, 
my principal sources of recreation. Our return to the metropolis 
was welcomed, socially, by Mr. Schenek, the new minister, and by 
(j!ov. Kent, the Consul, in elegant hospitalities to the ofiBcers of 
the Congress; and Admiral Reynolds, relieved after long service 
by Admiral Henderson, in the steam frigate Centaur, gave proof 
of his continued friendship by a farewell dinner to us before 
putting to sea, " homeward bound." 

The unity of my record, however, requires the brief notice 
of one or two events on board ship. On the evening of the 25th 
ult. an outrage was perpetrated by two or three of the crew, cal- 
culated to bring a reproach upon our good name for order and 
discipline. I was on shore with Commodore McKeever, when it 
was reported to him, that a policeman of the city, who had taken 
a deserter on board, had been knocked down on the deck when 
crossing the gangway, and, it was feared, had been fatally injured. 
This seemed a daring outbreak against the discipline of the 
service, and a serious oflfence against the municipal authority of 


the city. Great excitement was produced by it, and an investiga- 
tion of the affair at once instituted. Two chief offenders were 
discovered and confined in irons, in dark cells, till a formal trial 
of the case should take pla<?e. At first, the assault seemed so 
wanton, as to be inexplicable ; and could only be resolved into an 
act of unmitigated villainy. I was not long, however, in gaining 
a clue to its solution, which, though it did not excuse, explained 
the grounds of provocation, and very greatly palliated the offence. 
The person attacked, instead of being a policeman, was only one 
of those who are too well known among sailors as land-sharks — a 
runner to a sailor, who had been in the habit of 
entrapping the men on shore, and imposing upon them in various 
ways. On a recent occasion, he had decoyed one of our crew — 
under peculiarly aggravating circumstances, and with pretensions 
of kindness and friendship — into the hands of the police; and had 
been guilty of a cowardly and abusive attack upon him personally, 
afterwards, when he had no power to resent it. Great indigna- 
tion against him had thus been excited ; and his unexpected 
appearance on the deck of the Congress, led to a speedy determi- 
nation among a few, to seize what might be their only opportunity 
for revenge. A crowd was quickly gathered at the gangway, as 
if in more curiosity, by which the opportunity of tripping him up 
would be afforded, as he should leave the f-hip. This purpose was 
successfully accomplished, and so quickly, that there was no time 
for any one to interfere. The chief injury he sustained was 
from striking his head upon the combings of a hatchway ; but 
nothing serious to him is likely to ensue ; and the crew at least, 
much as they regret the reflection upon the character of the ship 
in connection with the affair, think he received only that which, 
according to the sailor's code of honor, was justly his due. 

But this is a very trivial matter, in comparison with the chief 
event which has happened : the loss to us of Captain Mcintosh, 
as commander of the Congress. The U. S. ship Falmouth, 
Captain Pearson, of the Pacific squadron, came into port recently, 
homeward bound. An exchange of commands took place j and 


Captain Mcintosh left in the Falmouth, on the 6th inst. To 
part with him thus unexpectedly, was to others of the Congress, 
as well as to me, a severe trial Every officer felt it ; and there 
was a general lamentation among all hands of the crew. His 
reputation in the service is of the highest merit, not only as an ac- 
complislied officer, but as a finished gentleman ; and, favored with 
his confidence — especially on the most important of all subjects — 
and intimately associated with him, I deeply feel his absence. 
Indeed, when his return to the United States was first announced, 
I could scarcely be reconciled to it. All things, however, are now 
going on promisingly under our new commander, who comes to 
us with favorable antecedents, and high professional character. 
The ship is in beautiful order ; and general harmony and content- 
ment prevail, with every promise of a continuance of the happy 
auspices which have hitherto marked our cruise. 

One thing is very certain — that to me time flies with the 
velocity of the wind. Each day is too short for its allotted 
routine of duty ; and Sabbath crowds upon Sabbath, as if the 
week were reduced to half its length of days. Do you ask how 
tliis can be in such long and distant exile ? I answer, because I 
find varied occupation to interest and keep me employed from 
morning till night. I will give you the outline of a day on board. 
To begin at the beginning : while every thing is still enshrouded 
in darkness, three loud and measured beats upon a bass drum 
fall on the dead silence of the sliip at the hour, like the heavy 
tread — according to romance writers of old — of a ghost in a 
haunted castle, at midnight. They are the signal for the firing 
of the morning gun of thirty-two pounds, which occurs simulta- 
neously with the last stroke on the drum, and is followed by the 
beating of the reveille. This, however, is not intended, and, 
in general has not tlic eflfect to waken the hundreds of sleepers 
on board from their repose, but only to proclaim the first ap- 
proaches of the dawn in the east, or, in nautical phraseology, 
" to make daylight." It is not till half an hour afterwards that 
the boatswain's pipe, followed and joined by those of his mates, 

"making daylight" on board a man-of-war. 269 

is heard to echo shrilly round the decks, preparatory to the clear 
and stentoriau cry by him, '• Up, all hands ! " caught also by 
his mates and bawled b}' them about the ship, iu varied tones 
of voice, but all very considerably above concert pitch. Then 
again in like manner, '' Up all hammocks ! " and should it be a 
washing-day, of which there are two or three each week, a third 
cry is heard, " All hands wash clothes ! '' or All hands wash 
hammocks ! '' as the case may be. Every one springs at once 
from his hammock ; all on board is bustle and activity ; and, for 
an hour or more, there is heard a universal rubbing, and scrub- 
bing, and scouring on deck, till the clothes are all washed and 
hoisted fore and aft on lines iu the rigging. Then comes a dash- 
ing and splashing of water, and a thumping and bumping, a 
pounding and grating of ■' holystones" over the sanded decks, that 
would eflt'ctuully break the slumber of any one but a naval officer. 
By the inexperienced, all this would be thought an effectual sub- 
stitute for the gong, iu rousing one from his slumbers, and in 
hastening him to the deck to enjoy the balmy land-breeze, and the 
glorious coloring of the morning on the landscape. As to the 
morning gun and the reveille, I neither heed nor hear the sound 
of either of them once in a month ; and as to the beauty of the 
morning, and the fresh air of the deck, woe to him who seeks 
them, unless prepared to receive a shower-bath of dirty water, by 
the bucketfull, at every hatchway he attempts to ascend, and to 
wade ancle-deep, in search of some spot where he can stand for 
a moment, without being tripped up by a " squill-gee," or knocked 
off his feet by the thra.shing about of huge " swabs." 

This general shii>ckaning is not ordinarily finished till near 
8 o'clock — the breakfast hour on board ; when our flags are thrown 
to the wind with a salute to them by " Hail Columbia," or the 
" Star-spangled Banner," from the band. Breakfast is followed 
by a change of dress in the crew ; and the ship thus in the nicest 
order, and the men in uniform clothes of pure white, with cuffs 
and collars of blue, we are ready for both the duty and the 
pleasure that the day may bring forth. Denied the fresh air and 


bright scenery of the early day, by the comfortless state of the 
deck, I give the first hour after breakfast to the enjoyment of 
these, and the rest of the morning to study. 

The arrival of the long-expected library for the crew has 
given quite a literary aspect to their hours of leisure. I have 
voluntarily undertaken the oflSce of librarian ; and a half-day 
twice a week, is necessarily given to the record of the issue and 
return of the books. Evening classes, to which I also voluntarily 
give a general superintendence, have been formed among the 
adults for improvement in reading, writing, and arithmetic ; and 
six or eight of the more ambitious and promising, receive occa- 
eionally from me in my room, lessons of an hour or two, in the 
higher branches of arithmetic and in navigation. Thus, with a 
couple of hours on shore for exercise, and daily visits to the sick 
and imprisoned on board, I find my time fully occupied. I say 
visits to the imprisoned ; for, since the abolition of the lash by 
act of Congress, it has been found necessary to erect cells — as 
remote as can be from the ordinary resorts of the crew about the 
decks — for solitary confinement. The interviews which I am 
permitted to have with those under such punishment have proved 
to be salutary in their cfi"ect in the discipline of the ship ; and I 
claim the liberty of access to them, as a privilege of my office. 

American seamen, as a class, are fond of reading ; and often, 
not only of reading such books as the Arabian Niglits, trashy 
romances, tales of piracy and murder, and IMunchausen stories, 
but books of history, biography, travels, and even poetry. Among 
the works ordered, is a set of AVashington Irving's writings : no 
volumes are more called for — especially the lives of Columbnsand 
Mahommed, the Conquest of Granada, and the Sketch Book. 

The most remarkable reader among the crew is an old main- 
mast-man of most trustworthy character, llcligious works ex- 
clusively are his choice. The Bible is his constant companion ; 
and, besides an entire set of the Evangelical library of the 
American Tract Society, which I brought with me for the use 
of any who would receive them, he has carefully read almost 


every volume of a theological and practical nature in my 
own library — including portions of Home's Introduction, the 
•whole of Dwight's Tlieology, and the entire works of Archbishop 
Leighton. Of good countenance and personal appearance in ge- 
neral, sedate and quiet in his conduct, and scrupulously neat and 
particular in dress, he forms a study for an artist, as, seated near 
the main-mast, where he is stationed at sea, his knees spread with 
a piece of white duck — to keep all spots from his nicely covered 
volume — with spectacled nose, he pores over it hour after hour, 
80 entirely abs<3rbed by its contents as to lose all consciousness 
of the varied movements around him. lie seems truly a good 
man, and sincerely interested in religious things; but when I 
question him in regard to personal faith and hope, he shakes his 
head negatively, as if he dare not presume to these ; probably 
from the consciousness of an infirmity which he finds it diflBcult 
to overcome — the inability to resist indulgence in strong drink 
on shore. Aware of this he, for the most part, very wisely de- 
clines accepting the liberty of leaving the ship. There are other 
instances of like self-deuial from the same cause, among some of 
our " best men," in sea phraseology. 

Deceniber I'lth. — I recollect having stated, tliat the first 
sight which arrests the eyes of the stranger on lauding in Rio, 
is the number, varied employments, and garb of the negroes. 
The first, and chief human sounds that reach his ears, are also from 
this class. Their cries through the streets vary with the pursuits 
they follow. That of the vegetable and fruit venders is monot- 
onous and singular ; but so varied, that each kind of vegetable 
and fruit seems to have its own song. The coffee carriers, moving 
in gangs, have a tune of their own to which they keep time, in 
an Indian-like lope, with a bag of one hundred and sixty pounds' 
weight, poised on their heads. The bearers of furniture form a 
regular choir. One or two, with rattles of tin in their hands, 
resembling the nose of a watering-pot, perforated with holes and 
filled with shot, lead the way in a style truly African. To 
this is allied, with full strength of lungs, a kind of travelling 


chant, in which at times all join in chorus. It is full and sonor- 
ous, and rendered pleasant, if from no other cause, by the satis- 
faction from it visible, in the shining and sweating faces of the 
poor blacks. An effort was made by the authorities, some years 
ago, to put a stop to the unceasing vociferations and songs of 
the slaves ; and a decree to that effect was issued. But on trial, 
it was found that the poor creatures drooped and faltered under 
tlieir task, as they worked in forced silence ; and soon moped in 
such melancholy and depression, that the attempt was abandoned. 
They now have full license to let out their musical voices ; and 
the way some of them give utterance from their full chests, " to 
gigantic sounds, is a marvel to low-voiced humanity." This is 
in direct contrast to the habits of the Brazilians. The chief and 
only sound you hear in the street from them, is a singular kind 
of softened hiss, the nearest resemblance to which the unprac- 
tised American could make, would probably be, according to 
a suggestion of Gov. Kent, in the effort to pronounce the word 
" tissue " by a quick and single action .of the lips and tongue. 
This can be heard at a considerable distance, and seldom fails to 
attract the attention of the person to whom it is directed. No 
loud call — no halloo ! to stop or to stand — no rough salutation 
or boisterous recognition is here heard, but all is quiet and calm. 
A beckon of the hand, as if you wished the person to approach, 
accompanied by a play of each finger, is the salute to a passer-by 
in a carriage, or one at too great a distance for the ordinary low 
tone of voice. The motion would be taken by a stranger for a 
beckon to come near, but when this is intended, the action is re- 
versed, the back of the hand being towards the body, and the 
motion of the fingers a scoop inwards. 

Tins sparing of the voice and this quiet action, indicate the 
general indolence of the people, induced by the debilitating in- 
fluence of a tropical climate, and is characteristic of all their 
habits. It is a principle with them to sit at rest as nmch as pos- 
sible, and when forced to move, to do so slowly and gently — to 


be calm and composed,, quiet and noiseless. With this view of 
life, they eat, sleep, keep their temper and grow fat. 

Public conveyances here, as elsewhere, afford good opportuni- 
ties for studying some of the manners and habits of the people. 
Lines of omnibuses run- in various directions through the city, 
and far into the suburbs. Gov. Kent has found it convenient 
during his residence here, to make much use of them, and says, 
that in so doing, he has been led to remark among other traits, 
the marvellous patience of the natives, and their utter disregard 
for loss of tima No matter how long, or however unaccountable 
the delay in starting, there is no inquiry made, no remonstrance 
uttered, no English or American fretting and scolding and threat- 
ening. The Brazilian passengers on such occasions appear as if 
they would sit for the day and the night, without a look or ques- 
tion of impatience. On one occasion, he was making a passage 
in a steamboat from the port of Estrella, on the western side of 
the bay of Kio. In crossing a shoal she grounded in the mud 
and remained fast for an hour ; not a native passenger manifested 
the curiosity or anxiety in regard to the detention. No one 
a-;ked the cause or went forward to make any investigation, or to 
ascertain whether the tide was rising or falling. There was 
nothing on board either to eat or drink, except water; yet no one 
inquired how long the delay might be, but each taking out his 
tablets, or a new.spaper, began writing or reading as if all were 
going on well. 

Another trait strikingly exhibited in the omnibus, is the re- 
markable politeness and civility of the citizens, in some respects. 
Every man that enters the vehicle raises his hat to his fellow- 
pas.sengers, who return the salute in the same manner. Sometimes 
in doing this, if the ommnibus suddenly starts, there is an amus- 
ing struggle between politeness and the self-preservation which 
demands the use of both hands, ending at times in a stumble 
and fall, hat in hand, in the anxiety to do the accustomed honons. 
But no one thinks of yielding his seat after it is once taken, 
either to sex or age ; and if the only unoccupied place should be 


at the furthest end of the carriage, the most delicate woman, on 
entering, must force her way to it as she may. This is to 
be attributed to the national dislike to locomotion, and to the vis 
inertice incident to the climate. Men will often sit wedged to- 
gether in a hot day, after vacancies on both sides have occurred, 
rather than move a foot for a more comfortable position. 

The omnibuses are drawn by mules, and amusing scenes arc 
often witnessed by the display of their characteristic obstinacy 
and ill-temper. As a friend remarks, in the language of some 
modern reformers, "from their unfortunate and misdirected or- 
ganization, they exhibit, at times, great lightness of heel, and 
a savage desire to kick something." The drivers, however, 
manage them admirably, and guide them skilfully, at a rapid 
rate, through the narrow streets. The carriages are strongly 
built — as they need to be ; for the pavements are very rough. 
To this, however, the drivers pay little heed, and generally drive 
the most rapidly over the worst sections. In one respect the 
rate at which they move is an inconvenience to those wishing to 
take passage. The drivers have nothing of the " wide-awake " 
qualities of the Yankee jehus of the same vehicles at home. They 
never look out for pas.sengers in the cross streets, and never be- 
hind them, but wait to be hailed by the native " hiss." The 
foreigner may not be accomplished in the utterance of this ; 
and wheu once the omnibus is well started, there is a farewell 
to all hope of a seat for the trip. 



San Aliexo. 

December \Ath. — Wliere, or what, you will ask, is San Aliexo? 
It is a spot which reminds me more of my home than any place 
I have seen for eighteen months past, notwithstanding the exist- 
ence of features in its scenery in the widest possible contrast 
with any found there. Even while I write, there is a rumbling 
and babbling of water near at hand, which tempts me to fancy 
that I am at the table of the little library so familiar to you, and 
that it is our own brook I hear, made unusually merry by the 
mt'ltings of the spring, or the pourings of au autumnal rain. But 
this is not telling you what, and where, San Aliexo Is. 

It is a little valley at the foot of the Organ Mountains, thirty 

miles from Rio de Janiero. Mr. M , in whose bride, brought 

to Brazil by him from the United States last summer, I re- 
cognized with so much surprise and pleasure, my young friend, 

M G , daughter of Capt. G , of the navy, resides in 

it ; and a visit to her and her husband has led me here. My 

messmate. Captain T , of the marine corps, is an uncle of 

Mrs. M . He passed a fortnight recently at San Aliexo, and 

joined the ship again, three days ago. Mr. M accompanied 

him on board, and so earnestly urged an invitation from himself 
and my young friend to their place, that I returned with him, and 
have now, for two days, been enjoying tlieir hospitality in the 


A-ery perfection of rural life. The trip as far as Picdade, at the 
head of the bay, twenty miles from Eio, is made by water. Till 
within a year or two, the packets plying between this place and 
the city, were exclusively sharp-built and gracefully modelled 
lateen sail-boats; but now, a little steamer, scarcely larger than 
the smallest " tug " at New York, also makes a daily trip. We 
embarked on this at noon, and reached Piedade at 3 o'clock ; 
having stopped to land and receive passengers at Paqueta, the 
most beautiful of the islands in the upper part of the bay. 

The day was remarkably fine; neither too bright nor glaring for 
the enjoyment of the scenery, as is often the case in this, the mid- 
summer of the year, nor too sombre from the thickness of the 
screening clouds. There was quite a number of passengers, male 
and female, and of a variety of nations — Brazilian, Portuguese, 
French, German, Swiss, Italians, Englishmen, Americans, and 
numerous Africans, botlibond and free. The Italians were image 
venders, having witli them the long board wliich they carry on 
their heads in their travels, filled witli the plaster casts of saints 
and angels, dancing-girls and satyrs, and, for aught I observed to 
the contrary, statuettes of the Prince of Evil himself. The 
images of the saints led to conversation among some of the pas- 
sengers, long resident in the country, on the superstition and 
superstitious practices of the common people. Some of the 
anecdotes related were quite amusing. San Antonio, or St. 
Anthony, is the patron saint of the Portuguese. It is upon him 
chiefly they rely for aid in various straits and difficulties — 
especially in the recovery of lost or stolen property. The highly 
glazed and gaudily painted effigies of this saint, represent- him 
with an infant Saviour in his arms. This baby-image is not, 
however, part and parcel of the principal cast, but a separate 
piece attached to the arm of the saint by a long pin, which can 
be inserted in a hole in the plaster, and removed at pleasure. 
And for what purpose is this arrangement, do you imagine ? I 
could scarcely have credited the statement, liad not an examina- 
tion of the images corroborated it : the purpose is, that the saint, 


•when regardless of the prayers made to him for aid in any specific 
case, may bo punished by having the child taken from him ! This, 
I am assured, is often done. An additional infliction for hard- 
hearteduess or contumacy on his part, is to put his image behind 
the door with its face to the wall, or to stand it on its head, up- 
side down ! A gentleman present related the following fact, 
illustrative of a like degree of superstition. An old Portuguese, 
near whom he lived as a neighbor for a long time, and with whom 
he was familiar, said to him one day, " You Protestants do not 
believe in miracles ? " " No, not in miracles of the present day — 
do you ? " " Certainly." " And why ? " " Because I have ex- 
perienced them myself." '' Indeed ! and when was that ? " " Oh ! 
at diflferent times : once in Portugal, when I was a young man. 
Like most young fellows, I was fond of dress then, and wore a 
pair of silver shoe-buckles, of which I. was very vain. One 
Sunday having them on, I set off for chapel two or three miles 
distant, by a cross path, and when I got there, one of my buckles 
was gone. I was very much troubled ; but staid to mass, 
vowing to San Antonio, if he would get back my buckle, I would 
give him a wax candle. On my way home, I kept looking along 
the path to see whether San Antonio would hear my prayer ; and 
before I had gone half the way, there lay the buckle before me 
all right, on one side of the path. At another time I lost a 
favorite dog. I was very much grieved, and felt the loss so much, 
that one day, when walking along the road, I made a vow to San 
Antonio of a half pound of candles, if he would only bring him 
back ; and I had scarcely said the words, before my dog came 
bouncing through the hedge to me as fast as he could run ! " 
Such was the amount of the old man's experience in miracles. 

While mentally classifying my fellow-passengers, as to their 
nationality and social position, my eye rested on one of them, 
apparently some sixty years of age, whose aspect was peculiarly 
intelligent and gentlemanlike. A round jacket of blue cloth, 
trowsers of cotton striped blue and white, long boots of the 
country of undressed leather, with spurs of like fashion, a broad- 


brimmed, low-crowned, white felt hat, and a whip in hand, 
told that he was prepared to ride after reaching the landing. 

Pointing him out to Mr. M , I said, " That person, I presume, 

is a country gentleman of the first class." Looking in the 

direction indicated, he replied, " That is Admiral T ." This 

I at once perceived to be the fact; and, both of us having before 
met him, we approached with our salutations. He is an English- 
man, who left the British naval service when a lieutenant, thirty 
years ago, for that of Brazil, and has been advanced in it to the 
rank of admiral. After much important naval service, he was 
appointed adjutant-general of the Empire, during the minority 
of the Emperor, an office which he held for many years; but is 
now off duty, and on the retired list of the navy. I first met 
him in Rio in 1829; and a second time since the Congress has 
been on this station, but in so different a dress, that I did not now 
recognize him. He was on his way to a coffee plantation in the 
Organ Mountains ; his and servants being also ou board the 
steamer. His reception of us was most cordial, and his con- 
versation during the remainder of the passage, interesting and 
instructive, from a perfect knowledge of the country. No 
meals are served on board the packet, and he insisted upon our 
joining him in a Brazilian lunch, as he called it, of sausages, 
made partly of beef and partly of pork — with a strong mingling 
of garlic— stuffed in a large skin, in imitation of those of 
Bi)logna. Cheese, and bread in rolls, with oranges for dessert, 
made up the repast : all being served in most primitive style, on 
the wrappers of brown paper in which the articles had been pur- 
chased at the grocer's. Each of us used his own knife in helping 
liinjself, and all drank from a cup of silver, belonging to our host, 
which was as bruised and battered, as if it had done service for a 
wliole mess in a dozen campaigns. We ate upon deck in the 
midst of our fellow-passengers; and were waited on by a slave 
in shirt and trowsers of coarse towcloth, without shoes or hat, 
but in a livery-jacket of blue turned up with red, and a red 
waistcoat. His master seemed most kindly attached to him. 

riEDADE. 279 

paying that, " in fidelity, honesty, and in every qualification for 
his business, he was worth any twenty ordinary servants ' at 
home' " — referring, I suppose, to England. 

Piedado, the place to which the steamer plies, consists of one 
long range of buildings under a single roof, and comprises a ware- 
house, for the storage of coffee and other products on their way 
to the city, and the returns in foreign goods ; a pacloJt office ; a 
shop for the retail of articles in general demand ; and a small 
venda or tavern — the eating and sleeping-rooms of which commu- 
nicate directly with the stables and mule-stalls in the rear. Room 
for this establishment — along the front and on one end of 
•which the wharf extends — has been scooped from the base of an 
isolated, round-topped promontory, which rises from the bay, 
much in the manner, and with the general appearance of Stony 
Point, near the entrance of the Highlands on the Hudson. We 
had intended to dine here ; but the luncheon of the admiral saved 
us from all temptation on landing, from the oily di.shes of the 
dirty venda, which, rank with garlic, were spreading their perfume 
around, and we hastened to proceed on our way. 

It was quite a pleasure to see a light and tasteful wagon of 
American manufacture, with seats for two and a caleche top, in 
readiness to receive us ; and one still greater to move off in it, at 
a rapid rate, behind two fat, sleek, and spirited mules. These 
animals are much more serviceable than horses in this climate. I 
am becoming so much accustomed to their appearance, as almost 
to admire them. Some of those brought to the landing to meet 
the passengers in company with us, were beautiful; especially two 
that were milk-white, rivalling the drifted snow. The saddle- 
cloths and bridle-reins were also white, and in the most perfect 
keeping. In these animals, as well as some others, I could trace 
lines of beauty : particularly in their long and delicately shaped 
ears, their neatly shaven tails, and slender and symmetrically formed 
legs. On being mounted, they amble off, too, with their riders in 
Buch an easy and knowing way, that I am beginning to have quite 
a fancy for a well-trained beast of the kind. 


Carriage roads are not common in Brazil. That on which 
we now were, is the principal among the few iu this section of the 
empire, and leads across the mountains to the mining districts 
in tlie far interior. It is narrow, but well graded ; having the 
earth thrown up in the centre with deep and wide trenches on 
either side. It is for the most part unfenced ; enclosures by the 
wayside, wherever there are any, are formed by hedges of the 
thorny acacia, of mimosa, the running rose, the wild orange tree, 
or the hybiscus. 

The road presented a lively scene for some distance, in the 
movements on it of the passengers from the boat — some in clumsy 
carriages, but chiefly on horse and mule-back, and the poorer 
class and negroes on foot. These last, with trunks and portman- 
teaus, boxes, bundles, and diiferent kinds of packages of greater 
or less weight on their heads, walked erectly and with firm and 
rapid stride. The country between the waters of the bay and 
the foot of the mountains, a space of ten or twelve miles, is allu- 
vial, low and wet, — a sandy and marshy plain, overspread with 
brushwood and jungle, from which numerous rounded hills rise 
abruptly on every side. These, well-wooded, and partially culti- 
vated, are the sites of the few dwellings seen. The first part of 
the way presents the aspect of a region abounding iu miasma and 
mosquitoes, with few attractions as a place of residence. At the 
end of four miles is the town of Maje, situated on a small river 
of the same name. It is the head of boat navigation, and counts 
a population of three or four thousand : but seems a dull and 
inactive place, and may be summarily described as a shabby and 
dirty Portuguese town. 

Beyond Majo the country improved in appearance. The liills 
were more numerous and more swelling iu outline, and their sides 
and summits more richly tufted with foliage. Here the chief ani- 
mation of the scene consisted in long " troupes " of heavily laden 
mules with their muleteers, ou their way from the interior, or 
returning from Piedade with panniers less lieavily laden or entirely 
empty. Sume were eii route ; others, grouped under the shade 


of imtnense open sheds or ranchos, — places built at distances of a 
few iiiik's by the way>ide, for the accomiuodatiou of these troupes — 
were re.>tiiig for a brief time ; and others again, relieved from 
their burdeu.s for a longer stop, were seen eagerly seeking food, 
wherever they could tiiid it by the wayside. 

The enterprise which brought Mr. M to Brazil, and has 

made him a resident here, is the establishment of a cotton manu- 
factory ; and the road into which we turned from the great turn- 
pike, as it is called, at the end of three miles from Maje, is of his 
own construction, to facilitate the transportation of the raw 
material and manufactured goods, to and from his establishment, 
five miles distant. It is not so wide or so well graded as the 
public road, but most creditable as a private work, and a great 
advance upon the mule-track and bridle-path of former days. 
The last four miles of the drive along the rich bottom-laud of the 
Maje, and afterwards of its tributary, the Peak River, was beau- 
tiful. The narrow, lane-like road is lined closely on either side 
with green hedges, in some places of mallows covered with purple 
flowers, three or four feet only in height, and in others of the wild 
orange tree, rising to twenty and thirty. The loftier ranges of 
the mountains in front of us were hidden in clouds; still the 
wildness and beauty of the shafts which buttress them, and of the 
hills which form their bases, were more and more impressive the 
further we advanced. At length, as we turned the shoulder of a 
projecting hill, the little valley, three miles long, and half a mile 
wide, hemmed in and overhung by the wildest and loftiest peaks 
of the Organ Mountains, opened suddenly to view. To my eyes 
it was fascinating in its secluded beauty, and the wild sublimity 
of its surroundings. I can scarcely describe the efiect, from 
association, of the unexpected sight of an " American Factory," 
with its modest belfry, rising loftily and in snowy whiteness from 
the midst of green groves and briglit streams ; the cottages of 
the operatives being clustered around it; and, in a grove of 
acacias, a quarter of a mile distant, the '' American '' dwelling 
of the proprietor. I u^e the word '• American '' not in reference 


to fashion merely, but to material and constrution, the whole 
having been fitted for use in the United States. There was not 
an image, in all that gave animation to the picture, to break 
the illusion of having been suddenly transported from Brazil, 
and set down in some manufacturing glen at home. 

Mr. M 's house is situated on a natural terrace, twenty 

feet above the level of a beautiful meadow of alfalfa or Peruvian 
grass, which lies between it and the factory. A road on the bank 
of the river runs beside this, in front of the house and lawn ; and 
is a perfect specimen of the " green lane," in the English land- 
scape. Smooth, straight, and turf-covered, with a hedge of 
mimosa on the meadow side, and embowering thickets of bushea 
and trees overhanging the river on the other, it forms a strik- 
ing object in the scene : one harmonizing well with the rural 
quietude and simplicity of the whole. In the lawn, which is on 
a level with the meadow and lane, there is a fountain and fine 
jet d'eau, and upon the terrace above, another between the draw- 
ing-room windows and the grove of acacias. A garden of fruit 
and flowers on the opposite side of the house, is separated from 
it by an artificial stream, whose bed is so paved with rough stones 
as to produce a constant murmur of soft sounds, as the water 
glides over and around them. Every thing in sight, indeed, though 
the place is new, presents a picture of taste and rural beauty, 
that makes me think of the " happy valley " in Rasselas. 

It is unnecessary to say that I was most cordially received by 
my friend, whom I found in all the freshness and bloom of 
American beauty, and that I felt at once at home in her neat and 
tasteful abode. 

Dec. lUh. — At the end of three days even, I cannot resist a 
feeling of having been transported from Brazil to some mountain 
region at home. There is nothing in the general ftdiage, except 
here and there the tufted top of a palm, or the broad leaf of the 
banana, to forbid the illusion. The place, in its quietude, its 
bright meadow and green lane, edged with hedges, its river whisper- 
ing over a stony bed, beneath thicket-covered and tree-embowered 


banks, reminds me of Landsdown ; while tlie house, an importa- 
tion in all its parts from the United States ; the factory, of which 
the same is true ; and the distant hum of its busy looms and 
spindles, present a picture as strikingly characteristic of Now 

The weather is charming : clear and bright, with an occasional 
cloud of snowy whiteness Hoatiug against the deep blue of the 
sky, while breezes of grateful elasticity fim down from the 
mountain tops in the mornings and evenings, and sweep back 
through the valley with coolness from the distant sea at noonday. 
The nights, in their utter silence, are in wide contrast with those 
to which I have of late been accustomed : not a sound is heard 
but the plashings of the fountains and the murmurings of many 

The Sabbath was a day of rest indeed. I officiated at a ser- 
vice held in the hall at 11 o'clock, and would most gladly have 
attempted to make the day one of spiritual good to the operatives 
of the factory, and the numerous dependants of the establish- 
ment, by public worship with them. With the exception of 
the foreman and one or two assistants, however, all these are 
foreigners — Portuguese and Germans, whose languages I do not 
speak, and who, moreover, are chiefly Romanists, not accessible to 
a Protestant by preaching. The greatest number of those who 
are employed in the factory are females — Germans from the Im- 
perial colony of Petropolis : the male portion are Portuguese from 
Oporto and the islands of Madeira and Terceira. The house-ser- 
vants, the waiter, coachman, gardener and under-gardener, are Por-; the chambermaid, cook, and laundress, free negresses. 

There is a Romish chapel within three miles of the valley ; 
but it is closed for the most of the year, and is not frequented by 
the work-people here. The parish priest, like most others in the 
country, is living in a state of open concubinage, and is in other 
ways unpopular as to his morals. In passing through Maje, we 
met a line-looking young man, handsomely mounted, I'ollowed by 
two negroes on mules. 1 was struck with his appearance, and, 


remarking it, learned that he was a son of the padre of the place, 
the eldest of a large family. We saw the father shortly after- 
wards, and received a bow from him at a door, as he was about to 
mount his mule. This ajiimal I observed to be one of the finest 
of the kind I had seen ; and I was struck with the peculiar fashion 
of the stirrups of the saddle ; they were of polished brass, richly 
wrought, and in the form of a Turkish slipper. 

Deceviber ISth. — On Tuesday I took a ride of two miles or 
more on horseback, to the head of the little valley. This presents 
a most wild and romantic scene : making one feel, in gazing 
upon it, — while mountain piled upon mountain, and pinnacled 
rock rising above pinnacled rock, tower, almost perpendicularly, 
thousands of feet overhead, — as if you had not only passed beyond 
civilization, but had arrived at the outer edge of the world itself, 
where, by the inaccessible barriers in front and on either hand, it 
is more impressively said than even by the waves of the sea-shore, 
" Hitherto slialt tliou come, but no further." 

After passing Mr; M 's place, the only road is a mule- 
path, wide enough for a single animal, and in all respects, except- 
ing the tracks of repeated use, in the state i^ which nature formed 
it — not a stone renjoved, and not an ascent or descent, however 
abrupt and precipitous, smoothed or graded. A few scattered 
habitations formed of wattled sticks, plastered with mud, and 
thatched with grass, are seen here and there ; but less comfortable, 
apparently, and less attractive as dwellings, than tlie meanest log 
cabins on the outskirts of pioneer life in the United States. A 
few patches of mandioca, and one or two of Indian corn, alone 
indicated any cultivation of the soil, or gave evidence of a pursuit 
of industry. 

The course of the principal stream is a broad bed of wild and 
massive rocks, from one to another of which, ordinarily, you 
may step dry-shod ; but, in rains, these are covered by rush- 
ing and foaming torrents, and the stream is impassable. Tiie next 

morning Mr. M accompanied me in a second ride, up a valley 

branching to the west from this, called the Peak Valley, from a. 


remarkable peak of granite, which rises at its head : one of those 
sugar-loaf shafts, so ooiuinoa iu the geological formation of this 
region. This valley, too, is exceedingly wild, in its cliief features ; 
and is watered by a rapid stream called the Peak lliver, tributary 
10 that on which the factory stands. 

The only drawback to the entire satisfaction of my visit, for 
the fir.-^t three days, was the concealment by thick clouds, of the 
pikes or fingers as named by some, and all the higher ranges of 
the Organ Mountains which immediately overhang San Aliexo. 
These had so often been the object of admiration at a distance, 
when visible from llio, that I was impatient to behold them close 
at hand ; but had been tantalized only, by an occasional, indistinct, 
and momentary glimpse, through the mist of an opening cloud, 
of a fantastic peak or shelving precipice, standing high in tho 
heavens above us. Just at nightfall, last evening, however, the 
veil was entirely lifted, and I charmed beyond expectation by the 
scene thus disclosed : and not without reason, as even the imper- 
I'oct sketch accompanying this will show. 

I was up with the dawn this morning, and, finding the whole 
range to be still uncovered, hastened to a part of the lawn which 
commands the best view of it. The rising sun was just beginning 
to illuminate the loftiest peaks with a bright and golden light ; 
and I stood for an hour riveted to the spot, in the study and un- 
tiring admiration of a scene, gorgeous in coloring, and of 
unrivalled sublimity in its outlines. By nine o'clock the uiista 
from the valleys had again enshrouded the whole in clouds. 

Though the present is the rainy sea.son of the year, till yes^ter- 
day the weather was bright as that of June at home : but then, 
while we were at dinner, it began suddenly to pour down iu tor- 
rents; presenting every thing out of doors in a new phase. At 
the end of a couple of hours the rain ceased ; and the paths iu 
the lawn and the road soon became suSieiently dry to allow our 

taking a walk. Mr. M and 1 went to observe the efleck 

upon the river. This was surprising. From a bed of rocks, 
among which a shallow stream was lazily flowing, it had become 


a swollen and irresistible torrent : wide and deep, roaring like a 
tornado, and foaming like the sea. As we approached a venda, 
or retail store and grocery, a quarter of a mile up the valley, 
there was a shout and call for us, by several persons collected 
there, to hurry on, as if something unusual was to be seen. 
These, at the same time, set off on a run towards a point near by 
them, which commands an unobstructed view of the river above. 

Mr. M told me, as we hastened forward, that the sight was 

the approach of an additional flood of water from the mountain. 
This, though not now so remarkable in its appearance as it some- 
times is, was very singular. The mass of water tumbled by such 
showers down the precipices which hedge in the little valley, is so 
great, and rushes so suddenly into the bed of the river, as in 
itself to exhibit the appearance from bank to bank, of passing 
over a dam. The perpendicular elevation of this new body of water 
above that previously forming the surface of the stream, was a 
couple or more feet. 

We were standing at the time, near a rude mill for grinding 
the root of the mandioca, and the conversion of it into fiirina — 
the " staff of life" in Brazil ; it was in operation, and the pro- 
cess in the manufacture going on, under the management of a 
half-dozen nearly naked negroes. The mandioca is every where 
seen growing in plantations of greater or less extent, in all the 
tropical parts of Brazil. It resembles the palma christi, or castor 
oil plant, in its general appearance, more than any other growth 
that occurs to me. The leaves, though smaller and of a darker 
green, are in like manner digitated or finger-shaped, and the stem 
and branches irregular and scraggy. It grows to the height of 
four and five feet, and attains maturity at the end of eighteen or 
twenty months after being planted. The roots produce the fa- 
rina. These, at full growth, are of the size and general appear- 
ance of a large irregularly-formed parsnip. After being brought 
from the field in wide, shallow baskets, carried by the negroes on 
thoir heads, the first operation is to scrape off the outer skin 
with a knife. In this state the root is very white and pure in 


looks, bnt poisonous in acrid juices. A rasp or coarse grater is 
BO arranged as to be turned by a water-wlieel ; against this the 
root is held, and becoming finely grated, falls into a trough or tub 
of water, prepared to receive it, and is reduced to a pulp. In 
this state, it is placed in baskets and pressed with heavy weights, 
till freed from the water and its own juices. It is then dried, 
broken up or powdered, sifted through a coarse sieve, and placed 
in a very large flat iron pan, having a furnace with slow heat 
beneath. In this it is thoronghly dried, without being allowed 
to scorch or burn. It is then put in bags for use or sale. 

One of the effects of the rain, was the appearance of numer- 
ous cascades and temporary waterfalls on the tops and sides of 
the mountains. I dare not venture to guess even, at the extent 
of some of these. They foam down their courses, white as drift- 
ing snow, and look beautiful, amid the deep green of the forests, 
and the dark precipices over which they pour. 

The history of Mr. M s enterprise in the introduction of 

cotton-spinning and weaving, here, is quite interesting, and has 
caused me to look upon him as a pioneer in such business, well 
worthy the reputation of our countrymen for energy, invention, 
and indomitable perseverance ; and an instructive example of the 
importance of a fixed purpose for the accomplishment of an end. 
He met, at first, with a succession of disappointments and unex- 
pected obstacles, which would have utterly disheartened and 
broken down a spirit less determined, and less elastic than his own. 
Brought up in mercantile pursuits without practical knowledge in 
mechanics or manufacture, he determined, in 184G, to atteinpt 
the establishment of a cotton factory in Brazil. A gentleman 
from llio, then in New York, encouraged him in the project, by 
the assurance that the vicinity of llio furnished ample water- 
power for the object ; that, abounding in hills and mountains, 
streams of water in sufficient volume, were in various places 
poured down. The Brazilian minister at Washington, also ex- 
pressed great interest in the subject, and by way of encourage- 
ment to Mr. M , gave him a copy of an act, passed by tlie 


Imperial Legislature in 1842, by -uhich all machinery for manu- 
facturing purposes of the kind, was exempted from duty. Under 
these auspices, he expended capital to a large amount, in the ne- 
cessary machinery, in materials for the large structure in which it 

was to be put up, and in the freight of both to Rio. Mr. M 

hastened in advance to Brazil, to make choice of a site for the 
establishment, and secure it by purchase : but only to meet a first 
disappointment. The streams on which his Brazilian friend had 
relied, as abundantly ample in water-power, would have scarcely 

sufiBiced, as Mr. M expressed it, to water the mules necessary 

in the work. An exploration of the entire region within 
thirty miles of Rio became necessary, for the discovery of 
an unfailing stream, with water sufficient to turn a large wheel, 
and in a situation to be available. He could gain no information 
on the point upon which he could rely, and was obliged to 
make the search in person, through woods and wilds, and over 
marshes and moors, and in ignorance, at the time, of the language 
of the country. A month thus occupied, brought to his know- 
ledge two supplies of water only, that would answer his purpose : 
one at Tejuca, nine or ten miles from Rio, and another in the di- 
rection of Petropolis, a colony of Germans in the mountains. 
That at Tejuca, besides being already leased for other purposes, 
was inaccessible except by mules as means of transportation, and 
therefore, not to be thought of; the other was the private pro- 
perty of the Emperor, and not obtainable in any way. 

Such were the prospects of Mr. M , with fifty tliousand 

dollars worth of material on its way to Rio, accompanied by sev- 
eral workmen under high pay, for the erection of the necessary 
buildings, and to put the machinery into an available condition. 
After all other search had proved in vain, he was accidentally led 
to this valley, and unexpectedly here found much, if not all, he 
was looking for. About the same time, the shipment from the 
United States arrived ; but, notwithstanding the decree furnished 
him by the Brazilian minister, declai'iug such articles free, tho 
officials at the Custom House pertinaciously demanded the duty 


upon thcni. This, according to the tariff, like most of the im- 
posts here ou any thing foreign, was high, and would have mate- 
rially increased his expenditure. The only alternative was an 
application for relief in the case, to the minister having cogni- 
sance of such affairs.' Those in official position in Brazil, from 
the Minister of State to the most insignificant employe of a 
bureau, hold the dignity ^conferred in high estimation, and are 
inaccessible in proportion to their rank. Three months elapsed 

before Mr. M could gain the audience sought; and then, 

only to be told, that the exemption referred to in the decree of 
the Imperial legis^lature, was exclusively for the benefit of persons 
who had already established factories and needed additional 
machinery; not for those who were introducing machinery for a 
new establishment. The decision, therefore, was that the duties 
must be paid ; but, for the law in the case, he was referred to 
the attorney-general of the empire. This dignitary condescended 

to grant Mr. M an audience at the end of an additional six 

weeks; but decided with the minister, that the duties must be 
paid, or at least, deposited with the collector of customs till the 
factory should be in operation. Thus, though the enterprise was 
one of great importance to the interests of the country, and such 
as should at once have secured the favor and aid of the govern- 
ment, the entire material necessary for carrying it into execution, 
was kept fur nine months in the hands of the custom-house offi- 
cers, greatly exposed to rust and injury, and only released on the 
payment of several thousands of dollars. It would occupy too 
much time to pursue the history of the enterprise in detail : in 
the construction of a dam across the river at a great outlay of 
money and labor, only to have it swept away by a flood from the 
mountains ; in the consequent necessity of digging a long race- 
way along the base of tl/c hills, without the possibility of secur- 
ing the adequate nuuiber of laborers, white or black; and also, of 
making the road of five miles to the turnpike. Over this last work, 
when finished, the wholu of the material for the factory building 
and the machinery, among which a single piece — the shaft of the 


great wheel — weighed 7000 lbs., was to be transported, without 
any of tlie facilities, so commou with us, for accom])lishing it. 

The mechanics and artisans, brought from the United States for 
the erection of the building, were found to be incompetent in many 

xespects ; and the result was, that Mr. M was obliged himself 

to perform much of the manual labor even, and instead of plan- 
ning, devising, and superintending only, to become practically a 
carpenter, mason, machinist ; and even freightmaster and carter, as 
no one around him, whose aid he could secure, knew what course 
to pursue in an emergency, or even in any common difficulty that 
might occur : he was obliged first to discover how a thing was to 
be done, and then do it himself Still he persevered through every 
discouragement and disaster, till his efi^orts were crowned with 
full success, and the factory was early in operation. 

Though it is only in the more common fabrics in cotton that 
the manufacturer here can yet compete with British and American 
goods ; and the article chiefly produced, thus far, is a coarse 
cloth for coffee bagging and the clothes of slaves, he deserves a 
medal of honor from the government, and the patronage of the 
empire, not only for the establishment of the manufixctory, but 
for the living example set before a whole Province of the indo- 
lent and sluggish natives, of Yankee energy, ingenuity, indefati- 
gable industry, and unyielding perseverance. 


Rio de Janeiko. 

December ZOili. — It was tjuitc a trial to bid adieu to the 
charms of San Aliexo. My kind host and hostess were earnest 
in their persuasions to detain me through the holidays ; and I 
would most readily have yielded, but for an engagement to offici- 
ate, on Christmas morning, at the marriage of Miss K , the 

daughter of the American consul, to Mr. R of the family 

of that name, already so often mentioned. The groom, though a 
native of Brazil, claims, through his father, the rights of a British 
subject ; and the civil contract took place, in conformity with an act 
of parliament, in the presence of the British consul, at his office, 
at an early hour of the day. The marriage was afterwards sol- 
emnized by me, according to the Protestant service, in the draw- 
ing-room of the American consulate ; and, Mr. R being a 

Romanist, a third ceremony occurred, as at the wedding of Miss 
R , his sister, last August, in the private chapel of the coun- 
try house of Mr. M , his maternal grandfather. 

The company assembled at the consulate was large, and the 
retinue of carriages by which it was conveyed the long drive to 
Mr. M 's, quite imposing. Four-in-hand is the usual turn- 
out here, for such a distance, and Mr. Schenck, the American min- 
ister, led the way, next after the bride and groom, in an ele- 
gant chariot drawn by four beautiful white horses. Commodore 


McKeever's carriage had four fine mules. I was of his party. The 
sky was slightly overcast with fleecy clouds, and the coachniaii's 
box being so lofty as to overlook the walls and hedges, which 
screen so much of the taste and beauty of the suburbs from view 
on the level of the street, in defiance of every Brazilian idea of 
dignity, I perched myself upon it, for the greater enjoyment of 
the drive. The day being a general festival, the whole popula- 
tion of the city was iu the streets in holiday dress ; and in the 
extended suburbs through which we skirted our way, the inhabi- 
tants — by whole families — were everywhere seen in the verandahs 
and lawns and door-yards of the houses, iu the cheerful and quiet 
enjoyment of the fiesta. A fondness for splendor and display of 
every kind — in dress, furniture and equipage — is strikingly a 
characteristic of the people here ; and the showy procession, 
recognized as a bridal cortege, created quite a sensation as it 
dashed onward — manifestly exciting the admiration and lively 
sympathies of the observers. 

From my elevated and unconfined position, I enjoyed the 
■whole much ; and feasted, the entire distance, on tlic gorgeous 
display of flowers, exhibited in the succession of tasteful gardens 
and pleasure-grounds which I overlooked. 

The mansion and grounds of Mr. M I described to you 

in connection with the previous wedding. The religious ceremony 
now, was the same iu every particular, from the scattering of the 
rose leaves and orange buds before the bride in the procession 
from the drawing-room to the chapel, to the showering of the 
same over her and the whole company, with the closing benedic- 
tions at the altar. A concert in the nmsic-room immediately 
succeeded the ceremony, and continued till the banquet was served 
at six o'clock. This was more luxurious, if po.'jsible, in the vari- 
ety and costliness of its delicacies, native and foreign, in season 
and out of season, than on the former occasion ; and superb in 
its table-service and plate. The decorations in flowers alone, 
would, in a less favored climate, have formed no inconsiderable 
item of expense ; wliile the fruits, iu the perfection of their kinds 


— all freshly gathered — pines, figs, oranges, sweet-lemons, grapes 
in clusters like those of Eshcol, bananas, mangoes, and melons, 
were most artistically arranged. After coffee in the drawing- 
room, dancing was commenced ; and, taking our leave, we were 
safely on board ship shortly after ten o'clock. 

Thus passed my Christmas, and thus is our compatriot. Miss 
K , married ; and, in the language of the world, " well mar- 
ried." But alas ! married in Brazil : away from an American 
home ; away from the intelligence and high cultivation of Ameri- 
can life ; away from the pure morals, spiritual aspirations, and 
religious privileges of American Christianity ; away from almost 
every thing that I would wish an American girl to hold most 
dear ! 

January 1th, 1852. — This festive period of the year presents 
constant opportunities of witnessing the slave and negro popula- 
tion in holiday aspects. For many niglits past, Gloria Hill, at 
which the Commodore's barge usually lands in our evening visits 
to the shore, has echoed till a late hour with the songs, the wild 
music, and the tread of the dance in their favorite amuse- 
ments ; and yesterday aftgrnoon, I accidentally became a specta- 
tor of a grand gathering of the kind. It was " Twelfth" or 
" King's day," as sometimes called, — being that commemorative 
of the adoration of the Magi in the stable of Bethlehem ; and is 
a chief festival with the negroes. 

I left the ship with the intention of taking, once more, the long 
walk through the valley of the Larangeiras to the aqueduct, 
and thence to the city by the hill of Santa Theresa. When about 
halfway up the Larangeiras, however, my attention was arrested 
by a large gathering of negroes within an enclosure by the way- 
side, engaged in their native, heathen dances, accomiianied by the 
wild and rude music brought with them from Africa. I stopped 
to witness the scene : a counterpart, in most re.^pccts, to those 
which, during the first period of my residence at the Sandwich 
Islands, attended the orgies of pagan revelry there. Many of 
the principal performers, both among the dancers and musicians, 


were dressed in the most -wild and grotesque manner — some, as if 
in impersonation of the Prince of Evil himself, as pictui-ed with 
hoof and horns and demoniac mien. Many of the dances surpassed 
in revolting licentiousness, any thing I recollect to have witnessed 
in the South Seas ; and filled my mind with melancholy disgust : 
the more so, from the fact, that a majority, if not all the perform- 
ers, as was manifest from the crosses and amulets they wore, 
were baptized members of the Romish Church — Christians in 
name, but in habits and in heart heathens still. Exhibitions of 
this kind are far from being limited here to extraordinary holi- 
days, or to the seclusion of by-places. I have seen them in open 
daylight, in the most public corners of the city, while young 
females even, of apparent respectability and modesty, hung over 
the surrounding balconies as spectators. 

I know not how long the revelry had now been going on ; but 
either from the free use of cacha, the vile rum of the country, or 
from nervous excitement, many seemed fairly beside themselves. 
These danced till ready to drop from exhaustion ; while shouts of 
encouragement and applause followed the persevering efforts of 
those who were most enduring and most frantic in muscular exer- 
tion. The performers on the African drums and other rude 
instruments, who accompanied the monotonous beating and thrum- 
ming upon these with loud songs, in solo and chorus, of similar 
character, seemed especially to enter into the spirit of the revel- 
ry, and labored with hands and voice and a vehemence of action 
in their whole bodies, that caused the sweat to roll down their 
naked limbs as if they had just stepped from a bath of oil. 

By the time I had finished these observations, the evening 
was too far advanced for the walk upon which I had started, and 
I retraced my steps to the Catete, the principal street, connecting 
the city with the bay and suburbs of Botefogo. In it, towards 
evening, the wealth and fashion of the city, especially in the diplo- 
matic and foreign circles, is generally met in carriages and on 
horseback for tlie daily afternoon drive. Many of the equipages 
equal iu elegance those in New York and other of our chief 


cities ; •while well-mounted riders, liveried coachmen, footmen, and 
grooms, give to the whole quite the air of a metropolis. That, 
however, which most struck me on the present occasion, was an 
amusing side-scene. Though less generally the custom than for- 
merly, it is still the habit of some of the bourgeoisie of Rio, at 
least on Sundays and great holidays, to promenade to and from 
church, by whole families, parents and children, from adults to in- 
fants, with a retinue of servants — in their best dresses, and in formal 
procession of two and two. The sight thus presented is interest- 
ing, and often amusing, from the formality and stately solemnity 
with which they move along. The servants bring up the rear, and, 
whether male or female, are usually as elaborately, if not as ex- 
pensively dressed as the rest of the family : and often, in the case 
of the women, with an equal display of laces, muslins, and showy 
jewelry. Apparently in imitation of this usage of the white pop- 
ulation — or rather of the Portuguese and Brazilian, for there are 
no whites among the native born here — two jet black African 
women, richly and fashionably attired, came sauntering along 
with the most conscious air of high-bred self-possession. They 
were followed by a black female servant, also in full dress, carry- 
ing a black baby three or four months old, and decked out in all 
the finery of au aristocratic heir — an elaborately wrought, lace- 
frilled and ro.setted cap, and long flowing robe of thin muslin 
beautifully embroidered, and ornamented with lace. Every one 
seemed struck with this display ; and I was at a loss to determine 
whether it was a bona fide exhibition of the pride of life, or 
only in burlesque of it, with the design of " shooting folly as 
it flies." The common blacks, crowding the doors and gate- 
ways, burst into shouts of laughter as they passed ; while the 
nurse, at least, of the party showed evidence of a like di.sposi- 
tion. Indeed, I think I did not mistake, while looking back 
upon the group, in seeing the fat sides and shoulders of the black 
ladies themselves, notwithataudiug their lofty bearing and stately 
step, shake with merriment, under the slight drapery of their 
fashionable and elegantly finished mantillas. 


These may have been persons of wealth, and of respectable 
and even fashionable position in society ; for color docs not fix 
the social position here, as with us at home. It is a striking fact, 
that in a country where slavery exists in its most stringent form, 
there is little of the Anglo-Saxon prejudice in this respect, so 
universal in the United States. Condition, not color, regulates the 
grades in social life. A slave is a menial, not because he is black, 
but because he is a slave. In Brazil, all the avenues to wealth and 
office are open to the freeman of color, if he has character and 
talents, and the ability to advance in them. As I recollect to have 
stated before, the officers of the standing army and of the municipal 
guards and militia, exhibit every shade of color as they stand side 
by side in their ranks ; and I learn from Gov. Kent, that the lead- 
ing lawyer of Rio is a mulatto. Some of the members of Congress, 
too, bear evidence of negro blood ; and the Governor says, that he 
has met at the Imperial balls in the palace the " true ebony and 
topaz " in " ladies and gentlemen black as jet," yet glittering, 
like the rest, with diamonds. 

As to the general treatment of slaves by their owners, it pro- 
bably does not diffiir in Brazil from that exhibited wherever 
there is irresponsible power. House-servants in Rio are said to 
have easy times, and to do very much as they please ; but to 
judge by the instances I have seen of field laborers, I fear such 
have but a sad and wearisome life. 

The eventual efi'ect of the abolition of the slave trade, will 
doubtless be to ameliorate the treatment of the slaves, and par- 
ticularly that of their children. In former years, when the price 
of a slave was only a hundred and twenty milreis, or about sixty 
dollars, it seemed to have passed into a settled principle, as a 
mere matter of profit and pecuniary calculation, that it was cheaper 
to " use up" the blacks by constant hard labor, and by extorting 
from them the utmost profit, and when they sunk under it to 
make new purchases, than to raise children or to extend the term 
of service by more moderate labor ; but now, when the price of 
a slave has advanced to six and seven hundred dollars, the esti- 


mates in the economy of the case will be different ; and both 
parents and children will fare better. 

The incidental mention of the annoyance experienced by 

Mr. M of San Aliexo, in getting admittance into the country 

of the machinery requisite for the establishment of his factory, 
except by the payment of enormous duties, reminds me of noting 
some facts connected with the regulations of the Custom House 
here, derived from authority on the subject so reliable as my 
friend, the American Consul. These are a source of continual 
disgust to foreigners, particularly to masters of vessels, and those 
engaged in maritime matters. They are fifty years behind the 
age : reach to every minute particular, and seem to be framed 
with especial reference to fines and penalties. Indeed, one of 
the items in the annual estimates of expected receipts by the 
government, is fines on. foreign vessels; and to seize and fine, 
appears to be a fixed purpose of the o£&cials. A few pounds of 
tea, a pig, cups and saucers, and other small articles of the kind, 
not on the list of stores, or in the judgment of the visiting in- 
spector an extra number for the size of the vessel, are at once 
seized and sold at auction at the Custom House door, to swell 
the receipts of the Imperial treasury. It is said that nothing but 
a metallic substance, held before the eyes, or placed in the palm 
of the hands, will prevent these petty seizures. Sometimes the 
articles seized are of considerable worth, and, in addition to the 
loss of their value, would lead to the imposition of a heavy fine. 
2so discrimination or distinction seems to be made between cases 
of accident, ignorance, good faith and honest intentions, and those 
of designed and evident attt-mpts to smuggle or to evade the law. 

It makes no difference whether there is more or less in the 
shipment than the manifest calls for; if too much, then it is 
evidence of a design to smuggle the excess — if too little, it is 
evidence of fraud on the other side. The bed they make is that 
of Procrustes. If there is a barrel of flour — or any other ar- 
ticle — more or less in the car^ro than in the manifest, a forfeiture 
and fiiie fuUow with unyielding certainty. One regulation is, 


that a master shall give in a list of his stores within twenty-four 
hours after his arrival. This, it is expected, will include every 
thing. But it is impossible to know to what extent at times the 
regulation will be carried. In one instance, recently, a hawser — 
which had been used, and was in a long coil on deck, ready for 
immediate use again, and was necessary for the safe navigation 
of the ship, — was seized, on the ground that it was not in the list 
rendered. The master remonstrated, and set forth the facts — 
protesting that he should as soon have included his masts and 
boats, his anchors and cables, as this hawser ; but all the authori- 
ties of the Custom House refused to give it up, and the vessel 
sailed without it. It was only after the question had been pend- 
ing a long time before the higher authorities, on the strong 
representation of the American Minister, that restoration to the 
proper owners was made. 

No person is allowed to go on board any vessel, before the 
discharge of the cargo, without a custom house permit. A poor 
sailor, a Greek by birth, who came here in an American vessel, 
and was discharged at Ivis own request, was passing an English 
vessel in a boat a few days afterwards, and being tliirsty, asked 
for a drink of water : the man on board told him to come up the 
side and get it. He did so, and after drinking the water returned 
to his boat. A guard-boat saw and arrested him. He pleaded 
entire ignorance of the regulation of the port, but in vain : he 
was fined a hundred milreis, and being unable to pay, was 
sentenced to be imprisoned one hundred days, or at the rate of a 
day for each milreis of the fine. He was eventually released, 
however, through the intervention of Gov. Kent, 

Even tlie consul of a foreign nation must obtain a written 
permit before he can visit a vessel of his own nation, till she is 
discharged. The permit in any case is in force only for a single 
day. It must, too, be stamped at a cost of eight cents. Indeed, 
every paper of an ofl&cial nature must be stamped. No note or 
bill of exchange is valid, unless stamped within thirty days of its 
date : the duty or the stamp being proportioned to the amount 


of the note or bill. The revenue derived by the government from 
this source, is, of course, large. 

The want of confidence, indicated by the minuteness and 
rigid exactraent of these custom-house regulations, is said to 
be a characteristic trait of the people. There is great external 
civility towards each other; many bows are exchanged, and 
frequent pinches of snuff, and there is an abundance of polite 
and complimentary speech ; but, full and frank confidence in the 
intentions, purposes and words of those with whom they deal, 
seems to be greatly wanting. Some light may be gained upon this 
point from the fact that by public opinion, by the criminal code, 
and by the actual administration of the law, offences against the 
person are looked upon as of a higher grade than the crimen 
falsi. To strike a man in the street with the open palm, and 
even under extreme provocation, is the great crime next to mur- 
der ; and so of all offences against the person. An assault is 
considered an insult and an indignity, as well as a breach of the 

Direct stealing is visited with condign punishment; but all the 
crimes coming under the charge of obtaining money or goods 
under false pretences, and those involving forgery, lying, deception 
and fraud of all kinds, seem to meet with more lenient treatment. 
Convictions in cases of such crimes are not often obtained, and 
when they are, the sentences are very light. A short time ago, 
a very congratulatory article was inserted in the newspapers 
intended in perfect seriousness as a warning to evil doers, which 
called public attention to the gratifying fact, that two men had 
been convicted of gross perjury in swearing in court, and had each 
been sentenced to imprisonment for one month ! 

It is but just, however, to say, that in no country is there 
greater security for person and property. Though petty theft is 
not uncommon, robbery is almost unknown ; and offences involving 
violence, daring, and courage of a reckless kind, are very infre- 

The recent trial of a foreigner on a charge of murder, gave 


me an opportunity of observing the process in tlie criminal court. 
The preliminary measures after an arrest for crime, are somewhat 
similar to those which are taken in like cases, before a magistrate 
at home. The party is arraigned and verbally examined by the 
suhdelegado^ or justice of the district in which the crime charged 
has been commited. This examination is reduced to writing. 
The accused is asked his age, his business, and other questions, 
more or less varied and minute, at the discretion and pleasure of 
the justice. He is not compelled to answer, but his silence may 
lead to unfavorable inferences against him. After the examina- 
tion of the prisoner himself, witnesses are examined. If these 
are foreigners, the official translator of the government attends, 
to translate the answers, all of which are written down by the 
clerk. The witnesses are sworn on the Evangelists, the open 
hand being placed on the book, but this is not kissed as with us 
One custom struck me favorably, in comparison with the business- 
like and mere matter of form mode of administering an oath in 
courts at home. In every instance here, all rise — court, officers, 
bar and spectators, and stand during the ceremony. All rise, 
too, and stand while the jury retires. 

After the preliminary examination is completed, the magistrate 
decides whether or not the accused shall be held for trial ; and 
submits the papers with his decision to a superior officer, who 
usually confirms it, and the accused is imprisoned, or released on 

It is only in criminal cases that a jury forms a part of the 
judicial administration. As witli us, it consists of twelve men. 
Forty-eight are summoned for the term; and the panel for each 
trial is selected by lot, the names being drawn by a boy, who 
hands the paper to the pi-esiding judge. In capital cases, chal- 
lenges are allowed, without the demand of cause. The jury being 
sworn and empanelled, the prisoner is again examined by the 
judge, sometimes at great length and with great minuteness, not 
only as to his acts, but to his motives. The record of the former 
proceedings, including all the testimony, is then read. If either 


party desire, the witnesses may bo again examined, if present, but 
they are not bound over, as with us, to appear at the trial. 
Hence the examination of the accused and of the witnesses at 
the preliminary process, is very important and material. In 
many instances, the case is tried and determined entirely upon 
the record, as it comes up. 

After reading the record, the government introduces such 
witnesses as it sees fit, and the prosecuting officer addresses the 
jury. The defendant then introduces his witnesses, and his advo- 
cate addresses the jury, sometimes at considerable length. The 
prosecuting attorney, if he desires it again, speaks in reply ; and 
Bometimes the argument becomes rather colloquial and tart, the 
questions and answers being bandied rather sharply. 

The judge charges the jury briefl}-, and gives them a series 
of questions in w^riting, to be answered ou the return of the 
verdict. The decision of the case is by majority — unanimity not 
being required, even in criminal cases. The questions put by the 
judge relate not merely to acts, but to motives, character, and 
other things, which may extenuate or aggravate the offence and 
sentence, and cover usually the whole case in all direct and remote 
accessories. A case begun, is always finished without an adjourn- 
ment of the court, though it should continue through the day 
and entire night. 

In the arrangement of the court-room, the judge with his 
clerk sits on one side, and the prosecuting officer on the other ; 
the jury at semi-circular tables on cither side. Two tribunes are 
erected, one at the end of each table, for the lawyers engaged in 
the case ; these usually address the jury sitting. The lawyers 
not engaged in the suit in hand, are accommodated in a kind of 
pew, under the gallery, which a stranger would be likely, at first, 
to take for the criminal's box or bar. 

Public executions very seldom occur. There seems to be a 
repugnance to the taking of human life, if there is any possible 
chance to substitute imprisonment for life, or a term of years. 
Every point of excuse or mitigation is seized upon. One cannot 


wonder at this, when he regards the mode of capital punishment, 
the barbarous and revolting one of Portugal and Spain — a relie 
of barbarism, in which the condemned is ordered up a ladder 
under the gallows, and then forced to jump oflf, when another man 
immediately ascending, mounts the slioulders of the poor wretch, 
and jumps up and down upon him, with his hand over his mouth 
till he is dead. Those who have witnessed it, represent it as a 
most awful and revolting spectacle. This executioner is usually 
a criminal condemned himself to death, who is allowed to live by 
agreeing to perform the savage act when required. The old 
Portuguese custom of gratifying every wish of the condemned, 
as to food and clothing, is still retained ; and for the twenty-four 
hours preceding his execution, the poorest black slave can order 
whatever in these respects his fancy dictates : segars, and wine, 
and luxuries of every kind are at his command. 


January 30^^. — Intelligence from the Plata led to the return 
of the Congress to this place, on the 2-4th inst. Mr. Schenck, 
American Minister at the court of Brazil, came passenger with us, 
as the guest of Commodore McKeever. 

During the three months of our absence, public interest, in 
political and military aflfairs, has been gradually centering at 
Buenos Ay res. The siege of Montevideo being raised, and the 
Argentine troops which had so long invested her having become 
part and parcel of the army of Urquiza, and been withdrawn by 
him to the territory of which he is captain-general, preparations 
have been in gradual process for a demonstration against Rosas, 
l)y the combined forces of Entre llios and Brazil. Aware of this, 
every effort has been made by the wary Dictator, to rally his parti- 
sans, to give fresh force to the prestige of his name, and to excite 
the popular feeling in his favor. To aid in this, all the winning 
power of his accomplished daughter, has been brought forward. 
To afford better room for its exercise, a public ball of great 
magniticence was given at the new opera-house iu Buenos Ayrea 


At this. Dona Manuclita held a kind of court; and, after having 
received throughout its course the homage of a queen, was, at its 
close, drawn iu a triumphal car, by the young men of the city, to 
the governmental mansion. New levies of troops had been raised 
and drilled, and the whole city and country placed under martial 

A fortnight ago, Urquiza and the allied army of thirty thou- 
sand, crossed the Parana without opposition ; and, invading the 
province of Buenos Ay res, advanced within twenty miles of the 
city. It is now a week since Rosas, leaving Palermo at the head 
of twenty thousand soldiers, took the field in person, to oppose his 
further progress. It is said that previous to the march, Dona 
Manuclita, attired iu a riding-dross of scarlet velvet embroidered 
with gold, and splendidly mounted, reviewed the troops ; and, like 
Queen P^lizabeth on the approach of the Spanish Armada, de- 
livered to them an animated and inspiriting address. 

A crisis, it is evident, is not for distant ; and all is intense 
expectation. The universal impression is, that Rosas must fall. 
It is believed that there is treachery around him. An advance 
guard, in command of Pachecho, one of his best generals, has 
been defeated under circumstances which leads to the belief that, 
like Oribe at Montevideo, this oflacer had a secret understanding 
with Urquiza ; and that the issue at Buenos Ayres will speedily 
be the same as that which occurred here four months ago — the 
triumph of Urquiza, through the desertion to him of the oppos- 
ing soldiery. 

This state of affairs led Mr. Schenck and Commodore 

McKeever, with Secretary G , to proceed at once to Buenos 

Ayres. Captain Taylor of the marines was of the party, a company 
from the guard of the Congress under his command havhig, with 
Lieut. Holmes, been ordered to Buenos Ayres by the Commodore 
for the protection of American citizens and their property, 
in case of the overthrow of the existing power. As the crew are 
to have general liberty on shore here, during the pas.siug fort- 
night — a time when my vocation for good seems to be suspended, 


ami which, both on shipboard and on shore, is to me ever one of 
trial — I was urged much to accompany the party. Two reasons, 
however, forbade this — one, the still precarious state of a lad, 
Avho, the day we entered the river, fell from a height of ninety- 
six feet to the deck, without being killed outright ; and the other, 

an engagement to officiate at the marriage of Dr. W , one of 

the assistant surgeons of the Congress, to my friend, G 

H , a daughter of the American Consul. This is appointed 

for the 5th of February, till when, at least, I must remain at 

I have been twice only on shore — once with Captain Pearson, 
to accompany him in an official call ; and again, one afternoon for 
a short walk. I had not intended being away from the ship more 
than an hour ; but, shortly after attempting to return, when not a 
half mile from the shore, a furious tempest came rushing upon us. 
There was no alternative but to return to the landing before it. 
It was so sudden and so violent, that before the boat could well 
be secured within the mole by the crew, the whole bay was in a 
foam, and a heavy sea rolling over it. It was impossible to com- 
municate with the ship the next day; and the following night was 
still more tempestuous. The hotels of the city afford but indif- 
ferent accommodations ; and I availed myself in the detention 

of tlie ever free hospitality of Mr. F . I improved the 

opportunity, too, by calling on the various families of the British 
Church before I should meet them again at the services of the 
chapel on the Sabbath. The last day, however, was taken 
up wholly in reading with absorbing and affecting interest, a 
manuscript loaned rae by Mr. Lafone, and recently received by 
him from Terra del Fuego. I mentioned, under a date at Rio 
six months or nine ago, the arrival there of H. B. M. ship Dido, 
on her way to the Paciflc, with orders from the admiralty to 
visit Terra del Fuego and the adjacent small islands, in search 
of a compsiny of missionaries who had gone from England 
the year previous, but from whom nothing had been heard. A 
schooner chartered by Mr. Lafone, and sent by him about that 


time with the same object, anticipated the errand of the man-of- 
war, with mehmclioly result. The whole party, consisting of 
Captain Gardiner of the Royal Navy, Mr. Williams, a physician, 
Mr. Maidcuant, a catechist, and four boatmen, perished from 
huiigi-r and exposure, in the inclemency of the last winter there. 
The graves of some were found, and the unburied bodies of the 
rest. Among the effects is the full journal of Mr. Williams, from 
the time of his departure from England, till within a few days, 
as is supposed, of the death of the whole.* 

Their object was the conversion and civilization of the poor 
degraded savages of those dreary and forbidding regions. Though 
Captain Gardiner, the projector and leader of the enterprise, had 
navigated the waters of Cape Horn, and become familiar with 
the region while on service in the navy, he was ignorant of the 
language of the natives, and was without an interpreter. Failing 
to establish friendly relations with the brutish people, the whole 
party became impressed with the idea, either with or without 
sufficient cause, that their lives were in jeopardy from them ; and, 
abandoning the sliore, in a great measure, they took to the water 
in frail and ill-appointed boats. In these they fled from bay to bay, 
and from islet to islet, till worn out with fatigue and exhausted 
from want of food, they fell victims to sickness, starvation, and 
death. Mr. Williams, to whose journal the remark I first made 
refers, abandoned, at very short notice, a handsome practice in hia 
profession, a choice circle of friends, and a happy home in 
England, for the enterprise of philanthropy in which he so soon 
perished. From the record he has left it is evident that he was 
a deeply experienced and devout Christian : simple-minded, 
frank, and pure in heart. In this faithful diary, every thought 
and feeling of his inmost soul seems fully unbosomed. His faith 
never failed him, under the most afllictive and dispiriting trials; 
and his soul continued to be triumphantly joyous amidst the 
most grievous destitution and suffering of the bod}-. I read the 

* See Memoir of Richard Williams, published by the Messrs. Carter. 


details of the journal as penned in the original manuscript by 
such a man with intense interest ; and came off to the ship, deeply 
impressed in mind and heart, with the sadness of the tragedy 
which put an end to the record. 


BCES08 Atreb. 

February l'2th. — Public events here, for the last few days, 
have been more exciting in their progress, and more important in 
their issues, than any that have occurred on the Plata for many 
years. On the evening of the 4th inst., the Hon. Mr. Schcnck 
arrived from Buenos Ayres on his return to Brazil. He boarded 
the Congress from the steamer in which he came, announcing, as 
he crossed the gangway, the utter overthrow of llosas by Urquiza, 
" foot, horse and dragoons ! " as he expressed it. This had 
occurred on the morning of the preceding day. He left the city 
the same evening, when thou.sauds of mounted troops were pouring 
through it in rapid flight, before the victorious pursuers. It was 
not yet known whether Rosas had fallen in battle, was a prisoner, 
or had made a safe escape. 

Before the arrival in Buenos Ayres of Mr. Schenck and 
Commodore McKeever, he had left for the camp, ten miles distant ; 
and they did not see him. They were twice at Palermo, however, 
on visits to Dona Manuelita ; once before any collision between 
the hostile forces had taken place ; and again on the evening of 
the 1st inst., when it was known that an advanced guard of six 
thousand Buenos Ayrean troops, under General Pachecho, had 
been routed the day previous, and the general made prisoner • a 
foreboding shadow of the coming event. Till then, Manuelita had 


sustained her position with great spirit and energy ; receiving all 
visitors — official, diplomatic, and private — as usual, in the saloons 
of the Quinta, and conducting with ability and despatch the 
affairs of the Home Department of the government. Toward 
the close of the last named evening, however, when surrounded 
by those only who were in her immediate confidence, tears might 
occasionally be seen trembling in her eye, or stealing down her 
cheek ; but only to be dashed away on the approach of any from 
whom she would conceal the weakness. It was now well known 
to her that a general and decisive battle might at any hour take 
place ; and that Palermo, immediately in the line of march from 
the point of contest to the city, was no longer a place of safety 
for her. The night was one of splendid moonlight in midsummer, 
and among others. Commodore McKeever and Mr. Schenck re- 
mained with her till a late hour of the evening. Before they 
left, a walk in the flower-garden was proposed by her ; and, tak- 
ing the arm of Mr. Schenck, she led the way to the rose-covered 
arbor mentioned in my visit last year. Standing within it in 
silence for a few moments, she said — " This is my choicest retreat 
at Palermo ; it is here that I come alone, to be alone ; and I am 
here now for the last time, perliaps forever ! " adding, as the tears 
fell rapidly down her face, upturned to the moon, as if in appeal to 
Heaven for her sincerity, " I leave Palermo to-night ! Whatever 
the issue of the morrow is to be, I know our cause to be just, and 
believe that God will give to it success ! " In this, however, she 
was mistaken. That, the next day but one, was utterly de- 
feated; and the following midnight witnessed her flight with 
her father disguised as an English marine, and she in the dress 
of a sailor boy — not from Palermo only, but from her city and 
country, without even a change of clothes, to find safety and a 
conveyance to distant exile, under the protection of the British 

But this is anticipating the order of events. Rumors of the 
defeat, on the 1st instant, of the vanguard of the army of Rosas, 
or some disaster of the kind, reached the city ou Sunday 


evening, the 2d inst. — the night on which Maniiclita forsook 
Palermo. It produced little impression on the public mind, 
however; and on Monday the shops were open, and general 
business transacted as usual. At daybreak on Tuesday, heavy 
cannonading was heard for several hours in the direction of 
the opposing armies. Early afterwards, whispers of a defeat 
were afloat; and a straggling cavalry soldier here and there, 
soon followed by others, in groups of three and four, began 
to enter the city. The excitement spread rapidly, till three guns 
from the citadel — the signal for martial law — confirmed the report 
of the overthrow, and led at once to the shutting up of every 
shop, and the closing of every door. The retreating cavalry now 
rushed through the town by hundreds, and soon by thousands, 
hastening from harm's way to their homes in the pampas of the 
South. General Mancilla, the brother-in-law of Rosas, and gov- 
ernor of the city, despatched messengers to the foreign ambas- 
sadors, reporting the place to be defenceless, and soliciting their 
intervention with the approaching conqueror, for a halt in his 
march, till terms of capitulation could be presented. Permission 
was at the same time granted by him, for the landing of the 
marines attached to the diflerent foreign squadrons in the harbor, 
to protect the lives and property of residents from their re- 
spective countries — British, American, French, and Sardinian. 
Forty American marines, including those from the Congress, 
were disembarked from tlie Jamestown, under the command of 
Captain Taylor and Lieut. Tatnall, and the crew of the captain's 
gig, in charge of Midshipman Walker. These were distributed 
in the central and richest part of the town — at the Embassy and 
Consulate of the United States; at the residence of Mr. Carlisle 
of the house of Zimmerman, Frazer & Co., the head-quarters of 
Commodore McKcever; and one or two other principal American 
mercantile establishments. At the same time, a hasty consulta- 
tion of the diplomatic corps led to the sending of a deputation 
from their number to the head-quarters of Urquiza, in behalf of 
the city. The chief member of this was Mr. Pendleton. Mr. 


Glover, the secretary of our commander-in-chief, an accomplished 
young man, well fitted fur the service by his talents, and the 
facility with which he speaks the principal modern languages, 
formed one of the mission. The special object was to solicit from 
the victorious chieftain an order to restrain his troops from 
entering the city, till the authorities could make a formal surren- 
der to him, and thus spare the inhabitants the violence and 
rapine they had reason to fear. Happily the exhaustion of the 
victors rendered such an order, for the time, unnecessary. The 
whole force of thirty thousand men had been without refreshment 
of any kind, except, perhaps, a little water, for forty-eight hours ; 
and, after having put their opponents to flight, they found it 
absolutely necessary to come to a rest themselves, not far from 
the scene of the principal conflict. 

It was not till noon of the following day, that Urquiza 
reached Palermo, and established his head-quarters there. 
Here the deputation first met him, and readily secured the inter- 
position of his authority in the point of mercy craved. Notwith- 
standing this, early the same morning — that immediately succeed- 
ing the battle — before any thiug had been heard from the deputa- 
tion, the sack of the city in one quarter was reported to have 
commenced ; and, in confirmation of the rumor, the alarm-bell 
of the Cabildo, or town hall, sent forth an incessant peal. It 
appeared that a large number of the routed cavalry of Rosas, 
finding the pursuit by the victors given over, remained in 
the outskirts of the town during the night; and at the dawn of 
the next day, commenced breaking open the shops and houses in 
the more remote parts, and stripping them of their contents, bore 
off the plunder ; alleging the authority of Maiicilla himself, the 
governor of the city, for the outrage. The dress of the troops 
of both armies is the same ; red flannel shirts, caps, and cheripas 
or swaddling cloths. Those of Urquiza, that they might be distin- 
guished by each other in battle, had chosen for a badge a square 
piece of white cotton cloth, placed on the shoulders by thrusting 
the head through a hole in the centre, in the manner of a poncho. 


This badge these marauders assumed tliat they might be mis- 
takeu for tlio invading soldiery. Emboldened by success in the 
outskirts, they began to penetrate the central parts of the place. 
The terrified inhabitants believing them to be the invaders, sub- 
mitted unresistingly t6 rapine and spoliation, lest they should 
lose their lives ; and consternation spread every where -with the 
increasing violence and robbery. Many of the largest and most 
valuable plate and jewelry shops had already been sacked ; and 
the spirit of plunder grew in proportion to the success. 

At this juncture, while a party of twenty or thirty of these 
mounted pillagers was engaged in bursting off the door-locks of a 
rich jeweller's shop with powder, a company of American marines 
aud sailors, in charge of Midshipman Walker, accompanied by Mr. 
Graham, the American Consul, on their way to the chief scene of 
pillage — turned into the street near them. The robbers at once 
tired upon them, happily without injury to any one. Our fellows, 
under the authority of their officers, were not slow in returning 
the salute ; bringing to the ground, by one volley, four of the 
leading brigands. Two were killed outright, and two mortally 
wounded. The rest wheeled instantly in flight, and were seen no 
more. This first example of the manner by which to check the 
pillage, led at once to a rally by the citizens. They immediately 
commenced arming themselves, and a stay was put to the progress 
of what, in a short time, would have become a general sack of 
the town. 

Mr. Glover arrived the same moment, at the consulate near 
which the above scene took place, to report the success of the mis- 
sion on which he had accompanied Mr. Pendleton. He had passed 
a .sleepless night, and been in the saddle many hours ; but, as there 
was reason to fear that the check which had been put by our 
marines upon the pillage, would be but temporary, and that the 
marauders would soon return in augmented numbers to avenge 
the death of their comrades, as well as to load themselves with 
fresh booty, he was requested by Commodore McKeevcr to return 
immediately to Palermo, and solicit from Urquiza a force sufficient 


to control the disorder and robbery existing. The Chief of 
Police, at tlie same time made his appearance, to urge the same 
measure. Accompanied by this functionary, Mr. Glover, there- 
fore, again hastened as an express to the Quiuta. He was ad- 
mitted immediately to the chieftain, though his companion, the 
Chief of Police, was forbidden his presence. The object of his 
visit was accorded, by an instant order for the entrance to the 
city of a body of troops sufficient for its protection. Informed 
of the result of the rencontre with the American marines and 
sailors, he gave full sanction to the interference, and authorized its 
continuance. The report of this interview was quickly spread 
through the city ; and the patrol of the foreign marines and 
armed sailors, and the speedy arrival of the forces promised by 
Urquiza, allayed the panic of the inhabitants. 

The troops of Urquiza brought with them orders to shoot 
down all persons implicated in the robbery and disorder. This 
was reiterated by the Provisional Government appointed by him 
upon receiving, as soon as he had taken up his quarters at Palermo, 
the deputation from the city, empowered to surrender it to his 
mercy. Under the orders thus issued, three or four hundred per- 
sons, both men and women, were summarily put to death, within 
twenty-four hours ; and a scene of such frightful carnage was 
taking place, with the liberty of its continuance for eight days, 
that the humanity of Mr. Pendleton led him, accompanied by Mr. 
Glover, to hasten once more to head-quarters, to beseech that an 
immediate stop might be put to a slaughter in which it was so 
apparent that the innocent, through false accusations of robbery, 
might become the victims of their political and even private ene- 
mies. The good sense of Urquiza led him at once to appreciate 
the justice of this appeal to his humanity, and to countermand 
the order first issued. The alarm was thus quieted, and a general 
feeling of safety restored. 

It is quite a matter of congratulation with us, that the marines 
and sailors of the Congress and Jamestown, sliould have been 
so eminently the means, by their prompt and gallant conduct, of 


stayinjT a frightful evil ; and, that the prestige of the American 
uaiue, through the frank and phihinthropic agency of Mr. Pendle- 
ton and Mr. Glover, should have had such ready and such impor- 
tant inHuenee with the victor, now invested by right of conquest 
with all power here. 

These particulars I learned before leaving Montevideo, from 
my friend Lieut. Turner. This officer was despatched to Buenos 
Ayres by Captain Pearson, immediately after the report made 
by Mr. Schenck of the overthrow of the Dictator. He went in 
charge of the American propeller, " Manuelita de Rosas," which 
the emergency of affairs and the absence of every suitable tender 
of the kind in the squadron, led Commodore McKeever to char- 
ter for the time being. He arrived in the midst of the excite- 
ment and consternation of the second day after the battle, when 
the pillage was at its height, and the summary execution of the 
perpetrators by the troops of Urquiza was begun. Being a fel- 
low Virginian and a friend of Mr. Pendleton, he was invited 
to a seat in a carriage with him and Mr. Glover, on their last 
mission of humanity to Palermo ; and thus was a spectator in 
the city and its environs, and at the Quinta itself, of a succession 
of scenes of alarm and confusion, of bloodshed and affecting 
tragedy in various forms, which it is not often the lot even of 
a naval officer to witness. The city, containing more than a hun- 
dred thousand inhabitants, was under pillage and in panic ; the 
wide suburbs were thronged with ten thousand savage troops, 
dashing to and fro in various directions ; the bodies of dead men 
were scattered about, after having been shot down, or having their 
throats cut, not in the conflict of battle, but in wanton pur- 
suit, or by order of a drum-head court-martial ; women in com- 
mon life were rushing here and there in terror, and ladies of 
wealth and rank hastening in their carriages through these scenes, 
in agitation and affright, to the centre of power, to throw them- 
selves at the feet of the conqueror, in supplication for the lives 
and fortunes of those dearest to thetn. 

It wa« in the carri;ige of Madame E , a sister of the fallen 



Dictator, that the party made the excursion. This lady her- 
self made one of their number ; and, under the favoring auspices 
of the American minister, sought the presence of the chief, who 
now occupies the palace, and wields the power, so long and so 
recently in the undisputed possession of her brother. The ave- 
nues and corridors of Palermo were crowded with mothers, sisters, 
and daughters, pressing for audience, on like errands of mercy. 
The suits of many of whom, I am happy to add, were not in 
vain, but most promptly and generously accorded. Such were 
the scenes amidst which Mr. Turner passed his first day here. 
Those of the second, in a ride of fifteen miles, to the battle-field, 
under the guidance of an adjutant and the protection of a guard 
furnished by Urquiza, were, if possible, more exciting and more 
revolting to the feelings, and scarcely bearable in the disgust 
created. The whole way was marked with evidences of the com- 
pleteness of the overthrow ; and the scene of the conflict, strewn 
for miles with the bodies of the slain lying still unburied. The 
whole atmosphere was tainted with the efiluvia of the dead, both 
of man and beast, and sad demonstration given on every side of 
the horrors of war. 

It was his representation of the state of affairs that led me — 

the marriage of my friends Miss H and Dr. II having 

been duly celebrated, and the crew of the Congress still in the 
process of a general liberty — to the determination of making the 
visit of a few days. I came up in the propeller, still bearing 
a naval pennant: embarking on the evening of the 10th, and 
arriving the next morning. 

On landing, I found every hotel and lodging-house crowded 
to overflowing, with officers, naval and military, both natives and 
foreigners, and with strangers from various ijuarters, who had 
hastened to the capital on hearing the result of the conflict. 
After long search, I was able to secure a small sleeping-room 
only, in a public house of very inferior order ; and suffered so 
much during the niglit from the oppressive heat, fleas, and mu.s- 
quitos, as to have made up my mind by morning, to return to the 


Congress the same day. During my former visit, I had made the 
aequaiutauce of the Kev. Mr. Lore and Mrs. Loro, of the Wes- 
leyau Methodist mission here, and had been so much interested 
iu them b}- the brief intercourse, as to be unwilling to take my 
departure now without a call at the parsonage, of a few minutes 
at least. Ilere I was most cordially welcomed ; and the cause of 
my intended return becoming known, they at once laid an inter- 
dict upon my purpose, and constrained me to accept a room in 
the parsonage, iu their power to offer, and the kind hospitality 
of their house. 

I had brought with me from the Congress, with the purpose 
of affording him a peep at Buenos Ayres, one of the lads of the 
ship, who had been commended to my special care by an excellent 
widowed mother at home, and who had merited this indulgence 
by long-continued good conduct in his position on board ship. His 
leave of absence extended to the passing day only ; and, knowing 
that he was especially anxious to visit Palermo, I applied to Mr. 
Lore, as soon as it had been determined that I should remain, 
for aid in securing a vehicle to take the drive with him. This he 
at once gave; but in place of a carriage from a livery stable, na 
I intended, he soon appeared with the handsome eijuipage of one 
of his parishioners, and accompanied us in the excursion. 

The morning was excessively hot — the character of the 
weather for the last fortnight. No rain had fallen in that time, 
and the road was one continued bed of deep dust, kept in con- 
stant motion by the thousand and ten thousands of horses and 
cattle, which the large force in bivouac in the environs of the 
city had brought together. It is computed that on the day of the 
battle, and for some days succeeding it, there were not less than 
three hundred thousand horses, within the circuit of a few 
miles, around the city. The number of cattle may be esti- 
mated by the allowance granted to the troops for subsistence — 
one animal a day for every hundred men : the number of men in 
both armies, the concjuering and the conquered ; amounts to 
more than fifty thousand, and the daily consumption, therefore, 


is at least five hundred. It would require pages to describe the 
novelty and wild romance of the scenes witnessed in our short 
drive. The riding at full tilt, to and fro, of unnumbered Indian- 
like horsemen in the picturesque and fiery costume of the native 
cavalry ; the flying past of carriages in one direction or another, 
through the thick dust of the road ; the lassoing of cattle amidst 
the herds crowding the open plain ; the butchering them when 
entangled, wherever that might be — even in the middle of the 
highway ; and flaying them while still alive, and scarcely well 
brought to the ground ; the masses of hides, and horns, and 
ofi"al scattered about every where; some freshly stripped from 
the carcasses and others in a shocking state of putrefaction; 
the hundreds of loose horses scampering about amid clouds of 
dust ; and unnumbered savage men, in all attitudes, and in every 
kind of grouping, presented sights beyond the power of description. 
As we approached the Quinta, such objects became, if pos- 
sible, more varied and more crowded : while dead horses and dead 
cattle lined the road-side, and in some places dotted the ornamen- 
tal canals of the domain with their bloated carcasses. The 
white shell-dust of that, which was once the private drive, cov- 
ered every thing so thickly, that the iron railings, now bent and 
broken down, the orange trees and willows, once kept so neatly 
washed and so green, appeared as if just powdered with meal. 
Indeed, the aspect of every thing in this respect, was very much 
that of a landscape at home after a fall of snow, while the trees 
and their branches are still in leaf. The house itself — though 
surrounded, as when last seen by me, with guards and soldiery, 
and in the same dress ; and by a long line of carriages and led 
horses awaiting the visitors within — had a closed and forsaken air. 
The reception rooms occupied by Urquiza, are not in tlie front. 
Those there, in which we had been received, witli blinds drawn, 
and shutters closed, appeared as though death, as well as desertion, 
M'as there. It was not our purpose to alight ; and, after a gen- 
eral survey of the establishment as we drove by, we returned to 
the city amidst the same scenes through which wc had arrived. 


The next evening I joined a large party of American ladies 
and geutlemen, residents of Buenos Ayres, in a visit of ceromony 
to Urquiza at Palermo. Notwithstanding the pressure of military 
and state affairs in the disposition of his troops, and the appoint- 
ment of a provisional go\ ernment for the city and province, he 
has been constrained to hold an almost uninterrupted levee, for 
the reception of the crowds whose interest it is to pay court to 
him. Many of the most servile of the partisans of Rosas have 
done this in the most sycophantic manner; and many of them, I 
have rejoiced to hear, only to meet his ill-concealed contempt and 
pointed rebuke, by a refusal to recognize their presence in some 
instances, and by prompt and stern dismissal from the audience- 
room in others. One incident which occurred interested me 
much. Col. Maximo Terero, the favorite aide-de-camp of Ro>as, 
aud the affianced husband of Dona Manuelita, was made prisoner 
on the day of the battle. It was believed by many — ^judging of 
the course Urquiza would pursue in the case, by the sanguinary 
precedents of Rosa.s aud other succes.^ful aspirants in the pa.-5t 
history of the country — that he, and such others of the immediate 
partisans of the Dictator as had fallen into his hands, would be 
severely dealt with, if not summarily shot. Contrary to all ex- 
pectation. Col. Terero was at once set at liberty on parole. 
Touched by this magnanimity. Gen. Terero the father, a con- 
fidential friend of Rosas, and long his partner in extensive 
financial operations, hastened to Palermo to wait upon the 
commander-in-chief, and to thank him for the clemency aud kind- 
ness he had shown to his son. He approached him with the 
following words, " Gen. Urquiza, I have come to Palermo to 
tender to you the unfeigned thanks of a father, for sparing the 
life of a son, whose life and liberty were in your power. You 
have, sir, my most sincere and heartfelt gratitude. I thank you 
from the bottom of my heart. I am known to you sl^ the friend 
of General Rosas. He long since won my confidence, has long 
had my warm friendship, and I have never seen cause fur with- 
drawing from him."' The frankness and independence of 


tliis address met an appreciating spirit in Urqiiiza ; and seizing 
him cordially by the Land, he exclaimed, " Gen. Tcrero, I am 
most happy to see you. I am glad to hear you express yourself 
as you have. I believe what you say — yours is the first honest 
speech I have heard in Palermo; and I honor you for it." 

At the time of our presentation by Mr. Pendleton the saloons 
and corridors were crowded; and the audience was brief, and, on 
the part of the General, unavoidably constrained. He wore 
a dress-coat of black, with white waistcoat ; and, though polite 
and gentlemanly, a; pcared to much less advantage and less at 
home in the draAving-room, than on the tented field of Pantanoso, 
lie appeared, too, to be jaded and exhausted ; which he indeed 
must be, after the fatigue and excitement without intermission 
of the last fortnight. At the end of fifteen minutes we took 
leave ; and after a turn along the parterres of the flower-garden, 
drove rajndly to the city, to escape a gust of wind and rain which 
was seen to be gathering with great blackness, in a threatening 

On Friday, I made a visit to the hospital, in which most of 
tlie wounded of both parties are now collected, to the number 
of five or six hundred. The accommodations, in ordinary times, 
are limited and indifferent, and arc now altogether inadequate. 
The surgeons and physicians are too few for the duty, and the 
services of Dr. Foltz, of the U. S. sloop Jamestown, have been 
gratefully accepted. The wounds of many of the poor creatures 
are frightful ; especially those caused by grape and round shot. 
From tlie heat of the weather, and the length of time that elapsed 
after the battle before they could be properly attended to, such 
are now in a dreadful condition. Those made by lances are chiefly 
from behind, and show frightful thrusts on the part of the pur- 
suers. Many of the wounded have died daily ; and the state of 
many more is hopeless. The edifice appropriated as a hospital 
is itself spacious and massive, and is of special interest, from 
having been the residencia or palace of the viceroys of Buenos 
Ayres. Mr. Lore took me a ride also, the same morning, through 


the suburbs, in a semicircular sweep from oneend of the eit}- to 
the other — the base-line of the circuit being the river. There 
is little to intercut one in the scenery, the whole is so flat ; and 
the road was but a succession of dr}- and dirty lanes, lined by 
mean and shabby hnts. "We called in the eastern suburbs 
upon an English family, parishioners of Mr. Lore, who occupy 
and cultivate as a fruit and vegetable garden, the grounds of 
what appears once to have been a tasteful aiid luxurious country- 
seat. We were most kindly received, and refreshed with some 
very fine peaches and grapes, the former the last gatherings of 
the sea.*?on. The situation is an exposed one in times of public 
commotion and disorder ; and we were shown a cavern, screened 
and hidden almost beyond discovery, where the females of the 
household were to have been concealed, had the city, in the over- 
throw of Rosas, been given over to pillage and rapine. In one 
part of the enclosure, a natural terrace attains a height of about 
twenty feet above the general level. To this I was led as one of 
the finest points of view in the neighborhood. The extent of the 
landscape commanded from it was less than a mile, across a flat 
meadow, bounded at that distance by a range of tree-tops, above 
which the masts of some small craft at anchor in a stream, 
whose banks the trees line. I could scarcely avoid a smile in 
hearing this called a '' fine view," while in imagination my eye 
swept, in comparison, over that spread before you in such wide 
expanse at Riverside. In the course of our ride, we visited the 
English Protestant burial-ground ; a rural cemetery on the south- 
side of the city. It embraces several acres, surrounded by a 
substantial wall, entered by a handsome gateway of iron ; and 
has a lodge for the keeper, and a small, well-built chapel for the 
funeral service. Besides a variety of prettily-arranged shrub- 
beries, it is ornamented with two or three avenues of the Pride 
of China, which grows here in great perfection : the whole forming 
an attractive and rural resting-place for the dead. 

The observations of the day were completed by the inspection, 
under the guidance of Mr. Graham, of the new city residence of 


Rosas. It is already in possession of the provisional govern- 
ment appointed by Urquiza, and its elegant saloons are converted 
into ofiBces for the various public bureaus. It is an extensive 
and finely-constructed edifice, one story in height, enclosing 
several quadrangles, and covering half a square ; the front ex- 
tends the length of a " block " on a principal street near the 
centre of the city. The middle section of this contains the 
suite of private rooms of the late owner. From these the furni- 
ture had been removed, preparatory to the sale of all his eflFects. 
The structure, though of one story only on the streets, rises 
to two in some of the inner sections. The whole is well built, 
and, for this part of the world, beautifully finished. One of 
the inner courts is filled with orange trees, and another contains 
a garden of choice flowers. A lofty tower or mirador rises 
from the centre. This is ascended by a spiral staircase of 
mahogany. The view from it comprises, as on a map, the city, 
river, roadstead and shipping ; and the country in every direction 
as far as its flatness allows the vision to reach. It conveys a 
strong impression of the size, good order, and architecture of the 
city. Every prominent building is in conspicuous view : all the 
old Spanish churches — the Cathedral, the Merced, the collegiate, 
or former Jesuit College, that of San Francisco, San Domingo 
and San Miguel ; and the Resideneia or vice-regal palace, now 
the general hospital. All these are of dark stone, and are time- 
stained and moss-covered : massive and enduring piles, with many 
attractive features in the varied taste and syniiuetry of their archi- 
tecture, and in the well-defined proportions of dome and tower, 
pediment and belfry. The lantern top of tliis look-out is furnished 
witli a fine telescope, by which every object is subjected to near 
inspection; and it was a favorite resort of the Dictator, during his 
hours of seclusion in town. One story of tlic tower leading to 
tills observatory, is a handsomely proportioned apartment, paved 
with tessellated marble of red and white. It is said to have been 
the favorite sleeping-room of Rosas, when he remained in the 
city over night, being secure from approach except by the spiral 


stairs, which could be easily defended. A fixture in one of the 
galleries of an open court into which the chief suites of rooms 
open, particularly struck nie as a novelty : it is a fireplace with 
a grate and handsomely finished marble mantle, so that, if one 
choose, he may sit by a fireside in the open air, when the 
temperature makes it desirable. 

As I looked around upon the spacious and well-appointed 
establishment, through which Dofia Manuelita, a few days since, 
moved a princess, surrounded by luxury, and oppressed with 
the adulations of courtiers and admirers, I could not but anew 
deeply sympathize with her, in her flight and exile, with scarce 
a change of apparel, or a friend to cheer her under her reverse 
of fortune. 

On leaving, we made an effort to gain admi.'^sion to the Sala, 
or hall of Representatives near by, and to the public library of the 
city ; but without success, from the absence of the persons having 
po.ssession of the keys. A PoHeno — a name by which the Buenos 
Ayreans pride themselves in being called — of intelligent and 
gentlemanlike appearance, ou overhearing our application for 
admittance to the library and the cause of its failure, said plea- 
santly to us, " It is well for the credit of the city that the key 
cannot be found ; we are thus saved a just reproach in the eyes 
of intelligent visitors." 



BtTKNOs Atbes. 

February 24th. — On Saturday, I accompanied a large party 
of ladies and gentlemen, Americans and English, in a visit to the 
scene of the late battle. It ia called indiscriminately, " Monte 
Caseros," from the name of the country-house at vhich Rosas 
took position in meeting the enemy, and " Moron," from that of 
the nearest hamlet, a mile or two distant. 

We were oflF at an early hour. The morning was brilliant, 
and delightful in its freshness : almost too cool, in contrast with 
the excessiye heat of the first few days after my arrival. The 
road we took led past several country-seats in the .suburbs, at 
which the victorious troops were still quartered. Their horses 
and camp-fires had made sad havoc with the shrubberies and 
plantations of these ; many of the trees being terribly barked by 
the former, wliile their limbs had been stripped off and cut up for 
luel by the latter. Bivouac after bivouac, and rude cncampmcut 
after encampment, extended miles beyond Palermo ; while the 
road on either side, and often in its centre, presented the aspect 
of a continued slaughter house — the hoofs, horns, hides and en- 
trails of the animals daily slain for the subsistence of the soldiery, 
being scattered about every where, and polluting the air with their 
offensive effluvia. The whole distance of fifteen miles, gave 


evidence of the desolating effects of the retreat of the vanquished, 
and of the marauding presence of the victors. 

At the end of twelve miles, we came upon the military village 
of Santos Lugares, composed of brick huts, the regular canton- 
ment of the army, from whicn Rosas had led his force of twenty 
thousand to Monte Caseros, on the evening of the 1st instant. 
This seemed now, literally, a " deserted village : " every building 
being vacant, with the appearance of having suflFered utter pillage. 
It has its church, and an extensive common, or green, ornamented 
at one point by a clump of ombu, a species of gum-tree — the chief 
emblem of the country. Shortly after passing this, we caught 
view in the distance of the white tower of Monte Caseros, the 
head-quarters of Rosas at the commencement of the battle. Its 
mirador, or observatory, commands a view of the surrounding 
region ; and from it he watched the advance of Urquiza, and for 
a time, the progress of the engagement. He then descended to 
the field, and took part in the fight, till it was evident the day 
was lost. Persuaded of this, he seized a cartridge from the box 
of a common soldier ; breaking it in pieces, he blackened his 
face with the powder, and mounting a magnificent, in readi- 
ness near by, succeeded in making his escape amid the dust and 
uproar of the general rout. He made his way without being 
recognized, to the residence of the British minister in the city. 
There his daughter joined him, and under the guidance of that 
gentleman both sought refuge at midnight, in the disguise before 
mentioned, on board the flag-ship of Admiral Henderson. 

Evidences of the conflict, or rather of the flight and pursuit, 
now began rapidly to multiply, in tattered portions of clothing 
and in accoutrements — caps, sword-belts, cartridge-boxes, bay- 
onet-sheaths, cuirasses, and broken musical instruments, and 
drums. What seemed the most singular part of this camp equi- 
page, was the quantity of letters and manuscript papers, scat- 
tered widely and for great dirstances over the ground. Soon the 
more revolting spectacle of a dead body presented itself here and 
there, naked and gha.->tly, blackening in the sun, in a frightful 


state of decomposition, and tainting the whole atmosphere by it3 
impurity. These multiplied rapidly as we advanced ; none of 
the slain of either party having yet been buried, excepting such 
as have been sought for and discovered by personal friends. The 
brick walls of the country-house and those of a large circular 
dove-cote, of the same material, whitewashed, are a good deal 
marked and shattered by balls both of cannon and musketry. 
After Rosas had left the observatory and the house, a strong 
party of his officers kept possession of them. When the battle 
seemed to be given up, it was supposed by the victors that these, 
like others outside, had surrendered; but on attempting to enter, 
they were met by a volley of musketry, with the cry of " Viva 
Rosas ! " This led to an immediate onslaught by the assailants ; 
and every man within, amounting to thirty or forty, was at once 
put to the sword. Till within a day or two past, their bodies lay 
piled upon each other as they had thus fallen, upon the stairs 
and platforms of the tower ; and since having been dragged out, 
still lie scattered over the lawn in nakedness and putrefaction. 
Two or three bodies are stretched on the roof of the dove-house 
also, as they fell on being shot down in its defence. 

Though the engagement commenced at daybreak and contin- 
ued three or four hours, the number of the slain is thought not 
to exceed three hundred; and the wounded, not more than six. 
Still these numbers are quite sufficient, where father met son and 
brother met brother, in deadly fight. \\ hile we were on the 
tower, two brothers happened there, and pointed out to us the 
positions of the two forces, at diflferent times during the engage- 
ment. Both were in the battle, one with the troops of Rosas, 
and tlie other with those of Urquiza. 

With the exception of the objects mentioned, there was little 
to interest ; and, after strolling around for an hour or two, we 
returned to the shade of the ombu trees of Santos Lugares, to 
partake of an ample lunch, provided by the ladies of the party. 
One result of the excursion, was the opportunity it afforded me of 
gaining my first sight of what is here termed the ' camp ; ' the flat 


open country of the pampas, or plains, which extend hundreds of 
leagues, with a surface more level and less wooded than that of 
the prairies of the West with us : a vast sea of grass and thistles, 
without roads or enclosures, and without a habitation, except at 
long intervals. Nothing breaks the unvarying outline, unless it 
lie now and then an onibu, rising on the distant horizon, like a 
ship at sea. Travellers upon these plains, whether on horseback 
or in carriages, like voyagers on the ocean, direct their course 
over the trackless expanse, by compass. 

The 19th was appointed for the public entry of Unjuiza into 
the capital, with the entire allied force, cavalry, infantry, and 
artillery, to the number of twenty thousand. Rain during the 
preceding night, laid the dust and freshened the air. The morn- 
ing was pure, cool and pleasant, son)ewhat obscured by clouds till 
n )on, but after that hour, clear and brilliant. Every street and 
every house was gay with fluttering flags and the banners of all 
civilized nations, and the whole city in gala dress. I had invita- 
tions to the balconies of several private houses in diff'erent streets 
through which the procession would pass ; but preferred a roving 
commission, witii the advantage of being able to change at plea- 
sure my point of view. I chose a stand at an angle of the Plaza 
Victoria, or place of victory, the principal .square in the city, 
near a triumphal arch thrown over the street through which the 
procession would il'houche upon the Plaza. It was the best point 
for observation ; giving a near view of the chief officers and 
troops, and commanding in coup d'oeil the masses of people in 
the open square ; the decorations of the monument of victory in 
its centre; and of the public buildings facing it, as well as of 
the crowded balconies and flat-topped roofs of the surrounding 
houses, thronged with spectators of all ages and both sexes in 
holiday attire. 

Urquiza as captain-general and commander-in-chief, with his 
staff", headed the columns. Tlicse had formed at Palermo, the 
cavalry being eight, and the infantry and artillery twelve abreast. 
The chieftain's dross and that of his staff" was not full uniform. 


With a military coat, he wore a round beaver hat and scarlet hat- 
band, and held a riding-whip in his hand as if on a hunt. The red 
hatband, besides its demi-savagc look, gave offence, it is said, to 
the Buenos Ayreans, by reminding them of the thraldom of 
which it had been made a badge under Rosas; and which, with 
the waistcoat and every thing of the same color, they had indig- 
nantly and with abhorrence thrown off, the moment they found 
themselves free to do so. It is also said that every demonstra- 
tion of popular feeling, by shouts and vivas, had been interdicted ; 
and there was little enthusiasm manifested in this way. Bouquets, 
however, were showered upon the conqueror in great abundance, 
and his hands and those of his immediate suite were filled with 
such as had been picked up and handed to them. It struck me, 
notwithstanding, that there was nothing very gracious in the ex- 
pression of countenance or manner of the hero : that something 
had gone amiss, and he was only tolerating with decent civility the 
courtesies shown him. He declined to dismount in the city, and 
continued the ride in circuit to Palermo again. The cavalry, 
constituting the principal body of the troops, in the Guacho dress 
of red flannel shirts and cheripas, white cotton pantalets, and red 
caps worn a la brigand, had all the appearance of so many wild 
Arabs, clothed in red in place of white. They were barefooted, 
and unshaven and unshorn ,• and varied in complexion, from the 
red and white of the Saxon, here and there, to the jet of Congo. 
Four hours were occupied by the procession in passing a single 
j)oint ; though the cavalry, towards the close, rode at full charge, 
when, especially, they bore an aspect as wild as that of the desert 
itself. General Lopez, the Governor or President of the Province 
of Corrientes, second to Urquiza in command, appeared in full 
military costume, as did Baron Caxias, chief of the Brazilian 
division. Both were magnificently mounted. 

The booming of cannon from various points was heard during 
this triumphal march through the city; and a stationary band in 
front of the cathedral played at intervals, as the regimental 
bands, one after another, passed beyond hearing. In the evening, 


the arcades surrounding the eastern and southern sides of the 
Plaza, the cabildo or town hall fronting it on one side, the cathe- 
dral at one corner, and the monument of victory in the centre, were 
illuminated ; and for an hour and more, there was a good display 
of fireworks. The remaining days of the week were proclaimed 
holidays, and the decorations in flags, the illuminations, and music 
at night were continued. 

Two days ago, a grand Te Deura, in commemoration of the 
overthrow of Rosas, was celebrated in the cathedral, in presence 
of Urquiza and of the newly appointed provisional government ; 
the officers of the allied armies; and of all the dignitaries of the 
church. An immense crowd was brought together by the interest 
of the occasion itself, and by the spectacle presented in so large 
an assemblage of persons of official rank and power. The ordinary 
services were accompanied by a rhap.sody in the form of a sermon, 
delivered by a young ecclesiastic, who, from having been cho.sen 
for orator on such an occasion, must have some preten.siou to 
talent and eloquence. I have seen a copy of his discourse in 
Spanish, and will give a hasty translation of some of its passages 
which throw light upon the popular view of the public character 
and government of Kosas ; and give proof also of the adulations 
showered upon the Conqueror. The address occupied more than 
an jiour in the delivery, and is at least a curiosity as a sermon. 
Tlie text from the Vulgate, was announced in Latin, and was the 
opening verse of the song of Moses after the destruction of tlie 
Egj-ptians in the Red Sea : 

" Let us sing unto the Lord, for he h.ith tnuniphed gloriously: 
The hor.-e and his riiler hath he thrown into the sea." 

The introduction, written in Dellacruscan style, and delivered with 
the action of the stage, consists of all manner of apostrophes — 
to the Plata, to Liberty, to Peace, to the Argentines, and to the 
Virgin ^Lary, for aid in the office of his ministry. Two general 
]H>iiits are then presented, — one the duty of thanksgiving for a 


deliverance from evil; the other of thanksgiving for blessings 
conferred. Under the first he institutes a parallel between the 
rejoicings of Rome on the fjiU of Nero, and of those due from 
Buenos Ayreans on the overthrow of Rosas : thus — " Tell me, 
-was it right for the Romans, adorning themselves with garlands 
of flowers and clothed with gladness, to hail with hallelujahs the 
jubilee of their deliverance; to throw open their temples and 
offer incense to their god.-5 in testimony of their gratitude, when 
they saw the dead body of the most barbarous of their sovereigns 
— that monster, whose cruelty was not satiated with the blood 
even of his own mother, and whose corruption made him regardless 
of the most sacred obligations of the marriage tie ? Was it not 
right, I say, that the Roman people should hymn songs of thank- 
fulness before the altars of their gods, in view of the still palpitat- 
ing remains of Nero, that impersonation of cruelty, who, seated 
on a mount, instead of weeping like the prophets over the destruc- 
tion of the capital aet on fire by himself, rejoiced in the death- 
shrieks of its inhabitants ? I do not believe, gentlemen, that any 
of you condemn this conduct of the Romans — do I say condemn? 
I know that you justify, you praise, you applaud it ; and if it 
was right, if it was laudable, if it was praiseworthy in the Romans 
gratefully to acknowledge, and joyfully to give thanks to their 
gods for a deliverance from the tyranny of Nero, is it not equally 
so in us Argentines to ofibr to the true God the incense of our 
praise for liberating us from the despotism of Rosas — that tyrant, 
that wild beast, that scandal of our nation, that shame upon 
humanity, that scourge of society and of religion, that minotaur, 
more thirsty for blood than him of Crete who fed on human 
victims ? Yes ! all of you will confess that it is just — and the 
more just as he was more cruel than even Nero. How more so ? 
Can it be possible that there ever was a man as cruel as he, much 
less more so ? Sirs, the lengthened series of eighteen hundred 
years did not, indeed, produce such a man : but the epoch of the 
barbarous Dictator of the Argentine Republic had not yet arrived. 
Tiie nineteenth century, great in all its aspects in the annals of 


ages, was to be conspicuous by the production of this monster 
of cruelty. Yes, gentlemen, he was not only as cruel, but more 
cruel thau the oppressor of the Romans. 

" Let us make the comparison. But first, Argentines, rise from 
the places you occupy-^-rise, and make haste to the temple 
doors that no foreigner come in ; and if any such should already 
iiave entered, supplicate them to retire, that they hear not of 
the horrors perpetrated by a son of our soil. Yes ! rise, hasten 
quick, fly ! But why ? Alas ! oh sorrow ! — stay ! stay ! it is too 
late : the clamorous echo of the cry raised by his cruelty has 
resounded to the ends of the earth. I retract my call, and beg 
you, Argentines, to fly — yes, fly to the portals of the temple : 
but let it be to open them widely from side to side, that entrance 
may be given to the inhabitants of the whole world — if it were 
possible, of the entire universe — to be witnesses of our reclama- 
tion, and hear the protest we solemnly make in the presence of 
the heavens and of the earth, before the altars of our God : 
Neighboring llepublics ! Foreign nations ! all ye people of the 
earth ! know, and transmit to your descendants from age to age 
that the children of the Plata repudiate this monster ; we despoil 
him of the prerogatives of an Argentine ; we banish him from our 
fatherland ; and by the unanimous vote of the entire Republic, 
sentence him to wander from place to place, and from land to 
land; and, like Cain the fratricide, to carry the mark of his crime 
branded on his brow, that his own ignominy may be the expiation 
of his transgressions. 

" Yes ! I again say, Rosas was more cruel than Nero. Let 
us analyze the facts in the case. Why is Nero represented in 
history as the greatest tyrant among sovereigns ? Hear Tacitus : 
' He was,' says the historian, ' the a.ssassin of his mother, of 
his brother, of his tutor, and of an immense number of Chris- 
tians. He set Rome on fire. ' What horrors ! and the tyrant 
of the Argentines, did he perpetrate such enormities ? Some 
of them he did — others he did not. But the credit of omitting 
to perpetrate those which he did not commit is to be attributed 


to a dissimilarity of circumstances, not to a difference in moral 
principle Rosas did not sacrifice his mother, but it was because 
she did not threaten to deprive him of his power. He did not 
sacrifice his brothers, because none of them attempted to snatch 
from him the reins of government : or if they did, they fled 
beyond his reach. He did not sacrifice his tutor, because he 
never had one ; but he had an instructor in political economy and 
a patron in his early public career, and him he did assassinate. 
Oh ! sad remembrance ! Sirs, you all know the horrible death 
of Maza, President of the House of Representatives, — that noble 
patriot and good man, who was murdered in the very temple of 
the laws : not in its vestibule, but in the very sanctum sanctoruni ! 
" And did Rosas sacrifice a large number of Christians ? 
Alas ! would I were not under the necessity of answering this 
question. Well then — I will not do it ; but answer for me, ye 
numerous auditors who listen to me. Speak, ye many widows, 
whose hearts, as ye listen to my words, are broken with sorrow — 
let the tears speak with which you have been fed till the present 
day. Speak, ye fathers, who still pour out your grief in sighs 
upon your children's tombs. Speak, ye numerous orphans, who, 
wliile embracing with kisses the fathers of your love, have sud- 
denly beheld them expire beneath the point of the dagger ! Do 
thou, city of Buenos Ayres — do thou speak : and speak every 
province, speak every town, speak every fiimily of the Republic ! 
Oh, thou year of 1840 ! fatal epoch ! What days of dark- 
ness, what days of mourning, what days of tears! your memory will 
forever embitter our existence. Ah ! yes — in every street, in every 
house, in every room, we then stumbled over some victim — innocent 
victim, for, to be innocent was, in the eyes of that wicked one, the 
greatest of crimes. Humanity is horrified by the frightful truth 1 
The story seems like a fable, but we ourselves are witnesses to 
the facts. Had the blood which was then shed, been mingled 
with the waters of the mighty river rolling beside us, they would 
have reddened to crimson. Death itself seemed exhausted in the 


execution of such cruelty ; and the dead themselves, could they 
speak, would exclaim, ' How horrible ! ' 

" And were they Christians only that he immolated ? Nero 
did not slay his priests ; at least, history does not say that he 
attempted it. And Rosas, did he ? Ah ! that tyrant not only 
attempted it, but placed the seal upon the record of his impieties 
in the blood of the anointed of the Lord. That blood still cries 
to Heaven for vengeance, and like the infernal furies, will follow 
and torment the guilty criminal. 

" And Kosas V did he burn the city ? Would he had de- 
stroyed it rather than have prolonged our martyrdom. But in 
this there would have been too much humanity for him. His 
object was to protract our agony the better to enjoy the misery. 

" Finally, what were the articles of Nero's religious faith ? 
You all know that he was a Pagan — how then could it be strange 

to c 

that he should persecute his adversaries ? And Rosas, was he 
likewise a Pagan ? "Would that he had been ! — that he had been 
BO openly ! His wickedness was not so great that he did not call 
himself a Catholic. Ah ! unhappy man, thou art accountable for 
the abuses introduced to the church ; for thou, like another Henry 
VIII. of P]nglaud, didst constitute thyself the priest, and the 
bishop, and the Pope of the Republic. If there has been demor- 
alization in society, thou art accountable to the Great Judge for 
it ; for thou hast interftred with the most sacred rights of reli- 
gion, education, and laws ; and for twenty years hast set back the 
civilization of the Republic, and made the relentless knife the 
only inducement to excel. But, it is enough ! Thanks to the 
valiant, the all-powerful Urquiza ! the country now reposes in 
tramjuillity : we are free from the despotism of the odious tyrant. 
" And is it not right that we should be thankful to the 
Almighty for the beneBts received at his hands ? We have 
attained our liberty. Oh ! incomparable good ! Oh ! gift of 
inestimable value ! And to whom shall we give our thanks, if 
not to Thee, O Father of mercies ? — to whom if not to Thee, 
Giver of all joy. To Thee, therefore, Fountain of all felicity, 


we give thanks ! But likewise to thy name, great Urquiza ! to 
thee, whose name will be immortal; to thee our gratitude will be 
eternal, and the echo of our acknowledgments will be heard, even 
to the ends of the earth. The heart of every Ai-geutine will be 
a temple from which thou wilt receive the sweet incense of our 
affection ; and tradition will for ever transmit to our descendants 
the name of him who has restored to us our liberties. 
excellent sir, we salute thee as the morning star of the happy 
day of freedom that lias dawned upon our country. "We acclaim 
thee as our Washington ! The Washington of the Argentine 
Republic ! What a glory for you, sir ! Argentines ! I call 
your attention to your deliverer : fix your gaze on that bold cham- 
pion. Let your modesty, sir, suffer me in the transports of my 
gratitude to express the sentiments of my heart. Yes, Argen- 
tines, fix again, I say, your gaze on that brave warrior. See you 
those scintillating eyes beaming with humanity ? they have suf- 
fered prolonged vigils for your liberty. Behold that capacious 
brow — even yet bronzed by the suns of the camp ! it has been 
absorbed in the profoundest meditations for your liberty ! Do 
you perceive those features full of expressions of goodness ? they 
have suffered the rigors of heat and the inclemencies of the 
seasons for your liberty. Witness ye that elevated and finely 
modelled breast, the temple of a magnanimous heart ? It has 
been exposed to the bullet and the lance of the tyrant, for your 
liberty. Do you observe the nervous arm and powerful hand, so 
well known in battle ? they have wielded the sword valiantly for 
your liberty : yes, for our liberty, he voluntarily renounced his 
sleep, to give his mind, day and night, to deep thought; for our 
liberty, he sacrificed his own comfort and well-being ; for our 
liberty he hazarded his life ! For our liberty he has suffered 
hunger, thirst, and conflicts ; and to achieve it, impetuous rivers 
have appeared to him but smooth rivulets, enormous deserts like 
populous plains, the longest marches but short excursions, and 
the greatest ob.'itacles the merest trifles. What courage I what 
heroism ! what patriotism ! 


" What fortune is ours, Argentines, to have a naan of so much 
excellence, in him whom Providence has sent to liberate us, and 
give to us the guarantee of a constitutional government. Eter- 
nal Father, God of all goodness, what thanksgiving shall we 
render to Thee for this evidence of Thy mercy ? " 

With this fulsome rhapsody, terminates the second act of the 
political drama of the Plata. 



March SOth. — While in Bueuos Ajres, we were indebted for 
repeated hospitality, at dinners and other entertainments, to the 
American Minister and other fellow-citizens from the United 
States, including my kind friends of the Methodist parsonage, 
where I was a constant guest. 

We left on the 25th The Montcvidcans exult greatly in 
the overthrow of Rosas ; and, on our return, we found the citizens 
in the midst of public rejoicing, and various festivities. The 
12th inst. was a grand gala for the reception of the troops of 
the Republic, which had been engaged in the battle of Monte Cas- 
eros. Among the most gallant of these was the negro regiment. 
A few days afterwards, I witnessed a religious ceremony of 
thanksgiving, at the cathedral, characteristic of the services of 
the church here, in which this composed the audience. March- 
ing into the public square in two detachments, each led by a band, 
they formed in line, in front of the church, and entering it in 
military procession, filled its spacious nave. Tiie bands took a 
stand on either side near the chancel. The soldiers, at the word 
of command, knelt with their arms reversed; the priest approach- 
ing the altar, opeiad the books and commenced the service, not 
by reading, at least not so as to be heard, but in pantomime. 
One of the bands, at the same time, began the perfurmance of an 


opera, in which it was relieved at intervals by the other ; while 
the bell of the priest gave signal, from time to time, to the sol- 
diers, for the requisite smitings on the breast, crossings of the 
forehead, lips and chest, and bowings of the head. The music of 
the opera was continued without intermission for half an hour, 
till the performance at the altar was brought to a close; and then 
changed to a lively quick-step, to the gay movements of which, 
the troops again marched to their quarters. 

The French Admiral, Lepredour, and the Brazilian Admiral, 
Grenfell, both received official intelligence from their respective 
governments by the last mail-packet, of their advancement from 
the rank of rear to that of vice-admiral, in acknowledgment of 
the importance of their services here. The 21st inst. was made 
a festival in the squadrons of both, as the day on which their new 
flags were first hoisted, when they received a salute from the 
vessels of their respective squadrons, from those of other nations 
here, and from the batteries on shore. 

Admiral Grenfell, an Englishman by birth, and originally an 
officer in the Royal Navy, is greatly distinguished for his gal- 
lantry, and for many brilliant acts in the naval history of the 
South American States : first, under Lord Cochrane, — the pres- 
ent admiral. Earl Dundonald — in the Chilian Navy ; and after- 
wards under the same officer in that of Brazil on the Atlantic 
coast. For twenty years past he has rendered most important 
service in the Imperial Navy ; has had chief command on occa- 
sions of distinction and honor; and, still in the confidence of the 
Emperor, was called from the civil appointment of consul-general 
in England, to take command of the squadron sent to facilitate 
the operations of the allied forces of Ent re-Bios and Brazil, 
against Rosas. This he successfully did, rendering abortive 
the defences which Rosas planned to prevent Urquiza and Caxias 
from crossing the Parana — thus removing the only obstacle in their 
march to Buenos Ayres. For this service, to the order of the 
Southern Cross, previously conferred on him, that of the Grand 
Cross of the Injperial Order of the Rose is added, and he pro- 


moted to the liigliest rank in the Brazilian Navy. He has been 
a regular attendant on the Sabbath in the chapel, in which I offi- 
ciate on shore; and apparently is one of the most devout of the 
worshippers there, and one of the most attentive of my hearers. 

Shortly after my return from Buenos Ayres, it was intimated 
to me that some appropriate notice of the important political 
events which had occurred, not only in the relief of Montevideo 
from siege, but in the overthrow of its most powerful enemy, would 
give satisfaction to the church and congregation. On the suc- 
ceeding Sabbath, therefore, my discourse, in addition to such allu- 
sions as I thought proper to make — in regard to the affairs of the 
Republic of which this place is the capital — embraced the duty of 
Protestant Christians, resident in it, though not themselves citi- 
zens, towards the people and their rulers. The general tenor of 
my subject may be inferred from the text, " I exhort, therefore, 
first of all, that supplication, and prayers, intercessions and giving 
of thanks be made for all men : for kings, and for all that are in 
authority ; that we may lead a quiet and peaeable life in all god- 
liness and honesty." The practical application which I attempted 
to enforce will be most readily condensed by a quotation from a 
familiar hymn : 

" So let our lips and lives express 
The holy Gospel, we profess, 
So let our works and virtues shine, 
To prove the doctrine all divine. 

Thus shall we best proclaim abroad 

The honors of our Saviour God ; 
When His salvation reigns within, 

And grace subdues the power of sin." 

Admiral Grenfell was present. I was in doubt as to the light 
in which he, a monarchist by birth and an imperialist by commis- 
sion, might view the subject as illustrated, in some portions, by the 
history and experience in faith and prayer, of the fathers of our 
own. Republic ; and was gratified to hear that he had expressed 



himself in terms of unqualified satisfaction with the caitire dis- 

April 'lOih. — Since my last date, we have made a cruise of 
three weeks off the Plata. In addition to the various exer- 
cises, nautical and milit'arv, for which chiefly we put to sea, sev- 
eral interesting experiments were made under the direction of 
Mr. Parker, the flag-lieutenant of our ship, in deep sea soundings. 
The first result of much interest was obtained on the 3d inst., in 
S. Lat. 35° '2b' W. Long. 4o" 10'. It was during -a dead calm; 
the surface of the ocean being every where glassy as a newly- 
frozen lake. Not a ripple at any point met the eye. At 9 
o'clock in the morning, a reel, on which had been arranged ten 
thousand fathoms of line, furnished by the Ilydrographical Bureau 
and brought to the Congress by the sloop St. Mary, was fitted to 
one of the quarter-boats, in which Lieut. Parker and Mr. Glover 
left the ship to try the depth of the sea. They had expected to 
be absent a few hours only, and took no refreshments, not even a 
breaker of water with them : but the calm continued, and inter- 
ested in the duty iu which they were engaged, they remained 
with the boat's crew the whole day in voluntary fast. The sinker 
was a thirty-two pound sliot. Eiglit thousand five hundred fath- 
oms were expended, and at sunset the line was still slowly run- 
ning off the reel. The true depth gained was believed to be only 
about three thousand five hundred fathoms ; the remainder being 
stray line carred away by a strong submarine current. The exist- 
ence of this was conclusively ascertained : its rate being nearly two 
miles the hour, in a direction opposite to the surface current, which 
had a force of about one mile per hour. The determination of this 
fact was an abundant reward for the labor of a wearisome day in 
tlie glaring .sun. Nine miles of the line were lost. Upon at- 
tempting to haul it in, the tension b(.came so great that five men 
could obtain a few fathoms only per minute ; and greater force being 
applied, it parted a few hundred yards from the boat. Different 
>ioundings were afterwards satisfactorily secured, at the various 
depths of 950, 1500, 1780, 2000, 2100, and 2200 fathoms, the pat- 


ticulars of whicli are prepared for transmission to Lieutenant 
Maury. Fifteen thousand fathoms of line were furnished by the 
Congress when in Rio, to the commander of H. B. M. Frigate 
Herald, whom we met there ; and it is reported that soundings 
were obtained by him on his way to the Pacific, at a depth of 
more than seven thousand fathoms. 

The calm which enabled us to make our first deep sounding 
continued for three days, with a temperature like the finest autum- 
nal weather at home. The sky during the time, was clear and 
brilliant, both by day and night : for a full moon, in a state of the 
atmosphere peculiarly translucent, afforded us a splendor of light 
that enabled the crew to occupy themselves in reading. During 
this time, I saw men at their stations reading books, even of small 
print, in the mid-watch. Immediately afterwards, however, we 
experienced the heaviest gale, with the wildest and most tumul- 
tuous sea we have known since leaving the United States. In 
a small vessel it would have been fearful ; but the Congress is so 
large, and so perfect a sea-bird in her motions, that she rides and 
sports among the billows with an ease and triumph that call 
forth admiration only. She dashes from her bows and lofty bul- 
warks, in seeming playfulness, seas which would sweep the decks 
of a small craft, or bury them beneath an avalanche of water. 
Though the gale was heavy, the sky was bright ; and in the after- 
noon, especially when the rays of the sun fell obliquely upon 

" The restless, seetliiag, stormy sea ! " 

the scene was magnificent. As sea after sea rose high against the 
sun, it would change in hue from the blue of indigo to emerald 
green. Then cresting into snowy whiteness, would scatter itself 
far and wide, in beds of .sparkling diamonds. The tumultuous 
rushing and roaring of mighty waters in endless forms around us; 
the deep roll of the frigate to the leeward ; and then, the rapid 
plunge headforemost down a mountain, as it were, into a yawning 
gulf below, made the afternoon to nie one of admiration and 



Below decks, it is true, every thing was uncomfortable enough. 
The ward-room was dark and dreary ; and the gun-deck all afloat. 
Still, as is generally the case with the sailor in such rough 
weather, all hands were in high spirits, and the deeper the roll of 
the ship — though by it, one half the crew should be pitched 
across the ship ; and the heavier the plunge downward, though 
followed by rivers of water taken in at the hawser-holes and 
bridle-ports — especially, if those on deck were at the same time 
drenched by the breaking on board of a sea, or by being thrown 
into the floods rushing along the water-ways, the louder was the 
laughter and the greater the glee. 

The poop-deck, from its elevation and tlie command it gives 
of every thing far and near, is a favorite resort of the oflScers. 
It is also, in ordinary circumstances, a place of etiquette. To 
sit while there, is not allowable, at least in the day-time, except to 
the Commodore and Captain, or such as they may invite beside 
them ; much less is it etiquette to lie there. But now, the wind 
•was too strong and withal too cold to stand, or even to sit ; and 
going up after dinner, and finding it abandoned except by a sailor 
at the main-halliards, wrapping myself in a pea-jacket, I stretched 
myself in a corner to the windward, flat upon the deck, with my 
face partially protected by the hammock-nettings, turned to the 
sea. The position gave me an unobstructed view of the raging 
and roaring deep ; and for an hour and more, I exulted in the con- 
tortions of the storm and the ever varying beauty and sublimity 
of the scene. Towards evening, the appearance of the Commo- 
dore and Captain brought me to my feet ; and we together en- 
joyed the spectacle till the setting sun and gathering night 
dropped a curtain of darkness over it. 

May 22(f. — The Congress is again at the island of St. Cath- 
erine. We came to anchor at Santa Cruz, on Saturday the 15th 
inst. ; and on the following Monday morning, I came to this place 
in company with our Master S and Secretary G . When 


here last, the principal hotel was admirably kept by an American- 
He has since died, and bis place is well supplied by a Mabonese, 
named Salvador. After having engaged rooms for the night and 
ordered our dinner, we sallied forth for a walk in the suburbs of the 
town. It is so long since we have been within reach of any thing 
like rural beauty, that, surrounded by it here, we were like school- 
boys turned loose for play; and in the brilliancy of the morning 
and elasticity of a bracing air, felt, as one of us expressed it, 
ready to fly. The south wind blew freshly over the hills and 
through the trees, and, at one point in our walk, with novel and 
charming effect upon the widespread branches of a couple of 
Australian pines. Under its breathings these became perfect 
Eolian harps, sending forth as we stood beneath them, the most 
touching strains of melody; swelling at times into the fulness of 
the organ, and then dying away in cadences, so soft, as to make the 

" Listener hold Lis breiith to hear ; " 

while the nerves thrilled under the expiring tones. I never heard 
" a voice of nature " more charming. 

We were again struck with the great civility of every one 
we met, from the well-dressed gentleman to the humblest slave. 
As we stood near the enclosure of a poor cabin, admiring the 
peculiar beauty of a rose in the perfection of its bloom, a negro 
came to the door, and with pleasant salutations, begged us to pull 
it, though it was the only one in flower ; at the same time cutting 
a cluster of buds from the bu.sli himself, and adding sprigs of 
geranium for a bouquet. 

After an excellent dinner served by Salvador, we towards 
evening took a walk along the beach and the eastern shore of 
the bay, to one of tlie finest points of view. The picture pre- 
sented in the glowing light of the setting sun was very fine. 
Our walk led us past the general hospital. It is finely situated 
on a commanding terrace, and lias recently been enlarged and 
refitted, through the liberality of the Emperor and Empress, by 
donations made by them in their visit to St. Catherine's in 1845 : 


the one having given ten thousand dollars for this purpose, and 
the other two. It is a foundling hospital, as well as an infirmary. 
The window containing the roda or turning-box for the recep- 
tion of the infants left, was open, though shaded by a screen of 
green cloth, embroidered in the centre with the Imperial arms, 
and with the motto in Portuguese — " Mens pais me descniparao 
a Divina Providencia me protege." " My parent deserts me, but 
Divine Providuuce protects me." 

I rose early the next morning and took a stroll through the 
market. It is a new and neatly kept structure, immediately 
adjoining the beach. I say beach, for there are no wharves. 
This was now filled with canoes run up on the sand, and laden 
with vegetables, fruit, wood, and various articles of traffic, in 
which a brisk barter was going on. On the grass of the open 
square in front, groups of mules were clustered with pack-saddles 
and panniers burdened with similar articles, brought for a like 
purpose from the interior ; and near by, negro women in all kinds 
of costume and of every color, were seated frying fish, and boiling 
black beans into a kind of soup, and preparing other edibles for 
the of the muleteers and passers by. Here, too, were 
collected, according to daily custon), two or three dozen boys, 
from eight to twelve years of age, each having a bamboo stick 
across the shoulder, from one end of which was suspended a tin 
can capable of containing three or four quarts, with a small tin 
cup attached as a measure. These are the milkmen of the place, 
belonging to the small farms in the adjoining valleys, to a distance 
of seven or eight miles. 

Our breakfast at the hotel was :\ TAmericain : such an one 
as Salvador boastingly said " a Brazilian would not know how to 

get up." Immediately after despatching it G , S and I 

set oflf in a boat for the village of San Jos6 on the mainland, 
nine miles across the straits in a south-easterly direction from 
Desterro. This was in prosecution of a purpose we had formed of 
visiting the German colony of San Pedro d'Alcantara in the 
mountains, some twenty-five or thirty miles inland from San Jos^S ; 


partly to observe the progress made by the immigrants after a 
settlement of twenty-five years ; and partly for the eftect upou 
our health and spirits of a ride for a couple of days on horseback. 
Tliere was no wind, and we were rowed over by a Brazilian, 
the owner of the boat, and a young negro, his slave. The views 
from the water in every direction are beautifully lakelike. The 
points and bluff headlands projecting into the water, are in many 
instances peculiarly striking in their terminations : consisting of 
columnar shafts, piked splinters, and immense boulders of granite, 
so arranged as to have the appearance of the ruins of Cyclopean 
fortresses, even to the remains of seeming embrasures. In other 
instances they might pass for fragments of a Giant's causeway. 

We were an hour and a half in making the distance. Wc 
had been directed for information and aid in accomplishing 
our purpose to a German named Adams, residing at a beach called 
the Praya Compreda, in the innnediate vicinity of San Jose, 
He is a kind of chieftain among his countrymen of the colony, 
and could be of more service to us than any other person. We 
landed near his house, a substantial and comfortable edifice of 
stone, appropriated in its lower apartments to the varied business 
of a commission merchant, grocer, and tavernkeeper. It was liere 
we were to procure horses and a guide for the excursion. At first 
the prospect of success was rather unpromising. Though kindly 
received by Adams, he said it was impossible for him to furnish 
horses — that all his were entirely used up by a hard ride from 
which they had just returned, and he knew of no others that could 
be obtained : nor was there any one in the place who could act 
as a guide. However, upon setting forth our entire dependence 
upon him, at the recommendation of his friend; the anxiety we 
felt to make the trip ; our nationality, and the ship at Santa Cniz 
to which we were attached, he so far relented in his first decision 
as to say he would see what could be done ; and at the end of a 
few minutes it was determined, that after a good feed, his two 
horses, with the addition of a couple of mules, should be at our 


service, and that Adams himself should become our companion 
and guide. 

Matters being thus satisfactorily arranged, we employed the 
time for the requisite preparations, in looking around us, and in 
learning a little of the character and history of our host. He ia 
a stout, thickset, square, iron-framed man of forty-five, with a 
good-natured, but most determined and inflexible face. He has 
been twenty-four years in the country, having been one of the 
pioneer colonists of Alcantara, and resident in the mountains till 
within a few years past. He is now well to do in the world, and 
has a wife and family of six children. A daughter of eighteen 
soon became an object of unfeigned admiration to some of our 
party. She is very pretty in face, fresh and blooming in complex- 
ion, with a refined and intelligent expression, and perfect in the 
proportion and symmetry of her figure. There was a fitting of 
the head and neck to the bust, and an air and bearing in her 
walk, that would have become a princess. It is so long since we 
have seen in common life one who would be called at home 
a truly pretty girl, that we were quite charmed with the neat 
and modest air of this Christianlike and civilized beauty. 
A brother, too, some two years older, tall, stout, and well mod- 
elled, moved about with the straightness and the elastic step of 
an Indian. 

As we were strolling through the little hamlet, a straggling 
suburb of the village of San Jo:i6, we were told by a passer-by that 
an American was living close at hand — pointing out to us his resi- 
dence. We found this to be a cobbler's shop, and our compatriot 
in it a cobbler : a scapegrace, as we soon learned, from no less 
noted a place of apprenticeship than the " Mammoth" boot-store in 
Chatham Square, New York. He is about twenty-eight years 
of age, has been eleven years at St. Catharine's, and is married 
here ; but notwithstanding, is confessedly still much of a " Bowery 
boy," and no great honor to his country. A Bible in English, 
lying on the counter, was the only evidence of good we disovered 
during our interview, in which he did a small job in his line for 


one of us. Ilis boast of Protestantism, and of his defences of the 
truth amid the superstition and idolatry, as he termed it, in 
which he lives, did not pass for much iu our estimation, inter- 
larded as his conversation was, •vvitli oaths and other proofs of 
moral degradation. 

At two o'clock we were mounted for San Pedro d'Alcantara ; 

Adams and S on horses, G and I on mules. Adams, 

wearing a low-crowned, broad-brimmed, black felt hat, seemed to 
be literally stuifed into the drab cotton shooting-jacket, which he 
had added to the shirt in which we first met him. The other 
most conspicuous article of his dress was a pair of tan-colored 
boots, reaching to his knees, with saddle-bag tops, put to the use 

here of a portmanteau. G and S each wore over their 

coats a gaily striped Buenos Ayres poncho ; whilst I was provided 
with a boat-cloak, as a defence against sun, wind, and rain. We 
set ofi" with fine weather and in high spirits. We had long 
become so weary of the monotony of life on board ship at Monte- 
video, and the confinement of our passage hither, that the change 
was most welcome ; and we ambled oif through a sandy lane lead- 
ing directly inland from the water, as cheerily as if just escaping 
from prison. 

On gaining the height of the first ridge, we had an extensive 
view over a wide valley covered with wood. It surprised me to 
see so wide an extent of level and seemingly rich land, imme- 
diately on the coast, unredeemed ; but we learned that beneath the 
wood it is a mere swamp. The rising grounds skirting it, present 
abundant evidence of the productiveness of the soil : plantations 
of coffee, sugar-cane, niandioca, cotton, Indian corn, and the castor 
oil plant, were spread widely around, while the orange groves 
were so laden with fruit, as to appear in the sun like masses of 
gold. The road for many miles was broad and smooth, lined 
with hedges of mimosa and wild orange, and ornamented here and 
there by clusters of roses and jessamine. By degrees, however, 
as we advanced iu the mountains, especially in the ascent and 
dcbceut of spurs of hills, it became narrow and rough, and little 


more than a bridle-path. The country became proportionally 
new and uncultivated ; still in many places it was homelike, from 
the meadows and rich bottom lands which here and there bordered 
the mountain stream, which we began now closely to follow towards 
its sources. A thousand beautiful pictures in outline and foliage 
were presented during the ride of the afternoon, enlivened and 
varied by the windings of the small river beside us — flowing at 
times through lawulike banks as smoothly as the waters of a 
lake, and then again rushing, and leaping, and foaming amidst 
gigantic boulders of granite, down rapids and over cascades, with 
the tunmlt and uproar of a cataract. 

We had constant evidence along the road, in the new dwell- 
ings and outbuildings of the inhabitants, of their improving cir- 
cumstances and advancing civilization. This was conspicuous in 
more than one instance in three successive specimens of architec- 
ture in a single habitation, by the additions made at diifereut 
times. First, there was the little cabin, composed of small sap- 
ling-like timbers, wattled and iilled in with mud and coarsely and 
rudely thatched, now rickety and ready to tumble down, tlie 
original shanty of a settler iu the wilderness ; next, and joined 
to it some years later, another more spacious in its area, and of 
more substantial frame, more smoothly plastered and more 
elaborately thatched — more neat in the finish of its door and 
window frames, and entire workmanship ; and lastly, the recently 
constructed cottage of stone, stuccoed and whitewashed, and 
rnofed with tile — bearing testimony of the prosperity and the 
improved domestic accommodations of its owner. This is de- 
scriptive of the Ijrazilian section of the country, before we came in 
the neighborhood of the German colony; though the same fact 
was observable in a more marked degree among the European 

Might overtook us when yet a league from our destination. 
Most of this distance was made iu such darkness that we could 
not distinguish an object around us ; not even the road we were 
travelling. We could only fulluw the lead of our guide, trusting 


to the eyesight and sagacity of our beasts, for security in mounting 
sharp hills and in making steep descents beside the roaring 
Avaters and shelving precipices. The way thus began to be 
tedious and we to feel weary. A bright light from a large and 
cheerful dwelling near the road side, before which our guide 
halted, led to the hope that we had reached the end of our day's 
journey. This Adams was desirous of making it ; but, after an 
animated parlance in German, in which the whole of a large 
family, men, women and children, who had crowded to the door, 
joined, while we, wayworn riders, looked wistfully at the bright- 
ness and seeming comfort within, he was told that we could not 
be accommodated, and must push our way through the darkness 
and chill mists of the mountains, a mile further. Slight showers 
of rain now began to fall from the heavy clouds overhead. When 
at last we did come to a halt, and were invited to dismount, the 
only object discernible was the dim light of a lamp amidst the 
bottles of a little grog-shop and grocery, six feet by ten. We 
found, however, that it opened on one side into a room of some- 
what greater dimensions ; and this again in the rear into a kennel- 
like hole, filled with children of all ages, from one to eight and 
ten years, most of them very primitively clad, and some so much 
so as to be entirely naked. 

It was at once very evident that this barnlike room, open 
overhead to the rafters, and furnished only witli a coarse heavy 
table and two or three rude wooden benches, was to be both our 
supper room and dormitory : the grog-shop on one corner and the 
kennel behind, constituting the rest of the dwelling. Hungry 
and weary we gladly made ourselves at home in it. The civility 
of the landlord, and his manifest desire to do honor to guests 
under the protection of so distinguished a patron as Mynheer 
Adams, but especially the early appearance of a trim and active 
little German girl of eighteen, with neatly arranged hair and 
blooming complexion, moving about with the self-possession and 
dignity of an heiress, though without stockings, and for shoes tlie 


clumsy sabots or wooden slippers of the country, began to raise 
our hopes as to fare and accommodations. 

Soon the savory fumes and musical hissing of ham and eggs, 
in a frying-pan in the adjoining penthouse, and the aroma of 
cofiee, gave further encouragement to our empty stomachs. A 
snowwhite cloth was at the same time spread over one end of the 
bar-room table ; and it was not long before we were seated at a 
very palatable meal, which the personal cleanliness of the little 
cook and waiting-maid encouraged us to dispatch without any 
very close inspection of the plates on which it was served, or the 
particular condition of the black knives and five-pronged German 
silver forks with which it was eaten. In the mean time we had 
become somewhat enlightened as to the domestic condition of the 
household. The lady of the mansion had given birth the day 
before to a sixth son, and was lying in a little dark recess on one 
side of the rear shanty : mother and son doing well. The maid- 
of-all-work was a sister in charge of the household during the 

Shortly after our arrival a new character was introduced, in 
the persou of a German doctor, in attendance on the mother and 
child : a man of talent and education, we were told, but now, from 
habits of drunkenness, a poor degraded wretch, shabby in dress, 
and filthy in person. lie soon rendered himself utterly disgusthig 
to us, by the profaneness and vulgarity of the broken English by 
which he attempted to commend himself to us, as travellers. He 
came from the fatherland somewhat more than a year ago, with 
the German legion furnished by Brazil, in the allied armies of the 
Plata, for the overthrow of Kosas. In this, he was a surgeon, 
but forfeited his commission through intemperance. He was 
disposed at first to be very friendly, and to address us as " hail 
fiUow well met." The advances were received so very coldly, 
however, especially on the point of most interest to him, the 
participation of a glass of grog, that after a word to the sick, he 
took his departure in the darkness and rain for another grog-shop, 
as we were told, to meet more congenial companions. 


The cravings of hunger relieved, we began to cast a look 
around as to the promise of rest for the night, after the weariness 
of a rough and rapid ride of twenty-five miles. The bare and 
dirty floors, and narrow and hard benches along the walls, seemed 
to furnish the only choice of couches. We had made up our 
minds to this alternative ; and, so fnr as my companions were 
concerned, with a half shiver as to the degree of comfort held 
out. The mountain air was not only damp, but positively cold. 
In addition to my saddle for a pillow, I had a thick cloak in 

which to wrap myself, but G and S , with nothing to 

cover them but their light ponchos, had the prospect of half 
freezing. A shrug of the shoulders, however, cliiefly indicated 
the nature of their thoughts on the subject. To our relief, a largo 
rush mat was early spread in one corner of the room, and imme- 
diately afterwards, with trhunphant looks of gratulation to one 
another, we beheld our host with his little sister-in-law lugging in 
from the adjoining apartment an immense straw bed, of dimen- 
sions sufficient for the accommodation of half a dozen persons. 
Spread out to its largest extent, and furnished with bolsters, clean 
sheets and blankets, it looked so tempting, that, arranging the 
cloak and ponchos for additional covering, and laying aside our 
coats, boots, and cravats, we were soon in the indulgence of the 
rest to which it invited us. We were constrained by Christian 
civility to offer to our guide a fourth part of the couch. In 
anticipation of his acceptance, I had chosen for myself an out- 
side berth, where I supposed I should be the farthest removed 
from him. He declined the place offered, however, and spreading 
a sheepskin saddlecloth and other gear on the floor, took up his 
quarters beside me. Thus my selfish manoeuvre was in vain, and 
the big Gorman was my next bedfellow. It was well for my 
repose that I was right weary; for he soon began puffing and 
snorting in his sleep with the labor and noise of a high-pressure 
steam-engine, which otherwise would have effectually kept me 
awake. We were four in a row ; but there was no lack, as I soon 
discovered, of numerous otlier bcdftdlows. Fhittering myself that 


tbey were nothing worse than fleas in clean and polished armor, 
I did not allow myself to be disturbed by them; but leaving 
them to skip, hop, and jump as they pleased without hindrance, I 
slept soundly till morning, and rose witliout a vestige of fatigue. 

I was all impatience to know what kind of a place, under the 
disclosures of daylight, San Pedro d'Alcantara would prove to be. 
On hastening to the door, for the windows without sash or glass 
wero closed by board shutters, the first object that met my eyes 
was the little rustic chapel of the settlement, perched on the 
top of a beautifully wooded and round-topped hill. It is pictur- 
esque and rural, and the most conspicuous and ornamental object 
in the landscape. The place itself is a hamlet of a dozen dwell- 
ings, most of them mere huts. Half the number are plastered 
and whitewa.shed, and in place of thatch have roofs of red tile. 
The mountain stream, whose course we had followed from the bay 
at San Jose, here a small rivulet, flows through its centre. The 
little valley in which the hamlet is embosomed, is encircled by 
hills of more or less steepness, most of them still covered with 
trees and underwood, and presents all the features of a new and 
frontier settlemeut at home. After breakfast, accompanied by 
Adams and our host, who adds to his occupation of publican the 
office of sexton to the church, we ascended the hill to the chapel. 
It is most rude in its architi.'cture both within and without, and 
is furnished with several frightful daubs, of what are intended 
for saints and angels. A cemetery surrounds the chapel. It 
contains a few graves, and is encircled by a broad path for the 
convenience of religious processions. There is no parish priest ; 
but an itinerant ecclesiju^tic makes a quarterly visit for confession 
and absolution, and the celebration of mass. In answer to my 
inquiries on the subject, our host said, " We come up to the 
chapel every Sunday morning and every saint's day, and make a 
procession, and do what we can, and then go down and drink, 
dance, and sing, and enjoy ourselves the rest of the day ! " 

It had rained heavily in showers during the night, and the 
weather was still drizzling and unsettled. Still we felt disposed 


before returning, to push our observations a little further in the 
interior. To this Adams offered no objection, and we again 
mounted. Shortly after leaving the hamlet westward, we came to 
a very steep and long hill — quite a mountain. The soil is an 
adhesive oily clay, and the ascent was difficult and amusing. It 
was almost impossible for our animals to obtain a sure foothold ; 
and they constantly slipped and floundered, and slid backwards in 
a manner that at first was startling. The view from the top, of 
the little valley and hamlet, the stream meandering through it, 
and of the rude chapel and its surmounting cross, was picturesque 
and quite Alpine. 

The descent on the opposite side was as steep, and more 
hazardous than the ascent had been : our beasts, with their fore- 
legs stifily outstretched, often made involuntary slides of eight, ten, 
and fifteen feet, till " brought up all standing," as the phrase is, 
by a cross gully or a large stone. As the whole ride was but the 
constant ascent and descent of a succession of spurs of hills, 
running down into the little valley through which the mountain 
stream flowed, it proved a regular morning's sport of " coursing 
down hill " after a new fashion. At first it was a little startling; 
for when the slide began, whether backwards, in a precipitous 
ascent, or headforemost down a breakneck descent, there was no 
calculating where one would fetch up ; a little experience, how- 
ever, begot such confidence in the self-management of the animals 
— especially the mules, to one of which I still adhered — that I 
soon began to enjoy it, and rather to look out for and encourage a 
good long slide upon the well-braced limbs of my beast. This was 
particularly the case on our return, in the descent of the long hill 
immediately overhanging San Pedro. This is quite precipitous, 
and for nearly half a mile we slipped, slipped, and slipped, one 
after another, first in one direction in the road, and then in 
another, zigzagging here and zigzagging there, but bringing up at 
every successive point safely, till we were constrained to laugh 
outrigiit, as we looked from one animal and his rider to another, 
and felt that each of us presented the same comical figure. 


The general features of the scenery were much the same as 
those passed over the preceding eveuing. Steep hills, well- 
wooded, rose abruptly on either side from the little valley. In 
this lay rich bottumhmds, some in long peninsulas, and others in 
horse-shoe form, according to the varied windings of the stream 
flowing through them. Many beautiful pictures, some of nature 
in her wildness, and otlicrs with intermingled cultivation and im- 
provement met the eye, with evidences in the dwellings and farms 
of the settlers of increasing comfort and progressive civilization. 
At the end of three miles, our guide proposed that instead of follow- 
ing the public mule-track further, we should turn aside by a gate- 
way upon the more level vaHcy. This we did, and soon entered 
upon a section more like farming-land at home than any thing before 
met. After passing two or three comfortable-looking dwelling.s, 
we came in view of an extensive plantation of comparatively level 
and well improved ground^ with a cluster of buildings a half mile 
in the distance, superior to any we had yet seen. It proved to be 
the residence of a cousin of our guide, at which he wished to give 
us an introduction. Widespread, meadow-like fields lay before 
u.s, and on one side upon an open lawu stood a neatly-finished 
little ' chapelet,' if I may coin a word. This looked pretty iu the 
landscape, from its whiteness in contrast with the green of an 
encircling hedge. It was not more than twelve feet square, open 
in front, and probably intended to be scarcely more than a canopy 
over a shrine of the Virgin or some favorite saint. 

From the time of entering the German colony the day pre- 
vious, salutations of good will and pleasure were addressed to 
our guide from the habitations we passed far and near — often at 
distances as great as the voice could well carry them ; now, as 
soon as he was recognized among the party approaching, the de- 
monstration was most cordial and prolonged ; while before we 
could alight, father, mother, daughters, and sous gathered around 
the cavalcade with the most cheerful welcome. Every thing indi- 
cated that we had arrived at the mansion of a magnate in the 
colony, if it were not that of the lord of the manor himself, it 


must not be inferred from this, however, that we met any very 
impressive display of aristocratic life, either in costume, manners, 
or dwelling. The proprietor was unshaven and unshorn. His 
dress, though clean, was very thoroughly patched, and included 
neither coat, stockings, hat, nor cravat. The costume of the lady 
consisted principally of a single essential garment, made and 
arranged so inartistically as to give to her figure very much the 
outline of a bean-pole. The forms of two strapping daughters 
of sixteen and eighteen were much more after the German model ; 
but their toilette was little more elaborate than that of the 
mother, and the skirt of the single robe worn by them, scarcely 
the length of that of a Bloomer without the pantalets. The 
sinew and muscle thus displayed in bare arms and bare ankles and 
feet, would have justified the belief that they had spent their lives 
in tree-chopping or log-rolli)ig, and led one of our party in his 
astonishment to exclaim, with the favorite expletive of ' by George,' 
" either of them would thrash any one of us in a miimte ! " 

It was beginning to rain quite smartly as we dismounted, and 
Avhilst the sons took charge of our horses, we were hastily 
ushered into a good-sized room, which, though exhibiting a com- 
bination of hall and parlor, bedroom and kitchen, took us quite 
by surprise in its style and finish. It presented a neatly pan- 
elled wainscot, of the handsome cedar of the country, extending 
from the floor to the cornice; the ceiling also being panelled 
with the same material. A long table and benches beside it, a 
sofa of mahogany with cane seat, and half a dozen chairs to match, 
an old eight-day clock in a straight black case, and a high dresser 
with drawers of the same color and material — both manifestly 
brought from the ' faderland ' — constituted, with the accustomed 
display of delf and china, the principal furniture of the room. 

In the early morning, at San Pedro, the first indoor object 
that arrested my attention, was the thickset and burly figure of 
our guide, beside the counter of the little grog-shop and grocery, 
stirring with a spoon the contents of a shallow earthen pan, on 
the Burfaco of which played the blue flames of burning spirits. 


The interest with which he watched the operation was not lim- 
ited, it was very evident, to the beauty of the flui^liing and leap- 
ing flame, as he stirred, and stirred the liquid. Half suspicious 
of the reply that would be given, I asked hiin, '' what he Mas 
making ? " And received for answer, with a smack of his lips, 
" Oh, something very good for the stomach in these damp morn- 
ings ill the mountains — very necessary against the fogs ! it is 
cachasa," — the common rum of the country — " and sugar," of 
which, at the end of fifteen minutes' preparation, he would fain have 
persuaded us to partake, with the assurance " that all the bad of 
it was burned up." And now, at the farm-house, we had scarcely 
become seated, before our host made his appearance with a tum- 
bler of the same, with a regret that he could not in its place offer 
us wine. On declining this, bowls of milk were presented. And 
such milk ! The like of it I have not seen since leaving the 
banks of the Hudson. An excellent loaf of bread, a mixture of 
wheat and Indian meal, was added, with the sweetest of butter 
and equally good cheese. A plate of the farina of mandioca 
being also placed upon the table, I made my lunch chiefly on a 
bowl of milk thickened with it ; and found the diet a capital sub- 
stitute for the hasty pudding of New England and the Dutch 
sttppaum of the Middle States. 

In the mean time, a feat of agility performed by the younger 
of the two daughters mentioned, came near proving too much for 
the gravity of some of our number. She had not entered the 
room when we did, having received an order at the time, of some 
kind, from her mother. This obeyed, she was unwilling, probably, 
to lose the interest of so unusual a visit; and perceiving at tlio 
door that but one seat in the room was vacant — the farther end 
of the sofa, ten or twelve feet off — and suspicious of the undue 
exposure before strangers of her nether limbs, in a deliberate 
movement over the intervening space, she measured well the dis- 
tance, and with a gathered momentum, by a single lofty hop, 
skip, and jump, came down « la Turque upon it, with feet and 
ankles entirely concealed beneath her scanty skirt, but with a 


snapping of the bamboo that threatened to be fatal to the bottom 
of the sofa. 

After luncheon, we sallied forth for the inspection of a man- 
dioca and a sugar mill in an adjoining building, and a view of the 
piggery and gardens — the entire household forming our suite. 
We had already discovered the wife to be very decidedly the 
head of the family. Her will and word, doubtless, were law in the 
domain, outdoors as well as within. The husband seemed a 
meek, good-natured but inefficient person, while his better half 
was full of energy and enterprise ; and, probably, besides the exer- 
cise of better judgment, had accomplished more hard work, 
in the field as well as in the kitchen, than any other person on the 
place. She at once took the lead in showing off the premises, 
and in giving all the information desired in regard to them. Her 
husband and herself were so poor at the time of their immigra- 
tion, twenty -four years ago, as to be necessarily indebted to their 
cousin, Adams, for their passage-money. Their plantation was a 
gratuity from the government, as an encouragement to colonists. 
It is a mile in length, by half a mile in width, and was then in a 
state of nature, and of little value. It is now reclaimed and well 
cultivated ; and could not be purchased, as we were informed, for 
less than ten thousand milreis or five thousand dollars. In addi- 
tion to this fine property and comfortable home, with good build- 
ings and a stock of all necessary animals, Mr. S the proprie- 
tor, is a capitalist, and has money at interest. Mrs. S has 

been handsome, and still has a finely chiselled face and good ex- 
pression. The daughters, too, are pretty : at least they appeared 
80 to us. It is so long since we have seen the fair skin and the 
fair complexion of the Northern woman, or met the energy, 
activity, and elastic movement of the fair Yankee, that we are 
scarcely competent to the exercise of unprejudiced judgment in 
the case. 

At the end of an hour we took our leave, pleased with the 
visit, which evidently had also been a pleasure to our hosts. The 
wetness of the morning had increased, and before we had accom- 


plisbed a mile on our return, the rain began to pour in torrents. 
We sought the shelter of an orange-grove till the shower should 
pass ; but finding it inadequate to the emergency, Adams, exclaim- 
ing, " This will not do ! " pushed ahead a short distance, and 
dashed, all mounted, into a mandioca mill at one end of a dwell- 
ing near by. We of course followed, and found ourselves with 
our beasts snug and dry in the kitchen as well as mill of the pro- 
prietor. Here, during the delay of half an hour, we had an op- 
portunity of witnessing again the whole process of converting the 
root of the mandioca into farina ; while Adams, having, through 
an open door, spied the family of the house at their noonday 
meal, alighted, and notwithstanding his previous hearty luncheon 
an hour before, of bread, butter, cheese and milk, sat down and 
made a full dinner : and this, only as was afterwards proved, by 
way of stimulating his appetite for the repast we had ordered to 
be in readiness on our return, at San Pedro, and to which he did 
as ample justice as if he had not broken his fast before for a 

While waiting for this meal to be served, a very pretty and 
modest-looking German girl of fifteen rode up to the door of the 
little inn. She wore a neatly fitting dress of pink calico, a 
packet-handkerchief tied under the chin as a covering for the 
head, and French gaiter boots, and sat her horse a la cabellero. 
She was on her way to San Jose under the escort of a friend, 
without whose protection, the Germans told us, she could not pos- 
sibly make the trip with safety, such was the villainy and licen- 
tiousness of the Brazilians of the country. In the state in which 
the roads are, her attitude as a rider was unquestionably the most 

When ready to set off ourselves, rain had again began to 
pour; and for a time the prospect of being able to start was 
unpromising. The drunken doctor, once more in attendance, per- 
sisted in assuring us that it would rain thus all the afternoon ; 
and said it would be madness to think of leaving. His urgency 
for our stay was an additional motive for us to be ofi"; and as 


soon as there was a slight improvemeut in the weather we 
mounted, and after making up a purse, much to the deliglit of 
our host, as a gratuity to the sixth-born son, bade adieu to San 
Pedro d'Alcantara. It was now four o'clock, and Adams said we 
could not reach San Jos6 at the earliest before nine. We started 
notwithstanding, with the will and purpose of making the short- 
est possible work of the intervening distance ; and certain of our 
road, left our guide to gossip by the way as he chose, with the 
many friends hailing him from the heights above or the valleys 
below, as far as the voice could be carried, while we rode pell- 
mell, up hill and down dale, often slipping and sliding for long 
distances, at the seeming hazard of both limbs and neck. In tliis 
way, we accomplished half the distance before nightfall, and 
readied a lower region of country, where there had been little or 
no rain. 

During the ride, we met several troupes of mules, and their 
muleteers, returning with empty pack-saddles from the bay. 
Amono- others, one belonging to our host of San Pedro, which 
we had seen setting off in the early morning with articles for the 
market of Desterro. Occasionally, too, we overtook, and, after 
riding for a time side by side, passed horsemen and mule riders 
going the same way with ourselves. Just as darkness was begin- 
ning to fall rapidly around, we thus fell in with a well-mounted, 
fine-looking Brazilian, having the appearance of a respectable 

planter. Adams was far behind, and S liad the lead of our 

party, his horse being a tolerably good traveller. My mule, a 

surc-footod beast, came next, and then G 's. The Brazilian, 

after riding side by side with each of us in turn, by degrees got 
in advance of all three. As he was evidently well acquainted 

with tlie road, S and I made up our minds to follow him 

closely, as the pioneer in the darkness for any unsafe spot ahead. 
As both man and horse appeared fresh, however, this required 
pretty brisk riding. With the thickening of the night, our new 
friend accelerated his speed ; and the faster he led, the faster we 
followed. Presently it was impossible to discern a trace of the 


road, or to discover whether it were smooth or rough, tending up 
hill or dowu. The white Guayaquil hat of the Brazilian, was 

all that was left visible to S of horse, or rider, and a line of 

deeper darkness hastening from me ahead, was all that I, with tho 

most fixed gaze, could perceive of S . I lashed my mule to 

keep up in the chase, 8 kept snapping his riding whip in the 

fashion of a French postilion, while the Brazilian seemed to be 

spurring on his steed at full tilt. Away we thus went, S 

managing to keep before him the vision of a white hat, which 
threatened each moment to be lost in the darkness, and I at an 
equal remove from him, with all the powers of sight intently 
fixed, to follow a moving speck of concentrated blackness. To 
make sure of the identity of the phantom of my own chase, I 

occasionally called out, " S , do you still see him ? " to which 

the reply would come, " Yes ! but I tell you he is going it : but 
I'll take good care ftot to lose him, — there can be but one road, 
and I'll make sure of so good a lead." 

It was anmsing, though it might have proved no joke, to be 
thus trotting at full speed in impenetrable night, and that on a 
hard-motioned animal at the end of a thirty-miles' ride. We had 
kept the gait for an hour perhaps, without venturing to slacken 
Its pace for a moment, or to take our eyes from the respective 
points, white and black, before us, when all at once, that on which 
mine were fixed was gone : urging my mule forward, in the at- 
tempt to regain it, I perceived him begin to stumble, and found that 

he was oflF the path. Reining him up, I called out for S . 

lie, I discovered, was at a stand also at no great distance, and 
in answer to the question, " Have you lost your guide ? " an- 
swered, " lie has just vanished like a veritable — he dis- 
appeared in a moment in a mass of blackness, and but for the 
creaking of a gate, I should have been headforemost into a 
hedge after him." The darkness was so great that it was impos- 
sible to move with safety without some indication of the direc- 
tion in which we ought to go, and we had patiently to wait the 
approach of G and Adams to relieve us from our dilemma. 


Soon the whip of the former, urging on his little mule, and the 
jingling of the stirrups and heavy iron spurs of the latter were 
heard at no great distance ; and giving place in the lead to 
Adams, at the end of a half hour we alighted safely at the point 
from which we started. I was too much fagged to care for any 

refreshment but that of sleep ; and, while S and G sat 

down to a supper of " pain perdu" and green tea, made my way to 
a clean and comfortable cot beneath the tiled roof of the garret, 
and was soon lost in a repose — 

" above 
The luxury of common sleep." 



May 24i7i. — Mr. TVells, an American gentleman of wealth, 
long resident in Desterro, is a person of leading influence in the 
commerce and society of the place. For many years he held the 
office of American consul with honor and popularity ; but was 
superseded two or three years ago, through the political influence 
of a partisan office-seeker at home. The new incumbent, disap- 
pointed in the profits expected from the office, soon resigned it. 
Through private pique against Mr. Wells, he left the papers of 
the consulate and an acting appointment to the office with Cap- 
tain Cathcart, though he is in no way qualified for the duties or 
honor of the situation. 

Among others to whom Mr. Wells, as the only representative 
of the United States here, has at difi"erent times extended his 
hospitality, are the present Emperor and Empress. Their majes- 
ties and suite were entertained by him at a magnificent fete, in 
their progress through this section of the Empire in 1845. I was 

furnished with letters to him by Dr. C , an old friend, and by 

F of the Congress. These I delivered before making the 

excursion to San Pedro ; and on my return, became a guest 
beneath his roof His house is on the palace square, in the 
immediate neighborhood of the residence of the President of the 
Province. It is one of the finest dwellings in the place, and 


commands from the windows and balconies of the drawing-room, 
an extensive view of the town, bay, and surrounding mountains. 
It has been my lot to occupy a great variety of sleeping rooms, 
from tliose of the palace to the wigwam, but I think the bed 
assigned to me here must have precedence, in its dimensions at 
least, above all I have before met. It is truly regal, taking even 
that of his majesty of Bashan in the days of his overthrow, as a 
model. I have not measured it, and its area may not quite be, 
as his was, " nine cubits by four ; " but its elevation I suspect is 
quite as great ; the upper mattress, as I stand beside it, being 
nearly on a level with my shoulders, and accessible only by a 
flight of mahogany steps. The canopy is of proportionate alti- 
tude. The dignified feeling with which one ascends to this place 
of rest, is not a little increased by tlie remembrance that it was 
by these very steps their Imperial Majesties, when in St. Cathe- 
rine's, mounted to their couch. 

Mr. Wells has been bereft of a wife and child, and is left 
alone ; but has borne his afflictions with the resignation of a 
Christian. It was pleasing to discover, that though so long a 
resident of a place " wholly given to idolatry," and cut off from 
all the public means of grace, he maintains the regular worship 
of God, morning and evening, with his household of African 

The quietude and comforts of such an establishment are a 
great luxury after the weariness of long confinement on ship- 
board ; and I feel that the visit at Desterro will constitute quite 
an episode in the tedium of our cruise. The town itself presents 
every where a pleasing mingling of city and country, giving to 
the whole a village-like simplicity. The walks, in every direc- 
tion, are varied and beautifully rural ; and whatever Desterro may 
be as a permanent residence, it is certainly delightful for a 
sojourn of a few days. 

Yesterday afternoon my attention was attracted by the sounds 
of music in the Matriz, or mother churcli, at the head of the square ; 
and walking over, I discovered it to be that of a funeral service 


in a mass for the dead. A beautiful catafakiue, with richly fes- 
tooned draperies of pink satin and gold and silver tissue, occu- 
pied the centre of the nave. Upon this, in a straight coffin of pink 
velvet, trimmed with gold lace — so formed as when thrown open 
to expose the entire figure — upon a satin mattress lay the corpse 
of a little girl of tliree years, most tastefully and expensively 
arrayed in what may be concisely described as a full ball-dress 
of pink and blue gauze, with edgings of gold and silver fringe 
over a white satin robe : the whole being wreathed with garlands 
of ex(iui.>^itely finished artificial flowers. The feet were in silk 
stockings and satin shoes, and the head crowned with fresh 
roses. Death had evidently done his work quickly and gently. 
There was no emaciation ; no traces of suffering ; the face was 
full and perfect in its contour; and the limbs round and sym- 
metrical. A placid and smiling expression, in place of the 
gha.stly look of death, led to the impression of its being only a 
deep and quiet sleep that we gazed on — an illusion strengthened 
by the delicate tinge of rouge that had been given to the cheeks 
and lips. 

On all former occasions, when I have seen the corpse of a 
child thus decked out — according to the usage here — I have felt as 
if it were a mockery of death and the grave, thus to mingle the 
tinsel and vanities of the world with the sad lesson they teach. 
But now, however incongruous with the solemnity of such an oc- 
casion these fanciful adornments may seem to us, there was nothing 
repulsive in the spectacle presented. Indeed, I found myself 
in.sensibly impressed with the extreme beauty of the child, and 
the exquisite taste and arti.^tic effect of the drapery in which she 
was laid out. Ingeniously constructed wings of gauze are often 
appended to the other adornments of an infant corpse, emble- 
matic of the truth that, 

" Witli soul enlarged to angel's size," 

the spirit has taken its flight to a station of blessedness near tie 
lliroue of the lledeemer. All persons of wealth and position in 


society, are thus, in Brazil, borne to the grave in full dress — ■ 
the soldier in his uniform, the judge in his robes, the bishop in 
his mitre, and the monk in his cowl. 

On this occasion, the officiating priest with the bearers of the 
crucifix and censers, and other attendants, stood in the midst of 
the blaze of wax lights by which the bier was encircled ; while 
tlie walls of the church were lined by hundreds of gentlemen of 
the first respectability, in full black, and each supporting a candle 
of wax of the length and size of an ordinary walking-stick. The 
child was of the family of Andrada ; a name pre-eminent in the 
Province and Empire for patriotism, scientific attainment, and 
political distinction. 

Towards evening I took a long walk with Mr. AVells. The 
suburbs in every direction are full of rural imagery and pictu- 
resque beauty. The rising grounds command extensive views of 
undulating land, of water and of mountains ; and the roads and 
lanes are so walled in by luxuriant hedges of the flowering mi- 
mosa, running rose, orange-tree, and coffee bush, as to embower one, 
even within a stone's throw of the town, as if in the heart of the 
country. The flowers of the mimosa hanging in thick pendants, 
cover the hedges with a mass of whiteness, more entire and more 
beautiful than that of the hawthorne, while those of the running 
rose, clustering closely like the multitiora, make the roadside they 
border one bed of bloom. There is too a repose and tranquillity 
in the evenings, and a delicacy in the tintings of the colors at 
sunset, that make a stroll at that time of the day peculiarly 

After a circuit of two miles by an inland route, we approached 
the town again by a suburb which constitutes the west end, both 
in the topography and the fashion of the place; and exhibits a 
succession of pleasant residences surrounded by tastefully arranged 
flower-gardens. Just as we were passing the grounds of one of 
the most attractive of these, a vehicle, the first I have seen, 
except a liomau ox-cart, since I have been here, overtook us and 
drove through an iron gateway into a court, beyond which 


appeared long vistas of gravelled walks and embowering shade. 
The carriage was a caloche, or old-fashioned chaise, of rather rude 
construction, painted pea-green, with orange-colored wheels and 
shafts. It was drawn- by a single horse guided by a postilion, 
and contained a very stout gray-headed gentleman of sixty, who 
entirely filled up a seat designed for the accommodation of two. 
It was no less a personage than Lieut. Gen. Bonto Manuel, the 
highest military officer of the southern section of the Empire, 
recently from Rio Grande, where he was long chief in command, 
and where he did efficient service for the government during great 
political agitation and threatened revolution. He is so stout 
as to be readily excused from walking or riding, and possesses, 
with a single exception, the only wheeled carriage in the Island 
of St. Catherine's. 

The ringing of a cracked bell at the Matriz. and the gather- 
ing of the population in that direction on the evening of the 
2lHt, led me to it again as a point of observation. It was the 
beginning of a Novena, or daily service, of nine days' continuance, 
in commemoration of the descent of the Holy Ghost — the follow- 
ing Sabbath being Whit-Sunday. This celebration is universal in 
city and country ; and is distinguished by an observance, the ori- 
gin and specific meaning of which I have been unable to trace, 
that of the choice and induction into office for a year, of a lad 
under the blasphemous title of Emperor of the Holy 
He presides in mock majesty at the festival, and is regarded M'ith 
epecial honor at all others during his continuance in office. The 
selection is usually from a family of wen 1th, as the expenses 
attendant upon the honor involve an outlay amounting at Rio and 
other chief places to five hundred, a thousand, and fifteen hun- 
dred dollars. This is appropriated to the furnishing of dress, 
music, lights, and refreshments during the celebration. The em- 
pire over which he sways the sceptre comprises the apartments of 
the church, in which the gifts brought to him by the peojde in the 
name of the Holy Ghost are deposited, and an enclosure adjoin- 
ing, where auctions are held for the disposal of these to the 


liigliest bidder. On this oooasioii, two rooms opening from the 
church were gayly fitted up, one — a side-chapel with altar and 
crucifix — as a throne-room for the Emperor, and the other for the 
temporary deposit of the gifts. In front of these, and communi- 
cating directly with them, a large auction-room was erected, 
screened by canvas over head, and furnished with benches for the ac- 
commodation of spectators and purchasers. The gifts are brought 
gratuitously by the people, and the proceeds of the sales go to the 
treasury of the brotherhood of the Holy Ghost for purposes of 

As I arrived a procession was just approaching. It was led 
by a negro, in a dirty coarse shirt and pantaloons, the common 
dress of a slave, bareheaded and barefooted, who bore a large 
flag of red silk, with a dove embroidered on one corner, and long 
streamers of ribbons flowing from the top of the staff on which 
it was suspended. It was the sacred banner of the Holy Ghost, 
a kiss of which, or the burying of the face in its folds, insures 
all needed blessing. A little fellow, eight or ten years of age, 
followed, beating a small drum with all his might, then came a 
man in ordinary dress, thrumming on a guitar the accompani- 
ment of a monotonous ditty, sung at the top of his voice as loud 
as he could bawl ; the complement of the music being made 
up by a fiddle on which a round-shouldered old Portuguese was 
sawing and laboring, with fingers, elbow, and head, with an ear- 
nestness, to give full cftect to the squeaking and screeching sounds 
he \5;as sending forth, as if life itself depended on the zeal he 
should display. 

The Emperor elect now made his appearance, a lad of eleven or 
twelve years, neatly dres.sed in the fasliion of a man, as the usage 
with boys here is, having a broad red ribbon across his shoulders, 
from which was suspended on the breast a large silver star stamped 
with a dove, emblematic of the Holy Ghost. Six or eight men 
robed in short cloaks or mantles of red silk, the dress of 
the brotherhood, bareheaded and carrying lighted wax tapers, 
followed him. A rabble of noisy and excited boys and men, 


white, black, and yellow, made up the corttge. They had been 
to escort the Eiuporor from his residence with becoming honor, 
to open the festival. 

Previous to his arrival the church had become densely filled, 
principally with females, seated closel}- together on the floor — 
mistrcsjs and slave, lady and beggar, without distinction of rank 
or name, black, white, and every intermediate hue, the whole 
number amounting to six or eight hundred. Through this crowd 
the procession made its way up the nave, the musicians still 
drummiug and thrumming and scraping on their instruments, 
and bawling out their song Jouder than ever. A priest met it at 
the high altar; and the whole returned through the church to 
the depository in which were the gifts. These he consecrated by 
I)rayer, the sprinkling of holy water and fumigations with incense, 
after which, escorted in like manner, he again entered the church. 
Hundreds of men in addition to the women, now lined the walls and 
stood closely packed together along the entrance to the church, and 
the service of the Novena commenced. It was chanted through- 
out to the accompaniment of a lively, and to me any thing but 
a devotional air. The whole sounded very much like that of a song 
I recollect to have heard in childhood, beginning with the line 
'• Marlbro' ha.s gone to the war,"' as a theme, followed with varia- 
tions. At different points in the chanting the whole audience 
joined pleasantly in a lively chorus. At the end of an hour this 
service closed. The Emperor made his way in the manner in which 
he had arrived, to the throne-room, while the audience hastened. to 
fill to suffoeati(»n that for the auction-room in front of it. Bonfires 
were kindled, rockets sent up, a general illumination outside dis- 
played, while any number of negroes and negresses, venders of 
refreshments in cakes, candies, and orgeat, rivalled one another in 
bawling out the superior qualities of their individual stores, 
the whole scene much like that of a Fourth of July night at 
home. A band of music struck up in an orchestra near the 
throne-room, and the auctioneer issuing from the depository, 
bearing a bouquet of crystallized sugar, began the sale by a solicita- 


tion for bids, setting off the value of the article with the merriment 
and sallies of humor which give reputation to the office. A passage 
through the centre of the place was kept clear ; in this he walked 
backwards and forwards, giving exercise to his wit, as he exhibited 
the article under the hammer. Most of the gifts, this first even- 
ing, consisted of cakes and confectionery. Some of the bouquets 
of sugar flowers were most artistically manufactured ; and one 
sold for ninety milreis, or forty-five dollars. 

Additional gifts were constantly brought in. They were 
generally borne in trays on the heads or in the hands of servants, 
accompanied by the giver. Children too were often the bearers ; 
and one of the prettiest sights of the evening was that of a 
beautiful little girl in the arms of her father, carrying in her 
bosom two young doves, white as drifted snow, and as gentle and 
innocent in look as they were white. 

Each offering was made to the young Emperor on the bended 
knee, and to each one thus kneeling before him, he extended a 
silver dove, forming the end of his sceptre, to be kissed, and 
gave in return a small roll of bread. At ten o'clock the auction 
closed for the night, and the Emperor was escorted to his home 
by torchlight as he had arrived, but with an additional rabble for 
his court, and a higher effort in noise and screeching from his 

3Iay 2,^.)ih. — Commodore McKeever and Dr. C have 

been fellow guests with me at the residence of Mr. Wells 
for some days. Previous to their arrival I had taken two or 
three pleasant rides with our host, and this afternoon our whole 
party enjoyed another. The Commodore and I were particu- 
larly well mounted ; our animals were at once so spirited and 
willing, so playful and gentle, with a gait as easy to the riders as 
if swaying on the springs of a well-poised carriage. The weather 
too was charming ; and our route after the first half mile being 
(me which we had not before taken, had the additional attraction 
of novelty. It led soutliward along the curve of the beach, 
and was thickly bordered on one side with the iVmerican aloe, 


now in full flower, and on the other by a succession of neat cot- 
tages embowered in orange groves, overtopped by palm trees, with 
dooryards gay in the bloom of the scarlet geranium and the 
dazzling brilliancy of the poinsetta. The road for a mile was a 
continued hamlet, with greater evidences of thrift and general 
prosperity than any suburb we had passed through. On leaving 
the water we struck into a narrow valley, lying between two 
ranges of hills ; and were delighted with the homelike appear- 
ance of the well-cultivated fields and rich pasture lands of the 
small farms scattered through it. But for the tell-tale palm tree, 
the rustling banana, and the golden orange, we might have fancied 
ourselves in some prosperous and well-cultivated little valley in 
New England. There was nothing to remind us of being in a slave 
country. All the labor in cuUivating the small plantations is done 
by the owners of the .soil The district is well peopled, and the 
inhabitants are healthful, prosperous, and seemingly light-hearted. 
We met and passed many groups of men and boys, engaged in 
various rural employments. They were invariably bright and 
cheerful in looks, and most civil and courteous in manners. In 
general, they are light and slender in figure, and elastic in move- 
ment ; but apparently without much stamina, and arc far from 
good looking in feature. The females in early youth arc pas- 
sably good looking, and having fine eyes and teeth, might in some 
instances, be called pretty; but as mothers, they soon become 
haggard and homely. The climate is salubrious and not exces- 
sively hot, yet the complexions of the mass are like those with 
us who are under the influence of the ague, or just recover- 
ing from a bilious fever. This is true of the pure-blooded na- 
tives, if any such there be, as well as of those who clearly are 
a mixed race. 

The special object of our ride was to gnin a point of view, 
on the top of a mountain, said to be the finest on the island ; 
and, after a ride of two miles in the valley, we turned into a side 
road fur the ascent. We followed the meanderings of a stream 
as it babbled along its course, and soon came among the cabins 


of the dwellers among the hills, perched like birdsnests on ter- 
raced points, on either hand above us, in the midst of groves of 
orange trees and coffee plants. The road gradually changed into 
a mere bridle-path, till at the end of an additional two miles it 
suddenly terminated altogether, at a barn near which two men 
were standing. To these Mr. Wells mentioned the object of 
ir ride, and made an inquiry of them as to the best way to reach 
it ; when, for the first time since I have been in Brazil, I heard 
a reply of ill-nature and incivility. The elder of the two, in a 
most gruif and surly manner, said there was no way to go up, and 
if there were, there was nothing to go for — wishing to know what 
business we had there at all. Without regarding his mood and 
manner, Mr. Wells again said, " Is there not a fine prospect 
from the top of the mountain, and a path by which we may reacli 
it ? " to which the man again said, " No ! there is nothing but 
rocks, and I don't know what you can want with them ! " For- 
tunately, at this juncture, a third person made his appearance, 
whom our friend at once recognized as a regular customer in 
the sale to him of cofi"ee. From him we readily learned that 
there was a fine prospect, at a short distance further, but that 
the ascent to it would not be easily made on horseback ; and, 
volunteering to lead our animals to his cottage close by, he said 
he would accompany us the rest of the distance on foot. We soon 
discovered our conductor to difi"er as widely from his boorish 
neighbor in taste for scenery as in disposition. He was not 
only aware of the magnificence of the prospect to which he was 
leading us, but said he very often went up to the point command- 
ing it, for the mere enjoyment of so fine a scene. Its elevation 
•we judged to be two thousand feet; and we were well repaid for 
the ascent by the grand picture spread before, us. This embraced 
the greater part of the entire island ; its mountains and valleys, 
rivers and bays, bold promontories, low points and curving 
beaches, with the whole of the straits, and the coasts along the 
continent as fiir as the eye could reach. 

On descending to the cottage of our guide, he urged us to 


partalce of a cup of coffee before leaving ; and we entered his 
cabin, more for the purpose of a peep at the domestic economy 
of the establi-sbment than with a view to the refreshment. If 
this home, in its aspects of comfort, may be taken as a fair speci- 
men of its class, it indicates a very low state of civilization 
among the rural population. It consisted of a single room with 
a floor of earth. The few articles of furniture visible were of 
the rudest kind, the whole interior exhibiting little more cleanli- 
ness and order than the wigwam of an ludian. A slatternly- 
looking wife, surrounded by two or three dirty children, did not 
promise much for the nicety of the coffee she might prepare ; 
and we availed ourselves of the near approach of night and the 
length of the ride to the town, as excuse for declining the prof- 
fered hospitality. 

The habits of life among the people are simple, and their 
diet unvarying and frugal. A cup of coffee and a bi.seuit 
made of the farina of mandioca, are the only food of the morn- 
ing, and there is but one set meal during the day, served at 
noon. Preparation for it, however, is the first duty of the 
household, in the morning; and consists in putting a kettle of 
water over the fire. In this a small piece of came seche, or 
jerked beef, and black beans, in proportion to the size of the 
family, are placed, and kept boiling till the middle of the day. 

The leisure of the evening had begun, as we made our way 
down the mountain ; and the inhabitants were seen in groups 
around their doors. Every cabin had its crowd of children, the 
ring of whose joyous laughter in their varied .sports and play, 
echoing from side to side of the little valley, added fresh impres- 
sions of pleasure to the scene. The ignorance in which they 
are brought up, however, is lamentable. Ignorance not only of 
lett<!rs and books, but of almost every thing. A bright-looking 
and handsome lad of twelve years, the son of our civil guide, on 
being asked his age, said he did not know, and seemed equally 
uniiistructed in other commonplace matters. Yet he was evi- 
doutlv as full of natural intelligence in mind as he was active iu 


body. He is one of the little milkmen I have mentioned, •who 
crowd the market square in the morning, and who, with his can 
of milk on his shoulder, leaves his mountain home every day before 
the dawn, for the walk of four miles at least, by the most direct 
path : he is home again to his breakfast of coffee and farina, by 
eight o'clock. 

The Indians and the snakes of this section of the Empire have 
been among oiir topics of conversation with Mr. Wells. The 
settlement of the white man extends but a short distance inland 
from the coast : not more than fifty or sixty miles at farthest. 
The interior is still a wilderness in the possession of wandering 
bands of the Aborigines. These cherish a deadly hatred agaiiist 
the whites; and, prowling along the frontiers in small companies, 
rob and murder them whenever they find opportunity. Some- 
times "they venture within twenty and tliirty miles of the coast. 
A party of seven, not long since, made an attack at daybreak 
upon the shanty of an American, who has put up a saw-mill on 
the borders of the forest. Though single-handed, he hazarded a 
shower of their arrows, and afterwards put them to flight by the 
show of a musket, that, from the dampness of the priming- 
powder, missed fire. 

Venomous snakes are said to be numerous on the island, and 
some arc found occasionally even in the town. Not long since, a 
German lady, in returning from a party in the evening with her 
husband, trod upon one whose bite is considered to be death. 
Fortunately, her foot was placed near its head, and she escaped 
its fangs ; and though it coiled itself about her ankle, she suc- 
ceeded in throwing it off witliout injury. A remedy said to be 
a specific for the most virulent poison of these reptiles is kept 
at the apothecary's ; and families in the country make it a point 
to have a supply on hand. The mixture consists of six drachms 
of the oil of amber, two of tlie spirits of ammonia, and one of 
alcohol. The dose is twenty-four drops in a wine-glass of 
brandy, or other spirit, three or four times a day ; the wound 
being also washed and kept wet with it. The ammonia is the 


active agent in the cure; and should be given freely till a pro- 
fuse perspiration is induced. If the theory of some be true, that 
the virus of all snakes is but a modified form of prussic acid, the 
volatile alkali, ammonia, is the antidote, as that is known to 
neutralize the fatal acid. Alcohol alone is thought to have 
effected cures. A young German here was bitten not long since 
in the country-, and being without the prescribed antidote, and 
unable to obtain it, unwilling to meet in consciousness the doom 
which he believed to await him, he swallowed a whole bottle of the 
common rum of the country, that he might be thrown into a state 
of insensibility. This was soou the case, and remaining dead drunk 
for twenty-four hours, on recovering his consciousness he was free 
from all effects of the bite. Here too, there may have been 
pliilosopliy in the cure. The poison of a serpent being a power- 
ful sedative, its effects may be best counteracted by a powerful 

A sad case occurred some three weeks ago at Santa Cruz. 
A fine young man of twenty, the proprietor of a small plantation, 
was at work with his slaves preparing a piece of ground for a 
plantation of sugar-cane. Coming to a spot in which the bushes 
and undergrowth were particularly thick, he cautioned the 
negroes against working in it with their naked feet and logs, as it 
had the appearance of a piece that might be infested with snakes. 
Protected liimself by boots, he entered to open a way in advance, 
but had scarcely dime so before the fangs of ajacaraca, one of the 
most poisonous of reptiles, were fastened in an unprotected part 
of his leg. Neglecting to apply immediate remedies, he was in a 
short time a corpse. 

May '2'Jth. — I have been complying here with the injunction 
recently received to *' make hundreds of sketches ; " and this 
morning, whilo taking one, of the lower parts of the square and 
market-house, from the balcony of the drawing-room, had an 
opportunity of introducing the Commodore as a conspicuous 
figure. In a stroll in the s<|uare before breakfast, he stopped for 
a little observation near the groupings of men, donkeys, and 


milk-boys in front of the market. Espying among them the 
bright little fellow we had seen at his father's cabin on the moun- 
tain, with the benevolence and good-will of his nature, he bought 
the whole stock of boiled beans and farina of an old negro 
•woman seated on the grass near by, and gave the boys in 
general a breakfast. They all seemed delighted, especially the 
old negress in receiving the pay, and had quite a frolic. The 
gratuity of a penny also fell to each boy. With characteristic 
improvidence and a development of the national passion, the 
little fellows, after having tlieir stomachs well filled, set to and 
gambled with each other for the next hour, till every penn}-^ tliey 
had thus received had made its way to one pocket. 

May 21sl — The Novena and subsequent auction was in regu- 
lar continuance every evening of the last week. On Thursday our 
party again attended the former to hear the music, and the latter 
to catch the manners of the people. All the chief dignitaries of 
the place were present, the President of the Province, the Chief 
Justice, the Treasurer, and the Captain of the Port. To the 
residence of the last we were invited to a supper at the close of 
the auction, and the next morning waited on the President at the 
palace, or Government House. This is a spacious and lofty build- 
ing, the ground-floor in front serving both as the entrance-hall and 
as a guardroom fur a company of soldiers, and the corresponding 
rooms above being divided into a cabinet for official business on 
one side of the staircase, and a grand sala for reception on the 
other, with an intervening ante-room common to both. "When 
our visit was announced, the President was engaged with official 
visitors in his cabinet, but soon made his appearance. He is a 
small, black-eyed, intelligent-looking man, careless and slovoidy 
in dress, and most simple and republican in his manners. As he 
spoke Portuguese only, the conversation was necessarily carried 
on through interpretation by Mr. Wells, and the interview was 
more brief than it otherwise would have been. 

The I'residents of the Provinces arc appointed by the Empe- 
ror, and their salaries paid from the Imperial treasury. These 


vary in amount, in proportion to the extent and importance of the 
Province. That of the President of St. Catherine is four thou- 
sand milreis, or two thousand dollars. The selection for the 
office is usually from persons who are strangers in the Province 
for which the appointment is made, that the influence of family 
connections and personal friendships may not prove temptations 
to partiality in the distribution of the gifts and emoluments 
under his control. 

An anecdote related of a former incumbent of the office, 
throws light upon the spirit sometimes induced by party politics 
here, and shows the despotism in small matters which a high official 
may exercise with impunity. The public square had been lined, 
at great care and expense, with a closely planted row of date 
palms. Uniform in height and size, in the course of a few years 
they became sufficiently grown to furnish by their plumed tops a 
beautiful screen against the sun, and were a great ornament to 
the place. The individual referred to, whose name — Pariero 
Pinto — like that of Erostratus, deserves for a similar reason 
to be perpetuated, was unpopular as President. Ambitious, 
however, of becoming at the expiration of his term the Deputy 
of the Province in the Imperial Legislature, he ofi"ered him.'<elf to 
the people as a candidate. An opponent was elected by accla- 
mation. To avenge himself for the slight manifested by his utter 
defeat, he deliberately set the soldiers under his command at 
work in felling the palms ; and in the course of a single day, the 
stately trunks and graceful foliage of the whole were laid in the 

May Z\st. — On Saturday the 20th, great preparation was 
seen to be making around the principal church for the festival 
of Whit-Sunday, which occurred yesterday. A row of palm 
trees were planted in front ; the verandah, in which the auction 
during the No vena had been held, was draped and festooned anew 
with wreaths of evergreen and gay flowers; and tar-barrels, filled 
with combustible materials, were placed on the s<juare for bon- 
lixes at night, though the moon is now iu her full. The dawn of 


the next day was ushered in with the ringing of bells, the setting 
off of rockets, the beating of drums, and the playing of bands of 
music. On looking out, every thing in the vicinity of the church 
was seen to indicate a grand festival. The temporary palm grove 
looked as if it had sprung up by magic. Gay flags and streamers 
of all colors floated from their plumed heads, from the roof of 
the church and its verandahs, and from various other points. 
After a service of worship in the drawing-room of Mr. Wells, 
Dr. C and I walked over to witness the scene. The con- 
gregation, consisting chiefly of females, had just begun to assem- 
ble. There are no seats or pews in the churches here, the whole 
interior being an open area in which all seat themselves, or kneel 
upon the bare pavement or floor, without the mat or rug which I 
have seen elsewhere. Soon the whole space became closely 
crowded. Most of the women were in full dress; the pre- 
dominating materials being black silks, satins, and velvets, 
with short sleeves and low necks, and a half handkerchief of 
fancy-colored silk fastened round the throat by a brooch. A 
black lace mantilla upon the head, and the indispensable fan, 
completed the costume. The variety of garb, however, was 
considerable ; and varied according to the circumstances and 
position in life of the weai'er. Some, as penitents, were draped 
in mantillas of black cloth, so folded over the head as to reach to 
the eyes, and fall on either side over the whole figure to the feet. 
Two or three colored women, whether veritable Arabs or not, 
wore the thick white cotton veil of the women of the East, so 
arranged as to leave little of the face except the eyes and nose 
exposed, while long cloth cloaks reaching to the floor, enveloped 
their persons. Man}' of the most expensively and most tastefully 
dressed persons were ncgresses. These entered with a self- 
possession in air and movement, if not with a stateliness and 
grace, rivalling those of the most aristocratic of the whites ; and 
were followed, like them, by one or more well-dressed servants. 
We were told that they were the wives, and in some instauces the 
mistresses, of some of the most wealthy of the citizens. A few 


•were in colored silks and dress bonnets of Parisian make, but the 
black lace veil, with or without the addition of a simple flower, 
either natural or artificial iu the hair, was the general head-dress. 
All the children were arrayed as if for a dress part3\ By de- 
grees there was a perfect jam on the floor ; the greatest order 
and propriety however prevailed, each person sitting quietly with 
the face turned reverently towards the high altar. 

At length a movement and bustle in the crowd without — the 
whizzing and explosion of rockets ; the pealing of bells, the 
heathenish beating of drums, the tinkling of a guitar, and scraping 
of a fiddle, with the bawlings of the accompanying songs indicated 
the approach of the young Emperor. He soon entered the church 
with the cortege before described, and forced his way through the 
dense mass of women up the nave to the chancel, where seats were 
in reserve for his mock court and for the officiatiug priests. The 
boy was now robed in imperial dress — white small-clothes, silk 
stockings, and gold-buckied pumps ; a flowing mantle of state of 
crimson velvet and gold, lined with white satin, a ruft' of broad 
lace around the neck ; and over all, the ribbon and decoration of 
the Holy Ghost before-mentioned. A crown of silver of the 
imperial pattern richly wrought, and a silver sceptre were carried 
before him on a cushion of velvet. A little girl of five or six 
years, apparently his sister, followed him. Slie was in full dress 
as an Empress, in tissues of silver and gold over pink satin, 
with a train of green and gold, and head-dress of ostrich fea- 
thers. The lad was seated on a throne, at the right of the high 
altar, the mock Empress on a chair of state beside him ; the 
twenty or thirty gentlemen in attendance stood on the left 
opposite, while the vicar and his a.ssistants in the richest of their 
priestly adornments, took their stations in the centre at the altar. 
All this was done with the most perfect stage effect. As if to 
give full opportunity to impress the imagination with this, a 
kind of interlude was introduced in the form of a procession 
from the vesting-room or sacristy, into a side chapel near the 
chancel, from which the vicar, under a canopy of crimson velvet, 


pupportcd on four gilt staves by an equal number of attendants, 
fetched some seemingly precious thing, the consecrated wafer, 
a relic, or the anointing oil, and placed it on the altar where 
the crown and sceptre were already laid. The full coronation 
service was now commenced and performed in all its parts, 
including the consecration, the anointing, the crowning, and 
the enthronement, followed by the obeisance and kissing of 
hands, and ending with the coronation anthem ; the whole was 
gone through with, seriously and solemnly, as it could have been at 
the coronation of Don Pedro himself Mass was then chanted, 
after which the vicar was escorted through a side chapel to a con- 
cealed staircase ; and making his appearance in a pulpit projecting 
overhead from the wall, proceeded to deliver a sermon of fifteen 
or twenty minutes' length. It was for the most part legendary 
and fabulous in matter ; but throughout impressive and eloquent 
in voice and manner. The eager and solemn attention which was 
given, and the fixedness of every eye and every ear upon the 
speaker, proved the readiness of the people to hear and receive 
instruction ; and I could but think with deep feeling of the cfiect 
which the preaching of the Gospel in its simplicity might produce, 
in speedily substituting the sacrifices of the heart for the eros.'siugs 
and bowings, the genuflexions and prostrations, with which the 
pantomime of the priests at the altar is now accompanied. I was 
never before so deeply impressed with a sense of the profanity 
and idolatry of what is here called religion, as while contrasting 
in my mind this evidence of a " hearing car," among the people, 
with the puerilities and impiety of the childish show which 
preceded the discourse. It is seldom that a sermon is preached, 
and more seldom still one that is calculated to edify or produce 
any practical eflfects upon the morals, or true devotion in the 
heart. The people are not bigoted, and arc desirous of religious 
instruction ; so nmch so that, I am told, instances are known in 
which individuals have sent fifty miles for a tract; and, it is 
thought tliat they would here readily attend Protestant preaching 
in their own language. 


The vicars of the churches are appointed by the Emperor, and 
paid by the state. The salary of the incumbent at the Matriz is 
fifteen hundred milreis, or about seven hundred and fifty dollars ; 
a living which, with the perquisites of marriage, burial, and, amounts to about two thousand dollars a year. In 
general the character of these pastors is dissolute. Their vows 
of celibacy are openly disregarded ; they live almost without 
exception in a state of concubinage. One of the priests here has 
a family of ten mulatto children ; and another, a former confessor 
in the royal family of Portugal and long resident at St. Catherine, 
who recently died of yellow fever at llio, left also a large f\\niily. 
The Jesuits are more exemplary in regard to their vows of 
celibacy, and the bishop of llio is among those who are above 
reproach in this respect. 

After the sermon the young Emperor and Empress, attended 
by the sacred banner, the noisy musicians, and the usual cortt'ge 
of dignitaries, proceeded to their stations in the auction-room, 
where the .sales, we were told, continued with increased animation 
and mirthfulness till 10 o'clock at night. 

To-day is a fete also, and an anction day. During it we made 
a call at the residence of the Captain of the Port, in acknowledg- 
ment of the civ iky of the supper-party to which we had been 
invited. This dignitary was ^t the church. He was sent for, 
and ai>ologized when we took our leave, for not joining us in a 
walk, by saying that duty required his attendance upon the 

The variety and the quantity of the confectionery made, 
presented, and sold at these festivals is surprising. Every device 
of ingenuity is put in requisition for the production of it in new 
forms. The lady of the Captain of the Port showed us a very 
large tray of work in sugar and flour, most elaborately wrought 
in its forms, and tastefully finished in coloring and gilding. It 
had been purchased at the auction for forty-two dollars, and 
presented to her by a friend. The whole was the workmanship 
of an old lady of more than three-score years and ten, who had 


given four months' time to its manufacture. The chief object 
seemed to have been to furnish the greatest variety in man, beast 
and bird. Every article was true to nature in figure and color- 
ing ; cottages and groves, fruits, flowers, and vegetables, speci- 
mens in conchology, entomology, and the whole range of natural 
history, with a wide margin in the catalogue for what was purely 
imaginative. The whole presented a striking evidence of the 
ii)genuity, taste, and unwearying industry of the aged devotee. 

And now, you will say, " Why give so much time to the 
observation and to the description of such puerilities, to say the 
least of them, as constituted the chief services of the church here 
on Sunday ? " I answer, that I may certainly know by the " .see- 
ing of the eye," as well as by the " hearing of the ear," the 
distance to which this people are removed from the simplicity 
and purity of the Gospel ; and that you may judge of the causes 
of their ignorance and superstition. These plays are acted, and 
these festivals prolonged and varied for the amusement of the 
populace, and to keep the masses content under the control of 
their spiritual guides. Lights and music, dress and flowers, form 
and ceremonies, the waving of banners and swinging of censers — 
the glare and glitter of the stage, are thus made to excite the 
imagination, and satisfy the thoughtless and ignorant mind with 
fleeting shadows, in place of enduring good. The whole system 
of Romanism as exhibited here, is little ejse than Paganism 
in disguise ; a system in which old idols are presented under 
new names, and heathen processions and ceremonies substituted 
for that worsliip wliich is " in spirit and in truth." 

June \Hh. — We took leave of Mr. Wells and of Desterro 
the day following my last date ; and two days ago made an 
attempt to get to sea ; but a head wind set in, and still preveuta 
our departure. All hands are pleased with the delay ; we cannot 
soon weary of such a place, the scenery is so beautiful, the 
climate .so fine, the walks and rides so picturesque and rural, and 
the sujjpiies for the refreshment of all hands are so abundant and 
80 cheap. In addition to the fresh beef furnished to the ship's 


company, any quantity of pigs, turkeys, chickens, eggs, vegetables, 
and fruit is offered alongside in canoes, for private trade with the 
different messes and with individuals of the crew. 

In the attempt to get to sea, we changed our anchorage two 
or three miles northward from the forts, and were brouglit into 
the immediate neighborhood of two beautiful little bays, encircled 
by gracefully curving beaches of white sand. Both abound in 
jticturesque and wild scenery ; and are in many places filled with 
orange groves overburdened with fruit, now in full season. Far 
from any grog-shop or means of dissipation to the crews, the boats 
ply backwards and forwards from the ship to the shore at all 
hours of the day, filled with officers men in the enjoyment of 
a kind of saturnalia, in search of fruits, and flowers, and every 
thing rare and curious in nature. Some of the cacti, air plants, and 
parasites now in full bloom, are superb in their beauty. A hundved 
delicious oranges can be purchased for a penny ; and, but for the 
presence of our ship, would not be worth to their owners the 
shaking from the trees. It is, too, the season of sugar-making. 
The apparatus and entire process are most rude and simple : 
each small plantation being furnished with a primitive mill of 
two rollers of timber to extract the juice, and a rough trough or 
two to conduct it to a boiler. Tiie eating of the cane, and an 
occasional dip into the troughs and into the half crystallized 
contents of the cooling-pans, offer to all quite a tempting pas- 
time. St. Catherine seems to be a province of small proprietors, 
whose productions, derived from their own labors, exceed but little 
the supply of their private wants. Each carries to the market a 
few hundred pounds only of coffee and of sugar annually — brouglit 
to the purchaser in small quantities, at diflerent times, when some 
foreign article is needed. 

The coffee of the island is of a superior (quality, and the chief 
of its products : as it also is of the whole empire, though intro- 
duced into the country by the Franciscan Friar Villaso so recently 
as the year 1774. The first bush was planted by him in that year 
in the garden of the convent of San Antonio, at llio de Juuiero. 


It was not till the revolt of St. Domingo that its price became 
such as to load to its general culture here. In 1809, when coffee 
was first imported into the United States from Brazil, the whole 
produce of the empire amounted only to 30,000 bags ; this year 
it is estimated that it will amount to 2,000,000, or a value of 
more than $10,000,000. The plants blossom in August, Septem- 
ber, and October ; and the crops are gathered in March, April, 
and May. 

My last ride at Santa Cruz was with Captain Cathcart, in a 
visit to an estate called " Las Palmas," or the palms, recently pur- 
chased by him. It lies on the coast, ten miles north of his 
present residence. Mr. W , Captain Pearson's clerk, accom- 
panied us, for the purpose of making some correction in the 
" plot " of the plantation, drawn by a surveyor. We were to have 
started at an early hour of the day, but a pouring rain prevented. 
This state of the weather, however, changed afterwards into 
occasional heavy showers ; and, at the risk of being drenched 
by these, we ventured to set off at eleven o'clock. The road is a 
mule-track, and at places, for long distances, consists of the hard 
sand of the beach. The frequent streams flowing into the sea 
from the interior are so swollen by late rains, that we found 
difficulty in fording them in safety. A second heavy shower after 
we started, came hastening upon us just as we were entering upon 
the longest stretch of beach on the route. This was smooth and 
hard, and afforded us a good opportunity of trying to outstrip the 
storm, till we could reach some place of shelter. Captain Cath- 
cart is an exceedingly stout and heavy man — fairly stuffed into 

his clothes, and weighing 250 or 280 pounds. Mr. AV is very 

long and very lean, with legs and neck like a crane, and arms to 
correspond. My own physique is familiar to you ; and you would 
have been amused at the sight, could you have witnessed the 
manner in which we three scampered over this part of tlie road, 
with the pelting rain and rushing wind in full pursuit. A cottDU 
umbrella and an overcoat kept me from tlie wet : but it was the 


last of the olJ umbrella — before the wiud had well reached 
us, the outside hud become the iu, the top the bottom, and the 
whole structure of whalebone, steel, and muslin, an irremediable 

About midway of the distauce we came to a hamlet of two 
or three miserable huts, the remains of a settlement of poor 
Germans, who had been tempted from their distant homes by the 
flattering inducements to immigration held out by the government 
of IJrazil, but to whom, on their arrival, the poorest sections of 
land in the region had been allotted as the promised gratuity. 
These, the settlers had no means of making profitable ; and they 
are now left to disappointment and neglect. They are wretchedly 
poor ; and those of them whom we saw looked pale and thin, care- 
worn and ill. Immediately beside the steep and worn-out lands 
assigned to them, there is a wide tract of level country belonging 
to the government, upon which these poor foreigners, had it been 
appropriated to them, would not only have gained a living, but in 
all probability acquired an independence. 

On leaving these cabins, at which we halted a moment for 
a cup of water, we began to ascend the spur of a mountain 
which forms a headland on the coast, separating the bay along 
the beach of which we had come, from that on the opposite side, 
where the estate we were to visit is situated. The hill is un- 
wooded and steep, the path was very slipper}^, and the ascent 
difficult ; but we accomplished it slowly, with fine views on our 
right over a widespread alluvial plain covered with thick set 
forests : 

" A habitation sober and demuro 
For nuniniiting creatures : a domain 
For quiet thiiii;3 to wander in ; a haunt 
In which the heron should delight to feed 
By the shy riven?, and the pelican 
Upon the cypress and the pine iu lonely thought, 
Might sit and sun hiinsell." 


In place of the heron and the pelican, however, -we had the 
Urapongo — a large bird of the parrot tribe, which, like 

" A flaky weight of winter's purest snow," 

was clearly seen at a long distance in brilliant whiteness amid 
the dark green of a tree-top — sending forth its peculiar and 
solitary song, in notes as shrill and metallic as the gratings of a 
coarse file upon steel, of which they forcibly reminded me. 

Cathcart, from his Anglo-Saxon enterprise and energy, and 
consequent thrift and increasing wealth, has become quite the 
great man of the region ; and seems to be in favor and on most 
familiar terms with all the inhabitants, black and white. Ho 
gave to every dwelling we passed by, whether near at hand or 
afar off, a hail of good will in one form or another, calling forth a 
quick response from the unseen occupants, and the speedy appear- 
ance of master, mistress, or slave. After gaining the level of 
the mountain, we came upon a cluster of mud houses surrounded 
by an orange grove, situated upon an elevation on one side of the 
road, the owner of which, an old Portuguese, we were told was 
worth a hundred thousand milreis, or more than fifty thousand 
dollars. As he will be the next neighbor of our host on his new 
estate, we turned aside for a moment to interchange salutations 
with the fomily. The whole aspect of things, in huts and 
negroes, in the mistress and an only child, a boy of ten or twelve 
years, was very slovenly, very slip-shod, and very filthy. The 
wife is a lively, black-eyed, chatty woman, scarcely yet in 
middle life ; but the husband a gray-headed and withered old 
man of more than three-score years and ten. He is a great 
miser ; and had on an old jacket of many colors, with patch upon 
patch, till it appeared to be of treble thickness. This he al- 
ways wears both at home and abroad, and never by any chance 
lays aside. It is said to be inlaid with gold. The captain began 
at once to banter with him for the purchase of it, offering a very 
large sum, and causing by his jests in regard to it, great laughter 
among the negroes, and one or two white laborers near by ; but 


tlio owner seemed to have no notion to close a bargain in the case. 
Wo did not dismount; but accepted the offer of a drink of fresh 
caue-juice from a sugar mill near by. It was brought to us in an 
old calabash, and tasted neither sweet nor clean. 

Before reaching this place, we had entered into a wood, and 
were charmed with the variety and brilliancy of the bloom — 
hearlet and yellow, pink, purple, and white — exhibited in air- 
plants and parasites, creepers and flowery trees. Besides a great 
variety of the palm, there were wild figs, laurels, myrtles, cassias, 
and a kind of silk cotton tree — chorisia speciosa — with large rose- 
colored blossoms. The climbers are superb ; and give to the trees 
tliey overrun an air of great magnificence. This is particularly the 
case in the Solandra grandijlora, with its large trumpet-shaped 
flowers; and a species of fuschia — -fuschia integrifolia, which, 
running up to the tops of the loftiest trees, falls down in graceful 
festoons of crimson flowers. Among the undergrowth the scarlet 
blossom of the cana spcciosa glared brightly on the eye. The 
forest did not appear to be primitive ; but here and there a 
monarch of the wood was seen, which could have attained its 
height and widespread dimensions only by the growth of centuries. 

While yet liigh on the mountain's side, we opened a full and 
magnificent view of the new purchase of Captain Cathcart. It 
embraces the entire superficies of a rich valley, ten miles at least 
in circumference, encircled on three sides by lofty timber-covered 
mountains, whose tops are the boundaries of the possession, 
The.'^e terminate on either hand in bold promontories, jutting into 
the sea, while between them sweeps a curving sand-beach, a mile 
and more in extent. A fine stream meanders through this domain. 
A rocky islet, in the centre of the bay formed by the projecting 
headlands, is tufted with palm-trees, and gives name to the estate. 
Tiiongh but partially reclaimed from its primitive condition, and 
for the most part a luxuriant mass of woodland only, in its wide 
expanse, manifest richness of soil, and evident capabilities of 
improvement under the axe and the plough, it .seemed to the eye as 
thus pointed out to us, to be quite a principality. As an isolated 


possession I have seen nothing like it in Brazil. The history of 
the property may have added, perhaps, to the interest with which 
I looked upon it now in the hands of a new possessor. The late 

proprietor, Seilor De L , a man of good family, good education 

and good breeding, had been reduced by his imprudence, mis- 
management, indolence, and I may add vice, to the necessity of 
disposing of it at a ruinous sacrifice. I had seen him the day 
before on board the Congress, bearing the air and address of a 
gentleman, mingled with the dejection of a confessed bankrupt : 
one not able to work, and too proud to beg. In the morning 
before setting off from the consulate, I had met, too, a daugliter 
of his, of eighteen, decidedly the finest-looking and most attractive 
native female I have seen in Brazil : lovely, not only from positive 
beauty, but from evident amiability and feminine gentleness. 
And now, when I saw the exulting eye with which the new pur- 
chaser, the rough and uneducated whaleman, surveyed the lordly 
domain, I could not but think of the dispossessed and impov- 
erished gentleman and his children, and sympathise with them in 
the loss of such an estate. 

Shortly after commencing the gradual descent of the moun- 
tain, a rustic gate was pointed out as the entrance to " the Palms." 
The distance from this to the house is about two miles ; and a 
little taste and labor would convert it into a parklike and lovely 
drive — first through interlacing woods down the declivity, and then 
over the green sward of a natural meadow, belted and dotted for a 
mile with groves, and clumps, and single trees of natural growth. 
The house is a substantial old mansion of brick stuccoed, with 
tiled roof and encircling verandahs. It stands in tlie midst of a 
lawn fronting the small river, wliich here empties witli a ser- 
pentine sweep into the sea. It commands the entire view of 
the valley and encircling mountains, of the bay, its promon- 
tories and islets, and the distant sea. These lands have been a 
seigniory from the earliest settlement of the country ; and 
the house was built a hundred years ago, when the proprietor 
was in office under government. It is most substantially con- 

SEN OR DE L . 385 

structed ; and the window frames, door-posts and doors, and the 
columns of the verandahs, though never painted, arc yet in perfect 
preservation ; the clorie-grained wood of which they are formed, 
on being slightly scrapeJ, exhibits the soundness and brightness 
of mahogany. In all things more peri^hable the establishment 
is in a most neglected and dilapidated state. The furniture has 
been removed, excepting that of a lofty and spacious dining-room, 
where a long and heavy old table — a fixture, with benches along 
each side, of corresponding fa.shiou, still remains : all else is the 
perfect picture of ruined fortunes and deserted halls. 

A servant had preceded us on foot with a basket of refresh- 
ments. To the contents of this was added an abundance of fine 
oysters from the mouth of the river, into which a heavy surf and 
daily tides pour floods of salt-water over the oyster-beds. When 
called to this repast, I was quite surprised to see, lying open on 
one end of the table, a large mahogany case with lining of crimson 
velvet, filled with a full dinner-set of heavy old plate of rich 
and massive patterns — including knives, forks, and spoons, of all 
sizes. In explanation, the captain told us it was the property of 

Senor De L -, left here on his removal from the house ; and 

now brought forward in the hope of having it bought by him, 
adding, ''but I was born with an iron spoon in my mouth, and am 
used to one still ; and I have made up my mind, unless I can get 

the set for ," naming a sum not one third of its value, even as 

old silver, " I will never take it.'' Conscious, probably, from the 
knowledge he had of the necessities of the poor senor, that they 
were sure to be eventually his at his own price. 

But why, you will ask, these details in a matter of no moment ? 
I answer, because I know not when my feelings have been more 
interested, or my sympathy more excited than by an incident of 
the day, directly associated with them. Every thing without was 
so wet after the heavy rain, that we were confined on our arrival 
very much to the house and verandahs. Knowing that the family 

of De L had removed, and that a few slaves only of Captain 

Cathcart were in charge of the place, I was surprised to see a 


fine-looking, and strikingly handsome young man approach from 
a thicket near by. His only dress was a white cotton shirt, open 
at the throat, and a pair of pantaloons of blue nankeen, old and 
faded, but both perfectly clean and neat. Though bareheaded 
and barefooted, he moved with the self-possessed air and manner 
of a gentleman. Before I could ask, I was told he was a son of 
the late proprietor ; brother of the young lady I had met at the 
consul's in the morning, and between whom there is a very 
strong attachment, as well as a very striking resemblance. The 
father, like too many others in this country, was never married ; 
but as is extensively the custom here, he has several sets of 
children by different women — the secret of his wasted fortune. 
After an introduction to the young man, struck with his Adonis- 
like beauty both in figure and face — so like his sister as to 
lead to the supposition that they were twins, I felt some curiosity 
to know his age, and after a little conversation asked him in 
Portuguese how old he was ? Though evidently bright and intel- 
ligent by nature, his reply was, " I do not know — my father can 
tell ! " The captain immediately said to me in English, " There 
you have a sample of the utter ignorance in which these people 
are brought up ; they know nothing, and are taught nothing 
worth knowing. This is a very nice young man as you see ; but 
his father has given him no education. Poor boy ! I felt very 
sorry for him the day I closed the purchase of this place and 
'clinched' the bargain. He knew I had been some time in 
negotiation for it ; was present at the moment, and seemed very 
anxious about the result ; and when he saw that the whole was 
sold without any reservation, and the case settled, the tears 
started to his eyes, and he said — ' So; father, you have sold all 
your property, and I am left to be like a negro ! You always 
told rae I should have a part of this land. Had you done any 
thing for me, had you given me any education, or taught rae to 
do any thing, the case would have been different, and I would not 
have cared. But you have done nothing for me, and have not 
taught nie to do any thing for myself; and now have sold all your 


land, ami left mo to work like a negro ! ' The father eould only 
reply with tears, ' I know it, uiy son, but I cannot help it : I am ia 
debt eleven thousand niilreis, and have nothing to meet it but the 
two thousand five hundrod which Captain Cathcart pays me for 
this property.' " I thus became acquainted with the terms of the 
purchase — about twelve hundred and fifty dollars for two or three 
miles sfjuare of the finest land in the region, parts of which at 
least have been long under cultivation ! Antonio, the name of 
the young man, had himself, previously to the sale, planted a 
piece of the land with cane and raandioca, and asked the consul 
afterwards whether he might still work upon it, and gather the 
crops. lie says his reply was, " Yes, my son, and call upon my 
negroes here to help you, and bid them work for you as if they 
were your own." He is now there with a single remaining slave 
of his father, for this purpose. Captain Cathcart invited him to 
join us at luncheon. He seems interested in him, and says that 
as soon as he removes from Santa Cruz himself, which he intends 
to do almost immediately, he will take the lad to live with him, 
and will be his friend. I trust he will be true to his word, and 
faithful to the promise in the case which I exacted from him. 
He is evidently greatly elated by the purchase, as well he may 
be, if he can reconcile his conscience to the price which the 
necessities of the seller forced him to accept for it. While 
looking over and pointing to a very small section of it, he said to 

me, " Mr. S , if, when, as a boat-steerer on board a whale-ship 

I first met you at the Sandwich Islands, I had thought I .should 
ever have been the owner of such a hillside as that, I would have 
felt amazing proud ! '■ the continuation of the .sentiment being of — "judge then how I feel now, as the lord of this wide- 
spread manor, and the monarch of all I survey ! " Wherever 
he turns his eyes, he .sees and speaks of its varied capabilities for 
sngar, mandioca, rice, corn, cotton, coffee, cattle, hogs, tiiuber — 
and if spared in life and health a few years, it is probable his 
present visions of the wealth to be derived from it, will be fully 
realized. While he was speaking thus, I again begged him to 


befriend Antonio, wliose sad and dejected looks during onr whole 
stay were iu sucli strong contrast with the self-satisfied air and 
high spirits of his dispossessor. The deep pensivencss spread 
over the manly and handsome face of the young man as we bade 
him adieu, and his attitude — till we lost sight of him in the 
distance — leaning his head and shoulders against a pillar of the 
verandah with folded arms, as if .lost in sad abstraction, still haunt 

Buenos Ateks. 

June oOth. — For a third time I date from Buenos Ayres. 
The continued prevalence of the yellow fever at Rio de Janiero 
forbade a visit of the Congress there, on leaving St. Catherine ; 
and the alternate was a return to Montevideo. On arriving at 
that place, general liberty on shore was accorded to the crew ; 
and a bearer of despatches to the American minister here being 
required, I gladly availed myself of the Commodore's kindness 
in appointing me to the duty. 

When I left Buenos Ayres in February, the town and pro- 
vince were under the rule of the Provisional Governor, appointed 
by Urquiza. As speedily afterwards as possible, a constitutioual 
election was held for that office, and the same person was chosen 
by the people. Since then, a Congress of the Governors of the 
Provinces has been held at San Nicolas de Aroya, a city two 
hundred miles from Buenos Ayres up the Parana. This was pre- 
paratory to a general convention of delegates, for the formation 
and adoption of a federal constitution for the United Provinces, 
after the model of that of the United States ; Urquiza being 
appointed for the interval Provisional Director of the Argentine 
Confederation. The result of the deliberations of the Governors 
has just been proclaimed, and the articles of agreement have been 
published. These, though seemingly wise and just, are unsatisfac- 
tory to the Portenos or Buenos Ayrians. Claiming, from their 
larger population, greater wealth, and higher civilization, a pre- 
ponderating vote and influence among the States, they are uuwil- 

COUP d' etat by ukquiza. 389 

ling to confirm the act of the Governor^!, which will limit them 
in the proposed general Congress, to the same nniiiber of repre- 
sentative'' or delegates, with each of the other Provinces. The 
House of Representatives of Buenos Ayres, or Sala, as the body- 
is here styled, immediately denounced the proceeding by strong 
resolutions ; and great public excitement took place. Ou learn- 
ing this, Unjuiza, who has returned from St. Nicolas, withdrew 
his troops from their quarters in the city, planted a battery of 
guns on the parade ground near the cavalry barracks, which com- 
mands the town, and despatched a messenger to the President of 
the Chambers, with orders for the immediate dissolution of that 
body under the alternative of having it dispersed by his guns. 
The announcement of this led each member quietly to take his 
hat and leave the Jiall, notwithstanding the valorous resolution 
of the previous day, in which the determination had been avowed 
of sacrificing their lives rather than their liberty. 

Two thousand or more of the citizens not long since organized 
them.selves into a national guard ; each individual having cijuipped 
himself at his own outlay, in a showy and expensive uniform. 
During the agitation of the Chamber, under the action of the 
Congress of San Nicolas, these sent a messenger to the house to 
assure the representatives that they would repair to their sittings 
at-.d stand by them to the death. They were, however, at the 
time, much in need of percussion caps for their muskets. Ur- 
quiza hearing of this, and that diligent search was being made in 
the city for a suppl}-, sent his own orderly to their barracks, with 
a couple of packages; and, it is said, called himself in the after- 
noon of the same day to inquire whether they had been received, 
and to say he would be happy to furnish them with a larger 
quantity if needed ! Thus showing his utter contempt for the 
bravado of the ' shop-keepers,' a.s he calls them. On the dissolu- 
tion of the Chamber this brave guard very speedil}" di.sbanded j 
and the next day small parties of the soldiers of Urquiza, in com- 
mand of subalterns, went from house to house tliroughout the 
city, and took possession, without resistance, of all the arms 


tbcy could find. Urquiza proclaimed himself Provisional Chief, 
but continued in office under him the Governor who had been 
elected by the peoj)le. All things are going on quietly under 
this coup d' etat. 

The general judgment of those who have had the best oppor- 
tunity of knowing the people, is, that they are incapable of enlight- 
ened and stable self-government. Urquiza is regarded by these as 
greatly in advance of other chieftains of the Plata, in enlarged 
and patriotic views and principles. Full confidence is placed in 
his integrity of purpose, as well as in his firmness and daring of 

His personal bravery at all events cannot be doubted. Dur- 
ing the height of the excitement of the last week, while execra- 
tions loud and long were poured upon him by designing partisans 
and their followers, he rode fearlessly about the city attended by 
a single officer ; and is resolved, at all personal hazard, to carry 
out the measures and policy which he thinks needful for the best 
interests, not only of Buenos Ayres, as a city and province, but 
of all the Argentine States. He believes the consolidation of 
the whole under a constitutionally appointed chief executive, in- 
dispensable to their permanent prosperity ; and this it is his pur- 
pose to achieve. 

July 20th. — It is seldom that the Rev. Mr. Lore of the Wcs- 
leyan Mission can avail himself of the assistance of a brother 
clergyman ; and I have clieerfully taken upon myself, at his solici- 
tation, on each Sabbath of my several visits here, two of the three 
services held in the chapel on that day and evening. The ordinary 
number of worshippers amounts to about four hundred, of whom 
fifty are church members. The established religion of the State 
being that of the Human Church, and the civil regulations of the 
country not permitting Protestant preaching to the natives in their 
own language, the congregation and church consist exclusively of 
foreign residents — American, English, Scotcli and Irish : of 
these, the greatest number are English. An interesting and flour- 
ishing Sunday school of two hundred and fifty scholars, is attached 


to the church, and in addition to the public services of the Sab- 
bath, a weekly lecture and prayer-meeting arc held in the chapel. 
The Sabbath after my arrival was that of the Communion. On 
the Thur.-day evening previous, Mr. Lore preached a preparatory 
sermon, and on the Sunday six new members were received into 
the church. They were all young persons, and of both sexes. 
A more than ordinary proportion of the church members are in 
tlieir youth. It is a cheering sight to perceive among them so 
many young men, thus openly and decidedly choosing a life of 
piety in the midst of a city of general indulgence in worldliness 
and pleasure, and almost universal moral dereliction. In the 
full toleration of Protestant worship thus allowed, and in the 
open example seen and acknowledged by all — even of a few con- 
sistent and truly spiritual Christians, there is hope for this land : 
there is light shed abroad which cannot be hid, and seed sown which 
has already sprung up and borne fruit. Many things seem to indi- 
cate that, in the providence of God, the ignorant, superstitious and 
benighted population, is destined in the progress of time to give 
place by immigration from foreign lands, to those better fitted in 
mind and education, in energy and enterprise, and in enlightened 
principles, political, moral and religious, to mould the destinies 
of the nation and build up a free and prosperous empire. One 
cannot fail in passing along the streets, to be forcibly struck with 
the prevalence of the English language. You can scarcely 
move a square in any direction without overhearing it; while 
French, German, Portuguese and Italian — the patois of the 
Basques and the Gaelic dialect of the Scotch and Irish, are 
liberally intermingled. 

Mr. Lore is deservedly popular in his position, both as a man 
and as a minister. lie is an able and interesting preacher, and a 
faithful and aflfectiouate pastor : ready to every good work — the 
comforter of the sick and afflicted, and the friend and benefactor 
of the poor and destitute. Mrs. Lore too, is admirably fitted for 
her station, and, full of gentleness and amiability, is universally 
beloved. The history of Protestant worship in Buenos Ayrea 


may be briefly given. Its origin dates as far back as the year 
1820. On Sunday, the 18th of November in that year, Protes- 
tant religious worship was first held here in a private house. 
The assembly numbered nine persons, the worship being led by 
Mr. Thompson, a Scotch Presbyterian, who had arrived in the 
city under the auspices of the " British and Foreign School Soci- 
ety," with the purpose of establishing schools on the Lancastrian 
system ; and had so far succeeded in his object as to be then em- 
ployed by the government as superintendent of a school of this 
description. This lay worship was continued till the year 1822. 

In 1823 the Kev. Dr. Brigham, now long the secretary of the 
American Bible Society, and tlie llev. Mr. Parvin, an associate, 
arrived as agents of the Bible and Missionary Societies, and by 
them preaching was established in a private house. Dr. Brig- 
ham, after a time, carried his agency to Chili and Peru, and re- 
turned to the United States; while Mr. Parvin continued resi- 
dent here, as a preacher and teacher, till the year 1827. In this 
year he was joined by the Rev. Mr. Torrcy, first as an assistant, 
and soon as successor, both in teaching and preaching. Mr. Tor- 
rey continued in Buenos Ayres till the year 183G; when relin- 
quishing his position and returning to the United States, wor- 
ship according to the Presbyterian form ceased, without any 
attempt having been made to organize a church. 

The field was thus left open to the labors of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church ; the Rev. Mr. Pitts, a missionary of this 
denomination, having arrived at Buenos Ayres about the time Mr. 
Torrcy left. He preached, however, but a short time, and re- 
turning to the United States, was succeeded in the year 1837 by 
the Rev. Mr. Dempster. Public worship was continued by him 
in the same house in which Mr. Torrcy had held his services; 
and his preaching was soon followed with such success as to 
demand an enlarged place for the congregation. In the ensuing 
year a lot in a very eligible situation was purchased for the erec 
tion of a church and mission house ; the funds being provided 
for the purpose, partly by subscription in Buenos Ayres, aud 


partly by an appropriation from the Methodist Missionary Society 
at hume. The buildings subsequently erected are the present 
ehapel and parsonage, on the principal street of the city, imme- 
diately opposite the stately church of the Merced. The chapel, a 
neat and simple structure, sixty feet in length by forty in width, 
with a fa(jade in Grecian architecture, fronts upon the street ; 
while the mission house or parsonage, approached by a passage 
on one side of the chapel, occupies the rear of the lot. A court, 
ornamented with shrubbery and trcllised grape-vines, separates 
the two, giving to the premises a retired and rural aspect, attrac- 
tive, and appropriate to the character of the occupants. The 
Rev. Mr. Dempster was succeeded in 1843, by the Rev. Mr. 
Norris ; and this gentleman again in 1848, by Mr. Lore. The 
church and congregation are now not only self-sustaining, as to the 
support of the pastor and all the incidental expenses of the mis- 
sion, but contribute liberally, according to their means, to the gen- 
eral socittics at home for the promotion of the cause of Christ. 

Besides the Wesleyan congregation and church, there are now 
in Buenos Ayres three of other Protestant denominations : one 
British Episcopalian, one Scotch Presbyterian, and one Reformed 
German. All these have much larger and finer buildings for 
worship, and much larger and more wealthy congregations. Tlie 
salary of the Rev. Mr. Falkner of the British Church, amounts 
to $4000. The Scotch congregation, under the pastoral charge 
of Rev. Mr. Smith, is of the Established Church of Scot- 
land, and also partly under governmental support. The German 
Church, whose pastor is the Rev. Mr. Seigle, has just completed 
a new place of worship ; a beautiful specimen of Gothic archi- 
tecture, and an ornament to the city. These congregations have 
each a large and flourishing day school under its supervision and 
patronage, beside Sunday schools. 

I have renewed my intercourse most agreeably with several 

fjimilies here — particularly with that of Mr. II , who is a 

fellow-Jerseyman. Mrs H is also from Jersey ; a d I have 

a staadiiig invitation to breakfast with them on buckwheat cakes, 


SO favorite an article of diet there. The L s and the Z s 

of Montevideo, too, are now here. Among the acquaintances 
newly made, and to wliom I am indebted for hospitality, are the 
J s ; Mrs. J being the daughter of an old friend. Cap- 
tain M of the Navy. They occupy a tasteful and pleasantly 

situated quinta in the eastern suburbs of the city, where they 
entertain their friends with elegance ; adding to a generous hospi- 
tality, the charm of fine music, in which, both vocal and instru- 
mental, Mrs. J excels. 

I have been desirous for some time, of making an excursion 
into the " Camp," as the flat country of the Pampas south of the 
city is called, in a visit to the estancia, or cattle farm of an 
American of respectability, but have not yet had it in my power 
to aecomplisli the purpose. My opportunities for sight-seeing have 
consc<{ueutly been limited to the city. Tiie room I occupy is on the 
second floor of a house finely situated on the edge of the bluff" 
upon which the town lies. Its windows on one side overlook tlie 
quadrangular court communicating with the street. In this there 
are some magnificent specimens of cacti ; among which are a 
prickly pear twenty feet in height, with a trunk like a tree, 
now covered with primrose-colored blossoms ; and an octagonal 
plant of the same genus nearly as tall, filled with those that are of 
brilliant crimson. There is in it also a magnificent specimen of 
the " Uca Gloriosa." The view from the other side commands the 
whole length of the alameda or public walk, the river, with the inner 
and the outer anchorage, and all the movements of the roadstead 
and landing. When the tide is out, the sands to the east, for a mile 
or more, are nearly or quite bare. At all times, except when the 
water is at flood, the landing of passengers and freight is by cart. 
Familiarity with the sight does not take from its interest. Some- 
times both horses and carts are seen half submerged in the water- — 
intermingled with boats, some under sail and others pulled by 
oars, — the drivers, to keep themselves from being wet, standing 
on the shoulders of their beasts, in the msinner of circus-riders. 
It is amusing to see them start from the shore on the approach 


of a boat or boats with passengers. They rush off under the 
shouts and lasliiiigs of the drivers, plunging and ploughing through 
the water, over the rocks and into holes in the rough bottom, in 
utter disregard of every thing except a first chance at a customer. 
The horses arc so well trained to the business, that the carts are 
as readily turned and backed up to a boat on reaching it, as a 
fish is moved in the wat«r by its fins. The whole performance is 
so droll and amphibious, that I never cease to be amused in wit- 
nessing it. When the water is low, freight and passengers are often 
taken on board these carts from small vessels at their anchorage. 
At such times too, horsemen and dogs, and various other animals, 
are seen scampering over the sands in the shoal water, as if the 
mirror-like surface were the ice of a frozen river. 

When the wind is fresh, a heavy sea rolls over the sands. 
Then the vocation of the carts is at an end, and they seek 
the security of the shore. The boats too, securely anchored 
outside the rocks, are left to toss upon the water by themselves, 
and for the time-being, a non-intercourse occurs between the ship- 
ping and the shore. 

The construction of a mole to extend beyond the sands is 
entirely practicable, and would be of immense importance, and a 
great saving of expense in the trade of the place. So essential a 
work should have been accomplished a century ago. Had the 
amount lavished by Rosas in redeeming the marshes of Palermo, 
and in rearing upon them his country palace, been thus appro- 
priated, it would long since have secured a convenient and safe land- 
ing both for goods and passengers, and have been a lasting and 
honorable monument of his public spirit and patriotism. A day 
or two since a detachment of the troops of Urquiza embarked 
from this lauding on their return to P^ntre-Rios. It is the winter 
sea.son ; the weather was wet, cold, and piercing, and the whole 
number, amounting to some hundreds, were kept for hours, shiver- 
ing in the exposure incident to the slow means of getting off to 
the transports in which they were to sail; first in squads of eight 
or ten in a cart, and then in equal numbers in small boats. 


The Jecheros and panderos — the milkmen and halcers — form 
striking features in the scenes of the street in the early morning. 
Both grades are invariably mounted on shabby, rougli-coatcd 
little horses or mules. They seat themselves very longitu- 
dinally on the shoulder-blades of the beasts, their legs being 
stretched out almost at full length ; while the supplies they carry 
for distribution are balanced on either side from neck to tail — the 
milk in long tin cans of different sizes, stowed in different com- 
partments of leather fixtures, something in the form of old- 
fashioned saddle-bags. The bread is distributed from immense 
panniers of ox-hide, cured with the hair on, made oval, in band- 
box form, burying the animal beneath their ponderous shapes, and 
half blocking up the street as they pass. There is nothing 
especially peculiar in the dress of the bakers, they being dwellers 
in the city, and generally French, German, or Spanish by birth 
and in costume ; but the milkmen from the country, at distances 
from five to fifteen miles, furnish illustrations of the grotesque and 
comical worthy of the pencil of a Cruikshank or Wilkie. None 
but an artist could do justice to their slouched hats of every form, 
the cotton handkerchief of divers figures and colors in which their 
necks and faces are bundled up, their ponchos of every hue — 
their chcripas of various materials from scarlet broadcloth and 
gayly-figured merinos, to horse-blankets, and fire-rugs ; while half- 
yard wide pantalets of white cotton tamboured and fringed and 
worn over heavy boots or leggings of calfskin, make up the sketch. 

On entering the plaza about seven o'clock a few mornings ago, 
I saw some hundreds or more of these figures, with their horses and 
milk-cans, grouped before the police office at the Cabildo or town 
hall. The spectacle was one of the most singular I have met, 
and led to an inquiry as to the cause of the. unusual gathering. 
In answer, I learned that the extent to which the watering of the 
milk had been carried had led to the interference of the police. 
On that morning, every milkman as he entered the city found 
himself unexpectedly under arrest, and was hurried to the office 
of the chief, to have the product of his cows put to a test. All 


were now busy lugging their cans into the town hall to be thus 
cleared from the imputation of defrauding their customers, or, if 
found guilty, to pay the fine imposed by the laws of the munici- 
pality. I did not wait to learn the result, but believe few escaped 
the penalty. 

To one informed of the extent of vexation and labor required 
in .securing the milk, it is scarcely a wonder that it should be well 
watered before being brought to market. The cows of the native 
breed are impracticable to all domestic training or discipline. 
They not only require to be lassoed every time they arc milked, 
but must be also tied head and foot, and during the operation have 
their calves by their sides. These must be permitted to draw 
the milk alternately with the use of the hand by the milkman, 
or nothing can be obtained from the animal. Much time is thus 
taken up in the operation ; and the result is only about a quart of 
milk a day from each cow, and a pound of butter a week. The 
consequence is that milk commands from twelve to fifteen cents 
a quart ; and butter from sixt^-two to seventy-five cents a pound. 
The supply is furnished chiefly by the German and Basque 
settlers. The natives are for the most part too indolent to take 
BO much trouble for the returns made, either for their own use or 
for sale. 

Rio de Janeiro. 

September '20th. — "We returned to this port on the 13th inst : 
bringing pa.ssengers with us, Mr. Schenck, Charge d'Afiaires at 
the Court of Brazil, and a nephew, his private secretary. In 
addition to the diplomatic ofiBce he holds here, he was recently 
appointed by our government Envoy Extraordinary to the Re- 
publics of the Plata, for the purpose of negotiating, in conjunction 
with Mr. Pendleton, treaties of friendship and commerce. The 
unsettled state of affairs in the Argentine Provinces, however, 
interfered with the completion of this mission, and he has re- 
turned for a time to Rio de Janeiro. 

Mr. Pendleton accompanied him as far as Montevideo; and 
during a brief sojourn there, the two diplomatists, with the aid of 


Mr. Glover as interpreter and secretary, formed a treaty with 
the Republic of Uruguay, by which the United States are placed 
here upon a footing with the most favored nations. The prompti- 
tude, industry, and despatch of the ambassadors in the negotia- 
tion quite astonished the ceremonious, indolent, and procrastinat- 
ing ministers of Spanish-American blood. After it was once 
initiated, they allowed themselves scarcely the relaxation of au 
hour till the parchments were engrossed ; and the ink in their 
signatures was not well dry before the Chief Envoy was on his 
way with us to this place. 

I will let an incident occurring at Buenos Ayres speak his 
general character. While last there, I occupied furnished rooms 
in the establishment of a shrewd, sharp-eyed, talkative English- 
woman. The window of her private apartment commanded the 
well-guarded portal, opening from the street into tlie pateo or 
quadrangle of the house ; and from it she kept a watchful lookout 
ou the movements of her lodgers and their visitors. A short 
time after I had taken up my quarters there, Mr. Schenck called 
upon me. My landlady soon became informed, by some means, 
of his name and position ; and with the notions of rank common 
among those in humble life in her own country, was quite excited 
by the disthiction conferred upon her lodger, and seizing the first 
cliance afterwards of waylaying me, gave vent to her feelings on 
the subject by the exclamation — " And indeed, sir ! so you have 
had the honor of a visit from your minister, the new ambassador ! 
La me ! I said to myself as I saw him come in, ' Why who can 
that very genteel, delicate-looking, strange gentleman be ? ' But 
I knew him at once for a diplomat. I can always tell them. I 
have had a great deal to do with them — Sir Charles Hotham, Sir 
William Ousely — and I know them at once, they are so clever — 
so very, very clever ! Oh ! rely upon it, sir ! your ambassador 
is a very clever man : I could see it in his eye, sir ! and then it 
was so kind in him to call. I knew him for a diplomat — so very 
genteel, and so clever," adding, " Clever, sir, clever — very, very 
clever ! " as she bowed herself backwards into her little room, as 


if retreating after a presentation at court. And clever, indeed, 
Mr. Sclienck i><, both in the English and American use of the 
term. In regard to the last, he has given very decided proof in 
his great kindness to the Kev. Mr. Fletcher, seamen's chaplain 
here, who with Mrs. Fletcher arrived from the United States 
shortly after the Congress left, eight months ago. They early 
became settled in a hired cottage, but when Mr. Schenck received 
the diplomatic appointment to the Plata, he constrained them to 
leave it, and with their family to take possession during his 
absence, of the embassy and all its appointments, in furniture, 
servants, carriages and horses; and as it will be necessary for him 
\o return to Buenos Ayres at the end of two or three months, wrote 
to them before leaving the river, that he came now only to be their 
guest till he should be recalled there by duty for an indefinite 
time. They arc thus permanently at home with him. 

Mr. Fletcher on his arrival, entered at once zealously upon the 
discharge of the duties of his position ; and, while the yellow fever 
has again raged for months as an epedemic among the shipping and 
on shore, has been indefatigable in preaching the Gospel to the 
well, in nursing and comforting the sick and dying, and in consol- 
ing the afHicted, of whom there have been many among American 
and English shipmasters, who have had members of their families 
in greater or less numbers on board their ships with them, some 
of whom have died under very affecting circumstances. 

The Rev. Mr. Graham, rector of the English Episcopal Church, 
has service in a neat chapel in the city on the morning of the 
Sabbath ; Mr. Fletcher at the same time preaches to the seamen 
in port, on board some ship in the harbor, and in the afternoon 
holds worship in the drawing-room of the American Consulate. 
I have assisted him in this service since our arrival, and have felt 
it a privilege and a bles.sing to join the " two or three,"' who 
assemble there for praise and prayer, and to hear the preached 
word. The music is led by Mrs. Fletcher at the piano ; and .she is 

a.ssistcd vocally by Mrs. K . This excellent person is a good 

representative abroad of her fellow-countrywomen of New Eng- 


land at home — sensible, intelligent, practical : ever decided in 
her expression of moral principle, and ever constant in tlie ex- 
hibition of her religious character. She has been greatly afflicted 
by the bereavements which have befallen her here in a strange 
land ; but resigned in spirit, seems by them to be the better fitted 
for the duties of a Christian in this life, as well as for the inherit- 
ance which is to be the reward of such in the life to come. Mrs. 

F is not less strikingly the type of her class in Europe. She is 

a daughter of the distinguished and apo?tolic minister of Geneva, 
Caesar Malan ; and highly educated and accomplished, seems fitted 

" to shine in courts, 
Or grace the humbler walks of life." 



November 1'ld. — A few days at " Boa Esperenza " in the 
mountains of Tejuca, ten miles from Rio, proved so interesting 

to my friend Dr. C and myself, that we determined to make 

a more distant excursion of the kind to this place, in the midst 
of the Organ Mountains, fifty miles from the city. The route 
to it passes near San Aliexo, and on our way we made an agree- 
able visit of three days to our friends there. 

Coustantia is the estate of Mr. Heath, an Englishman, which 
has become a favorite resort of the citizens of the metropolis in 
the summer season as a watering-place, for the enjoyment of pure 
and invigorating air, and the luxury of fresh and wholesome diet 
in the country. By previous arrangement, mules and a guide 
were sent for us two days ago to San Aliexo by the proprietor ; 

and taking leave of Mr. and Mrs. M , we were off for our 

destination after an early breakfast this morning. The day 
was splendid in its coloring, and full of freshness. Our guide, a 
bright, intelligent little negro of twelve, was all activity and 
good-nature ; and mounted on a mule scarcely larger than himself^ 
with a carpet-bag slung on each side of him in the manner of a 
pair of saddle-bags, went on his way whistling and singing as if 
he knew neither sorrow nor care. Instead of leading us, however, 
he rode behind in the fashion of a groom ; but not so much for 


appearance, as we soon discovered, as to give a poke with the 
pointed end of his whip to one or the other of the animals ridden 
by me and my friend, when they became disposed to lag in their 
gait, or to start them forward by a sharp cut across their rumps 
with its lash. 

The first stage of eight miles northward was to Freischal, an 
inland venda, or store, where the turnpike begins the ascent of 
the "Sierra." For that distance, the plain is very similar in 
its general features to the country between Piedade and San 
Aliexo, before described. The mountain scenery to the west, 
close upon the left, was, however, very fine ; and was marked now, 
after heavy rains, by numerous watercourses and cascades, which 
foamed down from the heights above, in single shoots of hundreds 
of feet. Most travellers from Rio make Freischal a stopping- 
place for the first night ; but the " Barriera," or toll gate, midway 
up the ascent, four miles further, is a much more picturesque and 
attractive spot ; and we pushed on to this for luncheon, without 
alighting at the other. The road after passing Freischal winds 
at first in gradual ascent along the broad bases of the mountains. 
It is wide, smooth, and well graded ; and paved at intervals for 
long distances with large cubes of granite, like a Roman highway. 
It was enlivened by troupe after troupe of mules passing in both 
directions, with heavy loads of produce from the interior, and of 
merchandise from the capital : each company of seven animals 
being under charge of a troupiero, or muleteer, though frequently 
moving by hundreds together, and sometimes crowding the road 
thickly for a half mile in succession. As thus seen en masse in 
the dih-tance, either in meeting or overtaking them, they present 
an odd spectacle. The mules with heads bending to the ground 
beneath their burdens, are themselves for the most part completely 
hidden by the bulky loads they carry. The tips of their long ears, 
bobbing up and down with the motion of their step ; the cross 
ends of the clumsy wooden saddle or frame, to which the panniers 
or other burdens on either side are affixed — something like the 
buck of a woodsawycr — sticking out above their shoulders ; and 


the dried ox-hides surmounting tlie wbole, to protect the articles 
transported from the weather, flapping like wings up and down 
in the irregular tread of the beasts, are alone seen : and to one 
unacquainted with the sight, would present objects in natural 
history difficult to be guessed at. There is a leading mule to 
each troupe, whose bridle and head-stall are gayly ornamented with 
tufts of scarlet and. blue worsted, and often with showy plumes 
of the same material, and also strung with bells of varied sizes 
and tones — the whole a matter of rivalry in the taste a^wiranity 
of the respective troupieros. The leaders are so well Gained aa 
to allow no one of their own troupe, under any circumstances, to 
pass ahead of them on the road ; so that the muleteers have to 
look out only for such as lag behind or stray by the wayside. 
These men themselves are black, and white, and of every shade 
of complexion ; are of all ages, and in an endless variety of cos- 
tume, as to the material and condition of old shirts and old jackets, 
old trowsers and old drawers, old hats and various head-gear — 
from the well clothed, to those almost in a state puris natu' 

The Barriera is as wild and romantic a spot as can be well 
imagined. I recollect nothing on a public road surpassing it, 
in these respects, unless it be the site of Albania, in the sierra of 
tlic Alpuxares. It is a narrow ravine high upon the mountain's 
side, above which the fantastic pinnacles called the " Pipes of the 
Organ," bristle thousands of feet. From these a mountain tor- 
rent, foaming and roaring over and around gigantic boulders of 
granite, comes rushing down, and divided into two streams by an 
islet over which the road crosses, plunges headlong into a gulf 
below. In the midst of this islet, to which a bridge from either 
side is thrown, a neat little chapel, surmounted by a cross, 
upon the sight with pleasing effect, in contrast with the savage 
wildness of every thing around. At a neat venda just beyond, to 

which we hail been directed by Mr. M , we were served with 

a luncheon of boiled eggs and bread and butter. Our host was a 
civil young Portuguese, and the neatly whitewashed walls of the 


room in which we ate, were oriiamonterl with a set of colored 
engravings, illustrative of the fate of Inez de Castro in the hands 
of Peter the Cruel. For the first time in my rambles in Brazil, 
I here saw a book in the hands of any one — it was a copy of the 
" Complete Letter Writer " in Portuguese, which the keeper of 
the shop was reading behind the counter when we went in. 

We were now more than a thousand feet above the level of 
the plain. For some time before reaching this point, a beautifully 
shape^B^ luxuriantly-clothed mountain in front of us, had 
particularly attracted our attention. It here stood directly 
beside us on the right. Nothing of the kind can surpass the 
beauty of its foliage in varied forms and tints of green — inter- 
spersed with masses of white and of yellow, of purple and of 
scarlet. The white in many instances is not a blossom, but the 
leaves of the sloth tree — cecropia peltaia. The under sides of 
these are covered with a white down; the leaves curl upward 
under the hot rays of the sun, and give to the whole tree-top, amid 
masses of verdure, a whiteness almost as pure, and more silvery, 
than that of the snowball. The yellow blossoms are chiefly 
of the ^acia; the purpl' a; d the scarlet those of climbers — ■ 
bignonias and fuschias. An American forest in October can 
scarcely compare in gorgeousness with these gay woods, in the 
seasons of their bloom. 

From the Barriera the ascent becomes increasingly steep, and 
the road is formed by zigzag cuts in the sides of the mountains, 
and, at places, around their projecting shoulders. The angles at 
the turns are very sharp, and the road rises in terrace above 
terrace — at some points edging upon precipitous ravines and deep 
chasms, hundreds of feet in perpendicuhir descent. In these 
eections, the long lines of mules, as seen botli above and below, 
struggling up or moving cautiously down, are particularly striking. 
In several phices the way was wet and miry, and many a poor 
beast was down in the mud with his burden upon him, but lying 
quietly and patiently, as if accustomed to such accidents, waiting 
for the coming up of his tx-oupiero to relieve him of his load, and 

'' BOA VISTA." 405 

thus enable him to rise. As we mounted higher and higher, the 
lundsfape became more and more extensive. By degrees the 
northern end of the Bay of llio opened to view, followed rapidly 
by the islands whieh cluster in it; the mountain-ranges of its 
eastern cuast; the Sugar Loaf, Raza and Round Islands in the 
offing; the Corcovado, Gavia and peak of Tejuca^-embracing a 
panorama more than a hundred miles in circuit, in the midst of 
which the imperial city, though forty miles distant, was di&tiuctly 
seen gleaming iu the afternoon's sua. Such was the scene on 
one side of us, while on the other the pikes of the Sierra close 
at hand, rose iu savage nakedness three thousand feet above our 
heads. The world boasts many pictures in nature, in which love- 
liness and sublimity are combined, but I doubt whether this 
'• Roa Vista" — " Fine View," of the Organ Mountain does not 
rival any single combination of mountain, valley, and water, that 
man ever beheld. I can remember nothing iu my own experience 
eijual in interest to this day's ride; unless it may be the travel 
through the mountains of Granada, followed by the first view of 
the " Vega," with the city, the walls and towers of the Alhambra, 
and the snow-covered heights of the Nevada above, all gloriously 
lighted by the glowing hues of the setting sun. 

Though uncertain of the length of time it would require to 
roach our destination before nightfall, we lingered long in silent 
admiration of the picture; and at last, found it difficult to make 
up our minds to turn the point of a projecting rock marking the 
highest oievation of the road, and which shuts it from view. From 
this point the dejsceut on the north commences. It is gradual, and 
unmarked by any striking features, except the jagged peaks on 
the left. Thick mist and clouds soon enveloped these, and for a 
time the way became comparatively tame and uninteresting. 

H Hall, the mountain home of Mr. 11 , an English 

merchant of Rio, whom we had been invited to visit, is situated 
a short distance from the sierra. We called upon the family for 
a short time; but, anxious to reach Constaiitia, resisted their per- 
suasions to remain over night, or at leatit to dinner, and hastened 


on our way. At the end of six miles, we turned from the 
public road into a bridle-path leading through thick woods, filled 
with the music of birds. Many of the trees overhanging us were 
magnificent in size — monarchs of the primeval forest, stately and 
venerable with the growth of centuries. One, whose branches 
entirely overarched the road, at an elevation of more than a hun- 
dred feet, particularly excited our admiration. Though its limbs 
were gnarled and distorted, and in themselves leafless, they were 
so fanl^fec in shape as well as gigantic in dimensions, and so 
adorned and draped with parasites and creepers, and festoons of 
gray moss, as to be a fit study for an artist. 

At the end of three additional miles, we came suddenly upon 
a fine' field of luxuriant Indian corn enclosed by a hedge. Into 
this a rustic gate led, which our guide threw open without dis- 
mounting, and uttered the announcement, apparently with as much 
pleasure as it gave us to hear it, " Esta Coustantia ! " " This 
is Constantia ! " We were at the entrance of a little valley, two 
miles in length by a half mile in width, encircled by high hills, 
in the midst of which the buildings of the establishment of JMr. 
Heath are clustered. These consist of a principal house of two 
stories, plastered and whitewashed, and having a steep shingled 
roof; four cottages of one story in the same style, in front of this; 
and various out-buildings and offices in the rear, with quarters 
for the negroes — the whole having the general app<'arance of a 
Swiss or German hamlet. The approach is by a well-made drive, 
half a mile in length. Trees of natural growth have been left 
here and there near this and in the adjoining grounds ; giving to 
the whole somewhat the aspect of a park. 

Our host met us at the gate of an inner enclosure which 
protects the gardens and shrubbery. He is six feet and more in 
height, of a portliness in full proportion, and frank, open-hearted 
and cordial in manner. He had been expecting us for two days, 
and dinner was now a third time waiting our arrival. We had 
heard of his facetiousncss, and that his anecdotes were irre- 
sistible; and had determined before meeting him, to maintain 


a becoming dignity. Before tlie dinner was half tlirough, however, 
we found all our precaution vain ; and under the rehearsal of some 
of his personal adventures in Brazil, were obliged to give way to 
fits of laughter, which made the tears run down our cheeks. 

November IMli. — The estate of Constantia is two miles 
.square. Its first owner was a Swiss, who gave it the name it 
bears, with the intention of cultivating the grape on its hill- 
sides, in the hope of producing a wine that should rival that of 
Constantia, at the Cape of Good Hope. But his expectations in 
regard to the production of wine were disappointed ; and an ex- 
periment with coffee .succeeded no better. The soil is too cold and 
too poor to produce the best qualities of either; and Mr. Heath 
purchased the whole property for a small sum. The and 
adjoining cottages are situated in the midst of flower-gardens, 
which indicate by their growth any thing but poverty of soil ; and 
are fragrant with the perfume of the tuberose and heliotrope, cape 
jcs.samine and white lily, and beautiful in and camellias, 
the most splendid carnations, beds of violets and mignonette, and 
an endless variety of choice flowers. The stems of the tuberose 
exhibit eighteen inches of closely-clustered blossoms, and while 
the white lily at home .'^eldom produces, I believe, more than six 
or seven flowers on one stock, I have here counted thirteen. The 
vegetable gardens and fruit-yards present a like display of exuber- 
ant growth, in peas, beans, potatoes, artichokes, cabbages, beets, 
cauliflowers, strawberries, raspberries, limes, lemons, peaches, 
pears, apples, quinces and grapes. These in constant succession 
bring a rich return to the proprietor from the market at Rio, to 
which, distant as it is, troupes of mules carry cargoes as far as 
Piedade, twice every week. 

The work of the estate is performed by slaves, of whom, 
including women and children, there are thirty-three on the 
premises. They are well-fed, well-clothed, and well-treated, and 
seem to be contented and happy. Their master is a humane and 
kii\d man, and intends to give to all their freedom : in earnest 
of which he hae ali-oady manumitted several, who still continue 


■with him, and to whom he pays regular wages. The children 
come round him at his call with laughter and gambols, and 
scramble playfully for the biscuit and cakes and the other niceties 
which he carries with him from the diuing-hall, for the purpose 
of distributing among them. The gardens are under the care of 
females exclusively : the superintendent, of the same sex, being 
thoroughly skilled in the business. Every thing in that depart- 
ment is under her sole direction, from the turning over of the earth 
for planting, to the gathering of the produce, and the arrange- 
ment of it in panniers for the market. 

All hands are turned out for work at daybreak ; are mustered 
by name, and receive orders from their master at a window of his 
room. A custom is observed here, and I am told in all well- 
regulated families in Brazil, which, were it any thing more 
than an unmeaning form, would be interesting. It is the 
asking of a blessing from the master every morning and every 
evening at the close of the day's work by all the slaves, of both 
sexes and of every age. Tlie full form of words is the following : 
" I beseech your blessing, or grant me a blessing, in the name 
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ ! " To which the master 
replies, " Jesus Christ bless you for ever ! " But it is the usage 
to epitomize these expressions by the interchange of the shortest 
possible abbreviations of them, and in words rather startling at 
first to tlie ear uninformed of the designed object ; the slaves 
as they present themselves merely exclaiming, in all manner 
of intonations of voice and in every mood of humor — " Jesus 
Christ ! " While the master, be he talking or laughing, eating or 
drinking, or in whatever way employed, without any interruption 
and seemingly without any regard to the import of the salutation, 
as abruptly replies, " Siempre ! " " Forever ! " The effect last 
night was quite ludicrous, as fifteen or twenty men and women 
came in from labor in the fields — probably weary and hungry and 
impatient of any delay — and thrust tlieir heads rapidly, one after 
another, into the windows and doors of the verandah as we were 
at the tea-table, with the above exclamation of two words only ; 


followed instantly by the single one from the master, much in the 
manner of a/tw dcjoie. 

No bell, nor 8imilar means of summoning the outdoor ser- 
vants is used ; but the clear, trumpet-like voice of the master is 
often heard far and wide, sending forth with a distinctness not to 
be mistaken, the names of those needed. While listening to 
these stentorian calls, I have been struck with the euphony and 
romance of many of the names, especially those of the females — 
Theresa and Rosa, Justina and Juliana, Januaria and Theodora : 
a list fit for the court cak'ndar. 

Within a few hundred yards of the houses on either side, 
sharp hills rise to the height of several hundred feet, partially 
covered on their sides and crowned on their tops with intermingled 
woods and cliffs. That on the south is marked in its whole 
length by the broad channel of a watercourse; this, at times, 
becomes a foaming cascade, compared with which, the artificial 
shoot down the hill at Chatsworth, would appear but the play- 
thing of a child. At present ihe quantity of water, though 
fli>wiug with great swiftness, is small, but furnishes an abun- 
dant supply for plunging-baths at the foot of the hill, and for 
keeping a corn-mill near by, in operation day and night. This 
mill is a curiosity in one respect — it is self-tending ; so far, at 
leaat, as to cease working when the hopper becomes empty. The 
contrivance is very .simple, and consists of a fixture at the bottom 
of the hopper, which, acting through a spring, shuts off the water 
from the wheel when the weight of the grain is removed. 

The day after our arrival wus one of rain, and we were 
kept for the most part indoors. This, however, we scarcely 
regretted. Indeed, we were more than content with confinement 
in the midst of such verdure and bloom ; and were satisfied for the 
time, in the freshness, quietude, and rural repose of this secluded 
spot, with the conipaninn>hip, through the windows and from the 
verandah, of the mules and cattle, the sheep and pigs, geese, ducks 
and chickens, turkeys and guinea-fowl, with which the jjasture- 
grouuds and enclosures are tilled ; and not less with that of our 


intelligent host in his hours of leisure, in listening to his anec- 
dotes and reminiscences of life in Brazil. lie has pre-eminently 
the talent of making one forget that he is a stranger in bis house 
and a boarder at his table. You feel yourself rather to be the 
welcome guest of friendship under the hospitable roof of the 
lord of the manor, on whom you are conferring a personal favor 
by your visit. His sporting stories are very amusing and some- 
what marvellous. There is no end to the rehearsal of the adven- 
tures of twenty years, in hunts after the leopard and ounce, the 
tapir and deer, the peccary and other game of the forests. He 
has, too, often been the guide and companion in this region, of the 
most distinguished travellers who have visited Brazil in that 
period. He ascended the loftiest peaks of the Organ Mountains 
with Dr. Gardiner ; and gives details of privations and hair- 
breadth escapes in wildernesses before untracked by man, and 
upon cliffs and precipices previously unsealed, not found in the 
published records of the accomplished naturalist. 

Yesterday and to-day the weather has been clear and fine, and 
delightfully bracing and elastic : the mercury varying from 65° 
to 70° Fahrenheit. The elevation of Constantia above the bay 
of Rio, is about 3000 feet. The highest point of the intervening 
range of mountains is GOOO. The site of the houses does not 
command a view of the Organ chain : but, from the hill-side on 
the north, it is distinctly seen. AVe walked a short distance up 
this last evening, just before nightfall, and found the entire range 
magnificently clothed in the gorgeous colorings of the setting sun. 
Though at the distance of fifteen miles in an air-line, the sight 
•was sublime. The serrated part presents aspects on this side 
altogether new ; and more wild and fantastic, if possible, than 
those on the other. I secured the outline of a sketch, which, 
when seen by you, may lead you to suppose me sporting with 
your credulity. 

We have rambled with delight at different times through the 
little valley in the rear of the establishment. It is two miles in 
length ; is prettily watered by a winding stream and diversified by 


glade and dell — pastoral in its herds of cattle and flocks of sheep, 
and vocal with the murmuring of water and the music of birds. I 
do not include in the melody of these, however, the noisy chatter 
of flocks of parroquets ; though the beauty of their gay plumage, 
added to the attractiveness of our walks, as, fluttering through 
the air, it flashed upon the eye in the bright rays of the sun, like 
masses of emeralds and gold. We made the attempt to ascend 
some of the hills for more commanding points of view ; but found, 
even those which were without wood, and which appeared at a 
distance to be almost as smooth as the turf of a lawn, to be alto- 
gether impracticable, from the thickness and rankness of the 
growth of ferns with which they are covered. On a near ap- 
proach, these were seen to rise far above our heads in impene- 
trable thickets. We undertook to advance a short distance 

among them ; but, though Dr. C is of no contemptible height 

— six feet four inches — and not without proportionate strength 
of muscle, we were very willing, at the end of a few min- 
utes, to give over the eff"ort. Progress can be made through them 
only with a sharp bramble-scythe, or a sickle in hand. They 
are so thick-set, and so even in height, that the negroes, Mr. 
Heath tells us, in returning from labor on the hills, often make 
short work of the descent by projecting themselves headforemost 
for long distances, in steep places, over the compact surface of 
their tops. 


November oOiJi. — We bade adieu to Constantia on the morn- 
ing of the 2Gth inst. It was not yet when we took leave 
of our host for the ride of forty miles through tlie mountains to 
this place. We set off in the following order ; first, a sumpter- 
mule, with our luggage and provender for the day, led by a negro 
on foot ; then a courier, the counterpart in age, size, and black- 
ness, of our guide from San Aliexo, but a perfect <landy in com- 
parison, in his costume — being dressed in a triinly-fltted jacket 
and trowsers of new nankeen, a highly polished castor hat with 


velvet band and broad rim, beneath -n-hich was worn, in Brazilian 
style, a scarlet silk bandkerchief, floating loosely down the shoul- 
ders behind ; leggings of untanned leather, so wide at the top as 
to serve for the reception and safe carriage of all kinds of small 
packages and parcels, but terminating in bare feet well-spurred; the 
Padre, as I am styled, and his mule came next; while the fleet- 
surgeon, last in position, but first in height and dignity, brought 
up the rear. -I was quite impressed with the appearance of 
respectability in our departure, by the long line thus formed, till, 
at the outer gate, it was suddenly shorn of its "proportions" by the 
loss of our footman, who, tying the halter of the beast he was 
leading, firmly into the long hair of the tail of our little courier's 
mule, gave us his benediction and returned to the house. 

The morning was beautiful, the air fresh as the breath of 
June, and the light, fleecy clouds floating in the sky, tinted with 
bright hues. Our way for some miles was a grass-edged and 
dewy path through the woods. From these, unnumbered birds 
poured forth their matin songs as if 

" every sense and every pulse were joy." 

There is an untiring charm in the woodland scenery here ; the 
growth is often so majestic and widespreading, and the foliage so 
varied in form and coloring. We were gratified by the near 
view, in two or three instances, of a fine, lofty, forest-tree, which 
had at other times attracted our attention at a distance, by the 
flowers of mingled pink and lilac with which it was thickly 
studded. These grow singly, and not in clusters ; but the gen- 
eral efi"ect, from the intermingling of strongly contrasted shades 
of one color in the same flowers, is that of the apple blossom. 
The lowest branches, however, were too lofty to allow a satisfac- 
tory examination of them. Among the most graceful of the 
growth, which in some places fringed and overarched our way, 
wais the bamboo, shooting up in thick clusters to the height of 
fifty, and even a hundred feet. The tree-ferns, too, were con- 
spicuous, their umbrella-like tops giving them in the distance the 


appearance of palm trees in miniature. Parasites and creepers 
entunj^led the whole woods, while the former, mounting to the 
tops of the loftiest branches, descended low again towards 
the ground in gracefally sweeping pendants. Surrounded by 
such imagery and breathing such air, with the golden sua 
flickering through the tree-tops upon our path, or gleaming 
brightly over a glade on its side, I felt as buoyant in spirit as 
when a boy I roved over the pine-covered hills of Otsego. 

At one place the road merely skirted the woods and com- 
manded a broad expanse of cleared land in a valley. A striking 
feature here, was the number of stately old trees which still stud- 
ded the landscape. They were leafless and lifeless, however, and 
so blanched from top to bottom as to seem whitewashed. Masses 
of gray moss hanging in long pendants from tlie skeleton limbs, 
gave to them, in contrast with the vigor of life by which they 
were surrounded, a melancholy and funereal aspect. Just as we 
were emerging from a thick wood on a side hill which overlooked 
the trees below, my friend said to me, " All that is needed to 
make our ride perfect in its kind, is s sight of some of the wild 
animals of the country." I replied, " Yes, any thing but a tiger 
or a leopard." I had scarcely finished the sentence, when a suc- 
cession of fierce and angry shrieks and screams burst forth be- 
neath us; and looking in the direction, we saw a whole tree-top 
filled with black, long-tailed monkeys — they were in terrible com- 
motion — a regular family quarrel. Every branch of the tree 
swayed to and fro, as they leaped about and swung themselves by 
their tails from the end of one limb to that of another. The 
tread of our mules or the sound of our voices, however, sud- 
denly put an end to their squabble, and in an instant, the whole 
troop in affright disappeared in the thick wood. 

At the end of a few miles we came to the turnpike by which 
we had mounted the Sierra, and followed it northward a short 
distance. It was crowded with troupes of mules, just setting off 
from the rauchos at which they had pa.ssed the night. The mule- 
teers at one point, were engaged in replacing the burdens on 


their animals. Their occupation is far from being a sinecure. 
Besides making the journey of hundreds of leagues on foot, they 
have daily, and sometimes repeatedly each day, to load and unload 
their beasts, and to readjust the many straps by which the freight 
they transport is kept well-balanced, and secure from danuxgo. 
The ordinary load of a mule is from six to eight '■'arohas''^ of 
thirty-two pounds each, and the usual distance travelled in a day, 
from twelve to sixteen miles. 

The middle section of the journey was marked by a succes- 
sion of pyramidal hills of bare granite, a thousand and more feet in 
height, rising from the bosoms of the valleys which encircle their 
bases like so many gigantic sugar-loaves. They appeared to be 
utterly inaccessible, and presented cliffs on some of their sides 
hundreds of feet in almost perpendicular descent. About noon, 
surrounded by parroqucts in flocks and other birds of gay plumage, 
■we gained the highest point of laud on the route. It command- 
ed sublime views of the mountains, both before and behind us ; 
and, among other objects, one of special interest to us personally 
in the cabin of a free negro a short distance ahead, to ■which we 
had been directed as a good place to refresh our animals and to 
take our luncheon. We had accomplished fifteen miles of the 
journey. The next fifteen were less interesting in every respect ; 
the general surface of the country was bare, and the mountains 
sterile and naked. The glare of the sun was oppressive, and by 
the time we had finished that additional distance, we began to be 
fagged and weary. And this, you will ask, while still surrounded 
by much that was strikingly novel and magnificent ? I will refer 
you for our vindication in the case, to any one who has been ten 
hours in succession on muleback, riding up hill and down dale, 
over a scarcely practicable mountain road. A mule is a very 
nice animal for the ride of an hour over smooth ground, and one 
that is full-blooded and wellbroken, very passable perhaps for the 
ride of a day ; but to be mounted from sunrise to sujiset on 
such beasts as we had, and to travel for a whole day over such 
a road, are enough to make any one who has suffered the experi- 


ence groan afresh at the remembrance of it. I was not aware 
before tluit there was such entire antagimism in the peculiar, short, 
broken, and half-finished motions of the brute ; causing one to 
feel at the end of a day's journey very much as it might be sup- 
posed he would, if subjected in rapid succession for the same 
length of time, to a constant simultaneous jerk of the shoulders, 
twist of the hips, rap on the ankles, and thump in the back ; 
while the head has been kept incessantly bobbing up and down in 
involuntary motion, like that of a Chinese image when once set 
going. I know nothing like it in travel for weariness, at least 
to the unpractised rider. 

Late in the afternoon, we came upon the other great highway 
from the metropolis to the mines in the far interior, and following 
it, found the last ten miles, through the valley and beside the rip- 
pling waters of the Rio Piabanha, to be beautiful, not only in 
natural scenery, but from cultivation and long settlement. I 
must confess, however, that it required an after ride over it fully 
to persuade us of this. At the time, we were too much done 
over for high admiration of any thing ; and were chiefly occupied 
in straining our vision for some indications of being near our place 
of rest. At length, the little guide, a short distance in advance 
of us, reining in his mule at the top of an ascent in a gorge of 
the hills, exclaimed to us in Portuguese — " Come see Petropolis ! " 
"We doubted whether it might not be still miles distant ; but 
pushing on, were well pleased to catch sight of the town, pictured 
in beauty before us, not a quarter of a mile off, at the bottom 
of the hill. We were glad to see our little courier ride to the 
door of the first house at the entrance of the place, as the hotel 
which Mr. Heath had recommended to us as the best : had it 
been the worst, scarcely any inducement could have led us a hun- 
dred yards further in search of any other. We were barely able 
to dismount 

I never saw a place of which the common phrase " nestled 
among hills," is so descriptive as Petropolis — in fact, it is doubly 
"nestled." First, by a half-dozen beautiful hilla which rise 


abruptly around it to tlie height of two or three hundred (■ et, 
and then again by mountains which tower to an elevation of as 
many thousands. The central part of the town lies in a little 
triangular basin, a half-niile in extent each way. From this, 
glens filled with cottages and pleasant residences, diverge in vari- 
ous directions. Each has a mountain-stream running through it, 
two of the principal of which, flowing from opposite directions, 
meet in the centre of the place. The surrounding country is 
the private property of the Emperor, by the purchase of hia 
father Pedro I. It was the design of this sovereign to colonize it 
at the time with Germans, but his abdication prevented the accom- 
plishment of this. His son carried it out, by offering, ten years 
ago, such inducements to immigrants in gratuities of land, that 
the colony now numbers six thousand inhabitants, chiefly Ger- 
mans. The Emperor early built a cottage for himself in the 
centre of the village, with the view of making an occasional visit 
to the place. The appearance of the yellow fever in Rio as an 
epidemic, has since led to the construction of a palace on the 
same site, which is to be a regular summer residence of the Im- 
perial family ; and Petropolis, from the sickliness of the city and 
the example of the Emperor, has become the favorite resort, as a 
watering-place, of the rich and fashionable. 

Though it is not yet the " season," there are many visitors here 
at present, among whom we were happy to meet our friend Lieut. 
F of the Congress, and a party of his English friends, resi- 
dents of Rio. The whole place has the air of an enterprising, 
thrifty, and prosperous new settlement at home, attributable to 
the fact that instead of enervated and indolent Portuguese and 
Brazilians, the inhabitants are industrious, managing, and hard- 
working Germans. The walks and drives in tbe vicinity, for miles 
in every direction, are varied and beautiful. It is only a mile 
and a half from the " Alto do Sierra," the point at which the 
great highway from Rio to the mining districts gains the height 
of the chain ; the view from which is thought by many to 
outrival that of " Boa Vista " in the Organ Mountains : we have 


enjoyed it under great advantages of light and shade, and thint 
if there is a difference, it is that the latter has more wildness and 
sublimity of foreground, and the former more softness and beauty 
in the general panorama. The road by which the passage of the 
mountain is here made, is, in its grading and construction, an 
exceedingly fine work, equal to most of those found in the simi- 
lar passes of Europe. The first railroad projected in Brazil is 
now in construction, from the bay of Rio to the foot of tho 
mountains. Its line, clearly traceable from the " Alto," is a new 
and most hopeful feature in a landscape of this Empire. Among 
the most interesting of our fellow-guests at the hotel here, are 
the Chief Engineer, an Englishman — Mr. Bragge — and his fam- 
ily', and his assistant, Col. Golfredo, a Neapolitan exile. 

The German population is about equally divided as to 
religious creeds ; about three thousand being Protestants and 

three thousand Romanists. On the Sabbath Dr. C and I 

attended worship in the Protestant chapel. Places for Protestant 
worship are prohibited the external architecture of a church build- 
ing; and but for the assemblage of people at the door, we should not 
have been able to distinguish the chapel from the row of houses 
under one roof, among which it stands. The interior is simple 
and rude, and sufficient only to accommodate three or four hundred 
worshippers. About that number were present. They are just 
now without a pastor, and the schoolmaster of the town officiated. 
The order of the services, including the reading of a sermon, was 
that of the Lutheran Church. The worshippers seemed serious 
and devout ; and though the whole was to us in an unknown 
tongue, we endeavored — not in vain we trust — to make " melody 
in our hearts," with their singing, and with their prayers to pray 
" with the spirit and with the understanding." 


Buenos Atres. 

January ISth, 1853. — T am again in Buenos Ayres, and find 
it for the fourth time within the two years past, in an entirely new 
aspect. The contrast between its present condition and that in 
which I finst saw it, is peculiarly striking. Then, all that met 
the eye gave evidence of peace, quietude, public order, safety, 
and seeming prosperity. There was the bustle of active business 
every where — at the crowded landing in boats and lighters plying 
rapidly between the shipping and the sliore, and in the thronged 
thorouglifares in the trucks of the warehouses, and the ponderous 
carts with their long lines of oxen from the interior. Pleasure, 
too, was heard and seen on every side, in the gay chat of the pro- 
menaders on the sidewalks, the dashing by of equipages through 
the streets, and in the laugh and gallop of riders, both male and 
female, coursing along the shore. Now, in place of peace, there 
is war; in place of quietude and order, anarchy and confusion; in 
place of safety, danger; and of seeming prosperity, apprehended 
ruin ! All business, foreign and domestic, is suspended; the mole 
is like a place of the dead, the shops and houses are all closed, 
the street deserted ; every native male inhabitant, between the 
years of sixteen and sixty, under arms and on daily duty, and the 
city begirt, within a dozen S(iuare3 of its centre, by hostile troops 
composed of its own people. By these, all intercourse between 


the city aud tlie country is prevented, and all supplies of provi- 
sion cut oft' ; \rhile they daily direct the murderous fire of their 
muskets and cannon down the streets occupied by their neighbors, 
relatives, aud friends.- And what, it will be asked, is the cause 
of this state erf things, and what the origin of the civil war? 
Even the best informed on the subject here, whose feelings and 
judgment have not been perverted by partisanship, reply by say- 
ing, " Who can tell ? " One thing is clear, the cause is not a 
spirit of patriotism excited by oppression, or the origin a sense of 
right under the pressure of wrong; nor are either traceable 
to the conflicting policy of contending parties in regard to the pub- 
lic good : patriotism, right, and public good, are but empty words 
here. The highest principle seems to be that of personal ambition, 
in a few military aspirants, sustained by ignorant and merce- 
nary followers; and the ruling motive the attainment of power — 
power over " the receipt of customs," and power over the " Paper 
Bank," with the opportunity of robbing the public, under the 
name of office and the foriie of law. This may be thought a harsh 
and summary judgment in the case, but it is sustained by facts. 

The history of public aSairs at Buenos Ayres for the last 
Bix months may be briefly told. After Urquiza had found it 
necessary to dis;;olve the House of Representatives in the man- 
ner described during my last visit, and to assume the supreme 
authority, he gave full evidence of the enlightened and public- 
spirited policy of the government he purposed to exercise. His 
first measure was the establishment of the public schools which 
Rosas had suppressed ; and the introduction into them of the 
Bible as the text-book of morals and religion. Another project 
•was the building of a breakwater aud mole, for the protection of 
ships and the benefit of the commerce of the port ; and a third 
the construction of a railroad into the interior. This policy, in 
acts and purposes, begat confidence in him among capitalists aud 
the friends of progres^s ; and high hopes were entertained of future 
prosperity to the city aud state. In September, however, he was 
called from Buenos Ayres to the Congress appointed by the dif- 


erent States, to convene at the city of Santa F6 on the Parana, 
for the formation of a general constitution and the consolidation 
of the Republics into one government. He left a small body 
only of his own troops at Buenos Ayres, and embarked on his 
mission. But the smoke of the steamer which carried him to his 
destination had scarcely faded on the horizon before a revolution 
was effected by his enemies, and a new government organized. 
The first measure adopted by it, was a resolution to invade 
Entre-Rios, the State of Frquiza. For this a force was de- 
spatched both by water and by land : that by water was 
summarily defeated and dispersed by the Entre-Rians, and that 
marching by land, informed of the disaster, halted on the fron- 
tiers. Money was of course necessary for the subsistence of tlie 
troops on this expedition ; and the new minister of war obtained 
the issue of a large amount of paper money by the bank for this 
purpose. He forwarded it to the disbursing officer, however, with 
instructions to keep it in safety till he could arrive himself to 
attend the distribution of it among the soldiers. He left the 
capital professedly on this errand, proceeded to the camp, ob- 
tained possession of the money, crossed the frontier, exchanged 
the paper for gold, and emigrated beyond the jurisdiction 
of the government of which he was a member ! The soldiers, 
disappointed in their pay, were conducted by their leaders to 
Buenos Ayres, to obtain redress by a new issue from the bank ; 
but before they reached their destination a second revolution 
took place. The government which had enlisted and pro- 
mised to pay them had been overturned ; and that now in power 
refused tlieir demands. In consequence of this the troops in- 
vested the city ; and hence the civil war — the parties being the 
' insiders ' and the * outsiders.' Those without are not in sufficient 
force to take the city by assault; and those within have no 
power by which to drive the besiegers from the suburbs. It is 
said that Urquiza has furnished material aid to the outsiders, 
and on the adjournment of the Congress of Santa Fe will join 
them in person with his Entre-Rian troops. 


One can scarcely give credit to the atrocities committed in 
the guerillas, which almost daily take place — atrocities which 
would disgrace a horde of savages. What think you of the exe- 
cutiou of prisoners by-stretching them on the ground, making 
their wrists and ankles fast with thongs of raw hide to four 
horses faced iu four different directions, and then, by starting 
these on the gallop, at a single spring, to tear them into quar- 
ters ! Yet this has been done within a few days in public, and 
iu the presence of an officer, from whom, an eye-witness, Mr. 
Lore received the account. A few mornings since the coach- 
man of Mrs. Z , coming into the town from a quinta or 

country-house near the lines, which the family had been 
obliged suddenly to abandon, perceiving two horsemen of the 
outside party riding furiously down the street towards him, 
stepped on one side to let them pass ; and in doing so he observed 
something attached to a rope dragging behind them. A second 
look as they flew by, showed it to be the body of a man, in the 
uniform of the national guard, who had been either just lassoed 
or shot by them. At a short distance these fellows met three or 
four of their comrades ; and drawing up to speak to one another, 
the whole party amused themselves by beating the head of the 
dead victim with the butts of their carbines ! 

For an hour or two, almost every morning and every evening, 
sharp-shooting is heard in various directions around the city. A 
party of twenty or thirty outsiders, will, at such times, dash up 
to the barricades at the ends of the streets, or a party of the 
same number of insiders will rush out beyond them — without 
any object in either case, but that of having a shot at each other 
— and blaze away till tired of the sport ; fortunately, for the 
most part, without much bloodshed or a loss of life. Occasion- 
ally, one or two on either side fall, or an innocent spectator or 
pas.^er-by receives a fatal shot. The people along the lines have 
now become so used to this, as not to regard these skirmishes. 

Last evening Commodore McKeever, Dr. C and I, went to 

the quinta of Mr. K to take tea. This is in the midst of 


the battle-ground between the lines. As we arrived, a sharp skir- 
mish had just ended, during which musket-balls had struck the 
house, and one, the drawing-room window, near which Mr. and 

Mrs. K were sitting. A few evenings ago we were at the 

parade-ground, at the north end of the city, witnessing the even- 
ing drill. A skirmish was at the time taking place about half a 
mile distant, along the flat towards Palermo ; and it was notable 
to see the perfect coolness with which one and another — some 
singly and others two and three in company — would catch up 
their muskets and walk or lope towards the scene of the guerilla, 
laughing and chatting as they arranged their arms for tiring, as 
if it were a shooting-match for goose or turkey they were about 
to try a hand at, in place of the life of a fellow-being. The 
whole contest is boyish in its mode of operation, as well as mur- 
derous in its motive and end. I am told by those who have wit- 
nessed it at the lines, that the manner in which the parties chal- 
lenge each other to these skirmishes — their taunts and ribaldry, 
shoutings and insults, are both amusing and ridiculous. Every 
two or three days a sortie is made by a body of three or four 
hundred from the inside, on a forage for grass. These generally 
lead to the loss of lives on both sides. A few mornings ago, on 
such an occasion, an officer from the inside performed quite a 
feat of valor and presence of mind. lie suddenly found himself 
cut off from the party he was commanding by a mounted band, 
who had awaited him in ambush. The first intimation he had of 
danger was in finding a lasso around his neck. He freed him- 
self expertly from this with his knife, just in time to receive one 
of the attacking party, coming at full charge upon him with a 
lance : this he not only parried, but wresting it from tlie grasp 
of its owner, unhorsed and pierced him through with it. By this 
time another lancer was upon him, but only to be run through 
with the same weapon. He then drew a revolver, with which he 
brought a third to the ground; and by wounding a fourth in 
another shot, effected a return to his own party. 

March 12th. — The chief interest in public affairs still centres 


in the civil war. The presence of Commodore McKeevcr con- 
tinues to be important and essential for the interest and safety 
of American residents and their property. His flag is borne by 
the '' Jamestown," ont)oard which a detachment of marines from 
the Congress, under Lieut. Holmes, is quartered, in addition to 
the guard belonging to that vessel. The quarters of the Commo- 
dore and his suite are on shore. 

No important change in the attitude of the conflicting parties 
has occurred ; though the arrival of a deputation appointed by 
the general Congress of the Provinces at Santa F6, with propo- 
sals of mediation on the part of Urquiza, has given rise to some 
hope of an amicable adjustment of the diflBcultios. A corres- 
ponding deputation has been appointed by the government of the 
city ; an armistice proclaimed ; and a conference on neutral 
ground is now being held. 

April 30th. — All overtures for reconciliation between the 
belligerent parties have failed, and guerillas are again taking 
place, with the usual loss of blood and life to both parties. A 
rigid blockade has been added to the investment of the city by 
land ; and the consequence is a limited supply of provisions 
among the rich, and suffering and starvation among the poor. 
The skirmishes of the last two or three mornings have been very 
heavy ; but such creatures of habit are we, that with cannon 
roaring all around us, and constant volleys of nmsketry at tlie 
distance of a mile or two only, bringing death with each discharge 
to some fellow-mortal, we now hear the sounds for hours without 
scarcely a thought of the fatal resits. This morning as we sat 
down to breakfast at Mr. H 's, two or three gentlemen de- 
scended from the flat roof of the house, where they had been 
watching with a glass the progress of a guerilla. They reported 
that they had just seen many ou both sides fall from their horses, 
as the parties fired upon each other ; but no one present seemed 
to feel that it was a matter of more moment than the issue of 
any common .'sportiug-match. The besiegers have no mortars or 
bombs ; but frequently send cannon balls far into the city. Two 


mornings ago, one of these took off the head of a poor woman 
a short distance only from the neighborhood in which we were, 
just as she had risen from her be?l and was combing her hair. It 
is thus that they scatter firebrands, arrows, and death, and say, 
are we not in sport ? My views of the reign of Rosas are much 
modified by passing events, and the knowledge they give of the 
people. In the various revolutions and counter-revolutions of 
years which preceded his accession to power, thirty thousand of 
them perished from bloodshed and violence at the hands of each 
other ; and more lives have been sacrificed here, in the same man- 
ner, within the last three months, than during the whole of his 
despotic rule. His policy was to put summarily to death, those 
whom he regarded as factionists and dangerous citizens, and thus, 
by inspiring terror, to secure peace, order, and safety to the mass. 
How far was he in error ? 

Commodore McKeever, after the detention here of four months 
by the exigency of public affairs, during which he has rendered 
most important public service, is obliged by duty elsewhere, to leave 
the further protection of our countrymen and their interests to 
the commander of the " Jamestown ; " and will bid adieu to- 
morrow to Buenos Ayres for the last time. We must therefore 
let the curtain drop on the tragedy in performance here ; and be 
content to learn its uncertain issues in our own distant and 
blessed land. The last mail-packet brought to us the welcome 
intelligence that the Congress would return to the United States 
without waiting the arrival of ' a relief;' and on taking our anchors 
at Montevideo in a few days we shall be homeward bound I 


This volume has already been eularged beyond tlie intended 
number of pages. In closing it, I would very briefly state that the 
experiment in naval di.scipliue, with which the of the Con- 
gress was commenced, previou.sly to the abolition of the lash by 
law, was carried out with marked and satisfactory success. 
This is mainly to be attributed to the unwearied efforts, and 
the indefatigable devotion to duty, of the officers most in- 
terested — equally from motives of philanthropy towards the 
sailor, and a jealous regard for the honor of the navy — in the 
result. This is especially true, in regard to Mr. Turner the first 
lieutenant. During the last eighteen months of the cruise, good 
order, activity hi duty, quickness and skill in the military exercises 
and naval evolutions of a man-of-war, and a general spirit of 
contentment were characteristic of the crew, in an extraordinary 
degree. The frigate entered the port of New York under the 
happiest auspices ; and the conduct of the men at the time the 
manner in which they left her, and their deportment after- 
wards, were such as to challenge the admiration of those most 
familiar with such scenes. Intelligence which from time to time 
has since reached me, in regard to individuals of their number, 
has been most gratifying ; while there has not been wanting 
proof, in the cases of some, of the highest results of the preaching 
of the Guspel, in a life of professed and consistent piety. 

In regard to the counti'ies to which so much of the preceJLug 


record refers, little of material importance has occurred since it 
was closed. Thirteen of the States of the Plata, bordering on 
the rivers Parana and Paraguay and their tributaries, have be- 
come consolidated under a constitutional government, to the 
Presidency of which General Urquiza is elevated. Buenos 
Ayrcs has pertinaciously refused to enter into this union ; and 
left to pursue her own course, has fallen into a state of anarchy, 
to which there appears at present to be little prospect of a speedy 
termination. The same is the case with the Republic of Uraguay. 

The condition and prospects of the Empire of Brazil are in 
wide contrast with these republics of the South. Political quietude 
and order pervade her widespread dominions, and a striking 
proof is presented by the stability of her government and her 
consequent prosperity, of the advantage she possesses in a well- 
balanced constitutional monarchy. Till the half-civilized people 
of South America become more enlightened, intellectually and 
morally, and better instructed in the true principles and right 
exercise of republicanism, a fixed and hereditary Executive in 
government is the only safeguard against the evils to which the 
struggles, among ambitious and unscrupulous military aspirants, 
constantly give rise. 

The few years past have witnessed extraordinary progress in 
the material wealth, prosperity, and power of this Empire; a 
progress attributable to the stability of her government ; to the 
necessities of commerce; and to the advancing and controlling 
civilization of the times. The greatly increased demand for her 
principal staple, coffee, as well as for many of her other im- 
portant products — India-rubber, sugar, cotton, tobacco, dye-woods, 
and minerals — has led to a wise, liberal, and widespread system 
of iuterual improvements and inland and ocean steam navigation, 
for the development of the varied and vast pliysical resources 
of the empire. Don Pedro II. has imbibed and obeyed the spirit 
of the times as fully, during the few years of his actual reign, and 
advanced the material and social prosperity of his country as 
safely and rapidly, as any ruler living. 


The importance to the United States of the trade of Brazil 
will hardly be credited by those not particularly informed on the 
subject. We derive from that empire a large number of articles 
of commerce iudispens<ible to us ; and send to it many of the 
most staple and valuable products of our agriculture and manu- 
factures. We receive from Brazil our largest supply of coffee, 
India-rubber, hides, cocoa for chocolate, sarsaparilla, and other 
articles ; and in exchange supply her with nearly all her bread- 
stuffs — with beef, pork, lard, and butter; with corn, cotton 
fabrics, the implements of agriculture and the arts, with machinery, 
and the manufactures of iron and wood. This trade amounts to 
nearly nineteen millions of dollars annually ; the balance against 
the United States being six millions paid in cash. It is believed 
by those best informed on the subject, that the eKtabli.<hmcnt 
of a regular line of mail steamers to Brazil, with a suitable 
subsidy from the government for postal service, would be the 
means of doubling the amount of trade in the course of five years; 
and by the increased demand for our productions arising from 
the facility of communication and correspondence, would equalize 
the exchange, if not turn the balance in our favor. It is a 
reproach to us, that for the want of direct communication- by 
steam, our correspondence, both commercial and diplomatic, with 
Eastern South America, is carried by English mail steamers, 
by the way of England, a distance of near eight thousand miles. 
From the same cause the disbursements of our government to 
its public agents there, are made only at a heavy percentage. 
To place the salary of nine thousand dollars in the hands of a 
charg6 d'affaires at Rio, costs the government at home usually 
one thousand dollars, and the naval disbursements on that station 
are made at a corresponding loss. 

Aware of the vast public and commercial interest.^ to us 
as a nation of this matter, it is with great satisfaction I have 
learned that an association of capitalists of the city of New 
York, bearing the name of the " North and South American 
Steamship Company," has brought the subject before Congress 


in a memorial for aid, in consideration of mail service, in the 
establishment of a line of steamers between New York and Para. 
It is proposed to intersect the several European lines running to 
Brazil at the Island of St. Thomas, and to form a junction at 
Para, with the Brazilian mall and passage steamers which now 
regularly coast the empire a distance of four thousand miles, from 
the mouth of the Amazon to the Rio La Plata. Dr. Rainey, 
one of the gentlemen engaged in this enterprise, has by personal 
research informed himself fully of the practicability, under the 
suitable patronage of the government, of making this initiatory 
line of steam communication with Brazil and with the Plata, 
through the intervention of the Imperial lines, of incalculable 
value to the commerce and general interest of the United 
States. The committee to whom the memorial was referred, 
have reported unanimously in favor of granting the subsidy 
solicited ; and there is reason to hope, that by the early action of 
Congress on the report, an abiding channel of friendship, com- 
merce, and reciprocal good, will be opened directly between the 
United States and Brazil and La Plata. 



THE WORKS OF JOSEPH ADDISON: Including the whole 
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Creation of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty ; con- 
taining, among many Surprising and Curious Matters, the Un- 
utterable Ponderings of Walter the Doubter, the Disastrous 
Projects of William the Testy, and the Chivalric Achievements 
of Peter the Headstrong, the Three Dutch Governors of New 
Amsterdam, being the only authentic History of the Times that 
ever hath been, or ever will be published. 12mo., cloth, Si 25. 

The Same, ■with Darley's Illustrations, gilt extra, 82 ; half 

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A few copies remain of the fine edition in 8vo., with the Illustrations 
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SiK Walter Scott to IlEyiiT Beevooet, Esq., o/Xew Tort. 
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inent which I have rcceive«J from the most excelleutly jocose history of New York. I am sen- 
sible that as a stranger to American parties and politics^ I mnst lose much of the concealed satire 
of tbe pieee, bat I mast own, that looking at tbe simple and obvious meaning only, I bare never 
re«d anything so closely resembling the style of Dean Swift as the annals of Diedricb Knicker- 
bocker. I have been employed these fcw evenings in reading them aloud to Mrs. S. and two 
ladies who are our guests, and our sides have been ab»jlute1y M>re with laughing. I think, too, 
there are passages which indicate that tlie authpr possesses powers of a rliffcrent kiml, and has 
some touches which remind me much of Stebne. I bej yo;i will have the kindnca to let me 
know when Mr. Irving takes i>en in hand again, for assuredly I shall expect a very great treat 
" Believe me, dear sir, your obliged humble servt, 

•• ABBOTsroED, April 23, 1513." 

Washington Irving. In 3 vols;. 12mo.. with Maus, &c., price 
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%* The subject of this w^rk f>r course n>riii* tiie very ground-work of 
all .\inencan history. Xo other work can poscibh' be its substitute. The 
author, during his residence in Sp.iin, enjoyed extraordinary facilities for 
access to original materials, and he lias presented the narrative (so intensely 
interesting in its very nature) in a shape eminently reliable for its con- 
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Author's Acooiint of Iliiiiself— The Voyage— Roscoe — The Wife — Eip Van 
"Winkle — English AVriters on America — Rural Life in England — The 
Broken Heart — Art of Book-jSlaking — A Royal Poet — The Country 
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Inn Kitchen — The Spectre Bridegroom — Westminster Abbey — 
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Col. JIouLTP.iE, 
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Washington, from the Picture by TriimhuU. 
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Washington from Iloudon'a Statue. 



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George Clinton, 

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Gen. Sir Henry Clinton, 

Gen. Lord Coknwallm. 

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Wnsblngton at Fort Necessity. 
■Washington Surveying the l)is- 

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Washington's Fielil Sports. 
Fortifying Bunkers Hill. 

"Tliismuht alwav 

Fort Ticonderoga. 

Lake Oeorire. 

Fortifications .it West Point 
in 17S0, (from a contem- 
jiorarv drawing.) 

Washini'ton Quelling a Plot 

Viewof X.-w York. 177fi. 
Boston from porchester 
lleiiihtsin I77C. 

reiiiiiin, jmr emi 

iiiF. history of Ihi 

Announcement of Indepen- 

Battle of Trenton. 

Battle of Gerniantown. 

]5attle of Monmonth. 

Bradilock's naltle Field. 

Washington going to Con- 

&c. &c. Ac. 

Father of his connirv." 
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^vork, we cannot but expresn onr sati-iaction at Its 
\n lin[M>rtant epoch in .American literature The 

. not 


ofllic \i.. 
tier, the ;. . 
cyeofibe .- ■ . 1 . 
manerit ineiih'n.i 
uf the author." — '. 
' It is evlJent 

las not only carefuMy invo^tigated a vast amoant of original 

10 G. P. Pdnain <b CoJ'a PuhHcalions. 

WA3UINGTOX IR-VIXCi's AVOIiKS — C07ltinucd. 

materials to wliicli few persons cnuM liavc had access, but that he also has devoted many years to 
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WOLFERT'S ROOST, axd Other Papers. Now first collected. 
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THE CRAYON READING BOOK, Comprising Selectious from 
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TALES OF THE HUDSON : Comprising Rip Van Winkle— Le- 
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O. p. Putnam <& Co^^a Publications. 


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Last of the MoniOAXs, 





The Oak Opexixgs, 

"Wept of Wish-to.n-Wisu, 

Ned Myer3, 




Mercedes of Castile, 

Wing axd Wixg, 






The Ciiaix-Ueauek, 
Afloat axd Ashore, 
Milks Wallixgford, 
Home as Foixd, 
The Crater, 
Two Admirals, 
Water Witch, 
Jack Tier, 
Red PlOvkr, 
The Sea Lioxs, 
Travellixg Bacoeloe, 
Ways ok the Holk. 

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" He wr<>!f f.T iiiinkiiid at large ; hence it is that he has earned a fame wider than any author 
ofmfxKr'; -itions <ifiii.< ceniui shall survive through centuries to coine, and only 

peri-h m — \V. C. Bryant. 

"■ Hi- has maile his own name, and the names of the creations of his fancy, 

'h()u-*li. : -ii'.ut the civilized worlii."'—GF,o. BANCBorr. 

-The «nrk- or.,!;r it. at novelist have adorned and elevated our literature."— Edw. Evekftt. 

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In Twenty Duodecimo Volumes, extra size. 

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8, Lionel Lincoln, 


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Last of the iMoiii- 

10. The Wei'tof WisH- 






Wing and Wing, 


The Pathfinder, 

11. TiieWater-Witch, 




Thk Pioneers, 

12. The Bravo, 


Jack Tiep., 


The Prairie, 

13. The Headsman. 


The Sea Lions. 


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Vignettes. l2mo., $1 25. 

" It is not often our privilege fo read so delightful a book aS this. * * What a treat for the 
h(d!d:iys! * ♦ What a freshness pervades every pugo— how full of life and beauty is every pic- 
ture! "—-V. Y. Ddili/ S^ews. 

"There is something dflightfnl and fascinating in Bayard Taylor's books— having Its origin 
chiefly in their fresh nnhackncyed style. ♦ * * His descriptive powers are remarkable."— 
y. Y. IHxpatch. 

"'I'ho niirralives of no tiiveller of modem times have proved more interesting and lii- 
Mructive llian llmsc (.fllavard Taylor."— AV»P</rA Whig. 

" \'.\t\n\A\f pietiuis (,f nrii'nlal life evi-ry whore einboUish the n.irrative, whl'.h carries the 
reader along without llie sliglitest.<ense of fatigue or et\nm."—Ch(VleHUm (S. C.) fo'nt. 

" Bitter picture- of orier/tal life and si-ciipry tlinn he t'ives are not to be found In the English 
languaire. driainlv if anv are lo lie U<\\in\ wliieh cnalile us to l)el">ld "willi a clearer inward 
lye'the hills of I'ali-tine, 'the Snn-i:ililcd Minarets of l)ama:;ou.s, i the lovely pine lorests of 
I'hrygia," they have iiol been plaeeil within our reaeli."— J//c/(ii/'»/i Christian IlcrtUd. 

G. P. Ftttnam & Co'a Publications. 15 


A JOUrvNP:Y TO CENTRAL AFRICA; on, Lifk and Land- 
scapes KKOM Egypt to the Negro Kingdoms of the White 
Nile. With a Map and Illustratious by the Author. l2iuo., 
*1 50. 

*• He writes elonncntly, cisilr. and with a vivid feolinsr for the pictnresone ; he has a lively 
«>n«<e tifhiimnr ami di->09 noiin<3nta:e it too much ; ami best of all, he can feel sincere cnthnsiasm 
for the beautiful In nature and art, and is not ashamed to own it" • ' *— London Leader. 

" [t is very rareh onr pood fortune to meet with such a delightful book of travel ; it comes 
with all thtt frclines* of resliiv. and iiiake.'i ns lone to pack a portmanteau, put Mr Taylors 
b.".k in "Ur pockets and set .ill by ixpn-.s^ tniin for the land of the pyrainiiU. * * • With this 
bt-antind pa'wase wn must leave a l«M>k which has coinpensnted inr.ny, many weary buurs in 
rcvirwitii; the coiniiinnplHcc pniiluctions of the day.'" — London Atlas 

•■ If it were po-siMe to aiM any thins to the fx'^inatioii wiiich attracts so many travellers to 
the bunks of the Nile, this volume would do it"' — Ijondon Daily Xeits. 

"As a vivid delineator, it would be difHciilt to overmatch Mr. Taylor." — Lip. Standard. 

"He pmcei-ds by the Nubian Desert and the White Xi^c to Khartoun, penetrates to the 
populous Neero Kinsilom of the "Sliillcicks,"' bavins reached a point of Central Africa beyond 
which modern explorers have bitbertx^ fulled to penetrate." — London Review. 

" the most part on unhackneyed srrouml, ho has produced a volume as fresh 
and ori::liial as it is brilliant and even when eleaning from old fields, surprises us by the nov- 
elty of his obs rvations and discoveries."' - Yiinkte BUide. 

"As a writer of travels, especially, he has never found his equal." — Buffalo Democracy/. 

" No othei" .\meriran traveller has pa.ssed over the field before him, and bis narrative is a 
I^tfitive addition to the stock of hnmnn knowle<ls;e. 

** .A journey which le<l him into fre--h untrodilen fields."' — Hereland PlaindeaUr. 

"There is no romance to ns quite equal to one of Bayard Taylor's books of travel. Fact 
uader hl.s wonderful pen Is more charming than Fiction."—' //ur</i//v7 Republican. 

Taylob. With Frontispiece and Yiguette engraved ou steel. 
Large 12mo, pp. 504. §1 50. 

" Bayard Taylor is certainly a remarkable man. The more we see of him in his writincs 
and tlie more we hear ol him. the more we admire him. lie is decidedly th* American trav- 
eller and travel-writer." — AVtc IJaren CourUr. 

" We find it iis«-lej», however, to search for pa«saces of preater lenpth, that would affbnl any 
adequate conception of the instruction and dolii:ht promised bv this work, full as it Is of adven- 
ture, inc dent and anecdote, woven together in a rich wib of description."— r/i<'/i-«/on Cour 

" Commence where yon will in this la^t book of his. and you will find yourself immediately 
interested, and will reluctantly leave the narrative.'' — lionton Traveller. 

"In some respects it is the most valnable of the series, for though less fumi-hcd with tho 
poetic and the historical, it contains more of description and information concerning Kcnes and 
people c»>m7«ratively new."— X 1". Independent. 

" The fascination surrounding the visions of India which from yonth-time one has carried in 
his im.icination loses none of its enchantment as he follows Mr. Tavlor throiieh his volume; 
while mvst.riou« China and -lapan, though disrobed of the veil which'has surrounded them, are 
as inviting to cnriosity a.s ever." — s'r. Lonin Evening Xeici. 

"Not a pace of tliis book but is replete with interest not a pngo but reveals some cnriona 
fact, not a page but glows with some vivid description or homorons episode."— .y. Y. Saturday 

] G O. P. Putnam & Co.'s Publications. 


DINAII AND MECC AH. By Lt. Hichaud Burton, Bombay 
Army. With an Introduction, by Bayakd Taylor. With a 
Map and two Illustrations. Large 12mo.' $1 50. 

The history of this curious book is as follows: 

Burton, an officer in the East India Company, having, by a long resi- 
dence in Upper India, acquired a perfect knowledge of the Oriental lan- 
guages and cnstonip, projected a visit under the auspices of tlie Royal 
Geographical Society, to tlie Holy City of Mecca and the Tomb of tiie 
Prophet at Medina, jdaces rarely, if ever before visited by any English- 
man. This lie successfully accomplished in 1853-4, disguised as a Moham- 
medan Dervish. The history of the pilgrimage is not surpassed in in- 
terest and originality by any book of travel ever published — embracing 
his residence at Cairo as Mohammedan student ; the journey across the 
desert with the great annual caravan of Pilgrims; the visit to the tomb 
of Mohammed; the discovery that the sacred black stoi;e of Mecca is an 
aerolite ; the annual sermon preached at Mecca to an estimated audience 
of 150,000 Pilgrims, gathered from' all parts of the Moslem world ; his 
narrow escapes from detection ; and the only accurate account of the cere- 
monies of the Mussulman faith. 

To tlie religious community this Avork furnishes information never be- 
fore made public, resijectiiig tlie ceremonial laws of a large proportion ot 
the ])opulation of the Eastern world ; while for general interest Burton's 
narrative will compare favorably with either jEothen, or Crescent and the 



BRAZIL AND LA PLATA. Personal Narrative of a Visit 
there, 1850-3. By Rev. C. S. Stkwart, Chaplain U. S. Navy. 
Author of a " Visit to the South Seas," &c. With two Illus- 
trations. 12mo, 81 25. 

*^,* This very interesting volume gives a variety of eurinn? and onU^r'aining information, 
wliich is to a great exicnl novel as well as authentic anil reliable. It is a work eminently 
suited for popular reading and for school libraries, &c. 



CUBA. By lion. Amelia M. Murray. 10th thousand. 1 vol. 

12mo, $1 00. 



ARCTIC EXPLORATIONS; The Second Grinnell Expedition^ 
1853-5. By E. K. Kane, M. D., U. S. N. With 300 Illus- 
trations on wood and steel, beautifully executed. 2 vols. 8vo. )!^5. 

^'— 1 

University of Toroifo 




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