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Nutsing Library 

The Hospital for Sick Children 











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No. 1,474 

SATURDAY, JULY 1, 1916. 



The energies of the nation are at present 
bent on the prosecution of the war to a 
successful finish — the men in their tliousands 
goinjj forth to war, inspired bv the patriotism 
which makes even life itself a small 
thing to sacrifice for honour and freedom, 
and the women stepping into the places 
thus vacated, carrv on theirj|Work in their 
absence with energy and ability on the 
land, in banks and public offices, on omni- 
buses and trams, as post women, as 
messengers, and in munition factories, to 
say nothing of those who in hospitals, on 
trains, at railway stations, in recreation 
huts and elsewhere are more directly serving 
our sailors and soldiers, sick and wounded, 
convalescent, and healthy, while steps are 
already being taken to make provision for 
a proportion of those incurably ill in the 
Star and Garter Home at Richmond, 
through a fund raised by women. 

When one looks forward to the Declara- 
tion of Peace, and down the long vista of 
years to follow, one realizes dimly the 
reconstruction of social conditions which 
will be necessary, and the unselfishness and 
forbearance which will be required in effect- 
ing the necessary readjustments. 

One thing is certain. Tiie first considera- 
tion of the women of the Empire must be 
the sailors and soldiers who have returned 
maimed, unfitted for further active work in 
the world. Young, vigorous, healthy, with 
all the energy and aspirations of youth, 
who by reason of their disablement can 
only look forward to " the dire compulsion 
of infertile days " for the remainder of their 
lives. Let us remember in the days to 
come, when the war is of the past, and 
other things absorb our interest, that these 
are the men who have sacrificed much to 
secure to us all that makes life worth living. 
Can any personal service be too great to 
make life as tolerable to them as may be. 

Why should not the British Red Cross 
Society, and Order of St. John through their 
Voluntary Aid Detachments arrange for a 
systematic service of members who will be 
eyes to the blind and feet to the lame — who 
will undertake to read the news daily to 
the blind man, to take the cripple for a 
walk or a drive, and who will do so regu- 
larly, year in and year out — long after the 
glamour of war has faded ? It should be our 
pride, as it is our manifest duty, to see that 
no man broken in our wars should ever feel 
forgotten or neglected. It is not enough, 
though it is essential, that he should be 
secured from want. We should freely 
extend to him the sympathy, the friendship, 
the help which will surround him with a 
cheerful mental environment. Not in any 
spirit of patronage — God forbid —but as 
debtors who can never repay the great debt 
that we owe. 

In relation to the able-bodied men who 
will return home to take their place again 
in civil life, here also it will be necessary 
for the women to remember their debt. 
They took up regular work at some self- 
sacrifice, to carry on public affairs during a 
crisis, and many have found happiness in 
that work and the satisfaction which self- 
support, self-reliance, and self-respect bring 
with them. When the war is over some 
unselfishness will again be needed in order 
that our soldiers may find remunerative 
occupation. We should regard it as a 
debt of honour that places occupied tem- 
porarily are surrendered to those who 
vacated them, and if this entails self- 
sacrifice, that should be part of the 
women's tribute, willingly offered, to the 
gallant men who have defended the Empire 
ashore and afloat. 

Meanwhile " Women's Tribute Week " 
takes place at the Royal Opera House, 
Covent Garden, W.C., from July 3rd- — 8th. 
Every woman sliGuld help to make it a 
splendid success. 

?rbe Krltiab 3ournal of flurstna. 

July I , i(ji() 





W'c h;i\e pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week U) iMiss Elizahetli Barrodale, Edgeley, 


The points liial a nurs<' shcmld attend In In 
dealing with a isatit-nt sulirring from vahular 
disease of the heart arc as follows : — (i) Rest ; 
(2) freedom from worry ; (3) light diet ; (4) to ■ 
keep the bowels well opened ; (5) [a) the pre- 
paration of the skin if tapping is necessary; 
(/)) the care of the canulas, tubes, and surround- 
ing dressings. 

(i) The patient should be nursed in the 
recumbent position, in order to lessen the strain 
upon the heart. The heart does not beat so 
often when the body is at rest as it does during 
any exertion. If, however, there is dyspnoea, 
as frequently occurs, then a bed-rest should be 
used. Sometimes a bed-table, sufficiently high 
for the patient to rest his arms upon and sit 
leaning forward, is of the greatest comfort to 
him. It may be padded 'or have pillows placed 
upon it, so that his arms do not become sore or 
easily tired through bearing so much of his 
weight. During the later stages of the illness, 
if dropsy occurs it will be found more comfort- 
able to raise the legs upon soft pillows, and to 
nurse the patient practically sitting upon an air 
or water pillow. 

In nursing such a patient, two nurses are 
always required to lift him ; one nurse cannot 
possibly manage alone without allowing the 
patient to exert himself much more than is w'ise 
or safe. Great care should also be exercised in 
giving the bed-pan, for the same reason. 

(2) The patient should on no account be 
worried. The number of visitors allowed 
should be strictly limited, and only those people 
admitted who are likely to have a soothing 
influence upon him. The sick room should be 
kept quiet and cheerful. 

(3) The diet should be light and nourishing. 
Meat and eggs are not usually allowed. Milk, 
cream, fish ; vegetables as permitted by the 
medical attendant, as some may cause flatu- 
lence, chicken, milk puddings, and fruit are the 
staple articles of diet, and there are many ways 
in which these may be prepared in order to give 
as much nourishment to the system, and as little 
work to the digestive organs, as possible. 

(4) The bowels must he kept well op<'ne(l, 
and it is of the utmost imi)ortanc<' that the nurse 

should see that this is done. Magnesium sul- 
jjhate and pulv. jalapae co. are very usual 
aperients given in these cases. 

live object is (i) to prevent any accumu- 
lation of faeces in the intestines and consequent 
accumulation of gases, which would distend the 
intestines and cause an upward pressure on the 
heart, thus impeding its action; and (2) to pro- 
{luce a watery evacuation, and thus help lo rid 
the system of the excess of fluid likely to 
accumulate as a result of the sluggishness of 
the circulation. 

(5) In cases where Southey's lubes (jr abdo- 
minal tapping is resorted to, the nurs<' must see 
that th*' skin is shaved and made surgically 
clean. .She may use acetone, ether and iodine, 
or any <ither cleansing agent which the doctor 
may prefer. .She must see that the canulas do 
not become misplaced through the patient's 
restlessness, that the skin is kept dry and 
warm, that the bed is also kept dry, and tliat 
the patient's legs and feet are warm. .Sonu'- 
times when there is a little leakage around the 
canulas this is difficult, but it is an important 
point to remember. She must also see that the 
tubes do not kink anywhere, and that the fluid 
has a free passage through them. If it should 
be left to her to remove the canulas, she should 
apply sterile dressings to the w-ounds, and dress 
them as aseptically as possible. 


The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss R. Barnes, Miss H. Tong, 
Miss A. M. M. CuUen, Mrs. J. E. Taylor, Miss 
E. Macintosh, Miss B. Holloway. 

Miss A. Cullen writes : — " Alcohol is some- 
times ordered, especially if very urgent 
symptoms arise, such as sudden faintness and 
great feebleness of pulse. Brandy may then be 
given, either by mouth, or in the form of an 
enema with milk. A may sometimes have 
to give brandy on her own responsibility if a 
patient is very collapsed, but the doctor should 
always be sent for immediately. In nursing a 
heart one must always have a cylinder of 
oxvgcn at hand. This may afford much relief 
for the dyspn(ea, which is often most trouble- 
some. " 


Describe briefly the object and effects of 
vaccination. Describe the method of introduc- 
ing the lymph, and the stages of development 
in a successful vaccination. 

Will compi.'litors notice that only one ounce 
can now be ,s<'nt through the post for one penny, 
and that anything over the ounce costs (»iie 
penny, not a halfpenny, for the second ounce? 

July I, iyi6 

?rbe Britleb 3ournal of "Rurslnfl. 


Nursing Sister L. W. Burns, C.A.M.C. (Mrs. 
George Eedson Burns, of Toronto) is the Per- 
manent Conducting Sister attached to the Canadian 
Casualty and Discharge Depot, Prior Park, near 
Bath. Her duties involve going to Canada with 
parties of soldiers pronounced to be medically 
uafit and returning with troops, crossing about 
twice a month. Mrs. Burns, who has a son an 
officer in the R.C.E. at Bramshott, Hants, is a 
graduate of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Mon- 
treal, and came to England with the First Canadian 
Contingent in September. 1914. Since then she 
has worked in France and in the Canadian 
hospitals at Taplow and Shornclifie. She is the 
wife of Colonel G. E. 
Burns, of the Canadian 
Army Guards. 

The War Office has 
through the Red Cross 
Society issued directions 
for the use of the Red 
Cross emblem. Chief 
constables arc to bring 
to notice any irregular 
uses, and societies are 
asked to co-operate in 
checking irregularities. 
\Vomen, trained and 
untrained, are not per- 
mitted to adorn them- 
selves with the Red 
Cross unless thej' are 
officially permitted to 
do so by the B.R.C.S. 
We warn trained nurses 
of this, as we constantly 
see them wearing a Red 
Cross stuck in their 
bonnets, on their bosoms 
and elsewhere, when 
they are in no way 
associated with the 

In selecting sisters and 
nurses in Egypt for ser- 
vice in Mesopotamia only the very strongest 
were chosen, and a VB»y rigid examination had to 
be undergone, as the heat and conditions in the 
East are very trying. Quite a new kit had to be 
taken, including spine protectors, muslin nets for 
sandflies, pith helmets, strong boots, cooking 
utensils and a large supply of face cream and 
powder — besides other things. The rush of work 
in Egypt is now over for a time. A Sister writes : 
" We should hke to meet that V.A.D. who has 
such a sorry opinion of the nursing profession — 
she would be a wiser woman for the future — not 
that all trained nurses have behaved here with 
discretion — or V.A.D.s either. Women somehow 
seem to let themselves go in foreign lands more 

than at home ; no real harm is meant, but we 
cannot be too careful of ' our cloth ' at all times, 
especially when on military service. One thing 
in ' V.A.D. 's ' letter disturbed us ' professionals ' 
here, and that is the suggestion that the London 
Hospital Matrons are in favour of registration of 
untrained nurses. Let us hope that wild state- 
ment is as imaginative as all the rest of the letter. 
It must be one thing or the other ; we women 
who have worked hard for the love of our pro- 
fession and of our kind for three and four years 
for our certificates will prefer to remain unregis- 
tered if we are to be classed with V.A.D.s. It 
would be most unfair and .useless, and we shall 
not put our names on any register till we know 
what it means. Not that we wish to deprive 
the untrained helpers of 
credit which is their due, 
but we prefer not to be 
classed with them in 
the public mind. We 
are members of a 
skilled profession, and 
a careful distinction 
must be made. The 
liRiTisH Journal of 
Xl-rsing is a perfect 
godsend out here." 


We hear that there 
is a strong sense 
of grievance amongst 
" lady workers " in 
France at the small 
number (and those 
mostly rich and in- 
lluential titled women) 
mentioned in Sir 
Douglas Haig's recent 
despatch. No doubt 
\\c shall have much 
wirepulling for further 
recegnition. The lavish 
and somewhat indis- 
criminate manner in 
which Royal Red 
Crosses have been 
scattered around in 
our home hospitals 
has also caused much 
heartburning. In one hospital two " staffs " 
have been recommended for this honour and the 
Sisters upon whom most of the responsibility has 
fallen have been ignored. We know one Reserve 
Sister — and there may be many — who worked 
through the Gra;co-Turkish War, in the Boer 
War and the South African War for some years, 
and Ixas in this war been through the worst in 
France and the Near East, Ls always given a 
responsible charge and is an untiring first-class 
worker. She holds the Greek Red Cross, but 
for years of work has had no recognition from 
our own Fount of All Honour, while amateurs 
with no training have been awarded the Royal 
Red CrossT first class. Wliat can be more unfair ? 

Zbc Britisb 3ournal of IRursing. 

July I, igi6 


General Sir John ^Maxwell, K.C.B., Commanding 
the Force in Eg\^t, included in his Despatches 
on the in.ilitary operations in the Egyptian Com- 
mand, for the information of the Secretary of 
State for War, published as a Supplement to the 
London Gazette of June 21st, a separate Despatch, 
containing the names of those he wishes to bring 
to favourable consideration on account of the 
services they have rendered. 
■ Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military 
Nursing Service. 

Miss S. E. Oram, R.R.C., Temporary Matron-in- 
Chief, Egypt Command. 

Matron. — ^Miss J. E. Dods, Citadel Hospital, 

Acting Matrons. — Miss M. Grierson, No. 15 
Gen. Hosp. (Abbassia Schools) ; Miss D. M. C. 
Michell, Mil. Hosp., Ras-el-Tin ; Miss M. E. 
Medforth, No. 18 Stationary Hosp., Mudros ; 
Miss M. E. Neville, No. 17 Gen. Hosp. (Victoria 

On Hospital Ships. 

Acting Matrons. — ^Miss E. R. Collins ; Miss 
K. F. Fawcett ; Miss M. H. Graham ; Miss 
S. W. Wooler. 

Army Nursing Service Reserve. — Miss E. E. 


Queen Alexandra's Imperial Nursing 


Matrons. — Miss A. S. Bond ; Miss S. Lamming. 

Acting Matrons. — Miss G. Hughes, Miss J. 
Murphy, Miss K. F. G. Skinner ; Miss M. E. 
Howell', Army Nursing Reserve ; Miss J. Orr, 
Army Nursing Reserve ; Miss A. L. Wilson, Army 
Nursing Ser\-ice. 

Sisters.— Q.A.I.M.N.S. : Miss I. M. Johnston : 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. : Miss A. E. M. Beamish, IMiss 
E. M. Bishop, Miss B. Cole, Miss G. Corder, 
Miss I. Anderson, Miss M. Clayden, Miss C. E. 
Crawford, Miss E. Davidson, Miss M. B. Everitt, 
Miss J. L. Griffiths (killed), Miss H. M. Hay ward 
Miss S. F. Haywood, Miss G. E. Keen, Miss M. H. 
Klamborowski, Miss K. A. Prendegast, Miss N. 
Stewart, Miss E. M. Weiss, Miss M. E. Wragge, 
Miss D. Web'ey. 

Staff Nurses.— Q.A.I.M.S.R. : Miss J. K. 
Baird, Miss M. N. Caird, Miss M. Dixon, Miss M. A. 
Dunbar, Miss J. McRobbie George, Miss K. Morris, 
Miss M. J. Monk, Miss G. Sampson, Miss E. 
Wadsworth, Mrs. E. J. G. Jeans. 

On Hospital Ships. 

ACTING Matrons. — Q.A.I.M.N.S. ; E. V. L. 
Clarke, Miss F. C. Craig, Miss E. Lowe, Miss M. 

Sisters.— Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. : Miss E. Mocre, 
Miss H. Perfrement, Miss A. Wormald. 

Staff Nurses.— Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. : Miss A. D. 
Beaton, Miss A. G. Boyd, Miss M. Boothman, Miss 

[. Frt-win, Miss D. M. Green, Miss A. L. Hartrick, 
iliss L. Jeans, Miss M. M. McNab, Miss F. Oppen- 
heinier. Miss E. M. Parkinson, Miss A. Ross, Miss 
M. A. Robertson. 

Territorial Force Nursing Service. 

Acting Matrons. — Miss M. A. Brown, Miss W. 
Friend, Miss K. Mann, Miss M. Newbould. 

Sisters. — Miss M. E. Coxeter, Miss K. Conway- 
Jones, Miss A. Hills, Miss E. Lister. 
Civilians Locally Engaged. 

Sisters.- — Miss, A. Stuttle, Mrs. C. D. Cooke. 
Australian Nursing Service. 

Nursing Sisters. — Miss E. A. Convers, Matron- 
in-Chief, A.A.N.S. ; Miss G. Wilson, Principal 
Matron ; Miss J. B. Johnson (Sister), No. 2 Aust. 
Genl. Hosp.,; Sister E. S. Davidson, Mena ; Sister 
A. G. Douglas, No. i Aust. Genl. Hosp. ; Sister J. 
Twynam, No. 2 Aust. Genl. Hosp. ; Sister R. J. 
Langford, No. i Aust. Aux. Hosp. ; Sister M. 
Hobler, No. 3 Aust. Aux. Hosp. 

Australian Army Nursing Service. 

Sisters. — Miss A. Gordon-King ; Miss B. 
Pocock ; Miss I. RadclifEe ; Miss M. Kellett ; Miss P. 

Staff Nurses. — Miss Cresswell ; Miss E. H. 
Chapman ; Miss A. King ; Miss E. Peters ; Miss 

D. D. Richmond ; Miss F. E. Spalding ; Miss V. 
Wionaski ; Miss O. Lee-Brown ; Miss B. ^I. 

Australian Army Nursing Sisters serving 
IN British Hospitals. — Miss M. Burns ; Miss T. 
Cosby-White ; Miss B. Earl ; Miss F. R. Herring ; 
Miss E. Shepherd-Cook ; Miss E. A. Eglinton ; 
Miss E. Mosey ; Miss L. F. Smart ; Miss McHardie- 

Australians attached to Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. — ■ 
Miss B. Coffey; Miss A. J. Florey ; Miss A. D. 
McKibbin ; Miss A. Wilkinson. 

New Zealand Nursing Service. — Sister Vida 
McLean ; Sister Fanny Wilson ; Sister Francis 
Price ; Sister Ida Willis ; Sister Elizabeth Nixon ; 
Sister Marie H. Wilkie. 

Staff Nurses. — ^Misses Cora Anderson, Jean 
G. S. Ingram. Edith A. Harris, Emily Nutsey, 
Eva M. Livesey, Mildrid Ellis, Daphne R. 
Commons, Rose Fanning, Janet A. Moore, ^larj' 
McBeth, Elizabeth Porteous, Agnes Williams. 

New Zealand Army Nursing Service in 
British Hospitals. 

Matitons. — Miss M. M. Cameron ; Miss B. Nurse. 

Sisters. — Miss A. Buckley ; Miss C. E. Cherry ; 
Miss F. Speedy. 

Canadian Army Medical Corps. 

Matron. — ^Miss B. J. Willoughby. 

Nursing Sisters. — Miss A. B. Armstrong ; Miss 

E. Finlayson. 


H.E. Lady McMahon ; Lady Maxwell ; Lady 
Henry Bentinck ; Lady Howard de Walden ; Lady 
Graham ; Lady Douglas ; Lady Rogers ; Lady 
Godley ; Mrs. Phillips ; Mrs. Ford. 

July I, igi6 

^be 36rit(5b 3ournal of ■Hurstng. 


Only those who have lived in a mosquito- 
infested country know the torment, as well as the 
danger, of the bites (not stings) of these pestilent 
insects. Intractible ulcers, exquisitely painful 
boils, not to mention malaria, all follow in their 
wake. It is therefore only reasonable to adopt 
preventive measures in order to ward off infection. 
Our picture illustrates the art of letter writing in 
Mesopotamia where swarms of mosquitos add to 
the discomfort of the troops on the Tigris, and the 
costume to be adopted if one wishes to write a 
letter in comparative comfort. It should be 
added that put- 
ties complete the 
costume, as a 
hungry mos- 
quito — hunger 
which takes the 
form of thirsting 
for your blood 
— will bite 
through any 
sto ckings to 
secure a liberal 

The Temple 
Fete in aid of 
the funds of the 
British Red 
Cross and Order 
of St. John will 
be held in the 
Middle Temple 
Hall and Gar- 
dens on July 
i3t.a and 14th, 
at two o'clock. 
Scenes from 
Night " will be 
produced in the 
Middle Temple 
Hall, and every- 
thing in the Gardens will be very Elizabethan — 
dances, music and costumes. A magnificent 
entertainment is promised. Prices: For the Hall, 
15s. to 5 guineas ; in the Gardens, Thursday, 
los. 6d. and Friday, 2S. 6d. So a rich harvest 
should be secured. 


It having been decided, with the approval of 
the French Ambassador, to celebrate July 14th 
as " France's Day," it is hoped that this national 
day of tribute to the gallantry of the soldiers of 
France will be accompanied by the flying of the 
French tricolor wherever possible. 

Mr. Evelyn Grant Du£E, British Minister at 
Berne, in his report to Sir Edward Grey on the 
cordial reception of the British prisoners from 
Germany on their arrival in Switzerland, states : — 

" It is difficult to write calmly about it, for the 
simple reason that I have never before in my life 
seen such a welcome accorded to anyone, although 
for the last 28 years I have been present at every 
kind of function in half the capitals of Europe. 

" Colonel Picot, who came with the first train, 
reports that within sight of the German sentries 
the cheering began. At Krcuzlingen, Zurich, 
Olten, Bern, Fribourg, Lausanne, Montreux, and 
Chateau d'Oex thousands upon thousands of people 
crowded the platforms pelting the soldiers with 
flowers and pressing into their hands every con- 
ceivable present. At Zurich the scenes are 
described as not less enthusiastic than in French 
Switzerland. The 
day before the 
train reached 
Chateau d'Oex 
the Prefect 
issued a notice 
that ever\-one 
was to wear his 
best clothes. 
Every house was 
hung with 
flowers, and 
Swiss and British 
flags and gar- 
lands were 
stretched across 
the streets. 

"It is impos- 
sible to avoid 
the impression 
tliat this extra- 
ordinary recep- 
tion of our men 
was a national 
demon stration 
in favour of 
England. If 
William Tell had 
been reincar- 
nated and made 
a tr iumpha 1 
progress through 
the country 1 do not see what more could have 
been done. 

" Our men were simply astounded, and naturally 
so, after being many of them treated with every 
obloquy for two years, or nearly so. Many of 
them were crying like children ; a few fainted 
from emotion. As one private said to me, ' God 
bless you. Sir ; it's like dropping right into 
'eaven from 'ell.' " 

Mr. Goodhart, of the British Legation at Berne, 
according to the Times, was told by one soldier 
that when 100 men who had expected to be sent 
to Switzerland were rejected at Constance and 
sent back to the prison camps they went back 

Glorious fellows ! 

Soldiers and sailors can be treated free at the 
Tuberculin Dispensary, Manor Street, Chelsea. 


6 ^bc »nti6b 3ournal of IRursino. /»h i, 1916 


Queen Alexandra has graciously given her 
patronage to the Children's Matinee in aid of the 
French Flag Nursing Corps to be held at the 
Court Theatre on June 29th, and she expresses 
regret that o\ving to a previous engagement she 
is not able to be present. 

Miss Ida Mar\- Ralph, cert., Royal Blackburn 
and East Lancashire Infirmary, will lea\-e for 
France on June 30th. She has worked at the 
Church Army War Hospital, Caen, for a year. 

The second Canadian Unit are at the Talence 
Hospital, Bordeaux. 

(Jwing to an influx of wounded into French 
Military Hospitals, a few more nurses are required 
for service in this Corps. The Selection Com- 
mittee can be seen on Friday, June 30th and 
July 7th. Mrs. Fenwick will be at 431, Oxford 
Street, London, W., from 2.30 to 5 p.m., on the 
dates named. Only nurses at libert\- to go to 
France at an early date should apply. Candidates 
must be well educated and hold a certificate for 
three vears' general training, which they should 
bring for inspection. Experience in fever nursing 
and niassage, and a knowledge of French are 
additional advantages. 


On Tuesday last a hundred members of the 
nvnsing profession were decorated bj' the King 
at Buckingham Palace with the Royal Red Cross, 
the Queen, attended by the Lady Eva Dugdale, 
beipg present during the ceremony. A number of 
patients of some of the recipients were waiting 
at the Palace gates to cheer them on their return. 

The undermentioned ladies are awarded the 
decoration of the Royal Red Cross, in recognition 
of their valuable ser\'ices in connection with the 
war : — 

Territorial Force Nursing Service. 

Royal Red Cross (Second Class). — Staff 
Nurses : Miss E. Andrews, 5th Northern General 
Hospital ; Miss M. Ochse, 4th Northern General 

Nursing Staff of Civil Hospitals. 

Royal Red Cross (Second Class). — Stafi 
Nurses : Miss M. M. Lambert, Bishop's Knoll 
Hospital ; Miss F. Godfrey, V.A.D. Hospital, 

Indian Nursing Service. 

Royal Red Cross (Second Class). — Miss 
A. R. I. Lowe, temporary Nursing Sister, Queen 
Alexandra's Military Nursing Ser\ice for India. 

The following Sisters ha^•e been deputed to 
Home Hospitals : — 

B(7to« Hall V.A.D. Hasp., Rt<gby.—Mjs. O. H. 

Heywood Mil. Hosp., Cobhani. — Mrs. M. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Totnes.— Miss E. Garland.- 

Richard Murray Hosp., Blackhill, Durham. — 
Miss J. Holmes. 

Red Cross Hosp., Briton Ferry, Glain. — ^jNIiss A. 

Red Cross Hosp., Cirencester. — ^Miss I. A. Mabbs. 

Red Cross Hosp., Highfield Hall.—Miss S. Watt. 

Kingsclere Hosp., Newbury. — ^Miss INI. Black- 

VA.D- Hosp., Torquay.— Miss F. M. Chandler. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Finchley. — Miss M. Meadley. 

Red Cross Hosp., Holt. — Miss Minnie Yell. 

V.A.D. Hasp., Chippenham. — ^IN'Irs. R. Wilson. 

St. John's Hosp., Farehani. — Miss A. Postle- 

Highland Moors Hosp., Llandrindod Wells. — 
Miss jNI. Donaldson, Miss A. Hooton. 

Kingston Red Cross Hosp., New Maiden. — ^Miss 
E. H. Lewis. 

Infirmary Red Cross Hosp., Wimborne. — ^]\Iiss 
H. Appleton. 

HUl House Hosp., Warwick. — ^Miss E. Kellv. 

Rushmore Hosp., Tollard Royal, Salisbury. — 
Miss M. K. Hickey. 

Canadian ]Var Hosp., ]]'almer. — ^Miss E. E. 
Robins, Miss J. H. R. Ryan. 

Norton Hall Hosp., Campden, Glos. — ^Mrs. E. 

Red Cross Hosp., Syon House, Brentford. — Mrs. 
E. A. Stevens. 

Clifford Street V.A.D. Hosp., Yorks.—Miss. G. M. 

Kingswood V.A.D. Hosp., Landsdoivn, Bath. — ■ 
Miss R. Lindsay, Miss N. Bowman. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Ashburne, Sunderland. — Miss M. 

St. John's Hosp., Abbeydale Dore, near Sheffield. 
— IVHss W. L. Carne. 

St. John Aux. V.A.D. Hosp., Wellington College. 
— Miss G. Roberts, Miss E. Dawson. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Leigh, Kent. — ^Mrs. F. Kent. 

Boulogne Headquarters.— Miss Grace Broadberry. 
Brigade Hospital. — ^Miss D. E. Da\ddson. 
Duchess of Wtstininster's Hosp., Le Touqiiet. — • 
Miss R. M. Butterworth. 


A Royal Warrant, dated June 21st, and pub- 
lished in the London Gazette of June 27th, provides 
that " The Military Medal " m.ay, in exceptional 
circumstances, on the special recommendation of 
a Commander-in-Chief in the Field, be awarded 
to women, whether subjects or foreign persons, 
who have shown braverv and devotion under iiie. 

July I, igi6 

ZIbc 36ritl5b 3oiirnal of ■KmsinQ. 


Applications for Memburship. 
The following new members were elected at the 
Annual Meeting on June 8th. ; — 

4035 MissE. R.Anderson, cert. Aberdeen Roj'al Inf. 

4036 Mis.s H. Hiscock, cert. Isleworth Inf. 

4037 Miss G. Hepworth, cert. General Hosp., 


4038 Miss C. G. Cheatley, cert. Union Inf., Belfast. 

4039 Miss I. W. Macgregor, cert. Jervis Street 

Hosp., Dublin. 

4040 Miss P. A. Homewood, cert. The Queen's 

Hosp., Birmingham. 

4041 Miss G. J. Bufiard, cert. Kings' College Hosp., 

Denmark Hill. 

4042 Miss E. Smith, cert. Prince of Wales Hosp., 


4043 Miss M'. R. Tate, cert. East Sussex Hosp., 


4044 Miss M. Gannow, cert. Royal Inf., Sunderland. 

4045 Miss D. C. Horn, cert. Fulham Inf., Hammer- 


4046 Miss M. Mason, cert. David Lewis Northern 

Hosp., Liverpool. 

4047 Miss A. M. Harding, cert. East Dulwich Inf. 

4048 Miss V. Roberts, cert. City of Dublin Hosp. 

4049 Miss M. Grocock, cert. Leicester Roy. Inf. 

4050 Miss A. E. Dagg, cert. Royal Hants County 

Hosp., Winchester. 

4051 Miss F. Barber, cert. Birmingham Gen. Hosp. 

4052 Miss R. M. Oakey, cert. Gen. Hosp., Bir- 


4053 MissL. Freeman, cert. Royal Inf. .Sunderland. 

4054 Miss D. P. Widdas, cert. Cumberland Inf. 

4055 Miss S. R. I..aurie, 

4056 Miss E. Crowe, ,, ,, 

4057 Miss M. Agnew, 

4058 Miss E. B. Gammon, cert. County Hosp., 


4059 3\Iiss E. Wain, cert. County Hosp., York. 

4060 Miss G. M. Hooper, cert. Bolton Gen. Inf. 

4061 Miss A. Sheffield, cert. Royal Victoria and 

West Hants. Hosp.,- Bournemouth. 

4062 Miss A. Roper-Nunn, cert. I'oplar Hosp., E. 

4063 Miss E. E. Mercer, cert. The Middlesex Hosp. 

4064 Miss C. Beeton, cert. Roy. Inf., Liverjiool. 

4065 Miss F. M. Bartleet, cert. St. Thomas' Hosp. 

4066 Miss L. Bowen, cert. ,, ,, ,, 

4067 Miss C. Moore, cert. ,, ,, ,, 

4068 Miss C. M. Bulteel^ert. ,, 

4069 Miss X. Burrett, cert. St. Bartholomew's 

Hosp., Rochester. 

4070 Mrs. B. I. RadclifEe, cert. St. Thomas' Hosp. 

4071 Miss M. E. Butler, cert. I.-ondon Hosp. 

4072 Miss J. M. G. Pepper, cert. Holborn Inf., 


4073 Miss M. A. Ross, cert. North Brierly Inf. 

4074 Miss M. A. Close, cert. ,, ,, ,, 

4075 Miss M. Tordofi, cert. 

4076 Miss E. A. Keen, cert. Crossland Moor Inf., 


4077 Miss A. R. Hare, cert. North Brierly Inf. 

4078 Miss E. Sneesby, cert. North Brierly Inf. 

4079 Miss V. Thurstan, cert. Ixfndon Hosp. 

4080 Mrs. L. Greenway, cert. South Devon and 

East Cornwall Hospital. 

4081 Miss E. Meldrum, cert. Royal Inf., Dundee. 

4082 Miss C. Sharpley, cert. Royal Southern 

Hospital, Liverpool. 

4083 Miss G. A. Heape, cert. The Queen's Hosp., 


4084 Miss W. Y'eandle, cert. Gen Hosp., B'ham. 

4085 Miss R. Palmer, cert. 

4086 Miss G. H. Grout, cert. 

4087 Miss M. Ottewell, cert. 

4088 Miss L. Buckley, cert. South Inf., Cork. 

4089 Miss C. Powell, cert. Kent and Canterbury 


4090 Miss M. B. C. Atkins, cert. Kent and Canter- 

bury Hosp. 

4091 Miss I. C. Tompkins, cert. St. Bart.'s Hosp. 

4092 Miss M. Pote-Hunt, cert. St. Bsirt.'s Hosp. 

(Matron, St. Bartholomew's Hosp., 
Rochester) . 

4093 Mrs. H. E. Bekenn, cert. Queen's Hosp., 


4094 Miss N. B. Stacey, cert. London Homoeopath. 


4095 Miss D. M. Brown, cert. St. Bart.'s Hosp. 

4096 Miss M. E. McCaul, cert. 

4097 Miss D. Marshall, cert. ,, „ 

4098 Miss E. Tatham, cert. 

4099 Miss K. H. Jones, cert. 

4100 Miss E. M. Willes, c?rt. Queen's Hospital, 

Birmingham (Matron, Beckett Hosp., 
Barnsley) . 


The President of the Society for the State 
Registration of Trained Nurses acknowledges 
with thanks the following donations ; — Miss L. 
Taylor, Government Hospital, Pemba, E. Africa, 
los. ; Miss J. C. Higginson, 5s. ; Jliss Bruce, 2s. 6d. 


The Legislatures of two more of the Provinces 
of Canada, Alberta and New Brunswick, liave 
passed Nurses' Registration Bills ; copies arc not 
yet to hand, but all the same we congratulate our 
Canadian cousins upon gaining the legal status 
they so well deserve. Canadian nurses liave taken 
a most intelligent interest in this important 
question for years, and those over here on war 
duty are watching our struggle — so long pro- 
longed — towards the light. Our Nurses' Regis- 
tration Bill drafted by the Society for State 
Registration in 1903 provides for reciprocity with 
Nurses' Registration Acts in any British Posses- 
sions, and we may be sure in these imperial days 
that no Registration Bill will become law in the 
old country without such provision. The more 
the merrier. 

We have to thank Miss M. Dempster for a further 
donation of los. to the fund for Nurse N., which 
now amounts to ;^20 8s. 6d. 

Zbc a6iitl9b 3ournal of •flursinfl. 

July I, 1916 



Owing to the interest aroused in tlie proposed 
Conference and also to the difficulty, in these 
days of sudden pressure of work, for members 
of the nursing profession to be certain of their 
tirre, the Executive Committee have decided 
to threw the Conference open to any members of 
professional Nurses' Societies and Leagues who 
may be able to attend at the above address on 
Thursday, June 29th, at 2.30 p.m. 

The secretaries of the Societies and Leagues 
have been invited to send six representativss, and 
the Secretary of the Union will be glad to receive 
their names, as well as those of others, if it is 
possible to send them beforehand, but all will be 

No resolutions will be put to the meeting, which 
is to be legarded as a preliminary one for a more 
formal meeting later on. It has been called with 
a view to offering an opportunity for hearing 
different opinions on important questions of the 
day. Ten minutes' papers will be read on the 
following subjects, to be followed by discussion : — • 

1. The difficulties of training in small institu- 
tions and the possibilities of combined training. 

2. The economic conditions in the nursing 

3. Th3 political position in the nursing world. 

4. The work of NurSes' Societies. 
Tea will be provided. 

Miss Cancellor will preside, and amongst others 
who wiU speak are Mrs. Strong, Mrs. Bedford 
Fenwick, Miss Musson and Miss Pye. 
V. Thurstax, 



Communicated by the Frome Braxch 

Miss Thurstan gave two lectures on Friday, 
June i6th, and Saturday, June 17th, at Frome 
and at Orchardleigh in Somerset to members of 
the N.U.T.N., to the Mothers' Union members 
of Frome and to others interested in the subject 
of nursing. 

She gave a A'ery interesting account of the so- 
called Polish Refugees in Russia, who are really 
people of seven or eight different nationalities 
and of different religions and who took refuge in 
the interior of Russia from the great German 
Invasion of Poland and Galicia last year. Miss 
Thurstan herself made a tour of many of the 
refugee camps to see what English people could 
best do in coping with the difficult problems of 
feeding and housing these vast numbers of home- 
less people. 

The Russians themselves are doing a great deal, 
but the numbers are so great that they gladly 
welcome any help from this country. As Miss 
Thurstan pointed out, we owe a special debt to 
Russia whose prompt invasion of Germany at the 
beginning of the War did so much to help the 

Allied cause in the West and without which 
we in this country might have been subjected to 
the same terrible disasters which have befallen 
Poland and Galicia. 

She mentioned some ways in which we could 
help specially to save infant life, by supporting 
Maternity and Fever Hospitals at Petrograd to 
which units of doctors and nurses have been 
despatched by .the N.U.W.S.S., the nurses being 
selected by the N.U.T.N. 

Many of her hearers were greatly moved by her 
appeal and would gladly offer their services, could 
they do so without deserting their posts at home. 


The Report of the Conference of the National 
Council of Trained Nurses of Great Britain and 
Ireland, organized by the General Hospital, 
Birmingham, Nurses' League, and held in the 
Central Hall, Birmingham, June 9th to 12th, 1914, 
has just made its appearance in a pretty blue . 
cover, and excellently edited and printed. Its 
publication has been delayed by the very onerous 
duties which have devolved upon the President 
Miss Musson, ever since the outbreak of War. 


The annual meeting of the Leicester Royal 
Infirmary Nurses' League was held in the Recrea- 
tion Hall at the Nurses' Home, on June 21st. The 
president was in the chair. Forty-two members 
were present. Letters of apology for absence 
were read from several members, including the 
treasurer. The meeting heard with regret that 
her non-attendance was caused by ill-health and 
wished her speedy recovery. 

After the usual business had been concluded, 
Miss Vincent, R.R.C., made a short statement re 
the College of Nursing and the proposed Bill for 
the State Registration of Nurses, which was 
followed by an interesting discussion, and the 
following resolution, proposed by Miss Ellis, and 
seconded by Miss Jessie Davies was put to the 
meeting and carried : — 

" This meeting expresses its satisfaction that 
the College of Nursing is upholding the principleof 
registration of trained nurses by the State, and 
earnestly hopes that the Bill may be brought 
forward without delay. It further urges the 
necessity of recognising the principle of self- 
government for nurses, and asks that the trained 
nurse may be adequately represented on the 
governing body." 

It was a great disappointment to all that Miss 
Sumner, Matron of Princess Christian Hospital, 
Englefield Green, who had promised, if possible, 
to give an account of her work abroad, sent a 
telegram to say that she was detained by duty. 

Tea was served in the corridor of the Nurses' 
Home, and was as usual a most enjoyable function. 

Hearty congratulations were given to Sister 
Barnes, one of the first members of the League, on 
having been awarded the Royal Red Cross. 

E. G. Waldron, Secvetarv. 

July I, 1916 

JLbe Brtti6b 3ournal of "Wureina. 



Infectious Diseases Hospital, Hinckley. — -Miss 
'J'eresa Dowling has been appointed Matron. 
She received her general training in the Township 
of South Manchester Hospitals and her fever 
training at the City Hospital, Parkhill, Liverpool, 
arid has been Matron at Hawardcn Isolation 

Fletcher Convalescent Home, Cromer. — • Mrs. 
M. A. Bovey has been appointed Matron. She 
was trained at Iving's College Hospital, London, 
where she subsequently held the position of 
Sister. She has also been Assistant Matron at 
St. Nicholas' Hospital Home for Children and 
Matron of the Charing Cross Hospital Convalescent 
Home, Limpsfield. 


Kilsyth Fever Hospital. — Miss Marion Orr has 
been appointed Nurse Matron. She was trained 
at Lightburn Hospital, Glasgow. 


The Infirmary, Isleworth. — Miss B. M. Wiltshire 
has been appointed Ward Sister. She was trained 
at the Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, and has 
been Sister and Night Superintendent at the same 
institution. She is a certified midwife. 

City Hospital, West Heath, Birmingham.^ 
Miss K. Sheridan has been appointed Sister. 
She was trained at the North Charitable Hospital, 
Cork, and has been Sister-in-Charge of County 
Cavan Infirmary and Sister-in-Charge of Out- 
patient Department, Sparkhill, Birmingham. She 
has also had e.xperience of military and of private 


Queen Charlotte's Lyinji-in Hospital, Marylebone 
Road, N.W. — Miss Annie Jaques has been 
appointed District Midwife for the North Ken- 
sington District at the Home at 176, Ladbroke 



Sister Miss Sophia O. Beamish resigns her 
appointment, June 25th. 


Transkkrs and .\ppoi.nt.\ii..\ts. 
Miss LeUen Butler igappointcd to Huthwaite ; 
Miss Maud Hemingway to Old \\T\ittington ; 
Miss Mary A. Johns, to Caversliam, as Senior 
Nurse ; Miss Nancy B. Lowe to Accrington, as 
Senior Nurse ; Miss Florence L. Samuels to 

f 'Mr. William Lang, of Down Street, Piccadilly, 
W., formerly of Shanghai, who died on May 20th, 
left ^1,000 and the income for life from ;^iO,ooo 
to La\'inia Lizzie Wooldridge, " for her great 
kindness and attendance as his nurse." 


On June 21st, Miss Alsop, tlic Matron of 
Kensing'ton Infirmary, entertained the past and 
present members of the Nurses' League to tea. 
A very large number were present. After tea 
the staff and their friends went to the church 
for the unveiling' and dedication of the new 
reredos presented by Miss Ashton, ahd also of 
a new mosaic panel, " Calvary," in continuation 
of the series representing incidents in the life of 
our Lord, the gift of an anonymous donor. 

The institution of the Holy Communion is the 
central feature of the reredos, which is in bis- 
sextile mosaic in carved alabaster, with gold 
mosaic insets. Dr. Hickox presided at the 
organ. The procession to and from the chancel 
was headed bv the crucifix, carried by Dr. 
Potter, the medical superintendent of the 
infirmary. The chaplain acted as the precentor, 
and the lessons were read by the Rev. Lord 
\'ictor Seymour, and the chaplain of the Brent- 
ford Infirmary. 

The chaplain, the Rev. .'\. Ix)mbardini, has 
spared no pains since his appointment some 
three years ago to brighten the dull grey walls of 
the Church of St. Elizabeth, and to try to make 
(jod's House beautiful for those who have had 
little beauty in their lives or homes, and the 
present beautiful church is the result. 

The Norwich Consistory Court has agreed 
to the erection of a carved oak reredos in the 
chancel of Holy Trinity Church, South 
Heigham, to the memory of Miss Edith Cavell, 
whose family had connection with the parish. 
The cost of the work is estimated at ;{Iioo, 
and it is stated that the amount will be 
provided by voluntary contributions. 

A stained-glass window to the memory of 
Miss Cavell is to be placed in Swardeston 
Church, and on an adjacent wall an alabaster 
memorial tablet. The estimated cost is ;Ci6o> 
almost all of which has already been subscribed. 

The committee appointed at Burradon to raise 
fimds towards a Nurse Cavell Memorial Fund 
have met with a good response, the sum of £si 
having been raised at Burradon and Westmoor 
by means of weekly house-to-house collections 
in three months. 

At a garden party at the Tynemouth Victoria 
Jubilee Infirmary, the guests were received by 
Miss Matthewson, the Matron, and Mr. R. 
Ilastie, the Chairman, and Mrs. Gregg, the 
wife of the Mayor, presented a number of 
awards for nursing. Nurse Pearson was pre- 
sented with a medal, and certificates were 
handed to other members of the nursing staff. 

Zbc Bnti5b 3ounial of TRursing. 

July I, 1916 

The wards were on view, and were greatly 
admired ; and a number of the patients were 
men injured in the recent North Sea battle, to 
attend on whom the staff no doubt felt honoured. 

Mr. W. I. de C. Wheeler, F.R.C.S., pre- 
sided at the thirty-second annual meeting of 
the City of Dublin Nursing Institution, and had 
the pleasure of congratulating the nursing staff 
on their courage and good work during the 
recent rebellion, and of announcing the tho- 
roughly satisfactory financial condition of the 
institution. Funds out of the earnings of the 
institution to the amount of ;(^i,ooo had been 
invested in the War Lx)an, money which in time 
of peace would have been distributed among the 
nurses. -As another example of war economy 
in the institution, it might be mentioned that the 
house expenses had fallen by ;£6o, as compared 
with last year. .A. saving under such a heading 
was most unusual, and was attributed by the 
auditors, infer alia, to the cultivation and grow- 
ing of vegetables in the small garden at the 
rear of the house, and to the fact that in her 
spare time one of the nurses voluntarily under- 
took the work of the laundry. 

Last year the directors, having regard to the 
onerous duties thrown on the nurses bv the 
absence of their sisters at the war, decided to 
increase the salaries by 20 per cent. It was 
gratifying to find that the past year had been 
sufficiently prosf)erous to maintain this increase. 
In addition, the directors had this year voted 
about ;Cioo, to be distributed bv wav of bonus, 
in recognition of the ceaseless efforts of the 
nurses to carry on the work of those who were 
absent on military duties. 

In referring to the College of Nursing, Ltd., 
the Chairman said that its establishment in 
London, if it became operative, might affect the 
institution, as it hoped to obtain statutorv 
powers in connection with the higher education 
of nurses. The attitude of the Irish nurses with 
regard to the scheme was, rightly, one of 
caution. Before co-operating in this enterprise 
it was obviously essential that the Irish nurses 
must be assured of adequate representation on 
the supreme Council. Irish support would not 
be withheld if the establishment of the new^ 
College was to lead rapidly to State Registra- 
tion, for which Irish nurses had been clamour- 
ing for many years. It was to be hoped wheM 
the governing body of the new College was 
finallv decided upon it would be found to include 
a large direct representation from the 
who had passed through their various training 
schools and had become " private prac- 
titioners." The nurses felt strongly on this 
point, and unpopularity and failure were likely 

to follow the College from its infancy if the 
governing body was too largely conifjosed of 
an autocratic ring of hospital matrons. Irish 
nurses need have no fear lest, if compelled to 
remain out of the scheme, they might be 
penalised and handicapped in the manner 
exjjerienced after the passing of the Act 
establishing the Central Midwives' Board in 
England. With that lesson before them it did 
not seem possible for the new College to obtain • 
statutory powers without Irish co-operation. 

The Chairman, in alluding to Miss Carr, the 
lady manager, said she was largelv responsible 
for the smooth and successful work of the 
institution during the past year. 

Irish nurses have always shown themselves 
possessed of a keen professional sense, and we 
learn that they are quite content to await events 
in connection with the College of Nursing. 
Nothing but State Registration is of any use, 
and they know it. Moreover, they want to know 
ivhat sort of registration the College is prepared 
to promote. A thorough system the Irish 
nurses would welcome — with a makeshift they 
will have nothing to do ; and with this point of 
view we are in entire sympathy. 

The report by Miss Goodrich in the Modern 
Hospital of the New Orleans Convention, at 
which 600 nurse delegates were present, makes 
one's mouth water. It appears to have been 
simply bristling with ideas. The Bureau of 
Legislation, under Miss Marv C. Wheeler, of 
Chicago, presented its revised list of schools of 
nursing accredited by State boards of nurse 
examiners, and also the list of registered nurses 
by States. This list showed the total number 
of registered nurses in the L'nited States, at 
the issuance of this pamphlet, to be 70,218. 
The first four Nurses' Registration Bills were 
passed in the United States in 1903. 

The evening devoted to Red Cross work was 
a notable one. Miss Delano reported that over 
600 nurses were serving on the State and local 
Red Cross Nursing Committees that had been 
organized in every section of the United States 
since affiliation of the -American Nurses' .Asso- 
ciation with the American Red Cross nearly 
seven years ago, and that the total enrolment 
of Red Cross nurses (thoroughlv trained) is now 

Let us hope after this war is at an end the 
British Red Cross Society w-ill put its house 
in order, in so far as trained nursing is con- 
cerned — we have urged it for years. We could 
equal the splendid record of the .American Red 
Cross without difficulty. 

July I , i<ji6 

^bc Srittsb 3ournnl of TRuremg. 


Pending negotiations between the representa- 
tives of the Central Comnittcc for the State 
Registration of Xurses and tlie representatives of 
the College of Xursing we think it better not to 
publish the draft Bill as it has already been 
considerably amended, as the delegates come 
nearer and nearer to agreement. 

At the meeting of the Central Committee held 
on June 22nd amendments approved by the 
delegates were accepted, and se\eral resolutions 
adopted for further negotiations, which we have 
reason to believe will prove acceptable to the 
College ad\asers. After one more conference the 
Central Committee will meet to receive a final 
report, after which the nursing world will be 
kept no longer in suspense. The Bill as agreed 
should then appear in print, so that its provisions 
may be made widely known. An agreed Bill 
means concessions on both sides, but those who 
have worked so loyally for State Registration for 
so many years may rest assured that the pro- 
visions of any Bill accepted by their Central 
Committee will provide for a wide measure of 
justice to the profession at large. Once accepted, 
we hope the members of the affiliated societies 
will work with devotion and singleness of purpose 
to have the Bill made law. 



Xo hospital in the world has a finer site than 
St. Thomas' Hospital, on the Embankment, with 
the stately river flowing under its terraces, the 
Houses of Parliament immediately opposite, 
Lambeth Palace with its picturesque buildings 
and historical associations as a near neighbour, 
and eastward the curve of the river with the 
dome of St. Paul's dominating the picture. 

It would not now be easy to find a better plan 
for a hospital than that designed in accordance 
with the \-ie\vs of the Lady of the I^mp, whose 
personality dominates the hospital: with its central 
corridor connecting all departments, its blocks 
of wards at right angles to this corridor, with 
wide spaces of turf between ; the dual advantage 
of this arrangement being that the wards get the 
maximum amount of sunshine and air, and 
further sho\ild an epidemic break out in any 
block it can be isolated irom the rest of the 

Just now a whole Territorial Hospital of 520 
beds is tucked away at St. Thomas' — a hospital 
within a hospital — and still there seems room 
and to spare. The Victoria Ward, one of the 
children's wards, and others in the hospital 
jiroper have been given up to form, part of this 
unit, but the main part consists of huts erected 
in the spaces between the wards ; wide, with a 
division up the middle, they accommodate 60 to 

80 patients. The prevailing note is green, and 
at the further end are balconies on to which the 
patients can be wheeled and enjoy the view and 
the ozone-laden breezes blowing off the river. 
It is interesting to see in the wards the beautiful 
needlework done by some of the wounded men — - 
regimental badges in colours, and other designs on 
canvas. Later on there is to be an exhibition of 
this. At the entrance to the huts are the kitchens, 
linen and other stores, ever>i:hing in fact that a 
well-found hospital can need. One of the wards 
in the hospital proper is used as an officers' ward. 
The Matron of the Territorial Hospital is Miss 
E. M. Vezey, who was trained and a Sister at 
St. Thomas' Hospital, afterwards going to the 
General Infirmary, Salisbury, as Matron. There 
are a certain proportion of voluntary aid workers 
in the wards, but no regular probationers, as work 
in the Territorial Hospital does not in the opinion 
of Miss Lloyd Still, the Matron of St. Thomas' 
Hospital, fit in with the scheme of training. 

One of the newer departments at St. Thomas' 
is the Maternity Department, vvliich is an approved 
training school for midwivcs ; and the sight of 
this spotless w-ard, with its long row of beds 
(with cots attached), under the vigilant care of a 
higUy-trained Sister, brings home to one the 
important part played by members of the nursing 
profession in the application of the principles of 
asepsis. It is only by a thorough grasp of these 
principles and their conscientious and daily 
application, that it is possible to nurse maternity 
patients together in one ward without disaster. 
It will be remembered how, years ago, hospital 
after hospital was forced to close its maternity 
wards because of the terrible mortality from 
puerperal fevers which attacked the patients. 

All that is altered now, because medicine and 
nursing, hand-in-hand, bar the door in the face of 
death, each impotent without the other, to hold 
the fort wliich held by both is impregnable. 

It is a time-honoured rule at St. Thomas' that 
every' ward sliall each year be emptied for a week, 
thus giving tin^e for a thorough cleaning, when 
every mattress is re-made and baked, and every- 
thing overhauled and made fresh and clean as a 
new pin before patients are again admitted. 

The Matron of the Hospital, Miss Lloyd Still, 
is keenly interested in nursing education. The 
course in the preliminary' training school, estab- 
lished during the term of office of her predecessor, 
extends over nine weeks ; for the first two months 
that the probationers work in the wards they have 
no classes on theory, then they pass under the 
care of the Sister Tutor — ^whose duties are entirely 
confined to those of a teacher. She instructs the 
probationers, gives them "grinds" on the 
lectures they receive — at wliich she is present — 
and she has a m.ost wonderful array of models to 
aid her in her work, including one of the entire 
human body in which all the organs, arteries, 
veins, nerves, muscles, &c., are beautifully shown. 
The appointm.cnt is not only an interesting but 
a well-paid one — as it should be. 

TLbc Brttisb 3ournal of Wurglna. 

July I, 1916 


Souttar's" Thermos " Saline Infusion Apparatus. 

.Air. H. S, Souttar, F.R.C.S., Eiig.. gives the 
following description in the Lancet of the above 
apparatus : — 

" This apparatus consists of a \'acuum flask, a 
syphon, a water gauge and a three-way tap. The 
^•acuu^l flask is the ordinary Tliermos pattern 
and liolds either one or two 
pints. The syphon has two 
limbs, one a rubber tube 
reaching to the bottom of 
the flask, the other of plated 
copper, reaching down outside 
to a point below the flask 
and terminating in the tap. 
Parallel with the syphon tube 
and connected with its lower 
end above the tap is a water 
gauge of glass tube, pro- 
tected by a metal guard. 
This gauge carries above a 
rubber ball used for filling 
the syphon. The flask stands 
upright in a small tray and 
may easily be detached. It 
is closed by a cap which may 
be removed for refilling with- 
out disturbing the syphon. 

" The method of use is as 
follows : The flask is filled 
with hot saline, the syphon, 
&c., being already attached. 
The tap is closed. The 
rubber ball is compressed, a 
small hole below it is closed 
by the finger and the ball is 
released. A rush of fluid 
follows round the syphon 
and up the gauge and the 
apparatus is ready for use. 

" The flask is hung by 
means of the chain from any 
convenient support above the 
patient's bed, and the needles 
for subcutaneous infusion or 
the rectal tube are connected 
by a rubber tube with a 
nozzle below the tap. The 
rate of flow is regulated by the 
tap and observed on the 
gauge. Should it be desired 
to discontinue the flow for a 
short time the tap is closed, 

and before restarting the syphon is emptied of its 
now cold contents by the side nozzle on the 
three-way tap. 

" The temperature at which the saline should 
be poured into the flask will, of course, depend 
upon the rate of flow, the length of tube exposed 
and the temperature of delivery required. It is 
found that if the saline in the flask is at 125 deg. F., 
the rate of flow one pint per hour, and one foot of 




rubber tube is exposed, the temperature of 
delivery is about 105 deg. F. in a room at 60 deg. F. 
At a rate of half a pint an hour, the initial tempera- 
ture should be 130 deg. F. These figures are only 
approximate, but are sufficiently accurate for all 
practical purposes. The temperature of the saline 
in the flask is almost constant, falling about 
I deg. F. per hour. If, then, the flow remains 
constant the temperature of delivery will be 
unaltered so long as the apparatus is not disturbed. 
" For subcutaneous infusion 
it is essential that the ap- 
paratus should be sterilised. 
This is readily accomplished 
by filling the flask with boiling 
water and running this out 
through the tubes in the 
ordinary' way. The needles 
should be separately boiled. 

" The great advantages of 
this apparatus are its extreme 
simplicity both in con- 
struction and action, its 
absolute reliability, and the 
fact that it can be readily 
sterilised. The flask being 
upright, there is no risk of 
leakage and no danger of 
breaking the glass lining by 
inserting a stopper. The 
whole apparatus can be in 
action witliin five minutes 
of the moment when it is 
requested and it requires no 
further attention. 

" A very remarkable feature 
is the enormous quantity of 
saline absorbed by this 
method. Owing to its con- 
stant high temperature it is 
taken up at once into the 
vessels, there is rarely any 
swelling of the legs or return 
by rectum, shock is success- 
fully combated, and renal 
excretion is increased! We 
constantly, at the London 
Hospital, give five pints 
subcutaneously by this 
method in as many hours, 
and occasionally twice that 
amount, with no result what- 
ever other than a very re- 
markable improvement in the 
patient 's condition. In critical 
cases we use temperatures 
higher than those mentioned with striking success. 
Any excess of fluid is at once given balanced by 
its rapid excretion — in marked contrast to the 
waterlogged subcutaneous tissues so often resulting 
in the older methods where the temperature of 
delivery too often was merely that of the atmo- 
sphere. The apparatus has been constructed to 
my design by Messrs. Allen & Hanburys, Ltd., of 
48, Wigmore Street, London, W." 

July I, igi6 

sibe Krittsb 3ournal of "Wursinfl. 


With rectal tube attached the apparatus is 
equally suitable for proctoclysis, as shown in our 


1. Remove cap, fill flask vnth saline at tempera- 
ture required (120 deg. to 130 deg. F. as a rule), 
replace cap ; close tap. 

2. Squeeze rubber ball, place finger over small 
hole just beneath ball, release ball. Saline rushes 
round syphon and is seen to rise in gauge. 

3. Hang it by the chain to any convenient 
support above patient ; connect needles or rectal 
tube with nozzle by means of rubber tube. 

4. Open tap, fill tubes and niake sure that the 
flow is free. 

5. Turn off tap, insert needles or rectal tube. 
Turn on tap and with it adjust rate of flow, 
observing quantity delivered on gauge. 

For subcutaneous infusion first sterilise the 
apparatus by filling as above (i and 2) with boiling 
water, and letting water run off by tubes. 

If it is desired to restart the flow after discon- 
tinuing for some time, first empty cold contents 
of syphon by side nozzle of tliree-way tap. 

The apparatus should be rinsed out with plain 
water before being put away. Otherwise corrosion 
from the salt may result. 

The tap should be oiled irom time to time. 


Dr. Eric Pritchard was the lecturer on Wednes- 
day, June 2ist, in the course on the fare of the 
School Child. His subject was " The Care of the 
Kose, Throat and Ear." He described the course 
of a common cold and its causes. In the Arctic 
regions, he said, which were germ-free, colds and 
infectious catarrh were unknown. He deplored 
the practice of some Council schools, when giving 
breathing exercises, for they compelled some 
children to breathe through the noje when from 
malformation it was almost an impossibility, thus 
aggravating the trouble they sought to ciu-e. 
Teachers should be taught to recognise this 


The Local Government Board liave asked the 
Metropolitan Asylums Board to undertake the 
control of children suffering from venereal disease. 
It is stated that the City Guardians have offered 
accommodation. Every help and care should be 
given to these innocent little victims. 


A lovely tinted print of Her Majesty (Jueen 
Alexandra as Princess of Wales at the time of 
her marriage — in a tulle ball gown and veil — 
a lifelike portrait with iacsimile autograph in gilt 
frame. Published March 31st, 1863, by Paul & 
Dominic Calnaghi Scott & Co., Publishers to Her 
Majesty, 13 and 14 Pall Mall, London. J. A. 
Vinter, lithographer ; Day & Son, lithographers 
to the Queen. Price, £3 5s. Write G. M., 
Box 63, British Journal or Nursing, 431, 
Oxford Street, London, W. 


'I'lie greatest tragetlv of the war is not seen upon 
the battlefield. 

" Pray that your flight be not in the winter.'' 
The familiar words have new force as we read the 
story of the " Bejentze," the graphic Russian 
word for the refugees— the people wlio run. 

The story of the flight of " five and a half 
million dazed and terrified people who fled away 
from their homes in the summer and autumn of 
1915 before the great German advance into 
Russia " is fascinatingly^ told by Miss Violetta 
Thurstan in her newest book.* It is of special 
interest to nurses, who regard the author's talent 
as belonging not to herself alone, but to the 
great profession of nursing, of wliich she is a 
distinguished member. 

" Pity," says Miss Thurstan, " is one of the 
most marked in most beautiful characteristics of 
the Russian people. So the whole generous heart 
of the people went out to these fugitives in their 
terrible distress during the great retreat into the 
interior. The sympathy and compassion were 
there ; alas, that there was no organisation ready 
also to cope with the awful need ! 

It is sad to read of the inertia from which so 
many refugees suffer and which has now been 
recognised as a definite medical lesion brought 
on by their privations and to be distinguished 
from slacking and shamming. 

" No one who does not know Russia can imagine 
the immensity of the great empty distances, the 
absence of roads and railways, and the difficulty 
of transport even in times of peace, much less 
can they fathom the de])th of misery that tnis 
hurried flight entailed on the people who run. . . . 
The English language lacks words to express the 
suffering that these people underwent, and nothing 
that we can imagine could be worse than the 

It is hard to pass over the description of the 
night journey through Sweden and on to Petro- 
grad, but our main concern is with " the people 
who run." " Many," we are told, " are the 
stories of the wonderful trek, and they all had a 
grim fascination about them. No one can be 
blamed for the lack of organization. The Russian 
retreat will live in history as one of the finest 
and most heroic ever effected, but at what terrible 
cost, both for soldiers and civilians ! " 

Some of the refugees travelled on cattle trucks, 
and the scenes " almost defy human imagination. 
Lunatic asylums in the line of advance had to be 
emptied of their unfortunate occupants, isolation 
hospitals contributed their quota of cholera, 
typhus and almost every other known disease to 
the outside world. The trucks were, you would 
have said, as full as they could hold with these, 
and yet at every little station there was a crowd 

* " The People Who Run." By Violetta 
Thurstan. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 24, Bedford 
Street, Strand, London, W.C. 2s. 6d. 


Zbc Kritisb 3ournal of Tlurgine. 

July I, 1916 

of fugitives waiting to be taken off, and they 
sqneezed and pushed their way in, with their 
bundles and their babies, and found room some- 
how amongst the rest. . . . 

" Tlie number of babies lost and abandoned in 
the retreat is an appalling one. There are now 
at the front Flying Automobile Columns whose 
chief work is to go round and pick up these poor 
babes in the wood. Countess Tolstoi was in 
charge of this department and her column alone 
has picked up more than four hundred babies. . . . 
In Petrograd a little Preeoot (institution) for fifty 
babies is just being opened by the Tatiana Com- 
mittee. These are all tiny bottle-fed infants 
who have been picked up at the front. There is 
much room for more organisation here, and trained 
workers are badly needed in this direction." 

Christmas Day at Gatchina, when Miss Thurstan 
and others found their way there armed with 
presents for some children living m a large barak, 
is interestingly des- 
cribed ; but, alas ! for 
the " feather-weights of 
wasted frames, the thin, 
white faces and hollow 
eyes, speaking of insufti- 
cient nourishment and 
bad air. . . ." Here 
came two little tots 
hand - in - hand, un- 
mistakably brother and 
sister, with sore eyes. 
the eyelashes so glued 
together that they could 
hardly see to take their 
present. Children with 
swollen glands, children 
with an evil-smelling 
discharge from the ears, 
a little girl with a bad 
whitlow that wanted 
opening, a boy with 
severe ringworm, 
nearly every child with 
sores somewhere, little 
bo^-s whose white 

faces and puffy eyelids spoke unmistakably of 
kidney trouble, children with de\'astating coughs 
that almost shook them to pieces." A tragic 
procession indeed when seen with the eyes of the 
trained nurse accustomed to note and appraise the 
meaning of these outward and visible signs. 

Ill-health, starvation, and death are not the 
worst tragedies, lumbers of refugee girls have 
been ruined not only by strange men with whom 
they pick up acquaintance in the street, but also 
largely in the huge baraks and lodgings, where the 
vicious and the virtuous alike rub shoulders. 
The Tatiana Committee, which has branches of 
its organisation in most of the large Russian towns, 
and which derives its name from the Grand 
Duchess Tatiana, the second of the Emperor's 
daughters, besides its special function of the 
general registration and housing of the refugees 
and maintaining a large Inquiry Bureau for 

bringing together those who are lost and separated, 
is also doing admirable preventive work in caring 
for girls by taking them into a home and saving 
them from a life on the streets. 

Another interesting effort of the Tatiana Com- 
mittee is the maternity hospital established near 
the Warsaw station for the refugees, the doctor, 
Matron, and nursing staff of which have been sent 
out and financed by the National Union of 
Women's Suffrage Societies in England. It is 
" a plain little wooden structure, with fittiiigs 
and appurtenances of the simplest possible 
character, but it must be a revelation of cleanliness, 
light and purity to those women who come there 
out of the dark, noisome barak to gi\'e birth to 
their child." 

In Moscow, " the great junction of the Pilgrim 
Way," every race, nationality, and religion. 
Miss Thurstan tells tis, are represented. They 
" poured in like a submerging tidal wave by road 


and by rail and camped by the thousand in the 
railway station, and it was only by immediate 
organization that these people were saved from 
literally dying of starvation." 

At Kiev the refugee system is considered the 
best organized in Russia. Kiev is the Gate of the 
West. It is, as Miss Thurstan says, "one of the 
most beautifully situated cities in Europe. We 
saw it at its very best, coming into it, as we did, 
in the sunset on a golden afternoon. Everything 
was suffused with the golden flush of evening. 
The sky was the soft yellow of daffodil-petals, 
except in the east, where it was tinted with the 
clear, cool green of their stalks ; the river was the 
deeper glow of their centres, and the minarets all 
over the city looked like pinnacles of molten gold." 

When the first torrent of the eastward-bound 
fugitives poured in, it seemed hopeless to know 
what to do with them ; especially with those from 


ZEbe Brltieb 3ournal of "KurstnQ. 

Galicia, who brought with them cholera, t\-phus, 
and dysentery. In one day as many as fort\- dead 
bodies of people who had died of cholera were 
removed from one of the refugee trains. However, 
a thoroughly efficient hospital s\-stem for the 
refugees was organized and Kiev saved from an 
epidemic. In the hospital for refugee children 
the walls, cots, furniture, sisters' dresses are all 
white ; even the stray ^^sito^ is not allowed to 
pass into this ^^^lite City without first donning a 
white overall. 

Kazan, on the Volga, a place in the far 
interior of Russia where the refugees are sent, 
has a Students' Sanitan,- Association, which is 
doing a wonderful work. When the first rush 
of refugees came to Kasan volunteers were asked 
for to help in the feeding and distributing of them. 
Some of the students offered help thinking it would 
be temporary ; but the work gripped, and they 
formed themselves into a Sanitary Association, 
have had some of the worst baraks condemned, 
and founded a refugee colony on the banks of 
the Volga. The students, dressed in sheep skins 
and valenkies like the peasants, live with the 
refugees sharing their food. Miss Thurstan, on 
her \'isit shared their simple supper of butteries s 
bread and milkless tea, and writes : " I have never 
enjoyed a meal more. Their infectious, bubbling- 

over cheerfulness made us all very frivolous 

It was all hours of the night before we finally tore 
ourselves away from this truly inspiring place and 
got packed into our sleighs again." M. B. 


Una, the journal of the Royal \'ictorian Trained 
Xvffses Association, quotes the following lines 
written bj* Mr. Oliver Herford, an American : — 
Sink E\"ervthing. 
To his dark minions undersea 
Flashed the Imperial decree : 

Sink everything ! 
Spare naught ! Sink ever\'thjr.g that floats ! 
^lerchantmen, liners, fishing boats ; 
Sink ships on Mercy's errand sped. 
Dj-e Christ's red cross a deeper red : 

Sink Everything ! 
Sink honour, faith, forbearance, ruth ; 
Sink virtue, chivaJrj-, and truth — 

Sink Everything ! 
Sink ever\-thing that men hold dear. 
That de\ils hate, that cowards fear. 
Ml that lifts Man above the ape. 
That marks him cast in God's own shape : 
Sink Everything '. 


Spectator (who is obser\'ing an old Irish 
woman industriously hacking down timber on 
private property-) — 

" \\'Tiy, Biddy, what are you doing ? ^^^^at tmll 
the Colonel say when he comes home again ? " 

Biddy- — " "WTxy shure, yer honour, we're living 
under martial law now, and may all do exactly 
as we plaze." 



It is a bold venture to set out to enlist sympathy 
for a German, but that is what Mrs. Belloc Lowndes 
attempts, and it rests with the indi\'idual reader 
to say if she has succeeded. 

This chronicle is written with impartiality, 
and we are able to congratulate the author that 
she has been able to clear away natural prejudice, 
and present the character of the Herr Doktor, 
as an instance of the " shining of a good deed in 
a naughty world." The taking possession of the 
charming little town of %'aloise-sur-Mame in 
August, 1914, forms the subject of the opening 
chapter of this book. 

The Herr Doktor, a Weimar surgeon, was in 
charge of the wounded Prince Egon von Witgcn- 
stein, and was in search of a hospital in which to 
place his illustrious young charge. 

" There is no hospital in Valoise," Madame 
Blanc, the landlady of the inn, told him, and her 
voice was very, verj- cold, and then, as if the 
words were dragged from her reluctant lips, 
" But M. le Medecin will find a Red Cross barge 
on the river." 

" Yes, they had arrived only two hours ago, 
and j-et already Madame Blanc hated the arrogant 
Uhlan officers with all the strength of her powerful, 
secretive nature." 

He made his way to the stone jettj' and on the 
broad waters of the river lay the white barge. 

" On the deck stood a woman. She wore the 
loose, unbecoming, white overall which forms the 
only uniform of a French Red Cross nurse and 
there was a red cross on her breast. From where 
he stood the German surgeon could see she was 
young, straight and lithe. The gleams of the 
sun, which was now resting like a scarlet ball on 
the horizon, lit up her fair hair, which was massed 
in the French way above her forehead. 

With a queer thrill at his heart the Herr Doktor 
told himself that so might Wagner have \-isioned 
his Elsa in war rime. Since the Herr Doktor 
had left Weimar he had not seen so awakening- 
to-the-better-feelings and pleasant-to-the-senses- 
of-men sight as was this French golden-haired 
girl." From tliat moment he was her secret 
devoted slave, but the proud young French- 
woman kept the hated foe at his distance. It 
was he, of course, who now took the direction of 
the barge, and he listened to her low, harmonious 
voice explaining the various cases of the poor 
human wrecks for whom she felt such pitiful 
concern. Glad indeed was the Herr Doktor 
to know there were certain things which he could 
do to ease that last, losing confUct with death now 
being waged by two of the Frenchmen lying there 
before him. 

He had before come in contact with French Red 
Cross nurses. In the hastily improvised Feld 

* By Mrs. Belloc Lowndes. Smith, Elder & Co. 


^be JSritish 3ournal of IRiirsing. 

July I, ir)i( 

I.azaret there had also been three linglish nurses ; 
them lie had naturally disliked, the more so that 
they had a short, sharp way with them, and 
always seemed to disapprove of his methods — 
methods which being German, were of course, 
niore truly scientific than anything likely to issue 
from the English Army Medical Service. The 
German Doktor worked side by side on the barge 
with the Frenchwoman, with glowing love on his 
part, and gentle aloofness on hers. -It was when 
the Prussians retreated from Paris and again 
^•isited and sacked the village of Valoise that she 
understood. It was the old parish priest who 
conferred with the Herr Doktor as to the best 
means of placing the Mademoiselle in safety, 
" Is it possible you do not know," said the old man, 
" how the Prussians have been behaving since they 
began to retreat r " 

The German surgeon stared. " I have nothing 
heard," he Exclaimed. It was during the awful 
terrors of the days that followed, when Jeanne 
Rowmannes was forbidden to leave the village 
and compelled to minister to the German wounded, 
tliat the Herr Doktor was struck by a shell. 

They carried him to the Red Cross Barge, 
and Jeanne Rowmannes tended him — and under- 
stood. In his dying moments there came the 
news that the French were once more in possession 
of the village. The Herr Doktor went on staring 
sightlessly before him. He was busily talking, 
talking argumentatively in, hoarse, broken whispers 
to himself and his fingers picked at the brown 

Suddenly there floated in the sound of men's 
voices singing, " Allons enfants de la Patiie." 

There came a gleam across the dying face. 
" Das ist schon," he whispered. 

" Le jour de gloire est arrive." 

The Herr Doktor murmured, " Das geniigt mir." 

Jeanne got up from her knees and made the 
sign of the Cross on his damp forehead. 

We hope this story will be read as widely as it 
deserves, for surely it is good for us to believe 
that amidst all the horrifying records of the war, 
there can and must exist among our enemies the 
leavening, purifying force of simple and good lives 

H. H. 



July 1st. — League of St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital Nurses. General Meeting. Clinical Theatre, 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, E.C. 2.30 p.m. 
Social Gathering in the Great Hall. 4 p.m. 

July loih. — Women's Local Government Society. 
Conference of Representatives of Affiliated Asso- 
ciations on the Recommendations of the Royal 
Commission on Venereal Diseases, 88, Lancaster 
Gate. 3 p.m. 


Do not grudge to pick out treasures from an 
earthen pot. 

George Herbert. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects Jor these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 


To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — May I draw the attention of 
your readers to an extremely important question 
in regard to the registration of nurses, and which 
was not discussed at the meeting of the Con- 
sultative Board of the College of Nursing at 
St. Thomas' Hospital on June 15th. 

I refer to the necessity of a liberal system of 
reciprocity in training, particularly in regard to 
the great special hospitals, which are amongst 
the most useful and important in the country, 
and the nurses of which would be seriously 
injured if such a system of reciprocitv' is not 
embodied in the general scheme. 

I refer particularly to such hospitals as : — The 
Nervous Hospitals, the Chest Hospitals, the 
Children's Hospitals, the Hospitals for Women, 
the Eye Hospitals, the Ear, Nose and Throat 
Hospitals, the Fever Hospitals, the Cancer 
Hospitals, the Skin Hospitals. 

My suggestion would be that an additional 
clause (/) be added to Section 3 of the rules of 
the College {i.e. the section dealing with the 
qualifications of applicants), to read somewhat 
as follows : — 

" One year's training at an approved special 
hospital may count as part of the tteee years' 
training referred to in Clause (c), provided that 
the remaining two years shall be spent in a recog- 
nised Nurse-training School." 

Apart from the question of injustice to the 
nurses now training at these special hospitals, the 
hospitals themselves in the absence of some such 
reciprocity scheme would find it difficult,, if not 
impossible, to secure suitable nurses, which would 
be little short of a calamitv. 

Hoping you will pardon my drawing your 
attention to this matter. 

Believe me, yours faithfuUv, 

K. Murray Leslie. 
152, Harley Street, W. 

[In the Nurses' Registration Bill, drafted by 
the Central Committee for the State Registra- 
tion of Nurses, reciprocal training is possible 
under Clause 10, sub-section (c), and also under 
Clause 12. In the Bill drafted by the College of 
Nursing, in Clause 4, sub-section iii, power is 
taken to regulate the " course of training and the 
examination of nurses intending to be registered," 
so that power is taken to define various curricula, 
otherwise " a liberal system of reciprocity," a 
policy we have always stronj;ly advocated. — Ed.] 

Jlltv I , I q 1 1 

^be Brttieb 3ournal of "HureinQ. 



To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 
Dear ^L\dam, — I was one of the few " mere 
nurses" present at the Meeting of the Consultative 
Board of the College of Nursing at St. Thomas' 
Hospital, on June 15th. I have been a registration 
worker for upwards of 20 years, and I own I liad to 
rub my eyes to realise that it was not a dream, that 
our cause was at last being advocated in the 
Great Hall of my Alma Mater. Praise be, 
as we say in Ireland. But from first to last only 
one lady spoke ; she asked a question ; men 
entirely took the helm — and mostly laymen. 
I was glad, however, to hear Mr. Stanley say 
that the registered nurses were going to have a 
look in about their own affairs by and by. Let us 
hope everything will not be cut and dried before 
that auspicious moment. I'ersonally 1 see no use 
in a Consultative Board, and always wonder why 
it is necessary to consult people whose advice one 
is not compelled to follow. With gratitude for 
your untiring labour on our behalf these many 

I remain, 

A "Nightingale." 


To the Editor of The British Jolrx.\l ok Nursing. 
Dear M.^dam, — As one who has taken a great 
interest in the Nursing Profession for a number of 
years, I must acknowledge that I am not con- 
vinced that the College of Nursing is a step in the 
right direction. 1 should like to know a few facts. 
Let us assume that the scheme was Mr. Stanley's. 
Who were his advisers ? If they were trained 
nurses, surely common decency would have 
suggested that the scheme sho.uld be delayed 
until their colleagues who are serving their King 
and coimtry had returned home, and used their 
valuable experience in an advisory manner. 
Do loyalty and self-denial disfranchise in the 
nursing profession ? There has been too much 
of the hole and corner about the planning of the 
scheme to satisfy my humble requirements. The 
matter has not been adequately discussed. A 
favoured few possess the rights, the rank and file 
the duties. I have read the account of the meeting 
at St. Thomas' Hospital on 15th ult., and my 
considered opinion is that chaos reigns supreme. 
Difficulties are already cropping up concerning 
the registers of mental, fever and nurses for sick 
children. The village nurse question arose and 
Mr. Stanley acknowledged that this question 
would tax ail the mental efforts 1 if the Consultative 
Board and the Council. Wliat does all this mean ? 
Clearly that an oligarchy has assumed knowledge 
and powers which it does not possess. There has 
been no free discussion, and no healthy exchange 
of opinions. You might think the examination 
question was settled ? Mr. Stanley has not the 
faintest notion how this question will be 
settled ! I should like to know what the status 
of the V.A.D.s will be, very excellent ladies doing 

very excellent work when under the supervision 
of trained nurses, but untrained. 

My advice to Matrons and Sisters is this : 
At once explain to all the nurses under your 
charge the meaning and poiacr of the postal vote, • 
and so let them take full advantage of it. 

Bedford. S. J. Ross. 


To the Editor oj Thk liRirisn Jf)URXAL of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — Though I am not a nurse I have 
for many years been interested in the question of 
registration for nurses, so I may, perhaps, be 
allowed to consider myself one of the " registra- 
tionists " alluded to by you in your note on V.A.D.s 
letter I venture therefore to thank you heartily 
for the amusement you liave given us by publishing 
such a deliciously absurd communication But 
having enjoyed our laugh to the full I should like 
now to strike a more serious note. The letter 
contains a warning which all nurses, regulars aiid 
V.-'V.D.s would do well to ponder. It is a startling 
instance of the depths to which people can sink 
who put conceit and egotism before duty and 
discipline. There are, we know, many trained 
nurses doing good and useful work all over the 
country, I might say ail over the world, whose 
grammar is not above reproach, but there is. a 
vulgarity' of mind and heart tliat degrades those 
who suffer from it far more than any ignorance of 
grammar or etiquette could do 
I remain, 

Yours truly, 

Ventnor. A Hospital Dispenser. 

[We regret we are unable to publish further 
correspondence on this subject. — Ed.] 


July Sth. — Describe briefly the object and effects 
of vaccination. Describe the method of intro- 
ducing the lymph and the stages of development 
in a successful vaccination. 

Julv i5'/i. — What diseases may flies convey ? 
What would you suggest to prevent the presence 
of flies in hospital wards containing cases of 
infectious disease ? 

July 22nd. — If it is decided under medical 
advice that an infant sfiall be weaned, what 
special points would you observe in the care of 
the mother and cliild ? 

July zglh. — Wliat methods have you seen 
employed for the treatment ol infected wounds, 
and with what results ? 


The Seirilary of the War Office states that 
nurses holding certificates for three years' general 
training who are desirous of being employed in 
milit;u-v hospitals should applv in writing without 
delay to the Matron-in Cliicf,' Q.A.I.M.N.S., War 
Office, lor conditions of sci \ k r. 


Zbe Britisb 3ournal of flui-£?ing Supplement. /»/> i, 1916 

The Midw^ife. 



Monday, June 26th. 

The post graduate week at the York Road L\'ing-in 
Hospital, Lambeth, S.E., is an eventwhichis eagerly- 
looked forward to by the midwives who are 
fortunate enough to be able to attend it. This 
year the opening day celebrated the return to 
duty of its inspiring leader. Sister Olive, after an 
absence of three months, owing to illness. 

The garden was charmingly laid out with gay 
plants in honour of her return, but owing to the 
unsettled nature of the weather it was not thought 
wise to follow the usual custom of an alfresco tea ; 
it was ser\'ed instead in the entrance hall. 

Here the guests, who included many old 
pupils, were made welcome by the Matron, Miss 
E. Watkins, and by Sister Olive, with her enviable 
secret of making each visitor the " one and only." 
It was pleasant to see the afiection and pleasure 
of former pupils which this return to their old 
training school evoked. 

After tea, which was delightful from every 
point of \'iew, the visitors were sho\\^l round the 
wards, and were allowed to admire the babies 
to their hearts' content. They were all of course 
en fete, one ward sporting large pink bows on the 
cots, another blue. There was a proud mother 
of twin boys, who certainly should receive the 
King's Bounty this year. "There was a naughtv 
baby who was stubbornly refusing his tea, and a 
little premature baby by the fire wearing its 
little wadded hood ; and all sorts of other inter- 
esting and charming infants. 

The first lecture was delivered by Sister Olive 
on the management of simple breech presen- 
tations. She said that to a skilled midwife these 
cases should be no more difficult than vertex 
presentations. One of the conditions which 
favoured this presentation was not alluded to in 
most text books, i.e., the immaturity of the child. 
From statistics it had been shown that 41 per 
cent of these children weighed under 7 lb. She 
did not think much of the midwife who could 
not diagnose this presentation by abdominal 
palpation In vaginal examination one of her 
axioms was " Never say it is a breech unless you 
have been able to put your finger into the anus." 
She considered a nxidwife \-erv foolish who could 
mistake the anus for the mouth. 

At York Road these patients were delivered 
in the lithotomy position. In delivering a breech 
one was always tempted to give a little help, 
but she strongly advised her hearers to exercise 
a masteirly inactivity until the child was born 
as far as the umbilicus. She said that she had 
great faith in strong fundal pressure, and believed 

that in a large number of cases no other assistance 
was needed. 

She warned midwives against traction on the 
jaw, and said that although no evidence of injury 
might be apparent at the time, it was often 
evident at the time of dentition. Infants with 
white asphyxia, if no breath had been drawn, 
should be treated by mouth to mouth insififiation 
and Sylvester's method of artificial respiration. 
Tuesday, June 27TH. 

On Tuesday, June 27th, a clinical lecture was 
given by the house physician. The cliart, wliich 
is a model of its kind, was used for the purpose, 
being a n;ost comprehensi\-e history of the mother 
and babe. On it are recorded : The involution 
stages of the uterus, temperature, pulse and 
respiration ; the lochia, its importance as an 
indication of sepsis being mentioned ; urine and 
bowels, the colostrum, or first milk. A great 
point was made by the lecturer of the presence of 
albumen in the urine and its dangers, it being 
closely associated with ec'ampsia ; its cause was 
explained and treatment defined. 

.\ case of face presentation was shown and 
described by demonstration with a pelvis and 
dummy foetus. To a primipara, where post 
partum hemorrhage had occurred, a rectal saline 
had been administered. The clinical lecture ter- 
minated by a description of an induced labom: case. 

It is hardly necessary to add that all the cases 
were doing well. This was followed by a most 
interesting demonstration of museum specimens 
in the Lecture Hall, conducted by Sister Olive, 
who is an admirable lecturer. In showing the 
uterus of a female infant, she stated that thou- 
sands of ova are present in the ovaries at birth ; 
thus does Nature provide for the coming genera- 
tions. Uteri of various sizes, healthy and un- 
healthy, were shown and described. A very fine 
wax model of a gravid uterus, showing the main 
blood vessels, was also well described in detail. 

Cn Tuesday afternoon the members of the 
class divided into three sections, one visited 
Queen Charlotte's Hospital, Marylebone Road, 
N.W., ope the Clapham j\Iatcrnit\- Hospital, and 
the other the Jewish Maternity Hospital. 

At Queen Charlotte's Hospital there was a 
fascinating array of new babies. Interest centred 
in the new home for district midwives at 13 and 
14, Harcourt Street adjoining the hospital, which 
has been opened since the Post Graduate Class 
paid its visit last year, and which the Matron, 
Jliss Alice Blorafield, showed her visitors with 
some pride. The sitting room of the Sister-in- 
Charge is charmingly coloured a soft tone of 
brown — a most effective background for the bright 
note introduced in chair covers and flowers. 
The pupils have a most comfortable sitting room 

y.</.v .. .9.6 ttbc «rtn0b 3ournal oi fluretno Supplement. 


and separate bedrooms, and a bath room willi 
plenty of hot water. Tlircc resident niidwives 
and five pupils live in this home. The class then 
proceeded to the Preliminary Training Home, 
where tea was kindly provided and much appre- 
ciated. Sister" Allen presided at the tea tabic. _ 

The Preliminary Home lias thoroughly justified 
its existence, and it is the proud record of the 
hospital that out of 119 candidates presented in 
the past vear at the examination of the Central 
Midwives Board only 4 faikxl. The failures were 
thus 3 per cent, as compared with a percentage of 
19.5 for the entire countiy. 

1 • I 


The annual meeting~of tlu' (lapham Maternity 
Hospital was held on June ^3rd, Mrs. Fawcett 
presiding. The medical women, wearing their 
degree hoods and gowns, made a noticeable group 
among the speakers. First among them was, of 
course, Dr. Annie McCall, also Dr. Sturge, Dr. 
Janet] TurnbuU, Dr. Catherine Ironside, Dr. 
Grainger Evans, and others. Miss Ritchie, Hcij- 
Secretary, and Miss Alice Gregory. 

Mrs. Fawcett likened the hospital to a lifeboat, 
and said that it stood for first-class attendance. 
There had been twenty new babies born there in 
the last three days. Though she had not a word 
to say against men, this work was essentially 
woman's work, and should command all the 
reverence and tenderness of which they were 

Miss Alice Gregory spoke of the preventive side 
of ante-natal care, which she said was sometimes 
considered dull, as one could not be sure of results. 

Dr. McCall and Miss Ritchie had carried on as 
usual in spite of the war. The enormous- food 
prices seem to encourage rather than depress them. 

Dr. Catherine Ironside, who had just returned 
from Russia, whither she had escorted some 
refugees from Persia, gave some interesting inci- 
dents of her work in Persia. 

Dr. Annie McCidl said she believed in earning 
as you go along, and the earning side of the 
hospital was of great importance. Hut for all 
that, it had alwaj-s to take the second place ; the 
patients were always the first consideration. 
This sometimes was hard for the student nurse 
and doctor, but the best was always for the patient. 

She asked that visitors would refrain from 
going into the wards, as there were so many new 
mothers. The glimpses they were allowed revealed 
cheerful, airy rooms, and the management are 
greatly to be congratulated on their fine new 

The visitors were entertained to tea, and were' 
well looked after by the genial Matron, Miss Ellen 
Chippindale, and her staff. 


Mrs. Scharlieb gave the first lecture of her 
course of three on Venereal Disease at No. i, 
Wimpole Street, W., on Wednesday evening, 
June 2 1 St. 

The cliair was taken by Lady Sydenham, who 
gave an introductory address on Infant Mortality 
and some of its causes. Mrs. Scharlieb gave some 
interesting statistics of the wastage of infant life. 
Many infants, she said, wore born dying ! A 
number of slides relating to heredity, and illustra- 
ing the ravages of the Spirocha;te pallida were 
thrown on the screen. This last had been 
described (said the lecturer) by Sir William Osier 
as the worm which never dies. 


The first of the clinical lectures organised by the 
I-ondon County Council, was given by Dr. Potter, 
at the Kensington Infirmary, on Wednesday, June 
2ist, at 5 p.m., when a number of interested mid- 
wives availed themselves of the opportunity 
offered them. The Icctftrer emphasized the im- 
portance of sanitation, which, he reminded his 
class, was one of the subjects included in the 
curriculum of the Central Midwives Board. 
Because of strict attention to this essential matter, 
puerperal fever has decreased enormously in 
lying-in hospitals within the last thirty years, 
whereas, in private work it has remained sta- 
tionary. Midwives in private practice were 
recommended to visit the home of the expectant 
mother and make enquiries about sanitation. 
Puerperal fever could be conveyed tlirough the 
air, therefore pure fresh air was essential. The 
windows of the maternity >vards at the Infirmary 
were kept open day and night in all weathers. A 
great point also was made of the necessity of 
keeping up the resisting power of the patient 
which was such a* strong force against disease 
attacks. The mattresses and pillows supplied in 
the maternity wards of the Kensington Inliimary 
are of the most hygienic description — plus sim- 
plicity — namely, fragrant pine shavings enclosed 
in the ordinary bedding material. The pine 
shavings arc burnt on the discharge of each 
patient and the material washed. Condy's Fluid 
is largely used because of the oxygen it contains. 
From general remarks, the lecturer proceeded to 
show and explain certain interesting cases. One 
woman was admitted with pufliness of the face and 
extremities ; upon examination of the urine, it was 
found to contain albumen to the extent of one- 
third. She was a primipara. There had been no 
fits, but her history disclosed the fact that she had 
had neplu-itis some years ago. Free purges and 
iron was the treatment. Another was the case of 
a young woman who when admitted was " blue in 
the face " owing to a bad condition of heart which 
pregnancy had aggravated. The child was in the 
dorso-posterior position. She was quickly ile- 
livered and was doing well. Dr. Potter explained 
the various souixcs of danger to the child in bretch 
presentations. A case of phlegmasia dolens and 
another of puerperal septicsemia — both doing 
well — ^brought the interesting lecture to a close. 
The staff of the maternity wards loave separate 
quarters and live quite apart from tlie Infirmary 

Zbc British 3ournal of 'Hursino Supplement, /n/v t, .916 


Friday, Junmc i6th. 

On Friday, June i6th, two cases were heard 
and considered with tlie following results : — 

Stnick off the i?oH.— Harriet C. Clarke (No. 5592)- 

Judgment Suspended. — Elizabeth Seed (No. 

The charges against Midwife Clarke included 
those of not explaining in the case of serious 
rupture of the perinaeum and the subsequent 
serious illness of the patient that medical assistance 
must be sought. 

The midwife appeared in person to answer the 
charges. The Inspector of Midwives and the 
Acting M.O.H. were also present. 

The midwife, who appeared somewhat confused 
in her statements, denied the accusation that the 
patient had asked for a doctor, but on the contrary, 
said that she had advised one beii\g sent for, but 
the woman said she liad no money. 

A declaration was read from Dr. Ross, who 
stated that when he saw the patient on the eighth 
day she was suffering from a perineal wound inches 
long, which was gangrenous, the temperature 
being 104 deg. 

Judgment was given as above. 

Midwife Seed was defended by her solicitor, and 
brought three witnesses .from Lancashire. 

The Inspector and Acting M.O.H. were also 
present. The hearing occupied three hours. 

The charges were negligence in respect of six 
different patients, three of which could not be 

The charges that were proceeded with were, in 
each instance, of neglect to explain that the 
attendance of a medical man was necessary in 
cases of serious rupture of the perinaeum. The 
point was that the Inspector having had informa- 
tion to the effect that there were many ruptured 
perinaeums in Midwife Seed's practice, had herself 
inspected some of the patients, in one case sixteen 
months after the confinement, and one on the day 
of delivery. In three cases she found laceration 
and in none, she alleged, was medical aid sought. 

In the case she inspected on the day of delivery 
she herself communicated with the doctor. 

The midwife's defence was that she did not 
consider the tears anything but slight, and in one 
case was not aware that a tear existed. She further 
said that she had suggested a doctor for Mrs. 

Mrs. Holehouse, who was present, and stated 
she was a mill hand, supported this statement in 
a broad Lancashire accent. 

The midwife said that if the patient objected to 
paying, she herself could not afford to do so. 

it would obviously be a better course for the 
legal representative of a midwife not to attempt 
to discuss the seriousness of a condition such as 
a tear with a Medical Board such as the 
Central Midwives Board, as not only is time 
wasted, bvit it is also somewhat absurd. 


An Order in Council publiichcd in the London 
Gazelle of June 27th approves for a period of live 
years from July 1st the Revised General Rules 
submitted by the Central Midwives Board in 
accordance with the provisions of section 3 of 
the Midwives Act, 1902. 


The annual meeting of the Council for the Pro- 
motion of the Higher Training of Midwives was 
held at the Mansion Hcjiise on June 27th, the Lord 
Mayor presiding. 

The speakers included Lord Balfour of Bur- 
leigh, P.C, K.T., Lady Betty Balfour, Sir 
Dyce Duckworth, M.D., and Barbara 

The Lord Mayor and Lord Balfour both laid 
stress on the necessity of preserving infant life, 
especially at tliis time when the war was taking 
such a heavy toll of the population. 

Lord Balfour emphasised the necessity of 
efficient training of the midwife. Amateurs, he 
said, were of no use ; education was of no value 
without the necessary technical knowledge. 

Lady Betty Balfour said that the nation ought 
not to be content till skilled aid and treatment were 
within the reach of every mother. It was stated 
that the site for a new maternity home at. Wool- 
wich had been secured, but the necessary funds 
were not available. The population of Woolwich 
had enormously increased owing to the influx of 
munition workers. A collection was taken in 
support of this object. 


It was decided at a meeting held in Edinburgh 
last week, at which Dr. Laura Stewart Sandeman 
presided, to form a Scottish Midwives Association, 
and steps were taken' to make the initial arrange- 
ments on a resolution moved by- Lady Balfour of 
Burleigh, and seconded by Miss Cairrs, Glasgow. 
Miss Lucy Robinson, Vice-Chairman of the 
Association for Promoting the Training ami Supply 
of Midwives, London, addressed the meeting, 
which was attended by midwives from Edinburgh, 
Glasgow, Dundee, Aberdeen, and elsewhere, and 
urged the advantages of union and co-operation. 


The President and Fellows of the Royal College 
of Physicians of Ireland have unanimously adopted 
a resolution urging on the Government the pressing 
necessity which exists for passing a Midwives 
Bill for Ireland, and have empowered ' their 
Parliamentary Committee to take such steps as 
may be necessary to promote the desired legislation 
which is urged on the ground that it is necessary 
to protect lying-in women, control infant mortality, 
and enable Irish trained midwives to take their 
proper place in the ranks of the Registered 
midwives of the United Kingdom. 





NO. 1.475 

SATURDAY. JULY 8, 1916. 



The nation as a whole is alive to the 
need of caring for the health of the Navy 
and Army on active service, both along the 
lines of prevention by attending to sanitary 
and hygienic conditions, and by hospital 
treatment f6r the sick and wounded. Of 
equal importance is the health of those 
at home whose skilled work provides the 
munitions of war for our Armies in the field, 
without which they would be impotent in 
the face of the enemy. 

The White Papers, lo in number, issued 
by the Health of Munition Workers Com- 
mittee are therefore of great importance, 
more especiallv those dealing with indus- 
trial fatigue, industrial diseases, and sickness 
and injurv, including those of the lungs, 
heart, digestive organs, and the nervous 
and muscular systems, affecting efficiency, 
health, and expectation of life. Of all 
■the causes predisposing to disease, fatigue 
must probabiv be put in the front rank, not 
the healthy fatigue felt at the end of a fair 
day's work, but fatigue which predisposes 
to indifferent work, to accidents and to ill- 
health. Thus, in one instance, in which 
men were working over time, both the 
sickness and accident rate rose to a high 
level, proving that it was directly attribut- 
able to fatigue. 

How can the health of workers be best 
conserved ? It is an axiom which is beyond 
dispute that " prevention is better than 
cure," and of all the agencies employed in 
preventive work the trained nurse is pro- 
bably the most effective. She can inculcate 
habits of personal hygiene, can maintain 
the ventilation of workshops, and hygienic 
sanitary surroundings, can supervise rest 
rooms, visit employees detained at home by 
illness, render first aid in case of accident, 
and, provided she is the right kintl of 

woman, can act as the guide, philosopher 
and friend of the workers with whom she 
comes in contact. It has been abundantly 
proved that in factories where trained 
nurses are employed the health of the 
workers is maintained at a high level, and 
it is therefore specially important that they 
should be employed to care for munition 
workers whose work is performed under 
conditions of considerable strain, while the 
handling of high explosives constitutes an 
element of danger. 

We are therefore glad to learn that the 
trained nurse has already proved her value 
in munition factories, and that she has come • 
to stay. Thus at Woolwich the medical 
department includes nine' medical officers 
(two of whom are women), a matron, 
four nursing sisters, and a staff of nursing 
orderlies. In 1914-15 there were no less 
than 150,000 attendances for treatment, or 
medical examination. That alone shows 
the necessity for a staff of trained nurses. 

For too long the health of the producers 
of labour was little considered by those 
who benefited by their toil, but of recent 
years both employers of labour, and the 
public, have realized their responsi- 
bilities in this respect, and such firms as 
Messrs. Cadbury of Bournville, and Messrs. 
Southall Bros. & Barclay, Saltley, have 
shown what can be done to conserve the 
health and brighten the lives of their work 
people. Individual effort as a rule points 
the wav to State action, and it is certain 
that in all factories due provision should be 
made to keep the health of the employees 
on the same high level. We are glad 
therefore to know that the Health of 
Munition Workers Committee of which Sir 
George Newman, Chief Medical Inspector 
under the Board of Education is chairman, 
is alive to the importance of this subject. At 
the present time, when the health of the 
nation is its most valuable asset, there can 
b^ few more urgent. 

Jtbc 36rin»b 3ournal ot ■Rursmfl. 

July 8, 1916 



We have pleasure in awarding- the prize this 
week to Miss J. G. Gilchrist, Gillespie Terrace, 


The objects and effects of vaccination are 
(i) to protect the person from the disease of 
variola or smallpox by the scientific preventive 
method of inoculation with an active vaccine 
virus, by which means the effect on the system 
is produced and an acquired immunity estab- 
lished by the new resistant power acquired in 
the blood corpuscles through contact with a 
foreign element which has to be resisted and 
overcome. Smallpox is one of the most dreaded 
and fatal of epidemic diseases, the more so as 
the germ is air-borne as well as directly con- 
tagious, and successful vaccination is a sure 
preventive of smallpox for a considerable 
number of years, which has been conclusively 
proved since its introduction by Jenner in the 
year 1796, and has been the means 'of saving 
thousands of lives throughout the world. (2) 
Vaccination is effective in preventing the de- 
velopment of smallpox even if performed two 
or three days after coming in contact with the 
disease ; and (3) should a vaccinated person 
contract the disease, the attack will be greatly 
modified, and the chances of recovery increased 
in contrast to the unvaccinated unprotected 

Those likely to be exposed to infection should 
be re-vaccinated at periods of about twelve 
years to ensure complete immunity. 

Method of Introducing the Lymph. — The 
skin on the upper arm or calf of the leg, which- 
ever site may be selected, is made perfectly 
clean, then the scarf skin is scratched away by 
a scarifier or knife blade to expose the true 
skin for about an eighth of an inch in all direc- 
tions, not so deeply as to cause bleeding. The 
lymph is then smeared on to this area, and 
allowed to dry in. The lymph generally used 
is glycerinated vaccine lymph prepared from 
the vaccine vesicles as they have developed on 
the body of a healthy inoculated calf. This 
lymph is put up for use in small glass tubes, 
hermetically sealed to avoid contamination 
before use. At one time " arm-to-arm vaccina- 
tion " was frequently employed, the lymph 
being procured from one patient at the highest 
stage of development and inoculated into 
another, but this has now rightly been discon- 
tinued as uncertain in efficacy and unhygienic 

in principle. Vaccination in infancy should be 
always advocated if the child is in good health. 
.About three months old is a good time, as the 
child is not old enough to move about much 
and get the arm hurt ; the part need only be 
kept clean and dry. It is often a good plan to 
wash with boracic lotion and a little wool to 
relieve the irritation, afterwards covering the 
part with a piece of clean lint. The stages of 
development in a successful vaccination extend 
over a period of fifteen to twenty days, and are 
four in number, (i) From the third to the fifth 
day after inoculation a reddish papule forms, 
surrounded by a reddened area. (2) From the 
fifth to the eighth day this papule becomes a 
vesicle, increasing in size, and filled with thin 
clear lymph. (3) From the eighth to the 
eleventh day the top of the vesicle sinks in, and 
the fluid becomes opaque and yellow, while the 
surrounding area of skin is inflamed and the 
whole arm painful. Sometimes the lymphatic 
glands near the part may be swollen and tender, 
and constitutional symptoms may show them- 
selves in a rise of temperature, general feeling 
of malaise, and a slight rash may appear over 
the body. (4) From the eleventh to the fifteenth 
day the symptoms subside, the vesicle begins 
to desiccate, the scab is formed, and separates 
about the twenty-first day, leaving a red scar, 
which gradually fades, leaving the familiar 
white pitted mark. 

In r€-\accination the stages rriay appear 
modified, but vesiculation must be present to 
ensure it has " taken " properly. In vaccina- 
tion it is also customary to inoculate two or 
three areas at the same time. 


The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss E. A. Noblett, Miss B. Barnes, 
Miss Owen, Miss H. Ballard, Miss A: Phipps, 
Miss M. Mackenzie, Miss J. Evans. 

Miss Noblett says : — " In ordinary circum- 
stances vaccination should be postponed if the 
child is feverish, if it has any specific infectious 
disease, any cutaneous disease, es{>ecially 
eczema, or if it has diarrhoea." 


What diseases may flies convey? What would 
you suggest to prevent the presence of flies in 
hospital wards containing cases of infectious 

One competition paper has been received 
without either coupon or name. Will com- 
petitors note that the coupon, with name and 
address, must be enclosed, or they are dis- 

July 8, 10 1 6 

(Tbe British 3ournal of ■Rurstnfl. 



Sister Jean Stronach, of the Canadian Nursing 
Service, who lias been awarded the Royal Red 
Cross (second class), was trained at the Royal 
Infirmary, Glasgow, and belongs to Hillhead, 
where the news of the honour conferred upon her 
has given nuich gratification. This picture shows 
a woman of the true nursing type. 

tliat tlie preparedness of a ship lies just as much 
in the medical administration as in the administra- 
tion on the bridge — ^a novel proposition indeed ; 
still, it cannot but have sent them to their life's 
work with enthusiasm. 

Six Russian Sisters of Mercy have left for 
Austria-Hungary, in order to \nsit the camps 
where Russian prisoners of War are interned. 
It would be well, if — in the future — the Red 
Cross had an Interna- 
tional Board of Xursing 
Sisters — permitted to 
nurse prisoners of their 
own nationality 
wherever interned — a 
Prisoners of War 
Brigade of Sisters of 
Mercy. How eagerly 
our trained nurses would 
\ohmteer for such a 
ser\ ice, and what relief 
would follow in their 
train ! When, after the 
War, we trained nurses 
meet once again in In- 
ternational Council (let 
us hope, as arranged, 
at Copenhagen , i n 1 9 1 8) , 
" How to Maintain 
Peace and How to 
Ameliorate War" 
should have a prominent 
place upon its pro- 

The Lancet corre- 
spondent in the United 
States of America 
states : — 

The United States, 
warned by the ex- 
perience of Europe, is 
preparing her Red Cross 
services, as I have 
before mentioned. Ten 
Red Cross base hos- 
pitals are organising to help the army, and are 
being formed in relation with the large civil 
hospitals, which will each of them probably 
furnish a whole hospital or a section accustomed 
to work together, with doctors, male and female 
nurses, clerks, cooks, &c., and voluntary aid ladies 
as " nurses' aids." Transport sections will be 
organised, probablv in relation to the Universities. 
Five small hospitals are to be prepared on the 
-Xtlantic coast as auxiliaries to the navj-, it is 
announced by the Secretary of the Xavy, Mr. 
Daniels, who is good enougli to take a great 
interest in the Naval Medical Department. He 
recently told a class of newly joined surgeons 

The Great Push has begun, and hourly now we 
shall li\-e in greater anxiety, knowing well that 
each hour will bring grief to many homes. It is 
the penaltv to be paid for all that the British 
people hold dear, and the women are standing 
upright on their feet to face their agony. Were 
not the women so great their sons could hardly be 
so sublime, and if one wants to realise how sublime 
they arc read " The 
Great Push," by Patrick 
MacGill, who WTote the 
" Red Horizon " ; he 
has seen wondrous 
things, and it is well we 
should see them too. 

Many nurses were 
amongst the crowds to 
welcome the wounded 
from recent battles 
when they arrived in 
London, and took part 
in the rose showers, 
wloich ev-identlj' de- 
lighted the heroes. 


Miss Bickham, 
Matron of the Col- 
chester Hospital, and 
Night Superintendent 
at No. I General 
London Hospital (T.F.), 
Camberwell, left this 
week for service 
abroad with the Medi- 
terranean Expedition- 
ary Force, and Miss 
Emily Northover, 
R.R.C., Assistant 
IMatron at No. 3 

General Hospital, 
Wandsworth, has been 
appointed by the War 
Olifice to supervise the 
nursing stafi of a 
hospital proceeding to Salonica. 

On a motion by Mr. W. O. Willis, Mr. Justice 
Bargrave Deane held that a letter, written by 
the late Miss Ada Stanley, a nurse on board a 
hospital ship, to her niece, in regard to the dis- 
posal of her property', could be admitted to 
probate as a soldier's will, notwithstanding that 
it was written in a London hotel wliile the nurse 
was on temporary leave. 

Lord Tredegar has opened an extension of the 
Newport Hospital, towards which liis predecessor 
— Viscount Tredegar — and liimself gave ,£25,000. 


Zbc Britisb 3ournal of IRursing. 

July 8, 1 91 6 


The Cliildren's Matinee which was given at the 
Royal Court Tlieatre on June 29th under the 
patronage of Queen Alexandra, the Vicomtesse 
de la Panouse and the Indian Empire Club, in 
aid of tlie French Flag Nursing Corps, was an 
unprecedented success, as not onlj' were the ballets 
perfectly lovely, but the house was full, and 
great credit is due to Mrs. Wordsworth for an 
artistic colour scheme of exquisite beauty and 
for the wonderfully finished dancing of her pupils, 
especially when considering their youth. 

Fourteen very pretty girls did a lively trade 
in selling programmes and chocolates, the latter 
in very attractive cases — -a shower of which were 
thrown on the stage instead of flowers before the 
final drop of the curtain. 

whom we feel so justly proud of being allied. 
Mrs. Murray has handed to the Hon. Treasurer 
the handsome sum of ;^ioS, the proceeds from 
the sale of tickets, &c., after paying all expenses 
for rent of theatre, band, &c. Those of us who 
realise the work entailed to attain such success- 
must offer the Chairman of the Corps sincere 

Miss Ellison has asked us to thank the Sisters 
of the F.F.N.C. for the charming letters o£ appre- 
ciation they have sent tier about her meetings. 
She hopes to reply to them all in due course. 
In the meanwhile she asks us to say she considers- 
it a privilege to have been able to speak in England 
of the splendid work done in France by this 
pioneer corps of nurses. 

No one knows better than Miss Ellison the 
difficulties the nurses have had to face, but the 

Sisters and Doctors on the Russian Front. 

The audience was most enthusiastic, and at 
the end of a really brilliant performance there 
was a call for Mrs. Wordsworth, who was pre- 
sented with beautiful bouquets, one being handed 
to her by a tiny tot who could hardly hold the 
shower of pink roses clasped in her arms. 

Mrs. Murray, the Chairman of the Corps, and 
to whose indefatigable energy the whole financial 
success of the matinee is due, conveyed to Mrs. 
Wordsworth the thanks of the Committee — also 
to the very talented children and their parents — - 
for the delightful afternoon's entertainm.ent, 
which would enable the Committee to send more 
fuUy qualified, skilled nurses, so urgently needed, 
to the gallant wounded soldiers of France, with 

appreciation of the French soldiers, as expressed in 
extracts from th:ir lett rs which Miss Ellison read 
at her lectures, should be sufficient reward for all 
their labours. One solditr wrote : "These nurses 
have brought into the French Army a beautiful 
and wonderful influence which will never die," 

Writing to a Sister now at home, a French 
doctor says : — " I had the good fortune to find 
here tliree nurses of your Corps. I like very 
much all the Sisters, and as a niedecin chef I have 
pleasure in saying they are the best of all the 
nurses I have met since the beginning of the war. 
My soldiers are good friends with them, and I am 
very glad of it." 

July 8, 1916 

Hbe Britisb 3ournaI of "fflursinfi. 

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A safe, non-poisonous, unirritating antiseptic solution 

LISTERINE As an antiseptic wash or dressing for superficial wounds, cuts, bruises, or abrasions may 
be applied in its full strength or diluted with one to three parts of water and forms a use- 
ful application in simple disorders of the skin. It Is a trustworthy surgical dressing ; it 
has no Injurious effect upon the tissues In which the healing process is going on. 

LISTERINE in proper dilution, forms a suitable wash, gargle or douche in catarrhal conditions of the 
nose and throat ; it overcomes the offensive odour of lochial discharges and, properly 
diluted, forms an excellent prophylactic or restorative Injection after parturition, and in 
the treatment of leucorrhoea. 

LISTERINE Has justly acquired much popularity as a mouth-wash, for dally use In the care and 
preservation of the teeth. In all cases of fever, where the patient suffers so greatly 
from the parched condition of the mouth, nothing seems to afford so much relief as a 
mouth-wash made by adding a teaspoonful of LIsterine to a glass of water. 

LISTERINE Literature may be had by Nurses upon application to 


2101 Locust Street St. Louis, Mo., U.S.A. 

British Agents : S. Maw Son & Sons. 7, Aldersgate St . London, E.C. 

Wll|)ll||illl|||l|HI|||l|ll|l!ll|li|!im ailiiiilllllll :!■' ' ■ .i'.' ' i 'MUi ■ ■ ' T~. < "«"<!|l|ll|ll| 

No Nurse With experience 



will ever want or ri'i iMiimeiKJ the 
old-fashioned type of " pram." 

GOLD MEDAL Children's Welfare Exhihillon. 1014. 

The MARMET ia far lighter, cleaner, safer, and 
more comfortable than any other Baby Car. 

E. T. MORRISS & CO., Ltd. 

139g. Finchlcy Road. .LONDON, N.W., 
OP 131. Oeansgate. MANCHESTER. 



In your professional career you must 
come across many cases where the regu- 
lar use of "Wincarnis" would he of 
inestimable value to patients. In debility, 
an:pmia, mal-nutrition, insomnia, nervous 
breakdown and particularly in prolonged 
convalescence after a serious illness 
' Wincarnis '* has extraordinary stimulating 
and strengthening effect — but unlike drugs 
which give only a fictitious strength, " Win- 
carnis" gives a strength which is lastinj;^^ 
because in each wineglassful of " Wincarnis ' 
there is a standardised amount of nutriment. 
"Wincarnis" is supplied to the Houses of 
Parliament, The King and Queen of Spain. The 
Royal Army Medical Corps, and His Majesty's 
Forces. It is regularly prescribed by Doctors 
and recommended by thousands of nurses. 

Will voii try UINCARNIS 
if we send a bottle FREE ? 

^■ufu^ uf-att teci-iptc/prt/ttUoiuilcaf^inrnctfhtadivg, 


^be Krinsl? 3ournal of TRursinfi. 

July 8, 1916 

^ y*.-**'^' 


Thrice daily. Nurse 
—Hall's Wine" 

Nothing so surely shortens the journey trom sickness 
back to health ; nothing so quickly re-awakens joy and 
interest in life ; nothing so splendidly restores the 
power and will and desire to take up again the reins ot 
business or of household duties. 

Of that there is testimony irrefutiible from doctors and fn mi the public ; 
to coiitirm confidence, there's the Hall's Wine GUARANTEE. 
Hall's Wine, by enriching the blood, and so invigorating the diges- 
tive processes that the utmost benefit is derived from the food taken, 
re-creates health, restores colour to the cheek,, brightens the eye, and 
strengthens the frame; it was designed to do so by a Member df the 
Royal C(jllege of Surgeons — and Hall's Wine fulfils its missinu. 


GL AR.^.NTEE— Buy a bottle of Hall's Wine to-day. 
If you do not feel real benefit after taking- half of 
it, return the half-empty bottle, and we will refund 
your outlay. 

Large Si^e Bottle, jl6. Of Wine Merchants, 
and Grocers and Chemists -vith -i'ine licences. 


July 8, 1 916 

Zbc Brittsb 3ournal of "Hurstng. 


Sister Way writes froin^ jN'crncuil : " Your 
nice package received to-day lias delighted us. 
Such a number of air-cushions (which are in- 
valuable), and the slippers made to fasten so 
adaptably — they are all most useful things ; and 
we thank you and all the other kind donors most 
sincerely. We have been very busy here lately. 
The enclosed photo shows \'ou Verneuil on the 
left ; and the crosses, to mark the graves of the 
fallen. There are many of these little sacred spots 
in the fields around here — the resting place of 
many together, as a rule — but, sometimes, just 
a single grave." 

" We are all very thankful," writes Sister 
Clarke, " for the gramophone. I wish you could 
see what pleasure it gives our dear soldiers. 
Since it arrived they play it regularly, and it 
takes its turn in the five divisions. Our only 

Another Sister writes : — " Before the war we 
said ' as brave as a lion,' now we say ' as brave 
as a poilu.' " 

The Liverpool Women's War Service Bureau 
has most kindly forwarded to five centres where 
the Sisters are at work a consignment containing 
hity shirts, fifty socks, twenty- towels, fift>' hand- 
kerchiefs and fifty cup covers. Each shirt also 
has a handkercliicf in the pocket. Miss Jessie 
Bevan, the Secretary, wTites : — " Wc arc all glad 
to be able to help IVDss Ellison in the splendid 
work she is doing." There is so much coming 
and going in the war zone hospitals just now that 
endless supplies are always required. 

Fifteen very fine khaki handkercliiefs have been 
received from " three members of a small sana- 
torium." They will be greatly appreciated. 


regret is we have not enough musical records. 
Do you think some one would send us more 
records and needles ? Already we have used three 
boxes." With the gramophone we sent thirty 
records and four bo.xes of needles, each con- 
taining 1000 ! The needles are to be got at 
Gamage's, High Holborn, 2s. (jd. per box of 1000, 
medium and loud toned, so if any one feels dis- 
posed to forward a few, please address to Sister 
Clarke, F.F.N.C, Hopital Thouvenot, Toul, 
France. The gramophone was paid for by a 
friend of Sister Clarke. 

The letter adds ; — •" We are having all our 
wounded from Verdun front. . . . The fighting is 
constant. No one can what it is like. It is 
indeed our great pleasure to be able to help ; the 
men are so very brave and cheerful with it all." 


The lollowing changes m (Juccn Alexandra's 
Military Nursing Service lor India are announced 
in the London Ctuzcttc : — 

.\ppointed Nursing Sisters : Miss Mary Dorothy 
Kabbidge (Nov. 13th) ; Miss Evelyn Anne 
Moriarty and Miss Violet Ruth Tyler-Cove 
(Feb. 2()th). 

Lady Nurses permitted to resign the Service : 
Nursing Sisters Misses Eleanor Gertrude Horst 
(Jan. 15th) ; Agnes Ethel Sowry (March 12th) ; 
and Marguirita Agnes Currie (March i8th). 

Lady Nurse permitted to retire from the 
Service : Nursing Sister Miss Kate Hunter 
(March 3rd). 


?tbe »nti6h 3ounial of ■Wurstne. 

July 8, 1916 


During their stay at Aldershot, the Iving and 
Queen last Saturday visited the Waverley Abbey 
Auxiliary MilitaryHospital, Farnham (Mrs. R. D. 
Anderson). ^^__^__ 

Sir .\rthur Pearson \\Tites from St. Dunstan's 
that eight of the men who have lost their sight 
in the War have recently passed the last of the 
stiff examinations wliich enable them to be 
described as fully qualified and expert masseurs. 

These men — though none of them had received 
any past education of service to them — have 
acquired a good knowledge of anatomy, physio'ogy 
and pathology, and have also equipped themselves 
with the manipulative dexterity needed by the 
skilled naasseur. For this latter essential a great 
meed of thanks is due to the authorities of the 
Middlesex and Hampstead Hospitals, who have 
readily given our men every facilitj' for learning 
their difficult art, and who have assisted them in 
every possible manner. 

Tlieir training has in its initial stages been 
conducted at St. Dunstan's, and later at the 
perfectly equipped massage department of the 
Kationa'l Institute for the Blind. Six of the eight 
have been given situations at military hospitals, 
where they receive salaries of two guineas a week — 
a very satisfactory wage for those who were 
apparently hopelessly handicapped so short a 
time ago. The other two, a New Zealan'der and a 
Canadian, are returning to their own homes, there 
to lead the way in showing how admirably fitted 
an occupation for the blind is n^assage. Sir 
Arthur believes that the thirty men who are now 
in course of training will all, as their turn comes, 
prove themselves just as thorough masters of the 
art of massage. One of the blinded officers passed 
his examinations in massage some time ago, and 
is now engaged in acquiring a thorough knowledge 
of Swedish remedial exercises. 

Danish physicians state that several of the 
British and German sailors who took part in the 
naval battle, and whose corpses have been washed 
ashore off the Scandinavian coast, could have 
been saved if they had been picked up twenty- 
four hours before. 

The Norwegian paper Morgenbladet makes the 
proposal that the Scandinavian Government should 
open up negotiations with the British and German 
Governments in order to adopt measures for the 
saving of sailors slupwrecked in future naval 
battles. The paper suggests that warships, with 
physicians and nurses on board, be stationed at 
Christiansand, Gothenburg, and Frederikshaven in 
readiness to patrol the North Sea at the conclusion 
of a naval engagement. 

If such stations had been established before 
the North Sea battle hundreds of sailors might 
have been saved. 

The ladies of the Soldiers' Comforts' Committee 
of the Otta^va Women's Canadian Club have 
undertaken to pay the expenses of the Soldiers' 

and Sailors' Free Buffet at \'ictoria Station for one 
day a month, to be called " Canada Day." 


By kind permission of the British Medical 
Association a meeting of the Central Committee 
for the Stale Registration of Nurses will 
be held in the Council Chamber at 429, 
Strand, on Thursday, July 13th, at 2.30 p.m. 

A Report will be received from the repre- 
sentatives of the Committee appointed to confer 
with the representatives of the College of 
Nursing, Ltd., on the Nurses' Registration Bill, 
and the Bill will be further considered. The 
Memorandum and Articles of Associatloii of the 
College of Nursing will also be considered, as 
if an agreed Bill is accepted it will be necessary 
that certain alterations should be made to bring 
the Constitution of the College into accord with 
the proposed draft Bill. We are informed such 
alterations are under consideration. 

The Memorandum and Articles of Associa- 
tion of the Nursing College, Ltd., may be 
obtained from the printers, Eyre & Spottis- 
woode, Ltd., East Harding Street, London, 
E.C., price is. net, by post is. i|d. We 
advise trained nurses interested in the organiza- 
tion of their own profession to obtain copies 
and study the constitution of the Company, so 
that if they desire any alteration they may be 
qualified to offer an intelligent opinion on the 


Trained nurses holding three years' certificates 
of training should join the Society for the State 
Registration of Nurses without delay, as the 
opinion of th- most highly qualified members of 
the profession should be available in a corporate 
capacity on proposed legislation. If a Nurses' 
Registration Bill is in the near future agreed upon 
by the promoters of Nursing legislation, the 
Central Committee for the State Registi-ation of 
Trained Nurses, and the College of Nursing, Ltd., 
which has now drafted a Bill, it is the duty of 
every trained and certificated nurse to read and 
understand the efiect of each clause in an agreed 
measure, before it is introduced into Parliament. 
With this end in view Mrs. Bedford Fenwick and 
others will attend at the office of the Society'' for 
State Registration, 431, Oxford Street, London, W., 
to explain the proposed legislation to trained 
nurses. Should agreement not be effected, Mrs. 
Fenwick .will explain upon what fundamental 
principles the promoters of the two Bills differ. 
Apply to the Hon. Secretary, Society for State 
Registration of Trained Nurses, 431, Oxford 
Street, London, W., for m.embership forms. 

July 8, 1916 

^hc Britieb 3oiiriutl of "Kursino. 



A very interesting and well-attended Conference 
was held at 46, Marsham Street, Westminster, 
S.W., on Thursda}', June 20th, convened by the 
National Union of Trained Xurses, when Miss 
E. M. Canceller, Chairman, presided. 

The following organisations were represented, 
through the National Council of Trained Nurses 
of Great Britain and Ireland : — -(i) Matrons' 
Council, (2) Society for State Registration of 
Nurses, (3) The Irish Nurses' Association, and 
the Ulster Branch, (4) League of St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital Nurses, (5) St. John's House Nmscs' 
League, (6) School Nurses' League, (7) Chelsea 
Infirmary Nurses' League, (S) Registered Nurses' 
Society, (9) Queen's Hospital Nurses' League, 
Birn ingham, (10) Victoria and Bournemouth 
Nurses' League, (11) Leicester Royal Infirmary 
Nurses' League ; r.lso the Scottish Nurses' Asso- 
ciation, Royal British Nurses' Association, 
Poor-Law Infirmary Matrons' Association, Guy's 
Hospital Nurses' League, and the Midwives' 

In her introductory remarks Miss Cancellor 
explained that it was thought that it rraght be 
helpful at the present time to discuss questions 
which were upperm.ost in tlie minds of niu-ses, to 
pick the brains which were ir^ost worth picking, 
and to arrange a concerted plan of action so as to 
voice, with no uncertain .sound, opinions on 
questions wliich were of vital im.portance to the 
nursing profession. 

She then invited Mrs. Strong, President of the 
Scottish Nurses' Association to address the 

Words of Encouragement. 

Mrs. Strong, who was applauded, 
said that she liad been asked for words of encour- 
agement, and the Conference had her most hearty 
good wishes in their struggle for vital points 
in connection with the training and status of 

She m.uch admired the manner and spirit in 
which the present generation of nurses were 

A generation had grasped the necessity 
for a fi.xed curriculum for the education of 
nurses in the hope tliat they m.ight induce the 
Government to take it up as a basis, and develop 
it into a standard for national adoption. There 
had been no lack of pupils, and no difficulty in 
carrying out the plan. Perhaps it was a bold and 
qui.\otic step, but without some practicable 
demonstration of what could be done they could 
hardly expect to be listened to. 

They were indebted to the promoters of the 
College of Nursing for giving an im.petus to their 
efforts to bring about uniiorn ity in a nurse's 
education, and to fix her status. There had been 
a general feeling that Parliam.ent had its hands 
full enough, but nurses had been coerced into 
taking steps in self-defence. The formation of the 

Culkge of Xursmg, 1-td., had made them bestir 
themselves, and to state definitely wliat they 
wanted. Vagueness would not do, they must 
battle with it. 

The National Union cf Trained Nurses had 
realised the strong necessity-, for the union of 
trained nurses to counteract wliat they believed 
to be half measures, but there was need to beware 
of multiplying societies; better to make use of 
those already e.xisting; a m.ultiplicity of societies 
was confusing to the public. 

" You," said Mrs. Strong, " are j'oung, you have 
brains and you m.ust work out in detail what you 
wish your curriculum to be." For herself she 
wished to see it made illegal for anyone to enter 
a hospital for practical training without a fixed 
prclin inary education, not only in elementary 
anatomy, physiology, and hygiene, wiiich could 
be obtained at a m.inimun^ of expense if the 
medical schools tltroughout the kingdom would 
form classes for nurses for tliis instruction, but 
also that each hospital should be required to give 
fixed clinical insfauction before the pupil was 
adn^.itted for practical work in the wards, these 
classes to be uniform,, controlled by tiie Stiite, 
and class certificates to be given. 

Those present could call to nind the first days- 
and weeks they spent in hospital if placed there 
without previous instruction, the bewilderment, 
and the overwhelming sense of impotence, and in 
some cases shattered ner\cs for life through the 
sudden contact with acute suffering. Often it 
was the stodgy probationers who held on, and 
those with more wit who, gave up. Further, 
there w-as the patients' side to consider ; there was 
m,uch less risk to them in being liandled by one 
who had some clear idea of what she was doing, 
and who received her instructions in a language 
wiiich was no longer foreign. She had searched 
in vain in the Bill prepared by the College of 
Nursing for some indication of uniformity o( 
education and a com.m_on exanjnation before 
nurses were placed on the Register. It seen.ed 
to leave the training schools much where they 
were, m,erely placing on a register the nurses 
from recognized schools, and leaving tlie mass 
of sniall hospitals ostracised, whereas, given a 
fi.xed n.ininium of theoretical Icnowledgc, the 
practical training in hospitals (large or sm.all) 
could be tested by independent fixed exan inations, 
and a common diploma granted, thus placing 
all hospitals on a common footing. She thought 
the term " graduate in nursing " would convey 
more than " registered." 

Nuises n.ust form a governing body for them- 
selves. " You know," said Mrs. Strong in 
conclusion, " or should know, your own needs. 
If you have clear thought you will have cleav 
speech. Make up your minds wliat it is you want 
and stick to it." 

Nursing in Small Hospitals a.nd Affiliated 
Miss Cancellor, who presented the first paper, 
first outlined the cottage hospital m.ovem.ent, by 


TLbc IBritisb 3ournal of Tlurstna. 

July 8, 1916 

means of wliich tlie rural population get modern 
surgery brought to their doors, and said that the 
original cottage hospital was started in 1S59 at 
Cranleigh, in Surrey, by the late Dr. Xapper and 
Archdeacon Sapte, at a time when the London, 
Brighton and South Coast Railway was being 
made, ftnd many serious accidents were occurring 
among the gangers working on the Une. It was 
established in the old Rectory, a charming httle 
old-fashioned cottage with four bedrooms, two 
of which, leading into one another, were fitted up 
as male and female wards, a third was used for 
operations and the fourth was occupied by the 
nurse. The staircase was so consfructed that 
unless patients could walk they had to be carried- 
up on the back of whoever brought them in. 

In spite of these difficulties ver\- excellent work 
was done from the first, and Dr. Xapper recorded 
in the annual report that " under a free exhibition 
of port wine tmany patients recovered." From 
the first it was his intention that the hospital 
should take in serious cases of accident and 
disease, and JMiss Cancellor enumerated the first 
six cases admitted at Cranleigh, and those admitted 
at Frimley half a centurj- later, showing that 
they had not departed from the founder's ideals. 
Another first principle was that every patient 
should contribute towards his maintenance, 
though in many instances fees were remitted. 
Most cottage hospitals had one or more private 
wards, the advantages of which were : (i) they 
were a source of income ;■ (2) they enabled the 
doctors to obtjdn some slight remuneration for 
their ser\-ices ; (3) they enabled first-class sxurgeons 
to be retained as consultants ; (4) old private 
patients were usually staunch friends of the 
hospital and made admirable members of com- 
mittee subsequenth' ; (5) it was an excellent 
thing for the nurses to get some experience in 
pri\-ate nursing. 

JNIany cottage hospitals now were built for the 
purpose, and were models of construction and 
planning. In numerous instances the Matron 
was consulted by the architect on many points. 
Miss Cancellor quoted Dr. Napper's opinion 
that the ninrsing staff should be well trained, 
though he added that tliis advantage was some- 
times counterbalanced by conceit. 

An ideal nursing stafi for a hospital of 10 or 12 
beds was first the Matron, who had to act as 
house surgeon, and who should not only be fully 
trained, but also a midwife, a masseuse, and 
accustomed to work amongst the pcor. 

She reminded those who worked in large 
hospitals that they parted with their patients 
when they left the wards, whereas in cottage 
hospitals the patients all remained their near 
neighboms, and woe betide the nursing stafi if 
they ofiended one, as all their cousins, aunts, and 
uncles, lived there too, and any one who had 
ever Uved among a rural population knew -ixhat 
that meant. 

In addition to the Matron there should be a fully 
trained stafi nurse, an assistant nurse with at 
least a year's experience, and one or more proba- 

tioners. Matrons were comparatively easy to get, 
stafi nurses very difficult ; they found it dull if from 
a large hospital, and six months or a year seemed 
to be the usual limit for their stay. Assistants 
were fairly easj' to get, and probationers were 
selected from among girls of t\ventj' or so who 
meant to take fuU training later, but it must be 
fully explained to them that they could be given 
no kind of certificate. 

What effect would a Registration Bill have on 
the smaller institutions ? Surely it would make it 
increasingly difficult for them to obtain junior 
nurses. Yet they were doing good work, and 
formed a splendid ground for preliminary training. 
Could not some plan of affiliation with the Count\- 
Hospitals be de\ised, whereby the small hospitals 
could act as preliminary schools for the proba- 
tioners, and be suppUed with assistants from among 
the second-year niu-ses from the Coun1r\- Hospitals 
and staff nurses from the third-year nurses, or 
from those who bad completed their training ? 
Of course a syUabus of training would have to be 
adopted, and the nurses examined by the 
Count\- Hospital examiners, but surelv an allied 
training scheme coiild be evoh'ed. She thought 
the Countj' Hospital nurse who had had nine 
months or a year of her training at a Cottage 
Hospital would have learnt many valuable lessons 
in tact, management and self-reliance which she 
had no chance of obtaining in a large institution ; 
for instance, she might have to cope with serious 
haemorrhage, whereas in a large institution it 
would be her duly to summon assistance. 

That was the case for the small hospitals. 


A discussion then took place, in which ]\Irs. 
Strong emphasised the necessity for preliminary 
training to be both practical and theoretical. Miss 
Norton (.X.U.T.X.) suggested that if there could not 
be affiliation bet%veen the cottage and countj- hos- 
pitals the larger hospitals should allow cottage 
hospital probationers of a year's standing to rank as 
six months' nurses. Miss Cancellor said that the 
cottage hospitals w-ould want some sort of return. 
Miss Thurstan thought that children's hospitals 
should come witlun the scope of affiliated training. 
Miss Cancellor considered that both children's and 
cottage hospital training should form part of a 
whole. Miss Hu-xley said it should not be difficult 
if the Counb,- Hospitals refused to take any pro- 
bationers who had not received preUminarv 
training. Miss Musson said one of the difficulties 
was that If the County Hospitals took none but 
probationers who had had a year's training 'thev 
would not come in as junior probafioners, and 
there would be no one to do that work. Then 
there was the inequahtj' of the training in the 
smaller places. She had tried to push on nurses 
as much as possible to meet the demands occa- 
sioned by the war, and she had established an 
examination at the General Hospital, Birming- 
ham, for nurses who had had pre\ious training, 
but many failed. She did not think that a junior 
nurse in a large hospital would let an artery bleed 

July 8, 1916 

^be JSritisb journal of IRursinc} 

(Complete Outfits 


CVERYTHING that the Professional 
or Voluntary Nurse requires can 
be obtained instantly at our Nurses' 
Equipment Section with everything 
correct as to detail, and reliable in 
every possible way. From the bonnet 
to the shoes we supply the outfit com- 
plete or as desired, with an expert 
regard to the requirements of whatever 
Hospital or Nursing Establishment for 
which it is needed. 


In melton or cl>u\ lot sctki-. 15/6; 
CoatinK or ^howefproot cra- 
vencttc. 17,11. 

Nurses who have been supplied by us speak in the most 
gratifying manner, not only of our quick and thoughtful service, 
but of the great durability and reliability of the articles we have 
provided. And this because we have studied their require- 
ments for so many years that it can be said of us with greater 
truth than of any other house that we know our business. 


to visit this department and inspect our organisation without 
being placed in any way under any obligation to purchase. 

Write or 'Phone for Catalogue. 

Hospitals & General Contracts Co* L 



■ Iv 

r the 











^be British Journal of IRursino. 

July 8, 1916 



New edition now rtadv. (Post free) 

To H.M. War Office. H.M. Colonial Office. India Office, 

London County Council. Metropolitan Asylums Board, 

Guy's Hospital, &c. 

150 to 1 62, Edgware Rd., Marble Arch, London, W. 



Write for Catalogues lofflcially approved) showing lllustr.Mions and Particulars of Uniform post free. 


Made of jloodqualitv 
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Serge, 29/6 
Also in Fine Cra- 
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Climates, 31/6 
(All Sizes in Stock.) 

White Linen BELT, 
starched, 6!d. cacli. STUDS Id. I«ii 
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lining, 2/6 each. 

APRON, as illuslra 
11. .11, in stout linen- 
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2/6 each. 
SLEEVES, Sjd pal 
COLLAR, as illns 
ti.iu.jn, 6|d, each. 




(in three sizes) 

, 2 and 3, price 5/9. 

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Telegrams— "GARROULD. LONDON. 

•telephones— 5320. 5321, and 6297 PADDINGTON. 

July 8, 1916 

ITbe Brttteb 3ournal of 'Kurelno. 


while she sent for assistance. Miss Cancellor 
agreed that might be an extreme case, but said 
that in large liospitals junior nurses were not 
allowed to carry out treatment. 

Miss A. C. Gibson said that a great difficulty 
wa^ that discipline could not be enforced in small 
hospitals in the same way as in large. The more 
discipline there was during training the morfe useful 
the nurse afterwards. Much waste of good 
material went on because nurses were only half 
trained. She thought, how ever, that in the large 
hospitals the probationers had better begin at the 
very beginning. 

Miss l'ur\'is (Middlesbrough) thought the 
smaller hospifcils were good training ground for 
those too young for ,< general 'training. Miss 
Cancellor said that n\eant that the training in the 
small institutions did not count. 

Miss H. L. Pcarse thought that if nurses were 
properly paid the utilization of every institution 
for training purposes would cease, as fully trained 
nurses, where available, could be employed 
instead of probationers. 

The Political Position in the Nursing 

Miss E. M. Musson, R.R.C., said that when war 
broke out the demand for State Registration of 
Trained Nurses was slowly but sm-ely making way, 
the rank and file of the nurses were mostly con- 
vinced, the House of Lords had passed a Nurses 
Registration Bill, the House of Commons had 
endorsed the principle by a majority of 228 on the 
first reading of the Bill in 1914. The Prime 
Minister and the Home Secretary (then Mr. 
McKenna) had told influential deputations that 
the opposition was the only thing in the way — 
there was no time for contentious legislation — and 
ad\ised them to concili<-itc it. At that time it 
seemed as if notlaing short of a miracle would 
reconcile the opposition. Then war broke out, 
and it becanie impossible to get a private n^ember's 
Bill considered. But the war had worked m.iracles, 
and practically done away with the opposition to 
State Registration of Nurses. The most difficult 
opposition had come from members of the nursing 
profession— the Matrons of the large training 
schools — and the conditions arising out of the war 
had brought these Matrons^-with one exception — 
to see that registration was necessiiry, unless the 
members of their trained sUiffs, when they returned 
from service abroad, were to be cutout by untrained 
women, and the temporary arrangements created 
by the exigencies of the war allowed to continue 
as permanent. For instance, district nursing 
societies had been obliged to make use of untrained 
help, but tliat must be put right at the end of 
the war, and competition with the fully trained 
of a host of semi-trained women must not be 

Miss Musson did not wish anything she said to 
be construed as condemnation of V.A.D.s who, 
as long as they worked under a trained stafE, could 
do good work. They were of all social positions, 
and all societies sufEered from members who 

brought discredit upon them. Most V.A.D.s had 
no intention of nursing at the conclusion of the 
war, and knew that if they did so it woukl be 
necessary for them to be trained. It was not only 
the V.A.D.s who had to be considered, but the 
host of Ivilf-trained people who had come to the 
fore. That had brought the Matrons round. 

Also they Ivid had a great deal to do with the 
Army Services, and the great inequality of training 
had been impressed upon them. Many of the 
nurses enrolled in the various Services were highly 
trained, others, although they Iwd three years' 
certificates, had really not been tfiught or efficiently 
trained. That had brought home to the Matrons 
the necessity for the sfcindardization of nursing 
education, and with it the registration of trained 

Then came the bombshell of Mr. Stanley's 
Circular Letter of December 30th. It was not 
necessary to say very much of that, because the 
present scheme was so difEerent tlmt it was prac- 
tically in the waste paper basket. At the time it 
came out it was much critici.sed, and she thought 
the nursing profession was to be congratulated 
that Mr. Stanley, though strong and determined, 
was sufficiently big-minded to own Iximself in the 
wTong, and he quickly acknowledged that State 
Registration of Nurses niust be made one of the 
first planks in the College of Nursing Scheme. 
Mr. Stanley had said tliat after his letter was 
published he was amazed at the overwhelming 
demand there was for registration, and at the 
smallness and futility of the opposition. 

■At present there were two parties ; one had 
been working at registration for a long time, the 
other was just beginning, but they hoped before 
long there would be an agreed Bill, promoted both 
by the Central Committee for State Registration of 
Nurses and the College of Nursing, Ltd. In that 
case Mr. Stanley had great hope that the Govern- 
ment would give time in the House of Commons 
for the consideration of the agreed Bill as a War 
Measure. Mr. Stanley had made mistakes, but 
once he took up a thing he was very determined, 
and she thought that nurses might congratulate 
themselves not only on having secured another 
supporter in the House of Commons, but that he 
was winning the support of the Training Schools 
for State Registration. 


Mrs. Beilford Fenwick said there was registi'a- 
tion and registration. There might be a system 
enforced wliich was more injurious than notlung 
at all. 

The underlying principle of the demand for 
registration of trained nurses was the desire of 
public spirited nurses to protect their patients, 
as well as to obtain legal status and legal recog- 
nition for women doing niost responsible work. 
They felt that so many divergent interests were 
connected with the nursing care of the sick tliat 
it was impossible these should be reconciled 
without the intervention of the law. It seemed 
a simple thing, but was not so simple as it appeared. 


llbe Britieb 3ournal of ■ffluretnQ. 

July 8, igi6 

Wliat was apparent to a few cicar-tlviiiking people 
thirty years ago had now been brought home to 
those who had formerly opposed the proposal, 
and they had drafted a Bill for the State Regis- 
tration of Nurses, but those who liad been working 
so long to obtain just legislation were not 
going to see any Bill placed in the Statute Book 
which did not incorporate the basic principles 
included in the Bill drafted by the pioneers. 

A College was an academic body. They needed 
tfuvt very much to co-ordinate nursing education, 
but they wanted also something more. They wanted 
legislation in accordance with the demands of their 
professional conscience. The great majority of 
Matrons were now- con\dnced of thfe necessity for 
registration, but legislation must be effective. 
When registrationists were told at the beginning 
of the year that it was proposed to organise the 
nursing profession tlirough a voluntary system 
they knew it co'uld not be done. 

Mrs. Fenwick then described the line of action 
taken b^' the registrationists who had been 
watching from outside the movement for organisa- 
tion through the College of Nursing, Ltd. Repre- 
sentatives of the Central Committee for the State 
Registration of Nurses had met • those of the 
College and discussed the Nurses' Registration 
Bill and agreed on some fundamental principles. 
Then the College of Nm-sing drafted a Bill. The 
first draft was one which could not for a moment 
be accepted. The idea seenied to be that to get 
a Bill through Parliament it must contain 
nothing of either educational or economic value. 
Then negotiations took place between two or 
tliree persons on both sides with the object of 
bringing the two Bills into agreement, and owing 
to the courtesy and sympathy of IMr. Stanley Mrs. 
Fenwick thought that when the Central Committee 
met again the representatives of the various 
societies interested would think that progress 
towards agreement had been made. 

She considered the politicar situation fairly hope- 
ful. It would have been mischievous to circulate 
the first Bill, as the fifth edition was much better. 
If the ad\asers of the College agreed to the amend- 
ments proposed, then when the Bill was printed 
she hoped it would be widely circulated so that 
the nursing profession at large might e.xpress its 
opinion upon it. The National Union of Trained 
Nurses had its delegates upon the Central Com- 
mittee, and they should not permit any Bill to 
pass into law without serious consideration. 

As the time allotted to the consideration of 
this subject had come to an end, the Chairman 
closed the discussion, and during an interval tea 
was most hospitably pro\ided, and informal 
discussion of the subject continued over the 

We shall conclude the report of this Conference 
next week, but may here state that the feeling 
of the meeting was in favour of a Conference in 
the autumn convened conjointly by the National 
Council of Trsdned Nurses of Great Britain and 

Ireland and the National Union of Trained Nurses 
at which important nursing questions could ;^be 
discussed. (7^0 be covchidcd.) 


During the conti'oversv wliich has taken place 
since the College of Nursing scheme has been 
before the nursing profession and which must be 
judged not by intentions but by its printed 
Memorandum and Articles of Association, it has 
been keenly criticised by the nurses' societies 
associated to obtain the organisation of the 
nursing profession by Act of Parliament, and in 
our opinion the criticisms have been reasoned, well 
controlled and, as events have proved, effectual. 

The leaflet issued by the Society- for the State 
Registration of Nurses for the information of the 
nursing profession, based on the printed Memo- 
randum of the College, has been widely read, by 
the wise to their enlightenment and by those 
who are not wise with resentment. 

Now that we are aU li\ang in hope tlaat the 
Central Committee for State Registration and 
the Nm'sing College may come to agreement on 
a Nurses' Registration Bill and combine to have 
it made law, we have no hesitiition in expressing 
the opinion that had Mr. Stanley, who launched 
the College scheme, taken the attitude a less 
generous man might have done and resented or 
ignored the expression of expert opinion upon 
the part of the nurses' organisations the present 
hopefnl position would never have been attained. 

A W'ord, therefore, in the ear of those members 
of the College Council -who, ha\-ing accepted office, 
are inclined to assume the attitude that criticism 
of the present constitution of the College by their 
colleagues is somewhat superfluous if not heretical. 

Because we have stated emphatically that we, 
as professional women, object to the organisation 
of the nursing profession by a limited liability 
company of laymen, to being governed by a 
nominated council, to ha\ing nursing educational 
and registration standards defined by such an 
authority without discussion or consent,' and 
indeed to being denied the use of our reasoning 
faculties, we are told we are " abusing the College " 
and we are " not giving it a fair chance." 

This is nonsense. 

Those who control the destinies of the College 
of Nursing have been quick to grasp the fact tliat 
once the fundamental principles, for w~hich clear- 
tliinking nurses have been working with the 
utmost self-sacrifice for years, have been accepted 
by them, and a revised constitution adopted by 
Parliament, criticism will have afiained its object 
and harmony may result. 

We registrationists impugn the integrity of 
no one in this controversy, though we nray fail 
to approve their judgment. For ourselves we 
shall continue to exercise the reasoning faculties 
w ith which we have been endowed, and upon all 
counts Mandarinism will be gently and firmly 

July 8, 1916 

Zbc »ritl9b 3ournal of "WuremQ. 



Our foitnisht at Jordans h;is come to an cud, 
and a more ideal lioliday for a nurse it would be 
difficult to tiiul. Wc came tired out in body 
and in mind ; wc are going back to work, refreshed 
and with rtmewed strength to meet the round of 
tasks and especially the little worries that tire 
more than actual physical work. 

We were not under canvas, as the word " camp " 
might suggest, Init were housed in a delightfully 
quaint old hostel in the most peaceful spot 
imaginable. Jordans is a district made famous 
bv its associations with William Penn, the founder 


of Pennsylvania, and with other great Quakers. 
In fact, the hostel still belongs to the Society of 
Friends, and the spirit of those who sufEercd in 
days gone by for conscience's sake still secn\s to 
breathe a peace over the jilace, and the little 
Meeting House in the woods quite near. 

In all we numbered tliirty-nine. Those not 
fortunate enough to get the whole fortnight 
came for shorter periods, such as week-ends or 
even for one day. Various jiarts of England 
were represented and also ever\- branch of nursing, 
military, civil, hospital, private, district and those 
doing missionary work abroad. Amongst the latter 
wc had the very great pleasure and also privilege 
of meeting three lady doctors, one from Cliina and 
two frotn Persia, also seven nurses from various 
stations in India, China, and Africa. 

With the exception of the last few clays, the 
weather was beautifully line, but even the clouds 
and showers of those days did not prevent the 
energetic from enjoying the delightful walks 
which abound roimd Jordans. The field paths 
were a great joy, and the many stiles and gates 
to be clinrbed gave rise to no end of fun. 

The daily programme was much as follows. We 
were called at 8 a.m. and a cup of tea was brought 
to us. How we did enjoy that ! Our kind 
friends on the stafi of the League never forgot for 
a moment that we were nurses, and did everything 
in their power to give us a thorougldy good time. 
To them wc owcllalilgreat deal for the homely 
atmosphere which they created here and for the 
vryy jolly times which we had. 

Breakfast was at 9 
o'clock, followed at 
9.30 by prayers. From 
twelve to one was 
given to Bible Study 
Circles 01 to addresses, 
the latter being a series 
on "The Morning 
Watch." From those 
we learned much to 
help us in our daily 
path and also how to 
p^akc the most of 
the few minutes that 
nurses can spare in the' 
morning for prayer 
arid Bible reading. 
For the study circles 
we took the League 
duly Bible portions 
and studied them 
along with the " pink 
notes " and the help 
of our leaders. Those 
hours were very 
precious and went all 
too quicldy. How 
many of us realise 
what a mine of wealth 
our Bibles arc and 
that the riches con- 
tained in them are all 
ours if we choose to dig for them ? 

Dinner was at i p.m. and tea at 4. With the 
exception of one day we always had tea outside. 
It was gicat fun carrying the things out to the 
fields or garden. One afternoon wc had a real 
picnic in the woods. We made a fire in an old 
tree stump and boiled a huge kettle over it. It 
was a real gipsy camp for the time being. On 
such occasions cameras were not far away, and the 
snapshots taken then will remind us for many a 
long day of the happy times here. 

Supper was at 8.30 p.m. and every evening 
after that wc had addresses on various subjects, 
amongst them being, " The National Mission, and 
how we can all Help," " Jov in Service," " The 
parables in St. Luke xv," and' the " Te Deum as a 
tremendous declaration of our Faith even in the 


Zbc »rttt0b 3ournal of Wurelnfl. 

July 8, igi6 

present day when sorrow and suffering are e\-ery- 
whcrc around us." Our missionary friends gave 
us most interesting talks about tlieir work. These 
talks^made tlungs so"much more real to us all than 
reading about the places and people in magazines. 
They were one of the great pri\dleges of " Camp." 
When we hear that one trained nurse or perhaps 
a nurse and a doctor are the only means of 
relieving suffering and disease in districts about 
the size of a quarter of England, dare we say that 
the need abroad is not pressing ? Certainly the 
need at home is very great also, but there are many 
m.ore to meet it. 

With the free times during the day, we did as we 
each felt inclined. Those who were not so tired 
explored the country in all directions, while the 
more weary ones enjoyed themselves in camp 
chairs and had a proper " lazv " out in the fields, 
in the gardcjn or on the \-erandah which is in 
front of one of the old barns. One afternoon we 
drove to Burnham Beeches ; it was a glorious 
afternoon and everytliing looked lovely. 

I must not forget to mention last Sunday 
morning at the Meeting House. Friends come from 
far and near to sit in silence and to wait upon 
God. Some of us joined them that morning and 
the whole atmosphere of the place seemed to be 
■filled with an unseen Presence. It was very 
wonderful and we shall not soon forget it. 

Now our happy holiday is over, but/the strength 
received ivom it ought to carry us through many 
days of work for Him and His. We only wish 
that more nurses would come to " camp " and 
see for themselves what a reallv delightful 
holiday it is. 

A Member of the N.M.L. 


A drawing-room meeting, to secure wider 
interest in the Imperial Xurses' Club, was held at 
Sunderland House, Mayfair, on Thursday, June 
29th, by the kind permission of the Duchess of 
Marlborough. Lady Codrington occupied the 

.TlMajor-General Sir Alfred Turner, K.C.B., in 
eulogising our heroic men engaged in this war of 
liberation, implied that special courage and 
endurance were required to meet an enemy of 
so cruel and barbarous a nature. Admitting that 
the Empire owes her first deep debt of gratitude 
to her soldiers, he remarked with emphasis, the 
debt was secondly due to the nurses. It was 
difficult to believe, he said, that this beneficent 
nstitution (of trained nursing) did not exist 
fiit>^ or sixty years ago. 

After some amusing allusions to the clcissical 
examples of incompetence — Sarah Gamp and 
Betsy Prig — Sir Alfred referred to our great 
protagonist and her wonderful achievements in 
the Crimea, which led her afterwards to found 
Professional Nursing. He entirely approved of, 
and sympathised with the object of the meeting, 
and wished it success. 

Major W. McAdam Ixcles, M.S., F.R.C.S., 
K.A.M.C, T., gave a biief survey of the nurses 
of other coimtries, and compared them with our 
own, beginning at Berlin, which city he visited 
in igi2 for a two-fold purpose, namely, (i) to see 
the working of the Insurance Act, and (2) to see 
modern medical education : Tliis latter he found 
to be excellent, especially on the side of science. 
In tliis respect German hospitals are good ; but 
on the nursing side the speaker said he was very 
much sb'uck with the backwardness of the system, 
more especially with the inadequacy in numbers. 
He instanced a hospital of 600 beds staffed by 
42 nurses only. The Virchow Hospital, which is 
a memorial hospital to that great scientist three 
miles out of Berlin, contains 2,000 beds. The 
same inadequacy was observed. Major Eccles 
asked the surgeon how abdominal cases were 
nursed under these circumstances. The reply 
was that the convalescent patients looked after 
them ! 

Major Eccles gave unstinted praise to France 
and America. Returning to the more immediate 
subject of the meeting, he spoke with evident 
and pardonable pride in his own counti'y, and 
his countrywomen. Within twentj^-four hours of 
the declaration of war the Territorial Force 
Nursing Service had mobilised and the nurses 
were at their posts. According to military 
regulations, a hospital must contain 520 beds and 
be staffed by 90 nurses. This compares favourably 
with 42 nurses to 600 beds in a German hospital. 

" Tlae nurses have been a little bit overlooked," 
said the speaker. " Although our men deserve 
well of us," he added, " 50 do the mirses." He 
considered the projected Imperial Nurses' Club 
was^|badly needed, both for the nurses of Great 
Britain and those of the Overseas Dominions. As 
Treasurer, he pleaded for funds. /|5,ooo was 
needed, and a tenth of that sum had already been 
subscribed. " Anything for the Nursing Pro- 
fession must be good, therefore the Club must be 
a good one." The sum mentioned is required for 
initial expenses and general upkeep for two years. 
The Club is to be a social and not a residential one. 

Lieut.-Colonel Nestor Tirard, M.D., F.R.C.P.. 
R.A.IM.C, proposed a vote of thanks to Lady 
Codrington for presiding, to the Duchess of 
Marlborough for so kindly lending her house, and 
to the speakers. Miss C. H. Mayers seconded, and 
a hearty response was given. 

Miss Cox-Davies was also one of the speakers. 
She contiiiended the scheme to the generosity of 
the public. A collection was taken, during which 
a lady musician played delightfully on the piano. 
The meeting then terminated. 

I have before me the notes of what Dr. A. J. 
Rice-Oxley had intended to say if he had not been 
unavoidably prevented from attending the meet- 
ing. He is evidently all for making the Club as 
social as possible, so that the members can 
get away from work and worrjr and throw off 
restraint. His ad\-ice is that the nurses should be 
hampered with as few rules as possible, and he 
sounds a very necessary note of warning where our 

Julv 8, 1016 

^be Britisb 3ourna[ of IRurelno. 


Bein^ the TraUcdy of 
the Refugees in Russia 

By \' I O L E T T A Til IKS T A N 
Crown 8vo, cloth. 2 6 net 
" The greatest traijedy of the War is not 
seen upon the battlefield." 

This is a vivid account of the tragedy which 
overtook the J^ussiau civilian population during 
the German advance of igi^. The title of the book 
is taken from the Russian -vord for refugees, 
" Bajant^e," meaning " The people -xho run." 

Field Hospital and Flying 

Column. Being the Journal of an 
English Nursing Sister in Belgium 
and Russia. By \joi.etta Tiu rsian. 

Crown 8vo, clolli. 2 6 net 

" Miss Thurstan tells her story, which is full 

of incidents of adventure, of personal danjjer 

willingly endured, with the restraint of the 

professional N'urhO." — British Journal oj Xursing. 

The Case of Edith Cavell. 

A Study of the Rights of Non-Combatants. 

By James M. Beck. 6d. net 

Late .Assistant .Attorney-General of the United 


Text-Book of Materia Medica 

for Nurses. Complied by Lavinia L. Dock. 
Fourth Edition, Revised in conformity to the 

British Pharmacopzeia. 

Crown 8vo, cloth. 5/- net 

"The book is full of information of the greatest 

value to Nurses, and a copy should be in every train. 

ing school library." — British Journal of Xursing; 

Physics and 

Chemistry for 
7 6 net 

By .A.Mv E. Pope. 8vo, cloih. 

" ' Physics and Chemistry for Nurses ' . . 
is a work which fills a long-fclt want. . . . 
An important feature of Miss Pope's volume is 
that it includes not only elementary Chemistry 
but the Chemistry of cooking and cleaning." 

Practical Nursing. 7/6 net 

A Text-Book for Nurses. 

By .\nsa C. .Maxwell and .\mv E. Poi'E. 
Third Edition, h'evised and Enlarged. 

"The range of inforni.Htion is unusually 
wide." — Westminster Gazclli'. 

A Medical Dictionary for 

Nurses. 3/6 net 

Giving the Definition, Pronun 
ciation, and Derivation of Terms 
used in Medieine. 

By Amy E. Pope. 

" The best book of its kind that has ever been 

published."— Sr;7/iA foumal of .Vursing. 


24. Bedford Street. Struiid. London. 


Breast-fed Entirely 
Through Virol. 


32, Olive Street, Liverpool, 
26th March, 1915. 

In July last my triplets were born ; one did 
not survive his birth and another was a mere 
skeleton, so that we never {bought he would 
live. I had been ill for months before they 
were born, and was so weak afterwards that 
when they were two months old I felt 
unable to continue to breastfeed them. 1 
was advised to take N'irol ; my health im- 
proved so much that 1 was able to breastfeed 
them entirely till they were nine months old. 
As to the twins, from small ailing babies 
they have grown into fine strong children. 

I am in great anxiety, as tny husband was 
at the front, and has been missing since 
December, and feel sure I should never 
have been able to feed the two babies 
without the help of Virol. 

Annie Whitehead. 

Virol strengthens the mother and the child 
through the mother. It is invaluable to both in 
the critical months preceding birth and after. 



In-Glass and Stone Jars, 1,-, 1,8 & 2 11. 

VIROL. LTD.. 152-166, Old Street, E.C 

^be »dtl0b 3ournal of IRursinfi. 

July 8, 1916 










(Note the patent band 
around the teat grips tightly 

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Price 3^d. each. 

The "AGRIPPA" Band Teat 
will fit any Boat shape feeding 
bottle, arid will not slip off. 

Ml] The Teat and Valve can be sterilised 
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not be deteriorated thereby. 

The Patent Band 
Valve is devised 
according to the most 
up-to-date theories, and 
affords a means of regu- 
lating to perfection the 
flow of the milk food. 

Mothers write for 

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with the assurance that it 
will be well tolerated, pro- 
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efficient help in maintaining 
or restoring strength. 


Slough, Bucks, England. 



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SUCH is ihe most recent testimony to Sphagnol of a 
well-known London Surgeon. 
Sphagnol has for many years been used by hundreds 
ol Doctors with extraordinarily successful results m the 
treatment oi Eczema, Psoriasis, Acne, Dandruff, Rmg- 
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and inflammation. It is the standard remedy. 


Sphagnol has proved itself of equal value as 
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Sphagnol is a distillate ot peat, is antiseptic, possesses 
remarkable healing properties, and is easily applied. 

Test Sphagnol Free 


18 Queenhithe, Upper Thames St., London, E.C. 

July 8, igr6 

Cbe Srlttsh 3ournal of "Kuretnfl. 


profession is concerned. " Tlierc must," he says, 
" be no feeling of charity or patronage about the 
Club." This, of course, can be avoided by the 
members electing their own Committee and helping 
to manage their own afiairs — as they do in Nurses' 
Clubs in Dominions over Seas and in the States. 
Donations and applications (or membersTiip should 
be sent to Miss Mayers, lion. Sec, 52, Lower 
Sloane Street, London, S.W. 

B. K. 


The following members of the South African 
and East African Xursing Ser\-ices have been 
recommended for gallant and distinguished ser- 
\'ice in the field by Lieut. -General the Hon. J. C. 
Smuts, Commander - in - Chief East African 
Force, in a dispatch to the Secretary of State 
for War : — - 

South African Military Nursing Service. — 
Janet McLeash, Matron ; C. R. Norris, Nursing 
Sister ; B. Shepley, Nursing Sister. 

East African Nursing Service. — I. L. Majendie, 
Senior Nursing Sister ; R. Paul, Senior Nursing 
Sister ; E. B. H. Wormald, Nursing Sister. 


One of the sure signs of a conifortable hotne 
for nurses is the fact that they use it again and 
again. This is a very noticeable feature of the 
Kensington Gardens Nurses' Club, 56 and 57, 
Kensington Gardens Square, W., where Miss 
Bertha Cave spares no pains to make her guests 


Few nurses are satisfied when they have obtained 
a three years' certificate unless they have at 
least one extra qualification, and a very usual 
one desired is massage. In this connection we 
may mention that Mrs. Iloghton Stewart, St. 
Hilda's, 194, Marylebone Road, W., has an 
en^aable reputation as a teacher, and prepares 
pupils for all examinations of the I.S.T.M. 

A Provincial is the National Association of 
Trained Masseuses and Masseurs, 15, Piccadilly, 
Manchester, where the course is six months. All 
information may be obtained from the Secretary, 
15, Piccadilly, Manchester. 

Nurses who wish to take a course in dispensing 
should apply to Mr. J. E. Walden, Secretary, 
Westminster College for Lady Dispensers, 112, St. 
George's Road, Southwark, which has the reputa- 
tion of being a successful seliool. 

The General Meeting of the League of St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital Nurses, held on Saturday, 
July 1st, in the Clinical Theatre of the Hospital, 
was both well attended and interesting. We 
regret that pressure on our space compels us to hold 
over our report till our ne.xt issue. 



Lady WantajSe's Convalescent Hospital for Dis- 
charged Soldiers near Newbury. — Miss Juliet 
Curtis has been appointed Matron. She was 
trained at St. Bartholomews Hospital, E.C., and 
after acting for a time as Lady Superintendent of 
a Nurses' Home at Cambridge, returned to St. 
Baitholomew's Hospital as Sister, where for many 
years she w'as known as Sister Colston. 

Tuberculosis Hospital, Llangefin, Anglesey. — 
IMiss Jennett J. Williams has been appointed 
Matron. She was trained at the Royal Infirmary, 
Liverpool, and has been Assistant Jlatron, Joint 
Sanatorium, Heswall, Cheshire. 

Isolation Hospital, Mortlalte, S.W. — Miss L. 
Wood has been appointed Matron. She was 
trained at the Fever Hospital, Carlisle. She has 
been Night Superintendent Fever Hospital, 
Norwich, Sister in several isolation hospitals. 
Deputy Matron at Aitken Sanatorium, and Matron 
Amsworth Sanatorium for Consumptives, and 
Assistant Matron Military Hospital, Whitworth 
Street, Manchester. 

Anglo-American Hospital, Cairo. — Miss Gertrude 
Watkins has been appointed Matron of the Anglo- 
American Hospital, Cairo. She was trained at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, London, and has I'een 
Matron of Dr. Milton's Hospital, Cairo. 


Miss Mary H. Jones is appointed to Manchester 
(Harpurhey) . Miss Jones received general training 
at Birmingham Infirmary, district training at the 
Moseley Road Home, Birmingham, and holds the 
C.M.B. certificate. She has held various posts 
under the Institute, including that of Super- 
intendent of the Huddersficld Home. 

Miss Lena M. Milford is appointed to Gloucester 
C.N..\. as Assistant Superintendent. Miss Milford 
received general training at Paddington Infirniary, 
and district training at Gloucester. She holds the 
C.M.B. certificate. 

Miss Margaret Gwj-nne is appointed to Woolwich 
as Senior Xursc. 


New AppoiNTMrNTs. 

Russian Medical Relief Expedition (Sisters). — 

Miss E. Egerton, Miss J. Miller, ]Miss K. A. Smith. 

Friends' War Victims Relief Committee for 

Russia (Sister). — Miss L. Dawson. 

Exeter V.A . Hospital (Sister). — Miss C. Passmore. 

The administration of the Red Cross has been 
informed that Lady Sibyl Grey, representing the 
British Committee in the .\nglo-Ru.ssian Ambu- 
lance Column at the front in Russia, has been 
seriously but not dangerously w'ounded during 
hand-grenade practice. It appears that a grenade 
happened to be thrown tliiough an observation 
loophole in an armoured shelter in which Lady 
Sibyl Grey was. A splinter of the bomb pierced 
her upper jaw. She was sent to Petrograd, so 
let us hope there will be no serious result. 


^be Britiab 3ournal of "Rurgina. 

July 8, 191 6 


Members of the Royal British Nurses' 
Association are beginning to realise that the 
Incorporation of the voluntary register compiled 
by the College of Nursing by Act of Parliament, 
sounds the death-knell of the roll compiled by 
the R.B.N. A., and indeed of the necessity for 
the Association at all. At the recent annual 
meeting, Princess Christian, the President, 
remarked that she knew very little regarding 
the College of Nursing, but she should always 
do her best to maintain for the Association its 
own position and dignity. As two of its 
honorary officers, Dr. Bezly Thorne, the Chair- 
man, and Mr. Comyns Berkeley, the Hon. 
Treasurer, have both accepted office on the 

cuHiptlkd to own that a Bo»ird so constituted, 
to advise on highly specialised questions, such 
as the educational curriculum for the scientific 
profession of nursing, does not inspire us with 
much confidence. What does the average Poor 
Law Guardian know about Nursing Education? 

Per instance, we note that a Guardian who 
attended the recent meeting at St. Thomas* 
Hospital, in reporting the result to his Board, 
is reported to have made the astounding state- 
ment that " it " (the College) " was a move- 
ment to make nursing a close profession in the 
same way as the medical or legal profession. .A. 
certified nurse would require to have a certificate 
from the Royal College of Surgeons." The 
report was adopted ! ! 


buildinfr has been loaned to the Red Cross Society b> Mr. Ueorge B. Alder 
rest house for nurses at Aboukir. 

College of Nursing, the former as a \"ice- 
Prcsident and the latter as Hon. Treasurer, 
there should surely be some modus vivendi 
arranged between the two bodies, so that the 
nurse members of the R.B.N. A. who are regis- 
tered under a Royal Charter shall receive con- 

Many Boards of Guardians are responding 
to the invitation to nominate representatives 
on to the Consultative Board, to consist of 
450 persons, in connection with the College of 
Nursing. " From cuttings to hand, these are 
usually male members of the Board. We are 

The committee of the Ladies' .Auxiliary of 
the Dublin L'niversity Mission to Chota 
N'agpur„ India, desire to make known that the 
mission is in urgent need of the services of two 
fully trained nurses. There is a large women's 
hospital, also district and dispensary work. The 
mission staff includes two fully qualified medical 
women. The climate is good. Those interested 
should apply to Miss Gwynn, .Ashbrook, 
Clontarf, co. Dublin, for further information. 

It is difficult to ijnagine a more delightful 
rest house than that generously lent to the 
British Red Cross Societv bv ^Ir. George B. 

July 8, 1916 

Zb€ »riti0b 3ournal of ■Kuretng. 


Alderson as a rest house for British Nurses at 
Aboukir. Set in the midst of graceful palms, 
with wide verandas and shaded rooms, it seems 
an ideal place in which to gather up fresh 
energy for strenuous work. 


Lady Grogan, in an interesting letter in the 
Times, contributes some personal recollections 
of Sister Augustine, of Salonika, whose death 
we have already reported. 

Lady Grogan writes that for forty years 
Sister Augustine Bewicke had lived in the 
Balkans, she spoke six or seven languages with 
singular fluency, and was the friend and con- 
fidant of men and women of all nationalities — 
Turkish soldiers, Bulgarian komitadjis, Ameri- 
can missionaries, Albanians, Italian pensioners, 
French schoolgirls, foreign Consuls, special 
correspondents, and latterly a stream of French 
and British officers. To all who came to her. 
Sister Augustine had something to give. 

She had a boundless interest and delight in 
life, a bright intelligence, a gaiety of heart and 
ease in conversation, a charm which would have 
made her a notable member of any society ; she 
had a burning sympathy with the oppressed, 
and a radiant absolute confidence in Almighty 
God, which made her fearless for herself and 
for others. Her superiors, with the wise dis- 
cretion which characterises the Order of St. 
X'incent de Paul, allowed her a remarkable 
degree of liberty. She would ask a general 
f)ermission beforehand for all the unusual 
things she might wish to do during the coming 

Her happiest days were spent in relief work. 
Rough mountain roads, snow or rain, burning 
sun, miserable quarters at night, hostile Greeks 
or Turks, nothing daunted her if the {>eople 
could be reached, helped, or comforted. Lady 
Grogan recalls her joy w hen allowed to nurse 
a case of black smallpox in a hovel to which 
no one else would go; her unflagging spirits 
when she nursed almost single-handed in a 
hospital of sick and wounded through a cruel 
winter in Kastoria. She mentions also her 
courage in confronting high Turkish officials to 
ask for mercy for prisoners or justice for the 

It was wonderful to see this aged nun, her 
pale face lit by her ardent dark eyes, below the 
white papillons of her Order, her rosary in one 
hand, her ancient cotton umbrella in the other, 
addressing the assembled Council of a 
Kaimakam, or a group of Bulgarian insur- 
gents, or it might be the formidable Hilmi 
Pasha, or Enver Bey himself. She was a 
privileged f>erson to whom everyone must 
listen, whose petitions were seldom refused. 

An Improved Urine Bottle Holder. 

The illustration shows a holder which is used at 
the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 
U.S.A.. of which Mr. J. B. Howland \vrites in the 
Modern Hospital : — • 

" With us the practice of obtaining twenty-four- 
hour amounts of urine has become so general that 
it has proved very difficult to be sure that urines 
of all the patients have been correctly collected. 
In case the bottles are kept in the toilet rooms, 
there is great danger of specimens being thrown 
out or poured into the wrong bottle. To overcome 
this, we have made a five-pint bottle container as . 
suggested by our chemist, Dr. Willey Denis. The 
interesting features are as follows : 

" The holder, which is made of galvanised iron, 
is white enamelled. The bottom is openwork 
wire, to prevent the accumulation of dust, mois- 
ture. &c. The container is hung on the side rail 
of the bed, and because it is white it is not con- 


spicuous. A cork stopper is tied to the bottle to 
prevent loss. A small enamelled iron funnel is 
provided with each holder. If the patient is able, 
he pours the lu-ine into the bottle from his urinal ; 
if not, this is done by the nurse. 

" For genito-urinary cases, on constant drzunage, 
it also makes a convenient receptacle for collected 
urines. The cost to us of aU receptacles, 
unpainted, is §1.00 each." 

The Windermere Hair Net. 

A tidy head is one of the first essentials in a 
nurse, and a means to this end will be found in the 
Windermere Hair ICet, to be obtained from all 
leading drapers. 


In paT,Tnent for his marriage fee a soldier at 
Stevenage Parish Church tendered a gold coin, 
adding, " I kept it for the wedding ; I thought 
my wife was worth gold." 


Hbc »riti5b 3ounial of ■Kursing. 

July 8, igi6 


It was a happy idea of the Xational Society of 
Dav Nurseries, 4, Sydney Terrace, Fulham Road. 
S.W., to estabUsh a hoHday creche at Conewood, 
Camberlev, where httle children from the London 
creches can be sent for a fortnight or three weeks 
to spend their days in the open air among the 
health-giving Surrey pines. 

The Chairman of the Local Committee is Mrs. 
Francis Brenton, Colonel Sir Henry McCallum is 
Hon. Secretary and Treasurer, Dr. Law Adams 
and Dr. H. L. Lowis Hon. Physicians, and Miss 
Alice Mary Mason Matron. Miss Mason was 
trained at the Poplar and Stepney Sick Asylum, 
and has had additional experience in the care of 
children at the Hospital for Children in the 

while a number of the former have been named by 
donors of three guineas. The dining room is 
furnished with tables and chairs of a size to suit 
the children whose ages are between two and 
five, while in the adjoining room are little 
stretchers upon which thev all take a midday nap. 
London children are friendly little people, and, 
as will be seen in our illustration, are very content 
with their surroundings. They make a pretty 
picture on the lawn in their blue or pink overalls, 
and little white hats with ribbon band. That 
ribbon seems to be the joy of their hearts ; 
infantile as they are, they appreciate its value to 
the full. Amongst the attractions may be men- 
tioned a sandpit to play in, and chickens and 
rabbits to feed. It is all very homelike, happy 
and healthy, but one does not like to think of the 


Harrow Road, W., and at St. Mary's Nursery 
Training College, Belsize Lane, N.W. 

The Committee could scarcely have found a 
more ideal home for their experiment than Cone- 
wood, which has been lent them by Mr. William 
Watson, of Ascot, for three n^onths. It is a 
substantially built house, flooded with sunshine, 
with rooms well adapted for the purposes for which 
they are used, and at the back is a garden with 
spacious lawns, on which the children can play 
to their heart's content, while if it is wet there is 
the big playroom on the ground floor of the house. 

The neighbourhood has 0})ened its heart, and 
cots and other necessary furniture have been lent, 

day when tlie children return to the slums. 
Perhaps — who knows ? — the love of a coimtry life 
in after years mav date, for some of these children, 
from these days of their babyhood, and Conewood 
play a not unimportant part in attracting the 
slum-dwellers " back to the land." 

The Queen opened the new South London 
Hospital for Women, at Clapham Common, on 
Tuesday last. Her Majesty had a great reception, 
and amongst those presented to her was the 
Matron, Miss Jones Pearce. The purses pre- 
.sented contained /i,50O. With other gifts,£25,ooo 
was contributed. 

July 8. 1916 Gbe 56nti6b Scnrnal of IHursing. 

The Mellin's Food Method 

TXT'HERE hand-t'eeding is necessary c/o not expeiiment : give iVlclliii's 
"' Food — the Fresh Milk Food that for half a century has proved its 
safety and superiority In all parts of the world. , 

Mellins Food so "humanises" fresh cow's milk that, retaining all the vital elements which fresh milk 
alone offers — it becomes as acceptable, as easy of digestion and as safe and beneficial as mother's milk. 

Sir Thomas Barlow, Sir Lauder Brunton, L.R.C.P., L.R.C.S. 

K.C.V.O.. D.Sc. U..D. M.D., LL.D.. F.R.C.P. ■ i„ „„ „..^. have I f.mnd 

stated before the Local Govern- has stated: 'There was a con- Mellins Food to faii. I btlicve 

ment Board that "Certain mala- sensus of opinion that in the Melliiis Ftvxl with cows milk 

dies were introduced by sterili/a- longr run sterilized milk was to be infinitely preferable to those 

tion. It was well known that injurious to children, although foods which are described as 

children fed upon sterilized milk at first it might seem to do them ' perfect fixnls ' 'i'.<?m requiring no 

developed scurvy and rickets." good." addition of milk "U 

Mellin's Food is instantly adapted to the requirements of any child of any age or constitution.; and 
countless medical men, parents and nurses have testified to its unequalled body-building power. 

Mellin's Food 

TEST ■' MELLIN'S " ^ sample of Mellin's Food, with a most valuable book on " How to Feed the 

Baby," will be sent Free to any member of the Nursing Profession. Address: 

FREE Sample Department. MELLIN'S FOOD Ltd , PECKHAM, LONDON, S.E. 


Skilful and extensive advertising may sell a medi- only true and final test of real quality and 
cated wine, and general statements about medical intrinsic merit must be a complete analysis con- 
recommendations may aid such sale, but the firmed by specific clinical results. 


is a perfect combination of sound wine grown flavour are superior to all other medicated 
on ferruginous soil and the best extract of wines. The full analysis is printed on every 
English beef and malt. Its quality and bottle. 

2000 Clinical Reports made by fully qualified Doctors prove this superiority, the following are a sample: — 

I consider irom exhaustive test the nutrient and suniulating 1 I know 01 no preparation in the market equal to ' WiNox. and 
property ot " Wlxox " to be m aavance ot any other preparation | I cannot but think that it must — on its merits Iwcoroing more 
01 the kind that I have tried. widely known — win its wiy into the very front rank 01 Tonic 


Cr.*\k. L R.CP. 

I thin'it " Wixox " is far and away the best preparation of its 

kind, it is pleasant to take, and has a body in it which is not found ■ WiNox ■ is more pleasant to take than other 

msny other .Meal Wine that I know of. Tonic Wines. Desboroioh Bkodie. 

K. tJoKKKTs .^r R.CS !..> M.B., B.S, M.R.CS. 1..F;.C.1■ 


To obtain a First Trial 3/6 Bottle of Wioox for 2 6 cash, sii;n Ihi-. advertisement and lake it t.. your wine 
merchant, store, licensed .i^rocer. -.1 chemist, who wi.l allow you one shilling off the ?/6 price of a Full-sized Champagne 
Quart HfHtle 01 Winox. Thus v'u make this advertisement worth one shilling to you, iVt hereby authorise the 
licensed trader to accept this acl:citii(mciit for one shUliiie,. in part _ 

payment /or a bottle of Winex. .ihich amount ar will' fay him "^K^^^T TV T /'~X'X. y^ 
on receipt 0/ this advertisement it signed by customer. \(k » / I X. L I 1 ^K 

WIJ N Wy\, 

Full yamc ^ ^_ 


65, Loridon 'Wall. London, E.C. 

Zbc ©ritisb 3oiu'ual of IFlursiiiQ. juh s, 1916 



Always ask for 
the "oC" Brand 

TmS British article will alone give you perfect satisfaction. It is 
non-caustic and gives clear solutions. If you have not yet 
tried it, send a post card for a post-free sample. You will 
never be satisfied with substitutes after a trial of 


Obtainable of the Drug Departments in the Leading Stores in London, and 
Provincial Towns, and of all High-class Chemists. 


3 Tablets. A pure super-fatted Soap, made expressly for the toilet 
and also for the nursery. 

LYSOLINE. A Hair Tonic that should appeal strongly to nurses, who 
can appreciate the value of an hygienic and antiseptic tonic for the hair, 
it thoroughly cleanses the scalp and quickly removes dandruff and 
greasiness. Sold in bottles at 1/-. 




Warton Road, Stratford, London, E. 

July 8, 1916 

^be British 3ournal of ■Rursing. 



The war has caused an extraordinary demand 
on the great houses whicli supply medical and 
siu-gical appliances, surgical dressings, invalid 
dietary, nursing uniforms, and hospital equipment 
of all kinds, and it is testimony to the great business 
ability of these firms that tliey have risen to the 
occasion with extraordinary capacity, and that 
supphes pour out from their warehouses to meet the 
abnormal deniand, so that there is no serious 
shortage, and the needs of sick and wounded arc 
suppUed on requisition. 


Me.ssks. Allen A: IIanburys. 

A name wliicli is a household word for excellence 
is that of Messrs. Allen & f lanburys, 37, Lombard 
Street, E.G. The firm supplies not only hospital 
equipment, but surgical supplies and special invalid 
dietaries, the foods supplied as the .Ulenbury Diets 
are largely depended upon by nurses and midwivcs, 
and we must not forget at tile present time that it 
is not only the sick and wounded who need our care 
but the refugees. Such beneficent agencies as the 
British Women's Hospital in Petrograd would 
benefit greatly by consignments of such body- 
building supplies. 

We may once more draw attention to Bynogen, 
a nutrient and nerve restorative recently put on 
the market by tliis firm, and stated by a m.edical 
man to be a valuable preparation and a great 
improvement on its German-owned predecessor. 

It should further be noted that Messrs. 
Allen & Hanburys, Ltd., have successfully 
applied in the Patents Court for licence to 
manufacture Bromural in this country. Bromural 
is of the veronal type, but less toxic than veronal, 
and it was stated in support of the application 
that it was made at the urgent request of a large 
number of doctors in military hospitals. Bromural, 
which is a German patent, has not been importable 
since the outbreak of war, and no supplies are at 
present available. The firm intend to supply the 
drug under the name Dormigene as they think 
it undesirable to perpetuate the German name. 

Messrs. E. & R. Garrould. 
One has only to visit Messrs. E. & R. Garrould's 
Nurses' Salon in their establishment at 150, 
Edgware Road, W., to be assured of the p<jpularity 
of this firm with nurses, for invariably nurses, 
in uniforms of various hospitals and institutions 
are to be seen purchasing goods. Whether a 
niurse needs uniform, sUmdard nursing books, 
hospital supplies, furniture, linen, or travelling 
trunks, and much else besides, she will iind them 
ready to hand. We may specially draw attention 
to an invalid chair supplied by the firm, which, 
though compact is comfortable and roomy, 
the polished wooden frame has a cane seat and 
back, the wheels have rubber tyres and self- 
propelling rims and there is a sliding footboard. 

A more welcome gift for an invalid soldier, or 
indeed, for any invalid, it would be difficult 
to find. In it he can easily propel liimself about 
a room or a garden, and have a degree of the 
independence which is so dear to every human 
being. The firm also supply a sterling silver 
wristlet watch with radium dial on which the 
figures can be plainly read in the dark, and with 
a second hand. The watch is guaranteed, and its 
very moderate cost is 35s. 6d. 

The Hospitals & General Contracts Co. Ltd. 

Situated within a stone's throw of Oxford 
Circus, at 19-35, Mortimer Street, the Hospitals 
& General Contracts Co. is ideally placed, and is 
well known not only tliroughout the metropolis- 
but throughout the world. It is, moreover, its 
claim that anytliing wliich it does not stock it 
can prociu'e for customers, so it is small wonder 
that it has a very large and increasing clientele, 
and supplies numerous hospitals as well as in- 
dividuals, and that customers who find that 
their purchases are reliable in quality and 
moderate in price return again and again. 

The Nruses' Equipment Section, which is of 
comparatively recent date, has rapidly won its 
way into favour with niu'ses both at home and 
abroad. Every endeavour is made to meet their 
requirements, and its reputation is well established. 


If a body is to be well nourished it must be 
supplied with food which can be assimdhated. 
More especially is this the 'case when its health 
has been impaired by disease, wounds or nerve 
shock. Then we turn for assistance to well-known 
firms who have made a study of the question of 
" What foods feed us ? " and their practical 
answer is to place before us preparations which 
arc highly nutritious and easily assinilable. 


.\mongst these body builders is Virol, supplied 
by the firm of tluit name in Old Street, City Rofid, 
E.C. Virol, the basis of wliich is red bone marrow, 
malt extract, eggs and lemon juice, is now regularly 
supplied to more than 1,300 hospitals, sanatoria 
and clinics, a testimony to its utility wliich cannot 
be gainsaid. It is worth remembering in these 
days of lugh prices that the cost of Virol lias not 


Bovril, supplied by Bovril, Ltd., of Old Street, 
E.C, is a very favourite preparation with nurses, 
both for themselves and their patients. Those 
who have visited the headquarters of the firm 
use it with the more confidence, because they 
have seen the scrupulous care taken in its per- 
paration, and know that the meat used is derived 
from cattle reared on some of the finest pasture 
lands in the world, those of the Argentine Republic. 

Robinson's " Patent " Barley.^i 
ff It is well known tliat barley water is a nutritious 
as well as a palatable drink, especially when pre- 

^be Britieb 3ournal of IRursmg. 

July S, 1916 

pared with Robinson's " Patent " Barley, the 
puritv of wliich is guaranteed, supplied by Keen, 
Robinson tS: Co., Denmark Street, London, E. 


Mtafer is a concentrated tonic and nerve food, 
prepared by the well-known firm of Southall 
Bros. & Barclay, Ltd., Birmingham, of com- 
paratively recent date, but of well-established re- 
pute. It is \\-idely prescribed in cases of physical 
and nerve weakness, and, in addition to its own 
intrinsic merit, its increasing iise is no doubt due 
to the fact that it is British throughout ; 
and supersedes preparations formerly pushed 
by alien enemies. It is practicaUy tasteless and 
may be used either dry or in tea, cofiee, &c. 

Mellin's Food. 

IMellin's Fo^d. prepared by the company of 
this name, Stafford Street, Peckham, London, 
S.E., has a widespread repute as a food for both 
infants and invalids, warranted entirely free from 
starch. One of its distinguishing characteristics 
is its easy adaptability to the varying needs and 
requirements of diSerent cliildren. It is pre- 
pared by the addition of fresh milk, and water, 
in carefuUy graded quantities. As a diet for 
invalids, whether nursing mothers or those who 
need feeding up, one or two tablespoonfuls are 
taken in a tumbler of milk, hot or cold, when not 
onlv does it increase the nutritive value of 
the milk, but renders it more digestible, so 
that invalids who cannot digest plain milk 
find no difficults- in doing so. In addition 
Mellin's Food biscuits are suited for children 
after the weaning period as well as for convales- 
cents and aged and dyspeptic persons, and we 
may add at the present time persons who have 
been living on insufficient food, such as refugees, 
being easily digested as well as nutiitious. 

Horlick's Malted Milk. 

Horlick's Malted Milk, prepared by Horlick's 
Malted Milk Co., Slough, Bucks, is well known 
to nurses. They have tested both its palatabiUt\', 
and its re\'i\'ing and sustaining qualities at many 
exhibitions, and know it is a good thing. If 
testimony to this fact were needed it is to be 
found in the numerous letters the firm have 
received as to its value in circumstances in which 
it has been put to the severest test. 

Lactagol (E. T. Pearson & Co., Ltd., London 
Road, ^litcham, Surrey), is a body builder as to 
whose efficacy there can be no dispute, and when 
taken by nursing mothers whose milk is deficient 
in quality' or quantit\' it frequently enables them 
to nurse their infants successfully for the full nine 
months. A historic instance is one reported in 
the Lancet where a medical man called in to see 
a mother wth triplets which were not thriving, 
and losing weight, prescribed Lactagol, as the 
patient's milk was very deficient both in fat and 
proteid, with most satisfactory results. All 

three infants throve and the mother was able 
not only to feed them for the full period of 
lactation, but to carry out her domestic duties 
without fatigue. It will also be noted on page 43 
of this issue that Lactagol is given at the York 
Road Lying-in Hospital when the mother's 
milk is at all deficient. This is high testimony to 
its value. 

Bexger's Food. 
Benger's Food, suppHed by Benger's Food, Ltd., 
Otter Works, ^Manchester, is a preparation that 
few nurses would willingly be without. Both in 
the rearing of hand-fed infants, whose mothers 
are unable to supply the necessary nourishment, 
and also as an item in the dietary of the aged and 
invalids, Benger's Food is an old and tried friend 
of proved efficiency which can be prepared in a 
variety of ways, and is not only nutritious, but 
delicious. The firm issues a booklet which 
gives some [necessary information as to the 
methods of preparing the food — for the value of 
the most useful of foods may be minimised if the 
method of preparation is faulty — as well as some 
excellent recipes, and fuU particulars as to the 
natural digestive principles on which the food is 



Amongst many excellent disinfectants now 
procurable, none is of higher repute than Sanitas, 
one of those to be early placed on the m.arket 
which still maintains its place in the forefront 
rank. One of the points to be remembered about 
Sanitas is that it is not only an effective antiseptic, 
but it is non-poisonous and may safelv be used 
as a gargle. As a spray in a sick room its refresh- 
ing fragrance is appreciated by many invalids. 

Sanitas, which is prepared by the Sanitas Co., 
Ltd., Limehouse, E., forms the basis of many 
other preparations which may be thoroughly 

Some of the newer preparations of the firm, are 
" Potex," an embrocation which is being prescribed 
with very satisfactory results for the reUef of pain 
in some forms of rheumatism and lumbago : . 
" Kaytor," an antiseptic jelly used in the tieat- 
ment of hay fever and pruritis. and " Sanitas Anti- 
Verniin Paste," which might well be included in 
parcels sent to men at the Front, and we are sure 
would be most welcome. 


Nurses will note with satisfaction that " L " 
Brand Lysol, as supplied by Lysol, Ltd., Warton 
Road, Stratford, is British made and British 
owned. Lysol is a very favourite preparation 
with nurses and midwives, and, with this assur- 
ance, they will have every confidence in using it. 

Important points in regard to " L " Brand 
Lysol are that it is miscible in chloroform, alcohol, 
and glycerine without becoming cloudy or turbid, 
and that it possesses no caustic or corrosive action. 
The purest caustic potash — as distinct from 
caustic soda — is used in its preparation, and the 

July 8. igi6 

^be ^ritisb 3ournal of l^ureina. 


percentage of tree cresols contained in " L " 
Brand Lysol is maintained at a constant 50 per cent 

Amongst other specialities of this firm are Lysol 
Toilet Soap, a very pleasant soap for personal 
use ; Lysol Surgical Soap, containing 10 per cent. 
Lysol; Lysolan, an antiseptic ointmept; Lysoline, 
a hair tonic; and Pascarel, a new antiseptic liquid 


Most people know that Sphagnol Preparations, 
supplied by Peat Products (Sphagnol) Ltd., 
18 and 19, Upper Thames Street, E.G., are, as 
their name implies, peat derivatives. They aie 
prepared by the calcination of the peat, and have 
been proved to be both useful and inexpensive 
germicides. The preparations include medical 
soap 15 per cent, strength, toilet soap 5 per cent, 
strength, shaving soap 5 per cent, strength, 
ointment 10 per cent, and sphagnoline cream 
10 per cent. It has been used with success not 
only in the treatment of eczema, dermatitis, 
priuritis and other skin troubles, but the pro- 
prietors have received striking testimony from 
surgeons and officers at the Front as to its efficacy 
in the treatment of trench soreS, face wounds and 
insect bites. 


Toxol, supplied by Boots Pure Drug Co., Ltd., 
Nottingham, was prepared by them in the early 
days of "the war, with the object of replacing the 
German-owned Lysol, and has rapidly won its 
way into favour. It consists of cresol dissolved in 
liquid soap, and so has cleansing as well as disin- 
fecting properties. WTiile it will not corrode 
instruments, or injure bedding, in specified strength 
it dissolves grease, mucus, and other secretions. 
It is therefore, suitable lor use for a variety of 
purposes, as a disinfectant and deodorant, and may 
be employed not only where illness exists, but as a 
loutine practice from time to time in ordinary 
house cleaning, in order to act as a preventive. 


One of the signs of good nursing is the care 
bestowed on a patient's mouth, so that it is kept 
free from sores, moist and clean. A great ally 
of the nurse in this work is Listerine, prepared by 
the Lambert Pharmacal Company, St. Louis, 
the British agents being Maw, Son & Sons, of 
Aldersgate Street, E.G. A teaspoonful used in a 
glass of water is a pleasant and effective mouth 
wash. It is besides useful as an antiseptic lotion 
and as a gargle and douche in a prescribed dilution. 


During serious illness, or to combat the con- 
ditions caused by such illness, tonic wines are often 
prescribed, and under medical direction may 
prove of considerable benefit. 

Hall's Wine. 

Hall's Wine (Messrs. Stephen Smith & Co., Ltd., 

is a restorative, every bottle of which is guaranteed, 

and which has stood the test of over a quarter of a 

century. The original formula was evolved by a 

member of the medical profession to aid in com- 
batting conditions of overstrain and nerve weak- 
ness, and since that time it has become known all 
over the world as a valuable restorative in such 


" Winox Wine Food " (65, London Wall, 
London, E.C.) is a preparation, the full formula of 
wliich is printed on every bottle, therefore ih pre- 
scribing it the medical practitioner knows exactly 
wliat he is giving, and it is claimed that the formula 
proves that Winox is free from any injurious drug, 
and that its strong tonic properties must neutralise 
any reaction possibly caused by the alcohol it con- 
tains, and that for this reason it cannot induce 
habits of intemperance. 


Another tonic wine is Wincarnis (Coleman & Co., 
Ltd., Wincarnis Works, Norwich), the ingredients 
of w-hich are standardised so that the dosage can be 
effectively controlled. The special points claimed 
for Wincarnis are that the primary effect is imme- 
diate stimulation and invigoration of the system, 
and the secondary an [upbuilding of mental and 
physical \ngour, and that as the secondary follows 
immediately after the primary effect, the up- 
building of bodily vigour occurs before the 
stimulating effect has worn off. 


Ingram's " Agrippa " Band Teat and Valve. 

Nurses and midwives do not need to be told the 
importance to the hand-fed baby of a teat which can 
be readily sterilised. This is one of the many 
advantages of Ingram's " Agrippa " Band Teat 
and Valve (J. G. Ingram & Son, Hackney Wick, 
N.E.) The Band Teat will grip on to any boat- 
shaped feeding bottle, and by means of the Patent 
Band Valve the flow- of food can be regulated to a 

The " Marmet " Baby Carriage. 

The " Marmet " (Messrs. E. T. Morriss & Co., 
Ltd., 139, Finchley Road, N.W.) is the last word 
in baby carriages, and any one thinking of in- 
vesting in so important an article should make a 
point of seeing the " Marmet " before coming to 
a decision. The fact that it has spiral springs 
attached to a continuous tubular steel frame- 
work makes its movements exceptionally gentle. 
It can be seen at the West-End at the Institute 
of Hygiene, 34, Devonsliire Street, W. 


We frequently recei\c enquiries as to what 
books on professional subjects nurses should read 
and where they may be purchased. Messrs. 
H. K. Lewis, Gower Street, W.C, are publishers 
who make a special point of supplying the needs 
of nurses, and their shelves, or their lists, if a 
personal visit cannot be, should be consulted. 

All nurses will also remember the many delight- 
ful books pubHshed bv Messrs. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons in making their selection. A nurse's book- 
shelf could be well stocked from their list alone. 


Cbc 36riti6b 3ournal of IRurstno. 

July 8, igi6 


"When you start by oversleeping, and the bath is 

bagged three deep, 
When you stagger to the window 'neath the blind 

to take a peep. 
When you find the snow is snowing, and it's murky 

When your room-mate has a day ofE, and lies snugly 

tucked in bed, 
When your cap falls in the coal-box and you lose 

your collar-stud, 
\Mien it's time to start, and then you iind your 

shoes are thick in mud. 
When you scramble in to breakfast, just too late 

to drink your tea — 
Don't grouse, my dear ; remember you're a " War- 
time V.A.D." 

When you start to scrub the lockers and the bowl 

falls on the floor. 
When you finish them and then j'ou find that they 

were done before. 
When you haven't got a hanky^ and you want to 

blow your nose, 
AVhen the patients shriek with laughter 'cos a bed 

drops on your toes. 
When you use the last Sapolio and can't get any 

When vou've lost the hey belonging to the Linen 

Cupboard door. 
When your head is fairly splitting, and you're 

feeling up a tree — 
Don't grouse, mv dear ; remember vou're a " War- 
time V.A.D'." 


When the Doctor comes into the ward, and each 

stands to his bed, 
When he asks you for a probe and you hand him 

gauze instead. 
When the Sister " strafes " you soundly 'cos 

Brown's kit is incomplete. 
When you take a man some dinner, and upset it 

on the sheet, 
W'hen you make the beds and sweep the ward and 

rush with all vour might, 
When you stagger off duty and the \\Tetched fire 

won't light. 
When you think of those at home and long for 

luxury and ease — 
Don't grouse, my dears ; remember you're the 

" War-time V.A.D's." 

When your name's read out for night shift and 

they leave vou on your own, 
When you're suddenly in darkness and you hear 
' the telephone. 
When you crash into a coko-bin as you rush to take 

the call. 
When they tell you there are Zepps, and that you 

mayn't have lights at all. 
AVhen you go into the kitchen and a rat runs 

through the door. 

When it chases you into a chair, and both fall on the 

When you try to eat your iood, mistaking paraffin 
for tea — 

Don't grouse, mv dear ; remember you're a " War- 
time V.A.E)." 

Leslie M. Godd.\rd. 

" The Gazette," ^rd London General Hospital. 



Reallv good literature in fiction is as rare as 
it is satisfying. When it is combined with a really 
interesting study of men and things, the reader 
can settle himself or herself down to a real — if 
short — respite from the stern realities of the 
present time. Xot that the story under con- 
sideration deals with the pleasanter aspects of 
human nature ; rather, it is of one of the, perhaps, 
most soul destroying — the successful manufacturer, 
whose higher aspirations have been swamped in 
■the pursuit of success, and who. when it is attained, 
fails to use it as a means of rising' to a higher and 
purer atmosphere. The tragedy of his son 
Edward's life — for a life lived in a wholly un- 
congenial environment must always be a tragedy — • 
is the chief centre of the story. It was said of an 
older WiUis that he had not worshipped gold but 
the iron of his factory. The thoroughly common- 
place and unimaginative Willis is drawn with 
the discriminating and critical pen which marks 
Mr. Brett Young's writings. 

" The green fringe of the Black Country," 
was the way Mr. Willis describsd his surroundings. 
" Southwards you can see a long way — Worcester 
Cathedral — I haven't been there for years. My 
son' Edward would take you with pleasure. Did 
^Irs. Willis show you the fish pond ? . . . We're 
very homely people." depreciating with a smile 
the veh-ety lawns, the elaborate lounge chairs 
wdth their red cushions disposed under the spread- 
ing cedar, the heavy silver tea-tray- at which 
Mrs. Willis sat pouring, rapt in the drone of her 
husband's voice. 

Charles Stafford, the newly married engineer, 
was a great acquisition to the firm. " This new 
steel of Mr. Stafford's is going to be a big affair." 
His wife was a languid, rather contemptuous 
beauty, who appealed to Edward on the night 
they 'first dined with the Willis's. Her thick 
chestnut hair and milk>' -white shoulders reduced 
the men on either side of her to the level of a 
setting. She alone seemed wilfully to detach 
herself from the little lighted area aroimd and 
above the dinner table. She was listening for her 
husband's voice. It came rather fresh through the 
bland atmosphere — ^with the mean accent of the 
Midlands. Edward, looking at the husband, 
wondered where in the world the man had picked 
up the idea of tucking a silk handkerchief into 
his shii't front. 

* By E. Brett Young. Martin Seeker. London. 

July 8, igi6 

Cbc Britieb 3ournal of Burslnc. 


Lilian, ICdward's half-sister, was described as a 
nice girl, but so colourless. Colourless and un- 
interesting she was, no doubt, and plain, and, in 
spite of their money, badly dressed and dowdy- 
Edward was fond of her, but he was a beauty- 
lover, and an idealist. It was soon evident that 
he was attracted by Mrs. Stafford, and she — well, 
her husband had only been a means of escape from 
her brother's country parsonage. At first quite 
an innocent ftiendship, though good, prin^ I^ilian 
at once took e.xception to his friendship with a 
married woman. 

" Looking back over the sixteen years of life 
in his father's factory, Edward felt that every one 
of them had been wasted. One lived in an 
atmosphere of dull prosperity, making much 
money, spending it freely ; condemned to make 
money and spend it ; to go on spending and making 
money for ever." In sucli an atmosphere it was 
little wonder that Celia's beauty and surface charm 
should grow upon lum and arouse him to all that he 
had missed in life. 

" She had implied more trouble in her life than 
she had ever disclosed ; awakened a romantically 
passionate sympathy. It had made him seek her, 
and she had not been so elusive as he supposed." 

The conclusion of the book deals with tlireatened 
ruin of old Mr. Willis, which is only averted by 
the declaration of war, and its consequent large 
order for armam.ents. Old Willis is frankly 

" We've declared war on Germany ; you may 
thank God for that. . . . Do you understand, 
mother ? " 

" Over the cornticlds of that dim country above 
the HoUoway tlic summer night slept. Already 
in Belgiuni, amid other trampled corn, men who 
had little to gain lay screar.iingwitn their entrails 
in the dust." 

And Edward ! Well it struck him as vaguely 
humorous that it should take so great a thing as 
war to give hint courage to die. He walked into 
the recruiting office at the Horse Guards, and 
took an oath which meant as little to him as to 
many of the men who followed him. 

- . . . H. H. 


July loth. — Women's L<jcal Government Society 
Conference of Representatives of Affiliated Asso- 
ciations on the Recommendations of the Royal 
Comniission on Venereal Diseases, 88, Lancaster 
Gate. 3 p.m. 

July i^th. — fleeting of the Central Committee 
for the Stiite Rcgisti-ation of Nurses, Council 
Chamber, British Medical Association, 429, Strand, 
W.C. 2.30 p.m. To consider the Nurses' Regis- 
ti-ation Bill and the Memorandum and Articles of 
Association of the College of Nursing, Ltd. 



" Ships sail east, and ships sail west, 
By the very same gales that blow, 
'Tis the set of the sail, and not the gale. 
That determines the way they go." 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon- 
all subjects Jor these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

To the Editor o/TuE BRvnsn Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — There was once a dear little 
girl, who, when she said her Creed, affirmed her 
belief in the " Recreation of the Body." A very 
good article of faith, too. Let's get on with it.. 
But how ? That's the question. 

It would be quite nice, if some of the Journal 
readers would give some of their ideas on Recrea- 

Duty is an admirable thing, but it does not 
do to become like the grave-digger who, when he 
had a holiday, went to .see how they dug graves 
in a neighbouring churchyard. 

Change of environment is an essential part of 
real recreation and there are very few who 
cannot attain this in some degree. 

Personally, I think a visit to the East End 
of London very stimulating ; this is, of course, 
a matter of taste. A short time since, being 
wearied with the conventional tv'pe of congre- 
gation, I paid a \-isit to a church in a very poor 
neighbourhood, where the parson is the friend of 
his shabby flock. 

There were lots of ceremonial and flow^ers and 
lignt, as was fitting in a neighbourhood where all 
is dull and ugly. It was the old gospel service 
tliat was being recited, and while the poorly-clad 
mothers were joining with " Angels and arch- 
angels and all the company of Heaven " in tlxeir 
praises, it seemed quite natural that a chubby 
infant should squat in the centre aisle and gravely 
play with its doll. Tlie padre was not in the 
least upset that he nearly cruslied the doll's 
bonnet when he knelt to pray among them ; 
nor was he disconcerted by the e\'idcnt impression 
of the babe that he had come there with the sole 
intention of pla^dng " peep-bo " with her. 

It was certainly unconventional that he should 
rise from his knees and say, " Now, my dears, don't 
let's forget the others " ; and that we — -mothers, 
babies and the rest — should follow him to the 
" War Corner," where cheap photographs of 
husbands, fathers and sweethearts in khald were 
nailed up around the Crucifix. We all prayed after 
him that the boys they lo\-cd might be preserved 
from drunkenness, impurity, from grievous wounds 
and poisoned gas, and all other ills of body and 

I had that Sunday morning " a nice change," 
and — as refreshment — it lingers still. But, as I 
said before, it's a matter of taste. H. H. 


To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — I was glad to hear Miss 

Haughton speak of the courtesy and amiability 


Zhc Britisb 3ounta[ of IRursino. 

/»/y 8, 1916 

of the Hon. .\rthur Stanley when she addressed 
a meeting at the Midmves' Institute and Trained 
Nurses' Club, on the evening of June 23rd, on 
the subject of the College of Nursing. IVIr. 
Stanley has certainly shown a breadth of 
mind, a tolerance of criticism, and a readiness 
to learn the truth about the Reform Move- 
ment of the Nursing Profession, things of 
wliich — to use his own words — he was entirely 
ignorant. We are grateful to him for it. The 
pit\' of it is, that those who have associated them- 
selves with him in the scheme, ha\e not followed 
his lead a little more closely. What particularly 
struck me at this meeting was an intolerance of 
criticism. Is it possible that the members of the 
College of Nursing Council suppose that a scheme 
of this sort, which will so vitallv affect the present 
and future generations of nursing, is to be rushed 
through without criticism ? Criticism which has 
been passed upon the scheme was alluded to at 
this meeting as a grievance. Why ? Is it not 
always acknowledged to be a wholesome thing ? 

As a fully-trained nurse and one who has had 
considerable and varied experience in the nursing 
world, I claim for myself and others a perfect 
right to criticise. Criticism does not mean 
antagonism — a thing I always try to avoid. As 
a member of the State Registration Society — 
which stands for liberty of conscience and freedom 
of speech — I am heartily thankful that there has 
been so much criticism about the College of 
Nursing, because many much-to-be-desired changes 
have been made in the original scheme in conse- 
quence of it. It has now adopted our State 
Registration policy, and it seems higlrly probable 
that an agreement will be reached between the 
two parties. 

I am a week late in sending this letter, the reason 
being that a request was made from the chair 
that no press notices should appear, but as I see 
an evidently inspired account of the meeting has 
been published in a weekly journal for nurses, I no 
longer feel under an obligation to keep silence. 
Beatrice Kent. 


To the Editor oj The British Journal of Nursing- 
Dear Madam, — From a paper to hand I note 
the College of Nursing, Limited, has begun to 
compile a voluntary list or register under 3 
standards : — (i) Nurses holding a certificate or 
certificates of three years' training ; (2) Specially, 
I presume, for the London Hospital, nurses 
holding a two vears' certificate and. two years' 
service, and (3) Nurses with training to the satis- 
faction of the Council. Can you tell me if cottage 
and village nurses are being accepted under 
the latter clause and w-ill rank in a general register 
with No. I class ? 

Yours truly, 
Birmingham. ' M. C. F. 

[We shoqld advise you to apply to the Secretary, 
College of Nursing, Limited, 6, \'ere Street, 
London, W. We think the nursing profession 
has a right to this information. Of course under 

an Act of Parliament, during a term of grace, 
provision has to be made for existing nurses, but 
presumably only for those who are adequately 
trained. " Cottage nurses " cannot be classed as 
" trained." They are useful " cottage helps " 
and should be " certified midwives." When 
used as " private nurses " they are out of their 
element, and the fees sometimes charged by 
associations for their services out of all propor- 
tion to their so-called training and standard of 
knowledge. — Ed ." 


To the Editor of Tub British Journal of Nursing. 
■ Dear Madam, — I should be extremely grateful 
if you will allow me, through ^'our paper, to make 
an appeal for recruits on behalf of the new and 
important work now spreading throughout the 
country — that of Women Patrols and Women 
Police. Women of education, tact, common-sense 
and perseverance, with previous experience in 
some branch of Social Service, such as Nursing, 
Club-work, Health Visiting, &c., are urgently 
needed to fill posts now offering as Policewomen, 
Patrol-Leaders, &c. The course of training before 
appointment depends upon indi\'idual needs and 
qualifications, and the pay, when posted, ranges 
from 30s. to 40s. a week. 

At a time like the present, when too much cannot 
be done to protect and stimulate the moral growth 
of our national girlhood, it would be disastrous to 
neglect the opening offered for work to Women 
Patrols and Women Police ; and if any of your 
readers wish to offer themselves for training, or to 
make further enquiries, I shall be very glad indeed 
to hear from them. 

D. A. G. Peto, Director, 
Bristol Training School for Women 
Patfols and Police. 

5, Belgrave Road, 

T^^ndalls Park, Biistol. 


July i^lh. — What diseases may flies convey ? 
Wliat would you suggest to prevent the presence 
of flies in hospital wards containing cases of 
infectious disease ? 

July 22nd. — If it is decided under medical 
advice that an infant shall be weaned, w-hat 
special points would you observe in the care of 
the mother and child ? 

July 2<-)th. — What methods have you seen 
eniploved for the treatment of infected wounds, 
and with what results ? 


In order to conform with the wishes of the 
Government in regard to economy in paper it is 
important that the copies of newspapers published 
each week should approxinaate to the demand 
for them. Readers of this Journal will, therefore, 
help materially if they will place a regular order for 
their copy with their newsagent, price id. weekly, 
or with the Manager, British Journal of 
Nursing, 431, Oxford Street, London, W., 
6s. 6d. per annum, post free. 

/«;y8, igiG CTbe Brtnsb 3onrnal or Tluretng Supplement. 


The Midw^ife. 



Wednesday, June 28th. 
The subject of the clinical lectures on Wednesday 
morning, June 28th, was the ever new and ever 
interesting one : " The Baby." Sister and 
Sister Cullen conducted them. Everything con- 
cerning these interesting atoms is detailed upon 
the chart. The feeding, which, of course, com- 
prises weight and other things, was fully describsd. 
There is no stereotyped rule about the intervals 
of feeding ; some babies do ver\' well on three- 
hourly feeds, while others require to be fed more 
frequently. If a babj- is not doing well on the 
breast, it is put " on test," which is a simple, but 
efficient procedure. It is weighed before and after 
the meal. The test may prove that the baby 
is not able to take sufficient at one time, in which 
case it must be fed more frequently ; or it may 
prove that the mother's milk is at fault, in which 
case she is given " Lacfcigol " and a higher 
standard of diet ; and the baby is given cream. 
Sometimes it is necessary to supplement the 
mother's milk with the bottle. Sterilized milk 
and barley water are used in the proportion of 
one in three, in the place of Pasteurized milk 
which was formerly used. 

Premature Babies. 

The old-fashioned incubator appears to be 
out of favour and out of date, pretty generally. 
On the American continent, in up-to-date 
Maternity Hospitals, a specially constructed 
heated room is used. In York Road Hospital the 
same principle is followed. \ clothes horse is 
requisitioned as the frame-work of a tent ; it is 
<iraped with blankets, and an outer covering of 
sheets, a thermometer is hung inside, and a 
temperature of 70-80 is maintained. The babes 
wear a tiny suit of gamgee tissue with a cap of the 
same. They are rubbed with oil every other day. 
The first day they are fed on sterile water every 
three hours, followed later by whey, or dilute 
breast milk, or whey and cream. If mother's 
milk is not used, condensed milk, i in 16, is used, 
strength increased gradually. Peptonized milk 
is also used. 

The " premature bottle " is used for these 
cases. In appearance like a test tube, with a 
pointed end, to receive the nipple, and an india- 
rubber cork. 

The class was also shown a case of ophthalmia 
neonatorum being treated in the following way : — 
Boracic douche (one dram to the pint) every hour 
or hour and a half ; boracic ointment is applied 
afterwards to the lids. livery two or three hours 
a drop or t\vo of a 10 per cent, solution of 
argyrol or protargol is used. 

The Blood and Nerve Supply to the Uterus. 

Professor Arthur Keith's lecture on " The Blood 
and N'erve Supply to the Uterus " vvas much 
appreciated by the large number of post-graduates 
who assembled to listen to it on the afternoon of 
Wednesday, June 28th. 

The lecturer began by saying that the subject 
was a dry one, but it was necessary that these 
nerves and vessels should be studied by mid- 
wives. Ko one present could be otherwise than- 
fascinated by the subject, wluch, if it were dry, 
was made to blossom in an extraordinarily vivid 
manner by the learned lecturer. He illustrated 
his lecture by models wliich he filled in with the 
organs and vessels as he proceeded. He first 
described the course of the blood vessels and 
nerves in the normal condition, and then those 
when the uterus was at lulPterm. The blood 
vessels were then enlarged six times. He ex- 
plained and illustrated by the models the causes 
of pain in the back and down the leg, of which 
pregnant women so frequently complain and 
generally attribute to pressure. 

At the conclusion Dr. Fairbairn, who presided, 
said that Professor Keith as a rule addressed 
learned audiences, who sometimes had a difiicultj' 
in following him. He congratulated him on the 
extreme simplicity' with wlijch he had presented the 
salient features of his subject, which was an 
extremely complicated one. The present day mid- 
wife differed from her predecessors. The old race 
had been thiisty ; the new was also thirsty — but 
it was for knowledge. Later the class attended 
Dr. Fairbairn's lecture to pupil midwives and 
clinic on " Cases," when he dealt with 
delayed and obstructed labour. 

Thursday, June 29TH. 

On Thursday, June 29th, the post-graduates met 
at the hospital for the demonstration in the milk 
kitchen, where the infants' feeds were prepared 
with scientific methods and every precaution 
against contamination of the milk. Each bottle 
was made up according to prescription. The 
demonstration was given by Sister Cullen. 

In the afternoon visits were paid to the Maryle- 
bone Infants' Clinic ; the Infants' Hospital, 
Vincent Square ; and the Royal Sanitary Insti- 
tute. At the Sanitary Institute they had a brief 
demonstration of drains, the various methods of 
purifying water, the vahie of certain foodstuffs, 
&c. They w-ere especially interested in the 
beautiful slides showing micro-organisms and ideal 
sanitary conditions. The showing the analysis 
of various milks is most dramatic and useful, 
and there arc also some specimens of diseased 
tissues in animals, amongst them an udder in\'aded 
by tubsrcle. The midwives were urged to qualify 
either as sanitary inspectors or health visitors, if 
they wished to take better appointments. 


Cbc Brttlsb 3ournal of "fflursinQ Supplement. ;»h s, ly.e 

Dr. Fairbairn's post-graduate lecture dealt with 
the examination of the pregnant woman, and a 
scheme for note-taking was briefly outlined. The 
main objects of the examination are the prevention 
of abortion, the early recognition of contracted 
pelvis, toxaemic symptoms and signs, and 
abnormal medical or obstetrical conditions that 
necessitate the attendance of a registered medical 
practitioner. If every practising midwife would 
carry out the advice given by Dr. Fairbairn, and 
would study ante-natal hygiene and care, the 
community would reap lasting benefit. 

Frid.w, June 30TH. 

On Friday, June 30th, demonstrations were 
given in the milk kitchen in the morning by 
Sister French. 

In the afternoon the party divided into two, 
one visiting tjie Medical Museiun and the other 
going to Wembley to inspect the Walker-Gordon 
Dairy Farm. 

Here they were received by the manager and 
shown first the method by which the milk is 
immediately cooled down after being taken from 
the cow. The temperature is reduced from about 
go to 32 degrees. They then visited the beautiful 
herd of shorthorns in the milking sheds, where 
, the milking was in process. The milkers are 
required to wear white overalls and caps and to 
carefully wash their hands. The cows' udders 
an*l hind quarters are also- washed before milking. 
As everywhere, the shortage of labour is being 
felt on the farm, and so far they are not able to 
secure women skilled in the work. The machinery 
for milking looked cumbersome, and it was said 
that it took some time to adjust, but, on the 
other hand, the four teats are made to yield at 
the same time by this device. Milk sterilised on 
this farm can, if unopened, be kept for two or 
three years. A medical man inspects the hands 
and throats of the employees twice a week. 

The extraordinarily interesting Medical Museum 
arranged by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., 
in Wlgmore Street, was visited by other members 
of the class, and it was agreed that all nurses and 
midwives should make a point of .seeing this 
educative exliibit. If they do so once, they will 
assuredly do so again. 

The two parties later on were re-united at tea 
in the garden at tire York Road Hospital. 

Dr. Gordon Ley's lecture at the Midwives' 
Institute was well attended ; the subject, " Con- 
genital Disease and Malformation of the Infant," 
was handled with great clearness and simplicity. 
Congenital syphilis was first described. The 
comparatively recent methods of diagnosing this 
disease make it certain that an infected child 
lias an infected mother. Although there may be 
no e\ddence of active disease, her blood gives a 
positive reaction to the Wassermann test. If she 
is infected in the last months of pregnancy, or if 
the disease is in the tertiarA- stages, the child 
will probably escape infection ; but if she is 
infected in 'early pregnancy or the disease is in 
the secondary stage the child will suffer from 

congenital syphilis. The malformations — ^liare lip, 
cleft palate, hydrocephaly, spina-bifida, aneo- 
cephaly, imperforate anus, phimosis were briefly 
described. Dr. Gordon Lev is of opinion that no 
infant is born alive with an imperforate urethra. 
He thinks that many supposed cases may be 
accounted for by the habit, which many infants 
have, of micturating in the bath. 

Test Examination. 

As the result of the Test Examination held at 
the close of the week, the following prizes were 
awarded : — 

First Prize (value los.). — Mrs. Mary Walters 
(trained at York Road Lying-in Hospital). 

Second Prize (value 5s.). — Miss Farley, The 
Cottage Hospital, Petersfield, Hants. 


Under date June 27th the Privy Council notify 
in the Edinburgh Gazette of June 30th that by 
virtue of steps taken by the Lord President of the 
Council in pursuance of Section 3 of the Midwives 
(Scotland) Act, 1915, the Central Midwives Board 
for Scotland has been finally constituted as 

follows : — • 

Name of Members. 
The Lady Balfour of 

Miss i\Iice Helen Turn- 
Miss Isabella Scrim- 

Sir Archibald Buchan- 

Hepburn, Bt. 
Sir Robert Kirk Inches, 

The Lady Susan Gordon 


Archibald Campbell 

Munro, Esq., M.B., 
M.R.C.P.,D.Sc. (P.H.) 

Professor Sir Jolin 
Halidav Croom, Knt., 
M.D., F.R.C.P.Edin., 

Professor Murdoch 

Cameron, M.D., CM. 

James Haig Ferguson, 
Esq., M.D., F.R.C.P. 
Edin., F.R.C.S., Edin. 

Michael Dewar, Esq., 

M.D., CM. 
John Wishart Kerr, 

Esq., M.B., Ch.B. 

Appointed by 

Lord President of 

Association of County 
Councils for Scotland. 

Convention of the Royal 
Burghs of Scotland. 

Queen Victoria Jubilee 
Institute for Nurses 
(Scottish Branch.) 

Society of Medical 
Officers of Health of 

University Com'ts of the 
Universities of Edin- 
burgh and St Andrews 

University Courts of the 
Universities of Glas- 
gow and Aberdeen 

Royal College of Physi- 
cians of Edinburgh ; 

Royal College of Sur- 
■ geons of Edinburgh ; 

Royal Faculty of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons of 
Glasgow (conjointly). 

Scottish Committee of 
British Medical Asso- 





No. 1,476 

SATURDAY, JULY 15, 1916 

Vol. LVII 



It will be remembered that at the last 
Session of the General Medical Council 
three medical men were cited to appear in 
connection with the covering of uncertified 
midwives, the prosecution being conducted 
in each case by the Central Midwives 
Board, proving that when a profession is 
organized steps can be taken to protect its 
interests ; for whether these proceedings 
were taken for the protection of lying-in 
women, or in the interests of certified mid- 
wives, the fact remains that the machinery 
exists for effectivelv dealing with abuses. 
In two cases the President of the General 
Medical Council informed the practitioner 
concerned that the Council took a very 
serious view of the nature of the offence, 
and, in the third, the extreme penalty of 
removal from the Register was inflicted. 

Further, the General Medical Council pro- 
poses to issue a warning notice against the 
"covering" of practice by uncertified 
women, and local authorities are already 
issuing notices of the same nature. The 
legitimate interests of certified midwives in 
this respect are therefore protected. 

It is of interest and importance to trained 
nurses to realize what happens when cer- 
tified midwives are removed from the Roll, 
or voluntarily resign for reasons which 
seem good to them ; or because pressure is 
brought to bear upon them by local super- 
vising authorities so to do. 

Recentlv a medical practitioner wrote to 
the Chairman of the Central Midwives 
Board, asking his opinion as to whether he 
was " covering an uncertified midwife." 

He wrote that " Mrs. , who was in 

practice before the .Act, and who has since 
been crossed off the Roll, or, to be strictly 
accurate, has resigned, still acts as a nurse, 
and tells evervbodv who comes to her that 

she cannot act without a doctor, and sends 
all the people to me. .A.m I justified in 
going to them ? " 

The correspondence arising out of this 
letter has, by the direction of the President 
of the General Medical Council, and the 
Chairman of the Central Midwives Board, 
been sent to the medical press. 

Sir Francis Champneys, in defining for 
this medical man what should be his 
attitude to this ex-midwife, writes : — 

" There is nothing to prevent Mrs. 

from acting as a monthly nurse under your 
orders. You are responsible for the cases, 
and for Mrs. nursing of them." 

Thus the nursing profession becomes the 
dumping ground of bona-fide midwives re- 
moved, either at their own request or other- 
wise, from the Midwives Roll, while even 
if they have had no training in nursing there 
is nothing to prevent them from acting as 
monthly nurses, undistinguishable from those 
who have spent years in attaining know- 
ledge and skill. 

Is nursing a skilled profession or is it not ? 
If it is then there could hardly be a stronger 
argument for the State Registration of 
trained nurses than the official pronounce- 
ment of the Chairman of the Central 
Midwives Board that there is nothing to 
prevent unfrocked midwives from acting as 
monthly nurses. 

The effect of the protection of the title 
of Registered \urse would be the same as 
that of the title of Registered Medical 
Practitioner under the Medical Acts, the 
public would know that registered persons 
had attained the standarti required by the 
recognized professional authority ; and that 
if they employed an unregistered person 
they did so at their own risk. 

Moreover, registered nurses would have 
some reason for refusing to work for medical 
practitioners who ignored their legal status 
and covered untrained nurses. 


Zhe Brltieb 3ournal of "Rureinfl. 

July 15, 1916 






We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss Emily Lewis, James Street, 


The diseases flies may convey are : — Enteric 
fever, infantile diarrha-a, tuberculosis (lungs 
and general), cholera, plague, ophthalmia, 
gangrene, anthrax, and possibly diphtheria, 
leprosy, and smallpox. 

The preventive measures I would suggest 
are first of all absolute cleanliness, both out- 
side and inside the hospital ; all courtyards and 
back premises should be kept free from dirt 
and rubbish j dustbins should be placed as far 
away from the hospital as possible and fre- 
quently emptied, an excellent plan to clean them 
is to place a good quantity of paper inside 
(loosely arranged) and set light to it. When 
well lighted shut down the lid. This will both 
disinfect and kill the germs, and also kill the 
eggs and larva of the fly, should there be any. 
Should there be stables within a mile of the 
hospital (flies have been known to fly a mile), 
a strict eye should be kept on them to ensure 
frequent removal of the manure ; manure is a 
common breeding-place for flies, especially if 
undisturbed. A good plan to protect hospitals 
from flies is to spray the outside walls and 
trunks of trees in the evening or early morning 
with a poisonous solution of sod. arsenite 2 lb., 
honey 2 lb., treacle 10 lb., water 10 gallons. 
Early morning is the best time to catch flies. 
With regard to the inside of the hospital, every 
nurse knows the importance of keeping the 
patient absolutely clean and free from any 
traces of discharge and sputuin ; short and clean 
nails ; the immediate removal and disinfection 
of all discharges and excreta ; thorough 
cleansing of sputum cups, receivers, urine 
bottles, and bed pans, taking great care not to 
omit the crevices and corners; all w.c. 's, slop 
sinks, baths, mops and brushes kept perfectly 
clean, boiling all articles that can be boiled ; 
no old rags, papers, or rubbish of any kind 
allowed to exist, as flies breed in these ; all 
lockers should have a daily inspection, as some 
patients have a mania for storing food and 
paper. Water and all food (especial!}' milk) 
should be kept in fly-screened larders or meat 
safes; squares of muslin, weighted with beads, 
should cover milk jugs, glasses, and food 
receptacles, in the absence of larders or safes. 

muslin made to fit over a light wooden frame- 
work serves the purpose. TTiese can be placed 
over the food on tables or cupboard shelves. It 
is important that the muslin does not touch the 
food to prevent soiling and moistening the 
muslin, because in this way dust will cling to it, 
and should a fly gain access, it can get at the 
food through the muslin. Refuse tins should be 
emptied after the clearing of each meal, and the 
lid always tightly closed. The same applies to 
soiled dressing buckets after each round of 
dressings, and the contents of both should be 
burned. If absolute cleanliness is observed in 
every det;iil, both outside as well as inside hos- 
pitals, the fly would lie conspicuous by its 


The follow ing competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss Gladys Tatham, Miss M. M. G. 
Bielby, Miss E. E. Please, Miss M. James, 
Miss G. Macintyre. 

Miss Gladys Tatham writes that if the 
anopheles mosquito is counted as a fly, malaria 
must be included in the list of diseases due to 
its agency. 

The ova of certain worms (e.^., thread- 
worms) may also be carried by flies, and 
deposited by them on food. Trypanosomiasis 
is also a fly disease, the bite of the tsetse fly 
being responsible for the infection of animals 
and human beings. These diseases are all 
knoivn to be conveyed by the agency of flies ; 
very probably other micro-organisms are also 
conveyed by these little winged p>ests. 

Miss Bielby says that in very hot weather 
the progeny of a house fly may be laying eggs, 
150 at one time, about three weeks after the 
eggs from which they themselves developed 
were being laid, and in a normal summer 
a normal fly can become the ancestor of 
95,312,500,000,000 descendants. The persist- 
ence of the species is secured by hibernation 
in warm places — bakehouses, kitchens, and 
stables. Hence the importance of killing the 
earliest flies as they appear in March or April. 


If it is decided under medical advice that an 
infanf shall \)C weaned, what special points 
would you observe in the care of the mother and 


" A Friend from India " sends £1 for the 
Nurse N. Fund. We have also received los. 
from Miss D. Rolfs, R.N.S., 5s. from M. D., 
and 2s. 6d. from Miss Evelyn Thompson. The 
fund now stands at ;^22 6s. 

July 15, 1916 

^be a6r(ti6b 3ournal of 'Wuralna. 




The King invested 


the following Matrons, 

Sisters and Staff Xurses with the insignia of the 
Royal Red Cross at Buckingham Palace on 
Saturday last : — • 

First Class. — Miss Ethel Gray, Matron, Austra- 
lian Army Nursing Service, and Miss Frances 
Epton, Sister, .Vrmy Xursing Ser\Tce. 

Second Class. — -Miss Elsie Schafer, Sister, 
Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing 
Ser\ace ; Miss Margaret Porteous, Sister, Queen 
Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service ; 
Miss Cecily Shaw, 
Stafi Xurse, Queen 
Alexandra's Impe- 
rial Military Nursing 
Service ; Miss Laura 
Pratt, Sister, Austra- 
lian Army Nursing 
Ser^^ce ; Miss Flor- 
ence Nicholls, Sister, 
Australian Army 
Nursing Service, 
Miss Ethel Taylor, 
Staff Nurse, Civil 
Hospitals, and Miss 
Rose Hayes, Staff 
Nurse, Civil . Hos- 

Miss M. M. Bond, 
Matron in Queen 
Alexandra's Imperial 
Military Niirsing 
Ser\dce, is one of 
those to receive the 
decoration of the 
Royal Red Cross 
(First Class). We 
are indebted for our 
illustration to the 
editor of the Lady's 


General Sir Beau- 
champ Duff, G.C.B., 
in India, in a 
despatch covering 

the military operations in the Indian Empire 
since the outbreak of war, and dealing with 
operations of a minor character in .Aden, Gulf of 
Oman, Sistan, Baluchistan. North Western 
Frontier, Burma and Madras, includes the 
names of the following Nursing Sisters with 
those of officers and men brought to notice for 
gallantry and good service : — 

Q.A .M.N.S.for India : Nursing Sister Miss Ethel 
Green ; Temp. Nursing Sister Miss A. R. I. Lowe 
(attached) ; and Nursing Sister Miss M. A. 

The Edith Cavell Memorial (Scotland), has taken 
the form of an annuity scheme. The committee 
are now prepared to receive and consider applica- 
tions from retired Scottish nurses. 

Particulars can be had on application to the 
Secretary, Miss Graliam, 15, Alva Street, Hon. 

The Millicent Fawcett Hospital Units for 
Refugees in Russia (N.U.W.S.S., 14, Great Smith 
Street, London, S.W.) liave already established a 
reputation for thorough and disinterested work, 
and their help is now sought by the local town 
councils, and Zemstvos in the Eastern Provinces 
of Kazan or Middle Russia. In the tow n of Kazan, 
the medical centre 
for the whole pro- 
vince, thousands of 
refugees are living, 
and during the 
summer many more 
will be streaming 
through, bringing in 
their train cholera, 
small -pox and other 
infectious diseases. 
The governor has for 
some time been most 
anxious to open a 
cliildren's hospital 
for infectious dis- 
eases, but has been 
unable to do so for 
lack of funds. He 
has now handed 
over buildings to the 
Millicent Fawcett 
units and will pro- 
vide heating and 
lighting. They have 
sent doctors and 
nurses, and the 
Great Britain to 
Poland Fund have 
handed over to them 
the sum of 6,chx) 
roubles, which has 
been expended on 
equipment, drugs 
and upkeep. Miss 
Moberly relates that 
when the offer was 
reported to the Town 
Council everyone present stood in token of 
respect. The hospital which was opened early 
in June contains from 50 to 60 beds. When the 
Mayor of Kazan notified the event to the Lord 
Mayor of London by telegram, he concluded: — 
" Mayor Kazan begs you accept warm greetings, 
considers action British Relief Workers lasting 
link in chain between friendly .Vllied Nations." 

Friday tills week is " France's Day." We hope 
every reader will do her little bit to make it a 

^be Britisb Journal of IRiirsing. 

July 15, 1916 


The Ci\'ic Service League, Blundellsands and 
Crosby Branch, have sent to the office a bale of 
goods containing sixtj' nightsliirts and forts' pairs 
of socks. These are just the two items of clothing 
of which an army can never have enough. A 
grand bale has been sent to Sister Horan at 
Lisieux, as after a very quiet time the Hospital 
Jules Ferry is to be filled up with wounded. 

Miss Beatrice Warr, cert. Taunton and Somerset 
Hospital, Miss Mary I. Little, cert. Salop In- 
firmary, Shrewsbury, and Miss H. O. L. Winter, 
will leave for France on Friday, July 14th. 


The foUoMi'ing Sisters have been deputed for 
dutj- in Home Hospitals : — 

Scawband V.A.D. Hosp., Longtown, Cumberland. 
— ^Mrs. A. L. Parsons. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Shoreham Place, Sevenoaks. — 
Miss C. Geoghegan. 

Horham Hall Hosp., Wangford, Suffolk. — Miss 
E. O'Callaghan. 

The Mitchie Hosp., 184, Queen's Gate, S.W. — 
Miss M. Dunn. 

King's Weston V.A.D. Hosp., Bristol. — ^Miss 
E. M. Adams. 

Dalston Hall Hosp., Cumberland. — Miss H. C. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Chelmsford. — Mrs. M. Watson. 
Popeswood Aux. Hosp., Binfield, Berks. — ^Miss 
E. C. Campbell. 

Hornsey Aux. Mil. Hosp., Crouch Hill. — Miss 
M. A. Garrard, Miss E. M. Murphy. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Newbury, Berks. — ^Miss B. 

Red Cross Hosp., The Monastery, Rye. — -Miss A. 

The Hill Hospital, Holyhead. — Miss Anna M. Kane. 
Red Cross Hosp., Wallasey, Cheshire. — Miss L. 
H. Wilson. Miss F. M. Clive, and Miss E. T. Clark. 

Fairlaivn Aux. Hosp., Forest Hill. — Miss C. D. 

Aux. Home Hosp., Penarth. — Miss M. A. Black- 

V.A.D. Hosp., Yacht Club' Gravesend. — Miss 
M. C. Ince. 

Red Cross Hosp., The Close, Winchester. — • 
Miss A. C. Middleton. 

Newton Red Cross Hosp., Wimborne. — Miss S. E. 

Highfield Hall, Southampton. — Miss M. J. E. 

Red Cross Hospital, Aberayron, Cardiganshire. — • 
Miss H. M. Da^'ies. 

Acute Hosp., Convalescent Camp, Alnwick. — 
Miss F. G. Ball. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Banbury Rd., Oxford. — Miss L. 

Red Crpss Hosp., Earl's Colne. — -Miss M. E. B. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Marlborough Hall, Swaffham. — ■ 
Mrs. E. Vines. 

Hosp. for Officers, 16, Bruton Street. — Mjs. O. L. 

Aux. Hosp., Aberdare. — jNIrs. H. Hudson. 
V.A.D., Rosherville.—Mxs. F. K. Tilbury. 
Hanover House, Woodford Wells. — Miss W. I. 

Grovelands Hosp., Southgate. — Mrs. G. Zala. 
Red Cross Hosp., Cirencester. — Miss M. C. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Normanhuxst. — Miss L. Cromack. 
Broome House Hosp., West Horsley. — Mrs. D. 

Gifford House, Roehampton. — Miss A. Ruddock. 
Cluny Red Cross Hosp., Swanage. — -Miss J. K. 

Creswall V.A .D. Hosp., nr. Mansfield. — MissM. M. 

Clayton Court, East Liss. — Mrs. R. Campbell. 
87, Eaton Square. — Mrs. E. V. Carruthers. 
\'.A.D. Hosp.. Higham. Rochester. — Miss E. 
Shipsey, Miss E. P. Eadie. 

The Wardell Hosp., Stanmore. — -Miss J. Todd. 
. V.A.D. Hosp., Exmouth.~Mis. A. L. Wood. 
Seaham Hall Aux. Mil. Hosp., nr. Sunderland. — 
Miss A. V. Coburn. 

Southwood Aux. Hosp., Eltham. — Miss L. Duke. 
St. Anne's Hall, Caversham. — Mrs. J. Howard. 
Red Cross Hosp., Minehead. — Miss N. Hogan. 
Pare Howard, Llanellv. — Miss E. Staples. 
Laverstoke House, Wliitchurch. — Miss S. M. 

Rosslyn Lodge Aux. Hosp., Hampstead. — Miss 
C. F. Arathoom. 

Aberdare Hosp., S. Wales. — Miss E. M. Smith. 
16, The Avenue, Brondesbury. — Miss E. K. Good. 
Aux. Mil. Hosp., Isleworih. — Miss D. K. Sim- 
monds, Mrs. A. H. Foster. 

Victoria Aux. Hosp., Stretford, Lanes. — Miss M. 
King, and Miss F. Beresford. 

Roseneath Vol. Hosp., Winchmore Hill. — ^Miss 
I. Mann. 

Hornsey Aux. Mil. Hosp., Crouch Hill. — 
Miss O. "Tucker. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Cottesbroke Hall, Northampton- 
shire. — Miss A. S. Hawkes. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Wells.— Miss L. Golberg. 
V.A.D. Hosp., Burton-cm-Trent. — -Miss I. D. 

Holme Mead Hosp., Lymington. — Miss L. Lamp- 

V.A.D. Hosp., Erdington, West B'ham. — Miss 
M. E. Doyle. 

Hill House Hosp., Warwick. — Miss M. Marsh. 
Spalding Hall, Hendon. — Miss J. Comberbeach. 
V..4.D. Hosp., Rugby. — Mrs. R. Mahonev. 
V.-A.D. Hosp., Earl's Colne. — Mi's. A. K. Bell. 
184, Queen's Gate. — -Mrs. K. Weston. 

Anglo-Italian Hosp. — ^Miss I. Mitchell Wishart 
and Miss C. ^'iner. 

Boulogne Headquarters. — Miss D. Arden, Miss 
E. M. Allen, Miss J. T. Kitchen, Miss O. E. Robins 
and Miss N. L. Coventry. 

July 15, 1916 

Zlbe Brittsb 3ournal of fl-lursinG. 






Monday, July loth, was a gala clay for the men 
of the Fulhani Military Hospital, when their Hut 
was opened by H.R.H. Princess Louise Duchess 
of Argyll. Hours of careful thinking cind active 
work must ha\e gone to make the Hut look so 
charmingly attractive as it did on this occasion. 
The colour sclicme and furniture suggested the 
summer bungalow of an artist, rather than a 
recreation hut for our Tommies. Tlie green and 
white paint of the walls and gabled roof looked 
fresh and cool, and when th" sun is sliining on 

said she hoped it would bring i)leasure and comfort 
to the men. In declaring tlie Hut open, the 
Princess said she had on several occasions opened 
other huts, and it always gave her great 
pleasure ; she knew they were much appreciated, 
and she added, " We want to do all we can to 
show our gratitude to the men for all they are 
doing for us on the other side." She wished every 
success to the Hut. 

Some interesting facts concerning the general 
work of the Y.M.C.A. were given by Mr. J. J. 
Virgo, Field Secretary to the British National 
Council, and Mr. A. K. Yapp, National Secretary. 
The former is about to start on a tour round the 
world to inspect the work of this excellent Associa- 
tion, and to establish an Imperial Council, which 
s)icaks for itself of the need and extent of the work. 


and through those pretty pink curtains of the 
lattice windows, making the central hall glow with 
light and colour, and when flowers — -cut and in 
pots — are tastefully arranged in moderate pro- 
fusion, why then you can easily imagine that our 
wounded soldiers are getting all they require in 
the refinement of rest and recreation. 

A large number of people had assembled to do 
honour to the occasion, and after Heber's beautiful 
hymn, " The Son of God goes forth to war," had 
been sung, followed by the Lord's Prayer, the 
Chairnian, Colonel Sir T. Sturmy Cave, gave an 
introductory address. Miss Annie E. Hulme then 
made a presentation of the Hut on behalf of the 
donors, namely herself and Baron Profumo, and 

which began in a small way 73 years ago. There 
are now 9,500 centres. At the time the war broke 
out there were about 1,000,000 members ; the 
addition of 2,000,000 more may probably now be 
counted on. Twenty millions of money is invested 
in real estate for the benefit of the Y.M.C.A. The 
speaker said it is work that will endure because it 
is built upon the basis of the Christian religion. 

At the request of President Roosevelt, Y.M.C.A. 
Huts had been established at Panama during the 
construction of the canal, with marked success. 

Mr. Yapp, in accepting the Hut on behalf of the 
Council, tliankcd the donors lor their beautiful 
gift, and spoke warmly of INliss Hulme 's work 


Zbc Britieb 3ournal of IRuroino. 

]ulv 15, igi6 

A hearty vote of thanks was acccjrded to the 

The interesting ceremony terminated appropri- 
ately by the singing of the National Anthem. 
Tea was then served to Her Royal Higliness in the 
Rest Room, and to the rest of tlie company in the 
Central Hall. B. K. 


By the kind permission of the Board of 
Guardians of the Citj' of Westminster Infirmary, 
Hendon, a meeting of the Matrons' Council will 
be held at the Infirmary on July 20th. Miss 
Elma Smith, the Matron,' offers a cordial invita- 
tion to the members, and no doubt an enjoyable 
reunion will take place. The business meeting 
will be at 4 p.m., after which there will be tea 
and croquet. 


A meeting of the Executive Comn-'ittee of the 
Society for State Registration of Trained Nurses 
will be held at the office, 431, Oxford Street, 
London, W., on Thursday, July 27th, to receive 
a report on the Nurses' Registration Bill. Mem- 
bers of the Society who are not members of the 
Executive Committee are cordially invited to 
attend. Those who desire to do so should notify 
Miss Breay, Hon. Secretary, 431, Oxford Street, W. 
Such members are invited to express their opinion, 
but are not eligible to vote. 

Mrs. G. F. Wates has generously sent her 
annual subscription of £1 is. toward the funds of 
the Society for the State Registration of Trained 
Nurses. She writes : " I cannot send it without 
expressing my warmest appreciation of the 
many years of devoted work of ' our leaders.' " 
Miss Evelyn Thompson has also sent a donation 
of 2S. 6d. and Miss M. H. Peck is. 



The British Medical Journal reports that a con- 
ference has been held between members of the 
Medico-Political section of the British Medical 
Association and representatives of the Incor- 
porated Society of Trained Masseuses, and this 
body was urged (i) that establishments for the 
teaching by medical practitioners of pupil mas- 
seurs and masseuses who desire the certificate of 
the Society should only be inspected by medical 
members of the Society, and (2) that there should 
be medical representation on the Council or other 
Executive Body of the Society. The matter is 
still under consideration. 


It is now alleged that the report from Salonika 
of Sister Augustine Bewicke's death, referred to 
in this Journal last week, is not correct. We 
sincerely hope that this statement may prove to 
be well founded. 

The South African War liospital, which has 
been erected on a lovely site just within the gates 
of Richmond Park, has been built on the hut 
system and provides for some three hundred beds. 
The cost, amounting to about ;^32,ooo, has been 
provided b\ South Africans at home and in 
England. 'The walls of the buildings are com- 
posed of a non-inflammable . composition of 
concrete and asbestos, the outside being of stained 
wood. Colonel Stock is its CO. and Mrs. Creagh 
is the Matron. Though the necessary havoc of 
building is still apparent, we judged that it will 
not be long before its immediate surroundings are 
once more brought into harmony with the stately 
trees which fringe it, and with the graceful, timid 
deer which come up to the «-ire boundary and 
gaze with wondering eyes of mute appeal at 
.the enormous structure that has invaded their 
peace. Are they dimly comprehending that the 
whole creation must groan and travail in pain 
together ? 

While we were waiting to be shown round the 
buildings the staff of officers. Sisters, V.A.D. 
probationers and orderlies were being grouped 
for a photograph. The Matron and Sisters wear 
light buff uniform faced with dark blue and blue 

On the occasion of our visit only a small number 
of patients had as yet arrived. 

"The bath room, which contains eight cubicles, 
with green waterproof curtains, is at the entrance 
of the hospital and has two doors, one for 
entrance and one for exit. The idea is that men 
straight from the trenches shall enter, take their 
bath, leave their clothes, don fresh clothing and 
enter the hospital by the other door. There is 
a beautiful rest room fitted with luxurious easy 
chairs and a billiard table. The dining room for 
convalescents is bright and pleasant, and the 
tables were gaily decorated with flowers. 

Soft green is the colour scheme of the long 
wards. Green casement curtains to the windows, 
green enamel beds. The blue screens ■ were a 
matter of discussion. 

The beds had the source of their endowment 
printed above them, and amongst others we 
read : — " Camp's Bay," Queenstown ; " Women's 
Unionist Association," and " The Women of 

The pressing room is admirably fitted with its 
aseptic arrangements and operating table where 
all cases so able are brought to be dressed. There 
are two beautiful theatres, with an anaesthetic 
room between, one for septic and the other for 
aseptic cases. The lighting of these calls for 
special admiration. It is so constructed as to 
cast no shadows, and we were told that when 
dark it has the effect of bright moonlight. It 
runs continuously round the top of the wall after 
the manner of a picture rail. 

The massage and electric room is fitted with 

/i(/y 15, 1916 

Z\K British 3ournal of ■Kurstng. 


suitable appliances and couches. There are also 
beautiful X-ray and dark rooms for eye work. 

The commodious kitchen contains all that the 
heart of a cook can wish, and the linen room is 
overflowing with desirable stores. 

The capable Matron, Mrs. Creagh, was trained 
at the Royal Free Hospital, and has lately been 
working in Pretoria and Winburg. During the 
Boer War she gained great experience in nursing 
the wounded at Standerton. But in spite of her 
kind reception and 'courtesy in showing us so 
many interesting things, we came away a little 
depressed. Green-eyed monster ? Yes. Partlj' 
on account of the beautiful hospital and the splendid 
opportunities of service, to visit a war hospital 
always makes one long to be " in it"; but primarily 
because our professional sisters from over the 
water have legal status and can put their cliins 
in the air in consequence — -wlulst the trained 
nurses of the Mother Country who have borne so 
much of the burden and heat of the day have no 
State recognition whatevei . H. H. 



The British Red Cross has arranged to send to 
France a fleet of motor dental ambulances. The 
staS will consist of a dental surgeon and dentiil 
mechanic, and the ambulances will go far forward 
so as to be within reach of men in the trenches. 
They will do all ordinary dental work, but they 
are specially intended to deal with cases of men 
who are suffering from acute lesions of the teeth 
and gums, or what used to be known under the 
generic term of toothache, and with men whose 
artificial dentures have got out of order. 

The Wounded Allies' Relief Committee has 
arranged for two special grants to be made to 
the Committee for the Relief of Belgian Prisoners 
in Germany. These grants will benefit not only 
sick and wounded Belgian prisoners in Germany, 
but also those interned in Switzerland. The Com- 
mittee is also granting a sum to be devoted to 
providing books and games for patients in Belgian 

For the relief of sick and suffering Serbian 
soldiers, the Wounded Allies Relief Committee, 
of Sardinia House, Kingsway, W.C, has recently 
shipped off to Corfu quantit-es of hospital 
Stores of all kinds that are urgently needed both 
by the Committee's own hospital staff at Corfu 
and by the Serbian Red Cross Society. A Ford 
touring motor-car has also been dispatched as an 
aid to relief work on the part of the Committee's 

Miss Kathleen Burke has collected £10,000 of 
American money during a three-months' tour in 
the United States and Canada for the Scottish 
Women's Hospital Fund, and in addition has 
promises of ;£5,ooo more. 

{Concluded from page . 30.) 
At the Conference of the National Union of 
Trained Nurses, held at 46, Marsham Street, 
Westminster, on Thursday, June 29th, when 
Miss Cancellor resumed the chair, after the 
interval for tea, she called on Miss H. L. Pearse 
to read a paper on the Economic Position of 


Miss Pearse said that she would be very brief 
and only intended to start a discussion on this 
important and difficult question. The payment 
the nurse received in this country bore little 
relation to her skill, or to the period spent in 
acquiring that skill. The reason lay in the 
present lack of union amongst nurses, and the 
remedy in State Registration, with a recognised 
standard of training, a definition of the term 
" Trained Xurse," and the protection of her 
uniform from use by the unskilled worker and the 

N'o\v to consider what a nurse had to spend on 
obtaining her training, and wlxat living she could 
make by her knowledge when trained. 

Training expenses might be classified as Time 
and Money. 

(i) Time. — The usual training period was three 
years in a general hospital, or infirmary, and this 
could not begin till the jirobationer was 21 years 
of age. When training did not begin till so late 
there was an expensive gap between the time 
tliat she left school, and the time that she could 
become self-supporting, and then, during the three 
or four years that she was training, she would only 
earn from £40 to £50 in salary plus lodging, board 
and uniform. One could therefore hardly call her 
self-supporting during training. The nurse, there- 
fore, could not expect to earn a living by her 
profession for six or seven years after she left 
school, a very long and expensive period. 

True, this period might be regarded as appren- 
ticeship, but she was worth to the institution 
what it would have to pay if the probationer were 
not available, and it was questionable whether a 
much better arrangement could not be made from 
the nurse's point of view. 

Then as to the fruit of her training. The pay- 
ment of trained nurses varied considerably, but 
not on the side of generosity. Only the private 
nurse earned sufficient to enable her to make 
provision for old age. Usually nurses were ex- 
pected to live in, keep was provided, and a nurse's 
salary' represented the amount she could spend 
on dress and holidays and also what she could save. 

In most institutions this salary ranged from 
£io to ^45 per annum ; in private work from £2 2S. 
to £i 3s. per week (for infectious cases) ; in work 
where she had to live out from a minimum of £75 
to a maximum of ;^I30, unless she obtained a post 
which required long experience or further 

^be £riti0b 3ournaI of Tlurslnd. 

July 15, 1916 

This scalft of salary was hardly on a level with 
salaries ordinarily obtained by women after a 
short training of, at most, six months or a year, 
and then an examination which did not require 
the experience a nurse must have before going in 
for her examination if she were to gain her 

The salaries paid by the London County Council 
to nurses were from ;^8o to /i05. The sum was 
fijced by the law of supply and demand. Were 
nurses obtainable at that salary ? If so, why 
pay more ? A certain percentage of the salary 
was deducted for the Superannuation Fund. 
This was really deferred pay. It was obvious 
that nurses could not save a substantial amount 
out of their average pav. 

Referring to the Nursing College Scheme, Miss 
Pearse said that representation of Hospital 
Committee* on the Governing Body was provided 
for. In regard to the rejiresentation of the nurses 
(who should keep outside altogether unless they 
had proper voting power), it must be remembered 
that every matron had two sets of interests to 
guard, those of her Committee and those of her 
profession. She had been a Matron and she knew. 
It was certain that Matrons on the Governing 
Body would have to voice the interests of their 
Committees or they might be faced with the 
direction to " come out of it." They would 
certainly, if placed on the Governing Body, be 
expected to help to keep the expenses of training 
down, as the Schools would ine\-itably be involved 
in extra expense. 

Miss Pearse suggested that nurses must look for 
the remedy for the evils from which their profession 
suffered in organisation. It would be difficult 
to improve things unless the nurses took the 
trouble to fight for professional interests. They 
should see to it that the government of the pro- 
fession was placed in the right hands by their 
own votes. 


Miss Cancellor said she was sure some of those 
present would wish to discuss Miss Pearse's able 

^liss Eden asked whether the scale of payment 
for nurses had not gone up, and Miss Cancellor 
said that during the war the payment of niu'ses 
had certainly improved. In some instances war 
bonuses were given. 

Mrs. Fenwick said that economics were concerned 
with the law of supply and demand. It was true 
that a probationer was an apprentice ; but, if one 
considered the conditions of apprenticeship in 
former days, the apprentice often paid a fee 
diu-ing the period of his contract, on the under- 
standing that he was taught a skilled trade. If 
probationers received a low salary they had the 
right to something else as the equivalent of their 
work. Otherwise this small remuneration would 
be regarded by many plulanthropists as wages 
for work done. 

Many' of the Governors of hospitals to which 
nurse training schools were attached knew 

very little of what nursing education should be, 
and many so-called schools were so only in name. 
Under a Nurses' Registration Act a curriculum of 
nursing education would be defined and pre- 
sumably the hospitals would have to pro\'ide 
special teachers other than the overworked Sisters, 
to deal with the education of the nurses under 
their control. It was only recently that in some 
hospitals nursing tutors had been appointed. 
This sj'stem would undoubtedly have to be 
extended and either the training schools would 
have to incur increased expense or the pupils 
would have to pay for the instruction they 
received. They could not have it both ways. 
It was sometimes argued that hospital probationers 
could not afford this, but many nurses paid high 
fees for a few months' training in midwifery. 
With more thorough professional instruction 
trained nurses would possess higher practical 
skill and would command higher remuneration — 
as they could in Overseas Dominions and in the 
States. At present the rate of pay for the 
services of newly qualified medical men on military 
ser\-ice was often £1 a day, and allowances, 
while highly skilled niu-ses with years of experience 
received /40 per annum, but the medical pro- 
fession paid higlily for their professional education 
and their skill was tested and registered. Mrs. 
Fenwick did not consider the Nursing Profession 
could be in a financially stable condition while it 
repudiated responsibility for the management of 
its own cash. The National Insurance Act was 
faulty in many ways but at least, for the first 
time under an Act of Parliament, nurses had 
power to manage their own finances. Yet where 
one nurse joined an insurance societv- that was 
professionally managed many put their money 
into one controlled entirely by men though the 
excellent results achieved by their own society 
showed what might be done by co-operation. 
Why should nurses hand over their money to be 
managed and expended by men ? They would 
never be a free profession until their financial 
afiairs were placed on a sound, self-managing 

Mrs. Shirley enquired whether it was true that 
some of the allowances originally given to Army 
nurses had been stopped, and was answered by 
Miss Eden in the affirmative, the reason advanced 
being that these allowances were intended to 
enable married officers to m.eet extra expenses 
wliich nurses did not incur. 

Miss Pearse pointed out that extra qualifica- 
tions acquired by trained but unregistered nurses, 
perhaps at considerable expense, had little financial 
value. In the appointment of sanitary inspectors, 
for instance, trained nurses «"ere not e^■en given 
the preference ; nursing simply did not count. 

Miss Thurstan caused amusement by relating 
the numerous qualifications which a nurse, for 
whom application had been made to the National 
Union of Trained Nurses that morning, had been 
expected to possess, the salary offered being £2^ 
per annum. 

Miss Eden enquired whether any organised 

July 15, 1916 

Zbc 36rttt0b 3ournal of "Wuretnfl. 


enquiry had been made into the financial position 
of nurses, and was told that some efiort had been 
made by the Wonien's Industrial Coxmcil some 
years ago, but they were unable to obtain suffi- 
cient information for statistical purposes. 

The Chairman then in\'ited Mrs. Bedford 
Fenwick to speak on the Organisation of Nurses' 


Mrs. Fenwick said that tlvci e was only one basis 
upon which to build up an effective Nurses' 
Society — the individual one. and its foundation 
must be the indixddual \\ill, expressed by the 
vote, otherwise there would be government 
without consent. 

It was always wise to study men's organisa- 
tions, and one found that jiolitically nearly every 
man had the vote. On village councils, borough 
councils, municipal councils, and in London by 
the London Count\' Council, for which she had 
a great admiration, the business was managed by 
the elected representatives of the people, and 
men had the pri\dlege of electing their repre- 
sentatives in Parliament. 

In professional societies of men the same 
system was in force. 

With regard to nursing organisation English 
women seemed peculiarly incapable of following 
a lead; they hacl shown little power of co-opera- 
tion for the comiTion good and preferred small 
self-centred societies which had proved ineffective. 
When the British Nurses' Association was founded, 
in her house in 1887, nurses flocked to the standard 
and there was promise of a fine organisation. 
Unfortunately, however, the controlling power was 
monopolised by men and an autocracy resulted. 

Mrs. Fenwick then described her visit to the 
World's Fair at Chicago in iiSij', when she was one 
of the British delegates to the World's Women's 
Congress, at which Mrs. May Wright Sewall, the 
founder of the International Council of Women, 
spoke on the International, Idea, and how she was 
asked to convey to this country the desire that it 
should form a National Council of Women. The 
National Union of Women Workers had already 
been foimdcd and eventuallv a scheme was agreed 
upon whereby a National Council of Women of 
Great Britain and Ireland was formed and became 
the Governing Body of the Union. It was com- 
posed of delegates from women's organisations and 
societies, the National Union continuing to enroll 
individiial members and form local branches. The 
National Council of Trained Nurses was founded on 
much the same system, and based on the graduate 
vote ; societies composed entirel}' of nurses with 
the necessary qualifications were affiliated to 
form the National Council, but it had not so 
far admitted individuals to membership, thus 
many nurses were unable to enter the International 
Federation of Niurses which had spread all over the 
world. To-day there was an awakening amongst 
nurses, and a desire for more professional co- 

operation, and it was possible that the National 
Council of Trained Nurses and the National Union 
of Trained Nurses might in co-operation bear 
somewhat the same relation to one another as the 
National Council of Women and the National 
Union of Wonien Workers, the former affiliating 
leagues and societies of nurses and the latter indi- 
vidual nurses and branches. Through such 
affiliation with the National Council they would 
enter into affiliation with the International Council 
of Nurses withits splendid organisation ; all its con- 
gresses in Berlin, Buffalo, I'aris, London, had been 
marvellously successful. At its last meeting at 
Cologne in 1912 twenty-three countries were repre- 
sented by 1,000 delegates, and at the banquet at 
the close of the Congress speeches were made by 
distinguished nurses from all parts of the world. 
It was a magnificent and uplifting gathering, 
demonstiating the value of professional solidarity 
in the highest degree. 

The National Council was the only portal to 
affiliation with the International Council of 
Nurses, and she thought that together the National 
Council and the National Union should bo able to 
devise a constitution by which every trained nurse 
in the kingdom who desired effective national 
organisation and international federation could 
take her part in elevating the nursing profession 
to a high standard of efficiency throughout the 

Miss Thurstan, who attended the International . 
IMeeting at Cologne, said that it was a revelation to 
her of what comradeship meant, everyone was a 
comrade ; it was an unforgettable experience. 

When she and other British nurses passed 
tluough Denmark from Belgium in 1914 nothing 
could exceed the kindness they received from the 
Danish National Council of Nurses at Copenhagen. 
A reception was given to them at the Palace Hotel, 
chocolates, pictures, &c., were sent to their hotels, 
and every opportunity was given them of seeing 
the hospitals and other institutions, and of having 
an enjoyable tinxe. 

Miss A. E. Hulme said that she and Miss Kent, 
as British delegates, had the same wonderful ex- 
perience at the meeting of the International at 
San Francisco last year ; nothing could exceed the 
kindness and hospitality they received. Mrs. 
Fenwdck remarked that to be a member of a 
National Council of Nurses, taking credentials 
from its President, was an open sesame in nursing 
circles throughout the civilised world. 

Miss S. A. Claridge, who was in Germany, just 
before the outbreak of war, described her 
experiences at that time. 

Before the close of the proceedings the Chairman 
asked whether it was the feeling of the meeting 
that another Conference should be held in the 

Mrs. Bedford Fenwick thought the Conference 
might be a conjoint one, convened by the National 
Council of Trained Nurses and the National Union, 
as the former usually held an annual Conference ; 
by such co-operation everyone interested could be 
invitedto attend andhelpto make it representative. 


^be British 3ournal of TRurstiiQ. 

July 15, 1916 

JNIany very important questions required considera- 
tion before the next Session of Parliament, which 
it was the dut\' of thoughtful nurses to consider. 
The President of the I'nion, Miss A. M. Bushby, 
proposed a vote of thanks to the speakers and the 
Chair, and a very interesting and enjoyable 
Conference terminated. M. B. 


The Summer General Meeting of the League of 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital Nurses was held in 
the Clinical Theatre at the Hospital on Saturday, 
July 1st. Miss Cox Davies, the President, who 
was in the chair, was wearing the Royal Red 
Cross recently conferred upon her. 

Before th^ business was proceeded with Miss 
Cutler read the list of members of the League who 
had received distinction since the last meeting. 

Royal Red Cross, First Class. — Miss M. R. Acton, 
Miss J. Clay, Miss G. Larner, Miss M. Rundle, 
Miss A. E. Holmes. 

Royal Red Cross, Second Class. — Miss E. Monck 
Mason, Miss D. Mudie, Miss H. Simpson, IVDss 
Whitley Cooze, Miss A. E. Harris, Miss D. Minchin. 

Mentioned in Despatches. — By General Haig, 
from France: Miss Paterson (Sister Mary), Miss 
E. M. Duncum, Miss M. Cockshott, Miss A. Wliite, 
Miss A. Wilson, Miss E. Johnson, Miss D. Foster, 
Miss E. Gordon. By General Maxwell, from 
Egypt : Miss A. Stubble and Miss K. Lowe. From 
East Africa : Miss Maul ton (now- Mrs. Cooper). 

It was agreed to send the congratulations of the 
League to these members. 


The first Report was that of the Treasurer, 
presented by Mrs. Shuter, who notified a balance 
in hand of £64 14s. lod. on the current account, 
besides in the Reserve Fund ;£ioo War Loan Stock 
at 4 J per cent., and a Balance at the Bank of 
;fio 14s. iid. 

The President announced that Mrs. Shuter 
had asked to be relieved of the \\'ork of Hon. 
Treasurer, though she would keep it on till October, 
and a very hearty' vote of thanks was passed to her. 
It was hoped that Mi's. Turnbull would then 
consent to act. 

The General Report presented by Miss Cutler 
notified that 67 new members had been elected 
during the year, and 4 had resigned. The League 
had lost through death Miss M. A. Buckingham 
(Matron of the Queen's Hospital, Biimingham), 
l\Iiss Graham (Sister Coborn), and Miss McConnal. 
The League had now 884 members ; 10 had been 
decorated with the Royal Red Cross First Class, 
13 Second Class, and 17 Mentioned in Despatches. 
Mrs. Andrews had reptesented the League at two 
meetings convened to consider the College of 
Nursing, and Miss Curtis at the third. Miss 
Le Geyt had been appointed to succeed Miss Milne 
as the representative of the League on the 

Executive Committee of the Society for the State 
Registration of Trained Nurses. 

The President had tendered her resignation but 
had been asked by the Executive to reconsider it, 
and had consented to do so for the present. 

The President remarked that the League was 
extraordinarily alive and healthy' and the Report 
was accepted. 

It was reported there had been no calls on the 
Benevolent Fund during the year. 

The Scrutineers then made their report on the 
voting papers for the new members of the 
E.xecutive in place of Lady Baddelev, Miss 
Bramwell, Miss E. Hunter, and Miss Rundle, and 
Mrs. Turnbull, Miss Finch, Mrs. Shore, and Miss 
C. Hayes were declared to be elected. 

Miss J. Curtis was elected Vice-President in 
succession to Miss E. M. Waind. 

The Isla Stewart Me.morial Fund. 

Mrs. Shuter reported that at the last summer 
meeting of the League she had stated that £8 
was needed to bring the Fund up to ^^500. Before 
the end of the month she had received ;{i9, one 
member wishing to give the whole of the /8. She 
had been helped by Miss Stewart in a time of 
difficulty and felt that she coiild in this way 
partially defray her debt. ;/^2i 5s. 4d. interest on 
investments had been received. The amount 
invested was £505, and a further sum of £25 had 
been invested in Exchequer Bonds on June 23rd. 

Report from the Delegate on the Society for 
State Registration. 
The following Report was presented by IMiss 
Le Geyt, the Delegate of the League, on the 
Society for the State Registration of Trained 
Nurses : — 

Madam President and Ladies, 

I have much pleasure, as your Delegate, in 
presenting the following short report of the work 
of State Registration. 

During the first year of the War there was a 
tacit understanding in most of the Societies 
connected with the economic status of women that 
there should be no active propaganda while 
members were so fully engaged in the immediate 
necessities of the times, but from the date 
(December 30th last) on wliich the Nursing College 
scheme was first propounded in a circular letter 
issued by the Hon. Arthur Stanley, the Societv 
for State Registration of Trained Nurses has 
been exceptionally active and alert. 

In the Fourteenth Annual Report mention is 
made that the Executive has met no less than six 
times and transacted a large amount of business, 
also that a Nurses' Protection Committee has 
been formed with Miss E. B. Kingsford as Chair- 
man. Fi\-e hundred and twenty-six new Members 
have been elected, bringing the total number of 
those who have joined the Society up to 4,100. 

It is desired that I draw the attention of the 
newly attending mernbers of the League to the 
new Form of Application for membership, in 

July 15, 1916 

Zbc British Journal of "WuretTifl. 


which the objects of this Society are stated in 
four clear propositions. 

Firstly, State Registration of Trained Nurses by 
Act of Parliament. 

Secondly, an elected Governing Body for the 
Nursing Profession on which the Registered Nurses 
have direct and adequate representation. 

Thirdly, a central examination for nurses at 
the expiration of the term of grace provided for 
in the Nurses' Registration Bill, before admission 
to the Register. 

And fourthly, the protected title of Registered 
Nurse for those placed on the General Register. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Society, held on 
June 8th, the President, Mrs. Bedford Fenwick, 
gave an illuminating resume of the conferences 
between the Central Committee for the State 
Registration of Nurses, and the Nursing College 

It remained to be seen if the Bills of both parties 
could not bo combined in their essential featiu-es, 
including the agreement as to the Constitution of 
a Governing Body. 

In view of tlie strong desire on both sides to 
come to a mutual understanding, there was every 
reason to hope that an acceptable Bill might be 
agreed upon at some date in the near future. 

Our sincere thanks are due to our indefatigable 
President, Mrs. Bedford Fenwick, who has been 
working for these principles for the last twentj'- 
five years, and consequently has a most intimate 
knowledge of the technical and legal points 
required in such a Bill. We can rest assured that 
with her watchful devotion to our Cause the 
liberties, and highest interests of the Nursing 
Profession will be safeguarded and preserved. 

The College ok Nursing. 
The President then gave a short account of the 
College of Nursing scheme, and said that it was 
no longer possible to separate the College irom 
a Bill for the State Registration of Nurses. As 
deliberations were still proceeding between the 
Central Committee for the State Registration of 
Nurses and the College it would be improper to 
go into details, but she mentioned some points 
which she had direct authority from Mr. Stanley 
for stating. Mr. Stanley was of opinion that if 
an agreed Bill was arrived at, .and with the help 
of Major Chappie, a Nurses' Registration Bill 
might be passed as a war measure, probably 
before Christmas. 
, Mrs. Bedford Fenwick said that it was in no 
contentious spirit that she repeated what she liad 
said at the last meeting of the League, that the 
College scheme as outlined in Mr. Stanley's 
original letter and incorporated in its Memorandum 
and Articles of Association was exceedingly 
dangerous to the best interests of the nursing 
profession, but much had happened in the past 
six months calculated to mitigate such effects. 
State, as apart from Voluntary, Registration had 
been adopted by the College and a Nurses' Regis- 
tration Bill drafted. There had been several 
meetings between the representatives of the 
College and the Central Committee to try to 

get an agreed Bill. This could only be done by 
inserting clauses considered of vital importance 
in nursing legislation. Many of their proposals 
had been accepted, and if further additions were 
included it did not appear improbable that with 
compromise a Bill might be agreed upon. They 
must not, however, think that everything was 
plain sailing. The constitution of the College as 
defined in its Memorandum and Articles of 
Association was autocratic and impossible. For 
instance, it was expressly provided that the College, 
which was presumably an educational institution, 
should not grant either titles or diplomas to 
trained nurses. They must not permit so obsolete 
a mandate to stand. Those framing legislation 
were responsible for the status of future genera- 
tions of nurses and they must conserve their 
interests. However, by conference much could be 
done, and she was inclined to think tl\a;t if an 
agreed Bill were adopted it would not be so very 
different frona their own statesmanlike measure 
to which so much thought had been devoted. 

Miss M. Huxley then gave a most interesting 
and sympathetic account of the recent Irish 
rebellion in Dublin, after which the members 
adjourned to the Great Hall for tea, which, as 
usual, was dainty and delicious, and to which 
many guests were invited. Mr. Algernon Clarke's 
Ladies' Trio played delightfully. Registration 
and the war provided ab.sorbing topics of con- 
versation, i^j j3 


The Physical Clinique for Wounded and Disabled 
Soldiers at 126, Great Portland Street, was opened 
on July 1st by H.M. Queen Alexandra. Its special 
features are the Whirlpool Bath and the Zander 

The baths, actuated by currents of water, by 
electric motors and by compressed air, have a 
strong tonic effect on the special conditions of 
muscles and joints due to injuries. The baths 
differ in detail, one pattern for feet, another for 
arms, and one for the entire body, but the principle 
is the same throughout. 

The Zander appliances for extension and flexion 
of stiff joints and contracted muscles are extremely 
interesting. The apparatus has been obtained 
from Paris, and consists of twelve pieces. We 
were informed that the whole of this wonderfully 
ingenious apparatus cost only ;£i75. Neither 
this nor the \\Tiirlpool Bath has hitherto been in 
use in England. The treatment, which is entirely 
free, will in the first instimce be given to wounded 
and disabled soldiers. About sixty cases can be 
treated in the afternoon, which at present is the 
only time the clinique is opened. 


The Daily Telegraph Shilling Memorial Fund for 
the erection of a statue to Edith Cavell now 
amounts to 58,527 shillings and ninepence 
(^2,926 7s. gd.). We look forward to seeing Sir 
George Frampton's beautiful statue in its place 
near Trafalgar Square — ^a splendid national site. 


Zbc »rttt9t) 3omnal of "Wursino. 

July 15, igi6 


Wirksworth Cottage Hospital. — Miss Annie 
Hardon has been appointed JNIatron. She was 
trained at I'niversitv College Hospital, London, 
where she has been nurse and Sister, also Night 
Sister at the Devonshire Hospital, Buxton. 

Isolation Hospital, Pentrobin, Hawarden, near 
Chester. — Miss R. Stewart has been appointed 
Matron. She received her general training at the 
Leeds Union Infirmary and fever training at 
the Bradford City Hospital, and has held the 
position of District School Nurse at Broseley, 
of Sister at the Borough Hospital, Crewe, the- 
City Hospital, Nottingham, and the Cit>' Hospital, 


Union Intirmary, Bedford. — iliss Mary A. 
Price has been appointed Superintendent JSTurse. 
She was trained at the L'nion Infirman,', Man- 
chester, and was subsequently Sister at Wolstanton 
and Burslem L'nion Infirnrary, and Queen's Nurse 
at Salford. She is a certified midwife. 


Plymouth Miss Lucy C. Cooper lias been 

appointed Health Visitor. She received her 
general training at the Central London Sick 
Asylum, Hendon. She .has also the certificates 
of the ^ledico-Psychological Society, the Royal 
Sanitary Institute, and has Midwifery and 
Massage training. She held Superintendent 
Nurse's post at Leavesden Asyhmi, Herts ; has 
done several years' private nursing and the last 
eighteen months has held first the Night Sister's 
and later the Assistant Matron's post at her 
training school, now known as The City of West- 
minster Infirmary, Hendon. 


Whitby Urban District. — Miss .\da Akcroyd has 
been appointed School Nurse and Health Visitor 
in the Whitby Urban District, the appointment 
having been made by the North Riding County 
Council, and the Whitby Urban District Council 
conjointly. Miss Akcroyd received general train- 
ing as a nurse at the Batley and District Hospital, 
and midwifery training at St. Mary's Hospitals, 
Manchester, and has held the position of School 
Nurse at Hull. 


Butler. — On July 3rd at a Nursing Home, 
Torquay, Clara Louisa Butler, for 20 years Matron 
of the Samaritan Free Hospital, Marylebone Road, 
London, W. Aged 70. 

The news of Miss Butler's death will be received 
with very widespread regret. She was oiie of the 
original members of the Matrons' Council, on its 
foundation, and did all in her power to help 
the members of the nursing profession to obtain 
the legal status which she realized was necessary 

both in the interests of the public and of trained 
nurses. Miss Butler had a charming personality, 
and will long be remembered by her colleagues 
and friends with respect and affection. She had 
been ill since January last, but to many the news 
of her death was unexpected. We offer our 
sincere sympathy, and we are sure that of all her 
professional colleagues, to her relatives. 


The Duchess of Portland visited Bagthorpe 
Workhouse Infirmary, Nottingham, on the 6th 
inst. for the purpose of distributing the medals, 
prizes and certificates won by probationers at the 
examinations in 1915 and 1916. 

^Ir. T. Munks (Chairman of the House Com- 
mittee), who presided over a numerous attendance 
of nrembers of the Board and visitors, congratu- 
lated the probationers on their work. The 
Guardians, he said, took a deep interest in their 
training. He went on to speak of the reluctance 
with which in days gone by poor people took 
advantage of workhouse infirmaries. He felt, 
however, that thanks to the skill of the nurses 
that reluctance was rapidly passing away. 

List of Awards. 

Gold Medal : Nurse Eliza A. Walker (first in 
final examination). Silver Medal : Nurse Beryl 
E. Walker (first in second year examination). 
Bronze Medal : Nurse Emily E. Coxall (first in 
first year examination). Prizes: Nurse Elizabeth 
West, Nurse Minnie Deverill, Nurse M. A. Shakes- 
peare, Nurse S. J. Blunt, Nurse Dorothy Seals 
and Nurse Mary Brown. 


Gold Medal : Nurse Millicent A. Shakespeare 
(first in final examination). Silver Medal : Nurse 
Harriet Widdowson (first in second year examina- 
tion). Bronze Medal : Nurse Mabel H. Hamp- 
shire (first in first year examination). Prizes : 
Nurse Eva Smith, Nurse Anna M. Yates, Nurse 
Mary E. Riding, Nurse Emily E. Coxall, Nurse 
Frances M. Holland and Nurse Mciry A. Mayne. 

Special Prizes. 

For Midwifery : Nurse Florence L. Hampson, i ; 
Nurse Edith E. Garratt, 2 ; Nurse Olive J. 
Donoghue, 3. Guardians' Prize (for uniform , 
excellence in the qualifications desirable in a nurse] : 
Nurse Elizabeth West. For General Neatness in 
Person and in Work : Nurse M. A. Shakespeare, i ; 
Nurse Clara Wakelin, 2. Certificates {gained after 
the completion of four years' training and after 
passing satisfactory examinations) : Nurses Phyllis 
R. Newcombe, Gertrude Knight, Faith Start, 
Florence L. Hampson, Elizabeth A. Conwav, 
Cecilia E. Willbond, Elizabeth West, Olive J. 
Donoghue, Louisa Treadwell, Beatrice L. Ward, 
Ethel May Tarlton, M. J. Shepherd, Edith L. 
Hall and S. J. Brunt. 

July 15, 1916 

^be »rltl0l) 3ournal of flureina. 



This has been a record year of work and 
worry for hospital matrons : workers have been 
so limited, both in the nursing and domestic 
departments, and we all know how matrons are 
often expected to make bricks without straw. 
We are the more pleased, therefore, to see 
recognition upon the' part of hospital com- 
mittees of the manner in w hich the majority of 
matrons have risen to the occasion, and 
"carried on" with so much spirit. At the 
annual meeting of the Royal Infirmary, Wigan, 
the Chairman, in speaking of the nursing 
department, said " the matron and staff have 
done wonders." No doubt other chairmen can 
tell the same tale. Let them place such recogni- 
tion on record : it is a great incentive to further 

The Women's W'ar Procession, on Saturday, 
July 22nd, which is being organized by the 
Women's Social and Political Union, 114, Great 
Portland Street, is intended to include all 
women, no matter what their political convic- 
tions, who feel strongly on the need for vigorous 
measures in the prosecution of the war abroad, 
where strong measures for the protection of 
British prisoners of war are urgently needed, 
on sea a free hand for the Fleet, and at home — 
where the members of the Union consider that 
the enemy alien should be interned. They also 
demand the cancellation of Naturalisation 
Certificates granted to those who continue 
Germans, and a drastic reform of the 
Naturalisation Laws, in order to prevent 
Britain from being permc.ited "and undermined 
by Germans in future. 

The Women's War Work Secretary, Miss 
Elsie E. Bowerman, writes : — " We are hoping 
to have a special section in the procession to 
represent the War Work of Women, and we 
are most anxious to have a large number of 
nurses. . . . We are sure that this would be a 
splendid opportunity for paying a tribute to 
Florence Nightingale, the Founder of Modern 

Nurses are working night and day just now, 
but we hop)e some will be able to take part in 
a demonstration which means " no wobbling in 
war. ' ' 

At a recent meeting of the members of the 
Devon and Cornwall Branch of the National 
Poor Law Officers' Association, a discussion 
took place on the urgent need of nurses becom- 
ing members of the Association, arising from 
a letter from the National Association Execu- 

tive. It w^as stated that large numbers of 
women now doing V.A.D. work in the hospitals 
looking after wounded soldiers, would adopt 
nursing as a career. If that happened, the nurs- 
ing profession would be overcrowded, which 
might induce Boards of Guardians to accept 
such nurses at low salaries. Poor Law nurses, 
therefore, required the protection which that 
Association could afford. It was intended to 
establish a College of Nursing, and to induce 
Poor Law nurses to submit themselves to exami- 
nation, so as to secure certificates of efficiency. 

We gather from paragraphs headed " The 
Enemy within the Gate " in the Poor Law 
Officers' Journal that the National Poor Law 
Officers' .Association objects to the professional 
co-operation of Poor Law nurses as such, and 
that the "enemy within the gate" are those 
matrons and others who that nursing, 
like medicine, cannot be confined within the 
narrow limits of the Poor Law, and that 
members of both professions, even if attached 
to Poor Law institutions, have a right to co- 
operate professionally outside the Association. 
We are entirely in sympathy with this view, 
and have more than once suggested that nurses 
trained in Poor Law hospitals should form a 
society of their own, as their Matrons and 
Superintendent Nurses have done, so that they 
can consider their own affairs, and, through the 
National Council of, come into sisterly 
association with various Leagues and Societies 
oi hospital nurses. 

We must confess that when the nominated 
list of persons was announced to form the 
Council of the College of Nursing — a body 
which proposed to define nursing standards and 
register trained nurses — it appeared to us an 
extraordinary anomaly that whilst not one of 
the powerful societies of trained and certificated 
nurses were represented, the Poor Law Officers' 
.Association was accorded representation, 
although it has absolutely no claim whatever 
to participate in the expert work of defining 
nursing educational standards or controlling 
our professional discipline. The Association, 
which is composed of workhouse officials of all 
grades from ma.ster to porter, has its uses, no 
doubt, but the control of the nursing profes- 
sion cannot be included in its duties. We hear, 
however, that all over the country Poor Law 
lav officials are being nominated on to the Con- 
sultative Board of the College, and that in 
consequence a rising determination upon the 
part of the nursing profession to resist any such 
control will have to be taken into consideration 
if the College is to continue. 


Zbc British 3ournal of "Wureino. 

]ulv 15, 1916 



f Chief among the benefits of a cottage hospital 
are the facts that skilled medical treatment and 
nursing care can be brought to the rural poor at 
the earliest possible moment, and further that 
when obliged to leave their own homes for such 
treatment they are stiU in the midst of familiar 
things and familiar faces, and to the man and 
woman who rarely move more than a few miles 
from home the loneliness of illness amongst 
strangers is not an added burden. 
^ T\*pical amongst institutions of this kind, 
wliich are doing good work all over the country-, 
is the Frimley District Cottage Hospital, of wliich 

the centre bed at present taking the form of a red 

In the attic are three bedrooms, a boxroom and 
a linen cupboard. 

Along the road just now pass many troops and 
also convoys of German prisoners on their way 
to the large internment camp near the Sanatorium. 

During the past year a system of heating by 
hot water has been installed tliroughout the 
hospital, the whole cost was defrayed by a member 
of the Committee, Mrs. A. C. Pain. In conse- 
quence of this alteration it has been necessary 
to build a mortuary, as a portion of the building 
used for this purpose was required for a furnace 
room. Another generous donor has given the 
mortuary slab. 

The hospital is now undertaking the school 


Miss E. M. Canceller is Matron. It consists of 
a central block to which wings have been added 
and which form the main wards (Iving Edward 
VII and King George V) and their annexes. A 
feature of these are the wide and pleasant 
verandahs on to which the beds of the patients, 
as shown in our illustration, can be drawn through 
the French windows. The private wards are in 
the main building, opening on to the central 
corridor. On the other side of the corridor the 
scullery and operating room are placed. 

The Matron's quarters are on the first floor. 
A charming sitting room, dining room, bedroom 
and bathroon ; there is also a kitchen oh this 
floor. From the windows of the sitting room 
there is a pleasant outlook over the garden where, 
under Miss Canceller's supervision, roses and 
many other beautiful things grow and prosper. 

clinic work, an indication of a further way in 
wliich cottage hospitals may serve the communit\-. 
They might also, in many instances, becon'.e 
cenlxes of ante-natal work. When one sees the 
good work of the Frimley Cottage Hospital under 
its up-to-date and capable Matron one realises 
what potent centres for good such hospitals may be. 
It requires a many-sided person to be Matron 
of a cottage hospital. She should be a first-rate 
nurse, both in the operating theatre and of 
medical and other cases, a good domestic manager, 
for the very existence of the hospital m.ay depend 
on her capacity to manage well and economically. 
She should also be able to secure the friendship 
of rich and poor and, withal, should be watchful 
for opportunities of extending the sphere of use- 
fulness of the hospital. To manage a cottage 
hospital well is indeed no mean feat. 

]iily 15, igi6 

JLbc JBrtti0b 3ournal of "Wurelna. 





There is no more important subject before 
the public to-day than that on which the Royal 
Commission has lately made Recommendations — ■ 
namely. Venereal Disease. Certainly, there cannot 
be one which bristles with more difficulties. 

A Conference of the "Women's Local Govern- 
ment Society was held at the house of Lord 
Meath, on July loth, to discuss this burning 
question. The basis for discussion was pre- 
sented to the Conference in the form of 
resolutions which affirmed the necessity of the 
presence of women on Boards of Management 
wluch undertake, with the a.ssistance of grants 
from the Exchequer, the diagnosis or treatment 
of venereal disease. Further, that the public 
should be enlightened as to the need for women 
on the Boards of Management of voluntary 
hospitals, and to the ever-increasing need for the 
co-operation of women with men as members of 
County and County IBorough Councils. 

Dr. Helen Wil.son pointed out that at present 
there was no suggestion that new bodies or build- 
ings should be created, but rather that existing 
organisations should carry out the work. She 
pleaded that the patiehts should be treated as 
real hospital cases and not as criminals. There 
were two main lines : i. Dealing with infected 
persons ; 2. Remedying the conditions whicli 
brought about the disease. The first of these only 
was dealt with by the Royal Commission. Com- 
plete isolation was not practicable, as the treat- 
ment lasted too long a time. Expert opinion was 
against compulsory notification. The only sug- 
gestion of compulsion in the Report was that 
Poor Law Guardians should ha\-e the power to 
detain known prostitutes. Dr. Wilson pointed 
out that if that were carried out, women would 
not put themselves in the position to be detained. 
Much better results could be obtained by per- 
suasion. It was also a mistake to imagine that 
known prostitutes were the most dangerous. 
Young girls just beginning the life were as much 
and more a source of danger. This was a work 
in which men and women must co-operate. 

Mr. Maurice Gregory, whose experience of the 
work is very great, began by saying that it needed 
a great many women of good will and sound 
■common sense. He spoke in glowing terms of 
the excellent nursing at the London Lock Hospital, 
and of the good results obtained. They 
were skilled, kind and patient women, who 
worked there, with such careful attention. It 
was a mistake to lay too mitch stress on specifics, 
and much more was due to the enormous value of 
good nursing. He and many other speakers 
deprecated the miserable aspect of many lock 
wards, and said, under no circumstances, should 
disease be punished. 

Miss A. C. Gibson was also of opinion that these 
•cases should be given difierent surroundings ; 

they should be happy and pleasant. There were 
still some old-fashioned nurses who worked from 
a different motive than that of earning a living, 
who would undertake this work, who would help 
and encourage these patients and nurse them 
with skill and tenderness. li\ 

Dr. Gertrude Keith said these women should be 
treated sympathetically ; it was not to be ex- 
pected that, after a bright, gaj' life of supper 
parties, theatres and fine clothes, they would 
remain where their surroundings were so un- 
attractive, their clothes so coarse, laundry work 
for occupation, and singing of hymns theirj^only 

Councillor Edith Sutton spoke of the un- 
willingness of men at this time to co-opt women 
on to their Councils ; but the women could, at 
any rate, be rousing their fellow women and see 
to it that when the work is ready the women are 
ready too. 

Miss Kilgour, M.A., speaking of the need of 
women on voluntary hospital boards, said a 
good deal might be done in this direction by 
women subscribers. 

The Chairn^an, Mr. W. Alexander Coote, in his 
closing remarks, asked the women to realise that 
men did not want them either on Boards of 
Guardians or Borough Councils ; they did not 
mean to lose any chance of a position on public 
bodies. He asked whether the organisation was 
quite ready for the work in hand. He spoke of the 
marvellous change in public opinion, and said 
that some years back medical opinion was a great 
drawback to the work, but tliat now the con- 
sensus of opinion was con\inced of the necessity 
of purity. 

The Local Government Board will issue instruc- 
tions this week to all local authorities instituting 
a new campaign against venereal disease. These 
order local authorities to arrange with existing 
hospitals and clinics for free ti'eatmnt for those 
suffering from this terrible scourge. Towards the 
cost the Local Government Board will contribute 
73 per cent, and the local authorities the remainder. 

A reader in India writes : " Bombaj' is a great 
centre just now, and a most interesting place. 
At St. George's Hospital sick and wounded officers 
have been taken in from the tJulf for more than 
a year now. Parts of the Byculla Club and the 
Taj Mahal Hotel also recei\-e wounded officers, and 
there are three large war hospitals open. Hospital 
sliips are continually going and coming between 
tliis and Mesopotamia and Bombay and Suez en 
route for England. Nurses have been lately 
arriving from England, but just at present the 
work is light here. The heat in Bombay has been 
very great, and at Basra, where some of the nurses 
from Egypt have gone, it will be much worse. 
But the most trying work of all is ambulance train 
duty ; the heat when going across India in May 
is appalling. One wonders if the war will ever 
end. Cholera has broken out in the Gulf now, so 
that makes it the more sad. " 

6o ?Ibe Britisb 3ournal of flmsino. j^iv 15, i9>6 



A lecture on the above subject was given on 
June 2Sth, at the London Day Training College, 
by J. Edward Squire, Esq., C.B., F.R.C.P., 
Physi-ian to the Mount Vernon Hospital, Hamp- 

Ten thousand children under the age of fifteen, 
he said, die every year from tuberculosis. These 
figures did not represent the total effect. Some 
die after that age ; some recover ; and some 
recover, though crippled for life. He described 
the various ways in which it affects children, and. 
said that lung disease from this cause was not so 
sommon in them as in the adult. The seeds must 
find the proper soil tc grow in ; and it was too 
often found in the London child, who lacked good 
food iind fresh air, and whose vitality was always 
low. In cases of tuberculous joints, there was 
'often a history of a fall or blow. It was when 
they were in the inflamed condition caused by 
such an accident that the tubercle bacillus already 
circulating in the blood found a suitable resting 
place. Cleanliness and the cult of the open 
window would go a great way in the prevention ol 
tuberculosis. He strongly advocated open-air 
schools, and said there should be residential 
schools of this kind for preventive work among 
the poorer children. 


Lecturing on " The Crippled Child " at the 
London Day Training College, on July 5th, 
Mr. R. C. Anslie, F.R.C.S., Medical Officer of the 
L.C.C. Cripples' Schools, said there were not so 
many crippled children in London as was generally 
believed. Out of the 700,000 children in the 
schools, only about 4,000 were crippled. 

The nu_jnber that were born cripples was 
extrem.ely small ; nearly all that were so afflicted 
became so at a comparatively early age. Tuber- 
cular disease of the bones and joints was respon- 
sible for about 50 per cent. Infantile paralysis 
was the cause of a large proportion of the other 
half. It was now known that these were both 
infective diseases, and, in consequence, a large 
diminution of cripples might be looked forward 
to. He advocated strongly institutional treat- 
ment for these children ; but, of course, the 
expense would be very heavy. The tuberculous 
subject, though apparently cured, should always 
be carefully watched and safeguarded. It was 
not right that they should be in ordinary schools 
where they ran great risk of injury. He im,- 
pressed the necessity of noticing early symptoms 
in children, and that any alteration in a child's 
habits ought to receive attention. Infantile 
paralysis was capable ol great im.provem.ent. 
In the last five or six years he had treated thirty 
cases, only two of which he had failed to make 

A Simple Method of Giving Saline Subcutane- 
ously and Intravenously in Use at the Royal 
Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Can. 

Writing in the Modern Hospital, Dr. E. C. Levine, 
of the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, says : — 

" In the giving of saline intravenously, there are 
some slight difficulties which I think could be over- 
come by the use of a receptacle or flask, which I 
shall describe later. Let us consider the draw- 
backs which exist in the old method of giving 
saline intravenously : 

" I. The monotonous and tiresome act of having 
to hold the funnel at arm's length, and the occa- 
sional overflow of same when fluid is too vigorously 
poured out from flask by the assistant. 


" 2. The unequal pressure of fluid in the funnel. 

" 3. Possibility of air getting down into the tube, 
due to allowing the funnel to empty itself. 

" 4. Exposure to air and contamination. 

" The simple device, which has been worked out 
with the kind assistance and valuable suggestions 
of Miss Felter, head of the operating department 
of the Royal Victoria Hospital, is as follows : — It 
is a continuous flow arrangement, which, when 
suspended from a stand, avoids the need of an 
assistant. The flask is an ordinary one (Erlen- 
meyer), such as is generally used in a hospital, and 
the cork is made of soft rubber with an adjustable 
screw running through it, attached to a small plate 
on its inner surface. This, by the use of the 



Zbc «rttl0b 3ournal of "Wuratna. 


thumbscrew on the outside, will enable the cork to 
fit any ordinary-sized bottle, having the same 
action as the plunger of a syringe. 

" The long tube is placed through the cork and 
into the flask, allowing air to enter whenever the 
flask is turned bottom up, thereby regulating the 
flow of liquid. The short bent tube on the oppo- 
site side is for the flow of fluid, and to it is attached 
the rubber tube, with its cannula, or needle, at the 
end. The advantages are as follows : — 

• " I. Doing away with the funnel and open-flask 

" 2. No overflowing of liquid. 

" 3. Regular pressure and uniform flow of fluid. 

" 4. Simplicity of apparatus. 

" 5. No possibility of air getting into tube after 
flow has started. 

" 6. No possibility of fluid becoming contami- 
nated by exposure to air. 

" 7. Easiness of sterilisation. 

" 8. (Very important). No need of assistants 
after flow of fluid has started. 

" 9. No danger of cork coming out of flask when 


Members of the medical and nursing pro- 
fessions, wlien visiting Liverj)ool, should make a 
point of calling at the 'spacious showrooms of 
Messrs. White & Wright, 93, Renshaw Street, and 
inspecting their hospital equipment. The firm has 
one of the largest and most varied assortment of 
aseptic hospital furniture in the provinces, 
including the latest patterns in operation tjiblcs, 
lockers, trolleys, &c. The goods are calculated to 
stand the hardest wear and tear of hospital wards 
and are of high-class workmanship and finish. 
The firm are the actual numufacturcrs of these 
goods and therefore in a p/sition to put them on 
the market at very moderate prices. 

Their stock includes invalid furniture, wheel 
chairs, bed tables, back rests, water beds, indeed 
every kind of nursing requisite. 



It takes great strength to live where you belong. 
When other people think that you are wrong ; 
People you love, and who love you, and whose 
Approval is a pleasure you would choose. 
To bear this pressure and succeed at length 
In living your belief — well, it takes strength." 


July 20th. — ^Meeting Matrons' Council, City 
of Westminster Infirmary. Colindale Avenue, 
Hendon, N.W. Business meeting, 4 p.m. Tea 
and croquet. 

July 2yth. — Meeting Executive Committee 
Society for State Registration of Trained Nurses, 
431, Oxford Street. 4 p.m. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 


To the Editor o/The^Britisii Journal of Nursing. 
Dear Madam, — What a sympathetic letter in 
last week's issue from "|H. H." As I live and 
work in the East End of London and would not 
leave it for work elsewhere, I know exactly tlic 
atmosphere wliich appeals to " H. H." But 
sometimes I long to get away from the smell of 
fried fish and the sight and smell of poverty, and 
it is n^y pleasure to take my recreation . where 
everything smells sweet. I never n^iss one day 
every season in a hayficld, w-here I am welcome. 
Another day I spend in Hampton Court Gardens, 
and another on the river at Sonning. These 
three lovely treats last me for montlxs. 
Yours truly. 

East Ender. 


To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Mabam, — -On your advice I have obtained 
a copy of the Memorandum and Articles of Associa- 
tion of the College of Nursing. I cannot see how 
we can submit to work under- them. It is not 
enough to ignore them as their dangerous pro- 
visions still stand. Surely the Bill will override 
them, and we sliall not only get rid of the " stigma " 
of being controlled by a limited company, but 
shall be safe from its autocratic provisions. It is 
amazing that any matron can associate herself 
with such a constitution. 

Yours truly, 

Jane C. Watson. 



July 22nd. — 'If it is decided under medical 
advice that an infant slxall be weaned, what 
special points would you observe in the care of 
the mother and child ? 

Jnly 2gth. — -What methods have you seen 
employed for the treatment of infected wounds, 
and with what results ? 


Candidates for the F.F.N. C. can be intcr\acwed 
on Friday, July 14th and 21st, 2.30 to 4.30 p.m., 
at 431, Oxford Street, London, W. Candidates 
must be well educated and hold a certificate of 
three years' ti-aining, which they must bring for 
inspection. A knowledge of French is an advan- 


ICbe British 3oiu'naI of IFluvsing Supplement. j'Uv .5, 1916 

The Midwife. 



At the cxaiviination of the Central INIidwives 
Board, held on June 19th in Lxjndon and the 
Provinces, 612 candidates were exan.ined ; 492 
passed. The percentage of failures was 19.6. 



City of London Lying-in Hospital. — H. I. Burton, 
M. Cross, E. Gates, A. B. Hepburn, M. E. Lucas, 
R. Morgan, E. M. Pearce, F. M. Pound, M. Powell, 
C. Roiiwell, M. M. Silvey, J. Sn.ith, M. Smith, M. I. 
Terry, L. M. Wales. 

Clapham Maternity Hospital. — C. U. Barnett, 

F. Bateman, K. Blake, F. G. Brayne, M. E. Brown, 
E. Comins, G. E. Irwin, G. Jensen, H. M. Meredith, 
J. D. Mills, J. Muckleston, A. I. Saunders, M. B. 
Stone, M. Threlfall, I\L E. WolfE. 

East End Mothers' Home.—C. Bradley, M. E. 
Clark, E. M. King, H. J. Leese, H. Middleton, 

B. E. Minchen, G. M. Xic-1, K. E. Shaw, E. F. 
Singleton, E. T. White. 

General Lying-in Hospital. — M. Adams, M. 
Barnes, J. D. Bevan, E. M. Borman, M. L. 
Claridge, J. Dow, L. E. Dunett, S. Ellis, E. M. 
Fawcett, B. M. Gilbert, C. Hornby, E. E. Mac- 
millan, G. M. Maroon, M. IMurray, F. E. Parker, 
E. G. Williams, W. Woodmansey. 

Greenwich Union Infirmary. — C. Guinee. 

Guy's Institution. — J. Dingle, A. D. Farr, C. E. 
Love, A. M. McKitrick, G. E. Sherrard, C. A. 

Kensington Union Infirmary. — K. I. Hamlyn, 
M. F. Orpin, G. E. Page. 

London Hospital. — M. Francis, G. M. Francois, 
S. J. Humphreys, I. E. V. McGregor, E. Portmann, 
L. S. RadclifEe, M. E. Reid, E. M. Skeif. 

Maternity Nursing Association. — A. M. Braith- 
waite, H. M. Bushell, E. R. Gook, E. Marriott, 

G. W. Rawlings, L. Sloper, L. R. Tuff, K. Welford. 
Middlesex Hospital. — E. C. Ogle. 

Neiv Hospital for Women. — H. Anderson, H. 

Pcmberton Nursing Institute and Neiv Hospital 
for Women. — E. Downs, J. M. Hamlett, A. 
Metcalfe, E. M. Miller. 

Plaistow Maternity Charity. — E. M. Allen, 
L. A. M. Brown, W. A. K. Cole, E. Cramp, H. G. 
Day, S. J. Earwood, L. Evans, G. J. C. Field, 

C. M. Griffiths, C. A. Groom, R. Hale, M. E.Hale, 
M. L. Hardwick, S. A. Hartley, E. M. Hearn, 
E. James, E. J. Jeans, E. Jones, M. Jones, A. E. 
King, F. E. Little, E. Mason, D. Menghetti, 
K. L. Mock, M. Owen, A. P. Padfield, M. J. 
Palmer, E. M. Parcell, A. Parsons, E. E. Phillips, 
K. Pocdck, F. S. Potter, W. Price, E. M. E. 

Roberts, H. P. Roberts. N. D. Smith, A. M. 
Southerdcn, C. Street, H. Taylor, M. Tavlor, 

A. M. Turner, V. Tyrrell, A. M. Waller, A. Walters, 

B. M. Welch. 

Queen Charlotte's Hospital. — E. Bond, A. H. 
Brand, M. D. Bridel, E. A. Chunn, M. Constabl;;, 

D. J. Da\nes, E. A. Earns, H, Flint, B. G; aty, A. 
Goss, E. G. Hartley, K. S. Lane, F. Lee, M. E. 
Lewis, R. E. Maggs", A. A. Miller, H. S. Munn, D. 
Norrish, K. T. O'Connor, J. E. Pape, J. E. 
Pennington, D. Richardson, M. D. R bertson, 
L. M. Townsend, E. V. Young. 

Salvation Army Mothers' Hospital. — B. C. 
Bendall, A. Bintcliffe, J. Chadwick, E. K. Cromarty 
A. B. Goodacre, A. M. Jones, M. M. Munk. 

Universitv College Hospital. — H. E. Strange. 

West Ham Workhouse. — H. Aird, E. Harding. 

Whitechapel Union Infirmary. — H. S. Soppi^t. 

Woolivich, British Hoi^p/tal for Mothers and 
Babies. — R. Card. 


Aldcrshot, Louise Margaret. — M. O. J. Davies. 
L. Harrison. 

Birkenhead Maternity Hospital. — B. Boden, 

E. M. Gater, M. A. Hempsted C, McClarence, 
M. Walker, E. Whitehead. 

Birmingham Maternitv Hospital. — M. A. 
Asberray, B. Dawson, S. Harris, J. A. Murrav, 
E. Priestnall, E. G. Tanner, E. B. Walford, M. C. 
Graham, E. Keeton. 

Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary. — S. A. Allen, 
L. Howells, and Aston Union Infirmary, 

A. M. Dace, E. Griffiths, H. C. Hassall, E. M. 

Brighton Hospital for Women. — -M. F. R.' 
.Allerton, V. E. Balls, K. Carr, M. J. Dean, D. M. 
Egerton, D. H. Fabian, H. B. Frapwell, V. K. L. 
Gulley, J. Hodgskin, J. E. Marshall, M. F. 
Squires, D. V. Tassell, A. Tetley, H. Warrack, 
I. Webster. 

Bristol General Hospital. — O. E. Dicks, E, E. 
Gibbons, H. Price, S. W. Warren. 

Bristol Royal Infirmary. — E. L. Baazeley, B. F. 
Bond, N. Courteen, M. Owen, I. M. Phipps, W. L. 

Cheltenham District Nursing Association. — A. R. 
Hurle, E. A. Jolley. 

Chester Benevolent Institution. — A. Jones, M. E. 

Croydon Union Infirmary. — M. E. Brown. 

Devon and Cornwall Training School. — W. J. 
Bignell, A. Coombs. J.- M. Friggens, E. Legg, 

B. Nicholas, E. A. A. White. 

Derby. Royal Derby and Derbyshire Nursing 
Association. — E. A. Burton, M. A. Gem, E. Heap, 
T. Lockyer, C. Rollinson, J. B. McB. Scott, M. J. 
Shearlaw, K. W. Wildsmith. J. Woodcock. 

Dewsbury Union Workhouse. — E. Douglas, C. 
Ingham, E. H. Wilson. 

July 15, 19.6 Z,bc Brtneb 3ournal ot Bureing Supplement 


Ecclesall Bierlow Union Infirmary. — H. A. 
Anthonies, E. Fairclough, C".. A. Gosney, M. E. 
Iddenden, L. Stokoe, J. Wilson. • 

Essex County Cottage Nursing Society. — F. E. R. 
Bence, E. M. East, V. A. Evcritt, M. Gaskell, 
J. Munro, M. O'Brien, A. Sweeney, E. Gracey. 

Gloucester District Nursing Society. — K. Bell, 
A. M. Cobk. 

Herts County Nursing Association. — A. M. M. 
Argent, M. Mason, N. M. Powell. 

Hull Lying-in Charity.-^\. Armstrong, A. C. 
Pizey, E. Shooter. 

Hastings District Nursing Association. — R. B. 

Ipswich Nurses' House. — E. M. Peachey 

Kingswood Nurses' Home. — D. C. Davis, A. 

Leeds Maternity Hospital. ^C. Alexander, M. 
Bailey, N. Barr, E. Bennett, D. M. Butcher, 
A. G. Chittock, O. E. E. Durie, L. Eastwood, E. 
Ellks, E. Gray, M. G. Holdcn, M. Jack, C. E. 
Lovvery, E. Oakes, H. Precious, K. Stocks, M. 
Strickland, P. B. Turner, G. A. Whitehead, L. 

Leicester Union Infirmary. — E. Edwardson. 

Leicester Maternity Hospital. — M. H. Grindcy. 

Liverpool Workhouse Hospital. — E. E. GriSin. 
A. E. Jackson, M. Rochell. 

Liverpool Maternity Hospital. — E. M. Adams, H. 
ArkwTight, C. Bird, A. -Breen, E. Campbell, 
G. M. E. Dromgoole, E. Hamson, E. Halsall, 
M. S. M. Hickling, M. S. Horner, A. H. Jones, 
G. M. Jones, E. Scllars, A. Shields, A. A. Smith. 
J. H. C. Ward, G. M. Wood, A. Wright. 

Manchester St. Mary's Hospital. — M. L. Bards- 
ley, B. Cook, F. M. Fox, S. Gray, A. Hipkins. 
E. Maxwell, G. Middleton, F. G. Peel, M. E. 
Pratt, S. Pulford, S. Richardson, L. E. Seybold, 
D. G. Wildman, H. Jacobs, A. B. Kermode, 
W. J. Mc In tyre. 

Manchester Workhouse Infirmary and Withington 
Hospitals. — M. Beresford, S. A. Broome, J. Crank, 
' A. Milne, J. M. Partridge. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne Maternity Hospital. — M. E. 
Barton, M. S. Mason, E. S.iiith. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne Union Infirmary. — I. H. 

Nottingham Workhouse Infir)nary. — E. A. Con- 
wav, F. Start, L. Treadwell, E..West. 

Northampton Q.V.J .N.I. ^X. B. Brinkhurst, 
A. A. Meadows, E. Miller, E. B. J. Reuser. 

North Bierley Union Infirmary. — I. Illingworth, 
A. Wluttle. 

Norwich Maternity Institution. — S. F. Abbs, 
M. E. Grimes. 

Oldham Union Infirmary.- M. E. Hunter, M. J. 

Rotherham Union Infirmary. -M. A. H. Foster. 

Romford Union Infirmary.— V. M. Connolly. 

Selly Oak Union Infirmary. — -E. G. Radbonc. 

Sheffield Jessop Hospital.— K. Cook, E. K. 
Goodridge, E. Harrison, W. M. Stranglcman. 

Sheffield Union Hospital. — E. E. Barker, M. 
Murphy, G. L. Sudbury, F. West. 

Staffordshire Training Home for Nurses. — E. 

Boulton, E. M. Deakin, S. Jones, H. N. Lewis, 
M. Prichards. 

Stoke-on-Trent Union Hospital. — -H. V. Good- 
win, M. Jones, A. M. W. Kavanagh. 

Wakefield Union Infirmary. — -M. Beech, F. 

Walton West Derby Union Infirmary. — L. E. 
Gleave, K. Grace. 

West Riding Nursing Association. — E. M. Balm- 
forth, A. E. Parkinson. 

Wilts. County Nursing Association. — W. M. 
Ancell, II. M. Gregory, M, Woohnington. 

Windsor H.R.II. Princess Christian's Maternity 
Home. — B. M. Gray. 

Wolverhampton District Nurses' Home. — A. M. 

Worcester County Nursing Association. — ^G. K. 
Howitt, E. E. J. Rex, A. R. Smith. 

York Maternity Hospital. — E. Bell, E. A. T)ale, 
F. E. Green, E. Stead. 

York Union Hospital. — M. K. Ward. 

Cardiff Q.V.J.N.I.—M. A. Carter, D. C. 
Hughes, A. J. Tliomas, E. E. Harris. 

Monmouthshire Training Centre. — -D. C. Hop- 
kins, \l. Hughes, K. M. Jones, N. M. Thomas, 
K. Wool way. 


Dundee Maternity Hospital. — I. G. Braid, A. R. 
McKay, M. Marr, M. A. G. Shcrratt. 

Ildinhurgh Royal Maternity Hospital. — H. Bauld, 
J. B. Fleming, F. A. Hanxwell, M. H. Minshall, 
M. A. Rudd, J.M.Scott. 

Glasgow Eastern District Hospital. — M. S. 

Glasgow Royal Maternitv Hospital. — F. G. 
Gilbert, M. B. Lindsay, I. R.H. Macdonald. 

Belfast Incorporated Maternity Hospital.—S. R. 
P. McGimpsey. 

Belfast Union Maternity Ho.%pital. — H. Boyle, 
H. Conroy, A. McCaughan, H. O'Driscoll. 

Dublin Rotunda Hospital. -'M. M. Carter, A. J. S. 
Harman, E. Harper, C. J. Hcylin, A. A. H. 


Madras Govermnent Maternity Hospital. — K. A. 
. Chase. 

Private Tuition. 

A. Allen, J. A. Anderson, S. H. B.ves, B. D. Batra, 
M. J. Cole, M. M. Cowan, E. T. Crisp, H. Y. Hain, C. 
Hcwson, S. Johnson, D. K. Rayment, M. I. Kane, 
A. Lea, M. M. S. Lloyd, F. H. Lycms, L. Lyons, J . 
Maclean, C. G. Mathi'as, E. Millican, H. J. Mitchell, 
M. Moore, A. Porter, A. Ramsden, V. E. Robinson, 
E. A. Robson, F. Sliaw. G. C. Shepherd, A. M. 
Smith, E. L. Smith, J. A. Swanson, W. Thaw, 
C. R. Thomas, E. A. Thomas, F. L. Thompson, 
S. J. E. Tinscy, A. M. Wood, C. Wood. 

Private Tuition and Institutions. 

67. Mary's Hospital, Manchester. —A.. Aldred, 
M. Farremond, E. Tootell, C. A. Moseley. I. B. 


(Ebe Brltisb 3ournal of Tlureina Supplement. /«/> 15, 1916 

General Lying-in Hospital. — M. A. Beaven, 
E. A. Holford, E. K. Pinncy, B. N. Tetley. 

Yark Maternity Hospital. — M. Boston. 

Belfast Union Maternity Hospital. — J. Cather- 

Kensington Union Infirmarv. — S. Coaklcv, J. 

Nottingham Workhouse Infirmary. — H. Conneloy, 
T. A. P. Thomas. 

East End Mothers' Home. — E. N. Gostling, 
E. M. JollifE, H. Moss, L. K. Moss, J. Passcv, 
E. E. IM. Wright. 

Salvation Army Mothers' Hospital. — A. R. F. 

Royal Derby and Derbyshire Nursing Association. 
— M. J. Mackenzie. 

Birmingham Maternity Hospital. — E. J. Price, 
G. D. Taylor. 

Birkenhead Maternity Hospital. — ^M. U. Robinson. 

Fulham %Iidwifery School. — J. C. Sampson, A. 
Sexton, E. M. Stiles. 

Leeds Maternity Hospital. — .\. O. Sharp. 

Norivich Maternity Inslitute. — D. Grimble and 
D. Watson. 


The annual gathering of midwives of this Asso- 
ciation took place at Cam House, Campden Hill, 
by kind permission of Lady Phillimore, on Wednes- 
daj', July 5th, at 3 p.m. 

Mrs. Wilton Phipps occupied the chair and wel- 
comed the assembled '..idwives, some of whom had 
come from a distance. She then called upon Miss 
Lucy Robinson to give an address. In urging the 
great importance of the care of the expectant 
mother — ante-natal — and that of the child — post- 
natal — she said : " Never in the history of our land 
has your work mattered as much as at present." 
The waste of male life through this devastating 
war has been so great that it is more than ever 
necessary to give the very best attention and care 
to the rearing of the new generation. The speaker 
did not consider that we had 3'et solved the 
problem of infant mortalit\-, and emphasised the 
importance of acquiring more knowledge of the 
subject. She pointed out that the death rate 
during the first year of life, was about the same in 
all classes. This was the critical age of the tender 
little life, for whose preservation so much know- 
ledge and understanding were necessary. 

The badge of the Association, bearing the words 
" Mercy, Pity, Truth and Love," was presented to 
the following midwives by Lady Phillimore : — 

Midwife Eveline Bould, working under the 
Derbyshire Nursing Association ; Midwives Mary 
Anne Brown and Effie Clifton, working under the 
Oxfordshire Nursing Federation ; Midwife Char- 
lotte Reeves, working under the Sussex Nursing 
Association, and the following who are working 
indepen.dently : — Midwives Florence Croft {Chase 
Terrace), Esther Emery (Sevenoaks) ; Charlotte 

Hall (Walsall), Mary Anne Iveay (Bloxwich), Eva 
Lee (Stockton-on-Tees), Alice Porter (Hanley), 
Sarah Anne Ridgway (Goole), Lily Rowe (Exeter). 
After the presentation Lady Pliillimore said a 
few words about the missionary aspect of the work. 
The coming of the trained midwives had had, she 
remarked, a great ci\'ilising effect upon rough dis- 


Dr. H. J. F. Simson, in the second of his 
lectures to midwives. in the course arranged by 
the L.C.C. at West London Hospital, Hammer- 
smith, said that it was his intention to confine 
his lectures to obstetrical subjects, and therefore 
the lecture announced " Venereal Diseases " 
would be substituted by one on "Modern 
Developments in the Management of Labour." 

In obstetrical practice, he said, it was the un- 
known that was feared. Every precaution must 
be taken against infection, and slight abnor- 
malities recognised in time and put right — " A 
stitch in tin^e saves nine." With this in view 
every primipara should be seen at the seventh and 
again at the eighth month. Multiparse should 
also be seen at these periods if they have had any 
prex-ious abnormal pregnancies. This should be 
an absolute rule. 

Speaking of twilight sleep, he said it was abso- 
lutely useless to give the injection unless early in 
the first stage. It was a perfectly safe treatment, 
though there might be a little difficult^^ in resusci- 
tating the child. It had a curious effect on the 
patient, wh''se memory became a blank while she 
appeared perfectly conscious, and she had after- 
wards no recollection of pain. Where the 
perineum required to be stitched he advocated 
this being done before the expulsion of the 


The Homo for Belgian Babies which was 
recently opened at 159, Cromwell Road, S.W., is 
now in full working order. At present there are 
nineteen -infants, and another ward' furnished 
with cots is ready to receive more. 

They are all under two years old, " with no 
language (at present) but a. cry." On the occasion 
of our visit one small person was making its 
protest at the injustice of its banishment at the 
top of its voice. The rooms are lofty and airy, 
and -are furnished in a business-like manner. 
Charts with prescriptions above the cots testified 
to the regular visits of a doctor who we learned, is 
a lady. The nursing staff consists of five. They 
are provided with a cheerful sitting room, though 
we can well b;lieve that there is very little tinie 
to enjoy it. 

Such young infants as were som^ of them need 
great vigilance and unremitting ctvie, and it is 
always something of a tiiumph to pilot any of 
them tlirough the first critical months of their 
lives where any number are nursed together. 

^ THE 4Ai^ 




No. 1,477 

SATURDAY, JULY 22, 1916 




" // preventible why not prevented? " 

Only those who know something of the 
prevalence of venereal diseases, their serious 
nature, and disastrous consequences, can 
estimate the urgency for a comprehensive 
scheme for their treatment, yet the present 
provision is so inadequate as to be practi- 
cally non-existent. Thus the Royal Com- 
mission on Venereal Diseases which issued 
its final report last March found that the 
effects of venereal disease upon the indi- 
vidual, and the race, are grave and- far 
reaching, involving a heavy loss to the 
community in actual and potential popula- 
tion, as well as in money, and that the 
medical evidence they had received estab- 
lished the fact that, bv early and efficient 
treatment, venereal disease could be 
brought within narrow limits, but at pre- 
sent this is in most cases unduly deferred, 
that adequate facilities for the best modern 
treatment do not exist, and that to bring 
it to bear on every infected person Govern- 
ment action is essential. 

The Local Government Board, whose 
President, Mr. Walter I^ong, is deeply 
interested in the question, . has now issued 
regulations under the Public Health Acts 
requiring County Councils and County 
Borough Councils to organize, and carry 
into effect, schemes for the provision of 
facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of 
venereal diseases. 

Under the regulations of the Local Govern- 
ment Board the duty is imposed on the county 
and county borough councils of providing, 
or arranging for the provision of free facili- 
ties for diagnosis and treatment, and the 
Board state that in view of the findings of 
the Koyal Commission they are of opinion 
that the conditions of the present war con- 
stitute a " case of emergency " which 

justifies them in calling upon these councils 
to carry out a work which is specially 
important when the services of every man 
are required. 

These Councils are required to make 
arrangements enabling any medical prac- 
titioner practising in their respective areas 
to obtain, free of cost to himself and his 
patients, examinations of pathological 
material ; and Wassermann tests on the 
blood serum of patients, both for the 
tliagnosis of syphilis, and as a control of 
the effect of treatment. Seventy-five per 
cent, of the cost incurred will be repaid 
by the Local Government Board. 

It is anticipated that the scheme will 
comprise the establishment of special clinics 
for the treatment of venereal diseases at 
one or more hospitals within the area of 
the Council concerned, which will be avail- 
able for all applicants, irrespective of their 
means, or place of residence. These clinics 
are not to be specially designated as for 
venereal diseases, and nothing is to be 
done to distinguish those who attend. 

Every effort is to be made to secure the 
co-operation of private practitioners and 
Salvarsan, or its substitutes, is to be suj> 
piied gratuitously to those qualified to 
administer it. 

In addressing the general hospitals the 
Local Government Board say that the 
measures recommended by the Royal Com- 
mission cannot be successful without the 
active co-operation of the general hospitals 
of the country. 

Lastly the Councils are recommended to 
form Committees, comprising social workers 
- — including a sufficient number of suitable 
women — and representatives of the local 
medical committees, for the purpose of 
disseminating information as to the scheme, 
and for making suggestions to the Council 
concerned. It seems therefore that a well 
organized effort is at last to be made to 
coipbat these diseases. 


Zbc »ritieb 3ournal of ■Rursinfl. 

July 22, 1916 






\\\- lia\c plc;isur<; in awarding- liic prize tlii.s 
week to Miss M. M. C. Biclbv, Cranford, 


When it has Inen <leci<l<'(l that an infant shall 
be weaiK-d, llie first con.-^ideration is the sub- 
stitute for the ni()th<r's milk. Frequently, 
espeeially in country jjractice, the medical 
attendant lea\es this point to be decided by the 
mother and trained nurse, and the latter is 
expected to be competent to advise as to the 
best method. In the case of a wealthy patient, 
a wet nurse is usually chosen by the doctor. 
She should have perfect health, be from twenty 
to thirty years of age, possess an equable tem- 
perament and a good character ; the breasts 
should be well ada])fed for suckling-, the milk 
plentiful and g-ood, and her own child should be 
of the same age as the foster child. 

The supervision of the wet nurse is usually 
left to the trained nurse, who should see that 
the former has suitable food, exercise, abun- 
dant fresh air and sleep, and no alcohol. Also 
that she is kept happy and quite free from 
worry. , 

If bottle-feeding is decided upon, there are 
several equally good foods. These include 
humanised milk, sterilized milk and barley 
water, half-cream dried milk, cows' milk and 
Benger's Focjd, and Allen & Hanburvs' infant 
foods. Much depends upon the age of the 
infant, its constitution, and the parents' circum- 
stances. If the burden of preparing the food 
is to fall on the overworked mother of a tiny 
household, the simplest method is the best and 
cheapest. I have seen excellent results in such 
cases when Glaxo is used. For cottage homes 
dried milk is the most suitable. 

If sterilized milk be decided upon, the 
number of feeds required for a twenty-four 
hours' supply should be mixed and sterilized at 
one time in separate bottles, and each bottle 
opened as required. 

Punctuality and cleanliness are the first 
essentials. Alodcrn authorities are agreed as to 
the advantages of a three-hourly feed. A boat- 
shaped bottle should be used, with Ingram's 
" Agrippa " band teat and valve, as these can 
be sterilized bv boiling, and cannot be pulled off 
the bottle by the child. 

Milk for infants should not be boiled, as this 
destroys the spores, rendering the milk less 

digestible and nutritious. Some authorities 
recommend a daily teaspoonful of the juice of 
a sweet orange for bottle-fed infants. It should 
1m: remembered that a Ijaliy is often thirsty, and 
requires a teaspoonful of cold boiled water 
between meals. 

A baby's mouth must be cleaned with boracic 
lotion before and after each feed, otherwise 
stomatitis, thrush, or diarrhoea may occur. 
Bottles must be kept scrupulously clean. They 
should not be cleaned with soda, as this 
corrodes the glass. Used tea leaves are the 
best ck'aning agent. All articles required in 
preparing the baby's food should be kept on a 
tray, and covered. 

In bottle-feeding, the food must be given 
slowlv, not less than fifteen minutes being spent 
over each feed, the baby afterwards being laid 
in its cot. 

Humanised milk can be obtained from the 
large dairv companies in sealed bottles. It can, 
however, be prepared at home, remeinbering 
that the proportion of its constituents must 
vary as human milk does according to the age 
of the child. A good formula for this is : One 
quart of new milk. Let it stand for seven hours. 
Ten ounces of the top milk are then to be taken 
off. Take 18 oz. of the remainder, and make 
whey bv heating it to 105° F. in a double sauce- 
pan. Stir in one teaspoonful of good rennet. 
Then break up the curd, and heat the whey to 
155° F. Remove the saucepan; let it stand for 
five minutes, then strain off the whey. Dissolve 
I oz. of sugar of milk in boiling water, add 
li oz. of lime water, and put into the 10 oz. of 
top- milk. Then add 12 oz. of whey. 

If there is any tendency to constipation, pure 
cane Demerara sugar may be substituted for 
sugar of milk, or an occasional teaspoonful of 
barlev water mav be given. 

. The mother's breasts may become engorged 
and painful. Authorities differ as to the best 
mode of relieving the condition, some advising 
massage with oil, hot fomentations, and the use 
of the breast pump. Others insist that the line 
of masterly inactivity should be followed, and 
that a-'dry bandage to relieve the weight of the 
breasts is the only thing needful, the secretion 
of milk ceasing when stimulation is stopped. 

In either case, all liquids should' be reduced 
to a minimum, and a saline purgative be given 
daily. If the breasts are to be compressed a 
figure of 8 bandage over cotton-wool is the 
most coinfortable, powdering the under side to 
prevent soreness. When there is much pain, 
the doctor may prescribe codeine. The breasts 
should be watched regarding the possibility of 
an abscess forming. 


19 1 6 

ttbe Krittsb 3ournal of ■Wursino. 



The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss L. C. Cooper, Miss F. Friend, 
Miss J. Macintyre, Mis.^ F. James, Miss M. 


What methods have you seen employed for 
the treatment of infect<;d wounds, and with 
what results? 



At the Investiture held l>y the King at Bucking- 
ham Palace on July nth, the Royal Red Cioss 
(second class) was conferred by His Majesty on 
Miss Florence Price, Miss Jessie Burns, and Miss 
Caroline Robinette. 

The great " push " has necessitated tremendous 
efforts being n'.ade in our war hospitals during the 
past fortnight, and trained nurses are in very 
great demand — indeed, they are at a premium, 
and unfortunately many of those engaged in 
private work do not appeai able to stand the 
strain of busy hospital woik. We hope, however, 
that every nurse in the land will realise what 
she and her country owe to the shattered men 
home broken in battle from France, and that she 
will work till she drops as they have done, in 
relieving the sufferings of sick and wounded men. 
Nothing but physical inability should prevent 
trained nurses from taking thcii part in military 
hospital work during these days of national stress. 
The majority- will, we feel sure, " wire in " and do 
their utmost. 

The unit of Japanese Red Cross nurses which 
has been working at the Astoria Hospital in Paris 
foi fifteen months, passed through Ix>ndon on 
their homeward journey to Japan last week. 
They have greatly enjoyed thoii work, but long 
for a sight of the Flowery Land. Safe journey 
to these deft and gentle little Sisters. 

Sister Mary Angela, Senior Kursing Sister of 
the Hospital of SS. John and Elizabeth, St. John's 
Wood, fas been decorated by the King with the 
Royal Red Cross (second class), in recognition of 
her services to the wounded. " We agree," says 
The Tablet, " with a correspondent who writes, 
' I should have liked to be there to see that nun 
go up before the King.' " 

Verily, from the Premier downwards, the 
male sex are making some marvellous discoveries 
about women during this war. The Red Cross 
says : " One of the surprises of the war has been 
the aptitude women have shown as masseuses 
at the war hospitals. ' The results liave surpassed 
our expectations,' said an K.A.M.C. Captain, 
' the women showing that they have plenty 
of strength and a decided aptitude for the work. 

Thanks to their efforts, tlwusands of soldiers have 
recovered the use of injured arms and legs, 
weeks or even months earlier than otherwise 
would have been possible.'" What has the 
I.S.T.M. to say to this ? 

Under " V.A.D. Notes and News," The Red 
Cross notifies V.A.D. workers that for nursing 
members there is an alteration in age limit. 
That for foreign service is now from 23 to 42, 
while special service members are accepted for 
home service between the ages of 21 and 42. 

Members are again emphatically reminded of 
the necessity of conforming to the details of 
uniform laid down in Regulations, and that they 
should take pride in keeping their uniforms clean 
and tidy. The V.A.D. uniform is registered under 
the Defence of the Realm Act, and must not be 
worn except for work on behalf of the sick and 
wounded. It is hoped that the issue of a Joint 
Certificate of imiform will pi event the illegal use 
of the registered uniform, and also the wearing 
of uniform by members who have resigned or left 
their Detachments. This certificate must always 
be carried by a member in uniform, and must be 
pioduced on demand by any competent authority. 
It must be returned to the Commandant upon 
leaving tne Detachm.ent. 

To judge from some extraordinary " get ups " 
we have seen, this rem.inder is timely, especially 
as persons wearing a colourable imitation of a 
V.A.D. uijifoim may be cast into gaol and 
.sentenced to hard labour by any uncontrolled 
police magistrate. 

We did invite a Court official to bring the 
arbitrary Woolwich sentence to the notice of the 
King, but were, alas! referred to the Home Office. 
Needless to say we did not waste a penny stam.p 
on seeking mercy for a poor, maybe, vain and 
misguided woman masquerading in nursing 
uniform from such a prosaic source. But we 
think all the untrained " persons of quality " 
who wear the trained nurses uniform should 
be subject to like punishment. Perhaps if pro- 
fessional nurses ever obUdn the protection 
of State Registration, for wliich they have been 
pleading for a quaiter of a century, a protected 
state uniform may be one of the privileges an 
Act will confer upon them. But to be compelled 
to carry a Certificate of Uniform, would certainly 
be somewhat irksome. A Registration Badge 
named and numbered, as issued to " registered 
nurses " in New Zealand and in ,\ustralia, meets the 
case, and is greatly appreciated by the recipients. 

The new quarters of Queen Mar%'s Hostel for 
War Nurses, 40, Bedford Place, W.C., leave little 
to be desired, either in comfort or brightness. 
Mrs. Kerr Lawson — befoic all things — is a home- 
maker, and makes it her Iwast that at the hostel 
there is never a rule broken, for the simple reason 
that there is not one to break. Blessed freedcm ! 


Zhc Britisb 3ournaI of IRursing. 

July 22, 1916 

The hostel, shersays, is not n home, but home. 
And tliis atmosphere pervades each simply 
furnished comfortable room. The drawing-room, 
upholstered in rich dark-blue, with browii carpet 
and papei and lovely festful old prints on the 
walls, strike an altogether different note from the 
usual chintz and china st\ie. In the dining-room 
there are many small square tables to seat flo^^ 
four to six persons, which at once suggest tne 
grouping together of friends. 

Mrs. Kerr Lawson's only regret is that she is 
unable to offer each nurse a separate room, but 
as there are as many as thirty -two guests, such a 
luxury is not possible. 

The beautiful and extensive garden in the rear 
of the house is an inestimable boon to the tired 
nerve-worn workers. Quite an international as- 
sembh is dailv gathered together rmdcr this 
roof — niu'ses from Canada. Australia, India, New 
Zealand ; nurses from Italy, Serbia, Fiance and 
Russia. We had the honour of speaking to one 
of the heroines of the Ularqiieite — one of that 
splendid band of women who said, " Fighting 
men first." Tliis particular nurse was in the 
water seven hours before she was saved, her pre- 
dominant sensation being that she " felt very 
lonely." She had been many days in the hostel 
before it was even known that she was a sur\dvor 
of the Marquette. In daily and hourly contact 
with such splendid specimens of our profession, 
it is not to be wondered that their hostess 
w-axes enthusiastic over them. It is e\ident that 
Mrs. Kerr Lawson is the right wonjan in the right 
place — for she is not only sympathetic, but she 
is keenly appreciative of the finer subtieties of 
mind and soul. 

We observed, in one room, the beautiful picture 
" What I had I gave;" and felt that it should find 
a place in every nurses' home and hospital. 

Sapper Prowse \vrites in a letter to a friend, 
■n-hich is printed in the Brisbane Courier : — 

" I am at present in the 4th London General 
Hospital with a relapse of enteric fever. I have 
had three operations since lea\-ing GaUipoli last 
August, and have been in three separate hospitals. 
I was in the landing party at the Peninsula on 
April 25th last, and managed to hang out for four 
months before going down with enteric fever. 
Those four months were the most exciting in my 
life. The Turks fought well and fairly, but the 
shell, rifle and machine-gun fire were murderous. 
The Turks certainly lost more men than we, but 
our casualties were very heavy*. I was indeed 
very fortunate in going so long without stopping 
something. On August 13th I was sent to the 
Third AustraUan General Hospital at Lemnos 
with enteric. I was very nearly passed out at 
Lemnos, but was lucky enough to get through. 
The nurses there were fine ; each one of them 
deserves a V.C. When they arrived at Lemnos 
thej^ were given a mattress and tivo blankets, 
and had to sleep on the hard stones. Very often 
their tents were blown over by the heavy' gales 
that prevail out there, and the rain would beat 

on them and wet them through. Still they stuck 
it. They often came on dutj' in top boots and 
' sou'-westers,' but they were always cheerful, 
and took things as a joke. Several of them took 
seriously ill, and one or tivo deaths were recorded 
in their ranks. Still the sur\ivors did not com- 
plain. Our troops on the Peninsula proved 
themselves to be the best fighters in the world, 
and our nurses at Lemnos proved themselves to 
be the gamest on earth." 


JULY 14th. at bordeaux. 

Yesterday we received the \isit of a general 
who, on being told that several of the Sisters 
wordd like to be present at the Review, to see 
their patients decorated, gave the order that we 
were to be allowed to go, and that a military 
omnibus should fetch us and bring us back. 
We started s>fE at 8 a.m., were given a good place, 
and spent a most interesting morning. Although 
the re\iew was much more simple than it would 
have been in time of peace, there being no cavalry 
present, it was very inspiring. Many of the 
detachments of infantn,- consisted of very young 
men and we were impressed by their look of quiet 

Our chauSeur brought us back to Talence by 
the main thoroughfares, which were crowded with 
people who made way for us to pass and cheered 
us heartily. I believe they thought we were part 
of the R.e\iew. We returned to hospital feeUng 
very encouraged, and found a superb dejeuner 
waiting for us. 

E. G. 


We have to record with the deepest regret the 
death of Miss Clementina Addison, a Sister, who, 
as a member of the Corps, worked with the 
utmost devotion at a French militarj- hospital at 
Besancon for nearly a year. Early in. the year 
she developed verj' rapidly malignant disease 
and was at once brought home by the Jlation-in- 
Chief. For the last few months Sister Addison 
has grown gradually weaker and she passed away 
on the 10th inst., verj- peacefully and conscious 
to the last. She was buried in the \-illage of 
Caton in Lancashire, her home, on the 13th inst., 
and a' beautiful wTcath tied with the tiicolour 
ribbon of France was sent from the Corps of 
which she was so honoured a member. For her 
untiring work in caring for French soldiers 
suffering with C(jntagious diseases. Sister Addison 
has been awarded the Mi.iaiUe des Epidemies by 
the French authorities, which will, we feel sure, be 
greatly valued by her soi rowing family. The 
death of this gentle Sister is the first to be recorded 
in the ranks of the French Flag Nursing Corps, 
though we regret that the health of several of the 
Sisters has suffered severely in consequence of 
their arduous duties. 

July 22, 1916 

Ebe British 3ournal of ll^mslno, 



The King and Queen \-isited the Hampstead 
General Hospital, Haverstock Hill, on Saturday 
afternoon, and had a chat with many wounded 
soldiers just home from France. The King 
greatly enjoys hearing of the valiant deeds of his 

It was a foregone conclusion that " France's 
Day " in London, on July 14th, would be a great 
success, for all were eager to do what they could 
to show their admiration for the French poilii, so 
courteous, gallant and brave. " We used to say," 
said a British nurse in France, " as brave as a 
lion, now we say as brave as a poilu." 

The Joint War Committee of the British Red 
Cross and Order of St. John led ofiE with a contri- 


bution of ^25,000, and a large sum has already been 
received, and collections are still being sent in. 

The Vicomtesse de la Panousc, the charming 
President of the British Branch of the French Croix 
Rouge desires to convey her thanks to the English 
people for their " wonderful generosity." She is 
deeply grateful, and hopes to be able to send to 
each French hospital a token of English sympathy. 

the work accomplished. The Gimp was located 
at San Stefano, the only place where there is a 
supply of water all through the sunimer. The 
staff is located in a beautiful old Greek cottage 
with a chapel attached, 400 ft. abo\'c the sea, with 
an orange grove stretching lUjwn to the shore. 
Near by is a flat place suitable for the building of 
the camp. Some old stables were repaved, dis- 
infected several times, w'hitewashed, and turned 
into storerooms, and over them were six small 
rooms which were used as the first wards. The small 
beginning of a hospital quickly increased to 200 
beds, which is now doing excellent work. Major 
Maude says that he has had to do with the 
peasantry of many lands, but has never known 
any so " facile " or " douce " as the Serbians. 
They are like large, strong cluldren. 

Major Maude describes the sufferings of, many 
of the convalescents 
who, on leaving Yido, 
went straight from 
their beds to tramp 
nine miles tlirough 
the burning sun with 
their packs on their 
backs to the French 
Camp for Serbian 
Convalescents. He 
picked up several in 
a more or less dying 
condition and took 
them home. When 
the ' supply of wood 
for coffins quite gave 
out he w-as obliged to 
invent coffins of 
bamboo and basket- 
work made on the 
premises. They were 
very pretty, and the 
Serbians, at first 
horrified at the idea, 
became quite recon- 
ciled. The end of 
some of the patients 
came very rapidly, 
especially the cases of 
extreme emaciation. They had no reserve power, 
and used to fall back dead in the middle of 
their meals. 

Our illustration shows a sympathetic French nurse 
in London pinning an emblem on a gallant Zouave, 
who has been rewarded for bravery. 

Major Alwyne Maude, who a few niontlis ago 
went out to Corfu as Administrator to the Xursing 
Unit despatched to the aid of the Serbian sick 
and wounded soldiers by the Wounded Allies 
Relief Committee, gives an interesting account of 

The Scottish Wom,en's Hospital Committee are 
now equipping another hospital for the Serbian 
Army in the l-^ast, whenever it may be required. 
The personnel will be entirely composed of women, 
the chief medical officer in charge being Dr. Agnes 
Bennett, from New Zealand. Dr. Bennett is a 
graduate of Edinburgh University. As the hos- 
pital will in all probability be a mobile one it 
will be housed in tents. It will liave an up-to-date 
X-ray apparatus, a laborator\-, and a fleet of motor 
ambulances attached to it. The personnel will 
number some 70 persons, and the hospital will ac- 
comm.odate 200 patients. Owing to the great need 
of hospitals, tliis offer has been warmly welcomed. 


Zbe »rtt(eb 3ournal of IRursina. 

July 22, igi6 


The following Sisters have been deputed for 
dut\- in Home Hospitals : — 

Red Cross Aux. Hasp., East Liss, Hants. — Mrs. 
M. Watson. 

Aux. Home Hasp., Mold. — Miss M. L. Cowley. 
V.A.D. Hosp., Ongar. — Miss M. Langley. 
V.A.D. Hosp., Barnstaple. — Miss E. Crowhurst, 
Miss R. Busser, Miss M. McGaharan. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Timberhurst, Bury. — Miss E. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Mere, n"(7/5.— Miss A. D'Arcy. 

Rosslvn Lodge V.A.D. Hosp., Hampstead. — Miss 
A. Jenkins. 

Mil. Hosp., Merstham, Surrey. — Miss C. 

Felsham Park Hosp., St. Leoyiards-on-Sea. — 
Miss T. D. Daley. 

Rhydd Court V.A.D. Hosp., Worcester. — Mrs. 
W. C. Macan. 

Wildernesse Hosp., Seal, Sevenoaks. — Miss K. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Buxton. — Miss M. C. Par- 

Etal Manor, Cornhill-on-Tiveed. — Miss E. 

Temporary Hosp., Sunderland. — Miss A. Kane. 

Middleivood Aux. Hosp., Darfield. — Miss M. 

No. 5 Mil. Hosp., Exeter. — Mrs. L. Hawken. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Homleigh, Harrow-on-Hill. — 
Miss N. W. Wheeler. 

Hazlewood Red Cross Hosp., Ryde. — Mrs. C. B. 

The Yarrow Mil. Hosp., Broadstairs. — Miss 
S. L. Newton. 

Red Cross Hosp., Netley. — Miss P. M. Desoignes. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Chudleigh, Devon. — Miss J. L. 

Red Cross Hosp., Brooklands, Weybridge. — Mrs. 
K. Cole. 

Milton Hill Section Hosp., Steventon, Berks. — 
Miss M. E. James. 

Downsey Aux. Mil. Hosp., Crouch Hill. — Miss 
K. M. Manning. 

V.A.D. Hosp.. Brickct House, St. Albans. — 
Miss K. L. Morrall. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Armathwaite R.S.O., Cumber- 
land. — Miss M. de L. Dufiy. 

Mil. Hosp., Ely, Cambs. — Miss L. F. Anson. 

The College, Wellington, Salop. — Miss M. H. 

Grange Mil. Hosp., Grange-over-Sands. — Miss E. 

Nethercourt V.A.D. Hosp., Ramsgate. — Miss H. 

Red Cross Hosp., Spilsby. — ^Miss E. A. Hope. 

Hingham Red Cross Hosp., Attleborough. — 
Miss M. McMillan. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Jeffrey Hall, Sunderland. — Miss 
E. Spillane. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Rusthall, Tunbridge Wells.— 
Miss S. Nourse. 

]'..4.l>. Hosp., Stourbridge. — ^h:s. O. Williams. 

Red Cross Hosp., Withani, Essex. — ^Miss A. E. 

The Weir Hosp., Balham. — Mrs. G. M. Worsley. 

Broome House Aux. Hosp., W. Horsley. — Miss 
R. Northcote. 

Highbury V.A.D. Hosp., Birmingham. — Miss L.. 

St. Dunstan's, Regent's Park. — Mrs. E. A.- 

V.A .D. Hosp., Cirencester . — Miss E. Dawson. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Mere, Wilts.— Miss E. F. Burke. 

St. John Hosp., Hastings. — Miss M. M. Murphy. 

Milton Hill Section Hosp., Steventon. — Miss . 
E. Nelson. 

V.A.D. Hosp.. Erdington. — Miss M. Diamond. 

V.-'l.D. Hosp., Etherley, Bishop Auckland. — 
Mrs. C. Parsons. 

North Staffs. Inf., Stoke-on-Trent.— Miss M. S. - 
Mackay, Miss B. M. Aldridge. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Honiton. — Miss E. Garland. 

Gifford House. Roehampton. — Miss C. Addison. 

Red Cross Hosp., Basingstoke. — Mrs. F. M. H. 

Red Cross Hosp., Middlewick. — Miss F. H. 

Hosp. for Officers, 24, Park Street. — Miss S. M. - 


Brigade Hosp., Etaples. — Miss M. J. Stafford,. 
Miss M. A. O'Donnell, Miss Maude E. C. Swann, 
Miss A. Childe, Miss A. M. Webster, Miss V. L. H. - 
Reakes, Miss E. L. Purkis, Miss M. G. Hunter, 
Miss N. Fowler, Miss A. Ward, Miss C. J. Walshe, . 
Miss D. E. Vatchell. 

Urgencv Case Hosp. — Miss E. Howe. 

Boulogne Headquarters. — Miss E. E. Heath, - 
Miss A. I. WilUngs, Miss A. W. B^in, Miss B. E. 
Baynham, Mrs. S. I. Nye, Miss W. M. Martin, . 
Miss E. Gowars, Miss A. Cox. 

The War Office expect to be able to issue 
details this week of the new badge which it has 
been decided to award to woundedand incapaci- 
tated soldiers who have resumed their civil 

Compulsory registration of all war charities is 
urged upon Parliament by the Honie Secretary's 
Committee, which has inquired into the scandal of 
funds collected and unaccounted for. It has 
been proved that thousands of pounds have been 
collected and arc unaccounted for. As the 
Committee held a public inquiry it should have the 
courage to expose the names of persons who have 
taken money for which they cannot account. 
But the law of libel in this country appears 
specially calculated to protect rogues. 

Mr. Kenneth Bilbrough, a member of Lloyds 
and an old schoolfellow of Sir Arthur Pearson, 
has collected upwards of £1.^,000 for St. Dunstan's. 
No work is more deserving than caring for those 
who have lost the light in war. 

July 22, 1916 

Lhc Kritisb 3ournal of ■Rursiiifl. 



" The cheer you bring is worth much physic 
and not a few sermons." So wTOte a chaplain at 
the front of the Concert Parties, organized by 
Miss Lena Ashwell for His Majesty's Forces in the 
Great War, and all nurses, who know well the 
pleasure and relief from strain which these 
entertainments give will endorse his words, and 
those of a Colonel who wT'ote of his men : " They 
have been through hell, and poor chaps, are soon 
to undergo it again, and these glimpses of civiliza- 
tion have had the most ennobling effect on them, 
and seem to take 
them out of their 
drab surroundings 
here." Such testi- 
mony must be a 
full reward to Miss 
Lena Ashwell and 
those who with 
her organized the 
first concert partj' 
in February, 1915, 
at the request of the 
Ladies' Au-xiUar^' 
Committee of the 
Y.M.C.A. " as any- 
thing would have 
been organized at 
the suspicion of a 
wish for it from 
the gallant armies 
in the battlefield." 

" We are not," 
says ^liss Ashwell, 
in an account of a 
year's music at the 
Front, " supposed 
to be a musical 
nation, but the war 
has changed every- 
thing for those 
who realize what 
"the war means, and 
one of the needs of 
our armies has been 
discovered to be 
music — the best 
music, and still 
more music." 

As is well known the Y.M.C.A. liad followed the 
Army to the front and been busy erecting the now 
famous " huts " some of which hold 1,000 men. 
" The men were writing home for children's 
mouth organs with which to make a cheerful noise 
in the trenches, and gramophones were the most 
popular items (from the patient's point of view) 
in the equipment of miUtary hospitals. 

"It is very difficult for people at home to 
realize the monotony of life, when life consists 
of hard work, rigid military discipline, and nothing 
else, and when one's world is suddenly a town of 
bare huts in a sea of mud ; or a casino, race- 
course, or a railwav station transformed into a 



hospital — a veritable city of pain. Such worlds 
woiild be nightmare worlds if it were not for the 
patience and cheerfulness which are the victorious 
spirits of any army. 

" In these worlds the visit of a concert party is 
an event looked forward to for weeks beforehand 
and talked of for weeks afterwards. The men 
welcome the music as if they were hungry and 
thirst^' for the beauty and comfort of it ; and if it 
was a touching surprise to find out how much 
the concerts were needed, it was even a greater 
surprise to find that it was the good music, true 
music, that they loved most. . . . 

" But it isn't 
only the sick and 
wounded and com- 
batant branches of 
the Army that need 
and enjoy the con- 
certs. There are 
hundreds of thou- 
sands of A.S.C. and 
Army Ordnance 
men who have been 
out since the early 
days of the war 
working sixteen 
hows or more a 
day, ofi&cers and 
men, week-days 
and Sundays ahke, 
without leave or 
recreation. And 
then there is the 
medical service and 
the nursing sisters. 
It is one of the 
mysteries of the 
war where so many 
splendid trained 
nurses have come 
from. The nurses 
live under as strict a 
military discipUne 
as the troops — 
rather stricter, in 
fact, for they are 
never allowed out 
in the evenings at 
all except to come 
to the concert we 
them once a month. Our ' Officers' 
Xurses' ' concert is the only occasion 

when the nurses from the different hospitals 
meet each other, and we have pauses between 
the music .so that they can talk. It is their 
one opportunity. They are all fetched in 
from the different hospitals in motor cars by the 
Y.M.C.A., and driven back again when it is over. 
It is a very pretty sight — the vast audience of 
nurses in their white coifs and uniforms, the blues 
and greys, with touches of miUtary scarlet, and 
their happiness over the verj' simple pleasure is 

Again Miss Ashwell, in an article originally 


^be i6riti0b 3ournal of "HursimQ. 

July 22, igi6 

contributed to the Nhieteeiith Century, writes : — • 

" A human being is not only a body but a soul 
and spirit. Those rare souls who have achieved 
great spiritual development have passed through 
great adventures without paying much heed to 
the lesser component parts of the mysterious 
human entity-, but never in the histor\- of human 
endeavour has concentration upon the physical 
needs of man led him far or high. 

" Joan of Arc's inspiration, her ideals, came from 
celestial voices, but her knowledge of her countrv's 
need, its passionate longing for freedom from the 
invader, came to her through the songs of the 
troubadom'S ; it is the artists who preserve and 
express the genius of the race or the cry of a 
nation's soul. 

" But we English have acquired the habit of 
regarding iood for the soul as rather unnecessary 
and a waste of money, so we devote all our national 
attentions to the material welfare of our armv, 
not even forgetting chocolates and cigarettes. Yet 
the soul can starve too. Feed a man's bodv on a 
persistent diet of strong meat and it sickens ; 
feed a soul on nothing but war, bloodshed and 
discipline, and after a time it will droop. The 
soul does not suffer so quickly as the body, it is 
tougher, it can endure longer, but after a time 
without food, without inspiration, its ^'itality ebbs 
and fades. 

" That is why some of us feel that no effort 
is too great to ensure the continuance of oiu: 
touring parties to bring change and happiness to 
thousands and thousands of those who have given 
up their all for us, who are supplied by the nation 
with food, clothes, arms — the bare necessities of 
life and death." 

Those who wish for the pri\'ilege of sharing in 
this good work should send their contributions to 
Miss Lena Ashwell, 36, Grosvenor Street, London, 


The above Committee met on Thursdav, Julv 
13th, to fiu-ther consider a Xiuses' Registration 
Bill, in the Council Chamber of the British Medical 
Association, 429, Strand. Mr. Dom\'ille was in 
the Chair. The Hon. Secretaries, Mrs. Bedford 
Fenwick and Dr. Goodall presented a Report on 
conferences with the representatives of the College 
of Nursing, at which they had agreed on several 
important principles. Tlie Com.mittee considered 
the various clauses of the Bill and approved 
the agreed clauses and amendments. Amend- 
ments and clauses for fiu-ther consideration were 
considered and passed, and have since been sent 
to Mr. Stanley-, Chairman of the College of Xiu^sing, 
Limited. The all important question of the 
method of constituting the General Nursing 
Council has not jet been agreed upon, although 
duect representation of all registered nurses has 
been accepted as a fundamental principle of its 
constitution. The demand of organizations of 
lay people for representation on the governing body 

of the nursing profession, which will be primarily 
responsible for the professional education and 
discipline of nurses as a whole cannot be enter- 
tained. Such lay organizations are not qualified, 
neither do they attempt, to dominate the General 
Medical Council. ^Vl^y, therefore, should they 
assume control on the General Nursing Council ? 
The earnest women who act as the delegates 
of the Niu-ses' Organizations on the Central 
Committee for the State Registration of Nurses, 
have proved quite capable of conducting their 
own affairs, and the more power entrusted to the 
elected direct representatives of the niu-sing 
profession on the General Nursing Council the 
better. Trained niuses can no longer be treated 
as children, a silly hospital pose in the last century 
which has long become obsolete. 


In a supplementary report to the Council the 
Medico-Political Committee of the British jVIedical 
Association states : — " In \-iew of the recent 
establishment of a College of Nursing, conferences 
have taken place between representatives of that 
Body and of the Central Committee for the State 
Registration of Nurses in order to ascertain 
whether a Bill can be agreed upon which will secure 
the efficient and proper registration of nirrses. It 
is hoped that by the time of the Representative 
Meeting it vill be possible to report more fully on 
the progress that has been made." 

The Annual Representative IMeeting of the 
British Medical Association will be held in London 
on July 28th and following days as may be 
required. The Council recommends " That the 
Representative Body take into consideration the 
possibility of establishing by means of the proposed 
(Nurses' Registration) Bill now under considera- 
tion by the College of Niu-sing and the Central 
Committee for the State Registration of Nurses, 
the general principles desired by the Association 
in respect of the State Registration of Nurses, and 
whether the Association would be justified in 
supporting the Bill." 


A nurse who took part in the historic trek over the 
Montenegrin mountains, writes that she does not 
think without Horlick's !Malted ^lilk some of the 
party could have retxu-ned alive. She • says, 
" I carried a bottle over the Montenegrin mountains 
with me, and used it very sparingly, as we were 
afraid some one would be ill, and require it 

before the end of our journey witli others 

I have reason to be very grateful for Malted 
Milk." A soldier writes of the tablets that " they 
are a real good stimulant when we do any march- 
ing, they give power to the bodj- and take away 
all fatigue," and another, wliowasin hea\'y fighting 
in Gallipoli, writes that they kept up his strength 
at a time when both food and water were pretty 


^be Srltieb 3ournal of "Burelna. 






Her MajcsU- Queen Alexandra, the Patron of 
the Royal College of St Katharine, " Having 
thought fit of her goodness to declare that the 
benefits of the foundation of St. Katharine should 
be restored to the poor of East London," ordered 
that a Scheme should be drafted for the providing 
and training of Health Visitors for Infant Welfare. 

The Medical Officer of Health arranged that the 
\nsiting of infants and children under school age 
in the Parish of Bromlej-, witliin the Metropolitan 
Borough of Poplar, should be entrusted to the 
members of the College. At the present time 
there are about 4.000 infants under the super\-ision 
of eleven trained and quaUfied Health Visitors. 
Dr. Waller, with the assistance of Dr. Stuart 
Robertson, is responsible for the Infant Con- 

The importance of Infant Welfare work, in view 
of the diminishing birth rate and the hea-\-y losses 
incurred in the war, is being recognised by the 
public, and an increasing number of Health 
Visitors will be appointed by Health Authorities 
throughout the country in the near future. 


During the first and second vear the course of 
training will include theoretical and practical work. 
.Training in Theory. 

The time devoted to training in theory (equiva- 
lent to three University terms' full work) will be 
taken at the Household and Social Science Depart- 
ment, King's College for Women (University' of 
London) . 


Physiology-, Physics, Chemist^\^ Biology', Eco- 
nomics, Hygiene, Public Health, Domestic 

Cotirses of Lectiu-es will be given by the Chaplain 
and others on the religious basis of Social Work. 
Training in Practice. 

The practical training will include : — 

(i) Three months' full training in practical work 
at a Maternity' Centre, attendance at Infant Con- 
sultations, and \-isiting in the homes of children 
under the super\-ision of a qualified Health \'isitor. 

(2) Three months' experience in the office of a 
Hospital Almoner, of a District Committee of the 
Charit\' Organisation Society, or in the work of 
School Care Committees. 

(3) Instruction in giving lectures. 

At the end of the second year Students will take 
the examination for the Sanitarj' Inspector's 

The third year will be devoted to the acquisition 
of practical experience in nursing children in 
hospital, and to the training necessary to obtain 
the Certificate of the Central Midwives' Board. 

Inclusive fees for board, residence and tuition, 
£ioo per annum. 

The Chapter are considering the ad\-isability of 
granting a limited number of bursaries. 
Six weeks will be given during the year. 

Katharine S. iL\cQuEEN, 



Skipton • in - Craven Joint Infectious Diseases 
Hospital. — Miss Edith Cutter has been appointed 
Matron. She was trained at the Bethnal Green 
Infirmary, and the Huddersfield Sanatorium, and 
has been Ward Sister at the Huddersfield Sana- 
torium and the Cit>- Hospital, East Liverpool ; 
Xight Superintendent at the Cit>- Hospital, Korth 
Liverpool, Sister-in-Charge at the Hove Sana- 
torium, and Assistant Matron at the Ladywell 
Sanatorium, Salford. 

Wolverhampton General Hospital Convalescent 
Home, Penn. — Jliss Margaret Farrar has been 
appointed Matron. She was trained at the 
Count\- Hospital, York, and has been Sister and 
Xight Superintendent in the siinie institution. 

Winchcombe Cottage Hospital, Gloucestershire. — - 
Miss H. Bacon has been appointed Matron. 
She was trained at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
and has since held an appointTnent .it Bourton-on- 


Birkenhead Union Infirmary. — Miss .\lice Guest 
has been appointed Assistant Matron. She was 
trained at the Bagthorpe Infirmary, Nottingham, 
and has held appointments at the Jessop Hospital, 
Sheffield, and the Infirmary, Spalding. 


Maidstone Union Infirmarv'. — Miss Winifred 
Alice .\rter has been appointed Ward Sister. She 
was trained at the Paddinyttm Infirmary, Harrow 
Road, W. 


Manchester Children's Hospital, Pendlebur)'. — 
Miss E. Wain has been appointed Xight Sister. 
She was trained at tlic York Countj- Hospital, 
where she has been Holiday Sister. 

County Hospital, York. — ^fiss Helen M. Lapham 
has been appointed Xight Superintendent. She 
was trained at the Royal Infirmary. Bradford, and 
has been Sister at the Royal Eye and Ear Hospital, 
Bradford, and Ward Sister at the Countv Hospital, 


Transfers and ArroiNT.Mi;NTS. 
Miss Elizabeth McClymont is appointed to 
Kingston as Superintendent. Miss McChTnont 
received general training at Brownlow Hill 
Infirmary, district training at Li\-erpool (Xorth), 
and holds the C.M.B. certificate. She has lield 
various appointments under the Institute, includ- 


Cbc asritlsb Sournal of ■Kursmg. 

July 22, 1916 

ing that of Superintendent of Mancliester, Har- 
pnrhey Home. 

Miss Elizabeth V. Davies is appointed to Leeds 
(Holbeck). Arniley Home ; Miss Lilian Ponsford, 
to Chesterfield ; Miss Jessie L. Prestidge, to 
Melbourne ; JNIiss Sarah E. Shaw, to Leeds 
(Holbeck), .\rmley Home. 


Long service badges for twenty-one years' work 
as Oueen's Xurses have been awarded to Miss 
E. F. Ross, Miss G. M. Shalders. Miss A. C. Crow- 
ther, Miss E. M. R. Boge. Miss M. Perkins, Miss R. 
Deacon, Miss M. Goodwin, Miss E. E. Hasted, 
Miss E. Forsyth, Miss A. Jackson, and Miss J. L. 


New Appointments. 

Firing Amhulaiicc Column to Serbian Army. — • 
Miss D. Stephen. 

Friends' War Victims Relief Committee, Russia. — ■ 
Miss H. Graveson. 

Astoria Hospital, Paris. — Miss Kelliher, Miss 
H. T. McPherson. 

Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton (Night 
Superintendent). — Miss E. N'incent. 

Military Hospital, Edmonton. — Miss Wixey. 


The Establishment Committee of the London 
County Council recomm.ended to the Council on 
Tuesday that the retention of Miss M. Parsons 
and Miss E. P. Russell, temporary nurses in the 
public health department, after marriage, should 
be approved ; and that they be retained until the 
conclusion of the war service of their respective 
iiusbands, or of the war. 


To aid the funds of the above Club a Cafe 
Chantant, organized by Miss Dorothv Foster, is 
being held at the Savoy Hutel, on Thursday, 
July 20th. 


The resignation of Miss Cicthen, Secretary of the 
Nurses' Co-operation, who has been connected 
with it since its foimdation — first at 8, New 
Cavendish Street, and recently at 22, Langham 
Street, W. — is widely regretted by members of 
the staff. She is succeeded by Mrs. Crowe, who 
is conversant with the work, and whose 
appointment gives general satisfaction. 


We regret to report a sad fatality. Three hospital 
nurses — tvvo of them French — were bathing at 
Rhosneigr, near Holyhead, on Thursday evening, 
July 13th, when two of them were drowned. 
The names of the victims are Miss Margaret 
Harrison and IMiss Laure Rosslet, a French- 


The Women's War Procession to demand 
energetic prosecution of the war, to take 
place on Saturday, Julv 22nd, promises to bo 
an inspiring occasion and a beautiful pageant. 
Flowers are to be lavishly used in the colour 
scheme of red, white, and blue; and roses, 
red geraniums, marguerites, larkspurs, del- 
phiniums, and iris will be in great demand, as 
every woman in the procession is asked to carry 
a bouquet of such a combination — the flowers 
to be sent to the military hospitals. Of course, 
as usual, the Trained Nurses' Section will be 
the most popular, so let us hope it will be 
thoroughlv representative, though we fear the 
" regulars " will not be permitted to take part 
in what is in reality a political demonstration. 
The Trained Nurses' Section should be quite 
distinct from the Volunteer Nurses' Section. 
No doubt this will be arranged, as trained 
nurses will be led bv a woman representing 
Florence Nightingale. 

The idea of the organizers is that women who 
wish to show their support and appreciation of 
the glorious heroes at the Front and in prison 
camps, and those keeping watchful guard at 
home on land and sea, should join the demon- 
stration, and prove that the women will not 
tolerate any policy which does not prosecute 
the war with the utmost energy, so that it may 
be brought as soon as possible to a glorious 
and victorious conclusion. With hesitation, 
political expediency, temporizing, and conse- 
quent muddle women have no patience ; they 
want f>eace, but it must be peace with honour, 
which means the preservation of human liberty 
throuijhout the world. 

In our notice of St. Bartholomew's Hospital 
nurses mentioned in dispatches. Miss A. Stubble 
should have been printed Stuttle. 

The procession, which will be composed of 
various sections, will be headed bv the Union 
Jack, and the first section will be devoted to 
the memory of the soldiers and sailors killed 
during the war. Surrounding a striking 
tableau will be girls dressed in white bearing 
laurel wreaths, and the inscription on the 
banner will be " To the Heroic Dead." 

There is to be a Special Hospital Supply 
Depot Tableau, a Canteen with \'..A.D. 

The promoters want marshals, banner 
bearers, programme sellers, motor-cars,, and 
personal help in advertising the procession. 
Those willing to take part in the different 
sections and to assist in other ways should 
communicate with the procession secretary, 
114, Great Portland Street, W. 

The procession will form up on the \'ictoria 
Embankment at 2.30, and start at 3.30 prompt. 

July 22, 1916 

ttbe Entisb 3ournal ot ■Huidmo. 


Per Akdl"a \d Astra. 

The first S.U.T.S. (Juurtcrly has made its, 
appearance in a dim blue and g^reen cover, with 
its motto, " Per Ardua ad Astra," on a silver 
scroll above a silver star. Miss E. L. C. Eden 
writes a delig^htful foreword to " Dear 
Members," in which she says : — " The war 
has brought into the world bitter enmity and 
discord. It lias undermined the foundations of 
valuable work, and had a disintegrating 
influence on co-operative effort. But yet has 
it not made us realise the bonds of brotherhood 
and sisterhood as we never have before? We 
know that we are striving, not only as a nation, 
but together with our .Allies, to preserve the 
ideals of freedom and humanity. . . . This 
little magazine is started now in the midst of 
war as an attempt to strengthen the bonds of 
comradeship . . . and we hope it may be 
warmly supported, and that it may become a 
strong link between the members." 

Quotations are made from Branch Reports, 
and interesting letters from members of the 
Union appear. We wish all success to this new 
effort to stimulate solidaritv in the X. U.T.N'. 

The first ambulance stati(jn in this country 
staffed entirely by women has been inaugurated 
in connection with the London ambulance 
service at Bloomsbury. .AH the staff are trained 

.A meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
Middlesbrough District Nursing Association 
was recently held at the' Home, when 
the Lady Superintendent (.Miss Purvis) reported 
that the district nurses had had 171 new cases, 
and paid 4,003 visits during the months of May 
and June. Many of the cases had been very 
serious ones, and there had been several naval 
and military patients. 

Our district nurses are doing fine work for 
the nation, " keep'ng the home fires burning," 
as it were, in helping sick people to recover 
health, and cheering and comforting generally. 

A sitting of the Consistory Court for the 
diocese of Norwich was held in the Cathedral 
on Saturday before Mr. Chancellor North. 

Faculties were decreed for the erection of two 
memorials to Xurse Cavell — a carved oak 
reredos in Holy Trinity Church, South 
Heigham, and a stained glass window and 
alabaster tablet in the parish church o( 

Looking at the design of the reredos, the 
Chancellor remarked that it promised a very 
beautiful piece of work. It wouH Iv "f .-irvi-H 

oak, and would represent, in high relief, " The 
Last Supper." The estimated cost was ;Cioo. 
which would be provided by voluntary con- 

With resf>ect to the memorial window, it was 
stated that the inscription on the tablet would 
be : — " This window was given by many friends 
and admirers to commemorate the devoted life 
and tragic death of Edith Louisa Cavell, head 
of the first training school for nurses in 
Belgium, who was born and brought up in this 
parish, of which her father was vicar from 1863 
to 1909, and who died for her country on 
October i2th, 1915, aged 49 years, being shot 
bv order of a German court-martial in Brussels 
for having rendered help to fugitive British, 
French, and Belgian soldiers. The artist who 
designed the window and the craftsmen who 
made it gave their services as their contribution 
to this memorial, a.d. 1916. " 

.At a recent meeting of the Board of the Royal 
Citv of Dublin Hospital, a letter was read from 
the Hon. Sec, Edith Cavell Irish Memorial, 
enclosing cheque for j^ioo, being amount of 
account towards endowment of a bed in the 
above hospital in memory of Edith Cavell, who 
heroically gave her life for her country. The 
Board directed that the bed be open and named 
without delay, further consideration to be 
deferred until fund be closed. Subscriptions to 
this memorial should be sent to the Hon. Sec- 
retaries, '• Edith Cavell Irish Memorial Fund," 
30, Molesworth Street, Dublin, or to Miss 
E. .A. Eddison, at the hospital. 

The Isabel Hampton Robb Memorial Fund 
has during the year been enriched by 10,262 
dollars, so that now six scholarships can be 
given annually to nurses eager for knowledge. 
In the States, trained nurses usually devote 
memorial funds to providing extended educa- 
tional advantages for graduate nurses, whilst in 
England some form of charity is usually pro- 
vided, such as rest homes, annuities, pensions, 
&-c. This points to the fact that as a profession 
we are being poorly paid — in comparison with 
our colleagues on the .American Continent. 
.Anyway, the Isia Stewart Memorial Fund will 
be sp>ent in acquiring learning in some form ; 
and let us hope once we have State Registra- 
tion an immense impetus will be given to better 
and systematic education for nurses. It is now 
sorely neglected. The splendid use that trained 
nurses make of the professional instruction they 
receive indicates their capacity for further 
development, in the acquisition of s(>ecial 
lir.inchfs of knowledge, if opportunity offers. 


Z\)t »rtti0b 3ournal of "Wursinfl. 

July 22, 1916 



It is witliin the naemoiy of the present generation 
when consumptive patients were treated as hot- 
house plants, in super-heated wards, with not only 
closed windows, but double windows and carefully 
sheltered from everj- breath of air. Then came 
the stage when fresh air was recognized as an 
invaluable remedial agent in these cases, and the 
patients were subjected to super-feeding, some- 
times until emesis resulted, when the imfortunate 
person was expected to take more food. Now 
it is realized that it is possible to push food too 
much, and at the Brompton Hospital Sanatorium 
at Frimlev, iSiurev, the standard aimed at, as 

can be wheeled out on to the terrace, m addition 
at the end of each pavilion there are balconies. 

The patients, the majority of whom have been 
under treatment at the Brompton Hcspital. 
are all expected to work unless their condition 
demands absolute rest, and they are carefully 
selected with a view to benefiting by the treat- 
ment under which they are put to such work 
as they are capable of performing with benefit 
to their health, so that before thej- leave they are 
restored by a system of gradual labour, carefully 
regijl&ted to their full working capacity. 

The consequence is that when one ^•isits 
Frimley, with its 150 beds, one is tempted to 
ask " where are the patients " ? Just here and 
there, there is a patient in bed, but the majority 
are out in the grounds, and even here, so extensive 
are the grounds that thev are alm.ost lost, but 


regards nutrition, is to raise the patient's weight 
to a few pounds above his highest known weight, 
or to a few pounds above the normal weight for 
his height, and patients who tend to become 
excessivelv fat have their diet reduced in quantity. 
To ^^sit the Frimley Sanatoriimi is to realize 
how much can be done for patients under a sane 
and healthy system of treatment. The institution 
stands on the Chobham Ridges, nearly 400 feet 
above the sea level and except on the South side 
where it faces Frimley Common, the grounds are 
siuToimded by pine woods. The building is so 
arranged that no portion of it is sheltered by 
another, and it is designed to have the windows 
open night and day \\-ith protection from weather 
and glare, and on the lower stor^' patients in bed 

from time to time one meets groups of patients, 
or sees thena at work, alert, energetic, purposeful. 
Anything more unlike the tj-pical consumptive 
it would be difficult to imagine ; their appearance 
speaks volumes for the system of work and exercise 
regulated by the medical superintendent. Dr. Meek, 
and carefully super\'ised by the Sister -in-charge, 
!Miss Emily Pease, and the nursing staff. 

The grades of work and exercise are (i) Patients 
unfitted for active exercise make mops, mats, sew, 
&c. ; (2) walking from i to 6 miles a day. (To 
judge from the patients one met exercise of this 
kind is thoroughly enjoyed); (3) picking up wood, 
carrying baskets of mould, watering plants, &c. ; 
(4) using a small shovel, cutting grass edges, 
hoeing, &c. ; (5) digging broken ground, mowing 

/ii/y 22, 1916 

Hbc Srittsb 3ournal of •Kureiufl. 

grass ; (6) trenching, nuxing concrete, felling 
trees, &c. ; (7) as soon as a patient is considered 
fit to be discharged he is put to work at his trade, 
if he has one, for six hours a day, foi three weeks, 
so that the necessaiy muscles may get used again 
to the work. 

We came upon ^ part\- of women trenching 
ground for cultivation,, and thoroughly they 
seemed to be enjoying their work. In much of the 
unbroken ground in this neighbourhood there is 
an " iron crust " which has to be broken through 
before the ground can be planted and cultivated, 
and its preparation is tht-iefore no mean test of 
abilitv. Three and a-hall acres of land have been 
trenched, cleared, and brought into cultivation, 
and the work is still going on, the whole of the 
Dutch Garden, which is so prominent a feature of 
the front of the Sanatorium, has all been exca- 
vated, planted, and culti\ated by the patients. 

Those patients who are well enough to do so 
made their own beds, clean their wards and 
windows, polish the floors of the corridors, keep 
the dining halls clean and the brass work bright. 
They also wash up their own plates, knives, forks, 
and spoons after each meal. 

The dining-rooms are pleasant places, and, with 
the recreation room, are located in a separate hall, 
with windows wide set, and running under the 
tables are water pipes which in cold weather are 
heated, so that the patients can keep their feet 
on them while at their meals. The entrance to the 
dining rooms is under cover, and here are the racks 
for the sets of plates belonging to each patient, and 
the teacloths on which they dry them after 
washing. Each patient uses the sam.e during his 
stay, and is keenlv alive to the possibilitv" of infec- 
tion from other cases. To the ordinary observer 
it may seem unnecessary to make distinctions 
when all are sufEering from the same disease, but it 
m.ust be remembered that it has many manifesta- 
tions, and a patient, for instance, whose throat is 
sound, has no desire to use the spoon and fork of 
one with a tuberculjir throat. 

It would take long to adequately study the whole 
working of tliis Sanatorium, but enough has been 
said to indicate the good which is being achieved 
amongst a happy, contented set of patients. 

The rush of sailors and soldiers invalided fiom 
gas and exposure with chest troubles have 
doubled the dem.and for admission to Brompton 
and Frimley, and financial help is much needed. 

M. B. 

Many niurses at home and abroad just now are 
gi\-ing barley water to their patients, and may be 
glad of the following recipe, from which a former 
chef de cuisine at the Bachelor's Club, London, 
compounded this drink. " Put the outside peel 
of tivo lemons into two quarts of water, add eight 
lumps of sugar and boil lor ten minutes. To this 
add two dessertspoonfuls of Robinson's ' Patent ' 
Barley, pre\aously mixed to a smooth paste with 
a little cold water. Continue to boil for five 
minutes and allow- to cool. Strain through fine 
muslin and add ice and lemon juice to taste." 


The South London Hospital for Women, io3» 
South Side, Clapham Common, S.W., which was 
opened by Her ^lajesty- the Queen on July 4th, is 
indeed a most desirable building. Everything is 
of the latest approved scientific pattern, and from 
the basement to the flat roof, from which there is 
a magnificent \'iew of London, there seems nothing 
that could be improved upon or tliat is lacking. 
It is a general hospital for women and children, 
boys being admitted up to the age of six. 

The hospital is staffed by medical women. Miss 
Chadburn, M.D., B.S., being the chief surgeon 
and Miss Eraser, M.B., B.S., chief ph%-sician. It 
contains So beds, of which 25 are allotted to 
medical cases, 25 to surgiccd, and 3 to ophthalmic, 
8 to children, 3 to isolation, and the remaining 16 
to private patients. To each ward is attached 
a balcony on to which beds can be run from the 
ward. Further, there is a large flat roof. The 
electric lift opens out upon this roof, which is 
extensive, the patients can therefore be taken up 
on their beds and receive open-air treatment if 
desired. The infectious wards, with complete 
isolation for the nurse in attendance, are entered 
from the flat roofs. The bathroom is so arranged 
that the nurse need not again pass through the 
wards after her disinfection. The long wards on 
the first and ground floors are built for eighteen 
beds, the walls are without corners and are 
enamel painted. The large, low windows are so 
constructed that no draught can be felt, also they 
are regulated by a key which is kept by the nurse 
in charge. Another excellent point about thenr 
is that the frames can be let down in a manner 
that makes them easy to clean from the inside. 
The bathroom and lavatories are convenient to 
a point of luxury. To each long ward is attached 
an unusually large bathroom with wide doors, 
enabling a patient supported by two nurses to be 
brought in. The walls of the lavatories are of 
white marble, the idea being that they are non- 
absorbent. The lighting of these is controlled 
from the ward, and there are tell-tale switches 
enabUng the nurses to see from the ward if a light 
has been left burning. The floors are of red 
composition material, which is quite agreeable 
to walk upon. The prevailing colours of quilts, 
screens, &c., is to be blue and white. There are 
single private wards, the charge for which is 
£3 3s., wards with two beds, £2 2S., and cubicles, 
the fee for the latter being only £1 is. These 
cubicles are quite charming, and on one side over- 
look the Common. There is an abundant supply 
of convenient bed tables, and the prett\- blue 
screens are moved with the least effort, on 
revolving rubber wheels. 

There arc two theatres adjoining each other. 
The ingeniously contrived instrument cupboard 
serves for both as it has a door opening into each. 

The office of the Matron, Miss Jones Pearce, is 
on the ground floor adjacent to the Board Room 


^be British 3ournal of "Wureina. 

July 22, igi6 

and Secretary's room, while licr private rooms are 
on the second floor. 

The nurses are by no means forgotten ; their 
quarters comprise a dining-room, sitting-room, 
and silence room, a visitors' room, and a bedroom 
for each nurse, prettily furnished : those for the 
night nurses are placed apart in the administrative 
block, for the sake of quietness. In their bathroom 
there is provision for shampooing the hair, and 
hot rails over which it can subsequently be dried. 
Each Sister has a bedroom and shares a common 

Below, in the spacious basement, are the 
kitchens, fitted with the latest devices for cooking. 
These are to be in charge of a lady cook, who will 
control this department. In the basement also are 
comfortably-fitted cubicles for the wardmaids and 

An adjoining block contains the pathological 
department, post mortem room and the mortuary 

Lady Cowdray has been a generous donor to the 
hospital, and amongst her man}' gifts is a really 
lovely Wedgwood tea service, with a peacock 
pattern. It will indeed be sad if it should follow 
the fate of most laospital crockery. 

The hospital is to be an Adamless Eden, and 
with the exception of the engineer and gardener 
there will be no man upon the premises. Women 
are to do porters' work. As yet there are no 
patients in the hospital — indeed, the workmen are 
still busy. It would be almost a lu.xuiy to be ill 
there, and if anything could take away the dread 
that so many people feel of hospitals and their 
surroundings it would be this magnificently- 
equipped building in South London. " Behold, 
the half is not told " you of all that is to be seen 
there in the shape of modern developments, but 
we have not space to set them out in detail. 

H. H. 


Under the auspices of this Council a meeting 
of Head Mistresses was held on Friday, July 7th, 
at 5.0 p.m., at i, Wimpole Street (by kind per- 
mission of the Royal Society of Medicine), to 
consider the educational recommendations of 
the Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases. 
The good attendance showed the interest that 
the subject is arousing in the minds of a class of 
women, who, a decade ago, would — we feel sure — 
have prudishly rejected it as outside their pro- 
fession and morally inproper ! All honour to 
them for their common sense andopen-mindedness. 
It is just because venereal disease is morally 
very improper that the meeting was held. 

Mrs. Creighton, in her opening remarks from 
the chair, made helpful suggestions, in order to 
encourage the members of the audience to ask 
questions and express opinions after the address. 

]\Irs. Scharlieb, M.D., M.S., then addressed 
the meeting. She reminded her hearers that the 

n^-'-Uire of the meeting was a conference, in which it 
was hoped all would take part. After explaining 
that the Royal Commission — upon which, it will 
be remembered, both she and Mrs. Creighton sat — • 
was convened, because it was felt that the time 
had come to stem the awful tide of venereal 
disease, she gave some figures concerning infant 
mortality, due to these diseases, which are startling 
in their number and seriously alarming in their 
warning and menace. Of the 800,000 babies born 
in England and Wales every year, about iqo,ooo 
die in their first year ; of these, 20,000 die in the 
first week and 30,000 during the first month of 
life. It is clearr, therefore, that these infants die 
from some cause operating in their bodies before 
birth. In emphasising the gravity of it. the 
speaker said it was a woma)i's question, and, there- 
. fore, it is our duty as women to help to stem 
this tide of preventable disease. In her opinion, 
the Royal Commission had been appointed at a 
fortunate time, because historical evidence has 
shown that there is always an aggravation of 
these diseases at the expiration of every war ; we 
may, therefore, expect it at the clcse of this war. 
The result of the investigations of Flexuer — the 
great American authority — on this matter, has 
been that 10 per cent, of all men in large towns 
suffer from syphilis, and that 80 per cent. sufiEer 
from gonorrhoea. Men infecting their wives thus, 
cause the disease and death of infants. " It lies 
with you," said the speaker, with compelling 
insistence, " largely to prevent these things ; 
you. who have charge of the young, must present 
the highest possible standard of morals to them." 
The question of the age at which children should 
receive moral instruction and enlightenment upon 
the facts of life was dealt with tentatively by the 
speaker. No hard and fast rules, she maintained, 
could be laid down ; the child's character must 
be the guide : she strongly objected to falsehoods 
being told to children — such as the ridiculous 
old fables of the doctor's bag and the goose- 
berry bush ! Mrs. Scharlieb made a great and 
necessary point of the children receiving their 
instruction on these matters from the right people, 
VIZ., the father, the mother and the teacher. 
The teachers showed their interest and apprecia- 
tion of the address by entering heartily into the 
discussion which followed. g j^ 


Dr. W. J. Howarth, Medical Officer of 
Health for the City of London, was the lecturer 
on July 1 2th at the London Day Training 
College, Southampton Row. W.C. His subject 
was " Infection In and Out of Scfiool." He said 
it was impossible to appreciate all the points of 
his subject, unless the natural history of infection 
was to some extent understood. The subject of 
immunity was a highly technical one, and explained 
why in certain specific diseases a second attack 
was improbable, and why in a number of children 
exposed to infection only a certain number 

July 22, 1916 

^be £riti0b Bournal o( flurelna. 


were afiected. When a disease was termed 
specific it meant that it bred true. He pointed 
out the difference in shape and kind of the Coccus 
Bacillus and the Protozoon. Besides these were 
the filter-passers, or the ultra microscopic bacteria, 
which gave rise to scarlet lever, whooping cough, 
mumps and probably measles, the actual agents 
of which have not yet been discovered. 

Speaking of the anthrax bacillus and its exceed- 
ingly resistant character, he gave an instance 
of how a man contracted anthrax from his shaving 
brush, through an abrasion on his chin. The 
bacillus had resisted the whole of the processes 
through which the bristles had passed through 
after ha\-ing been taken from the pig or horse. 

Of infections that were conveyed by the breath, 
he said that the moist globules, which, while he 
was then speaking 
were e.xuded by 
his breath, would 
— if he were an 
infected person 
— be capable 
of contaminating 
food at the other 
end of the lecture 

He appealed to 
the teachers to do 
away with all 
disused books and 
papers, and said 
the same ad\'ice 
should apply to 
private houses 
where people 
stored up so many 
useless odds and 
ends from senti- 
mental reasons. 

jSmallpo.x in 
England had been 
proved to have 
been conveyed by 
cotton wool from 
the southern 
states of North 
America and from 
Egypt ; and he 
had reason to 

believe that a case of scarlet fever was due to 
an infected book sent from the Midlands to San 

He described immunity' from a second attack 
in certain diseases as due to the resistance of 
white corpuscles, who, as it were, were on their 
guard and had elaborated sufficient chemical 
substances to resist the invader a second time. 
Supposed second attacks of measles should be 
regarded with scepticism. 

He explained race immunity by illustrating the 
fatal effects of vellow fever on the white man, 
whereas the natives who had been susceptible 
had died off and left behind those who had a 
strong resistance. In the same way tuberculosis. 

when introduced into a new country, practically 
wipes out the population. Dr. Howarth dealt 
with the varying periods of incubation and the 
danger of " carriers of disease." 

He caused much amusement by telling his 
audience that the public school boy name for 
German measles was " Hun pox." 



The need of women's work in agriculture and 
horticulture is greatly felt at present, and the 
Horticultural College at Swanley, Kent, is doing 
good ser\dce in establishing short courses of five 
or ten weeks' Practical Instruction and Lectiu-es 
in Gardening, Dairy Work, Poultry Work, Bee 
Keeping, Fruit 
and V'egetable 
Preserving and 
Domestic Train- 
ing. The courses 
are specially 
arranged to give 
some knowledge 
of the cultiva- 
tion of garden 
crops, fruit grow- 
ing, and the best 
methods of' 
practical dairying 
and poultry work, 
and disposal of 
produce. The 
course in dairy 
work lasts for 
five weeks, and 
our illustration 
shows a worker in 
this department 
in an extremely 
practical and 
workmanlike cos- 
tume, walking 
away from the 
dairy. The course 
in Poultry -keep- 
ing and Dairying 
(five weeks each 
subject) with 
tuition and residence cost £26 if a cubicle is used, 
or £j 5s. extia for a single room. Applicants must 
be strong and healthy to enable them to stand 
hard physical work and long hours. The course 
begins on the first and third Thursdays in each 
month, provided there are vacancies. 


To meet the growing needs of_,the ^department, 
the executive committee of the Household and 
Social Science Department of King's College for 
Women (University of London) have appointed 
Miss Lane-Claypon, M.D., D.Sc, to be the chief 
administiative officer of the department under 
the committee, with the title of dean. This office 
will be combined with that of Lecturer on Hygiene. 

8o ^be iBritieb 3ournal of "Wursing. juh 22, 1916 


The day had been vers- hot, but towards evening 
a breeze sprang up and rustled in the palm treeS; 
carrying with it the scent of roses. 

Along the dusty road a drunken man staggered, 
then stopped beneath a palm. " Nisch evenin', 
too soon to go home," he murmured, and sat down 
to rest. In a few minutes he was fast asleep. 

A clerk from the citj' passed by, looked at the 
sleeper and wondered how a man could sink so 
low when he might rise to such great heights, 
even to being a president, or at least a bank 
manager, and he passed on building castles in 
the air of the Jiouse he would buy and the horses 
he would ride when he should have risen to the 
exalted position of a bank naanagei . 

Then two girls came down the road talking of 
games, picnics and parties ; they also stop to 
look at the man. " Do you think he is ill, 
Eh-ira ? " " Xo I Come away, Francesca, he 
has been drinking too much, disgusting brute ! " 
" \\rhat a sad thing ' he is well dressed too. I am 
glad he is asleep, because I am frightened of 
drunken men." The man moved in his sleep and 
the girls tied in terror. 

A policeman passing that way looked at the 
man, then kicked him. The drunken man did 
not move. " Ugh ! you pig," said the police- 
man, " you can lie there until you get sober : it 
is a hot night, much too hot for hauling such as 
you about," and the man was left alone again 
with the wind in the palm trees to soothe his 

In the early morning a weary woman with a 
sad face came down the road, carrying a little 
bundle in her arms. She looked at the man, 
then spoke to him, but he did not hear her. 

" They say that men who drink are ahvays 
kind to little children," she said. " You must 
be very' drunk or vou would not sleep on the 
roadside, for you are not a poor man ; you are 
too well dressed," and kneeling beside him she 
placed her bundle carefully inside his coat. 

When the sun arose there was no one on the 
dust:\- high way but the sleeping man and a 
newly born infant wrapped in a shawl lying 
inside his coat. ■\I jj. 


" The Medical Who's Who," published by the 
Fulton-Man ders Publishing Co., 75, Chancery 
Lane, contains the biographies of thousands of 
members of the medical profession as well as an 
obituary list of the names of those who have 
passed away in 1915 and the early months of the 
present year, special notice being directed to those 
who have died for King and Coimtry. 

The pages are this year increased by 200, and 
under the heading " Nursing," which is a new- 
feature, appears a notice of The British Journal 
OK XuRsiNG, " the only weekly nursing journal 
owned, edited and controlled bv trained nurses." 


For the lovers of adventure and excitement in 
fiction, with plenty of romance, this book will be 
very welcome. From beginning to end the 
interest is well sustained, and there is not a dull 
page in the book. There is a breeziness and 
breadth in it that seens borrowed from the 
Rockies, where the doings recorded took place. 

Joanne Gray had come out to discover the 
whereabouts of her husband, and she frankly 
adrritted that she would prefer the proof of his 
death to that of his life. She was an extra- 
ordinarily beautiful, still in the twenties. 
She is introduced to the reader on the long railway 
journey out to Tete Jaune. At Miette she enquires 
of the girl in the same carriage where she can 
get food and a place to change and wash. 

" Is there a hotel here ?" 

Her companion found the question very funny. 

You're sure new," she explained. " We 

don't have hotels up here, we have bed houses, 

chuck tents, and bunk shacks. You ask for 

Bill's shack down there on the Flats." 

The stranger girl thanked her. 

It was more than malice that sent the innocent 
stranger woman to Bill's shack, and it was more 
than chivalry that caused John Aldous to follow 
her and deliver her fron^ what was a den of 
iniquity-. But he earned Bill Quade's undying 
hatred by so doing, and this was the beginning 
of both the adventure and the romance. 

It was amidst a strange nultitude of people that 
Joanne Gray found herself. This was the Horde, 
that crude monstrous thing of primitive strength 
and passions that w-as overturning m.ountains in 
its fight to link the new Grand Trunk Pacific 
with the seaport on the Pacific. 

She sensed it without ever having seen it before. 
For her the Horde now- had a heart and a soul.. 
These were the builders of the Em.pire, the man- 
beasts who made it possible for civilisation to 
creep warily and w-ithout peril into new- places 
and new worlds. With a curious shock she 
thought of the half-dozen little wooden crosses 
she had seen through the car window at odd 
places along the line of rail. 

After her rescue from peril by John .\ldous he 
took her to the tent house of his friends the 
Ottos, and placed her in Mrs. Jack's keeping. . 
He explained to tUem that she was leaving on the 
Tete Jaune train. John Aldous, wTitei and 
woman hater, was a vdctim of love at first sight. 
He became more and m.ore convinced that his 
work for the afternoon was spoiled. And by 
whom ? By what ? Who was she ? ^^'hat could 
be her m.ission at Tete Jaune ? It was the same 
evening that Aldous rescued a colt from being 
swept down the river. Then a voice spoke behind 

* By James Oliver Curwood. CasseU & Co.,. 

July 22, igi6 

;ibe Britieb 3ournal of "Kursttifl. 

him, a voice that he would have recognised among 
ten thousand, low, sweet, thrilling 

" Tliat was splendid, John Aldous," it said. 
" If 1 were a I should want to be a man like 

A few steps from him stood Joanne Gray. Her 
face was as white as the bit of lace at her throat, 
and the eyes tliat looked at him were glorious. 

John l\ad fairly succumbed by tliis time, and 
it was a blow to him to learn that she had come 
out to look for her husband. But when he 
discovered that she de.sircd proof of his death, 
he determined to help her in her investigations, 
since by this time he was as much concerned in 
it as was she. 

And when they discovered the lonely mound 
with the name of the man she hated engraved 
upon it, they were both profoundly grateful. 

Much adventure is supplied by the determina- 
tion of the ruffian Quade to kill Jolm and get 
possession of Joanne. His boon companion turns 
out to be Joanne's husband, who is not dead 
as supposed. The knowledge of this comes to 
John on tlicir wedding day, but he manages to 
keep the knowledge from her and yet to steer 
an honourable course. 

They go through many adventures and hair- 
breadth escapes, but in the end Quade and his 
companions meet their deserts and Joanne and 
John have a seconil wedding, and we hope and 
believe are happy ever after. 

H. H. 



Thou art thy brother's keeper ! Woe is 

If his bark's wrecked upon some stormy 

Because thy anchor drags or rudder 

And doubly woe 'to thee, if it appears 
In God's great day, that thou with cruel 

Hast thrust without the gates that open 

To His poor flock, one lamb however 

That yearns to stay within and Heaven 


— Emilv Woodward Grand. 


' We grow strong through assuming responsi- 
bilities — by bearing burdens and doing things 
we acquire power." 


July 27th. — Meeting Executive Committee 
Society for State Registration of Trained Nurses, 
431, O.Kford Street. 4 p.m. 

Whilst cordially inviting comtnunications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 


To the Editor o/TwK Bunisn Jouknal ok Nursing. 
Madam, — The wounded are pouring into our 
hospitals, where the need of literature far exceeds 
all previous demands. We require an enormous 
and immediate supply of magazines and books easy 
to handle, to be sent to the Red Cross and St. John 
Ambulance War Library, Surrey House, Marble 
Arch, W. ; or to the London lji)rary, St. James' 
Square, S.W., whence tltey will be sent on to 
Suirey House. 

Yours truly, 

H. M. Gaskkll, 

C. Hagberg Wright, 

Hon. Sees. 
[Look around and see what books you can give. 
— Ed.1 


To the Editor o/TiiE British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — Your gifted correspondent, 
" H. H.," whose delicate perception of all tilings 
lovely and of good report is a constant delight, 
her.self pointed the way to the real " Re-creation " 
both of body and spirit when she sought " change " 
and " refreshment " in prayer. 

If only more of us tired workers would claim the 
promise, " They that wait upon the Lord shall 
renew their strength ; they shall mount up with 
\\ings as eagles ; they shall run and not be weary ; 
and they shall walk and not faint " ; and accept 
the even more enticing invitation : " Come unto 
Me all ye that labour and are heavy-laden, and 
1 'will give you rest . . . and y'c shall find rest unto 
your souls," what a continual re-creation of our 
powers we would enjoy and what a changed world 
our sick and wounded would come back to ; the 
" newness of life " they would discover in us would 
bring to them healing of sovil as well as of body. 
" We kneel, how weak ! 
We rise, how full of power ! 

Why, therefore, do we do ourselves this wrong — - 
Or others — that we are not always strong ? 
That we should ever weak or helpless be, 
FaitUess or troubled. 
When with us is Prayer, 
And Joy and Grace and Courage are with Thee? " 
Yours faithfully, 

" One Who Knows." 


To the Editor oj The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — What all nurses fear in the College 

scheme is lay control, and if a Nurses' Registration 

Bill makes^^such control possible we are better 


ZTbe Britisb 3ournal of IRursmg. 

July 22, 1916 

without legislation at all. Abuses there may be, 
but at least at present we are free agents once we 
are certificated. No male pi'ofessional or industrial 
workers would submit to having their work and 
lives controlled by their past em.ployers, and we 
nurses must scan very carefully any suggestion 
likelj' to place us by legislation in such a dangerous 
position. No one could have attended the recent 
meeting at St. Thomas' Hospital without realising 
tliis danger. Matrons of big hospitals were on 
the platform, but the Hall was almost entirely 
filled with people other than members of our 
profession, and it was these people who discussed 
our affairs, and had a right as members of • the 
Consultative Board to do so. I am not enamoured 
with the College Constitution, and think with 
you, as i% at present stands, it is highly dangerous 
to personal liberty'. If when a Bill emanating 
from the same source becomes law we nurses 
disapprove of its provisions, all we can do is to 
refuse to register, and I suppose be ranked as 
quacks — better that tiian coercion. 

Yoiu's faithfully, 

An Irish Sister. 
[We learn that the Constitution of the College 
of Nursing, Limited, is being reconstructed. — Ed.] 


To the Editor oj The British Journal of Nursing. 
Dear Madam, — I greatly rejoice to note in your 
last issue that you have spoken out on the attempt 
now being made by the National Poor Law 
Office: s' Association to enrol trained Matrons and 
nurses, and in consequence to claim to represent 
Poor Law Nursing opinion on the Council of the 
College of Nursing. What can the members of 
this Association know about the training of nurses, 
and their educational s^^stem, excepting what they 
learn from their Matrons ? If the Governing 
Body of our profession is to be coni.posed of lay 
Poor Law Guardians, then it is high time to make 
a protest. The Association, as you say, has its 
uses, but what can Workhouse Masters and 
subordinate Workhouse officers, including the 
porters, know of oiu: highly skilled professional 
work ? This stirring up of hospital and infirmary 
managers to interfere with our professional 
organization and legislation will have fatal results 
if it is encouraged. To talk of self-governm.cnt 
for nurses is nonsense if lay persons are to take 
part in o.ur General Nursing Coimcil. It is an 
educational body, and should be composed only 
of persons who understand professional matters. 
I agree with you that Poor Law Nurses should 
form their own Association, and take their stand 
as general nurses — not as specialists in any way. 
We Matrons who inspire high professional ideals 
in ninses trained in Poor Law Infirmaries are not 
" enemies within the gates " because we object 
to emphasising a difference between hospital 
and' infirmary nurses. Both are general nurses, 
and I hope the effect of legislation will be to 
define an efficient standard of training for all 
nurses to which they can by tuition and practice 

attain, and that by such a system, much inequality 
in professional status and in chance of promotion 
will be minimised. But this is not to be done by 
further interference upon the part of persons who 
are not qualified to express an opinion on pro- 
fessional nursing. 

Yours truly, 
A Poor Law- Infirmary Matron. 

[We are quite alive to this danger.' — Ed.] 


To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — Can you tell me why medical 
women have shown such a lack of sympathy with 
the question of State Registration of trained 
nurses ? I never met one who has helped us in 
our long struggle for systematised training and 
better professional education — indeed, they appear 
to flunk we are a sort of glorified domestic servant. 
I have worked with quite a number since the 
beginning of the War, and have been unpleasantly 
surprised to notice this attitude — and several 
assume to be trained nurses, plus medical prac- 
titioners, wlfich they are not. I do not like to 
own it, but medical men treat nurses with far 
greater courtesy than medical women. 
I am., dear Madam, 
Yours tiuly. 

Sister in 'War Hospital. 

[W'e fear tins criticism is founded on fact ; we 
have been working for nearly thirty years for 
the organization of trained nursing by the State 
and have received no encouragement from medical 
women, and in many instances have found them 
opposed to just conditions for trained nurses — 
such as would be secured by legislation. Recent 
events in connection with the College of Nursing 
have empha.sised this regrettable attitude. — Ed.] 


July 2gth. — What methods have you seen 
employed for the treatmentypf infected wounds, 
and ^vith what results ? 

August ^th. — How would you prevent the spread 
of epidemics by flies, fleas, lice and bugs in war 

August \2th. — How would you organise the 
nursing in a military hospital of 100 beds and 
upwards ? 


Candidates for the F.F.N.C. can be interviewed 
on Friday, July 21st, 2.30 to 4.30 p.m., at 
431, Oxford Street, London, W. Candidates 
must be well educated and hold a certificate of 
three years' training, winch they must bring for 
inspection. A knowledge of French is an advan- 

July 22, 1916 CTbe Brtneb 3oiirnal or flureina Supplement. 


The Midw^ife. 


The portrait of Miss Alice II. ']"iii abuU, Super- 
intendent of the Deaconess Hospital, Julinburgh, 
who has been appointed on to the Central Mid- 
wives' Board for Scotland by the Lord President 
of the Council, will be of great interest to midwivcs. 

Miss Turnbull, who is keenly interested in mid- 
wifery and all that concerns niidwives, has luid a 
varied nursing experience extending over twenty 
years. She was tiained at the Royal Infirmary, 
Edinburgh, where she subsequently held the 
position of Sister for four 
years. She also • had si.x 
months' training at the 
Royal Hospital |for Sick 
Children, Edinburgh, and 
midwifery training at 
Queen Charlotte's Hospi- 
tal, London, from which 
institution she entered for 
the examination of the 
Central Midwives' Boardr 
and was placed on its 
Roll as a certified midwife. 
Subsequently she did 
district midwifery work 
in connection with the 
Deaconess' Hospital, 
Edinburgh, and was then 
appointed Sister Midwife 
of Labour Wards at 
Queen Charlotte Hospital, 
London. She was later 
appointed ,Sister-in-Charge 
of the Cottage Hospital, 
Swanagc, to which 
country midwifery work is 
attached. She was then 
appointed Matron of the 
Canning | Town Women's 
Srttliinent Hospital at 
I'hd^tow for Women and 
Children, where she 

worked for over five years, returning to Edinburgli 
as Superintendent of the Deaconess Hospital, 
in tliat city two years ago. Miss Turnbull and her 
colleague. Miss Scrimgeour, hope tluough the Mid- 
wives' Association recently formed to be directly 
in touch with most midwives in Scotland. 



The revised rules of the Central Midwives Board 
may now be obtained from ICyre and Spottiswoode, 
price 6d. 

The Midwives Act Committee of the I^ndon 
County Cxjuncil propose to send to each practising 
midwife in the Administrative County of London 
a copy of the new rules of the Central Midwives 
Board, which came into operation on July ist. 


The London Mothei craft Competitions, arranged 
by the Association of Infant Welfare and Maternity 
Centres, 4, Tavistock Square, W.C., were held 
on July 15th, 191O, at the Cosway Street Infant 
Schools, Edgware Road, W. No more national 
ami important work can be done than that whicli 
is carried out at the various Selwols for Mothers 
througlaout the country, and they are now 
becoming so well known that they need no intro- 
duction. Saturday last was an afternoon of real 
pleasure to workers, 
mothers and spectators. 
We n\ay even include 
the babies, who really 
seemed to enter into the 
spirit of the thing and 
contributed their share 
towards success by being 
of most exemplary be- 
liaviour. Dr. Eric Pritchard 
attributed this to the in- 
fluence of the schools. At 
some of the cailier com- 
petitionSj he said, it had 
been impossible to make 
himself lieard, whereas on 
Saturday last the babies 
seemed to understand the 
bell for silence, and 
only gurgles and crows of 
delight were heard from 
the crowded room where 
babies of all sorts and 
kinds, and of all ages, 
were gathered together. 
They certainly were a 
sight that did credit to 
London mothers ; very few 
of them got up for show, 
but one]' and all bearing 
the impress of careful, 
intelligent nurture. 
At the stroke of three o'clock the anxious com- 
petitors in the laundry and cookery department 
fell to with a will, and n;ost admirable were their 
method and skill in the crafts. In the laundry 
department the judge was reminding tiiem that 
she should take into account economy as well as 
method and finish. The set of infants' clothes 
were in every case deserving of great praise wiien, 
having gone through the various stages, they were 
folded with extreme precision and awaited 

Above, in the cookery competition, it was really 
marvellous to see the results that can be obtained 
for one-and-sixpence, which sum had to provide 
a dinner for four persons — father, mother, and 
two j'liildren. 


dbe British 3ournal of flursina Supplement, jmy 22, 1916 

Many of the visitors were expressing their 
.wilhngness to sit down and partake of the 
appetising fare tliat was being served with sucli 
cleverness and daintiness by the poor mothers of 
London. It was gratifying to observe how many 
vegetarian dishes were in evidence, although 
one woman was heard to remark that her old man 
wouldn't be satisfied without a bit of meat. 
A most delicious looking pie, whose flaky crust 
concealed potatoes, tomatoes, onions, green peas, 
carrots, and butter beans, won our special admira- 
tion. It merited and obtained an Honours 

The prize was given to a dinner composed of 
fresh herrings and tomatoes, vegetable soup and 
toast, potatoes, boiled rice and treacle, suet and 
treacle dumplings. Total cost, is. 4d. ; nimiber of 
persons, 4. Not bad that. Of course the centre 
of attractioA was the baby competition, where 
the most charming of their species sat 
in birthday suit upon their mothers' laps while 
the doctor examined them in a scientific manner. 
He must have been fUnty -hear ted indeed not to 
give a first prize to every one. But that of course 
w-ould have been too expensive for war time. 

In the hall were specimens of fathers and 
mothers' ingenuity in carpentering and needle- 
work, and very marvellous they were. Stockings 
made into jersey suits, new lamps for old of all 
descriptions. And the fathers — for mere men 
— produced some really beautiful pieces of 
furniture for a most trifling cost. The prize cot, 
costing 4s. 6d., was a triumph. Lady Plunkett, 
assisted by Dr. Eric Pritchard, distributed the 
prizes, which were 5s. War Loan vouchers. 

The mothers, as they could be spared from 
their arduous duties, were entertained to tea, 
and each took away a pretty bimch of flowers. 
London Prize Winners. 

Six Simple Questions in Molhcrcraft. — Mrs. 
Herring (St. Marylebone, North A), Mrs. Johns 
(Wimbledon), and Mrs. Pratt (St. Marylebone, 
South A). 

The Best Kept Records. — St. Marylebone, South 
A ; St. Marylebone, North A, B & C, and St. 
John's Wood ; St. Pancras. 

Six Simple Questions in Home Nursing. — Mrs. 
Boast (Stepney School for Mothers). 

The Mother and Child showing evidence of 
having profited most by the instruction given at 
her centre. — Mrs. Chapman (Bethnal Green), Mrs. 
Angell (St. Marylebone, South A), Mrs. Titley 
(St. Marylebone, North C), and Mrs. Milburn 
(Hammersmith School for Mothers). Mrs. Mil- 
burn's baby got a special prize given by the judge 
himself, because it had got on so well. It was 
brought to the school when it was one month old 
(weighing 3 lbs. only), and was the survivor of 
premature twins. The mother carried out the 
doctor's instructions so well and carefully that 
it is getting on .splendidly. 

Made-up Garments.' — Mrs. Luxton (Hammer- 
smith Women's League of Service), Mrs. Smec 
(King's Cross Women's League of Service), and 
INIrs. Gourlay (Hammersmith, South). . 1 

KuiUcd or Croclict .Irticles. — Mrs. Newton 

Mended Garments. — Mrs. Newberry (Padding- 
ton, East). 

Renovated or .-i da pled Garments. — Mrs. Kussell 
(Paddington, East). 

Practical Cooking. — Mrs. Coleman (St. Maryle- 
bone, South C). 

Theoretical Cooking. — Mrs. Laurie (Win.bledon). 

Laundry Work, done at the National Competitions. 
— Mrs. Farrer (Holborn, Saffron Hill Branch). 

A Letter on Mothercraft. — Mrs. Clarke (St. Mary- 
lebone, North A). 

Ingenuity Competition for Fathers or Brothers 
of the Baby. — Mr. Bettinelli (Holborn, Lamb's 
Conduit Street). 

The Challenge Shield. 
The Challenge Shield is to be awarded at Biistol, 
on July 22nd, at the close of the competitions for 
the Provincial Centres. So far, Wimbledon has 
the highest number of marks. 


The Lord Mayor of London, Sir Charles Wake- 
field, has consented to become the chief patron of 
Mothers' Day, which is fixed for August 8th. 
The founder of Mothers' Day, Mr. J. A. ^Whitehead, 
of Richmond, hopes that on this occasion everyone 
will make a special effort to do a kindness to a 
mother, especially the mother who' is suffering as 
a result of the war. No flags will be sold and no 
collections taken, Mr. Whitehead paying all costs 
of administration as a tribute to the mothers of 
the Empire. The Honorary Secretary is Mr. 
J. P. H. Bewsher, 47, Fleet Street, E.C., who will 
be glail to supply the fullest information. 


One of the qualities essential in a midwife is 
that she should be trustworthy, and this is neces- 
sary not only in the interests of the patients, but 
of the State, for it is the duty of midwives to make 
returns which are incorporated in the State 
Records, and if these aie not accurate they are 

At the last penal session of the Central Midwives 
Board a midwife who was cited to appear on a 
chargir of having certified as still-born a child 
who was born alive, and who appeared before the 
Board, admitted that she knew the child was 
born alive, that no pressure was put upon her to 
make this false notification, and that she did so 
to save expense to the mother, who was a single 

A midwife who can so act must have a most 
inadequate conception of the elements of truth 
and of her public duty ; further, if she disregards 
them in one particular she is likely to do so in 
another. All of which goes to prove the necessity 
for selecting only women of probity and high 
moral character as pupil midwives. 





No 1,478 

SATURDAY, JULY 29, 1916. 



Tlie Scheme for the IJistrict Nursin<j of 
Measles, German Measles and Wlioopinjj 
Cous^h, outlined by the Central Council 
for District Nursing in London, of which 
Sir William Collins is Chairman, will, un- 
doubtedly, if carried into effect, lessen the 
mortaJitv from these diseases. 

It is stated that the object of this scheme 
is to secure the provision of timely nursing 
care — in proper relaticxn to medical ad-sice 
— with a view to saving the lives, and pre- 
venting permanent injury to the health, of 
young children attacked bv measles or 
whooping cough. 

It is generally agreed that if due care 
were taken from the onset, the mortality 
of measles and its complications would be 
greatly reduced. It often occurs that 
medical aid is only s^^nnmoned after the 
illness has developed a serious character, or 
complications have arisen which might have 
been avoided by proper care and attention. 
It is hoped that on the advice of an experi- 
enced nurse such timely aid will be brought 
to the patient and not deferred until it is 
too late. 

In confirmation of the influence which 
care has on the mortalitv from measles, it is 
reported by the Central Council that " the 
mortality increases in proportion to over- 
crowding and poverty ; it diminishes step 
by step as the ' social status ' improves. 
Moreover, the mortality from measles is 
not a complete index of the mischief 
wrought. Measles is a fretjuent cause of 
retarded growth and development, and of 
ill health ; it often lights upon latent tuber- 
culosis, and deafness, and defects of evesight, 
are in manv instances attributed to it. 
Hospital treatment for the majority of cases 
of measles or whooping cough will probably 

never be practicable, even if it were 
desirable, and should be reserved for the 
most urgent and necessitous cases." 

The District Nursing Associations of 
London by their experience and organiza- 
tion, arc especially qualified to take part, m 
the care of cases of measles and whooping 
cough, and local authorities desiring to pro- 
vide for their poorer inhabitants may, in the 
case of the 13orough Councils, do so by 
arrangement with the Associations in ac- 
cordance with the Public Health (London) 
Act : if Guardians, under pow-ers conveyed 
bv the Poor Laws Act. 

A further Report from the organization 
sub-committee outlines the arrangements 
made so far, with recommendations and 
suggestions for future procedure. The 
Committee state that they have had the 
advantage of a conference with the Medical 
Officers of Health in the Metropolis, repre- 
sentatives of the Local Government Board 
also being present. From these, and from 
information.furnished bv the District Xursing 
Associations and other sources it appears 
that although the need is fully recognised, 
little has as yet been done to give practical 
effect in the Metropolis to the powers con- 
ferred on sanitary authorities, by the Notifi- 
cation of Measles Order, to provitle medical 
attendance, including nursing, for the poor. 

This Committee advise that a District 
Nursing Association undertaking the work 
of nursing measles should do so in accord- 
ance with a scheme approved by, and in co- 
operation with the local sanitary authority, 
and that given suitable training and special 
instruction district nurses, acting as they do 
under rule and supervision, may safely be 
trusted to undertake the nursing of these 
diseases in the course of their ordinary 
work. They further recommend the desir- 
ability of making arrangements, through 
the Central Council or otherwise, for the 
mutual assistance of associations by the loan 
of relief nurses in time of epidemic stress. 


Jibe »ritl9b 3ournaI of Hursinfl. 

]iil\ 2g, igi6 


Miss Kthel Darring'lon Harriss, R.N., con- 
tributes to the Anicricmi Journal of Nursing an 
interesting- article on " Yellow Fever," in the 
course of which she says : — 

" To speak on the subject of vellow lexer is 
like evoking from the abyss of oblivion a grim, 
ghastly, and forbidding monster which, how- 
ever, in the light of present-day science, is as 
unsubstantial and as harmless as the airy 
fancies of a dream. But it was not always an 
innocuous phantom. For generations the 
spectre of yellow fever stalked through the 
world, leaving in its w'ake countless victims. 
But now it is classed among preventable 
diseases, and the fear of it lies dead and buried 
deep in the grave of other bvgone ' bugaboos,' 
together with the ridiculous notions and queer 
superstitions regarding it, and the terrible 
demoralization of the justly fear-crazed people." 

The writer shows that yellow fever, or some 
similar disease, prevailed among the ancient 
Greeks, and is mentioned by Hippocrates. The 
term "yellow fever" was first applied by 
Griffith Hughes in 1750. No other disease has 
been known by more different names, the 
synonyms numbering over 150. The first re- 
corded epidemic in the New World occurred in 
the island of San Domingo, in December, 1493. 
" Who would have imagined that the tiny, 
buzzing, biting and annoving mosquito is the 
guilty vehicle of the yellow fever germ? Yet 
it has been proven beyond doubt, by most 
remarkable and painstaking experiments, that 
this insect is the sole cause of infection in this 
disease. The result of this remarkable dis- 
covery brought about an immediate campaign 
of education throughout the United States, 
followed by the inauguration of methods of pre- 
vention and protection that have forever put an 
end to the dread of the disease. The knell of 
yellow fever was sounded in New Orleans at the 
end of the epidemic of 1905. In October of that 
year, long before the advent of frost, the fever 
was stamped out, an achievement w'hich settled 
triumphantly the correctness of the mosquito 
theory. " 

So far as is known, the disease is conveyed 
by a single species — the Stegomyia Calopus. 
Only the female is capable of carrying the 
disease. The transmissible poison exists in the 
blood of yellow fever patients only during the 
first four days of the illness. " Therefore, in 
order to' possess the puwcr of carrying the 
disease, the mosquito must feed upon the blood 

of tlie patient during this period. An incubation 
period of twelve days or more must elapse 
before the mosquito has the power of trans- 
mitting the infection, but once it becomes a 
' carrier,' it can convey the irLfection for the 
balance of its life, which is about five months, 
provided it has access to w^ater. The first 
symptoms of this disease usually manifest them- 
selves from two to five days after the bite of 
an infected mosquito. 

" When called on to nurse a case of yellow 
fever, the first duty of a nurse is to see that 
proper precautions are taken to prevent 
mosquitoes from biting the patient and to 
imprison those that may have already become 
inoculated until they can be destroyed. A good 
mosquito net should be placed on the bed 
immediately, and kept over the patient night 
and day for the first four days of the illness. 
The room should be screened at once ; cheese 
cloth or bobbinet tacked over the openings 
serves the purpose very well in the absence of 
regular wire netting. This must be done at 
once, to prevent the admission of more 
mosquitoes into the room, and to prevent the 
escape of any that may already have bitten the 
patient and become infected. Those imprisoned 
need cause no uneasiness, for they can do no 
harm for twelve days, and by that time either 
the patient will be claimed by death, or will be 
able to leave the room long enough for it to be 

The writer continues : — 

The chief features which distinguish yellow 
fever from other fevers ai e : — 

(i) A fever of from two to seven days' dura- 
tion, beginning with a sudden chill, followed 
by a high temperature. In cases of a mild type 
this temperature lasts from two to four days, 
and falls gradually and irregularly until normal 
is reached, when the patient is said to be iji a 
state of calm. After this the temperature may 
remain normal or it may rise again — when it is 
called secondary fever. 

(2) A steady fall of Ihe pulse, beginning 
during the period of in\asion, and gradually 
leadiiTg to a remarkable slowing of the heart 

(3) Albuminuria. 

(4) Nausea and vomiting. 

(5) Jaundice. . _ 

(6) A tendency to the stagnation of the cir- 
culation of the skin. 

(7) Haemorrhage from the gums, nose,- and 
stomach (black vomit), bowels (tarry stools), 
and from other mucous surfaces. 

(8) The face is decidedly flushed, the eyes 
unusually bright and glistening, the expression 

July 2g, 1916 

?tbe Krttteb 3ournal of "Rureinfl. 


" anxious," and even on the first day the skin 
may show a slight tinge of yellow. 

As a rule, an attack of yellow fever, like 
measles and chicken pox, renders one immune 
for life. 

As soon as possible after the onset of the 
chill it is the custom to give a hot mustard foot- 
bath, together with hot drinks. This brings 
about a reaction from the' chill, and causes a 
profuse perspiration, which helps the kidneys in 
their work of elimination. In yellow fever the 
pain in the head, back, and limbs is very dis- 
tressing ; in no other disease except smallpox 
is there such severe aching, and by its revulsive 
effect the hot footbath greatly relieves these 
pains. This routine practice is a relic of old 
Creole days, the doctors of that time being 
under the impression that the disease could be 
moderated, or even aborted, by profuse sweat- 
ing; and the old "Mammies" advocating it 
because thev believed it " drove out the 
misery." The fact that the use of it has sur- 
vived is a sufficient testimonial of its worth. 
Every nurse trained in the nursing of yellow 
fever in the south knows how to give this hot 
footbath " i la Creole." . 

A foot tub should be half filled with very 
warm water, to which has been added a pound 
of ground mustard. The tub is placed in the 
bed, and the patient's feet immersed therein. 
The patient and the tub are then covered with 
several blankets, the latter being lifted slightly 
every few minutes to allow more hot water to 
be added to the bath, and the brisk rubbing of 
the legs up to the knees with the hot mustard 
water. The water must be kept very hot, 
almost to the point of intolerance. In this way 
the patient is given a vapour bath, which causes 
a free diaphoresis. In the meantime hot drinks 
are given freely, hot lemonade or, as is the rule 
in the French Quarter, hot orange leaf tea. The 
feet arc kept in the water for ten or fifteen 
minutes, after which the tub is removed and the 
blankets tucked in snugly, .^fter the patient 
perspires profusely, a cleansing bath and 
vigorous alcohol rub are given. When the linen 
is changed, a hot-water bag must be placed at 
the patient's feet, and a warm dry blanket put 
over him to prevent his getting chilletl. 

Cleansing baths must be given very fre- 
quently, as it is of utmost importance that the 
pores be kept open, so that the skin can help the 
kidneys to do their work. 

The mouth and gums must also receive 
especial care, and be kept in as healthy a con- 
dition as possible, in order to lessen the danger 
of haemorrhage from the gums. 

The room must be kept well ventilated, for 
in vellow fever, as in all infectious diseases, 
plentv of air is necessary for recovery. While 

in other diseases ventilation is a simple matter, 
in yellow fever nursing, especially among the 
poor, it is a problem. On a warm day, with 
a malodorous patient, and with cheese cloth 
tacked over all the doors and windows, and no 
electric fan, the nurse will find it no easy task to 
keep the room from feeling " stuffy." 

In llie beginning of the disease the physician 
prescribes a purgative; some give one of the 
salines, some still cling to castor oil, while 
others prefer calomel in small doses. In the 
epidemic of 1897 a popular mode of administer- 
ing- calomel was known as the " Holt Sand- 
wich," named for Dr. Joseph Holt, who 
originated the idea. The " sandwich " is pre- 
pared by covering the bottom of a spoon with 
a layer of very finely crushed ice, the calomel is 
placed on this, and then covered with another 
layer of crushed ice. In this way the calomel 
is packed between two layers of ice, and the 
patient swallows it without knowing that it is 
medicine. This method of giving medicine is 
especially good where there is great gastric 
irritabilitv. After the first thorough emptying 
of the bowels, purgatives are never given any 
more, but enemas are ordered when necessary. 

The fever in this disease runs only a few 
days, but while it lasts it usually runs very high, 
and should be reduced sufficiently to diminish 
the tissue waste and make the'patient comfort- 
able. Sponging has been found to b<- the best 
method of reducing the temperature, but 
because of the capillary stasis and the readiness 
with which the patient collapses, sponging with 
ice water is not advisable. The bath should he 
begun with warm water, and cooler water 
ad<led until the water is cool, but not cold. At 
frequent intervals, while sponging, friction to 
the skin will help to prevent cyanosis. Cold 
enemas are often given to reduce the fever, the 
temperature of the w-ater to be regulated by the 
degree of temperature to be combated : the 
hotter the patient, the colder the water, but 
never ice water, .^n ice cap to the head and 
an ice pillow to the back of the neck give com- 
fort while the fever is high. 

{To he concluded.) 


^^'e regret that none of the papers sent in this 
week are of a sufficiently high standard to merit 
publication and the reward of a prize. We 
must assume that nurses are too busy applying 
treatment to infected wounds to write papers 
on the subject. 


How would you prevent the spread of 
epidemics by flies, fleas, lice, and bugs in war 

Zbc Britisb 3ouvnal of IFlursina, 

July 29, 1916 



The King bestowed the Royal Red Cross upon 
the following ladies at Buckingham Palace on 
July 19th : — 

First Class. 

IMiss Emily Bairy, Matron, Nursing StafE of Civil 

Second Class. 

Miss Louie Rogers-Smith, Nursing Staff of 
Military and War Hospitals : IMiss .\lice Bowdler, 
Nursing Staff of Cixil Hospitals ; IMiss Effie Fisher, 
Nursing Staff of Ci^•il Hospitals ; and Miss Decin.a 
Hirst, Nursing Stafi of Civil Hospitals. 

nursing staff of Sir Patrick's Dun's Hospital 
rendered most conspicuous and devoted service 
to the wounded, attending to them, under a 
cross tire, with the utmost coolness, and many 
others behaved with the greatest gallantry. If 
ever nurses deserved official recognition, they are 
the nurses of the Dublin hospitals during the 

Sinn Fein rising. — ■ — 

Mr. Harold C. C. Mcllwraith has placed at the 
disposal of the Commonwealth Government and 
Australian Im.perial Force his country house, Glen 
Almond, St. Albans, for the use of convalescent 
sisters and nirrses of the A.A.N.S. Australian 
Imperial Force. A sister of the Australian Army 
Niursing Service will be placed in charge. 

The foUowng ladies were honoured by recei\'ing 
similar distinotions on July 
22nd : — 

First Class. 

IMiss Eleanor Charleson, 
Matron, Canadian Army 
Nursing Service. 

Second Class. 

Miss Janet Andrews, 
Sister Canadian Army 
Nursing Service, and Miss 
Ethel Holmes, Sister, Cana- 
dian Army Nursing Ser- 

We are informed that Miss 
Bostock, IMatron of the 
Roval Victoria Hospital, 
Belfast, and Miss Emily 
Barrv, IMatron of the Hud- 
dersfield Royal Infirmary, 
are the only two matrons 
of civil hospitals who ha\'e, 
as such, been awarded the 
honour of the Royal Red 
Cross First Class. 

Now that the Japanese nurses who were working 
at the .-Vstoria in Paris have returned home, the 
hospital will go on under 
the joint direction of French 
and British authority. A 
staff of British nurses will 
work under French and 
British doctors and will be 
helped by a staff of French 
Red Cross infirmieres. Lord 
and Lady ^lichelham have 
undertaken to provide the 
funds for running expenses, 
and the Baronne de 
Lesueiu' will ccntinue to be 
the French directrice. When 
we visited the hospital last 
year, this charming lady 
permitted us to inspect the 
hospital which was then 
most adm.irably organised 
and supplied by the 
Japanese staff. Lavish 
supplies, all marked Tokio, 
were stored for the use of 
c\-ery department. 

Miss Grace M. Wilson, 
Matron of the General 
Hospital, Brisbane, and a 
Matron in the Australian 

Army Nursing Service, came over with a con- 
tingent of nurses to this country in the early days 
of the war as Matron of No. 3 Australian Military 
Hospital (sent to Lemmos) and has since done 
excellent work. Miss Wilson, who has recently 
received the decoration of the Royal Red Cross, 
is the daughter of Mr. John P. Wilson, of Bris- 
bane. She was trained at the General Hospital 
there, and was gold medallist of her year. 
We are indebted for her portrait to The 


^Ve learn from a sister 
at \'ichy that the 
" Medaille des Epidemics " 
was awarded to IMrs. W. 
Dell, not to Miss Dell, as reported. The former 
lady, though untrained, has been nursing serious 
cases of contagious disease in France for over a 
year, and we regret to learn that she is now very 
ill, suffering with septicemia, contitacted in the 
course of her work. We cannot help expressing 
the opinion that the nursing of serious cases of 
contagious disease should only be undertaken by 
thoroughly trained and seasoned women. The 
untrained subject both the patients and themselves 
to risks of which they are unaware. 

Considering the devoted service rendered by 
the nursing stafis of the civil hospitals in Dublin 
during the recent rebellion, it is regrettable that 
no mention should have been made of them in 
General IMaxwell's report, or does he think they 
were aU " Red Cross nurses " ? Members of the 

The Secretary of the War Office announces that 
nurses holding certificates for three years' general 
training, who wish to be employed in military 
hospitals, should applv in writing, without delav, to 
the Matron-in-Chief, Q.A.I.M.N.S., War Office, for 
conditions of service. 

]uly 29, 1 916 

^bc British 3ournal of "HursinG. 

No one knows better than the trained nnrse 
the disastrons results of the drug liabit, and they 
have much power to mitigate this evil whene\'er 
suspected. We note with satisfaction that the 
Government has decided to take steps to control 
the sale of cocaine, and is understood to have been 
persuaded to that end by quite a formiidable 
dossier on the subject prepared by the police for 
the Home Office. 

Problems ok the Future. 

Under the above heading the South African 
Nursitig Record has an excellent article on the 
absolute necessity for State Registration of 
Trained Nurses throughout the Union, and inci- 
dentally proves that to be effective trained nurses 
must have sufficient direct representation to make 
any registration system really effective. Registra- 
tion of nurses, conducted by a medical council, 
even with the best intentions, has not been a 
success ; and the nurses realise that in the near 
future they must take part in their own govern- 
ment or worse will befall. 

To quote this excellent editorial article. 
Unjust Competition. 

" The South African nursing profession never 
realised how many things wanted putting right 
until it banded itself -together into a Trained 
Nurses' Association, and began to think things out, 
and now new ideas and new aspects crop up every 

" But in spite of all we have suffered, we are 
likely to suffer much more during the next five 
years and, worst of all, unless we grasp the situa- 
tion with a firm hand now, we are likely to allow 
the position to lapse into unutterable chaos from 
which we will only now, if ever, recover. We are 
liable to lose grasp of the situation altogether 
unless we prepare ourseh'es to meet it in the very 
near future. 

" We do not intend to make any lengthy 
reference to the conditions we may expect after 
the War. UnJess V.A.D, members are employed 
in South Africa (which is possible, but not yet a 
fact), we shall not be so unfortunatelv placed as 
•our overseas sisters. For them the problem of the 
half-trained war nurse is going to be a very 
difficult one indeed. And if it should be found 
necessary to employ imtrained women as proba- 
tioners in military hospitals in this country, then 
we, too, must look to our guns. We must take 
steps to safeguard our position, for the amount of 
abuse is and would be just as great here as at 
home. And we would urge the profession to be 
prepared beforehand, to know how and what they 
would do to protect themselves should this 
menace occur, and have a plan of action mapped 
out ; for, should we find South Africa flooded with 
V.A.D. probationers after the War, then our 
position, already critical enough, would be infi- 
nitely worse, and the scale of justice might thereby 
be turned against us and take years to recover its 
balance. Therefore our watchword must be that 
■of the Boy Scouts — be prepared." 



It is officially announced that on the recom- 
mendation of the Army Council the King has 
approved the issue of a silver badge to officers 
and men of the British, Indian and Oversea 
Forces who have served at home or abioad since 
August 4th, 1914, and who on account of age 
or physical infirmity arising from wounds or 
sickness caused by military service have, in the 
case of officers, retired or relinquished their 
commissions, or, in the case of men, been dis- 
charged from the Army. 

The badge will also be awarded to members of 
Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military "Nursing 
Service, Regular, Reserve and Territorial Force, 
Queen Alexandra's Nursing Service for India, and 
members of Voluntary Aid Detachments who have 
quitted the Service imder the above conditions ; 
also to civil practitioners and to other civilians 
\vho, having occupied positions normally held by 
officers or other ranks of the Royal Army Medical 

Corps under a fixed agreement for a period of 
service, have been forced to resign from physical 
incapacity caused by military service. 

The badge is in the form of a circle, an inch and 
a quarter in diameter. The circle bears the words 
" For King and Empire — Ser\-ices rendered," and 
circumscribes the Imperial cipher surmounted by 
a crown. It w-ill be worn on the right breast or on 
the rightlapelof the jacket with plain clothes only. 

Owing to the large number of badges required 
and the arrangements to be made for their dis- 
tribution, it will be some time before the actual 
issues can be made, but as soon as possible full 
instructions will be published as to when and to 
whom applications from persons entitled to the 
badges are to be submitted. 

It is also announced by the Admiralty that a 
similar badge will be issued to officers and men 
of the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, and to 
members of Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval 
Nursing Service who have quitted the service, 
under parallel conditions. Applications should 
not be made until full information as to the 
manner in which the bulges will be issued has 
been published. 

ITbe »riti6b 3ournal ot IRursina. 

July 2g, 1916 


The Corps is very fortunate in having retained 
the services of some fifty-five Sisteis who have 
been members for upwards of twelve months — 
quite a number, indeed, for Irwenty montlis — and 
who ha\-e been busily engaged in France during 
that time. It means that these Sisters are the 
right sort of women for the work, and that every 
month, as they get more attached to it, they 
become more and more valuable in the self- 
den-snng service they are rendering in French 
military hospitals and ambulances. In recog- 
nition of tliis service, the addition to their small 
salaries, which is now given by the Comite de 
Londres, Croix Rouge Franfaise, is greatly valued 
bv the Sisters, not so much for its monetary 
value, but as proof of appreciation upon the part 
of the President, Vicomtesse de la Panouse, 
of their usefulness to her glorious compatriots 
when sick and wounded. We are none of us above 
a little encouragement in our difficult tasks in this 

No new Sisters will be sent to France until early 
in September, as there is such a great need of 
trained nurses for our soldiers at home — and 
those who are tired must be relieved for rest and 
holidays. The policy of the Committee has always 
been to supply to our heroic allies only efficiently 
trained and certificated nurses — on the assumption 
that onlv the best is good enough for sick and 
wounded men, especially when the help given is 
under entirely new conditions, wliich tax the 
resources and temperaments of the very best 

The Committee of the F.F.N.C. have received 
the following communication ; — 

" Sunny Hurst," Caton. 

Mr. and Mrs. Addison and family express their 
many thanks for the expression of sympathy 
towards them in the sad loss of their daughter 
Clementina, who died with a soldier's spirit and 
was buried as one ; a party of soldiers from the 
Lancaster Barracks accompanied the remains 
and laid them to rest. 

The wreath arrived quite safely ; we thank 
all who most kindly supported it. 

A most impressive service was held at the village 
church, special hymns and an anthem being 
sung by the choir and children. 

The coffin was enfolded in the Union Jack and 
the French flag ; the latter was afterwards buried 
with the remains. It was through her great 
devotion to the French soldiers that she gave 
her life as a sacrifice for others. 


The 14th July, 1916, will long live in the memory 
of Parisians, not as the happy, merry, care-free 
" fourteenth " that they knew so well how to cele- 
brate in the now almost forgotten pre-war days, 

but as a day on which they were permitted to do 
homage and acclaim their thanks to the repre- 
sentatives of the glorious Armies who are so nobly 
fighting and dying for their homes and homelands, 
yea, and even for greater things. 

It will also be remembered as the first time 
foreign troops have assisted at France's " National 

First cariie the rev-iew, by the President , of French, 
British, Russian and Belgian troops, followed by 
the giving of some 500 diplomas, Medals and 
Crosses to the families of officers and soldiers who 
have fallen in their country's service, and the 
President's magnificent address, in the corrrse of 
which he said : 

" In distributing to-day these first commemo- 
rative diplomas in the presence of regiments of the 
Allied troops and of the population of Paris, we 
have purposed simply to express in a solemn and 
symbolic manner, the gratitude which the nation 
cherishes towards its generous children who have 
died to save it." 

When the ceremony at the Petit Palace closed, 
the great procession of between 10,000 and 15,000 
troops began, and what a sight it was ! Every 
window along the route crowded, the side walks 
packed with people of all ages and rank, who 
cheered, clapped and wept as regiment after regi- 
ment filed past with steady tread, and firm, resolute 
faces — for these were no mere show men, but men 
who had birt just arrived from the district where 
Lucifer is stalking abroad, and who knew that on 
the morrow they would return to the grim fight, 
while they cheerily acknowledged the homage paid 

The procession was opened and closed, as all 
Paris processions are, by mounted detachments of 
the Garde Republrcaine. The Belgian troops, 
comprising Infantry, a Machine-gun platoon, 
Cyclists and Lancers ; British, including Royal 
Scots, Gordon Highlanders, Anzacs, Indians, 
Canadians, Newfoundlanders and South Africans ; 
the Russians, headed by General Lochwitsky-; and 
the French soldiers, including Chasseurs, Alpins, 
Tirrcos from Algeria, New Moroccan companies, 
Annamites, Senegalians, Fusiliers, Marines ; a -full 
battalion of Territorial Artillerymen with the 
beloved " 75 's," and Cavalry from St. Cyf School. 
The martial nausic supplied by the varioirs bands 
was more than inspiring, and the Scottish pipers 
and the Senegalian trumpeters met with tremen- 
dous applause, while the chanting of some of their 
fine battle songs with their haunting minor 
refrains by the Russians as they marched steadily 
and sturdily past was something to remember. 
Brrt perhaps one of the most touching and impres- 
sive sights of this " expressive " review was the 
number of men among the onlookers who stood 
bareheaded during the whole hour that the pro- 
cession took to pass, thus showing that they 
remembered this was not an ordinary 14th July 
review, but a ceremony in honour of their dead 

E. H. 

July 29. IQ16 

Zbc Britisb 3oiirnal of "HurstiiQ. 



On Wednesday, July 19th, the Right Hon. the 
Lord Mayor accompanied by the Lady Mayoress 
and two of the Sheriffs opened the Convalescent 
Hospital for Canadian Officers on Putney Heath. 
They were received by Mr. Wm. Perkins Bull 
and Mrs. Bull, who are the generous donors. 
Flags and bunting gaily decorated the entrance. 
Miss Bonnie Ryan, the little daughter of the 
Honorary Secretary, presented the Lady Mayoress 
with a bouquet in the national colours. The 
platform was draped with the Union Jack and the 
Canadian ensign. The proceedings were opened 
with prayer by Canon Ridding, after which 

Imperial Army. They would get to know each 
other in this way better than any other. 

Sir Robert McBridc, Agent-General for British 
Columbia, spoke of the deliberate, painstaking 
work of the doctors and nurses which had resulted 
in the Army Service Corps of the Canadian Expe- 
ditionary Force. He said they deeply appreciated 
the generosity and kindly welcome of the old 

Mr. E. A. Ebblewhitc (Hon. Treasurer), an- 
nounced that it was probable Their Majesties the 
Iving and Queen would shortly visit the hospital. 

A gold latchkey was presented to tlie Lady 
Mayoress and a similar token to Mrs. Bull — the 
latter being the gift of the first five patients in the 
hospital, and inscribed with their names. 

After the ceremony, the visitors adjourned to 
a large marquee, where tea, ices and other good 


Mr. Perkins Bull, who occupied the chair, in 
introducing the Lord Mayor, said that Sir Charles 
Wakefield was a friend to the Dominion, and that 
his tenure of office would be a landmark in histoty. 

The Lord Mayor, who said that it gave him 
great pleasure to open this little hospital which 
was provided by ^Ir. Perkins Bulls liberality, 
mentioned the interesting fact that the house was 
the residence of Sir Ernest Shackleton before he 
left on his voyage to the South Pole. The waiting 
list for the hospital was already a formidable one. 
Nothing done could be too much for the Canadian 
troops, who had rendered such splendid service. 
Referring to the work of the ladies, he said they 
were one of the discoveries of the War. 

Surgeon General Carson Jones stated that, 
although the hospital was primarily for Canadian 
officers, it would receive other officers of the 

things were discussed. A string band was in 
attendance and some charming songs were given 
by some of the lady guests. 

Visitors were invited to see over the house, 
and much admired the fine dining-room and bright 
bedrooms each containing three or four beds. 

The Matron, Miss Fitzpatrick, who was trained 
at Hamilton, Ontario, with an Assistant Matron 
and fourteen Canadian WA.D.s, form the staff. 
The Matron was a picturesque figure in her white 
pique dress, folded kerchief and quaint mob cap 
with a narrow band of black velvet. The V. A.D.s 
wore a particularly pretty shade of pink with 
transparent aprons and the army cap. All wore the 
Canadian ensign mounted on red on the left arm. 

Bright sunshine prevailed tliroughout, and 
visitors, patients and staff appeared to unite in 
thinking the openisig day a complete success. 


JL\)e IBvitieb 3ournal of finrstng. 

July 2g, igi6' 


The Keighley and Bingley Infectious Diseases 
Hospital has now been adapted as a Mihtary 
Hospital, to accommodate 400 patients, at the 
cost of / It was opened by the Mayoress, 
it appears, at a very opportune moment. 

In accepting the hospital on behalf of the War 
Ofhce, General Bedford stated that the work was 
one of supreme importance, and very grave 
responsibilits- was attached. He was quite sure 
that before the war was over, and the cause of 
righteousness had overcome the cruel and unscru- 
pulous enemy, many thousands of sick and 
wounded soldiers would pass through the doors of 
the hospital. Dealing with the exercising of 
economy at the hospitals, the speakei said he was 
at a meeting at the War Office the other day, when 
it was mention(jd that if they could save 3d." a week 
on each patient in the hospitals it would represent 

The Serbian Relief Fund still continues its good 
work for Serbia in providing hospitals for sick and 
wounded Serbians. The hospital at Corfu con- 
tains 200 beds, and Lady Grogan informs us that it 
consists of two wooden barraques, one medical, 
one surgical ; three tents for medical cases ; two 
tents for special cases ; one small isolation camp ; 
three tents, each containing ten beds for tubercu- 
lous patients. An out-door dispensary, opened 
about four weeks ago, has been very well attended 
by officers and soldiers from neighbouring camps. 

The chief medical officer and senior physician is 
Dr. .\ldo Castellani. Dr. W. E. Haigh is the 
chief surgeon, and Dr. Ada Macmillan and Dr. 
Gertrude McLaren are assistant physicians. Mrs. 
L. M. St. John, who succeeded Miss Mozley as 
Matron about two months ago, is doing admirable 
work in the hospital. 

The Fund also maintains a small hospital in 
Bastia, Corsica, for Serbian refugees, of which 
Miss S. R. Richards is at present Matron, assisted 
by Miss Bunyan and Miss Scammell, trained nurses 
who have worked in Serbia. 

In addition to the foreign work, the Serbian 
Relief Fund have now charge of 300 Serbian boys 
who are temporarily at Oxford and Cambridge 
until they can be drafted into different English 

The Granville Canachan Hospital, at Ramsgate, 
was officially recently opened. The X-ray room 
is the largest in England outside the London 
Hospital, and there is an annexe in which the 
patients recovering can work at their civilian 

Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Seager, Lj^nwood, Newport 
Road, Cardiff, are giving ^^2,500 to defray the cost 
of the new operating theatre at the Cardiff In- 
firmary as a memorial to their son. Second Lieu- 
tenant W. H. Seager, of the South Wales Borderers, 
who was killed in action at Neuve Chapelle on 
February 7th, 1916. 


The following Sisters have been deputed for 
duty in Home Ho.spitals : — 

V.A.D. Hosp., Bishop's Stortford.— Miss M. 
Hay den. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Moschy, Birmingham. — Miss C- 

V.A.D. Hosp., Kitebrook. Moretoii-iii-Marsh. — 
Miss I. Mabbs. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Newton Abbot. — Mrs. A. Fletcher. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Wallflelds, Hertford.— Mrs. M. J. 

Red Cross Hosp., Henley-on-Thames. — Miss K. L. 

The Grange Hosp., Chertsev. — Mrs. G. Miller. 

St. John Hosp.. High St., Farcham.— Miss M. 

Private Mil. Hosp., Blackmoor, Hants. — INIiss 
A. M. Coleclough. 

Red Cross Hosp., Alton, Hants. — Miss M. 

Groveland Aux. Mil. Hosp., Soiiihgate. — Miss 
S. Newton. 

Stormont House, Hackney. — Miss N. P. Haine. 

Seeley Red Cross Hosp., Newport. — Miss C. 

V.A.D. Hosp., The Tower, Rainhill, Lanes. — 
Miss E. Bly. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Norwich. — Miss B. McGlasham.. 

Military Relief Hosp., Guildford. — Mrs. E. E. 

Temp. Hosp., 4, Gray Rd., Sunderland. — Miss 
A. J. Pickiny. 

Mulgrave Castle, Whitby. — Miss J. Todd. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Northwood, Middlesex. — Miss 
M. M. Darvill. 

Red Cross Hosp:, Weir House, Balham. — Miss 
G. Geddes. 

Fai'rvieiv Aux. Hosp., Ulverslon. — Miss H. Ferry. 

Callaby Castle Hosp., Whitlingham. — Miss L. J. 

Red Cross Hasp., Barrv Docks, Glam. — IMiss 
E. K. Byrne, Miss S. E'. Tennisford, IMrs. M. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Hanover Park, Camberzvell.^- 
Miss A. E. Benner. 

Summerlec Aux. Mil. Hosp., E. Finchley. — 
Miss G. M. Bennett. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Burnham-on-Crouch. — Miss C. 

V.A.D. Hosp., The Cedars, Wells.— Miss E. 

Hosp. for Facial Injuries, 78, Brook Street.—^ 
Mrs. J. M. Boswell, Miss E. Hogg. 

Red Cross Hosp., Wvmondham. — Miss E. G. 
Hobbs. ' ■ ■ 


Boulogne Headquarters. — Miss E. INIarchant, 
Miss A. W. Phillips, Miss H. Iv. W. Edmonston. 

Boulogne No. 10 Red Cross Hosp. — Miss C. 
Boness, Miss F. Jones, Miss O. C. Sharrott, Miss 
M. Sherman. 

July 29, 1916 

^be Krlttsb 3onrnal of •Wursino. 




By the death of Sir Victor Horsley, F.R.C.S., 
F.R.S., LL.D., whilst on active service at Amara, 
Mesopotamia, a most distinguished and biiUiant 
member of the medical profession has passed 
away, and trained nurses have lost one of the 
best friends they possessed. The sad news 
has been received by many members of the 
nursing profession not only with profound sorrow, 
but with a sense of personal loss ; the passing 
of a great man must 
always strike home 
whether we have any 
im.mediate concern with 
him or not, but our 
regret for Sir Victor 
Horsley is personal and 
intimate, and never 
since the ever -lamented 
death of Miss Isla 
Stewart, of honoured 
memory, has the nursing 
profession sustained so 
great a blow. 

His sure clarity of 
thought and vision led 
him to realize that 
nurses had not suffi- 
cient solidarity, just as 
the medical profession 
lacked it until it ob- 
tained legal status, and, 
with great generosit\', 
he made time in a life 
already crowded with 
professional engage- 
ments and work for 
social reform, to sup- 
port their claim for 
the organisation of 
their profession by the 
State. He gave 

evidence in its support 
before the Select Com- 
mittee of the House of 
Commons on Nurses' 
Registration, on behalf 
of the British Medical 
Association in 1905, 

and as one of the delegates of that Association 
on the Central Committee did splendid service 
in helping to draft its comprehensive Bill. He 
accepted the position of Vice-President of the 
Society for the State Registration of Trained, and was a well-known and welcome figure 
on the platform at its conferences and meetings. 
Moreover, when visiting busy provincial centres 
for other purposes, he took pains to arrange to 
address meetings on the subject of State Regis- 

A fearless and daring surgeon, he was no less 
fearless in his moral character, and in his outlook 

F.R.C.S., F.R.S.. LL.D. 

on humanity. If he belicived that a cause w^as 
righteous he was ready to champion it and to 
make personal sacrifices for his principles. His 
outspoken support of the Women's Suffrage 
cause and "f total abstinence probably cost him 
a seat in Parliament, yet those of his friends 
who most wished to see him there, knowing 
how men of such high calibre are needed, could 
only admire the generous and single-minded 
purpose which inspired him. 

On the formation of the Territorial Force he 
became a member of the medical staff of the 
Third London General Hospital. In May of 
last year was placed in charge of the surgical 
di\dsion of No. 21 
General Hospital, with 
the temporary rank of 
Major in the R.A.M.C, 
and embarked for 
Egypt that month. 
In March last, when he 
liecame aw-are of the 
bad conditions pre- 
vailing in Meso- 
potamia he volunteered 
lor service there, and 
his patriotic offer was 
accepted. Even in 
this time of unpre- 
cedented stress, amid 
climatic conditions 

which were soon to 
cost , him his life, his 
active interest in the 
cause of State Regis- 
tration of Nurses was 
maintained. His cable- 
gram to the annual 
meeting of the Society 
lor the State Regis- 
tration of Trained 
Nurses last month is 
evidence of tliis, and 
(inly a week before his 
death we received a 
letter from him full of 
comments and advice 
on matters relating to 
the interests of nurses. 
Death is taking heavy 
and bitter toll of the 
brave and the true. 
Outstanding amongst 
them, nurses will always cherish the memory of 
Sir Victor Horsley, noble-minded, sympathetic 
and generous, whose eloquent tongue, ready pen, 
and personal help were always at the service of 
righteous causes, and who has died as he 
lived — a patriot whom success never spoiled 
loved by many and honoured by all. 

It takes a soul 
To move a body ; it takes a high-souled man 
To move the masses, even to a cleaner stye. 
It takes the ideal to blow a hair's breadth oft 
The dust of the actual. 


^be Britlsb 3ournaI of "nurstng. 

July 29, igi6 


The quarterly meeting of 
the Matrons' Council was 
held, by the kind permission 
of the Board of Guardians 
and of the Matron, Miss EI ma 
Smith, at the City of West- 
minster Infirmary, Colindale 
Avenue, Hendon, on Thurs- 
day, July 20th, at 4 p.m. The 
President, Miss M. Heather- 
Bigg, was in the chair and 
there was a good attendance 
of members. 

Before the business of the 
afternoon began the Presi- 
dent moved from the chair 
the following, resolution, 
which was carried in silence, 
the members standing : — 

The Matrons' Council of Great Britain and 
Ireland has learned with profound sorrow of the 
death, on active service, in Mesopotamia, of 
Colonel Sir Victor Horsley, F.R.C.S., F.R.S. 

" The Council remembers with the deepest 
gratitude the invaluable help rendered by Sir 
Victor Horsley to the cause of State Registration 
of Trained Nurses, and his friendship and 
sympathy with the Nurses' Societies working for 
professional organisation. 

" The Coiincil offers to Lady Horsley and 
her family its deepest sympathy in their 
bereavement, and begs them to believe that it 
wi 1 always cherish the memory of Sir Victor 
Horsley, whose illustrious life has, in the service 
of King and Country, been crowned by an illus- 
trious death." 

The Minutes of the previous meeting were then 
read by the Hon. Secretary, Miss A. E. Hulme, and 

Many letters and a telegram of regret at inability 
to attend were reported from absent members. 

Applications for Membership. 

Applications for membersliip were then con- 
sidered, the following Matrons elected : — 

Miss E. A. Renaut, David Lewis Northern 
Hospital, Liverpool. 

Miss Lucy A. Parry, the Colony, Chalfont St. 
Peter, Bucks. 

Miss E. A. Oliver, Cottage Hospital, Potter's 

Miss Emily J. Haswell, Matron-in-Chief, French 
Flag Nursing Corps. 

Miss F. Ambler Jones, South Eastern Hospital, 
New Cross, S.E. 

Miss E, M. Ouston, Lady Superintendent, 
Babies' Hospital, Manchester. 

Resignations were recei\'ed with regret from 
Miss Haughton, Miss Cox-Davies, Miss Bickham, 
and Miss C. C. Haldane. 

Steps were then taken to fill the vacancy caused 
by Miss Cancellor's resignation as a delegate of 
the Council on the Central Committee for the 
State Registration of Nurses, due to the fact that 
the National Union of Trained Nurses, which has 
now become affiliated to the Committee, wished 
her, as their Chairman, to represent it. 

At the request of the President, Mrs. Bedford 
Fenwick then explained the present position in 
regard to the Nurses' Registration Bill drafted by 
the College of Nursing, Ltd., and said that though 
it was at fii'st very inadequate, consultations upon 
the Bill had produced satisfactory results, includ- 
ing agreement on direct representation for regis- 
tered Nurses, a general register for the thoroughly 
trained and supplementary registers for male and 
mental nurses, an appeal to the High Courts for 
those nurses aggrieved with the decisions of the 
Council, &c. The crux of the question was the 
constitution of the General Nursing Council, 
and upon that they were still conferring, 
representatives of the Central Committee were 
earnestly working for agreement, but of course 
could not sacrifice principles to attain this tnd. 

The President, from the chair, proposed a vote 
of thanks to Miss Elma Smith, and asked her to 
convey the thanks of the Council to the Guardians 
for permitting them to meet at the Infirmary ; and 
Miss Smith, in responding, said the Guardians 
were delighted that the Matrons' Council should 
honour them by meeting there. 

Miss Heather-Bigg also proposed a vote of 
thanks to Mrs. Fenwick, and said that the nursing 
profession were greatly indebted to her for the 
jealous care with which she guarded its interests. 

After a hearty vote of thanks to the Chair the 
meeting terminated and a delightful tea was 
served at a number of little tables on the lawns 
all dotted with sweet white clover in front of the 
Infirmary, the Matron and Sisters vying with one 
another in their kind attentions to the guests. 
We are compelled to own it was not a war tea, 
sandwiches, cakes, and splendid strawberries and 
cream being pressed upon the guests with lavish 
hospitality. The day was perfect, the air sweet 
with the scent of hay and flowers, and several 
hours of delightful rest and chat were enjoyed. 
Great interest was taken in the flights of the 
aeroplanes from the aerodrome close to the 
Infirmjiry, the flitting around of which kept us 
well in mind of war work even in this peaceful 
spot. The visit to Hendon is the first wliich has 
been paid by the Mati'ons' Council to one of our 
fine Poor Law Hospitals, and was such a success 
that it is hoped it may receive invitations to 
repeat the e.xperinient elsewhere. Poor Law 
Nursing has become so highly specialised a branch 
of social service, it is well that the fine results 
should be seen and appreciated by those engaged 
in other departments of nur.sing. 

Annie E. Hulme, 

Hon. Secretary. 

July 29, igi6 

Ztbe Kritteb 3ournal of "Rurgmfl. 



We all know how endless have been the dis- 
cussions on the question of the public wearing 
trained nurses' unifoim, whether by the Society 
woman at work or at play, the domestics of 
doctors and dentists, by tradesmen's employiSes 
for the advertisement of their goods, by ladies 
of easy \'irtue in the pursuit of gain, to say nothing 
of begging dogs. 

The Thirteenth Annual Convention of the 
California State Nurses' Association recently 
tackled the subject with spirit, and the discussion 
which followed on Miss Frances Xelson's paper 
on " A Plea for the Protection of Our Uniform " 
proves how this abuse rages in the States just as 
it docs in this country. 

Miss Xelson runs a Nurses' Outfitting Company 
at San Diego, and as a loyal professional woman 
she writes : — " When cafateria girls absolutely 
untrained, dental office girls, nursery maids in 
public places, as well as practical nurses (nurse 
attendants) come to me and request nurses' 
uniforms, aprons and caps, and specify they 
must look like nurses, I rebel. I frequently see 
these gills on the streets in full regalia, and some 
lack dignity in a marked degree, so it can readily 
be seen that this is moat degrading to all nurses 
in the eyes of the public. . . . Upon caieful 
investigation I find that in many cases, though 
not in all, the girls themselves are not particularly 
desirous of being so attired, but that it is the 
requirement of their employers, who wish the 
public to think they are getting the services 
of graduate nurses. . . . Only State Registra- 
tion seems adequate to cope with the situation. 
And by this means the problem will be solved 
for the whole State, and I hope for the entire 
nation, as I am sure the same conditions must 
exist elsewhere ; but what we need is action in- 
dividually and collectively." 

A brisk discussion ensued. 

Mrs. O'Neill said: "I don't see why the 
nurses' uniform is always picked on for fancy 
dance parties. ... At a dansant for the Red 
Cross which I attended, the ushers were Red 
Cross nurses. I asked, Are these Red Cross 
nurses ? The answer was ' No, they are Society 
girls dressed up as such.' They were beautiful, 
nice girls, but they did not act just exactly as 
one expects Red Cross nurses to act in public. 
I hope we will take some measure to prevent 
ushers at theatres, dansants, &c., from using the 
uniform, and that every county delegate goes 
back and puts it on record, say, that the county 
association has the authorisation of the State 
Association that they object very strongly to 
the uniform being used by anybody but a graduate 

Mrs. Van Eran said ; " I consider the Society 
women the worst offenders." She proposed in- 
structing the Women's Clubs, " w'ho do not appear 
to get our viewpoint. . . . But I wonder if we 

are ever going to get far until we have some 
official legislation protecting us, the same as 
sailors and soldiers. That seems the only way." 

Miss Wrigley considered this a good and valuable 
suggestion. " We had that problem in Pasadena. 
It was found that women in nurses' uniforms 
were in the drug store demonstrating corn plasters. 
The Society voung women used nurses' uniforms 
in selling Red Cross Christmas stamps. A protest 
was m.ade about it, and while it was not very 
kindly received, it has not happened again." 

Mrs. Erickson said ; " Other offenders were 
the college people ; they were putting out their 
trained dieticians in caps and gowns looking 
exactly like the nurses. Result, that I said 
to one of them, ' I did not know you were a 
trained nurse.' ' Oh, I am not ; tliis is our 
uniform,' was the reply." 

The President remarked that the trouble arose 
because there was such a variety of imitation 
uniform.s, and added " 1 wonder if we would be 
making progress to take action to standardise 
what is graduate nurses' uniform ? 

Mrs. Waterman said the mercantile people 
were the worst ofienders : prominent drug com- 
panies insisted on their saleswomen wearing 
nurses' costumes. 

Mrs. Webber said barbers and sanitary shops 
were offenders. 

Mrs. Rasmussen com.plained of untrained young 
women employed in a doctor's office wearing 
nurses' uniforms. 

Mrs. O'Neill pointed out that there was a law 
against the use of the Red Cross, and considered 
much might be done by objecting in individual 
cases to the use of nurses' uniform. " We do 
not make it public enough that we object to it — 
we sit down and say nothing." 

The I'rcsident proposed deciding on a standard 
uniform for " registered " nurses, presenting it 
to the State for adoption, and then to the National 
Association. " Have it protected by law," she 
said, " and take action against people who use 
it illegally." 

Miss Sorgcnfrey, who has evidently a keen 
appreciation of the idiosyncrasies of the daughters 
of Eve, remarked : " Some don't like long sleeves, 
and some object to high' collars. How are you 
going to make it universal ? 

The President thought by the choice of the 

Then' a whole floor full of bogies uprose and 
demanded consideration. 

Some nuises would wish to wear their school 
uniforms. Then register a cap. The cap be- 
longed to the school. White was the nurses' 
usual wear. You could not copyright a white 
gown. In many hotels nurses might not appear 
in public rooms in uniform. Was there a national 
cap ? No one had heard of one. 

Miss Sweeney wished that trained nurses 
should not wear uniform in the street — both for 
sanitary and ethical reasons. Let the training 
schools' adopt the rule It would then be known 
that those who did weai it were the untrained. 


^bc Brttlsb 3ournal of flursinfl. 

July 2g, igi6 

Miss ]M. Taylor evidently did not believe in 
sumptuary laws. " You cannot tell any woman 
she cannot wear any kind of cap or dress. I 
don't think the uniform makes the nuise. Respect 
your own cap and do not wear it indiscriminately," 
was her advice. 

The President said that it was the many 
objectionable things done by those assuming their 
uniform which caused reflection on nurses. The 
idea of a registered cap found som.e favour. We 
opine that it will have to be very beconins; to 
be universally adopted. 

If when our Nurses Bill becomes law it provides 
for the protection of a "registered nurses' " uniform, 
just imagine the all-night sittings necessary to de- 
bate such a vital issue before the question " be now 
put " ! Whatever else may be done behind closed 
doors, be sure the whole profession will expect to 
express an o;^inion on a matter so all-important as 
the Cut of a collar, the shape of an apron or the 
colour of a gown, to say nothing of the outdoor 


The Report of the King Edward Nurses, South 
Africa, from Apiil ist to December 31st, 1915, 
shows that good progress has been made with 
the consolidation of this Order, which was organized 
as a South African ^Memorial to commemorate the 
life and aims of King Edward VII. The nursing 
organization is intended to comprise two divisions, 
(n) European, [b) Coloured and Native, the funds 
and organization of the two being kept apart. 
The immediate object of the Order is to make 
good deficiencies now existing in South Africa. 
These apply to sick and injured peisons who 
can pay but cannot obtain the services of nurses, 
to those who can pay in part, and those who 
cannot pay at all ; and as experience has shown that 
the efficiency of nurses collected at a centre under 
experienced supervision is far higher than in the 
case of an equivalent number of single nurses 
assigned to districts, centres will be established 
as far as practicable. 

The report of Lady Buxton, Chairman of the 
Executive Com.mittee, states that !Miss J. E. 
Pritchard. the Lady Superintendent of the Order, 
has continued to do valuable work, and by her 
tact and business ability has assisted the advance- 
ment of the Order in spite of the grave difficulties 
occasioned by the inadequacy of the staff, and the 
inability', mainly due to the circumstances 
occasioned by the war to recruit additional 

Miss Brailsford's appointment as Senior Nuising 
Sister in Charge of the Ladysmith Centre has 
proved a very great success. Her personal 
character and professional ability have con- 
siderably enhanced the reputation of the Order 
in the neighbourhood served by the Ladysmith 

The members of the Order generally liave 
worked most satisfactorily and have cheerfully 
borne the many hardships and inconveniences 
inseparable from the exercise of the nursing 
profession in the country districts of South Africa. 

A supplementary report states that the question 
of the pay of the nurses has been under the con- 
sideration of the Executive. Enquiries have 
confirmed the view which had been advanced 
that the salary offered by the Order was in- 
adequate to attract fully-qualified nurses in South 
Africa, and it has been decided to increase the 
rates. The commencing salary of the r.urses 
is row /g6 per annum, rising to ;^I20, and of 
Senior Nursing Sisters (or Matrons) /120 per 
annum, rising to /144. 

Miss Piitchard, in her report, says that the 
shortage of trained nurses has seriously hampered 
the work and prevented expansion. She hopes 
that the higher rate of pay now sanctioned may 
bring more suitable applicants. She reviews the 
work in the various centres, mentioning that the 
native nurse sent to De Aar location has been at 
w-ork nearly a year, and this side of the work 
promises to be a great boon to the natives, and 
she looks forward to a large and increased sphere 
of usefulness as tim.e goes on. 



Birmingham Hospital Saturday Fund, Convales- 
cent Home, Droitwich. — ^hs. M. Pilkington 
Bvowa has been appointed Matjon. She was 
trained at the Borough Hospital, Birkenhead and 
Liverpool Maternity Hospital, Liverpool, and has 
been Assistant Nurse at the City Hospital, South 
Liveipool, and has done piivate narsing in Liver- 
pool and Wallasey, and has been Matron of the 
Auxiliary Military Hospital, Frodsham. She is a 
certified midwife. 

Infirmary and Dispensary, Warrington. — Miss 
Annie Strachan has been appointed Matron. 
She was ti'ained at St. Helen's Hospital, has 
held the positions of Staff Nurse and 
Sister, afid is at present Matron of the Wallasey 
Cottage Hospital, Cheshire. 

Bailbrook House Private Asylum, Bath. — Miss 
M. Hiney has been appointed Matron. She was 
trained at the Royal Asylum, Edinburgh, where 
she held the position of Night Superintendent. 


Nelson Hospital, Merton, S.W. — Miss Grace C. 
Petherick has been appointed Sister. She was 
trained at the Royal Infirmary, Chester, and has 
held the position of Night Sister at the General 
Infirmary, Stafford, Ward Sister at the Park 
Hospital for Children, Hither Green, Lewisham, 
and Night Sister at the Stanley Hospital, Liverpool. 

City Hospital Annexe, Higher Lane, Fazakerley, 
Liverpool. — Miss Louisa Poole has been appointed 
Sister. She was trained at the Southampton 
Isolation Hospital, the Allt-yr-yn Hospital, New- 

July ^9, 1916 

ZEbe »ritiBb 3ournal of flurglnfl. 


port, Mon., and the Camberwell Infirmary, London, 
and has been Sister at the Broseley Hospital, 
Salop, the Sanitary Hospital, Boiirnemoiith, and 
the City Hospital, Coventry. 

County Hospital, Bedford. — Miss Eleanor F. 
Mackenzie has been appointed 'Sister. She was 
trained at the C»eneral Hospital, Birkenliead, 
where she held the position ot Holiday Sister, 
and has been Staff Xurse at MountVernon Hospital 
and done private nursing in Northampton. 
She has also been Temporary Sister at the Throat 
Hospital in Golden Square and Xight Sister at 
the Military Hospital, Frods.ham, Cheshire. 



Miss Edith B. Long is appointed to Leicester as 
Assistant Superintendent. Miss Long received 
General Training at Woolwich Union Iniirmary, 
District training at Brighton, and holds the 
C.M.B. Certificate. 

Miss Annette M. Cook is appointed to Sheerness ; 
Miss Agnes McGregor is appointed to Middleton ; 
Miss Lilian M. Roberts is appointed to Olton. 


Xi:\v Appointments. 

Astoria Hospital, Paris. — Miss A. McLean 
(Matron), Mrs. A. Jackson (Sister). 

Exeter V.A. Hospital. — Miss L. Shoesmith 

Norfolk War Hospital. — Miss Eagle (Sister) . 

Townley's Military Hospital, Tamworth. — Miss 
Ricketts (Sister). 


At the conclusion of a recent meeting of the 
Board of the Aberdeen Royal Infirm.ary, the 
prizes awarded to members of the nursing staff 
for proficiency in their profes.sional examinations 
were presented by Mr. Alexander Duffus, the 
Chairman of the Board. Owing to the pressure 
of work, and the absence of a number of members 
of the nursing staff on m.ilitary duty, the presenta- 
tion of the prizes gained last year was then deferred. 
These were also included in the distribution now 

The following are the prize-winners : — Ophthal- 
mic nursing : Senior, Nurse Robinson ; junior. 
Nurse C. MT-ean. Ear and Throat Nursing : 
Senior, Nurse M'Vicar ; junior. Nurse Findlay. 
Gynecological Nursing : Senior, Nurse N. M'Lean ; 
junior. Nurse Gavin. Surgical Nursing : Senior, 
Nurse L Archibald ; junior, Nurse Goodall. 
Instruments : Senior, Nurse Wallace ; junior. 
Nurse Colvin. Bandaging : Senior, Nurse C. 
Gordon and Nurse Stanworth (equal) ; junior. 
Nurse MTntyre and Nurse J. Grant (equal). 
Anatomy and Physiology : Senior, Nurse Ramsay ; 
junior. Nurse M'KiHigan and Nurse Ham.m.ett 
(equal). Final Examinations : October, 1914, 
Nurse Dawson and Nurse J. Wilson (equal). 
April, 1915, Nurse B. Coltman. October, 1915, 
Nurse Niven, and April, 1916, Nurse C. M'Lean. 


Many nurses from all parts of the British 
Empire on their way to active service, as well 
as those on leave from military hospitals within 
and w-ithout the United Kingdom, have grateful 
and affectionate memories of the hospitality 
they have enjoyed at Queen Mary's Hostel for 
War Nurses, first established in Tavistock 
Place, and now moved to larger premises at 
40, Bedford Place, W.C. 

The Queen, who from the first identified her- 
self with the Hostel, visited it shortly after 
the opening, and expressed herself thoroughly 
pleased with its management. On Saturday 
last Her Majesty honoured the new Hostel by 
a visit, delighting the nurses by her kindness, 
and taking a keen mterest in the arrangements. 
It is satisfactory to know that the money 
originally subscribed was sufficient to run the 
Hostel for twelve months, and that, recognizing 
the value of the work, the Joint War Committee 
;)f the British Red Cross Society, and the Order 
of St. John of Jerusalem, have put the Com- 
mittee of the Hostel in a position to carry on for 
another twelve months, but the Committee state 
in the report just issued that gifts in kind, such 
as vegetables, fruit, flowers, &:c., are welcome. 

Conditions of admission are that nurses wish- 
ing to avail themselves of the hospitality in 
London, or that of Lord and Lady Desborough 
at Taplow Court, or elsewhere, must produce 
credentials from Miss Swift, Malron-in-Chief 
of the Joint War Committee, or from the 
Matron of the hospital or unit in which they are 
working, or from some other recognized 

Many letters have been received from nurses 
testifying to their happiness and gratitude while 
enjoying the hospitality of the Hostel, Taplow 
Court, and other country homes. 

Sixteen hundred nurses have been entertained 
at the Hostel, and a hundred and sixty at 
Taplow- Court, where Lord and Lady Des- 
borough have made them feel thoroughly at 
home in beautiful and congenial surroundings. 

Mrs. Kerr Lawson, and her .'\ssistant Super- 
intendent, Miss Pomfret, must look back with 
satisfaction, as we know they do with pleasure, 
over a year's very useful work. 

The instinct of home making is deeply rooted 
in most women, and one of the trials of a 
private nurse is that she must to so great an 
extent " live in her boxes." Even if she takes 
an unfurnished room, and furnishes it accord- 
ing to her fancy, there arc many drawbacks, 
and she usually comes in tired to find an empty 


ttbc »r(ti6b 3ournal of "Kurginfl. 

July 2g, 1916 

grate, and no means cither of preparing a 
simple meal or of taking- a hot bath. 

At the recent National Economy Exhibition 
at Prince's Skating Club, Knightsbridge, a 
practical demonstration of overcoming these 
difficulties was given in the room designed by 
Miss Winifred James, the furnishing of which, 
in comfort and good taste, cost ^^2 15s. prior 
to the war, and at the present time ;£^3 los. 
The comfort of this self-contained room, with 
the means for heating, cooking, and water 
supply for a hot bath, were made possible by 
the use of gas, and a room more elaborately 
furnished, but still within the means of many 
private and district nurses and midwives, can 
be arranged with the aid of the same medium, 
and fresh paper and paint and pretty chintzes 
will at small cost convert it into a desirable 
home. There is the gas fire, which, within 
a few minutes of lighting, affords cheerful 
warmth and comfort ; a gas cooker, which 
when not in use is concealed in an oaken 
cabinet in the form of a bureau, on the doors 
of which there is room for the cooking utensils ; 
in a corner of the room which is curtained ofl 
a bath is installed, with a gas water-heater, 
which provides hot water instantaneously, so 
that there are all the elements on which a 
daintily clean and cosy home in good taste can 
be built up. In the case of a private nurse the 
room should be in the house of someone who 
can be depended on to take telephone messages 
accurately, as calls in the nurse's absence must 
be answered and sent on, or she will lose her 
connexion, but with this provision made she can 
enjoy her cosy home in comfort, and, whatever 
time of the day or night she is summoned, she 
can always secure a hot meal before leaving for 
her case. 

The National Poor Law Officers' Association 
are greatly perturbed about the constitution of 
the Executive Committee (the Council) of the 
College of Nursing, and consider that, because 
there are more beds in Poor Law infirmaries 
than in voluntary hospitals, municipal authori- 
ties should have proportional representation. 
Mr. Percival, the active President, and Dr. 
Williams discussed the College of Nursing 
scheme at length at the annual meeting, and 
the latter proposed, and the former seconded, 
the following resolution : — "That a communi- 
cation be addressed to each Branch Agent re- 
questing that an early opportunity be taken to 
consider the position of Poor Law Nurses in 
regard to the College of Nursing, with a view 
to calling a special meeting of nurses within 
the area of the Branch to discuss the matter, 
and to secure their adherence to the Association 
in larger numbers, and to give the Association 

absolute authority to speak on their behalf and 
take the necessary steps to protect their 
interests. That to secure this end, the Branches 
be urged to form a nursing committee, with its 
own President and Secretary, reporting their 
recommendations to the Branch general meet- 

The resolution was adopted. 

The question of selecting representatives to 
be nominated on the Executive (the Council) of 
the College was then considered, and after con- 
siderable debate it was resolved that the Parlia- 
mentary Committee should approve of the 
nomination of representatives to act on the 
Executive Committee of the College under the 
guidance of the Parliamentary Committee. 

L'nder the auspices of the East Yorkshire 
branch of the National Poor-Law Officers' 
Association a meeting of nurses was held at the 
Board Room at the Anlaby Road Workhouse 
last Saturday. Mr. R. H. Winter (clerk to the 
Hull Board of Guardians) presided, and Mr. T. 
Percival, president of the National Association, 
gave an address on the College of Nursing. 

About fiftv nurses attended. 

Mr. Percival said the College of Nursing had 
drafted a Registration Bill, and it would shortly 
be submitted to Parliament. Lender its pro- 
visions no nurse would be qualified to register 
unless she was twenty-one years of age, of good 
character, and held a certificate of three years' 
training in a training school, or had undergone 
two years' training at the London Hospital, fol- 
lowed by outdoor nursing. Lord Knutsford, of 
the London Hospital, was in favour of the Bill, 
and would support it in Parliament. The 
College would recognise the certificates issued 
by the training schools in which the curriculum 
came up to the approved standard. Mr. Percival 
said he had been surprised to find that in some 
quarters Poor-law training of nurses was con- 
sidered inferior to the training received in 
general hospitals. That was an entirely 
erroneous impression. At the present time the 
Poor-law nursing certificates were the only 
nursing certificates that were State-recognised. 
The yearly output of nurses with three years' 
training from Poor-law training schools was 
1,400. If the Bill became law it would mean 
that no nurse could practise as a nurse unless 
her name appeared on the register, so that the 
Bill had far-reaching effects. Mr. Percival 
urged Poor-law nurses to join the National 
Poor-Law Officers' Association, in order to 
secure representation in the formation of the 
council of the College of Nursing, and to pro- 
tect their interests generally. 

The Chairman pointed out that under the 
Bill the registration of nurses was compulsory. 

July 29, 1 91 6 

ilbc 36riti0b 3ournnl of 1Hur«infi. 


W'e would advise trained nurses, Poor Law 
and otherwise, never to place themselves in so 
dang-erous a position as to give any body 
" absolute authority " to speak upon their 
behalf. Let them organize and speak upon their 
own behalf. This " absolutism " is the basis of 
professional complaint against the Nursing 
College constitution. The nursing profession 
has had a nominated Council to deal with its 
affairs thrust upon it by a limited company, 
and it has no intention of submitting to such 
jurisdiction. Hence the agitation upon the part 
of organized nurses that an agreed Bill shall 
be drafted, without delay, providing for direct 
representation of the nurses themselves on anv 
governing body which they may be called upon 
to obey. On such a body Poor Law Nurses 
should urge that non-professional representation 
should be provided for through the Local 
Government Boards in the United Kingdom, 
and that organizations of workhouse and other 
lay officials, such as the Poor Law Officers' 
Association, and the Association of Masters and 
Matrons of Poor Law Institutions, have no right 
whatever to seats on the Governing Body of the 
Nursing Profession, any more than thev have 
on the General Medical Council or the Mid- 
wives Board. L'nless the General Nursing 
Council is primarily a Council of directly elected 
nursing experts, it will never command the con- 
fidence and support of the profession as a whole. 
Any attempt upon the part of employers or their 
representatives to " nobble " control of the 
nursing profession will inevitablv result in a pro- 
longed struggle, with disastrous results. Such 
an economic struggle can and should be avoided. 

Fourteen Leeds nurses, who were successful 
in passing the final examination of the Leeds 
Township Infirmary Nurses' League, were pre- 
sented with badges at the Infirmary, Beckett 
Street, on July 21st, by the Lady Mayoress 
(Mrs. Charles Lupton). 

The Rev. W. H. Stansfield, chairman of the 
Leeds Board of Guardians, who presided, paid 
a tribute to the work of the nurses, and re- 
marked that, twenty-five years ago, there was 
not a trained nurse at the Infirmary in Beckett 
Street. The League had done good work for 
the nurses, and at the present time there were 
about 115 nurses on the staff. In his opinion, 
the nursing school at the Infirmary was one of 
the finest in the country. 

At the Quarterly Meeting, held at 73, Lower 
Leeson Street, Dublin, of the Council of King 
Edward's Coronation Fund for Nurses, Miss 
Kelly in the Chair, nurses received grants 
amounting to £2^ 3s. 6d. 



The lectuie given by Mr. Reginald Bray, 
Chairman of the London Juvenile Advisory 
Committee, at the London Day Training College, 
on July 19th, \yas listened to with great interest 
by those who were privileged to hear it. The 
lecturer spoke from the .standpoint of intimate 
knowledge, therefore with authority and sympathy. 
His main points were those of health and employ- 
ment. In his opinion the Factory Act, so far 
as it concerns the inspection of children over 
the age of 14, greatly needs amending. The 
bad points about it are (i) that the doctor is a 
private practitioner ; and {2) that lie is paid 
by the employei and not by a Public Body. The 
exanzination is perfunctory and far from thorough. 
He instanced one case in which a doctor had never 
bsen known to reject a child on the ground of ill- 
health. (3) There is no provision made for after- 
cire supervision. The health of the adolescent 
boy and girl is therefore sacrificed to ineffective 
legislation. On the other hand, mitigation of the 
evil is found in a new organisation which has in 
the past few years grown in strength and value 
to the adolescent boy and girl. Committees 
have been iormed for the express purpose of 
assisting boys and girls in seeking and choosing 
suitable employment after they leave school. 
This is called the Juvenile Employment Committee. 
The Central Commattee organises local ones, and 
they all work in connection with the Laboui 
Exchanges. The m.em.bcrship consists of repre- 
sentatives of the following bodies : — School Care 
Comm.ittee Teachers, Employers, Trade Unions 
and one doctor. 

In the following classification it will be seen 
how systematic and thorough the work is : — 

(i) When the child is about to leave school. 
The question of employment is then brought 
b3fore the parents ; the " school-leaving form " 
is given to the child, and the particulars of the 
child's career and the report of the school doctor 
are entered upon it. A meeting is held to which 
the parents are invited ; neither tlicj nor their 
children have, as a rule, any particular views, 
and are glad of the ad\'ice offered. The child's 
taste, ability and health are all considered. 

(2) The Committee then goes to work, aided by 
the Labour Exchange, to find suitable employ- 
ment ; the latter makes special canvass to obtain 
the required vacancy, always bearing in mind 
the suitability of the employment. 

(3) The Comm.ittee endeavours to keep in touch 
with the child after entering employment. 

This most valuable part of the work is under- 
taken by voluntary workers, of whom there arc 
between three and four thousand. If the child's 
fiealth suffers from the nature of the employment, 
he or she is advised to lea\-c, and fresh employ- 
ment found. The purpose of this excellent 
organisation is to study first-hand the problem 

She British 3ournal of ■Hursiug. 

July 2Cj, 1916 

of unemployment ; to collect every bit of available 
e\-idence in respect of occupations nnsuitahle for 
juveniles, too long hours, &c.. in order ultimately 
to bring the question of juvenile occiipation under 
State control. Air. Bray brought out some 
interesting points on the subject which the war 
has demonstrated. The demand for cliild labour 
under school age has been seriously great ; the 
demand for the work of children outside school 
hoiu-s has increased from 20-50 per cent. With 
the boys it has been paid employment, but the 
nature of the girls' work has been mostly increased 
domestic work, owing to the fact that the fathers 
are ser\-ing in the wsir, and the maintenance 
allowance not being sufficient, the mothers have 
been obliged to go out to work. The health of 
little girls under these conditions has suffered. 

In weighing the pros and cons of young boys 
employed ip munition factories, the lecturer 
appeared to take the view that they were pietty 
well balanced : the disadvantages of long hours — 
contrary to the proN-isions of the Factory Act, 
must be accepted as inevitable under the present 
abnormal conditions of war. Boys of 14 are being 
paid 22S.-25S. a week ; boys of 16 as much as £3 
a week. Thev are working during 12 hours, for 
seven days in the week. He was pleased, however, 
to find that the money is being put on them and in 
them ! They are well fed and clothed. In the 
early part of the war there had been a grave lack 
of super\'ision, but -since Welfare Workers have 
been appointed, the health of the juveniles has 
been well looked after. With regard to girls who 
are taking the place of boys, IMr. Bray is of opinion 
that whereas in some occupations — such as that 
of messenger — their health has improved, others 
are unsuitable and telling upon their health. In 
reviewing the whole question of the health and 
employment of juveniles, he said that not until 
we have solved the problem of poverty, will 
the question ever be put upon a satisfactory 

B. K. 


We have received from the publishers, ilessrs. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 24, Bedford Street, Strand, 
W.C, a copv of the second edition, revised and 
enlarged, of " A Quiz Book of Xursing for Teachers 
and Students," by Miss Amy Elizabeth Pope, 
formerly Instructor in the School of Nursing, 
Presbyterian Hospital, Xew York, and ^Miss 
Thirza A. Pope, formerly Super\-isor of Visiting 
Kurses of the Xew York A.I.C.P. ; with chapters 
on Visiting Nursing by iliss Margaret A. Bewley, 
R.N. ; on Hospital Planning, Construction and 
Equipment, by Mrs. Bertrand E. Taylor, A. A. I. A. ; 
and on Hospital Book-keeping and Statistics, by 
Mr. Frederic B. Morlok. 

The book, of which the price is 7s. 6d. net, is a 
most useful one, and the questions on nursing 
subjects contain about one thousand questions 

and answers on nursing subjects covering a wide 
range. There are also questions on hygiene, 
bacteriolog\-, anatomy and physiology-, dietetics 
and materia medica. 

In connection with Visiting Nursing, the 
wTiter remarks, " There are so many fields now 
open for nurses that it seems necessarv for the 
training schools to add to their curriculum that 
instruction which will tend to direct the minds and 
interests of the student nurses to that broader 
field of usefulness, a better understanding of 
themselves and the work for which thev are being 
fitted. Under proper supervision and instruction 
they may be taught to adapt their nursing know- 
ledge to the circumstances of the patients, and 
to make the best of the unfavourable surroundings 
and limited appliances found in the home. Neces- 
sity- will teach them to impro\-ise and economise. 
Thev v«ll learn to tliink of each patient as an 
indi\-idual as well as a case of iUness — for, under 
care at home, progress is often dependent on the 
financial and social condition of the family. 
Their experience will teach them adaptability- and 
resourcefulness, and develop and cultivate their 
abilities along humanitarian lines. 

" Thev should be expected to reason out things 
for themselves, and develop their judgment, 
instead of appealing to someone in authority- in 
all emergencies." 

We agree with the writer that, as an adjunct to 
hospitals and dispensaries,, visiting nursing is 
indispensable. " It relieves congestion in the 
hospital proper, and manv more cases can be 
treated in the wards. Patients can be discharged 
earlier, the subsequent minor dressings and 
medical care being carried out in the homes. 
Incidentally, much can be done to assure the 
conimunitv- from which a hospital draws its 
patients that those concerned with its manage- 
ment are interested in their patients' welfare, by 
following them a sutficient time after leaving the 
hospital to insure their actual restoration to 

The chapter on hospital planning, construction 
and equipment, of which nurses as a rule know 
little, is one which may- be studied with advantage. 
The WTiter states that " all experts agree that the 
ideal hospital site should be reasonably accessible, 
but as far isolated as possible from all deleterious 
conditions ; that is, noise, smoke, dust, &c. . . . 
In a large cit\- the land is necessarily hmited. In 
a smaller city- a hospital should be in the suburbs. 
. . . ^jrovided with walks, flower beds, seats and 
arbors for the convalescent, and airing lawns 
under shelters, and trees for those brought out 
in beds and on wheel stretchers for the vital open 
air day bv day. Roofs are valuable, balconies 
necessary, but jlother Earth, clothed and beautiful, 
has a certain inherent vitalizing influence not 
excelled." Hospital bookkeeping varies in 
different countries, but those who aspire to 
institutional posts wiU do well to study this 

We cordially commend the book. 

M. B. 

July 29, 11)1 6 

Zhc Brittsf) 3ournal of "Rureino. 


The wise journalist stands on the kerb if he 
wishes to absorb the atrr.csphcrc of a n-ovcn\cnt 
presented in a passing pageant, and to pass the 
time of day as it were with the crowd. Little of 
its essence is thus evaporated in space. Seen 
from a window the ■Women's War Precession, 
which enlivened London last Saturday afternoon, 
was beautiful and impressive, but seen from the 
kerb it was a living thing — it was just patriotism 
in excelsis, patriotism as we women feel it, 
laurels and mourrling for the Heroic Dead, accla- 
mation for the valiant living, the demand for the 
strong man at the helm. Thus a himdred banner s 
voiced the derr^and of the workers for " Hughes," 
the man of singleness of purpose and fearless 
policy — even the children flung wide their banners 
and cried, " Hughes come back for our sake." 
" The will of the people is Hughes on the War 
Council," which, being interpreted, rreans vigorous 
prosecution of the War, so that the blood of cur 
people be not wasted ; no pandering to Huns in 
high places ; scatter their gold ; down with them ; 
out with them ; no quarter for the coward, the 
parasite and the spy. From the kerb, i s they 
passed in their thoirsands, all these things were 
stamped on the pale faces of the women doing 
men's jobs, or they flung theni at you in speech 
in response to the wave of your hand. 

What a pity a few of the Coalition were not on 
the kerb ! Or arc they still too obtuse to appreciate 
the Soul of the mothers, the wives, and the lovers 
of men ? \Vhen the misgovernrr.ent of men makes 
it necessary for the sa\'ing of the Empire that our 
women shall go gagged into dangerous trades — to 
con-c out stained and withered — it is high time 
that " Hughes " and all he signifies to the 
people should be realised in high places. 



Those of our readers wlio read the poignantly 
pathetic tale of " Mary Dunne " will welcome 
another story from the same sympathetic pen, 
and we have confidence in' recommending 
" I'enton's Captiiin " to their notice. 

A charming tale it is of the period of the out- 
break of the war. Penton was a private soldier 
and Humphrey Maxwell was his captain. They 
both have a love story, and the romance of each 
is impartially told. 

Lizzie was taking home the washing on a 
" pram " and tilted it into a hedge, from which 
she was unable to extricate it. 

" Bother it," exclaim.ed Lizzie, her pretty pink 
and white cheeks flushed, her blue eyes — blue 
as forget-me-nots they were — filled with tears. 

A young, beardless in khaki helped her in 
her difficulty. This was Private Penton. It was 
not long before Lizzie had explained to him that 

* By M. H. Francis. Chapman & Hall, London. 

she was sixteen, that she was servant at Dic- 
consens, that she had been boarded out from the 
union. " Four shillin' a week was what they 
paid for my keep and my clothes were extra." 
As the young man remained silent, she tossed 
her head, her bright hair in the sun. 
She was beginning to resent Private Penton's 
disdainful attitude. That was the beginning of 
one romance. Captain Maxwell s was conducted 
as may be supposed, on different lines. 

Henri, the young wounded Belgian officer, died 
in a hospital in the town where Maxwell was 
qirartered. His sister arrived too late to see him 
alive. ]SIaxwell, who was with him, proirised to 
meet theyoimg girl and see that she was protected. 
" Through the gathering mists Rene's eyes 
seemed to search his, there was a long pause and 
then with a rriighty effort he tvuned towards 
the crucifix he was holding with his left hand, 
Hun\phrey laid his hand upon it." 

True to his promise he met Jeanne and placed 
her with a lady selected by the Belgian Com.- 
m.ittce, and after a constant succession of humilia- 
tions from her well-m.eaning virlgar hostess, 
Maxwell, who by this time is deeply in love with 
her, offers her marriage. 

" But I do not love you," she said, tremulously, 
" and, my God, how could I tliink of such things 
as love and marriage now ? I, whose whole 
heart is firll of mourning. " 

But she yields to Humphrey's entreaties and 
they are m.arried. Penton by this time has been 
promoted to be Humphrey's personal servant, 
and though he was much injured that his m.aster 
had not furthered his n^arriage, he is m.uch 
mollified by Lizzie being engaged as servant to 
Jeanne, Humphrey's wife. 

Penton is a very amusing character with his 
grandiloquent way of expressing himself. At 
first there was a passage of arms bet\\-een him 
and eld Xou-nou, the Belgian woman. " I 
cannot think, sir, it could be your wish I should 
do such a thing." But, as Jeanne said later, 
" Penton is doing it after all. I saw his face 
change when it was a question of Lizzie ha\'ing 
an extra piece of work. He even scrubs with 
dignity," said Jeanne, laughing. " Vour Penton 
gives miuch cachet to our house, Humphrey ; 
I don't know what we shoirld do without him." 
Penton and his master are ordered to the Front 
in due coirrse, and later are reported killed. By 
this time Jeanne devotedly lo\es Maxwell, although 
he left her believing her unwon, and the shock 
of the news of his death is very severe. Late 
in the afternoon Lizzie contrived to creep into 
her mistress's room, and Jeanne, opening her 
heavy eyes, gazed at her for some time in dim 

" Lizzie," she said, faintly. " What have you 
got on your head ? " 

" Please'm," said Lizzie, in a whisper, " it's 
a widow's cap. Oh, 1 thought I'd like to wear 
it, ma'aiTi.. I do feel as I am. Phil's widow, and 
I thought I'd creep up and ask ye — 1 thought 
ye'd understand." 

Jeanne sat up and sti"etched out her arms. 

Zbc BritiC'h 3ournnJ of IRursniG. 

Jiilv 29, igib 

" Lizzie, my poor little Lizzie ; indeed I do 

The loves of master and man and mistiess and 
maid are well worth reading, and wc will leava 
oui readers to discover the final issue. 

H. H. 


Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects Jar these cohtmns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 


To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — As a Matron of some slight 
standing, and an assiduous reader of your Journal, 
and one keenly interested in, not onl\ her im- 
mediate work, but in everything that pertains 
to the Nursing Profession, I feel that I may on 
occasion lay claim to your editorial ear. I have 
some little knowledge, and am anxious to acquire 
a vast deal more, of Army Nursing ; also I have 
a healthy regard for " red tape," and fear that 
were 1 to direct my enquiries through War Office 
channels, the reply would reach me many years 
after peace has been declared — hence this appeal 
to your columns. 

It appears that almost all hospitals are now 
under militarj' regime, and the carr^ang on of the 
work, I understand, differs considerably from 
the purely ci\-il methods. Tliis, in itself, is of 
enormous interest, but what I especially want 
information about concerns the strategical organi- 
zation of the Army Nursing Ser\-ice, its strength, 
how it is generaUed, and reinforced, how many 
nurses, not yet called up, are still available in 
England, the percentage of casualties in the 
nursing ranks, how they are cared for, &c., &c. 

Miss Becher, Matron-in-Chief at the War Office, 
is I assume the G.O.C. of the entire Service. I am 
confused with regard to the relationship of the 
other IMatrons-in-Chief : — British Expeditionary 
Force, Territorial, British Red Cross, Canadian, 
Australian, New Zealand, and South African. Do 
these ladies hold a Council of War, as it were, 
to discuss pros and cons, ways and means, &c., 
and if so why should not occasional reports of 
these be published for the benefit of those of 
us who are not of the " inner circle ? " Apart 
from the intense interest of the same, the benefit 
of the experience of these Matrons-in-Chief 
would be educational, and of inestimable value 
to the Profession as a whole, especially to one 
so keen and ignorant as myself. 

Trusting that I am not iisking any questions, 
the answers to which might prove of military value 
to " the enemy." 

I am, youis truly, 

" Willing to Learn." 

Our correspondent's thirst for knowledge on 
Army nursing organization can onlv be satisfied 
through the official source, but as a system of 
what may be termed unofficial martial law pertains 
throughout the ]NIilitary Nursing Services, perhaps 
advisedly, we fear she must await the after peace 
millennium, before such information as she seeks 
is available. — Ed.] 


To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — With reference to " Sister in 
War Hospital's " letter in your issue of July 22nd, 
kindly suffei me to ask why nurses in this country 
are so often pre-occupied in asserting their personal 
dignity and social position, which I feel sure not 
e\-en a medical woman would really challenge. 

Cannot their beautiful work and the lesponsi- 
bilities of their splendid profession fill them, with 
sufficient self-esteem and self-reliance of the right 
sort to make them — at least occasionally — forget 
what seems to be a veritable nightmare of the 
English nurse — her social position ? 

" Ich Dien " is, after all, royal enough ! 

In my country — Sweden — a hospital nurse is, as 
a matter of course, looked- upon as an educated 
woman (I avoid, purposely, the miserable word 
" lady "), and no one would ever dream of taking 
her for a domestic servant — glorified or not. And 
she is herself perfectly at rest on this point. 

Why is it not so in England ? Surely there must 
be a reason. 

I am.. Madam, 

Yours truly, 


■\Iillbank Hospital, 

July i^rd, igi6. 

[It is, of course, very salutary for us to see our- 
selves at this particular moment as " neutrals " 
see us — especially from the vantage ground of one 
of our principal militr.ry hospitals ! For our part, 
we prefer " I Serve " to " Ich Dien," and hope 
that when our Prince of Wales returns to civil life 
he will drop his Bohemian motto and adopt one in 
the vulgar tongue of his own country. We think 
our correspondent mistakes the aspirations of 
British nurses. We care nothing for social 
position, that is a matter of sale and barter. We 
are demanding defined educational standards and 
legal status, and, from what we know of the nursing 
profession in Sweden, we think it would be well 
advised to realise that without them " self- 
esteem " and " self-reliance " are dangerous 
qualities, in so far as the sick aie concerned. — Ed.] 


August ^th. — How would you prevent the spread 
of epidemics by flies, fleas, lice and bugs iu war 
time ? 

August 12th. — How would you organise the 
nursing in a military hospital of 100 beds and 
upwards ? 

July 2Q. luK. dbe British 3ournal or f\ur«ing soupplement. 103 

The Midwife. 


The Revised Rules of the Central Midwives 
Board, which came into force on July ist, should 
be read by all certified midwives who are bound 
by them, and consequently should be acquainted 
with them,. The term of six months' training is 
now in force, the only exceptions being if a 
woman produces a certificate of (a) three years' 
training as a nurse in a general hospital of not less 
than one hundred beds, or [b) three years' training 
as a nurse in a Poor Law Institution recognized 
by the Local Government Board as being a 
Training Schopl for Nurses, or (c) enrolment as a 
Queen's Xurse by the Queen Victoria's Jubilee 
Institute for Xurses. Candidates from, general 
hospitals of not less than icx) beds, whose course 
of training pro\-ides systematic instruction in 
certain of the subjects required for the certificate 
of the Board and produce a certificate of having 
undergone a course of nursing of not less than three 
months in (a) a Children's Ward, or (b) a GvTiJe- 
cological Ward, in which new born babies are 
received for treatment, arc also e.xem.pted from, a 
further month's training if this certificate is 
produced in conjunction with that of tluee years' 
general training. 

.Mso a candidate producing a certificate of 
instruction in nursing from, a public special 
hospital for women of not less than fifty beds is 
exem.pted from, two of the six months' training. 

Subjects for E.xamisation. 

The examination of the Central Midwives 
Board will now include questions on the hygiene 
of pregnancy, both in relation to (a) the m.othcr, 
(b) the unborn child, alro on the signs of 
pem.phigus and other skin eruptions, the venereal 
diseases (sj-philis and gonorrhoea) in relation to 
their signs, sym.ptom.s, and dangers in women and 
children and to the risks of contagion to others, 
and candidates are alsi expected to have a know- 
ledge of elementary physiologj'. 

The Practice of Midwives. 

A certain amount of ante-natal work is now- 
required of m.idwives. Wlien engaged to attend a 
labour a midwife must inter\-icw her patient at 
the earliest opportunity to inquire as to the course 
of the previous pregnancies, confinements and 
puerperia, as regards mother and child, and to 
advise as to personal and general arrangements for 
the confinement, and, with the consent of the 
patient, visit the house. 

Whenever illness or abnormality has occurred 
in the previous pregnancy, and whenever the 

previous pregnancy has ended in an abortion, 
a premature laboiu-, or a still birth, the rr.idwife, 
on being engaged to attend the patient in her next 
confinement, is instructed to explain that the 
case is one in which skilled medical advice is 
required and to urge the patient to seek advice 
from, her medical attendant, or at a hospital or 
other suitable institution. 

If after ceasing to attend a case the midwife 
is again called in to an illness of the mother or the 
child, connected with the confinement, certain 
duties in regard to explaining that medical help 
should be sent for, and as to notifying the Local 
Supervising Authority, arc placed upon her. 
Thus in cases where the eyes are affected and 
there is a purulent discliarge commencing witliin 
twenty -one days from, the date of birth, and medical 
help has not been obtained for this discharge, the 
m_idwife must notify the Local Sanitai y Authority. 

It is stated as desirable that when a m,id\vife 
ceases attendance on a patient she should ad\'ise 
her to avail herself of the help of Health Visitors, 
Maternity Centres, or Babv 

In addition to the leaflets drawn up bv Sir 
Francis Champneys on Ophthaln.ia Neonatorum, 
and Cancer of the Womb, two new ones are in- 
cluded, on Gonorrhcea and Syphilis. Many genera- 
tions of IT idwives have had no instructions as to 
the signs and si,Tr-ptom.s of these diseases, or 
their dut^- when they are present, and we welcome 
the action of the Central Midwives Board in 
requiring evidence of such knowledge from, candi- 
dates for its examination. 


At the annual m.eeting of Virol. Ltd., the chair- 
man said that it was a striking tribute not only 
to the power of the British Na\y, but also in an 
especial degree to the efficiency and courage of 
the Mercantile Maiine, tliat in the circumstances 
of the the business of the country, with all 
its vast requirements, had oeen carried on, and 
so large an export trade maintained. 

The im.provem.ent in their own accounts had 
extended to all branches of their business, including 
hospitals and sanatoria, and Public Health 
authorities in connection with the Infant Welfare 

With regard to the use of their preparation by 
the Public Health authorities in connection with 
the Infant Mortality crusade, there could be no 
question of the important part that proper feeding 
m.ust play in the reduction of the Infant death rate. 
The universally acknowledged value of \'irol, 
whether given to the child direct or through the 
agency of the m,other, who, herself, feeds her child, 
confirmed the belief tliat in this connection) |Virol 
stood in a unique position as a national asset. 

dbc British 3ournal of "fflurslnfl Supplement. /»/>■ 29, iqi6 


The Edinburgh Scheme for Maternity Service 
and Child Welfare, published at length in the 
British Medical Journal, as proposed by Dr. 
Maxwell Williamson, M.O.H. for the Cit>', is 
interesting and comprehensive. Under this schem.e 
it is proposed to link up existing agencies through 
the Department of the Medical Officer of Health. 

For some years there have been in the city 300 
lady voluntary health visitors, with one official 
visitor, who have visited the homes of newly-born 
infants, and continued their visitation for the first 
year. This work (with the consent of the visitors) 
would now be merged in the larger scheme ; but 
additions would require to be made to the staff. 
It is suggested that a woman doctor, acting under 
the M.O.H., should be appointed to supervise the 
whole work of the scheme, and to be responsible 
for the clerical work, including the keeping of 
records. She would also exercise supervision over 
the midwives practising in the city (a duty at 
present imposed under the Midwives (Scotland) 
Act on the M.O.H.). Two female clerks and 
three female district visitors (having special 
qualifications in nursing, midwifery, &c.) would 
be required, along with six district nurses. It is 
proposed to divide the area of the city where 
visitation is most necessary into three districts, 
for each of which there would be available for 
work 100 lady voluntary health visitors, one 
female district visitor, and two district nurses. 
Notifications of births, when received at the 
Public Health Department, would be considered 
in order to determine whether the cases were 
suitable for official visitation, as it is desired to 
safeguard the interests of the medical practitioner 
in his relationship to his patients. In suitable 
cases a female official visitor would, after making 
a preliminary inquiry, pass the case on to the 
voluntary health visitor, who would continue to 
exercise periodic supervision. In all cases requir- 
ing medical advice the visitor would give a card 
for presentation to the private medical attendant, 
or, if unable to procure such, to the recognised 
centre of that particular district. 

The whole scheme would work out as follows : — 

1. The duty of supervising the execution of all 
the details of the scheme would devolve upon the 
medical officer of health. 

2. The additional official staff necessary would 
include one woman doctor, two female clerks, two 
female official visitors, and six district nurses. 

3 Certain already existing institutions would 
be included in the scheme for the satisfactory 
working of it, and these would carry out work 
among women and children of a curative and 
preventive nature. 

The institutions under the heading of " Cura- 
tive " were the Royal Maternity Hospital, the 
Royal Hospital for Sick Children and several 
named dispensaries. In each of these outdoor 

clinics for the benefit of mothers and children would 
be held twice weekly under the direct supervision 
of the physicians of the institutions. 

(a) Maternitv Clinics. — These would be open to 
all expectant mothers, w-ho would attend at their 
own initiative or as a result of the advice given by 
the various visitors during the course of their daily 
visitation. The names of such expectant m.others 
would be registered at the various centres and such 
advice or treatment given to them as in the opinion 
of the physician was necessary. Their confine- 
ment, if the person was not insured or was imable 
to pay the fee of a medical attendant, would subse- 
quently be supervised under the direct care of the 
physician to the institution or some representative 
approved of by him. For these services a special 
grant would require to be made. After the birth 
the mother would continue her attendance, if need 
be, at the maternity clinics, and should hospital 
treatment be necessary either before, during, or 
subsequent to confinement it would be duly 
arranged for at these centres. 

(b) Child Clinics. — These, too, would be held at 
each of the centres enumerated twice weekly, and 
would be specially devoted to the care of infants 
and children between the time of birth and their 
attaining the age of five years. To these clinics 
the various official and voluntary visitors would 
send all children who appeared to require medical 
attention, if their parents- had not a medical 
attendant of their own. 

Other details include the free supply of medi- 
cines, the free supply of milk for the use of infants 
and food for nursing mothers on the recommenda- 
tion of any of the physicians in connection with 
the centres, subject to the approval of the medical 
officer of health. Grants would be paid to the 
clinics and to the physicians in charge. The 
official visitors would have the assistance of the 
three hundred voluntary lady visitors who have 
been identified with work amongst infants for 
some years. 

Two things strike us in this scheme (i) the sniall 
scope given to the naidwives who are about to be 
registered under the Midwives Act for Scotland, 
and (2) the large number of voluntary lady health 
visitors employed in proportion to the official ones. 

At the Central Criminal Court on July 19th, 
before Mr. Justice LawTence, Bertha Roth, 38, a 
Frenchwoman and a midwife, pleaded not guilty 
to the wilful murder of Lucie Picard, a still-room- 
maid at the Prince of Wales' Hotel, Kensington. 
It was alleged that prisoner, who was a certified 
midwife, caused deceaseds death by performing 
an operation. Prisoner was found guilty of 
manslaughter, and Mr. Whiteley, prosecuting, 
said he did not propose to proceed with five other 
indictments. Mr. Justice Law-rence said that 
prisoner was an exceedingly dangerous woman, 
and would go to penal servitude for three years. 
We are officially informed that if this woman is 
on the Midwives' Roll she did not register under the 
name of Roth. 






No. 1.479 




The present urf^ent need of trained nurses 
to care for the sick and wounded, who are 
daily returnintj to this coiuitry, constitutes 
an irresistible appeal to every member of 
the nursing profession who is free to offer 
her services. The men of the British Army 
have displayed incredible heroism, and 
cheerfully endured untold suffering in 
defence of the Empire, and the cause of 
freedom, and when, acutely ill, they return 
to this country, it is the duty as well as the 
privilege of trained nurses to give them the 
skilled care which it is the bounden duty of 
the nation to provide. 

We know that nurses have been sorely 
tried iluring this war, that the terms of 
employment have been made unnecessarily 
difficult for them, that thousands who 
patrioticallv volunteeretl their services on 
the declaration of war were rejected, while 
untramed persons after a few weeks "train- 
ing" or — if they had sufficient social influ- 
ence — with none at all, were permitted to 
go to the front, that the requirement that if 
accepted they must serve for the duration 
of the war deterred many, whose obligations 
did not permit them to bincl themselves for 
this indefinite period, from offering their ser- 
vices, and that a notice posted in Territorial 
Hospitals, implying that nurses (whose terms 
of agreement contained no such provision) 
who resigned their posts for any reason 
were in the position of deserters from tiie 
Army, created a very bad impression. 
Nevertheless the need of our wounded 
soldiers is paramount, and should at this 
moment supersede all other considerations. 

When war was declared, two vears ago, 
there was available to meet the needs of 
the Army Oueen Alexandra's Imperial Mili- 
tary Nursing Service, which, with a Matron- 

m-Chief at its head, had been re-organised 
and expanded since the South African War, 
and its Reserve of fully qualified nurses. 
This was supplemented by the Territorial 
Force Nursing Service, of nearly 3,000 
thoroughly trained certificated nurses, 
selected and supervised by a number of very 
experienced Principal Matrons. This Ser- 
vice, which was organized in order tliat it 
might be available in case of the invasion 
of this country, was at once mobilized ; and 
it is difficult to over-estimate the services it 
has rendered, or what would have been 
done had not this fine organization been 
ready to be called up. 

There was no organization of volunteer 
trained nurses. The British I^ed Cross 
Society was the channel through which such 
voluntary help was to be offered, and 
though so far back as 1898 the Matrons' 
Council of Great Britain and Ireland had 
sent a Resolution to the Red Cross Societv 
urging it to form a Corps of Trained Nurses 
for active service in foreign wars, and 
similar appeals had been made to it liy 
nurses' organizations on several occasions, 
they had fallen on deaf ears, and no avail- 
able Roll of Nurses was in existence on the 
outbreak of war. Even then much might 
have been done by systematic organization 
to remedy this defect. 

Recognizing the urgent need, the National 
Council of Trained Nurses of Great Britain 
and Ireland in December, ic)i.\, submitted 
a Statement drawn up bv its President to 
the Director-General of the Army Medical 
Service, at the War Office, concluding with 
the practical suggestion that a Committee, 
representative of the various Departments 
engaged in organizing the nursing of sick 
and wounded soldiers, and including also 
independent experts on Militarv Nursing, 
should be appointed — 

I. To enquire into the present condi- 
tions of the nursing in Military Auxiliary 


Zbc 16rlti«b 3oiirna[ of "Wurslna. 

August 5, 1916 

Hospitals in the United Kingdom, and to 
report fully thereon, in order that they may 
be efficieiitlv organized. 

2. To consitier and report on a compre- 
hensive scheme for the Preventive and 
Active Nursing of the Soldier, and for the 
co-ordination and extension of Military 
Nursing at home and abroad. 

This proposal, which if carried into effect 
would have done much to avert the present 
crisis, met not only lack of sympathy but 

Trained nurses must now do their best to 
avert the consequences of the situation 
which has inevitably arisen. The soldiers 
who need, their services fought until they 
fell, and if, in attending to their needs, 
nurses work until thev drop, it is an inade- 
quate return for the preservation to them of 
all that makes life A-orth living. The care 
of the sick soldier is the supreme need of 
the moment ; all other considerations, in- 
cluding the efficient organization of civilian 
nurses for militarv nursing in time of war, 
must wait. 


The Lancet, which states that attention has 
been called to the above subject by the lament- 
able death of Sir Victor Horsley in Mesopo- 
tamia, and by the disaster to a trainload of 
soldiers in India, says that the European in the 
tropics, especially if newly arrived there, is 
liable to suffer in two ways from the climatic 
conditions of the hot season. In the one case, 
heat-stroke, the temp>erature of the body rises, 
and there are signs of congestion and nervous 
irritation ; in the other, heat exhaustion, there 
are pallor, fainting, and collapse. Heat-stroke 
is the commoner form. Although sometimes 
caused by the direct rays of the sun, especially 
where the new-comer is unsuitably clad, it is 
much more frequently produced by the com- 
bination of high temperature and excessive 
moisture in a confined space. The risk is not 
great in the ordinary circumstances of life in 
the tropics, for most jjeople are careful to pro- 
tect themselves when out of doors, and to adopt 
special arrangements for cooling and keeping 
in motion the air of their dwellings, and this 
motion is a potent factor in removing heat from 
the body. The liability to heat-stroke is verv 
much greater in those who are in an exhausted 
state, wTiether due to overwork, fatigue, or 
illness, and such subjects are readily affected 

by a short exposure to unfavourable conditions. 
Even strong and healthv people succumb if sub- 
jected for a considerable time to air \yhich is 
both hot and stagnant, especiailv if it is also 
impure and moist. 





We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss Lucy C.Coof)er, Osborne Place, 
The Hoe, Plymouth. 


The watchword for the prevention of the 
spread of epidemics by flies, fleas, lice, and 
bugs in wartime must be cleanliness — cleanli- 
ness absolute and final. 

First, prevent the spread of flies by abolish- 
ing all likely breeding places, such as food, 
which is to be eaten, left lying exposed to the 
advent of the fly, not only feeding and helping 
to breed the fly, but the fly may have had con- 
tact with an infected patient, infected soils, 
excreta, water, soiled dressings, rotting manure 
or refuse, and deposited its poison from these 
sources on to the food. This proves the neces- 
sity of irnmediately destroying all mentioned 
sources of contact, and keeping the fly away 
from an infected patient. Flies must be 
destroyed by every possible means. AW foods 
must be kept well covered and out of reach of 
the' fly. .All waste food must be immediately 
burnt ; all crumbs should be swept up and 
destroyed. Where there are horses near, 
manure heaps must be immediately covered 
with lime until they can be buried. All sanit;iry 
trenches must be treated with lime, well buried, 
and a fresh spot chosen as frequently as 

In wards, tents, huts, or places where there 
are patients suffering from infectious diseases, 
every care must be taken to prevent any vermin, 
and especially the fly, from coming in contact 
with the patient, and, by passing on to others, 
or to food, helping to spread the disease. Fleas 
can be kept down by cleanliness of body, 
clothing, Ixjds, blankets, &'C. .A thorough 
removal daily of all bedding, brushing all 
crevices of mattresses, shaking rugs and 
blankets, and hanging all to air in the ojjen 
until thoroughly cool and sweet (fleas like warm 
undisturbed quarters), sponging bedsteads, 
spraying ceilings, walls, and floors of tents, 
huts, or rooms with a solution of carbolic acid, 

August 5, 1916 

Jibc Krittgb 3ournal of Burstnfl. 


Toxol, Formalin, Lysol, or its equivalent, 
diligently searching for and destroying all 
found, as fleas, like all other vermin, multiply 
very rapidly. 

Lice may be found in the head and on various 
parts of the body, and will make their breeding 
places in the seams of clothing, especially 
woollen articles. It is necessary, therefore, to 
comb the head twice daily, and wash it fre- 
quently, rinsing in weak vinegar water, which 
loosens the nits when they exist. All clothing 
should be boiled when possible, all woollens 
baked, or the seams well seared with a very hot 
flat iron, any scales afterwards being scraped- 
away and destroyed. The body should be 
thoroughly scrubbed daily with an antiseptic 
soap, the towel afterwards Ijcing immersed in 
an antiseptic lotion until it can be boiled. It 
must not be allowed to lie about or be dried for 
second use. 

Bugs must also have their hiding-places 
sought out — these are generallv where there is 
dust, such as round ledges and buttons of bed- 
steads, in creases and folds of mattresses, in 
corners of walls, round wainscotings and 
ceilings, in crevices of furniture, such as backs 
of wardrobes, chests, or washstands, seams of 
clothing, &'c. \\'hen found, they must be flicked 
into very hot water bv means of a stick, their 
nests afterwards destroyed by baking or iron- 
ing, afterwards thoroughly brushing. All 
furniture must be well sponged with liquid 
paraffin. Rooms must be also fumigated or 
sprayed with formaldehyde. 

-All men, when going on leave, whether for 
long or short periods, should have a hot bath, 
followed by sponging of the body with a dis- 
infectant, and get into entirely clean clothes, 
those discarded being in the meantime subjected 
to such treatment as their condition may 

Camps should be insf)ected daily by a very 
conscientious officer — men, clothing, beds, 
tents, feeding quarters, cookihg and mess 
rooms and sanitary quarters — for these pests, 
everything that is possible being done to pre- 
vent the spread of vermin, which endanger th(; 
lives of, and cause discomfort to all those with 
whom they come in contact. 


The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss M. M. G. Bielby, Miss K. 
Cunningham, Miss M. Prior, ^iiss P. James, 
Miss J. Robinson. 


How would you organize the nursing in a 
military hospital of 100 beds and upwards? 


(Covciuded Jrom page 87.) 

The pulse in yellow fever is the greatest 
characteristic of the disease. In the p>eriod of 
invasion and during the first and, perhaps, the 
second day of the fever, the pulse is fairly rapid, 
but even then does not correspond to the rate 
found in other diseases with an equal tempera- 
ture, seldom going over 100 to no, no matter 
how high the temperature goes. This lack of 
correlation is most noticeable when, after the 
second day, the temperature continues to rise, 
and the pulse becomes slower and slower, often 
dropping to as low as 40, or even 30, beats per 
minute. As the rate lessens, the pulse becomes 
weaker, softer, and more or less irregular. 
When all the other symptoms hav.e disappeared 
and the patient is well in every other way, it 
will be found that the pulse is still very slow, 
and it will remain below normal for an indefinite 

It is necessary that the patient be put to bed 
as soon as the first symptoms appear, and be 
not allowed to get up at all during the course of 
the illness. The nurse must be very strict on 
this point, because the heart ih yellow fever 
undergoes certain muscle ciianges, and, if over- 
exertion is allowed, acute dilatation mav follow. 
The patient should not be permitted to get up 
too early after recovery ; never until a week has 
elapsed from the termination of the secondary 

One of the most dreaded peculiarities of 
yellow fever is the early involvement of the 
kidneys. Albumin is always present either 
sooner or later during the course of the disease, 
varying in quantitv from a trace to 80 per cent, 
moist, and it may last from a day or two to 
several weeks. Suppression is not infrequent, 
and, as far as is possible, must be watched for 
aind guarded against. The cry of the system is 
for water, which is needed from the very begin- 
ning to dilute the toxins of the blood, and, 
above all, to flush out the kidneys, which are 
clogged up so early in the struggle. As long 
as the stomach is tolerant, vichy and water 
should be given freely. To induce the patient 
to take it more readily, the water may be 
flavoured with fruit juices. The urine must be 
carefully measured and recorded, and should 
the quantity fall below 20 ounces in twenty-four 
hours, diuretic enemas are to be given every 

* Contributed by Miss Ethel Darrington 
Harriss, R.N., to the American Journal of 


Cbc Britisb 3oiunal of IWursing. 

Atigusi 5, igi6 

few hours, according- to ihe tolerance ol the 

The nurse should know how lo test for 
albumin, as this knowledge will render her of 
more help to the doctor, especially in time of 
epidemic, when the physician is overwhelmcvl 
with work, worry, and respfonsibility. 

Jaundice is never absent in yellow fever. In 
mild cases it may be slight, but yet it is present. 
The yellowness increases during the second, 
third, and fourth day, and then disappears 
rather rapidlv, leaving, usually, no traces by the 
end of convalescence. The intensity of the 
jaiindice is not of itself a symptom of grave 
import, especially if it is not accompanied by a 
marked hsemorrhagic tendency ; but the early 
appearance, of this symptom — for instance, on 
the second day — indicates a fatal termination. 

Haemorrhages from any or all of the mucous 
membranes are likely to occur at any time after 
the second day, but haemorrhage from the gums 
and nosebleed are the forms most frequently 
seen. Black vomit is next in frequency, and, 
because of its seriousness, the nurse must try 
to prevent its occurrence by keeping the 
stomach as quiet as possible. 

Should the patient begin to vomit, all liquids 
by mouth must be stopped, and only cracked 
ice in small quantities be given. A mustard 
plaster over the stomach may give relief, as 
might also an ice bladder to the throat. Should 
the vomiting persist, every means to stop it 
should be tried, as frequent vomiting is almost 
sure to lead to hcemorrhage, which will be first 
shown by the presence of minute black and 
brown specks floating on the surface. These 
specks increase in size and number, and the 
fluid becomes darker and thicker until we have 
the characteristic black vomit. Should haemor- 
rhage occur, the nurse should conceal it from 
the patient as much as she can, as the know- 
ledge of it will cause him grave apprehension. 
The family will become alarmed, and the nurse 
will have to allay their fears by telling thom 
that, while serious, it is not necessarily a fatal 

Yellow fever is a disease in which the patient 
must not be fed. Failure to carry out this 
injunction results in very serious, if not fatal, 
consequences. When signs of prostration are 
noticed, stimulants, and especially champagne, 
are given, but no food of any kind is given by 
mouth during the febrile period, or as long as 
the nausea persists. During this time the 
patient's strength is kept up with stimulating, 
nutrient enemas. 

When the fever has subsided and all nausea 
disappears, the physician will order nourish- 
ment by. mouth, to be begun in very small 

quantities. This must be given slowly and 
cautiously, and the immediate consequences 
closely watched. Usually, the first thing given 
IS a lablespoonful of milk on crushed ice ; if this 
is comfortably retained, it is repeated after a 
short interval, and later chicken broth and 
barley water may be added to the dietary. 
Liquid nourishment is continued until con- 
valescence is well begun, when soft diet may be 
given. Even when convalescence is fully estab- 
lished, the diet should be carefully controlled, 
and if albumin is still present, the patient must 
be dieted as in nephritis. 

When it ends in recovery, the duration of the 
disease in the majority of cases is seven days. 
The return to health is rapid ; in the second 
week the patient clamours for food, and resents 
being forced to remain quiet. In severe cases, 
recovery may be delayed by prostration, 
anaemia, impaired digestion, neuritis, or even 
paralysis of the extremities. 

The fatal cases usuallv terminate on the sixth 
day. The jaundice deepens until the skin is the 
colour of saffron ; haemorrhages occur, mainly 
from the stomach and bowels ; there may be 
suppression, followed by convulsions ; the pulse 
may be as low- as- 30 beats per minute, and poor 
in character. On the approach of death the 
temperature may rise as high as 106 or 107. 
After death it may rise for hours, sometimes 
reaching 112 or 114 — a fact noted in but few- 
other diseases. 

In these virulent cases, when, in spite of the 
hard and earnest work of the doctor and the 
nurse, death claims the patient, the nurse must 
not lay down her arms, but after caring for the 
dead and comforting the living, she must con- 
tinue her fight by aiding the sanitary authorities 
in destroying the mosquitoes which may be left 
in the sick room, thus ridding the premises of 
the only agents by which the health .and safety 
of the living can be imperiled. 

The dread of yellow fever has for ever gone : 
we have the means of prevention and protec- 
tion ; therefore let yellow fever sleep the eternal 
sleep that knows no waking. And let us not 
think of the suffering and the sorrow that it 
caused for so manv centuries l>efore its death 
warrant was signed, but rather let us sav with 
Brome, the old English poet : — 
Our plague and our plaguers have both fled away. 

To nourish our griefs would be folly . 
So let's leave off our labouis and now let's go play. 

For this is our time to be iollv. 

We have to thank Mrs. .\rthur Stabb for /i is. 
and Mrs. Bridges for a donation of 5s. to the fund 
for Nurse X., making the total amount received 

£23 I2S. 

August 5, 1916 

Sbc I3riti5b 3oiirnal of ■Rurstng, 



The following members 01 the nursing profession 
liad the honoin' of being received by the King at 
Buckingham Palace on Saturday, July ^gth, 
when his Majesty conferred upon them the 
decoration of the Royal Red Cross : — 

First Class. — Miss Mary Bostock, Matron, 
Nursing Stafi of Ci\dl Hospitals. 

Second Class. — Mrs. Martin, Matron, Queen 
.Mcxandra's Imperial ISIilitary Xursing Service, 
Miss Bertha Hope, ^latron, Xursing Staff of 
Militarj- and War Hospitals, Miss Lucy McLean, 
Assistant Matron, Xursing Staff of Civil Hospitals, 
Miss Margaret McLean, Sister, Xursing Staff of 
Civil Hospitals, Miss Mary Buchanan, Sist;r, 
Xursing Staff of Civil Hospitals, Miss Stella Elliott, 
Sistei , Xm'sing Staff of 
Civil Hospitals, Miss Flora 
Mackinnon, Sister, Xurs- 
ing Staff of Civil Hospi- 
tals, Miss Sybil Edgar, 
Sister, Xursing Staff of 
Civil Hospitals, Miss 
Mary McKenna, Xursing 
Staff of Military and War 
Hospitals, Miss Elizabeth 
Chaplin, Xursing Staff 
of Military and War 
Hospitals, Miss Stella 
\'ulliemor, Xursing Staff 
of Civil Hospitals, Miss 
Mary Tirrell, Xiu-sing 
Staff of Civil Hospitals, 
Miss Catherine Doughty, 
X'ursing Staff of Civil 
Hospitals, Miss Beatrice 
Gates, Xursing Staff of 
Civil H spitE-ls, Miss 
Rosalind Ward, Xiu-sing 
Staff of Civil Hospitals, 
and Miss Margaret Grant, 
Xursing Staff of Civil 

Lemnos, and Salonika, having enlisted for service 
overseas on September 2gth, 1014. and is now on 
a well-earned leave of six weeks in London. Sha 
was born at Levis, Quebec. 

Nursing Sister Janet Andrews, who won the 
Royal Red Cross (second class), enlisted at 
Calgary, W'estcrn Canada, and cair.e over with 
reinforcements in May, 1915. Miss Andrews has 
served at Moore Barracks hospital, X'o. 2 Canadian 
General at Le Treport, and though transplanted 
to Canada, was born in County Gahvay, Ireland, 
where her next of kin reside. 

Nursing Sister Ethel Marie Holmes, of 
Lansdowne Avenue, Montreal, came over Septem- 
ber 29th, 1914, in the same contingent as Miss 
Charleson. Miss Hclmes, who was decorated at 
the same time as the two mentioned abo\'e with 
the Royal Red Cross (second class) has worked 
in English hospitals, in French base hospitals, 
particularly X'o. 2 Cana- 
dian General, and is at 
present attached to the 
Westcliffe Eye and Ear 
hospital at Folkestone. 

land Nurse.'i on 

The following details 
are published in the 
Canadian Gazette concern- 
ing the members of the 

Canadian Armj' X'ursing Service recently decorated 
by the King with the Royal Red Cross : — 

Miss Eleanor M. Charleson, of Ottawa, Matron, 
who received the R.R.C. (first class), held im.por- 
tant positions in several of the leading Canadian 
hospitals. She was Lady Superintendent of 
St. Luke's hospital, Ottawa (founded by Sir 
George Perley) ; also X'ight Superintendent of the 
Sick Children's hospital, Toronto ; Head X'urse 
Alleghany hospital, Pittsburg, U.S.A. ; Superin- 
tendent St. Margaret's Mem.orial hospital, Pitts- 
burg, and Supervisor of the private patients' 
building in the Toronto General hospital. Miss 
Charleson has also served in England, in France, on 


One of the New Z 
Marquette, of w 

werit to their rescue reported that they called 
out, " l-i^htins men first ' " 

It is with great pleasure 
that we publish the ac- 
companving portrait of 
Sister G. Metherell, R.X., 
of the New Zealand Army 
Xursing Service, one of 
the hei;oines of the 
Marquette. It is in- 
stinctive with nurses in 
the hour of peril to place 
the welfare of their 
patients first. To con- 
sider the possibility of 
personal safety before 
that of helpless people 
in her charge would be 
unthinkable to any true 
nurse. But it is to 
the everlasting honour 
of the Xew Zealand 
nurses, who were being 
conveyed to their posts 
by the Marquette, which 
was carrying troops when 
she was torpedoed, that 
they quickly realized that 
the life of every soldier was of supreme importance, 
and the Captain of a French vessel which en- 
deavoured to rescue some of these niu"ses records 
that they called out- as he approached them 
" Fighting men first." 

Of thirty-si.x nurses, some were, unhappily, 
killed by a falling boat, or subsequently drowned, 
and Major Wylie, X.Z.M.C, in his official account 
forwarded to Headquarters, stated : — " On the 
starboard side o;ie boat after being filled with 
nurses assumed a perpendicular position and 
emptied many of them into the water. Only one 
boat with nurses left the vessel, and that boat 
was in a waterlogged, submerged state. Most of 

Jibe »rtti6b 3ournal of "Rursina- 

August s, igi6 

the rescued nurses spent all then time in the water 
on rafts, or clinging to bits of wreckage. At no 
time did I see any signs of panic, or any signs 
of fear on the part of any one, and I cannot find 
words adequately to express my appreciation of 
the magniiicent way in wliich the nurses beliaved, 
not only in the vessel, but afterwards in the water. 
Their beha\dour had to be seen to be believed 
possible." The nurses state that the incident 
was " much exaggerated ' ' ! 

Sister Metherell had been at Queen Mary's 
Hostel for some days before "Mis. Kerr Lawson 
knew that she was one of the Marquette nurses. 
She was in the \\-ater for se\en hours, and relates 
that her predominant feeling was one of loneliness. 
When another survivor got hold of the wreckage 
to which she was clinging, this feeling passed. 

We have all read with bitter grief, shame and 
indignation the terrible indictment of the Govern- 
ment by Lord Wemyss in the House of Lords of 
the neglect and sufferings of our brave troops in 
Mesopotamia. How our wounded had been left 
for 24 hours exposed to pitiless rain, and how, 
when taken down the river in barges, they had 
been exposed to all the elements. For their 
shattered limbs their puggarees and sometimes 
their puttees were used as bandages ; how accom- 
modation for 500 wounded had to suffice for 4,500 ; 
of men covered with vermin in hospital, and no 
provision for their dire necessities ; few doctors 
and attendants and no nurses. Little wonder 
those of us who foresaw on the outbreak of war 
the sure necessity for military nursing reorganisa- 
tion, and offered help and ser\dce offensively 
refused or ignored, resent this result of lack of 
initiative, and hidebound persistence in narrow 
and inadequate grooves. 

The Englishivoman has this month an excellent 
summary' of this scandal and compares it with 
conditions upwards of sixty years ago, when the 
great Times correspondent wTote from Constanti- 
nople : — 

The greatest commiseration prevails for the unhappy 
inmates of Scutari. . . . Can it be said that the 
Battle of the Alma has been an event to take the 
world by surprise ? Has not the expedition of the 
Crimea been the talk of the last four months ? And 
yet, after the troops have been six months in the 
countr^% there is no preparation for the commonest 
surgical operation. . . . The manner in which the 
sick and wounded are treated is worthy only of the 
savages of Dahomey. 

On July 2ist, 1916, Mr. Bryce, referring in the 
House of Commons to communications he had 
received from Mesopotamia, said : — 

The accounts of the misfortunes which occurred were 
so appalling that if the facts were known there would 
be a cry of indignation tliroughout the country. 

Some \vill, no doubt, reflect that Florence 
Nightingale might well turn in her grave in 
despair that no woman should have arisen to 
cany on her work. The women are not lacking, 
the public ought to know it ; but there is no 

Sidnev Herbert in the Cabinet to give them a 

It seems that early in the year in \-iew of the 
news from Mesopotaniia, the Scottish Women's 
Hospital Committee in Edinburgh, made an offer 
to the War Office of a Women's Hospital fully 
equipped and staffed, with all expenses paid, for 
service with our troops in Mesopotania. Dr. 
Elsie Inglis was informed by War Office officials 
that it was hot its business to offer anything to 
the Indian Government, but merely to supply 
them with what they asked for. Telegrams sent 
to the Viceroy of India elicited a favourable reply, 
but after delay the Scottish Women learned 
that the Chief of the Imperial Staff in England 
replied to the Viceroy's acceptance of the proffered 
Hospital Unit as follows : — 

Can tend you all the hospitals you may require 
You should not accept others as long as we can supply. 

Thus did the War Office in April, 1916, in time 
of stress, refuse the valuable service wliich the 
Scottish Women's Hospitals might have rendered 
the country. In like manner did the military 
authorities ih 1S55 declare that all possible stores 
and equipment had been sent to Scutari ! 

Now we have a very urgent call to the trained 
nurses and women of the Empire to volunteer 
for service in military hospitals and we urge every 
woman worth her salt to respond to it, but we 
cannot help reflecting that now, two years after 
the declaration of war, no reaUy effective scheme 
of military nursing, co-ordinating all the help 
available throughout the Empire, has been 
considered, or new methods adopted. It is now 
nearly two years since we, as President of the 
National Council of Trained Nurses, petitioned 
the Army Medical Department of the War Office 
to set up an expert committee to consider the . 
efficient nursing of the sick soldier in war ; 
and a vear since we made public our suggestion 
for a Sanitarj' Nursing Service for the ArmV. 
We cannot learn that any steps have been taken 
to extend or co-ordinate the trained nursing care 
of our Army in the field from a professional 
standpoint. Here we are, close on two years 
after the event, depending upon voluntary and 
charitable effort in providing the trained nursing 
skill which every rnan in the Navy and the Army 
can claim as a right from the State whose servant 
he is. No wonder we women outside the official 
ring see Florence Nightingale turning in her 
grave. As for Parliamentary Commissions, they 
will not return us one dear man from the dead. 

In an appreciation of Sir \ictor Horslev in the 
British Medical Journal, Major R. McC?rrison, 
I.M.S., writes : — 

" How he came to volunteer for Mesopotaniia is 
characteristic of him. He had come through a 
period of intense family anxietj', when he met at 
dinner one evening in February a man who related 
stories of the horrors of the Tigris campaign 
and of the sufferings of. our sick and wounded 

August 5, 1916 

^be Britisb 3oiirmtl of "nurstng. 

tlierc. Tlie cause of the weak and sutfcriiig was 
ever the clarion call lor liin; wlio was — above all 
things — the knight of distress. So he vohmteered 
without consulting his friends or relafives, and 
announced his departure in a few days for Meso- 
potauiia as though he \\-eTe undertaldng a week- 
end trip to Cairo. His letters to me from the 
Tigris front have always been filled with high- 
souled enthusiasm, with plans for the nitigation 
of the sufferings of the sick and wounded, but with 
never a word of his own discomforts. Who 
amongst us will grudge to the tortured thousands 
of this expedition the comfort of his presence ? 
He was for them the cup of cold water in the 
sweltering hell of their suffering.' 


Mdllc. ICniilieuiiu Moreaii. the heroine of Loos, 
was, last week, presented by Lord Bertie, at 
the British Embassy, Paris, with the British War 
Medal, and the Cross of St. John of Jerusalem. 
The Ambassador recalled the aid Ki\'en by her to 
our woimded imdcr fire, when she removed then^ 
to her father's house and cared for them there, and 
thanked her in the name of the British Army. 

After the Ambassador had pinned on the British 
decorations, Mdlle. Moreau drew from her pocket 
the French Military Cross and pinned it beside 

When the Prime Minister announced in the 
House of Commons that the Governni.ent had 
decided to institute statutory incpiiries into the 
conduct of the cam.paign in Mesopotamia, Sir 
Xorval Helme, in the course of a debate on the 
m.otion for the adjournment, in which the need 
for those incpiiries was urged, desired assurances 
that information would be welcomed by the 
tribunals to be set up. He w^nt on to say : 
" My reason for asking the question is that, 
when Lady Horsley heard of the lamented death 
of her husband, who sacrificed his life in the public 
service, having left Egypt to go to Mesopotamia 
to overlook the medical interests of the expedition 
there, she, desiring to contribute, so far as she 
was able, to that incjuiry, entrusted me with 
letters and extracts from her husband's letters, 
bearing upon such matters as transport, medical 
supplies, the lack of water, and .so on, in respect 
to that important enterprise. ... If, in the 
debate, any facts in the correspondence of her 
late husband could be of use to or at the service 
of the House, she was an.xious that it should be, 
if the public interest was thcrcbj' aided." 


Hopital Penichcs (Numbers i and 2) are again 
staffed by F.F.N.C. Sisters, busily plying their 
merciful journeys fiom Belgium to Dimkirk, 
carrying wounded and dropping them at hospitals 
by the way. This is work the Sisters greatly like. 
Just now the section is fairly quiet compared with 
other s ; but, even thus, the noise of gimfire is at 
times tremendous, and as there are guns cjuite 
close, the shells go whistling overhead. Through 
the efforts of Miss Haswell, a gramophone has 
been given to Peniche i, but, alas ! the cry, as 
it ever is, is for more records. Sister Gill writes : 
" The men are always delighted with it, but more 
discs are needed. I fear we are all very greedy 
where our patients are concerned." Sister also 
needs a few sm.all air cushions, " for easing arms 
and legs ; we should be so very grateful to receive 
them." If sent to the Editor, The British 
Journal of Nursing, 431, Oxford Street, London, 
W., they will be sent on at once. 


Under the auspices of the Joint War Committee 
of the Red Cross Society and St. John of Jeru- 
salem in England, the following Kurses have been 
deputed to duty in Home Hospitals : — 

V.A.D. Hosp., Massandra, Weymouth. — Miss 
L. M. Dakin. 

Red Cross Hosp., Cillingham, Dorset. — Miss E. 
Curry, Miss R. Davis. 

Aux. Hosp., Uppingham. — Miss K. M. Croxon. 

Red Cross Hosp., Y.M.C.A., Swansea. — Miss 
A. J. Martin. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Pinner Place, Pinner. — Mrs. 
F. M. Boswell. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Balcoynbc, Sussex. — Mrs. E. M. 

Red Cross Hosp., Ditchling, Sussex. — -Miss J. M. 

Robert Lindsay Hosp. for Officers, 7, Charles 
Street, Mayfair.— Miss M. A. Brindley, Miss A. 

Clandon Park Hasp., Guildford. — Miss Eileen 

Barton Court V.A.D. Hosp., Himgcrford. — Miss 
Grace Smith. 

Red Cross Hosp., Great Hermitage, Higham, 
Rochester.— Miss M. B. M. Calders. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Rosherville, Gravesend. — Mrs. 
Edith Robinson. 

. Dobson War Relief Hosp., 11, Charlton Road, 
Blackheath, S.E. — Mrs. Lily Harris. 

Bighton Wood Red Cross Hospital, Alrcsford, 
Hants. — Miss Mary Pomeroy. 

The Uplands V.A.D. Hosp., Eastwood, Notts. — 
Miss Sarah J. Dukes. 

Overcliff V.A.D. Hosp., Westcliff-on-Sea. — Miss 
Nellie Horan. 

Dc Walden Court Hosp., Mead's Road, East- 
bourne. — Miss J. M. Nesbit. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Corsham, Wills. — Miss .Mice A. 

Acute Hosp., Convalescent Camp, Alnwick. — 
Miss A. W. M. Sorrell. '^^ 

V.A.D. Hasp., Wicklow Lodge, Melton Mow- 
bray. — Miss Janetta Morgan. 

the Hon. Mrs. Robert Lindsay's Hosp., 7, Charles 
Street, Mayfair. — Mrs. F. Silberry. 

Zhe British 3ournal of "nurstna. 

August 5, 1916 


One of the most gratifving features of the 
present war has been the splendid support given 
to the Mother Country by her Dominions beyond 
the Seas, and in the front rank has been the 
Empire of India whose chiefs and princes have 
la\-ished their wealth in the Imperial ser\-ice, and 
whose soldiers have fought in the same ser^^ce 
with the utmost gallantry. 

All this is well known, but, it is less well known 
how in India itself, apart from the large con- 
tributions in money, material, and troops, there 
is a genuine desire for the victory of British arms, 
which finds expression in quiet and valuable work 
in native territories for the sick and wounded. 

The illustrations which, by the kindness of the 
Editor of Tine Gevtiewoman, we are able to publish 

to personally superintending the work carried on 
by them. Recently Lord Willingdon, Governor 
of Bombay, who visited the hospital, thanked 
the ^Maharajah in the following terms : " I must 
thank you, the Maharani and your daughter, 
for all the work you have done in helping the 
Empire. The hospital for wounded soldiers 
speaks for itself, and like many another institution 
has been, and will continue to be of the greatest 
assistance to the Empire. All that you have 
done in the matter of the provision of men and 
matericJ for the War is too well known to require 
comment from me, but you must feel gieat 
satisfaction in the fact that these contributions 
are plax-ing a part in bringing our final \actory 

It is difficult to estimate what the Empire 
owes to its over seas Dominions. 


in this issue are, says our contemporarv, a fine 
example of what is being done in the State of 
Bhavnagar, in Western India. The ruler of that 
territory and his enlightened consort have tirrned 
their fine palace into a War Hospital, fully equipped 
for the treatment of Indian wounded soldiers. 
The group in the centre of the ward, of the 
Maharajah and Maharani and their children, is 
interesting as showing not only the munificence 
of the gift, but the active and personal interest 
taken by the liigh-born ladies of India in the care 
of the wounded soldiers. The Maharani is taking 
her baby son from his nurse, whom she is asking 
to attend the patients. 

Those who know anything of life in India will 
reahze the significance of tliis personal help. 

Her Highness, and the Maharajah's daughter, 
have also presented motor ambvilances for the use 
of the patients and devote some time on most days 


Captain W. Short, L.R.A.M., the King's 
trumpeter, must be delighted with the 
result of his efforts to entertain a party 
of .wounded soldiers at the Maudesley 
Military Hospital, Denmark Hill, recently. A 
vociferous encore was being given to his render- 
ing of the " Lost Chord." when a Sister from an 
adjoining ward announced that Rifleman Sullivan, 
a London Territorial, \vho had been dumb from 
shell shock for weeks, having been buried in the 
trenches, owing to the explosion of a shell, 
had jumped up in bed exclaiming, " By Jove, 
that's good ! " as the last notes of the solo died 
away. Though still very iU, he was able subse- 
quently to converse with the nurses and staff, 
much to their dehght. 

Captain Short was a member of Mr. Erroll 
Sherman's Concert Parly. 

August 5, 1916 

Jibe TBriUeb 3oiirnal of fluretno. 



The Kine: and Queen, on Saturday last, paid an 
informal \isit to the West Ham Hospital, where a 
number of men wounded in the recent fighting 
in France are now being cared for. The Iving, 
with the Sister, went down one side of the wEyd, 
speaking to the men, and the Queen, with the 
Matron, Miss Sordy, proceeded up the opposite side. 

The Queen has prox-ided out of a fund placed at 
her disposal a workshop at the Pa\ilion Military 
Hospital, Brighton, for the men now there who 
have lost their limbs in the war. The building, 
will be known as " Queen Mary's Workshop." 

Queen Alexandra, attended by the Hon. Char- 
lotte Knollys, visited the sick and wounded 
soldiers at the Military Hospital, Endell Street, 
last Saturday afternoon. 

Tlic Manor Asylum, Epsom, under the L.C.C., is 
being emptied of patients and prepared for use as 
a war hospital The patients are being removed 
to other Countj' of London asylums, and some 
200 suitable cases will be sent to the asylums of 
the Metropolitan Asylums Board. As in the case 
of the Horton asylum, the Army Council has 
undertaken to meet all charges in connection with 
the adaptation of the building for hospital purposes, 
the maintenance and repair of the premises, the 
re-instatement of the premises at the end of 
occupation and the additional equipment found 
to be necessary. The Army Council will also 
refund all expenses connected with the administra- 
tion of the hospital and with the transfer of the 

Sir William Collins, after a ^'isit to the Western 
front in October, 1914, on behalf of the British 
Red Cross Societv', and the Wounded .\llies ReUef 
Committee, urged that " a motor velucle fitted up 


At a Chapter-General of the Order of St. John, 
held at St. John's Gate last week. Lord Plymouth, 
the Sub-Prior, presented gold lifp-sa\ing medals of 
the Order to Major Harold Edgar Priestlev, C.M.G., 
R..\.M.C., and Captain Alan Cunlike Vidal, D.S.O. 
R..\.M.C.. in recognition of the gallantry displayed 
by them at the Wittenberg Camp. Captain James 
La Fayette Lauder, D.S.O.. K.A.M.C., was jne- 
ventcd by military duties abroad from attending 
to receive a similar medal. Lord Plymouth also 
presented a silver medal to Mrs. Selby for 
conspicuous bravery. 

Colonel Bruce Porter, Commanding Officer of 
No. 3 General Hospital, Lond<m T.F., with 
Major Parsons, Commanding Officer of Fulham 
Military Hospital, with a number of Orderlies, 
ha\e left for ^fesopotamia, Colonel Bruce Porter 
being appointed to the charge of an hospital of 
1,040 beds. We understand that Sisters of the 
Indian Military Nursing Ser\-ice will join the 
contingent on their arrival in India. 

with a field theatre or surgerv would be of immense 
service in securing the earliest practicable attention 
to wounds, thus reducing the number of those 
infected and ofiensive arri\-ing at the base." 

The Wounded .Mlies Relief Committee appointed 
Lady Markham, who was deeply interested in the 
scheme, Sir William Collins and Mr. Walford, 
whose skilled engineering knowledge was of 
immense ser\-ice, a Sub-Committee, to devise and 
contrive a motor Field Surgery and Operating 
Theatre. The result is seen in the Motor Field 
Operating Theatre which the Wounded Allies 
Relief Committee is presenting to Italy, and which 
is the first of a new t>pe of war service vehicle. 
The idea of this new vehicle is to provide a fully- 
equipped operating theatre or surgery, as nearly 
as practicable resembling that of a first-class 
hospital, at points immediately behind the firing- 
line, where both major and minor operations can 
be carried out. more particularly for cases in which 
transport for long distance might mean almost 


^bc British 3ournal of "MursinQ. 

August 5, 1916 

certain death. For this purpose the theatre must 
be mobile, easy to handle, and absolutely complete 
in itself. Operations are, of coirrse, performed 
only %\ hile the \ehicle is stationary. The theatre 
proper is 9 ft. 6 in. long, 6 ft. 6 in. wide, and 
6 ft. 8 in. high at the lowest point of the roof. 
Practicallj- the v\hole of this space is clear for the 
surgeon and his assistants, as all the accessories 
are to be found in an annex or cabin at the front 
of the car, the only fixed furniture being a slop- 
sink which is in one corner and projects 16 in. 
from the wall. The mo\'able furniture in the 
theatre consists of three white-enamelled m^etal 
tables on wheels to carry surgeon's instruments, 
dressings, and the anaesthetist's equipment, two 
stools and an operation table of the latest folding 
t^'pe. Another form of operation table is pro- 
\ided for emergency cases, namely, four upright 
stanchions which screw into the floor to serve as 
supports to receive the handles of a stretcher. 
This ob\'iates the necessity,- of rem.oving the patient 
from the original stretcher on which he is first 
placed, and it is well sviited for dealing with cases 
of ha,'morThage or wounds requiring immediate 


An interesting description is given in a recent 
issue of The Scotsman of the application of curative 
electricity' in the Edinburgh War Hospital at 
Bangoiir, "where incredible, romantic contrivances 
are at work and romantic things are being done. 
Currents of enormous voltage, many tim»es the 
voltage required for instantaneous electrocution, 
are in use, handled by the nurses and trained women 
assistants with a quiet confidence that niakes the 
casual visitor feel a little creepy. Xow and then, 
the superintendent, who has collected the machinery 
from across the sea, as he explains what the 
various contrivances can do, and moves the wheels 
and levers about, pulls his hand away with a 
suddenness that suggests a bite by a venomous 
snake. The installation at Bangour is interesting 
in itself and in respect of what it signifies. Wires 
conv'evdng liigh frequency currents of great voltage 
— electricity tamed for human consumption — 
are applied to stiffened limbs or nerves that are in 
process of being restored to their customary func- 
tions. The methods of application are various. 
With trench feet, for instance, it is a matter of 
stimulating the flow of blood and inducing internal 
warmth. ' \\'ith heat,' observes the superinten- 
dent, by way of a broad generalisation, ' you 
can cure almost anything.' The process is a 
kindly one. The application of the current to the 
patient is painless ; it is even de\-oid of discomfort 
and may almost be said to be pleasant. The 
pec\iliarit\' of these high frequency currents, as 
the superintendent explains, is that while twentj' 
milliamperes of galvanic current of forty to fift\^ 
volts pressure will cause pain, 100 times the 
quantity, at 15,000 volts, is painless. The amount 
of this curative electrical energy which can, 
therefore, be applied to a patient is much greater 
than by the old methods, efiects are produced in 

shorter time, and recovery is correspondingly 

"The Oudin octave of high frequency, again, 
is the special application for nervous conditions. 
It has a strong soporific influence. An item in the 
installation at Bangour is a couch, on which the 
most sleepless patient m.ust succumb to the gentle 
influence. F.ven where the immediate object is 
not to put the patient to sleep, sleep frequently 
overtakes him. The first application, of about 
twenty m.inxites' duration, usually induces a pro- 
found and health-giving period of sleep of ten 
hours or longer. A chronic case generallv suc- 
cumbs to a second application, or at most to a 
third. The current is not anaesthetic, for the 
efiects produced persist, and ultimately a healthy 
regularity' of repose is secured. There is a natural 
closing of the eyes to sleep as in normal and 
healthy persons. Xervous cases, arising from 
shell shock, have manv' curious features. Loss 
of speech is common. The system adopted by 
a specialist in this class of case is to persevere in 
talldng to the patient until the stronger will 
prevails and the man answers, the nervous 
impediment being thus broken down. 

" Finally, there is a machine wliich measures the 
condition of the nerves with mathem.atical 
accuracy. It gives reliable data showing the 
degree of success of an operation to unite a 
severed nerve : and afterwards it will measme, 
from time to time, the progress made towards 
recovery. While we examine the sinusoidal, 
and remark the regular opening and closing of 
the paralysed hand of the soldier in the instru- 
ment's grip, a small clock on a shelf in front of 
the patient " rings off " ; a flexible steel band is 
released and springs back : and the soldier's 
period of treatment has come to an end. The 
clock has switched off the current, and. by n.eans 
of the bell, has called the attention of the stali 
to the fact. A glance round the hall shows one 
of these clocks beside each instrunient — -auton atic 
attendants, set to a given time, and infallibly 
terminating the treatment at the pre-arranged 
moment. The nurses, moving abotat amongst 
the patients, are thus relieved of ■ an exacting 
duts', and can look after a much larger rtrmber 
of cases than would be possible without the 


The Secretary of the War Office makes the 
announcement that additional niurses are required. 
Xrises possessing a three years' certificate from 
a recognised fever, wom^en's or children's hospital, 
also nurses with not less than two years' general 
fxaining are required as assistant nurses in 
Military Hospitals. Salary ^30 per annum with 

Application should be m.ade in w-riting to the 
Matron-in-Clfief, Q.A.I.M.X.S., War Office. 

Nurses with the same qualifications are also 
required for service in a nuni.ber of Territorial 
Hospitals. Application should be m.ade to the 
Principal Matrons. 

All gust 5, igi6 

^be Krltteb 3ournal of •fluremfl. 



A meeting ot the Executive Committee of the 
Society for the State Registration of Trained 
Nurses was held at 431, Oxford Street, London, W., 
on Thursday, July 27th, at 4 p.m. The President, 
Mrs. Bedford Fenwick, was in the chair. 

Before tlie business of the afternoon began the 
following Resolution was moved by the President 
from the chair, and passed in silence, the m-embers 
standing : — 


" The Executive Committee of the Society for 
the State Registration of Trained Nurses desires 
to record its profound sorrow at the irreparable 
loss the Society' has sustained by the death on 
active service in ^lesopotan ia of its distinguished 
Vice-President, Colonel SirVictor Horsley, F.R.C.S., 
F.R.S.. LL.D. 

" Notwithstanding the many claim.s upon him as 
one of the most brilliant niembers of the medical 
profession, he accepted office on the Central Com- 
mittee for the State Registration of Nurses, 
giving most valuable adv'icc in the drafting of its 
Nurses' Registration Bill. He supported the 
movement on public platforms, as well as with his 
pen and by personal service. 

' ' The Comn\ittee offers its deepest sym.pathy to 
Lady Horsley and her family in their bereavc- 
m.ent, and begs to assure tlicm that this Society of 
Nurses wliich Sir Victor Horsley honoured with 
liis friendship will always cherish and revere his 
memory as that of a generous and single-m.inded 

Mrs. Fenwick, in moving the resolution, said 
that the loss to the Society was irreparable. Sir 
Victor Horsley really understood the question 
of State Registration of Trained Niu"ses, and the 
movement had had his invaluable and sym-pathetic 

The n inutes of the last meeting were read and 

Action was taken on a letter from Miss Florence 
Underwood, Secretary of the Women's Freedom 
League, inviting support to a resolution for the 
enfranchisement of women, to be placed on 
the agenda of the forthcoming meeting of the 
National Coxmcil of Women of Great Britain and 
Ireland. The resolution was unanimously sup- 

The Resident then made a Report on State 
Registration (a) re Nurses Registration Bill, and 
(b) re action of the Public Health Comm-ittce of 
the National Union of Women Workers, on which 
she represented the Society. 

In relation to the Nurses Registration Bill, 
Mrs. Fenwick explained what had been done since 
the annual meeting of the Soci'ety on June 8th, 
when she presented a report up to date. 

The Central Committee had secured in the 
Registration Bill drafted by the College of 
Nursing, Ltd., provision for the formation of 
Supplementary Registers of Male Nurses and 

Mental Nurses in addition to the General Register 
of Women Nurses, the nurses on the Supplemen- 
tary Registers in each case electing their own 
representative on the General Nursing Council, 
they had also secured the right of appeal to the 
High Courts for nurses removed from the Register 
if aggrieved by the action of the Council. ft 

The Bill was far from perfect, but if the College 
of Nursing acceded to the amendments asked for 
by the Central Committee for the Registration of 
Nurses at its meeting on July I3lh, wluch Mrs. 
Fenwick detailed, it would, she said, incorporate 
many of the underlying principles wMch State 
Registrationists had been urging for so many 

It was imperative that the composition of the 
General Nursing Council should be defined in the 
Bill, as the nurses were entitled to know what 
authorities were to be given power to nominate 
representatives on their Governing Body, as 
provided in the Medical and Midwives Acts. 

The Nurse delegates on the Central Committee 
felt most strongly on tliis point, as they realised 
its vital importance, and if this and other safe- 
guards of the nurses' interests were not agreed to 
by the College, it was not improbable that, in 
quite a friendly spirit, the Centi'al Council would 
be compelled to adopt an independent line. There 
was a growing feeling amongst registrationists 
that under the College Constitution the rank and. 
file of the profession would be entirely submerged. 
The huge Consultative Boar4 of hundreds of lay 
persons, evidently to be largely composed of those 
employing nurses in hospitals and infirm.aries, 
was causing very real apprehension amongst 
certificated nurses, who realised in it a dangerous 
menace all over the country, to their professional 
aiTd persona! liberty. 

The Public Health Sectional Com.mittee 

The President reminded the ni.eeting that she 
represented the Society on both the Legislation 
and Public Health Sectional Comn ittees of the 
National Union of Women Workers. Hitherto, as 
was in order. Nursing Legislation had always been 
considered as it should be, by the former body. 
In .\pril, however. Miss Joseph, the Hon. Secretary 
of the latter com.m.ittee, had brought her scheme 
for the State Registration of Nurses before the 
Public Health Committee. The scheme urged the 
registration of Cottage, Village, and Tuberculosis 
Nurses, and other partially trained women — thus 
cutting at the root of an efficient professional 
standard of nursing, by means of the one portal 
examination — as provided under the Midwives 
Acts for certified Midwives. The Chairman of the 
Public Health Committee, Dr. Jane Walker, had 
been nominated on to the Council of the College 
of Nursing, Ltd. ; and at an Emergency Meeting 
of the Public Health Committee a deputation 
was non.inatcd which liid not include one repre- 
sentative of the trained nurses' organizations, 
to wait on Mi". Stanley, to urge the regisbation of 
Cottage Nurses and others, and to ask for^jrepre- 


Zbc »ritleb journal of "Wurstno. 

August 5, 1916 

sentation on'^the Governing Bodv of the Xursing 
Profession. As tlieir delegate, the President 
considered it her duty to enter a protest, at a 
recent meeting of the PnWic Health Committee, 
against the assumption that the deputation to 
Mr. Stanley represented the professional opinion 
on it. She pointed out the danger already 
apparent of the control of the nursing profession 
being entrusted to persons who knew little of its 
needs — either from an educational or economic 
point of view. After some discussion, in which 
the action of the President was unanimovislv 
approved, it was decided that a letter be sent to 
IVIr. Stanley, informing him of the unrepre- 
sentative nature of the deputation received by 
him, and asking whether it was true — as hoped by 
Dr. Jane Walker — that all classes of nurses would 
ultimately be included in the Trained Nurses' 
Register ccftnpiled by the College of Nursing. 

It was pointed out that in the slip issued by 
the College, urging Nurses to place their names on 
its register, one of the objects for which it 
was founded was (6) to establish a uniform 
curriculum of training and one portal examination 
■ — so that by the inclusion of Cottage Nurses and 
others who were not " trained nurses," a distinct 
breach of faith would result if Miss Joseph's 
scheme was ultimately agreed to, as urged by the 
member of the College Council who introduced 
the deputation. 

Applications for ]\Iembership. 

Applications for membership were then con- 
sidered, and the following applicants elected : — 

4101 Miss M. Hawkins, cert. Hampstead General 


4102 Miss K. Bulley, cert. General Inf., Leeds. 

4103 Miss M. Newill, cert. King's College Ho§p. 

{Matron, Prince Alfred Hosp., Svdnev). 

4104 Miss E. Barton, cert. Hampstead General 

Hosp. (Matron, Prince of Wales Mihtary 
Hosp., Staines). 

4105 Miss M. M. Lecky, cert. Union Inf., Belfast. 

4106 Miss A. E. Know, cert. Farnham New Inf. 

4107 Miss D. G. A. Tuck, cert. Cent. London Sick 

Asylum, Hendon. 

4108 Miss E. Hartly, cert. Royal Inf., Sheffield. 

4109 Miss A. E. Baker, cert. Prince of Wales Gen. 

Hosp., Tottenham. 

41 10 Miss D. Goddard, cert. West London Hosp., 

Hammei smith. 

41 1 1 Miss J. Harbott, cert. Cent. London Sick 

Asylum,- W. 

4112 Miss E. Poole, cert. St. Mary Islington Inf. 

4113 Miss A. Ireland, cert. Warneford Hosp., 

Leamington Spa. 

4114 Miss A. Smith, cert. Camber well Inf. 

41 15 Miss R. D. Graff, cert. St. Bart.'s Hosp. 

4116 Miss J. Haighton, 

4117 Miss M. E. Houseden ,, 

4118 Miss L. J. Sykes, 

4119 Miss L. Colman Platten 

4120 Miss R. des Forges, cert. Seaman's Hosp., 

Greenwich, and Soho Hosp. for Women 
(Matron, Nelson Hosp., Morton). 

412 1 Tkliss L. M. Bailey, cert. Hacknev Inf. 

4122 Miss F. E. E. Harris, cett. St. Bart.'s Hosp., 


4123 Miss M. H. Peck, cert. Guy's Hosp., 

4124 Miss M. A. MacLeod, cert. Barnhill Hosp. 


4125 Miss M. Clark, cert. South Charitable Inf. 

and Co. Hosp., Cork. 

4126 Miss E. M. Wykes, cert. North Ormesby 

Hosp., Middlesbro. 

4127 Mrs. H. E. Clark, cert. Citv of London Inf., 


4 1 28 Miss K. Stevenson, cert. Merry flatts Hosp., 


4129 IMiss D. MacLelland, cert. Hosp. of St. Cross, 


4130 Miss F. J. Whoods, cert. Inf. New Cross, 

Wolverhampton (Matron, Tuberculosis 
Hosp., Hounslow). 

4131 Miss M. Farrar, cert. County Hosp. York. 

4132 Miss L. A. Heath, cert. Cent. London Sick 

Asylum, Hendon. 

4133 MissM. MacRae, cert. Royal Inf., Sunderland 

4134 Miss J. M. E. Smith, cert. St. Vincent's Hosp., 


4135 Miss M. K. Cowley, cert. Royal Inf., Sheffield. 

4136 Miss E. M. Bradley, cert. David Lewis 

Northern Hosp., Liverpool. 

4137 Miss E. V. Smith, cert. Guy's Hosp. 

4138 Miss M. M. Kem.p., cert. Kingston Inf., 


4139 Miss E. E. Dyer, 

4140 Miss E. B. Fairley, ,, ,, 

4141 Miss E. Nisbet, cert. Mill Rd. Inf., Liverpool. 
Mrs. Fenwick then read a letter she had recently 

received from Sir Mctor Horsley from Amarah, 
Mesopotamia, dated June 5th, demonstrating 
how much thought and work he gave to the end 
of liis life to the cause of Nurses' Registration., 
The last words of his letter were : " I am only 
daily regretting that I cannot be working for the 
great cause at home." 

E\-eryone present felt what a whole-hearted 
and invaluable friend of the cause had been 
removed by the lamentable death of Sir Victor 

The meeting then terminated. 

M.\R(.ARET Breay, Hoh. Secretary. 


At the Annual Representative Meeting of the 
British Medical Association, held in London on 
July 28th, Mr. E. J. Domville, M.R.C.S., who 
was in the chair at the meeting of the Central 
Committee for the State Registration of Nurses 
on July 13th, presented a report, and expressed 
the hope that agreement might be arrived at 
between the Committee and the Council of the 
College of Nursing, Ltd., in regard to a Nurses' 
Registration Bill. 

The delegates of the British Medical Association 
on the Central Committee were given general 
powers to act for it, within the lines of its declared 
policy in relation to the question. 

August 5. iqiCi 

Jlh€ »rttl0b 3ournal of ■Rurglno. 




Maternity Hospital, Liverpool. —Miss A. Walters 
has been appointed Sister. She was trained at 
the South Manchester Hospitals, West Didsbury, 
and lias been Queen's Nurse at the Ardwick 
District Nursing Home, Manchester, and is a 
certified midwife. 


Emily S. Emlyn to be Staff Nurse, November 
30th, 1915- 


The fiillowins ap]i(iintnK-nts have been iiuule 
through tlie N.L'.T.X. : — 

Astoria Hospital, Paris. — Miss H. M. Hazelt^n. 

Addington Park War Hospital. — Miss E. A. 

Amptliill Military Hospital. — Miss J. .\ird 

Corsham V..\.D. Hospital.— Miss L. D. Field 

Darley Dale Red Cross Hospital. — Miss B. 
Bentham (Sistcr-in-Charge). 

Exeter V. A.D. Hospital. — Miss M. Davies (Night 
Superintendent, temporary), Miss G. Yeo (Ward 
Sister, holiday duty). ~ 

Townleys Military Hospital, Farnworth. — Miss 
E. Cooper. 


Tr.\NSFERS and APPOINT.M1..N is. 

Miss Rosetta R. Mercer is appointed to Maltby 
as senior ; Miss Daisy S. Snow is appointed to 
Windsor ; ]\fiss Winifred Wratten is appointed 
to Chertsey. 

Her Majesty Queen Alexandra has been 
graciously pleased to approve the appointment 
of the following to be Queen's Nurses, to date 
July ist, 1916 : — 

f'. E. Robinson, D. E. Edge, C. Treacy, E. McL. 
Young, M. McGuin, G. A. Weston, E. E. Garratt, 
M. Lodge, E. Embury, E. E. Kave, E. McCabe, 
V. J. Jessop, A. Phalp, INI. Wardsll, E. E. Batten, 
C. M. Freeman, E. E. Cox, M. H. B. Ward, M. E. 
Rothvvell, L. Tomlinson, M. E. Conroy, W. S. 
Blood, F. H. W. S. Stanley, and M. H. Bishop. - 

M. MacL. Carnegie, J. Henderson, M. Steel, and 
R. Toner. 


N. OT^carv, S. O'Riordan, M. Quinlivan, and 
A. Walsh. 


At St. Pancras Church on Thursday, August 
3rd, the wedding takes place of' Lieutenant G. E. 
Fletcher, of the Sherwood Foresters, and Miss 
Daisy Geary, who was trained at the Royal 
Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and for 
over two years has been a member of the Registered 
Nurses' Society, 431, Oxford Street, W. The 
honeymoon is to be spent in Cornwall. 


The Guzette of the 3rd London General Hos- 
pital, Wandsworth, has again made its appcar- 
anc-e. When the war is over we wonder what 
will iKcome of all the talent w hich goes to the 
making of this bright little monthly. Pictures, 
stories, articles, skits are all eminently read- 
able, both gay and pathetic. Here is one of the 
latter from one of the Gallipoli Anzacs : — 

" One lad- was mortally wounded, and he 
signed for a pencil to write with. It was given 
him. We supposed that he wished to make his 
will, or send some message home. But he 
simply wrote ' Are ive doivnlieartcd? ' Then 
he feebly shook his head, smiled, and closed his 
eves for the last time." 

A meeting to explain the objects of the 
College of Nursing, Ltd., was held in the Out- 
patient Department of the Manchester Royal 
Infirmary on Friday, July 28th. In the unavoid- 
able absence of the Chairman of the Board of 
Management, Sir William Cobbett, the chair 
was taken by the Vice-Chairman, Sir Edward 
Oonner, Bart., many members of the Board of. 
Management supporting him. Approximately 
()00 persons attended the ni^eeting, representa- 
tive of the Board of Management, the medical 
staff, and the nursing staff of each general 
hospital and workhouse infirmary throughout 
the counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, Derby- 
shire, and the West Riding of \'orkshire. 

The Hon. Arthur Stanley and Miss R. Cox- 
Davies, a member of the College Council and 
Matron of the Royal Free Hospital, London, 
were the speakers. Mr. Stanley emphasised in 
particular two special points, viz. : — 

That the membership of the Council of the 
College had been increased from thirty to forty- 
five to include three representatives of the Privy 
Council, three of the British Medical Associa- 
tion, three of the Local Government Board, and 
six representatives of the governors of hos- 

That payment of one guinea by each nurse 
upon the Register would be the only payment 
asked for. 

Mr. Stanley explained that under the Bill the 
Register would be kepi by the General Nursing 
Council, and that body would be the Council of 
the College of Nursing. 

Miss Cox-Davies, who spoke eulogistically of 
Mr. Stanley's work for the College, said that 
its object was to set up a definite standard. 
She invited all the trained nurses in Manchester 
to appiv at once for admission to the voluntary 
register of the College.. 


^be JBrttisb 3ournal of ■Rureing. 

August 5, 1916 

The 1 ,000 workers who recently made a 
house-to-house visitation in Sheffield to collect 
funds in aid of the Queen Victoria Nursing 
Association, succeeded in obtaining sufficient 
money to enable the work of nursing the sick 
poor in their own homes to go forward on its 
errand of mercy and usefulness unimpaired. 
Mr. George Franklin, the Hon. Treasurer, ex- 
presses his thanks in the Press to the ward 
presidents and workers. 

The accompanying illustration is of Miss 
Parker Spann, Matron of the Leeds Township 
Infirmary, Dr. Allan, Dr. Faith, and Miss 
Gebhard, the Assistant Matron, with the nurses 

scarce with us, lor us to go forward at present — 
we n.ust wait for better times. 

With the timber and corrugated iron already 
on the ground we have erected oirr carpenter's 
workshop. Otherwise we are in statu quo. 

The Hospital itself has not been quite idle. 
Last summer we were able to take in an accident 
case for a fortnight. And for four months of this 
year a seNx-ing and dressmaking class, under a 
competent instructress from the Congested Dis- 
tricts Board, has been held in our big kitchen. 
It is now just ending, ha%ang been attended by 
forty-tliree girls. 

We have made by farm, garden and poultry 
£95 12s. i|d., and by letting a couple of rooms 
(with board) for a tim,e, £7 i8s. 4jd,. Our sub- 
scriptions and donations have amounted to 


who recently passed their final examination at 
the Infirmary, and were presented with the 
badge of the League by the Lady Mayoress, 
Mrs. Charles Lupton. 

The Hon. -A.lbinia Brodrick writes from 
Ballincoona, Co. Kerry : — 

What is \\Titten from Ireland just now must 
necessarily come from a sorrowful heart. Much 
of oiu: work is in danger, and since freedom of 
speech or pen is forbidden to us, we can say 

The Hospital remains as it was when I reported 
last year. We have now repaid the loans made 
to us by' two kind friends to enable us to offer it 
for ser\-ice for the wounded. But money is too 

;^20 4s. In addition we have been given a little 
Dexter bull, a hall clock, some apple trees, and 
some delightful parcels of warm things — more of 
these, please. f I 

The spring has been bitterly, cold ajid wet. 
Our vegetable seeds have been ^e-so^\^l three 
But potatoes are looking well. And we are tilling 
a little m.ore land than usual, all of us. Here 
at Ballincoona we get a tiny fresh bit under 
cultivation each year. 

Despite the great difficulty of getting a ship to 
come round from Cork, and the great increase in 
freights, our Co-operative Society is doing excel- 
lently. High prices do not, of coiuse, encourage 

Like everyone else, we need money. Until we 
have sufficient to do the whole of the work outlined 

August 5, 1916 

Zbc 36riti0b 3ournal of 'WursinQ. 


in last year's report we cannot go forward. Mean- 
while, war funds auid income tax make terrible 
demands, and we do not see bow to exercise a 
stricter economy. 

To the Editor of the only professional nursing 
weekly in this countrj- the report of Miss Clara 
Noyes, President of the Board of Directors of 
the American Journal of Xursing, presented at 
the New Orleans meeting, is fascinating read- 
ing. A new Department — that of Nursing 
Education — has been started, under the direc- 
tion of Miss M. Stewart, of Teachers' College; 
the subscriptions have gone up ; a 4 per cent, 
dividend has been paid by the Journal Com- 
pany ; and all the permanent officers are hand- 
somely paid. Yet Miss Bertha J. Gardner, the 
assistant business manager, is far from 
satisfied. She said that the loyalty to the 
Journal is far from being what it ought to be, 
and that to her mind any organization affiliated 
with the American Nurses' Association should 
send official reports to no other magazine but 
their own. We wonder what these keenly pro- 
fessional women would have to say to our 
methods in this country, whereby for a quarter 
of a century the only organ the nurses have in 
the press that supports their professional rights 
and privileges is largely financed by a staff of 
honorary workers ; whilst nurses supply copy 
to publications, run for profit alone, which 
insidiously or openly flout their professional 
demands. How is that for loyalty, to say 
nothing of common-sense? 

A trained nurse, WTJting from Melbourne, 
says : — " I can well imagine you are now up to 
the neck in the State Registration question. 
Good luck to you, and may you long be spared 
to fight for the nurses and their cause. 1 was 
almost speechless when I read about the new 
voluntary scheme. We have since 1901 tried 
it here, and whilst acknowledging its many 
good qualities, we soon recognised nothing less 
than legal status would safeguard and satisfy 
our nursing members, and incidentally protect 
the public. We are hoping great things from 
our next session of Parliament. Can't you fore- 
see how the powers that be are trying hard to 
get the V.A.D.s registered? Here we are 
watching like the proverbial cat." 



This appeal- from an award of the Judge of the 
Redhill Countv' Court sitting as arbitrator under 
the Workmen's Compensation Act, 1906, raised the 
question of the right of a nurse to recover con.- 
pensation for an accident to her while she was 
riding a bicycle in the course of her employment. 

The question is so important to trained nurses 
that we reprint from the report in the Times of 
Monday, July 31st, the leading features of the 
case : — 

The applicant was employed as a visiting nurse 
on the understanding that she would ha\e to go 
round her district on a bicycle to all children whose 
names were sent to the doctor by teachers. She 
had to ride all over the area of Reigate, Redhill, 
and Earlswood on a bicycle hired for her. On 
March 13th, 1915, she met with an accident while 
so engaged. 

The County- Court Judge held that the evidence 
quite clearly estabUshed that the applicant was 
exposed to abnormal risk out of w hich the accident 
arose, as she was compelled to be travelling many 
hours a day on her bicycle over a large area, 
through which the main London and Brighton 
road ran, and that the risk was enhanced by hei 
ha\-ing to be constantly mounting and dismounting 
after each visit which she made. 

The employers appealed. 


The Masier of the Rolls, in giving judgment, 
said : — This appeal raises a question of general 
interest as to the conditions in which a bicycle 
accident. m_ay estabUsh a claim, to compensation 
under the Workn:en's Compensation Act, igo6. 

His Lordship then stated the facts of this case, 
and, continuing, said that if the County Court 
Judge had sin.ply stated that the nurse was 
exposed to " risk," it night have been 
difficult for the Court of Appeal to interfere. But 
he had assigned three reasons, two of which were 
not supported by the evidence, and the third of 
which seemed to him (his Ixirdship) to be irrelevant. 
In these cu-cum,.stances he thought it was com- 
petent for the Court of .\ppeal to consider w hether 
the applicant was exposed to abnormal risk. 
His Lordship was of opinion that she was not. 
He therefore held that the appeal m.ust be allowed 
and an award made in favour of the employers. 

Lord Justice Pickford and Lord Justice 
Warri.ngton gave judgment to the same efiect. 

The Act to incorporate the graduate Nurses 
of .Alberta, which received the Royal Assent on 
April 19th, is cited as " The Registered Nurses 
.■\ct," and grants incorporation as a bodv cor- 
porate to the Alberta Association of Graduate 

The result of the appeal is most unsatisfactory 
to trained nurses, especially to district and school 
nurses, as the greater part of the risks they run 
are incurred in the streets of cities and the roads 
and lanes in the country passing from, one case to 
another. \\ e hop>e the question is not yet disposed 
of and that the Queen \'ictoria's Jubilee Institute 
will take it up. 

Private nurses have long been dissatisfied with 
the Workm.en's Compensation .\ct, which was 
certainly not designed to meet their needs. 

^be »rit(9b 3ournal of •Rureing 

August 5, 1916 



. lA companion volume to the " Xervous Disorders 
of Children," wliich has already been re\-ie\ved in 
these columns, and the " Xervous Disorders of 
Men," is the " Nervous Disoi'ders of Women," 
byi Dr. i Bernard Hollander, which should be 
widely read. 

■^Iln his introduction, Dr.» Hollander throws a 
new light on the relative weight of the brains of 
men and "women and the fact that the average 
female brain is about one inch smaller in circum- 
ference, and aboutjfive inches lighter than the 
av^erage male J bra'in. "' There is," says Dr. 
Hollander, " no denying the fact, but as jl shall 
show, we must not draw from it the conclusion 
that womeij are mentally inferior to men. . . . 

" Some investigators attribute the difference 
in the weight of the brain to the difference in the 
bulk of the body. It is true that the general 
physique of women is less robust than that of 
men and that their stature is less. The expectation 
that a smaller brain would be required might, 
therefore, seem reasonable. But we know that 
there is no such correspondence between the size 
of the brain and that of the body. Little men 
often have large brains and giants small ones. . . 

" The fact is that the size of the entire brain 
is not a measure of intellectual capacity' at all. 
It is a measure of; capacitv' of all the energies 
taken together — that is, of the animal instincts 
and passions, the feelings as well as the intellect. 
The intellectu.l region, as we now know, is- con- 
fined to the frontal lobes — the most anterior part 
of the brain. A man or woman may have a large 
head and yet be stupid, if the frontal region be 
small ; and he or she may have a small head 
with great wisdom, if the greater mass of brain 
be in the anterior region. 

" Most investigators have Iiitherto disregarded 
this distinction, and treated the brain as if it 
had only one function — the manifestation of 
intellect. Consequently, they argued that since 
the brain of woman weighs about five ounces less 
than that of man, therefore, on merely anatomical 
grounds, we might expect a marked inferiority- of 
inteUectual power in the female sex. Whereas, 
it is now shown that this difEerence in brain weight 
does not explain whether the deficiency lies in 
intellect, in strength of sentiment, or force of 
brute propensity. . . 

" Much has been made of the fact that women 
have shown little creative and inventive power. 
This absence of inventive and artistic genius may 
be to some extent accounted for, firstly, by the 
fact that women do not come so much in contact 
with other minds as men do, or used not to, and 
do not receive the same amount of stimulus ; and, 
secondly, by their emotional and domestic life 

*By Bernard Hollander,* M.D. (Kegan Paul, 
Trench,- Trubner cS: Co., Ltd., Broadway House, 
68-74. Carter Lane, E.C.). 3s. 6d. net. 

taking up too much of their time and energy. 
Man has said for ages tliat the ' helpmeet for him ' 
shall do the drudgery of looking after him, or at 
any rate of seing that it is done ; he has dubbed 
himself the lord of creation, and has consistently 
paraded the subjugation of his partner. On 
occasions, he has found it convenient to delegate 
some of his functions to his hitherto submissive 
partner, and he is now beginning to be rather 
rudely awakened to the fact that the partner has 
equal rights. 

" Woman's effort at self-emancipation, however 
misdirected and attended with absurdities is, 
primarily, instinctive resistance to her declared 
natural inferiority to man, and to the restriction 
of her capacities it imposes. The woman move- 
ment was not caused because there are fewer men 
inclined to marry, but, primarily, by woman's 
protest against the estimate of her as a woman 
that was rejected by the deeper instincts of her 
nature ; and, secondarily, by the disappointing and 
often repelling experience of marriage ; for the 
marriages where there has been no disillusion — 
though all too often on both side it is true — are so 
few as to constitute exceptions to the rule. A 
smothered sense of injustice, increasing in strength 
with each generation as education covered wider 
fields of knowledge, broke forth finally in a " new 
woman " who, unwisely assertive at times, declared 
her right to fill, at her own option, any sphere for 
which she possessed capabilities instead of being 
limited to the only one allowed her on the basis of 
her natural inferiority'. 

" The ' new woman ' is not averse to marriage, 
but objects to what marriage has been made by 
this idea of inferiority, whose logical consequence is 
her submission to superiority ; an idea that has pei - 
mitted and encouraged a double standard of 
morality. Neither above nor below, but side by 
side and shoulder to shoulder, is the attitude for 
m'arriage she defends as wise and necessary ; so 
that both, dissimilar from the beginning, may 
prepare for their united office by filling first, most 
worthily, each their distinctive office. . . 

" Woman's dependence has made her seek to 
attract man and to gain power over Mm by craft, 
if need be ; but woman's awakened self-respect 
and self-reliance disdains the craft, and demands 
mutual recognition of equalit},- with difierence, 
mutual dependence and support, mutual aim and 
accomplishment — a nobler manhood and woman- 
hood, (setter conditions for the coming generations, 
through the helpfulness of one for the other of 
which both are in need." 

From this discriminating and illuminating intro- 
duction the reader will expect, and the expecta- 
tion will not be disappointed, that the author will 
deal with the question of the " Nervous Disorders 
of Women " and the modern psychological concep- 
tion of their causes, effects, and rational treatment 
with comprehending synapathy. To understand 
their disorders one must first understand woman. 
Dr. Hollander does both. 

{To be concluded.) 

August 5, ic,i6 

Zbc IBritisb 3ournal of "Wuratna. 



The state ol Helen's attitude towards the 
tender emotion oreupics herself, and incidentally 
the reader, throughout the whole volume. Self- 
analysis is very much the fashion of the present- 
day writer. We have a suspicion that Mr. Arnold 
Bennett set the fashion in this particuliir, but 
it is apt to become tiresome if restraint is not 
exercised. Frankly we confess that many 
of Helen's complicated thoughts and conversa- 
tions are as undecipherable to us a.s the Greek 
inscription which forms the dedication, and we 
are left wondering whether they are beyond our 
powers or whether they mean anything at all. 
But having said this, " Helen in Love " is by no 
means unattractive, and having begun to read 
one is obliged to follow- her tortuous ways with 
a good deal qi interest. Helen is by no means 
the only interesting person in the book ; her 
family and their doings are certainly unusual, 
and the unusual is a great asset in fiction. 

Helen from her early youth had dreams and 
aspirations. Her habit of mind and tempera- 
ment raised her above the girls of her own circle 
and made her discontented with the circumstances 
of her life. From time to. time she realised that 
if she would make for happiness she must do as 
others did, and that aspirations rarely made for 
contehtmcnt. With this end in x-iew she con- 
sulted with Milly how she managed to get ac- 
quainted with the young men of the place and 
to have what appeared such very enjoyable times 
with them. 

She had resolved to dip her own fingers into 
this dish of vulgar joy. 

" At three o'clock Helen appeared on the 
beach. Her pigtail was tied with a festal bow 
of wliite. Her face was determined but pale. 
Arrived there she was possessed with an agony 
of doubt and uncertainty, but later she scraped 
an acquaintance with a harmless young man 
sitting by a breakwater. 

" Helen braced herself for the effort. ' Good 
afternoon,' she said, fiercely. 

" The young man seemed surprised. ' Good 
afternoon,' he gave her back again. He had a 
pleasant voice. 

He sat up and considered her. ' It's very 
jolly here in the sun,' he suggested when he had 
finished considering her. 'I say,' he said, '"Did 
you n\ake a nastake ? Did you think I was 
someone else ? ' He talked with her for some 
time and read Meredith's poems to her, but that 
even did not make him interesting. By and by 
he realised thatjthe girl wanted to flirt with him 
and he obliged her, but only in a half-hearted 
way, for he wasjquite a nice boy. This was Hugh, 
who became the dream of her life. He was an 
officer in a good regiment and not at all in Helen's 

•^By Amber Reeves. Hurst & Blackett 

class. Moreover he was but a \'isitor and went 
away the next day leaving no clue to his where- 

" She had gathered that his opinion of her was 
poor before they parted. 

" ' Do you mean I oughtn't to have spoken to 
you. Everybody else docs. Wliy shouldn't I ? ' 

" Her distress was pitiable. He took both her 

" ' Of course I don't, my dear," he said ; ' it's 
all right. I told you before it was awfully nice 
of you. I was awfully lonely before you came.' " 

Helen's father was by way of being an artist. 
He had married a contriving, bustling woman 
rather beneath him. She was honest and sincere, 
but terrif^^ng of tongue. 

Helen's next inspiration was Persis Alleyne, a 
young, beautiful, married woman who i;ented a 
country cottage near her home. 

Helen, who with all her self-consciousness was 
yet unscnsitive, forced an acquaintance with her 
and by gentle insistence became her friend. By 
so doing she w-as enabled to mi.x with the class 
that she had always coveted knowing. 

They were not of great benefit to her, for they 
were of a worldly and almost fast type. In 
addition to what she considered her good fortune, 
her father became suddenly well off, so that our 
friend Helen at last had the opportunities she 
so ardently desired. 

But in all these vicissitudes she was more or 
less faithful to the memory of Hugh, although 
as she was an attractive and clever girl she did 
not lack for admirers. 

Of course it would have been quite a mistake 
if eventually Hugh and she had not met again. 
It cannot be denied that their engagement was 
mostly due to Helen's determination, but he 
was really quite a dull young man. The story 
leaves us with a feeling that its author had drifted 
through it in the same rather meaningless way 
that she conducts her heroine through her love 

H. H. 


I will go back to the great sweet mother. 
Mother and lover of men, the sea. 
I will go down to her, I and none other. 
Close with her, kiss her, and mix her with me ; 
Cling to her, strive with her, hold her fast ; 
O fair white mother, in days long past. 
Born without sister, born without brother. 
Set free my soul as thy soul is free. 

Algernon Cii.\rles Swinburne. 


Have you ever had your path suddenly turn 
simshiny because of a^jClieerful word ? Ha\e you 
ever wondered if this coxild be the same world 
because someone had been luiexpectedly kind to 
you ? You can make to-day the same for 

Zhc 36nti5b 3ournaI of IRureutG. 

I ugust 5, 1916 


Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects jor these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 


To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 
Madam, — A real and urgent necessity has arisen 
for more nurses, V.A.D. nursing members (wonien) 
and V.A.D. general service members, in m.ilitary 
and auxiliary hospitals at home. The demands 
made upon us by the military authorities are very 
heavy, and cannot be n^et out of the existing 
supply. There must still be many woinen who are 
not gi\'ing the whole of their time and service to 
the war, and who have no ties which prevent them 
from doing so. We earnestly call upon these 
wom.en to come forward and help us in this 
emergency, and thus enable us to answer the call of 
the sick and wounded men. 

Suitable women who arc able to help in the 
hospitals may be attached to existing Voluntary 
Aid Detachments for immediate service in the 

Full information on tliis jioint may be obtained 
from the Women's Joint V.A.D. Committee, 
Devonshire House, or from the County Directors, 
Col. Valentine Matthews, Duke of York's Head- 
quarters, Chelsea, or from Col. T. E. L. Bate, 
Craig's Court House, Whitehall. 
Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) Arthur Stanley, 
Chairman, Executive Comnittee 
British Red Cross Society. 
Director of the Ambulance Depart- 
ment of the Order of St. John. 


To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing 
Dear Madam, — I wish to support the senti- 
ments expressed in the able letter signed " A Poor 
Law Infirmary Matron " in your last issue. It 
is veiy hard indeed for us Matrons to be held up 
in the public press as " enemies within the gates " 
because we claim the right to form a professional 
opinion. No doubt the National Poor Law 
Officers' Association is doing adnarable work on 
general lines, but the members cannot and do not 
know the needs of a highly skilled profession such 
as nursing, and concerning our own professional 
education, surely we Matrons and nurses have a 
right to judge of what is required. I am old in 
Poor Law service, and rejoice to see the .many 
reforms in its nursing departm^ent I do see, but 
they have been hardly won by patient and intelli- 
gent women, who have devoted years of uphill 
work to Poor Law institutions. That such 
expert Associations as the Matrons' Council, our 
National Council of Nurses, of which I am a 
member, and other nursing organisations were 

not consulted about the foundation of the College 
of Nursing, wliilst our Guardians, clerks and 
jiorters wore represented on its Council through 
the Poor Law Officeis' Association, has consider- 
ably disturbed my trust in its constitution. Now, 
however, that its pron^otcrs have realised its 
defects, and are prepared to help on with a Nurses' 
Registration Bill, it would be a thousand pities 
if professional as apart from civil opinion were not 
pernitted to prevail on our General Nursing 
Council. It is the only wav to get efficiency and 

Yours truly, 

Another Infirmary INIatron. 


To the Editor of TheHritish Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — It m.ay interest your readers 
to learn that the nursing staff of this unit 
have subscribed am.ongst them £50 14s. to endow a 
bed for one year at Roehampton. The various 
services co'.rprising the unit are as follows : 
T.F.N.S., A.P.M.C, St. J.A.B., B.R.C.. and all 
of them, are represented. 

We venture to hope that other units may help 
in the support of this splendid place and to suggest 
that a visit to it cannot fail to rouse great interest. 
Believe mx, yours faithfully, 

A Territorial Sister. 

i/Sth Northern General Hospital, 
RA.M.C. (T.), Leicester. 


Poor Law Matron. — ^There are several flourishing 
Leagues of Poor Law Niu'ses attached to the 
larger infirmaries, such as Chelsea, City of West- 
minster, Kensington, Southwark, Kingston, Beth- 
nal Green, Beckett Street (Leeds), and others. 
We feel sure'if you apply to the Matrons, they will 
supply information concerning their organizations. 
These Leagues are a great source of pfofit and 
pleasure to the nurses ; they inspire esprit de corps 
and should — through affiliation with the National 
Council of Trained Nurses — bring the members 
into touch with their colleagues outside the gates, 
and thus widen views and sympatliies. A ten- 
dency to narrowness needs guarding against in so 
absorbing an environment as hospital life. 


August izlh. — How would you organise the 
Oursing in a military hospital of 100 beds and 
upwards ? 

August igth. — Enumerate the signs and 
symptoms of acute tonsilitis. What disease m.ay 
it resemble ? How would you nurse such a case ? 

The Nurses' Registration Bill drafted by the 
Council of the College of Nursing, Ltd.. may now 
be pmchased either directly, or through any 
Bookseller, from Messrs. Eyre & Spottiswoode, 
Ltd., East Harding Street, London, E.C. Piicc 
2d. (postage extra.) It should be studied by 
nurses, whom it vitally concerns. 

August s, 1916 ttbe Brtti0b Journal or Wuretna Supplement. 

The Midwife. 




Special meetings of the Central Midwivcs 
Board were held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, 
on July 26th and July 27th for the hearing of 
charges alleged against certified midwives, with 
the following results. Sir Francis Champneys 

July 26th. 

Struck off the Roll and Certificate Cancelled. — 
Blanche AJice Battershall (No. 35604), Christiana 
Jones (No. 5450), Mary Ann Golding (No. 212), 
Hannah Mincher (No. 16903), Kate Maria Pierce 
(No. 23176), Sarah Smith (N'o. 7992). 

Cautioned. — Ada May Williams (No. 23739). 

On Probation — Sentence Postponed. — Anni? 
Lewis (No. 19616). Midwife Annie Lewis was 
defended by her solicitor, Mr. Allinson. She was 
charged with negligence on the count that the 
child, "suffering from infiam-i ationof and discharge 
from the eyes, she did not explain that the case 
was one in which the attendance of a registered 
medical practitioner was required," also that she 
discontinued her \-isits while the child was still 
suffering in manner described. She was furtlier 
charged with not being scrupulously clean, and 
with not taking and recording the pulse and 
temperature. The defence was, that she was 
clean, that there was no discharge when she left 
lier patient. When she was passing the house 
shortly afterwards the mother called her in to 
look at the child's eyes. 

The Inspector and Assistant Inspector of Mid- 
wives for the County were present and gave 
evidence. The finding of the Board was that the 
evidence was not sufficient to prove that the 
child's eyes were in the state alleged during the 
attendance of the midwife. Judgment was post- 
poned for three months ; should her conduct be 
unsatisfactory during that time, she would be 
struck off the roll ; if fairly satisfactory, she 
would be put on probation for another period of 
three months. 

Midwife Battershall was charged with " false 
and fraudulent misrepresentation " in respect of 
the boarding out of an illegitimate child, receiving 
los. a week for its maintenance, and paying over 
to the woman in charge 8s. She was further 
charged with applying the sum of ^10 solely to her 
own use, which was paid by the grandmother of 
the child for the purpose of having it permanently 
adopted and received by the Catholic Women's 
League. The midwife was unabte to attend in 

The case of Midwife Williams was an interesting 
one. The charge was that having been engaged 
as midwife to attend women in their confinements 
on eight different occasions, she employed an 

uncertified woman as her substitute. The interest 
of the case centred in the fact of her health being 
so seriously impaired as to temporarily affect her 
mental condition. The midwife attended in 
person and defended herself, but Dr. Fagan, under 
whom she had worked and who knew her well, 
witnessing for her, said she was the best midwife 
he had e\-er known during his practice of 23 years. 
He then explained to the Board that Mrs. William.s 
had suffered from sciatica with increasing intensity 
for a considerable time ; for many weeks she had 
been in a hospital. She had had sleepless nights, 
drugs had been administered to allay the intense 
pain, and in his opinion the combined effects had 
been that she was not in a condition to make 
accurate judgments of her conduct. The Chair- 
man congratulated her in ha\-ing so good a friend 
to witness for her. The sentence was in accord- 
ance with Dr. Pagan's medical opinion. 

The case of Midwife Pierce was considered at 
some length. She was charged with being 
" guilty of negligence and misconduct in com- 
mitting from time to time to the charge " of a 
woman " children under the age of two years 
without due enquiry as to her cliaracter and 
position ; and further with aiding and abetting 
the same woman to contravene the provisions of 
the Children's Act, and also the Births, Deaths 
and Registration Acts, by notifying the birth of 
a child under a false name and address and by 
registering the birth of the same child under a 
false designation." The accused was defended by 
her solicitor, but the case went against her. 

Pitial Reports. — Mary Ann Goodhind (No. 
14843), Margaret Emery (No. 25875), Mary 
Frances Rhodes (No. 18242), Eleanor Steel (No. 
28919). The of the first was adjourned for 
another tlu-ee months. The conduct of the other 
three being satisfactory, no further action was 

July 27TH. 

On July 27th, charges were heard against five 
midwives with the following results : — 

Struck off the Roll and Certificate cancelled. — 
Midwives Emma Loxham (No. 14 17), Elizabeth 
Morgans (No. 40508) (C.!M.l?. l^xamination). Sarah 
Ann Wellington (No. 991), .Mice Ann Willdnson 
(No. 20311), Margaret Williams (No. 16053). 


The monthly meeting oi the Central Midwives 
Board was held at Caxton House, on July 27th, 
Sir Francis Champneys presiding. 

A letter was received from the Local Govern- 
ment Board, transmitting, for the information 
of the Central Midwives Board the copy of a 
letter addicssed by the L.G.15. to the Lancashire 
County Council relative to the question of visits 


Cbc British Journal of "HurslnQ Supplement. August s, 1916 

paid by a Health Visitor to a h'ing-in woman 
during the attendance of a n^idwife. It was 
decided to thank the L.G.B. for its communication 
and to inform it that the Central Midwives 
Board trusts that the Medical Officers of Health, 
to whom the discretion has been committed, wiU 
exercise that discretion with great care. 

In response to an apphcation froni INIrs. Cecily 
Somer\'ilIe Williams, of the British Hospital 
for Mothers and Babies — a candidate for examina- 
tion — it was decided to allow her to present a 
statutory declaration of birth in lieu of a certificate 
of birth or baptism. 

In reply to a letter from the Sister of the Mater- 
nity Ward at the London Hospital, enquiring 
whether attendance by a pupil midwife at a 
course of fifteen lectures delivered by the Obste- 
tric Physician, and thirteen delivered by the 
Senior Resident Accoucheur, would be deemed 
a compliance with Rule Ci (i) (c), requiring- 
i7iter alia attendance at a course of not less than 
twent\- lectures delivered by a registered medical 
practitioner recognized by the Board as a lecturer, 
it was decided to reply that the Board is not 
prepared to adopt the suggestion of the Sister of 
the ]\Iaternit\- Ward of the London Hospital ; 
according to Rule C. i (i) [c] the approved 
lecturer is bound to deliver not less than twent\' 
lectures. Anv additional instruction by another 
person would doubtless be advantageous. 


For Voluntary Removal from the Roll. — Appli- 
cations from eight certified midwives for the 
removal of their names from the Roll were received 
and accepted. 

For Recognition as Lecturer. — The application 
of Dr. Wilshaw Williams Grosvenor was granted 
pro tern, and that of Mr. William L'Estrange 
Mathews pro liac. 

From Certified Midwives for Approval to under- 
take the practical Training of Pupil Midwives. — 
Midwife Edith Alice Mokes (No. 41857), and of 
Midwife Winifred Morris, pro tern ; and of Midwife 
Mary Anne Williams Redgate (Xo. 34269) pro hac. 

The Recent Examination. 

The analysis of results at the recent examination 
presented by the Secretary was instructive. 

From other than Poor Law Institutions iti the 
United Kingdom. — Examined, 450; Passed, 365; 
Failed, 85. Percentage of failures, 16.8. 

Indian Training School (Government Maternity 
Hospital, Madras). — Examined, i ; Passed, i. 

Private Training and Institution Lectures. — 
Examined, 38 ; Passed, 28 ; Failed, 10. Per- 
centage of Failures, 20.8. 

Poor Law, London. — Examined, 6 ; Passed, 6. 

Poor Law, Provinces. — Examined, 57 ; Failed, 7. 
Percentages of failures, 10.3. 

Scotland. — Examined, i ; Passed, i. 

Ireland. — Examined, 4 ; Passed, 4. 


The Annual Representative Meeting of the 
British Medical Association last week resolved : — 
" That while it is desirable to encourage pro- 
spective mothers to make early arrangements 
for being properly cared for during the tinie of 
pregnancy as well as the actual time of delivery, 
the association is strenuously opposed to the 
notification of pregnancy." 


Speaking of haemophilia, and its peculiar charac- 
teristic of being transmitted by the mother to her 
sons though she herself was immune. Dr. H. J. F. 
Simson, addressing midwives recently, pointed 
out that in this way Nalnire curiously stepped in to 
prevent the disastrous results that would occur at 
the monthlv periods if the woman were not 
immune. The lecturer advocated the use of 
sterile cotton gloves, and warned midwives against 
contact of the finger with the anus while makiag 
examination or efiecting deliver^-. He recom- 
mended the painting of the rectum and perinaeum 
with iodine. 


The Bristol Universitv' Settlement School for 
Mothers, after gaining everj^ possible'^V honour 
in the Mothercraft Competitions arranged by the 
Association of Infant Welfare and IMaternity 
Centres, 4, Tavistock Square, W.C., finally carried 
ofi the Challenge Shield competed for by all the 
centres, and held for one year. Wimbledon and 
Bedminster centres (bracketted equal), were 
close betiind. 


The proposal of Mr. J. A. \\Tiitehead, of Rich- 
mond, to do a kindly act to mothers of the Empire 
on August 8th, has met %\dth hearti,- approval all 
over the Icingdom. Forty Lord Mayors and 
Alayors are pations of the movement, and 
hundreds of people have wxitten to 47, Fleet 
Street, London, announcing their intention of 
helping a needy mother next Tuesday week. 

INIr. Wliitehead's own kindly action on that daj' 
will be to drive 300 London mothers' to his delight- 
ful estate, Han«'orth Park, and entertain them to 
lunch and tea with various forms of entertainment 
during the afternoon. All the mothers will be over 
fortj'-five 3'ears of age, and will have sons who are 
fighting or who have fought with the forces. 


The ;\Iidwives Act in England and Wales has 
been in operation now for over fovurteen years. 
"Scotland has succeeded in getting a similar Act 
placed on the Statute Book, and, as we recently 
reported, the President and Fellows of the Royal 
College of Physicians of Ireland have unanimously 
passed a res lution urging upon the Government 
the pressing necessity which exists for passing a 
Midwives' Bill for Ireland. It is evident, there- 
fore, that such registiation has stood the test of 
practical experience. 


w 1 n.tii %W 







We are realizing day bv day that tiie 
munition workers at home are rendering as 
valuable service to the State as the Armv 
in the Field, for even its superb gallantrv 
is powerless without the ammunition which 
the workers at home are straining every 
nerve to supply. 

A somewhat analogous position is to be 
found in the nursing profession. We are 
proud of our colleagues on active service, 
who are giving their b^st to the sick and 
wounded, who so sorely need their minis- 
trations, but no less patriotic are those who 
stay at home, and quietly shoulder a double 
burden to set other nurses free. Their 
service to our sick soldiers is vicarious, for 
them there is no change of scene, no added 
interest of novel and uncommon cases, no 
personal work for the soldiers whom all 
desire to serve, but just the acceptance 
of harder work in a life which seemed 
already full ; an increased number of visits 
to pay because the staff of the District 
Nurses' Home is depleted, a longer tramp 
to take on hot pavements in the airless 
streets with the sun blazing down, and the 
increased effort to inculcate the need of 
special hygienic precautions, . and the strict 
observance of sanitary laws — instructions 
which must be given over and over again, 
line upon line, precept upon precept, lest 
plague and pestilence be added to the 
horrors of war. 

In the schools, at treatment centres, and 
in the homes of the children the school 
nurse is also working on the same lines. 
Well she knows how easily ipfectious dis- 
eases are spread, and how necessary 
special precautions are at the present time ; 
and in season and out of season, by pre- 
cept and practice, she proclaims the need 
or constant care. It is paradoxical that 

the more successful her vyork the less the 
public hears of it. Everyone knows when 
an epidemic is spreading through a town 
or village, taking its toll in the lives of 
the innocents, but few realize when the 
health of the community is good, when 
epidemics are averted, and the infant 
mortality rate brought down, that this is 
largely due to the vigilance of the Medical 
Officer of Health aided by the Trained 
Nurse, who pursues her calling, for the 
most part alone but with a maintained 
enthusiasm and professional skill, often 
amid dull surroundings — which compel 
admiration, and which are services as 
valuable in their degree to the nation as 
those which are more conspicuous, and 
performed under the observation of the 

The same may be said of work in civil 
hospital antl infirmary wards. It is inevitable 
that it should be more difficult, conditions 
more arduous, because of the depletions of 
the staffs for service in naval and military 
hospitals at home and abroad ; and the 
nurse who " does her bit " cheerfully, con- 
scientiously, and thoroughly, is an indis- 
pensable worker whose service is of the 
highest quality. 

After all it takes some strength of 
character to resist the appeal which 
clamours for a hearing to offer for active 
service. Some nurses must stay at home 
to do work which is often uninteresting and 
dull, and those who so decide are frequently 
of sterling worth. 

\\ hen at last the war is over, and it is 
possible to appraise the value of services 
willingly rendered it will be found that a 
debt of gratitude is due not only to the 
nurses who went overseas, but to those who 
materially helped the prevention and cure 
of disease by carrying on the routine work 
at home in circumstances of exceptional 


Zbc Britifb 3ournal of "Rursinfl. 

August 12, 1916 


Those who read " The Minor Horrors of 
War," by Dr. A. E. Shipley, Master of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, and Reader in Zoology in 
the University, will welcome another book from 
one at once so learned and so humorous. 

In his preface. Dr. Shipley says that his 
publisher tells him that the volume will be re- 
garded as a sequel to " The Minor Horrors of 
\Var, " and that sequels are not a success. In 
spite of this warning, he decided to publish the 
volume, for there still " air some catawampous 
chawers in the small way, too, as graze upon 
a human being pretty strong," that were 
unmentioned in his earlier book. Most people 
will be glad that he disregarded the warning. 

Indeed, the " Minor Horrors " dealt with in 
the present volume are both numerous and 
important, including cockroaches, the bot or 
warble fly, the mosquito, the yellow fever 
mosquito, the biscuit weevil, the fig moth, the 
stable fly, rats, and the field mouse. Our know- 
ledge of these is for the most part neither 
precise nor extensive. 


Dr. Shipley remarks that "In ' The Minor 
Horrors of War ' we rather neglected the Navy 
— the senior Service, and till now the more 
dominant of our two magnificent forces — partly 
because it is less interfered with by insect pests 
than is the sister Service, though the common 
pests of our poor humanity — the flea, the louse, 
the bug-^are, like the poor, ' always with us.' 
Like aeroplanes, insects have captured the air ; 
like motors, they have made a respectable show 
on land ; but they have signally failed at sea. 
They have nothing corresponding to battleships 
or submarines ; and a certain bug, called 
Halobates, alone hoists the insect flag on the 
ocean, and that only in the warmer waters. 

" But one insect at least causes more trouble 
to sailors than to soldiers, and that is the cock- 
roach." The author tells us that it came into 
England at the end of the sixteenth century, 
and, like the bed-bug, it came from the East. 

" Cockroaches are very difficult to catch. 
They practically never walk, but run with a 
hardly believable rapidity, darting to and fro 
in an apparently erratic mode of progression. 

" Even when caught they are not easily 
retained, for they have all the slipperiness of a 
highly polished billiard-ball. They have great 
powers of flattening their bodies, and they slip 
out of one's hand with an amazing dexterity. 

" Besides their slipperiness they have another 

* Smith, Elder & Co., 15, Waterloo Place, S.W. 

weapon, and that is a wholly unpleasant and 
most intolerable odour, which is due to the 
secretion of a couple of glands situated on the 
back of the abdomen. 

" The glands which produce this repellent 
odour are sunk in the soft membrane which 
unites the fifth and sixth abdominal segments, 
and the moment a cockroach is attacked it 
exudes a sticky, glue-like fluid, which gives out 
this most unendurable smell. The fluid is 
extraordinarily tenacious, and difficult to 
remove from the hand of those who have 
touched the insects. No doubt the cockroach-, 
in nature, finds safety in this from the attacks 
of insectivorous animals. . . . 

" Cockroaches will eat pretty well every- 
thing. They are a great nuisance on board 
ship, where they are said to gnaw the skin and 
nibble the toenails of sailors. Hardly any 
animal or vegetable substance is absent from 
their menu. It is said that they will even 
devour bed-bugs, and that natives on the 
African shores troubled by these semi-parasites 
will beg cockroaches as a favour from sailors 
in passing ships. . . . 

" Even the most devoted friend of cock- 
roaches can find little to say in their favour, 
except that they are currently reported to form 
the basis of the flavouring of a very popular 
sauce ; but even wild cockroaches will not drag 
from me what the name of that particular sauce 

It is important to note that " cockroaches 
will devour human sputum with avidity, and are 
frequently to be found in spittoons (or, as the 
more delicately minded .American calls them, 
' cuspidors '), and it is interesting to know that 
after feeding the insects on infected sputum 
from a tuberculous patient, the tubercle bacilli 
are found in the faeces within twenty-four 
hours ; two specimens which -had been fed 
on staphylococci showed these pathogenic 
organisms in their faeces, and in the cultures 
on agar-agar, which were obtained from their 

Dr. Shipley concludes a most interesting 
phapter by quoting from the report of Dr. C. 
Conyers Morrell, who undei^took some investi- 
gations and observations as to what part, if 
any, cockroaches play in the dissemination of 
pathogenic organisms. These experiments 
were conducted on one of the Union Castle 
liners sailing to South Africa, and proved that 
" the common cockroach is able bv contamina- 
tion with its ffeces (i) to bring about the sour- 
ing of milk ; (2) to infect food and milk with 
intestinal bacilli ; (3) to transmit the tubercle 
bacillus ; (4) to disseminate pathogenic staphy- 

August 12, 1916 

2be Kritleb 3ournal of Burstng. 


lococci ; (5) to transmit from place to place 
destructive moulds." These facts further prove 
that the insect is in all probability an active 
agent in the souring of milk kept in kitchens 
and larders ; and that it is undoubtedly a very 
important factor in the distribution of moulds 
to food and to numerous other articles, espe- 
cially when they are kept in dark cupboards 
and cellars where cockroaches abound. The 
distribution and numbers of the cockroach are 
rapidly increasing, and unless preventive 
measures are adopted, the insect is likely in 
the course of time to become a very trouble- 
some, and possibly a very dangerous domestic 

The Bot, or Warble Flv. 

.Amongst the things that both Britain and 
Germany want in this war is leather. " .Any- 
thing," says Dr. Shipley, "that seriously 
destroys the continuity of the integument of 
our oxen, which interferes with the ' whole- 
ness ' of the hide, which is the basis of leather, 
clearly affects — and affects detrimentally — an 
important munition of war. The bot, or warble 
fly, does this. But it does more : its attacks 
materially lessen the value of the beef which 
potentially lies beneath Ihe hide, and thus in 
a double sense the warble fly is the enemy of 
man, whether he be soldier or sailor. Further, 
its attacks seriously lessen the milk supply of 
the country." 

We learn that the cestridie, or bot or warble 
flies, " pass their larval stage within the 
tissues of some vertebrate host, and frequently 
in those of domesticated cattle, sometimes even 
in man himself. The harm caused by these 
larva;, living as they do in the tissues of the 
bixly, beneath the skin, by piercing holes 
through the integument, or skin, whereby they 
make their exit from the ' warble ' or sub- 
cutaneous tumour in which they have passed 
their latest larval stage, is almost incalcul- 

Further, " the presence of the warble fly 
induces a mysterious fear, which rapidly 
spreads through a herd, and results in a' general 
stampede— often referred to by cattle-breeders 
as the ' gad.' This terror communicates itself 
even to the 'stalled ox,' and cattle confined 
within cowsheds show symptoms of extra- 
ordinary unrest when the fly is abroad among 
their kin in the pastures." 

Various treatments have been recommended, 
but " the tedious method of rentoving the grub 
from the tumour is the only safe one. . . . 
Once removed, the grub should be immediately 
destrovcd, and some antiseptic, such as coal tar, 
applied to the lips of the vacated tumour." 

The Mosql'ito. 
If we say little about the mosquito, it is not 
because the five chapters devoted to the 
Anopheles maculipennis are not most fascina- 
ting, but because they should be read in their 
entirety. " There is," the author tells us, " no 
zoological distinction between a mosquito, a 
gnat, or a midge, but, as a matter of con- 
venience, we might confine the term ' gnat ' to 
the genus Culex, the term 'mosquito ' to the 
genus Anopheles, and the term ' midge ' to the 
genus Ccratopogon and its congeners, whose 
collation with the naked knees of the High- 
lander is said to have given rise to the ' High- 
land Fling.' 

"There is no doubt about it that both the 
mosquito and the gnat are extraordinarily 
beautiful insects. This fact, however, has been 
veiled from the public, partly owing to their 
small size and more especially to their irritating 
bite, which causes the sufferer to kill a mosquito 
at sight rather than examine its fairy--like 
beauty or its fascinating dances in the air, far 
surpassing in grace and agility anvthing seen 
in the Russian ballet." 

.As is well known, the poison of malaria is 
conveyed by the Anopheles mosquito; yellow 
fever, on the other hand, by the Stegomyia 
calopus. Whether this disease arose primarily 
in .Africa, and is part of the foil the .American 
Continent has had to pav for the slave trade, 
or whether it was brought to the West Coast 
of -Africa from the other side of the .Atlantic, 
is not certain. 

The Biscuit " Weevil." 
"The first thing to notice about the biscuit 
weevil (Anohiuni paniceum) is that it is not a 
weevil at all." It is " a member of the family 
Ptinidae. and is closely allied to A. striatum, 
which makes the little round holes in worm- 
eaten furniture so cleverly imitated by furni- 
ture-dealers. .Another species of Anobium 
(recently re-christened Xestobium tessellatum), 
a somewhat larger insect, is destructive in 
church libraries and old houses. Their 
mysterious tappings (which are really efforts 
to attract the other sex — mere flirtations) are 
the cause of much superstitious dread in the 
nervous, and this species is known as the 
' greater death watch.' 

" The interest of the biscuit ' weevil ' lies in 
its disastrous infestation of ships' biscuits, 
which frequently is so severe that the sailors' 
' hard tack' is rendered uneatable." 

For information as to the other minor horrors 
we must refer our readers to the book itself. 
They will assuredly not be disappointed. 


Hbc Bhtisb 3oiunal of muvsinG. 

lugUSt 12, I916 



The Paris correspondent of the Lancet 
writes : — 

The influence of syphilis on the effects of 
traumatism has long been known, and is now- 
being- freely observed in military patients. The 
consolidation of fractures, in particular, is 
slower in syphilitic subjects ; the callus, though 
more profuse, is more friable. Dr. Sourdel, a 
surgeon with the army, has drawn attention to 
several points in this connection, mentioning 
that the influences of syphilis on the w-ounds 
of war manifest themselves not at first, but in 
the later stages of treatment. A wound involv- 
ing skin hnd muscle, for example, will be found 
slow in cicatrisation, the borders becoming livid 
and badly vascularised, but the unhealthy con- 
ditions will disappear rapidly on the application 
of a specific dressing like Vigo's plaster. In 
suppurating conditions after operations on the 
knee-joint, after a long period of discharge 
there will be rapid amelioration, but there will 
be fistulous tracts, and these will continue to 
discharge, w-ith defined edges, as though 
punched out. If a specific history is obtained, 
drastic treatment, like the intravenous injection 
of cvanide of mercury, will generally give good 
results. Syphilitic subjects are liable to secon- 
dary hjemorrhage, and minor causes — the irri- 
tation of a ligature, a drain, or a small foreign 
bodv — produce in them serious results, even 
hajmorrhages to the point of anwmia,. If these 
patients are submitted to some such specific 
treatment as hypodermic injection of biniodide 
of mercury, the tendencv to hjemorrhage will 
disappear, and cicatrisation will proceed nor- 
mally. Dr. Sourdel recf)nimends the specific 
treatment for syphilis of every wounded 
syphilitic subject, especiallv where any abnor- 
nialitv occurs in the course of the healing of the 


The British Medical Association, at its 
Annual Representative Meeting, adopted the 
following recommendations of the Medico- 
Political Committee : — 

That extended facilities should be made avail- 
able for the diagnosis of venereal diseases by 
laboratory methods. To whatever body the 
organization of this service is entrusted such 
service should include the provision of laboratory 
facilities having for their object the preventian, 
diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in general. 
In any schemes framed by local 'authorities,, the 

fullest use should be made of the laboratory 
facilities at vmiversitics and hospitals. 

That measures should be taken to render the 
best modern treatment of venereal diseases 
readily available for the -whole community, and 
the arrangements should be such that persons 
affected by these diseases will have no hesitation 
in taking advantage of the facilities for treatment 
which are afforded. That every registered 
medical practitioner should be in a position to 
ensure his patients access to institutional treatment 
when he considers that course desirable. 



On Saturday, August 5th, the following members 
of the nvirsing profession had the honour of 
being received at Buckingham Palace by the King 
when His Majesty conferred on them the decoration 
of the Royal Red Cross, 2nd Class : Miss Janet 
Bruce, Matron Nursing Staff of Military and War 
Hospitals ; Miss Ida Bodin, Nursing Staff of 
Military and War Hospitals ; Miss Harriet 
Powell, Nursing Staff of Military and War 
Hospitals ; Mrs. Grant Williams, Nursing Staff 
of Military and War Hospitals ; Miss Margaret 
Ireland, Nursing Staff of Ci\-il Hospitals ; Miss 
Frances Slinger, Nursing Staff of Civil Hospitals ; 
Miss Violet Stapleton, Nursing Staff of Civil 
Hospitals ; and Miss Jessie Stiles, Nursing Staff 
of Civil Hospitals. 

We have pleasure in publishing the portraits 
of Sister Alice Bowdler and Nurses D. Hirst and 
E. Fisher, of the Royal Infii-mary, Huddersfield, 
whose names were included in the Birthday 
Honours' List, and whom the King recently 
decorated at Buckingham Palace with the Royal 
Red Cross (2nd Class) in recognition of the care 
and devotion given to wounded soldiers during 
the time they were under treatment at the 
Huddersfield Infirmary. It w-ill be remembered 
that the Mation, Miss Emily Barry, received the 
Royal Red Cross (ist Class) at the same time. 

A supplement to the London Gazette, issued on 
February 3rd, gives a despatch on military 
operations in the Nyasaland Protectorate, sent by 
the Governor to the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, and dated November ist, 1915. The 
Governor encloses a despatch from Lieut. -Colonel 
G. M. P. Hawthorn, 1st King's African Rifles, 
Commanding the troops in Nyasaland, and, 
amongst those whose names he brings to the 
Governor's notice, are Miss A. Fallot a.nd Miss B. 
Empson who were present at Karonga when the 
post was attacked on September gth, 1914, and 
were most assiduous and indefatigable in their 
care of the woimded in hospital. 

Miss R. Paterson, Matron, was sent to Karonga 
when more help was required after the action on 
September gth, 19 14, since when she and Miss 

August 12, 1916 

^be Britisb 3ournal of "Rurstng, 



Fallot have been employed continuously with 
the Field Force ; their ser\'ices have been 

The Liverpool Post publishes the following 
quotations from the letter of a V.A.D. working in 
a mediaeval chateau not far 
from Rouen, which was handed 
over to the Uritish Expedi- 
tionary Force on the outbreak of 
war : — 

" The great feature of life here 
is that one never sees a case 
through, and often they are 
nioved before they have barely 
improved. They come in very 
bad, with high temperalnires, 
and if they are easier, and tem- 
peratures go down in a day or 
two, off they go to ' Blighty.' . 
It's always going and com- 
ing. I'll never get to know 
my boys out here. It's noth- 
ing to go off duty at night 
leaving thirty-seven patients 
and come on in the morning 
and find either fifty or sixty 
patients struggling to get up 
for a 7.30 boat, or seven or eight completely 
fresh cases in beds of seven or eight old 
acquaintances. The operating theatre is busy all 
day and every day. My staff nurse is most 
awfully nice ; in fact, they all are here. When 
she is off I am on alone, which was rather terrify- 
ing the first night it happened, when I'd only been 
there two da vs. 
I do all the 
dressings either 
\\ith her or a 
doctor, or 
alone. I give 
nedicines and 
injections, put 
stitches in and 
out, and do all 
sorts of things 
w hich would 
have raised 
the roof of St. 

yi 's if a 

V.A.D. had 
much less 
done. In fact, 
in the places 
here where 
there is only one Sister and a V.A.D. they are 
made responsible for m.uch more. So it's excel- 
lent work for us." 

How about the patients ? 

tained a brief account of a picturesque incident 
which is'worth further record, if oirly as a useful 
reniinder of a not too well known past. 

It was the public presentation of the insignia 
of Lady of Grace of the English Order of St. Jolm 
of Jerusalem to the Mother Superior of a convent 
school in a town within the war 
zone. The reason of the cere- 
mony was the conduct of this 
Frenchwoman in the month of 
-Vugust, 1914, at a moment when 
in the eyes of the population of 
the invaded provinces all seemed 
lost save honour. 

A British medical unit which 
had taken up its quarters in her 
pensionnat had had to evacuate 
so quickly as to be forced to 
leave behind it all its equipment 
and belongings, including the 
rifles and packs of its patients. 

Hardly had the train, in which 
the men were placed, left the 
station before the Germans 
entered the town. One of their 
first steps was to issue an 
order that, under pain of death, 
everything left beliind by the 
troops should be handed in 


British and 

But to this order the Mother Superior deter- 
mined to bid defiance. Her late guests were the 
allies of her country ; they had been doing noble 
work. Why hand anything of theirs to the 
bullying, threatening Huns ? Intent on the well- 
being of their 
patients they 
had no time 
e\'en to remove 
their flags — 
the Red Cross 
Pennant and 
Union Jack. 
They were as 
sacred as the 
tricolour of her 
own country ; 
these at least 
she must try 
to save. So 
the flags she 
gave to a 
Sister, an 
Enghsh woman 
by birth, to 
hide among her 
clothing, the 
patients' arms 


A French provincial newspaper, says the 
British Medical Journal, a short time ago con- 

and accoutrsments she buried 
in the convent graveyard, and the hospital 
equipment she hid in the cellars whose 
very existence she then contrived to conceal by 
brick and mortar and whitewash. She managed, 
in short, to conceal everything but beds and 
mattresses, for which no hiding place could be 


?rbe »riti£!b 3ournal of "fflnrstno. 

August 12, 1916 

found, and to keep them safe until, the town 
being reoccupied, she was able to hand them over 
to the French authorities. 

The hospital in question was one of the general 
hospitals which came out with the original Expe- 
ditionary Force. It was sent up immediately on 
its arrival to what was then the advanced base, 
and not being able to secure any one building 
sufficiently large for its purpose, it had distributed 
its beds in several buildings. The principal of 
these was the convent school mentioned. It 
had only been at work about a week when the 
fall of Namur upset the scheme of the Allies' cam- 
paign and the backward movement commenced. 

jVIrs. Creagh, Matron-in-Chief of the South 
African Military Nursing Service, Miss J. C. Child 
and other members left England on Friday last 
week for service with the South African Con- 
tingent in France. All good wishes go with them. 

A hospital of 200 beds under Dr. Agnes Bennett, 
with a personnel of fifty-eight, and a motor trans- 
port column under Mrs. Harley, left London last 
week for Salonika, to be attached to the Serbian 

The nursing personnel of the hospital includes 
Miss Tate (Matron) and Misses M. Aitkin, Angel, 
Caton, Chilton, Davis, Dow, Durr, Finch, Hansell, 
Harvey, M. Harvey, Highet, King, McCallum, 
Maxwell, Morgan, Morris, Saunders, Ward, Wittet. 
The trained nurses with Mrs. Hailey's Transport 
Column are Miss Stephen and Miss Leveson. 


Under the auspices of the Red Cross Society 
and St. John of Jerusalem in England, the 
following nurses have been deputed to service 
in Home Hospitals : — 

Home Service. 

North Staffs Hasp., Stoke-on-Trent. — Mrs. M. H. 

TheWardell Militarv Hasp., Stanmore, Middlesex. 
—Miss S. F. Bland. ' 

Aux. Military Hasp., Waverley Abbey, Favnham. 
— Miss Annie Swinburne. 

Lawley Park Convalescent Military Hosp., 
Slough. — Miss F. M. Marland. 

Brundall House Aux. Hasp., Bnindall. — Miss 
D. A. Swan. 

Red Cross Hosp., Waterlooville, Hants. — Miss 
Gertrude Green. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Brim Hill, Booth, Liverpool. — ■ 
Miss Nora Hogan. 

Aux. Military Hosp., Percy House Schools, 
Isleworth. — Miss Margaret Campbell,. Miss A. M. 

Bed Cross Hosp., Loddon, Norfolk. — Miss Rosa- 
lind D'Arcy. 

Toyne House, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol. — ■ 
Mrs. A. M. Jones. 

Hanivorth Park, Feltham, Middlesex. — Miss Lily 

Hosp. for Officers, 53, Cadogan Square, S.W. — - 
Miss T. F. E. Thomas. 

Normanhurst Hosp., Battle. — Miss E. M. Ervine. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Ashbiirne, Sunderland. — Miss 
May Cowell. 

Hambleton Hall Hosp., Oakham. — Miss Edith 
May Hellings. 

Pavilion Hosp., Old Trafford, Manchester. — 
Mrs. Emma Greenwood. 

Red Cross Hosp., Tilsham Park, St. Leonards-on- 
Sea. — Miss Lena Bent. 

Ardleigh V.A.D. Hosp., Essex. — Miss Louisa 

Auxiliary Hosp., Uppingham. — Miss F. A. 
Quance. Miss E. S. Chinn. 

Red Cross Hosp., Knighton, Radnorshire. — ■ 
Miss M. A. R. Airey. 

St. John's Hosp., Moor Park, Preston. — Miss 
Lydia Brand. 

Hosp. for Officers, 24, Park Street. — Mrs. S. C. 

Auxiliary Military Hosp., King Edward Hall, 
Finchley. — Miss Edith V. Read. 

Red Cross Hosp., Hook House, Chester. — Miss 
Janet M. Stewart. 

Red Cross Hosp., RhyL — Miss M. C. Browning. 

Fairlawn Auxiliary Hosp., Honor Oak Road, 
Forest Hill. — Miss M. Ursula Wells. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Town Hall, Torquay. — Miss 
Alice M. Armstrong. 

Red Cross Hosp., DitchUng, Sussex. — Miss Nellie 

Red Cross Hosp., Earl's Colnc, Essex. — Miss C. 

Victoria Auxiliary Home Hosp., Stretford, 
Lanes. — Mrs. Olive Adams. 

Trafford Hall Red Cross Hosp., Trafford Park, 
, Manchester. — Miss Florence E. Beresford. 

Overcliff Hosp., The Leas, Westcliff-on-Sea. — ■ 
Miss Nesta Buttershaw. 

Clarendon Hosp., Kineton, Warwick. — Miss Agnes 

Hai'borne Hall, Harbornc. Birmingham. — Miss 
A. McD. Cuthbert. 

Red Cross Hosp., Town Hall, Torquay. — Miss 
E. B. Hore. 

Nimthorpe V.A.D. Hosp., York. — Miss E. M. 
Hay ward. 

Auxiliary Military Hosp., Burnage Lane, Levens- 
hulme. — Miss A. E. Head. 

'Dollis Hill House Hosp., Gladstone Park, 
CHcklewood. — Miss Clara Alvarez. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Northwood, Middlesex.— Miss- 
Katharine Farringdon. 

S. Wingfield Hosp., W. .ilpeton. Derbyshire. — ■ 
Mj-s. Caroline BelL 

Foreign Service. 

The following have been deputed to foreign 
service : — 

For Egypt. — Miss Edith M. Blease, Miss iviaiy 
Wilson Heron. 

Madame O'Gorman's Barge. — Miss Grace Violet 

August 12, 1916 

Zbc Britteh 3ournal of 'Murstng. 



Lieut. -Colonel Tooth, C.M.G., Commanding 
Officer of No. i General (City of London) Hospital, 
T.F., has been appointed consulting physician 
with the Mediterranean Forces, and has left for 
Malta. Colonel D'Arcy Power is now in com- 
mand at Xo. I. We can but rejoice that the 
ad\-ice of so able and kind a consultant should be 
available for the sick and wounded of the 
Mediterranean Forces. 

were entertained by the Mayor of Hammersmith 
at his houseboat at Hampton Palace. 

The nucleus of the Wounded Allies Relief 
Committee, of Sardinia House, Kingsway, was 
formed on the evening of August 4th, 1914, the 
very day of the declaration of war by Great 
Britain. The first task of the Committee was to 
help to bring wounded Belgian soldiers to England 
and distribute them in hospitals ; since then the 
relief work has extended to many other spheres, 
and touches in one way or another all our Allies. 

The Committee has maintained two Homes for 
Disabled Belgian Soldiers in England, where 
they have been fitted with artificial limbs and 
taught various trades to render them self- 
supporting, and it also keeps up a sanatorium 
at Eastleigh for Belgian soldiers suffering from 
phthisis ; it has presented to the Belgian Army 
four bath-caravans for use at the Front, also a 
caravan soup kitchen to supply the troops in the 
tienches with hot tea, coffee or soup, and in 
addition two bath-caravans made on an improved 
plan and capable of fxffnishing seventy hot baths 
an hour. 

In France the Committee is maintaining two 
hospitals for French soldiers, the one at Limoges, 
containing 225 beds, the other at Lyons, with 
300 beds. 

To the Russian Red Cross Society' the Com- 
mittee has given four motor ambulances, each 
containing four stretcher-beds, and to the Italian 
Army it is supplying the motor operating theatre, 
described in oixr last issue, the first of its kind 
ever constructed, that will enable urgent opera- 
tions to take place at the Front and, it is hoped, 
save the lives of many wounded men who might 
otherwise die on their way to hospital. 

Concerning relief w-ork for Serbia and Monte- 
negro, the Committee sent out a fever unit, 
consisting of doctors and nurses, to Serbia ; and 
up to the time when the Austrians took possession 
of the country it was maintiiining one large 
hospital in Kragujevatch and another in Pod- 
goritza ; and since the retreat of the Serbian Army 
has sent out fresh units with stores and provisions 
to Corfu, where a vast amount of work has been 
and is being done, attending to the disease- 
stricken remnants of the Serbian Army. 

Mso, in the first half of 1916, the Committee 
has supplied the hospitals of our^AUies with over 
175,000 articles, and it has equipped and main- 
tained various hospitals and homes, at home 
and abroad, 'gi\'ing the relief that was needed 
when it was needed. 

The name of Sir Philip Sidney has been handed 
down from generation to generation as that of a 
chivalrous knight who, in his own extremity', gave 
the water he was about to drink to another. 

Mr. Philip Gibbs,. writing from the British Head- 
quarters in France, describes in the Daily Tele- 
graph the conditions under which cur troops have 
been fighting : — " For two days now," he says, 
" the sun has been blazing hot, and our fighting 
men have been baked brown. It is not good 
fighting weather, either for guns or men. . . . 

It is hot and thirst>' work, and painful to the 
spirit and flesh of men e\-en along roads that are 
not pebbled with shrapnel bullets. Men on the 
march to-day were glad of frequent halts, and 
flung themselves down on the waysides panting 
and sweating, moistening their dusty lips with 
parched tongues, and fumbling for their water- 
bottles. They were lucky to have water, and 
knew their luck. It was worse for the men who 
were fighting yesterday in the same heat wave up 
by Waterlot Farm and further south by Maltzhorn 
Fai^m, not far from Guillenaont. Some of them 
drank their water too soon, and there was not a 
dog's chance of getting any more until nightfall. 
Thirst, as sharp as red-hot needles through the 
tongue, tortured some of these men of ours. And 
yet they were lucky, too, and knew their luck. 
There were other men suffering worse than these, 
the wounded lying in places beyond the quick 
reach of stretcher-bearers. ' It was just awful to 
hear them crying,' said one of their comrades. ' It 
was " Water ! Water ! For Clixist's sake — ^water ! " 
till their \'oiccs died away.' 

" As usual, the stretcher-bearers were magnifi- 
cent, and cam.e out under heavy fire to get these 
men in, until some of them fell wounded them- 
selves. And other men crawled down to where 
their comrades lay, and, in spite of their own 
thirst, gave the last dregs of their water to these 
stricken men. There were many Sir Philip Sidneys 
there, not knighted by any accolade except that of 
charitj', and very rough fellows in their way of 
speech, but pitiful. There was one of them who 
lay wounded with some water still in the bottle by 
his side. Next to him was a wounded German, 
groaning feeblj' and saying, " Wasser ! Wasser ! ' 
The Yorkshire lad knew enough to understand 
that word of German. He stretched out liis flask 
and said, ' Hi, Mister, tak' a swig o' that.' They 
were two men who had tried to kill each other." 

Last Saturday afternoon over 100 wounded 
soldiers from Hammersmith Military Hospital 

It is reported from Copenhagen that the Royal 
Danish Serum Institute has during last year pro- 
duced and exported to belligerent countries large 
quantities of tetanus serum, wliich has been of the 
greatest value to wounded soldiers. It has also 
produced typhus serum \\ ith great success, having 
so far sent about 2Ch3,ooo portions to different 
battlefields. The Institute is now producing 
cholera serum in big quantities for the Salonika 


Zbc Britteb 3ournaI of "Kursing. 

Atigust 12, 1916 



The First Eastern General Hospital (T.F.), 
Cambridge differs from others inasmuch as it is 
an open-air hospital, and seen on a hot August 
afternoon the arrangement seemed to be ideal. 
The whole of one side of each ward is absent, 
though strong blinds can. if necessary, be drawn, 
and the patients lie facing the gardens, bright 
with beautiful flowers, while the soft air circulates 
freely tiarough the ward and fans the drawn faces 
of the men, many of them, alas hectic and feverish 
as the result of suppurating wounds. 

By the courtesy of the Commanding Officer, 
Colonel Griffiths, and the Matron, Miss A. 
MacdonalJl, I was able 
to see this interesting 
hospital. Miss Mac- 

donald. like the Princi- 
pal Matron, Miss Crook- 
enden, of Addenbrooke's 
Hospital, was trained at 
St. Thomas' Hospital, 
as was also Miss Wills, 
an Assistant of Miss 
Amy Hughes, of the 
Queen Victoria Jubilee 
Institute, who kindly 
acted as my cicerone. 

The size of the hospi- 
tal is rather bewildering 
to the stranger who 
arrives within its gates, 
the number of beds 
being at present 1,670 ; 
1,570 in the huts, and 
100 more in tents, be- 
sides 300 in schools in 
the town. However, a 
sign happily hung out, 
" Here toileth ye Regis- 
trar," gave the clue to 
the official headquarters, 
the office of the Regis- 
trar, Major Hughes, be- 
ing close to that of the 
Matron, where Miss 
Wills was then on diitv* 
and soon we were on our 
way to the bath ward. 

Here were some of the worst cases, illness and 
suffering being evident on every face, but it was 
good to know that the ti'eatment was not only 
remedial but soothing, and the patients are loth 
to return to ordinary beds again. I learned that 
when the King visited the hospital last week his 
Majesty was very interested in this ward, and gave 
much pleasure to the men by speaking to each of 
them. There are six baths in the ward, and I was 
told that eighteen could always easily be filled, 
but the cost of installing the baths, and the electric 
plant necessary to keep the tem.perature of the 


water at a uniform temperature of about 100 
degrees Falu'. is considerable — ;^8oo for this one 
ward — so a number of impotent folk are waiting 
for their turn to enter the liealing waters of this 
modern Bethesda, and one can imagine no 
expenditm'e which would give the donor greater 
satisfaction than to know that he had been the 
m.eans of bringing relief, and healing, to the men 
who hide their suffering with such resolute 
courage, while the sight of the maimed, wounded,, 
tortiued limbs is pitiful indeed. 

Like all the wards at the First Eastern Hospital 
the bath ward is bright and gay, indeed one's 
impression was that the pretty display of bunting 
was a remnant of the King's visit. It is, however, 
the usual dress of the hospital. The baths at 
first are not obvious as they are covered with 
boards covered with quilts. It is only when 
a section is turned back 
that one realizes that 
the patient is immersed 
in water, sees the foot 
\\ith the heel shot away 
conifortably supported 
so that nothing but 
water touches it, or the 
infected knee joint with 
tubes tlirough it, pro- 
gressing so that the 
patient with light in his 
eyes announces that for 
the first time he can 
move it to-day. The 
temperature of the bath 
is controlled and re- 
corded : a daily chart 
being kept. The baths 
are emptied andcleansed 
every morning by the 
night nurse, otherwise, 
unless there is any 
special indication to the 
contrary, the patient 
rcTuains in the bath for 
twenty-four hours. 

The hospital stands 
in the playing fields of 
King's and Clare, and 
near by the bath ward 
the pavilion has been 
added to and converted 
into charming n.ess 
rooms for the nursing 
staff — they are com.fortabh' housed, the members 
of the 'Territorial Force Nursing Service at 
King's College, and the Red Cross workers at 

Near the bath ward also is the Recreation 
Room where the men can wTite letters, read 
papers, and where entertainments often take place, 
an excellent permanent stage having been erected 
for the purpose. In the Recreation Room there 
are five fireplaces — the only ones in the hospital. 
Beyond the hut is the bowling gieen where such 
m.en as are able can enjoy out-door sports. 

August 12, igi6 

Zbc 36rttl6b 3ournaI of "Rurstno. 


A few weeks ago an Exhibition of Arts and 
Crafts was held in support of the Recreation 
Room, which was opened by Lady Ampthill and 
proved an unquahfied success. In the first place 
the work — fine needlework, embroidery, wool 
work, and other specimens exhibited by patients, 
orderlies, and nursing staff, were voted of an 
exceptionally high standard of excellence. 

In the second place the day was perfect, and 
there were so many visitors that the money taken 
was far in excess of all expectations, and the 
Recreation Room benefited to a corresponding 
degree. The public availed themselves to the 
full of the opportunit\' of seeing the hospital. 

It is not in the wards alone that the advantage 
of fresh air is manifest. The roof of the kitchen 
is raised som.e inches from the walls, thus affording 
space both for ample ventilation and for the 

are only cardboard, and the other that they are 
of alabaster. 

Mention must be made of the chap>el which is 
used for early celebrations and daily services, 
but parade services are held out of doors. 

As I paused on the bridge over the river on my 
way to the Market Place where stacks of fragrant 
lavender were on sale, the river was bathed in 
sunshine, and the whole place steeped in the 
peace which so often enfolds ancient foundations 
established and enriched by the devotion and 
self-denial of om: forefathers. One hoped that it 
permeated into the inmost being of the convales- 
cents in the blue hospital uniforms leaning over 
the parapets — uniforms now familiar and honoured 
as the mark of men, gallant and chivjJrous, who 
have fought and suffered for King and Empire — 
God bless them. M. B. 

A W ard with open fron:. 

The Entrance. 

admission of air, the consequence is that it is 
qviite free from smell. 

The housekeeping is now in charge of a Sister, 
and the Sisters' Mess finds the advantage of this, 
both in com.fort and economy. The food goes 
from the kitchen to the wards in hot tins, so that 
it arrives quite hot in the wards. 

There is a very busy operating theatre with two 
tables, where the operations often number thirty 
a day, and sometimes are as many as fifty'. A 
daily chart is kept and just now the line is mount- 
ing steadily upwards. In the theatre block is an 
X-ray room, also an extremely busy department. 

The walls of the huts are of asbestos, though if 
the conversation of t\vo patients is correctly 
reported in the Hospital Gazette there is a difference 
of opinion on the subject, one holding that they 


We aic still mourning the loss of brave men 
belonging to Territorial units in a troop train in 
India when 130 cases of heat stroke occurred, 
19 of which proved fatal, nmv the Secretaiy of 
State for India comm.unicated to the press the 
following cable received from, the Viceroy : — 
" On recent voyage of hospital ship Dongola from 
Basra to Bombay there were 130 cases of heat 
stroke among British sick and wounded troops, and 
seventeen deaths due to heat-stroke occurred troops and crew, and fi\e other deaths were 
probably caused by heat. A following wind 
necessitated ship being turned round every four 
hours for first thirty-six hours of voyage, so that 
wards could be ventilated. Voyage was made 
under m.ost trj-ing clim.atic conditions." 


Ebc British 3ournal of "Kurstng. 

August 12, 1916 


A correspondent WTites : — " On July 31st the 
evening was dark, still, quiet and mists hanging 
about. As darkness crept on there were suspicious 
sounds — cars and motor cycles dashing about, 
whistles, cries of challenging soldiers, hurried 
steps of a man dashing into houses with messages, 
a stern command " Put out that light," then three 
loud bangs — the Zepp. signal. Very soon a loud 
hum, coming nearer, higher, lower — and a flash. 
Sheet lightning ? No ; bang comes the report 
of a bomb. Flashes — t\vo and tlxree together. 
After what seems a long time, reports to match. 
Then searchlights shoot up — two, five, seven — 
aU pointing to one spot, just above us. In the 
room are two sleeping children brought out 
of bed in blankets, their mothers and our tr\vo 
selves. Above, in the eternal heavens, the 
meteors flash and glide. What care they for 
Zepps ! At last the lights catch it. " There he 
is," is cried out. The bombs bang, and with a 
sharper tone our guns let fly, the balls rolling, 
rolling up the shafts of light — a glorious sight. 
At last a cheer. " Hit ! Got him ! Hurrah ! " 

He " dips and goes on end, but a bank of mist 
swallows him up. The lights pierce on a little 
longer, then go out. The play is over and we 
go to bed. Not half an hour after " he " came 
again. We all bundled out, and the sam.e scene 
was enacted for a while ; but it was too hot, 
so he retired gracefully. We had no bed till 
daylight for fom nights, but that was the night. 
It is a very wonderful sight, but the weirdness of 
it is indescribable. The dogs of the neighbour- 
hood bark and the cocks crow always before the 
bombs fall. It seems to be the hum they hear first. 


Miss Violetta Thurstan, in describing the 
sufferings of the refugees, has said that " the 
greatest tragedy of the war is not seen upon the 
battle-field." Can any exceed that of the 
deported in the occupied pro\dnces of France as 
related below ? 

The Paris correspondent of The Times writes 
that the French Yellow Book dealing with the 
conduct of the German authorities towards the 
inhabitants of the French departments in enemy 
occupation is a lasting monument of 
shame. The evidence contained therein is sum- 
marised in the Note which the French Govern- 
ment has dispatched to neutral Powers. In this 
document it is set forth : — 

On the order of General von Graevenitz, and 
with the aid of the 64th Infantry Regiment 
detached by the German General Headquarters, 
about 25,000 French subjects, young girls of 
between 16 and 20 years of age, young women, and 
men up to the age of 55, without distinction of 
social condition, have been torn from their homes 
at Roubaix, Tourcoing, and LiUe, separated with- 
out pit)' from their families and forced to work in 

the fields in the departments of the Aisne and 
the Ardennes. 

" -\t 3 o'clock on Saturday morning (April 22nd, 
Easter Eve), at Tourcoing. Roubaix, and Lille 
the soldiers of Germany marched down to occupy 
positions for this -victory. By 4 o'clock in the 
morning they had surrounded the Fives quarter, 
which was the first district attacked. At cross- 
roads, and at the end of each street, they installed 
machine-gun sections, and then patrols of 10 or 
fifteen m.en with fixed bayonets battered on the 
doors of the houses, ordering the inhabitants out 
into the street. Outside each house there hung 
a list of all the inhabitants, and there was no 
means of escape. An officer, accompanied by a 
non-commissioned officer, selected their slaves. 

" The raids were accompanied by terrible 
scenes of grief and sorrow, and not a few elderly 
people lost their reason when they saw their 
daughters being carried off. Some of the men, 
especially of the Landsturm, seemed to be con- 
scious that they were engaged in shameful work ; 
some of the officers, too, admitted that nothing 
could ever cleanse the German flag from this 
fresh stain put upon it. Indeed, it is said in 
Lille that a number of officers and men are in the 
Citadel awaiting their trial for refusing to dis- 
honour them.seh'es. 

" By this act of honour they spared themselves 
scenes which one would have thought might melt 
the heart even of a German — the maddened 
woman whose husband, son, and daughter were 
taken, who cursed theni in their race, in their 
wives, and in their children ; or the woman who 
broke out into a sweat of blood when her boy 
was taken, and whose shattered reason refused 
to recognize him when he was brought back. 

" Against all tliis black horror stands out the 
.splendid spirit of its victims. On leaving their 
homes they were collected in the churches and 
schools of their district, numbered and labelled, 
and carted off in cattle wagons to the station, 
harlots and young girls, ragamuffins and merchants 
all joined in the comnion misery. Yet, as the 
first of these slavegangs dro\-e to the railway 
station, these wTetched folk were defiantly shouting 
" Vive la France," and for the first time since 
the Germans entered Lille rang out the song of 
freedom and revolt, the ' Marseillaise.' Those 
left behind had an attitude no less noble. 

" ' I saw these herds of people go,' wTote a man 
ol Roubaix. ' It breaks one's heart. The women 
as they passed tried to throw little parcels to their 
husbands, brothers, or sons ; the young fellows 
on the whole held themselves sturdily ; some of 
then^i were singing. What moved us most was 
the depai'ture of the women and young girls who 
had been taken. You can imagine the state of 
parents who saw young girls of between 16 and 
20 years of age going off in the midst of young 
chaps of all sorts and conditions. And whither ? 
That no one knows. The wind of sorrow is 
blowing round us, but for all that we keep our 
courage and are confident." " 

August 12, 1916 

(lb€ Brtttsb 3ournal ot fluremfl. 



The following is the official nport of ihc 
<liscussioj on State Registration of Trained 
Nurses at the Annual Representative Meeting 
■of the British Medical Association, Mr. E. B. 
Turner, FT^.C.S., Chairman of Represenlatiw' 
Met'tings, being ig the chair : — 

The Chairman of the Medico-Political Com- 
mittee said that the Council had recommended 
the Representative Body to take into con- 
sideration the proposals with reference to the 
College of Nursing. 

Mr. E. J. Domville (Exeter) said that the 
Bill as now drafted was practically in accord- 
ance with the Bill approved by the British 
Medical Association in 1913. The promoters 
had agreed to adhere to the principle that the 
British Medical Association should nominate 
representatives on the Nursing Council, and 
provision would be made for that in the Bill, 
but the other constituencies appointing the 
remainder of the one-third of the Council wore 
not yet definitely agreed upon. In all other 
respects there was every prospect of an agreed 
Bill being put before Parliament, in which the 
principles approved by the British Medical 
Association in 191 3 would !>e substantially 

In reply to Dr. Robertson (Glasgow), Mr. 
Garstang said that the College of Nursing had 
undoubtedly been started in a manner the .Asso 
ciation did not quite approve, but it had now 
got rid of a good maiiv of its obnoxious 

Dr. T. Jenner Verrall outlined the nature of 
the negotiations which had so far been carried 
out between the Association and the College of 
Nursing. The great principle on which the 
College of Nursing and the Association were 
agreed was that there should be registration of 
nurses on lines that the nurses themselves could 
accept and approve. The Association was 
working loyally with the Central Committee for 
State Registration of Nurses, of which it was a 

At the suggestion of the Chairman, the 
motion was amended and agreed to in the 
following form : — 

" That the Representativ<' Hotly instruct the 
Council to take into consideration the possi- 
bility of establishing bv means of the proposed 
Bill now under consideration bv the College of 
Nursing and the Central Committee for the 
Slate Registration of Nurses the general prin- 
ciples desired by the Association in respect of 
the State registration of nurses, and whether 
the .'\ssociation would be justified in supporting 
the Bill." 


W'c print below the lourth drMfl of the Bill 
promoted by the Council of the College of 
Nursing, Ltd., and approved by it on July 27th. 
It is satisfactory to note that several of the 
principles advocated by the Central Committee 
for the State Registration of Nurses have been 
incorporated since the Bill was first drafted. It 
is, however, not an agreed Bill. It will be seen 
that the Constitution of the Council under 
Clause 5 is not defined, and as the Central Com- 
mittee will not meet again before September, 
further negotiations on this point cannot take 
place before then. 

The nurses to be registered have a right to 
have the authorities nominating the persons to 
govern them defined in their Bill, as is provided 
both in the Medical and the Midwives' Acts. 


Be it enacted by the King's most Excellent 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of 
the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, 
in this present Parliament assembled, and by the 
authority of the same, as follows : — 

Short Title. 
L This Act may for all purposes be cited as the 
Nurses' Registration Act, 1916. 

Thk College of Nursing. 

2. — (i) The name of the College of Nursing, 

■Limited, shall be changed to " the College of 

Nursing," and it shall be entitled to bear that 

title without the addition of the word " Limited." 

The General Nursing Council. 

(2) The College of Nursing shall for the purposes 
of tills Act act by the Council thereof (which shall 
be entitled " The General Nursing Council " and 
is hereinafter called " the Council ") as regulated 
by this Act and by Rules made thereunder. 

(3) Every nurse registered under this Act shall 
be entitled to a vote at elections of the Council, 
and, if registered on the General Register, without 
further fee to become a member of the College of 

Register ov Nurses. 
3. It shall be the duty of the College of Nursing 
to form and to keep a General Register of Nurses, 
a Supplementary Register of Male Nurses, and a 
Supplementary Register of Mental Nurses, and 
each such Register is hereinafter in this Act 
included in the term " the liegister." The 
Register already formed by the College of Nursing, 
Limited, shall be the first Register under this Act. 

4. — (t) Rules shall be made under this Act — ■ 
(i) regulating the constitution and proceedings 
and the mode of election and of retirement of the 


JLbc Brttlsb 3ournal of "Wurgtnfl. 

August 12, 1916 

Council and providing for the representation 
thereon of the Pri\'-\- Council and any Government 
Department, of the Nurse Training Schools, of the 
medical profession, and of the nurses on the 
Supplem.entary Registers : pro\-idcd that 

(a) not less than two-thirds of the Coimcil shall 
be elected by the niu^ses on the General Register 
under this Act ; 

(b) the election of representatives of the nurses 
on General Register and on any Supplementary 
Register shall be by voting papers to be trans- 
mitted through the post in the prescribed m.anner, 
and each person voting shall be entitled to give 
one vote for each of any nximber of candidates 
not exceeding the number of m-embers of the 
Council to be elected to represent the nurses on 
the General Register or on a Supplem.entaxy 
Register as the case m,ay be ; 

(c) the Jirst Council to be elected under the 
rules shall com_e into office on the expiration of a 
period of two years after the passing of this Act ; 

(ii) regulating the issue and cancellation of 
certificates of registration and the conditions of 
adn.ission to the Register ; 

(iii) regulating the course of training and the 
examinaticn of nurses intending to be registered 
and the appointment of exam.iners ; 

(iv) regulating the adnission to the Register 
of persons already in practice as trained nurses 
at the passing of this Act ; 

(v) regulating the admission to the Register 
of persons registered in any British Possession in 
which a Xurses' Registration Act is in force 
subject to such conditions and qualifications as 
the rules m.ay prescribe ; 

(yi) pro\-iding for the pubUcation of the 
Register with such particulars as the rules may 
prescribe ; 

(vii) providing for the temporary or perm^anent 
removal from the Register by the Council of any 
nurse for such causes or offences and after such 
enquiry as niay be prescribed but subject to the 
appeal provided for by this Act ; 

(\'iii) regulating the procedure for the restora- 
tion to the Register of any nurse so removed ; 

(ix) pro\-iding for the establishm.ent of and for 
regulating the powers of Local Boards for any 
parts of the United Kingdom for the purposes of 
this Act : and 

(x) otherwise for the purposes of this Act. 

(2) Rules under tliis Act shall be made by the 
Council, but shall have no effect until they have 
been approved by the Priw Council, and the 
Pri\-y Council may approve the rules subject to 
such modifications as the Privy Council think 

Provision .\s to the First Council. 

5. — (i) On the passing of this Act and for a term, 
of two years the Council shall consist of the 
following forty-five persons so long as they may 
be willing to act : — 

[N.B. — The Bill is lejt blatik here Jor the insertion 
of names. — Ed.] 

^2) Casual vacancies may be filled up by co" 

Provision for Existing Nurses. 

6. Any person who within three years from 
the passing of this Act claim.s to be registered 
thereunder shall be so registered, provided such 
person is at least t\ventj'-one years of age and is 
of good character, and is qualified for registration 
under the conditions laid down by the College of 
Niu-sing, Lim.ited, until and unless modified by 
rules under tins Act. 

Who may be Registered. 

7. At the expiration of -the said term of three 
years any person who claim.s to be placed on the 
General Register under this Act shall be entitled 
to be so registered, pro\dded that such person is 
at least twent\'-one years of age and is of good 
character, and has had the training under a 
definite curriculum prescribed by the Council in 
a Nurse Training School or Schools recognised by 
the Council. Any nurse whose name is placed on 
the General Register and who holds a certificate 
of the Fever Nurses Association, or its equivalent, 
granted under conditions approved by the Council,, 
shall be entitled on paym.ent of a registration fee 
to have the words " also trained in fever nursing " 
added to her record in the Register. 

8. A m.ale nurse m.ay claim to be placed upon 
the Supplementary Register of Male Nurses pro- 
\dded that such person has had the training under 
a definite ciurriculum, prescribed by the Council 
in a Nuise Training School or Schools recognised 
by the Council, or holds a certificate of sir ilar 
training as a niu-se authorised by the Lords Com- 
missioners of the AdrrJraltN' for the sick berth 
staff of the Royal Navy, or as a nurse authorised 
by the Army Council for soldiers of the Royal 
Army Medical Corps, on satisfying the Council 
that he is t\vent\'-one years of age and of good 

9. An asj-lum trained nurse, who holds a 
certificate of the Medico-Psychological Assccia 
tion, or its equivalent, granted under conditions 
approved by the Council, or who has qualified as 
a m.ental attendant in the Royal .\rniy ^Medical 
Corps, m.ay claim to be placed upon the Supple- 
mentaTT.- Register of Mental Nurses on satisfying 
the Council that he or she is twentj'-one years of 
age and of good character. 


10. Every candidate for exan.ination or regis- 
tration shall pay to the College of Nursing such 
fee as may be prescribed by the Rules. 

Penwlty for Pretending to be Registered. 

1 1 . From and after the publication of the first 
Register no person shall be entitled to take or 
use the nam.e or title of registered nurse, or of 
registered male nurse or of registered mental 
nurse (either alone or in combination with any 
other word or words or letters), or any nan.e, 
title, addition or description imph-ing that he 

August 12, 1 916 

Ebe »ritl5b 3ournal of 'Kursinfl. 


or she is registered under tliis Act, or is recognised 
by law as a registered nurse, or as a registered 
male nurse, or as a registered mental nurse, or to 
use any badge or uniform appointed by the Council 
as the badge or uniform of a registered nurse, or 
of a registered male nurse, or of a registered 
mental nurse, or any colourable imitation of such 
badge or uinforn\, unless that person is registered 
as such under this Act, and, if any person know- 
ingly takes or uses any such name, title, addition, 
or description or uses such badge or uniform or 
imitation thereof in contravention of this section, 
he or she shall be liable on summary conviction 
to a fine not exceeding ten pounds. 

Copy of Register to be Evidence. 

12. A copy of the Register certified to be a true 
copy by the secretary of the College of Nursing 
shall be evidence in all Courts of Law that nurses 
whose names are therein specified are registered 
under this Act, and the absence of the name of 
any nurse from the Register shall be evidence 
that such nurse is not registered under this .\ct ; 

Provided always, that in the case of any nurse 
whose name does not appear in the Register a 
certificate under the hand of the secretary that 
the name of such nurse has been entered on the 
Register shall be evidence that such nurse has 
been duly registered under this Act. 

Penalty for Obtaining Certificate by False 
Representation and for Falsification of 

13. Any person — 

(i) who procures or attcm.pts to procure a 
certificate under this Act by making or causing to 
be made or produced an)' false and fraudulent 
declaration, certificate, or representation, either 
in \NTiting or otherwise ; or 

(2) who wilfully makes or causes to be made 
any falsification in any manner relating to the 

shall be guilty of a misdemeanour, and shall on 
conviction thereof be liable to be imprisoned, 
with or without hard labour, for any term not 
exceeding twelve m.onths. 

Provision as to Prosecutions. 

14. A prosecution for any of the offences in 
this xVct mcrttioned shall not be instituted by a 
private person without the consent of the College 
of Xursing, but such prosecution may be instituted 
by the College of Nursing. 

Appeal from Decision of Council. 

15. Any registered nurse, or registered male 
nurse, or registered mental nurse, aggrieved by a 
decision of the Council remo\ing his or her name 
from the register may, within thice months from 
the notification of such decision, appeal therefrom 
to the High Court of Justice in England and 
Wales, or to the Lord Ordinary, officiatuig on the 
Bills in the Court of Session in Scotland, or to the 
High Court of Justice in Ijeland, and such appeal 
shall be final. 

No Authority to Practise Medicine. 

16. Nothing contained in tliis Act or in any 
rules made thereunder shall confer any authority 
to practise medicine, or to undertake the treat- 
naent or cure of disease. 

Laying of Rules Before Parliament. 

17. Rules imder this Act shall be laid before 
both I louses of Parliament as soon as may be after 
they liavc been approved by the Privy Council. 


We have received the following notice from 
the Secretary of the College of Nursing, Ltd. : — 

The Council of the College of Niu-sing, Ltd., in 
order to meet the convenience of Matrons, Sisters 
and nurses on Active Service, has waived the 
obligation of Candidates for Registration to 
forward, with their Application Forms, copies of 
the Certificates they hold from their Nurse 
Training Schools. These Certificates, however, 
will be required later, that they may be filed. 

It is felt that this will be a great convenience 
to nurses abroad, also those serving in Military 
Hospitals at home will be glad to be relieved 
of the difficulty of procuring their Certificates, 
which in many cases are stored, with other 
personal possessions. 

The Council would like the nurses who have 
sent in their Application Forms, and who may 
not yet have received any further communication, 
to know that the delay has been in consequence 
of some necessary alterations in the ^Vrticles of 
Association, that the formalities of registration 
are being proceeded with, and as soon as possible 
will be completed. 


The President of the Society for the State 
Registration of Trained Nurses acknowledges with 
thanks ailcmalion of los. trom l)r. IC. W. Coodall. 


We hear from the States that ^lavyland has this 
year put through the n^ost progressive Hill that 
has yet gone on the Statute Books and the nurses 
are delighted. It requires the completion of the 
high school course for adnission to a nurse-training 
school, three years' professional training, and 
of an inspection of the schools by a nurse. 


The following promutums h.ivc been made in 
the above service : — 

Sen. Nursing Sisters to be Lady Superintendents. 
—Miss Helen A. Macdonald Rait, R.R.C. ; March 
25th, 1915. Miss Christian F. Hill ; December 
i2th, 1915. Miss Lallah B. Dunwoodie ; March 
20th, 1916. 

Nursing Sisters to be Senior Nursing Sisters. — 
Miss Violet I. Lamb ; March 25th, 1915. Miss 
Ethel M. Cunningham ; December 12th, 1915. 
Miss Jeanie S. R. Wilson ; March 2th, 1916. 


Zbc Britteb 3ournal of ■Rurging. 

August 12, 1916 



Royal Infirmary, Oldham. — Miss Mary Mackintosh 
has been appointed Matron. She was ti'ained 
at the Royal Southern Hospital, Liverpool, where 
she has held the position of Assistant IMatron. 

Ogmore and Garw Isolation Hospital, Black- 
mill. — Miss Esther Phillips has been appointed 
Matron. She was trained at the Italian Hospital, 
having charge of enteric and diphtheria wards, 
and has also held the position of Sister in the 
same institution, and at the City Hospital, Leeds. 

Bootham Park Mental Hospital, York. — Miss 
Marie Christophersen has been appointed Matron. 
She was trained at the Derby Borough Blental 
Hospital and the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. 


Royal Hamadryad Seamen's Hospital, ' Cardiff 
Docks. — Miss E. A. Roberts has been appointed 
Sister. She was trained at Bolton Infirmary and 
has been staff nuise at the Sailors' Hospital, 
Holyhead, for two years, and Night Sister at the 
Rhymey Cottage Hospital. 

Red Cross Hospital, St. Moritz, Eccles. — Miss 
Boothroyd has been appointed Sister. She was 
trained at Rochdale Infirmary, and had subse- 
quent experience at Leeds. 


Tr.\xsfers .\nd Appoin'tments. 
Miss Harriett Bucldey is appointed to Accring- 
ton ; Miss Emma E. Co.x to Swanley ; Miss 
Harriette Fowkes to Worthing ; Miss Helen 
Kixon to Woodlands ; Miss Emma A. Pasfield 
to East London (Stepney) ; Miss Elizabeth Powell 
to Gillingham : :Miss Gertrude A. Weston to 


The following appointments have been nuide 
through the N.U.T.X. :— 

Cyngfeld V.A . Hospital. Shrewsbury . — Miss K. 
Jolmsori (Sister-in-charge). 

Midsomer Norten I'. A. Hospital. — IN'Irs. H. 
Rogers (Matron) . 

American Hospital, Highgate. — Miss D. Yar- 
borough (Sister). 

Norfolk War Hospital. — Miss E. Roberts (Sister). 

Townleys Military Hospital. — Miss K. Davies 


We regret to record the death, at the Bir- 
mingham No. 2 Military Hospital, of Miss Nora 
Dugan, second daughter of Mr. Matthew Dugan, 
Barmouth, Castlerock, who died, after a few days' 
illness, from pneumonia She had only been three 
weeks in the hospital as a volunteer under the St. 
John Ambulance Association. The funeral took 
place at Coleraine and was largely attended, the 
members of the local branch of the V.A.D. 
attending in uniform. 


Tht; Hon. Secretary of the- Catholic Women's 
League Nurses' Guild wishes it to be under- 
stood that although the original scheme for 
a Nurses' Residential Club has not so far 
matured, the proposal has not been abandoned ; 
it is merely in abeyance. 

The first general meeting of the St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital Nurses' League, Rochester, is 
to be held at the hospital on St. Bartholomew's 
Day (August 24th), at 2.30. The meeting will 
be preceded by a short service in the hospital 
chapel. The Secretary of the College of Nurs- 
ing will present a paper, and at four o'clock 
the meeting will resolve itself into a garden 
party. .-Ml former nurses of the hospital will 
be welcome. 

Mr. Ernest A. Dench, of Brooklyn, N.Y., 
discusses in the American Journal of Nursing 
the effect of motion pictures on the insane. 
This is best summed up in the words of a 
famous asylum superintendent: — "It makes 
life comfortable, both for the afflicted and for 
those who have the care of them." Several 
institutions have proved the above statement 
by actual experience. In all cases comedy has 
had the most beneficial effect upon feeble- 
minded folks, who are apt to give way to 
brooding, so since their minds can be diverted 
to the merry side of life, much has been accom- 
plished. Drama is not appreciated, for it seems 
too involved for the insane to understand ; yet, 
on the other hand, educational subjects ' are 
followed with interest, and after the perform- 
ance it is not unusual lor patients to ask all 
sorts of questions pertaining to the same. The 
intelligence, however, has to be worked up on 
a gradual scale. First simple comedies are 
shown, the next step being the educational. 

It is not long before the patients develop into 
motion picture enthusiasts. They antici- 
pate the shows far in advance ; w-atch the screen 
intently and applaud every picture. Not all 
f>atients are in the same condition ; it has been 
found best to try the pictures with those least 

At the Central State Hospital of Lakeland, 
Ky., for instance, a motion picture entertain- 
ment is given in the large auditorium every 
Tuesday evening, when white patients con- 
stitute the audience. Coloured patients are 
regaled with a similar program each alter- 
nate Wednesday night. .At the Eastern Oregon 
State Branch Hospital, performances are given 
twice weekly. The orchestra which accom- 

August 12, igi6 

Zhc *rltt9b 3ourtinl of ■Kurstnfl. 


panics Uic 

pictures is fornicd of hospital 

Mr. R. Scott Liddell, in his book "On the 
Russian Front," speaks most appreciatively of 
the work of the nursing .sisters. By the kind- 
ness of the editor of The Gentlcivoniati, \vc are 
able to reproduce the charming- picture of a 
Russian Sister of Charity gathering flowers for 
soldiers' graves, which is one of the illu.stra- 
tions in this book. 

graduates, and afterwards find it (iillicull to get 
appointments. Ur. Masina was the first to 
initiate the proper nursing of patients in the 
Parsi wards of the Sir Jamsetjce Jecjcebhoy 
Hospital, and he has now projected a scheme 
for training Parsi women graduates as nurses, 
which will be put into execution if, to begin 
with, about half a dozen Parsi women graduates 
come forward to take advantage of the scheme. 
Dr. Masina thinks that if a few educated ladies 
will serve ars nurses old prejudices will die out. 


" When plague first broke out in Bombay," 
says the Lancet, "a number of Parsi ladies 
volunteered their services as nurses in Dr. 
Bahadurji's plague hospital. Their services 
were very useful and greatly appreciated at the 
time by the Parsi community, but since then 
nursing as a profession has not jnade any sub- 
stantial advanc<' in the communitv, because the 
recruits are not from the right class. While 
there is at present a distinct want of educated 
and trained Parsi nurses, a numfjer of Parsi 
ladies turn their attention to becoming 

and their success should give a great impetus 
to other women graduates to take up the pro- 
fession. Dr. Masina lays great emphasis on 
the fact that the proper practice of the profes- 
sion improves the moral tone of those outside 
the profession in the same way as, or even in a 
better way than, missionary work. To induce 
Parsi women of university education to learn 
nursing Dr. Masina has prepared a graduated 
scale of honorariums. After their full training 
exceptionally good nurses will be sent to Europe 
or America for higher training. 


^be BritiC'b 3ournai of "Kurstnfl. 

August 12, igi6 



(Concluded from page 120.) 

In this illuminating book. Dr. Hollander 
discusses the causes of nervous disorders in 
women, including Nervous Exhaustion, Loss of 
^Mental Control, Headache, Xeuralgia and other 
Pains, Insomnia, Kervous Dyspepsia, Nervous 
Disorders of the Heart, Circulation and Respira- 
tion, Loss of Muscular Control, Emotional Insta- 
bility', &c. 

The author states that " nervousness is the 
trouble of the age. Many men and women are 
never really ill, nor well either — that is to say, 
they are never ill enough to be confined to bed, 
and never well enough to enjoy either work or 
pleasiue. * They may not complain of their 
' ner\-es ' at all, nor do they always suspect that 
their nervous system is at fault ; but they think 
that some particular organ is diseased, for which 
they seek treatment. Some suffer from dyspepsia 
without any recognisable disease of the stomach ; 
some from cardiac trouble with an apparently 
sound heart ; some from muscular weakness or 
spinal pain without suspecting their nervous 
system to be at fault ; and others from altered 
secretions from organs apparently in a normal 

There may be no local disturbances, but only 
general debility and depression — a state in which 
the patient can do nothing so well as formerlv, 
and finds every little exertion a trouble. And 
often this is accompanied by a feeling of insecurity- 
and self-distrust, the patient becoming nervous, 
easily agitated, over sensitive, emotional and 
timid. The ills of these people are neither imagi- 
nary nor invented ; and while they do not neces- 
sarily confine them to bed. they often prove the 
source of such serious disturbances as to make 
them very miserable 

" Some wom.en are pre-occupied with m.atters 
upon which no amount of taking thought can be 
of the slightest avail, and with regard to questions 
which are not deserving of the anxiet>- bestowed 
iipon them. They are born ' worriers.' Their 
minds are engrossed with small points that 
irritate them, or filled with apprehension of what 
is about to go wTong. To those on the look out for 
something to trouble about, there is usuallv 
no dearth of material ; yet, sometimes, it does 
seem to the onlooker that the subjects on which 
they seize betray by their far fetched character 
the fact that life near at hand must be singularly 
free from real sorrow." 

Dr. Hollander points out that " whereas the 
sufierings of man arise chieflj' from exhaustion, 
those of the wonaan arise, above all, from restricted 
energies. Girls brought up for marriage only 

*By Bernard Hollander, M.D. 3s. 6d. net. 
(Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd., 
Broadway House, 68-74, Carter Lane, E.C.) 

have their nervous system upset by the imeasy 
time of waiting. They attend balls which dis- 
appoint them, go into company which bores them, 
take part in family intercomse which leaves them 
weary. If they remain spinsters the want of con- 
genial occupation — sometimes loneliness, neglect,, 
disappointment and anxiety as to the future — 
tend to produce an unhealthy state of mind which 
is a primary condition for the developm.ent of 
nervous disorders. Therefore sensible women look 
about them for something which can give their idle 
days a purpose, the emptiness of their existence a 
meaning . . . 

" iMarriage frequently is an episode in the life 
of a nian, but it is nearly always an epoch in that 
of a woman's, hence the problem of happiness or 
unhappiness of marriage is of much greater 
consequence to women than to men. Marriage is 
a lottery in which men stake their Uberlrj' and 
women their happiness." 

The author says that " one of the commonest 
forms of nervous disorder is nervous exhaustion. 
The first sign is usually a ' tired ' feeling without 
adequate cause. The least exertion, such as a 
short walk, produces an inordinate sense of 
fatigue and weariness, even in women who to all 
appearances are in good muscular condition . They 
can make strong single or brief exertions,, but 
cannot continue to apply their forces. The 
weakness lies not in the muscles but in the nerve 
centres that control them, which are too readily 
exhausted. The nutrition of these nerve centres 
is defective, and the fatigue experienced is only a 
sign of it." 

In the chapter on Headache and Neuralgia. Dr. 
Hollander also refers to " noises in the head," a 
most distressing complaint, and says that " In 
man}' cases these are due to variations in the 
quantit\', qualiti,' and pressure of the blood, either 
.in the ear itself or in the brain, such as are induced 
in adults by worrv, excitement, fatigue, debility 
or indigestion. These noises are either ringing, 
whistling, hissing, cracking, pxilsating, blowing,, 
continuous or intermittent. All these sounds may 
be absent, and yet the subject may stiU be greatly 
annoyed by hearing the beat of the pulse in her 
ear when the head is on the pillow. Nothing 
more painful or harder to bear can be imagined 
than continual noises in the head. They are apt 
to depress the tone of the n:ind and of the whole 
nervous system of the unfortunate sufferer. The 
enjoyment of life is destroyed, the temper soured, 
S'nd the power of work greatly reduced. 

A very interesting chapter is that on 
" Insomnia." Dr. Hollander says that |" Sleep 
is like a pigeon. It comes to you if you have 
not the appearance of looking for it, it flies away 
if you try to catch it. The patient must lose all 
fear of insomnia. . . It is only when the 
mental \ibration ceases that sleep conres of 

The book is full of wisdom and should find a 
place in all nurses' libraries. They cannot fail 
to be better nurses if they absorb its teaching. 

August 12, 1916 

^be Brittsb 3ournal of "nur«infl. 



Sphagnum Moss, which in the various|;Sphagnol 
Preparations supplied by Peat Products, Ltd., 
18 and 19, Upper Thames Street, E.C., is being 
so successfully used for cb-cssing wounds, sore feet, 
insect bites, &c., is greatly appreciated by the 
men at the Front, as the following letter from 
a private in the Worcester Regiment demon- 
strates : — 

" I do not know how to thank you for the 
ointment ; it was truly a godsend, for it has acted 
like a charni upon my feet, which have been so sore 
and blistered. I never knew ointment to give such 
relief to one's feet. After each day I rub my feet 
with it, and it stops that burning feeling. Thank 
you ever so much ; I cannot express my thanks." 

The campaign for the collection of sphagnum 
in the North of Scotland has now assumed 
enormous proportions, and is under the direction 
of Miss Ogston, daughter of Sir Alexander Ogston, 
of Aberdeen, the eminent s\u'geon. 



If you are not desirous of having tears in your 
eyes and a big, big pain in yoiu' heart, if you arc 
afraid of being alternately tlarilled with pride 
and cast down in self contempt, we strongly 
advise you to have nothing to do with this book. 
It is a first-hand, simple record of the daily 
experience of what we judge to be one of the pick 
of the nursing profession in charge of an ever- 
changing convoy of wounded men on a hospital 
train. Such experiences ! Such men ! The 
chronicle gains much from the fact that it was 
not originally written for publication, but is in 
the form of a diary kept for the friends of the 
Sister at home. And it was published without 

Its literary st>'le is good, and the lady has 
evidently considerable fcdent in this direction. 
In the short daily entries an appealing bit of 
scenery, a humorous incident, the mingled pathos 
and laughter of Tommy, silent heroism, glorious 
fortitude are expressed \ividly and convincinglj-. 
The book is full of priceless, deathless records of 
otherwise unrecorded valour. 

And the Sister jots them down along with her 
own personal experiences, without any appeal to 
the gallery, without any strained sentiment, and 
just because of this it goes straight home. 

We will simply quote bricHj' just a few of the 

" They were bleeding faster than we could 
cope with it ; and the agony of getting them off 
the stretchers on to the top bunjc is a thing to 

Speaking of wounded Indians she writes : " One 
compartment of lour lying-down cases got rcsthss 
with the jjain in their arms, and I found them all 

• Messrs. Wm. Blackwood & Sons London. 

sitting up rocking their arms and wailing. ' Aie 
Aie, Aie.' Poor pets." 

" Seems funny, 400 people, of whom four are 
women and about sixty are sound, all whirling 
tlirough France by a special train. Why ? 
Because of the swelled head of the All Highest." 

" By the time these nien reach the Base these 
men are beyond complaining, each stage is a 
little less infernal than the one they have left ; 
and instead of complaining they tell you how 
lovely it is." 

Of the Sikhs, " Their great disadvantage is 
that they are alive with ' Jack Johnstons ' (not 
the guns). They take ofi all their underclothes 
and throw them out of the windows, and we 
have to keep on supplying them with pyjamas 
and shirts. All the cushioned seats arc now 
infected, and so are wc. I love them dearly, 
but it's a big price to pay." 

" A wounded officer told me he was giving out 
the mail in his trenches the night before last, 
and nearly every man had a letter or a parcel. 
Just as he had finished a shell can\e and killed 
both his sergeant and his corporal ; if they hadn't 
had their heads out at that moment for the mail 
neither of them would have been killed. The 
officer could hardly get tlirough the story for the 
tears in his eyes." 

" Five mufflers went on a little isolated station 
on the way here. When I said to the first boy, 
' Have you got a muffler ? ' he thought I wanted 
one for some one on the train. ' Well, it's not 
a real muffler, it's my sleepiug cap,' he said, 
beginning to pull it off his neck, ' but you're 
welcome to it if it's any use.' What do you 
think of that ? " 

" A man whose arm was smashed got as far 
a:s a man ' to tie liis torn niuscles up ' and then 
started to crawl out dragging his arm after him. 
After some hours he came on one of his own 
officers wounded, who said, ' Good God, sonny, 
you'll be bleeding to death if we don't get you 
out of this ; catch hold of me and the chaplain.' 
So 'c cuddled me and I cuddled the chaplain, 
and wc got as far as the doctor." 

" I have a boy of 22 with both legs off. He is 
dazed and white and wants sliifting very often. 
Each time you fix him up^ he says ' That's 
champion.' " 

" My boy with the dressings on his head has 
not the slightest idea he has no eyes, and who's 
going to tell lum ? " 

Later, doing duty in a field ambulance. " Can't 
face the graves to-day. I foimd a boy who 
brought liis officer in from between the German 
line and ours on Sunday night, crying this 
morning over the still tigiirc under a brown 
blanket on a stretcher." 

" Nine officers have ' died of wounds ' here 
since Sunday, and a tenth will not live to see 

" One boy said suddenly when I was attending 
to his leg, ' Arcn't^Jyou very foolish to be staying 
up here ? Oh, sorry, I was dreaming you were 
in the frontline of trenches bandaging people up.' " 


ZTbe British 3ounial of IRursuiG. 

Auguxf \2, 1916 

There is a great deal of the Hghter side of her 
experience that we should like to quote if we 
had space, but for the sake of those who are 
unable to get the book we have given the fore- 
going incidents. For those who are so able we 
ad\-ise them not only to get this volume, but to 
keep it, not only as a record of the heroism of 
our dear brave men, but also of the women who, 
with such cheerful, devoted self-sacrifice, are 
midst cold, discomfort, weariness and " Jack 
Johnstons," ministering to them. 

Don't miss reading it on any account. 

H. H. 

An American tribute has been paid tcp the 
memory of Rupert Brooke in the award for 
distinction in literature of the Howland Memorial 
of 1,500 dols. (;£30o). The announcement of the 
award is> in these words : — " On an isle in the 
Aegean under olives by the sounding sea lies 
buried a young Englishman, poet and soldier, dead 
on lus way to Gallipoli. To Rupert Brooke, the 
patriot poet, the Howland prize is this year given." 


The clang of war has ceased, and in its stead 
Are the winged cries of birds, and stars that 

And evermore the lone pine's nuumuring 

Uncomforted about the quiet dead — ■ 

The unmindful dead, who sleep forgetfully. 
Heirs to the infinite spaces of the light. 
The laughter and the music of the night. 

And for their more content the eternal sea. 

Only in dusks of spring when pale stars gleam, 

And young winds creep about the silent hills. 
Within the whispering earth one dreams a dream 
Of English nights filled with the sound of rain. 

And English woods ablow with daffodils. 
And stirs and smiles and sighs and sleeps again. 
K. M. PodsoN. 
(The. Observer.) 


August igth. — Enumerate the signs and 
symptoms of acute tonsilitis. What disease may 
it resemble ? How would you nurse such a case ? 

August 26th. — Give three instances of eruptive 
fevers. Describe the nursing care of one of them 
and state what precautions you would take to 
prevent infection. 

[We regret that no competition papers were 
received this week, but, as the services of 
nurses are everywhere in such great demand, 
this is not surprising.] 


We would remind our readers that they can 
help The British Journal of Nursing by deal- 
ing as far as possible with advertisers in the paper, 
and getting their friends to do Ukewise. Only 
the most reUable firms are accepted by the 


Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 


To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear M.\dam, — You have been so very kind 
to us so often, helping the Red Cross in its work, 
that I hesitate to trouble you again, but I wish 
particularly to draw your kind attention to the 
very beautiful souvenir which has been produced 
by the Red Cross through the kind services of 
Messrs. Raphael Tuck & Sons, of the late Lord 

The whole of the proceeds are being divided 
between the British Red Cross Society' and the 
Kitchener Memorial, and Messrs. Raphael Tuck 
& Sons are giving their valuable services without 
any profit to themselves. 

If you could see your way to draw attention to 
it in yoitf paper it will be aiding nraterially the 
funds of the sick and wounded. — ^Yours truly, 
Ch.\rles Russell, 
Chairman of the 
Headquarters Collection Committee. 
British Red Cross Society, 

The Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, 

Room No. 99. 83, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 


To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 
Dear Madam, — To " rejoice with those that 
do rejoice " is an easy command to fulfil, and 
I am sure nurses are always glad to learn of 
members of their profession recei\'ing the award 
of the R.R.C. for deeds of heroism and distin- 
■guished service on behalf of the sick and wounded 
sailors and soldiers. But while I gladly rejoice 
with the recipients of this honour, I feel very 
disappointed and angry when I see those who 
have shown conspicuous heroism passed over. 
That this has been a great omission during this 
war there can be no doubt. When I saw the 
sweet face of Sister G. Metherell in the current 
issue of the Journal, and read of her heroism 
and beautiful selflessness on the occasion of the 
troopship Marquette being torpedoed last autumn, 
when New Zealand nurses on board called out 
".fighting men first," even after they were actually 
thrown into the water, and then looked in vain 
for R.R.C. after her name, I could hardly believe 
it. Who is to blame for this omission ? And 
what has become of the others who were saved — ■ 
equal heroines. Have they likewise been for- 
gotten ? It is time this matter was looked into. 
Beatrice Kent. 


M. F. J. {Wimbledon). — It is necessary before we 
can deal witli your question that you should 
comply with our rule to send full name, not for 
publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

August 12, 1916 (The »rtn0b 3ournal or l^urslna Supplement. 143 

THe Midwife. 



That Plymoutli does not mean to lag behind 
in the campaign against infantile mortality is 
shown in the following sclieinc drawn up by its 
Medical Officer of Health, Dr. Hall, and approved 
by the Sanitary Committee at a meeting held on 
Thursday, July 20th. 

In 1915 the births were 2,258, deaths 281. The 
number of births was less by 304 than in 1914, 
and there were 48 fewer deaths. The principal 
causes of deatlis were : Respiratory diseases, 129 ; 
premature births, 63; atrophy, 71 ; diarrheea, 67. 
The large number of deaths from respiratory diseases 
demands special notice. They are for the most 
part due to eccentricities in clothing, and other 
causes over which the Sanitary Authoritj' can 
exercise no control except through the medium 
of its health visitors. If these diseases arc 
eliminated from the total number of deaths, the 
results of preventive measures employed can be 
more accurately gauged. 

In the case of premature births it should be 
clearly understood that the deatlis are due not to 
diseases attacking a healthy child, but to causes 
chiefly inherent in the mother. Here sanitary 
control is again limited. The employinent of 
oxytoxics is without doubt a dominant factor in 
the causation of prematurity. Atrophy and 
diarrhoea are usually associated with errors in 
food or diet, and it is here that oiu- intervention 
can be of the greatest service. 

The diarrhoea referred to is not diarrhoea in the 
ordineiry sense, but a distinct type which is the 
most prorrdnent manifestation of an epidemic 
disease belonging to the zymotic group. The 
large number of deaths in certain areas from this 
disease in 1914 called for special action on the 
part of the Sanitary Department. The results 
achieved (not a single death from diarrhoea in 
1915) demonstrate the practical efficiency of 
the work done by the staff. The industrial 
employinent of pregnant women does not affect 
the infantile death-rate to any great extent. 

Overcrowding has been pr(jmptly dealt with. 
It should be noted that it is not so much the aggre- 
gation itself as such associated factors as poverty, 
intemperance, and bad hygiene that produces 
high mortality. The question of illegitimacy as 
likely to affect the death-rate has not been over- 
looked. Having briefly reviewed 1:he causes, it 
remains to be stated what action has been taken 
and what further action is necessary to reduce 
infantile mortality-. 

A free dissemination of literature to combat 
the ignorance of many of the niothers by interesting 
and educating them in the laws of health and 

hygiene and the successful rearing of infants. 
Under ,the Notification of Birtlis Act cases have 
been visited by a fully-trained nurse, advice given 
on clothing, feeding, &c. Three Health Visitors 
are already working in the town, and the Council 
have sanctioned the employnent of two additional 
Health Visitors. 

Recognising the unique opportunities of the 
midwives for investigating pre-natal conditions 
and for imparting knowledge to the mothers, their 
co-operation has been enlisted. Those lacking the 
knowledge have been instructed in the essential 
features of their work ; tlie principles of hygiene 
of the home, pregnancy, &c. Supplenientary to 
this measure, a course of lectures will be given 
at the Town Hall on ante-qatal hygiene to 
expectant mothers sanitary inspection. Removal 
of unwholesome conditions, printed leaflets on the 
dangers of the fly, the dangers of manure heaps, 
stable refuse, inspection of clairies, cowsheds, milk 
shops, bacteriological examination of all milk, dis- 
couraging the sale of n.ilk in general shops, in- 
sisting on the covering of all mjlk in proper 
storage vessels are some of the things we have been 
doing. These are by no means our final efforts 
for dealing with this important subject. The 
scheme submitted by Dr. Hall arid approved by 
the Committee is as follows : — 

1. The supervision of midwives. 

2. Visitation of infants and e.xpefctant mothers. 

3. A consultation centre, accessible for those, 
mothers and infants referred to it for advice and 
treatment by midwives and health visitors. The 
staff of such centre to consist of a medical officer 
(who would act also as assistant medical officer of 
health), the Corporation health visitors, all 
working under the direction of the Medical Officer 
of Health. 

4. A post-natal clinic, having for its object the 
medical supervision of infants and young children, 
to be conducted by the same officers at the con- 
sultative centre, but on a separate day. Here 
also the mothers may receive hygienic and other 
advice concerning themselves and their children, 
and suitable cases might be granted codliver oil, 
dried milk, &c., and tickets given for hospital 

5. Provision to be made for the treatment of 
complicated cases of labour, preferably in the 
existing hospitals and maternity homes. 

6. Skilled attendance in honie confinements by 
an arrangement between the local authority and 
these existing maternity training institutions. 

7. A continuity of hygienic and medical super- 
vision until the child reaches school age, when it is 
handed over to the Education Authority. 

It is suggested that this continuitj- be preserved 
by making children below school age the subjects 
of home %asitation and according them the 
advantages of the consultation centre. 

144 CTbc British 3ournaI of flursinQ Supplement. August 12, 1916 


Examination for Maternity and Child 

Welfare Workers. 
The Local Government Board and the Board of 
Education have recently issued Memoranda on 
Infant Welfare Work ; and at the present time, 
when there is particular importance attaching to 
the rearing of a healthy population, a great deal 
of attention is being devoted to the various 
meth'^ds and agencies by which tliis may be 

For the effective carrying out and administration 
of the measures designed, there is a need for 
workers well trained and with a high standard of 
qualification. In order to assist local authorities 
in the selection of suitable workers, the Royal 
Sanitary Institute have established an examination 
in sequence with the present standard examination 
for Health Visitors and for Inspectors of Nuisances, 
but requiring a wider experience and a more 
developed knowledge of the subjects pertaining 
to child welfare, including ante-natal conditions 
and the laws and regulations relating to and the 
organisation necessary for such work. 

The examination will be supplemental to the 
Health Visitors' examination, the certificate for 
which is one of the qualifications named in the 
General Order of the Local Government Board 
(1909), relating to the office of Health Visitor and 
School Nurse. 

The first.examinations will be held in London on 
December 8th and 9th, 1916. 


Candidates will be expected to show a high 
standard of knowledge and a wide experience in 
all subjects relating to Child Welfare and Home 
Management, particularly those stated below. 

Ante-natal work and after-care of the mother 
and infant. 

Hygiene of infancy and cliildhood ; cliildren's 

Principles of infant feeding ; infants' foods ; 

Home visiting and the advice that the infant 
welfare worker should be qualified to give. 

Domestic economics. 

Organisation and management of infant welfare 

A general knowledge of the agencies and 
institutions dealing with child welfare and relief. 

Duties of Superintendent of Midwives. 

Acts and Regulations relating to infant care 
and the protection of children, and Official Regula- 
tions and Memoranda having reference to maternity 
and child welfare centres, and duties of Health 
Visitors and other workers. The Midwives Act 
and Rules of the C.M.B. 

A thorough knowledge of the sanitation of the 
home and its surroundings will also be required. 

For regulations and further information, apply 
to the Secretary, Royal Sanitary Institute, 
90, Buckingham Palace Road, S.W. 

A Special Meeting of the Central Midwives 
Board was held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on 
Friday, August 4th, for the purpose of hearing 
the charges alleged against two certified midwives. 
Sir Francis Champneys presided. 

The first case taken was that of Mrs. Ellenor 
Strange (No. 4882), a midwife working in the 
area of the London County Council. Mrs. 
Strange was present, and was defended by her 
solicitor. Dr. Macrory, the inspector, and other 
representatives of the L.C.C. were also present. 
The charges were mainly in connection with 
neglecting to explain that medical help was 
necessary in cases of ophthalmia neonatorum. 
The charges were admitted in two of the cases, 
and denied, or withdrawn in others, but in one 
the baby was blind and in another practically so. 
Mr. Matthews, who defended the midwife very 
ably, took up, in our view, an unfortunate line 
of defence when he addressed the Board on his 
client's behalf. The Board, he contended, had 
to deal with two sets of people, the first coming 
from an intelligent class, who were able to pass 
a stifi examination, and the second derived from a 
class whose experience and manipulation was 
good, but who would never be able to pass an 
examination. The first mentioned midwife would 
send for a doctor at once and place the responsi- 
bility upon him. The latter often had a con- 
scientious feeling that, having been paid for a 
job, she must go through with it. That, he 
believed, was the motive actuating his client. 

The Board decided to remove Mrs. Strange from 
the Roll, but the Chairman informed her that if 
the L.C.C. were persuaded later that she was 
thoroughly trustworthy she might apply to be 

The second case was a curious one. The 
charges against the midwife were (i) that she did 
not explain that medical help was needed in a 
case of serious haemorrhage, and (2) that the 
patient, ha\ang died, she did not notify the Local 
Supervising Authority. The case against her 
broke down completely. It was proved that two 
medical men in succession were sent for when 
urgent symptoms arose, and that the second 
arrived within about thirty-five minutes of the 
call. The post-mortem disclosed a partially 
adrherent placenta, and haemorrhage behind it 
from the placental site. There was also a broken 
cord, which the midwife had tied at the end 
nearest the child and preserved for inspection. 

It was alleged against the midwife that at the 
request of the mother, she liad taken the baby, 
which was crying, down into the kitchen to bath 
it, leaving the patient in charge of a relative. 
The chaiiman held that the rule of the Board did 
not require the midwife to remain in the patient's 

The Board, after deliberating, found that no 
oflence against the rules had been proved against 
the midwife, and the case was dismissed. 

w THE 




No. 1,481 



R E 5 r . 

Rest is one of the oldest words within 
human coj^nizance. " In the beginning " in 
the early dawn of time, the race was 
enjoined to take rest, one day in every 
seven. Rest therefore is imposed by Nature, 
it is a human necessity. The need for it is 
clearly indicated in a hundred ways. Our 
physical limitations and needs are precisely 
the same now as they were " in the begin- 
ning." Whether it is an easy or a difficult 
matter to obtain the required rest, the 
stubborn fact remains, that in the vveakness 
of our human nature, we require rest, over 
and above that which we take nightly in sleep. 

Even for those workers who are not 
OVER-worked, there is still the necessity for 
" downing tools " at least once a year. 
Tlie more important antl valuable the work 
is, so much the greater is the necessity for 
a rest, for the sake of the work and for the 
sake of the worker. In this supreme hour 
of our Country's need, men have discovered 
the powers and intelligences of women ! 
and have been giail and eager — as all dis- 
coverers arc — to make the fullest use of the 
thing discovered, namely the manifold ser- 
vices so patriotically offered by women. 
Our Country must stand before every other 
consideration. It would not be fair to make 
any comparison between the patriotism and 
unselfishness of men and women who are 
working for her at the present time ; all 
have worked, and are working nobly 
towards the one great end, and it is because 
of this fact, that the ciuestion of rest — 
used in its more comprehensive sense of 
holiday — has resolved itself into one of the 
many problems of the war. ' 

Sir Douglas Haig, in the interests of the 
Country, demands that there shall be no 
general holiday while the war lasts. This 
applies principally, as \vc know, to muni- 

tion workers. Their need for a holiday 
must of necessity be great, and we trust 
that employers realizing the vital necessity 
of preserving the health of their employees, 
will find some means of giving " days off " 
to the workers. 

No war work, not excepting that in 
munition factories, is of more vital import- 
ance to the Nation than that of trained 
and experienced nurses, seeing that the 
war could not be prosccutetl without their 
aid. For their own sakes, in the interests 
of the sick and wounded, it is wise that each 
nurse should, as opportunitv offers, be given 
facilities for taking a holiday sufficient to 
recuperate herself, and to re-vitalise her 
flagging energies. The war is not over, 
and she will need all her strength for the 
task that still lies before her. No nurse 
worth her salt would wish to take her 
holiday in a time of exceptional pressure, but 
slack times occur in most hospitals. 

The work of the civilian nurse is almost 
of necessity being eclipsed by that of her 
military sister, but, if less conspicuous, it is 
scarcely less arduous. In fact in some cases 
of private nursing it is rendered infinitely 
harder and more trying to the temper by 
the exacting and astonishing inconsiderate- 
ness of the patient or his friends. A case 
has recently been brought to our notice, in 
which a devoted and unselfish nurse, in sole 
charge of a chronic invalid, has not had 
seven consecutive days' holiday in six years ! 
As she speaks of it, the tears, which she 
cannot control, well into her eyes and 
overflow, and she adds with unaccustomed 
fretfulness, " I am sick of it, I am worn out." 
The fact is painfully obvious. In another 
similar case, inexorable but patient Nature 
exacted payment in full, in the form of a 
severe breakdown. 

Nature, common-sense, economy, aye, 
even patriotism, combine in rcc]uiring 
reasonable rest for the worker. 


Z\)e »ritt«b 3or\rnal ot "nurginfl. 

August 19, igi6 





We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss J. G. Gilchrist, Gillespie Crescent, 


Tonsilitis, as its name implies, indicates an 
acute inflammation of the tonsils, the two small 
masses of lymphoid tissue guarding the 
entrance to the back of the throat, and inci- 
dentally the alimentary and respiratory systems. 
It may occur in two forms, the diffuse and the 
follicular, the latter being considered distinctly 
infectious to those exposed to the breath of a 
person ill with it. 

Acute tonsilitis is evidenced by the local signs 
and symptoms of a feeling of constriction and 
pain in the throat, the tonsils becoming red and 
enlarged ; in the follicular form covered with 
little vesicles exuding a cheesy-looking mass ; 
in the other form it mav present a smooth 
shining appearance, the inflammation extending 
to the uvula, and causing great discomfort. The 
patient's breath is foul. The muscles of the 
sides of the neck have a feeling of stiffness, 
owing to the swelling of the glands in the proxi- 
mity of the tonsils. Systemic symptoms are a 
high temperature (103° to 105°), violent head- 
ache, and a feeling of general prostration and 
aching in the limbs. The acute form of folli- 
cular tonsilitis, when the vesicles coalesce and 
form a coating over the tonsil, may resemble the 
false membrane characteristic of diphtheria. In 
severe cases the diagnosis can be only satis- 
factorilv ascertained by the bacteriological 
examination of swabs taken from the throat. 
Two points of difference are usually noticed in 
contrasting the two diseases. In tonsilitis the 
exudate is not so dark in hue as the diphtheric 
membrane, and can be removed easily in com- 
parison to that of diphtheria, which is exceed- 
ingly diflScult, and leaves a raw, bleeding 
surface. The membrane in diphtheria also 
spreads verv rapidly, while in tonsilitis the 
tonsillar^ swelling is most marked. Owing to 
the severitv of the general systemic symptoms 
in comparison with the local form of inflamma- 
tion in tonsilitis, one is often at first led to 
suppose the condition may be the initiatory 
stage of some specific disease, of which the 
throat condition may be only a symptom, and 
it is wise to be on the look-out for any progres- 
sive symptoms until diagnosis by a medical 
practitioner is assured. 

The "nursing treatment consists in isolating 
the patient in a warm, well-ventilated room, 

where he should be kept at rest in bed until 
the svmptoms subside. The bowels should be 
kept open and regular, and the diet fluid at first, 
owing to the pain and difficulty in swallowing. 
The mouth must be kept clean, and washed out 
with a simple gargle before and after taking 
food. Dr. Gee's mouth wash is one of the 
pleasantest, though Sanitas, Condy's Fluid, 
bi-carbonate of soda, or boracic lotion may be 
used, as is most suitable. The specific local 
treatment aims at arresting the process and 
relieving the pain. For this purpose painting 
the surface of the tonsil \\ ith an antiseptic and 
astringent is generally ordered. Sometimes 
pure guiaicol is applied during the first twenty- 
four hours, which, though causing great pain 
at the moment, is most effectual in its after 
effects. Mandl's paint is also commonly used, 
or tannin and glycerine may be used for some 
time after the onset. In an adult, douching the 
throat may also give relief, using an ordinary 
throat spray, the patient leaning forward, so 
that the fluid may run out of the mouth into the 
receiving basin. Swabs and linen rags used for 
cleansing the mouth should be burnt immedi- 
ately. For depressing the tongue, a metal 
spatula is generally used which can be boiled 
and then placed in a tray of boric lotion to cool 
it l>efore use. An electric torch is also useful 
to the physician while examining the throat, if 
one has not a head mirror. External applica- 
tions may be given either hot or cold. For the 
former a " Priessnitz compress," i.e., a piece 
of lint wrung out of boiling water and covered 
with protective, then bandaged round the neck, 
is often comforting. For the latter a small ice 
bag is often applied, the external treatment 
being as a rule kept up continuously for a few 
days. Salol or salicin is sometimes ordered in 
large doses. Other medicines usually given are 
potassium bi-carbonate or citrates,, with plenty 
of water to flush out the kidneys, which are 
sometimes aft'ected. 

When the patient is subject to frequent 
attacks of tonsilitis, and the tonsils become 
chronically enlarged, their removal is often 
advised. Many children and young people have 
> been greatly improved in health by this simple 


The follow ing competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss F. Sheppard, Miss K. Kohler, 
Miss S. Simpson, Miss H. M. Springbett, Miss 
L. M. Moflitt, Miss J. Robinson. 


Give three instances of eruptive fevers. 
Describe the nursing care of one of them, and 
state what precautions you would take to pre- 
vent the spread of infection. 

August 19, 1916 

Cbe Kritteb 3our!ial of ■Rursinfl. 



By Walter B. Swift, M.D., 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

The training of the nurse in the medical care 
of patients lies for the most part in riiethods 
and tasks that change from patient to patient, 
but I wish to present a few ideas that can be 
used in every case and at all times. I shall not 
attempt to present the old material of the 
nurse's training in novel garb, but to offer 
something new which can be employed on all 
occasions with equal profit and success. 

In a splendid school for nurses which I have 
had the privilege of watching minutely for one 
year, there was never a word of instruction 
upon the important subject of the nurse's voice. 
The same is true of many other schools with 
which I have had a more distant connection ; 
yet my subject is of great importance to the 
nurse, and has not been mentioned onlv because 
it has been unknown. 

A brief review of brain physiology will be 
helpful as an introduction to my more imme- 
diate subject. In the middle of the left hemi- 
sphere of the brain, as you know, lies the 
important fissure of Rolando. The convolu- 
tions just in front of and behind this fissure 
are very important. The one in front is the 
motor area, where the cells regulating muscular 
motions are located. Behind the fissure of 
Rolando lies the sensory area, which registers 
sensations received from the body. Now, the 
motor region controls the larger motions, such 
as grasping, reaching, holding, but not the 
much more delicate and complex motions, like 
writing. These are controlled by nerve cells 
near the motor area, but outside it. This 
specialized function and control by a higher 
center is found also in the sensory area. Just 
back of the arm area in the sensory field is 
an area where the cells interpret sensations sent 
up to the great sensory arm area, guiding arm 
sensations over into conclusions, interpreting 
nerve sensations, acting as a seat of final judg- 
ment as to what things are. This function of 
recognizing external objects is called stereog- 
nosis. We know of the existence of these 
higher controlling centers because when they 
are destroyed these functions no longer exist. 
Destruction of the higher refined motor area 
causes loss of the writing faculty known as 
agraphia. This construction of'higher centers 
for control and interpretation of lower centers 
is a favourite method with the architect of the 

* Froni The American Journal 0/ Nursing. 

cortex. To give one more example out of many, 
visual sensations pass 'to a part of the cortex 
known as the cuneus and are registered there 
as gross sensations, but outside that area is a 
higher center which, when human beings are 
seen, classes them as acquaintances or 
strangers, or, when letters are seen, puts them 
together into words. Pathologic lesions may 
destroy these functions also, and lead to psychic 
blindness and w ord blindness. 

We .see, then, that it is the rule for sensa- 
tions reaching the brain to branch out into 
correlated centers for interpretation, and for 
motor impulses passing from main centers to 
be guided by more refined, discriminating, and 
highly specialized parts. 

With these higher interpreting centers in 
mind, let us turn to the voice, and see whether 
there is anything analogous in its perception 
and production. For our purpose, no centers 
need be named or located. If, in the mere out- 
ward expression of voice we find clear evidence 
of the control of higher, more discriminating 
centers, then we may safely conclude, upon the 
analogy with the action of the arm and eye 
centers, that corresponding" anatomical divi- 
sions, ranging in size from a cell to nuclei and 
larger areas, do actually exist. If I can show 
that the voice is capable of making fine and 
delicate discrimination analogous to those of 
the hand in writing or of the eye in recognizing 
a friend, then I may safely assume that there is 
a higher center of voice control like those in 
the arm and eye areas. Wherever there is a 
function, there must be an organ to perform 
that function. 

Let us consider first the voice as heard — that 
is, the sensory side. A neighbour says to me : 
" At nine o'clock this morning I saw Mrs. 
Jones enter her car with her dog. The dog 
went first and sat on the seat. Then Mrs. 
Jones followed, and the chauffeur took his seat 
and drove away." The whole meaning of these 
words is in their denotation. Xo more is meant 
than what the words themselves, in their 
simplest sense, convey. There is nothing 
suggested by them, nothing insinuated or con- 
noted, nothing logicallv implied. 

But let us take another case. A friend tells 
me about a patient who is known to exaggerate 
her symptoms. " Your patient is complaining 
severely," I reply; "I should worry." The 
connotation of these words of mine is the exact 
opposite of their denotation. Or suppose a man 
tells me he has accomplished a feat which seems 
to me impossible. I say to him, " Yes you 
did ! " It is clear that my reply is only a politer 
wav of saving, " You did not. I don't believe 

?Ibe Bntisb 3ournal of 1R ursine. 

.1 ugiist ig, igi6 

you." The implication of the words is jusl tht' 
opposite of the sense uliich the words them- 
selves convey. 

Again, someone asks, " What makes the 
baby cry?" The answer comes, "She just 
slipped and fell." Here the obvious intent of 
the answer is to lead the listener to infer from 
the fact as stated that the baby cried because 
she fell, but the words do not say so. She may 
have been punished an instant before she fell. 
In this instance, the words play for an inference 
upon the mind of the hearer, and he passes 
tlir(.)ugh a logical process to the reason he asked 
for and did not receiv'e. 

From these three examples you see that the 
hearer may get the meaning of mere words or 
may get an idea opposite to the meaning of the 
words, or«may be led to infer a fact from a 
statement. In other words, so far, the higher 
sensorv centers that have been called into action 
to interpret these three cases have had to deal 
(a) with the ordinary meaning of words, (b) with 
a previously learned connotation of some set 
phrase, and (c) thev have had to draw a logical 

But now, setting these matters aside, let us 
take up an entirely different set of cases, which 
are not to be explained by the simple under- 
standing of mere words, by a familiar connota- 
tion superimposed, or by a logical inference. 
I say to my dog in a kindly voice, " Come here, 
poor puppy," and he comes. I say to him, 
" Get out of here " in a rough voice, and he 
departs at once. But if I keep the voices the 
same and transpose the words, the dog goes at 
the first order and comes at the latter. It is the 
sound of the voice and not the words to \\ hich 
he reacts. 

" Yankee Doodle " is a light, lilting jingle, 
and is commonly recited in a joyous rollicking 
rhythm, and at a sw^ft pace. But suppose that 
Yankee Doodle's mother had just died, and that 
he was coming to town solely to attend her 
funeral. If one recites a verse of the song with 
this interpretation in mind, the corners of the 
mouth are drawn down', the voice is low and 
mournful, one prolongs the vowel sounds, and 
dw-ells upon the broad, open sounds that are 
capable of producing a lugubrious effect. Or 
take the first ten lines spoken by the witches in 
"Macbeth." No two readers would recite 
these lines in just the same way, because each 
individual feels a different emotional content in 

All these illustrations conclusively show that 
we habitually depend in our speaking upon an 
extremely delicate and complex capacity in our 
hearers for the higher interpretation of the 

spoken word. In other words, the sensory side 
of voice perception is highly developed in all 
educated persons, and the greater the culture 
and refinement of the individual, the more 
delicate and discriminating this faculty is found 
to be. This is the sensory perception of vocal 
expression. It is hearing deeper than the mere 
words. It is becoming delicately sensitive to 
a high vocal content. In medical terms it is 
development of new cortical centers above the 
low and gross hearing center which can inter- 
pret from previous experience what the lower 
centers register. I feel an object in my hand. 
Then I say, " That is a nickel." The center of 
stereognosis has acted. I listen to words and 
say, " He is commanding." Those who can- 
not interpret the voice should not say, " There 
is no such center," but should modestly say, 
" In me it is yet undeveloped." 

Those who hear mere words and react upon 
their meaning as such, or those who hear words 
and react upon connotations established by 
custom, or those who hear and act upon the 
logical implication of words and who sense no 
more in the voice, have the vocal interpretation 
center as yet undeveloped. 

Thus much for the sensory side of voice and 
its interpretation. More details seem uncalled 
for. Clearly, it behoves vou to pay some atten- 
tion to the voices of your patients, to read their 
meaning, see their intent, sense the whole back- 
ground of their voices. There are several steps 
to be taken in doing this. First, get the indi- 
vidual's vocal norm; then study usual varia- 
tions under normal conditions ; then look for his 
pathological vocal changes. Thus you will be 
ready to judge and interpret a voice in any 

The nurse should develop her powers along 
these two channels : first, she should train her 
ear and mind to catch the most delicate, half- 
hidden shades of meaning that words can be 
made to carry, in order that she may more 
quickly understand the needs and feeling of her 
patient ; secondly, she should train her imagina- 
tion and her voice to such a degree that she will 
be able instantly to place an intense content, a 
great weight of added meaning, upon the mere 
words that are Uttered. The sympathy and 
understanding expressed in the tones of a finely 
modulated voice are more effective in gaining 
a patient's confidence than any mere words 
uttered in a careless tone can ev-er be. But it is 
only the trained voice, with the keen, alert brain 
back of it, that can accomplish this. 

We advise our readers to follow Dr. Swift's 
advice, and to take trouble to cultivate their 

August ig, 1916 ;rbe Britisb 3ournal of Hurstnfl, 



We are in'oniied that the War Oftice is appealing 
to ci\-il hospitals to permit ■^ome of their proba- 
tioners who have had a certain amount of training 
to take up ser\dce in miUtary hospitals. 

The appeal of the British Red Cross Society for 
Xurses for the military hospitals has resulted in 
several thousands of applications from women 
with various qualifications. Applications from 
trained nurses at 83, Pall 
Mall, S.W., and from 
women willing to work as 
V.A.D. nursing members, 
at Devonshire House, Pic- 
cadilly, \V., are still wel- 

Miss Swift believes that 
there is still a clientele to 
be drawn upon in trained 
nurses who have retired or 
married, but who may be 
willing to serve in the 
present emergency. 

join the 

Miss B. Atkinson, 
came to England 
August from 
Australia, to 
Q..\.I.M.X.R., is now 
returning by the hospital 
ship Marathon, accom- 
panied by Sister Grifiiths. 
She was recently awarded 
the Royal Red Cross, but 
was unable to receive it 
from the King on account 
of illness. Miss Becher, 
Matron-in-Chief, went to 
Xetley to make the pre- 
sentation ; and amongst 
those present were Col. 
Rcid, Major Russell, 
Major Brambly, the Rev. 
Mr. Bemford (chaplain at 
Xetley), Miss Reid (matron 
at Xetley), Miss St. 
Quinton (matron at Brocken- 
hurst), Sisters Findlater, 
Moxon, R.R.C., Epton 
R.R.C., T^Tiell, R.R.C., 
Brace and Griffiths. 

months. She resigned to accept the superin- 
tendence of hospital and nurses at the Marian 
Sims Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, and held the latter 
position for ten years, at which time the Marian 
Sims Ho.spital affiliated with the Chicago Polyclinic 
Hospital and the Henrotin Memorial Hospital. 
Her position was then tliat of Superintendent 
of the Henrotin ISIemorial, and Superintendent of 
Xurses for the Henrotin Memorial and the Chicago 
Polyclinic. Tlxis latter position she resigned on 
August 4th, 191.}, to take a much-needed vacation, 
which was spent in 
Canada and California. 
She came • to England in 
December last to accept 
the post of Matron at the 
Queen's Canadian Military 

Miss Stewart is a 
Cliarter member of the 
Illinois State Association 
of Graduate Xurses, and of 
the Illinois Xurses' Educa- 
tion League, and a perma- 
nent member of the Ameri- 
can Xurses' .•X.ssociation, and 
of the Xational League of 
Nursing Education. 


Miss Mary C. Stewart, R.X., Matron of the 
Queen's Canadian Military Hospital, Beach- 
borough Park, ShornclifTfe— the country seat of the 
late Sir Arthur Markham, whose death is so much 
regretted — and recently elected a member of the 
Matrons' Council, graduated from the Toronto 
General Hospital, Toronto, Canada, and afterwards 
held the post of head nurse at the Pavilion, 
Genealogical Department, for a period of seven 

Mrs. Furse, the FCom- 
mandant-in-Chief of the 
Voluntary Aid Detach- 
ments, who has just 
returned from a tour of 
inspection in France, 
wTites in her report, 
published in the Red 
Cross : — 

" V.A.D. members run 
the Xurses' Clubs in 
several places, and here 
again is real generosity. 
In one which we visited 
two members had been on 
duty solidly for a year or 
more. The Club is com- 
posed of huts set on a 
sand dune by the sea. 
The members sleep in 
tents pitched on the sand 
near the huts. This sounds 
ideal in weather such as 
we have had lately. But 
they faced it through last 
winter, when storms were blowing off the 
Atlantic across the sand dunes. There is but 
little glamour and no apparent heroism, and 
certainly no advertisement in such work ; but 
it competes nobly with the work of the members 
who aic doing dressings. 

" A little garden had been created in the sand. 
Nasturtiums, heliotrope and mignonette were 
growing round the club, to greet the tired nmrses 


JTbe Srittsb 3ournal of ■RuretiiG. 

August 19, 1916 

from the hospitals. If ever anvthins would win 
the confidence of trained nurses in V.A.D. mem- 
bers, it is work like this — devotion to the sick and 
wounded shown in the kindly care of those who 
are trained to tend them. 

• " Forgive m.e for not having worked this up 
better. We have been verv busy at Devonshire 
House lately, and we are all tired. We are also 
disappointed and discouraged, because we have 
500 vacancies in military hospitals which we 
cannot fill. Had anj'one told me two years. 
or even one year ago, that any English women 
would allow English wounded to remain neglected 
because they were reluctant to give up their time 
to waiting on them,, I should have denied the 
possibility^ Yet tlus is now the case. They tell 
me that in some places girls who are independent 
are still plaT,-ing tennis by day and dancing in the 
evenings.^ If any V.A.D. members who read this 
know such women, I beg that they will send me 
their names and addresses, in order that I may 
appeal to them. 

" No work is too menial, no sacrifice too great 
for the men who are gi\'ing all they have to gi\e 
for the women of the Empire. 

Will any women fail to make the sacrifice 
when they are told of the necessity ?" 


Mrs. Soutar, Collector for " The Bed of My 
Lady Nicotine," in the Scottish Women's Hospital 
at Ajaccio, has sent to the Press the following 
letter containing an account of its occupant sent 
Tdv Mr. J. Simpson, Orderly. 

" A very interesting case lies here — an old man 
of 55 — not old in reality-, but I call him old, because 
he looks nauch older than his years ; he has gone 
through such terrible times. His nam.e is Zexeme 
Bevevitch, and he sits cross-legged on his bed 
smoking cigarettes like a Turk. He likes to be 
questioned about his past life, and it has, indeed, 
been an eventful one. 

" He was a Serbian Comitadji — a sort of brigand 
— and in 1904, when Serbia and Turkey were at 
war, he was taken prisoner, and remained a captive 
in Turkey three long years, during which time he 
was subjected to horrible tortures. His teeth were 
extracted one by one, his arms bound behind his 
back, he was beaten, and he was burnt with hot 
irons, all this to make him tell the Turks the 
hiding place of the Comitadjis ; but in vain, for 
nothing they could do would make him betray his 
comrades. He speaks five languages — Serbian, 
Greek, Armenian, Albanian and Hebrew — and 
when well enough he hopes to go to Salonika, and 
act as an interpreter to General Sarrail. 

" Before the present war he was employed in 
Macedonia as a Serbian propagandist, and he 
received a pension from the Serbian Government. 
His great grandfather and the present King of 
Serbia's grandfather (George Kara^-itch) were 
employed together as waggoners. When war 
broke out he left his home and walked to Salonika, 
a long way for a broken-down man. It took him 
three days, and then he cam.e to Ajaccio with the 


Home Hospit..^ls. 

Under the auspices of the Red Cross Society 
and Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, 
the following Nurses have been deputed to service 
in Home Hospitals : — • 

Holborn Red Cross Hosp., Holyhead. — ^Miss 
Hannah J. Williams. 

Thornev Hill Aux. Hosp., Bransgore, Hants. — • 
Miss Gwendoline Daly. 

The Hatchlands, E. Clandon, Guildford. — Miss 
Katherine Wilkinson. 

Brabyn's Aux. Mil. Hosp., Maple Bridge, 
Cheshire. — iSIiss Edith J. Macgregor, Miss K. 

Red Cross Hosp., Hale End, near Woodford, 
Essex. — Miss Louisa J. Paine. 

Northwood V.A.D. Hosp., Middlesex. — Mrs. 
N. ;M. Jennings, Miss Katherine Farringdon. 

Homemead Hasp., Lymington, Hants. — ^Miss 
Lydia Lanphier. 

Red Cross Hosp., Tewkesbury. — Miss Charlotte 

V.A.D. Hosp., Strood, Kent. — Miss Mary Green, 
Miss M. Gordon. 

Cyngfeld V.A.D. Hosp., Kingsland, Shrewsbury. 
■ — M^iss Minnie T. Wordsworth. 

Red Cross Hosp., Netley Abbey, Netley. — Miss 
\'iolet M. Kirbv. 

Chiveley Park Hosp., Newmarket. — Miss E. E. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Urmston, Blackwater Road, 
Eastbourne. — Miss Amelia Murray. 

Red Cross Hosp., Wincanto^i, Somerset. — JMiss 
E. K. Good. 

V.A.D. University Hosp., 23, Banbury Road, 
Oxford. — ^Miss A. E. Andrews. 

Ampihill Park, AmpthiU, Beds. — Miss Clara 
Moore, Miss M. Coward. 

Maesteg Cottage Hosp., Bridgend, Glam. — Miss 
E. M. Jones. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., BurtMge Lane, Levenshulme, 
Lanes. — Mrs. A. Murray, INIiss E. Head. 

Bowood Red Cross Hosp., Cahie, Wilts. — Miss 
Hilda Sewart, Miss Bessie G. Read, Miss B. C. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Weymouth. — Miss Eleanor Slane. 

Cliff House Hosp., Caversham, Reading. — Miss 
C. L. Travis. 

No. 5 Temp. Hosp., Exeter. — Mrs. D. Unwin. 
' Tappington Grange, Red Cross Hosp., Wadhurst, 
Sussex. — Mrs. T. Brotchie. 

Red Cross Hosp., Wymondham. — Miss 01i\"e 

Gifford House, Roehampton. — Mrs. A. L. Pywell. 

Holnesi Hosp., Sherborne, Dorset. — ^Miss S. A. 

West Hall V.A.D. Hasp., Tunbridge Wells.— 
Mrs. E. Prance. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Woodside, Dardington. — Miss 
Annie Bridges. 

Coombe Lodge Hosp., Great Warley, Essex. — 
Miss Susan F. Hassis. 

August ig, igi6 

Zbc ^British 3ournal of "nurstng. 


Aux. M Hilary Hosp., Nethercoitrl, Ramsgate. — 
Miss Lilian Humphreys. 

Regent's Park Hosp., Southampton. — Miss T. 
Nora O' Brian. 

Laverstoke House Hosp., Whitchurch, Hants. — 
Mrs. Clara El well. 

The Michie Hosp., 184, Queen's Gate. — ^Miss L. 
M. Hudson, Miss I. M. Shcard. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Northchurch, Berkhampstead. — 
Miss Alice T. Gibson. 

16, The Avenue, Brondesbury. — Mrs. May P. 

The Infirmarv Hosp., Ashington, Northumber- 
land.— Uks E. G. Hobbs. 

The Highlands Hosp., Shorthiath, Farnham.- — • 
Miss Lucv Wilson. 

St. Chad's Red Cross Hospital, Grange Road, 
Cambridge. — Miss E. Harrison. 

Brooklands, Weybridge. — Miss B. Grant. 

Duchess of Somerset's Hosp., Warminster. — 
Miss F. F. S. M. Wiggins. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Spalding Hall, Hcndon.— Miss M. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Horbling, Lines. — Miss M. P. G. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Brook House, Levenshulme. — 
Mrs. C. Buglass. 

Seeley Red Cross Hosp., Gatcombe House, Isle of 
Wight. — Miss R. Ferguson- 

Old Mansion House, ' Cardiff. — Miss F. K. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Abbotsford, Rock Ferry. — Miss 
W. Flintham. 

The Wardell Mil. Hosp., Stanmore, Middlesex. — 
Mrs. Ann Gill. 

Thevdon Towers Hosp., Thevdon Bois, Epping. — 
Miss M. C. M. Delabere. 

Waverley Abbey Mil. Hosp., Farnham, Surrey. — 
Miss Winifred Woods-Mansey. 

Etal Manor V..I.D. Hasp., Cornhill-on-Tweed. — • 
Miss S. A. Wiggin. 

Aux. War Hosp., Groodands, Southgate. — Miss 

A. Wood. 

The Tower Aux. Hosp., Rainhill, Lanes. — Miss 

B. M. Gray. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Mere, Wilts.— U\ss G. G. Dean. 

Red Cross Hosp., Hawkstone, Farnham, Hants. — 
Miss E. Blake-Foster. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Moor Green, Moseley. — Miss A. C. 

Cawston Manor Red Cross Hosp., near Norwich. — 
Mrs. Anna Conalty. 

V.A.D.. Hasp., May field. Woolston. — Miss Carter, 
Miss E. M. Seabrooke. 

St. Matthews Hall, Willcsden. — Miss E. Garland. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Clitheroc, Lanes. — Mrs. Clara 
El well. 

Fairlawn Aux. Hosp., Honor Oak Road, Forest 
Hill. — Miss Anno E. A. Hunt. 
■ Mil. Hosp., Merstham. — Miss K. Brcnnan. 

Mill Dam Hosp., South Shields. — Miss K. Wright. 

Harborne Hall .Aux. Hosp., Birmingham. — Miss 
O. T. J. Langhorn, Mrs. Bond. 

Hospital for Facial Injuries, 78, Brook Street, 
W. — Miss A. Aspley, Mrs. M. R. 

V.A.D. Hasp., Cirencester.— Miss E. M. Brown. 

Milton Hill Section Hosp., Steventon. — Miss E. M. 

Hinton House Hosp., Crewkerne. — Mrs. C. M. 

Red Cross Hospital, St. Anne's. — Miss T. Daly. 

Red Cross Hospital, Harlow. — Mrs. B. Moberley. 

Coytrahene Park Hosp., Tondu, S. Wales. — Miss 
D. Davics. 

Voluntary Hosp., Rust Hall, Tunbridge Wells. — - 
Miss F. Helmore. 

Aberdare and Merthyr V.A.D. Hosp.- — -ADss C. 

Heron Court Aux. Hosp., Christchurch. — Miss 
L. M. Hughes. 

Old Mansion House, Cardiff. — Miss M. E. 

Clayton V.A.D. Hosp., Wakefield.— Uiss M. 

Dunsdale Hosp., Westerham. — Miss E. Charters. 

Red Cross Hosp., Harlow. — Miss M. E. Suckling. 

Red Cross Hosp., Chelmsford. — Miss C. C. 

The Chanel, Hoylake, Cheshire. — Miss M. B. D. 

Hackney Red Corss Hosp., Stormont House, 
Clapton, N.E.— Miss M. M. Toddie. 

Hook Bank Hosp., Chester. — Miss Kelly. 

St. John Aux. Hosp., Porthcawl, S. Wales.-^— 
Miss D. Gear. 

.Arnot Hall, Daybrook, Notts. — -Mrs. Nellie Barton. 

Red Cross Hosp., West Ham House, Basingstoke. 
— Miss A. Williams. 

Bulford Manor, Bulford, Salisbury. — Miss A. M. 

Kings Weston, Bristol. — Mrs. E. M. Egcrton. 

16, Bniton Street, Hosp. for Officers. — Mrs. 
A. L. S. Lovell. 

Red Cross Hosp., Studlev Court, Stourbridge. — 
Miss E. C. Randall. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Isleworth. — Miss E. Gladys 


Port Said Government Hosp. — -Miss N. Cromie, 
Miss A. A. Grennan. 

Lady Murray's Hosp., Triport No. 10, France.— 
Miss M. H. Wilson. Miss M. Healy. 

Boulogne Head Quarltis. — Miss C. Burd. 


In. a letter home, quoted in The Times, an officer 
with the troops in Mesopotamia writes : — • 

" June 25th, igio. 

" The accommodation here for getting sick men 
to hospital is shockingly bad ; in fact hopeless. 
The field ambulances are acting as hospitals, 
looking after 500 patients instead of a maximum 
of 120, and for a period of from a week to three 
weeks instead of a few days. The field ambulance 
has lost one-third of its staff through sickness 
now, because they won't send up transports with 
proper personnel. The ])atients suffer agonies in 
an uncomfortable tent instead of being looked 
after properly in a* hospital. It makes us fairly 
boil with righteous indignation." 


Zbe TBvitiBli 3ourna[ of "nurstiifl. 

August 19, 1916 


The Queen, on Monday last, visited the INIilitary 
Hospital at Edmonton, where over 1,000 wounded 
are at present being cared for, when 500 of the 
patients formed a guard of honovu'. It will be 
remembered that we recently published a de- 
scription of this fine hospital, which is the new 
Poor Law Infirmary at Edmonton, which the 
War Office took over and adapted. The Matron 
of the Infirmary, ^Miss Dowbiggin, \\ho is a member 
of the Military Xursing Service Reserve, remained 
on as Matron. Her Ma3est^^ who remained two 
hours in the Hospital, and was keenly interested 
in all that she saw, before leaving thanked the 
Edmonton Guardians for placing the institution 
at the disposal of the War Office. 

A number of London journalists have had the 
opportunitv' of visiting some of the military 
hospitals in the Metropolitan area, and hav'e been 
shown by Lieutenant-Colonel Woodwark, the 
Assistant Deputv' Director of Medical Services, 
some of the work which is being done for the sick 
and wounded. Nothing coidd demonstrate more 
clearly the indispensabilitv' of modern surgery 
and nursing in the prosecution of a great war. 
The toll taken at the present time in life and 
health is sad enough, without the aid and healing 
•that they bring the holocaust would be indescrib- 
able. Amongst the show cases was one of the 
repair of a nerve, four inches of which had been 
destroyed. A surgeon, finding this condition 
telephoned to other hospitals and learnt that an 
amputation was to take place that afternoon in 
one of them. He arranged that the limb should 
be put in a saline bath and brought to him forth- 
with in a taxi cab. Placing liis own patient under 
an anffisthetic he dissected out of the amputated 
limb the required four inches of nerve and grafted 
it into the severed nerve of the patient with the 
best result. 

The removal of a piece of shrapnel embedded 
in the muscle of the heart was another triumph 
of modern surgery demonstrated. The patient 
is now making a good recovery. 

The Special Committee of the B.ilneological 
section of the Royal Society of Medicine appointed 
to consider the treatment of disabled soldiers by 
physical remedies have drawn up a statement on 
the question, in the course of which they say : — 

The reduction of crippling from wounds is a 
matter of national concern. Nothing which can 
be effected to lessen the permanent damage which 
wounded men have to face should be left undone 
while it can be efficacious. Public attention 
should therefore be drawn to a system of " com- 
bined physical treatment," for which remarkable 
success has been claimed, yet which hitherto has 
been given no adequate trial in this country. 
Capital injuries such as loss of limbs, do not, of 
course, come within its scope. 

What is actually a combination of different 
forms of physical treatment has been in use for 
nearly eighteen months at the Grand Palais in 
Paris. This familiar building has been converted 
for this purpose into a hopital complemeniaire 
under the military government of Paris. It has 
now beconre a very large centre or clinic for the 
out-patient treatment of wounded men by means 
of physical remedies. Several similar institu- 
tions, following the same methods, have been set 
up in and around Paris, whilst in the provinces 
at least seven fully-equipped and four more or 
less complete establishments have been opened 
for the use of soldiers. 

The object of this physical treatment of the 
wounded is threefold, and may be thus stated. In 
the first place it hastens the return of the wounded 
to their units at the front. Secondly, it eSects an 
economy to the State by reducing the disabilities 
for which pensions and gratuities are granted. 
Lastly, it minimises the impairment of civil 
industry after the \\-ar occasioned by the numbers 
of seriously and permanently crippled men. 

The elements of this combined and systematic 
treatment are some of them familiar, wliilst some 
are but little known in this country. It must be 
clearly understood that it is a system, and depends 
for its success on the completeness and regularitv 
with which it is carried out and under expert 
supervision. Six essential departnaents are 
enumerated by Dr. Camus, the Director of the 
" Corps de Reeducation Physique " at the Grand 
Palais. They are as follows : — 

Preparation by heat in some shape or form, 
moist or dry. but especially by moving water, as 
in the Eau Cottrante Bath. 

A thorough course of manipulation and massage. 

Mechanical treatment by means of apparatus. 

Electrical applications. 
. Re-education of the affected m.uscles hy special 
exercises and training. 

And lastly, a system of careful mensuration of 
the defect in each case. This is carried out before 
the commencement of treatment, at weekly 
intervals throughout the treatment, and at its 
termination. The results are therefore checked 
not by personal impressions, but by recording and 
measuring apparatus designed for the purpose. 

The Wounded AOies Relief Committee, of 
Sardinia House, Kingsway, has presented to the 
Rjissian Red Cross Society a second fleet of motor 
ambulances, and the presentation was made to 
the Grand Duke Michael of Russia at Whitehall 
Court, on Tuesday, the 8th inst. Representing 
the Committee were the Right Hon. Lord Swayth- 
ling (Chairman) and Lady Swaythling, Sir Lindsey 
Smith (Hon. Secretary), and M. Paul Mav*. The 
ceremony was rendered specially interesting by 
the presence of eight Russian soldiers, escaped 
prisoners _ from Germany, who acted as a guard 
of honour ; and, at the suggestion of the Grand 
Duke, took a short drive in one of the gift ambu- 

August 19, 1916 

Zbc Brltleb 3ournaI of fluretno. 


As the disabled Belgian soldiers who have been 
under the care of the W.A.R.C, at the Home for 
Disabled Belgian Soldiers, 45, Courtfield Gardens, 
Kensington, are now able to support themselves, 
through the liclp of the Committee in providing 
them with artificial limbs and in training them 
in various industries, tliis particular Home has 
been closed ; and the furniture, bedding, &c., 
are about to bo presented by the Committee to the 
Italian Red Cross, for the benefit of a new " Home 
of Rest for Sick and Wounded Italian Soldiers." 

The Duchess of Devonshire, at Buxton, on 
Friday in last week, portormcd the opening 
ceremony of a great new Canadian hospital in the 
presence of many notable Canadians, including 
Major-General Sir Sam Hughes. Colonel Hod- 

cholera in Damascus and about one hundred and 
fifty from spotted typhus and other diseases. 
The province of Galilee and the summer health 
resorts in the Lebanon are also infected by plague. 

It is reported that the typhus epidemic in 
Asia Minor everywhere gains new impetus, and a 
great number of the Turkish Army doctors have 
succumbed to it. Many of the civilian prisoners, 
mostly British, have contracted the disease, 
and at least twelve Englishmen have been ill 
with it, but recovered. 


The Russian newspapers give great prominence 
(says the Globe) to a communication inm\ the cliief 


getts. Commissioner of the Canadian Red Cross, 

At No. 34 (the Welsh) General Hospital at 
Nctlev no male nursing orderlies are employed. 
The illustration which, by the courtesy of i\Ir. 
Cyrus J. Evans, the Hon. Secretary, we are able 
to publish, shows the V.A.D. Women Nursing 
Orderlies approaching the hospita4 with a patient. 
On arrival they remove the stretcher from the 
wheels and carry the patient in. 

Plague is reported to be increasing in Syria. 
There have been over a hundred deaths from 

of the Russian Red Cross on the Western front. 
Count Beningsen, stating tliat Professor Nediga- 
jeloff and the Russian wonxan Doctor Burova have 
discovered the bacillus of spotted typhus. 

Spotted typhus is a nialignant fornx of typhus 
found in Eastern Europe, but only occasionally in 
the United Kingdom, notably in Lancashire and 
Ireland. The claim to have discovered the virus 
of spotted typhus has been made several times 
since the outbreak of war, and research is actually 
being conducted in London with material brought 
back from Serbia. The I'ctrograd announcement 
is one of considerable medical interest, but should 
be received with caution. 


Jlbc BritisI) 3ournaI of "Wurstng. 

Augiisl ig, 1916 


In the General Order issued by the King to the 
Officers, X.C.O.'s and Men at the close of his 
recent visit to his Army in France His Majesty- 
said : — 

" I have realised not only the splendid work 
which has been done in immediate touch with the 
enemy — in the air, under ground as well as on the 
ground — but also the vast organisations behind 
the fighting line, honourable alike to the genius 
of the initiators and to the heart and hand of the 
workers. Ev'erywhere there is proof that all, men 
and women, are playing their part, and I rejoice 
to think their noble efforts are being heartily 
seconded by all classes at home. . . . 

" I returrkhome more than ever proud of you. 

" May God guide you to victory." 



In reply to enquiries on up-to-date organisation 
of the American Red Cross, we have received the 
following information from Miss Jane A. Delano, 
the Chairman of the National Committee : — 

" Our nursing service was organised seven years 
ago, and was based upon the affiliation of the 
American Nurses' Association with the American 
Red Cross. A National Committee was appointed, 
representing both organisations. They were made 
responsible for the appointment of State Com- 
mittees on Red Cross Nursing Service from nomi- 
nations submitted by the State Nurses' Associa- 
tion. The State Committees on Red Cross 
Nursing Service are responsible for the appoint- 
ment of as many local committees as may be 
necessary in each State to take charge of the 
enrolment of Red Cross nurses ; the local com- 
mittees in turn are nominated by the local organi- 
sations or organisations of nurses representing the 
majority in the locality. In this way we place 
the responsibilit\' directly upon the nurses' 
organisations. The local committees are respon- 
sible for securing the necessary credentials for 
applications and for all investigation relative to 
the standing of the nurse, and forward their 
appUcations to Red Cross Headquarters with 
recommendation regarding their appointment. 
The papers are finally reviewed in my office, and 
if approved by me, appointment cards and badges 
are sent to the indi\ddual nurses and their names 
are kept on file both with the local committee and 
at Red Cross Headquarters. Red Cross nurses 
are expected to hold themselves in readiness for 
servdce in time of war and may volunteer in local 
disasters or for service in relief stations established 
by the Red Cross Chapters in connection with 
celebrations, parades, or at other times where 
conditions make these relief stations desirable. 

The local committee is responsible for calling out 
nurses, but is not allowed to do so except with 
authority of the National Committee. «^\ 

" We are now developing base hospital imits 
for service in the event of war, grouping these 
units around our large hospitals and training 
schools, such as Johns Hopkins Hospital, Balti- 
more, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, 
the Presbyterian Hospital and Bellevue Hospital, 
New York City, and many others in various 
sections of the country. In most instances the 
Superintendent of the Training School, or her 
assistant, is the chief nurse of the unit, and 
selects from among her own graduates a well- 
balanced personnel of 50 nurses, with a reserve of 
15. All must, of course, be enrolled in the usual 
way. They will take charge of base hospital 
units as established, while the nurses selected 
through our local committees would go direct to 
the military hospitals and serve under the direction 
of the chief nurses of the Army and Navy Nurse 

" Realising that, in the event of war, it would 
be absolutely impossible to control a volunteer 
service of women without some definite organisa- 
tion, I suggested several months ago that the 
service of lay w^omen be placed under the nursing 
service of the Red Cross, and that to each base 
hosptial unit organised we should definitely assign 
twenty-five lay women who would be called upon 
for service in the event of war. It seemed far 
better to me to have this personnel placed under 
the chief nurse, making her responsible for the 
women selected, their instruction and their super- 
vision if called upon for service, than to wait until 
an emergency arose and then be unable to control 
the situation. The chief nurse of each hospital 
unit has been left entirely free in the selection of 
the lay personnel, except for the supervision from 
this office. We have arranged not only for their 
theoretical instruction, but, if the chief nurse 
desires, they may be taken into the wards of the 
hospital for a period not to exceed three hours a 
day, six days in a week, for one month, and work 
under ihe direction of a nurse connected with the 
unit. From the very beginning this gives them 
the benefit of working under the direction of the 
nurses, and should we be so unfortunate as to find it 
necessary to call out our base hospital units, we 
shall be in a position to state definitelv to the 
thousands who will volunteer for service that our 
selections have already been made and that we have 
a long waiting 'ist as each chief nurse is requested 
to carry a reserve of twenty-five lay women whom 
she has selected in addition to the twenty-five' 
assigned to the unit. I believe that this will prove 
a practical and satisfactory arrangement, but we 
can judge better after it has been tried out. 

" I am sure that you will agree with me that 
nothing presents greater difficulties than the 
control of volunteers in time of war, and I shall be 
very glad of your opinion in regard to the plan 
which we have worked out. I have watched with 
much interest and sympathy the situation in 

August 19, 1916 

Zbc Srltlsb 3ournal of "Kurema. 


St. Dunstan's Hostel for Blinded Soldiers, 
Regent's I'ark. Miss Hufjhcs has been appointed 
Matron. Slie was trained at University College 
Hospital, where she was afterwards Sister. In 
1914 went out to France as Matron of a Red 
Cross Hospital, and last year was appointed 
Matron of the Red Cross Hospital for Officers, in 
Portland Place. 

Beckett Hospital, Barnsley. — Miss Annie Louisa 
Burkhill has been appointed Matron. She was 
trained at the Royal Inlirmary, Manchester, and 
has been Assistant Matron of the Infectious 
Diseases Hospital, Manchester, and Matron of the 
Beverley Dispensary, East Yorkshire. 

Eastry Sanatorium, near Skipton. — Miss S. E. 
Hutton has been appointed Matron. She was 
trained at the Children's Hospital and the Royal 
Infirmary, Edinburgh. She has had experience 
of district nursing in both Jidinburgh and Hull, 
and has been Matron of the Howden and the 
Kirkburton Isolation Hospitals. 


Cricklade and Wootton Rassett Isolation Hos- 
pital. — Miss Mary E. Annilt has been appointed 
Xurse-Matron. She was trained at the Monsall 
Fever Hospital. Manchester, and the Leeds 
Maternity Hospital, and has been Charge Nurse 
at the Ruchill Fever Hospital, and amongst other 
appointments has held the position of Health 
Visitor at Xormanton, Yorkshire. She has had 
experience of private nursing and is a certified 


Stirnesdale Sanatorium, Uldtiam. — Miss Eleanor 
May Harding has been ajipomted Sister-in-Charge. 
She was trained at the St. Marylebone Infirmary, 
and has held the position of Assistant Matron at 
the High Carley Sanatorium, L'lverston. 


Ecclesall Bierlow Union. — Miss Edith Anne 
Walker has been appointed Home Sister. She 
was trained at the Bagthorpe Infirmary, Notting- 
ham, where she has held the position of Sister. 


Darlington Hospital, Darlington. — Miss Richard- 
son has been appointed Xight Sister. She was 
trained at the Chelmsford Hospital, and has been 
Staff Nurse at the Stockton and Thornaby Hos- 
pital, Night Charge Nurse at the Victoria Hospital, 
Manchester, Sister at the Cumberland Infirmary, 
Carlisle, and Night Sister at the General Hospital, 


Tl<.\.N SILKS A.NU .\l-l'l)l.\ l.Ml-.N Is. 

Miss Kate Bell is appointed to Headington ; 
Miss Sarah A. Stack to Timbridge Wells ; Miss 
Edith M. E. Watkins to Bath ; Miss Elizabeth 
Whitton to Darlington. 



At a meeting of the Executive and Education 
Committees held on July 31st, it was decided to 
hold the next wTitten examination for the Asso- 
ciation's certificate on Wednesday, October nth. 

The question was raised as to whether candidates 
who had entered for the examination and were 
unable to sit should have their fees returned. 
After discussion it was resolved that in such cases 
the fee should not be returnable, but that the 
candidates might sit for a future examination 
without further fee. 


" A Bart.'s Nurse "writes from China enclosing 
a donation of £1 is. to the Society for State 
Registration of Trained Nurses, and says, " A 
friend sends me the Jour.val regularly, and 
though so far away I follow with great interest 
the fight you are making at home for all that is 
best in the profession. In China one soon learns 
what it means to have a thorough training, and 
one can never be grateful enough for the years 
of so-called drudgery spent in work at home." 

A. donation of 5s. from Miss Purvis, Middles- 
brough, is also gratefully acknowdedged. 


Grateful patient to nurse. — He : Let me tell 
you all that my heart contains. 

She : Don't bother ; I know ! Two auricles, 
two ventricles and a few valves. 

— Gazette of Third London General Hospital. 


A visitor asked a patient where he had been 
wounded. " A piece of shrapnel went through, 
my chest," replied the man. " Is that all ?" 
asked the old lady, in surprise. " So your legs are 
all right and still you lie in bed !" 

— Firsl Eastern General Hospital Gazette. 


The King of the Belgians has conferred the 
Croix Civique, which is given for acts of con- 
spicuous courage and devotion to hum.anity, on 
Miss Kate Parminter, Miss Mary Vizard, Miss 
Clara William.son, and Miss Meta Stack, hospital 
nurses, who, since the commencement of the war, 
have served the sick and wounded devotedly. 


Lance Corporal Cyril H. Matthews contributes 
to The Gazette of the Third London General 
Hospital the following lines in memory of a 
m.ember of the Nursing StaS : — 

Hers the sweetest of sweet faces. 
Hers the tenderest eyes of all ; 
In her hair she had the graces 

Of a heavenly coronal — 
Bringing sunshine to sad places 
Where the sunshine could not fall. 

(Cbe »riti8b 3ournal of "Wuremfl. 

August ig, 1916 


On Tuesday, Miss Haughton, Matron of 
Guy's Hospital, visited Leicester, and spoke, 
on the invitation of Miss Vincent, Matron of the 
Royal Infirmary, on the College of Nursing- and 
the Nurses' Registration Bill which it is 
promoting. Colonel Bond presided at the meet- 
ing, which took place in the Lecture Room of 
the Nurses' Home, and urged the necessity for 
nurses to set their house in order now, so that 
after the war there might not be a state of dis- 
integration, and the position of nurses worse 
than it is at the present time. 

Miss Haughton said that the College of 
Nursing, Ltd., was not first thought of in con- 
nection wfth State Registration, but as a volun- 
tary movement for the registration of trained 
nurses ; but it was found that registration apart 
from the State was practically useless, and its 
first object now was to obtain State Registra- 
tion for Nurses, and a Bill had been drafted 
with this object. 

The College was very largely an educational 
movement, therefore they v\anted the governors 
of hospitals to take an interest in it, because 
the education of probationers lay mainly in 
their hands. The Council of the College wanted 
nurses to register themselves voluntarily now. 
If they registered now they would pay the fee 
of ;^i IS. for always. The College had made 
the rule that two-thirds of the Council under 
the Bill must be trained nurses. The Hon. 
Arthur Stanley had much political power, and 
could get the nurses' Bill through if only the 
nurses would support him. 

It was quite clear that the fee of one guinea 
would not cover expenses, but all big educa- 
tional bodies were endowed, and they were 
going to ask the public to endow the College. 
They would need at the least ;£"ioo,ooo. There 
was still money in England, and Mr. Stanley 
thought it ought to be forthcoming. 

A discussion took place as to the position of 
the nurses in regard to cases to which a doctor 
had not been summoned. 

At the annual meeting of the Grantham 
Victoria Nursing Association, when the Vicar 
(Canon W. I. Carr Smith) presided, the Com- 
mittee reported that the work of the Victoria 
Nurses had gone steadily on during the past 
year, and their services had been greatly appre- 
ciated. Their senior nurse, Miss Footner, left 
them in December, to take up military work in 
Plymouth, but the Association vi'as fortunate in 
securing Miss Scott, who came to Grantham 
with the highest credentials, and she was ably 
assisted by Miss Dorothy Forder. The districts 
had been inspected twice since their last annual 
meeting, and both times excellent reports were 
sent in. 

The Rev. H. E. Stancliffe asked whether or 
not a doctor had to be in attendance at a case 
before they could have one of the Association's 
nurses? — The Chairman said that a doctor 
should be in charge. Miss Hardwick said every 
patient must be under the care of a qualified 
medical practitioner. She understood the senior 
nurse that if she was asked to visit a case, and 
no doctor was in attendance, she suggested to 
the patient that a doctor should see the case. 
It was no part of a nurse's business to diagnose. 
-The Rev. H. E. Stancliffe said there was 
another nurse at work in the town. The idea 
was she should nurse those people who had not 
got a doctor. He rather wanted to know what 
the position was. The Chairman said he 
thought they had always felt it was not fair to 
the nurses to make them responsible for a case. 
It was neither fair to the nurse nor the patient. 
People were careless often about having a 
doctor, even in some cases which were serious, 
and in the interests of nurse and patient it was 
desirable that a doctor should see everv case. 

Mr. W'lliamson inquired whether in an 
urgent case with which a nurse was acquainted, 
she was justified in saying she would not attend 
unless a doctor had been? Dr. Poole-Berr\' 
replied in the negative. She would go, but 
would not undertake continual treatment of the 
case. Mr. \Villiamson instanced a case where 
a nurse was called upon, and she said she could 
not possibly go unless a doctor was in at- 
tendance. It was urgent, and the old lady died. 
Miss Hardwick said she should like those 
sort of things authenticated, otherwise it was 
difficult to get to the bottom of matters. Some- 
times they had a great deal of hearsay, and 
when it was inquired into there was found to be 
no ground for it. She did not doubt Mr. 
Williamson's word, but people spoke so in- 
accurately, and they put interpretations upon 
things which were not intended. The Executive 
Committee held their meetings once a month, 
and they were quite glad to investigate anything 
of that kind, and have it put right. If Mr. 
Williamson knew of that case, it would have 
been a kindness if he could have sent it in and 
let them investigate it. 

We quite agree with this point of view. 

Honour to whom honour is due. Recogni- 
tion of good work is sweet, and the Matron and 
staff of the Stockton and Thornaby Hospital 
must ha\e appreciated the generous recognition 

.lii^'li.v( 19, 1916 

<Ibe British 3ournal of "Wurgiufl. 


of thoir jjood work by Sir Frank Brown, J.I*., 
the President, at the annual meetiny. Sir 
Frank Brown said it rellected great credit upon 
the .Matron and her staff that in spite of the 
high cost of provisions, &c., and the increase 
in tlic number of patients, the general expendi- 
ture of the hospital had not been much greater 
than it was ; considering all the circumstances 
the staff must have been kept working at a very 
high pressure. 

Ten district nursing associations were repre- 
sented at a recent meeting of the Merioneth 
County Nursing Association, when the Pre- 
sident, Lady W'illiams, occupied the chair, and 
the Hon. Secretary, Mr. D. White Phillips, 
explained that the principal business of the 
meeting was to consider the combined scheme 
of health visiting under the Notification of 
Births .'Vet and the establishing of infant welfare 
centres within the county. 

The County Council had adopted the scheme, 
and it had been approved by the Local Govern- 
ment Board. By this scheme the district nurses 
were to act as part-time health visitors and 
superintendents at infant welfare centres where 
established. One whole-time health visitor was 
about to be appointed by the County Council to 
act as county superintendent and to do health 
visiting in the few remote districts not now 
served by district nurses. The remuneration of 
the part-time health visitors was fixed at 6d. 
per visit in urban districts, and is. fser visit for 
rural districts. The estimated total payable in 
the district associations would amount to ;£i5o. 
The second part of the scheme was the setting 
up of infant welfare centres in the county. 
Centres were set up at Blaenau Festiniog (now 
in operation), Bala, Barmouth, Corwen, Dol- 
gi'lly, Penrhyndeudraeth, and Towyn. For 
the first year the whole portion of the ex[>enscs 
falling on the County Council would be borne 
by Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Davies, of Dinas 
Powis. The district nurses would receive £^ 
for their services as superintendents at infant 
welfare centres. The combined scheme of 
health visiting and infant welfare centre would 
be managed by a central committee of twenty- 
one members, seven to be nominated by the 
County Public Health Committee, seven by the 
Education Committee, and seven by the County 
Nursing Association. 

Miss A. W. Goodrich, R.N., writes concern- 
ing " The New Patriotism " in The Modern 
Hospital: — 

" Militarist or pacifist, whichever we may be, 
on one thing we shall Ix' agreed to-day — 
namely, that physical fitness is a prerequisite 
for i-nicient citizenship, through whatever 
avenue the citizen mav render his service. 

Furthermore, to the citizens of a democracy, 
or indeed to any intelligent ix:rson, the system 
no longer commends itself that concentrates its 
health efforts on a selected group whose ulti- 
mate end is to be sacrificed in the full bloom of 
a physically perfected manhood on the altar of 
the country, and neglects the great industrial 
army on which the country's prosperity, even 
its life, depends in times of peace, and not less 
in times of war. 

" It is not strange, therefore, to find growing 
up side by side with the medical and nursing 
corps of the United States Army the corps of 
a nation-wide and now generally nation-sup- 
ported health movement, whose increasingly 
comprehensive scope of work would indicate 
that its ultimate purpose was to provide 
through all possible means that every citizen 
should render to the country the most efficient 
service, extending over the greatest number of 
years, and with that joy of life and labour that 
is the priceless treasure of the physically fit. 
The economic soundness of this health move- 
ment, amply proved by the result of its various 
activities — milk stations, school medical inspec- 
tion, social service departments in dispensaries 
and hospitals, &c. — has aroused the interest 
and enlisted the co-operation of many industrial 
corporations, and every year sees an increasing 
number of physicians and nurses installed in 
industrial plants. 

" To those sitting in the watch towers of the 
nursing profession the over-increasing demands 
for nurses in the industrial field — themselves 
the working body in the new industry of health 
making — seem to bring closer and closer the 
realization of their most cherished dreams — the 
day when each child projected into the universe 
finds himself the citizen of a true democracy, a 
State whose paternalism is committed to the 
fullest protection and the development to its 
highest capacity of every human life, regard- 
less of social and financial status ; where the 
privileged class is the mentally and physically 
handicapped, and where the aristocracy is 
formed from the labourers who have rendered 
the most conspicuous public service. 

" Again, the watchers are concerned to note 
that not yet does the number of nurse teachers 
needed l>egin to meet the demand ; not yet does 
anv appreciable number of schools give an 
adequate preparation for this field ; that as sani- 
tarians, hygicnists, and workers equipped to 
cope with the psychological and sociological 
aspects of its problems, the products of training 
schools are conspicuously weak when they 
should be conspicuously strong. An aseptic 
conscience may be a prerequisite for a nurse, 
but not an aseptic mind. 

" The heavv hand of tradition still holds us 


^be Kruisb 3ournal of flurging. 

August ig, igi6 

in its clutches; we are still looking backward. 
To-day in our greatest city an epidemic is 
demanding in the neighbourhood of twenty 
potential industrial workers' lives daily, and is 
crippling, possibly for life, those of its victims 
that escape death. It is said that about 150 
nurses and many physicians are needed. Over 
200 nurses are waiting, pledged for from six 
months to two years, for a service that may be 
required of them through a possible war, or, 
more possible, epidemics likelv to arise from a 
protracted residence on the Mexican border 
while awaiting the war. The inconsistent 
mountains have yet to be levelled, but those 
most keen to observe this, finding no way to 
encompass it, still obediently climb. Let us 
hope that, the twenty-first volume of the march 
of civilization will record that the next genera- 
tion caused some of its ranges to be removed." 



It is natural in these clavs of close friendship 
between the French and British nations that 
one's thoughts should turn to the French Hos- 
pital, which, for so many years, has been carry- 
ing on a good work in Soho, in charge of the 
Sisters of the Sacred Heart. 

The hospital, which has a fine entrance hall, 
is quite up to date in its arrangements and 
equipment ; the corridors are lined with white 
and green tiles, with most pleasing and 
eminently hygienic effect. 

On a recent visit, when I had the pleasure of 
seeing the Sister Superior, she told me that the 
Sisters who nurse the hospital are trained at 
Versailles before they come to this country. 
The hospital, which contains some seventy 
beds, is not a training school, but is nursed 
entirely by the Sisters, who also have charge 
of the linen and the kitchen. 

The wards for both men and women are very 
cheerful, and one notices in the women's ward 
the rods on which pretty washing curtains are 
suspended, which can be readilv drawn at will, 
thus obviating any necessity for the use of 
screens. In this ward was the French wife of 
an English husband. " You are English now," 
said the Sister ; but the woman smiled, shook 
her head, and demurred. She evidently did not 
see why because she changed her name she 
should change her nationality, and she was 
French through and through. 

In the top wards the patients are at present 
not F-rench, but clothed in the familiar blue hos- 
pital suit of the English soldier, for thirty beds 

have been put at the disposal of the War Office 
by the hospital authorities, and very content do 
these patients seem with their quarters. One 
thing, says the Sister Superior, they never do. 
They never speak about the battlefields of 
France. They are eager for the daily papers, 
to see what is going on ; otherwise they seem to 
wish to blot out of their memories the things 
they have seen and endured. 

There is a fine operating theatre, and an 
X-ray apparatus has been installed in the hos- 
pital, which is proving of great use for localiz- 
ing bullets, pieces of shrapnel, and other foreign 
bodies. The medical staff of the hospital is 
English, but its members speak French. 

Good feeding, as nurses increasingly realize, 
is an integral part of good nursing. If, as 
Napoleon said, an army fights on its stomach, 
the good recovery of the soldier when hors de 
combat depends largely on the nutritious and 
appetizing dietary he receives. A visit to the 
kitchen of the French Hospital will convince 
the observer that nutritious and appetising diet 
is given its rightful place as a remedial agency 
of the first importance. 

On the occasion of my visit we found a Sister, 
in white overall and veil, at work by the stove. 
She was boiling the milk supply, and if evidence 
of her skill were needed, it was to be observed 
in the omelette which her deft fingers had just 
concocted. It lay on its plate, an example of 
all that an omelette should be. Of exactly the 
right creamy consistency, it was of a pale 
golden colour, light as a feather, and daintily 
attractive. One noticed also the cauldrons for 
.making bouillon, and the huge coffee-pots, 
which would never be seen in an English hos- 
pital kitchen, for the valid reason that the 
patients in such a hospital do not see coffee from 
the time they are admitted to the time they are 

. In the French Hospital the English patients 
all have coffee for breakfast, and, I was in- 
formed, appreciate it, and have taken it into 
favour. It has more substance than tea, and 
there is more subsequent sense of well-being 
when breakfast includes coffee than when urn 
tea and bread-and-butter form the meal. 

We realize that both British and French h-i\c 
much to learn from one another, and as, after 
the war, there will surely be a further 
strengthening of the ties which have bound us, 
let us hope that Madame Econome will take us 
us into her confidence, and tell us how she 
manages to provide nutritious and appetizing 
food on a sum on which an English cook would 
declare it to be impossible to manage. 

M. B. 

August ig, 1916 

cTbe 36riti9b 3ournnl of 'Wurstnfl. 



Long, long be my heart with such memories filled I 
Like the vase in which roses have once been distilled. 
You may break, you may shatter the vase if you mill. 
But the scent 0/ the roses will hang round it still. 

— T. MOORE. 

Who does not enjoy the cultivation of the roses 
of memory ? They always bring solace and 
pleasure. " The Pleasures of :Memor\- " was 
written by the banker foet, Samuel Rogers. He 
wTote many other things, but upon this his fame 
rests. The inference we draw is that we do like 
to brood over pleasurable memories and feed the 
mind upon them, rather than those of sadness 
and sorrow. Our minds are tuned to a minor 
key just now. The multiplicity of horrors and 
sadnesses of this unprecedented war oppress and 
depress us. We are in danger of becoming morbid. 
But there are roses of memories even ■ f this 
war. Sublime courage, quiet discipline, self- 
sacrifice, and unquenchable cheerfulness are the 
most conspicuous elements of it ; some of the 
most fragrant roses. To draw our thoughts — or 
if they won't come easily, drag them forcibly — 
sometimes from the other side, seems to be a 
positive duty that we owe, not alone to ourselves, 
but to those among whom we live. When I let 
my fancies free I frequeutly bridge over the 
Atlantic Ocean of space in a moment of time. 
I transport myself to San Francisco where the 
great Nursing Convention was held last year 
under the auspices of the American Xurses' 
Association. I hear again the able speeches 
delivered, and the excellent papeis read by some 
of the most distinguished members of the pro- 
fession. Their professional enthusiasm, their pro- 
fessional idealism tlu-ills me. It is a real thing ; 
it has brought some of them from the extreme 
East to the extreme West of that great Continent, 
nearly 4,cxx) miles ! Between six and seven 
hundred of them from all parts of the States. J ust 
a few foreigners there are who listen, admire, 
learn. A large number of them are free women. 
They have the Parliamentary vote which gives 
them a voice in the Councils of the State. \'ery 
many of them bear the dignified title of "Registered 
Nurse." The profession of nursing has legal 
status, and its members are free to govern their 
own profession in their own way, under an 
authority- appointed by the State. They have 
votes for nurses — the professional franchise — as 
well as votes for women — the Pailiamentary 
franchise. This means opportunity, of which 
they are making very good use for the advance- 
ment of their country and their profession. Do 
we envy them ? We are members with them of 
a great spiritual alliance, namely, the International 
Council of Nurses, in which envy would be a 
foreign body. \Mien one member, or many 
members, rejoice, all the members rejoice with 
tlviu. That is the spirit of Internationalism. 
We therefore rejoice with them, and we aspire 
towards that same state of dignity and freedom. 

From the Session Halls my astral body is 
transported to the houses of some of the kind 
friends we met there (my companion and I). Now 
to the crypt of the Catliedral, where Dean Greshanx 
of San Francisco conducts a service of the Guild 
of St. Barnabas ; now to the beautiful reception 
in the Divinity Hall, where we meet and speak 
with many kind friends. To the model hospital 
of St. Luke's. And now we are driving through 
the Golden Gate Park, with the foundress, in her 
own motor-car. The next minute I have traversed 
some 3,000 miles over the world's greatest highway, 
the famous C.P.R. (Canadian Pacific Railway). 
I am in the beautiful citj' of Toronto, with its 
52 parks, its 3 Cathedials, its 80 public schools, 
its magnificent General Hospital, its very fine 
Children's Hospital, and its 245 churches. Here 
I meet again a friend of former years, a pionee: 
in the Canadian field of nursing, one to whom 
the profession Ls greatly indebted. " The pleasures 
of memory " next take me to the city of Mount 
Royal — -Montreal. I greet another friend, the 
busy editor of The Canadian Xtirse, one full of 
professional enthusiasm. In another minute L 
am in New York city'. Now a guest in the 
famous Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. 
Back again in New York, staying in the well- 
known and famous Presbyterian Hospital. 

I must arrest the fl:ght of my thoughts for a 
moment in order to introduce the reader to one 
who has done much for the advance of the Pro- 
fession in the States — another pioneer. She shuns 
publicity, and cordially dislikes what she calls. 
" hot air," by which she means she dislikes to hear 
her well-desen.'ed praises sung. I respect her too 
much to displease her, so I will say briefly that 
the nurses of the States feel themselves greatly 
indebted to Miss Anna Maxwell, Superintendent • 
of Nurses of this hospital She has worked 
indefatigabh' as a pioneer and organiser for about 
forty years. It goes without saying that the 
training here is excellent. She is of opinion that 
the value of visiting nursing (district nursing) is 
so great tlxat it should form part of the curriculuia 
of hospital training. In pursuance, therefore, of 
this idea she lias established a Visiting Nursing 
Department within the hospital, presided over by 
a trained District Nurse, who gives a six weeks' 
course of instruction in theory and practice to 
every nurse. The principle is that knowledge of 
the conditions of poverty should be acquired by 
all nurses. I believe Miss Maxwell is the originator 
of the scheme, which seems excellent. This does 
not, I believe, constitute full district training. 

In imagination I am living again the pleasant 
time I spent as her guest. She tells us one day — 
or implies — -that it is our duty to see the East 
River Homes, so one morning, suiting the action 
to the word, she sends for a taxi, and we are driven 
there, all three of us. Miss Maxwell, Miss Hulme 
and myself. We were indeed glad to do our duty. 
This magnificent group of apartment buildings 
was founded by Mrs. W. K. \'anderbilt, senior, 
the purpose being to pro\ide suitable house 
accommodation for those of the poorer classes 


^be British 3ournal of "Kurstno. 

August 19, 1916 

•sufiering from or threatened with shght tuber- 
culosis. Tlie hvgienic living conditions are such 
as could only be obtained m an establishment 
built for the purpose. There are four of these 
buildings grouped near to one another, and they 
overlook the East River, hence the name. The 
management is in the hands of a board of trustees. 
The scheme is philanthropic and non-commercial. 
The income received over and above the outgoing 
expenses is used in the interests of the public in 
combating the disease. All the staircases are 
exterior, which makes each apartment— or, as 
we should sav, flat— a unit. The niaximum ot sun 
and air is the principle upon which they are built. 
Glass louvTes protect the open staircase from ram 
and snow. , . . 

Electric lighting, heating bv a modern hot-water 
plant and hot-water for domestic purposes are all 
included in the moderate rent. The roof is built 
for and seWes many purposes. The entire roof 
space is given up to gardens, play-grounds— 
covered and uncovered^school rooms and loggias, 
which are free to all. The architect is to be con- 
gratulated for having so well succeeded in provid- 
ing for the health, comfort and pleasure of the 
most fortunate tenants. Mrs. Vanderbilfs excel- 
lent example might well be followed by many other 
millionaires in many lands. Miss Maxwell is in 
some way connected with the management of 
these magnificent buildings, the like of which 
I have never seen. It is perfect ; the altruism of 
it is beautiful ; the need for it is great. It 's a life- 
saving institution. These are "pleasures of 
jnemorv "—the distilled roses in the vase. 

The 'scene in mv mental vision now changes. 
I am back again in my poor bleeding country, 
where lives are not being saved but lost m 
thousands on the battlefields of sea and land. 
I thrill at the news of the great naval battle 
of Jutland— a battle that was a great victory. 
While our hearts ache over the loss of so many 
of our bravest and best, they yet throb with 
pride at the splendour of their self-sacrifice and 
invincible courage. The price is great, very 
great, but England is being re-born by the great 
sacrifice bv which a man lays down his life for his 
friends. Let me terminate my musings by quoting 
the words of a great optimist— Harold Begbie— 
which I most sincerelv and gratefully endorse : 
'• In the midst of this War there is a spirit at 
work which will change the whole world. I care 
not how the War may end. Love does not lie 
bleeding ; never in man's history has love been 
more glad and enthusiastic. It has risen from the 
domestic hearth, spread its wings beyond the 
borders of nationalism, and now hangs m the 
nniversal air with blessing and mercy for all 
mankind. Russia, France, Italy, Great Britain, 
Belgium, Serbia, India, Japan, Canada, Australia 
and South Africa, are now nearer to each other 
than ever thev have been in the past ; and the 
spirit which has drawn these many nations into a 
single brotherhood is the only spirit which can 
give -us real and lasting victory." 

Beatrice Kent. 


Under the heading " Red Cross Xurse's Folly " 
the South Wales Weekly Sca's reports that at 
Kingston-on-Thames on Saturday, August 12th, 
Margaret Stanger (24), a Red Cross nurse, living 
at Station Road, Claygate, pleaded guilty to steal- 
ing from Mascotte, Imber Park Road, Thames 
Ditton a gold, pearl and diamond ring and a blue 
silk dress, value £7, the property of Mrs. Mmnie 
Frederica Beebe, bv whom she had been employed. 
Accused, a good-looking young woman, appeared 
in the dock " wearing the uniform of a Red Cross 

Mr. A. H. Beebe, husband of prosecutrix, said 
that accused entered his wife's ser\-ice on July 
24th and left on July 29th to take up other work 
on her own accord. After accused had gone the 
articles were missed. He had no desire to press 
the charge. 

Detective Cooke stated that as the result of 
inquiries he went to a house at Oatlands Park, near 
Walton-on-Thames, where accused was engaged. 
She admitted the charge of stealing a dress and 
ring from- " Mascotte," and handed them to him. 
The accused pleaded guilty, and in a voice 
broken with tears said, " I am very sorry to say 
I am guilty. I don't know why I took them. It 
was verv \%-rong of me, and I promise never to 
touch anything again that does not belong to me." 
In reply to the Bench, Warrant Officer Richard- 
son said that in 1906 accused and her sister were 
before the Court for stealing a push-cart and they 
were then discharged with a caution. 

Accused : " I was very young then, and we did 
it for a lark." , .,, ,. 

Detective Cooke informed the Bench that 
accused had been acting as a Red Cross nurse at 
a local hospital for about a year, but just recently 
she had been helping ladies whUe their servants 
were away on their holidays. Until her arrest 
•accused was with a lady at Oatlands Park, who 
he believed, would take her back into her service. 
Accused was bound over for 12 m.onths m the 
sum of £10 and placed on probation. 


The National Council for Combating Veneieal 
Diseases intends to hold iu all counties arid count>' 
boroughs, under the auspices of the county 
authorities or mayor, a series of conferences to 
discuss the inauguration of local schemes for 
dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of 
venereal diseases. The various committees of 
the British Medical Association consider it of the 
utmost importance that in these conferences the 
medical profession shall be well represented. We 
consider (says The Shield) in addition that it is of 
the utmost importance women shall be adequately 
represented on all local or national committees 
which have to deal with this matter. In the 
manifesto wluch the Association for :\loral and 
Social Hygiene sent to the Local Government 
Board and other officials we laid stress on this 
point, as these diseases so profoundly affect the 
rights and interests of women. 

August ig, '916 

^bc Krittsb 3ournal of ■Ruremg. 




The quaint stvlc in which this book is written 
will make it very attractive to many readers. We 
are reminded of the fantastic writing of Borrow in 

Lavengro; " that it is written with a powerful 
pen is self-evident. We suppose that it would 
not appeal to a large class of readers, but it must 
delight many who have the instinct for good 

Benjamin had a complexion studded with 
little fiery nobs, and from the days of his first 
trousers was nicknamed ' Barnacles.' He was now 
very tall, loose knitted and had a gawky air, and 
went with a stoop. But his eyes behind the 
spectacles wlrich he wore were blue as the spaces on 
a red sunset sky." 

At an early age he conceived a passion for the 
violin. He had need of the pound sterling to buy 
a better fiddle. Wherefore we find this ardent 
musician attached to one of his father's sheep by 
a rope, and both about to take the road from the 
battered gate to the market at Paisley. " Come, 
come my sheep, I think w'e have the whole wide 
world to cross. Foolish sheep ! Do hurry. To-day 
the fiddle, or never. If I fail I will bury my heart 
in this farm." 

Having disposed of the sheep and bought his 
fiddle. Barnacles had to reckon with his father', and 
it ended with his being cast adrift in the wide world. 

After a while he took refuge with Skelly, the fish 
hawker, and wee Kitchener, and the old man, his 
father, Hector, an ancient mariner. The pathetic 
character of the half-childish old man is one of the 
most appealing in the book. Two desires he has — • 
one, his old-age pension, and the other areefer coat 
with buttons. 

The old man turned and looked at Barnacles. 

" Are ye a scholard " ? he quavered. 

" I've been at the University." 

The old man rose, his body trembling with both 
age and excitement. 

" May be," he quavered, " Ye could win for mc 
my auld-age pension. I'm ower seventy," he 
sighed deeply : the log's runnin' out fast ; ninety 
degrees West is the Port. Let go the anchor, 
Mate, ninety West an' the sun goes down." 

His proud old spirit longed to bo independent 
of his son's food and shelter, although Skelly was 
devoted to Irim. 

He looked over his shoulder with the air of a 
hunted animal. 

I'm no wastin' the fire when I'm sittin' at it. 
It wad be burnin' onyvvy." The rain broke and 
crashed on the window. The old man, almost 
doubled, made a dart at his son. " It's a wild 
day, Skelly ; I don't think I'll bide at the close 
mooth the nicht." , 

If ye daur," answered Skelly, shaking a 
. hammer at him. " I'll put the hems on ye." 

" Did ye hear thou ? " he wliispcred. " I'll 
no bide at the close the nicht ; he'll put the hems 

* By J. Macdougal Hay. Constable : London. 

on mc if I dae ; is he no a guid son ? I'll just 
sit down at the fire-en. The coal wad be burnin' 

'fhe burial of the " wee wean," an illegitimate 
child, is described with powerful and tender 

"You behold Skelly cursing Parochialism and 
offering his herring box. He will wash it and 
paint it and lay it fit for a baby in the offertory 
of the chancel of death." 

The girl wheeled from the bed like a tigress. 

" Is my bonnie wee wean to be buried in a 
herrin' box? Nancy Fish had a white coffin 
for her ane. She sobbed and lifted her haggard 
eyes to the cob-webbed windows as if the patcli 
of visible sky were hung with white coffins." 

The terrible threat of the girl. " I'm gawn 
whaur I'll get the price of a white xoftin," clrives 
Skelly and Barnacles to resort to many devices 
till the price of a white coffin is achieved and 
deposited in a common grave where already a 
big black coffin lay. 

" It's better so, Skelly. The white coffin is 
in the arms of a big one. l^erhaps a childless 
woman lies there, and in the Great Day, when 
she wakens up, she will gather the wee waif to 
her breast." 

The whole of this chapter is a gem. 

Wee Kitchener's talks with Barnacles are very 

" Are the blue eggs no awfu' bonnie. Wull 
they be blue birds ? " 

" No, black." 

" Oo't o' blue eggs ? " 

There are passages that set this book far apart 
from mediocrity . II. H. 


■' And many strokes, though with a little axe. 
Hew down and fell the hardest timbered oak." 
—Henry VI. 


" The moment you begin a general enfran- 
chisement on the lines of State service, you are 
brought face to face with another most formidable 
proposition. What arc you to do with the 
vyomen ? 

"... It is true they cannot fight in the gross, 
material sense, with guns and rifies, but they are 
doing work that men performed before, they are 
.serving the State, and arc aiding in the prosecution 
of the War in the most effective way possible. 
And what is more. They say when the War 
comes to an end, when these abnormal and to a 
large extent transitory conditions cease to be, 
when the process of industrial reconstruction is to 
be set on foot, they will have special claims to a 
voice in the many questions which will arise 
directly affecting their interests, and possibly 
meaning to them large displacements of labour. 

I say to the quite candidly, as a life- 
long opponent of woman suffrage, I cannot deny 
that claim." — The Right Honble. H. H. Asquith. 

1 62 

^be 36riti9b journal of IRursmg. 

August ig, igi6 


Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 


To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — -The draft of the Bill promoted 
by the Council of the College of Nursing, Ltd., to 
provide for the Registration of Nurses is interest- 
ing reading. In many particulars it well safe- 
guard our interest. It cannot, however, claim our 
confidence till we learn the status, if not the indi- 
viduality', of the fort^'-five persons who are to 
compose its first Council. The constitution of this 
body is of \-ital import, for the first Council will 
have to frame the rules which will subsequently 
govern our actions, and on it the initial working 
of the Act will depend. 1 feel it is our right to be 
informed of the authorities who will nominate each 
one of these forty -five persons even if — for possibly 
some wise purpose — their names are withheld. 
Yours faithfully, 

Ellen B. Kingsford. 

Fallow Corner, North Finchley, N. 


To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear 1\L\dam, — But first I must thank you from 
the very bottom of my heart for the most generous 
and wonderful way in which you have helped us 
out of the difficulties we were in when I WTote 

Last time I wTote — I was frightened — but I 
don't really believe in being frightened. 

No words can say what the people here have 

It made one want to cry — when one saw some 
of the crumply envelopes with " one day's wages " 
in them — which kept pouring in on the ist of July, 
and in all they collected £250. No bazaar — no 
whist drives — no anythiirg, just giving one day's 
wage — or by the help of friends what they would 
like to be one day's wage ! 

We had great fun over my stipend — it had to 
" go in " of course — and the people and especially 
the children are absolutely delightful over the 
" Poor \'icar who has no money." 

I think the hopping really is worth while in 
spite of the big things ! 

I am quite sure it will be worth while — many 
times over — when the big things are. done with. 

We shall have glorious workers then — so man>- 
of our best are " out there " learning — and we 
shall, have I feel sure many splendid new ones 
when it is all over. 

Just the other day one came back — he spent 
half-an-hour talking of hopping plans for " after 
we have finished the Huns " and then just men- 
tioned that he liad " been to see the King " that 
morning — and it dawned on me that we had for- 
gotten all about his V.C. He is a brave and 
splendid priest — -and what a time we shall have 
when we have him hopping and many others — 
besides sisters, matrons, etc., who are in the thick 
of it out there. 

I want to keep things going for them though 
we have little money and are only taking workers 
who can pay for themselves — and just The 
Hospital. It would be a crime to drop that — we 
had nearly 1,000 out-patients last year and I do 
not know what the hoppers would do without it — 
so I want you to help the hopping a bit if you can. 

I have as I told you had to part with my White 
House — Right hand — 

But I have put his offices into commission of 
some of the Lords — 

It really was a great delight when it dawned 
upon me — that I had enough old Whitehousers 
in regular work and trustworthy to carry on the 
House of Lords themselves — in the hopes of some 
day starting the House of Commons again. — 

With the £7 which was left by a White House 
soldier, who fell at the Front, they are making 
a baking machine to bake clothes — ^which will be 
a great comfort. 

In spite of bad times we are out of debt ! ! and 
with people paj-ing for all sorts of things them- 
selves and with most rigorous economies — things 
are better ! and again one resolves never to lose 
heart and never to be beaten — ■ 

Anvhow it is with that in my heart that I send 
you a hopping beg — which asks for something for 
hopping — -and everything that you can rightly 
spare — to help dear old S. Augustine's. 

For indeed I think they are doing bravely. 
Believe me, 
Very, very gratefully, and not done yet, 
Richard Wilson. 

S. Augustine's Clergy House, 
Settles Street, Stepney. 


August 26th. — ^Give three instances of eruptive 
fevers. Describe the nursing care of one of them 
and state what precautions you would take to 
-prevent the spread of infection. 

September 2nd. — In what diseases have you 
seen marked delirium ? How would you endeavour 
to quiet and obtain sleep for such cases ? 


We would remind our readers that they can 
help The British Journal of Nursing by deal- 
ing as far as possible with advertisers in the paper, 
and getting their friends to do Ukewise. Only 
the most reliable firms are accepted by the 

August .0, tgir, c^be Brtneb 3ournal oi Wurstng SuppCcmcnt. 163 

The Midwife. 



It is witli pleasure that we publisli the accom- 
panj'ing portrait of Miss I. L. Scrimgeour, who 
is, witli ISIiss A. H. Turnbu'l, a member of tlic 
Central Midwives' Hoard for Scotland. 

Miss Scrimgeour was trained at the Royal 
Infirmary, Edinburgh, and afterwards was engaged 
in sanatorium work under Sir William Philip in a 
private hospital in Edinburgh, on leaving which 
did locum work as Matron of Leith Hospital. 
She then received Midwifery Training at Queen 
Charlotte's Hospital, London, and gained the 
certificate of the Central 
Midwives' Board and 

subsequently had a year's 
experience of District 
work in the Cannongate 
of Edinburgli, before lier 
appointment to the posi- 
tion she now holds of 
Matron of the Cottage 
Nurses' Training Home, 
South Avenue, Merryland 
Street, Govan,' Glasgow. 
During the thirteen years 
Miss Scrimgeour has been 
at Govan the Home has 
been enlarged three times, 
and the maternity cases 
number on an average 800 
yearly, about 30 nurses 
being resident in the Home 
at a time. 

There is a Maternit>' 
Ward where special cases 
in the district can be 
admitted if necessary. 
The pupils receive a year's 
training, imless previously 
trained, and all enter 
for the examination of the 
Central Midwives' Board, and ' have general 
training in the Elder Cottage Hospital, Govan, 
which works in connection with cur Home. 


We have come to recognise that the initials 
G. N. S. and standing for Miss Gladys N. Salisbury, 
at present one of the two women workers in the 
diocese of Xortliern Rhodesia under the U.M.C.A., 
are attached to articles always worth reading. 
Tlie following most interesting one, which 
we have slightly abbreviated, appears in the 
current issue of Central Africa : — 

F"ebruary i8th, 1915, 8.30 a.m. — ^In the garden 
of the Mothers' Home in East London the few 

ber Central Mid 

trees were already covered with a multitude of 
tiny buds, green spikes were shooting up here 
and there in the brown earth, and the dear, dirty 
little city sparrows — ^judging by their chattering — 
seemed full of joy at the passing of winter. On 
this spring morning, a nurse set out from the 
Mothers' Home, carrying her small hospital bag 
well under her cloak, lest the street arabs, spying it, 
should cover her with confusion, with their shouts 
of " Sy, Lidy — got a biby for our 'ouse ? " 

There were only four mothers and babies to be 
visited tliis morning ; but the distance to be 
covered was great, each little home being well 
away from the other, and two of the patients 
living in Wapping. So the nurse sped along as well 
as she could, for even at 
that early hour, East London 
streets are full. Over the 
bridge into Wapping she 
went, and then, quite 
suddenly, she stopped, for 
from somewhere came the 
music of children's voices. 
A policeman was standing 
on the kerb, evidently 
listening too, and noticing 
the nurse's bewilderment, 
he smiled , and remarked. 
Sounds well for Wapping, 
don't it, I^idy ? There's no 
need to look into the river, 
or at the dock-wall to see 
where the music's a-coming 
from. If you have never 
heard tell of S. Peter's, 
London Docks, and the 
children, it's time you did. 
J ust step along to that hole- 
in-the-wall business, and I 
promise you, you will see a 
sight." The nurse did as 
she was bid, and very soon 
found herself at a door, 
where stood a little 
belated child, in a very clean pinafore, with 
a small newspaper parcel pressed tightly against 
her chest; it did not need niuch imagination to be 
quite sure that cherished parcel contained food of 
some sort. 

As- the nurse pushed open the heavy door, quite 
too heavy for the wee child to move, she saw 
the sight promised to her by the policeman, and 
a wonderful sight it was. A big church, almost 
full of children, rows and rows of girls of all ages 
on the left, as many boys on the right, and at 
the altar an old priest celebrating the Eucharist. 
Fascinated, the nurse crept into the last seat, 
as the cliildren sang a hymn. Clear and Sweet 
rang the little voices : — 

I worsliip Thee, Lord Jesu, and kneeling unto Thee, 
As Thou didst come to Mary, 1 pray thee 4* come to Mc. 

Board fo 


Cbc Britieb 3ournal of "nursinQ Supplement. August ig, 1916 

while each little person reverently made the sign 
of the- cross. More late children came in, and the 
nurse's heart ached for the little bare knees, 
thumping down on to the floor, as the children 
made their reverences in passing the path leading 
up to the high altar. 

But the nurse had her work to do, so refreshed 
by these short moments in church with the 
children, she quickly passed out and on to her 
first case — a young mother living in an attic, in 
a small crowded court named White Thorn 
Place — save the mark ! The mother had much 
to say of her husband at the front ; the nurse 
told her of the service she had just seen. Said 
the mother, " I have heard of that church, it does 
a deal of good with the children, and though I am 
a Roman Catholic, I often think I will send my 
boys there." As the nurse turned over two-days- 
old Patrick, to fasten his gown, and glanced at 
John, aged thirteen months, asleep on his mother's 
arm, she smiled and wondered. 

Her work ended there, she sped on to her other 
cases, all equally interesting, all equally dear to 
the nurse's heart, till at last she arrived breathless 
at the Mothers' Home, only just in time to report 
the morning's work to the sister in charge. 

February i8th, 1916, 8.30 a.m. — In the heart 
of Central Africa, on the border of the veldt, the 
sun was shining in all its strength. The hour 
was early, but the air was very hot, all the abundant 
vegetation was parched, and though occasionally 
the call of a tropical bird was to be heard, one 
could imagine that even the birds were feeling 
the heat this summer's day. 

A nurse set out, in answer to a call, brought by 
two little African lads, to a distant kraal. The 
boys told her a was very sick in his foot. He 
could not walk in to see the nurse as his foot was 
very fat and full of pain ; the person cried all 
the time, he was so sick. 

So the nurse put a few necessaries together, and, 
armed with a white umbrella, the little party 
sallied forth. As she followed her guides along a 
narrow sandy track, where she and her two boys 
were the only people from the beginning of that 
three-mile walk to the end, her mind Ifew back to 
the day, exactly t\velve mouths ago, when she 
went out to her cases along the crowded streets of 
East London. Only, instead of crossing the 
Thames, she walked over the dry bed of a river ; 
instead of her destination being Wapping, in this 
case it was the kraal of Hajisofu. There was no 
need to look out for budding trees, for the trees 
were out in full leaf, the maila stems and pampas 
grass met overhead and, between the stems, 
strange and beautiful flowers smiled at travellers 
as they passed by. 

Presently the kraal of Hajisofu was reached, and 
to the nurse's joy, the people shouted " Sister, 
Sister," as she approached. That would not have 
happened three months ago ! 

It was the great man, Hajisofu, himself, who was 
sick and in pain. There he lay, in the middle of 

the kraal, surrounded by men, women and little 
children, under the shadow of a tall bare tree, with 
a branch stretching out on either side, for all the 
world like a rude cross. 

The poor man was moaning and swaying his 
body, his foot tied up with bark string and shells 
to show that it was the afflicted member and the 
whole foot plastered thickly with red clay and bad 

There was great exqitement while the nurse 
washed the foot, made an opening for the pus to 
escape, put on a fomentation, and bound up the 
foot very firmly, stitching on the bandage, and 
placing the foot on a stool. The patient fought 
freely with his hands and foot ; some of the women 
buried their faces in their hands, and rocked their 
bodies to and fro, others disappeared into their 
huts ; the children fled screaming. 

When all was done, the nurse sat down on a 
little stool, and tried to talk to her patient and his 
friends. The people are very courteous, and very 
quick at catching what white people falteringly 
try to tell them. Anyhow, Hajisofu and his 
friends understood the nurse and she understood 
enough to make their conversation very interest- 
ing to her. One by one the women came back, 
produced their long pipes for a comfortable smoke, 
and joined in the conversation. Very slowly the 
little children returned, and drew up close, laying 
their small hands on the nurse's dress, her hands, 
her hat, and even her hair ; and as they knelt down 
beside her, thump went the little knees on the bare 
earth. It was getting late, already the sun was 
high in the sky, and the heat was intense. The 
nurse's work was done ; but as she pressed the 
little brown bodies of the children against her, and 
promised to come again soon, the remembrance 
of S. Peter's Church, as she had seen it a year ago 
that very day, rose up in strange persistency before 
• her. 

Instead of the great church, it was only a big 
native kraal ; a gaunt bare tree in the form of a 
cross, on the arms of which hung fish, and the 
carcases of wild beasts drying in the sun, instead 
of the cross on the high altar ; heathen men, women 
and children, instead of the little white children 
of the Church — the little brown knees thumping on 
the earth, in the efforts of the cliildren to get close 
to their " Sister " instead of the white knees at 
Wapping, making their reverences before the altar, 
where one day they will come close to their 

And yet may not that whole scene be a fore- 
shadowing, a parable, of a day that is coming in 
Mapanza when, not only the score or so of Christian 
boys on the station, but children from the kraals 
all round will gather together in the Cathedral 
Church of S. Bartholomew, and sing with the 
children of S. Peter's Church, only in the Chila 
tongue : — ■ 

Nda kulambila Mwami, Ndaku sun Tamina, 
Undiswaye bubona, -J- Wamuswaya Maria. 

G. N. S. 


the: humsiiki record 


No. 1,482 




/ ivas ei'cr a fighter, so — one fight more. 
The best and the last! 

When it became known that Sir N'ictor 
Horsley was in Mesopotamia we realized 
tliat tiie rij^ht man was in the rij^ht place, 
that liis clear insight, logical argument and 
fearless exposition of shortcomings would 
do much to obtain better conditions for the 
sick and wounded. 

The eloquent, incisive, sympathetic voice, 
marshalling facts in convincing array, to 
which it was always a delight to listen, is, 
alas, silent for ever in this world, but, under 
the heading " A Voice from the Dead," 
the British Medical Joiirtial reproduces the 
facts and opinions expressed in a letter 
written to the editor by Sir Victor Horsley 
from the front on July 5th — some ten days 
before his death. 

The three main points of the letter, says 
tliat Journal, are first that it was written so 
that the case of responsible medical officers 
in Mesopotamia should not be prejudiced, 
as he feared it might be, through the report 
of the Vincent Commission ; secondly, that 
the appalling fadures in the medical arrange- 
ments were due to the utterly defective 
transport; and, thirdly, that the failure was 
bound up with the question of the present 
extremely unsatisfactory relations between 
the Financial Department of the Indian 
Government and the Medical Services. 

Sir Victor Horsley stated in his letter 
that last March the Commander-in-Chief in 
India told him that he had appointed a 
" Medical Commission." This, says our 
contemporary, turned out to be this com- 
mission of tliree — a retired member of the 
Indian Civil Service, with judicial experi- 
ence, an Intlian staff officer, recently 
appointed Quartermaster-General of the 
Army in India, and a London business 

man " Must it ever be in the case of 

medical matters that only those who know 
nothing about them should be appointed 
judges ? But this is what first the Govern- 
ment of India and now the Imperial 
Parliament has done." 

Our contemporary emphasises the fact 
that when considering allegations of defects 
in the medical arrangements of a military 
force it must be remembered that the 
Medical Service does not supply its own 
transport. It is, in fact, responsible only 
for personnel — surgeons, orderlies, and 
nurses — and for the supply of drugs. . . . 
As to the work of the executive officers, 
the medical officers actually engaged in the 
treatment of the sick and wounded and in 
minimizing their sufferings during the pur- 
gatory of their transport down the Tigris, 
there is only one opinion expressed by all 
the officers and men who have passed 
through their hands — namely, that they 
have worked in the most splendid way, 
entirely forgetful of self, constantly striving 
not to be discouraged by the want of drugs 
and appliances, the absence of anticholera 
outfits, or the need to give an intravenous 
saline injection out of a teapot — deficiencies 
all due, as Sir Victor Horsley wrote from 
Amara on June 7th, to "financial terrorism 
in times of peace." 

As to the failure of the transport arrange- 
ments Sir Victor Horsley wrote that the 
whole of the terrible failures in Mesopo- 
tamia " are due to the non-provision of 
transport. There never has been in this 
country adequate transport for food, and 
there never (until March, when our solitary 
hospital steamer arrived) has been any 
medical transport whatever ; nothing but 
the foulest store barges and steamers used 
on their return journey to the base to carry 
the sick and wounded." 

Let us hope that his letters offered to 
Parliament by Lady Horsley will be sub- 
mitted to the Statutory Commission. 

1 66 

JLlic Brlti«b 3ot\rnaI of "Rurslna. 

August 26, 1916 


The Physiology of Digestion, and the 
mechanical, chemical, and vital processes con- 
cerned, have of recent years been the subject of 
much study, resulting in discoveries of interest 
and importance; and a clear knowledge of the 
question of food values, and of the reasons 
underlying the diet of a patient, which is now 
frequently p r e- 
scribed by the 
physician, should 
be part of the 
equipment of 
every nurse. 

In this connec- 
tion a »book on 
Enzymes," in 
theory and appli- 
cation, with spe- 
cial reference to 
their use and ap- 
plication, p u b - 
lished by Benger's 
Food, Ltd., Otter 
Works, Man- 
chester, though 
intended p r i - 

marily for the 
medical profes- 
sion, is also of 
interest to 

Pioneer work in 
connection with 
digestive enzymes 
was done by the 
late Sir William 
Roberts, M.D., 
F.R.S., Pro- 

fessor of Medicine 
at the Victoria 
University, Mao- 
chester. These 

researches formed 
the subject of his 
addresses on Diet- 
etic Preparations 
and Digestive 
Ferments, d e - 
livered before the Royal College of Physicians, 
as Lumleian Lecturer, and of papers which 
appeared in the proceedings of the Royal 
Society, and other scientific and medical 

In the practical work connected with his 


researches. Sir William Roberts was assisted 
bv the late Mr. Benger, and Benger's prepara- 
tions of digestive enzymes and their food pro- 
ducts were the practical outcome of this pioneer 

The Physiology of Digestion. 

Concerning this important subject we are 
told that " under tlie term digestion are included 
all those processes 
to which the food 
is subjected in the 
alimentary canal, 
and which have 
for their object the 
c o n V e r sion of 
solid, insoluble, 
indiffusible food 
substances into 
soluble, diffusible 
food bodies, which 
are capable of 
being absorbed by 
passing through 
the wall of the ali- 
mentary canal into 
the blood or 

speaking, these 
processes are 
either mechanical 
or chemical in 
nature, the mech- 
anical factors in 
digestion being 
essentially due to 
muscular action, 
and having for 
Iheir objects : — 
(i) The breaking 
up of the solid or 
semi - solid par- 
ticles of food ; (2) 
the incorporation 
of the food with 
the digestive 
juices; (3) the pro- 
jjulsion of the 
digesting food 
along the alimen- 
tary tract. 

" The motor mechanisms include such actions 
as mastication, insalivation, deglutition, and 
peristalsis &'C., and are in some cases under the 
control of the will, in others involuntary and 
reflex. Roughly one may say that the fcKsd 
at the commencement and end of its journey 

Food. Ll<l.] [Coi>j'riK/,t. 


August 26, 1916 

ttbe »iitl6b 3ournal of ■Rurgtnfl. 


through the alimentary canal is more or less 
under the control of the will, while, during the 
middle part of its course, it is quite beyond all 
voluntary control. Furthermore, one has to 
remember that even this voluntary control of 
certain of these ' mechanical ' actions is only 
partial, and the result of education. 

" The chemical changes involved in digestion 
result from the 
action of the 
digestive juices 
formed by the epi- 
thelium of the ali- 
mentary canal, 
and by its glands. 

" The different 
digestive juices 
act in virtue of 
ferments (en- 
zymes) which they 
contain, some of 
the juices contain- 
ing several 
enzymes, and so 
being capable of 
acting on several 
classes of food 
substances. The 
enzymes set up 
hydrolysis, i.e., 
split up the sub- 
stance on which 
they act into two 
or more simpler 
bodies with the 
assumption of the 
elements of water, 
the whole object 
of the chemical 
factors in diges- 
tion being to con- 
vert insoluble, in- 
diffusible bodies, 
such as proteins, 
starches, or fats, 
into soluble, dif- 
fusible bodies, 
such as peptones, 
sugars, and fatty 

Most nurses 
have a working 
knowledge of the processes of saUvary, gastric, 
:ind pancreatic digestion, and these need not 
now fx: entered into in detail. 

Milk Digestion in Infancy. 

Concerning milk digestion in infancy, we read 
that " it is probable that during infancy milk is 

Benders Food, Ltd. 




digested in a slightly different way, but the 
ultimate effect is the same. The caseinogen 
from the milk of one animal may be readily 
digested in the stomach of another animal of 
the same species, but may be difficult to digest 
in that of an animal of another species. For 
example, cows' milk is readily digested by the 
calf, but in the stomach of an infant the curds 
produced are so 
large and dense 
that their solution 
is ' difficult, and 
at times impos- 
sible. A study of 
the process of 
coagulation (a s 
illustrated in this 
article), is very 
striking. The 

illustrations show 
the effect of an 
artificial gastric 
juice on milk, &c., 
at 98° Fahr. In 
the first instance 
cows' milk sets in 
a solid curd, and 
has to be broken 
with a glass rod, 
as shown in the 
illustration on 

page 167. In the 
second the cows' 
milk has been 
treated with Ben- 
ger's Food, and 
does not set in a 
solid curd, but can 
be poured out 
easily from the 
test glass." 

It will readily 
be realized, there- 
fore, that though 
milk passes into 
the stomach in 
liquid form, under 
the influence of 
the gastric juice, 
it there becomes a 
large mass of 
curd. For this 
reason it is impwrtant, more especially where 
infants are concerned, that it should be treated 
with some agent which prevents the formation 
of solid masses of curd. Such an agent is to 
be found in Bcnger's Food, a mixture of wheat 
flour and pancreatic extract. 



Ebe Britisb 3ournal of •flursinfi. 

August 26, 1916 



We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss A. C. Knight, North-Eastern 
Hospital, St. Ann's Road, Tottenham. 

The eruptive fevers mentioned by the various 
competitors are small-pox, typhus, typhoid, 
scarlet fever, measles, chicken-pox ; and the 
papers sent in include those on the care of 
small-pox, typhus, typhoid, and scarlet fever. 

Instances of three eruptive diseases : (i) 
small-pox, (2) scarlet fever, (3) measles. 

Nursing Care of Small-pox. 

As small-pox is a most contagious disease it 
should not be nursed in a private house, but 
should, if possible, be isolated in an infectious 
diseases hospital. The room should be well 
ventilated, as bad cases have a very offensive 
odour ; and also to minimize the infection. 

Warmth is also essential, on account of the 
liability of lung complications. 

The diet should be light and as nourishing as 
possible to maintain the patient's strength. 

Absolute cleanliness is most necessary. 
Clothing and bed clothing should be changed 
frequently. Warm baths are sometimes ordered 
to be given night and morning, except in very 
severe cases, and the patient dried with warm 
soft towels. 

Sponging the skin with water and eau-de- 
cologne or spirits of lavender tends to relieve 
the itching. Starch powder, oxide of zinc, or 
boric acid powder dusted over the skin in the 
early stage of eruption is found to have a 
soothing effect. 

Tepid sponging is resorted to when the 
patient is restless or delirious. Iced compresses 
are useful when there is much pain or swelling 
of the hands or face. The pocks should be 
dressed with antiseptics to prevent pitting. 
Wet boracic dressings applied to scabs hasten 
their separation. When the scabs have been 
removed, an antiseptic ointment should be 
applied. The face of a small-pox patient should 
be masked, and the hands should be wrapped 
up in cotton-wool and lint to prevent him 
scratching himself. The hair and nails should 
both be cut short. 

The nurse should be strong enough to control 
her patient should he become violently delirious, 
which is not unusual in this disease. A sheet 

passing loosely over the chest and fastened to 
each side of the bed is a good plan to adopt 
in restraining a delirious patient. 

Great care must be taken of the eyes of a 
small-pox patient, as serious eye complications 
may arise if not prevented by scrupulous clean- 
liness. The eyes should be frequently bathed 
with boracic lotion or weak perchloride lotion 
if the conjunctiva is inflamed. 

Bedsores are likely to arise, and therefore the 
nurse should not allow her patient to lie on his 
back for long, but should gently move him from 
one side to the other. 

The mouth should be carefully attended to 
and kept as clean as possible. Soft rag or wet 
wool should be used to wipe away all dis- 
charges, and burnt at once. 

To Prevent Infection. 

(i) Isolation of patient; (2) vaccination or re- 
vaccination of everyone who has been in contact 
with the patient. Disinfect the rooms occupied 
by the sick person, including the furniture and 
bed. Burn everything possible. , 

The nurse who is in attendance on the patient 
should have a bath, wash her head, and change 
all her clothes before leaving the hospital to go 

The patient remains infectious until all scabs 
have fallen off and all sores are healed. On the 
palms of the hands and the soles of the feet the 
pustules dry up into hard " seeds." These are 
picked out by cutting through the skin. It is 
important that all seeds be gone before the 
patient is released from isolation. 


The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss J. G. Gilchrist, Miss A. E. 
Reddock, Miss L. M. Moffitt, Miss Gladys 
Tatham, Miss F. Sheppard, Miss P. Robertson. 

Miss F. Sheppard writes that in small-pox 
acute delirium may occur in the first twenty- 
four hours, not remaining over three days. 
Lachrymation and salivation are often early 
symptoms ; a papular eruption — hard, round, 
isolated — appears on the third day on the fore- 
•head, neck, mouth, hands, then on the trunk, 
and lastly on the lower extremities. If the 
papula remain separate and distinct it is termed 
simple small-pox, or variola discreta. If they 
are more numerous they coalesce, and we have 
confluent small-pox, or variola confluens. 


In what cases have you seen marked 
delirium? How would you endeavour to quiet 
and obtain sleep for such cases? 

Competitors are reminded that they are 
limited to 750 words. 

August 26, 1916 

^be British 3onrnal of l-lurslnG, 



At Buckingham Palace on August the i8th, 
when the King received a number of officers and 
invested then^ with the insignia of the Companions 
of the Orders into which they have been admitted, 
his Majesty decorated Miss Violet Kiddle. Sister 
in Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing 
Service, with the Royal Red Cross, first-class. 

Ever since the beginning of the war trained 
nurses have shown the greatest courage and 
heroism in exposing themselves to danger when 
duty and the interest of their patients so demanded. 
In the casualty list of August i6th, under the 
heading " Officers Wounded," the following names 

just behind the line, and showing the nurse and 
doctor working together to give skilled treatment 
and care to the wounded. The picture is from 
an official photograph issued by the Press Bureau 
(of which the Crown Copyright is reserved) 
taken during the British Advance in the West. 

In. a question put in the House of Commons on 
August 8th, Major Sir C. Hunter asked if the 
medical authorities at the War Office would take 
steps to provide rubber gloves for the nurses who 
do dressings in the military hospitals at home in 
order to prevent cases of septic poisoning ? Mr. 
Forster, who answered the question on belialf of 
the Secretary of War, said every demand made 
by Medical Officers for rubber gloves for the use 


appeared : — -Matron M. M- Tunley, Queen 
Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service ; 
Sister K. A. Easby and Sister K. A. Allsop, both 
of the same Service ; and Sister J. S. Whyte, 
Territorial Force Nursing Service. We do not 
doubt that they will bear these honourable wounds 
with the same fortitude and uncomplaining courage 
as the men of all ranks in the Army. We wish 
them a speedy and complete recovery. 

Trained nurses have always claimed that 
wherever the sick and wounded are, there their 
place is, but it is a claim that those »in authority 
have been verj* slow to admit, and in past wars 
their work has for the most part been limited 
to base hospitals. The illustration which we 
print on this page is therefore specially interesting, 
affording a peep into a Casualty Clearing Station 

of nurses in military hospitals had been met. 
If the hon. and gallant Member had had brought 
to his notice any case where such gloves were not 
available, all that was necessary was for those 
responsible to make an indent. 

Mr. Stanley Washburn, the Special Corres- 
pondent of the Times with the Russjan Forces, 
writing from Lutsk, as seen from his balcony, says : 

" As far as one can see both up and down the 
street, the surging masses of khaki figures with 
their fixed bayonets swing with their long stride, 
roaring out their marching songs at the top of their 
lungs, those wonderful songs to the cadence of 
which hundreds of thousands of men have died 
these past two j'ears. 

" The pavements, too, are crowded with those 
who have their part in war. Sisters of Mercy, 


Zrbc Britieb 3ournal of TRiirsimj. 

August 26, 1916 

tired, dirty, and covered with dust, lean wearily 
against doorways watching with us their Empire 
in re\'iew — for, humanly speaking, every quarter 
of Russia is represented here. And these devoted 
sisters ! Surely nothing is too good for those who 
have left homes of luxury and comfort to serve the 
humble imijik soldier in the hour of this greatest 
sacrifice for his Emperor and Holy Russia. Again 
and again have I seen these splendid women on 
the road, in dressing stations and at bases, and 
one never fails to feel a thrill of admiration for 
them. Their faces peeling from the blistering 
sun, their hair filled with dust, and their gowns 
too often, alas-, deep stained with blood, they go 
about their daily tasks of service. These women, 
too, represent the nobility and aristocracy of 
Russia, who never before in their lives have 
known what hardship means. Thus is the war 
bringing together closer than ever before the 
extrenaesjn Russian life." 


" Ix Grateful Recognition," by " A Tommy." 
" Sister," how we all adore thee, here we thank 

thee for thy care ; 
Thou who nursed us and who clothed us, " May 

God bless thee " is our prayer. 
" Sister " is the name we call thee, " Mother " 

is just what thou art ; 
Rays of hope and loving kindness shed on many 

an aching heart. 

Can you wonder. Tommies love thee, when thou 

easest all their pain, 
With a touch as soft and tender as the gentle 

falling rain ? 
Like a mother, thou hast nursed us, kept us safe 

from every ill. 
Shared our troubles, eased our burdens ; given 

us many a lift uphill. 

When the road seemed dark and dreary, thou 

didst shed a ray of light, 
Which brought comfort to the suffering, lying 

sleepless in the night ; 
Gently comforted the dying, ere the unknown 

path they trod ; 
And the lifeless body cared for, when the soul 

had gone to God. 

So once more we humbly thank thee for thy 

kind and gentle care ; 
For thy sweet and loving kindness, pure as 

diamonds and as rare. 
'Tis to thee and such as thou art — members of a 

gallant band, 
Who have bravely done their duty both in home 

and foreign land. 
That we tender our thanksgiving, and with 

heart and voice we'll sing 
To the Territorial Sisters, to our Country and 

our King. 
Lewis Crescent Hospital, Brighton. 


Home Hospitals. 

Under the auspices of the British Red Cross 
Societ%- and Order of St. John of Jerusalem in 
England, the following Nurses have been deputed 
to service in Hom.e Hospitals : — 

V.A.D. Hasp., Wyham-ott-Tyne, Northumber- 
land. — Miss F. L. N. Pettigrew. 

Relief Hasp., Brankesmere, Scnithsea. — Mrs. M. E. 

Heath Lodge Aux. Annexe, Petersfield, Hants. — 
Mrs. E. Barclay Thomas. 

Clavton Court Aux. Hosp.. East Liss, Hants. — - 
Miss A. Flood. 

Brooklands, Weybridge. — ^Miss T. K. Macdonald. 

Red Cross Hosp., Hawkhiirst, Kent. — Mrs. E. 

Hosp. for Facial Injuries, 78, Brook St. — 
Mrs. B. E. Gillinghan and Miss M. Clague. 

Red Cross Hosp., U'vniondham, Norfolk. — - 
Miss E. A. Clark. 

Red Cross Hosp., Christchitrch, Hants. — Miss 
L. T. Kidney. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Dorset House, The Halve, Trow- 
bridge. — Miss F. Gralton. 

Hoole Bank, Chester:- — Miss B. Ward. 

Aux. Hasp., Hampsiead Garden Suburb, Colder' s 
Green. — Miss G. Welb. 

Clarendon Park, Guildford. — ^Miss F. Dates and 
Miss T. Overall. 

Red Cross Hosp., Ross-an-Wye. — Miss M. E. 

Gastnycke Hosp., Cambridge Road, Colchester. — 
Miss E. A. Cockburn Hughes. 

Pailton House Hosp., Rugby. — Miss J. M. 

The Grange, Halesowen, Worcestershire. — M!iss 
E. Needham. 

V.A.D. Hosp., St. Anselms, Walmer. — ^Miss G. 

.-iux. Mil. Hosp.. Belgrave House, Liltlehampton. 
— Mrs. A. A. Inspen. 

St. Mark's Mil. Hosp.. Tunbridge Wells.^ 
Miss K. G. Mursby and Mrs. P. Huggins.- 

Harborne Hall Aux. Hosp., Birmingham. — Miss 
M. Abram. 

Broadwater Hosp., Ipswich. — Miss ISI. K. Burton. 

Red Cross Hosp., Bramsgore, Christchurch, 
Hants. — Miss E. Green. 

V.A.D. Hosp., Corsham, IFite.— Miss M. C. 

Causton Manor Red Cross Hosp., nr. Norwich. — 
Miss E. Shipsey and Miss W. Soussaint. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Uppingham. — Miss S. Weldon. 

Aux. Hosp., Wych Cross, Forest Row, Sussex. — 
Mrs. T. L. Abbey- Williams {nee Wilby). 

Caerphillv Red Cross Hosp., Glamorganshire. — 
Miss E. Williams. 

Aldford House, 26, Park Lane, W. — Miss F. A. M. 

Kimpton and Surbiton and District Red Cross 
Hasp., New Maiden. — ^Miss F. Maguire. 

August 26, 1916 

Zbc British 3oiirnal of •Rureiiig. 


Rhydd Court, V.A.D. Hosp., Hanky Court, 
Worcester. — Miss M. C. Brown. 

Red Cross Hosp., Downham, Norfolk. — Miss 
N. P. Wheeler. 

Regent's Park Hosp., Southampton. — Miss E. 

Hill House Hosp., Warwick. — Miss R. Defries. 

V.A.D. Hosp.. Leigh, Kent.~U\ss H. F. PuUen. 

Red Cross Hasp., Oaklands, Clevedon, Somerset. — 
Mrs. A. Conalty. 

Countess of Lytton's Hosp., 5, Nottingham Place, 
W. — Miss K. Farringdon. 

The Rest Mil. Hosp., Porthcawl. — Miss E. A. 


The accompanying illustration shows a " B§,ti- 
ment " of a French Military Hospital where French 
Flag Nursing Corps Sisters arc working, and so 
near the front that it is within sound of the guns, 
and one day a Sister counted no less than 13 
Taubes, which dropped a considerable number of 
bombs. A " caserne " has now been made into 
which the patients can be taken should occasion 
arise. The Sisters say that no one who has not 
talked with the soldiers who fought at Verdun 
could understand the heroism of "the French in 
withstanding the terrific onslaught of the enemy. 


Boulogne Head Quarters. — Miss M. R. Wilson and 
Mrs. Alexander. 

Lying in Fort Pitt Mihtary Hospital, Chatham, 
is a wounded soldier with a broken crucifix about 
his neck. The cross is intact, but the figure of 
the Clirist is shot away. It saved his life. 

A request has been made to Germany and 
Austria by the American Red Cross for permission 
to re-establish units in those countries in order to 
fulfil the conditions laid down by Great Britain for 
allowing the dispatch of hospital supplies to the 
Central Empires. 

The French were delighted when the British 
offensive began, as they have great faith in the 
British ^Vrmy, and when the patients in this 
hospital heard that the German lines were being 
pierced they clapped their hands and shouted 
" Vive I'Angleterre." 

It should be noted that a " Batiment " is a 
section of the hospital containing 100 beds, 500 
being the full number. 

A F.F.N.C. Sister who has recently returned for 
a brief holiday to this country passed through 
the district of the Marne where French women are 
now cutting the corn, and the only evidences of 
the fierce fighting there are the gra\'es of the men 
who fell, over which the reapers had placed 
miniature sheaves of corn. 

J 72 

Zhc Kritiel) 3ournal of "Wurstna. 

August 26, 1916 


Queen Alexandra, attended by the Countess of 
Gosford and the Hon. Charlotte Knollys, visited 
the sick and wounded soldiers at the Military 
Hospital, Endell Street, W.C, last week. 

Mr. Forster, in reply to a question in the House 
of Commons last week by Captain Ormsby-Gore 
(Denbigh Dist., U.), said it was impossible to pro- 
vide for hospital ships in Egypt to meet the Indian 
hospital ships, and patients from India had to be 
transferred to hospitals in Egypt until they could 
come on. There had been a shortage of hospital 
ships in the Mediterranean lately owing .to the 
heavy requirements arising from the operations 
in France, but this had now been remedied. 

The Y.JM.C.A. Recreation Hut at No. i City of 
London Base General Hospital at Camberwell has 
proved a great success. It is, however, exclusively 
for the rank and file. The officers who are patients 
there have no sitting-room, or lounge, or any place 
of rest or recreation. The Lord Mayor is making 
an appeal for the sum of £yoo for this purpose and 
has already received some substantial sums 
towards this amount. Donations can be sent to 
the Mansion House. 

The cinematograph trade has raised a fund of 
;^35,876 for the sick and wounded. This sum they 
have expended, partly in the purchase of 58 cars 
to be handed direct to the R.A.M.C. for use in 
Mesopotamia, and the balance of £7,353 they have 
handed to the British Red Cross and the Order of 
St. John. 

Mr. Davis MacLarcn Morrison, of Queen Anne's 
Mansions, has presented to the New Zealand 
General Hospital at Brockenhiirst a 'bus for the 
use of convalescent soldiers. 

Lord Northcliffe, in a vivid letter in the Times, 
writes from the Trentino front : — 

" On my way back from the outer edge of the 
wood, well within the fire zone, I visited one of 
the Italian surgical mobile hospitals with an 
operating theatre that can be folded and carried 
by motor. It is used only for urgent stomach 
and head wounds that cannot bear delay or 
removal. A portable X-ray apparatus, a motor 
■ water-wagon carrying 500 gallons, four nurses, 
four surgeons, physicians, and orderlies complete 
the equipment. During the last two months 240 
urgent operations have been performed. The 
hospital has 200 beds. It was given by the city 
of Milan and works under the Italian Red Cross. 

I have visited several other hospitals. All are 
in every respect modern, well staffed, and well 
equipped. "The complete absence of flies is a 
remarkable feature of the Italian hospitals. I 
wish to call attention to the splendid work done 
by the British Red Cross hospitals near Cormons, 
to which are attached 24 ambulances. This and 

other ambulance sections are liighly spoken of 
by the Italians, who regard the British Red Cross 
activity as a pleasing manifestation of Allied 

" Lord Monson is in charge and Sir Courtaiild 
Thompson is now on a visit of inspection and 
is highly satisfied. Much good work has also 
been done by the Fourth Section of the British 
Red Cross, which has a travelling X-ray car under 
the managenient of an English lady, Countess 
Helen Gleichen. Owing to hard work during the 
battle of Gorizia one car has been put out of 
action, but I suggest the provision of another car 
specially constructed for mountain climbing, such 
as is made by the Italian Fiat Company. The 
value of the work of the Fourth Section can be 
gathered by the fact that as many as 60 urgent 
cases have been radiographed, often under fire, 
in a single day. All the Red Cross work here 
presents unusual difficulties, owing to the heat 
and the lack of water." 

An officer in France writes home in a letter, 
published in the same paper : — 

" We live in exciting times now, and all that I 
experienced before is as nothing as compared with 
this. It is quite impossible for you at home to get 
any conception of what is meant by the newspa,per 
phrase ' Terrific bombardment along the whole 
front.' The effect both to the ear and eye is such 
that the man is not born who could commit to 
paper an adequate description of it. . . ." 

Here follows an account, and the writer 
continues : — 

" An hour or so after what I have described 
above, the sound of wheels is heard, and we stand 
to know that our first batch of wounded is arriving. 
One by one the cars come up and discharge their 
pathetic cargoes — you cannot begin to understand 
what is meant by ' men broken in the wars ' until 
you see these heroes as they come red-hot from the 
fray to have their wounds dressed before they are 
passed on to a casualty clearing station, and from 
thence to the base and ' blighty.' ' 

" A crowd of wounded men in London with their 
white bandages and blue imiforms has inspired 
pictures entitled ' Broken in the Wars,' but until 
some genius arises who can produce on canvas the 
scene at an advance dressing station or field ambu- 
lance when an attack is in progress the people at 
home will have little idea of the true significance 
of the plirase. 

, " A few hours before all this they swing past us 
with a smile on their faces and a song on their lips, 
their bodies the picture of life and energy, and 
their uniforms clean and smart ; and now they 
have come out again with bodies maimed with 
shot and shell, and with their khaki, stained with 
the mud and blood of battle. 

" Sad, pathetic, ghastly ! Yes, it would be but 
for one thing, and that something so gloriously 
British. All the horrors of the fight and the agony 
of the wounds have not broken their spirits, or 
taken the smile from their faces and the cheery 
words from their lips. They are magnificent, even 

August 26, igi6 

Zbe »rtti9l) 3ournal of "Wuretna. 


more so in their weakness tlian in the strength in 
which they went out. The only time the smile 
leaves their faces is when they inquire anxiously 
whether their comrades are liolcling the groimcl 
and whether the regiment is upholding its proud 
traditions. It is just the same as their wounds are 
dressed. Xo complaints, no peevishness, no 
regrets. It strikes the onlooker as something more 
than human, and he feels that there is something 
almost divine in a race that can produce such men 
as these from factory and office, field and market- 

" The R.A.M.C. is just as wonderful. All the 
livelong dav these splendid men work on without 
rest or food, they have a smile and a cheery word 
for each, and they are as gentle, in spite of the 
rush, as the gentlest woman." 



Mrs. Milncs Gaskell, Lady of Justice, and Vice- 
President under the Military for District 10, of 
Thorncs House, Wakefield, is appealing in the 
press to young women to offer for nursing work in 
the large military hospitals. They will receive 
a salary of ;^20 and £ji for imiform, but must be 
willing after a month's probation, to sign on for 
six months if they hold certificates from the St. 
John Ambulance Association or British Red Cross 
Society, or for one year if they hold no certificates. 
Members of St. John Ambulance or Red Cross 
must be willing to go where required, and to 
submit to the rules of the hospital, and to consider 
thcmseh-es absolutely under the control of the 
Matron where they are sent, and they will have to 
take the duties of ordinary probationers. 

A V.A.D., in a letter addressed to a contem- 
porary, referring to the appeal of the Joint War 
Committee for more V.A.I). volunteers for service 
in military hospitals, as the demand for them 
exceeds the supply, states that if the Joint War 
Committee would " procure fairer conditions for 
V.A.D.'s serving in military hospitals they would 
have no difficulty in getting the right kind of 
women to volunteer. As it is now, when a 
V..-V.D. enters a hospital she has to fight the 
antagonism of the trained staff, from the matron 
downwards, alone, it being perfectly futile to 
appeal to Devonshire House for support of any 
kind. One of the conditions of signing on for 
six months is that the V.A.D. may be discharged 
at a moment's' notice without any reason being 
given. Obviously this makes it perfectly easy 
for a ward sister, jealous perhaps of the success 
in nursing of the V.A.D. , to bring her career to 
an abrupt termination. Devonshire House has 
refused to re-appoint many a capable and experi- 
enced V.A.D. because of an indifferent report of 
a vindictive matron. For this reason there are 
V.A.D.'s of nearly two years' actual nursing 
experience doing nothing. And yet they are 
calling for more women." She concludes by 
saying, " If Devonshire House will not or cannot 
procure us fairer conditions, they should not be 
surprised if volunteers are not forthcoming." 

The Outlook of August gth publishes some 
interesting " War Letters of an American Woman." 

The writer says in part : — ■ 

No wounded from the Verdun front have 
been brought here ; they all go to the Midi. 
The only echoes of the combat we have had 
were the coming of one hundred-and-fifty men 
from one of the hospitals near the front, evacuated 
to make room for the more seriously wounded, 
and little groups of men marching away. These 
latter are laden down with their accoutrements, 
their blankets in a long roll under one arm and 
over the other shoulder ; and the tramp they 
make is heavier than that of soldiers out for 
only a day's march. You learn to know it, 
and you run to the window to see them pass. 
The other day some went by, and by their sides 
ran many peasant women in their white coiffes— 
the mothers and sisters and sweethearts. One 
old woman held her son's hand, as far as my eye 
could follow, and though she was just in front 
of the officer commanding (he was by the side of 
the column), he did not in any way interfere. 
It was very pathetic. But the men's faces were 
all cheerful, and once in a while one would give a 
farewell nod or salute to some face in a window. 
Their courage seems to me the greater because 
they know now to w-hat they are going ; while 
those who went in the beginning were borne up 
by the unknown. But that they 'go like whipped 
animals, as the Germans would have you believe, 
is too absurd to refute ! 

Every day I admire the straightforward and 
qiiiet way in which the news is given to the 
public, if a position is lost, it is frankly admitted ; 
if it is gained, that, too, is stated, but without 
exaggeration. One feels that one can rely im- 
plicitly on the bulletins from the front, and I have 
no doubt that the general calmness that one 
notices at this very moment [regarding Verdun] 
is due to the confidence those bulletins have 

Brittany, March 28th, 1916. 

You will realize how busy I have been in my 
new work of delivering bales, re-addressing many 
which must go by local railways to tiny towns, 
and hunting for others that have gone astray. 
I usually deliver the bales for the small towns in 
person, since to some there arc no railways whatso- 
ever, and to others the communication is very 
uncertain. The bales for the hospitals in large ' 
towns and cities are now delivered by the military 
authorities themselves, as it is becoming more 
and more difficult to find gasoline for private 
use, whereas the militiiry authorities always 
have it. Their delivering the bales does not 
prevent my going afterwards to the various 
hospitals to see whether the midecin-chcfs have 
received what they should. You can imagine 
that I am received with open arms 1 Such 
pleasure, such almost embarrassing gratitude ! 


ITbc Brltieb 3ournal of "nurstufl. 

August 26, 1916 

Recently I was staying in a hotel where were 
also the mSdecin-chefs of five of the hospitals. 
On my arrival four of them bowed and smiled 
when I entered the dining-room as if I were an old, 
old friend returned. The filth looked quite 
unhappy. After dinner, when they met me 
standing o\-er the only radiator in the entrance 
hall, the fifth made haste to explain that he had 
received nothing, " mais rien, rien !" and his 
confreres had had such beautiful presents ! Poor 
little man, I found that all his bales had gone 
astray. He had wondered if I personally had 
not liked his hospital, or if I had not thought 
it needy. " But we are the poorest in the town," 
he said. " You may ask all of the gentlemen here 
if it is not so." Having assured liim that there 
would presently be something for him too, t left 
him thoroughly cheered and content. Next day 
I found his two bales — the first, in fact, which had 
arrived — bl^ck as the coal-dust which lay around 
them, overlooked in a corner of the freight depot. 
I felt as if I had found a lost lamb for the shep- 
herd ! 

Recently I had the opportunitv- to be present 
at the giving of the medals for valour to a group 
of men just able to be up and about, though still 
under hospital treatment. The soldiers from the 
garrisons of the town and those from various 
hospitals, headed by drum and fife corps, began 
to march through the town, with banners waving, 
almost an hour before the ceremony began. 
Wounded men hobbled in twos and threes, others 
rode in antes loaned for the occasion, peasants 
came in their two-wheeled carts, and all the 
population of the town was out, including hundreds 
of small boys — for it was Thursday afternoon, 
the school holiday. When I arrived at the 
Champs de Mars, the militia had already sur- 
rounded it on three sides, standing in close rank, 
at attention. We squeezed into the front row 
on the fourth side. For some time the square 
itself was empty, save for a drum corps and one 
or two officers, including the colonel, who was to 
present the medals. 

By and by a bugle sounded, the soldiers pre- 
sented arms, and there marched into the square 
in a long, wavering line thirty-eight men, poor 
crippled creatures, with canes or crutches, pale, 
hobbling, legless or armless, in faded uniforms 
of every description. At the end of the line was 
a man of about fifty in civilian clothes who was 
to receive his dead son's medal. The little pro- 
cession would have been comic had it not been so 
fearfully tragic. They formed in line, facing the 
crowd. There was a fanfare of trumpets and 
every one became very still. The colonel im- 
sheathed his sword and, pointing it directly at 
the first man of the row, read aloud the man's 
name and recited the act or acts of bravery for 
which he was being decorated. Then, dropping 
his sword into the hand of an aide, he pinned 
upon the man's breast two medals, the Croix de 
Guerre and the Medaille Militaire. While he 
was attaching them he talked to the man in a 
quiet, informal way, and the man's face flushed 

and wore an expression of mingled embarrassment 
and pleasure. The medals once fixed, the colonel 
put a hand on each shoulder of the soldier and 
kissed him in a fatherly fashion on either cheek. 
I can tell you it was touching ! 

It was pretty to see the way in which the officer 
went down the line, one bv one, bringing a blush 
to this one's cheeks, and a smile to another's face, 
and receix-ing himself always a kiss in return — 
a timid salute or a hearty smack. The ceremony 
was long, and more than once I saw a man waver 
from side to side from weakness or lean heavilj' 
on his crutches. Some were so pale that I held 
my breath. Finally, when one Irad collapsed 
iipon the shoulder of the next in line and was 
carried away, orders were given for the others to 
fall out of the line and to sit just in front upon a 
couple of benches. The man who was to receive 
his dead son's medal did not have it pinned upon 
his coat, but given in a little box. Nor did he 
receive any kiss. Poor man ! as he stood there 
with bared head in the rain I felt as if he was 
the most pathetic of them all. And then the 
ceremony was over and the crowd surged into 
the square to shake hands with and congratulate 
their heroes. 

Before I close this long letter I must tell you of 
one hospital in the vicinity that I visited two days 
ago. If you speak of this, don't say where it is. 
I wouldn't hurt the nice surgeon or the equally 
charming directeur for all the world. They were 
so delightfully friendly, and seemed to find my 
sympathy and imderstanding so welcome. Some- 
how I thought them more friendly than ever when 
I said I was an American. Apropos of a gift I am 
making through some of the money sent me by our 
kind American friends, the surgeon wTote me : 
" Notre hopital est probablement un des plus humbles 
et des plus modestes que voits ayez visiles, mais je 
sais que c'est pour vous une raison de vous y 
intiresser davantage." One of the humblest, and 
the most modest ! It was an abandoned factory 
of the most primitive sort ; most of the staircases 
are open like ladders ; the ground-floor is still a sort 
of lumber and storage place ; in some of the wards 
(if they can be dignified b}' that name) the windows 
are high up in the wall, as if to give the workmen 
who were once there light upon their machinery ; 
ceilings are in places upheld b)' rough, unpainted 
posts ; the floors are uneven, worn away, and 
without a vestige of polish or surface ; I saw no 
electricity or lighting anywhere save in the little 
operating-room ; I need not describe the beds to 
yen — you know what they were like from others I 
have described. The only water is a tap in the 
lower entry. In one place, to close up an open 
loft, the directeur had begged of a theatre in a 
neighbouring town a drop-curtain upon which 
were painted a castle and moat and a wonderful 
cascade. He was very proud of this piece of in- 
genuity — and I was proud, not only of his 
ingenuity, but of his courage everywhere. He said 
he had been discouraged when he first saw the 
building, but that he had begged and borrowed, 
and they had cleaned and painted, and that now 

August 26, 1916 

Zbc Brittsb 3ournal of "Kurgmo. 


it was really very homelike. The walls in one 
corridor were covered with life-size figures of 
soldiers, cannon, scenes from trench life. One of 
their blesses had been a real artist, and had tried 
to do his part to render the place gayer during his 
days of convalescence. The two Uttle operating- 
rooms and bandaging-rooms were bright with 
green paint, and as clean and orderly as heart 
could desire. This is a hospital of one hundred 
and twenty', of serious operations for eyes and ears 
and nose and trepanning. Only that morning they 
had had an operation for double-trepanning. But, 
oh, it was a pathetic place ! And all the more so 
because they were so bent on pointing out what 
they did have, and on showing how happy their 
men were. I saw man after man from \'erdun, 
many poor fellows with eyes and heads bjmdaged, 
many who would never see again. The adminis- 
traleur and the nUdecin-chef were so dear with their 
men. It was " mon brave," or " mon garfon," or 
■" mon petit " — or a Uttle pat on the shoulder, or a 
■\vord of admiration for this one and encouragement 
for that. It is astonishing how quickly you know 
the character of the surgeon by the atmosphere 
the men live in. That tumble-down old place was 
full of smiling faces ! For an instant I myself for- 
got it all. And then I felt as if I must do some- 
thing for them, and I was so glad to feel that I 
could. I don't beheve you can begin to realise 
what it means to have some -money in the face of 
such desperate needs. It is the ver\- greatest 
happiness I have ever known. So then we went 
back to the little operating-room, sat down on 
three-legged stools, and there we planned Uke 
children ! I am going to put in running water for 
them, and linoleum on the operating floor, and 
give some tables and chairs to tlxe wards (they have 
practically none) ; and the Fund is to be asked for 
clothing and pillows (they have none) and some 
inst/uments. Somehow, when I came in to-night 
and found a letter already waiting to welcome me 
from the midecin-chef, thanking me and my com- 
patriots so genuinely and sincerely for what we 
were to do, I felt as uplifted as if I were walking on 
air. I wish every one who has helped me to give 
these things could know it. 



It is one of the peculiarities of this war (says 
a contemporary) that a comparatively large 
number of soldiers arc rendered permanently 
blind from the explosion of projectiles. All the 
belligerent nations have to make special pro\isions 
for the re-education of these unfortunate men. 
The Institute for the Blind in Milan has established 
a special di%-ision for bUnd soldiers. All are first 
taught to read by the Braille system. Each one 
is then permitted to select a trade, in which he 
receives careful instruction. To furnish the poor 
men some distraction, the people of the citj' have 
sent canaries, mocking birds, and other song 
birds to the institution, and each man takes 
great pride in taking care of one of these little 

War has its bright as well as its dark side, and, 
when the history of the present Wzir comes to 
be written, there will shine forth in its pages, 
in letters of gold, the story of the loyalty of the 
Princes of the great Indian Empire to the Throne. 
They have not given only personal service with 
the combatant forces, but have la\-ished their 
wealth in pro\-iding for the comfort of the sick 
and wounded. 

An example of this is the princely gift of the 
Maharajah of Xawanagar, better known as 
Prince Ranji — a name beloved of British sports- 
men — who placed his beautiful house at Staines 
at the disposal of the Iving as a hospital for 
British officers, equipping it with everything that 
can be needed for its humanitarian work. 

Associated with the Maharajah in the upkeep 
of the hospital are the Maharajahs of Kashmir 
and Patiala. Together they are financing it for 
the period of the War, and for as long aftsr as 


may be required. By the King's wish, the hospital 
has been placed under the control of the War 
Office, and bears the name of the Prince of Wales. 
The Medical Officer -in-charge is Dr. Batchlor ; 
and the Consulting Surgeon, Mr. J. O. Skevington, 
of Windsor. 

The Matron of the hospital is Mrs. Barton, 
trained at the Adelaide House, Dublin, and the 
General Hospital, Hampstead, where she after- 
wards held the positions of Ward Sister and 
Assistant Matron. She is also a certificated 
massexise — a very desirable quaUfication, when 
the use of massage in the tieatment of so many of 
our sick and wounded is being attended with such 
good rcsiJts. The hospital is supplied with the 
very latest devices for electrical treatment and 
ionization, and the results attained are excellent. 

Before the outbreak of War, Mrs. Barton 
belonged to St. John's Territorial Force Xursing 
Association as a Trained Lady Superintendent of 
V.A.D. Middlesex 30. and wears the uniform of 
her .'rank, which is< optional, not compulsory. 


Zrbe Britleb 3ournaI of Hurstng. 

August 26, 1916 

Indoors it consists of a dress of black mercerized 
poplin with the distinctive military cape also in 
black, with a red border, to which the letters 
" T.y!." are affixed. A soft white collar is worn 
with the cape and an Army cap of spotted muslin. 
The Sisters of the hospital wear a grey riniform 
with scarlet epaulettes and belt, a soft flat muslin 
collar and the Army cap. All members of the 
nursing staff wear the distinctive badge of the 
hospital reproduced on page i75,whichis carried out 
in red and blue enamel with a narrow gold border. 
The rich colouring is effective but quiet, in excel- 
lent taste, and the decoration a charming one. 
Those nurses who serve the hospital for six 
months or more are permitted to retain it per- 

The hospital has accommodation for about 
forty officers, and for those who are received into 
its hospitable care 
the line m\ist have 
fallen in pleasant 
places. One realizes 
it on arriving at 
the front door, and 
gets, across the hall 
and tlirough the 
wide set windows 
of the ward beyond 
as a vista of 
emerald green, a 
glimpse of the 
beautiful Thames 
valley, through 
which, cool and 
serene, the silver 
river threads its 
way. The \'iew 
from the balconies 
on to which one 
steps from the 
wards is typically 
English, and a 
fairer scene it 
would be hard to 
find. Walk out at 
the garden gate 
and you find your- 
self on the tow-path. You can sit on the bank 
and try your luck with a fishing rod, or com- 
mandeer a boat, and float away to dreamland. 

Surrounding the hospital are some ten acres of 
well kept gardens, and glass houses. If you are 
fortunate, as I was, you will be taken through the 
latter by Mr. Swan, who reigns supreme in the out- 
door domain, and see the glorious blaze of begonias 
of all sizes, colours and shapes — single ones with 
corrugated borders, some even having a kind 
of cock's comb running inwards to the centre, 
or in another house the orchids, delicate, fantastic 
in lovely colourings, though they have passed 
their prime beauty just now — there must be 
a time for growth, as Mr. Swan observes. 

Inside the house Mrs. Barton is fortunate in 
ha\-ing fihe services of Kanuji, the Maharajah's 
personal attendant as butler — he will do " any- 


thing for the war," and those who realize the value 
of loyalty will find it here exemplified. His 
master has been away in India, but " Highness 
wishes it," is the working law of Kanuji, and, as, 
before he left, the Maharajah gave him instructions 
that the Matron was to be obeyed Kanuji does 
liis best, and a very good best too, to see that 
this direction is carried into effect. 

Within the hospital everything has been well 
thought out. The kitchen has gas cookers as well 
as the range, in charge of a good cook, and indeed 
it is largely on the cook that the success, and 
certainly the popularity, of a hospital depends. 

In the ward devoted to massage cases, one 
notices the bedsteads of unusual height, provided 
so that the masseuses do not have to tire their 
backs by bending over the patients, well-stocked 
stores cupboards are in evidence, and a good 
number of bath 
rooms are pro- 
vided. The former 
billiard room is 
now used as a 
mess room for 
those of the 
patients who are 
able to come dowa 
to meals. Let us 
hope that with all 
the care and con- 
sideration they re- 
ceive, the patients, 
received in the 
hospital may be 
speedily restored 
to health and to 
the service of their 
King and country. 
M. B. 

In memory of 
Miss Edith Cavell 
a stained glass win- 
dow, designed by 
Mr. Herbert W. . 
Bryans, is to be 
placed in Swardeston Church, Norwich, with an 
alabaster tablet -on the wall adjacent, bearing the 
following inscription : " Tliis window was given by 
many friends and admirers to commemorate the 
devoted life and tragic death of Edith Louisa Cavell, 
Head of the First Training School for Nurses in 
l3elgium, who was born and, brought up in this 
parish, of which her father was Vicar from 1863 
to igog, and who died for her Country on October 
12th, igi5, aged 4g years, being shot by order of a 
German Court Martial in Brussels, for having 
rendered help to fugitive British, French, and 
Belgian Soldiers. The artist who designed the 
window, and the craftsmen who made it, gave 
their services as their contribution to this Memorial. 

A.D., ig " 

There are many memorials to Edith Cavell, 
but none more appropriate than this. 

August 26, 1916 

Zbe Brttisb 3ournaI of "Wureinfl. 



The BrilisJi Medical Journal of August 19th, 
publishes a succinct review of the movement for 
the State Registration of Nurses and its present 
position. One item we may draw attention to, 
namely, that the amendment proposed by the 
Central Committee for State Registration of 
Nurses, to the Nurses' Registration Bill promoted 
by the College of Nursing, Ltd., defining the 
authorities to nominate the members of the first 
General Nursing Council, has not yet, as stated, 
been incorporated in tlie College Bill. But the 
Bill does give registered nurses the power to elect 
direct representatives. 


We are asked to state that the Articles of 
Association of the College of Nursing, Ltd., have 
now assumed their final form, and registration 
on the Voluntary Register of the College has 
begun in earnest. Copies of the Articles can be 
obtained from the printers, Messrs. Ej're & 
Spottiswoode, price one shilling, and members 
of the College can obtain them free from the 
Secretary, 6, Vere Street, W., by sending 2d. for 

Nurses will facilitate the work of the office, 
which is now very hea\'\', if they will take special 
care to fill in their application forms correctly. 
Much trouble is given, and time lost, when the 
forms have to be returned for corrections. 

Copies of certificates, not originals, are required 
in every instance, except when the candidate is 
on Active Service at home or abroad. Copies of 
testimonials are not required. 

All application forms miist be signed, the 
signature witnessed and dated. 

The Council wish to explain that the certificate 
of the Central Midwives' Board is not a qualifica- 
tion for registration, although the holder may 
have acted in the capacit\- of a general nurse. 
It should be remembered that tliis certificate is 
already registered under an Act of Parliament. 
So many nurses write on this subject that it is 
felt necessary to give this explanation. 

It is the intention of The College of Nursing, 
Ltd., to promote the introduction of a State 
Registration Bill at an early date. 

An informal meeting was held at Chelsea 
Infirmary on Saturday, August igth, to which 
members of the Poor Law Matrons' Association, 
Matrons from neighbouring hospitals, and nurses 
from the third London General Hospital had been 
specially invited. 

Miss Barton, who presided, said the object of the 
meeting was to wish good luck to the College 
of Nursing Ltd., She then read «ome questions 
which had been sent in and invited Miss Haughton 
to answer them.. 

Miss A. C. Gibson expressed the view that the 
College would help poor law nurses to take the 
place they deserved, and Miss Lloyd Still spoke 

of the educational advantages which would 
accrue to the nursing profession. 

Miss Co.x Davies said that ;£2,ooo had been 
subscribed but that at least ;^5o,ooo was needed 
for the ideal building which was in their minds. 



Royal Hospital for Diseases of the Chest, City 
Road, E.C. — Miss Helen -Vrabella Hamilton has 
been appointed Matron. She was trained at the 
Ro3'al Infirmary, Glasgow, and had further ex- 
perience at the Memorial Hospitar, Mildmay Park, 
and the Military Families Hospital, Devonport, 
and as Holiday, Out-patient, Home and Night 
Sister, and Deputy Matron at the Royal Hospital 
for Diseases of the Chest, and holds the certificate 
of its Tuberculosis Training School. She has the 
Health Visitors' Certificate of the Royal Sanitary 
Institute, and is a Certified Midwife. 

Corbett Hospital, Stourbridge. — Miss Lilian E- 
Hicks has been appointed Matron. She was 
trained at the Royal South Hants Hospital, 
Southampton, and for five and a half years has 
been Ward Sister and Assistant Matron at the 
Hospital for Women, Showell Green Lane, 


Royal Hospital for. Sick Children, Aberdeen. — 

Miss Margaret ]\I. Brown has been appointed Sister 
of Surgical Wards. She was trained at the^ 
Children's Hospital, Glasgow, • and the Royal 
Infirmary, Dundee, and has been surgical and 
Theatre Sister at the Glasgow Hospital for Sick 


Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading. — Miss Grace 

Hooper has been i[[)piiiuti-(l 1 [nine and Night Sister 
alternately. She was trained at the General 
Infirmary, Bolton, and has been Staff Nurse at 
the Women's and Children's Hospital, Leeds, and 
the Clayton Hospital, Wakefield, and has been 
Sister at the County Hospital, York. 


Miss Edith Deadman is appointed to Chalfont 
St. Peter ; Miss Theodora Harding to High 
Wycombe ; Miss Ethel Heap to Elloughton and 
Welton ; Miss Theresa O. Leonard to Weston- 
under-Penyard ; Miss Matilda Proudfoot to Leeds 
(Central Home). 


His Majesty the King, during his recent visit to 
the Belgian headquarters, decorated Her Majesty 
the Queen of the Belgians with the Royal Red 
Cross (First Class). 

It will be remembered that the Royal Warrant 
of 1915, relating to the Royal Red Cross, provided 
that the decoration might be conferred on " The 
Queens or Princesses of foreign countries who may 
have specially exerted themselves in providing for 
the nursing of the sick and wounded of foreign 
armies and navies." 


^be British 3ournal of Bureing. 

Aiii;ust 26, 1916 


The Grand Priory of the Order of the Hospital 
-of St. John of Jerusalem in England announces 
that the King has been graciously pleased to 
sanction the following promotions in, and appoint- 
ments to, the Order of the Hospital of St. John 
of Jerusalem in England : — 

As Ladies of Grace. — Lady Hadfield, Mrs. 
"Wynne, Lady Wj^nne, Mrs. Dennis, the Duchess 
of Devonshire, Mrs. Lees, Viscountess Errington, 
Lady Portal, and the Countess of Onslow. 


Miss Margaret McXally, an Army Xursing 
"Sister, and the daughter of a miner at IJarrington, 
Northumberland, who was recently decorated bj- 
the King with the Royal Red Cross, has received 
intimation of a legacy of ^4,300 from a former 
patient. Mjss McXally, who hopes to return to 
France as soon as she has fully recovered from 
an illness, has informed a press representative 
that she intends to found an orphanage for children 
whose fathers have fallen in the war. 


We greatly regret to record the death at Salonika 
of Nursing Sister Jessie Ritchie, of the Queen 
Alexandra Imperial Military Reserve. 

Sister Ritchie was trained at the Royal Infir- 
mary, Dundee, and for four years subsequently 
held the position of Sister there.- She then 
joined the Nurses' Co-operation, London, when 
it was located at 8, New Cavendish Street. She 
served during the Boer War, and when the present 
War broke out, she was called up by the military 
authorities and went out with the Expeditionary 
Force to France, whence, after a year's service, 
she was transferred first to Egypt and then to 
Salonika, where she worked for a year and had 
signed on for another 3'ear. 

During the Boer War she was placed in charge 
of a hospital in a concentration camp on the 
Orange River. It was there that General Smuts 
disbanded his com.mando, and on that occasion 
]\'Iiss Ritchie entertained him at tea. At the time 
of her death, which took place after a brief illness, 
she was Matron of the military hospital at Salonika. 
She possessed much character and energy, and her 
work was much appreciated. 

We also greatly regret to record the death of 
Nurse Mice M. Blacklock at Basra, Mesopotamia, 
as the result of an attack of dysentery. Miss 
Blacklock was the daughter of Captain Blacklock, 
Warbreck Moor, Aintree, and received her training 
at the Brow-nlow Hill Infirmary, Liverpool, 
rem.aining there until 1913. She then joined the 
nursing staff of Fazakerley Hospital, and was 
there for some time after it was made a military 
hospital. A few months ago she proceeded 
abroad, and had made two voyages in a hospital 
ship to the Dardanelles, after which she took up 
an appointment in a British hospital in Bombay. 
Later she went to Mesopotamia, where she died 
a few davs after her arrival. 


We have to thank Miss E. Horton (Glasgow) 
for a donation of los. to the fund for Nurse N., 
making the total amount received ^£2^ 2s. 

The Executive Committee of the Nightingale 
Fund report that, owing to the war, it has been 
found useless to proceed with their tentative 
scheme to apply a portion of the income of the 
fund in providing scholarships for fully trained 
nurses, to give a year's course of instruction 
in subjects dealing with household, domestic, 
and social science. The scheme, therefore, 
remains in suspense. The Matron, Miss Lloyd 
Still, states that they have been able to retain 
the continuity of their system of training and 
lectures and examinations for the Nightingale 
probationers without any disturbance from war 

.•\11 nurses, especially school nurses, whose 
work is concerned entirely with children, will 
be on the alert as to the precautions taken as 
to acute poliomyelitis in New York, having 
regard to the possibility of an outbreak in this 

The official weekly bulletin of the New York 
City Health Department for July 22nd confirms, 
says the Lancet, the existence in New York of 
an epidemic of poliomyelitis which the tele- 
grams have already foreshadowed. Attention 
in this country has been called to the epidemic 
by the distressing news that the daughter-in- 
law of the .-Vmerican Ambassador in London has 
succumbed to the complaint. For the week 
ending July 15th, 933 cases of poliomyelitis 
were notified, being considerably more than the 
sum of notifications of diphtheria, measles, and 
scarlet fever. During the same week 169 
deaths occurred, as against 52 from all other 
infectious diseases ; 143 of these were under five 
years of age, 25 between five and fifteen, and 
only one above this age. Of the i6g deaths, 
109 were boys and 60 girls. The bulletin con- 
taitis information for the public regarding the 
disease, and suggestions how to guard against 
it. Amongst the latter are contained the injunc- 
tions : — " Keep your children by themselves as 
much as possible ; do not allow them to visit 
stuffy moving-picture shows or other places 
where there may be a large gathering of 
children. Children should not be kept in the 
house ; they should be out of doors as much as 
possible, and not in active contact with other 
children of the neighbourhood. Do not take 
your children with vou when vou go shopping; 

August 26, 1916 

?tbe »rlti0b 3ournnl of "Kuretno. 


•do not allow your children to be kissed. R<- 
member that children need fresh air in the 
summer time, and outdoor life is one of the best 
ways to avoid disease." The bulletin adds that 
it is f>erfectly safe for the children to frequent 
parks and playg-rounds if only two or three of 
them play together, but that they should not 
play in large groups, and should not come in 
contact with children from other parts of the 

Mr. Walter Long, President of the Local 
Government Board, replying to an inquiry by 
Commander Bellairs (Maidstone, U.) in the 
House of Commons last week as to what imme- 
diate steps were to be taken in regard to the 
alarming outbreak of infectious paralysis in 
.New York in order to prevent its spread to this 
country, said : — We are fully acquainted with 
the facts of the case and with the nature and 
history of this disease as far as it is known, and 
of the steps which are taken in New 'S'ork. 
Cases of this disease have occurred here for a 
long period. The ordinary administrative 
machinery for the protection of this country is 
sullicient, and no special steps are, I consider, 
called for in respect of this disease. 

At a meeting of the Belfast Board of Guar- 
dians, at which the Chairman, Mr. John 
Wilson, presided, the question of the appoint- 
ment of a successor to the Lady Superinten- 
dent, Miss Hewlett, was discussed. 

It was stated in a special report of the In- 
firmary Committee that upon Miss Hewlett's 
resignation the committee had conferred with 
the visiting medical officers on the subject. The 
clerk pointed out that the Local Government 
Board had requested that any vacancy which 
might occur in the Guardians' service offering 
employees who were on war service an oppor- 
tunity of advancement, should not be perman- 
ently filled during their absence, and if the 
Guardians decided to adopt that course the 
Local Government Board would raise no objec- 
tion to temporary arrangements being made for 
the discharge of the duties of the vacant office 
until the conclusion of the war. The committee, 
after a lengthened consideration, decided to 
recommend that the appointment of a lady 
superintendent nurse be deferred, the medical 
staff having pointed out that a large number of 
good candidates, now on war service, would 
ni)t have an opportunity of makiog application ; 
that the duties in the meantime be discharged 
by Miss Gray ; and that Miss Campbell, assist- 
ant superintendent (convalescent department), 
be temporarily appointed to fill the office of Miss 
Gray as assistant superintendent. 

We have been very glad, says the South 
Atriciin \ursing Record, to notice, in glancing 
through our advertisement columns for the past 
few months, that quite a number of institutions 
have adopted the principle of refunding their 
nurses' railway fares after a period of service. 
The exact time varies : thus, taking three 
recent examples, the Cape Hospital Board 
refunds its fare after three months' service, the 
Butterworth Board after six, and Oudtshoorn 
after a year. This does not matter : the essen- 
tial thing is the adoption of a principle. Some 
time ago we commented on the unfairness of 
expecting a nurse to pay her own fare to take 
up a new appointment. Thus suppose she is 
appointed Staff Nurse at Pretoria or anywhere 
in the north of the Transvaal, from Port Eliza- 
beth, at a salary of ;£6 a month, most of her 
first month's salary is gone in travelling ex- 
penses before she gets there. It is only right 
tiiat after a certain period of goixl service her 
initial expenses should be refunded. In Eng- 
land young medical men seeking positions as 
house surgeons even have their fare paid to go 
and interview the committee, whether their 
application is successful or not. 

The Frcre Hospital, East London, is to be 
congratulated on the fact that two of its nurses. 
Miss Lilford and Miss Orpen, have come out 
first and second respectively in the list of suc- 
cessful candidates at the recent examination of 
the Cape Province for Trained Nurses. To the 
matron, Mrs. Knight, and to Dr. Lounds, who 
delivered a course of lectures, much credit is 
due for the successful result. 

Miss Mary Ard Mackenzie, B.A., R.N., 
Chief Superintendent and Insf)ector of the 
\'ictorian Order of Nurses for Canada, in her 
annual report, incorporated in that of the Com- 
mittee, says that the report for the year is a 
good one, "containing the story of splendid 
work accomplished, and replete with hopeful 
plans for future activities." 

In the course of her remarks, Miss Ard 
M.ickenzie says : — 

" I wish to make special reference to the 
Country Nursing Scheme of the Order. During 
the last two years the most important develop- 
ments of the Order have been made in this 
branch of our work. The plan is too well 
known to you all to need repeating. There 
have been and still are manv difficulties, but 
most of them are vanishing. The difficulty of 
reaching the people^ in order to interest them 
has been largely overcome by the splendid help 
given by the Women's Institutes and the Grain 


TLbe British 3ournal of fiursino. 

August 26, igi6 

Growers' Associations. By attending and 
addressing the conventions of the Home 
Makers' Clubs of Saskatchewan, the Home 
Economics Societies of Manitoba, and the 
Women's Institutes of Vancouver Island, I was 
enabled to reach hundreds of women represent- 
ing many localities, most of which are in need 
of some settled plan for supplving nursing care 
to their people. The outcome was that many 
meetings were arranged for in those provinces. 
Committees were organized, and the nurses are 
already at work in many oj them, and are doing 
untold good. I should like to quote, in this 
connection, an extract from a letter from a 
doctor in the west : — ' The people living in the 
above district (Hyde Park) are many miles from 
the nearest doctor, and as it is a comparatively 
new district many of the homes are, to put it 
mildly, very modest. In some cases, in fact, 
the nurse is fortunate in having one tin basin 
for solutions, when conducting maternity cases. 
It would take too long for me to go into details 
concerning the work Miss Skuse is doing, and 
I think one incident will illustrate it fairly well. 
Last summer I was called out there to see a 
baby that was ill, and on arriving, I found Miss 
Skuse there before me, doing all she could for 
the infant (4 a.m.). After I had finished attend- 
ing to the baby, I happened to notice that the 
nurse had a number of contusions on one side 
of her face and a very black eye. The home- 
steader informed me that two or three days 
before she had been pitched out of a buggy in 
a runaway escapade, while going to see another 
patient. Most people would have taken a few 
days' rest to recuperate, but she had gone on 
with her work as usual, because she couldn't 
very well be spared, even for two or three days. 
That is the type of nurse they need out in that 
country, and I consider them unusually fortu- 
nate in having her. Indeed, it is to be hoped 
before very long all our northern districts may 
have nurses of that calibre.' 


" It was difficult to have the people on the 
whole appreciate the great importance of the 
preventive side of the nurse's work. So long 
as people were actually ill and required bedside 
care, they saw the need of a nurse, but beyond 
that they did not go. That is, however, 
changing, and last summer I was surprised at 
the advance made in a year, as indicated by 
having such remarks made at my meetings as : 
' Let us have the nurse, if only for the school 
work,' or ' Let us have her, if only for the work 
with the babies,' and so on. This shows that 
there are agencies at work spreading the gospel 
of prevention." 

An Egg-Cup for Single- handed Use. 

We reproduce from the Lancet the following 
description and illustrations of an egg-cup for 
the use of men with only one arm It has been 
designed by Mr. Magnus Yolk, R.A.M.C, voluntary 
worker by 

appoint- Fig. i. 

ment at the 
2nd Eastern 
Brighton. The 
cup is a wood- 
en disc, 5 inches =^^ 
in diameter, 
with projecting rubber feet. The essential features 
are shown in the perspective view, Fig. i, and the 
section. Fig. 2, showing rubber feet projecting 
one- sixteenth 
Fig. 2. of an inch. The 

cup sits firmly 
on the table- 
cloth, even 
\\ hen only one 
hand is used, 
and the hollow 
is deep enough 
for the contained egg not to tilt. The cup has 
proved most useful to crippled men in the hospital. 
The illusti'ations are one-third natural size. 

An All-metal Hot Water Bottle. 

This is a new hot water bottle, made entirely 
of metal, described in the Modern Hospital, for 
which the manufacturers claim many advantages 
over other metal bottles that have been offered 
in the past. One of the principal advantages 
mentioned is the convex exterior, which has 
increased its utility to a remarkable degree, as 
it conforms to the form of the human body. It 
is a well-known fact that, as water cools in a 
metal bottle, a vacuum is formed, and, unless 
the interior is reinforced, a gradual collapse takes 
place from atmospheric pressure. On account of 
the peculiar construction with an internal spring, 
this bot:tle at once resumes its normal shape as 
soon ^ the stopper is removed. It has been 
proven that a metal bottle will retain the heat 
about 50 per cent, longer than the ordinary 
rubber hot water bottle. The use of such a device, 
therefore, should not only afiord added comfort 
to the patient on account of not being disturbed 
so frequently for the purpose of renewing the hot 
water, but should also lessen the labour of the 
nurses and attendants. 

Another advantage claimed is that it produces 
the dry, penetrating heat needed in many cases, 
and that it will stand any temperature attainable, 
is self-sterilizing, and there is no possibility of 
leaking or bursting. An air chamber around the 
neck of the bottle permits of comfortable handling.. 
It is made by A. S. Campbell Company, Boston. 

August 26, 1916 

^be Brttlftb 3ournal of "Wureina. 




The vicar's name was Wl\ite. In Little Pen- 
nington, however, everyone spoke of him reveren- 
tially as the vicar. Mrs. White died shortly after 
Tim was born ; the \dcar never spoke of her, not 
even to Tim. The room in which his mother's 
portrait was hung became an inquisitorial chamber. 
In it Tim was called to account for his incomings, 
outgoings and shortcomings. 

His nurse would say : 

" You are wanted. Master Tim., in your pa's 

" Well, Tim, you are in mischief again ; what 
are we going to do ?" 

This " we " was terribly disconcerting. It 
implied fellowship, the warming of a small heart's 
cockles, imphang also a sense of responsibility. 

To get into mischief might be, to a healthy boy, 
a ha'penny matter ; to drag a saintly father into 
the mud of petty peccadilloes became an odious 

The atmosphere in which Tim was reared clung 
to him throughout his life, and though it did 
not save him from serious lapses, he never quite 
lost touch with it, and its influence brought him 
back to himself. 

That he was impressionable is borne out by 
the prayer meeting he held with a village boy 
in the wood, following on a serious talk with 
his father. 

Tim carried a brown paper parcel tied with 
string. Ernest Judd stared at it, interrogatively, 
with a hungry expression. It might contain 
cake, apples and roly-poly pudding. His face fell 
when Tim extracted a not too clean night-shirt 
and a yard of black riband. 

" I shall go into the vestry and put on my 
surplice ; you kneel down and pray." 

" I'll be danged if I do.'.' 

" You kneel down and pray ; open your sinful 

" 'Taint more sinful than yours." 

" You kneel down or I'll have to punch your 

Tim was trembling with excitement. Suddenly 
he remembered a familiar passage in the Old 

" Take ofl your boots," he commanded, 

and socks." 

Tim did not remain sinless for any appreciable 
length of time, although that time lasted longer 
than was agreeable. For the rem.ainder of the 
Lenten season he and Ernest vowed solemnly 
to give up biting their nails ; but, as Tim re- 
marked, " Didn't we just make up for it on 

Tim went to Eton, but the fact that he was a 
Tug instead of an Oppidan filled him with bitter- 

His boyish love for winsome Daphne would 

*Bv H. A. \achell. London: Smith. Elder & 

have proved the inspiration of his life ; and 
the girl, young as she was, would have been 
true to him but for her worldly mother. The 
anger that filled the boy's heart at her weakness 
in yielding to her mother, was followed by an 
unworthy episode with a village girl. 

He had been expelled from Eton for breaking 
bounds at night. The old vicar, who was heart- 
broken, then revealed to Tim the secret of his 
illegitimate birth and the knowledge that he was 
not liis son but the child of his wife, whom he hhd 
married to save from disgrace. 

Tim's passionate remorse took the form of a 
resolve to go away until he could make good so far 
as was possible. He went to Southampton and 
worked his way before the mast to California. 
He married the beautiful daughter of a Spanish 
rancher. His passion wlurled Mm to heights — 
and depths. Magdelena was a pure maiden. 
Must he tell her .his sordid story, blacken the 
whiteness of her love ? When he had finished, 
when he stood naked and ashamed before her, 
she burst into tears. But they were shed for him, 
not for herself. She said, brokenly, " Oh ! you 
have suffered, you have suffered, but it is nothmg 
—nothing ; I shall make you forget Ohe ! my 
love will make you forget. Teem ; ah ! pios ! but 
I could strike Ivy ; I hate her, because she hated 
you ; and vou have given her a child, and still 
she hate you ; God of my soul ! is it possible ? " 

Ivy, of course, was the village girl who had, 
properly speaking, led the boy Tim astray. 

In spite of his enduring love f6r Daphne, he 
was ideally happv with his lovely little wife and 
child. But phthisis claimed them both, and 
Tim was once more alone. In his loneliness he 
turned home to the old vicar. " My boy ; my 
dear, dear boy." 

" Father ! " Tim finds his illegitimate son at 
the xacarage, cared for by his foster-father. Tim 
saw that the vicar was counting his sheaves — 
the corn that had ripened, after long years. 

H. H. 


"S'ou with the bojash laugh, the sunny eyes 
That always smiled when danger threatened 
worst ; 

Would you have had things ordered otherwise. 
If death could be prevented. Fate reversed ? 

You were so bright, we brightened 'neath your 

So all alive, your silence seems unreal ; 
Can it be true that you who felt so much. 

Lie there alone and can no longer feel. 

O comrade, though may be they call you dead. 
To us who loved you, that you cannot be! 

God grant when in my turn I too am sped, 
Someone may find as much to say of me. 

— Soliloquies of a Subaltern, somewhere in France 
By Eric Thirkell Cooper. 

Hhc Britir'b 3om'nal of IRursino- 

August 26, 1916 


Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects Jor these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 


To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 
Dear Madam, — I was just delighted to see in 
the last issue of the Journal the fourth draft 
of the Bill for State Registration, promoted by 
the Council of the College of Nursing, Ltd. Now 
that we have it in print, we can stud}' its pro- 
v-isions. I note with satisfaction that it incor- 
porates gome of the principal clauses contained 
in the Bill which Registrationists have valued and 
striven for for so many years. Anything less 
would be a grave injustice to the Nursing Pro- 
fession. What we Nurses want to know, however, 
is what professional bodies are going to nominate 
those fortj'-five persons who are to constitute 
the Council, and whose names it is proposed 
to include in the Bill ? That is most important 
and, indeed, essential. I heartily endorse the 
opinion expressed in the Journal that we nurses 
have a right to know what authorities it is pro- 
posed shall nominate the persons who are to 
govern us. Let us have the names, by all means, 
if Parliament is willing ; but the bodies nominating 
them also. If one or other must b3 left out, then 
leave out the names. — Yours, &c., 

Beatrice Ivent. 


To the Editor of TwE British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Editor, — Once more we have to thank 
the " Keeper of the Door " for so watchfully 
guarding our Portals. 

Our profession seems to me, like little Belgium, 
compelled to fight on until our position is assured. 

Unless Registration becomes law we shall be 
liable to repeated invasions of our rights anrl 

How carefully, for instance, those who take up 
sanitary work are trained, and the public would 
be deeply shocked were an amateur allowed to 
inspect or • direct the making of their drains, and 
yet they would debar the finest profession in the 
world for women the status which it is justly 
entitled to. 

Nothing but State Registration will bring 
peace and safety, and I earnestly hope you may 
be permitted to see your many years of strenuous 
endeavour crowned with success. 

Believe me, yours faithfully. 

J. Melita Jones, R.N. 
In New Zealand. 
Auckland, New Zealand. 

I P.S. — I yet hope to be able to write — " Regis- 
tered in Great Britain." 


To the Editor of TuKBRnisH Journal of Nursing. 
Dear Madam, — I was very interested to read 
in last week's Journal the article on " The Voice 
and its influence." The great Master, Shakespeare, 
gave an terse description of the necessary qualities 
in a woman's voice when he wrote ; — 

" Her voice was ever sweet, gentle and low. 

An excellent thing in woman." 
If this is the case with the sex generally how 
much more in nurses, for the nerves of the sick 
we know are acutely sensitive, and a voice with 
an edge on it may make purgatory of the sick 
room, whereas a voice soft, sympathetic and tender 
may soothe and comfort and so b3 a real factor 
in the restoration to health of the patient. 

I wish someone would write an article (illus- 
trated) on " Hands and their influence." I, for 
one, am a firm believer in it — for batter for worse. 
So much is conveyed bv hands. From the touch 
of some people we shrink. The hands may bs 
shapeh* — even bsautiful, but they are hard and 
unsympathetic, and repel one by their contact. 
Others seem to convey liealing in their touch, we 
sub.Tiit ourselves to their ministrations gratefully, 
we are sorry when thev cease. All of which 
emphasises the importance of the s.iiall things in 
nursing. I would like to ask probationers if 
they are sure that their touch is as tender and their 
voices as sweet as nature and art can make them ; 
if they do not feel assured on this point let me 
advise them to go and listen to some of our 
most persuasive speakers — Lady Henry Somerset, 
Mrs. Fawcett, Mrs. Ormiston Chant, Dr. Flora 
!\Iurray, and then resolve to bacome their disciples, 
I know it would mean comfort for the sick. 
Yours faithfully, 

To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing- 
Dear Mad.^m, — I entirelv agree with the opinion 
expressed by your correspondent that British and 
French have much to learn from one another. 
I very much hope that one of the results of this 
war will be that English nurses will leave a 
perm.anent mark in the wards of French hospitals, 
and I should be happy if I thought that French- 
women would leave their impress in the kitchens 
of English hospitals. After all the presentation of 
nutations food to a patient in an appetising form 
,-goes a long way towards his recovery, and in this 
department French women- can give us points 
all along the line. 

Yours, &c. 
One Who Has Experienced Both. 



what diseases have 


September 2nd. — In what diseases have you 
seen marked delirium ? How would you endeavour 
to quiet and obtain sleep for such cases ? 

September gth. — What do you know of Acute 
Poliomyelitis, and the nursing care necessary in 
cases of this disease ? 

.iuf;ust 26, 19K. (The Brtneb 3ournal or Huretng Supplement. 


THe Midwife. 



At the Examination of tlic Central Midwives 
Board held in London on August 2nd, 152 can- 
didates were examined and 115 passed the 
examiners. Tlic percentage of failures was 24.3. 


British Hospital for MotJuis and Babies. — C. S. E. 

Citv of London Lying-in HospilaL — E. J. Evans, 
E. K. Miller. 

Clapham Maternity HospilaL — E. M. (irippcr, 
A. M. Meredith, I. M. I. Thompson. 

East End Mothers' Home.—C. W. Bell, F. M. 
FoleV, A. Mason, M. A. Maxwell, U. M. Mayberry, 
D. M. Stevens. G. M. Toll, E. M. White, K. M. 

General Lying-in Hospital. — H. Barlow, B. A. 
Birch, A. Bradshaw, M. E. S. Callwell, M. P. 
Fourdrinier, J. F. Furniss, A. B. Irving, E. Kilby, 
S. Mackenzie, M. G. K. Read, L. B. Styles, A. E. 

Guy's Lnstitution. — ^M. Apfcl, A. B. Pilkington, 
K. Shorter. 

Jewish Maternity District Nursing Home and 
London Hospital. — B. Abrahams, C. Hawker. 

London Hospital. — -E. Beckett, M. B. English, 
R. Hood. 

Plaistow Maternity Charity. — M. Hutcherson, 
H. W. Keith, G. U. Prance, A. Williams. 

Queen Charlotte's Hospital. — B. B. Berrv, D. E. 
Bidden, J. A. Bince, M. R. Cross, M. ' Ewens, 
W. M. Sparshatt, E. A. Tait, E. Tipples, S. 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital. — I. M. C. Grant. 

Salvation Army Mothers' Hospital. — E. 
Brougham, A. Fielding. 

University College Hospital. — O. M. Denny, 
A. G. Simpson. 

Wandsworth Union Workhouse. — M. E. Dalby, 
H. D. Gage. ■ • ' 


Birkenhead Maternity Hospital. — F. Addison. 

Birmingham Maternity Hospital. — ^A. J. Fox, 
C. Grainger, E. Ings, G. James, A. Jones, M. F. 
Reynolds, M. M. Todhunter, A. M. Wells. 

Brighton Hospital for Women. — -C. Wakefield. 

Cheltenham District Nursing Association. — M. 
Cadmore, K. Hartland, E. A. Jones. 

Derby, Royal Derbyshire Nursing Association. — 
R. Bond, S. E. Morris, A. Phipps. ' 

Essex' County Cottage Nursing Society.— E. 
Crampton, S. A. Hindle, E. E. Hunnable, L. H. 

Hastings District Nursing Association. — E. A. 

Leicester Union Infirmary. -L. E. Evitt, A. 

Liverpool Maternity Hospital. — -E. A. Smith. 

Liverpool Workhouse Hospital. — -A. Prytherch. 

Manchester, St. Mary's Hospitals. — E. Baker, 
E. Lewis, M. E. Neild, B. Owen. 

Staffordshire Training Home for Nurses. — ■^L 
Roberts, E. Wood. 

Portsmouth ll'orkhouse lnfirtnary.-—.\. D. Bishop. 

ll'rt//o« West Derby Union Lnfirmary. — G. L. 

Wiltshire Nursing Association. — I. S. Hunt. 

York Maternity Hospital. — E. B. Gammon. 

Cardiff Q.V.J.N.T.—T. Giles. 
Monmouthshire Nursing Association. — M. E. L. 


Dundee Maternity Hospital. — E. K. King. 

Edinburgh Royal Maternity Hospital. — M. 


Dublin National Maternity Hospital. — M. 

Dublin, Rotunda Hospital. — B. .\. Tabuteau. 


Madras Government Maternity Hospital. — L. J. 


I. M. .\rscott, F. H. E. Bcrtouillc, L. E. Black- 
burn, M. A. Butterworth, H. S. Hallett, M. 
Hopkins, A. E. Irvine, E. A. Morgan, G. S. 

Private and Institutions. 

Kensington Union Infirmary. — E. M. Baker, A. 

Fulham Midwifery School and G. Ley. — E. 

Pemberton Nursing Institute and New Hospital 
for Women. — A. F. Edwards, A. C. Johnson. 

Birmingham Maternity Hospital. — -M. Levell. 

St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester. — M. Lineham, 
A. Whitworth. 

General Lying-in Hospital. — W. Williams. 


1. Describe all that can be seen, felt, and heard 
on examination of the pregnant abdomen at the 
end of pregnancy. 

2. What may prevent a child's head from 
passage through the brim of the pelvis ? How 
would yon recognise that its passage was pre- 
vented ? What is your duty in such a case ? 

3. Describe the care of both mother and child 
which is necessary in a case in which a yellow 
vaginal discharge is present at the time of labour. 

4. WTiat symptoms and signs would lead you 
to think that a woman had cancer of the womb ? 


dbe British 3ournal of "Rursina Supplement. August 25, 1916 

5. Describe the proper tieatment of the breasts 
before labour, and during lactation. 

6. How would you treat {a) sore buttocks, 
(b) convulsions in a new-born child, (c) retention 
of urine in a mother twenty-four hours after 
delivery ? 

The New Rules. 

When a certified midwife is cited to appear 
before the Central Midwives' Board, notice is now 
sent to the Local Supcr\'ising Authority, who is 
to be given the opportunity' to attend and assist 
the Secretary. As this Authority has previously 
investigated the charge against the midwife 
locally, and found a prima facie case, it is obvious 
that tlus is not only a just but a wise provision. 

Midwives should note the new rule placing on 
them certain pre-natal duties. Amendments have 
been inti'C^duced in respect of the equipment of 
midwives, notification of liabilities of a midwife to 
be a source of infection, and the duties of a 
midwife to her patient. The desirability of breast 
feeding is also en;phasised. 



By Sara B. Bower, R.N., Philadelphia, Pa. 

I have often been amused, and at times greatlv 
annoyed, by the point of view so many nurses 
entertain toward obstetrics. This was first im- 
pressed upon me shortly after my graduation, 
when an e.Kperienced nurse, with whom I was 
discussing my plans, said to me : " I haven't 
come down to taking obstetrical cases yet, but, 
of course, you never can tell." From her tone, 
I felt that she considered her ability warranted 
something superior to obstetrics. Since then, 
I have repeatedly encountered this same in- 
tolerance, and only a few days ago, wliile attending 
a meeting, it was again brought to my attention. 
A nurse whom I had not seen for several months 
asked me about my work, and I replied, saying : 
" Yes ! I'm busy, but then, an obstetrical nurse 
can always be busy." 

Oh ! obstetrics," she replied, in a con- 
temptuous tone. " No doubt we'll all come to 
it ; times are so hard." 

Why shoaild she feel that she " must come to 
it " ? Why this contempt for obstetrics ? — a 
work which requires as skilful training as anything 
in the category of nursing, and which at the same 
time is replete with new problems, new interests 
and delightful associations. An obstetrical nurse 
has not one patient, but two, each of whom has 
different needs. Realising that the baby is a 
personality with individual rights, she must 
protect and discipline it, and prevent the inter- 
ference of family and friends. This is often the 
most difficult problem of her work, but this 

* From the American Journal of Nursing. 

protection means the future comfort of both 
mother and cliild. 

The obstetrical nurse, to fill the highest mission 
of her speciality, must be a teacher. Motherhood 
is the greatest revelation that cor'.es into a 
woman's life, but it is also the greatest responsi- 
bilitj', and for that reason the nurse must teach 
the mother the physical care of her child, so that 
she will not be helpless when left to her own 
resources. If the baby - is artificially fed, the 
mother must be taught milk modification, 
pasteurization, and the principles of sterilization. 
At all times a feeling of confidence should be 
cultivated in the naother. Then, too, I have 
often found that a mother's training has led her 
to look upon an infant as a plaything, brought 
into the world for the amusement of older people. 
In such cases it becomes the nurse's duty to 
arouse in that mother a sense of moral obligation 
and responsibility toward her child. 

The reason for the intolerance so often found 
among nurses towards obstetrics is that they view 
it only from the standpoint of labour, they 
fail to see the marvellous work that can be done 
by exact and scientific method. The great 
evolution in obstetric care during the last thirty 
years, has only been made possible through the 
advent of the trained nurse. She has been the 
doctors' greatest aid in the wonderful work that 
has been done in the prevention of puerperal sepsis. 

Obstelrics is a laborious specialty, but it yields 
imusual compensations. Surely it should not be 
robbed of its ideals, but should be given its proper 
and by no means inferior place in the category of 


Dr. Barbara Tchaykovsky, wTiting in the 
■ Mothers' Magazine oil Schools for Fathers says 
that schools for mothers were established some 
ten years ago to cope with the terrible loss and 
maiming of infant and maternal life, largely 
through preventible causes and through the 
ignorance of those who arc making the future 

To concentrate on the mother and child and to 
leave out of account the father is to court disaster, 
for the fathers, too, share in this building, and 
their ignorance is the deadliest foe we have to 
fight in our baby-saving crusade, nay, in our 
safeguarding the immortality of the race. Much 
of our efforts may be wrecked unless we can 
secure the co-operation and stimulate the in- 
terest of the other parent to whom also the child 
belongs, and in whose hands, too, lies the future. 

The Sultan of Egypt favours some useful 
institution, such as a maternity' hospital, with a 
medical school for women, as the Egyptian 
memorial to Lord Kitchener, and is prepared to 
head the subscription list with ;£500. 



the: mmsniG record 


No. 1,483 




An animated discussion is proceeding in 
the Daily Mail undpr the heading " Nurses 
Stand too Much." Do thev ? What do our 
readers think ? 

Mrs. C. G. Dixon declares that the un- 
necessary standing — and long hours — 
prevent many quite healthy though not 
over strong women from becoming nurses 
in this time of exceptional need, and that 
except during the short meal times, and the 
two hours off dutv, nurses are not allowed 
to sit down at all in the whole twelve or 
fourteen hours' day, even to make " swabs " 
and prepare dressings which could be done 
quite as quickly sitting as standing, and 
that on " doctor's afternoons " (every after- 
noon is doctor's afternoon in a busy London 
Hospital) the nurses in the wards he visits 
last may have to wait about for an hour or 
so doing absolutely nothing, yet thev may 
not sit down — " Thev may not even get on 
with the work which is crying out to be 
done in case the doctor should appear at 
any moment. His nerves, one supposes, 
would not stand the shock of seeing a 
couple of probationers quietly making 
dressings at a side table in the ward." 

This letter has provoked a replv from 
Lord Knutsford who signs himself " Chair- 
man of three London Hospitals where no 
such rule exists." He challenges Mrs. 
Dixon to give the name of any hospital 
where such an " absurd and cruel rule " is 
in force, and says " as applied generally to 
all hospitals the statement is untrue." So 
the glove is down and it is " up to " those 
who assert that it does exist to prove it. 

But this may not be as easy a ^matter as 
it appears. There are many unwritten 
rules which are quite as binding as those 
which are framed and glazed, or pinned on 
the nurses' green board. 

A chairman may truthfully say such a rule 

is non-existent. The probationer with equal 
truth may tell quite a different story. Is'ot 
only every hospital, but to some extent 
every ward in the same hospital has its own 
unspoken rules, its own standard, dependent 
on the will, and in some degree the tempera- 
ment of the Sister. 

No doubt an appeal to authority might 
prove that a particular rule which presses 
hardly is not endorsed by the Committee, 
but that is seldom a step regarded as prac- 
ticable by the probationer in training. " It 
is never done," " it is very bad form," is 
enough for the average probationer, into 
whose scheme of things the possibility of an 
adverse report, and being " sent for to 
Matron " to be told that nursing is not her 
vocation always enters. 

The " Chairman of a Large Provincial 
Hospital " appears to appreciate the 
position when he writes to our contem- 

" The real position I believe to be that, 
while there is no rule against nurses in 
hospitals sitting down, thev do, in fact, 
refrain from doing so because thev are 
afraid it will gain them a reputation with 
their matron for slackness. 

" This, I know, is the case here, and from 
conversations I have had at different times 
with our sisters is the case ;it most hospitals. 
So far as this hospital is concerned there is 
no ground for this fear, but our staff is slow 
to believe it." 

The hard fact must also be remembered 
that in a busy ward there is often no time 
for nurses to sit down, and the harassed 
Sister is often compelled to be more or less 
a slave driver in order that the day's work 
may be accomplished. 

Lord Knutsford raises another question 
when he writes that if subscribers to 
hospitals would ask to see the sleeping 
accommodation thought fit for nurses they 
would, in many cases, think that nurse§ 
" stand too much." 

1 86 

^be Srltteb 3or\rnal of Furstng. 

September 2, igi6 



We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to iMiss Kathleen Kohler, Brook War 
Hospital, Woolwich, S.E. 


Delirium may be of two types — low mutter- 
ing delirium and wild delirium. 

Low muttering delirium is common in all 
acute infectious fevers. In typhoid fever it is, 
to some extent, almost invariably present. 

Wild delirium is met with in the early stage 
of acute pneumonia, uremia, alcoholism, and 
poisoning by a certain class of drugs, e.g., 

The wild delirium associated with acute 
alcoholism is known as delirium tremens, from 
the tremors which accompany the condition. 

Traumatic delirium is a term applied to a 
delirious state which sometimes follows injuries 
and surgical operations. It may be due to 
(i) sepsis; (2) a weak condition of the nervous 
system. With the typhoid state practically 
nothing is needed but careful watching, as these 
patients never attempt to act upon the prompt- 
ings of their delirious ideas, and spend a fair 
amount of their time in a drowsy condition. 

Quietness is best obtained by agreeing with 
the patient absolutely ; his statements must 
never be contradicted in any way, and although 
delirious, he will often do what he is told when 
the nurse talks quietly to him or touches him. 
Should the patient become actively violent, a 
certain amount of restraint may, if necessarv, 
be exercised by pinning the blanket covering 
him to the mattress. Should this be ineffectual, 
a patient should be removed from a general 
ward to a quiet room, where very little sound 
has access. If a fire is necessary, it must be 
screened off, as the flickerings of a fire on the 
wall are most disturbing to a delirious patient. 
Perfect quietness has a wonderful eflect. With 
a very violent patient some measure of 
restraint, under medical direction, is preferable 
to wrestling with the patient, as this tends to 
make him more excited and leads to extreme 

Hypnotics are nearly always necessary to 
obtain sleep. They should only he given by 
medical direction, as they have a very depres- 
sing effect on the heart. In delirium tremens, 
stimulants should not be entirely withheld. 
Tepid sponging will often induce sleep, and a 

wet pack almost invariably relieves the 
symptoms and so promotes sleep. 

In these conditions patients are indifferent 
to the passing of time, and strict attention to 
their personal comfort and absolute quiet will 
predispose to as much sleep as possible. It 
need hardly be said that, although delirious 
patients resent interference, they must never 
for one moment be left alone. 


The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss A. C. Knight, Miss L. M. 
Moffitt, Miss P. MacLaren, Miss M. Robinson, 
.Miss J. Stevens. 

Miss A. C. Knight writes : — Delirium may 
occur in various febrile disorders. For instance, 
it is often seen in the advanced stage of enteric 
fever, when it is usually of a low muttering 
type. In the early stages of acute pneumonia 
we have the active noisy delirium. 

Small-pox patients often become delirious, 
and are sometimes very violent. 

Delirium also occurs in bad cases of scarlet 
fever, especially in the septic and toxic forms, 
also in cerebro-spinal meningitis and in typhus 
fever. It mav be present after a severe 

For delirium, after any of the specific fevers, 
drugs have no special action. Cold packs 
(65° F.), tepid baths or sponging, cold baths or 
cold sponging, all tend to lessen the delirium, 
and produce sleep for the patient. 

Belladonna poisoning, in severe cases, is 
marked by delirium. Physicians usually inject 
, morphia to counteract the poisonous effects of 
tlie belladonna. 

Delirium tremens onlv occurs in patients who 
habitually take large quantities of alcohol. 
This condition sometimes comes on as the result 
of a shock. Occasionally it follows the sudden 
and complete withdrawal of alcohol, Or it may 
develop during an acute illness. The nurse in 
charge of an .idvrmced case of dclirimn tremens 
should use her tact to keep, the patient quiet 
bv humouring him. Remembering' the risks of 
[leart failure, she ought never to struggle with 
him, but try to persuade hinr to stay in bed. If 
the patient imagines that he is following his 
daily occupation, she should devise some means 
to foster the delusion. 

Ingenuity and tact are the qualities most 
needed for the proper management of a case of 
delirium tremens. 


\\'hat do you know of Acute Poliomyelitis, 
and the nursing care necessary in cases of this 

September 2, 1916 

Cbe »nti0b 3ournal of "Wursina. 



Dr. J. E. H. Roberts, B.S., F.K.C.S., and 
Dr. R. S. S. Statham, .M.R.C.S., Temporary 
Captains in the R.A.M.C., contribute to the 
British Medical Journal a most interesting 
article on the above subject, in the course of 
which they say : — 

The method of dressing wounds with a firm 
pack of gauze and sodium chloride tablets, 
devised by Colonel H. M. W. Gray, C.B., com- 
bined with a prcliminar}- free excision of the 
wound and lacerated and infected tissues, has 
in our hands given results which have effected 
revolutionary changes in our methods of treat- 
ment. During the last twelve months it has 
gradually supplanted other methods of treat- 
ment, until now we employ it in the majority 
of cases. At first we regarded it with suspicion 
and used it but half-heartedly ; finding, how- 
ever, that wounds dressed in this way became 
clean at least as speedily as those treated by 
other methods, and that the general condition 
of the patients improved owing to undisturbed 
sleep, increase of appetite, and absence of 
mental apprehension of frequent painful dress- 
ings, we ended by becoming complete converts 
to the method. 

The operative details in connexion with a 
wound naturally vary with the site, nature, and 
degree of infection of the wound. 

After describing the surgical technique 
employed, the writers sav : — 

With the exception of iodine for the skin, we 
do not apply any antiseptic to the wound. 

The wound having been thus prepared, the 
salt pack is applied in the following manner. 
A piece of plain gauze, four to six layers thick, 
is lightly wrung out of 5 per cent, salt solution 
and carefully laid in the wound so that it is in 
contact with the whole of the surface. Care 
should be taken that this sheet- of gauze is 
sufficiently large to cover the whole surface of 
the wound. If several smaller overlapping 
pieces are used, small spaces in which pus col- 
lects form at the lines of junctions, and there is 
also great danger of the pieces being displaced 
when the rest of the packing is inserted, thus 
leaving bare surfaces. When the wound is a 
deep one, the gauze lining is carefully carried 
down by the fingers within it to the deepest 
recesses of the wound. Xo spaces should be 
left, as they rapidly fill up with pus. A few 
40 grain tablets of salt are now placed in the 
deepest part of the wound, or, if the wound is 
flat, placed on the surface of the gauze about 

an inch apart. The interior of the gauze-lined 
wound is now firmly packed, somewhat in the 
manner of the old-fashioned petticoated tube, 
with a roll or long strip of gauze moistened in 
the same way. This strip is carried alternately 
from one end of the wound to the other, and 
numerous tablets of salt are laid between the 
successive layers. A handful of tablets should 
not be thrust in all together, as when they dis- 
solve a cavity is formed. For a wound 4 in. 
long by 3 in. deep, ten to twenty tablets would 
be used. When the pack becomes flush witli 
the skin surface a few more layers of gauze 
are applied, and over that a thick wool dressing, 
composed of at least three layers, completely 
encircling the limb. The whole is then firmly 
bandaged, so that the surface of the wound is 
kept in intimate contact with the pack, and all 
spaces which tend to form are obliterated. 
Really firm pressure should be used both in 
applying the pack and in bandaging. The 
elasticity of the thick wool dressing distributes 
the pressure and effectually prevents anaemia 
of the wound surface and congestion of the limb 

W'here a compound fracture is present, it is 
not usually possible to avoid leaving spaces 
between and around the fragments of bone, and 
therefore, in such cases, after placing the lining 
sheet of gauze, a large rubber 'tube is intro- 
duced down to the fracture, and the remainder 
of the gauze and tablets packed around it. This 
serves to prevent the tracking of pus along the 
bone. A hole cut in the lining gauze allows anv 
discharge to gain free access to the tube. . . . 

After dressing, morphine tartrate grain ^ is 
usually given, as most patients complain of pain 
for a few hours. In many cases, however, the 
pain is quite s'ight, and no analgesic is neces- 
sary. In the few cases in which pain has per- 
sisted exposed sensory nerve endings have been 
discovered, and these may Ije cut short under 
novocain. Successive dressings become less 
painful, and after the second an analgesic is 
usually unnecessary. A rise of temperature and 
increase of pulse-rate usually follows the mani- 
pulations, but unless these persist after twelve 
to twenty-four hours, no apprehension need be 

In the behaviour of the temperature and 
pulse the cases fall into three main classes. In 
the larger number the temperature and pulse- 
rate fall to normal on the second day, and 
remain so, except for temporary slight rises 
following the first dressings. 

In another class the pulse-rate comes down 
at once, but the temperature comes down by 
lysis, taking four or five days to reach the 

1 88 

(Ibe Britieb 3ournal of •Wiu'sing. 

September 2, 1916 

normal. In a comparatively small number of 
cases, although the pulse-rate remains below 
go, the evening rise of temperature may persist 
for one or two weeks, although the wounds 
when dressed appear clean and free from 
retained pus. 

The pulse-rate and general condition of the 
patient is a much better index of the well-being 
of the wound than the temperature. 

After a few days .the outer dressings may 
acquire a very offensive odour. This is due to 
decomposition in the dressings themselves, and 
if they are removed the wound is found to be 
perfectly sweet. The outer dressings are more 
offensive than the inner. At one time we 
changed the outer dressings when they began 
to smell, Jeaving the packing in the wound un- 
touched. The objection to this is that it is 
difficult to change the outer dressings without 
disturbing the deep pack. We then used 
various substances, such as Sanitas powder, 
potassium permanganate, and cupad powder, 
thickly dusted on the dressing immediately 
beneath the outermost layer of gauze. All these 
diminish the odour. With Dakin's chloramine- 
T powder, which we are now using, all odour 
is practically abolished. Mixing chloramine-T 
tablets with the salt tablets in the deeper dress- 
ing was found to be unsatisfactory, as it did not 
prevent the smell. 

Indications for Chancing the Pack. 

Indications that the wound is not doing well, 
and that the pack must be changed are : — 

(i) A continuouslv rising pulse-rate. 

(2) Increasing oedema in the limb. 

(3) Sudden onset of severe pain. This gener- 
ally means spreading gas infection. 

(4) A persistent rise of temperature for which 
no other cause can be found. 

(5) A change for the worse in the patient's 
general condition in cases in which a raised 
temperature has persisted from the beginning. 

(6) Oozing of pus from under the edge of 
the dressing. This is generally due either to 
the dressing having been left unchanged too 
long, or having been too looselv applied. 

(7) The dressing must be re-applied when the 
pack has become loose from diminution in the 
circumference of the limb as oedema disappears. 

Some Other Details. 

Where the innermost layer of gauze is found 
to be firmly adherent to the wound surface, it 
is not removed, but a new pack is applied within 
it. If it is removed, bleeding is caused, the 
protective barrier is broken down, and a rise 
of temperature takes place. 

When once the wound is granulating 

healthily it is not advisable to continue the salt 
pack, as the granulations become exuberant, 
pale, and oedematous. If the wound cannot be 
closed, any of the simple dressings should be 

Occasionally a wound becomes sluggish, even 
during the separation of sloughs. A change 
from the salt pack to a dressing of gauze soaked 
in pure glycerine usually causes a rapid change 
for the better. Where a vi'ound is not doing 
well with a salt pack, and a pure streptococcal 
infection is present, the use of a i per cent, 
salt solution as a wet dressing, continuous 
irrigation, or bath, will sometimes be found to 
effect an improvement. 


The salt pack has given very good results 
with flush amputations and in excised joints. 
It appears to be of great value in field ambu- 
lances and clearing stations, as in time of stress 
it may be impossible to renew dressings for two 
or three days. Those cases we have received 
from clearing stations in which the treatment 
has been thoroughly carried out have arrived in 
excellent condition, and contrast very favour- 
ably with those treated by other methods. 
Cases treated by eusol irrigation, however clean 
they may be when leaving the clearing station, 
often have their wounds in an unsatisfactory 
state on arrival at the base twenty-four hours 

Our advocacy of this method of treating 
wounds is based entirely on our clinical experi- 
ence, and we do not in this place advance any 
theories to explain its action. It is based 
originally on the well-known work of Sir 
Almroth Wright. 

The Indian Medical Gazette says that after 
a cataract extraction, in order to produce an 
even pressure over the front of the eyeball 
swabs of wet, sterilized wool are used. The 
wool is pulled, not cut, into pads about an inch 
thick and three inches in diameter. These are 
sterilized by boiling in i in 5,000 biniodid solu- 
tion. Two of these, sopping wet, are laid on 
_the eves ; with the straightened fingers they are 
gently pressed down over the eyes, so that the 
swab becomes moulded to the eye and fills in 
the hollows around it. Over this is placed a 
wet pad of lint, or six lavers of gauze ; then a 
figure of eight bandage is applied fairly firmly. 
Next day the wool and gauze will be found to 
form a complete mould of the eyeball and orbital 
opening. It is very comfortable, produces no 
feeling of uneven pressure, while it allows the 
eve to move easily, and renders it almost impos- 
sible to open the eyes. 

septcndnr 2. 1916 ^i)c 36rUi0b Soumal of "nuretnfl. 


By Miss J. G. Gilchkist. 

Typhus fever is an eruptive fever in which 
the nursing care is of the utmost importance. 
In this disease the rash appears about the fiftli 
day, and is composed of three parts : a series 
of spots on the skin (resembling typhoid at 
first), first pinkish in colour, next day purple, 
then brown ; a large number of spots under the 
skin, which do not disappear on pressure, and 
give the skin a mottled appearance ; small spots 
resembling fleabites, seen especially in severe 
cases. The rash may stay out from three to 
seven days. 

The patient should be isolated and nursed :n 
a cool, well-ventilated room or ward, from 
which all dispensable articles have been re- 
moved. A through current of fresh air is a 
great antidote to the poison given off by the 
patient's breath and evacuations. The tem- 
perature of the room should be kept at 50° F. 
The patient's body requires frequent sponging 
with cool wat<'r, with a disinfectant added, 
which helps to dispel the peculiar offensive 
odour associated with the disease. Pressure 
sores must be carefully prevented, all points of 
pressure carefully dried after sponging, and 
dusted with starch or talcum powder. Reten- 
tion of urine may occur, and should be watched 
for and reported to the doctor. Great care 
must be observed in giving aperients, a very 
small dose (which should be medically pre- 
scribed) being sufficient ; a larger dose might 
bring on diarrhoea impossible to stop, and 
cause death by exhaustion. The mouth is 
always very dirty, and sordes are apt to eolk^ct 
on teeth and lips ; frequent and careful cleans- 
ing is essential. All rags used must be at once 
destroyed, as the mouth secretion and breath 
are particularly infective. The eyes require 
bathing with warm boracic lotion- when sore 
and inflamed, as they are often only partially 
closed when in an exhausted state. An icebag 
should be applied continuously to the head to 
lessen cerebral disturbance, and the patient 
carefully watched for the onset of delirium, 
which is ncarlv always present in some form. 
Wild delirium may occur in alcoholic cases, the 
patient frequently dying of exhaustion in a few 
days. He should never be left alone, and all 
articles capable of inflicting injury kept out of 
sight and reach. Sleep is very important, and 
stupor or prostration noted. The strength must 
be kept up with milk diet, beef tea, eggs, and 
plenty of stimulants, especially when nearing 
the crisis, as there is a tendency to cardiac 

lailurc. Hot-water bottles should always be in 
readiness in case of collapse. The temperature, 
pulse, and respiration should be recorded two- 

Respiration is rapid — 36-40. The increase 
may be due to a congestion of the base of the 
lung by lying constantly on the back. The 
pulse is at first full and rapid, but in stages of 
prostration thready and imperceptible. The 
temperature rises high ; 105° for first five days, 
remaining about 103° for eleven days, when 
crisis occurs, and the temperature falls. The 
patient then recovers rapidly if no rise of tem- 
perature ensue. In a fatal case the patient dies 
with a rising temperature about the thirteenth 

To prevent infection the patient's clothing 
on entrance, especially if in a verminous condi- 
tion, should be straightway destroyed, and 
after convalescence the bedding and body 
clothing — impregnated as they become with the 
products of the severe toxsemia, given off by the 
skin — should be burnt rather than disinfected. 
The evacuations and urine should be disinfected 
during nursing with chloride of lime and car- 
bolic acid. Only necessary food should be con- 
veyed to sick room ; that unconsumed must be 
immediately burnt. Flies and insects should be 
abolished by strict cleanliness and' methodical 
attention to details. Burning pyrethrum 
pow'der or a saucer of formalin in the sick 
room acts as a preventative. No visitors should 
be allowed in the sick room. All toilet and 
feeding utensils must be kept solely for patient, 
and must be scalded and disinfected in an 
enamel hath after use. 

After convalescence the room and its con- 
tents, furniture, crevices, and woodwork must 
be sprayed with a strong solution of formaline, 
and well scrubbed with soap and very hot 

The nurse must observe cleanliness and dis- 
infection of person and clothing, removing 
overall on leaving sick room ; she should take 
daily disinfectant baths if possible, and her 
clothing must be disinfected at the conclusion 
of the case. 

In the epidemic of typhus in Serbia the trans- 
mission of typhus by vermin has been demon- 
strated. Dr. C. Ussher, of \'an, states : " We 
have proved conclusively in our hospital that 
the only means of transmission is vermin. Our 
nurses have been exposed to every other form 
of contagion : from the breath, desquamation, 
discharges, constant association day and night, 
and all this in an over-tired condition. Not one 
of them has contracted the disease." 


Sbe »riti5b 3ouunal of IRureino. set>temher 2, ic)i6 


The King, during his recent visit to the British 
troops at the Front in France, made a point of 
visiting the sick and wounded in hospital, and 
cordially greeted the ^Matrons. The accon:- 
panying illustration will in years to come be an 
interesting record of this visit, and will be espe- 
cially treasured by the Matron honoured by His 
Majest\''s greeting. 

It is a kind act on the part of the Port of London 
Authority' to extend the privilege of free trips on 
the River, on the steani yacht Conservator, to the 
nurses in military hospitals. It will, we are sure. 

is hoped that it is the rirst of a series of annual 
gatherings of disabled officers. 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies announces 
that, in recognition of the wonderful heroism of 
the French soldiers, the New South Wales division 
of the Red Cross Society has arranged to place 
twenty trained nurses at the disposal of the 
French Governm.ent. 

It was intended that they should be given the 
Army pay from the date of em.barcatiqn, but the 
Australian Jockey Club has arranged to make a 
cont'-ibution sufficient to niake up for them the 
full pay of staff nurses for six ■i-'onths. They 
sailed on August 4th. 


be greatly appreciated, for a trip on a river 
steamboat is a very favourite form of recreation 
with nurses, and a fine means of enjoying the 
ozone-laden air and resting tired bodies at the 
same time, as convalescent soldiers have already. 


A unique reunion took place at the Trocadero 
Restaurant on Saturday last at the dinner arranged 
by Commander I^ewcombe, R.N., Commandant 
of the Hanworth Park Hospital, Feltham, and a 
committee of officers. The dinner was in honour 
of Miss Munn, the Matron of the Queen's Hospital, 
Dover House, Roehampton, her sister. Nurse 
Margaret Munn, and the surgeon, Colonel Open- 
shaw. The fort>' officers present had been under 
treatment in the hospital and had lost a limb, 
or been otherwise crippled during the war. It 

Senator G. F. Pearce, ISIinister for Defence, has 
announced that an offer made by the Governm.ent 
of the Commonwealth of Australia — of fift\' 
Australian nurses for duty in India — has, says 
Una, been accepted by the Government of India. 
The personnel will be selected from the Australian 
nurses now in Egypt, who are available for other 
duties owing to the movements of troops and to 
the closing of the Australian hospitals. The 
Commonwealth ' Governm.ent will continue to 
pay the nurses at the usual Australian rates. 

It is with pleasure that we publish a portrait 
of Sister J. S. Whyte, who was officially notified 
as wounded in a recent issue of the London 
Gazette. The wound, which was caused by 
shrapnel, which struck her while at work in a 

September 2, 1916 Z\k I6ritis?h 3onin;il of 'Fursino. 


clearing station shelled by the enemy, is. we 
are glad to learn, not severe. Sister WTiyte 
was a member of the 2nd Scottish General Hospital 
(T.F.) at Craigleith when selected for service 

Miss Clara Lee contributes to the current issue 
of the Bart.'s League Xews some reminiscences of 
her experiences in Malta in 1882, when she was 
one of a party of five appointed to proceed with 
the Army on active ser\-ice. and ordered to go 
to the Battalion Surgical Hospital at Fort Cham- 
brai, Gozo. On landing, they eventuallv reached 
the drawbridge and 
entrance to an old 
building of the 
Knights of St. John. 
The sentry presented 
arrrs as they passed 
under the gateway, 
and they found them- 
selves in front of the 
hospital. On the far 
side was the little 
house of stone ap- 
pointed as the Sisters' 
quarters. There was 
the building of stone 
with the fiat roof, 
but nothing in it. 
The store-keeper cfi 
duty was found, 
mattresses packed 
after the Crimean War 
— m.arked 1 858 — were , 
with brown blankets 
and new sheets. 
brought up to the 
quarters, and after a 
pieal, kindly sent up 
from the officers' 
quarters, the Sisters 
m.ade themselves as 
comfortable as they 
could on the stone 
floors. The irilknian 
kept an account of 
the milk he supplied 
with notches on a 
stick, and when one of 
the Sisters spoke of the 
thirmess of the milk, 
he excused himself by 
saj-ing he could not help it, as the goats drank 
so much water. 

always with a smile, a little thrill at the heart that 
whispers, " There joy is." Of these few places 
Luxor is one. Luxor, the home of sunshine, the 
suave abode of light, of warmth, of the sweet days 
of gold and sheeny golden sunsets, of silver shirii- 
mering nights through which the songs of the boat- 
men of the Nile go floating to the courts and the 
tombs of Thebes." 

" To this might be added the happy laughter 
of the Australian nurse, freed for the time from 
the care of the sick and wounded, and of this 
sad epoch in the world's historv. Strange con- 
trast that the invalids 
of the earth's youngest 
nation should seek 
restoration to health 
in the shadow of the 
world's oldest monu- 
ments. Thebes, 
though existent from 
the earliest ages, did 
not reach its summit 
of glory till the 
Egyptian Middle 
Empire rimes that is 
somewhere about as 
much before Christ as 
we live after the 
beginning of the 
Christian era. Luxor, 
the modern site of 
ancient Thebes, is 416 
m.iles up the Xile from 


An Australian mu"se, wTiting in Una, says that 
one of the desires of the Australian nurse in 
Eg\'pt has been to make the most of her time when 
not on dur\-. \\'hen the great hospitalsA)ecam.e less 
busy early in 1916, the am.bition to " do Luxor " 
becam.e in nearly every case a reality. She writes : 

" Hichens says in his book ' The Spell of 
Egypt ' ' There are a few places in the world that 
one associates with happiness, that one femembers 


>Dss Ethel L'bsdeU 
has been awarded the 
Silver Medal of 
Honour by the French 
Government for de- 
voted ser\dce to the 
French soldiers. Miss 
Ubsdell was working 
as a Queen's Nurse at 
Sundridge and River- 
head, Kent, but was 
given leave of absence 
for scrN-ice in connec- 
tion with the War, in November, 1914. For some 
time she undertook district nursing in France, 
and since February, 1916, has been working under 
the French Flag Nursing Corps at Steenvoorde. 

WHyTE. T F.N.S.. 

Miss Wadsworth, of the F.F.N.C., who is just 
now in England, would be very grateful for 
gram.ophone needles, writing paper and envelopes, 
post-cards and khaki handkerchiefs, to take back 
with her. Such gifts can be sent to 431, Oxford 
Street, London, W. 


Zbc »rltl0b 3ournaI of 'Kursina. 

Scjytcmbcr 2, 1916 


The heroism of the British soldier on the field 
of battle is of the highest order, and commands 
our admiration and our gratitude, but that of 
the same soldier permanently incapacitated and 
disabled is of a qualits' that makes us thrill with 
pride, if our tears are near the surface with its 

The Bishop of Birmingham- — who, amongst 
other duties, is a chaplain in the Territorial 
Force and may frequently be seen in khaki in 
the 1st Southern Hospital at Bournbrook — in 
the course of an address given recently at Willing- 
don Parish Church, on behalf of the Eastbourne 
Hospital, said : — 

I remember having to tell a voung fellow 
that he would never see upon this earth. A few 
big tears rolled down liis face. Then for a few- 
minutes hp held my hand and was quite calm, 
and then he loosed his grip upon me and, stretch- 
ing over to his locker by the side of his bed, he 
took out his mouth-organ. That had been his 
companion away over there, and he just played 
a certain number of his old Scottish tunes on 
that mouth-organ. 

I have seen that man dozens of times since. 
He is now at St. Dunstan's Hostel, where he is 
likely to prove a capable man in many respects. 
Not one word of complaint has he uttered." 

sacrifice. Therefore, see that notliing takes place 
in the Great Northern Hospital that w-ill under- 
value or minimise the full utility of every corner 
and everv ward of the institution." 

An Indian branch of the Joint Committee of 
the British Red Cross Society and Order of St. 
John was recently formed, imder the presidency 
of the Viceroy, and sub-branches are now being 
set up in the Presidencies, in order to prevent 
waste and co-ordinate Red Cross work in India 
under one organization. 

Mr. Harold M. Barton, of Messrs. Barton, 
Mayhew & Co., F.C.A., financial advisers to the 
Joint Committee, has left for India and Meso- 
potamia to standardize the system of accounts 
and to place the new branches in intimate touch 
with the Central Committee at 83, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Lord Islington, w-ho last week opened the 
Public Library', Manor Garden, as an extension 
of the Great Northern Central Hospital, Holloway, 
which will add eighty-two beds to those avail- 
able for wounded soldiers at the hospital, in 
pleading for support, said : — 

" Whilst we are determined to prosecute this 
war to a logical and determined end ; w'hile we 
are determined that nothing shall stand in the 
way of a complete and satisfactory conclusion of 
peace along with our brave Allies, we must 
equally be determined one and all to no 
effort to see that that successful prosecution is 
carried out. And amongst the many factors 
bringing about that successful prosecution, among 
the most conspicuous and most important of 
them is to see to it that nothing is left undone 
in our hospitals and our institutions for the 
wounded, that we render every possible assist- 
ance that science and Inmian sympathy can 
ofier. That can only be done by the individual 
and united energy of all of us ami by unhesitating 

Sheffield has nursed 20.000 wounded soldiers in 
the military hospitals since the outbreak of war. 
Motor ambulances have covered 16,000 miles in 
conveying them from the railway station. 

It is good to read in Lord Northcliffe's letter 
from Miirren in the Tinus of the care taken of 
our wounded prisoners : — 

A man from hateful Wittenberg was lying in 
a deck-chair on the sunny verandah outside his 
bedroom, to which was attached the very latest 
type of private bathroom. There was a bowl of 
roses and edelweiss and a box of W'oodbines by 
his side. . . . By his bedside I noticed a photo- 
graph of the wife and children at home, and he 
had abundance of books and English newspapers. 
His surroundings are typical of all those at 
Miirren. Nothing can be too good for our soldiers, 
and at ^liirren, and also at Chateau d'Oex, of 
which I obtained full accounts from English 
visitors, the best that modern hotels-de-luxe can 
give is given them. Flowers, sleep, sunshine, 
and happiness are everywhere." 

The Government of the East Africa Protectorate 
is contributing ;f500 to the collection which is 
being made in East Africa for the British Red 
Cross Society and Order of St. John, in return for 
the material assistance rendered by the society in 
the local campaign. 

In \iew of its increased activities, the cost of 
the work of the Blue Cross now amounts to 
about ;/^3,500 per month, and this sum depends 
entirely on voluntary subscriptions. The head 
offices are at 58, Victoria Street, London, S.W., 
and the Secretary is Mr. Arthur J. Coke. 

The correspondence in the Glasgow Herald, on 
the subject of the position of V.A.D.s, voices 
both the grievances of the V.A.D.s and the views 
of trained nurses. Both protagonists agree that 
it is time there was plain speaking, and both 
speak plainly. On behalf of the former it is 
urged that when War broke out efficient V.A. 
Detaclvments were left largely unutilized, and a 
" Red Cross W^ell Wisher " asserts : — 
. " It is not ' nurses ' but ' general servants ' 
that the Red Cross wants, which is proved by 
the fact that in their recent appeal they expressly 
m.ention that previous training is not an absolute 
necessity. But there is another reason for the 
non -response to the Red Cross appeal. When 
war broke out, it suddenly became fashionable 
with certain people to take up Red Cross nursing 
work. With high-born ladies it became quite 
a vogue. Courses in sick nursing were rushed 
through in as many weeks as it formerly took 
years, and these same ladies, imperfectly trained, 
were pushed by influence into positions of authority 
as commandants {e.g., of auxiliary hospitals), 

September 2, 1916 

Jlhc »rttt0b 3ournal of "Rurelno. 


while the ladies who had become thoroughly 
trained before War broke out were asked to do 
the work of scrubbing floors and cleaning kitchen 
ranges. . . . When the Ked Cross authorities 
set themselves to do two things — (i) utilise the 
services of thoroughly trained V.A.D. nurses for 
the special work for which they have been trained, 
viz., ambulance and sick nursing, and (2) see to 
it that those who devoted years to this work 
before the war eire treated more favourably than 
those who took up this work as a ' war 
vogue ' for fashionable and society reasons — 
they will have no difficulty in securing the 
services of most of the 
V.A.D. nurses whom 
they had trained but 
are not yet utilising.". 

"A Territorial 
Nurse," on the other 
hand, writes of the 
V.A.D.s " that they 
are treated as general 
servants is untrue. 
They do the work of 
af\ probationer and no 
more. They have 
certainly been taught 
a certain amount of 
sick nursing. They can 
bandage and bandagf 
well, on a sound limb, 
but on a limb that is 
smashed or even in- 
flamed, it is often 
necessary to apply a 
bandage that would not 
appear pretty or correct 
to an examiner either 
of V.A.D. or hospital- 
trained probationers. 
.... I have fiworkcd 
with V.A.D.s in Red 
Cross hospitals, when- 
they do not receive a 
penny for their labours, 
also with V.A.D. pro- 
bationers in the Terri- 
torial hospitals, where 
they are paid /20 a 
year, more than double 
the salary an ordinary 
probationer in hospital receives. I have found 
them generally very willing and helpful, and can 
honestly say they could not be done without 
in such a time of need — as probationers. Some 
of them have the making of very good nurses in 
them,, but it would take more than War hospital 
nursing to train them. They are willing to do 
all they can, and do greatly assist in Tomm.y's 
welfare and recovery. But I maintain that they 
have no right to the title of sick nurse, and in the 
interest of our brave and wounded men none but 
a trained hand should dress their wounds or 
apply splints." 

The late SISTER JESSIE RITCHIE, O.A.I.M.N.S. Reserve. 


We last week recorded the death of Nursing 
Sister Jessie Ritchie, of Queen Alexandra's 
Imperial Military Nursing Service Reserve, who 
was attached as Sister (not Matron) to the twent>'- 
first Stationary Hospital at Salonika, and who 
died of dysentery after three weeks' illness. 

The Royal Infirmary, Dundee, which was her 
training school, as well as the nursing profession 
as a whole, may be proud of the record she has 
left behind. 

The Matron of the hospital wrote recently from 
Salonika: "She has 
done such good work 
out here, her services 
have been invaluable ; 
she never spares her- 
self, and her patients' 
comfort is her first 
consideration. When 
she was considering 
signing on for another 
year, I begged her to 
consider before decid- 
ing whether she could 
stand the extreme 
heat and cold of this 
climate, but she 
assured me she could, 
and that the camp 
life suited her better 
than any other." In 
a later letter, the 
Matron stated : " She 
has been one of my 
best and most loyal 
workers, devoted to 
her work and her 

One who knew her 
wTote in a contem- 
porary : " The gra- 
cious ' Lady of the 
Lamp ' had no wor- 
thier claimant to a 
share in her illustrious 
lineage. The same 
grace, the same devo- 
tion, the same utter 
selflessness character- 
ised the life-ser\'ice of 
Sister Ritchie. To have numbered her in one's 
circle of friends is a privilege that redeems life 
from much of its sordidness. The Army Nursing 
Service to-day is sadly poorer by her death, but 
what an incentive her beautiful memory is to all 
that is best in British womanhood ! I met her 
last autumn before she left for the East. She 
was busy despatching gift-parcels to some of 
the ' boys ' she had left in hospital at Havre. 
And she was specially proud of having secured 
sufficient funds to send out an organ to brighten 
the winter evenings and keep the orderlies from 
wandering to the town." 


Hbe British 3ournnl of ■Rursmg. scpicmber 2, 1916 


A successful Garden Fete in aid of King's 
College Hospital was held in the Nurses' garden 
at the hospital, Denmark Hill, on Thursday, 
August 24th. 

Hearing that the hospital was sorely in need of 
funds, the Territorial Staff Xurses led by Miss Gay 
decided to try and do something to help. As a 
result they organized and arranged a Garden Fete, 
with the help and co-operation of the civil nursing 
staff and the military patients (officers). An 
entrance fee of one shilling was charged. Under 
the trees in the garden were several tastefully 
arranged stalls, of which the fancy, flower, sweet, 
and men's stalls were the chief. These were 
presided over by the nurses who had got some 
very pretty and useful tilings together. The 
Pipers of His Majesty's Scots Guards toured the 
garden and the hospital at intervals and were 
much appreciated. There was also an orchestral 
band in the garden, and music was given during 
tea. In the chapel f:wo Civilian nurses gave organ 
recitals which were well attended. Side shows 
in the garden were a " cocoanut shy " which did 
great business, a bran tub, and a weighing 

Several am.using com.petitions were held in the 
garden including an egg and spoon race, a duster 
washing competition, and a hat trim.ming com- 
petition for men, the latter caused much merriment 
to a number of spectators. Tea was served in the 
nurses' dining hall which had been tastefully 
arranged with sm.all tables and decorated with 
flowers and plants. One shilling was charged 
and for that sum everyone had what thev liked 
and as m.uch as they chose. A splendid choice was 
provided consisting of tea, bread and butter, 
buns, cakes, cress and sandwiches. About five 
hundred people were served and the large hall was 
so full that an extra tea stall was erected in the 

Two concerts were given in the Militarv Re- 
creation Hall by the Petticoat Players and friends, 
these were some of the nurses' friends. Several 
songs were sung, a ventriloquist perfnrm.ed, there 
were one or two humorous sketches and a dialogue. 
The program^ were really excellent and were 
much appreciated by a large audience. 

Miss Ray, Principal ^Matron, was presented 
with a beautiful bouquet of pink carnations by 
the Territorial St?-,fE Xurses. 

The proceedings terrrinated at 8.45, with 
a speech from a Member of the Hospital Com.mittee 
in which a vote of thanks was given to the 
Territorial Staff Nurses and to all these who had 
assisted, and also to all who had so kindly sent 
gifts for the stalls or refreshm.ents for tea. 

The staff Nurses of the Fourth London General 
Hospital (T.F.) are to be congratulated on their 
successful enterprise, it must have brought in a 
considerable sum towards the ;i20,ooo required by 
next December if King's College Hospital is to 
carrv on its work. 


.\t Home. 

The following Sisters have been deputed for duty 
in Home Hospitals : — 

De Walden Court Hospital, Eastbourne. — iliss 
L. Cross and Miss E. M. Beacon- 

I'.A.D. Hasp., Bicester, Oxon. — Miss E. Newton. 

Rosslvn Lodge Aiix. Hasp., Hampstead. — M. 

Hazlewood Red Cross Hosp., Ryde. — Miss A. 

Founders Coll. Hosp., .Ackivorth, Pontefract. — 
Miss A. Marlande. 

Wemyss Castle, Kirkcaldy, Fife. — Miss C. 

Milton Hill, Steventon, Berks. — Miss J. M. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Isleworth. — Miss E. M. Waight. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Cobliam, Surrey. — Miss O. 
Attridge and Miss M. Greenbury. 

Garden Suburb Aux. Hosp., Golder's Green. — Miss 
E. M. Whitcombe. 

Highfield Hall Red Cross Hosp., Southampton. — 
Miss H. C. Campani. 

Red Cross Hosp., Old Hastings House, Hastings. 
—Miss A. Blackall. 

Gifford House, Roehampton. — Miss A. A. Spende- 

Boothroyd Aux. Mil. Hosp., Brighouse, Yorks. — ■ 
Miss C. S. Trounce. 

Clayton Court, East Liss, Hants. — Mrs. N. K. 

V.A.D. Hosp.. Coshain, ir/te.— Mrs. A. B. 

Vol. Hosp., Rusthall, Tunbridge Wells. — Miss I. 
Mackellegan and Miss N. M. O'Brien. 

Southwood Aux. Hosp., New Eltham. — Miss 
H. :M. Montgomery. 

Percy House Schools, Isleworth. — Miss C. 
Buchanan Cross. 

Sunshine Aux. Hosp., Hurstpicrpoint. — Miss M. 

Sumnierlee, Fortis Green, N. — !Mrs. L. Harris and 
Mrs. T. A. Warwick. 

Rothesay Mil. Hosp., Weyhill, 'Andover. — Miss 
S. Vaux. 

V.A.D. Hosp., 4, Lyndhurst Road, Hampstead. — 
Miss K. M. Manning. 

The Glen Hosp., Southchurch Road, Southend. — 
Mrs. H. Havlock. 

St. John's Hosp., Hastings. — Mass M. Barker. 

Henwick House, near Wellingborough. — Mrs. B. 

Red Cross Hosp., Bpckett House, St. Albans. — 
Miss M. Frith. 

Red Cross Hosp. ..Taunton. — Mrs. L. Hawken. 

Murrell Hill Aux. Hosp., Carlisle. — Miss E. 

Aux. Mil. Hosp., Levenshulme, Lanes. — Miss M. 
Willner and Mrs. A. Ash. 

V.A.D. Hosp., New Town Hall, Torquay. — Miss 
G. M. L. Hart and Miss C. E. Jackson. 

Officers' Hosp., Berritigton Lodge, Birchington. — • 
Miss E. Charters. 

Septcnihcr 2, 1916 

Zbc Srittsb 3ournal of "MuretTta. 


Langlcy Park Mil. Hasp., Sloiigli. — Miss M. 

I'.A.D. Hosp., Alfred House, Roehampion. — Miss 
S. Grainger. 

Warnley Bury V.A.D. Hosp., Broxboume. — Miss 
K. Glover. 

Red Cross Hosp., Ravenscroft Hall, Middleivick. 
—Miss A. K. Bell. 

Red Cross Hosp., The Close, ]ViHcliestcr. — Miss 
E. Hughes. 


Boulogne Head Quarters. — Miss J. Watson, Miss 
M. G. Kinmond and Miss J. M. Campbell. 

Anglo-Riissia)i Hosp., Petrograd. — Miss A. J. 
Pinnigcr, Miss T. ISIavor, Miss Hcgan, Miss Squire-. 
Miss H. Davits, and Miss i:. Jones. 


The Hon. Secretary of the Society for the State 
Registration of Trained Xurscs has received the 
following letter from Lady Horsley in acknow- 
ledgment of the Resolution of Syn'.pathy sent to 
her by the Society on the death of Sir Victor 
Horsley : — 

Dear Miss Breay, — I am sure you will forgive 
a delay in acknowledging the most kind message 
of your Society. I am deeply grateful for their 

It is bitterly hard to feel that two of the causes 
for which he cared so much, the Registration by 
the State of Nurses and the franchise of women 
should seem to be on the eve of their success, and 
that he who worked so hard for them is denied the 
joy of seeing it. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Eldred Horsley. 

•25, Cavendish Square. 



Military Convalescent Hospital, Lepton Miss 

Edith A. McLaren has been appointed Matron. 
She was trained at the General Hospital, Rother- 
ham, and had special experience at the Bir- 
n''.ingham Ear and Tliroat Hospital and as Night 
Sister at the Manchester Eye Ho.spital. She has 
also been ^Matron of a hospital in the Isle of Man. 

Cottage Hospital, Wallasey. — Miss Agnes Kirk- 
bride has been appointed Matron. She was 
trained at St. Helen's Hospital, and has been Sister 
and temporary Matron at the Wallasey Cottage 
Hospital, and for the last eleven months Sister 
of the Military Wards at the Borough Hospital, 

Kettlewell Convalescent Home, Swanley. — Miss 
M. Munro, for many years Sister Henry at St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, has been appointed 

Miss S. M. D. Wharry is her successor as Sister 


Isolation Hospital, Spennymoor. — Miss N. L. 
Thomas has been appointed Nurse Matron. She 
was trained at the London Hospital, and has been 
Matron at the Bucknall Isolation Hospital. 


St. Chads Hospital, tdiihaston, Birmingham.— 

Miss Florence Noble has been appointed Night 
Sister. She was trained at the Bagthorpc Infir- 
mary, Nottingham ; and has held the position of 
Sister at the Kettering Hospital and the Coventry 
and Warwickshire Hospital. 

Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford.— 
Miss C. Marshall has been appointed Night Sister 
in the Red Cross Annexe. She was trained at the 
Oldham Royal Hospital and has been Night 
Superintendent at the Southwark Infirmary, 
East Duhvich. 

Tra.nm i;ks anh Ai'I'oi.n'TMENts. 

Miss Lilian R. Golds is appointed to 'Cipton, 
as Superintendent ; Miss Golds received General 
training at the Poplar and Stepney Sick Asylum, 
Bromiey ; Midwifery training' at the East End 
Mothers' Home ; District training at Kensing- 
ton ; and she has held various appointm.ents under 
the Institute, including that of Senior Nurse at 
Rawmarsh and Parkgate. Miss Ada E. Elliott 
is appointed to Kingston, as Health Visitor ; Miss 
Sarah E. Footner, to East London (South) ; and 
Miss Ada E. Marsden, to Rawmarsh and Parkgate. 


Matron Miss Louisa M. Stewart, R.R.C., is 
retained supernum.erary to establishm.ent, August 
nth, igi6. 

Sister Miss Hannah Suart, R.R.C., to be Matron 
August nth, 1916. 


Miss Eliniii Jessie M,n>;.iret. Anderson has been 
appointed a Xursmg Sister. 

We greatly regret to record the death of Sister C. 
Jack, of the above Service ; also of Sister Christine 
Jay, on board a hospital ship. 


As we go to press, news lias reached us of the 
death from dysentery of Sister Alice Guy, of 
Newport, Mon., at the Scottish Hospital Auxiliare, 
at Salonika. Sister Guy, who took up war work 
on the outbreak of hostilities, has held the 
position of Superintendent of the Devonshire 
Hospital, Biixtciu. 


The French Government has conferred on Miss 
KatWeen Burke, of the Scottish Wom.en's Hos- 
pitals, the decoration of the " Golden Palm.s," and 
nam.ed her Officier de I'lnstruction Publique et 
Beaux Arts. Miss Burke is known in France as 
" The Knight of Tenderness and Pity." 

Miss Elizabeth Florence Corry has resigned the 
position of Senior Theatre Sister at Queen Char- 
lotte's Hospital to take service on a hospital-ship 
as a member of the Nursing Service Reserve. Miss 
Corry was trained at the Royal Victoria Hospital, 
Belfast, and has held the position of Sister at the 
City Fever Hospital, Birmingham. She has also 
had experience of private nursing. 


Z\yc »rtti6b 3ournal of ■Rurgnig 

September 2, 1916 

that the question of his salary shall be con- 
sidered at the end of the war. 

Though Barnet Union has for the time being 
made over its fine new Infirmary to the War 
Office, it is by no means standing still. The 
nurses are cheerfully making the best of the 
drawbacks which must exist in a building of 
an old-fashioned type, and though they cast 
longing eyes at the scientific and labour-saving 
devices in the new building, they are, we feel 
sure, proud to be able to contribute these advan- 
tages to the wounded soldiers. When the 
happy day arrives when Peace is declared, they 
will come into their own with double satisfac- 
tion. Under the supervision of the popular 
Superintendent Nurse, Miss Jenkins, the staff 
have come ,through the stress, owing to the 
scarcity of trained nurses, with credit. An 
especial feature that calls for commendation is 
the skill and care bestowed on sick infants. All 
nurses will appreciate the difficulty connected 
with this branch of work, and congratulate the 
Barnet nurses on the low mortality rate. 

We give a picture of the staff this week, 
taken outside their beautiful new home, 
Pickering Lodge, which commands one of the 
finest views obtainable in Hertfordshire. They 
should be expert in aircraft, for thev are in a 
direct line with the Hendon aerodrome, and 
every machine that ascends is within view of 
their Home. The pretty lawn in front of the 
house asked loudlv for a croquet set, which was 
kindly presented by one of the Guardians. 

The Infirmary Committee of the North 
Bierley Infirmary have always been keenly alive 
to the advancement of the interests of their 
infirmary, patients, and nursing staff. Recog- 
nizing the claim of trained nurses for an 
adequate salary, they have now decided to com- 
mence the Sisters' salary at ;^40 per annum. 
At their meeting on August 23rd they also 
granted an increase of jQt-o a year to the Super- 
intendent Xurse, Miss A. R. Hare. During her 
ten years as Superintendent Nurse the number 
of patients has more than doubled, and the 
nurses increased fourfold. 

It is not every committee which generously 
recognizes the additional work devolving upon 
the responsible officer by an extension of the 
work and the enlargement of the nursing staff, 
resulting in the greater usefulness and effi- 
ciency of an institution, and both the committee 
and Sliss Hare are to be congratulated. 

An honorarium of jQ20 has also been granted 
to Dr. Cunliffe, medical officer, " for the excel- 
lent work in preparing the probationers for 
their examinations," with an understanding 

The Report of the Argyll Nursing Associi- 
tion, which has now twenty-eight nurses at 
work in the county, states that it is a great 
satisfaction to be able to say that in the midst 
of the turmoil of war, and the disorganization 
consequent, the Argvll Nursing Association has 
been able to maintain its work, and even to 
increase the number of the nurses belonging to 
it by placing a Queen's Nurse for the Island of 
Luing and the adjacent group of Islands off 
Easdale, where the presence of a highly trained 
nurse is most important, as in the event of 
stormy weather, help cannot be sent from the 
mainland, and immediate medical assistanci 
may be required. 

By the kind invitation of Mrs. Ebden, Presi- 
dent of the Nursing Association, a large and 
representative company of subscribers to a 
parting gift to Miss A. Slater, the district 
nurse, who had resigned on account of her 
approaching marriage, assembled at Newton 
House, Elvanfoot, to witness the presentation. 
This took the form of a beautifully fitted 
dressing-case, accompanied by a very hand- 
some sum in Bank of Scotland and Treasury 
notes. Mr. John Morton, J. P., Whelphill, 
chairman of the Executi\e Committee of the 
Association, presided. The esteem for Miss 
Slater personally, and for the value of her 
services, which animated the whole meeting, 
was expressed in a letter from the Rev. C. 
M'Kune, who testified to Miss Slater's excellent 
work ; to her care, prudence, and skill ; to her 
ever-ready attention at all hours and in every 
kind of weather. 

The presentation was made by Mrs. Ebden, 
and Miss Slater warmly responded. The bride- 
elect has now been called up for war service on 
a hospital ship, so that the marriage mav be 
deferred for a time. 

The correspondent of the Yorkshire Po<it at 
Montreal reports that, answering an appea' 
from the New York physicians who are fighting 
the dread infantile paralysis plague in that city, 
a large number of Canadian nurses started 
yesterday for the hospitals in New York to give 
their services. At the American border, how- 
ever, they were refused entry by the immigra- 
tion authorities. This refusal was based upon 
the regulation of the Contract Labour Board of 
the United States, which denies entry to any 
persons engaged in advance. Appeals to Wash- 
ington thus far have been without avail, and 
there is a decidedly uncomfortable feeling here 
over the matter. 

Sefyti'mhcr 2, 1916 

ZTbe Brltleb 3ournal of 'nnrsmfl. 


Miss Alice Simpkin (formerly Sister Hope at 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital and now workiny 
in Nyasaland as a member of the U.M.C.A.) 
writes in League Xeu's : — 

" The first converts of the Mission, who were 
released slaves, were baptized on St. Bartholo- 
mew's Day. That festival has always been .i 
red-letter day in the Mission, and what corre- 
sponds to our summer holidays at home always 
begins August 24ih. They last for three weeks. 
On .August 30 the doctor came for a few hours 
on his way up the lake ; he took oflf the Padre, 
who had been ill for seven weeks. The next 
day the priest in charge said the ' ladies ' w.ere 
to go awav for a holiday. There was no one 

" We wanted some bracing air, and had 
often, on a clear day, looked with Jonging eyes 
at Chipata, a hill some thirty miles inland, 
north-west of Kota Kota. It stands out so 
clearly in the strong light, and makes a beauti- 
ful background to the long stretches of plain 
one sees when you get a little above the lake 
level. We started at 6.40 a.m. Mr. Stych 
seemed quite pleased to take the keys to do the 
housekeeping, and Padre was going to give an 
eye to the hospital and the Dawa — i.e., the out- 
patient department — which was left in charge 
of the senior Dawa boy. Our loads consisted 
of two tents, two deck and two little folding 
chairs, one bath on the top of which Dora Mann 


very ill in the hospital just then. August had 
been a trying month. I had to get up once or 
twice in the night, fifteen nights out of the 
month, and I had a nasty suppurating finger 
which would not get well. Miss Mann, the lady 
teacher, who has been single-handed for eight 
months, was also feeling quite ready for a rest. 
Where should we go? The only passenger 
steamer has lately been commandeered by the 
Government, as 350 South African troops — 
Englishmen — are coming up to 'help at the 
north end of the lake; also steamer travelling 
is very expensive : the Queen charges ;^5 from 
Kota Kota to Likoma, less than sixty miles as 
the crow flies, nine hours' journey. 

strapped her hammock, a tin box each, two 
camp beds, our blankets, pillows and sheets 
(no mat or mattress is required on the camp 
bed), two food boxes, one basket of cooking 
pots, and another of plates, &c., two small 
folding tables, fifty fish, sun-dried for the boys' 
relish, which, by the way, had a strong smell 
of its own. When the camp was pitched the 
boys generally hung it well in the w ind for us, 
but it was soon removed. Then there were the 
two machilas* and Dora Mann's bicycle. We 
had sixteen machila men and fifteen men to 

♦ Hammocks in which travellers are carried by 
native porters. — Ed. 


?Ibe Brttlsb 3ournal of flurging. 

September 2, igi6 

carry the loads. Our kitchen boy came to cook, 
one head table boy to wait, and we brought two 
small schoolboys to wait on us, make beds, &c. 
They were so excited about coming, and walked 
so well all the way. . . . Our camp was pitched 
by three o'clock, and we sat down to afternoon 
tea ; after tea we went for a walk, and sat for 
some time watching a party of monkeys in 
some trees near the water, which, by the way, 
did not look very prepossessing, but of course 
it was boiled before we drank it. We retired 
very early. I insisted on a big fire being lit 
just near my tent door, in case of lions coming 
too near. We m.eant to make an early start 
the next day, and so we did : v\e got up at 4. '5. 
It was dark but for the stars. Our ablutions, 
and most of our toilet, were performed by a 
blazing big fire ; it was really cold. The tents 
in the meantime were being rolled up, and all 
the men were busy round us. It was lovely 
when the day broke; we travelled through 
forest, most of the way, single file. However 
wide the road, Africans always walk like ducks, 
one behind the other ; so, except where there 
are many Europeans, the road is always a path 
for one. Dora Mann soon took to her bicycle, 
and I walked for about three-quarters of an 
hour. We arrived at our halting-place at a hill 
called Xkufi at 8.30. There we had breakfast, 
and found some beautiful clear cold water. At 
nine we started again. I did not enjoy the lasl 
three hours. My finger ached horribly, in spite- 
of soaking and fomentations. By the way, the 
machila always jolts you a good deal ; the sun 
was very hot, and we were climbing steadily 
nearly all the way. However, that was soon 
over, and we were at our destination by mid- 
day. . . . W'e have all our meals out in the 
open — our dinner by the light of a big wood 
fire. On Tuesday we got up at sunrise, 6 a.m., 
to climb Chipata. It was a lovely morning. 
I went the first bit of the way in a machila, and 
was very doubtful about getting to the top. 
There is no path ; the grass is often high above 
your heads, and you have to crawl on your 
hands and knees through thorny bushes ; in 
places near the top you can get no foothold. 
Miss Mann climbed splendidly, like a cat, and 
so did the boys. I nearly gave in, but finally 
got to the top, which consists of big boulders. 
I was roped to two men, and the chief who 
conducted us also gave me a helping hand. 
The view w as glorious : ridge after ridge of 
hills and rolling plains. We could just see the 
lake and our lagoon. . . . Climbing down the 
hill was not so fearsome as I expected, but with 
a rope round one's armpits and three men to 
help I just managed it. W'e got back in good 
time, and very much enjoyed a hot bath. The 

first few days it required some courage to wash 
in the morning, the water was so rich with red 
mud ; but the third day the boys found some 
nice clean water. 

"Wednesday evening we- walked to a little 
village in the hills. No white woman had been 
seen there before. The chief had a big house 
built square, not round, as is usual. He had 
possessed a herd of ten goats, but leopards had 
taken them all but one." 



The first general meeting of the St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital Rochester Nurses' League, 
held at the Hospital on St. Bartholomew's Day, 
August 24th, was voted a great success, and 
the sun shone all the time. 

Previous to the meeting a short and very 
beautiful service was held in the chapel, the 
psalm and lesson being particularly well chosen. 

The League was founded in March of the 
present year, with Miss Pote Hunt as Presi- 
dent. It is satisfactory that the Treasurer was 
able to announce a satisfactory balance in hand. 

We are glad to learn that the League has, 
with pleasure, accepted the invitation of the 
National Council of Trained Nurses of Great 
Britain and Ireland, conveyed through the 
Hon. Secretary, to affdiate with the Council, 
thus bringing its members into relationship 
with the other professional societies of nurses 
associated in it, as well as with the Inter- 
national Council of Nurses. 

Miss M. S. Rundle, R.R.C., Secretary of the 
College of Nursing, gave an address, setting 
forth its objects — invitations being sent to the 
nursing staffs at the Naval Hospital, Fort Pitt 
Hospital, Gravesend General Hospital, and the 
Maidstone General Hospital, to be present. 
The Chaplain also spoke on education and 
religion as applied to nurses. 

At the conclusion of the meeting there was 
a-'most enjoyable garden partv, at which many 
friends from surrounding hospitals and else- 
where were present. 

In acknowledging the notice of the League 
Meeting inserted in The British Journal of 
Nursing, the Hon. Secretary wrote : — " The 
Journal is largely read in this little corner, and 
appreciated for its excellent contents and the 
nice paper and printing." 

The League keeps a Register of all its 
members on the card system, with their subse- 
quent posts, with dates, &:c. 



Zbc »rtti0b 3ournal of "Kuretna. 



A reply to the Shade of Mr. Jonas Hanivay, who 
wrote ill dispraise of tea iC)0 years ago. 

A whole world of romance lies hidden in that 
potent word ! The magic of it recalls a host of 
memories, too. Some of those that are bidden 
come as pale ghosts of the past, out of the limbo of 
forgotten things. Some come by the byways of 
tradition, and many more among the highways of 
history. Here come Dr. Johnson and Mrs. Thrale, 
for instance, in the van of the shadowy host. They 
were well-known tea devotees in their day. With 
a little stretch of the imagination we can see them 
drinking their favourite beverage at the Thrales' 
House at Streatham. All the time that the learned 
doctor is drinking his twenty-five cups of tea " in 
rapid succession," which history records, he regales 
his admiring listener (for she is one of the Blue 
Stockings) with his didactic conversations, relieved 
occasionally by blither strains, such as the 
following : — ■ 

" And now I pray thee, Hetty dear, 
That thou wilt give to me. 
With cream and sugar, softened well. 
Another dish of tea. 

" But hear alas this mournful truth. 
Nor hear it with a frown. 
Thou canst not make the tea so fast 
As I can gulp it down." 

We see them again enjoying the ho.spitality of 
Mrs. Montagu, known as the " Queen of Blue 
Stockings," at her house in Portman Square. And 
here we meet the venerated shades of many others 
of that ilk. This period — the middle and latter 
part of the eighteenth century — was the heyday of 
the Blue Stockings, and tlieir mixed assemblies 
were famous. They comprised the intellectuals of 
that day. Here we meet Hannah More, the Greek 
scholar Elizabeth Carter, Fanny Burney, Mrs. 
Vesey, Horace Walpole, Edmund Burke, &c. The 
hostess arranges the chairs in a semicircle, in order 
to facilitate the flow of conversation, because con- 
versation of an intellectual character is the main 
purpose of the assembly. As a matter of fact, 
while some of the conversationalists were brilliant, 
others were remarkably dull. We doubt if any of 
them — met together for the purpose of being 
brilliant — would have achieved their set purpose 
had it not^ been for the inspiring effects of the 
" fragrant tea," which they all drank on these 
occasions. Only the rich could give tea parties in 
those days, because of its cost. What the precise 
cost was at this period we cannot say, but the price 
at the time it was introduced into ICngland, about 
the commencement or middle of the seventeenth 
century (wTiters differ as to the exact date) is said 
to have been from £6 to ;^io a pourfd ! The re- 
nowned conversations of the Blue Stockings' tea 
parties appear to have begun and ended in them- 
selves. One good purpose they had, however, 
namely, to promote social intercourse by other and 
better means than that of card-playing, which was 

the prevailing custom of mixed assemblies in those 
days, and which inspired Hannah More to write in 
her poem to " Bas Blen " : — 
" Long was Society o'errun 

By whist, that devastating Hun." 
Where is the contemporary shade of Mr. Jonas 
Hanway ? He was a man of parts ; philanthropist, 
vsTitcr, inventor ; and yet we do not find him 
among the guests of Mrs. Montagu ! He is busy 
at home inventing the umbrella and writing an 
indictment of tea. With such zeal does he attack 
the favourite and fashionable beverage that Dr. 
Johnson empties the vials of his wTatfi upon him. 
For this reason we may surely assume he has been 
shut out from the select society of the tea-drinking 
intellectuals. Mr. Jonas Hanway, with all your 
cleverness, you are no scientist, you have not 
studied the make-up of tea — you know nothing 
about the benign alkaloid known as caffeine — or 
shall we call it theine, seeing that we are speaking 
of tea, it means the same thing ? You do not know, 
O prejudiced and ignorant man, that it is "a 
nerve stimulant of the purest kind." You are a 
traveller, Mr. Hanway ; you have been to Russia ; 
why did you not go further East, where tea- 
drinking and tea-making are fine arts, and were 
practised there hundreds of years before you were 
born ? Do you know ? No, how should you, you 
are too ignorant — that in Japan tea has been 
ennobled into a religion of aestheticism, which is 
callen Teaism. You have shown by your dulness 
of perception that you have no sense of the refine- 
ment of taste, and the beauty of tea. The 
Japanese would scorn you as a man " with no tea 
in his constitution." In the course of your essay 
on tea you have said some foolish things, you 
know ; your descendants have forgiven but not for- 
gotten your untrutliful remark that men seemed 
to lose their stature and comeliness, and women their 
beauty through the use of tea. Had you been a 
guest at the Salon of Mrs. Montagu, you would not 
have observed any lessening of her beauty or that 
of others of her sex, neither would you have dis- 
covered any decrease in the stature of Dr. Johnson 
and other male guests. Mavbe it was for the pur- 
pose of hiding your diminished head that you 
invented the umbrella ! Well, then, get under- 
neath it and don't trouble about the rain ; it is not 
so bad a thing as prejudice or ignorance. Mr. 
Jonas Hanway, we must be fair to you, however. 
You lived in less enlightened times than ours, and 
yet many of us are just as ignorant and just as 
prejudiced as you were. We, too, wTite and talk 
of tilings of wluch we know nothing. We forgive 
you therefore. We really are very much obliged 
to you for inventing the umbrella, we use it almost