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"Catalogue 



OF THE 



NAVAL AND MARINE ENGINEERING 
COLLECTION 



IN' 



THE SCIENCE MUSEUM, 
SOUTH KENSINGTON. 

V^ITH DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTOiilCAL NOTES. 



WAR AND MERCANTILE VESSELS ; 
'ACHTS, BOATS, TUGS, BARGES, ETC. ; 
nHIP DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION; 
LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES. 



MARINE ENGINES AND BOILERS ; 
PADDLE-WHEELS AND SCREW PROPELLERS ; 
STEERING APPLL^NCES; 
AUXILIARY MACHINERY, 



AERIAL NAVIGATION. 

Second Edition^ with a Sujyplement containing iiiustratio7is. 




LON DON : 

PUBLISH KD BY HIS MAJESTY;-? STATIONERY OFFICE. 

To be purchased, either directly oi- through a'ly Bookseller, from 

WYMAN AND SONS, Ltd., Fkitek Lane, E.G.; or 

OLIVER AND BOYD, TiVEEDDale Court, Edixbuegh; or 

E. PONSONBY, Ltd. 116, Grajpton Stkkkx, Dubun. ' 

FEINTED BT 

EYRB AND SPOTTISWOODE, Ltd., East HARi^iKG Street, E.C. 

PRINTERS TO TFE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 
1911. 

Price {incUiding Ulustrafions) One Shilli/if/ and Siocpenci. 



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aSoarb or ECUcattoR.; ': :/-'•, 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

NAVAL AND MARINE ENGINEERING 
COLLECTION 

IN 

THE SCIENCE MUSEUM, 

I SOUTH KENSINGTON. 

WITH DESCRIPTIVE AND HISTORICAL NOTES. 



WAR AND MERCANTILE VESSELS ; 
YACHTS, BOATS, TUGS, BARGES, ETC. ; 
SHIP DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ; 
LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES, 



MARINE ENGINES AND BOILERS ; 
PADDLE-WHEELS AND SCREW PROPELLERS ; 
STEERING APPLIANCES; 
AUXILIARY MACHINERY. 



AERIAL NAVIGATION. 



Second Edition, with a Supplement containing illustrations. 




LONDON: 

PUBLISHED BY HLS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 

To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 

WYMAN AND SONS, Ltd., Fetter Lane, E.G. ; or 

OLIVER AND BOYD, Tweeddale Court, Edinburgh; or 

E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116, Grafton Street, Dublin. 



PRINTED BY 

EYRE AND SPOTTISWOODE, Ltd., East Harding Street, B.C., 

PRINTERS TO THE KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJE8TT. 

1911. 
Price (includinff illustrations) One Shilling and Sixpence, 






VM 



1 






PREFACE. 



The collection of Models of Ships and Marine Machinery 
was first formed in 1864, when the Royal School of Naval 
Architecture and Marine Engineering was established at South 
Kensington by the Lords of the Committee of Council on 
Education, at the request of the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. 

It consisted at first principally of models lent by the 
Admiralty, which were transferred to Greenwich in 1873, when 
the Royal School of Naval Architecture was removed thither. 
In the meanwhile, however, the collection had been very largely 
supplemented by models obtained, principally on loan, fi^om 
other sources ; and the owners not wishing that they should be 
removed from South Kensington, all but the Admiralty models 
were retained there as a division of the Science Branch of the 
South Kensington Museum. 

The President and Council of the Institution of Naval 
Architects waited on the Lord President of the Council on the 
30th June, 1887, and laid before him a memorandum relating 
to the collection. In this memorandum, after recapitulating 
the histor}^ of the collection and the various proposals that had 
been made with reference to it, they go on to say : 

" The Council of the Institution wish to bring under the 
notice of the Lord President the fact that Shipbuilding and 
Marine Engineering is, after agriculture, the largest industry in 
the United Kingdom. '=* '•'" '••'* '••' '•''' The importance of 
good museums in furthering the work of technical education 
cannot be overestimated ; the Council of the Institution there- 
fore specially recommend that the siiggestions contained in the 
report of the majority of the Inter-Departmental Committee 
(Sir F. BramweU's) be carried into effect, so far as regards the 
collection of Naval Models and Marine engines, by retaining 
the collection at South Kensington Museum, and by providing 
the requisite space for its present and future development. 
The Council of the Institution consider that South Kensington 
is the best site for the Museum, because of its central position, 
which is readily accessible both to professional men and to 
students, and also because of its proximity to the Normal School 
of Science (now the Imperial College of Science and Technology)." 

iiJ i\i 

The collection has been increased year by year, partly by 
purchases and by models made to order (in some cases in the 



Royal Dockyards), but principally by donations and loans from 
Engineering, Shipbuilding, and Shipowning firms, and from 
Lloyd's Committee. 

The Board of Education trust that they may continue 
to receive liberal, assistance in their endeavours to maintain 
a collection which may illustrate the history and development 
of Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering as well as the present 
condition of those arts. 



■'•.;•.;.■''■ Many of the engine 7nodels are shown in motion daily 
from 11 a.m. till dosing time, the motive 'power being supplied 
by a compressed air service. 

The more important objects in the Naval and Marine 
Engineering Collections have been photographed, and particulars 
of prints and lantern slides that are available may be obtained 
on application. 



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456677 



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CONTENTS. 



(T7i6 objects in the various sections are arranged 
chronologically.) 



Warships - - 

Sailing - - . - 

Steam - - . . 

Mercantile Vessels - 

Sailing - - - - 

Steam - . . - 

Yachts - - . . 

Racing - - . . 

Cruising 

Motor boats 
Boats, Barges, Launches, Tugs, etc. 

Open boats 

Decked craft 

Life-boats 

Steam tug boats 

Boats' fittings 
Ships and Boats, chiefly of Oriental Design 
Masts, Yards, Rigging, and Sails 
Ship Design - 
iShip Construction 

Wooden 

Composite 

L*on and steel - 

Ships' fittings, etc. 
Slipways, Docks, etc. 
Lighthouses, etc. 
Life- Saving Appliances 



Mai*ine Engines 

Paddle • 

Screw 

Details - 
Marine Boilers 

Boiler fittings - 
Propellers 

Paddle-wheels - 

Screws - 

Other forms 
iSteering Arrangements 
Capstans, Winches, etc. 
Anchors, Cables, etc. 
Logs and Clinometers 
Dredging Appliances 



Aerial Navigation 
Appendix 



List of Donors and Contributors 
Lidex . - - 



Page 

5 

7 

24 

52 

54 

60 

104 

106 

117 

122 

123 

125 

136 

144 

149 

150 

152 

168 

172 

182 

186 

192 

196 

213 

220 

229 

237 



241 
244 
261 
285 
292 
306 
315 
315 
323 
341 
343 
355 
359 
369 
374 



381 

389 



392 
396 



CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



NAVAL AND MARINE ENGINEERING 
COLLECTION 

IN 

THE SCIENCE MUSEUM, 

SOUTH KENSINGTON. 



When a reference is made in the text it is usually to the serial numbers 
at the beginnings of the entries. When an object is illustrated the 
reference is given immediately after the entry. The numbers in the 
right-hand lower cor?iers of the headiiigs are those under which the objects 
are registered in the Museum. 



SHIPS OF WAR. 



The earliest vessels, used indifferently for all purposes, were 
^' dug-out," i.e., hollowed out of a log, as still practised by 
certain tribes, or else were foraied of mat or wicker work. 
Examples of such constructions are shown in some of the 
Oriental boats. Such vessels were necessarily very small, the 
larger ones only becoming possible after some system of 
shipbuilding had been evolved. 

Accounts of early shipbuilding are given in the records of 
the ancient Egyptians, and on the Mediterranean coasts great 
advances were made by the Phoenicians, who about B.C. 800 
constructed warships having two banks of oars. About this 
time also the Greeks built their first warships, while in B.C. 350 
they possessed a navy and a complete dockyard equipment. 
Tlieir warships were provided with several banks of oars, to 
allow of quick evolutions in all weathers and to facilitate the 
use of the beak or ram with which each was provided. They 
were, however, small vessels, making short voyages only ; the 
hull length Avas 7'5 times the beam. The Roman warships 
were about 5 times the beam in length, but were known as " long " 
ships, to distinguish them from their merchant vessels, which 
were only 4 beams in length ; the merchantmen carried few 
oars, relying rather on sails, as they undertook oversea voyages ; 
their carrying capacity was about 250 tons. The narrow or 






galley type of anned ship, witli convicts or prisoners as rowers, 
remained as a naval factor in the Mediterranean until steamships 
became general. 

Before the invention of gnnpowder, fighting was of the hand- 
to-hand order, or at ranges at which arrows could be used ; 
fi'om the 12th to the 15th centuries lofty structures at the 
bow and stern were usually provided for the accommodation 
of the archers and combatants. The introduction of cannon 
into land warfare, about 1350, was followed by their use at 
sea. The early gans were placed broadside, over the gunwales, 
but the use of ports soon followed, and then the arrange- 
ment of the guns in tiers. These changes A^ery gradually 
led to the suppression of the fighting towers, although the 
name survives in our word "forecastle." 

Henry VIII. established the first Royal Dockyards at Deptford 
and Woolwich, about 1510, thus laying the foundation of our 
present naval system. The Cinque Ports were previously bound 
to supply a certain number of fighting ships in lieu of taxes, 
from which they were exempted, while as late as the time of the 
Armada the Navy was chiefly composed of vessels impressed or 
hired from private owners. At this period all merchant ships 
were prepared and equipped for fighting, with the result that 
many of their engagements would now be considered as of the 
buccaneering order. 

In the 17th century the warships of all European nations 
embodied the following features that have since disappeared : — 
High stern, decorated sides, square bulkhead across the bows, 
spritmast and sails below the bowsprit, and a lateen sail on the 
mizen mast ; the armament at this period was increased by 
the use of larger guns, rather than by adding to the numbers. 
With slight changes in rig and an increased weight of broadside, 
this type of warship survived till the beginning of the 19th 
century, largely owing to the action of the Navy Board in 
1719, which laid down a scale of dimensions and tonnage for 
the construction of vessels of each rate. 

In 1832 commenced the great change in the Navy due to 
the introduction of steam power ; in that year the paddle 
steamer H.M.S. "Salamander" appeared, and subsequently 
numerous paddle-driven war vessels were constructed. In 1843 
H.M.S. "Rattler" was built and fitted as a screw-propelled 
fighting ship. Her complete success, combined with the obvious 
advantages of machinery below the water-line, at once rendered 
the ultimate adoption of steam propulsion inevitable. These 
early steamships were only despatch boats or brigs, and it was 
not till 1848 that the screw was applied to line-of-battle ships, and 
|;hen only as an auxiliary power to fully-rigged sailing vessels. 

Although the use of iron for shipbuilding was a practical 
success by 1832, its adoption in warships was much later, for 
it was only in 1850 that iron heams were substituted for Avooden 
ones, while not till 1856 were the first iron-built war vessels 
constructed. These were the floating batteries " Erebus," 



*' Terror," and " Thunderbolt," designed for use in the Russian 
war, where the destructive effect of shell-fire upon wooden ships 
was very severely experienced. 

In consequence of the building in France of "La Gloire," an 
armoured wooden ship, an immense change was inaugurated in 
this country by the construction in 1861 of the first iron-built 
armoured vessel, H.M.S. " Warrior." Since then, the arrange- 
ments of a warship have continued to diverge from those of 
a merchant vessel, so that now, the latter is never improvised 
for line of battle, but is sometimes used for subsidiary war 
purposes. 

The earl}^ armour was of wrought iron, which well resisted 
the chilled cast-iron projectiles so long used, but with the 
introduction of steel shot a harder armour was rendered 
necessary. {See '[Armour,'^ p. 185.) 

From about 1870 till 1887 the primary guns of battleships 
were generally arranged in armoured revolving turrets, but since 
then the barbette mounting has been almost exclusively adopted, 
the guns being carried on a revolving platform, the base of 
which is protected by a stationary ring of heavy armour. In 
1906, the growing importance of rapid and concentrated gun- 
fire at long ranges resulted in the British " Dreadnought " 
design, in which the universal practice of a mixed armament, 
of light and heavy guns, was abandoned and an augmented 
number of the most powerful guns were carried in a vessel of 
greatly increased dimensions and speed. Although this sim- 
plification of armaments had advantages as regards general 
fighting efficiency at extreme ranges, yet the continued improve- 
ments in torpedo-attack, at medium ranges, have shown 'the 
advisability of still carrying a number of quick-firing guns of 
smaller calibre. 

SAILING SHIPS OF WAR. 

1. Rigged model of King's Ship (11th to 13th cent.). (Scale 
1 : 24.) Presented by James Dixon, Esq., 1908. Plate I., 
No. 1. N. 2489. 

The tei-m " King's Ship " appears to have been applied originally to the 
long-ships or war galleys of about 60 oars built by Alfred the Great in 875. 

This model, made by Mr. F. H. Mason, R.B.A., represents an English 
man-of-war of the Norman and early Plantagenet periods, such as may be 
seen on the 13th century seals of some of the Cinque Poi*ts. It has greater 
propoi-tional beam and fuller lines than the contemporary warships of the 
oar-propelled galley type. 

Oak was genei-ally used in construction; the planking was worked 
flush and then caulked with moss, hair, and pitch ; the sides were further 
strengthened and protected by external timbers and rubbing-pieces. 
Temporary sti-uctiu*es or " castles " at the bow and stem, and smaller 
*' top-castles " at the mast-head, were erected for the use of the fighting men. 
Decks and platforms were also of a portable chai-acter. Wooden shields 
were himg around the bulwarks for the better protection of the crew ; the 
shields and banners of the knights were hung upon the castles. A single 
pole mast was used, spreading a large decorated square-sail ; sail was taken 



8 

in when necessary by detaching the " bonnet " or lower portion. Steering' 
was effected by a large oar on the right-hand side. These vessels were 
decorated with heraldic carvings and painted in bright colours, red being a 
favourite colour. Their burden varied probably from 40 to 160 tons. 

2. Rigged model of carrack (15th cent.). (Scale 1 : 48.) 

Presented by James Dixon, Esq., 1908. Plate I., No. 2. 

N. 2488. 

This model, by Mr. F. H. Mason, R.B.A., represents a type of ship 
developed, largely by the Genoese, Portuguese, and Spaniards, during the 
14th and 15th centuries for the pui-poses of the sea-borne commerce of the 
period. Oversea expeditions, such as those of Columbus and Yasco da Gama^ 
were also made in vessels of similar type. 

The most striking features of these vessels were : — A low^ freeboard 
amidships, a high overhanging forecastle, and a heavy superstmcture at the 
stem. These erections, developed from the temporary fighting " castles " 
of earlier date, were now incorporated with the ship sti*ucture ; they provided 
accommodation for the crew and afforded means of defence, although they 
increased the tendency to heavy rolling and pitching. In war vessels of the; 
16th century these superstructures reached extreme proportions " for majesty 
and terror of the enemy." 

The carrack usually carried from three to four pole masts ; lateen sails- 
were always used, but upper and lower square- sails were fitted to the fore 
and main masts in the later and larger examples. A mdder, hung at the 
centre line of the stem, had, at this date, superseded the steering oar. The 
ship's boats were carried in the waist, when they could not be towed. 

The model represents a vessel of about 150 tons burden, but during the 
16th centui'y Genoese caiTacks of 1,600 tons burden are recorded as having: 
been built. 

3. Engraving of *' Henri Gi^ace a Dieu " or "Great Harry" 

(1514). Received 1905. N. 2393. 

This engraving, from a contemporary painting ascribed to Hans Holbein^, 
is believed to represent one of the first vessels of considerable size belonging 
to the Royal Navy of England. 

Owing to the practice of giving the same name to successive ships of 
somewhat similar characteristics, it has been difficult to distinguish clearly 
between the " Great Harry " reputed to have been built by Henry YII, 
about 1488-1503 and the " Great Harry "or " Henri Grace a Dieu " of the 
following reign. Authentic records, however, exist as to the building of 
this latter ship at Woolwich, in 1512-15, of her engagement with a French 
fleet off the Isle of Wight in 1545, and of her accidental destruction by fire 
at Woolwich in 1553. She can-ied four masts, each made in a single lengtb 
without a separate top-mast and all square-rigged, and a long bowsprit ; 
she was of about 1,000 tons burden, and had a crew of 700 men and an 
armament of 20 to 30 cannon with a large number of smaller guns. 

Various drawings of this vessel are in existence. The adjacent prints of 
" Henri Grace a Dieu " (No. 5), from a di-awing in the Pepysian Library, 
Cambridge, and " The Embarkation of Hemy YIII." (No. 4), show structures 
having abnormal proportion of height to length and breadth, which probably 
more nearly represent the actual type of ship in ijse at the beginning of the 
16th century than does this engraving, which in some chai'acteristics shows 
an advance towards vessels of the Elizabethan period. 

4. Engraving of tlie Embarkation of Henry VIII. (1520).. 

Received 1905. N. 2394. 

This engraving is taken from the large painting now in Hampton Court 
Palace ascribed to Yincent Yolpe, a contemporary Court painter ; it 
represents Henry VIII. of England, with his fleet, leaving Dover Harbour 
for Calais, preparatory to his historical intei-view with Francis I. of France,, 
on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. 



9 

In the foreground are views of the two forts commanding the western 
side of the harbour enti-ance, while in the "background appears Dover Castle^ 
Among the leading vessels, to the right of the pictui*e, is shown the 
celebrated " Henri Grace a Dieu " or " Great Harry," with the King 
standing upon the upper deck. Interesting details are given of the masting,, 
rigging, and external design and ornamentation of ships-of-war during the 
early part of the 16th century ; these features are in general accord with 
the drawing of the " Henri Grace a Dieu " in the Pepysian Library,. 
Cambridge, a partial reproduction of which appears in the upper part of an 
adjacent frame (No. 5). 

5. Prints of early shipping. Presented by T. Dver Edwardes, 

Esq., 1868. " N. 1209. 

These are a collection of woodcuts or engravings representing chiefly 
mediaeval vessels. They include a Bi-itish coracle of 50 B.C. ; Mediterranean 
war galleys ; a fireship and seven other vessels of 14th to 15th centuries ; the 
"Great Harry" of 1503; the "Henri Grace a Dieu" of 1514; the "Royal 
James " of 1675 ; and the iU-fated " Royal George " of 1756. 

6. Rigged model of English man-of-war (1580-1600). (Scale 

1 : 72). Lent by R. Morton Nance, Esq., 1908. Plate I., 
No. 3. N. 2456. 

This model of an Elizabethan warship was made by Mr. Nance from 
information obtained from contemporary prints, paintings and detailed 
descriptions. 

The hull shows features of both the round- ship or mediaival merchant 
vessel, and the long- ship or war galley — a combination which gave a vessel 
capable of can-ying a considerable spread of sail and ample armament while 
possessing the speed and handiness associated with lightness in construction. 
The narrowing or housing-in of the topsides, which rendered the vessel more 
seaworthy and strengthened the decks as gun platforms, as well as the 
beakhead and the open stem galley were new features of this period, while; 
gratings and nettings in the waist as a defence against boarders were 
adapted from an earlier aiTangement. 

Four masts are shown ; the foremast is placed before the bulkhead of the 
forecastle and the bowsprit is stepped beside it ; the two mizen masts are 
fitted with lateen sails only, an outrigger from the stem being used to- 
extend the sheet of the smaller or bonaventure mizen- sail. On the ends of 
the bowsprit and yard-arms are sheer-hooks intended for catching in an 
enemy's rigging. 'No stay-sails were can-ied but the stays themselves were 
used for secui-ing the standing parts of braces, bowlines, &c., the crow-foot 
being a favourite method of attachment. Mametts or martinets, similar to 
leech lines, are shown upon the fore and main-sails, while the methods of 
fui-ling adopted at this period are illustrated by the main- sail, fore top -sail 
and sprit-sail. The model is shown close-hauled with the fore-sail so canted 
as to resemble a lug-sail and having its tack hauled down to a comb-cleat- 
under the head knee. The detachable bonnet, an equivalent of reefing, 
shown laced to the fore-sail, and the striking of topmasts were innovations 
of this period. 

There is an ainnament of 30 large guns, besides which a number of small 
swivel-guns would have been carried. 

The pi-incipal dimensions of the vessel are : — Length, on gun deck, 80 ft. ;, 
breadth, 26 ft. ; depth of hold, 13 ft. ; displacement, about 450 tons. 

7. Built and rigged model of a Maltese galley. (Scale 1 : 24.) 

Bequeathed by Miss M. A. Peek, 1906. Plate 1., No. 4. 

N. 1029, 

This ancient model is believed to have belonged to the Knights of Malta. 
It is planked on the starboard side, but shows the timbers on the port.. 



10 

Such armed vessels were usually rigged with three masts canying large 
lateen sails ; in calms they were propelled by sweeps, manned by slaves or 
convicts. 

The dimensions would be approximately : — Length, 165 ft. ; breadth, 
22 ft. ; breadth from gimwale to gunwale, 31 ft. ; depth, 9 • 9 ft. ; number of 
sweeps, 44. 

8. Drawings and engraving of H.M.S. " Sovereign of the 

Seas," 1637. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1893 and 1905. 

N. 2044 and 2395. 

The pencil sketch and the engraving give general views, and the design 
shows the sheer, half-breadth, body plan and stem elevation of the 
" Sovereign of the Seas," laid down at Woolwich in 1636 by Mr. Peter Pett, 
and launched in 1637 ; she appears to have been the fii*st three-decked ship 
built in England. 

In 1637 Thomas Heywood wrote : She hath three flush Deckes, and a 
*' Fore-Castle, an halfe Decke, a quarter Decke, and a round house. Her 
*' lower Tyre hath thirty ports, which are to be furnished with Demy- 
" Cannon and whole Cannon throughout. . . . Her middle Tyi'e hath 
*' also thii-ty ports for Demi-Culvei-in, and whole Culverin : Her third Tyre 
*' hath Twentie sixe Ports for other Ordnance, her fore-Castle hath twelve 
*' ports, and her halfe Decke hath fourteene ports ; She hath thirteene or 
*.' fourteene ports more within Board for murdering peeces, besides a great 
*' many Loope-holes out of the Cabins for Musket-shot. She caii-ieth 
*' moreover ten peeces of chase Ordnance in her, right foi-ward ; and ten 
*' right off. . . . She caii-ieth eleaven anchors, one of them weighing 
■" foui*e thousand foure hundred, etc," {i.e., lb.). Fincham considered that 
^' she was so gorgeously ornamented with cai'ving and gilding that she 
*' seemed to have been designed rather for a vain display of magnificence 
*' than for the service of the State." 

In Blake's time she was cut do-wTi a deck, and then was considered one 
of the finest ships in the world ; she was constantly employed in the naval 
wars of Cromwell and Charles II., but in 1696 was accidentally bui-nt at 
Chatham, where she had gone to be rebuilt. 

Burden, 1,867 tons; length of gun deck, 173 ft. ; length of keel, 139 ft. ; 
breadth, extreme, 50 ft. ; depth of hold, 20 ft. ; height from keel to lanthom 
top, 76 ft. Armament, 102 guns. 

9. Rigged model of Dutch war vessel (1650-75). (Scale 1 : 72.) 

Lent by R. Morton Nance, Esq., 1903. Plate I., No. 5. 

N. 2338. 

This represents a man-of-war of the largest type in the Dutch Navy 
towards the end of the seventeenth centuiy ; the model was made by 
Mr. Nance from data obtained from contemporary drawings and some 
ortgiual models deposited in Continental churches. At this period the 
naval power of Holland equalled that of any country, but the shallow waters 
of her coast and harboui-s so limited the draught of her ships that they 
were generally of less tonnage than those of other powers. 

The model shows the " square tuck " or " transom stem,'" common to the 
Dutch, Spanish and French men-of-war of the time, therein differing from 
the English rounded stem in which the outer planking was worked in con- 
tinuous lines to the stern post. The channels for securing the lower rigging 
of the fore and maiu mast are fitted above the upper deck gun-poris, an 
improvement which was not generally adopted in the English Navy till a 
•century later. The shape of the mast-caps, the circular tops, the use of a 
sprit-top mast, and of a lateen yard are also features of the period to which 
the model belongs. 

The leading dimensions of the vessel would be approximately : — 
Displacement, 1,000 tons; length, 120 ft.; breadth, 42 ft.; ai-mament, 
65 guns. 



11 

10. Rigged model of an English, battleship of the ITtli 
century. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1895. Plate I., No. 6. 

N. 2072. 

This shows a line-of-battle ship of the first rate, and is believed to 
represent H.M.S. '* Royal Charles," a 100-gun ship built at Portsmouth in 
1672, to the designs of Sir Anthony Deane. 

The model was rigged in the Museum in 1898 from information collected 
from several drawings and models of the period. Although shown without 
top -gallant yards, it is not to be infeiTed that such spars were not 
then in use ; in fair weather they were commonly fitted, but during the 
winter season the usual rig was as here represented, 

The chief difference between this rig and that of vessels of the 
19th century is in its havmg a sprit top-mast and jack staff on the bowsprit, 
and in the use of a large lateen yard and sail on the mizen mast in place of 
a spanker spread by a. gaff and boom. The " tops " throughout are circular 
in plan and have a raised ledge. 

The armament of the " Royal Charles " was : — Lower deck, 28 42-prs. ; 
main deck, 26 40-prs. ; upper deck, 28 18-prs. and foui* 16-prs, ; quarter deck 
and forecastle, 14 6-prs. Her complement was 780 men. 

The leading dimensions were : — Toimage, 1,531 tons ; length, 136 ft. ; 
breadth, 44 • 6 ft. ; depth of hold, 18 • 25 ft. ; draught, 20 • 5 ft. 

11. Engraving of an English man-of-war of the 17th century. 

(Scale 1 : 60.) Received 1894. N. 2055. 

This represents a battleship of the first rate, mounting 100 guns,- and 
having a complement of 710 men. It probably belongs to the period 
1660-80. Details of the lower transverse framing are shown, and the 
names of the various parts are given in English, Dutch, French, and 
Italian. The usual elaborate ornamentation of the upper portions of the 
hull is carefully represented. 

Her ai*mament was : — Lower deck, 28 42-prs. ; middle deck, 28 40-prs. ; 
main deck, 28 18-prs. ; upper deck, 12 16-prs. ; poop deck, four 6-prs. 

Tonnage, 1,672 tons; length, 136 ft.; breadth, 44-5 ft.; draught, 
20 • 5 ft. 

12. Engravings of 17th centuiy war ships of the second rate. 
Presented by T. Dyer Edwardes, Esq., 1868. N. 1209. 

These four prints from drawings by Yandevelde, illustrate the difference 
in the build of English and foreign warships about the year 1670. 

The English ship shows a clean run, her outside planking being worked 
continuously to the stempost below the gun deck, while the planking of the 
foreign vessels terminates in flat transom stems ; the English and Spanish 
chain plates are on the main deck, whilst those of the French and Dutch are 
on the upper. 

13. Built model of H.M.S. " Chester." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by J. J. Dafforne, Esq., 1869. N. 1313. 

This model, which has its lower masts and bowsprit stepped and tops 
over, is said to represent H.M.S. " Chester," a fourth-rate man-of-war, built 
at Woolwich in 1691, by Mr. Laurance. The intricate wood-carving in 
the decorations of the vessels have been carefully reproduced. She earned 
48 to 54 guns, and her complement was about 230 men. 

Her dimensions, taken from the model, were : — Tonnage, 618 ; length of 
keel, 128 ft. ; breadth, 36 ft. ; depth of hold, 14 ft. 

14. Rigged model of English battleship. (Scale 1 : 64.) Lent 
by Mrs. Humphry, 1905. N. 2386. 

This represents an English line-of-battle ship of the third rate, built on 
the "establishment for building ships framed in 1719," and cariying 80 guns 



12 

on three decks. The class was described as inefficient ; they were bad sea 
boats, being three-deckers on the dimensions of two-deckers ; consequently 
none were built after 1757. 

The model itself is well and accui-ately rigged, showing snaked fore and 
main stays, the method of swiftering in the lower rigging, spi-itsail yard, 
sprit topmast and yard, the introduction of the jib-boom, and top cloths 
used for ornamental purposes. 

The armament was : — Lower deck, 28 24-prs. ; middle deck, 26 12-prs. ; 
upper deck, 26 9-prs. Complement, 650 men. 

The dimensions of third-rates on the 1719 establishment were : — Burden^ 
1,350 tons ; length on gun deck, 158 ft. ; length of keel for tonnage, 128 ft. ; 
breadth, 44-5 ft. ; depth, 18 ft. 

15. Oil paintings of H.M.S. " Victory." Presented by H.M. 
Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1018, 

This was a first-rate battleship of 100 guns built at Portsmouth in 1737. 
She was lost in the English Channel October 5th, 1744, when Admiral 
Balchen and her crew of 1,100 men perished. 

Ai-mament: — Lower deck, 28 42-prs. ; middle deck, 28 24-prs. ; main 
deck, 28 12-prs. ; quai*ter deck, 12 12-prs. ; forecastle, four 12-prs. Her 
complement was 1,100 men. 

Tonnage, 1,921 tons; length, 174-75 ft.; breadth, 50-5 ft.; depth of 
hold, 20-5 ft. 

16. Rigged model of English man-of-war, fonrtli rate (1740-5). 
. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1909. N. 2525. 

This represents an English warship, built in accordance with the 1733 
Establishment for 50-gun ships ; eight of these vessels were constructed 
between 1740 and 1745 under Sir J. Acworth, Surveyor of the Navy. 

During the first half of the 18th century foui*th-rates were counted as 
ships- of -the-line, capable of taking part in general engagements ; at a 
somewhat later date, however, they were more commonly used for convoy 
duty, and third-rates or 64-gun ships {see Nos. 26 and 44) were the smallest 
officially recognised for line-of -battle. 

The following contemporary features are illusti*ated by the model: — 
(a) A jib-boom, for use with a fore-and-aft head sail, now first substituted 
for the sprit topmast, yard and square sail ; (&) the swiftering, or cross 
connection, of each pair of shrouds on the fore and main masts ; (c) the 
fitting of crows-foot rigging, from the fore edges of the tops to the lower 
stays ; (d) lateen yard, with fittings, on the mizen mast ; (e) spare spars, 
stowed in the waist ; (/) portable fish davit for lifting anchors ; {g) ornamen- 
tation of stem and topsides. 

The ordinary complement for these ships was 300 men, and the armament 
was usually distributed as follows : — Lower deck, 22 18-prs. or 24-prs. 
9*5 ft. long; upper deck, 22 9-prs or 12-prs. 8-5 ft. long; quarter deck, 
four 6-prs. 7 ft. long ; forecastle, two 6-prs. 8 ft. long. Provision was often 
made for canying several guns in excess of this number. 

The average dimensions of this class were : — Tonnage (b.o.m), 860 tons ; 
length on gun deck, 134 ft. ; breadth, 38 • 7 ft. ; depth of hold, 15 • 75 ft. 

17. Whole model of an 18tli centmy line-of-battle ship on 
launching ways. (Scale 1 : 60.) Received 1890. 

N. 1850. 

This is an English warship of the fourth rate, mounting 64 guns ; 
H.M.S. "Yarmouth," built at Deptford by Mr. J. Allen in 1745, was a 
similar vessel, and her dimensions were : — Tonnage, 1,359 tons ; length,. 
160 ft. ; breadth, 44-25 ft. ; depth of hold, 19 ft. 

The model shows the method of launching used in the 18th centuiy. 
The flags displayed are: the royal standard of the House of Hanover 
1714-1801 ; the Union Jack prior to the abolition of the Iiish Parliament 
in 1801 ; the foul anchor of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 



13 

18. Built and rigged model of an Englisli frigate of the 
18tli century. (Scale 1 : 48.) Bequeathed by T. S. Robins, 
Esq., 1881. Plate II., No. 1. N. 1545. 

This 24-gun frigate was built about 1750. Amongst the interesting 
details visible are the upper and lower lateen yards on the mizen mast, the 
method of stowing bower and sheet anchors, the timbers and upper deck 
"beams, and the poop and forecastle. 

The guns were 9-prs., and the ship's complement 160 men. 

The approximate dimensions would be : — Tonnage, 511 tons ; length on 
gun-deck, 113 ft. ; length of keel, 93 ft. ; breadth, 32 ft. ; depth of hold, 
lift. 

19. Engravings of English men-of-Avar of the 18th century. 
Received 1892. N. 2010. 

These show details of line-of -battle ships of about the period 1750-90. 
The upper view represents a full-rigged 64-gun ship at anchor, and is 
provided with a marginal key that gives the names of the various ropes, 
spars, &c. The lower view is a longitudinal section of the hull of a 90-gun 
ship, showing the internal construction and fittings ; this also is provided 
with a similar key. 

20. Oil paintings of armed cutter " Alert." Presented by 
Mrs. Gibbs, 1904. N. 2356. 

These two paintings, dated 1755, represent an armed cutter or 
sloop-of-war, similar to a class of 8-gun vessels built in 1753-4 from the 
designs of Sir J. Acwoi-th. 

Many such vessels were built or purchased for tha Navy during the 
latter half of the 18th century ; they varied in size from 50 to 200 tons 
and were chiefly employed for the suppression of smuggling, which was at 
its height at that period. 

The vessel shown would have a complement of about 60 men. 
Tonnage (b.o.m.), 145 tons ; length, on gun deck, 75 '5 ft. ; length on 
keel, 62 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 21 ft. ; depth of hold, 9-5 ft. 

21. Oil painting, " Launch at Deptford Dockyard " (about 1750). 
Painted by J. Clevely. Received 1867. N. 1096. 

This yard, established early in the reign of Henry VIII., was closed 
for shipbuilding in April, 1869, and is now used as one of the principal 
victualling establishments for the Navy. The picture shows very accurately 
the rig of the different ships at anchor, also the uniforms of the period. 

22. Oil paintings of H.M.S. " Royal George." Presented by 
H.M. Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1017. 

These show bow and stem views of H.M.S. " Royal George," a first-rate 
battleship of 100 guns. She was laid down at Woolwich in 1746, launched 
in 1756, and foundered at Spithead August 29th, 1782, in consequence of 
her "being heeled to come at the pipe that leads to the well." She 
remained in the spot where she had sunk until 1839, when by means of the 
diving bell many of her guns and stores were recovered, her hull being then 
blown up. 

Her armament was : — Lower deck, 28 42-prs. ; middle deck, 28 24-prs. ; 
main deck, 28 12-prs. ; quarter deck, twelve 12-prs. ; forecastle, four 12-prs. 
Her complement was 800 men. 

Tonnage, 2,041 tons ; length, 178 ft. ; breadth, 51-75 ft. ; depth of hold, 
21-5 ft. 

23. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Juno." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by S. T. G. Evans, Esq., 1898. Plate II., No. 2. N. 2167. 

This vessel was built on the Thames in 1757 by Mr. Alexander, to 
the designs of Sir T. Slade, who then held the post of Constructor to the 

Navy. 



14 

She was one of the first typical frigates, carrying her armament on one 
deck and being built for service as a swift independent cmiser. Her arma- 
ment was 32 9-prs., and her complement 220 men. 

Tonnage, 667 tons; length, 127-83 ft.; breadth, 34-25 ft.; depth of 
hold, 11-83 ft. 

24. Built half-model of 50-guii frigate (1743-63). (Scale 
1 : 48). Received 1899. N. 2186. 

This shows the above-water form of an English fourth-rate man-of-war 
built during the middle of the 18th century, 

H.M.S. "Romney" laid down at Woolwich in 1759 and launched in 
1762, was typical of the class and had the following principal dimensions : — 
Length on gun-deck, 146ft.; length on keel, 120*7 ft.; breadth, extreme, 
40-37 ft. ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 1,046 tons. 

Although nominally rated as 50-gun frigates these vessels carried 54 and 
occasionally 58 guns. The bulwarks and gun ports to the poop -deck were 
probably additions, made during reconstruction at a later date. 

25. Built model of H.M.S. '' Triumpli." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Received 1892. Plate J., No. 7. N. 2009. 

This two-decked 74-gun line-of-battle ship was launched at "Woolwich 
Dockyard in 1764. She was designed by Sir Thomas Slade on the lines of 
the " Invincible " captured from the French by Lord Anson and Sir Peter 
Warren on the 3rd of May, 1747. 

Her armament was : — Lower deck, 28 32-prs. ; main deck, 30 18-prs. j 
quarter deck, twelve 9-prs. ; forecastle, four 9-prs. Her complement was 
650 officers and men. 

Tonnage, 1,825 tons; length, 171-25 ft.; breadth, 49-75ft.; depth of 
hold, 21-25 ft. 

26. Rigged model of 64-gun ship. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 
1899. Plate XL, No. 3. N. 2202. 

From 1719 till about 1745 the British ships-of-war were constmcted 
upon a fixed scale of dimensions, with the result that, through the absence 
of development, our ships of each class became inferior in both size and 
sailing qualities to those of other powers; several engagements having 
demonstrated this result, the regulations were abandoned and new designs 
prepared giving larger dimensions and finer lines which were partly obtained 
from those of captured vessels. 

The model built by Messrs. PeiTy & Co., and rigged in the Museum in 
1901, represents a man-of-war of the third rate built on the new system in 
1764 by John Perry at Blackwall from designs by Sir T. Slade of the 
Admiralty. It shows in detail the fittings of the improved vessels, including 
the cabin, belfry, riding bitts, galley, capstans, and the glazing of the stera 
and quarter galleries, with other details of the period. 

The armament would be: — Lower deck, 26 18 or 24-prs. ; main deck, 
26 9-prs. ; quarter deck, ten 9-prs. ; forecastle, two 9-prs. Ship's complement, 
500 men. 

The name of the vessel represented is uncertain, but her leading 
dimensions were probably: — Tonnage, 1,380 tons; length on gun deck, 
159 - 3 ft. ; length on keel, 130 • 75 ft. ; breadth, 44 - 5 ft. ; depth, 18 - 75 ft. 

27. Rigged model of H.M.S. ''Duke." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by S. T. G. Evans, Esq., 1898. N. 2166. 

This second-rate line-of-battle ship of 98 guns is of uncertain origin, 
but she is known to have been rebuilt at Plymouth in 1776 by J. Pownall. 
She took part in the battle of Belleisle in 1759, and in Rodney's victory 
of AprH 9th, 1762, in the West Indies. 



15 

Her armament was : — Lower deck, 28 32-prs. ; middle deck, 28 18-prs. ; 
main deck, 32 12-prs. ; quarter deck, four 12-pi*s. ; poop deck, four 6-prs. ; 
forecastle, two 12-prs. Her complement was 750 men. 

Tonnage, 1,931 tons; length, 177-5 ft.; breadth, 50 ft.; depth of hold, 
21-16 ft. 

28. Oil paintings of H.M.S. " Barfleur." Presented by H.M. 
Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1019. 

This was a second-rate battleship of 90 guns, laid down at Chatham 
in 1762, launched 1768, and broken up in 1819. 

Armament : — ^Lower deck, 28 32-prs. ; main deck, 32 IS-prs. ; upper deck, 
30 9-prs. Her complement was 750 men. 

Tonnage, 1,750 tons ; length, 177 • 6 ft. ; breadth, 50 • 4 ft. ; depth of hold, 
21ft. 

29. Oil paintings of H.M.S. "Royal Oak." Presented by 
H.M. Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1020. 

This was a third-rate battleship of 74 guns, laid down at Devonport 
in 1766, launched 1769, and broken up in 18l5. 

Armament : — Lower deck, 28 32-prs. ; main deck, 28 18-prs. ; quai-ter 
deck, 14 9-prs. ; forecastle, four 9-prs. Her complement was 650 men. 

Tonnage, 1,606 tons ; length, 168 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 46 • 75 ft. ; depth of hold, 
20 ft. 

30. Oil paintings of H.M.S. " Intrepid." Presented by KM. 
Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1021. 

This was a third-rate battleship of 64 guns, laid down at Woolwich 
in 1767, laimched 1770, and sold out of the Service in 1828. 

Armament : — Lower deck, 26 24-prs. ; main deck, 26 18-prs. ; quarter 
deck, ten 9-prs. ; forecastle, two 9-prs. Her complement was 500 men. 

Tonnage, 1,374 tons ; length, 159*5 ft. ; breadth, 44-4 ft. ; depth of hold, 
19 ft. 

31. Oil paintings of H.M.S. "Kingfisher." Presented by 
H.M. Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1027. 

This was a 14-gun sloop-of-war laid down at Chatham in 1769, launched 
1770, and burnt at Rhode Island in 1778. 

The armament was 14 6-pr. guns, and the complement 125 men. 

Tonnage, 302 tons ; length, 98 • 75 ft. ; breadth, 26 - 83 ft. ; depth of hold, 
12 ft. 

32. Oil paintings of H.M.S. "Portland." Presented by H.M. 
Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1022. 

This was a fourth-rate battleship of 50 guns, laid down at Sheemess 
in 1767, launched 1770, and sold out of the Service in 1807. 

Armament: — Lower deck, 22 24-prs.; main deck, 24 18-prs.; quarter 
deck, four 9-prs. Her complement was 350 men. 

Tonnage, 1,044 tons; length, 146 ft.; breadth, 40-5 ft.; depth of hold, 
17-5 ft. 

33. Oil paintings of H.M.S. "Ambuscade." Presented bv 
H.M. Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1024. 

This was a fifth-rate battleship of 32 guns, laid down at Messrs. Adams 
& Co.'s yard on the Thames in 1771, and launched in 1773. She was 
taken by the "Bayonnaise" in December 1798, and aftei'wards retaken 
and broken up in 1813. 

Armament : — Main deck, 26 12-prs. ; quarter deck, four 6-prs. ; forecastle, 
two 6-prs. Her complement was 215 men. 

Tonnage, 684 tons ; length, 126 • 25 ft, ; breadth, 35 • 16 ft. ; depth of hold, 
12-16 ft. 



16 

34. Oil paintings of H.M.S. '' Enterprize." Presented by 
H.M. Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1025. 

This was a sixth-i-ate battleship of 28 guns, laid down at Deptford in 1771, 
launched in 1774, and broken up in 1807. 

Armament : — Main deck, 24 12-prs. ; quarter deck, four 6-prs. Her 
complement was 200 men. 

Tonnage, 594 tons; length, 120-5 ft.; breadth, 33-5 ft.; depth of hold, 
lift. 

35. Oil paintings of H.M.S. "Experiment." Presented by 
H.M. Queen Victoria, 1864. N. 1023. 

This was a fourth-rate battleship of 50 guns, laid down at Messrs. Adams 
& Co.'s yard on the Thames in 1772, and launched in 1774. 

She was dismasted in a gale and taken by the French fleet in 1779 on her 
passage from New York to Savamiah. 

Armament : — Lower deck, 20 24-prs. ; main deck, 22 18-prs. ; quarter 
deck, six 9-prs. ; forecastle, two 9-prs. Her complement was 300 men. 

Tonnage, 923 tons ; length, 140 • 75 ft. ; breadth, 38 • 75 ft. ; depth of hold, 
16-58 ft. 

36. Oil paintings of H.M.S. " Spbinx." Presented by H.M. 
Queen Victoria, 1864. K. 1026. 

This was a sixth-rate battleship of 20 guns, laid down at Portsmouth 
in 1773, and launched in 1775. She was taken by the French in 1779, 
retaken the same year by H.M.S. " Proserpine," and broken up at Portsmouth 
in 1811. 

Her armament was 20 6-prs., and complement 160 men. 

Tonnage, 429 tons; length, 108 ft.; breadth, 30 ft.; depth of hold, 
9-6 ft. 

37. Rigged model of " Fair American." ('Scale 1 : 32.) Lent 
by Sir Frank Short, 1900. ^ N. 2215. 

This was a 14-gun brig which under the command of Stephen Decatur, 
senr., became famous as an American privateer during the War of Indepen- 
dence, 1775-81. She was ultimately captured, and then sailed as a British 
privateer. 

Her dimensions, as taken from the model, appear to have been : — 
Tonnage, b.o.m., 160 tons ; length of gun deck, 69 ft. ; breadth, 23 ft. ; 
depth of hold, 11 ft. 

38. Whole model of English man-of-war. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Received 1894. N. 2043. 

This represents a third-rate 70-gun ship, similar to H.M.S. " Boyne " 
built at Plymouth in 1776. 

Her armament was : — Lower deck, 26 32-prs ; main deck, 26 18-pi's. ; 
Tipper deck, 12 9-prs. ; poop, six 6-prs. Her complement was 520 men. 

Tonnage, 1,426 tons ; length, 162 ft. ; breadth, 44 • 66 ft. ; depth of hold, 
19-33 ft. 

39. Rigged model of ''Le Sceptre.*' (Scale 1 : 96.) Received 
1871. N. 1330. 

This represents a French line-of -battle ship of 74 guns, which took part 
in some of the most important actions during the war 1778-82. 

Her armament was : — Lower deck, 28 36-prs. ; main deck, 30 18-prs. ; 
quarter-deck and forecastle, 16 8-prs. Her complement was 690 men. 

Tonnage, 1,832 tons; length, 173-6 ft.; breadth, 49-6 ft.; depth of 
hold, 21-6 ft. 



17 

40. Built model of H.M.S. " Cleopatra." (1779.) (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Received 1907. N. 2441. 

This 32-guii frigate was built at Bristol in 1779 from the designs of 
Sir J. Williams, Surveyor of the Navy. She was captured near the West 
Indies on 17th Februaiy, 1805, by the French 40-gun frigate " Ville de 
Milan," but was retaken, with her captor, by the British 50-gun frigate 
" Leander " six days afterwards. 

The model shows all the important structui-al details and fittings of 
lower, main, quarter, and forecastle decks and also the general system of 
coloiu*mg and decollation adopted at this period. 

The ship's complement was 222 men and, at the date of this action, her 
armament probably consisted of 26 long 18-prs. on the main deck, two long 
9-prs. together with ten 24-prs. (caiTonades) on the quarter and forecastle 
decks. 

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 689 tons; length, on gun-deck, 126-4 ft.; length of 
keel, 104-5 ft. ; breadth, 35-2 ft. ; depth, 12-1 ft. 

The vessel is represented on a building slip ready for launching. The 
launching an*angements consist of (a) A fixed wooden structure or " ground 
ways " built up from the floor of the slip-way and forming an inclined 
plane, usually with a fall of • 625 in. to 1 ft. {i.e., 1 in 19) ; (6) Two movable 
structures forming a " cradle," extending over three-foui-ths of the vessel's 
length, by which the whole weight of the hull is carried. Premature sliding 
of the cradle down the ways is prevented by short diagonal props or " dog- 
shores," shown on each side of the ship at the upper end of the ways ; the 
dog shores are knocked away simultaneously when the launching operations 
begin. To prevent lateral movement of the cradle during its downward 
course, stout battens or " ribbons " are fitted to the upper edge of the 
ground-ways and held in position by the series of transverse props or shores 
shown on each side of the slipway. 

41, Rigged model of English sloop-of-war, 18th cent. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Received 1881. Plate II., No. 4. N. 1564. 

This represents a ship-rigged sloop of about 1780, which can-ied 18 6-pr. 
guns and 125 men. 

The masting and rigging of the model were added in the Museum in 
1904-5. 

Approximate dimensions : — Tonnage (b.o.m.), 300 tons ; length of gun 
deck, 100 ft. ; length of keel, 82 ft. ; breadth, 26-3 ft. ; depth of hold, 12 ft. 

42, Rigged model of English sloop-of-war. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Received 1881. N. 1565. 

This represents a schooner-rigged sloop-of-war built about 1780. The 
term sloop-of-war was applied to a class of vessel canying from 4 to 18 guns, 
and rigged as schooner, brig, or ship ; they were used to cruise against 
privateers or in the prevention of contraband trade. The model was rigged 
in the Museum in 1902. 

The armament would be about 12 6-prs., and the complement 30 to 50 
men. 

The approximate dimensions of the schooner represented were : — Length 
of keel, 56 ft.; breadth, 20-5 ft.; depth of hold, 8 ft.; tonnage (b.o.m) 
120 tons. 

N.B. — In the Merchant Service the term sloop was confined to a type of 
single-masted vessel resembling a cutter, but having also a square sail. 

43. Rigged model of 32-gun frigate. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 
^1877. N. 1481. 

The frigate, a fast vessel of medium size caii-ying her main armament 
on one deck, appears to have been generally introduced into the Royal Navy 
about 1756. The original vessels, of 28 to 32 guns and 600 to 700 tons 

u 6773 B 



18 

burden, having proved highly successful for scouting and independent 
cruising piu-poses, the type gradually increased in numbers and dimensions ; 
early in the 19th centuiy vessels of 50 to 60 guns and 1,500 tons burden 
were built and when steam propulsion was introduced in 1850, the last of 
the sailmg frigates had reached 2,100 tons bui'den. 

This model was rigged in the Museum in 1907 ; it agrees in general 
dimensions with a class of 32-gun frigates built in 1783-6 from the designs 
of Sir J. Williams. These were classed as fifth-rate vessels and the 
"Meleager," a typical ship, built in 1785, had the following principal 
particulars : — Ship's complement, 220 men ; armament, 26 12- or 18-prs. 
on main deck ; foui- 6-prs. on quarter-deck ; two 6-prs. on forecastle deck. 
Dimensions : — Tonnage (b.o.m.), 678 tons ; length on gun deck, 126 ft. ; 
breadth, 35 ft. ; depth, 12- 15 ft. 

44. Rigged model of English 64-gim ship. Period 1780-90. 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1881. Plate 11. , No. 5. 

N. 1562. 

The vessel represented is a man-of-war of the third rate at the close of 
the 18th century. The model was rigged in the Museum in 1902 ; it differs 
chiefly from the similar ship of about 1760 (No. 26) in having a gaff instead 
of a mizen or lateen yard. 

The lateen yard, inclined at about 45 deg. and used for spreading a 
triangular sail, had been employed for centuries for cariying the fore-and- 
aft sail on the mizen mast of war ships, but in the 18th centuiy the present 
gaff or half -yard began to be adopted. At fii-st the gaff was confined to 
ships carrying less than 50 guns, but by the end of the 18th century it had 
completely supplanted the lateen yard, probably through the inconvenience 
of the latter, and the difficulty in working it. 

The vessel is shown carrying three poop lanterns and a lantern in the 
maintop, these giving by night the distinguishing mark of a flag officer's 
ship. Across the f oreca^le is a " fish-davit " — a spar used in the 18th centuiy 
for fishing the anchors ; in the Naval Expositor (1752) it is thus described : — 
" A piece of timber in a ship, having a notch at one end, in which by a strap 
" hangs a block called the fish-pendant block, the use of which is to haul up 
" the flook of the anchor, in order to fasten it to the ship's bow ; this davit 
*' is shiftable from one side to the other as occasion requires." 

Armament : — Lower deck, 26 32-prs. ; main deck, 26 24-prs. ; upper 
deck, 12 12-prs. Her conlplement was 500 men. 

Tonnage, 1,374 tons; length on gun-deck, 159 "5 ft.; length of keel, 
131 ft. ; breadth, 44-5 ft. ; depth, 19 ft. 

45. Built model of H.M.S. " Queen Charlotte." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Hyde Clarke, Esq., D.C.L., 1881. N. 1561. 

This 100-gun three- decked line- of -battle ship was designed by Mr. Edward 
Himt, as a sister ship to the " Royal George," and launched at Chatham in 
1790. She was Lord Howe's flagship in the action off Brest, 1st June, 
1794, and was accidentally burnt off Leghorn in 1800. 

The armament was : — Lower deck, 30 32-prs. ; middle deck, 28 24-prs. ; 
main deck, 30 18-prs. ; quarter-deck, ten 12-prs. ; forecastle, two 12-prs. 

Tonnage, 2,286 tons ; length, 190 ft. ; breadth, 52 • 5 ft. ; depth of hold, 
22-3 ft. 

46. Oil paintings of an English warship. Presented by 
F. A. B. Bonney, Esq., 1865. N. 1046. 

This represents a third-i-ate battleship mounting 64 guns. The paintings, 
which are on copper, were used in the royal nursery for the instruction of 
Prince William Henry, afterwards WiUiam lY. 

Armament : — Lower deck, 26 24-prs. ; main deck, 26 18-prs. ; quarter- 
deck, ten 9-prs. ; forecastle, two 9-prs. Her complement was 500 men. 

The leading dimensions of such a ship would be about : — Tonnage, 1,374 
tons ; length, 159*5 ft. ; breadth, 44 -5 ft. ; depth of hold, 19 ft. 



19 

47. Sepia drawing of a felucca and H.M.S. " Sanspareil " 
(1794). Received 1890. N. 1841. 

This drawing, by J. T. Sen-es (b. 1759, d. 1825), represents a longitudinal 
section of a felucca, a small decked vessel in general use in the Mediterranean, 
^uch craft have usually two masts carrying lateen sails, and there is 
frequently a rudder at each end. 

The " Sanspareil " was an 80-gun ship, captured from the French on 
June 1st, 1794, and broken up at Devonport in 1842. As the sketch was 
made on June 24th, 1794, it probably represents the dismasted ship as she 
appeared on June 13th, when being towed into Portsmouth Harbour with 
the six other prizes. 

48. Rigged model of " Le Vengeur." (Scale 1 : 64.) Re- 
ceived 1881. N. 1566. 

This represents a French 74-gun line-of -battle ship sunk off Brest in 
Lord Howe's action, 1st June, 1794. The model was made of bone by 
prisoners of war confined in Porchester Castle in 1798. 

The armament was ; — Lower deck, 28 36-pr. guns ; main deck, 30 18-pr. 
guns ; quarter-deck and forecastle, 16 8-pr. guns. Her complement was 
'690 men. 

Tonnage, 1,750 tons; length, 170 ft.; breadth, 44-5 ft. ; depth of hold, 
22 ft.; draught, 21-5 ft. 

Weight of hull and masts, 1,437 tons ; total weight of ship and stores 
for a six months' cruise, 3,548 tons. 

49. Whole model of Frencli tlii'ee-decker. (Scale about 1 : 144.) 
Lent by Vaughan Pendred, Esq., 1876. N. 1419. 

This model in bone was made by French prisoners during the Peninsular 
War of 1807-14. It represents one of the largest first-rate ships of that 
period, probably a similar vessel to the " Commerce de Marseilles," a 120-gun 
line-of -battle ship captured at Toulon in 1793, which had the following 
dimensions :— Tonnage, 2,747 tons ; length, 208-33 ft. ; breadth, 54-83 ft. ; 
depth of hold, 25 ft. Ai'mament : — Lower deck, 34 32-prs. ; middle deck, 
34 24-prs. ; main deck, 34 12-prs. ; quai-ter-deck, 14 12-prs. ; forecastle, 
four 12-prs. Her complement was 1,100 men. 

50. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Ajax." (Scale 1 : 24.) Pre- 
sented by Admiral the Earl of Hardwicke, R.N., F.R.S., 
1865. Plate 11., No. 6. N. 1044. 

This represents a 74-gun line-of -battle ship laid down at Messrs. Randall's 
yard, Rotherhithe, in 1795, and launched in 1798. She took part in the 
battle of Trafalgar, 1805, and was accidentally bm-nt near the Dardanelles 
two years later, when forming one of Sir J. Duckworth's squadron for forcing 
that channel. The model was constructed by Sir Joseph Sydney Torke, 
Bart., between the years 1797-1808. 

Her armament was : — Lower deck, 28 32-prs. ; main deck, 30 24-prs. ; 
quarter-deck, 14 9-prs. ; forecastle, two 9-prs. Her complement was 540 
men. 

Tonnage, 1,953 tons; length, 182-25 ft.; breadth, 49-25 ft.; depth of 
hold, 21-25 ft. 

51. Rigged model of Frencli warsbip " Heros." (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Lent by Mrs. Scott, 1904. N. 2350. 

This represents a 74-gun line-of-battle ship which was present at the 
battle of Trafalgar and afterwards escaped to Cadiz, where she remained 
several years; the model, which is made of bone, possesses considerable 
detail and is believed to have been the work of some of the crew. It shows 
the two long boats carried in a well in the waist, from which they were 
hoisted out by the yard tackles, a method of working which remained in 

B 2 



20 

general use till the adoption of deii'icks or davits ; for many years, however,, 
it had been usual to carry a boat in davits at the stern, as represented. 

The armament was : — Lower deck, 28 36-prs, ; main deck, 30 18-prs. ; 
quarter-deck and forecastle, 16 8-prs. and on the poop six carronades, which, 
however, were not counted in the classification. The ship's complement was 
690 men. 

Tonnage, 1,680 tons ; length of keel, 145 ft. : breadth, extreme, 46 ft. ; 
depth of hold, 22 ft. 

52. Built model of arnied cutter. fScale 1 : 16.) Lent bv 
Messrs. Linton Hope & Co., 1903. ^ N. 2339, 

This is a shipbuilder's model representing the lines and details of the 
planking of a small armed cutter of the period 1775-1825. The vessel had 
a full body forward, with a sharp clean run aft, leaving practically no 
parallel length amidships, and was an extreme example of a general form 
which was popular with buildei-s of fast sailing ci-aft before 1845 ; the lines 
of the model also bear a close resemblance to those of the Southampton 
fishing " hoys " famous about 1820 for excellent sailing and sea-going 
qualities. 

Her armament probably consisted of from 6 to 10 light guns or swivels 
and her principal dimensions would be : — Tonnage, b.o.m., 45 tons ; length, 
on deck, 41 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 17*5 ft. ; draught, mean, 9 ft. 

53. Sheer draught of H.M.S. " Endymion." (Scale 1:48.) 
Presented by H. Y. Powell, Esq., 1886. N. 1702. 

This shows the complete lines of this frigate, built in 1797 from the lines 
of the French frigate " Pomone." The " Endymion " was considered to be 
one of the fastest vessels in the navy during the reign of George III., and was 
broken up in 1860. 

Armament : — Although rated as a 40-gun sliip, she frequently carried 
46, aiTanged as follows : Main deck, 26 24-prs. ; quarter-deck, 18 o2-pr. 
carronades ; forecastle, two 9-prs. Her complement was 320 to 350 men. 

Displacement, for foreign service, 1,695 tons ; displacement, for home 
service, 1,594 tons ; length on lower deck, 159 • 25 ft. ; length of keel^ 
132-3 ft.; breadth, extreme, 42 ft.; breadth, moulded, 41-3 ft.; depth of 
hold, 12 • 3 ft. ; area of midship section, 510 sq. ft. 

54. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Caledonia." (Scale 1 : 60.) 
Lent by R. F. Harvey, Esq., 1888. N. 1806. 

This 120-gun three-decked line-of -battle ship, designed by Sir W. Rule,, 
was launched at Devonport in 1808. In 1856 she became the hospital ship 
at Greenwich, and was renamed the " Dreadnought." When launched this 
vessel had a square stern, which was afterwards rounded. In her time 
people considered her to be the finest vessel of her class, and she was the 
favourite ship of Admiral Lord Exmouth. 

The model shows fidded royal masts, main and forestays snaked, the lead 
of the mizen top- gallant and royal braces to the spanker gaff, fore and main 
belly stays, double martingale, three spritsail yards, the boat stowed in the 
waist, &c. The eight davits in the waist and on the quai-ters are probably 
modern additions to the model. 

Her armament was : — Lower deck, 32 32-prs. ; middle deck, 34 24-prs. ; 
main deck, 34 18-prs. ; quarter-deck, 16 12-prs. ; forecastle, four 12-prs. Her 
complement was 875 officers and men. 

Tonnage, 2,616 tons; length, 205 ft.; breadth, 54-5 ft.; depth of 
hold, 23- 1ft. 

55. Rigged model of an English warship. (Scale 1 : 720.) 
Lent by Harold Burke, Esq., 1894. N. 2025, 

This represents an SO-gun line-of -battle ship of the period 1795-1813. 
Although this model is so small, the rigging is remarkably accurate 
and complete, even the " snaking " of the fore and main stays being 
i-epresented. 



21 

The armament was : — Lower deck, 30 32-prs. ; main deck, 32 24-prs. ; 
quarter- deck, 14 12-prs. ; forecastle, four 12-prs. 

The approximate dimensions of the ship were : — Burden, 2,000 tons ; 
length, 184 ft. ; breadth, 50 ft. ; depth of hold, 22 ft. 

56. Whole model of English frigate. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 
1885. N. 1563. 

This represents a 50-gun vessel specially designed in 1813 to cope with 
the more powerful frigates then being introduced abroad. 

Her armament was : — Main deck, 30 24-prs. ; quarter deck, 16 42-pr. 
caiTonades ; forecastle, two 42-pr. carronades and two 24-prs. Her com- 
plement was 480 men. 

Her dimensions were approximately: — Tonnage, 1,458 tons; length, 
172 ft. ; breadth, 44 ft. ; depth of hold, 14 ft. 

57. Whole model (Scale 1 : 288) and drawing (Scale 1 : 48) 
of the " Duke of Kent." Presented by John Scott Tucker, 
Esq., 1865. N. 1052-4. 

This proposed four-decked line- of -battle ship to mount 170 guns was 
designed by the late Mr. Joseph Tucker, Surveyor of the Navy, 1813-31. 
The design, prepared in 1809, contained the following improvements, many 
■of which were aftei-wards adopted by Sir W. Symonds, viz. : A round bow, 
an oval or elliptical stern; hawseholes in the middle deck; quarter poi*ts 
for guns on each deck ; vertical stern post ; round iiidder head ; reduced 
rake of stem ; a greater proportional breadth of beam ; greater rise in floor 
timbers ; greater elevation of ports from water line ; greater height between 
"decks ; greater weight of armament. 

Proposed armament ; — Lower deck, 36 32-prs. ; lower middle deck, 
36 32-prs. : middle deck, 36 24-prs. ; upper deck, 38 18-prs. ; quarter- 
deck, ten 12-prs. and six 32-pr. carronades ; forecastle, four 12-prs. and four 
o2-pr. carronades. 

The model of this proposed vessel has its lower masts and bowsprit 
stejiped and a midship transverse frame (scale 1 : 24) is also shown. 

The leading dimensions of the proposed ship were : — Burden, 3,700 tons ; 
length of gun-deck, 221 • 5 ft. ; length of keel for tonnage, 178 • 7 ft. ; breadth, 
extreme, 62 • 4 ft. ; breadth, moulded, 61 • 6 ft. ; depth of hold, 26 ft. 

58. Built and rigged model of H.M.S. "Ariadne." (Scale 
1 : 24.) Presented by Sir D. H. Macfarlane, 1883. 

N. 1594. 

This sailing frigate was built at Portsmouth in 1816, and sold out of 
the sei'vice in 1841. The model is believed to have been constructed and 
rigged under the supervision of Captain Marryat (the novelist), who com- 
manded the vessel in 1828-30. It shows the main deck with its complete 
battery, the flush upper deck with its hammock nettings, and 20 carronades ; 
these small guns were not, however, counted in a ship's armament 
until 1817. 

Armament : — Main deck, 20 32-prs., six 18-prs., and two 9-prs. ; upper 
•deck, 20 32-pr. carronades. Complement, about 180 men. 

Tonnage, 511 tons; length, 121-6 ft.; breadth, 31 3 ft.; depth of 
hold, 12 ft. 

59. Rigged model of 120-gun ship. (Scale 1 : 120.) Lent by 
H. Edenborough, Esq., 1901. N. 2265. 

This represents a line-of-battle ship of the first rate at the commence- 
ment of the 19th centuiy, a class of which only four were constiaicted 
in England between 1808 and 1827. The model probably represents the 
" Prince Regent," launched at Chatham in 1823 ; another of the four was 
the " Caledonia " {see No. 54). 



22 

Tlie rigging of the model is veiy complete and shows fidded royal masts^ 
snaked fore and main stays, and sprit and sprit topsail yards in position ; 
also the arrangements for working the boats. The whole of the hiil of the 
model is built, and the bottom is coppered ; the bow has the square forecastle,, 
which prevailed for many years and was only abandoned when it was 
discovered that the flat surfaces were penetrated by grape shot more readily 
than the rounded bow. 

The armament was : — Lower deck, 32 32-prs. ; middle deck, 34 24-prs. ; 
main deck, 34 18-prs. ; quarter-deck, 16 12-prs. ; forecastle, four 12-prs_ 
Complement, 875 men. 

Tonnage, 2,602 tons; length on gun deck, 205 ft.; length on keel^ 
170-9 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 58 ft. ; depth of hold, 23-16 ft. 

60. Built and rigged model of a Revenue cutter. (Scale 1 : 32. > 
Received 1877. N. 1482. 

This belongs to the period 1810-30, but the anchor, compass, davits,, 
boats, and after skylight are later additions. She can*ies 14 guns and 
4 swivels. 

Tonnage. 130 tons; length, 85 ft.; breadth, 24 ft.; depth. 13-3 ft.;, 
draught, 11 ft. 

61. Rigged model of Service yacht. (Scale 1 : 48.) Presented 
by J. J. Miller, Esq., 1894. N. 2030. 

This represents a class of cutter used by the Admiralty about 1830 foi' 
harbour sei*vice, as tenders to the flag ships ; similar vessels were also used 
in the Customs sei-vice. They usually caiiied a mainsail, foresail, jib, and 
gaff topsail ; also a yard for spreading a square sail when running before- 
the wind. The model was rigged in the Museum in 1902. 

The approximate dimensions were : — Tonnage (b.o.m.), 135 tons ; length 
of keel, 68 ft. ; breadth, 20 ft. ; depth of hold, 8 ft. 

62. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Vanguard."' (Scale 1:48.) 
Received 1889. Plate 11., No. 7. N. 1822. 

This 80-gun, two- decked vessel, built at Pembroke in 1835, was the first 
line- of -battle ship constructed from the designs of Sir W. Symonds. 

Owing to the removal of some of the limitations that had been placed 
upon the dimensions of vessels of the various rates, the " Yanguard '^ was 
made broader m proportion to her length than any of her predecessors, and 
was also given finer lines and more angular sections below the water-line. 
These special features are, however, more clearly illustrated by the adjacent 
models of the '* Albion " and the " Fantome," by the same designer. She 
took part in the experimental trips of H.M. ships in 1836-46, and showed 
compai*atively good speed and handiness under sail, but had a tendency ta 
pitch in a head sea and to roll deeply when before the wind. 

The model is built throughout and copper fastened ; it was rigged in 
the Museum in 1903 in accordance with the table of . standard dimensions: 
for masts and yards prepared by Sir "W. Symonds. Adjacent to it is 
represented the temporary cradle and ground- ways used in launching such 
a vessel. 

The " Vanguard " can'ied 650 men, and her armament consisted of r 
Lower deck, 20 32-i)rs. and eight 8-in. guns; main deck, 24 32-prs. and 
four 8-in. guns ; quarter deck and forecastle, 24 32-prs. 

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 2,609 tons; length on lower deck, 190 ft.; breadth,., 
extreme, 57 ft. 

63. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Fantome." (Scale 1 : 39.) 
Received 1888. Plate 11., No. 8. N. 1809. 

This brig-rigged sloop-of-war was launched at Chatham in 1839, and- 
sold out of the Navy in 1865. She was designed by Sir "William Symonds^ 



2'^ 

who gave her the finer lines and steeper floors which he introduced into the 
imdei-water form of British war vessels. At about the same time 13 similar 
war brigs were also constructed. 

This model was masted and rigged in the Museum in 1902-3, the masts, 
yards, &c., being made in accordance with the dimensions established by 
Sir W. Symonds in 1836. 

The armament of the " Fantome " consisted of four 32-prs. and twelve 
32 -pr. carronades, and her complement was 130 men. 

Tonnage (b.o.m.). 485 tons ; length, on deck. 105 ft. ; breadth, extreme 
33-5 ft.; depth, 14 8 ft. 

64. Whole model of H.M.S. "Albion." (Scale 1:48.) 
Received 1894. N. 2042. 

This was a 90-gun sailing line-of-battle ship, designed by Sir W. 
IBymonds, and launched at Devonport in 1842. She took part in the bom- 
bardment of Sebastopol in 1854, where she suffered most severely. In 1861 
she was converted into a screw ship. 

Her armament was :-- Lower deck, 28 32-pr. 56 cwt. guns and four 68-pr. 
112 cwt. guns; main deck, 26 32-i)r. 56 cwt. guns and six 8-in. 65 cwt. guns ; 
( juarter-deck, 16 32-pr. 42 cwt. guns and two 8-in. 52 cwt. guns ; forecastle, 
eight 32-pr. 42 cwt. guns. Her complement was 820 men. 

Tonnage, 3,111 tons ; length, 204 ft. ; breadth, 60 ft. ; di-aught, 
18-75 ft. 

65. Whole models of sailing corvettes. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. 

N. 1276-7. 

These vessels are designed on Mr. Scott Russell's " wave principle," but 
have the following features advocated by Admiral E. G. Fishboume in 1845 
as desii*able in a sailing ship-of-war : — The buttock lines are continuous 
cui-ves, to minimise pitching ; with the same object, a fine bow and a full 
after-body are provided. To promote steady steering there is a long run of 
perpendicular side, a long keel, a lean fore-foot, and a fine heel, while to 
insure powerful action of the rudder the draught of water is greatest aft ; 
the floor rises aft from the midship section. 

Length on load water-line, 124 or 130 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 31 ft. ; 
depth at side, 16 ft. 

66. Half block model of H.M.S. "Recruit." (Scale 1 : 48.J 
Received 1899. N. 2185. 



This 12-gmi brig was built of iron in 1846 at Blackwall by 
Ditchbm-n & Mare, and is interesting as being the first iron-built fighting 
ship constructed for the British Navy. 

She was designed to compete with a number of wooden brigs of the 
same rating then under construction, but so strong was the prejudice against 
the use of iron for war-vessels that the intended trials were never made, and 
the " Recruit " was eventually sold out of the Service. 

Although the new material was meanwhile adopted in troopships, 
floating batteries, &c., it was not till 15 years later that iron construction 
became general for battleships. 

The principal dimensions were : — Length on keel, 114*4 ft.; breadth, 
30-6 ft. ; draught, 12*5 ft. ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 462 tons. 

67. Water-colour drawing of a frigate and a Revenue cutter. 
Painted and presented bv W. F. Settle, Esq., 1890. 

N. 1674. 

The frigate is a 50-gun wooden vessel of the type constructed about 
1850. It is represented under double-reefed topsails, foresail, jib, and 
spanker, with the wind on her beam in a heavy sea. The cutter is mnijing 
before the wind with her jib and a square sail set. 



24 

68. Wliole model of an armed schooner. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Received 1907. . N. 2443. 

This represents a small fast schooner, dated about 1850, fitted to cany 
an armament of 18 light guns. 

Her approximate dimensions were : — Tonnage (b.o.m.), 100 tons ; length 
of keel, 68 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 19 ft. ; draught, mean, 8 ft. 

69. Lithograph of H.M.S. " St. George." Received 1910. 

N. 2538. 

This lithograph by T. G. Dutton from a painting by W. H. Harvey, R.N.. 
represents the sailing three-decker " St. George " of 120 guns, as commissioned 
for service with the Baltic Fleet in the operations against Russia in 1854. 

The vessel was built of wood at Devonport about 1840 from the designs 
of Sir W. Rule and had the following dimensions : — Burden, 2,710 tons ; 
length, gun deck, 206 ft. ; breadth, 54*6 ft. ; depth, 23 ft. 

In 1859 she was converted to a screw-propelled two-decker carrying, at 
first, 91 gims and afterwards 72 guns. She was removed from active sei-vice 
in 1869. 

70. Lithograph of mortar boats in action. Received 1905. 

N. 2397. 

This shows the early mortar boats " Firm," " Flamer," and "Hardy" 
engaging the Quarantine Batteiy, Sebastopol, on August 15th, 1855. 

At the outbreak of the Russian War, in 1854. a number of these small 
shallow- draught vessels were rapidly built by various shipbuilders in the 
United Kingdom, to the order of the British Admiralty, for opei-ations 
against land batteries in the Baltic and Black Seas. They each can*ied 
amidships a single 13-in. mortar, weighing about 5 tons and throwing a 
200 lb. shell ; they were usually towed into action by steamers, but were 
cutter or yawl rigged for independent manoeuvi'ing if necessary. 

Their approximate dimensions were : — Tonnage (b.o.m.), 100 tons ; 
length, 60 ft. ; breadth, 20 ft. ; depth, 6 • 5 ft. ; draught, 3 ft. 



STEAM-PROPELLED SHIPS-OF-VVAR. 

71. Aquatint of H.M.S. " Terrible." Woodcroft Bequest, 19U3. 

N. 2313. 

This paddle-wheel frigate, built of wood at Deptford in 1845, from the 
designs of Mr. Oliver Lang, was, when first commissioned, one of the most 
powerful steam war-vessels in the world. During the Crimean War she 
took part in the operations around Sebastopol, and by her excellent steaming 
qualities was enabled to weather the disastrous gale in the Black Sea 
in 1854. In 1869 she assisted in towing the first Bermuda floating dock 
{see No. 734) across the Atlantic. 

The hull of the " Terrible "' was specially constmcted to resist the 
stresses of her heavy armament and machinei*y, the timbers of the ship's 
sides being so closely fitted and combined as to form a complete watertight 
body before the external planking was added. 

She was propelled by a set of direct acting engines of the twin cylinder 
type, similar to those of the "Devastation" (see No. 808), made by Messrs. 
Maudslay, Sons and Field; there were altogether four cylinders 72 in. 
diam. by 96 in. stroke, and the paddle-wheels were 34 ft. diam. with floats 
13 ft. wide by 2 • 6 ft. deep. Steam at 15 lb. pressure was supplied by four 
double-ended tubular boilers of box foi-m, each with 6 furnaces. The 
engines made 16 revs, per min., indicated about 2,000 h.p., and gave the 
vessel a speed of 10 * 9 knots. 

The original ai-mament of 20 guns consisted of four 56-prs. (Monk's) and 
four 68-prs. on each deck, together with three 12-prs. and a field piece. 

Length (b.p.), 226 ft.; breadth inside paddles, 42-5 ft.; depth in hold, 
27 ft. ; burden (o.m.), 1,847 tons; displacement, 3,189 tons. 



72. Rigged model of a paddle frigate. (Scale 1 : 48.) Made 
and bequeathed by Elisha Davis, Esq., 1910. N. 2544. 

This represents a steam frigate typical of the larger war- steamers built 
about 1840 for British and foreign navies before the adoption of screw- 
propulsion. 

Her armament of 32 guns, probably 68-prs., is canied on two decks, and 
includes two more powerful guns, on slides and traversing carriages, one at 
each end of the vessel on the upper deck. She shows a single telescopic 
funnel, and carries two special flat-bottomed boats as covers to her paddle- 
boxes. She is fully rigged, for cruising under sail alone. 

Approximate dimensions : — Burden, 1,400 tons ; length, 210 ft. ; breadth, 
between paddles, 40 ft. 

This class of vessel was generally constructed of oak fi-ames and teak 
planking. Side-lever engines with flue boilers were largely fitted to the 
earlier examples, while direct-acting engines and tubular boilers became 
more common in later ships. Steam pressures were from 6 lb. to 15 lb., and 
the speeds varied from 7 to 12 knots with 500 to 1,000 indicated h.p. 

73. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Highflyer." (Scale 1:48.) 
Received 1902. Plate III, No. 1. N. 2291. 

This ship-rigged wooden corvette was built by Messrs. Mare & Co. at 
Blackwall in 1850-1 from the designs of the Admiralty. She had two 
complete decks and a short forecastle, and her lines were full at bow and 
stem with but little rise of floor amidships. The guns were carried on the 
upper deck, while the spaces between the decks were well ventilated through 
a number of rectangular openings in the ship's side. 

The " Highflyer " was one of the first warships fitted with a lifting 
screw, and the model shows how this was carried out and the method in 
which the wooden stem and mdder post were strengthened, by the addition 
of metal strips and knees, against the stresses resulting from the working of 
the screw proj)eller. The engines were of horizontal type, made by Messrs. 
Maudslay, Sons and Field, and, during the trials on the Thames in 1852, 
indicated 770 h.p. with a boiler pressure of 14 lb, and gave a speed of 
9*4 knots. 

The original armament consisted of a 10-in. pivot gun forward, and 20 
8-in. guns on the broadside ; the complement was 220 men. 

Displacement, 1,775 tons ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 1,153 tons ; length, 192 ft. ; 
breadth, 36 • 4 ft. ; depth, 22 • 7 ft. ; mean draught, 16 • 5 ft. 

74. Whole model and drawing of gun-boats " Nix " and 
" Salamander." (Scale 1 : 48.) Contributed by John 
Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1230-1. 

These two paddle-wheel gun-boats were built and engined in 1851, by 
Messrs, Robinson and Russell, for the Prussian Government. During the 
Crimean War they were obtained by the English Government, in exchange 
for the 36-gun frigate " Thetis," and under the names " Recruit " and 
*' Weser " were actively engaged. 

They were double-ended and could go either end foremost, while their 
load draught with coals for 2,000 miles was only 7 ft. 

The engines were of the oscillating condensing type, with two cylinders 
48 in. diam. by 54 in. stroke, and at 33 revs, per min. indicated 754 h.p. 

Steam at 15 lb. pressure was supplied by four tubular boilers, 14 ft. 
long, 8 ft. wide, and 6 5 ft. high, with a total grate area of 126 sq. ft. The 
weight of the engines, boilers and water was 124 tons, and the coal bunker 
capacity was 160 tons. 

The paddle-wheels were 17 ft. diam. and had fixed floats 7 ft. by 2 ft. 
There were two masts and a sail area of 415 sq. yds. The speed was 
11*6 knots. 

Load displacement, 468 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 540 tons ; gross register, 
334 tons ; length on load water line, 178 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 26 ft. ; 
depth at side, 10 "6 ft. ; draught, loaded, 7 ft. ; immersed midship section, 
175 sq. ft. 



2Q 

75. Whole model and drawings of paddle frigate '' Dantzig.'^ 
(Scale 1 : 4-8.) Contributed by John Scott Rnssell, F.R.S., 
1868. ^ N. 1227-9. 

This wooden vessel was built and engined by Messrs. Robinson and 
Russell, at Millwall, about 1851, for the Prussian Navy. 

Her principal feature was the arrangement, patented by Mr. Russell in 
1850, by which a i^addle steamer was enabled to cany a larger armament 
than usual, guns being placed on the sponsons in positions usually occupied 
by deck houses. The bulwarks spread out at the sponsons, thereby 
increasing the deck space, on which the guns could be readily moved ; at 
each sponson was a gun, two firing foi-ward and two aft. 

Tonnage (b.m.), 1,280 tons ; length on deck, 230 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 
34-33 ft. ; depth in engine-room, 20 '25 ft. ; mean draught. 15 ft. ; diameter 
of paddle-wheels, 24 • 33 ft. 

76. Lithograph of H.M.S. "Agamemnon." Received 1905. 

N. 2396. 

This second-rate line-of -battle ship was built of wood at "Woolwich, from 
the designs of Mr. J. Edye, Acting Surveyor of the Navy, and was launched 
in 1852. She was the first screw line- of -battle ship designed for the British 
Navy, and as the flagship of Rear- Admiral Sir E. Lyons, G.C.B., took part 
in the combined land and sea attack on Sebastopol. In 1857-8 she was. 
employed in conjunction with the U.S. frigate " Niagara " in laying the first 
Atlantic telegraph cable. 

She had horizontal trunk engines, made by Messrs. John Penn and Son,, 
with two cylinders 70 and 75 in. diam., by 42-in. stroke, indicating 1,839 h.p.^ 
and driving a propeller 18 ft. diam., 33 ft. long, and 20*5 ft. pitch, which,, 
at 60 revs, per min., gave a speed of 11 knots. 

Ai-mament : — Lower deck, 36 8-in. guns, 65 cwt. ; main deck, 34 32-prs., 
56 cwt. ; upper deck, three 8-in., 95 cwt. ; upper deck, ten 18-in., 85 cwt. 

The complement was 820 men. 

Displacement, 3.750 tons ; burden, 3,102 tons ; length, 230 ft. ; breadth, 
55 • 5 ft. ; depth, 24 • 5 ft. ; draught of water aft, 20 • 3 ft., foi-ward, 17 • 6 ft. 

77. Rigged model of II.M.S. " Himalaya." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by J. Hughes, Esq., 1888. N. 1807. 

This was a ship-rigged passenger and cargo steamer, built of iron at 
Blackwall in 1853, for the Peninsular and Oriental Oo. In 1854 she was. 
purchased by the Government, fitted as a ti-oopship, and employed in that 
capacity during the Crimean War and subsequently, but is now used as a 
coal hulk at Devonport. 

She had six watertight bulkheads, and stowed 1,200 tons of coal. Her 
complement was 213 men. 

The engines, by Messrs. John Penn and Son, were on the tmnk system, 
with two cylinders, 84 in. diam. by 42-in. stroke, indicating 2,500 h.p. at 
55 revs, per min. These drove a single propeller 18 ft. diam. by 28 ft. 
pitch, weighing 7 tons. 

In 1854 she made a record passage from Gibraltar to Malta in 74 • 5 hours, 
at a mean speed of 13" 5 knots. 

Displacement, 4,690 tons; length, 340 ft.; breadth, 46-2 ft.; depth, 
34-3 ft.; draught, 21 4 ft. 

78. Lithograph of launch of H.M.S. "Royal Albert." 
Received 1908. N. 2506. 

This lithograph, by T. G. Dutton and W. Simpson, represents the 
launching of H.M.S. "Royal Albei-t" at Woolwich Dockyard in 1854. A 
number of contemporary paddle steamers, sailing vessels and river craft are 
included in the picture. 

The " Royal Albert " was designed by Mr. Oliver Lang and was laid 
down in 1842 as a wooden built sailing line -of -battle ship ; before launching, 
however, she was convei-ted into a screw steamship. Her engines were of 
the horizontal tnink type, made by Messrs. John Penn and Son (see No. 845) 



27 



with cylinders equivalent in diameter to 64 • 25 in. by 40-in. stroke ; on trial 
in November, 1854, with a steam pressure of 20 lb. per sq, in. and at 
69 revs, per min., the engines indicated 1,800 h.p., giving the vessel a speed 
of 13 knots. She was fitted with a propeller 17 ft. diam. and 19 ft. pitch. 

Her large armament of 131 guns was thus distributed : — Lower deck^ 
ten 8-in. shell guns and 26 long 32-prs. ; middle deck, six 8-in. guns and. 
30 32-prs. ; main deck, 38 32-prs. ; upper deck, 20 32-prs. ; forecastle deck^ 
one 68-pr. 

The principal dimensions of the vessel as completed were : — Length 
(b.p.), 232-75 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 61-5 ft. ; depth, extreme, 66 ft. ; deptk 
of hold, 24-2 ft. ; burden (b.o.m.), 3,726 tons ; displacement, 5,571 tons. 



79. Lithograph of " The Fleets Becahiied." 



Received 1910. 

N. 2535- 

This lithograph, by R. Can'ick and T. G. Button, from an original by 
O. W. Brierly, represents the allied British and French Fleets in the Baltic 
in 1854. In the foreground, getting up steam, are the following early types, 
of British warships : — 

" Blenheim," screw two-decker, of 56 guns, built at Deptford in 1813 as?, 
a 74-gun ship and converted about 1846. She was of 1,747 tons burden and 
had horizontal direct-acting engines, by Messrs. Seaward and Capel, giving^ 
a speed of 6*5 knots. "Majestic," screw two-decker of 80 guns, built at 
Pembroke in 1843-9 and converted to screw 1853. Burden, 2,590 tons ; 
length, 190 ft. ; breadth, 57 ft. " Princess Royal," screw two-decker of 
91 guns, built at Portsmouth in 1841-54. She had horizontal engines, by 
Maudslay, Sons and Field, of 1,491 indicated h.p., giving a speed of 11 knots. 
Burden, 3,130 tons; length, 217 ft.; breadth, 58 ft. "Royal George," 
screw three-decker of 120 guns, built at Chatham in 1827-53. She had 
horizontal trunk engines, by John Penn and Son, giving A. speed of 9 • 3 knots. 
Burden, 2,616 tons ; length, 205 ft. ; breadth, 54-5 ft. " Lightning," paddle 
despatch vessel of 3 guns. Burden, 296 tons. 



80. Lithograph of " The Fleet at Anchor 



Received 1910. 

N. 2534. 

This lithograph, by T. G. Button, from an original by O. W. Brierly, shows; 
a number of typical British men-of-war which took paii) in the operations of 
1854 against Russia in the Baltic and Black Seas. The vessels are moored, 
with their principal sails loosened for drying and their crews in the rigging^ 
preparing to furl sails ; some ships' boats, employed on various duties,, 
appear in the foreground. All the vessels shown were of wood construction ;. 
available particulars of each are given in the accompanying table : — 



N"ame. 


Type. 


Guns. 


Built. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


Bur- 
den. 










Feet. 


Feet. 


Tons. 


Duke of Wel- 


Screw three-decker 


131 


1849-52 


240-5 


601 


3,771 


lington 












. .' -r n- 


Queen 


Saib'ng thi-ee- decker 


116 


1833-40 


204-2 


60 


3,104 


St. Jean d'Acre 


Screw two-decker 


101 


1851-3 


238 


55-3 


3,199^ 


Agamemnon 


Screw two-decker 


91 


1849-53 


230 


55-5 


3,102 


Prince Regent - 


Screw two-decker 


90 


1823 


■ — 


— 


, — 


Ajax 


Screw two-decker 


58 


1848 


176 


48-5 


1,760 


London - 


Sailing two-decker 


92 


1840 


205-5 


54-4 


2,62& 


Imperieuse 


Screw frigate 


60 


1850-3 


212 


50 


2,355- 


Amphion - 


Screw frigate 


36 


1845 


177 


43-5 


1,290" 


Encounter 


Screw coi-vette 


14 


1845 


190 


331 


95a 


Sidon 


Paddle frigate 


22 


1845-6 


208 


37 


1,330 


Leopard - 


Paddle frigate - 


12 


— 


— 


■ — 


X,412 


Black Eagle - 


Paddle auxiliary - 


1 


1831 


168 


26-4 


540 



28 

81. Lithographs of war-A^essels (1765-1878). Received 1907. 

N. 2433. 

The vessels represented are : — 



Name. 


Type. 


Launched 


Length. 


Breadtli. 


Displace- 
ment. 








Feet. 


Feet. 


Tons. 


Ti-afalgar - 


Sailing two-decker, 
wood 


1841 


206 


54-6 


3,850 


Tictoria & Albert 


Wood - 


1855 


300 


40 


2,470 


Tictoiy 


Sailing three-decker, 
wood 


1765 


186 


52 


3,800 


r Shah - 
\ Huascar 


Screw frigate, iron 


1873 


334-7 


52 


5,700 


Turret-ship, iron - 


1866 


200 


35 


1,100 


Duke of Wel- 


Screw three-decker, 


1852 


240-5 


60 


6,071 


lington 


wood 










Royal Alfred - 


Screw fi-igate, wood 


1864 


273 


59 


6,000 


Yolage 


Screw coi-vette, iron 


1874 


270 


42 


3,080 


Warrior 


Screw frigate, iron 


1860 


380 


58 


9,000 


Serapis 


Screw troopship, iron 


1866 


370 


49 


6,211 


Narcissus - 


Screw frigate, wood 


1859 


228 


51-2 


3,548 


Bellerophon 


Central battery, iron 


1866 


300 


56 


7,550 


Iron Duke 


Central battery, iron 


1871 


280 


54 


6,010 


Minotaur - 


Screw frigate, iron 


1867 


400 


59-4 


10,700 


Agincourt - 


Screw frigate, iron 


1868 


400 


59-4 


10,600 


Hercules - 


Centi-al battery, iron 


1868 


325 


59 


8,500 


Captain 


TuiTet-ship, iron - 


1869 


320 


53 


6,950 


I^eptune - 


Turret- ship, iron - 


1878 


300 


63 


9,310 


fExcellent 


Sailing three-decker, 
wood 


1810 


190 


52-3 


3,994 


- Calcutta 


Sailing two-decker, 
wood 


1831 


196-5 


51-5 


2,590 


^Yemon - 


Sailing frigate, wood 


1832 


176 


52-7 


2,388 


Glatton - 


Turret- ship, iron - 


1872 


245 


54 


4,910 


Inconstant 


Screw frigate, iron 


1868 


337-3 


50-25 


5,780 



82. Drawing of H.M.S. " Marlborough.' 
Maudslay Collection, 1900. 



(Scale 1 : 48.) 
N. 2251. 



The " Marlborough " was a wooden line -of- battle ship of 131 guns, 
designed by the Admiralty and laid down in 1850 at Portsmouth as a sailing 
vessel, but converted for auxiliary screw propulsion in 1852 and launched 
in 1855. 

The engines, by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons & Field, were of the return 
connecting-rod type with two cylinders 82 in. diam. by 48 in. stroke 
(see No. 834). With a boiler pressure of 20 lb. they made 57-5 revs, 
per minute and indicated about 3,000 h.p., which gave the vessel a speed 
of 11-2 knots; the slip of the screw was 21*8 per cent. The screw was 
19 ft. diam., 25 3 ft. pitch, and 3-5 ft. long, with two blades, and was 
arranged for being lifted when not in use. 

Her armament was : — Lower deck, ten 8-in. guns and 26 32-prs. ; middle 
deck, six 8-in. and 30 32-prs. ; main deck, 38 32-prs. ; upper deck, 20 32-prs. 
and one 68-pr. Her complement was 1,100 men. 

Displacement, 6,050 tons; length, 245 5 ft.; breadth, 61 2 ft.; depth, 
25 - 8 ft. ; draught, mean, 26 - 3 ft. 



29 

83. Whole models of gun-boats " Bann " and " Brune." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1862. 

N. 897, 

These small paddle-wheel gun-boats were built by Messrs. Russell & Co, 
in 1856, as improvements on the "Nix" and "Salamander" (see No. 74), 
which were found to be too limited in accommodation. Additional room 
was obtained by adopting the usual form of stem while retaining the 
facilities for going in either direction. They were, however, of smaller size, 
and had a load draught of only 4 ft., with coal sufficient for 800 miles. 

They were constructed on the longitudinal system and with "wave- 
lines." Bulkheads separated the coal bunkers on the sides from the engine 
and boiler rooms, and these bulkheads were united at the top by a continuous 
covering plate, so that each side of the ship was a complete box girder. 

The engines were of the angular oscillating condensing type, with two 
cyliilders 40 in. diam, by 42 in. stroke, working on a single crank ; when 
making 36 revs, per min. they indicated 364 h.p. 

Steam at 20 lb. pressure was supplied by two tubular boilers, 15 ft. long,. 
6-8 ft. wide, and 7 ft. high, having a total grate area of 72 sq. ft. and 
1,616 sq. ft. of heating sui-face. The weight of the boilers was 10-15 tons 
and of the water in them 24 tons. 

The paddle-wheels were 13 ft. diam., and each had 14 fixed floats 6-5 ft, 
by 1 • 5 ft. There were also three pole masts, with fore and aft sails having 
a total area of 240 sq. yds. 

Load displacement, 193 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 267 tons ; length, on load 
water line, 140 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 20 ft. ; depth at side, 8 • 5 ft. ; draught 
of water, laden, 4 ft. ; immersed midship section, 75 • 76 sq. ft. 

84. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Racoon." (Scale 1 : 64.) 
Lent bv H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, K.G., 
1865. N. 1064. 

This ship-rigged spar-decked corvette was built of wood, and launched 
at Chatham in 1857, to the designs of Sir Baldwin Walker. 

The engines were of 400 h.p., and drove a single screw. 

The armament was : — Main deck, 20 8-in. guns, weighing 60 cwt. ; upper 
deck, two 68-pr. guns, weighing 95 cwt. ; ship's complement, 280 men. 

Burden, 1,467 tons ; length, 200 ft. ; breadth, 40*3 ft. ; depth, 22-6 ft. 

85. Water-colour drawing of H.M.S. "Victoria." (1859.) 
Presented by C. L. Pickering, Esq., 1895. N. 2070. 

This represents H.M.S. " Victoria," the last and finest line- of -battle ship 
constnicted of wood for the British Navy. She was a 121-gun three-decker, 
launched at Portsmouth in 1859, commissioned in 1864, and discarded in 1867, 
after having seiwed as flagship in the Mediterranean. 

The picture, painted by Mr. Pickering in 1860, shows a general view of the- 
ship, together with an enlarged detailed view of the bow. She was built for 
screw propulsion, and her engines, which were of the horizontal return- 
connecting-rod type, by Maudslay, indicated 4,400 h.p. ; the boilers supplied 
steam at 22 lb. pressure, and the speed attained was 12 knots. 

Her armament was : — Lower deck, 32 8-in. guns ; middle deck, 32 32-prs. ; 
main deck, 34 32-prs. ; upper deck, 22 32-prs., one 68-pr. ; and her comple- 
ment was 1,130 men. 

Length, over all, 300 ft. ; length between perpendiculars, 260 ft. ; breadth, 
extreme, 60-08 ft.; breadth, moulded, 58-4 ft.; depth of hold, 26-8 ft.; 
toimage, 4,126 tons. 

86. Whole model of a jDroposed warship. (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Contributed by Messrs. Westwood and Baillie, 1865. 

N. 1076. 

This design was submitted to the Admiralty in 1862 by Messrs. Westwood 
and Baillie. It shows a broadside battery, supplemented by a number of fixed 



30 

semi-circular towers, each provided with three poi-ts which permit a single 
-gun, pivoted within, being trained thi'ough a considerable angle. Direct 
fore-and-aft fire is obtained through ports in the bow and stem. 

Length (b.p.), 365 ft.; breadth, 60 ft.; draught, 22-5 ft.; displacement, 
^,000 tons ; armament, 22 guns. 

87. Half block model of a corvette of the "Alabama" class. 
(Scale 1 : 64.) Designed and lent bv Geo. Turner, Esq., 
1864. ' N. 1035. 

The "Alabama" was built at Messrs. Laird's yard, Birkenhead, and 
launched on the loth May, 1862. She left Liverpool on the 29th May, 
proceeding to the Azores, and remained at Terceira until the arrival of a vessel 
from London, having on board six guns, ammunition, coals, &c. for her. 
"Two days after, the screw steamer " Bahama " arrived, having on board 
Oapt. Raphael Semmes, of the Confederate Navy, and other officers, besides 
two more guns. The transfer of the guns and stores having been com- 
pleted, the " Alabama " (now first known by that name) sailed from Terceira 
on August 24th, 1862, with 26 officers and 85 men. Her escape cost the 
British nation 3,000,000Z. in 1873. 

She was a wooden-built, three-masted, barque-rigged screw steamer. 
Her engines were horizontal, of 300 nominal h.p., and she stowed 350 tons 
of coal. Her speed under steam was 12 to 13 knots, and under steam and sail 
15 knots. The armament was six 32-prs. on the broadside, and two pivot 
•guns amidships, one of them being a 100-pr. Blakeley. 

Register, 1,040 tons ; length, 220 ft. ; breadth, 32 ft. ; depth, 17 feet. 

She was sunk in action off Cherbom*g on Jime 19th, 1864, by the 
TJ.S.S. " Kearsarge." 

88. Whole model of the cruiser "Shenandoah." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by John Jones, Esq., 1896. N. 2091. 

This repi*esents the composite-built, full-rigged clipper ship " Sea King," 
built at Glasgow in 1863 for the China trade. She had an auxiliary screw, 
wrhich could be lifted when the wind was favourable, and made the passage 
home from Shanghai in 79 days, including five days employed in coaling. 

The vessel was afterwards purchased by agents of the Confederate 
States of America, who sent her to sea armed as a privateer, when she 
soon became notorious as the cruiser " Shenandoah." During the American 
war (1860-64) she destroyed 37 ships of the Noi-them States, chiefly whalers, 
causing the price of sperm oil to rise from 701. to 120?. per ton ; in November, 
1865, she proceeded to Liverpool to siurender, and was handed over to the 
United States. She carried a crew of 133 men. 

Her engines were of 200 nominal h.p. ; register tonnage, 1,018 tons ; 
length, 220 ft. ; breadth, 32-5 ft. ; depth, 20-5 ft. 

89. Lithograph of U.S. ironclad " Dictator." Presented by 
J. Ericsson, Esq., 1865. N. 705. 

This early ironclad ram of the " Monitor " type was built in 1863, during 
the American Civil War, at the Delamater Iron Works, U.S.A., from the 
design of Mr, Ericsson. Her frames were of iron, and the wooden skin was 
3- 5 ft. thick. Her sides were protected by 11 in. of iron, 5 in. of which 
were solid bars 5 in. by 3 in., and the rest in single 1-in. plates ; the deck 
was plated with 1*5 in. of iron. A solid ram, built up of oak and iron, 
projected 22 ft. beyond the bow, and there was a single tuiTct 24 ft. inside 
diam., protected by 15 in. of iron in plates 1 in. thick, the whole weighing 
500 tons. 

She was propelled by an Ericsson vibrating lever-engine, with two 
cylinders 100 in. diam., by 48-in. stroke, indicating 5,000 h.p. The screw 
was 21 "5 ft. diam., by 34 ft. pitch, and was in a single casting weighing 
17-4 tons. 



31 

Steam was supplied by six boilers, with 56 furnaces, a grate area of 
1,120 sq. ft., and a heating surface of 34,000 sq. ft. The speed attained was 
"S • 3 knots, while the coal consumption at full speed was 7 * 3 tons per hour. 

The armament consisted of two smooth-bore 15-in, Ericsson guns, 
throwing a spherical shot weighing 460 lb., propelled by a charge of 
80 lb. of powder. 

Tonnage, 3,033 tons ; length, 320 ft. ; breadth, 50 ft. : depth of hold, 
22 ft. ; draught of water, 20 ft. 

90. Whole model of H.M.S. "Helicon." (Scale 1:48.) 
Received 1901. N. 2273. 

This paddle steamer was built of wood at Portsmouth, in 1861-65, as a 
despatch vessel, but after serving in this capacity for some years she was, 
in 1885, converted into an Admiralty yacht and renamed " Enchantress." 

For many years prior to the building of the " Helicon " it had been 
contended that a projecting cutwater, or "plough bow," was conducive to 
speed, and it was with the object of settling this question that Sir E.J. Reed 
decided to experiment upon the two identical vessels, " Helicon " and 
" Salamis," then under construction. He accordingly had the forebody of 
-' Helicon " remodelled, by removing the overhanging head- knee and rails, 
giving it fuller sections forward, and extending the cutwater 5 ft. at about 
the water line till the lines shown in the model were arrived at. The lines 
of " Salamis " were not altered, and both ships were fitted with engines, 
made from the same patterns, by Messrs. Ravenhill, Salkeld & Co., and 
having a pair of oscillating cylinders, 61 in. diam, by 54-in. stroke, driving 
paddle-wheels 20 ' 5 ft. diam. During 1865 a number of trials were made 
with the two vessels, with the result that " Helicon " proved to be from 1 to 
1 • 5 knots faster and to pitch less than " Salamis," but her success was 
geuerally conceded to be partly due to her additional length of water line 
^nd increased buoyancy forward. 

Both the British and French Admiralties adopted the "plough" bow in 
their early ironclads, and in later French warships a prolongation of the 
bow just below the water line was combined with the ram. At the time 
of the trials, the engines of "Helicon" indicated 1,610 h.p., and gave her 
a speed of 14 • 5 knots. 

Displacement, 945 tons ; length (b.p.), 220 ft. ; breadth, 28 • 2 ft. ; draught, 
mean, 10 • 1 ft. 

A photograph of the vessel is also shown. 

91. Water colour drawing of H.M.S. " Bellerophon," by 
W. Mitchell, 1873. Received 1899. N. 2197. 

This iron-built armoured frigate was designed by Sir E. J. Reed in 1863 
and completed for sea three years later. She was 80 ft. shorter than the 
^'Warrior" of 1861, and 100 ft. shorter than the "Minotaur" of 1867, 
which was, however, an earlier design; as regards protection, cost, and 
handiness, she was a great advance upon both of these earlier types. 

She was ship-rigged and had two telescopic funnels ; the lower masts were 
built of iron, while most of the smaller spars were of steel. The hull was 
protected by a complete water-line belt of 6-in. armour, and there was a 
central battery, with its deck 9 ft. above the water-line, protected by similar 
armour and terminal bulkheads 5 in. thick ; the conning tower was armoured 
with 8 -in. plates. 

This vessel was one of the first built with the projecting spur ram ; she 
was fitted with the Stanhope balanced mdder, while her internal construction 
embodied several important departures from previous practice (see No. 659). 

She was propelled by a set of horizontal direct-acting trunk engines, 
constructed by Messrs. J. Penn and Son at Greenwich ; with a boiler pressure 
of 26 lb. they indicated 6,048 h.p., and with a two-bladed Griffiths screw 
gave a speed of 14*2 knots. During some light- draught trials with a four- 
bladed propeller, " negative slip " was obtained, the speed of the ship being 
13 per cent, in excess of that deduced from the pitch of the screw. She 



32 

carried 600 tons of coal and had a steaming radius of 2,000 nautical miles 
at medium speed. 

Her original main arnament consisted of ten 12-ton M.L.R. guns in the 
citadel and several 6 • 5-ton guns for fore-and-aft fire, but this was subse- 
quently improved and Q.F. guns added. 

Displacement, 7,550 tons ; length, 300 ft. ; breadth, 56 ft. ; draught,. 
26-6 ft. 



92. Lithographs of war-vessels launched at Blackwall (^1860-96). 
Received 1907. N. 2434. 

The following table gives particulars of the vessels represented : — 















Dis- 


Name. 


Type. 


Navy. 


Date. 


Length. 


Breadth. 


place, 
ment. 








1 
Feet. 


Feet. 


Tons. 


Warrior - 


Screw frigate, iron 


British 


1860 j 380 


58 


9,000 


Minotaur - 


Screw frigate, iron 


British 


1867 400 


59-4 


10,700 


"Victoria - 


Screw frigate, iron 


Spanish 


1865 


318 


55-9 


7,250 


Konig Wilhelm 


Screw frigate, iron 


German 


1868 


355 


60 


9,757 


King George - 


Centi*al battery, 
iron 


Greek 


1867 


200 


32-9 


1,774 


Avni Illah 


Central battery. 


Turkish 


1869 


226-3 


36 


2,400 


Messoudiye 


n'on 
Central battery, 
iron 


Turkish 


1874 


331-4 


59 


9,120 


Yasco da Gama 


Central battery, 
iron 


Portu- 
guese 


1876 


200 


40 


2,479 


Blenlieim 


Cruiser, steel 


British 


1890 


375 


65 


9,000 


Benbow - 


Battleship, steel - 


British 


1888 


330 


68-5 


10,600 


Sanspareil 


Battleship, steel - 


British 


1889 


340 


70 


10,470 


Grafton - 


Cruiser, steel 


British 


1892 


360 


60 


7,350 


Fuji 


Battleship, steel - 


Japan- 
ese 


1896 


374 


73 


12,320 



93. Rigged model of Turkish frigates " Osmanea," " Azizea," 
and " Orkhanea." (Scale 1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. 
R. Napier and Sons, 1867. Plate III., No. 2. N. 1168. 

These three armour-clad frigates were built of iron at Glasgow in 
1864-66. The side armour is 5 • 25 in. and 4 in. thick. 

The engines have two cylinders 92 in. diam., by 48-in. stroke, indicate 
2,600 h.p., and give a speed of 12 knots ; the propeller is 20 ft. diam., and 
28*5 ft. pitch. Capacity of coal bunkers, 750 tons. 

The ai'mament originally intended was to have been 42 guns, but this 
was altered and the vessels were converted into barbette ships. The ship's 
complement was 600 men. 

Displacement, 6,450 tons ; length, 293 ft. ; breadth, 56 ft. ; depth of 
hold, 24 - 8 f t. ; draught, 25 • 6 ft. 

A photograph, N. 1311, is also exhibited. 



94. Whole models of proposed warships. (Scale 1 : 48.) 

Lent by Geo. Turner, Esq., 1864. N. 1032-4. 

These designs for three classes of warships were prepared by Mr. Turner,. 

of Woolwich Dockyard. Each provides a central main battery, with sloping 

sides ; while a fore-and-aft fire is given by guns at the height of the spar 



33 

deck, behind a transverse semi-circular shield at each end of the broadside 
battery. The an-angement has to some extent been incorporated in several 
war-vessels of later date. 

(a) represents a vessel of the following dimensions: — Length (b.p.), 
444 ft. ; breadth, 66 ft. ; di-aught, 27 ft. ; displacement, 13,000 tons ; arma- 
ment, 34 heavy guns. 

(6) has a " ram " bow, and has the following dimensions : — Length (b.p.), 
330 ft. ; breadth, 64 ft. ; draught, 27 ft. ; displacement, 9,000 tons ; arma- 
ment, 22 heavy guns. 

(c) has a " ram " bow ; the dimensions are : — L,ength (b.p.), 210 ft. ; 
breadth, 40 ft. ; draught, 25 ft. ; displacement, 3,000 tons ; armament, eight 
heavy guns. ' 

95. Whole model of Brazilian gunboats " Colombo " and 
" Cabral." (Scale 1 : 48.) Presented by J. K. Rennie, 
Esq., 1893. • N. 1410. 

These twin-screw armoured gunboats were built of iron at Greenwich in 
1866 by Messrs. J. and Gr. Rennie, to the order of the Brazilian Govern- 
ment. They are constructed with central batteries, and can fire two guns 
right ahead, two right astern, or four on the broadside. 

Their speed was 10 knots, and armament four 68-pr. 95-cwt. guns. When 
leaving England for Brazil their ends were housed over as far as the batteries 
to fit them for the ocean voyage. 

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 858 tons ; length, 160 ft. ; breadth, 34 ft. ; depth, 17 ft. 

96. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Northumberland." (Scale 
1 : 24.) Contributed by the Millwall Iron Works and 
Shipbuilding Co., 1865. N. 1071. 

This armoured first-class cruiser was built of iron at Millwall in 1865, 
and completed in 1868, from designs prepared by the Admiralty. The 
model, which represents the ship with three masts and 58 guns, was made 
before the masting and the armament were settled ; on launching she had 
five masts and 28 guns. She was re-boilered and her armament increased 
in 1895, but is now a depot hulk. 

The engines are represented by a separate model (see No. 845.). 

Her armour is 5 '5 in. thick, with 9- in. teak backing. The armament 
on launching was : — On the main deck, four 12-ton 9-in. M.L.R. guns and 
22 9-ton 8-in. M.L.R. guns; on the upper deck, two 6-5-ton 7-in. B.L.R. 
guns. Ship's complement, 701 men. 

The " Northumberland " was the first vessel in the Navy fitted with 
Mr. Macfarlane Gi-ay's steam steering gear, which was originally invented 
for the "Great Eastern." She has two sisters, the "Agincourt" and 
" Minotam- " (see prints. No. 81). 

Displacement, 10,780 tons; length, 400-25 ft.; breadth, 59-3 ft.; depth 
of hold, 21 - 08 ft. ; di-aught, 27 - 25 ft. 

97. Photograph of H.M.S. "Malabar." Presented by Messrs. 
R. Napier and Sons, 1869. N. 1311. 

This barque-rigged screw-propelled troopship was built of iron at 
Glasgow in 1867 by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, from designs prepared by 
the Admiralty. She was one of the five troopers built expressly for the 
conveyance of soldiers between England and India. On the discontinuance 
of this service she was sent to Bermuda as a receiving ship. 

The engines were simple, with two cylinders 94 in. diameter by 48 in. 
stroke, which indicated 4,890 h.p., and gave a speed of 13 knots. The coal 
bunker capacity was 1,254 tons. The ordinary trooping capacity was 
1,200 men. 

Displacement, 6,211 tons; length, 360 ft.; breadth, 49 ft.; depth of 
hold, 22-3 ft. ; di-aught of water, 20 ft. 

u 677a C 



34 

98. Rigged model of Halsted's first-rate warship. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. 

N.1170. 

This is one of a series of models prepared for illustrating tlie system of 
warships proposed in 1866 by the late Vice- Admiral E. P. Halsted. The 
ships were designed hy Mr. C. F. Henwood ; the turrets and the tripod 
system of masting were aiTanged by Capt. Cowper Coles, R.N., while the 
guns were to be on Sir Joseph Whitwoi-th's hexagonal system, mounted on 
muzzle pivoting cai-riages designed by Capt. Heathom, R.A., and worked 
by the gear of Capts. Scott and Cunningham. 

Admiral Halsted and his colleagues proposed the construction of a 
limited number of types of warship, from which any special requirements 
of a navy could be met, and this complete collection of models was prepared 
to show the type and size of the vessels which were to be their standards. 
It was considered that by the uniformity of an*angement and the repetition 
of parts thus obtainable, the cost of naval armaments would be very gi'eatly 
reduced. 

The leading feature of these vessels is the combination of the turret 
and broadside systems of gun mounting ; there are, however, many other 
peculiarities in the scheme, the details of which have been carefully worked 
out, so that the designs and models give much information on the methods 
of construction in favour at the period. 

This model of the proposed " Dreadnought" represents the highest class 
of battleship provided for. She was to be constructed with longitudinal 
and transverse frames, similar to those of H.M.S. " Achilles," " Agincoui't," 
&c., with inner and outer skins. The space between the two skins and at 
the ends was to be divided into watertight cells, while armour and com- 
posite backing were to extend the whole length of the ship, reduced, however, 
in thickness at the ends. There were to be seven turrets, with 8 in. of iron 
and a heavy composite backing, while the side armour of the hull was to be of 
6 -in. plates similarly backed. The model shows a flying deck constructed 
as a girder, from which the yards were to be worked, boats stowed, &c. ; the 
ship's rails are made to fall outwards when cleared for action. The vessel 
is ship-rigged, with iron tripod masts, topmasts and topgallant masts fidded 
abaft the lower masts, and double topsail yards. Horizontal screw engines 
were to be employed, and these are an-anged amidships with boiler rooms 
before and abaft, which explains the great distance between the funnels. 
A single screw is provided which can be Kfted when not in use. 

The turrets carry 14 Whitworth 9-in. guns, and on the main deck is a 
battery of four 7-in. guns, and ten 4-in guns. 

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 10,764 tons; length, 455 ft.; breadth, 70 ft.; depth, 
28 ft.; draught, 26-5 ft. 

99. Half block model of Halsted's second-rate warship. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. 

N. 1173. 

This proposed " Powerful " represents a design on Yice- Admiral 
Halsted's system ; there are six tuiTets with two guns in each. The ship is 
represented as being in a dry dock and resting on the blocks ; the starboard 
side is complete, but the poi-t side shows a longitudinal section of the vessel. 

Displacement, 13,602 tons ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 9,652 tons ; length, 
438 • 75 ft. ; breadth, 67 • 5 ft. ; depth, 28 ft. ; draught, 26 • 6 ft. 

100. Half block model of Halsted's third-rate warship. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. 

N. 1174. 

This " Dauntless " resembles the proposed " Powerful " (see !N"o. 99), 
but is smaller and has only five turrets. 

Displacement, 12,100 tons ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 8,618 tons ; length, 
422-5 ft. ; breadth, 65 ft. ; depth, 28 ft. ; draught, 26-5 ft. 



35 

101. Half block model of Halsted's fonrtli-rate warship. (Scale 
1 : 48). Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. 

N. 1175. 

This " Formidable "is a smaller modification of the proposed 
" Powerful " (see No. 99), and has only four turrets. 

Displacement, 10,000 tons ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 6,778 tons ; length, 390 ft. ,* 
breadth, 60 ft. ; depth, 26 • 5 ft. ; draught, 25 • 5 ft. 

102. Half block model of Halsted's fifth-rate warship. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. 

N. 1176. 

" This " Defence " is a still smaller modification of the proposed 
" Powerful " {see No. 99), and has only three tm'rets. 

Displacement, 9,100 tons ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 5,906 tons ; length, 373 • 75 
ft, ; breadth, 57-5 ft. ; depth, 26-5 ft. ; draught, 25-5 ft. 

103. Rigged model of Halsted's sixth-rate warship. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. 

N. 1171. 

This " Active " is a corvette combining the tun'et and broadside con- 
struction. The vessel is ship-rigged, with iron tripod lower masts, topmasts 
and topgallant masts fidded abaft the masts, and double topsail yards. 
She has a flying deck from which the yards, boats and anchors would be 
worked, and an upper deck with two turrets each ai-med with two Whit- 
woi-th 9-in. guns, whilst on the main deck would be ten Whitwoi*th 7-in. 
broadside guns. 

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 4,926 tons ; length, 367 -5 ft. ; breadth, 52 -5 ft. ; 
depth, 25 ft. ; di'aught of water, 24 • 5 ft. 

104. Half block model of Halsted's seventh-rate warship. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. 

N. 1177. 

The " Vigilant " was to have two tuiTets with two guns in each, and a 
small broadside armament. 

Displacement, 7,400 tons ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 4,615 tons ; length, 
346-25 ft. ; breadth, 52 5 ft. ; depth, 25 ft. ; di-aught, 24-5 ft. 

105. Whole model of Halsted's eighth-rate warship. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Presented by Messi-s. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. 

K 1172. 

This " Yedette " was to have a single turret containing two Whitwoi-th 
9-in. guns, and on her main deck ten Whitwoi-th 5 • 5 in. guns ; she was to 
be used as a despatch vessel. 

Displacement, 5,700 tons ; tonnage (b.o.m.), 3,648 tons ; length, 
332 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 47 ft. ; depth, 23 ft. ; draught, 22 • 5 ft. 

Several sections and details of the Halsted vessels are shown in the 
construction models {see Nos. 656-7 and 710-1). 

106. Whole model of circular floating battery. (Scale 1:72.) 
Lent by W. Smith, Esq., 1870. N. 1319. 

This arrangement was designed and patented by Mr. John Elder in 1867. 
It was to have been armour-plated, divided into a great number of com- 
partments, and armed with 26 guns in a lower battery and 10 in a central 
one. The sharp-edged circumference was to be used as a i*am, and many 
other modifications were suggested, but the battery represented was to have 
been of the following dimensions : — Diameter, 144 ft. ; freeboard, 6 ft. ; 
draught, 9 ft. 

c 2 



36 

This proposal of Mr. Elder's is probably the first design for a circular 
battery sliip propelled by steam machinery. In 1874-6 the plan was 
re-invented and developed by the Russian naval architect, Admiral Popoff, 
in his "Popovkas" (see No. 112) ; the "Livadia" is another modification 
of this design (see No. 394). 

107. Photograph of Dutch turret ram " De Buffel." Presented 
by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1869. N. 1311. 

This armour-clad twin-screw ram was built of iron at Glasgow in 1868, 
by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons. She is constmcted with a double bottom, 
and is plated with iron armour 6 in, thick, backed with 10 in, of teak and an 
inner skin of 1-in plate ; this armoui* belt reaches from 2 ft. above the water 
line to 3 ft. below. The main deck consists of 6-in. oak on a 1-in. plate, 
while the wall round the base of the turret is composed of 8-in. plates 
backed by 12-in. teak on a 1-in. inner skin. The armour and backing of the 
turret are similar to that of the belt. 

She is propelled by two sets of simple engines each with two cylinders 
56 in. diam., by 24 in. stroke. The propellers are 7 ft. diam,, 8*5 pitch, 
and with 2,000 indicated h.p. the speed is 11-2 knots. Steam at 30 lb. 
pressure is supplied by four boilers, and the coal bunker capacity is 
160 tons. 

The armament is : — One 11-in. 28-ton B.L.R., two 3-in. B.L.R., and six 
machine guns. 

Displacement, 2,260 tons; length, 206 ft.; breadth, 40 4 ft.; depth, 
24 ft.; draught, 16-2 ft. 

108. Photograph of Dutch monitor " De Tyger." Presented 
by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1869. ^ N. 1311. 

This armour-clad twin-screw monitor was built of iron at Glasgow in 
1868, by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons. She is constructed with a double 
bottom, and is protected by an armoui^ed belt 5 ft. deep ; the thickness 
of the plates is 6 • 5 in. amidships, tapering to 5 in. at the bow and 4 • 5 in. 
at the stern. The tuiTet, which is 23 ft, diam., has plating 8 in. thick and 
a 9-75 in. backing of teak. There are no bulwarks, but simply a falling 
i-ail, and her freeboad of 3 ft. can be reduced to 2 ft. by filling the double 
bottom. 

She is propelled by two sets of engines, each with two cylinders 30 in. 
diam. by 18 in. stroke. The propellers are 7 ft. diam. by 8 • 5 ft. pitch ; 
and with 680 indicated h.p, give a speed of 8 • 2 knots. 

The armament is : — One 11-in, 28-ton B,L.R., one 3-in. B.L,R., and four 
machine guns. 

Displacement, 1,450 tons ; length, 187 ft. ; breadth, 44 -5 ft. ; depth, 
11-5 ft.; draught, 92 ft. 

109. Rigged model of German warship, " Konig Wilhehn I," 
(Scale 1 : 96,) Lent bv Sir E. J. Reed, K.C.B., 1876. 

N. 1408. 

This iron-cased frigate, designed by Sir E. J. Reed, and built of iron 
at Millwall in 1869, was originally intended for the Ottoman Grovem- 
ment, but when about half finished was purchased by the Prussian 
Government. 

She is consti-ucted on the longitudinal system, with a series of wrought 
iron girders, spaced 7 ft. apart, i-unning along her completely from stem to 
stem. These are connected by wi-ought iron ribs spaced 4 ft. apart below 
the water-line, but only 2 ft. apart above it. Within both frames and ribs 
comes another iron skin 1 in. thick, so as literally to make a double ship, 
the inner one being 4*5 ft. apart from the outer. 

The armour is 8 in. thick, with a 10-in. teak backing amidships, tapering 
towards the ends and below the water-line. : Near the bow and stern are 
arraoui'ed bulkheads, with 6 in. of armom- and 18 in. of teak continued from 



37 

the lower deck up througli the main deck, and to a height of 7 ft. above the 
spar deck. On the spar deck these shields are cui-ved and pierced with gun 
ports and loopholed for musketry. Within these shields were four Krupp 
B.L. 300-prs., which could be fired either fore and aft or as broadside guns. 
Twenty-three similar guns completed the armament, which, however, has 
since been altered. 

The engines, by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, are simple with three 
cylinders 95 in. diam., by 54 in. stroke. The cut-off in the cylinders can be 
varied from one-third to one- sixth of the stroke, and the valves are driven 
by Sell's gear (see No'. 839). 

Steam at 30 lb. pressui-e is supplied by eight boilers, arranged four on 
either side of the vessel, with the stokehold between them ; there are five 
furnaces in each boiler, and a total of 890 sq. ft. of gi-at^ surface and 
22,600 sq. ft. of heating surface. The coal bimker capacity is 700 tons. 

The propeller is four-bladed, 23 ft. diam., and 22 • 5 ft. pitch, which at 
64 revs., with 8,350 indicated h.p., gave a speed of 14*5 knots. 

Displacement, 9,757 tons ; length, 355 ft. ; breadth, 60 ft. ; depth, 
41-75 ft. ; draught, 25*42 ft. 

110. Rigged model of H.M.Ss. '' Arrow " and" Bonetta." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. J. and G. Rennie, 1893. 

N. 1411. 

These twin-screw gunboats, built of iron at Greenwich in 1871 by 
Messrs. J. and G. Rennie, were, with about 20 similar vessels, constructed 
for river and coast service. 

The engines are of 110 h.p., giving a speed of 8*7 knots; the coal 
bunkers hold 25 tons. 

The armament is one 10-in. 18-ton M.L.R. gun, caiiied right foi'ward in 
the bow on a platform that can be lowered by gearing to obtain more 
stability when at sea. The steering wheel is placed directly in rear of the 
gun, as training is chiefly done by the nidder. The ship's complement is 
31 officers and men. 

Displacement, 254 tons ; length, 85 ft. ; breadth, 26 • 16 ft. ; di-aught, 
6-25 ft. 

HI. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Neptune." (Scale 1:48.) 
Contribnted by Messrs. Samuda Bros., 1882. N. 1576. 

This double-tuiTet, barque-rigged armoui'-clad, constiiicted at Poplar 
in 1874, was designed by Sir E. J. Reed for the Biuzilian Govei'nment, 
and named the " Independencia," but before completion she was purchased by 
the British Government, and re-named the " Neptune." Her bottom was 
sheathed with wood and coppered. 

She was driven by trunk engines with two cylinders 118 in. diam., by 
54 in. stroke, which, with a boiler pressure of 27 lb., indicated 8,000 h.p. at 
64 2 revs, per min., and gave a speed of 14*2 knots. There were eight 
boilers, contained in two wateriight compartments. 

The propeller was 26 ft. diam. and 23 ft. pitch. The annament was 
four 12-5-in. 38-ton M.L.R., two 9-in. 12-ton M.L.R., six 6-pr. Q.F., eight 
3-pr. Q.F., ten machine guns, and two toi*pedo tubes. The annour was 
12 • 75 in. thick on the broadside, 11 in. and 13 in. on the tui-rets, and there 
was a 3-in. iron protective deck. 

Displacement. 9,130 tons; length, 300 ft.; breadth, 63 ft.; depth, 
25-4 ft. 

112. Half model of the " Admiral PopofF." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Russian Embassy, 1876. N. 1424. 

This circular, armour-plated, floating battery was built at Nicolaieff in 
1875, from the design of the Russian naval architect, Admii'ul Popoff. She 
is constructed of iron, and has a double bottom, sheathed with wood and 
coppered ; the bottom is flat, and is fitted with 12 external box girders, or 



38 

keels, each about 12 in. square, fixed parallel to the intended axis of the 
vessel. The bottom is formed with 8 radial watertight fi-ames, intersected 
by two rings of web frames, which thus divide it into 24 compartments. 
There is a single rudder, which is, however, of exceptional length. 

The central pai*t of the upper deck is occupied by a circ\ilar breast -work, 
about 7 ft. high, canying two heavy guns, mounted en harhette on fixed 
slides, the guns being trained by turning the ship. Around this citadel are 
deck-houses for the accommodation of the men. The anuour of the vessel 
and its citadel is in two layers, having a total thickness of 18 in. ; the side 
armoiir extends from the upper deck, which is 1 * 5 ft. above load water-line, 
to 4 • 5 ft. below the water-line, and the upper deck is protected by horizontal 
armour 3 in. thick. 

The vessel is propelled by eight two-stage expansion vei-tical engines ; 
four of these each work an independent screw 10 • 5 ft. diam., whilst the 
other four, arranged and worked in pairs, drive the two remaining screws, 
which are three-bladed and of much larger diameter, their blades reaching 
below the keel level. When in shallow water these larger screws are fixed 
with the upper blades vertical, in which position the screws are above the 
bottom of the vessel. 

The power exerted is 3,066 indicated h.p., and the speed attained 
8 knots. The bunker capacity is 250 tons. 

Armament : — Two 12-in. 40-ton guns, two Q.F. guns on each side of the 
superstimcture, and six smaller guns. 

Displacement, 3,553 tons ; extreme diameter, 121 ft. ; height of barbette 
above load water-line, 13 • 25 ft. ; draught of water, 13 ft. 

113. Rigged model of Mexican gunboats "Mexico" and 
'• Deniocrata." (Scale 1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. J. and 
G. Rennie, 1879. Plate III, No. 3. N. 1513. 

These three-masted, schooner-rigged, sister gunboats were built of iron 
in 1875 by Messrs. J. and G. Rennie for the Mexican G-ovemment. 

Theii' armament is two 6*5 in. 4-ton M.L.R., and two 20-prs, ; the speed 
11 knots. 

Displacement, 450 tons; length, 140 ft. ; breadth, 26 ft.; draught, 11 ft. 

114. Rigged model of Portuguese ironclad "Vasco da Gania." 
(Scale 1 : 96.) Received 1907. Plate III., No. 4. N. 2431. 

This twin-screw, iron-built and armoured battleship was consti-ucted for 
the Poi-tuguese Government by the Thames Iron Works and Shipbuilding 
Co. at Blackwall in 1875-6, from the designs of Mr. G. C. Mackrow. She 
was lengthened, re-armed and re-boilered by Messrs. Orlando at Leghorn 
in 1902-3. 

The model represents an unusually small example of a sea- going 
armour-clad ; she was designed for the defence of Lisbon and the Tagus, 
and still (1910) ranks as the only " battleship " in the Portuguese Navy. 

Cellular construction was adopted throughout and external protection 
was given by a complete belt of 9-10-in. side armour, which was earned 
well below the water-line in the neighbourhood of the ram bow. 

Her main armament consisted originally of two 10 • 25-in, rifled Krupp 
guns in an octagonal battery amidships, and one 5*9 in. gun astern. These 
have now been replaced by two 8-in. Q.F. guns, carried in barbettes 
foi-ward, and one 6-in. Q.F. gun astei-n. 

She was propelled by two sets of two-stage expansion engines made by 
Messrs. Humphry s, Tennant & Co., which developed on trial a total of 
3,625 indicated h.p. and gave an avei-age speed of 13*25 knots. By the 
use of Yarrow water-tube boilers and a general improvement in the vessel's 
form, the speed has now been increased to about 15 ' 5 knots. 

The original dimensions were : — Displacement, 2,479 tons ; length (b.p.), 
200 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; draught (maximum), 19 ft. These particulars 
as reconstructed are : — Displacement, 2,972 tons ; length, 233 ft. ; breadth, 
40 ft. ; draught (maximum), 20 ft. 



39 

115. Whole model of H.M.Ss. "Orion" and " Belleisle." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Contribnted by Messrs. Samuda Bros., 
1882. N. 1577. 

These two central-batteiy, armour-clad, iron ships were built at Poplar 
in 1876 for the Ottoman Government, but were purchased before completion 
for the British Navy. The armour belt is 12 in. and 7 in. thick, and the 
plates 10 in. thick on the central battery, while there is a 3-in. iron 
protective deck. » 

The engines indicated 2,600 h.p., driving twin screws at a speed of 
11-9 knots. 

The armament is foiu' 12-in. 25-ton M.L.R. and six 6-pr. Q.F., with 
machine guns and torpedo tubes. The complement of officers and men 
is 284. 

Displacement, 4,870 tons ; length, 245 ft. ; breadth, 52 ft. ; draught, 
21ft. 

116. Whole model of first class torpedo boat " Lightning." 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Lent by Messrs. John I. Thornycroft & Co., 
Ltd, 1909. N. 2517. 

One of the earliest of specially designed torpedo craft was a steel-built 
launch constnicted by Messrs. Thornycroft & Co., in 1873, for the Norwegian 
Navy; similar boats for most of the other European Navies quickly 
followed, but this model represents the first actual torpedo boat in the 
British Navy. It was built at Chiswick in 1876, for independent harbour or 
coastal service, and was known as H.M.S. " Lightning." Twelve vessels of 
this class were eventually added to the British Navy. 

A " plough bow " or extended cutwater (see No. 90) was a noticeable 
feature of these boats as well as of the smaller class of early British torpedo 
ci-af t ; but it was discarded in subsequent designs in favour of a nearly upright 
stem. The hull was of galvanised steel and well sub- divided by transverse 
watertight bulkheads ; side coal bunkers gave protection to the machinery 
spaces. The shell plating was • 125 in. thick amidships, and slightly less at 
the foi-ward and after ends. A cement covering was given to the upper 
deck. There was a conning tower, inside which were the engine-room 
telegraphs and voice tubes, and the firing gear for torpedoes ; steering 
could also be effected from this position or from the deck. Two 14-in. 
Whitehead torpedoes are shown amidships upon transporting cai-riages and 
rails ; they were discharged, by means of compressed air, from a pivoted 
tube mounted in the bows. 

Locomotive boilers were used, and the propelling engines were of the 
two-stage expansion type fitted with surface condensers. With 350 i.h.p. a 
speed of 19 • 4 knots was made in light condition, while a speed of 18 knots 
w^as guai*anteed under sei'vice conditions. 

To improve the manoeuvring qualities of this vessel she was, before 
commissioning, fitted with a new form of i-udder and guide-blade propeller 
patented by Mr. J. I. Thornycroft in 1873 ajid 1879. In 1877, 1881, and 
1883 a series of experiments were made on the " Lightning " with various 
forms of guide-blade propellers (see No. 998). 

Displacement, 30 tons; length, 84 feet; breadth, 10*9 feet: di-aught 
(mean), 5 feet. 

117. Whole model of second class torpedo boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Messrs. John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., 1909. 

N. 2518. 

This repi'esents an early type of toi-pedo boat for can-ying on shipboard. 
It is similar in general design to No. 116, but of smaller dimensions, and 
was built of steel at Chiswick in 1879 by Messrs. Thoraycroft, who eventually 
completed about 70 of these craft for Great Britain and the Colonies, as 
well as a large number for France and Italy. 



40 

The average weight of these boats, with equipment, was about 10 • 5 tons, 
and they were stowed on the upper decks of large warships ; special davits 
were fitted for lifting and lowering them. 

Locomotive boilers were used, and the initial steam could be raised 
quickly by a steam heating apparatus fed from the ship's boilers. The 
engines were of two-stage expansion type with surface condensers ; with 
170 indicated h.p. a speed of 17 ' 75 knots was realised. 

An armament of two 14-in. Whitehead torpedoes was carried amidships. 
The method of discharge, i)atented by Mr. J. I. Thornycroft in 1877, 
differed from that adopted on the larger boats, in that a light steel dis- 
charging frame or ci-adle on each side, earned a torpedo in stowing position, 
and by means of a rocking shaft, suspension levers, and tackles, the whole 
could be rapidly lowered to a firing position below the water-line. Other 
forms of dropping or discharging gear were also fitted on this type of 
vessel. 

Length, 60 • 3 feet ; breadth, 7 • 5 feet. 

118. Photograph, of Chilian cruiser " Esmeralda." Presented 
by Sir W. Q. Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., 1884. N. 1672. 

This twin-screw cruiser, built at Newcastle in 1884, was designed, 
consti-ucted, armed, and equipped by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell & 
Co. for the Chilian Govermnent. She was the first example of the modem 
protected cruiser class. 

The " Esmeralda " is framed on the ordinary transverse system, and has 
three decks ; the upper or gun deck is 11 ft. above water, the main deck 
about 5 ft., and the lower or arched protective deck, which is of 1-in. steel 
and extends from stem to stem, is at the middle 1 ft. below water level, 
and at the sides 5 ft. It forms a protection to the engines, boilers, 
magazines, and all vital parts of the ship, while the main deck is occupied 
by the quarters of the officers and crew. Minute sub- division of the hold 
space below the protective deck and of the space between it and the main 
deck is effected by means of transverse and longitudinal bulkheads and of 
horizontal flats or platforms ; cork is also packed in cellular spaces, to ensure 
sufficient buoyancy and trim in case the water-line region should be riddled. 
The bow is provided with a ram. 

She is propelled by two independent sets of two- stage expansion engines, 
with cylinders 41 in. and 82 in. diameter by 36 in. stroke, driving twin 
screws, which, with 120 to 130 revs, and 6,500 indicated h.p., gave a speed 
of 18 -25 knots. 

Steam, at 90 lb. pressure, is supplied by four double-ended boilers 13 ft. 
diam., and 18 '5 ft. long, each with six furnaces supplied with forced 
draught. Her coal bunker capacity is 600 tons, or sufficient for 8,000 miles 
at a speed of 8 knots, or 6,000 miles at 10 knots. Her armament is : — Two 
25-ton 10-in. B.L.R. guns, protected by steel screens, and having a training 
arc of 120 deg. on either side of the keel ; six 4-ton 6-in. B.L.R. gmis ; two 
6-pr. Q.F., and a number of machine guns, as well as three torpedo tubes. 
She is fitted with two military masts, with a Gardner gun in each. 

Displacement, 3,000 tons ; length, 270 ft. ; breadth, 42 ft. ; draught of 
water, 18 • 5 ft. 

119* Masted whole model of Japanese cruisers "Naniwa" 
and " Takachiho." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Sir W. G. 
Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., 1887. N. 1724. 

These deck-protected cruisers, built of steel at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 
1885 for the Japanese Government, played a prominent part in the war 
between China and Japan. The " Naniwa," before the declaration of war 
between the two countries, sank the " Kowshing," with 1,200 Chinese 
soldiers on board ; both cruisers afterwards took part in the battle of Yalu 
and the subsequent operations. They are each fitted with two military 
masts, and to provide for ramming have their stems formed of soHd steel 
forgings, strongly supported by the protective decks. 



41 

They have two sets of horizontal two-stage expansion engines driving 
twin screws, the engine-rooms being distinct. At the official trial of the 
" Naniwa " a mean speed of 18 '7 knots was obtained with 7,235 indicated 
h.p. at 125 revs, per min. 

Steam is supplied by six steel boilers 19 ft. by 11 ft., with a collective 
heating surface of 15,600 sq. ft. The total coal stowage is 800 tons, which 
is capable of driving the ship 9,000 miles, at a speed of 13 knots. 

Their armament is : — At the bo/r and stem, two 10-in. guns, 35 calibres 
in length, are mounted on revolving centre-pivot carnages, giving an unin- 
teiTupted arc of fire of 240 deg. Spaced along each broadside on sponsons 
are six 6 -in. guns, 35 calibres in length, with a horizontal range of 130 deg., 
mounted on Yavassem* centre-pivot automatic carriages, and covered by 
steel shields. Along the upper works, and in the tops, are a number of 
machine guns, while at the ends of the bridge are placed two 6-pr. Q.F. 
guns. The crew consists of 325 officers and men. 

Displacement. 3,650 tons ; length, 300 ft. ; breadth, 46 ft. ; draught, 
18-5 ft. 

120. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Alacrity" and "Surprise." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron 
Co., 1887. N. 1726. 

These three-masted, schooner-rigged, despatch vessels were built of steel 
in 1885 at JaiTOw. 

Each is propelled by two sets of horizontal two-stage expansion engines, 
with cylinders 26 in. and 50 in. diam., by 34 in. stroke. The engines are 
protected by an inclined steel deck. The indicated h.p. with forced 
draught was 3,180 at 135 revs, per min., giving a speed of 18 knots ; while 
under natural draught the h.p. was 2,160, the revs. 124, and the speed 
16 • 5 knots. 

Steam at 100 lb. pressure is supplied by two boilers 10*3 ft. diam. and 
two 9-5 ft. diam., all 17 ft. long. The total heating surface is 7,032 sq. ft., 
and there are ten con-ugated furnaces. The foi-ward and after stokeholds 
are distinct from one another. 

The twin screws are of gun-metal, and thi-ee-bladed, 11 ft. diam., 14*7 ft. 
pitch, and 13 • 5 ft. between centres. 

The armaments are : — " Alacrity," ten 6-pr. Q.F., and two machine guns. 
" Surprise.'- — ^four 5-in., four 6-pr. Q.F., and two machine guns. 

Displacement, 1,400 tons; length, 250 ft.; breadth, 32-5 ft.; draught, 
13 ft. 

121. Whole model of shallow-draught war steamer. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Lent by Messrs John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., 
1909. N. 2521. 

This represents in general features the design of shallow-di^aught steamer 
used by the Gordon Relief Expedition on the River Nile. Five of these 
were constructed at Chiswick in 1885, and for convenience in transport each 
vessel was made in eight separate sections. 

The hull was of light steel framing and plating, with bullet-proof nickel 
plates • 25 in. thick around the machinery spaces, deck houses, and conning 
tower. A longitudinal middle line bulkhead passed through the engine 
and boiler rooms, and further sub -division was obtained before, and abaft 
these, by transverse watertight bulkheads. There was a loopholed deck 
house below and a conning tower above the superstructive deck. Steam 
steering engines, as well as a hand tiller, were used for working the three 
rudders. A steam capstan in the bow provided powerful haulage in case of 
grounding or when navigating rapids. 

There were two complete sets of propelling engines of two- stage 
expansion type with surface condensers. Each line of shafting is shown 
with two propellers, and, to increase the available depth of water, they are 
arranged in tunnels or recesses formed under the bottom. A system of 



42 

propulsion with guide-blade screws was adopted on some of these vessels. 
With 400 indicated h.p. a speed of 17 knots was attained. 

Displacement, 73 tons ; length, 140 ft. ; breadth, 21 ft. ; draught (fully 
laden), 2 ft. 

122. Whole model of guard boat for mine-fields. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Messrs. John I. Tbornycroft & Co., Ltd., 1909. 

N. 2520. 

This represents a design, prepared by Messrs. Thomycroft about 1885, 
for a guard boat for use in the vicinity of explosive mines. 

Rapid manoeuvring power is provided by twin rudders of the fin-shaped 
balanced form, which partially enclose a single propeller. Special side and 
under guards are added to prevent the fouling of the propeller blades. Two 
machine guns, behind a loop-holed shield aft, and a 3-pr. Q.F. gun forward, 
specially mounted and screened, constituted the proposed armament. 

The overall dimensions were to be : — Length, 52 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. 

123. Whole model of torpedo gunboat. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by Messrs. J. and G. Rennie, 1893. N. 2018. 

This represents a torpedo boat destroyer of the "Sharpshooter" class, 
designed in 1886. 

The engines were intended to develop 4,500 indicated h.p,, and, di'iving 
twin screws, to give a speed of 21 knots, but difficulties were experienced 
with the locomotive boilers, and it was not found possible to obtain more 
than 3,700 indicated h.p., and a speed of 20 knots. The coal bunker 
capacity was about 100 tons. 

The armament shown in the model is one 4 • 7-in. Q.F. on the forecastle, 
and four 3-pr, Q.F.'s, with bow and stem torpedo tubes and two launching 
carriages. 

Displacement, 735 tons ; length, 230 ft. ; breadth, 27 ft. ; depth, 11 ft. ; 
di-aught, 8-25ft. 

124. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Victoria." (Scale 1:48.) 
Lent by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., 1887. 
Plate III., No. 5. N. 1723. 

This single-tun-et, steel-armoui*ed, first class battleship, built at New- 
castle-on-Tyne in 1887, was sunk in a collision with H.M,S. " Camperdown," 
Jime 23rd, 1893, off the coast of Syi*ia, with the loss of 339 officers and men. 

The armour was compound, and from 16 to 18 in. thick, while there was 
a protective deck 3 in. thick. 

The engines were two three- stage expansion sets, with cylinders 43 in., 
62 in, and 96 in. diam., by 51 in, stroke. Steam at 135 lb. pressure was 
supplied by eight steel boilers, with four furnaces in each, the whole being 
fired from four independent stokeholds. She stowed 1,200 tons of coal. 

The collective indicated h.p. under natural draught was 8,038, which 
gave a speed of 16 knots, while under forced di-aught it was 14,244 at 
100*8 revs,, which gave a speed of 17*25 knots. The twin propellers were 
16 ft, diam. 

The armament was two 16 '25 in, 111-ton B.L,E/., one 29-ton B.L.R., 
twelve 6-in B.L.E,,, twelve 6-pr, Q.F,, twelve 3-pr. Q.F., eight machine guns, 
and several torpedo tubes. 

Displacement, 10,470 tons ; length, 340 ft. ; breadth, 70 ft. ; depth, 
27 -25 ft, 

125. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Benbow." ^ (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Co., 1898. 

N. 2109. 

This first class battleship was built of steel at Blackwall in 1888, and 
is one of the " Admiral " class. 



43 

The hull is divided into 190 compai-tments, and the double bottom is 
caiiied beyond the citadel bulkheads in both directions ; fui-ther protection 
against injury from below is afforded by a watertight platform over the hold 
throughout the entire length of the ship. Between this platform and the 
protective deck are the boilers, engines, and magazines ; from the hold up 
to the main deck there are practically three skins. 

Protection from shot and shell is afforded by a belt of steel-faced 
armoui' 18 in. thick and about 150 ft. in length, covering the sides amid- 
ships to a depth of 5 ft. below the load water-line, and to a height of 
2 • 5 ft. above it. Over the part so covered is a 3-in. steel deck, built up 
of two thicknesses of • 5-in. plating and one 2 in. thick. Below this mid- 
ship protective deck there is a splinter deck 375 in., to further protect 
the machinery and forced draught arrangements. Across the ends of this 
citadel are biQkheads of 18-in. armour. 

The sides of the auxiliary battery, above the upper deck, are of steel 
1 in. thick, but its sloping ends have 6-in. armour as a protection against 
a raking fire. When the coal bimkers along the sides of the ship are full, 
they oppose a thickness of 9 ft. of coal to the passage of shot. On the 
lower deck is a horizontal athwai-t-ship chamber, into which water can be 
introduced to check excessive rolling {see No. 606). 

The two barbettes each cover a space on the upper deck of about 
45 ft. by 60 ft., being pear-shaped in plan, so as to leave room for the 
loading gear ; they have steel-faced armoui- 12 to 14 in. thick. An 
ammimition trunk, plated with 12-in. armour, protects the charge while 
being raised from the magazines. A wire rope raises the 1,800-lb. pro- 
jectiles and the 960-lb. charges, which are in two portions. 

She is propelled by two sets of three-stage expansion engines, which, 
under forced draught, indicate 11,500 h.p., and give a speed of 16*75 
knots. 

Steam at 90 lb. pressure is supplied by 12 oval-shaped steel boilers, 
arranged athwart- ships, each boiler 12-3 ft. wide, 14*83 ft. high, and 
9 • 92 ft. long ; there are 36 furnaces, and 20,440 sq. ft. of heating sui-face 
while the forced draught is supplied by 8 fans, 5 ft. diam. The coal 
bunker capacity is 1,200 tons, sufficient for 7,100 miles at 10 knots. The 
twin screws are 16 ft. diam. and four-bladed. 

The armament consists of two 16*25 in. 111-ton breech-loading gims, one 
in either barbette, having a muzzle velocity of 2,100 ft. per sec. and a penetra- 
tion of 32 * 5 in. of iron at 1,000 yds. The auxiliary armament consists of 
ten 6-in. Q.F. with a penetration of 10*3 in., eight 6-pr. Q.F., ten 3-pr. Q.F., 
seven machine guns, and two boat guns. She has one fixed torpedo tube in 
the bow and four launching caii-iages for toi-pedoes on the broadside. The 
ship's complement is 430 men. 

Displacement, 10,600 tons ; length, 330 ft. ; breadth, 68 * 5 ft. ; depth, 
37 * 12 ft. ; draught of water, 28 • 3 ft. 

126. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Orlando." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Co., 1891. 

N. 2000. 

This first class, belted, deck-protected, steel-built cruiser was launched in 
1888 at JaiTOw-on-Tyne ; she is fitted with two military masts. 

She has two sets of three-stage expansion engines, with cylinders 36 in., 
52 in., and 78 in. diam. by 42 in. stroke, indicating 8,500 h.p., and driving 
twin screws 14 * 5 ft. diam. and 18 * 75 ft. pitch. 

The belt is of compound armoui* 10 in. thick, while there is a steel 
protective deck 2 in. thick, which extends from just above the water-line to 
5*5 ft. below. The armament consists of two9*25-in. 22-ton B.L.R., ten 
6-in. B.L.R., sixteen 6-pr. and 3-pr. Q.F., six machine guns, and torpedo 
tubes. The ship's complement is 484, and she has a coal bunker capacity of 
900 tons. 

Displacement, 5,600 tons ; length, 300 ft. ; l^readth, 56 ft. ; draught, 
22*5 ft. 



44 

127. Rigged model of H.M.S. " Magicienne." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
1901. N. 2268. 

This third class cruiser was built of steel at Glasgow, in 1888, by the 
Fairfield Co., from the designs of Sir W. H. White, Director of Naval 
Construction. She is barque-rigged and is fitted with twin screws. 

The hull is constructed with a cellular double bottom, for carrying water 
ballast, and is divided into ten watertight compartments, two of which are 
occupied by the engines and two more by the boilers. The ram, stem and 
rudder posts, together with the brackets for the screws, are bronze castings, 
weighing altogther about 45 tons. Being intended to keep at sea, she is 
sheathed with two 3-in. layers of teak and an outer sheathing of copper. 
The rudder is of the balanced type and can be worked by hand or steam 
gear from the bridge, conning tower, or from below. There is a 2'in. 
protective deck, springing from 5 ft. below the water-line and rising 1 ft. 
above it amidships. 

The " Magicienne " was one of the last war- vessels fitted with horizontal 
engines ; these are of the three-stage expansion type, and are in two sets, 
with cylinders 34-5 in. diam., 51 in. diam., and 76-5 in. diam. by 36 in. 
stroke. Steam at 155 lb. pressure is siipplied by four double-ended Scotch 
boilers, each with six coiTugated furnaces and three combustion chambers ; 
the total grate area is 535 sq. ft., and the heating surface 13,616 sq. ft. On 
trial with a forced- draught pressure of 2 • 2 in. of water and an engine speed 
of 140 revs, per min., the total indicated h.p. was 9,280, and the speed attained 
18 knots. The coal bunker capacity is 400 tons, which gives a radius of 
action, at 10 knots, of 8,000 nautical miles. 

Her armament is : — Six 6-in. B.L. guns, nine 6-pr. Q.F., one 3-pr. Q.F., 
and six torpedo discharge tubes. Complement, 300 men. 

Displacement, 2,950 tons ; length, 265 ft. ; breadth. 42 ft. ; draught of 
water, 17-5 ft. 



128. Drawing of H.M.S. " Blake." (Scale 1 : 48.) Maudslay 
Collection, 1900. N. 2253. 

The " Blake," a first class twin-screw deck-protected cruiser, was 
designed by the Admiralty and biiilt of steel at Chatham in 1889-91. 

Her engines, which were a new departure in the Navy, consist of four 
distinct sets of three-stage-expansion inverted engines, coujpled in pairs to 
the two propeller shafts ; the cylinders are 36 in., 52 in., and 80 in. diam. by 
48 in. stroke. The forward sets are so arranged as to be easily discomiected 
when only slow or moderate speeds are required. Each set has an air pump, 
33 in. diam. by 2 ft. stroke, and a surface condenser with a cooling area of 
2,250 sq. ft. ; also an independently driven centrifugal pump 45 in. diam. for 
circulating, but capable of di-awing from the bilge. Steam at 155 lb. is 
supplied by six doubled-ended Scotch boilers, with eight furaaces in each 
fitted for forced draught ; the total fire grate area is 863 sq. ft., and the 
heating surface 26,936 sq. ft. The screws are 18 • 25 ft. diam. and 24 • 5 ft. 
mean pitch. 

At her trial in 1891, with steam at 125 '5 lb., air pressure '42 in., and 
88 '8 revs, per min., 14,525 indicated h.p. was developed and a mean speed of 
19 • 12 knots attained. Under forced di-aught it was expected that 17,000 
indicated h.p. would be developed and a speed of 22 knots realised, but 
this was never tested. 

Her armament was: — Two 9-2-in. 22-ton B.L. ; ten 6-in. 5-ton B.L. ; 
sixteen 3-pr. Q.F. ; eight machine guns and four toi^pedo tubes ; her 
complement was 570 men. 

Displacement, 9,000 tons ; length, 375 ft. ; breadth, 65 ft. ; draught, 
25- 7 ft. ; coal stowage, 1,500 tons. 



45 

129. Rigged model of first class torpedo boat. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent bv Messrs. Jolm I. Tliorny croft & Co., Ltd., 1909. 

K 2519. 

This represents an improved type of torpedo boat built at Cbiswick in 
1892. Tlie shape of stem, the flattened after-sections, and the steering 
arrangements were novel features^ afterwards adopted in larger vessels of 
the " Daring " class (see No, 130) and similar destroyer types. Steering was 
effected by twin i-udders of the fin- shaped, balanced form, placed outside 
and abreast of the propellers. 

Water-tube boilers of the " Thorny croft " type were installed, with two 
sets of three-stage expansion engines ; together these developed about 
2,000 indicated h.p, and gave a service speed of 23 knots. 

The armament consisted of three 3-pr. Q.F. guns and three 18-in. 
torpedo tubes ; two of these latter were pivoted on the after deck and the 
other formed a fixed bow-tube, an arrangement now obsolete. 

Displacement, 130 tons ; length, 140 ft. ; breadth, 15-5 ft. ; di*aught, 
5-3 ft. 

130. Diagrams showing tbe development of torpedo boat 
destroyers. (Scale 1 : 32.) Contributed by Messrs. John 
I. Thornycroft & Co., 1895. N. 2059. 

These were prepared to illustrate a paper by Messrs. J. I. Thornycroft 
and S. W. Bamaby, read before the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1895. 

Fig. 1 represents the earliest type of vessel specially designed to captm*e 
or destroy torpedo boats. It was introduced in 1885, the intentions being 
that with high speed and some armament such craft would overtake torpedo 
boats and sink them by gun fire. They were 125 ft. in length, of 65 tons 
displacement, 19 to 21 knots speed, and they can-ied two 3-pr, Q.F. guns 
and three Nordenfeldts. Fifty-four of these vessels were constructed, but 
before completion they were changed into torpedo boats. 

Fig. 3 represents a larger type, built in 1886, and known as the " Rattle- 
snake " class. The length was 200 ft. ; displacement, 550 tons ; speed, 
18 '5 knots; and armament, one 4-in. gun, six 3-prs., and four torpedo 
tubes. This was followed by a still larger type forming the " Sharp- 
shooter " class of " torpedo gunboats " (see No. 123) in which the length 
is 230 ft. ; displacement, 735 tons ; and the speed, 19 to 20 knots (with 
locomotive boilers). 

Fig. 4 shows the " Speedy," built in 1892. Its length is 230 ft. ; dis- 
placement, 810 tons ; and speed, 20 • 5 knots, with Thornycroft water-tube 
boilers (see No. 902). The armament is two 4-7-in. Q.F. guns, four 3-prs., 
and thi-ee torpedo tubes. 

Fig. 5 shows a vessel of the " Di-yad " class, commenced in 1893. The 
length is 250 ft. ; displacement, 1,070 tons ; speed, 19 knots. The arma- 
ment is two 4*7-in. Q.F. guns, four 6-pr8., and three torpedo tubes. 
Although these larger dimensions peiinitted heavier annament, with better 
protection and sea-going qualities, there was no con*esponding increase in 
speed, while the speeds of torpedo boats had reached 26 to 27 knots. To 
meet this difficulty a smaller type of destroyer, represented by Fig. 2, and 
known as the " Daring " class, was introduced in the same year. The 
length is 185 ft. ; displacement, 260 tons ; armament, one 12-pr. gun and 
six 6-prs. These vessels, while having less draught of water than many 
torpedo boats, have attained a speed of over 29 knots. 

Fig. 6 shows the general appearance of tbe " Daring " when fully 
equipped and under steam, A wall diagram in an adjoining section shows 
also the curves of weight, buoyancy, &c., for this vessel. 

131. Rigged model of H.M. paddle tug " Dromedary." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Barclay, Cnrle & Co., 1905. 
Plate 111., No. 6. N. 2375. 

The steel, paddle-wheel tug was built in 1894 by Messrs, Barclay, Curie 
& Co., for the Admiralty, and is employed for towing and genei*al harbour 
purposes at Portsmouth. 



46 

The engines are two-stage expansion with oscillating cylinders 31 in. and 
55 '37 in. diam. by 56-5 in. stroke, and indicate 1,266 h.p. at a speed of 12 
knots. Two Scotch boilers supply steam at 75 lb. pressm*e, and the vessel 
carries auxiliary machinery in addition to two fire engines, and distilling 
apparatus. The paddle-wheels can be driven independently of each other, 
and each contains nine floats, 9 ft. by 3 ft. 4 in. 

Displacement, 680 tons ; length, 144 ft. ; breadth over plating, 27 '4 ft. ; 
mean di-aught, 10 • 75 ft. 

132. Whole model of Russian destroyer " Sokol." (Scale 
1 : 32.) Presented by Messrs. Yarrow & Co., 1900. Plate 
in., No. 7. N. 2257. 

This torpedo boat destroyer, built by Messrs. Yarrow & Co. in 1895, 
proved herself on trial to be the fastest steamer afloat and was the first 
vessel that attained a speed of 30 knots. The hull is constructed of nickel 
steel, and, to further minimise the weight, aluminium is used in many of the 
fittings, while aluminium and special bronzes are extensively resorted to for 
portions of the machinery. 

The vessel is propelled by twin screws driven by three- stage expansion 
engines with cylinders 18 in., 26 in., and 39*5 in. diam. by 18 in. stroke, 
which are together capable of developing 4,400 indicated h.p. Steam at 
160 lb. pressure is supplied by eight Yarrow water-tube boilers, each fitted 
with a transverse diaphragm separating it from the stokehold so as to protect 
the stokers from the steam or water that would escape should the boiler be 
pierced by shot. On the preliminary trial the mean speed for the measured 
mile was 30 • 28 knots, and the power exerted 4,039 indicated h.p. 

On the official trial of the " Sokol," partly loaded, the mean speed of six 
runs was 29* 77 knots with 405 revs, per min. of the engines. For the total 
nin of three hours, the speed was 29 • 76 knots and the coal consumed 10 • 35 
tons, with an air pressure in the stokehold of 1 '12 in. ; the steam pressm*e 
was 160 lb., and the mean indicated h.p. 3,800, giving a coal consiimption of 
2 • 03 lb. per i.h.p. per hour. 

The armament consists of one 12-pr. Q.F. gun on the steering tower 
forward, and three 6-pr. Q.F. guns on deck, also two swivel deck torpedo 
tubes for discharging 16-in. toi-pedoes over either beam. 

Displacement, 240 tons ; length, 190 ft. ; breadth, 18 * 5 ft. ; draught, 7 ft. 

133. Half l3lock model of H.M.S. " Powerful." (Scale 1 : 150.) 
Received 1905. N. 2363. 

This first class protected cruiser was built of steel at BaiTow-in-Furness 
in 1895-7 by the Naval Construction and Armaments Co. ; she was repaired 
and refitted in 1902, by their successors Messrs. Yickers, Sons & Maxim. 

The vessel was a new departui-e in Admu-alty practice, embodying many 
of the features of ocean mail steamers ; she was about 100 ft. longer than 
any previous British warship, and was, with her sister ship the " Terrible," 
the first large vessel in H.M. Navy fitted with water-tube boilers. 

Protection is given to the vital parts of the ship by a curved steel deck, 
from 3 in. to 6 in. thick, extendmg over the full length and associated with 
protecting coal spaces to the height of the main deck abreast of the engine 
and boiler rooms. In the more recent " armoured " cruisers, which have now 
practically superseded the " protected" type, such protection is supplemented 
by a deep belt of vertical side armour. 

The " Powerful " is propelled by two sets of inverted three-stage expan- 
sion engines, each with four cylinders ; a high pressure 45 in., an intermediate 
70 in., and two low pressui-e cylinders 76 in. diam., with a common 
stroke of 48 in. Steam at 260 lb. is supplied by 48 Belleville boilers (see 
No. 903) arranged in eight groups in separate watertight compartments. 
Dui'ing the official trials in unfavourable weather, a speed of 21-8 knots 
was realised with 29,000 indicated h.p. 

The model represents the vessel after the addition of four 6-in. guns (in 
casemates) to the armament which now consists of: — Two 9'2-in. B.L.R. 



47 

guns, one forward and the other aft ; 16 6-in. Q.F. ; 14 12-prs. and 
eight 3-prs., with four submerged torpedo tubes. Her complement is 
840 men. 

Displacement, 14,200 tons ; length, over all, 538 ft. ; breadth, 71 ft. ; 
draught, 22 ft. 

134. Rigged mode] of H.M.S. " Diadem." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent "by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
Ltd., 1907. N. 2448. 

This first class protected cruiser, which was built and engined at 
Glasgow in 1896-8, by the Fairfield Co., is representative of a class of eight 
vessels, similar in design to their immediate predecessors the " Powerful " 
and " TeiTible " (see No. 133), but having smaller dimensions ; they have 
also less speed but retain the important features of a high gun platform 
and large coal supply while a reduction in draught of water enables them 
to pass through the Suez Canal. 

The hull of the " Diadem " is of Siemens steel and the cellular system 
of construction is adopted amidships, with a close watertight sub-division of 
all spaces at the extremities. To permit of long periods at sea without dry 
docking, the underwater portion is sheathed with wood and copper, galvanic 
action being minimized by the use of phosphor bronze castings for the 
stem and stem posts, rudder-frame, and propeller brackets. Excessive 
rolling of the ship is prevented by two bilge keels 3 ft. in depth and about 
210 ft. long. 

There is no side armour, but a thick arched deck, protecting the most 
vital portions, extends from end to end in the region of the water-line ; this 
deck has a total thickness of 4 in, amidships tapering to 2*5 in. at the 
extremities. Coal stowage above and below the water-line gives additional 
protection to the machinery spaces. Communication pipes and wires, 
ammunition hoists, &c., are specially protected by armour tubes and towers. 

The main armament consists of 16 6-in. Q.F. guns, twelve of which 
are enclosed in broadside casemates of 4 • 5 in, armour, while the remainder 
are carried in pairs behind armour shields, on the poop and forecastle. 
Two submerged torpedo tubes are fitted foi-ward and one above-water 
tube at the stem. 

The external details of the anchor and cable arrangements, both forward 
and aft, are well illustrated. The capstans, riding-bitts, and other deck 
fittings are shown, the capstan engines being, as usual in H,M. ships, below 
the protective deck. The main cables are 2*375 in. diam. and the bower 
anchors, of improved Martin type, weigh 5 • 5 tons each ; a simple method 
of carrying these latter, in a vertical position, is here shown. 

The vessel is propelled by two sets of three-stage expansion engines each 
having four cylinders with diameters 34 in., 55 in., and 64 in. (two) by 48 in. 
stroke. Steam is supplied by 30 water-tube boilers of the Belleville type 
{see 'No. 903) at a pressure of 300 lb. per sq. in. which is reduced to 250 lb. 
at the engines. It is interesting to note that these were the first Belleville 
boilers in H.M. Navy to be permanently fitted with the " economiser," an 
improvement in the form of a smaller boiler or feed-water heater constructed 
of 2 * 75 -in. tubes which is placed, with an intei-vening combustion chamber, 
over the main boiler of 4-5-in. tubes. This aiTangement results in more 
perfect combustion, lower temperature of the funnel gases, and considerable 
economy in fuel ; it has been generally adopted in all subsequent vessels 
fitted with this type of steam generator. 

During full-power steam trials in 1898 the " Diadem," on a draught 
of 25-3 ft., realised a speed of 20-6 knots with 17,188 indicated h.p. 

Her normal coal supply is 1,000 tons, but provision can be made for 
carrying about 2,000 tons if necessary. 

Displacement, 11,000 tons; length (b.p.) 435 ft.; breadth, 69 ft.; 
draught, 26 ft. 



48 

135. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Good Hope." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by tlie Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
Ltd., 1908. N. 2492. 

This first class armoured cruiser was built and engined at Grlasgow 
in 1900-2 by the Fairfield Co., and is representative of a class of foui* 
vessels of about the same dimensions as H.M.S. " Powerful," but superior 
in offensive and defensive qualities and in speed. The chief improvement 
consists in the addition of a broadside belt of armour 396 ft. long terminating 
at the after end in a 5-in. bulkhead. The after portion outside the ai-moui-ed 
belt has a protective deck 2*5 in. thick, while within the belt there are two 
protective decks of 1 • 5 in. and 1 in. respectively. 

Several structural alterations have been made from the design adopted 
in the " Powerful " which have diminished the displacement of the vessel. 
There is no poop, and the boat deck has been omitted. Wood and copper 
sheathing has been dispensed with and there are no military tops to the 
masts. Although cowls are fitted on the model, these have been replaced 
on the vessel by wind sails for giving air to the fans in the shafts communi- 
cating with the machinery spaces. The three after funnels are oval in 
plan as a larger number of boilers exhaust into each of them than into 
the foi-ward one. 

The main armament consists of two 9'2-in. B.L. guns within barbettes 
of 6-in. armour, and sixteen 6-in. Q.F. guns mounted within two-storey 
casemates of 5-in. armour. Two submerged torpedo tubes are fitted 
forward, one on each side of the vessel ; their positions are indicated on 
the hull of the model. An important addition in the gun fittings is a 
sighting hood fitted upon all the upper casemates, which enables the gunner 
to see all round without exposing himself. 

The external fittings are fully shown. The anchors are stowed 
horizontally and made snug to the ship's side; this is a noticeable 
departure from previous ships (see No. 134). Electricity is in extended 
use for working the ventilating fans, gun-hoists, &c. ; hydraulic power 
is used for the boat-hoisting gear. 

The vessel is propelled by two sets of inverted three-stage expansion 
engines, each having four cylinders with diameters of 43 '5 in., 71 in. and 
(two) 81-5 in. respectively, by 48 in. stroke. Separate condensers, each 
with its own air pump, are provided for the low pressui-e cylinders. Great 
rigidity of the framing is obtained by supporting each cylinder by two cast 
standards at the rear, with the usual steel columns in front, four points 
of support instead of three being thus obtained. Steam is supplied by 
43 Belleville boilers of the economiser type, containing 382 elements 
in all, giving a total heating surface of 71,964 sq. ft., and a grate area 
of 2,314 sq. ft. 

The steering gear is of the right- and left-handed screw type. This 
aiTangement occupies comparatively little space athwartship and so is 
sj)ecially suitable for a fine -ended cruiser. 

During her trials in 1902, the " Good Hope " on a draught of 26*1 ft. 
realised a speed of 23-05 knots, with 31,071 indicated h.p. and a steam 
pressure of 278 lb. per sq. in. at the boilers. 

Displacement, 14,100 tons; length (b.p.), 500 ft.; breadth, 71 ft.; 
depth, 40 ft. ; draiight, 26 ft. 

136. Drawing of torpedo boat destroyer, " Nembo " class. 
(Scale 1 : 32.) Received 1908. N. 2495. 

The " Nembo " class of ten twin-screw torpedo boat destroyers was 
built in Italy in 1901-6, for the Italian Navy, from the designs of Messrs. 
J. I. Thornycroft & Co. ; six of them were constructed at Naples by 
Messrs. C. & T. T. Pattison, and the remainder at Genoa by Messrs. 
Ansaldo, Armstrong & Co. In general characteristics these vessels re- 
semble the " Coquette," " Cygnet," " Cynthia," " Mallard," and " Stag," 
built by Messrs. Thornycroft in 1896-1901 for the British N'avy. Four 



49 

vessels of this type were also built at Chiswick in 1901 for the Japanese 
Navy, and these took part in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. A similar 
vessel was built for the German Navy in 1898, and one of larger dimensions 
for the Swedish Navy in 1905. 

The drawing shows (i) a complete sectional longitudinal elevation, 
(ii) an above-deck half-plan and a sectional under-deck half-plan. From 
these the main framing, watertight sub- divisions and principal structural 
features of the hull can be seen, together with the general aiTangement of 
armament, main and auxiliary machinery, boilers, coal-bunkers, magazines, 
store-rooms, cable-lockers, anchor and capstan gear, and the men's quarters. 

There are two sets of three-stage expansion, four-cylinder engines, each 
having a high, intermediate, and two low pressure cylinders 22 in., 29 in., 
and 30 in. diam. respectively, by 18 in. stroke. The axes of the cylinders 
are inclined alternately to the right and to the left of the vertical, so as to 
save longitudinal space. Steam is supplied at 220 lb. per sq. in. by three 
Thomycroft water-tube boilers each in a separate compartment, protected 
at the sides and forward ends by coal-bunkers, which have a total capacity 
of 80 tons ; with about 6,000 indicated h.p. a speed of 30 knots was 
^attained on trial by these boats. Engines of this type are further illus- 
trated in the Marine ^Engineering Gallery by wall diagrams of H.M.S. 
■" Daring" (see No. 861), and the boilers by a sectional model (see No. 908). 

The armament of the " Nembo " class consists of two 18-in. torpedo 
tubes carried aft, five 6-pr. Q.F. guns, and one 12-pr. Q.F. gun, the 
latter mounted upon the conning tower forward. There is a complement 
of 53 men. 

Length, 210 ft. ; breadth, 19 "5 ft. ; draught (maximum), 7 ' 75 ft. ; 
displacement, 330 to 350 tons. 



137. Diagrams of typical modern warships. (Scale 1 : 60.) 
Lent by the Right Hon. Earl Brassey, K.CB., 1905. 

N. 2365. 

The six diagrams shown above represent types of modern war-vessels 
selected from the British, French, German and Italian Navies. They were 
prepared to illustrate a paper read by Lord Brassey in March, 1905, before 
the Institution of Civil Engineers in which he suggested the construction 
of a number of powerful vessels, of relatively small displacement and 
draught, for service in shallow waters. The " Vittorio Emanuele " was 
taken as an existing vessel embodying some of the features of the type 
proposed. 

The following are the principal particulars of the vessels shown : — 





Dis- 














Name. 


place- 
ment 
(Tons). 


Length 
(Feet). 


Breadth 
(Feet). 


Draught 
(Feet). 


Armour 
(Inches). 


Armament. 


Speed 
(Knots) 


"Vittorio Eman- 


12,425 


435-5 


73-5 


27-25 


10 to 4 


2 12-in. 


22 


uele" (Italy). 












12 8-in. 




"Braunschweig" 


12,997 


398-5 


73-5 


24-5 


10 to 4 


4 11-in. 


18 


(Germany) 1904. 












14 6-7-in. 




' Republique " - 


14,635 


439 


79-5 


27-5 


11 to 6 


4 12-in. 


18 


(France). 












18 6-4-in. 




•'King Edward 


16,350 


425 


78 


26-75 


12 to 6 


4 12-in. 


19 


VII." (Great 












4 9-2-in. 




Britain) 1905. 












10 6-in. 




'Lord Nelson" 


16,500 


410 


79-5 


27 


12 to 8 


4 12-in. 


18 


(Great Britain). 












10 9-2-in. 




''Duke of Edin. 


13,550 


480 


73-5 


27 


6 to 3 


6 9-2-in. 


22-3 


burgh " (Great 












10 6-in. 




Britain). 

















u 6773 



50 

138. Rigged model of H.M.S. "Lord Nelson." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Co., Ltd., 1910. 
Plate ill., No. 8. N. 2559, 

This twin-screw first class battleship was built and engined by the Palmer 
Co. at JaiTOW-on-Tyne in 1904-8 from the designs of Sir P. "Watts. 

In dimensions and general structui-al ai-rangements this vessel differs but 
slightly from typical warships of the previous ten years ; in armour and 
armament, however, a notable advance is made. 

A main battery of four 12-in. guns in barbettes is retained, but in place 
of a secondary batteiy consisting chiefly of 6-in. guns, there is a battery of 
ten 9-2-in. guns enclosed in a central citadel. This powerful concentration 
of gun power is peculiar to the " Lord Nelson " and the " Agamemnon " in 
the British Navy and immediately preceded the general adoption of the 
" Dreadnought " design with a single battery of ten 12-in. guns. For 
repelling torpedo craft a number of light guns, chiefly 12-pr, and 3-pr.^ 
are mounted upon a central superstructure which is likewise used for a 
navigating and searchlight platform and a boat deck. Five submerged tubes 
for the discharge of 18-in. torpedoes are fitted ; four of these are on the 
broadside and one at the stern. 

The heavy guns are protected at their bases by a lower tier of 12 to 
14-in. Krupp armour and an upper tier of Sin. extending from the main 
to the upper deck ; beyond the citadel the side armour tapers to 6 in. at the 
bow and to 4 in. at the stern. Special protection against explosive mines 
or torpedoes is provided by a thick fore-and-aft bulkhead of nickel steel 
extending along each side of the machinery spaces and between the inner 
bottom plating and the protective deck. A complete set of torpedo defence 
nets are also fitted to the actual vessel. 

The propelling machineiy consists of two complete sets of three- stage 
expansion engines; these are in separate compartments having no com- 
municating doorways. In each set there are four steam-jacketed cylinders, 
a high pressure of 32* 75 in., an intermediate pressure of 52* 75 in. and twa 
low pressure of 60 in. diam., with a common stroke of 48 in. ; double ported 
valves with relief frames are fitted to the low-pressure cylinders and piston 
valves to the others. Forced lubrication is used throughout. The pro- 
pellers are of manganese bronze of 15 ft. diam., and 19 ft. pitch. Steam 
at 275 lb. maximum pressure, is generated in 15 water-tube boilers of the 
Babcock & Wilcox type ; they have a total grate area of 848 sq. ft. and 
a heating surface of 50,265 sq. ft. During full-power trials in 1908 a speed 
of 18 '9 knots was realised with 17,445 i.h.p. There is bunker capacity 
for 900 to 2,200 tons of coal and 400 tons of oil fuel. Bapid manoeuvring 
is a special feature of this design. 

Hinged davits are shown attached to the superstructure and also 
derricks to each of the two masts ; these are used for lifting the boats 
and other heavy loads. The larger derrick to the tripod main mast is 
worked by hydraulic power. The observation and gun fire control positions 
are shown upon the masts as well as the light spars and rigging used in 
connection with wireless telegraphy. 

Displacement, 16,500 tons ; length (water-line), 435 ft. ; breadth,. 
79 ' 5 ft. ; draught, mean, 27 ft. ; complement, 747 men. 

On adjacent wall diagrams (see No. 137) the " Lord Nelson " is com- 
pared with previous or contemporary warship types in British and foreign 
navies. 

139. Rigged model of H.M. destroyer " Viking." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Co., Ltd., 1910. 

N. 2560. 

This represents one of the larger examples of the " Tribal " class of 
ocean- going torpedo boat destroyers ; she was built and engined by the 
Palmer Co. at Jarrow-on-Tyne in 1908-10. A special steel of high tensile 
strength is uped in the construction of the hull. 



51 

For propulsion a three- shaft arrangement of Parsons steam turbine is 
installed and is estimated at 15,500 shaft h.p. Steam is supplied by six 
modified Yan'ow water-tube boilers burning oil fuel, and a separate funnel 
is fitted to each boiler. On trials, in April 1910, a speed of 33 • 7 knots was 
attained. There is bunker capacity for about 100 tons of fuel and a 
steaming radius of 1,500 miles is possdble at low speeds. 

The armament consists of two 18-in. deck torpedo tubes and two 4-in. 
(25 lb.) B.L. guns ; one of these latter is carried aft, and the other forward 
upon a raised platform in front of the navigating and searchlight positions. 

There are two lightly rigged masts fitted for the reception of wireless 
telegraphic apparatus. 

Displacement, 1,050 tons ; length between perpendiculars, 280 ft. ; 
breadth, 27 '3 ft. ; draught, mean, 9 ft. ; complement, 71 men. 

Similar in genei'al design and armament but differing slightly in dimen- 
sions, equipment, and speed are the following ; — " Crusader," " Maori," 
" Nubian," and *' Zulu." 



140. Drawings and pliotographs of Garrett's submarine boat 
" Resurgam." Contributed by Messrs. Cocliran and Co., 
1882. N. 1586. 

In 1878, Mr. G. W. GraiTett experimented in the Liverpool Docks with 
a small boat of this type, which was driven by manual power. From the 
experience thus obtained the vessel represented was constructed in 1879 
by Messrs. Cochran and Co., but it was lost at sea soon aftei*wards, before 
it had been fully tried. 

Its extreme length was 40 ft., and the maximum diameter 9ft., but this 
included a wooden sheathing jacket 2 ft. thick round the middle length. 
The boat was built of steel, and could be completely closed. It had a 
single propeller, and a pair of horizontal rudders amidships, as well as an 
ordinary rudder aft, and was controlled by three men. 

The engine was of the return connecting-rod, surface condensing type, 
and received steam from an internally fired cylindrical boiler, loaded to 
150 lb. pressure. When moving submerged the furnace, &c. were closed, 
the heat in the boiler water supplying the steam required ; in this way a 
submerged steaming radius of 12 miles was believed to be obtainable. 
An air purifying device was fitted for the support of the crew while thus 
confined. 

141. Whole model of submarine torpedo boat. (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Lent by Messrs. Vickers, Sons and Maxim, 1903. 

N. 2336. 

This represents, generally, the first submarine war-vessel introduced 
into H.M. Navy and built by Messrs. Yickers, Sons and Maxim in 1901. It is 
of the type invented by Mr. J. P. Holland, of the United States, who 
constructed his first experimental boat in 1877, and finally patented the 
essential details of the design in 1895. Compared with other submarines its 
most distinctive feature is its method of submergence as, instead of sinking 
horizontally with a level keel, it dives at a small angle like a porpoise until 
the required depth is reached, when it is again caused to take a horizontal 
position and course. 

The plating and fi*aming of the boat are of steel, and of sufiicient strength 
to withstand the water pressure at a depth of 100 ft. ; watertight decks and 
bulkheads stiffen the stinicture as a whole, and reduce the ^nger from a 
collision, while the external portions of the hull are so formed as to minimise 
the risk of ropes or nets becoming entangled. A superstructure deck or 
platform is provided for use when the boat is running on the surface, and 
there is an armoui-ed conning tower amidships, 32 in. diam. and 4 in. thick, 
for the use and protection of the navigator. Water ballast tanks throughout 

D 2 



52 

the length provide means for altering the draught, also for preserving 
longitudinal trim, and keeping the displacement constant in different 
waters ; they are also utilised in the automatic arrangements for compen- 
sating for the discharged weights, including fuel and torpedoes. 

Two vertical and two horizontal rudders control the steering and diving 
respectively, and these may be operated by hand or engine power. Com- 
pressed air is used for mechanical purposes, and for ventilating the interior 
when entirely submerged, while reducing and safety valves limit the pressure 
to about one atmosphere. 

From the outer deck rises a periscope, consisting of a tube, about 10 ft. 
high, fitted at its ends with an arrangement of lenses and reflectors, which 
enables a view of surrounding objects to be obtained by the navigator when 
the boat is submerged ; the tube also assists the ventilation under certain 
conditions of submergence. The interior of the vessel is lighted by glazed 
openings in the hull, and by portable incandescent electric lamps. 

The boat is propelled by a single screw, which, when running at the 
surface, is driven by a gasolene engine of 160 h.p. and gives a speed of 
9 knots, while the fuel supply permits of a total run of 400 nautical miles. 
When submerged, an electric motor is substituted which gives a speed of 
7 knots, while the storage battery supplying it has sufficient capacity to 
a run of four hoiu's ; the main engine may, however, be utilised for 
re-charging the accumulators. 

At the forward end of the boat is a torpedo expulsion tube, and there is 
storage capacity for five toi'pedoes each 11 • 6 ft. long. An adjacent diagram 
shows the genei-al aiTangement of the framing, machinery, and torpedo 
stowage. 

Displacement, submerged, 120 tons ; length, over all, 63 '3 ft. ; breadth, 
extreme, 11 • 75 ft. Later submarines built for H.M. Navy are 135 ft. long, 
and have a surface speed of 14 knots. 



MERCANTILE VESSELS. 

The early merchant ships of the present era down to about 
the 16th century, did not differ materially from the warships, 
altiiough at the earlier periods when Greece and Rome were 
most prosperous, the fighting and the conmaercial fleets were, 
as at present, quite distinct. 

Shipbuilding was for ages entirely empirical, and till the 
middle of the 19th century advanced but very slowly in both 
design and construction, excepting, however, during a portion 
of the 17th century. The material used for all parts was wood ; 
knees, breast-hooks, and pillars, of iron were not introduced till 
about 1810, tree-nails being used for the planking, and copper 
fastenings for special parts. 

The use of iron for the skin of a vessel was tried by John 
Wilkinson, the ironmaster, as early as 1787, but the P.S. 
"Aaron Manby," built at the Horseley Ironworks, Tipton, 
in 1821, was the first steamer built entirely of iron. The 
practical introduction of iron shipbuilding dates, however, from 
1829, when John Laird of Birkenhead commenced its con- 
struction ; in 1832, iron vessels were built on the Thames, 



53 

Clyde, and Tyiie. A steamer " Sirius" of 1837 and of 180 tons 
was the first iron vessel classed by Lloyd's, but tlie innovation 
was generally opposed by shipowners, builders, and naval 
authorities, and it was not till the building in this material 
of the S.S. " Great Britain " (1843) by the younger Brunei, and 
subsequently her survival of nearly a year's exposure while 
stranded in Dundrum Bay in 1846, that iron came into general 
favour. The substitution of iron for wood caused a saving in 
weight of about 35 per cent., while since about 1870 the 
introduction of mild steel has reduced the metal scantlings 
15 per cent., so leaving a steel hull only about one-half the 
weight of a wooden one. 

Owing to the fouling of iron vessels on long voyages and 
the consequent reduction of speed, many attempts were made 
at directly sheathing an iron ship with copper, &c., but through 
the resulting galvanic action these were abandoned, and a 
'* composite " system of construction with wood planking on 
iron frames was adopted: the "Tubal Cain" of 787 tons, 
built in 1851, is the first ship of this class in Lloyd's Register, 
but the famous China tea clippers were the most celebrated 
examples of this system of building. The method, however, 
proved to be expensive, and is now only used for special 
purposes. 

An account of the development of marine steam propulsion 
is given on pages 241-4. The growth of the transatlantic 
service forms a general record of the continuous development of 
the mercantile steam marine and it is very clearly indicated in 
a scale diagram of the ships of one of the largest companies 
{see No. 305). The pioneer Atlantic liner was the P.S. " Great 
Western " (1837) of 1,320 tons, which took about 14 '5 days in 
her runs between Bristol and New York {see No. 182). In 1909 
the S.S. "Mauretania" of 31,940 tons {see No. 607) steamed 
from Queenstown to New York in 4 ' 45 days. 

The advantage of large capacity for long voyages has 
resulted in the building of steel sailing vessels of upwards of 
4,000 tons register, the requisite sail area being obtained by 
the use of foiir to seven masts. Some modern sailers have been 
fitted with small auxiliary steam power, by which they can be 
economically driven through a district of calm at a speed of 
about six knots. 

The classification and registration of vessels dates back to 
the time of the Phoenicians, the earliest merchants ; the present 
insurance register has, however, developed from the "ships 
lists " prepared by the proprietor of Lloyd's Coffee House, about 
the year 1700. In 1834 a great expansion was effected, and 
Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping was esta- 
blished in its present form, and on an international basis. The 
classification, necessary for a register suited for insurance 
purposes, has resulted in careful surveys and investigations 
that have greatly advanced the whole science of naval con- 
struction as well as the shipping industry. 



54 



SAILING MERCHANT YESSELS. 

142. Built half model of brig " Liberty and Property." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by James Young, Esq., 1883. N. 1590. 

This sailing vessel was built of wood at Whitby in 1754. She was 
employed in the Shields and London coasting trade ; but her poHs and some 
other details suggest that she was intended for use as a war-vessel if 
required. 

Tonnage, 274 tons ; length, 120 ft. ; breadth. 28 ft. ; depth at 
side, 20 ft. 

143. Rigged model of brig *' Brotherly Love." (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Lent by James Young, Esq., 1876. N. 1421. 

This merchant sailing vessel was built of wood at Ipswich in 1 764 and in 
1876 was said to be still employed as a coasting collier. Many of these small 
brigs were engaged in this coasting trade, until the general introduction of 
steam colliers rendered them almost obsolete. 

Gross register, 214 tons; length. 86 '5 ft.; breadth, 24 ft.; depth at 
side, 27 ft. 

A photograph is also shown. 

144. Rigged model of brig "Antelope." (Scale 1:96.) 
Lent by James Young, Esq., 1876. N. 1420. 

This vessel, built of wood at Sunderland in 1766, is shown with topsail, 
courses, foretopmast, staysail, and jib set. 

Tonnage, 195 tons ; length, 80 ft. ; breadth, 24 ft. ; depth at side, 20 ft. 

145. Oil painting of S. " Swallow." Lent by tlie Peninsular 
and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 1903. N. 2342. 

This shipbuilders' picture, painted in 1788 by T. Luny, represents a ship 
of 18 guns and about 700 tons burden, belonging to the Hon. East India 
Company. About that time their ships were well armed and more strongly 
built than ordinaiy merchantmen and the crews regularly drilled for naval 
warfare. 

The vessel is shown in three different positions : — Bow Yiew — " Hove 
to " for picking up a pilot ; Broadside Yiew — Under plain sail ; Stem 
View — Before the wind and under all possible sail. 

146. Litliograpli of S. " The Earl Balcarres." Received 1908. 

N. 2505. 

This lithograph, by T. G. Button, represents one of the latest and 
largest of the vessels belonging to the Hon. East India Company and known 
as " East Indiamen." These vessels were superior in general construction 
and equipment to ordinary trading vessels while their crews were much in 
excess of trading requirements and were trained similarly to those of the 
Royal Navy. They performed the duties of both man-of-war and merchant- 
man and often took a successful part in naval engagements. " The Earl 
Balcarres " was built at Bombay in 1815 and was sold out of the Sei*vice in 
1834 when the Company ceased their trading operations. She cai-ried 130 
men, 26 18-pr. guns and was of 1,417 tons burden. The vessel is here 
shown sailing " free " — under plain sail and weather studding-sails. 
Although can-ying but one tier of guns she is painted to represent a two- 
decked man-of-war. 

147. Rigged model of S. " Merlin." (Scale 1 : 96.) Presented 
by H. Davis, Esq., 1901. N. 2263. 

This is a built model of a wooden ship constructed at St. John, New 
Brunswick, in 1851 and a sister ship to the " Eagle " — a well known clipper 



sliip of the period. They were both originally intended for sailing between 
Liverpool and IvTew Orleans, but after^vards made voyages between England, 
Australia and the East and West Indies. Such vessels have now almost 
-disappeared, being replaced by the " tramp " steamer which, not confining 
itself to any route, goes wherever cargo is to be conveyed or procui'ed. 

Gross register, 1,030 tons ; length, K6 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, 24 ft. 

148. Rigged model of Bengal pilot brig. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Received 1908. Plate IV., No. 1. N. 2454. 

This represents some six similar brigs built of iron in this country from 
the designs of Mr. J. Thompson between 1850 and 1870 for the pilot service 
at the mouth of the river Hooghly, Bengal. This day and night service is 
earned on by three brigs : one brig cruises at or near the Western Channel 
-of the Hooghly to supply pilots to ships inward-bound to Calcutta ; another 
is stationed near the Eastern Channel to receive the pilots leaving outward- 
bound ships, while the third brig conveys pilots between the Eastern and 
the Western Channels, a distance of about 50 miles. 

These vessels are fast, easily-manceuvred craft with excellent sea-going 
qualities. A large windlass, shown forward, is provided for use with coir 
hawsers. 

Gross register, 250 tons ; length (b.p.), 105 ft. ; breadth, 25 ft. 

Steam vessels are now being introduced for this work. 

149. Rigged model of a barque (1850). (Scale 1 : 48.) Re- 
ceived 1908. Plate IV., No. 2. N. 2463. 

This model was originally the property of the late W. H. Overend, 
marine artist (1851-1898), and represents a wood- built, barque-rigged sailing 
vessel of about the middle of the 19th century. The model was re-rigged 
in the Museum in 1909. 

The barque rig differs from the ship rig in having the sails on the mizen 
mast fitted in a fore-and-aft direction, instead of being cai*ried transversely 
on yards. It was much in vogue in merchant craft of the 14th and 15th 
centui'ies, but aftei'wards fell into disuse, mitil it was revived about 50 years 
ago. As fewer hands are required to manage the sails, this form of rig 
reduces to some extent the working expenses of a vessel, and it is now 
largely adopted both by steamers and sailing vessels. It may be noted that 
•on recent vessels there has been a tendency to use relatively shorter masts 
and longer yards to obtain the necessary sail area. 

Gross register, 900 tons : length, 170 ft. ; breadth, 32-5 ft. 

150. Half block model of S. " Fiery Cross." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by J. Campbell, Esq., 1869. N. 1305. 

This wooden-built clipper ship was constructed by Messrs. Rennie and 
Rankine at Liverpool in 1855 for the Liverpool and China trade. She 
was built partly of fir, and was sheathed with yellow metal below the 
water-line. 

Tonnage, b.o.m.. 810; register, 686; length, 173 ft. ; breadth, 31-5 ft.: 
depth, 18-75 ft, 

151. Whole model of S. " Fierv Cross." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by J. Campbell, Esq., 1869. N. 1304. 

This clipper sailing ship was designed by Mr. Rennie, and built of wood 
at Liverpool in 1860 by Messrs. Chaloner, Hart, & Co., for the China 
tea trade. She was sheathed with yellow metal and copper fastened. 

Displacement at load water-line, 1,615 tons ; displacement per inch of 
immersion at water-line, 10 • 46 tons ; register, 702 tons ; length between 
perps., 185 ft.; length on load line, 181 ft.; breadth, 31-25 ft.; depth of 
hold, 19 • 5 ft. ; area of midship section to load water-line, 424 sq. ft. ; area 
of load water-line, 4,395 sq. ft. 



56 

152. lithograph of S. '' Malabar." Received 1905. N. 2404. 

This full-rigged clipper ship, here represented under all plain sail, 
close hauled on the port tack, was built of wood at Sunderland, in 1860, 
by Mr. Wm. Pile, for Mr. Richard Green, for the East Indian trade. 
She was copper fastened, and her bo!)tom was sheathed with felt and 
yellow metal. 

Tonnage, 1,350 tons; length, 207-2 ft.; breadth, 36-6 ft.; depth, 
22-5 ft. 

153. Half block model of centre-board schooner. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Presented by the Kew Museum of Economic 
Botany, 1876. N. 1406, 

This vessel was built about 1860 at Yictoria, British Columbia, for the 
coasting trade. 

Displacement, 40 tons ; length between perps., 51 ft. ; breadth, 15 ft. ; 
depth, 5 ft. ; draught, 3 • 5 ft. 

154. Half block model of S. "Victory." (Scale 1:48.) 
Presented by Messrs. Laurence Hill & Co., 1865. 

N. 1085, 

This wooden sailing ship was built at Port Glasgow in 1863 by Messrs. 
Hill & Co. for the Austi-alian trade ; on her first voyage she ran from the 
Clyde to New Zealand in seventy-two days. 

Gross register, 1,199 tons ; length, 205 ft. ; breadth, 36 ft. ; depth, 
22-9 ft. 

155. Lithograph of clipper race (1866). Received 1905. 

N. 2405. 

During the years 1855-70, considerable rivalry existed between ship- 
owners engaged in the China tea trade ; rewards were offered for the first 
vessels an-iving in London with the early teas, and as a result great 
improvements were made in the building, equipping, and sailing of the 
ships employed. Their route lay via the Cape of Good Hope, but since 
the opening of the Suez Canal, in 1869, they have been gradually displaced 
by steamships using the shorter route. The composite system of con- 
struction, illustrated by drawings and models in an adjacent gallery, was. 
largely adopted in this class of vessel. 

This lithograph shows the last phase of a i-ace that excited unusual 
interest in shipping circles in 1866. Three vessels, "Ariel" (composite), 
" Taeping " (composite), " Serica " (wood), all built by Messrs. Steele and 
Son, at Greenock, and each accredited with fast homeward passages, had 
started from Foo-chow-foo (China) practically together, and after losing 
sight of each other during the whole voyage reached the English Channel 
on the same day, each making a record passage of 99 days. This record 
was reduced to 90 days by subsequent vessels. The leading clippers, 
" Ariel " and " Taeping," are shown carrying stay-sails, sky-sails, studding- 
sails and mizen course. The " Fiery Cross " {see No. 151) also took part 
in this race and completed the passage in 101 days. 

" Taeping " (1863) ; tonnage (b.m.), 767 tons ; length, 183 • 7 ft. ; breadth, 
31- 1ft.; depth, 19 6 ft. 

"Ariel" (1865); tonnage (b.m.), 853 tons; length, 197-4 ft.: bi-eadth, 
33 •9 ft.; depth, 19-6 ft. 

156. Whole model of S. "Arundel Castle." (Scale 1:48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Donald Cnrrie & Co., 1878. N. 1509. 

This iron sailing ship was built at Greenock in 1864 for the London and 
Cape trade. She was ship-rigged, had two decks, and a poop deck 30 ft. 
long. 

Kegister, 1,042 tons; length, 203 ft. ; breadth, 33-5 ft.; depth, 21-9 ft. 



57 

157. Half block model of schooner " James Duckett." (Scale 
1 : 36.) Lent bv Messrs. Thomas Grendon & Co., 1888. 

N. 1803. 

This three-masted schooner was built of iron at Drogheda in 1865. 
Register tonnage, 232 tons; length,^20-3 ft. ; breadth, 23 ft. ; depth at 
side, 12-75 ft. 

158. Rigged model of S. ''Stonehouse." (Scale 1:48.) 
Received 1877. Plate IV., No. 3. N. 1480. 

This wooden-built clipper sailing vessel was designed in 1863-4 by 
Mr. Gilbei-t Row and built at Pallion in 1866 by Mr. John Smurthwaite^ 
for the Australian trade. She had a topgallant forecastle 43 ft. long, and a 
full poop 66 ft. long, where there was cabin accommodation for about 40 
first-class passengers ; she had also large cargo carrying capacity. The- 
vessel had double topsails and was sheathed with yellow metal and copper 
fastened ; in service she proved herself to be one of the fastest ships of her day.. 
In 1875 she was transferred to French owners and re-named " Fanny." 

The model was made by Mr. Row in 1871 ; the starboard side shows the 
horizontal section lines, and the port side the vertical longitudinal ones. 
The masting, rigging, and sails were added in the Museum in 1906. A 
complete sheer draught or line drawing of this vessel is shown on an 
adjacent wall. 

Gross register tonnage, 1,153; length, 209 ft.; breadth, 36*2 ft. ^ 
depth, 21-9 ft. 

159. Rigged model of S. " Carmarthenshire." (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Received 1909. N. 2533. 

This represents a ship-rigged vessel built at Pembroke Dock in 1865 ; 
she was of wood construction with iron beams. 

Double topsail yards and studding sail booms are shown on the model. 

The principal dimensions of the vessel were : — Net register tonnage, 812 ; 
length,«174 • 6 ft. ; breadth, 32 • 7 ft. ; depth, 20 • 5 ft. She was omitted from 
Lloyd's Registers after 1884. 

160. Whole model of S. " Durham." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. Oswald & Co., 1867. N. 1160. 

This sailing ship was built of iron at Sunderland in 1866. 
Displacement at load line, 1,378 tons ; register, 998 tons ; lengthy 
209-5 ft. ; breadth, 34*75 ft.; depth, moulded, 21-3 ft. 

161. Lithograph of S. " Lahloo " (1867). Received 1910. 

N. 2539. 

This lithograph by T. Gr. Dutton represents one of the fastest of the famous 
China tea clippers ; she is shown outward bound and preparing to land her 
pilot. Her quickest passage from Foo-chow-foo to London was 97 days in 
October-January 1870-1. She was wrecked in 1872. 

The vessel was of composite construction {see sectional models and 
drawings) and was built by Messrs. Steele and Sons, Greenock, in 1867. 

Her principal dimensions were : — Register, 799 tons ; length, 191 • 6 ft. ; 
breadth, 32-9 ft. ; depth, 19*9 ft. 

162. Rigged model of clipper schooner " John Wesley." (Scale 
1 : 32.) Received 1908. Plate IV., No. 4. N. 2502. 

This schooner-rigged clipper, of composite construction, was built at 
Aberdeen in 1867 by Messrs. Hall and Sons, for the London and Australian 
trade. In 1873 she was brig-rigged and passed into the employ of the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society, with whom she remained until 1881, when 
she again became a trading vessel. The model was rigged in the Museum 



5S 

in 1910 from particulai*s supplied by Messrs. Hall, Alexander & Co., and 
shows the vessel as originally fitted out. 

Like all composite- built vessels (see Nos. 643 and 64i6} her principal 
internal framing was of ii'on ; her outside planking was pai-tly of American 
elm and partly teak ; it was also copper-fastened and sheathed with yellow 
metal below the water-line. There were two decks, with a raised quarter- 
deck 35 ft. long, which were mainly planked with yellow pine. 

Her principal dimensions are : — Register tonnage, 238 ; length, 118 ft. ; 
breadth, 23 9 ft. ; depth, 13 5 ft. 

163. Half block model of clipper ship. (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by J. Campbell, Esq., 1869. N. 1306. 

This represents a British sailing clippei* of the following dimensions : — 
Length, 170 ft. ; breadth, 28 ft. ; depth, 21 ft. 

164. Rigged model of American schooner " E. W. Morrison." 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Presented by Phillips Melville, Esq., 1909. 

N. 2522. 

This represents a wood-built three-masted fore-and-aft schooner which 
^as employed, about 1870, in the transport trade on the North American 
lakes. She belonged to the port of Chicago and had the following approxi- 
mate dimensions : Length, between pei*ps., 85 ft. ; breadth, 22 ft. ; register 
tonnage, 150. 

Yessels of the " schooner " rig carry all their sails in a fore-and-aft 
direction or if of the "topsail schooner" class carry, in addition, yards and 
upper sails on the foremast. (See Yachts and No. 162). Fore-and-aft 
schooners have been largely developed in the coasting and lake trades of 
North America since about 1860 ; they are well adapted for use in smooth 
Avaters with off-shore winds and require a comparatively small crew to 
manage them. Their usual chai-acteristics are, high bow, full beam, wide 
quarters and tall lower masts. They are principally engaged in coal, lumber, 
ice and fish transport, and sometimes make oversea voyages. Recent 
examples of this type of sea-going American sailing vessel show a remarkable 
increase in size ; they are over 300 ft. in length, 3,000 to 5,000 register tons 
and carry six to seven masts. 

165. Half block model of schooner " Saint." (Scale 1 : 36.) 
Lent by Messrs. Thomas Grendon & Co., 1888. N. 1802. 

This three-masted schooner was built of wood at Drogheda in 1870. 
Gross register, 118-12 tons; caiTying capacity, 204 tons ; length (b.p.), 
87-16 ft. ; breadth, 21 25 ft. ; depth at side, 10-6 ft. 

166. Whole model of S. " Cvgnet." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by 
A. T. Rowe, Esq., 1870. ^ N. 1326. 

This represents a wooden sailing ship on launching ways. The star- 
board side shows the framing and disposition of the timbers, the port side the 
planking. Her poop was 40 ft., and forecastle 28 ft. in length; in addition 
she was provided with a deck-house, 24 ft. long by 12 ft. broad. 

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 446 tons; length, 144 ft.; breadth. 26 ft.; depth, 
12 ft. 

167. Half block model of Ss. "Lammermoor" and " Cedric 
the Saxon." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. John Reid 
& Co., 1881. ^ N. 1558. 

These full-rigged sailing ships were built of iron at Glasgow in 1874r-5. 
Register, 1,704 tons; length, 249-5 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, 23-6 ft. 



59 

168. Half model of S. " Japanese." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by 
T. Royden, Esq., 1866. N. 1427. 

This represents a wooden sailing vessel, for both passenger and cargo 
service. The poop is 48 ft. long and the forecastle 38 • 3 ft. 

Gross register, 905 tons : length, extreme, 193 ft. ; breadth, 29 ft. ; 
depth, 20 ft. 

169. Half block model of S. " County of Selkirk." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co., 1881. 

N. 1555. 

This four-masted sailing ship was built of iron at Glasgow in 1878 for 
the " Counties " East Indian line. 

Register, 1,942 tons ; length, 281 ft. ; breadth, 40 • 5 ft. ; depth, 24 ft. 

170. Rigged model of S. "Sudbourn." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. Richardson, Duck & Co., 1896. N. 2100. 

This full-rigged sailing ship was built of iron at Stockton-on-Tees in 
1881, She has two steel decks ; her poop is 42 ft. and forecastle 33 ft. long. 
Her bar keel is 9 • 5 in. deep, and she has one collision bulkhead. 

Gross register, 1,750 tons ; net register, 1,700 tons ; length, 265 ft. ; 
breadth, 39 ft. ; depth, 24 • 25 ft. 

171. Half block model of S. " Palgrave." (Scale 1 : 64.) Lent 
by Messrs. Wm. Hamilton & Co., 1884. N. 1671. 

This four-masted sailing ship was built of iron at Glasgow in 1884. 
When launched she was the largest sailing ship afloat. Her masts and 
lower yards are of steel, and she is fitted with a donkey boiler to supply 
steam to the engines of the ci-anes, winches, pumps, &c. 

Register, 3,111 tons j length, 309 5 ft. ; breadth, 48 ft. ; depth of 
hold, 25 -6 ft. 

172. Half block model of S. " Falls of Earn." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Russell & Co., 1888. N. 1819. 

This four-masted sailing ship was built of iron at Greenock in 1884. 
She had three tiers of beams, two decks, and one bulkhead. She was fitted 
with steam appliances for the general heavy work of the vessel. 

Gross register, 2,386 tons; length, 300 ft.; breadth, 42 ft.; depth, 
24-5 ft. 

173. Half block model of barque " Maiden City." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Charles J. Bigger, Esq., 1888. N. 1812. 

This barque was built of steel at LondondeiTj in 1887. 
Gross register, 1,242 tons ; dead weight capacity, 1,950 tons ; length, 
223-25 ft. ; breadth, 35 ft. ; depth, 20 6 ft. 

174. Half block model of barque " Cupica." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Charles J. Bigger, Esq., 1888. N. 1813. 

This barque was built of steel at Londondeny in 1888, and has two decks 
and one bulkhead. 

Gross register, 1,210 tons ; dead-weight capacity, 1,650 tons ; length, 
226 ft. ; breadth, 36-4 ft. ; depth, 21-9 ft. 

175. Photogravure of barque " France." Presented by Messrs. 
D. and W. Henderson & Co., 1891. N. 1855. 

This five-masted, barque -rigged sailing vessel was built of steel at 
Glasgow in 1890 by Messrs. Henderson & Co. for the French mercantile 



60 

Gross register, 3,784 tons ; dead weight of cargo, 6,150 tons ; length, 
361 ft.; breadth, 48 '8 ft.: depth, 25-9 ft.; water ballast capacity, 
2,200 tons. 

176. Rigged model of barque " Pass of Melfort." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
1896. Plate IV., No. 5. N. 2097. 

This four-masted barque-rigged sailing vessel was built of steel at 
Glasgow in 1891. She has one deck of steel, sheathed with wood; her 
poop is 50 ft. long, forecastle 42 ft., and her bar keel is 10-5 in. deep. The 
lower and topmasts are in one, and she has double topsail and topgallant 
yards. Steam power is used for the heavy work of the ship. 

Gross register, 2,346 tons ; net, 2,195 tons ; dead weight cargo, 3,850 
tons ; length, 298-7 ft. ; breadth, 44 ft. ; dei)th, 24-5 ft. 



STEAM PROPELLED MERCHANT VESSELS. 

177. Water-colour drawing of P.S. " James Watt." Received 
1905. N. 2398. 

This three-masted schooner-rigged paddle-wheel steamer was built of 
wood, at Glasgow, in 1822, by Messrs. J. and C. Wood, to ply between Leith 
and London ; she was the largest steamship that at that time had been built, 
and the first steamer entered at Lloyd's. 

She was fitted with two engines of 50 h.p. each, by Messrs. James Watt 
& Co. The paddle-wheels were 18 ft. diam., with 16 floats 9 ft. long by 
2 ft. broad. 

At 10 • 5 ft. draught of water her speed was 8 • 7 knots. 

Tonnage, 448 tons; length, 141-75 ft.; breadth, 25*5 ft.; depth, 
16-5 ft. 

178. Rigged model of P.S. " William Fawcett." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1903. N. 2341. 

The Peninsular Steam Navigation Co. was founded in 1837, and their 
sailings were at first limited to a weekly mail and general service between 
Falmouth and Gibraltar, calling at intermediate ports on the Atlantic 
seaboard of Spain and Portugal. In 1840 they extended their service 
to Egypt and, since that time, to India, China, Japan, and Austi-alia. 

The small paddle-steamer shown was bmlt of wood in 1829 and was 
acquired by the Company in 1837 to commence their conti-act mail sei-vice 
to the Peninsular ports. Length, on deck, 74-3 ft.; breadth, 15-1 ft.; 
depth, 8 • 4 ft. ; tonnage, (old measurement), 206 tons ; horse-power, 60. 

179. Whole block model of the first iron steamers built on 
the Thames. (Scale 1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. Maud- 
slay, Sons and Field, 1866. N. 1093. 

This represents the paddle steamers " Lord W. Bentinck," " Thames," 
" Megna," and " Jumna," built of iron in 1832 for the Hon. East India Co., 
for the navigation of the River Ganges. They were designed and con- 
structed by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, and fitted with oscillating 
cylinder engines of 30 nominal h.p. The hulls were flat-bottomed, and the 
vessels were shipped to India in pieces. Ten in all were ultimately supplied 
for this river service. 

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 275 tons ; length, 120 ft. ; breadth, 22 ft. ; draught, 
2 ft. 



61 

180. Litliograpli of Woolwick steam packets. Received 1905. 

N. 2406. 

These early paddle steamers were the first vessels built for the Woolwich 
Steam Packet Company, which established a regular day service between 
London and Woolwich in 1834, and was absorbed in 1875. The boats ran 
between Hungei-ford Market (now Charing Cross Pier) and Strother's 
Wharf, High Street, Woolwich, calling at Greenwich and Queenhithe. 

181. Lithograph of P.S. " Sirius." Presented by the Citv of 
Cork Steam Packet Co., 1906. N. 2414. 

Although several passages across the Atlantic were made by steamships 
between 1819 and 1838, it was not until the latter year that the practicability 
of transatlantic navigation by such vessels was fully demonstrated. In 
Api-il of that year interesting passages were made by the P.Ss. " Sirius " 
and " Great Western " (see No. 182), which represented rival companies. 
The " Sirius " had previously run between London and Cork, and was 
chartered by the British and American Steam ISTavigation Company from 
the St. George's Steam Packet Company, which afterwards became the 
Cork Steamship Company and the City of Cork Steam Packet Company. 
Under the command of Lieut. R. Roberts, R.N., she left Cork Hai-bour on 
the morning of April 4th, 1838, with 94 passengers, and was followed across 
the Atlantic by the " Great Western," which departed from Bristol three 
days later. Both vessels arrived at New York on April 23rd, the " Sirius " 
in the morning and the " Great Western " in the afternoon. The 
*' Sirius " made only one voyage to America, and on her return was 
employed for home and continental services until wrecked in 1847. 

The "Sirius" was built of wood, in 1837, by Messrs. Menzies & Co., 
Leith. Her engines, of the side lever type, with cylinders 60 in. diameter 
and 6 ft. stroke, were made by Messrs. Wingate & Co., Glasgow, and 
indicated 320 h.p. The paddlC'wheels were 24 ft. diam. and the steam 
pressure was 15 lb. 

Tonnage, gross, 703 ; length, 178 ft. ; breadth, 25-6 ft. ; depth, 18 ft. 

182. Lithograph of P.S. " Great Western." Received 1905. 

N. 2399. 

This foui*- masted schooner-rigged paddle-wheel steamer was designed by 
I. K. Brunei, and built of wood at Bristol, in 1837, by Mr. Patterson, for 
the Great Western Steamship Co. ; she was the first steamer especially 
constructed to cross the Atlantic. 

Her engines, by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, were of the side 
lever type, with two cylinders 73 • 5 in. diam. and 84 in. stroke, indicating 
750 h.p. Steam at 15 lb. pressure was supplied by four return flue boilers, 
and the paddles, which were 28 • 5 ft. diam. with floats 10 ft. wide, made 
about 15 revs, per min. 

On her first passage across the Atlantic she left Bristol on April 7th, 
1838, and arrived in New York Harbour on April 23rd (see No. 181), and 
she continued to ply between those ports for over eight years. Li 1847 she 
was sold to the Royal Mail Co. for 25,000Z., and in 1856 was broken up. 

Tonnage, 1,320 tons; length, 236 ft.; breadth, 35 3 ft.; breadth over 
paddle-boxes, 59 ft. ; depth, 23 25 ft. 

183. Rigged model of P.S. '' Britannia." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Cunard Steamship Co., Liverpool, 1894. N. 2046. 

This barque-rigged paddle steamer was built of wood at Greenock in 1840 
by Mr. R. Duncan for the Cunard Steamship Co., and was the first vessel 
of that line. She left England on July 4th, 1840, on her maiden voyage to 
Boston, and accomplished the passage in 14 days 8 hours, at an average 
speed of 8 • 5 knots, and a coal consumption of 38 tons per day. She was 
the first steamer to carry the mails between England and America. 



62 

Her cargo capacity was 225 tons, and she was fitted for the accommoda- 
tion of 115 cabin passengers only. 

Her engines were of the side lever type by Mr. R. Napier, and indicated 
740 h.p. (See No. 797). 

Burden, 1,154 tons; length, 207 ft. ; breadth, 34-3 ft. ; depth 24 3 ft. 

184. Lithograph of S.S. " Princess Royal." Received 1905. 

N. 2408. 

This early screw steamer was built of wood, in 1841, at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne for a firm at Brighton, and was one of the first vessels to which Sir 
F. P. Smith's propeller was fitted after the successful experiments with the 
S.S. "Archimedes." The " Princess Royal" performed the voyage from 
Newcastle to Brighton, about 400 miles, in 48*5 hours and afterwards 
proved very satisfactory both as an excursion steamer and tug-boat at 
Soiith Coast ports. Her screw propeller was two-bladed, 5 ft. diam. and 
6 ft. pitch, each blade having half a turn ; it was driven by two sets of 
engines which gave an avei-age speed of about 8 knots. 

Register, 101 tons; length on keel, 81 ft. ; breadth, 17-5 ft. ; depth of 
hold, 10 ft. ; di-aught, 6-5 ft. 

185. Oil painting of ftoyal Mail steamers. Lent by J. Scott 
Rnssell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1224. 

This represents some of the West India Mail Co.'s fleet at anchor in 
Southampton Water at the time when such vessels were paddle steamers 
built of wood. 

The two most prominent ships in the pictui'e are the " Teviot " and 
" Clyde," built in 1841, and of the following dimensions : — " Teviot " : 
Length, 214-25 ft. ; breadth, 33-6 ft. ; depth, 30-5 ft. ; tonnage, 1,793 tons. 
" Clyde" : Length, 208-5 ft.; breadth, 32-2 ft.; depth, 24-7 ft.; tonnage, 
1,371 tons. 

186. Rigged model of P.S. " Hibernia." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Cunard Steamship Co., 1894. Plate IV., 
No. 6. N. 2047. 

This barque-rigged paddle steamer was built of wood at Greenock in 1843 
by Mr. R. Steele for the Cunai'd Steamship Co. Her engines indicated 
1,040 h.p., giving her a speed of 9 • 25 knots. 

Burden, 1,422 tons; length, 219 ft.; breadth, 35 75 ft.; depth of 
hold, 24-2 ft. 

187. Rigged model of S.S. '' Great Britain." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by T. R. Guppy, Esq., 1878. Plate IV., No. 7. 

N. 1487. 

This represents the S.S. " Great Britain," built by the Great Western 
Steamship Co., at Bristol, in 1839—43. She was the first large iron ship,, 
and the fo'st screw steamer to cross the Atlantic. 

The Great Western Steamship Co. had previously built, as an extension 
of the G.W.B/. system across the Atlantic, the P.S. " Great Western " (see 
No. 182). The quickest passage made by this steamer had been 12 days 
18 hours westward and 12 days 7 - 5 hours eastward ; the average number of 
passengers carried was 85, and the largest number in one voyage 152, at a 
charge of 35 guineas each. 

The Great Western Steamship Co. considered that a larger ship would 
be much more profitable, and Mr. Brunei was consulted as to its con- 
stmction. He reported that it was impracticable to build a wooden ship as 
large as was required, and advised that the ship should be of iron. Hitherto 
only very small iron ships had been built, so that there was nothing in the 
way of a precedent upon which the calculations could be based. As no 
contractor could be found willing to undertake either the building of the 
hull or the making of the engines, the Great Western Co. had themselves to 
lay down plant for iron shipbuilding on a large scale, and Mr. Brunei's 



63 

designs being accepted, the vessel was commenced in 1839 at Bristol. 
It was originally intended to propel her by paddle-wheels, but before the 
building had proceeded far the superiority of the screw propeller was 
demonstrated by the arrival at Bristol of the " Archimedes " {see Nos. 971-2.) 
Brunei accordingly altered his designs for the " Great Britain " so as to 
adapt her for screw propulsion. 

At first it was intended to call this' vessel the "Mammoth," as she was 
100 ft. longer than the largest line -of -battle ship then existing. She had 
six masts, two forward of the funnel and four abaft, and could cany 
1,700 sq. yds. of canvas. 

The ship was floated on July 19th, 1843, but owing to the delay in 
completing some alterations to the dock she did not enter the river till 
December, 1844, the machinery having been meanwhile put in. Next day a 
trial of the screw propeller was made and a speed of 11 knots was obtained 
with 16 revolutions per minute of the engines, while six of the boiler fires 
were not lighted. 

On January 23rd, 1845, the ship left Bristol and anived at London 
in 59 • 5 hours, the avemge speed being 9 • 6 knots. She afterwards steamed 
to Liverpool, and on the 26th July, 1845, commenced her first voyage 
to New York, with about sixty passengers on board and 600 tons of cargo. 
She arrived safely at New York after a passage occupying just over fifteen 
days. The average speed was 9 • 25 knots, but the engines only worked to 
600 h.p. The return voyage to Liverpool occupied fourteen days, and the 
greatest run on any one day was 287 miles. On being docked her iron 
plates were, contrary to anticipation, found to be free from fouling. In a 
subsequent voyage the six-bladed propeller broke, and the vessel proceeded 
to Livei'pool under canvas, sailing and steering exceedingly well, and 
making from 10 to 11 knots an hour. The ship was then fitted with a new 
propeller having only four blades, and Atlantic voyages were continued 
until 1846, when the ship was stranded in Dundnim Bay, Co. Down. When 
she was floated off, and taken to Livei'pool, the bottom of the ship was 
found to be a good deal damaged, the boilers having been forced up 
15 inches. The repairs were too costly an undertaking for the Great 
Western Steamship Co., so the vessel, which had cost nearly 100,000Z., was 
sold for about 24,000Z. The purchasers had the engines replaced by a paii- 
of geared oscillating cylinder engines of 500 h.p., driving a three-bladed 
cast-iron screw propeller, 15*5 ft. diam. and 19 ft. pitch, with which a speed 
of 10 knots an hour was attained without sails. The number of masts was 
reduced to four, while the spread of canvas was about the same as before. 
In 1853 the steamer was placed upon the Australian trade, where she 
continued until 1874 ; subsequently the propelling machinery was taken out 
and the " Great Britain " became a sailing vessel entirely. 

The following is a description of the hull of the " Great Britain " given 
in considerable detail on account of its historical interest : — 

The keel was made of flat plates • 875 in. thick and 20 in. wide, welded 
into lengths of from 50 ft. to 60 ft. scarf -jointed and riveted. The stem was 
forged 12 in. deep and 5 in. thick at the fore foot, tapering to 1-5 in. at 
the upper deck. The stem or screw frame was a single forging 15 ft. deep,. 
8 ft. wide at the lower end and 12 ft. at the upper end. The frames or ribs 
were angle irons 6 in. by 3 • 5 in! by • 625 in. thick, spaced 18 in. apart amid- 
ships, increasing to 24 in. at the ends, the angle bars at the ends being 6 in. 
by 2 • 5 in. and 4 in. by 3 in. 

The outside plates were from 6 to 6*5 ft. long, 3 ft. wide, • 6875 in. 
thick for the garboard and three adjacent strakes, and above these to 
the load-line they were 625 in. thick amidships, tapering to '375 in. at 
the ends. 

There was no outside keel, but to prevent undue rolling two bilge keels 
110 ft. long were fitted, one on each side, so that their lower edges were 
level with the flat keel plate. The seams of the outside plates, which were 
clinker built, were double riveted, taper liners being placed between every 
frame and the outside plate. 



64 

The ship was divided into six watertight compartments, each being 
connected with the pumping engines. The forward three bulkheads were 
carried up to the underside of the upper deck, the two after ones going only 
to the under side of the saloon deck. 

The deck beams were made up of angle iron 6 in. by 3-5 in. by • 5 in. 
thick, the end of each beam being bent down and riveted to the sliip's frame. 
Stringer plates 3 ft. wide riveted to these beams f oi-med horizontal ties at 
each deck. The upper and lower cargo decks were of plate iron, the latter 
being supported by longitudinal plate-iron sleepers placed on edge on the 
ship's frames ; and the upper deck was supported by wooden pillars secured 
at their feet to the lower cargo deck, and the deck plates were secui-ed to 
the ship's sides by struts and tie-plates running fore and aft the whole length 
of the ship. The upper deck was flush from end to end ; there were no 
deck structures except the ordinary companion hatches, over the saloon, 
cabin, and engine-room stairways. The bulwarks consisted of a handrail 
supported by stanchions, iiinning completely round the ship and caa-rjang 
netting. The deck was of red pine laid lengthwise, and the stringers were 
iron plates 3 ft. by • 5 in. thick, a tie of Baltic pine i-unning the whole length. 
The main deck was of pine, 5 in. thick, level with the deep load line of the 
ship. 

Displacement at load-line of 18 ft., 3,618 tons; cargo capacity, by 
measurement, 1,200 tons ; length over all, 322 ft. ; length between pei'pen- 
diculars, 289 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 50 • 5 ft. ; depth, 32 • 5 ft. ; coal capacity, 
1,000 tons ; number of passengers that could be carried, 260. 

A model of the engines is exhibited in the collection of Marine Engines 
{see No. 820). 

An aquatint (Woodcroft Bequest, N. 2310) of the vessel is also shown, in 
addition to a nautilus shell, bearing a representation of the " Great Britain" 
with particulars, and a photograph of her as a coal hulk at Poi*t Stanley, 
Falkland Islands, in January 1905, presented by C. D. Mackellar, Esq. 
<N. 2543, 1910.) 

188. Oil paintings of S.S. "Great Britain." Lent by Capt. 

C. Claxton, R.N., 1865. N. 1074. 

The upper of these two pictures, painted by J. Walter in 1847, represents 
this vessel on shore at Dundi'um Bay, Ireland, at high water and in a gale 
of wind, whilst the lower shows her at low water. She ran ashore in Sep- 
tember, 1846, and remained exposed for 11 months, nearly submerged at 
every high tide, the sea in south-westerly and westerly gales making a clean 
breach over her. The breakwater represented was designed by Brunei, and 
consisted of 8,000 faggots, 3 ft. in diam. and 12 ft. long, placed about the 
stem and exposed quai-ter, loaded with stones, and backed by two rows of 
birch logs, about 60 ft. long. This, combined with the vessel's great 
strength, saved her, and she was got off in August, 1847. 

189. Rigged model^ of P.S. " Empire." (Scale 1 : 48.) Made 
in the Museum in 1904, from a larger model presented by 

D. Lapraike, Esq., 1868. Plate IV., No. 8. N. 2355. 

This represents one of the early passenger boats plying between New 
York and Troy on the Hudson River (U.S.A.) ; she was built of wood at New 
Tork in 1843 by William H. Brown, was damaged in collision in 1849 and 
again in 1853, and dismantled shortly after the latter date. The model 
exhibits most of the leading features of the American river-boat, i.e., fine 
lines, long flat floors, shallow draught, and overhanging " guards " or 
sponsons at the level of the main deck. 

To give to the shallow hull sufficient longitudinal stiffness, tmsses, 
usually "hog-backed" in shape, are built up from either side amidships for 
about two-thirds of the vessel's length. In this example the trusses were 
about 22 ft. deep, the booms and most of the posts were of timber 12 in. by 



65 

10 in., while the cross bracing was 9 in. sq. ; the joints were secured with 
iron straps and the posts had through tie rods ; transversely the top booms 
of the ti-usses were united by struts and tie rods. The guards or overhanging 
sponson decks were supported by the projecting main deck beams, assisted 
by inclined ties from the trusses and by wooden knees and diagonal iron 
struts. 

Passenger accommodation was provided by two tiers of cabins and 
saloons upon the upper and guard decks respectively, while forward, above 
the cabins, was placed the steering-wheel house from which the large rudder 
was worked. 

The engine was of the half beam type with two cylinders 4 ft. diam. 
by 12 ft. stroke ; boilers and fuel were carried on the guards. The paddle- 
wheels were 32 ft. diam. and constructed of wood {see No. 939). 

Tonnage measurement, 936 • 6 ; length on keel, 307 '5 ft. ; breadth,, 
30 • 5 ft. ; breadth, over guards, 62 • 5 ft. ; depth, 9 • 75 ft. ; draught, 4 • 5 ft. 

190. lithograph of S.S. " Sarah Sands." Wooclcroft Bequest, 
1903. N. 2317. 

This iron-built screw steamer was constructed by Messrs. Hodgson & 
Co. at Liverpool in 1845, from the design of Mr. J. G-rantham. She was 
one of the first vessels to demonstrate the practicability of the use of 
auxiliary screw-power for general trading purposes between England and 
America ; in 1847 she steamed from Liverpool to New York in 20 days, and 
in 1849 made regular passages in from 16*5 to 18 -5 days. In 1857, while 
engaged as a transport and when about 400 miles from Mauritius, she was 
burning for 16 hours, and then experienced a severe gale which filled the 
engine-room with water ; the bulkheads, however, remained intact, and the 
vessel reached Mauritius under sail without any loss of life. 

The " Sarah Sands " was one of the first vessels fitted with direct- 
acting screw engines ; they were of 200 h.p., and were made by Messrs. 
Bury, Curtis, and Kennedy under the patent gi-anted to Mr. J. Grantham 
in 1842. 

Tonnage, 1,300 tons ; length (extreme), 220 ft. ; breadth, 32 ft. ; depth 
of hold, 20 ft. 

191. Whole models of small steamers. (Scale 1 : 48.) Con- 
tributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. 

N. 1250 & 1253. 

These represent two classes of small vessels built between 1840-50 by 
Mr. Russell's firm upon his system of wave lines. 

The paddle vessels were for passenger service, and had the following 
dimensions : — Length on load water-line, 157 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; breadth 
over paddle-boxes, 34 ft. ; depth at side, 9 ft. 

The screw vessels were for the coasting cargo trade, and their dimen- 
sions were : — Length on load water-line, 135 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 24 ft. ; 
depth at side, 12 ft. 

192. Whole model of S.S. " Victor." (Scale 1 : 48.) Contri- 
buted by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1225. 

This represents a small screw trader, with a cargo capacity of 100 tons, 
built of iron about 1845 by Messrs. Robinson and Russell, Millwall, for 
employment on the coast of Norway. 

The engine had two cylinders 10*25 in. diam. by 18 in. stroke, and was 
supplied with steam at 40 lb. pressure. The screw was 5*5 ft. diam., and 
made 116 revs, per min., giving a speed of 8 knots. 

Load displacement, 146 tons ; tonnage (b.m,), 142 tons ; gross register, 
130 • 2 tons ; length on load water-line, 96 • 5 ft. ; breadth (extreme) , 17 • 5 ft.; 
depth at side, 9 • 5 ft. ; draught of water (laden), 6 • 75 ft. ; immersed midship 
section (laden), 89-8 sq. ft. 

u 0773 E 



66 

193. Whole models of steamers. (Scale 1 : 48. ) Contributed 
by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1278-9. 

These represent Admiral E. G. Fishboume's designs described in No. 65, 
but as modified for a steamer. The proportionate length is increased, 
because a steamship could be more easily turned than a sailing vessel. 

Length on load water-line, 252 or 236 ft.; breadth (extreme), 39 or 
32 ft. ; depth at side, 28 or 21 ft. 

194. Whole model of river steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 
1894. N. 2033. 

This represent the first paddle-wheel passenger steamer to navigate the 
Danube ; she was built at Buda-Pest,h in 1846, under the directions of 
Mr. Samuel Pretious, On the base is a design that shows the method of 
launching. 

The dimensions were approximately : — Tonnage, 450 tons ; length, 
225 ft. ; breadth, 19 • 5 f t. ; draught, 3 ft. 

195. Lithograph of P.S. " New World." Presented by T. Silver, 
Esq., 1861. N. 702. 

The " New "World " is a similar vessel to the " Empire " (see No. 189), 
and was built in 1849 to i-un between New York and Albany. She was 
rebuilt in 1855, and increased accommodation for passengers was obtained 
by introducing a three- decked superstructure, a practice that has since been 
generally followed in these river-boats. In addition to the " hog frames " 
the hull is strengthened by large king-posts, about 40 ft. high, stepped into 
the keel and having caps at the tops, to which are fastened iron tie-rods 
connected with the guards and with the sides. 

The paddle-wheels were 45*5 ft. diam., iron-framed with wooden floats, 
and were driven by a typical " walking -beam " engine, with cylinders 76 in. 
diam. by 15 ft. stroke, developing 1,800 indicated h.p. at 20 revs, per min. 
During an experimental trial in 1852, from New York to Albany (145 miles). 
a speed of 20 knots was realised. 

The dimensions of the " New World," as rebuilt, were : — Register 
tonnage, 1,675 tons ; extreme length, 380 ft. ; breadth, 50 ft. ; breadth, over 
guards, 85 ft. ; draught, 5 • 5 ft. 

196. Lithograph of P.S. "Atlantic." Woodcroft Bequest, 1903. 

N. 2314. 

This schooner-rigged paddle steamer was built of wood at New York in 
1849-50 from the designs of Mr. E. K. Collins. She was the pioneer vessel 
of the " Collins " Line, established for the conveyance of the United States 
mails, and with her sister ships " Pacific," " Baltic," and " Arctic " began 
the first serious compe':ition with the English steamships for fast titans - 
atlantic service. These four vessels were almost identical, and were so 
constructed as to admit of theu' being converted into war-vessels if 
necessary. 

The " Atlantic " commenced i-unning in 1850, and in 1852 made a record 
passage from New York to Queenstown — 2,712 miles in 9*7 days, while in 
the same year the " Baltic " made a record from Queenstown to New York 
— 3,054 miles in 9-54 days. The "Arctic" was, however, lost at sea in 
1854, and the " Pacific " in 1856 ; which misfortunes, together with financial 
difficulties, caused the abandonment of the sei*vice in 1858, although a larger 
vessel, the " Adiiatic," had then been added. 

These ships were excellently fitted and the accommodation embodied 
improvements in ventilation and cabin heating ; the ship's boats were made 
of galvanized iron. 

Each vessel was provided with two sets of side-lever engines, with 
cylinders, 95 in. diam. and 9 ft. stroke, dnving paddle-wheels 35 ft. diam. ; 
with steam at 17 lb. the combined i.h.p. was about 2,000 and the speed 



67 

12*5 knots. The boilers were of rectangular shape, but the furnaces 
contained a large number of vertical water-tubes 2 in. diani. ; the coal was 
carried from the bunkers to the stokeholds by mechanically driven buckets. 
Displacement, 6,200 tons ; length (o.a.), 300 ft., (b.p.), 282 ft. ; breadth, 
46 ft. ; depth of hold, 32 ft. 

197. Whole block model of P.S. "Her Majesty." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Contributed by Jolm Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. 

N. 1226. 

This represents an iron paddle steamer designed for mail sei-vice in any 
weather for a run not exceeding 60 miles, and on which sleeping accom- 
modation is not required ; several of these boats were built about 1850, and 
the one represented was built and engined by Messrs. Robinson and 
Russell in that year for service between Portsmouth and Ryde. 

The engines had two oscillating cylinders 27 in. diam. by 30 in. stroke, 
and made 58 revs, per min. 

Steam at 20 lb. pressure was supplied by a tubular boiler 9 • 75 ft. long, 
11 • 25 ft. wide, and 6 ft. high, possessing 1,234 sq. ft. of heating surface, 
and 50 sq. ft. of grate area. The total weight of the engines, boilers, and 
water was 30 ' 5 tons, and the space occupied 24 ft. in length. 

The paddle-wheels were 11 '16 ft. diam. and each had nine fixed floats, 
5 ft. by 2*3 ft. ; there were three masts, and the sail area was 64 sq. yds. 
The average speed was 12*8 knots. 

Load displacement, 93 • 5 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 119 • 5 tons ; gross register 
tonnage, 90 tons ; length, on load water-line, 126 • 75 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; 
breadth, across paddle-boxes, 26 ft. ; depth at the side, 7 ft. ; draught of 
water (laden), 3 '5 ft. ; immersed midship section (laden), 46 sq. ft. 

198. Whole models of S.S. "Victoria." (Scale 1 : 48.) Con- 
tributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1862 and 1868. 

N. 894 and 1237. 

This vessel was built of iron in 1852 for the Australian Royal Mail 
Steam Navigation Co., and gained the prize of 500Z. offered by the colonies 
for the fastest voyage to Australia. Her time from Gravesend to Adelaide 
was 60 days, including two days delay at St. Yincent. 

She was designed by Messrs. I. K. Brunei and J. S. Russell, for a speed 
of 10 knots under full steam, and to provide as much passenger accom- 
modation and space for high-priced cargo as the coal requirements would 
permit. 

The entrance and i-un of the ship were of the wave-line form, while the 
central 45 ft. were parallel ; the bilges were round, the topsides tumbled 
home, and there was no external keel, so that the vessel was very easy in 
the sea-way. The hull was in 12 watertight compai-tments, and there were 
longitudinal bulkheads canied through the engine and boiler rooms so as to 
separate the coal from the machinery. 

The engines were of the angular, oscillating type, with four cylinders, 
48 in. diam. by 33 in. stroke, arranged in two pans, and working on two 
cranks on the propeller shaft, while an intermediate crank worked the 
air-pumps. 

Steam at 15 lb. pressure was supplied by four tubular boilers, 18 ft. wide 
and 12 • 5 ft. high, each with five furnaces. The total heating surface was 
9,421 sq. ft., given largely by 3-in. tubes, and the grate area was 412 sq. ft. 
The boilers were arranged in one stokehold, the ventilation of which was 
assisted by a large hatchway enclosing the funnels to a considei*able height. 
The weight of the boilers was 86*5 tons, the water contained in them 
weighed 67*8 tons, while the engines weighed 134 tons. 

The screw was two-bladed, 15 ft. diam., 22 ft. pitch, and was connected 
with the engines by a friction coupling. The ship had also fonr masts and 
a sail area of 1,540 sq. yds. 

Under steam alone, the engines at full power made 59 revs, per min. and 
gave a speed of 11 knots, with a coal consumption of 37 tons per 24 hours. 

E 2 



68 

Under sail alone, with the screw held vertically, the speed was 5 • 5 knots, 
but when the screw was allowed to run freely the speed increased to 7 • 5 
knots. Her average speed was 11-66 knots. 

Load displacement, 3,000 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 1,852 tons ; gross 
register, 1,350 tons ; length on load water-line, 261 ft. ; breadth (extreme), 
38 ft. ; depth at side, 27*6 ft. ; di-aught (laden), 17*5 ft. ; immersed midship 
section (laden), 590 sq. ft. 

199. Whole models of P.S. " Wave Queen." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. 

N. 1235-6. 

This vessel, built in 1852, was intended for sea voyages of 100 to 150 
miles. She was believed to be the smallest vessel capable of attaining the 
speed required ; her dimensions were remarkable, her length being over 
13 times her breadth and 25 times her depth. 

The engines were of the angular oscillating type, with four cylinders 
27 in. diam. by 2*5 ft. stroke, and made 50 revs, per min. Steam at 25 lb. 
pressure was supplied by two tubular boilers, 15 • 7 ft. long, 10 • 5 ft. wide, 
and 6-5 ft. high, having a total grate area of 100 sq. ft. and 2,342 sq. ft. of 
heating surface. The weight of the engines, boilers, and water was 55 • 5 
tons. The paddle-wheels were 12*4 ft. diam., and each had 18 feathering 
floats 6 ft. by 2 • 5 ft. Her average speed was 15 • 5 knots. 

Load displacement, 225 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 250 tons ; gross register, 
196 tons; length on load water-line, 205-7 ft.; breadth (extreme), 15-5 ft. ; 
depth at side, 8-5 ft.; draught (laden), 5ft.; immersed midship section, 
67 sq. ft. 

200. Whole models of P.S. " Rouen," 1853. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. 

N. 1245-6. 

This iron-built vessel was constructed and engined by Messrs. Scott 
Russell and Co. in 1853 for the London and Brighton Railway Co.'s services 
between Newhaven and Dieppe. 

She was designed on Mr. Russell's wave principle, and was given a 
tumble -home bow. 

Gross tonnage, 357 tons; length, 180 ft. ; breadth, 20 ft. ; depth, 8-8 ft. 

201. Whole model and paintings of P.S. "Pacific." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. 

N. 1238-41. 

This mail steamer was built and engined by Messrs. Russell & Co. 
in 1853 for service in the Mediterranean. She could accommodate 80 first 
class and 165 second class passengers, with a certain amount of cargo, and 
was intended for a voyage of about 2,000 miles. 

She was built of iron, on the longitudinal system, with " wave lines " and 
only a few feet of parallel middle body. She had nine watertight compart- 
ments ; her plating rose to the top of the gunwale, and was continuous with 
the interior skin of the paddle-boxes, thus strengthening the centre of the 
vessel. Her sponsons were provided with open gratings to diminish the 
surface exposed to wave impact. 

The engine was of the oscillating condensing type, with two cylinders 
74 in. diam. by 7 ft. stroke ; they indicated 1,684 h.p. and weighed 
240 tons. 

Steam at a pressure of 18 lb. was supplied by four tubular boilers, 
14-8 ft. long, 18 ft. wide, and 12 -5 ft. high, each with 5 furnaces. The 
total heating surface was 9,507 sq. ft., and the grate area 420 sq. ft. They 
weighed 91 tons, and contained 69 tons of water. The consumption of coal 
was 1 • 6 tons per hour. 

The paddle-wheels were 27 ft. diam., and each had 14 floats 10 ft. long 
by 4 ft. wide. She had also two masts and a sail area of 883 sq. yds. ; her 
average speed was 14*5 knots. 



69 

Load displacement, 4,378 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 1,268 tons ; gross register, 
1,4'69 tons ; length on load water-line, 245 • 25 ft. ; breadth, 32 ft. ; breadth 
across paddle- wheel boxes, 54 ft. ; draught of water (laden), 12 ft. ; immersed 
midship section (laden), 320 sq. ft. 

202. Half block model of S.S., J' Colombo." (Scale' 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1878. ' N. 1493. 

This screw steamer was built of iron by Messrs. R. Napier & Sons 
at Glasgow in 1853 for the Peninsular and Oriental Co. In 1859 she was 
lengthened, making her dimensions : — Gross register, 2,127 tons ; length, 
320 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 37 ft. ; depth, 29 ft. 

Her engines, which indicated 1,538 h.p., were of the beam type, and 
drove the propeller shaft through spui- gearing. 

203. Half block model of S.S. " Candia." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1878. N. 1498. 

This screw steamship was built of iron at Blackwall in 1854, by 
Messrs. C. J. Mare & Co., for the Peninsular and Oriental Co, She 
was lengthened in 1857 by Messrs. Laird Bros. Her leading dimensions 
then were : — Gross register, 1,951 tons ; length, 317 • 4 ft. ; breadth, 40 • 5 ft. ; 
depth, 26 -2 ft. 

A coloured drawing, showing the vertical trunk engines with which this 
vessel was first fitted, is described under No. 829. In 1876 new two-stage 
expansion invei-ted engines were fitted to her, with cylinders 44 in. and 72 in. 
diam., by 42 in. stroke. 

204. Half block model of S.S. " Ellora." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by tlie Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1878. N. 1495. 

This brig-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Birkenhead in 
1855, for the Peninsular and Oriental Co. She was altered to a sailing 
ship in 1876. 

Her engines, constructed by Messrs. J. and G. Rennie, London, had 
two horizontal direct-acting cylinders, and indicated 1,005 h.p., with 
a boiler pressure of 20 lb. 

Tons (b.m.), 1,665 tons ; gross register, 1,727 tons ; length, 261 -2 ft. ; 
breadth, 36-2 ft. ; depth, 25-8 ft. 

205. Litbograplis of Mississippi river steamers. Presented 
by T. Silver, Esq., 1861. N. 703-4. 

In one lithograph (printed 1855) the " Natchez " and " Eclipse " are 
represented racing at midnight on the Mississippi; the other lithograph 
(printed 1860) represents the " Mayflower." They may be taken as typical 
of the Mississippi steam-boats of that date. The hulls are flat-bottomed 
with fine lines, but are very shallow ; the general description of the steamer 
in No. 189 is also applicable here. 

The " Eclipse " was propelled by a high-pressure engine with a single 
cylinder 36 in. diam. by 12 ft. stroke, which drove paddle-wheels 40 ft. diam. 
by 15 ft. wide. 

The two boilers are placed forward and about 3*5 ft. above the deck ; 
they are 3-6 ft. diam. by 30 ft. long, and have internal return tubes 9 in. 
diameter. The fronts are supported by cast-iron plates, while the back 
ends rest on a tank which acts as a mud receiver ; the sides are closed 
by sheet iron lined with firebrick, and the grates which are 4 ft. long, 
are at the front. Either coal or wood may be burnt, and the waste 
gases, after travelling under the shell the whole length, return through 
the tubes and escape by the funnels, which reach 50 ft. above the 
hurricane deck. 

Length, 360 ft. ; breadth, 42 ft. ; depth, 8 ft. ; draught, 5 ft. ; immersed 
midship section, 200 sq. ft. 



70 

206. Whole model of coasting cargo steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 12^7. 

This class of iron screw ship was introduced about 1855 for seiTice in 
the Noi-th Sea. This design shows how Mr. Scott Russell's system could be 
applied, by the aid of a long parallel middle body, so as to give a capacious 
ship. She was i-igged with three masts and had a sail area of 822 sq. yds. 

The engines were of the oscillating type, with two inclined cylinders 
36 in. diam. by 30 in. stroke, aii"anged opposite each other, and working on 
to a single ci-ank on the propeller shaft. The propeller was a two-bladed 
screw 10 ft. diam. by 20 ft. pitch. 

Load displacement, 551 tons ; tonnage (b.m,), 615 tons ; gross register 
tonnage, 677 tons; length on load water-line, 157*75 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 
28 ft. ; draught of water, laden, 12 ft. ; immersed midship section, laden, 
272 sq. ft. 

207. Whole model of general cargo steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. 

N. 1248. 

This vessel has the same breadth and di'aught as that described in 
No. 206, but greater length of parallel middle body and wave-line ends. 
The screw propeller is abaft the inidder, which is entirely below the pro- 
peller shaft, there being a loop in the rudder stock, through which the 
propeller shaft passes. 

The engines were of the oscillating type, with the two inclined cylinders, 
36 in. diam. by 30 in. stroke, an-anged opposite each other and working on 
to a single crank on the propeller shaft. The engines weighed 35 tons, and 
made 74 revs, per min. 

Steam at a pressure of 12 lb. was supplied by a tubular boiler, con- 
taining 360 tubes 3 in. diam. by 5 • 5 ft. long, and having a total grate area 
of 72 sq. ft. 

The propeller was three-bladed, and 10 ft. diam. by 17 ft. pitch. Three 
masts were also provided, which spread 1,497 sq. yds. of canvas ; the average 
speed maintained was 9 • 5 knots. 

Load displacement, 1,066 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 643 tons ; gross register 
tonnage, 597 tons ; length on load water-line, 166 "25 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 
28 ft. ; draught of water, laden, 12 ft. ; immersed midship section (laden), 
296 sq. ft. 

208. Whole model of Baltic trader. (Scale 1 : 48.) Con- 
tributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1249. 

This is another variation of the vessel described under No. 2C6, with 
long parallel middle body and wave-line ends. The beam is the same, viz., 
28 ft., but the length is increased to 177 ft. 

Although not shown in the model, the chief peculiarity of the design is 
the long forecastle, extending to the midship deckhouse, which was fitted up 
for first-class passengers. At the after end was a poop for the accommoda- 
tion of the officers. 

The engines were of the invei-ted oscillating tjrpe, with two cylinders 
36 in, diam. by 30 in. stroke, and made 60 revs, per min. 

Steam at a pressure of 12 lb. was supplied by two tubular boilers, each 
10 ft. long, 7*5 ft. wide, and 12 ft. high, containing 180 tubes 3 in, diam. 
The total grate area was 84 sq. ft., and the heating siirface 2,129 sq. ft. 

She was propelled by a two-bladed screw, 10 ft. diam. by 22 ft, pitch ; 
her sail area was 1,240 sq. yds,, and her average speed 9* 75 knots. 

Load displacement, 750 tons ; tonnage (b,m.), 713 tons ; gross register 
tonnage, 472 tons ; length on load water-line, 177 ft. breadth, extreme, 
28 ft. ; draught of water (laden), 10 ft. ; immersed midship section (laden), 
222 sq. ft. 



71 

209. Whole models of P.S. " Baron Osy." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1862 and 1868. 

N. 899 and 1242. 

This iron-built vessel was constmcted in 1855 on " wave-lines," for the 
service between London and Antwei-p. - 

She was built on the longitudinal system, with continuous fore-and-aft 
plate stringers between which were fitted transverse web frames. 

The engine was of the oscillating condensing type, with two cylinders 
56 in. diam. by 6 ft, stroke, and made 29 revs, per min. ; it weighed 
121 tons. 

Steam, at 18 lb. pressure, was supplied by two tubular boilers; 9 * 75 ft. 
long, 18 ft. wide, and 11 • 75 ft. high, each with five furnaces. The total 
heating sui-face was 4,063 sq. ft., and the gi*ate area 195 sq. ft. The weight 
of the boilers was 42 tons, and that of the contained water was 26 • 65 tons. 

The paddle-wheels were 20 ft. diam., and each had 18 fixed floats, 
8 ft. long by 1-75 ft wide. 

Load displacement, 980 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 792 tons ; gross register, 
607 tons ; length on load water-line, 208 ft. ; breadth (extreme), 28 ft. ; 
draught of water (laden), 10 ft. ; immersed midship section (laden), 217 sq. ft. 

210. Lithograph of S.S. " Pera." Received 1905. N. 2402. 

This ship-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Blackwall, in 1855, 
by Messrs. 0. J. Mare & Co., for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam 
Navigation Co., and proved herself a fast boat. She is represented in the 
illustration under sail and steam ; her topsails are fitted with Cunningham's 
patent self -reefing gear (see No. 581). 

She had vertical trunk engines by Messrs. G. Rennie and Sons, with two 
cylinders each 70 • 25 in. diam. and 48 in. stroke, indicating 1,500 h.p., and 
driving a three-bladed propeller, 15 • 5 ft. diam. and 21 ft. pitch, which, at 
60 revs, per min., gave a speed of 12-5 knots. There were four sheet-flue 
boilers, and the bunker capacity was 700 tons, the daily consumption being 
44 tons. She was re-engined in 1872. 

Tonnage, 2,607 tons ; length (b.p.), 303-7 ft. ; breadth, 42 • 25 ft. ; depth, 
27-2 ft. 

211. Lithograph of S.S. " Royal Charter." Received 1905. 

N. 2401. 

This full-rigged clipper ship was built of iron, in 1855, at Sandycroft, 
near Chester, from the designs of Mr. Grinrod, of Livei'pool ; she was laid 
down as a sailing ship, but, being purchased by Messrs. Gibbs, Bright & Co., 
she was fitted with screw engines of 200 h.p. 

She sailed from Melbourne on August 26th, 1859, with a small cargo of 
skins and wool, 79,000 ozs. of gold, 388 passengers and a crew of 112 ; 13 
passengers landed at Queenstown, and 11 riggers were taken on board for 
passage to Liverpool. On October 26th, about five miles from Point Lynas 
lighthouse, and within a mile of Moelfra light. Isle of Anglesea, she was 
wrecked in a heavy gale ; of the 498 persons on board only 39 were saved. 

She is represented in the illustration under all plain sail, on the port 
tack close hauled, taking in royals, flying jib, main, and mizen courses. 

A portion of the stem bush for the propeller shaft, recovered nearly two 
years after the wreck of the vessel, is shown in an adjacent case (see No. 888). 

Register tonnage, 2,719 tons ; length, 320 ft. ; breadth, 41*5 ft. 

212. AVhole and half models of P.S. " Lyons." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1862. 

N. 898 and 1251-2. 

This vessel was built in 1856 for the packet service between Newhaven 
and Dieppe. She had exceptionally long and fine hollow lines at the bow, 
but generally, with fine lines below, the upper ones were full. 



72 

The engines were of the angular oscillating type, with two cylinders 
42 • 5 in. diam. by 54 in. stroke, working on a single crank ; the air pump 
was worked from another ci-ank on the paddle shaft. At 38 revs, per min. 
the indicated h.p. was 1,108. 

Steam at 28 lb. pressure was supplied by two tubular boilers, each 
8-5 ft. long, 16-25 ft. wide, and 11-75 ft. high, giving a total of 3,589 sq. ft. 
of heating sui'face and 170 sq. ft. of grate area. 

The total weight of engines, boilers, and water was 116 tons. The 
paddle-wheels were 19 ft. diam., and each had 11 feathering floats, 8 ft. by 
3 ft. wide. The average speed was 15 - 2 knots. 

Load displacement, 315 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 421 tons ; gross register, 
279 tons; length on load water-line, 190 ft.; breadth, 21-5 ft.; breadth 
over paddle-boxes, 39- 5 ft.; depth at side, lift.; draught of water (laden), 
6 ft. ; immersed midship section (laden), 110 sq. ft. 

213. Block models of the " Great Eastern." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by Messrs. John Scott Russell & Co., 1857 
and 1868. N. 901 and 1259-61. 

The " Great Eastern," originally called the " Leviathan," was built at 
Millwall in. 1853-8; the four models shown are those used dui-ing her 
construction, and represent the " lines," the plating of the inner and outer 
skins, and the stem. 

About 1852, Mr. I. K. Brunei proposed to the Eastern Navigation Co. 
the constmction of a steamship for the Indian and Australian trade, five or 
six times the size of any then in use. It was well known that large vessels 
possessed great advantages over small ones on long voyages, and that the 
greater the ship the higher the speed ; it was estimated that a vessel of the 
dimensions proposed for the " Great Eastern " would maintain a speed of 
15 knots, with less power per ton than ordinary vessels required at 10 knots. 
The size would also give supei"ior passenger accommodation and cargo 
capacity, with a fuel endurance that would render coaling abroad unnecessary. 

The construction of such a vessel being decided upon, arrangements 
were made by Messrs. Scott Russell & Co., of Millwall, to build the hull, 
the paddle-wheels, and their engines, while Messrs. James Watt & Co., of 
Birmingham, were entrusted with the constmction of the screw engines and 
their machinery. The first plates of the great ship were laid on May 1st, 
1854, and she was finally launched on Januaiy 31st, 1858. 

Her model followed the lines that had for many years been adopted by 
Mr. Scott Russell, as embodying his " wave-line " pi-inciple, and she was 
given 120 ft. of parallel middle body. Mr. Brunei, however, proposed the 
use of the two systems of propulsion, and also the cellular construction of 
the hull. 

The framing of the vessel was entirely longitudinal ; the longitudinals 
were 2*8 ft. deep by - 5 in. thick, and were 2-5 ft. apai*t on the flat of the 
bottom, and 5 ft. apai-t from the bottom to a height of 36 ft. From the 
keel to the water-line the hull was double ; the distance between the skins 
was 2-8 ft. and rendered cellular by the longitudinals. The deck of the 
ship was also double or cellular, so that the longitudinal strength of the hiill 
was obtained by an-angements resembling those adopted in the girders of 
the Menai Tubular Bridge. 

The hull was divided transversely by iron bulkheads, into compartments, 
each 60 ft. long, through which there was no opening whatever below the 
second deck. Two longitudinal bulkheads, 36 ft. apart, traversed 350 ft. of 
the length of the ship ; but, besides the principal bulkheads, there was in 
each compartment a second intermediate bulkhead forming a coal bunker 
and carried up to the main deck. At the bow and stem were additional 
bulkheads. Two continuous tunnels ran thi-ough the principal bulkheads, 
near the water-line, along one of which the steam pipes passed. 

The scantlings of the hull were fixed as follows : — The plates of the 
inner and outer skins, - 75 in. thick, 10 ft. long, and 2 • 75 ft. wide ; other 
inner plates, all -5 in. thick. All rivets '875 in. diam., and 3 in. pitch ; 
while all of the angle iron used was 4 in. by 4 in. by • 625 in 



73 

Accommodation for passengers : — 1st class, 800 : 2nd class, 2,000 ; 3rd 
class, 1,200 ; or, as a troopship, she would cany 10,000 men. 

She had five funnels and six masts, which could spread 6,500 sq. yds. of 
canvas. She was fitted with 20 anchors, which, with their cables, &c., 
weighed altogether 253 tons. _ 

The " Great Eastern " was launched sideways into the Thames three 
months after the first attempt. She weighed at the time 12,000 tons, and 
rested in two cradles, each 80 feet square, which were to slide on inclines 
80 ft. wide and 200 ft. long, set at a slope of 1 in 14, but after starting a 
few feet the inclines failed, and the vessel was subsequently slowly got into 
the water by the application of extensive hydraulic machinery. These 
troubles caused financial difficulties, which stopped the work, so that it was 
only in September, 1859, that the trial trip took place. Her first voyage 
across the Atlantic was made in June, 1860 ; the greatest speed attained 
during the passage was 14 ■ 5 knots. Her average speed was 14 knots, and 
coal consumption 12 • 5 tons per hour. She, however, did not pay either as 
a passenger or a cargo steamer ; but, from 1865 to 1873 was extensively 
engaged in laying submarine cables with considerable success. After this 
she did no useful work, and in 1888 was sold as old metal, and broken up in 
the two ensuing years. 

The paddle and screw engines of the ship are shown and described in 
Nos. 814 and 831 respectively. 

Displacement, 27,384 tons ; tonnage, gross, 18,914 tons ; length on the 
upper deck, 692 ft. ; length on load water-line, 680 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 
82-5 ft.; breadth across the paddle-boxes, 120 ft.; depth at side, 58ft.; 
depth of hold, 24-2 ft. ; di*aught of water (laden), 30 ft. ; area of immersed 
midship section, 2,204 sq. ft. ; coal capacity, 10,000 tons ; cargo capacity, 
6,000 tons. 

A lithograph (N. 2403), two oil paintings (N. 1265-6), and a photograph 
are also exhibited. 

214. Rigged model of " Great Eastern." (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Contributed by Messrs. Jolm Scott Russell & Co., 1862. 
Plate v., No. 1. N. 901. 

The " Great Eastern " was bmlt at MiUwall in 1858-8, and until 1888-90, 
when she was dismantled and broken up, was the largest vessel afloaX:, nor 
was it until 1899 that her dimensions were exceeded. 

This model, although probably commenced by the builders while the ship 
was under construction, was finished and the rigging added in the Museum 
in 1901. For detailed particulars of the history and construction of this 
remarkable vessel, see No. 213. 

215. Coloured drawings of the "Great Eastern." Contri- 
buted by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1861. N. 700. 

These eight di'awings show various elevations and sections of the vessel, 
which help in elucidating the previous models. 

216. Whole model of river steamer. (Scale 1 : 96.) Contri- 
buted by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1267. 

This paddle-wheel steamer was built in 1859 for service on the Indus, 
where, owing to shoals, a draught of only 20 in. was permissible. 

The hull was a cellular raft constructed without fi'ames, but to carry 
the engines and boilers, which weighed altogether 150 tons, the walls of 
the deck cabins were worked into the depth, and the vessel became a girder 
200 ft. in length. A run of 115 ft. of her middle length was included in a 
couple of plate-girders, 15 ft. deep, forming the sides of the cabins, and 
these girders were prolonged 35 ft. beyond the cabins, but imder the deck. 

In form, the vessel consisted of a middle body resembling a parallel box, 
while the stem was rounded and the keel turned up 2 ft. to allow the water 
to rise abaft ; the bow had, however, wave lines. 



74 

The engines had three oscillating cylinders, 36 in. diam. by 48 in. 
stroke, made 38 revs, per min., and indicated 688 h.p. The engine 
framing was a triangular structure of plate iron, continuous with the 
longitudinal girders of the bottom of the vessel ; the weight of the engines 
was 40 "6 tons. 

Steam at 25 lb. pressure was supplied by two tubular boilers 9 • 25 ft. 
long, 14-5 ft. wide, and 12*2 ft. high. The total heating surface was 
3,300 sq. ft., their weight 37-4 tons, and that of the contained water 
22 tons. 

The diameter of the paddle-wheels was 14 • 3 ft., the floats being radial 
and measuring 9 ft. by 1 • 6 ft. ; the speed on trial was 11 • 3 knots. 

Load displacement, 831 tons; tonnage (b.m.), 136 "3 tons; length on 
load water-line, 198 • 25 ft. ; breadth, 38 ft. ; breadth across paddle-boxes, 
60 ft. ; depth at side, 6 ft. ; immersed midship section, 75 sq. ft. 

217. Half block model of P.S. "Leinster." (Scale 1: 48.) 
Received 1893. N. 2021. 

This schooner-rigged vessel is one of foui* paddle-wheel steamers, 
"Ulster," "Munster," " Leinster," and " Connaught," constiiicted for the 
mail service between Holyhead and Kingstown ; she was built of iron at 
Poplar in 1860 by Messrs. Samuda Bros. 

There are nine watertight bulkheads, two of which separate the engines 
from the boilers ; the total length occupied by the machinery is 106 ft., 
22 ft. in the middle being apportioned to the engines, and the remainder to 
the boilers. 

The bulwarks are of iron plates, without any break for gangways, these 
not being required for landing either at Holyhead or Kingstown. To give 
additional strength to the centre of the vessel, where the weight of the 
engines, boilers, and paddle-wheels is concentrated, the inside s of the paddle- 
boxes are foimed of iron plates, continued from the sides and bulwarks of 
the vessel, with a strong bow girder, so as to provide ample resistance to the 
severe shocks which such long vessels encounter when driven at their full 
speed in a rough sea. 

For the Irish mail service the four vessels were in 1896-7 replaced by 
larger ones with the same names, propelled by twin screws and three- stage 
expansion engines. 

Displacement, 2,000 tons ; gross tonnage, 1,467 tons ; length, 343 ft. ; 
breadth, 35 ft. ; depth, 19 ft. ; draught, 13 ft. ; immersed midship sectiop, 
336 sq. ft. 

For a working model of the engines and the paddle-wheels of these ships, 
see No. 816. 

218. Rigged model of P.S. " Connaught." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Laird Bros., 1869. M. 1303. 

This schooner-rigged paddle steamer was built of iron at Birkenhead 
in 1860, by Messrs. Laird Bros., for the mail service between Holyhead and 
Kingstown. 

The engines and paddles are similar to those of the " Leinster " (see 
No. 217). 

Displacement, 2,039 tons; length, 348 ft.; breadth, 35 ft.; depth, 
20 -25 ft. 

219. Half block models of Fraser river paddle steamers. 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Presented by the Kew Museum of Economic 
Botany, 1876. M. 1404-5. 

The " G-overnor Douglas " is a stem-wheel vessel, built about 1860 at 
Victoria, British Columbia, to the following dimensions : — Displacement, 
200 tons ; length, 144 ft. ; breadth, 27 ft. ; depth at side, 5 ft. ; draught, 3 ft. 

The " Caribo " is a similarly constructed vessel, arranged, however, for 
side wheels. 



75 

220. Half block model of P.S. '' Massilia." (Scale 1: 48.) 
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1878. ^ N. 1492. 

This schooner-rigged steamer was built of iron on the Thames in 1860, 
for the Peninsular and Oriental Co. 

She was fitted by Messrs. John Penn and Son with oscillating engines, 
having cylinders 72 in, diam. by 84 in. stroke, indicating 1,730 h.p., and 
supplied with steam at 20 lb. pressure. 

Tonnage (b.m.), 1,919 tons ; gross register, 1,640 tons ; length, 309 '9 ft. ; 
breadth, 36 • 1 ft. ; depth, 22 • 3 ft. 

221. Lithograph of P.S. " Columbia." Received 1905. 

N. 2400. 

This paddle steamer was built of iron at Hull, in 1861, by Messrs. 
Samuelson, for the Atlantic Royal Mail Steam Navigation Co., popularly 
known as the " Gal way Line." 

Four similar vessels were originally constructed for this line, to cany 
H.M. mails to Boston and New York, via Galway and St. John's, New- 
foundland. OAving to accidents at sea and the inability of several of their 
ships to realise contract speed, the company was voluntarily wound up in 
1864. 

The '* Columbia" was fitted with eight watertight bulkheads, and had 
the following principal dimensions : — Tonnage (b.m.), 2,913 tons ; tonnage, 
net register, ] ,625 tons ; length, 360 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; depth of hold, 
32 ft. 

222. Rigged model of P.S. ''Scotia." (Scale 1 : 48.) Presented 
by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. N. 1167. 

This brig-rigged iron steamer, built at Glasgow in 1862 for the Ounard 
Co., was the last and finest paddle- driven vessel constructed for the Atlantic 
service. She had seven watei*tight compartments, and a double bottom. 
The masts were 30 in. diam. 

The engines were of the side-lever type, with two cylinders 100 in. diam. 
and 144 in. stroke and indicated 4,900 h.p. (see-No. 797). Steam at 20 lb. 
pressui-e was supplied by eight tubular boilers, and there were two funnels. 
The diameter of the paddle-wheels was 40 ft., and the floats were 11 • 5 ft. 
by 2 ft. 

She had accommodation for 300 passengers, and stowed 1,800 tons of 
coals. 

In 1879, after having been sold to the Telegraph Construction and 
Maintenance Co., she was converted into a twin-screw cable ship. On this 
duty, and while at sea, in 1896, she sustained a severe explosion from the 
ignition of vapour from a spirit paint, which blew out the bow and destroyed 
the collision bulkhead, but the second bulkhead, 44 ft. from the stem, 
resisted the inrush of water and saved the ship. In 1904 she was wrecked 
at Guam, Ladrone Islands. 

Displacement, 6,520 tons; length, 366-5 ft.; breadth, 47-5 ft.; depth, 
moulded, 32 ft. 

223. Whole model of S.S. " Annette." (Scale 1 : 48.) Con- 
tributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1862. N. 895. 

This was an auxiliary screw China clipper, built by Messrs. Russell & 
Co. about 1862. She was intended to perform her voyage almost entirely 
by sails, using her steam power only in the districts of light winds and 
calms. When in China she was to engage in local trade during the intervals 
between the tea seasons. 

She was constructed on the longitudinal system, 

The engine was of the oscillating type, with the cylinders beneath the 
crank- shaft, which was inclined downwards towards the stem. There were 
two cylinders, 3 ft. diam. by 3 ft. stroke, the revolutions were 45 per min., 



76 

and the indicated h.p. was 350. Steam at 20 lb. pressure was supplied by 
a tubular boiler 9*5 ft. long by 13 ft. high, presenting 2,204 sq. ft. of 
heating suirface. 

The screw was 11 ft. diam. by 22 ft. pitch, and was connected with the 
engine shaft by a universal joint, so that it could be raised or lowered 
without stopping the vessel. The average speed was 9 • 5 knots. 

There were three masts, spreading sails of 1,418 sq. yds. area. 

Load displacement, 1,461 tons ; tonnage (b.m.), 871 tons ; gross register, 
650 tons ; length on load water-line, 192 * 7 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 30 ft. ; 
draught of water, laden, 14 ft. ; immersed midship section, 375 sq. ft. 

224. Whole model of S.S. "Bolivar." (Scale 1: 48.) Lent 
by the West India and Pacific Steam Ship Co., 1868. 

N. 1214. 

This iron screw steamer was built at Stockton-on-Tees in 1862 for the 
"West Indian and Pacific sei-vice. 

The engines were simple, invei-ted, direct acting, with two cylinders 
49 in. diam. by 30 in. stroke. In 1870 the ship was lengthened and fitted 
with two-stage expansion engines, the cylinders being 30 in. and 64 in. diam. 
by 42 in. stroke. 

Gross register, 1,250 tons ; length, 240 ft. ; breadth, 32 -5 ft. ; depth, 
19-6 ft. 

225. Half block model of S.S. " Golconda." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation 
Co., 1865. N. 1061. 

This barque -rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Blackwall in 
1863, by the Thames Iron Works Co., for the Peninsular and Oriental 
service. 

The engines were two- stage expansion, with cylinders 48 in. and 96 in. 
diam., by 36 in. stroke. 

Gross register, 1,909 tons; length, 314*5 ft.; breadth, 38*3 ft.; depth, 
26-6 ft. 

226. Whole model of P.S. " Cheshire." (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Presented by G. H. Harrison, Esq., 1867. N. 2071. 

This ferry steamer was built of iron at Liverpool in 1863 by Messrs. H. 
M. Lawrence & Co., from designs by Mr. George HaiTison, M.Inst.C.E. 
She was employed on the Woodside (Livei-pool to Birkenhead) service ; th e 
bow and stem are of similar shape, enabling her to go ahead or astern with 
equal facility, and a rudder is provided at each end. She was licensed to carry 
1,620 passengers. 

Two sets of independent oscillating engines drive the paddle-wheels. 
All four cylinders are 33 in. diam. by 42 in. stroke. The nominal collective 
h.p. is 130, and steam pressure, 19 lb. 

Tonnage (b.m.), 632 tons ; gross register, 421 tons ; length, 150 ft. ; 
breadth over sponsons, 48 ft. ; breadth, 30 ft. ; depth, 11 ft. ; draught, 6 ft. 

227. Half block model of S.Ss. "Lazareff," " Korniloff," and 
"Nachimoff." (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1893. N. 2024. 

These three screw steamers were built of iron at Poplar by Messrs. 
Samuda Bros., and launched in 1863-5 for the Russian Steam Navigation 
and Trading Co. ; they had four watertight bulkheads, two decks, and three 
tiers of beams. 

The engines were simple, with two cylinders 50 in. diam., by 33 in. 
stroke. 

Gross register, 1,639 tons; length, 274-4 ft.; breadth, 35 ft.; depth, 
24-5 ft. 



228. Half block model of S.S. "Delhi." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1878. N. 1490. 

This screw steamer was built of iron at Blackwall in 1864, by Messrs. 
Money "Wigram and Sons, for tlie Peninsular and Oriental sei-vice. 

The engine was two-stage expansion, horizontal tandem, direct acting, 
and had surface condensers ; the cylinders were 40 in. and 96 in. diam., 
by 36 in. stroke, and indicated 2,286 h.p., with a boiler pressure of 25 lb. 

Gross register, 2,178 tons; length, 313-3 ft.; breadth, 38 ft.; depth, 
26-3 ft. 

229. Half block model of P.S. " Glengyle." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by Messrs. W. Denny & Bros., 1865. N. 1078. 

This iron-built, barque-rigged paddle steamer was built at Dumbarton in 
1864, for the China Navigation Company. 

Gross register, 1,933 tons ; net register, 1,266 tons ; length, 290 ft. ; 
breadth, 38 ft. ; depth, 23 • 5 ft. • 

230. Rigged model of P.S. "Evelyn." (Scale 1: 48.) Pre- 
sented by Captain H. T. Burgoyne, R.N., 1865. N. 1073. 

This paddle steamer, built at Glasgow in 1864, was employed in inmning 
the blockade dui*ing the American Civil War. She was capable of steaming 
at a speed of 17 knots. 

Tonnage (new measurement), 284 tons ; length, 230 ft. ; breadth, 28 ft. ; 
draught, with 1,000 bales of cotton on board, 7 ft. 

231. Half block model of P.S. " Quebec." (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Lent by Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co., 1881. N. 1556. 

This iron saloon paddle steamer, of light draught, was built at Glasgow 
in 1864 for seiTice on the river St. Lawrence, Canada. 

Tonnage (b.m.), 1,069 tons ; length, 282 ft. ; breadth, 34 ft. ; di-aught, 
6 ft. 

232. Half block model of S.S. "Dakahlieh." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation 
Co., 1868. N. 1211. 

This brig-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Blackwall in 1865, 
by Messrs. Money Wigram and Sons, for the Peninsular and Oriental 
sei'vice. 

Her engines were two- stage expansion, with cylinders 38 in. and 70 in. 
diam. by 48 in. stroke. 

Gross register, 1,553 tons; length, 270 ft.; breadth, 34-6 ft.; depth, 
24 ft. 

233. Half block model of S.S. " Charkieh." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation 
Co., 1868. N. 1210. 

This brig-rigged screw steamer was built of iron by the Thames Iron 
Works Co. in 1865 for the Peninsular and Oriental sei*vice. 

She was propelled by a two-stage expansion engine, with cylinders 38 in. 
and 70 in. diam. by 48 in. stroke. 

Gross register, 1,615 tons; length, 274 ft.; breadth, 34 '6 ft.; depth, 
24 ft. 

A lithograph of this vessel is also shown. (N. 2432.) 

234. Whole model of S.S. " Medway." (Scale 1 : 64.) Lent 
by Messrs. Oswald & Co., 1867. N. 1162. 

This screw steamer was built of iron in 1865 by Messrs. Oswald & Co., 
for the Mediten-anean trade. She was employed in assisting the " Great 



78 

Eastern " in tlie third and successful attempt at laying the Atlantic cable 
of 1866, carrying the Newfoundland shore end of the cable after the " Great 
Eastern " had gone as close in as she could safely get. The " Medway " 
also carried 500 miles of supplementary main cable in case the 2,730 miles 
carried by the "Great Eastern" should not be enough to complete the 
connection. On this occasion the " Medway " was, in addition, provided 
with grapphng apparatus to assist in picking up the broken cable of 1865. 

The engines were simple, with two cylinders 54 in. diam. by 33 in. 
stroke. 

Gross register, 1,823 tons ; displacement, laden, 3,750 tons ; dead- weight 
of cargo, 3,314 tons ; length (b.p.), 280 ft. ; breadth (extreme), 35 • 33 ft. ; 
depth in hold, 28 • 4 ft. ; draught of water (laden), 21 • 5 ft. 

235. Whole model of S.S. " Venezuelan." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent bv the West India and Pacific Steam Ship Co., 1868. 

N. 1215. 

This brig-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Liverpool in 1865, 
by Messrs. Jones, Quiggin and Co., for the "West India and Pacific service. 

The engines were two-stage expansion, with four cylinders, two 21 in., 
and two 46 in. diam. by 42 in. stroke. She had new engines and boilers 
in 1874. 

Gross register, 1,690 tons ; length, 259 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 32 • 1 ft. ; depth, 
28-9 ft. 

236. Photograph of S.Ss. '' Ville de Paris" and "Periere." 
Presented by Messrs. P. Napier and Sons, 1869. N. 1311. 

These two barque-rigged screw steamers were built of iron at Glasgow 
in 1865-6 for the Compagnie Generale Transatlantique. 

Their engines were two-stage expansion with four cylinders, two being 
45 in. diam. and the other two 84 in. diam,, while the stroke of each was 
4 ft. The ships were propelled by single screws (see No. 997), and had a 
speed of 15 knots. The steering gear of these vessels is represented in 
No. 1054. 

Gross register, 3,150 tons ; length, 345 ft. ; breadth, 43 -4 ft. ; depth, 
29 ft. 

237. Rigged model of S.S. *' City of Paris." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by William Inman, Esq., 1866. N. 1094. 

This ship-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Glasgow in 1866 
by Messrs. Tod and McGregor for the Inman Line Atlantic service ; she 
had five bulkheads and a single screw. 

The engines were simple, with two horizontal cylinders 82 in. diam., 
42 in. stroke, supplied with steam at 30 lb, pressure. 

Gross register, 3,081 tons ; length, 397 • 7 ft. ; breadth, 40 • 5 ft. ; depth, 
26-2 ft. 

238. Half block model of S.S '' Surat." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1878. N. 1212. 

This barque -rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Southampton in 
1866, by Messrs. C. A. Day and Co., for the Peninsular and Oriental service. 
Her tonnage on launching was 2,578, but in 1874 she was lengthened, 
when her leading dimensions became : — Gross register, 3,142 tons ; length, 
356 • 6 ft. ; breadth, 41 • 6 f t. ; depth, 30 • 3 ft. 

Her original engines were horizontal direct-acting, indicating 2,516 h.p., 
with a boiler pressure of 26 lb. ; but, when being lengthened, she was fitted 
with two- stage expansion engines, with cylinders 48 in. and 96 in. diam., by 
54 in, stroke, indicating 2,855 h.p., with the new boilers that worked at 
75 lb. pressure. 



79 

239. Whole model of trading steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. Oswald & Co., 1867. N. 1161. 

This is a screw steamer built of iron at Sunderland in 1867, for the 
Baltic, Mediterranean or coal trade. 

The engines were simple, with two cylinders 36 in. diam., by 26 in. stroke. 

Displacement (laden), 1,692 tons ; dead- weight of cargo, 1,120 tons ; 
length, 206 ft. ; breadth, 28 8 ft.; depth, 18-3 ft.; di-aught (light), 7 ft.; 
draught (laden), 16 ft. 

240. Half block model of S.S. " Deccan." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1878. N. 1497. 

This barque-rigged screw steamship was built of iron at Dumbarton in 
1868, by Messrs. W. Denny and Bros., for the Peninsular and Oriental 
service. 

In 1875 she was fitted with new engines and boilers by Messrs. R. and 
W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. The engines were two-stage expansion with 
cylinders 56 in. and 97 in. diam., by 54 in. stroke, indicating 2,600 h.p., 
with a boiler pressure of 68 lb. 

Gross register, 3,429 tons; length, 368-3 ft.; breadth, 42-5 ft.; depth, 
30-3 ft. 

241. Half block model of S.S. " Travancore." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1878. N. 1494. 

This screw steamer was built of iron at Kinghorn in 1868, by Mr. John 
Key, for the Peninsular and Oriental Co. 

She was re-engined in 1875 by Messrs. Humphrys, Tennant & Co. with 
two- stage expansion engines having cylinders 36 in. and 80 in. diam. by 
48 in. stroke and indicating 1,428 h.p., with a boiler pressure of 24 lb. 

Gross register, 1,903 tons ; length, 281 • 6 ft. ; breadth, 35 -5 ft. ; depth, 
27-8 ft. 

242. Half block model of P.S. "Marquis of Bute." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Barclay, Curie & Co., 1881. 

N. 1557. 

This smack-rigged iron paddle steamer was built at Glasgow in 1868 for 
passenger trafl&c on the river Clyde. 

She had a diagonal engine with a single cylinder 48 in. diam., by 60 in. 
stroke, driving feathering paddle-wheels 18 * 5 ft. diam. 

Steam at a pressure of 45 lb. was supplied by one haystack boiler 12 • 6 ft. 
diam. and 13 • 5 ft. high. 

Gross tonnage, 163 tons ; length, 192 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; depth, 7 '5 ft. 

243. Whole model of a double-ended paddle steamer. (Scale 
1 : 96.) Lent by Messrs. A. and J. Inglis, 1877. N. 1478. 

This paddle steamer was designed by Messrs. Inglis, to meet the 
requirements of Sir John Fowler's Channel Ferry scheme of 1870. She has 
an awning deck amidships, beneath which, and running nearly the whole 
length, in the centre of the vessel, is a single track of railway metals, with 
a platform on each side the length of the deck above. The idea was to run 
a train from the shore on to the metals, convey passengers and train across 
the Channel, and then run them off on to another line there. 

The indicated h.p. was estimated at 7,500, and the speed 18 knots. 
Four funnels, and a rudder at each end were provided. 

Length over all, 400 ft. ; breadth, 45 ft. ; depth, 20 ft. ; draught, 12 • 5 ft. 



80 

244. Whole model of a Channel steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by G. Mackie, Esq., 1895. ^ N. 2058. 

This model represents a vessel designed by Mr. S. J. Mackie for the 
Channel service. She was to be propelled by three pairs of paddle-wheels 
of a uniform diam, of 24 ft., working either synchronously or sepai-ately 
in two longitudinal channels or waterways, dividing her into three com- 
partments ; the centre compartment woidd caiiy the engines, boilers, coals, 
and cargo, and the two outside ones cargo and stores. Other modes of 
propulsion could, however, be fitted, and the waterway might be single, and 
placed in the centre. She was to be double-ended so as to go either ahead 
or astern with equal facility. The saloon was to be 300 ft. long, 60 ft. 
broad, and 12 • 5 ft. high. 

Her leading dimensions were to be : — Length, 400 ft. ; breadth, 80 ft. ; 
draught, 6 • 5 f t. 

245. Half block model of S.S. " Edinburgh Castle." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Donald Currie & Co., 1878. 

N. 1508. 

This brig-rigged iron screw steamer was built at Glasgow in 1872 for the 
Cape trade. 

The engines were two-stage expansion, with cylinders 44 in. and 72 in. 
diam., by 42 in. stroke ; the boiler pressure was 63 lb. 

Tonnage, 2,678 tons; length, 335 ft.; breadth, 37-6 ft. ; depth, 28 -16 ft. 

246. Half block model of S.S. ''Cathay" and " Hydaspes." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. W. Denny and Bros., 
1894. N. 1361. 

These three-masted schooner-rigged iron screw steamers were built at 
Dumbarton in 1872 for the Peninsular and Oriental service. 

Their engines were two- stage expansion, with cylinders 50 in. and 86 in. 
diam., by 54 in. stroke, indicating 2,500 h.p. with a boiler pressure of 65 lb. 

Tonnage (b.m.), 2,723 tons ; gross, 2,984 tons ; length, 360 ft. ; breadth, 
39 ft.; depth, 31 -25 ft. 

247. Half block model of S.Ss. '; Malwa " and " Bokliara." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam 
Navigation Co., 1878. N. 1491. 

These two screw- steamships were built of iron at Greenock in 1873, for 
the Peninsular and Oriental Co. 

The engines were inverted surface- condensing two- stage expansion with 
cylinders 50 in. and 86 in. diam., by 54 in. stroke, indicating 2,500 h.p. 
Steam was supphed at a pressm'e of 60 lb. 

Gross register, 2,959 tons ; length, 360 • 83 ft. ; breadth, 39 ft. ; depth, 
31 -25 ft. 

248. Half block model of S.S. "Venetia." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by Messrs. W. Denny and Bros., 1894. N. 1360. 

This is one of four barque-rigged iron screw steamers, built at Dumbarton 
in 1873 for the Peninsular and Oriental Co. 

The engines were two-stage expansion, with cylinders 50 in. and 86 in. 
diam., by 54 in. stroke. The boiler pressm'e was 65 lb. 

Gross register, 2,726 tons; length, 351 "7 ft.; breadth, 38 • 3 ft. ; depth, 
27-8 ft. 

249. Half block model of P.S. "Hankow." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. A. and J. Inglis, 1881. N. 1553. 

This paddle steamer was built of iron at Glasgow in 1873 for service on 
Chinese rivers. She is constructed on similar lines to the American river 
steamers. 



81 

The engine lias a single cylinder 72 in. diam., by 168 in. stroke, indicating 
1,840 h.p., and a walking beam dinving the paddle shaft on which are the 
wheels 38 ft diam., with alternating half -floats. The speed is 13 knots per 
horn*. The steam pressure is 35 lb. per sq. in., and the coal consumption at 
full power 2 tons per hoiir. 

She has passenger accommodation foi-vl^ Europeans, also for 188 Chinese 
— 18 first and 170 second class. 

Gross register, 3,073 tons ; length, 308 ft. ; breadth, 42 ft. ; depth, 
15 • 75 ft. ; load draught, 11 ft. 

250. Half block model of S.Ss. "Kliiva" and '' Kashgar." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam 
Navigation Co., 1878. N. 1489. 

These brig-rigged steamers were built of iron at Sunderland in 1874 for 
the Peninsular and Oriental Co.'s service. They had five bulkheads, two 
decks, three tiers of beams, and a forecastle 29 ft. long. 

The engines were two- stage expansion, with cylinders 50 in. and 86 in. 
diam., by 51 in. stroke, and indicated 2,200 h.p. with a boiler pressure of 
70 lb. 

Gross tonnage, 2,661 tons ; length, 360 ft. ; breadth, 26 • 5 ft. ; depth, 
29 -25 ft. 

251. Half block model of S.S. "Guadiana." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by tbe London and Glasgow Engineering and Iron 
Shipbuilding Co., 1881. N. 1554. 

This three-masted schooner-rigged iron screw steamer was built at 
Glasgow in 1874, for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. 

The engines were two-stage expansion, with inverted cylinders 46 in. and 
82 in. diam., by 45 in. stroke. 

Gross tonnage, 2,504 tons ; length, 330 ft. ; breadth, 36 ft. ; depth, 
28-5 ft. 

252. Oil painting of S.S. ''City of Richmond." Lent by 
S. E. Slader, Esq., 1879. N. 1526. 

This was painted by Mr. Slader and represents a ship-rigged steamer 
built of iron at Glasgow in 1874 by Messrs. Tod and MacGregor, for the 
Inman Steamship Co., now the American L'ne. 

She is propelled by a two-stage expansion engine, with cylinders 68 in. 
and 120 in. diam., by 60 in. stroke. 

Gross register, 4,780 tons ; length, 440 • 8 ft. ; breadth, 43 • 5 ft. : depth, 
341 ft. 

253. Half block model of S.Ss. "Martaban" and ''Irrawaddy." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Presented by Messrs. W. Denny and Bros., 
1894. N. 1359. 

These three-masted, schooner-rigged, iron screw steamers were built at 
Dumbarton in 1874 for the British and Burmese Steam Navigation Co. The 
hulls had two decks, three tiers of beams, and five bulkheads. 

Their engines were two- stage expansion, with cylinders 41 in. and 70 in. 
diam., by 42 in. stroke ; the boiler pressure was 60 lb. 

Gross register, 2,514 tons ; length, 340 ft. ; breadth, 36 ft. ; depth, 28 ft. 

254. Whole model of P.S. ''Javary." (Scale 1: 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. Laird Bros., 1879. N. 1516. 

This light draught paddle -steamer was built at Birkenhead in 1874, for 
the Amazon Steam Navigation Co. 

The engines are two-stage expansion oscillating, with two cylinders, 
indicating 550 h.p. 

Tonnage, 601 tons ; length, 161 ft. ; breadth, 28 ft. ; depth, 10 ft, ; 
draught, with 190 tons of cargo, 6 ft. 

u 6773. F 



82 

255. Whole model of Indian famine relief steamer. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Presented by J. K. Rennie, Esq., 1893. N. 1412. 

Six of these light -draught river steamers were built of iron and engined 
by Messrs. J. and Gr. Rennie, of Greenwich, in 1874. They were required 
for the conveyance of grain up shallow rivers, during the Indian Famine of 

1874. They were constructed to carry 27 tons of grain on a draught of 3 ft. 
and were conveyed to their destinations in sections. 

The first vessel was built and engined in 35 working days from the date 
of order, February 24th, 1874. 

Each vessel had two sets of single cylinder engines, 12 in. diam. by 
10 in. stroke, indicating 100 h.p., and driving twin screws, which gave a 
speed of 9 knots. Steam at 60 lb. pressiu*e was supplied by a cylindi-ical 
return-tube boiler. 

Tonnage (b.m.), 85 tons ; length, 90 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; depth of hold, 
6-5 ft. 

256. Half block model of P.S. " Aloungpyali." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. R. Duncan & Co., 1876. N. 1425. 

This light draught iron paddle steamer was built at Port Glasgow in 

1875, to caiTy passengers and cargo on the Irawadi from Rangoon to Bhama, 
a distance of nearly 1,000 miles. This model illustrates the method of 
carrying a spar deck with a wooden awning ; also details of the upper deck 
fittings. 

The engines are two-stage expansion with diagonal cylinders 31 in. and 
53 in. diam., by 54 in. stroke. Steam at 70 lb. pressure is supplied by two 
hoi-izontal cylindrical tubular boilers. The coal bunkers caiTy 100 tons of 
coal, sufficient for a voyage from Rangoon to Mandalay and back, 1,400 
miles. 

Tonnage (b.m.), 825 tons ; length, 245 ft. ; breadth, 26 ft. ; depth, 8 ft. 

257. Whole model of P.Ss. " Rose " and " Shamrock." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Laird Bros., 1879. N. 1517. 

These two paddle steamers were bmlt of iron at Birkenhead in 1876 for 
the conveyance of passengers and mails between Holyhead and Kingstown. 

The engines have two inverted cylinders 78 in. diam. by 84 in. stroke, 
indicating 3,000 h.p. 

Gross register, 1,186 tons; length, 293-3 ft.; breadth, 32 ft.; depth, 
16 • 6 f t. ; load draught, 10 • 6 ft. 

258. Whole model of S.S. "Han Kwang." (Scale 1: 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Laird Bros., 1879. N. 1515. 

This iron screw steamer was built at Birkenhead in 1876 for the Chinese 
coasting trade. She has two decks and an awning deck, also five bulkheads. 

Her engines are inverted two- stage expansion, with cylinders 34 in. and 
57 in. diam., by 33 in. stroke, which, with a boiler pressure of 60 lb. indicate 
800 h.p. 

Gross tonnage, 1,233 tons ; length, 230 ft. ; breadth, 33 ft. ; depth, 
22 • 25 ft. ; load di-aught, 12 • 5 ft. 

259. Half block model of S.S. " Devonia." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Barrow Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
1877. N. 1479. 

This barque-rigged iron screw steamer was built at BaiTow-in-Fumess 
in 1876 for the Atlantic service of the Anchor line. She had two decks and 
a spar deck, four tiers of beams, and seven bulkheads. 

Her engines were two -stage expansion, with cylinders 59 in. and 107 in. 
diam., by 48 in. stroke. Steam was supplied at a pressui-e of 65 lb. 

Tonnage, 4,500 tons ; length, 400 ft. ; breadth, 42 ft. ; depth, 25 ft. 



83 

260. Half block model of screw steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.) Wood- 
croft Bequest, 1903. N. 1337. 

This represents an iron-built cargo steamer with a " well-deck," an 
arrangement that has since been generally abandoned. 

Gross register, 1,006 tons ; length, extreme, 216 ft. ; breadth, 28 ft. ; 
depth, 18 ft. 

261. Half block model of proposed Atlantic steamer. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Lent by Messrs. J. and G. Thomson, 1877. N. 1472. 

This represents an iron-built passenger and cargo steamer which was to 
Ibe fitted with engines indicating 4,500 h.p. and driving a single screw. 

Gross register, 4,858 tons ; length, 450 ft. ; breadth, 45 ft. ; depth, 
moulded, 35 ft. 

262. Rigged model of P.Ss. "Brigliton" and "Victoria." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by the London, Brighton, and South 
Coast Railway Co.,, 1878. N. 1510, 

These schooner-rigged paddle steamers were built of steel at Glasgow 
in 1878, for the service between Newhaven and Dieppe. 

The engines are inverted two- stage expansion with cylinders 48 in. and 
83 in. diam., by 60 in. stroke, giving a speed of 16*8 knots, with a boiler 
pressure of 80 lb. 

Gross register, 531 tons ; length, 220 ft. ; breadth, 27 • 5 ft. ; depth, 
moulded, 11-6 ft. 

263. Half block model of P.S. " Violet." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. Laird Bros., 1879. N. 1518. 

This vessel was built of steel at Birkenhead in 1879, for the Irish mail 
service of the London and North "Western Railway Co. The quarter deck 
is 99 ft., the bridge deck 90 ft., and the forecastle 96 ft. in length. 

The engines had a pair of oscillating cylinders 78 in. diam. by 84 in. 
stroke, indicating 3,200 h.p. ; in 1890 they were replaced by a three-stage 
expansion set with cylinders 44 in., 70 in. and 108 in. diam. by 78 in. stroke. 
New boilers were also fitted. 

Gross register, 1,035 tons ; length, 300 ft. ; breadth, 33 -1 ft. ; depth, 
14-4 ft. 

264. Rigged model of S.S. ''Arizona." (Scale 1: 48.) 
Lent by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
1901. N. 2267. 

This four- masted, barque -rigged screw steamer was built of iron and 
«ngined at Glasgow in 1879, by Messrs. J. Elder & Co., for the Guion 
Steamship Co.'s transatlantic service ; she commenced a new era by a record 
passage from Queenstown to Sandy Hook of 7 "3 days. In November, 1879, 
while travelling at the speed of 14 knots in mid-ocean, she ran into an 
iceberg which crushed in her bow for a length of 26 ft. and to a depth of 
14 ft. below water-line, but she was effectually protected from foundering by 
her collision bulkhead. 

The vessel has four decks, the upper and main being continuous and 
covered with wood ; the lower deck is only plated amidships, while the 
orlop deck extends from the machinery space to each end ; there is also a 
bridge 34 ft. long and a forecastle of 74 ft. She is built with a bar keel 
12 in. deep and a stem 9 in, by 5 • 5 in. ; there are eleven bulkheads, eight of 
which are watertight. 

Her original engines were an inverted two-stage expansion set, with one 
high-pressure cylinder, 62 in. diam,, and two low-pressure cylinders of 90 in. 
diam. by 66 in. stroke. Steam at 90 lb. pressure was supplied by seven 
Scotch boilers 13*5 ft. diam. On trial with an indicated h.p. of 6,357 and 
56 revs, per min., she attained a speed of 17 '3 knots. 



84 

In 1898 her engines were altered by the Fairfield Company to a three- 
stage expansion set, with cylinders 34* 5 in., 56 in., and 92 in. diam., and the 
original stroke of 66 in. Steam at 180 lb. pressure is supplied by three 
double and two single-ended boilers, having in all 24 corrugated fm-naces, a 
grate surface of 468 sq. ft., and a heating sm'face of 14,578 sq. ft. With 
this machinery the same i.h.p. and speed are obtained with a considerably 
reduced coal consumption. 

Gross register, 5,305 tons; length, 450*2 ft. ; breadth, 45-4 ft. ; depth, 
35 -7 ft. 

265. Rigged model oE S.S. " Orient." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Orient Steam Navigation Co., 1891. N. 1867, 

This four-masted barque-rigged steamer was built of iron at Glasgow 
in 1879, for the Australian trade, by Messrs. John Elder & Co. She has 
four decks — ^two iron and one partly iron — the upper deck being sheathed 
with Avood ; the double bottom aft is 54 ft., and the midship deep tank 28 ft. 
long, both of which could be filled with water ballast ; her bar keel is 12 in. 
deep, and she has eight bulkheads. 

The engines are two-stage expansion, ^vith one high pressure cylinder 
60 in. and two low pressure cylinders 85 in. diam. by 60 in. stroke^ 
indicating 5,400 h.p., driving a right-handed, four-bladed propeller 
22 ft. diam., and 30 ft. pitch, at 58 to 62 revs, per min. The boss of the 
propeller is of annealed cast iron ; the blades are of steel, cast by Messrs. 
Yickers, Sons & Co., of SheflB.eld, and are bent backwards to prevent 
vibration. Steam at a pressure of 75 lb. is supplied by four circular double- 
ended boilei*s, 15 '5 ft. diam. by 17*25 ft. long, with six furnaces 4 ft. diam. 
and 6 ft.^long, giving a grate area of 264 sq. ft. The bunkers hold 3,000 tons 
of coal, or more than sufficient for the voyage out to Australia by the long 
sea route, via the Cape of Good Hope. She can cany 3,600 measurement 
tons of 40 cub. ft. of cargo, and has accommodation for 220 saloon, 
130 second, and 300 steerage passengers. 

Displacement, 9,500 tons ; gross register, 5,365 tons ; length, 445 • 5 ft. ; 
breadth, 46*25 ft. ; depth, 35*08 ft. 

266. Whole model of S.S. " Vindobala." (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Lent by Messrs. Hepple & Co., 1882. N. 1582. 

This schooner-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Newcastle in 
1879. She has one iron deck, and two tiers of beams, five bulkheads, a 
bridge deck 96 ft. and forecastle 32 ft. long. Her double bottom aft is 
62 ft., forward 72 ft., and under the engine and boiler room 32 ft. long, with 
a capacity of 32 tons ; there is also a fore-peak tank of 35 tons, and an 
aft«r-peak tank of 40 tons capacity. 

Her engines are two-stage expansion with cylinders 33 in. and 62 in. 
diam. by 42 in. stroke. The boiler pressure is 80 lb. 

Gross register, 1,744 tons; length, 261 ft.; breadth, 34*25 ft.; depth, 
21*66 ft. 

267. Whole model of stern wheel steamer "Inez Clarke." 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by Messrs. Yarrow & Co., 
1900. Plate V., No. 2. " N. 2256. 

This shallow draught steamer and a sister vessel, the " General 
Troquilla," were built in 1879 by Messrs. Yarrow & Co. for the United 
States of Colombia, to be employed in the mail service on the river 
Magdalena. They attained a speed of 15 miles an hour. 

They were constructed of galvanised steel plates, from * 12 to * 19 in. in 
thickness, and divided into eighteen watertight compartments ; the engines 
are placed aft and act directly on to the paddle-wheel shaft, while, to 
distribute the weights, the boiler is at the fore part of the ship. To resist 
hogging and generally give longitudinal strength to the structure, two deep 
trusses are introduced so as to supply this stiffness with a minimum of 
weight ; these also form the supports for the two flying decks, upon which 



85 

the saloon accommodation is provided. The rods of the trusses have screw 
adjustments, by which initial stresses can be applied, for the pui-pose of 
a, voiding vibration of the members. 

The engines are of the two-stage expansion type, with a high pressure 
cylinder, 15 in. diam., on one side, and a low pressure cylinder, of 27 in. 
diam., on the other; the stroke of each is 4*5 ft. Gooch's stationary link 
motion is used, and the engines are fitted with a detached sui-face condenser 
of cylindrical form. The air and circulating pumps are di'iven by an 
independent engine. 

The boiler is of the locomotive type, with a divided fire-box and large 
gi-ates suitable for burning wood ; the two grates are fired alternately, and 
forced draught from a fan is delivered into the closed ash-pit. The fan also 
-assists in ventilating the various saloons, and the fan engine is fitted for 
driving a circular saw when required for cutting up the timber used as fuel. 
Under ordinary conditions, with 160 lb. boiler pressure, 250 indicated h.p. is 
developed, but there is an arrangement by which boiler steam, lowered to 
60 lb. pressure by a reducing valve, can be directly admitted into the low 
pressure cylinder so as to obtain additional power when rapids have to be 
ascended. With a draught of 15 in. these vessels have obtained a speed of 
over 13 knots. Owing to the very small immersion, three rudders are fitted, 
the centre one of which is of the balanced type. 

Displacement, light, about 73 tons ; length, 130 ft. ; breadth, 28 ft. ; 
draught, 12 in. ; draught with a load of 90 tons, 24 in. 

268. Rigged model of S.S. " Athenian." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Union Steam Ship Co., 1897. N. 2154. 

This three-masted, schooner-rigged steamer was built of iron at Glasgow 
in 1881 by Messrs. Aitken and Mansel, for the South African service. She 
has three decks, eight bulkheads, a bridge deck 102 ft. long, forecastle 42 ft., 
and a water ballast capacity of 370 tons in a cellular double bottom 
^20 ft. long. 

Her engines were altered in 1886 to a three-stage expansion set, with 
cyUnders 36 in., 58 in., and 94 in. diameter, by 54 in. stroke. Steam at 
160 lb. pressure is supplied by three double-ended steel boilers, with 18 
corrugated fui'naces. 

Gross register, 3,882 tons ; length, 365 ft. ; breadth, 45 "8 ft. ; depth 
of hold, 29 ft. 

269. Half block model of S.S. " Aastral." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Orient Steam Navigation Co., 1882. N. 1574. 

This screw steamer was built at Glasgow in 1881, for the Australian 
trade, by Messrs. John Elder & Co. She has four masts, schooner-rigged, 
and a sail area of 28,000 sq. ft. The bottom is double, with 19 water- 
tight compartments, and there are 13 watertight bulkheads in her hull. 
She is built of mild steel, and has a total water baUast capacity of 1,000 
tons. She has been built to suit the requirements of the Admii-alty for a 
war cruiser, and is specially strengthened to caiTy guns. 

The engines are two-stage expansion, with one cylinder of 63 in., and 
two of 86 in. diam., by 60 in. stroke. Steam is supplied at a pressure of 
^95 lb. by four double-ended steel boilers, 16 ft. diam. and 17 ft. long, with 
six furnaces in each, and a total grate area of 688 sq. ft. She indicated 
7,114 h.p., giving a speed of 17*3 knots, and the coal consumed was at the 
rate of 1 * 3 lb. per indicated h.p. per hour. She could steam from England 
to Austi*alia at her full speed without re-coaling or interference with her 
ordinary cargo and passengers. 

In November 1882, the " Austral " sank in Sydney Harbour in 50 ft. of 
-water ; the ports had been left open, and the vessel filled owing to a heavy 
list due to unequal coaling. She was raised in March, 1883, and soon 
restored to her original condition. (See photographs, N. 1820, presented by 
Sir Herbert Sandford, 1888.) 

Displacement at load line, 9,500 tons ; gross register. 5,524 tons ; length, 
455 ft. ; breadth, 48 • 25 ft. ; depth, 37 ft. 



S6 

270. Rigged model of S.S. "Servia." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Cunard Steamship Co., Ltd., 1907. N. 2437. 

This barque-rigged steel steamer was built and engined at Glasgow in 
1881-2 by Messrs. J. and G. Thomson for the Cunard Co.'s Livei-pool and 
New York service. She was the largest vessel afloat at that date, with 
the exception of the " Great Eastern"; she was also the first cargo vessel 
constructed throughout of Siemens mild steel and the first Cunarder to« 
be lighted electrically. Her record Atlantic passage was 7 days 1 hour 
38 mins. 

The lower portions of the ship were framed on the cellular system^ 
combined with a centre-through-plate keel which was built up in five- 
thicknesses and hydraulically riveted. The main hull was sub-divided by 
twelve watertight bulkheads, eight of which were extended to the main 
deck. Orlop, lower, main, and upper decks were fitted in addition to a 
promenade deck for passengers. 

In a steel-protected steering house at the stem, provision was made for- 
foui' separate methods of steering : (i) A steam gear ; (ii) A hand screw 
gear ; (iii) A hand double -purchase chain gear ; (iv) Tackles acting directly 
on a large horizontal wheel instead of the usual quadrant attached to the 
mdder head. Cunningham's patent self-reefing sail gear was fitted to the 
fore and main topsail yards. Accommodation was provided for 500 to 
600 first-class passengers and about 700 others. 

The vessel was propelled by two-stage expansion engines having a high 
pressure cylinder 72 in. diam. and two low pressure cylinders each 100 in.. 
diam. with a common stroke of 78 in. Steam was supplied by seven boilers,, 
six of which were double-ended with six furnaces each and one single- ended 
with three furnaces, the whole 39 furnaces being constructed with Fox's 
corrugated flues. On light draught trials, with steam at 90 lb. per sq. in., 
and engines indicating 10,300 h.p. she realised a speed of 17*8 knots. 

The "Servia" was included in the Admii-alty list of auxiliary cruisers 
^nd could under war conditions carry sufficient coal to steam 16,400 miles 
at her normal full speed, i.e., 16 7 knots. 

Displacement, 12,300 tons ; gross register, 7,392 tons ; length (overall),. 
540 ft. ; breadth, 52-1 ft. ; depth, 37 ft. ; draught (mean), 26 ft. 

271. Whole model of S.S. "City of Rome." (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Lent by the Barrow Shipbuilding and Engineering Co.^ 
1882. N. 1580. 

This four-masted, schooner-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at 
Ban'ow in 1882 for the Anchor Line of Atlantic steamships. 

She has four decks (three of iron) and is divided by ten bulkheads ; the 
double bottom is 107 ft. long, with a capacity of 376 tons ; the coal bunkers. 
are along the sides of the ship and foi-m part of the structure. 

The engines are two- stage expansion, inverted tandem, with three pau's 
of cylinders 43 in. and 86 in. diam., by 72 in. stroke, indicating 11,890 h.p. 

Steam at 90 lb. pressure is supplied by eight steel boilers, 19 ft. long by 
14 ft. diam., giving a grate area of 1,398 sq. ft., and 29,286 sq. ft. of 
heating sui-face. The propeller is 24 ft. diam., and the speed on trial was 
18 -23 knots. 

Displacement, 11,230 tons ; gross tonnage, 8,141 tons ; length, 560 ft. ;. 
breadth, 52-25 ft. ; depth, 37 ft. 

272. Half block model of proposed Atlantic steamer. (Scale- 
1 : 64.) Lent by Messrs. McMillan and Son, 1882. 

N. 1584. 

This half block model represents a design for a large twin-screw steamer 
for the Atlantic service. 

The hull was to be divided into 44, and the double-bottom into 22 water- 
tight compartments, with a water-ballast capacity of 1,800 tons. 



87 

Two distinct sets of engines, each of the 4-cylinder inverted three-stage 
expansion type, with one cylinder 44 in,, one of 66 in., and two of 100 in. 
diam. by 72 in. stroke were provided for. These were estimated to indicate 
20,000 h.p. at 59 revs, per min., and to give the vessel a speed of 20 knots 
on a 23 ft. draught. The propellers were to be 22 ft. diam. and 35 ft. 
pitch. Steam at 125 lb. .pressure was to be supplied by twelve steel 
boilers with six furnaces in each. The accommodation would be for 
1,134 passengers with a ship's company of 300, or else for 4,000 troops. 

The details of the proposed vessel are : — Displacement at 26 ft. draught, 
19,835 tons ; weight of vessel complete for sea, 12,500 tons ; dead weight 
capacity at 26 ft. draught, 7,335 tons ; tonnage, gross, 10,000 tons ; length, 
600 ft. ; breadth, 70 ft. ; depth, 39 feet ; immersed midship section, lad^n, 
1,537 sq. ft. ; wetted surface, laden, 52,207 sq. ft. 

273. Half block model of P.S. "Barrow Express." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by the Barrow Shipbuilding and Engineering 
Co., 1882. • N. 1581. 

This vessel was designed in 1881-2 for a high speed sei'vice between 
BaiTow-in-Fumess and Douglas, Isle of Man. 

The engines were to be two two-stage expansion sets, with oscillating 
cylinders, 50 in. and 88 in. diam., by 72 in. stroke, indicating 5,000 h.p. 
Steam at 85 lb. pressure was to be supplied by four doubled-ended steel 
boilers. The feathering float wheels were to be 24 ft. diam., and to have 
each ten steel floats. 

Register, 1,595 tons; length, 320 ft.; breadth, 38*25 ft.; depth, 
14-42 ft. 

In 1885 the paddle steamer " Mona's Queen " was built of steel on this 
design. 

274. Rigged model of P.S. "Ho-Nam." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. A. and J. Inglis, 1891. N. 1865. 

This schooner-rigged paddle steamer was built of steel at Glasgow in 
1882, for the conveyance of passengers and cargo, principally between Hong 
Kong and Canton. There are three decks 9 ft. apart, the lower one of which 
is of steel, for cargo, while the two above it are of wood. The sponsons, 
supported in the usual way by beams and stays, are carried entirely round 
the ship. 

The engines are two-stage expansion of the overhead beam type, with 
cylinders 40 in. and 72 in. diam., by 120 in. stroke, and at 33 revs, per min., 
indicate 2,900 h.p., and give a speed of 16 • 25 knots. The beam is 23 ft. 
long, 11 ft. deep, and weighs 14 tons, while the connecting rod is 23 ft. long. 
The surface condenser, of 5,395 sq. ft. area, is placed alongside the cylinders, 
while the pumps are worked by a rod from the beam. 

Steam at 75 lb. pressure is supplied by three double-ended steel boilers, 
placed athwartships, and fired from the wings. They are 14 ft. diam., 14 ft. 
long, and have in all 18 furnaces, giving a grate area of 297 sq. ft., and a 
heating surface of 7,939 sq. ft. 

The paddle-wheels are 21 ft. diam., and are built entirely of steel, with 
feathering floats 15 ft. by 4 ft. 

Gross register, 2,364 tons; length, 270 feet; breadth, 38 ft.; depth, 
13-25 ft. 

275. Rigged model of H.M. telegraph S.S. " Monarch." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by W. R. Culley, Esq., 1885. N. 1691. 

This schooner-rigged iron screw steamer was built at Port Glasgow 
in 1883, for the Telegraph Department of the Post Office. She was designed 
for laying and repairing submarine cables, is double-bottomed, and has 
three cable tanks. There are cable sheaves at the bow and stem, for picking 
up or laying, and she is capable of carrying fuel and other stores sufficient 
for six weeks' work. 



88 

The engines are two-stage expansion, with inverted cylinders 30 in. and 
50 in. diam. by 48 in. stroke, indicating 1,040 h.p., and driving a single 
propeller. The boiler pressure is 80 lb. 

Displacement at 16 ft. draught, 2,135 tons ; gross register, 1,122 tons ; 
length, 240 ft. ; breadth, 33 ft. ; moulded depth, 20 ft. 

276. Rigged model of S.S. " Clan Macarthur." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Cayzer, Irvine & Co., 1888. N. 1808. 

This schooner-rigged screw steamer was built of steel at Greenock in 
1883 for cargo and passenger traffic to the East. She has three steel decks, 
the upper sheathed with wood ; the bridge deck is 144 ft. and the forecastle 
48 ft. long. 

Her engines were two-stage expansion, with cylinders 48 in. and 86 in. 
diam., by 60 in. stroke, and indicated 2,376 h.p. Steam was supplied by 
two boilers, having twelve con-ugated furnaces. 

In 1893 the engines were altered to three-stage expansion, with cylinders 
30*5 in., 48 in., and 82 in. diam,, with a stroke of 60 in. Steam at 160 lb. 
pressure is supplied under forced draught by two single -ended steel boilers, 
with eight ribbed furaaces, a grate area of 160 sq. ft., and 6,411 sq. ft. of 
heating surface. 

Gross register, 3,994 tons; length, 382 ft,; breadth, 44 ft.; depth, 
28 ft. 

277. Rigged model of S.S. " City of Chicago." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Inman and International Steamship Co., 1887. 

N. 1728. 

This four-masted, barque-rigged steamer was built of iron at Glasgow 
in 1883 by Messrs. C. Connell & Co,, for the Atlantic sein^ice. She had 
four decks, two of which were iron, and seven bulkheads. 

The engines were two -stage expansion with one cylinder 56 in. and two 
of 80 in. diam., with a stroke of 60 in., indicating 5,000 h.p., and driving a 
single screw. Steam at 90 lb. pressure was supplied by four double-ended 
and two single-ended steel boilers, having a total of 30 furnaces. 

Gross register, 5,202 tons ; length, 430 ft. ; breadth, 45 ft. ; depth, 
33-5 ft. 

278. Whole model of telegraph S.S. "Britannia." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by the Telegraph Construction and Mainte- 
nance Co., 1892. N. 2007. 

This twin-screw, schooner-rigged steamer was built of steel at Birken- 
head in 1885, by Messrs. Laird Bros., and was specially constnicted for 
laying and repairing submarine telegraph cables. She has five watertight 
bulkheads, and a double bottom foi-ward, 64 ft. in length, with a water 
ballast capacity of 205 tons, while there is a deep tank aft, 40 ft. long, with 
a capacity of 112 tons. 

She is propelled by two sets of two-stage expansion engines, with 
cylinders 26 in. and 45 in. diam., by 30 in. stroke, which, with a boiler 
pressure of 75 lb., together indicate 1,350 h.p., and give a speed of 12 knots. 

The apparatus for laying the cable is shoAvn on the after part of the 
model, whilst the picking-up gear is placed forward. 

Gross legister, 1,525 tons; length, 247 • 2 ft. ; breadth, 34 '3 ft.; depth, 
17-4 ft. 

279. Whole model and drawings of S.Ss. '* Crocus" and 
" Snowdrop." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Flannery 
and Fawcus, 1885. N. 1678. 

These Mersey river feiTy boats were built at Preston in 1885 by Messrs. 
W. Allsup and Sons, from designs by Messrs. Flannery and Fawcus, for the 



89 

service between Liverpool and Wallasey. They are both constinicted of mild 
steel throughout, and are divided into 18 watertight compartments ; both 
ends are alike, so that they can go ahead or astern with equal ease. 

They have each two complete sets of two- stage expansion engines, with 
inverted cylinders of 18 in. and 37 in. diam., by 24 in. stroke. Two steel 
boilers supply steam at 100 lb. pressure, ^ They are fitted with twin-screws 
at each end, and their speed on trial was 11 knots. 

With the model is a coloured sectional drawing of the " Crocus." 
Tonnage (b.m.), 731-5 tons; length, 130 ft.; breadth, 35 ft.; depth, 
11 -42 ft. 

280. Wliole model of a ferry steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. William Simons & Co., 1894. N. 2036. 

This shows an arrangement of ferry steamer with a raising and lowering 
deck, which can be maintained at the quay level whatever the state of the 
tide, thus facilitating the taking on board of passengers and vehicles. 

The movable deck is carried between 16 square vei-tical guides, 
aiTanged in pairs. Between each pair is a sliding frame, fixed to the deck 
and having in the centre a nut through which a square-threaded screw 
passes. There are eight of these screws, and they are all turned simul- 
taneously by an engine placed below the main deck and connected with the 
screws by worm gearing. The screws are supported by collars carried by 
bearings at the top of the guides, and so become adjustable suspension rods 
instead of columns. 

The boat is flat-bottomed, to diminish the draught, and this example is 
propelled by paddle-wheels. The boat is designed to carry 2,000 passengers, 
and 20 horse vehicles. 

Length, 170 ft. ; breadth, 52 ft. depth, 11 ft. 

281. Whole model of P.S. " Orlando." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by Messrs. Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell & Co., 1887. 

N. 1725. 

This river passenger steamer was built on the Tyne in 1885, for service 
on the Thames between Greenwich and Battersea. It differs from the 
earlier " penny boats " in having large and well lighted saloons aft and 
forward, also in having the engines controlled from the deck, imder the 
bridge. 

The engine is two- stage expansion with inclined cylinders 15 in. and 
30 in. diam., by 24 in. stroke ; steam at 100 lb. pressure is supplied by a 
cylindrical return- tube boiler with two furnaces. When driving the paddle- 
wheels at 44 revs, per min. the indicated h.p. was 100, the speed 10 knots, 
and the coal consumption about 1 • 25 tons in 12 hours. The wheels are 
9 ft. diam., and each has seven curved feathering floats, 4*6 ft. long by 
1-8 ft. deep. 

The crew consists of a master, mate, two deck hands, an engineer, and 
a stoker. The vessel is certified to carry 300 passengers. 

Displacement, light, 77 tons ; gross register, 70 • 6 tons ; net register, 
34-9 tons ; length, 100-5 ft. ; breadth, 14-1 ft. ; depth, 6*1 ft. ; draught of 
water, loaded, 3 • 5 f t. 

282. Rigged model of P.S. " Ozone." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. Napier, Shanks and Bell, 1888. N. 1814. 

This paddle steamer was built of steel at Glasgow in 1886 for the Bay 
Excm'sion Co., Melbourne. The engines are two-stage expansion, with 
inclined cylinders 47 in. and 85 in. diam., by 66-in, stroke, and indicate 
2,680 h.p. at 47 • 5 revs, per min. Steam is supplied at 90 lb. pressure by 
six steel boilers 7 ' 75 ft. diam. by 15 ft. long, which are fitted with forced 
draught. The paddle wheels are 21 8 ft. diam., and each have nine 
feathering floats of wood. The speed of the vessel is 18 • 24 knots. 

She has one deck and a promenade deck. 

Gross register, 572 tons ; length, 260 ft. ; breadth, 28 ft. ; depth, 11*4 ft. 



90 

283. Half block model of S.Ss. "Glengyle" and " Glensliiel/^ 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by tbe London and Glasgow Engi- 
neering and Iron Shipbuilding Co., 1888. N. 1810. 

These three-masted schooner-rigged screw steamers were built of steel 
at Glasgow in 1886 for the " Glen " line, trading between India and China. 

They have two steel decks, wood sheathed, three tiers of beams, poops 
76 ft., bridge deck 69 ft., and forecastle 53 ft. long, bar keel 11 in. deep, and 
six bulkheads. 

The engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 34 in., 53 in. and 
87 in., diam. by 54 in. stroke, indicating 3,500 h.p. Steam at 140 lb. pres- 
sure is supplied by three double-ended steel boilers with eighteen furnaces^ 
and a grate area of 318 sq. ft. 

Gross register, 3,455 tons ; length, 370 ft. ; breadth, 45 ft. ; depth, 
26 -75 ft. 

284. Rigged model of S.S. " Orinoco." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Royal Mail Steam Packet Co., 1901. N. 2259. 

This schooner-rigged steamer was built of steel and engined at Greenock, 
in 1886, by Messrs. Caird & Co., for the West Indian Mail service. She 
has three decks and a spar deck, wood sheathed, while there are 10 bulk- 
heads. The vessel is propelled, at a speed of 16 knots, by engines of the 
inverted three-stage expansion type {see No. 853). 

Gross tonnage, 4,478 tons ; length on main deck, 409 -7 ft. ; breadtli 
inside, 45 ft. ; depth to main deck, 25 • 4 ft. 

285. Drawing of S.S. " Cambridge." (Scale 1 : 96.) Lent 
by the Great Eastern Railway Co., 1891. N. 1873. 

This is a sectional elevation of the vessel, with plans of the upper, main, 
and lower decks. 

The " Cambridge " was designed by Mr. W. G. Ramsden, for the G.E.R. 
Co.'s continental service between Harwich and the Hook of Holland. She 
was built of steel and engined at Hull in 1886 by Earle's Shipbuilding and 
Engineering Co, 

There are two sets of engines, of the two- stage expansion, inverted type, 
with cylinders 30 in. and 57 in. diam. by 36 in. stroke, giving a total of 
2,200 indicated h.p. and driving twin screws. 

Accommodation is provided for 134 first-class passengers, and portable 
fittings for 62 more during the tourist season ; second class accommodation 
is also provided for 56 passengers. 

Gross register, 1,160 tons; net register, 519 tons; length, 280-5 ft.; 
breadth, 31 ft, ; depth to ceiling, 15 • 2 ft. 

286. Half block model of S.S. "Hnbbuck." ^ (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Joseph L. Thompson and Sons, 1889. 

N. 1832. 

This three-masted schooner-rigged screw steamer was built of steel at 
Sunderland in 1886. 

She has two decks and three tiers of beams ; the poop is 37 ft, long, 
bridge deck 90 ft,, and forecastle 40 ft. ; the bar keel is 11 in, deep, and the 
bottom is double and cellular, with a baUast capacity of 407 tons. 

The engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 27 in., 42 in,, 
and 69 in, diam., by 45 in. stroke, indicating 1,800 h.p., and giving a speed 
of 12 knots. Steam is supplied at 150 lb. pressure by two double-ended 
boilers, having a grate area of 168 sq. ft. 

Displacement, 6,000 tons ; gross register, 2,749 tons ; length, 325 ft. ; 
breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, 25 • 75 ft. 



91 

287. Half block model of S.S. " Ormuz." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
J^ent by the Orient Steam Navigation Co., 1887. N. 1707. 

This four-masted barque -rigged steamer was built of steel at Glasgow 
in 1886, by the Fau-field Shipbuilding Co., for the Australian trade. She 
has four decks, and is built with a cellular double bottom 275 ft. long, which 
wiU hold 808 tons of water ballast, and there is a fore-peak tank with a. 
capacity of 38 tons ; the bar keel is 12 in. deep. 

The engines are three-stage expansion, with three cylinders, 46 in., 73 in. 
and 112 in. diam., by 72 in. stroke, which with a boiler pressure of 150 lb. 
indicated 8,500 h.p., driving a single four- bladed propeller and giving a speed 
of 17 '5 knots. 

Steam is supplied by one single-ended and six double-ended steel boilers^ 
having 38 corrugated furnaces, with a gi-ate surface of 899 sq. ft. 

Gross register, 6,031 tons ; length, 465 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 52 ft. ; depth, 19 ft. 

288. Half block model of S.S. " Twickenliam." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Watts, Ward & Co., 1890. N. 1848. 

This schooner-rigged steamer, of the " well- decked " type, was built of 
steel at West Hartlepool in 1888 for the Britain Steam Ship Co. She has. 
a cellular double bottom 254 ft. long, with a water ballast capacity of 
614 tons ; her bar keel is 11 in. deep, while the poop is 27 ft., the quarter- 
deck 98 ft., the bridge deck 112 ft., and the forecastle 32 ft. long respectively. 

The engines are three-stage expansion, with cyhnders 23 in., 37 • 5 in. 
and 61 • 5 in. diam., by 39 in. stroke. Steam at 160 lb. pressure is supplied 
by i-wo single-ended steel boilers with six corrugated furnaces giving a grate 
area of 91 sq. ft. 

Gross tonnage, 2,463 tons ; length, 300 ft. ; breadth, 38 • 5 ft. ; depth>. 
23-25 ft. 

289. Rigged model of S.S. " Islander." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. Napier, Shanks and Bell, 1888. N. 1815. 

This schooner-rigged twin-screw steamer was built of steel in 1888, for 
the Canadian Pacific Navigation Co., Victoria, B.C. 

She has two sets of three-stage expansion engines with cylinders 20 in.^ 
31 in., and 52 in. diam., by 36 in. stroke, indicating 3,000 h.p. Steam is. 
supplied at 160 lb. pressxu-e, by four steel boilers. 

Five adjacent photographs show the interior accommodation ; the dining- 
saloon is on deck, with the sleeping berths above, and a large promenade; 
deck above all. 

Tonnage, 1,500 tons ; length, 240 ft. ; breadth, 42 ft. ; depth, 14-6 ft. 

290. HaK block model of S.S. "Arbib Brothers." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Received 1907. N. 2442. 

This schooner-rigged cargo steamer was built of steel at WaUsend-on- 
Tyne in 1888 by Messrs. Swan and Hunter and was engined by Messrs. T.. 
Richardson and Son of Hartlepool. In 1897 her name was changed to* 
"Benedict." 

The half block model, as here shown, is iisually made from the original 
" draught " or drawings of the vessel before building operations are com- 
menced ; the underwater portion is built up of a number of horizontal layers- 
or sections of wood copied directly from the designer's drawings, and thus- 
furnishes in a concrete form a clear and accurate knowledge of the vessel'^ 
lines. 

This vessel was constructed with a cellular double bottom in which 
provision was made for about 420 tons of water ballast ; her hull was further 
sub-divided by five main transverse watertight bulkheads and also was fitted 
with three tiers of deck beams carrying two completed decks. 



92 

She had three-stage expansion engines with cylinders 24 in., 39 in., and 
64 in. respectively and 42 in. stroke. Steam was supplied at 160 lb. pressure 
by six single-ended boilers. 

Displacement, 4,370 tons ; gross register, 2,714 tons ; length, 320 ft. ; 
breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, moulded, 27 ft. 

291. Rigged model of S.S. " Taroba." (Scale 1 : 48.) Pre- 
sented by Messrs. Gray, Dawes & Co., 1904. N. 2360. 

This schooner-rigged steamer was built and engined by Messrs. A. and J. 
Inglis at Glasgow in 1888, for the London and Calcutta trade of the British 
India Steam J^avigation Company. 

In construction and equipment this vessel embodied most of the improve- 
ments of her time. She was built entirely of steel, with three complete 
decks and six transverse bulkheads; the forecastle was 51 ft., the boat deck 
amidships 162 ft., and the poop deck 50 ft. long respectively. Hydi-aulic 
cranes were used for working her main cargo hatches, and electric lighting 
was adopted throughout. 

Her engines were three-stage expansion with cylinders 33 in., 52 in., 
and 86 in. diam. by 60 in. stroke. With a boiler pressure of 170 lb. a speed 
of 16 knots was realised on trial. 

Accommodation was provided for 80 first class and 36 second class 
passengers. 

Gross register, 4,938 tons ; length, 410 ft. ; breadth, 46 ft. ; depth, 
moulded, 31 ft. 

292. Half block model of Woolwich ferry steamers. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the London County Council, 1910. N. 2562. 

This represents the two paddle vessels " Duncan " and " Gordon," used 
as a free ferry for passengers and vehicles across the Thames at Woolwich ; 
they were built for the London County Council in 1888-9, at Blackwall, by 
Messrs. R. and H. Green, and were engined by Messrs J. Penn and Son of 
Greenwich. 

The hull is double-ended to give facility for steaming either ahead or 
astern. Watertight sub- division is obtained by six main bulkheads, and, 
for constructional work on these vessels, iron framing with steel plating is 
largely adopted. 

Propelling engines of the diagonal tyj)e are used with four cylinders, 
each 33 in. diam. and 36 in. stroke, indicating a total of 600 h.p. ; steam is 
supplied at 30 lb. per sq. in. by two single-ended boilers. 

Gross register, 493 tons ; length, 164 ft. ; breadth, over paddles, 60 ft. ; 
load draught, 4 ft. 

293. Rigged model of S.S. " Philadelphia." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Ismay, Imrie & Co., 1909. N 2524 

This twin-screw transatlantic steamer was built and engined at Glasgow 
in 1888-9 by Messrs. J. and G. Thomson for the Inman and International 
■Steamship Co., Liverpool. She was originally named " City of Paris," which 
was altered to " Paris " in 1893. With her sister ship " City of New York " 
she was the largest vessel in service in 1889 and the earliest large ocean 
steamer in which twin-screw propulsion and forced-draught arrangements 
were adopted. She was also the first vessel to cross the Atlantic in less than 
six days (May, 1889). During the Spanish- American war (1898) she was 
chartered by the U.S.A. Government and was known as the " Yale " ; a 
number of Q.F. guns are shown in position on the model. 

She has four principal decks, including a covered upper deck for 
passengers and a continuous promenade deck above it ; the bei-th accom- 
modation provides for about 2,000 passengers. Cellular sub-division of the 
hull was a special featui'e of her design, and the aiTangement of the two sets 
of machinery on each side of a middle-line bulkhead was an innovation in 
this respect ; no doorways were cut in the main bulkheads below the water 



93 

line. She has 14 principal ti-ansverse watertight bulkheads and the double- 
bottom spaces provide for a series of water-ballast tanks extending over a 
length of 400 ft. and having a total carrying capacity of 1,550 tons. The 
value of this watertight sub- division was tested by two serious accidents. In 
1890, while off the Irish coast, one of her main propeller shafts broke and 
damage resulted to both engine rooms an(ithe adjacent portions of the hull ; 
the vessel, however, was safely floated into Queenstown. In 1899 she ran 
aground on the Manacles Rocks near Falmouth and badly injui-ed her 
external plating and framing ; again she was salved and was finally re- 
engined, lengthened and repaired by Messrs. Harland and Wolff at Belfast 
in 1900-1, after which she received her present name. 

Her original propelling engines were of three-stage expansion type using 
steam at 150 lb. per. sq. in. and developing collectively 20,000 indicated h.p. 
Her present engines are of four-stage expansion type using steam at 200 lb. 
per sq. in. and having cylinders 38 '5 in., 54 in., 76 in., 106 in. diam. by 60 in. 
stroke. She has 10 cylindrical boilers, 6 double-ended and 4 single-ended, 
giving a total heating surface of 39,618 sq. ft. 

Gross register, 10,786 tons; length, 527-6 ft. ; breadth, 63 -2 ft.; depth, 
moulded, 41 • 9 f t. 

Photographs of the original engines and of the vessel under construction, 
are shown in the collection of Marine Engines. 

294. Half block model of S.S. "Aska." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Ailsa Shipbuilding Co., 1890. N. 1846. 

This schooner-rigged steamer was built of steel at Troon, N.B., in 1889, 
for the British India Steam Navigation Co. She has a single deck and five 
bulkheads, also a shade deck. 

Her engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 16 in., 26 in., and 
42 in. diam., by 30 in. stroke, indicating 2,200 h.p. 

Steam is supplied by one double-ended boiler, with four corrugated 
furnaces, giving a grate area of 78 sq. ft. 

Gross tonnage, 527 tons ; length, 190 ft. ; breadth, 29 ft. ; depth, 
12-25 ft. 

Pnnts of the engines are shown in the collection of Marine Engines. 
{See No. 857.) 

295. Half block model of S.Ss. '* Windsor " and " Hounslow." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Watts, Ward & Co., 1890. 

N. 1849, 

These schooner-iigged steamers were built of steel at West Hartlepool in 
1890 for the Britain Steam Ship Co, They are well decked, have one iron 
deck, two tiers of beams, web frames, and a cellular double bottom 268 ft. 
long, with a water ballast capacity of 653 tons. There are five bulkheads. 
The poop is 29 ft. long, quarter-deck 102 ft., bridge deck 118 ft., and 
forecastle 31 ft. 

The engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 23 in., 37*5 in., and 
61 • 5 in. diam., by 39 in. stroke. Steam at 160 lb. pressure is supplied by 
two single-ended steel boilers with six coiTUgated furnaces, giving a grate 
area of 99 sq. ft. and 3,520 sq. ft. of heating surface. 

Gross tonnage, 2,797 tons ; length, 314-5 ft.; breadth, 40-5 ft.; depth, 
20-4 ft. 

296. Half block model and drawing of S.Ss. '' Ching Ping'' 
and " Fu Ping." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by the Blyth Ship- 
building Co., 1891. N. 1861. 

These two schooner-rigged screw steamers were built of steel at Blyth, 
Northumberland, in 1890 for the Chinese Engineering and Mining Co. 
They are constructed with web frames, and have iron decks, with poops 
33 ft., bridges 44 ft., and forecastles 29 ft. long. 



94 

Their engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 15 in., 25 in,, 
and 41 in. diam., by 24 in. stroke. 

Gross register, 886 tons; length, 215 ft.; breadth, 32-1 ft.; depth, 
13-2 ft. 

297. Rigged model of S.S. ''City of Vienna." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. George Smith and Sons, 1888. N. 1816. 

This barque-rigged steamer was built of steel by Messrs. Workman, 
CJlark & Co. at Belfast in 1890 for the East Indian passenger and cargo 
trade. She has three decks, two being of steel sheathed with wood ; the 
poop is 40 ft. long, bridge deck 162 ft., and forecastle 42 ft. 

Her engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 32 in., 53 in., and 
87-5 in. diam., by 60 in. stroke, indicating 4,000 h.p. Her speed is 
15 knots. 

Steam at 160 lb. pressure is supplied by four single-ended steel boilers, 
each 14-5 ft. diam., by 11*5 ft. long, with 12 furnaces, giving a grate area 
of 210 sq. ft., and 8,570 sq. ft. of heating sui*face ; the furnaces have forced 
draught onHowden's system ; {see No. 913). 

Gross register, 4,672 tons ; length, 412-25 ft. ; breadth, 46-6 ft. ; depth, 
29-25 ft. 

298. Rigged model of S.S. " Dunottar Castle." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
1901. N. 2269. 

This three-masted, schooner-rigged, screw steamer was built of steel and 
-engined at Glasgow, in 1890, by the Fairfield Co. for the Union- Castle line ; 
she established a record on her maiden voyage from Dartmouth to Cape 
Town (16 - 5 days) and has since broken it. 

She has a cellular double bottom, 320 ft. long, with a water ballast 
capacity of 779 tons, and is subdivided internally by seven watertight bulk- 
heads extending to the upper deck. There are two decks and a spar deck 
and four tiers of beams ; her poop is 115 ft., bridge deck 155 ft., and fore- 
castle 55 ft. in length. Accommodation is provided for 160 first class, 
100 second class and 100 third class passengers. 

The engines are a three-stage expansion set, with cylinders 38 in., 61 ' 5 
in. and 100 in. diam., by 66 in. stroke. Steam at 160 lb. pressure is supplied 
by four double-ended multitubular boilers, 15 - 25 ft. diam. and 18 • 7 ft. in. 
length, giving a total of 24 corrugated furnaces, a grate surface of 500 sq. ft., 
and a heating surface of 17,816 sq. ft. The engines indicate 7,000 h.p. and 
give a speed of 17 knots. The propeller is four-bladed, with cast steel blades 
and boss. 

Gross register, 5,465 tons ; length, 420 ft. ; breadth, 49 - 8 ft. ; moulded 
depth, 33-2 ft. 

299. Drawing of stern-wheel S. "K!enia." (Scale 1: 64.) 
Lent by Messrs. Kincaid & Co., 1891. N. 1856. 

This shows the plan, profile, and sections of the first vessel ordered by 
the Imperial British East Africa Co. for the inland navigation of their 
territories. She was built at Greenock in 1890 by Messrs. Kincaid & Co., 
and sent to Mombasa in sections. As a means of defence against natives, 
a perforated tube runs round the vessel under the gunwale moulding, by 
which boiler steam can be discharged so as to prevent boarding. A quick- 
iiring Hotchkiss gun is also carried, mounted on the promenade deck. She 
is fitted with three large rudders, the centre one being balanced, and all 
three are connected with the same yoke on the promenade deck. 

The engines are of the two-stage expansion type, with one cylinder on 
the port and the other on the starboard side. They are placed on the inner 
ends of a paii- of steel beams which cany the paddle-wheel on the outer 
•ends ; the beams rest on tmnnions, by which arrangement the immersion 
of the floats can be adjusted. The steam and exhaust passages are through 



95 

the trunnions. Steam is supplied at 120 lb, pressure by a locomotive boiler 
with capacious fire-box for burning wood. The speed is 10 knots. 

Length, 80 ft. ; breadth, 21 ft. ; draught of water, light, 1 -5 ft. ; draught 
of water, fully loaded, 3-25 ft. 

300. Sectional half model of a petroleum steamer. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Sir 'W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell 
& Co., 1892. Plate V., No. 3. N. 2006. 

This is a steamer specially designed in 1891 for the conveyance of petro- 
leum in bulk. This oil was at first carried only by wooden sailing ships, in 
barrels in the hold, whereby much space was lost and a heavy cost for 
packages incuiTed. Three ships for the conveyance of oil in bulk were 
built at Jan-ow in 1872, but were never tried, and subsequently some 
ordinary cargo vessels were altered to enable them to carry petroleum in 
tanks, but they were only partially successful. The first tank steamer used 
was the " Gliickauf ," built by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell & Co. in 1886. 

Petroleum steamers, the use of which has increased considerably in 
recent years {see Nos. 320 and 674), usually have their machinery aft, with 
oil holds up to the main deck, and a long trunk from 10 ft. to 15 ft. wide 
from the main to the spar deck ; this trunk acts as a feeder, and allows 
the oil to expand and contract without its affecting the vessel's stability 
by becoming a shifting cargo. The oil hold is divided into compartments, 
frequently by a centre line bulkhead and by transverse bulkheads about 
20 ft. apart ; the ordinary structural details are also modified so as to insure 
oil-tight joints. 

The vessels carry powerful pumps, and have large oil and water mains 
led along the main deck, with branches into the various compartments 
or tanks, and connections for pipes from the shore. The tanks may con- 
tain oil of different qualities, and can be filled or emptied separately ; the 
steamer shown has eight bulkheads, forming seven tanks 24 ft. long, while 
the engines, boilers, and pumps are in an after compartment. 

The steamer represented is of about the following dimensions : — Gross 
register, 3,000 tons ; length, 316 ft. ; breadth, 38 ft. ; depth, 30 ft. 

301. Half block model of S.S. " Ophir." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Orient Steam Navigation Co., 1893. N. 1573. 

This schooner-rigged twin-screw steamer was built of steel at Glasgow in 
1891, by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, for the Australian trade. She has four 
steel decks, two of which are sheathed with wood. 

She has two sets of three-stage expansion engines, with cylinders 34 in., 
51 '5 in., and 85 in. diam., with a stroke of 54 in. Steam at 160 lb. pressure 
is supplied by five double-ended and two single-ended steel boilers, with 
36 ribbed furnaces, giving a grate area of 756 sq. ft., and a heating surface 
of 26,000 sq. ft. The normal indicated h.p. is 9,500, and the maximum 
11,400 h.p. Her speed is from 18 to 18 • 75 knots, and she carries a total 
of 892 passengers. 

There are two manganese bronze three-bladed propellers, 17 ft. diam. 
and 23 • 25 ft. pitch. The propeller shafts project about 39 ft. aft from the 
skin of the ship, and are 23 ft. between centres. 

The " Ophir " was the first vessel in the Australian trade fitted with 
twin screws ; she has large coal capacity as her permanent bunkers, which 
are arranged alongside and between the boiler compartments, are sufficient 
to enable her to steam 15 • 5 days at 16 knots, equal to 6,000 miles. If the 
holds were also filled with fuel the vessel could steam 14,000 miles at full 
speed, or cruise 130 days at lO knots. 

Displacement, at 24 • 5 ft. di-aught, 10,600 tons ; gross register tonnage, 
€,910 tons ; length, 465 ft. ; breadth, 53 • 3 ft. ; depth, 34 • 1 ft. 

302. Rigged model of S.S. " Scot." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by 
the Union Steam Ship Co., 1898. N. 2164. 

This twin-screw schooner-rigged steamer was built of steel at Dumbarton 
in 1891, by Messrs. W. Denny and Bros., for the Cape mail service. She is 



96 

constructed with a cellidar double bottom, to contain 1,000 tons of water 
ballast, and with 14 watertight bulkheads, ten of which are caiTied up to the 
upper deck. She has five decks, of which the upper and spar deck are 
of steel, wood sheathed, and a poop and forecastle each 60 ft. long, with a 
promenade deck 256 ft. in length. 

In 1896 this vessel was lengthened by the insertion of 54 ft. immediately 
forward of the boiler compartment ; this was performed on regular launch- 
ing ways. The ship was divided by drilling out the rivets of the shell 
plating, frames, stringers, &c., in line with the midship watertight bulkhead ; 
the stanchions carrying the promenade deck were then loosened so that the 
saloon structui-e remained, while the bow portion of the hull was drawn 
foi-ward by winches. The additional part was then built up under the 
promenade deck. 

She has accommodation for 204 first-class, 105 second-class, and 100 
third-class passengers, but should occasion arise many more of the latter 
class could be provided for. 

She is propelled by two sets of thi'ee-stage expansion engines, with 
cylinders 34*5 in., 57-5 in., and 92 in. diam., by 60 in. stroke. Steam at 
170 lb. pressui-e is supplied by six double-ended steel boilers, 15 • 25 ft. diam. 
and 18 ft. long, having 36 corrugated furnaces 3*75 ft. diam,, a grate area 
of 804 sq. ft. and a heating surface of 22,964 sq. ft. The funnels reach 
98 ft. above the fire bars and 60 ft. above the deck. The boilers are placed 
in two separate watertight compartments. 

The propellers are three-bladed, 17 "5 ft. diam., 25 ft. pitch, with a 
distance of 18 ft. between their centres. 

On her trial, when di-awing 23 ft,, the engines made 80 revs, per min. and 
indicated 11,656 h.p., with a boiler pressure of 170 lb. and a vacuum of 
26 in. ; the speed was 18 • 8 knots. Her maiden trip from Southampton to 
Cape Town was accomplished in the record time of 15d. 2h. 10m. Her coal 
capacity is 3,000 tons. 

The following are the leading dimensions : — * 





Before lengthening. 


After lengthening. 


Displacement - 


10,000 tons. 


11,500 tons. 


Gross register - 


6,844 „ 


7,815 „ 


Length - 


477 ft. 


531 ft. 


Breadth 


54-7 „ 


54-8 „ 


Depth - 


25-9 „ 


25-9 „ 



303. Half block model of S.S. "Ibex." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Great Western Railway Co., 1891. N. 1872. 

This twin-screw steamer was built of steel at Birkenhead in 1891, for the 
sei'vice between Weymouth and the Channel Islands. 

She has one deck, also a poop 58 ft. long, and a biidge and forecastle 
180 ft. long. There are eight bulkheads, and capacity for 14 tons of water 
ballast in a forward tank and 26 tons aft. 

The two sets of engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 22 in., 
34 in., and 51 in. diam., by 33 in. stroke. Steam at 160 lb. pressure is 
supplied by two double-ended steel boilers, with twelve corrugated furnaces, 
and a total grate surface of 250 sq. ft. 

Gross register, 1,150 tons; length, 265 ft.; breadth, 32-5 ft.; depth, 
14-2 ft. 

304. Rigged model of S.S. '' Tynwald." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
1895. N. 2357. 

This twin-screw schooner-rigged passenger steamer was built of steel at 
G-lasgow in 1891, for the Liverpool and Douglas, Isle of Man, service. She 
has two decks, and a shelter deck ; her bar keel is 6 in. deep, and she has six 
bulkheads, while for water baUast a tank of 16 tons capacity is provided aft. 



97 

She is propelled by two sets of three-stage expansion engines, with 
cylinders 22 in., 36 in., and 57 in. diam., by 36 in. stroke. Steam at 160 lb. 
pressure is supplied by two double-ended steel boilers, with 16 ribbed 
furnaces, and a grate area of 366 sq. ft. 

Gross register, 936 tons ; length, 265 ft. ; breadth, 34 -5 ft. ; moulded 
depth, 14-5 ft. 

305. Rigged model of S.S. " Campania." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Cunard Steamship Co., 1897. N. 2054. 

This twin-screw steamer and her sister ship the " Lucania " were built 
and engined by the Fairfield Shipbuilding Co. at Glasgow in 1892, for the 
Cunard Steamshij) Co. They are rigged with two pole masts, and were built 
under Admii-alty supervision for use as armed cruisers if required. 

They have four decks, three of which are of steel, wood sheathed, and 
there is a steel promenade deck 370 ft. long, also wood sheathed. 

The propelling engines consist of two three -stage expansion sets, each in 
separate engine rooms, on either side of a dividing centre line bulkhead 
fitted with watertight doors for communication. Each set has five cylinders, 
two high pressure 37 in., one intermediate 79 in., and two low pressure 
98 in. diam., by 79 in. stroke. 

Steam at 165 lb. pressure is supplied by twelve main double-ended boilers, 
18 ft. diam., and 17 ft. long, each having eight corrugated furnaces ; and by 
two smaller boilers which are chiefly used for auxiliary purposes. 

The diameter of the funnels is 19 ft., and their height above the bottom 
of the ship 130 ft. 

The twin propellers have steel bosses, and three manganese bronze 
blades ; each blade weighs 8 tons. The propeller shafts are 24 in. diam. 

On the steam trial in April 1893, with a draught of 25 ft., and a dis- 
placement of 18,000 tons, the mean speed was 23 • 18 knots ; the engines 
indicated 31,050 h.p., at 84 revs, per min., with a boiler pressure of 165 lb. 
and a vacuum of 28 in. 

The rudder, 253 sq. ft. in area, is of the centre-fin plate pattern, with 
special arms on either side, and strengthened by webs on the top and bottom ; 
it can be put hard over when the ship is going at full speed, and will turn 
the ship in her own length. The rudder and steering gear are entirely 
under water. 

The accommodation is for 600 first-class passengers, 400 second class, 
and 700 to 1,000 third class, while the ship's complement consists of 61 
sailors, 195 engineers and firemen, and 159 stewards. 

Displacement at load draught, 21,920 tons ; gross register, 12,950 tons ; 
length (over all), 622 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 65 • 2 ft. ; depth from upper deck, 43 ft. 

The development of the Cunard liners is indicated by a scale diagram on 
the wall. 

306. Whole model of S.S. "RatcM." (Scale 1: 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. Short Bros., 1893. N. 2020. 

This steam collier was built of steel at Sunderland in 1892, for the East 
London Steamship Co., to caiTy coal cargoes above the bridges on the 
Thames. In order to do this the funnel, masts, bridge rails, and davits are 
hinged so that they may lie flat on deck. She has one iron deck, web 
frames, raised quarter deck 63 ft., bridge deck 8 ft., and forecastle 14 ft. 
long. She has a cellular double bottom 126 ft. long, with a water ballast 
capacity of 355 tons, a fore-peak tank of 86 tons, and an aft-peak tank of 
45 tons. She is schooner-rigged, has a flat keel, and foui* bulkheads. 

Her engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 18 in., 29 in., and 
47 in. diam., by 33 in. stroke, and drive a fom--bladed propeller. Steam is 
supplied at 160 lb. pressui-e, by one single-ended steel boiler, with three 
plain furnaces, a grate area of 50 sq. ft., and 2,000 sq. ft. of heating surface. 

Gross tonnage, 802 tons ; length, 170 ft. ; breadth, 36 ft. ; moulded 
depth, 16 ft. 

u 6773. a 



98 

307. Rigged model of P.S. "Koh-i-noor." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the New Palace Steamers, Ltd., 1899. N. 2203. 

This paddle steamer was built of steel at Glasgow in 1892, by the Fairfield 
Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., from the designs of Mr. R. Saxon White. 
She is said to be the first swift river steamer adequately provided with 
watertight bulkheads. 

She is divided into ten watertight compai-tments in accordance with the 
recommendations of the Bulkhead Committee. So completely has the sub- 
division been carried out that the 1st class dining saloon is in two poi-tions 
separated by a bulkhead ; communication between the two being afforded 
by means of a watertight door which upon an emergency can be closed from 
the deck above. Any person shut in the after pai-t can escape to the upper 
deck by means of a trunk staircase which is always kept open. 

Two rudders have been fitted ; the after one, which is 9 ft, long and of 
la^rge area, is worked by a steam steering gear on the engine-room platform,, 
whilst the bow rudder, which is completely within the stem, is provided 
with a screw steering gear. The funnels and mast can be raised and 
lowered, by means of smaU steam winches, so that the vessel can pass under 
London Bi-idge. 

The " Koh-i-noor" has two decks, and on the upper one are two deck 
saloons, one at each end of the machinery space, and these support the 
promenade deck, which is 300 ft. long and extends the full width of 
the ship. 

The engines are two- stage expansion with cylinders 45 in. and 80 in. 
diam. by 66 in. stroke, indicating 3,500 h.p. and giving a speed of 
19 "5 knots. The cylinders are placed side by side and work on two cranks 
set at an angle of 90 deg. with each other. Steam at 120 lb. pressure is 
supplied by four Scotch boilers, with three coii*ugated furnaces in each. 

The paddle-wheels are of steel and of the featheiing type, with concave 
floats. 

Tonnage, gross, 884 tons ; tonnage, net, 275 tons; length (o.a.), 310 ft. ; 
length (b.p.), 300-4 ft. ; breadth over paddle-boxes, 58 ft. ; breadth (moulded)^ 
32-1 ft.; depth, 10-6 ft. 

308. Rigged model of S.S. " Hound." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. G. and J. Burns, 1901. N. 2282. 

This schooner-rigged steamer was built of steel at Glasgow in 1893, by 
the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., for Messrs. G. and J. Burns* 
mail and general service between Ardrossan and Belfast. She is built with 
a bar keel, 8*5 in. deep, and has two decks ; the poop is 78 ft. long, the 
bridge deck 80 ft. and the forecastle 48 ft. The hull is divided by four 
watertight bulkheads, and is provided with an after-peak tank having a 
water ballast capacity of 30 tons. 

Her engines consist of a three-stage expansion set, with cylinders 
26*5 in., 42 in. and 68 in. diam. by 42 in. stroke, indicating 2,000 h.p. and 
driving a single four-bladed screw which gave her a speed of 15 knots. 
Steam at 165 lb. pressure is supplied by a pair of double-ended boilers 
having a total of twelve furnaces, a grate area of 220 sq. ft. and a heating 
surface of 6,213 sq. ft. 

Gross register, 1,061 tons; length, 250-3 ft.; breadth, 32-1 ft.; 
depth, 15 -5 ft. 

309. Rigged model of S.Ss. " Ahna " and " Columbia." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by the London and South Western Railway 
Co., 1896. N. 2096. 

These schooner-rigged twin-screw steamers were built of steel at 
Sunderland in 1894, for the mail service between Southampton and Havre, 
in connection with the London and South Western Railway. 

In each ship the frames are of the reversed angle type, spaced about 
21 in. apart. The interior is subdivided by watertight bulkheads into twelve 



99 

compai*tments. The bulkheads are constructed of plates flanged vei-ti- 
cally, instead of with angles, the plates themselves overlapping. Three of 
the compai-tments are occupied by machinery, one in the centre of the ship 
by first-class state rooms, one at the after end by second-class accommo- 
dation, while two at each end of the ship are devoted to cargo, the others 
being for storage, cargo, &c. ; the vessel would float with any two com- 
partments flooded. There are three Seeks, the promenade, upper, and 
main, while on the top of the bridge house on the promenade deck is a boat 
deck, caiTied out to the full width of the ship. 

There are two sets of vei-tical three- stage expansion engines, with 
cylinders 19 in., 29 in., and two 33-5 in. diam. by 30 in. stroke, indicating 
3,700 h.p. at 184 revs, per min., and giving a speed of 19 knots. Steam at 
160 lb. pressure is supplied by two single-ended boilers, with four furnaces 
in each worked under forced draught, the au- being supplied by two 
double-breasted fans, one in each stokehold. 

Gross register, 1,145 tons; net register, 410 tons; length, 270 ft.; 
breadth, 34 ft. ; depth to the promenade deck, 23 ft. 

310. Half block model of S.S. "Norman Isles." (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Presented by Messrs. William Doxford and Sons, 1903. 

N. 2343. 

This screw cargo steamer was built by Messrs. W. Doxford and Sons at 
Sunderland in 1896, for the Norwegian trade ; it belongs to the " turret- 
decked " class of vessels originated by them in 1891 (see No. 673). 

The characteristics of the type are : — A high navigation platform carried 
upon a central trunk, called a " tuiTet," with vertical sides and curved base, 
extending from end to end of the vessel ; rounded gunwales ; and absence 
of sheer. These features are stated to provide the requisite strength and 
freeboard at a somewhat less cost than the ordinary construction, while the 
relatively small under-deck measurement renders the vessel economical for 
dead- weight cargoes, and the rounded section and considerable capacity of 
the turret facilitate the trimming and feeding of grain or bulk cargoes. 

In addition to other details the model shows an arrangement for 
alternative hand and steam steering ; a right-and-left-handed screw gear 
being used when steering by the hand wheel aft, while a quadrant arm 
secured to the rudder head provides the chain attachment for a steam 
steering engine below the deck. Stockless anchors stowing in the hawse 
pipes are fitted, and the main ventilating shafts amidships are utilised also 
as den-ick posts. 

The engines are a three-stage expansion set with cylinders 24*5 in., 
40 in., and 65 in. diam. by 42 in. stroke. 

Gross register, 3,455 tons; net register, 2,190 tons; length, 341*2 ft. ; 
breadth, 45-6 ft. ; depth, 24-7 ft. 

311. Half block model of S.S. "Kamakura Maru." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by tlie Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaislia, 
1901. N. 2271. 

This twin-screw, four-masted, schooner-rigged steamer was built of 
steel at Belfast in 1897, by Messrs. Workman, Clark & Co., for the Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha (Japan Mail Steamship Co.). 

She is constructed with deep framing and a cellular double bottom 
extending 190 ft. forward, 53 ft. under the machinery space, and 145 ft. aft, 
with a water ballast capacity of 1,150 tons ; in addition there is a midship 
tank with a capacity of 480 tons, a fore-peak tank of 95 tons capacity, and 
an after-peak tank of 45 tons capacity. She is subdivided internally by 
eight watertight bulkheads. 

A feature in the construction of this vessel is the almost entire absence 
of stem and stem castings, their place being taken by arched plating 
incorporated with the framing of the ship and so shaped as to greatly 

G 2 



100 

reduce " deadwood," while at the same time diminishing the total weight. 
The stem post, to which the rudder is attached, is of cellular construction, 
and the i-udder is plated on both faces, so as to possess some buoyancy 
while leaving the interior accessible, an arrangement that has since been 
adopted in eleven vessels built for the Ocean Steamship Co. 

Her engines consist of two three-stage expansion sets, built by Messrs. 
Barclay Curie & Co., with cylinders 20 in., 33-5 in., and 56 in., diam., with 
a stroke of 48 in. Steam at 200 lb. pressure is supplied by two double and 
two single-ended boilers, fired in 18 corrugated furnaces giving a total grate 
surface of 313 sq. ft., while the total heating surface is 8,271 sq. ft. The 
propellers are four-bladed and, through the absence of deadwood, are 
exceptionally clear of the stem. 

Gross register, 6,123 tons ; length, 445 ft. ; breadth, 49 "7 ft. ; depth, 
30-4 ft. 

312. Rigged model of S.S. " Omrali." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by tlie Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., Ltd., 
1908. Plate V., No. 4. N. 2450. 

This twin-screw steamer was built of steel and engined at Glasgow in 
1898-9, by the Fairfield Co., for the Australian mail service of the Orient 
Steam Navigation Co. ; she is also on the Admiralty list of subsidised 
merchant cruisers. 

A cellular double bottom extends throughout the vessel, and the hold 
space is so subdivided by ten watertight bulkheads that the ship would keep 
afloat with any two of the compartments flooded. The lower, main, and 
spar decks are of steel, sheathed with wood. The vessel is fitted with 
refrigerating plant and electric light, and has accommodation for 830 
passengers. 

The propelling engines are of the inverted three- stage expansion type, 
in two sets, with cylinders 33 in., 54 '5 in., and 89 in. diam., by 57 in. 
stroke. Steam at 180 lb. pressure is supplied by three double and two 
single-ended boilers with ribbed furnaces, heating surface 27,070 sq. ft., 
grate surface 588 sq. ft., arranged to work with Howden's forced draught. 
At the steam trials in 1899 a mean speed of 17*3 knots was realised with 
"^,200 indicated h.p. at 77 ' 5 revs, per min., and a coal consumption of 1 • 4 lb. 
per indicated h.p. per hour. 

Register tonnage, 8,291 tons ; length (over all), 507 ft. ; breadth (moulded), 
56 • 7 ft. ; depth, main deck, 26 ft. ; do., spar deck, 37 • 5 ft. 

.313. Rigged model of S.S. " Clan Colquhoun." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Cayzer, Irvine & Co., 1905. N. 2371. 

This cargo vessel was built of steel and engined at Sunderland in 1899, 
by Messrs. Wm. Doxford and Sons, for the Clan Line of steamers. She is a 
-good example of the tuiTet-deck type of steamer (see Nos. 310 and 673). 

There is an enclosed forecastle 54 ft, long and a shoi-t poop deck ; between 
these positions on the " turret " deck are placed the deck-houses, navigation 
bridge, hatchways, and the principal deck fittings. A number of large 
x)penings in the " tuiTcb " bulwarks ensure the rapid escape of deck water. 

An elaborate system of derricks is provided for quickly loading and 
discharging cargo. Vertical masts are fixed midway between the large 
hatchways at each end of the vessel, and each serves as the common post 
for six radial derricks, for working which four steam winches are provided. 
A central hold has also two derricks pivoted on the boiler-room ventilating 
shafts. 

A specially constructed plate rudder of the balanced type is used. The 
vessel is propelled by three-stage expansion engines having cylinders 27 '5 in., 
45 • 5 in. and 75 in. diam. with 60 in. stroke. 

Gross register, 5,856 tons ; length, 440 ft. ; breadth, 51 • 6 ft. ; depth of 
hold, 28-9 ft. 



101 

314. Rigged model of S.S. " Colombia." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Pacific Steam Navigation Co., 1903. N. 2328. 

This twin-screw steamer was built of steel by Messrs. Caird & Co., 
Greenock, in 1899, for the mail and coasting service between Panama and 
Valparaiso. 

In addition to the main and lower decks, the vessel has a shade- deck, 
beneath which light cargo may be cai-ried, while above this is a long 
promenade deck for the use of passengers. A breakwater, formed of 
diagonal screens, 3 ft. high, divides the shade-deck from the anchor-deck to 
protect it from the effects of head seas : on the anchor- deck in the model 
are sho^vn many details of the cable arrangements adopted. 

On each side of the vessel are three large baggage ports, used in 
connection with the cargo hatches on the main deck ; these hatches are each 
fitted with a derrick and windlass, but all heavy weights are lifted by a 
larger derrick on the fore-mast. 

The propelling machinery consists of two sets of three-stage expansion 
engines, with cylinders 19-75 in., 32 in., and 52 in. diam. respectively, by 
36 in. stroke, giving a total of 3,500 indicated h.p. 

Length (b.p.), 359 '5 ft.; breadth (moulded), 43*2 ft.; depth of hold, 
19 -5 ft. ; tonnage (gross), 3,335 tons. 

315. Rigged model of S.S. " Augusto Montenegro." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by the Amazon Steam Navigation Co., 1901. 

N. 2276. 

This schooner-rigged, screw steamer was built of steel at Port Glasgow 
in 1900, by Messrs. A. Rodger & Co., for the Amazon Steam Navigation Co. 

She has two decks and an awning deck. Her engines are a three- stage 
expansion set, with cylinders 12*5 in., 20 in., and 32 in. diam. respectively, 
by 24 in. stroke ; they indicate 450 h.p. and drive a three-bladed propeller. 

Gross tonnage, 318 tons ; length, 140 '5 ft. ; breadth, 29 ft. ; depth, 
8-4 ft. 

316. Rigged model of S.S. " Syria." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by 
Messrs. A. Stephen and Sons, Ltd., 1901. N. 2278, 

This schooner-rigged, twin-screw steamer was built of steel at Glasgow, 
in 1901, by Messrs. A. Stephen and Sons, for the Peninsular and Oriental 
Steam Navigation Co., and she has been specially fitted up for the passenger 
and cargo sei-vice to India and China. The passengers' cabins are arranged 
on the poop, bridge, and boat decks, and are made exceptionally large ; the 
" 'tween decks " are fitted for the transport of troops. She has a poop 84 ft. 
long, a bridge deck, and a boat deck above it, each 170 ft. long, and the 
forecastle is 90 ft. in length. 

Her engines consist of two three- stage expansion sets, with cylinders 
22-5 in. diam., 36 in. diam,, and 60 in. diam., by 48 in. stroke, driving three- 
bladed propellers, and giving a speed of 12 • 5 knots. 

Gross tonnage, 6,900 tons ; length, 450 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 52 • 2 ft. ; depth, 
30-5 ft. 

317. Half block model of S.S. " Hadley." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. W. Cory and Son, Ltd., 1907. N. 2447. 

This schooner-rigged, screw collier was built of steel by Messrs. S. P. 
Austin and Son and engined by Messrs. G. Clark at Sunderland in 1901, for 
Messrs. W. Cory & Son. 

She is of the " well-deck " type with poop, quarter, bridge, and forecastle 
decks. Her hull is subdivided by four main watertight bulkheads, and, in 
the way of her large holds, deep transverse fi-aming is used. A cellular 
double bottom extends over four-fifths of her length, and this, with the 
fore- and after-peak tanks, provides a total water ballast capacity of about 
600 tons. 



102 

Her engines are of the three- stage expansion type, having cylinders 
20*5 in., 33 in., and 54 in. diam, by 39 in. stroke. Steam, at 160 lb. pressure, 
is supplied by two single-ended boilers with plain furnaces. 

Her principal particulars are : — Coal-cariying capacity, 2,700 tons ; gross 
register tonnage, 1,777 tons; length, 268 ft.; breadth, 37*9 ft.; depth 
(moulded), 19 8 ft. 

318. Rigged model of S.S. " Cedric." (Scale 1 : 64.) Lent by 
Messrs. Ismay, Imrie & Co., 1908. N. 2483. 

This foui*- masted, schooner- rigged steamer was built and engined at 
Belfast in 1902 by Messrs. Harland and Wolfe, for the White Star Line 
(Oceanic Steam Navigation Co.). The sister vessel " Celtic " was built for 
the same Company at Belfast in 1901, As regards gi*oss tonnage and 
displacement, these were the largest vessels afloat at that date and were 
used for intermediate passenger and cargo service between Livei"pool, 
Queens town, and New York. 

The lower portion of the hull is constructed on the cellular system with 
an external flat keel 4 in. thick : the ordinary frames and deck beams are of 
channel section and spaced 34 in. apart. The principal structural decks are 
known as orlop, lower, middle and upper ; above these are the shade, bridge, 
and sun decks. Bilge keels, 18 in. deep, are fitted, one on each side, over a 
midship length of 250 ft. The rudder is of cast steel sections bolted 
together. 

Stockless anchors are used with cables 3 '375 in. diam. ; the engines for 
working these were supplied by Messrs. Napier Bros., as were also the cable 
and warping capstans shown on the forecastle and poop decks. 

The two sets of propelling engines are of four- stage expansion type 
with cylinders 33 in., 47*5 in., 68*5 in., and 98 in. diam. by 63 in. stroke. 
Steam is supplied, at 210 lb. per sq. in., by eight double-ended boilers 
having a total grate area of 1,014 sq. ft. and heating surface of 41,680 sq. ft. ; 
the average speed is 16 knots. The screw propellers are 20 ft. in diam. 
and, as their paths closely approach the centre line of the hull, an aperture 
similar to that in a single- screw vessel is formed in the stem. 

A special feature in both of these vessels is the large accommodation for 
third-class passengers, the various classes being thus provided for : — First 
class, 347 ; second class, 160 ; third class, 2,352. 

Gross register, 21,000 tons ; length, over all, 700 ft. ; breadth, 75 • 3 ft. ; 
depth, moulded, 48 • 4 ft. 

319. Rigged model of S.S. " Queen iUexandra." (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. W. Dennv and Bros., 1905. 
Plate v., No. 5. ' N. 2374. 

This steel turbine- driven screw steamer was built in 1902 by Messrs. W. 
Denny & Bros., Dumbai-ton, to the order of the Tui-bine Steamers, Ltd., for 
service on the Clyde. Though of larger dimensions, she is similar generally 
to the S.S. '• King Edward," consti-ucted by the same builders in 1901, which 
was the first passenger vessel propelled by steam tm*bines. 

She has tlii-ee decks, in addition to a bridge deck extending for a 
considerable distance amidships. 

The engines of the " Queen Alexandra" consist of three steam turbines 
of the parallel-flow type, developing about 4,400 h.p., and were made by the 
Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Co. Steam at 150 lb. pressure is admitted 
into a high-pressure turbine on the central hne, which di-ives a shaft caiTying 
one propeller, and afterwards passes into two low-pressure turbines driving 
wing shafts, the total ratio of expansion being 1 : 125. Each of the wing 
shafts originally carried two propellers which were afterwards replaced by a 
single propeller of larger diameter, as shown in the model. Reversal is 
effected by supplementary turbines placed in the exhaust ends of the low- 
pressure casings ; when going ahead these reversing turbines revolve idly in 
a vacuum. For manoeuvring purposes steam can be admitted independently 



103 

into the low pressure or into tlie reversing turbine on either side. A model 
of engines of this type is shown in the collection of Marine Engines 
{see No. 866). 

On trial this vessel attained a speed of 21-6 knots with the central 
turbine making 750 and the side turbines 1,100 revs, per min. 

Tonnage, gross register, 665 ; length, 220 ft. ; breadth (moulded), 32 • 1 ft. ; 
depth to promenade deck, 18 • 75 ft. ; depth to main deck, 11 • 5 ft. 

320. Masted whole model of S.S. " Silverlip." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Shell Transport and Trading Co., 1903. 

N. 2337. 

This three-masted, schooner-rigged, screw steamer was built of steel at 
Newcastle in 1903, by Messrs. Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. ; she 
was specially designed for carrying liquid fuel, or petroleum in bulk, a 
service which has greatly increased since the discovery in 1900 of such oil 
in Texas. 

The vessel has two complete steel decks, and a cellular double bottom 
under the machinery space. 73 ft. long with a capa-city of 196 tons ; there are 
also forward and after peaks and a deep tank in the fore-hold, all constructed 
for water ballast purposes and giving a total capacity of 1,287 tons. The 
machinery is placed aft, but forward of the boiler room, and there are 15 
transverse bulkheads, in addition to a strong middle line bulkhead extending 
from keel to main deck. To insure oil-tightness the scantlings are excep- 
tionally heavy, the rivets closely spaced, and large plates are used to reduce 
the number of joints, while the compartments are separately tested by water 
pressure. From the oil compartments trunks are carried up, to provide for 
the expansion of the oil. Large hatchways are fitted to each compaitment 
to admit of loading with ordinary cargo on the outward voyage, for which 
reason also 16 deiTicks worked by steam winches are provided. Oil pipes o\ 
large diameter, fitted with controlling valves, are carried from the compart- 
ments to the shore connections fitted at the stern, and powerful pumps for 
discharging the oil are placed in a pump-room amidships. These pumps 
liave also sea connections, so that they can be used to cleanse the oil tanks 
when other cargo has to be carried, and a fan is provided for ventilating the 
tanks when so employed. 

The propelling machinery, built by the Wallsend Slipway Co., consists of 
a set of three-stage expansion engines, with cylinders 29-5 in., 48 in., and 
78 in. diam. by 54 in. stroke. Steam is supplied by six single-ended boilers, 
working at 180 lb. pressure, and aiTanged for consuming either oil or coal 
as fuel. 

Gross register, 7,492 tons ; net, 4,904 tons ; length, 470 ft. ; breadth, 
55-2 ft. ; moulded depth, 35 ft. 

321. Rigged model of S.S. " Regina." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Messrs. A. McMillan and Son, Ltd., 1908. N. 2475. 

This represents a typical Canadian lake steamer, of moderate dimen- 
sions, which was built of steel in 1907 at Dumbarton by Messrs. A. McMillan 
and Son. 

The external characteristics of this class of vessel are : — A high 
forecastle and navigation platform at the extreme foiward end and the 
propelling machinery at the extreme after end, leaving the whole intermediate 
portion of the hull for cargo. Closely spaced hatchways and vertical mast 
den'icks provide for the rapid handling of the bulk cargo, generally ore, coal, 
or grain. 

The " Regina " is propelled by three-stage expansion engines made by 
Messrs, Muir and Houston, Ltd., Glasgow ; they have cylinders of 17 in., 
"28 in., and 46 in. diam. by 33 in. stroke. With steam at 180 lb. per sq. in. 
they develop 950 indicated h.p. 

Length, 249-7 ft.; breadth, 42-6 ft.; depth of hold, 20-5 ft.; gross 
register, 1,957 tons. 



104 

Vessels of this class, when British built, besides fulfilling the requirements 
as to moderate draught necessitated by the passage of the connecting locks 
and rivers of the Canadian Lake system, must also be capable of successfully 
crossing the Atlantic Ocean. 

322. Rigged model of S.S. " Sardinian Prince." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Prince Line, Ltd., 1908. N. 249L 

This design for a twin-screw cargo and passenger vessel was proposed 
for the Prince Line in 1908. 

Large cabin and saloon spaces, with shade, promenade and boat decks, 
are provided amidshii)s, while at each end are the main holds with machinery 
for the rapid handling of cargo. On the shade, or lower boat deck, are 
shown the electric fans and steam tube-heaters used in connection with the 
" thermo-tank " system of heating and ventilating the living-spaces on the 
vessel. 

Displacement, 16,000 tons ; gross register, 10,000 tons ; length, 520 ft. ; 
breadth, 60 ft. ; depth, moulded, 40 ft. 

323. Whole model of ferry steamer " Finnieston No 1.'* 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent bv Messrs. Ferguson Bros., 1909. 

N. 2528. 

This vessel for ferry purposes across the Clyde was built and engined by 
Messrs. Ferguson Bros, at Port Glasgow in 1908, for the Trustees of the 
Clyde Navigation. 

A special feature is a movable deck or platform which provides for 
embarking and discharging vehicular traffic at any state of the tide ; the 
deck has a rise and fall of 17 ft. and is capable of accommodating 16 loaded 
lorries or a total live load of about 105 tons ; it is worked by eight elevating- 
screws, and the weight is carried upon four arched girders each extending 
continuously from one side of the hull to the other. 

The ferry boat is propelled by two sets of three-stage expansion engines 
each having cylinders 12 in., 18*5 in., and 29 in. diam. by 20 in. stroke. 

The principal dimensions of the vessel are : — Gross register, 379 tons ;. 
length, 105 ft. ; breadth, 45 ft. ; depth (moulded), 11 • 75 ft. 



YACHTS. 

The word yacht, derived from the Dutch " jacht," was- 
introduced into England probably in the seventeenth century ; 
it is applied to decked vessels used for pleasure or racing 
purposes, and includes widely-differing types, due to the degree 
to which the considerations of speed or of accommodation have 
predominated in influencing the design. 

Royal barges and similar pleasure ships are of the greatest 
antiquity, while in later times it is recorded that Queen 
Elizabeth had a pleasure vessel built at Cowes in 1588, and that 
Sir Phineas Pett designed and constructed racing yachts at 
Deptford for Charles II. 

The first recorded yacht club was the Cork Harbour Water 
Club, now the Royal Cork Yacht Club, established in 1720 ; the 
Royal Yacht Squadron was established at Cowes in 1812. The 
number of such clubs in the kingdom is now over sixty, while 
there are OA^er four thousand five hundred registered yachts, 
nearly one third of which are fitted with some form of propelling 
machinery. 



105 

The early yachts were small and lieavily built, but as racing 
became more general, weight was saved by reducing the 
scantlings, and as there was no time allowance it was soon 
discovered that size was of the greatest importance in securing 
success. Accordingly, from the early matches at Cowes in 
1780, where the vessels were of less than thirty-five tons, the 
dimensions increased steadily, so that in 1830 Mr. Joseph Weld's 
famous cutter " Alarm " (see No. 329) was of 193 tons, with 
80 ft. on the water line and 24 ft. beam. 

At first, tlie ballast used was in the form of stone or cast-iron 
blocks, with bags of shot for shifting, but in 1846 lead pigs 
were substituted, and in 1856 the massive external keel of lead 
— now universal — was adopted. The early form of hull was 
described as " cod's head and mackerel's tail," but in 1848 
the iron cutter "Mosquito " {see No. 333), of 70 tons displace- 
ment, built by C. J. Mare on the Thames, to the design of 
T. Waterman, departed from these features by possessing a 
long, hollow bow and a short after body of considerable beam, 
conforming to a great extent to the lines advocated by Scott 
Russell. This innovation Avas much criticised, but in 1851, 
when the " America " (see No. 335), which had similar lines, had 
beaten the swiftest British yachts, opinion quickly changed. 

The " America " was a schooner of 208 tons (b.o.m.), and in 
addition to new lines and rig, differed from the British yachts — 
which were all cutters — in having her sails as tight and flat as 
possible, instead of in the baggy form then in vogue. Her schooner 
rig soon became popular, together with the fine entrance lines and 
the flat cotton sails. In 1864 the yawl rig became the fashion, 
but after a few years the cutter again returned to favour, and 
it now remains the usual rig for both cruising and racing 
yachts, partly owing to the less labour involved in working it. 

In 1875 a great change in yacht design was introduced, by 
Mr. E. H. Bentall of Maldon, in the " Jullanar " (see No. 34:5), a 
yawl of 126 tons which proved exceedingly successful, while 
another impro Axemen t of the period was introduced in the 
"Florinda." 

The American yachtsmen had for many years most success- 
fully developed the dropping-keel or centre-board system of 
construction, but the arrangement Avas ncA^er popular in this 
country. The modern racing yacht is, however, a combination 
of the two forms, the present deep keel and external ballast, 
possessing the advantages of both sj^stems, except in very 
shalloAv waters. 

The rules, by Avhich the time allowances made to the smaller 
yachts are determined, are fixed by the Yacht Racing Associa- 
tion, established in 1875. At first it adopted the Thames rule, 
in which length and breadth Avere the factors, but OAving to the 
deep and narroAV hulls thus CA^oh^ed the factors in 1886 were 
changed to length on Avater line and sail area, so as to favour 
beamy vessels which Avould form comfortable cruisers. The 
"Britannia" cutter, built in 1893 for the then Prince of Wales, 



106 

was the most successful vessel designed under the 1886 rating, 
and she won 141 prizes in 209 starts. In 1896, however, a new 
formula, with length, breadth, girth, and sail area as factors, 
was introduced ; this changed the rating basis from a " tonnage " 
to a "linear" measurement and encouraged a greater depth of 
under-water body, and hence a more commodious vessel. 
Changes of rating formula in 1901 and 1906 further emphasized 
the feature of habitability — the later rule giving a premium on 
freeboard. 

Although at one time strongly objected to, a large number of 
the modern cruising yachts are now fitted with auxiliary steam 
or petrol-motor power, by which they are rendered far less 
dependent upon the state of the weather. 

The earliest successful internal combustion motor launch 
appears to have been built in 1888, and was fitted with a 
Priestman oil engine. In 1902 the first serious attempt to 
produce a high-speed motor boat was made, and a speed of 
19 knots was obtained with an engine of 6Q h.p. by a boat 
designed by Mr. Linton Hope for Mr. S. F. Edge. The 
development of tliis class of vessel has been continuous and 
rapid, and has been due in a great measure to the application of 
the internal combustion engine. 

Note. — In the collection there are several models of Eastern 
yachts, hut they have not been included in this section, as they 
are placed with the other examples of Oriental types. 

RACING YACHTS. 

324. Rigged model of Dutch yacht. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent bv 
S. T. G. Evans, Esq., 1900. N. 2211. 

This model represents, in general appearance, a Dutch " jacht " or 
sailing pleasure-boat of about 1600-50, but it is evidently not accurately to 
scale. 

It is bluff bowed and has heavy quarters, but is provided with an 
exceptionally large rudder and two lee-boards. The sails consist of a 
foresail, jib, and mainsail, the latter being caiTied by a gaff instead of a 
sprit — an innovation that Pepys mentions as the " Bezan " rig. 

The dimensions, as determined from the model, would be : — Tonnage 
(b.o.m.), 10 tons; length, 21 ft. ; breadth, 10 '5 ft. ; depth, 8*5 ft. 

325. Rigged model of Dutch yacht. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Received 1910. N. 2546. 

In 1660 the Dutch East India Company presented Charles II. with a 
pleasure boat or yacht known as the " Mary." This appears to have been 
the first vessel of the type owned in England, and its chief characteristics 
were embodied in most of the yachts constructed in this countiy during the 
17th and 18th centuries. 

The model here shown is said to have belonged to W. Yandevelde, junior 
(1633-1707), and represents a vessel similar to, but probably smaller than, 
the " Mary." It is of the single-masted schuyt-rig, carries lee-boards and 
is clincher built, with a heavy chafing or rubbing piece worked above the 
water-line. It has a full, round bow with prominent stem piece, a high 
decorated poop with lantern, and good cabin accommodation amidships. 

Approximate dimensions : — Length, water-line, 27 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. 



107 

326. Rigged model of Dutch sloop and row-boat. (About 
1800.) (Scale 1 : 24.) Received 1907. N. 2435. 

This model probably represents a small racing or pleasure sloop as used 
on the canals and shallow waters of Friesland, North Holland. A sprit or 
single diagonal yard is sometimes adopted-ior the mainsail of this class of 
vessel instead of the long lower boom and short gaff as here shown. 

Dimensions (approx.) : — Length (overall), 25 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; 
draught, 1 • 6 f t. ■ 

The six- oared row-boat is a type used for ferry pui'poses and is often 
earned or taken in tow by the larger craft. 

Dimensions (approx.) : — Length, 15 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; draught, 1 * 25 ft. 

Tn general features both models are representative of craft common in 
Dutch waters from the 17th to the 19th century. 

327. Half block model of Yt. " Leopard." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Received 1897. N. 2123. 

This yacht was built by Mr. Linn E-atsey at Cowes, in 1807. 
Length, extreme, 64ft.; breadth, 17 "5 ft.; tonnage (b.o.m.), 70 tons. 

328. Half block model of Yt. "Pearl." (Scale 1:48.) 
Received 1899. N. 2189. 

This cutter yacht was designed and built in 1820 by Sainty, of 
Colchester, for the Marquis of Anglesea, to the lines of a smuggler's clipper 
which the Marquis had noticed as possessing exceptional speed. In 1873 
she was rebuilt by Nicholson, of Gosport, and altered to the yawl rig. 

Displacement, 127*5 tons; length on water line, 65 '3 ft.; breadth, 
extreme, 19 • 54 ft. ; draught, forward, 6 • 8 ft. ; aft, 11 • 3 ft. 

329. Lithograph of Yt. "Alarm." Received 1905. N. 2407. 

This successful cutter yacht was built of wood at Cowes, in 1830, from 
the designs of her owner, Mr. J. R. "Weld. For many years in succession 
the " Alarm " won valuable prizes in the Solent, including the first Cup 
presented by Queen Victoria to the Royal Yacht Squadron iu 1838. She 
took part in the International race won by the "America" in 1851. 
Shortly afterwards she was lengthened 20 ft., and converted into a fast 
schooner of 248 tons, beating the " America " in a match in 1861. 

Original dimensions : — Tonnage (b.o.m.), 193 tons ; length on water line, 
80 ft. ; breadth, 24 ft. 

330. Half block model of Yt. " Corsair." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Received 1897. N. 2122. 

This yacht was built by Mr. Michael Ratsey at Cowes, in 1832. She 
was a good sea boat and a successful ocean racer. 

Length, extreme, 74 ft. ; length on keel, 57 • 75 ft. ; breadth, 18 • 5 ft. ; 
tonnage (b.o.m.), 84 • 9 tons. 

331. Half block model of Yt. " Mystery." (1841). (Scale 
1 : 48.) Received 1907. N. 2444. 

This famous cutter yacht was built of iron in 1841 for Lord Alfred Paget 
by Messrs. Ditchburn and Mare, Blackwall, from the designs of Mr. T. J. 
Ditchburn, 

She was the first racing yacht constmcted of iron and dui'ing several 
seasons proved herself superior in speed, both in light and heavy weather, 
to all wooden yachts of similar tonnage. Her success, however, was more 
largely due to the adoption of finer lines, than to the new material of 
construction. To obtain advantages in tonnage measurement, the designer 
gave an unusual amount of rake to her stem-post ; this feature was 



108 

considered by many to have materially improved her sailing qualities and 
was therefore widely copied in succeeding yacht designs. 

Tonnage (b.o.m,), 25 tons ; length of keel, 39 • 9 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 
11-9 ft. 

332. Half block model of Yt. " Fay." (Scale 1 : 24.) Re- 
ceived 1899. N. 2191. 

This iron yacht was designed and built by the late Mr. T. J. Ditchbum, 
about 1845, on lines somewhat similar to those of the " Mystery " 
(see No. 331). 

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 12 tons ; length, extreme, 39 •25ft.; length of keel, 
for tonnage, 29 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 9 • 7 ft. 

333. Lithograph of Yt. " Mosquito." Received 1905. N. 2409. 

This famous cutter yacht was built of iron at Blackwall by Messrs. 
Ditchbum, Mare & Co., in 1848, for Lord A. Paget, from the designs of 
Mr. T. "Waterman ; she was afterwards owned by Lord Londesborough. 

In addition to the use of iron in her construction the " Mosquito " 
possessed the unusual features of hollow water-lines and a deep raking 
stem-post. A list of her successes during the pei-iod 1850-2 is given on the 
lithograph, and includes a victoiy over the " America " in the Royal Victoria 
Yacht Club race in 1852. 

This yacht appears to have been employed as a pilot boat at Barrow-in- 
Furness as late as 1895. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 59 tons ; length, 63 -5 ft. ; breadth, 
15-2 ft.; depth, 10ft. 

334. Half model of pilot boat " Mary Taylor." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Henry Liggins, Esq., 1876. N. 1464. 

This schooner-rigged New York pilot boat was designed and built 
about 1850 by Mr. George Steers, who subsequently introduced many of 
her featui'es into the famous racing yacht '* America," which he also designed 
(see No 335). 

The novelties in the " Maiy Taylor " were her extreme shallowness of 
floor, great depth of keel, small displacement, and the great distance at 
which her widest section was placed abaft the middle. 

For her service she was required to be able to sail rapidly and well on 
all points, and yet be able to lay- to easily in all weathers, which requirements 
led to the design adopted. 

Load displacement, 62 • 3 tons ; length on load water-line, 61 ft. ; breadth 
at load water-line, 17-6 ft. ; mean draught, 5'2 ft.; greatest transverse 
section, 58 • 37 sq. ft. ; vertical longitudinal section, 451 sq. ft. ; area of load 
water-line, 751 • 8 sq. ft. ; area of sails, 2,382 sq. ft. 

335. Whole model of Yt. " America." (Scale 1 : 32.) Con- 
tributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1232. 

This schooner yacht was built by Mr. Wilkes at New York, in 1851, for 
Mr. J. C. Stevens, Commodore of the New York Yacht Club. She was 
designed by Mr. G. Steers, who extended and developed in her the form he 
introduced in the pilot boat "Mary Taylor" (see No. 334). 

Both vessels were remarkable for extreme shallowness of floor and great 
depth of keel, as well as small displacement, and the great distance at which 
the widest section was placed abaft the middle. Mr. Scott Russell con- 
sidered, however, that their lines, as well as those of other American yachts 
and clippers, followed his wave-line principle. 

In the year in which she was built she crossed the Atlantic and showed 
her superiority to English racing yachts. In August, 1851, at Cowes, she 
won the cup since known as the " America's cup," and a week later beat the 
" Titania '" {see No. 337). 



109 

Load displacement, 146 • 6 tons ; length on load water-line, 87 • 25 ft. ; 
breadth at load water-line, 22 -2 f t. ; mean draught, 8*2 f t. ; greatest 
transverse section, 102 • 74 sq. ft. ; vertical longitudinal section, 860 sq. ft. ; 
area of load water-line, 1,253-2 sq. ft. ; area of sails, 5,263 sq. ft. 

336. Litkograpli of Yt. "America;' Received 1904. 

N. 2358. 

This contemporary print by T. G-. Dutton, 1851, represents the yacht 
" America " in Oowes Roads with mainsail, foresail, and fore staysail set ; 
under full sail, a jib and gaff topsail were also carried. 

In addition to the "America" are shown: " Capricora," schooner, 
313 tons ; " Gipsey Queen," schooner, 160 tons, which took part with the 
" America " in the historic international race ; " Surprise," topsail schooner, 
150 tons ; " Xarifa," topsail schooner, 175 tons. 

337. Whole model of Yt. " Titania " (I.), afterwards named 
"Themis." (Scale 1 : 32.) Contributed by John vScott 
Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1233. 

This schooner yacht was built of iron, for Mr. Robei-t Stephenson, by 
Messrs. Robinson and Russell, at Millwall, in 1851, and is the yacht that 
competed with the famous " America " (see No. 335). 

She was designed by Mr. Scott Russell on his wave-line system, but 
after being drafted with round water and body lines she was modified 
to meet the mles of measurement then in force and the theories which 
prevailed. 

This system of measurement employed the keel length as a tonnage 
factor, therefore the builder reduced the keel of the vessel by giving the 
stem-post excessive i-ake. To correct this he added depth to the keel, and 
thus gave excessive draught. He was also compelled to nan-ow the beam 
of the yacht, as if this were not done a yacht of a given displacement instead 
of being put down at her real tonnage of, say, 100 tons, would have to be 
called 200 tons, and be compelled to allow time to yachts nearly double her 
size. The ])ailder of the " Titania," therefore, cut off two large slices from 
her sides at the load water-line, making them flat and straight where they 
should have had a gentle swell. 

Although there was little difference in length or displacement between the 
two vessels, the " America " was left with broad shoulders, enabling her to 
stand up under press of sail, and she also retained her full length and depth of 
longitudinal section, enabling her to lie close on a wind. In a 20-mile run 
before the wind there was scarcely any difference in their speeds, the 
*' America" beating the "Titania" by 4 min. 45 sees., which could be 
accounted for by the larger sail area on the " America." But when returning 
on the wind the "America" stood up better, and weathered the " Titania " 
on every tack, ultimately beating her by 45 mins. 

Load displacement, 123 • 1 tons ; length on load water-line, 81 ft. ; breadth 
at load water-line, 18*1 ft.; mean draught, 10*16 ft.; greatest transverse 
section, 87 ' 8 sq. ft. ; vertical longitudinal section, 766 • 5 sq. ft. ; area at load 
water-line, 1,096-8 sq. ft. ; area of sails, 6,174-5 sq. ft. 

338. Whole model of Yt. "Titania II." (Scale 1: 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott RusseU, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1234. 

Soon after the alteration of the law of tonnage brought about by the 
race between the "America" and the "Titania" in 1851 (see 1^0.337), 
Mr. Stephenson decided that he would have a new yacht built on the lines 
which the " Titania " should have had but for the interference of the 
abolished law of tonnage. He determined also to increase the length of the 
vessel so as to secure more accommodation. 

This new " Titania " was in every point more stable and more 
** windwardly " than the old one, and approximated more to the " America." 



110 

Load displacement, 163-63 tons ; length on load water-line, 93 ft. ; 
breadth at load water-line, 21-5 ft.; mean draught, 10-91 ft.; greatest 
ti^ansverse section, 92-38 sq. ft. ; vertical longitudinal section, 917*4 sq. ft. ; 
area of load water-line, 1,300 sq. ft. ; area of sails, 7,537 - 25 sq. ft. 

339. Half block model of Yt. " Aline." (Scale 1 : 32.) Lent 
iDy Messrs. Camper and Nicliolsons, Ltd., 1897. N. 2139. 

This schooner yacht was designed by Mr. B. Nicholson, and built by 
Messrs. Camper and Nicholson at Gosport in 1860, for Mr. C. S. Thelusson. 
She won the Queen's Cup at Cowes in her first essay, and again in 1867, and 
the Royal Yacht Squadron prize in 1868. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 216 tons; length, 107-4 ft. ; breadth, 
31 -8 ft.; depth, 11 -3 ft. 

340. Half block model of Yt. "Terne." (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by Messrs. Smnmers and Payne, Ltd., 1908. N. 2480. 

This yacht, probably cutter or sloop rigged, was built of wood at South- 
ampton by Messrs. A. Payne and Son in 1860. She has very full lines and 
shows a haK-deck and a transom stem ; details of the external planking are 
also clearly indicated. 

Dimensions, approximate : — Length, 20 • 5 f t. ; breadth, 7 • 75 ft. ; Thames 
measui-ement, 4 tons. 

341. Half block model of Yt. " Egeria." (Scale 1 : 21.) Pre- 
sented by Lady Dunleath, 1897. N. 2120. 

This schooner yacht was built at Poole in 1865 by Mr. T. Wanhill for 
Mr. MulhoUand. In her brilliant career she won six Queen* s Cups, viz., 
1865 (her first season), 1869, 1872, 1874, 1879, and 1881 ; in 1874 the Prince 
of Wales's Challenge Cup also passed into her possession. 

Tomiage (Thames measurement), 157 tons; length, 98-4 ft.; breadth, 
19 •2 ft.; depth, 10-1 ft. 

342. Half block m_odel of Yt. " Guinevere." (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Lent by Messrs. Camper and Nicliolsons, Ltd., 1897. 

N. 2140. 

This schooner yacht was built at Grosport in 1868 by Mr. Nicholson, and 
at the time was very successful. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 301 tons ; length, 125 • 2 ft. ; breadth, 
23 -6 ft.; depth, 13*3 ft. 

343. Lithograpb of Yt. " Cambria." Received 1905. N. 2410. 

This schooner yacht was built of wood at West Cowes by Michael Ratsey, 
in 1868, for Mr. J. Ashbury. She was an excellent sea-boat with good speed 
in heavy weather, and was the first English yacht to attempt to regain the 
" America " cup (1870). Previous to this she had beaten the American 
yacht " Sappho " at Ryde, and the " Dauntless," owned by Mr. Gordon 
Bennett, in a transatlantic race. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 193 tons ; length, 102 • 6 ft. ; breadth, 
21-1 ft.; depth, 11-6 ft. 

344. Half block model of Yt. " Muriel." (Scale 1 : 24.) Pre- 
sented by A. H. Bridson, Esq., 1897. N. 2115. 

This cutter yacht was built at Southampton in 1869 by Mr. Hatcher 
She was a famous vessel and the winner of many prizes. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 41 tons ; length, 60 ft. ; breadth, 
12-7 ft.; depth, 10-3 ft. 



Ill 

345. Rigged model of Yt. " Jullanar," lent by Sir Geo. A. 
Pilkington, and half block model lent by R. T. Pritchett, 
Esq., 1897. (Scales 1 : 24.) Plate VL, No. 1. 

N. 2128 and 212L 

This yawl-rigged yacht was designed and built by Mr. E. H. Bentall, an 
agricultural implement maker, at Maldon, in 1875. Although yacht 
designing had been steadily progressing, no great departure had been made 
by any of the leading builders until this design of Mr. Bentall's, in which 
there is absence of deadwood at both extremities. She soon displayed 
remarkable speed and became famous as a racer. 

Tonnage (Thames measui-ement), 126 tons; length, 90-8 ft.; breadth, 
16 • 6 ft. ; depth of hold, 13 • 1 ft. ; draught of water, 13 • 5 ft. 

346. Half block model of Yt. " Neptune." (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Presented by Messrs. Wm.. Fife and Son, 1897. N. 2130. 

This yawl-rigged yacht was built at Fairlie, N.B., in 1875, by Messrs. 
Wm. Fife and Son. She won the Queen's Cup on the Thames in 1886, and 
at Ryde in 1888. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 50 tons; length, 64-8 ft.; breadth, 
13-5 ft.; depth, 8-9 ft. 

347. Half block model of Yt. " Bonita." (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by Messrs. Watkins & Co. 1877. N. 1474. 

This yacht was designed and built as a racing cutter by Messrs. Watkins 
& Co. at Blackwall in 1876. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 10 tons ; length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 
8-2 ft. ; depth, 7-5 ft. 

348. Half block model of Yt. " Mersey." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by Messrs. Watkins & Co., 1877. N. 1473. 

This yawl-rigged yacht was built at Blackwall in 1877 by Messrs. 
Watkins & Co., to their own design. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 37 tons; length, 53*3 ft.; breadth, 
13-2 ft.; depth, 9-0 ft. 

349. Rigged model of Yt. " Formosa." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by A. R. Ricardo, Esq., 1883. N. 1568. 

This cutter yacht was designed and built by Mr. M. E. Ratsey, at Cowes, 
in 1878, for the then Prince of Wales. 

Gross register, 102 tons; net register, 72*37 tons; length, 84'5ft. ; 
length on water-line, 82-66 ft. ; breadth, 16-9 ft. ; depth, 12-1 ft. ; draught 
of water, aft, 12 • 5 ft. ; draught of water, forward, 7 • 75 ft. ; area of mainsail, 
3,150 sq. ft. ; area of foresail, 750 sq. ft. ; area of jib, 990 sq. ft. ; total area 
of lower sails, 4,890 sq. ft. 

In 1887 the rig was altered to that of a yawl. 

350. Half block model of Yt. " Maggie." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by Francis Taylor, Esq., 1897. N. 2119. 

This cutter yacht was built at Southampton in 1878 by Mr. D. Hatcher. 
Tonnage (Thames measurement), 15 tons ; length, 45 ft. ; breadth, 
8 • 8 ft. ; depth, 8 ft. 

351. Half block model of Yt. " Waterwitcb." (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by Messrs. Camper and Nicholsons, Ltd., 1897. 

N. 2142. 

This schooner yacht was designed by Mr. B. Nicholson, and built at 
Gosport in 1880 ; she proved to be a very successful racer. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 159 tons; length, 100 • 1 ft. ; breadth, 
19 • 2 ft. ; depth, 12 • 3 ft. ; sail area, 8,309 sq. ft. 



112 

352. Half block model of Yt. " Freda." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by Francis Taylor, Esq., 1897. N. 2118. 

This cutter yacht was built on the Thames in 1880 by Mr. Beavor Webb, 
and was a well-known vessel at the time. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 21 tons; length, 50*8 ft.; breadth, 
9-8 ft.; depth, 8-2 ft. 

353. Half block model of Yt. " Buttercup." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by R. Hewett, Esq., 1897. N. 2125. 

This cutter yacht was built by Mr. T. Y. Trew at Barking, Essex, in 
1880. Thames measui-ement, 11 tons ; length, 47 '2 ft. ; breadth, 7 • 3 ft. ; 
depth, 8-5 ft. 

354. Half block model of Yt. " Tara." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by Francis Taylor, Esq., 1897. N. 2117. 

This composite cutter yacht was built at. Southampton in 1883 by Mr. 
D. Hatcher. In 1882 the Yacht Racing Association adopted a new rule of 
measurement, which evolved a deep and nan-ow vessel, known as the " plank- 
on-edge " type. The " Tara " was one of the first built under this rule, and 
was the most extreme example, being six times as long as she was broad, 
and unusually deep. She had 38 tons of lead on her keel, and although 
only a 40-toniier, spread as much canvas as a 60 ; she was a fast and very 
successful vessel. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 42 tons; length, 70 "1 ft.; breadth, 
11-5 ft.; depth, 10 15 ft. 

355. Half block model of Yt. *' Eclipse." (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by A. Manning, Esq., 1897. N. 2147. 

This cutter yacht was built at Southampton in 1884 by Messrs. A. Payne 
mad Sons, to the design of Mr. C. P. Clayton. In her first year she won 
twenty first prizes. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 15 tons; length, 37 '1 ft.; breadth, 
10-1 ft.; depth, 7-5 ft. 

356. Half block model of Yt. ''Minnow." (Scale 1: 12.) 
Lent by Messrs. Summers and Payne, Ltd., 1908. N. 2481. 

This cutter yacht, first known as " Tootsie," was built of wood at 
Southampton in 1885 by Messrs. A. Payne and Son to the design of 
Mr. A. E. Payne. 

She is representative of the early " Itchen " class of racing yachts 
developed from Solent fishing craft. Their chief chai'acteristics were : — 
Great beam in proportion to length, square stem, deep after deadwood, 
and raking midship section, i.e., the position of maximum breadth at 
the load water-line was always well abaft that of the lowest water-line ; this 
latter principle has been adopted in the designs of many modem racing 
yachts. 

Length (b.p.), 17 ft. ; breadth, 7 ft. ; depth, 4 ft. ; tonnage (Thames), 
3 tons ; T.R.A. i-ating (1886 Rule), 1-39. 

357. Half block model of Yt. '' Thistle." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Jolm L. Watson, Esq., 1901. N. 2174. 

This cutter yacht was built of steel at Glasgow in 1887 by Messrs. D. 
and W. Henderson & Co. She was designed by Mr. G. L. Watson to 
compete for the America Cup, and was the first notable vessel built under 
the new measurement i-ules which then came into operation. She won the 
Queen's Cup at Rothesay in 1890, and in that season gained 22 prizes ; 
she was soon afterwards purchased by the Grerman Emperor and renamed 
" Meteor," under which name she gained another Queen's Cup in 1893. 

Tonnage (Thames measui-ement), 170 tons ; length, 98 -0 ft. ; breadth, 
20-3 ft. ; depth, 14-1 ft. ; sail area, 8,157 '1 sq. ft. 



113 

358. Rigged model of Yt. "Volunteer." (Scale 1:24.) 
Received 1889. N. 1821. 

This centre-board cutter yacht was designed by Mr. E. Burgess, and 
built of steel at Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A., in 1887, by the Pusey and 
Jones Co. She competed in that year for the America Cup, and retained 
it against the British yacht " Thistle." 

Tonnage, 89 tons ; length over all, 107 ft. ; length on load water-line, 
85-92 ft.; breadth, 23-33 ft.; draught of water, 10 ft.; draught with 
centre-board down, 21 ft. ; length of centre-board, 25 ft. Her sail plan 
contained 9,000 sq. ft. of canvas. 

In 1891 the " Volunteer " was lengthened, and rigged as a schooner. 

A half block model, N. 2173 (Scale 1 : 32), lent by J. L. Watson, Esq., in 
1899 is also exhibited. 

359. Half block model of Yt. " Lady Nan." (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by A. E. Payne, Esq., 1897. N. 2102. 

This sloop-rigged yacht was built at Southampton in 1888 by Messrs. A. 
Payne and Sons, to the design of Mr. A. E. Payne. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 6 tons; length, 24-8 ft.; breadth, 
8-4 ft. ; depth, 4-8 ft. 

360. Half block model of Yt. ''Valkyrie " (I.). (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Earl of Dunraven, 1897. N. 2150. 

This composite cutter yacht was built at Southampton in 1889 by 
Messrs. J. Gr. Fay & Co., to the designs of Mr. G. L. Watson. In 1890 she 
won 11 prizes, and in 1891 gained a Queen's Cup in a race round the Isle 
of Wight. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 94 tons ; length, 85 ft. ; breadth, 
15 • 9 feet ; depth, 11 • 6 ft. 

361. Half block model o£ Yt. '' Iverna." (Scale 1 : 36.) 
Lent by Messrs. J. G. Fay & Co., 1897. N. 2144. 

This composite built cutter yacht was designed by Mr. A. Richardson, 
and constructed at Southampton in 1890. In her first season she gained 
20 prizes, and in 1892 won a Queen's Cup in Dublin Bay. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 152 tons ; length, 98 ft. ; breadth, 
19 ft.; depth, 10-7 ft. 

362. Half block model of Yt. ''Yama." (Scale 1:24.^ 
Presented by Messrs. Wm. Fife and Son, 1897. N. 2131. 

This cutter yacht was built in 1890 at Brooklyn, U.S.A., to the design of 
Mr. W. Fife, junr. 

Tonnage (American), 11*4 tons; length, 52 ft.; breadth, 9*2 ft.; 
draught of water, 9 ft. 

363. Half block model of Yt. ''Creole." (Scale 1:24.) 
Presented by Messrs. Forrestt & Son, 1897. N. 2114. 

This composite cutter yacht was built at Wivenhoe in 1890 by Messrs. 
Forrestt and Son, to the designs of Mr. G. L. Watson. She was considered 
to be the prettiest example and the most consistent performer of the 
40-rater type, and in her first season won 15 prizes. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 54 tons; length, 70*5 ft.; breadth, 
13-3 ft. ; depth, 10-1 ft. ; sail area, 3,993 sq. ft. 

364. Half block model of Yt. " Reverie." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Messrs. J. G. Fay & Co., 1897. N. 2145. 

This composite yawl-rigged yacht was built at Southampton in 1891 by 
Messrs. Fay & Co., to the design of Mr. J. M. Soper. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 59 tons; length, 72*6 f t : breadth, 
13 • 7 ft. ; depth, 9 • 85 ft. ; sail area, 3,994 sq. ft. 

u 6773. H* 



114 

:365. Half block model of Yt. " Corsair." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by R. T. Pritchett, Esq., 1897. N. 2113. 

This cutter yacht was built at Southampton in 1892 by Messrs. 
Summers and Payne, to the design of Mr. A. E. Payne. In her first year 
she gained a sensational victoiy over the cutter " Meteor," formerly 
" Thistle." 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 60 tons ; length, 67 ft. ; breadth, 
14-65 ft. ; depth, 10-9 ft. ; sail area, 4,098 sq. ft. 

366. Half block model of Yt. " Satanita." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Messrs. J. G. Fay & Co., 1897. N. 2146. 

This composite built cutter yacht was constructed at Southampton in 
1893 by Messrs. J. G. Fay & Co., to the design of Mr. J. M. Soper. In 
that year she won a Queen's Cup in Ireland, and in 1894 beat the " Britannia " 
in a reaching trial at Weymouth. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 300 tons ; length, 117*1 ft. ; breadth, 
24-7 ft. ; depth, 12-3 ft. ; sail area, 9,915 sq. ft. 

367. Half block model of Yt. "Valkyrie 11." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Earl of Dunraven, 1897. N. 2151. 

This composite cutter yacht was built by Messrs. D. & W. Henderson 

6 Co. at Glasgow in 1893, from the designs of Mr. Gr. L. "Watson. She 
crossed the Atlantic and unsuccessfully competed for the America Cup 
against " Yigilant " in the same year. In 1894 she was sunk through a 
collision during a race on the Clyde. 

Length, 85 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 22 ft. ; sail area, 10,042 sq. ft. 

368. Half block model of Yt. " Vendetta." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Messrs. Summers and Payne, Ltd., 1908. N. 2479. 

This cutter yacht was built at Southampton in 1893 by Messrs. Summers 
and Payne to the design of Mr. A. E. Payne ; she is of wood construction 
with steel frames and beams amidships. 

Length (b.p.), 66-5 ft. ; length (w.l.), 60*4 ft. ; breadth, 17 ft. ; draught, 
11 • 75 ft. ; sail area, 3,962 sq. ft. ; tonnage (Thames), 76 tons ; T.R. A. 
i-ating (1886 Rule), 40 ; (1896 Rule), 67. 

369. Whole model of Yt. '' Sorceress." (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by Linton Hope, Esq., 1896. N. 2110. 

This centre-board yacht was built in 1894 from the design of her 
owner, Mr. Hope. The shallow, dish-like underwater form, with broad 
overhanging ends, is typical of the small " i-ater " developed under the 
1886-96 rating rule, in which sail area and length at the water-line were 
the only factors. The " Sorceress " can-ies no ballast, but has a deep 
central "fin," which gives considei-able lateral resistance. She has been 
highly successful on the Thames in all weathers, beating most of the 
ballasted and bulb-fin boats. 

Length, extreme, 28 ft. ; length on load water-line, 19 ft. ; breadth, 

7 • 75 ft. ; rating 1. 

370. Half block model of Yt. " Valkyrie III." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by tbe Earl of Dunraven, 1897. N. 2152. 

This composite cutter yacht was built at Glasgow in 1895, by Messrs. 
D. & W. Henderson & Co., from the designs of Mr. G. L. Watson. She 
competed unsuccessfully for the America Cup in 1895 against the 
" Defender." 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 263 tons; length, 88 '8 ft.; breadth, 
25 • 7 ft. ; depth, 11 • 7 f t. ; sail area, 13,028 sq. ft. 



115 

371. Half block model of Yt. "Isolde." (Scale 1: 36.) Pre- 
sented by Messrs. Wm. Fife and Son, 1897. N. 2132. 

This composite cutter yaclit was built at Fairlie, N.B., in 1895, by- 
Messrs. Fife and Son, from the designs of Mr. W. Fife, jun. Her record in 
1895 was : 54 starts, 31 first prizes, and 6 second ; in 1896 : 45 starts, 
26 first prizes, and 7 second. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 82 tons; length, 71*25 ft.; breadth, 
16 • 8 ft ; depth, 8 -4 ft. ; sail area, 4,006 • 3 sq. ft. 

372. Half model of Yt. '' Corolla." (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by 
Messrs. Camper and Nicholsons, Ltd., 1897. N. 2143. 

This lugger-rigged yacht was built by Messrs. Camper and Nicholson, 
at Gosport, in 1895, from the designs of Mr. C. Nicholson. 

Tonnage (Thames measui-ement), 7 tons ; length, 27 • 25 ft. ; breadth, 
7 ft. ; sail area, 548 • 7 sq. ft, ; rating, 2 ' 5. 

373. Rigged model of sailing punt "Leah." (Scale 1: 6.) 
Lent by R. J. Turk, Esq., 1903. ' N. 2345. 

This successful example of a racing punt was built at Kingston-on-Thames 
in 1896 by Mr. R. J. Turk ; she has won the Thames Championship for 
her class in the five consecutive years 1896-1900 and out of a total of 
40 starts, obtained 35 first places, 2 second, and 3 third. 

The boat is of simple box construction, with the sides formed of single 
strakes inclining outwards and the whole structure held together by timber 
knees secured to stout floor pieces spaced 1 • 75 ft. apart. Two swinging 
leeboards are fitted, to reduce leeway, and internal housing is provided for 
their reception when lifted. A punting platform is constructed at the 
after end and the space beneath it is utilised as a locker. When sailing 
a large dipping lug sail is used, carried by a hollow mast and yard which 
are built up in wood. 

Length, extreme, 25 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 3 • 83 ft. ; depth, amidships, 
1-3 ft. ; sail area, approximate, 200 sq.ft. ; rating, (S.B.A. Rules), 0*5. 

374. Half block model of Yt. " Tutty." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by Messrs. Summers and Payne, Ltd., 1908. N. 2482. 

This cutter yacht was built of wood at Southampton in 1898 by Messrs. 
Summers and Payne to the designs of Mr. A. E. Payne. 

Tonnage (Thames) 40 tons ; length (b.p.), 60 ft. ; breadth, 15 • 86 ft. ; 
Y.R.A. rating (1896 Rule), 65. 

375. Rigged model of Yt. " Outlook." (Scale 1 : 16.) Pre- 
sented by W. Starling Burgess, Esq., 1903. Plate VI., 
No. 2. N. 2347. 

This racing yacht was . built at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1902, to the 
designs of Mr. Burgess to defend the " Quincy Cup," open to any sailing 
craft not exceeding 21 ft. at the water-line ; in this she was successfid and 
she has an unbroken record of seven victories. 

Her constniction illustrates the inconvenient extreme to which a rule 
restricting only the water-line length of competing yachts tends ; neverthe- 
less, her sail area and speed are considerably greater than have ever before 
been associated with so little weight or so short a water-line, results which 
are due to her immense beam, great overhang at bow and stem and the 
lightness of her construction. 

The hull is of nearly uniform breadth, and gradually decreases in depth 
from amidships to a broad, flat entrance and run. To increase the lateral 
resistance there is a large central drop-keel plate, which is assisted by a 
deep hanging rudder. 

The strength of the boat is entirely derived from a steel truss, extending 
from bow to stem and having six amis running athwartships from side to 

H 2 



116 

side. The truss section is formed by two triangles on the same base but 
with one inverted ; the members and bracing are of angle steel. Below 
and around this steel frame the light wooden hull is secured, and near its 
centre the mast step is built, while along the top the standing rigging and 
sheet blocks are attached. 

Displacement, 3 tons and there is no ballast ; length (o. a.), 51 " 4 ft. ; 
length on water-line, 21 ft. ; beam, extreme, 16 ft. ; beam at water- 
line, 13-4 ft.; di-aught of hull, -66 ft.; sail area, 1,800 sq. ft. The 
midship sectional area is 7*54 sq. ft. ; area of load water-line plane, 
271 ft. ; wetted surface, without board, 278 sq. ft. ; and the prismatic 
coefficient, -592. 

376. Half block model of Yt. '' Little Haste." (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by W. Starling Burgess, Esq., 1903. N. 2346. 

This centre-board yacht was built in 1902 at Manchester, Massachusetts, 
to the designs of Mr. Burgess, to conform with the rules of the 21 -ft. 
cruising class of the Massachusetts Yacht Racing Association. In her first 
year she won the Association's championship on the open sea, and was then 
transferred to Lake Michigan, where she was equally successful. 

The boat is a modern example of a scow of stout construction, with 
great beam and shallow draught, and Mr. Burgess states that her lines 
closely correspond with those arrived at by the theory of Mr. John Scott 
Russell. Despite her full overhangs she has proved to be a good sea boat 
and capable of beating the keel boats of her class in a heavy sea and a 
strong breeze. 

Displacement, 3*06 tons; weight of ballast, 5*34 tons; length (o.a.), 
40 ft.; length on water-line, 21 ft.; beam (extreme), 10 "65 ft.; beam at 
water-line, 10 * 4 ft. ; draught, 2 ft. ; sail area, 941 sq. ft. Her midship 
sectional area, excluding keel, is 9-52 sq. ft. ; area of load water-line 
plane, 187 sq. ft.; wetted surface, excluding centre-board, 217*3 sq. ft.; 
prismatic coefficient, • 532 ; metacentric height, 9 • 42 ft. ; and the stability 
at 20 deg. is 19,000 ft. lb. 

377. Half block model of Yt. " Bnnnie." (Scale 1 : 8.) Lent 
by Messrs. Summers and Payne, Ltd., 1908. N. 2478. 

This sloop- rigged yacht was built of wood at Southampton in 1906 by 
Messrs. Summers and Payne to the design Mr. A. E. Payne, jun. 

Tonnage (Thames), 2 tons ; length (w.l.), 17 "15 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; T.R.A. 
rating, 18-01. 

A comparison of this design with that of the " Minnow " (No. 356), a 
yacht of similar length at water-line, shows broadly the effect of recent 
rating rules upon the external appearance of racing yachts. 



378. Rigged model of ice boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented 
by J. S. Anderson, Esq., 1865. N. 1075. 

This represents a cutter-rigged ice boat such as is used on the G-ulf 
of Finland, the North American lakes, etc., when navigation is stopped 
by frost. 

The boat is a framed cross in plan, with the mast stepped at the 
intersection; it is carried on three sledge irons, one of which is aft and 
is fitted with a handle for steei-ing. The dimensions vary, but in one 
example, the "Sokol" {i.e., "Falcon"), the length was 25 ft., and the 
beam 12 ft. 

These boats attain a very high speed ; with a beam wind their velocity 
may exceed that of the wind by which they are propelled. 



117 

379. Rigged model of ice yacht *' Swedish Arrow." (Scale 
1 : 10.) Received 1909. N. 2530. 

This represents a typical racing yacht as used on the frozen lakes and 
creeks of the Baltic ; it is of lighter construction than No. 378, and has 
improved skids and rudder arrangements. In size and general features this 
vessel also resembles a 250-ft. class North American ice yacht {i.e., carrying 
250 sq. ft. of canvas). 

The main structure consists of two wooden members arranged in the 
form of a horizontal cross. The fore-and-aft member or backbone extends 
the full length of the vessel; it is elliptical in section and tapers longi- 
tudinally in each direction from its junction with the thwartship member. 
It may be formed either of solid timber, scarfed where necessary, or it may 
be of hollow section ; or, again, it may consist of a trussed frame. This 
member caiTies the mast and rudder, and also acts as a bowsprit for setting 
the head-sail ; it likewise forms an attachment for the crew platform or 
cockpit at the after end. The thwartship member or runner plank is about 
one-half of the length of the backbone, and is of solid timber ; it carries the 
skids or runners at the outer ends. The rudder and side runners are pivoted 
so as to rock freely in a fore-and-aft direction, and thus minimise the worst 
effects of uneven ice ; fui-ther to reduce the shocks under such conditions a 
thick rubber cushion is usually fitted under the inidder bearing. AU sliding 
surfaces are fitted with soft cast-iron shoe-pieces. 

A single mast with a main sail and jib is the usual rig, and the vessel is 
manoeuvi-ed like a cutter. The spars are usually hollow, and both the 
standing and running rigging are of galvanised steel wire. 

Length overaU, 31-5 ft. ; breadth, 15 ft. 



CRUISINa TAOHTS. 



380. Lithograph of H.M.Yt. '' Victoria and Albert." Wood- 
croft Bequest, 1903. N. 2311. 

This paddle-wheel yacht was built of wood at Pembroke in 1842-3 from 
the designs of Sir W. Symonds ; she was broken up in 1868, but had then 
been long replaced by a larger yacht of the same name. 

A somewhat unusual system was adopted in the construction of this 
vessel as, to reduce weight, no closely- spaced transverse ribs or frames were 
fitted, except to the lower or under water portions of the hull, the general 
transverse form above being maintained by five watertight wooden bulk- 
heads, spaced at intei-vals throughout the length, and each one extending 
from the keel to the upper deck. To compensate for any loss of structural 
strength thus occasioned, the outer planking was worked in three thicknesses 
— ^the two inner layers placed diagonally across each other, at 45 deg., and 
the outer layer worked longitudinally. Tarred felt was laid between each 
thickness, and the whole finally held together by vertical and diagonal ties. 

The engines, made by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, were of the 
twin cylinder type (see No. 808), and gave the vessel a speed of 10 • 7 knots. 

Burden, 1,034 tons ; length, extreme, 225 feet ; length, b.p., 200 ft. ; 
breadth, outside paddles, 59 f t. ; breadth, inside paddles, 33 ft. ; depth of 
hold, 22 ft. ; draught, mean, 14-25 ft. 

381. Lithograph of H.M.Yt. " Fairy." Woodcroft Bequest, 
1903. N. 2312. 

This iron-built screw yacht was designed and constructed by Messrs. 
Ditchbum and Mare at Blackwall in 1844-5, and was broken up in 1868. 

She was originally intended for the conveyance of Queen Victoria 
between Whitehall and Woolwich, but proved so seaworthy that she subse- 
quently became a tender to the larger yacht " Victoria and Albert " on her 
voyages. She was, moreover, one of the earliest vessels in the Navy designed 



118 

and fitted for screw propulsion, and was considered to be the fastest vessel 
of her time ; she was afterwards used by the Admiralty for testing various 
forms of propeller. 

Her engines, constructed by Messrs. Perm and Son, had two oscillating 
cylinders, 42 in. diam. by 36 in. stroke, making 48 revs, per min., and were 
connected with the screw- shaft by spur gearing which gave a propeller speed 
of 240 revs, per min. With a boiler pressure of 10 lb. and 364 indicated 
h.p. a speed of 13*3 knots was obtained with a screw 5" 3 ft. diam., 8 ft. 
pitch and 1 ft. long. 

Displacement, 168 tons; length (b.p.), 144*6 ft.; breadth (extreme), 
21 • 1 ft. ; draught (mean), 5 ft. 

382. Whole model of H.M.Yt. " Fairy." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by tlie Thames Iron Works and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., 
1908. N. 2486. 

This was built of iron at Orchard Yard, Blackwall (now the Thames 
Ironworks), in 1844-5, by Messrs. Ditchbum and Mare. 
For descriptive details, see No. 381. 

383. Whole built model of Yt. " Dryad." (Scale 1 : 12.) Pre- 
sented by Prof. J. W. Groves, 1893. N. 2014. 

This cutter yacht was built at Cowes in 1846 by Messrs. White and 
Sons, for Mr. Delafield. The model was constructed by the late Mr. W. 
Groves, the sculptor, and is a very accurate record of the vessel and its 
details, even the internal fittings being faithfully represented to scale. 

Tonnage, 85 tons ; length, 72 ft. ; breadth, 20 ft. ; di*aught of water, 
lift. 

A half block model of the " Dryad " (Scale 1 : 24) is shown in the same 
case. 

384. Whole block model of Yt. " Kate." (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1354. 

This yawl-rigged yacht was built by Messrs. FoiTCstt and Son for 
Mr. E. E. Middleton. She is decked over, but has a well with shding hatch 
amidships. In 1869 the owner sailed her alone round the English coast. 

Length, 23 ft. ; breadth, 7 ft. ; depth, 2*5 ft. 

385. Rigged model of schooner yacht. (Scale 1:8.) Presented 
by A. Hmnphreys, Esq., 1878. N. 1503. 

This represents a full-rigged fore-and-aft schooner, with mainsail, boom 
foresail, fore staysail, jib, fore and main gaff -topsails set. 
Length, 105 ft. ; breadth, 27*5 ft. ; depth, 15 ft. 

386. Rigged model of cutter yacht. (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent by 
H. L. Hooper, Esq., 1877. N. 1483. 

This yacht hdS her mainsail and foresail set, and it represents a vessel 
of the following dimensions: — Tonnage (b.m.), 40*4 tons; length, 60 ft. ; 
breadth, 12 ft. ; depth of hold, 8 ft. 

387. Whole block model of schooner yacht. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. 

N. 1255. 

This shows a proposed fast schooner designed with " wave-lines." For 
a speed of 12 knots the sail area was to be 12,600 sq. yds., or else a screw 
was to be fitted, driven by engines of 500 indicated h.p. 

Tonnage (b.o.m.), 512 tons ; length on load water-line, 150 ft. ; breadth 
extreme, 27 ft. ; mean draught, 10 • 8 ft. ; immersed midship section, 175 sq. ft. 



119 

388. Whole model S.Yt. " Undine." (Scale 1 : 48.) Contri- 
buted by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1254. 

This three-masted, schooner-rigged, auxiliary- screw yacht was constructed 
of iron in 1856 to lines determined entirely by Mr. Scott Russell's wave 
system. 

Her keel was formed by turning down the adjacent skin plates and then 
riveting them together through two intervening plates • 75 in, thick, thus 
forming a continuous keel which terminated in a horizontal plate on the top 
of the floors. 

The engines were of the angular direct-acting type, with two cylinders 
24 in. diam. by 15 in. stroke, and indicated 160 h.p, at 100 revs, per 
minute. Steam at 15 lb. pressure was supplied by a tubular boiler, 8 ft. 
long, 12-25 ft. wide, and 8 '75 ft. high, having four furnaces and 1,026 sq, ft, 
of heating surface. The consumption of coal per 24 hours was 6 tons, and 
3*5 lb. per indicated h.p. per hour. She was fitted with a 2-bladed lifting 
screw, 7 • 75 ft. diam. by 11 • 3 ft. pitch, weighing • 6 ton. Her speed was 
9 • 5 knots. 

Tonnage (b.m.), 363 tons ; length on load water-line, 125 ft. ; breadth, 
extreme, 25 ft. ; depth at the side, 11 * 5 ft, ; draught, 10 '5 ft. ; immersed 
midship section, 159 sq. ft. ; area of load water-line, 1,997 sq. ft, 

389. Half models of S.Yt. " Cleopatra." (Scale 1 : 48.) Con^ 
tributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1243. 

This was a paddle vessel built on the longitudinal system for the 
Egyptian Government in 1858. Her greatest breadth was on the water-line 
amidships, " flare" being given to the extremities so as to ease the motion 
at sea ; the whole of the machinery space was placed forward so as leave 
ample accommodation aft. She carried two masts, and had a sail area of 
490 sq, yds. 

Her engines had three oscillating cylinders and weighed 103 tons ; 
they are represented and described in No. 812 ; her average speed was 
14 • 7 knots. 

Steam at 25 lb, pressure was supplied by two tubular boilers 15 ft. long, 
9 ft. wide, and 8 • 5 high. The total grate area was 150 sq. ft., and the 
heating surface 3,251 sq. ft. They weighed 17 tons and caiTied 20 tons of 
water. 

Load displacement, 435 tons ; tonnage (b,m), 453 tons ; gross register, 
262 tons ; length on load water-line, 202 ft, ; breadth, extreme, 21 ft, ; 
depth at side, 10 • 4 ft, ; draught of water, laden, 6 • 25 ft, ; immersed midship 
section, 122 sq, ft. 

390. Half block model of Austrian state Yt. " Miramar." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1893. N. 2023. 

This schooner-rigged paddle yacht was built by Messrs. Samuda Bros. 
in 1872 for H.I.M. the Emperor of Austria. 

The engines indicate 2,500 h.p., and give a speed of 17*2 knots; the 
coal capacity is 300 tons. 

Length (b.p.), 269 ft. ; breadth, 32-8 ft. ; draught, 14 ft. ; displacement, 
1,810 tons. 

391. Half block model of S.Yt. " Sunbeam." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Rt. Hon. Earl Brassey, K.C.B., 1897. 

N. 2134. 

This auxiliary- screw, three-masted, topsail schooner was designed by 
Mr. St. Clare Byrne, and composite built by Messrs, Bowdler, Chaffer & Co., 
at Seacombe, on the Mersey, in 1874. She is a weU-known cruising yacht, 
having made several voyages round the world. 

Her engines, by Messrs. Laird Bros., are of the two-stage expansion 
inverted type, with cylinders 24 and 42 in. diam, by 21 in. stroke. Steam, 
at 55 lb. pressure, ip supplied by a boiler with three plain furnaces having 



120 

64 sq. ft. of grate surface. The engines indicated 350 h.p. and developed 
a speed of 10*13 knots on the measured mile. The cruising speed is 
8 knots, with a daily consumption of 4 tons of coal, the endurance at this 
rate being 20 days. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 532 tons; length, between perps., 
159 ft.; breadth, 27*6 ft.; depth, 13'9ft. ; area of midship section, 
202 sq. ft. 

392. Half block model of S.Yt. '' Chazalie." (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Lent by Messrs. Camper and Nicholsons, Ltd., 1897. 

N. 2141. 

This schooner- rigged screw steam yacht, designed by Mr. B. Nicholson, 
was built at Gosport in 1875. 

Her engines were inverted two- stage expansion, with cylinders 20 in. and 
40 in. diam., by 24 in. stroke. 

Tonnage (Thames measui'ement), 514 tons ; length, 157 -1 ft. ; breadth, 
27 -3 ft.; depth, 15 4 ft. 

393. Half block model of S.Yt. " Wanderer." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Mrs. S. Lambert, 1894. N. 2032. 

This composite, three-masted, schooner- rigged, screw yacht was built at 
Greenock in 1878 by Messrs, R. Steele & Co. She was then one of the 
largest yachts afloat, and so elegantly fitted that it is said her total cost was 
100,000?. 

Her engines were originally three- stage expansion, with cylinders 17 in., 
34 in,, and 48 in. diam., by 30 in. stroke, which at 92 revs, per min, indicated 
200 h.p. Steam at 400 lb. pressui'e was supplied by four boilers 9-6 ft. 
long and 5 • 25 ft. broad, each with a grate surface of 19 sq. ft. and a heating 
surface of 760 sq. ft. The engines and boilers were on the Perkins's system 
and designed by Mr. J. F. Spencer. The exceptional pressure gave rise to 
practical difiiculties that ended in the engines being replaced by a two-stage 
expansion set, with cylinders 25 in. and 50 in. diam., by 30 in. stroke, 
supplied with steam at 80 lb. pressure, and indicating 100 h.p. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 708 tons ; length, 185*4 ft. ; breadth, 
29 • 2 ft. ; depth, 16 • 1 ft. ; draught of water, 13 • 5 ft. 

394. Wliole model of the Russian Imperial S.Yt. " Livadia." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1883. Plate VI., No. 3. N. 1593. 

This immense steam yacht was built of steel at Glasgow in 1880, by 
Messrs. John Elder & Co., to designs prepared by the Russian Admiralty. 

The lower part of the hull is of turbot shape, and contains the machinery, 
coal, and stores. It is built with a double bottom 3*5 ft. deep in the centre, 
and nearly flat, but is stiffened by webs that divide it into 40 watertight 
compartments. The sides are strengthened by two continuous inner bulk- 
heads, with cross webs, so that the intervening space is divided into 40 more 
compartments ; these, with the rounded deck above and the bottom plates, 
constitute a strong annular stmcture that is fui-ther stiffened by radial 
girders. 

Above this hull is a superstmcture of more usual shape, which provides 
accommodation for the crew forward and the officers aft; above it is the 
upper deck, upon which are the quarters of the Emperor and his suite, while 
above this is an awning deck provided with state saloons. 

Her three main engines are two -stage expansion, each having three 
cylinders, one of 60 in. and two of 78 in. diam., by 39 in, stroke ; each set 
indicates 3,500 h.p,, and drives a four-bladed propeller 16 ft. diam,, spaced 
18-25 ft. apart. On her trial she attained a speed of 15-8 knots with 
10,500 indicated h.p. The form of hull is not conducive to high speeds, 
and while crossing the Bay of Biscay the flat bottom showed itself unsuitable 
for rough water. 

Tonnage (yacht measurement), 11,802 tons ; displacement, 3,900 tons ; 
length, 235 ft. ; breadth, 153 ft, ; depth from awning deck, 36*6 ft, ; draught 
of water, 6-6 ft. 



121 

395. Half block model of S.Yt. "Puck." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Messrs. Thomas Grendoii & Co., 1888. N. 1801. 

This steam yacht was built of steel at Drogheda in 1880. Steam at 75 lb. 
pressure was supplied by a steel boiler 8 • 25 ft. long and 5*5 ft. diam. Her 
speed was 13-9 knots. 

Register tonnage, 25 tons ; length, 61 • 25 ft. ; breadth, 9*5 ft. 

396. Rigged model of S.Yt. " Lady Torfrida." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., 
1901. N. 2270. 

This schooner-rigged screw yacht was designed and built of steel in 1886 
at Govan, by the Fairfield Company, for the late Sir "William Pearce, Bart., 
chairman of the company. 

The vessel has two decks and four bulkheads ; she is completely fitted as 
a pleasure yacht, and is lighted throughout by electricity, which, when the 
dynamo is not running, is supplied by accumulator cells. 

The engines are a three-stage expansion surface-condensing set, with two 
high-pressure cylinders, 14*25 in. diam., one intermediate pressure, 30-5 in. 
diam., and two low-pressure, 38 in. diam., all by 30 in. stroke. The high- 
pressure cylinders are arranged tandem above the low pressures, on each side 
of the intennediate-pressure cylinder, a three-throw crank shaft being used. 
Piston-valves are fitted to the high-pressui-e cylinders and flat slide valves 
to the others ; reversing is effected by Brown's steam and hydraulic gear. 
{See No. 873.) 

Steam at 150 lb. pressure is supplied by a single-ended Scotch boiler, 
15 • 75 ft. diam. by 9 • 4 ft. long, with four corrugated furnaces and a grate 
surface of 81 sq. ft. ; the indicated h.p. is 1,400. 

Thames measurement, 735 tons ; gross register, 546 tons ; length, 216 • 5 f t. ; 
breadth, 27 ft. ; depth, 16-6 ft. 

397. Drawing of S.Yt. " Grace Darling." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Fleming and Ferguson, 1888. N. 1805. 

This steel-built, schooner-rigged, screw yacht was built and engined at 
Paisley, in 1887, from designs by Mr. J. Darhng. She has two decks and 
five bulkheads. 

Her engines are two-stage expansion with four cylinders, two high- 
pressure 10 in. and 14 in. diam., and two low-pressure, 14 in. and 28 in. 
diam., all 20-in. stroke. The boiler pressure is 190 lb. per sq. in. 

Length, 143 ft.; breadth, 19-5 ft.; depth, 10-3 ft. ; gross register, 
169-14 tons; Thames measurement, 250 tons. 

398. Rigged model of S.Yt. ^'Safa-el-bahr." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. A. and J. Inglis, 1897. N. 2127. 

This schooner-rigged, steel-built yacht was designed and constructed by 
Messrs. A. and J. Inglis at Glasgow in 1894, forH.H. the Khedive of Egypt. 
She has two decks and five bulkheads. 

Her engines are a three-stage expansion set, with cylinders 18 in., 29 in., 
and 48 in diam., by 36 in. stroke, indicating 1,200 h.p., and giving a speed 
of 14-1 knots. Steam at 1601b. pressure is supplied by two boilers, having 
2,300 sq. ft. of heating surface. 

Thames measurement, 677 tons ; length, 221 ft. ; breadth, 27*1 ft. ; depth 
at the side, 17 -3 ft. ; draught of water, 12 ft.; area of greatest transverse 
section, 248 sq. ft. ; area of load water-line, 3,590 sq. ft. 

399. Rigged model of S.Yt. "Ivy." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by 
H.M. Foreign Office, 1897. N. 2155. 

This composite-built, schooner-rigged, twin-screw yacht was constructed 
at Hull in 1895 by Messrs. Earle's Shipbuilding and Engineering Co., to 
the design of Messrs. J. Thompson and Son, for H.B.M. Niger Coast Pro- 
tectorate. She has two decks, a short forecastle, and an awning deck 



122 

extending over two- thirds of the vessel ; the after part is sheltered by double 
canvas awnings. The hull is divided by bulkheads into six watertight 
compartments, and she is armed with three guns. 

She is propelled by two sets of three- stage expansion engines, with 
cylinders 13*75 in., 22 "75 in., and 35 in. diam. by 27 in. stroke, indicating 
1,100 h.p., and giving a speed of 13-5 knots. Steam at 150 lb. pressui-e is 
supplied by two steel boilers with six ribbed furnaces ; the grate ai-ea is 
117 sq. ft., and the heating surface, 3,608 sq. ft. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 1,131 tons ; register, 337 tons ; gross, 
870 tons ; length, 220 ft. ; breadth, 33 • 8 ft. ; depth, 15 • 4 ft. 

400. Rigged model of S.Yt. "Alberta." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by the Ailsa Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., 1907. N. 2446. 

This twin-screw schooner-yacht was built of steel by the Ailsa, Ship- 
building Co. at Troon, and engined by Messrs. D. Rowan & Co. of 
Glasgow in 1896. She was designed by Mr. G-. L. Watson for Mr. A. J. 
Drexel, of Philadelphia, and was originally known as "Margarita"; her 
name was changed in 1898, and she was afterwards fitted out for the use of 
H.M. the King of the Belgians. She is constructed with two complete 
decks and seven transverse watertight bulkheads; electric lighting is 
adopted throughout. 

The yacht is propelled by two sets of four- stage expansion engines, having 
cylinders 15-5 in., 22 in., 31 in., and 44 in. diam. by 27 in. stroke. Steam is 
supplied at 200 lb. pressure by two boilers fitted with forced draught 
arrangements ; with 3,000 indicated h.p. a speed of 17 knots was realised. 

Tonnage (Thames measurement), 1,322 tons ; gross register, 1,143 tons ; 
length, overall, 280 ft. ; length on water-line, 240 ft. ; breadth, 33 7 ft. ; 
depth (moulded), 20 ft. 



MOTOR BOATS. 

401. Whole model of motor boat " Brooke XL" (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by Messrs. J. W. Brooke & Co., Ltd., 1908. 

N. 2470. 

This represents a vessel built in 1908 by Messrs. J. W. Brooke & Co., 
and in general features shows a typical high-speed motor boat. The 
flattening and widening of the afterbody sections, and the consequent cutting 
away of all the deadwood aft, is common to all high-speed motor craft, and 
is designed to prevent excessive change of trim of the vessel. This change 
of shape is necessitated by the fact that the difference between the water- 
pressures fore and aft causes such boats to trim so much by the stem that 
the ordinary ship design is unsuitable and even dangerous. The high bow 
and curved deck are common to most vessels of this type. "Wood is used 
in the construction of the vessel represented on account of its lightness and 
low cost ; moreover, with wood fair surfaces can be produced {see No. 636). 

"Brooke II." is built of planking -25 in. thick, and has engine-bearers 
2 in. thick running from the stem of the boat to the transom. Weight has 
been kept at a minimum, the vessel without machinery weighing under 
610 lb., and with the machinery, only about 1,100 lb. 

The vessel is propelled by a Brooke petrol motor having six cylinders, 
each 6 • 5 in. diam. by 6 in. stroke. The crank-shaft is of nickel steel, and is 
drilled for lubrication pui-poses, the oil draining into a sump at the bottom 
of the crank- chamber. A gear pump, driven by skew wheels from the cam 
shaft, draws the oil from the sump and forces it through an oil- cooler, from 
which it is re-distributed to the main bearings. Both the valve covers and 
the cylinders are water- jacketed to avoid pre-ignition. The engine is started 
by a quadrant engaging with a spur-wheel cut at the back of the fly-wheel. 
On trial, fitted with a 20-in. three-bladed propeller, the vessel attained a 
speed of 24 • 6 knots with 960 revs, per min. 

Displacement, 1 ton; length overall, 25 ft.; breadth, 5 ft.; brake 
h.p., 100. 



123 

402. Built model of seagoing motor launch. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by Messrs. J. King & Co., 1909. N. 2512. 

This represents a class of unballasted, light draught motor-boat, designed 
by Mr. T. D. Sandars, for cruising in the open sea ; it was built by Messrs. 
J. King & Co. As the design provides for either single or twin-screw 
propulsion, no details of the machinery are shown on the model. 

The vessel is carvel-built, of pitch pine, with a deck of kauri pine ; the 
frames are of steamed American elm and spaced 6 in. apart. Most of the 
internal fittings are of teak, and their general character may be seen by 
raising the deck of the model. There is accommodation for three deck 
hands, one engineer, and seven passengers. 

The propelling equipment may be either a single or a double set of 
King-Lamb marine motors, each of 24 h.p., and using petrol or gasoline. 
Sufficient fuel is carried to maintain 30 hours' continuous running at 
11 knots (twin-screw), or 60 hours at 8 knots (single-screw). The engines 
and rudder are controlled from the pilot house, but arrangements can be 
made for steering from the cock-pit. 

Length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; draught, 3 ft. ; displacement, 13 tons. 

403, Whole model of "hydroplane" motor boat. (Scale 
1 : 6.) Lent by Messrs. John Wilesmith & Co., 1909. 

N. 2514. 

This represents a type of motor craft in which, at high or moderate 
speeds, a " gliding " or " skimming " action takes the place of the 
" ploughing " action in boats of ordinary form ; this considerably reduces 
the resistance at high speed, by diminishing the displacement. The example 
shown was built of wood at Worcester, in 1909, from the designs of 
Mr. E. P. M. Robinson. 

The most noticeable features of these boats are : — Great beam to length, 
flat floors, inclined bow, and abrupt transom stem. In early experiments, 
with a single, unbroken, imderwater plane, such boats were found to 
oscillate considerably, and became almost unmanageable; by stepping the 
lower hull, or forming it in two or more successive surfaces, greater stability 
and efficiency were obtained. In some successful hydroplanes a number of 
separate inclined plates or planes are attached to the submerged hull. As 
shown by the model, the foremost plane extends over one-third of the boat's 
length and carries the rudder at its after termination ; beyond the ** step " 
the hull is of decreased depth and offers a broad flat gliding surface, to 
which is attached an inclined shaft and deeply immersed propeller. A light 
hood or weather screen, with wash-strakes and coamings, protects the 
habitable portion of the flat deck, and a long continuous rod provides for 
working the tiller at various positions. 

The boat has an overall length of 13 ft. and breadth of 5 ft. 

In boats of the "Fauber" class (attached planes) having engines of 
60 h.p. and a length of 26 ft., speeds up to 32 knots have been realised. 



BOATS, BARGES, LAUNCHES, TUGS, Etc. 

Under this heading are included the small vessels, used as 
adjuncts to ships, and also the varied craft used in fishing, or 
for short journeys, on which extensive accommodation is not 
required. Boats can most easily be divided into two classes : — 
those that are open and therefore unsuited for rough weather, 
and those that are decked so as to have more protection against 
swamping and also furnish some shelter to the occupants. 



124 

Pleasure boats of the open type are usually of light con- 
struction and propelled by oars although auxiliary sail or motor 
propulsion is sometimes adopted. Rowing boats for racing 
purposes are built of cedar, with canvas deck-covering, at an 
average weight of 1 lb. per ft. run ; outriggers are used to 
obtain suitable fulcrums for the sculls, and sliding seats to give 
increased length of stroke. Open fishing and ships' boats are 
of much heavier build, broader in the beam, and bluff bowed ; 
the former are usually lugger, ketch, or cutter rigged, and 
sometimes half-decked. 

Decked boats form a class that strictly includes a large 
proportion of the finest pleasure craft, but these have been 
classed together in the section devoted to yachts. The other 
most important decked boats are engaged in the extensive 
fishing industries, and, owing to the rough weather which they 
have to encounter, such vessels have been developed to a high 
degree of seaworthiness : the introduction of steam or other 
motive power has greatly enlarged the capabilities of these craft. 
Decked launches, with steam, petrol or electricity for propulsion, 
are also widely used for commercial and pleasure purposes. 

Steam tug-boats are of the utmost value to disabled vessels 
generally, to large sailing vessels when nearing land and to 
steamships when passing through narrow or tortuous channels. 
Owing to their stiff build and great engine power, steam tugs 
are capable of encountering almost any weather, and they are 
the recognised means for taking out a lifeboat during a storm. 

Lifeboats were introduced practically by Greathead in 1789 ; 
his boats rendered good service, but had no means of freeing 
themselves from water, and were not self-righting. In 1850, a 
prize of 100 guineas was offered by the Duke of Northumber- 
land for a new design ; out of 280 models and plans sent in, 
that of James Beeching of Yarmouth was considered the best, 
and his was the first self-righting boat. Subsequently a boat 
embodying features of several of the designs was adopted, 
and this became the standard of the National Lifeboat 
Institution, but it has since been somewhat modified. 

The construction of a boat resembles that of a larger vessel, 
but is usually determined entirely in the workshop. The stem and 
stern posts, with the keel, are first set up, and then equi-distant 
moulds, to which the planking is clamped, are set transversely 
on the keel ; the ribs, thwarts, knees, etc., are inserted after- 
wards. If clincher-built, the planks, about 5 inches wide and 
tapering in thickness, overlap the lower ones ' 75 in. If carvel- 
built, the planks are flush-jointed, and oakum or cotton caulked, 
being afterwards payed with pitch or marine glue. Where the 
plank is too thin for this, as in racing craft, "ribbon-carvel," 
i.e., thin cover strips of wood over the joints inside are used. 
Diagonal carvel planking is used in lifeboats, and generally 
where great strength is required, but the construction is 
expensive. In boatbuilding, the fastenings are generally copper 
nails or rivets, clinched over washers. 



125 

Till early in tlie 19tli century, no means of launching a boat 
clear of tlie vessel, except perhaps by one of the yards, had been 
devised, but as the size of vessels increased, and passenger traffic 
developed, the provision of convenient lowering appliances 
became a necessity. Straight spar davits, resembling crane 
jibs overhanging the side, were in use in 1808 ; later they were 
pivoted at the foot {see the boats on No. 62) and finally the 
present curved iron form, turning on its own axis, was adopted, 
the boat being hung from them by rope tackle with hook and 
ring connections. Owing to the possibility of unequal lowering, 
and the uncertainty in disengaging, this arrangement is very 
dangerous, and many attempts have been made to improve it 
since about 1830. Clifford's arrangement, patented in 1853, 
was the first improved form that was extensively adopted, but 
many other schemes are also shown in the collection. 



OPEN BOATS. 

404. Welsh coracle. Presented by J. W. Willis Bund, Esq., 
1883. N. 1611. 

This form of boat was in use in this country at the time of Caesar's 
invasion B.C. 55. They were made of wicker work, covered with skins, but 
had keels and gunwales of light timber. These boats were propelled by 
paddles, while, owing to their light construction, they could also be easily 
carried by one man ; such boats are still used for fishing purposes in Ireland 
and Wales. 

The modem example shown is constructed of laths of ash, placed close 
together and secured by similar strips that are bent to form ribs. A 
strengthening gunwale or rail runs round the edge, while the exterior of the 
boat is covered with canvas that is afterwards coated with pitch. A seat is 
arranged near the middle, and a leather shoulder-strap is added for canying 
the boat. The coracle is propelled by a short paddle, and is of the following 
dimensions : — Length, 4 • 6 ft. ; breadth, 3 • 7 f t. ; depth, 1 • 2 ft. 

405. Built model of Irish curragh. (Scale 1 : 8.) Lent by 
S. T. G. Evans, Esq., 1889. ~ N. 2208. 

This represents one of the small canvas canoes used for fishing and 
general purposes off the coast of Comiemara and the Aran Islands. The 
stiTicture is very light and simple, consisting of a wooden frame for the top 
sides, into which the upper ends of the bent- wood ribs are inserted. Upon 
these transverse ribs longitudinal battens are lashed, to serve as flooring, 
while the outer watertight covering is formed of well- stretched tarred 
canvas ; the thwarts and seats, afterwards inserted, add somewhat to the 
strength. There is no keel, and this peculiarity, combined with the great 
rise given to the bow, requires the exercise of considerable skill to keep the 
craft in its course if there is a head wind. The canoe represented is 
propelled by two pairs of naiTow-bladed oars, each oar working on a single 
•thole pin, which passes through a wooden block secured to the oar. The 
approximate dimensions are : — Length, 14 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 4 ft. ; depth, 2 ft. 

The curraghs generally used have three thwai*ts, and are propelled by 
three men and three pairs of oars ; when the wind is favourable a tanned 
lug sail is hoisted and the steering is done by the after oars. By the 
addition of ballast these somewhat crank canoes are made capable of 
standing bad weather, while the construction is so inexpensive that a boat 
to carry one ton costs only about hi. 



126 

406. Royal state barge. Lent by H.M. Queen Victoria, 
1883. N. 1602. 

This barge was built for Frederick, Prince of Wales (1729-51). It has 
taken part in several state processions and was last so used in 1849 to 
convey Prince Albert from Whitehall Stairs to the City on the occasion of 
the opening of the Coal Exchange. 

In general design the forward portion shows the low freeboard and long 
fine entrance of a wheiTy : amidships the sections ai-e very full and the 
maximum breadth is caiiied to the after end of the state room ; abreast of 
this the topsides rise sharply to form an ornamental stem about 8 • 5 ft. 
above the keel-line. The covered state-room is about 7 ft. square and 
beyond it is an open steering platform. 

The hull is clincher-built of oak with doubling-planks of fir worked 
externally below the turn of bilge for half the vessel's length amidships. 
There are 11 thwarts or rowing benches, and between each pair some 
fore-and-aft planking is fitted to foi-m a continuous centi-al gangway. A 
landing- stool is carried for use where no pier is available. Provision is made 
for using 21 oars, and the crew consisted of " E-oyal watermen " wearing 
scarlet uniforms with gold badges and black velvet caps. Elaborate 
decorative work in red and gold is shown on bow, stem, state-room, and 
topsides. 

Length, overall, 63-5 ft. ; breadth, 7 ft. ; depth, amidships, 2*25 ft. 

407. Whole model of Venetian gondola. (Scale 1 : 20.) 
Received 1900. N. 2210. 

This is typical of the native passenger boats used on the canals of 
Yenice. 

It has flat floors amidships with sharp upturned extremities. The bow 
is fitted with an ornamental iron plate that is supposed to be a sui-vival of 
a form of ram, but is now of use as a sighting point in determining the 
clearance beneath the numerous low canal bridges. Midway in the length 
is a closed saloon, the full width of the boat, but the earlier gondolas had 
only a light arched frame cariying a gaudily- coloured covering open at each 
end. In the 16th centuiy an edict was issued rendering the use of black 
hangings and decollations compulsory. 

£i 1645 Evelyn wrote : — " Taking a gondola, which is their water-coach 
" (for land ones there are many old men in this city who never saw one, or 
*' rarely a horse), we rode up and down the channells, which answer to our 
** streets. These vessels are built very long and naiTOw, having necks and 
" tails of Steele, somewhat spreading at the beake like fishe's taile, and kept 
" so exceedingly polish'd as to give great lustre : some are adorned with 
" carving, others lined with velvet (commonly black) with curtains and 
" tassells, and the seates like couches, to lie stretch'd on, while he who 
" rows stands upright on the very edge of the boate, and with one oar 
" bending forward as if he would fall into the sea, rows and turns with 
" incredible dexterity. The beakes of these vessels are like the ancient 
" Roman rostrums." 

This description applies to the gondolas at the present time, except that 
sometimes they are propelled by two men, one forward and one aft. Steam 
launches, often worked on our omnibus system, are, however, superseding 
these boats for genei*al traffic in Yenice. 

The usual dimensions of these vessels are : — Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; 
draught, • 75 ft. 

408. Built models of Maltese boats. (Scales 1 : 24 and 
1 : 32.) Received 1902. N. 2293. 

These two examples have the high projecting stem and stem posts, 
together with the bright colouring and ornamentation, so generally found 
on Mediterranean craft. A wash-strake is fitted above the gunwale and, 



127 

internally along the sides, are special troughs or lockers for the stowage of 
nets, fish and merchandise, but serving also as seats. 

The smaller model (green) represents a waterman's boat, used principally 
for the transport of passengers and native produce between ships and the 
shore, within the large harbours at Yaletta, It is of light draught, with 
fine lines and considerable sheer, and is propelled by one or two men who 
stand at the forward end of the boat : a small sail is also sometimes used. 
To give protection from the weather, a canvas awning is spread over a light 
framework at the after end. 

Length, 20 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; draught, 1 • 5 ft. 

The larger model (red) represents a boat with fuller lines and of greater 
breadth and draught, used for fishing or for general trading pui-poses 
between Malta and the neighbouring islands of Grozo and Comino. It is 
usually propelled by means of a large lateen sail, the mast and yard for which 
are shown in the model. 

Length, 27 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; draught, 2*5 ft. 

409. Drawings of pleasure and racing craft. Lent by 
Messrs. Searle and, Sons, 1873. N. 1336. 

The following classes of boats are here represented; the length and 
breadth of each are given in feet : — 

Single sculling outrigged gig, 24 by 2*66. Sailing gig, with centre- 
board, 20 by 4 '5. Four-oared gig, 35 by 3*4. Four-oared gig, 35 by 4*5. 
Counter-stern canoe, 16. Single sculling gig, 18 by 3-5. Eight-oared 
outrigged racer, 57 by 2-16. Four-oared outrigged racer, 42 by 1*75. 
Pair-oared outrigger i-acer, 35 by 1'4. Single sculling skiff, 22 by 3-5. 
Randan skiff, 27 by 4*5. Sailing canoe, 15 by 3 '16. Pair-oared skiff, 
20 by 4 • 5. Double sculling gig, 28 by 2 • 5. Double sculling gig, 26 by 3 • 8. 
Double sculling gig (two examples), 24 by 3*66. Outrigged racer, with 
sliding seat, 32 by 1. Rob Roy canoe, 14 by 2*16. Four-oared outrigged 
gig, 38 by 2-4. Four-oared gig, 24 by 3-4. Lake boat, 20 by 4-75. 
Dinghey, 12 by 4*5. 

410. Built model of Thames pleasure skiff. ("Scale 7 : 48.) 
Lent by H. E. Finn, Esq., 1885. ^ N. 1676. 

This shows an accurately-fitted pair-oared pleasure skiff, for river use, 
to accommodate four people. These boats are usually clincher-built with 
ash timbers, cedar planking, and oak gunwales and thwarts ; the boat 
represented is of the following dimensions : — 

Length, 24 ft. ; breadth, 3 • 75 ft. ; depth, 1 • 16 ft. 

411. Whole model of man-of-war's whaler gig. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent bv Capt. H.S.H. Count Gleichen, R.N. 1883. 

N. 1592. 

This represents a boat formerly in general use in the Royal Navy as the 
captain's gig or galley. She was built by Mr. White at Cowes, I. of W., in 
1857, for the captain of the " Racoon." She is fitted as a lifeboat, with air 
chambers at each end and along each side ; she pulls six oars, and would 
have two dipping lug sails. 

Length, 30 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; depth, 2 • 25 ft. 

412. Whole model of gun launch. (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented 
by J. Scott Tucker, Esq., 1865. N. 1057. 

This is a design by Mr. J. Tucker for a boat of shallow draught and 
broad beam, probably intended to be carried on the paddle-boxes (see 
Nos. 72 and 75). 

The chief peculiarity is a slide from bow to stem in which a gun can 
travel fore-and-aft. There are ammunition boxes and shot racks along the 
side and under the seats : she rows 14 oars. 



128 

413. Whole models of nested boats. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by 
G. Fawcus, Esq., 1865. N. 1083. 

This construction of boat, patented by Mr. Fawcns in 1862, permits any 
number of identical boats to be fitted one inside another. 

When stacked together the fender strakes of the upper boat rest on the 
gunwales of the one beneath it, and so on, each assisting in preserving the 
shape of its neighbour. 

These boats are clincher-built, but have the three top strakes notched 
into the frames ; the thwarts rest upon chocks between the frames and are 
secured by metal straps and pins. Further details of this system are shown 
on adjacent engravings of lifeboats and pontoons. 

414. Built models of row boats. (Scales 1 : 24 and 1 : 12.) 
Received 1899. N. 2195. 

These illustrate the general constructional features of small rowing boats 
for coast or sea-service. The smaller model represents a 20 ft. clincher- 
built gig of four oars, and the larger model a 15 ft. clincher-built dinghey 
of one or two pairs of oars. 

415. Rigged model of Donro wine boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) Pre- 
sented by Messrs. Martinez, Gassiot & Co., 1901. N. 2258. 

This represents the class of boat used for the conveyance of wine in 
baiTels, and other produce, on the river Dom'O. The hull is spoon- shaped 
and has a large amount of overhang at both bow and stem ; there is con- 
siderable sheer and it is fitted with deep washboards amidships. A single 
mast is provided, which can-ies a large square sail, for use when the wind is 
perfectly fair ; at all other times progress against the stream is made by 
towing, performed either by the crew or by two or three yoke of oxen. A large 
block is can-ied in the bow for use when warping up stream through the 
rapids, and poles are provided for propelling the boat in shallow water. 
Steering is accomplished by a long and peculiarly shaped sweep, working 
on a thole pin fitted in the stem post, and controlled by a man on a steering 
platform, quick manoeuvring being essential on the rapid bends of the river ; 
sleeping accommodation for the crew is provided in a covered space aft. 

These boats vary considerably in size, the largest carrying about 80 pipes 
of wine and the smallest 10 pipes ; their draught of water is from 5 ft. to 2 ft. 
The model represents a boat with a carrying capacity of 15 pipes, equivalent 
to a load of about 8 tons ; its dimensions would be approximately : — 

Length, 40 ft.; breadth, 11 ft.; depth, 3-75 ft.; mast, 30 ft.; yard, 
23 ft. 

416. Whole model of Portuguese fisliing boat. (Scale 1 : 15.) 
Presented by Walter Child, Esq., 1908. N. 2451. 

This native-made model represents a class of boat, known as " saveiro," 
used for sardine fishing at Leixoes (Oporto). 

They are of simple box-shaped cross-section, built of pine and fitted with 
iron knees and rubbing pieces at the extremities and bilges. Considerable 
sheer is given to the topsides and a somewhat similar longitudinal curvature 
is repeated in the under- water portion, thus forming a peculiar " rockered " 
bottom which gives rapid manceuvi-ing qualities to these craft. They are 
propelled and steered by two long sweeps, each pivoted, when in use, upon 
a fixed thole-pin amidships ; a simple sail is sometimes hoisted. Like most 
native Portuguese boats, these are painted extemally in bright colours. 
" Seine " or floating nets are used — as for pilchard fishing — and are worked 
by hand from the stem. 

The boats vary in length from about 20 ft. to 33 ft., the example shown 
being 25 ft. long and 10 ft. broad. 



129 

417. Drawings of Portuguese fisliing boat. (Scales, — profile 
1 : 33, sheer plan 1 : 20.) Presented by G. C. Mackrow, 
Esq., 1889. N. 1823. 

This type of vessel, known as a " muleta," and which for several centuries 
was the recognised fishing craft, has now disappeared ; it was to have been 
seen off the mouth of the Tagus. It has a short mast, raking forward and 
carrying a large lateen yard and sail, also a bowsprit and two booms on 
which six sails are set ; at the stem there is an outrigged boom, spreading 
two triangular sails. This peculiar arrangement of sails appears to have 
been adopted to enable the vessel to remain broadside to the wind, and thus 
slowly drift when the nets were down. The rudder reaches below the keel 
level. 

Length, between perps., 40 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 13 • 3 ft. ; depth, 5 • 1 ft. ; 
draught, 2 • 9 f t. 

418. Rigged model of Portuguese fisliing boat. (Scale 
1 : 16.) Lent by H. C. Bucknall, Esq., 1905. N. 2391. 

This vessel, known as a " muleta," was in use for centuries as a fishing 
craft off the coast of Portugal, but has finally disappeared within the last 
few years. It had a short mast, raking forward and carrying a large lateen 
yard and sail, also a bowsprit and two booms on which six sails were set ; at 
the stem there was an outrigged boom, spreading two triangular sails. This 
peculiar arrangement of sails enabled the vessel to remain broadside to the 
wind, and thus slowly drift when dragging the nets. The rudder is shown 
considerably below the keel level. 

Length, b.p., 45-6 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 13-3 ft. ; depth, 5-2 ft. 

419. Rigged model of Heligoland fisliing sloop. (Scale 1 : 8.) 
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1628. 

This is an open clincher-built boat of oak, with covered spaces at stem 
and between the thwarts ; it is flat-bottomed to enable it to be readily beached, 
and is consequently sailed with lee-boards. There is a single mast, with a 
sprit mainsail, fore-sail, and jib ; as it carries no bowsprit, a spar is tem- 
porarily used for setting the jib, while when running free this spar is rigged 
out on the beam, with the jib set as a spinnaker. If caught by bad weather 
the anchor is di'opped and the mast lowered, in which condition the boat 
will ride out the heaviest gale with one man constantly bailing. Eight days' 
provisions are canded, two anchors, a hemp cable, and about 900 lb. of stone 
ballast. 

Length, 31 ft. ; breadth, 9 ft. ; depth, 5 ft. ; draught, 2-3 ft. 

420. Rigged model of Faroese eight-man boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by J. R. Tudor, Esq., 1883. N. 1606. 

This represents a boat fully equipped for the chase of the grindefish and 
the bottle -nosed whale of the Orkneys. 

The eight oars are each 11-75 ft. long, and are pulled double -banked. 
There is a foremast, stepped either at the first or at the second thwai-t ; in 
the former position, which is that most generally occupied, the boat is con- 
sidered to sail very close to the wind. The mast is 16 ft. high, and carries 
a dipping lug on a yard 10 ft. long ; the mizen mast is 13-5 ft. high, and has 
a sprit sail. 

The whaling instruments consist of : — two lances, each 12 in. long and 
4 in. broad, fixed on a wooden shaft 6 ft. long, to which a thin line is 
attached ; two hooks with lines, for towing the whale when dead ; also a 
fishing lead or stone, about 3 lb. weight, slung on to a long line, and used 
for anchoring or for diminishing the boat's way. 

Length over aU, 28 • 5 ft. ; length on keel, 16 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 6 • 5 ft. ; 
depth at stem-head, 6 ft. ; depth at lowest part of gunwale, 3 ft. ; depth 
at stem-post, 5 • 5 ft. 

u 6778. I 



130 

421. Rigged model of North. Isles yawl. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by J. Barnett, Esq., 1883. N. 1608. 

These fishing boats are constracted of oak and white pine, with 
galvanised iron fastenings. They have a pair of oars 14 ft. long, and 
another pair 12 ft. ; there are two masts and a bowsprit. The foremast is 
stepped 2-3 ft. from the stem, and the mainmast 9 ft. from the stem-post ; 
the bowsprit is 5 ft. outboard and its heel butts against the foremast. The 
sails are : a jib, 13 ft. in the hoist, with its foot 6-5 ft. long ; a lug foresail, 
12 ft. in the hoist, with its foot 10 ft. and its yard 12 ft, long ; also a boom 
mainsail with a hoist of 12 ft., a foot 10 ft., a yard 8*5 ft., and a boom 
11 ft. in length. These boats are now nearly superseded by the " Firthy " 
boats, of the east coast of Scotland. 

Length over all, 19-25 ft.; length on keel, U ft.; breadth, 7 '5 ft.; 
depth at stem-head, 4-6 ft.; depth at lowest part of gunwale, 3-5 ft.; 
depth at stem-post, 4 • 4 ft. 

422. Rigged model of Shetland fisliing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by J. R. Tudor, Esq., 1883. N. 1605. 

These boats, or six-oared yawls, are clincher-built of pine and fastened 
with iron; the oars, 16 ft. long, are pulled with one thole-pin and a 
grummet. There is a mast 22 ft. high, carrying a yard 18 ft. long, which 
spreads a lug sail 18-5 ft. in the hoist, with reef points at the head and foot 
of the sail. 

Till about 1860 all the larger Shetland boat s were imported direct from 
Norway in boards ready for putting together ; these boats rarely exceeded 
18 ft, on the keel, and had a very flat midship section. 

Length over all, 29 ft. ; length on keel, 20 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; depth 
at stem-head, 5 ft.; depth amidships, 3 '25 ft.; depth at stem-post, 
4 -75 ft. 

423. Rigged model of Shetland skiff. (Scale 1 : 12.) Pre- 
sented by W. Lawrence, Esq., 1883. N. 1607. 

These fishing boats are built of fir, with iron fastenings ; they carry 
three pairs of oars, each 10 • 16 ft. long, and have a mast 14 • 5 ft. high, 
stepped nearly amidships ; this carries a yard 11 ft. long, spreading a 
square sail with a 14 ft. hoist. Three men constitute the crew, and when 
rowing pull a short chopping stroke, sometimes at the rate of 45 to 
the minute. 

Length over all, 22 ft. ; length on keel, 15 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 5 • 6 ft. ; depth 
at stem-head, 3*5 f t. ; depth at stern-post, 3 • 25 ft. 

424. Built model of fish-carrying boat. (Scale 1 : 4.) Pre- 
sented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1614. 

This form of boat is used by the ]Nrorth Sea trawlers for conveying their 
"takes " of fish to the steamers sent to carry them to the markets. It is 
fitted with galvanised iron air tanks under the bow and stem sheets, of 
sufficient capacity to ensure buoyancy even if swamped ; two small tanks of 
oil are placed aft, for use in rough weather to calm the sea astern and pre- 
vent it breaking into the boat, and a line is secured along the keel, to which 
the crew can cling should the boat capsize. These boats carry about two 
tons, and require two men to manage them. 

Length, 17 ft. ; breadth, 6 • 5 ft. ; depth, 2 • 75 ft. 

425. Built model of fish-carrying boat. (Scale 1 : 6.) Lent 
by J. E. Teasdel, Esq., 1896. N. 2080. 

This boat is another form of the preceding. It is clincher-built, and, to 
prevent being swamped in heavy weather, is fitted with 84 cub. ft. of air 



131 

casing, an-anged at the bow, stem, and under the midship thwai-t ; about 
18 cub. ft. of cork is also placed between the knees of the thwarts and the 
rising and gunwale strake. Should extra space be required the midship 
tank is dispensed with. 

Length, 18 ft. ; breadth, 6 • 5 f t. ; depth, 2 • 5 ft. 

426. Rigged model of Cornish fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by G-. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1620. 

This model represents the form of boat in general use at Mevagissey 
for drift fishing. It is lugger-rigged and carries a jib, a fore dipping lug- 
sail and a mizen standing lug-sail. 

When engaged in mackerel fishing or in the winter pilchard and herring 
fishing, the crew consists of five hands, but for summer pilchard fishing 
only three hands are necessary. 

Register, 11 tons ; length, 38 ft. ; breadth, 11 • 12 ft. ; depth of hold, 
6-16 ft. 

427. Whole model of Cornish pilchard-fishing boats. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. 

N. 1616. 

Two boats are shown, the larger or " seine " boat being used to carry 
and work the large net by which the fish are first enclosed, the smaller 
boat, called the " follyer," caiTying a lesser net, by which the fish enclosed 
by the " seine "are finally captured. 

The boats are carvel-built, usually of English oak, fastened with galvanised 
iron nails. There is an iron stem and keel band, to prevent damage on the 
rocky shore, and a chain bridle for hauling the larger boats up the beach. 
The boats are sharp at the bow, but have wide stems to accommodate the 
nets, which are of remarkable size, the " seine " net being often 1,080 ft. 
long, 72 ft. deep, and weighing 3 tons. The " seine " boat pulls six oars, 
which work in circular holes through the top strake, no thole-pins or 
rowlocks being used. 

" Seine." " Follyer." 

Length - 38 ft. - 20-6ft. ■ 

Breadth - 9 „ - 6 „ 

Depth - 4 „ - 3 „ 

428. Whole model of East Coast coble. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by James Young, Esq., 1876. N. 1423. 

These boats are used in the North Sea cod, ling, and haddock fisheries, 
each five-man fishing boat carrying two of them. They are clincher-built, 
of oak or larch, and are very sharp at the bow. The keel extends about 
two-thirds of the boat's length from the bow, while the after part is flat, 
with two side keels to facilitate beaching ; the stem is square, and is 
provided with a rudder that projects 4 ft. below it. When under sail they 
have one mast and a bowsprit, carrying a lugsail and jib. The line fishing 
in which they are engaged is performed by three or four men, using six lines 
representing a total length of about two miles. 

Carrying capacity, 1 ton ; length, 28 ft. ; breadth, 5*5 f t. ; depth, 2 • 3 f t. 

A half block model of a similar boat, lent by T. Tumbull, Esq., 1869, is 
also shown (N. 1301). 

429. Half block model of Yorkshire ''mule." (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by T. TurnbuU, Esq., 1869. N. 1302. 

These boats are used in the heri'ing fishery off the Yorkshire coast ; their 
name is due to their being coble-form forward and yawl- shaped aft. They 
carry about 30 nets, each 60 yds. in length and 3 ft. deep. 

Carrying capacity, about 6 tons ; length, 33 ' 75 ft. ; breadth, 10 f t. ; 
depth, 4 -75 ft. 

1 2 



132 

430. Rigged model of Norwegian herring boat. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1627. 

This is a clincher-built boat of fir, with high stem and stem posts. There 
are washboards amidships, and the central thwarts are boarded up under- 
neath, so as to form compartments for receiving the fish. At the after end 
is a covered space, over which a long tiller, with locking-pins, is worked. She^ 
is fitted with a single mast, canying a square sail, the yard of which is 
secured by a parrel ; she pulls six oars. The di-ift nets used are shown, 
together with their sinkers, floats, and lines attached. 

Length, 33-6 ft. ; breadth, 8-8 ft. ; depth, 2 8 ft. ; mast, 23-3 ft. long ; 
yard, 11 ft. long, 

431. Rigged model of Norwegian fish-boat. (Scale 1 : 8.) 
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1626. 

These boats, known as " jaegts," are used for the transport of fish in the 
Trondhjem district. They are clincher-built of fir, have one mast with a 
square sail and topsail, pull ten short spade-shaped oars, and have the 
rudder fitted with a short horizontal arm, to which a long tiller working on 
a pivot is attached. 

Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; depth amidships, 2 ft. 

432. Rigged model of Swedish net-fishing boat. (Scale 1:5.) 
Presented by the Swedish Commissioners to the Fisheries 
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1603. 

This is a clincher-built boat with sharp floors, and considerable rake of 
stem-post ; she is provided with oars, and carries a sprit sail. 
Length, 26 ft. ; breadth, 9 ft. 

433. Whole models of Swedish fishing boats. (Scale 1:12.) 
Lent by Dr. Oscar Dickson, 1883. N. 1596. 

These three clincher-built boats are used for net-fishing. They have 
sharp floors with great proportional beam to length ; six to eight oars are- 
used, and also a mast and sprit-sail. Their lengths vary from 21 ft. 
to 30 ft. 

434. Rigged models of Russian fishing boats. (Scale 1 : 8.) 
Presented by the Director of the Imperial Agricultural 
Museum, St. Petersburg, 1883. N. 1598. 

These represent two classes of boats, used for cod-fishing and walrus- 
hunting off the coasts of Russian Lapland. They are clincher-buUt of fir 
and each carries a mast and square sail ; their oars have heavy looms and 
long blades. 

The twelve- oared boat has fine lines and considerable sheer, and the 
rudder is worked by a tiller and yoke-lines. The dimensions are : — Length, 
29 ft. ; breadth, 5 • 5 ft. 

The six-oared boat has fuller lines and greater capacity ; it is subdivided 
by partitions under the thwarts, and is fitted with a large pump for 
discharging water ; the rudder is worked by a horizontal arm lashed to a 
side tiller. The dimensions are : — Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 7 ft. 

435. Rigged model of boat for seal-hunting. (Scale 1 : 5.) 
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1625. 

This form is used on the Baltic coast. It is a light clincher-built boat 
and has its keel shod with iron so that it may be readily drawn over the 
ice. It is provided with a mast and square sail, but when proceeding under 
sail on the ice, two men with their hands on the lee gunwale run alongside 
to prevent capsizing, whilst the skipper steers and steadies the craft by a 
projecting cross pole. 

Each boat carries one or more double-ended punts, which are so light 
that they can be carried by one or two men ; they are used amongst broken- 



133 

ice. To lighten the boat, when ice sailing, a sledge is also carried, upon 
which can be stowed the whole of the provisions for the crew of eight men 
for several weeks ; the sledge is hauled by some of the hands. 

The model is fitted with washboards, cooking apparatus, sealing 
implements, etc. 

Length, 33 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. 

436. Whole model of Tasmanian seine boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented bv the Tasmanian Commissioners to the Fisheries 
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1612. 

This represents a fishing boat used in Tasmania. It is double-ended, 
has fine lines, and pulls five oars ; the seine net is carried on a platform 
across the stem, and a fair-lead is provided at the bow to facilitate the 
handling of the lines. 

Length, extreme, 26 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; depth, 2 ft. 

437. Rigged model of Australian fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 3.) 
Presented by the New South Wales Commissioners to the 
Fisheries Exhibition, 1883. N. 1609. 

This represents an open boat, clincher-built of cedar ; it is fitted with 
a centre-board, and one mast carrying a sprit mainsail and foresail ; there 
are also two oars and two sculls. These boats are much used in Sydney 
harbour. 

Length, 15 • 75 ft. ; breadth, 5 • 9 ft. ; depth, 2 • 5 ft. 

438. Whole model of a whaling boat. (Scale 1 : 16.) Received 
1898. N. 2169. 

Although not absolutely to scale, this built model shows in considerable 
detail the construction and equipment of the earlier boats used in the whale 
fisheries. As the boat must be rapidly moved astern after the whale has 
been struck, it is built double-ended, and is steered by a sweep. The 
clincher construction represented has, however, now been abandoned, as it 
was found that the smooth surface of the carvel build makes less noise and 
so reduces the chance of alarming the whale when approaching ; for the 
same reason the boat is equipped with paddles as well as oars. 

The boat has five thwarts, and in that at the bow are two recesses by 
which the harpooner steadies himself as he stands upon a raised floor while 
throwing the harpoon. Having planted the weapon, the harpooner takes 
charge of the line ; this is composed of soft Manila hemp, well greased, and 
is carried in two tubs containing altogether about 1,800 ft. From a tub 
the line passes round a bollard or " logger-head " at the stem, then forward 
to a fairlead at the bow, and thence to the harpoon. There are notches in 
the gunwale near the bow to catch the line should it leave the fairlead, also 
for use in straightening a bent harpoon. 

After the whale has been exhausted by the exertion of continuously 
towing the boat, it is killed by means of a long lance. The boat is equipped 
with two harpoons, two lances, and a small drogue or sea anchor ; also some 
flags for marking whales or for signalling purposes, and two watertight 
receptacles for stores and provisions. A mast and sail are carried, and 
frequently a rudder, while in the inner skin, between the thwarts, holes are 
provided in which the handles of the oars can be inserted while resting or 
being towed by a whale. 

Total displacement, 1 ton ; length, 28 ft. ; breadth, 6-8 f t. ; depth, 
2 • 8 ft. ; weight of boat, 1,200 lb. ; weight of equipment, 300 lb. 

439. Whole model of a whaling boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1355. 

This represents a later type of boat than the preceding, and, to reduce 
the noise made by the water against its sides, is cai^vel-built. It has greater 
sheer and finer lines than the earlier type, but would be similarly equipped. 



134 

In still later boats the introduction of a harpoon gun has led to the provision 
of a second bollard, upon which the gun is mounted in a swivel. 
Length, 30-5 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; depth, 2 ft. 

440. Built model of American whaling boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
I^ent by the Royal United Service Institution, 1903. 

N. 2321. 

This model accurately represents the type of boat used by American 
whalers in the North Pacific Ocean about 1860. 

The upper portion of the boat is constiTicted on the clincher or lapped- 
strake system, while the under- water portion is on the carvel or flush- strake 
principle, with an inside covering-strip to each seam. Additional strength 
is given by a stout " ceiling," or strakes of planking on the inside of the 
frames below the thwarts. Oak is chiefly used for the framing, cedar for 
the planking, and galvanised iron for the fastenings. 

There is a single mast with a dipping lug-sail. Oars are provided for a 
crew of five men, and there is a large steering- sweep for which a projecting 
rowlock is fitted at the stem-post. Harpoons and a hand-lance are shown 
as the equipment, but bomb-lances, propelled by shoulder guns, are now 
very generally used ; " toggle-irons " or harpoons with hinged barbs are 
also substituted for the simple harpoons, as they take a firmer hold of the 
whale. 

The usual dimensions of these boats are : — Length, 27 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft. ; 
depth, amidships, 2 • 5 ft. 

441. Whole model of surf canoe. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent by 
Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1351. 

This boat was constructed for landing through the surf on the "West 
Coast of Africa. She is cai*vel-built of whaler type with considerable 
sheer ; air cases are formed around the sides under the thwarts, and movable 
air cases are provided in the bow and stem. She pulls six oars, and her 
dimensions are : — Length, 31 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft. ; depth, 2 • 3 ft. j 

442. Whole model of ambulance surf boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1353. 

This represents one of the smaller boats built for the "War Department 
by Messrs. FoiTestt and Son for conveying the sick and wounded fronj the 
shore to the hospital ship off Cape Coast Castle, during the Ashanti 
campaign of 1873—4. 

These boats were built sharp at both ends, with great sheer ; the keel, 
stem, and stem-post were formed of one length, bent by steam, so as to 
avoid the weakness due to joints ; foi* the same reason other parts, such as 
gunwales, stringers, frames, and sheer mouldings were in single pieces. 
The boats were copper fastened, and constructed with an inner lining 
forming a second skin. There were platforms forward and amidships, with 
fittings for ambulance stretchers, and a waterproof awning to protect the 
patients from the sun and spray. 

The boat represented cai-ried twenty-foui- passengers, and was propelled 
by twelve natives sitting close to the gunwales and working paddles, the 
coxswain steering with a sweep. 

Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft. ; depth, 2-25 ft. 

443. Whole models of Berthon's collapsible boats. (Scale 
1 : 12 and 1 : 16.) Lent by the Rev. E. L. Berthon, M.A., 
1867. N. 1163. 

This construction of boat was patented in 1851 by the contributor, who 
in 1879 and 1886 also introduced further modifications in the an'angements. 
Owing to the small space they occupy when not in use and their extreme 
portability, they have been very extensively adopted. The frames of these 
boats are constructed of wood or iron, and are arranged longitudinally in 



135 

segments which are strongly hinged together at the ends ; these frames snppoi-t 
a flexible double covering, arranged as an outer and an inner skin, formed of 
tarred canvas. The space between the double skins is divided by the frames 
into from six to ten watertight compartments ; the bottom-boards, thwarts, 
and seats are similar to those in an ordinary boat, and when in position give 
considerable rigidity to the whole construction. Oars or sails may be used, 
and the boats may be fitted with rudders. The two models, one of which is 
shown closed for stowing, represent twelve-oared boats, each capable of 
carrying 200 troops and having the following dimensions : — Weight, about 
70 cwt. ; length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; depth, 6 • 25 ft. 

444. Whole model of steam pinnaces. (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. in. 1184. 

This boat was designed for the ships of war proposed by the late Yice- 
Admiral E. P. Halsted. It was to be constructed of steel, to pull twenty 
oars, and to have two masts, canying foresail, mainsail and jib ; first-rates 
(see No. 98) were to have two of these pinnaces. 

The engines were to indicate 40 h.p., and give a speed of 8 knots. One 
ton of fuel was to be carried, and the armament was to consist of two 10-pr. 
"Whitworth guns, protected by a shield and mounted on a turntable. 

Load displacement, 17 tons ; length, 45 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 
4-5 ft.; draught, 2-8 ft. 

445. Whole model of steam cutter. (Scale 1 : 16.) Presented 
by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. N. 1184. 

This boat was designed for the type of warship proposed by the late 
Yice- Admiral E. P. Halsted. It was to be constructed of steel, to pull ten 
oars, and under sail was to have two masts, carrying a foresail, main-sail, 
and jib ; his first-rates were to have four of these cutters. 

The engines were to indicate 25 h.p., drive a single screw, and give a 
speed of 7 • 5 knots. Steam was to be supplied by a return tube cylindrical 
boiler, to the end of which the vertical engine was secured. The whole of 
this machinery could be lifted out and be replaced by seats and thwarts for 
rowers. These cutters were to cany • 75 ton of fuel, and to be armed with 
two 2-pr. Whitworth guns, protected with an iron shield and mounted on a 
turntable. 

Load displacement, 8 tons ; length, 35 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; depth, 23 • 5 ft. ; 
draught, 2 ft. 

446. Whole model of steam cutter. (Scale 1 : 16.) Presented 
by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. N. 1184. 

This boat resembles No. 445, but was intended for Admiral Halsted's 
sixth-rate vessels, each of which was to carry four of them. 

The engines and armament were to be identical with those of No. 445. 

Load displacement, 7 tons ; length, 30 ft. ; breadth, 7*5 ft. ; depth, 
3 -25 ft.; draught, 2 ft. 

447. Half block model of S.S. " Mab." (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by Geo. Baird, Esq., 1876. N. 1462. 

This screw steamer was built of brass at St. Petersburg in 1874 by 
Mr. Baird, and at the time was the fastest boat on the Neva. The screw is 
far aft, and extends considerably below the keel level. 

She was propelled by a two-stage expansion engine with cylinders 7 in. 
and 11 in. diam., by 8 in. stroke, which with a steam pressure of 120 lb. 
drove the single screw at 600 revs, per min., and gave a speed of 16*5 
knots. 

Length, 48 ft. ; breadth, 6-5 ft. ; depth at side, 3*5 ft. ; di-aught, 1 * 6 ft. ; 
draught over screw, 2 • 75 ft. 



136 



DECKED CRAFT. 

448. Rigged model of 18fh century Dutch schuyt, " Four 
Brothers." (Scale 1 : 24.) Received 1871. N. 1329. 

Although not modelled absolutely to scale, this represents a vessel built 
about 1778 for the Dutch eel fisheries ; it is also typical of craft used for a 
similar purpose at the present day. 

These vessels are strongly built, usually of oak, with flat floors and full 
bow and stem ; they are fitted with a central well in communication with 
the sea for transporting live cargo. This vessel is shown sloop-rigged with 
single mast and bowsprit; it carries a sprit mainsail and topsail, also a 
square topsail, fore staysail and jib. Lee-bbards are provided and the vessel 
is steered by a large rudder. The topsides and deck-fittings are ornamented 
with wood carving. A master and two men constitute the crew. 

Burden, about 50 tons ; length, 70 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; depth, 7 ft. 

The Dutch have the right of mooring three of these vessels off Billings- 
gate Market, a privilege granted in the reign of Charles I. in recognition 
" of their straightforward dealings with us." 

449. Rigged model of Dutch galliot (1800-50). (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Received 1910. N. 2549. 

This represents an early 19th century galliot of the Dutch or Flemish 
type, used both for trading and fishing purposes. 

It is two-masted, and rigged somewhat similarly to an old-fashioned 
ketch or modern topsail schooner ; on the single-pole foremast is carried a 
trysail, a square topsail, top -gallant sail, and usually a flying square sail 
on the lower yard ; there is a fore stay-sail and jib, and also a mizen trysail. 

Length, 65 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. 

450. Rigged model of Dutch "hotter." (Scale 1:24.) 
Received 1910. N. 2551. 

This represents a vessel of the schuyt type used for dip-net fishing in 
the Zuyder Zee and adja<3ent inshore waters. 

It is strongly built, of carvel construction, with half-deck forward. 
A stout all-round rubbing- strake is fitted, and above this the topsides are 
given considerable tumble-home. Stem and stem posts are raked, and the 
broad, full bow is of the " swim " or overhang form. There is a single- 
pole mast with gaff mainsail and stay foresail. 

A davit is fitted to the stem for working the nets, and a tank is provided 
for carrying live fish. 

Length, over all, 40 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. 

451. Rigged model of Dutch "pinken." (Scale 1:24.) 
Received 1910. N. 2550. 

This model of a pink or pinken was originally the property of Edwin 
Hayes, E-.H.A., R.I., and represents a class of boat belonging to the port 
of Scheveningen, and used for drift-net fishing in the North Sea. 

It is of the decked barge type, clincher built, with large relative beam, 
and a peculiar bulging of the water-line sections on each side of the stem 
and stem posts ; capacious holds are provided for carrying fish and tackle. 

The single-pole mast carries a boom mainsail, and also a flying square- 
sail for running ; a stay foresail and flying jib are also used. A number of 
large wooden crutches provide for the stowage of spars, etc., above the deck 
level. 

Portable wooden fenders and fixed guards amidships protect the hull 
against damage in narrow, crowded waterways or at the wharfside. 

Dimensions : — Length, over all, 40 ft. ; breadth, 20 ft. 



137 

452. Rigged model of Thames sailing barge (1800-50). 
(Scale 1 : 32.) Received 1910. N. 2547. 

This shows an early form of topsail barge as used on the lower reaches 
of the Thames for general cargo work. 

It differs from No. 455 in having a flat, overhanging bow instead of an 
upright stem ; a raised after deck ; a single central hatch ; and a small 
mizen-mast, with sprit- sail, carried upon the rudder head instead of a fixed 
mizen carried farther forward. The usual lowering mainmast, large sprit 
mainsail and topsail, stay foresail and jib, are shown. 

Length, 48 ft. ; breadth, 13 ft. 

453. Built model of Thames lighter (1850). (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by Messrs. Searle and Sons, 1877. N. 1470. 

This shows the details of constmction and the fittings of the lighters 
used for the conveyance of grain, coal, and other merchandise, on the rivers 
in the London district, A portion of the internal planking has been omitted 
so as to show the frames. 

The vessels are flat-bottomed and have a carrying capacity of from 60 to 
80 tons ; they are usually towed, but are provided with two long oars, by 
which they can be propelled and steered. 

454. Built model of sailing barge. (Scale 1 : 24.) Received 
1893. N. 2022. 

The model represents what is known as a Harwich barge, a type that 
is in general use sailing coastwise between London and Harwich or Sitting- 
bourne, A portion of the external planking has been removed from the 
port side to show the framing. 

The floors are flat amidships, with fine entrance and run. There is a 
large hold with two hatchways, and a small forecastle for the two hands, 
while aft is a separate cabin for the captain. At the bow is a winch which 
is used both for weighing anchor and also for hauling the rigging, and a 
large rudder is provided which is steered by a wheel and bevel gear ; lee- 
boards are carried, but these are only used when the barge is sailing light. 

The usual rig is a sprit mainsail and foresail, and a small mizen or 
jigger ; but some cai-ry in addition a gaff topsail and jib. The masts are 
made to lower ; in the case of the mainmast the heel is supported by a shore 
from the keelson, and the lowering is done by the fore winch. 

The usual dimensions of these barges are : — Displacement, 150 tons ; 
length, 84 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft, ; depth, 6 ft. 

455. Rigged model of sailing barge " Thelma." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Gill and Sons, 1905. N. 2389. 

This successful topsail barge was designed, built, and fitted out by 
Messrs. Gill and Sons, Rochester, in 1901, She is flat-bottomed with full 
water-lines throughout and in general features represents a modem cargo- 
caiTying barge as used on the Lower Thames, 

In her first year she won both the Thames and the Medway Championship 
races. The Championship course is usually from Chatham or Gravesend to 
the Mouse lightship and back. All competitors in these races are required 
to be genuine freight barges engaged in trade, using no ballast or false 
keels, and carrying the ordinary working sails and lee-boards. 

Her register tonnage is 49 • 76 tons, and her approximate dimensions, 
taken from the model, are : — Length, 84 ft, ; breadth, 20 ft. ; depth, 6 ft. 

This type of boat forms an interesting link between the pleasure yacht 
and the trading vessel, and, as speed and comfort are readily obtainable in 
its design, it has served to some extent as a model for pleasure craft of the 
" barge-yacht " and " Norfolk wheny " classes, used for cruising in tidal 
rivers or shallow waters. 



138 

456. Rigged model of oyster-dredging boat *' Secret." 
(Scale 1 : 8.) Lent by F. Wiseman, Esq., 1883. N. 1600. 

This represents a boat built at Wivenhoe, Essex, in 1856, for the fisheries 
at the mouth of the Thames. She is fitted with a deep lead keel and is 
cutter-rigged, with boom mainsail, gaff-topsail, foresail, and jib ; the crew 
consists of three hands. 

Register, 11 tons ; length over all, 33 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 
4 • 5 ft. ; draught forward, 3 • 5 ft. ; draught aft, 5 • 75 ft. 

457. Rigged model of a Yarmouth, fishing vessel, " Celt." 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. 

N. 1613. 

This represents a ketch-rigged fishing boat, built, in 1883, for drift fishing 
in the North Sea. The sails set are a foresail, jib, mainsail, and mizen ; the 
mainmast is fitted in a tabernacle, so that when required it can be lowered 
till the head rests in the crutch shown on deck. The lumber irons on each 
side are for oars, spare spars, &c. ; a steam capstan is fitted to assist in 
hauling in the nets, and on the deck are the sorting trays. The number of 
the crew is six when trawling, and nine when herring fishing, 

Register, 36 tons ; length, 59-5 ft. ; breadth, 16-8 ft. ; depth, 7-7 ft. 

458. Half block model of trawler. (Scale 1 ; 24.) Received 
1882. N. 1579. 

This represents a trawling ketch, built at E-ye for the South Coast 
fisheries. In the rail, at about mid-length, is a hole and roller to accom- 
modate the trawl warp. 

Register, 45 tons ; length, 68 ft. ; breadth, 16 ft. ; depth, 9 ft. 

459. Whole model of a Yarmouth trawler. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by John Bracey, Esq., 1876. N. 1461. 

This is a cutter-rigged vessel, carvel-built of oak, and carries a crew of 
six men. The usual fishing grounds are the Clay Deeps, Doggerbank, and 
the neighbourhood of Heligoland. 

Register, 60 tons ; length, 65 ft. ; breadth, 18-5 ft. ; depth, 9*5 ft. 

460. Rigged model of Cornish fishing boat " Emulator.'* 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. 

N. 1619. 

This represents a Penzance drift-net boat which is used, according to 
season, in the herring, mackerel, or pilchard fishery. She is carvel-built and 
is lugger-rigged ; the foremast carries a dipping lug, and the mizen a standing 
lug with topsail. She carries sweeps in the lumber irons, and would have a 
crew of six men and a boy. 

Some years ago one of these boats made the passage to Australia. 

Register, 20 tons; length over aU, 47 ft. ; breadth, 13*5 ft. ; depth, 7 ft. 

461. Rigged model of Guernsey fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1617. 

This represents a boat used in the mackerel fishery ; it has three masts, 
carrying mizen, mainsail, foresail, jib, and gaff topsail. This rig permits of 
sail being easily and quickly shortened, while in light weather the spread of 
canvas is considerable ; they are able to keep at sea in all weathers, and are 
fast sailers. The crew consists of six hands. 

Register, 12 tons ; length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. ; depth, 8 ft. 



139 

462. Half block model of Whitby fishing boat. (Scale 1: 24.) 
Lent by T. Turnbnll, Esq., 1869. N. 1300. 

These vessels are used for herring and also line fishing ; they each carry 
nine men, three for each of their two cobles, and three for the remaining 
crew. At one time they had three masts ; the rig was afterwards altered to* 
two lugs, and now they are dandy-rigged. 

Register, 45 tons ; length, 57 ft, ; breadth, 17 ft. ; depth, 8*3 ft. 

463. Rigged model of Lancashire shrimping boat. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. 

N. 1618. 

This represents a Southport boat with its four shrimping nets. Whilst 
over the fishing ground the boat is allowed to drift with the wind or tide, 
so dragging her nets along the bottom. She is rigged as a cutter, with 
mainsail, foresail, jib, and gaff topsail. 

Register, 10 tons ; length, 28 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 4-5 ft. 

464. Rigged model , of North Sea trawler " Gratitude." 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by Edward Jex, Esq., 1882. 

N. 1572. 

This represents a Lowestoft trawler, manned by a crew of five. She is 
ketch-rigged, with mizen, mizen gaff topsail, boom mainsail, gaff topsail^ 
foresail, and jib. The deck fittings are all shown, as well as her small boat, 
trawl-net and beam, etc. 

Register, 89 tons ; length, 72 ft. ; breadth, 19 • 5 ft. ; depth, 12 ft. 

465. Rigged model of Manx fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1615. 

This is a built and completely fitted model of a Castletown lugger. She 
has two masts, the foremast carrying a dipping lug and the mizen a standing 
lug ; there is also a mizen gaff topsail and staysail. The crew consist of 
five men, and her dimensions would be : — Register, 34 tons ; length, 56 ft ; 
breadth, 14 '75 ft. ; depth, 8-25 feet. 

466. Rigged model of Manx fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1622. 

This represents a Peel boat, used in the herring and mackerel fisheries. 
She is dandy-rigged, with mizen, boom mainsail, gaff topsail, foresail, and" 
jib. 

Register, 50 tons ; length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 16 ft. ; depth, 10*75 ft. 

467. Rigged model of Manx fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1621. 

This shows the type of boat used in the herring fishery. She is lugger-^ 
rigged, the foremast can-yiug a dipping lug and the mizen a standing lug ; 
there is also a mizen gaff topsail and staysail. She is provided with sweeps, 
which are shown in their lumber irons. 

Register, 24 tons ; length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 12-25 ft. ; depth, 6-5 ft. 

468. Rigged model of well vessel " City of London."" 
(Scale 1 : 16.) Received 1883. N. 1595. 

This ketch-rigged vessel was built at Rye in 1883 by Mr. J. C. Hoad, 
for the North Sea and Iceland cod fisheries. The model shows on the 
starboard side the construction and interior of the wells, and on the other 
the plank fastenings and numerous circular holes for the free circula- 
tion of water through the wells, in which the fish are kept alive for the 
market. 

A complete suit of sails for this model is also shown. 

Register, 88 tons ; length, 77-3 ft. ; breadth, 20-3 ft. ; depth, 12-2 ft. 



140 

469. Rigged model of Scotch fishing boat " Duchess of 
Edinburgh." (Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by G. C. Bompas, 
Esq., 1883. N. 1623. 

The boats formerly used in herring fishing off the E. coast of Scotland 
were from 60 ft. to 80 ft. long, 18 ft. to 20 ft. beam, with a register tonnage 
of from 25 to 40 tons. They were rigged with a dipping lug and jib on 
the foremast and a mizen or jigger on the mizen mast. The foresail 
was large, containing from 300 to 350 sq. yds. of canvas, and in bad 
weather when wet became almost unmanageable ; the boats had neither 
bulwarks nor rails higher than 9 in., and many of the fishermen were lost 
overboard. 

The model shows an improved construction of boat which has been 
extensively adopted. It has protective rails to enable the crew to work in 
greater safety, and also a well for the helmsman. Instead of the lug, it has 
the smack rig, which two hands can work in any weather. The mast turns 
on a pivot about 3 ft. above deck, with stays on each side, which always 
remain taut, even when the mast is lowered, as is necessary while the boat 
is riding on the nets when fishing ; the mast is lowered by two men working 
on a deck winch. 

The crew consists of six or seven men, but these also attend to the nets 
and fish. 

Register, 25 tons ; length, 52 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; depth, 8 ft. 

470. Rigged model of Scotch fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Received 1910. N. 2552. 

This represents a smaU example of the " fife " or " fifie " type of fishing 
craft belonging to the port of Leith ; it is generally used for haddock or 
small line fishing in the Firth of Forth, and sometimes for winter herring 
fishing. 

It is double-ended, with fine entrance and run, and nearly vertical stem 
and stem posts. Before 1850 most of these vessels were open and of light 
clincher construction, but with the development of fishing grounds farther 
from the coast came the need of better seagoing qualities. The model shows 
a partially- decked carvel-built boat "svith large central opening, and covered 
lockers placed aft below the deck level. The single mast, carried well 
forward, is fitted with a large dipping lug- sail ; a mizen-mast is used with 
larger boats. 

Length, over all, 25 ft. ; breadth, 8 • 25 ft. 

471. Rigged model of Swedish mackerel boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by Dr. Oscar Dickson, 1883. N. 1597. 

This is a clincher-built boat, with hollow floors and a deep keel which 
render it a very safe craft. It carries a sprit sail on the main and mizen, 
with sliding-gunter gaff-topsails, foresail, and jib. 

Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 17 ft. ; depth, 7*5 ft. 

472. Rigged model of Nordlands jaegt. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by G. C. Bompas, Esq., 1883. N. 1624. 

This represents a Norwegian cargo vessel largely used for the con- 
veyance of cured fish from the fisheries to Bergen. It is clincher- built of 
pine, and has one mast, which carries a square sail fitted with four bonnets 
on the foot for reefing, a topsail, and a foresail. A full cargo consists of 
about 100 tons of salted fish. 

Register, 80 tons ; length, 67-5 ft. ; breadth, 28-4 ft. ; depth, 10-75 ft. ; 
draught forward, 9 ft. ; aft, 10 '5 ft. 

473. Rigged model of Tasmanian fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by the Tasmanian Commissioners to the Fisheries 
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1610. 

This boat is fitted with a well in its centre, in which the fish taken can be 
kept alive, as suitable holes in the bottom of the well insure sufficient 



141 

change of water. She is ketch-rigged, setting a foresail and jib, a boom 
mainsail, and a mizen. 

Register, 27-6 tons ; length, 48 ft. ; breadth, 11 • 5 ft. ; depth, 8 • 5 ft. 

474. Rigged model of Tasmanian fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by tbe Tasmanian Commissioners to the Fisheries 
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1611. 

This is a carvel-built boat, with a sharp stem and two drop keels ; she 
also has a central well in which to store live fish. One mast is provided, 
carrying a foresail and a sprit mainsail ; the boat pulls four oars and is used 
for seine fishing. 

Length, 35 ft. ; breadth, 8 '75 ft. ; depth, 4 ft. 

475. Rigged model of felucca. (Scale 1: 16.) Lent by H. C. 
Bucknall, Esq., 1904. N. 2351. 

This type of vessel, distinguished by its rig of single lateen sails on two 
or more masts and the addition of poles and oars for use in calms, appears 
to have been developed on the Mediterranean coasts. 

The particular example represented, known as a falua — the Portuguese 
form of the word felucca — was very general on the Tagus before the intro- 
duction of steamers, but is now disappearing ; such boats were, however, the 
only means of transport for passengers and goods between Lisbon and ports 
on the south bank of the river. The vessels are constructed locally, of pine ; 
the majority are half -decked to the mainmast, and have the after part decked 
over for about 12 ft., but the larger ones are, as shown l>y the model, whole- 
decked. The sails are furled by means of a rope manipulated by a man at 
the masthead, assisted by another below. The crew consists of five men. 

Carrying capacity, 12 tons ; length over all, 49-4 ft. ; breadth, 13-75 ft. ,- 
depth, 6-16 ft. ; length of mainmast, 31-6 ft. ; length of foremast, 27*8 ft. ; 
area of mainsail, 680 sq. ft. ; area of foresail, 476 sq. ft. 

476. Rigged model of Spanish felucca. (Scale 1 : 32.) Re- 
ceived 1910. N. 2548. 

This represents a two-masted Spanish coasting vessel of the felucca type. 
It has an elliptical stem and a high, ornamented stem-piece. The two 
lateen-rigged masts are placed well aft in the vessel, and a bowsprit is used 
for the head sails. 

Length, 40 ft. ; breadth, 11 ft. 

Three views of feluccas on the Lake of Geneva are also shown. 

477. Built model of " Rob Roy " canoe. (Scale 1 : 2.) Lent 
by Messrs. R. J. Turk and Sons, 1908. N. 2494. 

This represents, in its principal features, a form of decked canoe which 
came into general use in 1865, largely as the result of a remarkable journey 
of about 1,000 miles, chiefly on the lakes and rivers of Central Europe, made 
by Mr. J. Macgregor, M.A., in a vessel of this type designed by himself. 
Published narratives of this, and subsequent journeys of a similar character, 
led to the formation of canoe clubs all over the world and the construction 
of large numbers of these craft. 

As the original " Rob Roy " canoe was intended for easy transport on 
land as well as for use indifferently on sea, lake, and river, it embodied many 
of the characteristics of the Eskimo " kayak " (see Nos. 528 and 529). 
Wood, however, was used in its construction : English oak for the keel and 
sides, with cedar for the deck ; an oscillating backboard was added to the 
deck aperture with an easily detachable waterproof cloth around the occupant 
when seated : a single mast, stepped on the fore side of the aperture, with a 
dipping-lug sail and jib, was also used ; the canoe was propelled and steered 
by a double-bladed paddle. Modifications for racing and ordinary river work 
were subsequently made in the original design. 



142 

The example here shown was made by Messrs. Turk and Sons and is fitted 
with two masts and dipping-lug sails ; it has also a rudder with double yoke 
and lines, by means of which the steering may be effected by the occupant's 
feet. 

Ordinary travelling canoes of this type have the following principal 
particulars: — Length, 12 to 15 ft.; breadth, 2-5 ft.; draught (with 10 lb. 
of luggage), 5 in. ; total weight, 70 to 80 lb. Double-ended paddle, 7 ft. 
long. 

■478. Rigged model of S.S. "Rob Roy." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent 
by Messrs. A. Q. Gifford & Co., 1882. N. 1569. 

This ketch-rigged steamer was built at Leith, for line and net fishing. 

She is constructed of wood, but has an iron bulkhead covered with non- 
•conducting cement, dividing the hold from the engine and boiler space, 
which is placed as far aft as possible. The hold is fitted up with fish boxes ; 
the crew are accommodated forward. The mainmast is fitted in a tabernacle, 
to enable it to be lowered ; the sails set are jigger, mainsail, foresail, and 
jib. 

The engines are of the two-stage expansion, inverted type, and drive 
a single screw which gives a speed of 8 knots. Steam at 90 lb. pressure is 
supplied by a vertical tubular boiler. 

Gross register, 37 tons ; length, 56 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. ; depth, 6 ft. 

479. Rigged model of S.S. " Hawk." (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent by 
Messrs. A. G. Gifford & Co., 1882. N. 1570. 

This schooner-rigged steam trawler was built of wood at Leith in 1882. 
The trawl is shown on deck, with the net triced up to dry. 

She is provided with two- stage expansion engines, having cylinders 
13 in. and 24 in. diam., by 18 in. stroke, which are supplied with steam 
at 85 lb. pressure and drive a single two-bladed screw. 

Gross register, 83 tons ; length, 87 • 2 ft. ; breadth, 18 • 1 ft. ; depth, 9 • 5 ft. 

480. Half block model of S.S. "Nyanza." (Scale 1: 48.) 
Presented by Messrs. Cochrane, Cooper and Schofield, 1890. 

N. 1851. 

This ketch-rigged screw steamer was built of iron at Beverley in 1890, 
for trawl fishing in the North Sea. She has three watertight bulkheads, 
and a quai-ter-deck 20 ft. long. 

Her engines are three-stage expansion, with cylinders 12*5 in., 19*5 in., 
and 31 '5 in. diam. by 22*5 in. stroke (see adjacent photographs). Steam 
is supplied at 160 lb. pressure, and the indicated h.p. is 320. 

Gross register, 153 tons ; length, 100 -5 ft. ; breadth, 21 ft. ; depth, 
10-8 ft. 

481. Half block models of steam launches. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Messrs. Watkins & Co., 1877. • N. 1475-7. 

" Jackdaw " is a screw steam launch of the following dimensions : — 
Length over all, 42 ft. ; breadth, 8*5 ft. ; draught, 3-25 ft. 

" Sisceepe " is a twin-screw steam launch of the following dimensions : — 
Length over all, 51 ft. ; breadth, 9 ft. ; draught, 3*5 ft. 

" Fly-by- Night " is a screw steam launch of the following dimensions : — 
Length over aU, 60 ft. ; breadth, 8 • 5 ft. ; draught, 3 • 5 ft. 

482. Half block models of steam launches. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Messrs. Cochran & Co., 1885. N. 1679-84. 

" Cricket " is a screw steam launch of the following dimensions : — Length 
over all, 40 ft. ; breadth, 7 ft. ; moulded depth, 4 ft. 

Her engines are two-stage expansion, with cylinders 5 in. and 10 in. diam., 
by 8 in. stroke . She is fitted with a Cochran boiler, 3 • 25 ft. ; diam. and 
•6 16 ft. high. 



143 

" Jeanne and Louise " is a twin-screw steam launch of the following 
dimensions : — Length over all, 62 -5 f t. ; breadth, 12 ft. ; moulded depth, 
4-16 ft. 

The engines are two-stage expansion with cylinders 10. in. and 20 in. 
diam., by 8 in. stroke. Steam is supplied by a Cochran boiler, 4. '83 ft. 
diam., and 8*5 ft. high. 

" Midge " is a screw steam launch of the following dimensions : — Length 
over all, 63 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. ; moulded depth, 7 • 25 ft. 

The engines are two- stage expansion with cylinders 10 in. and 20 in. 
diam., by 14 in. stroke. Steam is supplied by a Cochran boiler, 6 ft. diam. 
and 9 • 75 ft. high. 

" Anglo-Egyptian " is a screw steam launch of the following dimensions : 
— Length over all, 42 • 5 f t. ; breadth, 9 ft. ; moulded depth, 4 • 5 f t. 

Her engine has a single cylinder 8 in. diam. by 10 • 5 in. stroke, which is 
supplied by steam from a Cochran boiler, 3*5 ft. diam. and 5 ft. high. 

" Dewsbury " is a screw steam launch of the following dimensions : — 
Length over all, 25 ft. ; breadth, 5 • 5 ft. ; moulded depth, 2 • 75 ft. 

Her engine has a single cylinder 4*5 in. diam. by 6 in. stroke, and is 
supplied with steam from a Cochran boiler, 2 • 75 ft. diam. and 3 • 5 ft. high. 

" Rosalind " is a screw steam yacht built of wood at Dartmouth in 1881, 
by Messrs. Madocks & Co Her leading dimensions are : — Thames mea- 
surement, 34 tons ; gross register, 28 tons ; length, 62 * 9 ft. ; breadth, 
11 • 2 ft. ; moulded depth, 5 • 5 f t. 

Her engine is two-stage expansion, with cylinders 8 in. and 14 in. diam., 
by 12 in. stroke. Steam at 100 lb. pressm'e is supplied by a Cochran boiler, 
5 ft. diam. and 9 • 75 ft. long. 

483. Whole model of transport boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) Be- 
queathed by Miss. M. A. Peek, 1906. N. 1030. 

This was designed by Mr. Wm. Ladd, of Deptford Dockyard, for the 
disembarkation of troops, horses, and field guns in the Crimea, 1854-6. 

It consists of a platform supported on two flat-bottomed floats, and 
provided with stanchions carrying protecting ropes. A projecting extension 
of the platform is hinged, so that it can be lowered for use as an incline in 
disembarking. The floats are special boats, but can be used for other 
purposes ; their dimensions are : length, 40 ft. ; breadth, 12 "5 ft. ; and 
depth, 4-5 ft. 

484. Whole model of the obelisk ship " Cleopatra." f Scale 
1 : 24.) Presented by John Dixon, Esq., 1879. Plate VI., 
No. 4. N. 1520. 

This vessel was built at Millwall in 1877, from the designs of Mr. Dixon 
and Sir B. Baker, for the conveyance to England of the obelisk known as 
" Cleopatra's needle," presented to the British nation by the Yiceroy of 
Egypt, Mehemet Ali, in 1820. The cost of the vessel and its transport 
were defrayed by Sir Erasmus Wilson. 

The " Cleopatra " was a wi-ought-iron cylindrical pontoon, tapered at 
each end to a vertical edge, and furnished with diaphragms 10 ft. apart, 
which with suitable elastic packing supported the obelisk. The plates 
comprising the pontoon were • 375 in. and • 4375 in. thick, and its weight 
was 60 tons. The obelisk is 66 ft. long, and 8 • 5 ft. square at the base, 
tapering towards the top ; it was placed with the base about 20 ft. from 
the bow and the apex close to the stem, which was fitted with a rudder. 
On the top and near the centre was a deck-house with accommodation for 
three men with a wheel in the fore part. There was a long hui-ricane 
deck above the house and a short mast with two sails surmounted the 
whole. The vessel was perfectly watertight, and sealed, the only means 
of access being a man-hole door in the floor of the deck-house. 

In removing the monolith, a short length of it was first cleared, by 
excavation of the sand (in which it had lain for over 20 centuiies), and 
the corresponding part of the pontoon built around it, and a bearing 



144 

diaphram fitted, then another length, and so on until the whole was 
enclosed. "When completed the cylinder was lagged with 6-in. planks for 
a length of 12 ft. at either end, to protect the iron skin from injury, and 
then rolled down a slope into the water, and towed to a dry dock, where the 
deck-house and bilge keels were added. She was then towed by the S.S. 
" Olga " with a wire cable, a quarter of a mile long, at the rate of 7 knots 
an hour. Owing, however, to heavy weather in the Bay of Biscay, she was 
abandoned, but was afterwards picked up by the S.S. " Fitzmaurice," and 
taken into Ferrol, from whence she was towed to England. 

The obelisk was placed 4 • 5 in. below the centre, which gave a meta- 
centric height of 10 in. and a period, allowing for the bilge keels, of 6 seconds, 
or 10 double rolls per min. 

Actual displacement, 270 tons ; possible displacement, 405 tons ; length, 
92 ft. ; diameter, 15 ft. ; draught of water, 9 ft. ; weight of obelisk, 
160 tons ; ballast, 30 tons. 



LIFE-BOATS. 

485. Whole model of life-boat (1804). (Scale 1:12.) Lent 
by James Young, Esq., 1883. N. 1589. 

This represents a non-capsizable life-boat, probably built in 1804, by 
Messrs. H. S. Edwards and Sons, of Howden-on-Tyne. Air cases on the sides 
and at bow and stem are indicated, othei-wise there is no detail. 

486. Photographs of model of Brighton life-boat. 1841. 
Received 1896. N. 2098. 

This life-boat was built at Hove in 1840 for the beach at Brighton by 
Mr. Golding. The form is that usually given to whale boats — sharp at both 
ends to row in either direction ; she was built of elm plank and copper- 
fastened, the gunwales rise in a hollow curve giving a sheer of 2 ft. above 
the centre at either extremity. The sides were fitted with lockers, 14 in. 
wide at the top and sloping upwards from the thwarts to nearly the gun- 
wales edge ; these were filled with 3 to 4 cwt. of Farostone cork. The cork 
sides extended to within 3*5 ft. of either end ; the ends were decked and 
fitted with bulkheads enclosing air-tight copper canisters. The boat pulled 
four oars, each 16 ft. long, single banked, and six, four of which were 13 ft. 
long, double banked, with the addition of one 17 ft. long, for steering. 
Thole pins and grummets were found preferable to rowlocks, as securing the 
oars in case of accident. An iron crutch was fitted to either end for steering, 
while the other side had a cleat and rollers for kedging the boat through 
surf. Two life-buoys, consisting of two cork globes 11 in. diameter, with 
20 in. between them, were slung under the centre thwarts. 

Her leading dimensions were : — Length, 22 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 6 • 5 ft. ; depth, 
2-6 ft. 

487. Whole models of life-boats. (Scale 1 : 8.) Lent by G. 
Turner, Esq., 1864. N. 1037. 

These were designed by Mr. Turner, of Woolwich Dockyard, to compete 
for the premium of 100 guineas offered by the Duke of Northumberland in 
1851 for the best type of life-boat. 

They are constructed of wood and have flat bottoms with fine bows and 
sharp sterns. Both bow and stern are fitted with removable air chambers, 
recessed in the middle ; air chambers are also formed under the thwarts. 
Apertures are provided to discharge any water shipped. The larger boat is 
fitted to pull 16 oars double banked, and has two masts on which she would 
probably carry two lug sails ; the smaller boat pulls five oars. 

Large. Small. 

Length - - - - 36 ft. - - 26 ft. 

Breadth - - - - 6 „ - - 5 „ 

Depth - - - - 3-4„ - - 2-8 „ 

Weight of boat - - - 18 cwt. - - 9 cwt. 



145 

488. Whole model of life-boat "Excelsior." (Scale 1 : 9'6.) 
Lent by J. E. Teasdel, Esq, 1896. N. 2077. 

This form of life-boat, which has been adopted at Yarmouth and several 
other stations on the Norfolk and Suffolk coasts, was introduced about 
1840 by William Teasdel. It differs from the more generally adopted 
construction in that it is not self-righting if capsized ; but it is claimed 
that, as none of these boats have ever upset, the elevated air chambers that 
are necessary with a self-righting boat are an unnecessary obstruction ; also, 
that when suitable air chambers and metal ballast are provided a wide boat 
cannot capsize. 

In the boat represented the stability is assisted by an iron keel weighing 
one ton, together with a ballast tank capable of holding four tons of water. 
The air chambers, which extend along the side of the boat and to the bow 
and stem under the level of the thwarts, have a capacity of 320 cub. ft., and 
a buoyancy of 9 tons ; an outside strake of watertight compartments, in 
lengths of 3 ft., built of light wood and covered with cork and canvas', gives 
an additional floating power of 3 tons in a position in which it greatly 
assists the stability. The floor is fitted with 12 delivery valves, 4 in. diam., 
for discharging any water shipped. 

The boat carries two masts, and is fitted for 10 oars, double banked ; 
above the gunwale is a rope rail caiTied in iron stanchions. 

Length, 43-2 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. ; depth, 5-6 ft. 

489. Whole model of life-boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) Received 
1896. Isi. 2075. 

This design by Mr. William Teasdel, which represents a boat built for 
the heavy surf at Palling, Norfolk, was awarded a prize at the 1851 
Exhibition. 

The boat is clincher-built, and has considerable sheer ; there are large 
air chambers at the bow and stem and along the sides, in addition to an 
outside strake of cork. The keel is of iron, and there is a central ballast 
well 7 ft. long, 2*5 ft. wide, and 1*5 ft. deep, with perforated iron sides. 
She is fitted for 12 oars and two masts. 

Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 10-5 ft. ; depth, 3-3 ft. 



490. Whole model of life-boat. (Scale 1 : 9-6.) Lent by 
J. E. Teasdel, Esq., 1896. N. 2074. 

This represents a boat built in 1851 by Mr. William Teasdel, for the 
Duke of Norfhumberland, who stationed it near Hauxley and Warkworfh. 

She is clincher-built of oak, with low air chambers along the sides and in 
the bow and stem, while there is also a high chamber at the bow and stern, 
extending, however, only part of the width, so as to leave both ends of the 
boat accessible. There is also an external cork strake, and stability is given 
by a heavy iron keel. She is fitted for 10 oars, and has two masts. 

Length, 32 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 4 5 ft. 

491. Whole model of "Nautilus" life-boat. (Scale 1 : 9-6.) 
Lent by J. E. Teasdel, Esq., 1896. N. 2078. 

This represents a design by Mr. William Teasdel, for a life-boat or surf- 
raft. The sides are planked, the floor is formed of open gratings, while 
buoyancy is given by air chambers in the bow, stem, and between the 
thwarts ; in addition there is a large outside strake composed of cork. The 
air cases are of 84 cub. ft. capacity, and there are 20 cub. ft. of cork, giving 
a combined supporting power of 3 tons. 

Length, 24 ft. ; breadth, 9 ft. ; depth, 2-5 ft. 

u G773. K 



146 

492. Whole model of surf boat. (Scale 1 : 12.^ Lent by 
J. E. Teasdel, Esq., 1896. N. 2076. 

This boat is elinclier-built, has an iron keel, and a cork outside strake. 
Low air chambers are provided throughout the length under the thwarts 
with others at each end above the thwarts. There would be 12 oars and two 
masts. 

Length, 32 ft. ; breadth, 11 ft. ; depth, 3 • 5 ft. 

493. Whole model of life-boat. (Scale 1 : 16.) Received 
1896. N. 2073. 

This represents the Lowestoft boat and its carriage, designed by Mr. 
William Teasdel. 

The model is clincher-built, with a heavy iron keel ; it is fitted with 
low an- chambers extending from the bow to the stem along the sides 
under the thwarts, and there is a cork sti'ake all round on the outside. 
She is fitted with 10 valves for discharging any water shipped ; she carries 
14 oars double banked, and three masts with dipping lug sails. 

She is mounted on a two-wheel transporting carnage, which may also 
serve as a launching way. 

Length, 34 ft. ; breadth, 9-3 ft. ; depth, 4-3 ft. 

494. Life-boat carriage and limber. (Scale 1 : 19 '2.) Lent 
by J. E. Teasdel, Esq., 1896. N. 2081. 

These were constructed by Mr. William Teasdel for cany in g to the 
neighboui'hood of a wreck the life-boat and Manby's life-line mortar, 
together with various stores. The boat is can-ied on a slip way that is 
suspended from the axle of a pair of road wheels 15 ft. diam. 

495. Whole model of life-boat. (Scale 1 : 18.) Lent by 
John Coryton, Esq., 1858. N. 200. 

The features of this design were patented by Mr. Coryton in 1851 and 
subsequently somewhat further developed. 

At one end the boat is wedge-shaped, with the edge vertical, while at the 
other end the shape resembles a shallow and flat stern. When ordinarily 
sailing the wedge or " vertical wave line " end was in front, while when 
running before the wind the positions are reversed, a principle that is 
embodied in some of the Bui-mese and Chinese boats. 

The lower part of the boat was to have been of iron, with a metal 
keel, while the upper parts were to have been of wood ; the seats were to 
have been fitted with cork, with air compartments at the narrow end. Pro- 
pulsion and steering were to have been performed by two jets supplied by 
hand- worked pumps. 

496. Rigged model of life-boat and carriage. (Scale 1 : 10.) 
Lent by the Royal National Life-Boat Institution, 1865. 

N. 1070. 

This represents a fully equipped life-boat on its transpoi-ting carriage, as 
designed by Mr. John Prowse in 1861 and adopted by the Royal National 
Life-boat Institution. 

The boat in general form resembles a whale boat, and is diagonally 
built of two thicknesses of mahogany. She has five thwarts 2*6 ft. apart, 
and pulls ten oars, double banked, in crutches fonned on the thole pins. 
Extra buoyancy is obtained by compartments under the deck filled with 
watertight cases packed with cork, by detached air cases imder the head 
and stern sheets and along the sides under the thwarts, and by raised air 
cases in the ends. This boat could hardly be capsized, but should such an 
accident occur, the sheer of the gunwale, the raised end cases, and an iron 
keel, would cause her to right herself. Large delivery valves enable the 
boat to free herself of all water above the deck in 20 seconds, even with 
47 persons on board. 



147 

The transporting caniage consists of a fore and a main body. The latter 
is formed of a keelway, together with side or bilgeways resting on the main 
axle, the boat's weight, however, being entirely on the rollers of the keelway. 
On the withdrawal of a locking pin the fore and main bodies can be detached 
from each other, so that when the boat is launched from the rear end the 
keelway and main body form an inclined plane. To replace her on the 
caiTiage, she can be hauled bow foremost up the fore end or longer incline 
by disconnecting the fore caiTiage and letting the end of the keelway rest 
on the ground. The bilgeways are needed at the rear end in order that the 
boat may be launched in an upright position with her crew on board, but are 
not required at the fore end of the can*iage. 

A life-boat provided with a caiTiage on which she is kept, ready for 
transportation to the most favourable position for launching to a wreck, is 
available for a much greater extent of coast than would otherwise be 
possible, while a carriage is also of immense value in launching a boat from 
a beach through a high surf. 

Length, 33 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; depth amidships, 3 • 3 ft. 

497. Built model and drawing of life-boat " Lady Daly." 
(Scale 1 : 16.) Lent by H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotba, K.G., 1869. N. 1314. 

This is equipped with masts, sails, oars, crutches, anchors, throwing 
lines, etc., and is in a cradle on a permanent launching slip. It represents 
a life-boat constinicted at Adelaide, Australia, in 1867, from designs by 
Mr. W. Taylor, Government shipwright at that port. She was fitted with 
two standing lugs and a foresail. 

The model was presented in 1868 by the Marine Board of South 
Australia to H.R.H. the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha when in command 
of H.M.S. " Galatea." 

Length, 43-08 ft. ; breadth, 9 ft. ; depth amidships, 4-08 ft. 

498. Rigged model of life-boat and carriage. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by the Royal National Life-Boat Institution, 1885. 

N. 1685. 

This represents a fully equipped life-boat on a ti-anspoi*ting carriage 
and is an exact representation of the life-boat which obtained the 6002. 
prize at the Fisheries Exhibition in 1883. There is very little difference 
between it and the earlier boat of 1861 {see No. 496). 

A disc suspended on one of the stays of the main can-iage is used as a 
turntable, while on the opposite side is a roller skid. The life-boat is 
hauled out of the water on roller skids, but when it is required to change 
the direction in which the boat is being hauled she is put on the turntable. 

Length, extreme, 33 ft. ; breadth, 8 ft. ; depth amidships, 3 • 3 ft. 

499. Whole model of a whaler gig as a life-boat. (Scale 
1 : 16.) Lent by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1347. 

This boat was constnicted for H.M.S. " Sylvia." She has movable air 
chambers in the bow and stem, and air cases along the sides under the 
thwarts ; she puUs five oars and has the usual fittings for sailing. 

Length, 28 ft. ; breadth, 5-6 ft. ; depth, 2-5 ft. 

500. Whole model of life-boat cutter. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent 
by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1348. 

This represents an ordinary man-of-war's cutter fitted as a life-boat by 
the addition of air cases along the side under the thwai-ts and movable air 
cases at the bow and stem. She would pull ten oars double-banked, and 
have the usual sailing appliances. 

Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 7 • 25 ft. ; depth, 2 • 83 ft. 



148 

501. Whole model ol life-boat cutter. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent 
by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1350. 

This represents a life-boat built for the SS. " Yestal " of the Corporation 
of the Trinity House. There are movable air cases in the bow and stem, 
and along the sides under the thwarts. She has two bollards forward and 
one aft ; she pulls five oars and is also fitted for sailing. 

Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft. ; depth, 2 • 3 ft. 

502. Whole model of self-righting cutter life-boat. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Lent by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. N. 1349. 

This boat is built with bow and stem alike, air cases under the thwarts 
and close to the side, movable air cases in the bow and stem, and delivery 
valves to readily discharge any water shipped. 

Length, 28 ft. ; breadth, 7'5 ft. ; depth, 3-16 ft. 

503. Whole model of steam cutter with air chambers. 
(Scale 1 : 16.) Lent by Messrs. Forrestt and Son, 1873. 

N. 1352. 

This represents a steam launch for the use of ships and yachts ; it is 
fitted with air cases in the bow and stem and under the thwarts close to the 
side, so as to make it unsinkable by swamping. 

Length, 26 ft. ; breadth, 6 • 5 ft. ; depth, 3 • 25 ft. 

504. Whole model of a jet-propelled steam life-boat. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Lent by Messrs. R. and H. Green, 1894. N. 2034. 

This represents a life-boat designed and built by Mr. J. F. Green in 
1893. The boat is fitted with engines which, on land, drive two travelling 
wheels placed about amidships and, at sea, work a centrifugal pump, which 
drives a stream of water through certain pipes placed below the water-line, 
the reaction of the issuing jet propelling the boat. "W^ien the boat is 
travelling on shore it rests upon three wheels, the one at the bow being 
spherical and earned freely upon a swivel axis. The boat enters the water 
stem first, and when afloat the two midship wheels are raised into their 
chambers by letting go the after tackles, and are retained there by the 
forward tackles, the engines then propelling the boat by the centrifugal 
pump. 

There are four outlet pipes, two turned forward and two aft. When 
required to move ahead the two forward ones are closed by suitable valves 
and the two aft pipes are opened. The boat's speed is stated to be 8 knots. 
To tum the vessel to port, the foi'ward poi-t and the after starboard pipes 
are opened, and the others closed ; she will then turn in her own length. 
She can be quickly stopped in a very short distance by closing the stem 
pipes and opening the foi-ward ones. Other boats of this kind are provided 
with pipes at the sides leading off pei-pendicularly to the length of the boat ; 
these are used for putting off, broadside-on, from a wreck. 

By using water-tube boilers steam is got up in 15 minutes. The boat 
^vill travel at full speed for 30 hours, with an expenditure of 3 tons 
of coal. 

The crew numbers 9 men, and there is room for 30 passengers in 
addition. 

Length, 50 ft. ; beam, moulded, 12 ft. ; draught, loaded, 3 • 25 ft. 

505. Rigged model of non-self-righting sailing life-boat. 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by the Royal National Life-Boat 
Institution, 1903. Plate VL, No. 5. N. 2301. 

Until 1882 nearly all of the life-boats in the service of the Institution 
were of the " self-righting " type, illustrated by the models No. 496 and 
No. 498. Since then, in deference to the wishes of local crews, a number 
of " non- self-righting " boats have been constructed, for use principally on 



149 

the coasts of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cheshire, and Lancashire, with the 
result that at the close of 1901 about one-fifth of the total number of the 
Institution's life-boats were of this type. 

The model represents one of the non- self-righting boats, built in 1902, 
to the designs of Mr, G. L. Watson, and differs from the self-righting con- 
struction in having less sheer and lower air- casings at the extremities, while 
the beam is increased. Air compai-tments are fitted at each end of the 
boat, as well as above and below the thwarts on each side. Relieving tubes 
and valves, 12 in number, provide for the automatic discharge of water from 
the deck, while a weather-board or *' breakwater " across the foremost casing 
affords some protection from head seas. 

A steel casting, weighing 3 • 5 tons, forms part of the main keel of the 
boat and gives the necessary stability, but water tanks are frequently added 
to carry additional ballast when required. Two bilge-keels on each side 
minimise rolling and at the same time strengthen and protect the structure. 

For sailing purposes two lug-sails and a fore-sail are used, carried on 
masts whose heels are fitted in tabernacles for convenience in raising and 
lowering. Two drop-keels are provided for use in reducing leeway when 
sailing, and oars are carried for a crew of 12 men ; there are, moreover, 
three large steering sweeps in addition to a rudder. 

The boat is kept in a boat-house and launched by means of a slipway. 

Length, over all, 40 ft. ; breadth, 11 ft. ; depth, amidships, 4-25 ft. 



STEAM TUG BOATS. 

506. Half block model of triple-screw tug boat. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by George Scott, Esq., 1877. N. 1484. 

This iron-built tug, for river use, is fitted with twin screws at the stem 
and one screw at the bow in her fore-foot ; each screw is driven by a separate 
and independent engine. 

Length, over all, 80 ft. ; breadth, 18 ft. ; mean draught, 2 • 75 ft. 

507. Whole model of paddle tug "Albatross." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Messrs. Hepple & Co., 1882. N. 1583. 

This iron paddle-wheel tug-boat was built at South Shields in 1878. 
Her engine is of the side-lever type, with one cylinder 40 • 25 in. diam. by 
54-in. stroke, and her speed is 13 knots. 

Gross register, 139 tons ; length, 140 ft. ; breadth, 19 ft. ; depth, 8*25 ft. 

508. Whole model of screw tug " Victor." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by Messrs. Duncan Bros., 1885. N. 1690. 

This tug was built of steel at Glasgow in 1884 by Mr. W. S. Gumming. 
She has three bulkheads and a teak deck. 

The engines are two-stage expansion and surface -condensing ; the slide 
valves are driven by Bremme's valve gear (see No. 867). The boiler is of 
the single furnace, return multi-tubular type, constructed for a working 
pressm-e of 80 lb. The propeller is a three-bladed Duncan's {see No. 1005). 

Length, 45 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 6-5 ft, 

509. Photographs of salvage and towing steamers " Kathleen " 
and " Narciso Deulofeu." Presented by Messrs. Cox & Co., 
1890. N. 1836-7. 

These small steel screw tugs, for coast and harbour service, were built 
and engined at Falmouth in 1888-9 by Messrs. Cox & Co. 

They are fitted with three-stage expansion engines, which indicate 600 
and 460 h.p. respectively, and give a speed of 12 knots. 

The " Kathleen " belongs to the Rangoon Port Commissioners, and has 
the following particulars : — Gross register, 190 tons ; length, 121 ft. ; 
breadth. 19 -5 ft. 



150 

510. Wliole model of steam tug and despatcli boat. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Lent by Edward Hayes, Esq., 1890. N. 1840. 

This twin-screw river steamer was built of steel at Stony Stratford in 
1889, to the order of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade, for nse as a steam tug 
and despatch boat. Her speed is 14 knots. 

Length, 66 ft. ; breadth, 11 ft. ; draught, 4 ft. 

511. Print of the salvage S.S. " Novorossisk." (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Lent by Messrs. R. S. Newall & Co., 1892. N. 2002. 

The " Novorossisk " was built of steel and engined by Messrs. Newall & 
Co. in 1890, for use as a tug and salvage steamer in the Black Sea. 

The screw propeller is driven by a two-stage expansion engine of 300 
indicated h.p., with cylinders 16*25 and 32-5 in. diam., by 22 -in. stroke. 
Steam at 100 lb. pressm-e is supplied by a single-ended boiler, 11 ft. diam. 
by 9 • 5 ft. long. On trial her speed was 9 * 5 knots. 

The pumping machinery consists of a 15 -in. centrifugal pumping engine, 
capable of throwing 4,100 gals, of water per min., and provided with five 
8-in. suction branches ; also a Worthington duplex fire pump, which will 
discharge 750 gals, of water per min. through four 3 • 5-in. fire hoses. 

Length, between pei-ps., 80 ft. ; breadth, moulded, 17 ft. ; depth, 10 ft. ; 
gross register, 85 tons. 



BOATS' FITTINGS. 



512. Model of Clifford's boat-lowering apparatus. (Scale 1 : 10.) 
Lent by A. Batten, Esq., 1868. N. 1202. 

This aiTangement was patented by Mr. Charles Clifford in 1853, and 
improved in 1856 and 1858. The boat is hung from hooks on the davits 
by tapered I'opes, which, after passing through fiiction blocks that prevent 
side rolling, are wound on a roller secured under a thwart ; the ends of the 
ropes are, however, free. The boat is lowered by its own weight, controlled 
by a rope -brake on the roller. 

This apparatus was extensively adopted in H.M. Navy and mercantile 
marine. 

513. Model of boat-lowering apparatus. (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Presented by F. J. Sweeting, Esq., 1874. N. 1391. 

This aiTangement was patented by Mr. Sweeting in 1872. In order that 
the lowering should be under the control of one man, the ropes are attached 
to a winch barrel inside the ship. For raising, the baiTcl is rotated by a 
ratchet wheel and pawl, while for lowering there is a strap brake. The boat 
can also be lowered independently of this, as the davits are hinged so that 
they can swing downwards when released by a block and tackle attached to the 
mast. The disengaging gear consists of a curved bar at each end of the boat ; 
these bars act as hooks for retaining the supporting ropes, and are locked 
down by two bolts, which are simultaneously withdrawn by a lever fitted 
amidships. 

514. Iron blocks for boat disengaging gear. Presented by G. 
Fawcus, Esq., 1865. N. 1080. 

These special forms of snatch block were introduced by Mr. Fawcus. 

The first has an open jaw closed by a hook, which can be tm*ned on its 
pivots by pulling a lanyard ; a retaining safety-pawl is also added. 

In the second the jaw is closed by a pin which is released by tui*ning a 
slotted socket. 



151 

515. Boat disengaging gear. Presented by tlie Rev. J. M. 
Kilner, 1878. N. 1506. 

This gear was patented by Mr. Kilner in 1867 and 1870. At each end 
of the boat a special shackle is fixed, which nips the lifting chains ; each 
shackle can be released by lanyards. 

516. Model of boat chocks. (Scale 1 : 8.) Lent by G. 
Fawcus, Esq., 1865. N. 1082. 

This shows an an-angement for stowing boats inboard; the upper 
portions of each set of chocks, instead of being fixed or hinged, are capable 
of transverse adjustment by means of metal slides. 

517. Iron fittings for securing boats' thwarts. Presented by 
G. Fawcns, Esq., 1865. N. 1080c. 

These show a complete set of full-size straps and pins used for con- 
necting the portable thwarts of nesting boats with the sides. (See No 413.) 
A ring-bolt secured through the upper part of each vei*tical strap provides 
an attachment for the boat's lifting and disengaging gear. 

518. Model of boat davits. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent by G. 
Fawcus, Esq., 1865. N. 1081. 

The davits are tied back to fixed posts, round which they can slew ; the 
davits of adjacent boats can be attached to a single post, thus permitting 
the boats to be closer together than usual. 

519. Boat-detaching apparatus. Lent by Messrs. Hill and 
Clark, 1874. N. 1384. 

This apparatus for automatically releasing a ship's boat when it reaches 
the water was patented in 1870-2 by Mr. E. J. Hill. 

The boat is suspended from the lowering tackle by two rings, engaging 
with trip hooks seciu-ed in its bow and stern. These hooks are double- 
pointed, and the rings after being passed over the outer points, are hooked 
to the inner in the ordinary manner. When the boat becomes water-borne 
the rings fall loosely, and the outer points acting as guides so control their 
movements that they cannot re-engage with the inner hooks. The rings 
are connected by a horizontal rope which pulls them towards each other, 
and, by transmitting a portion of the pull on each ring to the other, ensui'es 
that neither is detached until both ends of the boat are water-borne. The 
hooks are provided with hinged claws for use when about to lift a boat, but 
these are to be turned back before lowei-ing. 

520. Model of boat disengaging gear. (Scale 1 : 32.) Lent 
by J. A. R. Clark, Esq., 1902. N. 2294. 

This gear, for rapidly and simultaneously releasing the two ends of a 
lowered boat, was patented in 1898 by Lieut.-Col. G. S. A. Ranking, and 
subsequently improved by Mr. Clark. 

The boat is supported at both ends by chains, from a pair of levers 
suspended from the davits and having their free ends brought together 
over the middle of the boat, and there retained by a slip chain secured to 
the keel. When the central chain is released the two levers are free to turn 
and thus liberate the end chain, so that the boat is cast off. To give more 
rigidity to the aiTangement and also to prevent the released levers from 
causing injury they are connected where they meet by a strong knuckle-joint 
which prevents any downward or side way movement. 

521. Model of quadrant boat davits. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent 
by A. Welin, Esq., 1905. N. 2361. 

This shows a device for rapidly lowering a boat, patented by Mr. A. 
Welin in 1900-1, 



152 

The lower portion of each davit consists of a toothed quadrant rolling on 
a fixed horizontal rack, while a block pivoted to the davit at the centre of 
the quadrant slides on a horizontal guide bar and can-ies a nut through 
which a running screw actuating the davit passes. Owing to the screws for 
each pair of davits being threaded right and left handed, the men at the 
driving handles face each other and can see the progress of both davits as 
they roll outboard until the boat is sufficiently clear of the ship's side to be 
lowered by the falls. The rolling of the quadrants on the racks gives the 
davits a horizontal motion outboard, and also makes the load leverage less 
than it would be if davits turning on fixed centres were used. 

By passing the falls over fixed pulleys before attaching them to the 
belaying pins on the davits, a differential motion is introduced which reduces 
the work required to retuiii the boat inboard by causing it to drop relatively 
to the upper ends of the davits during that operation. 

The inner portions of the boat's chocks are fixed to the deck, but the 
outer portions consist of pieces which are supported by Hnks hinged to the 
deck, and are held in position by rods engaging with catches secured to 
the inner chocks. When the boat is fully prepared for lowering these rods 
are rapidly released and the driving screws started. The passing of the falls 
over the fixed pulleys, previously referred to, causes the boat to be eased off 
the inside chocks and the outside ones are pushed away by the boat itself 
as it moves outboard. 

522. Bilge-plugs for a boat. Contributed by E. P. H. 
Vaughan, Esq., 1861. N. 699. 

These di-ainage plugs, of which there are two forms, fit a seating in the 
bottom of the boat, and are secured in position by a bayonet joint. 

523. Bilge-valve for a boat. Lent by H. Emanuel, Esq.. 
1885. N. 1693'. 

This is a rubber-faced valve, which is screwed against a grid fixed in the 
bottom. 



SHIPS AND BOATS CHIEFLY OF ORIENTAL DESIGN. 

Tliese present many interesting peculiarities, arising from 
the state of the arts, the variations of climate, and the necessities 
or customs of the inhabitants. 

The most general rig embodies the use of one or more lateen 
sails, but in many localities little or no standing rigging is 
employed, the requisite strength being given by the use of 
exceptionally stout masts. 

The simplest craft are of the raft type, constructed of logs 
or bamboos lashed together, as seen in the " catamaran " of 
India or China, and the "jangada" of Brazil. 

Dug-out canoes are met with in all parts of the Avorld : in 
some localities, as in Ceylon, their depth is increased by the 
addition of wash-boards, while in Burmah and West Africa ribs 
and side planking are added in a way that suggests an origin 
for our present system of shipbuilding. In the Ceylon boat, 
however, in addition to the increased capacity and stability due 
to the elevated sides, the beam is virtually increased to a much 
greater extent by the addition of a ship-shaped log secured to 
the extremities of two outrigged bamboos ; by this means it is 
rendered possible to carry a considerable area of sail, so that 



153 

these boats obtain a speed of as mucli as 9 knots. The out- 
rigger construction has reached its highest development in 
the " fl}' ing-proa " of the Ladrone Islands, in which the canoe 
is ship-shaped on one side and has a vertical plane for the 
other, so as to increase the leeway resistance ; it is stated that 
these proas have obtained a speed of 17 knots. Outrigger 
canoes are found wherever the Malay race has penetrated, while 
the double canoes of tlie South Sea Islanders may perhaps be 
considered a modification of the same type. 

Of boats wholly built up of weak material, easily obtained 
and worked, the birch-bark canoes of North America and those 
of gum-tree bark in Australia are typical examples : the scAvn 
" masoolah " boats of India, which on account of their flexibility 
will stand being roughly beached by the incoming breakers, are 
also interesting illustrations of this system of construction. 

Flat-bottomed boats constructed of planks include the 
"sampans" used in India and China for fishing, ferrying, etc., 
the house and flower boats of the Canton River, the latter being 
large examples of a form that with us is chiefly used for river 
punts. On the Irawadi and the Ganges such boats are also 
used, fitted with sails for use when going before the wind, but 
rowing and poling are also provided for by the addition of 
overhanging sponsons. 

The Arab " dhow," used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, 
is an earl}' type of vessel which is considered to have remained 
almost unchanged since the days of Alexander the Great. With 
one, two, or three masts and lateen sails, the type under various 
names is found also along the coast of the Mediterranean, so 
that there is considerable pi-obability that the design was 
derived from the vessels of the early Phoenicians, while the 
construction is the probable forerunner of our own system of 
Avooden shipbuilding. 

524. Rigged models of Brazilian jangadas. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by W. R. Birnie, Esq., 1893, and Count Watson- 
Howen, 1897. N. 2017. 

These represent a species of raft, or catamaran, used in many 'parts of 
the world. It is constinicted of several logs of light wood, or bamboo, 
pinned together, and is provided with seats and a mat-covered shelter 
amidship for protecting goods from the sun or spray. A single mast is 
fitted, and it can*ies a triangiilar sail secured to a light yard. These rafts 
are steered by an oar at the after end. and are used for fishing even at a 
considerable distance from land. 

An adjacent illustration shows similar vessels at work on the Madras 
coast. 

525. Rigged model of Chinese surf raft. (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Received 1896. N. 2089. 

This model represents a form of surf raft or catamaran in general use on 
the coasts of China, Formosa, and Japan. 

The body of the raft is formed of bamboos lashed together and to 
hardwood crosspieces, and is given considerable sheer and taper. Instead of 
a keel, three lee-boards are provided which can be drawn upwards when 



154 

reaching the shore. The deck is wet, but passengers or goods to be kept 
dry are placed in a central tank and a light screen is employed to stop some 
of the spray. A single mat sail is used, or oars when necessary, while 
steering is done by an oar from the stern. 

The dimensions are :— Length, 30 ft. to 35 ft. ; width, 7 ft. to 10 ft. : 
crew, 3 men. 

526. Dug-out canoe. (British Columbia.) Presented by the 
Canadian Commissioners to the Fisheries Exhibition, 1883. 

N. 1612. 

This is a small example of a type of canoe used by the native Indians on 
the western coast of Canada : it differs fundamentally from the native 
birch-bark tjrpe {see No. 527) used in the eastera provinces of the Dominion. 
Owing to local decay, a portion of the after end of the boat has been 
removed, but the outlines of the complete canoe are shown upon the 
accompanying scale drawing. 

The canoe consists of a single hollowed tree-trunk, usually of Canadian 
red cedar or other light wood, shaped externally to boat form. The lines 
show, (1) a short sharp entiunce with the position of maximum breadth only 
3 ft. from the bow, (2) a pai-allel fore-body to mid-length, (3) a long gradual 
i-un, terminated by a squai'e-cut stern above the water-line. Considerable 
sheer is given to the top-sides and a covering board is fitted to the 
fore end. 

The approximate weight of the complete canoe was 250 lb. ; length, 
extreme, 29*25 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 22*5 in. ; depth, amidships, 10*75 in. 

527. Built model of birch-bark canoe. (Scale 1 : 8.) Re- 
ceived 1899. N. 2193. 

This represents in general form and construction the canoes used by 
native Indians upon the lakes and rivers of the eastern provinces of Canada. 
The chief characteristic of the type are : shallow draught, considerable sheer 
and taper, similarity of bow and stern, absence of keel, and extremely light 
build. 

The canoe is constructed of white birch-bark laid upon frames or ribs of 
white cedar. The latter are first placed in position and held together by 
flexible wooden bands, then the outer shell, which has been carefully stripped 
in one piece from a suitable tree, is wi*apped around them and secured by 
means of tarred thongs made from the roots of the cedar tree. 

The boat is propelled by paddles, one of which is held by each rower who 
kneels or crouches upon the bottom of the boat while using it. A small 
sail is occasionally used. 

The ordinary two-paddle canoe is from 16 to 18 ft. long, and can be 
carried many miles by one man without great exertion ; such canoes are also 
made large enough to carry as many as twelve men, 

528. Built model of Greenland canoe. (Scale 1 : 8.) Lent 
by The Royal United Service Institution, 1903. N. 2324. 

This represents the one-man " kayak " used by native Eskimo for 
hunting and fishing. 

It consists of a light framework of wood or whalebone covered above and 
below with tanned seal-skins, sewn together with sinew-thread, and made 
thoroughly tight. The only opening is a central circular hatchway, 
admitting the boatman to his hips, and into which he is secured by lacing 
the lower edge of his watertight jacket to the wooden coaming. External 
protective bands of whalebone are added at the stem and stern, to prevent 
injury when grounding. 

A double-bladed paddle is used for propulsion, and all apparatus and 
provisions are caiTied on deck, in i-acks or straps. A harpoon and lance for 
seal-hunting are shown ; attached to the former is a skin bag or buoy, 
which, when inflated, prevents the stricken seal from sinking. 



155 

As these boats are very shallow and without ballast or external keels, 
they are easily capsized, so that long practice is necessary to successfully 
manage them in a heavy sea or eurf : their extreme lightness, however, 
permits of their being easily carried, inverted, on the bearer's head. 

The usual dimensions are : — Length, 16 to 20 ft. ; breadth, 1 • 5 to 2 ft. ; 
depth. • 75 to 1 ft. ; weight, 50 to 60 lb. 

529. Greenland canoe and accessories. Presented bv Mrs. 
Bompas, 1906. N. 2427. 

This is an actual " kayak," or man's boat which, with the " umiak," or 
women's boat, are used by Eskimo off the coasts of Greenland for fishing, 
fowling, sealing, whaling and walrus -hunting. 

It is constracted of light, bent-wood frames, irregularly spaced and 
lashed to longitudinal laths or battens ; local and structural strength is also 
given by broad wooden beams or stretchers fitted on each side of the round 
hatchway amidships. The whole framework is finally covered with tanned 
seal-skins sewn together with sinew, while, for protection against injury by 
grounding or collision, external strips of bone are atttached to the raking 
bow and stern. The completed structure weighs about 40 lb., and is 
therefore easily transpoi-ted overland. This extreme lightness, however, 
accompanied by a narrow beam, shallow draught, and lack of ballast or 
projecting keel, renders it liable to capsize, and long practice is required to 
manage it successfully in a heavy sea. The boatman sits in the hatchway 
with his outer skin coat secui-ed to the coaming so as to prevent the entry of 
water ; his double-bladed paddle is about 7 ft. long, made of red pine tipped 
with bone, and with this he balances and propels his craft. Leather straps, 
secured athwart the deck, provide for the stowage of provisions, harpoon- 
thongs and lines, and the various weapons used in the chase. 

Length of the canoe, over all, 16*5 ft.; breadth, extreme, 1-75 ft.; 
depth of side, amidships, 6 ft. ; weight, with implements, 50 lb. 

Examples are shown of the following weapons : — 

(1) Harpoon Dart. This is about 7 ft. long, and is used for big game. 
It is thrown, by means of " hand boards " as shown, a distance of 8 to 12 
yards, and is fitted with detachable barbed head canying a line with a 
bladder or an inflated sealskin ; after striking its object, this outer barb 
with its line is automatically released from the harpoon- shaft, and the bladder 
at the same time is thrown overboard, where it marks the course of the 
wounded animal, and is finally used to buoy it on the surface when dead. 

(2) Missile Dart. About 5 ft. long, with a detachable barbed iron 
point and a bladder fixed to the shaft ; used when hunting in company. 

(3) Great Lance. About 6 ft. long, with a detachable bone head and 
iron blade without barbs ; it readily disengages itself, and is thrown 
frequently at the wounded animal as it rises to take breath. 

(4) Little Lance. About 4 ft. long ; has a sword point and is used to 
dispatch the animal outright. 

(5) Fov^LiNG Dart. About 5 ft. long, with a fixed iron point at the 
head, and three projecting bone points about the middle of the shaft, these 
latter giving increased chances of striking a moving bird. 

530. Whole model of Accra canoe. (Scale about 1 : 8.) Lent 
by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1908. N. 2462. 

This native-made model represents a type of surf boat used at Accra, 
the capital of the Gold Coast Colony, "West Africa. 

It is of dug-out consti-uction, having its sides tied together with 
groups of short transverse poles lashed at intervals to the gunwales. It 
has a relatively large beam and a "rockered" bottom or convex keel line 
features which adapt it for use on a shelving, surf -beaten coast ; two 
navigating paddles of special form are shown. The outside of the canoe 
is decorated by native characters and drawings. 

Approximate dimensions : — Length, 22 ft. ; breadth, 5 ft, 



156 

531. Whole model of Kroo canoe (Liberia). (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by W. H. Hollowav, Esq., 1908. N. 2496'. 

This shows a typical native canoe as used for general purposes by the 
Kroo tribes along the Liberian coast. 

These craft are of simple dug-out character and vary in length from 
18 ft. to 30 ft. They are propelled by two to four men, by means of a fonn 
of pronged paddle, peculiar to Kroomen, and may be successfidly navigated 
in heavy sea or surf. 

The example shown was made from particulars obtained at Monrovia, 
Liberia, and represents a canoe of the following overall dimensions : — Length, 
28 ft. ; breadth, 2 • 5 ft. ; depth, amidships, 1 • 75 ft. 

532. Whole model of Southern Nigeria river canoe. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1908. N. 2497. 

This shows a canoe of medium size as used for trading purposes on the 
Oils (Niger) and Cross Rivers in Southern Nigeria. 

It is of dug-out character, but has a framework amidships which, when 
covered with matting or palm thatch, forms a shelter for women and childi*en. 
It is propelled by paddles or a pole, and is chiefly employed in the transport 
of fruit and vegetables to market or of palm oil and kernels from the interior 
to the factories. 

Its principal dimensions, obtained at Old Calabar, are : — Length, extreme, 
33 ft. ; breadth, 4 ft. ; depth, amidships, 2 ft. 

533. Whole model of Lagos fishing canoe. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1907. N. 2438. 

This native-made model represents a typical fishing canoe as used upon 
the large lagoons and inland waters of Lagos, West Africa. 

These craft are simple dug-outs made from ti-unks of the fig or the 
silk-cotton tree ; the hollowing-out is performed by burning and by cutting 
with an adze. The thwarts, platforms, mast-steps and other details are added 
as required. The ribs of palm-leaves are used for fishing rods and the fibre 
of the pine-apple for nets and lines. 

The canoes are made of sizes to suit the requirements of from one 
to five persons; they are propelled by sails or paddles and steered by 
a paddle from the stem. 

The dimensions of the boat represented are : — Length, overall, 28 ft. ; 
breadth, 3 • 5 ft. 

534. Whole model of Lagos market boat. (Scale 1 : 18.) 
Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1907. N. 2439'. 

This native-made model represents one of the larger types of boats 
as used for feny and general transport purposes upon the lagoons and 
coastal waters of Lagos, West Africa. 

It is an interesting example of the combination of " dug-out " with 
" built-up " boat construction. The lower part of the hull is of a hollowed 
tree trunk, while the topsides are raised by strakes of planking ; timber 
knees and floors, about 2 ft. apart, give ti*ansverse strength to the structure. 

These boats are propelled by sails or paddles — a larger steering paddle 
being worked from a platfonn at the stem. 

The cariying capabilities of these craft vary from one to four tons (weight) 
and the dimensions are : — Length, overall, 48 ft. ; breadth, 7*5 ft. 

535. Rigged model of Nile cargo and ferry boat. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1910. N. 2545. 

This shows a vessel of somewhat primitive constmction iised in Upper 
Egypt and the Sudan, and but seldom found below the first cataract. 
Particulars for the model were obtained at Korosko, some 100 miles above 
Assuan. 

The boat has a large relative beam and a full midship body tapering 
gi-adually to the stern. It is decked over the greater portion of its length 



157 

and has a special beam amidships to give support to a single mast and 
Jateen yard. The most noteworthy feature of the boat is the entire absence 
of internal ribs or frames. Some structural compensation for them is obtained 
by the method of forming the shell : fairly thick and roughly-hewn planking 
is used, and the butts of each piece are scarfed to those of adjacent pieces 
so as to form a continuous strake. Each strake is fastened to that imme- 
diately below by nails driven at a slight inclination ; their heads are housed 
in small external notches. Some degree of watei*tightness is obtained by 
caulking the seams with grass or moss ; no paint is used upon these craft. 
A large built-up rudder with a tiller is used. 

It is interesting to note that Herodotus, wi-iting about 250 B.C., describes 
the Nile cargo boats of his day as being built without ribs and with the 
planking worked in shoi-t thick pieces held together by long bolts. 

Length, 25 ft. ; breadth, 9*5 ft. 

536. Rigged model of Nile fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1910. N. 2561. 

This type of boat is used for fishing on the Lower Nile, below the first 
cataract ; particulars for the model were obtained at Luxor. 

In general form it resembles the cargo and ferry boat (No. 535) but 
differs from it structurally in being strongly framed and planked ; it is also 
smaller, has greater relative beam, and is painted. A large single lateen 
sail is earned and the vessel is decked, with the exception of a portion 
amidships ; within this open space a heavy beam or thwart is fitted, a square 
mast is stepped, and two oars are worked. 

Dimensions : — Length, 16 ft. ; breadth, 7 ft. 

537. Rigged model of Nile cargo boat (gyassa). (Scale 
1 : 12.) Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1909. N. 2529. 

This represents the native type of cargo vessel used on the waters of the 
Lower Nile and occasionally in Upper Egypt. 

The vessel has full lines with a peculiar upturned and decorated bow 
and bowsprit. It is framed and decked and has a large central hatchway. 
No external keel is fitted, thus reducing the di-aught. There is a large 
built-up rudder worked by a tiller. The bulwarks are set back all round 
the vessel, so as to admit of a narrow platform, which is used when poling 
is necessary. The lightest breeze is taken advantage of by two lofty lateen 
sails : the foremast is stepped well forward and carries a lateen yard at an angle 
of about 45 deg., while the mizenmast is right aft, with its yard nearly vertical 
and a boom lashed to the port quarter for extending the base of the sail. 
The number and aiTangement of masts, spars, and sails is not uniform 
in boats of the same general type. The small canvas bag, shown suspended 
aft, is used for the stowage of provisions. 

Length, 42 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. 

538. Whole models of Lower Egypt fishing boats. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1908. N. 2498-9. 

These two boats represent examples of native fishing craft as used on the 
shallow waters of Lower Egypt. 

They are of built-up construction, somewhat roughly put together, and 
watertightness is obtained by a thick coating of pitch on the underwater 
parts. They are propelled by paddles or a pole, and, being flat-bottomed, 
are able to float in b, veiy few inches of water. 

Their overall dimensions, obtained on Lake Mareotis, are as follows : — 
Lengths, 9 ft. and 11 ft. ; breadth, 3 ft. ; depth, at sides, 2 ft. 

539. Rigged model of Nile sailing boat. (Scale 1 : 48.) Made 
and lent by the Rev. A J. Foster, 1873. N. 1341. 

This represents the typical Nile passenger vessel. It is usually built of 
wood, although recently larger examples have been constructed in steel. 
The accommodation consists of three single bed cabins, a centre saloon or 



158 

dining-room, and a stem cabin used as a bed or sitting-room ; there ai-e also 
a bathroom, pantry, etc. The boat has two lateen sails, while oars and poles 
are also used as occasion may require. The crew consists of a captain, a 
mate, and from six to eight men. 

Length, 96 ft. ; breadth, 16 ft. ; depth, 4 ft. 

540. Rigged model of Egyptian yacht. (Scale 1 : 48.) Pre- 
seBted by the Egyptian Commissioner for the Paris 
Exhibition of 1867. Plate VI., No. 6. N. 1200. 

This is a " dahabeeyah," constiTicted for the Khedive of Egypt, for use 
on the Nile. She is fitted with a large lateen sail forward, the yard of 
which rests on a saddle formed at the masthead, and there is a smaller 
lateen sail aft. In calms she is propelled by 14 oars, or in shallow water 
by poles. 

Her approximate dimensions were : — Length, 152 ft. ; breadth, 27 ft. ; 
depth, 6 ft. 

541. Rigged model of Arab dhow or baggala. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by J. Zohrab, Esq., 1881. N. 1550. 

This is a model made by native craftsmen of the North-East African 
coast, and although not strictly accurate in some proportions and details, 
shows many characteristics of this type of vessel. 

There are two masts with lateen sails, and the sheet of the large mainsail 
passes through the stem ports ; two stout thwarts secm-ed by horizontal 
wood knees give the necessary support to the mainmast. 

The vessel is grab-built, i.e., it has a long projecting cutwater, or prow 
head, and possesses considerable beam and a rise of floor which, with a 
raking bow and stem, combined with great sail area, afford good tm-ning 
facilities and speed. The shell planking, which is secured to wooden frames, 
is generally worked in two thicknesses, with a layer of composition between 
to ensure watertightness and durability. 

There is a square or transom stem, with heavy quarter chocks to form 
an attachment for the upper stem planking ; these also form rubbing pieces 
to protect the overlapping plank-ends. Dunnage, or cargo battens, to keep 
heavy merchandise clear of the bottom of the ship, are shown nailed to the 
inside of the frames. There is a poop and forecastle deck, but with no 
enclosing bulkheads, as in the Bombay " pattamar " (see No. 553), a vessel of 
similar construction. 

These dhows are chiefly used for trading purposes between the Red Sea 
ports and India, making annual voyages with the monsoons, and exchanging 
native produce for manufactured goods. 

The usual dimensions are : — Register, 200 tons ; length, 85 ft. ; breadth, 
21 ft. ; depth, 12 ft. 

542. Rigged model of Arab trading vessel. (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Presented by H.M. India Office, 1880. N. 1530. 

This decked -boat is known as a " batello " ; it has two masts, one raking 
forward, and both carrying large lateen sails ; the tack of the mainsail is 
secured to a bowsprit. Steering is performed by a pecuHar arrangement of 
yoke- lines to an overhanging rudder. 

Register, 29 tons ; length, 51-3 ft. ; breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 4-6 ft. 

543. Whole model of Red Sea dhow canoe. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by W. H. Holloway, Esq., 1908. N. 2500. 

This represents a form of canoe used as a tender to native dhows in the 
Red Sea. 

These craft have considerable sheer and are of dug-out chaiucter, some- 
times strengthened by the addition of intemal ribs ; they usually carry 
two men and are propelled by paddles. 

Their maximum length is about 18 ft. The overall dimensions of the 
example shown, taken at Port Sudan, are : — Length, 15 ft. ; breadth, 2 ft. j 
depth, amidships, 1 • 5 ft. 



159 

544. Whole model of Madras surf boat (masoolah). (Scale 
1 : 12.) Presented by Lieut.-Col. John Hoyes, R.A., 1878. 

N. 1507. 

This is a type used on the Madras coast for conveying passengers and 
cargo between the shore and the ships in the roads. The surf is frequently 
from 6 ft. to 10 ft. in height, hut owing to the flexibility of these boats 
they are seldom damaged. 

In theii' construction no frames or thwarts are introduced, but the planks 
are sewn together over withes of straw ; the leakage and the entering sui-f 
are kept under by two men who are constantly bailing. The boat is propelled 
by 12 men using paddles with blades 14 in. long by 10 in. wide, and is 
steered by one or two men at the stern. 

The approximate dimensions are : — Length, 20 ft. to 32 ft. ; breadth, 
6 ft. to 10 ft. ; depth, 4 ft. to 8 ft. 

An adjacent sketch shows a similar type of boat in use in Somaliland 
(East Africa). 

545. Rigged model of Maldive outrigger boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by Count Watson-Ho wen, 1881. N. 1547. 

This represents a decked vessel of the outrigger type as used for trading 
purposes by natives of the Maldive Islands ; similar ci*aft are also used at 
Mauritius. 

It has considerable breadth and depth in proportion to length, and is of 
built-up construction, timber of the cocoanut palm being chiefly used. The 
keel, planking, and decks are held together by an elaborate system of sewing 
or lashing, while cross-spalls and pillars under the decks add rigidity to the 
structure. The outrigger poles and cross-spalls pass through the sides of 
the vessel. 

The sail plan is peculiar. On the single mast amidships is can-ied the 
usual large fore-and-aft mainsail, but abaft of this is hoisted a small mizen 
sail at the end of a boom set at about an angle of 40 deg. to the mast. A 
jib foresail is sometimes added. 

Dimensions : — Length, 32 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. ; depth, 8 ft. 

546. Rigged model of Cingalese outrigger canoe. (Scale 1 : 8.) 
Presented by T. D. E. Gibson, Esq., 1865. N. 1047. 

This type of vessel is largely used in the neighbourhood of Ceylon for 
Ashing, cruising, and similar purposes. 

The main hull is of a hollowed tree-trunk, shaped externally to canoe 
form ; above this are lashed washboards or side-planking to give additional 
freeboard and deck accommodation. The chai*acteristic featiu'e of these 
craft, however, is an outrigged log of solid timber carried parallel to the 
hull upon two projecting transverse poles from one side ; this adds con- 
siderably to the " stiffness " of the vessel under sail, and its effect is often 
increased by one or more of the crew sitting to the windward side upon the 
outrigger. The single mast, lashed to one of the outrigger poles, carries an 
unusually large fore-and-aft sail, and this, with the small hull resistance, 
makes very high speeds possible in a fresh breeze. The lengths of these 
craft vary from 20 ft. to 40 ft. 

Two other models (scale 1 : 16) of similar vessels are shown : — 

(1) Lent by T. F. Dodd, Esq., 1868. (N. 1299.) 

(2) Presented by Count Watson-Howen, 1881. (N. 1546.) 

547. Rigged model of Fijian double canoe. (Scale 1 : 8.) 
Presented by Sir D. Cooper, F.R.G.S., 1872. N. 1335. 

This model was made by natives of the Fiji Islands, and it represents 
their usual form of canoe. There are two narrow hulls, connected together 
by beams and a deck, on which a hut cabin is frequently erected. A single 
mast, raking well forward, is provided ; through a crutch at the masthead 
halyards are led, by which a matting sail, fitted with upper and lower yards, 
is caiTied. In calms the craft is propelled by paddles. 



160 

548. Whole models of Malav vessels. (Scale 1 : 36.) Pre- 
sented by J. Pybus, Esq., 1868. N. 1197. 

These five models represent ci*aft used generally for cargo and ferry 
purposes in the Malay Archipelago. 

The largest example is rigged with two masts and sails, and iwobably 
represents a vessel of about 50 ft. in length ; she has fine lines with light 
overhanging platforms at both bow and steni. The provision for carrying 
two large guns forward suggest that this particular vessel may have been 
used for piratical purposes. 

549. Rigged model of armed Malayan proa. (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Lent by R. Walters, Esq., 1902. N. 2286. 

This represents a swift armed sailing vessel, of a type very generally 
employed by the pirates of the Malacca Straits and Chinese waters. The 
model, which shows a combination of Chinese and Malayan design and 
construction, was made at Hong Kong in 1840, when piracy was very 
prevalent in the seas and rivers of the district. The vessel has a fine 
entrance, a sharp run, and shallow floors which, together with a large 
rudder and the absence of deadwood, suggest speed and handiness combined 
with but small draught. 

A deck with covered hatchways is fitted throughout the length of the 
vessel; a raised poop provides cabin accommodation, and at the same 
time makes a working platform for the rudder and after guns. Projecting 
platforms or galleries at the bow and stern afford additional deck area for 
the large crew, and also give facilities for boarding operations. Strong 
stanchions and bulwark rails, covered with canvas, form a wash-strake to the 
vessel through a greater part of the length, while, outside these, special 
provision is made for the stowage of shields, pikes, and lances. 

There are two pole masts without shrouds or stays, fitted in the model 
with sails of cotton, but sti-ips of palm leaves sewn together formed the 
material more generally used. A number of oars or paddles are also 
provided for propelling the vessel during calms or light winds. The rudder 
is of the Chinese type, suspended from a windlass so as to be readily lifted 
when the vessel is beached or in shallow water ; it is pierced by several 
diamond- shaped holes, which are believed to reduce the effort required at 
the tiller without affecting the steering efficiency. 

The armament consists of a heavy stem-chaser with two smooth-bore 
cannon and six gingals or heavy muskets carried on swivels. 

Length, over all, 72 ft. ; length of hull, 64 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft, ; draught, 
4-5 ft. 

550. Rigged model of Bengalese river boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by H.M. India Office, 1880. N. 1532. 

This represents a " pulwar " used for the conveyance of valuable cargo 
in inland navigation. It is flat-bottomed, and decked over; oars are 
carried, and also a mast which spreads a square sail. 

Register, 20 tons ; length, 56 ft, ; breadth, 12 ft, ; depth, 6 ft, 

551. Rigged model of Bengalese produce boat, (Scale 1 : 12,) 
Presented by H,M, India Office, 1880, N, 1533. 

This is a " malar panshi " ; it is carvel-built, with the planks fastened 
together by iron clamps, and is covered in with matting amidships to protect 
the cargo. There is a single mast, with square sail and topsail, carried in 
an elevated tabernacle. The rudder is suspended from ropes stretched 
between two stanchions, and oai's are also caiTied. The usual dimensions 
are : — Length, 42 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; depth, 4 • 5 ft. 



161 

552. Rigged model of Bengalese produce boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by H.M. India Office, 1880. N. 1531. 

This is a broad clinclier-built boat, called a " ulak " ; tlie stern is decked 
over, and the centre covered by mat awnings to protect the cargo. It is 
fitted with one mast carrying a square sail, also with oars. She has a side 
rudder of balanced type, suspended by ropes. 

Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; depth, 4 ft. 

553. Rigged model of " pattamar." (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented 
by H.M. India Office, 1880. N. 1529. 

This form of cargo vessel is chiefly engaged in the coasting trade of 
Bombay. They have one or two masts and lateen sails ; the foremost rakes 
forward so as to keep the yard clear when it is being hoisted. They are 
grab-built, and are planked with teak upon jungle-wood frames. Their 
bottoms are sheathed with 1 in. boards, first covered with a resinous com- 
pound as a preservative; some of the smaller vessels of about 60 tons 
burden are sewed together with coir fibre. 

The approximate dimensions of the large class are : — Burden, 200 tons ; 
length, 76 ft. ; breadth, 22 ft. ; depth, 12 ft. 

554. Rigged model of Bombay pleasure boat. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by H.R.H. the Duke of Coburg-Gotha, K.G., 1869. 
Plate VI., No. 7. N. 1315. 

This yacht is built on similar lines to those of the Bombay fishing boats, 
which are the swiftest vessels of that coast, and are said to be able to 
compete with English yachts. It is clincher-built, decked over, and has a 
sharp bow with hollow lines ; the stem is full and round, and the keel 
arched in the middle. It has two masts, raking forward and carrying large 
lateen sails. 

Register, 8 -8 tons ; length, 41 ft. ; breadth, 7-25 ft. ; depth, 7 ft. 

555. Rigged model of Burmese oil-boat. (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent 
by The Royal United Service Institution, 1903. N. 2322. 

This represents a type of river boat peculiar to the Irawadi, upon which 
it is used principally for the transport in jars of the crude petroleum from 
Upper Burma. 

The vessel is flat-bottomed with full lines throughout, and has the stem 
and stem posts rising considerably above the main structure. Projecting 
from the gunwale on each side of the boat is a long platform, about 4 f i . 
wide, which provides additional stowage for cargo, and also forms a con- 
venient " poling " position for the boatmen who plant their bamboo poles 
into the river banks and then run the full length of the platforms. 
Thatched roofs are fitted over the greater portion of the cargo spaces to 
protect the contents. The rigging and steering arrangements are similar 
to those described with the adjacent model (No. 556). 

Length, extreme, 50 ft. ; breadth, without galleries, 7 • 25 ft. ; depths 
amidships, 4 ft. 

556. Rigged model of Burmese junk. (Scale 1 : 24.) Received 
1894. N. 2031. 

This construction of vessel is used for carrying passengers and mer- 
chandise on the Irawadi river. 

The lower portion of the hull is a single hollowed tinink, and from it the 
frames and planking are carried up. There is a fine entrance and run ; the 
stem rises high above the water and is provided with an elaborately carved 
bench, from which the steersman controls a large paddle lashed to the port 
quarter and fitted with a short tiller. 

The mast consists of two spars, which run together above the main yard 
and then form the topmast. The lower ends of these spai*s are bolted to 
u 6773. T. 



162 

two posts rising out of tlie keel piece so as to facilitate unshipping; 
wooden rungs from one spar of the mast to the other form a ladder for going 
aloft. The yard is a bamboo, or a line of spliced bamboos, of great length 
and suspended from the masthead by numerous guys ; a rope runs along it, 
from which the mainsail is suspended by rings like a curtain and is spread 
both ways from the mast. There is a small topsail similarly arranged. 
The sails are of common light calico, and the area of the mainsail of a 
vessel with a yard 65 ft. long was found to be 4,000 sq. ft. From their rig 
these boats can only sail before the wind, which is, however, generally 
favourable in ascending the Irawadi ; they return with the current. 

The capacity of the junks is from 90 to 130 tons burden, and the 
dimensions of the one represented are : — Length, 66 ft. ; breadth, 14 ft. ; 
depth, 9 ft. 

557. Wliole models of Siamese river craft. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent 
by L. H. Pritcliard, Esq., 1908. N. 2457-61. 

These five native-made models illustrate present-day types of water craft 
used on the River Menam and its tributaries. 

N. 2457 is a house-boat used for pleasure, travelling or trading. There 
is a cabin or deck-house aft, and also a covered structui*e amidships under 
which food, merchandise, etc., are carried. The boat is rowed by four men 
at the bow, and is steered, by means of a long paddle, from the deck-house. 
The peculiar tail- shaped post at the stem is shown only when the owner of 
the craft is on board. 

Length, extreme, 30 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft. 

N. 2458 is a sampan used for ferrying and passenger service generally 
over the many canals and waterways of Bangkok. It is of '* built up " con- 
stiTiction, in teak, having an overhanging bow and stern and a flat bottom. 
It is steered and propelled similarly to a Venetian gondola by means of a 
single oar lashed to a post near the stem ; the passengers usually sit upon 
the bottom of the boat. 

Length, extreme, 18 ft. ; breadth, 3 • 5 ft. 

N. 2459 is a travelling shop or market-boat with portable boards or plat- 
forms fitted throughout upon which the produce is piled for display. It is. 
propelled gondola fashion, from either end. 

Length, extreme, 21 ft. ; breadth, 3 ft. 

N. 2460 is a type used in the fishing industry and contains a large central 
well for carrying Uve fish. It is propelled gondola fashion from either end. 
Three native implements used for spearing fish are shown. 

Length, extreme, 24 ft. ; breadth, 3 ft. 

N. 2461 is a rice-carrying boat of small dimensions with a semicircular 
thatched covering amidships. It is propelled gondola fashion from either 
end, and is typical of the boats used for practically the whole of the rice 
(paddy) transport of the country. 

Length, extreme, 11 ft. ; breadth, 3 ft. 

558. Water-colour drawings of Chinese river boats. Received 
1896. N. 2090. 

These fourteen paintings, by native artists, show the different forms of 
craft in use. The smaller vessels are house boats, and are only occasionally 
moved, while the larger ones are cargo and passenger vessels, generally 
propelled by sails. 

559. Eigged model of Chinese boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented 
by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries Exhibition, 
1883. N. 1642. 

Boats of this kind are in general use in Swatow, for the conveyance of 
passengers or for fishing. They have one mast carrying a mat sail, and are 
steered by an oar at the stern, which is used for propulsion when there is no 
wind. 

Length, 27 ft. ; breadth, 6 ft. 



163 

560. Whole model of Chinese fishing boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries 
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1633. 

This flat-bottomed boat of nearly rectangular form is used in dip-net 
fishing. It is decked at each end, while the open waist is divided into three 
compartments. 

The large net is suspended from a pair of sheer-legs pivoted in side-cleats 
at the stem and the whole is raised and lowered manually by a long lever 
ai*m. 

Length, 36 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. 

561. Whole model of Chinese twin boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
• Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries 

Exhibition, 1883. N. 1634. 

This aiTangement consists of two light boats, each 36 ft. long and 4 ft. 
beam, secured together. To the outer sides of each are attached boai'ds 
painted white, which form a shelf 2-5 ft. wide, sloping towards the water. 
The boats are propelled by a man in the stern of each j on moonlight nights 
fish leap over the board and fall into the boat. 

562. Rigged model of Chinese cargo boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries 
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1667. 

The decks of these boats are left open, mats being spread across to 
protect the cargo in wet weather ; the stem space is reserved for the crew, 
and when no cargo offers these boats c^rry passengers. The boats are of 
light draught, and cany a single mast with a rectangular mat sail. 

Length, 40 feet ; breadth, 15 ft. 

563. Rigged model of Chinese boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries 
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1659, 

This barge-hke boat is used for caiTying cargo to and from foreign 
vessels. It is divided into watertight compartments, which are, however, 
left open above, but are covered with mats during bad weather to protect 
the merchandise. It is provided with a mast carrying a mat sail, and has 
also oars. A wooden anchor with single arm is shown in the stem. 

Length, 50 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. 

564. Whole model of Chinese cargo boat. • (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries 
Exhibition, 1883. N. 1658. 

These river passenger boats are called " paper " boats on account of the 
very thin planking with which they are sheathed. The bow rises high out 
of the water, and amidships is a large bamboo-mat house, over which is a 
wooden frame for stowing the oars when not in use. The steering-oar is 
carried in a revolving wooden spindle supported upon special framing at the 
stem. 

The approximate dimensions are : — Length, 60 ft. ; breadth, 12 ft. 

565. Rigged model of Chinese junk. (Scale about 1 : 72.) 
Presented by J. Pybus, Esq., 1868. N. 1196. 

This example has three masts, with rectangular mat sails ; the masts are 
made of comparatively large diameter owing to the absence of rigging. The 
large rudder is suspended by ropes from a windlass under the poop, and 
fiu-ther secured by two ropes extending from the lower part of the rudder, 
under the bottom of the ship, and over the bows to another windlass. The 
burden of these vessels varies from 1,000 tons downwards. 

L 2 



164 

566. Rigged model of Chinese junk. (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented 
by the Chinese Commissioners to the Fisheries Exhibition, 
1883. N. 1646. 

This model represents a passenger and cargo vessel from the provmce of 
Swatow. 

It closely resembles the " Keying " which arrived in the Thames in 1848 
after a passage of 477 days from Canton, via St. Helena and New York, and 
was the first junk that reached this country. Her dimensions were as 
follows : — 

Register -.--.. 800 tons. 

Length - - - - - - 160 ft. 

Breadth - - - - - - 33 ft. 

Depth of hold - - - - - 16 ft. 

She was built of teak and her planks were pinned together with large 
nails before the ribs were introduced. She had three masts ; the mainmast 
was formed of one pole 90 ft. long and 3*3 ft. diameter at the deck level, 
but there were no square yards or standing rigging. Each sail consisted 
of stout matting, ribbed at intervals of 3 ft. by strong bamboo, and was 
hoisted by a single heavy rope ; it is stated that the mainsail weighed nearly 
9 tons, and took the crew two hours to hoist. 

The rudder, which was estimated to have weighed nearly 8 tons, was 
hung by two ropes, while two others passed from its lower end under the 
bottom of the ship to either bow. In deep water it was 12 ft. below the 
bottom of the vessel ; in shallow water it was lifted by means of windlasses 
and the vessel was steered by a short tiller. When the rudder was down it 
often required 15 men to work the large tiller. 

The junk caiTied three anchors, made of iron- wood and metal; each 
weighed about 1 • 34 tons. 

567. Rigged model of Chinese life-boat (Upper Yangtze- 
Chiang). (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent by Lieut. E. Spicer Sinison, 
R.N., 1909. N. 2508. 

This represents a typical " red boat " as stationed at all the more 
dangerous rapids on the Upper Yangtze. They are under the control of the 
governments of the adjacent provinces of Hupeh and Szechuan and are used 
as water-police boats and life-boats. 

These craft are stoutly built and are easily manoeuvred by a large sweep 
aft. Their crews are also the best of the well-trained, resourceful men who 
navigate the dangerous portions of this river. The boats are supposed to be 
always in readiness to assist distressed vessels in the i-apids and are instru- 
mental in saving many lives each year. They are " tracked " up-stream by 
their crews, some local assistance being obtained at difficult rapids; the 
tracking hawser is secured to a small bollard at the fore end of the boat. 
There is usually a crew of five men, who live in the boat. 

Length, 34 ft. ; breadth, 7-5 ft. ; depth, 3-5 ft. 

568. Rigged model of Chinese cargo junk (Upper Yangtze- 
Chiang). (Scale 1 : 57.) Lent by Lieut. E. Spicer Simson, 
R.N., 1909. • N. 2507. 

This represents the usual type of house-boat or cargo- jimk employed on 
the Yangtze rapids above Ichang. 

The hull is sub- divided by watertight bulkheads, and an elastic cement 
is used for caulking the external planking so as to ensure a high degree of 
water- tightness under the severe stresses to which the structure is subjected. 
Some longitudinal stiffness is provided by thi'ee stout rubbing-pieces worked 
round the vessel just above the water-line. 

Owing to dangerous rapids and currents, the progress of these craft 
up-stream is largely effected by means of gangs of " trackers," or towmen, on 
the banks. {See accompanying photogi-aph.) The large sculls are used for 
crossing the river, and, to some extent, for coming down stream, 10 to 15 



165 

men handling each scull; a long oar at the bow assists the rudder in 
controlling the vessel in cross-cm*rents. A sail is only used when mnning 
before the wind. The towing hawser is of plaited bamboo, and is ordinarily 
attached to t*he mast-head, so as to clear rocks or other obstiTictions ; in 
navigating a i-apid, however, it is lowered to the foot of the mast or fastened 
to one of the cross- timbers on the deck. A junk of the larger size, as shown, 
is usually accompanied by 30 to 50 trackers, but at the rapids from 100 to 
150 additional men are required. The drums, shown on each side of the 
mast are used for signalling to the trackers when the voice of the pilot 
cannot be heard ; the graduated pole, on the port bow, is used by the pilot 
for sounding and for fending off the bow where necessary. 

The approximate dimensions of the vessel shown are : — Length, 145 ft. ; 
breadth, 30 ft. An average junk carries about 76 tons on a draught of 
2-75 ft. 

569. Whole model of Chinese oblique-ended jnnk (Chien- 
Chiang). (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent by Lieut. E. Spicer Simson, 
R.N., 1909. N. 2509. 

This represents a type of junk specially constructed to navigate one of 
the rapids of the Chien- Chiang, a tributary of the Yangtze- Chiang. 

The flat bow and stem, instead of being built in exact athwai-tship 
planes, are set obliquely, the port, or left-hand side, being slightly in 
advance of the starboard, or right-hand side. This peculiarity is considered 
advantageous in taking an exceedingly sharp turn, between steep rocky 
banks, in the rapids. When the vessel enters this portion of the river it 
is controlled by three large sweeps, one forward and two aft, the ordinary 
oars being inboard, with the exception of the after one on the poi-t side. 
Reaching a position where the fast curi'ent turns almost at right angles, 
the boats meet a mass of dead water which, acting against her inclined bow, 
turns it to port; at the same time the speed of the boat is somewhat 
checked, thus permitting the on-coming water against the stem to assist 
in a turning movement which is fui-ther augmented by the use of the 
sweeps. A high bridge is provided to enable the pilot to see above the 
heavy spray which here rises to a height of from 8 to 10 ft. above the water. 

The approximate dimensions of the vessel shown are : — Length, 48 ft. ; 
breadth, 10 ft. ; depth, 6 ft. The largest vessels of this type are 80 ft. long 
and carry about 35 tons. 

570. Whole model of Shogun's yacht (17th to 19th century). 
(Scale 1 : 10.) Presented by The Bureau of Mercantile 
Marine, Department of Communications, Japan, 1910. 

N. 2564. 

This elaborately fitted and decorated model represents the " Tenchi 
maru," an armed yacht or state vessel originally built for the Shogun 
lyemitsu Tokugawa in 1630, but rebuilt to smaller dimensions in 1831. A 
similar model is preserved in the Imperial Museum, Tokio. 

The main hull shows a flat keel with angular bilges secured together by 
copper nails or similar fastenings. The long tapering bow terminates in 
a deep heavily plated ram or stem-piece, while the square, flattened stem 
shows the usual projecting end-boards and the characteristic opening used 
for gangway purposes and for housing and working the rudder. Another 
notewoi-thy feature of the construction is the protmsion of the tie-beams or 
horizontal timbers beyond the skin planking. 

A single mast with square sail was hoisted when necessary, but the 
common method of propulsion was by means of a large number of closely- 
spaced sculls or sweeps each used in a nearly vertical position. To 
accommodate the scullers the upper deck was extended transversely so as to 
form an overhanging superstructure, which likewise provided for a com- 
modious state-deck and awnings at a higher level. 



166 

Most of the woodwork is coloured with red lacquer. Metal plates, 
probably representing copper- gilt, are largely used for protective and 
decorative purposes on the external framing and planking ; go]d lacquer is 
used for special decoration. The circular badge of the Tokugawa family is 
reproduced on most of the hangings and ornamental work. 

Iron anchors of the foui*-armed, grapnel type are caiTied, and examples 
are also shown of the primitive armament of bows, spears and matchlocks. 

Dimensions (original) : Length, 165 ft. ; breadth,^ 54 ft. ; depth, 11 ft. ; 
number of sculls, 100. 

Dimensions (as shown) : Length, 90 ft. ; breadth, 18 • 5 ft. ; depth, 6 • 25 ft. ; 
number of sculls, 76. 

571. Rigged model of Japanese trading jnnk (about 1850). 
(Scale 1 : 20.) Presented by The Bureau of Mercantile 
Marine, Department of Communications, Japan, 1910. 

N. 2565-6. 

Prior to 1635 the Japanese appear to have had a number of sea-going 
merchant vessels, but about this date the Administration prohibited the 
construction of large ships and limited the merchant marine to small 
coasting vessels chiefly of the single-masted classes. 

This model gives a genei*al representation of a type of cargo and 
passenger junk common about 1850 ; its merchant character is indicated by 
the closed or bound-up tassel hanging from the stem ; state or war junks 
carried an open or spreading tassel {see No. 570). There is a heavy mainmast 
of rectangular section carrying a large square sail with bonnet and open- 
laced seams ; in addition to this there are two square head-sails canied on 
separate masts right foi'ward. An upturned, open stem shows the usual 
arrangements for lifting the large built-up rudder. A long central cargo 
hatchway, with portable covers, extends from mainmast to stem and 
provides facilities for housing the rudder-head when necessary. The 
ordinary bulwark framing ends at the small entrance-port abaft the main- 
mast, and the remainder of the topsides are formed of bamboo matting and 
framing, which latter also protects a portion of the lower side-planking ; the 
entrance doors slide in vertical grooves. A pitched roof of bamboo con- 
struction covers the crew space amidships ; abreast of this are large side- 
ports for stowing the ship's sailing boat or tender, an example of which is 
shown herewith. 

The vessel represented has a capacity of 1,400 koku or about 140 register 
tons ; length, overall, 90 ft. ; breadth, 26 ft. ; depth, 8 • 7 ft. ; after 1885 no 
vessels were built of this type exceeding 50 register tons. Jimks have now 
been largely superseded in the coasting trade by schooner-rigged vessels of 
ordinary construction. 

572. Whole models of Japanese fishing craft. Presented by 
The Bureau of Fisheries, Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce, Tokio, 1910. N. 2570-84. 

These thirteen small models originally formed portion of an exhibit, at 
the Japan-British Exhibition, illustrating the development of Japanese 
fishing craft. Each model represents a type of vessel in use for coast fishing 
at the close of the 19th centmy. Since 1896, however, the Government has 
encouraged the adoption of Western methods of shipbuilding and deep-sea 
fishing. Large fore-and-aft schooners are now engaged in the bonito and 
cod fisheries while carriers, trawlers and whalers propelled by steam or 
internal combustion engines are largely used. 

The collection may be stmcturally subdivided into four groups: — 
(1) Rafts; (2) Bug-outs; (3) Partially built-up vessels; (4) Wholly built- 
up vessels. The dimensions given are those of an average example. 



167 

Rofts. — Of this primitive constiniction there is one example : — 
Catamaran or surf -raft (N. 2570), Tai-wan district. — Used for net-fishing 
m shallow waters. Bamboo poles are bent, fitted and lashed together, so as 
to form a raft with tapered sides, upturned ends, and rounded bilges ; cross- 
poles help to preserve the transverse curvature. For propulsion a large 
square-sail of matting is hoisted ; its surface and edges are stiffened by 
bamboo rods. A rail lashed along each side of the raft, provides facilities 
for working oars and sail. 
Length, 21 ft. 

Dug-outs. — Of this class, usually formed of a single tree-trunk, three 
rigged examples are shown : — 

Soriko (N. 2573), Simane district. — This is a saiKng canoe with a 
peculiar broad, upturned bow and a square covered stem. 
Length, 28 ft. 

Sailing canoe (N. 2574), Okinawa or Liu-kiu Islands. — It has a lofty 
mast with long naiTOw sail. stretched upon five separate yards or cross-spars. 
Length, 28 ft. 

Outrigger canoe (N. 2575), Ogasawara or Bonin Islands. — It is a double- 
-ended boat with an outrigged log at about 8 ft. from one side {see No. 546). 
There is a single mast with sprit-sail ; weatherly qualities are given by short 
■curved decks at each end. 

Length, 30 ft. 

Partially built-up vessels. — The lower part of the hull is formed of one 
or more dug-out logs, and the topsides of strakes of thick planking. There 
are two examples of these : — 

Mochippu (N. 2577), Hokkaido district. — Used in the herring fisheries. 
This is an open sculling boat of light draught. It has large relative beam, 
iaring sides and high ends ; there is a single stretcher amidships, and no 
ribs. 

Length, 25 ft. 

Katzko (N. 2578). — A two-masted vessel caiiying standing-lug sails, and 
also propelled by oars and sculls. It has a closed stem, rounded bilges, 
raised middle-hatch, and a rubbing -piece worked at the junction of topsides 
with the dug-out floor ; a few ribs and stretchers are fitted. 

Length, 30 ft. 

Wholly huilt-ujp vessels. — The seven examples show most of the charac- 
teristic features of Japanese shipbuilding, i.e., long fine entrance and broad 
open stem ; angular bilges ; portable decks or hatches ; long sculls, made in 
two loosely- connected parts, which are worked from overhanging stretchers 
or beams. The overlapping strakes of plank are secured by large iron nails ; 
these nails are indicated by a line of rectangular heads. The unusually wide 
strakes are formed by nailing together at their edges two or more narrow 
boards : — 

Choro (N. 2576). — This is an open sculling boat with fine lines, high bow 
and square stem ; it is fitted with internal ribs and stretchers. 
Length, 20 ft. 

Trawler (N. 2579), Ise-wan district. — This is an improved type of vessel 
rigged as a two-masted schooner ; she has an upright stem and a fixed deck 
throughout with a raised portion aft caiTying high bulwarks ; it shows hand 
winches for working the nets. 

Length, 40 ft. 

Whaler (N. 2580). — This is a fast, easily- manoeuvred, strongly-built 
«culling boat with long projecting stem and decorated sides ; it has a fixed 
deck throughout. 

Length, 25 ft. 



168 

Drifter (N. 2581). — This is a three-masted vessel of full body caiTying a 
large dipping-lug sail aft and two small lug sails right forward ; it has a 
fixed deck forward and a closed bulwark aft ; it shows an-angements for 
working the mdder and has provision for using sculls. 

Length, 35 ft. 

Cod-fishing boat (N. 2582). — This is a two-masted vessel with dipping- 
lug sails and arrangements for working the rudder. 
Length, 25 ft. 

Oshi-okuri (N. 2583). — Fish carrier of Tokio Bay. Tt is a single-masted 
vessel with large square-sail and provision for using sculls. 
Length, 30 ft. 

Bonito-fishing boat (N. 2584), Kishu district. — This is a two-masted 
vessel carrying square-sails which are subdivided by open, vertical lacings ;, 
live fish for bait are cari'ied in centi'al wells; the model is externally- 
decorated in colours. 

Length, 30 ft. 



MASTS, YARDS, RIGGING AND SAILS. 

Masts and Yards. — As early as B.C. 6000 Egyptian river- 
boats are represented with a single mast and square sail. At 
about the commencement of the Christian era vessels with two 
and three masts appear, while in the 16tli century the largest, 
vessels carried four masts. At the present day the most 
popular types of sailing merchant ships are barque or schooner- 
rigged with from four to seven masts. In modern merchant 
steamers, the masts, when retained, are used for signalling or 
cargo- working purposes, while in warships they are also used as^ 
supports for elevated firing or observation platforms. 

When ships were small, masts were constructed in one 
piece ; as dimensions increased, it was found impossible to 
obtain trees large enough, hence recourse was had to masts 
built up of pieces bound together with rope or iron, while the 
height was most conveniently obtained by constructing them in 
two or more lengths. Masts are now usually built of pine, with 
iron hoops driven on whilst hot or made with hinges and bolted 
together. On the fore part these hoops are covered by a batten 
called the rubbing paunch, which prevents spars from catching 
against their edges. 

Top-masts, top-gallant and royal masts are each formed out 
of single sticks. Bowsprits are, when possible, made out of a 
single stick or else four principal pieces, the upper and lower or 
main pieces, and two side fishes, which are dowelled, bolted and 
hooped together, in the same way as with a built mast. Yards 
are made of fir ; the lower and topsail yards are formed either 
of one stick or of two pieces joined by scarfing. 

Since the general introduction of iron and steel in ship- 
building all vessels constructed of these materials have their 
lower masts and yards made from metal plate. The lower masts 



169 

are made of one, two or three plates, flusli jointed ; being hollow 
they form efficient ventilators for the hold of the ship ; in war 
vessels the interior of the masts gives access to the military- 
tops, etc., by a series of foot and hand grips. 

Sails. — Sails have been made of materials such as skins and 
membranes, while with nations that could weave, the fibres of 
flax, cotton, papyrus, bamboo, and several kinds of grass, have 
been worked into sheets or mats for such use. For strengthening 
the edges, where the stresses are concentrated, a binding of 
hide, rope, or steel wire, has usually been added. The early 
sails were of the square type, in which a horizontal yard was 
used to support the upper, and frequently also the lower, edge. 
These were efficient only for propulsion icith the wind ; to 
make headway against the direction of prevailing winds, by 
means of tacking, the '* lateen," a triangular sail with inclined 
yard, was introduced — probably in the Mediterranean Sea — just 
prior to the Christian era. Large mediaeval vessels adopted the 
lateen sail in combination with square sail and from this period 
the sprit-sail, stay-sail and other elements of the modern " fore- 
and-aft " rig were developed. 

To reduce the extent of sail exposed when the wind is of 
exceptional force the total area of canvas is divided into separate 
sails, each of which can be separately handled, while to render 
further adjustment possible many sails are provided with some 
"reefing" arrangement by which portions may be furled, 
l^umerous methods of reefing have been tried in which the sail 
was wound round the yard in the same way as a window blind 
is closed upon its roller, but the only arrangement in general 
vogue requires a number of short pieces of rope called " reefing 
points " attached to the sail, by which it can be secured to the 
yard along a line some distance from its lower edge, thus 
reducing its depth by that amount. 

Rigging. — Rigging is divided into two classes — the standing, 
by which the masts are supported and stayed, and the running, 
by which the yards and sails are moved and adjusted. In the 
early sailing ships there was no standing rigging, the masts, 
being unstayed just as with our own small sailing boats ; the 
running rigging was usually of hide or gut. Ropes of twisted 
vegetable fibre were subsequently introduced, while as the masts 
were increased in height standing rigging was added to 
support them, and some of it was converted into rope ladders 
to assist the crew in reaching the upper sails and tops. 

The modern improvements in rigging consist chiefly in the 
extensive substitution of flexible wire rope and metal rods in 
place of hemp rope, and in the use of screws for tightening the 
shrouds instead of the earlier block purchase. The use of 
Avinches and other mechanical appliances, often driven by steam 
or other motive power, has tended to reduce the number of 
hands formerly necessary for safely working a ship. 



170 

573. Portfolio of rigging and sail plans of warsliips, IStli 
century. (Scale 1 : 72.) Received 1908. N. 2473. 

This portfolio contains rigging and sail plans for (a) 1st rate, (6) 2nd rate, 
(c) 3rd rate British warships. The names of the ships are not given, but 
internal evidence shows that they belonged to the period 1705-20. 

Details are shown of the masts and spars, the standing and running 
rigging, the principal sails — including the lateen and sprit sail — and the 
method of working them. A sheer plan and a body plan (see No. 589) of each 
vessel are also shown. 

The portfolio is open to show the 2nd rate. 

574. Rigging model of H.M.S. " Ganges." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by Capt. H. T. Burgoyne, R.N., 1865. N. 1045. 

This was rigged by Capt. Burgoyne, and shows the masts, rigging, and 
sails of a wooden, two-decked line-of-battle ship of 84 guns. The names of 
the sails and of the spars are indicated by labels attached to them. The 
■" Granges " was built at Bombay in 1819-21 from the designs of Sir Robert 
Seppings. She was last commissioned September 4th, 1857, and paid off 
May 15th, 1861, being the last sailing line-of-battle ship in H.M. Navy. 

Tonnage, 2,285 tons; length, 196-5 ft. ; breadth, 52-2 ft. 

575. Model of built mast. (Scale 1:24.) Presented by the 
Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1137. 

Lower masts were invariably built up from sevei-al timbers, owing to the 
difficulty experienced in finding a single tree of the necessary size and 
soundness. The practice reached its highest perfection in the first quai*ter 
of the 19th centuiy. 

The model shows a design by Mr. R. Blake in which 38 pieces of timber, 
are introduced, in addition to the cheeks for the trestle-trees. 

576. Models of bnilt masts. (Scale 1 : 48.) Presented by 
J. Scott Tucker, Esq., 1865. N. 1058. 

These three methods of building up a mast, for a line-of-battle ship were 
>devised by Mr. Joseph Tucker, surveyor to H.M. Navy, 1813-31. The 
masts are each in eight or nine pieces, breaking joint and connected by 
various forms of scarfing and dowelling. The several members are 
distinctively coloured. 

577. Model of mainmast of H.M.S. "Nelson." (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Lent by James Young, Esq., 1876. N. 1422. 

This shows, in considerable detail, a built-up mainmast for a battleship., 
Seven trees were used in its constniction, their timbers being dowelled 
together and hooped with iron bands driven on at intervals of about 3*3 ft. ; 
in earlier days servings of rope were used in place of such hoops. 

The cross-trees rest on trestle-trees, supported by cheeks secured to the 
mast. The leading particulars are: — Overall length, 127*2 ft.; greatest 
diameter, 41 in. ; least diameter, 30 • 375 in. ; total weight, 26 • 048 tons ; 
total cost, 993?. 

578. Model of Blake's fid for masts and bowsprits. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1100-1. 

These three models show an improved fid for portable spars patented 
l^y Ml-. R. F. S. Blake in 1833. The ordinaiy fid is an iron cotter passing 
through the heel of the mast and resting on the trestle-trees ; to " strike " 
the topmast its stays must first be slacked, to allow the mast to be slightly 
raised before the fid can be removed. Blake's fid obviates this lifting ; 
it is pivoted on a central pin so as to readily house itself within a mortise 
cut in the heel of the spar ; when in position the fid bears upon two metal 



171 

plates one of whicli may be easily removed and thus permit the free 
movement of the upper spar or bowsprit. 

This invention was first tried on the bowsprit o£ H.M. revenue cutter 
*' Badger," and was subsequently extensively adopted in the Royal Navy. 

579. Model of cast iron steps for masts. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1105. 

The squared heel of the mast fits into a shoe casting which is secured 
to the keelson; this arrangement takes the place of the heavy wood 
framing. 

580. Model of TumbuU's topmast. (Scale 1 : 12.) Presented 
by Messrs. Laurence Hill & Co., 1865. N. 1086. 

This shows an an-angement of masts patented in 1864 by Capt. James 
TumbuU. 

The lower mast is of iron, and has a portion of the plating on the after 
side of its head omitted, so as to receive the heel of the topmast, which is 
aftei-wards locked in place by being lowered slightly. The mast cap is either 
hinged or made of the elongated form shown, to permit the topmast 
entering in an inclined position ; a short wooden block is used as a securing 
wedge. 

581. Model of. seH-reefing top-sail. (Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by 
H. D. P. Cunningham, Esq., R.N., 1866. N. 1095, 

This method of reefing topsails and top-gallant sails was patented . by 
Mr. Cunningham in 1850. It consists in aiTangements by which the sail is 
automatically wound round its upper yard as this yard is lowered. 

In the middle of the yard is a sprocket pulley, round which passes the 
bight of the halyards, which are of chain ; the fixed end of the halyard is 
secured to the mast, so that the yard, as it is lowered, revolves, and thus 
winds in the canvas. To provide room for the wheel and halyards, the 
centre of the sail has an opening in it about the width of a " cloth," and 
extending from the head to the close reef : the edges of this opening are 
" roped" similarly to the edges of the sail, and connected by metal stretchers 
suitably protected. The sail is also fitted with battens, increasing in depth 
towards their ends so as to insure uniform rolling. 

With this arrangement it is unnecessary for men to be sent aloft, except 
when close reefing is required. The introduction of double topsail yards 
has, however, greatly reduced the difficulty in working such sails by the 
ordinary means. 

582. Rigged models with flat surface sails. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Lieut. W. Congalton, R.N.R., 1865. N. 1062-3. 

The sails are fitted at intervals with horizontal rods extending the full 
width, and each attached to the mast by a sliding ring, an arrangement 
similar to that used by the Chinese. 

Examples of these sails shown are fitted to : 

(a) A ship-rigged merchant sailing vessel of five masts and 1,300 tons 

displacement. 

(b) A large schooner-rigged screw steamship. 

583. Model of proposed deadeyes. (Scale 1 : 16.) Presented 
by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1109. 

This ari'angement was introduced by Mr. R. Blake to reduce the obstruc- 
tion offered by the usual lanyards to the quarter-deck gun fire. The lower 
deadeyes, instead of being attached directly to the channels, have long rods 
intei'posed, so raising them above the gun level. 



172 

584. Model of shroud attachment. (Scale 1 : 16.) Presented 
by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1108. 

This shows a plan proposed by Mr. R. Blake for securing shrouds to 
masts without a lower deadeye. In place of the latter there is a notched 
j-ail, fixed to the channels, round which the rope rove through the deadeye 
is taken. 

585. Model of tightening gear for stays. (Scale 1:8.) Pre- 
sented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1138 and 1157. 

In this arrangement by Mr. R. Blake the temporary tail of the stay is 
provided with ratchet teeth into which a shackle, acting as a pawl, engages. 
The tightening is performed by a lever which uses these teeth as its 
fulcrum, and when completed the deadeye lanyard is secured. 

586. Slip hooks. Presented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. 

N. 1102, 1111, and 1145. 

These are six examples of slip-hooks, used largely for securing the 
working gear of sails. The hinged portion of each hook is held either by a 
shackle or by a forelock which may be respectively thrown back or with- 
drawn, by means of a lanyard, to give instant release ; in one case a spring 
is fitted to prevent accidental tripping. 

587. Model of steel mast construction and fittings. (Scale 1 : 4.) 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1778. 

This shows the upper portion of a steel lower mast. A strong plate- 
forging riveted to the sides of the mast forms the " mast-cap," in which the 
lower end of the topmast is supported. The various cleats, eye-plates, fair- 
leads, etc., shown in position, are for the attachment of mast stays and other 
rigging ; the mast plating in this vicinity is usually doubled to ensure 
efficient connections. 

A mast of large girth is made up of three plates of equal width and 
cui-vature ; the edges and butts of these are flush-jointed, the former being 
secured and stiffened by vertical T-bars and cross stays, as shown by 
sectional view, and the latter carefully " shifted " so as to avoid lines of 
lateral weakness. 

These steel masts are largely utilised as ventilators ; the circular cover 
shown, supported on light bi*aokets over the open end of the hollow mast, 
prevents the entrance of water while pennitting the free passage of air. 

588. Sail reefing gear. Lent by Roger Turner, Esq., 1896. 

N. 2101. 

This arrangement, patented by Mr. Turner in 1896, is intended for use 
in any rig in which a spanker is used. 

The reefing is perfoi-med by winding the sail on the boom, which is 
necessarily of the same diameter throughout. The boom is rotated by a 
ratchet gear close to the mast, and is carried on a spindle at the end, while 
the outer end terminates in a spike carrying the plate attached to the topping- 
lift. The fittings shown are of the size used for an 8 -ton yacht, the sail of 
which, it is stated, can be reefed in 15 sees. 

Framed illustrations and instruction sheets accompany the object. 



SHIP DESIGN. 

Among the earlier shipbuilders great skill and considerable 
forethought were devoted to the design and construction of the 
upper portion of the vessel, while the underwater form simply 



173 

followed practical traditions of ver}^ uncertain value. No sys- 
tematic preliminary planning or arranging of a ship to be 
constructed appears to liave been undertaken till about the 
17th century, for Pepys, in 1666, states that Sir Anthony Deane 
was " the first that hath come to any certainty beforehand of 
foretelling the draught of water of a ship before she is launched." 
Early in the 16th century the " top-liamper " was reduced, and 
during the three following centuries there was no marked 
change in general design or appearance. A great obstacle to 
progress was created in 1719 by the English Navy Board, who, 
satisfied with the performances of existing types of vessels, laid 
down a fixed scale of dimensions and tonnage for ships of each 
class, thus leaving no power with the designers of adapting the 
vessel's displacement to the increasing weight of armament and 
other changes. This remained in force for nearly a century, 
until the demonstrated superiority of French vessels of equal 
rating initiated a greatly improved scale of dimensions. The 
restrictions of each class to a fixed tonnage, however, still 
survived till 1831, when Sir W. Symonds became Surveyor of 
the Navy ; he then secured the adoption of designs suited to 
the special requirements of the period. 

Measurement. — For the purpose of estimating the com- 
parative bulk of vessels, or of their relative carrying capacity 
for the adjustment of shipping dues, tonnage measurements 
are usually given, those in present use being known as — 
displacement, gross or net register tonnage. 

Displacement tonnage is the total weight of a ship and its 
equipment in actual tons when floating at any given draught. 
It is usually calculated for a ship at the " light " and " load " 
water-lines respectively, and is equivalent to the weight of the 
volume of water displaced by the hull. Deadweight tonnage is 
the difference between the displacements at these two extreme 
draughts. 

Gross tonnage is a measure of the total internal capacity of 
a vessel both below and above the tonnage deck, on the basis of 
100 cubic feet of space to a " register ton." The cargo capacity 
of a vessel is, however, alone subjected to dues, so certain 
deductions from the gross tonnage are permitted for space 
occupied by the engine, boiler, crew, etc., the remaining or 
available space for merchandise, passengers, etc., determining 
the net register tonnage. 

Several rules to compute tonnage in terms of the principal 
dimensions of a ship were in vogue during the 17th and 18th 
centuries. The most important of these, known as " builder's 
old measurement," received legal sanction in 1773, and con- 
tinued in force until 1835 ; it was used officially in the Royal 
Na\'y until 1872. As it was calculated from the length and 
breadth, but took no account of depth, it led to the construction 
of short deep vessels of small nominal tonnage but considerable 
carrying capacit}^, which "were, however, indifferent sea boats. 



17^ 

In 1836 the new measurement came in force making internal 
capacity the basis of tonnage, and this, modified in 1854, is 
now generally applied to all merchant shipping. Displacement 
tonnage is, however, almost universally adopted for warships. 

Form, Resistance, Stability. — Within the last two centuries 
much successful work has been done by mathematicians and 
experimenters towards a solution of the problem of designing 
a ship that should offer the least possible resistance to propulsion 
and at the same time prove habitable, stable, and best fitted for 
the purposes required of it. 

Bouguer, in 1746, published the first investigations showing 
the use of the "meta-centre " in determining a vessel's stability. 
Bernouilli in 1757 and Euler in 1759 also published treatises 
upon the laws relating to floating bodies, while in 1775 Frederick 
Chapman made public the results of his long and successful 
experience, and also simplified the methods of calculation by 
introducing into this work the use of Simpson's rules for irregular 
curves. 

A Society for the Improvement of Naval Architecture was 
formed in London in 1791, and this associated itself with 
Col. Beaufoy's valuable experiments (1793-8) on the resistances 
of various shaped bodies moving in water."'-'' The founding of 
a Naval College at Portsmouth in 1806, together with the 
formation of the Institute of Naval Architects (1860), and the 
School of Naval Architecture at South Kensington (1864), have 
done much to encourage the scientific study of ship-structure, 
including the strength of materials, the strains to Avhich vessels 
are -subjected in a seaway, and the general questions of displace- 
ment and stability. 

The capsizing of H.M.S. " Captain " at sea in 1870, and 
of the S.S. " Daphne " on the Clyde in 1883, emphasised the 
need of carefu.1 investigations of stability under every possible 
condition, and have resulted in more elaborate calculations 
before launching, supplemented in all new types by experimental 
verification when equipped. 

The important factors accepted at present in the total 
resistance of a ship are : — (a) Skin resistance or friction, 
depending upon the area and nature of the immersed surface ; 
(6) Resistance due to eddy-making, which is usually confined 
to the stern and can be indefinitely reduced by providing a fine 
afterbody ; (c) Resistance due to wave-making, which is chiefly 
influenced by the relationship between the form and proportion 
of the vessel and the actual speed. 

Skin resistance varies enormously with the roughness of the 
immersed surface and increases nearly as the square of the 
speed. For lengths up to 50 feet its mean value diminishes as 
the length is increased, owing to the motion given to the water 

* Robert Fulton, when designing his pioneer steam-boats of a few years 
later, appears to have been the first to make practical use of these results. 



175 

by the leading portions ; in the case of a ship the skin friction 
forms from 40 to 80 per cent, of the total resistance. 

Eddy-making is clearly seen round a square-sterned barge ; 
in ordinary ships it causes only about 8 per cent, "of the total 
resistance. 

Wave-making is the serious resistance at high speeds, and 
on account of the curious manner in which it fluctuates with 
the speed and proportions of a vessel is still the most uncertain 
quantity. Mr. Scott Russell had suggested certain relationships- 
between the length and speed of ships, but the experimental 
model system of the late Mr. W. Froude, initiated about 1874^ 
has been the chief means by which this matter has been 
elucidated. By hauling a model at various speeds through 
still water in a suitable tank a complete series of reliable 
resistances is obtained, which, Avhen plotted, show the varying- 
natures of these values, and from these, by deducting the 
simpler skin resistance, the wave losses are determined. In 
this way Mr. Froude experimentally proved his law of " corre- 
sponding speeds," which states that " at speeds of ship and 
" model related to one another as the square roots of the length,. 
" the wave-making resistances vary as the displacements." 

The wave created by an advancing ship should travel with 
the vessel and have its crest near the stern, so as to give a 
forward hydrostatic pressure. When such a ship is forced 
beyond its suitable speed the waves diverge from the sides 
and waste themselves in still water at a distance ; such a wave 
is absorbing fresh energy in its renewal, and thus causing an 
excessive resistance as compared with that at speeds when the 
wave is utilised. 

Although at one time most strongly opposed, Mr. Froude's 
principle of experimenting has shown itself quite reliable and is 
now in practical use throughout the shipbuilding world. From 
the results obtained from models in such tanks it is now easy to 
predict the resistance of ships of entirely new forms travelling 
at unprecedented speeds. 

Laying off is the operation by which, after the dimensions 
and shape of a ship have been fully determined and recorded 
upon drawings, the true size and shape of the various members 
of the structure are set out upon a level floor. Moulds or 
templates made to these lines afford the necessary guidance 
to workmen for fashioning the material and for fixing it in its 
place when finished. In some small yards where the type of 
vessel is uniform and the material chiefly wood, the trained eye 
and judgment of an experienced foreman may dispense with 
elaborate plans and lines, but with any extended or varied 
class of work such preliminaries are indispensable for accuracy 
and rapidity of construction. With the use of iron and steel 
for shipbuilding purposes, well-prepared plans have become 
imperative ; the lesser scantlings and greater hardness of the 
material make alterations difficult and expensive, while most of 
the old " fairing " processes have become impracticable. 



176 

589. Portfolio of sheer draughts of warships, 18th ceiitar\^ 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1908. N. 2472. 

This portfolio contains sheer draughts of four 4th.-rate British warships 
(1700-1719). 

The sheer draught is the first set of drawings sent to the builder; 
it provides the necessary information for laying- off to full size the 
principal framing, and also gives a good external representation of the 
completed hull. Each sheer draught comprises : — (a) A sheer plan or side 
elevation showing positions of the decks, gun-ports, channels, masts, bow 
and stern decorations, etc. ; (6) A stern elevation showing details of the 
transom framing and the arrangement of after galleries and decorative 
work ; (c) A half -breadth plan showing horizontal projections of the top 
sides, the principal decks, the load water plane and of a number of equi- 
distant level planes in the underwater body. Near this plan are also some 
rabatted diagonals, showing the true form of a number of planes drawn 
diagonally in the body plan ; they are of considerable value in the " fairing " 
process and also indicate the lines of heads and heels of frame timbers ; 
(d) A body plan showing transverse outlines of the hull taken at a number 
of equidistant vertical stations ; the curves of centres for describing the 
arcs which form portions of these outlines are also draviTi in. 

The vessels' names, with particulars taken from the di'awing, are : — 



Name. 


Length 

on Gun 

Deck, 

Feet. 


Breadth 

extreme, Tonnage 
Feet. 


Guns. 


Launched. 


'' Exeter " - 
" Sti-afford " - 
" Winchester " 
-Deptford" - 


147 
130 
130 
131 


38-5 
350 
33-5 
35-25 


950 
700 

700 
700 


60 
52 
52 
50 


About 1700. 
Plymouth, 1714. 
1717. 
Portsmouth, 1719. 



The portfolio is open to show the " Winchester." 



590. Portfolio of characteristic "lines" of 
century. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 1908. 



warsliips, 18th 
N. 2471. 



During the first half of the 18th century several attempts were made to 
standardize the design of the various classes of warships. This portfolio, 
which was possibly intended for comparison in this respect, contains, 
superposed, characteristic curves of the 60-gun ships enumerated below, 
and shows the great diversity of form given to vessels of this class by the 
master shipwrights of different Royal dockyards. The curves drawn to 
ordinates from a common base line, represent : — (a) Outlines of the trans- 
verse midship sections ; (6) Horizontal projections of the topsides and 
principal decks ; (c) Horizontal projections of the load water-plane and of 
several under- water planes ; {d) Rabatted diagonals, which show the true 
lines of intersection with the hull of a number of diagonal planes {see 
No. 589). 

The portfolio is open to show the lines of the " Dragon " (1733), 
« Rippon " (1730), " Tilbury " (1730), " Weymouth " (1733) and " Superbe," 
the latter, a 56-gun ship captured from the French in 1710, shows generally a 
finer entrance and run as well as sharper midship floors than the British 
ships. 

The vessels shown on the remaining two sheets are : — "Augusta" (1733), 
"Canterbury" (1741), "Jersey" (1733), "Kingston" (1736), "Princess 
Mary " (1737), " Rupert " (1736), " Strafford " (1733), " Worcester " (1733), 
and " unnamed " (1742). 



177 

591. *'Laying-off " models. (Scale 1 : 48.) Received 187-i. 

N. 1396. 

These half-block models of the fore and after extremities of a wood-built 
sailing vessel show the principal lines used in the " laying-off " process. 

For the purpose of laying-off, i.e., representing details of a vessel's true 

form upon paper or the scrive-board, the hull is supposed to be cut by three 

sets of planes parallel to the (a) transverse vertical, (h) longitudinal vertical, 

c) horizontal planes, respectively ; lines of intersection of these planes with 

the outside surface of the ship are shown upon the models. 

The projections of these sections are known as (a) square stations, 
{h) bow and buttock lines, (c) level lines, (a) Appear straight in the sheer 
and half -breadth plans, and curved in the body plan; (&) appear straight 
in the body and half- breadth and cm-ved in sheer ; (c) appear straight in 
body and sheer and curved in half-breadth plan. When (c) are parallel to 
the load water plane of the ship they are termed " water-lines." 

Besides the lines mentioned, there are others shown which are used in 
the operations of fairing, framing, and planking the vessel ; such are the 
*' diagonal " and " bearding " lines, also the joints of canted frames at the 
bow and stern and the rebates of keel, stem, and deadwood. 

The " laying-off " process for the midship portions are similar in 
principle to the above, but are simpler in detail. 

592. Whole model of schooner, with flat bottom. (Scale 
1 : 36.) Presented by J. Scott Tucker, Esq., 1865. 

N. 1056. 

This represents a design, prepared about 1820, by Mr. J. Tucker for an 
18- gun schooner. 

The lines are as usual, except that the lower portions of the floors are 
cut hoi-izontally leaving a deep keel, probably to prevent leeway. Another 
peculiarity is an outside tiller, worked by a block and tackle from a steering 
barrel placed athwartship. 

593. Whole models with modified "cod's-head and mackerel's 
tail " lines. (Scale 1 : 48.) Contributed by John Scott 
Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1220-1. 

In the early pai-t of the 19th century it was considered that a seaworthy, 
comfoi-table vessel should have a high, wide, and bluff bow, to enable it to 
cai-ry sail well forward while yet rising high and dry above the sea. The 
bluff bow, however, was found to have a tendency to make a vessel steer 
badly. So to counteract this fault the steering was improved by the 
adoption of an extremely fine run to the stem, this commencing near where 
the bow terminated, the greatest breadth being much nearer the bow than 
the middle of the vessel. This fine run was not confined to the lower part 
of the vessel, so that a great deal of space was lost and the buoyancy and 
stability of the vessel were affected. These two block models show modifica- 
tions of this principle obtained by adding a long parallel middle-body. 

594. Whole model of a Dutch ''galliot." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1222. 

Both bow and stern are extremely bluff, and rise a good deal, thus 
giving the vessel considerable sheer. Dutch vessels of this form were not 
designed for speed, but to be able to safely ride out the stoiins on the 
shallow and dangerous coasts of Holland, while also possessing ample cargo 
capacity. 

595. Shipbuilders' models. (Scale 1 : 24 ) Contributed by 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1269-75. 

After the dimensions and the general shape of a ship have been determined, 

and the " lines " set out on paper, it is usual to construct a model of the hull 

to scale, so that its finished appearance can be more clearly i-ealised. The 

model is also of the greatest use while building the vessel, as from it the 

u 6773. M 



178 

dimensions of the plates and planks and the best distribution of the butt 
joints can be most easily determined. These six examples of yachts or 
small vessels illusti'ate two alternative methods of constructing builders' 
models from given lines. 

The usual way of making such a model is, to cut from alternate planks 
of yellow pine and cedar the horizontal sections or " water-lines " of the 
vessel, as set out on the drawing; then to glue and dowel these layers 
together, and finish by paring off the projecting edges. The difference in 
the colours of the wood assist the eye in following the lines, but any 
irregularity in figure is still more easily detected by passing the hand along 
the curved surfaces. To " fair " the curvatm^e near the bow and at the stern 
the lines shown by longitudinal vei'tical sections, and known as " bow and 
buttock lines," are found most convenient; the three whole-block models 
here shown have their starboard sides built up of such vertical layers. 

In several of these models, however, an entirely different system of 
construction has been followed. The transverse sections at various stations 
have been cut in thin wood, and these templates have been secured to a 
central board at the correct intervals. These frames are then connected by 
thin strips of wood, known as "ribbands," which, being placed fairly close 
together, indicate the shape of the body. 

596. Models illustrating Scott Russell's system of wave-lines. 
Contributed by John Scott Rnssell, F.R.S., 1868. 

N. 1216-19. 

This series of four diagrammatic models was prepared by Mr. Scott Russell 
to illustrate his theory of ship-resistance, and the form of ship that he 
advocated and subsequently constnicted upon his " wave-line " system. 

N. 1216 is a rectangular block representing a floating object, 36 ft. wide, 
28 ft. long, and drawing 15 ft. of water. If forced endways, Mr. Russell 
considered that the body was ploughing a channel of a sectional area of 
540 sq. ft., so displacing 15 tons of water for every foot it advanced. 

In N. 1217 the ends of the body have been tapered, so as to leave a flat 
bottom with a wedge-like bow and stem, and vei'tical end posts. There is 
no parallel middle body, but Mr. Russell considered that the addition of any 
length of parallel middle body only increased the resistance to the extent 
that it affected the skin-friction. The curves of the entrance wedge are on 
each side two parabolic arcs placed back to back, while those at the after 
end are cycloidal; the result gives very fine and hollow bows and rather 
fuller stems. 

In N. 1218 the vertical hollow wedge at the bow is maintained, but the 
bilges are rounded and, to facilitate the closing in of the water round the 
stem, the depth at this part is gradually diminished. 

N. 1219 shows Mr. Russell's solid of least resistance, when the mid-ship 
section is elliptical ; its form is intended to comply with the following 
conditions : — 

(1) That it shall move the particles of water out of the way just 
sufficiently to let the largest section pass and no fui-ther. 

(2) That the particles of water originally at rest should be at rest after 
the solid has passed. 

(3) That the force moving the particles shall be constant, and the least 
possible. 

The solid represented has a length 7 times its greatest breadth, and the 
proportion of fore body to after is as 7 : 5, The water-lines in the fore-body 
are sine curves, while those in the after body are cycloidal or trochoidal. 
Mr. Scott Russell developed several empirical geometrical constructions by 
which his ship lines could be easily set out. 

597. Whole model of double-ended vessel. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1223. 

The bow and stern are of equal length, a design that permits the 
balancing of the weights in varying circumstances of lading and draught of 
water more easily than with an excess of length at one end. Mr. Russell 



179 

constructed several vessels in this manner, with hollow wave-lines at both 
ends of equal length and width (see No. 74). Such hulls were intended for 
running in either direction. 

598. Robertson's solid of least resistance, and a lialf block 
model of S.S. " Sir John Lawrence." (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Michael Scott, F.R.S., 1876. N. 1429-30. 

About 1860 Mr. A. J. Robertson devised this " solid of least resistance," 
in which the entrance and run are concave, the middle body slightly convex, 
and the transverse sections circular. From this solid he deduced a form of 
ship which he patented in 1861, and his lines were adopted to a considerable 
extent in the " Sir John Lawrence," a screw steamship of about the following 
dimensions : — Length, load water-line, 200 ft. ; beam, 26 ft. ; draught, 11 ft. 
Well-rounded bilges were employed as an approach to the semi-circular 
sections preferred by Mr. Robertson. 

599. Model of a double bulkhead. (Scale 1 : 96.) Presented 
by Prof. John Taylor, M.D., 1873. N. 1345. 

This form of bulkhead for an iron ship was proposed by Dr. Taylor in 
1861. The space within it is to be used as a water- ballast tank, and in this 
way can have its soundness readily tested ; it also forms a fireproof bulkhead. 
This principle has been embodied in the athwart-ship coalbunkers of 
modern merchant and war- vessels and also in the cofferdam bulkheads of 
tank steamers. 

600. Whole model and lithograph of proposed screw ship. 
(Scale 1 : 96.) Lent by A. Thomson, Esq., 1871. N. 1373. 

This shows a design by Capt. Archibald Thomson for a screw-propelled 
vessel. On each side of the keel, and close to it, is a channel hollowed 
out of the floors, both to diminish rolling and also to secure a water lead to 
the screw, which is placed in the dead-wood as far forward as possible to 
prevent racing. 

A somewhat similar construction, proposed by Mr. Hermann Hirsch, was 
adopted in the S.S. " Paouting " (see No. 601). 

601. Block model of the " Hirsch " ship. (Scale 1 : 96.) Lent 
by Hermann Hirsch, Esq., 1876. N. 1450. 

This shows a cargo vessel of the form and lines patented by Mr. Hirsch 
in 1872. 

The peculiarity consists in swelling out the bilges till they reach the 
keel level, thus leaving two channels along the bottom. From the light 
water-line to the load water-line the sides flare out, and are then carried up 
vertically ; but these features disappear on each side of the middle third of 
the length. The objects of these modifications were, to facilitate taking 
the ground, to increase the dead weight capacity, and to give greater 
stability. 

The proposed vessel was to have been of the following dimensions : — 
Displacement, 8,221 tons ; length, between perps., 450 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 
60 ft. ; depth, moulded, 38 ft. ; draught, 20 ft. ; area of midship section, 
1,091-3 sq. ft. ; coefficient of fineness, '527; metacentric height, 16-15 ft. 

In 1873 the S.S. " Paouting " was built on this system, by Messrs. 
John Elder & Co., to the following dimensions : — Displacement, 1,520 tons ; 
length, between pei-ps., 210 ft. ; breadth, 33 ft. ; depth, 22-7 ft.; draught, 
13-2 ft. On trial, with 800 i.h.p., her speed was 11 knots. 

602. Photographs and objects illustrating Fronde's method 
of determining ship resistances. Lent by W. Froude, M.A., 
F.R.S., 1876. N. 1453. 

In 1874, at Chelston Cross near Torquay, the late Mr. Froude com- 
menced his investigations on the resistance of ships by the aid of scale 
models, drawn through still water at definite velocities, while simultaneously 

M 2 



180 

recording their resistances and trim. He also discovered an important law 
tliat connects the speed and resistances of a model with the coiTesponding 
factors in the actual ship, thus giving the experimental results quantitative 
values. 

The first four photographs show the means employed in preparing the 
scale model, which is cast in wax and afterwards finished by machine and 
hand-work to the exact lines of the ship. The other three photographs 
show the experimental tank, with the means employed for hauling the model 
and registering its indications. 

No. 1 shows a series of adjustable templates, each foi-med of a thin 
flexible steel band adjustable by ordinates clamped in a base board ; the depth 
of each template coiTesponds with the distance apai-t of the water-line 
sections, so that the stack of templates gives the appearance of an unfinished 
builder's model. One of the actual templates is also shown. 

No. 2 shows the moulding box in which the wax model is cast, also the 
the core that is inserted in the mould before running in the wax. The box 
is 16 ft. long, 2 ■ 75 ft. wide, and 22 in. deep ; the mould is prepared in clay 
to a series of fixed cross-sections obtained from No. 1 model. The core 
is built up on a similar series of sections secured to a base ; these are 
partially planked with laths, then covered with calico and coated with 
plaster of paris. 

Nos. 3 and 4 are views of the machine in which the cast model is cut to 
correct water-lines. The model is fixed, bottom upwards, to a travelling 
table resembling that of a planing machine ; above the table stretches a 
framework which cari'ies two revolving cutters rotating on vertical axes, the 
distance apart of which is automatically controlled, as the table travels, by a 
template fixed at the side of the machine, and clearly visible in No. 3. The 
an-angement is a form of profiling machine controlled by the templates 
previously set to the lines of the drawing. The ten-aced model thus shaped 
is finally finished by hand, with spoke-shaves and scrapers, in about three 
hours. A short length of a paraffin-wax model is also shown, one side being 
as left by the profiling cutters and the other finished. 

No. 5 shows the hauling dinim, for winding in the steel wire by which 
the model is pulled. The engine by which this work is done runs from 
150 to 350 revs, per minute under the control of a delicate governor, and 
the speed of the truck can be varied from 63 to 120 ft. per minute. 

Nos. 6 and 7 show the dynamometric truck, from which the model 
is suspended, and by which its movement is controlled. The truck has four 
wheels running on rails supported above the tank, and the vaiious recording 
drums and pencils are arranged above the tnick at a convenient height. 

Owing to the ease with which models can be constructed and tried, 
Mr. Froude's system has proved of great value in determining the influence of 
various proposed alterations in the shape of vessels, and also in estimating the 
suitabilities of untried designs. Since 1885 similar work has been can-ied on 
at the Admiralty tank at Haslar, near Portsmouth, by Mr. R. E. Froude. 

603. Diagrams of typical mercliant ships. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Made by tlie Admiralty, 1887. N. 1783. 

These seven diagrams give longitudinal elevations of two and three- 
decked, well, raised quarter, awning, spar, anchor, and shelter- decked vessels. 
The position of the machinery and the cargo spaces, etc., are indicated and 
the general conditions necessary for classification at Lloyd's are enumerated. 

604. Whole models showing bulkhead arrangements. (Scale 
1 : 64.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1794-5. 

These are intended to show experimentally the efficiency of properly 
constructed and arranged compartments, and the absolute danger of certain 
other distributions of watertight bulkheads. Glass decks and local filling- 
plugs are provided so that the behavioui* of the vessels, when floating under 
various conditions, may be readily observed. For the diagrams illustrating 
these cases, see No. 605. 



181 

605. Diagrams shoAving bulkhead arrangements. (Scale 
1 : 48J Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1781-2. 

Six of these diagrams show a vessel efficiently subdivided by water- 
tight bulkheads and flooded in various compartments, both with and 
without a watertight main deck. 

Three diagrams show a similar ship inefficiently subdivided and flooded 
in the bow compartment ; the effect on its stability is greater than it would 
have been if no bulkheads had been introduced. The models illustrating 
these points are shown in No. 604. 

606. Experimental model of water-balance chambers. Lent 
by the Admiralty, 1885. N. 1688. 

These illustrate the effects of an athwartship compartment, partially 
filled with water, in moderating the rolling of a vessel. Such " water 
balance " chambers increase the period of roll and lessen the mean angle, 
so being specially adapted to vessels of considerable natural stability, which 
in a sea-way have a deep quick roll. They were fitted to most of the 
battleships of the central citadel type built between 1877-87, but in later 
vessels deep external bilge keels have been used instead, the space occupied 
by the chambers and the presence of the loose water being serious 
objections to the arrangement, while the efficiency of the deep keels has 
been surprisingly high. 

The chamber consists of a closed rectangular tank extending from side 
to side of the vessel and arranged above the protective deck. In the 
experiments on H.M.S. " Edinburgh " it was found that 100 tons of balance 
water reduced the rolling by 30 to 40 per cent, at angles below 10 deg., but 
that the action diminished with increased roU. 

607. "Plating" model of S.S. " Mauretania." (Scale 1:48.) 
liCnt by Messrs. Swan, Hunter and Wigham-Richardson, 
Ltd., 1908. N. 2474. 

An important detail in the production of a steel vessel is the ordering 
of material. To expedite this process as regards the shell or outer plating 
of the vessel a half -block model is made as soon as the drawings of a new 
design are available. Such a model should give a correct representation, to 
scale, of the external form of the hull, and upon it are arranged and drawn 
the edges, butts, and other details of the plating with sufficient accuracy to 
ensure the actual dimensions of each plate being obtainable. 

The model here shown was prepared and used by Messrs. Swan, Hunter 
and Wigham-Richardson for ordering the shell plating required in the 
construction of the turbine steamer "Mauretania" built by them at 
Wallsend-on-Tyne in 1907 for the Cunard Steamship Co. Besides the general 
aiTangement of plate edges and butts there are here indicated the 
thickness of each plate, width of seams, details of riveting and extent of 
local " doubling " in the way of coal and entrance ports, ash-doors, etc. The 
position and character of the transverse framing of the ship are also 
shown as well as the various decks, watertight bulkheads, and special 
" liners." 

Length, over all, 790 ft. ; breadth, moulded, 87 ft. ; depth, moulded, 
60-5 ft.; gross register tonnage, 31,940 tons; indicated horse-power, 
70,000 ; speed, 25 knots. 

Among the earliest examples of similar models shown in this collection 
are those prepared, about 1853, for the inner and outer skin-plating of the 
" Great Eastern." 



182 



SHIP CONSTRUCTION. 

Tlie simplest form of water-borne vehicle is the raft con- 
structed of logs or brushwood connected into a platform capable 
of carrying hea^^ loads on inland streams. This was supple- 
mented by the hollowed or "dug-out" canoe made from a, 
single log, and by canoes formed of bark or skins secured to 
internal frames, thus leading to the built-up boats in which 
layers of wood were stitched together and also tied to internal 
ribs or frames. 

The introduction of decked boats and ships is also of 
unknown antiquity, but it is certain that the ancient Egyptians, 
Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans used ships capable of carrying 
heavy merchandise or large bodies of troops, and that these 
vessels had wooden keels, frames, beams and decks, with shell 
planking secured by wooden and metal fastenings ; they were 
also fitted with arrangements for rowing, sailing, steering, and 
anchoring. 

Wooden Ships. — The structural details of wood-built vessels 
are clearly illustrated in numerous sectional models in the 
collection, while the changes in outward form are seen in the 
fully-rigged models and the various paintings, prints, etc. 

Two of the earliest builders to break away from long esta- 
blished usage and to produce vessels of greater size and speed 
were the Petts, father and son, who built respectively the 
"Prince Royal" (1610) and the "Sovereign of the Seas" 
(1637) ; they reduced the heavy top-hamper and gave an 
improved under- water form to their vessels. Subsequently the 
following improvements in ship construction were introduced : — 
About 1640, a systematic arrangement of pillars, or vertical 
supports, from keel to upper deck, was adopted, thus greatly 
strengthening the body. In 1710 a considerable gain in 
structural strength and durability was effected by the intro- 
duction of " cross-timbers " connecting the lower portions of 
opposite frames, also a stout wood keelson and transverse 
" riders " above the floors, together with limber boards to facili- 
tate the drainage of the bottom ; copper sheathing was first used 
in 1761, but as it was found to cause oxidization of the iron 
bolts, this led to the introduction in 1783 of "metal" for the 
under-water fastening. . 

In 1796 a number of small frigates were built by Sir Samuel 
Bentham with transverse bulkheads which demonstrated the 
structural value of the arrangement. 

With the additional strains, consequent on increased length 
and heavier armament, came the difficulty of preventing the 
various portions of a wood-built ship from " working." Diagonal 
wooden riders and trusses wdth large wooden knees were adopted, 
for a time, but the great Aveight of timber, together with the loss 
of internal capacity entailed by their use were serious disad- 
vantages, so that from 1827 the use of iron-plate riders and 



183 

forged iron knees was gradually introduced, and finally became 
general in large wood-built vessels. 

Sir Robert Seppings in 1806-11 introduced "fillings" of 
solid timber between tlie transverse frames at tlie lower part 
of the ship, and a continuous " shelf " piece and thick " water- 
way " at the beam ends ; these structural improvements, 
combined with his system of diagonal trussing and bracing of 
the frame-timbers, did much to resist the severe " hogging " 
stresses to which a vessel is liable at sea. Shortly afterwards 
he displaced the heavy "beak" head and square stern by 
a rounded form of bow and stern, which gave greater strength 
to the extremities and more efficient gun fire. He likewise 
simplified the conversion of timber by a method of scarfing and 
by the fitting of square heels and a coak in place of chocked 
butts to the timbers of a frame. 

Many details of improvements in wood construction, proposed 
1806-1855, by Messrs. J. S. Tucker, and R. F. S. Blake of 
H.M. Dockyards, are shown by a number of contemporary 
models. 

Composite Ships. — After the general adoption of iron ships 
they showed certain defects that were not found in those biiilt 
of wood, so with the object of combining the merits of both 
materials, the " composite " construction was introduced. The 
greater resistance of a wooden bottom to penetration in case of 
groimding, and the better facilities it offered for the attachment 
of an anti-fouling sheathing, led to many attempts towards 
combining such advantages with the superior strength and 
lightness of iron framing. Sectional models in the collection 
show various methods of arranging the outer skin planking and 
the inner longitudinal and diagonal ties so as to give increased 
rigidity to the composite structure. In 1867, Lloyd's Com- 
mittee published Rules and Regulations for the building of 
composite vessels, and the twenty original drawings prepared to 
illustrate the most efficient arrangements are exhibited in this 
section. The composite system has been successfully employed 
in the construction of sailing vessels and small steamers in the 
mercantile marine, as well as in the smaller types of warship, 
but the loosening of bolts and the lack of rigidity has prevented 
its adoption for large vessels with powerful machinery. AVhen 
the advantages of a wooden bottom are required in a ship of high 
engine power the hull is now generally bidlt completely of iron 
or steel and then sheathed with wood externally. 

Iron and Steel. — The superiority of iron over wood for ship- 
building purposes was demonstrated by the experimental vessels 
constructed by J. Laird of Birkenhead (1829-35), and by the 
experiences of the " Great Britain " (1843), while the demand 
for a structure capable of carrying heavy aniiour and powerful 
engines resulted in the building of H.M.S. " Warrior " in 
1859-61 as an armoured, iron-built, sea-going man-of-war. The 
methods of framing iron and steel vessels may be arranged into 



184 

three sj^stems in tlie order of their introduction — (a) transverse ; 
(6) longitudinal ; (c) bracket. 

The transverse system carries out the old principles of wood 
construction, by using closely spaced ribs crossing the keel and 
held together by longitudinal ties. It was adopted in all the 
earlier iron vessels, but was very frequently associated with 
wooden keels, keelsons, topsides, etc. The advantages of the 
system arise from the simplicity and rapidity with which it can 
be carried out, the result being that the majority of the largest 
merchant steamers are so built, unless a cellular bottom is 
considered necessary. 

The longitudinal system consisted in the use of a large 
number of deep girders, extending fore and aft, combined with 
widely spaced complete and partial bulkheads. This arrange- 
ment left large areas of bottom plating unsupported, but in 
many respects was well adapted to vessels of great length. 
The "'Great Eastern" (1858), designed by J. Scott Russell, was 
the finest example of this method of construction, but a number 
of smaller merchant vessels were afterwards similarly built. 
Since 1908 the longitudinal principle has been successfully 
embodied in the "Isherwood" construction of "tank" and 
ordinary cargo steamers. 

The bracket system, first introduced by Sir E. J. Reed in 
the building of H.M.S. " Bellerophon " (1865), is a combination 
of the two former systems. The deep continuous longitudinals 
are retained, but at wider intervals, with short intermediate 
transverse frames or "brackets" spaced at about 4 ft. apart. 
These divide the lower portion of the ship into many small 
compartments or cells, and with the addition of a watertight 
inner bottom this combination became known as the " cellular " 
bottom. The economy and strength of the cellular construction 
had already been shown in the Britannia and Convv^ay tubular 
bridges, but when incorporated into a vessel's structure it 
afforded exceptional facilities for carrying water ballast, and 
gave almost absolute immunity from danger in the event of 
grounding. This system has since, with slight variations, been 
almost universally adopted for all large battleships and cruisers, 
and in a large number of ocean-going merchantmen. Solid 
plate floors combined with longitudinal frames and stringers 
form a modification of the bracket system which has also been 
largely used in the construction of smaller vessels for the Royal 
Navy and mercantile marine, and for framing the extremities 
of large warships. 

Steel began to be generally used for shipbuilding in 1878, 
and a series of tests made during 1878-9 at Chatham led to its 
adoption by the Admiralty. The revival of the ancient mode of 
attack by ramming, and the increasing demands for high speed, 
necessitated special structural arrangements at the bow and 
stern, which led to a further application of steel. Several 
forms of stem and stern-posts, with their connections, are among 



185 

the exhibits, from which the great change made possible in 
this direction by the use of cast steel can be seen by contrasting 
the simple iron forgings of early vessels with the elal^orate stern 
castings of later constructions. 

Armour. — War-vessels are usually protected from gun attack 
by side and athwartship vertical armour, by horizontal or 
curved protective decks in the region of the water-line, and by 
side spaces generally packed with coal. Protection against ram 
and torpedo attack is largely given by efficient and extensive 
sub-division of the lower portions of the hull, aided in the latter 
case by torpedo " defence-nets " suspended outside the ship. 

The French warship "La Gloire," completed in 1859, Avas 
the earliest sea-going ironclad ; she was wood-built, and carried 
a complete belt of side armour 4*5 in. thick, secured by long 
bolts to a massive wooden framing 26 in. thick. The British 
" Warrior" of 1861 was an iron-built vessel with a partial 
belt of 4*5-in. iron armour, backed with 18 in. of timber 
and an inner iron skin. At this time many wooden ships 
also Avere cvit down and fitted with side armour. In 1865, 
H.M.S. " Bellerophon " was built of iron with a complete belt of 
6-in. armour; the "Hercules," in 1868, had 9-in. plates, and 
the " Dreadnought," of 1875, had 14-in. plates. The power of 
naval guns, however, increased more rapidly than the resistance 
of the armour. To provide the thickness necessary for pro- 
tection, without giving abnormal dimensions to the vessels, the 
extremities were left comparatively unprotected and the weight 
so saved expended in a heavily armoured central citadel. 
This constrTiction of armour-clad vessels reached its maximum 
in 1881, when H.M.S. "Inflexible" was fitted with side plates 
of iron 24 in. thick. Compound — iron and steel — armour was 
in general use until about 1889, and was superseded by the 
"Harvey," the "Krupp," and other fornis of hard-faced steel 
armour ; the increased resistance to penetration offered by these 
latter has been an important factor in the general reduction 
of maximum thickness and in the extension of the armoured 
area. Recent British battleships (1910) have an all-round 
armoured protection varying from about 11 in. amidships to 
about 3 in. at bow and stern. In 1897 it was concluded .that 
14 in. of solid wrought iron armour was equalled by 11 in. 
of compound, or by 6 or 7 in. of hardened nickel-steel armour. 
It was found, however, that the new armour required additional 
supporting, and this has been arranged by the introduction of 
specially deep web-frames and horizontal girders behind the 
armour. 

The idea of carrying heavy guns in revolving armoured 
shields or turrets, thus obtaining good protection and a wide 
range of fire, was first adopted in the Royal Navy on the wood- 
built " Roj^al Sovereign" and iron-built "Prince Albert" in 
1862. Since 1878, turrets, or their modern development, 
" barbettes " — with a protective ring of stationary armour — have 
been used to carry the main armaments of all first-class 



186 

battleships. Where secondary batteries of large quick-firing 
guns are adopted, they are usually protected by some form of 
casemate or armoured redoubt ; heavy armour gratings and light 
splinter-nets are also used to protect openings in the upper decks. 
Recent naval engagements have demonstrated the necessity 
for avoiding the use in the interior fittings of a warship of 
all combustible material. 



WOODEN SHIP CONSTRUCTION. 

608. Built models of wooden ships. (Scales 1 : 48 and 1 : 24.) 
Lent by T. Royden, Esq., 1876. N. 1428. 

The first represents the framing of a three-masted wooden merchant- ship, 
with the square stem common at the beginning of the 19th century. The 
second shows a single-masted vessel. In both cases the frames are open- 
spaced and built up of two sets of timber. 

609. Half block model of stern of a three-decker. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1123. 

This shows the starboard side of the stem of a battleship, ai-ranged 
according to Mr. R. Blake's proposal for obtaining [a. right-aft as well as a 
quarter line of fire, 

610. Half block models of sterns of three-deckers. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. * N. 1103. 

The starboard half shows a proposal by Mr. R. Blake for fitting elliptical 
stem- galleries to a first-rate man-of-war ; the poi-t half sliows details of the 
framing of a similar stem and also a method of working the external 
planking above the counter to add strength to this aiTangement. 

611. Model of bows of frigates. (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented by 
the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1127. 

The topsides are shown completely planked, while the lower portions 
illustrate two different dispositions of frame timbers with their temporary 
fairing battens or harpins. The starboard bow shows the foremost frames 
canted, snaped at the heels, and stepped into the stem piece. The port side 
shows the frames worked with their moulding in a fore-and-aft plane, and 
stepped into the foremost canted frames — a system largely adopted for 
bluff-bowed vessels. 

612. Half block model of sterns of three-deckers. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1125-6. 

The first shows the stai'board side of a square-stemed vessel, with some 
of its vertical stem-timbers stepped into the fashion-piece, and some carried 
by means of snaped heels the full depth of the stem. 

The second is an alternative an-angement, in which by the use of 
ti-ansom-timbers the work is simplified and the loss in timber conversion 
reduced. 

613. Stern model of a three-decker. (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented 
by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1124. 

This shows very completely the above-water stem construction of a 
first-rate line-of -battle ship of the beginning of the 19th century. 



187 

The port side shows the disposition of the frames, ports, wales, and 
framing of the galleries, while the starboard side shows the finished stern. 
"With this design an all-round fire is obtained. 

614. Drawing of framing of H.M.S. ^'Amethyst." (Scale 1 : 96.) 
Presented by J. Scott Tucker, Esq., 1865. N. 1048. 

This shows the disposition of the poi-t timbers of this 28-gnn frigate, 
in which the frames were continuously bolted together in the manner 
introduced by Mr. J. Tucker. She was wrecked in Plymouth Sound in 
1811, but after being 21 days on the rocks was floated off with unbroken 
sheer. 

615. Block model of sterns of three-deckers (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by J. Scott Tucker, Esq., 1865. N. 1051. 

This shows a design proposed by Mr. J. Tucker in 1808. The starboard 
half shows the old arrangement of square stem, while the port side represents 
his slightly curved stem, -^^rhich allows quarter gun-ports on each deck. 

616. Built model of a merchant ship. (Scale 1 : 64.) Lent by 
Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 1876. , 

N. 1437. 

This represents a square -sterned ship pierced for 50 guns, possibly an 
East Indiaman. Details are given of the amidship, stem, topside and deck 
framing, of external planking and ribbands and of bowsprit and lower 
masts. 

617. Models of deck and frame fastenings. (Scale 1 : 16 and 
1 : 48.) Presented by J. S. Tucker, Esq., 1865. 

N. 1049-50. 

These show proposals by Mr. J. Tucker, Sui*veyor of the Navy 
1813-31, for fastening deck planking from the under side by wood screws. 
For this purpose overhanging strips are nailed to the beams and screws 
inserted through the projecting flanges ; intermediate binding strips are also 
worked between each pair of beams. 

The smaller scale model, of a portion of the midship framing of a vessel, 
illustrates a method of shifting the butts of fi*ame- timbers and of securing 
them together by dowels and metal bolts ; it also shows the scarfing of 
deck-beams, as well as the fastening of deck-planking, on the above system. 

618. Model of built-up ship's knee. (Scale 1 : 8.) Presented 
by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1144. 

Owing to the difficulty in obtaining sufficient naturally-bent timber 
knees, ships were frequently delayed during construction. This design by 
Mr. R. Blake shows a built-up timber knee of considerable strength. The 
two portions are connected by a pair of five-tongued tenons secured by pins 
and stayed with iron straps and bolts. Iron knees, however, displaced all 
such devices. 

619. Models of futtock timbers. (Scale 1 : 6.) Presented by 
the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N, 1116-8 and 1132-3. 

These show several of the methods introduced by Mr. R. Blake for 
forming the cui-ved futtocks of wooden frames from two pieces of sti*aight 
timber when, as was frequently the case, naturally bent timber was not 
available. To minimise waste the joint is made in the shai-p turn of the 
ship's bilge ; the two pieces are connected either by means of the " chocked 
butt " joint seen in one model or by scarf joints as shown in two others. 
Two more show details of the connections, which are secm-ed by bolts and 
dowels. 



188 

620. Models of deck-beam fastenings. (Scales 1:8, 1 : 12 and 
1 : 16.) Presented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1112. 

These show various methods employed for securing deck-beams to a 
vessel's frames. They were made between 1806-55 by Mr. R. Blake, 
master shipwright in H.M. Dockyards. 

(a) Is an early arrangement in which the beam is supported on clamp 
strakes to which the wooden knee is bolted ; the knee and beam are further 
secured by iron plate knees on each side, with bolts so distributed as to 
be in different lines of fibres, an airangement due to Mr. Roberts, master 
shipwright. 

(b) Here a " shelf" takes the place of one clamp strake, the wooden and 
plate iron knees being replaced by iron lodging and hanging knees. 

(c) Shows a similar arrangement applied to orlop and lower deck beams, 
with the addition of Sepping's diagonal trussing, 

(d) Is the latest and most extensively adopted arrangement. The shelf 
is lightened by chamfering, and a waterway is added above the beam, while 
horizontal lugs are provided to take the fastenings of the iron hanging 



621. Models of floor timbers. (Scales 1 : 16 and 1 : 8.) 
Presented by tlie Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. 

N. 1119-22, 1131 and 1135. 

These illustrate various methods introduced by Mr. R. Blake for forming 
and fitting floor timbers, i.e., the lower portions of wooden frames. 

(a) This is a short angular floor as fitted to the finer extremities of the 
ship. The two arms are foi-med of a single piece of timber, provision being 
made at the lower part for fixing two tapering chocks one on each side of 
the keel ; this ari-angement obviates the weakness arising from the scoring 
or cutting away of the floor timber over the keel, the practice otherwise 
followed. Two of the models show similar floors with the side chocks in 
position. 

(6) This is shown in place upon a wooden keel, and represents a floor of 
similar dimensions to the above, but formed by scarfing two straight pieces 
across the middle line of the ship. 

(c, d, e) These show on a reduced scale methods of fitting floor timbers 
at the wide and flat portions of a vessel. Each complete floor is here 
composed of two sets of timbers, the joints in each being covered by the 
sides of the adjacent set. These models also illustrate two methods 
extensively adopted for securing the heads and heels of timbers, those shown 
with snaped ends providing for a chocked butt connection, while the other 
shows a plain butt-and-dowel joint. 

(/) This is an example of a floor frame bent by mechanical means. The 
straight timber is rendered flexible by immersion in steam, and the outer 
ends turned to the required shape, a saw-cut made through the neutral 
plane of the timber facilitating this process. Through bolts, placed as 
shown, assist in retaining the curvature thus obtained. 

(g) This is a portion of a wooden keel, showing the rebate formed to 
take the lower edges of shell planking, also details of the " letting down " 
process whereby one-half of the scoring is taken from the floor timbers, and 
one-half from the upper surface of the keel, thus forming a secure 
combination without unduly weakening either member. 

622. Half block models of bows of tliree-deckers. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1128-9. 

The first model represents the starboard bow of a first-rate line-of -battle 
ship of the period 1835-40 ; this has a total bow fire of 8 guns. 

The second shows the port bow of a similar ship of about 1840-50, 
arranged on Mr. R. Blake's plan to obtain a bow fire of 12 guns. 



189 

623. Model of port-lida with inlDoard fittings. (Scale 1:8.) 
Presented by Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1107. 

This shows a method proposed by Mi\ R. Blake for fitting and fastening 
the upper and lower lids, or shutters, to gun-ports. 

Each lid is vertically hinged inboard and both secured, when closed, by 
cotter pins. A circular gun-aperture in the centre of the port provides 
ventilation between decks in ordinary weather ; this, however, is filled by a 
solid wooden block in rough weather, and the whole securely held by a 
central hinged bar. 

624. Model of lower deck port. (Scale 1 : 16.) Presented 
by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1130. 

This shows a method of constructing a gun port of a wooden line-of- 
battle ship. The several eye -bolts are for attaching the tackle used in 
working the guns. 

625. Model of wooden protective belt. (Scale 1 : 20.) Pre- 
sented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1134. 

This shows a lower deck port and the side of a wooden ship-of-war, fitted 
with a protective belt along the water-line, as proposed by Mr. R. Blake. 
The belt has a maximum thickness of 20 in., and tapers in each direction. 

626. Model of stern framing of a merchant ship. (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Lent by 'the Nelson Dock Co., 1876. N. 1444. 

This shows the method of framing the square sterns of the East India- 
men of about 1820. 

627. Built models of a wooden ship. (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 1876. 

N. 1432-3. 

The fore and the after body of a, two-decked merchant ship are here 
shown separately ; on the port side of each the inner and outer planking, 
with fastenings, are complete, while on the starboard side the frames are 
seen, held together by temporary libbands. Some of the hanging iron knees 
are extended to the deck beams below them. 

628. Model of midship section of H.M.S. " Rodney " (1833). 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Presented by F. W. Slade, Esq., 1903. 
Plate VIL, No. 1. N. 2340. 

The " Rodney" was originally a two-decked sailing line- of -battle ship of 
92 guns, designed by Sir R. Seppings and launched at Pembroke in 1833. 
The model shows the va,rious decks and the interior of the main hold of the 
vessel, together with the general aiTangements for the stowage of water- tanks 
and provisions ; also the principal features of the system of wooden ship 
construction followed at the time. 

Amongst the sti-uctural details represented are some improvements 
introduced by Sir R, Seppings in 1813-32 while he was Surveyor of the 
Navy ; these include : — 

(1) The employment of a system of internal diagonal timber ties, 
crossing the frames at 45 deg. and fitted between themselves with coitc- 
sponding sti-uts ; the panels thus formed were further stiffened by the 

, insertion of longitudinal timbers, so that the whole aiTangement converted 
the hull into a completed trussed structure. By this construction the 
requisite strength was obtained with considerably less weight than was 
necessary in the earlier system with its massive vertical riders and internal 
planking. 

(2) The method of connecting the heads and heels of the timbers 
composing the transverse frames, by plain butts with circular dowels or 
plugs instead of by the vai-ious methods of scarfing previously in use. 



190 

(3) The introduction of thick continuous " waterways " and " shelf- 
pieces," placed respectively above and below the ends of the deck beams, to 
secure better connection of the beams with the sides of the vessel and also 
additional longitudinal strength. 

Other details shown are : — The use of forked iron knees to the beams ; 
the arrangement of pillars or stanchions for supporting the decks ; and the 
varying thicknesses adopted for different portions of the external planking. 
A number of the strakes of planking near the water-line are shown cut on 
the " anchor- stock " system, which gave an increase of structural strength 
while reducing the waste in timber conversion. On the orlop deck are 
shown the hemp anchor cables, used before the introduction of chain cables ; 
the planking of this deck is worked in short pieces between the beams. 

The " Rodney " took part in some trials of sailing ships-of-the-line during 
1845-6, and proved herself to be superior to her contemporaries in speed 
and steadiness during rough weather ; in 1860 she was converted into an 
auxiliary screw- ship. 

Her original dimensions were : — Burden, 2,626 tons ; length, 205 -5 ft. ; 
breadth, 54-5 ft. ; depth, 23-1 ft. 

629. Half model of wooden paddle steamer. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by tlie Nelson Dock Co., 1876. N. 1443. 

This represents the framing of a square- stemed paddle steamer, designed 
about 1840. On each side of the paddle-wheel position the topsides are 
given considei'able " flare," thus increasing the deck area and weatherly 
qualities. 

630. Longitudinal section of a merchant ship. (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Lent by Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 
1876. N. 1431. 

This is a square-stemed two-decked merchant ship, and has the leading 
details distinctively labelled. It represents the later form of wooden 
construction, in which the knees and most of the pillars are of iron. 
The lower beams are not decked over, except at the forecastle, as they 
are only introduced to strengthen the hull. 

631. Half model of ship with radiating frames. (Scale 1 : 64.) 
Lent by Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 
1876. ^ N. 1434. 

This shows a wooden ship of about 800 tons, with poop deck and 
forecastle. The frames radiate to a point about amidships, so that while 
the frames there are vertical, the others incline on both sides more and 
more as the bow and stem are approached. The inclined frames assist in 
resisting the shearing stresses. 

632. Half model of diagonally-sheathed vessel. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 
1876. N. 1435. 

This shows a wooden merchant vessel, sheathed with planking laid 
diagonally at about 45 degs. in one direction at the bow, and with the 
opposite inclination at the stem, the intei-mediate triangular space being 
sheathed vertically. 

633. Half midship section of a wooden corvette. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Received 1874. N. 1393. 

This represents the midship framing of a frigate, and shows in detail the 
improved method of wooden construction adopted in H.M. Dockyards after 
1840. 

Thi'ee tiers of deck beams are shown with their shelves and waterways, 
together with the wrought iron securing knees. Two complete frames, 



191 

together with the intermediate filling pieces, are represented, and the model 
shows how, by breaking joint, the continuity of strength is secured. The 
butts of the timbers are dowelled together, instead of being connected by 
scai-fs or chocks as formerly. Sections of keel and keelson are shown and 
also poi-tion of the inner and outer planking. 

634. Half block model of H.M.S. " Caledonia," (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by Geo. Turner, Esq., 1864. N. 1036. 

This vessel was commenced as a wooden battleship of 91 guns, 3,716 tons 
and 800 h.p., but before completion was changed to an armoured frigate 
caiTying 36 guns. Several other vessels were similarly converted in 1862-4. 

Diagonal iron riders are shown fitted all fore-and-aft outside the framing 
instead of inside as originally arranged : these gave increased structural 
strength to the vessel and, by being arched over each gun-poi*t, added local 
strength to these positions. 

The length of the battery was 280 ft., and its armour plates were 4-5 in. 
thick, backed with 30 in. of oak ; the weight of the armour was 930 tons. 

Her engines, by Messrs Maudslay, Sons and Field, were of the horizontal 
retui-n-connecting-rod type, with two cylinders 92 in. diam. by 4 ft. stroke, 
and when making 57 revs, per min. indicated 4,092 h.p. with 20 lb. boiler 
pressure. 

The screw propeller had four blades, and was 21 ft. diam., while the pitch 
could be varied from 20 ft. to 25 ft. ; it could be disconnected from the 
engines by means of a clutch. Her trial speed was 13 knots. 

Displacement, 5,800 tons: burden, 4,125 tons; length, between pei-ps., 
273 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 59-2 ft. ; draught foi-ward, 23-5 ft. ; draught aft, 
26-7 ft. ; immersed midship section, 1,050 sq. ft. 

635. Gunwale of steel boat. Presented by Messrs. R. Napier 
and Sons, 1867. N. 1185. 

This was designed by Vice- Admiral E. P. Halsted, R.N., for the boats of 
his proposed warships. The boat was to be of steel, but was to have a 
wooden fender secured by angle irons. 

636. Shell planking and framing of motor boats. Lent by 
James A. Smith, Esq., M.I.N.A., 1906. N. 2424. 

Wood, in preference to steel, has been largely adopted for the constiaiction 
of high-speed motor craft under 50 ft. in length, the principal advantages 
claimed being less weight and cost, fairer surfaces and better combination 
of pai-ts. 

Five examples are here shown of various methods of forming the outer 
skins or shells of wood-built boats : they were made to illustrate a paper 
on " The Design and Construction of High-Speed Motor Boats " read 
by Mr. James A. Smith before the Institution of Naval Architects in 
April 1906. 

No. 1 shows the ordinary cai*vel system with bent timbers or frames ; 
this has single planking of mahogany with caulked seams and timbers of 
rock elm and is used for ordinary types of motor launches where weight is 
not of the first importance. 

No. 2 shows double planking of mahogany without timbers, the outer 
skin being worked fore-and-aft and the inner skin diagonally ; it is used for 
light dinghies, yachts, and racing launches up to 25 ft. in length. 

No. 3 is the same as No. 2, but reinforced by timbers of rock elm. It is 
commonly used for high-powered racing launches. 

No. 4 shows the ribband- carvel system : the single planking is of 
mahogany with timbers of rock elm, but the edges of the planking are 
covered on the inside by longitudinal ribbands which are scored over the 
timbers. It is occasionally used for high-powered motor craft. 

No. 5 shows the sewn skin without timbers patented in 1898 by 
Mr. S. E. Saunders. It may be constructed of two, three, four or more 



192 

thicknesses, each thickness being worked separately and the whole finally 
sewn together with copper wire. This makes a strong combination which is 
easily adaptable to difficult curves and is used for steam and motor launches 
of all types. 



637. Blake's screw. Presented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1868. 

N. 1110. 

This is a form of iron eye-bolt, introduced by Mr. R. Blake, for use in 
temporarily securing harpins and similar timbers to the frames of wooden 
vessels while under construction. A hole is bored through the harpin and 
frame, and then this screw inserted, the eye-end facilitating screwing-up. 
As originally made these screws have their shanks of smaller diameter than 
the threads, as shown, so that some slight adjustment of the harpin was 
possible after the screw had been inserted ; the modern Blake's screws are, 
however, parallel throughout. They are made in various lengths, and the 
diameter varies from -75 to 125 in. 

638. Screw auger and dowel-engine. Presented by J. Scott 
Tucker, Esq., 1865. N. 1055. 

These wood-boring tools were introduced by Mr. Joseph Tucker, Sur- 
veyor of the Navy, 1813-1831, as improvements on the ordinary shell 
auger for shipbuilding purposes. They cut a smooth and circular hole 
which can be accurately plugged, thus minimising the i-apid decay that 
takes place around the treenail and dowel fastenings in wooden ships. So 
serious became this evil that between 1834-48 treenails in H.M. Navy were 
almost entirely superseded by copper bolt fastenings. 

Preparatoiy to cutting a hole with either of these tools, it is necessary 
to bore a small guide or leading hole equal in diameter to the outer stem ; 
the subsequent feeding is given by a thread on the stem that fits the hole. 
The dowel -engine, which is provided with brass head and adjustable steel 
blade and cutter, is still largely used for cutting holes to take the wood plugs 
or dowels fitted over the heads of deck and sheathing bolts on modern steels 
built vessels. 



COMPOSITE SHIP CONSTRUCTION. 

639. Half midship section of a composite ship. Lent by the 
Nelson Dock Co., 1876. N. 1442. 

This represents an experimental vessel, built about 1859, and classed at 
Lloyd's for 15 years. 

Each frame is built up of thin timber with an angle iron on each side, a 
plan which resembles that patented by Mr. T. Bilbe in 1856. The beams 
are angle irons, with pieces welded in for connecting with the frames. The 
outside j)lanking consists of two thicknesses of wood, laid diagonally at 
right angles to one another, and an outer sheathing arranged horizontally. 

640. Midship section of a composite ship. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by the Nelson Dock Co., 1876. N. 1441. 

This represents a vessel built experimentally and classed at Lloyd's for 
11 years. 

The main feature of the design consists in the general use of T-iron for 
frames and beams. The frames have the table of the T inside while the 
external spaces are packed with wood, another variation on Bilbe's con- 
struction of 1856, The keel, keelson, floors, and outer skin are of wood. 



193 

641. Model of midship section of a composite sliip. (Scale 
1 : 18.) Lent by Messrs. Short Bros., 1876. N. 1447. 

This represents a vessel of about 400 tons, in which the frames are made 
of single angle-bars, except at the floors, where there is a reversed angle-bar ; 
the keelson is a single plate girder. Deck, side and bilge stringers of iron 
are fitted. 

642. ^lodel of midship section of composite ship. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Lent by Messrs. Short Bros., 1876. N. 1446. 

This represents a proposed vessel in which the external plating is 
arranged between the frames, the plates being flanged on all four sides and 
bent to the general form of the ship, the webs of the angle -bar frames 
consequently point outward and external planking is fitted. The deck beams 
are also angle-bars, while the keel is a partly- intercostal plate. 

643. Drawings showing composite ship construction. (Scales, 
full size, 1 : 6 and 1 : 12.) Lent by Lloyd's Register of 
British and Foreign Shipping, 1876. N. 1440. 

This series of drawings was prepared in 1866 by Mr. H. J. Comish, of 
Lloyd's, to illustrate the suggestions made by Lloyd's Committee for the 
construction and classification of vessels on the composite system, then 
coming into extended use. The general idea is to brace the transverse 
frames by outside iron ties or riders l)efore planking ; the other details are 
varied as in iron ships. 

Eight drawings show half midship sections of vessels from 100 to 2,500 
tons register, with the lower planking of elm. 

Five drawings show modifications of the upper deck waterway and 
bulwark stanchions for vessels of 900 tons register. 

Two drawings show respectively inside and outside views of iron sheer 
and bilge strakes, with the method of connecting the diagonal ties ; they 
also show the outside planking. 

Two drawings show various forms of keelson, while a section of the stem 
and full-size details of the rivets and joints are shown on two others. 

644. Drawing of a composite ship. (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent by 
Lloyd's Registry of British and Foreign Shipping, 1876. 

N. 1439. 

This represents a three-masted sailing vessel of about 1,000 tons 
register, built to conform with Lloyd's rules of, 1866 for composite vessels. 

The transverse frames are of reversed angle- bars ; outside these is 
riveted an iron sheer strake 1 in. in breadth for every 6 ft. of the vessel's 
length and a T)ilge strake • 66 of the l^readth of the sheer strake ; both are 
joined by butt straps between frames. Riveted to the frames between 
these strakes are diagonal ties or riders, making a sti-ucture resembling a 
diagonal tniss. The planking is bolted to these ties and angle-irons, the 
butts coming midway between adjacent frames, on plates riveted to them. 

645. Model of midship section of a composite ship. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Lent by Messrs. Short Bros., 1876. N. 1445. 

This i-epresents a vessel conforming with the recommendations of Lloyd's 
Committee of 1866 {see No. 643). 

The main frames are formed of continuous reversed angle-bars, the 
alternate ones having reversed angles fitted to the turn of the bilge only ; 
fore-and-aft stringers and diagonal tie-plates bind these together and also 
the upper-deck beams in the way of mast stresses. The deck beams are of 
plates, with double angle-bars along the top edges and the keelson is a 
continuous plate girder. 

u 6773. N 



194 

646. Model of midsliip section of a composite sliip. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Lent bv Lloyd's Registry of British and Foreign 
Shipping, 1876. '^ ^ N. 1436. 

This illustrates a system ol combined wood and iron construction 
which differs somewhat from that approved by Lloyd's Registry in 1866. 

The iron floors, together with the intermediate wood filling-floors, are 
combined with a wood keel and keelson similarly disposed to those of a 
wooden-built vessel. Single and double longitudinal angle-bars above the 
floors, with a closely- fitted wooden ceiling, take the place of side plate- 
keelsons, bilge keelsons, and bilge strakes ; the outer frame angle-bar is 
cut off at the garboard strake of shell planking. Iron beams, pillars, and 
deck stringers are fitted, but there is no iron sheer strake. There is a 
light diagonal bracing riveted inside the frames between the upper and 
main decks, and also a thin outer sheathing of wood worked diagonally 
from the level of the main deck beams to the garboard strakes. 

647. Models showing planking on composite vessels. (Scales, 
1 : 4 and 1 : 12.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. 

N. 1769-71. 

These represent in detail the usual method of attaching the shell 
planking to vessels built with iron frames. The planking is in two layers, 
so disposed that each strake in either layer acts as an edge-strip to strakes in 
the other, thus j)roviding a good edge connection for both. Each strake of 
the inner planking is attached to each frame by two bolts, screwed into 
the outer flange and locked by an internal nut. The outer planking is 
secured to the inner by through copper bolts, disposed as shown, and clinched 
upon a brass washer at each end. 

(a) shows how the butt joints at the ends of the planks are distributed. 

(h) shows how the edge joints are distributed and fastened. 

(c) shows in detail the method of making the end joints of the inner 
planking, by scarfing and connecting them together at a frame. The planks 
of the outer thickness are plain- butted and secured by two through-bolts on 
each side of the butt. 

For models showing experimental methods of working the outside 
planking of composite vessels {see Nos. 639, 640 and 646). 

648. Models of sections of a composite gnn vessel. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1790-1. 

A half midship section and a forward longitudinal vertical section are 
shown of a small composite \VUrship, similar to H.M.S. " Avon," 467 tons 
displacement, built 1867. 

The details of the transverse framing, intercostal keelson, bilge, side 
and deck stringers, together with the deck and outer bottom planking 
are represented. 

There is no middle-line wooden keel, but a flat keel-plate and a vertical 
intercostal iron keelson takes its place. There is a " collision " bulkhead 
carried to the upper deck, and the keelson is shaped to the contour of 
the bow and connected with the upper deck so as to strengthen the wooden 
stem. 

649. Half block model shoAving composite ship constrnction. 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Lent by Messrs. Robert Dnncan & Co., 
1876. N. 1426. 

This represents the construction of the sailing ships " Napier " (foiinerly 
the " James Nicol Fleming ") and " Otago," built in 1869 by Messrs. 
Duncan & Co. 

There are two decks, with a poop 54 ft. long and a forecastle 33 ft. 



195 

The frames, deck beams, floors and keelsons, are of iron ; the longi- 
tudinal ties, with cross ties or riders (coloured blue), are to give addi- 
tional rigidity. Longitudinal black lines show the seams of the wood 
planking, which is secm-ed to the frames and riders by brass bolts. The 
keel, stem, sternpost, and i-udder are of wood. Yellow metal sheathing was 
attached to the shell planking. 

Length, 207-3 ft.; breadth, 34 -5 ft.; depth, 20-25 ft.; gross register, 
1,050 tons. 

650. vSectioiis showing composite ship construction. (Scale 
1 : 4.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1766-7. 

These show, in tiunsvei^se and side elevations respectively, details of the 
usual structural aii*angements at the lower poi-tions of a composite cruiser 
for the Royal Navy. 

The ti-ansverse floors are continuous from bilge to bilge, the vertical 
keel plates being fitted intercostally. These latter are connected to the 
reversed frame bars by double continuous angles on their upper edges, 
and to the floor plates and flat-plate keel by half-staple angles on each 
side. Tlie wooden keel and the two thicknesses of exteiT^al planking are 
secm-ed together and to the steel framing of the ship by means of bolts 
disposed as shown. A method of fitting false keels in two layers to 
prevent damage to the main wooden keel and its fastenings in the event 
of grounding is also illustrated. The longitudinal girders at each side of 
the middle line are constructed of intercostal plates, secured to the floors and 
to inner and outer continuous stringer plates by short connecting angle-bars. 

651. Half midship section of a composite cruiser. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1792. 

This represents a cruiser similar to H.M.S. " Hyacinth," of 1,420 tons 
displacement, built 1881-3. 

It shows a wood keel, intercostal side and middle-line keelsons, bilge 
keel, and ]>ilge stringer. A " turtle-back " watertight deck, combined with 
a longitudinal coal-bunker bulkhead, extends from the outer planking to 
the upper deck, for the protection of engines and boilers. 

With the large increase in size and engine -power of cruisers of the 
Royal Navy, the composite constniction has been generally abandoned in 
favour of steel-built hulls — wood-sheathed if necessary. 

652. Model of a "tabled scaii" joint. (Scale 1: 4.) Made 
by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1764. 

This is geneiully used for connecting the timbers composing the keel of 
a wood or composite vessel. 

The " tabling " sei-ves the two-fold purpose of a dowel and of a stop 
for the caulking ; its raised portion is one-half the length and one-third 
the breadth of the scarf. Vertical thi-ough-bolts, carefully clinched in 
position, bind the two parts of the scarf closely together. The model shows 
also the rebates on the keel, formed to receive the lower edges of the bottom 
planking. 

653. Model of a " hooked scarf " joint. (Scale 1 : 4.) Made 
by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1765. 

This shows a vertical scarf used to connect the lengths of a wood 
ribband or harpin. 

A small square hole or key- way in the centre receives two keys, one 
from either side, which when driven tightly in place force the lip ends into 
recesses on the adjoining pieces. The joint is further secured by treenails 
or bolts, so that it shall withstand the stresses due to the harpin^being bent 
to the cui-vature of the ship's side. 



N 2 



196 

IRON AND STEEL SHIP CONSTRUCTION. 

654. Model of side of H.M.S. '' Warrior," showing armour- 
plating. (Scale 1 : 24.) Contributed by John Scott Russell, 
F.R.S., 1868. N. 1268. 

This shows the original method proposed for securing the armour to the 
" "Warrior " (1861), the first armoured iron ship. Wherever armour was to 
be fixed, the shell plating was to be provided externally with vei-tical and 
hoiizontal girders attached to it by angle-irons. Into the rectangular 
recesses thus formed the armour plates were to be secured. 

This idea was abandoned in favoiu- of closely-spaced vertical frames 
inside the shell plating, leaving a shelf for the 4 • 5-in. armour and 18-in. 
wood backing. The armour plates were held in position by flush conical- 
headed through-bolts secured by nuts inside. 

655. Sectional model of a warsliip. (Scale 1 : 24.) Contri- 
buted by H. Caudwell, Esq., 1863. N. 947. 

This represents a design for an armoured war- vessel of light draught, 
patented by Mr. Caudwell in 1863. 

A projecting belt of wrought iron near the water-line is j)rovided as a 
protection against ramming and penetration by shot in this locality. A 
sloping roof of thin armour gives further protection from gun fire and also 
prevents " boaixiing." Apei-tures in this roof are provided for ventilation 
and as gun ports, but they are fitted with sliding shutters. Above this 
protective roof a light temporary promenade deck can be caiTied. 

The United States coast defence ironclads " Dunderberg " and 
" Onondaga," of 7,060 tons displacement, built during the Civil War 
of 1861-5, resembled this design in several respects. 

656. Midship section of Halsted's warships. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. 

N. 1178 and 1186. 

This shows the internal construction of the combined broadside and 
tuiTet vessels proposed by Yice-Admii-al E. P. Halsted in 1866. 

The spar or flying deck has the diagonal tiiissing patented by Mr. 
R. Napier. On the upper decks ai-e the tuiTets, the ship's rail being fitted 
to hinge overboard when in action. On the main deck, which is 9 ft. high, 
are the turret communications and supports ; also the broadside batteries 
and a gangway port on each side. The lower deck, which is 7 • 5 ft. high 
shows the turret suppoi-ts and wing passages. The hold is 19 ft. deep, and 
through it the tun-et supports are caiTied down to the double bottom, 
which is 4 ft. deep. Further details of the turret are given in an adjacent 
model {see No. 711). 

The armom- belt extends 6 ft. below the water-line and 6 ft. above, with 
plates 6 in. thick ; it has a backing of 6 in. of oak supported by Hughes's 
patent hollow stringers and an inner skin, giving a total thickness of 18 in. 
A short length of an actual stringer is shown ; the section is similar to 
that of a bridge rail, but weighs 213 lb. per yard. 

657. Fore deck of Halsted's warships. (Scale 1 : 48.) Pre- 
sented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. N. 1179. 

This shows the an-angement made to pei-mit of an end- on fire from the 
forward turret, and the modifications thereby required in the support of the 
spar deck. 

658. Half midship section of a battleship. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Received 1874. N. 1394. 

This midship framing of an iron-built armoured battleship of the 
*' Minotaur " class illustrates a transition stage in iron ship -construction 



197 

duiing the period 1861-5. Here, the lightened-plate frames, partly inter- 
costal and partly continuous, foreshadow the modem "bracket" fi-ames : 
the longitudinals are continuous. There is a watertight floor to the boiler- 
room space, but no inner-bottom plating is fitted and no complete cellular 
sub- division is attempted. A reduction in the ordinaiy spacing of the 
transvei-se framing was made at intervals so as to permit a pair of frames 
to foi-m the sides of each broadside gun-poi-t. No special framing to 
suppoi-t the aiinoured side is shown. The influence of wood traditions is 
evidenced by the rough-tree bulwark stanchions ; these were subsequently 
displaced by the lighter and more economical iron-built combination of 
topsides and hammock bei-thing. 

A comparison with No. 659 will emphasize the many improvements in 
constructional details. 

659. Half midsliip section of H.M.S. " BeUeroplion." (Scale 
1 : 24.) Made by tlie Admiralty, 1887. N. 1784. 

This vessel was constructed of iron at Chatham in 1865 from the designs 
of Sir E. J. Reed : she is 300 ft. in length, 56 ft. in breadth, and 7,550 tons 
displacement. In general stiiictural features the " Bellerophon " shows an 
advance in all preceding iron-built war- vessels. The "bi*acket" system of 
framing and also the complete cellular double-bottom for two-thirds the 
length amidships were here successfully introduced ; these features have 
l)een retained, with slight modifications, in recent practice. Each bracket- 
frame is formed of two small end-plates joined by shoi-t unforged frame- 
bars at top and bottom and provided with short vei-tical bars at each end 
for connection with adjacent longitudinals : this displaced the earlier single- 
plate frame with joggled and stapled angle-bar connections. "Weight and 
cost were thus considerably reduced by the new system. 

Another important improvement was made by increasing the vertical 
depth of all bottom framing. This added to stinictural strength and gave 
easier access for cleaning and painting the enclosed compartments ; it 
likewise provided extended facilities for the use of water-ballast. 

Her ai-mour is of wrought iron 6 in. thick, and it extends from 5 ft. 
below the water-line to 15 ft. above, while amidships it is can-ied upwards 
to the spar deck, so that it shields all of the guns. This model also illus- 
trates an early method of stiffening the framing of the vessel behind the 
armour by means of longitudinal girders, a departure that eventually 
developed the deep web-frames with intercostal girders, afterwards 
adopted in battleships. In subsequent vessels, owing to the increased 
peneti-ation of gun fire, this large area of broadside armour could not be 
carried, and the thicker protection necessary was aiTanged as a narrower 
belt about the water-line and around the vital portions of the ship {see 
Nos. 664 and 668). 

A water-colour drawing of this vessel under sail is shown in the Ship 
Gallery (No. 91) and additional particulars are given on the descriptive 
label. 

660. Attachments for sheathing. Presented by T. B. Daft, 
Esq., 1864-5. N. 1038. 

These three specimens show means of protecting iron ships from fouling 
by attaching sheathing of some other metal, at the same time avoiding the 
rapid destruction of the iron skin through electrolytic action. 

The first specimen shows a modification of methods patented in 
1859-60. The iron skin is drilled with small holes which almost penetrate 
it, and into these plugs of vulcanite are driven. The yellow metal 
sheathing, -04 in. thick, is insulated from the skin by a layer of felt and 
rubber, and is attached by nails driven into the vulcanite plugs. 

The second specimen has zinc sheathing • 045 in. thick fixed in the same 
way, except that no insulating sheeting is insei-ted. The galvanic action 
oxidises the zinc and causes it to flake off, carrying the barnacles with it. 



198 

A third specimen with drawing shows Mr. Daft's last patent of 1863. 
The butts and edges of the shell plates are kept apart a distance of • 5 in. 
and covered by internal stiups ; into these open joints teak or vulcanite is 
fitted and caulked, the plates being left rough from the shears or else 
bevelled. The zinc sheathing is nailed on through these strips. 

661. Half midship section of a sheathed corvette. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1793. 

This represents the fi*aming of an iron-built unarmoured war-vessel 
similar to H.M.S. "Inconstant," of 1868. Two thicknesses of wooden 
sheathing are attached to the outside plating. 

The transverse framing consists of deep intercostal floor-plates, alternated 
with shallow fi-ames of reversed angle-bars continuous through the keel and 
longitudinals. The vei-tical keel and all longitudinal frames have also 
their lower portions intercostal and upper portions continuous throughout 
the ship. 

The external planking, though greatly stiffening the shell plating of the 
vessel, is chiefly for the purpose of securing the copper sheathing, the anti- 
fouling properties of which enable this class of ship to make lengthened 
cmises in foreign waters without necessitating " dry docking " and 
cleaning. (See No 662.) 

662. Sections showing wooden sheathing. (Scales 1 : 4 and 
1 : 12.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1772-5. 

These show portions of the outside planking, plating, and fi-aming of a 
steel vessel, sheathed with wood in one or two thicknesses. 

The bolts securing the wooden planking to the hull are disposed as 
shown, and they are screwed into the skin plating until their heads are well 
below the surface of the exterior plank ; a wooden plug is then fitted over 
the head and a nut and washer are added inside the ship. The practice of 
fastening both thicknesses of plank by means of through -bolts is not 
universal, the outer thickness in many vessels being secured to the inner 
thickness of plank by wood screws of naval brass. 

The primary pui-pose of planking outside the steel hull is to give an 
efficient attachment to thin copper sheathing, the poisonous properties of 
the salts formed by which, in sea water, make it a valuable under- water 
covering to vessels, particularly if designed for lengthened cruises abroad. 
Copper and steel when in metallic connection in the same water produce an 
electrolytic action that injuriously affects the hull of the ship, and as a 
special precaution against accidental contacts a double thickness of plank 
was fitted as shown. Recent tests, however, having demonstrated that 
metallic contact might exist even under these circumstances, a return has 
been made to the original practice of a well- caulked single thickness of 
planking. 

For illusti-ations of proposed methods for securing zinc and brass, as 
anti-fouling sheathing, to the hulls of iron ships, see Nos. 660 and 663. 

663. Model of attachment for sheathing. (Scale 1:6.) Lent 
by Messrs. Hooper and Nickson, 1870. N. 1322. 

This method of fixing metal sheathing to iron ships was patented by 
Messrs. Hooper and Nickson in 1869. 

Iron eye-bolts are first riveted or screwed through the iron skin ; then 
planking is fitted over these bolts and secured by pins, driven in the thick- 
ness of the wood and each passing through one of the eyes. This planking 
is given a coat of presei-vative paint and then covered by nailing upon it 
usual brass sheathing, care being taken that the nails do not touch the iron 
skin or the bolts, 



199 

664. Half midship section of a battleship. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1785. 

This represents the midship framing of a central citadel battleship of 
the " Collingwood " class, 1882. 

The combination here shown of continuous longitudinal frames with 
shoi-t transverse '* brackets " between, has been generally adopted for the 
construction and sub-division of the cellular bottoms of warships since 1865 ; 
the modifications since introduced being mainly for the purpose of securing 
greater rigidity. The model shows also the aiTangement of the shell 
plating, topside framing, armour-shelf, armour, and wood backing, as well as 
the general construction of — (a) the transverse watertight bulkhead, (6) the 
fore-and-aft, middle-line watertight bulkhead, (c) the fore-and-aft, wing 
watertight bulkhead. 

In later vessels, longitudinal coal-bunker bulkheads were fitted, thus 
giving the extra protection afforded by about 10 ft. of coal around the 
boilers and engines (see No. 667), 

665. Half section of a battleship. (Scale 1 : 24.) Made by 
the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1786. 

This section, taken either before or abaft the double-bottom, shows the 
general construction of the imarmoured ends of the central-citadel battleship 
of the "Collingwood" class, 1882. 

Continuous Z-bar frames, extending from vei-tical keel to lower deck, 
take the place of the bracket-framing used amidships. The positions, and 
details of connections, of the longitudinal girders and bulkheads, also of 
the lower, protective, main, and upper decks are shown. 

666. Section of bow framing of a battleship. (Section 1 : 24.) 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1789. 

This is a longitudinal, middle-line section of the fore end of a battleship 
of the " Admiral *' class, 1882, 

The stem piece is a solid forging {see No, 695) with a projecting spur 
or ram, and is siipported against the severe stresses to which it may be 
subjected by : (a) the abutments of main and upper decks ; (6) the hori- 
zontal frames or breast-hooks, six in number ; (c) the hoi-izontal ram plate 
5 in. thick, riveted to the protective deck, and projecting outside the general 
sui-face of shell plating, to which it is secured by stout angle-bars inside and 
outside the ship ; (d) the veitical armour plate, 2 in, thick, riveted to the 
stem and to the bottom plating on each side. 

To prevent the fouling of anchors, the angular spaces between the 
ram plate and the bow plating are filled with wood and protected by thin 
steel plates. 

The model also shows a "collision" bulkhead extending from the 
vertical keel to the upper deck across the vessel. All water gaining 
access below or between any of the horizontal platforms is by this means 
confined to the cellular spaces before this watertight screen. In some 
later vessels these spaces were tightly packed with cork, which gave some 
elasticity and also prevented the entrance of any considerable weight of 
water, 

667. Half midship section of H.M.S. "Royal Sovereign." 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Made bv the Admiralty, 1893. Plate VII., 
No. 2. ' N. 2016. 

This shows the sti-uctural aiTangements amidships of the " R " class of 
battleship. 

The flat keel is built up of two thicknesses of steel plates, and upon this 
is secured by angle-bars a vertical keel plate, to which is attached the main 
transverse framing of the ship. These plate frames are of steel, generally 
•375 in. thick: they are about 5 ft. deep at the centre line of the ship. 



200 

decreasing to about 2*5 ft. at the bilge, and again increasing to about 3* 5 ft. 
below the armour shelf : at intervals of 24 ft. watertight frames are employed. 
The longitudinal framing of the ship c(msists of six continuous fore-and-aft 
plate girders. The lower poi-tion of the hull is rendered cellular by the 
addition of a watertight inner-bottom of steel reaching to the third longi- 
tudinal girder on each side. 

The first longitudinal girder, or annour shelf, is 6 ft. wide amidships, and 
upon it rest the heavy transverse plate fi*ames, about 4*5 ft. wide, which, 
combined with longitudinal intercostal girders, suppoi't the 18-in. steel 
armour plates. The shell of the ship behind the vertical ai-mour is formed 
of two thicknesses of steel plate, and to this a teak backing is bolted. 
Horizontal protection is given by a steel deck, formed of two thicknesses of 
1 *5-in. plates, which is secured to the top of the armoui- belt by tap bolts. 

An important feature in this type of vessel is the secondary armour 
plating, 5 in. thick and 6 ft. deep, which extends for a length of 150 ft. 
amidships and gives with the primary armour a protected freeboard 9*5 ft. 
high. The machinery and vitals of the ship are further protected by coal 
spaces above and below the 3-in. protective deck. 

At the level of the top of the secondary belt is the majn deck, which 
extends unbroken for the whole length of the ship, and upon which the 
officers and men are berthed. On this deck are placed four of the ten 
6 -in. guns which form the principal part of the secondaiy armament of 
the ship. 

668. Sections of armoured side of H.M.S. " Roj^al Sovereign." 
(Scales 1 : 8 and 1 : 12.) Made hv the Admiralty, 1893. 

N. 2016. 

These show in detail the principal protective arrangements adopted in 
the nine battleships of the " Royal Sovereign " class built 1890-4. 

The lower belt of side armour extends for two- thirds the vessel's length 
amidships and is terminated by transverse armour bulkheads ; it is 8*5 ft. 
in width (5 ft. below water-line and 3 • o ft. above) and has 18-in. maximum 
thickness. It is of the ''compound'* type, i.e., the outer face of hardened 
steel and the inner poi-tion of softer and more ductile material to obviate 
the whole plate cracking under the impact of projectiles. Each plate weighs 
about 30 tons and is fastened by bolts— 5 • 5 in. diam. and 2 • 7 ft. long — 
screwed into the back of the plate and thus avoiding the drilling of the 
hardened face. Details of these l)olts are shown ; a long steel sleeve passes 
over the inner end and bears against the 1-in. skin plating; outside of this 
are two plate washers with india-rubber between them, forming an elastic 
])ed upon which the securing nut is screwed. 

The upper belt of 5-in. ai'mour extends over nearly one-half the amidships 
length of the ship and is 6 ft. in width. 

Between the two armour belts is the 3-in. horizontal deck-plating, worked 
in two thicknesses ; this affords additional protection to machinery spaces 
and magazines from gun-fire and the splintering of explosive shells. Upon 
this deck is also fitted a cofferdam, or double-bulkhead, to prevent the rapid 
spreading of loose water to the central hatchways. - 

669. Half midsliip section of an iron ship. (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Lent 1)v Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping, 
1876. '^ N. 1438. 

This represents a typical iron-built merchant vessel of about 2,000 tons 
register, conforming with Lloyd's rules- for the highest class. 

The keel is a vei-tical solid bar ; the keelson a plate girder above the 
floors and caiTying the heels of the pillai-s. The frames are of two angle- 
bars reversed, while the beams are of bulb-bars with two angle-bars riveted 
to them. The shell plating is in longitudinal strakes alternately raised and 
sunken. Details are shown of a watei-tight bulkhead, of bilge and side- 
sti-ingers and of tie-plates to the deck beams. Further information is given 
by a drawing on the wall. 



201 

670. Half midship section of a merchant vessel. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1743. 

This shows the framing of a large merchantman fitted with a bar keel, 
a deep middle-line keelson, and three tiers of ])eams. 

It shows a complete transverse frame, built on the reversed angle-bar 
and solid floor-plate system, with details of the connections to shell plating, 
decks, side and bilge keelsons, also to the stringers in the hold. 

671. Midsliip sections of merchant vessel with cellnlar 
bottom. . (Scale 1 : 12.^ Made by the Admiralty, 1887. 

N. 1744-5. 

These show a merchant ship of moderate dimensions, built with a double 
bottom and a centre-through-plate keel. 

The portion of double-bottom space shown in the completed section 
includes a typical transverse frame formed upon the " bracket " system, 
each part between the continuous longitudinal girders being built up of 
shoi-t plates and angle bars. This model shows also the construction of [a 
strong web-frame fitted above the " margin " plate or outside boundary 
of the cellular bottom. It consists of a vertical plate or web, stiffened 
by double angle-bars on the inner edge, and supported by side stringers 
and diamond plates. Such frames [take the place of the ordinary frames 
and compensate for the loss of deck beams in the way of the hold and 
machinery spaces. 

The other model shows a section of the double-bottom space at a 
position intermediate to that described above. Here the upper frame bar 
is worked intercostally, while the lower frame extends continuously from 
the margin plates across the keel, piercing the longitudinal girders but 
giving transverse support to the shell plating. 

Both of these sections are taken at non-watertight stations. To sub- 
divide the double bottom into the requisite number of cells, transverse and 
longitudinal watertight frames are fitted at intei-vals of from four to eight 
frame-spaces apart. Each bracket composing the former has a solid web 
and is connected by closely- spaced rivets to the inner and outer skins and 
to the adjoining longitudinals. Solid plate fi-ames, lightened by means of 
manholes, are introduced to give increased i-igidity beneath the engines and 
boilers in all ships, and also beneath the barbettes and heavy armament in 
war-vessels. 

The Admiralty system of " bracket " fi*aming and watertight frames is 
shown in Nos. 677-80. 

672. Model of bow and stern framing of a merchant vessel. 

(Scale 1 : 24.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1787. 

These are sectional elevations of the extremities of a single screw steel- 
built merchant ship of the largest type. 

In the fore part is shown the collision bulkhead, extending from keel to 
upper deck, together with the watertight decks and flats for localising the 
effects of damage to this end of the vessel. The full details are shown of 
the ordinary transverse frames and of the specially deep transverse floors, 
which, in conjunction with the " panting stringers " (shown longitudinally 
between decks), are fitted to stiffen the shell plating of ships with these long 
fine bows. 

In the after part similar details of construction are shown, together with 
the method of framing and plating the hull in the neighbourhood of the 
single propeller shaft. 

The rudder with its attachments to the stem fi-ame is also represented. 
This stem post is of the forged solid-bar type, as is also the stem post ; the 
modified sections obtainable when steel castings are used are shown in 
several other models. 



202 

673. Model of " turret-deck " vessel. (Scale 1 : 24.) Made 
in tlie Museum, from particulars supplied by Messrs. 
W. Doxford and Sons, 1900. Plate VII., No. 3. N. 2183. 

This sectional model shows in detail the midship length of a cargo 
steamer of the " tm-ret-deck " type patented in 1891 by Mr. C. D. Doxford. 
The ship represented, moreover, besides differing in its above- water form 
from the usual "tramp " steamer, exhibits several interesting innovations in 
shipbuilding practice introduced to secure strength while economising 
labour and matenals. 

The leading detail in the construction is the general adoption of the 
Bell-Rockliffe system of "joggle" plating, patented in 1887, whereby the 
use of " liners," or packing pieces, between the frames and the plating is 
avoided, and a direct saving in the weight of hull effected. This system 
has now been followed to some extent in the plating of ordinary merchant 
vessels and in modem warships, the edges of the plates being either pressed 
to the required form, or rolled in a special machine patented by Mr. C. D. 
Doxford in 1894 and shown in an adjacent photograph. 

Another detail in which the construction dift'ers from general practice is 
in the use of " plate flanges," instead of rolled sections, for stiffening the 
main watei-tight bullcheads and for connecting the framing of the cellular 
bottom. 

For the main transverse framing of the ship, '• Z " sections are used 
thi-oughout, with bulb angle-bars forming the uppei' parts : the curvature 
of this " harbour "-deck framing, in conjunction with the thick shell -plating, 
offers considerable resistance to the stresses to which this poi-tion of a ship 
is subjected in a sea-way. At intervals of about 20 ft. throughout the 
vessel, specially strong transverse fi-ames are fitted — as shown at the end of 
the hatchways ; these frames are connected at the height of the harbour- 
deck by athwartship beams of double channel -bar supported by pillars of 
similar construction. 

The lower, or " tween," deck is intermediately supported by a combi- 
nation of fore-and-aft girders and widely-spaced pillars, so arranged as not 
to seriously intei-fere with the stowage of cargo. These, together with a 
portion of a large cargo hatch fitted with " shifting " beams, are shown on 
each deck, and the model also indicates the construction of the " hold " 
below. 

The upper or weather deck of an ordinary merchant steamer is replaced 
in the " turret " type by the harbour deck, from the central poi-tion of which 
rises a narrower section, or " tm-ret," extending the full length of the vessel 
and suppoi-ting the working platfonn of the ship. The constructive value 
of the whole tiin-et-erection is, that it forms an integral pai-t of the ship in 
a position in which the material possesses great efficiency in resisting the 
hogging and sagging stresses ; at the same time the interior acts as a 
" feeder " for bulk or grain cargoes, in a similar way to Price's self -trimming 
hatchways {see No. 722). 

Like the " whaleback " steamer, so successfully adopted as a freight 
caiTier on the American lakes, the " turret " vessel has some advantages in 
construction and registration over a vessel of the ordinary type, arising 
from the absence of sheer and the reduced deadweight of the hull, while 
being moreover suited for ocean navigation. 

674. Model of "tank" steamer " Paul Paix." (Scale 1:24.) 
Lent by Messrs. R. Craggs and Sons, Ltd., 1909. N. 2516. 

Thist-epresents a poHion of the midship section of an oil-carrying steamer 
built by Messrs. R. Craggs and Sons at Middlesboro' in 1908 upon a system 
of construction introduced by Mr. J. W. Isherwood. 

The value of longitudinal framing in iron ships was demonstrated as 
early as 1834 by Mr. J. Scott Russell, who built a small steamer entirely 
without transverse frames— a number of fore-and-aft stringers, riveted 
internally along the plate edges, supplying all necessary structural strength ; 



203 

the famous " Great Eastern," completed in 1859, likewise embodied this 
principle (see models and dra-vvings in Ship Gallery). Since this time 
several attempts have been made to give longitudinal frames a more 
important place in shipbuilding, but with no great practical success. 

The " Isherwood " system re-arranges on this principle the material 
used for the main framing of a ship. The ordinary closely- spaced transverse 
fi*ames and beams are supplanted by closely-spaced longitudinal frames at 
the bottom, sides and decks, while the necessary transverse strength is 
supplied by widely- spaced plate girders or frames extending completely 
round the inside of the hull ; an efficient spacing of the latter has been 
found to be 12 to 16 ft., and of the former 27 to 29 in. By this new dis- 
position of framing, it is claimed, all sti*uctiu-al requirements are met with 
less weight of material. Other advantages claimed are : — Greater simplicity 
in preparing and erecting the constructional parts ; less liability to serious 
damage by collision ; easier accessibility for maintenance and repair ; 
increased hold space, in ordinary cargo steamers, owing to fewer beam knees 
and bilge brackets. 

In a modera oil-carrying steamer, the numerous "tank" bulkheads 
necessary give a natural increase of transverse strength, and hence some- 
what simplify the adoption of this system ; two transverse plate-frames 
only are in this case required between consecutive bulkheads. As shown by 
the model, these plate-frames are divided by the centre-line bulkhead, a 
complete half- frame being fitted on each side. Following the usual pi-actice 
in vessels of this type, all longitudinal framing is cut off at each oil-tight 
bulkhead, and the continuity of strength maintained by gusset or corner 
plates {see No. 300). In the ••' Paul Paix " the bulb-angle framing at the 
sides connect with the horizontal stiffeners of the bulkhead, and both the 
fi-aming and stiffeners increase in dimensions with their depth below the 
water-line ; each transverse bulkhead is fui-ther supported by vertical web- 
stiffeners worked on the opposite side to the horizontal stiffeners. Each 
strong transverse frame is built up of -^S-in. plating and varies in depth 
from 20 in. to 39 in. ; the plating of decks and sides is • 5 in. thick. The 
principal scantlings have been approved by Lloyd's Register, Bureau Veritas, 
and the British Coi-poration. 

The " Paul Paix" is of the single-deck type with a continuous expansion- 
trunk above her main cargo spaces. She has a dead-weight capacity of 
6,200 tons, and can load to full draught with light motor spirit, which 
is carried in 16 separate tanks. Oil fuel is earned in double-bottom 
compartments. 

The principal particulars of the vessel are : — Gross register, 4,196 tons ; 
length, extreme, 367 ft. ; breadth, 49-4 ft. ; depth, moulded, 28 ft. 

At the present time (1910) the " Isherwood" system has been adopted in 
about 45 vessels, built or building. Adjacent photographs show details of 
the construction of the " Craster Hall," a two-decked vessel built on this 
system for ordinary cargo purposes, in 1908-9. Her principal paiiiculars 
are : — Dead-weight capacity, 7,300 tons ; gross register, 2,759 tons ; length, 
392 • 5 ft. ; breadth, 50 ft. ; depth, 29 ft. 

675. Section of bar keels and centre-plate keelsons. 
(Scale 1 : 4.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1730-1. 

These illustrate two methods of combining, in steel-built vessels, a solid 
bar-keel with a vertical plate keelson. 

In (a) the floor-plates are fitted continuously across the keel, the lower 
portion of the vertical plate being scored through for this purpose, while 
the transverse (frame and reversed frame) angle-bars are butted at the 
middle line. The upper portion of the vertical keelson plate is formed into 
a continuous longitudinal girder by the addition of double angle-bars to 
the top and bottom edges ; a horizontal rider-plate at the upper edge 
provides the necessary security for the lower tier of pillars. The forged 
lengths of bar-keel are connected together by means of well-riveted scarf 



204 

joints, and the whole is secured to the general framing of the ship by 
flangmg the garboard strakes of shell plating as shown. 

In (6) both floor-plate and frame-angles are cut off at the middle line 
by a continuous centre -through-plate keelson. From the underside of 
keel this extends sufficiently above the top of the floors to take two 
continuous angle-bars and a bulb-plate ; at the lower edge two side bars, 
one on each side, are fitted, the total thickness of the three plates being 
usually equal to that of a single bar-keel. When carefully riveted to the 
garboard strake, as shown, this is a highly efficient combination, although 
the cost of workmanship has militated against its genei-al adoption by 
shipbuilders. The butts of upper and lower frame-angles are connected 
by short doubling-angles, which are scored through the keelson-plate on the 
opposite side of the floor -plate. 

676. Section of flat keel and centre-plate keelson. (Scale 1 : 4.) 
Made by tlie Admiralty, 1887. ^ N, 1732. 

This construction is largely used for small vessels in the mercantile 
marine. A single flat-plate keel, double riveted to the garboard strakes 
of bottom plating, is combined with a continuous vertical keelson-plate 
provided with double angle-bars to upper and lower edges. The trans- 
verse frames extend from the middle-line to the topsides of the vessel 
and are connected to the keelson-plate by means of short vei-tical angles 
on each side of the floor-plate; there is also a continuous "gutter plate" 
i-iveted to the reversed frame-bars and to the upper angles of the keelson. 

For large vessels, Lloyd's rules require the flat-plate keel to be doubled 
for one-half the vessel's length amidships. 

677. Model of bracket framing. (Scale 1 : 12.) Received, 
1874. N. 1395. 

This illustrates the construction of the double bottoms of warships 
din-ing the period 1870 to 1895. 

It shows two complete " bracket " frames, at non- watertight stations, 
and details of their connections with the longitudinal frames ; also portions 
of two "longitudinals," one of which serves the purpose of an ordinary 
lightened-plate girder, while the other, built of solid-plates with closer- 
spaced riveting, serves the additional pui-pose of a watertight boundary to 
the cellular spaces into which the double bottom is divided. 

Owing to the greater length, speed, and ai-mament of modem vessels, a 
modified form of bracket frame, giving greater strength and rigidity, has 
been generally adopted. 

678. Model showing cellular construction. (Scale 1 : 4.'i 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1735. 

This is a transverse section of a double-bottom at the middle-line of the 
vessel. It shows full details of the arrangements for connecting the inner 
and outer skin plating with the bracket frames and veriical keel. 

Butt straps of the vertical keel and of the inner and outer flat keels are 
shown, also the covering straps of the butts of the upper and lower keel 
angles, with details of the riveting in each case. The practice of lapping 
the upper and lower frame angles upon the veriical keel angles is now 
discontinued, the former angles being cut shorter so as to avoid the 
expensive bending. 

679. Model showing cellular construction. (Scale 1:4.) 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1746. 

This shows a portion of the framing and outer bottom plating of a vessel 
built on the cellular system. 

It comprises one watertight and six ordinary "bracket" frames, with 
their adjacent longitudinal girders, and shows the method of constmcting 
and combining the same ; also the shell plating in the vicinity, with details 



205 

of the riveting at the butts, edges, and frames. The model further 
illustrates a method of disposing the butts of shell plating, whereby two 
unpierced strakes are provided between butts in the same frame space. 

680. Models showing cellular construction. (Scale 1 : 4.) 
Made by tlie Admiralty, 1887. N. 1733-4. 

These show details of the fi-aming and plating adopted in the constiiiction 
of the cellular bottoms of warships, 

(a) is a watei*tight bracket frame, extending from the middle-line of the 
vessel to the first longitudinal. It consists of a solid plate bounded by a 
complete frame of angle-bar which is connected by closely- spaced riveting 
with the inner and outer bottoms, as well as with the vertical keel and the 
longitudinals. When caulked this transverse frame forms a watertight 
partition between two of the many cellular spaces into which the double 
bottom is divided. 

(b) shows the construction of an ordinary bracket frame, and is typical 
of the general structure of the frames between the watertight ones. 

Each model also illustrates a method of securing a longitudinal bulkhead 
and its vertical stiffeners to the inner bottom plating. 

Details of the more recent practice in regard to the construction and 
fitting of these frames are shown in model No. 667. 

681. Model of outer bottom plating of a warship. (Scale 1 : 4.) 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1736. 

This represents a portion of a double-bottom and details of the shell 
plating in the neighbom-hood of the keel. 

The methods of fitting butt straps to the vertical keel plates, to the 
inner and outer flat keel plates, and to the fii-st or garboard strakes of the 
outer-bottom plating are shown, together with the covering strap of a butt 
of the lower angle- bar to the vertical keel. 

The lower portion of this cellular bottom, after being carefully caulked 
and tested, is covered with a layer of cement, which protects the structure 
from the coiTOsive and mechanically wearing efliects of bilge -water. The 
cement is thickest near the keel, where it rtses to the height of the circular 
drainage holes shown in the bracket frames, thus facilitating the complete 
pumping out of these compartments. 

682. Model of outer bottom plating showing disposition of the 
butts. (Scale 1:4.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. 

N. 1747-8. 

These illustrate two systems of so arranging the butts of shell plating as 
to give uniform distribution of these lines of transverse weakness. 

(a), with plates four-frame spaces in length, shows three passing strakes 
of plating l^etween each pair of butts in the same frame space. 

(6), with plates five-frame spaces in length, has four passing sti-akes 
between consecutive butts in the same vertical section. 

For illustration of an aiTangement in which only two passing strakes 
break the line of consecutive butts, see No. 679. 

683. Model of shell plating showing "stealers." (Scale 1 : 4.) 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1749-50. 

The great difference between the girth of a vessel amidships and at the 
extremities renders it necessaiy to end some of the strakes of the outer 
bottom plating before reaching the bow or stera ; these shortened strakes 
are known as " stealers."' 

(a) and (h) show in elevation a method of working a stealer in a sunken 
or a raised strake respectively. 

The smaller models (c), (d), (e), and (/) are transverse sections of the 
above, taken through the dotted lines marked " A B " and "CD." They 
show details of the tapered rebates and edge connections, whereby the two 
strakes are worked into one and then efficiently secm-ed. 



206 

684. Models of beam, frames, and stringer connections. 
(Scale 1 : 4.) Made bv the xidmiralty, 1887. 

N. 1737 and 1768. 

These show the usual attachment between a ship's beam, a transverse 
frame, and a deck stringer ; also the connection between a deck stringer, 
a frame, and (a) the sheer strake of a composite-built vessel, (6) the shell 
plating of a steel-built vessel. 

The latter model shows, in addition, portions of the wooden sheathing 
and deck planking, as well as a "gutter- way" for carrying water from 
the deck to the scuppers ; this gutter is formed of two continuous longi- 
tudinal angle-bars. The ti-ansverse frame is here of Z-section, while 
(a) shows a deep outer frame- bar with a smaller reversed angle riveted to 
its inner edge. 

The ends of the deck beams shown have been deepened to strengthen 
the joint by splitting and opening them, then inserting an additional piece 
in the web and welding it into position. Usually the inserted web com- 
pletely fiUs the space and forms a solid end, but frequently the lightened 
an-angement shown, in which a hole is left in the web, is adopted. The 
connection between a frame and a beam is sometimes made by a bracket 
plate riveted to the two, thus saving the expensive smith- work. 

685. Models of deck stringers. (Scale 1:4.) Made by the 
Admiralty, 1827. N. 1738-9. 

These illustrate alternative methods of fitting a deck stringer plate to 
a steel-built vessel, when such plate forms a portion of a watertight or 
non- watertight deck respectively. In both cases the stringer plate is 
scored over the ship's frames, here shown of the Z-section, and is secured 
to the inside flanges of the same by means of a continuous longitudinal 
angle- bar. 

Under ordinary circumstances the inner edge of a deck stringer- plate 
is connected to the shell plating by shoi*t angle-bars fitted between the 
frames as shown by model (a). When, however, a watertight boundary 
is required, a complete frame of angle-bar, carefully riveted and caulked, 
is fitted as shown in (b), . 

686. Model showing bulkhead construction. (Scale 1:4.) 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1753. 

This represents a portion of a watertight bulkhead jointed with flush 
edges and butts. 

The plating is stiffened on one side by vertical angle-bars, and on the 
other by horizontal T-bars which also serve as cover strips for the butt 
joints. The distribution of the joints and the details of the riveting are 
also shown. The maia bulkheads of modern warships in H.M. Navy have 
been fuither stiffened by the addition of vertical Z or H-bars, provided with 
plate brackets to their heads, heels, and sides. 

687. Model of attachment of watertight bulkheads. (Scale 
1 : 4.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1754. 

This shows the method of securing the lower part of a transverse 
watertight bulkhead to the iimer bottom of a vessel built on the cellular 
system. 

A boundaiy angle-bar is attached by means of closely- spaced rivets to 
the inner-bottom plating and to the lower edge of the bulkhead plates, 
a wide liner being fitted over the sunken strakes so as to level up the 
sm-face and also to compensate for the loss of tmnsverse strength at this 
section {see No. 688). The almtments of a fore-and-aft coal-bunker or wing 
bulkhead are shown, also the vertical stiff eners to the ti-ans verse bulkliead, 
together with portions of the cellular framing below. It is now usual to fit 
small bracket plates to the heels of all vertical stiff eners, and also to place 
if possible solid -plate frames directly under all watertight bulkheads. 



207 

688. Model of attachment of watertight bulkheads. (Scale 
1 : 4.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1755. 

This shows a method of securing a transverse watertight bulkhead to 
the ship's plating. 

A continuous boundary angle-bar, well riveted and caulked on the 
bulkhead, is similarly connected to the shell- plating. Where there are 
sunken strakes of plating a wide liner is fitted, in order to simplify the 
work and to strengthen a section that is considerably weakened by the 
number of holes necessary for watertight riveting. Gusset or bracket 
plates are fitted between the bulkhead and the adjoining frames on each 
side ; these stiffen the shell and help to resist the racking stresses to which 
the plating and framing are subjected in a sea-way. 

689. Models of watertight bulkhead joints. (Scale 1 : 4.) 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1756-8. 

For the maintenance of structiu-al strength in a steel-built vessel it is 
often necessary to continue beams and girders completely through the 
watertight bulkheads. To insure watertightness at such intersections, short 
connecting angle-bars, fashioned to a template and carefully riveted and 
caulked, are generally fitted around the joints. 

The accompanying models show details of the an-angements when the 
bulkhead is pierced respectively by a bulb angle-bar, a bulb T-bar, and a 
box- girder. 

690. Models of bulwarks. (Scale 1 : 4.) Made by the 
Admiralty, 1887. N. 1740-2. 

These three models illustrate various modes of forming the side stinicture 
above the upper deck in steel or composite-built vessels. 

(a) is a combination of wood and metal ; a rough- tree stanchion can-ies 
the outside wooden planking and top rail, and is secured at the heel to the 
sheer strake and to an imier " clamp plate." It also shows the usual method 
of working a wooden " watei-way " with the adjoining deck planking. 

In (h) and (c) the topsides are formed entirely of steel, and are stiffened, 
in one case by means of a bulwark stay so riveted to the deck, top rail, and 
side plating as to afford a distributed suppoi-t ; in the other by a continuation 
of the transverse frames of the ship to the height of the top rail. 

Freeing poi-ts are fitted to the bulwark plating of all vessels, sufficient 
in number to discharge readily any water accumulating upon the upper deck; 
as their doors only open outwards they act as valves in preventing water 
from entering. Details of bulwark framing and plating for composite 
vessels are shown on diagrams No. 643. 

691. Model of deck planking. (Scale 1:4.) Made by the 
Admiralty, 1887. N. 1760-1. 

These models show the usual method of securing a wooden deck to iron 
or steel beams when no deck plating is fitted. 

For deck planks over 8 in. in width, Lloyd's niles require two bolt 
fastenings in each beam, secured by nuts on the imderside of the flange. 
The butts of deck plank are, if possible, supported on a beam ; where the 
beam flanges are not of sufficient width to receive the necessary fastenings 
a short piece of plate is riveted to the beam, and the ends of plank secured 
to it as shown. 

692. Model of deck iDlating and planking. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1759. 

This is a portion of an iron or steel deck of single thickness, with an 
upper covering of wooden planking. The positions of the deck beams and 
of the butt straps and edge strips to the plating can be seen, together with 



208 

full details of the riveting in each. The butts, edges, and fastenings of 
wooden planking are disposed as shown ; the planking is secured by 
galvanised iron bolts, which pierce the plating between the beams and are 
fitted with nuts below. 

693. Model of protective deck plating. (Scale 1 : 12.) Made 
by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1762-3. 

This deck plating, when fitted for the purpose of protecting the vital 
parts of a warship from gun fire, is usually laid in several thicknesses. The 
accompanying models illustrate an arrangement for fitting and riveting 
such plating when worked in two and three thicknesses respectively. 

The butts and edges are generally disposed as showii, each thickness of 
plating being utilised as a butt strap and edge strip to others. In this way 
the cost of riveting is minimised, as three single rows of rivets are sufficient 
to secure the two edges in one case, while four rows secure three edges as 
shown in the other. The usual practice is to first rivet the lower thickness 
to the ship's beams, then to fasten the upper thicknesses to the lower by 
through or tap-rivets disposed between the beams. 

In one model the butts of the upper thickness rivet to a beam ; the 
more recent practice is, however, to aiTange all butts clear of beams where 
pi*acticable. 



694. Rudder and stern-post. Lent by Messrs. Win. Jessop 
and Sons, 1884. N. 1670. 

This is a duplicate of a ci*ucible cast steel stem-frame and iiidder, made 
in 1881, which is believed to have been the first stem- post made in the way 
that has now become almost universal. It weighs 2 cwt., and was designed 
by Mr. J. F. Hall, for a launch built by Mr. John Shuttleworth, of Hull. 
She was 25 ft. long, 5 ft. beam, 3*17 ft. deep to gunwales, and Avas fitted 
with two-stage expansion engines indicating 3 h.p., and giving a speed of 
6 to 7 knots. She caiTied 3 • 5 tons of cargo, in addition to a supply of coal. 

The earlier practice was to make the stern-post as a forging by welding 
up portions in iron or steel, but large steel castings in Bessemer or Siemens 
metal are now used in all classes of steamers. 

695. ^lodel of stem and stern frames of battleship. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Made by the Achniralty, 1887. N. 1751-2. 

These represent the forged iron posts for a battleship of the " Admiral " 
class, 1882. 

The details of the connections with the shell plating and with the flat 
and vertical keels are shown in each case, while the particulars of the special 
framing associated with this type of post are represented in No. 666. 

"With the introduction of large steel castings into ship construction a 
hollowed or gulleted form of stem and stem post was rendered possible, 
with horizontal ribs and ledges for the more efficient attachment to the hull 
fi-aming and plating. 

696. Model of frame of balanced rudder. (Scale 1 : 24.) Made 
by the Darlington Forge Co., 1895. N. 2067. 

This represents the cast- steel frame of the rudders of H.M. cruisers 
" Andromache " and " Apollo," built at Chatham in 1890-1. 

The rudder is of the balanced type, in which the axis of turning 
coincides with the centre of pressm-e when acting, so that but little power 
is required in setting and retaining the rudder in any desired position. 
This centre of pressm-e is at about • 3 of the width of the rudder from its 
leading edge. 

The iiidder is completed by filling the frame with light wood, and then 
covering it on each side with thin steel plating, tap-riveted on ; the wood 



209 

packing, however, is sometimes omitted. The weight of the i-udder is 
carried by a collar, within the ship, resting on balls or bearing rollers. The 
lower end of the rudder turns in a socket on the stern post (see No. 128). 

697. Model of sliaft brackets for S.S. " Empress of Cliina." 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Made by the Darlington Forge Co., 1895. 

N. 2062. 

This represents the shaft brackets of this twin screw steamer, built at 
Barrow-in-Furness in 1891, for the Canadian Pacific Railway Co. 

They are formed in a single steel casting, which has three large vertical 
flanges for connecting it to the stera post and to the transverse framing of 
the ship. 

The actual weight of this casting was 26 tons. 

698. Model of stem of H.M.S. "Royal Sovereign," 1892. 
(Scale 1 : 16.) Made by the Admiralty, 1893. N. 2016. 

This cast steel stem-piece is formed in two parts, connected together by 
a scarf- joint as shown ; its total weight was 25 tons. 

The whole is strengthened against ramming stresses by the abutments 
of the various decks and the shell plating, while special support is given to 
the spur or ram by its connection with the protective deck plating, which 
is 2 • 5 in. thick, and extends backwards from the bow through a distance 
of 76 ft. 

699. Model of shaft bracket for H.M.S. "Royal Sovereign." 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Made bv the Darlington Forge Co., 1895. 

N. 2066. 

This represents one of a pair of cast- steel bi^ackets for this twin screw 
battleship, built at Portsmouth in 1892. 

Both arms of the casting pierce the shell plating of the ship, and the 
upper one is riveted to a thick " palm " plate strongly connected to the 
genei-al fi-aming of the vessel, while the lower one is joined, by means of a 
scarf, to the lower arm of the opposite bracket, and both ^i-e riveted to a special 
framing attached to the vertical keel. 

700. Model of stern irame. (Scale 1 : 24.) .Made by the 
Darlington Forge Co., 1895. N. 2064. 

This is a combined stem and i*udder-post of cast steel, as fitted to the 
Peninsular and Oriental Co.'s steamships *' Australia " and " Himalaya," 
built at Greenock in 1892. 

The frame is in three pai*ts, scarfed together and riveted were indicated. 
It is provided with a boss for a single screw-propeller, and five gudgeons foi 
caiTying the iiidder ; there are also projecting arms for efficient connection 
with the hull framing. 

The total weight of the three castings was 23 tons. 

701. Model of stern castings. (Scale 1 : 24.) Made by the 
Darlington Forge Co., 1895. N. 2063. 

This represents a cast steel stem-frame with shaft brackets attached, as 
fitted to the Union Steamship Co.'s twin-screw vessels " Gaul," " Goth," and 
"' Greek," built at Belfast in 1893. In these steamers the screw shafts are 
so close together that the propeller paths would overlap were the port screw 
not somewhat in front of the starboard one (see No. 702), 

The stem- post shows the aii*angements for connecting it with the flat 
keels and to the transverse framing of the ship. 

702. Models of stern castings for S.S. " Cevic." (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Made by the Darlington Forge Co., 1895. N. 2061. 

These represent the cast steel stem-post, rudder-frame, and shaft- 
brackets in their correct relative positions, as fitted to this twin-screw 
F .G773, n 



210 

White Star liner, built at Belfast in 1894. The overhanging form of 
stem-post here shown permits of an increased immersion of the propellers 
and a closer an-angement of the centre lines of the propeller shafting ; 
the I'educed area of after dead-wood also gives a shorter turning radius 
to the vessel. 

A single casting, riveted to the stem-post and adjoining framing of the 
ship, forms a double shaft-bracket ; in its construction provision is made for 
placing the port propeller in advance of the starboard one. The mdder is 
completed by riveting a steel plate between the projecting arms of the 
frame casting. 

Weight of stem fi-ames, 17 tons; weight of double shaft- bracket, 
12 tons ; weight of i-udder-frame, 11*5 tons. 

703. Models of stem, stern and rudder castings of H.M.S. 
" Majestic." (Scale 1 : 24.) Made by the Darlington Forge 
Co., 1895. N. 2065. 

These represent cast- steel frames as used in the construction of this 
first-class battleship at Portsmouth in 1894-5. 

The stem and stem-posts show the rebates for the attachment of the 
flat keel plates and shell plating, and also the horizontal lugs or ledges for 
the attachment of decks, platforms and breasthooks : a projecting spur or 
ram with special stiffening web forms pai-t of the stem casting. On the 
upper portion of the rudder-frame are shown the two wedge-shaped stops 
for limiting the angle of turning. 

The actual weights of these castings were: stem, 27*5 tons; stern, 
8 tons ; rudder, 13 tons. 

704. Model of stem and stern frames of a cruiser. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Made by the Darlington Foi'ge Co., 1895. 

N. 2068. 

These frames were cast in steel for the Spanish cruiser " Princesa de 
Asturias," 6,648 ton^ displacement, built at Caraccas in 1895, 

Both castings show the usual rebate for housing the shell plating, also 
an exceptional length of lap for securing to the flat keel plates. The stem 
has provision made for the ram plate and for the abutments of upper, 
main, and lower decks, by which it is greatly strengthened. The stem 
frame has on its fore end a long vertical web for attachment to the ship- 
stinicture, and on its after end a rectangular recess to receive the lower 
palms of the shaft-brackets. 

705. Model of stern casting for double rudders. (Scale 1 : 8.) 
Received 1901. N. 2261 

This represents a cast-steel stem-post as fitted to H.M, ram cruisers 
" AiTOgant," " Furious," " Gladiator " and " Yindictive," built in 1896-1900 
at the Royal Dockyards. To ensui-e rapid manoeuvring power, these vessels 
are provided with double mdders. 

The casting weighs about 10 tons, but is made in two parts connected 
together at the position shown by a scarf joint and covering-plate. The 
upper end is riveted to the protective deck and the lower end to the flat- 
keel plates ; additional connection with the hull of the ship is obtained by the 
outer, or shell, plating which is riveted into the rebate extending along the 
whole length of the casting. At the side are projecting palms to which 
the lower arms of the propeller- shaft brackets are riveted. 

The rudder-posts pass throiigh sockets, and the weight of each rudder is 
carried upon a horizontal flange which forms part of the main casting ; a 
small spui', at the heel of the main inidder-post, carries a steadying pintle. 
For full details of the rudders and of the complete steering machinery 
nee No. 1064. 



211 

706. Model of stern frame for H.M.S. " Formidable " (1898). 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Received 1907. N. 2440. 

This represents the cast steel stem-frame as adopted for the eight 
battleships of the " Formidable " class. 

In order to improve the turning qualities of long, fast vessels it has 
been a practice, since about 1894, in designs both for merchant and war- 
ships, to cut away a portion of the after dead-wood. This necessitates 
some modification of the after-framing and, in the example shown, has 
originated the peculiar arched or overhanging stem-casting, having its 
after-edge or rudder-post caiTied vertically downwards to nearly the normal 
keel-line; a short intermediate poi-tion or "heel" provides a suitable 
bearing for the after-end of the vessel when in dry- dock. "Vertical and 
horizontal webs are cast on the frame for the attachment of intemal 
decks and plate frames. The weight of the actual casting was about 
11 tons. 

A small separate model illustrates the method of scarfing and rivetmg 
the lower " palms " of the propeller brackets for these ships. 

For details of the connections of these parts with the adjacent ship- 
structure see No. 1063. 

707. Models of stem, stern and rudder castings for S.S. 
" Ermack." (Scale 1 : 24.) Made by the Darlington Forge 
Co., 1902. N. 2289. 

These represent the steel castings for the ice-breaking steamer 
" Ermack," built in 1898 at Elswick, by Messrs. Sir W. G. Armstrong, 
Whitworth & Co., for the Russian Government. 

The stem-post above the water-hne has the usual shape, but from a 
point near the line of maximum draught of the vessel it turns shai-ply 
backwards and continues in a gradual downward slope for a length of about 
32 ft., when it again assumes a more vertical direction till it terminates in a 
boss for a screw propeller. The long overhanging bow thus obtained 
causes the vessel, after impact, to rise upon an ice-field, thus utilising the 
actual weight of the ship to break a passage through the ice ; this action is 
fui'ther assisted by the V-shaped section of the underside of the casting, 
and also by the violent disturbance given to the water below by the 
bow propeller. Beyond the boss is a projecting lip or " palm " to take 
the foremost keel plates which here rise considerably above the normal 
keel line. 

The stem-frame is a combined rudder and stem-post, the latter portion 
having a boss for one of the three after propellers, and the former the 
gudgeons for carrying the iTidder. On each side of the screw aperture the 
vertical edges of the casting have bevelled faces so as to give a ready 
passage for any obstmcting masses of floating ice ; near the heel of the 
stem-post is an abutment and scarf for attaching the after ends of the 
keel plates. The fork made by the upper part of this casting forms 
the lower boundary of a large recess provided in the stem of the vessel, 
for housing the bow of a ship which may require towing into an ice- 
bound harbour or which may be required as an auxiliary in forcing a 
channel. 

Both the bow and stem-frames show the usual rebates for the attach- 
ment of the shell plating, but the intemal guUeting of the castings is 
reduced to the minimum required for efficient riveting, so as to give 
increased solidity to sections that may be subjected to exceptional stresses. 
A number of transverse and longitudinal ribs or flanges provide means for 
connecting the castings with the general framing of the ship. 

The rudder, shown in position, is a single steel casting, and is provided 
with stops to limit its angle of turning. The actual weights of the 
castings were : — Stem, 16 • 2 tons ; stem frame, 7 • 9 tons ; rudder, 12 • 7 tons. 

o 2 



212 

708. Model of stem post of H.M.S. " Vengeance." (Scale 1 : 
24.) Made by tlie Darlington Forge Co., 1902. N. 2288. 

This represents the cast steel stern-post and ram of a first-class battleship, 
built by Messrs. Yickers, Son and Maxim at Barrow-in-Furaess in 
1898-1901. 

Owing to the sharp angular rise given to the fore-foot of this type of 
vessel, the stem casting is wholly above the level of the keel line. It is, 
however, scarfed to the flat keel plates in the usual manner, the latter being 
bent upwards for this purpose ; the lower edges of the vei-tical keelson plates 
are riveted to a longitudinal web formed on the inside of the lower portion 
of the casting. 

The i-am itself is nearer the water-line of the vessel than in earlier types 
and is more completely supported. Just above the spur is a broad projecting 
ledge to which the 2-in. protective deck is riveted, and immediately below 
this, in the centre of the spur, provision is made for attaching a special i*am 
plate 2 in. thick. In addition to these there is the suppoi-t derived from the 
ordinary shell plating of the ship and also from a protective skin of 2-in. 
nickel steel which covers the bow on both sides to a height of 10 ft. above 
the water-line. Double rebates are shown for housing these two thicknesses 
of plating, and at the upper portion of the casting are edges for attaching 
the foremost ends of the main and upper decks. The actual weight of the 
casting was 13 tons. 

709. Models of stern and rudder frames of H.M.S. '' Drake." 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Made by the Darlington Forge Co., 1902. 

N. 2287. 

These were cast in steel for a first-class armoured cruiser built at 
Pembroke in 1899-1901. (See No. 135.) 

The stem-frame rises considerably above the normal keel line, the after 
dead-wood being cut away in this particular class of vessel. The after keel- 
plates are bent to the angle of the casting, and secured to it by a double 
scarf, shown at the lower end of the model ; near this scarf are two large 
projecting palms for carrying the lower arms of the screw-propeller brackets. 

A rebate for housing the ends of the outer skin plating is shown along 
the whole length of the stem casting ; there are various lugs or ledges for 
attaching the decks and platforms of the ship. At the heel of the upright 
post is a wedge-shaped stop for limiting the turning-angle of the rudder. 

The rudder-frame, shown in position, is a single casting, and when 
covered with thin steel plating, will form a rudder of balanced type. A 
steadying pintle is fitted below the heel of the stem post, but the actual 
weight of the i-udder is carried upon a tumtable which forms part of the 
main stern casting as in the model of steering gear No. 1064. 

Weight of stem frame, 25 tons ; weight of inidder, 18 '6 tons. 



710. Model of portion of main deck battery. (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. N. 1180. 

This model shows thi'ee broadside guns and their mountings, as ari'anged 
in the warships proposed by Yice- Admiral E. P. Halsted in 1865-7. (See 
Nos. 98 to 105.) The side armour extends up to the main deck with lighter 
plating over the battery ; the upper work is formed with tumbling rails so 
that it can be placed clear of the turret guns when required. The heaviest 
gun shown has a winch training gear ; all three guns are mounted on iron 
carriages and slides, designed by Capt. T. B. Heathorn, R.A., which give a 
nuizzle-pivoting movement ; the poiibs are, however, of the large size then 
usual. 



213 

711. Model of gun turret. (Scale 1 : 16.) Presented by 
Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 1867. N. 1182. 

This represents Mr. R. Napier's turret, for cariying two Whitwoi'th 
9-in. M.L. guns, which was introduced in the designs for the combined turret 
and broadside armour-plated ships-of-war proposed by Yice-Admii-al 
E. H. Halsted in 1865-7. {See Nos. 98 to 105.) 

The tuiTet is 25 ft. external diameter and 21 ft. internal ; the armour 
consists of 8 in. of solid iron in complete rings 2 • 5 ft. high, then a packing 
of vei-tical or diagonal beams of teak 8 in. thick, supported by Hughes' hollow 
stringers formed into complete rings and secured to the inner iron skin, 
which is 1 in. thick. The roof of the turret is formed of alternately reversed 
T-irons, which form a shield that leaves ample ventilation. The turret is 
supported on a live ring of coned rollers, which travel on a bed formed 
around a circular main deck hatchway, with coamings 13 ft. external diam. 
and 4 • 5 ft. high, protected by armour similar to that on the turret ; the space 
between this ai-mour and the turret affords ventilation for the main deck. 
This armoured base protects the ammunition, hoists, etc., as well as the 
vertical shaft by which the turret is turned by steam power from below. 

Sections of this tui-ret are shown in several of the half models of the 
Halsted ships. 



SHIPS' FITTINGS, etc. 



712. Diagrams showing ventilation of a battleship. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Made by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1798. 

These show in profile, plan and section, the general aiTangements 
adopted for ventilating a vessel of the central citadel type. 

The spaces between main and upper decks are principally ventilated by 
the hatchways and side scuttles ; those between main and protective decks 
by means of vertical shafts, rising above the upper deck and fitted with 
adjustable cowls, so that the motion of the ship or direction of the wind can 
be utilised to force air into or withdraw air from the interior. This air is 
distributed through horizontal pipes or trunks opening into the various 
compartments by means of sliding shutters or louvres. 

The updraught produced by heated air in the funnel casing is used to 
draw the foul air from the coal-bunkers through exhaust trunks, the fresh 
air being supplied by pipes fitted between the ship's frames and reaching to 
the topsides. Free circulation of air to engine and boiler-rooms is secured 
by the large ventilatoi-s and cowls amidships rising well above the upper 
deck, from which also the supply to the steam fans is drawn when the 
boilers are under forced draught. 

As the openings in the protective deck are necessarily limited in 
number, most of the compartments below are ventilated artificially. 
Revolving fans, driven by steam or electric motors, draw fresh air from 
downcast shafts and force it through large trunks, provided with numerous 
branches and outlets, to every accessible pai-t of the fore and after ends of 
the ship, including magazines, capstan, steering, shell, and provision rooms, 
all these compartments exhausting into a main trunk leading to the funnel- 
casing. 

As a ventilating pipe forms a passage through the watei-tight bulkheads, 
a weighted valve is fitted which, by a trigger gear actuated by a float, closes 
the pipe if water enters its compai-tment. 

Supply shafts and tninks are shown in blue ; exhaust shafts and trunks 
are shown in red. 

Since about 1900 the above system has been considerably modified by 
dividing each vessel into a number of separately-ventilated imits, i.e., 
between the main watertight bulkheads. Each unit is provided with one, 
or more, small motor fans {see Mechanical Engineering Collection), these 



214 

draw air from the upper deck and deliver it, through a common air-chamber, 
to the local sub-divisions ; special exhaust trunks are fitted where necessary. 
This arrangement obviates the piercing of watertight partitions and the use 
of automatic ventilation valves. 

713. Model of ship ventilator. (Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by 
tlie Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1097. 

This shows an octagonal wooden trunk, which communicates with the 
deck to be ventilated, and is surmounted by a metal cowl with a conical 
mouth which can be set to windward. In bad weather the cowl is removed 
and the trunk closed by a wooden cover. It was designed for use in troop- 
ships by Mr. R. Blake, Master Shipwright, H.M. Dockyards (1833-55). 

714. Ventilators. Lent by the Carron Co., 1890. N. 1847. 

These are for ventilatmg deck-houses and ships' cabins. 

(a) is a circular brass plate, with radial slots and guides, for attaching to 
doors or bulkheads ; this plate is covered by a revolving slotted disc, by 
which the ventilation can be regulated. 

(h) is a more elaborate fitting for the decks above state rooms, etc. A 
ventilating shaft, secured by a flange to this deck, is surmounted by an 
adjustable cap to prevent the entry of rain or spray. Inside the cap is a 
strip of india-rubber, so that during rough weather when screwed down upon 
the bevelled rim of the ventilating tube the joint shall be watertight. 

715. Model of spherical valve for ventilator. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Received 1907. N. 2445. 

This arrangement for controlling openings in watertight decks was 
patented by Mr. James Casey in 1895. It consists of a hollow spherical 
valve, cut with a large single passage and enclosed in watertight casings ; 
adjustable bearings and packing are used to ensure easy working and 
watertightness and the valve is opened or closed by external handles or 
levers. It was intended for use as a general substitute for the ordinary 
sliding doors, hatches, scuttles, etc., and is here shown as fitted to a venti- 
lating shaft on a vessel's deck ; with slight modifications it could be attached 
to openings in ships' sides and bulkheads. 

Some experiments were made with this device on English and French 
vessels, but it has not been permanently adopted. 

716. Model and diagram of Boyle's ship ventilators. (Scale 
1 : 12 and 1 : 120.) Presented by Messrs. R. Bovle and Son, 
1898. ' ^ N. 2163. 

This shows a pair of Mr. R. Boyle's patent ventilators ; the taller one is 
the " down-cast " by which aii*, from the above-deck level, is carried into 
the depths of a ship ; the shorter one has an induction apparatus, or 
" air pump," by which vitiated air is removed from the vessel. The 
down-cast apparatus acts somewhat like the old wind-sail, but has four 
mouths, so that it does not requii*e setting ; at the side is a trap and a 
branch outlet closed by a flap, by which if spray is cajTied down it shall 
escape sideways into an adjacent scupper. The up-take, or air-pump 
ventilator, is also stationary, but has four orifices with vei-tical shutters and 
guides which so direct the passing au- as to cause it to exhaust from the 
ship by an inductive action. 

The model is fitted with glass tubes containing tufts of cotton-wool 
which show the direction of the cun-ent when either ventilator is blown 
across. An adjacent diagram shows a steamship fitted with these venti- 
lators, so arranged that fresh air is supplied near the bottom of each deck 
by down-cast ventilators, while the vitiated air is carried off by up-cast 
ventilators di*awing from the upper pai-t of each deck. 



215 

717. Model of a hinged watertiglit door. (Scale 1 : 4.) Made 
by the Admiralty, 1887. N. 1796. 

This shows the Admii-alty construction and fittings of a watertight door 
on a bulkhead above the protective deck. 

The door is carried on hinges, and is provided with a slightly-i*aised 
flange round its inner edges which when closed presses against a narrow 
strip of sheet india-mbber secured in a frame attached to the bulkhead. 
The ten clips or handles arranged round the door are forced over brass 
wedges on the back of the door ; the powerful closing pressure thus 
exerted insures an efficient watertight joint. 

Since 1889 the raised flange has been usually secured to the bulkhead 
and the india-rubber to the door. 

718. Model of watertight door. (Scale 1 : 4.) Presented by 
Messrs. Mechan and Sons, Ltd., 1908. N. 2469. 

This represents a modem form of hinged door largely used in the Royal 
Navy and mercantile marine for closing openings in watertight bulkheads. 

The construction shown was patented in 1894 by Mr, H. Mechan. 
Instead of the riveted combination of plate and angle-bar shown in 
No. 717, the door is made of a single steel plate pressed hydi-aulically 
between dies which form a shallow recess round the edges ; this recess gives 
the door stiffness and also provides accommodation for the renewable 
rubber strips that make a watei-tight joint with the flanged or beaded door- 
frame. To obtain closing pressui-e eight rotative handles spaced round the 
door in watertight bushes on the bulkhead, are used in conjunction with 
brass shoes or wedges on the back of the door ; the holes in each door- 
hinge are elongated to permit of this final adjustment. 

719. Model of a deck scuttle. (Scale 1 : 4.) Made by the 
Admiralty, 1887. ^ N. 1797. 

This shows the method of efficiently closing an opening in a water- 
tight deck. The opening is made between two deck beams, and is provided 
with a coaming or frame to which the cover is hinged. The joint is made 
with india-rubber, similarly to that in No. 717, but is closed by seven hinged 
bolts fitted with butterfly nuts. 

720. Side scuttles. Lent by the Carron Co., 1890. N. 1847. 

These ai-e for providing light and air to the spaces between the decks of 
wood or steel-built vessels. 

A hole of required diameter is first cut in the shell plating or planking 
and to the inner side is secured the outer frame of the scuttle. To this is 
hinged a frame cari'ying the stout glass " light " and a rubber- joint ring 
which insures watertightness when closed upon the outer frame. Attached 
likewise to the outer frame, but swinging in a different direction, is a solid 
metal cover or shutter, similarly jointed, so that should the glass be broken 
it will prevent the entrance of water. The hinges are of an adjustable type, 
which insure tightness of the joint all round. Hinged bolts with screw nuts 
for securing and releasing pui-poses are provided for each cover. 

(a) is an Admii-alty pattern scuttle made of gun-metal throughout. 
A similar pattern with outer fi*ame and inner shutter of galvanised cast steel 
is also used. 

(6) is made of brass, and has a reversible outer shutter. This is fitted 
with india-rubber on each side, which adapts it for use with or without 
an intermediate glass-light. 

(c) has an outer shutter of galvanised cast iron ; the glass also is 
bedded upon a rubber cushion. 



216 

721. Models of hatchways and coamings. (Scale 1 : 4.) Made 
by the x\dmiralty, 1886. N. 1776-7. 

Hatchways are the openings which provide light, air, and a means of 
access to the between- deck spaces of vessels ; such openings, when in an 
upper deck, are fitted with i-aised sides or " coamings " of wood or iron to 
prevent the passage of surface water from the suiTOunding deck. 

The two models show the usual method of framing a hatchway in an 
iron or steel deck ; the construction of wood and iron coamings respec- 
tively ; the method of securing coamings in position. In each example the 
hatchway is formed by fitting " carlings " (or short fore-and-aft beams) 
between the ordinary transverse beams of the ship, at the required spacing 
apart, and then securing them by shoi-t connecting angle-bars at each 
comer, riveted as shown. 

(a) Here the coaming is of wood, dove-tailed together so as to prevent 
any relative movement of the four pieces composing it. Long vertical screw 
bolts, disposed as indicated and each secured by a nut and washer beneath 
the beam flange, fasten the completed frame to the deck. The transverse 
ends of the coaming are provided with a rebate on their inner edges, to 
receive a wooden grating or cover. 

(&) This coaming is formed of two vei*tical iron plates bent to form, and 
secured to the hatchway framing by means of boundary angle-bars. Butt 
straps are shown connecting the two parts of the coaming plates together ; 
weldfid joints are also largely used for this pui-pose. 

Nari'ow strips of plating, projecting outside the lower edge of coaming 
in (a), afford security for the adjacent deck planking ; in (6) the outer 
flanges of the beams and carlings are utilised for this purpose. 

In ordinary cargo vessels, hatchways are closed by poi-table wooden 
covers, or hatches, provided with lifting-rings at opposite corners. These 
hatches are fitted to the coamings of the upper deck hatchways and are 
made watertight by a tarpaulin covering ; flush covers are used for the 
openings through the lower deck. Large hatchways are usually provided 
with shifting-beams and carlings, which give local strength and reduce the 
size of the portable covers. The weather hatchways of passenger vessels 
are furnished with watertight hoods or covers provided with doors and glass 
"lights." In modem war- vessels the large openings for the machinery 
spaces are fitted with shell-proof iron or steel gratings, while the smaller 
openings in watertight decks and flats are provided with hinged covers fitted 
and secured as shown in No. 719. 

722. Lithograph of Price's self-trimming hatchways. (Scales 
1 : 16, 1 : 48 and 1 : 96.) Lent bv Wm. Denton, Esq., 
1876. "^ N. 1454. 

This shows longitudinal and cross sections of the S.S. " J. B. Eminson," 
a vessel of 1,031 tons register, 220 ft. long, 31 ft. broad, and 17*1 ft. deep, 
built in 1875 at Sunderland by Messrs. Short Bros. She is fitted with the 
hatchways and cargo-shoots patented by Mr. John Price in 1874. 

Instead of the sides or coamings of the hatchways being vertical, they 
are inclined inboard and supported by the deck beams. The midship 
section shows the vessel fully laden with coal or other bulk cargo, for 
which the hatchway acts as a feeder, and so prevents trouble from the 
cargo settling and shifting. Details are shown of the construction for 
vessels of from 26 ft. to 32 ft. beam. 

723. Diagrams showing drainage of a battleship. (Scale 
1 : 48). Made by the Admiralty, 1889. N. 1799. 

These show the drainage aiTangements adopted for vessels of the central 
citadel type. 

A main drain pipe, 12 in. diameter, is placed between the inner and 
outer bottom on each side of the vertical keel to receive water from the 
spaces above the inner bottom ; these pipes deliver into two cisterns or 



217 

smnps, from which the pumps draw. The engine and boiler floors drain 
into the main, through horizontal valves attached to short vertical pipes ; 
any water from the wing spaces and from those above the third water- 
tight longitudinal is similarly cleared. All compartments on the fore 
side of the water space forward drain into the bilges, which are levelled 
up with cement to the height of the sluice-valves of the main di'ains. 

The " water-balance " chamber and the coal and provision spaces at each 
extremity drain into the large " ejector " tanks shown on the fore side of 
boiler-room and after side of engine-room respectively. These tanks are 
emptied by means of ejectors, a form of steam-jet pump capable of 
discharging overboard large quantities of water ; these, however, on account 
of their excessive steam consumption, are now superseded by additional 
circulating pumps. 

The sumps of the main di-ains are emptied by the suction pipes from 
steam and hand pumps. The double bottoms are cleared through separate 
" standpipes " connecting each compartment to a valve chest, which is 
exhausted by hand pumps. The valves regulating the passage of water 
from one space to another are usually actuated by rods extending above 
the water-line. 

724. Sectional model of ice room. (Scale 1 : 4.) Lent by 
the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 1875. 

N. 1400. 

This represents a cold store-room, as in use before the introduction of 
mechanical refrigeration in 1879, and was fitted in 1875 to the P. and O. 
liner S.S. " Cathay," by Messrs. W. Denny and Bros, (see No. 246). Similar 
rooms were adopted in other ships, the arrangement being simply an 
enlarged ice safe. 

The room is placed between the orlop and lower decks. The space 
around it is packed with flake charcoal to minimise the conduction of heat 
from the outside, while the room is lined with matchboarding and sheet 
zinc. In one comer is a tank in which collects any water that is formed 
by the blo(;ks of ice melting, and is then led off to an adjoining wine-cooling 
cellar. 

725. Model of ship's hold, showing cold storage arrangements. 
(Scale 1 : 16.) Lent by the New Zealand Shipping Co., 
Ltd., 1908. N. 2476. 

This sectional model shows the arrangements for the stowage, preser- 
vation, and discharge of meat and dairy produce as adopted on the S.S. 
" Papanui," a typical vessel employed in the above company's New Zealand 
trade. 

On one side of the section, in the lower hold, mutton and lamb are 
represented packed in bulk ; this system of stowage permits of a satisfactory 
circulation of cold air. The freshly-killed animals are first frozen in the 
shore depots and then shipped as soon as possible, the vessel having a 
storage capacity for about 100,000 carcasses. On the opposite side of the 
section are shown boxes of frozen butter and ci-ates of cheese. 

The blackened portions of the sections represent the charcoal packing 
placed between the frames, floors and deck-beams to ensure the necessary 
insulation of holds and 'tween- deck spaces. 

The aii'-cooling and distributing aiTangements are by the Linde British 
Refrigeration Co. Ammonia- compression machines are used and the 
circulated au* is chilled by passing over a series of direct- expansion coils 
placed in specially-insulated chambers. This cold, drj air is withdrawn by 
large directly- di-iven fans and distributed to the storage spaces by means of 
wooden trunks constructed along the sides and floor of the vessel ; by 
suitable openings in these air-trunks the temperature is regulated to the 
requirements of the cargo, i.e., butter is usually kept at 10°-15° F., meat at 
22° F., and cheese at 40°-45° F. 



218 

Rapid discharge of the cargo is effected by a hand or steam-driven 
sprocket- chain lift which is fitted with suitable can-iers and is supported 
upon a portable, telescopic frame reaching from the bottom of the hold to 
the upper deck ; this arrangement was patented by Capt. Gr. H. Noakes 
in 1898. 

The " Papanui " was built of steel at Dumbarton in 1898 by Messrs. 
W. Denny and Bros,, her principal dimensions are : — Gross register, 
6,582 tons ; length, 430 ft. ; breadth, 54-1 ft. 

726. Pivot for saloon seats. Lent by the Carron Co., 1890. 

N. 1847. 

This aiTangement permits a limited sliding as well as rotary movement 
of the seat of a saloon chair, while the base is firmly secured to the floor. 
It was patented in 1887 by Messrs. Cowan and Robertson, and consists of a 
circular frame, fixed under the seat of the chair, 'and fitting in an elongated 
frame fastened to the base. 

727. Models of tables for shipboard. (Scale 1 : 4.) Lent by 
H. Burrell, Esq., 1898. N. 2168. 

During rough weather it is necessary to fit fences to the dining tables so 
as to prevent plates, etc., from sliding off through the rolling motion of the 
ship. These fences are usually in the form of light wooden frames, or 
"fiddles," resting upon the tablecloth and secured by ledges and straps. 
To avoid the inconvenience of using such loose parts, Mr. BuiTell in 1888 
patented the arrangements shown, in which the fiddles when not in use are 
stowed within the table-top. 

In (a) the fiddle can sink in a corresponding slot formed through the 
table-top, so as to leave the surface flush, while when required for use it can 
be raised by cams, actuated by a lever below, and then be retained in 
position by suitable catches. 

In (6) the table- top is made in panels which can be turned over ; one face 
of each panel is provided with raised ledges. 

728. Model of fittings for a troopship. (Scale 1 : 8.) Pre- 
sented by the Rev. J. Hardie, 1866. N. 1142. 

This shows one unit of the arrangement proposed by Mr. R-. Blake for 
the ti-ansport of troops ; it resembles that stiU used in troop and emigrant 
ships. 

The fittings are temporarily fixed to the deck beams, and to steps on 
the deck. There are upper and lower berths, each supplying sleeping 
accommodation for three men on boards which fit each of these tiers. In 
the day time, these shelves are placed on edge and secured against the sides, 
while the middle one is used as a table ; the back and front boards of the 
lower bei-th form benches. 

729. Model of horse-stalls for troopships. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Bequeathed by Miss M. A. Peek, 1906. N. 1031. 

This shows the original design of Mr. Wm. Ladd, of Deptford Dockyard, 
for fitting upper deck horse- stalls on the ships conveying troops to the Crimea 
in 1854. 

The roofed structure is separated into stalls by loose bars padded on the 
inside ; the animals were backed into these stalls so that the mangers were 
in the gangway between two sets. 

730. Model of early Kingston valve. (Scale 1:4.) Made 
in the Museum, 1904. N. 2334. 

Upon the application of the steam engine to marine propulsion it 
became necessaiy, for the admission of water to the condenser and feed 
pumps, to cut holes through the skin of a ship below the water level. The 



219 

an-angement adopted on tlie earliest steamships for rendering sucli an 
orifice safe consisted of an open cast-iron pipe, passing through the framing 
and external planking and fitted with a cock on the inboard end ; these 
fittings were, however, diflB.cult to repair while afloat, and any serious defect 
in them necessitated dry-docking. About 1837, Mr. W. Kingston, of 
Portsmouth Dockyard, introduced the type of valve shown by the model, as 
a supplementary valve to boiler blow- oft' cocks, which had been a source of 
trouble, and it was so successful that it was soon generally adopted for all 
under- water openings in H.M. ships. 

The valve represented was 4 5 in. diam., and consisted of a gun- metal 
pipe, with an enlarged conical end which was carefully fitted into the outer 
sheathing and timbers of the ship, and then drawn tightly into place by 
means of a large screwed flange on its inner end ; to this was bolted a 
separate piece with a branch flange for connection with the blow-off cock. 
The valve itself was of gun-metal, and it was seated on the conical portion 
of the pipe so that it opened outward. It was actuated by hand through a 
copper spindle screwed into it and passing through a stuffing box. While 
open the valve was supported on the guard-bar below, but when it was 
necessary to repair the blow-off cock, the valve was drawn up and so 
prevented the entry of water. The valve does not project beyond the 
surface of the hull, and, in the event of the spindle breaking, it acts as a 
non-retui-n valve. When fitted to hand pumps and injection orifices it was 
usually provided with a circular grating and some form of guides ; it was 
also capable of being pinned in the open position. Kingston valves are still 
used in modern vessels for pumps, evaporators and some of the smaller 
openings below the water-line, but, for the larger orifices they are being 
genemlly displaced by the lighter and cheaper form of screw- down valves. 

The model shows also a portion of the ship-structure around the valve, 
with the bottom planking, transverse wooden framing, valve chock, and 
fastenings as usually arranged ; a strip of copper was placed between the 
lower end of the tube and the bottom planking to protect the latter against 
ship worms. 

731. Model of Kingston valve. (Scale 1 : 4.) Made in tlie 
Museum from drawings supplied by tlie Admiralty, 1903. 

N. 2332. 

This represents a Kingston valve of 8 • 5 in. diam. as now fitted to the 
plating of a steel-built vessel at the sea-suction inlets of the hand pumps, 
and in some cases at the outlets of the blow-off pipes from boilers and 
evaporators. 

Like the earlier example No. 730, the valve is conical and opens outwards, 
so that it can be repaired from outside the ship while, should the spindle 
break, it will act as a non-return valve. The valve and casing are, however, 
considerably lighter than in the earlier form, and the spindle and valve are 
made in one piece, while guides are added to steady the valve throughout 
its whole travel ; the valve box is, moreover, provided with a flange by which 
it can be directly secui-ed to the outer bottom of the vessel or, if necessary 
for convenience in connecting the pipes, a distance piece may be insei-ted as 
shown in the model. 

The valve spindle passes through a gland in the valve-box crown and its 
projecting end is cut with a right-handed square-threaded screw which 
engages with a nut formed thi-ough the boss of a mitre wheel. This wheel 
is rotated by a similar one secm-ed to a shaft which is led to some convenient 
position above the water line of the ship, so that the valve can be closed 
even when the lower decks are flooded; at this operating station is an 
indicator deck- plate showing the extent to which the valve is open. The 
mitre gear is carried by a double bracket fixed to the valve casing, and a 
collar secured by a set-screw retains in position the screwed boss of the 
wheel forming the nut, while a stop, fitting in a slot cut along the screwed 
portion of the spindle, prevents the rotation of the valve when the gear is 



220 

turned. There are two flanged outlets from the valve box, one bemg for 
the pump suction-pipe and the other for a flooding or other pipe. 

To secure the valve-box, or the distance-piece, to the ship's skin, a 
facing-ring is liveted round the opening in the bottom plating, and to this 
the lower flange is fastened by means of studs and nuts of naval brass ; a 
grating is also provided to this opening which checks the entry of weeds, 
etc. and would prevent the escape of the valve should its spindle break. To 
avoid the galvanic action which takes place when brass and steel in metallic 
contact are immersed in sea-watei-, a renewable protective ring of zinc is 
fitted round the hole through the plating where the steel would otherwise 
rapidly corrode. 

732. Model of large sea-inlet valve. (Scale 1 : 4.) Made in 
the Museum from drawings supplied by the Admiralty, 
1903. Plate VIL, No. 4. N. 2333. 

The valve represented is of 20 in. diam. and is shown as aiTanged for 
closing the sea-inlet to the circulating pumps of the main engine condensers ; 
it is, however, typical of the class of valve fitted to the larger inlets 
throughout the hull of a modern vessel. The valve-box, in addition to its 
connection with the sea and the circulating pumps, has usually an extra 
flange, as shown, for a pipe by which the circulating water may be taken 
from the bilge should a serious leak occur. 

The valve is of the screw-down type, opens inwards and has four wings ; 
it is loosely attached to its spindle by an undercut lug of horse- shoe shape 
cast on the crown of the valve, while the spindle has a solid collar formed 
on its end, so that there are no loose pieces in the connection. The spindle 
passes through a stuflB.ng-box in the cover of the valve-box, and then 
terminates in a left-handed, square-threaded end which engages in a long 
nut capable of being rotated by a box key ; this key is extended to any 
convenient position and is there suppoi-ted by a bracket containing an 
indicator showing the extent to which the valve is open. 

Rotation of the spindle is prevented by its inner end being square and 
fitting between guides secured to the cover, wliile the square-ended nut 
through which it works is held in position by a bracket made in halves and 
secured to the cover. 

The valve is shown fitted to a vessel having a double bottom, the inlets 
through the two skins being connected by a conical steel tube riveted to 
both the inner and outer plating ; the hole through the outer skin is fitted 
with a gun-metal gi'ating, to prevent the entrance of sea-weed, etc., and it is 
chiefly to reduce the obstruction the grid occasions that the outer hole is 
made so much larger than the valve orifice. 

The valve-box is directly attached, by studs and nuts of naval brass, to 
a steel facing-ring riveted to the inner skin of the ship, and there is a 
similar facing-iing on the inside of the outer skin. To prevent the steel 
plate suffering through galvanic action, where the brass castings are in 
contact with it and at the same time immersed in sea water, protective 
rings of zinc are inserted as indicated in the model. 



SLIPWAYS, DOCKS, etc. 
The first requisites of a modern shipbuilding yard are : a 
slipway upon which the hull can be built, and a dock to accom- 
modate the vessel while it is being completed and fitted, after 
launching. In the early days of shipbuikling, the hard, gently- 
rising bank of a tidal river sufficed for the former, and a small 
sheltered cove, with yielding bottom, for the latter. Even now 
it is very customary to " beach " a small vessel at high Avater and 
execute repairs during the ebbing and flowing of a tide. The 



221 

increase in the size and weight of vessels, however, led to the 
introduction of specially-constructed inclines of wood, stone or 
concrete, provided with powerful hauling appliances, and upon 
such " slipways " most of our ships are now built and repaired. 

The first Royal Dockyards were at Deptford, Woolwich and 
Portsmouth, all established or greatly developed early in the 
16th century, while the oldest commercial docks are those at 
London, 1660, Liverpool, 1710, and Hull, 1778. 

A "building" slip is usually provided with a row of wood 
blocks upon which the various portions of the ship's structure 
are gradually built up and secured together ; shores, guys, 
ribbands, etc., being used temporarily to hold the parts in their 
correct relative positions. When complete, or in a sufficiently 
advanced stage, the vessel is launched by being permitted to 
slide with its "cradle," down the slipway into the water. The 
cradle is a strong wood and iron framework, built under the 
vessel, to carry the total weight after the building blocks are 
removed, just prior to launching. It is supported on each side 
by narrow, well-greased planes, or " ground ways," upon which 
the whole slides when the restraining blocks are removed. 

A "repairing" slip is generally fitted with lines of rails, 
upon which long trolleys or carriages, fitted with a large 
number of wheels and shaped to fit the under-water body 
of the vessel, are run ; vfhen deposited on this carriage any 
vessel of moderate size can be quickly hauled up high and 
dry beyond the reach of the tide. 

" Dry " or " graving " docks are used in examining and 
repairing the largest vessels and occasionally to retain a hull 
during construction. Such docks may be placed with advan- 
tage on low-lying lands where there is a considerable rise and 
fall of tide. They are formed by excavating a cutting to 
suitable dimensions and then lining it with a thick body of 
brick, stone, or concrete ; this is provided with a number of 
steps or ledges, to receive the heels of the shores or props which 
keep the vessel upright when unsupported by the water and 
resting upon the blocks arranged under its keel. If the dock 
opens into a tidal river or basin, the vessel enters at high 
tide, then the entrance is closed and the water pumped out, 
or drained by sluices at low tide ; A\dien the repairs are 
completed, water is readmitted and the vessel is floated out. 

" Floating " docks are employed when excavated docks are 
impracticable, or present great engineering difficulties ; they 
likewise i^ossess the advantages of rapid construction and 
mobility and may be adapted for lifting the largest Atlantic 
liners or battleships. They usually consist of floating pon- 
toons, enclosing a space fitted similarly to an ordinary dry 
dock and provided with large water chambers which when 
filled will sink the structure sufficiently to permit of the entry 
of a vessel at ordinary draught ; by subsequently emptying 
these chambers the buoyancy necessary to raise the vessel above 
water-level is exerted. 



222 

The entrances to docks or basins are closed by means of 
gates or caissons. Gates are of wood or iron, pivoted on each 
side of the entrance and generally arranged so as to offer, when 
closed, a curved or V-shaped surface to the external water. 
When a strong movable roadway is necessary at such openings, 
or when not to be frequently opened, a caisson takes the place 
of gates. It may be either floating or sliding ; the floating 
construction is a large hollow chamber of somewhat ship-shape 
form with the ends and bottom formed so as to fit into recesses 
at the dock entrance ; by admitting water into the caisson it 
sinks into position and closes the entrance. Sliding caissons 
are moved horizontally along rails or grooves, by means of 
machinery, and when opened slide back into covered spaces on 
one side of the dock entrance, the top-sides of the caisson being 
mechanically lowered to permit of this movement. 

A diving-bell, or more generally a close-fitting diving dress 
comprising a metal helmet attached to a waterproof jacket, is 
used for the survey of the submerged portions of slipways, 
docks, caissons, etc., as well as for the inspection of ships' 
bottoms while afloat ; complete diving dresses, together with 
the necessary tubing and air pumps are for this purpose carried 
on all of H.M. ships. 

Wood and iron derricks, stationary cranes driven by steam, 
air, or water power, together with locomotive and floating cranes, 
do the bulk of the heavy lifting work of a shipyard. For 
articles of considerable weight or dimensions, such as engines, 
boilers, masts, etc., " tripod sheers " are employed. These are 
formed of three inclined "legs" or supportSj of circular or rect- 
angular section, widely spaced at the base but connected 
together at the head, from which a block-purchase worked 
by a steam winch is suspended. Two of the legs are pivoted 
near the edge of the dock or wharf, the third being adjusted 
by means of a horizontal screw so as to give the required over- 
hang. The legs of the largest sheers are built up of steel 
plates and stiffening bars, and take the usual parabolic form 
applied to crane jibs, etc. In some cases the legs are given a 
permanent overhang by means of guys and backstays attached 
to a strong vertical upright at the rear ; this method was also 
adopted on the old-fashioned floating "sheer-hulks" used for 
the masting of ships. 

ISlote. — Several of the ship models are shown with launching ways 
{see Nos. 17, 40, 62 and 166), whilst others are represented 
on the keel blocks upon which they rest while in dry dock 
{see Nos. 64, 96, 98, 103, 105, 237 and 293). 

733. Model of the floating dock at St. Thomas. (Scale 
1 : 48.) Lent by E. Hodges, Esq., 1878. N. 1486. 

This iron structure was built at Cardiff in 1867, from the designs of 
Sir F. J. Bramwell, F.R.S., for use at the island of St. Thomas in the West 
Indies, where it has proved of great value. 



223 

The upper portion of the deck is formed of continuous lattice girders 
supporting a wide roadway on each side ; the necessary buoyancy is given by 
a number of submerged pontoons, which are made portable to facilitate 
their overhaul and repair. To lower the dock preparatory to receiving a 
ship, water is admitted into these pontoons until they sink sufficiently, and 
this is subsequently pumped out so as to cause the structure to rise 
under its burden. 

Alteration in the immersion or the trim is provided for by six " floats " 
or rectangular tanks on each side, which can be independently raised or 
lowered by means of vertical screws fixed to the structure and working 
in nuts attached to the floats. A single float is shown in its raised 
position at one end of the model. A coloured drawing of this dock is 
also shown. 

Length, 300 ft. breadth, extreme, 100 ft. ; breadth at entrance, 70 ft. ; 
height, 42 ft. ; carrying capacity, 3,000 tons. 

734. Model and photograplis of Bermuda floating dock. 
(Scale 1 : 64.) Presented by A. J. Campbell, Esq., 1880. 
Plate Vn., No. 5. N. 1468 and 1528. 

In consequence of the great need of a graving dock, capable of 
receiving large vessels on the North American and West Indian station, 
it was decided to provide such accommodation at Bermuda ; but, owing to 
the porous nature of the rock of which the island is composed, the con- 
sti-uction of a stone dock was considered to be impracticable, and it was 
decided to adopt one of the floating type patented by Messrs. Campbell, 
Johnstone & Co. This iron structure was accordingly built at Silvertown 
on the Thames in 1868 and afterwards towed to Madeira by H.M. ships 
" Northumberland " and " Agincourt," and from thence to its destination by 
H.M. ships "Warrior" and "Black Prince." 

The dock is of cellular construction and has nine main transverse water- 
tight bulkheads, intersected by seven continuous longitudinal watertight 
fi-ames, making a total of forty-eight watertight compartments, each of 
which is fitted with valves for admittmg or discharging water. Several 
smaller additional compai^tments contain the pumps, mooring cables, and 
the steam-driven machinery for working the capstans and cranes. 

When employed to dry-dock a vessel of moderate dimensions, water is 
first let into the lower compartments of the dock and pumped from thence 
to the upper chambers, the whole structure meanwhile sinking until the 
valves on the floor of the dock are awash ; these latter are then opened and 
the dock sunk sufficiently to enable the vessel to enter. When the vessel is 
in position over the blocks, the upper chambers of the dock are gradually 
emptied while " breast-shores " are being placed to support the ship, water 
is then let out of the intermediate chambers until the bottom of the dock is 
diy. For vessels of larger tonnage an increased lifting power is obtained 
by using the caissons with which each end of the dock is fitted, the water 
contained in them being partly discharged through sluices and partly into 
the lower chambers of the dock, as shown in the accompanying diagi*ams. 
The undocking process consists in refilling the spaces in the dock until the 
vessel is afloat. By admitting water into compartments on one side only, 
the dock can be heeled over sufficiently for all necessary cleaning or repairs 
on the opposite side, and in this way the whole of the surface is rendered 
accessible for cleaning, etc. 

At its station the dock floated in a specially excavated basin, and 
was connected to the shore by three long brows or bridges whose free 
ends rose and fell with the tidal or other movement of the dock. During 
stormy weather the safety of the dock was insured by grounding it, the 
structure being then almost submerged. This model was originally con- 
stmcted as a working one for experimental and lecture purposes, but was 
finished in detail and the external fittings added at this Museum in 1902. 

The leading particulars of the dock were : — Total weight of materials, 
8,200 tons ; length, overall, 381 ft. ; length, between caissons, 330 ft. ; 



224 

bi*eadth, between sides, 84 ft.; depth, ovei-all, 74-4 ft,;- depth, inside, 
•53-4 ft.; thickness of plates, '31 to -62 in.; and the maximum lifting 
power, 10,000 tons. The di-aught of water when light is 11 17 ft. and 
when sunk for docking a large ironclad 50 ft. 

Owing to the increased size of warships a new floating dock was built 
for Bermuda in 1902 of the following dimensions : — Length, overall, 545 ft. ; 
breadth, between sides, 100 ft. ; maximum lifting power, 17,500 tons. 

735. Litliograpli of a tubular floating dock. Presented bv 
Messrs. Clark and Standfield, 1878. N. 1511. 

This construction of floating dock was patented by Messrs. Clark and 
Standfield in 1874. 

The floor of the structure is formed of iron cylinders laid horizontally, 
and the sides of similar tubes placed vertically. By this aiTangement the 
side and shape of the dock can be modified to suit special requirements. 

736. Model of double-power lloating dock. (Scale 1 : 96.) 
T^nt by Messrs. Clark and Standfield, 1878. N. 1511. 

This invention of Messrs. Clark and Standfield uses the buoyancy of 
the sides of the dock as well as that of the bottom, the inventors consider- 
ing that the high sides of the usual construction form so much unnecessary 
weight which has to be lifted with each ship docked. The independent 
sides are also used for lifting the rest of the dock when it is being cleaned 
or repaired. 

The lower pontoon or bottom of the dock has four fixed comer towers, 
between which the sides can rise and fall as if in guides ; provision is also 
made for locking these sections together in any position. 

To place a vessel in such a dock, if the sides are in the usual elevating 
position water is admitted into them and to the body of the dock until the 
whole sinks to the lowest level necessary for docking the vessel, the vessel 
is then floated in and secured ; the water is now pumped from the main 
pontoon, which accordingly rises, while the sides still remain at the lower 
level. The sides are then secured to the main pontoon and emptied, thus 
raising the whole stnicture to a still higher level and completing the 
operation. The model shows a vessel in positi(m in the dock, supported by 
keel blocks and shores. 

This general principle has been successfully ^-pplied to the largest 
modern floating docks. 

737. Lithographs and photographs of depositing docks. 
(Scale 1 : 240.) Lent bj'- Messrs. Clark and Standfield, 1878. 

N. 1511. 

This type of dock was introduced by Messrs. Clark and Standfield, who 
in 1877 constructed a large dock on this system at Nicolaieff for the Russian 
Government, its leading feature enabling it to accommodate vessels of the 
exceptional beam found in the circular ironclads. 

The dock consists of a number of horizontal pontoons projecting, as 
cantilevers, from one side of a long horizontal pontoon resembling a box 
girder. This girder, or " side," as it is termed, is of such a depth that it 
is never completely submerged, while the cantilever pontoons attached to it 
ai*e sufficiently low to allow the vessel to float over them when the aiTange- 
ment is at its maximum immersion, through water having been admitted to 
some of the pontoons. 

When a vessel is to be docked she is brought over the submerged 
cantilevers and secured in position by ropes and shores ; water is then 
pumped out of the pontoons imtil the dock rises and the vessel bears firmly 
on the keel blocks. Sliding bilge blocks are then hauled under the bilges 
of the vessel, eo as to form a suitable cradle, and the pumping is proceeded 
with until the dock rises to such a height that the vessel is completely above 
water level. 



225 

As the dock has only one side, a special arrangement is employed to 
keep the pontoons level at all immersions and with varying loads. This 
consists of a large outrigger in the form of a broad shallow pontoon, 
projecting from the outside of the main pontoon and capable of sliding in 
grooves attached to the side, so that while free to rise or fall it exerts a 
constant righting movement on the dock. 

The arrangement is thus far equivalent to a floating dock, but its chief 
merits consist in the means by which it is enabled to deposit the vessel 
raised on a suitable staging, so that the number of ships that can be simul- 
taneously docked depends simply upon the number of stages provided. 
These stagings are formed of iron or timber piles, braced together and 
forming narrow piers, each about 5 ft. broad, and usually from 10 ft. to 
15 ft. apart. The cantilevei's of the floating dock are arranged at corre- 
sponding distances, so that they can pass between these piers, and thus when 
the pontoon is lowered will deposit the vessel on the piers. Keel and bilge 
blocks are used as before ; in one di'awing air cushions are shown fitted in 
the position of the bilges to facilitate the operation of docking by reducing 
the shoring required. 

The Nicolaieff dock, of which three photographs are shown, has ten 
cantilever pontoons projecting from the "side," which is made in three 
separate lengths, which can be used independently for small vessels. The 
side is subdivided longitudinally into compartments, 15 ft. and 5 ft. wide 
alternately ; in the upper poi-tion of each length there is a 25 h.p. semi- 
portable steam engine driving a vertical centrifugal pump 2*3 ft. diam. for 
emptying it. The cantilever pontoons are divided into watertight compart- 
ments, a number of which are permanently sealed, so that it is impossible to 
entu'ely sink the dock by any mistake. 

738. Model of dock entrance and caisson. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by A. J. Campbell, Esq., 1880. N. 1528. 

This represents a dock enti*ance closed by a caisson instead of the 
more usual dock gates ; it is sometimes from its shape called a ship- 
caisson. 

The caisson is foi-med of iron plating, stiffened internally with angle 
irons, diagonal braces, and horizontal decks ; these decks and bulkheads 
also divide it into several watertight compartments, some of which form air 
chambers which provide the necessary flotation, while others are ballasted. 
When the dock entrance is to be closed the caisson is floated into its place 
between the entrance walls, and water is admitted into the air chambers 
until the keel of the caisson sinks into a recess in the sill. The ends of the 
caisson are also provided with ribs which enter recesses in the side walls, so 
that when any subsequent alteration is made in the water level on either 
side of it the side pressure tends to keep the sill and side joints tight; 
wooden facings also assist in secunng a good joint. The upper deck of the 
caisson when in position forms a wide and strong bridge ; but the airange- 
ment, being less convenient than dock gates, is not genei-ally used for 
entrances that have to be frequently opened. 

739. Model of apparatus for repairing dock gates. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Contributed by W. Smith, Esq., 1860. N. 369. 

This is an apparatus patented by Mr. B. Hockin in 1858 for enabling 
repairs to be done to the submerged portions of dock gates without removing 
the gates or intertering with their working. It consists of a three-sided 
chamber, the open side of which is intended to fit against the face of the 
gate with a watertight indiarubber joint. The bottom of the chamber has 
a projecting flange to be passed under the bottom edge of the gate ; for 
this purpose the gate may be slightly lifted by means of the vertical timbers 
provided with yokes or cross bars and lifting screws. When the chamber 
is in position the water is pumped out of it, and the workman is able to 
descend and execute the necessary repairs. 

u 0773. p 



226 

740. Models of combined floating dock and wreck-raising 
apparatus. (Scales 1 : 384, 1 : 96 and 1 : 24.) Presented by 
Druitt Halpin, Esq., 1901. N. 1521. 

These models were used to illustrate a paper read by Mr. Halpin before 
the United Service Institution in 1870, explaining an expansion of a scheme 
he had prepared in detail for raising H.M.S. " Vanguard," sunk by collision, 
1875. 

The dock consists of two ship-shaped self-propelled iron hulls, sub- 
divided by bulkheads and joined together by cross girders so as to form a 
pontoon capable of lifting and transporting the largest vessels, either above 
or below the surface of the water. The vessel was to be raised by means of 
numerous 100-ton wire cables attached to its side and secured to the floating 
dock, by which the wreck could be raised and carried to shallow water 
where, after the hull had been repaired and floated off, the dock could be 
sufficiently immersed to receive the vessel and then lift it for completing 
the repairs. 

A detailed model is shown of the means proposed for attaching the wire 
ropes to the sunken ship without the use of divers. The scheme depended 
upon the use of a long tube, which could be towed to the scene of the wreck 
and there weighted by the admission of water till it floated vertically ; it was 
then to be sunk till its foot bedded upon the sea bottom while the upper 
end remained above water. From the side of the tube projects a di-iUing 
post, carrying a wire bmsh for cleaning the side of the ship and also a large 
drilling cutter driven by an air motor, and this mechanism was to be con- 
trolled by a man within the open tube who, after di-illing a hole could by 
apparatus provided pass through it a stretcher attached to one end of a 
lifting cable. The vertical open shaft was then to be sufficiently floated to 
enable it to be taken to a fresh position ready for the attachment of another 
cable and so on, the depth at which the apparatus could be worked 
depending upon the length of shaft that could be manipulated and not upon 
the hydrostatic pressure as when divers are employed. 



741. Lithograph, of a ^^rreck-raising pontoon. Presented by 
Messrs. T. Christy & Co., 1873. N. 1358. 

This shows a device patented in 1871 by Messrs. Siebe, Grorman and 
Christy. The pontoon consists of twin hulls, self-jpropelled, and is provided 
with a number of continuous chains led over pulleys fitted to the inner deck 
edges. These chains are passed, by divers, under the submerged vessel and 
then by means of steam-hauling gear are drawn in from each side simul- 
taneously till the wreck is lifted above the water level and supported between 
the twin hulls ; in this position the hull may be either repaired and pumped 
out, or be carried into shallower waters. Exceptional lifting power may be 
obtained by emptying water spaces in the pontoon itself. 

742. Model of wreck-raising apparatus. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Presented by Druitt Halpin, Esq., 1901. N. 2264. 

This shows the method successfully adopted in raising the iron paddle- 
ship " Edith " belonging to the London and North Western Railway Co., 
which in 1875 sank after collision in Holyhead harbom* to a depth of 36 ft. 
Her registered dimensions were : — Length, 250 * 6 ft. ; depth, 14 '4 ft. ; 
breadth, 30-1 ft.; gross tonnage, 758 tons; displacement, 1,180 tons. 
Submerged the total weight to be lifted was 800 tons. 

Owing to the presence of paddle-boxes it was decided to use camels at 
the bow and stem, calculation having shown that the vessel was strong 
enough as a girder to be lifted in this way. The lifting apparatus employed 
consisted of four rectangular caissons each 59 ft. long, 15 ft. wide, and 



227 

15 ft. deep, constructed of 'STS-in. plate, with three bulkheads in each 
caisson and the flat surfaces supported by internal timber struts. Each 
pair of caissons was rigidly connected by 11 lattice and plate girders, 
which retained them at a distance apai-t of 32-5 ft., and on the top of the 
girders were four 12-in. square timber blocks supporting 20 wrought iron 
lattice columns, the caps of which formed nuts and capstan heads for lifting 
screws. 

These camels were floated into position over the vessel and sunk till the 
tops were awash ; a hook attached by a wire I'ope to each of the lifting 
screws was then passed into the side-lights of the vessel, or into holes 5 in. 
diameter cut under the doubUng plate by divers, and the whole of the cables 
screwed taut ; the water was then pumped out from the caissons by centri- 
fugal pumps and the vessel raised, beached, and towed into dry dock. It 
was found that though submerged for more than two years the engines were 
but little injured, and the vessel subsequently resumed her station. The 
caissons were afterwards utilised as water tanks at Holyhead. 

743. Whole model of wreck-raising lighter. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Made in the Museum from drawings supplied by the 
Conservator^of the River Thames, 1908. Plate Vll., No. 6. 

N. 2468. 

This wreck-lifting vessel was built of iron at Grreenwich in 1882 by 
Messrs. J. and G. Rennie for the use of the Thames Conservancy Board. 

The hull is vei-tical sided and flat-bottomed ; for the purpose of lifting 
operations, a naiTow " well " or opening 60 ft. in length, is provided along 
the centre line of the vessel. Throughout this central poi'ticn the design is 
of the " double-hulled " type, each half-body being subdivided into six water- 
tight compai-tments, while before and abaft this portion there are strongly 
constinicted holds or living-spaces of ordinary form. The starboard side is 
sectioned to show the general character of the constructional work in the 
vessel. 

Steel-wire lifting ropes, 7 in. to 9 in. circumference, are here used in 
conjunction with eight BuUivant's automatic nippers or cable compressors 
{see No. 1104), each capable of sustaining a pull of 100 tons. A series of cast- 
iron fair-leads secured to the edges of the well keep the roj)es in position, 
and the adjacent boUards give them a direct lead to the nippers. 

When in use the ropes pass down the well and are fastened to slings 
placed around the submerged wi-eck. At low tide the slack rope is taken in 
and secured ; the subsequent rise of tide lifts both lighter and wreck which 
are then towed into shallower water. Sevei*al lighters, some of which are 
provided with steam pumps, winches, and other appliances, are used when 
large vessels have to be raised. With a freeboard of 1-5 ft., this lighter 
will carry 400 tons. 

Length, 105 ft. ; breadth, moulded, 28 ft. ; depth of side, 9-5 ft. 

744. Fixed masting sheers. (Scale 1 : 20.) Presented by the 
Admiralty, 1864. N. 1014. 

This shows the jetty and sheers for erecting the masts of battleships, 
originally used at Sheerness Dockyard which was opened in 1823, 

The sheers consist of three compression members connected at the top 
by extensive lashings and considerably spreading at the feet, where they fit 
into cast-iron sockets. These members are of built-up timber, hooped with 
iron bands : at intervals the three legs are tied together by iron rods. This 
compound jib is tied back by four chains which, after being led through an 
independent mast at the back, are secured to anchorages in the masonry ; 
on the jib side this mast is separately stayed by two inclined struts. The 
mast is also fitted with crosstrees and a topmast for signalling purposes, etc. 

The lifting tackle consists of blocks and falls worked by capstans. 

p 2 



228 

745. Model of a float for discharging cargo. (vScale 1 : 64.) 
Contributed by Messrs. Wm. Cory and vSons, 1862. 

N. 829. 

This represents a design patented by Mr. Wm. Cory, junr., in 1861, 
for a floating pontoon for discharging cargo. "With tapering ends it has 
considei-able beam, to minimise listing. 

It is provided with a gantry on which are narrow-gauge i*ails for coal 
tubs, and there are six hydi-aulic jib cranes of 20-5 ft. radius, for unloading 
coal from vessels and discharging it by screens and shoots into barges lying 
alongside. The pontoon shown is intended for discharging vessels up to 
900 tons burden. 

Length, 250 ft. ; breadth, 90 ft. ; depth, 14-5 ft. 

746. Model of Turnbull's derrick. (Scale 1 : 8.) Lent by 
Messrs. G. S. Yuill & Co., 1894. N. 2039. 

This represents an an-angement of deiTick introduced by Mr. J. TurabuU 
for taking in or discharging cargo. There are four deiTicks aiTanged round 
the mast, each having a steam winch on the deck. "When the load is lifted 
by any demck its jib swings roimd automatically, either towards the centre 
line of the ship or from there to the side, according to which of two sockets 
the pin forming the heel of the deiTick is placed in. The jibs are each 
supported by an outrigger fixed to a clamp on the mast, the extremities of 
the outriggers being so held by guys that the eye to which the jib is tied is 
almost vertically over the centre of the line joining the two socket-holes, 
but slightly forward of the holes in the fore- socket plate and aft of the 
holes in the after plate. The result is that the pull of the chain acts in a 
direction passing between the two sockets, and thus there is a tendency for 
the loaded jib to tm-n round one way or the other according to the hole into 
which its heel is put. 

The two hatchways and the positions of the four winches are marked 
upon the deck. 



747. Model of diving bell. (Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by 
Prof. John Taylor, M.D., 1874. N. 1346. 

The diving bell in its modem form was introduced by Smeaton in 1788, 
although many attempts in a similar direction had previously been made. 
As now generally constructed it consists of a chamber built of plates about 
• 4 in. thick, open below, but with the bottom edge turned up so as to carry 
ballast and also to stiffen it. The air is supplied through a flexible pipe 
entering the chamber at the top. 

In the modification represented the air is introduced in an upward jet 
near the mouth, so that should the supply pipe biu'st the water would not 
rise within the bell. The same result is usually secured by fitting the supply 
orifice with a non-return valve, generally made of leather. 

748. The original closed diving helmet. Presented by W. A. 
Gorman, Esq., 1881. N. 1543. 

Augustus Siebe had in 1829 invented the open helmet, which was a 
small diving bell suiTounding the head only, and was therefore of only 
somewhat limited application. In 1839, however, he constructed the closed 
helmet shown, which enabled the diver to work in any position and to a 
depth of about 100 ft. ; with modern apparatus of the same type the present 
working limit is about 200 ft., or 87 lb. pressure 

The helmet and breastplate shown are made of sheet copper, and they 
are connected together by a relieved screw joint. The breastplate is secured 



229 

to the diving dress of waterproof material by screws and washers fitted with 
wing nuts. There are two windows in the helmet, and at the back is the 
attachment for the air supply pipe, fitted with a non-return valve. The 
vitiated air is discharged directly into the water through an adjustable valve, 
by closing which the diver can increase his buoyancy and so rise, while a 
small two-way valve in front allows the pressure inside to fall when reaching 
the surface. 



749. Model of cofferdam to screw aperture. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by tlie Roj^al United Service Institution, 1903. 

N. 2323. 

This represents the stern body of H.M.S. "Royal Alfred," 1864 (see 
No. 81), and the details of a temporary wooden cofferdam used to facilitate 
repairs to the propeller shaft without the vessel being dry- docked. 

Two strong wooden fi-ames were first made, which fitted closely against 
the stern and i-udder-posts respectively, on each side of the screw-aperfure. 
These formed watertight shields, and when lowered into position be(;ame 
the sides and bottom of the cofferdam, access to the interior of which was 
obtained through the screw " well " on the main deck — a lifting propeller 
being usually fitted to ships-of-war at this date. Internal stnits, stays and 
clamps, with a few external bolts and chains, placed in position by a diver, 
held the sides of the cofferdam to one another and to the adjacent poHions 
of the ship. After the contained water was pumped out a clear space, 
8 ft. long, 4 ft. wide, and 18 ft. high, was obtained in the vicinity of the 
propeller- shaft. 

750. Model of plates for stopping holes in ships. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Lent by John McCool, Esq., 1872. N. 1333. 

These devices, for stopping leaks, shot holes, etc., in iron ships while at 
sea. were patented by Mr. McCool in 1871. 

In one method a weighted line is dropped through the hole, grappled for, 
Ijrought on deck, and a washer plate attached, which is then drawn back by 
the line so as to cover the hole ; it is finally secured by a bolt. 

The other aii-angement consists of a rubber-faced metal plate, provided 
with a hinged bar which is pushed through the hole and then turned so as to 
form a bridge against which the plate can be screwed. 

751. Model of mat for stopping holes in ships. (Scale 1 : 3.) 
Lent by Messrs. Creswell & Co., 187(3. N. 1401. 

This extensively-adopted mat for covering shot-holes and leaks in ships 
was patented in 1875 by Lieut, (afterwards Admiral) S. Makaroff, of the 
Russian Navy, but is only an adaptation of an old device. 

It consists of two similar pieces of canvas, from 5 ft. to 20 ft. square, 
sewn together on a matting made of plaited rope ; on one side of this is 
oakum or cocoanut fibre. The whole resembles a door mat bordered with 
rope, and is drawn over the damaged portion of the hull by lines. 



LIGHTHOUSES, etc. 



Lighthonses, to serve as landmarks both by day and night, 
have been generally erected on conspicuons or dangerous 
positions in the vicinity of important navigable routes since 



230 

B.C. ?)?)!, when the famous Pharos of Alexandria was built. 
The Romans were particularly energetic in this matter, and the 
remains of one of their lighthouses still exists at Dover. The 
early lighthouse was a tower or beacon, carrying a brazier in 
which wood or coal was burnt at night so as to give an all-round 
illumination, which was, however, fitful and unreliable ; the 
arrangement survived, however, till 1822 in England, and to an 
even later period abroad. 

The modern construction of lighthouse varies according to 
the site. In the most exposed positions, and where founded on 
a tidal rock, the foundation is quarried out of the solid, and the 
masonry of the base is built in blocks joggled together ; this 
solid structure rises to a height of from 20 to 30 ft., when the 
rooms begin and the masonry is carried up hollow to the lantern. 
In an estuary, a braced structure erected on screw piles of 
wrought iron is usually adopted, while for the top of a cliff 
beyond the reach of waves, a brick or stone tower is sufficiently 
stable. 

Lightships are usually established to indicate the position of 
dangerous shoals and in similar situations where the foundation 
for a permanent structure would present exceptional difficulties. 
During the day, their colour and a large ball on the masthead 
indicate their meaning, while at night they display a light 
similar to that of a lighthouse, although not of the same high 
order. Recently the value of lightships has been further in- 
creased by placing them in telegraphic communication with the 
shore, by which means they are enabled to convey information 
of disasters that would not otherwise be known by those on 
shore. A lightship was placed at the Nore as early as 1731. 

Considerable development has taken place in the illumina- 
tion of lighthouses. The early beacons, which were estimated 
to have burnt about one ton of fuel per night, were followed 
in the 16th century by oil lamps which, with a flat torch- 
like wick, gave a better but still very unsatisfactory light ; 
Smeaton, in his " Eddystone " lighthouse of 1759, lighted it by 
24 candles, each weighing 4 lb. Argand invented his annular 
wick in 1789, and Rmnford increased the illuminating power of 
the arrangement by placing several of these wicks concentric 
with each other ; seven, eight, or nine wicks are thus used in 
some modern oil lamps for this purpose. The commercial 
introduction of mineral oils in 1880, and their adoption in 
lighthouses in 1870, considerably improved the general illu- 
mination, and also reduced the cost of oil lighting. Coal gas, 
when readily available, has proved itself more convenient and 
economical than oil. Since the close of the 19th century the 
use of incandescent mantles with oil or gas burners has greatly 
added to the efficiency of these illuminants. Acetylene gas 
has also been successfully adapted for liglithouse use. The 
electric light has, however, some of the advantages possessed 
by gas and far greater power, but as it is considered to have 



231 

but little more penetrative effect during foggy weather and 
is certainly more expensive, its application has but slowly 
extended ; it was so long ago as 1858 that the lighthouse at 
the South Foreland was first lit by electricity. 

To concentrate the rays from the illuminant, so as to avoid 
loss due to all-round dispersion, reflectors built up of small 
pieces of mirror-glass were first used ; these were replaced by 
spherical reflectors, and subsequently hj parabolic reflectors in 
metal, in which the reflected rays were discharged as parallel 
beams : these systems, relying on reflection only, are known as 
'' catoptric." In 1849, Thomas Stevenson reduced both the 
direct and reflected rays into one parallel beam, by placing a 
lens in front of the light and a hemispherical reflector behind 
it ; being a combination of a refractor and a reflector, the 
arrangement belongs to the " catadioptric " class. In 1822, 
Augustus Fresnel introduced the " dioptric " system, in which 
refraction only is used. To avoid the losses and other defects 
connected with the use of large thick lenses he substituted a 
small one in the centre and surrounded it with annular prisms 
set in frames ; in the original arrangement portions of the 
light escape above and below, but this defect has since been 
remedied. 

The three classes of light now shown are (a) " fixed," the 
earliest and still more widely used form, but one which is 
hardly distinctive enough for much frequented routes ; (b) 
" flashing," showing flashes or groups of flashes at short 
intervals, and thus telegraphing its name, also concentrating 
the whole energj^ of the light into two or three comparatively 
narrow beams ; (c) " occulting," or " eclipsing " lights, which, 
although resembling fixed lights most of the time, have one, 
two, or three short eclipses, by which their identity is established 
without any considerable interval of darkness occurring. 

For use during fog, when lighthouses would cease to be of 
value either by day or night, some form of acoustic apparatus is 
always fitted to both liglithouses and light-vessels. Bells, guns, 
steam or compressed air whistles, reed trumpets and sirens have 
all been adopted, but for the most exposed situations the com- 
pressed-air siren is resorted to, on account of the penetrating 
and distinctive notes it gives. Submerged bells as fog-signals 
have been widely adopted on lightships, shore-stations and large 
seagoing A^essels since 1905 ; when fitted with suitable receiving 
apparatus, vessels are enabled to hear such submarine signals 
at far greater distances than aerial signals and also to locate 
them with sufficient accuracy for safe navigation. 

Buoys and beacons are small signals used to define the 
limits of a navigable channel in a river or estuary. They vary 
from a bunch of brushwood on a pole to the can-buoy of boiler- 
plate whicli is often fitted with a gas light and bell ; but such 
arrangements are only of very local value. 



232 

All of these provisions in England and Wales are arranged 
and controlled by the Corporation of the Trinity House, 
originally a semi-religions body established at Deptford, but 
incorporated in 1514, and which has carried out its present 
important duties since 1680. The corresponding department 
in Scotland is the Northern Lighthouse Board, constituted in 
1786, while the Irish Lighthouse Board, of about the same date, 
performs similar duties for the Irish coast. A special tax or 
toll upon shipping, known as " light dues," is levied for the 
support of these departments. 



752. Model of the Smalls lighthouse. (Scale 1 : 48.) Lent 
by Capt. F. C. Pickering Clarke, R.N., 1862. N. 780. 

The Smalls rocks are about 17 miles off the coast of Pembrokeshire, 
near the entrance to Milford Haven. This model, made out of one of the 
oaken piles of the original lighthouse, represents the first lighthouse on 
these rocks, erected in 1776. It was designed and the construction super- 
intended by Mr. Whiteside, a musical instrument maker, assisted by Cornish 
miners, the expense being borne by a Mr, Phillips. The lighthouse was 
replaced in 1861 by a granite structure. 



753. Model of Maplin lighthouse. !Scale]:24.) Received 
1899. ' ' N. 2199. 

This lighthouse is situated on the Maplin Sand at the mouth of the 
Thames, near Shoebuiyness. It was constructed in 1837 on Alexander 
Mitchell's screw-pile system, patented in 1833, and was the second lighthouse 
erected in this way. 

It is octagonal in plan with a central wrought- iron pile and eight exterior 
ones 5 in. diam. and 26 ft. long, each with a cast-iron screw 4 ft. diam. 
These piles were screwed-in about 22 ft. and then the upper lengths added, 
which were slightly bent so as to give a pyramidal foi-m to the structure. 
The piles are braced to the central one and to one another by horizontal and 
diagonal tie-rods riveted to clamps on the piles. 

The lantern is above the platform, and the dwelling-rooms, stores, etc., 
an-anged below it. Beneath these is an invei'ted pyi-amidal deck provided 
as a wave deflector. The model shows also the sliding ladder, boat, davits 
and fog bell. 



754. Lithograph of Fleetwood lighthouse (1840). Wood- 
croft Bequest, 1903. N. 2319. 

This lighthouse was erected in 1839-40 on a submerged sandbank at the 
entrance of Morecambe Bay. It was designed and built by Mr. A. Mitchell 
and was the first lighthouse completely carried on screw piles. 

The substructure consists of seven wrought-iron piles, 16 ft, long and 
5 in. diam,, with screws 3 ft, diam. driven 12 ft. below the surface, forming 
a hexagonal pyramid with a slope of 1 in 5. To the tops of these piles are 
attached wooden baulks 12 in. diam. which reach to the height of the upper 
platfoi-m, while diagonal tie-rods connect the outside supports with one 
another and with the central one. A layer of clay and stones, several feet 
in thickness, was placed upon the loose sandy bottom around the sti-ucture. 
The lantern is 10 ft, diam. and has 12 sides, while its height above the 
sea level is 45 ft. 



233 

755. Model of Gunfleet lighthouse. (Scale 1 : 24.) Lent by 
the Corporation of the Trinity House, 1874. N. 1385. 

This lighthouse on the Gunfleet Sands, at the entrance to the Thames, 
31 miles from the Nore Lighthouse, is erected on Mitchell's patent screw 
piles, of which a separate model is shown. There are one central and six 
exterior piles inclining inwards, supporting columns of about 12 in. diam., 
strongly braced ; the piles are screwed 40 ft. into the sand, and have screws 
4 ft. in diam. The sockets for the columns are secured to the face of the 
piles by bolts. 

The accommodation for the two keepers is under the lantern floor, one 
storey in height and divided into a living room, bed room, and oil room. 
Below this floor is a store room in the shape of an inverted pyi-amid, to 
which access is obtained by a ladder from the gallery. The sides and roof 
of the stmcture are of cornigated iron, with wi-ought iron angle plates. 

The lantern contains a revolving catoptric appai*atus, with fifteen 
reflectors and Argand burners in sets of five, placed on a frame of three 
sides, glazed with red glass. 

756. Model of the Great Basses lighthouse. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Corporation of the Trinity House, 1874. 

N. 1386, 

This lighthouse was erected on the Great Basses rocks, Ceylon, from the 
design of Sir James N. Douglass. It was commenced in 1870 and completed 
in 1872. 

The lighthouse has a cylindrical base 30 ft. high and 32 ft. diam., on 
which is a tower 67*5 ft. high, 23 ft. diam. at the base, and 17 ft. at the 
springing of the curve of the cavetto. The thickness of the wall at the 
base of the shaft is 5 ft., and at the top 2 ft. The accommodation within 
consists of six circular chambers each 13 ft. diam. There is also a room in 
the basement 12 ft. diam. for coals a,nd water, and a rain-water tank below 
7' 5 ft. diam. From the floor of the tank to the rock, a depth of 11*5 ft., 
the base is solid. The stones forming the wall of the tower are dovetailed, 
both horizontally and vertically, and set in cement ; the tower is of Scotch 
granite, and the stones were fitted before being sent out. 

The lantern is 110 ft. above high water, and shows a revolving red 
flashing light at 45 seconds intervals. The iUuminant is Ceylon cocoa-nut 
oil. There is also a 5 cwt. fog bell. 

757. Model of Malacca lighthouse. (Scale 1 : 32.) Received 
1899. Plate VIL, No. 7. N. 2200. 

This lighthouse in the Sti-aits of Malacca was erected by Messrs. G. 
Wells & Co. in 1874 on Mitchell's screw-pile system. The design is light, 
as the situation is well sheltered, and there is a depth of 15 ft. at low water 
and a tidal rise of 12 ft. ; the bottom is muddy. 

The structui'e is hexagonal in plan, with one central and six exterior 
wrought-iron piles 6 in. diam., screwed 15 ft. into the ground at a batter of 
1 in 5. The lower lengths of the piles are coupled with socket joints formed 
on the pile itself, while the upper lengths have cast iron sockets. The 
structure is braced together with 5-in. by •625-in. T-irons at high water 
level, and by 4-in. by • 5-in. ones above. The tie rods are from 1 • 5 to 2 • 5 in, 
diam., adjustable by right and left-handed screw couplings. The platform 
is 28-3 ft. above high water level, and at this height the distance between 
the pile centres is 13 ft. 

The dwelling-house has four rooms, with a kitchen and lavatory which, on 
account of the climate, are in a detached overhanging structure ; for the 
the same reason, the lean-to roof is extended over the gallery. The building 
is of angle-bars, covered with galvanised sheets and lined with matchboarding, 
gi'ooved and tongued. 



234 

The lantern surmounts the dwelling, and is 9 * 6 ft. diam. by 7-53 ft. 
high : it contains a third order holophotal light with 8 sides, giving 1 min. 
intervals. 

758. Model of Hino-Misaki liglitliouse. (Scale 1 : 50.) Pre- 
sented by the Board of Lighthouses, Japan, 1910. N. 2585. 

This stone structiu-e was built in 1903 on Cape Hino in the province of 
Izumo (S.W. Japan). It is fitted with dioptric group-flashing apparatus 
of the first order, giving double white flashes and a single white flash 
alternately every 20 seconds ; three keepers are in attendance. 

It is the highest stone lighthouse in Japan ; the centre of the lantern is 
128 ft. above the base, and the diameter of the structure varies from 15 ft. 
to 25 ft. 

759. Model of Tsutsu-Zaki beacon. (Scale 1 : 25.) Presented 
by the Board of Lighthouses, Japan, 1910. N. 2586. 

This lighted beacon was erected in 1909 on a sunken rock situated on the 
north side of the Eastern Channel of Tsushima Strait (Southern Japan). It 
is fitted with dioptric illuminating apparatus of the fifth order, flashing a 
white light every 15 seconds ; this requires attention once a fortnight. 

Great difficulty was experienced in the erection of this structure owing 
to the rough seas in the vicinity, only 82 actual working days being possible 
out of a total of 735 days in progress. A native visiting-boat, fitted with a 
special weather- screen at the bow, is shown near the beacon. 

The centre of the lantern is 76 ft. above high water, and the diameter of 
the stinicture varies from 10 ft. to 32 ft. 

760. Whole model of early lightship. (Scale 1 : 36.) Lent 
by the Corporation of the Trinity House, 1897. N. 2158. 

The first lightship was established by Robert Hamblyn and David Aveiy 
in 1731 at the Nore, to mark the entrance to the Thames and Medway. 
The light was maintained by a species of toll, but ultimately the Trinity 
Brethren paid an annuity of 1001. for 61 years to purchase the ship and any 
rights that might have been secured. The " Dudgeon " lightship off the 
Lincolnshire coast, was the second floating light, and was established in 
1736. 

These early lightships were from 80 ft. to 90 ft. in length, and from 100 
to 180 tons burden ; they had one mast, nearly amidship, can-ying a yard. 
At the masthead was a large red flag, while at each extremity of the yard 
was a lantern lighted by candles. When these candles required trimming 
the yard was lowered by a winch and placed fore and aft, the rigging being 
so aiTanged as to permit of this being easily performed. During foggy 
weather a bell was sounded. They were moored with anchors and hemp 
cables. 

761. Built whole model of a Goodwin lightship. (Scale 
1 : 24.) Lent by the Corporation of the Trinity House, 
1865. N. 1087. 

This represents the North Goodwin lightship, one of four stationed 
around the Goodwin Sands. It exhibits thi-ee fixed white lights, at heights 
of 20 ft., 25 ft., and 34 ft. respectively, and is distinguished by day by three 
masthead globes ; a gong is soimded during foggy weather. It is moored 
with 42 cwt. mushroom anchors and 1 'o-in. chain cables. 

The port side of the model shows the ship complete, while on the star- 
board side the timbers, waling, cabins, oil-tanks, seamen's lockers, and other 
fittings are left visible. The deck detail is also very accurately shown, the 



235 

hand-lead, log, and drift lines, gong, pumps, boats, guns for warning vessels 
seen standing into danger, ci-ab winches for hoisting and lowering the 
lanterns, etc., being all represented to scale. 

Length, 96 ft. ; breadth, 21 ft.; depth, 10-7 ft. 

762. Whole ]nodel of tlie Sunk lightship. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co., 
1892. N. 2008. 

This represents a lightship moored on the Sunk shoal in the Noi*th Sea, 
9 miles east of Walton-on-the-Naze. It is connected by telegraph and 
telephone with the shore, so that during bad weather tugs or lifeboats may 
be called out to the assistance of vessels seen to be in distress. 

In 1870 an attempt was made to establish a floating telegraph station at 
the entrance of the English Channel by mooring the old corvette *' Brisk " 
in 65 fathoms, 60 miles from Lands End. This was unsuccessful owing to 
the breaking of the insulated cable through the motion of the ship. 

In 1885 the " Sunk" lightship was fitted with electrical appliances for 
shore communication, but the cable soon broke down. Double mooring, as 
shown, was adopted to prevent the mooring chains damaging the cable, but 
the failure of the electrical circuit was afteinvards avoided by the use of a 
helical conductor. The insti-uments used were the Wheatstone ABC, the 
Morse sounder, and the telephone. 

The model is fitted with an electric bell and an insulated cable, by which 
connection is made with a battery and key outside the case and con'e- 
sponding with the shore end of the cable. 

763. Whole model of Outer Gabbard lightship. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by the Corporation of the Trinity House, 1897. 

N. 2157. 

This composite-built vessel was constructed at Newcastle in 1888 by 
Messrs. Robert Stephenson & Co. ; her frames are of iron, the topsides of 
teak, and the bottom planking of elm, sheathed with copper to a considerable 
height above the water-line. 

The lantei-n is 8 ft. diam., and contains eight two- wick Douglass lamps 
with 21-in. reflectors : the illuminant used is heavy mineral oil. The light 
gives a group of foui- white flashes at minute inteiwals with an intensity of 
8,000 c.p. During fog a reed horn, worked by a hot-air engine, gives four 
successive blasts every 45 seconds. 

The vessel is moored in 16 fathoms of water, near the Gabbard Sand 
off Hai-wich, with 210 fathoms of chain cable 1-625 in. diam., and a 3-ton 
mushroom anchor. 

Her crew on board consists of a master, two lamp-lighters, and foiu' 
seamen. 

Length, 105 ft. ; breadth, 23-5 ft. ; depth, 12 8 ft. 

764. Occulting light apparatus. Presented by Major-Gen. 
H. P. Babbage, 1904. N. 1465. 

It was in 1850-5 that the late Charles Babbage, F.R.S., introduced his 
system of occulting lights for lighthouses, by which the beacon is 
enabled continuously to signal its number; the mechanism shown is that 
originally made for moving the screen by which the series of eclipses is 
occasioned. 

The apparatus consists of a train of wheels driven by a weight and 
regulated by a revolving fan; this ti-ain lifts and lowers an obscuring 
disc in an arbitrary manner determined by the position of notches cut in 
the edge of a wheel. The ari-angement shown signals the number 587 
in the following way. After the light has been steadily visible for a 



236 

long interval five occultations take place; then there is a short interva 
followed by eight occultations, and another short interval followed by seven 
occultations, the first number following the long intervals and the others 
the shoi-t ones. 

The modem flashing lights usually revolve, but concentrating their 
rays into sevei*al naiTow beams give a flashing signal which, owing to the 
concentration, has greater peneti-ation than a steady light, as well as the 
desired individuality. 

765. Photographs of arrangeiiients of lighthouse lenses. 
Lent by Messrs. Chance Bros. & Co., 1875. M. 1397. 

These show the optical appai'atus for lights of the first, second, third 
and fourth orders, both revolving and fixed; also for oil or electric 
illumination. 

766. Marine lamp. Presented by the U.S.A. Lighthouse 
Board, 1880. N. 1541. 

This oil lamp, patented by Messrs. Dennis and Wheeler in 1867-8, 
was adopted by the U.S.A. Government as an anchor light giving an 
all-round illumination. The protecting glass is in the form of a cylin- 
di'ical lens, with corrugations on Fresnel's principle to give horizontal 
distribution. 

The lamp is regenerative in principle, the products of combustion being 
used to heat the air supplied to the burner. 

767. Navigation lights. Lent by Messrs. Nunn, Ridsdale 
& Co., 1905. ' N. 2392. 

Since 1863, by International Agreement, all vessels have been required 
to carry a number of special lights in well-defined positions for pre- 
venting collisions at sea. The Board of Trade regulations governing the 
character and disposition of such lights for British ships may be thus 
summarised : — 

All vessels when under sail, under steam, or in tow shall cany from 
sunset to sunrise a green light on the starboard or right-hand side and a 
red light on the port or left-hand side, each visible at a distance of 2 miles 
over a horizontal arc equivalent to 10 points of the compass (112 '5 deg.), 
i.e., from right-ahead to a position 2 points abaft a transverse or beam 
line. A fore-and-aft screen is to be placed on the inboard side and project 
3 ft. forward of each lamp, in order to prevent convergence of the two 
beams. In addition a steam vessel shall caiTy on or in front of the fore- 
mast a bright white hght visible at a distance of 5 miles over an arc of 
20 points of the compass (225 deg.) ; a second light of similar character 
may be carried abaft this position providing it is fixed 15 ft. higher than 
the foremost one. 

Any vessel being ovei-taken by another shall show from her stem a 
white light or a flare-up light, the former to be caiTied at the same level as 
the side lights and to be visible at a distance of 1 mile over an arc of 
12 points of the compass (135 deg.). A light similar to the above may be 
used by a steam vessel having another vessel in tow, 

A vessel at anchor, under 150 ft. in length, shall caiTy foi-ward where 
best seen a white light visible all-round the horizon for a distance of 1 mile ; 
when over 150 ft. in length the vessel shall cany in addition a similar light 
near the stem which shall not be less than 15 ft. lower than the foremost 
light. 

The set of five oil lamps shown^ in general features, comply with the 
above regulations ; in point of size, however, they are only suitable for a 
motor boat. The side lights marked "Port" and "Starboard" are fitted 



237 

with red and green glasses respectively, while those marked *' Mast Head," 
" Stern" and "Anchor" are fitted with white lenses having corrugations on 
Fresnel's principle to give parallel beams of light ; all have internal 
spherical reflectors. The arc of illumination is limited, except in the case 
of the anchor lamp which provides an all-round light. The usual fittings 
for suspending or securing the lamps are shown on each. 

An adjacent sketch shows in plan and elevation the disposition of the 
various lights on a steam vessel when under way, and also indicates the 
respective arcs of visibility of each, as prescribed ; the letters A.A. mark 
the position of anchor lights upon a large vessel. Further details of 
navigation lights and particulars relating to sound signals for fog, etc., are 
shown on an adjacent printed card. 

768. Model of bell buoy. (Scale 1 : 8.) Presented by the 
U.S.A. Lighthouse Board, 1880. N. 1540. 

This is an improved form of the early signal buoy in which the swaying 
motion due to the waves caused a bell on the buoy to ring. Unfortunately 
such simple appliances are silent in calm weather when fog is most 
prevalent. 

The aiTangement shown consists of a moored buoy supporting an iron 
frame in which a bell is fixed. The clapper of the beU is in the form of a 
spherical shot which rests on a plate, with radial con-ugations suppoi*ted by 
the fi-ame ; the grooves cause the shot to strike against the bell as the buoy 
swings, instead of simply rolling around within it. 

769. vSteam siren. Lent by Messrs. Steven and Stnithers, 
1887. N. 1729. 

This signalling apparatus, for use at sea as a foghorn, etc., was patented 
by Messrs. John Steven and Thomas Burt in 1882. It is a modification of 
the instrument for the production and analysis of musical notes invented 
in 1819 by Cagnard de Latour. 

In the fog- siren shown steam or compressed air is, by a simple valve, 
admitted into an annular casing provided with twelve vei-tical tangential 
slots through which the fluid can issue in jets. Inside this is a cylinder 
with similar slots oppositely inclined, and this cylinder is caiiied on a central 
axis so that it can freely turn, the arrangement resembling an inward-flow 
turbine except that the flow is interrupted while the wide vanes blind the 
orifices. 

To start the inner cylinder when the slots are not coincident, extra vanes 
on the inside are provided for six jets of steam to impinge against. To 
direct the sound a cowl or bell- mouth is added, which can be clamped in 
any desired position. 

The note sounded, depending upon the velocity of rotation of the 
fan, has a changing pitch which is very characteristic of such signalling 
appliances. 



LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCES. 

Until the 19th century vessels were usually totally unprovided 
with any special arrangements for preserving the lives of those 
on board in the event of the vessel sinking, and it was not till 
1888 that the " Merchant Shipping Life-Saving Appliances Act " 
rendered the adequate provision of such emergency fittings 
compulsory. 



238 

in cases of foundering, the usual expedient was to construct 
rafts from empty water-casks, spare spars, etc. ; but this required 
time, and became increasingly difficult as the employment of 
iron steamers extended. The idea, however, survives in the 
special pontoons sometimes stowed along the bulwarks or 
amidships, ready fitted for use, on some vessels, while in many 
passenger steamers the deck seats are so constructed as to 
become rafts when placed in the w^ater. 

Life-belts made of cork covered with canvas and sufficient 
to float another adult besides the wearer form part of the 
equipment of all passenger vessels, while similarly constructed 
life-buoys of annular shape are carried on the bulwarks, bridge, 
and other accessible parts of the ship. Copper life-buoys of 
various forms are usually carried astern in ships of the Royal 
Navy ; these are adapted for night use by fitting some system 
of automatic illumination. 

Life-boats are the most reliable and generally successful 
means of saving shipwrecked crews ; but such appliances have 
been placed in this collection with the other numerous forms 
of boats. 

When a vessel was wrecked on a rocky coast where a 
life-boat w^as not available, the earliest method of establishing 
connection wdth those on shore w^as by throwing a line from 
the ship. In 1807, Capt. G. W. Manby, F.R.S., reversed tins 
by firing a grapnel Avitli rope attached from a mortar on shore. 
Messrs. Trengrouse and Dennett, used a rocket to propel the light 
line, and this idea is embodied in the apparatus adopted by the 
Board of Trade in 1855, and now used at all coast stations. In 
the United States Capt. D. A. Lyle's gim is used, in which 
the rope is attached to the shot and is within the cartridge. In 
all cases a hawser is eventually hauled on board and made 
fast to the stump of a mast ; it then serves to support a 
life-buoy, cradle, or life-car, by which one to seven persons 
may be hauled ashore at each trip, the arrangement becoming 
a form of aerial ropeway. 

In the neighbourhood of steep cliffs it is custcmiary to 
provide ladders or cliff cranes for use in the event of a vessel 
being driven on to the rocks at the base. 



770. Photogi*aph of model of cliff crane. Received, 1896. 

N. 2099. 

This shows the original crane as used by the Royal Humane Society at 
Brighton in 1841. It is designed for the rescue of people wrecked in 
inaccessible places, such as the base of precipitous chfOs. The crane is 
drawn to the edge of the cliff, until the derrick overhangs the base, a weight 
forming a counterpoise being placed at the inner end. The people are then 
hoisted in a car or basket. Captain Manby's mortar apparatus was fitted 
to this example. 



239 

771. Model of vessel's upper deck with canting bridge and 
life-boat. (Scale 1 : 24.) Contributed by William Smith, 

Esq., 1870. N. 1320. 

This life-saving aiTangement was patented by Oapt. H. W. Hire, R.N,, 
and Mr. J. White, of Cowes, in 1886 ; it was adopted in H.M. Indian troop- 
ships and in the merchant service. 

There is a see-saw bridge athwartship, rather longer than the ship's 
beam, and hinged on a metal suppoi-t amidships ; it is also supported at the 
ends by adjustable metal stanchions. The bulwarks and stanchions are 
hinged so that they can be swung outboard, thus lowering either end of the 
bridge and converting it into a launching way. 

The life-boat was patented by Messrs. A. Lamb and J. White in 1862 ; 
it has bow, stern and side air cases and is fitted with three strong external 
keels to act as launching guides. Provision is made for canying light 
guns. 

772. Whole models of pontoon life-rafts. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Lent by Capt. J. W. Hurst, 1868. N. 1198-9. 

This construction, patented by Capt. Hurst in 1865, consists of two 
iron pontoons stayed apart diagonally by rods and formed into a i-aft by 
cross beams secured by clamps, so that the whole can easily be put together. 
There is a raised gunwale round the raft, with rowlocks for twelve oars, and 
it is also fitted with masts and sails. 

Length, 27 • 5 ft ; breadth, 3 ft. ; depth, 3 • 5 ft. 

A separate model shows this raft stowed as a portion of a vessel's 
bulwarks. 

773. Model of life-saving apparatus. (Scale 1 : 6.) Presented 
by H. S. Harland, Esq., 1874. N. 1372. 

Three an'angements of apparatus for saving drowning persons are 
shown. They consist of coils or reels of life-lines, with cork buoys at 
intervals. Capt. Ward's cork belt is part of the equipment, and enables 
a man to swim out with a life-line. To be ready for use on ice the lines are 
carried coiled in baskets. 

774. Model of life-buoy stowage. (Scale 1 : 6.) Presented bv 
H. S. Harland, Esq., 1874. N. 1371. 

This method of carrying buoys was introduced by Mr. Harland in 1868 
to avoid the loss of time involved in releasing a buoy that is lashed in 
position. Circular buoys are placed on the inside of the bulwarks between 
the stanchions and supported in chocks ; they are fastened in front by 
simple latches. 

775. Model of ship's life-boat apparatus. (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Presented by R. T. Fairbridge, Esq., 1879. N. 1399. 

These several appliances were introduced by Mr. Fairbridge in 1872. 

The boat-lowering gear consists of a form of trip hook at each end, 
fitted with lanyards for releasing from amidships. 

A combined life-raft and launching slip for boats is shown, also a canvas 
shoot for conveying women and children into a floating boat. 

The boats ai*e shown stowed beneath protective canvas covers. 

776. Whole model of combined life-boat and raft. (Scale 
1 : 12.) Presented by N. H. J. Smith, Esq., 1863. N. 926. 

This an-angement was patented by Mr. G. F. Pan-att in 1852-3. The 
central portion is an ordinary life-boat, but after being lowered a tnangular 
frame of spars is projected from each side ; these frames caiTy netting 



240 

supported by inflated india-rubber bags, which thus increases the accommo- 
dation. Thwai-ts for the crew are provided on the rafts, rowlocks being 
fitted on the projecting spars in addition to those on the gunwales. 

777. Model of life-net. (Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by tlie 
Commissioners of the 1851 Exhibition, 1874. N. 1392. 

This aii-angement was designed by Lieutenant H. J. R-owe, R.N., about 
1874, and has the advantage of being readily improvised from ship's stores. 
A triangular raft is formed of three spai-s supported by three baiTels ; a floor 
of netting is added. 

778. Life-buoy. Presented by Major H. B. Rodway, 1879. 

N. 1512. 

This form was patented by Major Rodway in 1878. It consists of a 
sealed tin-plate cylinder, 6 in. long by 4-5 in. diam., provided with a stiup, 
which, when adjusted around the neck, will support a person in either a 
vertical or a horizontal position ; the total weight is 1 • 5 lb. 



241 



MARINE ENGINES. 

The early metliods of obtaining motive power from steam 
are detailed in the Mechanical Engineering Collection (Cata- 
logue, Part I.). The problem of applying these results to 
navigation was not solved till the weight of the boiler and 
engine could be reduced within the limits of displacement of 
a boat that the engine could propel at a reasonable speed. 
Thus Denis Papin, in 1707, succeeded in propelling a boat by 
manual labour applied to cranks, but was unable to adapt 
a steam engine for the purpose. Jonathan Hulls, in 1736, 
patented a tugboat accommodating an atmospheric engine with 
a ratchet-wheel mechanism for obtaining rotative motion (see 
No. 779), but there is no conclusive evidence that it was tried. 

Patrick Miller (b. ,1731, d. 1815), who was experimenting 
with double-hulled vessels fitted with paddle-wheels driven 
by men turning capstans, had his attention drawn to an 
engine patented in 1787, by William Symington (b. 1763, 
i. 1831). A trial, in 1788, with this engine (see No. 783) 
fitted to a pleasure boat proved completely successful, 
as did also another with a larger boat and engine in the 
following year ; Miller tried, without success, to induce 
Boulton and Watt to join him in this enterprise and also offered 
his results to the Admiralty. 

Great credit is due to John Fitch (b. 1743, d. 1796), 
of Pennsylvania, wlio, after five years spent in experimenting 
with different combinations of engines and propelling apparatus, 
succeeded, in 1790, with a boat propelled by stern oars 
in running a service between Philadelphia and Borden town ; 
it was unsuccessful, however, probably because so little space 
was available for cargo and passengers. 

Symington, in 1801-4, financed by Lord Dundas, produced 
a thoroughly satisfactory marine engine (see No. 784). His 
boat was tried with success on the Forth and Clyde Canal, 
but as the proprietors feared damage to the canal banks, the 
boat was disused and the scheme was not taken up elsewhere. 
Meanwhile Robert Fulton (b. 1765, d. 1815), who had made 
successful experiments on the Seine in 1803, ordered from 
Boulton, Watt & Co. an engine which, in 1807, he fitted into 
the " Clermont," thus successfully inaugurating steam navi- 
gation on a commercial scale in the New World. Development 
was rapid, and Fulton's unmechanical bell-crank engine was 
quickly displaced by the "square" or "cross-head" engine 
of John Stevens, known on this side of the Atlantic as the 
"steeple" engine and generally credited to David Napier, 
although, on land and in a slightly different form, it had long 
before been used by Trevithick. 

The first steamboat to run commercially in Europe was 
Henry Bell's " Comet" of 1812 ; his engine was of the half 
beam type (see No. 787). The influence of the then standard 
beam construction is further visible in the marine engine 

U 6773. Q 



242 

developed by Boulton, Watt & Co. prior to 1820. This was 
the side-lever engine {see No. 794) which remained the 
standard type till about 1860, having been brought to great 
perfection by Clyde engineers, and having given rise to minor 
varieties {see Nos. 797-8). This influence also appears in the 
" walking-beam " engine developed about 1813 for the shallow- 
draught American river steamers, for which it has not yet been 
quite displaced ; its structural details give a peculiarly striking 
effect to these enormous steamers {see No. 818). 

The steeple engine introduced into this country about 1842 
by David Napier was an improvement on the side-lever in that 
it occupied less space and had fewer parts. As the crank-shaft 
was usually hung just over the cylinder, two or more piston 
rods were necessary {see Nos. 803-4), but other arrangements 
were also used. 

Murdock's oscillating engine of 1785 had been applied to 
marine work as early as 1822 in the " Aaron Manby," but it 
was not till 1827, when Joseph Maudslay equipped it with an 
efficient valve gear {see No. 811) that the saving in space dij| 
to the absence of connecting rods, was appreciated, and it was 
only when re-introduced in 1838 by John Penn, of Greenwich, 
that the type became and has since continued to be such a 
favourite for paddle steamers. 

The practical introduction in 1836 of the screw for propulsion 
necessitated a higher speed of rotation of the propeller shaft than 
of the paddle-wheel. At first, this need was met by employing 
engines of the accepted slow-running type and gearing up to 
the propeller shaft by ropes, belts, and pitch chains {see No. 820). 
.When John Ericsson, who brought out his screw in 1836, 
employed a direct-acting engine to propel it, its speed was 
considered unsafe. The introduction of the screw also gave a 
great impetus to the application of steam to the propulsion of 
warships and as the machinery was required to be below the 
water-line, a horizontal type of engine was developed. Ericsson 
tried one or two remarkable types {see No. 835), and finally 
adopted the return connecting-rod type, which was really only 
the steeple engine placed horizontally. This was first fitted, by 
his representative, in the French frigate " Pomone " followed in 
1844 by H.M.S. " Ampliion" ; it remained the standard type of 
engine in H.M. Navy down to 1876 {see No. 849). Another 
type extensively used for the same purpose during the same 
period, was Penn's trunk engine ; when first introduced for 
paddle propulsion it found but little favour, but it was revived 
with success in 1847 for screw propulsion {see No. 845). The 
horizontal direct-acting type was extensively adopted between 
1860 and 1885, but was always adversely criticised on account 
of the shortness of the connecting rods possible in the athwart- 
ship space available {see No. 850). 

For the mercantile marine the inverted or steam hammer 
type has been in favour for screw propulsion since 1860. In 
the increased space available, consequent on the introduction 



243 

about 1885 of tlie protective deck, it became possible to use this 
type in warships also and it was exclusively so fitted till the 
introduction of the steam turbine. With it, a number of 
cylinders can be placed tandem in order to get successive 
stages of expansion rendering a desired crank arrangement easy 
(see No. 852). Its economy in athwartship space admits, con- 
veniently, of double sets for twin screws. For paddle steamers, 
now confined to river and estuary services, the oscillating 
engine, which does not readily lend itself to compounding, has 
given way to the diagonal direct-acting engine (see No. 819) 
and this type is also displacing the " walking-beam " type in 
American waters. 

The successful introduction into marine practice by Messrs. 
Randolph, Elder & Co. of compound working in the S.S. 
" Valparaiso " and " Inca " (1856) was of vital importance in 
the direction of reducing the consumption of fuel, although as 
their steam was only at 25 lb. pressure, corresponding to 
a temperature of 130 deg. C. the full benefit of this advance 
^as not at once apparent. In the S.S. "Thetis" (1853), by 
Messrs. Rowan and Horton, however, with a steam pressure of 
115 lb. {i.e., 175 deg. C), the coal consumption was only 
1'86 lb. per indicated h.p. per hour. Expansion in three 
successive stages was introduced in 1874 by Messrs. John Elder 
& Co., in the S.S. " Propontis," and since then, following on the 
steady increase in pressure and in the number of expansions, 
the fuel consumption has been steadily diminished till it is now 
below 1 lb. per indicated h.p. per hour. Surface condensation 
was a factor which also assisted in this result ; it had been tried 
by Watt and was actually used for marine engines by David 
Napier in 1820-1, but was not generally introduced till 1833-7 
by Samuel Hall and then only slowly displaced the simpler 
jet arrangement. In recent j^ears higli vacuum has assumed 
great importance and the "augmented condenser" and other 
apparatus has been adopted to assist the air pump. 

The application of the steam turbine to marine propulsion 
dates from 1894, when an experimental vessel named the 
"Turbinia" was constructed. As finally fitted the vessel had 
three turbines, high, intermediate and low pressure, driving 
three separate sliafts each Avith three propellers, the low pressure 
and reversing turbines being coupled to the central shaft. This 
exceptional number of screws was found necessary'- to distribute 
the power developed at the high speed of revolution involved, and 
the remarkable speed of 34 " 5 knots Avas attained. This success 
was foUoAved by the construction of two torpedo boat destroyers, 
H.M.Ss. " Viper " and " Cobra," fitted Avith steam turbines. 
They, hoAve\^er, Avere lost before lengthy trials had been made. 
The steam turbine was next applied to fast cross-channel 
steamers and to Atlantic liners. Comparative trials on H.M.S. 
" Amethyst," fitted Avith turbines, and on other vessels of the 
same class, fitted Avith rec iprocating engines, resulted in the 
adoption of turbines in H.M. Navy. At present siftch engines 

Q 2 



244 

are fitted in practically all ncAv warships and tlieir nse is being 
very greatly extended in the mercantile marine. Their proved 
advantages over reciprocating engines are : economy of fuel at 
high speeds, reduction in weight, freedom from vIId ration, and 
reliability in service. At cruising speeds the reciprocating 
engine is more economical, and the experiment has been tried 
of combining the two systems in the same ship. 

The earliest successful application of the internal com- 
bustion engine to marine purposes appears to have been made 
in 1888, when a vessel was fitted with a Priestman oil engine. 
Steady progress has since been made in this method of propul- 
sion for which its advantages are : — compactness, lightness, 
and the power being immediately available. A disadvantage 
is the difficulty of reversing, without having recourse to 
special mechanism. The fuels at present in use in this connection 
are : — coal, coke, crude petroleum, paraffin, petrol, and alcohol. 
Owing to the high cost of petrol, attempts have been made to 
realise the economy that can be obtained by using producer gas 
obtained from bituminous coal, and some progress has been 
made in this direction. 



PADDLE ENGINES. 

779. Engraving of Hulls's paddle steamer. Received 1870. 

N. 2172. 

In 1736, Jonathan Hulls, of Campden, Gloucestershire, patented an 
arrangement of steam-propelled vessel to be used as a steam tug, in which 
a paddle-wheel at the stern was driven by a Newcomen atmospheric steam 
engine. In the following year he published an illusti-ated pamphlet upon 
his invention, a reprint of which is shown. It is stated that Hulls experi- 
mentally tried his scheme on the Avon at Evesham in 1737 ; he appears, 
however, to have abandoned the subject, as his only subsequent patent, 
applied for in 1753, describes an arrangement for detecting spurious coins 
by their specific gravity and an improvement in the logarithmic mle. 

The tug represented has a single-acting steam cylinder, 30 in. diam., 
which in its inward or working stroke lifts a weight equivalent to one-half 
of its effective pull ; by utilising the energy of this weight upon its descent 
during the return stroke a double-acting engine is obtained, and the 
reciprocating motion of the piston gives continuous rotation to a paddle- 
wheel at the stem by a form of f rictional ratchet gear. Where the water 
was sufficiently shallow Hulls proposed to use a pair of connecting rods 
from cranks on the paddle-wheel shaft, and allow them to rest on the river 
bottom so as to act as punting poles when the engine was at work. 

780. Pen-and-ink sketch of the Marquis de Jouffroy's steam- 
boat. (Scale 1 : 150.) Woodcroft Bequest, 1903. N. 90. 

This was copied in 1830 by Mr. R. Prosser from a French print published 
in 1816 as representing a steamboat constmcted by the Marquis de Jouffroy 
d'Abbans in 1783. The boat is 140 ft. long, 15 ft. beam, and 3-2 ft. 
draught ; it has two paddle-wheels tiimed by a single horizontal steam 
cylinder driving through a ratchet mechanism. In Paris is a declaration 
that on July 15, 1783, the vessel was propelled by steam power for fifteen 
minutes against the current of the river Saone, but these particulars of the 
machinery did not appear till thirty- three years later. 



245 

781. Engraving of the paddle vessel " Edinburgh.*' (Scales 
1 : 80 and 1 : 24.) Woodcroft Bequest, 1903. N. 91. 

The " Edinburgh," designed by Patrick Miller of Dalswinton, an 
Edinbm-gh banker, and launched at Leith in October, 1786, was 73-3 ft. 
in length, and 22 • 5 ft. in breadth. She consisted of three distinct 
hulls held together by beams ; she had three masts, and each hull had 
its own rudder, but the three tillers were connected so that all were 
moved by the centi-al one. She was fitted with two paddle-wheels 6 ft. 
diam., 4 ft. wide, with eight floats each. One of these wheels was on 
each side of the central hull, and they were rotated by winch handles driven 
by manual power ; the immersion of the wheels could be varied. 

Besides propulsion by paddle-wheels. Miller was at the time also 
advocating the use of two or three hulls abreast, claiming that they were 
superior to ordinary ships in the following respects — their small draught of 
water, great stiffness, small amount of lee way and great buoyancy ; 
moreover they required no ballast. 

782. Model of double-hulled paddle ship. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Contributed by Miss Miller, 1862. Plate VIII., No. 1. 

N. 316. 

This represents one of the eight or more paddle-driven vessels experi- 
mented with by Patrick Miller. It was built at Leith in 1787 by J. Laurie, 
and probably represents Miller's final design of ship for auxiliary propulsion 
by muscular power. 

The two complete hulls are connected together abreast, but with 
sufficient space between them for five paddle-wheels 7 ft. diam. placed 
tandem. Each paddle-wheel can be raised out of the water, when sails 
alone are used for propulsion, and is driven by a separate capstan on deck 
worked by manual power. Bevel gear was used. " On the lower part of 
the capstan was fixed a wheel with teeth pointing upwards to work in a 
trundle fixed on the axis of the water-wheel." With 30 men at the capstans 
a speed of 4*3 knots could be maintained. The model has five masts rigged 
with square and stay sails ; each hull has a separate rudder, but the tillers 
are connected. It is stated that the vessel was presented to the King of 
Sweden, and that on the voyage to Stockholm it proved easy and weatherly 
in a gale. The dimensions were : — Displacement, 255 tons ; length on 
deck, 100 ft. ; breadth of each hull, 12 ft. ; extreme breadth, 31 ft. ; depth 
of hold, 16 ft. ; draught, 55 ft. 

Another twin vessel built in 1787 had two paddle-wheels worked by 
cranks instead of capstans ; its length was 60 ft., and breadth 14*5 ft. 

A lithograph of a vessel of this constiniction is shown. 

783. The original marine steam engine, with drawings. 
Woodcroft Bequest, 1903. Plate YIII., No. 2. N. 5. 

This is the engine made in 1788 for Patrick Miller by William Syming- 
ton, of Wanlockhead, who in June, 1787, obtained a patent for a "new 
invented steam engine on principles entirely new." Miller had been making 
experiments in the propulsion of boats by hand-worked paddle-wheels, and, 
owing to the severe labour that was found necessary, it was suggested to 
him by James Taylor, his son's tutor and a personal friend of Symington, 
that he should employ steam instead of manual power to drive the paddle- 
wheels. Accordingly Symington was engaged to design an engine, the 
castings for which, it is recorded, were made in brass by George Watt, of 
Edinburgh. In October, 1788, the engine was placed on one deck of a 
double-hulled pleasure boat 25 ft. long by 7 ft. beam, and the boiler on the 
other deck. The engine was geared up by chains with two paddle-wheels 
placed one in advance of the other in the space between the two hulls. 

It is stated that this machinery propelled the boat on Dalswinton Loch 
at the rate of 5 miles an hour, but when only a few runs had been made 
it was removed, and after various vicissitudes was finally dismantled and 



246 

condemned as scrap in 1853. Mr. Bennet Woodcroft, F.B.S., howevei, 
secui-ed the pieces, and Messrs. John Penn and Son re-erected them in 
1854, replacing some missing pai-ts, and the engine then ran satisfactorily 
under steam at their works. 

The engine has two vertical open- topped Newcomen cylinders 4 in. diam., 
by about 18 in. stroke, in each of which works a piston connected by two chains 
with a drum which turns in opposite directions alternately. Each piston 
has a rod cai-ried in overhead guides, and the two chains enable power to be 
exei*ted in both the up and the down strokes, but it does not appear that 
the steam used was above the atmospheric pressure, as it could blow out 
through the condenser. There are two hoi-izontal paddle shafts, on each of 
which are two loose pulleys with ratchet teeth round their inner flanges, 
and between each pair of pulleys is a disc keyed to the shaft and carrying 
two pawls. Chains from the central drum turn these loose pulleys in 
opposite directions, and the teeth on the i-atchet wheels alternately engage 
with the pawls and so drive their paddle-wheel continuously in one 
direction. 

The lower end of each cylinder is fitted with a second piston used 
as an air pump, and these air pump pistons are connected by a small 
oscillating beam arranged beneath the engine tank or bed. Below each 
cylinder is a jet condenser with three discharge valves and a reverse valve, 
the details of the arrangement being shown in the adjacent sectional 
drawings. Each cylinder valve-box contains a steam and an exhaust valve, 
the space between communicating with the cylinder, and below each 
exhaust valve is a passage to the condenser controlled by the reverse valve. 
The valve gear is a tappet an*angement, with a plug- rod worked by a chain 
from a pulley on the central dinim shaft, and having four pins that lift the 
two steam and the two exhaust valves. 

When one of the main pistons reaches the bottom of its stroke, the steam 
valve is opened, and the steam pressure immediately closes the valve in the 
air pump piston, and forces the air pump piston downwards until the pressure 
in this condenser rises to that of the atmosphere. The condenser valves 
then lift, and the air, steam, and water are discharged into the tank, the 
reverse valve preventing any passing into the cylinder. The cylinder piston 
is at the time moving upward, and that in the other cylinder is descending 
owing to the excess of atmospheric pressure upon it, this doing the useful 
work. 

Symington's engine was really an atmospheric engine with a separate 
condenser, but it was not considered to be an infringement of Watt's patent. 
Miller aftei-wards wrote to Messrs. Boulton and Watt suggesting their 
co-operation in introducing steam navigation, but they declined. 

Three drawings and three lithographs are exhibited adjacently and 
serve to fm'ther elucidate the construction. 

784, Model of the stern- wheel steamer " Charlotte Dundas " 
(working). (Scale about 1 : 24.) Made from particulars 
supplied bv W. H. Rankine, Esq., 1903. Plate YIII., 
No. 3. "^ N. 2349. 

This vessel was built in 1801 by A. Hai-t at' Grangemouth, and engined 
by William Symington for sei-vice on the Forih and Clyde canal. The 
dimensions of the vessel were :— Length, 56 ft. ; beam 18 ft. ; and depth 
8 ft. 

The engine was of 10 nominal h.p., with a single direct-acting cylinder 
22 in. diam. and 4 ft. stroke, placed on deck. The piston-rod was guided in 
slides and the connecting rod acted on an overhanging crank on the paddle- 
shaft, an arrangement patented by Symington in 1801. The condenser and 
air-pump were below deck, the pump being worked by a bell-crank from the 
crosshead. Steam was supplied by an internally-fired boiler that was 
aiTanged on the other side of the boat. The engine drove a single paddle- 
wheel placed at the stern of the vessel in a recess 4 ft. wide and 12 ft. long, 



247 

the whole being housed in. The double stem carried two inidders, which 
were controlled by a steering wheel in the fore part of the vessel. 

In 1802 two loaded vessels each of 70 tons burden were successfully- 
towed by the " Charlotte Dundas," a distance of 19 • 5 miles on the canal. 
The canal owners, however, decided that any benefit which might accme 
fi'om the use of steam tugs would not compensate for the injuiy that 
would be done to the banks by the wash of the paddles, and therefore 
rejected the vessel, which then remained for a number of years laid up 
in a creek of the canal, and in 1861 was finally broken up. 

A lithogi*aph and a di-awing of the vessel are also shown ; the latter 
shows the engine placed below the deck. 

785. Lithograph of P.S. '•Clermont." Woodcroft Bequest, 
1903. N. 85. 

This plate is from Bennet Woodcroft's " Steam Navigation," 1848. The 
" Clermont " was built in 1807 by Charles Browne of the East River, New 
York, to the order of Robei-t Fulton as the outcome of study and practical 
experiments in navigation by steam can-ied out by the latter on the Seine at 
Paris in 1803. 

The " Clermont " was wallsided for the gi*eater part of her length with 
the stem and stem enclosing an angle of 60 deg. The engine was 24 in. 
diam. by 4 ft. stroke, and was supplied by Messrs. Boulton, Watt & Co. 
By means of bell-cranks, fly-wheel and spui- gearing, designed and executed 
by Fulton, it worked two side paddle-wheels 15 ft. diam. by 4-1 ft. wide. 
The boiler was of the extemally-fired land type. 

The trial trip took place successfully on August 17th, 1807, on the River 
Hudson between New York and Albany, the speed attained being 4 • 7 miles 
per hour. After completing her equipment, she ran as a packet on this 
route till the end of the season. During the winter of 1807-8, she was 
rebuilt and refitted and under the name "North River" continued to run 
on the Hudson for many years. 

Original dimensions : — Displacement, 100 tons ; length, 150 ft. ; breadth, 
13 ft. ; draught, 2 ft. 

786. Rigged model of P.S. "Comet" (working). (Scale 
1 : 24.) Presented by the Committee of the McLean 
Museum, 1900. Plate VIII. , No. 4. N. 2255, 

This model was made by Mr. T. Rennie, from the original lines of the 
vessel, which, as well as a model, have been preserved. 

The " Comet " was built at Port Glasgow in 1811-2 by Messrs. John 
Wood & Co. to the instructions of Henry Bell, proprietor of the baths at 
Helensburgh. 

In August 1812 the vessel commenced running on the Clyde between 
Glasgow and Greenock, as a public conveyance for passengers, at the 
advertised fares of 4s. for the fii'st cabin and 3s. for the second. The enter- 
prise was financially unsuccessful, so that in 1813 Bell "made her a jaunting 
" boat all over the coasts of England, Ireland, and Scotland." The public 
had, however, found the new mode of travel so convenient that within a 
year the three paddle steamers " Elizabeth," " Clyde," and " Glasgow " were 
under construction for the sei'vice which the " Comet" had abandoned. 

In 1816 the " Comet " was plying on the Fii-th of Forth, and in 1818 
Bell employed her in establishing steam communication between the West 
Highlands and Glasgow ; in 1820, while on a passage from Fort William, 
she went ashore at Craignish Point and became a total wreck. 

The engine (see No. 787) was placed on the port side, and the boiler, 
which was of the land type, was on the starboard. At first there were two 
sets of radial paddles, on detached ai*ms, on each side, driven by spui- gear, 
but, this an-angement giving trouble, paddle-wheels were afterwards substi- 
tuted, and the number of wheels was reduced to two ; the steaming speed was 
about 6 • 7 knots. There was a single funnel, which served also as a mast 



248 

and carried a yard and square sail as represented in an adjacent drawing 
which shows the vessel under sail and steam. 

The " Comet " was the first vessel moved by steam that carried on a 
regular sei-vice in Eui'ope successfully, and this she did 13 years before the 
first public steam railway was inaugurated. 

Burden, 25 to 30 tons ; length on keel, 40 • 25 ft. ; breadth extreme, 
11 • 25 ft. ; depth, moulded, 5 • 6 ft. 

787. Engine of Bell's P.S. " Comet." Presented bv Messrs. 
R. Napier and Sons, 1862. Plate VHI., No. 5. " N. 904. 

This engine, made by Mr. John E-obeHsqn, of Glasgow, has a single 
inverted upright cylinder, 12 • 5 in. diam. by 16 in. stroke, placed over the 
crank- shaft and driving, by means of two side-rods, a pair of half side-levers, 
from which a connecting rod transmits the power to the overhanging crank. 
The crank- shaftcaiTies a balanced fly-wheel, 6 ft. diam., and a spui- pinion; 
also a single loose eccentric, driven by a pin projecting from the fly-wheel 
boss and pro\dded with two side holes coiTesponding with the positions for 
running ahead and astern. The slide valve is worked from a balanced 
rocking- shaft, and an extension of the eccentric rod forms the means by 
which the eccentric is traversed when reversing has to be performed. The 
condenser is embodied in a single casting, forming the main portion of the 
engine framing and the water tank, in which the vertical air-pump, driven 
from the side levers, is accommodated. 

Steam was supplied by an externally-fired, low-pressui-e boiler, made by 
David Napier, and set in brickwork. When first tried the engine had a 
smaller cylinder (it was 11 '5 in. diam.), but after being used for some 
months it was replaced by the present one. 

788. Oil painting of P.S. "Comet." Presented by Mrs. 
Campbell Muir, 1903. N. 2344. 

This painting, attributed to Alexander Nasmyth, is believed to represent 
the " Comet" when she was plying on the Firth of Forth {see No. 786). 

789. Photograph of painting of P.S. ''Comet" and " lona." 
Lent by John Hamilton, Esq., 1876. N. 1467. 

This is taken from a painting by Wm. Clark, of Greenock, in 1874, 
which illustrates the advance made in marine engineering in half a centuiy. 
The vessels represented are the " Comet " of 1812 {see No. 786), and the 
" lona " of 1864 — both Clyde passenger steamers. 

790. Drawings of earlv paddle steamers. (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Lent by George Baird, Esq., 1876. N. 1462. 

The first drawing represents the P.S. " Elizabeth," originally a barge, but 
rebuilt and engined by Charles Baird in 1815 at St. Petersburg for service 
on the Neva. 

The engine was of the side-lever type, with a single cylinder and air 
pump ; the boiler was externally fired and had a brick chimney. The wheel 
had four floats which were kept vertical by means of bevel gear. 

The second drawing shows a steamer built by Mr. Baird in 1817 for 
carrying passengers between St. Petersburg and Cronstadt. The appended 
description states that the six-float paddle-wheels were driven at 50 revs, per 
min. by gearing from a side-lever engine fitted with a fly-wheel ; the general 
an*angement resembles that of the " Comet " {see No. 787). 

791. Photograph of engraving of P.S. " Prinzessin Charlotte." 
Lent by G. P. Rubie, Esq., 1876. N. 1452. 

This represents ths first steamer built in Prussia. It was a double- 
hulled vessel constructed in 1816 by John E/ubie at Pichelsdorf for the 
navigation of the Elbe, Havel, and Spree. Between the hulls was a single 
paddle-wheel driven by an engine of 14 h.p. made by J. B. Humj^hreys. 

B.m., 236 tons ; length, 130 • 4 ft. ; breadth, 19 • 3 ft. 



249 

792. Drawings of P.S. " London Engineer." (Scale 1 : 48.) 
Maudslay Collection, 1900, and " The Engineer," 1897. 

N. 2241. 

This vessel, which was specially designed and fitted for plying between 
London and Margate, was built of wood in 1818 by Brent of Rotherhithe, 
and engined by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field. 

The engines were of the bell-crank type, somewhat resembling those of 
the " Comet" {see No. 787), and had two vertical cylinders 36 in. diam. by 
30 in. stroke, driving a paddle shaft which had overhung cranks and a pair 
of paddle-wheels between them. Steam at a pressure of 5 lb. was supj)lied 
by three copper boilers, arranged abreast, each with a single furnace. 

The paddle-wheels were each 12 • 5 ft. diam. and 6*5 ft. wide, with eight 
radial anns canying floats, and made 28 revs, per min. The two wheels 
were arranged in a casing built amidship, airtight, but open at the bottom, 
and the floats projected below the floor level to that of the three keels. As 
the paddle shaft was only slightly above the water-line, two air compressing 
pumps were provided, which forced air into the casing and thus lowered the 
water level therein. It was found, however, that the motion of the paddles 
rapidly caiTied away the air, so that the water rose and seriously interfered 
with the propelling action of the wheels. 

B.o.m., 315 tons ; length, 120 ft. ; breadth, 24 ft. ; draught, 5 ft. 

793. Photographs of side-lever engine. Received 1900. 

N. 2254. 

These photographs show the first marine engine constnicted by Robei-t 
Napier, which is of the type that he subsequently so greatly developed. It 
was made in 1824 at his works at Camlachie, Glasgow, for the P.S. " Leven " 
— a river steamer built at Dumbai-ton (Napier's bii"th place), and one of the 
first to ply between there and Glasgow. In 1877 the relic was presented by 
his sons, Mr. J. E. and Mr. J. Napier, to the town of Dumbai-ton, where it is 
preserved at the pier head. The engine has a single cylinder 31 ■ 5 in. diam. 
by 36 in. stroke ; in its details it resembles the larger engine shown in the 
sectional model No. 797. 

794. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Dee." (Scale 1 : 32.) 
Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2216. 

The P.S. " Dee " was a mail packet, built of wood for post office work in 
1827 to the designs of Oliver Lang. The first despatch steamer introduced 
into the Navy was built in 1823, but between 1827-40 nearly 80 steam 
vessels of this type were constructed. 

The model, which is stated to have been the workmanship of Henry 
Maudslay, represents a pair of side-lever engines as introduced by Boulton, 
Watt & Co., but with the Gothic framing ascribed to the elder Brunei. 

The cylinders were 54 in. diam., by 5 ft. stroke, and were supplied by 
steam at a pressure of 8 lb. by tubular boilers; the paddle-wheels were 
20 ft. diam, and the speed of the " Dee" was 8 knots. The engines closely 
resemble those built on the Clyde somewhat later and shown in section to a 
larger scale in No. 797. 

795. Model of Galloway's vibrating engine (working). (Scale 
1 : 8.) Presented by Messrs. Bnllivant & Co., 1902. 

N. 1896. 

This form of semi-rotary engine for marine propulsion was patented by 
Elijah Galloway in 1829, and is described in the same specification as his 
feathering paddle-wheel {see No. 951). 

The piston is a radial blade secured to a shaft concentric with the 
cylinder within which it vibrates through an arc of 270 deg. A crank on 
this shaft has its pin in one end of a slotted link, which is capable of 
sliding and turning on a block on a fixed pin. A connecting-rod joins 



250 

the other end of this link to a crank on a fly-wheel shaft, the arrangement 
of links being such that each doul^le vibi-ation causes one revolution of the 
fly-wheel. The valve gear is not shown, but was to have been arranged on 
the top of the cylinder and worked by an eccentric on the main shaft. 

796. Model of engines of P.S. "Ruby" (working). (Scale 
1 : 16.) Presented by the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
1868. Plate VIIL, No. 6. N. 1193. 

The " Ruby " was built in 1836 by Messrs. Wallis, of Blackwall, for the 
Diamond Co.'s service between London and Gravesend. Her dimensions 
were :— Length (b.p.), 155 ft.; breadth, 19 ft.; depth, 10-16 ft,; draught, 
forwai'd, 4*1 ft.; aft, 4*6 ft.; displacement, 170 tons. Instead of using 
frames the hull was built of three layers of planking crossing one another and 
nailed together, but separated by felt ; this construction, although strong 
and dui'able, was known as " lath and plaster." 

The engines were of the regular side-lever type, constructed by Messrs. 
Seaward & Co., of Poplar ; the two cylinders were 40 in. diam. by 3 • 5 ft. 
stroke, and were collectively of 100 h.p. ; steam at 3 • 5 lb. pressure was 
supplied by flue boilers. The paddle-wheels were 17*5 ft. diam. with radial 
floats 9 '16 ft. wide by 1-25 ft. deep; the speed of the "Ruby" was 
11-7 knots, which was '7 knot higher than that of any other Thames 
steamer of that day. 

The arrangement of these engines was the favourite one, not only for 
river boats, but also for ocean-going steamers, and from its introduction, 
by the firm of Boulton "Watt & Co. prior to 1820, till the general abandonment 
of paddle steamers for ocean sei-vice in 1860-70, nearly all engineers 
constructed such engines. The design is evidently the result of a re-ai-range- 
ment of the mill engine to suit a limited height, the beam being placed low 
down and the connecting-rod working upwai'ds. Such engines worked 
efficiently and required very little attention or repair, but their weight was 
excessive and the space occupied was very great ; the engines of the " Ruby " 
required 18 ft. of the vessel's length, and the total length of the space 
occupied by the machinery and boilers was 42 ft., in a vessel only 155 ft. 
long. 

The engines have two cranks at right angles on the paddle-wheel shaft, 
each crank being driven by a connecting-rod attached to the end of a pair 
of beams vibrated by a vertical cylinder ari'anged between their other ends. 
The piston-rod crossheads are guided by an interesting modification of 
Watt's parallel motion. 

The air and feed pumps are driven by a crosshead, working in guides and 
moved by side rods, while the condensers are arranged around the gudgeons 
or trunnions of the side-levers or beams. 

797. Sectional model of side-lever marine engine (working). 
(Scale 1 : 8.) Presented by the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, 1868. N. 1191. 

This shows in detail the arrangement of the type of marine engine 
which from 1820 to 1860 was most generally and successfully adopted, being 
fitted to most of the sea- going steamers till paddle-wheels were abandoned 
for ocean voyages. In the development of this design much was done by 
Robert Napier on the Clyde, and this model accurately represents his 
regular practice previous to 1845. 

To secure a uniform motion, and for other reasons, it was usual to 
employ two cylinders driving cranks at right angles ; this model only 
indicates one-half of the actual engine. It is, however, a remarkable 
I)roperty of the an-angement that even with a single cylinder such an engine 
can be started from its so-called " dead " centre. 

The engine represented had two cylinders, 60 in. diam. by 6 ft. stroke, 
and drove a pair of paddle-wheels 24 ft. diam. at 16 revs, per min. The 
boiler pressure would be about 15 lb. above atmosphere, and the indicated 
h.p. about 700. The condensers were of the jet type, and were cleared by 



251 

vei'tical single-acting air-pumps. The pai'allel motion, for guiding the 
vertically moving rods, is a modification of that of Watt, the " ludius-rod '* 
and " back-link " having separate points of attachment. 

This model, however, if read to a scale of 1 : 9, very closely represents 
the engines supplied by Robert Napier in 1840 to the four sister ships 
" Britannia " (see No. 183), " Acadia," " Caledonia," and " Columbia," with 
which the Cunard line was established. They each had a pair of cylinders 
72 '5 in. diam. by 82 in. stroke, and at 16 revs, per min. indicated 740 h.p. ; 
the speed was 8 • 25 knots, with a coal consumption of from 31 to 38 tons 
per twenty-four hours. 

The finest engines of this type were probably those of the last paddle- 
driven Cunarder, the " Scotia," which had two cylinders 100 in. diam. 
by 12 ft. stroke. The paddle-wheels were 40 ft. diam., and had floats 
11-5 ft. by 2 ft. Steam at 20 lb. pressure was supplied by 8 boilers with 
40 furnaces, and the speed was 13*5 knots, with a coal consumption of 
160 tons per 24 hours. 

Note. — The parallel motion levers, the valve gear, and the paddle- 
wheel of the model were made in the Museum in 1898 from existing 
records. 

798. Model of modified side-lever engine (working). (Scale 
1 : 16.) Presented by the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
1868. N. 1192. 

The model represents an aiTangement by which the space required for 
the side- J ever type of marine engine is reduced. Instead of arranging the 
pair of cylinders athwartships, they are placed fore-and-aft ; one in the usual 
position driving the crank-shaft by a pair of side-levers, and the other 
aiTanged under the crank- shaft, di'iving directly by side rods. As the crank- 
pins driven by the two cylinders are at right angles, the engine exerts a 
fairly luiif orm turning moment, and will start in any position. The portions 
of the four-throw crank-shaft are coupled by drag links. 

The valves are driven by separate loose eccentrics ; no parallel motions 
are employed, the crossheads being guided by slides secured to the cylinder 
tops ; in most other respects the details resemble those of the common side- 
lever ari-angement. 

799. Photograph of tiig-boat engines. Lent by Messrs. 
Westgarth, English & Co., 1887. N. 1719. 

This represents the engines of the paddle tug " Pendennis," built in 1885. 
There is a single cylinder, 25 in. diam. by 42 in. stroke, working the paddle 
shaft by means of a half-beam. 

This modification of the early side-lever engine is generally considered to 
give the most satisfactory type of engine for such paddle vessels. 

800. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Gorgon" (working). 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Presented by Messrs. Bullivant & Co., 
1902. N. 1874. 

The " Gorgon " was a steam frigate designed by Sir W. Symonds, and 
launched at Pembroke in 1837. Her dimensions wei-e : — Length, 178 ft. ; 
breadth, 37 5 ft. ; depth, 23 ft. ; draught of water, 13 ft. forward, 14-5 ft. 
aft ; tonnage, 1,111 tons. She was built throughout of teak, with the 
exception of the main beams, which were of oak. 

The engines, by Messrs. Seaward and Capel, of Limehouse, were the first 
direct-acting fixed-cylinder marine engines, and owing to the great saving 
in room and weight that they showed when compared with the then almost 
universal side-lever engine, they created considerable interest. The substi- 
tution of wrought iron columns to cany the upper entablature in place of 
the usual heavy cast frames was an additional improvement. 

The " Gorgon's " engines had cylinders 64 in. diam. by 5 • 5 ft. stroke, 
and drove paddle-wheels 27 ft. diam. ; the general machinery was 4 ft. 



252 

below the water-line. Each cylinder was carried on a foundation plate 
weighing 10 tons, that contained its condenser and hot-well, while also 
supporting the air and feed pumps. The piston-rods were guided by a lever 
parallel motion of peculiar construction, now known as the " Grorgon " 
type ; from a double lever of this motion the pumps were driven. The 
eight columns supporting the entablature were 7 in. diam. These engines 
were found to weigh 60 tons less than equivalent side-lever engines, but the 
chief objection lu'ged against the aii~dngement was the shortness of the 
connecting rods. 

Steam was supplied by foui- tubular boilers with twelve grates and two 
stoke-holds. The coal bunkers were aiTanged around the engines and 
boilers, giving a thickness of 8 ft. and a capacity of 400 tons, or 16 days' 
consumption at a speed of 7-7 knots. On trial the average speed was 
9 ■ 8 knots and the fuel consumption one ton of "Welsh coal per hour. 

801. Model of open-topped cylinder paddle engines (Avorking). 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Presented by Messrs. Bullivant & Co., 1902. 

N. 1876. 

This aii*angement of direct-acting marine engine was introduced in 1839 
by Messrs. Seaward and Capel, of Limehouse, to avoid the use of the short 
connecting-rods seen in the earlier " Gorgon " type, which in other respects 
this strongly resembles. One of the first vessels fitted with these " atmo- 
spheric " engines was the P.S. '• Sapphire," built of iron in 1842 by Messrs. 
Ditchbum and Mare. She was 150 ft. long, 19 ft. beam, 4 * 6 ft. draught, 
and was fitted with engines having three cylinders 74 in. diam. by 3 ft. 
stroke, supplied with steam at a pressure of 8 lb. above the atmosphere. 
These drove paddle-wheels 16 ft. diam. at about 30 revs, per min. The 
" Alliance " and the " Havi-e," u'on vessels built in 1855-6 for the Channel 
sei-vice, were also fitted with these engines. 

The cylinders have no top covers, so that the connecting-rods can be 
attached close to the pistons, but each piston has a light rod working in a 
guide which the forked end of the connecting-rod clears. The air and feed 
IDumps are driven by beams rocked by links from the pistons. 

The engines in some respects resemble the trunk form subsequently 
extensively adopted where space was restricted. 

802. Model of double piston-rod engine (working). (vScale 
1 : 16). Contributed by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, 
1858. N. 120. 

The type of vertical engine in which the crank-shaft is placed a short 
distance above the cylinder and is di-iven by a return connecting-rod from a 
crosshead above so as to admit of the use of large cylinders in the limited 
height available under a paddle shaft appears to have been first introduced 
in 1837 by Messrs. G.FoiTester& Co. of Livei-pool, for the P.S. "Rainbow." 
In this engine the piston rod was extended upward to form a kite- shaped 
loop within which the crank and connecting-rod could work. 

In 1839 Joseph Maudslay and Joshua Field patented the arrangement, 
shown in the model, in which two piston rods and a return connecting-rod to 
a crank, which just clears the top of the cylinder, are used. The piston rods 
are both on the same side of the crank which is consequently off the centre 
line, thereby increasing the maximum obliquity of the connecting-rod and 
causing considerable difference in the times of the two strokes. This led to 
the neglect of the arrangement but not until several engines of 70 h.p. with 
cylinders 4 ft. diam. by 3 ft. stroke had been built for service on. the river 
Rhone. The air and feed pumps were worked by a sway beam rocked by 
the crosshead. 

The engine is interesting in that it shows the original form of the 
arrangement, subsequently adopted extensively when placed horizontally, 
known as the return connecting-rod engine. 



253 

803. Model of qTiadruple piston-rod engine (working). 
Received 1902. N. 2283. 

This shows the improved aiTangement of engine (see No. 802) patented 
in 1842 by David Napier of Millwall, He adopted four piston rods which 
allowed the axes of the cylinder and of the crank shaft to be in one plane, 
thus giving a symmetrical and satisfactory engine. Napier built many of 
his four piston-rod engines which became very popular on the Clyde 
for vessels of shallow draught, owing to their reduced length as compared 
with those having side levers; on account of the height of their guides 
above deck, they became generally known as " steeple " engines. 

The model, which was in use for driving a small boat, has a pair of 
cylinders 4*5 in. diam, by 5 • 3 in. stroke, each with four piston-rods and a 
return connecting rod, driving cranks at right angles. The valve chests are 
aii-anged for long D slide valves, worked by weigh-shafts and gabs from 
loose eccentrics on the crank- shaft. The condenser is of the jet type, formed 
in the bed plate, and is cleared by a diagonal air pump 3 in. diam. by 3 in. 
stroke, worked by an intermediate crank in the shaft, and there is a plunger 
feed pump, • 6 in. diam, and 1*5 in. stroke driven by an eccentric at one end 
of the crank -shaft. 

804. Model of double piston-rod engine (working). (Scale 
1 : 8.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2220. 

The aiTangement here shown is an improvement on Napier's steeple 
engine {see No. 803) in that while sharing its symmetrical an*angement, only 
two piston rods are required. 

The cylinder is placed vei-tically some distance below the crank-shaft, 
and through its upper cover pass two piston rods, one on either side of the 
crank-shaft, united above by a crosshead which slides on vei-tical cylindrical 
guides. From this crosshead descends the connecting-rod to the crank-shaft 
while the vertical air, feed and bilge pumps are driven by beams worked by 
links from the main crosshead. The steam is distributed by a locomotive- 
type slide valve which is driven by link motion ; in this case, however, the 
link is shifted by a hand wheel and pinion gearing into teeth on the link, the 
shoi-t ti-avel of which would not seriously interfere with the movements of 
the attendant in reversing or "linking up." 

The model represents generally several engines of 30 h.p. with single 
cylinders 32 in. diam. by 3 • 5 ft. stroke which were built in 1850 to the 
order of the Hon. East India Company for shallow- draught river steamers. 

805. Model of direct-acting paddle engine (working). 
(Scale 1 : 16.) Contributed by J. Seaward, Esq., 1860. 

N. 326. 

This is an arrangement of paddle engine in which, by the use of what 
may be termed " return piston rods," a long connecting-rod is accommo- 
dated in a limited height. The cylinder has a single piston rod, terminating 
in a four-armed crosshead, from which four rods pass downwards to two 
short cross pieces that are guided by side-levers controlled by a " Gorgon " 
parallel motion. From these cross pieces a forked connecting-rod extends 
upward to the crank-shaft above. The air and feed pumps are worked 
by a crosshead moved by prolongations of the side-levers ; the condenser is 
arranged in the framing and between the cylinder and air pump. The 
upper entablature is connected with the cylinder by turned columns and 
inclined stays that give a generally light appearance. 

This aiTangement of engine, which it is stated was fitted to several tug 
boats, gives a flexibility in the machine that was of advantage in the early 
days of marine machinery ; but the number of working parts is great, and 
careless adjustment can cause considerable trouble with so many connecting 
Jinks. 



254 

806. Model of direct-acting paddle engines (working): 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Contributed by Messrs. Ravenhill, Salkekl 
& Co., 1859. N. 320. 

This arrangement of paddle-wheel engine was patented in 1841 by 
Mr. Joseph Miller as an improvement on the side-lever type, and was fitted 
in several vessels. Its merit consisted chiefly in the reduction in the amount 
of space required, the length being but little more than the diameter of the 
cylinders, which were arranged vertically under the crank-shaft, with the 
two air-pumps between them. 

The condensers, which suiTOunded the air-pumps, connected the two 
cylinders, the whole being bolted together so that no foundation plate was 
required, the cylinders only being fastened down to the sleepers or keelson 
of the vessel. The bearings for the crank-shaft were carried in a cast-iron 
frame supported on wrought-iron columns fixed to the cylinders. The 
piston rods were guided by vertical slide bars fixed to the cylinder covers, 
and supported by the framing ; the air-pump rods were similarly guided. 
The slide-valves were of the long D type, and were actuated by eccentrics 
on the crank-shaft giving motion to rocking -shafts above the valve chests. 
The feed and bilge pumps were worked by a bell-crank driven from one of 
the air-pump crank pins. 

807. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Retribution" (working). 
(Scale 1 : 24.) Contributed by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons 
and Field, 1858. N, 121-2. 

The paddle frigate " Retribution " was designed by Sir W. Symonds, 
and launched at Chatham in 1844. Her dimensions were : — Tonnage, 1,641 
tons ; length, 220 ft. ; breadth, 40 -5 ft. ; depth, 26 • 3 ft. She carried 10 
guns. 

The model represents one of the pair of double- cylinder, or " Siamese '' 
engines, by which the paddle-wheels were driven. The aiTangement was 
patented in 1839 by Messrs. J. Maudslay and J. Field, as a means by which 
a long cylinder could be fitted in the limited height available in a paddle 
ship. 

Each engine consisted of two vertical cylinders, 72 in. diam., 8 ft. stroke, 
placed fore-and-aft under the paddle shaft. The two piston rods were 
attached to a double crosshead of X shape, which worked in guides between 
the two cylinders, while between them swung the connecting-rod joining 
the crosshead with the overhead crank ; in this way a connecting-rod of 
ample length was provided for. The air and feed pumps were driven by a 
pair of levers connected to the main crosshead. Steam was supplied at 
a pressure of 7 lb. per sq. in., by four flue-boilers, and the engines made 
13 revs, per min. 

The portion of the paddle-wheel shown has the float cut into three strips, 
arranged as in the " cycloidal " paddle-wheel {see No. 937). 

808. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Devastation" ^working). 
(Scale 1 : 16). Maudslay Collection, 1900. Plate VIIL, 
No. 7. N. 2217. 

The " Devastation " was a wooden-built paddle frigate, constiTicted at 
Chatham during 1840-4 to the following dimensions : — B.o.m.. 1,058 tons ; 
length, 220 ft. ; breadth, 40 ft. ; depth, 26 ft. 

The engines were of the twin cylinder or " Siamese " type. 

The engines represented had four vertical cylinders each 54 in. diam., 
by 6 ft. stroke, arranged in pairs and working on two ci-anks at right angles 
in the paddle-shaft. The crosshead for each pair returned between the 
two cylinders and was there controlled by guides, while the connecting- 
rod extended from this lower end, between the two plates forming the 
crosshead, to its crank pin. There was a single steam chest and a long 
piston slide valve for each pair of cylinders ; the valves were each actuated 



255 

through a rocking-shaft by a loose eccentric, while rack- and -pinion gears 
were added for moving the valves by hand when the gabs were disengaged 
while reversing. Each pair of cylinders had its own jet condenser, which 
formed also a base plate, and by means of side levers drove its air and feed 
pumps which were all arranged vertically. The model shows also the 
bearers, platforms and columns of the engines, together with the framing 
of the hull and paddle boxes. 

Between 1840-6 nine vessels for H.M. Navy were fitted with these 
engines, and within 10 years from their introduction 55 sets, representing 
a total of 48,000 h.p., were supplied for driving paddle-wheels. 

809. Model of engines of "Princess Alice" (working). 
(Scale 1 : 16.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2218. 

The "Princess Alice" was a paddle vessel, built of iron by Messrs. 
Ditchburn and Mare in 1843 at Blackwall for the Admiralty's channel packet 
service between Calais and Dover. Her dimensions were : — B.o.m., 270 tons ; 
length, 144 ft. ; breadth, 20-1 ft. ; depth, 10-9 ft. ; mean draught, 6-5 ft. 

Her engines were of the annular type, patented by Joseph Maudslay in 
1841 and a development of his twin cylinder arrangement ; although more 
compact they were less easily constructed and, therefore, less extensively 
adopted than those having twin cylinders. 

Each of the two cylinders was 43 in. diam. by 3 ■ 5 ft. stroke, but through 
the centre was a hollow column, so that the piston was annular and had 
two rods. These rods were secured to a double plate crosshead of T shape, 
the tail of which worked within the central column and at its lower 
extremity received the small end of the connecting-rod, the big end of 
which was attached to the crank of the paddle-shaft above. The upper end 
of the crosshead was also guided, and sufficient clearance was allowed in 
the central column to permit of the swing of the connecting-rod ; the valve 
gear and the pumps were all arranged as in the twin cylinder engines. 

The engines represented were supplied with steam at 16 lb. pressure 
and di'ove a pair of feathering paddle-wheels 18 ft. diam,, which gave the 
vessel a speed of 12 • 5 knots. 

810. Models of engines of P.S. "Helen McGregor" (one 
working). (Scales 1 : 24 and 1 : 12.) Contributed bv 
Messrs. G. Forrester & Co., 1860 and 1869. N. 328 and 1312. 

The "Helen McGregor" was built by Mr. John Laird, at Birkenhead, 
in 1843, for the Hull and Hamburg trade. Her dimensions were : — 
Length, 180 ft. ; breadth, 26 ft, ; depth, 15 ft, ; register, 573 tons, and she 
was at the time one of the largest vessels of her class. 

The engines, by Messrs. G. Fon-ester & Co., consisted of two inverted 
cylinders, 42 in. diam. by 4-5 ft. stroke, carried by four wrought iron 
columns, which also connected the foundation plate with the entablature 
and crank-shaft pedestals above. The cyUnders were placed athwartship 
with their stuffing boxes at a sufficient height from the bottom to allow of 
the crosshead, which connected the two piston-rods, working below them. 
This crosshead was guided by a lever parallel motion, and from it the 
power was transmitted to a crank in the paddle-wheel shaft, by a connecting- 
rod that swung in the space between the two cylinders. The parallel 
motion contained a strong vibrating frame of cast iron, which prevented 
cross-winding ; the motion served also to work the air-pump as well as the 
feed, bilge, and brine pumps. To shorten the steam ports, each cylinder 
had its own slide valve, but these were connected and worked by a single 
eccentric. The condenser was placed immediately beneath the slide-valve 
chest, and was connected with the air-pump by a passage in the foundation 
plate ; the capacity of the condenser, including the passage to the air-pump, 
was 44 cub. ft. The air-pump was 33 • 5 in. diam. by 2-375 ft. stroke ; the 
hot- well had a capacity of 36 cub. ft., and the waste water from it was 
discharged by an overflow pipe through the side of the vessel. 



256 

Steam was supplied at a pressure of 3-75 lb. by tubular boilers ; the 
paddle-wheels, which were 23-5 ft. diain., made 23*5 revs, per min. 

It was estimated that these engines and their boilers saved 25 ft. in 
length when compared with the space required by the then general side-lever 
engine and box boiler. The smaller model shows a section of the hull with 
the engines in position. 

811. Maudslay's original oscillating paddle engine. Con- 
tributed by Joseph Maudslay, Esq., 1857. N. 112. 

This construction of marine engine, patented by Joseph Maudslay in 
1827, has been very extensively adopted in paddle ships, although originally 
the prejudice against it was veiy strong. The advantages of the plan are, 
that it is compact and enables large cylinders to be placed in a limited 
height, while, at the same time, the stresses are taken almost entirely by 
the engine frame. Oscillating cylinders had been proposed by Murdock as 
early as 1785 {see Catalogue of Mechanical Engineering Collection), and in 
1822 Aaron Manby built and fitted an iron ship of the same name, 120 ft. 
long, 18 ft. beam, and 3*5 ft. draught, with such engines of 80 h.p., by 
which she steamed in cargo from London to Paris, where she aiTived on 
June 12th, 1822 ; she was the first iron ship to make a sea voyage, and 
for several years continued plying between Paris and Havre. Maudslay, 
however, appears to have independently adopted the ari*angement, and to 
have been the ^rst to provide such engines with an efficient valve gear, and 
so make them as economical as those with fixed cylinders. 

The engine shown has a pair of oscillating cylinders 6-1 in. diam. by 
8*5 in. stroke, acting directly on the crank- shaft above; the condenser 
is arranged between the cylinders, and contains the air-pump, which is 
driven by an intennediate crank on the shaft. The engine is erected on a 
cast-iron bed-plate, upon which are A frames that at the top cany the 
crank-shaft bearings, and lower down the bearings for the cylinder 
trunnions ; the central trunnions communicate directly with the condenser, 
while the outside ones are connected with the steam-pipe, tightness in both 
cases being secured by packed glands. The piston rods pass through glands 
in the top covers, which have long bushes to resist the wear due to the 
swaying of the cylinders. The valves are of the D type, and are contained 
in a chest on the exhaust side of each cylinder ; the steam is brought to the 
chest from the other trunnion by a belt roiuid the cylinder. Each valve is 
driven by a separate eccentric on the crank shaft, and the eccentric rod is 
pi-ovided with a disengaging catch, so that the slide valve can be moved by 
hand when desired ; to reduce the irregularities due to the oscillating motion, 
the eccentric rod is connected to the valve by a pin that is very near the 
trunnion. 

Engines of this type were fitted by Maudslay to the steamboat 
" Endeavoui*," which commenced running between London and Richmond 
in May, 1829, and remained on the service till September, 1840. They were 
of 20 h.p., and had cylinders 20 in. diam. by 2 ft. stroke, driving paddle- 
wheels 10 ft. diam. by 5 ft. wide, at 32 revs, per min. ; the boiler pressure 
was 3 • 5 lb. . 

Similar and larger engines were fitted to several other vessels, but the 
aiTangement was at the time so unpopular that it was practically abandoned. 
In 1838 Mr. John Pemi reintroduced it, and considerably improved the 
form of the valve chest and gear ; he then constructed many engines of 
this type, so that the an'angement is generally known as Penn's oscillating 
engine. 

812. Model of tliree-cylinder engine. (Scale 1 : 32.) Con- 
tributed by John Scott llnssell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1244. 

This aiTangement of marine engine, patented by Mr. Scott Russell in 
1853, is intended to reduce vibration by securing a nearly uniform turning 
effoi-t throughout a revolution, while at the same time forming a compact 
engine which could be used for di'iving either paddle-wheels or a screw. 



257 

The feature of the arrangement is the use of three oscillating cylinders, 
one vei-tical, and the other two inclined at 60 deg. to it, all acting on a 
single crank-pin ; this is equivalent to three cylinders each at 120 deg., but 
is much more compact. The vei-tical cylinder is directly under the shaft, 
and its piston-rod is connected to the crank-pin by a large end to which the 
rods of the two other cylinders are pinned, so that all three piston-rods are 
connected to this crank-pin. 

There are two jet-condensers, with two trunk air-pumps inclined together 
and diiven from a single crank on the shaft ; this crank pai*tly counter- 
balances the main crank. The condensers form a single casting, which 
contains the air-pumps. The steam chests ai-e on the steam trunnion side of 
each cylinder ; a single pair of eccentrics served for the three slide valves, 
but this gear is not shown in the model. 

The Egyptian Government yacht " Cleopatra " (see No. 389) was in 1858 
fitted with a set of these engines, which had cylinders 40 in. diam. by 4 ft, 
stroke, and with 25 lb. boiler pressure made 42 revs, per min., and indicated 
882 h.p. The paddle-wheels were 16 ft, diam., and had feathering floats ; 
the average speed was 14-7 knots. 

813. Drawing of engines and boilers of P.S. '' Pacific." 
(Scale 1 : 24,) Contributed by John Scott Russell, F,R.S., 
1868. N. 1241. 

The " Pacific," an iron ship of 1,469 tons gross register (see No, 201), 
was built and engined by Messrs. J. S. Russell & Co. in 1853, 

The engines consisted of a pair of oscillating cylinders, 74 in. diam. by 
7 ft. stroke, which indicated 1,684 h.p., and weighed 240 tons. 

Steam, at a pressure of 18 lb., was supplied by four box boilers having 
in all 1,760 retui-n tubes 6 ft. long by 3 in. diam. Each boiler was 14*8 ft, 
long, 18 ft. wide, and 12*5 ft. high, and had five furaaces. The total gi-ate 
area was 420 sq. ft., and the heating surface 9,507 sq. ft. The weight of the 
four boilers was 91 tons, and they can-ied 69 tons of water. The boiler 
room is closed at each end by watei-tight bulkheads. 

The paddle-wheels were 27 ft. diam., and each had 14 feathering floats 
10 ft. long by 4 ft. wide. The average speed was 14 knots. She was fitted 
with two masts, and the area of canvas was 7,947 sq. ft. 

814. Model of paddle engines of the " Great Eastern " 
(working), (Scale 1 : 12.) Contributed by Messrs, John 
Scott Russell & Co,, 1857. Plate IX., No. 1. N. 17. 

The steamship " Great Eastern," built at Millwall in 1858, was an iron 
ship of the following dimensions : — Length, 680 ft. ; breadth, 82 '5 ft, ; depth 
at side, 58 ft. ; displacement, 27,384 tons. The vessel was propelled by 
paddle-wheels and a screw propeller ; this model represents the engines for 
driving the paddle-wheels. 

They were designed and constructed by Messrs, John Scott Russell & 
Co., and were of the oscillating type, of 1,000 nominal h.p., but indicated 
3,411 h.p. ; the weight of the engines was 836 tons. The cylinders, four 
in number, were 74 in. diam. by 14 ft. stroke, and the mean number of 
revolutions was 10* 75. Two of the cylinders drove one crank, and the other 
two a crank at right angles, on a built-up paddle shaft. There were two 
air-pumps, di'iven by a single ci*ank on the intermediate length of the paddle 
shaft, and there were two independent condensers, reversing gears, &c., so 
that each paddle-wheel was driven by a complete double cylinder engine 
that could be run alone if required. The cylinders were inclined at a mean 
angle of 22 • 5 deg. from the vertical, and on opposite sides, so that a fairly 
uniform turning moment was o])tained with a single pair. The condensers 
were of the jet type, arranged under the shaft and between each pair of 
cylinders. The vacuum maintained was 25*5 in. The slide valves were of 
the gridiron form, with back relief frames ; to reduce the length of the 
steam passages, the two ends of each cylinder were supplied by separate 
valves. 

u 6773. R 



258 

Steam at 24 lb. pressure was supplied to the paddle engines by four 
double-ended tubular boilers of tlie rectangular or box type, each 17 '5 ft. 
long, 17-75 ft. wide, and 13-75 ft. high, with 40 furnaces and 4,500 sq. ft. 
of heating surface. Each boiler weighed 50 tons, and carried about 40 tons 
of water. 

The original paddle-wheels were 56 ft. diam., and weighed 90 tons 
each. The paddle shafts were connected to the engine shaft by powerful 
friction clutches, so arranged that each could by gearing be released or 
closed as occasion required ; the elaborate power-driven disconnecting gear 
shown on the model was, however, never actually fitted. These wheels 
were destroyed during a gale in 1861 ; the new ones fitted were much 
stronger, and only 50 ft. diam., while the floats were also tiarrower; these 
wheels were on the ship when she was broken up. 

The calculated speed of the vessel, with both screw and paddle-wheels 
working, was 15 knots ; a special trial of the ship under paddles alone gave 
a speed of 7-25 knots. 

For a description of the screw engines of this vessel, see No. 831, and 
of the vessel itseK, No. 213. 

[N.B. — The two balance weights on the model were added in 1895, when 
it was first shown in motion and did not exist in the actual engines.] 

815. Model of engines of P.S. " Mersey " (working). (Scale 
1 : 12.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2226. 

The " Mersey " was built of iron in 1859 at Millwall by Messrs. Samuda 
Bros., for the West Indian Mail service. Her registered dimensions were : — 
Tonnage, gross 1,001, net 729 tons; length, 260-4 ft.; breadth, 30-2 ft. ; 
depth, 16-2 ft. ; mean draught, 18-5 ft. 

Her engines were of the oscillating type, patented by Joseph Maudslay 
in 1827, and had two cylinders 60 in. diam. by 5 ft. stroke. Steam was 
admitted to the outer trunnion of each, and passed by a belt to the steam 
chest where it was distributed by two slide valves, the exhaust passing by 
the inner trunnion into the condenser. The slide valves were worked by 
rocking levers driven by a sweep which was moved between vertical guides 
by a loose eccentric reversing gear ; the hand movement of the valves when 
necessary was accomplished by a rack and pinion ari-angement. The 
condenser was between the cylinders, and the two diagonal air-pumps were 
worked by an intermediate crank in the main shaft ; the two feed and bilge 
pumps on each side of the engine were worked by a single eccentric for 
each pair, and the driving platform was arranged above one of the air- 
pumps. The upper fi*aming was tied to the engine bed by eight inclined 
wrought iron columns. 

Steam at 20 lb. pressui-e was supplied by four tubular boilers, and the 
coal capacity was sufficient for 12 days' consumption ; at 30 revs, per min. 
of the engine the speed of the vessel was 11-5 knots. 

Two arrangements of paddle-wheels are shown in this model, one having 
fixed and the other feathering floats. 

816. Model of engines of P.S. " Leinster " (working). (Scale 
1 : 8.) Lent by Messrs. Ravenhill, Hodgson & Co., 1869. 

N. 1307. 

The " Leinster " is one of the four iron vessels that were built in 1860 
for the mail service between Holyhead and Kingstown. She is 343 ft. long, 
35 ft. beam, 19 ft deep, and of 1,467 tons gross register, with a draught 
of 13 ft., and an iiximersed midship section of 336 sq. ft. {see No. 217). 

The engines consist of a pair of oscillating cylinders, 98 in. diam. by 
78 in. stroke, x^laced immediately underneath the paddle-shaft. There 
are two valve-boxes to each cylinder, an-anged on opposite sides of the 
trunnions so that their weights balance each other. Each pair of valves is 
worked by a single loose eccentric, driving a sliding rod whose lower end 
is provided with a cui'ved slot in which slide two blocks connected with 
the valve rods ; by this arrangement the motion of the valves is made 



k 



25^ 

independent of the oscillation of the cyKnders. To reverse the position 
of the valves, a rack and pinion gear worked by a large hand-wheel is 
provided, by which, after the valve gear has been released, the valves can 
be moved so as to reverse the motion, the loose eccentric in the mean- 
time stopping till it is caught by the second driver, which will then continue 
the motion for reversed mnning when the gear is again engaged. The 
condenser is placed between the cylinders, and contains the two air-pumps, 
which are inclined and worked hj an intermediate crank on the paddle- 
shaft, an arrangement patented in 1841 by Mr. Joseph Miller. The feed 
and bilge pumps are placed in the comers of the foundation frames, and 
their plungers are directly moved by brackets attached to the cylinders. 
Each cylinder weighed when finished upwards of 20 tons, and the condenser 
22 tons. 

The original boilers supplied steam at 20 lb. pressui-e ; they were 
multitubular and eight in number, four being placed foi-ward of and four 
abaft the engines, arranged in pairs- with their backs against the sides of 
the vessel so as to allow the furnaces to be stoked from the middle line. 
They were 9 • 25 ft. long by 18 ft. wide, and 12 • 25 ft. high ; the total number 
of furnaces was 40; there were 4,176 tubes in the boilers, 677 sq. ft. of 
gi*ate area, and 16,800 sq. ft. of heating surface. 

The paddle-wheels are of the usual feathering construction (see No. 955), 
and 32 ft. diam. ; each has 14 floats 12 ft. long by 5 ft. wide. 

On the trial trips with a boiler pressure of 20 lb. the engines made 
25 • 5 revs, per min. and indicated 4,751 h.p., while the speed of the ship 
was 17 • 8 knots. The average speed in all weathers during the first six 
months of the service was 15 • 5 knots. 

817. Model of high-pressure oscillating engine for paddle 
launch. (Scale 1 : 8.) Presented by A. T. Home, Esq., 
1894. " N. 2037. 

This shows a pair of cyhnders, 9 in. diam. by 14 in. stroke, working an 
overhead crank shaft carrying two paddle-wheels 6 ft. diam. The valve 
motion is of the usual loose eccentric aiTangement, fitted with a gab and 
lever gear for hand working when reversing. In larger engines of this type 
an air-pump and condenser are arranged between the two cylinders, while in 
the largest examples rack and pinion gear is added to enable the engineer to 
move the heavy valves when reversing. 

818. Model of beam engine of an American river steamer 
(working). (Scale 1 : 16.) Made in the Museum, 1906. 
Plate IX., No. 2. N. 2428. 

The type of engine represented was developed and pei-fected by Robei-t 
L. Stevens in the United States about 1822. It has been used chiefly in the 
Eastern States and especially for the paddle steamers on the Hudson river 
and on Long Island Sound. 

The model shows an engine built in 1884 by the Pusey and Jones 
Company of Wilmington, U.S.A. ; a similar engine was built from the same 
drawings in 1896, very little change having been made in the design dui'ing 
the interval. 

The engine shown has two gallows frames, built up of heavy timbers 
having cross frames and diagonals, the whole stiaicture being tied and braced 
by bolts, keys, and timber knees. Two wrought iron box girder keelsons 
with cast iron crowns suppoi-t the frames which are secm-ed to them by iron 
shoes and gusset plates. The cylinder, 3 ft. diam. by 9 ft. stroke, with 
condenser beneath, is placed between the feet of the forward legs of the 
gallows frames, webs cast on the cylinder and condenser sides being bolted 
to the frames. The ciunk- shaft has outer and inner bearings on each side 
of the paddle-wheels and bearings near the crank. The paddle-wheel is 
keyed to the shaft by three sets of keys. 

R 2 



260 

The valve gear for this type of engine is of great interest. It was 
patented by Mr. Francis B. Stevens in 1841 in the United States, and has 
been generally adopted there. In front of the cylinder are two vertical 
cylindrical valve chambers with flaring tops. Box castings connected with 
the top and bottom of these chambers contain the valve seats for the two 
upper and the two lower valves. At each end of the cylinder is a steam and 
exhaust valve ; the valve chests are connected by the hollow columns. The 
left-hand column is the steam chamber, connecting the upper and lower 
steam valves, and the right is the exhaust, connecting the upper and lower 
exhaust valves, this latter being connected with the condenser ; coppei* 
diaphragms at the upper ends of the columns allow for expansion. The 
valves are of the double beat disc type. There is one eccentric for the steam 
valves and one for the exhaust valves, the use of two eccentrics being one of 
the essentials in the Stevens cut-off. The eccentric rods drive two horizontal 
rocking shafts on which are keyed four curved arms called " wipers." These 
wipers opei-ate four " toes " on vei-tical lifter rods connected with the valves. 
Springs on the lifter rods assist gravity to make the toes follow the move- 
ments of the wipers steadily. The wipers for the exhaust valves are only 
just long enough to give the requisite lead and lift, while they are so arranged 
on the shaft that as the down stroke of one rod is completed, the up stroke 
of the other rod is commenced. The admission valves require no lead, and 
the steam wipers are so ari-anged that a brief interval elapses between the 
shutting of one valve and the opening of the opposite one. Below the 
rocking shafts are placed stops called " gags." The Stevens cut-off is not 
adjustable, and can only be varied by these gags. When they are in use the 
steam valve is operated by the exhaust, and steam is used for practically the 
full stroke. The power is kept up temporarily in this way when encountering 
heavy ice or in other cases of special necessity. Hand gear is fitted below 
the gags, consisting of a trip-shaft having toes and wipers similar to the 
rocking shaft. Stripper rods, worked by a foot lever, throw the eccentric 
rods out of gear when working by hand. The hand- wheels shown operate 
the injection valves. Steam for engines of this type was supplied by a single 
cylindrical retuiii-flue boiler, placed foi-ward of the engine, and tested to a 
pressure of 65 lb. per sq. in. 

The paddle-wheels for this engine are of simple construction. Each 
wheel is 24 '83 ft. diam., and has thi-ee sets of radial spokes. Each set of 
spokes has two concentric rings of iron, and near the centre one of wood. 
Iron straps with T-ends connect the two iron rings at equal intervals between 
the spokes. The straps and spokes cany 20 wooden floats, 6*5 ft. long, 
secured by U-shaped bolts or staples. The six floats nearest the line of 
dead centres are made nan*ower than the remainder for gi*eater ease in 
starting. 

The ship structure shows details of a typical boat, of moderate dimen- 
sions, as used for cargo and passenger service. Many of these vessels are 
built entirely of wood, but in the present example the hull is of iron and the 
remaining upper works of wood ; this anungement provides a structure of 
increased longitudinal strength and thus dispenses with the huge "hog- 
frames " or fore-and-aft trusses which are conspicuous features of the 
wooden-built vessels. Special wooden trusses, however, are used to give local 
support to the paddle boxes and to the outer shaft bearings on each side ; 
the main truss and " spring beam " are carried upon diagonal struts and 
plate-brackets attached to the ship's side, and receive supplementary support 
from diagonal suspension rods attached to upright square masts or king- 
posts which are in turn tied together in pairs forward of and abaft the 
paddle-shaft. A central trunk or casing, extending from the main deck to 
the skylight, encloses the upper parts of the machineiy, and the weight of 
this trunk and adjacent super-structure is distributed by two tiers of pillars 
placed between the main deck and the side keelsons. 

For the general appearance of a completed vessel of this type see 
No. 189. 

The principal dimensions of the vessel ai-e : — Length, 160 ft. ; depth at side, 
8 ft. ; draught, 4 * 5 ft. ; breadth of hull, 28 ft. ; breadth over guards, 48 ft. 



261 

819. Model of engines of P.S. " Princesse Henriette " (working). 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Constructed by Messrs. Dennv & Co. Re- 
ceived 1899. " N. 2181. 

The "Princesse Henriette" and "Princesse Josephine" are sister ships, 
built and engined at Dumbarton in 1888, for the Dover and Ostend sei-vice 
of the Belgian Government. They are constructed of steel, and have the 
following dimensions : — Length, 300 ft. ; beam, 38 ft. ; depth, 13 • 5 ft. ; gross 
register, 1,099 tons. 

The engines are of the two- stage expansion, surface-condensing type, with 
the cylinders arranged diagonally, or incKning upwards to the ci-ank-shaft, a 
construction that is now very generally followed in high speed paddle steamers. 
The high-pressure cylinder is 59 in. diam., the low-pressure 104 in,, and 
the stroke of each is 6 ft. The high-pressure slide valve is of the piston 
construction, while that of the low-pressure is a flat double-ported slide ; in 
each case the valve rods extend through the chests both back and front. 
Each valve is di-iven by Walschaei-ts single eccentric gear (see No. 854), with 
the eccentric set at right angles to the crank, the lead, which is constant, 
being given by a lever connected with the main crosshead ; the engine is 
linked up and reversed by altering the position of the end of the valve 
rod in a rocking quadrant worked by the eccentric. The valve gears are 
simultaneously controlled from a shaft that is moved by Brown's steam 
reversing gear (see No. 873). The condenser is cylindrical in form, with the 
shell made of steel plate; there are two vertical air-pumps, 34 in. diam., by 
2 ft. stroke, worked by bell-cranks from the high and low pressure crossheads 
respectively. The cooling water is circulated by a pair of centrifugal pumps, 
and the boiler feed is supplied by Weir's automatic pumps, but these 
independently driven pumps are not shown in the model. 

To keep down the weight of the engines, the pistons, entablatures, and 
ties are made of cast steel, while the air-pumps and the condenser ends are 
of brass. The framing for the engine-bed and its incorporation with that of 
the ship are shown in the model, from which it will be seen that four specially 
deep web frames are provided under the line of the crank- shaft, and that the 
depth of the longitudinal girders is also increased at this locality. 

The paddle-wheels are of the usual feathering type, 24 ft. diam., by 
13 • 5 ft. wide, and have each nine steel floats with concave faces. The star 
centres of the feathering gear are fixed to the paddle-box beams, but as these 
beams are not shown on the model, the centres are here supported by brackets. 

Steam is supplied by six boilers worked at 120 lb. pressure ; on trial the 
engines indicated 7,000 h.p. at 50 revs, per min., and gave the ship the speed 
of 21 • 2 knots. 



SCREW ENGINES. 
820. Model of engines of S.S. ''Great Britain" (working). 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by Messrs. Gibbs, Bright & Co., 
1862. Plate IX., No. 3. N. 330. 

The " Great Britain," built at Bristol in 1839-43, was the first large iron 
ship and the first screw steamer to cross the Atlantic. She was 289 ft. in 
length, 50 • 5 ft. beam, 32 * 5 ft. deep, and on a draught of 18 ft. displaced 
3,618 tons {see No. 187). 

The hull, engines, and boilers, designed by Mr. I. K. Brunei, were at that 
time considered so large that no contractor could be found willing to 
undertake their construction, and the Great Western Steamship Co. therefore 
resolved to undertake the work themselves. 

The model shows the original propelling machinery of the ship, which 
consisted of four direct-acting cylinders, each 88 in. dia-m. and 72 in. stroke, 
with their axes inclined 33 deg. to the vertical, each pair working on an 
overhanging crank-pin. 

The cylinders were placed low down in the ship, resting on cast iron 
base-plates bolted to girders which were riveted to the ship's frames ; the 



262 

crank-shaft was suppoi'ted in bearings on two massive A -shaped frames, 
made of hard wood and iron plating, placed athwai*tship and firmly secured 
to the beams at each deck level. 

In the middle of the crank-shaft was a drum 18*25 ft. diam., and 38 in. 
wide, connected with a drum directly below it on the propeller shaft, by four 
sets of flat pitch chains. These chains, of 24 sq. in. section and 7 tons 
weight, had teeth on their undersides engaging with teak and lignum vitse 
blocks on the peripheries of the large and small drums, the propeller shaft 
making 53 revs, and the crank-shaft 18 revs, per min. respectively. The 
slide valves were of the piston type, 20 in. diam., each actuated by a single 
loose eccentric, which by a geared rim could be moved by manual power 
when disengaged for reversing. 

The condensers were of wrought iron, 12 ft. long, 8 ft. wide, and 5 ft. 
deep, placed amidships between the cylinders ; in these were placed the 
air-pumps, 45 * 5 in. diam. and 72 in. stroke, worked from the main crank-pins. 
The feed and bilge pumps were actuated by a lever parallel motion from the 
crosshead of the air-pump. 

The propeller shafting was in three lengths ; on the fii-st, 28 • 25 ft. long 
and 16 in. diam., was fixed the chain drum, 6 ft. diam. ; the second length 
was 61-66 ft. long and 30 in. diam., built up of two thicknesses of boiler 
plate riveted together with countersunk rivets ; the third length, on which 
was fixed the propeller, was 25-5 ft. long, and 17 in. diam. at the journals. 
The thrust bearing was simply a steel plate 2 ft. diam., against which pressed 
a gun-metal plate of the same diam. fixed to the end of the shaft. A stream 
of water was found to give sufficient lubrication. 

The screw propeller, adopted after numerous experiments, was 15*5 ft. 
diam. and 25 ft. pitch, with six blades 6 in. thick (not with four blades as 
shown on the model), the whole being built up and riveted together {see 
No. 986). 

Steam was supplied by a double-ended boiler, consisting of a large sheU 
84 ft. long, 31 ft. wide, and 21 • 66 ft. high, with rounded top, divided 
longitudinally into three distinct and independent compartments, each 
provided with four furnaces at the foi-ward and four at the after end, giving 
a total of 360 sq. ft. of grate area. The boiler was caiTied on ten plate- 
girders, the middle ones 3 • 25 ft. deep amidships, running the whole length 
of the ship. The funnel was 8 ft. diam., and round its base was a feed- 
water heater. 

The nominal h.p. was 1,000, but at the normal speed of 18 revs, per 
min. and a boiler pressure of 5 lb. per sq. in., nearly 2,000 h.p. could be 
indicated, and a speed of over 12 knots obtained. 

821. Model of disc engine (working). Woodcroft Bequest, 
1903. N. 56. 

This form of steam-engine was patented by Messrs. Taylor and Davies 
in 1836-8 and has been repeatedly tried since, both on land and at sea. 

The chamber which acts as the cylinder is bounded laterally by a zone 
of a sphere and endwise by a pair of cones, the apices of which coincide with 
the centre of the sphere. The piston is a ball which foims a joint on which 
it turns. From the ball, and perpendicular to the disc, projects a rod, the 
further end of which is socketed in a crank plate attached to the driven 
shaft. A wedge-shaped partition is fixed across the upper part of the 
chamber, and a corresponding slot is made in the disc. The partition and 
the disc divide the chamber into four cells, two of which immediately on one 
side of the partition are always expanding and the other two contracting as 
the disc rocks on the conical ends of the chamber. There is a port on each 
side of the partition, one being for steam and the other for the exhaust. 

To obtain better contact between the disc and the conical ends of the 
chamber, so as to reduce leakages, the cones and the faces of the disc are 
made with radial teeth gearing into each other. 

In 1845 several improvements in this type of engine were patented by 
Mr. G D. Bishopp, with whose name it is frequently associated. 



263 

822. Model of engines of S.S. "Simla." (Scale 1 : 4.) Lent 
by G. F. G. Des Vignes, Esq, 1908. N. 2455. 

With the practical introduction of screw propulsion for ships in 1836, 
the established type of slow-running paddle engine with its overhead crank- 
shaft was adapted to the new conditions, and the necessary speed of the 
propeller shaft was obtained by the use of multiplying mechanism, such as 
ropes, belts, pitch chain, or toothed wheels. 

The model shows the application of the last of these and is a steeple 
engine of the type patented by Mr. David Napier in 1842 (see also No. 803). 
It represents the engines of S.S. " Simla," one of the first Peninsular and 
Oriental boats fitted with a screw propeller. The vessel was built of iron, 
in 1854, and appears to have been subsequently convei-ted into a sailing 
vessel. Her dimensions were : — Displacement, about 2,600 tons ; length, 
330 ft. ; breadth, 38 ft. ; depth, 27 ft. The vessel, her engines, and the 
model shown were built by Messrs. Tod and McGregor, Glasgow ; the model 
was exhibited in the Paris Exhibition of 1855. 

The engines, which are, very compact, consist of two cylinders 90 in. diam. 
by 78 in. stroke, each with 4 piston rods and a return connecting-rod, driving 
cranks at right angles. The main slide valves are worked from a weigh- 
shaft by loose eccentrics on the crank-shaft. Connected with the main 
eccentric straps are diagonal rods which operate rocker shafts working four 
gunmetal bilge pumps with clack valves. These pumps are arranged to 
throw out of gear in pairs, as the upper portions of the diagonal rods are 
capable of either being locked to, or disengaged from sheaves attached to 
the lower portions. The expansion valves are driven in a similar manner to 
the main valves, but they have separate weigh-shafts. Disengaging gear, 
resembling that on the diagonal rods driving the bilge pumps, allows these 
expansion valves to be thrown out of action at will. The reversing gear is 
of the balanced slip sheave kind and reversal is effected for each engine 
separately by throwing over the loose eccentrics by a hand-wheel and geared 
quadrant. 

The hot-well and jet condenser are formed in the bed plate of the engine, 
and the latter is cleared by two diagonal air-pumps, one port and one 
starboard. They are driven from the main crank-shaft by connecting-rods 
working in trunks. A crosshead attached to the trunk of the starboard air 
pump drives two plunger feed pumps. 

The gearing, in the ratio of 2 • 75 to 1, is in four steps and consists of a 
mortise wheel and pinion, the latter, which is a casting, directly driving 
the propeller. The nominal h.p. was 640, and the boiler pressure 17 lb. 
per sq, in. 

823. Diagram model of four-cylinder condensing engine. 
(Scale 1 : 8.) Contributed by R. Bodmer, Esq., 1857. 

N. 57. 

This an'angement of balanced engine was patented by Mr. J. G. Bodmer 
in 1844, and appears to have been intended for driving a screw propeller. 

There are two cylinders with trunk pistons, acting downwards upon the 
crank-shaft at an angle of 35 deg. with the horizontal, and outside each is a 
larger cylinder with an annular piston of equal area to the inner one ; these 
annular pistons are connected to a crank immediately opposite the crank of 
the inner cylinder, so that the two sets of pistons move in opposite directions 
and thus balance their inertia stresses as well as their thnists on the crank- 
shaft. The inner pistons were to have elongated trunks, while the annular 
ones were to be each fitted with two such trunks. The condenser is an-anged 
below and is fitted with two tmnk air pumps, driven from the two crank 
pins ; the piston of each pump is without valves, ports in the side of its 
barrel being periodically covered by the air pump piston, while the water 
and air which enter the space above the piston are expelled through similar 
poi-ts at the top, suitably controlled by the cover of the air pump, which has 
a slight amount of vertical travel. 



264 

824. Drawing of Bisliopp's disc engine. (Scales 1 : 12 and 
1 : 48.) Presented by J. K. Rennie, Esq., 1876. N. 1415. 

This arrangement of disc engine has the improvements, patented by 
Mr. D. G. Bishopp in 1845, on the earlier form patented by Messrs. W. 
Taylor and H. Davies in 1836. 

In this class of engine the steam chamber serving as a cylinder is a 
portion of a sphere, while the end covers are cones. Inside the chamber is 
a piston in the form of a circular disc provided with a central boss that fits 
in spherical seats formed in the covers, while a projecting arm at right 
angles to the disc engages with a crank-arm on the screw shaft. A fixed 
radial partition, which intersects the disc, completes the division of the 
chamber into four cells of varying capacity, and amongst these the steam is 
suitably distributed by a slide valve. 

The disc engine was applied by Messrs. G. and J. Rennie in various mills 
and factories, and in 1842 was applied to marine propulsion in the " Geyser" 
pinnace, which at 200 revs, per min. attained a speed of 6 knots. In 1849 a 
disc enghie of 27 in. chamber diam. was so fitted in H.M.S. " Minx " that it 
could be coupled to the propeller shaft without removing her horizontal 
high pressure engines; the disc engine gave a speed 11 per cent, higher 
than that with the ordinary engines. 

The larger drawing shows a design, prepared in 1853, for a 60 h.p. 
condensing engine, while the smaller one shows the proposed application to 
H.M. wooden sloop " Cruiser " ; in the latter case, however, honzontal 
geared engines were ultimately fitted by Messrs. Rennie. 

825. Model of proposed screw engine (working). (Scale 1 : 12.) 
Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2219. 

This is a modification of the twin cylinder paddle-wheel engine {see 
Nos. 807 and 808) to suit the requirements of screw propulsion. As 
the model has only a single crank, however, it probably represents but half 
of the engine, the great fore-and-aft length of which doubtless led to its 
abandonment. 

There are two vertical cylinders an-anged over the crank- shaft with their 
piston-rods connected by a crosshead, moving in overhead guides, from which 
a connecting-rod passes downwards between the cylinders to the ci*ank in the 
screw shaft below. The steam chest is common to the two cylinders and 
contains a long piston valve driven through a rocking shaft by a single 
eccentric on the crank-shaft. The jet condenser is arranged in the bedplate, 
and the air, feed, and bilge pumps are driven from the crosshead by rocking 
levers. 

826. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Ajax" (working). (Scale 
1 : 12.) Mandslay Collection, 1900. Plate IX., No. 4. 

N. 2221. 

The "Ajax"was originally a 74-gun line -of -battle sailing ship of the 
following dimensions: — B.o.m. 1,761 tons; length (b.p.), 176 ft.; breadth, 
(extreme) 48 • 54 ft. ; di-aught, forward, 21 • 5 ft. ; aft, 22 • 9 ft. ; in 1848 she was 
convei-ted into a steam block-ship of 60 guns without being lengthened or 
seriously altered in dimensions. 

Her engines, by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, were the first horizontal 
direct-acting screw-engines fitted in the British Navy. They had two 
horizontal cylinders, 55 in. diam. by 30 in, stroke, on the same side of the 
crank-shaft which had cranks at right angles ; the guides were utilised to 
tie the cylinders to the crank bearings, and the connecting-rods were four 
times the crank radius in length. To shorten the steam passages and reduce 
the size of the slide valves, each cylinder had two valves inclined to each 
other in a single chest ; each pair was driven through a single rocking shaft 
from link motion reversing gear. The jet condensers (not shown) were in 
the engine bed, and the two vertical an- pumps employed were each driven 
by a pair of eccentrics on the crank-shaft. 



265 

steam was supplied at a pressure of 6 lb. and the engines made 48 revs, 
per min., indicated 846 h.p. and drove a screw 16 ft. diam., by 17*9 ft. pitch, 
and 3 • 16 ft. long, which gave the vessel a speed of 7 • 1 knots with a slip of 
15 • 7 per cent. These results were obtained on a draught of 22 • 54 ft. with 
an immersed midship section of 807 sq. ft. and a displacement of 3,090 tons. 

827. Model of engines of S.S. "Harbinger" (working). 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2222. 

The " Harbinger " was a screw steamer, built of iron in 1851 by Messrs. 
C. J. Mare & Co., Blackwall, for the East Indian and Cape mail service. 
Her dimensions were: — Register, 599 tons, gross, 848 tons; length (b.p.), 
186-5 ft. ; breadth (extreme), 31 ft. ; depth of hold, 19-2 ft. 

Her engines, by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, wei*e of the diagonal 
direct-acting type and had two cylinders 41 • 5 in. diam. by 27 in. stroke, acting 
in an upward direction on a single crank. There were two slide valves for each 
cylinder, moved by rocking shafts driven by two eccentrics. The condenser 
was beneath the crank-shaft and formed in the engine framing or bed, while 
the vertical air-pump was driven by an outside crank, which also drove the 
feed and bilge pumps, but had a shorter throw than the main crank. 

Steam was supplied at a pressure of 15 lb. by tubular boilers, and the 
engines made 26 • 5 revs, per min. with a coal consumption of 16 tons in 
24 hours ; several other vessels were fitted with similar engines between the 
years 1848-52. 

828. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Wanderer" (working). 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Maudslav Collection, 1900. Plate IX., No. 5. 

N. 2224. 

The " "Wanderer " was a gun- vessel designed by the Admiralty and built 
in 1855 by Messrs. Wigram and Green, in about nine months, during the 
Crimean War. 

Her dimensions were : — Displacement, 745 tons ; length, 180 ft. ; breadth, 
28 • 3 ft. ; mean draught, 10 • 5 f t. ; area of midship section, 281 sq. ft. 

Her engines, by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, were of the return 
connecting-rod type with two cylinders 45 in. diam. by 24 in. stroke. The 
condenser was of the jet type and arranged centrally opposite the cylinders ; 
it had two horizontal air-pumps driven by an additional rod from each 
piston while the other pumps were driven directly from the crosshead ; the 
link motions were counterbalanced and were reversed by rack and pinion. 

On trial, with steam at 20 lb. pressure, the engines made 83 • 25 revs, per 
min. and indicated 706 '8 h.p., which gave the ship a speed of 10*7 knots. 
The screw was 11 ft. diam., 16 ft. pitch, and 2' 5 ft. long, while the slip was 
18 "3 per cent. Besides the "Wanderer," which was broken up in 1866, 
13 other despatch vessels were fitted with this aiTangement of screw 
engine. 

829. Drawing of engines of S.S.^ " Candia." (Scale 1: 12.) 
Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co., 
1878. N. 1502. 

The " Candia " was built of iron at Blackwall in 1854. Her dimensions 
were : — Displacement, 2,436 tons ; length (between perps.), 281 ft. ; breadth 
(moulded), 39 ft. ; depth of hold, 26*2 ft. ; area of immersed midship section, 
527 sq. ft. (see No. 203). 

The engines, by Messrs. G. E-ennie & Co., consisted of vertical trunk 
cylinders, 71 in. mean diam. and 4 ft. stroke, arranged fore-and-aft. The 
trunks were on the upper side of the pistons only, but the resulting 
inequality in piston area was neutralised by the weight of the moving parts, 
while the ti-unks greatly reduced the height of the engines. 

The condensers were of the jet type, and aiTanged between the cylinders, 
with the air-pumps worked from an intermediate crank ; the feed and bilge 
pumps were worked by sway beams from an eccentric. 



266 

The crank- shaft was connected to the propeller- shaft by spur gearing, 
which doubled the speed of the screw, and so avoided running the engines at 
what, at the time, would have been considered a dangerous speed. 

Steam at 22 lb. pressure was supplied by four Lamb and Summers' sheet- 
flue boilers, with 16 fires, and a total heating surface of 7,905 sq. ft. The 
engines made 36 -5 revs, per min., indicated 1,672 h.p., and drove a two- 
bladed screw, 15 • 5 ft. diam., 20 ft. pitch, which gave a speed of 12 • 6 knots. 

830. Diagram model of compound trunk engine (working). 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by Vauglian Pendred, Esq., 1903. 

N. 2331. 

The constniction of a compound, or two-stage expansion engine with a 
single cylinder, in which by the use of a trunk at one end, the equivalent of 
two single-acting cylinders of difEerent volumes is obtained, was first carried 
out in 1830 by Mr. "W. Whitham. In such an engine the boiler steam is 
admitted to the annular or high-pressiu'e cylinder surrounding the trunk 
and on the return stroke passes to the low-pressure chamber on the other 
side of the piston, while in the next stroke it is discharged. 

The compact modification of this arrangement shown by the model was 
patented as a marine engine in 1855 by Mr, E. E. Allen. In it there are 
two cylinders in line, with the crank-shaft between them and the tmnks 
secured together by rods, while from the bottom of one cylinder is a con- 
necting-rod to the crank-pin. The engine-bed forms two jet condensers, 
which are cleared by inclined tinink air-pumps di*iven by a single eccentric, 
and the top of the condensers is used as a hot- well. By the use of opposite 
cylinders both strokes are maintained of equal power, and to insure uniform 
turning the crank- shaft has a second crank, at right angles, driven by a 
similar pair of cylinders. 

In 1888, this type of cylinder was tried on a portable compound engine, 
but the steam consumption was found to be about the same as that with a 
simple engine ; probably because the arrangement, in addition to introducing 
the cooling action of a trunk, does not limit the cylinder temperature range 
so well as do separate cylinders. 

831. Model of screw engines of the " Great Eastern " (working). 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by Messrs. James Watt & Co., 
i860. Plate IX., No. 6. N. 322. 

The steamship " Great Eastern," built at Millwall in 1858, was an iron 
ship of the following dimensions: — Displacement, 27,384 tons; length. 
680 ft. ; breadth, 82-5 ft. ; depth at side, 58 feet {see No. 213). The vessel 
was propelled by paddle-wheels and a screw propeller ; this model represents 
the engines for driving the screw. 

They were designed and constructed by Messrs. James Watt & Co., and 
were of the horizontal direct-acting type, of 1,600 nominal h.p., but indi- 
cated 4,886 h.p. ; the weight of the engines was 500 tons. There were four 
steam cylinders, each 84 in. diam. by 48 in. stroke, driving two cranks at 
right angles on the shaft, and the mean number of revolutions per min. 
was 38 '8. Each cylinder had two piston rods and a crosshead which moved 
in guides ; from the crosshead of each of the starboard engines proceeded 
one connecting-rod to a crank-pin, while from the crosshead of each of the 
port engines two connecting-rods proceeded, so that there were three con- 
necting-rods to each of the cranks. Between the cranks a balance weight 
in the form of a disc was introduced. 

There were four jet condensers ari*anged between the cylinders, with 
horizontal air pumps worked from the crossheads. Circular doors were 
placed on the ends of the condensers opposite to each air pump, through 
which access to the air pump valves could be obtained or the buckets be 
withdrawn. The deliveiy from the air pumps was discharged into the hot- 
wells and overboard by square pipes that proceeded from the ends of the 
condensers. The vacuum maintained was 25 • 5 in, 



267 

The slide valves of opposite cylinders were directly connected by a frame, 
to which motion was imparted by the usual link motion reversing gear. 
The weight of the link was counterbalanced by a chain, and it could be 
moved either by a hand-power screw- gear or by a steam reversing gear 
which had vertical trunk cylinders. The slide valves were of the gridiron 
type, and on account of their great weight were borne on rollers. The 
pressure on the valve faces was reduced by a circular relief frame and ring, 
formed on the back of each valve, and sliding on the inside surface of the 
steam chest cover. 

Steam to these screw engines was supplied at 25 lb. pressure by six 
double-ended tubular boilers of the rectangular or box type, each 18 ' 5 ft. 
long, 17*5 ffc. wide, and 14 ft. high, giving a total of 72 furnaces and a heat- 
ing surface of 5,000 sq. ft. Each boiler weighed 55 tons and contained 
about 45 tons of water. 

The propeller was a four-bladed cast iron screw 24 ft. diam., 44 ft. pitch, 
and weighed 36 tons. The propeller shafting was 150 ft. in length and 
weighed 60 tons. 

In order that the speed of the ship might not be retarded by the screw 
propeller when under way with paddles alone or paddles and sails, two 
auxiliary engines of 20 h.p. each were placed abaft the screw engine-room 
to keep the screw shaft revolving when disconnected from the main engines. 

The calculated speed of the vessel with both screw and paddle working 
was 15 knots ; a trial trip of the ship under the screw alone gave a speed of 
9 knots. It is now considered that the resistances of both the paddle-wheels 
and the screw were too great for their respective engines, so that the latter 
never attained the speeds at which their fuU powers would have been 
exerted. 

For a description of the paddle engines of this vessel see No. 814. 

832. Water-coloTir drawing showing the longitudinal section 
of the " Great Eastern." (Scale 1 : 96.) Contributed by 
John Scott Russell, F.R.S., 1868. N. 1262. 

This indicates the relative positions of the paddle and screw engines with 
their boilers ; also the general arrangement of the screw shaft and the other 
machinery. Full particulars of the vessel's hull are given elsewhere {see 
No. 213). 

833. Model of engines of S.Yt. "Hebe" (working). 
Maudslay Collection, 1900. Plate IX., No. 7. N. 2225. 

These screw engines were built by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field in 
1856, under a patent granted to Joseph Maudslay in that year ; the 
arrangement is, however, an adaptation of the annular engine patented by 
him in 1841 for driving paddle-wheels (see No. 809) to suit the requirements 
of the screw propeller. 

The engine consists of two vertical annular cylinders aiTanged above the 
screw shaft, each with its connecting-rod passing from a guided crosshead 
on the top of the cylinder through the central passage to its crank. The 
air-pump crossheads, which serve also for the feed and bilge pumps, are 
worked by levers directly attached to the connecting-rods, and can-ied on 
swinging fulcrums ; these pumps are all an-anged above the jet condensers, 
which are at the sides. 

834. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Marlborough" (working). 
(Scale 1 : 18.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2223. 

The " Marlborough " was designed a sailing line-of -battle ship of 131 guns 
and laid down at Portsmouth in 1850, but in 1852 was altered so that 
when launched in 1855 she was fitted for screw propulsion (see No. 82). 
Her dimensions were: — Displacement, 6,050 tons; length, 245 5 ft.; 
breadth, 61-2 ft. ; depth, 25-8 ft. Her draught on trial was 26 3 ft. with 
an immersed midship section of 1,190 sq. ft. 



268 

The engines, by Messrs. Maiidslay, Sons and Field, were of the return 
connecting-rod type with a pair of cylinders 82 in. diam. by 48 in. stroke ; 
there were two valve chests to each cylinder, and the usual link-motion 
reversing gear, worked by a screw. The screw propeller was 19 ft. diam., 
3 • 6 ft. long, by about 26 ft. pitch, and the slip was nearly 22 per cent. 

Steam was supplied at 20 lb. pressure ; the engines made 56 revs, per 
min. and indicated 3,054 h.p., which gave the vessel a speed of 11-2 knots. 

835. Model of engines of U.S. turret ship "Monitor" 
(working). (Scale 1 : 24.) Presented by J. Ericsson, Esq., 
1865. ^ N. 1089. 

This construction of screw engine, patented by Mr. Ericsson in 1858, 
is an improvement on the vibrating piston engine of the U.S. frigate 
" Princeton," built in 1842. The leading features of these designs is that 
a single overhanging crank is used, and that two cylinders exert their power 
upon it in directions at right angles. The arrangement places the machinery 
below the water line and reduces the length of the space required, but it is 
probably less efficient than one giving a more direct connection. 

The " Monitor " was designed and built of iron by Mr. Erics son in 1862 
for the Federal Government. Her dimensions were : — Tonnage, 614 tons ; 
length on deck, 173 ft. ; breadth (extreme), 41-5 ft. ; draught, 10 ft. She 
was protected by iron armoui- 4*5 in. thick on 21 in. of wood backing. Her 
principal armament consisted of two heavy guns placed parallel with each 
other and contained in a revolving tun-et. 

The engines indicated 400 h.p. and had two cylinders of 40 in. diam. 
by 22 in. stroke, an-anged back to back athwartship and separated by a 
plate which formed a bottom to both. Each piston had a trunk piston-rod, 
within which swung a connecting-rod that joined the piston to an arm 
forged on a rocking shaft. From a longer arm on each of these two rocking 
shafts a connecting-rod proceeded to the crank on the propeller shaft ; to 
reduce frictional losses the throw of this crank was made as long as possible. 

The valve chests were placed on the forward side of the cylinders and 
contained balanced slides with independent cut-off valves : the valves were 
worked by eccentrics on a small shaft driven by the screw shaft, and the 
engine was reversed by a hand gear that rotated this small shaft. 

There was a single jet condenser and one air pump for both cylindei*s ; 
this air pump was horizontal and double-acting, and was worked from one 
of the rocking shafts. 

The screw propeller was 9 ft. diam., 16 ft. pitch, and had four blades. 

836. Model of engines of H.M.S. " Conqueror " (working). 
(Scale 1 : 8.) Lent by Messrs. RaA^enhill, Hodgson & Co., 
1869. N. 1308. 

The " Conqueror " was a wooden ship built in 1833, and altered into a 
screw steamship in 1859. Her first engines were of the horizontal irunk 
type, but in 1863 these were replaced by the return connecting-rod set 
represented in the model. 

The dimensions of the ship were : — Displacement, 4,300 tons ; length 
(b.p.), 218 ft. ; breadth, 55 '3 ft. ; immersed midship section, 963 sq. ft. ; 
draught, 24 ft. The propeller was 18 ft. diam., 20 ft. pitch, and 3 ft. in 
length. On the trial runs in 1863 the engines, with 20 lb. boiler pressure, 
made 61*3 revs, per min., and gave a speed of 9*93 knots. 

It is stated that the first engines of the type shown were consti-ucted in 
1844 for H.M. frigate " Amphion," with cylinders 48 in. diam. by 48 in. 
stroke, and that the design was the joint production of Joseph Miller and 
John Ericsson. Between 1845 and 1863 the makers fitted similar engines 
to 42 vessels, including H.M.S. " Nelson " and the troopship " Tamar." 
The horizontal ai-rangement was adopted, as it placed the machineiy below 
the water-line, and, therefore, out of the reach of shot, wliile the return 
connecting-rod permitted the use of a long stroke in ships of only moderate 
beam. 



269 

The engines of the "Conqueror" consist of two horizontal cylinders, 
71 in. diam. by 36 in, stroke, each having two piston-rods and a return 
coiuiecting-rod. di-iving cranks at right angles on the main shaft. The 
connecting-rod guides are supported above the bed of the condensers, which 
are of the jet type, and the air pumps are directly diiven from the pistons 
by rods passing through the glands in the front of the cylinders. The feed 
and bilge pumps are of the plunger type and are directly driven from the 
crossheads. The slide valves are moved by the usual reversing link motion 
controlled from a driving platform above the condensers. 

837. Model of liorizontal screw engines (working). (Scale 
1 : 16.) Contributed by W. Smith, Esq., 1860. N. 325. 

This model shows an arrangement of marine engine patented by Mr. J. A. 
Limbert, R.N., in 1857 ; the leading features of the design do not, however, 
differ from those of the return connecting-rod engines then in use, and 
which are more clearly seen in some of the larger models. 

The engine represented was to have two simple cylinders 68 in. diam. by 
3 • 25 ft. stroke, with connecting rods 2 • 5 times the length of the stroke. 
The steam chests are arranged above the cylinders, the valves being driven 
by the usual link motion through rocking shafts. The steam pipes are 
short, and a single exhaust pipe connects the two cylinders with the con- 
densers. The air pumps are provided with two sets of delivery valves, the 
upper set delivering air only ; modifications were proposed to improve the 
vacuum obtainable with horizontal and other air pumps. 

838. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Valiant" (working). ^Scale 
1 : 18.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2229. 

The " Yaliant " was a wooden-built armour-plated battery ship designed 
by the Admiralty and built at Millwall in 1861-3. Her dimensions were: — 
Displacement, 6,364 tons ; length (b.p.), 280 "2 f t. ; breadth (extreme), 
56 • 33 ft. ; di-aught, 24 • 7 ft. 

Her engines, by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, were of the return 
connecting-rod type, with a pair of steam- jacketed cylinders 82 in. diam., 
by 48 in. stroke. There were two double-ported slide valves to each cylinder 
actuated by the ordinary link motion, but in addition, each cylinder was 
provided with an expansion gear designed by Mr. J. Field, in which by a 
revolving valve di-iven at the same speed as the crank-shaft the supply of 
steam to the chest could be cut off at any part of the stroke. This gear 
could be thi'own out of use by a sliding wheel, and the angle of advance of 
the revolving valve was made adjustable by the introduction of a coupling 
sleeve provided with a helical groove. • 

There were two jet condensers, aiTanged opposite the cylinders and each 
provided with a long-stroke double-acting air-pump; the feed and other 
pumps were driven by an auxiliary engine. 

Steam was supplied by six boilers, three on each side of the vessel with 
the stokehold amidships. 

The screw was of the Maudslay- Griffiths form, 20 ft. diam., with its 
pitch adjustable from 22 • 5 ft. to 27 • 5 ft. The speed realised on trial was 
12 "6 knots, and the power exei*ted about 3,350 indicated h.p. 

839. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Octavia" (Avorking). 
(Scale 1 : 16.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2228. 

The " Octavia " was a 51-gun frigate designed by Sir W. Symonds and 
built at Pembroke in 1846-9 ; in 1860 she was convei-ted at Portsmouth 
into a screw frigate of 35 guns. Her dimensions were : — Tonnage, 3,161 
tons; length, 252-4 ft.; breadth, 52-8 ft.; di-aught forwai-d, 20-8 ft.; 
draught aft, 23-8 ft. 

Her engines, by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, were of the return 
connecting-rod type with three horizontal cylinders abreast, driving cranks 
at 120 deg., an aiTangement which was claimed to secure a good balance of 



270 

the moving pai-ts and a nearly uniform turning movement even witli a 
higher grade of expansion than generally used. The cylinders were 66 in. 
diam. by 42 in. stroke, and were steam jacketed ; each had two double- 
ported slide valves driven by the gear patented by Mr. Charles Sells in 1859. 
The valves were all worked from a valve shaft which can'ied a single 
eccentric for each valve set at a suitable angle of advance for the corre- 
sponding crank ; this shaft was driven by four spur wheels carried in an 
adjustable frame, by moving which the valve shaft underwent a relative 
angular movement which reversed the engine, or would alter the point of 
cut off from ' 25 to • 16 of the stroke. 

The two condensers were on the opposite side to the cylinders, and the 
pumps were driven by two additional rods from each of the two outside 
cylinders. 

Steam at 20 lb. pressure was supplied by tubular boilers and was 
Buperheated by passing it through flattened horizontal tubes placed in the 
uptake. At the trial in 1861, with a displacement of 2,921 tons and 
immersed midship section of 552 sq. ft., the engine made 69*5 revs, per 
min., and indicated 2,265 h.p. with a coal consumption of 2-25 lb. per 
indicated h.p. per hour and gave a speed of 12 * 25 knots. 

840. Model of engines of H.M.S. " Prince Albert " (working). 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Lent by Messrs. Humphrys and Tennant, 
1869. N. 1310. 

The " Prince Albert " is a coast defence armour-plated turret ship, 
designed under the superintendence of Oapt. C. P. Coles and built in 1864 
at Poplar. She is constructed of iron and has the following dimensions : — 
Displacement, 3,687 tons ; length, 240 ft. ; beam, 48 ft. ; depth, 25 • 25 ft. ; 
draught forward, 17 • 7 ft. ; draught aft, 19 • 8 ft. ; area of immersed midship 
section, 760 sq. ft. 

The engines, which were constructed by Messrs. Humphrys and Tennant, 
are of the horizontal direct-acting type, with two cylinders each 72 in. diam. 
by 3 ft. stroke, and are remarkable for the shortness of their connecting-rods, 
which are only 63 ins. long, or 3 ' 5 times the ci-ank radius. The piston rods 
are exceptionally stiff, and the connecting-rods have forked ends with the 
pins fast in them. The slide valves are double-ported and cut off at two- 
thirds of the stroke in full gear ; they are worked by the usual shifting link 
motion direct from the crank-shaft, but the link is of the bar construction, 
which, although more simple than the usual slotted link, involves the use of 
a special cylindrical joint to transmit the motion to the valve spindle. 

There is a condenser of the jet type, to which the steam from the two 
cylinders is conveyed by a single central exhaust pipe. The sea water from 
the wings enters the condenser through a long slotted pipe which breaks up 
the jets, and the exhaust steam is distributed by a diaphragm plate. There 
are two double-acting piston air pumps, 22*5 in. diam., within the condenser, 
and two similar feed or bilge pumps 7*6 in. diam. These pumps are driven 
by two rods directly from each piston, and so have a uniform stroke of 3 ft. 

The central portion of the engine framing is in one piece, and has three 
vertical hollow box projections forming pedestals for the crank-shaft bearings, 
while it also can*ies the slipper guides for the crossheads ; the outer bearings 
for the crank-shaft are stayed to the upper parts of the cylinders by turned 
wrought-iron struts. 

Steam at 24 lb. pressure was supplied by foui* boilers of the high 
rectangular multitubular type aiTanged in one stokehold. The engines 
indicated 2,128 h.p. at 61 revs, per min., and drove a propeller 17 ft. diam., 
21 ft. pitch, and 2-5 ft. long. 

841. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Monarch" (working). 
(Scale 1:8.) Lent by Messrs. Hnmplirys and Tennant, 
1869. ^ N. 1309. 

H.M.S. " Monarch " was built at Chatham in 1868, and was the first 
sea-going turret ship. Her dimensions are : — Displacement, 8,000 tons ; 



271 

length, 330 ft. ; beam, 57 • 5 ft. ; depth, 36 ft. ; immersed midship section, 
1,200 sq. ft. ; draught, 24 ft. 

The model represents the pair of single horizontal engines, constructed 
by Messrs. Humphrys and Tennant, with steam-jacketed cylinders 120 in. 
diam. and 4-5 ft. stroke. Each piston has four piston-rods and drives the 
crank- shaft by a return connecting-rod from a crosshead that works in 
guides formed upon the condenser. The valve gear is of the shifting link 
type, and with the other valves is controlled from a bridge arranged above 
the crank-shaft. The crank-shaft is 22 in. diam. and the propeller shaft 
18 in. diam. 

The condensers are of the sui*face type, with over 17,000 tubes each 
6 ft. long, and have a cooling surface of 16,500 sq. ft. To reduce weight 
the bodies of the condensers are of wrought iron and the tops of cast brass. 
The air and circulating pumps are driven directly by rods attached to the 
pistons and passing through glands in the cylinder covers ; the feed pump 
plungers are connected directly to the crossheads. The condenser tubes are 
of copper, and the circulating water passes outside them, two features that 
are now seldom seen. 

The engines indicated 7,800 h.p., made 64 revs, per min. with a boiler 
pressure of 31 lb., and drove a two-bladed Griffiths' propeller 23 • 3 ft. diam. and 
26*3 ft. pitch, weighing 22 tons, that gave the vessel a speed of 14*9 knots. 

Steam was supplied by boilers possessing 21,000 sq. ft. of heating surface 
and 770 sq. ft. of grate area. 

The " Monarch " was subsequently refitted with modem vertical three- 
stage expansion engines. 

842. Model of single-trunk screw engines (working). (Scale 
1 : 12.) Presented by J. K. Rennie, Esq., 1876. N. 1413. 

This type of trunk engine was introduced by Messrs. J. and G-. Rennie, 
who fitted them to many vessels both naval and mercantile ; the arrange- 
ment was found most suitable for powers of from 60 to 400 h.p. The 
model closely resembles the engines of H.M.S. " Reindeer," a wooden sloop, 
built in 1860 to the following dimensions : — Displacement, 1,365 tons ; 
length, 185 • 1 ft. ; breadth, 33 "2 ft. ; mean draught, 14 '8 ft. ; her speed 
was 10 • 6 knots. 

The " Reindeer's " engines had cylinders 44*5 in. diam., which, allowing 
for the trunk, is equivalent to a diameter of 41 • 5 in. ; the stroke was 24 in. 
The cylinders were placed at opposite comers one on each side of the crank- 
shaft, with their respective air pumps and condensers beside them ; each air 
pump was driven from the ci-ank pin of the other engine. The cylinders 
and air pumps had single-ended trunks that admitted the use of connecting 
rods 2 • 5 times the length of the stroke. The bearing of the connecting-rod 
at the bottom of the steam trunks was 6 in. diam., as large as could be got 
in ; it could be tightened whilst in motion by means of a steel bar within 
the connecting-rod abutting at one end upon the bearing and at the outer end 
against a cotter set up by a screw. The air pump trunks were single-acting 
plungers ; the feed and bilge pumps were driven by lateral projections from 
them. 

The chief advantages claimed for these engines were : the short and 
direct connection of the cylinders with their respective condensers, the small 
space occupied, and the balancing of the parts. 

843. Model of engines of S.S. "Carnatic" (working). (Scale 
1 : 8.) Lent by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam 
Navigation Co., 1878. N. 1501. 

The " Camatic " was built by Messrs. Samuda Bros, at Poplar in 1863 
for the P. & O. service. She was of 2,800 tons displacement, 285 ft, long 
(b.p.), 38 ft. in breadth, 28 ft. deep, and had an immersed midship section of 
548 sq. ft. 

The engines, made by Messrs. Humphrys and Tennant, were of the 
direct-acting, inverted, two-stage expansion type, with two high-pressure 



272 

cylinders 43 in. diam., and two low-pressure cylinders 96 in. diam., with a 
common stroke of 3 ft. The standards contained the surface condensers, 
and the two low-pressure cylinders bolted together formed a girder con- 
necting them and supporting their high-pressui-e cylinders, which were 
arranged tandem-wise above them. The cyhnders were steam-jacketed, and 
each had its own slide valve, but only two sets of link motion were employed. 
The links were of the bar type, and were reversed by gearing from a central 
platform ; the weight of each pair of valves was counterbalanced by weighted 
levers. 

The air pumps were worked by rods direct from the low-pressui-e pistons, 
and it is stated that they served also as feed pumps for the boiler, but the 
cu'culation water was forced by a centrifugal pump driven by a separate 
engine. 

Steam at 26 lb. pressure was supplied by boilers of Messrs. Lamb and 
Summers' sheet flue type, and was somewhat superheated in copper 
superheaters. 

The propeller was a two-bladed screw 16 ft. diam. by 23 ft. pitch ; the 
mean speed on trial was 13 "9 knots with 2,442 indicated h.p., and the coal 
consumption under 2 lb. per indicated h.p. per hour. 

844. Model of engines of S.S. '' A. Lopez " (working). 
(Scale 1 : 4.) Made by Messrs. W. Denny and Bros. 
Received 1871. N. 1195. 

This represents the engines of the Cadiz and Havana mail steamer 
" A. Lopez," built and engined at Dumbarton in 1865. Her dimensions 
are : — Displacement, 2,665 tons ; length, 270 ft. ; beam, 38 ft. ; depth, 
27 ft. ; midship section, 492 sq. ft. 

The engines are of the inverted vertical type, with two cylinders 66 in. 
diam. by 3 • 5 ft. stroke, acting on cranks at right angles. Each piston has 
two piston-rods connected to a long crosshead working between guides, an 
arrangement that slightly reduces the total height of the engine. Steam is 
distributed by slide valves and link motion reversing gear, but on the back 
of each main slide is a " cut-off " plate di-iven by a separate eccentric, with 
a link for varying the travel. By the link motion the periods of exhaust 
are adjusted, while the " back cut-off" plate gives an independent control 
of the steam supply so as to permit of any desired degree of expansion. 
Friction of the main slide is reduced by a relief frame cai-ried in the steam 
chest cover and making a steamtight joint on the back of the valve, so 
reducing the unbalanced area ; the weight of the valve is counterbalanced 
by a small piston at the top of the valve rod, working in a cylinder on the 
steam chest. 

The condenser is of the surface type, with horizontal tubes giving a 
cooling surface of 3,488 sq. ft., and is arranged between the two engines. 
The air, circulating, feed, and bilge pumps are driven directly from the 
crossheads ; to balance the loads each is in duplicate, and both engines are 
complete and independent. The pumps are vertical and have solid pistons, 
the portions above the pistons acting as ah- pumps and those below as 
circulating pumps, but the feed and bilge pumps have simple plungers. 
The valve boxes are arranged in the condensers with external doors, and 
have removable grids provided with rubber disc valves. Circulating water 
enters the pumps through two pipes at the engine base, and after passing 
through the tubes of the condenser is delivered overboard by a large pipe 
at the back of the engines. The exhaust steam passes through pockets 
round the cylinders into the top of the condensers, and the feed pumps 
draw from a hot- well in the bottom of the condenser. Provision is made 
however, for working it as a jet condenser should the surface condensing 
arrangements break down. 

On trial the engines indicated 1,427 h.p. at 45 '5 revs, per min., with a 
boiler pressure of 18 lb. and a vacuum of 24 in. The speed was 13 • 3 knots, 
with a mean draught of 17 ft. 



273 

[N.B. — The model would exei-t about 15 h.p., but is now running light under 
low pressure air with one cylinder only, and drives the other marine models 
in the gallery by a shaft beneath the floor. A fly-wheel has been added to 
give the momentum that the screw propeller provides in the actual engines.] 

845. Model of engines of H.M.S. " Nortlmmberland " 
(working). (Scale 1 : 12.) Received 1903. - Plate IX., 
No. 8. N. 2325. 

H.M.S. " Noi-thumberland " {see No. 96) is an iron-built sea-going 
armourclad of 26 guns, designed by the Admiralty and completed in 1865-8 
at the Millwall Ironworks. Her dimensions are : — Displacement, 10,780 
tons; length (b.p.), 400-2 ft.; extreme breadth, 59*3 ft.; mean draught, 
27-2 ft. 

She and one sister ship, H.M.S. " Minotaur," were fitted by Messrs. John 
Penn and Sons with horizontal trunk engines, as represented in this model, 
while the other sister ship, H.M.S. " Agincourt," was fitted by Messrs. 
Maudslay, Sons and Field with the horizontal return connecting-rod engines 
represented, to the same scale, in the adjacent model No. 846. Both con- 
structions enabled the engines to be placed completely below the water- 
line, and therefore out of the reach of shot, the more modem arrangement 
with vei*tical cylinders only becoming possible in warships after the 
protective power of inclined armour had been demonstrated. 

The single-tmnk engine had been patented in 1784 by "Watt, and also 
subsequently by others, but the double-ti-unk construction, by which equality 
of piston area was attained and the engine adapted for horizontal working, 
was first patented in 1845 by John Penn, who successfully introduced and 
extensively fitted it for driving screw propellers. The aiTangement gave 
a light and compact engine, without piston rod or guides, and the thinist of 
the connecting-rod, when steaming ahead, materially reduced the down- 
ward pressure due to the weight of the piston. On the other hand, the 
cooling losses due to the surfaces of the trunks were serious and inconvenient, 
the gland friction was excessive, and the bearing at the small end of the 
connecting-rod was almost inaccessible. 

The engines represented have two simple cylinders, 112 in. diam. by 
52 in. stroke, but from the front and back of the pistons extend tmnks 
41 in. diam. which reduce the areas to those of cylinders of 104 in. diam. 
The gudgeons to which the small ends of the connecting-rods are attached 
are on the pistons, and the large ends of the connecting-rods act on balanced 
cranks set at right angles, the internal diameter of the trunks being such as 
just to permit of the full swing of the connecting-rods. The two condensers 
are of the jet type, and are aiTanged close together on the opposite side to 
the steam cylinders ; the horizontal double-acting air-pumps for clearing 
them are directly driven by a rod from each piston, passing through a gland 
in the cylinder cover. Another rod from each piston similarly drives the 
feed and bilge pumps, which are arranged with the condensers. 

Steam is distributed to each cylinder by a large double-ported slide 
valve, fitted vdth a circular relief-frame and worked by the usual shifting- 
link motion. An early steam cut-off is provided for by a large gi-idiron 
expansion valve, ari-anged above the steam chest and actuated by a separate 
eccentric through a link by which the point of cut-off can be varied ; this 
arrangement includes the steam chest in the clearance space until the 
link-motion gives a second cut-off, the diagram obtained consequently being 
what is known as " broken-backed." 

The propeller was a 4-bladed Mangin screw, 24 ft, diam., whose pitch 
could be varied from 22 -5 ft. to 28-5 ft., but was set at 25*5 ft. 

Steam at 25 lb, pressure was supplied by 10 tubular boilers, each having 
four fui-naces ; the total heating surface was 23,040 sq. ft., and the grate 
area 956 sq. ft. At the sea trials the engines made 58*4 revs, per min., and 
indicated 6,545 h.p., which gave the vessel a speed of 14*1 knots. With 
half boiler power the revs, were 47 * 6, the indicated h,p. 3,213, and the 
speed 11 • 7 knots. 

u 6773. s 



274 

The base of this model shows the general arrangement of engine seatings 
and adjacent ship-structure. The former consists of three large transverse 
box-girders combined with three smaller fore-and-aft girders, the whole 
being well secured to the ship's main frames. These latter illustrate details 
of the single-plate frames with joggled and stapled angle-bars used in early 
iron-built warships. A complete inner skin was fitted in the way of engine 
and boiler rooms. Additional structural features of this class of vessel are 
shown (see No. 658). 

846. Model of engines of H.M.S. "Agincourt" (working). 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. " N. 2230. 

The " Agincourt " is an armour-plated cruiser designed by the Admiralty 
and built of iron in 1868 by Messrs. Laird Bros, at Birkenhead. She is a 
sister ship to the " Northumberland " {see No. 96), and her dimensions 
are : — Displacement, 10,600 tons ; length (b.p.), 400 ft. ; breadth (extreme), 
59-4 ft.; draught, 27 '75 ft. 

The engines, by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons and Field, are of the horizontal 
i-etum-connecting-rod type and have a pair of cylinders 91 in. diam., by 
54 in. stroke, fitted with steam jackets. To reduce the friction of the 
several glands, the nuts of each are connected by worm-gearing so as to 
ensm-e alignment while tightening up. 

The slide valves are actuated by the ordinary reversing link motion 
controlled by screw gearing from the platform, but the weight of the links 
is supported by counterbalancing levers. Each cylinder has an expansion 
valye, of the revolving cylindrical type introduced by Mr. J. Field, fitted 
where the steam pipe enters its steam chest. By this the supply of steam 
is cut off independently of the link motion, but the steam chest for the time 
becomes part of the cylinder clearance space. These rotary expansion 
valves are driven by spur gearing from the crank- shaft and at the same 
speed, but in each connection there is introduced a sliding sleeve with a 
helical groove by which the point of cut-off can be altered ; there is also a 
disengaging clutch. (Another arrangement of this expansion gear is seen 
in the engines of H.M.S. " Yaliant," see No. 838). 

Opposite to the cylinders are the two condensers which are of the jet 
type. The two air pumps are horizontal, double acting, and driven directly 
by a separate rod from each piston ; between them are the crosshead guides 
and above is the driving platform. 

On trial, in 1865, the engines exerted 6,667 indicated h.p. at full boiler 
power, which gave the vessel a speed of 15*48 knots. 

The engine bearers and local ship- structure are represented by the base 
of the model. A combination of three transverse box- girders with five 
longitudinal girders is used for the former while the latter consists of the 
heavy plate-framing which was generally adopted before the introduction of 
bracket-framing and watertight double-bottoms. The inner skin-plating 
extends only to the first longitudinal on each side of the middle line. 
Additional structural features of this class of vessel are shown {see No. 658). 

847. Drawing of engines of S.S. "Edinburgh Castle." 
(Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by Messrs. R. Napier and Sons, 
1874. N. 1376. 

This vessel was built and engined by Messrs. Napier and Sons in 1872 
for the Cape Mail Service. She is an iron vessel of the following dimen- 
sions : — Gross register, 2,624 tons ; length, 335 -3 f t. ; beam, 37 -7 ft. ; 
depth, 28-2 ft. 

The engines represented are of the inverted two-stage expansion type, 
with cylinders 44 in. and 72 in. diam., by 42 in. stroke, and were supplied 
with steam at 63 lb. pressure. The high-pressure cylinder has its steam 
jacket formed by the insertion of a liner, but the low-pressure cylinder has 
its jacket cast with it. The piston of the latter has a separate rod by which 
steam is admitted to the piston jacket. The high-pressure valve has a back 



275 

«ut-off expansion valve, worked by a separate eccentric, and has the pressure 
on the back reduced by Dawe's relief arrangement (see Mechanical Engi- 
neering Collection) . The low-pressure valve has a back cut-off plate, which 
is stationary but can be adjusted in position. 

848. Model of engines of S.S. "Britannic" (working). (Scale 
1 : 12.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. Plate X., Nos. 1 & 2. 

N. 2231. 

The " Britannic " is a four-masted barque, built of iron at Belfast in 
1874, by Messrs. Harland and Wolff, for the White Star Line. Her registei*ed 
dimensions are : — Tonnage, 3,152 tons net, 5,004 tons gross ; length, 455 ft. ; 
breadth, 45 • 2 f t. ; depth to main deck, 33 • 7 ft. 

The engines, by Messrs, Maudslay, Sons and Field, are of the inverted 
two-stage expansion type, with two high-pressure cylinders 48 in. diam., 
and two low-pressure cylinders 83 in. diam., arranged in tandem pairs 
with the high-pressure cyhnders at the top ; the common stroke is 60 in. 
Between the tandem cylinders is an open distance piece by which access is 
obtained to the intennediate glands. The main slide valves of each set are 
moved by a single valve rod worked by the usual link-motion, but on the 
back of each high-pressure slide valve is an expansion valve worked by a 
separate eccentric and provided with an arrangement by which the cut-off 
of each can be simultaneoiisly adjusted. The link-motion is fitted with a 
screw reversing gear assisted by a steam cylinder. Both engines exhaust 
into a single surface condenser, which is cylindrical in form and is arranged 
behind them. There are two vertical air pumps and duplicate feed pumps 
di'iven by levers from the crossheads, but the circulation is performed by a 
centrifugal pump independently driven by a pair of vertical steam cylinders. 
The details of the pumps and their valve boxes are clearly shown in the 
model. The various steam and exhaust pipes are of copper and are provided 
with a form of bellows expansion joint to give some flexibility under the 
stresses due to unequal temperatures. 

Steam at 70 lb. pressure was supplied by eight oval boilers, fired at each end 
and possessing a total heating surface of 19,500 sq. ft, while they contained 
2,423 tubes. The engines indicated 4,971 h.p. and drove a screw 23 • 5 ft. 
diam., with a pitch increasing from 28 ft. to 31 • 5 ft. The first voyage from 
•Queenstown to Sandy Hook took 7 days 20 hrs., with an average speed of 
13 knots. 

The after part of the screw shaft was originally fitted with a universal 
joint so that it could be lowered till the boss was level with the keel — an 
arrangement introduced by Sir E. J. Harland in 1871 as a means of securing 
greater immersion and so preventing racing. 

The engine bearers and a portion of the hull of the vessel are shown in 
section, but not in detail ; an adjacent drawing, however, shows, to a scale 
of 1 : 96, the complete general arrangement of the similar though smaller 
machinery fitted in vessels of the fleet of the Compagnie Generale Trans- 
atlantique. 

849. Model of engines of H.M.Ss. "Boadicea " and *' Bacchante " 
(working). (Scale 1 : 12.) Presented by J. K. Rennie, Esq., 
1876. N. 1414. 

These unannoured corvettes were built at Poi-tsmouth in 1875-6 to the 
following dimensions : — Displacement, 4,130 tons ; Length, 280 ft. ; beam, 
45 ft.; draught, 23-25 ft. 

The engines are of the horizontal, three- cylinder, two-stage expansion, 
return-connecting-rod type, with a high-pressure cylinder 73 in. diam. and 
two low-pressure cylinders 92 in. diam. ; the stroke of each piston is 4 ft. 
The cylinders are steam- jacketed over both barrel and ends, and the cylinder 
castings are fitted with liners. Each piston has attached to it a plunger, 
the bottom of which slides on a suitable adjustable bearing block, so as to 
carry the weight of the piston ; the back cover of each cylinder is provided 
with a projecting bonnet that clears its plunger. On the front side of each 

s 2 



27Q 

piston are two i^iston-rods which extend past the crank- shaft and are- 
attached to a crosshead working on a bar guide on the poi-t side. The high- 
pressure cylinder is jB.tted with J. E. Outridge's patent (1868) equilibrium 
slide valves and a separate gridiron cut-off valve on the side of the main 
valve chest. The main slides of the high-pressure cylinder are driven by 
the ordinary link motion through a rocking shaft, and the cut-off valve by 
a separate eccentric through levers that give a variable travel. In order to 
get the necessary port area within the restricted space, the equilibrium 
valves were made double. The low-pressure cylinders were fitted with 
ordinary double-ported slide valves, and these valve chests were made large 
so as to serve as intermediate receivers. The engines were fitted with both 
steam and hand reversing gear. The three cranks were not aiTanged 
equally, the low-pressure cranks being opposite each other while the high- 
pressure crank was at right angles to them. 

There are two surface condensers containing collectively 10,214 tubes 
• 75 in. diam. and 4 • 75 ft. long, giving a total condensing surface of 
9,545 sq. ft. ; these tubes are ai-ranged vertically and the steam passes 
through them. The two air pumps are double-acting, ^vdth pistons 20 in. 
diam., each driven by a rod from the low-pressure pistons. The condensing 
water is circulated by two centrifugal pumps with fans 30 in. diam. fixed on 
the backs of the condensers. Each pump is driven by a diagonal engine 
with a single cylinder 12 in. diam, by 8 in. stroke ; they force the water 
through the condensers and are an-anged to draw either from the bilge or 
direct from the sea. The bilge and feed pumps are worked directly from the 
low-pressure crossheads. 

Steam at 70 lb. pressure is supplied by ten single-ended boilers 12 ft., 
diam. by 9*8 ft. long, each with three furnaces, giving a total heating 
surface of 14,170 sq. ft. and 625 sq. ft. of grate area. 

The engines drive a two-bladed lifting Griffiths' screw 20 • 5 ft. diam. by 
23 ft. pitch, and on trial the "Boadicea" indicated 5,300 h.p. with 74* 5 revs, 
per min., and had a speed of 14*8 knots. 

850. Drawing of engines of H.M.Ss. "Iris" and " Mercury." 
(Scale 1 : 48.) Maudslay Collection, 1900. N. 2252. 

The "Iris" and "Mercuiy" are twin-screw sister vessels, designed by 
the Admiralty for despatch service and constructed of mild steel at Pembroke 
Dockyard in 1876-8. Their dimensions are : — Displacement, 3,750 tons ; 
length (b.p.), 300 ft., (o.a.), 333 ft. ; breadth (extreme), 46- 1ft.; draught 
(mean), 19*7 ft. ; midship section, 777 sq. ft, ; coal capacity, 780 tons. 

The engines are of the horizontal direct-acting two-stage expansion type, 
in two sets, the port engine being placed aft of the starboard one. In each 
set there are two high-pressure cylinders 41 in. diam. and two low-pressure 
75 in. diam., by 36 in. stroke, arranged as tandem compounds working on 
cranks at right angles. The two surface condensers are entirely of brass,, 
and together contain 74,000 ft. of tube • 625 in. internal diam. The air and 
feed pumps are arranged vertically and driven by bell-cranks worked from 
the low-pressure pistons ; the two circulating pumps are of the centrifugal 
type and driven by independent steam engines. 

Steam is supplied by twelve Scotch boilers having a total grate area of 
700 sq. ft. and 18,700 sq. ft. of heating surface. With a boiler pressure 
of 62 lb. the engines made 97 revs, per min. and developed 7,735 h.p., which 
gave a record speed of 18*57 knots with four-bladed propellers 16-25 ft. 
diam. by 20 ft. pitch. Earlier trials with the larger and finer pitched 
propellers shown in the drawing gave a speed of 16 knots. 

851. Model of engines of S.S. " Orient" (working). (Scale 
about 1 : 10) ; and photographs. Presented by J. G, S. 
Anderson, Esq., 1895. N. 2060. 

The " Orient," the pioneer vessel of the Orient Line, was built and 
engined by Messrs. John Elder & Co. at Glasgow in 1879. She has a 
displacement of 9,500 tons at load draught, and a gross tonnage of 5,386, 
is 445 ft. long, 46 • 25 ft. broad, and 36 • 8 ft. deep. 



277 

The model shows the general an*angement of the engines ; the details, 
however, have not been reproduced to scale, being modified to render the 
model a workable engine suitable for driving a small launch ; the adjacent 
photographs, however, represent the actual engines. 

The engines are of the vertical, invei-ted, two-stage, surface-condensing 
type, with one high-pressure cylinder 60 in. diam., and two low-pressure 
cylinders of 85 in. diam., working on separate cranks aiTanged at 120 deg., 
with a common stroke of 5 ft. The valves are of the piston type aiTanged 
in a chest at the back of each cylinder and driven by link-motion reversing 
gears from the crank- shaft. A rocking lever for each valve transmits the 
motions from the link block to the valve rod, but the three gears are simul- 
taneously reversed by a single reversing shaft, which in the actual engines 
is moved by a steam reversing gear. 

The air, circulating, and feed pumps are fixed at the back of the engines 
and driven from the two low-pressure crossheads by levers ; the condenser 
is formed in the lower poi-tion of the back standards. The engines are 
supplied with steam at 75 lb. pressure, and indicate 5,400 h.p. 

852. Model of engines of S.S. "Flamboro" (working). 
(Scale 1 : 4.) Made by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron 
Co. Received, 1895. Plate X., No. 3. N. 1727. 

This represents the engines and propeller of the S.S. " Flamboro," built 
iind engined at Jarrow in 1885. The dimensions of the vessel are : — 
Displacement, 4,400 tons ; length, 265 ft. ; beam, 39-6 ft. ; depth, 23-5 ft. ; 
and midship section, 730 sq. ft. 

The engines are of the three-stage expansion, surface-condensing, inverted 
direct-acting type, with three cylinders of the following diameters : — High 
pressure, 22 in. ; intermediate, 35 in. ; and low pressure, 58 in. ; all having 
a stroke of 42 in., and each cylinder acting upon a separate crank, the 
cranks making with each other an angle of 120 deg. The distribution of 
the steam is controlled by a piston valve in the high-pressure, and flat 
slide valves for the intermediate and low-pressure cylinders, driven by 
the ordinary link-motion reversing gear. The high-pressure and inter- 
mediate steam chests are directly above the crank-shaft, but the steam 
■chest of the low-pressure cylinder is placed at the front or starting platform 
side of the cylinder, the valve being driven by a rocking lever pivoted on 
the after column. The engines are reversed by means of a single- cylinder 
steam reversing engine of the " all-round " type, combined with which is 
a hand- wheel gear. 

The air and circulating pumps are contained in one cast iron case, fixed 
on the back of the condenser and driven from the low-pressure crosshead by 
means of levers and links. The circulating pump is 12 in. diam. and 
double-acting, while the air pump is 18 in. diam. and single-acting ; both 
have a stroke of 18 in. The circulating pump forces the water twice 
through the condenser, first through the lower half and back again through 
the upper half, the water being inside the tubes. The feed pumps are 
placed at the forward end of the air and circulating pumps side by side, and 
the bilge pumps at the after end of the pump c^se ; all of the pumps are 
<iriven from one crosshead connected to the levers and links before 
mentioned. 

The propeller is a four-bladed screw 15-3 ft. diam., 17 ft. pitch, and 
64*8 sq. ft. in area. The thrust of the propeller is taken by a thinist 
bearing with six collars on the shaft. The ends of the bearings are complete, 
but between them are five horse- shoe plates that fit between the shaft 
collars, thus leaving the lower portion of the shaft open to the oil chamber 
below. The horse- shoes are supported upon side screws, along which each 
can be independently adjusted so as to distribute the thrust equally l^etween 
a,ll of the collars. 

On trial the indicated h.p. of the engines was 1,125, the revs. 67 per min., 
and the speed of the vessel fully laden 10-5 knots. The working steam 
pressui-e of the boilers is 150 lb. per sq. in. 



278 

853. Motion diagram of engines of S.S. " Orinoco." (Scale 
1 : 12.) Lent by the Roval Mail Steam Packet Co., 1891. 

N. 1868. 

The " Orinoco " is a steel-built vessel, constructed and engined by 
Messrs. Caird & Co. at Greenock in 1886 (see No. 284). Her leading dimen- 
sions are:— Gross register, 4,478 tons; length, 409*7 ft.; beam, 45 ft.; 
depth, 25 -4 ft. 

The diagram shows both the longitudinal and transverse sections of the 
main engines, which are supplied with steam at 150 lb. pressure and indicate 
5,863 h.p. The engines are of the three-stage expansion t3rpe, the steam 
working successively in cylinders 42 in., 62 in., and 96 in. diam. respectively, 
by 66 in. stroke. The valve motion is of the ordinary shifting link type, 
but the valves of the three cylinders differ ; that of the high-pressure 
cylinder is of the Trick form and has a back relief frame ; the two others 
are of the gridiron constiniction and have vei-tical balance cylinders. 

854. Drawings of engines of S.Yt. " Gladiator." (Scale 1 : 8.) 
Lent by Messrs. Ramage and Ferguson, 1887. N. 1708. 

The " Gladiator " is an iron-built steam yacht, constructed and engined 
by Messrs. Ramage and Ferguson in 1886 to the following dimensions : — 
Register, 111-7 tons; length, 119-6 ft.; beam, 20-1 ft.; depth, 11-7 ft. 
She is schooner -rigged, but has an auxiliary screw which is fitted with the 
" Bevis " feathering aiTangement, so that when not in use its resistance can 
be minimised. 

The engines consist of a three-stage expansion set with cylinders 
9-25 in., 15 in., and 24-5 in. diam., by 18 in. stroke, indicating 162 h.p. at 
145 revs, per min. Steam at 150 lb. pressure is supplied by a cylindrical 
boiler, described in No. 900. 

These engines were the first three-stage expansion set fitted with 
Walschaei-ts valve gear (see Mechanical Engineering Collection). Each 
cylinder has a single eccentric which gives the 90 deg. of angular advance 
required in a valve motion, while the further advance necessitated by the lap 
and lead of the valve are obtained from a lever rocked by the piston-rod 
crosshead. Linking-up and reversal are done on a link that is rocked by 
the single eccentric ; the gear gives a practically constant lead at all gi-ades. 
The indicator diagrams obtained are shown combined on the drawing. 

855. Drawing of engines of S.S. "Prometheus." (Scale 
1 : 24.) Lent by Messrs. Robert Stephenson & Co., 1886. 

N. 1698. 

The "Prometheus" is an iron-built vessel, constiTicted by Messrs. 
A. Leslie & Co. at Newcastle in 1886, and engined by Messrs. Stephen- 
son & Co. Her dimensions are : — Length, 321 ft. ; beam, 36 - 5 ft. ; depth, 
26 ft. ; with a candying capacity of 3,000 tons on a mean di-aught of 23 ft. 

Her engines are on the tandem two- stage expansion system, and have 
a single overhanging crank and a fly-wheel on the shaft, an an-angement 
introduced by Mr. A. Holt. The cylinders are 27 in. and 58 in. diam., 
by 5 ft. stroke ; the high-pressure cylinder is uppei-most and has its piston 
rod attached to a crosshead above, from which two rods, passing through 
stuffing boxes in the low-pressure cylinder cover, extend to the low-pressure 
piston ; in this way the use of an inaccessible gland between the two cylinders 
is avoided. The high-pressure slide valve is of the piston type and is fitted 
with Buckley's rings, while the low-pressure valve is of the ordinary flat 
form; both valves are worked by the same pair of eccentric rods and the 
usual Stephenson's link motion. The crank-shaft is of steel 14 in. diam., 
and has the two eccentrics forged with it immediately behind the thrust 
collar. The crank cheek is of wrought iron shnink on and keyed ; the fly- 
wheel weighs 5 tons, and is used as the wheel of the turning gear, which with 
a single crank engine is of special importance. It consists of a steam cylinder 



279 

and oil cataract attached to the bulkhead just over the fly-wheel ; the piston 
rod of this " heaving-round " cylinder is square in section and is fitted with 
strong steel pawls, which engage with teeth on the rim of the fly-wheel 
for forward or backward motion as required. The condenser is of the usual 
form and has 1,925 sq. ft. of sm-face, given by tubes 1 in. outside diam. The 
air pump is 18 in. diam. by 22-5 in. stroke, and is single-acting, while the 
circulating pump is 13-5 in. diam. by 22-5 in. stroke, and is double-acting. 
These and the other pumps are worked by the usual lever arrangement, but 
there is an independently driven 6 in. centrifugal pump for emergencies. 

Steam at 80 lb. pressure is supplied from a double-ended boiler, having 
5,015 sq. ft. of heating surface and 153 sq. ft. of grate area {see No. 898). 
The propeller has four blades and is 15 • 75 ft. diam. by 20 • 5 ft. pitch. The 
ordinary indicated h.p. is 1,350 and the speed 12 knots. 

Engines of this type are very lofty, but on the other hand they require 
less space than a double crank engine, leaving room for from 200 to 300 tons 
of additional cargo. 

856. Drawings of engines of S.S. " Majestic." (Scale 1 : 16.) 
Presented by W. S. Clayton Greene, Esq., 1910. N. 2540. 

The " Majestic," together with her sister ship " Teutonic," was built and 
engined by Messrs. Harland and Wolff in 1889 for the White Star line. 
As the first vessels for this Company's service in which sail-power was finally 
abandoned, they mark a stage in the development of this fleet. The 
dimensions of the " Majestic " are : — Displacement, loaded, 17,800 tons ; 
length (o.a.), 582 ft. ; breadth, extreme, 57*8 ft. ; depth, moulded, 42-2 ft. 

The drawings represent one of a pair of three- stage expansion engines 
fitted on this vessel. From left to right on the wall the views shown are : — 
(1) A rear elevation, showing the condenser, 20 ft. in length ; (2) an end 
elevation, from the high-pressure end ; (3) a front elevation. The engines 
are of . the direct-acting, inverted type ; the cylinders, which are not steam 
jacketed, being of 43 in., 68 in., and 110 in. diam. respectively, by 60 in. 
stroke. All the cylinders have piston valves, the intermediate and low- 
pressure cylinders having two each. Tail rods are provided for the pistons 
of these two cylinders. The framing is of cast steel, and each cylinder is 
supported on two frames, an A fi*ame at the front, and a single frame at 
the back. This method gives three points of support, and ensures stability. 
The crank- shaft is of Whit worth steel with crank pins 22 in. by 22 in. 
Yalve gear of the Stephenson type is employed. Each set of engines has 
two air pumps worked by levers from the high and low-pressure cross- 
heads ; these levers also drive the bilge pumps. 

The screw shafts are placed so close together that the screws, which are 
19 • 5 ft. diam. by 29 ■ 5 ft. pitch, overlap to the extent of 5*5 ft. To allow 
for this the starboard propeller is astern of the other by 6 ft., an opening 
being made in the deadwood to allow for this ar rangement. 

Steam is supplied by 12 double-ended and 4 single-ended boilers at 
180 lb. pressure, and Howden's system of assisted draught is employed. 
The total heating sui*face is 40,968 sq. ft. ; grate area, 1,160 sq. ft. ; 
indicated h.p., 17,000 ; speed, 19*5 knots. 

857. Prints of engines of S.S. " Aska." (Scales 1 : 8 and 
1 : 24.) Lent bv the Ailsa Shipbuilding Co., 1890. 

N. 1846. 

This steamer was built of steel in 1889 by the Ailsa Company for the 
Indian coasting trade. Her dimensions are : — Gross register, 527 tons ; 
length, 190 ft.; breadth, 29 ft.; depth, moulded to main deck, 12-25 ft. 
{see No. 294). 

The engines are of the three-stage expansion type, wdth cylinders 16 in., 
26 in., and 42 in. diam., by 30 in. stroke. Steam at a pressure of 160 lb. 
is supplied by a double-ended boiler 12 ft. diam. by 16 ft. long, having 
four furnaces with Farnley flues of 39 in. diam. The heating surface 



280 

is 2,305 sq. ft. and tlie grate area 78 sq. ft., while the surface condenser 
exposes an area of 923 sq. ft. The screw propeller is 9 ft. diam., 13-5 ft. 
pitch, and has an area of 34 sq. ft. On trial the speed was 12 • 9 knots, with 
the engines making 120 revs, per min., and indicating 892 h.p. 

858. Drawings of engines and boilers of S.S. " City of 
Dundee." (Scale 1 : 16.) Lent by Messrs. J. Howden 
& Co., 1893. N. 2011. 

The S.S. " City of Dmidee " was built of steel at Glasgow in 1890 to the 
following dimensions : — Tonnage, 3,427 tons gross; length, 361*7 ft. ; beam, 
42 -7 ft.; and depth, 26 -4 ft. 

The four drawings give the following views of the machinery : — Longi- 
tudinal section of the steamer, showing the engines and boilers ; cross section 
of the ship, giving front view of the boilers ; cross section showing end view 
of the engines ; and a horizontal section showing the engines and boilers 
in plan. 

The engines, by Messrs. Howden & Co., are a three- stage expansion set, 
with cylinders 25 in., 42 in., and 68*5 in. diam., by 4 ft. stroke. The crank- 
shaft is in two duplicate end throws joined by couplings bolted to the webs 
of the intermediate crank. The crank- shaft is carried in four bearings, 
of which the central pair are larger than the end ones so as to insure 
uniform wear. The valves are all on the sides of the cylinders and are worked 
from the connecting and piston-rods by Morion's gear {see Mechanical 
Engineering Collection). 

Steam at 160 lb. pressure is supplied by two single-ended cylindrical 
boilers 14*25 ft. diam. by 11 '5 ft. long, each with three furnaces 42 in. diam. 
Forced draught on Howden's system (see No. 913) is fitted to these boilers, 
which have produced steam equivalent to 25 indicated h.p. per sq. ft. 
of grate area. 

859. Diagrams illustrating the arrangement of machinery 
in H.M. warships. Presented by the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, 1894. N. 2040. 

These were prepared to illustrate a paper by Sir A. J. Durston, K.C.B., 
in 1894, and represent typical vessels built under the Naval Defence Act 
of 1889. 

Three views show the machinery of H.M.S. "Ramillies," a first-class, 
steel-built, armoured battleship constructed at Glasgow in 1892. It is con- 
tained in six watertight compartments, the engines being two independent 
sets separated by a central compai-tment extending past the boilers and used 
as a magazine, while the boilers are in two sets of four each, fired athwart- 
ships. Protection is afforded by a protective deck over the engines and boilers, 
also by side armoui* and side coal bunkers below deck. 

The three views of H.M.S. " Royal Arthur," first-class, deck- protected, 
wood-sheathed cruiser, built at Portsmouth in 1891, show engines an-anged 
as befoi'e ; but the single-ended return tube Scotch boilers are in sets 
of four each, in two compartments and fired in a fore-and-aft direction ; 
there is no central magazine. Protection is afforded longitudinally and 
transversely by coal bunkers, by a protective deck, and by an armour coaming 
round the engines. The engine platform is built up above the cellular bottom 
on plate frames. 

Thi-ee similar views of H.M.S. "Forie," second-class, deck-protected, 
wood-sheathed cmiser, built at Chatham in 1893, shows her to be similar 
to the last, the coal protection at the boilers being, however, varied slightly. 

In the three views of H.M.Ss. " Onyx " and " Renard," toi-pedo gunboats 
built at Birkenhead in 1893, the engines are shown arranged abreast in two 
sets as above. The stokehold compartments are fitted forward of the engines, 
and there are four locomotive wet-bottom boilers, with furnaces divided by 
water spaces. 



281 

860. Diagrams sliowing framing of engines for warships. 
Presented by the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1894. 

N. 2040. 

These were prepared in 1894 to illustrate a paper by Sir A. J. Durston, 
K.C.B. Each frame is for a cylinder of the same size, and the weight of 
the corresponding bed-plate, standards, and guides is given. 

In H.M.S. " Royal Arthur " all four standards are of cast steel, bracketed 
I- section, with the guides bolted to both the back and front. Weight, 
47-77 tons. 

In H.M.S. " Ramillies " the back standard is of cast steel box section, 
forming the condenser, the guides being on the face. The front standards 
are forged steel pillars. Weight, 78 • 08 tons. 

H.M.S. " Crescent " is very similar, but has the back standard of cast 
iron. Weight, 82 • 08 tons. 

H.M.S. "Gibraltar" has all the standards of forged steel, with bracing 
in two directions. Weight, 67*2 tons. 

H.M.S. "Royal Oak" has forged steel back and front pillars, diagonally 
braced in two directions. Weight, 69 '77 tons. 

861. Diagrams of engines and boilers of H.M.S. "Daring." 
(Scale 1 : 2.) Contributed by Messrs. John I. Thornycroft 
& Co., 1895. N. 2059. 

These show one of the two sets of three-stage expansion engines fitted 
to this twin-screw torpedo boat destroyer. 

There are four cylinders in each set an-anged in pairs, the high pressure 
19 in. diam. and intermediate pressure 27 in. diam. forming one pair, and 
the two low-pressure cylinders (each 27 in. diam.), the other. The cylinders 
of each pair are inclined from the vertical alteraately to the right and 
to the left, thus enabling their axes to be brought close enough together 
in a fore-and-aft direction to introduce a three-webbed crank, the central 
web being common to the two cranks. The cylinders are not jacketed ; 
piston valves are used on the high pressure, and flat valves on the other 
three cylinders. The reciprocating parts in most cases balance one another, 
small counterweights only being necessary, and but little vibration is felt. 
The framing is of the light and open character common to torpedo boat 
engines ; each steel column, which is a prolongation of the main bearing 
bolts, is stiffened by diagonal stays secured to a continuous bed-plate, which 
is attached to the main bearings. There are two air-pumps, worked by 
side-levers, to each set of engines, all other pumps being independent. 

Steam is supplied by three boilers of the Thornycroft water-tube type, 
similar to those fitted to H.M.S. " Speedy " (see No. 902), but modified 
so as to use two furnaces in each, and thus obtain a greater area of fire- 
grate in the available space. Each boiler has 63 sq. ft. of grate area, 
and 2,630 sq. ft. of heating surface ; the total power indicated is 4,400 h.p., 
representing 23 • 3 h.p. per sq. ft. of grate. 

The guaranteed speed of the " Daring " was 27 knots, but during a series 
of trials in June 1894, she realised at her designed displacement an average 
speed of 29-2 knots ; owing to a deeper immersion necessitated by Admiralty 
requirements, her oJBBcial trials resulted in 27 • 7 knots. 

862. Two-stage expansion launch engine. Made by Messrs. 
W. Sissons & Co., Ltd. Received 1908. Plate X., No. 4. 

N. 2464. 

This shows the propelling engine of a launch or cutter, in which, as is now 
almost invariably arranged, the cylinders are above the crank-shaft. The 
set is of non-condensing, two-stage expansion type, with cylinders 5 * 5 in. and 
8 in. diam. respectively, by 5 '5 in. stroke, acting on separate cranks formed 
at right angles in a steel crank-shaft, the whole of which, including the 
balance weights, is in one piece. The three main bearings are canned in 
a cast-iron bed-plate, from which the cylinders are supported by three 
vertical steel columns at the back and two raking ones at the front. The 



282 

rear columns are braced together and caiTj the guides, which are formed 
of single rectangular bars, each being enclosed by its crosshead which 
is forged solid with the piston-rod. The guide bars are independently 
adjustable to insure accurate alignment, and the crosshead surfaces are 
also adjustable for wear. 

The steam is distributed through both the high and low pressure 
cyhnders by a development of the i*adial valve gear introduced by Hack- 
worth, in which a single eccentric for each cylinder is employed and the 
reversing and linking-up are performed by altering the position of the 
centre of a suspended lever; both gears are simultaneously altered by 
a shafb at the back of the engine controlled by a simple reversing lever. 
The adoption of this valve gear is facilitated by inclining the direction of the 
valve rods so that they are not parallel with the piston-rod. 

Lubricant is distributed from a large oil vessel at the back of the cylinder 
by copper pipes leading to the various bearing surfaces, but in some positions 
independent lubricators are provided. 

This set of engines is designed for working with a boiler pressure of 150 lb. 
per sq. in. and to i-un at 480 revs, per min., when it is capable of developing 
about 30 h.p. 

863. Launch engine (working). Presented by M. E. Rowe, 
Esq., 1910. N. 2556. 

This engine is of the four- stage expansion condensing type, with the 
cylinders arranged in tandem pairs, the high pressure and the first inter- 
mediate over the forward crank, and the second intermediate and low- 
pressure over the after one. The cylinders are 3 in., 4 in., 5 "25 in., and 
7 in. diam. respectively, by 4 in. stroke. The crank- shaft, with its balance 
weights, is of Siemens mild steel in one piece. As is usual in quick-running 
engines of this type the framing is of a light and open character, and con- 
sists of steel columns in the front and a cast-iron frame at the back, bolted 
to a cast-iron bed plate ; the guides are formed in the back standard. The 
slide valves are placed outside the cylinders in order to be easily accessible. 
Reversing is effected by link motion of the Stephenson type. Steam is 
distributed to the high-pressui-e and first intermediate cylinders by a single 
slide valve having a large port at the upper end of sufficient width to serve 
for both ports of the high-pressure cylinder, so that the steam exhausting 
from the high-pressiu-e cylinder at the termination of each stroke of the 
pistons, passes through this port to the first intermediate cylinder. Steam 
exhausting from this cylinder passes through the pipe at the back of 
the cylinders to the valve -chest of the second intermediate cylinder. A 
valve of similar construction sei-ves for the second intermediate and low- 
pressure cylinders, and is shown separated from the engine. This type of 
valve was patented by Mr. G. Kingdon and Messrs. Simpson, Strickland & 
Co. in 1897, together with a method of dispensing with a stuffing-box 
in the partition plate between each pair of cylinders. The rods of the two 
upper pistons have annular grooves cut in them, leaving a number of collars 
on the rods, which fit the hole in the partition plate and form a steamtight 
joint without the aid of a stuffing-box. Both the feed and air pump are 
driven direct from the engine crossheads and have metal valves. 

In conjunction with the water-tube boiler using liquid fuel (see No. 909), 
this type of engine has been very successful. It occupies little fore-and-aft 
space, but, on account of the imperfect nature of the balancing possible with 
a two-crank engine, it is not so well adapted to high-speed i-unning as a 
three-stage expansion engine. 

The engine shown is designed for working with a boiler pressure of 
175 lb. per sq. in., and is capable of developing 14 indicated h.p. 

864. Petrol lanncli engine witli reversing gear. Lent by tbe 
Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Co., Ltd., and Messrs. Hesse 
and Savory, Ltd., 1911. N. 2594. 

The engine shown is a high-speed petrol motor working on the Otto 
cycle ; it has mechanically operated valves and electric ignition. The four 



283 

cylinders with their jackets, and the top part of the crank case, including- 
the combustion chamber heads, are cast en bloc. The lower part of the 
crank case, which is of aluminium, contains the ci*ank-shaft bearings, and 
has four arms for bolting the whole to the engine bearers. The water 
circulation is effected by a pump di'iven by enclosed gear off the crank-shaft. 
The exhaust pipe, which is connected with a silencer (not shown), is cast on 
the cylinders ; this pipe, together with all passages and cylinder walls in 
contact with the hot gases, is water cooled. 

Lubrication is carried out by means of a rotary pump driven off the cam- 
shaft. The oil is delivered to nan*ow troughs under each connecting rod 
and the big ends are fitted with scoops which dip into the troughs at every 
revolution, keeping up a continuous splash on the gudgeon-pins and pistons. 
The level of the oil in the troughs is kept constant by means of the pump, 
the pressure of oil in the system being registered by a gauge. All oil is 
filtered before being distributed. 

A cam-shaft, driven from the crank- shaft by enclosed gearing at half its 
speed, operates the inlet and exhaust valves by means of rockers formed 
solid with the shaft; the valves are returned by springs. Access to any 
valve is readily obtained by removing its cap. 

The carbui-etter, where the explosive mixture is prepared, is of the float- 
feed spi-ay type. A cyHndrical chamber in which petrol, fed by gravitation 
or a feed pump, is maintained at a constant height by a needle valve actuated 
by a float, is connected with the mixing vessel. In order that the richness 
of the mixture of petrol and air can be regulated, a flat valve controlled by a 
spring governs the admission of air. When running at high speeds more 
air is admitted owing to the increased air- suction causing a greater depression 
and consequent opening of the valve. A throttle valve, controlled by hand, 
regulates the supply of the explosive mixture. In addition to the main jet, 
a small supplementary jet is provided to facilitate starting. This jet com- 
municates with a small-bore suction pipe which passes direct to the main 
induction pipe, and is unaffected by the position of the throttle. The mixing 
chamber is heated by being jacketed with the exhaust gases, a small pipe 
being led from the main exhaust for this purpose. 

High tension ignition on the Bosch system is employed, and the time of 
ignition can be varied. Starting is effected by means of a handle and 
completely enclosed chain, fitted at the forward end of the motor ; the chain 
can be tightened without removing the cover. 

The combined clutch and reversing gear is of the type patented in 1905-8 
by Mr. G. Savory. It is compactly enclosed in a light welded sheet steel 
case, the clutches and bevel gear running in an oil bath. Upon the end of 
the crank-shaft is a keyed cone clutch — the motor clutch. For ahead 
driving, this clutch engages with an inner clutch keyed to the propeller 
shaft. This drive is direct, and the reversing bevel gear is idle. Embracing 
the motor clutch is a third or astern clutch, which is fixed to one member 
of the reversing mechanism. The latter reverses the bevel wheel driving- 
the dog clutch on the propeller, shaft. The total travel of the propeller 
shaft and propeller for engaging ahead or astern respectively is only 
1 • 375 in. An important feature of the design in this gear is that the pro- 
peller thrust tends to keep the ahead clutch in engagement with the motor 
clutch when mnning ahead, and the propeller pull acts similarly on the 
astern clutch when running astern, A hand-operated lever gives ahead, 
astern, or neutral positions in the 12 h.p. example shown ; in large sizes of 
the gear a wheel is substituted for the lever. At the motor or forward end 
of the gear is fitted a thrust block, the lubrication of which is ensured by 
needle oil- ways between the collars and the oil receptacles into which the 
thrust collars dip. 

The four cylinders are each of 3 '125 in. diam. by 4*5 in., stroke develop- 
ing 13 brake h.p. when running at 1 ,000 revs, per min. The total weight of 
the engine without the fly-wheel is approximately 300 lb. 



284 

865. Model of torpedo boat engine. (Scale about 1 : 24.) 
Lent by R. L. Robinson, Esq., 1908. N. 2485. 

The model shows the usual aiTangement of a set of three- stage expansion 
engines as fitted to small fast vessels such as torpedo boats and large yachts. 
The introduction of wi'ought iron or steel pillars and diagonal bracing by 
Sir J. I. Thornycroft in the engine framing of a river yacht has since found 
universal application in small high-speed vessels. This light and open 
framing is shown on the model. 

Large bearing surfaces are usually provided in this type of engine in 
order that it may be i-un at high speeds %vithout excessive heating and 
wear. The reversing gear which is controlled from the stai-ting platform 
by a large hand- wheel is of the usual shifting-link type. The air-pump is 
driven from the low-pressure crosshead by rocking levers. 

A single four-bladed propeller and the thrust block are shown. 



866. Model of Parsons marine steam turbine. (Scale 1 : 24.) 
Lent by the Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Co., Ltd., 
1908. Plate X., No. 5. N. 2487. 

The model shows a typical thi*ee-shaft arrangement of marine steam 
turbine as usually fitted to mercantile 'vessels and yachts. The arrangement 
consists of one high-pressui-e turbine di'iving the centre shaft, and two low- 
pressure turbines, working in parallel, driving the wing shafts; in the 
exhaust casing of each of the low-pressure turbines is placed a reversing 
turbine. When going ahead, steam from the boilers is admitted through 
the main regulating valve to the high-pressure turbine by the two steam 
pipes shown, and after expansion it passes to each of the low-pressure 
turbines, and from them to the condensers in the wings of the ship. When 
manoeuvi'ing, the wing shafts only are used, steam being admitted by the 
smaller valves shown on the bulkhead, directly into the low-pressure turbines 
or into the reversing tiu'bine as required. By this means the port or 
starboard engine can be worked ahead or astern independently of each other 
and of the high-pressure turbine, which rotates idly in a vacuum whilst the 
vessel is manoeuvi-ing. 

In recent practice the rotor wheels are of cast steel, the spindles of 
forged steel, the casings or outer cylinders of cast iron, and the blades of 
hard di'awn brass. 

Thrust blocks are fitted at the foi-ward ends of each of the spindles. 
These are necessary because the steam thnist aft does not always balance 
the propeller thnist forward. The former is usually in excess at full power, 
and the latter at low power. The difference between these two thinists is 
transmitted by collars turned on the end of each rotor spindle. These act 
on the top half of the thrust block when the steam thi-ust is in excess, and 
on the bottom half when the propeller thnist is in excess. Independent 
gear is provided for the top and bottom halves of the thnist block in order 
to move the rotor for the adjustment of clearances. 

Where the rotor spindles pass through the ends of the drums, glands 
specially designed by Mr. Parsons are fitted. For the greater part of the 
length of the gland radial fins extend alternately from the spindle and from 
the casing into the annular space between. The action of these fins is 
alternately to wire-draw and to expand the steam, thus reducing the steam 
pressure as it travels outward. At the outer end are fitted four Ramsbottom 
rings, and the small amount of steam which is allowed to leak past them for 
lubrication is conveyed by means of a pocket to the auxiliary condenser or 
exhaust tank. In the event of the fins not sufficiently reducing the pressure 
of the escaping steam, this pocket, in the high-pressure turbine, can be 
connected with the low-pressure turbine at a point where the pressure is 
just below the atmosphere. In the case of the low-pressure glands, air can 
be prevented from leaking in by maintaining a pressui-e of from 2 to 3 lb, per 
sq. in. in the pocket by means of a small steam pipe. 



285 

Provision is made for neutralising tlie steam ]oi*essure on the end of th& 
rotor wheels by balancing it against a similar pressure on a balance piston 
or dummy which is fitted at the forward end of each turbine inside the 
casing, a similar astern dummy being fitted at the after end of the reversing 
turbine. This balance piston has a steam-packed gland between it and the 
turbine casing. 

As the efficiency of a steam turbine depends largely on keeping the 
leakage of steam at a minimum, great attention is paid to maintaining very 
small cleai-ances. Over the tips of the blades, this is effected by milling 
them to a thin edge, so that if they accidentally touch the drum they will 
grind clear. The ahead and astern dummies and the gland fins are tapered 
away for a similar reason. The clearances can be measured directly by a 
micrometer gauge fitted for the purpose. 

Governor gear, operated by a worm on the rotor shaft, is fitted to ea(;h 
of the turbines, and shuts off the supply of steam should the revolutions of 
the turbines increase much above the normal speed. Special attention has 
been paid to the lubrication of the main bearings and adjusting blocks in 
this type of engine. Oil under pressure is delivered by steam pumps to the 
bearings, after which it flows to a cooling tank fitted with copper coils 
through which the water is circulated. After passing through oil filters it 
is then re-delivered to the bearings. A complete water circulation is also 
maintained through the bearings, which are made hollow for this purpose. 

Lifting gear consisting of screws and worm gear driven by electric 
motors is provided in the engine-room in order to facilitate the removal of 
the upper halves of the turbine casings for inspection or repair. 

Owing to the importance of a high vacuum, a special fitting called a 
" vacuum augmenter " or " augmented condenser" has been introduced ; it 
consists of a steam jet placed in a contracted pipe between the condenser 
and the air pump. The jet draws the air and vapour from the condenser 
and, in the contracted pipe, the mixture is compressed to about one-half of 
its bulk. It is then delivered to the air pump through a small auxiliary 
condenser, the condensed water gravitating directly from the condenser to 
the air pump. 

In the S.S. "Manxman" with this fitting, the vacuum, at low power 
reached 29 in. with the barometer at 30 "2 in., the rise due to the augmenter 
varying from 1 '25 in. to 1 '5 in., representing an additional economy of 7 to 
8 per cent. Greater power is provided for by fitting a by-pass in the 
high-pressure turbine which will admit steam directly to a lower set of 
blades. 

A sectional model of a portion of a Parsons steam turbine showing the 
construction of the blading is exhibited in the Mechanical Engineering 
Collection. 



MARINE ENGINE DETAILS. 



867. PKotograplis of engines of S.Yt. '' Sareea," fitted with 
Bremme's valve gear. Presented by Messrs. Ross and 
Duncan, 1887. N. 1705. 

The vessel is an Egyptian coastguard yacht, and is fitted with a two- 
stage expansion surface condensing engine, having cylinders 10 in. and 
20 in. diam. by 14 in. stroke. With a boiler pressure of 100 lb., 120 h.p. 
was indicated at 200 revs, per min., and the speed attained was 9 • 55 knots. 

The valve gear used is that patented in 1879 by Mr. G. A. C. Bremme, 
of Liverpool, in which only a single eccentric is used, both linking up and 
reversing being performed by moving the centre of a swinging lever that 
controls the motion of the eccentric rod. Another photograph shows a small 
three- stage expansion engine made for the Japanese Naval College at 
Etajima, in which this valve gear is also employed. 



286 

The Bremme valve gear is identical in action with that invented and 
introduced by Mr. J. W. Hackworth in 1859, which is described and shown 
in motion in the Mechanical Engineering Collection. 

868. Drawing of Stevart's valve gear. (Scale 1 : 10.) Pre- 
pared from information contributed by Druitt Halpin, Esq., 
1903. N. 2326. 

This modification of "Walschaerts valve gear was introduced by Prof. A. 
Stevart in 1868, and the drawing shows it as applied to some steamers plying 
on the river Meuse. The an-angement is only applicable to engines having 
two cylinders set at right angles and driving one crank-pin, or else two 
cylinders in the same plane driving cranks at right angles. 

The oscillation of the link of the usual Walschaerts gear, giving motion 
to the valve equivalent to that from an eccentric with 90 deg. advance, is 
here obtained, for one engine, from the crosshead of the other, while the 
lead for each is derived in the usual manner from its own crosshead ; the 
result is that the motions for both valves are obtained without the use of 
eccentrics or return cranks. 

869. Pliotographs of marine engines fitted with Marshall's 
valve-gear. Presented by F. C Marshall, Esq., 1881. 

N. 1550. 

These show a pair of two-stage expansion horizontal engines for driving 
twin screws. They were built by Messrs. R. and W. Hawthorn, of 
Newcastle, with cylinders 30 in. and 60 in. diam., by 36 in. stroke ; with 
steam at 90 lb. pressure they made 55 revs, per min., and indicated 
2,700 h.p. 

The valve gear employed is that invented and introduced by Mr. Marshall 
in 1879-80 : it is similar to that of Mr. J. W. Hackworth, which is shown in 
motion in the Mechanical Engineering Collection. The adjacent indicator 
diagrams were obtained by Mr. Marshall in 1880 from the engines of 
S.S. " Lord Jeffi'ey," which indicated 927 h.p. 

870. Motion diagram of Joy's radial valve gear. Presented 
by David Joy, Esq., 1900. N. 2087. 

This reversing and variable expansion gear, introduced by Mr. Joy in 
1880, has been very extensively adopted in both land and marine engines. 
It dispenses with eccentrics, the motion for the valves being derived entirely 
from the travel and swing of the engine connecting-rod. 

The valve rod is connected to the short end of a long lever, the other 
«nd of which is indirectly coupled to the engine connecting-rod. The 
fulcrum of this lever is fitted with a block sliding in a curved guide, and the 
engine is reversed or "linked up" by altering the angle that this guide 
makes with the valve rod. The guide is shaped to a circular arc of a radius 
equal to the length of the valve rod, and the block, when the engine is 
running, works equally on both sides of the centre of this guide. The 
sliding motion of the lever in the curved guide gives the equivalent to 
90 deg. of angular advance in an ordinaiy eccentric gear, while the rocking 
motion of this lever gives the lead. As the crank-shaft rotates, any point 
on the connecting-rod has a nearly elliptical path, which would give an 
unequal distribution of the steam at the two ends of the cylinder if the long 
lever were directly attached to the connecting-rod. To avoid this objection 
the motion is obtained from a link, one end of which is attached to the 
connecting-rod and the other to a radius rod. A point in this link describes 
an oval path, giving a symmetrical motion to the slide valve. 

It is stated that, in mid-gear, steam is admitted into the cylinder to the 
extent of the lead at each end, and that the lead is constant for all positions, 
although unequal lead can be arranged for if prefeiTed. 

For the sliding block and a curved guide a swinging lever is sometimes 
substituted, the inclination of the curved path so obtained being altered by 



287 

•changing the position of the stationary end of the lever. An adjacent 
photograph, of the engines of the Italian ironclads " Re Umbei'to " and 
^' Sicilia," shows this arrangement. 

In this diagram a shnplification, by Mr. Joy, of the valve aiTangements 
for a three -cylinder marine engine is also represented. With each cylinder 
acting on separate cranks set at 120 deg,, cylinders Nos. 1 and 3 each 
has a complete gear, while the valve of No. 2 receives a corresponding 
motion from the centre of a lever connecting the valve rods of Nos. 1 and 3, 
without further mechanism. To facilitate the examination of this point, 
the three cylinders in this motion diagram are shown displaced from their 
true positions. 

871. Drawings of Laing's valve gear. (Scale 1 : 16.) Pre- 
sented by Andrew Laing, Esq., 1887. N. 1706. 

The engines represented are a two- stage expansion set, with oscillating 
<jylinders 60 in. and 104 in. diam. by 7 ft. stroke, supplied with steam at 
80 lb. pressure, and indicating 4,000 h.p. Seven sets of these engines were 
fitted to the paddle steamers of the Queenboro' and Flushing service. 

The valves are worked by Laing's single eccentric gear. This is a radial 
valve motion, in which the swinging of the cylinder gives the movement 
equivalent to the 90 deg. advance of a simple eccentric ; the lead is given 
by a single fixed eccentric arranged in a line with the crank. Reversal is 
performed by altering the position of the fulcrum of the lever by which 
these combined motions are transmitted to the valve. In Walschaerts 
reversing gear {see No. 854), which also has only one eccentric, the two 
duties are distributed in the opposite manner. 

872. Motion diagrams of Joy's fluid pressure valve gear. 
(Scale 1 : 6.) Presented by David Joy, Esq., 1900. 

N. 2085-6. 

This arrangement for altering the grade of expansion of an engine, or 
for reversing it, was patented by Mr. Joy in 1892. The feature of the gear 
consists in the use of a single eccentric which can be readily moved in a 
straight path from the position for forward gear to that for backward. It is 
shown fitted to a marine engine of 9,000 indicated h.p., with cylinders 
33-5 in., 49 in., and 74 in. diam. by 39 in. stroke. 

The eccentric is forced over by means of fluid pressure, acting upon 
rams formed on the crank- shaft and working in cylinders fixed within the 
eccentric sheave. The fluid is introduced to these cyhnders through central 
holes drilled along the crank-shaft, and by pipes connected with the fluid 
■distributing arrangement. This consists of two vertical cylinders with a 
common piston rod, the upper cylinder being for steam, and the lower for 
oil or other fluid supplying the pressure. Steam is admitted to either end 
of the upper cylinder through a small slide valve worked by the hand lever, 
and there is also a slide valve in the oil cylinder. The steam admitted into 
the upper cylinder moves the piston in the oil cylinder, and so, by the fluid 
•connection, moves the eccentric over to a coiTesponding extent. 

If the oil leaks or an eccentric ram leather gives way, the eccentric goes 
to full gear, forward or backward, according to the way that the engine is 
running, and remains there. 



873. Model of steam starting engine (working). (Scale 1:4.) 
Made by Messrs. Brown Brothers & Co. Received 1903. 
Plate XI., No. 1. N. 2335. 

The original form of this arrangement for applying steam power to 
move the reversing gear of a large steam engine was patented by Mr. A. B. 
Brown in 1867. It differs from the " all-round " reversing gears in that 



288 

the steam pressure acts directly upon a piston connected with the reversing^ 
shaft, instead of through a small rotative steam engine and worm gearing. 

The appliance, which is usually attached to one of the standards of the 
main engine as shown in the model, consists of a lower steam, or motive, 
cylinder and an upper hydraulic, or control, cylinder ; their two pistons are 
connected by a common piston-rod from which the power is transmitted to- 
the weigh, or reversing, shaft of the main engine by side links. The valve 
of the steam cylinder and a by-pass valve of the hydraulic cylinder are 
connected by a common valve rod, so that when the steam valve is moved 
from its mid position the by-pass is opened and allows the piston to move ; 
when in the mid position, however, the pistons are held stationary owing ta 
the hydraulic by-pass being closed. 

Reversal by this apparatus is effected by a small hand lever connected 
to an intermediate point in a nearly horizontal floating lever, one end of 
which is connected to the arm of the weigh-shaft and the other end to the 
valve-rod. "When the hand-lever is moved it moves the valves and thereby 
causes a coiTesponding but greater movement to be made under steam 
pressure by the weigh-shaft, till the resulting motion, through the floating 
lever, again closes the valves so that the mechanism stops and is retained 
in the new position. 

An air vessel is connected with the hydraulic control valve, to take up 
surplus water resulting from the piston-rod being single-ended; there is also 
a small hand pump for forcing water directly into the hydi-aulic cylinder 
and so reversing the main engine when steam is not available. 

In the model of the engines of the P.S. " Princesse Henriette " 
(see N"o. 819) is represented a later arrangement of this starting engine, 
patented in 1882, in which the reduced motion for the valve is obtained by 
the use of a quick-pitched screw and a slower one in place of a lever ; both 
forms are, however, still made. 

874. Model of marine engine governor. (Scale 1 : 8.) 
Presented by T. Silver, Esq., 1869. N. 1318. 

This governor, patented by Mr. Silver in 1857, for controlling the 
throttle -valve of a marine engine, depends for its operation upon the 
resistance offered by the air to the rotation of a fan. When the pinion-shaft 
(which is independent of the fan-shaft) rotates at a sufficient speed, the 
toothed segments can-ied by the fan- shaft are turaed through a few degrees 
by the pinion engaging with them, compressing to a small extent the helical 
spring, and driving the fan. When the speed of driving is increased, the 
balance is disturbed ; the resistance of the air retarding the fan and its 
shaft, the segments are turned through larger arcs, compressing the spring 
to a further extent (i.e., till it again balances the resistance), and partially 
closing the throttle-valve. 

875. Marine engine governor. Lent by Aspinall's Patent 
Governor Co., 1902. N. 2295. 

This governor, patented in 1893 by Mr. H. Aspinall, belongs to that 
class in which the change in the momentum, or inertia, of a reciprocating 
mass, controls the regulation. 

It consists of a frame bolted to any reciprocating pai-t of an engine, 
usually the air-pump lever, and carrying a swinging weight and two pawls so 
connected together that when one pawl is projecting the other lies back. 
The swinging weight is, by an adjustable spring, retained in its position 
against the normal momentum effort at the reversals of its motion, but an 
increase of about five per cent, above the intended speed of the engine 
causes this effoi-t to overcome the spring, so that the weight swings and 
protrudes the other pawl. 

To the engine framing is secured a bracket, caiiying a lever connected 
with the throttle-valve rod and so an*anged that when the lower, or excess- 
speed pawl is projecting it comes in contact with this lever and lifts it 
throughout the whole upward travel, thus closing the throttle -valve in this' 



289 

.stroke. A detent, that has retained the swinging weight, is now released 
by the throttle handle, so that, if the racing has stopped, the weight moves 
the pawls into the original position and the npward pawl re -opens the 
throttle-valve. An emergency gear is also provided, which comes into 
operation in the case of excessive racing, such as would result from losing 
a propeller ; this acts by a small additional swinging weight which, under 
exceptionally rapid reversal, locks the main weight in the shut- off position, 
so as to prevent the throttle-valve from re-opening automatically. 

A diagrammatic working model of the governor to a scale of 1 : 8, which 
was made in the Museum, is shown in its position on the engine. 

876. Cylinder drain and relief valve. Lent by H. P. Holt, 

Esq., 1879. N. 2518. 

This arrangement of valve, patented by Mr. Holt in 1878, combines in 
one fitting the drainage and relief safety valves for both ends of an engine 
cylinder. Pipes from the two ends enter the casing shown, and the 
discharged water from the cylinder is caiTied off by a central pipe. In the 
casing is a valve for each end of the cylinder, and each of these valves con- 
sists of a central disc or relief valve, and also of a double-seated annular 
valve outside, which is the drain valve ; these annular valves are kept on 
their seats by springs. The action is such that, when steam is on one side 
of the cylinder, its pressure opens the drain valve of the other end or 
exhaust side, while, at any time, the central or relief portion of the valve 
will open should the pressure, through priming, exceed the limit determined 
by the springs. 



877, Model of rope-driving arrangements for screw shafts 
(working). (Scale 1 : 16.) Contributed by Messrs. Mandslay, 
Sons and Field, 1862. N. 440. 

At the time that the screw propeller was introduced, marine engineers 
had developed an ai-rangement of engine that was most suitable for driving 
paddle-wheels. Its features were : a slow running crank-shaft high above 
the keel, with large cylinders placed low down in the hull. The early 
screw ships were accordingly fitted with similar engines ; the connection 
between the crank-shaft and the propeller shaft being made by mechanism, 
which usually increased the speed of the screw. Spur gearing was frequently 
used; but, in addition to being noisy, it was found very liable to strip. 
Leather belting on smooth pulleys slipped seriously, and was unsuited to- 
such short centres, while pitch chain possessed similar defects to those of 
spur gearing. 

The arrangement shown was patented by Joseph Maudslay in 1843, and 
is an early example of rope driving. It consists of a frame supporting an 
extension of the engine shaft, on which is secured a six-grooved rope pulley ; 
the lower part of this frame supports a similarly grooved pulley of 
one-fourth of this diameter keyed to the propeller shaft. The pulleys are 
connected by six independent endless ropes, which are simultaneously 
tightened by a pulley carried in a swinging frame, adjustable by means of a 
screw. 

878. Model of link-driving arrangements for screw shafts 
(working). (Scale 1 : 8.) Received 1862. N. 439. 

The model shows one of the methods proposed for connecting the early 
paddle-wheel type of marine engine with a screw-propeller shaft. It is a 
parallel crank chain, and was probably derived from the coupling-rods of a 
locomotive. 

The engine would have two cylinders and overhead crank- shafts. 
These shafts are connected, by overhanging cranks and a triangular 
v\ G773. T 



290 

connecting-rod, to an overhanging crank on the screw shaft. There is no 
dead point in the transmission, and this chain has been proposed fol* 
electric locomotives as a means of raising the motors above the road dust 
and mud. 



879. Model of Turtoii's crank-shaft. (Scale 1 : 12.) Made 
in the Museum, 1903. N. 2302. 

Owing to the difficulty of constructing large cranks from a single 
forging, and the liability of such large masses of metal to contain defective 
portions, many forms of crank-shaft built up from several pieces have been 
adopted. The early engines usually had cast-iron shafts and crank-arms, 
staked together, and a wrought-ii*on crank- pin cottered in, but in recent 
years forged steel is the material generally used throughout for such 
parts. 

In the construction patented by Mr. T. Turton in 1880, the ci*ank-pin 
has one half of the web at each end forged with it, while the other halves 
of the webs form solid ends to the two portions of the crank-shaft. The 
two halves of each web are connected l)y a keyed dovetail joint and two 
large through bolts. 

The model represents a crank-shaft made in 1881 for the S.S. " Yirginian," 
which had a pair of tandem compound engines of 5 ft. stroke, indicating 
3,000 h.p. The shaft was 16-5 in. diam., and there were two cranks, at 
right angles, each similar to that shown. 

880. Model of built-up crank-shaft. (Scale 1 : 12.) Made in 
the Museum, 1903. N. 2304. 

This represents one throw of the crank-shaft constructed in 1881 by 
Sir J. Whitworth & Co., for the S.S. " City of Rome." The shafts, webs, 
and pin were made separately of Whitworth fluid-compressed steel, and the 
cylindrical portions were forged from hollow ingots ; the we1)s were secui-ed 
to the shafts by shrinking and keying, but the pin was retained in the webs 
l)y shrinkage alone. 

The engines for which this crank was built were of the three crank 
tandem two-stage type, with a stroke of 6 ft., and indicated 10,003 h.p. ; 
the crank-shaft consisted of three portions, each similar to that shown, 
which were connected by flange couplings, and weighed altogether 66 tons. 
Since its construction, crank -shafts of this type have been very generally 
employed for large engines in the mercantile marine. 

The first process in building up these crank- shafts is to shrink a web on 
to each piece of the shaft, and then fnrther secure them by pins or keys 
driven into holes half in the web and half in the shaft, to nearly the full 
depth of the web. The two pieces of shaft are then bolted to a vertical 
plate and retained in their correct relative positions by distance pieces, so 
that the crank pin can be immediately lowered into its place after the 
holes in the web have been sufficiently heated, usually by internal gas jets. 

When the crank- shaft for the " City of Rome " was being built numerous 
experiments were canied out to determine the amount of shrinkage to be 
allowed, and from these it was decided to leave the shaft and pin one- 
thousandth larger in diameter than the corresponding holes in the web 
when cold. 

881. Model of Dickinson's crank-shaft. (Scale 1 : 12.) Made 
in the Museum, 1903. N. 2303. 

In this construction of built-up crank-shaft, patented in 1881 by Mr. J. 
Dickinson, the crank-pin and webs are formed in one piece, of such 
dimensions that flanges on the body of the shaft can fit into recesses bored 
in the webs ; the parts are then held together by bolts, the nuts of which 
are secured by locking plates. 



291 

A ci-ank- shaft of this form was the first in which a crank- pin and its 
webs were made of cast steel ; when submitted to the Board of Trade, in 
1882, it was subjected to a series of tests which showed the material to be 
suitable for the stresses experienced. 

882. Model of Foster's crank-shaft, (Scale 1 : 12.) Made in 
the Museum, 1903. N. 2305. 

In this method of building up a crank-shaft, patented in 1884 by Mr. 
H. F. Foster, the crank-pin and the webs are forged or cast in one piece, 
which is then secured to the shaft by shrinking and keying the webs on 
to the adjacent ends. These ends are made somewhat larger than the 
journals so that the keys can be driven in from outside the webs. This 
plan can also be used for repairing a broken crank-shaft which has been 
made in one piece, since by cutting away the webs and the pin, the shaft 
ends can be turned down to receive a new throw complete. 

883. Models of disconnecting cranks. Contributed by Messrs. 
Jackson and Watkins, 1861. N. 412 and 415. 

"With ocean-going paddle -steamers it was very advantageous to be able 
to disconnect their paddle-wheels, as, should one wheel be seriously 
damaged, the other wheel and the full engine power could be used to 
complete the voyage. To readily effect this change, some form of discon- 
necting crank was most generally introduced, whereby the crank-pin could 
be left free of the crank web nearest the damaged wheel. These three 
wooden models show some of the devices, patented by Samuel Seaward in 
1840, as a means for thus releasing the outer length of the paddle-shaft. 

(a) In this crank the crank-pin is secui'ed to the nearer web, while the 
outer web has a block sliding on it worked by a radial screw ; when the 
block is forced outwards a jaw on it secures the squared end of the crank - 
pin, and so completes the connection in a way that can be readily released. 

(b) This arrangement resembles the above, but has the sliding jaw 
working in guides arranged within the outer web. 

(c) Here the outer web terminates in an eye that can-ies a thick sleeve, 
across which is a slot through which the outer end of the crank-pin can 
freely pass. This sleeve can, however, be turned through 90 deg. so as to 
place the slot in a position that secures the outer end of the pin, and so 
completes the connection. 

884. Models of disconnecting cranks. Presented by Messrs. 
BuUivant & Co., 1902. N. 1890. 

These three brass models show modifications of the connecting aiTange- 
ments patented by Samuel Seaward in 1840. 

(a) In this construction the crank-pin, which is fixed to the inner web of 
the crank, is hollow and has within it a pin which, by a central screw, can be 
forced into the eye in the outer web. 

(b) This plan closely resembles (a), but the closing pin is screwed into 
the crank-pin from the outer web, and is fitted with a special locking device, 
to prevent the screw from working back. 

(c) The outer crank web has in its face a deep slot through which the 
crank-pin can sweep ; contained within the web are two square bolts, which, 
by means of screws, can be forced across the slot, so as to secure the 
squared projecting end of the crank-pin. 

885. Model of disconnecting crank. Contributed by Messrs. 
Maudslay, Sons and Field, 1861. N. 441. 

The outer web of the crank terminates in a heavy sleeve, in the face of 
which is a slot through which the crank-pin can sweep. This sleeve can, 
however, be turned in its eye through 90 deg., and be thus caused to retain 
the free end of the crank-pin. The device is almost identical with (c) 
in No. 883. 

Note. — A very large example of disconnecting cranks is represented in 
the model of the " Great Eastern " paddle engines {see No. 814). 

T 2 



292 

886. Clutch for propeller sliaft. Lent by Henry Emanuel, 
Esq, 1885. N. 1695. 

This is a claw clutcli intended for use in disconnecting the propellers 
of launches, etc. 

The clutch is loose on a sleeve keyed to the tail shaft, and when in gear 
the claws engage in recesses on a flange on the engine shaft, and are 
maintained in gear by a helical spring. When disconnected, the claws are 
prevented from entering the jaws by an intervening masking flange, which , 
when connection is to be made, can be turned into a position in which the 
claws can pass through it. 

887. Model of clutcli for propeller shaft. (Scale 1 : 12.) Con- 
tributed by Messrs. Benjamin Hick and Sons, 1859. 

N. 327. 

This is a friction clutch, aiTanged within a large drum secured to the 
tail shaft. On the engine shaft is a boss with a flange supported by four 
ribs which serve as guides for four sector-pieces aii-anged inside the drum ; 
these are forced apart by right and left-handed screws in pairs, turned by 
levers attached by hnks to a sliding sleeve, which is forced home by a screw 
independently supported. 



888. Stern bush of S.S. "Royal Charter." Presented by 
Messrs. Gibbs, Bright & Co., 1861. N. 465. 

This bearing for the shaft of a screw propeller was made in accordance 
with John Penn's patent of 1854. It consists of a gunmetal bush some- 
what larger than the shaft journal ; the interior of the bush is provided with 
dovetail grooves into which are inserted lignum vitse blocks so shaped as 
to project above the metal. The wooden ridges are then bored to the 
diameter of the journal, and form the bearing surfaces, while the inter- 
vening spaces allow free passage for the water, which is an excellent 
lubi-icant for metal sliding on lignum vitse. The screw sliaft bearing had 
previously given great trouble, but Penn's invention, which is now 
universally adopted, has proved a perfect solution of the difficulty except 
where sandy water prevails. 

The bush shown was used over a distance of nearly 200,000 miles, 
without suffering any material wear. It was r