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CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



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^° , CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

FOSSIL SPONGES 



IN THE 



GEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT 

OF THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM 

(NATURAL HISTORY). 
AVITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN SPECIES. 

(ILLUSTEATED BY 38 LITHOaRAPHIC PLATES.) 



BY 

GEORGE JENNINGS HINDE, Ph.D., F.G.S. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

1883. 



ALKHK 



FLAMWAM. 




P HINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
EED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PREFACE. 



In submitting the accompanying Monograph to the scientific public, I feel assured 
that the careful and conscientious manner in which Dr. Hinde has performed the 
very arduous task entrusted to him will meet with the well-earned recognition of 
all those who consult this work. 

The earlier methods of classification of both the recent and fossil Spongidae by 
their external form and habit of growth having been thoroughly tested and proved 
to be unreliable, the only sure method to be pursued — that of classifying them 
according to their intimate microscopic structure — has been adopted by Dr. Hinde, 
who, himself a pupil of the distinguished palaeontologist Prof Dr. Karl Zittel of 
Munich (one of our highest authorities in this class of organisms), has followed 
patiently the careful methods of research set forth in the ' Beitrage zur Systematik 
der fossilen Spongien ' and other of Zittel's works. 

It is no small gratification to knoAv that the determination of this very difficult 
group of fossil organisms has now been so far completed, and that the types 
of those species not heretofore described are now all carefully figured in the Plates 
accompanying this Monograph, and the original specimens are preserved in the 
British Museum of Natural History. 



British Mttsetjm (Natural History), 
December 26ih, 1883. 



HENRY WOODWARD, 

Keeper of the Department of Geology. 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE, 



At the request of the Keeper of the Geological Department in the Natural-History 
Museum, I commenced, in the early part of 1881, the study of the collection of 
Fossil Sponges in the Museum with the view of arranging them systematically and 
preparing a simple Catalogue of their specific names and references. Hitherto no 
attempt had been made to place the Fossil Sponges in scientific order, and with the 
exception of the limited portion of the Collection formerly exhibited in the Museum 
at Bloomsbury, which had been mostly included in the comprehensive genera of 
Spongia, Scfphia, Manon, &c., the greater number of the specimens simply retained 
the labels of the localities and horizons from whence they had been derived. A 
preliminary examination made evident the fact that numerous specimens, more 
particularly those from British strata, were either quite new to science or had been 
described and figured in such an imperfect manner that their real characters were 
unknown. Under these circumstances a mere catalogue of names and references, 
such as had been at first proposed, would have been quite valueless ; and, with the 
consent of the Trustees, it was decided to enlarge the plan and embrace in the 
Catalogue condensed descriptions of all the species from British strata and of the 
new species from foreign localities, with figures of all the new forms as well as of 
those which had been either inadequately figured previously, or of which it was 
desirable to illustrate the minute structure. To carry out this plan involved a far 
greater expenditure of time and work than was at first anticipated ; but it is hoped 
that the results of nearly three years' study will be to place our knowledge of this 
group of fossils on a more satisfactory basis than hitherto. 

The Museum collection includes examples of a very large majority of all the 
species of Fossil Sponges at present known, and, as may naturally be supposed, it is 
especially rich in those occurring in the rocks of this country. It contains amongst 
others the typical collections of William Smith, " The Father of English Geology," 
Toulmin Smith, Mantell, Bowerbank, and Cunuington. The fossil sponges from the 
Jurassic and Cretaceous strata of France, Switzerland, and Germany are also well 
represented. With a few unimportant exceptions, the Sponges from these countries 
have been clearly figured in the works of Goldfuss, Roemer, Michelin,Quenstedt, Eeuss, 
Geinitz, de Loriol, Fromentel, and others ; and as their minute spicular structure has 



c. 



\i'qA^4 



viii PEEFACE. 

been already described and illustrated in the works of Prof. Zittel, it has only been 
necessary for the purpose of the Catalogue to give references to the works in which 
the description of these forms will be found. The Sponges from British strata, on 
the other hand, have not received a similar amount of attention from the paliEon- 
tologists of this country ; and, with the exception of the forms treated of by Toulmin 
Smith and those lately described by Prof. Sollas, no systematic endeavour has hitherto 
been made to describe these organisms in detail ; and therefore it has been necessary 
to supplement the meagre notices usually given, by such brief references to their 
minute structure as will enable them to be recognized. 

I have followed in this Catalogue the classification of Prof. Zittel, the only one, 
in fact, which is at all applicable. Limitation of space has necessitated the omission 
of generic diagnoses, save in those cases in which new genera are introduced, or in 
Avhich it has been needful to make emendations; and the student must therefore 
refer for these to Zittel's ' Handbuch der Palaeontologie ' or to the " Studien iiber 
fossile Spongien" (Abh. bay. Akad. d. Wiss., Bd. 13, 1877-78). An English trans- 
lation of the main portion of the generic descriptions, by W. S. Dallas, F.L.S., 
is contained in the 'Annals and Magazine of Xatural History' for 1877, 1878, 
and 1879. 

In a few instances I have described species of which the Museum does not at 
present possess any examples ; but these forms will be found in the Museum of 
Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, and w^ere kindly lent for examination by 
Prof. Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S. 

The illustrations of the minute structure will, in some cases, appear defective — a 
result due, not to any lack of ability on the part of the artist, but to difficulties arising 
from the state of preservation of the fossils themselves. In all cases the endeavour 
has been to delineate the structure in its present condition. 

I regret that it has not always been possible to give the exact localities of many of 
the Sponges from the Upper Chalk. This arises from the fact that the greater part 
of the collection made by Toulmin Smith is without any reference to the places from 
which the Sponges were obtained ; but it is definitely known that they were procured 
from the counties of Kent, Surrey, and Sussex, and I have therefore catalogued such 
specimens as from the South of England. 

GEORGE J. HINDE. 

Dkpahtmekt of Geology, British Museum 

(Natural Hisioet), 

CsoMWELL Road, London, S.W. 



INTRODUCTION. 



A SPONGE, in the ordinary acceptation of the word, is the internal framework or 
skeleton of an animal whose soft vital parts are composed of cellular protoplasm. 
This protoplasm in the living sponge is differentiated into two layers — an inner of 
ciliated cells, and an outer layer, named the syncytium, in which tlie cell-structure in 
the ordinary condition is not recognizable. It is in this syncytium or exoderm that 
the skeleton is secreted. In one small group of existing sponges the skeleton is 
wanting and the entire animal consists of fleshy sarcode ; but the rest of the class 
secrete skeletons of very various composition and form. In the division to which 
the ordinary sponge of commerce belongs, the skeleton is composed of elastic fibres of 
a horny character, which anastomose together and build up those porous structures 
with which we are all so familiar. In another group the horny fibres have a central 
core composed of minute siliceous spicules usually secreted by the animal, though 
occasionally the central portion of the fibre is filled with grains of sand and other 
foreign particles which the sponge has selected from its surroundings. In yet other 
sponges the skeleton consists almost exclusively of minute siliceous or calcareous 
bodies, more or less intimately united together to form a resistant framework of a 
porous character, which is generally traversed by numerous canals. The minute 
mineral particles or spicules of the skeleton vary exceedingly in their form and 
arrangement in different groups ; they possess an interior canal, and are built up of 
exceedingly thin concentric layers of silica or calcite mingled vi'ith organic material. 
The classification of the Sponges, recent as well as fossil, rests upon the characters 
of their skeletal structures. The existing forms of the class have been divided into 
the following orders : — 

1. Myxospongi^, Haeckel. 
Sponges destitute of a solid skeleton. 

2. CERATOSPONGiiE, Bronn. 
Sponges with skeletons of horny fibres. 



9 ' INTKODUCTION. 

3. MONACTINELLID^, Zittel. 

Spono'es with skeletons of horny fibres with cores of uniaxial siliceous spicules, or 
built up wholly of uniaxial siliceous spicules. 

4. Tetractinellid^, Marshall. 
Spono-es with skeletons of siliceous spicules, usually with four rays or arms, one 
generally elono-ated to .form a shaft, the other three disposed in pyramidal form ; 
uniaxial and star-shaped spicules are also present. 

5. LiTHiSTiD^, O. Schmidt. 
Sponges with skeletons of siliceous spicules, either four-rayed or irregular in form, 
which are intimately interwoven together into a continuous mesh. 

6. Hexactinellid^, O. Schmidt. 

Sponges with skeletons of six-rayed siliceous spicules, either loosely interwoven 
together, or organically united to form a continuous mesh. 

7. CalcispongijE, Blainville. 
Sponges with skeletons of calcareous spicules. 

The first of these existing orders, the Myxospongiae, is, of course, quite unknown 
in the fossil state, and it is also very doubtful whether any remains of the next 
order, the Ceratospongiae, have been preserved. Certain casts of cylindrical bodies 
from the Cretaceous system have been regarded as belonging to horny sponges ; but 
in the absence of all other characters but that of outward form these bodies cannot be 
definitely placed in this group. 

The Monactinellidse have comparatively few representatives in the fossil state, and 
they present a striking contrast to the abundance of this order in the present seas. 
Their rarity as fossils, however, is not to be accepted as an indication of their scanty 
existence in the past, but is more probably owing to the fact that the spicular 
structure of these sponges is unsuitable to their preservation as fossils. 

The structure of the Tetractinellidse, like that of the order just mentioned, is also 
but little adapted to the retention of the form of these sponges in the fossil state ; 
but the constituent spicules of many of these sponges are relatively large and robust, 
so that they are capable of preservation, and they are frequently met with detached 
and scattered through the rocks. In some instances they are sufficiently numerous 
to form thin beds, almost exclusively composed of spicules. It is therefoi'e probable 
that this order of sponges flourished as abundantly in the seas of the Neocomian 
period as at the present day. 



INTEODUCTION. 6 

Lithistid and Hexactinellid sponges, unlike those of the previous groups, are 
more numerous and varied in the fossil than the recent state. The spicular com- 
ponents of the skeleton in these sponges are firmly attached together, consequently 
the form of the sponge is frequently preserved intact, even in cases where the spicules 
themselves have subsequently been destroyed. The occurrence of detached spicules 
and fragments of the skeleton scattered through the rocks plainly shows, however, 
that only under favourable conditions of fossilization has the form of the sponges been 
retained, and those now remaining probably comprise but a small proportion of the 
number which previously existed. 

Fossil Calcareous sponges are abundant in certain strata, but they belong to a 
family which difi'ers to such an extent from existing Calcispongia; that the relationship 
has been greatly doubted. Recent discoveries, however, prove that the component 
spicules in the fossil Calcispongise possess the closest resemblance to those of the 
living examples of the order. 

Tn respect to their form and dimensions, fossil sponges present as great diversity as 
living ones. The most prevalent form is like a cup, funnel, or vase ; but cylindrical, 
club-shaped, fan-shaped, and branching examples are also very abundant. The 
smallest complete fossil specimen which has come under my notice is a Calcisponge, 
belonging to the genus Peronella, which measures 5 '5 millim. in length by 4 millim. 
in widtli ; whilst the largest is a Lithistid, belonging to the genus Doryderma, which 
reaches a length of 390 millim. by 1-35 millim. in diameter. 

Fossil sponges are of most common occurrence in calcareous and arenaceous rocks, 
whilst they are rarely met with in shales and deposits formed from muddy sediments. 
Strata containing masses and nodules of flint and chert frequently abound in fossil 
sponges ; indeed there is every reason to suppose that the flint and chert itself is 
derived from the dissolved skeletons of siliceous sponges. Both arenaceous and 
calcareous deposits seem to have been favourable to the existence of Tetractinellid 
and Lithistid sponges, for they occur alike in the Lower and Upper Green Sands as 
well as in the Chalk. The Hexactinellid sponges, on the other hand, favour more 
particularly the deeper-formed deposits of limestone and chalk, though rarely forms 
of this order are present in the Upper Green Sand ; and, according to Manzoni*, they 
are comparatively numerous in Miocene strata in Italy, associated with shallow-water 
organisms. The Calcispongise, on the other hand, are most abundant in arenaceous 
or shallow-water deposits, and thus in their habitats resemble the existing members 
of the order. Exceptions, however, occur in this group, for several Calcisponges are 
found in Jurassic limestones associated with Hexactinellids, and in one example in 
the Museum a species of Peronella is growing attached to the surface of a Hexacti- 
nellid sponge. 

At the present day, with the exception of the genus Spongilla, which inhabits fresh 

* Spugne silicee del Miocene medio, 

b2 



4 INTEODUCTION. 

water, all the members of the class live in the sea. It is interesting to note that the 
spicules of a fossil species of Spongilla have been discovered in chert, of freshwater 
origin, in beds of Purbeck age. 

The Alterations produced hij Fossilization in the Structure of Sponges. — The 
changes to which fossil sponges have been subjected in the process of fossilization 
have oftentimes resulted in the partial or complete destruction of their original 
spicular structure and the replacement of the mineral composition of the skeleton to 
such an extent that great controversy has arisen respecting its original nature. In 
recent sponges the skeleton is composed either of amorphous silica or carbonate of 
lime with a small quantity of organic material. In fossil sponges the organic material 
would of course disappear, and only the mineral constituents of the spicules remain. 
But even the mineral portion is seldom, if ever, in the same condition as in recent 
spicules ; the amorphous silica and calcite have been replaced by crystalline silica 
and crystalline calcite, as well as by peroxide of iron and iron pyrites ; whilst not 
infrequently the entire mineral structure has been dissolved and removed, leaving the 
empty moulds of the spicular skeleton in the matrix. As a result of these changes, 
siliceous sponges now occur with skeletons of calcite, and calcareous sponges with 
fibres composed of silica. These changes are intimately connected with the character 
of the strata in which the sponges are imbedded, but the causes producing them have 
not up to tlie present been satisfactorily determined. In general the sponges in 
calcareous strata have undergone the greatest alteration, the siliceous structures 
being replaced either by calcite or iron peroxide, or dissolved away altogether, whilst 
the structures of calcareous sponges, in common with the shells of mollusks in the 
^ame strata, are oftentimes replaced by silica. In arenaceous or glauconitic strata, on 
the other hand, the changes, whether of siliceous or calcareous sponges, have been 
much less extensive than in strata of a calcareous character. 

Changes produced in the Structure of Siliceous Sponges. — It may be affirmed that 
no examples are known in which the siliceous spicules or fibres of fossil sponges retain 
the perfect amorphous condition of the silica as in existing sponges. The nearest 
approach to this original amorphous condition is shown in sponges preserved in the 
glauconitic marls of Westphalia of the age of the Upper Chalk. The spicules of 
these sponges have a smooth milky white aspect, and, when examined under the 
microscope mounted in Canada balsam, exhibit the details of the interior canals and 
the spinous adornment of their surfaces in beautiful preservation. When viewed by 
polarized light they are either neutral or occasionally present faint prismatic tints. 
The main feature which distinguishes these from recent spicules is their white porcel- 
lanic aspect, which contrasts greatly with the glassy appearance of recent spicules. 

The mineral condition of some of the siliceous sponges from the Upper Green Sand 
of Warminster also resembles that of the examples from Westphalia mentioned above ; 
but they present the interesting peculiarity of being inclosed in a matrix of translu- 



INTEODUCTION. 5 

cent glassy silica, which is shown to be crystalline by giving brilliant prismatic tints 
under the polariscope ; whilst the spicules, on the other hand, are either neutral or 
only give faint prismatic tints, thus indicating that the silica of which they are com- 
posed is in a crypto-crystalline condition. 

In the siliceous sponges from the Jurassic limestones of Franconia, which yet retain 
a siliceous structure, the silica, seen by reflected light, has a white snowy aspect, and 
is distinctly crystalline in character. In this condition the spicular elements are 
nearly invisible when mounted in Canada balsam, but in glycerine or water show 
perfect definition. The mineral change in these sponges, however, does not appear 
to have afli"ected the finer structural details of the skeleton, which are usually well 
preserved. 

Most of the siliceous spicules from the Lower and Upper Green Sand and from tlie 
interior of chalk flints exhibit an exterior surface-aspect like that of ground-glass, 
which is seen under the microscope to be owing to the minutely eroded condition of 
their surfaces. The silica composing them is now crystalline, and frequently appears 
like delicate fibres radiating from different centres. In these spicules the canals are 
usually infiltrated with silica ; in a few instances, however, they are filled with iron 
peroxide. 

Another modification of the silica is presented by sponges from the Upper Chalk 
of Flamborough, in Yorkshire, which are so distinct in their mineral characters that 
they can be at once recognized by this feature alone. On removing the chalky matrix 
by acid the sponge itself is usually perfect in outer form, and the fibrous mesh has a 
rough surface-aspect, as if composed of minute granular particles of a dull earthy 
greyish aspect. Thin sections of the fibre show that the silica is distinctly crystal- 
line. In these sponges the spicular components of the skeleton, save in a few examples 
where they possess relatively large dimensions, are not distinguishable ; they appear 
to have been, as it were, fused together, so that the individual forms are entirely 
obliterated. 

Siliceous Sponges inclosed in Chalk Flints. — The sponges met with in the interior 
of chalk flints present very various conditions of preservation. In some examples the 
flint is hollow and the interior cavity is partially or wholly filled with a fine powdery 
material, largely made up of detached Tetractinellid sponge-spicules, which ai'C now 
composed of crystalline silica. In other cases the hollow flint incloses the perfect 
form of a sponge, whose walls are either in immediate contact with the interior 
surface of the flint, or separated therefrom by a small space usually filled with a white 
siliceous powder. The sponges thus inclosed frequently retain the spicular structure 
of the outer surface in perfect preservation, particularly those species with relatively 
large spicules ; and even in some instances the minute spicules of the dermal layer 
of the sponge yet remain intact and in their relative positions. This favourable state 
of preservation, however, is limited to the outer surface of the sponge, for the spicular 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

structure of the interior is completely obliterated, and is now a mass of botryoidal or 
porous crypto-crystalline silica, in which even the course of the canals has disappeared. 
The surface spicular structure is usually of a snowy white aspect, and the silica is 
crystalline. 

In other examples, of somewhat rare occurrence, the hollow flint contains merely 
the solid casts, in silica, of the central cloaca and canals of the sponge, whilst the 
spicular skeleton itself has entirely disappeared. 

In all the instances above quoted the sponges are contained in holloio flints ; but 
numerous examples occur in which the inclosing flint is quite solid. In some cases 
the flint nodule has a rough conformity to the form of the sponge, in others no 
relation is apparent. As a general rule the spicular structure in these solid flints is 
completely obliterated, and the interior of the flint merely exhibits the cloacal cavity 
and canals, which are distinguishable from the circumstance that the silica which has 
infilled them is of a diff"erent tint from that of the rest of the nodule. 

Spicules of Tetractinellid and other sponges also occur scattered loosely in strata 
of glauconitic sand and in places aggregated together into distinct beds. Sometimes 
the individual spicules can be distinguished on the weathered surface of these sponge- 
beds ; but in the interior of the beds the spicular forms are merged into glassy chert. 
The silica of these spicules is usually crystalline. These spicules and spicular masses 
occur in the Hils formation of Germany, in Neocomian sandstone at Haslemere in 
Surrey, in the Kentish Rag quarries near Maidstone in Kent, at Folkestone, and in 
the Upper Green Sand of Blackdown and the Haldon Hills in Devonshire. Spicules 
of siliceous sponges in connexion with beds or nodules of chert have been met with 
in Carboniferous strata in Ireland, in Lias strata from the Austrian Tyrol and 
Glamorganshire, and in the Portland limestones of Upway in Dorsetshire. 

Siliceous Spicules replaced by Peroxide of Iron and Iron Pyrites. — Examples where 
the original silica has been replaced by pyrites are not of very common occurrence. 
A well-known instance is that of the earliest known sponge, Protospongia fenestrata, 
Salter, from the Menevian of Wales, where the sponge is imbedded in black shale. 
In a few sponges from the Jurassic limestones, the Grey Chalk, and the Upper 
Chalk the same replacement occurs. 

The replacement of silica by peroxide of iron is of extremely frequent occurrence, 
particularly in the sponges from the Upper Chalk of this country. The peroxide is 
present as a light reddish-brown powdery material, usually incoherent, though in a 
few instances sufiiciently firm to retain the spicular mesh intact after the removal of 
the chalky matrix. As a general rule, however, the sponge-structure when replaced 
by peroxide is extremely indistinct and merely represented by a thin rusty film, in 
which the character of the spicules is generally obliterated. Unfortunately most of 
the siliceous sponges from the Upper Chalk of the south of England, which have not 
been inclosed in flints, are in this very unsatisfactory condition ; and the task of 



INTEODirCTION. I 

discovering their true characters is rendered very difficult. But even in many of the 
sponges inclosed in solid flints the silica has been replaced by peroxide of iron ; 
and the former presence of the sponge is indicated by reddish markings in the flint. 
These are particularly noticeable in the case of sponges belonging to the genus 
Plocoscyi^Ma, which are characterized by thin anastomosing walls. These walls 
appear in section on the surface of broken flints as delicate labyrinthine lines of a 
reddish tint. In a few cases where the spicular structure is of an open character it 
has been replaced by peroxide of iron in such a manner that the form of the 
spicules is perfectly preserved. 

Siliceous Spicular Structure replaced hy Calcite. — The fact of calcite taking the 
place of silica in fossil sponges has been greatly contested on account of the supposed 
more stable character of silica in comparison with calcite. But the frequency of the 
occurrence of undoubted siliceous sponges with skeletons in the condition of calcite 
is a convincing proof of the instability of the colloid silica of sponge-skeletons. The 
calcite which has replaced the silica is in a crystalline condition, and it appears to 
have infiltrated the moulds after the siliceous skeleton has been dissolved and 
removed. In the case of relatively large spicules, and where the skeletal mesh is of 
an open character, the replacement has been eff'ected without obliterating the cha- 
racter of the structure ; but in those instances where the spicules are minute and 
they are united closely together, the finer details have disappeai'ed, and only general, 
ill-defined outlines of the original spicules and skeleton remain. As a rule the 
spicular canals are obliterated where calcitic replacement has taken place; but occa- 
sionally some other material has filled in the canals previous to the deposition of the 
calcite, and in that case they can be distinguished. 

Instances of the replacement of siliceous sponges by calcite occur in Silurian, 
Devonian, Jurassic, and Cretaceous strata. The replacement appears to be confined 
to sponges imbedded in calcareous or marly deposits. I am not aware of a single 
instance occurring in arenaceous beds. The majority of the siliceous sponges from 
the Jurassic limestone in certain localities are now calcareous, whilst in the same 
strata elsewhere the same species of sponge remains siliceous. Not unfrequently too 
the same individual specimen will be partly siliceous and partly calcareous ; in the 
siliceous portion the spicules will retain their canals and other finer details, whilst 
in the calcareous portion the spicules will be solid and the outlines of the skeletal 
mesh confused and indefinite. In the sponges from the Upper Green Sand (so-called) 
of Cambridge and the Grey Chalk strata of Dover and Folkestone the silica has been 
almost entirely replaced by calcite. In some of the Upper Chalk sponges from 
Flamborough, calcite has partially replaced the silica ; but, as a rule, the skeletons 
of the sponges from this locality remain siliceous. In only one instance have I found 
detached spicules of siliceous sponges changed to calcite, and this occurs in the 
spicules oi Astroeosponrjia from the Silurian strata of Gotland. 



8 . INTRODUCTION. 

Siliceous Sj)icular Structure dissolved, leaving enijiti/ Moulds. — This condition is 
of frequent occurrence in beds where the matrix is suitable for retaining the form of 
the spicular mesh, and it furnishes a clear proof of the ready solubility of siliceous 
sponge-structure. The siliceous skeleton of these sponges has been entirely removed, 
so that there are only empty cavities in the place of the solid spicular arms and 
nodes. These moulds are sometimes present in a matrix of chert or flint, of which 
there are examples in the Silurian strata of North America and in the Upper Green 
Sands of Wiltshire ; they also occur in compact Jurassic limestones, in the Cambridge 
Green Sand, and even in the Upper Chalk of the south of England. It is somewhat 
surprising that the empty moulds of the delicate sponge-skeleton should have been 
retained in the soft Chalk of the south of England ; but they have been so perfectly 
preserved that in many instances the moulds of the delicate balks or rods which form 
the lantern-like nodes of Hexactinellid sponges remain intact. Not only aie the 
connected skeletons of Hexactinellid sponges thus dissolved, but the detached spicules 
of Tetractinellid sponges, though relatively much larger and more robust, have also, in 
many instances, suffered a similar fate. A noted example occurs in beds of the Hils 
sandstone in the north-west of Germany, where the moulds of the spicules remain in 
a matrix of semi-translucent chert, giving to it a porous aspect. Other instances are 
present in Lower Green Sand chert from near Haslemere in Surrey. In some of the 
specimens from this latter locality the spicular canal had become infilled with silica 
before the solution of the spicule itself, and this solidified canal now remains as a 
delicate rod in the central axis of the hollow mould. In some sponges from the 
Upper Green Sand the spicular skeleton seems to have been incrusted with a thin 
delicate film of silica, which now remains after the solution and removal of the 
skeleton. In some examples of Miocene Hexactinellid sponges described and figured 
by Manzoni * the skeleton is similarly incrusted with a siliceous pellicle, but it has 
not been subsequently dissolved. 

Changes produced in Calcareous Sjionges ly Fossilization. — As a rule the mineral 
structure of fossil calcareous sponges has undergone fewer changes than the structure 
of siliceous sponges, though, as a result of the small dimensions of the calcareous 
spicules and their very intimate disposition in the fibre, a very slight amount of 
alteration has been sufficient to obliterate the form of the individual spicules, and to 
merge them into a common fibrous mass of amorphous or crystalline calcite. In 
general the calcareous sponges imbedded in arenaceous strata are better preserved 
than those from calcareous beds. In the numerous calcareous sponges from the 
Neocomian gravels of Earringdon, in Berkshire, the sponge-fibre is enveloped in a 
coating of dog-tooth crystals of calcspar. The microscopic structure of these sponges 
is very imperfectly preserved. The fibre of the calcareous sponges from the Upper 
Green Sand of Warminster is of a soft earthy character with a greyish-white tint, and 

* Spugne silicee del Miocene medio, t. 5. f. 15. 



INTEODUCTION. 9 

ill some cases so slightly altered that the minute component spicules can be detached. 
The fibre of the calcareous sponges from Essen resembles in appearance that of the 
Warminster sponges ; but the individual spicules are, as a rule, not recognizable. 
The fibre of the calcareous sponges from the Upper Chalk of the south of England 
is in appearance smooth, white, and unaltered ; but in thin sections the component 
spicules are rarely visible, and the fibre presents either a homogeneous mass of 
amorphous calcite or a very fine radiate crystalline structure. 

Calcareous Sponges replaced ly Silica. — The instances in which this change has 
been effected are comparatively rare, and limited, with few exceptions, to sponges 
imbedded in strata in which the remains of other calcareous organisms have likewise 
been replaced by silica. I have not met Avith a single example of this change in any 
of the numerous calcareous sponges from the Lower and Upper Green Sands of this 
country ; but in tlie Jurassic strata of certain localities in Germany many of these 
sponges have become silicified, and can be perfectly freed from the calcitic matrix 
by acid. The fibre of such sponges after treatment with acid has a rough appear- 
ance, and is of a snowy white tint ; and, as may be expected, all traces of spicular 
structure have disappeared. A partial replacement by silica is sometimes present in 
examples of the well-known Pharetrospongia Strahani, Sollas, from the Upper Green 
Sand of Cambridge. The fibre of these sponges is calcareous in the central portion, 
whilst the exterior has been replaced by silica. This change is more remarkable 
from the fact that the form of the individual spicules has not been destroyed, but 
they can be distinguished in a siliceous condition. This same species of sponge 
remains completely calcareous when imbedded in the Upper Chalk ; but when in- 
closed in solid flints the outer surface of the fibre has become silicified, whilst the 
interior remains calcareous, in the same manner as in the Green-Sand specimens. 

Geological Distkibution. 

Fossil sponges make their appearance in some of the earliest fossiliferous rocks, 
and they are present, though by no means in continuous sequence, in all the great 
divisions of the geological scale to the Tertiary era. They form, however, but a very 
subordinate part of the fossil fauna of the Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic groups, and 
it is not until towards the close of the Jurassic and during the Cretaceous periods 
that they occur in sufficient numbers to constitute a relatively important feature of 
the fauna of these rocks. Judging by the constant association of sponges with beds 
of flint and chert in the Mesozoic rocks, there is great reason to suppose that they 
may have existed in strata of Palaeozoic age where beds of these materials are present, 
though up to the present they have not been recognized in them. 

Cambrian System. — The earliest known sponge is the Protospongiafenestralis, Salter, 
belonging to the Hexactinellidse. It is only known from fragments and detached 
spicules, preserved in black shales in strata of Menevian age in Wales and in Sweden. 

c 



1 U INTEODUCTION. 

In the Quebec series of Canada there are numerous fossils which have been 
referred to sponges by the late Mr. Billings ; but as nothing definite is yet known of 
their minute structure, the true character of these fossils remains doubtful. They 
have been placed in the genera Archoeocyathas, Calathium, Eosporxjia, E/iabdarki, 
and Trachyuin. 

Silurian S//sf,em.— Sponges are by no means generally distributed in Silurian strata, 
though they are not uncommon in beds of the Niagara series in North America and 
in strata of corresponding age in the Silurian basin of the Baltic. They are also 
present in the Boulder drift beds of North Germany. The order Monactinellidee is 
here represented for the first time by the genus Climacospongia, the Lithistidfe by 
Aulocopium, Hindia, and the somewhat doubtful Aulocopina. Belonging to the 
Hexactinellidie are the genera Protachilleum, Astylospongia, Palceomanon, and the 
remarkable genus Astrceospongia. The genus Amphispongia from the Upper Silurian 
of the Pentlands is a dubious form, and also the genus Brachiospongia from the 
Niagara group of North America. 

Devonian System. — Very few sponges have as yet been discovered in rocks of this 
age. To the Monactinellidte belongs the genus Lasiocladia from Belgium. No 
member of the Lithistidse has yet been discovered in this division. The Hexac- 
tinellidae are represented by Astrceospongia from Belgium and Illinois, and by the 
peculiar genus Dictyophyton from the Upper Devonian strata of New York. Calca- 
reous sponges belonging to the genus Peronella also appear here for the first time. 

Carboniferous System. — From the Carboniferous Limestone of Scotland the Monac- 
tinellid genera Pulvillus, Baphidistia, and Beniera have been described by Mr. 
Carter, as well as the Hexactinellid Hyalostelia and Ilolasterella. Detached spicules 
of Lithistid and Tetractinellid sponges also occur. Lately Steinmann has described 
three genera, Sollasia, AnihJysiphonella, and Sebargasia, of the family of the Phare- 
trones, from the Carboniferous of Spain ; but as no spicular structure has been pre- 
served, the character of these forms is at present uncertain. 

Permian System. — No well-ascertained sponges have been met with in this division. 
According to Prof. Zittel, the genus Bothroconis, King, might prove to be a Hexac- 
tinellid, and Eudea tuberculata, King, a calcareous sponge ; but these forms have 
not come under my notice, and, judging from the figures given of them, their true 
characters appear to be very uncertain. 

Triassic System. — No siliceous sponges have been recorded from this division, but 
in the St.-Cassian beds in the Tyrol numerous calcareous sponges are present. As a 
rule, the fibre of these forms does not show any minute structure, and the sponge- 
character of some of tliem is very problematic. These St.-Cassian forms have been 
included in the following genera — Eudea, Colosptongia, Verticillites, Celyphia, 
Himatella, Pej'onella, Corynella, Myrmecium, and Stellispongia. • 

JAassic System. — It is only within the present year that fossil sponges of this 



INTEODUCTIOX. 11 

period have been discovered. In strata of this age at Schafberg, Austria, Prof. 
Zittel discovered beds of agglomerated spicules of Monactinellid, Tetractinellid, and 
Hexactinellid sponges, which have been described and figured by Dunikowski *. In 
cherty strata in Glamorganshire there are also numerous spicules. 

Jurassic System. — The sponges of this division are very numerous. The Monac- 
tinellidae are represented by the single freshwater genus SpongiU.a, from Purbeck 
strata in the south of England. The Lithistidse and Hexactinellidge are met with 
in great numbers in different zones of the Upper Jurassic, in South Germany, 
Switzerland, Eastern France, and in the vicinity of Cracow ; but they are entirely 
absent in the strata of corresponding age in England. In some of the Portland beds, 
however, there are large masses and nodules of flint, which probably indicate the 
former existence of sponges in these strata ; and in some of these flints detached 
spicules of Tetractinellid sponges are still preserved. The Lithistids of the Upper or 
White Jura of Germany -belong to the following genera — Cneinidiastrum, Coral- 
lidiwn, Hyalotragos, Pyrgochonia, Leiodorella, Platychonia, Placonella, MegalitMsta, 
Cylindrophyma, Melonella, and Lecanella. The Hexactinellids are included in the 
genera Tremadictyon, Craticularia, Splienaulax, Sporadopyle, VerrucococUa, Pachy- 
teichisma, Trochobolus, Phlyctcenium, Cypellia, Staurodcrma, PorocypelUa, Casearia, 
Porospongia, and Toulminia. In most of these siliceous sponges the original skeleton 
has been replaced by calcite ; but in the strata of some localities the sponges yet 
retain their siliceous structure in very perfect preservation. There are but few 
calcareous sponges in the English Jura; but they abound in the Jurassic strata of 
France and Germany, and have been referred to the genera Eudea, Peronella, 
Eusiphonella, Corynella, Myrmecium, Lymnorea, StelUspongia, Sestrostomella, Blas- 
tinia, Oculospongia, Crispisjiongia, Pharetrospongia, and Protosycon. 

Cretaceous System. — Both the Siliceous and Calcareous sponges may be said to 
attain their maximum development in this period. In this country there are four 
well marked zones in the Cretaceous rocks, each characterized by distinctive groups 
of sponges. They are (I.) the Lower Green Sand, (II.) the Upper Green Sand and 
Chloritic Marl, (III.) the Chalk Marl, Gray Chalk, and Lower Chalk, and (I^'.) 
the Upper Chalk, including the Maestricht Chalk. 

(I.) Lower Green Sand. — Very few recognizable siliceous sponges occur in tliis 
division ; but in sandstone strata at Haslemere, in Surrey, there are thin beds nearly 
entirely composed of the spicules of Tetractinellid sponges, with an admixture of u 
few Hexactinellid and Lithistid forms ; some of these latter are sufficiently charac- 
teristic to be referred to the genus Mastosia. Similar beds of sponge-spiculcs also 
occur in the Ilils sandstone in Westphalia. On the other hand, the calcareous 
sponges are very numerously represented in this series, not only in this country, but 
in France, Germany, and Switzerland. The gravels of Farringdon in Berkshire, and 

* Spongien, Radiolarien uud Foramiixiferen der unterliassischen Schiohten vora Schafberg. Wien, 1882. 

c2 



12 INTEODUCTION. 

at Upware in Cambridgeshire, are filled with these sponges. The minute structural 
characters of the sponges from these beds has only been partially preserved ; but 
traces of the spicules can usually be distinguished in thin microscopic sections. The 
following genera are represented — VeHicilUtes, Peronella, Elasmocoglia, Conocoslia, 
Cor//nella, Synopella, Oculospongia, Elasmostoma, and Pharetrospongia. 

(II.) Upper Green Sand and Chloritic Marl. — In beds of this series at Warminster 
in Wiltshire, Blackdowu and Haldon in Devonshire, the Isle of Wight, near Folke- 
stone, and near Havre in France, sponges are very numerous. In some localities 
the beds are largely made up of spicules of Monactinellid and Tetractinellid sponges 
with an admixture of Lithistid and Hexactinellid spicules, and resemble those 
already mentioned from tlie Lower Green Sand. These detached spicules have been 
described and figured by Mr. Carter * and Mr. Parfitt f . The Lithistid sponges of 
this series are particularly abundant, and, as a rule, retain their siliceous composition ; 
but as they are usually preserved in a very hard siliceous matrix, it is only by 
preparing sections that the structure can be distinguished. The genera of Lithistids 
comprise Cheneniopora, Jereica, Doryderma, Ilolodicfyon, Pachypoterion, NemaUnion, 
CartereUa, Phymatella, Trachysycon, Siphonia, Hallirhoa, Jerea, Polyjerea, Kalpi- 
nella, and Bhopalospoiiyia. The Hexactinellids are less numerous in proportion to 
the Lithistids, and belong to the genera Craticidaria, Stauronema, Sestrodictyon, 
Guettardia, Eiihrochus, Plocoscyphia, and 8clerokaJia. Calcisponges are numerous 
in some localities: the most important place for them is Essen, in Prussia; they 
are also present at Warminster and near Havre. They mostly belong to the same 
genera as those in the Lower Green Sand; but the majority of the species are 
difi"erent. 

(III.) Chalk Marl, Gray Chalk, and Lower Chalk. — Beds of this series near Dover, 
Folkestone, and in the Isle of Wight contain a well-marked group of sponges, for 
the most part of the same genera as those in the underlying Upper Green Sand and 
Chloritic Marl, but of diff"erent species. The siliceous skeleton of these sponges has 
been replaced by calcite, and their present condition is very unfavourable for deter- 
mination. The sponges from the Chalk Marl of the Isle of Wight, however, remain 
siliceous, and can be partially cleaned from the matrix by acid. The Lithistids of 
this series of beds are included in the genera Stachyspongia, Phymatella, Siphonia, 
Jerea, Nelumhia, Polyjerea, and Thamnospongia. The Hexactinellids associated in 
the same beds with the Lithistids belong to the genera Craticidaria, Strephinia, 
Verrucocoelia, Stauronema, Leptopliragma, Guettardia, Sestrocladia, Ophrystoma, 
and Plocoscyphia. I do not know of any Calcisponges from this division. 

(IV.) Upper Chalk, including Maestricht Chalk. — Siliceous sponges abound in this 
division of the Cretaceous system. In this country they are of most frequent 

* Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. vii. p. 112. 
t Transactions of the Devonshire Association, 1870. 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

occurrence in the Chalk near Flamborough Head in Yorkshire, and in the southern 
and south-western counties. The strata of this age in Westphalia, Hanover, and 
Brunswick contain large numbers of sponges, which retain their original structure 
in most beautiful preservation. On the other hand, the Upper Chalk sponges of 
this country are in a very unfavourable condition of preservation, and it is only in 
those which have been preserved in the interior of flints that the spicular structure 
can be satisfactorily ascertained. In the Flamborough forms, as already mentioned, 
the siliceous spicules are fused together, whilst in the sponges from Surrey, Kent, 
Sussex, and elsewhere to the South of England, the siliceous skeletons are either 
replaced by peroxide of iron or completely dissolved away. The following genera 
of Monactinellids are present in this division — Eeniera, Scolioraphis, Dirrhojmlum, 
Acanthoraphis, Opefionclla, and CUona. The Tetvactinellid sponges have been 
referred to the genera Ophiraphidites, Tethyopsis, Stellctta, Geodia, Thenea, and 
Pachastrella. The Lithistid sponges include the genera BoUdium, Chonella, Selis- 
cothon, Verruculina, Stichophyma, Jereica, Scytalia, Stachysfongia, Pachinion, Dory- 
derma, Heterostinia, Carterella, Isoraphinia, Phymatella, Aulaxinia, Callopcqma, 
Trachysycon, Siphonia, Jerea, Nelumhia, Bolospongia, Thecosiphonia, Calymmatina, 
Turonia, Thamnospongia, Pholidocladia, Ragadima, Plinthosella, and Phymaplectia. 
The genera of Hexactinellids comprise Craticularia, Verrucocoelia, Lepiopliragma, 
Pleurostoma, Guettardia, Coscinopora, Aphrocallistes, Ventriculites, Schizorhabdus, 
Ehizopoterion, Sporadoscinia, Polyhlastidium, Cephalites, Porospongia, Cincliderma, 
Plocoscyphia, TremahoUtes, Etheridgia, Toulminia, Camerospongia, Cystispongia, 
Callodictyon, Porochonia, Becksia, Biplodictyon, CceloptycMum, Stauractinella, and 
Hyalostelia. 

If the siliceous sponges are exceedingly numerous in the Upper Clialk, the 
calcareous forms, on the other hand, are comparatively rare. In the South of 
England examples of the genera Elasmostoma and Pharetrospongia are not uncommon 
in the Chalk and in flints ; and in the Chalk of Maestricht there are species of 
Synopella, Oculospongia, and Elasmostoma. 

Eocene System. — Numerous detached spicules of Monactinellid, Tetractinellid, 
Lithistid, and Hexactincllid sponges have been discovered by Rutot* in the Eocene 
Sandstone of Brussels. 

Miocene System. — Lithistid and Hexactinellid sponges have been discovered by 
Pomelf in strata of this age in the Algerian province of Oran, and by Manzoni J in 
beds of Molasse sandstone in the provinces of Bologna and Modena in Italy. The 
numerous genera which Pomel has constituted on the characters of the canal- 

* Annales de la Sooiete Malacologique de Bclgique, tome ix. 1874 ; and Carter, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ear. 4, vol. xix. p. 382. 

+ Deacription des Animaux fossiles de la Province d'Oran, .5'' fascicule, 1872. 
X La struttnra mioroscopica delle Spugne silicee del Miocene medio, 1882. 



14 INTEODUCTION. 

structure are quite valueless. Manzoni has referred the Lithistids discovered by 
him to Astrocladia, Siphonia, Jerea, and ChenendojMra, and the Hexactinellids to 
the genus Craticularia. Some of these Miocene sponges retain their siliceous 
structure ; in others it has been replaced by calcite. 

Classification. 

To the obliteration and alteration produced by fossilization in the structure of 
fossil sponges may be attributed the various conflicting opinions which have been 
held respecting their characters and the relationship between them and existing 
forms. It is unnecessary here to refer in detail to these opinions, or to the many 
ineff'ectual attempts which have been made to bring the numerous fossil examples of 
the class into a natural arrangement ; it may suffice to state that all the systems of 
classification, based on diff'ereuces of external form, or the disposition of the internal 
canals of the sponge, have proved utterly valueless, and the heterogenous forms 
grouped together by the advocates of these systems clearly showed their artificial 
character. The honour of discovering a natural principle of classification for fossil 
sponges, and thus introducing order where previously a discreditable chaos prevailed, 
is due to Professor Zittel, who adopted, as a primary basis of classification, the 
characters of the minute spicular bodies of which the sponge-skeleton is composed. 
As the result of a thorough microscopic research into the minute structure of most 
of the known fossil sponges, Zittel brought these forms for the first time into a 
definite systematic position ; so that students of this group have now no difficulty in 
ascertaining the relative affinity of any specimen which retains even but slight traces 
of its original structure. The first step in arranging a series of fossil sponges in 
natural order is to ascertain the characters of the spicular skeleton ; and as in the 
majority of examples no spicular structure is preserved on the outer surface, it is 
necessary to make a section through the sponge in order to discover, if possible, any 
indications of structure in the interior. It sometimes happens that all traces of the 
spicular skeleton have disappeared throughout the central portions of the sponge as 
well as on the outer surface ; and in this case the systematic position of the sponge 
remains somewhat conjectural. But even when all structure has disappeared from 
the sponges of certain horizons and localities, we oftentimes find the same sponges 
from the corresponding strata in other places with their skeletal structures in good 
preservation. Owing to this fact it is possible to ascertain the original character of 
many of the sponges from the Upper Chalk of Flamborough and the southern 
counties of England, in which merely the outer form and canal-structure is retained, 
by comparing them with the sponges from the same geological horizon in Northern 
Germany, in which the spicular skeleton remains intact. 

The various modifications of the canal-system rank next in importance to the 
spicular skeleton in afi"ording characters for the minor subdivisions of the sponges ; 



INTKODUCTION. 



15 



and, as a rule, these features are more frequently recognizable in fossil examples than 
the spicular structures. 

The following is a list of the different Orders, Families, and Genera in which the 
fossil sponges referred to in the following pages are arranged. Genera of existing 
sponges are only included when represented by fossil species. 

Class SPONGI^. 



Division I. SILICEOUS SPONGES. 



Order Monactinellid.e. 

Climacospongia, Hinck. 
Lasiocladia, Hinde. 
Reuiera, 0. Schmidt. 
Dirrhopalunij Ridley. 
Acanthorapliis, Hinde. 
Spongilla, Lamarck. 
Cliona, Grant. 

Order Tetractinellid^. 

Ophirapliidites, Carter. 
Tethyopsis, Zittel. 
Stelletta, O. Schmidt. 
Geodia, Lamarck, 
Thenea, Gray. 
Pachastrella, 0. Sch. 

Order Lithistid^. 

Family Rhizomor[na. 
Cnemidiastrum, Zittel. 
Corallidium, Qiienst. 
Hyalotragos, Zift. 
Pyrgoclionia, Gold/. 
Leiodorella, Zitt. 
Platychonia, Zitt. 
Bolidium, Zitt. 
Chonella, Zitt. 
Seliscothon, Zitt. 
Chenendopora, Lam. 
Verruculina^ Zitt. 
Stichophyma, Pomel, 
Jereica, Zitt. 



Scytalia, Zitt. 
Stachyspongia^ Zitt. 
Pachinion, Zitt. 

Family Megamorina. 

Placonella, Hinde. 
Doryderma, Zitt. 
Holodictyon, Hinde. 
Pachypoterion, Hinde. 
Heterostinia, Zitt. 
Nematinion, Hinde. 
Carterella, Zitt. 
Isoraphinia, Zitt. 

Family Ano.mocladina. 

Cylindrophyma, Zitt. 
Melonella, Zitt. 
Lecanella, Zitt. 
Mastosia, Zitt. 
Hiudia, Duncan. 

Family Tetiiacladixa. 

Aulocopium, Osivatd. 
Phymatella, Zitt. 
Aulaxinia, Zitt. 
Callopegma, Zitt. 
Tracliysycon, Zitt. 
Siphonia, Goldfuss. 
Hallirhoaj Lamx. 
Jerea, Lamx. 
Nelumbia, Pomel. 
Polyjerea, From. 
Bolospongia, Hinde. 



16 



INTEODUCTION. 



Thecosiphonia, Z'ltt. 
Calymmatina, Zitt. 
Turonia, Mich. 
Kalpiaella, Hinde. 
Thamnospongia, Hinde. 
Pliolidoclaclia, Hinde. 
Ragadiriia, Zitt. 
Plinthosella, Zitt. 
Phymaplectia, Hinde. 
Rhopalospongia, Hinde. 

Order Hexactinellid^. 

Suborder Di ex yon in a. 

Family AsTYLOspoNGiDiK. 
Astylospongia, Earner. 
Palseomanoiij Rcemer. 

Family Euretid^. 
Tremadictyon, Zitt. 
Craticularia, Zitt. 
Sphenaulax, Zitt. 
Sporadopyle, Zitt. 
Strepliinia, Hinde. 
Verrucoccelia, Etallon. 
Stauronemaj SoUas. 
Sestrodictyon, Hinde. 
Brachiospongia, Marsh. 

Family Coscinoporid^. 
Leptopliragma, Zitt. 
Pleurostoma, Romi. 
Guettardia, Mich. 
Coscinopora, Gold/. 

Family Mellitionid^. 
Aphrocallistes, Gray. 

Family Ventricdlitid^. 
Pachyteichisma, Zitt. 
Trocliobolus, Zitt. 
Plilyctserxium, Zitt. 
Ventriculites^ Mantell. 
Schizorhabdus, Zitt. 
Rhizopoterion, Zitt. 
Sporadoscinia, Pom. 



Sestrocladia, Hinde. 
Polyblastidium, Zitt. 
Ceplialites, Toulmin Smith. 

Family Staurodermid.i:. 

Cypellia, Pom. 
Staurodermaj Zitt. 
Purisiphonia, Bowb. 
Porocypellia, Pom. 
Casearia, Quenst. 
Porospongia, D'Orbigny. 
Oplirystoma, Zitt. 
Cinclidermaj Hinde. 
Protospongia^ Salter. 
Dictyophyton, Hall. 
Eubrochus, Sottas. 

Family Meandrospongid,b. 

Plocoscyphia, Reuss. 
Tremabolites, Zitt. 
Etheridgia, Tate. 
Toulminia, Zitt. 
Camerospongia, D'Orbigny. 
Cystispongia, Rcemer. 

Family Callodictyonid^. 

Callodictyon, Zitt. 
Poroclionia, Hinde. 
Becksia, Schliiter. 
Diplodictyon, Zitt. 
Sclerokalia, Hinde. 

Family CffiLOPxycHiD^. 
Cceloptyehium, Gold/. 

Suborder Lyssakina, Zitt. 

Family Monakid^, Marshall. 
Astrseospongiaj Rcemer. 
Stauractinella, Zitt. 

Family PoLLAKiDiEj Marshall. 
Hyalostelia, Zitt. 
Holasterella, Cart. 

iNCERTiE SEDIS. 

Amphispongiaj Salter. 



INTEODUCTION. 



17 



Division II. CALCAREOUS SPONGES. 



Order Calcispongi^, Blainv. 

Family Phaeetrones, Zitt. 

Eudea, Lamx. 
Colospongia, Laube. 
Verticillites, Defrance. 
Celyphia, Pomel. 
Himatella, Zitt. 
Peronella, Zitt. 
Elasmoccelia, Rwm. 
Conocoelia, Zitt. 
Eusiphonella, Zitt. 
Corynella, Zitt. 



Myrmeciiun, Goldf. 
Lymnorea, Lamx. 
Stellispongia, D' Orbig. 
Sestrostomella, Zitt. 
Blastinia, Zitt. 
Synopella, Zitt. 
Oculospongia, From. 
Crispispongia, Querist. 
Elasmostoma, From. 
Pharetrospongia, Sollas. 

Family SyconeS; Haeckel. 
Protosycon, Zitt. 



D 



18 



Class SPONGIiE. 
Division I. SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Order MO N ACT INELLID^, Zittel. 

Genus CLIMACOSPONGIA, Hinde, gen. nov. 

Sponges subglobate, sessile, composed of elongate acerate spicules, which radiate 
upwards from the base to the circumference, and are arranged so as form a closely 
disposed series of radiating canals, which open at the surface. There are also acerate 
spicules disposed horizontally so as to cross the vertical spicules at right angles, thus 
forming an open tissue with rectangular interspaces. 

The only fossil sponge with which this genus can be compared is the Pulvillus 
Thomsonii, Carter (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. i. p. 137, t. x. f. 1-6), which 
is also composed of long acerate spicules ; but these do not appear to have the same 
arrangement, or to be crossed horizontally by other spicules, as in the present genus. 
The figure given by Carter of the vertical section of Pulvillus differs altogether from 
the vertical section of Climacospongia, 

CLIMACOSPONGIA RADiATA, Hhide, sp. nov. (Plate I. figs. 1, \a.) 
The only examples of this sponge in the Museum are portions of two individuals 
which have been fractured in a vertical direction. The sponges are from 30 to 
40 millim. in diameter. They are preserved in a silicified matrix ; the exterior is 
rough and weathered, so as to show the canal-apertures only in a few places. In 
the vertical section the radiating spicules are in part siliceous, in part replaced by a 
reddish earthy material, probably iron peroxide ; the transverse spicules are mostly 
replaced by the peroxide, or shown by the impressions in the matrix. The canals 
are either subangular or circular in section, and 0'75 to I'o mm. in width. They 
are formed and bounded by long acerate spicules, disposed vertically, sometimes in 
a single series ; sometimes two or three spicules are side by side. The ends of the 
spicules overlap each other, but they do not appear in any way to be attached 
together. The vertical spicules are straight, or occasionally slightly incurved, and 
nearly cylindrical. Near the extremities they taper very gradually. Their surfaces 
appear to be smooth. The longest measured is 3-5 mm. The spicules of the 
transverse series are not clearly shown in a vertical section ; they appear to be of the 
same character as the vertical spicules, and they cross these latter nearly at right 



CLIMACOSPONGIA. — RBNIEEA. 19 

angles ; but their arrangement seems to be irregular, as in some places they are 
nearly in juxtaposition, whilst in others they are 1 mm. apart. 

The appearance of a vertical section of one of these sponges might, at first sight, 
be easily mistaken for that of a tabulate coral, the vertical spicules representing the 
walls of the coral, and the transverse spicules the tabulae. The preservation of the 
form of this sponge is very remarkable, as there is no indication that the spicules 
were held together otherwise than by the sarcode. It is possible, however, that 
other and smaller spicules may have been present; for the large acerates do not 
completely fill the apertures in the silicified matrix, and some of the reddish material 
present may be derived from the solution and replacement of smaller spicules. 

Distribution. Silurian : Perry County, Tennessee. Judging from the mineral con- 
dition of the specimens, they seem to have been derived from the same strata of the 
Niagara series which have yielded numerous specimens of Hexactinellid sponges 
belonging to the genera Asttjlospongia, Astrceospongia, and Palceomanon ; and it is 
interesting to discover a true Monactinellid sponge in the same low geological 
horizon with these forms. 

Genus LASIOCLADIA, Hinde, gen. nov. 
Lasiocladia compeessa, Hinde, sp. nov. (Plate I. fig. 2.) 

The single example of this sponge is of an elongate compressed form, 36 mm. 
in length by 12 mm. in width, and appears to have formed part of a branching 
sponge. This fragment is composed of stout, straight, acerate, fusiform spicules, 
pointed at both ends, which are loosely arranged together in a generally upward 
and outward direction. Here and there sheaves of spicules project very prominently 
outwards. The spicules appear to be generally equal in size ; the longest measured 
is 5 mm. by "25 in width. 

The specimen is preserved on the surface of a fragment of olive-green shale. A 
few spicules only now remain ; and these are in the condition of crystalline calcite. 
The larger portion of the specimen merely shows the empty well defined moulds of 
the spicules in the shale, which, in the space occupied by the sponge, is of the rusty 
tint usually present where siliceous spicules have been dissolved. 

Distribution. Lower Devonian : Jemelle, Belgium. 

Genus RENIERA, 0. Schmidt, 1862. 
Reniera? Caeteri, Hinde. (Plate I. fig. 8.) 

1879. Spicule "^ of a Renierid Sponge, Carter, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. iii. p. 144^ 
t. 21. f. 11. 

Spicules smooth, cylindrical, with rounded obtuse ends ; for the most part with a 
straight central portion, and with both ends sharply incurved, but occasionally gently 
curved throughout. Average length 1 mm., width -146 mm. 

D 2 



20 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

These spicules retain their siliceous condition ; some are crypto-crystalline, others 
are distinctly crystalline. In these latter the central canal is occasionally preserved. 
They now occur detached. Mr. Carter regards them as probably allied to existing 
large-spiculed Renierida ; they are very much larger than any existing forms. For 
the sake of reference I have placed them provisionally under the genus Eeniera, and 
associated them with the name of Dr. H. J. Carter, who first described and figured 
them. 

Distribution. Carboniferous Limestone : Dairy, Ayrshire. 

Genus DIRHHOPALUM, Eidlei/, 1881. 
DiRKHOPALUM PLANUM, Hinde, sp. 
1880. Reniera, sp., Hinde, Foss. Sponge-spicules, p. 21, t. I. f. 18, 19. 

Detached spicules of a conical form, widest at the summits, which are rounded, 
and gradually tapering to a pointed or blunted extremity. The interior exhibits a 
relatively large canal of a conical form. The surface appears to have been smooth. 
In length these spicules vary between 0-495 and 0-832 mm., and the width at the 
summit from O'lSS to 0-225 mm. Abundant in the interior of flints. 

I had referred these spicules to a species of Reniera ; but Mr. Ridley * has suggested 
their resemblance to the peg-top spicules of Dirrhopalum (Plocamia) clojpetariwu, 
O. Schmidt f; and though the fossil spicules are much larger than those of the 
existing species, the similarity of form may indicate a relationship, and I therefore 
place them in this genus until more is known of their afiinities. Spicules of a 
similar form, but with tuberculated or spinous surfaces, are also present in the 
Chalk, and it is at present uncertain whether they belong to the same sponge as the 
smooth forms. Prof. Sollas has given to the spinous forms the name of BJwpalo- 
conns tulercidatiisX. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Horstead, North of Ireland ; Coesfeld, Westphalia. 

Genus ACANTHORAPHIS, Binde, gen. nov. 
AcANTHOEAPHis INTBRTEXTDS, Hinde, sp. nov. (Plate I. figs. 3, 3«.) 
Sponge apparently of an ovoid shape ; the single example is 25 mm. in length 
by 16 mm. in width. The only structure preserved is a thin delicate surface- 
tissue with subangular apertures, about 0-75 mm. wide, and porous interspaces 
between them. This tissue is foraied by a layer of straight spicules, superposed over 
each other in an irregular manner, but not apparently in any way attached to each 
other. The spicules are fusiform, gradually tapering from the centre to each end ; 
their surfaces are covered with minute blunted spines. They vary somewhat in 

* Joum. Linn. Soc. vol. xv. p. 487. t Spong. Atlan. Gebiet. p. 63, t. 4. f. 18. 

J Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. vi. p. 392. 



ACAJ^THOEAPHIS.— CLTONA. 21 

dimensions ; a fairly large spicule measures 2-25 mm. in length by 0"975 mm. in 
width. The spicules are now composed of iron peroxide. 

I am unable to determine whether this delicate film of large spinous spicules con- 
stituted the entire skeleton of the sponge, or whether it formed merely the exterior 
layer of a sponge whose interior skeleton has disappeared. Sufficient remains to 
show that the form is entirely distinct from any hitherto known. The only specimen 
is imbedded in soft chalk ; it formed part of the Bowerbank collection. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Shortlands, Kent. 

Genus SPONGILLA, Lam., 1816. 

Spongilla purbeckensis, Young. (Plate I. fig. 9.) 
1878. Sjjongilla purbeckensis, Young, Geological Magazine, n. s. vol. v. p. 220, figs, a, b. 

The spicules of this sponge occur in great numbers in nodules or masses of chert ; 
they are slightly curved acerates, fusiform, thickest in the centre, and gradually 
diminishing to the extremities. According to Mr. Young the spicules are minutely 
tuberculated ; but this feature is not shown in those which have come under my 
notice. They vary from 0-015 to 0-0255 mm. in width; the longest measured is 
0*45 mm. 

Some fragments of chert are principally composed of these spicules, which are 
mingled together without any apparent arrangement. The specimen in the Museum 
was presented by Mr. Young. 

Distribution. In freshwater limestones of the Purbeck series : Stare Cove, Dorset. 

Genus CLIONA, Grmit, 1826. 

Cliona ceetacea, Portlock, sp. 

IS^S. Entobia cretacea, Portlock, Geological Report, p. 360. 

1808. Parkinson, Organic Remains, t. 8. f. 10. 

1851. Clionites Conybeari, Morris, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. viii. p. 89, t. 4. f. 8, 9, 10. 

The examples of this species now occur as solid, spheroidal, ovate, or depressed 
elongate siliceous bodies from 1*8 to 5-5 mm. in diameter, which are connected 
together by numerous stolons into small groups. These bodies are usually found in 
flints, partially filling the cavities formerly occupied by Belemnites, the tests of 
Echinoderms, and the shells of Inoceramus. The original cavities hollowed out by 
the boring sponge in these organic bodies have first been filled with silica, so as to 
form solid moulds of that material ; and at a later stage the calcareous material of 
the shells and tests has been dissolved away, leaving the siliceous infiUings intact. 
These vary considerably in size, and also in their distance from each other ; but some 
of the variations are probably owing ta the thickness and character of the shells and 



22 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

tests in which they have been excavated. In no instance have the spicules of the 
boring sponge been met with. The examples are numerous. The originals of the 
figures in the 'Annals,' vol. viii. t. 4. f. 9, 10, are in the Museum collection. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Norwich, Ventnor, Kent, Surrey. Drift of the Haldon 
Hills. Miocene : Madeira. 

Cliona glomeeata, Morris, sp. 

1851. Clionites glomerata, Morris^ Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. viii. p. 89, t. 4. f. 11. 
This species consists of a single subglobular chamber, about 8"75 mm. in 

diameter, which has been excavated in the guard of a Belemnite. This chamber is 
connected with the exterior by two canals, about 2 mm. in width each, as well as 
by numerous minute thread-like stolons. The original and only specimen is in the 
Museum collection. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Norwich. 

Cliona'? Mantelli, Wetherell, sp. 

1852. Clionites Mantelli,'Wet\xer€\l, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. x. p. 354, t. 5 c. f. 1, 2. 

This species is founded on small ovoid cavities in the shell of Inoceramus. The 
cavities have been infilled with silica ; and by the dissolution of the shell they now 
remain as solid bodies, of an ovoid form, 1'25 mm. in length and 1 mm. in 
depth, disposed either irregularly or in concentric rows following the lines of growth 
of the shell. There is no indication of any constriction at the aperture of the 
cavities. The chambers are quite unconnected with each other ; the threads of flint 
which Mr. Wetherell supposed to have been connecting stolons, are in reality nothing 
more than fibres of silica which have infilled cracks in the shell of the Inoceramus. 
The form of the cavities and their isolation from each other make it very doubtful 
whether they have been formed by a boring sponge. The original specimens are in 
the Museum. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : near Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. Drift : Haldon, near 
Exeter. 

Cliona, sp. 

Perforations by boring sponges in the shells of Cretaceous and Tertiary Mollusca ; 
but in the absence of spicules the excavated chambers are not sufficiently characteristic 
to determine the species. 

Distribution. Cretaceous : Pontotoc, Mississippi. Eocene, London Clay : Barton. 
Miocene : Shurm, Sinaitic Peninsula ; Las Palmas, Canary Islands ; Porto Praya, 
Madeira. Red Crag: Walton-on-the-Naze. 



OPHIEAPHIDITES. 23 

Genus TALPINA, Von Hagenow, 1840. 
The simple tubular borings on which Von Hagenow has constituted this genus 
differ so much from all those which we know to be produced by boring sponges, that 
they can hardly be regarded as the work of sponges. The examples of T. solitaria 
and T. ramosa. Von Hagenow, figured by Prof. Morris in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
1851, vol. viii. t. 4. f. 4, 6 «, are in the Museum. 

Order TETRACTINELLID^, Marshall. 
Genus OPHIEAPHIDITES, Carter, 1876. 

Ophiraphidites anastomans, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate I. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Sponges growing in irregularly shaped masses, composed of loosely disposed tissues 
which anastomose together. The tissues are from 2 to 4 mm. in width ; they are 
composed of irregularly curved acerate spicules which are, as it were, loosely felted 
together. Mingled with the curved spicules there are also a few straight forms ; 
but I have been unable to detect any trifid spicules in the general mass. An average 
large spicule is 2 mm. in length by -09 mm. in width ; spicules of much smaller 
dimensions are mingled with the larger. 

There are two examples which 1 refer to this species. One, preserved in soft 
chalk (Plate I. fig. 4), shows, in what is apparently a vertical section, the disposition 
of the tissues and interspaces of the sponge : the spicules in this example are now 
replaced by iron-rust ; but their forms can be pretty clearly ascertained. The other 
example is preserved in the interior of a chalk flint, and exhibits a flattened, uneven 
mass of spicules of the same forms as those of the chalk specimen. From this mass 
the forms figured (fig. 4 a) have been selected. 

This species differs from the Ophiraphidites cretaceiis, Zittel*, in the open locular 
character of the sponge. The spicules also are generally smaller; and no trifid 
spicules have been detected. Detached spicules of a similar form to those of this 
species are very common in the interior of flints from the Upper Chalk of this 
country, and in strata of the same age in Westphalia and Hanover; they also occur 
in the Eocene of Brussels; but it is extremely rare to find them still associated 
together retaining their original positions in the sponge. 

It seems somewhat anomalous to include this species in the Tetractinellidse when 
no four-rayed spicules have been detected in it ; and I can only justify placing it here 
from the close resemblance of its curved acerates to those of 0. crefaceus, Zitt., in 
which trifid spicules are also present, though rarely ; and it seems to me not impro- 
bable that with more perfect examples they would be found in this form as well. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England. 

* Studien, III Ab. p. 8, t. xi. f. 2 a, b, c, d. 



24 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Genus TETHYOPSIS, Zittel, 1878. 

Tetetopsis cretaceus, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate I. figs. 5, 6 a.) 

Sponge either compressed or growing in small upright masses of irregular outline, 
with interpenetrating canals and passages. The sponge-tissues are composed of 
straight, smooth, acerate spicules, pointed at both ends, and from 2 to 3 mm. in 
length. Mingled with the acerates are a few simple trifid spicules, with short 
slightly recurved head-rays. The spicules are disposed generally parallel with each 
other in close juxtaposition. The surface-characters of the sponge are not preserved. 

One example of this species is preserved in the interior of a flint, and displays very 
clearly the form and arrangement of the spicules. Another specimen is a flattened 
mass 110 mm. in length, 80 mm. in width, and 16 mm. in thickness, which has 
been partially dissolved out of the Flamboro' Chalk. This mass appears to be 
entirely composed of spicules, which, however, are so altered by fossilization as to be 
scarcely distinguishable. 

From Tethyopsis Steinmamii, Zitt.*, the only other species of the genus, this form 
differs in the smaller dimensions of the acerate spicules, and the shorter head-rays of 
trifid forms. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamboro', Yorkshire ; South of England. 

Genus STELLETTA, 0. Schmidt, 1866. 

Stelletta inclusa, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate I. figs. 6, 6 a.) 
The only example of this species is preserved in the interior of a chalk flint, and 
appears to have been originally hemispherical in form. The section shown is 
61 mm. in length by 21 mm. in height. The sponge is composed of spicules in 
close juxtaposition, parallel vnth each other, and disposed with an outward radial 
direction. 

There are three kinds of spicules present: — 1st. Straight, elongated acerates, 
nearly cylindrical throughout : these do not appear to be very numerous. 2nd. 
Robust trifid spicules with a straight shaft, which gradually tapers from the head to 
the pointed extremity ; the summit is somewhat flattened, the head-rays are short, 
simple, somewhat sharply recurved, and with pointed ends. These spicules vary 
between 2 and 4 mm. in length ; an average specimen (2-475 mm. long) has the 
shaft 0-15 mm. wide, and measures across the head-rays 0-412 mm. The main 
portion of the sponge is composed of these trifid spicules, which are disposed in a 
radial direction with the heads towards the exterior. 3rd. Anchor-shaped trifid 
spicules, with a conical bullet-shaped head, and an elongated cylindrical or very 
gradually tapering shaft. I have not obtained one of these spicules with an entire 

* Studien, III Ab. p. 9, t. xi. f. 3. 



STELLETTA. — THENEA. 25 

shaft, so that I do not know their length. These anchor-shaped spicules appear to 
be rare in proportion to the other trifids. The surface of the sponge has not been 
preserved, so that it is doubtful whether it was furnished with disks or stellates. 

The only specimen is from Sir P. Egerton's collection. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : England. 

Genus GEODIA, Lam. 1816. 

Geodia'? clavata, Ilinde. 
Geodia? clavata, Hinde, Foss. Sponge Sp. p. 29j t. 2. f. 1-5. 
Relatively large, straight, trifid spicules, with short rounded knob-shaped head- 
rays, either simple or compressed. The shaft constricted at the neck, and imme- 
diately below slightly bulbous. Length varying from 7 to nearly 9 mm. ; greatest 
width of shaft 0*585 mm. These spicules have only been found detached in the 
interior of flints. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Horstead, Norfolk. 

Geodia] coeonata, Hinde. 
Geodia coronata, Hinde, Foss. Sp. Sp. p. 31, t. 2. f. 6-8. 

Trifid spicules with small upright head-rays ; the shaft is swollen at the summit, 
and gradually tapers to the extremity. Average length 4 mm.; width of shaft 
0-45 mm. These spicules have only been met with detached in the interior 
of flints. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Horstead, Norfolk ; Kent. 

GeodiaI Wrightii, Hinde. 
1880. Geodia'^ Wrightii, Hinde, Foss. Sp. Sp. p. 31, t. 2. f. 12. 
Trifid spicules with blunted head-rays projecting forwards from the head of the 
shaft. Rays and shaft with ring-shaped expansions. Average length 2 mm. ; width 
0"45 mm. At present they have only been found detached in the interior of flints. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Haslemere, Surrey. Upper Chalk : Horstead, 
Norfolk; South of England ; near Belfast (Jfr/<jf/i^); Coesfeld, Westphalia. 

Genus THENEA, Gray, 1867. 

Thenea, sp. 
1880. Tisiphonia ? sp., Hinde, Foss. Sp. Sp. p. 43, t. 3. f. 16-23. 
Trifid spicules with widely expanded, usually compound or bifurcate head-rays, 
which are extended nearly at right angles to the shaft. The shaft varies greatly in 
length in different specimens ; in some instances it is reduced to a mere rounded 



26 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

central prominence. These spicules have only been found detached ; it is probable 
that they were zone-spicules of one or moi'e species of sponge allied to Thenea. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk: Horstead, Norfolk ; Kent. 

Genus PACHASTRELLA, 0. Schmidt, 1868. 

Pachastrella prim^va, Zittel. 
1878. Pachastrella primava, Zittel, Studieu, III Ab. p. 9, t. xi. f. 4a, b. 
Microscopic slides with detached spicules of this species. Prof. Zittel's collection. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Ahlten ; Hanover. 

Pachastrella convoluta, Hinde, n.sp. (Plate II. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

Sponge growing in plate-like expansions of various forms and dimensions. It is 
either fan- or ear-shaped, with rounded incurved margins, or folded so that the lateral 
margins unite to become vasiform, or the walls are irregularly convolute. Some 
examples are attached to the surface of other sponges ; in others there is no indication 
of any process by which they were fixed, and these forms may have been free. A 
large specimen is 110 mm. in length by 100 mm. in width. The walls vary from 
7 to 12 mm. in thickness. The surface of the sponge is rough, and frequently 
uneven. The walls are in places penetrated by tubular apertures ; but these are 
very irregular in size and direction, and appear to be owing rather to extraneous 
causes than to be of the nature of canals belonging to the sponge. 

The walls are entirely composed of quadrifid sjiicules of various dimensions, loosely 
mingled together, apparently without definite arrangement, and only held in position 
by the interlacing of their rays with each other. The spicules of the interior of the 
walls are only faintly recognizable ; but those of the outer and inner surfaces are 
better preserved, though even these are considerably altered by fossilization. The 
rays of the spicules are robust, and apparently obtusely pointed. The length of an 
arm of what appears to be an average spicule is 0'75 mm. 

This species may be distinguished from Pachastrella primceva, Zitt., by its mode of 
growth, and also by the dimensions of the spicules, which, so far as I can ascertain, 
do not reach the size of the larger forms in Zittel's species. In the general form 
of the spicules, however, and in their disposition this species corresponds with 
P. primceva, and with the existing forms of the genus, P. abyssi, O. Schmidt, and 
P. intertexta, Carter*. Detached spicules, apparently resembling those composing 
this species in form and size, occur in hollow flints at Horstead ; but all the examples 
in which the form of the sponge is retained are from Flamborough, and appear to be 
not uncommon in the chalk of that locality. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough, Yorkshire. 

* Ann . & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xviii. p. 409, t. xv. f. 41. 



PACHASTEELLA. 27 

Pachastrella plana, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate I. figs. 7, la.) 

The only example of this species is contained in the interior of a flint, and is a 
fragment of the wall of a sponge which appears to have been palmate in form. The 
wall itself is about 3 mm. in thickness, the margins are attenuated. It is composed 
of spicules loosely disposed over each other without being attached together. The 
spicules appear for the most part to be only three-rayed ; occasionally, however, a 
fourth ray is represented by a very short process. The rays of the spicules are 
straight or slightly arched, nearly in a horizontal plane, and they spring from the 
centre at nearly equal angles. Two of the three horizontal arms are not infrequently 
longer than the third. The arms or rays are nearly cylindrical, their ends apparently 
rounded. The arms vary from 0'6 mm. to nearly 1 mm. in length. The spicules are 
arranged parallel to the surface of the sponge-wall, so that there are small inter- 
spaces between the rays. 

The form and arrangement of the spicules readily distinguish this from the other 
described species of Pachastrella. Similar spicules to those composing the walls 
of this species are present detached in the Horstead flint. Foss. Sp. Sp. p. 48, 
t. iii. f. 27. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Upware, Cambridgeshire. 

Fragments of Flint, Chert, and other Rocks composed of Sj)onge-spicules. 

(Plate I. figs. 10, 11, 12.) 

Flint or chert from the Portland Oolite of Upware near Weymouth, containing 
trifid spicules. Fig. 10 is a magnified representation of a thin microscopic section. 

Thin bands of rock from 25 to 75 mm. each in thickness, from the Lower Green 
Sand near Hasleraere in Surrey, are nearly entirely composed of sponge-spicules, 
which form a compact mass now cemented together in a siliceous matrix. When 
exposed to the weather the spicules stand out distinctly from the matrix. The 
spicules are mostly acerates and trifids ; a few forms of Lithistid spicules are also 
present. Fig. 11 is a magnified representation of a minute portion of the weathered 
surface of one of these sponge-beds. Nodules of rock from the Lower Green Sand 
of Folkestone and from Badbury Hill near Farringdon are similarly made up of 
spicules. 

Bands of chert in the Upper Green Sands near Ventnor, Isle of Wight, are filled 
with spicules, which, like those from the Lower Green Sand, are principally acerates 
and trifids. Fig. 12 is a representation of a thin microscopic section of this chert. 
Beds and layers of spicules also occur in strata of this age at Blackdown, and in the 
Haldon Hills near Exeter. 

Flints from the Upper Chalk sometimes exhibit spicules imbedded in the siliceous 
mass ; but more frequently the spicules occur infilling cavities in the interior of the 

E 2 



28 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

flint nodules. A great variety of forms of trifid and acerate spicules are found 
commingled together. Rarely, too, in the clialk itself similar spicules are found 
grouped together; but in this case the spicules are replaced by iron peroxide. 
Specimens from Norfolk and the south of England. 

The spicules which thus occur in enormous numbers in the Oolite, the Lower and 
Upper Green Sand, and the Upper Chalk are principally of Tetractinellid sponges, 
and resemble those of the existing genera Geodia, Tethya, Stelletta, &c.; but their 
forms are not sufficiently characteristic to allow a generic or specific determination 
to be made from them. 

Order L I T H I S T I D .E, a Schmidt. 

Family RHIZ02I0RINA, Zittel. 

Genus CNEMIDIASTRUM, Zittel, 1878. 

CPfEMIDIASTRUM STELLATUM, GoMf. Sp. 

1833. Cnemidhm steUatum, Goldfuss, Petref. Th. 1, p. 15, t. 6. f. 2. 
1833. Cnemidium gramdomm, Miinst., Goldf. Petref. p. 97, t. 35. f. 7. 

1878. Cnemispongia Goldfussi, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 259, t. 126. f. 73^ 74, and t. 127. 
f. 1-16. 

1878. Cnemidiastrum steUatum, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 46, t. 3. f. 1, 2. 

1879. Cnemidiastrum steUatum, Zitt. Handbuch der Paloeont. Bd. 1, p. 150, f. 66. 

Bistrihution. Upper Jura : Randen, Heuberg ; Wiirtemberg. 

Cnemidiastrum striato-punctatdm, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Cnemidium striato-punctatum, Goldf. Petref. Th. 1, p. 15, t. 6. f. 3. 

1878. Cnemispongia Goldfussi, Queust. p. p. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 268, t. 127. f. 19-22. 

1878. Cnemidiastrum striato-punctatum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 46. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Heuberg ; Wiirtemberg. 

Cnemidiastrum coR.iLLiNUM, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Cnemidium corallinum, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 694, t. 84. f. 1. 

1878. Cnemidium corallinum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 267, t. 127. f. 16-18. 

1878. Cnemidiastrum corallinum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 46. 

Distribtction. Upper Jura : Randen. 

Cnemidiastrum Hoheneggeri, Zitt. 

1878. Cnemidiastrum Holienegyeri, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 46, t. 2. f. 8. 
Microscopic slides with the spicules of this species, from Zittel's collection. 
Distribution. Upper Jura : Wodna, Cracow. 



CNEMTDIASTEUM.— HYALOTEAaOS. 29 

Cnemidiastrum eimulosum, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Cnemidium rimulosum, Goldf. Petref. Th. 1, p. 15, t. 6. f. 4. 

1878. Cnemidium rimulosum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 271, t. 128. f. 1-5. 

1878. Tragos graiiulosum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 285, t. 129. f. 4, 5. 

1878. Cnemidiastrum rimulosum,, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 46, t. 3. f. 3. 

Distrihution. Upper Jura : Eanden ; Wiirtemberg. 

Cnemidiastrum pluristellatum, Zitt. 

1878. Cnemidiastrum pluristellatum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 46. 

1833. Cnemidium stellatum, Goldf. Petref. Th. 1, p. 15, t. 30. f. 3. 

1858. Cnemidium stellatum, Quenst. (non Goldf.) Jura, p. 676. 

1878. Cnemidium stellatum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 272, t. 128. f 6, 7. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Heuberg ; Wiirtemberg. 
Genus CORALLIDIUM, Zittel, 1878. 

COEALLIDIUM DICERATINUM, Queust. sp. 

1852. Cnemidium diceratinum, Queust. Haudb. t. 61. f. 20. 

1878. Cnemidium diceratinum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 275, t. 128. f 10-12. 

1878. Corallidium diceratinum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 46. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Kelheim, Bavaria [ZitteVs coll.). 

Genus HYALOTEAGOS, Zittel, 1878. 

Hyalotragos patella, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Tragos patella, Goldf. Petref. Th. 1, pp. 14, 96, t. 5. f. 10, and t. 35. f. 2. 

1878. Tragos patella, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 283, t. 128. f. 26-28, and t. 129. f. 1-3. 

1878. Hyalotragos patella, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 47, t. 3. f. 4, 5. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Hossingen, Heuberg ; Wiirtemberg. 

Hyalotragos radiatum, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Tragos radiatum, Goldf. Petref. Th. 1, p. 96, t. 35. f. 2. 

1878. Tragos radiatum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 281, t. 128. f. 24, 25. 

1878. Hyalotragos radiatum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 48. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Bohringen. 

Hyalotragos reticulatum, MUnst. sp. 

1833. Tragos reticulatum, Miinst., Goldf. Petref. Th. 1, p. 96, t. 35. f. 5. . 
1878. Tragos reticulatum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 289, t. 129. f. 10-15. 
1878. Hyalotragos reticulatum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 48. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Heuberg ; Wiirtemberg. 



30 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Htaloteagos eugosum, Miinsf. sp. 

1833. Tragos rugosum, Munst. Petref. Th. 1, p. 96, t. 35. f. 4. 
1878. Hyalotragos rugosum, Zittel, Stud. II Ab. p. 48. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Streilberg. 

Hyalotragos pezizoides, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Tragos pezizoides, Goldf. Petref. Th. 1, p. 13, t. 5. f. 8. 

1878. Tragos fistulosum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 278, t. 128. f. 15-23. 

1878. Hyalotragos pezizoides, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 48. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Heuberg ; Wiirtemberg. 

Genus PYRGOCHONIA, Zitt. 1878. 

Pyrgochonia acetabulum, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Tragos acetabulum, Goldf. Petref. Th. 1, p. 13, t. 5. f. 9. 

1833. Tragos verrucosum, Miinst., Goldf. Petref. Th. 1, p. 96, t. 35. f. 6. 

1878. Tragos acetabulum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 288, t. 129. f. 7, 8, 18. 

1878. Tragos infranudatum, Quenst. ib. ib. p. 287, t. 129. f. 6. 

1878. Pyrgochonia acetabulum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 48. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Heuberg. 

Genus LEIODORELLA, Zitt. 1878. 

Leiodorella expansa, Zitt. 
1878. Leiodorella expansa, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 49, t. 2. f 5, and t. 3. f. 11. 
Distribution. Upper Jura: Wodua, Cr&cow (ZitteFs coll.). 

Genus PLATYCHONIA, Zitt. 1878. 

Platychojvia aueiformis, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Spongites auriformis, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 319, t. 131. f. I. 
1878. Platychonia auriformis, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 50, t. 3. f. 9. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Streitberg, Nattheim. 

Platychonia vagans, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Spongites vagans, Quenst. Jura, t. 82. f. 8. 

1878. Platychonia vagans, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 50, t. 3. f. 8. 

Microscopic slides with spicules of this species {Zittel's coll.). 
Distribution. Upper Jura: Streitberg. 



PLATTCHONIA.— SELISCOTHON. 31 

Platychonia, sp. 
Distribution. Upper Jura: Wurgau, Franconia (Zittel's coll.). 

Genus BOLIDIUM, ZiU. 1878. 

BoLiDiUM PALMATUM, Roemer, sp. 
1864. Amorphospongia palmata, Roemerj Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 55, t. 19. f. 8. 

Microscopic slide with spicules of the species. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Sudmerberg ; Goslar. 

Genus CHONELLA, Zitt. 1878. 

Chonella tenuis, Eoemer, sp. 

1864. Cupulospongia tenuis, Roemer, Palffiont. Bd. 13, p. 51, t. 17. f. 7. 
1878. Chonella tenuis, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 52, t. 3. f. 6, 7. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Sudmerberg, Biewende ; Brunswick. 

Chonella auriforms, Roemer, sp. 

1840. Achilleum. auriformis, F. A. Roemer, Nordd. Kreide. p. 2, t. 1. f. 3. 
1878. Chonella auriformis, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 52. 

Distribution. Neocomian : Berklingen, Brunswick. 

Genus SELISCOTHON, Zitt. 1878. 

Seliscothon planus, Phillips, sp. (Plate II. figs. 2-4.) 

1835. Spongia plana, PhilL Geol. of Yorkshire, p. 177, t. 1. f. 1. 

1835. Spongia capitata, Pbill. ib. p. 177, t. 1. f. 2. 

1878. Seliscothon planus et capitatus, Zitt. Stud. II Ab, p. 54. 

Sponge similar in form to an expanded mushroom. The body or upper portion is 
plate-like, circular in outline, usually with a slight central depression immediately 
above the stem. The upper surface sometimes shelves gradually from the margin to 
the centre ; more frequently, however, it is nearly flat or even slightly convex. The 
margins are usually oblique, and form nearly a right angle with the under surface. 
The lower surface is flat or slightly concave. The stem is inversely conical in form, 
and gradually tapers to a blunted extremity. There are no indications of its attach- 
ment to a foreign body. It varies in length in different examples ; an average 
specimen measures 55 mm. Small examples of the species are not more than 
27 mm. in width, whilst large forms reach up to 190 mm. The thickness of the 
body-plate varies between 10 and 14 mm. 



32 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

The upper surface of the body is thickly covered as far as the marginal edge with 
circular apertures '75 to 1 mm. in width ; in specimens treated with acid these 
openings appear to be oblique to the plane of the surface. The under surface of the 
body in the best-preserved specimens seems to be composed of a close dermal layer, 
which, however, is usually absent, and then the vertical lamellae are exposed. 

The sponge itself is composed of a series of delicate fibrous lamellae extending 
from the centre to the circumference, having a general resemblance to the septa of 
corals. These lamellae are about 0-4 mm. in thickness and about 1 mm. apart. 
Numerous interstitial fibres connect the radial lamellae, so that the aspect of a 
vertical section of the sponge-wall is that of a labyrinthine fibrous web. In all the 
specimens the spicules forming the fibres have been so fused together that the 
individual forms cannot be detected. 

As no description whatever accompanies the figures of the sponges from the 
Flamborough Chalk given by Phillips in the ' Geology of Yorkshire,' and as the 
figures are very imperfectly drawn, it is often a matter of great difficulty to deter- 
mine the forms which they are supposed to represent. Judging by the represen- 
tation of Spongia capitata, plate 1. fig. 2, it would appear to possess but slight 
relationship with the Sponcjia plana (fig. 1). In reality, however, the only difi'erence 
between the sponges thus designated consists in the outer form; the summit of 
iS'. capitata has not been developed to the same extent as that of »S'. plana. The 
examples in the Museum collection show a series of gradational forms between those 
in which the summit of the sponge is scarcely more expanded than the top of the 
stem, and those with very widely expanded bodies ; and there can be little doubt that 
Phillips's <S'. capitata should be included in the same species as the S. plana. 

This species seems to be the most common of any of the Flamborough sponges, 
but it does not appear to have been recognized from any other locality in the 
English Chalk. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough, Yorkshire. 

Seliscothon explanatds, Rcemer, sp. (Plate II. fig. 5.) 

1864. Chenendopora eaplanata, Rcemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 44, t. 16. f. 3. 
1878. Seliscothon explanatus, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 54, t. 4. f. 2. 

Body of sponge forming a flat plate-like expansion, apparently circular in outline. 
No stem has been preserved. The upper surface has a few concentric, slightly 
marked, rounded ridges. The margins rounded. The only specimen is a portion of 
a sponge, about 180 mm. in width across the summit and 5 mm. in thickness. 

The upper surface is furnished with a dermal membrane in which are numerous 
irregularly disposed circular apertures 0"75 mm. in width, and from two to three 
diameters apart. The under surface appears to be entirely covered with the dermal 
membrane. 



SELTSCOTHON.— CHENENDOPOEA. 33 

The vertical lamellae are 0'3 mm. in width and about 0"5 mm. apart. These 
lamellae are formed of extremely delicate, elongated branching and spinous spicules, 
which are interlocked together. In the Flamborough specimen these spicules are 
undistinguishable ; those figured are from a specimen from Hanover. 

The only example from Flamborough differs from the type of Rcemer in possessing 
rounded margins and a somewhat thinner plate, but resembles it in form, in the size 
of the apertures of the upper surface, and in the furrowed dermal layer. From 
S. planus this species is readily distinguished by its furrowed upper surface, the 
smaller and less closely disposed apertures, and the more delicate character of the 
vertical lamellte. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough, Yorkshire ; Ahlten, Hanover {ZitteVs 
coll.). 

Seliscothon mantelli, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Scyphia mantelli, Goldfuss, Petref. Th. 1, p. 219, t. 65. f. 5. 
1878. Scyphia mantelli, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 375, t. 133. f. 4. 
1878. Seliscothon mantelli, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 54, t. 4. f. 3. 

Microscopic slides with spicules of this species. 
Distribution. Coesfeld, Westphalia. 

Seliscothon testa-flokum, Quenst. sp. 
1878. Scyphia iesta-florum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 377, t. 135. f. 7. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Sudmerberg. 

Seliscothon giganteus, Rcemer, sp. 

1864. Cupulospongia giyantea, Roemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 51, t. 18. f. 1. 
1878. Seliscothon giganteum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 54, t. 4. £. 4. 

Distribution. Craie Chloritee : Vaches Noires, Havre. 

Seliscothon, sp. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Sudmerberg ; Goslar, 

Genus CHENENDOPORA, Lamx., 1821. 
Chenendopoea fungiformis, Lamx. 

1821. Chenendopora fungiformis , Lamx. Expos, method, des genres de I'ordre des polypiers, 

p. 77, t. 75. f. 9, 10. 
1808. Funnel-formed Alcyonite, Parkinson, Org. Rem. vol. ii. t. 11. f. 5. 
1847. Chenendopora fungiformis , MicheUn, Icon. Zooph. p. 130, t. 34. f. 3. 
1861. Bicupula lata, Courtiller, Eponges fossiles, p. 139, t. 37. f. 1. 
1878. Chenendopora fungiformis, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 55, t. 3. f. 13, 14. 

F 



34 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

There are typical examples of this species in the Museum from the Craie of 
Vaches Noires, near Havre, but only a single specimen from the Upper Green Sand 
of Warminster, which I refer with some doubt to this species ; for there are no 
traces of the wi-inkled dermal layer, and the marghis of the cup are rounded, and 
not flattened as in the French examples. The spicular structure, however, appears 
to resemble that of the typical forms ; and I therefore leave it provisionally under 
this species. According to Prof. Zittel the French examples are derived from the 
Upper Chalk, or Senon of D'Orbigny ; but I have not met with any from the same 
horizon in England. 

Distrihution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. Upper Chalk (Senon) : Vaches 
Noires, near Havre. 

Chenendopora michelinii, Hincle, sp. n. (Plate III. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 b.) 

Sponges simple, with vasiform or cup-shaped bodies which gradually taper below 
to an elongated cylindrical or compressed stem, which occasionally bifurcates in its 
lower portion. The walls of the cup or vase are sometimes smooth and even, some- 
times with longitudinal open folds ; the margins are usually thin, rounded, and 
occasionally with a slight inward or outward curve. There is a considerable 
variation in the thickness of the cup-walls in diff'erent specimens ; the vasiform 
examples range from 5 to 6 mm. in thickness, whilst the cup-shaped forms are even 
9 mm. thick. The stem is usually simple, but at its lower portion it either divides 
into root-like extensions or becomes expanded into a hollow disk. In large speci- 
mens the stem measures 260 mm. in length by 46 mm. in thickness; and the width 
of the sponge at the summit varies in different examples between 55 mm. and 
170 mm. 

Both the exterior and interior surfaces of the cup are furnished with numerous 
openings of canals about 0'85 mm. in width, and apparently similar on both surfaces. 
The stems when weathered exhibit longitudinal branched canals. 

The spicules are irregular branching bodies, covered with rounded tubercles, which 
interlock and connect them with each other. They are so intimately interwoven 
together that in a thin microscopic section it is difiicult to distinguish the individual 
forms. Occasionally a sinuous canal can be seen in the axial line of the spicule. 
The spicules are 0"042 mm. in thickness. 

The sponges which I refer to this species are not uncommon in the Upper Green 
Sand of Wiltshire. There is a considerable variety of form and dimensions in the 
difiierent examples ; but 1 cannot discover any characters which would allow them to 
be placed under more than a single species. They seem to have been generally 
referred to the Polypothecia vifundibuhim, Benett ; but in the figure of this species 
three or four cup-shaped sponges are represented as growing closely aggregated 
together, whilst C. michelinii is uniformly simple. In the absence of any description 



CHENENDOPOEA.— VEERUCULINA. 35 

of Miss Benett's species, I am unable to compare it with the present one in other 
characters. 

The sponge figured in the frontispiece of the second volume of Parkinson's 
' Organic Remains ' is in the Museum collection, and appears to belong to this 
species ; but without making a section of it, I cannot satisfactorily determine the 
point. The specimen is stated by Parkinson (/. c. p. 125) to have been found in 
Wiltshire ; but its appearance differs so much from all the other examples from this 
county, that it seems to me to have been brought from some other locality, 
probably France. 

Michelin has figured a sponge under the name of Chenendopora Parkinsonis, Icon. 
Zooph. p. 131, t. 31. f. 1, which in outer form very closely resembles some of the 
examples of C. Michelinii; but it difiers in having numerous canal-apertures on the 
flattened margins of the cup. Zittel has referred this form to the genus Margino- 
spongia, D'Orbigny, and placed it in the Tetracladina family. Its spicular structure, 
however, does not yet appear to have been ascertained. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster ; Vaches Noires ] 

Chenendopora pocillum, Michelin. 

1847. Chenendopora pocillum, Midi. Icon. Zoopli. p. 133, t. 33. f. 5. 
1861. Cupulina pocillum, Court. Epong. Foss. p. 18, t. 29. f. 1. 
1861. Cupulina elata, Court, ib. p. 18, t. 29. f. 2. 
1878. Chenendopora pocillum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 55. 

Distribution. Craie Chloritee \ : France {Bright collection). 



Genus VEREUCULINA, Zitt., 1878. 

Professor Zittel includes in this genus fan, palmate, or funnel-shaped sponges, 
with projecting oscules on the upper or inner surface of the wall, and with small 
pore-like openings on the lower or outer surface. For sponges similar in form, but 
with oscules on both the upper and lower wall-surfaces, Zittel constituted the genus 
Amphifhelion, but at the same time acknowledges that the differences between it 
and Verruculina are hardly more than of subgeneric importance. In practice, 
however, I find that these differences are very difficult of application ; for though in 
typical forms the distinction between the oscules of the upper and the pores of the 
lower surface of the sponge is sufficiently clear, there are many examples in which it 
is difficult to determine whether the canal apertures of the lower surface have the 
characters of pores or oscules. I therefore propose to relinquish the genus Amphi- 
thelion and to include the sponges placed therein in the genus Verruculina. The 
definition of this latter genus will thus have to be extended so as to embrace 

f2 



36 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

sponges which, in addition to the projecting oscules on the upper surface, are 
furnished either with pores or oscules on the lower surface of the wall. 

There are very numerous examples of this genus in the Upper Chalk of Flam- 
borough and in the Middle and Upper Chalk of Germany and Bohemia. They are 
all similar in their mode of growth, but present distinct specific characters in the 
dimensions and disposition of the canal-apertures of the upper and lower surfaces of 
the wall, as well as in the thickness of the wall itself. I have found it a very 
difficult task to identify any of the Flamborough examples with the figures given by 
Phillips of the sponges from this locality ; for though there can be little doubt that 
he has intended to represent one or more species of this genus, the figures given are 
so imperfect in detail that, in the absence of any description, it is impossible to 
recognize the species which they are supposed lo indicate. For example, the 
Sj)on(iia marginata, Phill. Geol. York. pi. i. fig. 5, belongs undoubtedly to the genus 
Verruculina; but later authors, such as Keuss, Eoemer, and Quenstedt, have each 
relegated different forms of sponges to Phillips's name, thus clearly showing the 
insufficiency of his figure to establish the species. A some'vhat similar difficulty 
exists in respect to some of the species of this genus described by F. A. Eoemer from 
the North-German Chalk ; for the descriptions are generally so meagre that they 
would apply to more than one species. 

It is only with reluctance that I have added four new species to the number 
already included in this genus ; but it seemed preferable to do this, than to place the 
examples under specific names which have no definite characters assigned to them. 

Verkuculina seeiatopora, Eoemer, sp. (Plate III. fig. 4.) 

1840. Manon seriatoporum, F. A. Roemer, Nordd. Kreide. p. 3, t. 1. f. 6. 
1878. Verrumdina seriatopora, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 59, t. 4. £. 1. 

There is a fragment of a sponge in the collection which I refer, though not 
without doubt, to the above species. The wall of the specimen is from 8 to 11 mm. 
in thickness ; the upper surface is furnished with projecting oscules, 2 mm. in 
diameter near tlieir bases, partly disposed in linear order. The lower surface appears 
to be composed of closely interwo\eu fibres; but it is not sufficiently free from the 
matrix to show if pores are present or not. The spicules of which the fibres of this 
species are made up are minute irregularly branching bodies with spinous pro- 
jections on their surfaces. 

Bistnbution. Upper Chalk : Sudmerberg ; Ahlten {ZitteVs coll.). 

Vereuculii^a plicata, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate IV. figs. 2, 2 a, b, c, d.) 

Sponges with plate-like walls, usually incurved, and occasionally, by the meeting' 
and union of the lateral margins, becoming open funnel-shaped. In a few specimens 
the walls extend in a horizontal direction, and the sponge is platter-shaped. The 



VEREXJCULINA. 37 

walls are from 6 to 9 mm. in thickness. The margins are somewhat attenuated and 
rounded ; and the oscules extend close to the edge of the wall. The examples are of 
various dimensions, a large specimen measuring 170 mm. in width. 

The upper or inner wall-surface has numerous, irregularly disposed, slightly pro- 
jecting oscules, 0-G5 mm. wide, and about 2 mm. apart ; the interspace between the 
oscules appears to be composed of a compact membrane when perfect ; but usually 
it exhibits closely arranged sinuous apertures. The lower or outer wall-surface is 
roughened occasionally with shallow concentric furrows, and is traversed by thick- 
set minute pores, 0"3 mm. each in width. In many examples the lower surface has 
the appearance of a compact membrane ; but when treated with dilute acid the pores 
become visible. 

Traces of the spicules can be occasionally seen ; but, as a rule, the spicular fibres 
are destroyed, and the interior of the sponge-wall exhibits only a mass of porous 
silica. 

From Verruculina aurita, Ecem. sp., Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 43, t. 16. f. 2, this 
species is distinguished by the more numerous oscules on the upper surface, and the 
very closely set pores on the lower, whilst the margins are not thickened as in 
Roemer's species. It differs from V. seriatoporum, Rcem. sp., in the absence of a 
linear arrangement and the smaller size of the oscules, and also by the pores of the 
under surface. The V. PhiUipsii, Reuss, sp.. Boh. Kr. p. 77, t. 19. f. 7, has much 
stouter walls, and there no pores on the lower surface. It seems probable that 
Reuss has included more than one species under V. Philli])sii ; for his fig. 9 has very 
much thinner walls than fig. 7, and the oscules are not more than half the size. 

V. flicata appears to have been abundant. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough ; Sudmerberg. 

Verruculina astr^a, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate III. figs. 5, 5 a.) 

Sponges fan-, cup-, or ear-shaped, with walls from 4'5 mm. to 6'5 mm. in thickness. 
The margins rounded and of the same thickness as the wall. The specimens vary 
from 40 to 70 mm. in lateral extension, and reach to 70 mm. in height. 

The inner surface of the wall has irregularly disposed projecting oscules, each 
about 0-7 mm. in width. From each of these oscules sinuous canals radiate in all 
directions. These canals extend apparently in a horizontal direction immediately 
beneath the dermal layer. The under and outer surface of the wall has, in some 
specimens, slight concentric ridges and furrows ; it is covered with a dermal layer 
which is pierced by minute pore-like apertures 0"3 mm. in width, which are either 
irregularly scattered on the surface or disposed in reticulating lines. 

This species approaches V. flicata, but is distinguished from it by tlie ladial 
disposition of the canals round the oscules, and the irregular arrangement of the pores 
of the under surface. The walls are also thinner. In the general form and dispo- 



38 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

sition of the oscules this species also resembles V. miUaris, Reuss, but is readily 
distinguished therefrom by the different characters of the under surface. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk: Flamborough. 

Verruculina coxvoluta, Querist, sp. (Plate IV. figs. 1, 1 a, b, c, d.) 

1878. Spongia convohita, Qnenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 368, t. 132. f. 49, 50. 

1835. Spongia convoluta?, Phill. Geol. York. t. 1. f. 6. 

1870. Chenendopora tenuis, j). p., F. Koemer, Geol. Obersclil. p. 301, t. 31. f. 1. 

1878. Amphithelion convoluta, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 60. 

Sponge consisting of a convoluted plate, which by the union of the lateral margins 
frequently becomes open funnel-shaped. The wall is nearly 7 mm. in thickness, the 
margins rounded, and sliglitly thinner than the wall. Large specimens measure 
115 mm. in width at the summit and 100 mm. in height. 

Both the outer and inner surfaces of the sponge-wall are thickly covered witli 
minute apertures, varying from 0-3 to 05 mm. in width. Those of the upper or 
inner surface have very slightly elevated margins, and are somewhat further apart 
than those of the outer surface. These latter appear generally not to possess raised 
margins, though in some cases they are present. The canal-structures of the interior, 
as also the spicular fibre, have been completely obliterated in all the specimens. 

In general form, thickness of the wall,. and the characters of the outer surface 
these sponges resemble the V. convoluta, Quenst. ; but in Quenstedt's examples the 
features of the inner surface had been obliterated, and I can only suppose that they 
were originally similar to these forms. The figure given by Phillips of Spongia 
convoluta, loc. cit. t. 1. f. 6, is altogether insufficient for recognition, and might be 
applicable to two or three species of these Flamborough forms. F. Roemer has 
figured a sponge under the name oi Chenendopora tenuis, loc. cit. t. 31. f. 1, which 
resembles the present form very closely; and if there had been any certainty that 
this figure really represented the original type of his brother's species, that name 
would have had the priority. But judging from the figures and descriptions given 
by F. A. Ecemer himself in the ' Nordd. Kreide ' and in the ' Palseontographica,' there 
is but httle resemblance to the specimen figured by F. Eoemer in the 'Geol. 
Oberschl.' t. 31. f. 1. The identity of Chenendopora tenuis becomes still more 
doubtful from the fact that the second figure given of it by F. Eoemer, Geol. 
Oberschl. t. 31. f. 3, appears to belong to a different species from the fig. 1 of the 
same plate. 

The similarity of the apertures on both surfaces of the wall and their small dimen- 
sions very readily distinguish this from the other species of this genus. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough. 



VEEEUCULIiSrA. 39 

Verruculina pustulosa, tiinde, n. sp. (Plate III. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

1845. Manon miliare, Reuss, p. p., Bohm. Kreide. p. 78, t. 19. f. 13. 

1864. Chenendopora tenuis, F. A. Roemer, p. p., Palseont. Bd. 13, t. 15. f. 4, non Manon 
tenue, F. A. Roem. Nordd. Kreide, 1. 1. f. 7. 

Sponges wide funnel-shaped, formed by a convoluted plate, which generally over- 
laps at the margins. The walls are from 4 to 5 mm. in thickness; the margins are 
rounded and of the same thickness as the walls. An average specimen is 64 mm. in 
width at the summit, and 42 mm. in height. 

The upper or inner surface is covered with small projecting oscules 0"5 mm. in 
width, disposed in horizontal lines about 1 mm. apart. The oscules have thickened, 
slightly projecting margins, and are about their own diameter from each other. The 
under surface has similar but slightly smaller oscules, disposed either irregularly or 
in sinuous lines. 

There are several examples in the collection which have the same distinguishing 
features, and thus appear to belong to a distinct species, characterized by thin 
walls, the regular horizontal disposition of the oscules of the inner surface of the 
walls, and the closely arranged oscules of the outer surface. The examples of 
this species are also, as a rule, smaller than those already described. Eeuss has 
figured [Jog. cit. t. 19. f. 13) a fragment of a specimen of this species, and included 
it in his Manon miliare ; but there is clearly a specific difference between this and 
the other forms (figs. 10, 11) which he has placed under this name. The Chenen- 
dopora tenuis, figured by F. A. Rcemer in the ' Palseontographica ' [l. c. f. 4), has the 
same disposition of the oscules of the inner surface as the present form ; but it is 
different from the figure of the original type of his species in the 'Nordd. Kreide' 
{I. c. f. 7), to which alone the name should be applied. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough. 

Verruculina miliaris, Beuss, sp. (Plate III. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

1846. Manon miliare, Reuss, p. p., Bohm. Kreide. p. 78, t. 19. f. 10-12. 
1878. Amphithelion miliare, Zittel, Stud. II Ab. p. 60. 

Sponges fan-shaped, or, by the coalescence of the incurved margins, becoming 
funnel-shaped. The margins rounded, and of the same thickness as the walls. In 
some examples the margins are extended into finger-like projections. The walls are 
from 5 to 8 mm. in thickness. The largest specimen in the collection is ]00 mm. 
wide at the summit, and 98 mm. in height. 

The upper or inner surface with sparsely scattered oscules 1"2 mm. wide, which 
strongly project, obliquely upwards, from the surface. The apertures of the lower 
surface of the wall are 0'5 mm. in width, with slightly projecting margins; they are 
about their own diameter apart, and not infrequently disposed in sinuous lines. The 
spicular structure and the interior canals are destroyed in all the specimens. 



40 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

The Flamborough examples have the oscules of the upper surface more projecting 
and less numerous than in Reuss's figure 11 «, which I take as the typical form of 
the species ; as, however, the similarity in other respects is very close, I did not 
regard the difference in this feature as of sufficient importance to place them as a new 
species. Reuss states in his description of this species that the openings of the outer 
surface are larger and more projecting than those of the inner surface ; but a glance 
at his figures plainly shows that the surface which he terms " outer" is in reality, in 
the case of the funnel-shaped specimens, the inner surface. From the V. aurita, 
F. A. Roemer *, this form is distinguished by the projecting apertures of the under 
surface. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough. 

Verruculina Reussii, M'Coy, sp. (Plate V. figs. 1, la.) 

1848. Manon Reussii, M'Coy, Anu. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 398. 
1878. Manon circumporosum, Qiienst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 372, t. 132. f. 55. 

Sponge forming large horizontal plate-like expansions, or in the form of a shallow 
dish or cup, growing from a short peduncle. The margins are rounded, either even, 
lobed, or occasionally digitate. The thickness of the wall is from 10 to 12 mm. A 
large example measures 190 mm. in width. 

Both surfaces of the sponge-wall possess a thickened dermal layer. The oscules 
are carried on the summits of small papillae; they are 1-75 mm. in width each, and 
are disposed irregularly on both surfaces, from one to three diameters apart. The 
oscules of the under surface are somewhat less projecting than those of the upper, 
but they are nearly equal as regards size. 

The interior of the wall is composed of a labyrinthine web of very delicate 
anastomosing fibres ; there are no indications of distinct canals. The spicules 
composing the fibre cannot be distinguished. 

The thickness of the walls and the large size of the oscules on both surfaces 
readily characterize this species. No figure accompanied M'Coy's description ; but 
there is no difficulty in recognizing the species from his description. The example 
figured by Quenstedt under the name of Manon circumporosum appears to belong to 
this species. 

The examples are numerous and w^ell preserved. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough. 

Verruculina macrommata, Eoein. sp. 

1864. Verrucospongia macrommata, Rcemer, Palieon. Bd. 13, p. 45, t. 16. f. 4. 
1878. Amphithelion macrommata, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 60, t. 3. f. 15. 

Microscopic slide with detached spicules of this species. 
Distributioi) . Upper Chalk: Ahlten, Hanover. 

* Palffiontographica, Bd. 13, p. 43, t. 16. f. 2. 



VEERUCULINA. — STICHOPHTMA. 41 

Vekkuculina papillata, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate V. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

Sponges either cup- or funnel-shaped, or growing in thick undulating expansions ; 
the margins rounded and frequently digitate. The walls are massive, and vary in 
thickness from 19 to 29 mm. 

The upper surface has numerous, irregularly disposed papillae, some of which 
project 7 mm. above the surface. The oscules at their summits are 2*25 mm. in 
width. These oscules are the apertures of cylindrical canals which are continued in 
an oblique direction to the base of the sponge. The under or lower surface of the 
wall has irregularly disposed apertures 1-5 mm. in width, and from one to three 
diameters apart, which project slightly above the surface. Both surfaces are provided 
with a compact dermal layer. 

The substance of the wall is composed of delicate anastomosing fibres ; the spicules 
of these fibres are obliterated. 

A specimen in the collection measures 140 mm. in width and 110 mm. in height. 

The distinguishing feature of this species is the presence of the oblique canals 
which extend throughout the sponge. These canals resemble those of the next 
genus SticJiophyma ; thus this form exhibits characters intermediate between Verru- 
GuUna and Sticliophyma. The only other species of Verruculina with which it can 
be compared is the V. macrommata, Roemer ; but in this form, so far as can be judged 
from the figures, the oscules are not carried on the summit of papillse, and the inter- 
mediate surface is perforated with small apertures. Nothing is stated respecting the 
interior canal-structure of this species ; so that I cannot say if any resemblance exists 
in this respect. 

This species appears to be rare. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough. 

Genus STICHOPHYMA, PomeJ, 1866. 
Stichophyma tcebinatdm, Roemer, sp. 

1840. Manon turUnatwn, F. A. Roemer, Xordd. Kreide. p. 3, t. 1. f. 5. 
1878. Stichophyma turhmaia, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 61, t. 4. f. 5. 

Listrihution. Upper Chalk: Goslar. 

Stichophyma tumidum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate V. figs. 3, 4.) 

1848. Rhizospongia polymorpha, p. p., Charlesworth, Proe. York. Phil. Soc. p. 73. 

Sponges simple, elongate, club-shaped, or subcylindrical, usually widest near the 

summit, and gradually diminishing towards the basal end. The stem exhibits 

alternate horizontal swellings and contractions; near the upper portion in some 

specimens it becomes nodose ; the summit is either conical, rounded, or subtruncate. 

G 



42 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

There is a great variety in the size, from small specimens measuring 130 mm. in 
height by 37 mm. in greatest width to large individuals 390 mm. in length by 
120 mm. in width. 

The openings of the vertical canals usually project slightly above the summit of 
the sponge ; they vary between 3 and 7 mm. in diameter in different specimens. 
There is an example of this species, now in the Jermyn-Street Museum, which has 
the vertical canals partially separated from each other so as to form a group of 
chimney-like elevations near the summit of the sponge. The lateral surfaces are 
covered with numerous circular apertures, with slightly projecting thickened margins. 
In weathered specimens the margins are usually smooth. These apertures are some- 
times in close contact ; sometimes they are disposed in sinuous lines, which apparently 
indicate the presence of canals immediately beneath the dermal layer. 

The internal skeleton appears to be composed of anastomosing fibres ; the spicular 
structure has been destroyed. 

This species may be readily distinguished by its large size, mode of growth, and 
the dimensions of the vertical and lateral apertures. It appears to be a very common 
form at Flamborough ; and there is a single specimen — now composed of iron 
peroxide — from the Chalk of the south of England. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Flamborough, Yorkshire ; Bromley, Kent. 



Genus JEREICA, Zittel, 1878. 

Jereica punctata, Iliinst. sp. 

1833. Siphonia punctata, Muust., Goldf. Petref. Ger. Tli. 1, p. 221, t. 65. f. 13. 
1878. Spumispongia punctata, p. p., Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 402, t. 13-t. f. 12. 
1878. Jereica punctata, Zittel, Stud. II Ab. p. 63, t. 5. f. 1. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Sudmerberg, Goslar. 

Jereica poltstoma, Eoemer, sp. 

1864. Jerea polystoma, F. A. Rcemer, Palseon. Bd. 13, p. 34, t. 12. f. 5. 
1878. Jereica puly stoma, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 63, t. 4. f. 11, 12. 

Microscopic spicules of this species from Zittel's collection. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Ahlten, Hanover. 

Jereica clava, Lee, sp. 

1839. Siphonia clava, Lee, Magazine of Nat. Hist. vol. iii. p. 12, f. 2, 3, 4. 

1840. Siphonia ocellata, F. A. Roemer, Nordd. Kr. p. 5, t. 2. f. 2. 

Sponge simple, straight, elongate, club-shaped, with a conical summit. Greatest 
W'idth a short distance below the summit ; from thence it gradually tapers to the 



JEEEICA. — CCELOCOEYPHA. > 43 

narrow cylindrical base ; occasionally slight constrictions are present. The largest 
example in the collection is 140 mm. in length and 48 mm. in diameter. 

At the summit is a group of closely arranged circular or polygonal openings of 
vertical canals, each 2 '8 mm. wide. The lateral surface of the sponge appears to 
have been smooth, and thickly covered with minute pore-like apertures 0'3 mm. in 
width. Beneath the dermal layer very delicate anastomosing fibres can be seen, 
which are apparently composed of minute thorny spicules ; but the forms of these 
spicules are not sufficiently clear to be figured. 

The S. ocellata, F. A. Eojm., appears to be identical with this species. Eoemer 
states that only six canal-apertui'es are present on the summit of his sponge ; but the 
number of these canals evidently depends upon the size of the individual specimen, 
and furnishes no ground for a specific character. 

Disiribufion. Upper Chalk : Flamborough. 

Jeeeica ctlindrica, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate VI, figs. 1, 1 a.) 

Sponge massive, compressed, cylindrical, with an expanded flattened base ; the 
summit truncate, with a shallow basin-like depression. The only specimen is 72 mm. 
in height and 84 mm. in width. 

The surface characters are not well preserved, as the dermal layer has disappeared, 
and only filled up sinuous canals running in a vertical direction can be distinguished. 
In a vertical section through the central portion of the sponge, however, there are 
exposed two sets of canals — one generally vertical, and the other extending from the 
lateral surface to the central portion of the sponge. Both series of canals are minute, 
and do not appear to exceed O'o mm. in width. 

The spicules of this sponge are very irregular in form, with numerous thorny 
and tubercular branches. They appear to be loosely connected together by their 
twig-like extensions ; and distinct spicular fibres are not apparent in the vertical 
section. 

In its general form and size, as well as in the delicate character and disposition of 
the canals and spicules, this species may be readily distinguished from the others of 
this genus. 

Bistrihution. No label is attached to this sponge ; but it appears to have been 
derived from the Upper Green Sand of Wiltshire. 



Genus CCELOCORYPHA, Zittel, 1878. 

C(ELOCOETPHA, Sp. 

Bistrihution. Cretaceous : St. Adresse. 



g2 



44 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Genus SCYTALTA, Zitt. 1878. 

SCTTALIA RADICIFORMIS, PMllips, sp. (Plate VI. figs. 4, 4 «, h.) 

1835. Sponyia racUciformis, Phillips, Geol. of Yorks. p. 90, t. 1. f. 9. 
1864. Eudea annulata, F. A. Roemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 26, t. 11. f. 2. 
1878. Scytalia radiciformis, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 64, t. 5. f. 4. 

Sponge either simple or occasionally two individuals growing in close contact, 
partially coalesce together, elongate, cylindrical, with occasional swellings and 
constrictions. The summit is conical ; and the body tapers gradually below into 
a cylindrical stem : the natural termination of this is not preserved. A small 
specimen measures 65 mm. in length by 22 mm. in width ; and a large example is 
215 mm. long by 38 mm. wide. 

The characters of the dermal layer cannot be distinguished in the Flamborough 
examples. The cloacal tube is about 8 mm. in width, and extends about two thirds 
the length of the sponge ; from the summit-aperture sinuous canals 0"8 mm. wide 
radiate for a short distance down the cone. In a horizontal section numerous canals 
about 0"6 mm. in width can be seen extending from the cloacal tube towards the 
exterior surface of the sponge. The surface beneath the dermal layer exhibits very 
delicate reticulate fibres which, in specimens from Germany, are seen to be composed 
of minute, irregularly branched, spinous spicules. 

This species appears to be common. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough ; Ahlten, Hanover. 

Scytalia fastigiata, Lee, sp. (Plate VI. fig. 3.) 

1839. Spongia fastigiata, Lee, Magazine Nat. Hist. vol. iii. p. 14, f. 8. 

Sponge simple, turbinate, with a very prominent conical summit, usually marked 
ofi" from the main portion of the body by a prominent collar-like ridge. The sponge 
is widest at the junction of the cone with the body, and diminishes somewhat rapidly 
to a slight cylindrical stem. The lateral surface exhibits shallow ridges and furrows. 
An average specimen is 130 mm. in height by 70 mm. in width. 

A smooth dermal layer appears to have covered the entire surface of the sponge. 
The cloacal tube is 10 mm. wide, apparently cylindrical, and extends nearly to the 
lower portion of the body. Numerous slightly arched canals 1 mm. in width extend 
from the cloaca towards the exterior. Similar canals are also exposed on the conical 
summit, radiating from the cloacal aperture, in specimens where the dermal layer 
has been removed. These superficial canals by the further growth of the sponge 
become inclosed, and then appear as interior canals. 

The reticulate fibre of the interior can be distinguished in specimens treated with 
acid ; but nothing beyond the general Ehizomorine character of the spicules can be 
recognized. 



SCTTALIA.— STACHYSPONGIA. 45 

There are several examples of this species in the collection, and they are very 
constant in their outer form and other characters. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk: Flamborough. 

SCYTALIA TEREBRATA, PMllipS. 

1835. Spongia terebrata, Phill. Geol. Yorks. p. 90, t. 1. f. 10. 
1878. Scytalia terebrata, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 65. 

Sponge massive, subcylindrical, with a flattened conical summit. The lower 
portion of the body contracts to a cylindrical stem. The lateral surface carries 
numerous concentric, slight, subangular ridges and shallow open furrows. The only 
specimen in the collection is 220 mm. in length by 87 mm. in greatest width. 

The surface, with the exception of the summit, is covered with a smooth dermal 
layer. The straight cylindrical cloaca is 13 mm. in width ; from its aperture numerous 
sinuous canals extend to the margin of the cone. In a vertical section thickly set 
canals, 1"25 mm. in width, are exposed, extending from the cloaca to the exterior. 

This species may be distinguished from the preceding by its different form and 
larger dimensions. It appears to be the species indicated by Phillips's figure, which, 
however, must have been drawn to the scale of one third the original. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough. 

Genus STACHYSPONGIA, Zittel, 1878. 

Stachtspongia spica, Bcemer, sp. (Plate VI. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

1864. Siphonocmlia spica, F. A. Roemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 30, t. 11. f. 5. 
1878. Stachyspongia spica, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 65, t. 5. f. 5. 

Sponge massive, cylindrical, the surface covered with conical projections, disposed 
either irregularly or rudely spiral, with their summits directed upwards. The 
summit appears to have been truncate. An imperfect specimen is 210 mm. in 
length and 73 mm. in diameter. The opening of the tubular cloaca is 31 mm. 
wide at the summit, whilst at the basal end of the specimen it only measures 
15 mm. Thickly set minute sinuous canals extend from its inner surface towards 
the exterior of the sponge, The outer surface appears to have been covered by a 
dermal layer, in which are irregularly disposed minute apertures from -3 to "6 mm. 
in width. Beneath this layer the surface is closely seamed by sinuous canals about 
0"75 mm. in width. I have not detected any special apertures at the summit of 
the conical elevations. The spicules of the interior are so poorly preserved that only 
their Rhizomorine characters can be distinguished. 

The example figured appears to belong to Eoemer's species, so far as can be judged 
from his short description and diminutive figure. He states, however, that the 
cloacal tube is only one fourth of the diameter of the sponge . but in the figure it 



46 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

is represented as one third as large. In the Museum specimen the opening at the 
summit is nearly one half the diameter, whilst at the basal end it measures only one 
fourth the thickness of the sponge ; so that at the base, at least, it agrees with 
Rcemer's description. 

This sponge appears to be a rare form in the Grey Chalk ; there is a fragment of 
a specimen in the collection inclosed in an Upper Chalk Flint, which also appears to 
belong to this species. 

Bistrihution. Gray Chalk : near Dover. Upper Chalk : South Coast of England, 
probably. 

Genus PACHINION, Zittel, 1878. 

Pachinion scriptum, Eoemer, sp. (Plate VII. figs. 1, 1 a, I, c, d.) 

1864. Jerea scripta, F. A. Roemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 34, t. 13. f. 1. 
1878. Pachinion scriptum, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 66, t. 5. f. 2. 

Sponges simple, cylindrical, or inversely conical, the lower portion of the body 
gradually tapering to a cylindrical stem ; the summit rounded or depressed conical. 
Very variable in size — a small specimen measuring 100 mm. in length by 55 mm. in 
width, whilst a large cylindrical example attains a length of 380 mm. and a width 
of 68 mm. 

The cloacal tube is approximately cylindrical, and extends nearly the entire length 
of the sponge; at the summit of a fairly large specimen it is 18 mm. in width. The 
outer surface is covered by a smooth dermal layer. No distinctive canals are present, 
the circulation apparently being carried on between the apertures of the spicular 
fibre. 

The interior of the sponge is formed by a relatively coarse fibrous network ; the 
fibres are about 0-315 mm. in width. On the surface of weathered specimens and in 
sections the edges of the fibre have a rude resemblance to hieroglyphic characters. 

The fibre is composed of irregular branching spicules with tubercled surfaces. 
The dermal layer is formed of much smaller and more branched spicules than those 
of the fibre. In the specimens from Flamborough only the general characters of the 
spicules of the fibre can be recognized ; but in examples from Germany the spicules 
are beautifully preserved. 

This species is very abundant in the Chalk at Flamborough ; the fibre is, for the 
most part, in a silicified condition, though occasionally the silica is replaced by 
calcite. A few specimens are also met with in the Chalk of the south of England ; 
but the siliceous spicular structure of these has been replaced by iron oxide, and is 
quite as indistinct as in the Flamborough examples. This species can be readily 
distinguished from the cylindrical specimens of Sci/talia and Plnjmatella in the 
Flamborough beds by its smooth surface, the coarse characters of the fibre, and the 
absence of canals. 



PLACONELLA. — DOEYDEEMA. 47 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough ; south of England ; Schweichelt, 
Brunswick (Zittel's coll.). 

Family MEGAMORINA, Zittel. 

Genus PLACONELLA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges sessile, growing in flattened, cake-shaped masses. The upper surface 
uneven with shallow depressions, containing the apertures of seveial prominent 
canals. The surface between the depressions faintly furrowed, and with openings 
of numerous canals of diff'erent sizes. The interior permeated irregularly by canals. 

The skeleton consists of smooth, robust, irregularly branching spicules, which 
closely intertwine together and form a reticulate mesh. 

The spicules and the general structure of the skeleton of this genus are similar to 
to those of Megalithista, from which it is distinguished by its mode of growth and 
the absence of a central cloaca. 

PLACONELLA PEKFORATA, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 2, 2 a, b.) 

The only example of the genus has a circular outline about 68 mm. in diameter, 
and is 35 mm. in thickness. The upper surface is gently convex, the central portion 
is elevated ; between this and the margins are three well-marked depressions, and one 
or two minor ones ; in these depressions are several irregularly disposed canal-apertures 
about 2 mm. each in width. The general surface is also covered with slight furrows 
and irregularly disposed canal-apertures, in addition to the openings between the 
spicular mesh. 

The spicular skeleton is best shown on the surface of the specimen. A detached 
spicule which I have been able to measure is 1 mm. in length by T5 ram. in width. 
No distinctive dermal layer has been preserved ; there are, however, in the depressions, 
fragments of long, straight, cylindrical spicules which may perhaps belong to the 
sponge. 

The specimen in the collection was labelled Achilleum tuberosum, Goldf.; but this 
species has a skeleton of Ehizomorine spicules, and belongs to the genus Cnemidiastrum. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. 

Genus DORYDERMA, Zittel, 1878. 

DoRTDERMA DicHOTOMUM, Benett, sp. (Plate VIII. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 b.) 

1831. Polypothecia dichotoma, Benett, Catalogue of the Organic Remains of the Countj- of 

Wilts, pi. 13. 
1864. Non Pohjjerea dichotoma, F. A. Rosmer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 36, t. 14. f. 1 c. 

Sponge dendriform, growing from a simple upright cylindrical stem, which 



48 SILICEOUS SPON&ES. 

divides and subdivides dichotomously ; the branches are cylindrical or slightly 
compressed, approxiinately of the same thickness throughout, and from 14 mm. 
to 19 mm. in diameter in different specimens. The summits of the branches are 
rounded. An average specimen is 250 mm. in height, with an expansion of 190 mm. 
across the summit. 

The branches are traversed longitudinally by a series of simple cylindrical tubes, 
2 mm. each in width. No regular canal-openings appear to be present on the lateral 
surfaces of the branches; and the circulation seems to have been carried on between 
the irregular interspaces of the mesh, which average "5 mm. in width. 

The arms of the spicules are '09 mm. in thickness ; they are very compactly inter- 
woven together so as to form a very close mesh. No dermal spicules have been 
detected in this species. 

This species may be distinguished from D. ramosum and I). Ecemeri by the great 
regularity in its mode of growth and the close character of the spicular mesh. It 
appears to be abundant. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Wiltshire. 

DoKTDERMA RAiiosuM, Mantell, sp. (Plate VIII. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

1822. Spongia ramosa, Mantell, Fossils of the South Downs, p. 162, t. 15. f. 11. 
1808. A ramose Alcyonite, Parkinson, Organic Remains, vol. ii. t. 7. f. 6. 
1878. Doryderma ramosa, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 68. 

Sponge branching, growing from an upright cylindrical stem, which divides and 
subdivides occasionally, giving off short stumpy branches, from 12 to 18 mm. in 
diameter. The extremities of the branches are rounded. The vertical canals are 
about 1'5 mm. in width; they can hardly be distinguished, owing to the imperfect 
preservation of the interior structure of the sponge. The interspaces of the mesh on 
the surface are "6 mm. wide. The spicular arms are 'ISTS mm. in thickness. No 
surface-spicules have been preserved. 

The type of Mantell's species is in the Museum collection. Its structure has been 
so completely altered by fossilization, that it was only after repeated scrutiny that I 
discovered a single spicule and was thus enabled to determine its true characters. 
The branching sponges which, from their similarity of form, I refer to this species 
are not uncommon in the interior of flints in the Chalk of Wiltshire. The surface- 
structure is usually well preserved ; but the interior characters are mostly destroyed. 
This species is less regular in its mode of growth, and the spicules and mesh-inter- 
spaces are larger than in D. dickotomum, Benett, whilst the stems are usually smaller, 
and the mesh-interspaces also, than those of B. Ecemeri, Hinde. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: near Brighton ; Oare, Wiltshire. 



DOEYDEEilA. 49 

DoRTDERMA RcEMERi, //m<Z^. (Plate VIII. figs. 3, 3 «, 3 i.) 

1808. A ramose Alcyonite, Parkinson, Org. Rem. vol. ii. p. 92, t. 7. f. 7, 12. 
1864. Polyjerea dichotoma, F. A. Roem. Palaeont. Bd. 13, p. 36, t. 14. f. 1. 
1878. Polyjerea dichotoma, Qiienst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 423, t. 135. f. 10, 11. 
1878. Doryderma dichotoma, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. G7, t. 7. f. 1. 

Sponge branching, consisting of a thick stem from which short branches are given 
off in an irregular manner. The stem and branches traversed by numerous vertical 
canals about 2 mm. each in diameter. The interspaces of the mesh at the surface 
are from 1 mm. to 1-25 mm. in width. The spicules are -1575 mm. in thickness, 
and occasionally 2 mm. in length. A dermal layer is formed by numerous trifid 
spicules, whose shafts fill the interspaces of the mesh, whilst their trifid summits 
slightly project outwards. 

F. A. Rcemer's specific name, dichotoma, having been previously employed by 
Miss Benett for a sponge of this genus, it is necessary to give another designation 
to his species ; and I have therefore termed it Rcemeri, in memory of its discoverer. 
From an examination of undoubted examples of this species, from the Upper Chalk 
of Brunswick, presented to the Museum by Prof. Zittel, I am enabled to determine 
its distinctness from either of the two foregoing species. It is mucli less regular in 
its habit of growth, the stem is much thicker, and the mesh interspaces are notably 
larger than in D. ramosum and B. dichotomum, Benett. The specimens appear to be 
rare in the Chalk of this country, and are only met with in the interior of flints. It 
is very seldom that the dermal trifid spicules are preserved ; but I have detected them 
in one or two fragments in the Collection. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Wiltshire ; Brunswick [Zitt. coll.). 

Doryderma Benetti, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 h.) 

1808. An Alcyonite, Parkinson, Org. Rem. vol. ii. t. 10. f. 6. 

1831. Polypothecia, Benett, Cat. Org. Rem. Wilts, t. 10. f. 1. 

1847. Non Jerea elongata, Mich. Icon. Zoophy. p. 134, t. 29. f. 4. • 

1854. Jerea Carteri, p. p., Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 28. 

Sponges simple, massive, elongate pear-shaped, or with a cylindrical body sup- 
ported on a relatively thin stem, occasionally also subglobate. The summit is 
either rounded, horizontally truncate, or obtusely conical. In some examples the 
body gradually tapers downwards to the stem, in others there is a distinct constriction 
between the basal portion of the body and the top of the stem. There is great 
variability in the size of different examples — the smaller forms measure 72 mm by 
42 mm., whilst the larger specimens reach a length of 390 mm. and a width of 
125 mm. 

The body of the sponge is penetrated by numerous straight vertical canals, 2 5 mm. 
each in width, which open at the summit in close proximity to each other. A few 

H 



50 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

of these canals also extend into the stem. Numerous, closely set, arched canals, 
■5 mm. wide, extend from the lateral surface towards the central portion of the 
sponge. The surface-openings of these lateral canals are formed by the irregularly 
shaped interspaces of the mesh. There are also numerous horizontal canals in the 
stem of the sponge. 

The spicules of the body are robust, smooth, and irregularly branching, and about 
"135 mm. in thickness. Some of the spicular arms gradually taper towards their 
extremities ; in others, however, the extremities are expanded in a similar manner to 
those of the genus Lyidnim. The spicules of the stem are slender, elongate, thread- 
like, with branching ends ; they are loosely intertwined together in the direction of 
their length. No surface-spicules have been noticed. 

This species is apparently abundant and generally well preserved. It is very 
probable that the figure given by Parkinson [loc. cit.) is of a sponge belonging to this 
species, though he makes mention of a large central cavity in the interior, of which 
there is no evidence in the figure. Michelin refers the form figured by Miss Benett 
to his Jerea elongata ; but the spicular structure of the two is altogether diff'erent. 
Some examples resemble in appearance the figure oi Jerea iryriformis, Lamx. Exp. 
Method, t. 78. f. 3 ; and they have apparently been referred to this species in Morris's 
Catalogue. There is, however, no resemblance in their spicular structure, as, 
according to Prof. Zittel, Jerea jtyriformis belongs to the Tetracladina family. 
Prof. Morris also designates the sponges figured by Miss Benett in plate x. Cat. 
Org. Eem. by the name of Jerea Carteri, but no reference is given to the author of 
the specific name ; and on this account, and on the further fact that in this plate two 
different species are figured, whilst it is not stated to which the /. Carteri applies, I 
have not retained that term for the present species. 

Notwithstanding the variety of form and size in the examples which I refer to this 
species, there exists such a close resemblance in their canal and spicular structures 
that I do not see any ground for placing them under more than one species. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster ; Canamore quarry, near Crockerton. 

Genus HOLODTCTYON, Hiude, n. g. 

Sponges inverted, conical, or irregular in form, with rounded or flattened summits, 
and stems with branching processes. In the centre of the summit there is a shallow 
cup-shaped or cylindrical cavity, which appears to extend only to a short distance into 
the sponge. 

The skeleton consists of a meshwork of smooth, irregularly branching spicules ; 
the spicular arms either attenuated or with a spoon-shaped or elongated expansion 
at their termination. No canals appear to be present. 

I propose this genus to include a small group of sponges which closely resemble 



HOLODICTYON.— PACHTPOTEEION. 51 

those of Doryderma in the character and disposition of the spicular mesh, but, unlike 
that genus, appear to be destitute both of vertical and horizontal canals, so that the 
circulation is wholly carried on between the interspaces of the mesh. 

HoLODicTYON CAPiTATDM, IHiide, n. sp. (Plate VII. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b.) 

The examples of this species vary from 100 to 150 mm. in length, and from 30 to 
85 mm. in width at the summit. The cloacal aperture, if it may be so termed, is 
from 6 to 9 mm. in width at the summit ; in one example, which has been cut in two, 
its depth is 20 mm. The spicules are robust, and measure about '2 mm. in thickness. 
No dermal layer has been detected. The spicules of the stem appear to be similar 
to those of the body of the sponge. The interstitial apertures are irregular in form, 
and from '5 to '75 mm. wide. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Wiltshire. 

Genus PACHYPOTERION, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges simple, massive, with cup- or goblet-shaped bodies, frequently of great 
thickness, supported on elongated cylindrical or compressed stems. The body of the 
sponge is traversed by a double series of canals — one, rising from the basal portion, is 
either vertical or follows the contour of the cup and opens into it; the other, 
and smaller, series commences on the exterior of the cup, and extends downwards in 
an arched direction towards the centime of the sponge. The skeletal spicules of the 
body of the sponge are smooth, curved, branching bodies of very irregular form ; the 
extremities of the arms are either blunted or slightly expanded. They form a compact 
network both by the intertwining of the arms and by the attachment of the expanded 
ends to the surfaces of adjoining spicules. The spicules of the stem are elongated, 
thread-like, bifurcated at their ends, and loosely connected together. No dermal 
spicules have been preserved. 

From Doryderma this genus is distinguished mainly by its cup-shaped mode of 
growth. It differs from Heterostinia, Zittel, in the apparent absence of those minute 
spicular bodies in which, according to Zittel, the larger spicules of this latter genus 
are imbedded, and which form the principal mass of the skeleton. It is possible 
that these smaller spicular elements may have been originally present in the examples 
of Pachypoterion ; but, considering the state of preservation of these sponges, I think 
that traces of them would have remained. 

The examples of this genus at present known are limited to the Upper Green 
Sand. On account of their resemblance in external form and in the canal-apertures 
of the inner and outer surfaces to Chenendopora, these sponges have hitherto been 
placed under that genus, and only by an examination of the spicular structure can 
the differences be detected. 

h2 



52 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Pachypoterion robustum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 2, 2 <2, 2 h.) 

Sponges cup- or goblet-shaped, the walls very thick, so that in some examples the 
cup is nearly filled with the siliceous skeleton. The body either gradually tapers to 
the simple elongated, cylindrical stem, or there is a sharp constriction between the 
base of the cup and the top of the stem. The specimens vary considerably in size : 
small examples measure 110 mm. in length by 65 mm. in width, whilst larger forms 
are 270 mm. long by 130 mm. in width. 

The canal-apertures in the interior of the cup are, in some examples, arranged in 
concentric circles; they are about 2 mm. in width, and either elliptical or circular in 
section. The apertures of the exterior surface vary between '5 and '9 mm. in width. 
They appear to be disposed in a regular vertical series. In a horizontal section of 
the base of the cup, the lateral canals appear as so many radiating lines extending 
from the outer surface to near the central portion. The arms of the spicules measure 
•135 mm. in thickness. 

This species appears to be abundant. The examples vary considerably in size, 
thickness of the wall of the cup, and in the character of the stem ; but as there are 
numerous gradations between the extreme forms, I have included them under a 
single species, which may be distinguished from the next by the thickness of the 
walls and of the spicules and the dimensions of the canals. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Pewsey, Sambourne, Folkestone. 

Pachypoterion compactum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate IX. figs. 3, 3 a.) 
1816. Alcyonite (funnel-form), W. Smith, Strata identified by Organic Fossils, t. 5. f. 12. 

Sponges cup-, vase-, or open funnel-shaped, with simple cylindrical stems. The 
margins rounded. The walls of the body are from 5 to 9 mm. in thickness. The 
width of the cup varies in different examples from 65 to 110 mm. 

The canals opening into the interior of the cup are 1 mm. in width, inconspicuous, 
and irregularly distributed. Those extending from the outer surfiice to the interior 
are very numerous, about "3 mm. in width, and nearly horizontal in direction. 

The spicules are of the same character as those of P. robustum, but of less thick- 
ness ; they measure '09 mm. in width, and about '225 mm. in length. They are 
very closely interwoven together, so as to form a compact network. 

This species is distinguished from P. robustum by its thinner walls, smaller 
spicules, and more compact spicular tissue. 

The specimen figured is the original of William Smith's Alcyonite, loc. cit. t. 5. 
f 12 ; but the lower portion of the stem is not represented. The interior of this 
specimen is filled with the hard matrix. The spicular structure (fig. 3 a) is from the 
exterior surface of the same example. 

Bistnbution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster ; Saumur. 



HETEEOSTINIA. 53 

Genus HETEKOSTINIA, Zittel, 1878. 

Hetekostinia obliqua, Benett, sp. (Plate X. figs. 2,2 a, 2b, 2 c.) 
1831. Polypothecia obliqua, Benett, Cat. Org. Rem. Wilts, t. 8. f. 1. 

Body of sponge consisting of a variously convoluted plate-like wall, either platter-, 
ear-, or fan-shaped, and not infrequently, by the coalescence of the wall-margins, 
becoming either cup- or open funnel-shaped. The body is usually supported by one 
or more rod-like short processes, which are sometimes compressed so as to form 
semipalmate expansions. The walls are from 7 to 10 mm. in thickness. The 
examples vary greatly in size: a large cup-like specimen attains a width of 85 mm., 
and one platter-shaped form is 200 mm. in extension. 

On both surfaces of the wall there are numerous irregularly disposed circular 
apertures, about "7 mm. each in width, and from one to three diameters apart ; 
between these circular apertures are the irregular openings formed by the spicular 
mesh. No indications of canals in the interior of the wall have been preserved in 
the specimens which I have examined, though occasionally the sponge-wall is pene- 
trated by cavities which appear to be due to external causes. 

The spicules of the body-skeleton are relatively large, vermiculate, branched, and 
attached to each other by their slightly expanded extremities. In the best preserved 
specimens the surface of the body-spicales exhibits a very fine, minute granulation ; 
in other specimens the spicules appear to have smooth surfaces, but the smoothness 
may be due to the wearing-off" of the fine granulation by fossilization. In all other 
respects the sponges with the granulated surfaces to the spicules and those with 
smooth surfaces are precisely similar, so that I find it impossible to constitute two 
species based on this feature alone. The body-spicules vary in thickness between 
•112 mm. and -1575 mm. The spicules of the stem are thinner and more elongated 
than those of the body, and they are connected by being adpressed and intertwined 
together. The sponge appears to have possessed a dermal layer consisting of trifid 
spicules Avith horizontally expanded, bifurcated, and pointed head-rays. This dermal 
layer is but very rarely preserved. The minute irregularly shaped spicules which, in 
the type of the genus, intervene between the larger mesh-spicules are also very rare, 
and I have only detected their presence in portions of the stem. 

In the mode of attachment of the body-spicules of this species by their slightly 
expanded extremities, these sponges resemble those of the genera Lyidlum and 
Pachypoterion ; and I was at first disposed to place them under the former of these 
two genera. There are slight evidences, however, of the presence of the minute 
spicular bodies which constitute the distinguishing character of the genus Hetero- 
stinia, Zitt. ; and Prof. Zittel, who has examined one of these sponges, pronounces it 
a genuine example of this genus. In this case, the definition of Ileterostinia will 



54 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

have to be amended, so as to include sponges in which the body-spicules have 
expanded extremities, as well as those with attenuated and pointed ends to the body- 
spicules. 

The figure given by Miss Benett, loc. cit. t. 8. f. 1, leaves no doubt as to the 
identity of the form represented, for there is no other sponge from the Wiltshire 
Chalk with the peculiar elongated compressed stem or root shown in her figure. 
There is no certainty, however, that the figure of Chenendojwra oMiqua*, Michelin, 
represents the same species as Polypothecia obliqua, Benett. 

This species appears to have been very common in the Upper Chalk. As a rule 
the specimens are inclosed in the hollows of fiiuts, and exhibit, when thus preserved, 
the spicular structure of the surface in a very beautiful manner. Generally the stem 
of the sponge with only a small portion of the body is preserved, and in many 
instances the stem alone remains in the interior of the flint. A few examples have 
been preserved in the Chalk of Flamborough, and in these the body-wall remains and 
the stem is usually wanting. In one example from this locality the sponge is nearly 
flat and platter-shaped, and instead of a single central stem it gives ofi" from different 
parts of its under surface numerous small rod-like processes. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough ; Beckhampton, near Brighton ; War- 
minster, Stockton, Upware. 

Genus NEMATINION, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges simple, elongate, rod-like in form, with a relatively small cup-shaped 
summit, supported on a long cylindrical simple or bifurcated stem, which is either 
branched or obtuse at its lower extremity. Below the cup vertical canals extend 
throughout the length of the stem. The exterior surface is thickly covered with the 
apertures of horizontal canals. The skeleton is composed of elongated, smooth, 
thread-like spicules, which bifurcate near their extremities. These spicules are 
interlocked together by their filiform extremities so as to form an open mesh- 
work. • 

The peculiar feature of this genus is the small inconsiiicuous cup carried on the 
summit of a very long stem. In its general form, and in the character of the 
spicules, the genus approaches Carterella, Zitt. ; but this latter genus has a rounded 
summit, and the spicules, as a rule, are knobbed and blunted at their ends. 

Nematinion caltculum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate X. figs. l,la,lb,l c.) 
The rod-like stem of the sponge is either straight or sinuous, usually simple, 
though bifurcate examples occur. There is great variation in the length of different 
specimens: the largest form which is in the collection is 310 mm. in length by 

* Icon. Zooph. p. 132, t. 41. f. 2 a, b. 



CARTEEELLA.— ISOEAPHINIA. 55 

45 mm. in width at the summit; a smaller form is only 20 mm. in width and 
160 mm. in length. In some examples the width of the cup at the summit but 
slightly exceeds the width of the stem. 

The vertical canals penetrating the stem are "7 mm. in width and irregularly 
disposed. In some examples the surface of the stem exhibits sinuous vertical canals. 
The apertures of the horizontal canals, about -5 mm. in width, are present both on 
the exterior of the cup and the stem ; they are very closely set, oval or circular in 
form, and bounded by the spicules of the mesh. 

The spicules forming the cup and the exterior portion of the stem are -0675 mm. 
in thickness ; they are disposed in close contact in the direction of the length of the 
sponge. The spicules of the interior of the stem are much more slender than those 
near the outer surface, and they are loosely connected together by their bifurcated 
extremities. In length they vary between •787 and 1-575 mm. 

The specimens are not uncommon, though perfect examples are rare. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Wiltshire. 

Genus CARTERELLA, Zittel, 1878. 

Carterella cylindrica, Zitt. 
1878. Carterella cylindrica, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 68, t. 2. f. 7 and t. 7. f. 2. 
Distribution. Upper Green Sand: Kelheim, near Regensburg [Zittel's coll.). 

Carterella spiculigera, Boemer, sp. 

1864. Jerea spiculigera, F. A. Roemer, Palaeont. Bd. 13, p. 34, 1. 12. f. 6. 
1878. Eulespongia, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 414, t. 135. f. 1, 2. 
1878. Carterella spiculigera, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 69, t. 7. f. 2. 

Detached spicules of this species from Zittel's collection. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Ahlten, Hanover. 

Genus ISORAPHINIA, Zittel, 1878. 

IsoRAPHiNiA TEXTA, Roemer, sp. (Plate X. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b.) 

1864. Siphonoccelia texta, Roemer, Palaeont. Bd. 13, p. 29, t. 10. f. 11. 
1878. Eulespongia texta, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 417, t. 135. f. 3-7. 
1878. Isoraphinia texta, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 69, t. 5. f. 8 and t. 7. f. 3. 

Body of sponge cylindrical, the lower portion gradually tapering to a simple 
rounded stem ; the summit is truncate or depressed conical. Fairly large specimens 
measure 230 mm. in length by 54 mm. in width. 

The cloacal tube is nearly cylindrical, and extends to the lower portion of the body 



56 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

of the sponge; in a large specimen it is 19 mm. wide at the summit. Specialized 
canals do not appear to exist, and the circulation seems to have been carried on 
through the interspaces of the spicular mesh. 

The spicules are relatively large, straight, or slightly bent, cylindrical, with nodose 
extremities; they attain a length of 1-25 mm. In the interior of the sponge these 
spicules are united into small fascicles, and interwoven at their extremities to form 
an open meshwork. On the exterior surface, however, they are disposed without 
any definite arrangement, and cross each other in every direction, forming a compact 
surface-layer. 

This species is not uncommon in the Flamborough Chalk ; and may be distinguished 
from the cylindrical forms of Pachinion and other genera occurring in the same beds 
by the scattered layer of spicules on the exterior surface of the sponge, which have 
been preserved, owing to their relatively large size. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Flamborough. Planer-Kalk: Dohrnten, near Salz- 
gitter {ZitteVs coll.). 

Family AAVMOCLABMA, Zittel. 
Genus CYLINDROPHYMA, Zittel, 1878. 

CyLINDROPHTMA MILLEPOBATA, Goldf. sp. 

1833. ScyjjJiia mtUeporata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 8, t. 3. f. 2. 

1878. Scijphia milleporata, Queust. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 120, t. 121. f. 1-7. 

1878. Cylindrophyma milleporata, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 70, t. 5. f. 6. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Oerlingen; Wodna, Randen. 

Genus MELONELLA, Zittel, 1878. 
Melonella radiata. Querist, sp. 

1858. Siphonia radiata, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 679, t. 82. f. 13. 
1833. Siphonia pyriformis, p. p., Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. t. 35. f . 10. 
1878. Siphonia radiata, Queust. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 249, t. 126. f. 60-72. 
1878. Melonella radiata, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 71, t. 5. f. 7. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg. 

Genus LECANELLA, Zittel, 1878. 

LeCANELLA PATEKiEFOKMIS, Zittel. 

1878. Lecanella paterceformis, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 71, t. 6. f. 1. 

Detached spicules of this species. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Ahlten, Hanover. 



MASTOSIA.— HINDIA. 57 

Genus MASTOSIA, Zittel, 1878. 

Mastosia neocomiensis, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate X. fig. 4.) 
The only representatives of this species are detached spicules, which occur in green- 
sand strata, mingled with spicules of tetractinellid sponges. The spicules in question 
have a spherical or slightly elongated centre, from which three to five short cylindrical 
arms project. The arms radiate irregularly from the central node, and are slightly 
expanded at their ends. The central node averages -2 mm. in thickness, and the 
arms are "225 mm. in length. These spicules are distinctly typical of the Anomo- 
cladine family; and though up to the present no sponge belonging to this family has 
been recognized from the Cretaceous series, the occurrence of these spicules clearly 
proves their existence in this period. 

Some of the s^jicules described and figured by Mr. H. J. Carter from the Upper 
Green Sand of Devonshire as " knots or branching centres of silicified fibre like that 
oi Dactylocalyx"* evidently belong to this species. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Haslemere, Surrey. Upper Green Sand : Devon- 
shire [Mr. II. J. Carter). 

Genus HINDIA, Duncan, 1879. 

HiNDiA FIBROSA, Fetd. Roemer, sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b.) 

1860. Calamopora fibrosa, F. Roemer (non GoldfiLss), Die silurische Fauna d. westl. Tennessee, 

p. 20, t. 2. f. 2, 2 a, 6. 
1875. Spheerolites Nicholsoni, Hinde, Abstract of the Proc. Geol. Soc. no. 30.t. 
1875. Hindia spheroidalis, Duncan, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 5 ser. vol. iv. p. 84, t. 9. 

Sponges globular in form, with an even rounded surface, and without peduncle 
or any point of attachment. The specimens vary between 13 mm. and 3S mm. in 
diameter. 

As seen in a section through the centre, the growth of the sponge commences with 
a small foreign body or even loose tissue in the centre, from which extend minute 
straight canals about "3 mm. wide, in close proximity to each other, to the outer 
surface. The canals are circular or polygonal in section ; their walls are formed by 
the spicular skeleton. The individual element of the skeleton appears to have a 
thickened subspherical centre, from which four to six short arms radiate in different 
directions, and by their attachment to the ends of adjoining spicular arms form a 
continuous, open, very regular mesh. The spicular arms or rays appear to be' either 
smooth or tuberculated. No special surface-spicules have been preserved. 

Examples of these sponges occur in different states of preservation. Those from 
Tennessee, which F. Roemer placed under Calamopora, are silicified, the spicular 

* Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. vii. 1871, t. 7. f. 13, 14, and t. 8. f. 23. 

I 



58 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

mesh is for the most part dissolved away, and only empty moulds remain ; in a few 
instances, however, the spicules remain, and are now of a reddish material. The 
canals have been filled with cherty silica, and the minute projecting rods connecting 
adjoining canals have been produced by the silica filling in the minute spaces between 
the spicular mesh. This appearance Eoemer mistook for the infilling of connecting 
tubes in the wall of a coral. The condition of these sponges from Tennessee is 
precisely similar to that of specimens of Astylosjjonrjia ; and no doubt can be enter- 
tained that, like this last-named genus, they were originally siliceous. The examples 
from New Brunswick, however, have had their original skeleton replaced by calcite ; 
and this fact led Prof. Duncan to believe that they were originally calcareous, so that 
" there must have been a former mimetic and calcareous group of Spongida." The 
character of the spicules cannot be so clearly seen in the calcite specimens ; and after 
a close examination of the forms from Tennessee and New Brunswick, I believe that 
the spicular elements resemble those of the Anomocladine family rather than of the 
Tetracladina. 

The Tennessee examples appear to have been completely spherical, those from 
New Brunswick are oblate spheroidal in form ; the internal structure and dimensions 
of the canals appear to be the same in the sjionges from both localities. 

Distribution. Silurian (Lower Helderberg Group): near Dalhousie, New Brunswick ; 
Perry county, Tennessee [Pearson's coll.). I have also seen specimens of the same 
species from the Lower Helderberg group at Schoharie, New York. 



Family TETMACLADINA, Zittel. 
Genus AULOCOPIUM, Oswald, 1846. 

AuLOCOPiUM CTLiNDBACEUM, Fenl. Roemer. 

1861. Aulocopium cylindraceum, Roemer, Fossile Fauna von Sade^itz, p. 9, t. 3. f. 2a, 2b. 
1878. Aulocopium cylindraceum, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 73. 

Distribution. Silurian : Gotland. 

Genus PHYMATELLA, Zittel, 1878. 

Phtmatella intumescens, Rcemer, sp. 

1864. Eudea intumescens, F. A. Roemer, Palaeont. Bd. 13, p. 26, t. 11. f. 1. 
1878. ScypMa intumescens, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 392, t. 133. f. 23-26. 
1878. Phymatella intumescens, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 74. 

There is but a single imperfect example of this species in the Museum collection, 
which is cylindrical in form, tapering near the base, with irregular hollows in its 



PHYMATELLA. 59 

lower portion. It is 43 mm. in width ; the cloaca is cylindrical, about 12 mm. in 
width, and extends nearly to the base of the sponge. The exterior surface is thickly 
covered with numerous irregularly disposed canal-apertures 1 mm. wide ; the canals 
extend in a nearly horizontal direction towards the centre of the sponge. The four- 
armed spicules are slender with inconspicuous nodules. The specimen is preserved 
in Chalk, and the spicular structure has been changed into reddish peroxide 
of iron. 
Listribution. Upper Chalk : South of England. 

Phtmatella heteropoea, Roemer, sp. 

1840. Scyphia heteropora, Roem. Nordd. Kreide, p. 7, t. 3. f. 13. 
1878. Phymatella heteropora, Zitt. Studieu, II Ab. p. 74, t. 8. f. 2. 

Detached spicules of the body and surface-layer of this species. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk: Biewende, Brunswick [ZitteVs coll.). 

Phtmatella reticul.\ta, ITinde, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 b.) 

Sponges massive, either cylindrical, club-shaped, or obliquely turbinate, with a 
depressed conical or truncated summit. The lower portion of the body gradually 
tapers to a cylindrical stem, which terminates in a branching root. In some 
specimens nodose or spur-like projections are irregularly scattered over the surface. 
The surface exhibits a coarse irregular reticulation. There is considerable variation 
both in the size and form ; cylindrical specimens reach a length of 320 mm. by 
72 mm. in width ; the turbinate examples, though not so long, reach to a greater 
width — one of these is 105 mm. in diameter. 

The tubular cloaca in a large specimen is 24 mm. wide at the summit ; from its 
margins branching canals radiate down the summit of the sponge. The canals 
extending from the outer surface to the interior are 1 mm. in width. 

The internal skeletal structure of these sponges has been so greatly altered by 
fossilization, that it has been very difficult to determine the original character of the 
spicules. I have, however, been able to discover in a thin transverse section traces 
of the straight arms and junction-nodes of tetracladine spicules ; the spicular arms 
are ■225 mm. in length by •033 mm. in width. The outer surface, when treated with 
dilute acid, also shows indistinct traces of similar spicules. 

These sponges have been referred to Phymatella intumescens, Rocm., sp., from 
which, however, they are distinguished by their massive walls, the coarse irregular 
reticulation of the surface, and their generally large proportions. 

Distrihution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough, Yorkshire ; South of England. 



i2 



60 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Phtmatella nodosa, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

Sponge nearly cylindrical or tapering in form, the basal end rounded and destitute 
of any peduncle or point of attachment ; the summit of the specimen has not been 
preserved. The surface in the upper portion is covered with obtusely rounded nodes ; 
the lower portion is nearly smooth. The single imperfect example is 165 mm. in 
lensth, GO mm. wide at the summit, and 40 mm. at the base. The wall is 20 mm. in 
thickness at the summit. 

The cloacal tube extends for a distance of three fourths the length ; it is 21 mm. 
wide at the top, and 10 mm. at the lower end. The canals opening into the cloaca 
are 1-2 mm. wide, and they have a downward curve. The exterior surface of the 
sponge exhibits apertures of various sizes, which appear to be the openings of canals 
which extend in a curved direction towards the interior of the wall. 

The spicular structure of the interior has been obliterated, but on the outer 
surface in some places small tetracladine spicules can be seen ; the arms are smooth, 
about -2 mm. in length ; the nodes at the junction of the arms are inconspicuous. 

In outer form this species somewhat resembles Phymatella Jieteroinorjiha*, B-cemer, 
sp., but the walls are much thicker and the canal-apertures smaller than in that 
species. In the curved direction of the canals this species differs from the typical 
forms of the genus, but in other respects its characters are similar. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. 

* 

Phtmatella, sp. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England ; France 1 

Genus AULAXINIA, Zittel, 1878. 

^ AuLAxiNiA SULCIFEKA, Roemer, sp. 

Siphonocoelia sulcifera, F. A. Roemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 30, t. 11. f. 7. 
Aulaxinia sulcifera, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 75, t. 8. f. 4. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk ■? 

Aulaxinia costata, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 1, 1 a.) 
Sponge elongated, inversely conical, with rounded summit (no stem preserved); 
length 80 mm. by 35 mm. in width. The cloacal aperture is 9 mm. in width ; from 
its margin a series of eighteen nearly straight simple canals, 2*3 mm. in width, and 
equidistant from each other, extends to the base. Between these vertical canals are 
the apertures (about 1 mm. in width) of the horizontal canals. The spicules are 
relatively large, the arms apparently smooth and about -5 mm, in length. 

• Palsontographica, Bd. 13, p. 22, t. 8. f. 11. 



CALLOPEGMA. 61 

The only example of this species is a somewhat worn specimen from flint-gravel. 
The canals in this specimen have been infilled with silica, and now project as so 
many ridges down the sides of the sponge. The spicules have also disappeared, but 
their moulds in silica are distinctly shown. 

This species may be distinguished from A. sulcifera by the greater number of the 
vertical canals, also by their straight direction, and the larger size of the skeletal 
spicules. 

Distribution. Gravel, Upper Chalk : Stanway, Gloucestershire. 

Genus CALLOPEGMA, Zitfel, 1878. 
Callopegma Schlonbachi, Zitt. 

1878. Callopegma Schlonbachi, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 75, t. 9. f. 1. 
Detached skeletal spicules of this species. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk: Ahlten, ^wao^er [ZitteVs coll.). 

Callopegma obconicum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XI. figs. 3, 3 «, 3 b.) 

Sponges small, inversely conical, apparently sessile. The upper surface is flat, or 
even in some examples slightly convex ; the basal termination is obtusely rounded. 
An average specimen is 20 mm. in height and 22 mm. in diameter. 

In the central portion of the summit are the apertures of several canals, about 
2 mm. each in width, which extend downwards into the sponge ; there is also a 
system of branching sinuous canals, seen in weathered specimens, which radiate from 
the centre of the upper surface towards the sides of the sponge. The lateral surface 
appears also to be furnished with minute pores. 

The spicular structure, as seen in a vertical section, is of an open, irregular 
character. The arms or rays of the spicules are about "5 mm. in length. No 
dermal layer has been preserved in the specimens. 

This species is usually preserved in the interior of flints, and the spicular structure 
is seldom retained. In some instances, however, the spicules remain in the form 
of iron peroxide. This form may be distinguished from Callojiegma acaule, Zittel *, 
by its smaller size, the absence of a cup in the centre, and its even surface. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England. 

Callopegma ficoideum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XL figs. 4, 4 «, 4 b.) 

Sponges fig-shaped or subspherical, with flattened or slightly rounded summits, 
and with one or more straight or curved peduncular projections at the base, and 
occasionally slight nodosities on the surface. An average specimen is 60 mm. in 
height and 50 mm. in diameter. 

• Studien, II Ab. p. 75, t. 2. f. 6 a. 



62 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Several vertical canals, 1*8 mm. wide, op:^n at the summit; the lateral surfaces 
have scattered apertures of canals, "8 mm. in width. 

The body-spicules have prominent junction-nodes and relatively long smooth arms. 
The dermal layer is composed of the horizontally-expanded heads of large trifid 
spicules, some of which are 1 mm. in extension. There are traces of minute spicular 
bodies between the arms of the larger spicules of the dermal layer, but their form 
has been lost. 

The specimens only occur in the interior of flints ; they retain the outer form and 
the spicules of the dermal layer, as well as of the body-skeleton immediately beneath ; 
but the interior is a mass of porous silica in which even the canals are destroyed. 

This species differs from G. acaule, Zittel, principally in its rounded summit and 
the absence of a cup. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Croydon, Guildford, Surrey. 

Genus TRACHYSYCON, Zittel, 1878. 

Teachtstcon nodosum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 3, 3 a, 5 b.) 

Body of sponge massive, barrel-shaped, with a truncated summit bounded by a 
subangular margin ; the stem has not been preserved. The lateral surfaces are 
covered with rounded or obtuse elevations disposed irregularly. The only specimen 
is 155 mm. in height and 117 mm. in width. 

The cloaca is subcylindrical, somewhat wider below than at its aperture ; it extends 
rather more than one third the length of the body ; in the present specimen it is 
55 mm. in length by 31 in width. The interior surface of the cloaca is thickly 
covered with the canal-apertures, which are apparently disposed in vertical series. 
These apertures are 1-75 mm. in width. The canals from the basal portion of the 
sponge-body run nearly straight to the cloaca ; those from the lateral portion follow 
a winding course ; whilst the canals springing from near the upper margin of the 
sponge are bent downwards, following the contour of the summit so as to open into 
the upper portion of the cloaca. There is also a series of numerous fine canals, 
•75 mm. in width, extending from the exterior surface in a curved direction towards 
the centre of the sponge. 

The body-spicules are moderately large ; their arms, -3 mm. in length, are smooth 
or sometimes tuberculated ; they are much branched, and the junction-nodules are 
swollen. No surface-spicules have been preserved. 

The single example of this species in the collection is filled with translucent chert, 
in which the body-spicules are fairly well preserved ; the exterior surface is rough, 
and shows no structure. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, 



TEACHYSYCON.— SIPHONIA. 63 

Teachtsycon sulcatum, Ilinde, u. sp. (Plate XII. figs. 2, 2 «, 2 b.) 

Sponge massive, fig-shaped, widest near the summit, which is depressed or slightly 
rounded ; the stem has not been preserved. The exterior surface, with the exception 
of the summit, which appears to have been smooth, is furnished with sinuous, inter- 
rupted, vertically disposed ridges and furrows, and also with conical, slightly curved, 
obtusely pointed, spinous processes, about 15 mm. in length, which have no definite 
arrangement. An average specimen is 110 mm. in height and the same in 
thickness. 

A wide funnel-shaped cloaca extends nearly to the base of the sponge ; numerous 
slightly arched canals, 1'5 mm. in width, open into this cloaca ; there are also sinuous 
branched canals exposed on the summit, radiating from the cloacal margin. The 
spicular skeleton of the interior is completely obliterated. The surface appears to 
have been covered with a dermal layer of minute irregular spicules with horizontal 
sinuously branching head-rays. 

There are two examples of this form in the collection, both of which are com- 
pletely infilled with silex as well as partially enveloped in it. The species is 
distinguished from the Trachysycon [PlocoscyiMa) muricatum, Roemer*, by its 
depressed summit, wide cloaca, and its ridged surface. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England. 

Genus SIPHONIA (Parkinson), pars, Goldfuss. 

The authorship of this genus is involved in obscurity. The name first appears in 
the 'Petrefacta Germanise,' p. 16, and is attributed by Goldfuss to Parkinson; but I 
have been unable to find the term employed anywhere by this last author, though 
he refers at considerable length in the second volume of his ' Organic Remains ' to 
sponges of this genus under the general term of Fossil Alcyonia. Most later authors 
appear to have followed Goldfuss in ascribing the genus to Parkinson without in- 
dicating where the generic characters were defined. Under these circumstances 
Goldfuss must be considered the author of the genus, and the first species which he 
describes, Siphonia piriformis., will have to be regarded as its type. Goldfuss has 
included in Siphonia the sponges which Lamouroux placed under the genera 
Hallirhoa and Jerea ; and many later authors, including Prof. Sollas, who has given 
a very elaborate description of the structure and affinities of Siphonia, adopt the 
Goldfussian extension of the genus. I purpose, however, to follow the proposal of 
Prof. Zittel to retain the genus Siphonia for such typical forms as Siplionia piri- 
formis, tulipa, Jicus, Sec, and to place the lobate forms under the genus Uallirhoa, 
Lamx., and the forms without a cloacal tube under Jerca, Lamx. It is worthy of 
notice that if Hallirhoa or Jerea are to be considered as synonymous with Siphonia, 

* Palxontographiea, Bd. 13, p. 28, t. 10. f. 9. 



G4 ' SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

then, by the rules of priority, tlie term Siphonia will have to give place to one or 
the other of the genera of Lamouroux which were published anterior to Goldfuss's 
Siphonia. 

The genus Ckoanites, Mantell, 'Fossils of the South Downs,' 1822, p. 178, is of a 
later date than the Hallirhoa of Lamouroux, besides which the term is inapplicable 
to sponges like Sij^honia, for the first two species placed under the genus by 
Mantell, Choanites subrotundus and flexuosus, are not Lithistid sponges at all, and 
the type of Choanites is in reality a Hexactinellid sponge. 

SiPHONIA PIRIFORMIS, GoMfuSS. 

1853. Siphonia piriformis, Goldfuss, Petref. Th. 1, p. 16, t. 6. f. 7 a. 
1878. Siphonia piriformis, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 79, t. 9. f. 7. 

Non Siphonia pyr if or mis, Sowerby, Geol. Trans. 2nd ser. vol. iv. t. 15 a. 
Non Siphonia pyriformis, SoUas, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiii. t. 25. f. 1, 
3, 4, 6, 8. 

Distrihution. Craie : Vaches Noires, Eanville, St. Adresse. 

Siphonia tulipa, Zittel. (Plate XIII. figs. 2, 2 «, 2 i, 2 c.) 

1878. Siphonia tulipa, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 79, t. 9. f. 5. 

1836. Siphonia pijriformis, Sowerby, Geol. Trans. 2nd ser. vol. iv. p. 340, t. 15 a. 

1854. Siphonia pyriformis, Mantell, Medals of Creation, p. 231, f. 1-3. 

1877. Siphonia pyriformis, SoUas, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiii. t. 25. f. 1, 3, 4, 6, 8. 

1878. Siphonia Websteri, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, t. 135. f. 15-19. 

Sponges simple or occasionally bifid, with conical or subcylindrical bodies, either 
sharply constricted beneath the body or gradually tapering to a cylindrical stem 
which usually branches at its termination. There is great variation in the size of 
different specimens : a small form in the collection has the body only 21 mm. in 
length by 13 mm. in width; a large specimen measures 105 mm. in length by 
46 mm. in width. 

The cloaca is a narrow elongated tapering tube ; the aperture is narrow, with a 
sharp margin, and about 8 mm. in width. It extends to the central or even the 
lower portion of the body of the specimen. The arched canals which open into the 
cloaca are about 1"25 mm. in width, whilst those extending from the outer surface to 
the interior are very numerous, closely set, and average '5 mm. in width. Branching 
canals radiating from the cloacal margins over the upper surface can also be distin- 
guished in some examples. 

The spicules forming the interior meshwork of the body are mostly smooth-armed, 
though near the extremities the arms, together with the minute branches, are 
frequently tuberculated. The spicular arms are 'IBS mm. in length, measuring from 
the centre to the point where they commence to divide, and '052 mm. in thickness. 



SIPHOXIA. 65 

The spicules of the stem are elongated and thread-like. No dermal layer has been 
preserved. 

This species is extremely abundant in the Upper Green Sand of Blackdown and 
Warminster. The Blackdown examples usually have a sharp constriction between 
the basal portion of the body of the sponge and the stem, which also is of a slender 
character. The Warminster examples, on the other hand, have more elongated 
bodies, which not infrequently gradually taper below to form a stem of considerable 
robustness. There are, however, both at Blackdown and Warminster, specimens 
exhibiting characters intermediate between the two extremes, so that it is quite 
impracticable to limit this species merely to forms which possess the marked con- 
striction between the body and the stem. In all other features the specimens from 
these two localities appear to be similar. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Blackdown, Warminster. 

SiPHOnA LN'CRASSATA, GoIdfuSS. 

1833. Siphonia incrassata, Goldfass, Petref. Th. 1, p. 17, t. 30. f. 3. 
1878. Siphonia incrassata, Zittel, Stadiea, II Ab. p. 79. 

Distribution. Planer-Kalk : Bohemia. Craie Chloritee: Vaches Noires ; Sud- 
merberg. 

SiPHOXiA ncrs, Goldfuss. (Plate XIII. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

1833. Siphonia ficus, Goldfuss, Petref. Th. 1, p. 221, t. 65. f. 14. 
1878. Siphonia ficus, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 79, t. 9. f. 6. 

Sponges fig-shaped or subspherical, with gently rounded summits, either apparently 
sessile or with short branching stems. An average specimen is 75 mm. in height 
and the same in width. The cloaca is cup- or funnel-shaped; it extends to nearly 
the centre of the sponge ; the margins are sharp. In an average specimen it is 
23 mm. in width at the summit. The interior surface exhibits the closely disposed 
apertures (2"25 mm. each in width) of the canals which open into it. Branching 
canals also radiate from the cloacal aperture over the surface. The spicular mesh is 
entirely replaced by calcite, and the forms of the individual spicides are nearly 
entirely obliterated. The outer surface of the specimens is now smooth and only 
exhibits- a delicate fibrous network. 

Distribution. Grey Chalk : near Dover. 

SiPHoyu KoxiGi, Mantell, sp. (Plate XIII. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

1822. Choanites Konigii, Mantell, Geol. of Sussex, p. 179, t. 16. f. 19, 20. 

1808. A Flint, from a gravel-pit, Parkinson, Organic Eemains, vol. ii. p. 100, t. 9. f. 1. 

1850. Choanites Konigi, Dixon, Foss. Sussex, t. 17. f. 1, 3, 4. 

1854. Choanites Konigi, Mantell, Medals of Creation, p. 234, f. 1, 3, 4. 



G6 SILICEOUS SPOXGES. 

1877. Siphonia Konigii, SoUas, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xsxiii. p. 817. 

1878. Siphonia Koenigi, Zitt. Stud. II Ab. p. 79. 

Sponges pear-shaped or subsplierical, the summits usually truncate ; stem cylin- 
drical, apparently slender. An average specimen is 100 mm. in height by 70 mm. 
in width. 

The cloacal tube is cylindrical or funnel-shaped, and extends nearly to the basal 
portion of the body. Its apertui'e is very wide, and the margins are rounded. Very 
strongly marked branching canals, 2 mm. in width, radiate from the margin of the 
cloaca down the sides of tlie sponge. The lateral surfaces exhibit circular or sub- 
angular apertures of canals from 1 to 2 mm. in width. Some of these apertures are 
bridged over by minute thread-like extensions of spicular fibre crossing them. 

The spicules forming the mesh are relatively large, but they are so incrusted with 
silica that it is impracticable to measure them. A dermal layer appears to have 
extended over the outer surface of the sponge and over the interior of the cloacal 
tube as well. The spicules composing it have horizontally expanded, slightly bifur- 
cate head-rays ; the shafts, if present, extended into the sponge. 

Most of the examples of this species are preserved in the interior of flints, and 
retain merely the form of the cloaca and the larger canals, the spicular structure 
having entirely disappeared. There are, however, in the Museum collection a few 
specimens from Flamborough which, in common with the other sponges from that 
locality, are preserved in a chalky matrix, which can be removed by treatment with 
dilute acid ; and these exhibit the form and canal-structure in a very perfect manner, 
but the spicules for the most part are masked by siliceous accretions. They further 
show the important feature of a dermal layer, which has hitherto not been discovered 
in any example of the genus. This layer covered over the exterior branching summit 
canals, and seems also to have covered the interior surface of the cloaca, for in a 
well-preserved specimen the cloaca exhibits a smooth surface like that of the exterior, 
and here and there the openings of the canals can be detected beneath this layer. 

In some of the examples of this species, preserved in flint, there is a filled-up 
spiral tube or canal, from 4 to 8 mm. in width, which winds through the interior of 
the body between the cloaca and tlie outer surface, and opens out at the summit of 
the sponge in the vicinity of the cloacal aperture. This tube has been described by 
Cunnington * as forming part of the original fabric of the sponge, and probably 
connected with the reproductive system. The more probable suggestion is that the 
tube has been formed by an annelid, which has built its shell 'pari passu with the 
growth of the sponge ; and it is not improbable that its constant proximity to the 
cloacal aperture has arisen from the support which the animal inhabiting the tube 
may have derived from the stream of water passing out of the cloaca. Examples in 
the Museum show clearly that this spiral tube was not peculiar to this species of 
* Kcport of British Association, Swansea, 1848, p. 67. 



SIPHONIA.— HALLIEHOA. 67 

Siphonia, for there are cylindrical sponges, probably belonging to Scytalia or Pity- 
viatella, in which it is also present. 

This species appears to be very abundant in the Upper Chalk of this country. It 
is very probable that most of the sponges so common in the flints at Brighton belong 
to this species. The flattened summit and the wide aperture and rounded margins 
of the cloaca readily distinguish the form from the S. Jicus. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough, Yorkshire ; near Brighton, and in other 
localities in the Soutli of England, 

SiPUONIA, sp. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk: Beckhampton. Chalk Marl: Ringmer. 

Subgenus Halliriioa, Lamouroux, 1821. 

Hallirhoa costata, La77ix. (Plate XIV. figs. I, la, lb, Ic, Id, 1 e.) 

1821. Hallirhoa costata, Lamx. Exp. metliod. des Polypiers, p. 72, t. 78. £. 1. 

1831. Polypotliecia bi-septemloba, E. Bcuett, Org. Rem. Wilts. 1. 1-5. 

1847. Hallirhoa costata, Miclielin, Icou. Zoopli. p. 127, t. 31. f. 3. 

1854. Siphonia lobata, Mantell, Medals of Creation^ vol. i. p. 231, f. 4. 

1878. Hallirhoa costata, Queiistcdt, Petref. vol. v. p. 426, t. 135. f. 14. 

1878. Hallirhoa costata, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 79. 

Sponges simple, very variable in the form of their bodies or heads : the simpler 
examples are conical and partially lobed at the base ; the more complex are depressed 
spheroidal, and divided vertically into a varying number (from three to seven) of 
lobes, which occasionally show traces of subdivision. The summit in the lobed 
individuals is flattened or gently rounded. The stem is relatively slender, crooked, 
and with root-like processes at its extremity. The body of a small specimen is 
42 mm. in height by 57 mm. in width, whilst a large individual measures 78 mm. 
in height by 150 mm. in width. The longest stem which I have seen measures 
180 mm. 

The cloaca is cylindrical or funnel-shaped, with angular margins ; its depth varies 
in different individuals^in some examples it is not more than 15 mm. below the 
surface, or about one fourth the vertical height of the body, whilst in others it 
appears to penetrate to the central portion of the body. The larger canals are 
1-5 mm. in width; those immediately beneath the cloaca are straight; exterior to 
these the canals follow a curved course to the cloaca. The smaller canals, which 
extend in an arched direction from the exterior surface to the interior of the sponge, 
are -7 mm. each in width. In weathered specimens numerous canals are exposed on 
the upper surface, radiating from the margins of the cloaca. 

The spicules forming the interior mesh have mostly smooth arms, but their 



68 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

branching extremities are thickly covered with minute tubercles. The spicular 
arms are "202 mm. in length by •067 mm. in thickness. 

The extreme variability in the form of this species is well exemplified in the 
numerous specimens in the Museum. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Wiltshire. Red Chalk : Hun- 
stanton, Norfolk {Prof. Seeley). Craie Chloritee: Vaches Noires, Havre. 

Hallirhoa costata, var. brevicostata, Michelin. (Plate XIV. fig. 2.) 

1847. Hallirhoa brevicostata, Michelin, Icon. Zooph. p. 127, t. 31. f. 2. 
1878. Hallirhoa brevicostata, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 79. 

Sponge in form like a partially opened mushroom, the summit depressed, the sides 
indistinctly divided into five or six shallow lobes, the stem thick at its junction with 
the body and gradually tapering. The only example in the collection is 39 mm. 
in height and 75 mm. in width. This form can hardly be regarded as more than 
a variety of H. costata. It differs from the typical forms of the species in the slight 
degree in which it is lobed and in the thickened stem. Michelin has erroneously 
referred Hallirhoa (Polypothecia) ag arid for mis, Benett, to this variety, but the two 
forms are very distinct from each other. 

distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Wiltshire. 

Hallirhoa costata, var. TessOiVls, Michelin. 

1847. Hallirhoa Tessonis, Michelin, Icon. Zooph. p. 128, t. 34. f. 1. 
1878. Hallirhoa Tessonis, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 79. 

This variety only differs from the typical forms of H. costata in the gradual 
tapering of the body of the sponge to the stem, instead of the sharp constriction 
usually present between the base of the body and the summit of the stem. 

Distribution. Craie Chloritee : Vaches Noires, near Havre (Tesson collection). 

Hallirhoa costata, var. elevata, Ilinde. (Plate XIV. fig. 3.) 

In this variety the body of the sponge is formed by five subequal, elongated, 
compressed lobes ; the central portion of the summit is distinctly elevated, with the 
cloacal aperture at the top. The upper margins of the lobes are separate from each 
other, and more compressed than the sides. The cloacal aperture is 15 mm. in 
width. The single example is 110 mm. in height and 100 mm. in width. This 
variety conspicuously differs from the typical lobed forms of//, costata in the elevated 
summit and in the narrow upper margins of the lobes. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. 



HALLIRHOA. 69 

Hallibhoa AQATiiciFORMis, Benett, sp. (Plate XV. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b.) 

1831. Polypothecia agariciformis, Benett, Cat. Org. Rem. Wilts, t. 15. f. 1, 2. 

^ 1847. Siphonia acaulis, Michelin, Icon. Zoophy. p. 139, t. 38. f. 2. 

1847. Nou Hallirhoa brevicostata, Mich. Icon. Zoophy. p. 127, t. 31. f. 2. 

1854. Hippalimus fungoides, Moms, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 28. 

Sponges more or less depressed, conical, or mushroom-shaped, with generally an 
even slope from the cloaca to the exterior margin, which is frequently irregular in 
outline, more or less circular, occasionally thin, and not infrequently with finger- or 
spur-like processes extending outwards. The under surface of the sponge is hollowed 
out and intersected with very prominent sinuous ridges, distributed in an irregular 
manner. In many specimens there are no traces of u stem, and the sponge is 
apparently sessile ; in others, however, there is a small cylindrical process in the 
centre of the underside, which may represent the upper portion of a slender stem. 
There is considerable variation in the size of different examples — a small specimen 
measures 40 mm. in height by 75 mm. in width, and a large form is 80 mm. in height 
and 155 mm. across the base. 

The cloaca is cylindrical and, as a rule, does not extend deep into the body. It 
is situated at the summit of the cone, its margins are sharp, and its interior surface 
is covered with the closely set apertures of canals, which, in some examples at least, 
are disposed in vertical rows. The upper surface of the sponge is covered with 
numerous, slightly sinuous, branching canals, I'o mm. in width, which radiate down- 
wards from the margins of the cloaca towards the exterior edge. These canals are 
generally open, but were in all probability covered by a dermal layer. In a vertical 
section canals similar in size and direction to those of the surface are exposed. The 
basal surface of the sponge exhibits numerous irregularly shaped canal-apertures ; 
there are also indications of a dermal layer extending over tlie under surface. 

The spicules of the interior mesh have robust smooth arms, with tuberculatcd 
extremities which interlock together. The arms of the spicules are '38 mm. in 
length and -078 mm. in tliickness. A small portion of the surface of a specimen 
belonging to the Jermyn-Street Museum is covered with a dermal layer of minute, 
flattened, deeply laciniated spicules about -65 mm. in width, which are so arranged 
that their arms overlap each other. These spicules are furnished with shafts which 
extend into the sponge. I have not been able to detach any of the spicules to 
ascertain the length of the sliaft, but its presence is clearly indicated by the minute 
aperture which is seen where the heads of the dermal spicules have fallen oft' the 
surface. Where this dermal layer is present tlie surface of the sponge is smooth, 
and the underlying canals are quite concealed from view. 

The examples of this species appear to have been abundant in the Upper Green 
Sand of certain localities. Miss Benett's figures very accurately represent the outer 
surface of this species ; notwithstanding this, Michelin relegated her forms to his 



70 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Hallirhoa hrevicostata, which they do not at all resemble. On the other hand, this 
same author has given the name of Siphonia acauUs to an example of this species 
from Cap la Heve. Examples from this locality in the Museum collection distinctly 
show the resemblance to specimens from Warminster, in spite of the different aspect 
resulting from fossilization. This species has also been referred to Hippalimus 
funqoides, Lamx. ; but though I have not seen an example of this form, the descrip- 
tion and figure of Lamouroux represent an altogether different sponge from the 
present species. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster ; Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; Cap la 
Heve, Seine-Inferieure. 

Genus JEREA, Lamouroux, 1821. , 

JeREA PTKIFOEillS, Laiiix. 

1821. Jerea 2iyriform.'is, Lamx. Exp. method, p. 79, t. 78. f. 3. 
1847. Jerea pyriformis , Mich. Icon. Zooph. p. 133, t. 36. f. 3. 
1878. Jerea pyriformis, Zitt. Studien, II Ab. p. 81. 

Distribution. Craie Chloritee : Vaches Noires, Havi-e. 

Jerea Websteri, Sowerby, sp., MS.1 

1814. Tulip Alcyonium, Webster, Trans. Geo). Soc. vol. ii. p. 377, t. 28. 
1854. Siphonia Websteri, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 30. 

Sponges pear-shaped or ovate in form, with a conical summit, and gradually 
tapering to a somewhat slender stem at the base. In none of the Museum 
specimens has the stem been preserved ; but according to Webster's figures it 
appears to have been unusually long. The body of a small individual is 48 mm. 
in length by 20 mm. in width, whilst a large specimen measures 81 mm. by 51 mm. 

x\t the summit is a closely arranged group of canal-apertures 1"5 mm. each in 
width, which open directly at the surface and not in any depression. Down the 
sides are shown in some specimens longitudinal, sinuous, branching canals. The 
spicular structure is not clearly exposed. 

Prof. Morris quotes Sowerby as the author of this species, but I have not been able 
to discover the published description. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster ; Isle of Wight. 

Jerea reticulata, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XV. figs. 2, 2 «, 2 b.) 

Sponges fig-shaped or subspherical, with slightly truncated summits, either with 
a short peduncular stem or apparently sessile. A small specimen is 26 mm. in height 
by 21 mm. in width, whilst a fairly large globular form is 35 mm. in height by 42 mm. 
in width. 



JEREA. 71 

In the shallow depression at*the summit of the sponge are the apertures of a group 
of canals, about 1 mm. each in width. From the summit there extends over the 
surface a series of canals which apparently anastomose with each other, and give a 
reticulate appearance to the sponge. In a vertical median section the only canals 
distinctly shown extend in an arched direction from the surface to the centre of the 
sponge. These canals appear to be very wide near the outer surface, and to open 
directly into the reticulate canals. The interspaces of the surface between the 
reticulations appear to have no other apertures beyond the openings of the spicular 
mesh. 

The interior skeleton is built up of robust spicules with smooth arms and prominent 
botryoidal nodes at their junction with each other. No dermal layer has been 
preserved. 

This species may be recognized by the reticulated surface and the peculiar character 
of the canals extending from it to the centre of the sponge. 

Bistrihution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Blackdown ; Cap la Heve ; Retsel, 
Ardennes. Craie Chloritee : Honfleur, Vaches Noires. Gault \ near Folkestone. 

Jerea Quenstedti, Zittel. 

1878. Jerea Quenstedti, Zitt. Studieu, II Ab. p. 81, t. 10. f. 2. 
1878. Slphoniaficus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 431, t. 135. f. 20-33. 

Microscopic slides with spicules of this species. 
Distribution. Quadraten-Kreide : Linden, Hanover. 

Jerea cordiformis, Ilinde, n. sp. (Plate XV. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Sponge obcordate in form, with an evenly rounded summit, constricted at the base, 
and apparently supported on a stout stem. The only specimen in the collection is 
93 mm. in height and 73 mm. in width. 

The somewhat elongated rounded ridge at the summit is pierced by numerous 
apertures of the vertical series of canals, 2 mm. in width. From the summit also, 
open, sinuous, branched canals extend down the sides of the sponge. The canals 
extending from the surface towards the interior are greatly arclied, and 1 ram. in 
width. 

As is usual in all the specimens from the Grey Chalk, no spicules have been 
preserved in this form, but prominent junction-nodes can be recognized ; and I have 
no doubt that the sponge belongs to the Tetracladina family. 

In its peculiar form and in the character of the summit this sponge is distinct from 
any hitherto referred to this genus. 

Distribution. Grey Chalk : near Dover, 



72 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Jekea excavata ■?, Michelin. 

Jerea excavata, Michelin, Icon. Zooph. p. 135, t. 39. f. 2. 
Jerea excavata, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 81, t. 10. f. 1. 
Rhysospongia pictonica, Court. Ep. foss. t. 1. f. 1, 2. 

Sponge massive, hemispherical, the upper surface slightly concave, the under 
surface rounded, apparently sessile. Height 70 mm., width 138 mm. 

Numerous canal-apertures, 3'5 mm. in width, open into the shallow depression of 
the summit and also on the sides. The only specimen is a solid mass of flint which 
merely retains the outer form and the canal-apertures. In the absence of the spicular 
structure, it can only be doubtfully referred to Michelin's species. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Wiltshire. 

Genus NELUMBIA, Pomel, 1872. 

Nelumbia tubekosa, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XVI. figs. I, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c.) 

Sponge club-shaped, with an irregularly truncated summit, gradually tapering at 
the basal end to form root-like processes. A few irregularly scattered nodose 
projections are present on the surface. Length 180 mm., width 34 mm. 

Numerous circular or polygonal canals, 3 mm. wide, open at the summit, and 
extend vertically nearly to the base of the sponge. Another series of canals, 1 mm. 
wide, extend from the lateral surfaces, in a slightly arched direction, to the central 
portion of the sponge. 

The spicules of the interior mesh, though now replaced by calcite, can be fairly 
recognized. They appear to possess smooth robust arms, "27 mm. in length by 
•045 mm. in width, and prominent junction-nodes. The surface appears to have 
been completely covered with a delicate dermal layer principally composed of the 
horizontally extended heads of trifid spicules with bifurcate, straight, pointed rays. 
Some of the spicular heads are "6 mm. in width. 

In the size and form of the specimen itself, and of the canals, this species difi'ers 
from the different forms figured by Courtiller* under the name of Polystoma, which 
have been placed by Pomel as the types of the genus Nehtmbia. In Pomel'sf 
definition it is stated that the vertical canals do not penetrate deeply below the 
summit of the sponge ; but, as already indicated by Zittel, it seems very probable 
that he is mistaken on this point, for in the figures of the type species the canals are 
shown, in the section of at least one specimen, to extend to the basal portion of 
the sponge. 

Distributioou Grey Chalk: near Dover. Upper Chalk : South of England. 

* Eponges fossiles, p. 10, t. 15. 
t Paleontologie d'Oran, p. 194. 



POLTJEREA.— BOLOSPONGIA. 73 

Genus POLYJEREA, Fromentel emend. Zittel. 

PoLTJEREA ARBUSCULA, Ilinde, n. sp. (Plate XVI. figs, 2, 2 a.) 

Sponge massive, growing from a simple, compressed stem*, from which spring 
upright, straight, or slightly curved, cylindrical, compressed, or club-shaped branches, 
which also subdivide. The branches are mostly separate, but occasionally coalesce 
together ; they average 36 mm. in thickness. At the summit of the branches are the 
apertures of numerous canals, about 2 mm. in width, which extend vertically down 
the branches. The lateral surfaces are covered with smaller apertures of canals, 
1 mm. in width, which extend towards the centre, of the branch. 

The spicules of the interior mesh have smooth arms and prominent nodes. 
Occasionally traces of the dermal layer are preserved ; it consisted, in part at least, 
of trifid spicules, with horizontal heads of pointed rays, similar to those of Nelumbia 
tuherosa. 

I am unable to determine how far this species differs from Polyjerea ramifera, 
Zitt.*, in its mode of growth. By the form and disposition of the branches it may 
readily be distinguished from Polyjerea gregaria, Mich.f sp. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. Grey Chalk : near Dover. 

PoLTJEREA LOBATA, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XVI. fig. 3.) 
Sponge consisting of a compact group of fig- or barrel-shaped, or occasionally 
cylindrical individuals, growing from a flattened base or from a slight peduncle. 
The outer surface of the group is partially lobed, but in the central portion the 
individuals are closely amalgamated together ; the summits are, however, free. The 
number of individuals in each compound mass varies between six and twenty. In size 
the compound form is from 90 to 105 mm. in width, and about 64 mm. in height. 

The summit of each individual is truncate, or has a slight shallow depression ; the 
canals opening at the summit are 2 mm. in width, and extend nearly to the base of 
the sponge. The spicules of the interior mesh have been replaced by calcite in the 
specimens from the Grey Chalk ; in the forms from the Upper Green Sand they have 
relatively short, smooth arms and prominent junction-nodes. Only traces of a dermal 
layer have been preserved ; it resembles in the form of its larger spicules that of the 
last species. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. Grey Chalk : near Dover. 

Genus BOLOSPONGIA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges subspherical or elongate and lobate. No regular series of canals is 
present ; in the rounded forms there are interior loculi which communicate with the 
• Studien, II Ab. p. 83. t Icon. Zooph. p. 134, t. 38. f. 1. 

L 



74 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

exterior by wide channels; in the elongate examples the lobes are deeply constricted, 
and no definite canals are apparent. The spicular mesh of the interior is composed 
of four-rayed spicules, with apparently smooth arms and prominent nodes at their 
junction with each other. A dermal layer is partially preserved, but its component 
spicules are not recognizable. 

I propose this genus for a small group of sponges which, in external form, closely 
resemble certain species of AstroboUa, Zittel. In this genus, however, the spicules 
are of the RMzomorine type, whereas in Bolospongia they are distinctly Tetracladine. 
The specimens are from the Upper Chalk of Flamborough, and, in common with all 
the examples from this locality, their spicular structure has been mostly destroyed. 

BoLOSPONGiA GLOBATA, Hiude, n. sp. (Plate XVII. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 b.) 

Sponges subspherical, closely resembling a potato in form, the surface uneven, with 
slight rounded elevations and intervening depressions ; in some examples there is a 
minute peduncle not more than 5 mm. in length ; other specimens are apparently 
entirely free. An average example is 45 mm. in diameter. 

On the surface of specimens which have been treated with acid there are exhibited 
in places small circular apertures about 2'5 mm. in width, and occasionally a few 
canals radiate from these over the surface. In a vertical section irregular channels, 
6 mm. wide, and open spaces are exposed. The spicules have been replaced by 
crystalline calcite and silica, but their rough outlines can be distinctly seen in thin 
sections. The arms are relatively large and robust, "315 mm. in length by -067 mm. 
in width ; some of the nodes are "27 mm. in thickness. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough, Yorkshire. 

BoLOSPONGiA CONSTEICTA, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XVII. fig. 2, 2 a.) 
Sponge elongate, consisting of a series of irregularly shaped lobes, the constrictions 
between which extend to the central portion of the sponge. There are a few traces 
of surface-canals ; oscules are not apparent, and the circulation seems to have been 
carried on in the channels between the lobes. The spicular mesh is of a loose, 
open character ; the spicules are similar to those oi £. globata. A compact dermal 
layer apparently covered the outer surface, but the form of its spicules cannot be 
recognized. 

There is but one specimen of this singular sponge in the Collection. It is 108 mm. 
in length by 42 mm. in width. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough. 



THECOSIPHONIA. 75 

Genus THECOSIPHONIA, Zittel, 1878. 

Thecosiphonia nobilis, Roemer, sp. (Plate XVII. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

1864'. Limnorea nobilis, F. A. Roemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 37, t. 15. f. 1. 
1878. Limnorea nobilis, Quenst. Petref. BJ. 5, t. 133. f. 8-11. 
1878. Thecosiphonia nobilis, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 84. 

The only example of this species is a compound form, 72 mm. in height by 90 mm. 
in width, consisting of three individuals closely aggregated together, and united by a 
common dermal layer. The individuals are roughly ovate in form ; they appear to 
have had one or two cloaca-like depressions on the summit ; the canal-structure of 
the interior has been destroyed. Some of the spicules of the interior mesh can be 
seen ; they are relatively very large, the arms and nodes measuring 5 mm. in length ; 
the nodes are very prominent. 

The dermal layer is thin, and grows in concentric, wrinkled bands ; it appears to 
have originally extended all over the sponge, with the exception of the summit ; its 
surface is smooth, and contrasts strongly with the rough furrowed character of the 
summit. I have been unable to determine the form of the spicules composing this 
membrane. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Wiltshire {Cannington coll.). The example belongs 
to the Jermyn-Street Museum. 

Thecosiphonia turbinata, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XVII. fig. 4.) 

Sponge turbinate in form ; the upper portion or body is depressed, conical, with a 
wide base supported on a short, oblique, obtusely terminated stem. The base is 
concentrically furrowed and wrinkled, and carries one or two short radical processes. 
The single example is 85 mm. in height and 100 mm. in width. 

The upper surface of the sponge is rough ; the cloaca at the summit is 26 mm. in 
width, and does not appear to have been deep ; from its margins sinuous branching 
canals radiate over the surface. The interior canals have been destroyed. 

Only here and there can the four-rayed spicules of the mesh be detected ; they are 
smaller than those of T. nobilis. The under surface and the stem appear to have 
been completely covered with the dermal layer, but its spicular elements cannot be 
recognized. 

The only specimen is now a mass of flint, in which only the outer form, the dermal 
layer, and a few of the interior spicules are preserved. In its form and in the 
restriction of the dermal layer to the basal portion it differs from Thecosiphonia 
{Tremosjjongia) grandis, Roemer*. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Stockton, near Heytesbury, Wiltshire. 

• Palicontogr. Bd. 13, Taf. 15. fig. 3c. 

l2 



76 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Genus CALYMMATINA, Zittel, 1878. 

Caltmmatina eimosa, Zittel. 
1878. Calymmatina rimosa, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 85, t. 2. f. 2, and t. 9. f. 8. 

There is a single specimen in the Collection which, so far as can be determined 
from its imperfect preservation, appears to belong to the above species. Nothing is 
known as to the locality whence it comes ; judging from the matrix it would seem 
to have been derived from the Upper Chalk. 

Genus TUEONIA, Iliclielin, 1847. 

TuEONiA VARIABILIS, Michclin. (Plate XVIII. fig. 1.) 

1847. Turonia variabilis, Mich. Icon. Zoopli. p. 126, t. 35. f. 1-8. 

1861. Turonia variabilis et sulcata, Court. Epouges foss. p. 25, t. 40. f. 1-3. 

1878. Turonia variabilis, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 86. 

Sponges conical in form, with a flattened or rounded base, from which one or more 
radical processes project. A small example is 21 mm. in height by 25 mm. in width ; 
another specimen is 52 mm. in height by 42 mm. in width. 

The upper, distinctly conical portion of the sponge has a tubular cloaca, which 
opens at the summit of the cone; the sides are rough and deeply furrowed with 
open canals, which radiate downwards from the edge of the cloaca ; in these canals 
are occasionally seen the apertures of smaller canals, which penetrate to the interior 
of the sponge. The lower margin of the upper cone overlaps slightly the upper 
portion of the base, and is usually distinctly marked off from it by a well-defined 
furrow. The basal portion is smooth and compact. 

The mesh-spicules have robust arms and branching extremities. The dermal layer 
is partly composed of very minute irregular-shaped spicules, and partly of minute 
trifid spicules with delicate horizontally expanded head-rays. 

This species is rare in this country. I have only seen two imperfect examples ; it 
appears to be abundant in the neighbourhood of Tours. The specimen figured is 
probably from France ; the particular locality is unknown. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough, Yorkshire ; South of England ; France. 

Genus KALPINELLA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges simple, cup- or vase-shaped, supported on a cylindrical or compressed 
stem, with root-like processes at its termination. Margins rounded. Both the 
interior and exterior surfaces of the sponge-wall with numerous canal-apertures. 
The canals are somewhat sinuous and extend through the wall at right angles or 
obliquely to the surface. Vertical canals also extend down the stem. 



KALPINELLA. 77 

The mesh-structure of the interior is relatively close, composed of small four- 
rayed spicules with short, robust, smooth arms, and branching tuberculated extre- 
mities. No dermal layer has been preserved. 

I place in this genus a group of sponges which in form closely resemble some 
species of Che7iendo])ora, and can only be distinguished therefrom by an examination 
of the spicular structure, which is distinctly Tetracladine. The absence of the 
dermal layer prevents a comparison with the recent genus Discodermia ; there is 
hardly a doubt that the fossil forms were originally furnished with a surface-layer ; 
and should future discovery show that its spicular structure resembles that of Disco- 
dermia, the present genus will have to be relinquished, as the interior spicular 
structure is very similar to that of the recent genus. 

With one doubtful exception from the Grey Chalk, all the sponges of this genus 
come from the Upper Green Sand, and, in common with most of the examples from 
the same beds, retain the spicular mesh of the interior in good preservation, but the 
minute structure of the exterior surface is obliterated. 

Kalpinella PATERiEFOKMis, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XVIII. fig. 4, and 
Plate XIX. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 h.) 
1831. PoJypothecia e/rpansa?, Benettj Cat. Org. Rem. Wilts, t. 6. f. 2. 

Sponges cup-shaped, in some cases shallow and expanded, in others moderately 
deep. The stem is either short and compressed or elongated and cylindrical. The 
margins of the cup are rounded, and sometimes exhibit open canals. The wall 
varies between 12 and 18 mm. in thickness in different specimens. A small example 
is 70 mm. in width across the cup, and a large specimen 110 mm. The longest stem 
preserved measures 93 mm. 

The canal-apertures are from 1 to 1-5 mm. in width ; they are nearly equal in 
size, so far as can be ascertained, on both the upper and under surfaces of the cup- 
wall; in some specimens the canals of the under surface open very obliquely 
downwards. 

The spicular rays of the interior are very irregular in length, and from '02 to 
•04 mm. in thickness. The extremity of the rays is developed into a bunch of 
tubercles, and by the interlocking of the tubercles of adjoining rays the mesh is 
built up. In some of the spicules the canals of the interior are still preserved ; they 
extend from the centre of the spicule to about half or two thirds the length of the 
arms, and appear as very minute cylindrical tubes. 

In external form some of the specimens resemble the Polypothecia expansa, Benett ; 
but in the absence of all description of the internal structure of this species, I have 
deemed it best to place these forms under a fresh designation. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. Doubtfully from the Grey Chalk 
near Folkestone. 



78 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Kalpinella rugosa, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XIX. fig. 2.) 

Sponge massive, expanded cup- or vase-shaped, with corrugated and folded walls 
in the upper portion of the cup, the under surface either smooth or with nodose 
outgrowths. Only the upper portion of the simple cylindrical stem preserved. The 
walls vary from 17 to 23 mm. in thickness. A fairly large specimen is 230 mm. 
wide at the summit of the cup, and 110 mm. in height. 

The canal and spicular structures resemble those of the last species, from which this 
is mainly distinguished by its thicker and folded walls and its larger dimensions. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand: Warminster, Burbage, Wiltshire. 

Genus THAMNOSPONGIA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges growing in the form of simple upright branching stems, or forming bush- 
like masses. The branches cylindrical or rarely compressed. 

With the exception of one species, in which canals do not appear to be present, 
these sponges are traversed longitudinally by one or more canals. 

The interior skeleton forms a close mesh, composed of very minute spicules with 
short stumpy arras. The arms are covered with relatively large prominent tubercles, 
in such a manner that they appear in some instances to be made up of closely set 
tubercles or rings. These spicules appear to be connected together either by the 
interlocking of the tubercles of adjoining spicules or by the adpression of the 
extremities of the spicular arms, but they do not form distinct nodes at their points 
of junction with each other. 

I propose this genus for a group of sponges which closely resemble, as regards 
their form and mode of growth, some species of Poltjjerea and Astrocladia, but 
present a very different form of mesh-spicule. In both these last-named genera the 
spicules of the mesh have smooth arms and form prominent junction-nodes; but in 
the present genus the spicules are tuberculated throughout, and the nodes are incon- 
spicuous. The characters of the dermal layer also vary from those of Astrocladia, 
in which no regular trifid spicules are present, whilst these form well-recognized 
features in the dermal layer of this genus. The character of the interior spicules, 
and their mode of union with each other, exhibit some similarity to the spicular 
structure in Plinthosella ; but the mesh is much closer and the spicules are far smaller 
than in any sponge of that genus, whilst the form of the spicules of the dermal 
layers is altogether distinct. 

The examples of this genus appear to be abundant in the Upper Chalk, and they 
usually occur in the interior of flints, frequently loose, so that when the flint is 
broken the sponge may be extracted. As a rule, the interior skeletal structure is 
destroyed, but the dermal layer is partially preserved, and the spicules in it can be 
determined. I refer, provisionally, to this genus also a specimen from the Grey 



THAMNOSPONGIA. 79 

Chalk, which diflfers from the Upper-Chalk specimens in the characters of the 
interior canals. 

Thamnospongia glabra, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XVII. figs. 5, 5 «, 5 h, 5 c.) 

Sponge growing in bushy masses, consisting of cylindrical upright or bent stems, 
which give off irregularly, at an open angle, short curved branches with conical Or 
blunted extremities. A single mass attains a height of 160 mm. ; the stems are from 
8 to 11 mm. in thickness; the lateral branches are somewhat less. The surface of the 
sponge in many specimens is extremely smooth, but in others, where the dermal 
layer is absent, it is rough. 

The canal-structure in all the specimens is very imperfectly preserved, and I am 
unable to affirm the presence of more than a single longitudinal canal, which is 
faintly apparent in the centre of some of the stems, and is about 1'75 mm. in width ; 
it is possible, however, that other canals would be seen in well-preserved specimens. 
The terminals of most of the branches do not exhibit canal-apertures. 

The interior skeletal mesh is formed of very minute tuberculated spicules, with 
arms or rays about -16 mm. in length. The dermal layer is smooth and compact ; 
the heads of the largest of the trifid spicules are -3 mm. in width ; between the larger 
forms are very numerous small ones. As a rule, the larger spicules have fallen off 
the surface of the dermal layer, leaving, however, distinct impressions of their form, 
and of the shaft of the spicule, in the centre of each. In two small branches of a 
sponge, apparently belonging to this species, which Mr. H. J. Carter, F.E.S., has 
presented to the Museum, the smooth dermal layer exhibits in places minute groups 
of circular pores. There are about ten of these pores in a group, which is only 
•3 mm. across ; the groups are once or twice their own width apart. The pores are 
close together, and their margins are smooth and well defined. 

This species differs from the next in its mode of growth and in the characters of 
the dermal layer, the spicules of which are much smaller than in T. clavellata. It 
appears to be not uncommon in the Upper-Chalk flints of the south-west of 
England. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Woodford, Beckhampton, Wiltshire ; near Budleigh 
Salterton, Devonshire, in superficial detritus {Mr. II. J. Carter). 

Thamnospongia clavellata, Benett, sp. (Plate XVIII. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b.) 

1831. Polypothecia clavellata, Benett^ Cat. Org. Rem. Wilts, t. 12. 

1854. Spongites clavellatus, Mantell, Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 224, f. 2. 

Sponge generally consisting of a single straight or slightly sinuous stem, which 
gives off', mostly at right angles, short stumpy branches or spur-like processes, either 
blunted or rarely bulbous at their extremities. In some cases the branches extend 
to the adjoining stems and coalesce with them ; but, as a rule, the stems are single. 



80 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

The steins vary from 7 to 14 mm. in thickness, and reach to a length of 110 mm. 
The branches are from 4 to 9 mm. in thickness. 

The canal-structure is mostly obliterated; but in some specimens four or five 
longitudinal canals, -6 mm. in width, are exposed in the broken ends of a branch. The 
spicular mesh appears to be of the same character as in T. glabra, but the spicules 
are somewhat larger. The dermal layer is only partially preserved ; the larger trifid 
heads are '6 mm. in extension, and thus double the size of those in T. glabra. 

This species is also very common in Chalk flints ; the short branches, usually 
single stem, generally rough exterior, and the larger size of the spicules of the 
dermal layer readily distinguish it from T. glabra. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Chicklade, near Hindon ; Stockton, near Heytesbury ; 
Warminster, Wiltshire ; Dover, 

Thamnospongia ■? RETicgLATA, Eiude, n. sp. (Plate XVIII. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b.) 

Sponge consisting of a group of closely arranged, cylindrical or compressed stems, 
growing in an upright direction, and frequently coalescing. The summits are conical. 
The stems are from 10 to IG mm. in thickness. An imperfect example is 100 mm. 
in height and 80 in width. 

Each stem is traversed longitudinally by a single cylindrical canal, 3-5 mm. in 
width, into which sinuous radial canals, horizontal or slightly arched, and "5 mm. in 
width, open. The exterior surface, when the dermal layer is absent, is covered 
with a network of reticulated canals. At the summit of the individual stems are 
the openings of the vertical canals, which thus appear to have served as cloacal 
tubes. 

The spicules of the interior have been replaced by calcite, and are too indistinct 
for the presence or otherwise of the tubercles to be determined. The arms measure 
•135 mm. in length by -038 mm. in Avidth. Traces of the dermal layer remain ; the 
spicules composing it are of the same character as those of T. glabra. 

In the absence of a satisfactory determination of the mesh-spicules, I can only 
refer this form provisionally to this genus. Its mode of growth readily characterizes 
it from the previous species. 

Distribution. Grey Chalk : near Folkestone. 

Genus PHOLIDOCLADIA, Einde, n. g. 

Sponges growing in bushy masses, consisting of cylindrical branching stems. No 
canal-structure apparent. 

The interior skeletal mesh is composed of minute tetracladine spicules, with 
strongly tuberculated or annulated arms, and apparently small twig-like extensions 
at their ends, which grasp the arms of adjoining spicules without forming distinctive 



PHOLIDOCLADIA. 81 

nodes at their point of junction. The dermal layer is formed of minute irregular 
scale-like spicules, which ovei'lap each other to form a compact surface-covering. 

This genus is allied to Thamnosponffia in the general characters of the interior 
spicular mesh ; but the spicular rays in this latter genus are not so strongly tuber- 
ciilated, and the tubercles are not in a single series as in PhoUdocladia. It is 
further differentiated from Thamnospomjia in the form of the spicules of the dermal 
layer. The characters of the dermal layer ally the genus to Plinthosella, but the 
interior spicules differ notably in their form, size, and disposition from those of 
Plinthosella ; the mode of growth of the sponge itself is also very different. 

The only examples of the genus are from the Upper Chalk, preserved in the 
interior of flints. 

Pholidocladia dichotomus, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XX. figs. 5, 5 «, 5 b.) 

Sponge growing in a bush-like form, with somewhat slender branches, from 5 "5 to 
8'5 mm. in thickness, which dichotomise at intervals. The branches frequently 
coalesce when they come in contact with each other ; they are rounded at their 
terminations. The only specimen, which is incomplete, forms a mass about 110 mm. 
in height and 75 mm. in width. 

The spicular mesh of the interior is closely set ; the spicular arms are about 
•3 mm. in length and -07 mm. in width. The dermal layer is only partially preserved ; 
the scaly spicules composing it are very irregular in form — some are cii'cular or oval 
with smooth or indented margins, whilst others are partially elongated : they are 
about -5 mm. in width. Where thfe dermal layer is preserved the surface of the 
stems is smooth. 

The specimen figured belongs to the Jermyn-Street Museum. 

Bistrihution. Upper Chalk: Wiltshire {Cunnington coll.). 

PnoLiDOCLADiA KAMOSus, Hiiide, n. sp. (Plate XVIII. figs. 5, 5 «, 5 b.) 

Sponge growing in bushy masses of small irregularly branching stems, from 2'5 to 
3*5 mm. in thickness; branches rounded at their ends. The spicular mesh of the 
interior is formed of very nodose spicules, with arms about '25 mm. in length and 
•07 mm. in width. No dermal layer has been preserved. 

This species generally occurs in the form of small empty branching tubes in the 
interior of flints, which would hardly be recognized as casts of lithistid sponges. 
The sponge-stem itself is very seldom preserved ; but I fortunately found one or two 
small fragments which left no doubt that these tubes were occupied by small 
branching sponges, which had afterwards been dissolved away. The character of 
the interior spicular mesh of this species so closely resembles that of P. dichotoma 
that it is highly probable that, similar to that species, it also had a dermal layer of 
small scales. There are several flints in the collection with tubes even smaller than 

M 



82 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

in the one figured ; but whether these were originally filled with sponges with yet 
slenderer stems than the present form I am unable to determine, for no fragments of 
the sponges remain. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England. 

Genus RAGADINIA, Zittel, 1878. 

The typical and, up to the present, only described species of this genus, Bagadinia 
rimosa, Roemer *, sp., consists of ear- or platter-shaped sponges, with a short lateral 
stem and thick walls. There are in the Museum collection several species of sponges 
which correspond with the typical form of Zittel in the interior spicular structure, 
and also in the spicular structure of the dermal layer and in the characters of the 
canals, but differ in their exterior form. These sponges are either cup- or vase- 
shaped, or irregularly club-shaped. As these sponges are similar in the important 
features of their spicular and canal-structures, I propose to extend Zittel's definition 
of the genus so as to include sponges of the above-mentioned forms. 

Ragadinia rimosa, Roemer, sp. 

1864. Cupulospongia rimosa, F. A. Roemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 51, t. 17. f. 8. 

1878. Ragadinia rimosa, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 88, f . 4 a-f; and Handbuch, p. 166, f. 79. 

Microscopic slides of the interior spicules and of the spicules of the dermal layer, 
from Professor Zittel. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Ahlten, Hanover. 

Ragadinia compressa, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XIX. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Sponges vase- or funnel-shaped, frequently compressed, though some examples 
are open and shallow, supported on a short stout stem, which is attached to some 
foreign object at its termination. Not infrequently there are nodose outgrowths in 
the lower part of the cup. Walls comparatively thick, varying Ixom 10 to 13 mm. 
The margins are rounded, and occasionally show fine, transverse, open canals. The 
specimens are from 80 to 113 mm. in height, and about the same in breadth at the 
summit of the cup. 

The upper or interior surface of the cup is furrowed irregularly by minute open 
canals ; the under surface exhibits also a series of delicate canals with a downward 
direction. These canals are only apparent in some specimens : usually the outer 
surface has numerous apertures of canals, 1 mm. in width, which open very obliquely 
to the surface. 

The spicules of the interior mesh are minute and very characteristic in form. One 
of the four arms merely consists of a prominent tubercle ; the other three arms have 

* Palaeontograpliica, Bd. 13, p. 51, 1. 17. f. 8. 



EAGADINIA. 83 

ring-like swellings near their centres, and at their distal ends split up irregularly 
into small twigs, by which they are interlocked together, but they do not appear to 
form prominent nodes at the point of junction of the arms. The outer surface of 
the sponge, where the dermal layer is not present, shows, under a strong lens, the 
tubercled spicular arm projecting outwards. The body-spicules of this species are 
exactly similar to the detached spicules discovered in the Trimmingham Chalk by 
Professor Sollas *, and named by him Compsapsis cretacea, and in the Chalk flint at 
Horstead by myself, and named Ragadinia annulata f . As, however, these remarkable 
body-spicules are not peculiar to a single species of sponge, the names given to the 
detached spicules cannot be applied to the present or the following forms in which 
they occur. 

A dermal layer is present in some portions of the outer surface of the specimens, 
and probably originally extended over the entire sponge. It is composed of the 
horizontally expanded heads of shafted spicules, about '3 mm. in width, which are 
deeply lobed and laciniated. These heads overlap each other so as to form a con- 
nected membrane with a smooth surface. Some of the detached dermal spicules 
from the Horstead Chalk flint J, which I referred to Ragadinia annulata, probably 
belong to the present species. These dermal spicules also very closely resemble 
those of the existing Corallistes asterodiscus, O. Schmidt ; but from an examination 
of microscopic specimens of this sponge, labelled by Schmidt himself, T have ascer- 
tained that its body-spicules are different from those of the present species. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Oare, Huish, Wiltshire {Cunnington coll.). 

Eagadinia sulcata, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XX. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

Sponges cup- or funnel-shaped, frequently with only a shallow interior depression. 
They gradually taper to a short, straight or oblique, cylindrical stem, with root-like 
processes at its termination. Sometimes there are small nodose projections near the 
rounded margins of the cup. The walls of the cup vary from 6 to 8 mm. in 
thickness. The specimens are from 70 to 90 mm. in height and about 55 mm. in 
width at the summit. 

Both the outer and inner surface of the sponge is traversed by numerous open 
canals, about "5 mm. in width, frequently disposed side by side, and running in an 
oblique direction, thus giving the surface a furrowed aspect. In addition to the 
surface-canals there are others extending into the wall and apparently opening into 
the surface-canals. 

The interior spicular skeleton is composed of spicules of the same annular cha- 
racter, but larger than those of Ragadinia compressa ; mingled with these there are 

• Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. 5th ser. vol. vi. 1880, p. 387, pi. 19. figs. 21, 22. 
t Fossil Sponge-Spicules, 1880, p. 58, pi. 5. figs. 1-4. 
X Fossil Sponge-Spicules, pi. 4. figs. 24-30. 

m2 



84 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

also exposed on the surface elongated irregular filiform spicules. The entire sponge 
appears to have possessed a smooth dermal layer of horizontal spicules with laciniated 
arms; these heads are about '9 mm. in width. I have not been able to discover the 
character of the shafts of these spicules. 

This species differs from the two preceding, not only in its outer form, but in the 
larger size of the body- and dermal spicules. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Beckhampton, Wiltshire {Cunnington coll.). 

Eagadinia clavata, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XIX. figs. 4, 4 o, 4 6, 4 c.) 

Sponges u'regularly rod- or club-shaped, often with stumpy processes and nodose 
outgrowths. Very variable in size, sometimes reaching to 100 mm. in height and 
from 13 to 31 mm. in thickness. 

The surface appears to have been covered with a smooth dermal layer ; where this 
is absent, surface-canals, about '6 mm. in width, are exposed, closely seaming the 
exterior of the sponge. 

The interior skeleton is composed of distinctly annulated spicules similar to those 
of R. coiiipressa. The spicules of the dermal layer have narrow laciniated head-rays ; 
they are about '5 mm. in extension, and so disposed that there are minute interspaces 
between the rays or ai"ms. When the spicules have fallen from the surface of the 
sponge, it often happens that the material filling these small interspaces stands out 
as so many minute tubercles. 

This species is readily distinguished from others of the genus by its peculiar form. 
All the examples have been procured from the interior of flints, and only the spicules 
of part of the dermal layer and the spicular structure immediately beneath this layer 
have been preserved. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Wiltshire {Cunnington coll.). 

Genus PLINTHOSELLA, Zittel, 1878. 

This genus was founded on small, spherical, or irregular nodose sponges, from 
5 mm. to 25 mm. in thickness, with an interior skeletal mesh of large irregularly 
four-armed tuberculated spicules, and a dermal layer composed of small scaly disks 
of irregular form. In the Museum collection and in the Jermyn-Street Museum 
there are cup-shaped, rod- or club-like, and convoluted sponges with an interior 
skeletal mesh closely resembling that of Pii)ithoseUa squamosa, Zitt., the type of the 
genus. The spicules of the dermal layer of these sponges, however, vary in detail 
from those of the type species, for they are usually disk-like with jagged edges, or 
even occasionally lobate. This variation is not sufficient, however, to be regarded as 
a basis for generic distinction, for in a single specimen of the typical species there 
may be found great diversity in the form of the disks of the dermal layer. 



PLINTHOSELLA. 85 

Relying on the similarity in the spicular structure of the interior mesh, and on 
the general resemblance of the disks of the dermal layer of these cup-shaped, clavate, 
and convolute forms to the same structures in the spherical P. squamosa, I shall 
place them under this genus, and propose to extend the definition given by Zittel so 
as to include sponges of these forms. The new forms, like the type species, have 
been derived from the Upper Chalk. 

Plinthosella squamosa, Zittel. (Plate XX. fig. 2.) 

1878, Plinthosella squamosa, Zittel, Studien, II Ab. p. 89, t. 2. f. 10 and t. 10. f. 5 ; also 

Hauclbucli, p. 1G7, f. 80. 
1880. Plinthosella squamosa, Hiude, Foss. Sponge-Spicules, p. 56, t. 4. f. 35—46. 

Small spherical bodies, from 6 mm. to 23 mm. in diameter, apparently destitute of 
any point of attachment. 

In some examples there appear to have been a few canals immediately beneath 
the dermal layer, but the circulation in the interior of the sponge seems to have been 
carried on in the interspaces of the mesh. 

The spicular structure of the interior is composed of relatively large, irregularly 
four-armed spicules with tuberculated surfaces and minute twig-like extremities, by 
which they are interlocked together. There is a dermal layer of small, irregularly 
shaped disks or laminse which are arranged so as to overlap each other. 

The examples of this sponge occur in this country as small globular bodies, from 
the size of peas to that of marbles, inclosed in the interior of Chalk flints. In all 
the specimens which I have seen the dermal layer is absent, and only the empty 
cavities of the spicules of the interior labyrinthine mesh remain. When closely 
examined with a strong lens, some of the moulds, still retaining the impressions of 
the tubercles on the surface of the spicules, can be seen. In the Horstead Chalk I 
discovered detached spicules both of the interior and of the dermal layer of this 
species. 

Bistrihution. Upper Chalk : South of England ; Wiltshire [Mr. H. J. Carter) ; 
Horstead, Norfolk (detached spicules) ; Ahlten, Hanover (Zittel's coll.). 

Plinthosella compacta, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XX. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Body of sponge cup-shaped, supported on a cylindrical stem. The interior is 
nearly filled with the spicular mesh, so that there is only a shallow depression at the 
summit of the cup. The only specimen is 50 mm. in height, and 72 mm. in thickness 
near the summit. 

The rounded margins of the cup are seamed with sinuous transverse canals ; and 
the outer surface is covered with apertures, 1 mm. wide, of canals which extend into 
the sponge-wall. A few canals also extend into the stem. 



86 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

The spicular structure of the interior closely resembles that of P. squamosa. No 
dermal layer has been preserved. 

I have only seen one example of this species, which is from the interior of a flint. 
Notwithstanding the absence of a dermal layer, I have but little doubt of the 
propriety of placing it in this genus on account of the close resemblance of the 
interior-mesh spicules to those of the type species. The specimen in question 
belongs to the Jermyn-Street Museum. 

IHstrihution. Upper Chalk : Wiltshire {Cunnington coll.). 

Plinthosella nodosa, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XX. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Sponges simple, rod- or club-shaped, with irregular nodose and spui'-like projections. 
A fairly large specimen is 100 mm. in height and 80 mm. wide. 

The surface of the sponge, where the dermal layer is not present, is traversed by 
sinuous canals from -5 to 1 mm. in width. The interior structure is obliterated, so 
that I am unable to determine if interior canals are j^resent. 

The spicules of the interior mesh resemble those of P. squamosa, but they are 
somewhat smaller. The surface is covered with a dermal layer of disciform spicules 
(about '6 mm. in width), very variable in figure, some being deeply lobed like those 
of Pagadinia, whilst others are circular disks with merely jagged edges. These 
spicules overlap each other in such a manner as to produce a compact, smooth 
surface-layer. 

In some respects this species exhibits characters similar to those oi Pagadinia ; and 
without an examination of the spicular structure, it might readily be confounded with 
P. clavata. As the spicules of the interior skeleton are of the same type as Plintho- 
sella squamosa, it appears to me to belong rather to this genus than to Pagadinia. 
The variable character of the spicules of the dermal layer is well exhibited in this 
species, for in close proximity to each other on the surface there are nearly plain 
disks and deeply-lobed branching spicules. 

Distrilution. Upper Chalk: "Wiltshire {Cunnington coll.). 

Plinthosella convoluta, Hinde, n. sp. 

Sponge growing as an irregularly convolute plate from 5 to 5"5 mm. in thickness. 
The only specimen, which is incomplete, is 110 mm. in height and 82 mm. in lateral 
extension. 

It is doubtful whether canals are present in the sponge-wall. The skeletal mesh 
is composed of spicules closely resembling in size and form those of Plinthosella 
compacta. The dermal layer is absent; but in one small portion of the outer 
surface there are a few minute scaly spicules which may represent part of the former 
external layer. 

This species very closely resembles, in its mode of growth, Phymaplectia irregularis ; 



PHTMAPLECTIA. 87 

and in the absence of the dermal layer, the main point of distinction between these 
forms consists in the much larger size of the interior spicules of the present species ; 
when the dermal layer is present, the difference between the scaly spicules and the 
trifids of P. irregularis at once distinguishes these forms from each other. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Wiltshire. 

Genus PHYMAPLECTIA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges with plate-like walls, palmate or digitate, or, by the coalescing of the 
margins of the convolute walls, becoming cup- or funnel-shaped. Canal-system but 
slightly developed, the circulation apparently being carried on through the openings 
of the spicular mesh. The interior skeleton is composed of irregular tuberculated 
spicules of the same type as in PlinthoseUa and Spongodiscus, which are connected 
together by the interlocking of minute twig-like extensions at the ends of the arms, 
or by the apposition of adjoining spicules. A dermal layer is usually present, and is 
chiefly composed of trifid spicules with minute, horizontally expanded, and slightly 
bifurcated head-rays. 

The character of the dermal layer distinguishes this genus from PlinthoseUa ; in 
form and mode of growth it differs from Spongodiscus, Zitt. At present no dermal 
layer has been discovered in sponges of this latter genus, although there is hardly a 
doubt that one was present originally. 

The forms of the genus at present known are all from the Upper Chalk: 

Phtmaplectia irregularis, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXI. figs. 1, 1 a.) 
Sponges growing in upright fan-like, semipalmate, or digitiform expansions, or 
occasionally, by the involution of the wall-plate and the coalescence of the margins, 
becoming cup-shaped. The margins of the wall are rounded ; at the base there are 
traces of root-like extensions. The specimens are from 100 to 120 mm. in height ; 
the walls are between 5 and 7 mm. in thickness. 

No canal-system is apparent, but the condition of the specimens is such that it is 
impossible to determine whether canals were originally present or not. The interior 
spicular mesh is composed of irregular warty spicules, the arms of which are from 
•2 to '3 mm. in length. A smooth dermal layer apparently covered the entire outer 
surface of the sponge-wall, though only portions of it now remain. It is made up of 
trifid spicules with horizontal heads ; the rays are slightly compressed and regularly 
bifurcated. The heads of the lai'ger spicules are between '4 and '5 mm. in expansion. 
The character of the shafts is not shown. 

All the examples of this species are preserved in the interior of flints. In outer 
form they somewhat resemble the figures of PoUjpothecia palmata and P.fissa, 
Benett* ; but in the absence of all knowledge of the minute structure of these 
* Cat. Org. Rem. County of Wilts, pi. 11. f. 2, and pi. 12. 



88 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

sponges, I am unable to determine whether the resemblance is more than in outer 
form. 

Distrihution. Upper Chalk : Wiltshire. 

Phymaplectia spinosa, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXI. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

Sponges with convolute walls, from 5 to 7 mm. in thickness, which coalesce at 
their margins and become funnel-shaped. The margins are rounded ; the basal 
portion has not been preserved. The exterior surface is fm-nished in places with 
small, straight spinous processes. A specimen is 92 mm. in height, and the same in 
width at the summit. 

Traces of sinuous canals, -5 mm. in width, are apparent in one part of a specimen, 
but I cannot determine if these are generally present. The interior spicular mesh is 
of the same character as in the preceding species, but the spicules are somewhat 
more robust. The outer surface retains in places the smooth dermal layer ; the 
spicular heads of which it is formed are about -25 mm. in extension. The inner 
surface of the cup is not exposed. 

This species approaches very closely to P. irregularis, but the spicules of its interior 
mesh are somewhat larger, and those of the dermal layer smaller, than in the last- 
named species. The specimen figured belongs to the Jermyn-Street Museum. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Wiltshire (Cunnington coll.). 

Phymaplectia cribeata, Iliiule, n. sp. (Plate XXI. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Wall-plate of sponge growing in wavy folds, showing also slight concentric, 
rounded ridges on the outer surface. The wall is from 4 to 5 mm. in thickness. 
The basal portion of the specimen is not preserved. The imperfect example is 
82 mm. in height and 112 mm. in width. 

The spicules of the interior mesh are very closely tuberculated ; the arms are 
about "4 mm. in length, and more robust than in the preceding species. The outer 
surface of the sponge-wall is covered with a smooth dermal layer, which is penetrated 
with numerous minute pores about "1 mm. in diameter, and only visible under a good 
lens. The dermal layer between these pores is in part composed of extremely minute 
trifid spicules, the head-rays of which are about -1 mm. in extension, in part of 
apparently irregular spicular bodies, whose forms are not sufficiently well-preserved 
for determination. 

The mode of growth, and more particularly the characters of the dermal layer, 
readily distinguish this species from the preceding. The only specimen known is 
from the interior of a flint. It belongs to the Jermyn-Street Museum. 

Distrihution. Upper Chalk: Wiltshire [Ciinnington coll.). 



PHTMAPLECTIA.— EHOPALOSPONGIA. 89 

Phymaplectia scitula, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXII. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 b.) 

Sponge funnel-shaped, open below, apparently formed by the coalesced margins of a 
convolute plate. The walls thin and delicate, between 2'8 and 3-5 mm. in thickness. 
The only specimen is 38 mm. in height, and 74 mm. in its greatest width. 

The interior of the funnel is marked by very slight elevated spots about 5 mm. 
apart, towards which closely set minute, radial, open canals, about "4 mm. in width, 
concentrate. No distinct aperture is to be seen at the centre of these elevations ; the 
radial canals round some of them are but very faintly marked. 

The spicular mesh is formed of relatively large, closely tuberculated spicules with 
arms about "35 mm. in length. Very minute spicular bodies also appear to be present 
between the mesh-pores of the larger spicules, but they are too indefinite for deter- 
mination. No dermal layer has been preserved. 

The thin delicate walls and the surface-canals of the interior characterize this 
species. I have only seen a single example, preserved in flint, which belongs to the 
Jermyn-Street Museum. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Wiltshire (Cunnington coll.). 

Genus EHOPALOSPONGIA, Einde, n. g. 

Sponges simple or aggregate, club-shaped, with rounded or flattened summits ; 
stem simple, with, in some cases, root-like prolongations. 

Neither cloaca nor prominent canals are present ; the sponge is traversed by curved 
canals of moderate dimensions, which extend from the central portions and open at 
the surface. Longitudinal canals are present in the stem. 

The spicular tissue is composed, for the most part, of relatively large tuberculated 
spicules, with straight or curved arms, which connect with adjoining spicules by the 
interlocking of their tuberculated extremities. In these spicules the tetracladine 
character can hardly be recognized, but mingled with them in the mesh there are 
regularly four-armed spicules with smooth arms and tuberculated extensions. No 
dermal layer has been preserved. 

The mode of growth, character of the canal-system, and the interior spicular 
structure readily distinguish this genus. In the tuberculate character of the 
spicules, it resembles Plinthosella, Spongodiscus, and Phymaplectia ; but, so far as 
I am aware, in none of these genera are smooth-armed spicules mingled with 
tuberculate forms. 

At present I have recognized two species belonging to this genus, both of which 
are from the Upper Green Sand. 



N 



90 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Khopalospongia geegaeia, Benett, sp. (Plate XXII. figs. 2, 2 «, 2 J, 2 c.) 

1831. Pohjpothecia gregaria, Benett, Cat. Org. Rem. County of Wilts, t. 14. 
1847. Non Jerea gregaria, Michelin, Icon. Zooph. p. 134, t. 38. f. 1. 

Sponges elongate, club-shaped, with rounded conical summits, either simple or 
growing in groups of three or four individuals of different sizes, closely attached by 
their lateral surfaces. Rarely, also, two individuals possess a common stem. The 
outer surface of the body, or club-shaped portion, is either smooth and evenly 
rounded, or with irregular nodose projections, or covered with small pustular 
elevations. The cylindrical stem frequently exhibits parallel longitudinal furrows ; 
it appears to have given off root-like processes at its termination. Small individuals 
measure 55 mm. in height and 14 mm. in width ; whilst a large example is 300 mm. 
in length by 45 mm. in width. 

The outer surface of the sponge is thickly covered with canal-apertures from '5 to 
•75 mm. in width. These canals apparently extend in an arched direction towards 
the centre of the sponge ; in a transverse horizontal section only a few of the larger 
canals are distinguishable. Both in vertical and horizontal sections distinct lines of 
growth parallel with the contour of the sponge are exposed. 

The spicular mesh is relatively close ; the smooth arms of the regular spicules are 
•06 mm. in width, whilst the tuberculated arms measure •OS mm. wide. The regular 
spicules are indiscriminately mingled with the others ; they appear, however, to be 
more frequent in the central portion of the sponge, whilst the irregular tuberculated 
spicules prevail nearer the outer surface. Interior canals are preserved in many of 
the spicules. This species is not uncommon in the Upper Green Sand. 

There can be no doubt that Miss Benett's figure represents this species, particularly 
as there is no other sponge from the Green Sand with a corresponding form. Michelin 
has referred this species to his Jerea gregaria, with which, however, it has no near 
affinity. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster and vale of Pewsey, Wiltshire. 

Rhopalospongia obliqua, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXII. figs. 3, 3 a.) 

Sponge compound, consisting of two short individuals, inversely conical in form, 
growing from a single short, somewhat compressed stem. The summits are appa- 
rently oblique. 

A transverse section exposes the canals, 1 mm. in width, which extend to the outer 
surface. These canals are more numerous and distinct than those of the last species. 

The spicular structure of the interior resembles that in B. gregaria. 

I have only met with a single example of this species : it is 85 mm. in height and 
51 mm. in width. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Wilts. 



ASTYLOSPONGIA. 91 

Order HEXACTINELLID^, Oscar Schmidt. 
Suborder DICTYONINA, Zittel 
Family ASTYLOSPONGID^. 

Genus ASTYLOSPONGIA, Ferd. Ecemer, 1860. 

Ferd. Roemer described the minute structure of A. prcBinorsa, the typical species 
of the genus, as consisting of very regular six-rayed, star-shaped bodies, which are 
connected together by the intermediate union of the rays of each body with the rays 
of those immediately adjoining ('Die silur. Faun, des west. Tenn.' p. 8). In a 
later definition of the genus (' Lethea Palseozoica,' 1 Th. p. 307) the same author 
states that the skeleton consists of a net-like web, composed of nodes, from which 
six rays extend at right angles with each other, and unite with the rays of the 
adjoining nodes. Prof. Zittel (' Studien,' 1 Th. p. 45) states, in his diagnosis of the 
genus, that the skeleton consists of amalgamated six-rayed spicules with solid nodes, 
forming an irregular net-work with triangular, quadrangular, or polyangular meshes, 
and that, as a rule, the arms of several adjoining spicules attach themselves to a 
single node. In 1878 Dr. K. Martin published a very important memoir on the 
structure oi Astylospongia ('Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in 
Mecklenburg '), in which he states that the number of the rays which radiate from a 
single node vary from six to nine in number, and that they radiate in most variable 
directions in order to unite with other rays to form a new node. He also made the 
interesting discovery that the terminations of the rays divide into minute branches 
{loc. cit. Taf. 1. f. 3). These facts led Dr. Martin to express the opinion that there 
were wide difiierences between Astylosjjongia and typical Hexactinellids. In a short 
comment on Dr. Martin's memoir, Prof. Zittel ('Neues Jahrbuch,' 1877, p. 709) 
states that the branching of the termination of the rays is entirely the result of the 
state of preservation of the specimen, and that in unaltered examples the nodes are 
always solid. 

An examination of the microscopic structure of Astylospongia prcemorsa from 
Tennessee leads me to confirm the observations of Martin that the spicules of this 
species are composed of solid nodes with from six to nine smooth arms which radiate 
from the centre in diff"erent directions and at varying angles. The terminations of the 
arms or rays of adjoining nodes unite together, and appear to form nodes by their union, 
which, when the specimen is unaltered, cannot be distinguished from the nodes from 
which the arms themselves originated ; but in specimens where a certain amount of 
alteration has taken place, these secondary nodes can be seen to be composed of the 
expanded terminations of the arms of several spicules united together. If this view 

n2 



92 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

is correct, Astylospongia prcemorsa can hardly be regarded as a hexactinellid sponge, 
but shows a near relationship in its minute structure to the Lithistid genera Cylin- 
drophyma and Melonella. 

As, however, further observations are necessary to establish the true character of 
the spicular structure of Astylospongia, I prefer in the meantime not to remove the 
genus from the position assigned to it by Prof. Zittel. 

ASTTLOSPONGIA PE.EMORSA, GoldflCSS, Sp. 

1833. Siphonia prcemorsa, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 17, t. 6. £. 9. 

1833. Siphonia excavata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. \7, t. 6. f. 8. 

1860. Astylospongia prcemorsa, F. Roemer, Silur. Fauna d. west. Tenn. p. 8, t. 1. £. 1. 

1877. Astylospongia prcemorsa, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 45 ; id. Neues Jahrbuch, p. 353, t. 2. 
f. 1; id. Handbucb der Pal. p. 172, £. 88. 

1878. Astylospongia prcemorsa, Martin, Archiv des Vereins d. F. d. N. Mecklenburg, p. 1, 1. 1. 
1878. Siphonia prcemorsa, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 551, t. 141. f. 1-3. 

Distribution. Silurian (Niagara group) : Waldron, Indiana ; Bath Springs, Perry 
County, Tennessee. 

ASTTLOSPOXGIA STELLATIM-SULCATA, Rcemer. 

1848. Spongia stellatim-sulcata, F. Roemer, Leonh. u. Bronn's Jahrbuch, p. 686, t. 9. f. 5. 
1860. Astylospongia stellatim-sulcata, F. Roemer, Silur. Fauna d. west. Tenn. p. 11, t. 1. 
f. 2, 2 a, 2 6. 

Distribution. Silurian (Niagara group) : West Teimessee. 

AsTTLOSPOXGiA iNCiso-LOBATA, Ecemer. 

1848. Spongia inciso-lobata, F. Roemer, Leonh. u. Bronn's Jahrb. p. 685. 

1860. Astylospongia inciso-lobata, F. Roemer, Silur. Fauna d. west. Tenn. p. 11, 1. 1. f. 3, 3a. 

Distribution. Silurian (Niagara group) : Bath Springs, Perry County, Tennessee. 

ASTTLOSPONGU IMBRICATO-AETICULATA, RoemeT. 

1848. Siphonia imbricato-articulata, Rcemer, Leonh. u. Bronn's Jahrb. p. 685, t. 9. f. 3. 
1860. Astylospongia imbricato-articulata, Roemer, SUur. Fauna d. westl. Tenn. p. 12, t. 1. 
f. 5, 5 b. 

Distribution. Silurian (Niagara group) : West Tennessee. 

Asttlospoxgia'? EffiiiEPj, Einde, n. sp. (Plate XXIII. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 b.) 

A fragmentary specimen, ha^'ing the spicular structure of the genus, but the 
portion preserved is insufficient to determine the complete form and canal-structure. 
The fragment is of a conical form, with open sinuous channels 1'75 mm. wide 



PA]1E0MAN0X.— TEEArABICTYON. 93 

extending downwards from the summit of the cone. Circular canal-apertures, 
1"25 mm. wide, are closely arranged in linear series in the channels, and also on 
the summit. The canals appear to extend in a nearly straight direction to the 
central portion of the sponge. The spicular nodes are about '16 mm. in thickness, 
the arms about -lo mm. in length and -OJil mm. in thickness. The minute expanded 
terminations at the ends of the arms are very clearly shown in microscopic sections 
of this form. 

Nothing is known of the geological horizon or locality whence the specimen comes, 
but the condition of preservation is precisely similar to that of specimens of Asti/lo- 
spongia from the Silurian of North America. 

Genus PALEOMANON, Moemer, 1860. 

Pal^ojias^oij ceatera, Roemer. 

1848. Siphonia cratera, Roemer, Leonh. u. Bronn's Jahrb. p. 685, t. 9. f. 4, 4 a. 
1860. Palaomanon cratera, Roemer, Silur. Faim. d. west. Tenn. p. 13, t. 1. f. 4, 4 a. 
1877. Palaomanon cratera, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 45. 

Distribution. Silurian (Niagara group) : West Tennessee. 



Family EURETIDM, Zittel. 
Genus TEEMADICTYON, Zittel, 1877. 

TREiUDICTTOX EETICULATUM, GoldfuSS, sp. 

1833. Scyphia reticulata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 11, t. 4. f. 1. 
1833. Scyphia polyonunata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 8, t. 2. f. 16. 
1833. Scyphia fenestrata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 7, t. 2. f. 15. 
1833. Scyphia pertusa, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 6, t. 2. f. 8. 

1877. Tremadictyon reticulatum, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 46 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 355, t. 2. 

f. 2, also p. 706; Handbuch d. Pal. p. 173, f. 89. 

1878. Spongites reticulatus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 28, 1. 115. f. 1-12, 14-23. 

Distribution. Upper Jura, Spongitenkalk : Heuberg, Randen, Nattheim, Streitberg. 



Tremadicttoiv obliquatum, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Spongites obliquatus, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 671, t. 81. f. 97. 
1877. Tremadictyon obliquatum, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 46. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Randen, Wiirtemberg. 



94 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Genus CRATICULARIA, Zittel, 1877. 

Ceaticularia clathrata, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Sajphin clathrata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 8, t. 3. f. 1. 

1877. Craticularia clathrata, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 46; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 355. 

1878. Spongites clathrata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 74, 1. 117. f. 23, 25. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Randen, Wiirtemberg. 

Craticulaeia paeallela, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Scyphiajiarallela, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 8, t. 3. f. 3. 

1877. Craticularia parallela, Zitt, Studien, I Ab. p. 46; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 355. 

1878. Spongites cylindritextus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 65, t. 117. f. 9-15. 

Distribution . Upper Jura : Heuberg, Wodna, Cracow {ZitteVs coll.). 

Ceaticulaeia decoeata, Milnster, sp. 
1833. ScyiMa decarata, Miinster in Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 90, t. 33. f. 2 a, b. 
Distribution. Upper Jura: Randen. 

Ceaticulaeia paeadosa, Milnster, sp. 

1833. Scyphia paradoxa, Milnster in Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 86, t. 31. f. 6. 

1877. Craticularia paradoxa, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 46 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 356 ; Hand- 

buch d. Pal. p. 174, f. 90. 

1878. Clathrispongia trochiformis, ventricosa, et perlata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, pp. 75, 76, 

80, 1. 118. f. 2, 3,6. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Streitberg {Zitt. coll.), Randen, Wiirtemberg. 

Ceaticulaeia Fittoni, Mantell, sp. (Plate XXIII. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b.) 

1833. Millepora Fittoni, Mantell, Geology S.E. of England, p. 378. 

1822. Millepora , Mantell, Geol. of Sussex, p. 106, t. 15. f. 10. 

1848. Brachiolites digitatus, Toulmin Smith, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. pp. 45, 365, 

1. 16. f. 2. 
1854. Brachiolites Fittoni, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 26. 
1864. Dendrospongia fenestralis, F. A. Roemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 21, t. 8. f. 6. 

Sponges growing in masses of straight or slightly sinuous cylindrical branches, 
from 22 mm. to 35 mm. in diameter and in some cases more than 220 mm. in 
length. The branches are hollow tubes with walls from 2-6 mm. to 4 mm. in thick- 
ness ; the summits are open. The canal-apertures, both on the outer and inner 
wall-surfaces, are disposed in vertical and horizontal rows ; the apertures are sub- 
quadrate at the surface, and from 1 mm. to 1'5 mm. in width. 

In most of the examples the spicular structure has been completely replaced by 



CEATICULAEIA.— SPHENAULAX. 95 

calcite, and is therefore indistinct, but in one specimen from the Isle of Wight the 
siliceous skeleton is partly retained. The interior mesh of the wall is more irregular 
than in the Jurassic forms of this genus ; the spicular arms or rays are about "05 mm. 
in thickness, and the length from centre to centre of the nodes is '25 mm. The 
dermal layer of the outer surface of the wall has a stellate appearance ; the nodes of 
the spicules are flattened, and numerous rays extend from each ; besides the inter- 
spaces between the spicular arms, there are also minute circular apertures in the 
dermal layer. 

This species is abundant and occurs in all the divisions of the Chalk series, from 
the Upper Green Sand to the Upper Chalk. Toulmin Smith describes this species 
as "having a deep primary fold of regular quadrilateral and rectangular form. 
Usually more or less oblong, and arranged in tesselated figure." I cannot ascertain 
that the walls are at all folded, but merely penetrated with numerous canals on both 
sides, which do not extend quite through the wall but terminate bluntly. T. Smith 
does not mention the difference between the solid nodes of this species and the 
lantern-nodes of Ventriculites. 

Distribution. Craie Chloritee : Honfleur, Vaches Noires {Tesson coll.). Chalk 
Marl : Ventnor, Isle of Wight. Grey Chalk and Lower Chalk : Dover, Folkestone. 
Upper Chalk : South of England {Toulmin Smith and Mantell's coll.). 

Ceaticulakia subseeiata, Roem,er, sp. 
1840. Seyphia subseriata, F. A. Roemer, Verst. d. Nordd. Kreide, p. 9, t. 3. f. 8. 

Sponge consisting of bifurcating cylindrical branches, 15 to 22 mm. in thickness ; 
the walls are 2 to 2-5 mm. thick. The canal-apertures are disposed in vertical and 
transverse rows ; they are -75 mm. wide, and nearly the same distance apart from 
each other. Spicular mesh of the interior irregular in disposition. A single frag- 
mentary specimen is in the collection, which appears to agree with Rcemer's species. 
From Craticularia Fittoni it is distinguished by the smaller dimensions of the 
branches and canals. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Norwich [Bayfield coll.). 

Genus SPHENAULAX, Zittel, 1877. 

Sphenaulax costata, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Seyphia costata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 6, t. 2. f. 10. 

1877. Sphenaulax costata, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 47 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 35G, t. 2. f. 3, 

and p. 709. 

1878. Sulcispongia incisa, colliciaris, rimosa, viaria, semiclathrata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, 

p. 83-90, t. 118. f. 8-lG. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Engelshardt, Heuberg. 



96 SILICEOTTS SPONGES. 

Genus SPORxiDOPYLE, Zittel, 1877. 

Spoeadoptle obliqua, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Scyphia obligua, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 9, t. 3. f. 5 a, b, d. 

1877. Sporadopxjle obliqua, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 47 ; Neues Jalirb. p. 356, t. 2. f. 6. 

1878. Favispongia obliqua, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 118, t. 120. f. 29-53. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Streitberg, Bavaria. 

Spoeadoptle testdeata, Goldf. sp. 

1833. Scyphia texturata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 6, t. 2. f 9. 

1833. Scyphia pertusa, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 6, t. 2. f. 8. 

1877. Sporadopyle texturata, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 47 ; Neues Jahrbueh, p. 356. 

1878. Scyphia pertusa, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, pp. 126-129, t. 120. f. 61-69. 

Distrihction. Upper Jura : Eanden, Wiirtemberg. 

Spoeadoptle eamosa, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Spongites ramosus, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 683, t. 83. f. 1. 

1877. Sporadopyle ramosa, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 47 ; Neues Jahrb. p. 356. 

1878. Ramispongia ramosa, Quenst. Petref. p. 140, t. 121. f. 11. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Randen. 

Spoeadoptle, sp. 
Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Wodna, Cracow {ZitteVs coll.). 

Genus STEEPHINIA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges growing in irregular, convolute, anastomosing expansions or open cup- 
shaped. The wall on both sides is irregularly reticulate with circular, oval, or 
irregular canal apertures of relatively large size. The canals terminate blindly. The 
spicular mesh is small and somewhat irregular, the spicular arms apparently smooth; 
the nodes are solid. No special dermal layer is present. 

In the mode of growth this genus differs from any other of this family. The 
characters of the spicular mesh resemble those of Sphenaulax and Sporadopyle. 
The only examples are from the Grey Chalk, and their skeletons have been com- 
pletely replaced by crystalline calcite. 

Steephinia convoluta, Einde, n. sp. (Plate XXIII. figs. 3, 3 c, 3i.) 

The walls of the sponge are convolute and anastomose so as to form irregular 
masses. The wall is 4 mm. in thickness ; the outer surface is reticulate, with closely 
set, circular or oval canal-apertures, from 1 to 1'5 mm. in width, and about 1*3 mm. 



STEEPHINIA. — VEREUCOCCELIA. 97 

apart ; on the inner surface of the wall the canal-apertures, in some instances at 
least, have a vertically linear disposition, and are somewhat larger than those of the 
outer surface. 

The mesh-spaces are quadrate ; the distance from one nodal centre to another is 
•16 mm. ; the spicular arms are apparently even, and •032 mm. in thickness. 

There is only a single fragmentary specimen in the collection, which distinctly 
shows the canal and spicular structures of this species ; but from the same bed near 
Dover there are large spreading masses of a sponge which has a similar mode of 
growth, and probably belongs to this species, but the structural characters are 
obliterated, so that it is impracticable to determine with certainty. 

Distribution. Grey Chalk : Dover. 

Strephinia reteformis, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXIII. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Sponges either cup-shaped or growing in curved expansions. The wall is from 
5^5 mm. to 7 mm. in thickness ; the outer surface is reticulate, with oval or sub- 
polygonal canal-apertures, from 2 to 3 mm. in width. The walls between these 
apertures are from -lb to 1 mm. in width. The interior surface is not exposed. 
The spicular characters resemble those of the previous species. 

This species differs from S. convoluta by its thicker walls and the more open 
characters of the reticulations of the outer surface. 

Distribution. Grey Chalk : Dover. 

Genus VEREUCOCCELIA, Etallon, 1860. 

Verrucoc(elia verrucosa. Gold/, sp. 

1833. Scyphia verrucosa, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 91, t. 33. f. 8, a, b, c, e. 
1820. Spongus botryoides ?, Konig, Icones fossiles, p. 4, t. 7. f. 82. 
1858. Scyphia verrucosa, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 668, t. 81. f. 86. 

1877. Verrucocoelia verrucosa, Zittel, Studien, I Ab. p. 47 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 356. 

1878. Mastospongia verrucosa, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 146, t. 122. f. 3-6. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Eanden ; Heuberg, Streitberg. 

Verrucoccelia gregaria, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Scyphia gregaria, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 668, t. 81. f. 85. 

1877. Verrucoccelia gregaria, Zittel, Studien, I Ab. p. 47 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 356, t. 2. f. 5. 

1878. Mastospongia gregaria, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 148, t. 122. i. 8-10. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen. 

Verrucoccelia tubulata, Toulmin Smith, sp. 

1848. Brachiolites tubulatus, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 366, t. 15. f. 7. 
Sponges growing in the form of a hollow cone, which is studded on all sides by 





98 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

small, upward projecting, cylindrical or compressed tubes, which are open above. 
Neither the summit nor basal portion is preserved in the specimens. The example 
figured by Smith is 61 mm. in height and 30 mm. in width. Another imperfect 
specimen in the Museum is 86 mm. in height and 61 mm. in width. The projecting 
tubes are from 3 mm. to 7'6 mm. in diameter, and in length from mere projecting 
cups to tubes 176 mm. in length. The thickness of the spicular wall is about 
1"2 mm. The outer surface of the wall has a delicate lace-like dermal layer com- 
posed of somewhat thickened spicular arms and nodes. There are minute circular 
apertures, about "5 mm. in width, in this layer as well as the small interspaces in the 
mesh itself. The mesh-spicules are small, with solid nodes. I have not been able 
to determine the characters of the inner surface of the wall. 

From the typical Jurassic forms of VerrucocceUa this species differs in the possession 
of a modified dermal layer ; but I do not regard this feature as of sufficient importance 
to place this form in a new genus, but propose to extend Zittel's definition so as to 
include sponges with a perforate dermal layer. The spicules of the interior mesh of 
the wall, and the general mode of growth, resemble the typical Jurassic species. 

The specimens are now in the condition of iron peroxide. The figure of this 
species given by T. Smith represents it in a reverse position. The woodcut (fig. Q) 
on p. 367, in the 'Annals,' which, according to Smith, represents a transverse section 
of this species near the top, does not appear to belong to this form at all. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England. 

Veerucoccelia vectensis, Hincle, n. sp. (Plate XXIV. figs. 3, 3 «, 3 h.) 

Sponge generally conical in form, widest a short distance above the base, and thence 
tapering to the summit. The only specimen is 152 mm. in height and 100 mm. in 
greatest width. Numerous cylindrical tubes, from 20 to 35 mm. in length and from 
11 to 20 mm. in width, spring from the central cavity and project upwai'ds. These 
tubes are open at the surface ; the margins are rounded. The walls are from 2 to 
2-6 mm. in thickness, and the interior of the tubes from 5 to 13 mm. in width. The 
spicular structure of the outer surface-layer is slightly different from that of the 
interior of the wall in that the arms and nodes of the spicules are somewhat thicker. 
This reticulate dermal layer is perforated by numerous circular or ovate canal- 
apertures, about "5 mm. in width. The spicular mesh of the interior of the wall is 
somewhat irregular, and is composed of robust spicules with compact {i. e. not 
lantern) nodes. The spicular arms are in places minutely spinous, in other places 
they appear to be smooth ; they vary from "045 to -067 mm. in thickness, and the 
distance from one nodal centre to another is about '225 mm. There are also occa- 
sionally present in the interstices of the mesh very minute delicate hexactinellid 
spicules, which are only attached by the extremity of a single arm to the mesh 
itself 



STAUEONEMA. 99 

The large dimensions of this species, and the size of the tubes and walls, readily 
distinguish it from all others of the genus. The only specimen is in Chalk Marl, 
and the spicular structure comes out very perfectly when the matrix is removed 
by acid. 

Distribution. Chalk Marl : Ventnor, Isle of Wight {MantelVs coll.). 

Genus STAUEONEMA, Sollas, 1877. 

Staueonema Carteki, Sollas. (Plate XXIV. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b.) 

1877. Stauronema Carteri, Sollas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xix. p. 1, t. 1-5. 
1877. Stauronema Carteri, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 62; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 359. 

Examples of this species in the Museum collection from the Chalk Marl of Barham 
and the Isle of Wight, and from the Craie Chloritee of Cap la Heve, show the minute 
spicular structures in a much clearer manner than the specimens from the Upper 
Green Sand of Folkestone, on which Prof. Sollas based his descriptions ; and they 
enable me to add to, and partly to emend, the characters which he has assigned to 
the species and genus. 

The canals which pass into the true wall (oscular plate, Sollas) from the inner or 
concave surface of the sponge, do not appear to penetrate through it, as stated by 
Sollas, but terminate blindly near the outer surface of the sponge, and, similarly, the 
canals which enter the wall from the outer surface end blindly in the substance of 
the wall. The canals in the supplemental skeleton (posterior mass) are altogether 
irregular in their distribution. The spicular mesh of the true wall is by no means 
so regular in its disposition throughout as represented by Sollas in figs. 1-3, p. 7, 
loc. cit., for though the mesh-interspaces are often circular, yet they are as often 
quadrate, oval, or irregular in form. 

Again, Sollas states (p. 7) that " the outer margins of the fibres are so sharply 
defined as to enable us to state with certainty that the fibres themselves are perfectly 
smooth, and not in any way spined." But in the example from La Heve, not only 
are the surfaces of the spicules bordering the canals thickly spined, which Sollas 
observed in the Folkestone examples, but the spicular arms throughout the wall and 
in the supplemental skeleton are clearly microspined. A remarkable feature in this 
species is the supplemental skeleton (posterior mass, Sollas), which is composed of a 
spicular mesh, with arms or rays of about the same thickness as in the true wall, but 
disposed in such a manner that the interspaces are extremely irregular, both in size 
and form. This tissue appears to be of a similar character to that which in some 
fossil sponges forms the stem and radical processes, and also grows over the lower 
portion of the true sponge-wall. It is shown more particularly in the genus Pleurope, 
Zittel, and is well developed in Craticularia (Laocoetis) infundibulata*, Pomel. The 

* Pal. d'Oran. 1866, p. 95, t. 1 bis, fig. 4. 

02 



100 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

dermal layer, which is formed of an extremely minute and delicate spicular reticu- 
lation, extends alike over this supplemental skeleton as well as over the front surface 
of the true wall. 

The characters of Stauronema appear to me to exhibit a closer alliance to the 
family of the Euretidae than to the family of the Mellitionidae, in which Prof. Zittel*, 
relying upon the descriptions of Prof. Sollas, has placed the genus. 

Prof. Sollas states that his specimens came from the Gault of Folkestone ; but the 
numerous specimens in the Museum collection from the same locality, are, according 
to the opinion of Mr. E. Etheridge, sen., all derived from the Upper Green Sandf, 
and as Sollas's specimens were supplied to him by a local dealer, and were not 
collected by himself, it seems probable that they also may have been obtained from 
the Upper Green Sand, and not from the Gault. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand: Folkestone; near Eastbourne. Chalk Marl : 
near Ventnor, Isle of Wight ; Barbara. Craie Chloritee : Cap la Heve. 

Stauronema planum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXIV. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c.) 

Sponge disk-shaped, with a circular outline ; the upper surface nearly flat, the 
under surface slightly convex, with concentric rounded ridges and furrows. There 
is no indication of a stem or point of attachment. The margins are rounded and 
slightly curve downwards. The width of the only specimen at present known is 
70 mm. In the central portion the wall-plate is 12'5 mm. in thickness and near 
the margin 6'3 mm. 

The upper surface of the sponge is reticulate, with circular or ovate canal-apertures 
about 1 mm. in diameter and about 1'3 mm. apart from each other. The canals are 
slightly curved and appear to terminate blindly. No special canals are distin- 
guishable on the under surface of the sponge. 

The sponge-wall is composed of a regular meshwork of robust spicules with solid 
nodes; the distance between the nodes is 'ob mm. The interspaces between the 
mesh are subquadrate or nearly circular. The upper surface exhibits traces of a 
finely reticulate dermal layer, which apparently extended over the canal-apertures. 
The under surface also shows a delicate dermal layer of reticulate spicules, but its 
state of preservation is insufficient for a close determination. 

This species diff"ers from S. Carteri, Sollas, in its form and in the absence of a 
supplemental skeleton ; but it resembles that species in the character of the spicular 
skeleton of the wall and the disposition of the canals. 

The non-development in this species of the supplemental skeleton or posterior 

* Neues Jahrbuch, 1877, p. 359. 

t Mr. F. G. H. Price also quotes this species from the Upper Green Sand or lower division of his Chalk 
Marl at Polkestone, and he names this division the Stauronema-7,one. No mention is made of its ocenrrence 
in the Gault. (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1877, vol. xxxiii. p. 434.) 



STAUEO^'EMA. — SESTRODICTYON. 101 

mass, which is such a prominent feature in the type of the genus, does not appear 
to me to be of sufficient importance by itself to justify placing this form in a separate 
genus, and it would be preferable to extend the definition of Stauronema so as to 
include sponges in which a supplemental skeleton is not present. 

The only example of this species has the spicular structure replaced by calcite, 
and by a dark material, probably iron peroxide. This dark substance has infilled the 
canals of the hexactinellid spicules, which are thus distinctly shown, even when the 
spicular arms themselves have been obliterated. 

Distribution. Grey Chalk : Folkestone. 

Staueonema compactum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXV. figs. 1, la, Ih, Ic, Id.) 

Sponge apparently forming an ear- or fan-shaped expansion, growing from a small 
rounded basal process; the wall is between 6-8 and 8 mm. in thickness. The only 
specimen is the lower portion of an example, and measures 43 by 25 mm. 

Both surfaces of the sponge-wall are furnished with oval canal-apertures from 
•75 to 1 mm. in diameter, arranged in decussating lines. On what appears to be 
the inner or upper surface these canal-apertui'es are about 2 lines apart, and the 
interspaces between them consist of a thickened reticulate mesh with definite 
circular pores. On the ojjposite surface the canal-openings are completely covered 
in the lower part of the wall by a dermal layer of thickened irregular spicular 
tissue ; somewhat higher the canals are only bridged over by this tissue, but not 
concealed. The canals are blind, and follow a slightly curved direction througli 
the wall. 

The spicular mesh of the interior of the wall is composed of robust spicules with 
compact nodes ; the arms are apparently smooth ; the distance between the nodal 
centres is 'SS mm. The interspaces of the mesh are circular or oval. 

Quenstedt* has figured a sponge from the Lower Planer of Bohemia, under the 
name of Sci/pkia tenuis, which in the characters of the dermal layer and the canal- 
structure closely resembles the present species ; but according to Quenstedt its 
spicular nodes are partly octahedral and partly solid, whereas in the present form 
the spicular nodes are compact throughout. 

Distribution. Gres vert (Upper Green Sand): France] 

Genus SESTRODICTYON, Hinde, n. g. 
Sponge funnel-shaped, apparently by the infolding and coalescence of a plate-like 
wall. The wall is perforated by numerous canals, arranged in a generally linear 
direction, and occasionally decussating. The skeletal mesh is composed of robust 
spicules with compact nodes, which form a very regular quadrate mesh with small ■ 
circular interspaces. No dermal layer ajjpears to be present. 

• Petrof. Bd. 5, p. 457, t. 137. f. 4. 



102 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

This genus resembles Stauronema in the robust character of its spicular mesh, but 
diflfers therefrom in the absence of a dermal layer and the perforate character of the 
canals. The only specimen exhibits the spicular structure and the outer surface very 
perfectly, but the interior is infilled, and quite concealed by the matrix. 

Sestrodictton convolutum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXV. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

The funnel-shaped sponge, which is imperfect at the base, measures 68 mm. in 
height and 84 mm. in width at the summit. The canals are ovate in form, about 
]-75 mm. in their greatest di;imeter; the distance between the rows is about 1"3 mm. 
The spicules of the mesh have smooth arras ; the distance between the nodal 
centres is "3 mm. Small pointed spines, apparently the free arms of the spicules 
bordering the canals, pi'oject from the walls into the canals. 

The outer surface characters of the specimen are so perfectly preserved, that if any 
dermal layer had existed, one can hardly doubt but that traces of it would have 
remained. 

Distribution. Alpine Chalk ( = Upper Green Sand) : High Sentis, Canton Appenzell. 

Genus BRACHIOSPONGIA, Marsh, 1867. 

Brachiospongia bigitata, B. Owen, sp. 

1857. Scyphia digitata, D. Owea, Second Report on the Geol. of Kentucky, p. 111. 

1838. Description d'un fossile, Troost. Mem. de la Soc. Geol. de France, Tome 3, t. 11. 

£. 8, 9, 10. 
1867. Brachiospongia Rcemerana et Lyonii, Marsh, Am. Jouru. Science and Arts, 2 ser. 

vol. 44, p. 88. 
1878. Brachiospongia, Zitt. Handb. der Pal. Bd. 1, p. 173. 
1880. Brachiospongia Rcemerana, P. Rcemer, Leth. geog. 1 Th. p. 319, fig. 61. 

Up to the present nothing definite is known of the spicular structure of this extra- 
ordinary sponge, and its true characters and position are therefore uncertain. By 
Prof. Zittel it has been provisionally placed in the family of the Euretidae. The 
Museum only possesses a cast. 

Distribution. Cincinnati Group : Kentucky. 

Family C0SC1N0P0RID.E. 

Genus LEPTOPPIRAGMA, Zittel, 1877. 

Leptophragma Muechisoni, Gold/., sp, 

1826-1833. Scyphia Murchisoni, Goldf. Petrcf. 1 Tli. p. 219, t. 65. f. 8. 
1877. Leptophragma Murchisoni, Zitt. Studieu, I Ab. p. 48; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 357, 
t. 3. f. 1. 



LEPTOPHRAGMA.— PLEUROSTOMA. 103 

Cup- or funnel-shaped sponges, with walls from 1-5 to 2 mm. in thickness. 
Variable in size ; an average specimen measures 100 mm. in height and 75 in width 
at the summit. 

The canal-apertures of the outer surface are circular and very regularly disposed 
in vertical and horizontal rows ; they are about -5 mm. in Avidth, and about the same 
distance apart. 

The spicular mesh has been replaced by peroxide of iron or dissolved away, and 
is very indistinctly shown. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand (I) : near Folkestone. Lower Chalk: South of 
England. Upper Chalk : Haldem, Germany. 

Leptophragma feagilis, Bcemer, sp. 

1840. Scyphiafragilis, F. A. RcEmer, Nordd. Kreide, p. 8, t. 3. f. 11. 

1877. Leptophragma fragilis, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 48; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 358. 

Sponge in the form of a shallow, open cup supported on an elongated cylindrical 
stem. One specimen, imperfect at the margins, is 90 mm. in width ; in another 
specimen a stem 80 mm. in length and 65 in width, supports a portion of a cup. 

The walls are only -5 mm. in thickness ; their surfaces are closely covered with 
minute canal-apertures -25 mm. wide, disposed in rows, or irregular in their distri- 
bution. The mesh of the cup-wall has been changed into iron peroxide, and is not 
recognizable. The spicules of the stem are elongate and irregular in form. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England {coll. Bowerbank and Toul. Smith). 

Genus PLEUROSTOMA, Boem. 1840, emend. Zitt. 1877. 
Pleurostoma radiatum, Bcemer. 

1840. Pleurostoma radiatum, Roemer, Nordd. Kreide, p. 5, t. 1. f. 11. 

1877. Pleurostoma radiatum, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 48 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 358. 

The only specimen in the collection referable to this species is an elongated, 
geniculate, much compressed stem 100 mm. in length, 14 mm. in width, and 
3-5 mm. in thickness. At the basal end are several lateral root-like processes ; 
the summit is imperfect. The walls of this hollow stem are about '75 mm. in 
thickness. On both the lateral edges of the stem there are at irregular intervals 
circular or ovate apertures from 2 to 3 mm. in width, which open into the central 
hollow. The outer surface of the wall is provided with numerous closely set circular 
apertures '35 mm. in width, and about the same distance apart, and without definite 
arrangement. The spicular mesh has been replaced by iron peroxide. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England {coll. T. Smith). 



104 SILICEOUS SPOXGES. 

Pleueostoma bohemicum, Zittel. 
1877. Pleurostoma bohemicum, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 48; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 358. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Plauen, Bohemia (coll. Zittel). 

Genus GUETTARDIA, Michelin, 1840-47. 

GuETTAEDiA STELLATA, Miclielin (pars). 

1840-47. Guettardia stellata, Michelin, Icon. Zooph. p. 121, t. 30. f. 3, 4, 6, 8-II, cet. excl. 
1846. Guettardia Thio/ati, D'Areliiac, Mem. Soc. Geol. 2 ser. p. 197, t. 5. f. 15, and t. 8. 

f. 5, 6, 7. 
1848. Brachiolites angularis, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 357, f. O & P. 

The number of the radiating flanges in this well-known sponge varies in diff'erent 
examples from 3 to 10, the parallel walls are from 1 to 2 mm. in thickness, and 
about the same distance apart. The apertures on the outer lateral edges of the 
flanges are ovate, and from 3 to 4 mm. in width. The base is usually rounded or 
with an imperfect stem ; slender radical processes also appear to have originally 
extended from the lateral edges of the flanges so as to serve in keeping the sponge 
in an upright position. The central space appears to have been open above, and 
there also appears to have been entirely free communication between the flanges and 
the centre. There is great diversity in the size of difi"erent examples ; a small form 
is 28 mm. in height by 30 mm. in width, and some of the large examples, judging 
by the extension of a single flange, must have been 240 mm. in width by 100 mm. 
in height. 

The walls carry thickly-set, minute, circular or oval canal-apertures, about '5 mm. 
in width, disposed generally in quincunx. The spicules of the interior wall form an 
irregular mesh with solid nodes. The dermal layer on the exterior surface, between 
the canal-apertures, differs from the spicular mesh of the interior in a greater thick- 
ness of the spicular arms, so that only minute circular pores remain between them. 

The most complete description of this species is that given by Toulmin Smith from 
tlie examples in the English Chalk, which are either in the condition of rusty 
peroxide of iron in the chalk itself, or preserved as reddish markings in flint. The 
figure given by T. Smith, loc. cit. p. 358, fig. O, is, to a certain extent, diagrammatic, 
for the original in the Museum collection is by no means so complete as represented. 

Michelin appears to me to have figured more than one species under G. stellata in 
pi. 30, I. c. Thus in the flgures 2 and 5 the flanges grow upwards, and form 
separate flattened branches, the same as in Pleurostoma, and only communicate with 
the central cavity near their bases, and in this respect diff'er from the examples which 
he has placed under figs. 3, 4, 6, 8, 9. For these latter forms I propose to retain 
the name of G. stellata. D'Archiac has claimed one of these (fig. 6) as belonging to 
his species G. Thiolati, but he might equally well have claimed the other examples 



GUETTARDIA.— COSCINOPORA. 105 

(figs. 3, 4, 8, 9), as they clearly belong to the same species. The Museum possesses 
several specimens from Biarritz which correspond very closely with D'Archiac's figures 
of G. Thiolati from that locality ; and I am unable to find any satisfactory differences 
to distinguish them from the Chalk specimens of G. stellata, beyond those which may 
arise from difference of preservation. As a rule, however, they are smaller than the 
Chalk forms. 

The example figured by Mantell under the name of Ventriculites quadrangularis*, 
is stated by T. Smith to be a fragment of this species ; but neither Mantell's figure 
nor description is sufficiently clear for satisfactory recognition. 

Distribution. Grey Chalk : Dover. Lower and Upper Chalk : Boxley, Kent ; 
Croydon, Shalford, Surrey ; Glynde, Sussex ; South of England (coll. T. Smith). 
Cretaceous : Biarritz [coll. Pratt). 

GuETTARDiA RADIANS, Hinde, XI. sp. (Plate XXV. fig. 3.) 
1840-47. Guettardia stellata, Michelin, pars, Icon. Zoopli. pi. 30. f. 1, 2, 5. 

Sponge consisting of a varying number, from 3 to 5 generally, of compressed 
branches, which spring from a common, slightly inflated, hollow base, supported on 
a short stem. The branches are from 14 to 24 mm. in width ; the parallel walls are 
about 2 mm. in thickness, and about the same distance apart ; circular apertures are 
present on both the lateral margins. The wall-surface appears to be covered with 
minute canal-apertures similar to those in G. stellata. No spicular structure is 
present in the specimens. 

I propose this species to include some of the forms included by Michelin under 
G. stellata, but which differ from those to which I have restricted this term in the 
fact that instead of forming flanges which open throughout their length into a central 
cavity, the sponge divides into compressed branches, thus resembling a compound 
Pleurostoma. 

Distribution. Craie Chloritee : Vaches Noires. Biarritz ? {coll. Pratt). 

Genus COSCINOPORA, Goldfuss, 1826-33. 

COSCINOPORA INFUNDIBULIFORMIS, Goldf. 

1826-33. Coscinopora infmdibuliformis, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 30, t. 30. f. 10. 

1877. Coscinopora rnfundibuliformis, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 49; Neues Jahrbuch, ]>. 359, 
t. 2. f. 4. 

1878. Coscinopora in/undibuliformis, Zitt. Handb. der Pal. p. 175, f. 91. 

There are several examples from the Upper Chalk of the south oi England which 
correspond in form and in the arrangement of the canal-apertures with typical 

* Geology of Sussex, p. 177, t. 15. f. 6. 



106 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

specimens from Germany ; but as their spicular structure has been obliterated, a 
satisfactory identification is impracticable. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Croydon, Surrey ; South of England ; Coesfeld, Dahl- 
feld, AVestphalia. 

CosciNOPORA QumcuNciALis, Toulmin Smith, sp. 

1847-48. Ventriculites quincuncialis, T. Smithy Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1 ser. vol. sx. t. 7. 
f. 7, and 2 ser. vol. i. p. 207. 

Sponges narrow funnel-shaped, gradually tapering to a cylindrical stem, which 
gives off horizontal root-like processes at its termination. An average specimen is 
70 mm. in height, and 25 mm. in width at the summit. 

The walls are from 2 to 2"5 mm. in thickness; the canal-apertures on the outer 
surface are about '5 mm. in diameter, and disposed in very regular quincunx. Here 
and there, in some specimens, traces of spicules can be detected ; they appear to have 
had compact nodes. The spicular structure of the stem is formed of elongated 
irregular spicules ; this structure overlaps the regular mesh-work of the wall in the 
lower part of the body of the sponge. 

This species is readily distinguished from C. infundibiiliformis by its narrow 
elongated form and the smaller size of the canals. Toulmin Smith states that the 
walls of this species are folded the same as iu Ventriculites, but I am unable to 
recognize this character in his typical figured specimen. The specimens are preserved 
in flint, and all appear to be incomplete at the summit. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Croydon, Surrey; Arundel, Sussex; Beckhampton, 
Wiltshire. 

Family MELLITIOKID^E, Zittel. 

Genus APHROCALLISTES, Gray, 1858. 

Aphroc.\llistes alveolites, Roemer, sp. 

1840. Scyphia alveolites, Roemer, sp., Nordd. Kreide, p. 8, t. 3. f. 6. 

1877. Aphrocallistes alveolites, Zittel, Studien, I Ab. p. 49; Neues Jahrbucb, p. 359. 

The specimens which I refer to this species consist of two small fragments of the 
sponge-wall, whicli is composed of prismatic canals 1'75 mm. in diameter, with very 
delicate partitions. The spicular structure is now in the condition of iron peroxide ; 
aiid as the character of the mesh cannot be distinguished, there is some doubt as to 
the correct identification of the specimens. 

Distribution, Upper Chalk : South of England ? 



PACIITTEICHISMA.— TEOCHOBOLUS. 107 

Family VENTRICULITID^. 
Genus PACHYTEICHISMA, Zittel, 1877. 

Pachyteichisma Caeteri, Zittel. 

1877. Pachyteichisma Carteri, Zittel, Studien, I Ab. p. 50 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 360, t. 3. 
f. 3; id. 1878, p. 59; Handbuch der Pal. p. 176, f. 92. 

1808. An Alcyonite, Parkinson, Organic Remains, vol. 2, t. 11. f. 2. 
1820. Spongus coarctatus ? Konig, Icones fossiles, p. 4, t. 7. f. 81. 

1878. Lancispongia lamellosa tumulosa, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 92, t. 119. f. 1. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Heuberg, Streitberg. 

Pachyteichisma lopas, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Spongites lopas, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 685, t. 83. f. 5. 

1877. Pachyteichisma lopas, Zitt, Studien, I Ab. p. 50; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 360. 

1878. Lancispongia lopas, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 95, t. 119. f. 3. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Wiirtemberg. 

Pachyteichisma, sp. 
Portions of the spicular structure of an undetermined species from the Jurassic 
formation at Hohenpolz, Bavaria {coll. Zittel). 

Genus TROCHOBOLUS, Zittel, 1877. 

Trochobolus crassicostus, Zitt. 

1877. Trochobolus crassicostus, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 50; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 360, t. 3. 
f. 4; idem, 1878, p. 60. 

1878. Scyphia barbata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 124, t. 120. f. 54. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Randen, Streitberg [coll. Zitt.). 

Trochobolus lucernds, Konig, sp. 

1820. Spongus lucerna, Konig, Icones fossiles, p. 4, t. 7. f. 83. 
1820. Spongus tuber, Konig, Icon. foss. p. 4, t. 7. f. 84. 
1878. Mastospongia, sp., Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 148, t. 122. f. 7. 
1878. Trochobolus, Zitt. Neues Jahrbuch, p. 61. 

I am doubtful whether this peculiar sponge is rightly included in the genus 
Trochobolus, for though it agrees with the type of the genus in its mode of growth, 
I am unable to determine whether the spicular nodes are compact or lantern-like. 
The spicular structure in all the specimens is replaced by either calcite or iron 
peroxide, and in sections of calcite specimens the spicular nodes appear to be 
compact; but it is doubtful whether the octahedral nodes can be detected in all 

p2 



108 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

the cases in which replacement by calcite has occurred, though, as a rule, they are 
pretty clearly shown. Should further research prove that the nodes are compact, 
this species will have to be formed into a new genus, which will find its place close 
to VerrucocoeUa. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Switzerland. 

I 

Trochobolus constrictus, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXV. figs. 4, 4 a, 4 b.) 

Sponge subcylindrical, surface uneven, with slight concentric swellings and depres- 
sions, the summit truncate with rounded margins. Length of tlie only specimen 
87 mm., width at summit 29 mm. 

The thickness of the sponge-wall, measuring from the interior of the cloaca to the 
outer surface, is 5 mm. The outer surface exhibits a vertical series of ridges about 
2 mm. in width and 1 mm. apart. The characters of the interior of the cloaca are 
concealed by the matrix. The wall is built up of a regular spicular mesh with 
lantern or octahedral nodes. The distance between the nodal centres is -312 mm. 

The general appearance of this sponge so closely resembles the cylindrical examples 
oi SphenauJax {Scyphia) costata, Goldf., that, judging from this character merely, it 
would at once have been placed under this species ; but in a longitudinal section of 
the wall the spicules exhibit distinct lantern nodes, and are similar to, though some- 
what larger than, those of T. crassicostus. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Switzerland. 

Genus PHLYCT^NIUM, Zittel. 

Phltct^nium coniformis, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Mastospongia coniformis, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 152, t. 122. f. 13. 
1826-33. Sctjphia verrucosa, Goldf. p. p. Petref. 1 Th. p. 7, t. 2. f. 11. 
1878. Phlycttenium coniformis, Zitt. Neues Jahrbuch, p. 61. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Wiirtemberg. 

Genus VENTRICULTrES, Mantcll, 1822. 

Ventriculites radiatus, Mantell, pars. 
1822. Ventriculites radiatus, Mantell, Foss. of tlie South Downs, p. 168, t. 10, 11, 12, 11, 

nou t. 13. f. 2-6. 
1815. Alcyonium chomides, Mantell, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. ii. p. 402. t. 27-30. 
1845-46. Scyphia radiata, Reuss, Ver. boh. Kreide, p. 7-t, t. 17. f. 14. 
1854. Ventriculites radiatus, Mantell, Medals of Creation, 2 ed. p. 244, f. 81. 
1870. Retispongia radiata, Ferd. Roemer, pars, Geol. Oberschles. p. 302, t. 32, non t. 30. f. 5. 
1878. Ventriculites radiatus discus, Quenst. pars, Petref. Bd. 5, p. 449, t. 136. f . 26. 



VENTKICULITES. 109 

Sponge consisting of a circular, flattened, or slightly concave, or occasionally 
convex expansion, supported on a small funnel-shaped or inverted conical base, from 
the extremity of which divergent root-like processes extend, which served to anchor 
the sponge in the chalky mud. 

The conical basal portion is from 20 to 30 mm. in height ; the summit expansion 
attains, in fairly large examples, a diameter of 220 mm. 

The under surface of the sponge exliibits a series of straight or slightly curved, 
occasionally bifurcating ndges, which radiate from the centre to the margins. These 
ridges are formed by the iufolding of the thin wall-plaits of the sponge ; they are 
connected together at intervals by transverse extensions. They are from 1"5 mm. to 
2'5 mm. in tliickness, and the intervening furrows are about 1 mm. in width. 

The upper surface of the sponge has a smooth aspect ; it is composed of a reticu- 
lated membrane with numerous circular or elliptical canal- apertures, from 1'5 to 
3 mm. in width, disposed either irregularly or in quincunx. The total thickness of 
the sponge-wall vai-ies according to the amount of compression it has experienced ; 
in some examples in the Chalk it is only 2 to 3 mm., whilst in a flint-preserved 
example it reaches a thickness of 6-5 mm. 

In only a single specimen out of a large number of examples of this species have 
I been enabled to discover traces of the spicular structure. The spicular mesh in 
this specimen appears to be extremely regular ; the interspaces are nearly quadrate, 
and the distance between the spicular nodes is about '4 mm. 

This species is probably the most abundant of any of the Ventriculites in the 
English Chalk. It occurs either as mere impressions or as moulds filled with soft 
ochraceous material in the chalk, or else as casts in flint. Very frequently the 
basal or conical portion of a specimen is preserved in flint, whilst the expanded 
portion remains as a mere impression in the soft chalk. Its appearance varies 
greatly according to its mode of preservation, and the surface which is exposed 
to view. 

1 have taken as the type of the species the specimens figured by Mantell on 
tab. 14, 'Fossils of the South Downs.' The figures, though roughly drawn, exhibit 
very fairly both the upper and under surfaces of the sponge. The examples figured 
by Mantell on tab. 13 belong, with one doubtful exception, to other species of 
Ventriculites, and were so regarded by Mantell himself in the ' Medals of Creation,' 
p. 245, f. 82. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Norfolk ; Surrey ; Sussex ; near Warminster, Wilt- 
shire {coll. T. Smith and Mantell). 

Vkntriculites impressus, Touhn. Smith. 

1848. Ventriculites impressus, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 205; 
and 1st ser. vol. xx. t. 8. f. 2, 3. 



110 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

1848. Ventriculites muricatus, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 210, t. 13. f. 1. 
1878. Ventriculites dilatatus, Queust. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 460, t. 137. f. 6. 

Sponge usually open funnel-shaped, gradually tapering to a slender stem with 
divergent rootlets. In some instances the sponge forms flattened expansions with a 
circular outline similar to V. radiatus. Height and width very variable ; a large 
specimen is 170 mm. in diameter. 

The outer or under surface of the sponge-wall is reticulate, with circular or ovate 
apertures, from "75 to 1-5 mm. in width ; the wall-fibres bounding the apertures are 
about the same width as the interspaces. The upper or inner surface has numerous 
apertures of a similar form to those of the lower, and disposed either irregularly or 
in quincunx. 

The total thickness of the wall is about 3 mm.; but as all the specimens are in 
chalk, and therefore compressed, it is impossible to determine the original thickness 
with accuracy. No spicular structure is shown in any of the specimens. 

This species appears to be nearly as abundant as the preceding. There is a great 
amount of variation in different specimens, but I cannot find any characters which 
would allow of a separation into distinct species. The V. muricatus, T. Smith, 
appears to me, from a comparision of the original example in the Museum Collec- 
tion, to belong to this species. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England, Heytesbury ; near Warminster, 
Wiltshire {coll. T. Smith). 



Ventriculites convolutus, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXV. figs. 5, 5 a.) 

Sponges cup- or vase-shaped, with expanded margins and folded walls. No stem 
preserved, and the species appears to have been sessile. The wall of a specimen 
preserved in chalk is 1-6 ram. in thickness. A fairly large specimen is 60 mm. in 
height, and 120 mm. in breadth at the summit. 

The outer surface is formed of flattened, bifurcating ridges about 1-5 mm. in width, 
which run nearly parallel with each other from the base to the margins, and inter- 
osculate so as to leave narrow, elongated interspaces. The interior of the wall is 
not exposed. 

The spicular mesh, judging by the hollow casts in the Chalk, is irregular; the 
distance between the spicular nodes is about 3 mm. This species may be distin- 
guished by its folded thin walls and the disposition of the flattened ridges of the 
outer surface. 

In outer form and the disposition of the ridges of the outer surface of the wall, 
this species resembles Crihrospongia subreticulata, Geinitz*; but the surface-apertures 

* Palceontographica, Bd. 20, p. 23, t. 2. f. 2-4. 



VENTETCULITES. Ill 

in this latter species have a rectangular arrangement, and the wall is three times as 
thick as in V. convol ictus. 

This species appears to be not uncommon in the Kentish Chalk. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Gravesend, Broadstairs, Kent. 

Ventriculites poculum, Zittel, MS. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Libyan Desert {Zitt. coll.). 

Ventriculites decureens, Toulm. Smith. 

1848. Ventriculites decurrens, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2ncl ser. vol. i. p. 215, 

t. 13. f. 8. 
1848. Ventriculites decurrens, var. tenuiplicatus, T. Smith, ibid. p. 215, 1. 13. f. 9. 
1848. Ventriculites cavatus, T. Smith, ibid. p. 212, 1. 13. f. 5. 
1822. Ventriculites radiatus, Mantell, pars, Foss. South Downs, t. 13. f. 4. 
1878. Ventriculites radiatus, Qucnst. pars, Petref. Bd. 5, t. 13G. f. 23. 

Sponges varying in form, from subcylindrical to open funnel-shaped, gradually 
tapering below to a slender cylindrical stem with branching roots. Small examples 
measure 65 mm. in length by 23 in diameter, whilst a large specimen, without the 
slender stem, is 120 mm. in height and of an equal width at the summit. 

The outer surface of the sponge is formed by robust vertical or oblique ridges, 
which occasionally bifurcate, but are rarely connected by lateral extensions. These 
ridges are 2 mm. in thickness, and the intervening furrows about '75 mm. in width. 
The interior surface exhibits circular apertures. The entire thickness of the sponge- 
wall is 5 mm. The dermal layer of the exterior ridges of the wall is penetrated by 
numerous minute circular pores, and minute spinous processes project outwards 
from its surface. The spicular mesh of the interior appears to be of an irregular 
character. 

This species is also abundant. It somewhat approaches to V. radiatus in the 
disposition of the ridges and furrows of the outer portion of the wall, but its mode 
of growth readily distinguishes it from that species. The V. cavatus, T. Smith, 
which is founded on a mere fragment of the wall of a sponge, appears to me to 
belong to the present species. 

Listyibution. Upper Chalk : South of England ; Bridgwick ; Monckton-Bassett, 
Wilts {coll. T. Smith and Mantell). 

Ventriculites mammillaeis, Toulm. Smith. 

1848. Ventriculites mammillaris, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 213, 

1. 13. f. 7, 14. 
1822. Ventriculites radiatus, Mantell, p. p. Foss. South Downs, t. 13. f. 2, 3, 5. 

Sponges either elongated, narrow, funnel-shaped, or somewhat depressed, open 



]12 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

funnel- or cup-shaped. A slender cylindrical stem with branching roots is usually 
present, but in some examples the root-processes spring directly from the base of the 
funnel. The specimens vary from 50 to 120 mm. in height and from 20 to 75 mm. 
in width. The outer surface of the sponge-wall is folded into vertical ridges about 
2*8 mm. in width, and these are divided transversely so as to form so many rows of 
rounded projecting wart-like bosses. The inner surface of the wall, according to 
Toulmin Smith's figure, appears to be composed of simple open furrows and ridges ; 
but in none of the Museum specimens is the inner surface of the wall distinctly 
shown, aud it cannot be seen in the type specimen from which T. Smith's figure has 
been drawn, so that this portion of the figure is purely imaginary. In a specimen 
preserved in flint the thickness of the wall is 4 mm. 

The spicules of the interior mesh have conspicuous lantern or octahedral nodes ; 
the spicular rays are about "25 mm. in length. 

This species differs from V. decurrens mainly in the warty projections of the 
outer wall. 

Listrihution. Upper Chalk: Sussex {coll. T. Smith and Mantell). 

Ventriculites infundibuliformis, S. Woochoard. (Plate XXVI. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

1833. Ventriculites infundibuliformis, S. Woodw. Geology of Norfolk, t. 4. f. 20, 21. 

1848. Ventriculites bicomplicatus, T. Smith, Ann. &. Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vol. i. 

p. 219, fig. E. 
1848. Ventriculites latiplicatus, T. Smith, ibid. p. 215, fig. D. 
1848. Ventriculites striatus, T. Smith, ibid. p. 212, t. 13. f. 6, 13. 
1848. Ventriculites radiatus, T. Smith (non Mantell), ibid. p. 218, t. 13. f. 10, 15. 

Sponges elongated funnel-shaped, sometimes laterally compressed above, or slightly 
exp;iuding outwards ; the divergent roots spring from the basal end of the funnel. 
The total thickness of the wall is from 7 to 8-5 mm.; the plaits forming the wall are 
about 1 mm. in thickness. I have not met with a complete specimen ; the greatest 
width at the summit of an individual is 83 mm. 

The exterior surface is composed of rounded, occasionally bifurcating ridges, about 
1-8 mm. wide, which extend vertically from the base to the summit, and are connected 
laterally so as to leave narrow oval interspaces about 4 mm. in length by 1"25 mm. 
in width, which are sometimes disposed in quincunx. The inner surface of the wall 
is rarely exposed ; it appears to be similar in character to the outer surface. 

The spicular mesh is only shown by the empty moulds of the spicules in the 
Chalk ; it appears to be irregular, with prominent octahedral nodes ; the distance 
from node to node is '38 mm. 

The aspect of this species varies greatly, according as it happens to be preserved 
in the interior of flints or in chalk. As a general rule only the lower portions of 
the sponge are met with in flints, and these specimens do not show the oval inter- 



VENTEICULITES. 113 

spaces between the vertical ridges so conspicuously as in the Chalk examples. It is 
probable that T. Smith's figure of V. striatus has been drawn from one of the flint- 
inclosed examples of this species. 

This species is readily distinguished by the great thickness of the wall and the 
characters of the outer surface. Though no description accompanies "Woodward's 
figure, the examples from Norwich in the Museum collection enable me to identify 
the forms which he has placed under this name. Unfortunately the descriptions of 
species given by Toulmin Smith are very meagre and incomplete, and many of his 
figures are diagrammatic, so that reliance cannot be placed on them*. I have care- 
fully examined Smith's specimens in the Museum, and regard the forms referred by 
him to V. bicomplicatus, V. lati}}licatus, V. striatus, and V. radiatus as belonging to 
the present species. 

Distrihution. Upper Chalk: Norwich; Clopton, Suffolk ; Heytesbury, Beckhamp- 
ton, Moncton-Bassett, Norton-Bavant, Wiltshire ; Wolsk, Volga, Russia {coll. Bay- 
field, Cunnington, T. Smith). 

Venteiculites ceibrosus, Phillips, sp. (Plate XXVI. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

1829. Spongia cribrosa, Phill. Geol. Yorkshire, t. 1. f. 7. 

1864. Ventriculites multicostatus, F. A. Roemer, Palseont. Bd. 13, p. 19, t. 8. f. 1. 

Sponges elongated, narrow, funnel-shaped, very gradually tapering from the summit 
to the base ; the root-processes usually spring from the basal end of the funnel, but 
in some instances a short stem intervenes. The wall is 6 mm. in thickness where it 
has not been compressed. A fairly complete specimen is 240 mm. in length by 
55 mm. in width at the summit. 

The outer surface is reticulate; the ridges of the wall, about 12 mm. in width, 
inosculate, so as to form elliptical interspaces, about 2-7 mm. in length by 1 mm. in 
width, which, in some, though not in all the specimens, are disposed in quincunx. 
The inner surface of the wall is concealed by the matrix. No spicular structure has 
been preserved. 

This species, so far as can be judged from the unfavourable condition of the 
specimens, differs from V. infundihuliformis principally in its thinner wall and the 
smaller size of the ovate apertures of the outer surface. Phillips's figure is very 
inexact, but there can hardly be a doubt respecting the form which he intended to 
represent, since no other at all resembling it is found in the Chalk at Flamborough. 
The sponge which F. A. Roemer has referred to this species (Nordd. Kreide, p. 9, 

* It may also be mentioned here that the type of Toulmin Smith's Ventriculites tessellatus (Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 211, t. 13. f. 2, 3, 4), now in the Museum, consists only of the impression of 
the outer surface of a small fragment of a sponge on a small piece of chalk. No spicular structure can be 
discerned, and it is doubtful whether the form even belongs to Ventriculites. The characters shown are 
altogether insufficient for specific determination. 

Q 



114 SILICEOUS SPONGES, 

t. 4. f. 2) differs from the Flaraborough examples by its apparently thinner wall and 
the circular form of the surface-apertures; but, on the other hand, the V. muUi- 
costatus of the same author, so far as can be judged from the descriptions and 
figures, appears to be identical with Phillips's species. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Flamborough, Yorkshire. 

Ventriculites angustatus, Rmmer, sp. (Plate XXVI. figs. 3, 3 «, 3 h.) 

1840. Scyphia angustata, Roemer, Nordd. Kreide, p. 8, t. 3. f. 5. 
1854. Scyphia angustata, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 29. 

Sponges narrow, funnel-shaped, occasionally compressed, gradually tapering from 
the summit to the basal end. No stem or root has been preserved. The thickness 
of the wall in a silicified specimen is 5 mm., in specimens preserved in chalk it is 
about 3-5 mm. The length of what appears to be an average specimen is 95 mm., 
and the summit width is 26 mm. 

The outer surface has an irregular reticulate aspect ; in places the ridges of the 
wall, about -9 mm. in width, are disposed vertically, and connected by lateral exten- 
sions, so as to leave transversely elliptical or irregularly subangular interspaces from 
•8 mm. to 1'2 in width ; in other parts of the same specimen the disposition of the 
ridges and interspaces is altogether irregular. The interior surface of the wall has 
circular apertures, 1 mm. wide, and nearly the same distance apart, arranged regu- 
larly in quincunx. 

The spicular structure of the specimens is nearly obliterated, but I have ascer- 
tained the octahedral character of the nodes. The mesh appears to be irregular ; 
the distance from node to node is -35 mm. The dermal layer, both of the outer and 
inner surface of the wall, shows minute circular pores of different sizes. 

This species can be readily distinguished from the funnel-shaped forms previously 
described by the characters of the outer surface. This closely agrees with Eoemer's 
figure of the type in the Nordd. Kreide ; but it does not correspond with the forms 
which the same author referred to the species at a later date under the name of 
Cylindrospongia angustata*, nor with those which Ferd. Rcemerf and Quenstedt:^ 
have referred to the species. This species appears to be rare. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England. 

Ventriculites alcyonoides, Mantell. 

1808. An Alcyonite, Parkinson, Organic Remains, vol. ii. p. 213^ t. 10. f. 12. 

1816. Flint Alcyonite, W. Smith, Strata Identified, t. 3. f. 1. 

1822. Ventriculites alcyonoides, Mantell, Foss. South Downs, p. 176. 

• PalEBontograpliioa, Ed. 13, p. 22, t. 8. f. 10. 
t GeoL Obersohlesien, p. 309, t. 30. f. 7, 8. 
+ Petrefaoten, Bd. 5, p. 457, t. 13G. f. 2-14. 



VENTRICULITES.— SCITIZOEHABDUS. 115 

1870. Cylindfospongia anynstata, Ferd. Roemer^ Geol. Oberschles. p. 309, t. 30. f. 7, 8. 
1877. Ventriculites angustatus, Quenst. p. p. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 437, t. 136. f. 3, 11, 12, 14. 

Sponges narrow, funnel-shaped or subcylindrical, sometimes with constrictions at 
intervals. In some examples the aperture at the summit is contracted. The basal 
end is seldom entire ; the funnel appears to have been supported on a slender cylin- 
drical stem. The wall appears to be about 4 mm. in thickness. In general the 
specimens are about 50 mm. in length by 20 in width, but larger forms occur, which, 
judging from fragments, would measure about 100 mm. long, with a summit-width 
of 36 mm. 

The outer surface of the wall is reticulate ; the ridges or folds, about 1 mm. wide, 
are disposed so as to leave circular or somewhat irregular interspaces, from '75 to 
1 mm. in width, arranged either in quincunx or without definite order. The interior 
surface of the funnel is not exposed. 

The spicular mesh, as seen in a vertical section of a specimen, is irregular ; the 
distance between the spicular nodes is '375 mm. 

It is sometimes difficult to separate some of the examples of this species which 
have the surface-apertures of the wall arranged in quincunx, from specimens of 
Coscinopora {Ventriculites) quincuncialis, T. Smith, sp. As a rule, however, the 
canal-apertures in this latter species are much smaller, and the surface is much 
more even than in V. alcyonoides. In specimens which show the spicular structure 
the difference is easily ascertainable, for in the type forms of C. quincuncialis the 
nodes are compact, whilst in the present species they are clearly octahedral. 

The figures of Parkinson and Smith referred to by Mantell must be accepted as 
representing the type of the species, and not Mantell's description, which embraces 
more than one species. In the structure of the outer surface of the wall Ventri- 
culites alcyonoides resembles V. impressics, T. Smith, and it is probable that the 
disciform examples of Mantell's description belong to this latter species. 

This species appears to be abundant and generally distributed in the Upper Chalk. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Wigh ton, Norfolk; Guildford, Surrey; Arundel, Lewes, 
Sussex ; Boxley, Kent ; Heytesbury, Norton-Bavant, Warminster, Wilts ; Strehlen, 
Germany (coll. Mantell, W. Smith, T. Smith). 

Genus SCHIZORHABDUS, Zittel, 1877. 

SCHIZOEHABDUS LIBTCUS, Zitt. 
1877. Schizorhabdus libycus, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 51; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 361. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : Libyan Desert {coll. Zitt.). 



q2 



116 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Genus EHIZOPOTERION, Zittel, 1877. 
Rhizopoterion cervicorne, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. SipJwnia cervicornis, Golclf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 18, t. 6. f. 11, and p. 98, t. 35. £. 11. 

1877. Rhizopoterion cervicorne, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 51; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 362, t. 3. f. 6. 

1878. Siphonia cervicornis, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 422, 1. 135. f. 9. 

Two specimens of the stem and roots of a sponge preserved in flint probably 
belong to this species. The spicular structure has not been preserved, but the 
longitudinal canals very closely resemble those of typical examples from Germany. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : England ; Bromberg, Haldem, Germany {coll. Zitt.). 

Genus SPOEADOSCINIA, Pomel, 1872, emend. Zittel, 1877. 
Sporadoscinia micrommata, Boem. sp. 

1840. Scyphia micrommata, F. A. Roemer, Nordd. Kreide, p. 7, t. 2. fig. 11. 
1872. Cribrosjjongia micromata, Schliiter, Spongit. des Miiusterlandes, p. 28. 
1877. Sjjoradoscinia micrommata, Zitt. Studieiij I Ab. p. 52; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 362, 
t. 3. f. 5. 

Sponges cup-shaped or forming slightly concave expansions, supported on a short 
inverted-conical, hollow, basal portion. No root-processes have been preserved. 
The thickness of the wall is only 1 mm., but all the specimens have been replaced 
by peroxide of iron, and it is probable that the wall has suffered from compression. 
The height of a specimen is 45 mm. and the width across the summit is 105 mm. 

The outer surface is furnished with irregularly disposed, circular or transversely 
ovate apertures, about '9 mm. in width, and the same or a slightly greater distance 
apart from each other ; the inner surface of the wall has elliptical apertures, about 
1-3 mm. in length, disposed regularly in quincunx. No spicular structure has been 
preserved. The dermal layer appears to have been minutely porous. 

Distribiotion. Upper Chalk ; Bromley, Kent (coll. T. Smith), 

Sporadoscinia Decheni, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. Scyphia Dechenii, Goldfuss, Petref. 1 Th. p. 219, t. 65. f. 6. 

1877. Sporadoscinia Decheni, Zitt. Studieu, I Ab. p. 52 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 362. 

1878. Scyphia Dechenii, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 454, 1. 137. f. 2. 

Microscopic fragments of the spicular structure of this species from the Upper 
Chalk of Coesfeld, Westphalia. 

Sporadoscinia capax, Ilinde, n. sp. (Plate XXVI. figs. 4, 4 «, 4 b.) 
Sponge open funnel-shaped, growing to a large size ; no stem has been preserved. 
The wall is 5 mm. in thickness; it is possible that it may have been originally of 



SPOEADOSCINIA. — SESTEOCLADIA. 117 

somewhat greater thickness, though I do not think that in this instance it has been 
much compressed. The only specimen, which is destitute of the lower portion of 
the funnel, measures 170 mm. in height by 168 in width at the summit. 

The outer surface of the wall is pierced with irregularly disposed, transversely 
elliptical or ovate apertures, from 1 to 1'8 mm. in length and about "6 mm. in width. 
These apertures are only separated by slender wall-fibres, about '7 mm. in width. 
The inner surface has circular or slightly ovate apertures, 1"6 mm. wide, and about 
the same distance apart, regularly disposed in quincunx. 

Only a portion of the wall has been preserved, and the spicular structure is either 
in the condition of hollow moulds, or these are partially filled with peroxide of iron. 
The interior mesh appears to be very irregular ; the distance between the octahedral 
spicular nodes is "3 mm. The dermal layer appears to have been furnished with 
stout spines, which projected from the surface and into the canals in the same 
manner as represented by Zittel in S. micrommata*. 

The main diff'erence between this species and S. Decheni, Goldf., independent of 
its much larger size, consists in the difierent form and arrangement of the apertures 
of the outer surface of the wall. 

Distribution. Lower Chalk : South of England, 

Genus SESTEOCLADIA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponge ramose, consisting of cylindrical or compressed bifurcating branches. The 
branches are hollow tubes, open at their summits. The outer surface of the sponge 
is formed by anastomosing ridges or folds with ovate interspaces. The interior 
surface is concealed by the matrix, but, judging from vertical and transverse sections, 
it appears to be penetrated by apertures similar to those of the outer surface. The 
spicular mesh of the interior of the wall is irregular, the spicular nodes are octa- 
hedral. The outer surface of the ridges or folds of the wall apparently possessed a 
dermal layer, but its minute structure is not discernible. 

This genus is distinguished from all others of the family of the Ventriculitidse by 
its dendritic mode of growth. 

Sesteocladia fuecatqs, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXVII. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 1.) 
Sponge apparently growing from a simple stem, which gives ofi" divergent branches 
at irregular intervals. The branches have a generally upright direction of growth ; 
they are from 15 to 28 mm. in diameter, usually cylindrical, but near the points of 
bifurcation they are frequently compressed and expanded. The single example, 
which is imperfect, is 155 mm. in height, and the lateral extension is 140 mm. The 
thickness of the wall is 3 mm. 

* Neues Jahrbuch, 1877, Taf. 3. fig. ba. 



118 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

The ridges or folds of the outer surface are about 1 mm. in width, and the ovate 
or somewhat irregularly elongate canal-apertures are from 1 to 2 mm. in length. 
The octahedral nodes of tlie interior mesh are clearly shown ; the distance from node 
to node is about '4 mm. 

There is but a single specimen in the Museum collection, which had been named 
Spongia ramosa, Mantell ; but beyond its mode of grorwth it has no other character 
in common with that species. 

Distribution. Grey Chalk: Dover. 

Genus CCELOSCYPHIA *, Tate, 1865 (emend. Hinde). 

This name was proposed by Tatef as a substitute for Polyccelia, FromentelJ, 
which had been previously applied by Prof. King § to a genus of Actinozoa. As 
repi'esenting a natural genus of sponges, PoTycoelia, From., is quite valueless, and 
the forms included therein by Fromentel and F. A. Roemer have been placed by 
Zittel in two or three genera. It is needless therefore to adopt Tate's suggestion 
and substitute another term for a genus which is now obsolete. The particular 
species, however, that Tate placed under Coeloscyphia appears to me to belong to a 
distinct genus, and I therefore propose to retain his name for sponges with the 
following generic definition : — 

Sponges consisting of simple cylindrical tubes growing from a common centre. 
The walls of the tubes regularly folded so as to form vertical subparallel ridges with 
intervening furrows. The spicular mesh with octahedral nodes. 

This genus is intermediate between Sestrodadia and PoJyhlastidium. The non- 
branching character of the tubes and the vertical ridges of the wall distinguish it 
from the former genus, whilst the absence of a common tubular axis separates it from 
the latter. 

CcELOSCYPHiA SULCATA, Tate, sp. (Plate XXIX. figs. 1, 1 a.) 

1865. Cceloscyphia sulcata, Tate, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xsi. p. 43^ t. 5. f. 5. 
1878. Coeloscyphia sulcata, Zitt. Stiidieiij III Ab. p. 31, note. 

The only specimen consists of three short subequal cylindrical tubes, 17 mm. in 
length and 9 in width, growing from a common centre. No stem has been preserved, 
but it is probable that one was originally present. The walls of the tubes are 
folded so as to form 12 to 14 vertical ridges ; the intervening furrows are concealed 
by the matrix, which also fills the cloacal tube. The cloacal aperture is circular, 
and 3 mm. in width. The total thickness of the wall is about 3 mm., whilst the 

* This genus is unintentionally omitted from the list on p. 16. 
t Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xsi. p. 43. 
X Introduction a Tetude des Eponges fossUes, 1859, p. 32. 
§ Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. 184>J, 2nd ser. vol. iii. p. 388. 



CCELOSCTPHIA . — POLTBLASTIDirM. 119 

wall-plaits are '5 mm. in thickness. The spicular mesh is small ; the octahedral 
nodes are '3 mm. apart. The characters of the dermal layer are obliterated, and the 
interior spicular structure is only preserved in one or two places. The type speci- 
men, the only one at present known, is in the Jermyn-Street Museum. 

Distribution. Spongarian zone of tlie Chloritic Chalk {Tate) = Upper Chalk : 
Island Magee, near Belfast. 

Genus POLYBLASTIDIUM, Zittel, 1877. 

POLYBLASTIDIUM LUXUEIANS, Zltt. 

1877. Polyblastidium luxurians, Zitt. Studierij I Ab. p. 52; Neucs Jahrbuch, p. 363, 
t. 3. f . 7. 

Microscopic portions of the spicular structure of this species. 
Distrihution. Upper Chalk : Linden, Hanover {coll. Zitt.). 

POLYBLASTIDIUM EACEMOSUM, Toulm. Smith, sp. (Plate XXVII. figs. 2, 2 a.) 
1848. Brachiolites racemosus, T. Smith, Ann. Ss Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 364, 1. 15. f. 6. 

Body of sponge club- or pear-shaped, supported on a slender stem, with divergent 
rootlets at its termination. From the surface of the sponge short projecting hollow 
tubes, from 8-5 to 14 mm. in diameter, project irregularly outwards. An average 
specimen is 77 mm. in length by 40 in width. 

The examples of this species are all in solid flint, and only transverse sections of 
the tubular projections are shown on the outer surface of the flint. The walls of 
the tubes are 2-5 mm. in thickness ; they are formed of regular plaits, '5 mm. thick. 
The spicular mesh appears to be irregular; the distance between the octahedral 
nodes is •25 mm. 

This species differs from P. luxurians, Zitt., by the larger size and lesser number 
of the projecting tubes. 

Toulmiu Smith's figure is diagrammatic, and a very inaccurate representation of 
the original. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Kent, Sussex {coll. T. Smith). 

Polyblastidium tuberosum, Toulm. Smith, sp, 
1848. Brachiolites tuberoms, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 354, 1. 15. f. 3. 
The type of this species is a fragment of a sponge, which has been partially cleaned 
from a chalky matrix. Only the general form, indicated by markings in iron per- 
oxide, can be distinguished. The body of the sponge appears to have been a thin- 
walled, hollow, subcylindrical tube, with small bud-like projections on its exterior 
surface. The tubular axis is about 46 mm. in length by 16 in width. The pro- 
jecting buds are 8 mm. in length ; their summits are expanded and slightly concave. 



120 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

No aperture can be detected in the summit of the buds ; but the condition of the 
specimen is too imperfect for satisfactory determination. The figure of T. Smith's 
is to some extent a restoration of the original specimen. The closed summits of the 
bud-like projections distinguish this species from P. luocurians, Zitt. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk: Kent] {coll. T. Smith). 



Genus CEPHALITES, Toulm. Smith, pars, 1848. 
Toulmin Smith included in this species a variety of forms, which have been sepa- 
rated by Prof. Zittel into two or three genera. As restricted by Zittel, the genus 
only includes those sponges which resemble Ventriculites in the foldings of the plaits 
of the wall, and possess the further characteristic that the summit of the sponge- 
wall is truncate and covered with a delicate siliceous membrane. 

Ckphalites longitudinalis, Toulm. Smith. 

1847-48. Cephalites longitudinalis, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1st ser. vol. xx. t. 7. 

f. 1, and 2nd scr. vol. i. t. 14. f. 1. 
1848. Cephalites guttatus, T. Smith, ib. 2nd ser. vol. i. t. 14. f. 2. 
1878. Cephalites longitudinalis and guttatus, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 52 ; Neues Jahrbuch, 

p. 3G3. 

Sponges narrow, funnel-shaped, with a short slender cylindrical stem, terminating 
in divergent rootlets. An average specimen is 68 mm. in length, and 25 in width at 
the summit. The wall varies from 4 to 13 mm. in thickness in different individuals. 
The exterior surface is formed by a series of longitudinal ridges about 3 mm. in width, 
more or less sinuous, and occasionally interrupted transversely so as to form rows of 
projecting bosses. The inner surface has numerous circular canal-apertures, 1'5 mm. 
wide, disposed in quincunx. The plaits forming the wall are about 1 mm. in thick- 
ness. The spicular mesh is irregular ; the distance between the spicular nodes is 
about "25 mm. 

I am unable to detect specific differences between C, guttatus and C. longitudinalis. 
Even in the same specimen the outer surface will occasionally exhibit continuous 
ridges and rows of projecting bosses. The examples of this species are common; 
they are nearly all preserved in chalk, and the spicular structure is usually in the 
condition of iron peroxide. In some examples of this and other species of the genus 
this replacing material is sufficiently firm for the .spicular mesh to remain intact after 
careful removal of the matrix, but it is of an extremely delicate character. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Glynde, Westmeston, Sussex ; Shalford, Surrey ; 
Maidstone, Dover, Kent (coll. T. Smith). 



CEPHALITES. 121 

Cephalites paradoxus, Toulm. Smith. 

1848. Cephalites paradoxus, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 283, 

t. 14. f. 3. 
1878. Cephalites paradoxus, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 52 ; Neues Jahrbucli, p. 363. 

Sponges funnel-shaped, supported on a short stem with diverging roots. An 
average specimen is 80 mm. in length, and 34 in width, at the summit. The wall 
varies from 4'5 to 8 mm. in thickness. The wall-ridges of the outer surface are 
2 mm. in width ; they anastomose with each other so as to leave irregular inter- 
spaces. The interior surface appears to be formed by straight longitudinal ridges 
and furrows. The disposition of the interior plaits of the wall appears to be the 
same as in the preceding species. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Kent {coll. T. Smith). 

Cephalites BsNETTiiE, Mantel!, sp. 
1822. Ventriculites Benettice, Mant. Foss. of the South Downs, p. 177, t. 15. f. 3. 

Sponges funnel-shaped, with divergent roots, apparently springing from the base of 
the funnel. The type specimen is 59 mm. in length and 35 in width ; the wall at the 
summit is 9 mm. in thickness. 

The outer surface is composed of anastomosing ridges, about 2 mm. in width, 
disposed so as to leave oval or irregular interspaces from 2 to 6 mm. in length ; the 
interior surface of the wall appears to possess circular canals about 2 mm. in diameter. 
The interior plaits of the wall are not shown. 

So far as can be judged from the condition of the specimen, this species differs 
from C. 2^arado.vns principally in the characters of the interior surface of the wall. 
Mantell's figure is a very rude and not altogether accurate representation of the 
original, which is in the Museum. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Lewes, Sussex (coll. Mant.). 

Cephalites alternans, Toulm. Smith. 

1847-48. Cephalites alternans, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1st ser. vol. xx. t. 7. f. 2, 
and 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 283, t. 14. f. 4, 5. 

Toulmin Smith's type of this species is a small funnel-shaped sponge, 28 mm. in 
length by 20 in width ; the thickness of the wall is 6 mm. The outer surface is 
apparently composed of reticulating ridges, about 1-5 mm. in thickness, with irregular 
interspaces ; the interior surface has ovate canals, about 1-8 mm. in diameter, disposed 
in quincunx. The plaits of the interior of the wall are disposed in somewhat 
irregular folds, as shown in Smith's figure, /. c. vol. xx. t. 7. f. 2 ; the simple plait 
is about 1 mm. in thickness. The distance between the octahedral spicular nodes 

K 



122 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

is -3 mm. The ridges of the outer surface of the wall of this species are more slender 
than in C. Beneftim, and the form itself is smaller. 
Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England. 

Cephalites bullatus, Toulm. Smith. (Plate XXVII. figs. 3, 3 «, 3 b.) 

1847-48. Cephalites bullatus, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1st ser. vol. xx. t. 7. f. 3, 

and 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 284, t. 14. f. 6. 
1816. Flint Alajonite, W. Smith, Strata identified by Org. Fossils, p. 7, t. 3. f. 2. 

Sponges with a funnel-shaped or subcylindrical body, about 36 mm. in length, and 
from 21 to 36 mm. in width, supported on a delicate stem, with divergent rootlets at 
its termination. The wall varies from 5"5 to 12 mm. in thickness. 

The wall of the outer surface is folded in such a manner as to form, on the sur- 
face of perfect specimens, small, flat-topped, lozenge-shaped or irregular projections, 
about 4 mm. wide, which are disposed in quincunx. The dermal membrane of these 
projections is minutely porous, and small, hollow, occasionally bifurcating, spines 
spring from its surface. The interior surface of the wall is perforated with circular 
or elliptical canal-apertures about 2 mm. in diameter. The plaits of the interior 
portion of the wall are about -8 mm. in width ; they are disposed in deep folds 
extending from the outer nearly to the inner surface, and vice versa; they also 
form occasional loops. 

This species is distinctly characterized by the features of the outer surface. 
T. Smith's figured specimen does not appear to be in the Museum Collection, but 
there are several examples labelled by him from which the above description has 
been taken. It appears to me very doubtful if the forms referred to this species by 
Reuss* and Quenstedtf really belong to it. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England {coll. T. Smith). 

Cephalites catenifer, Toulm. Smith. 

1848. Cephalites catenifer, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 286, t. 14. 

f. 14, 15, 16. 
1848. Cephalites covipressus, T. Smith, ib. p. 287, t. 14. f. 10. 
1877. Toulminia catenifer and compressus, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 56; Neues Jahrbuch, 

p. 368. 

Sponges funnel-shaped or inverted conical, supported on a slender stem. An 
average example is 48 mm. in length and 34 mm. in width ; the stem appears to 
have been about 15 mm. in length. The wall is from 11 to 14 mm. in thickness. 
The outer surface of the wall is composed of ridges about 1-8 mm. in width, 

* Yerst. d. bohm. Kreide, II Ab. p. 74, t. IS. f. 11. 
t Petref. Bd. 5, p. 4S4, t. 138. f. 10, 11. 



CEPHALITES.— CTPELLIA. 123 

disposed either in horse-shoe form or in irregular loops, so that the interspaces have 
a generally sinuous character. The interior, or cloacal surface, is perforated with 
cylindrical canal-apertures. 

The interior of the wall is composed of plaits, about 1-25 mm. wide; seen in 
transverse section, they are arranged in deep folds with occasionally intervening 
loops. The spicular mesh of the plaits is more regular than in the preceding 
examples ; the nodes are lantern or octahedral, and the distance from node to node 
is '58 mm. 

The C. compressus, T. Smith, appears to be merely the upper fragmentary portion 
of a specimen of C. catenifer. The original of Smith's figure, I. c. t. 14. f. 10, has no 
trace of a stem or root as represented in the figure. The representation of a transverse 
section of the plait in f. 15 is partly a restoration. 

I am unable to follow Prof. Zittel in separating this species to form a distinct 
genus. Seen in transverse section, the plaits of the wall do not appear to be more 
complicated than in the typical forms of Cephalites, and they do not seem to possess 
the distinctive characters of the Meandrospongida?. 

Toulmin Smith has given a description and figure of another species of Cephalites, 
under the name of C. retnisus* ; but the figured type in the Museum Collection is 
merely a mould in wax, from which it is impossible to determine whether the 
specimen has been a sponge or not. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England {coll. T. Smith). 



Family STAUEODEBMIDjE, Zitt. 

Genus CYPELLIA, Pomel {emend. Zitt. 1877). 

Ctpellia rugosa, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. Scyphia rugosa, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 9, t. 3. f. 6. 

1877. Cypellia rugosa, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 53 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 364, t. 4. f. ] ; Hand- 
buch der Pal. 1 Bd. p. 179, f. 94. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Streitberg, Franconia. 

Ctpellia infundibuliformis, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. Scyphia rugosa, var. infundibuUformls, Goldf. Petref. 1 Tli. p. 87, t. 32. f. 2. 

1878. Crucispongia annulata and cruciata, Qiicnst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 165, t. 123. f. 2-5. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Streitberg, Randen. Oolite infcrieure : 
Verson, France. 

* Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1S48, 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 285, pi. 14. f. S. 



124 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Ctpellia c^spitosa, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Dolispongia ccespitosa hexamera, Queust. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 311, t. 130. f. 12. 
Distribution. Upper Jura: Randen'? 

Cypkllia libera, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Nexispongia libera, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 162, t. 123. f. 1. 
1878. Cypellia prolifera, Zitt. Neues Jahrb. p. 62. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Randen. 

Genus STAURODERMA, Zittel, 1877. 

Stauboderma Lochense, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Spongites Lochensis, Quenst. Der Jm-a, p. 669, t. 81. f. 96. 

1877. Stauroderma Lochense, Zitt. Studieu, I Ab. p. 53 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 364, t. 4. f. 2. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Streitberg. 

Stauroderma ctlindr.\tum, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Spongites cylindratus, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 686, t. 83. f. 8. 

1878. Cavispungia cyUndrata, Queust. Petref. p. 158, t. 122. f. 19, 20. 

As seen in a polished section, the interior structure of the wall of this species is 
composed of relatively large spicules with solid nodes, forming an irregular mesh 
similar to that of Stauroderma Lochense. I have not, however, detected any dermal 
layer of distinctive cross-shaped spicules ; so that it is doubtful whether this form 
rightly belongs to the genus Stauroderma or not. 

Distribution. Heuberg, near Balingen, Wiirtemberg. 

Genus PURISIPHONIA, Bowerb. 1869. 
PuRisiPHONiA Clarkei, Bowerb. 

1869. Purisiphonia Clarkei, Bowb. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 342, pi. 25. f. 6, 7. 

1870. Purisiphonia Clarkei, Moore, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvi. pp. 235, 240, 
pi. 17. f. 1. 

1878. Purisiphonia Clarkei, Carter, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 5th ser. vol. i. p. 376. 

1878. Purisiphonia Clarkei, Zitt. Haudbuch der Pal. vol. i. p. 179. 

1878. Purisiphonia Clarkei, R. Etberidge, jun., Cat. Austral. Foss. p. 104. 

Distribution. Lower Cretaceous 1 : Wollumbilla Creek, North Queensland, Aus- 
tralia {coll. Bowerbank). 



POEOCIPELLIA.— OPEHYSTOMA. 125 

Genus POROCYPELLIA, Pomel (emend. Zitt. 1877). 

POEOCYPELLIA PYRIPOEMIS, Golclf. sp. 

1826-33. Scyphia pyriformis, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 10, t. 3. f . 9. 

1877. Porocypellia pyriformis, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 53 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 364, t. 5. 
f. \a,b. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Streitberg (coll. Zitt.). 

Genus CASEARIA, Quenst. 1858. 

Caseaeia articulata, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. Scyphia articulata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 9, t. 3. f. 8. 
1858. Casearia articulata, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 681, t. 82. f. 9. 

1877. Casearia articulata, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 54; Neues Jahi'bucli, p. 365, t. 5. f. 2 a, b. 

1878. Spongites articulatus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 107, t. 120. f. 8-10, 12-21. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Streitberg; Heuberg; Heiligenstadt; Giengen; Randen. 

Genus POROSPONGIA, D'Orbigmj, 1852. 

POKOSPONGIA maeginata, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. Manon marginatum, Goldf. pars, Petref. 1 Th. t. 34. f. 9^, h. 

1877. Porospongia marginata, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 55 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 366. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Wiirtemberg. 

POEOSPONGIA IMPEESSA, MilUSt. sp. 

1826-33. Manon impressum, Miinst. in Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. t. 34. f. 10. 
1877. Porospongia impressa, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 55 ; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 366 ; Handbuch 
der Pal. vol. i. (1878), p. 180, f. 95 a, b, c. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Streitberg; Muggendorf, Franconia [coll. Zitt.). 

Genus OPHRYSTOMA, Zitt. 1877. 

Ophrystoma miceommatum, Boem. sp. 

1864. Porospongia micrommata, Roem. Pal. Bd. 13, p. 9, t. 4. f. 14. 

1877. Ophrystoma micrommatum, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 55; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 366. 

Sponge growing in flattened expansions of various dimensions. An imperfect 
specimen is 80 mm. in width. The upper surface is smooth, and is provided with 
numerous, irregularly disposed, circular or ovate apertures, from 2*5 mm. to 4 mm. in 
width and from 2-5 to 7'5 mm. apart. When perfect these apertures have distinctly 



126 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

elevated, crater-like margins. The under surfaces in all the specimens is firmly 
attached to the rocky matrix, and its characters are not visible. The thickness of 
the sponge is about 5'5 mm. 

The upper surface, or dermal layer, is composed of a very delicate, minutely porous, 
siliceous network ; the spicular structure is so minute that it is not distinguish- 
able unless under the microscope ; beneath this dermal layer the loose tissue of the 
interior skeleton is exposed. This is formed of spicules with stout arms and lantern 
nodes. The distance from node to node varies between -28 and 'ST mm. In some 
places the interspaces of the mesh are filled with minute slender hexactinellid 
spicules, apparently disposed irregularly. 

There are three examples of this species, which, so far as I am able to judge, corre- 
spond with Eoemer's figure and meagre description. One specimen is from the Grey 
Chalk, and is now calcareous in its composition ; the other two, from the Chalk Marl, 
still retain in part their siliceous structure, and from these I have been able to 
ascertain the spicular characters. 

Distribution. Chalk Marl : Ventnor. Grey Chalk : Dover. 



Ophrtstoma ocellatum, Seeley, sp. 

1873. Porospongia oceUata, Seeley, MS. See Proceedings Geol. Soc. vol. xxix. p. 68, pi. 6. 

f. 1-4. 
1873. Ventriculites cavatus, Sollas (non T. Smith), Proe. Geol. Soc. vol. xxix. p. 68. 

Sponges forming flattened or slightly curved expansions with rounded margins. 
The wall is from 3-5 to 5 mm. in thickness. The upper surface is perforated with 
oval apertures from 2 to 3 mm. in diameter, and about their own diameter apart, 
disposed in diagonal lines or irregularly. The mai-gins of these apertures do not 
project as in tlie preceding species. The characters of the under surface are con- 
cealed in the specimens which I have examined. 

The spicular mesh of the interior of the wall is of an open irregular character. 
The arms are robust, with prominent lantern nodes ; the distance from node to node 
is '4 mm. The spicular structure of the dermal layer has been obliterated. 

This species differs from the preceding in its smaller size and more regular form, also 
in the generally smaller dimensions and regular disposition of the surface-apertures ; 
the spicular structure of the interior is also more open, and the spicular arms are 
larger than in 0. micrommatum. Only empty moulds of the spicular skeleton of the 
wall are preserved ; good representations of these are given by Sollas (/. c). 

The name of this species was first given by Prof. Seeley to specimens in the 
Cambridge Woodwardian Museum ; and it was afterwards figured by Sollas under 
the same designation, though in his description it is placed under the name of 
Ventriculites cavatus, T. Smith. There is, however, no alliance, beyond the common 



OPHETSTOMA.— CINCLIDERMA. 127 

possession of spicules with lantern nodes, between this form and the fragment of a 
sponge which T. Smith named V. cavatus. 

Distribution. Green Sand : Cambridge. According to Prof. Seeley it also occurs 
in the Chalk at Hunstanton, Norfolk. 

Genus PLACOTREMxi, Hinde, gen. nov. 

Sponges forming flattened expansions with rounded margins. The smooth upper 
surface is perforated with numerous apertures. The dermal layer is formed by large 
cross-shaped spicules, disposed over each other without any regularity ; the interspaces 
between their arms are occupied by a very minute spicular mesh. The interior 
skeleton consists of a spicular mesh arranged so as to form delicate anastomosing 
laminae. The nodes of the spicules are solid. 

This genus differs from Porospomjia, D'Orb., and Ophrystoma, Zitt., in the dispo- 
sition of the interior mesh. From this latter genus also, which in general form it 
closely resembles, it is further distinguished by the different character of the dermal 
layer and the compact spicular nodes of the interior skeleton. It appears to be allied 
to Placochlcenia, Pomel ; but as the characters of the spicular mesh of this genus are 
not given by the author, it is not possible to compare this structure in the two genera ; 
the dermal layer also differs from that of Placochloenia. 

Placoteema cretaceum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXVII. figs. 4, 4a, ib, 4c.) 

This sponge appears to have grown in flattened masses of an elliptical or ovate 
outline ; the largest specimen is 60 mm. in length by 50 in width. The wall varies 
from 7 to 9-5 mm. in thickness. The apertures of the upper surface are ovate, with 
depressed margins, and disposed either in diagonal rows or irregularly. They are 
from 2'5 to 4 mm. in width. 

The large cross-shaped spicules of the dermal layer are of various sizes ; the ray 
of a fairly large specimen measures 1-5 mm. Some, if not all, of these surface- 
spicules appear to have had a fifth ray, which penetrated the dermal layer at right 
angles to the surface. The wall-plaits of the interior are -75 mm. in width ; the 
spicules of the mesh are relatively small, and the distance from node to node is 
•25 mm. 

The specimens are preserved in chalk ; the spicules have been dissolved, and only 
empty casts or infiltrations of iron peroxide remain. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Kent and South of England {coll. Mantell and 
Toulm. Smith). 

Genus CINCLIDERMA, Hinde, gen. nov. 

Sponges inverted conical or funnel-shaped. The exterior surface consists of a 
very smooth dermal layer formed by large cross-shaped spicules, disposed in such a 



128 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

regular manner as to leave quadrate or oblong interspaces like lattice-work. An 
extremely delicate tissue, composed of much smaller and more slender spicules, 
disposed without any regularity, fills the spaces formed by the regular framework 
of the larger spicules, the whole forming an apparently compactly interwoven dermal 
layer. 

The interior of the funnel formed by this dermal layer is occupied by anastomosing 
meandriform laminae or thin walls of spicular tissue similar to those which characterize 
the genus Plocoscyphia. The spicular tissue is of a very irregular character, and the 
spicular nodes are solid. 

In this genus the features which distinguish the families of the Staurodermidse and 
the MeandrospongidsB appear to be present : the large cross-shaped spicules of the 
dermal layer are essentially similar to those of the former family, and the disposition 
of the internal spicular mesh is the same as in the latter family. 

There is a certain resemblance between the markings on the outer surface of the 
small conical sponges of the genus Eubrochiis, Sollas, and the present genus ; but so 
little is known both of the exterior and interior structure of Euhrochus, owing to the 
imperfect preservation of the specimens, that it is impossible to institute a comparison 
between these genera. The spicular structure both of the dermal layer and of the 
interior wall of Cincliderma is, however, altogether different from the magnified 
representation of these structures in Eubrochus as given by Sollas*. 

Cincliderma quadbatum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXVIII. figs. 1, 1 «, 1 ^, 1 c, Id.) 

The broken-up fragments of this species appear to have formed part of a funnel- 
shaped specimen, 46 mm. in width at its summit. The dermal layer is extremely 
thin, and formed by a single layer of spicules ; the rectangular spaces, bounded by 
the larger spicules, vary in size between "75 mm. and 1'8 mm. The rays of the large 
spicules overlap each other, and they all possess a fifth ray extending into the wall. 
In a few instances the smaller spicules of the interspaces of the lattice-work are 
disposed so as to divide them further into smaller quadrate spaces ; but, as a general 
rule, these smaller spicules are disposed indiscriminately over each other. The 
anastomosing wall-plaits of the interior of the sponge are about 1'8 mm. in thick- 
ness ; the spicules of the mesh are relatively large, and very irregular in form. 

The sponge is preserved in chalk ; and the siliceous spicular structure has been 
either replaced by iron peroxide or it has been dissolved, leaving empty moulds in 
the chalk. 

Bistrihution. Upper Chalk : South of England [coU. T. Smith). 

* Geological Magazine, Dec. 2, vol. iii. pi. 14. figs. 3, 4, 5. 



EUBEOCHTTS.— PEOTOSPONGIA. 129 

Genus EUBROCHUS, Sollas, 1876. 

EUBROCHDS CLAUSUS, Sollas. 

1876. Eubrochus clausus, Sollas, Geol. Mag. vol. iii. n. s. p. 398, t. 14. 

1877. Eubrochus , Zitt, Studien, I Ab. p. 46. 

Small, inverted conical sponges, with truncated or rounded summits. The lateral 
surfaces are covered with continuous fine linear grooves, which decussate with each 
other in such a manner as to form small quadrate or oblong interspaces, the sides of 
which are about 'S mm. in length. The summit of the sponge is also covered with 
a similar lattice-work, but the lines forming it do not decussate as on the sides, but 
are disposed at right angles to each other. The characters of the interior structure 
of the sponge are too imperfectly preserved for satisfactory determination. Prof, 
Sollas has figured fragments of spicular mesh {loc. cit. figs. 4, 5) with which, he 
states, the interior of the sponge was filled ; but after a careful examination of the 
type specimens in the collections of the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge and of 
the Jermyn-Street Museum, I could only detect in the sections of the interior a few 
broken-up fragments of hexactinellid spicules, which were altogether insufficient to 
give me a clue to the original structure of the interior skeleton. 

Distribution. Cambridge Green Sand : Cambridge [coll. Tracy). 

Genus PEOTOSPONGIA, Salter, 1864. 

Peotospongia fenesteata, Salter. (Plate XXVIII. fig. 2.) 

1864. Protospongia fenestrata, Salt. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xx. p. 238, 1. 13. f. 12 a, b. 
1871. Protospongia fenestrata, Hicks, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxvii. t. 16. f. 20. 
1877. Protospongia fenestrata, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 45; Neues Jalirbuch, p. 354. 
1880. Protospongia fenestrata, Ferd. Roemer, Leth. Geogn. 1 Th. p. 316, f. 59. 
1880. Protospongia fenestrata, Sollas, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxvi. p. 364, f. 1. 

Form of sponge unknown ; the portions preserved consist either of detached 
spicules or fragments of a delicate spicular framework formed of a single layer of 
four-rayed spicules of various dimensions. The larger spicules are arranged so as to 
form regular squares, which are divided by smaller spicules into smaller squares, and 
these are again subdivided ; so that the surface of a fairly complete specimen 
resembles minute lattice-work. It is probable that a delicate spicular membrane 
connected the entire framework together, as there is in many specimens a thin film 
of ii-on pyrites between the interspaces of the lattice-work ; and as the larger spicules 
are now in the condition of iron pyrites, this film of the same material may represent 
a spicular membrane whose minute rays have been indistinguishably merged 
together. 

The not infrequent occurrence of portions of the spicular framework with the 

s 



130 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

spicules in their proper relative positions, is strong evidence .that they were held 
together by a common membrane ; and the presence of such a membrane in sponges 
with a similar lattice-like framework of large spicules, as in Cincliderma quadratum 
for example, also points to the same conclusion. 

Whether this exterior spicular framework constituted the entire sponge is an open 
question ; at present it is the only structure which has been discovered. 

Prof. Zittel* is of the opinion that this and the following genus will probably 
constitute a new family ; but as nothing is at present known of the interior cha- 
racters of these sponges, I prefer to place them provisionally in the family of the 
Staurodermidaj on account of their resemblance to the dermal layer of some of the 
sponges of this family. 

Distribution. Menevian : St. David's, South Wales. Lower Lingula Beds : Tyddyn- 
gwladis. Upper Mawddach : North Wales. Also in black shales of Cambrian age 
in Norway and Sweden. 

Genus DICTYOPHYTON, Hall, 1863. 

DiCTTOPHTTON TUBEROSUM, Conrcid, sp. (Plate XXVIII. fig. 3.) 

1842. Hydnoceras tuberosum, Conrad, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. vol. viii. 1st ser. p. 267, 

t. 16. f. 1. 
1863. Dictyophyton tuberosum, Hall, 16th Report of State Cab. New York, p. 90, t. 3. f. 1. 

1879. Dictyophyton, sp., Scliimper, Haudbuch der Pal. 2 Bd. 1 Lief. p. 69. 

1880. Dictyophyton tuberosum, Ferd. Eoemer, Letb. Geogu. 1 Th. p. 127, f. 3. 
1882. Dictyophyton, Zitt. Neues Jahrbuch, II Bd. p. 204. 

Sponges inverted conical or elongated funnel-shaped, apparently subangular in 
horizontal section when uncompressed, with projecting nodes disposed in horizontal 
and vertical rows. Neither the basal extremity nor the summit has been preserved. 
A fairly large, though incomplete, specimen is 190 mm. in length by 70 in width. 

The surface of the sponge is divided into quadrate and oblong spaces by horizontal 
and vertical grooves or raised lines, of varying depth and strength, crossing each 
other at right angles. The stouter lines and grooves form the larger squares, the 
sides of which are from 4 to 6 mm. in length, and these are divided and subdivided 
by finer lines precisely in the same manner as in Protos^ongia. No structure can be 
detected in the interior of the funnel. 

Nothing beyond the outer form and quadrate impressions of the outer surface, in 
a matrix of micaceous sandstone, remains of this sponge. The regular framework of 
the surface, however, so closely resembles that of Protos])ongia that there is every 
reason to suppose that it has been formed by the casts of spicules of different dimen- 
sions, disposed so as to form a regular lattice-work, as in that genus. It is also 

* Jv^eues Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie &c., 2 Ed., 18S:i, p. 204. 



DICTYOPHYTON. 131 

probable that this framework was held together by a delicate spicular membrane, 
for crushed examples occur in which portions of the framework are frequently 
displaced without having the symmetrical arrangement destroyed ; but in some 
instances the spicules are broken up and mingled together, in the same manner as 
in certain specimens of Protospongia. 

This form was originally regarded by Conrad as a subgenus of Orthoceras ; it was 
afterwards referred by Hall to marine Algae. Still later Prof. Schimper expressed 
doubts of its being a plant, and stated that the structure much nearer resembled the 
skeleton of siliceous sponges. Prof. Ferd. Rcemer rightly compared the structure 
with that of Tetragonis Danbt/i, M'Coy, with which it is undoubtedly congeneric. 
After this Mr. R. P. Whitfield *, without being aware of Schimper's and Rcemer's 
comparisons of the genus to sponges and allied forms, or at all events without 
mentioning the fact, refers Dictyophyton and some other genera to sponges like the 
recent Euplectella. 

Hall enumerates eight other species of Bictyojjhyton, based on differences of outer 
form ; it is probable that they may be all included in the present species. The 
Tetragonis Eifeliensis, Rcemer, very closely resembles the present form, and there 
can be hardly a doubt of its belonging to the same genus. 

Distribution. Chemung Group, Upper Devonian : Cohocton, Steuben County, 
Western New York. 

DiCTTOPHTTON Danbti, M'Coy, sp. 

1855. Tetragonis Danhyi, M'Coy, Brit. Pal. Foss. p. 62, pi. 1 D. f. 7 & 8. 
1880. Tetragonis Danbyi, Ferd. Eoemer, Leth. Geogn. 1 Th. p. 304. 

Sponge subcorneal or subovate, imperfect both at the basal end and at the summit. 
Length about 25 mm. The surface is divided into larger and smaller squares by 
apparently continuous lines, in the same manner as in the preceding species, but the 
sides of the larger squares are not more than 1'5 to 2 mm. in length, thus very much 
smaller than in B. tuberosum. 

Both M'Coy and Rcemer have referred this form to the genus Tetragonis, Eichwald ; 
but the typical species of this genus, T. Murchisonii, Eichw. f, though presenting a 
superficial resemblance to the present form, possesses a structure of a quite different 
character. From an examination of undoubted forms of Tetragonis from the Silurian 
of Gotland, I believe that it is a sponge, and that it is very closely allied to Ischa- 
dites, Murch. 

IMctyophyton Danbyi differs from D. tuberosum, Conrad, and D. Eifeliensis, Rcemer, 
in its smaller size and the slighter character of the spicular framework. The 
only specimen which I have seen is M'Coy's figured type in the Woodwardian 

* American Journal of Science, vol. xxii. p. 53. 
t Urwelt Kusslands, Heft 2, p. 81, t. 3. f. 18. 

s2 



132 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Museum at Cambridge. The specimen is preserved in a matrix of micaceous 
sandstone. 

Distribution. Silurian. Upper Ludlow : Brigsteer, Kendal, Westmoreland. 

Genus PLECTOUERMA, Hinde, n. g. 

Outer form of sponge unknown ; the only structures preserved are fragments of a 
thin spicular membrane, consisting of cruciform and five-rayed spicules of relatively 
large size, which are grouped together into continuous rows by the apposition and 
overlapping of several of their vertical axes, whilst the rays of their lateral axes 
extend singly on either side of the vertical rows and overlap those from the adjoining 
rows, thus forming an irregular framework. Smaller spicules are present between 
the interspaces of the larger forms, but they do not appear to be arranged in definite 
order. 

This genus is closely related to Protospongia, Salter, and Bictyoiihyton, Hall, but 
it may be readily distinguished from either of these genera by the less regular 
character of the spicular framework and the absence of definite larger and smaller 
squares. From Protosjwngia it is further distinguished by the disposition of the 
spicules of the vertical rows in small bundles instead of in a single series. Whether 
the spicules in Lictyophyton were arranged singly or in bundles is not known, as no 
spicular structure has been retained. 

Plectoderma scitulum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXI. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b.) 

The examples of the species occur on the fractured surfaces of a soft micaceous 
shaly rock. The vertical rows are about 7'5 mm. apart from each other; they 
consist of a variable number, generally from five to ten, of the spicular axes in pretty 
close juxtaposition. The spicules vary in size, from slender forms not more than 
■U'J mm. in thickness, to large spicules with rays 'oo mm. in thickness and 6-5 mm. 
in length. The spicules are now mostly represented by empty moulds, and at first 
sight appear as so many monaxial spicules crossing each other at right angles ; but in 
places where they are less thickly grouped together, the four rays, springing from a 
common centre, can be clearly seen, and at the point of junction there is often a 
small circular hole, indicating a fifth ray, extending inwards at right angles to the 
other four. The spicular rays are straight, curved, or occasionally wavy ; they usually 
taper from the central node. In some instances fragments of the original siliceous 
spicules yet remain, but they are so far decayed as readily to fall into minute 
pieces. In some cases the central canal can be seen in these fragments, ^^'hether 
the framework of larger spicules was held in position by a continuous membrane of 
smaller spicules, as in the dermal layer of the Cretaceous genus CincUderma, cannot 
be so readily determined ; but traces of smaller spicules, irregularly disposed between 



PLOCOSCTPHIA. 133 

the larger rays, can be occasionally seen, so that there is great probability that a 
continuous membrane was originally present. 

Distribution. Silurian strata of Upper Ludlow age : Wetherlawlinn, Pentland 
Hills, near Edinburgh. The specimens belong to 'the collection of the Geological 
Survey of Scotland, and were discovered by Mr. James Bennie. 



Family MEANDROSPONGID^, Zittel. 

Genus PLOCOSCYPHIA, Reuss, 1846. 

Plocosctphia fenestrata, T. Smith, sp. (Plate XXVIII. figs. 4, 4 a, 4 5, 4 c.) 

1848. Brachiolites fenestratus, Toulm. Smith, ,\iin. &Mag. Nat. Hist. 2ndser. vol. i. p. 367, 
1. 16. f. 3. 

Sponges subcylindrical, hemispherical, or irregular in form, oftentimes growing in 
close contact with each other, so as to form masses of considerable size. The outer 
surface is composed of numerous anastomosing, subcylindrical, open tubes, from 4 to 
8 mm. in diameter. The central portion of the sponge, as seen in a transverse section, 
appears to consist of open anastomosing folds of the sponge-wall, which, when simple, 
are about 2 mm. in thickness ; but the folds sometimes coalesce laterally, and are 
consequently of increased thickness. 

The spicular structure of the interior of the wall-plaits is generally regular ; the 
spicules form a rectangular oblong mesh with elliptical interspaces. The distance 
between the nodes varies from '3 to "4 mm. The spicular arms are robust, smooth, 
or with blunt spines, and about -08 mm. in thickness. The dermal layer is composed 
of an irregular spicular network, with minute circular or ovate pores ; the nodes of 
the spicules are solid, whilst those of the interior of the wall are octahedral or 
] antern-like. 

This is a well-marked species, and readily recognizable by the size and disposition 
of the tubes of the exterior surface. In the numerous specimens in the Museum 
from T. Smith's collection, and labelled by him, I have not found one which corre- 
sponds with the figure which he has given of this form. This figure appears to me 
to be diagrammatic merely, and altogether misleading. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Dover and Folkestone. Chalk Marl : Ventnor, 
Isle of Wight ; Norton Bavant, Wilts. 

Plocosctphia labeosa, Toulm. Smith, sp. (Plate XXIX. fig. 2.) 

18-18. Brachiolites labrosus, T. Smith, Ami. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2ud ser. ^hjI. i. p. 368, 

t. 16. f. 4. 
1878. Antrispongia dilabyrintfdca, Queust. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 474, t. 137. f. 24. 



134 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

> 

1842. Compare Spongus meandrinoides , Leymerie, Mem. Geol. Soc. do France, vol. v. p. 1, 
1. 1. f. 2. 

Sponges growing in subspherical, ovate, and irregular masses of very various 
dimensions. A small specimen is 90 mm. in diameter, and a large example measures 
190 mm. across. The mass is composed of anastomosing folds of wall, from 2*5 to 
3 mm. in thickness, which in some specimens form wide anastomosing tubes, and in 
other examples open meandriform folds. There are numerous intermediate examples 
between the tubular forms and those with open folds, and frequently the two 
characters are met with in the same specimen. The surface of the wall is perforated 
on both sides by the apertures of blind canals, from -5 to -75 mm. in width. 

The dermal layer is composed of a minute spicular network with circular or ovate 
pores ; the spicular mesh of the interior of the wall is irregular in its disposition ; 
the distance from node to node is -25 mm. ; the lantern character of the nodes is 
distinctly shown. 

This species differs from the preceding in the disposition of the folds of the wall, 
and in the closer and less regular character of its interior mesh. Mr. F. G. H. 
Price* has named this form PlocoscijpMa meandrina, Leymerie, which I presume is 
the same as the SjJongus meandrinoides of this author. Leymerie's figure, however, 
appears to me to represent a form differing from Smith's in the thinner walls and 
closer arranged folds. As the French typical specimen is only a cast in iron pyrites, 
no other comparison beyond that of outer form and the thickness of the wall-folds is 
practicable, and in both these features it differs from P. Jahrosa. 

This species is extremely abundant in certain zones of the Upper Green Sand and 
Chalk Marl. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand and Chalk Marl : between Folkestone and Dover. 

Plocoscyphia pertusa, Geinitz. 

1843. Tragos pertusum, Geinitz, Die Versteiuerungen von 'Kiesliagswalda, p. 19, t. 6. f. 18. 
1871. PlocoscjjpMa pertusa, Gein. Palaeont. Bd. 20, p. 26, t. 2. f. 5 a, b, and t. 3. f. 1 a, b. 
1878. PlocoscijpMa pertusa, Zitt. Handb. der Pal. p. 181, f. 96. 

1883. Plocoscyphia pertusa, Keeping, Fossils of Upware &c. p. 145, t. 8. f . 1 a, 1 b. 

Sponge irregular in form, built up of convoluted walls, about 1-75 mm. in thick- 
ness, disposed so as to leave wide channels or anastomosing cylindrical tubes, about 
8 mm. in diameter. The exterior surface is rough and uneven, and is furnished with 
numerous irregularly distributed circular or elongate canal-apertures. 

The dermal layer is composed of a stout spicular mesh ; the spicular arms are 
flattened and spinous, and the nodes solid ; the interspaces of the mesh are mostly 
circular. The interior spicular mesh has subquadrate interspaces. The nodes are 
lantern-like ; the distance from node to node is -25 mm. 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1877, vol. sxsiii. p. 442. 



PLOCOSCYPHIA. 135 

The above description is taken from a beautifully preserved fragment of this 
species presented to the Museum by Prof. Zittel. 

According to Mr. Keeping this species occurs in the Neocomiau beds at Brickhill ; 
but the figure given is insufficient for me to determine whether the specimen is 
rightly referred to this species. 

Distribution. Planer-Kalk (Upper Green Sand) : Bannevv'itz, Saxony. Neocomian : 
Brickhill, Bedfordshire [Keeping). 

Plocoscyphia reticulata, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXIX. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 h.) 

Sponge growing in irregularly shaped masses; the convoluted walls, 3-5 mm. in 
thickness, are disposed so as to form at the surface subcylindrical tubes from 11 to 
16 mm. in diameter. The outer surface of the wall has a reticulate aspect Irom 
numerous circular or ovate canal-apertures, 'To to 1 mm. in width, and about their 
own diameters apart. The canals are blind, and appai'ently are oftentimes curved in 
their course in the wall. 

The dermal layer is composed of robust spicules with flattened arms and compact 
nodes ; in places small spines project outwards ; the interspaces are circular. The 
spicular mesh of the interior of the wall is irregular ; the spicular nodes are -22 mm. 
apart ; the mesh is subquadrate or circular. 

This species approaches in general appearance very closely to P. pertusa, Gein., 
but the walls are much thicker and the canal-apertures larger. From P. labrosa, 
T. Smith, it may be distinguished by its thicker walls and the disposition of the 
canal-apertures. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Eastbourne. Chloritic Marl : Rocken End, Isle 
of Wight. 

Plocoscyphia subkuta, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Gyrisponffia subruta, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 480, t. 138. f. 2-G. 

Sponges subcylindrical or club-shaped, with rounded summits. An apparently 
average specimen is 110 mm. in length by 38 in width. The outer surface has 
numerous circular or ovate apertures from 4 to 10 mm. in width. 

The sponge is composed of convolute walls, 2 mm. in thickness ; the outer surface 
consists of a spicular network, with definite canal-apertures -75 mm. in width ; the 
spicular arms are smooth, and the nodes compact. The spicular mesh of the interior 
of the wall has lantern nodes, the spicular arms are 2 mm. in length. 

Quenstedt states* that Achilleum formosum, Reuss, probably belongs to this 
species ; but though there is a great resemblance in outer form, the spicular mesh 
oi A. formosum is composed of spicules with solid nodes, entirely different from those 
of Quenstedt's form. 

Distribution. Chalk Marl : Rocken End, Isle of Wight. 

* Btihm. Kreide, p. 79, t. 43. f. 7. 



136 . SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Plocoscyphia convoluta, Toulm. Smith, sp. 

1848. Brachiolites convolutus, T. Smith, pars, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 355, t. 15. 
f. 5, uon fig. N. p. 357. 

Sponge growing in small masses of irregular form, composed of delicate convoluted 
walls about 1 mm. in thickness. Traces of a minutely perforated dermal layer are 
present in one example ; the interior of the wall is built of an irregular slender 
spicular mesh ; the distance between the nodes is -25 mm. The spicules have been 
replaced by iron peroxide, and the character of the nodes cannot be determined. 

Toulmin Smith states that "the sti'ucture of the simple membrane (or wall) in 
this species seems coarse — that is, the squares (of the mesh) are larger than in any 
other species of the Ventriculitidse." Such, however, is not the case in the specimen 
which he has figured, and which I have taken as the type of the species. The inter- 
spaces of the mesh in this example are relatively small. In the original specimen 
there are no traces of the minute stem and root represented in the figure given by 
Smith. 

IHstribntion. Upper Chalk : South of England [coll. T. Smith). 

Plocoscyphia flexuosa, Mantell, sp. (Plate XXIX. fig. 4.) 

1822. Choanites flexuosus, Mant. Foss. of the South Downs, p. 179, t. 15. f. 1. 

1848. Brachiolites convolutus, T. Smith, pars, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 357, fig. N. 

1878. Gyrispongia labijrinttiica, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 485, t. 138. f. 12, 13. 

Sponges inverted conical, or irregular in form, in some instances supported on a 
cylindrical stem with divergent rootlets at its termination. The body of the sponge 
is composed of convolute anastomosing walls from 1-25 to 1-7 mm. in thickness. The 
surface of the walls has numerous circular canal-apertures, '6 mm. in width. The 
spicular mesh of the interior is somewhat irregular in disposition ; the distance 
between the octahedral nodes, or the diameter of the interspaces of the mesh, varies 
between 'ob and '4 mm. 

The type of this species, now in the Museum, is the lower portion of a specimen 
preserved in flint, showing a section of the convolute walls and traces of the spicular 
mesh. Numerous other examples, both in flint and in chalk, exhibit walls of the 
same thickness, and a spicular mesh with interspaces of the same size as those of the 
type. In none of the specimens has the outer form been completely preserved ; so 
that the only characters available for specific detern)ination are the thickness of the 
walls and the dimensions of the mesh interspaces. The sponges figured by Quenstedt 
under the name of Gyrispongia labijrinthica appear to correspond with the present 
species ; but I am unable to determine whether the Plocoscyphia labyrinthica of 
Reuss* and F. Roemerf belong to it. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England {coll. Mantell, T. Smith). 

* Bohm. Kreide, II Ab. p. 77, t. 18. £. 10. t Geol. Oberschles. p. 309, t. 33. f. 7. 



PLOCOSCYPHIA. 137 

Plocosctphia labteinthica, Mant. sp. (Plate XXIX. fig. 5.) 
1822. Spongus labyrinthicus, Mant. Foss. of the South Downs, p. 165, t. 15. f. 7. 

Sponges irregular in form, composed of anastomosing walls arranged in open 
convolutions. The walls are from 2-5 to 3 mm. in thickness ; their outer surfaces 
are perforated by circular canal-apertures about -7 mm. in width. The distance 
between the nodes of the interior mesh varies from 'So to '4 mm. 

The examples of this sponge are usually preserved in hemispherical nodules of 
flint, which exhibit on their flattened upper surfaces sections of tlie convolute walls. 
This species is distinguished from P. flexuosa by the greater thickness of the walls 
and the more open character of the convolutions, whilst the size of the spicular mesh 
appears to be similar. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Bridgwick; OSham, Kent {coll. Mantell). 

Plocoscyphia vagans, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXIX. figs. 6, 6 a.) 

Sponges irregular in form, with convoluted walls about 1'5 mm. in thickness. The 
spicular mesh is composed of large spicules with lantern nodes ; the distance between 
the nodes varies between -625 and -8 mm. 

The examples of this species are all preserved in chalk, and the spicular mesh is 
now changed to iron peroxide or shown by empty moulds. The species is readily 
distinguished from those previously described by the unusually large size of the 
spicules of the interior mesh of the wall. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Maidstone, Kent, and other localities in the South of 
England (coll. T. Smith). 

Plocosctphia foliacea, Toulm. Smith, sp. 
1818. Brachiolites foUaceus, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 361, t. 16. f. 1. 

Sponges club-shaped, usually curved in the lower portion, with a few small 
divergent rootlets at the base, the summits rounded. The outer surface smooth, 
with irregularly disposed rounded elevations and depressions. A fairly large example 
measures 155 mm. in length, and 48 in width at the summit. 

The body of the sponge is composed of anastomosing walls from 1 mm. to 1-75 in 
thickness, disposed in open convolutions. 

The examples of this species are preserved in chalk, and the spicular structure 
is only indicated by markings in iron peroxide, in which the character of the mesh 
has been obliterated. Its form and the features of the outer surface distinguish it 
from other species of this genus. Toulmin Smith's figure of this form is partly a 
restoration. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England {coll. T. Smith). 



138 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

PLOCOSCTPniA ELEGANS, T. Smith, sp. 

1848. Brachiolites elegans, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 355, t. 15. f. 4. 
1878. Brachiolites elegans, Quenst. Pctref. Bd. 5, p. 490, t. 138. f. 15. 

Sponges with a subspherical body, supported on a slender cylindrical stem, termi- 
nating in divergent rootlets. From the summit of the body an upright cylindrical 
tube extends. The body of an average specimen is 47 mm. in height by 32 in width ; 
the cylindrical tube measures 46 mm. in length by 23 in width ; and the stem is 
43 mm. long. The outer surface of the body presents rounded sinuous elevations 
and depressions ; that of the tube is smooth and even. 

The body is composed of anastomosing folds of wall about 1 mm. in thickness ; the 
tube appears to be hollow, and formed of a simple extension upwards of the body- 
walls. The dermal layer appears to have been furnished with minute circular canal- 
apertures, the spicular mesh is regular, and the distance between the nodes is "35 mm. 
The characters of the spicular nodes have been obliterated. 

The peculiar form of this species readily distinguishes it from any other of the 
genus. T. Smith's figui-e has been drawn from two separate specimens, and is, to a 
certain extent, a restoration of the originals. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Brighton, Sussex ; Hollingbourne, Birling, near Maid- 
stone, Kent {coll. T. Smith). 

Genus TREMABOLITES, Zitt. 1877. 

Tremabolites pekfor.\tus, T. Smith, sp. 
1848. Cephalites perforatus, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. t. 15. f. 2. 

Sponges subcylindrical or club-shaped, with rounded summits. The sponge is 
composed of anastomosing, convoluted walls about 1 mm. in thickness. The summit 
is covered with an apparently delicate surface-membrane, which is perforated by 
several circular or oval apertures from 3 to 7 mm. in width. The spicular mesh of 
the walls is irregular ; the nodes are octahedral, and from -4 to '5 mm. apart. 

I am unable to determine the extent of the resemblance of the interior structure 
of this species to that of Tremabolites (Manon) megastoma, F. A. Ecem.*, but its 
outer form, at all events, considerably differs. The forms figured by Quenstedtf 
under the name of Cephalites pohjstoma differ from the present species in the 
extension of the surface-membrane over the sides as well as the summit of the 
sponge. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England {coll. T. Smith). 

* Nordd. Kreide, p. 3, t. 1. f. 9. t Petref. Bd. 5, p. 503, t. 139. f. 8-10. 



ETHERIDaiA.— TOULMINIA. 139 

Genus ETHERIDGIA, Tate, 1865. 
Etheridgia mirabilis, Tate. 

1865. Etheridgia mirabilis, Tate, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 43, t. 5. f. 4a, 4 6. 
1877. Etheridgia mirabilis, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 56; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 367. 

Sponge conical with truncated summit, the base depressed, convex, with short, 
projecting cylindrical root-processes. At the summit is a circular aperture 15 mm. 
wide. The sides of the cone are provided with circular or elliptical apertures about 
4 mm. in diameter. The type specimen is 33 mm. in height and 40 mm. in width. 
A compact dermal membrane extended over the base and sides. The interior 
structure has been completely obliterated. The only specimens known are in the 
Jermyn-Street Museum. 

Distribution. Spongarian zone of the Chloritic Chalk (Tate) = \]'p'peT Chalk: 
Whitehead, near Belfast. 

Genus TOULMINIA, Zittel, 1877. 

ToDLMiNiA OBLiQDA, IHnde, n. sp. (Plate XXIX. figs. 7, la, 7b.) 

Sponge funnel- or cup-shaped. The only example is 48 mm. in height, and 50 mm. 
wide at the summit. The cloacal cavity is 20 mm. in width near the upper margin ; 
it appears to be without any definite wall. The wall is composed of irregularly 
anastomosing folds about 1 mm. in thickness. The dermal membrane of the summit 
of the walls has nearly entirely been removed ; the spicular mesh of the wall-plait is 
irregular ; the distance between the nodes is "25 mm. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England {coll. T. Smith). 

TouLMiNiA JUEASSiCA, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXX. figs. 1, 1 a, 1 b.) 

Sponge inverted conical in form, with an oblique summit. The single specimen 
is 63 mm. in height, and 40 in width near the summit. The cloaca appears to be 
funnel-shaped, and bounded by a definite wall; it is 23 mm. in width at the upper 
margin. The sponge is composed of anastomosing convolute wall-plaits, 1 mm. in 
thickness. The spicular mesh of the wall, as seen in a transverse section, is regular 
in disposition ; the nodes are octahedral, and '25 mm. apart from each other. No 
dermal membrane has been preserved, probably owing to the weathering of the 
surface. 

This species differs from the preceding in the well-defined character of the cloacal 
cavity as well as in the disposition of the wall-plaits, as seen in transverse sections. 

This form is at present the only representative of the family of the Meandro- 
spongidse from the Jurassic system. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Eanden, Switzerland. 

t2 



140 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Genus CAMEROSPONGIA, BOrhigny, 1847. 

Camerospongia subrotunda, Mant. sp. (Plate XXX. fig. 3.) 

1822. Choanites subrotundus, Mant. Foss. of the South Downs, p. 179, t. 15. f. 2. 

1831. Choanites subrotundus, Benett, Cat. Org. Rem. Wilts, t. 16. f. 1. 

1848. Cephalites constrictus, Toulm. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 292, t. 15. f. 1. 

Sponges depressed globate in form, growing either singly or in small groups, and 
not infrequently in a single series of two or three individuals closely attached 
together. The sponges appear to have been attached by a few divergent rootlets 
given off laterally ; in the compound examples only the first sponge in the series 
appears to possess the rootlets. Separate individuals vary between 15 and 35 mm. 
in breadth, and 6 and 13 mm. in height. The upper surface is slightly rounded, 
oftentimes with a gentle depression towards the centre. The aperture is circular or 
oval, from 3'5 to 9 mm. in width, with an elevated margin, encircled by a shallow 
furrow. 

Nearly the entire upper surface and sides are covered by the smooth siliceous 
membrane. The under surface is uneven, with a few circular apertures between 
the ridges formed by the folded walls. The convoluted wall-plaits of the interior 
are slender, and composed of a spicular mesh with lantern nodes ; the nodes are 
•375 mm. apart. 

The subglobate form and the social mode of growth distinguish this species from 
others of the genus. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Lewes, Sussex ; Charing, Kent {coll. Mantell, T. Smith). 
Also from the Spongarian zone of the Chloritic Chalk (T«^e) = Upper Chalk : White- 
head, near Belfast [Jermyn-Street Museum). 

Camerospongia capitata, Toulm. Smith, sp. 
184.8. Cephalites capitatus, T. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 288, t. 14. f. 11. 
1878. Cephalites capitatus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 498. 

Sponges inverted conical in form, supported on a slender cylindrical stem, with 
divergent rootlets. The summit is gently convex, the margin is subacute. From 
the summit the body rapidly tapers to the base. The typical specimen is 21 mm. in 
height by 31 mm. in width; the stem is 11 mm. in length. The summit-aperture is 
circular, 11 '5 mm. in width, its margin is thickened, and slightly elevated. 

The smooth enveloping membrane only covers the summit ; the sides exhibit a 
reticulate aspect, formed by wrinkled ridges with circular or irregular interspaces. 
A sub cylindrical or funnel-shaped cloacal cavity extends from the summit to the 
base, though it does not appear to have possessed a definite boundary wall. The 
interior wall-plaits are loosely convolute; they are about -1 mm. thick. The nodes 
of the spicular mesh are '45 mm. apart. 



CAMEEOSPONGIA. 141 

This species has a great resemblance in outer form to G. {Scyphia) fimgiformis, 
Goldf.* ; but the summit is less elevated, and the margins do not project over the 
sides as in Goldfuss's form. The spicular structure of the mesh is also much larger 
than in C. fimgiformis. The description and figures of C. {Manon) vionastoma, 
F. A, Eoemerf, are too indefinite to permit of a comparison with the present species. 
The specimen figured by Roemer cannot be distinguished from C. fimgiformis, Goldf. 

T. Smith's figure is not an altogether accurate representation of the original, which 
has a slender stem, and the lateral walls are much closer arranged than represented. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: South of England (coll. Mantell, T. Smith). 

Cameeospongia fungifoemis, Goldf. sp. 

1826-1833. Scyphia fungiformis, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 218, t. 65. f. 4. 

1877. Camerospongia fungiformis , Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 57; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 368. 

1878. Camerospongia fungiformis, Zitt. Handb. der Pal. p. 182, f. 97. 

The Museum only possesses microscopic fragments of the spicular mesh of this 
species. The disposition of the mesh appears to be regular ; the octahedral nodes 
are '35 mm. apart: thus the mesh-interspaces are smaller than in C. capitata. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Vordorf, Brunswick. 

Camerospongia turbinata, Giebel, sp. 

1851. Ptychotrochus turbinatus, Giebel, Jahresbericht des naturhist. Vereins in Halle, p. 53, 
t. 2. f. 5. 

Microscopic fragments of the spicular mesh. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Galgcnburg, Goslar [coll. Zitt.). 

Cameeospongia campanulata, T. Smith, sp. 

1848. Cephalites campanulatus , T. Smith, pars, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 289, t. 14. 
£. 12, nouf. ]3. 

1877. Camerospongia campanulata, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 57; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 368. 

1878. Cephalites campanulatus , Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 498. 

Sponges subgiobate in form, supported on a short cylindrical stem with divergent 
rootlets. The summit is dome-shaped, with slight elevations and depressions ; the 
central aperture is circular, and about 22 mm. in width. A typical specimen is 
42 mm. in height and 54 in width, whilst the stem is only 8 mm. in length. 

A wide subcylindrical cloacal cavity, apparently destitute of a boundary wall, 
extends from the summit to the base. The smooth membrane covers the summit 
and the sides to nearly two-thirds the height of the sponge. The under surface 
exhibits the reticulations of the wall-plaits with irregular interspaces. The convolute 

* Petrefaoten, 1 Th. p. 218, t. Go. f. 4. t Nordd. Kreido, p. 2, t. 1. f. 8. 



U2 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

walls of the interior are about 1 mm. in thickness ; the octahedral nodes of the mesh 
are "38 mm. apart. 

The larger size and the dome-shaped summit distinguish this species from C. capi- 
fata ; the spicular mesh is also smaller. The figures H and I of T. Smith (loc. cit. 
p. 291), representing the disposition of the folds of the wall, are purely diagrammatic. 
In the typical examples the wall-plaits do not exhibit the regularly arranged folds 
depicted in these figures. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England [coll. T. Smith). 

Cameeospongia apeeta, Einde, n. sp. (Plate XXX. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b.) 
1848. Cephalites campanulatus, T. Smith, pars, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. t. 14. £. 3. 

Sponges depressed, cup-shaped, supported on a short stem with diverging rootlets. 
The interior exhibits a funnel-shaped cloacal cavity, bounded by a definite wall ; the 
margins are subacute. The lateral surfaces are smooth and slightly uneven ; the 
under surface is formed by uneven ridges with irregular interspaces. A few irregu- 
larly convoluted wall-plaits are shown in a vertical section ; the spicular mesh has a 
regular disposition; the octahedral nodes are "25 mm. apart. The spicular mesh of 
the walls of the cloaca is of the same character as that forming the interior plaits. 
The body of the type specimen is 25 mm. in height by 36 in width. 

This species difi"ers from C. campanulata, as defined above, by its generally smaller 
size, the widely expanded cloacal aperture, the definite cloacal wall, and the smaller 
dimensions of the spicular mesh. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England [coll. T. Smith). 

Genus CYSTISPONGIA, F. A. Bcemer, 1864. 
Ctstispongia btjesa, Quenst. sp. 

1852. Cephalites bursa, Quenst. Handbuch d. Petref. p. 670, t. 60. f. 17. 

1864. Cystispongia bursa, F. A. Roemer, Palaeontographica, vol. xiii. p. 7, t. 4. f. 7. 

1877. Cysiisponffia bursa, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 57; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 368; Handb. d. 
Pal. p. 182, f. 98. 

1878. Cephalites bursa, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 492, 1. 138. f. 17. 

Distribution. Obere Planer : near Vienenburg, Prussia {coll. Zitt.). 

Family CALLODICTYONIDM, Zittel. 

Genus CALLODICTYON, Zittel, 1877. 

Callodictyon angustatum, Einde, n. sp. (Plate XXX. figs. 4, 4 a, 4 b.) 
Sponges elongate, funnel-shaped, very gradually tapering from the summit to the 



CALLODICTTON.— POEOCHONIA. 143 

base. The stem has not been preserved. An imperfect specimen measures 110 mm. 
in length, and 40 mm. in width at the summit. 

The wall of the sponge, about 2 mm. in thickness, is composed of an extremely 
regular spicular mesh with oblong interspaces ; the nodes are octahedral, and about 
•6 mm. apart in a vertical direction and -45 mm. transversely. The outer surface is 
formed of a very delicate open network, with circular or ovate apertures, -5 mm. in 
width, disposed in vertical rows. These apertures open directly into the interspaces 
of the mesh, and do not appear to be connected with distinct canals. The interior, 
or cloacal surface of the wall, does not appear to possess a modified spicular mesh. 

The examples of this species are preserved in chalk, and the siliceous spicular 
mesh has been replaced by iron peroxide, so that it is impossible to determine 
whether the rays were smooth or spinous. 

Cylindrospongia membranacea, Quenst.*, non Roemer, appears to belong to the 
genus Callodictyon, and resembles the present form in the disposition of the apertures 
of the outer surface ; its walls, however, judging from the figure, are not more than 
one third the thickness of those of C. angustatum. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : South of England {coll. Bowerbank). 

Genus POROCHONIA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges funnel-shaped, with thin walls. The outer surface of the wall is formed 
by a very delicate membrane, beneath which is a reticulate layer with circular 
apertures. Below this layer is the regular spicular mesh of the wall ; tlie nodes of 
the six-rayed spicules are octahedral. The inner or cloacal surface of the wall is 
formed by a reticulate layer similar to that overlying the spicular mesh. Definite 
canals do not seem to be present, the circulation being carried on apparently through 
the regular interspaces of the mesh. 

I have based this genus on the characters of Ventriculites simj)lex, T. Smith, the 
walls of which differ from those of typical forms of Ventriculites in being smooth 
and not arranged in vertical folds. From Callodictyon this genus is characterized by 
possessing a delicate surface-membrane (the polyp-skin of T. Smith) in addition to 
the usual dermal layer (the underskin of T. Smith). The exterior membrane is only 
present in some of the best-preserved specimens ; and owing to the replacement of 
its original spicular structure by iron peroxide, the minute characters cannot be 
determined. 

PoROCHONiA SIMPLEX, T. Smith, sp. (Plate XXX. figs. 5, 5 «, 5 b.) 

1848. Ventriculites simplex, T. Smithy Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vol. i. p. 204, and 
1st ser. vol. xx. t. 8. f. 1. 

* Petref. Bd. 5, p. 46S, t. 137. f. 13. 



144 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

1851. Spongia Townsendi, Morris, Catalogue, p. 31. 

1878. Ventriculites simplex, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 470, t. 137. f. 17. 

Sponges funnel-shaped, either supported on a cylindrical stem with divergent 
rootlets or having rootlets springing from the base of the funnel. Variable in size — 
from small forms, 22 mm. in height by 30 in width at the summit, to large examples, 
95 mm. in height and 92 in width. 

The walls are frequently very compressed ; in the best-preserved specimens they 
are from I'S to 2 ram. in thickness. The exterior layer is smooth, and sometimes 
exhibits concentric markings. The dermal layer is perforated with irregularly 
disposed circular or oval apertures, about '5 mm. in width, and the same distance 
apart. The spicular mesh is regularly subquadrate ; the octahedral nodes are '43 mm. 
apart. The spicular structure of the stem and rootlets differs from that of the walls, 
and consists of a network of elongate spicular fibres. 

The examples of this species are abundant ; in all cases the spicular structure is 
either in the condition of iron peroxide or in hollow casts. 

According to T. Smith, Sjwngus Toionsendi, Mant.*, is nothing more than a 
V. simplex in flint. If such were certainly the case the specific name of Mantell 
ought to have been retained ; but the type of Mantell, now in the Museum, is so 
completely imbedded in flint that its spicular characters cannot be ascertained, and 
it might belong to an entirely different form from Smith's species. 

The sponge figured by the late Sir Wyville Thomson, in the ' Depths of the Sea'f, 
•iS Ventriculites simplex, T. Smith, and from thence copied into other works, has no 
resemblance to Smith's species, though it may possibly be a genuine specimen of 
Ventriculites. 

Bistributioti. Upper Chalk : Lewes, Sussex ; Charing, Kent (coll. Mantell and 
C. Smith). 

Genus BECKSIA, Schliiter, 1868. 
Becksia Scekelandi, Schliiter. 

1868. Becksia Sakelandi, Sclil. Sitzuiigsb. der nieder. Gesells. im Bonn, p. 93. 
1872. Becksia Scekelandi, Schl. Ueber die Spongit.-Baenke des Miinsterlandes, p. 20, t. 1. 
f. 5-7. 

1877. Becksia Scekelandi, Zilt. Studien, I Ab. p. 58; Neues Jahrbuch, p. 369. 

1878. Becksia Swkelandi, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 489, t. 138. f. 14. 
1878. Becksia Swkelandi, Zitt. Handb. der Pal. 1 Tb. p. 183, f. 99. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Coesfeld, Westphalia. 
• Fossils of the South Downs, p. 154, t. 15. f. 19. f P. 483, f. 80 ; p. 484, f. 81. 



DIPLODICTYON. — SCLEEOKALIA. 145 

Genus DIPLODICTYON, Zittel, 1877. 

DiPLODICTYON HETEKOMORPHUM, HeUSS, Sp. 

1845. Scyphia heteromorpha, Reuss, Bohm. Kreide, p. 74, t. 18. f. 1, 2. 
1877. Diplodictyon heteromorphum, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 59. 

Microscopic fragments of the spicular mesh. 

Distribution. Planer-Kalk: Schilling, Bohemia {coll. Zitt.). 

Diplodictyon Baypieldi, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXI. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

Sponge compressed, triangular in outline, apparently supported on a short stem. 
The walls, 3-8 mm. in thickness, run parallel with each other; their summit-margins 
are rounded. On the compressed sides are two or three large ovate apertures. The 
only example is 58 mm. in height and 50 mm. in width at the summit. 

The outer surface has numerous circular, irregularly disposed apertures, about 
1 ram. in width. The thickness and spicular character of the dermal layer cannot 
be determined owing to the condition of the specimen. The interior part of the 
wall is formed of an apparently regular quadrate mesh ; the octahedral nodes are 
•25 mm. apart. 

This species may be distinguished from D. heteromorphum by its different form and 
the smaller dimensions of the mesh-interspaces of the interior of the wall. 

I have named this form after its discoverer, Mr. T. G. Bayfield of Norwich. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk: Norwich {coll. Bayfield). 

Genus SCLEEOKALIA, Hivde, n. g. 

Sponges cup- or nest-shaped, with very thick walls. Apparently free. The 
interior surface of the cup is provided with circular or ovate canal-apertures disposed 
in vertical rows. The exterior surface has no special canal-apertures. The canals 
opening into the cloaca do not appear to extend far into the wall. A dermal layer, 
composed of a thickened reticular mesh with irregular pores, forms the inner surface 
of the wall ; the outer surface does not possess a special dermal layer. The sub- 
stance of the wall is formed of a robust spicular mesh with octahedral nodes. Near 
the iimer surface the mesh is very regularly disposed, but in the central and outer 
portions of the wall the arrangement is of a less regular character. There does not 
appear to be any definite boundary between the regular and irregular mesh ; and 
the spicular rays are of the same thickness, and the nodes octahedral throughout 
the wall. 

The type of this genus is an imperfect example of a nest-shaped sponge preserved 
in a siliceous matrix. The structure of the interior of the wall has been partly 
obliterated, so that the character of the canals cannot be ascertained with precision, 

u 



146 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

The distinctive character of the sponge is the great thickness of the walls, which are 
composed of a continuous mesh, not arranged in a series of folds as in Pachytei- 
chisma. Neither can the walls be differentiated into a relatively thin true wall and 
a posterior supplemental skeleton as in Staur07ieina, for the only difference between 
the inner and the deeper portions of the wall consists in a gradual transition from a 
regular to an irregular disposition of the spicular mesh. 

The systematic position of this genus is uncertain. In the characters of the cloacal 
surface it resembles sponges of the Euretidae family ; but the octahedral nodes and the 
slight development of the canals exclude it from this group. In some respects the 
wall-structure resembles that of the genus Biplodictyon ; and it may provisionally 
be associated in the same family with this genus. 

ScLEROKALiA CuNNiNGTONi, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXI. figs. 3, 3«, 3 6, 3 c.) 

The only example resembles a bird's nest in form. The walls are thickest in the 
lower and basal portions, the upper margins are rounded. The specimen is 85 mm. 
in height and 145 mm. in width. The extreme thickness of the wall is 50 mm. The 
apertures of the inner surface of the wall are about 1"5 mm. in length and about 
2-5 mm. apart. The mesh-interspaces are circular or oval ; the nodes are from "45 to 
■5 mm. apart. The pores between the rays forming the spicular nodes are very 
minute, so that their octahedral characters are not readily perceptible. The spicular 
arms are about T2 mm. in thickness. 

The spicular mesh is only partially preserved ; in some places the rays or arms 
have been enveloped in a thin peUicle of silica, which, by the subsequent dissolution 
of the inclosed spicules, forms hollow casts of the mesh. 

With this species I have associated the name of Mr. William Cunnington, F.G.S., 
from whom the Museum has obtained its most valuable examples of sponges from 
the Chalk and Green Sand of Wiltshire. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : near Devizes, Wiltshire. The type specimen 
belongs to the Jermyn-Street Museum. 



Family C(ELOPTYCHID^, Zittel. 

Genus CCELOPTYCHIUM, Goldfuss, 1826-33, 

CffiLOPTTCHiUM AGAKicoiDES, Goldf. (Plate XXXI. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

1826-33. Caloptychmm agaricoides, Goklf. Petrcf. 1 Th. p. 31, t. 9. f. 20. 
1833. Cceloptychium agaricoides, S. Woodward, Geol. of Norfolk, t. 4. f. 19. 
1841. Cceloptychium agaricoides, F. A. Roemer, Nordd. Krcide, p. 10, t. 4. f. 5. 
1876. Cceloptychium agaricoides, Zitt. Ucbcr Cceloptychium, Abhand. k. bayr. Ak. II Ci. 
Bd. 12, Ab. 3, p. 59, t. 3. f. 1, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 13 ; t. 4 A. 



CCELOPTYCHIUM. 147 

1877. Cosloptychium agaricoides, Zitt. Studien^ I Ab. p. 59; Neues Jahrbucli, p. 371. 

1878. Cosloptychium agaricoides, Zitt. Handbuch der Pal. Bd. 1, p. 184, f. 100. 
1878. Cceloptychium longostiwn, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 519, t. 140. f. 1, 2. 

In addition to very perfect examples of this species from the Upper Chalk of 
Westphalia, the Museum possesses a small specimen from the Upper Chalk of this 
country which may be referred to this species, though, as the characters of the under 
.surface are concealed, it is doubtful whether it belongs here or to C. deciminum. 
The specimen in question is without a stem ; the body is 50 mm. in width and 8 in 
thickness. The upper surface is flat with a central depression, the margins are 
sharp and slightly elevated. The surface is for the most part composed of a coarsely 
reticulate mesh with radiating bands of a finely punctate character. The interior 
folds of the wall are about "9 mm. in thickness. 

Distrihution. Upper Chalk : Coesfeld, Westphalia ; Lemforde, Hanover [coll. 
Zitt.); South of England ; Norwich {S. Woodward). 

Cceloptychium deciminum, F. A. Boemer. 

1841. Cceloptychium deciminum, Roemer, Nordd. Kreide, p. 10, t. 4. f. 3. 

1865. Cceloptychium Belfastiense, Tate, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi. p. 43, t. 5. f. 7. 

1876. Cceloptychium deciminum, Zitt. Abhand. k. bayr. Ak. II CI. Bd. 12, p. 62, t. 1. f. 6, 7, 
and t. 3. f. 2. 

1877. Cceloptychium deciminum, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 59; Neues Jahrbucb, p. 371. 

The only example in the collection which I refer to this species is the upper 
portion of a specimen from the Norwich Chalk, which is 114 mm. in width and 15 
in thickness. The upper surface appears to have been flat or gently concave ; its 
minute structure is not shown. On the ridges of the under surface are small circular 
or oval apertures, 1*2 mm. in width. The folds of the interior of the wall are 
1*6 mm. in thickness; they are built up of an extremely regular spicular mesh, with 
octahedral nodes '44 mm. apart. 

The fragment of a specimen from the indurated chalk of Belfast, named by Tate 
Coeloptychium Belfastiense, appears to me to belong to this species. Only the 
ridges of the under surface are preserved ; these are about 6 ram. in width ; they are 
furnished with small circular oscular apertures 1 mm. in diameter. The spicular 
structure has been obliterated. The specimen is in the Jermyn-Street Museum. 

Distrihution. Upper Chalk : Norwich {coll. Bayfield) ; Belfast, Ireland. 

CCELOPTTCHIUM FUKCATUM, Tate. 
1865. Cceloptychium furcatum, Tate, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi. t. 5. f. 6. 
This species is founded on a fragment of the body of a specimen, showing the 
ridges of the under surface, which openly bifurcate. A few oval oscular apertures 

u 2 



148 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

are present on the ridges. No spicular structure has been preserved ; and the 
specimen is too imperfect for comparison with other species. 

Distribution. Spongarian zone of the Chloritic Chalk {Tate) = Upper Chalk : White- 
head, near Belfast [Jermyn- Street Museum). 

CCELOPTTCHIUM SeEBACHI, Zitt. 

1876. Cceloptychium Seebachi, Zitt. Abhand. k. bay. Ak. II CI. Bd. 12, p. 68, t. 2. f. 5-7, 
t. 3. f. 8, 9, and t. 5. f. A. 

1878. Cmloptychium Seebachi, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 521, t. 140. f. 3, 4. 

1879. Cceloptychium Seebachi, Nicholson, Manual of Pal. vol. i. p. 143, f. 38. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk; Lemforde, Hanover. 

C(ELOPTTCHiuM SDLCiFERUM, Boemer. 

1841. Cceloptychium sulciferum, F. A. Roemer, Nordd. Kreide, p. 10, t. 4. f. 4. 
1876. Cceloptychium sulciferum, Zitt. Abhand. k. bay. Ak. II CI. Bd. 12, p. 72. 
1878. Cceloptychium percussum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 512, t. 139. f. 14. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Coesfeld, Westphalia. 

Cceloptychium lobatum, Goldfuss. 

1826-33. Cceloptychium lobatum, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 220, t. 65. f. II. 
1864. Cceloptychium lobatum., F. A. Roemer, Pal. Bd. 13, p. 4, t. 2. f. 12. 
1876. Cceloptychium lobatum, Zitt. Abhand. k. bay. Ak. II CI. Bd. 12, p. 73. 
1878. Caloptychium sexlobatum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 509, t. 139. f 13. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk ; Coesfeld, Westphalia. 

Suborder LYSSAKINA, Zittel. 

FamUy MONAKID^, Marshall. 

Genus ASTRiEOSPONGIA, F. Bcemer, 1854. 

AsTR^ospONGiA MENISCUS, F. Rosmer. 
1848. Blumenbachium meniscus, F. Roemer, Leonhard und Bronn's Jahrbuch, p. 680, t. 9. 

f. 1 a-c. 
1852. AstrcEOspongium meniscus, Bronn's Leth. Geogn. 2 Th. p. 156, t. 5. f. 1 a-c. 
1860. AstrcBOspongia meniscus, F. Roemer, Die silur. Fauna des westl. Tenn. p. 14, t. 1. f, 6. 
1878. AstrcBOspongium meniscus, Zittel, Handb. der Pal. Bd. 1, p. 185. 

1878. AstriEospongia meniscus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 557, t. 141. f. 8. 

1879. Astreeospongia meniscus, Nicholson, Manual of Pal. vol. i. p. 135. f. 33 a, b. 

1880. Astreeospongia meniscus, F. Roemer, Lethea Pal. I Th. p. 314, t. 9. f. 2 a-c. 

Sponges growing in the form of concavo-convex disks ; sessile. Specimens vary 



ASTR^OSPONGIA. — STAUEACTINELLA. 149 

from 40 to 90 mm. in width, and \from 12 to 20 mm. in thickness. The entire 
sponge is composed of star-shaped spicules, with six flattened or rounded rays in a 
horizontal plane ; the rays are usually obtuse at the extremities ; the centre of the 
spicule is slightly expanded. The spicules A^ary in size : large examples are 8 mm. in 
diameter, and the rays are -75 mm. in width. Occasionally in the rays of some of 
the larger spicules longitudinal furrows, representing the interior canals, are exposed. 
The spicules do not appear to have been attached together. The examples are now 
partly altered to calcite ; even where the siliceous composition has been retained, the 
spicules are more or less obliterated. 

Distribution. Silurian : Niagara group. Perry County, West Tennessee. 

AsTR^osPONGiA PATINA, F. Ecemer. (Plate XXXI. fig. 5.) 

1861. Astr<Bospongia patina, F. Roemer, Die fossile Fauna d. Silui-.-Gesch. von Sadewitz 
p. 14, t. 3, f . 5 a-d. 

Sponges growing in concavo-convex disks, and sessile, the same as in the preceding 
species. The star-like spicules vary from -36 to 1-5 mm. in diameter, and the rays from 
•033 to -112 mm. in width. In the centre of most of the spicules is a small protu- 
berance, representing a seventh ray at right angles to the other six. This species 
differs from A. meniscus in the much smaller size of the component spicules. 

This species is only represented in the Museum by some detached spicules, which 
I have discovered abundantly present in some decayed shales from the Isle of 
Gotland, presented to me by Prof G. Lindstrom of Stockholm. The spicules are 
now composed of calcite; their rays are flattened and obtusely terminated; the 
surface is rough and uneven, and no traces of canals have been preserved. These 
spicules correspond in size and form with those of the unique example of this species 
discovered by Rcemer in the glacial drift of Sadewitz in Lower Silesia, and there can 
be little doubt as to their belonging to a sponge of this species. The occurrence of 
these spicules in situ further supports the conclusion, drawn from the other fossils in 
the drift, that this deposit has been derived from the Silurian strata of the Baltic 
basin. 

Distribution. Silurian strata of Wenlock age : near Visby, Isle of Gotland. 

Genus STAUEACTINELLA, ZUt. 1877. 

Stauractinella cretacea, Hinde. (Plate XXXI. fig. 6.) 
1880. Stauractinella cretacea, Hinde, Foss. Sponge- Spicules, p. 70, t. 5. f. 9-11. 
This species is based on detached hexactinellid spicules, with elongated rays 
reaching to 2 mm. in length. There is in the Museum a subcylindrical specimen 
from the Upper Chalk, 42 mm. in length and 34 in width, which shows on the outer 



150 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

surface numerous hexactinellid spicules apparently detached and irregularly mingled 
together. Slender monactinellid spicules are also present. The specimen has been 
treated with acid, and the spicules are now in the condition of iron peroxide. A 
large spicule is 3 mm. in length. The interior structure of the specimen, owing to 
its condition, cannot be determined ; but it is probably made up of spicules similar to 
those on the exterior, and as these resemble the detached forms to which I have given 
the name of S. cretacea, I refer this sponge to the same species. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Horstead, Norfolk ; South of England {coll. Bower- 
lank). 



Family TOLLAXIDM, Marshall, 

Genus HYALOSTELIA, Zitt. 1878. 

Hyalostelia Smithii, Young and Young, sp. (Plate XXXII. figs. 1-1^.) 

1876. Acanthospongia Smithii, Young and Young, Cat. Western Scottish Fossils, p. 38. 

1877. Hijalonema Smithii, Young and Young, pars, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xx. p. 426, 
t. 14. f. 1-3, .'^-12, 14-17. 

1877. Acanthospongia Smithii, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 60. 

1878. Hyalonema Smithii, Carter, pars, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 129, t. 9. 
f. 1-9, 12, 13. 

This species was constituted by Messrs. Young to include detached spicules of 
various forms which occur, freely intermingled together, in beds of decayed chert of 
Carboniferous age in Scotland. Many of these spicules are simple Hexactinellids, 
that is with six rays at right angles to each other, whilst others have a greater 
number of rays, though they appear to be but varieties of the Hexactinellid type. 
Messrs. Young suggested the probability that these various forms of spicules might 
belong to more than a single species of sponge ; and this was shown to be the 
case by Mr. Carter, who subsequently described a sponge, Holasterella conferta, which 
is composed of some of the abnormal hexactinellid spicules which Messrs. Young 
had included in 11. Smithii. I therefore propose to restrict //. Smithii to the 
simple hexactinellid spicules, which are the most abundant forms in the beds at 
Cunningham Baidland, and to the spicular rods with or without the four anchoring- 
hooks at their termination. The simple spicules usually have a main axis, which 
varies from 1'5 to 9 mm. in length ; the other axes are generally very unequal, and 
the rays are frequently inflated, and sometimes reduced to a mere rounded knob. The 
spicular rods are met with singly or disposed parallel with each other in compressed 
bundles; they are of indefinite length, and vary from '3 to 1"5 mm. in diameter. 
When perfect they terminate in four short, recurved, anchor-like rays. These rods 
are regarded by Messrs. Y^oung as identical with those described by M'Coy under the 



HYALOSTELIA. 151 

name of Serpula parallela, but if such were the case, the sponge ought, by the rule of 
priority, to retain M'Coy's specific name. I do not think, however, that the spicular 
rods of H. Smithii are similar to those described by M'Coy, which, according to the 
description, are only '5 mm. in thickness, whereas the majority of those found in the 
Scotch beds are much thicker, and reach a maximum thickness of 1-5 mm. 

Distribution. Lower Carboniferous : Cunningham Baidland, Dairy, Ayrshire. Pre- 
sented to the Museum by Dr. J. Millar, F.L.S. 

Htalostelia parallela, M'Coy, sp. 

1844. Serpula parallela, M'Coy, Synop. Carb. Foss. Ireland, p. 169, t. 23. f. 30. 
1880. Acestra parallela, P. Roemer, Letli. Geogn. 1 Th. p. 318, f. 60. 

Straight cylindrical spicular rods, of indefinite length, and from '2 to '5 mm. in 
thickness, disposed parallel with each other so as to form flattened bundles. The 
surface of the rods is smooth, and the interior canal is usually preserved. The 
originally siliceous composition has been replaced by calcite. Though no anchor- 
shaped terminations have yet been discovered in connexion with these rods, there 
can hardly be a doubt that they are the root-like appendages of hexactinellid 
sponges. 

In addition to specimens from the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland, there is a well- 
preserved example on a slab of rock, to which no label is attached, but which, from 
its appearance and the character of the other fossils on it, seems to have been derived 
from the Trenton Limestone at Ottawa. 

Distribution. Trenton Limestone : Ottawa, Canada. Lower Carboniferous : Cli- 
theroe, Scotland. 

Hyalostelia fasciculus, Mj-Coij, sp. 
1855. Pyritonema fasciculus, M'Coy, Brit. Pal. Fossils, p. 10, t. IB. f. 13. 

The only example of this species in the Museum is a thin compressed band of 
spicular rods about 5"5 mm. in width. The rods vary from "2 to "5 mm. in thickness ; 
the best-preserved examples show closely-set concentric transverse wrinkles, but in 
others the surface is quite smooth. The axial canals have not been preserved. The 
spicules in this specimen are siliceous. The transverse wrinkles distinguish this 
species from H. parallela. 

No label is attached to the specimen ; but it appears to have been derived from the 
Llandeilo district of Wales. 

Hyalostelia fusiformis, Hinde. (Plate XXXI. fig. 7.) 
1880. Hyalostelia fusiformis , Hinde, Foss. Sponge-Spicules, p. 71, t. 5. f. 13-16. 
Free hexactinellid spicules, with an elongated main axis and inflated centre. The 



352 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

rays are straight or slightly curved. The spicules vary from '45 to 1-05 mm. in 
length. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Horstead, Norfolk. 

Genus HOLASTERELLA, Carter, 1879. 

HoLASTEKELLA coNFEETA, Carter. (Plate XXXII. figs. 2-2/.) 

1879. Holasterella conferta, Carter, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. iii. p. 141, t. 21. 
f. 1-8. 

1877. Hyalonema Sinithii, Young and Young, pars, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xs. p. 426, 
t. 14. f. 20, 21, 22. 

1878. Hyalonema Smithii, Carter, pars, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. i. p. 129, t. 9. f. 11 a-e. 

Sponge club-shaped, composed of abnormal varieties of hexactinellid spicules. The 
simplest form is a spicule with five arms or rays at right angles to each other, and 
the sixth ray at the summit of the vertical axis is replaced by several minute upright 
or radiating processes. In more complex forms these processes at the summit are 
elongated, and occasionally bifurcate so as to form a group of radiating rays, which, 
in some cases, are sufficiently numerous to give the spicule a star-like form. The 
most abnormal variety is a spicule with a flattened or platter-shaped summit composed 
of numerous (18 to 25) fusiform, smooth, or tubercled rays, united laterally so as to 
resemble the petals of a flower. The summit is suj^ported on three or five smooth 
rays which spring from its under surface. Mr. Carter does not appear to have met 
with this variety ; but in the collection made by Mr. Bennie it occurs in situ, 
associated with the simpler spicules of this species, and it is not improbable that it 
may have been a modified surface-spicule. There is a great variety in the dimensions 
of the spicules of this species ; the rays vary from '5 to 2-5 mm. in length. 

Distribution. Lower Carboniferous : Law Quarry, near Dairy, Ayrshire. Collected 
by Mr. James Bennie of Edinburgh. 

Holasterella Youngi, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXII. figs. 3-3 d.) 

1877. Stellate Spicules, Young and Young, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xx. p. 420, 
t. 14. f. 13, 19, 23, 24, 27, 29. 

1878. Hyalonema Smithii?, pars, Carter, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. i. p. 129, t. 9. 
f. 10 a, b. 

I propose this species to include detached spicules consisting of five to seven com- 
pressed, straight, or slightly incurved, horizontally extended rays, springing from a 
common expanded centre, with a single vertical ray beneath. The upper surface of 
these umbrella-shaped spicules is either smooth or tuberculated. The spicular rays 
vary from "4 to 2 mm. in length, and from •07 to '7 mm. in width. In the same beds 
with these detached spicules there are flattened fragments of spicular mesh composed 



HOLASTEEELLA. 153 

of spicules of similar form to the detached specimens, but with their rays amalgamated 
together, so as to form an extended wall with stellate interspaces. The tubercles on 
the upper or outer surfaces of the spicular arms ai'e much more developed than in 
the detached forms, and the spicules themselves are more robust ; but the resem- 
blance in form and the association of these fragments with the detached spicules 
lead me to regard them as portions of the dermal layer of the same sponge. 

These umbrella-like spicules are rare in comparison with the simple hexactinellid 
forms oi Hyalostelia Smithii occurring with them. A.t first sight they might be taken 
to be merely abnormal varieties of the simple forms ; but the suggestion of Mr. Carter 
that they probably belong to a distinct species, appears to me to be justified by the 
combination of other irregularly-shaped spicules in Holasterella conferta. I have 
named them in honour of Mr. John Young, F.G.S., of the Hunterian Museum, 
Glasgow. 

Distribution. Lower Carboniferous : Cunningham Baidland, Law Quarry, Dairy, 
Ayrshire. Collected by Mr. James Bennie. 

Holasterella Wrightii, Carter. (Plate XXXII. figs. 4-4 y.) 
1880. Holasterella Wrightii, Carter, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. vi. p. 209, t. 14 B. f. 1-7. 

This species is based on detached spicules occurring in decayed chert from the 
Carboniferous strata of Ireland. The spicules vary much in size and form, but they 
are all apparently modifications of hexactinellid spicules. The simplest form is an 
ordinary hexactinellid with three axes at right angles to each other. In other forms 
one or more of the rays bifurcate, so that the extreme forms resemble small stars. 
The spicular rays, both in the simple and complex varieties, are ornamented with 
spiral rings. Rod-like spicules terminating in four recurved rays occur in the same 
deposit, and may perhaps have formed the root-appendages of the sponge. 

Distribution. Lower Carboniferous : Ben Bulbul, Sligo, Ireland. Presented to the 
Museum by Mr. Joseph Wright, F.G.S., of Belfast. 

Holasterella Benniei, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXII. figs. 5-5 e.) 

1877. Incrusting Sponge ?, Young and Young, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xx. p. 429, t. 15. 
f. 41. 

Detached spicules of varied forms and relative large size. In the simplest variety 
only five rays are present, four of which are horizontal and at right angles to each 
other, and one vertical ; the rays are either simple or divided at their extremities. 
In more complex varieties there are six primary rays, which are either simple or 
divide and subdivide in an irregular manner, so that the extreme forms have a stellate 
or a ramose appearance. The spicular axes vary from 2'5 to 4 mm. in length, and 
from "5 to '9 mm. in width. 

X 



154 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

t 

The spicules have a brownish granular appearance, and their surfaces resemble 
frosted sugar. In cases where some of the rays are fractured the cavity of the 
interior canal with a smooth wall is exposed, and the spicule at first sight looks like 
an outer crust investing a foreign body, which probably gave rise to the suggestion of 
Mr. J. Young that it might be an incrusting sponge. The spicules of tliis species 
are rare, and as they are usually very fragmentary and possess an altogether anomalous 
appearance, their hexactinellid affinities are not readily recognizable. In the peculiar 
splitting up of the rays they resemble the complex forms of Holasterella Wnghtii, 
but they are almost gigantic in comparison, and do not possess the spiral sculpture 
distinctive of this species. 

The spicules figured have been kindly forwarded to me by Mr. James Bennie, and 
I have great pleasure in naming the species after him. 

Distribution. Lower Carboniferous : Law Quarry, Dairy, Ayrshire. 

IncertcB sedis. 

Genus AMPHISPONGIA, Salter, 1861. 

Amphispongia oblonga, Salter. (Plate XXXIII. figs. 12, 12 a, 12 b, 12 c, 12 d.) 
1861. AmjMspongia oblonga, Saltei-, Mem. Geol. Survey of Great Britain, 32, Scotland, 

p. 135, t. 2. f. 3. 
1877. Amphispongia, Zitt. Studien, I Ab. p. 45, note. 

1879. Amphispongia oblonga, Nicliolson, Manual of Pal. 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 135, f. 33 c, d. 

1880. Amphispongia, F. Roemer, Leth. Geogn. 1 Th. p. 317. 

This species occurs as free, compressed, elliptical masses, rounded both at the base 
and summit, from 30 to 60 mm. in length and from 8 to 23 mm. in width. The 
thickness is inconsiderable. The lower portion of the sponge, from one-fourth to 
one-half its entire length, is composed of closely approximated, straight, elongated, 
conical spicules, about o mm. in length, and from -75 to 1 mm. in Avidth, arranged so 
that their rounded summits form the outer surface of the sponge, whilst their obtuse 
points reach to its central axis. The upper portion of the sponge, immediately above 
the large conical spicules, consists mainly of cruciform spicules closely arranged in a 
regular manner, so that one spicular axis is parallel to the compressed surface of the 
sponge, whilst the other axis is at right angles to it. The rays of these spicules are 
usually straight, from -6 to "9 mm. in length, and about -12 mm. in thickness. In 
other spicules five rays (that is one ray at right angles to the other four) are present, 
and possibly some may possess six rays, but from the condition of the specimens 
the sixth ray, even if originally present, cannot satisfactorily be ascertained. Very 
minute filiform monaxial spicules are also present mingled with the cruciform 
spicules ; and in one specimen there are indications of an exterior surface-layer of 



AMPHISPONGIA. 155 

filiform spicules regularly arranged in the direction of the length of the sponge. 
Neither the spicules of the upper nor those of the lower part of the sponge appear 
to have been organically attached together. No canals can be seen, nor in the 
majority of the specimens is there any indication of a cloacal cavity ; but in one or 
two examples the conical spicules of the basal portion are arranged so that a small 
tubular cavity exists in the central axis, but this does not appear to extend into the 
upper part of the sponge. 

All the examples of this sponge are shown on fractured surfaces of a soft brown 
micaceous shaly rock. The spicules have been completely dissolved away, and only 
moulds in the matrix remain. These moulds are very clearly defined ; they are usually 
empty, but occasionally they are filled with a powdery ochraceous material, probably 
peroxide of iron. This unfixvourable condition of preservation and the close arrange- 
ment of the spicules make it very difficult to discover their true forms. Thus Salter 
regarded the radiating conical tubes of the lower part of the sponge as the moulds of 
bundles of spicules, whereas I believe them to be the cast of simple conical spicules. 
If Salter's views were correct, the separate spicules of the bundles should have shown 
some impression in the moulds, whereas the interior of these moulds is perfectly 
smooth and even. The occurrence of these hollow conical moulds, detached from 
the sponge and scattered singly throughout the rock, also shows that they were filled 
by single spicules, and not by closely grouped bundles. The smaller spicules of the 
upper portion of the sponge usually present the appearance of so many minute linear 
or fusiform hollows closely arranged side by side, with a minute circular hole in the 
centre of each individual. In this position only casts of three rays are exposed, but 
when detached from the mass, which frequently occurs, the spicules are seen to possess 
four rays in a plane at right angles to each other, and in the meeting-point of the 
rays a central hole is present in some instances, indicating the existence of a fifth 
ray, and possibly a sixth ray may have projected outwards. 

Ampldspongia was regarded by »Salter and also by Bowerbank as a Calcareous 
sponge. The supposed triradiate form of the spicules and their complete dissolution 
supported this opinion. But the true cruciform figure of the majority of the spicules 
and the hexactinellid characters of others, at once show the affinity of the sponge to 
siliceous Hexactinellids. The proportions of the spicules also correspond closer with 
those of Hexactinellid sponges than with Calcareous forms. The complete dissolu- 
tion of the spicules is no longer an argument in favour of their original calcareous 
nature, for we now know that fossil siliceous spicules most readily undergo disso- 
lution and replacement. The presence of peroxide of iron filling many of the casts 
is also in favour of the original siliceous constitution of the spicules, as this material 
is usually present in the moulds of undoubted siliceous sponges. 

Whilst the form and proportions of the spicules in the upper portion of this 
species clearly show a relationship to those of Lyssakine Hexactinellids, their 

x2 



156 SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

peculiar arrangement and combination with the relatively large conical spicules of 
the basal portion present characters so entirely different from those of any other 
fossil siliceous sponge, that I am unable to assign it to a definite position in this 
order. 

My study of this species has been greatly facilitated by the loan of specimens from 
Prof. Nicholson, Dr. Traquair, and from the collection of the Geological Survey of 
Scotland, through the kind permission of Prof. A. Geikie, Director-General of the 
Survey. 

Distribution. Silurian strata of Upper Ludlow age: Pentland Hills, near Edin- 
burgh. 

Genus MORTIERA, De Koninck, 1842. 

MoKTiERA VERTEBKALis, De Koninck. 

1842. Mortiera vertebralis, De Kon. Anim. foss. carbon. Belg. p. 12, t. B. f. 3. 

1846. Mortiera vertebralis, Mich. Icon. Zooph. p. 253, t. 59. f. 1 a, 1 b. 

1852. Mortiera vertebralis, Milne-Edw. & Haime, Brit. Foss. Corals, p. 209. 

1872. Mortiera vertebralis, De Koninck, Nouv. Rech. sur les Anim. foss. carbonif. Belg. 

p. 163, 1. 15. f. 9, 9 a. 
1880. Mortiera vertebralis, P. A. Roemer, Leth. Geogn. 1 Th. p. 322, t. 39. f. 11 a, 11 6. 

Sponges detached, growing in the form of short cylinders with biconcave ends, and 
presenting a superficial resemblance to the centrum of a fish vertebra. The speci- 
mens vary from 8 to 36 mm. in height and from 26 to o5 mm. in diameter. The 
wall of the sponge is composed of numerous vertical radiating lamellae, which 
extend to the centre in the same manner as the septa of a coral. The specimens are 
now calcareous and the minute structure has been obliterated, but traces of spicules, 
apparently of a Tetracladine character, can be seen in transverse sections. In one 
specimen, which has been less exposed to weathering influences, the exterior surface 
is formed of a layer of elongate acerate spicules, about 4 mm. in length, disposed 
parallel to the axis of the sponge. 

This species was regarded by De Koninck as a coral allied to Cyclolites ; F. Roemer 
placed it with the sponges from the presence of fragmentary spicules after treating 
specimens with acid. There is no doubt that it is a true sponge, and it probably 
belongs to the Lithistidse, though its proper position cannot be determined until the 
characters of the interior spicules are ascertained. The septate disposition of the 
wall is not peculiar to this species, for a similar arrangement of the wall-tissues also 
occurs in the Lithistid sponges Cnemidiastrum stellatuni, Goldf. sp., Corallidium 
diceratinum, Quenst. sp., and also in sponges of the genus Seliscothon, Zitt. 
Distribution. Carboniferous Limestone : Tournay, Belgium. 



157 



Division II. CALCAREOUS SPONGES. 

Order CALCISPONGI^, Blaimille. 

Family PIIARETRONES, Zittel. 

The structure of this group of fossil sponges has lately been studied independently 
by several authors, and as the result of their investigations has an important bearing 
on the true character and affinities of the family, which have hitherto been the 
subject of much discussion, it is desirable to make a preliminary reference to its 
history, and to the views lately published respecting it. 

The family of the Pharetrones was constituted by Zittel to include a group of 
sponges, very variable in outer form, but characterized by possessing a skeleton of 
solid anastomosing calcareous fibres, so arranged as to form mesh-like walls of 
varying thickness, either with or without distinct canals. The skeletal fibres, when 
examined in thin transparent microscopic sections, were seen to be composed of 
minute uniaxial or apparently three-rayed spicules ; but as the true form of these 
minute spicules could very rarely be clearly seen in thin sections, some authorities 
disputed their resemblance to the spicules of recent calcareous sponges, and regarded 
them as siliceous spicules which had been changed to their present calcareous consti- 
tution through fossilization. It was further maintained that, judging by the fragile 
character of the spicules of existing calcareous sponges, it was altogether improbable 
that similar forms would have been capable of preservation in the fossil state. 

In the course of my examination of the Museum collection, I met with some 
examples of these fibrous calcareous sponges which supplied the evidence needed to 
determine their true characters. The specimens were in such a peculiar condition 
of preservation that I was enabled to detach the component spicules of the fibres 
and to ascertain their forms with as much precision as if they had belonged to recent 
sponges. The majority of these spicules were three- rayed forms of very minute 
proportions, and in addition to these there was on the surface of the sponge a layer 
of relatively large three- and four-rayed spicules, strikingly similar in form, size, and 
in their relative arrangement to those of existing calcareous sponges. Further, in 
thin microscopic sections of other forms, I detected, besides the common three- and 
four-rayed spicules, some peculiar fork-shaped spicules, of a form quite unknown in 
any siliceous sponge, either fossil or recent, but resembling in the greatest detail the 
spicules of some recent calcareous sponges from the Australian coast. I submitted 
microscopic fragments of these sponges to Prof. Zittel, who stated, in a short com- 



158 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

munication to the ' Neucs Jahrbuch'*, that they fully proved the position of the 
Pharetrones amongst Calcareous Sponges. 

In the same number of the ' Neues Jahrbuch ' just referred to, there appeared a 
lengthy article by Dr. G. Steinmann f on " Pharetronen-Studien," which professed to 
be the results of five years' investigation of this group. Steinmann agrees with Zittel 
as to the originally calcareous nature of the fibre and to its being composed of small 
simple calcareous bodies, which he states are, in their present fossil condition, im- 
bedded in a calcareous mass, but originally the mass might have been either horny or 
calcareous. In spite of the strong resemblances which Zittel had discovered between 
this group of fossils and recent Calcareous sponges, Steinmann concludes that " The 
Pharetrones are an extinct independent division of the Ccelenterata, whose skeletal 
structures partly resemble those of Sponges, partly those of Hydrozoa, and in part 
show completely peculiar characters. A resemblance to their dermal skeleton is 
only found in septate Corals and Hydrozoa, and the structure of their skeletal fibres 
can only and solely be compared with that of Alcyonaria " J. As, however, within a 
few months after the publication of the paper the author himself, in a communi- 
cation to the ' Neues Jahrbuch ' §, withdraws his opinions, notwithstanding that they 
had received the support of Prof. Moseley, it is not worth while to show their incon- 
sistency with a true interpretation of the facts. 

In the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History' for January 1883 ||, Mr. H. J. 
Carter published " Further observations on the so-called Farringdon Sponges," in 
which he acknowledges the relationship of many of the Pharetrones to Calcareous 
sponges ; and he also gives a description and figures in the same paper of a recent 
calcareous sponge possessing a skeleton of solid vermiculate fibres, composed of large 
and small three-rayed spicules, thus distinctly similar to the skeleton of the fossil 
Pharetrones. 

Shortly after the appearance of Carter's paper. Dr. Emil von Dunikowski contri- 
buted to the 'Palseontographica'^ a highly important treatise on " Die Pharetronen 
aus dem Cenoman von Essen und die systematische Stellung der Pharetronen." The 
author fully corroborates the facts which I had already recorded** respecting the 
spicules of the fibre of these sponges ; and he adds the further interesting discovery 
of traces of interior canals in some of the larger spicules, the supposed absence of 
which led Steinmann to insist that these forms could not belong to Calcisponges. 
Dunikowski treats fully of the anatomy of the group, and finds so close a resemblance 
to that of the recent fiimily of Leucones, Haeckel, that he includes therein the 
Pharetrones as a subfamily. I am unable to agree with this classification, which is 
based on the opinion that the original constitution of the skeleton is essentially 

* 1882, Bd. 2, p. 204. t Loc. cit. p. 139. t Loc. cit. p. 188. 

§ Neues Jahrbuch, 1883, Bd. 1, p. 79. || 5th ser. vol. ii. p. 20. f Band 29, 1883. 

»» Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1882, 5th ser. vol. x. p. 185. 



PHAEETEONES. 159 

similar to that of the recent Leucones, and that its present fibrous character is 
merely the result of a secondary alteration of the structure due to fossilization, as 
originally it was neither calcareous nor horny, but consisted simjily of spicules 
imbedded in a mass of parenchym. 

To determine the question of the original constitution of the fibrous skeleton of 
the Pharetrones it is necessary to study the structure in those specimens which have 
suffered least from the effects of fossilization. In the specimens from Warminster, 
for example, which have been already referred to, the skeletal fibres have apparently 
been altered to a very slight degree, and they are wholly composed of spicules in 
close approximation to each other and as closely interwoven together as the strands 
of a rope. There is no indication of their having been originally loosely imbedded in 
a mass of parenchym in the same manner as in recent Leucones, in which, according 
to Haeckel *, the chief portion of the skeleton, consisting of the entire thickness of 
the body-wall, is composed of irregularly scattered spicules. A similar structure to 
that of the Warminster examples is also present in transparent sections of Sestro- 
stomeUa from Vaches Noires. The entire fibre is composed of large and small 
spicules in intimate contact with each other, and bordering the margins of the fibre 
there is a definite layer of spicular bodies running parallel to it, thus showing very 
clearly that the spicul ir constitution of the fibre is original, and is not due to 
secondary alteration. It is true that in many specimens the fibre is now only 
partially composed of spicules imbedded in a transparent ground-mass ; but this 
condition results from a partial dissolution of the spicular components of the fibre. 
Various stages of this alteration may be traced in a series of specimens : in the best- 
preserved the fibre is entirely composed of spicules, whilst in those which have been 
most changed no spicules at all are present, and the fibre is destitute of organic 
structure. I do not think therefore that Dunikowski's theory of the original simi- 
larity of the skeleton of the Pharetrones to that of the recent Leucones can be 
sustained ; and whilst admitting the great resemblance of the individual spicules in 
these two groups, the fibrous arrangement of the skeleton in the Pharetrones appears 
to me sufficient grounds for placing the group, as Zittel has done, in an independent 
family. 

A short reference may here be made to the characters of the Dermal layer (Dermal- 
schicht, Zitt. ; Deckschicht, Lunik.) in the Pharetrones, of which two distinct kinds 
are present. One kind consists of a thin open layer of relatively large four-rayed 
spicules, disposed on the outer surface of the sponge in such a manner that three of 
the rays are parallel to the surface, whilst the fourth extends inwardly at right 
angles to it. It is only under very favourable circumstances that this kind of dermal 
layer has been preserved, and its absence in the specimens examined by Zittel led 
him to suppose that it might be a distinguishing peculiarity of the group. It occurs 

* Die Kalkschwiimme, vol. i. p. 304. 



160 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

iu Tremacystia (VerticiUites) D'Orbignp, H., and Corynella rugosa, H., and traces of 
it are present in some species of Eudea, Eusiphonella, and Lymnorea. The other 
kind of dermal layer has the appearance of a compact smooth or rugose membrane, 
resembling in aspect the epitheca of a coral, which envelopes the sides and some- 
times the greater part of the surface of the sponge. The structure of this membrane 
is very rarely preserved ; but, according to Dunikowski, it is mainly composed of 
very irregular three-rayed spicules. 

The genera into which Zittel has divided this family are mainly based on diffe- 
rences in form and in the canal-structure, and not primarily, as in the case of the 
Siliceous sponges, on the spicular characters. This is owing to the fact that in many 
forms the spicular constituents of the fibres have been completely obliterated by 
fossilization, and notably is this the case with most of the specimens from Triassic 
strata ; so that an attempt to establish the genera on similarity of minute structure 
can be, at the best, only partially successful. Where, however, the spicular characters 
of the type species of a genus can be ascertained, it is desirable to include in it only 
those sponges with a similar minute structure, and thus constitute the genus on a 
natural basis. Fossil calcareous sponges, like siliceous forms, very frequently are 
similar in form and in the canal-structure, whilst the minute components of the 
fibres, when examined under the microscope, are found to vary very considerably. 
Dunikowski has proposed to subdivide the family according to the various combina- 
tions of uniaxial, three-, and four-rayed spicules, in the same manner as Haeckel has 
divided the recent Leucones ; but I have found it extremely difficult in practice ta 
determine in thin sections whether many spicules are uniaxial or three-rayed forms, 
and it is equally difficult to decide whether a spicule in which three rays are 
s)iown in the section may not have possessed a fourth ray, so that this arrangement 
appears to me not to be available for fossil sponges. 

There are, however, in the Pharetrones which I have examined, some clearly 
marked types of spicular structure which may be briefly mentioned. In the first of 
these, which I propose to call the " Corynella " type, the fibre is nearly entirely com- 
posed of subequal, elongate, filiform, three-rayed spicules, arranged parallel to each 
other in the direction of the axis of the fibre. In these spicules the basal ray is 
so slightly developed that in transparent sections they may easily be mistaken for 
uniaxial forms. Relatively large three- and four-rayed spicules are rarely present in 
the fibre, though they form, in some species at least, an open dermal layer on the 
surface of the sponge. This type of spicular structure is well developed in the 
Cretaceous species of Corynella and in Tremacystia. In a second type, which may 
be designated the "Sestrostomella" type, the skeletal fibres are built up of relatively 
large three- and four-rayed spicules disposed in the central portions of the fibre and 
surrounded by smaller and very irregular forms, which frequently appear as sinuous 
lines forming the exterior border of the fibre. This structure is characteristic of 



ETJDEA. . 161 

Sestrostomella, the Jurassic species of Stellispongia, Trachysinia, Oculospongia, Dia- 
plectia, and Elasmostoma. In a third type, less clearly marked than the two pre- 
ceding, the fibres are of a slender character, and mainly consist of relatively large 
three- and four-rayed spicules, either heterogeneously mingled or sometimes disposed 
in a single series. This structure is developed in Li/mnorea, some Jurassic species of 
Peronella, and in Inobolia. It may be named the Lymnorea type. In a fourth type 
the fibre consists of uniaxial spicules arranged parallel to each other in the direction 
of the fibre. No three-rayed forms appear to be present. The only genus in which 
this structure exists is Pharetrospongia. 

So far as the material at my disposition has permitted, I have endeavoured to 
determine the spicular structure of the various species in the collection, but it will 
require much more extended observations before a natural arrangement of this family 
can be satisfactorily established. 

Note. — Since the first portion of this work was in type, the acquisition of fresh 
specimens of Calcareous sponges has enabled me to make several additions to the 
list of genera given on page 17. 

Genus EUDEA, Lamx. 1821. 

EuDEA Manon, Miinst. sp. 

1841. Scypkia? Manon, Miinst. Beitr. zur Petref. iv. p. 29, t. 1. f. 15. 

1864. Epeudea Manon, Laube, Deuks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 231, t. 1. f. 2 a, b. 

1878. Eudea Manon, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 27. 

1878. Scyphia Manon, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 540, 1. 140. f. 31. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian Tyrol {coll. Klipstein). 

Eudea polymoepha, Klipst. sp. 

1843. Scyphia polymorpha, Klipst. Beitr. z. g. Kennt. d. ost. Alpen, p. 284, 1. 19. f. 12 a, b, c. 
1864. Verrucospongia polymorpha, Laube, Denks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 236, 

t. 1. f. 12. 
1878. Eudea polymorpha, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 27. 

1878. Scijphia polymorpha, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 550, t. 140. f. 53. 

1879. Eudea polymorpha, Zitt. Neues Jahrbuch, p. 21. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol {coll. Klipstein). 

EtJDEA clavata, Lamx. 

1821. Eudea clavata, Lamx. Expos, method, p. 46, t. 74. f. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
1834. Eudea clavata, Blainv. Man. d'Actin. p. 539, t. 64. f. 3, 3 a. 
1847. Eudea cribraria, Mich. Icon. Zooph. p. 25, t. 58. f. 8. 



162 CALCAREOUS SPONGES. 

1878. Eudea clavata, Zitt. Studien, IIIAb. p. 27. 

1879. Eudea clavata, Zitt. Neues Jahrb. p. 22. 

In a vertical transparent section of a specimen from Ranville, the fibres, seen 
under the microscope, are clearly defined from the matrix, but the spicular structure is 
nearly entirely obliterated ; in one instance, however, a three-rayed spicule, of medium 
size, could be distinctly seen. The fibre is about -12 mm. in thickness. 

Distribution. Middle Jura: Couche a Polypiers — Ranville, Ben ouville ; Calvados. 

Eudea perforata, Qiienst. sp. 

1858. Spongites perforatus, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 698, t. 84. f. 26, 27. 
1878. Eudea perforata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 27. 

1878. Orispongia perforata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 195, t. 124. £. 22-28. 

1879. Eudea perforata, Zitt. Neues Jalirb. p. 22. 

The fibre of this species, as seen in a transparent section, is about '25 mm. in 
thickness ; fragments of relatively large three- or four-rayed spicules can be distin- 
guished in it, but for the most part the minute structure is destroyed. On the 
summit of some specimens there are traces of a dermal layer of three- or four-rayed 
spicules. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen ; Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. 

Eudea globata, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Orispongia globata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 195, 1. 124. f. 29-34. 
1826-33. Manon peziza, Goldf. pars, Petref. 1 TIi. t. 34. f. 8 a. 
1878. Eudea globata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 27. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Nattheim, "Wiirtemberg. 

Eudea pisa, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Orispongia pisum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 196, 1. 124. f. 35, 36. 
1878. Eudea pisa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 27. 

Distribution, Upper Jura : Randen. 

Eudea hiesuta, Quenst. sp. 
1878. Tubispongia hirsuta, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 190, t. 124. f. 16-19. 
Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen. 

Genus COLOSPONGIA, Laube, 1864. 

COLOSPONGIA DUBIA, Munst. sp. 

1841. Manon dubium, Miinst. Beitr. zur Petref. iv. p. 28. 1. 1. f. 11. 

1845. Manon pertusum, Klipst. Bcitr. z. g. Kennt. d. ijst. Alpen, p. 282, t. 19. f . 4 a, b. 



VEETICILLITES.— CELIPHIA. 163 

1864. Colospongia dubia, Laube, Denks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 238, 1. 1. f. 16. 

1878. Colospongia dubia, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 27. 

1878. Manon pertusum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 549, t. 140. f. 50, 51. 

1882. Colospongia dubia, Steinm. Neues Jahrb. p. 172, t. 6. f. Sa-d. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol [coll. Klipstein). 

Genus VERTICILLITES, Defrance, 1829. 

From the descriptions and figures of the type of this genus, Verticillites cretaceus, 
Def., given by the author *, and more recently by Steinmann f , it would appear that 
its minute structure is quite unknown ; and the peculiar circumstance of its occur- 
rence as merely empty moulds, leads me greatly to doubt whether it really is a 
Calcareous sponge. Steinmann places it with the Pharetrones solely on account of 
its outer form. Unfortunately the Museum does not possess an example of the type 
species, so that I have not had an opportunity of seeing it ; but until its minute 
structure is known, it will be necessary to exclude from the genus other species with 
a definite spicular structure hitherto placed under it by different authors. The genus 
Verticillites, and its synonym Verticillojwra applied by BlainvilleJ to the same 
sponge, will therefore be restricted to its type species V. cretaceus. 

Genus ENOPLOCCELIA, Steinmann, 1882. 
Enoploccelia armata, Kli])st. sp. 

1843. Scyphia armata, Klipst. Beitr. z. ^. Kennt. d. ost. Alpen, p. 284, t. 19. f. 13, 14. 
1864. Verrucospongia armata, Laube, Denks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 236, t. 1. 

f. 10 a, b, c. 
1878. Verticillites armata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 28. 

1878. Verrucospongia armata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 550, t. 140. f. 55. 

1879. Verticillites armata, Zitt. Neues Jabrb. p. 23. 

1882. EnoplocosUa armata, Steinmann, Neues Jabrb. Bd. 2, p. 166, t. 6. f. 4, 4 a. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol (coll. Klipstein). 

Genus CELYPHIA, Pomel, 1872. 

Celyphia submarginata, Mitnst. sp. 

1841. Manon sub marginatum, Miinst. Beitr. zur Petref. iv. p. 28, 1. 1. f. 9. 
1841. Manon pisiforme, Miinst. ibid. p. 28, t. 1. f. 10. 

* Diet. Bcienc. nat. 1829, tome Iviii. p. 6, Atlas, pi. 44. 
t Neues Jahrbuch, 1882, Bd. 2, p. 174, t. 8. f. 2, 2 a, 2 6. 
i Manuel d'Actinologie, 1834, p. 436, t. 66. f. 1, 1 a. 

T 2 



164 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

1864. Verrucospongia submarginata, Laube, Denks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 237, 

t. 1. f. 11, 11a. 
1878. Celyphia submarginata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 29. 
1878. Testaspongia craniolaris, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 539, t. 140. f. 29, 30. 
1882. Celyphia submarginata, Steinm. Neues Jahrb. Bd. 2, p. 158, t. 6. f. 6-10, and 

t. 9. f. 3. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol [coU. Klipstein). 

Genus HIMATELLA, Zittel, 1878. 

HiMATELLA MILLEPORATA, Milnst. sp. 

1841. Tragos milleporatum, Miinst. Beitr. iv. p. 29, t. 1. f. 17. 

1864. Lymnoretlules milleporata, Laube, Denks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 234, t. 1. 

f. 7 a, b. 
1878. Himatella milleporata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 29. 

1878. Tragos milleporatum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 538, t. 140. f. 25, 26. 

1879. Himatella milleporata, Zitt. Neues Jalirb. p. 24. 

Distrihution. Trias: St. Cassian, Tyrol. 

Genus PERONELLA, Zittel, 1878. 

The definition of this genus by Prof. Zittel is based mainly on the form of the 
sponge and the absence of any definite canal-system. The minute spicular structure 
of the fibres is by no means uniform in the various species included in the genus ; 
and Zittel suggested the probable necessity of splitting it up, when a better acquaint- 
ance with the spicular structure of the different species would allow of a more natural 
grouping based on the spicular characters. 

Though with respect to the Triassic species no fresh grouping is practicable on 
account of the complete obliteration of the minute structure of the fibres, yet in 
the species from Jurassic and Cretaceous strata the fibrous structure is, as a rule, 
sufficiently well preserved to permit its characters to be defined. It consists of 
relatively large and medium-sized three- or four-rayed spicules, the rays of which are 
disposed in the central portion of the fibre, and are surrounded by similar, but 
smaller, spicules ; in some instances the fibre is narrow, and almost exclusively 
composed of the rays of the larger spicules. The borders of the fibre do not show 
the sinuous spicules which characterize the genus Sestrostomella. I have not found 
any simple acerate spicules in the fibres. 

The above definition will include all the Jurassic species which I have examined, 
but it will exclude for example Peronella multidigitata, Mich, sp., which resembles 
typical forms of Peronella in the absence of definite canals, but its spicular structure 
is distinctly similar to that of the genus Corynella. As, however, the presence or 



PEEONELLA. 165 

absence of canals in the Pharetrones is but of secondary importance in comparison 
with the fibrous structure, this species will require to be placed under Corynella. 

Peronella subc^spitosa, Munst. sp. 

1841. Scyphia subccespitosa, Miinst. Beitr. iv. p. 28, t. 1. f. 14. 
1878. Peronella subccespitosa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol (coll. Klipstein). 

Peronella cymosa, Lamx. sp. 

1821. Spongia cymosa, Lamx. Exp. method, p. 88, t. 84. f. 7. 
1840-47. Scyphia cymosa, Mich. Icon. Zooph. p. 249, t. 58. f. 3 a, b. 
1854. Spongia cymosa, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 30. 
1878. Peronella cymosa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

The only example of this species in the Museum is a small bushy mass, 69 mm. in 
width by 40 in height, composed of radiating and occasionally bifurcating cylindrical 
stems, about 8 mm. in diameter. The stems are either single or amalgamated laterally. 
The cloacal aperture is circular, about 1'5 mm. in diameter. The anastomosing fibres 
are about '\o mm. in thickness. I have not been able to ascertain the spicular 
structure. 

Distribution. Middle Jura: Couche a Polypiers — Ranville, near Caen. Great 
Oolite : Hampton Cliff, Bath {Morris). 

• Peronella pistilliformis, Lamx. sp. (Plate XXXIII. figs. ], la.) 

1821. Spongia pistilliformis, Lamx. Exp. method, j). 88, t. 84. f. 6. 
1840-47. Scyphia pistilliformis, Mich. Icon. Zooph. p. 250, t. 58. £. 4 a, b. 
1854. Scyphia pistilliformis , Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 29. 
1878. Peronella pistilliformis, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

Sponges growing in small bushy masses of cylindrical or occasionally inflated 
simple or branching stems, from 4 to 6 mm. in thickness. The cloacal aperture is 
about 1'6 mm. in width. The exterior surface has a coarsely reticulate aspect. 

The fibres, in a transparent section of a specimen from the Great Oolite near Bath, 
appear as well-defined bands, from -12 to '5 mm. in width, of the same character in 
the central portions as near the exterior of the stem. They are composed of three- 
or perhaps four-rayed spicules, with rays varying from '05 to '18 mm. in length, 
indiscriminately mingled together. 

Distribution. Middle Jura: Couche a Polypiers — Langrune, Lebisey, Ranville, 
Calvados {coll. Tesson). Great Oolite : Hampton Clifl", near Bath. 



166 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

Peronella clavakioides, Lamx. sp. (Plate XXXIII. figs. 6, 6 a.) 

1821. Spongia clavarioides, Lamx. Exp. method, p. 88, t. 84. f. 8-10. 
1878. Peronella clavarioides, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

In a transverse microscopic section of an example of this species from Ranville, the 
fibres are clear, well defined, and equally disposed throughovit the wall ; they vary 
from '07 to "2 mm. in thickness. They are composed of irregular three- and possibly 
four-rayed spicules, heterogeneously mingled together. It is somewhat difficult, on 
account of the close arrangement of the spicules in the fibre, to ascertain their dimen- 
sions ; they appear, however, to be relatively large ; a single ray, partially visible, 
measured "22 mm. in length and "036 mm. in thickness. 

Distribution. Middle Jura : Couche a Polypiers — Ranville, near Caen. 

Peronella mamillifera, Lamx. sp. (Plate XXXIII. fig. 3.) 

1821. Spongia mamillifera, Lamx. Exp. method, p. 88, t. 84. f. 11. 
1840-47. Spongia mamillifera, Mich. Icon. Zooph. p. 113, t. 26. £. 5. 
1854. Spongia mammillifera, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 30. 
1878. Spongites mamillatus, Queust. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 340, t. 131. f. 37, 38. 
1878. Peronella mamillifera, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

Sponges growing in depressed bushy masses, from 26 mm. to 60 mm. in width, and 
about 32 mm. in height. The individual stems are subcylindrical or mammilliform, 
from 6 to 8 mm. in diameter; the cloacal aperture at their summits is from 1"5 to 
2 mm. in width, and in some instances three or four open furrows radiate from it. 
The individual stems in some examples are nearly free from each other, whilst in 
others only the coniform summits are free ; in a few instances a corrugated dermal 
layer is present on the under surface of the sponge. 

The interior structure, as seen in a longitudinal section, is composed of narrow, 
ill-defined fibres, about '1 mm. in width, which are arranged much closer near the 
exterior than in the central portion of the stem. The fibres are now very crystalline, 
and only show traces of three- or four-rayed spicules, with the rays disposed in the 
central axis of the fibre. The spicular rays are from "1 to "2 mm. in length, and 
about "03 in width. 

Distribution. Middle Jura : Couche a Polypiers — Ranville, L'Amouroux, near 
Caen {coll. Tesson); Mont Terrible. Great Oolite: Hampton Cliff, near Bath 
{Morris). 

Peronella tenuis, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXIII. figs. 2, 2 «, 2 b.) 
Sponges forming small bushy masses, of slender, cylindrical, bifurcating stems, from 
3"5 to 5-5 mm. in thickness, either free or united nearly their entire length. The 
cloacal aperture is about I mm. in width. 



PEKONELLA. 167 

In a longitudinal section of a specimen, the fibres near the outer portion of the 
stem appear as closely reticulate bands, about •! mm. in width, whilst in the inner 
portion they are more open and slender, and seem to be mainly composed of single 
axial rays of three- or four-rayed spicules. Similar spicules are also present in the 
axial line of the wider marginal fibres, but the other spicules of the fibre have been 
obliterated. The spicular rays are from -1 to '2 mm. in length. 

The delicate character and the spicular arrangement of the fibres distinguish this 
species from P. pistilliformis, with which it agrees in the form and size of the 
individual spongites. Though resembling P. mamillifera in the spicular characters 
of the fibres, it is a distinctly smaller form. 

Distribution. Inferior Oolite (Pea-Grit) : near Cheltenham. Couche a Polypiers : 
Eanville (coll. Tesson). 

Peronella inflata, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXII. figs. 6, 6 a, 6 b.) 

Sponge forming a bushy mass of upright stems or branches. The only specimen 
is 100 mm. in height, and about the same in its greatest width. The stems are sub- 
cylindrical, with occasional inflations and contractions, and also nodose swellings ; 
they vary from 10 to 20 mm. in thickness. At the summit of each stem is a minute 
chimney-like extension, from 3-5 to 7 mm. in width, penetrated by a circular cloacal 
aperture about 3 mm. in diameter. The outer surface of the sponge shows closely 
arranged vermiculate fibres, with small irregular interspaces. 

In a transparent transverse section of one of the stems there is shown a marginal 
ring, about 3 mm. in width, of very closely arranged delicate fibres about -1 mm. in 
thickness. These fibres are formed of three- or four-rayed spicules, of relatively 
large size, a single ray measuring -25 to -3 mm. in length, and from "04 to -05 mm. in 
thickness. The spicular rays are usually arranged in the direction of the fibre. The 
central portion of the stem, within the marginal ring, is filled with an open reticulate 
fibre, which appears to be mainly composed of similar spicules to those of the marginal 
portion, but arranged in a single series, so that the ends of the rays of adjoining 
spicules only slightly overlap each other. 

The spicular structure of this species is of the same character as in the two 
preceding forms, P. tenuis and P. mamillifera ; but it is readily distinguished from 
these by the larger size and diff'erent form of the component stems. 

Distribution. Middle Jura : Couche a Polypiers — Eanville, near Caen, 

Peronella cylindeica, Goldf. sp. (Plate XXXIII. fig. 4.) 

1826-33. Sajphia cylindrica, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 5, t. 2. f. 3, and t. 3. f. 12. 

1826-33. Scyphia elegans, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 5, t. 2. f. 5, 13. 

1848. Scyphia cylindrica, M'Coy, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2iid ser. vol. ii. p. 418. 



168 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

1878. Spongites cylindricus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 172, t. 123. f. 6, 7, 9-15. 

1878. Peronella cylindrica, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

1879. Peronella cylindrica, Zitt. Neues Jahrb. p. 25, t. 2. £. 4. 

A transverse microscopic section of a specimen from Heidenstadt shows clearly 
marked slender fibres, about 'OS mm. in thickness, composed of relatively large 
three- or four-rayed spicules, irregularly mingled together. A spicuLir ray measured 
•2 mm. in length and -02 mm. in thickness. In some cases the spicular rays project 
beyond the margins of the fibre, though not to the same extent as in the specimen 
figured by Prof. Zittel in the 'Neues Jahrbuch,' 1879, t. 2. f. 4. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Randen; Heidenstadt, Wiirtemberg. According to 
Prof. M'Coy this species also occurs in the Coralline Oolite at Malton, Yorkshire. 

Peronella badiciformis, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Radicispongia radiciformis, Quenst. (non Goldf.) Petref. Bd. 5, p. 178, t. 123. f. 16-26. 
1878. Peronella radiciformis, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Switzerland. 

Peronella Michelini, Etallon, sp. 

1859. Parendea Michelini, Etallon, Lethea Brunt, p. 420. 

1840-47. Spongia lagenaria, Mich, (non Lamx.) Icon. Zooph. p. 114, t. 26. f. 4. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Randen, Switzerland. 

Peronella nodulosa, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Spongites nodulosus, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 698, t. 84. f. 24. 

1878. Spongites nodulosus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 335, t. 131. f. 28-30. 

1878. Peronella nodulosa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

IHstribution. Upper Jura: Streitberg; Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. 

Peronella clavata, B.oem. sp. 

1839. Scyphia clavata, F. A. Rcem. Ver. nordd. Oolit. Nacht. p. 10, 1. 17. f. 24. 
1864. Siphonoccelia clavata, F. A. Rcem. Pal. Bd. 13, p. 29, t. 1. f. 2. 
1878. Peronella clavata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

Distribution. Lower Neocomian. Hils-Conglomerate : Berklingen, Brunswick. 

Peronella truncata, From. sp. 
1861. Sipfiunocoelia truncata, From. Cat. raisonne, p. 7, t. 1. f. 3, 3 a. 
Distribution. Lower Neocomian : Censeau, near Salins. Jura : Berklingen, Bruns- 
wick. 



PEEONELLA. 169 

Peronella eamosa, F. a. Boemer, sp. (Plate XXXIII. fig. 5.) 

1839. Scyphia ramosa, F. A. Roemer, Verst. d. Nordd. Oolit. Naclitrag, p. 10, t. \7. f. 27. 
1844. Scyphia ramosa, Mant. Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 227. 
1861. Disccelia ramosa, From. Cat. raisonne, p. 9, t. 1. f. 5. 
1878. Peronella ramosa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 32. 

Sponge growing in small bushy masses of branching cylindrical tubes, from 4*5 to 
6 mm. in diameter. The summits are rounded, with a cloacal aperture about 1'5 mm. 
in width. Occasionally the low^er portion of the stems is enveloped by a compact 
dermal layer ; when this is not present, the surface shows only the irregular apertures 
between the fibres. 

A transparent section of a specimen from Farringdon exhibits indistinctly bounded 
fibres about '15 mm. in width ; the spicular structure has been mostly obliterated, so 
that only rarely can small three-rayed spicules be detected. 

Distribution. Lower Neocomian : Censeau, Jura. Lower Green Sand: Farringdon, 
Berkshire. 

Peronella Gillieroni, de Loriol, sp. (Plate XXXIII. fig. 10.) 

1869. Disccelia Gillieroni, de Loriol, Mon. de I'etage Urgon. p. 66, t. 4. f. 16, 17, 18. 
1878. Peronella Gillieroni, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 33. 

Sponges growing in bushy masses, from 28 to 40 mm. in height, of cylindrical 
branching individuals, from 5 to 7 mm. in diameter. The summits are truncate or 
rounded, and the cloacal aperture is from 1'5 to 2 mm. in width. There are traces 
in some examples of an enveloping dermal layer in the basal portion. 

The fibrous structure resembles that of P. rarnosa, from which it is distinguished 
by the larger size of the individual spongites. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon, Berkshire. Lower Neocomian : 
Berklingen, Brunswick. 

Peronella prolifera, Tlinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXIII. figs. 8, 8 a.) 

Sponges growing in bushy masses, from 40 to 50 mm. in height, of cylindrical 
bifurcating stems, with rounded and occasionally inflated summits. The stems vary 
in thickness from 6 to 10 mm., and the cloacal tube is from 1'75 to 2 mm. in width. 

In a transparent section the fibres are seen to be relatively stout, from '2 to 'o mm. 
in thickness ; the structure has been largely destroyed by crystallization, but in places 
small three- and four-rayed spicules are clearly shown. The spicular rays vary from 
•04 to '1 mm. in length. 

This species is distinguished from P. Gillieroni and P. ramosa, with which it occurs 
in the same beds at Farringdon, by its larger size and more open mode of growth ; 
the fibres also are thicker ; but the spicular structure, so far as the condition of the 

z 



170 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

specimens allows of a comparison, appears to be similar. Mr. Davey * has referred 
this form to CorijneUa {Scyphia) multidicfdata, Mich.f, but the fibres are thinner, 
and the spicular structure is also of a different cliaracter. 
Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon, Berkshire. 

Peronella flabellata, B'Orhigny, sp. 

1850. Hippalimus fiabellatus, D'Orbigny, Prodr. de Pal. vol. ii. p. 97. 
1861. Disccelia flabellata, From. Cat. raisoune, p. 9. 

18G9. Discmlia flabellata, de Loriol, Mon. de Petage Urgon. p. 66, t. 4. £. 19, 20, 21. 
1878. Peronella flabellata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 33. 
Sponges consisting of several branching cylindrical stems, from 5 to 7 mm. in 
diameter, attached laterally so as to form fan-shaped expansions. Cloacal tube about 
2 mm. in width. 

Distribution. Lower Neocomian : Berklingen, Brunswick. 

Peronella furcata, Goldf. sp. (Plate XXXIII. fig. 7.) 

1826-33. Scyphia furcata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Tli. p. 5, t. 2. f. 6. 

1840. Scyphia furcata, F. A. Roemer, Nordd. Kreide, p. 5, t. 2. f. 6. 

1864. Polyendostoma furcatum, F. A. Rcemer, Pal. Bd. 13, p. 39, t. 14. f. 5. 

1871. Epitheles furcata, Geinitz, Pal. Bd. 20, p. 34, t. 8. f. 7, 8. 

1878. Scyphia furcata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 349, t. 132. f. 4-6. 

1878. Peronella furcata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 33. 

1883. Peronella furcata, Dunik. Pal. Bd. 29, p. 39, t. 39. f. 3, 4. 

The examples of this species in the Museum Collection from Essen are small groups 
of cylindrical tubes, from 5-5 to 7"6 mm. in diameter, and from 18 to 30 mm. in 
height, usually springing from an extended base. The tubes generally bifurcate 
near the basal portion, but they also divide near the summit as well. The cloacal 
cavity is about 1 mm. in diameter. The lower portion in some specimens shows 
traces of a compact dermal layer. The fibres are about '12 mm. in thickness, and 
closely anastomose together. There are no special apertures on the outer surface. 
According to Dunikowski the fibres are mainly composed of relatively large three- 
rayed spicules. 

Distribution. Cenomanian : Essen. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. 

Peronella ramosissima, Dunik. 
1883. Peronella furcata, Goldf., var. ramosissima, Dunik. Pal. Bd. 29, p. 39, t. 39. f. 6. 
Distribution. Cenomanian (Upper Green Sand) : Essen. 

* Transactions Newbury Field-Club, p. 13. 
t Icon. Zooph. p. 217, t. 51. f. 9 a, b. 



PEEONELLA.— TEEMACTSTIA. 171 

Pekonella ocellata, Hinde. (Plate XXXIII. figs. 9, 9 «, 9 i, 9 c.) 

Sponges mostly simple, subcylindrical stems from 4 to 6'5 mm. in thickness, and 
from 15 to 22 mm. in height, apparently growing from a slightly expanded base. 
In some cases one or two small lateral buds spring from the surface of the main stem. 
The summits are truncate or slightly rounded, and the cloacal aperture is about 
1'5 mm. in width. The outer surface is smooth, and is apparently furnished with a 
dermal layer, perforated by numerous irregularly disposed circular apertures "4 mm. 
in width, generally subdivided by cross bars of fibre. Very minute pores occur in 
the interspaces between the larger apertures. The fibres, seen in a transparent 
section, are about T4 mm. in thickness. Unfortunately no minute structure is 
preserved. 

This species is readily distinguished by its mode of growth and the characters of 
the outer surface. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Maestricht. 

Genus TEEMACYSTIA, Hinde, n. g. 

Syn. Verticillites, auct. (non Defrance) ; Verticillopora, Mantell, Sharpe (non Blainville) ; 
Ceriopora, pars, Goldf. ; Thalamopora, F. A. Roemer, Mich., Pomel, Simonowitsch, 
Reuss, Steiiim., Dunik. ; Discoelia, Jjonol; Sphceroccelia, Stemm.., Dunik.; Barroisia, 
Steinm., Dunik.; Veriicil/occelia, pars, From. 

Sponges simple, or growing in bushy masses from a common base ; the stems 
occasionally give off lateral branches. Individual forms are cylindrical, inverted- 
conical, or club-shaped, and are composed of a series of cylindrical, subspherical, or 
cyst-like hollow segments superimposed over each other. The segments are mostly 
connected together by a central aperture in the roof of each, and by a more or less 
developed axial tube usually perforated laterally with large apertures opening intb 
the different segments. The exterior wall of the sponge and the segmental divisions 
are formed by a single layer of anastomosing fibres, penetrated by numerous minute 
canals. 

The skeletal fibres are composed of minute filiform three-rayed spicules in close 
contact with each other, and disposed generally parallel to the axis of the fibre. 
The basal ray of these spicules is generally so minute that it can scarcely be 
detected in microscopic sections when the spicules are closely intermingled. Besides 
these filiform spicules, the outer surface of the sponge is furnished with a dermal 
layer of relatively large three- and four-rayed spicules. Possibly uniaxial spicules 
may also occur in the fibres, though what appear as such in thin sections are, in my 
opinion, portions of three-rayed spicules. 

I propose this genus to include a group of well-known sponges, hitherto referred 
to several genera, but which are naturally connected by their segmental growth, 

z2 



172 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES, 

the perforated walls of a single layer of fibre, and the similarity in the spicular 
structure. 

Tremactstia D'Orbignyi, Hinde. (Plate XXXIV. figs. 1, 1 a-\ o.) 

1882. Verticillites D'Orbignyi, Hinde, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 5th ser. vol. x. p. 192, 1. 10. 

f. 1, 2, 7, 8, and t. 11. f. 1-24. 
1816. Alcyonite, W. Smith, Strata identified, t. 6. f. 12. 
1882. SphcerocceUa Michelini, Steinm. pars (uon Simonowitsch), Neues Jahrhuch, Bd. 2, 

p. 162, t. 7. f. 4 (uon 4 a, b). 

Small club-shaped sponges, from 16 to 23 mm. in height, either simple or with 
lateral branches ; growing singly or in small groups from a common extended base. 
The individual forms consist of a series, generally four to six in number, of sub- 
spherical chambers, from 2 to 4-5 mm. in height and from 4 to 6'5 mm. in width. 
The summit chamber is conspicuously larger than those beneath, and measures from 
6 to 9 mm. in height and from 9 to 14 mm. in width. The floor of each chamber 
is formed by the depressed dome-shaped roof of the chamber below it, and thus there 
is only a single partition-wall between the respective chambers. A central cylindrical 
tube, about 2 '25 mm. in diameter, connects the chambers, but I have not been able 
to ascertain whether it is continuous throughout. 

The walls are from -16 mm. to -2 mm. in thickness ; they are perforated by 
numerous minute circular or subcircular apertures, about -25 mm. in width and 
the same distance apart. The outer surface is smooth. The fibre of the walls 
is mainly composed of elongated, curved, filiform, three-rayed spicules, disposed 
generally in the direction of the fibre, parallel with each other, and in close contact. 
These spicules are from -15 to --3 mm. in length, and -006 mm. in thickness. The 
basal ray is very slightly developed, and usually appears as a minute projecting knob 
in the centre of the spicule. The outer surfiice of the fibres has a dermal layer of 
three- and four-rayed spicules much stouter and larger than the filiform ones beneath. 
The longest ray of the largest of these dermal spicules which I have yet met with 
measures '3 mm. in length and '07 mm. in width. There are numerous gradational 
forms between the dermal and the filiform spicules. I have not seen any simple 
uniaxial spicules in the fibre. 

This species is distinguished from Tremaci/stia {Thalamopora) sij^honioidcs, Mich., 
by the spherical form of the chambers and its slightly thinner wall. From Trema- 
cystia {Thalamopora) MichelinU, Simonow.*, it differs in possessing a central siphonal 
tube, and by the absence of a separate basal floor to each of the chambers. Its 
form, slender walls, and the circular perforations in them distinguish it from 
T'remac7jstia ( Verticillopora) anastomans, Mant., and its allied species in the Lower 
Green Sand. 

• Beitr. zur Kennt. der Bry. des Esaener Griinsandes, p. 31, t. 1. f. 2 a, b,c. 



TEEMACYSTIA. 173 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Wiltshire ; Essen, Rhenish Prussia 
{Steinmann). 

Tremacystia siphonioides, Mich. sp. (Plate XXXIV. fig. 2.) 

1840-47. Thalamopora siphonioides, Midi. Icou. Zooph. p. 210, t. 53. f. 9 a, b. 
1882. Sp/i(eroca'lia Michelinii, Steinmann, pars (non Simonow.), Neues Jahrbuch, Bd. 2, 
p. 162, t. 7. f. 4 a, 6 (nonf. 4). 

Subcylindrical sponges, from 13 to 26 mm. in height, and about 7 mm. in diameter, 
with a truncated summit and a cloacal aperture about 1-75 mm. in width. Growing 
singly or in small groups on an extended base. There are from 2 to 4 segmental 
chambers, from 5 to 6 mm. in height, in the individual sponge. Slight constrictions 
are shown on the outer surface, marking the commencement of fresh chambers. 
The walls are from -2 to -3 mm. in thickness. The interior is not shown in the 
specimens I have examined ; but according to Michelin there is a continuous cloacal 
tube. The walls are perforated by subcii'cular apertures about "2 mm. in width. 

I have not been able to ascertain the internal structure of the fibre ; but in a 
specimen from La Heve there is on the outer surface a dermal layer of three- or 
four-rayed spicules similar to those on the surface of T. iJ'Orbignyi. 

This species differs from T. UOrhignyi in the cylindrical form of the sponge and 
its individual segments. It is distinguished from T. Michelinii, Simonow., by its 
central cloacal tube and the single wall in the floor of the chambers. 

Distribution. Craie Chloritee : La Heve. Upper Green Sand: Warminster, Wilt- 
shire. 

Tremacystia Michelinii, Simonowitsch, sp. 

1871. Tlialamopora Michelinii, Simonow. Beitr. z. Kennt. der Bry. des Essener Grlinsandes, 
p. 31, 1. 1. f. 2 a, b, c. 

I have not seen an undoubted example of this species ; but according to the 
detailed account and figures of Simonowitsch, the sponges consist of a series of four 
to five depressed spherical chambers, gradually increasing in size. Each chamber 
has a separate base, which rests on the roof of the subjacent chamber, so that there 
are double walls between them. No cloacal tube is present, but each chamber com- 
municates with that above by a central aperture with a raised margin. The walls are 
relatively thin, and perforated by circular and elliptical apertures. 

Relying on the accuracy of this description, there appears to me no doubt of the 
distinctness of this species from the two preceding. The double partitions of the 
chambers and the absence of a cloacal tube clearly mark it off both from T. DOr- 
bigniji and T. siphonioides. 

Distribution. Cenomanian: Essen {Simonowitsch). 



174 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

Tremacystia cribrosa, Gohlf. sp. (Plate XXXIV. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 h.) 
1826-18.33. Ceriopora cribrosa, Goldf. Petref. 1 Tli. p. 36, 1. 10. f. 16a-c. 
1841. Thalamopora cribrosa, F. A. Roem. Nord. Kreide, p. 21. 
1847. Monticulipora cribrosa, D'Orbigny, Prod. d. Pal. ii. p. 184. 
1871. Thalamopora cribrosa, Simonow. Beitr. z. Kennt. der Bry. des Essener Griinsandes, 

p. 26, t. 1. f. a-e. 
1875. Thalamopora cribrosa, Reuss, Pal. Bd. 20, p. 137, t. 33. f. 11-15. 

1882. Thalamopora cribrosa, Steinm. Neues Jahi-buch, Bd. 2, p. 167. 

1883. Thalamopora, Dunik. Die Pharetronen, p. 43. 

Sponges growing singly or in small colonies of separate or branching subcylin- 
drical or club-shaped individuals, from 4 to 7 mm. in thickness and up to 27 mm. in 
height. Each individual consists of a series of cyst-like chambers, about 1-25 mm. 
in height and 2 ram. in width, disposed round a central cloacal tube, about 2 mm. in 
diameter, with which each cyst connects by a relatively large aperture. The cloacal 
tube is continuous throughout the length of the sponge. The summit of each cyst is 
convex, and forms the floor of the cyst above, so that there is but a single partition- 
wall between them. The surface of the sponge shows numerous vesicular inflations, 
which indicate the exterior limits of the separate cysts. 

The outer walls and the partitions between the cysts are very delicate, about 
•25 mm. in thickness, and perforated by numerous subcircular apertures about 
•18 mm. in width. The walls are formed of a single layer of fibre, similar to that of 
T. D'Orhigmji. The only specimen in the Museum is but a fragment of an individual, 
from which I have not been able to ascertam the minute structure ; but Dunikowski 
states that three-rayed spicules are present in the fibre, and Steinmann asserts that 
its spicular constitution resembles that of T. anastomans, Mant. sp. 

This species was placed by Goldfuss, Eoemer, and Simonowitsch amongst the 
Polyzoa; Keuss regarded it as a Foraminifer, and Steinmann as an Alcyonarian. 
Dunikowski agrees with me that it is an undoubted sponge, but states that it 
altogether differs from other Pharetrones in the absence of fibres (Mangel der 
Faserziige). I cannot, however, see that the walls of the specimen in the Museum 
in anywise difi"er from those of T. UOrlkjmji and T. sipJionioides. They are formed 
of a single thin layer of fibres ; and the main difference between this and the species 
above named consists in a greater subdivision of the interior chambers of the sponge. 

This species is distinguished from T. vesiculosa, Mich.*, which has a similar cyst- 
like arrangement in its interior, by its form and mode of growth. 

Distribution. Cenomaniau: Essen an der Euhe, Rhenish Prussia. 

* Icon. Zoopli. p. 209, t. 53. f. 8. 



TEEMACYSTIA. 175 

Tkemactstia anastomans, Mant. sp. (Plate XXXIV. figs. 4, 4 a, 4 i, 4 c.) 

1848. Verticillopora anastomans, Mant. Wonders of Geology, p. 636, f. 3. 

1854. Verticillopora anastomans, Mant. Medals of Creation, 2nd ed. vol. i. p. 227, f. 4, and 

p. 229, f. 3. 
1854. Verticitlopora anastomans, Sharpe, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 195, t. 5. f. 1. 
1869. Disccelia helvetica, Loriol, pars, Mon. Foss. de Landeron, p. 65, t. 5. f. 4-7, 9-11. 
1874. Verticillites anastomans, Davey, pars. Trans. Newb. Field-Club, p. 13. 
1878. Verticillites anastomans, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 28; idem, Hand, der Pal. p. 190, 

f. 106. 

1882. Barroisia anastomans, Steinm. Neues Jahrbuch, Bd. 2, p. 164, t. 8. f. 1. 

1883. VerticelUtes anastomans. Keeping, Fossils of Upware &c. p. 145. 

1883. Verticillites anastomans. Carter, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. ii. p. 21 ; ib. 
vol. iii. p. 26. 

Sponges growing in bushy masses, up to 67 mm. in height and 70 mm. in widtli ; 
of cylindrical, branching, usually upright stems or tubes, from 4 to 6 mm. in thick- 
ness, which are either free or coalesce laterally. The interior of the tubes is divided 
into a series of cylindrical chambers by nearly horizontal partitions, about 1'5 mm. 
apart. There is a continuous axial cloacal tube, about 1"5 mm. in diameter, which is 
perforated by circles of relatively large lateral apertures opening into each chamber. 
The outer surface is even, or faintly shows annular constrictions. 

The walls vary, even in the same specimen, from '5 mm. to 1 mm. in thickness; 
they are perforated by very minute irregular pores, which are merely the interspaces 
between the fibres ; in some cases the perforations in the interior partitions are sub- 
circular, and about "16 mm. in width. In the thin sections which I have examined, 
only the larger three-rayed spicules of the dermal layer can be seen ; but there are 
traces of filiform spicules similar to those of T. D' Orbignyi. Mr. Carter states that 
the spicular structure resembles that of this last-named species, and that the surface 
is confronted by a crust of pin-like spicules with their heads outwards. 

This species is readily distinguished from others of the genus by its bushy growth, 
the regular cylindrical form of the tubes, and more particularly by the thickness of 
the walls. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand: Farringdon, Berkshire, and Upware, Cam- 
bridgeshire. 

Teemacystia ikeegulaeis, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXIV. fig. 5.) 

Sponges forming colonies of straight or curved cylindrical tubes, from 7"5 to 
9 mm. in diameter, and reaching to 62 mm. in height. The interior is divided by 
depressed convex partitions into a series of chambers, from 1'25 to 1"75 mm. in 
height, some of which extend the width of the tube whilst others are cyst-like. The 
siphonal tube is continuous, about 2 mm. in width, and provided with lateral aper- 



176 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

tures, as in the preceding species. The outer surface is even, or with slight swellings 
and constrictions. 

The walls vary from •24 to -4 mm. in thickness ; the perforations and the spicular 
structure of the fibres are the same as in T. anastomans. 

This species differs from T. anastomans in the larger size of the individual sponges, 
the more delicate walls, and the irregular character of the interior cliambers. Its 
mode of growth differs from that of T. annulatus. Keeping, sp. ; but as the interior 
characters of this species are not stated, it is not possible to make a comparison of 
these features in the two species. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon and Upware. 

Tremactstia clavata, Keeping, sp. (Plate XXXIV. fig. 6.) 

1883. VerticeUites clavatus, Keeping, Fossils of Upware &c. p. 146. 

1869. Discoplia helvetica, Loriol, pars, Mon. Foss. de Landeron, p. 65, t. 5. f. 8. 

Sponges growing singly or in small colonies. The individual sponges are obconical 
in form, from 25 to 52 mm. in height, and about 14 mm. in diameter. The partitions 
between the chambers are nearly horizontal, and about 2"75 mm. apart. The central 
cloacal tube is continuous, elliptical in section, and about 4 mm. in diameter. It is 
perforated by a circular series of relatively large apertures, with collar-like projec- 
tions, which open into each chamber. 

The walls are from "25 to '5 mm. in thickness ; the perforations in them are similar 
to those of the two preceding species. The form and size of the sponge distinguishes 
this from all other species of the genus. It is compai-atively rare. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon and Upware. 

Genus ELASMOCCELIA, Ecemer, 1864. 

Elasmoccelia crassa. From. sp. (Plate XXXIIl. fig. 11.) 

1861. Elasmojerea crassa, From. Cat. raisonne, p. 10, t. 2. f. 10. 
1878. Elasmoccelia crassa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 34. 

The anastomosing walls of the sponge are from 5 to 6'5 mm. in thickness ; a single 
row of cloacal tubes, about 1"75 mm. in width and the same distance apart, extends 
the length of the crest of the walls. The fibres of the outer surface are so closely 
arranged that there are only minute circular pores, about T6 mm. in width, between 
them. The fibrous mesh of the interior of the wall is relatively open ; the fibres are 
about "2 mm. in thickness. 

There is but a single example of this species in the Museum ; the walls are some- 
what thinner than in Fromentel's type, but the differences do not appear to me to 
be sufiicient to constitute a distinct species. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand: Farringdon, Berkshire. 



ELASMOCCELIA,— CONOCCELIA. 177 

Elasmoc(elia Fakringdonensis, Mant. sp. (Plate XXXIV. figs. 7, 7 a.) 
1854. Tragos Farringdonensis, Mantell, Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 229, f . 5. 
1874. Tragos Farringdonensis, Davey, Transactions Newbury Field-Club, p. 14. 

Sponges with vertically compressed, upright, or fan-shaped walls, from 30 to 
45 mm. in height and the same in breadth. The flattened summit is from 10 to 
]7 mm. in width, and exhibits numerous circular canal-apertures, about 1*25 mm. in 
width, irregularly disposed from one to three diameters apart from each other. The 
lateral surfaces are smooth, and show irregular pores between the fibres. The canals 
appear to extend throughout the sponge in a generally vertical direction. 

The fibres of the interior form an open anastomosing mesh ; they are from '12 to 
•2 mm. in thickness. The minute structure is not very distinctly shown in the 
section examined ; it appears to consist of three- and four-rayed spicules with 
straight arms : slender filiform spicules of the Corynella type are also present. 

The general form of this and the following species corresponds with that of 
sponges of the genus Oculospongia, but the absence of a compact dermal layer 
and the different characters of the spicular mesh separate them from this genus, 
whilst in the large size and vertical extension of the cloacal tubes they resemble 
typical forms of Elasmoccelia. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon {coll. John Brown). 

Elasmoccelia Mantelli, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXIV. fig. 8.) 

Sponges growing in short, upright, or lobed masses from an expanded base. An 
average specimen is 22 mm. in height and 31 in breadth. The upper surface is 
flattened or slightly convex ; it is penetrated by the apertures of numerous canals, 
about 2-25 mm. each in width and about their own diameters apart. The fibres are 
from "15 to "3 mm. in thickness. This species may be distinguished from the pre- 
ceding by its form and the much larger dimensions of the canals. It appears to 
be rare. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon. 

Genus CONOCCELIA, Zittel, 1878. 
Conoccelia ceassa. From. sp. 

1861. Siphonocoelia crassa, From. Cat. raisonne, p. 7, t. 1. f. 1, 1 a. 
1878. Conoccelia crassa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 34. 

In a vertical transparent section of a specimen from Censeau the fibres exhibit a 
somewhat similar structure to that of Sestrostomella ; they are mainly composed of 
filamentous wavy spicules, so closely arranged in the direction of the fibre that it is 
impracticable to determine if they are uniaxial or three-rayed forms; in the central 

2a 



178 CALCAREOUS SPONGES. 

portion of the fibres much larger three- or four-rayed spicules are in places distinctly 
visible. The fibres vary from -14 to -3 mm. in thickness. 

Distribution. Lower Neocomian : Censeau, Salins, Jura. Hils-Conglomerate : 
Berklingen, Brunswick. 

CoxocffiLiA CENTROL^vis, Eoem. sp. 

1864. Limnorea centroltevis, F. A. Roem. Pal. Bd. 13, p. 37, t. 1. f. 18. 
1878. Conocoelia centrolavis, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 34. 

Distribution. Lower Neocomian. Hils-Conglomerate ; Berklingen, Brunswick. 
Genus EUSIPHONELLA, Zittel, 1878. 

EUSIPHONELLA BrONNII, MUtlSt. Sp. 

182G-33. Scyphia Bronnii, Miinst. in Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 91, t. 33. f. 9. 
1854. Scyphia Bronnii, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 29. 

1859. Siphonoccelia elegans, From. lutrod. a I'etude des Ep. foss. p. 31, t. 1. f. 7. 
1859. Parendea gracilis, Etallon, Leth. Bruut. p. 421, t. 58. £. 30. 
1878. Scyphia Bronnii, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 183, t. 124. f. 1-15. 

1878. Eusiphonella Bronni, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 35 ; id. Handbuch der PaL vol. i. 
p. 191. f. 109. 
On the summit of the wall of an example of this species from Nattheim there is a 
dermal layer of three-rayed spicules ; possibly, however, the spicules may be furnished 
with a fourth ray penetrating into the sponge-wall. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. Great Oolite : Minchin- 
hampton (Morris). 

Eusiphonella intermedia, Miinst. sp. 

1826-33. Scyphia intermedia, Miinst. in Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 92, t. 34. f. 1. 
1878. Scyphia intermedia, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 229, t. 125. f. 55-58. 
1878. Eusiphonella intermedia, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 35. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Eanden ; Nattheim. 

' Eusiphonella perplexa, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Scyphia perplexa, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 230, t. 125. f. 59-63. 
1878. Eusiphonella perplexa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 35. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Eanden. 

Genus CORYNELLA, Zittel, 1878. 

The presence of a canal-system which, according to Prof. Zittel, constitutes the 
main difference between this genus and Peronella, appears to me to be too inconstant 



COETNELLA. 179 

a feature to serve for generic distinction ; but the different characters of the spicular 
structure in the forms referred to these genera afford a more satisfactory basis for 
separation. Unfortunately, however, this test is inapplicable to the numerous 
Triassic and Jurassic forms of the genus, the minute structure of which has not, up 
to the present, been ascertained, and owing to their state of preservation is hardly 
likely to be known ; but if we accept as the type of the genus a Cretaceous species, 
Corynella foraminosa, Goldf. sp., we find that the fibres are composed of minute 
filiform three-rayed spicules disposed generally parallel with each other in the 
direction of the fibi'e. On the outer surface of the sponge there is an open dermal 
layer of relatively large three- and four-rayed spicules, but these are only seen in 
specimens which are very favourably preserved. I have not met with any distinctly 
simple, uniaxial spicules ; those which at first sight appear to be such, and which 
Zittel refers to as simple spicules, I have found to be portions of three-rayed spicules, 
in which the unpaired or basal ray has but a very slight development. 

The inconstancy of the canal-system in sponges of this genus is shown in speci- 
mens of Corynella foraminosa from the Lower Green Sand at Farringdon. Whilst 
in some individuals canals are present, in others, precisely similar in all other 
respects, none are present, or they are restricted to the basal portion of the speci- 
men where the walls are thickest. Again, in Corynella multidigitata, Mich, sp., no 
canals are present, but the spicular structure resembles that of typical species of 
the genus. 

Corynella gracilis, Munst. sp. 

1841. Myrmecium gracile, Miinst. Beitr. ziir Petref. iv. p. 31, t. 1. f. 26, 27. 

1864. Eudea gracilis, Laube, pars, Deuks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 232, t. 1. 

f. 3 a, b. 
1878. Myrmecium gracile, Quenst. Pctrcf. Bd. 5, p. 526. 
1878. Corynella gracilis, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 36. 

The fibres of this species, as seen in a transparent section, are from "1 to "14 mm. 
in thickness ; in places a few wavy lines can be seen in them, but they are too 
indistinct for their real characters to be determined. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol [coll. Klipstein). 



Corynella pyriformis, Klij)st. sp. 

1843. Cnemidinm pyriforme, Klipst. Beitr. z. g. Kennt. d. dst. Alpcn, p. 291, t. 20. f. 5. 
1864. Eudea gracilis, Laube, pars, Deuks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 232. 
1878. Corynella pyriformis, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 36. 

Distribution. Trias: St. Cassian, Tyrol (coll. Klijistein). 

2 A 2 



180 CALCAREOUS SPONGES. 

CORYNELLA ROSA, Laiihe, sp. 

1864. Eudea rosa, Laube, Denks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 232, t. 1. f. 4. 
1878. Corynella rosa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 36. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol {coll. Klipstein). 

Corynella astroites, Miinst. sp. 

1841. Cnemidium astroites, Miinst. Beitr. zur Petref. iv. p. 31, t. ]. f. 24. 

1864. Epitheles astroites, Laube, Denks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 235. 

1878. Trac/os astroites, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 527, t. 140. f. 7-14. 

1878. Corynella astroites, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 36. 

In a transparent microscopic section the fibres appear as well-defined, narrow, 
anastomosing bands from "08 to 1 mm. in thickness ; beyond traces of wavy lines no 
spicular structure is discernible. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol {coll. Klipstein). 

Corynella capitata, Miinst. sp. 

1841. Scyphia capitata, Miinst. Beitr. zur Petref. iv. p. 28, t. 1. f. 12. 

1864. Epitheles capitata, Laube, Denks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 235, t. 1. f. 8. 

1878. Scyphia capitata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 526, t. 140. f. 6. 

1878. Corynella capitata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 36. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol {coll. Klipstein). 

Corynella lycoperdioides, Lamx. sp. 

1821. Hallirhoa lycoperdioides, Lamx. Exp. method, p. 72, t. 78. f. 2. 
1840-47. Siphonia lycoperdioides, Mich. Icon. Zooph. p. 251, t. 58. f. 6. 
1878. Corynella lycoperdioides, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 36. 

Distribution. Middle Jura: Couche a Polypiers — Ranville, Benouville, Caen. 

Corynella costata, Stalil, sp. 

1824. Alcyonites costata, Stahl, Correspondenzbl. Wiirtem. landw. Ver. vi. p. 84, f. 29. 
1878. Spongites astrophorus alutus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 207, t. 124. f. 54r-57. 
' 1878. Corynella costata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 36. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Eanden ; Giengeu, Wiirtemberg. 

Corynella Quenstedti, Zitt. 

1878. Corynella Quenstedti, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 36. 

1878. Spongites astrophorus caloporus et cornucopia, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5j p. 208, t. 124. 
f. 58-64. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Giengen ; Oerlingen; Thumau, Bavaria. 



COETNELLA. 181 



CoRTNiJLLA ASPERA, From. sp. 

1864. Siphonoccelia aspera, From. Polyp. Corall. de Gray. t. 15. f. 6. 
1878. Corynella aspera, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 36. 

Distribution. Upper Jura. 



COEYNELLA MADRBPOEATA, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Madrespongia madreporata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5j p. 212, t. 124. f. 70-72. 
1826-33. Cnemidiam astrophorum, Goldf. pars, Petref, 1 Th. t. 35. f. 8 6. 
1878. Corynella madreporata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 37. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. 



Corynella foraminosa, Goldf. sp. (Plate XXXIV. figs. 9, 9 «, 9 b.) 

1826-33. Scyphia foraminosa, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 86, t. 31. f. 4. 

1851. Scyphia foraminosa, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 29. 

1854. Scyphia foraminosa et intermedia, Mant. Medals of Creation, vol. i. p. 227, t. 70. 

f. 2, 6. 
1864. Endostoma foraminosum, F. A. Roemer, Pal. Bd. 13, p. 39, t. 14. f. 6. 
1871. Epitfieles foraminosa, Gein. Pal. Bd. 20, p. 33, t. 8. f. 13. 
1874. Scypliia foraminosa, Davey, Trans. Newb. Field-Club, p. 13. 
1878. Corynella foraminosa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 37. 
1883. Corynella foraminosa, Dunik. Pal. Bd. 29, t. 39. f. 5. 

Sponges growing singly, or occasionally two or three individuals are united near 
their bases. The individuals are subcylindrical or subconical, usually widest below, 
and gradually tapering to the summit. The specimens vary from 12 to 50 mm. in 
height, and from 10 to 21 mm. in width. The walls are from 4 to 9 mm. in thickness, 
and the cloacal aperture is from 3 to 7 mm. in width. 

A compact dermal layer covers the lower portion of the wall in some specimens ; 
where this is not present, the exterior surface shows irregular apertures between the 
fibres. The interior surface of the cloaca is smooth and perforated with canal- 
apertures, but in some examples canals are not apparent, or merely present near 
the basal portion where the walls are thickest. 

The anastomosing fibres, as seen in a transparent section of a specimen from 
the Lower Green Sand at Farringdon, are from '18 to •24 mm. in thickness; they 
are mainly composed of slender, filiform three-rayed spicules, with a few larger 
forms intermingled. In the section the filiform spicules appear as if uniaxial, 
but they probably all possess a third minute central ray, similar to the spicules 
of C. riujosa. I have not detected any surface four-rayed spicules in the specimens 
examined. 



182 CALCAEEOTJS SPOXGES. 

This species is very abundant at Farringdon ; the examples are usually larger than 
the forms from the Cenomanian at Essen*. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon, Berkshire. Cenomanian = Upper 
Green Sand : Essen, Rhenish Prussia. 



CORTNELLA TETEAGONA, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. Scyphia tetragona, Golclf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 4, t. 2. f. 2. 

1826-33. Scyphia mamillaris , Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 4, t. 2. f. 1. 

1864. Endostoma tetrayonum, F. A. Roemer, Pal. Bd. 13, p. 39, t. 14. f. 7. 

1871. Epitheles tetragona, Gein. Pal. Bd. 20, p. 33, t. 8. f. 9-12. 

1878. Scyphia tetragona, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 352, t. 132. f. 13, 14. 

1878. Corynella tetragona, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 37. 

1883. Corynella tetragona, Duuik. Pal. Bd. 29, p. 36, t. 39. f. 1, 2. 

Distribution. Cenomanian: Essen, Rhenish Prussia. 



CoRYifELLA KUGOSA, HincU. (Plate XXXIV. figs. 10, 10 a.) 

1882. Corynella rugosa, lliude, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. x. p. 196, t. 10. f. 4, 
and t. 11. f. 25. 

Sponges simple, cylindrical, straight or curved, growing from a slender base ; the 
summits truncate. The outer surface has concentric ridges and furrows, or tubercular 
elevations. An average example is 48 mm. in height and 18 mm. in thickness. The 
walls are from 4 to 7 mm. in thickness, and the tubular cloaca is 4 mm. wide at its 
summit. 

The outer surface exhibits closely arranged, approximately circular pores formed 
by the interspaces of the fibre. The fibres are about "22 mm. in Avidth, and are 
composed of slender filiform three-rayed spicules, closely disposed parallel with each 
other in the direction of the fibre. The outer surface is furnislied with a dermal 
layer of larger four-rayed spicules. The spicular structure of this species closely 
resembles that of Tremacgstia D'Orbigni, H. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Wiltshire {coll. Cunningtoa). 



* The sponges from Essen, figured by Quenstedt under C. foraminosa (Petref. Bd. .5, p. 351, t. 132. 
f. S-10), differ very materially from the typical examples of this species, and in fact resemble more nearly 
some forms of Elasmostoma than Corynella. They are either simple or eompouud, subcyliudrical or funnel- 
shaped ; the interior surface is smooth and minutely cribrate, with circular, well-defined, closely approximate 
apertures about '6 mm. in width. The exterior surface is partially covered with a dermal layer ; where this 
is not present, the naked fibres of the wall are exposed. Unfortunately the spicular structure is quite 
destroyed in the thin section examined ; and therefore I propose to allow these forms to remain under Cory- 
nella until their minute structure is determined, and to designate the species C? crihrata. 



COETNELLA.— MTEMECIUM. 183 

CoEYNELLA sociALis, UhuU. (Plate XXXIV. figs. 11, 11 a.) 
1882. Corynella socialis, Hinde, Aun. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. x. p. 197, t. 10. f. 3. 

Sponge compound, consisting of three or more individuals growing from a common 
cylindrical stem. The base is either widely expanded or contracted to a blunt point ; 
the summits are wide, and obliquely truncate. The outer surface uneven, with short 
blunted projections. The type specimen is 49 mm. in height and 4-3 mm. in its 
greatest width. 

The apertures of the outer surface are irregular in form. The fibres, as seen in a 
transparent section, are from '12 to '2 mm. in thickness. The spicular structure 
resembles that of the last species. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, Wiltshire {coll. Baker). 

Corynella multidigitata, Mich. sp. 

1840— i7. Spongia multidigitata, Mich, sp., Icon. Zooph. p. 217, t. 51. f. 9 a, b. 
1878. Peronella multidigitata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 33, t. 12. f. 3 ; idem, Neues Jahr- 
buch, 1879, p. 25, t. 2. f. 3. 

Sponges growing in relatively large bushy masses, in one example 79 mm. in height 
by 83mm. in width; consisting of cylindrical tubes from 7 to 10 ram. in width, 
frequently coalescing laterally. The cloacal aperture is 2 mm. in width. The 
outer surface exhibits only the irregular apertures between the fibres. No canals 
are present. 

The fibres, as seen in a transparent section of a specimen from Le Mans, are from 
•14 to -2 mm. in width, and are composed of filiform three-rayed spicules, with 
slightly developed basal rays similar to those of the preceding species. The length 
of the lateral rays is about "OS mm. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Le Mans, Sarthe. 

Genus MYRMECIUM, Goldf. 1826. 

Myrmecium'? hieroglypha, Klipst. sp. 

1843. Scyphia hieroglypha, Klipst. Beitr. z. g. Kennt. d. ost. Alpen, p. 284, t. 19. f. 6 a, b. 
1864. Epitheles hieroglypha, Laube, Denks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 236, t. 1. 

f. 17 a, b. 
1878. Scyphia hieroglypha, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 549, t. 140. f. 52. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol {coll. Klipstein). 

Myrmecium hemisphericum, Goldf. 

1826-33. Myrmecium hemisphericum, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 18, t. 6. f. 12. 
1826-33. Cnemidium rotula, Goldf. ib. p. 16, t. 6. f. 6. 



184 CALCAREOUS SPONGES. 

1878. Spongites rotula, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 23i, t. 126. f. 1-41. 
1876. Myrmecium hemisphericum, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 38. 

In a vertical microscopic section of a specimen from Randen the fibres appear as 
narrow anastomosing bands from -07 to -1 mm. in width ; the rays of irregnlar three- 
or four-rayed spicules can be distinctly seen in the fibres. An average ray measures 
•2 mm. in length by 'O-i mm. in vi'idth. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Heuberg, Nattheim, Thurnau ; Heiligenstadt ; Basle ; 
Randen. 

Myrmecium indutum, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Spongites indutus, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 098, t. 8-1. f. 21, 22. 
1878. Spongites indutus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 245, t. 12G. f. 42-46. 
1878. Myrmecium indutum, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 38. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. 

Genus LYMNOEEA, Lamx. 1821. 

Ltmnorea mamillosa, Lamx. (Plate XXXV. figs. 1, la, 1^.) 

1821. Lymnorea mamillosa, Lamx. Exp. method, p. 77, t. 79. £. 2-4. 
1878. Lymnorea mamillosa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 39. 

Sponges growing in hemispherical or subspherical masses, from 15 to 25 mm. in 
height and from 20 to 38 mm. in width. The basal portion is enveloped in a 
concentric, wrinkled, compact dermal layer ; in some instances the base is concave. 
The rounded upper surface is furnished with small conical, more or less projecting, 
eminences, with a circular aperture, about 1 mm. wide, at the summit of each. In 
a vertical section there are traces of concentric layers of growth. The canals, in 
some instances at least, extend irregularly through the sponge. 

The fibres closely anastomose; they are about -12 mm. in width. In the transparent 
sections which I have examined their structure is largely crystalline, but axial three- 
or four-rayed spicules, with rays about -24 mm. in length, are clearly shown. In one 
specimen the fibres on the summit of the sponge exhibit an open dermal layer of 
spicules, probably four-rayed, similar to those of Tremacystia D'Orbignyi. 

Distribution. Middle Jura: Couche a Polypiers — Les Moustiers, Ranville, near 
Caen. Inferior Oolite (Pea-grit) : near Cheltenham. 



Genus INOBOLIA, Ilinde, n. g. 

Sponges inverted conical, subspherical, or irregular in form, with convex summits. 
The lateral surface in perfect specimens is inclosed in a compact wrinkled dermal 
layer. No special canals appear to be present, and the summit only shows the 



INOBOLIA.— STELLISPONGIA. 185 

irregular interspaces between the fibres. The fibres are mainly composed of rela- 
tively large three- and four-rayed spicules, the rays of which are disposed in the axis 
of the fibre. The dermal layer is composed of minute, apparently three-rayed 
spicules. 

In its spicular structure this genus is allied to Lymnorea and some species of 
Peroiiella ; but its mode of growth and the absence of canals readily distinguish it 
from both of these genera. 

Inobolia inclusa, Ilinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXV. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b.) 

The examples of this species are from 20 to 42 mm. in height, and from 27 to 
50 mm. in width. The fibres, as seen in a vertical transparent section, vary from 
T5 to -2 mm. in width ; they anastomose so as to form a very irregular mesh. Their 
condition is largely crystalline, so that only the rays of the large axial spicules can 
be distinguished. A single ray of one of these measured -24 mm. in length by "OSG 
in width. In one place the dermal layer, examined by a strong lens, shows numerous 
minute three-rayed spicules, the rays of which closely intercross each other. 

Whilst in the best-preserved examples no traces of canals are to be seen, there 
are some specimens which show here and there the apertures of tubes resembling 
those of Ocidosjwngia. These tubes, however, have no regular course in the substance 
of the sponge, and appear to me to result from extraneous sources. The spicular 
structure of specimens possessing the tubes is similar to that of typical examples of 
the species. This species is apparently abundant. 

Distribution. Inferior Oolite. (Pea Grit) near Cheltenham. 

Genus STELLISPONGIA, D'Orbigmj, 1847. 
Stellispongia eotulakis, Milnst. sp. 

1841. Cnemidium rotulare, Miinst, Beitr. zur Petref. iv. p. 31, t. 1. f. 25. 

1841. Cnemidium Manon, Miinst. ib. p. 30, t. 1. f. 20. 

1841. Cnemidium astroites, Miinst. ib. p. 31, t. 1. f. 24. 

1864. Stellispongia Manon, Laube, Deaks. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Bd. 24, p. 238, t. 1, 

f . 15 a, b, c. 

1878. Cnemidium rotulare, Qucnst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 527. 

1878. Stellispongia rotularis, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 40. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol {coll. Klipstein). 

Stellispongia variabilis, Miinst. sp. 

1841. Cnemidium variabile, Miinst. Beitr. zur Petref. iv. p. 30, t. 1. f. 21-33. 
1841. Cnemidium turbinatum, ]\Iiiust. ib. p. 30, t. 1. f. 19. 

1843. Cnemidium stellare, Klipst. Beitr. z. g. Kennt. d. ost. Alpen, p. 291, t. 20. f. 6. 

2b 



186 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

1843. Cnemidium concinnum, Klipst. ib. p. 292, t. 20. f. 7 a, b. 
1878. Stellispongia variabilis, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 40. 

1882. Stellispongia variabilis, Steinm. Neues Jabrb. Bd. 3, p. 180, t. 9. f. 2. 

The fibres, in a transparent microscopic section, appear as well-defined anastomosing 
bands about -1 mm. in width; no structure could be distinguislied. According to 
Steinmann they are composed of short, simple, sinuous spicules. 

Distribution. Trias : St. Cassian, Tyrol [coll. Klipstein). 

Stellispongia htbrida, Miinst. sp. 

1841. Traffos hybridum, Miinst. Beitr. zur Petref. iv. p. 29, t. 1. f. 16. 
1878. Stellispongia hybrida, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 40. 

Distribution. Trias: St. Cassian, Tyrol (coll. Klijjsfein). 

Stellispongia stellata, Lamcc. sp. 

1821. Spongia stellata, Lamx. Exp. metbod. p. 89, t. 84, f. 13. 
1840—47. Spongia umbellata, IMicb. Icon. Zooph. p. 248, t. 58. f. 1 a, b. 
1851. Spongia stellata, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 30. 
1878. Stellispongia stellata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 40. 

1883. Non Stellispongia stellata, Dunik. Pal. Bd. 29, p. 38, t. 40. f. 5. 

The spicular structure of the fibres of this species is clearly of the Sestrostomella 
type. The fibres are from 'lb to "24 mm. in thickness, and are composed of rela- 
tively large irregular three- and four-rayed spicules, with rays from "3 to 'SS mm. 
in length. These spicules occupy the central portions of the fibre, and they are 
surrounded by smaller sinuous, apparently three-rayed, spicules, which form the 
exterior borders. 

Distribution. Middle Jura: Couche a polypiers — Langrune, Eanville, near Caen 
[coll. Tesson). Great Oolite : Hampton Cliff", near Bath [Morris). 

Stellispongia corallina, From. sp. (Plate XXXV. figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b.) 

1859. Enaulofungia corallina, From. Introduc. k I'Etude des Ep. fossiles, p. 48, t. 3. 

f. 11, 11a. 
1859. Enaulofungia globosa, From. ibid. t. 4. f . 3. 

1840-47. Cnemidium rotula, Micb. (non Goldf.) Icon. Zoopb. p. 115, t. 26. f. 7. 
1859. Astrospongia corallina, Etallon, Letb. Brunt, p. 424, t. 59. f. 8, 9. 
1878. Stellispongia corallina, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 40. 

Sponges usually simple, though sometimes two or three individuals are amalga- 
mated together, subspherical, growing ajjparently free or attached to some other 
organism. The individuals vary from 9 to 21 mm. in diameter. The summit is 
generally slightly depressed in the centre, from whence several well-marked open 
canals, "6 to 1'25 mm. in width, radiate down the sides. 



STELLISPONGIA.— SESTEOSTOMELLA . 187 

In a transparent section of a specimen from the Coral Rag at Suffield, in York- 
shire, the fibres appear as narrow, open, anastomosing bands, from -14 to -3 mm. in 
width ; they are composed of relatively large three- or four-rayed spicules with an 
exterior layer of smaller sinuous apparently irregular three-rayed forms. 

Distribution. Coral Rag: Lyneham, Wiltshire ; Suffield, Yorkshire. Upper Jura: 
Randen. 

Stellispongia glomerata, Qiiensf. sp. 

1858. Spongites glotneratus, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 695, t. 84. f. 10, 11. 

1840-47. Cnemidium stdlatum, Mich, (non Goldf.) Icon. Zooph. p. 115, t. 26. f. 8. 

1859. Didemospongia Thurmanni, Etallon, Letli. Brunt, p. 422, t. 59. f. 3. 

1859. SteUisponyia pertusa, aperta, hybrida, ei glomerata, EtaUon, ibid. pp. 423, 424, t. 59. 

f. 4-7. 
1878. ateUispongia glomerata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 40. 

In a transverse microscopic section of a specimen from Basle the fibres very openly 
anastomose ; they are about '28 mm. in width. The minute structure resembles that 
oi S. coralUna. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Giengen, Wiirtemberg ; Basle. 

Stellispongia semicincta, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Spongites semicinctus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 214, t. 125. f. 2-9. 
1878. Stellispongia semicincta, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 40. 

In the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge there is an imperfect specimen from 
the Coral Rag at Scarborough, which, so far as I am able to determine, appears to 
belong to this species. It had been referred to Spongia floriceps, Phill. ; but the 
figure of this species in the ' Geology of Yorkshire,' pi. 3. f 8, is insufficient for 
comparison. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Randen; Giengen. Coral Rag: Scarborough, York- 
shire. 

Genus SESTROSTOMELLA, Zittel, 1878. 

SESTEOSTOMELLA CKIBEATA, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Spongites [Nudispongia) cribratus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 220, t. 125. f. 14-18. 
1878. Sestrostomella cribrata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 41. 

The fibres, as seen in a transparent section, are about "12 mm. in width ; their 
spicular structure is nearly entirely obliterated. 
Distribution. Upper Jura: Randen, Switzerland. 

2b2 



188 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

Sestrostomella rugosa, Hinde. (Plate XXXV. figs. 4, 4 «, 4 h-d.) 

1882. Sestrostomella rugosa, Ilinde, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. x. p. 198, t. 10. 
f. 6, and t. 12. f. 1-15. 

Sponges gvowiug in upright bushy masses, consisting of subconical and subcylin- 
drical individuals, about 12 mm. in thickness, united at their bases and occasionally 
laterally, but free at their summits. The type specimen is 68 mm. in height and 
76 mm. in breadth. The lower portion of the sponge is enveloped in a compact 
rugose dermal membrane. The surface exhibits an irregular open network of coarse 
fibres. Where a cloacal aperture is present, it is about 2 mm. in width, but the 
summits of some individuals do not show any distinct aperture ; in nearly all, open 
canals extend from the summit down the sides of the sponge. 

The fibres, as seen in a transparent transverse section, vary from '2 to -41 mm. in 
width. They are composed of relatively large, axial or subaxial, three- and four- 
rayed spicules, the rays of which, in some cases, reach to '5 mm. in length and 
•06 mm. in thickness. These central spicules are surrounded by small and minute 
irregular three-rayed spicules, which present an appearance of wavy lines closely 
following the contours of the fibre. These smaller spicules are so closely interwoven 
together that it is difficult to determine their individual forms ; but amongst others 
there is a very characteristic slender spicule, resembling in form a pitch-fork or 
tuning fork. The basal ray or the handle is straight and tapering, whilst the paired 
rays or tines of the fork are subparallel, and frequently one is slightly longer than 
the other. The longest of these pitch-fork spicules which I have seen measures 
altogether "o mm. 

Distrihiition. Cretaceous. Upper Green Sand I : Vaches Noires, near Havre. 

Sestrostomella clavata, Hinde. (Plate XXXV. figs. 5, 5 a.) 

1882. Sestrostomella clavata, Hinde, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. x. p. 201, t. 10. 
f. 5, and t. 12. f. 16-25. 

Sponges growing in bushy masses, consisting of numerous cylindrical individuals, 
from 8 to 10 mm. in diameter, radiating from a common centre. No pedicel is 
present, but a small smooth place indicates the spot on which the sponge rested 
during its growth. The summits are rounded; the cloacal aperture is about 2'5 mm. 
in width ; in some cases only canal-apertures are present at the summit. Straight 
open canals extend from the summit down the sides. 

The minute structure of the fibres of this species is essentially similar to that of 
the preceding, but it differs in form, mode of growth, and the somewhat more slender 
dimensions of the fibres. In one part of a thin transverse section the characters of 
the exterior portion of the fibre are clearly exhibited, and it is seen to be made up 



TEACHrsmiA. 189 

of minute irregular three-rayed spicules closely intermingled ; amongst these the 
pitch-fork forms are conspicuous. 

Listrihition. Cretaceous. Upper Green S:md : Vaches Noires, near Havre. 

Genus TRACHYSINIA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges either single or growing in bushy masses. The individual spongites are 
depressed, cylindrical, with uneven, nodose surfaces ; the summits generally inflated. 
The cloacal tube is subcylindrical, shallow, or extending to some depth ; in some 
instances open radiating canals extend from its margins. The interior canals appear 
to be but slightly developed, the circulation taking place in the interspaces of the 
coarse fibrous mesh. • 

The fibres are composed of relatively large three- and perhaps four-rayed spicules 
heterogeneously mingled with smaller forms. In some places the rays of the larger 
spicules are in the axis of the fibre, but this disposition is not so general as in 
Sestrostomella. The margins of the fibre show lines of sinuous spicules as in this 
last-named genus. 

The minute fibrous structure of this genus shows its alliance to Sestrostomella, 
from which it is distinguished by the tubular character of the cloaca and the nodose 
mode of growth. In general form it resembles Corynella, but the spicular structure 
distinguishes it from the typical forms of this genus. It appears to me not unlikely 
that the minute structure of some of the Jurassic species of Corynella, such as 
C. Quenstedti, Zitt., for example, will be found to correspond with that of the 
present genus. 

Trachtsinia aspera, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXV. figs. 6, 6 «, 6 h.) 
Sponge forming a mass, 60 mm. high by 75 wide, of depressed cylindrical indivi- 
duals, from 26 to 37 mm. in thickness. The outer surfiice is very uneven and covered 
with nodose excrescences. The summits are inflated with occasionally slightly 
elevated necks to the cloacal apertures, which are from 7 to 12 mm. in width. The 
surface exhibits irregular apertures between the fibres. 

The fibres, as seen in a transverse section, vary from "14 to '5 mm. in width ; the 
largest spicular ray observed is "2 mm. in length by -04 mm. in width. 

Distribution. Middle Jura : Couche a polypiers — Hanville, near Caen (coll. Tesson). 

Teachysinia solitaeia, Ilinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVI. fig. 9.) 
Sponge simple, with a short cylindrical body supported on a compressed stem. 
Surface with nodose excrescences. The summit is truncate, slightly concave, the 
cloaca is shallow, with canals radiating from the margins ; it is about 5 mm. wide. 
The fibres are about -2 mm. wide. The spicular structure has not been ascertained. 



190 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

This species differs from the preceding in its simple mode of growth and the more 
delicate character of the fibres. 

Distribution. Middle Jura : Couche a polypiers — Ranville {coU. Tesson). 

Trachtsinia minok, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVI. fig. 10.) 

Sponges forming small groups of subcylindrical individuals, from 10 to 18 mm. in 
thickness, frequently united laterally. The outer surface is uneven and perforated 
with large and small irregular apertures. The summits are usually inflated ; the 
cloacal aperture is from 3 to 5 mm. in width and has several well-marked open 
canals radiating from its margin. The fibres, as seen in a transverse section, are 
about 2 mm. in width ; the spicular structure resembles that of T. asjiera, but in 
the specimen examined marginal sinuous spicules are not present. 

Distribution. Middle Jura: Couche a polypiers — Lebisey ; Ranville, near Caen 
(coU. Tesson). 

Genus BLASTINIA, Ziffel, 1878. 

Blastinia costata, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. AchiUeum costatum, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 94, t. 34. £. 7. 
1878. Spongites costatus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 221, t. 125. f. 19-23. 
1878. Blastinia costata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 42. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Eanden ; Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. 

Bl^vstinia alata, Quenst. sp. 

1858. Sponyites alatus, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 699, t. 84. f. 28, 29. 
1878. Sponuites alatus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 222, t. 125. f. 24, 25. 
1878. Blastinia alata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 42. 

In a vertical microscopic section of a specimen from Nattheim the fibres bounding 
the circular pores are from "09 to T2 mm. in thickness; their structure is, to a great 
extent, obliterated, but here and there clearly marked portions of three-rayed spicules 
can be distinguished. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. 

Genus SYNOPELLA, Zitfel, 1878. 

SynopelljV prLVi>'AKiA, Goldf. sp. (Plate XXXVI. fig. 1.) 
1826-33. Manon pulvinarium, Goldf. pars, Petref. 1 Th. p. 2, t. 29, f. 7 a, b (non t. 1. 

f.6a,b). 
1864. Tremospungia puhinaria, F. A. Koemer, Pal. Bd. 13, p. 40, t. 14. f. 8. 
1878. Synopella pulvinaria, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 43. 

The sponges from the Lower Green Sand at Farringdon, which I refer to this 



SYNOPELLA.— OCTJLOSPONGIA. 191 

species, are small, hemispherical, or amorphous masses, from 28 to 42 mm. in width 
and about 26 mm. in height, frequently with a concave base, enveloped in a compact, 
concentrically wrinkled dermal layer ; the rounded upper surface is either smooth or 
with slight elevations, on which several small canal-apertures are grouped together. 
The interspaces between the canal-openings only exhibit irregular pores between the 
fibres. The fibres are from -15 to -3 mm. in width. I have not been able to ascertain 
the spicular structure. 

The Farringdon examples are smaller than the specimen figured by Goldfuss from 
Essen, but in other respects they appear to correspond. The forms from the 
Maestricht Chalk, also referred by Goldfuss to the same, appear to me to belong to 
a different species; and as Zittel has applied Goldfuss's name to the Essen forms, I 
propose to adopt another designation for those from Maestricht. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon, Berkshire. 

Synopella sph^rica, Mich. sp. 

1840-47. Lymnorea spheerica, Mich. Icon. Zooph. p. 216, t. 52. f. 16 a, b. 
1878. Synopella sphoerica, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 43. 

Distribution. Cenomanian : Essen an der Ruhe. 

Synopella Goldpussi, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVI. fig. 2.) 

1826-33. Manon imlvinarium, Goldf. pars, Petref. 1 Th. p. 2, t. 1. i. Q a, b (non t. 29. 
f. 7 a, b). 

Sponges inversely conical, subcylindrical, flattened, cake-shaped, or laterally com- 
pressed, from 8 to 20 mm. in height and from 10 to 19 in width. The base and 
sides are invested in a compact, concentrically wrinkled dermal layer ; the truncate or 
rounded upper surface has from one to three small groups of canal-apertures, from 
which several deeply marked open furrows radiate ; beyond these the surface exhibits 
irregular apertures between the fibres. Minute structure unknown. 

The radiating canals on the summit, which readily distinguish this from the two 
preceding species, also give it the appearance of Stellispongia, and one can with 
difficulty decide whether it should be ranged under that or the present genus. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Maestricht. 

Genus OCULOSPONGIA, From. 1859. 

Ocdlospongia binoculata, Quenst. sp. 

1878. Spongites binoculatus, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 248, t. 126. f. 59. 
1878. Oculospongia binoculata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 43. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Giengen, Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. 



192 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

OcuLOSPONGiA DiLATATA, Bcein. sp. (Plate XXXVI. fig. 3.) 

1864. Tremospongia dilatata, F. A. Roem. Pal. Bd. 13, p. 10, t. 1. f. 24 a, b. 
1874. Ocidosponr/ia {flabellata?),'Da.vey, Transac. Newbury Field Club, p. 11. 
1878. Oculospongia dilatata, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 43. 

Sponges growing in small hemispherical or laterally extended masses, from 15 to 
20 mm. in height and 16 to 34 in width. The base is inverted conical, flattened or 
concave, and invested with a concentrically furrowed and wrinkled dermal layer. 
The upper surface only exhibits irregular interspitces between the mesh-fibres and 
irregularly scattered canal-apertures, with complete margins, about 1 mm. in width, 
which, in the best-preserved specimens, slightly project above the general surface. 
In a vertical section the fibres appear as so many radiating lines, with transverse 
connections. Some of the canals extend from the base to the surface, whilst others 
only reach a short distance into the sponge. The fibres are from "1 to -3 mm. in 
thickness ; the spicular structure, as seen in a specimen from Berklingen, is of the 
Sesfrostomella type. No structure is shown in examples from Farringdon which I 
have examined. 

IHstrilntion. Lower Green vSand : Farringdon. Hils-Conglomerate : Berklingen, 
Brunswick. 

Oculospongia tubulifera, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. Manon tuhuliferum, Goldf. sp. Petref. 1 Th. p. .2, t. 1. f. 5. 
1878. Omlospongia tubulifera, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 43. 

The fibres, as seen in a transparent microscopic section, are from 'IG to 3 mm. in 
thickness ; no spicular structure has been preserved. 
Listrthufion. Upper Chalk : Maestricht. 



Genus CRISPISPOXGIA, Quenst. 1878. 
Crispispongia pezizoides, Zitt. 

1878. Crispispongia pezizoides, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 44. 
1826-33. Manon peziza, Goldf. pars, Petref. 1 Th. t. 34. f. 8 b. 

Distribution. Upper Jura : Nattheim, Wiirtemberg. 

Crispispongia expansa, Quenst. 

1878. Crispispongia expansa, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 198, t. 124. f. 38-47. 
1878. Crispispongia expansa, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 41. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Nattheim. 



DIAPLECTIA.— ELASMOSTOMA. 193 

Genus DIAPLECTIA, Hinde, n. g. 

Sponges growing in cup-, f;in-, or platter-shaped expansions. The walls thioughout 
consist of the fibrous mesh. No canals are present ; the surface on both sides of the 
wall exhibits only irregular interspaces between the fibres. The spicular structure 
of the fibres resembles that of Sestrostomella. 

I propose this genus to include Spongia helveUoides, Lamx., and some other allied 
forms which, from their similar mode of growth, have been included by Zittel in the 
genus Pharetrospongia, Sollas ; but they possess an entirely different spicular structure 
from that of the type of this latter genus. 

DiAPLECTiA AUEicuLA, Hifide, n. sp. (Plate XXXVI. figs. 4, 4 a.) 

Sponges forming fan- or ear-shaped expansions. The type specimen is 30 mm. in 
height and 50 in width. The wall varies from 5 to 10 mm. in thickness ; the margins 
are obtusely rounded. The fibres are from "2 to -4 mm. in thickness; they are made 
up of relatively large thi"ee- and four-rayed spicules in the axis, and smaller sinuous 
spicules bordering the fibre. Minute pitch-fork spicules, like those of Sestrostomella, 
are also present. 

Distribution. Inferior Oolite (Pea Grit) : near Cheltenham. Middle Jura : Couche 
a polypiers ; Langrune (coll. Tesson). 

DIAPLECTIA HELVELLOIDES, Lamx. sp. (Plate XXXVI. fig. 5.) 

1821. Spongia helveUoides, Lamx. Exp. method, p. 87, t. 84. f. 1-3. 
1854. Spongia helveUoides, Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss. p. 30. 
1878. Pharetrospongia helveUoides, Zitt. Studien, 111 At. p. 46. 

Cup-shaped sponges supported on a small cylindrical stem. The walls are from 
3 to 5 mm. in thickness. The fibres of the outer or under surface of the cup have a 
generally vertical disposition; they vary from '14 to -4 mm. in thickness. The 
spicular structure resembles that of the preceding species. 

This may be distinguished from the preceding species by its form, thinner walls, 
and the vertical disposition of the fibres of the outer surface. 

Distrihution. Middle Jura: Couche a polypiers — Langrune, lianville, near Caen 
[coll. Tesson). Great Oolite : Hampton CliflF, Bath [Morris). 

Genus ELASMOSTOMA, From. 1859. 

In the typical species of this genus E. acutimargo, F. A. Roem. {=E.frondescens, 
From.), the spicular structure of the fibres is of the Sestrostomella type, consisting of 
central, relatively large, three- and four-rayed spicules, surrounded by smaller sinuous 
irregular spicules, also probably tliree-rayed. A similar spicular structure is shown 
in E. Norynanianum, D'Orbig., and E. consohrinum, D'Orbig. sp., as well as in some 

2c 



194 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

new species which I have described below. In other forms, however, from the Lower 
and Upper Green Sand which agree with the typical species of Elasmostoma in 
general form, and in possessing a smooth surface penetrated with large apertures on 
one surface of the wall, the spicular structure of the fibres more nearly corresponds 
to the Corynella type, and I have therefore separated these into a distinct genus. In 
some, if not all, of these latter forms distinct canals are present, whereas, according 
to Zittel, canals are absent in typical species of Elasmostoma. 

Elasmostoma acutimargo, Rcem. sp. 

1839. Tragos acutimargo, F. A. RcEin. Verst. d. Nordd. Oolit. Nachtr. p. 10, t. 17. f. 26. 
1859. Elasmostoma frondescens, From. Introduction, p. 43, t. 3. f. 6, 6 a. 
1864. Elasmustoma acutimargo, Eoem. Pal. Bd. 13, p. 45, t. 1. f. 21. 
1878. Manonpeziza, Quenst. pars, Petref. Bd. 5, p. 362, t. 132. f. 39. 
1878. Elasmostoma acutimargo, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 44. 

Sponges growing in small fan-shaped expansions from 2-S to 37 ram. in height and 
from 24 to 41 mm. in width. The walls are from 2 to 4 mm. in thickness. On the 
upper or concave surface, though occasionally on the under surface, there is a smooth, 
apparently compact, dermal layer perforated with circular or irregular apertures from 
1-7 to 3 mm. in diameter. On the opposite surface are shown the reticulated fibres, 
with small, irregular apertures between them. The fibres, as seen in a transverse 
microscopic section, are from "17 to -31 mm. in thickness; the spicular structure is 
but faintly shown, but it appears to be of the Sestrostomella type. 

Distribution. Neocomian, Censeau, Jura : Nogerais ; Berklingen, Brunswick. 

Elasmostoma Noemanianum, UOrhigny, sp. 

1847. Cupulospongia Normaniana, D'Orbiguy, Prodr. de Pal. vol. ii. p. 188. 
1840-47. Spongia Peziza, Mich, (non Goldf.) Icon. Zooph. p. 143, t. 36. f. 5. 

1864. Elasmostoma Normanianum, F. A. Rcem. Pal. Bd. 13, p. 45, t. 16. f. 6. 

1871. Elasmostoma Normanianum, Gein. Pal. Bd. 20, p. 36, t. 7. f. 7-12. 

1878. Manon peziza macropora, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 361, t. 132. f. 35. 

1878. Elasmostoma Normanianum, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 44. 

1883. Elasmostoma Normanianum, Dun. Pal. Bd. 29, p. 41, t. 38. f. 4, 5. 

Sponges fan-shaped, or by the coalescence of the margins becoming obliquely cup- 
shaped. The examples vary from 24 to 51 mm. in width, and from 22 to 42 mm. in 
heieht : the walls are from 3 to 5-5 mm. in thickness. One surface of the Avail, either 
the exterior or interior, is smooth, and perforated with circular apertures from 1 to 
2 mm. in width, and about the same distance apart from each other ; the margins of 
the apertures slightly project. The opposite surface only shows the irregular inter- 
spaces between the fibres. According to Dunikowski, the fibres exhibit relatively 
large axial three-rayed spicules, characteristic of the Sestrostomella type. 



ELASMOSTOMA. 195 

Owing to the meagre and unsatisfactory definition of this species by Michelin, very 
various forms have been assigned to it by different authors, and it is difficult to deter- 
mine which of these should properly be included in it. I have applied it to sponges 
resembling the forms figured by Geinitz, though I do not agree with this author in 
including therein the Manon Pezha figured by Goldfuss in Petref. 1 Th. t. 29. f. 8, 
which appears to me to belong to a different species. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. Cenomanian : Essen. 

Elasmostoma consobrinum, BOrhigny, sp. 

1847. Cupulospongia consobrina, D'Orbigny, Prodr. de Pal. vol. ii. p. 188. 

1826-33. Manon peziza, Goldf. pars, Petref. 1 Th. t. 1. f. 7, 8. 

1871. Elasmostoma consobrinum, Geinitz, Pal. Bd. 20, p. 38, t. 6. f. 8-10. 

1878. Manon peziza, Quenst. pars, Petref. Bd. 5, p. 358, t. 132, f. 26-33. 

1878. Elasmostoma consobrinum, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 45. 

1883. Elasmostoma consobrinum. Dun. Pal. Bd. 29, p. 41, t. 37. f. 4, 5. 

Cup- or fan-shaped sponges with walls from 2 to 4 mm. in thickness. One surface 
of the wall, usually the outer or convex surface, is penetrated by minute circular 
apertures about -5 mm. in width ; the opposite surface has no special dermal layer, 
and merely shows the interspaces between the fibres. The fibre, according to 
Dunikowski, is composed mainly of relatively large axial three-rayed spicules. 
D'Orbigny's definition of this species is obviously insufficient for recognition, but 
as the name has been applied by later authors to the sponges figured by Goldf. in 
Petref. pi. 1, f. 7, 8, I have used it for these forms. As pointed out by Geinitz, the 
sponges figured by Goldfuss were derived from Essen, and not, as erroneously stated, 
from Maestricht. 

IMstrihution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. Cenomanian : Essen. CIraie 
Chloritee : Villers-sur-Mer. 

Elasmostoma scitulum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVI. figs. 6, 6 a, 6 i, 6 c, G d.) 
Sponges growing in flattened or slightly convolute fan- or plate-shaped expansions 
from 40 to 100 mm. in height, and from 50 to 110 mm. in width. The base is 
either expanded or variously curved. The wall is from 4 to 5 mm. in thickness. 
The inner or concave surface of the wall has a smooth dermal layer, perforated by 
circular apertures about 1-5 ram. in width, and from 1-5 to 3 mm. apart. The 
margins of these apertures are thickened and, wheve best preserved, slightly elevated 
above the surface. The surface between the larger apertures is also perforated by 
minute irregular puncta. The under surface of the wall is rough ; the fibres have 
an indistinct radiate arrangement, and are connected by minute angular processes. 
In a transverse section the fibres measure from -1 to -35 mm. in thickness. The 

2c2 



196 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

spicular structure is distinctly of the Sestrostomella type ; a single ray of one of the 
large axial spicules measures '24 mm. 

In its general characters Manoii Peziza, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. t. 29. f. 8, resembles 
this species ; but the oscular apertures are uniformly single, and they are closer 
arranged than in Goldf uss's form. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Charlton, Bromley, Kent ; Sussex. 

Elasmostoma crassum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVI. fig. 7.) 

Sponges growing in irregularly folded expansions ; the only specimen is imperfect, 
and measures 76 mm. in width and the same in height. The walls are from 6'5 to 
10mm. in thickness; the inner or upper surface is smooth, and is perforated by 
circular apertures from 1-6 to 2 mm. in width, and about the same distance apart ; 
their margins are smooth and even. Between the larger apertures are smaller 
irregular perforations. The under surface resembles that of the last species. 

The fibres are from '13 to "4 mm. in thickness ; in the specimen examined they are 
entirely crystalline, and no structure has been preserved. 

This species may be readily distinguished from the preceding by the much greater 
thickness of the walls and the larger size of the oscular apertures. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Bromley, Kent. 

Elasmostoma plicatum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVII. fig. 1.) 

Sponges with convolute walls, either fan- or open funnel-shaped. A fairly large 
specimen is 95 mm. in width and 57 mm. in height. The walls are 4 mm. in thick- 
ness. The inner surface has circular apertures 1 mm. wide, and from 1 to 2 mm. 
apart, with minutely punctate interspaces. The under surface of the wall resembles 
that of E. scitulum, but the fibres are of a more delicate character. 

In a thin transverse section the fibres measure about •17 mm. in width; their 
spicular structure resembles that of E. scitulum, and they are generally narrower, 
and more evenly disposed than in that species. 

This species approaches closely to E. scitulum ; but the oscular apertures are 
smaller, and the fibres are less robust. 

Distribution. Craie Chloritee : Cap la Heve, near Havre. 

Elasmostoma subpeziza, DOrb. sp. 

1847. Cupulospongia subpeziza, D'Orb. Prodr. de Pal. vol. ii. p. 288. 
1826-33. Manon peziza, Goldf. pars, Petref. 1 Th. t. 5. f. 1. 
1878. Manon peziza, Quenst. pars, Petref. Bd. 5, p. 363, t. 132. f. 42, 43. 
1878. Pharetrospongia subpeziza, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 46. 

Sponges small, obliquely cup-shaped ; a fairly large example is 19 mm. in height 
by 17 in wndth. The walls are from 2 to 2-5 mm. in thickness. The outer surface 



ELASMOSTOMA. — EAPHIDONEMA. 197 

is smooth, with minute circular apertures about '3 mm. in width, and from '6 to 
1 mm. apart ; the interspaces are perforated with minute puncta. The inner surface 
exhibits reticulate fibres so closely disposed that the interspaces can scarcely be 
distinguished without a lens. 

As seen in a microscopic section, the fibres are from "1 to '2 mm. in thickness ; the 
spicular structure is very indistinct, but it appears to resemble that of E. scitulum. 

The ibrm figured by Goldfuss is stated to have been derived from Essen ; but, as 
Geinitz has pointed out, this is an error, and there is no doubt that it came from 
Maestri cht, where these small sponges appear to be fairly abundant. 

Distribution. Upper Chalk : Maestricht. 

Genus EAPHIDONEMA, Ilinde, n. g. 

Sponges cup- or funnel-shaped, or forming convolute expansions. On one surface 
of the wall, and in some forms on both, there is a modified dermal layer, either 
compact or minutely porous. The dermal layer, either on the outer or inner surface 
of the wall, is perforated with oscular apertures, except in one species in which it 
has no oscular apertures, though it extends over the canal apertures of the wall. 
Definite canals are usually present ; they penetrate the wall from one or both surfaces, 
and in some instances extend quite through it. 

The fibres are composed of filiform three-rayed spicules similar to those o^Corynella ; 
the basal ray of the spicules is but very slightly developed, so that in microscopic 
sections they appear for the most part as simple uniaxial forms. Rarely are larger 
three-rayed spicules to be seen in the fibres, though such may be present in the 
dermal layer, the minute structure of which I have not been able to determine. 

As already mentioned, this genus resembles Elasmostoma in its mode of growth 
and general structure, but the spicular constitution of the fibres is of a different 
character, and resembles the Corynella type. It also includes some of the species on 
which Prof. Sollas has based the genus Catagma, but the characters assigned to this 
genus are not sufficiently definite, and its spicular structure, judging from the figures 
and descriptions, is very different from that of Bap hidonema, and resembles somewhat 
that of Elasmostoma. 

Raphidonema contortum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVII. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b.) 
1874. Manon peziza, Davey, Trans. Newbury Field-Club, p. 10. 
Sponges growing in convolute expansions ; the folds of the walls frequently coalesce 
so as to form intricate masses of considerable size. The sponge is usually attached 
by its base, not infrequently to a sponge of a different species. A small example is 
29 mm. in height by 42 in width, whilst a fairly large specimen is 65 mm. in height 
by 100 in breadth. The walls are from 4 to 6 mm. in thickness. Both surfaces are, 
in the best-preserved specimens, smooth, and alike covered with a modified dermal 



198 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

layer of very closely arranged fibres, finer than those of the substance of the wall ; 
the interspaces between these surface-fibres are hardly visible without a lens. On 
one surface of this wall, either the upper or under, are minute circular apertures, 
from '5 to '85 mm. in width and from 1 to 3 diameters apart ; these apertures are 
connected with sinuous canals, which extend generally at right angles into the wall. 

The fibres of the interior of the wall, measured in a thin section, are from 2 to 
•4 mm. in thickness ; the filiform spicules are slender, and closely arranged parallel 
to each other in the direction of the fibre and round the margins of the canals. 

In its mode of growth, and the size of the oscular apertures, this species corre- 
sponds with Elasmostoma consohrinum, D'Orbig. ; but besides the differences in the 
spicular structure, which of course can only be ascertained in thin sections, the 
present species is usually larger and the walls are thicker than in the examples of 
E. consohrinum from the Cenomanian at Essen. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand: Farringdon, Berkshire. 

Raphidonema porcatdm, Sharpe, sp. (Plate XXXVII. fig. 3.) 

1854. Manon porcatum, Sharpe, Quart. Jourii. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 196, t. 5. f. 2. 

1874. Manon po7-cutum, Davey, Traus. Newbury Field-Club, p. 16. 

1878. Catagma porcatum, Sollas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 362. 

1883. Catagma porcatum, Keeping, Foss. of Upware &e. p. 147. 

Sponges either cup-shaped or growing in irregularly convolute expansions. Tlie 
specimens vary from 30 to 70 mm. in height and from 38 to 100 mm. in breadth. 
The walls are from 4 to 5-5 mm. in thickness. The upper or inner wall-surface has 
a smooth dermal layer penetrated by numerous, irregularly disposed, circular aper- 
tures, about "85 mm. in width ; the interspaces between these are minutely porous. 
The under or outer surface of the wall is covered with sharply projecting sinuous 
anastomosing ridges ; the fibres of this surface in some examples are finer and closer 
arranged than those of the interior of the wall, whilst in other specimens there is 
but little difference between the surface and the interior fibres. 

The interior fibres, as seen in a transverse microscopic section, are from -15 to 
•3 mm. in width ; the spicular structure resembles that of R. contort um. This species 
is characterized by the peculiar sinuous ridges of the under surface. 

Sharpe states that the inner surface of this species is pierced by very numerous 
ill-defined openings, but the oscular apertures only appear ill-defined when the 
surface is worn ; in perfect specimens they are as clearly marked as in the preceding 
species. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon ; Upware. 

Raphidonema pustulatum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVI. figs. 8, 8 a.) 
Sponges either shallow cup- or funnel-shaped, or forming convolute expansions. 



EAPHIDONEMA. 199 

A small specimen measlires 28 mm. in width by 13 in height, whilst a large form is 
55 by 42 mm. The walls are from 3-5 to 7 mm. in thickness. One surface of the 
wall, generally the upper, has a compact dermal layer, perforated by circular aper- 
tures, from 1 to 1*6 mm. in width, with well-defined slightly elevated margins. The 
opposite surface is smooth ; the fibres are, in some instances at least, more slender 
and closer arranged than those of the interior of the wall. 

The fibres, measured in a thin section, vary from "1 to 'So mm. in width; the 
spicular structure is similar to that of B. contortum. 

This species appears to have been referred by Sharpe* to 3 f anon marginatum, 
Phill. ; Daveyf has also placed it under the same designation, although he questions 
the identity of Phillips's species from the Upper Chalk with the Farringdon speci- 
mens. Mantell J has named it Tragos peziza, Goldf. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon. 

Raphidonema macropoea, Sharpe, sp. (Plate XXXVII. fig. 4.) 

1854. Manon macropora, Sharpe, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 195, t. 5. f. 3, 4. 

1848. Chenendopora fimgiformis'^ , Mant. (non Lamx.), Wonders of Geolog)', p. 637. 

1874. Manon macropora, Davey, Traus. Newbury Field-Club, p. 15. 

1878. Catagma macropora, Sollas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. ii. p. 356, f. 1. 

1878. Elasmostoma macropora, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 44. 

1883. Elasmostoma acutimargo, Keeping (non Roem.), Fossils of Upware &c. p. 147. 

Sponges cup- or funnel-shaped, or forming convolute expansions. A small speci- 
men measures 25 mm. in height by 23 in width, whilst a large example is 100 by 
110 mm. The walls vary from 4 to 10 mm. in thickness. The inner or upper 
surface of the wall is either even, or in some specimens is marked by concentric 
rounded ridges and shallow furrows. It is furnished with a smooth, apparently 
compact, dermal layer, which is perforated by circular or ovate apertures, from 1-5 
to 3"5 mm. in width, disposed concentrically nearly in contact with each other. 
Where the interior is ridged, the apertures occur in the intermediate furrows. Small 
canals open immediately beneath these apertures. The outer surface of the wall is 
uneven, sometimes with nodose excrescences ; only the naked fibres are shown. 

In a transverse microscopic section of a specimen from Upware, the fibres appear 
as closely reticulating bands, from -13 to -26 mm. in width. The filiform, sinuous 
spicules are more robust and less regularly disposed than in R. contortum. Though 
apparently uniaxial, here and there forms can be detected which show the stunted ' 
basal ray of three-rayed spicules, and it is probable that the majority of the spicules 
are irregular three-rayed forms. 

* Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1854, vol. s. p. 189. 

Trans. Newbury Field-Club, p. 15. 
t Wonders of Geology, Gth ed. 1848, vol. ii. p. 636 ; Medals of Creation 1854, vol. i. p. 229. f. 1. 



200 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

I have previously compared the structure of this species to that oi Sestrostomella* , 
but on further examination I find that the fibres of the interior of the wall are built 
up of filiform spicules, though it is not unlikely that the dermal layer may be com- 
posed of relatively large three- or four-rayed forms. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon ; Upware. 

Raphidonema stellatum, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. Manon stellaium, Gold. Petref. 1 Th. p. 3, t. 1. f. 9. 

1871. Stellisjiongia Goldfussiana, Gein. Pal. Bd. 20, p. 31, t. 6. f. 4-7. 

1878. Manon peziza stellatum, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 3G1, t. 132. f. 34'. 

1883. Elasmostoma stellatum, Dua. Pal. Bd. 29, p. 40, t. 37. f. 1, 2, 6, and t. 38. f. 1, 2, 3. 

Sponges growing in thin expansions or funnel-shaped. The walls are from 2 to 
nearly 4 mm. in thickness. The oscular apertures are about '5 mm. wide, and are 
either on the upper or under surface of the wall. The fibres bordering the apertures 
have a stellate arrangement. The opposite surface of the wall exhibits an open 
network of fibres. 

As seen in a transverse microscopic section, the fibres are from "12 to -25 mm. in 
width ; they are mainly composed of slender, filiform, irregular, three-rayed spicules. 
The forms which Dunikowski refers to as " Stabnadeln " appear to me to be more 
probably fragments of three-rayed spicules. 

The thin walls and stellate character of the oscular surface readily distinguish 
this species. 

Distrihution. Cenomanian : Essen, Rhenish Prussia. 

Raphidonema Fakringdonense, Sharjje, sp. (Plate XXXVII. figs. 5, 5 a, 5 h.) 

1864. Manon Farringdonensis, Sharpe, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. vol. x. p. 196, t. 5. f. 5, 6. 
1874. "^ Chenendopora funyiformis, Davey, Trans. Newbury Field-Club, p. 13. 
1878. Catagma Farringdonense, Sollas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 362. 
1878. Pharetrospongia Farringdonensis, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 46. 

Sponges cup- or funnel-shaped, free or attached by a spreading base, generally to 
other sponges. Very variable in size ; a small individual measures 30 mm. in height 
and width, whilst a large specimen is 90 mm. in height by 120 in width at the 
summit. The wall varies from 7 to 17 mm. in thickness. The outer surface of the 
cup is very uneven, and frequently covered with large nodose excrescences. In some 
examples the fibres of this surface are finer and closer arranged than in the interior ; 
but, as a rule, there is scarcely any difi"erentiation in their character. The interior of 
the cup has a very varying aspect in difierent specimens. In some examples it is 
coarsely fibrous and exhibits ill-defined apertures of numerous canals, about 1 mm. 
wide, either irregularly distributed or with a partially horizontal arrangement. 

* Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. 5th ser. vol. x. p. 203. 



EA PHIDONEMA .— PH AEETROSPONGI A . 201 

These canal-apertures are sometimes bridged over by the fibres. In other examples 
a smooth, minutely porous dermal layer, consisting of very delicate, closely reticu- 
lating fibres, extends to varying heights in the cup, and covers over the coarser fibres 
and the canal-apertures. This dermal layer is very variously developed ; in some 
specimens it is limited to the lower portion of the cup or is entirely absent, whilst 
in others it extends, like a thin film, quite to the margin, so that the interior of the 
cup is perfectly smooth. The wall itself is perforated by numerous straight or 
slightly sinuous canals, which run generally at right angles, but occasionally are 
oblique to the surface. 

The fibres vary from -1 to -3 mm. in width, and are composed of filiform spicules 
similar to those of R. contortum. In some cases the dwarfed basal ray of the three- 
rayed spicules can be clearly seen ; but, as a rule, this minute ray cannot be detected 
in microscopic sections, and thus the spicules appear as if uniaxial. Very rarely is 
a perfect spicule exposed in the section ; the entire length of an apparently complete 
form is •2.3 mm. 

The presence of minute three-rayed spicules in this and other species of this genus 
distinctly marks them off from specimens of Pharetrospongia, in which only uniaxial 
spicules have hitherto been discovered. 

Distribution. Lower Green Sand : Farringdon, Berkshire. Very abundant. 

Genus PHARETROSPONGIA, Sollas, 1877. 

Professor Sollas has based this genus on the characters of the single species 
P. Straham, which is principally distinguished by the uniaxial form of the spicules 
composing its fibres. Prof. Zittcl proposed to extend Sollas's definition so as to 
include in the genus a group of cup- or funnel-shaped sponges having a general 
resemblance in their mode of growth to P. Stmhani. As, however, the spicular 
structure of the fibres of some, if not all, of these sponges difi'ers from that of 
P. Strahani, it seems to me desirable to limit the genus to sponges which can be 
shown to possess a similar spicular structure to that of the type species. 

Pharetrospongia Strahani, Sollas. (Plate XXXVII. fig. 6 ; 
Plate XXXVIII. fig, 1.) 

1877. Pharetrospongia Strahani, Sollas, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiii. p. 212, t. 11. 

1878. Pharetrospomjm Strahani, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 45. 

1879. Pharetrospongia Strahani, Carter, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. iv. p. 432. 
1882. Pharetrospongia Strahani, Steinm. Neues Jahrb. Bd. 2, p. 129. 

Sponges having the form of variously convoluted plates, which sometimes anasto- 
mose so as to become funnel-shaped, also occasionally subcylindrical. The walls are 
from 7 to 13 mm. in thickness. The sponge does not appear to have been attached. 

2d 



202 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

Small cylindrical forms are 47 mm. in length by 15 in thickness, whilst large 
expanded examples reach the dimensions of 200 mm. in length and the same in 
width. 

The outer surface of the wall is generally uneven and composed of a layer of 
reticulate fibres, finer than those of the interior ; the interspaces between them are 
small, irregular in distribution, and either subangular or circular. The inner surface 
of the wall is usually smoother than the outer, the fibres are thicker, and the inter- 
spaces larger; in some cases definite circular apertures up to 1-.3 mm. in width are 
present, but generally the apertures are smaller and irregular in form. No definite 
canals can be distinguished in the walls, even where they attain their greatest 
thickness. In some instances the fibres have a general disposition in the direction 
of the length of the sponge, with transverse connections ; but, as a rule, no definite 
arrangement is perceptible. 

The fibres are from IcI to -'ob mm. in thickness; they are composed of minute, 
straight, or slightly curved, subcylindrical uniaxial spicules, closely arranged parallel 
with each other in the direction of the lenijth of the fibre. The long-est of these 
spicules which I have succeeded in measuring is T4 mm. and its thickness about 
■01 mm. 

This species occurs in the' Cambridge Green Sand, and it is also very abundant in 
the Upper Chalk. The Chalk examples are for the most part larger and the walls are 
thicker than in the Green Sand forms, but the differences do not appear to me to be 
of specific value. Many of the examples from the Green Sand near Cambridge are 
entirely calcareous, and the fibres completely dissolve when treated with acid ; in 
others the fibres have a thin surface-pellicle of silica and the interior is calcareous. 
Attached to the siliceous pellicle are entire and fragmentary spicules which have 
been replaced by silica, the spicules of the interior of the fibre retaining their 
calcareous composition. A similar replacement has also taken place in some of the 
forms from the Upper Chalk. Those which are imbedded in the chalk itself have a 
smooth, waxy aspect, and when treated with acid completely dissolve ; but not infre- 
quently specimens are imbedded in flint, and in these cases the exterior portion of 
the fibres becomes siliceous whilst the interior retains its calcareous condition. That 
this partial silicification of the fibre is owing to its being surrounded by the flint is 
clearly shown by the fact that some sponges are partly imbedded in flint and partly 
in chalk, and only the portion in the flint has been replaced by a thin coating of 
silica, that in the chalk being wholly calcareous. 

By Prof. Sollas and Mr. Carter these sponges are believed to have been originally 
siliceous, and, from the form and disposition of the spicules in their fibres, to be 
allied to an existing species of Beniera. My reasons for regarding them as originally 
calcareous are based upon the fact that in their general characters and structure 
they closely resemble other Pharetrones occurring in the same strata, which by 



PHARETEOSPONGIA.— PACHYTILODIA. 203 

Mr. Carter (though not by Prof. Sollas) are acknowledged to be calcareous sponges, 
whilst their condition is altogetlier different from that of the undisputed siliceous 
sponges in the same beds. As, however, some of the siliceous sponges from the 
Cambridge Green Sand are probably derived from other deposits, the dissimilarity 
existing between them and the specimens of Pharetrospongia may be alleged to be 
owing to the different conditions to which they have respectively been exposed ; but 
the argument is quite applicable to the examples from the Upper Chalk ; and if 
there are important differences in the character and mineral structure of examples of 
Pharetrospongia, and of undisputed siliceous sponges from the same beds and the 
same localities, they may reasonably be supposed to be due to differences in their 
original condition. Thus, for example, specimens of the calcareous sponges Elas- 
mostoma scitulum and Pharetrospongm Strahani, from the Upper Chalk at Bromley 
in Kent, alike retain the perfect form and calcareous structure of their component 
fibres ; but in the undoubtedly siliceous sponges in the same beds and locality, such 
as Ventriculites or Scyphia, the fibres or mesh, instead of being perfectly smooth and 
calcareous, as in the first-named forms, have been either completely dissolved, leavin» 
empty moulds, or else replaced by powdery iron peroxide. It is impossible to 
explain these notable differences without supposing that the mineral structure of 
these sponges was originally different, and it seems therefore reasonable to conclude 
that the forms with the calcareous fibres retain their original constitution. Mr. Carter 
readily acknowledges that Elasmostoma scitulum is a calcisponge ; and Pharetro- 
spongia Strahani so closely resembles it in general structure that, notwithstanding 
the different form of its component spicules, there can hardly be a doubt of its 
calcareous origin. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster, near Cambridge. Upper (Ihalk : 
Charlton, Bromley, Broadstairs, Kent ; Ditchhampton, near Wilton, Norwich ; 
Pertwood, near Warminster. 



Genus PACHYTILODIA, Zittcl, 1878. 

Pachttilodia infundibulifoemis, Goldf. sp. 

1826-33. Scyphia infundibuliformis, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 12, t. 5. f. 2. 
1874. Cupulospongia infundibuliformis, Gein. Pal. Bd. 20, p. 29, t. 4. f. 4, 5. 
1878. Scyphia infundibuliformis, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 5, p. 347, t. 132. f. 1-3. 
1878. Pachyiilodia infundibuliformis, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 46. 
1883. Pachyiilodia infundibuliformis, Dun. Pal. Bd. 29, p. 42, t. 40. f. 1, 2. 

Sponges cup- or vase-shaped, supported on thickened nodose stems, occasionally 
forming convolute extensions. An imperfect specimen measures 140 mm. in heio-ht 
by 170 in width. The walls are from 8 to 25 mm. in thickness; the interspaces 
between the fibres are relatively large. The fibres are from -4 to -9 mm. in thickness ; 

2d 2 



204 CALCAEEOUS SPONGES. 

according to Dunikowski they are composed of small uniaxial spicules associated 
with large three-rayed forms. 

Distribution. Upper Green Sand : Warminster. Cenomanian : Essen. 



Family SYCONES, Haeckel. 

Genus PROTOSYCON, Zittel 1878. 

PEOTOSycoN PUNCTATUM, Goldf. sp. (Plate XXXVIII. figs. 2, 2 a~e.) 

1826-33. Scyphia punctata, Goldf. Petref. 1 Th. p. 10, t. 3. f. 10. 

1858. Scyphia punctata, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 667, t. 81. f. 79. 

1870. Scyphia punctata, O. Schmidt, Spongien-Faima des atlaut. Gebietes, p. 20, t. 2, 

f. 21. 
1878. Scyphia punctata, Quenst. Petref. p. 333, t. 131. t. 21-27. 

1878. Protosycon punctatum, Zitt. Studien, III Ab. p. 48, t. 12. f. 7. 

1879. Protosycon jmnctatmn, Zitt. Neues Jahrb. p. 33, t. 2. f. 7. 

1883. Protosycon punctatum, Carter, Auu. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. xi. p. 34. 

Small subcylindrical sponges with truncated summits, and occasionally slightly 
expanded bases. The usual dimensions are from 6 to 14 mm. in length, and from 
2"5 to 4 mm. in thickness; an unusually long form, figured by Quenstedt, measures 
24 by .3'5 mm. A funnel-shaped cloaca extends quite to the base of the sponge. 
The walls are from "7 to 1 mm. iu thickness. The outer surface is apparently quite 
smooth, but under a strong lens delicate vertical furrows are visible. In each of 
these furrows is a row of minute circular or ovate canal-apertures, and still smaller 
circular or subangular apertures are wedged in on the intervening ridges. The 
interior surface of the cloaca is not exposed in the specimens which I have examined ; 
but according to Quenstedt the canal-apertures are disposed in regular vertical and 
horizontal series. 

In a thin vertical median section the walls exhibit a series of horizontal canals, 
about -17 mm. in width, some of which are apparently open throughout, while others 
seem to be closed either at one or both ends. These canals are bounded by tliree- 
and foui'-rayed spicules, and sections of the spicular rays are clearly shown, though 
the disposition of the spicules cannot be satisfactorily ascertained from a thin section. 
In some instances the rays are arranged singly, whilst in others the rays of two or 
three spicules are in close juxtaposition, but they are not apparently united into 
fibres as in the Pharetrones. The spicular x-ays are about "04 mm. in thickness; I 
have not been able to determine their length. 

Distribution. Upper Jura: Streitberg, Franconia. 



BACTEONELLA. 205 



Incertce sedis. 



Genus BACTEONELLA, Einde, n. g. 

Sponges simple, rod- or club-shaped, usually attached by a slightly expanded base. 
The lower portion exhibits traces of a wrinkled compact dermal layer ; the rest of the 
surface is smooth and covered with minute circular and subangular apertures, which 
appear to be bounded by a delicate open dermal layer of three- or four-rayed spicules. 
The sponge appears to be throughout composed of spicules, not arranged in fibres, 
but forming an open tissue with irregular interspaces. The exterior portion is 
penetrated by definite cylindrical canals which can be traced for a short distance 
into the interior, though they do not appear to extend into the central portion of 
the sponge. The spicules are so closely intermingled in the exterior portion that 
only circular sections of the rays, and rarely a portion of a conical ray, can be distin- 
guished ; but in the central portion the spicules are less intricately associated, and 
definite three- and probably four- rayed forms can be distinguished. The rays of 
some of these spicules are clearly microspined. Mingled with the definite spicules 
are smaller forms which appear to be of an irregular character, though the condition 
of the specimen prevents accurate determination. In transverse sections the interior 
portion of the sponge is partially filled with a dark earthy matrix, and appears to 
possess a diff"erent structure to the exterior, but this is probably owing to the more 
compact agglomeration of the spicules near the surface. 

This genus is based on the characters of the small Jurassic sponges which form 
part of Goldfuss's species Ceriopora clavata, Petref. 1 Th. p. 36, 1. 10. f. 15c-_/'(non 
f. ff, b). The minute structure of these forms can only partially be made out in 
thin microscopic sections, but sufficient is shown to indicate that it materially differs 
from that of the fossil Calcareous sponges already described. The absence of a fibrous 
arrangement of the spicules distinguishes it from the Pharetrones ; whilst the structure 
of the wall and the absence of a central cloaca separates it from the Sycones. The 
disposition of the spicules more nearly resembles that of the recent Leucones ; but in 
none of the existing examples of this family are the three-rayed spicules microspined. 
As the genus cannot suitably be included in any of the present divisions of the Calca- 
reous sponges, I propose to leave it in an indefinite position until its characters are 
more clearly ascertained. 

Bactronella pusillum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVIII. figs. 3, 3 a-g.) 

1826-33. Ceriopora clavata, Goldf. pars, Petref. 1 Tli. p. 30, t. 10. f. 15 c-f (non f. a, b). 
1858. Ceriopora clavata, Quenst. Der Jura, p. 665, t. 81. f. 59, 60. 
1881. Ceriopora clavata, Quenst. Petref. Bd. 6, p. 245, t. 152. f. 63-88. 

Subcylindrical or slightly inflated sponges, with conical summits, varying from 3 "5 



206 CALCAREOUS SPONGES. 

to 10 mm. in length and from 2 to 3"5 mm. in thickness. The canals opening on the 
outer surface are from '18 to -2 mm. in width ; they can only be traced for a distance 
of about -5 mm., where they appear to terminate in the interior spicular tissues. The 
spicular rays are conical, acutely pointed, and occasionally with minutely spinous 
surfaces. The longest measured is T4 mm. In cross section the rays are circular, 
with a maximum thickness of -035 mm. The specimens throughout are calcareous. 
Distribution. Upper Jura: probably from Thurnau, Bavaria. 



207 



SUPPLEMENT. 



Since the first part of the work was in type fresh additions have been made to the 
Museum Collection, including some new species, the descriptions of which, as they 
could not be inserted in their proper systematic position, are here appended. 



Division I. SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Order M ON ACTINELLI DiE. 
Genus HAPLISTION, Young and Young, 1877. 

Haplistion fractum, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVIII. figs. 4, 4a.) 

In the fine collection of detached sponge-spicules which Mr. James Bennie very 
generously forwarded to me for examination, I found several small fragments of a 
fibrous sponge, resembling, as regards their siliceous condition, the spicules of the 
Hexactinellid sponges associated with them. The largest of these fragments only 
measures 5 mm. in length and thickness; it consists of irregularly anastomosing 
cylindrical fibres from "14 to "5 mm. in thickness, which form an uneven meshwork 
with circular or elongated interspaces about '6 mm. in width. The fibres appear in 
fractured surfaces to be solid throughout, and the interior portion only exhibits a 
fine granular structure. The outer surface, on the other hand, is covered with a 
layer of simple spicules, which, though generally arranged in the direction of the fibre, 
are not parallel with each other. The spicules, when examined under the microscope, 
present uneven, ill-defined outlines, but they appear to have the form of fusiform 
acerates. The longest measured is •32 mm. in length by "03 mm. in width. Whether 
their surfaces were primarily smooth or spinous it is impossible to determine. 

There can scarcely be a doubt that the fibres were originally built up throughout 
of spicules similar to those which are now exposed on their exterior surfaces, and 
that by fossilization the interior spicules have been undistinguishably fused together. 
Their resemblance in mineral condition to the spicules of undoubted siliceous sponges 
in the same deposit points to the conclusion that they were also originally siliceous. 



208 SUPPLEMENT. 

I have placed these fragments with some doubt under the genus Maplistion, for 
the type of the genus, //. Armstrongi, Y. and Y.*, though possessing a fibrous 
structure generally similar to these fragments, does not show any traces of spicules, 
and its minute structure is therefore at present doubtful. Through the kindness of 
Mr. John Young I have been able to examine a fragment of //. Annsfronr/i ; and its 
fibres, indeiiendently of the absence of the spicules, appear to me to be of a more 
robust character than those of the present species. 

Mr. H. J. Carter has also described a sponge from the same deposits under the 
name oi Baphidistia vermiculata\, 'wh.ich. is probably allied to the present species. 
Judging from the description and figures, R. vermicuJata is a fibrous sponge composed 
of fusiform acerates of a sinuous form. Mr. Carter, however, regards the fibres as 
belonging to a species oi Hydracthiia, awdi the sponge-spicules as parasitic on the 
fibres. This view appears to me to be untenable ; and Mr. Carter himself suggests 
that the fibres might probably belong to the sponge. The sinuous form of the 
spicules distinguishes this species from //. fractum. 

Disfribution. Lower Carboniferous : Law Quarry, Dairy, Ayrshire. Collected by 
Mr. James Bennie. 



Order TETRACTINELLID^, 6>. Schmidt. 

Genus GEODIA, Lamx. 

Geodia] antiqua, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVIII. figs. 5, 5 a-e.) 

Detached trifid spicules, with elongated cylindrical or subcylindrical shafts, from 
■2 to -.3 mm. in width, and with simple, short, obtusely-pointed head-rays, which 
project upwards at an acute angle with the head of the shaft. The shafts are all 
incomplete ; the longest preserved is 2 mm. in length, and it is of the same thick- 
ness at the end as at the summit. Associated with the trifid spicules are curved 
acerates of somewhat similar dimensions, which may probably belong to the same 
species. The trifid spicules are distinguished by the relatively short and obtuse 
head-rays and the regular thickness of the shafts. 

In the same deposit there are fragments of relatively large spicules, with robust 
cylindrical shafts from -G to -9 mm. in thickness, and two short, stout, obtusely- 
pointed opposite head-rays at the summit. The shafts are all incomplete ; the 
longest fragment measures 3 mm. in length. These abnormal spicules may perhaps 
pertain to a distinct species from the smaller forms. 

These spicules occur in the same beds of decayed chert of Carboniferous age which 

* Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xx. p. 428, t. 15. f. 31-37. 
t Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. i. p. 140, t. 0. f. 15-19. 



SILICEOUS SPONGES. 209 

have yielded such numerous spicules of Hexactinellid spicules of the genera Ilyalostelia 
and Holasterella, and they closely resemble these spicules in their condition of pre- 
servation. Seen by reflected light they have a dull white aspect ; when mounted in 
Canada balsam and examined by transmitted light, they are nearly entirely opaque. 
Their surfaces are generally smooth, but in places they are pitted with minute rhom- 
bohedral cavities. In comparison with the Hexactinellid forms they are extremely 
rare. 

Distribution. Lower Carboniferous : Law Quarry, Dairy, Ayrshire. From the 
collection of Mr. James Bennie. 



Genus PACHASTRELLA, 0. Schmidt. 

Pachastrella vetusta, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVIII. figs. 6, 6a-/.) 

Detached four-rayed spicules ; three of the rays either nearly horizontal or forming 
the outlines of a three-sided pyramid ; the fourth ray is vertical to the other three, 
and forms the apex of the pyramid ; in rare instances the vertical ray is continued 
below as well as above the pyramidal apex, and the spicule becomes five-rayed. The 
rays are straight or slightly curved, cylindrical, or very gradually tapering to the 
extremity, which is usually obtusely rounded, though in one instance the rays termi- 
nate in minute digitations. As a rule, the rays in each spicule are unequal in length, 
the vertical ray being usually the shortest. The spicules vary greatly in size ; in a 
large form the rays reach to 2*6 mm. in length by "47 mm. in thickness, whilst the 
rays in a small spicule are not more than -54 mm. in length by "IG in thickness. 

The close resemblance in the general characters of these spicules to those of the 
Cretaceous species of Pachastrella, indicates that this genus dates back to the Carbo- 
niferous period*. As a rule, the spicules are larger than in the forms from the 
Upper Chalk. They occur under the same conditions as the forms described above, 
and are comparatively rare. 

Distribution. Lower Carboniferous : Law Quarry, Dairy, Ayrshire. From the 
collection of Mr. James Bennie. 



* The late Mr. Charles Moore, F.G.S., descrihed and figured under the name of Grantia antiqua (Quart. 
Journ. Gcol. Soc. vol. sxiii. 1867, p. 538, pi. xvi. f. 33, 34) some detached triradiate calcareous spicides from 
the Liassic Conglomerates at Brocastle, South Wales. It is very doubtful if these forms were originally 
calcareous ; they may probably have been siliceous spicules allied to Pachastrella, the structure of which has 
been replaced by calcite. 



2e 



210 SUPPLEIMENT. 

Order LITHISTID^. 

Family MEGAMORINA. 

Genus DORYDERMA, Zittel. 

DoRYDEEMA Daleyense, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVIII. figs. 7, Ta-g.) 
Detached spicules, usually more or less curved and irregularly branching; the 
branches are cylindrical in section, and either obtusely rounded at their terminations 
or more frequently expanded transversely, and concave so as to be adapted for 
clasping the surface of adjoining spicules. A fairly large spicule is I'l mm. in 
length and -18 mm. in thickness. The general resemblance in form and in the 
termination of the branches of these spicules to those vrhich form the skeleton of 
the Cretaceous genera Dori/denna, Pachypoterion, and Heterostinia, and of the 
existing genus Lyidium is sufficiently close to prove that sponges with this type 
of spicular structure existed as far back as the Carboniferous epoch. 

Mr. Carter * has figured spicules of a similar character, but smaller than those from 
Dairy, from strata of corresponding age at Ben Bulbul, near Sligo, and has referred 
them as " in all probability surface-spicules like those of Coralliates aculeata." Not- 
withstanding the difference in size, these Irish forms may probably belong to the 
same species as those from Dairy. 

Distribution. Lower Carboniferous: Law Quarry, Dairy, Ayrshire. From the 
collection of Mr. James Bennie. Ben Bulbul, near Sligo, Ireland. Presented by 
Mr. J. Wright of Belfast. 



'&' 



Order HEX ACTI NELLI D^.. 

Family EURETID^. 

Genus SPORADOPYLE, Zittel. 

Sporadopyle Santanderi, Hinde, n. sp. (Plate XXXVIII. figs. 8, %a-~d.) 
The only example of this species is a fragment, 55 mm. in length, of a dichoto- 
mously branching sponge. The branches or stems are subcylindrical tubes about 
11mm. in diameter; the walls are from 2-5 to 3 mm. in thickness; the cloaca 
appears to be cylindrical, and continuous throughout the length of the sponge. 

The outer surface exhibits depressed circular or ovate apertures of blind canals 
about 1 mm. in width, which have a generally vertical arrangement, though not in 

* Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. vi. (1880) p. 212, t. 1413. f. 10, 11. 



SILICEOUS SPONGES. 211 

very distinct rows; the interspaces are rounded, and from 1 to 1'8 mm. in width. 
The canal-apertures are in some cases partially bridged over by extensions of the 
dermal layer. I have not been able to ascertain the characters of the interior or 
cloacal surface. 

The dermal layer is composed of spicules having a stellate disposition of the rays 
so as to leave minute circular or irregular interspaces. The interior mesh is regular ; 
the spicules are about '04 mm. in thickness, and the distance between the nodes is 
about '25 mm. The nodes are compact. 

The regular mode of growth and the arrangement of the canal-apertures readily 
distinguish this from the only other branching species of this genus, S. ramosus, 
Quenst. sp. 

The unique specimen is partially imbedded in a calcareous matrix ; it retains its 
siliceous structure in beautiful preservation. 

Distribution. Neocomian : Santander, Spain. 



2e2 



212 



TABULAR LIST OF SPECIES, 

ARRANGED IN ZOOLOGICAL SEQUENCE. 



The species marked by an asterisk to the left occur in British strata, whilst the asterisks in the 
right-hand columns indicate the geological range of each form. 



' 


PAL/EOZOIC. 


MESOZOIC. 


KAINOZOIC. 


i 

1 


i 

o 

u 

o 


.3 

CO 


c 

■a 

o 

> 

P 


'5 
o 

-g 

s 
O 

* 
* 


.2 


Li 


Cretaceous. 


q5 
a 

ID 

o 


oS 

c 

i 

a 
1 


^1 


^9 


-3 

s 

a S^ 

.202^ 
C rt c 


JO 
:2 S 

L< 


o 


Division L SILICEOUS SPONGES. 

Order M N ACT IN E LLI D ^, Zt«eZ. 

Plimqpn^T'tnTio'i.i mdintfi Hinclc 






* 


* 














* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 


* 


* 
# 










































































* 
































































































Order T E T R A C T IN E L L I D -E, Marshall. 
























































































































*Geodia' Wri"'litii. i/uif^e . . . . 












1 












*Geodia ''* antiqua Hinde 










* 

























TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 



213 





PALEOZOIC. 




MESOZOIO. 


KAINOZOIC. 


i 

•a 

O 


J 

O 

? 

O 


1' 

3 
CO 


'3 
o 


3 
p 

o 




i 


Cretaceous. 


i 

o 


6 

i 

o 

1 

CO 

s 


■a 

O c3 

.S a 

|o 

''I 


"3 


.2 00 pa 

a £-E 


rial 


o 

* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 


^ThpTipn RH 


























1 


Pnphn.stTpna nrimflpva ^itt 
























*PirhrmtTplla ooTivoliif,a m7i<l.& 
























^ParhMstxplln nLiiiFi flhirlf^ 
























*Pa(^Viistrplla vphnsta MitifJ.P, 










* 




* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 










Order LITHISTID^, 0. Schmidt. 

Family BHIZOilORINA, Zittel. 
Cnemidiastrum stellatum, Goldf. sp 


































































Corallidinm diceratinura, Quenst. sp 

Hyalotragos patella, GoJdf. sp 














Hyalotrag'os radiatum, Goldf. sp 

Hyalotragos reticulatum, M'dnst. sp 

Hyalotrag'os rugosum, Milnst. sp. 














Hyalotragos pezizoides, Goldf, sp, 














Pyr<=^ocb,onia acetabulum, Goldf, sp 














Tjeiodorella. exDansa. /jitt. . . . . . 




























Platychonia vagans, Quenst. sp 

Platvc'lioiiia sn. . . 





























rjlionolla teuuis Hcsiu. sd. 
























Ohonella aunformis. lliVTYi. su. . ... 
























^'Splisr.otlioii Tilauus Phill sd. . 
























*Splisi''otlion exnlauatus Roeiix. sd. 
























Selispnthon Mantelli. Goldf. sd 
























Splisoothon test;iflorum Ouenst sd . . . . 












































* 




Rftliscotliou SD . . . . 








































* 
* 
* 




*CliftnendoDora. Michelinii Hmdc 




















CHenendoDOra uocillum Alicli 




















Verniculma seriatoDora. Hostu sn 




















*Vernio,ulina Dlicata. Ilinde 
























*"\7ppT'ii{T;iiiiTiQ astra'a. Tlhidc 
























*Verrneulina convoluta Oitenst. sd. . . . 
























*Vprriiculiua Dustulosa. Ilinde 
















































*VpiTucnliua lieussii. AL^Coit. sd. 
























Verruouliua macrommata. Hcem. sd. . . 












































_ 





214 



TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 





PALAEOZOIC. 


MESOZOIC. 


KAINOZOIC. 


6 

1 


1 

o 


IB 


'5 
o 

Q 


2 

1 
Q 


a. 

.2 




Cretaceous. 


O 

m 


1 

O 


a £ 
So 

II 
3 


03 

lis 


^. ■* . 

_ c « 
.legs 

ill 


Id 

oso 


O 


























* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 

* 

* 

* 
* 

* 


I 
















































































































































* 
* 


















































































































* 




















. . . . 




[FamUy MEGAMOEINA, Zitiel. 
PlnpoTiplln ■npi'foTfitn IThidfj 














* 






* 


















*T)nrvrlprTnn ramosum i\/(7'itf sn 


.... 


















*T)r>rvf1p'nna. Tifrmpri ITitiflp 
























*T)nrvflpr'mn T^Piipt',i".i Tlhule 




















* 

* 
* 
* 














* 




























































^TTpfproKtiTiifi olilimi.'i Jiaictt 








































* 
* 




































































FamUj ANOMOCLADINA, Zitteh 
Cylindropbjma mill cpora turn. Goldf. sp 














* 
* 










*Mastosia iicocomicnsis, Hinde 
















* 








Hindia fibrosa. Mceni, si3 






* 
* 










Family TETRACLADINA, Zittel. 
Aulocopium cylindraccum, Rceni 






*Phymatel]a intumesccns, Boem. sp 






Phymatella heteropora, Seem, sp 
























*Pliymatella reticulata, Hinde 
























*Phymatella nodosa, Hinde 




















* 




•Phjmatolla, sp 













































TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 



215 





PALEOZOIC. 


MESOZOIC. 


-— 


KAINOZOIC. 


i 
'M 

Q 


o 


J 

u 


"3 
o 

P 


o 

'a 
o 

6 


'i 

.5 
H 


i 


Cretaceous. 


s 

O 


C 
T3 

i 




:3 


o ni t: 

.III 

g J: 2 
o go 

a 


^ 2 


-i4 


























* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 

* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 






















































^riallnnpo'Ttia. ohronipjiim Hinde . . 




































































* 




^^Tr/ifhvsvpoTi snlra,tiTm Hiufld 




















Sinlmnin niriformis {rolclf 




















* 
* 
* 


* 






























































^Sirthniiin Tvoniofi Afntit ST) 


































































* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
*- 
* 


* 
* 


















































































































.... 


























*? 






















































































* 
* 
* 






















* 
* 


































































1 






































































































'*TCfllninplln "nfltprfpformis Uiiiclc 




















* 
* 






















































. . . . 




































* 












! 






























































































• • ■ " 







































































































































216 



TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 



*Plinthosella convoluta, Hinde 

*Phymaplectia irregularis, Hinde . . . 

*rhymaplectia spinosa, Hinde 

*Phymaplectia cribrata, Hinde 

*Phymapk'ctia seitula, Hinde 

*Rhopalospongia gregaria, Benett, ep. 
*Rhopalo8pongia obliqua, Hinde . . . 



Order H E X A C T I N E L L I D ^E, 0. Schmidt. 
Suborder Dicttonina, Zitt. 
Family ASTYLOSPONGID.^. 

Astylospongia prsmorsa, Goldf. sp 

Astylospongia steUatim-sulcata, liirm 

Astylospongia inoiso-lobata, Sixm 

Astylospongia imbricato-articulata, Roem 

Astylospongia Eoemeri, Hinde 

Palfeomanon cratera, Earn 



Family EUEETID^, Zitt. 

Tremadictyon reticnlatum, Goldf. sp. 

Tremadictyon obliquatum, Quenst. sp. 

Cratieularia clathrata, Goldf. sp 

Craticularia parallela, Goldf. sp 

Cratieularia decorata, Miinst. sp 

Craticularia paradoxa, Miinst. sp. . . 

*Craticularia Fittoni, Mant. sp 

*Craticularia subseriata, Runn. sp. 

Sphenaulax costata, Goldf. sja 

Sporadopylo obliqua, Goldf. sp 

Sporadopyle texturata, Goldf. sp. . . 

Sporadopyle ramosa, Quenst. sp. ... .. 

Sporadopyle Santanderi, Hinde .... 

Sporadopyle, sp 

*Strephinia convoluta, Hinde 

*Strepbinia reteforrais, Ilinde 

Verrucococlia verrucosa, Goldf. sp. . . 

Vorrucoooolia gregaria, Quenst. sp. . . 
*Verrucocoolia tubulata, T. Smith, sp. 
*Verrucocoelia Veotensis, Hinde .... 

*Stauronema Carteri, Sollas 

*Stauroi]ema planum, Hinde 

Stauronema eompactum, Hinde .... 

Sestrodictyon convolutum, Hinde . . 

Brachiospougia digitata, D. Owen, sp. 



PALEOZOIC. 



MESOZOIC. 



* 
* 



CEETACEOnS. 



go 






u ■ 

o ^ ^ 
- C nj 



o So 



* 

* 



S:f2 









KAINOZOIC. 



TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 



217 





PALAEOZOIC. 


MESOZOIO. 


KAINOZOIC. 


c 

a 

O 


i 

> 

o 




.5 

o 


§ 

e 

.a- 

1 

o 


6 

.2 
'u 
H 




Cretaceous. 


i 

o 


G 
0* 

.1 

i 

CD 

§ 


1 


9 a 

ii 

'^1 




Cenomanian or 

Upper Green Sand and 

Cbloritic Marl. 


is 

C5 


O 

s 
p 


Family COSCINOPOIIID^, Zhtel. 
*Leptophragma Murchisoni, Oolclf. sp 




















* 


* 


* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 






^T.piifjOnhr.i'^niti frafilis Ttifin. SD 




















*Plpiirostoiiia ViidLiituni R<>'))i . 
















































*fiiiptt.T.rflia stellata Mich . . . . 






















* 






















* 


^no^ciiioDora iiifiindibiiliformia Goldf sn. 




















*r!n<;oi'nonora ouincuiicialis 2^ Stntth. st) 
























Family MELLITIONID^, Zittel 
* Anhrooallistes alveolites. Rcem. SD 
























Family VENTRICULITID^, Zittel. 
Paohyteichisma Carteri, Zitt 














* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 










Pachvteichisma lopas, Quenst. sp 














Pachytoichisma, sp 














Trochobolus crassioostus, Zitt 














Trochobolus luoernus, Koniq 














Trochobolus constrictus, Hiiide 














PhlycUenium ooniformis, Quenst. sp 














*Ventrioiilites radiatus, Mant 














*Ventrioulites imprcssus, T. Smith 
























*Veiitriculites eonvolutus, Hinde 
























Ventriculites jjoculum, Zitt 
























*Ventnculites deuurrens, T. Smith 
























*Ventriculites mammillaris, T. Smith 
























*Ventriculites infundibuliformis, S. Woodw. 
























*Ventriculites cribrosus, Phill. sp 
























*Veiitrieulites angustatus, licem. sp 
























*Veiitriculites alcyouoides, Mant 
























f^chizorhabdus libycus, Zitt 
























*llhizopoterioii cervicorne, Goldf. sp 
























*Sporadoscinia micronimata, Ra'm. sp 
























Sporadoscinia Decbeui, Goldf. sp 
























*Sporadoscinia capax, Hinde 






















* 
* 


*Sestrocladia furcatus, Hinde 






















*Cceloseyphia sulcata, Tate 






















Polvblastidium lusurians, Zitt 
























*Polyblastidium raccraosum, T. Smith, sp 
























*Polyblastidium tuberosum, T. Smith, sp 
























*C'eplialites lougitudiualis, T. Smith 
























*Cephalites paradoxus, T. Smith 
























*Ceplialites Benettiae, Mant 

















































2f 



218 



TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 



• 


PALEOZOIC. 


MESOZOIC. 


KAINOZOIC. 


a 


c 

OS 

V 
o 

o 


i 

CO 


d 

'S 
o 

R 


1 

03 


3 

'u 


1 

3 
1-s 


Cketaceous. 


a 


c 

Ph 
■a 

CI 


S c 

s £: 

O i. 

'a 


3 


Cenomanian or 

Upper Green Sand and 

Chloritic Marl. 


ji 2 

Jo 
o S 

C5 


O 


*Dpnhnlitos nltpiTifina T i^witli 
























* 
* 
* 

* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 

* 
* 
* 






*npnliali)-ps hiillatus T Smith . . 
























*r!pnhalitp^ raf.pnifpr 7^ Synith . . 
























FamUy STAURODERillD.E, Ziltel. 
Cj'pellia rugosa, Gohlf. sp 














* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 


* 




* 


* 


Cypellia infundibwliformis, GulJf. sp 














Cypellia coespitosa, Quenst. sp 














CvpeUia libera, Quenst. sp 














Stauroderma Lochense, Quenst. sp 














Stauroderma ? c)'liudratum, Quenst. sp 














Purisiphonia Clarkci, Bow 














Porocvpellia pvrLformis, Goldf. sp 














* 
* 
* 
* 


Casearia articulata, Goldf. sp 














Porospongia marginata, Goldf. sp 














Porospongia impressa, Muast. sp 














*Ophrystoma micrommatum, litehi. sp 

*Oplirystoiiia oceUatuin, Seeleu, sp 














*Placotreiiia cretaceum, Hinde 




















*Cincliderma quadrat um, Hinde 
























*Eubrochus clausus, Sollas 




















* 

* 
* 
* 
* 


* 
* 

* 


*Protospongia fenestrata, Salter 


* 






* 












Dictyopbyton tuberosum, Conrad, sp 


*Dictyopbvton Danbyi, M'Coij, sp 






* 
* 


*Plectoderma soitulum, Hinde 






Family ilEANDROSPONGID.E, Zittd. 
*Plocoscyphia fenestrata, T. Smith, sp 






*Plocoseypbia labrosa, T. Smith, sp 




















*Plocoscypbia pertusa, Geinitz 
















* 




*Plocoseyphia reticulata, Hinde 
















*Plocoscvpbia subruta, Quenst. sp 




















*Plocoscypbia convoluta, 1. Smith, sp 






















*Plocoscyphia flexuosa, Mant. sp 
























*Plocoscyphia labyrinthica, Mant. sp 
























*Plocosc)'pbia vagans, Hinde 
























*Ploco8cypliia foliacea, T. Smith, sp 
























*Plocoscvplua elegans, T. Smith, sp 
























*Tremabolites perforatus, T. Smith, sp 
























*Etberidgia mirabUis, Tate 
























*Toulmiuia obliqua, Hinde 
























Toulminia jurassica, Hinde 














* 










*Camerospongia subrotunda, Mant. sp 














*Camorospongia capitata, T. S)»ith, sp 
























Camerospongia fungiformis, Goldf. sp 

















































TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 



219 



Camorospongia turbinata, Oiehel, sp 

*Camerospongia campaiiulata, T. Smith, sp. 
*Camerospongia aperta, HincJe 

Cystispongia bursa, Quenst. sp 



PALEOZOIC. 



Family CALLODIGTrONID^, Zitiel. 

*Callodictyon angiistatuni, Hincle 

*Porocbonia simplex, T. Smith, sp 

Becksia Soekelandi, Schliiter 

Diplodictyon heteromorphum, Reuss, sp. 

*Diplodictyou Bayfieldi, ffinde 

'■'Solcrokalia Cimningtoui, Hinde 



Family CCELOPTYCHID.E, Zittd. 



*Coeloptj'chium agaricoides, GoUf. 
*Coelophycbium dcciniinum, Ram. 
*C(Eloptychium furcatum, Tate . . . 

Coeloptychium Seebaehii, Zitt. . . . 

Coeloptychium sulciferum, Ra'm. . 

Coeloptychium lobatum, Gulclf. 



Suborder Ltssakina, Zittel. 

Family MONAKID^, Marshall. 

Astrffiospongia meniscus, Roem. 

Astraiospongia patina, Rcem 

*Stauractinella cretacea, Hinde 



FamUy POLLAKIDiE, Marsliall. 

*Hyalostelia Smithii, Young and Young, sp. 

*Hyalostelia parallela, IP Coif, sp 

*Hyalostelia fasciculus, APC'oy, sp 

*Hyalostelia fusiformis, Hinde 

*Holasterella conferta, Carter 

*Holasterella Youngi, Hinde 

*Holasterella Wrightii, Carter 

♦Holasterella Benuiei, Hinde 



Incert^ sedis. 

*Amphispongia oblonga, Salt . . . 
Mortiera vertebralis, De Koninck 



o 



MESOZOIC. 



Cretaceous. 



go 

O tH 

c 

1-1 



O 



I COS 

i oj ■ r^ 
■ t S 



JO 

a I 



O 

a, 



KAINOZOIC. 



2 f2 



220 



TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 



Division II. CALCAREOUS SPONGES. 

Order CALCISPOA'GI^, Blainvilh. 
Family PHAEETEONES, Zittel. 



Eudea Manon, Miinst. sp 

Eudea polymorpha, Klipst. sp 

Eudca clavata, Lamx 

Eudea perforata, Qnenst. sp 

Eudea globata, Quensl. sp 

Eudea pisa, Qnenst. sp , 

Eudea hirsuta, Qucnst. sp 

Colospongia dubia, M'dnst. sp 

Enoplocffilia armata, Klipst. sp 

Celyphia submarginata, M'dast. sp 

Hiinatclla miUeporata, M'dnxt. sp 

Peronella subosespitosa, Miinst. sp 

*Peronella cymosa, Lamx. sp 

*Peronella pistilliibrmis, Lamx. sjj 

Peronella clavariuides, Lamx. sp 

*Peronella mamillifcra, Lamx. sp 

*PeroneUa tenuis, Hinde 

Peronella inflata, Hinde 

*Perouella eylindrica, Ooldf. sp 

Peronella radiciformis, Qnenst. sp 

Peronella Michelini, Etallon, sp 

Peronella nodulosa, Qnenst. sp 

Peronella clavata, Bcrm. sp 

Peronella truncata, I<'rom. sp 

*Peronella raraosa, Ewm. sp 

*PeroneUa Gillieroni, Loriol, sp 

*Peronella prolifera, Hinde 

Peronella flabeUata, D'Orhigni/, sp 

*Peronella furoata, Ooldf. sp 

Peronella ramosissima, Dun 

Peronella ooellata, Hinde 

*Tremaoystia D'Orbignyi, Hinde 

*Tremaoystia sipbonioides, Jl/(V7i. sp. . . , 

Tremacystia cribrosa, Gold/, sp 

*Tremacystia anastomans, Mant. sp. 

*Tremaeystia irregularis, Hinde 

*Tremaoy8tia clavata, Keepinrj, sp 

*ElasmocoBlia crassa, From, sp 

*Elasmoooelia Farringdonensis, Mant. sp. 
*Elasmocoelia Mantelli, Hinde 



PALEOZOIC. 



MESOZOIC. 



Ceetaceous. 



o 



9 o.H 

a £-E 

SI. 



* 
* 



* 
* 
* 



KAINOZOIC. 



& 
P 



TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 



221 



Conoeoelia crassa, From, sp 

Couocoelia centrolsevis, Eirm. sp 

*EusiplionelIa Bronnii, AJilnst. sp 

Eusiphoiiella intermedia, Miinst. sp. . 

Eusiphonella perplexa, Querist, sp. . . . 

Corynella gracilis, Miinst. sp 

Corynella pyriformis, KUpst. sp 

Corynella rosa, Lauhc, sp 

Corynella astroites, Miinst. sp 

Corynella eapitata, Miinst. sp 

Corynella lyoopcrdioides, Latn. sp. ... 

Corynella costata, Sta/il, sp 

Corynella Quenstedti, Zitt 

Corynella aspera, From, sp 

Corynella madrcporata, Qiiensf. sp. . . 
*Corynella foraminosa, OoJdf. sp 

Corynella tctragona, Goklf. sp 

*Corynella rugosa, Hinde 

*Corynella socialis, Hinde 

Corynella multidigitata, Mich 

Myrmecium hieroglypha, Klipst. sp. . 

Myrmecinm hemisphericum, Ooldf. sp. 

Myrmecium indutum, Quenst. sp. ... 

*Lymnorea mamillosa, Lam.v 

*Inobolia inclusa, Hinde 

Stellispongia rotularis, Miinst. sp. . . . 

Stellispongia variabilis, Miinst. sp. . . . 

Stellispongia hybrida, Miinst. sp 

*Stellispongia stellata, Lam.v. sp 

*Stellispongia corallina, From. sp. 

Stellispongia glomerata, Quenst. sp. . . . 
*Stelli.spongia semicincta, Quenst. sp. . 

Sestrostomella cribrata, Quenst. sp. . . . 

Sestrostomella rugosa, Hinde 

Sestrostomella clavata, Hinde 

Traohysinia aspera, Hinde 

Trachysinia solitaria, Hinde 

Trachjsinia minor, Ilinde 

Elastinia costata, Goldf. sp 

Blastinia alata, Quenst. sp 

*Synopella pulvinaria, Goldf. sp 

Synopella sphtcrica, Mich, sp 

Synopclla Goldfussi, Hinde 

Oculospongia binoculata, Quenst. sp. . 
*Oculospongia dilatata, Bam. sp 

Oculospongia tubulifera, Goldf. sp. . . . 

Crispispongia pezizoides, Zitt 



PALEOZOIC. 



i 



MESOZOIO. 



Cretaceous. 



a ^ 



g c 3 

§ g-- 
§ "'S 

o So 

CL, 



* 
* 






iX^ 



a- 

d5 






EAINOZOIC. 



222 



TABULAE LIST OF SPECIES. 





PALAEOZOIC. 


MESOZOIC. 


EAINOZOIC. 


i 

6 


i 

o 

t 
o 


i 


•a 

1 


1 

1 


.2 


6 


Oeetaceous. 


6 

§ 


6 

a 

§ 
o 

OS 

a 

§ 


S c 

a £ 

o 




i a .2 

ill 

o So 
a. 




O 

c 


r^risrtifinono'ifi exnansa. OttCHst. . . 












* 
* 
* 


* 




* 
* 




* 
* 

* 

* 












1 




















Elasmostoma acutimargo, Bcein. sp 

*T<llnsTnf>stoiiia, Normanianiini. jyOrh. sn 














*FllnsTnostiOTna con sob I'll! um lyOth sd. 




















*Klfl«TTiostoTna scitulTiin Hindi', 




















*T*llasTnostotna crasfluin Hituli? 












































* 




TClflsmostoma suliDPziya IXOrh sd 




































* 
* 
* 
* 




* 

* 
* 




















































































* 




















^Pachx't.iloflia iufundibuliformis. Goldf. sd. 




















FamUy SYCONES, Haed-el. 
Protosvcon nunctatiiin. Goldf. ST). 














* 
* 






iNCERTiE SEDIS. 

Bactronella pusillum, Hinde 





























223 



TABULAR LIST OF SPECIES, 

ARRANGED IN STRATIGRAPHICAL SEQUENCE. 



The asterisk indicates that the forms thus marked occur in British strata. 



PALEOZOIC. 

CAMBRIAN SYSTEM. 

Order Hexactinellid^. 
*Protospongia fenestrata^ Salter. 

ORDOVIAN SYSTEM. 

Order Hexactinellid^. 

Brachiospongia digitata, D. Owen. 
*Hyalostelia parallela, M'Coy. sp. 
*Hyalostelia fasciculus, M'Coy, sp. 



SILURIAN SYSTEM. 



Order Monactinelliu^. 
Climacospongia radiata, Hinde. 

Order LiTHisTiDiE. 

Hindia fibrosa, Rmm. sp. 
Aulocopium cylindraceum, Ram. 

Incekt.e sedis. 
*Amphispongia oblonga, Salt. 



Order IIexactinellidjj. 

Astylospongia prsemorsa, Goldf. sp. 

Astylospongia stellatim-sulcata, Rwm. 

Astylospongia inciso-lobataj Rccm. 

Astylospongia imbricato-articulata, Rwm. 

Astylospongia Roemeri, Hinde. 

Palseomanon cratcra, Rwm. 
*Dictyopbytou Daubyi, M'Coy, sp. 
*Plectoderma scitulum, Hinde. 

Astrseospongia ineniscus. Ram. 

Astrseospongia patina, Rwm. 



224 



STEATIGEAPHICAL LIST OF SPECIES. 



DEVONIAN SYSTEM. 



Order Monactinellid^e. 
Lasiocladia compressa, Hinde. 



Order Hexactinellid^. 
Dietyophyton tuberosum, Conrad, sp. 



Order Monactinellid^ 

*Reniera ? Carteri, Hinde. 
*Haplistion fractum, Hinde. 



CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM. 

Order HexactinellidjE. 

*Hyalostelia Smitliii, Yotmg ^ Young, sp. 



Order Tetractinelhd^. 

*Geodia? antiqua, Hinde. 
*Pacliastrella vetusta, Hinde. 



Order LithistidjE. 
*Doryderma Dalryense, Hinde. 



*Hyalostelia parallela, M'Coy, sp. 
*Holasterella conferta. Carter. 
*Holasterella Youngi, Hinde. 
*IIolasterella Wriglitii, Carter. 
*Holasterella Beuuiei, Hinde. 

Incert^ sedis. 
Mortiera vertebralis, de Koninck. 



MESOZOIC. 



TRIASSIC SYSTEM. 



Order CALCispoNGi.f:. 

Eudea Manon, Miinsf. sp. 
Eudea polymorpha, Klipst. sp. 
Colospongia dubia, Milnst. sp. 
Enoplocoelia armata, Klipst. sp. 
Celypbia submargiuata, Miinst. sp. 
Himatella milleporata, Milnst. sp. 
Peronella subesespitosa, Miinst. sp. 



Corynella gracilis, Miinst. sp. 
Corynella pyriformis, Klipst. sp. 
Corynella rosa, Laube, sj). 
Corynella astroites, Miinst. sp. 
Corynella capitata, Miinst. sp. 
Myrmecium liieroglyplia, Klipst. sp. 
Stellispongia rotularis, Miinst. sp. 
Stellispongia variabilis, Miinst. sp. 
Stellispongia hybrida, Miinst. sp. 



JURASSIC SYSTEM. 



Order Monactinellid*. 
*Spongilla Purbeckensis, Young. 

Order Lithistid^. 

Cnemidiastrum stellatura, Goldf. sp. 
Cnemidiastrum striato-punctatum, Goldf. sp. 
Cnemidiastrum corallinum, Quenst. sp. 
Cnemidiastrum Hoheneggeri, Zitt. 
Cnemidiastrum rimulosum, Goldf. sp. 



Cnemidiastrum pluristellatum, Zitt. 
Corallidium diceratiuum, Quenst. sp. 
Hyalotragos patella, Goldf. sp. 
Hyalotragos radiatum, Goldf. sp. 
Hyalotragos reticulatum, Miinst. sp. 
Hyalotragos rugosum, Miinst. sp. 
Hyalotragos pezizoides, Goldf. sp. 
Pyrgochonia acetabulum, Goldf. sp. 
Leiodorella expansa, Zitt. ■ 



STEATIGRAPHICAL LIST OF SPECIES— JURASSIC SYSTEM. 



225 



Platyeliouia auriformis, Quenst. sp. 
Platychonia vagaus, Quenst. sp. 
Platychonia, sp. 
Placonella perforata, Hinde. 
Cylindrophyma milleporatum, Goldf. sp. 
Melonella radiata, Quenst. sp. 

Order HEXACTINELLIDiE. 

Tremadictyon reticulatum, Goldf. sp. 
Tremadictyoii obliquatum, Quenst. sp. 
Craticularia clatlirata, Goldf. sp. 
Craticularia parallela, Goldf. sp. 
Craticularia decorata, Munst. sp. 
Craticularia paradoxa, Miinst. sp. 
Sphenaulax costata, Goldf. sp. 
Sporadopyle obliqua, Goldf. sp. 
Sporadopyle texturata, Goldf. sp. 
Sporadopyle ramosa, Quenst. sp. 
Sporadopyle, sp. 

Verrucoccfilia verrucosa, Goldf. sp. 
Verrucoccelia gregaria, Quenst. sp. 
Pachyteiehisma Carteri, Zilt. 
Pachyteichisma lopas, Quenst. sp. 
Pachyteiehisma, sp. 
Trochobolus crassicostus, Zitt. 
Trochobolus lucernus, Konig. 
Trochobolus constrictus, Hinde. 
Phlyctsenium couiformis, Quenst. sp. 
CypelJia rugosa, Goldf. sp. 
Cypellia infundibuliformis, Goldf. sp. 
Cypellia csespitosa, Quenst. sp. 
Cypellia libera, Quenst. sp. 
Stauroderma Lochense, Quenst. sp. 
Stauroderraa ? cyliudratum, Quenst. sp. 
Porocypellia pyriformis, Goldf. sp. 
Casearia articulata, Goldf. sp. 
Porospongia marginata, Goldf. sp. 
Porospongia impressa, Miinst. sp. 
Toulminia jurassica, Hinde. 

Order CALCispoNGiiE. 

Eudea clavata, Lama;. 
Eudea perforata, Quenst. sp. 



Eudea globata, Quenst. sp. 
Eudea pisa, Quenst. sp. 
Eudea liirsuta, Quenst. sp. 
*PeronelIa cymosa, Lamx. sp. 
*Peronella pistilliforniis, Lamx. sp. 
Peronella clavarioides, Lamx. sp. 
*Peronella mamillifcra, Lamx. sp. 
*Perouella teuuis, Hinde. 
Peronella inflata, Hinde. 
*Peronella cyliudrica, Goldf. sp. 
Peronella radiciforiuis, Quenst. sp. 
Peronella Michelini, Etallon, sp. 
Peronella nodulosa, Quenst. sp. 
*Eusiphonella Broniiii, Miinst. sp. 
Eusiphonella intermedia, Miinst. sp. 
Eusiphonella perplexa, Quenst. sp. 
Corynella lycoperdioides, Lamx. sp. 
Corynella costata, Stahl, sp. 
Corynella Quenstedti, Zitt. 
Corynella aspera. From. sp. 
Corynella madreporata, Quenst. sp. 
Myrmecium hemispliericum, Goldf. sp. 
Myrmecium iudutum, Quenst. sp. 
*Lymnorea mamillosa, Lamx. 
*Inobolia inclusa, Hinde. 
*Stellispongia stellata, Lamx. sp. 
*Stellispongia corallina, From. sp. 

Stellispongia glomerata, Quenst. sp. 
*Stellispongia semicincta, Quenst. sp. 
Sestrostomella cribrata, Quenst. sp. 
Trachysinia aspera, Hinde. 
Trachysinia solitaria, Hinde. 
Trachysinia minoi', Hinde. 
Blastiuia costata, Goldf. sp. 
Blastinia alata, Quenst. sp. 
Oculospongia binoculata, Quenst. sp. 
Crispispongia pezizoides, Zitt. 
Crispispongia expansa, Quenst. 
*Diaplectia auricula, Hinde. 
*Diaplectia helvelloidcs, Lamx. sp. 
Protosycon punctatum, Guldf. sp. 
Bactronella pusillum, Hinde. 



226 



STEATIGEAPHICAL LIST OF SPECIES. 



CRETACEOUS SYSTEM. 



Neocomian or Lower Green Sand 
Order Lithistid^. 
*Mastosia neocomiensis, Hinde. 



Order Hexactinellid.e. 

Sporadopyle Santanderi, Hinde. 
Purisiphonia Clarkei, Bow. 
*Plocoscyphia pertusa, Gein. 

Order Calcispongi^e. 

Peronella clavata, Roem. sp. 

Peronella truncata, From. sp. 
*Peronella ramosa, Rcem. sp. 
*Peronella Gillieroni, Loriol, sp. 
*Peronella prolifera, Hinde. 

Peronella flabellata, D'Orbiff. sp. 
*Tremacystia anastomaus, Mant. sp. 



*Tremacystia irregularis^ Hinde. 
*Treinacystia clavata, Keeping, sp. 
*Elasmocoelia crassa. From. sp. 
*Elasmocoelia Farringdoneusis, Muni. sp. 
*Elasmocoelia Mantelli, Hinde. 

Conoccelia crassa, From. sp. 

Conocoelia centrolaevis, Rcem. sp. 
*Corynella foraminosa, Goldf. sp. 
*Syiiopella pulvinaria, Goldf. sp. 
*Oculospongia dilatata, Roem. sp. 

Elasmostoma acutimargo, Roem. sp. 
*Raphidoiiema contortum, Hinde. 
*Raphidoiiema porcatum, Sharpe, sp. 
*Rapliidoneiiia jjustulatum, Hinde. 
*Kapliidonema macropora, Sharpe, sp. 
*E.aphidonema Farriugdouense, Sharpe, sp. 



Gault. 

Order Lithistid^e. 
*Jcrea reticulata, Hinde. 



Cenomaxian or Upper Green Sand and Chloritic M.\rl. 



Order Lithistid^. 

Scliscothon giganteus, Roem. sp. 
*Chenendopora f uugiformis, Lamv. 
*Chenendopora Michelinii, Hinde. 

Chenendopora pocillum, Mich. 
*Jerea cylindrica, Hinde. 

Coelocorypha, sp. 
*Doryderma dichotomum, Benett, sp. 
*Doryderma Benetti, Hinde. 
*Holodictyon capitatum, Hinde. 
*Pachypoterion robustum, Hinde. 
*Pachypoterioii compactum, Hinde. 
*Nematinion calyculum, Hinde. 

Carterella cylindrica, Zitt. 
*Phymatella nodosa, Hinde. 
*Trachysycon nodosum, Hinde. 



Siplionia piriformis, Goldf. 
*Siph.onia tulipa, Zitt. 

Siphonia incrassata, Goldf. 
*Hallirhoa costata, Lamx. 
*Hallirhoa costata, var. brevicostata, Mich. 

Hallirhoa costata, var. Tessonis, Mich. 
*HalIirhoa costata, var. elevata, Hinde. 
* Hallirhoa agariciformis, Benett, sp. 

Jerea pyriformis, Lamx. 
*Jerea Websteri, Sowerby, sp. 
*Jerea reticulata, Hinde. 
■*Polyjerea arbuscula, Hinde. 
*Polyjerea lobata, Hinde. 
*Ka]pinella patera;formis, Hinde. 
*Kalpinella rugosa, Hinde. 
*Rliopalospongia gregaria, Benett, sp. 
*Rhopalospongia obliqua, Hinde. 



STRATIGEAPHICAL LIST OF SPECIES— CRETACEOUS SYSTEM. 



22/ 



Older Hexactinellid^e. 

*Craticularia Fittoni, Mant. sp. 
*Stauronema Cartcri, Sollas. 

Stauronema compactum, Hinde. 

Sestrodictyon convolutum, Hinde. 
*Leptopliragma Murchisoni, Goldf. s\>. 

Guettardia radians, Hinde. 
*Ophrystoma ocellatum, Seeley, sp. 
*Eubrochus clausus, Sollas. 
*Plocoscypliia fenestrata, T. Smith, sp. 
*Plocoscyphia labrosa, T. Smith, sp. 

Plocoscyphia pertusa, Gein. 
*Plocoscyphia reticulata, Hinde. 

Sclerokalia Cunningtoni, Hinde. 

Order Calcispongi/e. 
*Peronella fureata, Goldf. sp. 
Peronella ramosissima. Dun. 



*Tremacystia D'Orbignyi, Hinde. 
*Tremaeystia siphonioides, Mich. sp. 

Tremacy.stia cribrosa, Goldf. sp. 

Corynella foraminosa, Goldf. sp. 

Corynella tetragona, Goldf. sp. 
*Corynella rugosa, Hinde. 
*Corynella socialis, Hinde. 

Corynella multidigitata, Mich. sp. 
■ Sestrostomella rugosa, Hinde. 

Sestrostomella clavata, Hinde. 

Synopclla spbserica, Mich. sp. 
*Elasmostoma Normanianum, D'Orb. sp. 
*Elasmostoma consobrinum, D'Orb. sp. 

Elasmostoma plicatum, Hinde. 

Rapbidonema stellatum, Goldf. sp. 
*Pharetrospongia Strahani, Sollas. 
*Pacbytilodia infundibuliformis, Goldf. sp. 



Geet Chalk, 

Order Lithistid^e. 
*Stacbyspongia spica, Rmm. sp. 
■*Sipboiiia ficus, Goldf. 

Jerea Quenstedti, Zitf. 
*Jerea cordiformis, Hinde. 
*Nelumbia tuberosa, Hinde. 
*Polyjerea arbuscula, Hinde. 
*Polyjerea lobata, Hinde. 
*Thamnospongia ? reticulata, Hinde. 

Order HEXACTINELLIDiE. 

*Craticularia Fittoni, Mant. sp. 
*Strephinia convoluta, Hinde. 



Chalk Marl, and Lower Chalk. 

*Strephinia reteformis, Hinde. 
*Verrucoccelia Vectensis, Hinde. 
*Stauronema Carteri, Sollas. 
*Stauronema planum, Hinde. 
*Leptopbragma Murchisoni, Goldf. sp. 
*Guettardia stellata, Mich. 
*Sporadoscinia capax, Hinde. 
*Sestrocladia furcatus, Hinde. 
*Ophrystoma micrommatum, Rcem. sp. 
*Ploeoscyphia fenestrata, T. Smith, sp. 
*Plocoscyphia labrosa, T. Smith, sp. 
*Plocoscyphia subruta, Quenst. sp. 



Upper Chalk and Maestricht Chalk. 

Order Monactinellid.e. i Order TetractinelliD/E. 



*Dirrhopalum planum, Hinde. 
*Acanthoraphis intertextus, Hinde. 
*Cliona cretacea, Portlock, sp. 
*Cliona glomerata, Morris, sp. 
*Cliona? Mantelli, Wetherell, sp. 
*Ciiona, sp. 



*Ophiraphidites anastomans, Hinde. 
*Tethyopsis cretaceus, Hinde. 
*Stelletta inclusa, Hinde. 
*Geodia ? clavata, Hinde. 
*Geodia? coronata, Hinde. 
*Geodia? Wrightiij Hinde. 



228 



STEATIGEAPHICAL LIST OF SPECIES— CEETACEOUS SYSTEM. 



*Theuea, sp. 

Pachastrella priniteva, Zitt. 
*Pachastrella convoluta, H'lnde. 
*Pachastrella plana, Hinde. 

Order Lithistid.e. 

Bolidium palmatuin, Rcem. sp. 

Chonella tenuis, Rmm. sp. 

Chonella auriformis, Rmm. sp. 
*Seliscotlion planus, P/iill. sp. 
*Seliscothon explanatus, Rcem. sp. 

Seliscothon Mantelli, Goldf. sp. 

Seliscothon testa-florum, Querist, sp. 

Seliscothon, sp. 

Chenendopora fungiformis, Lamx. 

Verruculina seriatopora, Rcem. sp. 
*yerrueulina plicata, Hinde. 
*Verruculiua astrsea, Hinde. 
*Verruculina convoluta, Queiist. sp. 
*Verruculina pustulosa, Hinde. 
*Verruculina miliaris, Hinde. 
*Verruculina Reussii, M'Coy, sp. 

Verruculina macromraata, Rwm. sp. 
*Verrucu]ina papillata, Hinde. 

Stichophyma turbinata, Rcem. sp. 
*Sticliophyma tumida, Hinde. 

Jereica punctata, Goldf. sp. 

Jereica polystotna, Rmm. sp. 
*Jereica clava, Lee, sp. 
*Scytalia radiciformis, Phill. sp. 
*Scytalia fastigiata, Lee, sp. 
*Scytalia terebrata, Phill. sp. 
*Stachyspongia spica, Rcem. sp. 
*Pachinion scriptum, Rcem. sp. 
*Doryderma ramosum, Mant. sp. 
*Doryderma Roemeri, Hinde. 
*Heterostinia obliqua, Benett, sp. 

Carterella spiculigera, R(jem. sp. 
*Isorapliinia texta, Rcem. sp. 

Lecanella pateraeformis, Zitt. 
*Phymatella intumescens, Rcem. sp. 

Phymatella heteropora, Rcem. sp. 
*Phymatella reticulata, Hinde. 
*Phymatella, sp. 
Aulaxinia sulcifeia, Rmm. sp. 



*Aulaxinia costata, Hinde. 

Callopegma Schlonbachi, Zitt. 
*Callopegma obconicum, Hinde. 
*Callopegnia ficoideum, Hinde. 
^Trachysycon sulcatum, Hinde. 
*Siphouia Konigi, Mant. sp. 
■^Sijjlionia, sp. 
*Jerea excavata? Mich. 
*Nelumbia tuberosa, Hinde. 
*Bolospongia globata, Hinde. 
*Bolospongia constricta, Hinde. 
*Thecosiphonia nobilis, Rcem. sp. 
*Tliecosiphonia turbinata, Hinde. 

Calymmatina rimosa, Zitt. 
*Turonia variabilis, Mich. 
*Thaninospongia glabra, Hinde. 
*Thamnospongia clavellata, Benett, sp. 
*Pholidocladia dichotomus, Hinde. 
*Pholidocladia ramosus, Hinde. 

Ragadinia rimosa, Rcem. sp. 
*Ragadinia compressa, Hinde. 
*Ragadiuia sulcata, Hinde. 
*Ragadinia clavata, Hinde. 
*Plintliosella squamosa, Zitt. 
*Plintbosella compacta, Hinde. 
*Plinthosella nodosa, Hinde. 
^Plinthosella convoluta, Hinde. 
*Phymaplectia irregularis, Hinde. 
*Phymaplectia spinosa, Hinde. 
*Phymaplectia cribrata, Hinde. 
*Phymaplectia scitula, Hinde. 

Order Hexactinellid.e. 
*Craticularia Fittoni, Mant. sp. 
*Craticularia subseriata, Roem. sp. 
*Verrucocoelia tubulata, T. Smith, sp. 
*Leptopbragma Murcliisoui, Goldf. sp. 
*Leptophragma gracilis, Rwm. sp. 
*Pleurostoma radiatum, Rcem. 

Pleurostoma bohemicum, Zitt. 
*Guettardia stellata, Mich. 
*Coscinopora infuudibuliformis, Goldf. 
*Coscinopora quincuucialis, T. Smith, sp. 
*Apbi'ocallistes alveolites, Ri:em. sp. 
*Ventriculitcs radiatus, Mant. 



STRATIGEAPHICAL LIST OF SPECIES— CEETACEOUS SYSTEM. 



229 



*VentricuUtes impressus, T. Smith. 
^■Ventriculites convolutuSj Hinde. 

Ventriculites poculum, Zitt. 
* Ventriculites decurrens, T. Smith. 
*VentricTilites mammillaris, T. Smith. 
^Ventriculites infundibiiliformis, S. Woodiv. 
■^Ventriculites cribrosus, Phill. sp. 
*Ventriculites angustatus, Roem. sp. 
■^Ventriculites alcyonoides, Mant. 

Schizorliabdus libycus, Zitt. 
*Rliizopoterion cervicorne, Gold/, sp. 
■*Sporadoscinia micrommata, Roem. sp. 

Sporadoscinia Decheui, Goldf. sp. 
*CcEloscypliia sulcata, Tate. 

Polyblastidium luxurians, Zitt. 
*Folyblastidium racemosum, T. Smith, sp. 
■'''Polyblastidium tuberosum, T. Smith, sp. 
*Cepbalites longitudinalis, T. Smith. 
*Cepbalites paradoxus, T. Smith. 
■''■Cephalites Benettise, Mant. sp. 
*Cephalites alternans, T. Smith. 
■*Cephalites buUatus, T. Smith. 
*Cephalitcs catenifer, T. Smith. 
■^Placotrema cretaceum, Hinde. 
■*Cincliderma quadratum, Hinde. 
■*Plocoscypbia convoluta, T. Smith, sp. 
*Plocoscyphia flexuosa, Mant. sp. 
■*Plocoseypliia labyrintbica, Mant. sp. 
*Plocoscyphia vagans, Hinde. 
■*Plocoscypliia foliaeea, T. Smith, sp. 
■''■Plocoscyphia elegans, T. Smith, sp. 
*Tremabolites perforatus, T. Smith, sp. 



■*Etheridgia mirabilis, Tate. 
*Toulminia obliqua, Hinde. 
■'''Camerospongia subrotunda, Mant. sp. 
■^Camerospongia capitata, T. Smith, sp. 

Camerospongia fungiformis, Goldf. sp. 

Camerospongia turbinata, Giebel, sp. 
*Camerospougia campanulata, T. Smith, sp. 
■^Camerospongia ajDcrta, Hinde. 

Cystispongia bursa, Quenst. sp. 
■*Callodictyon angustatum, Hinde. 
■^Porochonia simplex, T. Smith, sp. 

Becksia Scekelandi, Schliiter. 

Diplodictyon beteromorphum, Roem. sp. 
*Diplodictyon Bayfieldi, Hinde. 
■^Coeloptycliium agaricoides, Goldf. 
*Coeloptycliium decimiuum, Ro'm. 
■*Coeloptycbium furcatum, Tate. 

Coeloptycbium Seebachi, Zitt. 

Cceloptychium sulciferum, Roem. 

Coeloptycbium lobatum, Goldf. 
*Stauractinella cretacea, Hinde. 
*Hyalostelia fusiformis, Hinde. 

Order Cilcispongi.e. 

Peronella ocellata, Hinde. 

Synopella Goldfussi, Hinde. 

Oculospongia tubulifera, Goldf. sp. 
*Elasmostoma scitulura, Hinde. 
■^Elasmostoma crassum, Hinde. 

Elasmostoma subpeziza, D'Orbigny, sp. 
■*Pharetrospongia Straliani, Sottas. 



KAINOZOIC SYSTEM. 

Eocene. 
Order Monactinellid.k. 
Clioua, sp. 



Miocene and Pliocene. 

Cliona cretacea, Portlock, sp. 
Cliona, sp. 



231 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



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" Emendatory Description oi Purisiphonia Clarkei, Bk., a Hexactinellid Fossil Sponge 
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2h 



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2h 2 



236 BIBLIOGEAPHT. 

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Neighbourhood of Edinburgh. (Map 32.) 1861. 
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vol. XX., 1864. 
ScHLUTER, C. A. Ueber die Spongitarien Baenke der oberen quadraten und uiiteren mukro- 

naten-Schichten des Miinsterlandes. 1872. 
Schmidt, O. Grundziige einer Spongien Fauna des atlantischcn Gebietes. 1870. 
Sharpe, D. "On the Age of the Fossiliferous Sands and Gravels of Farringdou and its 

Neighbourhood." Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. x., 1854. 
SiMONOWiTSCH, S. " Beitriigc zur Kenntniss der Bryozoen des Essener Griinsandes." Verhand. 

d. nat. Ver. Jahrgang 28, 3 Folge, 8 Band. 
Smith, J. T. " On the Formation of the Flints of the Upper Chalk." Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 

vol. xix., 1847. 
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vol. i., 1848. 
Smith, W. Strata identified by Organized Fossils. 1816. 
SoLLAs, W. J. " On the Coprolitcs of the Upper Greensand Formation and on Flints." Quart. 

Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxix., 1873. 
. " On the Ventriculitoe of the Cambridge Upper Greensand." Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 

vol. xxix., 1873. 
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Bed." Geological Magazine, n. s. vol. iii., 1876. 
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Coprolite Bed." Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxxiii., 1877. 
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Species — S. Carteri and S. lobala." Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xix., 1877. 
. " On the changes produced in the Siliceous Skeletons of certain Sj)Ouges by the Action of 

Caustic Potash." Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xx., 1877. 
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vol. xxxiii., 1877. 
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ser. 5, vol. ii., 1878. 
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vol. xxxvi., 1880. 
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vol. vi., 1880. 
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SowERBY, J. DE C. " Descriptive Notes respecting the Shells figured in plates xi. to xxiii. in 

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Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxi., 1865. 
Thomson, Wyville C. The Depths of the Sea. 1874. 



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Thurmann, J., et Etallon, A. "Lethea Bruntrutana ou Etudes Paleontologiques et Stratigra- 

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Memoires de la Societe lielvetique des Sciences Naturellcs, 1859. 
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tome iii., 1838. 
Webster, T. "On some new Varieties of Fossil Alcyonia." Trans. Geol. Soc. vol. ii., ISli. 
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Whitfield, R. P. " On the Nature of Dictyophyton." American Jour, of Science, vol. xxii., 

1881. 
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Young, J., Armstrong, J., and Robertson, J. Catalogue of the Western Scottish Fossils. 1876. 
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Mineralogie &c., 1878. 
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Geologic und Pala3ontologie, 1877, 1878, 1879. 
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INDEX. 



The names of genera and species which are regarded as synonyms, or invalid, are printed in italics. 



Page 

Acanthoraphis, Hinde 13, 20 

iutertextus, Hinde 20 

Acantliospnnffia timithii, Yoimg and Young 150 

Acestra jntrallela, Rcem 151 

Achilleuin auriformis, Ra3m 31 

costatum, Goldf. 190 

formosum, Reuss 135 

tuherusmn, Goldf. 47 

Alcyonite, Park 48, 49, 107, 114, 172 

Alcyonite, funnel form, W. Smith 52, 114 

Alcyonites costata, Stahl 180 

Alcyonium chonoiths, Mant 108 

Amblysiphouella, Steinm 10 

Amm-phospongia palmata, Rcem 31 

Amphispougia, Salt 10, 154 

oblonga, Salt 154 

Amphithelion, Zitt 35 

convoluta, Zitt 38 

maorommata, Zitt 40 

miliare, Zitt 39 

Antrisponyia dilabyrinthica, Quenst 133 

Aphrocallistes, Gray 13, lOG 

alveolites, Rcem 106 

ArchiBocyathus, Bill 10 

Astrseospongia, Rwm 10, 148 

meniscus, JRcem 148 

patina, Rcem 149 

Astrobolia, Zitt 74 

Astrocladia, Zitt 13, 78 

Astrospongia corallina, Et 18G 

Astylospongia, Ram 10, 58, 91 

imbricato-articulata, Rcem 92 

inciso-lobata, Rcem 92 

prsemorsa, Goldf. 92 

— - — 'i Rcemeri, Hinde 92 

stellatim-sulcata, Rcem 92 



Page 

Astylospongidse 91 

Aulaxinia, Zitt 13, 60 

costata, Hinde tiO 

sulcifera, Rcem 00 

Aulocopina, Bill. 10 

Aulocopium, Osivald 10, 58 

cyliudraceum, Ros>n 58 

Authors, List of 231 

Bactronella, Hinde 205 

pusUlum, Hinde 205 

Barroisia, Steinm 171 

anastotnans, Steinm 175 

Becksia, Schl 13, 144 

Soekelandi, Schl 1.44 

Bicupula lata, Court 33 

Blastinia, Zitt 11, ItK) 

alata, Quenst 190 

costata, Goldf. 190 

Bltimenbachium meniscus, Roem 148 

Bolidium, Zitt 13, 31 

palmatum, Rcem 31 

BolospoDgia, Hinde 13, 73 

constricta, Hinde 74 

globata, Hinde 74 

Bothroconis, King 10 

Brachiolites angularis, T. Smith 104 

convolutus, T. Smith 136 

digitatus, T. Smith 94 

eleyans, T. Smith 138 

fenestratus, T. Smith 1.33 

Fittoni, Morris 94 

foliaceus, T. Smith 137 

lahrosus, T. Smith 13.3 

racemosns, T. Smith 119 

tuberosus, T. Smith 119 



240 



ESTDEX. 



Page 

Brachiolifes tuhdatiis, T. Smith 97 

Brachiospongia, Marsh 10, 102 

digitata, D. Owen 102 

Lr/onii, Marsh 102 

Ramerana, Marsh 102 

Calamoporajibrosa, Roem 57 

Calathium, BUI 10 

Calcareous Sponges 157 

, changes produced by fossilization 8 

replaced by silica 8 

Calcispongiie, Blainv 2, 157 

Oallodictyon, Zitt 13, 142 

angnstatmn, Hinde 142 

Callodictyonidfe, Zitt 142 

Callopegma, Zitt 01 

acaule, Zitt 01 

ficoideum, Hinde 01 

obconiciim, Hinde 01 

Schlouhachi, Zitt 01 

Calymmatina, Zitt 13, 70 

rimosa, Zitt 70 

Cambrian species, List of 223 

Camerospongia, DOrh 13, 140 

aperta, Hinde 142 

campauulata, T. Smith 141 

capitata, T. Smith 140 

f ungiformis, Ooldf. 141 

subrotmida, Mant 140 

turbinata, Giehel 141 

Carboniferous species. List of 224 

Carterella, Zitt 12; 13, 55 

cylindiiea, Zitt 55 

spiculigera, Rccm 55 

Casearia, Qiienst 11, 125 

articulata, Gold/. 125 

Catafftna, Sollas 107 

Farrint/duneims, Soil 200 

macroptira, Soil 199 

pnrcatmn, SoU 198 

Celyphia, Pomel 11, 103 

submarginata, Miinst 103 

Cenomanian species, List of 226 

Cephalites, T. Smith 13, 120 

alternans, T. Smith 121 

Benettis, Mant 121 

buUatus, T. Smith 122 

bursa, Queust 142 

campnnulatns, T. Smith 141 

cnpitatus, T. Smith 140 

catenifer, T. Smith 122 

compressas, T. Smith 122 

cmistrictu3, T. Smith 140 

(jntt<itiis, T. Smith 120 

longitudinalis, T. Smith 120 

paradoxus, T. Smith 121 

perforatus, T. Smith 138 



Page 

Cephalites polystoma, Quenst 138 

retnmis, T. Smith 123 

Ceratospongife, Bronn 1 

Ceriopora, Goldf. 171 

clavata, Goldf. 205 

cribrnsa, Goldf 174 

Chalk (Grey) species. List of 227 

(Lower) species, List of 227 

Marl species. List of 227 

(Upper) species. List of 227 

Changes in structure by fossilization 4 

Chenendopora, Lam.r 12, 13, 33, 51 

explaiiata, Bam 32 

fiingif ormis, Lamx 33, 199 

Michelinii, Hinde 34 

obliqna, Mich 54 

Parkinsonis, Mich 35 

pocillum, Mich 35 

tenuis, Mmm 38, 39 

Chloritic Marl species. List of 226 

Choanites, Mant 64 

fe.ruosits, Mant 64, 136 

Konii/i, Mant 65 

svbrotuttdus, Mant 64, 140 

Chonella, Zitt 13, 31 

auriformis, liwyn 31 

tenuis, Boo7n 31 

Cincliderma, Hinde 13, 127 

quadratum, Hinde 128 

Clathrispongia perlata, Quenst 94 

trochiformis, Quenst 94 

ventricosa, Quenst 94 

Climacospongia, Hinde 10, 18 

radiata, Hinde 18 

Cliona, Grant 13, 21 

cretacea, Portl 21 

glomerata, Morris 22 

? Mantelli, Weth 22 

sp 22 

Clionites Conybeari, Morris 21 

(/lotnerata, Morr 22 

Mantelli, Weth 22 

Cnemidiastrum, Zitt 11, 28 

corallinum, Quenst 28 

Iloheneggeri, Zitt 21 

plm'isteUatum, Zitt 29 

rimulosum, Goldf. 29 

stellatum, Gold/. 28 

— — sti'iato-punctatum, Goldf. 28 

Cnemidium astroites, Miinst 180, 185 

mtrophontm, Goldf 181 

conrinniun, Klipst 180 

coralllnnm, Quenst 28 

diceratinuin. Quenst 29 

granulosum, Miiust 28 

Manon, Miinst 185 

P'jriforme, Ivlipst 179 



INDEX. 



241 



Cnemidium rimulosum, Goldf. 29 

rotula, Goldf. 183, 186 

rotulare, Miinst 185 

steUare, Klipst 185 

sfellatmn, Goldf. 28, 29, 187 

striato-punctatum, Goldf. 28 

turbinatum, Miinst 185 

variahile, Miinst 185 

Cnemispongia Goldf ussi, Quenst 29 

Coelocorypha, Zitt 43 

sp 43 

Coeloptychium, Guldf. 13, 146 

agaricoides, Goldf. 146 

Belfastiense, Tate 147 

deciminuni, Rcein 147 

fnicatum, Tate 147 

lobat\im, Goldf. 148 

lonyostmm, Quenst 147 

percussum, Quenst 148 

Seebachi, Zitt 148 

sexlohatum, Quenst 148 

sulciferum, Rcem 148 

Cceloscyphia, Tate 118 

sulcata, Tate , 118 

Colospongia, Laube 11, 102 

dubia, Miinst 102 

Compsapsis cretacea. Soil 83 

Conoccelia, Zitt 12, 177 

centrolaevis, R(em 178 

crassa. From 177 

Corallidium, Zitt 11, 29 

diceratinum, Quenst 29 

Corallistes asterodiscus, Schmidt 83 

OoryneUa, Zitt 11, 12, 178 

aspera. From 180 

astroites, Miinst 180 

capitata, Miinst 180 

costata, Sfahl 180 

foraminosa, Goldf. 181 

gracilis, Miinst 179 

lycoperdioides, Lamx 180 

madreporata, Quenst 181 

multidigitata, Mich 183 

pyriformis, Klipst 179 

Quenstedti, Zitt 180 

rosa, Laube , 180 

rugosa, Hinde 182 

socialis, Hinde 183 

tetragona, Goldf. 182 

Coscinopora, Goldf. 13, 105 

infundibuliformis, Goldf. 105 

quincuncialis, T. Smith 106, 115 

Craticularia, Zitt 11, 12, 13, 14, 94 

clathrata, Goldf. 94 

decorata, Miinst 94 

Fittoni, Mant 94 

iafundibulata, Pomel 99 



Page 

Craticularia paradoxa, Miinst 94 

parallela, Goldf 94 

subseriata, Moem 95 

Cretaceous species. List of 22G 

Cribrospongia micrommata, Schliit 116 

subreticulata, Gein HO 

Crispl.-fpongia, Quenst 11, 192 

expansa, Quenst 192 

pezizoides, Zitt 192 

Cnicispongia annulata, Quenst 123 

cruciata, Quenst 123 

Cupulina elata, Court 35 

pocillmn, Court 35 

Cupulospongia consobrina, D'Orb 195 

gigantea, Koem 33 

infundibulifonnis, Geiu 203 

Normaniana, D'Orb 194 

rimosa, Rcem 82 

subpedza, D'Orb 196 

tenuis, Roem 31 

Cylindrophyma, Zitt 11, 56 

milleporata, Goldf. 56 

Cylindrospongia angustata, Ram 114, 115 

membranacea, Quenst 143 

Cypellia, I'omel 11, 123 

csespitosa, Quenst 124 

infundibuliformis, Goldf. 123 

libera, Quenst 124 

prolifera, Zitt 124 

rugosa, Goldf. 123 

Cystispongia, Rcem 13, 142 

bursa, Quenst 142 

Dendrospongia fenestralis, Rcem 94 

Devonian species. List of 224 

Diaplectia, Hinde 193 

auricula, Hinde 193 

helvelloides, Lamx 193 

Dictyonina, 7.itt 91 

Dictyophyton, Hall 10, 130 

•" Danbyi, M'Coy 131 

tuberosum, Conrad 130 

Didemospongia Thurmanni, Et 187 

Diplodictyon, Zitt 13, 145 

Bayfieldi, Hinde 145 

heteromorphum, Reuss 145 

Dirrhopalum clopetarium, O. Scht 20 

planum, Hinde 20 

Diseoclia, Lor 171 

fahellata, Lor 170 

Gillieroni, Lor 169 

helvetica, Lor 175, 176 

ramosa, From 169 

Dolispongia ca-spitosa hexamera, Quenst 124 

Doryderma, Zitt 3, 12, 13, 47 

Benetti, Hinde 49 

Dalryense, Hinde 210 

2i 



242 



INDEX. 



Page 

Doryderma dichotomum, Benett 47, 49 

ramosum, Matxt 48 

Koemeri, Hinde 49 

Elasmocoelia, R<xm 12, 176 

crassa. From 176 

Farringdonensis, Mant 177 

ManteUi, Hinde 177 

Etasmojerea crassa, From 170 

Elasmostoma, From 12, 13, 193 

acutimargo, Rcctn 194 

— — consobriniun, D'Orb 195 

crassum, Hinde 196 

frondescens, From 194 

Normaniauum, D'Orb 194 

plicatum, Hinde 196 

scitulum, Hinde 195 

stelMum, Duii 200 

subpeziza, D'Orb 196 

Enaulofungia corallina, From 186 

glubosa, From 180 

Endosto7na foraminosum, Roem 181 

fetrar/ona, Roem 182 

Enoplocoelia, Steittm 163 

armata, Klipst 163 

Entohia cretacea, Portl 21 

Eocene species, List of 229 

Eospongia, Bill 10 

Epetidea Manon, Laube 16] 

Epitfteles astroites, Laube 180 

capitata, Laube 180 

foraminosa, Gein 181 

furcata, Gein 170 

hieroglypha, Laube 183 

tetragona, Gein 182 

Etheridgia, Tate 139 

mirabilis, Tate 139 

Eubroebus, SoU 12, 129 

clausus, Soil 129 

Eudea, Lainx 11, 161 

annulata, Roem 44 

clavata, Lamx 161 

crih-aria, Mich 161 

globata. Querist 162 

grandis, Laube 179 

hirsuta, Querist 162 

intumescens, Roem 58 

Manon, Miinst 161 

perforata, Querist 162 

pisa, Qiienst 162 

polymorpha, Klipst 161 

rosa, Laube 180 

tuberciUata, Kirig 10 

Eulespongia, Quenst 55 

text a, Quenst 55 

Eusiphonella, Zitt 11, 178 

Bronnii, Miinst 178 



Page 

Eusiphonella intermedia, Miinst 178 

perplexa, Quenst 178 

Favispongia obligua, Quenst 96 

Flint Alcijonite, W. Smith 122 

Gault species. List of 226 

Geodia, Lam 13, 25 

? antiqua, Hinde 208 

? clavata, Hinde 25 

? corouata, Hinde 25 

? Wrightii, Hinde 25 

Geological Distribution 9 

Grantia antiqua, Moore 209 

Greeusand (Lower) species, List of 226 

Greensand (Upper) species. List of 226 

Grey Chalk species. List of 227 

Guettardia, Mich 12, 104 

radians, Hinde 105 

stellata, Mich 104 

Tliiolati, D'Archiac 104 

Oyrispongia labyrinthica, Quenst 136 

subruta, Quenst 135 

Hallirhoa, Lamx 12, 63, 67 

agariciformis, Benett 69 

costata, Lanuv 67 

, var. brevicostata, Mich 68, 69 

, var. elevata, Hinde 68 

, var. Tessonis, Mich 68 

hjcoperdioides, Lamx 180 

Haplistion, Young and Young 207 

Armstrong!, 1'. and Y. 208 

• fi-actum, Hinde 207 

Heterostinia, Zitt 13, 51 

obliqua, Benett 53 

Hexactinellidae, 0. Schmidt 2, 91 

Hiraatella, Zitt 164 

uiilleporata, Miinst 164 

Hindia, Duncan 57 

fibrosa, Bcem 57 

spheroidalis, Dune 57 

Hippalimus Jiahellatum, D'Orb 170 

fungaidcs, Lams 69, 70 

HolastereUa, CaH 10, 152 

Benniei, Hinde 153 

conferta. Cart 152 

Wrightii, Cart 153 

Youngi, Hinde 152 

Ilolodictyon, Hinde 12, 50 

capitatum, Hinde 51 

Hyalostelia, Zitt 10, 13, 150 

fasciculus, M^ Coy 151 

fusiformis, Hinde 151 

parallela, M'Coy 151 - 

Smithii, Young and Young 150, 152 

HyalotragoB, Zitt 11, 29 



INDEX. 



243 



Page 

Hyalotragos patella, Goldf 29 

pezizoides, Goldf. 30 

radiatum, Goldf. 29 

reticulatum, Goldf. 29 

rugoaum, iliinst 30 

Hydnoceras tuberosum, Conr 130 

Inobolia, Siiide 184 

inclusa, Hinde 185 

Isoraphinia, Zitt 13, 55 

texta, Mcem 55 

Jerea, Lamx 12, 63, 70 

Carteri, Mor 49 

cordif ormis, Hinde /I 

dongata, Mich 49 

excavata, Mich 72 

gregaria, Mich 90 

polystnma, Roem 42 

pyrifonnis, Lamx 50, 70 

Quenstedti, Zitt 71 

reticulata, Hinde 70 

scripta, Roem 4G 

sjriculigera, Roem 55 

Websteri, Sow 70 

Jereica, Zitt 12, 13, 42 

clava, Lee 42 

cylindrica, Hinde 43 

polystoma, Rcem 42 

punctata, Miinst 42 

Jurassic species, List of 224 

Kalpinella, Hinde 12, 76 

pateraeformis, Hinde 77 

rugosa, Hinde 78 

Lancispongia lamellosa tumtdosa, Quenst 107 

hpas, Quenst 107 

Laoccetis infimdibidata, Pomel 99 

Lasiocladia, Hinde 10, 19 

compressa, Hinde 19 

Lecanella, Zitt 11, 56 

pateraformis, Zitt 56 

LeiodoreUa, Zitt 11, 30 

expaiisa, Zitt 30 

Leptophragma, Zitt 12, 13, 102 

fragilis, Rcem 103 

Murchisoni, Goldf. 102 

Limnorea centrokeris, Rcem 178 

robilis, Roem 75 

List of Autbors 231 

List of species, geologically arranged 223 

List of species, zoologically arranged 212 

Lithistidae, O. Scht 2 

Lower Chalk species, List of 227 

Lyidium, O. Schmidt 50, 53 

Lymnorea, Lamx 1 1 , 184 



Page 

Lymnorea mamillosa, Lamx 184 

spharica, Mich 191 

Lymnoretheks milleporata, Laube 164 

Lyasakina, Zitt 148 

Madrespongia madreporata, Quenst 181 

Manon circumporosum, Quenst 40 

dubium, Miinst 162 

Farfingdonensis, Sharps 200 

imp-essum, Miinst 125 

macropora, Sharpe 199 

marginatum, Goldf 125 

megastoma, Roem 138 

miliare, Keuss 39 

monastoma, Roem 141 

pertusum, Klipst 162 

peziza, Goldf 162, 192, 194, 196 

macropora, Quenst 194 

stellatum, Quenst 200 

jmifurme, Miin.st 163 

porcatmn, Sharpe 198 

pulvinarium, Goldf 190, 191 

Reussii, M'Coy 40 

stellatum, Goldf. 200 

submarginatum, Miinst 163 

tttbuliferum, Goldf. 192 

turbinatum, Roem 41 

Mastosia, Zitt 11, 57 

neocomiensis, Hinde 57 

Mastospongia coniformis, Quenst 108 

gregaria, Quenst 97 

sp., Quenst 107 

verrucosa, Quenst 97 

Meandrospongidse, Zitt 133 

Megalithista, Zitt 11, 47 

Megamorina, Zitt 47 

Melonella, Zitt 11, 56 

radiata, Quenst 56 

Millepora Fittoni, Mant 94 

Miocene species, List of 229 

MonactineUidffi, Zitt 2, 10, 18 

Monakidae, Marshall 1 48 

Mortiera, De Kon 156 

vertebrahs, De Kon 156 

Myrmecium, Goldf 11, 183 

gracile, Miinst 179 

hemisphericum, Goldf. 183 

hieroglypha, Klipst 183 

indutum, Quenst 184 

Myxoapongise, Haeckel 1 

Nelumbia, Pomel 12, 72 

tuberosa, Hinde 72 

Nematinion, Hinde 12,54 

calyculum, Hinde 54 

Neocomian species. List of 226 

Nexiapongia libera, Quenst 124 

2i 2 



244 



INDEX. 



Xudispongia cfibrata, Quenst. 



Page 
. 187 



Oculospongia, F/-om Hj l-i l''> 1^1 

biuoculata, Quenst l'*l 

dilatata, Rccm 19^ 

Jlahellata ?, Davey 19^ 

tubuUfera, Ooldf. 192 

Opetionella, Zitt 13 

Ophiraphidites, Cart 13, 23 

anastomans, Hinde 23 

cretaceus, Zitt 23 

Ophrystoma, Zitt 12, 125 

micrommatum, Rcem 125 

oceUatum, Seeley 126 

Ordovian species, List of 223 

Orispunt/ia glohata, Quenst 162 

perforata, Quenst 162 

Pachastrella, O. Scht 13, 2G 

abyssi, 0. Scht 26 

couvoluta, Hinde 26 

Lntertexta, Cart 26 

plana, Hinde 27 

primseva, Zitt 26 

vetusta, Hinde 209 

Pachinion, Zitt 13, 46, 56 

scriptum, Rcem 46 

Pachypoterion, Hinde 12, 51 

— — compactum, Hinde -^2 

robustum, Hinde 52 

Pachyteichisma, Zitt 11, 107 

Carteri, Zitt 107 

lopas, Quejist 107 



■sp. 



107 



Pachytilodia, Zitt 203 

infundibulilbrmis, Gold/. 203 

Palaeomanon, Rcem 10, 93 

cratera, Rasm 93 

Parendea gracilis, Et. . . : 178 

Peronella, Zitt 10, 11, 12, 164 

clavaiioides, Lamx 166 

clavata, Rcem 168 

cylindrica, Gold/. 107 

cymosa, Lamx 165 

flabeUata, D'Orb 170 

fui-cata, Goldf. 170 

Gillieroni, Lor 169 

inflata, Hinde 167 

mamillifera, Lamx 166 

Michelini, Et 168 

mtdtidigitata, Zitt 183 

nodulosa, Quemt 168 

oceUata, Hinde 171 

pistilliformis, Lamx 165 

prolifera, Hinde 169 

radiciformis, Quenst 168 

ramosa, Rcem 169 

ramosissima. Dim 170 



Page 

Peronella subcsespitosa, Mi'mst 105 

tenuis, Hinde 166 

truncata, From 168 

Pharetrones, Zitt 157 

Pharetrospongia, Soil 12, 13, 201 

Farrinydunensis, Zitt 200 

heheUoides, Zitt 193 

Strahani, Soil 9, 201 

subpeziza, Zitt 196 

Phlyctasuium, Zitt 11, 108 

couifonnis, Quenst 108 

Pholidocladia, Hinde 13, 80 

dichotomus, Hinde Bl 

ramosus, Hinde 81 

Ph^iiTiiaplectia, Hinde 13, 87 

cribrata, Hinde 88 

irregularis, Hinde 87 

scitida, Hinde 89 

spinosa, Hinde 88 

Phymatella, Zitt 12, 13, 58 

heteromorpba, Rcem 60 

heteropora, Rcem 69 

intumescens, Rcem 68 

nodosa, Hinde 60 

reticulata, Hinde 59 

sp 00 

Placochlsenia, Pomel 127 

PlaconeUa, Hinde 11 , 47 

perforata, Hinde 47 

Placotrema, Hinde 127 

cretaeeum, Hinde 127 

Platycbonia, Zitt 11, 30 

auiiformis, Quenst 30 

sp 31 

vagans, Que?ist 30 

Plectoderma, Hinde 132 

scitulum, Hinde 132 

Pleiu'ostoma, Rcem 13, 103 

bohemicum, Zitt 104 

radiatum, Rmm 103 

Plinthosella, Zitt 13, 81, 84 

compacta, Hinde 85 

convoluta, Hinde 86 

nodosa, Hinde 86 

squamosa, Zitt 85 

Pliocene species. List of 229 

Plocoscyphia, Reuss 12, 13, 133 

convoluta, T. Smith 136 

elegans, T. Smith 138 

fenestrata, T. Smith 133 

flexuosa, Mant 136 

foliacea, T. Smith I37 

labrosa, T. Smith 133 

labyrinthica, Mant ]36, 137 

meandrina, Le3'm I34 

pertusa, Gein I34 

reticulata, Hinde 135 

subruta, Quenst 135 



INDEX. 



245 



Page 

Plocoscyphia vagans, Ilinde 137 

I'oUakidse, Marshall 150 

I'olyblastidium, Zitt 13, 119 

kisurians, Zitt 119 

racemosiim, T. Smith 119 

tuberosum, T. Smith 119 

rolyendostoma furcatum, Roem 170 

Polyjerea, From 12, 73, 78 

arbuscula, Hinde 73 

dichotoma, Ecem 47, 49 

gregaria, Mich 73 

lobata, Hinde 73 

ramif era, Zitt 73 

Polypothecia, Benett 49 

■ bi-septemlobata, Ben 67 

davellata, Ben 79 

dichotoma, Ben 47 

crpansa, Ben 77 

Jissa, Ben 87 

gregaria, Ben 90 

infunclibulum, Ben 34 

palmata, Ben 87 

obliqua, Ben 63 

Polystoma, Court 72 

Porochonia, Hinde 13, 143 

simples, T. Smith 143 

Porocypellia, Pomel 11, 124 

■ pjTiformis, Goldf. 125 

Porospongia, D'Orb 11, 125 

impressa, Miinst 125 

niarginata, Goldf. 125 

micrommata, Roem 125 

ocellata, Seeley 126 

Protachilleum, Zitt 10 

Protospongia, Salt 129 

fenestrata. Salt 6, 9, 129 

Protosycon, Zitt 11, 204 

punctatum, Goldf. 204 

Ptychotrochus turbinatus, Giebel 141 

Pulvillus, CaH 10 

Purisiplionia, Bow 124 

Clarkei, Bow 124 

Pyrgochonia, Zitt 11, 30 

■ acetabulum, Goldf. 30 

Pyritanema fasciculus, M'Coy 151 

Kagadinia, Zitt 13, 82 

annulata, Hinde 83 

claTata, Hinde 84 

compressa, Hinde 82 

rimosa, licBm 82 

sulcata, Hinde 83 

Bami.tpongia ramosa, Quenst 96 

Raphidistia, Cart 10 

\ermiculata. Cart 208 

Raphidonema, Hinde 197 

contortum, Hinde 197 

Farringdonense, Sharps 200 



Page 

Raphidonema macropora. Sharps 199 

porcatum, Sharpe 198 

pustulatum, Hinde 198 

steUatum, Goldf. 200 

Reoiera, O. Scht. . .'. 10, 13, 19 

? Carteri, Hinde 19 

sp 20 

liefispimgia radiata, Roem 108 

Rliabdaria, Bill. 10 

Rhizopoterion, Zitt 13, 116 

cervicorne, Goldf. 16 

Rhizoxpongia polymorpha, Cbarl 41 

Khopaloconus tuberculatus, Soil 20 

Rhopalospongia, Hinde 12, 89 

gregaria, Ben 90 

obliqua, Hinde 90 

Rhysospongia pictonica. Court 72 

Schizorhabdus, Zitt 13, 115 

libycus, Zitt 115 

Sclerokalia, Hinde 145 

Cunningtoni, Hinde 146 

Scolioraphis, Zitt 13 

Scyphia alveolites, Rcem 106 

angustata, Roem 1 14 

armata, Klipst 1613 

articulata, Goldf 125 

barbata, Quenst 107 

Bronnii, Miinst 178 

capitata, Quenst 180 

clathrata, Goldf 94 

clarata, Roem 168 

— costata, Goldf. 95, 108 

cylindrica, Goldf. 167 

cymosa, Mich 165 

Decheiiii, Goldf 116 

decorata, Miinst. ... 94 

digitata, D. Owen .' 102 

elegans, Goldf. 167 

fenestrata, Goldf 93 

firaminosa, Goldf. 181 

fragilis, Roem 103 

ftmgiformis, Goldf. 141 

furcata, Goldf. 170 

gregaria, Miinst 97 

heteromorpha, Reuss 145 

heteropora, Reuss 59 

hieroglypha, Klipst 183 

infmdibuliformis, Goldf. 20.3 

intermedia, Miinst 178, 181 

intumescens, Quenst 58 

mamillaris, Goldf 182 

Manon, Miinst 161 

ManteUi, Goldf 33 

micrommata, Roem 116 

7nilleporata, Goldf. 56 

Murchisoni, Goldf. 102 

obliqua, Goldf 96 



246 



INDEX. 



Page 

SeypMa paradoxa, Miinst "* 

— paralMa, Goldf 94 

pcrpkxa, Quenst 1"^ 

pertusa, Goldf 93, 96 

pistilliformis, Mich 165 

poJymorpha, Laube 1*51 

polyummata, Goldf •'•^ 

jnuictafa, Goldf. -04 

pyi'if<»'»i>s, Goldf l-'5 

radiata, Reusa 108 

ramosa, Roem 169 

reticulata, Goldf 93 

nigosa, Goldf. 123 

rugosa, var. infundibuUformis, Goldf 123 

subctespitosa, Miinst 165 

subseriata, Effim 95 

tenuis, Quenst 101 

testa-Jlonim, Quenst 33 

tetrayona, Goldf. 182 

texturata, Goldf. 96 

verrucosa, Goldf. 97, 108 

Scytalia, ZM 13, 44 

fastigiata, Lee 44 

radiciformis, Phill 44 

terebiata, Phill 45 

Sebaigasia, Steinm 10 

Seliscothon, Zitt 13, 31 

explanatus, Rcem 32 

giganteus, Iio;m 33 

Mantelli, GoMf. 33 

planus, Phill. 33 

sp 33 

testa-florum, Quenst 33 

Serimla paralh-la, M'Coy 151 

Se3tr(jcladia, Hinde 12, 117 

fui'catus, Hinde H' 

Sestrodictyon, Hinde 101 

couvolutum, Hende 102 

Sestrostomella, Zitt 11, 187 

clavata, Hinde 188 

cribvata, Quenst 187 

rugosa, Hinde 188 

Siliceous spicular structure dissolved 8 

Siliceous spicular structure replaced by calcite 7 

Siliceous spicules replaced by peroxide of iron 6 

Siliceous sponges enclosed iu flint 5 

Silurian species. List of 2.^3 

Siphonia, Goldf. 12, 63 

acatdis, Mich 69 

cervieomis, Goldf. 116 

clava, Lee 42 

cratera, Rcem 93 

excavata, Goldf J- 

ficus, Goldf. 66, 71 

imbricato-articidata, Rosm 92 

incrassata, Goldf. 65 

Kbnigi, Mant 65 

lobata, Mant 67 



Page 

Sipkonia lycoperdioides, Mich 180 

ocellata, Roem 42 

prcemorsa, Goldf. 92 

jmnctata, Miinst 42 

pyriformis, Goldf. 56, 64 

radiata, Quenst 56 



sp. 



tulipa, Zitt 64 

Websteri, Quenst 64, 70 

Siphonocadia aspera, From 181 

clavata, Rcem 168 

crassa. From 177 

elegans. From 178 

spica, Rcem 45 

sulcifera, Roem 60 

te.xia, Roem 55 

truncata. From 168 

Sollasia, Steimn 10 

Spheeroccelia, Steinm 171 

Michelini, Steimn 172, 173 

Sphferolites Nichohoni, Hinde 57 

Sphenaulax, Zitt 11, 95 

costata, Goldf 95, 108 

Spongia capitata, Phill 31 

clavarioides, Lamx 166 

convoluta, Quenst 38 

cribrosa, PhiU 113 

cymosa, Lamx 165 

fastigiata, Lee 44 

Mvelloides, Lamx 193 

inciso-lobata, Roem 92 

lagenaria, Mich 168 

mamillifera, Lamx 166 

marginata, PhiU 36 

multidigitafa, Mich 183 

Peziza, Mich 194 

pistillifoi-mis, Lamx 165 

jikma, PhiU 31 

radiciformis, Phill 44 

ramosa, Mant 48 

stellata, Lamx 186 

stellatim-sulcata, Roem 92 

terebrata, Phill 45 

Totvnsendi, Morr 144 

umbellata, Mich 186 

SpongUla, Lam 3, 11 

Purbeckensis, Young 21 

Spongites alatus, Quenst 190 

artieidatus, Quenst 125 

astrophorus alatus, Quenst 180 

caloporus, Quenst 180 

cornucopia, Quenst 180 

auriformis, Quenst 30 

binoculatus, Quenst 191 

claihrata, Quenst 94 

clavellatus, Mant 79 

costatus, Quenst 190 

cribrattis, Quenst 187 



INDEX. 



247 



Page 

fipongites cylmdratus, Quenst 1:24 

cylindricus, Quenst 168 

cylindritextus, Quenst 9-4 

fflomeratus, Quenst 187 

indtttus, Quenst 184 

Lochensis, Quenst 124 

lopas, Quenst 107 

7namillafus, Quenst 16G 

nodulosiis, Quenst 168 

obliquatus, Quenst 93 

perforatus, Quenst 162 

ramosus, Quenst 96 

reticulatus, Quenst 93 

rotida, Quenst 184 

semichwtiis, Quenst 187 

vaffans, Quenst 30 

Spongodiscus, Zitt 87 

Spoitgus botn/oides, Konig 07 

coarctatus ?, Konig 107 

labyrintkicus, Mant 137 

hicerna, Konig 107 

meandrinoideSy Leym 133 

Ud)er, Konig 107 

Sporadopyle, Zitt 11, 96 

obliqua, Ooldf. 96 

ramosa, Quenst 96 

Santanderi, Hinde 210 

sp 96 

texturata, Goldf. 96 

Sporadoscinia, Pomel 13, 116 

capax, Hinde 116 

Decheni, Goldf. 116 

micrommata, R(ein 116 

Spimiisponffia jnmctata, Quenst 42 

Stachyspon^a, Zitt 12, 13, 45 

spica, Hcem 45 

Stauractinella, Zitt 13, 149 

cretacea, Hinde 149 

Stauroderma, Zitt 11, 124 

cylindratum, Qitetist 124 

Lochense, Quenst 124 

Stauiodermidee, Zitt 123 

Stauronema, Soil 12, 99 

- — Carteri, Soil. 99 

compactum, Hinde 101 

planum, Hinde 100 

SteUetta, O. Schmt 13, 24 

inclusa, Hinde 24 

SteUispongia, D'OrUg 11, 185 

aperta, Et 187 

coraUina, From 186 

glomerata, Quenst 187 

Goldfussiana, Gein 200 

hybr'ida, Miinst 186, 187 

Manon, Laube 185 

pertuaa, Et 187 

rotularis, Miinst 185 

semicincta, Quenst 187 



Page 

SteUispongia stellata, Lamx 186 

variabilis, Miinst 185 

Sticbophyma, Pomel 13, 41 

tumida, Hinde 41 

turbinata, Rcem 41 

Strephinia, Hinde 12, 96 

convoluta, Hinde 96 

reteformis, Hinde 97 

Sulcispongia coUiciaris, Quenst 95 

incisa, Quenst 95 

rimosa, Quenst 95 

semiclathrata, Quenst 95 

varia, Quenst 95 

Supplement 207 

Sycones, Haeck 204 

SynopeUa, Zitt 12, 13, 190 

Goldi'ussi, Hinde 191 

puhinaria, Goldf. 190 

spboerica, Mich 191 

Tabular list of Species 212 

Talpina, Von Hag 23 

ramosa. Von Hag 23 

solitaria, Von Hag 23 

Tesfaspongia craniolaris, Quenst 164 

Tetbyopsis, Zitt 13, 24 

cretaceus, Hinde 24 

Steinmanni, Zitt 24 

Tetracladina, ZHt 58 

Tetractiuellidse, Marsh 2, 23 

Tetragunis Danhyi, M'Coy 131 

Tetragonis Eifeliensis, Rwm 131 

Murchisoni, Eiehw 131 

Thalamopora, Rcem 171 

cribrosa, Rcem 174 

Michelinii, Simonow 173 

Sijykvnioides, Midi 173 

vesiculosa, Mich 174 

Tbamnospongia, Hinde 12, 13, 78 

clavellata, Ben "9 

glabra, Hinde 79 

? reticulata, Hinde ^0 

Thecosipbonia, Zitt 13, /5 

grandis, Rwm ' ■' 

nobilis, Rwm ' •> 

turbinata, Hinde "5 

Tbenea, Gray 13, 25 

,sp ^^ 

Toulminia, Zitt H, 13, 13!) 

catenifer, Zitt 122 

compresms, Zitt 122 

jurassica, Hinde 139 

obliqua, Hinde 139 

Tracbysinia, Hinde 189 

aspera, Hinde 1*^9 

minor, Hinde 1 90 

solitaria, Hinde 189 

Tracbysycon, Zitt 12, 62 



248 



INDEX. 



Page 

Trachysycon nodosum, Hinde 62 

sulcatum, Hinde 63 

Trachyum, Bill 10 

Tragos acetabulum, Goldf. 30 

acutimargo, Koem 194 

astroHes, Quenst 180 

Farringdonensis, Mant 177 

Jistulosmn, Quenst 30 

graymlosum, Quenst 29 

hyhridum, Miiiist 186 

infranudatum, Quenst 30 

ytiilleporatum, Miinst 164 

patella, Goldf. 29 

pertusum, Gein 134 

pezizoides, Goldf 30 

radiatum, Goldf 29 

retindatum, Miinst 29 

rtigosum, Miinst 30 

verrucosum, Miinst 30 

Tremabulites, Zitt 13, 138 

megastoma. Seem 138 

perforatus, T. Smith 138 

Tremacystia, Hinde 171 

anastomans, Mant 175 

clavata, Keep 176 

— — cribrosa, Goldf. 1 74 

D'Orbignyi, Hinde 172 

irregularis, Hinde 175 

Miclielinii, Simmioiv 173 

siphonioides, Mich 173 

Tremadictyon, Zitt 11, 93 

obliquatum, Quenst 93 

reticulatum, Goldf. 93 

Tremosponyia dilatata, Roem 192 

grandis, Roem 75 

pulvinaria, Roam 190 

Triassic species, List of 224 

Trochobolus, Zitt 11, 107 

constrictu.s, Hinde 108 

. — — crassicostus, Zitt 107 

lucernus, Konig 107 

Tubispongia hirsuta, Quenst 162 

Tulip Alcyonium, Webst 70 

Turonia, Mich 13, 76 

sulcata, Coiirt 76 

variabilis, 3Iich 76 

Upper Chalk species, List of 227 

Ventriculites, Mant 13, 108 

. alcyonoides, Mant 114 

angustatus, Seem 114 



Page 

Ventriculites Benettia, Mant 121 

bicomplicatiis, T. Smith 112 

cavatm, T. Smith HI, 126 

convolutus, Hinde HO 

cribrosus, Phill 113 

decurrens, T. Smith HI 

decurrens, var. tenuiplicatus, T. Smith Ill 

dilatatus, Quenst HO 

impressus, T. Smith 109, 115 

iufundibuliformis, .S'. Wuodw 112 

latiplicatus, T. Smith H2 

mammillari.s, T. Smith HI 

midticostatus, Roem 113 

muricatus, T. Smith 1 10 

poculum, Zitt Ill 

quadrangidaris, Maut 103 

quincuncialis, T. Smith 106, 115 

radiatus, Mant 108, 111, 112 

radiatus discus, Quenst 108 

simplex, T. Smith 143 

striatus, T. Smith H2 

tessellatus, T. Smith 113 

Verrucocoelia, Ht 11, 12, 13, 97 

gregaria, Quenst 9/ 

— tubulata, T. Smith 97 

Vectensis, Hinde 98 

verrucosa, Goldf. 9^ 

Verrucospongia armata, Laube 163 

7nacrommata, Roem 40 

polymorpha, Laube 161 

siihmarginata, Laube 164 

Verruculina, Zitt 13, 35 

astrsea, Hinde 37 

aurita, JRcem 37, 40 

convoluta, Quenst 38 

macrommata, liccm 40 

miharis, Meuss 39 

papillata, Hitide 41 

Phillipsii, Beiiss 37 

plicata, Hinde 3/ 

pustulosa, Hinde 39 

- — Reussii, M'Cog 40 

seriatopora. Ram 36 

Verticellites clavatus, Keep 176 

Verticillites, Bef 163, 171 

anastomans, Zitt 17o 

armata, Zitt 163 

cretaceus, Def. 163 

D'Orbignyi, Ilinde 172 

VerticillocaJia, From 171 

Verticillopora, Blainv 163, 171 

anastomans, Mant 175 



PRINTED BY TAVLOB AND FEASCIS, HED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PLATE I. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Climacospongia radiata, Hinde. Showing the interior of the sponge. Natural 

size. Drawn from a fractured surface. From Silurian strata : Tennessee . . 18 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the fractui'ed surface of the same specimen, showing the 
radiating and transverse spicules. Enlarged twelve times. 

Fig. 2. Lasiodadia compressa, Hinde. Showing the spicules on the surface of a fragment 

of shale. Natural size. From the Lower Devonian at Jemelle, Belgium . . 19 

Fig. 3. Acanthoraphis intertextus, Hinde. Showing the outer surface of the sponge. 

Natui-al size. From the Upper Chalk at Shortlands, Kent 20 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, showing the dispo- 
sition of the spinous spicules. Enlarged ten times. 

Fig. 4. Ophiraphidites anastomans, Hinde. Section of a specimen, imbedded in chalk, 
showing the disposition of the skeletal tissues. The spicules have been replaced 
by iron peroxide. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk : South of England . 23 

Fig. 4 a. The same. Portions of straight and curved acerate spicules, from a specimen 
inclosed in flint, from the Upper Chalk. Enlarged thirty times. 

Fig. 5. Tethyopsis cretaceus, Hinde. A fragmentary specimen imbedded in flint. Natural 

size. From the Upper Chalk : South of England 24 

Fig. 5 a. The same. Portion of the same specimen, showing the disposition of the spicules. 
Enlarged eight times. 

Fig. 6. Stelldta iuclusa, Hinde. Filling a cavity in the interior of a flint from the Upper 

Chalk. England. Natural size 24 

Fig. 6 a. The same. Acerate and trifid spicules from the same specimen. Enlarged eighteen 
times. 

Fig. 7. Pachastrella plana, Hinde. A fragmentary sponge inclosed in a hollow flint. 

Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Upware 27 

Fig. 7 a. The same. Portion of the surface of the same specimen, showing the spicules. 
Enlarged twelve times. 

Fig. 8. Renlera ? Carteri, Hinde. Detached spicules from decayed chert of Lower Carbo- 
niferous age. Dairy, Ayrshire. Enlarged twenty-seven times 19 

Fig. 9. Spoiiffilla pwrbeckensis , Young. Microscopic section of chert filled with the spicules 
of this species. From Purbeck strata at Stare Cove, Dorset. Enlarged fifteen 
times 21 

Fig. 10. Microscopic section of chert from the Portland Oolite, at Upware, near Weymouth, 

showing spicules of Tetractinellid sponges. Enlarged fifteen times .... 27 

Fig. 11. Portion of the weathered surface of a sponge-bed, showing detached spicules of 
Tetractinellid and Litliistid sponges. Enlarged thirty times. From the Lower 
Green Sand at Haslemere, Surrey 27 

Fig. 12. Microscopic section of chert, filled with spicules of Tetractinellid sponges. Enlarged 
fifteen times. From the Upper Green Sand, near Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate I. 




A Gawoux del. et li£h.. 



"West.Newmaii £ C*? ixn.^. 



PLATE II. 

Pago 
Fig. 1. Pachastrella convoluta, Hinde. A large ear-shaped example, showing the upper 

surface. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Flamborough, Yorkshire . 26 
Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of another specimen from the same 

locality, showing traces of the spicules. Enlarged thirty times. 
Fig. 2. Seliscuthon planus, Phill. sp. Showing the upper or interior surface of a small 

specimen from the Upper Chalk at Flamborough. Natural size 31 

Fig. .3. The same. Showing the under surface and the stem of the same specimen. 

Fig. 4. The same. A specimen with a nearly plane upper surface. From the Upper Chalk 

at Flamborough. 
Fig. 5. Seliscothon explanatus, Roemer, sp. Spicules of the interior skeletal fibres. 

Enlarged sixty-four times. From the Upper Chalk at Ahlten, Hanover ... 32 



FOSSIL SPOi^GES- 



Pla-te n 







"^^^l^ 




.«iii^ 



A GawajL (LeLetMh 



WestHewmarL& C^iji:^ 



PLATE III. 

Pago 

Fig. 1. Chenendopora 3Iichelinn, Hinie. Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand 

at Warminster, Wiltshire 34 

Figs. 1 a, b. The same. Spicules from the interior of the stem of another specimen from 
the same locality. Enlarged one hundred times. 

Fig. 2. Verruculina 2iustuIosa, Hinde. Showing the inner or upper surface. Natural 

size. From the Upper Chalk at Flamborough, Yorkshire 39 

Fig. 2 a. TJie same. Portion of the outer or under surface of the same specimen. 
Natural size. 

Fig. 3. Verruculina miliaris, Reuss, sp. A small fan-shaped specimen, showing the 
inner or upper surface. Natural size. From tlie Upper Chalk at Flam- 
borough 39 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Portion of the under surface of the same specimen. Natural size. 

Fig. 4. Verruculina seriatopora, Rcemer, sp. Spicules of the interior skeleton. En- 

larged sixty-four times. From the Upper Chalk at Ahlten, Hanover ... 36 

Fig. 5. Verruculina astrcea, Hinde. Showing the inner or upper surface. Natural 

size. From the Upper Chalk at Flamborough 37 

Fig. 5 a. The same. Portion of the under or outer surface of the same specimen, 
showing the minute pores. Natural size. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate III 




(va,n del. i-t bill 



VVe&t.,NeNvi>uT.rv5-C^ zniy 



PLATE IV. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Verruculina convoluta, Quenst. sp. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at 

Flamboroughj Yorkshire 38 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the surface of the interior of the cup, showing the minute 
pores. Natural size. 

Fig. 1 b. The same. The interior surface. Enlarged four times. 

Fig. 1 c. The same. Portion of the surface of the exterior of the cup, from the same spe- 
cimen. Natural size. 

Fig. 1 d. The same. Enlarged four times. 

Fig. 2. Verruculina plicata, Hinde. Natural size. Prom the Upper Chalk at Flam- 
borough 36 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Portion of the surface of the interior of the cup. Natural size. 

Fig. 2 b. The same. Enlarged four times. 

Fig. 2 c. TTie same. Portion of the surface of the exterior or outer wall of tlie same spe- 
cimen. Natural size. 

Fig. 2 d. The same. Enlarged four times. 



FOSSIL SFOKGES 



Plate IV. 




'iH^s^S 




14- 






pFI^ 



...•« --^ ..;-.-■> 






■•> *. ■«' • ■^"■'♦^^ 











A- Gawa-n. deL et litk. 



We sT , Ne wimah & C° imp . 



PLATE V. 

Page 
"Fig. 1. Verruculina Jleussii, M'Coy, sp. A medium-sized specimen, showing the upper 

surface. Natxu'al size. From the Upper Chalk at Flam borough, Yorkshire . . 40 

Fig. 1 a. The same. 'A portion of the under surface of the same specimen. Natural size. 

Fig. 2. Verruculinli papillata, Hinde. The upper surface of a funnel-shaped specimen ; 
the mai'gins are partly brokeu off. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at 
Flamborough 41 

Fig. 2 a. The same. A portion of the outer or under surface of the same specimen. Natural 
size. 

Fig. 3. Stichophyma tumidum, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Flam- 
borough 41 

Fig. 4. The same. The summit of another specimen from the same locality, showing the 
apertures of the vertical canals. Natural size. 



FOSSIL SPONGES 



Pla.ie A' 



'^A^f^^T^^ 







\.V'^ 



1'V 






k4 






%P. 







-I J»I f ,> ,J •. 

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r » * *• ' 

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« •» « 
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ja 



" 4 S 





















,^ ^ «3«! 




















A.G a-wa-n dfi] <_'r. Iilk. 



"West, Newman AC" imp. 



PLATE VI. 

Page 

Fig. 1. Jereica cylindrica, Hinde. A median vertical section showing the shallow cup and 
sections of the canals. Natural size. Probably from the Upper Green Sand of 
Wiltshire 43 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Spicules of the interior skeleton. Enlarged sixty-four times. Drawn 
from a transparent microscopic section of the same specimen. 

Fig. 2. Stachyspongia spica, Roemer, sp. The upper portion of a specimen from the Grey 

Chalk, near Dover. Natural size 45 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Transverse section of another specimen from the same locality, showing 
the central cloacal tube and sections of the horizontal canals. Natural size. 

Fig. 3. Scytalia fastigiata, Lee, sp. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Flam- 
borough, Yorkshire 44 

Fig. 4. Scytalia radiciformis, Phill. sp. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Flam- 
borough 44 

Fig. 4 a. The same. Transverse section of another specimen from Flamborough, showing 
the central cloacal tube and sections of the horizontal canals which open into it. 
Natural size. 

Fig. 4 b. The same. Spicules of the interior skeletal fibres. Enlarged sixty-four times. 
From the Upper Chalk at Ahlten, Hanover. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate VI, 




G.M. Hemehell del et liHi. 



West.Newmaji Sc C^ iwip 



PLATE VII. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Pachinion scriptum, Rcem. sp. A medium specimen from the Upper Chalk at 

Flamborough, Yorkshire. Natural size 46 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Transverse section of another specimen from the same locality, 

showing the cloacal tuhe and sections of the skeletal fibres. Natural size. 
Fig. 16. The same. One of the spicules of the fibre. Enlarged sixty-four times. From 

the Upper Chalk at Schweichelt, Brunswick. 
Fig. 1 c, d. The same. Spicules of the dermal layer. Enlarged sixty-four times. From 

the Upper Chalk at Schweichelt, Brunswick. 
Fig. 2. Placonella perforata, Hinde. Showing the upper surface. Natural size. From 

the Upper Jura at Natthelm, Wurtemberg 47 

Fig. 2 a. Tlie same. A small portion of the upper surface of the same specimen, showing 

the disposition of the spicules. Enlarged sixteen times. 
Fig. 2 b. The same. A single spicule from the outer surface. Enlarged thirty-two times. 
Fig. 3. Holodictyon capHatum, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand at 

Warminster, Wiltshire 51 

Fig. .3 a. The same. A vertical median section of another example from the same locality, 

showing a central cloaca. Natural size. 
Fig. 3 b. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, showing the 

disposition and mode of attachment to each other of the skeletal spicules. 

Enlarged thirty -two times. 



\^' ^ Ox -l_' kJ -IT 



Plate VIL 






4|f^ 




M Suft del etlith 



West, Newman & C^iiwj- 



PLATE VIII. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Dory derma dichotomum, Benett, sp. Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand 

at Warminster, Wiltshire 47 

Fi"-. 1 a. The same. Transverse section of a branch of another specimen from the same 

locality, showing sections of the longitudinal canals. Natural size. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. Portion of the surface of 1 a, enlarged eight times, showing three of 

the canals and the disposition of the spicular mesh. 
Fig. 2. Doryderma ramosum, IMantell, sp. Portion of a specimen from the I'pper Chalk 

at Oare, Wiltshire. Natural size 48 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, enlarged sixteen 

times, showing the spicular structure and the interspaces of the mesh. 
Fig. 3. Doryderma Rcemeri, Hinde. A fragmentary specimen inclosed in a flint from the 

Upper Chalk of Wiltshire ? Natural size 49 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, showing the dispo- 
sition of the spicules and the mesh-interspaces. Enlarged sixteen times. 
Fig. 3 b. The same. Two of the minute trifid spicules with which the interspaces of the 

mesh at the surface are filled. Enlarged sixteen times. From the Upper Chalk 

at Ahlten, Hanover. 



FOSSIL SPONGES 



Plate ATll. 




M Suft del. ot litli 



\V^6t Ne'wmaji & ^C"^ Lmlp. 



TLATE IX. 

Page 

Fig. 1. Dory derma Benetti, Hinde. Natural size of the body and upper portion of the 

stem of a medium-sized example. From the Upper Green Sand at Warminster, 

Wiltshire 49 

Fig. 1 a. Tlie same. Part of the transverse section of the body of another specimen from 

the same locality, showing the distribution of the longitudinal canals. Natural 

size. 
Fig. 16. The same. Portion of the outer surface of a specimen, enlarged eight times, showing 

the spicules and the interspaces of the mesh. 
Fig. 2. Pachypoterion robustum, Hinde. Two thirds the natural size. From the Upper 

Green Sand at Pewsey, Wiltshire 52 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Portion of a transverse section of the lower portion of the body of 

another specimen from Pewsey, showing in section the canals which run in a 

generally vertical direction to the upper surface of the cup, and the appearance 

presented by the radial canals which run in a slightly arched direction from the 

outer surface to the centre. Natural size. 
Fig. 2 b. The same. Portion of the spicular mesh of the interior as seen in a polished 

transverse section. Enlarged sixteen times. 
Fig. 2 c. The same. Portion of the spicular mesh of the stem of another specimen from 

Pewsey. Enlarged sixteen times. 
Fig. 3. Pachypoterion compactum, Hinde. The cup and the upper portion of the stem of 

a specimen from Warminster. Natural size. From the collection of William 

Smith 52 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, enlarged sixteen 

times^ showing traces of the spicules and the mesh interspaces. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate IX. 







M. Surt&G.MHersciiell del.et litH 



"Wetjt Ke-wmaTi & C? imp. 



PLATE X. 

Page 

Fig. 1. Nematinion calyculum,'iiinie. A specimen, imperfect at the base, from the Upper 

Green Sand at Warminster, Wiltshire. Natural size 54 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Transverse section of the stem of another specimen, showing traces of 

the horizontal canals. Natural size. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. Portion of the surface of fig. 1, enlarged eight times, showing traces 

of the spicular structure. 
Fig. 1 c. The same. Portion of the interior of the stem, enlarged sixteen times, showing 

the character and disposition of the spicules. Drawn from the polished surface 

of a vertical section. 
Fig. 2. Heterostinia obliqua, Benett, sp. The outer surface of an imperfect cup-shaped 

specimen with numerous root-processes. Natural size. Inclosed in a flint from 

the Upper Chalk of Wiltshire 53 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Showing the semipalmate stem and a portion of the expanded bodv- 

plate of another flint-inclosed specimen from Wiltshire. Natural size. 
Fig. 2 b. The same. Portion of the outer surface of a specimen, in which the dermal layer 

has been preserved, showing its spicular structure. From the interior of a Chalk 

flint from Wiltshire. Enlarged sixteen times. The specimen belongs to the 

Jermyn-Street Museum. 
Fig. 2 c. The same. Portion of the surface of a specimen, in which no dermal layer has 

been preserved, showing the spicular structure of the interior of the wall of the 

sponge. Enlarged sixteen times. 
Fig. 3. Isoraphinia texta, Roemer, sp. From the Upper Chalk at Flamborough, Yorkshire. 

Natural size 55 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Transverse section of another specimen from the same locality, showing 

the central cloacal tube. Natural size. 
Fig. 3 6. The same. Portion of the outer surface of fig. 3, showing traces of the exterior 

layer of spicules. Enlarged seven times. 
Fig. 4. Mastosia neocomiensis, Hinde. Detached spicules of various sizes. Enlarged 

twenty-six times. From the Lower Green Sand at Haslemercj Surrey . . .57 



FOSSIL SPONC-ES 



Plate X 




Fieklmg »-E CWbodwiri d«l ot lith-. 



Weel-.^ievmiaai. AC? jnip 



PLATE XL 

Page 
Fig. 1. Phymatella retindata, Hinde. A club-shaped example, imperfect at the base. 

Two-thirds the natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Flamborough, York- 
shire 59 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the surface of another specimen from Flamborough, 
shoMring, after treatment with acid, apertures of the canals which open at the 
surface and traces of the interior spicules, which hare been in part replaced by 
calcite. Enlarged eight times. 

Fig. 1 b. The same. Microscopic section of the interior, showiag traces of the spicules. 
The outline of the spiciile.s is less definite than represented. Enlarged twenty- 
four times. Drawn from a transparent section. 

Fig. 2. Phymatella nodosa, Hinde. An imperfect specimen from the Upper Green Sand 

at Warminster, Wiltshire. Natural size 60 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface, showing traces of Tetracladine spicules. 
Enlarged sixteen times. 

Fig. 3. Callopegma obconicum, Hinde. A specimen inclosed in a flint. From the Upper 

Chalk of the South of England. Natural size 61 

Fig. 3 a. The same. A vertical median section of a specimen, enlarged one and a half times, 
showing the general disposition of the canals and the spicular mesh. 

Fig. 3 6. The same. Portion of the interior spicular mesh of Za. The spicules have been 
replaced by iron peroxide, and the nodes formed by the junction of the spicular 
rays are consequently imperfect. Enlarged thirty-two times. 

Fig. 4. Callopegma ficoideum, Hinde. A specimen inclosed in a flint. From the Upper 

Chalk at Guildford, Surrey. Natural size 61 

Fig. 4 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of fig. 4, enlarged sixteen times, showing 
the extended heads of compound trifid spicules of the dermal layer. 

Fig. 4 6. The same. A fragmentary spicule of the interior skeleton. Enlarged sixteen 
times. 



FOSSIL SPONGES 



Plate XT. 




O M- H«r9ohall del «. htJi. 



West Newman & 0"? imp 



PLATE XII. 

Pago 
Fig. 1. Aulaxinia costata, Hinde. A silicified specimen in which the vertical canals have 

been infilled with silica and now appear as solid ridges. Natural size. From 

flint gravel at Stanway, Gloucestershire 60 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the outer sui-face of fig. 1, showing casts in flint of the 
spicular skeleton. Enlarged eight times. 

Fig. 2. Trachysycon sulcatum, Hinde. A vertical median section of a silicified specimen, 
showing sections of the funnel-shaped cloaca and traces of the canals. Two- 
thirds the natural size. From the Upper Chalk of the South of England . . 63 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of fig. 2, showing traces of the ridges and 
broken spines. Natural size. 

Fig. 2 b. The same. Portion of the outer surface, enlarged sixteen times, showing traces of 
spicules of the dermal layer. 

Fig. 3. Trachysycon nodosum,, Hinde. A vertical median section of a silicified specimen, 
showing the interior of the cloaca and the course of the canals opening into it. 
Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand at Warminster, Wiltshire ... 62 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, showing the dome- 
shaped elevations and the apertures of canals. Natural size. 

Fig- 3 b. The same. Showing the interior spicular skeleton, drawn from a polished surface. 
Enlarged thirty-two times. 



POSSIL SPONGES. 



pjii.te xir. 









V 



/ 



A. Gawan. deLetliUi. 



West.NewMian A C^ imp- 



PLATE XIII. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Hindia fibrosa, Rcemer, sp. The interior o£ a fractured specimen, showing the 

radial disposition of the canals. Natural size. The sponge has been silicified, 

and the canals now appear as minute straight rods. From Silurian strata of 

the Niagara group in Perry County^ Tennessee 57 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the interior of another silicified specimen from the same 

locality. Enlarged eight times. The rods represent the infilled canals, and the 

tubercular projections on them are produced by the siliceous infilling of the inter- 
spaces between the spicular arms of the interior skeleton. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. Portion of the spicular skeleton of the interior of a specimen from 

Silurian strata of the Lower Helderberg group at Dalhousie, New Brunswick. 

Enlarged seventy-six times. Drawn from a transparent microscopic section by 

means of the camera lucida. 
Y\g. 2. Siphonia tulipa, Zitt. Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand at Warminster, 

Wiltshire 64 

Fig. 2 a. The same. A vertical median section of another specimen from Warminster, 

showing the cloaca, the course of the vertical canals which open into it, and 

traces of the radial canals which extend from the surface towards the centre of 

the sponge. Natural size. 
Fig. 2 b. The same. Transverse section of a specimen taken from the lower portion of the 

body, immediately below the cloacal tube, showing sections of the larger vertical 

canals and the smaller radial canals. Natural size. 
Fig. 2 c. The same. Portion of the interior spicular skeleton of 2 a. Enlarged thirty-two 

times. Drawn from a transparent section. The small square to the right of 

the figure represents its natural size. 
Fig. ;i. Sipho7ua ficus, Goldf uss. Natural size. From the Grey Chalk at Dover ... 65 
Fig. Sa. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, enlarged eight 

times, showing the apertures of the radial canals and traces of the spicular 

skeleton. 
F"ig. 4. Siphonia KiJnigi, Mant. sp. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Flamborough, 

Yorkshire 65 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, enlarged thirty- two 

times, showing the fragmentary heads of spicules of the dermal layer. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



HateXm. 



■ '.S s" ^* '? 




M Suft ft G M. Hersciieil del rt hth. 



West'Ne'.Yinan & C'? iany 



PLATE XIV. 

Page 
Fig. 1. HaUirhoa costata, Larax. A small three-lobed specimen from the Upper Green 

Sand at Warminster, Wiltshire. Natural size 67 

Fig. 1 a. The same. A conical, partially five-lobed, example from the same locality, showing 
the stem and the root-like extensions at its termination. Natural size. 

Fig. 1 b. The same. A four-lobed specimen from Warminster, showing a partial division in 
each of the principal lobes. Two-thirds the natural size. 

Fig. 1 c. The same. A vertical median section, showing the shallow cloaca and the course 
of the larger canals opening into it. Natural size. 

Fig. 1 d. The same. A transverse section of a five-lobed example, taken below the level of 
the cloaca, showing in section the larger vertical canals. Drawn from a polished 
specimen presented to the Museum by Robert Etheridge, sen., Esq., F.R.S. 

Fig. 1 e. The same. Portion of the interior spicular mesh, enlarged sixty-four times. 
Drawn from a transparent microscopic section by means of the camera lucida. 
The small square to the left indicates the natural size. 

Fig. 2. HaUirhoa costata, var. brevicostata, ilich. From the Upper Green Sand at War- 
minster. Two-thirds the natural size 68 

Fig. 3. HaUirhoa costata, var. elevata, Hinde. Two-thirds the natural size. From War- 
minster 68 



FOSSIL SPOITGES 



Plate XIV. 




IVLSufll a.M-Her.dien dtletUi. 



WestNewBiaiiX. C? u«f . 



PLATE XV. 

Page 
Fig. 1. HaUirhoa agariciformis , Benett, sp. Showing the upper surface and the open 

canals extending downwards from the cloaca. Natural size. From the Upper 

Green Sand at Warminster, Wiltshire 69 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Two spicules from the interior mesh of another Warminster specimen. 

Enlarged seventy-two times. Drawn from a transparent section by means of 

the camera lucida. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. Portion of the outer surface of a specimen in which the dermal layer 

has been preserved, showing the laciniatcd disciform heads of its component 

spicules. Enlarged thirty-two times. The specimen is from Warminster, and 

belongs to the Jermyn- Street Museum. 
Fig. 2. Jerea reticulata, Hinde. A specimen from the Gres Vert at Rettsel, Ardennes, 

showing the reticulate disposition of the canals on the outer surface. Natural 

size. The canals in this specimen have been infilled with siliceous material, 

and now appear as solid fibres 70 

Fig. 2 a. The same. The summit of the same specimen, showing the close arrangement of 

the canal-apertures. Natural size. 
Fig. 2 6. The same. A vertical median section of a specimen from the Upper Green Sand 

at Warminster, showing the disposition of the radial canals. Natural size. 
Fig. 3. Jerea cordiformis, Hinde. From the Grey Chalk near Dover. Natural size . . 71 
Fig. 3 a. The same. A vertical median section of the same specimen, showing the direction 

of the vertical and radial canals. Natural size. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XV 










A. G'cLwa.ii. del et lilii 



West.U'ewm.uw & Cimp. 



PLATE XVI. 

Page 
Fig. 1 . Nelumbia tuberosa, Hinde. Prom the Grey Chalk near Dover. Natural size . . 72 

Fig. 1 a. The same. A transverse section from the central portion of fig. 1, showing the 
disposition of the vertical canals and faint traces of the radial canals. Natural 
size. 

Fig. 1 b. The same. A portion of 1 a, enlarged thirty-two times, showing traces of the 
spicular skeleton. The original siliceous skeleton has been replaced by calcite, 
and where the spicules are in contact their forms have been iudistinguishably 
merged together; occasionally, however, the separate rays can be recognized. 
A section of a Foraminifer is also shown in the matrix of grey chalk. 

Fig. 1 c. The same. Portion of the dermal layer of a specimen from the Upper Chalk, 
enlarged thirty-two times, showing the heads of large compound trifid spicules 
and traces of numerous smaller ones, and also of the mesh-spicules beneath. 

Fig. 2. Polyjei'ea arbuscula, Hinde. From the Grey Chalk near Dover. Natural size . . 73 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Transverse section of one of the branches of the same specimen, 
showing the distribution of the longitudinal canals and faint traces of the spicular 
skeleton, which is now calcareous. The sponge is preserved in a matrix of 
Grey Chalk. 

Fig. 3. Polyjerea lobata, Hinde. Natural size. From the Grey Chalk near Dover ... 73 



POSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XVI. 




A, Gawiuri del. et hih. 



West. Hftvmiaj-i£ CVmii^ 



PLATE XVII. 

Page 
rig. 1. Bolosponjia glolata, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Flam- 
borough, Yorkshire 74 

]''ig. 1 a. The same. Vertical section of another specimen from the same locality. The 
dotted portions indicate the spicular structure, and the interspaces represent the 
wide channels and loculi of the interior of the sponge. Natural size. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. Portion of 1 a, enlarged thirty-two times, showing in the lighter 
portions traces of the spicular structure. The spicules have been replaced by 
crystalline calcite and silica, and are only recognizable where they were not in 
close contact with each other originally. The square below the figure indicates 
its natural size. Drawn from a transparent section by means of the camera 
lucida. 
Fig. 2. Bolospongia constricta, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Flam- 
borough 74 

The same. A transverse section of the same specimen. Natural size. 
Thecosiphonia nobilis, Rcem. lu the lower portion of the specimen traces of the 
smooth dermal layer are shown. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk of 
Wiltshire. The specimen figured belongs to the Jermyn-Street Museum . . 75 
The same. Portion of the interior spicular skeleton, enlarged thirty-two times, as 

shown on the upper surface of the same specimen. 
Thecosiphonia turbinate, Hinde. A silicified specimen, from the Upper ChaUc at 
Stockton, Wiltshire, showing some of the canals extending down the upper 
surface, and traces of the corrugated dermal layer beneath. Natural size . . 75 
Fig. 5. Thamnosporiffia glabra, Hinde. A single branching stem, forming part of a large 
bushy mass. Natural size. Inclosed in the cavity of a flint from the Upper 

Chalk at Berkhampton 79 

Fig. 5 a. The same. Portion of the interior spicular structure immediately beneath the 

dermal layer, showing the tuberculated spicules. Enlarged sixty-four times. 
Fig. 5 b. The same. Portion of the dermal layer of fig. 5, enlarged thirty-two times. The 
dark figures represent the hollow moulds of the larger spicules of the dermal 
layer. The two lighter figures below represent the spicules themselves. The 
entire dermal layer is formed of similar spicules ; but, as a rule, only the larger 
forms can be distinguished. 
The same. Portion of the dermal layer of a specimen, enlarged thirty-two times, 
showing slightly elevated spaces with groups of circular pores. From Upper- 
Chalk detritus at Budleigh Salterton, Devonshire. Presented to the Museum 
by Mr. H. J. Carter, F.R.S. 



Fig. 


2 a. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


3 a. 


Fis. 


4 



Jifr. o c. 



Fossil sponges. 



Plate XHL. 




M Suft & G MHerscheU dri rt lull. 



WestNewm^iii-Jfc C9 iulj). 



PLATE XVIII. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Turonia vaiiabiUs, Mich. sp. Natural size. Showing the furrowed upper surface 

and the smooth dermal layer of the base. Probably from the Senonian of 

France 76 

F'ig. 2. Thamnospongia clavel/ata, Benett, sp. A specimen inclosed in flint. From the 

Upper Chalk at Chicklade, Wiltshire. Natural size 79 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Another flint-inclosed specimen, showing traces of longitudinal canals 

on the fractured end of one of the branches. Natural size. From the Upper 

Chalk at Stockton, Wiltshire. 
Fig. 2 b. The same. Portion of the outer surface of a specimen from Stockton, showing 

some of the larger heads of the compound trifid spicules of the dermal layer. 

Enlarged thirty-two times. 
Fig. 3. Thamnosponj/ia'i reticulata, Hiude. From the Grey Chalk near Folkestone. 

Natui'al size 80 

F'ig. 3 a. The same. Transverse section of one of the stems, showing the central canal and 

traces of the sinuous canals wliich open into it. Natural size. 
F'ig. 3 b. The same. Portion of a transparent section from the interior of the sponge, 

showing the disposition of the spicular skeleton. Enlarged thirty-two times. 

The original silica of the spicules has been entirely rejjlaced by crystalline 

calcite. 
Fig. 4. Ka/pinella patertpformis, Uinde. A vertical median section, showing the disposition 

of the canals in the sponge-wall. From the Upper Green Sand at Warminster, 

Wiltshire. Natural size 77 

Fig. 5. Pholidocladia ramosus, Hinde. Showing the empty moulds of the branches of a 

specimen in a flint from the Upper Chalk. Natui-al size 81 

Fiff 5 a. The same. A fragment of one of the branches from the interior of another flint. 

Natural size. 
Fig. 5 b. The same. Portion of the surface of 5 a, enlarged sixty-four times, showing the 

characters of the spicular skeleton. The small square at the top of the figure 

indicates its natural size. 



FOSSIL SPONGES 



Plate xvm. 




U ■ 



M Suit. & G M. HerscheU del ct litli 



West Newman- ft C? imp 



PLATE XIX. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Kalpinella pater (sformis, Hinde. Two-thirds the natural size. From the Upper 

Green Sand at Warminster, Wiltshire 77 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Transverse section of the stem, showing the distribution of the canals. 

Natural size. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. Portion of the interior spicular skeleton. Enlarged sixty-four times. 

Drawn from a transparent section by means of the camera lucida. 
Fig, 2. Kalpinella rugosa, Hinde. Two-thirds the natm'al size. From the Upper Green 

Sand at Warminster 78 

Fig. 3. Ragadinia compressa, Hinde. Natural size. From the interior of a flint from the 

Upper Chalk at Huish, Wiltshire 82 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Two detached spicules, enlarged sixty-four times, from the Upper Chalk 

at Horstead, Norfolk. The spicules on the outer surface of fig. 3 resemble these 

forms, but they are not sufficiently clear to be shown. 
Fig. 4. Ragadinia clavata, Hinde. Natural size. From the interior of a flint from the 

Upper Chalk of Wiltshire. The specimen belongs to the Jermyn-Street 

Museum 84 

Fig. 4 a. Tlie same. A small club-shaped specimen, natural size, also from the interior of 

a flint. 
Fig. 4 b. The same. A portion of the surface of fig. 4, enlarged sixty-four times, showing 

the spicular skeleton immediately beneath the dermal layer. 
Fig. 4 c. The same. Portion of the surface of fig. 4 where the dermal layer has been pre- 
served, showing the complete head of one spicule and fragments of others. 

Enlarged thirty-two times. 



FOSSIL SPONGES 



Plate Xrx . 



%%i 



\ 



\ 







^?^.n 






••'l.'"*'*T»J 



I' .?- ■ ^ ^-'^T i^^vM-Mip,^ TPT^ 






A-Gawan del et litii. 



AVest Ne-.vTnaiv it C? trap 



PLATE XX. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Ragadinia sulcata, Hinde. An imperfect specimen inclosed in a flint from the 

Upper Chalk at Bcckhampton, Wiltshire. Natural size 83 

Fi". 1 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of another specimen in which the dermal 

layer has been preserved, showing its component spicules. Enlarged thirty-two 

times. 
Fig. 2. PUnthosella squamosa, Zitt. Natural size. From the interior of a flint. The 

spicular structure has been completely dissolved, and only the empty vermi- 

culate moulds of the spicules remain. Presented to the Museum by Mr. H. J. 

Carter, P.R.S 85 

Fig. 3. PUnthosella compacta, Hinde. Natural size. Preserved in the interior of a flint 

from the Upper Chalk of Wiltshire. The specimen belongs to the Jermyn- 

Street Museum 85 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, enlarged thirty-two 

times, showing the spicular structure. 
Fig. 4. PUnthosella nodosa, Hinde. A specimen inclosed in a flint from the Upper Chalk 

of Wiltshire. Natural size. The specimen belongs to the Jermyn-Street 

Museum 86 

Fig. 4 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, showing the spicular 

scales of the dermal layer. Enlarged thirty-two times. 
Fig. 5. Pholidocladia dichotomus, Hinde. An imperfect specimen preserved in a flint from 

the Upper Chalk of Wiltshire. Natural size. The specimen belongs to the 

Jermyn-Street Museum 81 

Fig. 5 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of a branch of fig. 5 where the dermal 

layer is absent, showing the spicular structure of the interior skeleton. Enlarged 

sixty-four times. The square beneath the figure represents its natural size. 
Fig. 5 b. The same. Portion of the outer surface of another branch of fig. 5, on which the 

dermal layer has been retained, showing its component spicules. Enlarged 

thirty-two times. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XX. 




M^uAs G.M Har!„.h«Jl dd rthth. 



^'%Bt,NeVV3JlAi^a. C? UKLp. 



PLATE XXI. 

Page 
Mg. I. Phymaplectia irregularis, Rinie. Natural size. Inclosed in a flint from the Upper 

Chalk of Wiltshire 87 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the surface of the same specimen, enlarged thirty-two times, 
showing the heads of trifid spicules of the dermal layer. 

Fig. 2. Phymaplectia spinosa, Hinde. Natural size. Inclosed in a flint from the Upper 

Chalk of Wiltshire. The specimen belongs to the Jermyn-Street Museum . . 88 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Portion of the surface of fig. 2 where the dermal layer is absent, 
showing the spicular structure of the sponge-wall. Enlarged thirty-two times. 

Fig. 2 b. The same. Portion of the surface of fig. 2 where the dermal layer has been 
preserved, showing some of the heads of its component spicules. Enlarged 
thirty-two times. 

Fig. .3. Phymaplectia cribrata, Hinde. Natural size. From the interior of a flint from 
the Upper Chalk at Oare, Wiltshire. The specimen belongs to the Jermyn- 
Street Museum 88 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of fig. 3, enlarged thirty-two times, showing 
some of the minute spicular heads and the pores of the dermal layer. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XXI 




yl. SuA & G M-Hersiiell deL et litti. 



"West.KewaLaJiSt CV uaijj. 



PLATE XXII. 

Page 
Kg. 1. Phi/maplectia scitula,}i'mde. Natural size. From the interior of a flint from the 

Upper Chalk at Oare, Wiltshire. The specimen belongs to the Jermyn-Street 

Museum 89 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the surface of the interior of fig. 1, enlarged six times, 

showing open canals radiating from slightly elevated centres. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. Portion of the exterior surface of fig. 1, enlarged thirty-two times, 

showing the spicular structure of the sponge-wall. The square on the left side 

of the figure represents its natural size. 
Fig. 2. Rhopalospongia gregaria, Benett, sp. Two-thirds the natural size. From the 

Upper Green Sand at Warminster, Wiltshire 90 

Fig. 2 a. The same. A vertical section of another specimen from Warminster, showing 

traces of the radiating canals and concentric markings of growth. Natural 

size. 
Fig. 2 b. The sam,e. A transverse section of 2 a. Natural size. 
Fig. 2 c. The same. The spicular structure of the interior. Enlarged sixty-four times. 

Drawn from a transparent section by means of the camera lueida. 
Fig. 3. Rhopalospongia obliqua, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand at 

Warminster 90 

Fi"-. 3 a. The same. A transverse section of fig. 3, showing the distribution of the canals. 

Natural size. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Hate 'XXTT. 




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iT 



f; 






'^v^ 



■^^it "^ ' «^ 



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M- Suft & G.M.Harscliell del ot lith. 



We St J^ewma-n. & C ? -iniy 



PLATE XXin. 

Page 
rig. 1. Astylospongia? Rameri, Hinde. An imperfect silieified specimen, showing the 

disposition of the surface-canals and the apertures of the radial canals. Natural 

size. Probably from Silurian strata 92 

Fig. 1 a. The same. A transverse section of fig. 1, showing the course of the radial canals. 

Natural size. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. Showing the spicular structure of the interior, enlarged sixty-four 

times. Drawn from a transparent section by means of the camera lucida. 
Fig. 2. Craticularia Fittoni, Mantell, sp. An imperfect specimen from the Grey Chalk 

near Dover. Natural size 94 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of a specimen from the Chalk Marl near 

Ventnor, Isle of Wight, showing the character of the dermal layer. Enlarged 

sixty-four times. 
Fig. 2 b. The same. A fragment of the spicular mesh of the interior of the wall. Enlarged 

sixty-four times. 
Jig. 3. Strephinia convoluta, Hinde. An imperfect specimen from the Grey Chalk near 

Dover. Natural size 96 

Fig. 3 a. The same. A transverse section of a portion of the wall, showing its thickness 

and the disposition of the canals. Natural size. The shaded portion of the 

figure represents the spicular wall, and the lighter parts the canals. In places 

the canals appear to extend quite through the wall, but this is owing to the 

thinness of the wall at the extremity of the blind canals, so that it readily breaks 

away when the surface is polished. 
Fig. 3 b. The same. Portion oi: fig. 3 a, enlarged sixty-four times, showing the spicular 

structure of the wall. The spicules have been entirely replaced by calcite of a 

tint slightly darker than the chalky matrix. 
Fig. 4. Strephinia reteformis , Hinde. Natural size. Showing the reticulate character of 

the outer surface. From the Grey Chalk near Dover 97 

Fig. 4 a. The same. A vertical median section of fig. 4, showing the thickness of the wall 

and the disposition of the canals. The spicular structure of this specimen, like 

that of S. convoluta, has been replaced by calcite, and the walls at the extremity 

of the canals have been partially broken away. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XXm. 




X-!'^'*>- 







A Ca-wan dtl. «t.]ith. 



W*-3t,Newmiui & C° imp 



PLATE XXIV. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Stauronema Carteri, Sollas. The lower portion of an imperfect specimen from 

the Upper Green Sand at Cap la Heve, near Havre, showing the inner concave 

surface. Natural size 99 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Showing the convex outer surface of the same specimen. 

Fig. 1 b. The same. Portion of the spicular mesh of the interior of the wall. Enlarged 
thirty-two times. 

Fig. 2. Stauronema planum, Hinde. The upper surface of a specimen, showing the canal- 
apertures, which in places are partially obscured by a delicate dermal layer. 
Natural size. From the Grey Chalk near Folkestone 100 

Fig. 2 a. The same. The under surface of part of fig. 2. Natural size. 

Fig. 2 b. The same. A vertical median section of the same specimen, showing traces of the 
canals and the spicular mesh. Natural size. 

Fig. 2 c. The same. Portion of the polished surface of 2 b. Enlarged thirty-two times. 
The dark lines forming the squares represent the canals of the mesh-spicules, 
which have been infilled with an opaque material, probal)ly peroxide of iron. 

Fig. 3. Verrucocoelia vectensis, Hinde. From the Chalk Marl at Ventnor, Isle of Wight. 

Natural size 98 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Portion of the outer siirface of fig. 3, enlarged thirty-two times, 
showing the structure of the dermal layer. 

Fig. 3 b. The same. Portion of the spicular mesh of the interior of the wall. Enlarged 
thirty-two times. Drawn from a fractured surface of one of the projecting 
tubes. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XXIV. 







"West Nev«jiiaL& C° Amp, 



M. Suft ft G-.M.Hfirschell del. ot lith.. 



PLATE XXV. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Stauroneina compactum, Hinde. The lower portion of a specimen from the Gres 

vertj France ?, showing the front surface. Natural size 101 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Showing the outer surface of the same specimen. The canals in the 

lower portion arc concealed by the dermal layer. Natural size. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. The fractured upper margin of the same, showing the thickness of the 

wall and traces of the canals. Natural size. 
Fig. 1 c. The same. Portion of the dermal layer of the outer surface. Enlarged fifteen 

times. 
Fig. 1 d. The same. A fragment of the interior spicular mesh. Enlarged sixty-two times. 

Drawn by means of the camera lucida. 
Fig. 2. Sesti'odictyon convoluium,llinde. Natural size. From the Alpine Chalk ( = Upper 

Green Sand) at High Sentis, Canton Appenzell, Switzerland 102 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Fragments of the interior spicular mesh of fig. 2. Enlarged sixty-two 

times. The dark lines in the lower portion of the right-hand fragment represent 

canals which have been infilled with iron peroxide. 
Fig. 3. Guettardia radians, Hinde. The lower portion of an imperfect specimen from 

Ci'ctaceous strata at Biarritz, France. Natui'al size 105 

Fig. 4. Trochobolus constrictus, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Jura at Randen, 

Switzerland 108 

Fig. 4 a. The same. Portion of a vertical median section of fig. 4, natural size, showing the 

tliickness of the wall. 
Fig. 4 b. The same. Portion of the polished surface of 4 a, enlarged thirty times, showing 

the spicular mesh and the octahedi'al character of the nodes. The spicules have 

been replaced by calcite, and are consequently indistinct. 
Fig. 5. Ventriculites convolutus, Ilinde. An imperfect specimen, preserved in chalk, 

showing both the outer and inner surfaces of the wall. Natural size. From 

the Upper Chalk at Broadstairs, Kent 110 

Fig. 5 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of fig. 5, enlarged four times, showing the 

flattened ridges of the wall and the narrow interspaces. 



FOSSIL SPONGES 



Plate XXV. 




M.Suft i C. M.Herncholl del. .--l LO. 



Weut Mewm^ui it C** im^ 



PLATE XXVI. 

Page 

Fig. 1. Ventriculites infundibuliformis, S. Woodward. An imperfect specimen, partially 
imbedded in tte chalky matrix. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk of the 
South of England 11~ 

Fio-. 1 a. The same. Transverse section of a specimen preserved in flint, showing the dispo- 
sition of the folds of the sponge-wall. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk of 
the South of England. 

Fio-. 2. Ventriculites cribrosus, Phillips, sp. An imperfect specimen from the Upper Chalk 

at Flamhorough, Yorkshire. Natural size 113 

FHg. 2 a. The same. Part of a transverse section of another specimen from Flamborough, 
showing the folds of the wall. Natural size. 

Fig. 3. Ventriculites angustatus, F. A. Roemer, sp. An imperfect silicified specimen from 

the Upper Chalk, South of England. Natural size 114 

Fi°-. 3 a. The same. The upper portion of fig. 3, showing the thickness of the wall and the 
canal-apertures of its inner surface. Natural size. 

Fig. 3 b. The same. A small portion of the outer surface of fig. 3, enlarged eight times, 
showing the canal-apertures and the perforated dermal layer. 

Fi"-. 4. Sporadoscinia capax, Hinde. An imperfect example from the Lower Chalk, two- 
thirds the natural size, showing a fragment of the sponge-wall, with some oysters 
attached to a part of its surface, and impressions of the canal-apertures of the 
inner or cloacal surface. From the South of England 116 

Fig. 4 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of fig. 4. Enlarged eight times. 

Fig. 4 b. The same. Portion of the interior of the wall of fig. 4, enlarged thii-ty times, showing 
traces of the spicular mesh. Drawn from a fractured surface. The spicules have 
been completely dissolved, and only the empty moulds in the chalky matrix 
remain. 



FO SSIL SPONGES , 



Plate XXVI 




M-Siift£ li.M.HarscheU del et litK. 



West .Newman 1 C"? nmv 



PLATE XXVII. 

Page 

Fig. I. Sesirocladiafurcatus, Rinie. Natural size. From the Grey Chalk, near Dover . 117 

Fig. 1 a. The same. A transverse section of one of the branches, showing the thickness of 
the walls. Natural size. 

Fig. 1 b. The same. Portion of the interior of the wall, showing traces of the spicular mesh 
with the octahedi'al nodes. The spicules have been replaced by calcite, and are 
partially obliterated. Enlarged thirty times. 

Fig. 2. Pohjblastidium racemosum, T. Smith, sp. A specimen preserved in flint, from the 
Upper Chalk of Kent, showing on the outer surface transverse sections of the 
bud -like tubular projections. Natural size 119 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Transverse section of one of the tubes, enlarged four times, showing 
the foldings of the sponge- wall and traces of the spicular mesh, which is par- 
tially preserved in iron peroxide. 

Fig. 3. Cephalites bullattts, T. Smith. A specimen partially imbedded in Chalk, showing 
the characters of the outer surface, and, where this has been removed, traces of 
the interior folds. The structure is now preserved in iron peroxide. Natural 
size. From the Upper Chalk of the South of England 122 

Fig. 3 a. The same. The summit of the same specimen, showing the cloacal aperture and 
one or two of the canal-apertures which open into it, and also sections of the 
waU-plaits in the interior of the sponge. The dermal layer which covered the 
summit originally is not preserved. Natural size. 

Fi"-. 3 b. The same. Fragments of the spicular mesh forming the waU-plaits. The spicules 
have been replaced by iron peroxide, and their outlines are very imperfectly 
preserved. Enlarged thirty times. 

Fig. 4. Placotrema cretaceum, Hinde. A specimen partially imbedded in chalk, showing 
the upper surface with the apertures in the dermal layer. Natural size. From 
the Upper Chalk of Kent 127 

Fig. 4 a. The same. Portion of a transverse section of another specimen, natural size, 
showing the reticulate disposition of the interior wall-plaits, which are shown 
by markings in iron pei-oxide. 

Fig. 4 b. The same. Portion of the dermal layer of the upper surface of the sponge, enlarged 
fifteen times, showing the spicular structure. The spicules have been completely 
dissolved, and are only represented by hollow moulds in the chalky matrix. 

Fig. 4 c. The same. Portion of the spicular mesh of the interior wall-plaits, enlarged 
thirty times. Only the empty moulds of the spicules are preserved. Drawn 
from a fractured surface. 



fossiij sponges. 



Plate XXVE. 



ww:^wm^rmm^^'^ 







M.Sul't a C.M.Hersc)ieU tiel. el UUi 



"West , N evaiiaTi & C^ imp 



PLATE XXVIII. 

Page 

Fig. 1. Cincliderma quadratum, Hinde. The upper portion of a funnel-shaped specimen, 
from the Upper Chalk of the South of England, showing the dermal layer. 
Natural size 128 

Fig. 1 a. The same. The basal portion of a specimen. Natural size. 

Fig. 1 b. The same. A median vertical section of 1 a, natural size, showing the disposition 
of the anastomosing wall-plaits in the interior of the sponge. 

Fig. 1 c. The same. Portion of the spicular structure of the interior wall-plaits, enlarged 
thirty times. The spicules have been dissolved and only empty moulds remain. 

Fig. 1 d. The same. Portion of the dermal layer of 1 a, enlarged fifteen times. The spiciiles 
are only indicated by hollow moulds in the chalky matrix. The minute spicules 
forming the layer between the framework of larger spicules are too small and 
too thickly intermingled together to be clearly delineated. 

Fig. 2. Proiosponffiafenestrata, Salter. A fi-agment of a specimen preserved in indurated 
black shale. Enlarged five times. Prom Menevian strata at St. David's, South 
Wales. The spicular framework is now composed of iron pyrites ; it has evi- 
dently been distorted by pressure from its original rectangular form. The 
figure is drawn from Salter's type specimen 129 

Fig. 3. Dictyophyton tuberosum, Conrad, sp. An imperfect specimen preserved in sand- 
stone, natural size. From the Chemung gi'oup of the Upper Devonian at 
Cohocton, Steuben County, "Western New York 130 

Fig. 4. Plocoscyphia fenestrata, T. Smith, sp. A specimen from the Upper Green Sand 
at Folkestone, showing the disposition of the tubes at the surface. Natural 
size 133 

Fig. 4 a. The same. A transverse section of a smaller specimen from the same locality, 
showing the arrangement of the wall-plaits of the interior of the sponge. 
Natural size. 

Fig. 4 b. The same. A fragment of the spicular mesh of the interior of the wall -plaits, 
enlarged thirty times. 

Fig. 4 c. The same. A portion of the dermal layer of the wall, enlarged thirty times. 




Plate XXVm. 




,«,y*.,.-,. K.i^4i^.^.J» 





IX-^^ 




P^ixliV:-', 




""-M^nr^^ffl 


ih-u_ 


i 


"1 




"" f- 


1 


JBWBMj^^^"' 


s~4' 








* I ' 



'!-»'? 



S 



J I ' ■ 



I 



^ ! t , } C 



.^ 



\ 








West NewiniuT. & C^ wnp 



M. Sufi « G- M^Herschell del et luk. 



PLATE XXIX. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Cmloscyphia sulcata, Tate. Natural size. From the Spongarian zone of the 

Chloritic Chalk [Tate) ( = Upper Chalk), Whitehead, near Belfast. The speci- 
men belongs to the Jermyn-Street Museum 118 

Fig. 1 a. The same. The upper surface of the central stem of fig. 1, enlarged three times, 
showing the foldings of the wall and traces of the spicular mesh. 

Fig. 2. Plocoscyphia labrosa, T. Smith, sp. Natural size. An average specimen from the 
Upper Green Sand near Folkestone, showing the disposition of the folds of the 
wall 133 

Fig. 3. Plocoscyjjhia reticulata, Hinde. A specimen from the Upper Green Sand at East- 
bourne, partially imbedded in a marly matrix, sliowing in the upper portion the 
apertures of several tubes with the canal-openings in their walls, and in the 
lower portion sections of the tube-walls. Natural size 135 

Fig. 3 a. The same. A fragment of the dermal layer of a specimen from the Chloritic Marl 
at Rocken End, Isle of Wight, showing one or two of the canal-openings and the 
smaller apertures of the spicular mesh. Enlarged thirty times. 

Fig. 3 b. The same. Three fragments of the spicular mesh of the interior of the wall of 3 a, 
enlarged thirty times, showing the octahedral or lantern nodes, and traces of 
canals in some of the spicular arms. Drawn by means of the camera lucida. 

Fig. 4. Plocoscyphia fiexmsa, Mant. sp. A fragment of the spicular mesh of the interior 
of the wall, enlarged thirty times, showing the octahedral nodes. The siliceous 
structure of the specimen has been completely replaced by iron peroxide. From 
the Upper Chalk of the South of England 136 

Fig. 5. Plocosc7jphia labyrinthica, Mant. s]^. A specimen imbedded in a flint which shows 
on its upper surface, in section, the anastomosing folds of the wall, indicated by 
markings in iron peroxide. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Offham, 
Kent 137 

Fig. 6. Plocoscyphia vagans, Hinde. A nodule of chalk, showing on its surface the 

anastomosing wall-plaits. Natural size 137 

Fig. 6 a. The same. A fragment of the spicular mesh of fig. 6, enlarged thirty times, 
showing the octahedral nodes. The spicular mesh is now in the condition of 
iron peroxide, and its surface is rough and uneven. 

Fig. 7. Tuulminia obliqiia, Iliude. A median section of a specimen from the Upper Chalk, 

showing in section the disposition of the interior wall-plaits. Natural size . . 139 

Fig. 7 a. The same. A transverse section of fig. 7, showing the wall-plaits as seen from 
above. Natural size. 

Fig. 7 b. The same. The summit of fig. 7, showing the wall-plaits, which are exposed by 
the removal of the dermal layer. The walls in this specimen are indicated by 
markings in iron peroxide. 



FOaSlL SPONGES 



Plate XXDC. 




M Suft &. GM-HerschcU del « lilh , 



Wesl.NewTnaji & C° imp 



PLATE XXX. 

Page 
Fig. \. Toulminia jurassica,'iimAe. Natural size. Showing the weathered surface of a 

specimen from the Upper Jura at Rauden, Switzerland 139 

Fi"-. 1 a. The same. A transverse section of the same specimen, showing the cloacal ca-vaty 

and disposition of the anastomosing walls iu the interior. Natural size. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. A portion of the polished surface of 1 a, enlarged thirty times, showing 
the spicular structure of the walls. The spicules have been replaced by calcite, 
and only faint outlines of the rays and the octahedi-al nodes are discernible. 
Fig. 2. Camerospongia aperta, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk of the South 
of England. The same specimen has been figured by Toul. Smith iu Ann. & 

Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848, vol. i. t. 14. f. 13 U2 

Fig. 2 a. The same. A median section of the same specimen, showing the funnel-shaped 

cloaca. 
Fig. 2 b. The same. A portion of the cloacal surface, enlarged thirty times, showing the 
spicidar structure. The spicules have been completely dissolved, and only their 
empty casts in chalk remain. The octahedral character of the nodes is only 
shown in a few places. 
Fig. 3. Camerospongia subrotimda, Mant. sp. A small group of individuals, natural size, 
from the Upper Chalk at Charing, Kent. The cloacal cavities are filled with 

the chalky matrix 1"*^ 

Fig. 4. Callodidyon angustatmn, Hinde. A specimen, somewhat worn away near the 

summit, from the Upper Chalk of the South of England. Natural size . . . 142 
Fig. 4 a. The same. A fragment of tlie outer surface of the same specimen, enlarged thirty 
times, showing the characters of the dermal layer. The spicules have been 
dissolved, and are now shown by red markings of iron peroxide. 
Fig. 4 b. The same. Showing the structure of the interior of the wall. Enlarged thirty 
times. The minute tiibcrcles produced by the fiUcd-in moulds of the octahedral 
nodes are only partially preserved. 
Fig. 5. Porochonia simplex, T. Smith, sp. A specimen from the Upper Chalk, which 

retains the cast of the smooth exterior membrane. Natural size 143 

Fig. 5 a. The same. A cast of the dermal layer of another specimen from the Upper Chalk. 
Enlarged thirty times. The apertures in the dermal layer have been infilled 
with the chalky matrix. 
Fig. 5 6. The same. Showing the spicular structure of the interior of the wall of 5 «. 
Enlarged thirty times. The spicules are only indicated by empty moulds iu 
the chalk. 



I-'OSSIL SP'ONGKS 



Hate XXX. 




.%, -s-^' 




1 ' 



^ ^"^^i^ 






-» 




-- jfr- 









-I :. .( 



i:x:r ^ 



~T'' 






A%. 




k'i"! y%^ 'U'-'^v ^^- f '■> 







M Suft kGM.Herschen ddstlitli. 



WestNswma., & C» i„ 



PLATE XXXI. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Plectoderma scitulum, Hinde. A fragmentary specimen, natural size, from Silurian 

strata of Upper Ludlow age, in the Pentland Hills, near Edinburgh. For the 
most part only empty moulds of the spicules are preserved, but here and there 
fragments of siliceous spicules yet remain. The specimen figured belongs to 
the collection of the Geological Survey of Scotland. It was discovered by 

Mr. James Bennie 132 

Fig. la. The same. A portion of fig. 1, enlarged five times, showing the arrangement of 
the spicules. Owing to the uneven surface of the matrix the vertical axes of 
the spicules appear as if frequently broken off. 
Fig. 1 b. The same. A single spicule, enlarged five times, showing the complete vertical 
axis and one complete ray, and the commencement of the other ray of the 
horizontal axis. 
Fig. 2. Diplodictyon Bayfieldi, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at Norwich. 
The specimen is preserved in chalk, and only casts of the spicular structure are 

preserved 145 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Showing the compressed sides of fig. 2, with the large lateral apertures. 
Fig. 3. SclerokaUa Cunningtoni, Hinde. An imperfect specimen, natural size, showing 
the interior, and sections of the walls. From the Upper Green Sand at War- 
minster, Wiltshire. The specimen belongs to the Jermyn-Street Museum . . 146 
Fig. 3 a. The same. A portion of the dermal layer of the interior of the cup. Enlarged 

thirty times. 
Fig. 3 b. The same. Part of the spicular structure of the outer surface of the cup. Enlarged 

thirty times. 
Fig. 3 c. The same. A portion of the spicular mesh of the interior, immediately beneath 
the dermal layer, showing its regular arrangement and the octahedral character 
of the nodes. Enlarged thirty times. 
Fig. 4. Coeloptychium agaricoides, Goldf. Showing the upper surface of the body of a 
small imperfect specimen from the Upper Chalk of the South of England. The 
spicular structure is now only indicated by red markings of iron peroxide in the 

chalky matrix. Natural size 146 

Fig. 4 a. The same. A vertical section of fig. 4, natural size, showing in section the folds 

of the walls in the interior of the sponge. 
Fig. 5. Astraospotigia patina, Roemcr. Detached spicules, enlarged twenty-eight times, 
from decayed Silurian shale of Wenlock age, near Visby, in the Island of 
Gotland. The spicules have been changed to calcite. A small quantity of the 
shaly matrix is usually attached to the central portion of the spicule . . . .149 
Fig. 6. Stauraciinella cretacea, Hinde. An imperfect specimen from the Upper Chalk. 
Natural size. Traces of free hexactinellid spicules, now in the condition of iron 

peroxide, are shown on the outer surface 149 

Fig. 7. Hyalostelia fusiformis, Hinde. Free hexactinellid spicules with inflated centres. 

From the Upper Chalk at Horstead, Norfolk. Enlarged twenty-eight times . 151 



yOSSIL SI^OKGES. 



Pia.te XXXI. 



iSW^fTEWSdS^SRfe*^, 




M. Suft t C.M.Hsi-saiell dil.rt,Htli 



Weet Newman. 4 C° rmjp 



PLATE XXXII. 

Page 
Figs. 1-1 g. Hyalostelia Smithii, Young and Young, sp. Detached spicules of this species. 

Enlarged fourteen times. Figs. 1 to 1 o? are simple hexaetinellid forms ; in 1 

and 1 c one of the spicular rays is reduced to a rounded knob ; figs. 1 e, 1/, and 

1 ff are terminal portions of the spicular rods with four recurved rays. From 

Lower Carboniferous Limestone at Cunningham Baidland, near Dairy, Ayrshire 150 

Figs. 2-2/. Holasterella conferta, Carter. Detached spicules of the species. Enlarged 
fourteen times. Figs. 2 to 2 c are the simpler forms ; fig. 2 f? is an imperfect 
stellate spicule ; 2 e is the upper surface of one of the petal-like spicules, and 
2/ is the under surface of a similar but larger spicule. These various forms 
have been found in combination in fragments of the sponge. From Lower 
Carboniferous Limestone, Law Quarry, Dairy, Ayi'shire 152 

Figs. 3-3 d. Holasterella Youngi, Hinde. Detached umbrella-shaped spicules. Enlarged 
fourteen times. Fig. 3 shows the U2)per surface of a spicule which is smooth ; 
in 3 a, 3 6 the vertical rays of the spicule are seen, and the upper surface is tuber- 
culated ; 3 c shows the under surface and the vertical ray of a small spicule ; 
and 3 d is the upper surface of a large spicule in which the rays are nearly in a 
horizontal phiue. From Lower Carboniferous Limestone at Law Quarry, near 
Dairy, Ayrshire 152 

Figs. 4-1^. Holasterella Wrightii, Carter. Detached spicules of the species. Enlarged 
twenty-eight times. Figs. 4, 4 c, 4 6 are imperfect hexaetinellid spicules with 
simple rays ; 4 c, 4 f/ are fragments of hexaetinellid spicules with bifurcated 
rays ; 4e, 4/ are hexaetinellid spicules in which the rays are subdivided so as to 
give the appearance of stellates; and 4^ is the terminal portion of a spicular 
rod with four recurved I'ays, which may have formed part of the root-appendages 
of the sponge. From Lower Carboniferous Chert, Ben Bulbul, Sligo, Ireland . 153 

Figs. 5-5 e. Holasterella Benniei, Hinde. Detached spicules of the species. Enlarged 
fourteen times. Figs. 5 to 5 c are hexaetinellid forms with the rays variously 
subdivided ; 5 e is a five-rayed form with the rays simple ; and 5 t? is also five- 
rayed, and the rays bifurcate near their extremities. From Lower Carboniferous 
Limestone, Law Quarry, Dairy, Ayrshire 153 

Fig. 6. Peronella inflata, Hinde. Natural size. From the Middle Jura — Couche a Poly- 
piers : Ranville, near Caen 1G7 

Fig. 6 a. The same. Portion of the fibre in the marginal part of the stem, enlarged seventy- 
two times, showing traces of three-rayed spicules. Drawn from a transparent 
microscopic section by means of the camera lucida. 

Fig. 6 b. The same. Showing the spicular structure in the interior portion of the stem. 
Enlarged seventy-two times. 



FOSStr. SPONGES 



Plate XXXll. 




M- Sua S (V.M HcrsckeU 'Icl et lil>i 



PLATE XXXIII. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Peronella pistilliformis , Lamx. sp. Natural size. From the Great Oolite at 

Hampton Cliff, near Bath J65 

Fig. 1 a. The same. Portion of the outer surface of the same specimen, enlarged fifteen 
times, showing the irregular apertures between the fibres. 

Fig. 2. Peronella tenuis, Hinde. Natural size. From the Pea-grit beds of the Inferior 

Oolite near Cheltenham \qq 

Fig. 2 a. The same. Portion of a transparent microscopic section of another specimen from 
the same locality, enlarged seventy-two times, showing the disposition of the 
spicules of the fibre in the interior of the sponge-wall. 

Fig. 2 b. The same. Showing the disposition of the fibres near the margin of tlie sponge- 
wall, -with an entire spicule and fragments of others. The fibre is largely 
crystalline, and only the larger spicules have been preserved. 

Fig. 3. Peronella mamilUfera, Lamx. sp. Natural size. From the Middle Jura, Couche 

h. Polypiers, Ranville, near Caen 1G6 

Fig. 4. Peronella cylindrica, Goldf . sp. A small specimen from the Upper Jura at Randen, 

Switzerland. Natural size 167 

Fig. 5. Peronella ramosa, Roem. sp. Natural size. From the Lower Green Sand at 

Farringdon, Berkshire 1G9 

Fig. 6. Peronella clavarioides, Lamx. sp. Portion of a transparent section of the fibre, 
enlarged seventy-two times, showing thi'ee- and four-rayed spicules. From the 
Middle Jura, Couche a, Polypiers at Ranville, near Caen IGC 

Fig. 6 a. The same. Another portion of the fibre, from the same slide as fig. G, showing 
traces of spicules. 

Fig. 7. Peronella furcata, Goldf. sp. Natural size. From the Cenomanian or Upper 

Green Sand at Essen, Rhenish Prussia 170 

Fig. 8. Peronella proUfera, Hinde. Natural size. From the Lower Green Sand at 

Farringdon, Berkshire 1G9 

Fig. 8 a. The same. Portion of a transparent microscopic section of another specimen from 
Farringdon, enlarged seventy-two times, showing the relatively wide, radiately 
crystalline fibre, with traces of small three- and four-rayed spicules. The greater 
portion of the spicular structure in this specimen has been obliterated. 

Figs. 9-9 b. Peronella ocellata, Hinde. Three examples of this species, natural size, from 

the Upper Chalk at Maestricht 171 

Fig. 9 c. The same. A portion of the outer surface of 9 6, enlarged fifteen times, showing 
the large circular and the small irregular apertures of the dermal layer. 

Fig. 10. Peronella Gillieroni, de Loriol, sp. Natural size. An imperfect specimen from 

the Lower Green Sand at Farringdon 169 

Fig. 11. Elasmocwlia crassa, From. Natural size. From the Lower Green Sand at 

Farringdon, Berkshire 176 

Fig. 12. Amphispongia oblonga, Salter. Natural size. Showing the interior of a split 
specimen of an unusually large size, surrounded by the rocky matrix. In the 



Page 

basal portion the conical spicules are seen converging to the central axis. The 

spicules of the upper portion are too minute to be represented in the figure. 

Prom Silurian strata of Upper Ludlow age, Pentland Hills, near Edinburgh . . 154 
Fi"'. 12(7. The same. Natural size. A smaller and narrower example from the same 

locality. This and the preceding figure are drawn from specimens loaned by 

Dr. H. Traquair, F.R.S. 
Fig. 12 6. The same. Natural size. An average-sized specimen. Drawn from an example 

in the collection of Prof. H. A. Nicholson. 
Fi"'. 12 c. The same. A portion of the interior of the upper part of a specimen, enlarged 

ten times, showing the disposition of the spicules. Only casts of the spicules 

are preserved. 
Fi"-. 12 d. The same. A natural cast of a detached conical spicule from the basal portion 

of the sponge. Enlarged ten times. 
Fig. 12 e. The same. Natural casts of detached five- and possibly six-rayed spicules 

belonging to the upper portion of the sponge. Enlarged fifteen times. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XXXm. 







S" 




9 9"- 9* 







^ 




Nt Suft £ O M.HersdieU del etUth. 



WastKen-n-.^n ^ C? imp 



PLATE XXXIV. 

Figs. I, 1 a. Tremacystia D'Orbignyi, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand 

at Warminster, Wiltshire 272 

Fig. 1 b. The same. A portion of the outer surface of the wall, enlarged thirty times, 
showing the circular canal-apertures and some of the large four-rayed spicules 
forming the dermal layer. 

Figs. 1 c-1 k. The same. Detached sagittal three- and four-rayed spicules belonging to the 
dermal layer. Enlarged seventy-two times. 

Figs. 1 /, 1 m. The same. Detached three-rayed spicules of the fibre. Enlarged seventy- 
two times. Fig. 1 Z is a comparatively rare form, whilst the spicules represented 
by 1 m form the main components of the fibre ; in these the third ray is only 
represented by a minute process. 

Figs. 1 n, 1 0. The same. Two three-rayed spicules of the fibre. Enlarged two hundred 
times. In 1 the sagittal rays are curved, whilst in 1 w they are straight. 

Fig. 2. Tremacystia siphonioides, Mich. sp. A group of individuals growing on a common 

expanded base. Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand at Warminster . 173 

Fig. 3. Tremacystia cribrosa, Goldf. sp. The upper portion of an individual. Natural 

size. From the Cenomanian at Essen, Rhenish Prussia 174 

Fig. 3 a. The same. Enlarged twice the natural size. In the upper portion of the speci- 
men the outer wall is broken away, and the interior cyst-like chambers, each 
with a circular aperture opening into the central tube, are exposed. 

Fig. 3 b. The same. The fractured under surface of the same specimen, seen from below, 
enlarged twice, showing the central tube and the chambers surrounding it. 

Fig. 4. Tremacystia anastomans, Mant. sp. Natural size. From the Lower Green Sand 

at Farringdon, Berkshire 175 

Fig. 4 a. The same. A portion of the outer surface of the wall, enlarged thirty times, 
showing the irregular canal-apertures. 

Fig. 4 b. The same. A fragment of an individual spongite, with the outer wall broken away, 
showing the chambers with horizontal partitions, and the central tube with the 
apertures communicating with each chamber. Natural size. 

Fig. 4 c. The same. The summit of one of the spongites. Natural size. 

Fig. 5. Tremacystia irregularis, Hinde. Natural size. The outer wall of some of the 
spongites is .broken away, and the arched and irregular form of the partitions 
of the chambers is exposed 175 

Fig. 6. Tremacystia clavata, Keeping, sp. A small simple individual. Natural size. At 
the summit is seen the oblique eliiiJtical aperture of the central cloacal tube, 
and immediately below, the outer wall is broken away and two of the chambers 
are exposed 1/6 

Fig. 7. Elasmoccelia Furring donensis, Mant. sp. Natural size. From the Lower Green 

Sand at Farringdon 177 

Fig. 7 a. The same. A portion of the interior fibre, enlarged seventy-two times, showing 



Page 
entire and fragmentary three- and four-rayed spicules. Drawn from a trans- 
parent section. 

Fig. 8. Elasmocaelia Mantelli, Hinde. Natural size. From the Lower Green Sand at 

Farringdon 177 

Figs. 9, 9 a. Corynella foraminosa, GoML sp. Natural size. From the Lower Green Sand 

at Farringdon 181 

Fig. 9 b. The same. A portion of the fibre, enlarged seventy-two times, showing the filiform 
three-rayed spicules. The minute basal ray of these spicules is rarely shown in 
section. The interspaces between the fibres are filled with crystalline calcite. 
Drawn from a transparent section. 

Figs. 10, 10 a. Corynella rugosa, Hinde. Three-rayed spicules of the fibre. Enlarged two 
hundred times. 10 a represents a fragment of the fibre composed of a bundle 
of spicules naturally associated together. From the Upper Green Sand at 
Warminster, Wiltshire 182 

Fig. 11. Corynella socialis, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand at 

Warminster 183 

Fig. 11a. The same. A portion of the fibre, enlarged seventy-two times, showing sections 
of filiform three-rayed spicules similar to those of C. rugosa. Drawn from a 
transparent section. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Pla-^e XXXTnT, 




M. Sufti d NtHoi-acKell delethiii. 



Weet Nev/mAji IL C? im^. 



PLATE XXXV. 

Page 

Fig. 1. Lymnorea mamillosa, Lamx. Natural size. Sbowing the upper surface. From 

the INIiddle Jura at Ranville, near Caen 184 

Fig. 1 a. The same. A portion of the upper surface of the same specimen, enlarged thirty 
times, showing the irregular interspaces between the fibres, and in places an 
open dermal layer of three- or four-rayed spicules. 

Fig. 1 b. The same. A portion of the fibre of the interior, enlarged seventy-two times, 
showing fragments of three- and four-rayed spicules. The fibre is extensively 
crystallized, and only the larger axial spicules are preserved. Drawn from a 
transparent section of a specimen from the Inferior Oolite near Cheltenham. 

Fig. 2. Inobolia inclusa, Hiude. Natural size. From the Inferior Oolite near Chel- 
tenham 185 

Figs. 2 a, 2 6. The same. Portions of the interior fibres of the same specimen, enlarged 
seventy-two times, showing three- and four-rayed axial spicules. Drawn from 
transparent sections. 

Figs. 3, 3 a. Stellispongia corallina, From. sp. Natural size. Two examples of this species 

from the Coral Rag at Lyneham, Wiltshire 186 

Fig. 3 b. The same. A portion of the interior fibres, enlarged seventy-two times, showing 
relatively large axial tlu-ee- and four-rayed spicules, and smaller siuuous spicules 
forming the borders of the fibre. 

Fig. 4. Sestrostomella niffosa, Hinde. Natural size. From the Upper Green Sand? at 

Vaches Noires, near Havre 188 

Fig. 4 a. The same. A fragment of the interior fibre, enlarged seventy-two times, showing 
axial three- and four-rayed spicules, surrounded by smaller irregular spicules. 
Drawn from a transparent section. 

Figs. 4 b-d. The same. Small irregular three-rayed or pitchfoi'k spicules of the fibre. 
Fig. 4 6 represents two of them enlarged seventy -two times; figs, c and d the 
same forms enlarged two hundred times. Drawn under the camera lucida from 
the same transparent section as 4 a. 

Fig. 5. Sestrostomella clavata, Ilinde. A portion of the interior fibres, enlarged seventy- 
two times, showing very distinctly a large axial four-rayed spicule. From the 
Upper Green Sand at Vaches Noires, near Havre. Drawn from a transparent 
section 188 

Fig. 5 a. The same. Another fragment of the interior fibre in the same microscopic section 
as fig. 5, showing the spicular structure of the marginal borders of the fibre 
with several small pitchfork and other irregular three-rayed spicules. Enlarged 
seventy-two times. 

Fig. 6. Trachysinia aspera, Hinde. Seen from above. From the Middle Jura at Ranville, 

near Caen. Natural size 189 

Figs. 6 a, b. The same. Two fragments of the interior fibres, enlarged seventy -two times, 
showing three- and four-rayed spicules of various sizes. Drawn from the same 
transparent microscojnc section. 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XXXV. 




.'fC, ^ %4, 






1>> ^ 






^ .* ^ 




:JS*|*(i^vJ: 




,^^ 



5. ^ 



2> 



M, Suft & e. M.Herschell. d»l. ct lull. 



YTaatNewMiaji & C° imp 



PLATE XXXVI. 

Tage 
Pig. 1. Synopella pulvinaria, Goldf. sp. Natural size. Showing the upper surface of a 

specimen from the Lower Green Sand at Farringdon, Berkshire 190 

Fig. 2. Synopella Goldfussi, Hinde. Natural size. Showing the summit and a portion 
of the lateral surface of a flattened specimen. From the Upper Chalk at 
Maestricht 191 

Fig. 3. Oculospongia dilatata, Eoem. sp. Natural size. Showing the upper surface of 

an average specimen from the Lower Green Sand at Farringdon, Berkshire . . 192 

Fig. 4. Diaplectia auricula, Hinde. Showing the under surface of an ear-shaped indi- 
vidual. Natural size. From the Inferior Oolite (Pea-grit) near Cheltenham . 193 

Fig. 4 a. The same. A portion of the interior fibre of the same specimen, enlarged seventy- 
two timeSj showing relatively large axial three- and fouj'-rayed spicides, and 
minute sinuous spicules bordering the fibre. The spicular structure is only 
partially preserved. Drawn under the camera lucida from a transparent section. 

Fig. 5. Diaplectia helvelloides, Lamx. sp. Natui'al size. Showing the outer surface of 

the cup and the vertical disposition of the fibres 193 

Fig. 6. Elasmostoma scitulum, Hinde. Natural size. Showing the under or outer surface 

of a fan-shaped specimen. From the Upper Chalk at Bromley, Kent . . . 195 

Fig. 6 a. The same. The upper portion of another specimen from the same locality, 
showing the upper or inner surface. Natural size. 

Fig. 6 6. The same. A portion of the surface of 6 a, enlarged eight times, showing the 
raised margins of the circular apertures and the irregular perforations of the 
interspaces between them. 

Figs. 6 c, d. The same. Two fragments of the interior fibres, enlarged seventy-two times, 
showing large axial three- and four-rayed spicules, surrounded by smaller filiform 
sinuous spicules. Drawn from transparent microscopic sections. 

Fig. 7. Elasmostoma crassum, Hinde. A portion of a specimen imbedded in chalk, 
showing the upper or inner surface. Natural size. From the Upper Chalk at 
Bromley, Kent 196 

Fig. 8. liaphidonema pustulatmn, Hinde. Natural size. A convolute specimen, showing 
the oscular apertures on the under or outer surface of the wall. From the 
Lower Green Sand at Farringdon, Berkshire 198 

Fig. 8 a. The same. A small cup-shaped specimen, showing the oscular apertures on the 
inner surface of the wall. Natural size. 

Fig. 9. Trachysinia solitaria, Hinde. Natural size. From the Middle Jura : Couche h. 

Polypiers at Ilanville, near Caen 189 

Fig. 10. Trachysinia minor, Hinde. Natural size. From the Middle Jura at Ranville, 

near Caen 190 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XXXVI 




'^.•\£ 




£' 









K 






•^ 

H 



'^l^ ^^ ci 



y 




M Suft « G M. HersdioU del, i-i lith- 



We8tjIi:w3Maji.& C? imp 



PLATE XXXVII. 

Page 
Fig. 1. Elasmostoma plicatumjHinde. Natural size. Showing the upper or inner surface 

of the wall with the oscular apertures. From the Craie Chloritee at Cap la 

Heve, near Havre 196 

Fig. 2. Raphidonema contortum, Hinde. Natural size. A specimen with convolute walls, 
showing minute oscular apertures on the lower or outer surface of the wall and 
a smooth dermal layer on the upper surface. From the Lower Green Sand at 
FarringdoUj Berkshire 197 

Fig. 2 a. The same. A portion of the outer oscular surface of the wall of the same speci- 
men as fig. 2, enlarged eight times, showing the circular oscular apertures and 
the minute irregular perforations of the interspaces. 

Fig. 2 b. The same. A portion of the interior fibre, enlarged seventy-two times, showing 
the filiform three-rayed spicules. Drawn from a transparent section. 

Fig. 3. Raphidonema porcatum, Sharpe, sp. Natural size. An irregularly convolute speci- 
men, showing the sinuous anastomosing ridges of the under or outer surface of 
the wall. From the Lower Green Sand at Farringdon 198 

Fig. 4. Raphidonema macropora, Sharpe, sp. Natural size. A small cup-shaped example, 
showing the nodose outer surface of the wall and a portion of tlie interior 
surface with the horizontally disposed apertures in the dermal layer. From the 
Lower Green Sand at Farringdon 199 

Fig. ij. Raphidonema Farringdonense, Sharpe, sp. Natural size. An average specimen, 
showing the nodose character of the outer surface of the wall and a portion of 
the interior, with the irregularly disposed canal-apertures. The smooth dermal 
layer of the interior is limited in this specimen to the lower portion of the 
surface of the cup. The smooth surface which conceals the canals near the 
upper margin to the right is produced by an adnate polyzoon. From the 
Lower Green Sand at Farringdon 200 

Figs. 5 a, b. The same. Fragments of the fibres of the interior, enlarged seventy-two times, 
showing the closely arranged filiform three-rayed spicules. The fibres are 
surrounded by a layer of crystalline calcite. Drawn from a transparent micro- 
scopic section. 

Fig. 6. Fharetrospongia Strahani, Sollas. Natural size. A cup-shaped example, showing 
the thickness of the wall and the smooth reticulate character of its inner surface. 
From the Upper Chalk of Kent 201 



FOSSIL SPONGES. 



Plate XXXVn. 




ES?. 



■«P *'M 













M Suit & G M Her.cliell delrtltai. 



AWeotNewmaji * CP imp 



PLATE XXXVIII. 

rig. 1. Pharetrospongia Strahani, SoUas. A fragment oL' tlie interior fibre, enlarged 
seventy-two times, showing traces oi' the spicular structure. Drawn from a 
transparent microscopic section of an entirely calcareous specimen. From the 
Cambridge Green Sand oqi 

Figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b. Protosycon pundatum, Goldf . sp. Two specimens of average dimensions — 
fig. 2 a is enlarged twice ; 2 b shows the cloaeal aperture at the summit. From 
the Upper Jura at Streitberg 204 

Fig. 2 c. The same. A vertical median section of a specimen, natural size, showing the 
thickness of the wall, and the eloacal tube filled with the matrix. 

Fig. 2 d. The same. A portion of the wall of 2 c, enlarged twenty-eight times, showing 
sections of the spicules bounding the horizontal canals. Drawn from a trans- 
parent microscopic section. 

Fig. 2 e. The same. A portion of 2 d, enlarged seventy-two times, showing sections of 
three-raj'cd spicules. 

Figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c. BactroneUa pusillum, Iliude. Three specimens of average dimensions. 
Fig. 3 a is enlarged twice, the other figures are natural size. From the Upper 
Jura, probably from Thurnau, Bavaria 205 

Fig. 3 d. The same. A segment of a transverse section, enlarged twenty-eight times, 
showing traces of the canals in the marginal portion, and the general appearance 
of the central part of the sponge. Drawn from a transparent microscopic 

section. 

Fig. 3 e. The same. A part of the margin of 3 rf. Enlarged seventy-two times. The dark 
portions indicate the canals filled by the dark matrix, whilst the lighter parts are 
sections of spicules. 

Fig. 3/. The same. A part of the dark central portion of the sponge, enlarged seventy-two 
times, showing fragments of three-rayed spicules. 

Fig. Zg. The same. A part of a three-rayed spicule, enlarged two hundred times, showing 
the spinous character of the rays. 

Figs. 4, 4 a. HapUstion fr actum, Hinde. Two detached fragments of the fibres, enlarged 
fourteen times, showing the weathered-out spicules on the surface. Drawn by 
reflected light. Frfim the Lower Carboniferous at Law Quarry, Dairy, Ayr- 
shire ^07 

Figs. 5, 5 a, 5 b. Geodia ? antiqua, Hinde. Three detached trifid spiciil(!s, witli imperfect 
shafts. Enlarged fourteen times. From the Lower Carboniferous at Law 
Quarry, Dairy 208 

Fig. 3 c. The same. A portion of a curved accratc spicule. Enlarged fourteen times. 
From Dairy. 

Figs. 5 d, e. The same. Two bifid spicules with imperfect shafts. Enlarged fourteen times. 
The surface of 5 f shows in places small rhombohedral excavations. From Dairy. 

Figs. G, 6 a-6f. PachastreUa vetusta, Iliude. Detached spicules with four, and in one 



specimen five rays. Eularged fourteen times. From the Lower Carboniferous 

at Law Quarry, Dairy, Ayrshire 209 

Figs. 7, 7 a-7 g. Dory derma Dairy ense, Hinde. Detached spicules of various forms. 
Enlarged twenty-eight times. Figs. / and g are from the Carboniferous at 
Ben Bulbul, near Sligo ; the others are from the Law Quarry, Dairy .... 210 

Fig. 8. Sporadopyle Santanderi, Hinde. Natural size. From the Neocoraian at Santander, 

Spain 210 

Fi"-. 8 a. The same. A fragment of the dermal layer of the same specimen, enlarged sixty 
times, showing the interior spicular canals. Drawn under the camera lucida. 

Figs. 8 b, c, d. The same. Fragments of the interior spicular mesh, showing the canals. 
Fi". 8i is enlarged twenty-eight times, 8 c and d sixty times. 



FOSSIL SPOKGES 



Plate XXXVm. 




M, Suft * S.M. Her9cli«ll del. et litK. 



WeBl-NevrtMiUl RC" iMvp. 



^y 



liiiiiiifi 

3 '9088007655921