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Full text of "A catalogue of the Sparta Museum"

A CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

SPARTA MUSEUM 

BY M. N. TOD 
AND A. J. B. WACE 



OXFORD: AT THE CLARENDON PRES: 
Price jos. 6d. net 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2007 



http://archive.org/details/catalogueofspartOOsparuoft 



A CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

SPARTA MUSEUM 



BY 



M. N. TOD, M.A. 

ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF THE BRITISH SCHOOL AT ATHENS 
FELLOW OF ORIEL COLLEGE, OXFORD 



AND 



A. J. B. WACE, M.A. 

STUDENT OF THE BRITISH SCHOOL AT ATHENS 
FELLOW OF PEMBROKE COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE 



v&H 



S 

is 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1906 



HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH 

NEW YORK AND TORONTO 



78 
S7 



*tf A , 



PREFACE 

Some apology may be thought necessary for the publication 
of a catalogue of the Sparta Museum after the work of Dressel 
and Milchhoefer, which appeared in the second volume of the 
Athenische Mitteilungen, and was afterwards issued separately. 
In 1872 Stamatakes, the Ephor General of Antiquities, founded 
a new Museum to replace the collection brought together by 
Ross in 1834 and shortly afterwards destroyed by fire. Five 
years later Dressel and Milchhoefer published their account of 
the ' Kunstwerke ' from Sparta and its neighbourhood. During 
the thirty years which have since elapsed, the Museum has been 
successively reorganized and enlarged by Dr. Kastriotes and 
Dr. Philios in 1900 and 1902 : since then a considerable number 
of acquisitions have been made, so that at present the manuscript 
catalogue of the Museum contains over 800 entries, while Dressel 
and Milchhoefer, although including monuments from all parts 
of Laconia and in many different collections, of which some had 
disappeared and several were no longer in Laconia nor even 
in Greece, only describe about 300 items. It is true that some 
of the more important new discoveries have been published in 
scattered articles in various periodicals ; but a large number 
of most interesting monuments still remain unpublished and 
unknown. Under these circumstances it has seemed to us that 
there is some call for a catalogue of the monuments at present 
in the Sparta Museum, which should not merely describe the 
objects individually but also attempt by means of introductions 
to classify and interpret them. Only thus could we hope that 
our work would be at the same time a handbook for the 
archaeologist and a guide for the dilettante. 

It will be readily understood that our catalogue is based on 
the previous labours of Dressel and Milchhoefer, of Kastriotes 
and of Philios : we are under special obligations to the latter's 
unpublished manuscript catalogue, which at present serves as 
the Museum inventory, and embodies the results of his prede- 
cessors' work. At the same time, though taking into consideration 



iv PREFACE 

all the published opinions of various scholars, we have attempted 
as far as possible to arrive in each case at an independent judge- 
ment. Each of the authors, however, must be held responsible 
for that section of the catalogue only to which his name is 
appended. We regret that for various reasons we have been 
prevented from close collaboration, and this has rendered unavoid- 
able some lack of uniformity in minor points. The introductions 
to the sections are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather 
to indicate broadly the significance of the various classes of 
monuments, dealing at length only with those which are of 
special interest. The purpose of our catalogue as explained 
above has necessitated the utmost brevity, compatible with 
accuracy in our descriptions and discussions. 

We have finally the pleasant task of acknowledging much 
kind assistance, which has materially lightened our work. To 
Professor Gregorakes, Curator of antiquities at Sparta, our 
heartiest thanks are due for his unfailing courtesy and the ready 
help he has afforded us. To Mr. R. C. Bosanquet we are deeply 
indebted : it was he who originally suggested the making of the 
catalogue, and he has throughout helped us by his criticism and 
encouragement. We owe much, also, to the late Provost of 
Oriel, Dr. D. B. Monro, who was at all times ready to aid 
us in various questions concerning publication. Our hearty 
thanks are also due to the Oxford University Press for under- 
taking the publication of this catalogue, and to the British School 
at Athens for supporting and making a grant in aid of the same, 
as the firstfruits of its archaeological survey of Laconia. We 
greatly regret that we have unfortunately been obliged to 
exclude Professor Furtwangler's promised appendix on the 
Amyclaeum, the manuscript of which was not in our hands at 
the time of passing the proofs for press. 

M. N. T. 
A. J. B. W. 



NOTE ON INSCRIPTIONS 

In the text of the inscriptions the usual conventions have been 
followed : 

Marks the end of a line. 

Denotes an uncertain number of missing letters. 

.... Denotes a known number of missing letters, equal to 

that of the points. 
[ ] In square brackets are enclosed letters conjectural ly 

restored. 
( ) In round brackets are enclosed (i) letters which, though 
not wholly lost, are defective ; {%) letters needed to 
complete a word abbreviated in the original ; (3) the 
repetition of a name as patronymic : this is denoted 
in the inscriptions by the signs < |< 3 &c. ; e. g. 
4>IAOKAHZ< is written <i>ikoKkr)s (<£>i\ok\4ovs). 
The text here given rests in every case upon my own reading, 
but I have called attention in the notes to all important variations 
between my text and that of previous editors. 

I have had to study economy of space as far as possible. 
Hence in the case of inscriptions published in Collitz-Bechtel 1 
no references are given to previous publications, except where 
these have been accidentally overlooked in that work. Where 
texts have been published in Le Bas-Foucart but not in Collitz- 
Bechtel, only the former is cited, together with subsequent 
publications. In all other cases the list of references will, 
I hope, be found complete. 

To the kindness of Freiherr F. Hiller von Gaertringen and 
Professor U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff I am indebted for 
help in connexion with No. 524. I regret that Meister's 
interesting article on the Spartan and perioec dialects (Dover und 
Achaer, I, p. 7 foil.) came into my hands too late for me to make 
use of it. 

M. N. T. 

1 Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften. The Inscriptions from Laconia 
and Messenia are edited by R. Meister (iii. Band, 2. H'alfte, 1. Heft, Gottingen, 1898). 



VI 



SCULPTURE AND MISCELLANEOUS 
ANTIQUITIES 

In cataloguing the Sculpture and the Miscellaneous Antiquities 
the following principles have been observed as regards references 
to previous publications. The chief references given by Dressel 
and Milchhoefer or in Friedrichs-Wolters have been repeated, 
and all later ones added. For the more important and better 
known monuments I have given references only to the standard 
histories of Greek Sculpture : otherwise I have tried to make 
the list of references as complete as possible. The architectural 
fragments are not discussed in detail for obvious reasons. Some 
of the sculptures in private possession mentioned by Dressel and 
Milchhoefer are now in the Museum, and have been identified 
accordingly ; others are still in private possession or have gone 
elsewhere. Of the fragments excavated by Waldstein and Meader 
on the Acropolis in 1893, anc * published in the American Journal 
of Archaeology (1893, p. 422 seqq.), I have identified all but 
b, i,j } k, I, in, and n. 

I have personally examined nearly all the sculptures of 
Laconian provenance in other museums. Those that are important 
are discussed in their proper places in the introduction, and many 
are illustrated together with other sculptures not of Laconian 
provenance, but of use in illustrating Spartan sculpture. 

The illustrations have been drawn either from the previous 
publications or from my own photographs by Mr. F. Anderson. 
I have to thank Professor Furtwangler for photographs of 27 
and 588, Dr. Watzinger for one of Berlin No. 732, and 
Dr. Riezler for one of the Munich leaden figurines. For much 
kind assistance in the catalogues or their introductions I am 
deeply indebted to Professors Furtwangler, E. A. Gardner, 
P. Gardner, Ridgeway, and Waldstein, Miss Harrison, Dr. Sieve- 
king, Dr. Thiersch, and Mr. J. L. Myres. To M. Papapolychroniou, 
Head Master of the school at Dhimitzana, my heartiest thanks 
are due for permission to photograph the Spartan sculptures in 
the library there. 

I am also deeply grateful to Dr. Cecil Smith who voluntarily 
undertook to supervise the preparation of the illustrations. 

A. J. B. W. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

PREFACE iii 

NOTE ON INSCRIPTIONS v 

SCULPTURE AND MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES . vi 

PART I: INSCRIPTIONS. M. N. TOD: 

(i) Introduction i 

(2) Catalogue 32 

(3) Indices, &c . .87 

PART II: SCULPTURE. A. J. B. WACE: 

(1) Introduction 98 

(2) Catalogue 132 

(3) Index, &c 213 

PART III: MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES. A. J. B. 
WACE: 

(1) Introduction 221 

(2) Catalogue 231 

(3) Index 247 

LIST OF CASTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS .... 248 



PART I 



INSCRIPTIONS 



ABBREVIATIONS 

R., r. = right. L., 1. - left, line. 

Cauer = P. Cauer, Delectus Inscriptionum Graecarum propter dialectum memorabilium. 
Collitz-Bechtel — H. Collitz und F. Bechtel, Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt- 

Inschriften. 
David = E. David, Dialecti Laconicae monumenta epigraphica. 
Dittenberger = G. Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum. 
Dressel-Milchhoefer = H. Dressel und A. Milchhoefer, Die antiken Kunstwerke aus 

Sparta und Umgebung (Ath. Mitt. ii. 393 ff.). 
Hicks and Hill = E. L. Hicks and G. F. Hill, A Manual of Greek Historical 

Inscriptions. 
I.G.A. — H. Roehl, Inscriptions Graecae Antiquissimae. 
Kaibel = G. Kaibel, Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta. 
Le Bas-Foucart = Ph. Le Bas, Voyage archtologique en Grtee : Explication des 

Inscriptions par P. Foucart 
Michel = C. Michel, Recueil d? Inscriptions grecques. 

Dimensions are given in metres. 



INTRODUCTION 



I. PREVIOUS PUBLICATIONS 

§ 1. Before attempting a classification of the inscriptions contained 
in the following catalogue, we may briefly refer to some of the more 
important publications dealing with Spartan epigraphy. 

The first volume of Boeckh's Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, pub- 
lished in 1828, contained all the inscriptions from Laconia known up to 
that date : of these 230 had been discovered at Sparta or in the neigh- 
bourhood. Some few of them had been seen by Cyriac of Ancona, 
Muratori, Dodwell, &c, but the large majority rests solely on the 
copies of Fourmont, made in 1729 and 1730. A number of Fourmont's 
inscriptions had previously been published, especially by Osann, but 
Boeckh re-edited the whole series from copies made expressly by Imm. 
Bekker from Fourmont's papers. There are also twenty-three others, 
most of them attributed to Amyclae, which Boeckh published among the 
Inscripliones Fourmonti Spuriae. Not the least valuable part of Boeckh's 
work is his introductory chapter dealing with the Spartan lists of magis- 
trates : though in some particulars it must be modified and supplemented 
in the light of subsequent evidence, yet it remains a masterpiece of clear 
and cogent reasoning. 

A number of new Spartan inscriptions were published by Leake * and 
Ross 2 , but far more numerous and important were those copied by 
Le Bas during his visit in 1843. These were edited in 1869 by 
P. Foucart, who added to them the inscriptions published by other 
scholars in the intervening years and a number of texts copied by 
himself in 1868. In all, 104 inscriptions from the Upper Eurotas plain 
occur in this collection. The commentary which accompanies them 
is invaluable to the student of Spartan epigraphy, marked as it is by 
extraordinary keenness of insight, command of material, and lucidity of 
expression. 

The year 1877 saw considerable additions made to the number of 
published Spartan inscriptions, thanks to the work of Dressel and Milch- 
hoefer 3 and of Martha 4 . The quarter of a century which has since 
elapsed has witnessed a deepening rather than a widening of our know- 
ledge, although some important texts were discovered by Tsountas 5 
during his excavation at the Amyclaeum in 1891. The archaic inscrip- 
tions have been separately published by Roehl 6 and by Roberts 7 , while 

1 Travels in the Morea, 3 vols., London, 1830. The inscriptions are collected at 
the end of vol. 3. 

a Inscriptions Graecae Ineditae, fasc. I, Nauplia, 1834. 

3 Die antiken Kunstwerke aus Sparta und Umgebung, Ath. Mitt. ii. p. 293 foil. 

4 Bull. Corr. Hell. i. p. 378 foil. 5 'E<f>. 'Apx* 1892, p. 1 foil. 
* I.G.A. Nos. 49-91 ; Imag. Inscr. Gr. Antiq? p. 25 foil. 

7 Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, §§ 100, 101, p. 248 foil. 

s.c. B 



2 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

the Laconian alphabet has also been discussed by Kirchhoff 1 . The 
question of the dialect has been made the subject of a special study by 
Miillensiefen 2 , while the dialect inscriptions have been published by him, 
and more recently by Meister 3 . 

II. ARCHAIC INSCRIPTIONS 

§ 2. Although hardly justifiable from the point of view of a logical 
classification according to subject, it is a usual practice, and one which 
has some obvious advantages, to place archaic inscriptions in a group 
by themselves. In the present work we shall allow the word ' archaic ' 
its widest possible range, and include all inscriptions prior to the 
introduction of the Ionic alphabet into Laconia, though of course 
excluding the archaizing inscriptions which belong to the period of the 
Antonines 4 . 

The number of archaic inscriptions in the Spartan collection is eight 
(Nos. 200, 386, 387, 440, 447, 599, 611, 625) 5 . Of these No. 200 
remains an unsolved riddle, in which only the words al ns 8b kIoi or 
diaKLoi (1. 2) are distinguishable, and even they cannot claim to be re- 
garded as certain. Nos. 599 and 625 are so fragmentary as to render 
impossible not only any restoration but even any certain conjecture as to 
their nature. No. 611 has usually been regarded as a metrical epitaph, 
and has been conjecturally restored by Roehl 6 on that supposition : but 
even this, owing to the mutilated condition of the stone, must be regarded 
as not proven, and Kirchhoff 7 has argued that it is more probably a votive 
than a sepulchral inscription. Some confirmation of this view may 
perhaps be found in the fact that the two metrical inscriptions of this 
period which have come down to us intact 8 are both dedicatory. The 
earlier one (No. 447), consisting of an elegiac distich, is inscribed on 
a relief of the Dioscuri dedicated by Plestiadas ' dreading the wrath of 
the twin sons of Tyndareos.' The other, the famous Damonon inscrip- 
tion (No. 440), after an introductory hexameter couplet in which 
Damonon dedicates the stele to 'a^i/5 iioXiaxos to commemorate a career 
of victory which has eclipsed all his contemporaries, contains a list in 
prose of the victories won by Damonon in various contests : this is 
followed by an enumeration, unfortunately almost entirely lost, of the 
successes gained by a woman, whose relation to Damonon is seemingly 
not stated. Finally we have the epitaphs of two soldiers who fell in 
battle (Nos. 386, 387), which will best be discussed in connexion with 
the whole series to which they belong 9 . 

§ 3. The writing of these inscriptions is of interest as affording us 
examples of the old Laconian alphabet 10 , which belonged to the ' Western 

1 Studien zur Geschichte des griech. Alphabets*, p. 149 foil. 

2 Be titulorum Laconicorum dialecto {Dissert, philol. Argentor. v. pp. 131-260), 
Strassburg, 1882. 

1 Collitz and Bechtel, Sammlung der gr. Dialekt-Inschriften, iii. Band, 2. Halfte, 
1. Heft, Gottingen, 1898. Cauer's collection {Delectus inscr. graec. propter dialect, 
memorab?, Leipzig, 1883) is less complete than Miillensiefen' s or Meister's. 

4 i. e. Nos. 218-221. 

6 To these should perhaps be added No. 527 : see § 43. 

8 I.G.A. 62. 7 Sitzungsber. der Berl. Akad. 1887, ii. 989 foil. 

8 Kirchhoff 's restoration of No. 447 may be regarded as certain. 

* See § 32, below. 

10 For a full discussion see Roberts, Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, i. 248 foil., 
and Kirchhoff, Studien zur Geschichte des griech. Alphabets*, p. 149 foil. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 3 

group' of alphabets and is very closely allied to that of Phocis and 
Thessaly. None of them is purely retrograde 1 , but three (Nos. 200, 
599, 625) are written boustrophedon, i.e. the lines read alternately from 
left to right and from right to left 2 . As regards the letters employed, 
there is no material variation in the forms of ADI(<AMOTy( = x)- 
The letters & (No. 200), V (No. 611), X (= |) (No. 440), © (No. 611), 
and ^ (No. 200) 3 , occur once only : 6 has the form <£) (Nos. 440, 611) 
or © (No. 625), /> appears in one inscription as p* (No. 611), v in one, as 
Y (No. 200), 7T as P (No. 447) : the sign C twice appears in a retrograde 
line (Nos. 200, 599: also in I.G.A. 54, 1. 5), seemingly as a mark of 
punctuation. E represents both e and 77, except in No. 387 where B is 
used for ?? as well as for the spiritus asper; with this exception B 
invariably represents the spiritus asper. O stands for o and o>. The 
greatest variation is found in the forms of €, v, and r. We find : 

(1) fc (Nos. 200, 599), # (No. 447), E (No. 611), E (Nos. 386, 

387, 440, 625) : 

(2) H (Nos. 200, 599, 611), h* (No. 447), A/ (Nos. 386, 625), 

N (Nos. 387, 440) : 

(3) I (Nos. 200, 447, 599, 611), £ (Nos. 386, 440). 

The development of the later from the earlier forms gives us a ground 
for arranging the inscriptions in chronological order. No. 200 bears 
every mark of being the earliest of the series. This is followed by 
Nos. 599, 447, and 611, the characters of which are very similar; the 
e of No. 611 shows a more advanced form than that of the two others, 
and hence we may perhaps place them in the order indicated. No. 625 
shows still more developed forms of <■ and v, and is probably later than 
the inscriptions mentioned, in spite of its being boustrophedon. Nos. 386, 
400, and 387 complete the series, the latter showing the first traces 
of Ionic influence in the use of B as r). That influence is seen still 
more strongly at work in No. 377, where H appears as the symbol of rj 
and of the spiritus asper, and Pi is employed to represent a>. 

§ 4. An accurate dating of these inscriptions is of course impossible. 
Yet there are some Laconian inscriptions of the fifth century which can 
be dated with a probability amounting almost to certainty, and by com- 
parison with them a tolerably correct idea may be gained of the time to 
which our Spartan examples belong. Thus, the celebrated list of the 
states represented on the Greek side in the battle of Plataea (479 b.c.) 
inscribed on the bronze serpent-pillar now in the Hippodrome at 

1 With the possible exception of No. 527 (§ 43). The retrograde Laconian inscrip- 
tions are collected by Roberts, op. cit. 248 foil., Nos. 243-247. No. 248 is really 
retrograde throughout, though an attempt has been made by the lapidary to write 
boustrophedon. 

3 Besides those referred to in the text I know no other Laconian boustrophedon 
inscriptions. 

3 This letter occurs in Sicyonian inscriptions (Roberts, op. cit. Nos. 94, 95) with 
the value e, while in the Pamphylian alphabet (ibid. p. 316) it stands for £. It is also 
found in an inscription from Olympia (Dittenbergcr-Purgold, Die Inschriften von 
Olympia, No. 14), where it probably represents if/, according to a conjecture of 
Meister. 

B 2 



4 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Constantinople 1 ; the tombstone of Eualkes 2 , who fell in the battle 
of Mantinea (418 B.C.); and the Delian marble 3 on which is inscribed 
a Spartan decree passed soon after the battle of Aegospotami (405 b.c), 
can be assigned with confidence to the years 479 or 478 b.c, 418 or 
417 b.c. and 403-398 b.c. respectively. With the data thus given we 
may perhaps assign No. 200 to about the middle of the sixth century, 
Nos. 599, 447, and 611 to the close of that century, and No. 625 to the 
earlier years of the fifth. Then follows a long period unrepresented by 
any inscription, for No. 386 is very similar in character to the Eualkes 
inscription just referred to, and must therefore be attributed to the second 
half of the Peloponnesian War. No. 440 was probably inscribed about 
400 b.c. 4 , and No. 387 in one of the earliest years of the fourth 
century. 

III. DECREES: LETTERS FROM FOREIGN STATES 

§ 5. There are few facts which strike the student of Spartan inscrip- 
tions more forcibly than the almost entire absence of a class of 
documents which in most states occupies a large and important place, 
— decrees, whether of the state itself or of the smaller corporations, 
public or private, comprised within it. Only one Spartan decree from 
Laconia is extant (No. 217 b) 5 , though we have probably the closing 
words of a second, restoring to the island of Delos the control of its 
temples and temple-treasures soon after the battle of Aegospotami 
(Collitz-Bechtel 4415). No 217 b records the grant of the irpo^via to 
a certain Damion, an Ambraciote, for services rendered in his native 
city to Spartan citizens. He and his descendants are likewise granted 
exemption from public burdens (aTeXeia) and the right of owning land or 
house, but this latter privilege is restricted to those who actually reside in 
Sparta (« oIkoUp A AaKcSaifiovi). That such decrees were comparatively 
rare seems a legitimate conclusion from the fact that only this one 
example has survived : this conclusion is borne out by a certain clumsi- 
ness in the wording and arrangement of the clauses, which would argue 
unfamiliarity with such documents. We shall see below 6 that the 
Spartan state employed another means of doing honour to its prominent 
citizens than by passing formal decrees lauding their deserts. 

A second decree in the Museum (No. 217 a) contains a grant of 
irpo&vla made by the Council and Commonwealth (d fiovha koI to koivov) 

1 Collitz-Bechtel 4406 ; Hicks and Hill, Greek Historical Inscriptions, No. 19 ; 
Dittenberger, Sylloge 2 , 7 ; Michel, Recueil, 11 18. 

2 Collitz-Bechtel 4529; Roberts, Introduction, 263. 

3 Collitz-Bechtel 4415; Hicks and Hill, No. 83; Dittenberger, Sylloge 2 , 60; 
Michel 180. 

4 That the inscription cannot be assigned to a much earlier date is proved by (1) 
the relatively advanced forms of the letters employed, especially of N and 2, and by 
(2) the fact that it contains the record of a woman's victories ; for Pausanias explicitly 
says that Kyniska, daughter of King Archidamus II (reigned 469-427 B.C.) irpwrrj re Irr- 
iroTp6<pr}<Tt yvvaiKutu Kcd vi/erjv avtiXtTo 'OKvumicqv, and in the basis of Kyniska at Olympia 
the Ionic alphabet is used. On the other hand, the date cannot be much later than 
400 b. c, for there are as yet no traces of Ionic influence. 

8 Fragments, however, of other Spartan decrees were copied by Fourmont {C.I.G. 
I33 T > 1 333' t ) and Benthylus {C.I.G. 1332). From these must be distinguished the 
decree of the Koivbv tuiv AcuteSaifioviwv found at Taenarum by Pouqueville {C.I.G. 1335). 
See also I.G. iv. 940. 

8 See § 9. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 5 

of the Acarnanians to three Spartans and their descendants ; of the rights 

which accompany this grant three (a<r$aA«a, dovXia, yds nal olicias *yKTT](jis) 

are expressly mentioned, but the rest are grouped together in the phrase 
1 all the other honours and privileges accruing to the other proxenoi and 
benefactors of the Commonwealth of the Acarnanians.' As no provision 
is made in the decree itself for the deposit of a copy in Sparta, we must 
suppose that the three men therein honoured had this copy inscribed at 
their own expense and erected in some public place in their own city. 
Though neither this decree nor the one discussed above can be dated 
with certainty, there is reason to believe that they both belong to the 
period between 220 and 180 b.c. 

§ 6. We possess, further, two fragments (Nos. 241 and 262 + 408) 
of letters addressed to the * ephors and city of the Lacedaemonians ' : 
unfortunately these are both so mutilated that it is not possible to give 
any probable conjecture as to the nature of the communications, and the 
name of the state by which it was sent is entirely lost in one case and 
in the other rests upon an uncertain restoration, A portion of a third 
similar document is extant {Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 384, No. 11), but in an 
even more fragmentary condition than the other two. All three inscrip- 
tions, being addressed to the ephors as the highest officials of the Spartan 
state, are probably 1 prior to 226 b.c, for about that time the ephorate 
was temporarily crushed by Cleomenes III, and though it came into exist- 
ence again, it never took its place at the head of the Spartan magistracy. 
To judge from the forms of the letters used, No. 241 is somewhat earlier 
than No. 262, but neither can be dated before the middle of the third 
century b.c 

§ 7. Decrees of smaller corporations within the state are represented by 
that of the &>j3a r£>v ' AfxvK\aiea>v (No. 441), dating from the first or second 
century b.c, by which the ephors of the corporation 2 , three in number, 
are praised, and receive the grant for life of a special portion on the 
occasion of the sacrifice (em rat irpoarponai) as a reward for the dis- 
interested and mild discharge of their duties. After regulations regarding 
the cost of the inscription, and the place at which it was to be set up, the 
decree closes with a clause, seemingly added as an amendment, praising 
the ephors' secretary. As in the case of the Spartan decree 8 the place 
chosen for the display of the monument was the most famous and revered 
sanctuary of the city, the temple of Athena Chalkioikos, so here it is 
enacted that the stele be set up in the sanctuary of Alexandra, or 
Cassandra, which, as Pausanias* tells us, was the principal sight of 
Amyclae. 

No. 446 is probably similar in character to No. 441. Although the 
greater part of the inscription is illegible, yet the words a>j3a and dcdoxGcu 
irdvra ra ras wjSas are distinguishable, as well as the name of a certain 
'ApiaTOTe\r)s, which recurs twice or three times. 

§ 8. In No. 782 we seem to have a fragment of an Imperial rescript. 

1 But the formula AaKcSaipoviow c<p6pois ical yepovoiq. nal h-qixcp occurs in a letter of 
about 150 B.C. (Josephus, Archaeol. xiii. 166). 

2 These must be distinguished from the state ephors. The Spartan guild of 
airr^OiVTts had also an official with this title (No. 203). Several Eleutherolaconian 
cities also are known to have had ephors, e. g. Geronthrae (Collitz-Bechtel 4530, 
453 2 )> Gythion (ibid. 4566, 4567, 4568), Taenarum {C.I.G. 1321, 1322), Cotyrta 
(Collitz-Bechtel 4544), Epidaurus Limera (ibid. 4543), Oetylus {C.I.G. 1323). 

3 See above, § 5. * iii. 19. 6. 



6 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Its mutilated condition renders any attempt at restoration futile, and all 
we can say is that it regulates in some way the buying and letting of 
landed property (col. I, 11. 3, 4), and at the same time extends or defines 
the right of appeal in cases of dispute (col. II). 

No. 224 is a document whose nature cannot in its present fragmentary 
condition be determined ; since, however, it would seem to deal with the 
recovery of state debts, it is in all probability either a decree or a publica- 
tion of some magistrate (? the xp e0 4>v^a£) or board of magistrates, and as 
such it may fittingly be included in this class of inscriptions. 

IV. HONORARY INSCRIPTIONS 

§ 9. It has been remarked above ■ that the Spartans did not as a rule 
follow the custom prevalent in other Greek states of passing laudatory 
decrees in honour of those who were prominent in the political or religious 
life of the community. In earlier times, no doubt, the consciousness of 
public services rendered to the best of his ability was sufficient reward for 
a Spartan, whose whole education was framed to inculcate the idea of the 
subserviency of the individual to the common weal : at any rate, it was 
enough for him to have his merit prized by his fellow citizens without any 
external display. But at a later period the craving for personal recognition 
arose, and the response to it took the form of commemoration by means 
of portrait statues. Such statues were often set up by the state, but since 
the drain on the public exchequer must have been severely felt, the actual 
expense was, during the Imperial period, in nearly all cases defrayed by 
one or more of the relatives or friends of the person honoured. Their 
names were included in the inscription on the base of the statue, which 
in consequence usually followed the skeleton formula C H n6\is (sc. dved^ice) 

top Selra . . . irpocrbe^apevov to dvaXcofia tov delvos . . . 

Six such inscriptions, whole or fragmentary, are in the Spartan Museum 
(Nos. 246, 281, 385, 456, 621, 691), a remarkably small number when 
we consider the fact that in the C.I.G. alone we have some fifty examples 
of this class from Sparta and the immediate neighbourhood : of these, 
only one (No. 246) is now in the Museum. Of the six inscriptions in 
question two (Nos. 385, 621) are so fragmentary as to be practically 
useless. No. 246 commemorates a certain Sextus Pompeius Spatalus, 
patronomus and permanent gymnasiarch, for the magnificence of his 
public life and the zeal and foresight displayed during his second tenure 
of the office of gymnasiarch, which he undertook of his own accord. 
The cost of the statue is defrayed by his wife Aurelia Xeno. No. 281 

praises one Lucius Volussenus Arist , a descendant of Heracles and 

Perseus, on the general ground of ' merit and good will towards the state/ 
No. 456 is inscribed on the base of a statue of a woman, Aurelia Oppia, 
who bears the honorary titles of ia-ria TroXecos and via nqvcXoneia : in this 
case it is a brother-in-law who pays for the statue. The remaining 
inscription (No. 691) is in honour of Tiberius Claudius Pratolaus, who 
had held the office of dyopavofxos and had been entrusted with the special 
duty of the conservation of highways: the cost of the statue is borne 
jointly by his two children, Tiberius Claudius Aelius Pratolaus and 
Claudia Damostheneia, of whom we shall have something to say below 2 . 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 7 

§ 10. So familiar had the formula become that even the words 17 7roAe? 
were sometimes omitted, and the inscription began with the accusative 
of the person honoured. Thus in No. 252 we find simply 'EnLyovoi/ 
QiKocTTpdrov fj u pwi l tr pr avbpdas evaccv irpocrhe^apevoiv kt\., and no doubt 
Nos. 243 and 544 are analogous, though in both these cases the latter 
part of the inscription is lost. In No. 243 we have merely the name of 
the man whose portrait head crowned the shaft on which the inscription 
is engraved, while in No. 544 we have not only the name, Sextus Euda- 
mus, but a long list of the priesthoods and other sacred offices which 
he had held, most of them vested in the family of which he was a member, 
which claimed to be descended from Heracles and the Dioscuri. It is 
interesting to notice that the men commemorated in these last two herm- 
inscriptions were members of the same family, possibly even brothers. 

We have, further, two cases in which the expense of the statue has 
been borne by the city which resolved upon its erection. In one case 
(No. 648) that city is Sparta, and the person honoured is the same 
Tiberius Claudius Pratolaus to whom reference has already been made. 
The second case (No. 253) is one in which the city of Smyrna honours * 
a tragedian, Gaius Iulius Iulianus, who had won a contest at Sparta at 
the games called Ovpdvia. It is recorded that he had gained 358 other 
victories, and had been granted the rights of citizen ' in all Greece and 
Macedonia and Thessaly V 

§ 1 1. Statues, however, could be erected by private individuals as well 
as by the state. A common base (No. 393) served for those of a priest, 
Diares, and Eubalkes, an Olympian victor, who had, according to a pro- 
bable conjecture of Roehl, taken the part of o-racpv\obp6pas at the festival 
of Carneian Apollo. A second (No. 267) bears the name of an dyopavopos, 
Socrates, who is distinguished by the mention not only of his father's 
name, but also by that of his brother-in-law : possibly it was the latter 
who defrayed the expense of the statue. We have, finally, two inscriptions 
(Nos. 85, 443) which differ from all the rest in formula, and bear a very 
close resemblance to each other: the former runs KXav. ftpaaidav rov 
irarepa, the latter KX. Aap,o(i$€veiav ttjv dvyarepa. This likeness extends 
even to the forms of the letters used, and the arrangement of the words 
on the bases of the statues, both of which are extant, though headless. 
We have had occasion to notice two inscriptions (Nos. 648, 691) com- 
memorating Tiberius Claudius Pratolaus, son of Brasidas : one of these 
(No. 691) mentions his daughter, Claudia Damostheneia, as sharing with 
her brother the expense of the statue. This enables us to conjecture 
with a considerable degree of probability that the two statues (Nos. 85, 
443) were erected by this same Tiberius Claudius Pratolaus, the one in 

1 It is doubtful whether a statue was erected to Iulianus : probably this tablet alone 
was set up to commemorate his success. 

2 It was the custom during the Imperial period, for states to confer citizenship and 
often also the title of PovXevrris on noted artists or athletes. See C.I.G. 2811b (of 
an athlete of Aphrodisias) eariv 8k teal iroXHTrjs iroXtcuv rwv i/troyey pafiptvcvv' Ilepya- 
/jltjvquv 'PiVTiox^ojv Kaiaap4<uv KoXoovwv teal fiovXevTTjs ®r)paicov teal (iovXevr^s 'AttoX- 
XcoviaT[wv~\ Avklcdv ®pqtea>v, /cat fiovXevTijs MeiXTjaicuv, Yltooivovvriajv, KXavSiorroXeiTwv : 
ibid. 3208 lie pyaprjvbs .teal ^/xvpvaios teal 'AOrjvaios teal 'Ecpeaios : ibid. 3426 Kvpcuos teal 
'A9r)vdios teal QiXadeXcpevs teal 'P68ios kcli dXXcov iroXXuiv irSXtow iroXe'nrjs teal fiovXevTrjs : 
ibid. 4324 'PodioiroXuTrjv teal Mvpea [teal] ^aiyrjXeiTrjv, [/3]o[vA.€vtt)i/ yevo]p€vov, /cat hv 
ra[is Kara Avni]av iroXeai tr[aaais iroX(iT(v(T]dp€vov. Foucart quotes Le Bas- Wadding, 
ton, Insc. cTAsie Mineure, 1652 b, and ^iXiarojp i. 329. 



8 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

honour of his father Brasidas, the other in honour of his daughter Claudia 
Damostheneia. The similarity of formula is thus explained, and also 
that of the writing, for the same artist would probably be employed 
in both cases. 

We may mention here two cases in which the person commemorated 
is already dead : one (No. 251) is that of a certain AevKrpuioas, whose 
statue is erected by his daughter, the other (No. 589) that of a son who 
is represented on a relief set up by his father. In both cases the dead 
is described by the term fjpas \ and the monument, in the latter if not in 
the former, seems to have served as a tombstone. 

§ 12. As regards the date of the class of inscriptions under discussion, 
the main point to notice is that, with at most three exceptions, they all 
belong to the Imperial period, the greater number being referable to the 
second century of our era. No. 393 is very considerably older, and 
probably goes back to the fourth century b.c, while Nos. 251, 252 are 
doubtful, but probably belong to the earlier years of the Empire or the 
time immediately preceding. 

V. CATALOGUES OF MAGISTRATES, &c. 

§ 13. What is at once the most numerous and the most characteristic 
class of inscriptions in the Spartan Museum comprises the catalogues 
of names, whether of magistrates or of private corporations, together 
with the closely related documents setting forth the cursus honorum of 
single individuals. Some of these may go back to the second century b.c, 
but the large majority belongs to the first century before and the first 
and second century after our era. They thus shed a valuable light 
upon Spartan constitutional history at a time when little is to be gathered 
from our literary sources, and enable us to form a more accurate picture 
than would otherwise be possible of the actual working of the state 
during the Imperial period. 

To begin with the highest magistrates, we possess in No. 777 a list, 
happily complete, of the irarpovopoi of one year : the date is uncertain, 
but must fall somewhere within the first century b.c or the last few 
years of the preceding century. Pausanias tells us that Cleomenes III 

to Kpdros rrjs ycpovtrias KaraKvaas Tra.Tpov6p.ovs tg> Xd-yo) Karearrjafv dvr avratv 

(ii. 9. i): the patronomi are also mentioned by Plutarch 2 , and Philo- 

1 For the hero'isation of the dead see Keil, Anal, epigr. et onom. p. 39 foil. ; 
Wassner, De heroum apud Graecos cultu, Kiel, 1883; Furtwangler, La Collection 
Sabouroff, i. p. 20 foil. The word jjpcos is found but seldom in Laconian epitaphs 
(Le Bas-Foucart 184, 199, 203 c, 253, 254, and the two instances in the Spartan 
Museum), nor is it common in Attica, but in Boeotia it became the almost universal 
custom to insert it (I.G. vii. Index p. 760), and it is also found in Hermione (f.G. 
iv. 725), Cenchrea (f.G. iv. 207), Mytilene (l.G. xii. fasc. 2, 286, 289, 291, 292, 
367, &c), Carpathus (I.G. xii. fasc. I, 986, 987, but these are both the graves of 
foreigners), Thera (ib. xii. 3, 863 foil.), &c. Even children of four and five years old 
become heroes (f.G. xii. fasc. 1, 987 ; iii. 1460). In an unpublished epitaph in the 
Candia Museum we have the lines tcufieO' opov rpets iratdes opaipoves rjpajcs dyvoi (1. 1) 
and ooynaa orjpoaiois ycytvJjficOa jjpwes dyvoi (1. 11). 

3 An sent respublica gerenda sit, § 24, p. 795 F, rpoirov rivd irdvTes oi tt]\ikovtoi 
(sc. ol irpeafivrepoi) rd£iv dpxovTuv tf tivojv ira.Tpov6p.atv fj ircuSaywywv tx 0VT€S KT *- 
This passage is cited by Boeckh {C.I.G. i. p. 605, col. II) and Liddell and Scott, as 
a reference to the Spartan magistrates in question. To me the whole sense of the 
passage and the fact that neither dp\<uv nor ircu8ay<uy6s is the name of a Spartan 
magistrate seem to make it clear that the word naTpovdpas is not here used in its 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 9 

stratus *, but these three passages exhaust the literary evidence. Fortu- 
nately the inscriptions come to our aid. The number of patronomi 
is fixed by No. 777, from which we see that they formed a college of 
twelve, six of whom were patronomi in a stricter sense of the word, while 
the other six were called o-vpapxoi 2 . Several explanations have been sug- 
gested 3 with regard to the difference involved, none of them satisfactory, 
and it seems best to suppose that while all twelve magistrates held the 
same office and perhaps had the same duties, six of them occupied 
a position of higher honour than the rest, just as at Athens the six 
thesmothetae, though an integral part of the college of the Nine Archons, 
ranked below their three colleagues, the paatXevs, the Mwvftos and the 
7r6\€fiapxos. That we have only one college in No. 777 is clear both 
from the use in other instances of the word avvapxoi 4 and also from the 
fact that they have one secretary and one servant in common. The 
secretary is assisted by three clerks, a fact which shows that the amount 
of business transacted by the patronomi must have been considerable, 
and points to the conclusion that we have in them the supreme magis- 
trates of the Spartan state. This is fully in accord with the words 
quoted above from Pausanias, and with another fact which we have now 
to mention. The senior patronomus was during the period subsequent 
to Cleomenes' reforms the eponymous magistrate of the whole Spartan 
state. This is in direct contradiction to Pausanias (iii. n. 2), who, 
Speaking of his Own time, says"E0opoi 8e rd re aWa hoiKovai ra <nrovdris 
fiaXiara a£ia f kcu irapex°vrai. top iird>wp.ov, m6a 8f) kol 'Adiyvalois tS>v ncikovpevoov 

iwia eirawfios i<mv els apx<av. Boeckh, however, showed conclusively 5 
that Pausanias had transferred to his own day the facts of the previous 
epoch, and the further material which has since accumulated has but 
afforded fresh evidence for Boeckh's contention. We have lists of ephors 
dated by an eponymous magistrate who is not of their number 6 : we 
have the phrase cm ira.rpov6p.ov rod Beivos constantly used to signify dates 7 , 
and we actually find in some cases the same year referred to indifferently 
as «rl tov ddvos or cm 1ra.Tpop6p.ov rov delpos 8 . Finally we may note that 

technical sense, but as a quite general term corresponding to the use of irarpovopovfuu 
by Plato {Leges 680 E) and Plutarch {Bio 10) = ' to be ruled by a paternal govern- 
ment.' Cf. the use of irarpovofjua in Lucian, Arjpoodevovs ey/ewpiov, §12, and of irarpo- 
pofUKrj in Plato, Leges 927 E. 

1 Apollon. Tyan. iv. 32 yvpvaaiapx ' 1 T * Kai c<popoi /cat varpov6fJioi irdvrcs. 

2 Compare C.I.G. 1356 01 avpdpxoPTts rrjs Trarpovofuas irpoaede£avTO to avd\cuua. 
We can hardly doubt, however, that here all the eleven colleagues of Xenarchidas are 
referred to. 

3 Le Bas {Rev. Archiol. 1844, p. 639) proposes to see in the aivapxoi either vice- 
patronomi {suppliants) or assessors {adjoints), or six magistrates entrusted with the 
reform of the laws like the Athenian deaixoOerat. Foucart (Le Bas-Foucart, note to 
168) suggests that the patronomate may have been held for six months only, and that 
while the ■narpovdfj.ot are those actually in office, the avvapxoi may be those who were 
to hold the magistracy during the second half of the year. But he admits that there 
is no evidence for the existence of such a system at Sparta. 

* See Foucart's note quoted above. Nos. 214, 216, C.L.G. 1277, &c. 
8 C.I.G. i. p. 605 foil. 

6 Eight cases will be found in Boeckh's Tabula Ephororum {C.I.G. i. p. 608) : 
two of these are from No. 204. 

7 e. g., six times in No. 204 col. II, 213, 219, 220, 221, &c. 

8 e.g., compare No. 783 with No. 204 col. I, 1. 13 ; 204 col. II, 1. 21 with C.I.G. 
1242, 1. 21 ; 204 col. II, 1. 26 with C.I.G. 1243, 1. 8 ; 204 col. II, 1. 29 with 204 
col. I, 1. 6; 204 col. II, 1. 31 with 204 col. I, 1. 7, No. 627, C.I.G. 1243, 1. 11 ; 
C.I.G. 1256 col. II, 1. 14 with C.I.G. 1259, 1. 4. 



10 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

a man was re-eligible to the patronomate : the most striking case is that 
of Publius Memmius Pratolaus son of Damares, who held the office four 
times (C.I.G. 1341). But except in the case of a person of especial 
note re-election was probably far from common. 

§ 14. The catalogues of tyopoi 1 are more numerous, but several of 
them are very fragmentary. In No. 464 we have simply the letters 
E$OP and the first three letters either of the head (Trpeo-fivs) of the college 
or of the eponymous patronomus. No. 242 gives the names of three 

ephors in office during the year of M , No. 718 furnishes the 

beginning of a similar list for the year of Iulius Lysicrates, and No. 215 
that for the year of Lycurgus. Fortunately we have two complete lists 
as well as these mutilated ones : these enumerate the ephors in the year 
of Gaius Iulius Eudamus and Cassius Aristoteles respectively, and are 
both contained in No. 204, an inscription to which we shall have occasion 
to return 2 . From these it appears that the number of ephors was five, 
one of whom was head of the college and assumed the title 7rpeV0vs 
icpopwv. To this magistracy also a man might be elected more than 
once (cf. C.I.G. 1258 col. II). It is a well-known fact that one of the 
chief aims of Cleomenes Ill's policy was to crush the power of the 
ephorate, which threatened to reduce the kingship to a mere form. 
The attempt succeeded, and the supremacy of the ephors was for ever 
broken. But the abolition of the office did not prove a permanent 
change. The office was revived, we do not know when, and the five 
ephors once more took their place as high, though not the highest, 
magistrates. Their existence during the Imperial period is attested 
not only by the evidence of numerous inscriptions, but by Pausanias 
(iii. ii. 2) who mentions the office (apxclov) of the ephors as situated 
on the market-place. 

In many cases 3 a list of ephors is followed immediately by that of 
the vopio(pv\aK€s in office during the same year. This fact renders it very 
probable that we have catalogues of ephors in the earlier part of Nos. 
225, 411, and 672, though the headings have disappeared. In No. 411 
we have fragments of three names, in No. 672 of four, in No. 225 of five. 
Since, then, the number of ephors was five, we shall expect to find this 
list preceded by the usual ecpopoi rri tov delvos, and so we may probably 
restore the three fragmentary letters of 1. 1 e \ ur «* ^ • 

§ 15. In discussing the pop.o<pv\aicia we are met with greater difficulties. 
The inscriptions in the Museum furnish us with four lists, of which that 
in No. 225 is too fragmentary to be of use. No. 672 contains a list 
of five names, and the same number occurs also in the complete list 
contained in No. 204. This agrees with the conclusion reached by 
Boeckh 4 and maintained by Foucart 5 . But the former is right in point- 
ing out the difficulty of reducing the number in every case to five, and 
this is illustrated by No. 411, where the list of vopocpvXaices contains only 
four names. This may be due to the omission of one name by the 
stone-cutter, though such a supposition is unlikely : or the name of one 

1 In addition to those mentioned in this paragraph, the most important lists of 
ephors are those in C.I.G. 1237 (1238), 1243, 1244, 1245, 1247, 1249, 1252. For 
ephors other than those of the Spartan state see p. 5, note 2. 

2 See §§ 15, 19, 22. 

3 C.I.G. 1237, 1238, 1242, 1245, 1247, &c * \ No - 204 co1 - I* 

* C.I.G. i. p. 608 foil. ' Le Bas-Foucart, note to 168 g. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS II 

of the magistrates, e. g. of the ypapparofyvka^, may for some reason have 
been purposely omitted. In any case, the balance of evidence is strongly 
in favour of the existence of a college of pofxcxfrvXaKes consisting normally 
of five members : sometimes J one of these held the title ypapparo(pv\a^, 
sometimes 2 this official was distinct from the five popo(pv\aiccs, though he 
may have formed a member of their body for some purposes. 

As regards the duties of these magistrates the inscriptions give us no 
information, but it is most probable that in Sparta, as elsewhere 8 , the 
vono(f)v\aK(s were intended to be a check upon too rapid legislation and 
a safeguard against the subversion of the established order by uncon- 
stitutional measures. Such at least seems to have been their theoretical 
raison d'etre 4 , though in practice they appear rather as exercising police 
and even financial functions 6 . As in the case of the other magisterial 
colleges, the head of the vofuxfivXanes was called irpeo-fivs vopocpvXaicoop 
(Nos. 204, 213, 411). 

§ 16. One fragmentary inscription (No. 627) gives the beginning of 
a list of /3t'8eoi. The name of these magistrates occurs in the inscriptions 
as fiideoi 6 or pidvot 7 indifferently, but there is no epigraphical evidence 
for the spelling /3iSimot found in Pausanias 8 . Etymologically the word 
is closely connected with Idvloi, i. e. fidvloi (fiSeli/, videre), and the initial 
/3 represents an original f, as often in the Laconian dialect 9 . The form 
fiidvloi occurs in an inscription from south-western Messenia (/M.S. xxv. 
p. 50). The college numbered five members according to Pausanias 10 , 
but the inscriptions show that in reality there were six 11 . Their office 
lay in the Agora close to the Athena Temple 12 . With regard to their 
functions our sole information is that of Pausanias, who says that they 
had the oversight of various contests of the ephebt 13 . 

§ 17. Four inscriptions (Nos. 210, 211, 212, 612) give us catalogues 
of yepovres, i. e. members of the Spartan ycpovo-ia. Of these two (Nos. 
211, 212) are too fragmentary to aid us much, but the other two are 

I C.I.G. 1304, 1247 (?), i25i(?). 2 C.I.G. 1239 (1240), 1242, 1249. 

3 Nofio<f>v\a.Kes occur also at Athens (Gilbert, Greek Constit. Antiquities, pp. 155, 
160), Ceos? (Ditt. Syll. 3 934), Corcyra {I.G. ix. 1. 694, 1. 104), Demetrias {Athen. 
Mitteil. xv. p. 296), the koivov rwv Mayv-qrcuv (ibid. vi. p. 304, Beilage I, vii. 71 toll., 
339), Abdera {Bull. Corr. Hell. iv. p. 52), Tomi {Arch.-epigr. Mittheil. aus Oesterr.- 
Ungarn, vi. p. 19, No. 39, xix. p. 222, No. 89), Chersonesus {Bull. Corr. Hell. ix. 
269J, Chalcedon {C.I.G. 3794), Mytilene {I.G. xii. 2. 484, 1. 7), Philadelphia 
{C.I.G. 3419, 1. 9), Laodicea ad Lycum {C.I.G. 3937), Mylasa {Athen. Mitteil. xv. 
p. 268). We may compare the 6eo p.o<pv\a.K€s at Elis (Thuc. v. 47) and the vopodeiKTOi 
at Andania (Collitz-Bechtel 4689, 1. 114). 

4 Xen. Oec. ix. 14 kv tclis evvofiovpiivais rroXeaiv . . . vofiCKpvkaitas irpoffaipovvrai, 
otrtves kmoKonovvTes tov p.tv iroiovvra roi vopipa knaivovaiv, &v be tis irapa tovs vopovs 
ifoirj, (tj/movci. Cicero, de legibus, iii. 20 § 46 ' Graeci hoc diligentius, apud quos 
vofio<pv\a.K€s creabantur, nee ii solum litteras, sed 'etiam facta hominum observabant 
ad legesque revocabant.'' See Bull. Corr. Hell. iv. 59, &c. 

5 Cf. Plato, Leges vi. 754 D foil., xii. 961 A : Aristotle, Pol. 1287 a 21 ; 1322 b 39. 
8 e. g., Nos. 204, col. II, 400, Collitz-Bechtel 4469, C.I.G. 1242, 1255, 1256, &c. 

7 e.g., Nos. 202, 203; C.I.G. 1254, 1270, 1271. 

8 iii. 11. a J 12. 4. 

9 Miillensiefen, De tit. Lacon. dialeclo, p. 47 [177] foil. 

10 iii. II. 2 rofs 8£ (cpopots «at /3tStatois -nivn aptOfibv iKarepois ovai. 

II C.I.G. 1271, 1364. They were elected annually, but were eligible more than 
once {C.I.G. 1268, 1269). 

12 Paus. iii. 12. 4 tov 5e tuiv fitSiaicvv apx*iov ttkpav iarlv 'AOijvds Upov. 

13 iii. 11. 2 rots &i8iaiois roiis km r$ UKaraviOTq Kdkovpivw ical aWovs tcjv tyrjffow 
dywvas riOivcu KoBkarr)Kiv. 



12 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

documents of importance for the history of the Spartan constitution. 
Before the fall of the monarchy the Council of the Elders consisted of 
twenty-eight members, chosen by acclamation and holding the office 
for life 1 . To them were added the kings and, at a later time, the 
ephors. Cleomenes III besides abolishing the ephorate reduced the 
power of this Council '. to Kpdros t^s yepov&ias Karakvaas irarpovopovs tg> 
Xd-yo) Karearrfcrev avr avrcov (Pausan. ii. 9. 1). But, though weakened, the 
yepovaia continued to exist through the Imperial period, and Pausanias 
mentions among the notable buildings in the Spartan Agora rrjs yepovo-ias 
PovXcvrrjpiov (hi. ii. 2). In No. 210 we have a complete list of the 
members dating from the reign of Hadrian : they consist of a npearfivs, 
twenty-two ordinary members, a secretary (possibly two) 2 and a cook. 
In No. 612 we possess an earlier list, belonging probably to the first 
century b. c. and containing twenty-three names. Two facts become 
at once clear, that the ytpovrcs were elected annually, and that they were 
eligible for re-election : in No. 210, for instance, the mpf&(h$ is serving on 
the Council for the fifth time, a second member has been elected four 
times, seven (perhaps eight) are in their third term of office and six 
in their second. The number of members of the college is a more 
difficult question. Foucart 8 thought that the traditional number thirty 
was maintained, and to arrive at this he included the ypapparevs and 
added the six patronomi. But to this there are two objections : (1) the 
stone seems to mention two secretaries 4 and not one only as in Foucart's 
text, and (2) No. 612, an inscription discovered subsequently to Foucart's 
publication, gives only twenty-three names in a list of yepovrcs. I would 
suggest, with all due reserve, that the college consisted of twenty-three 
members, to whom were added the twelve patronomi, thus bringing the 
total to thirty-five, as in the latter part of the period of the monarchy, 
when to the twenty-eight members were added the two kings and five 
ephors. 

A further problem is suggested by the occurrence in several inscrip- 
tions of the title ypapparevs povXrjs 5 , and the mention of the PovXr] in a 
number of other passages 6 . Boeckh 7 draws a sharp distinction between 
this and the yepovo-Ui, while Foucart 8 on the other hand regards the two 
as identical, or else would make the fiovkrj consist of the yepovrcs with the 
addition of the colleges of magistrates (ovvapxiat). In either case he 
would see in the secretary of the yepovo-La and the secretary of the $ov\r) 
one and the same person either under two different titles or acting in two 
different capacities. 

§ 18. Of dyopa.v6p.01 we have two lists. One of these (No. 214) is 
incomplete, but contains a list of four avvapxoi of an dyopavopos who held 
office probably in the first century b. c. To the same period belongs 

1 For the manner in which the yipovres were elected see Pint. Lye. 26 : Aristotle 
{Pol. ii. 9. 27) characterizes it as iraiSapidjdTjs. For the life-long tenure of the office 
see Arist. Pol. ii. 9. 25 ; Plut. Lye. 26; Polyb. vi. 45. 5. 

The existence of two secretaries is not certain. The name of the jmyipos may be 

t which is lost at the beginning of 1. 26, in which case 'EnacppoSiTos would be 

servant or other inferior official. The position of this last name on the stone (see 

1 Bas-Foucart, No. 173 a) is very unusual. 

8 Le Bas-Foucart, note to 173 a. 4 See, however, note 2. 

8 The yp. fiovKrjs is mentioned in No. 204, col. I, C.L.G. 1246, 1253, 1259, I 345- 

6 No. 781 (?); C.L.G. 1341, 1345, 1370, 1436? PovXevrfc, ibid. 1375. 

7 C.L.G. i. p. 610, iv. 1 1. 8 Le Bas-Foucart, Explic. No. 173 a, p. 95. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 13 

a second and fuller list (No. 784), where we have the mention of an 
dyopapopos together with thirteen o-vvapxoi and a ypapparevs. This docu- 
ment raises afresh the question of the number of dyopavopoi, which seemed 
to be fixed at eight (a npeo-pvs and seven o-vvapxoi) by Foucart l . The 
term altavios dyopavopos occurs in several inscriptions 2 as a title of honour, 
like alavtos yvpvaalapxos 3 . Of the special duties of these magistrates at 
Sparta we are not informed, but they were in all probability at the head 
of the police service and corresponded to the Roman aediles ; one of them 
appears to have had charge of the repair of the roads, for we meet with 
the title dyopavopos eVt ras 68ovs (No. 691). 

The irebiavopoi seem to have had duties somewhat similar to those of 
the dyopavopoi, but while the latter exercised their functions in the city the 
former would seem to be restricted to the country 4 . Of their number 
we have no information, for we possess only the first two lines of an 
inscription which contained a list of these magistrates (No. 396). 

§ 19. In one inscription we have a complete list of impeXrjTai in 
a certain year (No. 216) : they form a college of six members, of whom 
one is called empcXTirqs in a special sense, while the rest are o-vvapxoi. 
Other inscriptions furnish us with the exact titles of some of the Spartan 
inipeXrjTai. Thus in No. 204, col. I, Agathocles is spoken of as em- 
peXrjrfjs noXeos, and the same title recurs in C.I.G. 1258, col. I, 1. 15 5 : an 
c7rip.e\T)Tris Kopavdas 6 and an fmpekrjTris 'Apvickav 7 are also found in several 
inscriptions, and an AnpcXiyr^v . . . Ocov Av<ovpyov 8 is once mentioned. In 
another inscription we seem to have an empfXrjTrjs of various public 
buildings restored by a certain Paulinus 9 . Whether this refers to an 
office created ad hoc or to an already existing magistracy is not clear, nor 
can we say with certainty whether any or all of the empeXijTai referred to 
under special titles were members of the college of six whose names are 
given in No. 216. 

§ 20. Appended to the lists of magistrates are in many 10 cases the 
names of persons designated at cpo-itoi, varying in number from one to 
three. These are not magistrates, but 'those who, after the tenure of 
some office, had by their services won the privilege of taking their meals 
with the magistrates of the college to which they had belonged during 
the previous year n .' Thus we find evairoi of the colleges of the vopocpv- 
Xaiccs 12 , c<popoi ls , and dyopavopoi u . These must be distinguished from the 
(Tvo~o-iToi of C.I.G. 1249, since the same inscription has also a list of 

1 Le Bas-Foucart, No. 168 b. 

2 Ibid. T78, 179 ; C.I.G. 1363, 1364, 1375, 1379. 

1 No. 246 ; C.I.G. 1326, 1349, 1353, 1379; in Collitz-Bechtel 4481 we find the 
phrase yvpvaolapxos avo ras irpwras aXiicias. 

4 Vischer, Epigraphische Beitragc, No. 32 (= Inscr. Spart. partim ined. VIII, 
No. 4) ; Le Bas-Foucart, Explic. No. 168 e. 

5 This seems to me a convincing restoration instead of Boeckh's kitm.(Kr\r]j\s 

/3<]5]eos em 

6 C.I.G. 1243, 1255 (?), 1258. 7 Collitz-Bechtel 4520 (= C.I.G. 1338). 
9 C.I.G. 1 341. 

• C.I.G. 1330. We have also a mention of kmfJKXrjral rod 'Pa>/*cu'oi/ (C.I.G. 1331). 
An emufXrfTrjs with three ffvvdpxovres occurs in Bull. Corr. Hell. i. p. 380, No. 4. 

10 Nos. 372 &c, 411, 569 ; C.I.G. 1253 and the inscr. quoted in notes 12-14. 

11 Le Bas-Foucart, Explic. No. 168 b. ia C.I.G. 1242, 1249 col. II, 1252. 

" No. 411 (?) ; C.I.G. 1240 (a list of a-novZotyopoi comes between the tyopoi and the 

tVfTLTOS) . 

u Le Bas-Foucart 168 b. 



14 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

evairoi, but the exact point of difference is a matter of conjecture. 
*EvaiToi occur in Nos. 372, &c, 411, and 569, but in none of these three 
cases can we tell to what college they were attached, though we have seen 
reason to believe that the first part of 411 contained a catalogue of ephors. 

Besides the evo-iroi the colleges of ephors and nomophylaces had 
(T7roi/8o<£opoi attached to them, varying in number from one to four l « In 
No. 411 one <rnov8o<p6pos is mentioned after the evo-iroi belonging in all 
probability to a college of ephors. In No. 208 we find the otherwise 
unknown word cmovSonoioi, which must be an alternative form of o-novbo- 
<f>6poi : they are three in number, or possibly four, but the nature of the 
college to which they belong is uncertain. Of minor officials we have 
already noted the secretary, under-secretaries, and vTrrjperrjs of the patro- 
nomi (No. 777), and we have here only to mention in passing the cooks 
of the yepovres (No. 210) and of another college (No. 569 ) 2 , the two 
officials called 6 eVt fiv\ov and 6 eVl p,aKe\\ov (No. 569), who seem to 
have been stewards responsible for the purchases of grain and meat for 
the consumption of the college, two toytfaim (Nos. 208, 247) 3 , and the 
secretaries of the yepovo-La (No. 210). One of these last officials, however, 
must be reckoned among the most important magistrates of the Spartan 
state if Foucart's conjecture is adopted 4 and the ypafiparcvs yepovo-las is 
identified with the ypafipxircvs (3ov\r}s. 

§ 21. The museum also contains a considerable number of fragments 
of inscriptions of this class, in which the title of the magistracy has been 
lost and nothing remains save a series of names. Such are Nos. 208, 209, 
247 (on the back of which is the mention of a S^/uoo-io?), 369 (the first 
line of which may be read ypap,[p.aT€vs or -els]), 376, 384, 432, 628, 671, 
805. Larger and more important fragments are Nos. 248, 525, and 787, 
which contain 14, II, and 18 names respectively, and No. 372, &c, four 
adjoining fragments of a large inscription containing the names of 
a college of magistrates and avvapxoi with the Zvairoi attached to it. 

§ 22. Before passing on to consider the catalogues of o-cpaipus, airrjOevres, 
and Taivdpwi, we may examine briefly those inscriptions in which the 
cursus honorum of an individual is set forth. The most interesting of 
these is No. 204, col. I, in which are detailed the various offices held 
by a certain Agathocles together with the year in which he filled them. 

He is Successively dia^errjs Aifivaeav, t7T7rapx as ) emp.e\rjrfjs noXeos, dyopavop,os, 
yepovcrias, vofio<pv\ag, eCpopos, yepovaias a Second time, and ypap,p.arevs fiovXds. 

In col. II of the same inscription the official careers of two other Spartans 
are recounted. The first holds the offices of dia^errfs Ainvaewv, dyowoOerrjs 

rSav fi€ya\<ov Ovpavicov, vop,o(pv\ai-, yepovaias and ecpopos, while the Second 
becomes in turn ypafXfxaTo(f)v\a^, ftidcos, xP €0( t>v\ai;, . . . , yepovcrias, crvvbutos, 

and ecpopos. A very fragmentary inscription (No. 374) shows us the 
offices of imrdpxns, yepovaias, and vop,o(pv\a£, as occupied successively by 
the same man. Of the magistracies mentioned in these inscriptions 
most have already been discussed : only the dm^errjs Aipvaca>i>, lirnapxris, 
dyavoBerrjs, xpeo(pv\ag } and avvdiKos, require a few words of comment. 

1 One in No. 411 and C.I.G. 1252, 1243 (?) ; two in C.I.G. 1249 5 three in C.I.G. 
1253 (cf. No. 208) ; four in C.I.G. 1240. No. 719 is doubtful, while No. 213 gives 
no information as to the number of <rirovdo<p6poi. 

2 A n&yttpos also figures in the lists of Taivdpioi (Nos. 205, 206, 207) and in the 
Dioscuri guild (No. 203). See also C.I.G. 1239, col. II. 

8 See also No. 275, C.I.G. 1239, 1253. 4 See § 17, above. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 15 

The word 8iaP£rt]s is probably connected with errjs, ' a clansman,' the 
representing an original digamma. The office was almost certainly 
connected with the gymnastic training of the Spartan youth 1 , and we 
may perhaps conclude from the phrase 8. Aipvaeav 2 , that each of the obes 
or tribes had its own Sia^eV^s. Foucart 3 has conjectured that the diafienjs 
occupied the same position in relation to the ephebi as the fiovayos in 
relation to the boys. In any case the diaderrjs seems to have occupied the 
lowest rank in the cursus honorum (No. 204, col. I, II; C.I.G. 1242, 1243). 

The term Innapx^ is apt to be somewhat misleading, since it does not 
denote a cavalry officer corresponding to the tmrapxos of other Greek 
states, e.g. Athens. Following a gloss of Hesychius i-rnrapxos' 6 t5>v vecov 
empeXrjTrjs napa AaKaxrtv, we may see in the imrdpxrjs the head of the 300 
linreis 4, selected annually from the young men: these formed a hoplite 
corps, and in time of war acted as the king's body-guard. They were 
selected by three imraypeTai chosen by the ephors, but it is doubtful 
whether the iTnrdpxns and the iTnrayperrjs are identical 6 . 

The office of dyavodeTrjs at Sparta probably differed little from that in 
other Greek states. In one inscription 6 we have a distinction drawn 
between ddXoderai and dyavoderai, the former being those who instituted 
some particular contest and made provision for the prizes to be awarded 
in it, while the latter were those who presided over the games and acted 
as judges. These might number one, two, or three 7 , and might include 
women 8 as well as men. The name of the games to which it relates is 
usually added to the title dywoOe'Trjs, and in several cases we find the 
same man acting as president of two such contests 9 . 

The xP eo( P^ a i is a magistrate who is met with in Asia Minor and 
several of the islands 10 , but his existence at Sparta has been unrecognized 
hitherto. Originally, doubtless, the duty of the xp* 0( l>v\ag was to keep 
a record of those who were in debt to the state and to take measures for 
the recovery of such debts, but later his competence appears to have 
been considerably widened, and the evidence of inscriptions shows that 
the xP co( t> v ^aKiov was used for the deposit of private contracts and judicial 
decisions of very various kinds. 

Another group of magistrates is that which comprises the <rvv8ncoi n . 

1 Boeckh, C.I.G. i. p. 611 : the fresh evidence found since Boeckh's time confirms 
his conclusion. Cf. Tod, Brit. School Annual, x. 74. 

2 Aio.(}£tt]s Aifxvatajv in No. 204, col. I, and C.I.G. 1243 : 8ia&€TT)s alone in No. 400, 
Le Bas-Foucart 174, C.I.G. 1242: the other cases (No. 781, Collitz-Bechtel 4469, 
C.I.G. 1273, 1432) are doubtful : we may restore the word in No. 647. 

3 Le Bas-Foucart, Expire. No. 174. 

4 Hdt. viii. 124 TpirjKoffiot liirapTirjTeow A-oyaScs, ovtoi oiircp liririfs Ka\iovrai (cf. 
ibid. vii. 205) : Thuc. v. 72 oi Tpiatcoaiot Inirrjs Kakovfxevoi ; Hdt. i. 67 ; that they 
were a body of infantry is proved by Strabo (x. 4. 18), though Dion. Halic. (ii. 13. 4) 
refers to them as Iv-nevai re ovoi ko.1 tre^ois. The mode of election is described in 
Xen. Resp. Laced, iv. 3. 

5 The identification is made by Foucart (Le Bas-Foucart, Explic. No. 168 h), but 
rejected by Gilbert {Greek Constit. Antiquities, p. 27). 

6 C.I.G. 1424. Cf. Le Bas-Foucart 194 c. 

7 One in Le Bas-Foucart 166 ( = C.I.G. 1425); two in C.I.G. 1427; three in 
C.I.G. 1424. f ' 8 C.I.G. 1444, 1440 (?). 

9 The same man is ayawoOeTrjs of the Katcrdpeia and EvpvKXeia, Le Bas-Foucart 168 i. 
C.I.G. 1239, 1240, 1378. Of the AioGKovpeia and Aecwideia, No. 544. 

10 See the reff. given in my note on No. 204, col. II, 1. 21. 

11 Boeckh, C.I.G. i. p. 610, ch. v. § 3. They are mentioned in No. 204, col. II, 
C.I.G. 1258 col. I, L 12, 1364, and the passages referred to in notes 3-5, p. 16. 



l6 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Their duties are unknown, but we can scarcely be wrong in attributing 
to them a judicial character. At Athens, as is well known, the avvdacoi 1 
were public advocates appointed to represent the state, especially before 
foreign tribunals, e. g. the Amphictyons, and to defend the existing laws 
when changes were proposed: another body of syndics 2 was formed 
after the fall of the Thirty Tyrants to hear and decide claims regarding 
confiscated property. In Spartan inscriptions we meet with a avv8tKos 
Oeov AvKovpyov s , a avvbiKos «ri rrju peyaKrjv avvbudav 4 , and a avvducos errt to 
eOrj 5 . A fourth magistrate, avvdiKos eVi tovs v6pov$, rests, as I have shown, 
upon a misreading of No. 204. 

§ 23. One inscription (No. 213), though not properly belonging to 
this class, may be here mentioned as referring to an office not yet 
alluded to. NeW is described as avvecprj&os Aapapovs, 7rpea0vs vopocpvXaicov, 
and UpoOvTrjs. The first of these titles, awccprjfios tov duvos, occurs several 
times in Spartan inscriptions 6 , the name in the genitive being always that 
of an eponymous patronomus. Boeckh 7 has shown that the meaning 
cannot be that the patronomus and his avvecprjBos were ecprjpot together, 
but that the title is in all probability a term of honour denoting that the 
<rwe(j>T)@os was chosen by the patronomus from among the ?$»7/3oi as his 
guard or attendant. How many v wt fa & ot were attached to each epony- 
mous patronomus we have no means of deciding, but that they were, in 
some cases at least, more than one is proved by the mention of three 
<rvve(pr}ftoi of the same patronomus 8 . The term npeafivs vopocpvkaKw has 
already been explained 9 . In conjunction with this civil office Neon 
holds the religious one of UpoBvrrjs. That there were several Upodvrat. is 
shown by No. 217 b, where they are directed to invite to the koivo. carta 
one who had been honoured by the state with the grant of irpo&via. We 
may compare the position of the Lindian Upoovrai 10 , a college of fifteen 
annually elected in the public assembly, whose duties ' consisted in the 
celebration of the public sacrifice and meals offered on behalf of the 
state : they were further responsible for confirming in the enjoyment of 
their privileges such citizens as were rewarded by the Lindians and for 
entertaining strangers invited by the state to a public meal near the 
common hearth 11 .' 

§ 24. Four inscriptions record the names of winning teams of ball- 
players (o-cpaipcls) 12 . This word was applied, according to Pausanias 
(iii. 14. 6), to those who were in the stage intermediate between ecpypoi 
and avSpes, and was given to them in all probability because they devoted 
themselves to some ball game as exercise. It is interesting to notice 
that according to one tradition 13 the Spartans were the discoverers of 
the ball and of gymnastic exercises. No. 721 has the heading 'En-l 

1 Demosth. c. Leptin. §§ 146, 152 ; de Corona, § 134. 

2 Harpocr. s. v. ; Lysias xvi. 7; xvii. 13; xix. 34. Meyer-Schomann-Lipsius, Att. 
Process, p. 123 foil. 

8 C.I.G. 1256. * C.I.G. 1242, 1. 22. 5 ibid. L 21. 

8 C.I.G. 1239, 1244, 1247, I2 55> I2 5^, 1359, 1364. In its non-technical sense it 
occurs in Le Bas-Foucart 167 (=' feWovr-epkedi'). 

7 CJ.G. i. p. 612, ch. vi. § 3. 

8 Three ovvi<prj&oi of Sidectas are mentioned in C.I.G. 1244, 1247 : as the names, 
however, are lost two of these may be identical. 

• See § 15, above. ,0 I.G. xii. 1, Nos. 761, 768 b, 836, 838, 840, 844-9, 8 53- 

11 P. Foucart, ap. Daremberg-Saglio, s. v. 

18 I have discussed this class of inscriptions in Brit. School Annual, x. 63 foil. 
" Athenaeus i. 25, p. 14c 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 17 

Mcveickeovs oi acfyaipfis ol vucd<ravrcs followed by a list of names either 
thirteen, fourteen or fifteen in number : these probably formed a single 
team which had met and vanquished similar teams representative of 
other AfimL No. 400 is fuller and more explicit: the name of the 
patronomus is given, followed by those of the fiifeos and the dia^errjs. 
Then comes the formula acpcupeis Neo7ro\iTG>v ol vucdaavreg rds <u/3as dv€(pe8poi, 
and lastly we have the name of the captain (npeapvs) and of the members 
of the team. Nos. 647 and 781 seem to be similar, though very 
fragmentary. The word dvecpcdpoi recurs in this latter, and means 1 
one who has never drawn a ' bye ' throughout the series of contests, 
and has therefore met his opponents one after the other without 
opportunity for rest, a fact which enhanced the merit of the final 
victory 2 . 

Possibly No. 270 was of the same nature as the inscriptions just 
discussed: the question, however, must remain undecided as we have 

Only the first line — a>3a ra>v Aiftuaeav. 

§ 25. Finally we have to notice six inscriptions which record the 
names of the members of two religious associations. These have been 
so fully discussed by Foucart 3 that it is unnecessary for me here to do 
more than merely summarize the results at which he arrives. 

Three of these inscriptions (Nos. 205, 206, 207) contain lists of 
Taivdpiot «rl tov Mvos, the year being dated by the eponymous patro- 
nomus: they all belong to the same period, though No. 207 seems 
to be slightly earlier than the other two. To judge from the absence 
of Roman praenomina and the use of the genitive form in -cos from third 
declension names in -77s, these lists must be prior to the Empire, and we 
can attribute them to the first century b. c. The title Tmvdpioi must refer 
to those who formed a guild for the celebration of the sacrifice in honour 
of Poseidon Taenarius*, who had a temple at Sparta as well as that 
on Cape Taenarum from which he derived his name. The lists fall 
naturally into two divisions: (1) the members of the guild, and (2) the 
officials and servants attached to it. 

1. The members are all free citizens, and number thirty-eight 
(No. 205) or forty-two (Nos. 206, 207). They belonged for one 
year only to the guild, since no name figures in more than one of the 
three catalogues. 

2. On the other hand, the servants of the guild were not restricted 
to a year's tenure of office : a number of them 5 are the same in 205 
and 206. They fall into two groups, which are always kept strictly 
separate, though the order in which the offices contained in them are 
mentioned is very variable. The first group contains in all cases 
a secretary, two heralds, a flute-player and a ■ prophet ' (nduns) : to 

1 Dittenb. Sylloge"*, 683, note 1. 

a The word occurs only in these two instances and in three inscriptions from 
Olympia {Olympic, v. 54, 225, 227) : it may be restored in CJ.G. 1272-4, 1432. 

3 Le Bas-Foucart, Explic. Nos. 163 a, b, c, d. 

4 Cf. Hesychius Tcuvdpia' irapd Acuce5aip.oviois kopr^ UoauSuvos ko.1 \v avrfj Taiva- 
piaaral.^ Pausanias (iii. 12. 5) refers to the temple, tovtojv ft ov v6ppw' refievos 
TloffeiSuvos' Tatvdpiov be Ivovopd^ovaiv. 

5 In both cases 2tx<*pvs is prophet, 'Evdp.epos herald, 'Apiorokas senior iratavmr, 
and Aa/xo/cpaTiSas flute-player. The o\v <pkpo>v and &a\avcvs of No. 205 reappear in 
206 as KoaKT-qp and oKKparopos respectively. The only link with No. 207 is formed 
by Euameros, who appears there as kmypd<p<uv. 



l8 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

these are added in Nos. 205, 206 two naiaviai. The second group 
contains those who performed the more menial offices : in all three 

lists we find a p,dycipos, KoaKTrjp, aiocpopos (top ar\v cpepcov) and eniypdcpcw, 

while No. 206 adds to these a aKKparopos and No. 205 an oyj/onois 
and a fiaXavevs. All these posts are held by slaves or freedmen. The 
a-io(p6pos 1 carried in procession the image of the god : the emypdcpcov 
is probably a clerk placed under the direction of the ypappartvs. The 
meaning of Ko(t)aKTrjp is uncertain, but it is perhaps to be connected 
etymologically with k&iov, KmdC<o ( = eW^upoi/, cvcxvpdfa) and to be 
explained as denoting an official who collected the guild's over-due 
debts 2 . The cook (pdyapos) prepared the sacred meal, and under 
him was the ctyoTroids, and possibly also the o-KKparopos (gxporopos) whose 
duty was to cut up the sacrificial victim s . Lastly, there is the pdkavevs, 
who was responsible for the bath : the elaborate regulations with regard 
to the bath laid down in the celebrated Andania inscription (Collitz- 
Bechtel 4689 1. 106 foil.) show what importance was attached to this 
department in connexion with religious celebrations. 

§ 26. A second religious association is brought before us in Nos. 201, 
202, 203. Like those of the Taivdptoi these lists are dated by the 
mention of the eponymous patronomus. Of 201 only the heading 
remains — Ol o-iTrjdevrcs «rl 'Av(re[rov] — the catalogue itself having been 
inscribed on a separate stone now lost. Of 202 we have the heading — 
[of aiTJrjOevTes eVt SiSeVra — and two names, but the rest of the list is 
illegible. Fortunately No. 203 is entire, and in a fair state of preserva- 
tion. Over the inscription is in each case a relief representing the 
Dioscuri to right and to left of a female figure in a long robe which 
portrays their sister Helen. The catalogue of names which constitutes 
the inscription is a list of those who took part in the feast connected 
with the sacrifice in honour of the Dioscuri and Helen. Like the 
lists of the Taivdptoi, these three inscriptions belong to the first century 
before our era. The persons named in it fall, as Foucart * has shown, 
into four classes. 

1. Five (11. 2-5 and 11) are members of the family in which was 
vested the hereditary priesthood of the Dioscuri. Evpv^dvaacra is 
priestess of Helen, Tyndares priest of the Dioscuri: the other three 
are mentioned on the list without any reference to an office held 
by them. 

2. Five others are officials of the guild — £i8vor, yepovalas, e<popos, 
vopocpvXag and yvvaiKovopos 6 . The occurrence of officials of religious 
and other societies bearing the names of state magistracies is a well- 
known phenomenon in Greek inscriptions 6 . That the magistrates here 

1 3to<p6pos = Oeocpopos and rbv aiv <p€p<uv — rbv 6ebv <pfpa>v. See Mullensiefen, de tit. 
Lacon. dialecto, p. 56 [186] foil. 

3 So Meister (ap. Collitz-Bechtel 4444), following Cauer. Conze-Michaelis 
(Annali, 1861, p. 45) proposed to identify the word with the Latin coactor. Foucart 
connected it with Koiices' lv AWioniq, <poivin<»v eldos (Hesychius), and compared the 
ipiXivo-noios of No. 203, 1. 24. 

3 Hesych. CKtcpos' £i<pos. Etym. Magn. OKi<por rd £(.<pos, Siatpeaei rod B ds K2 /ecu 
virtpOiaei. 

4 Le Bas -Foucart, Explic. No. 163 a, p. 82. 

6 Cf. a guild inscription from Thalamae (Collitz-Bechtel 4577), in which the first 
four officials are the same and occur in the same order, but are followed by a tcapv£ 
instead of, as here, a yvvaatovopos. 

' E. Ziebarth, Griech. Vereinswesen, Ch. C, § 5, p. 146 foil. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 19 

named are not those of the state is proved by the position occupied 
by the fiLdvos who is placed first both here and in No. 202, though the 
state fiidvos was an officer of small importance and would certainly rank 
below the ephor. 

3. These ten names are followed by eleven others (11. 12-21, 23) of 
the higher grade of functionaries, religious and artistic, attached to the 
guild. Here, as in the lists of Tmvdpioi, we meet with the herald and 
the prophet of the society : in addition to the avkrjTrjs employed in the 
Poseidon cult, a Kidapiarrjs, lyre-player, appears here, while yet another 
common feature of the two guilds is the occurrence in both of the 
natavias. The ' teacher ' (1. 1 6) * is doubtless he who trained the chorus 
for the dance, while the musical department is still further strengthened 
by the inclusion of a victor in the musical contest held in honour of 
Apollo Carneius (icapvfoveiKas). This group of officials is completed 
by the architect, the sculptor of herms or reliefs (yXvcpevs 1. 18), the 
goldsmith who overlays architectural ornaments or the horns of victims 
with gold leaf, and a person whose function is not indicated : this last 
is included in the guild Kara vopov, according to a rule of the society 8 , 
just as is the Siddo-KdKos above referred to. 

4. Finally, we have a group of eleven men and a woman, of whom 
two (11. 32, 34) are slaves while six others are freedmen. These occupy 
the lowest position or are craftsmen whose services are required to carry 
out the cult celebrations. The spinner (kKghttcis) 3 and the dyer (poycvs 
1. 2 7) 4 are concerned with the making of the proper ceremonial dress 
worn at the sacrifice : the wreath-seller (arecpavoncoXis) and the maker 
of palm-leaf garlands (yfn\tvo7roi6s) 8 supply the wreaths with which 
the participators are adorned. The nadaprfjs (1. 25) carried out, under 
the direction of the priest, the purificatory rites. The secretary (1. 26) 
was a clerk, probably at the disposition of the ypap.p.axo<pvha£, while the 
reader (dvayvaxrras) read aloud passages from the sacred books during 
the performance of the acts of worship. The napoxos (1. 30) was in all 
likelihood he who supplied the fuel either for the cooking of the festal 
meal or for the heating of the bath 6 . The cook (1. 33) was assisted 
in his functions by a baker (dpTOK&rros), who made the bread required for 
the meal. Finally, there is the general servant (im-^peVas 1. 29) of the 
guild, and a slave whose function is not stated. After his name comes 
the word A $ ATE IN 7 , which has been interpreted by Meister 8 as an 

1 Cf. Reisch's article s. v. SioaoTmXos in Pauly-Wissowa, v. 401 foil. 

2 As the officials of the guild are named after the state magistrates, so the society's 
rules are called vop.01. Cf. the title vop.o(f>v\a^ (1. 9). 

3 Etym. Magn. s. V. KaraKhadis : k\w6uv yap to vrjOav' odev real KKuffrrjs, irapd rov 
kX&jow p.£\\ovTa, teal KXcuarr^p. 

4 Hesych. poyevs' &a<pcvs. 

5 Athenaeus xv. 678 b us (prjai Xuat&ios hv rots ircpl Qvaiuv, iptXivovs avrobs 
<pd(TKCov vvv bvopa&oOai, ovras ck (poiviKcuv. 

6 Cf. Collitz-Bechtel 4689, 1. 106 foil. 6 dyopavopios trnfiiXeiav Ixctcuottojs . . . rrapi- 
Xojvti rtvp Kal fia/cpav ivxparov . . . ical ottojs 6 ky5e£afievos tuiv £v\ojv tclv irapoxdv 
cis rd dXctiTTripiov irapix et £^- a fopd . . . ol be Upol 6ydi86(i)vT(t) rdv itapoxdv rwv 
£vA.[<u]i' [ets rb~\ dXeivrrjptov. 

7 This reading may, I think, be regarded as certain. A* APE 1 N was read by 
Welcker-Henzen {Bull, del? Inst. 1844, p. 146), and adopted by Vischer {Inscr. Spart. 
part. ined. VIII. p. 16), who, however, adds ■ attamen P minus certum mihi visum 
est.' All other editors read a<paTciv. 

8 In a note ad loc, Collitz-Bechtel 4440, p. 20. 

C 2 



20 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

infinitive from acparos (cf. dBwardu, dBerelu, amoTeiv, &c.) in the sense 
of oi>x oaiov <f>avat (sc. o,n noifi). What this mysterious office was we 
have no means of deciding. 

§ 27. Two titles which appear frequently in inscriptions of this class 
require some explanation, namely mo-is and ftovayos. 

The word Kaa-is * is nearly always denoted by an abbreviation, usually 
by the letters K A in monogram ; it is, however, found written in full in 
No. 411. It always follows immediately a name in the dative 2 , and an 
examination of these names will show that they are those of eponymous 
patronomi. Boeckh's conclusion 8 has been generally accepted, according 
to which the icdo-is of an eponymous patronomus was an assessor, or 
TrdpeSpos, chosen by him from among those who had been in the same 
dyeXi; with him 4 . We may note in passing that the same person might 
be chosen as assessor by the eponymous magistrates of two years 5 , while 
on the other hand, the same magistrate was at liberty to nominate more 
than one such assessor 6 . 

The term 0ovay6s (also written @oay6s) presents greater difficulties. 
Taking into consideration the passages where it occurs in inscriptions 7 

and the gloss of Hesychius fiovayop' dyeXapxiJS, 6 ttjs dycXrjs apxov nais, we 

may regard the povayos as the boy chosen by an dyiXrj out of its own 
constituent members as leader 8 . The title was retained through life, and 
therefore like ro> fam Kaa-is and tov deiva crvvefapos, points not to a present 
magistracy or function, but to a past distinction. Those who refer the 
term to an office actually held at the time by one of the e'peves 9 have 
to suppose that an elpriv, i.e. a young man of twenty to thirty years, 
could hold the office of vopxxpvXag or ephor, or even that of narpopopos* . 
Only in the dedicatory inscriptions to Artemis Orthia (Nos. 218, 220, 
410, 783) is the title used to indicate an office exercised at the time 
by the person designated as fiovayos, fiovayos piKixitiSopepav. 

VI. DEDICATORY INSCRIPTIONS 

§ 28. We have now to deal with those inscriptions which indicate the 
dedication to a divinity of some object, either the stone itself (statue, 
relief, altar, &c.) on which the inscription is engraved, or something 
attached to it u . The simplest form of votive inscription is exemplified 
by No. 600, where a seated statue is inscribed with the name of the god 

1 Nos. 204 col. I, 1. 25, 248, 411 ; Le Bas-Foucart 182 ; &c. 
3 No. 411 1. 15 seems to be an exception. See note ad loc. 

8 C.I.G. i p 6n. 

* Boeckh (loc. cit.) compares the irapedpoi of the archon at Athens. 
5 No. 204 col. I, 1. 25 Mvd(<T<uvi) Kal Avoip(dx<v) icd(ois). 

9 Nos. 411 1. 3 (two Kaoas of Pasikrates) ; 21011. 20, 21 ; 248 11. 4, 8. 

T The references in the Corpus are collected by Boeckh, C.I.G. i. p. 612 : see also 
Le Bas-Foucart 174, 175 a, and the passages quoted in note 10. 

8 So Foucart (Le Bas-Foucart, note on No. 162 j, Daremberg-Saglio s. v.), who 
distinguishes between the 0oay6s and the uprjv who acted as overseer of an i\rj (Xen. 
Resp. Laced, ii. 11). See also p. 22, note 9. 

8 This is Szanto's view, if I understand aright his article ap. Pauly-Wissowa, s. v. 

10 The 0oay6s is npicr&vs k<popojv in 204 col. I, 1. 24, e<popos in 204 col. I, 1. 27, 
irptafSvs voixnQvkditwu in 411 1. 11, vopo<pika£ in 204 col. I, 11. 31, 32, 33, 411 1. 13, 
irarpovofios in Le Bas-Foucart 175 a. 

11 For the formulae employed in votive inscriptions see Rouse, Greek Votive Offerings 
(Cambridge, 1902), chap. xi. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 21 

whom it represents and to whom it is dedicated. The name of the 
dedicator is also omitted in the simple formula Ait v^larto evxqv 
(No. 223) l , but except in these two instances it is always present. The 
god to whom the offering is made is always specified except in two 
instances (Nos. 427, 528), where the words 6cd, 6 6e6s are used : these 
would derive their definiteness from the sanctuary in which they were 
placed. These two elements, dedicator and divinity, give the key 
formula, which appears in such an inscription as KaWiKpdrrjs Twdapibais 
(No. 7) : the addition of ei>xv v or evxapiarripiop 2 gives a second type 
(Nos. 427, 546), while a still further stage shows the introduction of 
a finite verb dv{8r)Ka, ft&fMr, dvanBft (Nos. 528, 618, 404, 275). In 
one case the phrase kot cniTayrjv tov deov* is found (No. 528), while 
in two (Nos. 404, 275) the office of the dedicator is stated, in one case 
a yepot/o-tas, in another a 8rjp6aios. Though crude in design and rough in 
execution, five of these little altars, four of which (Nos. 427, 528, 546, 
618) are dedicated by women and one (No. 275) by a man, claim our 
interest as the sole relics of the life of the poorer classes in Sparta ; 
elsewhere it is only on tombstones that we meet with any record of them. 
While, however, the poor were fain to content themselves with these 
humble offerings, the wealthy could erect more splendid monuments 
of their liberality and zeal. Thus we find (No. 254) Publius Memmius 
Pratolas and his wife Volussena Olympicha erecting a pillar 4 in honour 
of the Saviour Dioscuri, the priesthood of whom was vested in their 
family. Again, on the upper facia of the Ionic architrave of a round 
building was engraved a somewhat similar inscription, probably dedi- 
catory (No. 707), of which only the words [eic rjcav Idiap KaTc[aK€vao-cu or 
-av\ are extant. 

§ 29. Metrical dedications are few. Those of Plestiadas (No. 447) 
and Damonon (No. 440) have been already discussed 5 , and KirchhofFs 
view has been referred to 8 according to which No. 611 is votive rather 
than sepulchral. Thus only No. 690 remains, containing a dedication 
of a statue to Apollo in a poem consisting of four elegiac couplets. 
These are destitute of any poetical merit, being composed largely of 
well-worn tags, and the character of the writing forbids our assigning 
it to a date earlier than the second half of the second century a. d. 

Two other inscriptions, one from the Menelaeum and the other from 
the Amyclaeum, are almost certainly votive in character. Of the former 
(No. 542) only six letters remain : of the latter (No. 689) all save the 
last two lines has been purposely deleted, and it is not possible to 

1 Similar inscriptions occur C.LG. 499 EvoSos votary evxhvy 500 'OXvumcis 
tflpiffTcf) evxhv, 501, 503 'OvTjoifir) evxty At * vipiaTy, 504. These all come from 
Athens, with other similar inscriptions (Dodwell, Tour through Greece, i. 402 foil.). 
From Corcyra comes C.LG. 1869 Qata/eoffivt) (?) Atei (or Atft) vip'tOTy (vx^v, and 
from Aezani C.I.G. 3842 d [6 Seiva] 'A\e£avdpov . . . vios [Ati 1 ?] inpi<TT<p tvxi v - In 
all these cases, however, the dedicator's name is recorded. 

3 Y.vxapiarripLov occurs I.G. iii. 1 32/, 140, 145 (Athens), vii. 3417 (Chaeronea), 
xii. 3. 1086 (Melos), xii. 2. 112, 115, 182, 481 (Mytilene), Olympia v. 241 
(Olympia), Latyschev, Inscr. Ant. Orae Sept. Pont. Eux. i. 91, iv. 19 (Olbia), C.I.G. 
2054 (Mesembria), &c. It is a late variant of the more common term x a P tffr VP iOV ' 

3 Compare the similar phrases /car kniraypa, c£ kmrayfiaTos, irpooTafavTos rod 
Ocov, /card, vpocrra-yfia, Kara Ke\cvaiv tov 6tov, &c, quoted by Rouse (op. cit. p. 331). 

4 Or, according to Foucart (Le Bas-Foucart 162 g), some portion of a doorway. 
See my note ad loc. 

8 §3. 



22 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

restore the sense of the inscription. Both of these documents may be 
dated as belonging to the third century b.c. 

§ 30. We are left with a series of six inscriptions which, though dating 
from the second century a.d., are more interesting than any we have 
discussed in this class (218, 219 + 501, 220, 221, 410, 783) l . I do 
not propose here to resume the discussion of the various doubtful points 
raised by these inscriptions 2 , but will briefly sum up what may be 
regarded as established. They form a group of dedications to Artemis 
Orthia (Nos- 218, 219, 220, 221, 783), the object dedicated being a flat 
iron implement inserted in a groove cut for the purpose. One of these 
has been preserved (No. 218), and in the other cases the shape of 
the groove shows that the object dedicated was similar. It has been 
variously interpreted as a sickle s , a strigil * or an ornament for the head 
which, owing to its form, went under the name of a-rXeyyis 6 . The 
inscriptions are marked by the extremely archaic character of their 
language, although they date from the reign of Hadrian onwards : the 
fact that the earliest of them (No. 783) 6 shows no trace of this archaism 
proves that we have to deal not with a survival but with a revival of the 
ancient dialectical forms. 

The fact that the votive offerings were prizes won in contests is 
directly stated (rdhe cna6\a Xaj3d>!/ : No. 218), and there can be no doubt 
that these contests were celebrated in honour of the goddess to whom the 
dedication is made. Further, the contest was one of boys. In one case 
the word trwbtitS* is expressly applied to it (No. 783), in another it is 
stated that the votive inscription was composed by the victor's father 
(No. 218), while the dedicator is called &oay6s (No. 218), povayos puKixtS- 
8onev<op (Nos. 220, 410 7 , 783; Athen. Mitteil. xxii. p. 337, No. 6). 
The word &o(v)ay6s has already been explained 8 : fiiKix^ofievos seems to 
be a bye-form of [iiKibboficvos, i.e. twci(6(jievos, which occurs perhaps in 
No. 410. This last word is explained in the Xe£«? 'HpofioYov as denoting 
a boy in the third year of his state-education, and the fiovayol puuxi&opbm 
are thus the leaders of fiovai, groups or companies, of ten-year-old boys 9 . 

1 For a discussion of these inscriptions as a whole see J. Baunack, Rhein. Museum, 
xxxviii. (1883), p. 293 foil. ; T. Preger, Athen. Mitteil. 1897, p. 334 foil. ; R. 
Meister ap. Collitz-Bechtel, Sammlung, iii. 2. i. p. 142 foil. ; M. N. Tod, Athen. 
Mitteil. 1904, p. 50 foil. 

a The other inscriptions of this class known to us are : Preger, loc. cit., p. 337, 
Nos. 6, 7, and C.I.G. 141 6 ( = Collitz-Bechtel 4471). 3 Preger, loc. cit, p. 334. 

* Reisch, Griech. Weihgeschenke, p. 61, note 2, and Pauly-Wissowa, s. v. a6\ov, ii. 
p. 2061. 

5 Meister, loc. cit., p. 143, followed by Rouse, Greek Votive Offerings, p. 153. 

* It is uncertain whether No. 783 is earlier than No. 410, the date of which was 
doubtless recorded on the portion of the stone broken off. This latter inscription also 
bears no signs of archaistic dialect forms. 

7 Perhaps, with Preger, we should read &ovay[6s iwu8]8ofii[vojv~\ in No. 410. 

8 § 27. 

9 The Herodotus gloss is 'as follows {ed. Stein, ii. p. 465) : irapcL AaKfSatfxoviois iv 
rS> Trpurrq) (vtavrfy 6 irais faP'tdas KaXtlrai, ra> dtvrepcp irpo/MKi£6pievos (cod. irpoKOfxt- 
£6fitvos, corr. Wesseling), rS> rpno) pu/ci£6p.evos, rip Teraprq) irpSirats, rat ir£piirT<p wais, 
r# %KT(p n*\eipr)v. 'E(pr}&cdci T€ -nap' avrois and kruiv t5 r fitXP 1 •*! K ' * ** * s obvious 
that ages are reckoned not from birth (as Foucart), but from the boy's seventh year 
when the state undertook his training (so Preger and Meister). This does away with 
the objection that might be advanced against the explanation of the word jSovayos 
given in § 27, that it requires us to believe that children of three years old elected from 
their own number the 0ovay6s of their ay4\rj, as is maintained by Foucart (Le Bas- 
Foucart, note on 162 j, p. 143, and Daremberg-Saglio, s.v.). 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 23 

The difficulty of these inscriptions centres round the questions, { Is the 
contest referred to the same in every case ? and, if so, what is its nature ?' 
Baunack thought that three different contests are referred to, the ' hunt ' 
(Kaa-arjpaToptu), the ' song ' (pa>av), and the ' discus ' (\S>av, \avav). Preger 
and Meister reduce them to one, a musical competition. I have tried to 
show 1 that we have to deal with a 'hunt' (KaBdrjparopiop), i.e. some 
species of ravpoBrjpia, and also with a totally distinct musical contest (p.S>a). 
I thus follow Baunack in his interpretation of Kaaar)par6piv } while adopting 
the view supported by Preger and Meister which connects Kcavav (or 
kcXvclv) and Kaikoav (or Kaikaav) with the root KeA- Ka\- and sees in it, 
as well as in paa (= fiovaa), a reference to the musical contest. But 
several problems remain unsolved as yet, of which it is to be hoped that 
future epigraphical finds will provide us with the key. 

VII. INSCRIPTIONS IN HONOUR OF ROMAN 
EMPERORS 

§ 31. From inscriptions dedicating some offering to a divinity we pass 
by a natural transition to those raised in honour of deified Roman 
emperors. We cannot fail to be struck in the first place by their 
simplicity and brevity. Of thirty-four inscriptions comprised in this 
class no fewer than twenty-seven consist of four words only, while the 
longest does not exceed seven words. Here at any rate it would seem 
as if we had stumbled upon a genuine relic of the proverbial Laconian 
conciseness. A second and less pleasing characteristic is their monotony. 
Twenty-two are verbally identical, and amongst the rest there is a certain 
sameness which proves that variety and originality of expression were 
not, at least in this particular, held of great account. Thirdly, the narrow 
range of these inscriptions is a surprising fact ; for on examination 
we find that all the thirty-four inscriptions in question refer either to 
Hadrian (1 17-138 a.d.) or to Antoninus Pius (138-161 a.d.). This 
gives us our most convenient basis for classification. 

1. Inscriptions in honour of Hadrian. These number altogether 
eleven, and have two elements in common : they all alike begin with the 
title avTOKparcap {imperator) and end with that of o-ojtjJp, or, in two cases 
(Nos. 381, 507), a-cdTrjp ras \aicedaipiovos. The emperor is referred to 
either as 'Abpiavos (Nos. 237, 239, 240, 244, 373, 507, 529, 619, 629a, 
676) or as Tpaiavos 'Adpiavos (No. 381), while the other titles given to him 
are either Kalo-ap Sepao-ros (Nos. 239, 244 (?), 507, 676) or Kalaap alone. 
As regards grammatical construction these inscriptions fall into two 
species : in the majority the words are put in the genitive, but in three 
(Nos. 240, 507, 676) they occur in the dative. In no case is a finite 
verb expressed. These inscriptions may probably be brought into con- 
nexion with the two visits 2 to Sparta of the emperor : on the first 
occasion (summer, 126 a.d.) Hadrian was making a tour of the Pelo- 
ponnese during his first long stay at Athens, while on the second (late 
spring, 129 a.d.) he was on his way from Rome to Athens, where he 

1 A then. Mitteil. loc. cit. 

a No. 204 col. I ov xal InirapxovvTOS /rat ay opavopovvros iireHrjprjaev rrj woAet 6 
0€i6raTos AvTOKparojp'Ahpiavos. C.I.G. 1 348 yvpvaoiapx[r}]<raVTa kclKws liri t^[s] tov 
[2€#a]<rTou AuTo[«p]ctTo[/>oj] Kaiaapos Scvt e/xzs €irt8t)p.ias. For Hadrian as eponymous 
patronomus see No. 204 col. II, 1. 14, No. 374, and Le Bas-Foucart 286 b. 



24 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

remained from the summer of 129 a.d. to the spring of the following 
year l , 

2. Inscriptions in honour of Antoninus. These number twenty-three 
(Nos. 226-236, 367, 368, 389, 466, 503, 521, 547, 669, 670, 720, 
780), and show an extreme simplicity and uniformity. The formula 
Zai/t 'EXev&ptoi 'Avrosvelvoi 2<oTrjpi occurs in twenty-two instances, the only 
variation which is found being in the spelling of the third word, which is 
usually written 'AwwmW, but sometimes 'Avrmvipoi (Nos. 226, 229, 466, 
547, 669). The single deviation from the standard form is found in 

No. 230 Zav\ 'EXevdept'ot Kal 'OXvpnioi 'Avrcwdvoi 2a>rrjpi. With few Or no 

exceptions the inscription is accompanied by the representation of 
a wreath and two palm branches. The chief point of interest with regard 
to them is the archaism of form (Zavi) and spelling (never 'EXevdepiou 
' AvTavcipai), and the great variety of the letters employed, almost every 
combination of forms being found, though the inscriptions themselves 
were probably all engraved during the Emperor's lifetime. 

VIII. EPITAPHS 

§ 32. The most numerous class of inscriptions in the Museum, with 
the sole exception of the catalogues or lists already discussed 2 , is formed 
by the epitaphs engraved on tombstones. These naturally fall into two 
sub-divisions, according as the person commemorated is a native of 
Laconia or a foreigner. 

Of the former species we have some forty examples, the most interest- 
ing being those which are earlier than the second century b. c. According 
to a well-known tradition, Lycurgus included among the changes which 
he introduced into Sparta regarding burial and mourning, a regulation 
forbidding the placing of any epitaph upon the tomb, save in the case 
of a man who had died in war or a woman who held the office of 
priestess 8 . 

And in point of fact, so far as we can judge 4 from extant monuments, 
this rule seems to have been strictly observed during the fifth and two 
succeeding centuries. The only doubtful case is that of No. 526, where 
we have the word noXXf Lov on a rude block of stone. It is uncertain 
whether this is an epitaph or not, and in the former case it may well be 
that of a soldier who fell in battle, though the fact is not recorded. But 
Kirchhoff has maintained 5 that the same rule holds good for the sixth 
century also. This seems at best a somewhat doubtful conjecture. Not 

1 For the journeys of Hadrian see J. Durr, Die Reisen des Kaisers Hadrian, 
Vienna, 1881, and for his visits to Sparta, pp. 59, 70, 71. The epigraphical evidence is 
collected in an appendix, but for Sparta it omits Dressel-Milchhoefer, p. 438, Nos. 13, 
14; Expidit. de Morte, ii. No. 53; Annali del! Inst. 1861, p. 45; Vischer, Jnscr. 
Spart. VIII. No. 5. Since Durr wrote the evidence has been increased by Bull. Corr. 
Hell. ix. p. 517 ( = No. 507). Nos. t 237, 239, 240, 373, 381, 520, 619 (?) and 620 a 
are published now for the first time, while No. 244 corrects an error of Annali, loc. cit. 

2 See §§ 13-27. 

3 Plut. Lycurgus xxvii kmypaxfjai rovvofm Ocuf/avras ovtc k£r}v rov vcicpov, ir\f}v 
avSpds kv iro\kfup /cat yvvcuiebs twv Upwv drrodav6vTwv. This latter reservation is 
omitted in the briefer statement of Instil. Lacon. 18 dvetXe Sk Kal rds kmypa<p(is ras km 
twv fxvrjfieiwv, irXty twv kv iro\kpw TfKfvrijffdvTCJV. 

* Kirchhoff, Sitzungsb. d. Berl. Akad. 1887, p. 990. But see below (§ 37) my note 
on No. 417, an inscription on which Kirchhoff has not commented. 
' Loc. cit., p. 992. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 25 

only have we No. 611, which, though badly mutilated, has been almost 
universally accepted as a metrical epitaph, and I.G.A. 65 (Collitz- 
Bechtel 4412), which in spite of the badness of the copy appears to 
be also a metrical tomb-inscription, but also /. G.A. 54 (Collitz-Bechtel 
4402), which can hardly be interpreted otherwise than as a sepulchral 
poem. Nor need we necessarily reject the tradition entirely. It is open 
to us to suppose that some such regulation as Plutarch describes was 
actually made at some time near the close of the sixth century, and was 
afterwards attributed, along with many other laws of a similar nature, to 
the great lawgiver who was held as the embodiment of the ideas and 
principles which were characteristic of the Spartan constitution, and 
which called forth the admiration of many thinkers and observers belong- 
ing to other Greek states. The very fact that according to the tradition 
Lycurgus put a stop to the writing of epitaphs on tombstones is proof 
that the Spartans believed that such epitaphs had existed, and had been 
a prominent feature of early tombs. Be the reason of the change what 
it may, the long and elaborate metrical epitaphs of the sixth century are 
replaced by inscriptions consisting only of the name of the fallen with 
the addition h *okipm. Of these there are six examples in the Museum, 
the gravestones of Alpyhias (No. 377), aWo* (No. 386), Haiptjhnnros 
(No. 387), Evpvddrjs and Tda-Kos (No. 509), Evdalficov (No. 435), and 

- -ovikos (No. 617). An exact dating is not possible, but the first three 
may be attributed to the fifth and fourth centuries, the last three to the 
third century b.c. Other six similar epitaphs are known, commemorating 
EvakKrp (CollitZ-Bechtel 4529), Trj\€(pamjs (ibid. 4528), Baartas (ibid. 4512), 

- -£is (Ussing, Grceske og Latinske Indskrifter i Kj'obenhavn^ 1854, No. 6, 
p. 8), 'OvaiTeXrjs (Le Bas-Foucart 283), and TeAeVra>/> (ibid. 203 a). Of 
these the first two probably belong to the fifth century, the third and 
fourth to the fourth and the last to the end of the third. The fifth is, 
according to a conjecture of Kirchhoff *, a renewal of an earlier inscrip- 
tion : I prefer, with Foucart 2 , to regard it as belonging to the Imperial 
period and to see in it a further example of the archaizing which was so 
common a feature of the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus. In formula 
there are only two variations from the common type. The words Evokes 
«■> wokepm are followed by iv Mavriveai to denote the battle in which 
Eualkes fell, while the 'OvalreXrjs inscription just discussed has the word 
xaipe at the close. In the Imperial period this word was considered such 
an integral part of an epitaph that it could not be omitted even when the 
form of the epitaph was copied from an older model which lacked it. 
These inscriptions are found scattered over a wide area. Two (Nos. 
377, 387) are from Sparta, and one from Magoula in its immediate 
neighbourhood (No. 386) ; one was found at Amyclae (Collitz-Bechtel 
4512), and two at Geronthrae (Collitz-Bechtel 4528, 4529); two others 
come from the northern part of Laconia, one from Sellasia (Le Bas- 
Foucart 203 a), the other from a spot between reapyircridviKa KakvPia and 
Xavi on the road leading from Sparta to Leondari. The provenance of 
the other three is unknown, but it is probable that at least two of them 
(Nos. 509, 617) are from the neighbourhood of Sparta. 

§ 33. Over the later tombstones contained in the collection we need 
not linger. The simplest and commonest formula consists of the name 

1 Loc. cit., p. 991. * Le Bas-Foucart, No. 203 a, note. 



26 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

of the deceased (in the vocative) followed simply by the word x a ~ l P e 
(Nos. 26, 28, 255, 257, 264, 300, 379, 448, 564) : in one case the 
epithet dyaOe is appended to the name (No. 371). Often the age of the 
dead is recorded, either as a mere number ('Ayatfaw ^aipe ab. No. 523), 
or as a number with ir&v (No. 261), or more commonly in the formula 
trr) Pia>(ra(T(a) — (Nos. 256, 258, 259, 260, 263, 371, 380, 395, 522) : in 
one case only (No. 395) the number of months is added. The fact is 
a striking one, though perhaps due to mere accident, that of the ten 
persons of whose ages we are thus informed eight died before reaching 
the age of thirty, and one of the remaining two lived only thirty-two 
years, so that in spite of the sixty-seven years of life recorded in No. 258 
the average age at death is less than twenty-nine. In all these cases the 
mention of the age of the deceased is preceded by nothing save the name 
and xatpe, though in one case (No. 380) it is followed by the formula 

X a ip e > Trapodelra. 

Somewhat fuller is No. 245, where we have along with the name of 
the deceased his office or title (fivarrayayos 1 anb Qepairv&v) and a record 
of the fact that he took part in a campaign against the Parthians. 
Whether the reference is to the Parthian War under Marcus Aurelius, 
Septimius Severus or Caracalla, it is not possible to decide, though the 
character of the writing would point to the* first as the most probable 2 . 

§ 34. Of metrical epitaphs we have altogether six s , including No. 685, 
about the nature of which there is some uncertainty. No. 268 com- 
memorates a Spartan merchant, Troilus, who died while away on 
a journey and was buried at Corone in Messenia. No. 382 is in 
memory of Faustus, a married but childless man, the eldest of a family 
of four. No. 383, an epigram of much greater merit, bewails the death 
of a poet, Threptos, who had won a name for himself in Greece and 
Asia, and also at the Roman court. Nos. 524 4 and 548 complete the 
list, all the poems in which are written in elegiac metre except No. 268, 
which is composed of hexameters only. Even here, however, it would 
seem that the absence of the familiar phrases of tomb-inscriptions was 
viewed with a kind of uneasiness, for we have irapobfira xaipe appended 
extra metrum to one epigram (No. 383), and eVo^ IA to another 
(No. 524), while a third is introduced by the phrase &av<rre x a 'P e > Cv aas * rr ) P- 
(No. 382). No. 268 commences with the words Tpa>i'Xe, xalpe, an ^ tnus 
only No. 548 has no attempt to retain the ordinary phrases : here, 
however, they may have seemed of less importance since the epigram 
occurred side by side with an epitaph framed in the ordinary mould 
(No. 395). 

§ 35. We have also two Christian epitaphs (Nos. 506, 634). One of 
these (No. 506) is too mutilated to permit of the sense being restored : 
the other is conceived in a strain very commonly met with in early 
Christian epitaphs, and contains an appeal to the clergy for the present 
and for all time to allow no one to disturb the grave. 

Of Nos. 251, 589 it will be unnecessary to say anything here save to 

1 Cf. C.I.G. 1239, col. Ill Ait [fJLv]oTarfortb$ drrb 'Actios. 

3 On references to the Parthian Wars in Spartan inscriptions see an article by 
P. Wolters in A then. Mitteil. 1903, p. 291 foil. 

8 A seventh has been discussed below (§ 37) : it is uncertain whether it belongs here 
or not. 

4 This, though the epitaph of a Cretan, is treated here for the sake of convenience. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 27 

recall the fact that, though not strictly speaking tombstones, they are 
closely related to such, being written in memoriam (§ 11). 

§ 36. We must notice, in conclusion, the epitaphs of foreigners which 
are in the Spartan collection ; six of these are marked out as such 
by their contents, and one (No. 398) by its provenance, while one 
(No. 417) belongs probably, but not certainly, to this species. The 
epitaphs of the first-mentioned six are very simple. Two of them bear 
the name and father's name of the deceased and his nationality, in one 
case Megarian (No. 265), in the other Theban (No. 778). No. 266 is 
slightly different, consisting of the name and nationality (Boeotian) of the 
dead and the familiar x a *P f - Of these inscriptions, No. 265 probably 
belongs to the fourth, No. 266 to the third, No. 778 to the third or 
second century b. c. The remaining three (Nos. 370, 508, 779) date 
from the second or even from the third century a. d. The age of the 
deceased is in each case recorded, as also his name and nationality : the 
remaining elements, x a ~ L P* (No. 370), the patronymic (No. 779), and the 
profession (No. 508), occur but once each. One of the three men 
commemorated was a Salaminian (No. 508), a second came from 
Bithynian Nicaea (No. 779), and the third is called UdWidrrjs (No. 370). 

§ 37. Finally we must briefly examine the two inscriptions of this 
class (Nos. 398, 417), to which detailed reference has not yet been made. 
The latter of these is a metrical epitaph in two elegiac couplets. The 
first half of each line is lost, and hence we are ignorant of the name 
of the man commemorated. We learn that he was a native of Oreioi, 
possibly the town better known under the name of Oreus l , and died at 
Corinth. The character of the letters shows that the epitaph belongs to 
the fourth century before our era, but the form ytpofttpots prevents our 
dating it much before the end of the century. Roehl* has supposed that 
'Opeioi was some village close to Sparta, but in that case we would expect 
the epitaph to take the usual form, 6 8eha iv 7roAe/xaH. On the other hand, 
if Oreioi was outside Laconia we have the curious phenomenon of a man 
being buried neither in his own country nor in the place where he fell. 
Possibly the present is an inscription engraved on a cenotaph in honour 
of a foreigner who had rendered distinguished military service to Sparta. 

No. 398 is not a Laconian inscription, but was found in Messenia 
and brought thence to Sparta. The relief below the inscription, two 
forearms with uplifted hands, is of a type represented by several other 
examples 3 . It seems to have been carved on the tombstones of those 
who had met with a violent death, and to symbolize the prayer for 
vengeance upon the murderer, known or unknown. 

IX. STAMPS ON TILES AND BRICKS 

§ 38. It is in inscriptions stamped on tiles and bricks 4 that the 
Spartan Museum may perhaps be said to be relatively richest. This 
is largely due to the considerable number of stamped roof-tiles discovered 

1 S. P. Lambros, Neoy 'EXKrjvofxvq/xuv, i. p. 34. 

2 Athen. Mitteil. i. p. 234. 

3 Cf. Heydemann, Ant. Marmorbildw. zu Athen, No. 14, where four other instances 
are cited. 

* Inscriptions of this class are collected by P. Paris, Elatie (Paris, 1892), p. no foil., 
and his list is very considerably enlarged by R. B. Richardson ap. C. Waldstein, The 
Argive Heraeum, i. p. 216 foil. 



28 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

by Dr. Tsountas on the site of the Amyclaeum ('Ayla KvpiaKfj) in 1891 \ 
These number in all thirteen fragments, of which eight (Nos. 636-642, 
644) can be restored 'A7roXXa>i/os | h y ApvK\aioi 2 . The inscription is 
stamped in raised letters on a sunk oblong ground. Two others, though 
very similar, show a slightly different formula. In both of them the word 
AMYKAAIOI begins the second line, and as there seems hardly room 
for E N at the close of the first line we must assume that we have here 
a locative, 'A/n/KXaioI: cf. ftaXqpoi, switch, &c. 3 The preceding word 
can be restored in one case (No. 635 a) 'AnoWwos, in the other 
(No. 635 b) 'Attc'XAcoi/os 4 . Of No. 646 only the two final letters -05 of the 
first line are preserved, and it is not possible to class the fragment with 
certainty. Nor can No. 635 be restored : even the conjectural 'Atto'X- 
\cdvos in 1. 2 is very doubtful, as the stroke before the a seems to be 
a vertical one. A totally different inscription is No. 643, unfortunately 
much mutilated : - -(fi)6a-ios - \ - -v $iXoka(i})-. This bears a striking 
resemblance to the legend stamped on three tiles found by Ross 5 in 
Sparta — Aapovios *A0dvas 3>IA. The last word is restored <f>L\(osl) by 
the editor, but this can hardly be right, and we need have little hesitation 
in reading, in the light of No. 643, $iX(okX?}s), the name either of the 
manufacturer or of the contractor. The restoration [Aa](/u)oo-tos ['AirA- 
Xa)]i/(os). 4>i\ok\tjs then suggests itself for the fragment from the Amy- 
claeum. The only other tile which we have to notice (No. 407) bears 
the stamp 'Ovrjaicpopos, which indicates doubtless the name of the maker. 

The inscribed bricks number seven, of which three appear to be 
stamped simply with the manufacturer's name : in one case (No. 277) 
the name, Qikioreibas, is all but complete ; in a second (No. 543) we find 
the abbreviation (?) H PA K A A 6 , while on the third fragment (No. 645) only 
the final letters -a* are left. The other four bricks (Nos. 276, 535, 
535 a, 712) were manufactured in the same year (Arl KaWiKpareos) 7 , and 
three at least of them (Nos. 276, 535, 712) were used, or intended 
for use, in the construction of the (TKrjuoBrjKT) ; two of them bear the name 
of the contractor Nikasion, while the third is stamped with the name 
Zt/i/wi', which can hardly be other than that of a second contractor. The 
inscriptions differ very strikingly in the statement of the same facts : the 
one contractor records concisely the three important facts 'En-l KaXXt- 
Kpdrcos — a-KavoBrjKas — Zrjvav (No. 712), while the other, not content with 
the longer inscription, IlXivOoi oa/idoriai aKavoBrjKas iiri KaXkiKpdreos tpyd>va 

NiKao-iavos, stamps it upon all four sides of the brick. 

X. MISCELLANEOUS INSCRIPTIONS 
§ 39. It will be convenient to group together a certain number of 
miscellaneous inscriptions, although the sole common element in them 
is the fact that they do not fall into any of the classes hitherto discussed. 
1 See 'E<f>r}fi. 'ApxouoK. 1892, p. 3. 

8 Cf. the use of the same phrase in Thuc. v. 23. 5 ari\Kr\v arrjaai kv AcuteSaifiovi 
•nap 1 'AttoAAcui/i iv 'ApvK\aiq>. 

3 See Meisterhans, Gramm. d. att. Inschriften* , p. 147, note 1269. 

4 For this form of the name see No. 689, and Pauly- Wissowa, s. v. Apollon, ii. p. I. 

6 Inscr. graec. ined. i. No. 50. 

• Pape-Benseler give the names 'B.pwckdp.p.cov, 'HpatcXafios, 'HpaitXas. Probably we 
have here the genitive 'UpauXd. 

7 The same eponymous magistrate is found in No. 205 : he belongs probably to 
the first century B. c. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 29 

One of the most important of these (No. 222) is a fragment, unfor- 
tunately very mutilated, of what appears to be a sacred calendar, giving 
a list of the proper sacrifices and observances for various holy days. 
The mention of [api](pL8(Karia and [$\]oiaaiov vovpqvia (11. 6, 17) shows 
that the document deals with the events of certain days of the year, while 
the words (lepl&a, aprog, Kpeas, rvpov, rpayava, d\<plTa>v, x ol P' a t make it plain 
that the ordinance regulates the kind and quantity of food which is to 
be distributed on given occasions. Three deities are mentioned — Zeus 
Taletitas, Auxesia, and Damoia. The first of these took his name from 
Taleton, the highest peak, or at least one of the peaks *, of Mount Tay- 
getus, which dominates the Spartan plain on the west. That there is 
a connexion between this worship and that of the sun seems proved by 
Hesychius' gloss toX&s' 6 rjXios, and by the myth of Talos, but that the 
two were not absolutely identified follows from the fact that the sun-god 
himself was, according to Pausanias (iii. 20. 4), worshipped on Taygetus. 
Auxesia and Damoia (Damia) form an almost inseparable pair of deities, 
and appear in the Peloponnese as counterparts of the Eleusinian Demeter 
and Kore. 

§ 40. An inscription of considerable historical interest is that (No. 145) 
which is cut on the back of a marble chair. Although mutilated, this 
inscription has been ingeniously restored by Foucart, who connects it 
with one of the most important passages of later Spartan history, the 
overthrow of the power of the ephorate by Cleomenes III. Plutarch 2 
tells us that he had the chairs of the ephors removed with the exception 
bf one, which he allowed to remain in order that he might sit in it to 
conduct business. Shortly afterwards he united with himself in the 
monarchy Euclidas who was not, according to immemorial custom, 
a member of the other royal family, but his own full brother, * born of 
the same mother and of the same father/ 'It was at this moment,' 
concludes Foucart 3 , ' that the inscription was cut on the seat on which the 
two kings sat in turn to give audience, that seat which was as it were 
a visible token of the power which had been wrested from the ephors and 
restored to the kingship/ 

§ 41. Two inscriptions (Nos. 439, 532) record the boundaries of 
sacred precincts in the word Spos rov Upov. On one of them (No. 439) the 
letters I A are added, showing that this was the eleventh in a series of 
similar boundary-stones. Unfortunately the provenance of both stones 
is unrecorded, so that we are ignorant as to the sanctuary to which 
they refer. 

§ 42. Of artists' signatures the Spartan Museum has only one, that 
of the Athenian sculptor Apollonius 4 , carefully engraved on a fragment 
of marble drapery (No. 363). Two large marble blocks bear masons' 
marks : they were both found at Hagia Kyriake, the site of the Amy- 
claeum, and evidently belonged to the same building. The inscriptions 
occur on a side of the stone which was never smoothed, and consequently 

1 Heberdey {Reisen des Pausanias, 57), following Lolling (I wan Muller, Hand- 
buch, iii. p. 182), argues that Taleton must be one of the eastern spurs of Taygetus 
which rise abruptly from the Spartan plain. Von Prott {Atken. Mitteil. 1904, p. 7 foil.) 
identified it with that one of the series which lies above Kalyvia Sochas. 

8 Cleomenes, X. 3 Le Bas-Foucart, No. 167 a, p. 88. 

4 Loewy, Inschr. griech. Bildhauer, No. 336: Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. Apollonios, 
No. 124. 



30 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

was not intended to be visible in the finished building. In one case the 
word ykav£ (No. 785), in the other appos (No. 786), serve to denote the 
masons who cut the blocks in question. 

§ 43. The significance of the name Evpvpdva<rcra in No. 691 is not 
plain. The form of the base on which it is inscribed shows that it is not 
sepulchral, and as the base supported a stele and not a statue, it does 
not seem a probable supposition that Eurybanassa was portrayed in 
a work of art, since such could only have been a relief or a painting. 
We must rather see in Eurybanassa the dedicator of some votive offering : 
perhaps the name of the deity has been lost along with the first two 
letters of that of the dedicator. Similarly, the significance of No. 605, 
which contains merely the name NncoKpdrr]s EiSaipoicXeos, is doubtful. 

In No. 527 we have a number of letters rudely incised, or rather worn 
by rubbing, on a rough block of stone : they seem to form the ends of 
two words written from right to left, and may be a portion of an early 
epitaph. No. 626 contains two letters which stand by themselves though 
there may have been others on the portion of the stone which is broken 
off. The remarkable thing about these letters is that the X takes the 
form U, which is unknown to the Laconian alphabet, though it occurs in 
an inscription of the Arcadian town of Alea l , and in the alphabets of 
Attica, Chalcis, Boeotia, &c. 

§ 44. A Byzantine inscription (No. 269) records the grant to a church 
or monastery of certain lands in the bishoprics of Amyclae and Caryou- 
polis, the revenues of which are to assure the regular celebration of 
divine service every * Monday, Tuesday, and Thursday, in the church 
and in the tomb of the saint/ There is also one Latin inscription 
(No. 273) in the Museum, but so fragmentary that no meaning can be 
got from it. Mommsen 2 has conjectured that it is a fragment of 
an imperial rescript, but even this cannot be decided with certainty. 

XL FRAGMENTS 

§ 45. We have now referred to all the inscriptions in the Spartan 
collection with the exception of a number of fragments which are so 
mutilated that they cannot be assigned with certainty, or even with 
probability, to any definite class. Nineteen of these (Nos. 271, 272, 274, 
375, 394, 401, 418, 429, 462, 463, 502, 510, 598, 620, 623, 631, 632, 
633, 713) are quite insignificant. No. 238 seems to refer to games 
(1. 4 tov dyS>vos tS>p: 1. 5 t5>v peyd\<ov). No. 249 contains two names, 
one that of a certain ^coKparldas, the other that of AapoKparls, who is 
perhaps his wife. The stone appears to be a statue-base, but whether 
the statue on it was dedicated by Socratidas and Damocratis, or whether 
there were two statues representing them is a point we cannot determine. 
No. 250 is part of a document of considerable length, dating probably 
from the first century b.c. No. 378 is either the epitaph of a certain 
Calibrates, son of Calibrates, or an inscription in his honour set up 
during his lifetime. No. 428 may be tentatively placed among the lists 
of magistrates, but in the case of so small a fragment this cannot be done 
with any confidence. No. 622 opens with the words At 6ca\ oX&un 

1 Roberts, Introduction to Greek Epigraphy, i. No. 283, p. 280. 

2 C.I.L. iii. Suppl., p. 1308, No. 7245. 



INTRODUCTION TO INSCRIPTIONS 31 

t[^v? . . . and may be attributed to a votive inscription of some sort. 
No. 624 contains the name Qikfjiuov and some part of the word oWtfej 
but it is not possible even to decide whether the inscription is metrical. 
No. 630 (which in the Museum inventory is also entered as No. 545) 
has the words [«]«■! irar[pov6nov tov delvos] in the middle, and may be 
a fragment of the record of a cursus honorum. Finally, No. 719 seems 
to be the end of a catalogue of magistrates, the last four lines of which 
are occupied by the names of \o-novb\o<p6poi, but the words Trpoa-rdTrjs and 
dvaBeacos (11. 2, 3) made the precise nature of the document uncertain. 



INSCRIPTIONS 

7. See p. 135. 
26. See p. 138. 
28. See p. 138. 
85. See p. 146. 

145. On the back of a chair of coarse bluish marble (for which cf. 
No. 146), broken at the top. Height -57 ; breadth .45 ; depth ^40. 
Found near the mill of Matala, on the right bank of the Eurotas. 
Collitz-Bechtel 4428. 

ErMl -c/\/\i 
TEI<AIENo£rATPo£ 

iy /it[a](y fxar^pos] \ re koi cvos irarpSs. 

According to an acute conjecture of Foucart, the inscription may 
be restored [KXcopevrjs m\ EvK\i\8a]s iy /*[ifi]ff kt\. He cites Plutarch, 

Cleom. II (KXfqpnqt) to ttjs povapxias ovopa napapvOovpevos a7refi«£e peff 
(ovtov /Sao-tXea top d8c\(p6v Evickfidav. Kal Tore povov ^irapTiarms (K pias oIkUis 
avvefir) 8vo axciv /SacrtXcap, and ibid. IO 'O 8' ovv KXeopevrjs .... tovs dicppovs 
avelXf to>p i<popa)V wkHpf e v6t t iv to KaBrjpevos epeWev ovtos xpq/iart^eii/. If the 

inscription is rightly referred, its date would be about 225 b.c, and with 
this the forms of the letters well agree. 

200. On a slab of white marble. Height -44 ; breadth ^0 ; thick- 
ness -06. Broken on the left and (?) above. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4404; David 5. Cf. F. D. Allen, Papers of the American 
School, iv. No. 100, p. 193. 

^Tfc&AlOPTONNfclONOKrONBK- 

IOIH?ia*ITIACMOIXS^TSOV\ 

The first line reads from left to right, the second from right to left. 
My reading agrees with that adopted by Collitz-Bechtel except in the 
following points. The stone shows fc not E, A not A in 1. 1 as well as 
in 1. 2, Y not Y. At the end of 1. 1 I read Bk_ with Hirschfeld and 
Dressel-Milchhoefer ; at the beginning of 1. 2 (on the right) the reading 
of the first five letters is precarious, but I retain Velsen's ^TS O M. The 
fifth letter from the end I read as < with Velsen and Dressel-Milchhoefer, 
not as 3. The inscription remains an unsolved riddle. Miillensiefen 

reads ovtc /Sas ov tov N E I O N ov t6v Hv[S] \ vo . . \ v • • ■•*" a* tis 

diaiuoi (dtovaW?) (p. 12 [142]). 



INSCRIPTIONS 33 

201. On a stele of greyish marble with pediment. Height «7o; 
breadth .48; thickness -12. Above the inscription is a relief, for which 
see p. 158. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4442. 

Of crvrr)6evT€s cn\ % Ava^rov\ 
The letters are carefully formed ; apices slight. A 0172' 
The reading 'Ai/o-c[tov] is almost certain, the stone showing ANZE". . 
*hv<TCTos =*Av0eTos = ' AvdOcTos. Cf. the substitution of s for 6 in dveoyicc 
(= dvcdriKc, No. 219), Bapa-ea (= Ba>p0«i, ibid.), &c, and for the omission 
of the a dvdevra (Collitz-Bechtel 4560). — The list of names which followed 
is lost. 

202. On a stele similar to the preceding but without the pediment. 
Height -68 ; breadth -50 ; thickness -12. Above the inscription is a relief, 
for which see p. 1 58. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4441. 

[Of ariT]ridevT€s eiri 2i8eKTa' Ae(g)ii*axos | 'Ovafr^icX]ris UparoviKOV 

(j$)ibvos 

The writing is extremely careless, and as the surface of the stone is 
badly worn the greater part of the catalogue is illegible. Previous editors 
have contented themselves with reading the first line. In line 2 I read 
DNACI . . HCTTPATONIKOYPIAYOC. In the following lines 
isolated letters only can be distinguished. The editors, except Foucart, 
have read [of <nrj;]&Ves M Sidocra Ae^ifidxov Foucart (Le Bas-Foucart, 
note to No. 163 a) reads AEZIMAXO . which he restores as Ae£t- 
(iaxo\s\ in which he sees the first name of the catalogue. I adopt this 
reading for the following reasons : — 

(1) The stone seems to me to show an C rather than a Y as the 

final letter of the word. 

(2) StSeKTa Aegipdxov is inadmissible: 2. rod Ae£i(idxov would be 

required. 

(3) If we read Acgipdxov, it will be hard to find room for 

a name and patronymic between it and 'Ovao-ificX]^?. 

Perhaps this Acglfiaxos is the same as Acglpaxos nparoXa of No. 203, 
I.4. 

203. On a bluish marble stele with pediment. Height -90 ; breadth 
•50; thickness -12. Broken in two pieces. Above the inscription is 
a relief, for which see p. 158. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4440 ; Michel 990. Cf. Ziebarth, Das griech. Vereinswesen, 
p. 64. 

Of o-iTTjQevrcs «rl N«oic(X)[«]oy | Evpv&dvacrva 2i$eVra, f(ep)[«a]. | Tvutidprjg 
2t8«ra, Upevs. | Aeglfiaxos UparSXa. j | 2i(5e<ra? UparoXa. | AafMOKparibas Evdapitia, 5 
&i8vos. I Ttpotiapos Aapoorpdrov, yepovcria[s]. \ * Apicrropevr^s 'Apioropmfo'ja, 
c(p(o)pos. I QiXoaTparos 2a>Kpar«os, i>opo(pvXa£, || AivoKpdrrjs AivokXcos, yvvaiKO- 10 
[vd]pos. I UparoXas Aegipdxov. \ AapoKpdrrjs 'ApKrjroJ/cpaTi'Sct, K.dpv%. | EvKpdrrjs 
EvpvKpdrfos, (idvTts. \ KaXXiKpdrrjs Nikwvos, avXrjTas. || Ni/tai>8pidas Nt/co/ad^ov, 15 
Kidapiards. | EvdaipoKXrjs (EvbaipoicXeos), SiSuV^laXos, Kara vopov. \ AapoKpdrrjs 
(AapoKpdreos), apxtreKrav. | MavriicXr)s 2axrtKp\dT€os\ yXvfavs. | AapoKpdrrjs 



34 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



20 (AapoKpareos), xP vaa>T< * s - 
Aafioxapiaos, Kara vopov. 



$>i\a)vlba\s\ $iX<oi>ida, KapveoveUas. I 'AptoT07roXis 
UparoviKos e£ Il€p(pl\as, KKaxrrds. | 'imropedoiv 
25 Niicdvdpov (ne)tavias. | Nt/co/cXJJs ck Tvi/Sapous, ^iXii/07roioy. || 'AvdpdviKos NikokXcoj, 
Kadaprfjs. \ ZtjXcotos ck Havreipias, ypaparevs. | Adpiirnos *Aya0oKkeos, poyevs. \ 
30 2re<pai>oy «£oi/3i'8a, dvcrywoo-ray. j Nmc[j7 ^(popos iy Aapoarpdrov, vnrjpeTas. 1 1 Aapoicpd- 
rrjs Ava'nnrov, 7rapo^o?. J Evvous- |£ 'AptaroKparfoy, dproK07ros. | KXeaS/a Kvpias 
1 AKapavrias, are^avonaiKis. | $iXo8ap.os e£ EvOvicXeos, pdyipos. | AiokX^s Kvpias 
KaWtarfopLas, d<f>aretv. 

Forms of letters A0T72(l>Yn: slight ^m. L. 1 NIKOK/ OS. 
L. 2 end. Il d . The copy of Conze-Michaelis (Annali, 1861, 39) gave 

StbeKTa ; hence Meister (ap. Collitz-Bechtel, ad loc.) conjectured 

lepeia, though the other editors marked no gap after 2t8eKTa, and this is 
confirmed by my reading. L. 6 Bl AY02 is certain. L. 7 TE^OYZI/i 
is plain, confirming Meister's conjecture : previous editors have read 
IEPEYZ,TE.OIE andT..OlZ. L. 8 API£ T o/V\ENI. And QPOZ: 
the second word is certainly 'Apioro/um'Sa, not 'Apioropepeo* (Mullensiefen 
and Collitz-Bechtel after Dressel-Milchhoefer) : the fourth letter from the 
end seems to me to be XI rather than O. L. 9 SHKIATCOS appears 
on the stone, bearing out Meister's conjecture laxpareos: 2G>o-[i}cpareos 
(Le Bas-Foucart 163 a) is certainly wrong. L. 10 I read, with Foucart, 
T YN A I K O . . M 02. L. 14 N 1 1 n M O 2 : the conjecture NiWos, due to 
Keil, is supported by my reading. L.15 NIKu/AA <OYKIOAPIZTAZ. 
L. 20 <t>IA.QNIAAE has been engraved on the stone by error: the 
reading KapveoveUas is certain, as also Aapoxdpiaos in the following line. 
L.23 r CI AN I AS is a false spelling for raok L. 24 YIAINOTTOIOS 
is quite distinct. L. 29 NlKM<t>0P02: the fourth letter has never been 
H, nor has it been corrected to A ; the outer lines are strictly vertical, 
unlike those of the M elsewhere employed in the inscription, showing 
that the lapidary began the letter aright and then finished it by error 
as an M. L. 30 T7AP0X0Z. The last letter is quite distinct. 
Between lines 32 and 33 is a vacant space of one line. L. 34 
A<t>ATEIN. AOAPEIN was read by Welcker-Henzen (Bull delV 
Inst. 1844, 145) and by Vischer (Inscr. Spart. VIII. p. 16): the latter, 
however, adds a note ' attamen p minus certum mihi visum est! 

204. On a massive stele of bluish marble inscribed in front and on 
the right side. Height 1-95; breadth -90; thickness -18. The stele 
originally had a projecting portion on the r., but this has been 
cut off, carrying with it the 1. hand portion of the second in- 
scription. 

C./.G. 1 241. Cf. Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. p. 382, note 1. 
In front : — 

*Aya$oK\rjg 2re(f)dvov | diafierrjs Aipvaeav em Ha^o-ucpaTovs, imrdpxas em 

5 2t|8eKra, empeXrjrrjs noXeos || em 'lovXtou Xapi£evov, dyopalvopos em Seirelpov, 

yepovyrias em Apurro^ovKov, vop.o\(pv\a£ em ' A<p6ovf}rov, I ov /cat IwnapxovvTos 

10 Ka\ || dyopavopovvros cne8r)\nT)(rev rfj rroXei 6 6ei6Ta\ros AvroKparcop Adpiavos, | 

15 [e]<popos enl 'Attikov, | [cjirl ' ApiaroveiKiba yepovcrias to ft, || [e](ir)i 'AXucdorov 



INSCRIPTIONS 35 

ypa^pparevs) fiov^as. | [*E](<£)opoi em Ta(tov) *lov\iov | [E]v8dpov, hv irpeafivs | 
['A]v8poP€iKos Sevoicpdrovs, \ 'lovXios *AXe£ay, || Uofaios) Mefiptos Aapdprjs, | 20 
IIo(7rXios) Atkios *Ovr]<Ti(popos, \ Tvxvrnros TlatriKXeovs. \ 

*E(pop(oi) em Kao-(cri'ou) 'ApiaroreXovs, hv irpievfivs) \ KaWiKpdrrjs (KaXXi- 
Kpdrovs) &ovayos y \\ &tXoK\r}s (&ikoic\eovs) Mvd(<Ta>vi) /cat Av(Tifi(dxco) kcl((tis), | 25 
Nepfitvios Norjros, | nd(7rXios) AiX(toy) NiKavbpibas /3ov(ayos), | ['AJttoXXwmos 
'Epdo-Tov. I NopocpvXaices &v jrpfja&vs) \\ Topyioov KXeojSouXov, | Niicrjcpopos 'Apiaro- 3° 
Pov(\ov) /3ov(ayds), Uaa-iKXrjs KaXXiKpa(Tovs) /3ov(ayds), | IId(7rXios) M(ep,pios) 
Ilfpi/cX^s /3ov(aydy), ndK(xtos) Xpvaoyovos (Xpvaoyovov) vea>re(po&). 

On the side : — 

okXtjs ( okKsovs) tov I [$i]XoKparovs | (t)os kcu vnep\ \ov 

Aapov[i\\ \8i\(a)PeTT)S Ai\[p.va]eo)v «ri 'Api|[oro]KpaTovs, | [dya>](p)odeTr]s \ [rav] 5 

(p.)eyd\(OP Oi\^pavi(o\v em IIparo|[Xdov Or -vUov, vcfyxcxfcvXag e\[m Aictyvaiov, 10 

ye\[povai]as e'm KaiVa|[poy, e\popos em || [Avcri ?](7r)7rov. | s EvKpiuov(s), \ 15 

[ypapp]crro<£vXa| | [eVt ]oy, fiideos M j [7rarpoi>]opov Avahmov || [rov $tXo]- 20 

Xapeivov, xpeoj[<£vXa£ ?] «ri 7rarpoj>d|[/zov] (M)epptov Ilt'ov, | em irarpovo^jiov 

T(atov) 'lou](X)iov EvpvKX€'|[ovs, yepjovcrtas eVi 7ra|[rpoi/(J]/Liov 2fC7rd/i|[7rov tojC 25 
Kkewos, I [o-i^SiKaw eVi | {TTarpo\v6pov 2etT€i||[p]ov, ecpopos \ [em 7ra]rpovo'pov 30 
Ti@(epiov) I [KXa]v(dioi>) ' Apurrofiovkov. 

Forms of letters 

AeHHSS (twice in coi. ii) o o n TT E E 0. 

The free use of ligatures and contractions is a feature of this inscription. 

Column I. L. 3 The true reading is StS/xra as in Fourmont's 
copy, not leideicTa as in Boeckh's transcription 1 . L. 4 irokeos, not 
7roXfoff. L. 23 Fourmont read APIZT0EA5Ej the stone shows 
APIZT0"EA5s, TE being in ligature. L. 31 Fourmont's copy 
shows APIS TO, Boeckh's transcription 'Apio-To[pov\ov]. The true read- 
ing is APIZT0B6bS, i. e. 'Ap«n-o/3ov(Xov) /3ov(ayo0). 

Among minor points it may be noticed that in 1. 8 the stone 
has 0YAAI, not <DIAAI; in 1. 10 EfTEAH, not ETTIAH; 
in 1. 32 fc, not fc; and in 1. 34 XPYSOTONOS j NEft"E, not 
XPYZoroNOZNEOE. 

Column II. L. 1 The true reading is OK AH 2, not 0KH2 (see 
footnote). L. 13 Boeckh. Kato-a ... I think there can be little doubt 
that we should restore Kai<ra[pos] here and in No. 374; from Le Bas- 
Foucart 286 b we know that Hadrian accepted the title of eponymous 
patronomos for a year. L. 2 1 I restore xP f0 [<l>v\ag] : c ^ Dareste, Bull. 
Corr. Hell. vi. 241 foil., where evidence is cited for the existence of 
XpeocpvXdKia at Aezani, Ancyra, Aphrodisias, Chios, Philadelphia, Smyrna, 
Kos, Knossos, and Jerusalem. To this list must be added Nacolea in 
Phrygia (C.I.G. 3847 b) and Amorgos (Bull. Corr. Hell. xii. 232). The 
XpeotyvKdiciov was an archive (cf. the terms dpxelov, ypap.paTo<pv\dKiov ) &c, 
ap. Dareste, loc. cit.) for the deposit of private contracts and judicial 

1 This error and that in Col. II, 1. 1, were pointed out by Martha {Bull. Corr. 
Hell. i. 382, n. 1) : • II y a peu de fautes dans la copie de Fourmont : Boeckh les a 
d'ailleurs corrig^es. Aux lignes 3 et 4 on lit sur le marbre 2t8eKTa, comme Ta copie" 
Fourmont, et non StiSc/cra, comme l'a corrige Boeckh. A la ligne I de la seconde 
colonne on lit ok\t}s, et non oktjs.' 

D 2 



36 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

decisions. The spelling with o is much commoner than that with «: 
e.g. in the C.I.G. the former occurs fifteen, the latter three times, 
though Boeckh has in all cases corrected the xP e °- forms. Cf. xp«°KOTre<», 

Xp€a>Kon€<o, xpeoXvreo), xpffflXureo), &C. # L. 24 Boeckh writes (11. 23-25) eVt 

TraTpov6\ixov EvpvKK^atvos ? vel Eirpvick^ovs ? | ycp}pv(Tias. To this there are 
several objections: (1) Fourmont's text gives \ 10 Y at the beginning of 
1. 24; (2) six or seven letters are wanting between the end of 1. 23 and 
the first preserved letters of 1. 24; (3) the name EipvicXeav does not, 
I believe, exist elsewhere (see below). The restoration Art izarpov6\[tiov 
r. 'Iou](X)i'ou Evpvic\c\[ovs, ycp]ov<rias fulfils the required conditions. LI. 26, 
27 Boeckh's restoration 2«7ro'/Li[7roi; toO | Evp]vicXe(ovos is too long for the 
space ; and there is no evidence for the name EupufcXeW. The article is 
indispensable, and cannot be omitted. 2fnr6p[nov ro]v KX«Wo? seems the 
most probable conjecture, and the name KXeW is a common one in 
Laconia(Nos. 205, 1. 20, 206, 1. 46; Collitz-Bechtel 4459, 4472, 4473). 
LI. 28, 29 Boeckh reads [o-v]p8ikg>v eVi [rovs] vopovs eVi [?raTp.] . . . ov: on 
the difficulties of this restoration it is unnecessary to insist. For the 
eponymous patronomos 2«V«/xor (i. e. Geonpos) cf. col. I, 1. 6 : in all 
likelihood the 'Apioro/SovXoy of col. I, 1. 7 is identical with the Tt/3. Kkav. 

'AptordjSovXoy of COl. II, 1. 32. 

205. On a large stele of greyish marble, with pediment and with 
projection below for insertion in a socket. Height 1-28; breadth -58; 
thickness -22. At the top is a hole filled with lead. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4445. 

Taivdpiot cm Ka\\iKpaT€Os' \ [Tip^OKpaTTjs AapotcpaTcos. | [NJiKofajrpaTor 
5 Aiavos. I [$»i]Xo£«>os Evapcpicovos. || \^A\prj£m7ros AapoKpdrec^s]. j [U^aaiacvos Hcuri- 

\k\cos\. I [N]ucoKpaTT]s 2trro[jLi7rov]. I [0]aXtos Av'igevida. | \A\dpi7mo$ Evapepida. \\ 
10 [B]eiSt7T7rof BftSiWov. I [NJi^KX^f Evrux&a. | [' A^picttokX^s ('ApioTOKXeos). | [Ajapo- 
15 Kpdrr)S 'Acppobio-iov. | QikiTrrros KaXXtcrrparov. || [K]aXXtACpaW8aff (KaXXucpa-ri'oa). | 

'Ayrja-tviKos Aa^apcof. | AijSuff EvfiaXneos. \ 2rparaw ^rpdroavog. \ *Apx^apog 
20 f Aya^o[»cXco]s. || KXtatv KaXXitcpdreos. | BiAas NiKai/Spov. | Aapdprjs *Apx<&vos. 
25 % Apiar6bapos 2a[p,]ta[p]xo[v], | TtpoKpdrrjs Atoi>v<rooa>p[oi/]. || QiXoicXfidas Kapnov. 

AapoicXrjs ' Apio-ToKpdrcos. \ [S]€vokXtjs Avoripdxov. j \A]ia>vidas Avaigevov. | ['A]p^- 
30 gnnros Evavyekov. || [Xjapipo? TopytaSa | [KX^wKi'Sas "Ayio?. | [A€i]w/cpar>7S Acivo- 

35 *Xeos. | [Nvf]Xas 'Apurropeveos. | t7T7ros "2r)piirTrov. || <E»i[Xi]7r7roy | 2a)o-tKpareos'. | 

40 'UpoKkrjs ('icpotcKeos). | [XJaipGW [ ['AJyatfoKXeoM. || . . . Idas Adp[rrov ?]. | 'A^mjs 
45 A«u*crpi[aSal. | M[d]i/m* | 2ixdprjs Teiaap evov . | rpa/nfiarejvs]* || 'ApirrTOKXrjs \ 
50 <I>tXoiUKifia. j KdpvKes' | [Aajp^oKpar^y, | Eva u]epo$. \\ AvX[r)r]ds' AapoKp[aj\Tib[as] 
55 Aap[o]*cpaTfo$ > . | nataviai* j 'AptOT<5Xa?, | [EuSjafiiSa?. || [Toi> a\]u cpepa>v' | 'Ayt- 

reXrjs. \ KoaKrrjp' Evvo\ys]. \ y Emyp[d\<pa)V 2auWo[s]. | Mayeipos" 'AptW. || 
60 'O^orrois* 0vpcro[s]. j BaXawvs* | Aiovvcrios. 

Forms of letters A E O TT Z! . 

Since the stone was last copied several letters have been lost, 
especially at the 1. margin and the bottom 1. hand corner: the whole 
surface of the stone is gradually disintegrating and small pieces are 
falling off. Except that letters no longer existing on the stone are 
enclosed in square brackets my text agrees with that of Collitz-Bechtel, 
save that in 1. 41 I read with Foucart AevKTpi[dda] in place of AevKTpi[ da], 
there being abundance of room for three letters after the i, and that in 



INSCRIPTIONS 37 

1. 55 I read top <r\v <f>epa>v with Conze-Michaelis (cf. No. 207, 1. 51) 
in place of a\v (f>epa>v. In 1. 40 there is space for three, or possibly four, 

letters before Lbas and for three after Aap : Aapfcuvos], suggested by 

Foucart, is, I think, too long a name for the space. L.51AAMKPATEOZ 
has been written in error, as ETTirP<l>nN in 1. 58. 

206. On a stele of white marble, with pediment ; at the foot a pro- 
jection for insertion in a socket. Height -75; breadth -42; thickness 
• 15. At the top is a circular hole. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4446. 
Taivdpioi I [fWi ' ' kpuTTopaxpv | [ Apiar]d8apos ' ' ApurTOicktida. \ [Aap]oKpdr^s 
Aapiavos. || QikooTparos <fri\<ovi8a. J ~SiKd(rnr7ros 'AvridikKeos. | NiKavdpidas Ev- 5 
fcXetda. I 3>tXo*X?)?. I KaXXiTeXrjs. || Topyiinros Topylavos. \ UdkvKkrjs Terap- 10 
Ticovos. I Iloaidnnros Tatov. | SiWAXkiVttov. | IIoXvj/tKos IloXXia. || ' ApiaroiepiTos 15 
Efvoorpdrov. | AapoicXrjs 2ia>vida. | KXeavSpos 'AXicapevcos. | Xapigcvos. | 'Aptord- 
fiapoy NiKO/cXtoy. || IloXvi/ticijs 'Ayrjaimrov. | Ttpa-yopoy Aaarpariha. | Mcvavdpos. | 20 
HparoviKos. \ Ae^ivtKos 'Ovacriickfida. \\ Kpareas Ttpaydpov. | 'ApioroKXei'Sas 25 
'ApKTToddpov. I 4>t'Xa)i/ 'Avbp'ia. | IloXv/cXfiSaff *Avbpia, | [SJtStKTas AaKimrtda. \\ 
Eepo(f)dvr)s(Eepo<f)dv€Os). | NiKdo-i7T7ros MeveKpdreos. | AapoXas ^tXo^cVou. | NedXas 3° 
KaXXtKpan'Sa. I [sVpaTios 2ot|ta8a. || ['AJpicrroSiAcoff 'ApioTOKpirov. | 'AptaroKX^s 35 
IIoXuoTpaTiSa. 1 [ Alpiorai'Spoy IloXuaiJ/eiSa. | npardj/iKos AapoviKiba. | 'Oj/do-ai/- 
6por Tipoyevejosl. || KaXXiKpdrj;? Eufidpou. | TipdXay Tdpa. | Topycos Kopei'Sa. | 40 
ropya>7ras 'Aftpia. | 'Apiordoapoy Eei/oxdpfo[sj. || Tpapparevs' \ KXeW f£ 'Ay^ras. j 45 
Kdpv/ces* I npardw/cos 'E7Tiorpdrov, | Evdpepos (Eiapepov). \\ Haiaviai' | 'Apiord- 50 
Xas, I UparoviKos Avaipdxov. | M(d)i>m* | 2ixdprjs Tiaapcvov. \\ AvXrjrds' | Aa- 55 
poKpartdas AapoK parcels]. | 2io(j)6pos' \ UXovtos |£ Evpvfiavdao-as. | 'Emypdtycw' [| 
Imvmos. I KoaKTrjp' I 'AyircX^s. | 2iu(f)a.T6pos' \ Aiovxktios. || Mdytpos" | 'A7roXXd- , 
dcopos. 

Writing neat and careful, with small, well-formed apices. Forms 
of letters A E METIS. Date : first century b. c. 

My text agrees with that of Collitz-Bechtel, save that a few letters 
have been destroyed since Blondel's squeeze was made on which Foucart's 
text (Le Bas-Foucart 163 d) rests. 

L. 4 we can read either [Aap]oKpdrr]s (Foucart) or [&ik]oKpdTj)s 
(Conze-Michaelis). L. 17 the reading KXeavdpos is certain. KXe'avopos 
'AXxapeveos occurs again in No. 242 and in Collitz-Bechtel 4449, 1. 18. 
L. 42 Topy&s is a shortened form of ropyanag (1. 43): the reading 
is certain. In 1. 49 Conze-Michaelis rightly read Evdpcpos (Evapepov): 
Foucart, followed by Collitz-Bechtel, omits the patronymic. L. 53 
MANTIS. 

207. On a stele of greyish marble, with pediment. Height .95; 
breadth -50; thickness '15. At the top are three circular holes. The 
stele was found according to one account in the lower part of the town 
near the Eurotas, according to another in Magoula. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4444 ; Michel 991. 
Taivdpioi enl ' ApiaroKpariba' | KAedpa^os 2rjpav8pi8a. | Tipav 2r€(f>dvov. | 
IlokvSdpas ndkvoTpdrov. \\ 2re(f)avo5 27/piWov. | ' Apio-TOKpdrrjs. | Tipatv Tt/xo- 5 
kXc'o?. I 'Apioroytvrjs 'ApioroKXcos. | KaXXtaSas EvdatporeXeos. || "2'iiroprros 10 
S/pov. I KaXXtdda? KaWncpdrcos. | KaXXtKpdn/s Evpa>\la>vos. \ 'Apia-ribas KX«o- 



38 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

15 ddpov. I "Aparos Ac&Kpdreos. || Xaiprjpcov KaWiviKeos. \ 'Apelvmiros AapoKpd- 

T€Og. I 'Apiavros 'ApiaroviKov. | KpanaroKas 'ApiordXa. j 2recpavos 'Srecpavo- 
20 AcXe'os. || NUavBpos TlavToickeos. \ NiKodapos Nt/cta. | 'Apio-TO/eX?)? &i\ea. | 2^- 
25 pmnos Evgcvov. | ^inopiros ' Apiorrobdpov. \\ FLpaTokas 'ApiaTOTipov. | IIpaToWo? 
30 KaXXiKpareos. | SikXt/j "Sayrrjpida. | Ti/mokX^s KXeeoi/oy. | *Ay« Srparioi;. || Miwa>j/ 

Mvaa-tffparfos. | Geaw MvaaiKparcos. | Aapeas NiKta. | 'Apto-ro/xa^off IIao-iKX[eos]. I 
35 Kparaipevrjs 'Ai/8po/i€i/[eos]. || AapdyrjTOs TipoKparejos]. | 'Iepap^os 'Ap^i7r7rov. j 
40 $i\6<ppa>v Soida. J 'AX/CKTOtSas 'l7r7ro8apJovl. *OXi>/i7rtd8ap 'OXup.7rid8[al. || NtKO- 

H^drjs Nt*fia. | 'Ayr)p.a>v FLepiicXeos. | $iXoKX?)r Tipo£evov. | Tapa? TtjMoXa. | 
45 Kapvices* || 'Apxiras 'ApioroKXeoy, | KXfa>ia;/ios KX^Topos. | Mai/rts* | ' Aperiinros 
50 Avaimrov. Av\r)rds' 'AptordSa/ios. || Tpapparevs' KXtjvikos. | T6i/ trtj/ (fyepcov' 

Evdcupioov. 'Emypd^aV Ei/dpepos. | Kotaicrfip' Ev/3ios. | Mayeipos* KTT)o~i<pS>v. 

Forms of letters A ETTZ<j) ; very slight 0/>z'<r<?.r. 

The only difficulty in the text is the question whether the names 
1 ApiaTodapos and KX^ikos in 11. 49, 50 are followed by the sign denoting 
that their fathers bore the same names. Conze-Michaelis, followed by 
Collitz-Bechtel, repeat the names : Foucart, with whom I agree, saw no 
trace of the sign of repetition. 

208. On a cylindrical shaft of bluish marble, with slight indications 
of fluting. Height -94; diameter -38. Broken at top and bottom; the 
inscription, however, is complete below. 

Aapeas * Apapdvrov. | r(dtoy) 'loiikios $iXepa>y. | 4>i\ovp.€v6s Samjpida. | Av- 

5 atKpdrrjs AapoKpdrovs. || Aapovmos (AapovUov). | HoXvcvktos Aiowaiov. | 27rap- 

10 ndrrjs 2a><ribdp.ov. | EvSaipaMov EvKTrjpovos. | 'ApeiW Evtvxov. || NikokXtjs 

KXecovos. I M(apKoy) OvXmos ^A^BovrjTos. I 'SirovbonoioL' | Neucdpav 'Apeiovos, | 

it; AapoviKos (AapoviKov), || Qeo&vos <&i\epa>Tos. \ Aeovras, brjpdo-ios. 

Forms of letters AE0AZZ (once C) <$>£!; slight apices. 

209. On a cylindrical shaft of bluish marble. Height -91 ; diameter 
•36. 

— [A\<E%ip,dxov to ft \ ['Io-jo^pvaov | [KaXjXtKpanSa | 

<$iXo[*X]«)v(s). 

Forms of letters A A G E M K : the form of g + is especially 
to be noted. The surface of the stone is much damaged, and of the rest 
of the inscription nothing remains except traces of a Y over the £ of 1. 1. 
Owing to a fault in the stone the x of L * was written a little above the 
line : the ov following it was twice written, once in the same horizontal 
line as Acgipd, the second time continuing the upward direction of the a*. 

210. On a stele of bluish marble, cut into three blocks for building 
purposes. Height -76; breadth -6; thickness -15. 

Le Bas-Foucart 173 a. 

Tcpovres [iir\i r(tuov) *Iov(\iov) $i\oK\ida, $>(v) | 7rpeVj3vs Aio[(pdv]rjs 

NiKia to e. I Tt(j3fptoy) KXavSio? Ni*c[t7r7ri]8aff vos (Nucinirida) to 8'. | 'Apio-ropetnjs 

5 ['EttJikt^tov to y . |[ 'Apicrrow/a'8a[s E]vrv^t'8a to y'. | AapoKpdrrjs <£[iXtp]a>Tos 

to y. I Tpdpios Tpa[vio\v to y. I 2d>av8pos Tl[p,]a)vos to y. \ NiKOKpaTrjs 

10 [Nt/c]oj3ovXoi/ to y . || 'ApioTo/3ios 'Afpio-JTo^tov. | 'Ayia8ac Aa/x[oKp]aTi8a to y'. | 

'ApicToncX^ff [KaXjXt/cpaTovj to j3'. | Ti(/3e'pio?) KXau8toy AaJ poKpaTTjs to $ ?]. j 



INSCRIPTIONS 39 

'Amo^oj *Av[no^(ov (Zfv£)[i7T7TGH Ka(tnff)]. || Ti(fiepios) KXavbios 'A[ppojviKos to j3\ | 15 
'AXegtfiaxos [2a)]r/7pt^ov to a. j *A\kciotos T[i/^o](/c)ptrov to /3\ | Ti/noKXqs 0[eo]o*a>pov 
to ft. I 2a)AcXt'5as K[Xe]a)j/upov. || XaXivos XaX[tVo]v 'Ej/vpcwriaSa Ka(o-ts). | 'UpoKkrjs 2 o 
*If[po]icXeovs 'Ej/v/xajrjmoa Ka<riyj. | NtKtas Te7-[apr]iWoy. | [ c Iep]oxX^s A[e£]i7T7rov. | 
['Api<r]roKX?}[s KajXXucparous ve'(os). || [ypap/z]aTf[is* r(atoy) 'l]oiJ(Xtoff) IIa)AAicoi> 25 
e Pou<£o(i/), I (a)y (— — ). Mayipos to y' J Map(*os) 'EnacppodiTos. 

Forms of letters A E M ^Z 6 NE : the writing is elaborate, 
with marked apices. 

The only material points in which my copy differs from Foucart's 
are 1. 19, where the stone shows 2a>K\t8as, not 2a)K\eldas, and 1. 26, 
where I read A < J< before pAyipos, with the consequent correction 
ypap.p.aTc[7s] (1. 25) for ypajxpxLT^ys], In 1. 1 4 I read Ztl.=.lHil.i2l '. 

Foucart's copy shows X0Y2 For the phrase to &Zi>i icao-iy see 

p. 20, § 27: Zcv&nitos occurs only here as the name of an eponymous 
patronomus. 

211. On a fragment of a slab of white marble; the top and 1. 
hand edges are preserved. Height -37; breadth -58; thickness -18. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 380, No. 3. 

Tfpovrfs hr\ M(apKov) 0[vXrriov\ | 'A<pdovr)TOV, &v 7rp[eo-/3w] | 2a>at7roXi? 
Eu8ap.o[v], I Ilf ioribap,os T«po[/cXeoy ?] || (N«*c)[i](as A) (o) - . 5 

Forms of letters AEGMScJ) : very slight apices. 

In 1. 1 Martha restores o[v\mavov], for which, however, there does 
not seem to be sufficient room on the stone. The M. OvXmos y A<pB6vryros 
who occurs in No. 208, 1. 11, is probably the same as the patronomus 
of the present inscription. The restoration Teip^Kparovs], proposed by 
Martha in 1. 4, is too long for the given space. In 1. 5 he reads 
|JFI| iA?"~E~A~in : I seem to see a A after the 2, but between 
that and the O all traces of letters have disappeared. 

212. On a fragment of a stele of bluish marble. Height -15; 
breadth -35 ; thickness «o8. Complete on the 1. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 382, No. 8 : a fragment of the longer inscription 
C.I.G. 1248. 

[T(j3(fptos) KX(avSW) 'A](pi)<r(TOTf)[X?;s | <f)iK6Kai\(o-)ap mi 8«catd(r)[aTos] 

(s) 2fpa7r/co[j/]os | — diaros .... (io)s Aap.o jj — T)g NikokX(J))[s 5 

(NikokXcovs). I $iXoj/«/a'&ae *iX(i)[7nrov]. | Xpvaepas (Xpvaepa>Tos). I MapKos 
Aa(n)[oicpdTOvs]. \ ' Apicrr68(a)[fios Ni*ca — -] || 'Apior[ortfios Ev8aifioicKeovs]. | 10 
(0,o) - - 

Forms of letters A 5Z <P : prominent apices. 

Fourmont's copy (C.I.G. 1248) omits altogether 11. 3-5 and II. 
L. 1 r.ZiuiL. L. 5 ..H2NIK0KA' •<. L. 6 Boeckh had corrected 
Fourmont's OIAHNIKIAA to *iX[o]wjctdo[4 L. n «»"?. 



40 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

213. On a column shaft of bluish marble. The upper part is broken 
off. Height -40; diameter -35. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell i. 385, No. 13. 

5 NeW, I Aapdpov(s (r)[vv]\€(}>q^os, 7rpeV(j3)[vs] | pofio^vkaKuv, \\ UpoOvrrjs 

€ir\ I NiKi'a narpovdpov. | NeW (NeWoy) vlbs o"irov\do<j>6po[s] < 

Forms of letters AEoMTTEOQ: very slight apices. 
Writing careful and regular. The sign at the end of 1. 8 seems merely 
ornamental. Martha read N«[aw] | Aapdpov[s] \ tyrjftos, kt\., but at 
Sparta an ephebus could hold no magistracy at all, while Neon is head 
of the college of vopo^vkaKcs and has previously been Upodvrrjs: he 
has, moreover, a son old enough to be a <rnovbo<f>6pos. On the stone 
I see AAMAPOYl^. 

214. On a block of white marble, complete on the r. and 1. 
Height -25; breadth -39; thickness -20. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4457. 

5 [dy^opavdpos eVt Uaailpaxov. I "2,vvap\oi' | KX^iWoaff KXrjviKeos. \\ 'Ap«r- 

lo TOKpdrrjs | 'Apio-TovUov. | TLfuricrTpaTos | 'ApiaTwr7rov. | [Aa^p)oviKtdas \\ 

Forms of letters AME; slight apices. 
Date : probably first century b. c. 

L. 3 ' ZYN APX das Wort ist abgekurzt/ Collitz-Bechtel. Though 
indistinct, however, the last two letters of 2vuapxoi are certainly visible 
on the stone. Foucart rightly read Ueia-ia-Tparos (1. 7) and ■' ApiaTinnov 
(1. 8) as against the Tcio-iW/xztos and 'Ape™ . vnov of Conze-Michaelis. 

For the formula of the inscription compare No. 216. 

215. On a block of white marble, broken on every side ; the inscrip- 
tion, however, is complete above. Height -38; breadth -42; thickness 
about «i7. 

Le Bas-Foucart 168 a. 

TouXios N€iicr)<f)\opos. J e<p]opoi eVt AvKOvpyov | [2>v] 7rp(J(r(3vs) 'Apiaro- 
5 T€t/io[s]. I . . (&)vppios 'A-yatfiajyJ. || [SejiKdaiinros Evr][pepov\. | 

Forms of letters A E © TT S ; apices marked. 

Date : reign of the Antonines. 

L. 4 Foucart reads $]ovpvios: but the letter before v, though 
damaged, seems to me to be <j> rather than o, and I have, though not 
without some hesitation, written . . ($)vpvios, the two vacant spaces repre- 
senting some praenomen. L. 5 [N€]ucdai7nros is certain: Foucart reads 
[N]«cao-t7T7roy. 

In C.I.G. 1244 (11. 13-18) we have a second list of the ephors of this 

year : ["E(f)opoi\ cm AvKovpyov fov Trpca&vs | reipos, | 'Aya&'ay, | 

rjg 3 2«8«cra avve<f)r)l3o$ } | nrnos Evrjpcpov, | aTijs. Our 

present inscription enables us to restore 11. 14, 15, and 17. 



INSCRIPTIONS 41 

216. On a grey marble stele, with pediment and acroteria. Height 
•62; breadth 32; thickness -05. 
Collitz-Bechtel 4452. 

'AyrjcriviKos 2a>|jcXetoa eVt/ie(X)[?7]|ras eVt Aapdp(e)os. Ivpapxoi' || IloXvKXrjs 5 
rop|yiWou. I Aantmros 'A/3o|Xr;rov. | TipoKpiTOS 22c\\i>a>POS. \ KaWiKparrjs Av|/eet- 10 
vov. I $iX6p.ovo~os 'iejpd^ov. 

Forms of letters A E TT E ; exaggerated apices. 
For the formula of the inscription compare No. 214. 
Date; probably 1st century b. c. 

217 a. On a stele of bluish marble with pediment. Complete on all 
sides. Height -64 ; breadth -36 ; thickness '09. Found in the field of 
D. Matalas to the east of the Acropolis, outside the wall. 
Collitz-Bechtel 1379 ; Dittenberger a 482 ; Michel 312. 

'Etti i€pcnr6\ov rot 'ATrdXXom rot 'A /mot Qcv86tov tov Sebrcoi/os' ' Apalicropieos, 
ypappaTeos 8e rat /3ov|Xat K\edv8pov tov Avkictkov 'Ava\\iCTopi€Os 7 trpopvdpopos 8e 5 
Soma \rpov tov SamWos 'AuaKTopieos, koi o~vpnpoppap6pa)P 'Apiordp \8pov tov 
^Apxecrrparov Qvppeiov, | 'AXeltud^ov tov Kapfia/xtWoy Ai\\p.vaiov s 3>tXtcrrtWos 10 
tov Ae£di>|5(p)ov Marpo7roXtra, pypos Kot;po|rpd7rov e8o£e toll fiovkai /cat | rot kolvoi 
tg)V ' ' AKapvavcav Trpoi-ePOVs\ elpey /cat evepyeras tov koivov || tcop 'Aicapvavcoy Kara 15 
top vopop rd(p)|yti> 'AX/caueVeos, Aa/xaialdap \Ai>|§poj3ovXou, Aaxdpr) 'ETrrjpaTov 
Acucffiaipopiovs, avrovs kcu eicyopovs, J /cat elptv avrols da-cpaXeia-y /cat a||crvXtay, 20 
/cat rroXepov /cat elpdvas, j /eat yds /cat olicias eyKrq&iP, kcu | to. dXXa Tipua /cat 
<pi\dp0p<t>7ra 7raj/|ra o<ra /cat to'is aXXots npo£epois | /cat evepyerais tov koipov tSup 
' A\\<appdpa>p imdpxci. 25 

The letters are carefully inscribed : the lines show a slight curvature. 
Forms AAMXY. 

Date : the second half of the third or first half of the second cen- 
tury b. c. 1 

217 b. On a large stele of greyish marble, with pediment and acro- 
teria : at the foot is a projection for insertion in a socket. Height 1-15 j 
breadth «5o; thickness -14. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4430; Vischer, Inscriptiones Spartanae partim ineditae VIII 
(Bale, 1853) No. 1 ; Michel 181. Cf. Swoboda, Griech. Volksbeschlusse, 
pp. 108, 141. 

H66080P 7Toir)0~ap,€Pov Aaulcovo? | tov QeoKpiTov ' Ap/3pa/cta>ra 7rept | Trpoi-epias 
/cat eneXdoVTOs eni | re tcls avpapxias /cat top 8d\\px>p /cat d7r6X.oy10-ap.evov <$ tjp 5 
7re7rot|[j7]/co>s evxPW Ta /cat /caret koipop /cat | /car I8iap rots ePTvyxapovaiP t&p 
njoJXtraf, efio£e rait 8dpa>i rrpo^epop | elpcp ras 7rdXeoff Aauicova Geo/cptrov || 
['A |/it/3pa/ci[co]rai/ /cat avrdp /cat eyyopovs, | [/c]at V7rdpx*w dreXeiap avreot re /cat 10 
e-y^yjoj/ots /cat -yas /cat olxias eyKTrjo~iP | [et] ot(»c)oif(^) e'X Aa/cecWuoi'f 6 be 
ey8o\(r)f)p eySdrc* ardXai> XiOipap, els dp || aVaypacpetcra d 8e8opepa npo^ep'da) I 15 
di/are^^o-erat ety ro tepoi/ rap 'AOdpas Kara avpypacpdp, dp /ca ypdyfrei 6 dpxiTelic- 
T(op' to 8e dpdXatpa 86ptg> oi Tapiai' | incuviaai 8e ovtop /cat eVt Tat ep\\8apiai 20 
/cat dpao~Tpoqbdt at 7r€7rot?;rai | ei/ rat TrdXet* /caXeadi/TO) fie avrov I /cat 01 lepoOvrai 
en\ £epta enl rap <oi\pdp eariap. 

1 Michel — ' 2* moiti^ du IIP s. av. J.-C ; Foucart — ' vers Tannee 220 ' ; Collitz — 
1 kurz nach 200 v. Chr.' ; Dittenberger — 167-146 B.C. 



42 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Forms of letters AEOMTTZ. 

Line 13 beginning. Vischer gives very hesitatingly OI""()IEXA» 
Foucart reads O I K O I E N E A remarking that the third and seventh letters 
are doubtful, and that on the 1. one or possibly two letters are lost, so 
that the restoration of [el] ot[ic]oIe[i»] <?X AaKedaipovt naturally suggests itself. 
Meister (ap. Collitz-Bechtel) reads oi[ie]o[wi»] eX, but had he seen the 
stone he would have recognized that Foucart is justified in regarding the 
01 . OIE. as certain, and in maintaining that one or two letters are lost 
at the beginning of the line 1 . 

Date: 221-220 b.c. (Foucart); after 188 b. c. (Swoboda). 

218. On a stele of white marble with pediment and acroteria. Height 
• 72 ; breadth .33 ; thickness .04. Found in the field of Georgopoulos 
at Magoula. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4501 (pp. 41, 145) ; Bull, de TE\cole Fran$aise cCAthtnes, 
p. 57. A facsimile of the inscription is given by Preger, At hen. Mitteil. 
xxii. 334. 

'Op0ciTj bSapov A(\ovt€vs aviBr^Kt fioayos ft\jr\' 

5 fiaav pucrjo-as \\ Kal rdSe enaffka | Xa/3a>i/. /3^X' 

Kai ft eoreyjre 7ra|r^p elaapidpois | eveau ^yjr\' 

Forms of letters AE0TTZ+: apices slight. Between the first and 
second pentameters is a vacant space of slightly less than two lines, pro- 
bably intended for the insertion of a second hexameter. The sum total 
of the numerical values represented by the letters amounts in each line 
to jS^'i i- e - 2 73°- 

219 + 501. Two adjoining pieces of a thin stele of white marble, with 
incised pediment and acroteria. Height -47 ; breadth -29 ; thickness '03. 
Complete except for the 1. hand upper corner. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4500 (pp. 41, 145) ; Bull, de VMcole Fr. cTAtftines, p. 57. 

5 [Aya3§ tv^jj' | $t\r}Top j &ikr)Ta> | eVt naTpo\\v6pa ro/)|yt7r7r<» to> {Top- 

■yi7T7ra>) j veucaap ncavav | 'Aprefiin Bapaea | dvearjicc. 

Forms of letters AETTZc)); slight apices. Line 1 is inscribed on 
No. 501, the rest on No. 219. The groove which held the iron sickle (?) 
is almost complete. 

Date: reign of Marcus Aurelius. A striking example of late 
archaizing. 

Written in ordinary Greek the inscription would run : 'AyaOjj tvxti' 
&ikr)Tos $ikr)Tov «ri irarpov6p.ov Topyimrov tov Topylimov viKr}<ras KtavavQ) 
'Apre/xtSi 'OpBLq dpeOrjKe. 

220. On a stele with incised pediment, above which on the 1. is a 
palm branch and part of the groove for the insertion of the sickle. Part 
of the 1. edge is preserved. Height -55 ; breadth .40; thickness -05. 

1 Meister appeals to Vischer's facsimile where no letters are missing at the beginning, 
though he quotes Vischer's opinion that the space before AaKe5aip.ovi is sufficient for 
about ten letters, of which he tentatively gives eight. 



INSCRIPTIONS 43 

Collitz-Bechtel 4499 (pp. 46, 145) ; Wide, Lakonische Kulte, p. 326. 

*Aya6q j rv^a. | M(ap*op) Avp(jj\iop) Zev^imrop 6 *c[at] | K\tap8pop &i\opovo~a) 
U\\pcvp AevKurniScov teat Ttv8apt\8av } fiovayop piKKixi88ope\pa>p eVt irarpovopu 5 
IIo(7rXic«)) AiXi'a) J AapoKparida to> 'Akicavdpida, dp\)(iep€op rat 2c/3aoTa> Kal tg>j/ || 
[#]«W npoyovaiv a>ra>, <£iXo[K|aio-]apop /cat (pi\o7rdTpt8op, at[a>|i/i'a>] dyopavopa, 10 
7rXei0Toj/[aKa> | 7ra/3a5]d^a) *al aplara 'E\Xd[va>p, | PCtAcdjap KCKro-rjpaTopiv, [pcoap ? || 
'Aprje/LttSi Bcopdea dv[e6r)^K€v. *5 

Forms of letters AeGMlC^O). 

My text agrees with that of Preger (Collitz-Bechtel, p. 145), except 
that I retain «[«] in 1. 3 and do not alter to icfe]. For the spelling Tiv- 
SapiSai/ (1. 5) cf. No. 447 and Collitz-Bechtel 4552. 

Date : reign of Marcus Aurelius or Commodus. 

221. On a stele of white marble. Height ^25; breadth -40; thickness 
.04. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4498 (pp. 40, 145). Cf. Wide, Lakonische Kulte, p. 100. 

|o? koi "N€ncf)(pop\os ol "SeaajcpSpov | pciKdavrep Ka<r\crT]pa.T6ptv 

pS>ap KatX[a)]||ai/ *ApTepi8i BoapBeq duleBrjKav «ri 7ra.Tpop6p\ov Mdp(icov) AvpCrjXiov) 5 
SiocrtvfiKov I tov Neindpcopos <£(t)[X](oYi<ai] ((rap)[os *cat 0tXo7rarpi8osl. 

Forms of letters A 6 M C CO : workmanship careless. Above the 
inscription to r. and 1. are the ends of the hollowed grooves in which 
were fastened the sickles (?) dedicated to Artemis Orthia. 

Date : reign of Marcus Aurelius or Commodus. 

Line 4. The last letter may be O or (0 ; Preger adopts the former, 
Foucart the latter. Line 8 $1 °. Line 9 C * P. 

222. On a stele of white marble, broken on the 1. and below. Height 
•45; breadth -22; thickness -08. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4496. The reference to Hirschfeld's publication of this in- 
scription should read Bull, detf Inst. 1873, p. 189. Add H. von Prott, 
Leges Graecorum Sacrae, fasc. I, No. 14. 

— — — Ait TaktriTq | — — — \kcu Av£rj\o~iq kqu Aapoiq f a> dno 

tov irapo J — v pepiba deov II — — — — — ov 8e ovdcvbs — — \dp\(pi- $ 

dfKaTiq (pot I — — 8a>p apiarov ra | — — o dtOaa/eaXw aX | 1 

popos KcoXvei || top apros eWe | j3a, Kpeas Tp'iTOP | — 10 

[^]otvi^, rvpov to I Tp&yava' rais 8i \ — s Tpicucddos iroi || 

— v 8vo ak<piT0iv I — — as Tpayava crirov | \$k\piao-iov vov- 15 

previa J [c\(dcnrv)eiTav koi | [x]{oipia) po. || — — 

Forms of letters AE^TTCH. 

For a discussion of some of the points raised by this inscription see 
Alh. Mitteil. 1904, p. 9 foil. 

L. 1. For Zcvs ToXfTiVas see Wide, Lakon. Kulte, p. 18, 216, 219 
foil. L. 2. For Av&foia and Aapoia (Aapla) cf. /. G. iv. 1539, Le Bas- 
Foucart 286 b, Hdt. v. 82-87 (Aegina), Pausan. ii. 32. 2 (Troezen), 
Baunack, Stud. i. 64. L. 6. dp<pi8cKaTia, the twenty -first of the month. 

L. 8. Von Prott reads to &6ao7cdXw and conjectures c/eao-jro) 8. L. 17. 

The first of Phloiasios: cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. $\iovs' AaK€8atp6viot t&v 

prjp&p ha $\ido~iop KaXovaiP, and Hesych. 3>XvjJo-ios' 6 'Epprjs. kcu prjp Tiff. 



44 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

L. 18 a — i— M£ # L. X p ^iniA. Von Prott conjectures tov 

napohrros] (11. 3, 4); [r*X?](e)ou 8e (1. 5); *oi'|[j3<p] (11. 6, 7) ; dX[</uVo>i>] (11. 8, 
9); [ic6XXv)9a (1. Il); rvpov rofifios] (11. 12, 13) aww|[d] (11. 1 6, 1 7). 

223. On the front of an altar broken below. Height -25; breadth 
• 22; thickness -16. The altar has a moulding above, on which is 
inscribed 1. 1. In the upper surface is a hollow in the form of a shallow 
bowl. At the four corners are ornaments in relief, perhaps representing 
birds' heads, while at the back is a crescent in relief. 

All V^IOTG) I fV)(T)V. 

Forms of letters €Cy*CO. The inscription is complete. Beneath 
1. 2 is a leaf in relief. 

224. On a fragment of a stele of white marble, broken on all sides. 
Height -20; breadth -30; thickness -n. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4439. 

(°" a ) 7r / 3 (°) I Kai a7ro8td<BTi ras Kara£[i'as] | 

apara' y KprepiTtov ras a j [apxo\vr(s ineKpivav' eVel 

5 ras 7ro\eo[s] || Kai nXetopois 01 apxovres 6ekov\res | 

7rpa\ypja.T(0V tSuv vncpxpovovvrtop a — | — — [rjovs evKaipovvras ev 

8ia<j)6pois tg)(i/) I [8i]a0o[p]a ko\ (TvvenCkafi'eaBai tg>p ko[ivo>v 

I o xp T lf i( * Ta>v I ov^fs' iv Ton 8' vivkbei^av, Start J| [ovk 

akXav ^jpetai/ eto^/cei, fj & ttoXis 8t(or) | v de on iirjaav 

de I — • fior vrjs a{v)[r 

Letters clearly and carefully cut: forms AAE0 0T7; apices very 
slight. Date : second or first century b. c. 

My text agrees with Foucart's (i. e. Collitz-Bechtel) except in the 
following points. L. 1 is omitted by F. I read ^.wTTPv/ above the as 
Kaofl 2. L. 7TXIF. THIM.N.T. L. 9 TniAYF. THIA-Y 
M.N.T. L. 10 nOAIZA v F. nOAI£Al n ~ M. N. T. L. 12 MO 
F. MOT M.N.T. u^a F. 'NHrA^ M.N.T. 

The restorations are due to Foucart except 1. 8 xPW" Ta>v an< 3 1. 10 
ovk aWav, suggested by Meister (ap. Collitz-Bechtel). Foucart reads 
Kara^ias x<*p i ™s] in 1. i, [yjrrj(f>i]a-fjLaTa in 1. 2 (where Meister conjectures 
[TeXejoTiora), and [ol apxovjres in 1. 9. Meister proposes [xprp^drap in 
1. 6 but the ynara>p is clear. Between 11. 2 and 3 is a vacant space. 

The document is too mutilated to allow of any restoration, but 
from 1. 7 it would seem that it has to do with overdue debts to the 
Treasury. 

225. On a fragment of a massive stele of bluish marble, broken on all 
sides. Height .30; breadth -34; thickness -18. 

IvrP I Idas 'Api(TTa>v[os ?. | Ha](a)iKpaTr}s ([Ua]o-iKpaT€ os). | 

g imv N«ti[a]. || Xear AapoK\e[os]. | [bap. Pjowjct'Say Aapoijc) | No/no- 

JO 0vXa[ic]ff I tos . . . . nos I [KaX](X)ucpa[r]i8as 2 || [&i\6](£)€p(os 

ee)[o£tvov?). 



INSCRIPTIONS 45 

Letters very broad with marked apices : A E E JX. 

L. 10 r EN nT * or *. Perhaps we may read [e]((f>op)[oi - - 
in 1. i (cf. p. 10). 

226. On a white marble stele with projecting cornice above. Height 
•35; breadth -25; thickness -03. 

Zain 'EXev|#fp«H f Av\r<ovivoi j 2a>rrjpt. 

Forms of letters A E © E >IX : in 1. 1 the Y is written inside the 
E, in 1. 3 the final I inside the O. Above the inscription are two palm 
branches, a wreath, and a leaf. 

227. On a block of greyish marble. Height '37; breadth -42; 
thickness -30. 

Le Bas-Foucart 189 (?). 
Zavl *EA€v0|eptot ' Avra>V€l\vot Sarrjpi. 

Forms of letters AE0CH. Above the inscription is a wreath 
between two palm branches. 

This is probably the inscription published in Le Bas-Foucart 189, 
though the forms used there are OS. 

228. On a fragment of a circular base of greyish marble. Height -32 ; 
diameter .47. 

Zav\ 'EXev|0fpioi *Ai>|ra>i>«Vot | Samjpt. 

Forms of letters A E ^ P W . 

228 a. On a circular base of white marble. Height -20 ; diameter .40. 
Said to have been found to the north of modern Sparta at the foot of the 
Acropolis hill. 

Zavl I 'EXtv&pux | % Avr<oveLvoi J 2a)rj}pi. 

Forms of letters AEOCft- On the 1. of the inscription is a palm 
branch, on the r. a wreath, branch, and another object, perhaps an ear 
of corn. 

229. On the face of a block of white marble, consisting of a fluted 
column cut vertically through the centre : broken at the top. Height -47 ; 
diameter .21. 

[Zavl I 'EX«>]|0ept|oi *A^||ra)ji/iVot | 2a>|r?)pt. c 

Forms of letters AoOSCO. Below the inscription a leaf. 

230. On the shaft of a column of greyish marble: height .71; 
diameter -22. The column is fluted in the lower part of the inscribed 
side. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4494 : to the references there given add Cauer a , 35. 

[Zjaiu I 'EXev&jpioi nal | 'OXu/ZTn'Hoi ' AvTtovet\vot 2a>TJ)|pt. 5 

Forms of letters A ©2(0: ligatures O and t€. Below are two 
palm branches with a wreath between them. 



46 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

231. On a block of white stone. Height -36; breadth -23; thick- 
ness -13. 

5 Zavl 'E\\fv0e\pioi , Av|rG>j>ft||i>oi 2co|r^pt. 

The letters are very carelessly incised: forms ABOC-n.. Beneath 
the inscription are a wreath and palm branch. 

232. On a block of white stone. Height -35; breadth -15; thick- 
ness -13. 

5 Zai{l] I 'E\6v|de/uot | 'Avro||vciW | 2a>Trj\pi. 

Forms of letters A € C Cl) : very slight apices. Below the inscription 
a palm branch. 

233. On a block of bluish marble. Height -47 ; breadth «3i ; thick- 
ness -08. 

Dressel-Milchhoefer, 438, No. 15 (?). 

Zavl I 'EAevtfe/n'oi | ' Avra>vei\voi *2<oTrjpi. 

Forms of letters A E C (0 : apices slight. Above the inscription is 
a wreath between two palm branches ; below it, a leaf. 

The inscription seems to be the same as that published by Dressel- 
Milchhoefer, though they represent the final pi as forming a fifth line. 

234. On a stele of bluish marble, with a projection at the foot for 
insertion in a socket. Height -48; breadth -28 ; thickness -16. 

5 Zav\ I y E\ev0c\pioi 'Avtg>\v€ivoi || Scorrjpi. 

Forms of letters AEOC-tl: apices slight. Below the inscription 
are two palm branches with a wreath between them. 

235. On a rough block of greyish marble, with indications of fluting at 
the back. Height -68; breadth -21 ; thickness -15. The surface is very 
much worn. 

5 Zav\ 'E|Ae(v0)e|(p)[>'](o> % Av\r\^)v^{yo)i (2)a>|[r]^t. 

Forms of letters A E H © JX : apices slight. Above the inscription 
are a wreath and two palm branches, below is a leaf. 

236. On a stele of white marble, broken at the top. Height -48; 
breadth -22; thickness -13. 

5 [Zavl I 'E]Xfv&|pio* ' AvTG>\veivoi || Sovr/Jpt. 

Forms of letters AE0CH. Below are two palm branches and 
a wreath. 

237. On a stele of white stone, with projecting cornice. Height -35; 
breadth «2 2 ; thickness «io. 

5 AvTOKpd\Topos 'A\8ptavov | Kaiaapos \\ ^arfjpos. 

Forms of letters A O C 0). 

238. On a fragment of a white marble stele. Height -28; breadth 
.33 ; thickness -15. Part of the top and r. hand edges is preserved. 



INSCRIPTIONS 47 

C. Bursian, Bull, dell' Inst. 1854, p. xxxv; Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 384, 
No. 12. 

rrjs I — ix°^ QT l s \ [A](oyy)«'ww tov | — (s) tou a-yeovoy 

reoy || [dyapo6](?)Tov 7W /i€-yaXa>*> | (M)ap(/cov) Avp(r/\tov) NapSou 5 

T0 {) J [-ypap/x^ayreoos £e [ ov \ — — 

Letters thick and unskilfully cut. Forms AEZH : apices slight. 
The restorations are due to Martha, except in L 3 \j\ iEINOY. In 
1. 4 Martha conjectures [tov fieyia-]rov dyS>vos and at the beginning of 1. 6 
[Ev/3vkX«W]. 

239. On a cylindrical base of bluish marble. Height -42 ; dia- 
meter -28. 

AvTOKpdropos \ 'A($)piavov Kaiaapos 2f/3aoro{) | 2(orrjpos. 

Forms of letters A E C £X 

The lapidary has written 'Krpiavov by error in 1. 2. 

240. On a cylindrical block of bluish marble, broken above. Height 
• 55; diameter -20. 

AvTOKpd\Topi Kaia-api | 'Adpiava 2o)|r?Jpt. 

Forms of letters AC CO. 

241. On a fragment of a stele of bluish marble ; only the right edge is 
preserved. Height -15; breadth -40; thickness '15. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 383, No. 9. 

o\ (r\{rp)aTayoi /cat & nokis AaK€bai\[povi<ov icpopois k]cu too. iroXct 

vaipwf nodobov J \noir)aap.evc0v tAot'l re rov f3ov\\ap kcu rap tJfackmtrUv — — — ro\v 

AeovTos Alcrxpiwos t[ovJ Aio"^/3co||[voy — —IproXtTav Kal €P<pavi£op.(e)p[a>]p 5 

7re[pi] — (cljxov <a\ 'inirodpdeog tov {l7nrodpd)\€Os . 

Forms of letters AfEooZ<t>.Q; no apices. 

The restorations in 11. 1 and 2 are due to Martha. L. 1. Before 
oi <TTpa.Ta.yoi there is room for a word of about ten letters ending in -a>p 
(or -av), giving the name of the state from which this letter comes. For 
the formula cf. No. 262. L. 2 XAlPEiN; Martha gives X A I P. . . 
L. 3 Martha restores Troirja-dpcpos (?), as parallel to ipcpapifav in 1. 5 (see 
note ad loc.) : the construction, however, demands a genitive absolute. 

I restore fiov\[dp Ka\ top fjftKkifvUar]: Martha reads pov\d[p ] k\tj, 

L. 4. The t[ov] after Alaxpia>pos, omitted by Martha, is certain : he reads 
. . . vXeoyroff, but we have plainly in the early part of the line a proper 
name (containing about six letters) of which Acoptos is the patronymic. 

L. 5. The editor writes [pos ] wok&ra* <a\ ip<pavi^ai\v Tap nc . . . . 

The first word, however, is clearly the ethnic giving the state to which 
the two persons referred to belonged, and must therefore be written 
— ttoKitclp. The third word I read EN<t>ANIIo/v\EN. N, a hitherto 
unknown use of the middle of ipfyavifa 'to declare/ L. 6 Martha 

reads 6oK\eo(y)s tov On the stone I see 

A XoYKAlinnoOPAEo5ToY' — nn P A. K imro6 P d^ stands for 

'liriroOpdo-ris as 'OpatTeXrjs for 'OpaaiTeXrjs (Le Bas-Foucart 283), Avigepidas 
for Avc-igwtdas (No. 205), Sohpikos for Saxruwcor (ibid.), p.£>& for pwa-a, i.e. p.ovo~a 



48 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

(Nos. 218, 221), &c. The name 'iTTTroSpdoys is, I believe, unknown else- 
where, though 'Imrodepo-rjs occurs in I.G. ii. 1454. 

242. On a fragment of bluish marble; only the upper and 1. hand 
edges are preserved. Height -17 ; breadth -46; thickness -16. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 380, No. 5. 

v E(<p)opoi £ir\ M I AafioKparibas. | K\eavdpo$ ' A\ica\ p,€vcos\ | Aa/i(o)- 

**fi]« CA)pi(o-ro) . 

Forms of letters A n Z. The surface is much damaged. 
L. 4 Martha reads Aa/x . . X . . ra . . or, but I can see no sign of 
a T before the second A. My reading is AAM r KA. 2API VTrfc . 

KXeavbpos *AXKap.«/eoy figures as Taivdptos in No. 206,1. 1 7, and as yepov<rias 

in Collitz-Bechtel 4449, 1. 18. AafxoKkrjs 'Apio-ro — is probably the 

Aap.OK\rjs ' ApiarroKparfos of No. 205, 1. 26. 

Date : first century b. c. 

243. On a fragment of a herm. Height ^35 ; breadth -29 ; thickness 
.25. See p. 159. 

Le Bas-Foucart 175 c ; Dressel-Milchhoefer, p. 368, No. 158. 

Tbv irdvra a\pioTov kcx\ d^iokoyayrarov) | SeKorov nofxn[rj]\ 1o v ^ OvaatKpc^rr) (| 
5 (^OvacriKparovs), top d<jvv\Kpi^Tov [k]oi . 

Forms of letters &6MZT7C : apices very slight. 

Date : reign of Antoninus Pius or Marcus Aurelius. The same man 
appears in a list of dyopavSpoi (Le Bas-Foucart 168 b), and as dpxiepcvs t5>v 
2€j3a(TT«i/ (C.I.G. 1357). 

244. On a block of stone, with cornice above. Height «26 ; breadth 
• 19; thickness -15. The top edge is preserved. 

Conze-Michaelis, Annali delV inst. i86i,p. 45. 
5 [Ai>]roKpd[Top]\os \ ['A8]piauov | [KJaiVapoy || [2<ott}](p)[o9 ?]. 

Forms of letters ARC; the form of the p is specially noteworthy. 
The final v and s of 11. 3, 4 are written inside the preceding O's. 
Conze-Michaelis read in 1. 2 >10GK, proposing the restoration AvroKpd- 

ropos Kaiaapos Tpaiavov *ABpiavov l€(3(aoTov) kol A. AtX. KatVapos ktX., and 
remarking that ' il segno nel principio del v. 2 sembra essere ornamentale/ 
A closer examination of the stone shows that the K at the end of 1. 2 as 
well as the >| at its beginning is a later addition unskilfully scratched on 
the stone, and formed no part of the original inscription. 

245. On a block of dark grey stone : complete above and on the 1. 
Height -39; breadth '32; thickness »ix. 

Le Bas-Foucart 183 b. 

' AvrliTarp\os rov deivos p,voTa}\ya>ybs drrb Q^y^pairvSiP J j o-rparevad- 

(/x)[ei/os Kara Hepo~5>v\. 

Forms of letters AA EG FT Z. 

The restoration is that proposed by Foucart, who suggests that this 



INSCRIPTIONS 49 

' ' AvriiraTpos may be the father of the priestess KXav. 'Ayrjra 1 'Avrnrdrpov 
(Collitz-Bechtel 4519). The reference in 1. 3 is to Lucius Verus' cam- 
paign against the Parthians in the early part of his reign, or to those 
of Septimius Severus or Caracalla (Wolters, A then. Mitth. xxviii. 291 foil.). 
Compare the inscription published afresh and fully discussed by Wolters 

(loc. cit.) MapKOs AvpfjXios "AKegvs Qeavos, OTparcvcrdpcvos Kara TLepo-cov, err} 
&ia>o-as X' (Le Bas-Foucart 203 b): C.I.G. 1253 NcikokKtjs veos, drjpLoa-ios, 

€<ri{pa\T€[v^xcvos Sis Kara IIepo{a>]i>: C.I.G. 1 4 95 Aioovcopa, X°"P e dneXdav 

8i els rfjv furv^eoraT^v <rvvpa\lav ttjv koto. IIe[p]o-a>i', Kai eirave^p^xPfxevos lv 

C Iepa7ToXt CT€\€VTT)(r£V. 

246. On a fragment of a massive stele of bluish marble ; complete on 
r. and 1. Height ^43 ; breadth -57 ; thickness -18. 

C.I.G. 1365, 11. 7-15 ; Ross, Archaol. Aufsatze,n. p. 658, No. 16 ; C. Bursian, 
Bull, del? Inst. 1854, P« xxxv « 

— — \yv\\p.va<riapxov rrjs re lv roig j SXXois S.iracriv avrov 7ro\\€iTcvpa<riv 
p.€ya\<mpeiret\ag Kai rrjs Im rfj bevrlpq yv\\p.vao-iapxia, rjv avroBev | faftflif, ■ 
darvvKpirov Kai J dwircpjSXfjrov rrpovoi\as re Kai (piXoretp.ias, J npoo-be^apev^s to 
dv\\ aXcopa . 

Forms of letters A©nS({) : slight apices. 

The inscription when complete ran : 'H 7roXts | 2«c(otoi/) Uopfwijk*) 
2irdraXov | 'AyaOoKXeovs (piXo^Kaicrapa koi (pCXonarpw, rbv |j 8\s yvpvaaiapxov 5 

Kai na \rpovopov Ka\ aloaviov yvmvatriapxov, ktX || irpoo~8e£ap.evr)s to 1 5 

dv\d\a)pa rrjs aepvordrrjs | Kai irdvra 7rpcDrr}s yvvai \kos avrov AvprjXias Seva>s J rrjs 
Evru^ov. 

247. On a fragment of a bluish marble stele, complete on the 1. 
Height -i8; breadth -35 ; thickness -17. 

ra(i'off) *Iov(XlOf) — I rd(ios) 'lov(Xios) KXeo<pavros. j 1 Aya$ias 2g>o-ivik[ov 

Or -0*1 I Aafxov€iKi8a[sj. 

On the back of the stone is the inscription : 
lr)S. Tlpareas, 8r)p.6a(ios). 

Forms of letters AEGMEQ: marked apices. In 1. 2 the 
vr are written in ligature, fl". 

In 1. 1 only 1 Alui I is left. In 1. 4 the reading is probably 
AafxoveiKi8a[s] (Aap.ovciKi8a). On the reverse we have ArMO^iv^-. j for 
the drjpoaiot at Sparta cf. Nos. 208, 275. 

248. On a fragment of a greyish marble stele, broken on all sides. 
Height -65; breadth -55; thickness »2 2. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 381, No. 7. 

- •— — iff {Set)Kay(6)[pa\. \ - - (s) ' Ay a6oKXe(o)[vs]. \ - - [Kp]drr]s 
(- - [kpYtovs) T(ata>t) Avo-iir[ira)i Ka(o~is)\ \ [6 8e?va (rov 8eivos)] Evpv/cXeT 
Kd(ais). || das ' ApioroKpdrov[s]. | s 'A^atKov. | [ Api]o-roKpdri]s Ka/it'XXou. | 5 



1 Collitz-Bechtel have omitted to notice the publication of this inscription in Ancient 
Greek Inscriptions in the Brit. Mus. ii. No. cxlii, and have consequently retained the 
mistaken form Aavayfjra. 



50 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

'Api\o~Topevr]s (['AptjorofzeVous) EupvxXft [Ka(o-ts)]. | [Qe^o^ 1 ^ 05 KaXXwcpart'Sa. || 
10 A](a)poKkf}s (^A]a[xoKkeovs) 6 km *iX[o]Kpcin;[s]. | ['O^o-tyopos EuSa/xi'Sa. | 
2]axrii3toy ([SJaxnjSiov) Tftcraperan [Ka(<riy)]. | [NJetKOKparjyy NeiKap^ov. | [$i]Xo- 
Kfjdrtjs 0eo8a>pov. 

The letters are large and irregular, and the apices very prominent. 
Forms AeSO^Q,. 

The only points in which my text differs materially from that of 
Martha are the following : in 1. i he reads . . . rj[fi . . . . i]mr . . . ; in 

1. 9 . . 6<fii\os KaXXiKpa(rous] ; and in 1. 1 1 ['O^vrjaKpopos .... [ai/jTtSa . . . 

The readings given above in 11. 9, 1 1 are, however, certain. 

249. On a block of bluish marble. Height -085 ; width -42 ; depth 
• 13. Complete above and on the 1. 

2<0KpaTi8as Aafi — — — | AapoKparls 'Ai> . 

Forms of letters AMEfl : apices very slight. 

250. On a fragment of a stele of bluish marble, complete only on the 
r. Height -45; breadth -18; thickness '09. 

c <c i I .Q I I _ I — — (a)v rod Xv I aXfxijarav | aiv avrds || 

Trjprja-av | — — aOtio-av nF | av re km to \ ovovavaar | — — fie km 

lo tovZ» || — — (a)avros avrovs | — — [ajuTcoi/ a/«ra(p) | — — tovs nepl *Api 
115 — — («►)• fioi/ras a(t>)|[r] — — row «'s ra' | — — [7rc](7r)oir)KevM r(a) 
[ Tf ] Tr }P r ) K * vat I [A](u)/eoupya>i kcl | "X**' ^ r (°) I (°) ' 

Forms of letters AEKZH ; slight apices. 

251. On a small rectangular base, with a moulding at top and bottom. 
Height «2o; breadth .34; thickness *•!. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4506. 

'OXvfinLxa \ AevKTpiddav t[6j>] | irarepa rjpaa. 

Letters clear and well cut. Forms AEHMTT-ru 
For the title ffpcas given to the dead we have from Sparta this 
example and two others — No. 589 and Le Bas-Foucart 203 e (Evddpov 

rjpaos). 

252. On a base of white marble, with a moulding above and below. 
See p. 159. Height .31 ; breadth -53 ; thickness -47. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 385, No. 14 ; Dressel-Milchhoefer, p. 374, No. 181. 

'Eniyovov QiXoarpdrov | fta>p,ovUr)v dvSpelas €ve\K(v f 7rpo<r8e£afi€vcop to j 
5 dvaXa>fia &oi(3i(ovo$ km *E7rt ktittov to>v dde\<puiu. 

Writing very careful and regular. Forms of letters AEZTTZCp. 

B(op.ovUr]s was the title given to the boy who showed the greatest 
power of endurance in the flagellation (Biap-ao-Tiyaxris) at the altar of 
Artemis Orthia. Cf. Hygin. Fab. 269: bomom'cae, quia aris superpositi 
contendebant, qui plura posset verbera sustinere. The title occurs also in 
the honorary inscriptions C.I.G. 1364 b; Le Bas-Foucart 175 b. 



INSCRIPTIONS 51 

253. On a stele of bluish marble. Height -6o; breadth i-oo: 
thickness -13. Complete. 

Le Bas-Foucart 179a; Vischer, Inscriptiones Spartanae VIII, No. 8, Kleine 
Schriften, ii. p. 37, No. 36. 

*H 7roX[ts r\ 2\fix>pvaicov T(d'iov) 'lovXiov | 'lovXiavbv rbv "biov TroXeiTTjv | 
v€tKr}(ravTa rpay<o8ovs Ovpavt\d8a y ku\ IlvBia not "AKTia /tat Koiva 'Aortas || irf 5 
ical tovs Xoiirovs dyavas irevraeTr^piKovs re Ka\ (r)pieTr)piKovs t/li', 7roX«t|Tev6Vvra 
be ev oXy rjj 'EXXadt kcli MaK( \8ovia jcat Geao-aXta. $ Kai Kprp-wv. 

Forms of letters AEOTTSn. L. 5 TIT. L. 6 IPIET. Vischer 
reads IIIET. My copy agrees with Foucart's except in 1. 5 where he 
reads 1 1 1 in place of I H, and 1. 6 where he has rpierrjpiKovs. 

OvpavidSa y (11. 3, 4) does not refer to the number of victories, but 

SB Ovpavidba rpirqp (C.I.G. 1 42 9 veiKrja-as 7rat8a>v ttoXtjv Ovpavidba Tplrqv, 

which Boeckh wrongly altered to Otpdvia [peyd]Xa TpiT^v), Ovpavids being 
a term formed on the analogy of 'OXvpmas, and denoting an era. The 
words km KprjTuv added at the end of the inscription should probably 

Come at the end of 1. 4 Koiva 'Aaias Ka\ KprjT&v, i. e. Koiva 'Aalas Kai koivov 

Kpt)tS>v. L. 6 That rpf (340) is not an impossibly large number, as 
Boeckh (C.I.G. 1420, rpf portentosum est) and Vischer thought, is 
proved by the case of Theagenes of Thasos, who won 1,200 (Plut. Praec. 
reipubl. ger. 15, p. 811 e) or 1,400 (Pausan. vi. 11. 5) victories. Vischer 
himself later accepted this reading as correct (Kleine Schriften, ii. p. 39). 

254. On a stele of dark grey marble. Height -50; breadth -96; 
thickness -io. 

Le Bas-Foucart 162 g. 
IIo(7rXtos) Meppios IIpaT6\\as Ka\ Ovo\ova-(rr)\vrj *OXvp,irixa o(i ijepeis | ttjv 5 
•ncTkav enoirjaav ck tg>v Ibioov Aioo-Kovlpois Scor^pcrt. 

Forms of letters A E TT S £~2 : apices marked. 

Cf. C.I.G. 1 261 Qeois I 2a>TTJp(rt Aioa-Kopots. | Tepovres em Ho(ttXiov) 
Me(p,piov) liparoXdov tov &egip,dxov, ktX. Foucart regards nelXap here as 
a mis-spelling of nvXav; I think, with Conze-Michaelis, that it is more 
probably a transliteration of the Latin pila (Annali, 1861, p. 47). 

L. 3 Kiessling (ap. Conze-Michaelis, loc. cit.) proposed to emend 
onfp els to ol lepels. There can be no doubt that OTTEP stands on the 
stone, but the difficulty of getting a satisfactory sense from onep els and 
the fact that we know (C.I.G. 1340) that in this family was vested 
a hereditary priesthood of the Dioscuri lead me to regard the conjecture 
as almost certain, in spite of Foucart's objection that ' il semble difficile 
d'admettre que ol Uptlt puisse signifier que Pratolas £tait lepevs, et sa 
femme Volusse'na lepeia.' 

255. On the side of a rectangular block of grey marble. Height -09 ; 
width -40; thickness -40. On the upper surface are two dowel-holes. 

*Av6eorla | X ai P € ' 

Forms of letters A E © S : apices marked. 

256. On a small stele, of which the r. hand top corner is broken off. 
Height -34; breadth -30; thickness -06. 

e 2 



52 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

*iXov<ra | x a ^P € } | * Tr l 3two"aJ(a")a /cy. 

Forms of letters A6C CO. In 11. 3, 4 Bl C0CA6A has been engraved 
in error. 

257. See p. 159. 

258. On a small stele of white marble. Height -30 ; breadth .25 ; 
thickness -04. 

2a>rr}pi8a j X a *P e > * Tr l i £*&>0"as | iC> 

Forms of letters A62C CO : apices slight. 

259. On a small stele of white marble. Height ^25; breadth -16; 
thickness -04. 

Forms of letters A E 9 ZH. 

260. On a stele of white marble. Height *28 ; breadth -36 ; thick- 
ness -02. 

*Aptov<ra | x a *P € > I /3i<k<ra<ra enj | icy'. 
Forms of letters A€C CO : apices slight. 

261. On a stele of white marble. Height .17 ; breadth -25 ; thickness 
•03. The lower part of the stele is broken off, the lower half of 1. 3 
being lost. 

Aapovcra \ X a ^P e > \ *™ v K C • 

Forms of letters A6MC UU : slight apices. 

262 + 408. On two adjoining fragments of a stele of greyish marble, 
with pediment and acroteria. Broken at the foot and on the 1. 
Height -50; breadth .40; thickness -14. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 383, No. 10. 

— — — vearav | — — [ypctyiparcvs <rvve\[bp<ov ? — — ]<ro to irepirrov /cat 

5 tl\[Koarr6v ? A](a)Kc8aipovLa>v icf>6pois \\ [ko\ rat iro\ei x a ]^P eiv ' ™ v ovrav 

Trapfl — — — — ran dp^etwt iv |3u/3XiaH | — — ypa<f)a vp.lv to dvri\[ypa(f)ov ? 
10 — — j KpaTTjs 2T€<pa[i/ov] I — — - (&)v 8iar(e)[\€l ?] || 

Forms of letters A^MSC^n; slight apices. No. 408 contains 
11. 1 and 2, the rest is on No. 262. 

The restorations are due to Martha except eifKooroV] in 1. 4 and (&>)p 
diaT(t)[\ft\ in 1. 9, where he reads ei . . and . . . . o]v dta r . . . respectively. 

For another letter addressed to the ' ephors and city of the Lacedae- 
monians ' see No. 241. There, as here, the name of the state by which 
the letter is sent has been lost. If I am right in supposing that the latter 
part of it is contained in what remains of 1. 1, we may perhaps con- 
jecture [T(]p€arav. [Op]vearav is not likely, since Thuc. (vi. 7) records the 
destruction of Orneae by Argos in 416 b.c L. 6 the Spartan tyoptiov is 
called dpx*iov in Plut. Agis 16. 



INSCRIPTIONS 53 

263. On a small stele of white marble, with pediment and acroteria. 
Height -28 ; breadth -17 ; thickness -07. Complete except at the foot. 

' E PM I X a " l P*> I «"? 0»®|[<«w -]. 

Forms of letters A CMCP. The form of the o>, with a very high 
central stroke, is noteworthy. 

264. On a stele of greyish marble, with pediment and acroteria. 
Height -50; breadth -25; thickness -14. The lower part of the stele, 
being intended to be embedded in the ground, is almost wholly 
unworked. 



Le Bas-Foucart 203 g. 



S 



Forms of letters A6CC0 : slight apices. 

265. On a stele of white marble. Height -415; breadth «2o; thick- 
ness -13. 

Roehl, Athen. Mitteil. i. 234, No. 7. 
Xaipis I Geye irov | Me(yapevs). 

Forms of letters AEOM£. Date: probably fourth century b.c 
L. 3 METAPPY". The 1 of eeyeirov was at first omitted by the 
lapidary and added later. The name eeyciros occurs at Aegosthena 
(Le Bas-Foucart 3, 1. 29) as a by-form of GtoyciTw. Cf. Evyuros, 
eedupos, QepvcuTTos, GeVt/ios, all from the Megarid. 

266. On a stele of white marble with pediment, complete only at the 
top. Height -34 ; breadth .39 ; thickness -035. 

Roehl, Athen. Mitteil. i. p. 234, No. 8. 
odeos Bohotios x a ^p[ e ]- 

Letters good, probably of the fourth century b.c. Forms AE O O £. 
Roehl reads XAIPE/. 

267. On a fragment of a cylindrical block of bluish marble. Height 
.35 j breadth .44. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 386, No. 16. 
(Sc^jcpanp- I 'Aptiovos \ yap.(3p6s 'Ap|xia6a toC [Aa/u]||oXa dyo[pa\\vopos. 5 

Forms of letters AEE; apices marked. To the 1. of 11. 5, 6 
are traces of letters written upside down. 

1/ 
6k 
k 

268. On a small stele of greyish marble, with incised pediment and 
acroteria. Height -32 ; breadth .23 ; thickness -045. 



54 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Le Bas-Foucart 2nd; Kaibel 475 ; Koumanoudes, 'AOrjvaiov, iii. 484, No. 1. 
Tpa>iXe \dipe. KaLion* 7roXXrjv drporrbv \66v dv I dvbpS>v 
Kin itovtov cnrevaas \ avvcxrj tn^i/a KvfjLara 7r\€varatv } II 
c o)ff iva croi ri Tv^r] 8<orj KaXov | i^anivrjs Tt, 

ovk eXafies X°\p ip €K Kdfidrcov <tg>v, ovde | ae yaia 
af} KaTf'^tt SndpTT], | noXv (piXraros, aXXa Kopannj | 
IO 7^ <r€ Kpaxci TVfifiois, to 7rc\7rpcop.€Pov ov Trpo<f)vy6v ra f 

reaaapaKovra fxovovs \ {jjo-avra xpdfovs eVt|avra>i/. 

Forms of letters A€9MZCV(j)a). 

Foucart reads nXevo-ai in 1. 4, but the N is certain — the word being 
seemingly a confusion between nXevo-at and 7rXeuo-«ti/. At the beginning 

of 1. 6 €^a7rivr}s Tt is plain : Foucart reads e£. rrov. aTponov (1. i) = arpcwroj/. 

The inscription is the epitaph of a Spartan merchant who was 
buried at Korone in Messenia, set up probably over a cenotaph in 
Sparta. 

269. On a fragment of a small column of bluish marble, broken at top 
and bottom. Height -32; diameter -14. 

Zrjaiov, Su/i/it/rra (Athens, 1 89 2), p. i4,No. n, reprintedfrom 'AOrjva, iii. 1891. 

cti/at] (t)o*ta J [dj/cwrocnraoTa kcu atjaiua avT(o)) d\vaKav7rTiKa>s euro p,ev 

5 Tt)s emaKOTrrjs 'AfxrjicXiov || ro a/i7reXi(o)i> tov T€pdv\ov, dnb 8e tov KpapovnSXeos 

t(o) dypidfinchov ttjs Ad^\vov ft(at) e£ ayop(ar) r(a)i> Bptcrvor[c^)^']• | els ttjv avTrjp 
10 Totrodeo-vav || x*>pa<pta(?) * a * dyptdp-neXa eXev\6epind t tva eVreX^rat) ft 0«a | 
15 XetTovpyles curbs rpi|<rt tj)s evdopAbos rjpepats, | devrepap, TpiTrj *(at) 7re/n||7rrt eV Tf 
r(S ra<p *at eV | tg> ra(pa> tov dyiou. (e)t Se | tis k[<u ToXp.r\aet diroairdaai Tt in 
TG>v clprjfjLCvav ktt)pAt<ov tov pclov, r^eVa) tcls dpas to>p TIH Qeocpopcov 7ra.Tepa>p tS)P 
eu NtKaia kcll ep.ov tov ApapTooXov + ]. 

Forms of letters Cfa ASeeHcrCU tO) Y * {j or O (= *ai). 
The restoration above adopted is that proposed by Zrjo-lov, loc. cit. 
Orthographical errors are plentiful, especially the confusion between 

o and a) : thus we have clvto for avT& (1. 2), apirekuov for dpneXiop (1. 5), 
KpavoiwJXeos for -eoos (1. 6), to> for to (1. 7), t^j/ for t<ou (1. 8) : 'Afirjickiov 
Stands for 'AfivicXeiov (1. 4), Bptavor[a)p] (1. 8) for Boucrta>r[G>»/]. In 1. IO 

X<opd(pia is represented by the abbreviation XX. 

The lands in question lay in the two dioceses of 'ApvicXeiop and 
KapvovnoXis (KpavovTrokts, 1. 6), both of which were in the archbishopric 
of AaKe8aip.ovia, though the relations of the first named to the ^TpdVoXts 
were very chequered (Zrjo-iov, loc. cit. pp. 16-18). Tepduos (1. 5) may be 
the founder or a member of the family from which the modern 
village of Topdvot (capital of the deme Phellias), situated on the eastern 
slope of Taygetus, derives its name. The village of Bpvo-is, whose 
inhabitants were called BpvaiS>Tat (1. 8), was given to George Gemistos 
by Theodoros Palaiologos, and the grant was confirmed by the emperor 
John Palaiologos. 

270. On a fragment of a stele of greyish marble, broken on all sides. 
Height «i4; breadth -47; thickness -13. 

Tod, Brit. School Annual, x. p. 76. 
['fl]i3(a) Ai/Wo>[4 
Letters good and regular, without apices AEMH. 



INSCRIPTIONS 55 

271. On a fragment of white marble: the r. edge is preserved. 
Height -165; breadth -14; thickness -13. 

iM --(fp)« 

V\AXOY --pax™ 

-UN --(?*> 

272. On a fragment of a circular base of white marble. Height -08 ; 
breadth -075; thickness *i6. 

\f 

HPAl ('H)po(ic)|X«? 

KO" *o-- 

273. On a fragment of a thin tablet of white marble, complete on the 
r. Height .13; breadth .13; thickness -015. 

C.I.L. iii. Suppl., p. 1308, No. 7245. 

SU6NUN In 1. 3 the C.LL. reads 

o€A(iPTAM /ERCEACVL, but the 

/€RCFACUL stone gives F as fifth letter, 

I B U S A D anc * we must evidently read 

I ci MM a vero facul[tatem, vel sim. 

5 ' Fortasse pars rescripti 

J T I S A alicuius imperatorii ' 

c (Mommsen). 

274. On a fragment of white marble. Height -15; breadth «i2; 
thickness -04. 

- _ 01 e' - - I - - (i)7TOfX - - I - - [S](e)i/o*cX - - | - - be a(% " - 

Forms of letters A E TT. 

In 1. 1 we may conjecture e<f>op]oi vel sim. t[m ; in 1. 2 we 

have probably part of the name 2i7ro/x7ros, 2ei7ro/«ros. 

275. On a miniature altar or base, with a hollow in the upper 
surface. Height .21; breadth -n; thickness -io. 

I — iTv|xi7nr|oy a||wm|0t S?;|(^)o(cr)i(o)[s]. 

Forms of letters <XQ flC . 5 

'Avan&i would seem to be a mis-spelling for dvariBel; the form 
ti6S> (= Tidrjfxi) is found in Lucian. The missing first word was probably 
the name of the deity to whom the dedication is made. For typoo-iot at 
Sparta cf. Nos. 208, 247. 

276. On a brick, of which one end is broken. The inscription is 
stamped in raised letters on a depressed oblong surface. Length «2 2 ; 
breadth -165; thickness '05. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4461 ; P. Paris, £latie, p. 112, No. 11 ; R. B. Richardson, 
ap. C. Waldstein, The Argive Heraeum, i. 217. 

(a) liXipdoi Bafioatai irju(y)[oljA$JMV eVi KaXkiKpareos \ ipyatva Nikchtl(»vos. 

(5) nX]iV0[oji dafioaiai [<rKavo}\0f)Ka$ cnl KaXXiKpfartos] | ipya>va NtK<urt'a>p(o)[ff]. 

(c) [H\ip0ot d](a)/iocrtat <rK(a)vo\[6r)Kas cm] KaXXucpdreos \ [epyava N]i/ca<nWoff. 



56 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Forms of letters A 6 9 C 0). Cf. No. 535. 

The inscription is stamped on all three narrow surfaces of the 
brick which are preserved, and doubtless occurred also on the fourth 
which is now lost. 

277. On the upper surface of a brick broken on all sides. Length 
.36; breadth -28; thickness -06. 

Hirschfeld, Bull. delV Inst. 1873, p. 191 ; P. Paris, JZlatte, p. 112, No. 13. 
&ikicrTeLSa[s]. 

The letters were impressed on the brick with a stamp before 
firing, and are in relief on a depressed oblong surface. Forms A6C<t>. 
Compare No. 407, and note. 

281. On a grey marble stele, complete at the top and on the 1. 
Height -45; breadth -39; thickness -03. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 386, No. 15. 

'A TrjoXts] I Aovkiov Ov[oKovaaTj]\u6v 'Apttrr — — — | Aapapovs [ a7rd-]|{ 

c yovov 'H/>a[»cXcovs] | Kai IIep<reo[$ operas | f](p)*KM9 Ka\\ civoias ras | els rav 

Letters large and ornate, A E H TT 11* : the apices are marked. 

The restorations are due to Martha. A member of the same 
family, possibly the father of the person here referred to, is the Ao(vkws) 

OvoXoa-arjvos Aafiaprjs of C.I.G. 1 438. 

300. See p. 162. 
363. See p. 171. 

367. On a stele of white marble. Height -50; breadth -17; 
thickness -17. 

5 Zav\ J 'E\ev6e\pioi *Ai>|raw«'||wH 2<o|ri;pt. 

Forms of letters A C ; apices slight. Under the inscription 
are, as usual, a wreath and two palm fronds. 

368. On a stele of greyish marble, broken on the r. and below. 
Height -29; breadth -20; thickness -io. 

5 Zav\ 'E\\evde\piot 'Avlrtomlli/ot 2a)|T^pM. 

Forms of letters A C CO. 

369. On a fragment of a stele of white marble, broken on all sides. 
Height »35; breadth -18; thickness -15. 

(y)p( a f JI ) I (v)vios Ml I (o)vras v - - | 

5 (v)os ( vov) U Bos ( dov) I [AiV]xvAos / | dapos | 

- - o(k)o\ - - I 

Forms of letters A02H: apices slight. 
L. 1 1 ?\y. L. 9 O^oA". 



INSCRIPTIONS 57 

370. On a stele of white marble, broken in three. Height .48 ; 
breadth -38; thickness -03. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 387, No. 18. 
M(apKos) TeWi ] os 0€(rara\\iav6s \ IIa\\id\\Tr)s ctg>v | £c \ x ai P € ' 5 

Forms of letters A 60M % C (0. The writing is careless and late; 
there is a tendency throughout to nourish, and to curved instead of 
straight lines. The form of £ (Z£) is remarkable. 

371. On a small tablet of white marble, with ansae at the sides. 
Height -30 ; breadth -30 ; thickness -08. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 387, No. 17. 

2a>T7jpix€ J dya0€ X a *|p e > | * T V /3i»cra|jff <y . 5 

Forms of letters A 6 C CO ; apices slight. 

372 + 500 + 568. On four adjoining fragments of a large stele of 
greyish marble. Height -65 ; breadth -45 ; thickness -09. Above was 
a relief, of which only one foot remains. 

I ihas 2o> I (a)vayopa[s\ — J (a)<TTov E | 

2vva[pxoi]' || os 'Ay(a) | Ifyaroi>(e)[iKot;]. | (s) ( ) 5 

tov 'EniK — — I — — {\)t)s Evfiaip,ovi8(a). | (p^evos "2a>rr)pida. || — — drrjs 10 

Eidapida r — — | iros $ikoxap€ivo(y). | AeKovpios $oi/3i — — | — — [&i/ 

irpQcrfivs <J>6t5e . . . wr — — | — — ov. "Ev<titoi — — |j — — (T)vaios 'Av j 15 

cvs 

Forms of letters A EMS (once C) (j) : very slight apices. 

L. 1. We may supply [' A8]avay6pa[s] or [&]apay6pas, or the name may 
be complete, 'Amyopas (Hull. Corr, Bell. iii. p. 242). L. 10. Probably 
Eu6a/itfia r[d jS*]. L. 1 1 iros Qikoxapeipov may be the Avaiiriros ^tXoxapetVov 

who appears as eponymous patronomus in No. 204, col. II, 11. 19, 20; 
C.I.G. 1242, 11. 19, 20. 

373. On a white marble stele. Height -48; breadth .20; thickness 
.18. 

AvTOKpd\ropos 'A\8piapov \ Kalaapos \\ 2a>rrjpos. c 

Forms of letters A O CU/; apices strongly marked. Beneath the 
inscription are a wreath and palm branch. 

374. On a fragment of a greyish marble stele. Height -24; breadth 
•20; thickness -065. Complete below. 

['lo]vXto[s] j [l7r]7rdpxr)[s «rt] — | ida" yepo\ymas \ iifi 

A\(a)p,7ri8os' v[opo\\<pv\](a)g «rt &aio[apos]. c 

Forms of letters AEMZFTZ. An ivy leaf is inserted as mark of 
punctuation before yepova-ias (1. 3) and vopx><pvha£ (1. 4). For Kalo[apos] 
(1. 5) cf. No. 204, col. II, 1. 13, and note. 



58 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

375. On a fragment of a white marble stele, complete on the r. 
Height -24; breadth »i4; thickness -08. 



KKK,m 


- - («M m ) 


fCONC 


(r)a>v (T 


COCAC 


a>s 8(e) 


'NTPO 


(v)vrpo 


/ AHCK 


- - (k)\t) S K 


(ONI 


— — (OVl 



376. On a fragment of bluish marble, complete on the 1. Height -24 ; 
breadth -ig; thickness -12. 

5 3>iA(o) I $iXo>j/t[8as] — — I 2(0<ruc(p)[dTrfs] | 'louX[toyJ || Neuc 

j *IovX[tos] — — 

Forms of letters 6C(|)W. The fourth letter of 1. 1 may be CO. 

377. On a stele of bluish marble. Height -40; breadth '2 2 ; thick- 
ness .08. Complete. Found near the Acropolis. In the top is a 
circular hole. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4422 ; Roehl, Imagines 2 , x. No. 30, p. 31. 
Alvrjhias | iv 7ro\efxa>i. 

Forms of letters AEMP£; H represents h as well as rj, but o> is 
represented by XI. Date — beginning of the fourth century b.c With 
the form Alvrjhias (= Alvrjaias) cf. No. 387 (Haipi^hwrTros), and No. 440 

passim (eW/«zhe, vucdhas, &C.). 

378. On a fragment of a white marble column. Height .42; diameter 
•28. To the r. of the inscribed space are the remains of fluting. 

[KajXXt/cpd|[TJ(j;)ff (KaWucpdrovs) tov I — — [t]7r(7roi>). 

Forms of letters A TT ^Z . Above this inscription is an uninscribed 
space, very imperfectly smoothed. At the top of the stone the letters 
— ui A K* f I can be distinguished just below the line of fracture. 

379. On a stele of red stone (rosso antico), with pediment and 
acroteria. Height .70; breadth -34; thickness '03. Complete on all 
sides. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4490; Le Bas, Revue ArchtologiqiU) 1844, 631; Vischer, 
Inscript. Spart. VIII. No. 6. 

KaWiKpdrrjj J x a ^P € .' \ AiokXio, | x ai P € ' 

Forms of letters A E H . 

380. On a white marble stele, the top of which is broken off. Height 
.57; breadth .40; thickness -15. 

5 — — [xcu](p)e, J [en;] £ia>|(ras k. j Xatp« |j 7rapo8ft|ra. 

Forms of letters AGTTCCO. The inscription is incised on a sunk 
panel, the top of which is formed by an arch in relief (now almost com- 
pletely broken off), resting on the projecting fillets which form the caps 
of the side styles. Before and after the C A C of 1. 3 are leaves in relief. 



INSCRIPTIONS 59 

381. On a circular base of bluish marble. Height -i8 ; diameter -38. 

AvTOKpdropoi | Kaiaapos Tpa'ia\vov 'Adpiavov (Toa^rrjpos ras AaiceSaipovcs. 

Forms of letters A6CC0. Compare No. 507 for the formula 
<t<ottjp ras AaiceSaifiovos, which is there, as here, applied to Hadrian : it 
recurs in Ath. Mitt. ii. p. 438, No. 13. 

382. On a bluish marble stele, complete. Height '62; breadth -32; 
thickness -05. 

Le Bas-Foucart 211 b (pp. 109 and 145) ; Kaibel 476. 

&av<rr€ x a W* C*l (Tas *rr) /* "~ I 
' Ay vrj pev pr\rr]p p eXo^eu(r[a]|To, nals tn Kedvrj, 

irpoiras I abewas prjgapcva Xayovav, || 
QavoTov S* avopaa-fv pe 7ra|n7p Idtrjs dno prjTpos, 5 

yivaro | §' rjWeovs Trjkvyerrjv T€ Koprjv. J 
HevBos I? ovti iKG>v xai \\nrqv J baata TfKovarj, 

polpa yap ovdc || yovrju ovXopevq ndpc fiot, | 10 

ah\d pc vrjXeicos rptaaStv fjp\7ra£cv db(\(f)a>v 

pryrpos T€ I ykvKeprjs Kovptdti^s T akoxov. 

Forms of letters A6MZTTC(j)(0: the letters are tall and narrow, 
and very much crowded together. At the end of each verse is a mark 
of punctuation (•), as also in the following metrical inscription. 

The text of the inscription in Le Bas-Foucart gives in 1. 1 670-as errj, 
while the transcriptioh shows errj Pubo-as : the former is correct. 

383. On a grey marble stele, with pediment and acroteria. Height 
•62 j breadth -40; thickness -05. 

Koumanoudes, 'Ad-qvaiov, iii. 484; Kaibel 474 a (praefat. p. xiii). 
Opem-os 6 rais Movaais dptaas, ov j eirrjveo-ep 'EXXas 

Kai Trcptypav 'Ao-w; | *a\ vocpoi /3ao-tX«s, 
ovk4ti rais | OvpeXais rais evar«f)dpois napeBpevco || 

Tfp-nva peXrj Kc\a8S>p rols XiyvpoliTi | \opoisy 5 

ovdi avvcvvov Spat <f>i\o\avvyapov ov&e ra rtKva' 
Kelpai tovtov fxav oXkov imatdiov. J 
Uapodelra xaipc. 

Forms of letters ACeMnCtO : the last line is written in larger 
characters than the rest. Between the verses are marks of punctuation (/), 
as in No. 382. 

The voepoX fiao-iXeis (1. 3) are possibly the emperors M. Aurelius and 
L. Verus (Kaibel). In 1. 6 Kaibel would emend 6pa>[v], which would 
improve the epigram, but is not necessary : certainly the v was never 
engraved on the stone. 

384. On a fragment of a stele of bluish marble, complete above and 
on the r. Height .46 ; breadth -26 ; thickness -20. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4463. 

oddpov. I — (vwxo — J — — — — iKparida. | covikov || 

* . 5 

Forms of letters A E M O Zl : apices prominent. 
The s of 1. 5 is the final letter of the line. 



60 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

385. On a block of bluish marble, complete on the left. Height -28 ; 
breadth -24; thickness -19. 

\01apT) |ovj/ros | tov eV [np\\oo-8e£a[peu .. to || d](vd\a>p.)[a 

Forms of letters AEzZ. In L 1 *g are ligatured : in 1. 2 the final 
s is written inside the preceding o. 

386. On a stele of grey marble, found in Magoula. Height -46 ; 
breadth ^24; thickness -12. In the top is a circular hole. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4420 ; David 26 ; Roehl, Imagines*, x. No. 20, p. 29. 

Alveros I iv 7roXe/uoi. 

Forms of letters A E M N P £. 

The name may be read Ahcros or aXvtjtos : both names occur in 
inscriptions. 

387. On a stele of grey marble. Height -38; breadth -16; thickness 
•08. Complete except on the right. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4421; David 31 j Roehl, Imagines 1 , x. No. 24, p. 30. 

HaLpTjh[imros] \ iv 7ro\[efiotj. 

Forms of letters AENP: B represents both h and 77. For the form 

Uaiprjhnriros (= Haiprjaimros) cf. No. 377 (Alvrjhias), Collitz-Bechtel 4592 
(Hayrjh.iarTpa.TOs), ibid. 459 x (Avhtmrov), &C. 

389. On a stele of greyish marble. Height -50 ; breadth -33 ; thick- 
ness «io. 

Le Bas-Foucart 190. 
Zavl y E\ev\dcploi ' Av\tg>V€ivoi | 2a>Tr)pt. 

Forms of letters AOZjQ ; apices very slight. Beneath the inscription 
are a wreath, two palm branches and a leaf. 

393. On a roof-block of bluish marble, broken on the r. Height -21 ; 
thickness -36 ; width .87. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4423. 

Autprjs hi(a)pe[vs\. \ Ev(3a\icr)s '0\vp.TrioviKa[s o-Ta<j)v\odp6pas\. 

Forms of letters A E M o P I. L. 2 EvjSoXkt/s = Evfakicrjs. 
For the representation of an original f by j3 in Laconian inscriptions 
cf. Evpvpavao-o-a (Nos. 203, 591), Boiveas (Collitz-Bechtel 4589), BoapOea 

(Nos. 220, 221), &c. The restoration was proposed by Roehl on the 
analogy of C.I.G. 1388 (cf. ibid. 1387). 

394. On a splinter of a bluish marble stele, broken on all sides. 
Length -16; breadth -15; thickness -04. 

u 
\?\ 

A 



INSCRIPTIONS 6l 

395. On a block of greyish marble, afterwards converted into a door- 
sill. Broken to r. and 1., but on the r. No. 548 fits on, and nothing is 
lost between them. Dimensions of Nos. 395 and 548 together — height 
• 13; breadth «75 ; thickness • 40. 

[Nuc\t)(f)op€ I [x a *p] f j «T7 j3i|[a>(ras] — Ktj pifjvas) 8\ 

Letters much larger than those of No. 548. Forms EM (J) : apices 
slight. 

It would be possible to restore [E\iri8]rj<f)op€ in 1. 1, but [NiK^opf is 
a commoner name and suits the space better. 

396. On a block of greyish marble, formed like an anta cap. Height 
•33; breadth ^65; thickness .30. From Mahmoud Bey. 

Colli tz-Bechtel 4517 ; Vischer, Inscriptiones Spartanae VIII. No. 4. 
'En - ! UparoviKov | neSiavopoi. 

Forms of letters AE on Y; apices very slight, letters well and clearly 
incised. The catalogue of names which followed is lost. 

398. On a block of dark limestone with relief; see p. 173. 

Dressel-Milchhoefer, p. 381, No. 196 ; Rouse, Gk. Votive Offerings, p. 215, n. 8. 
Aapdrpios *Errtye\v€i^ a6a.va.TG>. 

Forms of letters AE02 : the © appears in the remarkable form 2- 

400. On a stele of greyish marble, broken at the foot and at the top 
1. hand corner. Height -52 ; breadth -45; thickness '07. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 379, No. 2 ; Tod, Brit. School Annual, x. p. 63. 

['Ay]a$7 TVjfj, J *Ett1 iraTpovopov \vavn\irov tov Aapaiverov | (fiiXoKaicrapos 
Kal (f)ikona\\Tpi8os, fiibeov 8e Tl€8ovKai\ov 'EiraQpobeiTOV, dpicrTiv\dov 8e teal biaftereos 5 
avrc\irayy€\Tov AapaivtTov | tov 'ApioroKpdrovs, o-<f>ai\\pus N(otto\it&v oi vina\- 10 
arapTes Tas tafias dvefafipot' S>v npeo-ftvs \ TaXrjvos 27T6V8(a>i/) ^'n~ , |^T' 

Forms of letters AE0MnZ<j)Q; apices. L. 1 1 Martha reads &pas, and 
in 1. 13 TaXrjvos 27rev8a>[vos] J the reading &>j3ay is certain, and after 2irev8a>v 
I think I see signs of ZOZ or 2X1 S. A 2irev8a>v 2g>o-ivcikov occurs as 
dyopavopos in Le Bas-Foucart 168 b. 

401. On a fragment of white marble. Height «i6; breadth «io; 
thickness -085. Broken on all sides. 

\ZK 

404. Fragment of a stele of white marble. Height ^39; breadth -32 ; 
thickness «io. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4465 ; Wide, Lakonische Kulte, p. 66. 
[(f)](a)vr)s ycpovTfvcov | [dved^qKe tgh Ae\(f)t8ia>i. 

Forms of letters E£<t>n. 

An Apollo Delphidius is found also at Cnossus, Dittenberger 2 514, 
12; 722, 46. See Wide, op. cit. p. 87 foil. For the formula cf. Bull. 
Corr. Hell. i. 380, No. 4. 



62 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

407. On a fragment of a tile, broken on all sides. Height -n ; 
breadth -09; thickness '015. 

The inscription is stamped in raised letters on a sunk surface : the 
letters run from r. to 1. Forms C<!>. 

Compare No. 277 (^iKiaruBas) and Paris, ElatSe, p. 111, No. 7 
(Avicida), p. 112, No. 14 (^Ayadlvos), for other examples of bricks stamped 
simply with a proper name, which is probably that of the contractor 
(cf. Nos. 535, 712). 

408. See No. 262. 

410. On a white marble stele, broken on the r. and at the foot. 
Height «22; breadth -22; thickness -025. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. iii. p. 194, No. 5 ; Preger, Athen. Mitteil. xxii. 
P- 337, No. 5. 

5 MapKos Ova\c\pios OvXmavos \ *A(pd6vrfTos 2<»|(<riK)[p]arous /SovcryHoy 
pimBYdapf )[va>v 

Forms of letters AE0 2cj)n. To the r. of the inscription was the 
groove which contained the iron sickle (?) dedicated to the goddess. 
1 Fur fiiKixMofievatv scheint der Raum zu klein ' (Preger). 

411. On a stele of white marble, complete except at the top. Height 
•85 ; breadth -55 ; thickness -05. 

Le Bas-Foucart i68g. 

I J EvdaifMov (Evftaipopos), IId(7rXios) [lla ?]\<Tucpdr€i 



— rova 



5 Kao-€(i)[s). I *Ev<tcitoi' \\ 'lovkios 'Apioreas, Topyimros (TopyiTrirov) . | 2novdo- 
I0 (popof J Xpvaoyovos AiWoj. | Nop.o(pv\aK€s' \ t>v 7rpe<r(3vs Aapicov | JBe'XXa)]i>os 
/Soaydy, | ['lovX(tos) NiK](a)i/6po? N«KOKpa|[rovs /3]oa-ydp, | ['IovX(ioj) Xpvo-j(ay), || 
je [KX6o/ia^o](s) [(KXco/id^ov)] no(n\iov) M^ppiov) Aoyyeivov Ka(o-is). 

Forms of letters AETT2((): in 1. 12 IsE are in ligature, while in 
1. 15 rM are in ligature and the O is placed inside the FT- The surface 
has been a good deal worn since Foucart copied the inscription, especially 
the 1. hand lower portion. 

Date : latter part of the reign of Antoninus Pius. 

L. 2 1 o 1 must be read Uo^rrXios) with Conze-Michaelis (Annali, 1861, 
pp. 40, 41), not 'lov(Xios) with Foucart. LI. 5, 6 'lovKios 'Apio-reus and 
rdpyi7T7ro9 YopyLmrov recur on a catalogue of ayopa.v6p.01 (Le Bas-Foucart 

168 b), as also Aapiav BeWavos (11. IO, II). The XpvaSyovos Aicopos of 1. 8 

is probably the same as Map™? Avpf]Xios X. A. of C.I.G. 1381. Topynnros 
Topyimrov subsequently became eponymous patronomus (No. 219). 

In 1. 15 only <=.<FMAOITEINOYte is left. K\e6pa X os (K\cop,d X ov) 
was read by Conze-Michaelis and by Foucart. The former have the 
note ' L'ultima lettera non e certa,' but express no doubt as to the Y I 
Foucart reads Aoyyelvos. The v, however, is perfectly plain on the stone, 






INSCRIPTIONS 63 

and the fc I regard as also certain, though this reading involves two 
difficulties : 

(1) It reduces the number of vopocpvXaices from 5, the normal 
number, to 4. 

(2) It is contrary to the general rule that icdo-is takes a dative 
(cf. 1. 3)- 

417. On a block of white marble, complete except on the 1. Height 
•30; breadth -40 ; thickness -20. 

Roehl, Athen. Mitteil. i. p. 233, No. 6 ; Kaibel 471 a add. ; Hoffmann, 
Sylloge, No. 177. 

\Alveribav pe xQw IIoXvaivcT^ov ftXe Koptvtios, 

uSatiX vnep SjrdpTas iv avlvodois okofiav, 
[3 poi pvdpJ €7re8rjK€' 7rar]/)ty 8e pol iartv 'Opeioi. 

[(a\a>Tos 8' co-opai rots €7r^i)yivop,€vois. 

Forms of letters A E O M £ . Date : fourth century b. c. 
The above restoration is due to Kaibel ; Roehl proposed : 

\Yi6v Trpecr&vTaTov /i(u- w]ov el\e KopivOos, 

\rjs irepi beivoTarais iv (rv\v68ois oKopav' 
\o\jvopa pev w w — , 7rar]pis 8e pot ianv * Opeioi 

ynacriv dapvqoTfo tols €7ri\yivopevois. 

'Opeioi oppidum tgnotum (Kaibel) : the name may be a by-form 
(used metri gratia) of 'Opeol, a xvpLov mentioned by Lysias (xiv. § 27) 1 , 
which in its turn may be the well-known Oreos in Euboea. See an 
article entitled 'ttpcos — 'Qpcoi, by 2. n. Adpnpos in the Neo? 'EXkrjvopvfjpav, 
vol. i. p. 34. 

418. On a fragment of a white marble stele. Height '23; breadth 

• 12 ; thickness -09. 

— Xm — I — f o-/3 — | — — ov — I ^(e) — — 

Forms of letters E 2 : slight apices. 

427. On a block of white marble, complete. Height '15; breadth 

• 13; thickness '13. In the back of the stone is an irregular hollow, 
probably not original. 

(Av)prp\ia Ka\\\ov(ra 2arv\pov 6ea €v\xapt(TTT)pio[v\. 

Writing very crude. Forms of letters A 6 C . 

428. On a fragment of white marble, broken on all sides. Height 
•23; breadth -22 ; thickness -05. 

"> I Al - - ['l](ov)X(t)[o S ? - - 

FT A I / nd(7r\toy) Ai(A)[ioy] 

ZOY/ --* Otf(X)[7noy? -- 
N v\opxxpv\aKes ?] 

1 The MSS. vary between the readings 'Opeovs and 'Clpeovs in this passage. 



64 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

429. On a fragment of a white marble stele ; the r. edge is preserved. 
Height -14; breadth -095; thickness -045. 

NBION 

NAPIO 

"Al 

432. On a block of white marble, broken on the 1. Height «i4; 
breadth -18; thickness 'io. 

— - os M«/iW|[ov] os 'Apixovei\[icov — -] Td(jos) KaXkiarros \ 

lloNTTKA. 

Forms of letters A EMS. In 1. 3 the XX are united (M), as also the 
is (E): the first a is under the horizontal stroke of the I". After the 
final s is a sign < : perhaps we should read KdWio-ros (KaXXiorov). Of 
1. 4 I can make nothing, though the reading is clear; possibly t yTKtf= 3324. 

435. On a white marble stele, with pediment ; complete except at the 
foot. Height -25; breadth .32; thickness -05. Found between Teapyir- 

o-idvuca KaXvfiia and Xapi. 
Collitz-Bechtel 4436. 
Ev8at/iO)(j') I ip. nroXe'/z 1 an]. 

Forms of letters AE M O P n. 

439. On a block of grey stone. Height i«5o; breadth -27; thick- 
ness -25. 

Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. i. 388, No. 19. 
5 *Opo[y] I rov I Up\ov || ta. 

Forms of letters A €. 

440. On a white marble stele, broken at the foot. Height -94 ; 
breadth -235; thickness -16. Found by Leake at the Monastery of 
"Ayioi 2apavra between Sparta and Chrysapha. Above the inscription 
is a relief, for which see p. 176. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4416; Meister, Jahrbiicher filr Philologie, 1882, i. 523; 
Bursian, Berichte der sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, xii. 
226 foil. ; F. D. Allen, Papers of the American School at Athens, iv. 193, 
No. 101 (11. 1-5 only) ; Roehl, Imagines 1 , x. No. 16, p. 28 ; Hoffmann, 
Sylloge epigr. gr. 374 (11. 1-5 only) ; Solmsen, Inscriptiones Graecae ad 
inlustrandas dialectos selectae, Leipzig, 1903, No. 17 ; David 28. 

Aapa>va>p | dp€0T)K€ 'A#ai/cu'a[i] | IIoXia^a)i 
5 viKahas [ ravrd har ovbr}s || irtproKa rap vvv. | 

Td8e eviKahe Aapa>\va>p] ran avr5> T6CTpji7r7TG)t avrbs dvio^iaiv' ev 
10 Taiafoxco rerpaKtu || /cat 'A$dpaia Terpd[iap | K^jkcvhvvia Tcrpdiav. | koi Tlohoidaia 
15 Aapa>va>[v | «i{t]*«7 HfXet, Kai ho Ke\rj[£ J h]a/xa, avros aVio^ iW || evhrj^oihats 



Yliirnois I hem-d/civ e< rdv avrS) | hirnrcov k^k] to> av[r]a> ht7nr[a>]. | mw Uohoidaia 



20 Aapatvav [/p&Ci} Qcvpiai oktokit' || [a 
25 avrat hbnrmf I ktjk to> ovt5> hiWww. 



vtos dvtoxio>v €v\hr)j3aihais hiWois | e/c rai> 
ac^i/ 'Apiovrias evLKrj || Aapavcop oktoklp | 
aur6? dptoxia>p | fVh^cohai? hiVflrois | e/c raj/ aura) hi7T7rci>i' | ktjk t£> avrw hlmrto, 
30 Kai || ho KfXr^ eVtVo; h[a/ia]. | kcu 'EXevhwia Aa^wav] | €plkt) avros awo^iuj/ 1 ephrj- 
ftoihais ht7T7roir | rcrpaKip. || 



INSCRIPTIONS 65 

Tabe eVtxahc *Ew fia(y)-, | [h](a) rrpaTJa <yvi/]atKG>j>, A — jjhia «al 35 

KcXrjg pi I as ha . . €V . . . v | [€i»h]i;j3[a>]i{Ti honrau] | 

40 

Forms of letters ADE®BMN£: x is represented by *, £ by X. 
B is used only for h, never for 77 : O represents both o and ©. 

Date, probably about 400 b. c 

My text agrees with that of Collitz-Bechtel, save that I have been 
able to see on the stone a number of letters marked there as restorations, 
while a few have disappeared and are enclosed in my copy between 
square brackets. 

L. 9. Taiafoxa. Cf. Xen. Hist. Graec. vi. 5, 30 els top Imrobpopop els 
Taiaoxov. Taiafoxos is (1) 'he who shakes the earth (with earthquake) 1 / 
or (2) 'he who rides in his chariot throughout the whole earth 2 ,' or 
(3) 'he who rides beneath the earth and thereby shakes the earth 3 .' 
L. II KT]\evhvvta = kci\ y EXevhvpia = ko.1 'EXevcrvvta (Collitz-Bechtel 4495) 
or 'EXfi/o-iW. Pausanias mentions an 'EXevo-ivtov, a sanctuary of ArjprjTrip 
'EXcvo-ivla, on, or at the foot of, Taygetus. 

The second part of the inscription (1. 35 foil.) contained a list of the 
victories of a woman, unfortunately now lost save for a few letters. 
According to Pausanias (iii. 8. 1) it was Kyniska, daughter of Archi- 
damus II of Sparta, who 7rpa>n/ Te 'nnrorpocprjo-e yvvaiK&p Ka\ vikt]v dpeiXeTo 
*OXvpiriKj}P. 

L. 40 Dressel-Milchhoefer saw A ' O H 1 \ which may belong, asMeister 
suggests, to [tap ' Ap]iopr[(\a[s] (cf. 1. 24; Wide, Lakon. Kulte, p. 141 foil.). 

441. On a stele (broken in two) with pediment and acroteria, and 
a projection at the foot for insertion in a socket. Height 1-40; breadth 
•65 ; thickness -15. Between 11. 3 and 4 is a relief, for which see p. 176. 
Found at Mahmoud Bey, not far from the church of 'Aym Tiapao-Kevrj. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4516; Dittenberger * 306; Dittenberger 3 451 ; Michel 182. 
AoypaToypd(pa>p Avo-ivUov tov "2<oTriplba i NrjKXeos | tov ' ApicrTOKpareos, 
Ilao-iKpaTCos tov Ilaa-iKXeos 1 to 8ox@ev imb ' ApvicXaieW j eVei Ka\r\aaTa6evres 
ecpopot els top en\ Nwcea epiavrbp Uao-iTeXrjs || Ttraprou, EvQvpos AvcriKpaTeos, 5 
Aapidbas Aapidba amicus | dpearpecprjaap avT&p Te KaX tcls ipx<Eipia6eicras avTols 
7rio-|rfeoy e'p nda-ip dicepbcos m\ fjpepoos top euiavrbp biet-a\yay6pres, beboxdai rots 
' ApvicXauois eiraipeo'ai e<f)6povs I tovs irep\ Hao-iTtXrj em T6> koX&s tclp dpxap 
bie £ay prjicepai' || 7toiovptq> be avTols Ka\ em rat TrpoaTponai del pepiba, ea>s ap 10 
fwcri, 07ra>s d(e)\\] & <w/3a ppapopevovo~a to>p yeyoraiP <pi\Xapdpa>ircop els avrap dno- 
bibovaa (paivrjTai Tas Karaglovs | Tipds' eybopep be tovs KaTaoraOevras ordXav 
XtBipap J els ap dpaypa<f)f)a'€Tai to boypa koX oraaai els (t)6 lepbp Tas II 'AXc- j 5 
£dpbpas' tclp be els Tavrap bandpap boT<o a a>/3a /cat Xoyop | epeyKOPToa 7rep\ Tas 
yeyept] pepas bandpas tovs em Tavra | KOTacrTaOePTas' eiratpeo-ai be kcil top ypappaTrj 
airrap I KaXXucXi). 

Forms of letters A Eo P n T7 2 : slight apices. 

Date : second or first century b. c. 

L. 1. For the office of the boyparoypdcpoi cf. Swoboda, Griech. Volks- 
beschliisse, p. 214. These were magistrates of the a>/3a t5>p ' ApvuXaieap 
(11. 1 1, 15), as also the ecpopoi of 1. 4 : on the other hand, Naceas (1. 4) is the 

1 Meister, ap. Collitz-Bechtel, ad loc. a Miillensiefen 45 [1715]. 

3 Wide, Lakon. Kulte, p. 38. 



66 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

eponymous patronomus of Sparta. L. 9 in\ r<5 is quite distinct on the stone. 
Loeschcke, the first editor, read Art t6 which has been retained by 
Collitz-Bechtel and Michel, though Dittenberger made the necessary 
emendation in his first edition. For diegayvrjKevai cf. Hesych. dyvfiv' ayeiv 

KprJTfs and aypr)K€ (MSS. dyvrjcroeiy dyrjo^e AaKaves. L. 1 1 Af~~« L. 1 5 

For the temple of Alexandra cf. Pausan. iii. 19. 6 'A/wkXou 8e dvaararos m 

Atopiecov yevopevr) Kai an iiceivov Ka>pr) dia/xevovcra deas napei^e™ agiov Upov 
'AXegdvdpas Kai ayaXpa' rrjv 8e 'AXe^dvdpau oi 'Ap.VKXaie'is YLao-cravbpav ttjp 

npidpov <pao\v etvau The cult is also found at Leuctra (Pausan. iii. 26. 5). 
443. See p. 178. 

446. On a stele of bluish marble with gable-top and acroteria ; at the 
foot a projection for insertion in a socket. Height 1 m. ; breadth ^55 ; 
thickness '15. 

The surface is so damaged that only a few letters can be read, and I have not 
thought it worth while to reproduce these. The name 'Apkttot&ijs occurs 
mil. 21, 31, the phrases irpbs tovs Oeovs in 1. 3 and SeSoxOat iravra to. ras ufids 
in 1. 18, and tcLv wfiav in 1. 23. Forms of letters A E OTTJQ : no apices. 

447. Four adjoining fragments of a Dioscuri relief, for which see 
p. 178. Height 1-13; breadth .58; thickness -io. Found at Vourlia 
(Sellasia). 

Collitz-Bechtel 4524; F. D. Allen, Papers of the American School, iv. 194, 
No. 102; David 19 b; Roehl, Imagines' 1 , x. No. 11, p. 27; Hoffmann, 
Sylloge, No. 307. 

liXrjcrnddas p d[ve6r)Ke] | Aioo-Kapoiaiv a yaXpa], J 
Tivdapidav 8[i8u/za>i'] pdviv oTn(d)d6[pfvos . 

Forms of letters ADj^P.? (facsimile in Athen. Mitt. viii. 1883, 
PI. xviii) : 77, a> are represented by e, o. 

The restoration is that of Kirchhoff (ap. Roehl, I.G.A. 62 a, p. 174). 

448. Seep. 178. 

456. On a fragment of a circular base of white marble. Height i-io. 

Martha, Bull Corr. Hell. iii. 195. 

'H noXis I [ttjv (ptX^xrocpcoTarqv Kai aaxppo[v€o-TaTi]]v AvprfXiav 'Owmav \ 

5 rov\ cpiXo<ro<p<0TaTOV KaXXij| — — — Ovyarcpa, I -ywatKaJ Se tov evyeveardTov | 

Te\iaapevov tov 2rparfX\ — Kai a>s gptyMErffff | — — — — , [eoriW 7r](d)Xea)s, 

IO veav Hr)veX6n\\[f]iav, dpeTrjs irdo-rjs \ Ka\ rrjs irepl ras 6e(a)[s] | [evo-efcias ei>]fKa, 

7rpoo~8e£an€^ L vov to di>aXa)/z]a M(apKov) Avp(j)Xiov) Etirv^ia^C] | — — tXtavov 

15 tov EvtvxW' tavov, warpo ?]» vopoov Kai n6Xe(a)[s t | tov yapft^pov avrrjs. | — s tov 

20 'niypdppair^os]. \ — cppoo-vvrj Koapcl nept — \ — rjv arocplrjp Ttjvbe . aiyyA — || — 

ddrjs el <piXop€ib(T)} — | — abpe . . {/)tve — 

Writing very careless and indistinct, full of ligatures : 11. 1 8-2 1 are in 
smaller letters, seemingly by another hand. Forms of letters A AE6ZO 
MZTTCCCO. 

My copy corrects that of Martha in several points : the reading of the 
last four lines is very uncertain. 

462. On a fragment of white marble. Length -08; breadth -07; 
thickness -07. 

EKAI. 



INSCRIPTIONS 67 

463. On a fragment of white marble. Height -23; breadth -075; 
thickness -08. 

- - (o^) - I _ | 4 _ I _ _ X a - | _ - \ e - 
Forms of letters A A Ell ; slight apices. 

464. On two adjoining surfaces of a block of bluish marble. 
Length -13; breadth -12; thickness -09. 

On the front (complete above and on the 1.) is the inscription 
*E<pop[oi eVl ] I Aa/i[o] — — 

and on the side (complete above and on the r.) are the three letters, 

s\ OV. 

Letters ornate, with prominent apices AES HP". 
Seemingly a fragment of a catalogue of ephors. 

466. On a block of white marble. Height «2 2; breadth .20; 
thickness «o5. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4493. 
Zav\ I *E\€v6epi\oi ' AvTa>vi\voi 2a)T^||[pt]. 5 

Forms of letters AOZH- Below the inscription are two palm 
branches with a wreath between them. The final pi was accidentally 
omitted by the lapidary when cutting the inscription. 

500. See No. 372. 

501. See No. 219. 

502. On a stele of white marble. Height .51; breadth -27; 
thickness -04. Complete on the 1. 

Ktjik I ra to"] | toto — | k$v || TrjV . 5 

Letters large and careful, with slight apices. Forms A©: the 
latter is a remarkable instance of archaism in the form of letters. 
Possibly in 1. 1 we have the name KfjUa (Civica), which occurs in the 
form KifiKa in an inscription from Gythium (Le Bas-Foucart 247). 

503. On a circular block of white marble, with slight indications of 
fluting. Height -27; diameter ca. Hf. 

\Zav\ 'E]|\fv0[epi]|ot 'Air[a>]|i'6U'<H 2a>||T^pt. 

Forms of letters A € C CO. 

506. On a fragment of a stele of bluish marble, with a moulding 
below. Parts of the lower and r. hand edges are preserved. 
Height -34; breadth .36; thickness .09. 

{ic)a\ I [ c A](y)iov n»»eu|[/iaros] — — — (Jfye Bx]Kf\v Kai j — *- 

\i.va els to fjLvrj^fxelou] — t. ttjv eunvpov ovv vpiv | \v tov Awitotov 5 

Qeov <pv\a£;a.\ aires tov npoyeypappepov | — ov Kai 86tc 

rjp.lv Iprjvrjv. 

Forms of letters AE0M2C; writing very rough, with high, 
narrow letters much crowded. Before ttjv (1. 5) is an ivy leaf, and after 
Ip^vrjv (1. 8) f . 

F 2 



68 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

507. On a block of white marble, broken at the back and below. 
Height -30; breadth -17; thickness -15. 

Durrbach, Bull. Corr. Hell. ix. 517, No. 7. 
5 AvroKpdropi Kai\(rapi 'Adpiava | 2e/3aoT<5 o-a)|r?7pi ras II [Aa/eeoat/xoi/os]. 

Forms of letters AD2W ; very slight apices. 

Durrbach reads o-arrjpi ras [no\ios] ; I prefer to restore AaKeSalpovos 
on the analogy of No. 381. 

508. On a white marble stele, complete on all sides. Height ^48 ; 
breadth -27; thickness -04. 

5 TijSepios I JSXavdios | Hporoyeurjs 2aXa/x[etVtos irv6av\r)s || er»v Xc\ 

Forms of letters E 9 O C CO . 

509. On a stele of bluish marble, broken in two. Height ^90; 
breadth -73; thickness -30. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4435, 4437 ; Preger, Athen. Mitteil. xxi. p. 96, note 1 ; 
Dittenberger 3 , 898. 

Evpvdbrjs I okvprnovLicas \ e/x noXepcoi. 
TdcrKOs I ip. 7ro[\]ep.a>i. 

Forms of letters AE M P ZjQ. Date, probably third century b. c. 

The name Tdo-Kos occurs again in No. 689, and in two Cretan 
inscriptions — 'Afyi/S, v. 365, 1. 69, and Bull. Corr. Hell. xiii. 75. 

510. On a fragment of white marble, broken on all sides. Length «I7; 
breadth -21 ; thickness '13. 

ik/\ (ikX) 

rirONOZ -- [Av]riyovo(s:) - - 

ATTO^ 0*M*)-- 

L. 3 [2iiro](p)7ro(s) ? 

521. On a circular block of white marble. Height -17 ; diameter .21. 

Zavl I '"EXcv&cploi j 'Avrcovfiuoi | Scott;/)*. 

Forms of letters A 6 A C CO ; no dp&er. 

522. On a white marble stele, with pediment. Height .37 ; 
breadth -27; thickness -08. 

'Aicivdoive X a ^P € ) I * Tr l fiubo-as 8 '. 

Forms of letters A € 9 C CO. 

523. On a slab of white marble. Height -38 ; breadth .32 ; 
thickness -03. 

y Aya9a>v | x a ^P € \ "^fi* 

Letters very crudely formed AGO CO. 

524. On a stele of white marble, broken in two. Height '65; 
breadth -25 ; thickness -03. 

5 Xaipc, I Tiave, K[p]fjs \ S[8] eo>j/, 6 iv \xapiTt<r<ri Te\\\€ios 

vpv€i\rai ira<Tti>, na<n J <f>L\os yap e<pv. | 
€TO>V 18'. 



INSCRIPTIONS 69 

Letters good and careful, though somewhat crowded together; 
apices slight. Forms AAEMTT£cf>n. 

The first verse has two syllables too many, and the mason has written 
KBHZOAEHN. Tiavos as a man's name occurs only in Mionnet's reading 
of a Cretan coin legend, and Prof. U. von Wilamowitz therefore conjectures 

Xaipe, ('P)iai'e, K(p)r)S o(d)' ca>v, (6 h) x a P^ T€(r<ri TeAfios. 

525. On a white stone stele, complete on the 1. and below. 
Height -23; breadth '32; thickness -u. 



tt]s]. — — — J 'Opimridas 
KaWia-rparos 5 



Ev — J AapMpia\ros] j ' Api<rroK.p(a) 

|| * Apximros Nik | KaWtTeXrjs K(a)[\At 

2 — — I Tipapxos Nwaa | Ae£i? Av<TiKpa.T€o(s) || Mcyiiriros Nuco<TTpd\rov\ | ra(i'os) 10 
IIpa£ip.evrjs Ma(p*ov) 0e . 

Forms of letters AEHE: apices strongly marked. In 1. 11 

Ta. and Ma. are written in monogram I7\ and ZA\. 

526. On a block of grey stone, very roughly worked. Length ^44 ; 
breadth .21 j thickness *i8. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4408 ; David 7. 

JloXkeiov. 

i. e. noXAeiW. Forms of letters E P : a facsimile will be found in 
Roehl, I.G.A. 58. 

527. On an irregular block of grey stone. Length -28 ; breadth «28 ; 
thickness -io. 

L v 

These letters are roughly incised on the stone by friction rather than 
by chiselling : there are also some other strokes which do not seem to 
form parts of letters. We appear to have the ends of two words written 
retrograde, — vs \ — (o)(pas. 

528. On a small circular base tapering towards the foot; there is 
a hollow in the upper surface. Height -18. 

Sayrrjpia | kclt* eiriTa\yt)V rov | Beov dve^drjKa. c 

Forms of letters A€0 nC U). 

529. On the upper surface of a circular block of white marble, shaped 
like a capital : broken below. Height -19; diameter -38. 

AvTOKparo\pot Kaiaapos \ 'Adpiavov 2e|/3aoToO 2a>| |tJ)/30£. 5 

The letters are more carefully formed than in most inscriptions of 
this class. Apices slight. Forms AS. 

532. On a block of grey marble. Height -34; breadth .29 ; thickness 
• 16. Provenance unknown. 

"Opos I rov Upov. 

The letters are very irregular. Forms f and P, C. 



70 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

535. On each of the four sides of a brick. Length -31 ; breadth «3i ; 
thickness -055. Found in Leopoulos' field east of the theatre near the 
medieval walls. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4461. 
UkivBoi dctfioariai (TKavo\6r]Kas eVt KaXkucpdreos | ipyava NiKaa lavas. 

The brick is complete, and bears on its four sides the same stamp, 
for which see No. 276. A similar brick, also in all probability complete 
but unnoticed hitherto, is immured in the wall of the church called 
Koifirjais rrjs Qcotokov in Magoula, not far from Collitz-Bechtel 4443. 

535 a. Fragment of a brick. Length -24 ; breadth -31 ; thickness -05. 

[eV]i KaXX[tKpareos], 

The inscription runs from r. to 1. It is not possible to tell 
whether the other three narrow surfaces had inscriptions, as they are 
all broken off. 

542. On a fragment of greyish marble. Height -22; breadth -17; 
thickness -14. From the Menelaeum. 

Kastriotes, UpaKTiKoL rrjs 'Apx<uo\oyucrjs 'Eraipeias, 1900, p. 86. 

TO* I OS I IE- 

543. On a fragment of a brick. Length '145; breadth -13; thick- 
ness -045. 

'HpctKAa. 

The letters are in relief on a depressed ground. The inscription is 
complete on the r. Forms of letters AArP in ligature. 

544. On the shaft of a white marble herm, broken at the top and 
bottom. The inscribed surface is broken away all down the 1. margin, 
but the inscription is complete above. Height -8o; breadth -26; 
thickness «25. See p. 188. Found about a quarter of an hour south 
of the Amyclaeum. 

Tsountas, 'Ecprjp.'ApxouoX. 1892, p. 23, No. 6; Wide, Lak. Kulte, pp. 368-370. 

Tov djpxiepea ra>v 26j3aon-[a>J>, | tepeja Aios, rov apicrrov Ka\l | Ik r\S)v 

5 dpiarcov, top d|(ioXoya>raroi>) 2e[n\crro\v Evdapov 'Ovao-iKparjeoU?, . .] a7r6 

'HpcweXeovj, pf d|[7ro] Aioa-Kovpcov, iepia Kai | \dy\(ovo6irr]V dia (3iov *[al | 

10 Sia] yivovs ra>v re A^oa\Kov\pa>v kcu rov dy£>v\os || ra>v] peydXeoi/ Atoo7covp|[etW], 



Kai dycovo&errjv d t|a ye^vovs ra>v p.€yd\a>v \ [AejcoveiSiW, lepea Kara | [yeji'os 
15 Uo(tl8S)vos 'Ao-(f)a\ [Xjtov, *A0rjvds XaX/aoiKo[u, | y A6\r)vds noXia^ov, Kai (r)[a>v | 

<rv\pKa6i8pvp.£pcov iv [t<3 | re\jp.ivei 6ea>v, Tuxqs C — | — — arpa>, 'Aprepuros 

20 7ra[T||pta)]ri8os, Arjp.r)rpos Ka\\ Ko\p]r)s iv &ovp <rerp\ — s iv 'Eyei'Xo[t]y, 

25 'A<ppo8€i\[rr)]s OvpavlaSj Tv^r/f | [ap](x)a-yerov, 'Eppov O. || Aiovolo~ov, Arjprjrpos \ 

rrjs iv AiKrvvvrj, MN | (a)ios v — — | 

Forms of letters AGZGnCCO. Writing careless and irregular, in 
some places very hard to decipher. Tsountas reads [dp\x^ a in 1. 1, 
[ltd;] Aios in 1. 2 : in 1. 21 his copy shows c£Oi . C YT . €TP, while mine 
has *OYPAo AC "C6TP. 

546. On a small circular stone base or altar of greyish marble. 
Height .33. 



INSCRIPTIONS 71 

['G$e](X)i/ia Tpv(pe[pca | Aa/zajrpt fv^[aj/]. 

The letters are exceedingly rough. Forms E M <J> : some of the 
apices are very exaggerated. 

The restoration is uncertain. For the cult of Demeter in Laconia 
see Wide, Lakon. Kulte, p. 1 7 1 foil. 

547. On a stele of bluish marble, complete except at the foot. 
Height -47; breadth -37 ; thickness -09. 

Zavl I 'EXfu&pi'Joi 'Avt<ovi\voi "2atTr}\\pi. 5 

Forms of letters A A 02. Beneath the inscription are two palm 
branches and two wreaths. 

548. On a block of bluish marble. See No. 395. 
Martha, Bull. Corr. Hell. iii. 197, No. 7. 

Tpeis BeKadas £rjo~aaa €[t]«oz> trvv irivrie 

HapbaKis rjkQa 6o£>s els 'Aidao §o/io[*>] 
€(T0\6v a.7ro7rp6\i7rovaa (piXov 2a>TTjptxo[v av8pa\ 

Kai 7rai8as doiovs apevas rjbe Koprjv. 

Forms of letters AeeTTCOCO. 
564. See p. 189. 

568. See No. 372. 

569. On a white marble stele, the top of which is broken off. 
Height «49 ; breadth .44 ; thickness -io. 

— — (k)cu Uavda[\ — — ] | "Eva-eiToi' | 'E7ra<pp68eiTos ^EiracppobeiTOv), \ 
Aiovvcrios Zaxrip.ov. || 'E7rt tov /mu^ov* Tv\i7T7ros. | 'E7Ti tov pOKfXXof 'lo(uXcos) e 
TpaiTTOs. I Mayetpoy* Upayr'uov. 

Letters well and clearly incised: forms AIOMfTZH, apices slight. 
The second Y of 1. 4 and both those of 1. 6 are written inside the 
preceding O's, as also the 2 of 1. 5. There are incised leaves as 
ornaments ( S?) at the beginning of 1. 2 and the ends of 11. 2, 3, 7. 

The titles M tov pvxov and M tov patceWov are not, I believe, found 
elsewhere. The formula is a common one : cf. 6 eVl t5>v vnopvrjpdTcov ttjs 
crvyic\r)Tov, I.G. iv. 588 ; M tcov dXS>v, I. (jr. xiv. 608 ; cVi tov (reirov, C.I.G. 
3738; iir\ Ttjs rapieias and eVt ttjs olicovopias, C.I.G. 2058 B, &C. 'Eiri 

with the dat. is also used in this sense, or hti with the ace. and 
KaTao-Tadeis, KaQeoraphos. The paneWov {macellum) is the meat-market 
(cf. 1 Cor. x. 25; Dio Cass. 61. 18; in I.G. iv. 1484, 11. 107, 296, 
298, 301, the word is used in the sense of 'partition,' Lat. cancelli, as in 
Hesych. \m<k\o: cppdypaTa, dpvcpaKToi), the pvxos the grain-market (cf. I.G. 
xiv. 645, i. 139, 141, 144 olKo8opr}o-r)Tai de ko.1 olidav iv toIs x&pois tovtois, 
/Socoj/cz, p,vxdv, dxvpiov). 

589. See p. 194. 

591. On the upper fillet of a moulded and ornamented base of white 
marble, the 1. hand portion of which is broken off. In the upper surface 
is a groove (-035 deep, -075 wide) into which a stele was inserted. 



72 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Found on the west side of the square in which the Museum stands, 
during excavations for the cellars of the house of A. Demas. Height 21 ; 
breadth .30; thickness '17. 

[Ev]pvl3dva<rcra. 

Forms of letters A C. 

598. On a fragment of grey marble, broken on all sides. Length «io^ 
breadth -09; thickness .03. 

YTTfc --m*)-- 
ONE --«,*-- 
v or --(ot)-- 

599. On a fragment of a white marble stele, broken on all sides. 
Length -20; breadth -19; thickness -07. Formerly in the Byzantine 
Museum at Mistra. 

(X)fo-oai I — — (v) tov Aa/x(i) | (0)1/ tovto 

( r ) _ _ J (ty ^onp) - - . 

Boustrophedon : 11. 1 and 3 read from 1. to r., 2 and 4 from r. to 1. 
Forms of letters AP^MHPP^: after t6v of 1. 2 comes a mark of 
punctuation ) as in No. 200, 1. 2, I.G.A. 54, 1. 5. 

The stone is so mutilated that it is not even possible to determine 
whether the inscription is metrical or not. The emendation of 1. 1 to 
\ea0ai naturally suggests itself, but the fourth letter alike on the stone 
and the squeeze seems to be O. 

600. On the thighs of a seated figure (for which see pp. 194-5), 
found in Magoula. 

Collitz-Bechtel 441 7 ; Milchhoefer, Arch. Zeitg. 1 881, p. 297, and PI. xvii. 3, 3 a. 

A!AEY£ 

The text of the inscription is not certain. Dressel-Milchhoefer 
read it as I have done, and so it was published in the Arch. Zeitg. 
loc. cit., four years later. Treu {Arch. Zeitg. 1882, p. 76) corrected 
it to AEV£, explaining that the A I and the vertical stroke of the Y 
in Milchhoefer's copy are accidental injuries of the stone, while Collitz- 
Bechtel (loc. cit.) and Wide (Lakon. Kulte, pp. 4, 7, 243) do not even 
mention the variant. 

Aevs is known (see Pape-Benseler, Griech. Eigennamen, s.v.] 
Meister, Griech. Dialekte, i. p. 262) as a Boeotian and Lacedaemonian 
form of Zevs : so the Boeotian in Aristoph. Acharn. 911 uses the 
expression ittg> Aevs (=iotg> Zeus, Schol.). 'Atdevs, on the other hand, 
is a unique and unparalleled form of 'AiSas, 'A^y. Nevertheless, the 
reading of the inscription given by Dressel-Milchhoefer seems to be 
the correct one. 

605. On a block of white marble, broken on all sides. Height -15; 
breadth -18; thickness -045. 

(N)iKOKpaTi)(s) I [EJ(v)8atfi(wcXco[s]. 

Forms of letters A EM, KR$ in monogram. 



INSCRIPTIONS 73 

611. On a block of white marble, broken on all sides. Height -205; 
breadth -24 ; thickness -14. Found in Magoula. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4410; Hoffmann, Syll. epigr.gr. 394; David 19; Roehl, 
Imagines 1 , x. No. 10, p. 26. 

- _ F>05A<8>PpA/ D - - I - - TAYTO^IkA^ - - | - - 
tYTATO*pD-H~- ptAPIlEOMpA' — 1|™ p^^ADpPAl^ 5 
P — 1 — OIKAI ppYCDPC^ - - 1 - - n, <^ A "HO* - - • 

The following tentative restoration of this inscription has been 
suggested by Roehl (I.G.A. 62) : 

*A\Kifidxa> rdvd* cIkov' cvcot dya0a> Kal ayavw] 
dv8]pos ddprjv' b[iafuk\a0T)s 8* rfdrj re 0i\y avros 

vUas [/cat Oopvfteos Kara Tpa^VTaTcis ed^apdcrOrj] 

[olxofievoM S]e x a P l C^ ev \p s ordtrev roSe <rdpa\ 

ivOdbe ttcus Il[oXvicX^s* aXX' tXadi t\o>i Kai I ev<ppu>v 

[8e'£o, fdva£ cvepcov,] Atos alyi6x\o> kdiri crcpve]. 

612. On a large stele, with pediment ; later, the r. side was cut away 
and ornamented with low Byzantine relief. Found in Magoula serving 
as a doorstep. Height -95 ; breadth -6o ; thickness »li. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4451. 

Vipoma «rl ['A J* | AvKoprjdrjs *Apa[r ] J Uparovucos Ato | 

2o)KpaTl8as Aa/z — — — || Evp.coiX.tcov B<op6i[d8a]. | llava-avias Aape — — — | 5 
KaWiKpaTT]? Eu — — — I TtpoKkfjs Ae£i8[a/noi>]. | Sevdprjg AapoK — — — — |j 

TipaicpdTTjs 'Ay(j))[(Ti ] | Aaxdprjs 'H^aj^X | AapoviKos (a)ojh — | IO 

KKfcovtdecov A — — — — | IlacriTeXrjS . ^t8 |j EuSa[i \poK\rjs Ka j 15 

KaXXiVoXts Evpv — — — | [njaiorpaTos' / — — — | [ro/)]yt7nri8[as] — — — | 

— — [|]ei/os $i[X — — — —J ]| (a)pos 2r — | [(rjrpaTOs 20 

*E X | [Ev]dvye\os ' Ap(r])[£iTnrov]. | .. IPOA . AAZ Ev | 

T(a)xvic\rjs KaX . 

Forms of letters A E TT S . 

Date, probably first century b. c. 

L. 5 Dressel-Milchhoefer (p. 436, No. 10) read *Ecop6i - - with 
the note 'EJQP© oder BnP0?' The B seems to me quite plain. 
L. 6 AAME is distinct, and must not be altered (as in Collitz-Bechtel) 
to Aap[ir] — . The names Aapebcov and Aapevrjs occur. L. II 'h[p]kX- 
\avov], Collitz-Bechtel ; but Dressel-Milchhoefer rightly read H . . K A — 
L. 12 . Ay, Dressel-Milchhoefer : I seem to see A AN*. L. 14 AX I A 
D-M.; my copy gives . XI A. L. 20 s'OS^T, D-M.; AMOZZT 
my copy. L. 21 TPATOZE, D-M. L. 22 Nf £AOZAP, D-M.; 
ANTEAOZAPII my copy. L. 23 D-M. read the fourth letter as A, 
I as A. L. 24 .. XYKAHZKA D-M.; TAXYKAHSKAA my copy 

617. On a stele of red Laconian stone (rosso antico), with pediment. 
Only the top is preserved. Height -n; breadth -24; thickness -06. 
ovikos I [e'/x 7roX](e)/xot. 

Forms of letters M 2 : very slight apices. 



74 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

618. On a miniature altar of white marble. Height «2i ; breadth .15 
(at foot), .13 (above); thickness .15 (above), -13 (at foot). In the 
upper surface is a hollow. 

lElprjvr) I AecrxroiVat | dvedrjicev. 

Letters very roughly inscribed. Forms AEG FTC 

619. On a fragment of a circular abacus of greyish marble on 
a column. Thickness of the abacus -08. Broken on all sides. 

C.I.G. i3io(?). 
[AvToxparop^os 'Ab[piavov | KaiVapos] 2(orj)[poff|. 

Letters apicated A£A. 

The restoration is uncertain, and the identification with C.I.G. 
1 310 is merely conjectural; the text in the latter inscription gives A, 
not A. We might restore in the present instance [AvroKparopos Kai<rap]os 

'A^piavov I 2e/3aoroOJ 2e>ri}[pos]. 

620. On a fragment of a bluish marble stele, complete on the r. (?). 
Length .15; breadth -115; thickness -045. The surface is badly 
damaged, especially on the r. 

ML 

HOYEM 
AkOC 

/ 

621. On a fragment of a white marble stele, complete on the r. and 
above. Height -22; breadth .17; thickness -085. In the upper 
surface is a dowel hole. 

[*H 7roX]is I ov Mf(»;) I yyo| 

Letters apicated : ME in ligature. 

622. On a fragment of white marble ; the I. edge only is preserved, 
but the inscription is complete above. Length -16; breadth -09; 
thickness «04. 

hi Beat oiSatri (rq) - — — 

Letters slightly apicated. Forms AG©C : letters tall and 
narrow. 

623. On two adjacent sides of a fragment of bluish marble. Height 
• 12; breadth -12; thickness -io. 

(a) — — (vojSio) — J iov j ovlkov I (60) — 

(8) KX(a) - - I Xoyl - - I (rpo) - - . 

Forms of letters © ; the writing of (5) is much larger and coarser 
than that of (a). Apices slight. 

Perhaps in (5), 1. 2, we have some part of the name Aoyyelvos. 



INSCRIPTIONS 75 

624. On a fragment of a greyish marble stele. The r. hand edge 
only is preserved. Height -i8 ; breadth -29 ; thickness -07. 

$lkT)flG)V T€v\ CV ol(OVo\ OTTOS, 

Forms of letters 6MC(|)UJ. 

625. On a fragment of a white marble stele, complete only on the 1. 
Height .27; breadth .17; thickness -07. 

I re da I avdpa | heXo/x || o0ai | epra[ 5 

I — aipai, 

Boustrophedon : 11. 1, 3, 5 and 7 are written from r. to 1. ; 11. 2, 
4 and 6 from 1. to r. Forms of letters ADE©^P; the spiritus asper 
is represented by B. 

626. On a fragment of greyish marble, complete on the 1. Height 
•22; breadth .18 ; thickness -06. 

H3 

The inscription is complete. 

627. On a fragment of a block of white marble, the surface of which 
is slightly curved. Height -29; breadth .20; thickness .13. Part of 
the upper and 1. hand edges preserved. 

BtSu(oi) Ir) KX[auSto) i Apt]\o-To^ov\ai [2>p Trpeafivs] | 'AptoroTetjyios] | 

[T€l]flOKp(d)[Tr ]S ] || -, - rjp - - . g 

Writing good and carefuL Forms of letters AMTTSJft, very slight 
apices. 

628. On a fragment of a stone stele, broken on all sides. The 
surface of the stone is almost entirely broken away. Height .90 ; 
breadth .40; thickness -io. 

-cnlL. [.- - (t)6 Di I I ['ETra^po'PjSfiros | 

■ - [N«JKapa)i/ || vos K/ I [Ovr}t]o-i(j)op(o)[s] | 5 

ovrbp I 4 („) --]-- n lOlSOS || K -- 10 

Forms of letters E TT E>0< ; in 11. 2 and 7 to is written TO. 

The inscription is too mutilated to permit of any restoration. All 
that can be seen is that it contained a list of names, probably magistrates, 
two of whom (11. 2, 7) were holding office for the second time. 

629 a. On the upper surface of a square pillar capital of white 
marble. Height -47; breadth .30; thickness .20. 

AvTOKpa.Topo[s] I 'Adpiavov | Kaiaapos | ScoTrjpos. 

Forms of letters A A 21} : slight apices. Writing very careless. 



76 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

630. On a fragment of white marble, broken on all sides. Height 
• 15; breadth «i2; thickness -04. 

OE 

YoMAC 
i TTIT7AT poj/o/Liou 
'PBHoGT 
NTEP 

631. On a fragment of a grey marble stele of which the r. margin, 
with a broad moulding, is preserved. Height -14; breadth -12; thick- 
ness -085. 

IC 

V 
NA 

A 

The letters are almost undecipherable, and the reading is quite 
uncertain. 

632. On a fragment of white marble, broken on all sides. Height 
•085; breadth .10; thickness -04. 

BAPBA 

633. On a fragment of white marble, broken on all sides. Height 
•06; breadth -12; thickness '03. 

/ 

O 1 
r p 

634. On a slab of white marble. Height -265; breadth .59; thick- 
ness '03. 

Dressel-Milchhoefer, p. 440, No. 22 ; Zrjaiov, ^vppiKra (Athens, 1892), p. 13, 
No. 10. 

+ 'OpKt£a> vpas eya) *ApxcXae\s \ r) dovXr) tov 0(eo)i)(s) tovs tov evXoyfa- 
uevov) KXrjpov j ndvras tov re vvv ovro(<s) kcu tov fieW\ovTOs etvai Kara ttjs 
5 al(oviov-\- II Kpi(T€(os kcu rrjs 86£r)s tov 0(fo)u urjbe^vel crvvx<»>prjCTai. dvacncevdcrai 
to I pvfjpa tovto ZvOa vvv dvatra.vop.ai. 

Forms of letters A60M2CCO : writing irregular. Above 1. 1 are 
three crosses. 

In 1. 2 Dressel-Milchhoefer read evXoy while Ztjo-lov has evXov. The 
stone shows a combination of the v and y fa ; probably N was first 
inscribed and then altered to T. 

635-644, 646. These thirteen fragments of inscribed tiles (Collitz- 
Bechtel 4513, 4514) were found at 'AyLa KvpiaKf] (Amyclaeum) during 
Mr. Tsountas' excavation, and published by him in 'Ecprjp. 'ApxaioX. 1892, 
p. 3. Owing to the extreme faintness of some of the letters, it is difficult 
in many cases to decide how much to mark as extant, and this fact has 
rendered the identification of several of Tsountas' numbers somewhat 
uncertain. 



INSCRIPTIONS 77 

635. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length «o6 ; breadth -045 ; thick- 
ness -015. 

Tsountas, 'EQtj/ji. 'ApxaioK. 1892, p. 3, No. 10. 

NAM 
ICON 
Tsountas reads I A M I in 1. 1, but the first stroke does not seem to 
me to be vertical. In 1. 2 he writes CON. 

635 a. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length '23; breadth «i7 ; thick- 
ness -015. 

Tsountas, 'Efrjfx. 'ApxaioK 1892, p. 3, No. 5. 
[ > A](7r)oX(X)<a[poj] | 'A/LtweX<uoi. 

The first line ('AttoXXowos) is almost invisible. The tile, like No. 
637, has been twice stamped ; of the second impression no letters are 
legible. 

635 b. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length -12; breadth -12 ; thick- 
ness '015. 

Tsountas, "Ecprjpi. 'ApxaioX. 1892, p. 3, No. 4. 
[*A]7T€XXa>(i>)os j 'Apvickaidi. 
The letters in 1. 1 are exceedingly faint. Forms AEIAoUtCl. 

636. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length «i5; breadth -09; thick- 
ness -015. 

Tsountas, 'Efijfi. 'ApxaioX. 1892, p. 3, No. 2. 
^AnoKXavos j i]v 'A/ivieXaio[c]. 

The letters are very faint in 1. 2, illegible in 1. 1. 

637. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length «i8; breadth -13; thick- 
ness -015. 

Tsountas, 'E0^/x. 'ApxcuoX. 1892, p. 3, No. 6. 
(a) ['A]7roXXo)v[os I iv 'A/xv/cXaiot]. 
(&) ['AttoXXwj/os I iv 'A/iv](*c)Xa[iot]. 

The tile was stamped twice in different places. Forms of letters 

onco. 

638. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length ^08 ; breadth -085 ; thick- 
ness -02. 

Tsountas, 'E<ptjp. 'ApxaioX. 1892, p. 3, No. 7. 
'A7r(o)[AXo)»/os] | i(y) ['A/iVfcXaiotj. 

Forms of letters A E n O . 

639. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length -io; breadth -08; thick- 
ness -02. 

Tsountas, 'Ecprjfji. 'ApxaioX. 1892, p. 3, No. 8. 
'A7r(d)[XXa)i»of] | iv 'AJJxvkXcu'oi]. 



78 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

640. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length -09 ; breadth -07 ; thick- 
ness -02. 

Tsountas, 'E<pr]pi. 'ApxcuoX. 1892, p. 3, No. 12. 
, A7rd(X)[Xo>j'oy] | (iv *Afij[vKkau>i\. 

641. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length -09 ; breadth .05 ; thick- 
ness «oi5. 

Tsountas, 'Etyrjp.. 'ApxcuoX. 1892, p. 3, No. 9. 

[A]7roX[Xcoi/os | i]v *Afiv[icXaioi]. 

642. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length .06 ; breadth .05 ; thick- 
ness -015. 

Tsountas, *E(prjfi. 'ApxcuoX. 1892, p. 3, No. 14. 

[ , A7roXXa)]i/o(s) I \iv 'A/iVKXa](ot. 

643. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length «o8 ; breadth .085 ; thick- 
ness -015. 

Tsountas, 'E^n;/*. 'A/>xcuoA. 1892, p. 4. 
[da^xoaios | v &ikoK\rj — 

Forms of letters M Ot<b : letters in relief on a sunk oblong. The 
word brjfioo-ios, bapoaios occurs in many tile inscriptions, cf. Nos. 276, 
535; Paris, jtlatfe, p. no foil., Nos. 2, 3, 8, 9, ro, [n], 15, 16, 
p. 115 ; Waldstein, The Argive Heraeum, i. p. 217, p. 218, note 4. 

644. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length -065 ; breadth .03 ; thick- 
ness -015. 

Tsountas, 'E<p7]/i. 'ApxaioK 1892, p. 3, No. 11. 
*Air[6k\a>vos] | iv (*A)[/zwc\(u'ot]. 

645. On a fragment of a brick. Length .07 ; breadth .05 ; thick- 
ness -05. 

2 A --(a)*. 

Letters in relief on a sunk oblong : the inscription reads from 
r. to 1. 

646. On a fragment of a roof-tile. Length .11; breadth .09; thick- 
ness .02. 

Tsountas, 'E<prjfi. 'ApxaioX. 1892, p. 3, No. 15. 
[' Att6K\g>v\os J [iv *A/uu*cAcuoi]. 

647. On a fragment of a greyish marble stele, broken on all sides. 
Height -2i ; breadth .23 ; thickness .08. 

Tod, Brit. School Annual, x. p. 66. 

(?), 8ia(0)[eT€os I Se aure7royy«X](r)ou Ao[vkiov ? | )rovs to(v) | 

5 fos' a{(f>)[aipeis || a>v ol viKrjaavycs ras (<o)[/3as| \vs, lav 

ir[piafivs I 

Letters carefully inscribed: forms AEIH. In 1. 4 after «os is an 
ivy leaf as mark of punctuation. 



INSCRIPTIONS 79 

648. On a fragment of a massive stele of bluish marble, complete 
above and on the 1. Height -33 ; breadth -46; thickness .19. 

C.I.G. 1343. 
C H rrdXts | Tificpiov KXavSjW] I UparoXaov Bpacr[i8ov] | ko\S>s 7r€7roX«Tf[v- 
fievov || teal Xa/3o](ira ras rrjs) [dpicrTo^irokeiTeias reipds Kara top vofxovj. 5 

Forms of letters AETTZ (in 1. 1) C (in succeeding lines) XI: apices 
slight. Of 1. 5 only ■▼ AT ArT.ifT can be seen. Tiberius Claudius 
Pratolaus occurs again in No. 691 (q. v.) and his father Brasidas in 
No. 85. The title of dpia-T07roKirevTr)s seems to have carried with it 
certain privileges : it was granted either for a definite period or for a life- 
time, as we see from the use of the title alowios dpia-TOTToKiTevrrjs (C.I.G. 
1349, 1375, 1432, No. 781). 

669. On a cylindrical base or altar of white marble, with a rectangular 
depression cut in the upper surface. Height -75; diameter at the foot 
•30, at the top -27. 

Zav\ J 'EXet;|0epioi | *Avtq)||j/iW J Scott} pi, 5 

Forms of letters A0Z.Q. Below the inscription are two palm 
branches with a wreath between them. 

670. On a stele of bluish marble, complete at the top and on the 1. 
Height -32 ; breadth -23 ; thickness -06. 

Zavl 'E\e[u]|0epiot 'Ai>|r<oj>eii/o[i] | (2a>Trj)[pi\ 

Forms of letters A 60 C CO: apices slight. Above the inscription are 
two palm branches with a wreath between them. 

671. On a fragment of a bluish marble stele ; the 1. margin alone is 
preserved. Height -17; breadth .13; thickness -08. 

'Apicrro I 'AqtkX^) | TeX | IId(7rXtos) Afi'Xios ?] 

Large, well-cut letters A TT5u. 

672. On a fragment of a bluish marble stele : part of the 1. edge is 
preserved. Height -87; breadth -25; thickness «io. The inscription 
is complete below. 

\N]iKtio[nnros ? | SJoxpar | ['AJj/fyxJi^iKos] | Mmrofi/] || 

No(u)\<xf)v\aK€ s' ?] I Evftafc | 'Aya^o(fc)[X^s ?] | 2a><n | KXca>- 5 

[rv/Aoy] || KaXX[t 10 

Forms of letters AE 9 ZG. : very slight apices. Between 11. 4 and 5 
is a blank space of a single line. 

The reading of 1. 6 seems certain, yet I know of no name which 
begins with Ev/3a/3f : probably he is identical with the Evpdpepos 

EvfiapepovQ) of C.I.G. 1 2 78. 

676. On a circular base of greyish marble, with moulding at top and 
bottom. Height -51 ; diameter '49. 

Le Bas-Foucart 194. 
AvTOKpdropi j Kaiaapi J 'A.8piava>i 2f|/9aoTGH |) Sarrjpi. c 



80 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Forms of letters AECUU : apices elaborated. 

The omission of the final t of 'Abpiavai in Le Bas' copy is an error. 

685. On a rough slab of greyish stone, complete above (?) and on 
the r. Above the inscription is roughly incised a bird, of which only the 
back half is preserved. Height -35 ; breadth -25 ; thickness -04. 

„ e Oe'avos | CIOAPCOAO | {r)o 8edaKa | 

5 ovcrais |j loviais. 

Forms of letters A6E0ODCGi). The workmanship of this in- 
scription is rougher and more unskilful than that of any other in the 
museum. Of 1. 2 I can make nothing, though the reading is, I think, 
certain, except in the case of the first letter, which may be 6. In the 
mutilated condition of the stone no restoration is possible: the inscription 
seems to be metrical, and is probably an epitaph. 

689. On a large stele of bluish marble, with a projection at the foot for 
insertion in a socket. Height 1-65 (including the projection, 1*76); 
breadth '82 ; thickness «20. From the Amyclaeum. See pp. 202-3. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4515 ; Schroder, Athen. Mitt. 1904, p. 24 foil. 

— |apX ou T ™ 1 'AniWcovi Kal tq>s OTa(ra)s) A[vr]oKXe[i]|oW AvtokXios, 

Aaiobdpxtvra, *Avrifxa)(ov TdaKov. 

Forms of letters AEMPCH. At least one line of the inscription 
has been purposely deleted. Date: third century b.c. 

In 1. 3 Tsountas ('E<pfyi. *Ap^atoX. 1892, p. 9) reads Aa$oMp.avra: 
cf. AapLmra Collitz-Bechtel 4583, 4585. For the name TdaKos cf. No. 509 
and note. In 1. 2 Tsountas read KATTH^TA..., noting that the third 
letter might be I : Preger gave the true reading (KAITn££TAin^) 
and restoration. For the o-raroi cf. Bekker, Anecdota Graeca, p. 305, 20 

araraiv' apxovres eicrt 7rapcnr\r]<riav ex oVT€S T0 * s dyadocpyois dpxrjv (i. e. a kind 
Of police function), and Hdt. i. 67 01 8e dyadoepyoi elo-i tg>v ararS>v 

(codd. do-T&v: oraroii/ rests on a conjecture of Usener, Jahrb. fiir Philol. 
1889, 376). 

690. On a bluish marble base, much chipped. Height 1-48; breadth 
• 70; thickness -45. From the Amyclaeum. 

Tsountas, 'Ecprjfiepis 'ApxaioXoyncfi, 1892, p. 21, No. 3; Skias, ibid. p. 255. 
[2rjv] (p)[ev\, ava%, aKOTnrjv, (^Y){aiciv]\0i€, ddaiuov a\a[os] \ 
[kcu Tr](p)oxoa\ irorap.ov nd(v)[icakov\ \ r)y\d'i(Tav | 
5 [xoJXkoO tc (rTeponrj 7roXv8[ai8aj|Xos, ixKXa koi rjde 

[cI]kg>v acts 'Apvickas 6f}K[aro] j Kketvorepas \ 
10 [Avaav ?]iov, tov kvSos es ov(p)\avov] || evpvv iKai>e[t] | 

— — — <os e£ eparav 6pt^vp.e^\vov 8a7r[e8a)i/j | 
[2fflf]e 6' dc0\o0€TT)v (p)\e(ivr)]\p.cvos dpr)(T)\rjpos] \\ 
15 [Evpv\K\eovs dpert]S €ii/e(*c)[€j/] | dvriBeov. 

Writing very rough: the letters are narrow and crowded. Forms 

€M2:ncco. 

The above is Skias' restoration of the epigram. The words 



INSCRIPTIONS 8l 

restored by Skias are : L. i [a-rjv] for Tsountas' [?}]. L. 3 |Wi] for Tsountas' 

\(t6v\. irdv\Ka\op\. L. 9 [Avarav ?]tov. L. II o>y. L. 1 3 [o-fifjf u[fp.pq]fi€pos. 

L. 14 ap7;(r)[^pos] for Tsountas' apj/T^p.]. L. 15 [EvpvJKXeovy. The other 
restorations are due to Tsountas. 

According to Skias' interpretation, the name of the sculptor of the 
el«i>p (1. 7) is found in verse 5, that of his city in verse 6, while the last 
verse contains the name of the priest who dedicated it. The epithet 
'Yaicipdios is applied to Apollo in Nonnus 11. 330. 

691. On a greyish marble base, from the Amyclaeum. Height i-6o; 
breadth -72 ; thickness -55. 

Tsountas, 'Ecprjficpls 'ApxcuoXoyirf, 1892, pp. 19, 30, No. 2. 
('H 7rd)[Xis] I Tt,(3(e'ptop) K\av(8iov) npaTo\a(o){p] | Bpaaidov dyopav[6fxov] \ 
€7Tt ras oBovs e[ir\] \\ dpvnepfiXrjTa ir\ep\ rr}v\ \ dp\h v KC " \irovpy\iav <pi]|Xor«pi'a H 5 
7rpocrb(e)[ga]\p,€va>v to dpaXcaua Tt|j3ep/ov K\avdiov AiAiov || IlparoXaov tov kcu IO 
Aauo\KpaTi8ov, lepecos Kara ye\vos Kapvelov BoiKera | kcu Kapuctov Apopaiov kcu | 
Hoareibwvos AcopareiVa || Kai 'HpaKKeovs yevdpxa \ kcu Kopas ml Teueviov \ rcbv iv 15 
t<5 *EX« Kai rap crvv\Kadei8pvuepa)v 6ea>p | £p rots 7rpoy€ypauue\\vois Upois, kcu 20 
Kkavfiias | Aapoardepdas tcop \ 7rai'oW. 

Forms of letters A E0S>Q< ; marked apices. 

For the stemma of Tt/3. KXav. npardXaos (cf. No. 648) see J. M. Paton, 
Transactions of the American Philol. Assoc. 1895, p. 39, and No. 85. 
In 1. 3 Tsountas reads dyopap[6uop Kai], I omit the mt partly because I do 
not think there is sufficient space for it on the stone, partly because it 
seems improbable that the care of the roads devolved upon an office 
distinct from the dyopavouia. In general the dyopa.p6p.01 correspond to the 
Roman aedifes, one of whose chief duties was the conservation of roads ; 
and at Sparta it would seem that one or more of the dyopapouoi were 
charged with this duty, and named dyopapouoi hft ras 68ovs. If the office 
were a distinct one, we would expect the phrase hft tS>p 6dS>p. 

LI. 11-20 The same priesthoods are held by Claudia Damostheneia 
(cf. No. 443), as we see from C.I.G. 1446 and 'Ecprju. 'ApyaioX. 1892, 
p. 25, No. 8 1 , with the addition mm ak\<op 8e5>p. Bock/to = OiVra : cf. 
No. 393 note. Kdpptios oIkctus (Wide, Lakon. Kulte, p. 84) is mentioned by 

Pausanias (iii. 13. 3): 6 be Kdpvcios, op OIkctop €7ropopA£ovo~i, Tiuas eix €P 
ip ^irdprrj Ka\ irplp 'HpaxXeiSa? KareXBelp kt\. : SO also JJoo-eidap AwpaTetras 
(Wide, Op. cit. p. 45) : napa 8c tov *A\k(opos to rjpaop Uoaeidwpos eo~Tip lepop, 
AauaTiTrjp 8c cnopoud&vaiv (iii. 1 4. 7). Tsountas has identified Teueviog 

with Orpheus or Abaris, the founder according to tradition of the temple of 
Kore Soteira ('E(p?7u. 'Ap^atoX. 1892, p. 21 : cf. Wide, op. cit. p. 296). "EXos 
is probably a locality in Sparta, and not the town of that name (Boeckh, 
ad C.I.G. 1444). 

707. Large Ionic architrave block of white marble, from a circular 
building. Length 1-78; breadth .38; thickness -45. Found in the field 
of P. Kalamatianos called Bao-iKonoiiXa (The Princess), along with many 
other marble blocks belonging to some ancient building. 

1 Though the name of the priestess has been lost in this inscription, the verbal 
identity of the formulae employed with those of C.I.G. 1446 leaves no room for doubt 
that both refer to the same person. 



82 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

[£k t\S>v lBl(ov KaTe[(TKCvaa(v\. 

Forms of letters A€0). The inscription is written in letters .10 m. 
high on the concave surface of the block. 

712. On three sides of a brick. Length «2i; breadth -165; thick- 
ness -05. 

(a) [*E7ri Ka^SXiKpdreos. 
(3) 2Kavo0r)Kas. 
(r) Zrjirtov. 

The inscriptions read from r. to 1., and are stamped on the brick 
with letters in relief: (a) and (c) are on the short sides, (b) on one of the 
long sides of the brick. Cf. Nos. 276, 535. 

Forms of letters AAEZ92X1. 

713. On a fragment of grey marble, broken on all sides. Height -15; 
breadth -065 ; thickness -065. 

V I 

KP 

Letters very roughly formed. 

718. On the upper part of a white marble stele, with a very ornate 
pediment and acroteria, broken in three pieces : complete except at the 
foot. Height .70; breadth -52; thickness -095. From Parori. 

E(f)opoi J en\ 'lou(Xiov) Avo-iicpdrovs, | $>v irpfaftvs | Aovkio? 'Arrpco^ior] || 
5 'AklvSvvos' I MapKos Oi5[X7rios ? A]\ap.do-iiriro(s), 

Forms of 'letters E0oTT2(|>; apices. The surface of the stone is 
a good deal injured on the r. Cf. No. 719 note. 

719. On a thin stele of bluish marble, complete on the r. and below. 
Height .41 ; breadth .30; thickness -04. Found at Parori. 

vot \ — — — s irpoa-a-Tar-qs \ — — jV»}](s) dva$€<reos | — — {p)os 

5 Qc6(f)paoTos jf — — covidas (— — avifta) 6 dyados. J \2,irov\(8)o<fr6poi. m ra(ios) 
Iov(Xtoff) Aa/nai| [SJfj/ap^i'Sa. | [ra(i'os) 'lovjXtos Ava-iKpdrijs | [e<£o fyos. 

Letters AAGMTTScj) : workmanship very poor and rough. 

For the term 6 dyados, appended to the name of a magistrate, cf. 

C.I.G. 1239, 1. 23, 1240, 1. 36, 1252, 1. 6. The 'lovXios AvaiKparr^s 
of 1. 8 may be identical with the eponymous patronomus of No. 718, 
and with the npea^vs tyopov of C.I.G. 1240, col. II, 1. 6. 

720. On a block of greyish marble, complete on r. and 1. Height .25 ; 
breadth ^20; thickness -io. 

5 Zavl ['E]|X«v&|ptot 'Ap|ra>i'6i||i'oi 2a>\r^pi, 

Forms of letters A E Q C Cl). 



INSCRIPTIONS 83 

721. On a stele of grey marble. Height -75; breadth -46; thick- 
ness -105. Found in Magoula. 
Collitz-Bechtel 4478. 

pExrl MevcicKcovs \ oi o-<f>]aipcis ol v[i]Kdo-avTcs' [MAX — ]| — S Niko- 

Kpdrrjs (NiKOKpdrovs). BAZ | *foas Qikoorpdrov || Ofievrjs 5 

'E7wctt)tov. — — iirmtias 'Eiwcpdrovs. | | vvtKOs. J [2\d>avdpos 

Tpvqbojvos. 1 Kvdavos 'Iirirdpxov. | KaXkiKpdrTjs 3>iXoorparo[v]. | Aaptinros Tipo- 10 
icpdrovs. | K\e6p.axos (KXeopdxov). \ EvdaipoicXrjs Evddpov. || Scoorparos Ocodoa- 1 5 
po[v]. I [Seji/a/ccDV 'Avriftiov. 

Letters very rude, A TT OXX. Below the inscription are a flask, 
a circular object (doubtless a afatpa), and a palm branch. The stone has 
lost a certain number of letters since it was copied by Le Bas. L. i 
has completely disappeared, and of 1. 2 only slight traces are still visible. 

It is supposed that MAX (La) and BAS «*(L 3] are the 

beginnings of a name and patronymic accidentally omitted and added 
later (e.g. Max[aipiov] Baofrt'a]). The 2 at the beginning of 1. 3 was 
restored conjecturally [Td1o]s by Foucart, but the inscription has no other 
Roman praenomina, and hence Collitz-Bechtel suggest that it may be the 
end of another name of one of the tnfwfify, L. 5 O MENUS Dressel- 
Milchhoefer ; 'EttiM E N H Z Le Bas-Foucart. The O, however, is certain. 
L. 7 has entirely disappeared. L. 8 'EttINIKOS Foucart; YNlKOZ 
Dressel-Milchhoefer. Probably [e]vvikos is to be restored. L. 13 
KAEOMAXOZK: Le Bas read KAE0MAK02K {Rev. Arch. 
1844, 637) or KAEOMA . OEK (Voyage arcMol. 164): Foucart re- 
stored Kk€6fia[x]os <. But the sign denoting the repetition of the name 
as patronymic is throughout this inscription K. 

777. On a bluish marble stele, with pediment and acroteria. Height 
•69 ; breadth -40. The back of the stone is left quite rough. 

Collitz-Bechtel 4447 ; Michel 65a. 

Kaficoviftas *Av8poviKo[v\ | irarpovopos. Aapoxapis | MeXaviirnov irarpov6\pos. 
UparoviKOs 'Eiri\\oTpdTov irarpovopos. | KaXXiKpartftas Tipogcvov | narpovdpos. 5 
Tipo£evos I QiXokXcos ira.Tpov6p.os. | Aapoxapis Tifio£evov || irarpovopos. J 

IvvapxoC I 'Apioroicpdrqs Etre\i8a. | Evftapiftas KXecovvpov. | Tipdpiaros 
Adpcavos. I "linrapxos Topyiirirov. || &iX6£evos AapoXa. | JJaairtXrjs KXcdvopos. | J 5 

Tpa(pparevs)' "2a>rripidas 'AyadoicXfos. | 

'Yiroypa(ppareis)' 'Apia-roKkrjs, 2a>Kpart'(a)[s], | Evrvx&as. 

'Yirrjpe^rasy Evrv(x)[os\. 

Forms of letters AEHQMHOOE <$>JX : the ypa in 11. 17, 
1 8 is in monogram, as also the tjp of vmjperas (1. 1 9). 

Date: probably first century b.c The institution of the patronomate 
was due to Cleomenes III (236-220 B.C.): to Kpdros rrjs yepovaias Karakvo-as 
irarpovopovs Karea-Trjaev dvr avrtbv (Pausan. ii. 9. i). The head of the 

college bore, like those of the other colleges, the title of npio-fivs, and was 
eponymous magistrate. See Nos. 213, 219, 220, &c. 

The second word of 1. 2 has been read by all previous editors 

g 2 



84 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Aafxoxdprjs : my copy gives Aap6xapis, and a photograph of the inscription 
shows that this is the true reading. A second Aapoxapis occurs in 1. 9. 

778. On a stele of greyish marble, with pediment. Height -6o; 
breadth .31; thickness -055. 

Alcrxivas | &i\a>vos | Br)(3cuos. 

Letters careful ; no apices, but a slight thickening of strokes at the 
extremity. Forms AO^^jo.. 

For the grave inscription of another Boeotian see No. 266. 

779. On a slab of white marble. Height -52; breadth -415 ; thick- 
ness «o4. 

5 Aovkios j Uerpavlov | Bidvvbs Ni\k<1€vs e|jra>i/ Ke'. 

Forms of letters A60CQ); very slight apices. The surface of the 
stone towards the 1. is a good deal damaged, but the reading is certain. 

780. On a cylindrical base of white marble. Height »4i; diameter -20. 

Zaul 'E\eu\6cpioi 'Avlraveivoi | 2a>Trjpi. 

Forms of letters A60CCO. Below the inscription are two palm 
branches and between them a wreath. 

781. On a fragment of a massive stele of white marble with dark veins, 
broken on all sides. Height -50; breadth ^42 ; thickness -14. 

Tod, Brit. School Annual, x. p. 64. 

— — j3ovX?)[y — — — j — m](a>Wov dpi(TTo(n)[oK€iT€VTov, J jSi8e]ov (5)e 
5 M(apKov) (A)v(pr;)Xi[ot; — Sia|3€T6o]ff 8e *lov(\iov) ' Qp€ia>jJ\os' <r(paipcis j| 

(a)rwi/ 01 viicr)o[avT€s \ ras a>(Has di/e](0eS)pot, hv {jr^pea^vs] | 

Letters large (-04 high) and well cut, though somewhat cramped : 
forms AAEM2(|>n; apices marked. LI. 2, 4 8- L. 3 MA> PI I \l. 
L. 6 ^rXpoi. 

My restoration has been based entirely on the analogous inscription 
No. 400. In 1. 6 [UiTav]aTS>v seems to me the most likely conjecture. 

782. On a block of bluish marble, complete only on the r. Height -30; 
breadth 1-07; thickness »i6. From Mistra. The inscription is in two 
columns, with a vacant space -045 broad between them. 

Col. I. 

— — « , 1 <j 1 (jjatv €<a j — — [7r]a>7TOTe nep\ rrjs ipa(yro)[v\ — — — | 

(n)6T€pov trpa6rjvai rj pia6ov<r6ai kol tto| [r]ovs dypov? 77 Kara pepos 

5 irapaivS) i|| oSovs pepvrjpai 7roXX<» pel£ovas | v kcu d(()8a>pTjpevov vp\v 

cutktiv | — ovs c(T€<t6cu ft krepa picrdoiais y{,*)[ v }(°) ( '\[ TO jotetf vpds . . <ray 

TO TpiTOP TTJS VVV | — (f) (ff) TOV — — — 

CoL H. 

— — to>p €7Wc\r]<T€G)v fio(r))6(€ t)[a]i» tovs d8iKOvpe\vovs o'iopai blv d(peipr)adcu, ovre 
d(poppfjv Tavrrju yeLve\o~dcu rot? <TVKO(pavTovaiv co? rd re drjpoo-ia kcu ISicotiko. | prj 

5 Te\u<r6ai Kara tovs vopovs' dio 8fj nepl pev tcjv dp(f)i\\crf3T}Tr)(r€cov aiTives av oxriv 
eXdrrovs 2 dijvapiwv Kai pr)\r€ Kpirrjpiov rj irpoKpipa KecpaXucrjs diicrjs rj cmTiplas 



INSCRIPTIONS 85 

e£ov\aiv cTWcakeio-Oal pe rj irel8(e)v$ai rois eniKaKeo-apevotg kco\ ras 8e 

eTTUcXTjareis d(7r) — Lvecrdai eVtrpeTrco 181a Kpivera>\ \7rj0Tep0v dimicos yelvovrai 

rj eVi rw [r]6 8i?|| (o\)as noielcrBcu. els to pr) Kpt6rj[vai\ | (apm) tcoi 10 

narpicoi e\ — — — pepa r) ev. | — eras a 

Letters apicated: forms EZ0 2. Of the letters forming the first 
three words of Col. II, 1. 1, only small fragments are left. 

783. On a stele of greyish marble, complete on the 1. On the r. 
is a portion of the groove which held the dedicated sickle : a small 
portion of the r. margin is preserved. Height -30; breadth ^29; 
thickness .04. 

Tod, Athen. Mitt. 1904, 50. 

[ftoayos I fUK](i)xi88o/At|i'a>i> em irarpo\v6px)v TtjS(epiov) Kkav\\BLov 5 

'AttmcoO I veiKr)<ras to | naidiKov Kad\0r)paTopiov | 'Aprepidi 'Op\\deiq dve(0)[r)\- 10 
(tic*. 

Forms of letters A 60 hAUCCl: apices. L. 3 has a mark of 
punctuation (°) before 4*1 : at the end of 1. 6 is the sign 3 inserted by way 
of ornament, as also the leaf at the end of 1. II. 

Tiberius Claudius Atticus was an Athenian citizen of the deme 
Marathon, and father of the famous rhetorician Atticus Herodes. He is 
mentioned as eponymous patronomus of Sparta in C.I.G. 1241, 1245, as 
patron of the Eleutherolaconian League (I.G. iii. 668), and as ow^p kol 
KTio-njs of Gythium (ibid.). 

Date : probably during the reign of Hadrian. 

784. On a slab of greyish marble, complete on the r. and below : 
probably no entire line is lost above. The surface is much worn. Height 
•18; breadth 1-02; thickness .52. 

t ApiaTa>u 'Apio-(r) | \j 1 <£. fc k I / — — — 

'Avdp6viicos ' ApicrroKkeos dy\opav^6pos en\ Qeo£evov 

Qev£ivoos 'ApiaToavos dyopavop.os en\ ' ' ApiaTavdpov kcu 01 ovva[pxoi\' 

2tK\eidas 2(j7p)[wr](7r)oi; Evdapos "Evddpov Sevoickeidas Evk 

'ApiaTodapos 'ApioTO/cXet'Sa Nncao-trr7ros T(rj)[fi\evov Topymiros $iXt — — 5 

' Avbpovutos ' ApiaTOKkeo\s\ UoXvaiveibas 'Apio-Tavbpov 'Aytddas 3»tXi(o-) 

'Avriyovos *AvTi(pe)veos '0\vp7rid(8a)s ' 0\\yp^7rix{pv) Tpapp,aT{e)\ys' 
['A]vSpd(i/)«cos ('A)piot(<b)i/o(s) {db)r]s Ev(8\d](p)ov [e]e(o)<pdw/s T 

Forms of letters AGHfTSn : slight apices. 

Date : first century b. c. The name Trjpepov in 1. 5 is doubtful. 

785. On one of the narrow surfaces of a large slab of white marble, 
with a rebate; the face is slightly curved. Length .77; breadth .63; 
thickness .165. Used to form one of the narrow sides of a Byzantine 
tomb, close to the church of 'Ayia Kvpiaicr) (Amyclaeum). 

Collitz-Bechtel 4510. 

r^AAYX* 7 Xav£. 

As the inscription occurs on a surface which is left rough, and there- 
fore was not intended to be visible, it is in all probability a mason's mark, 
as No. 786. 



86 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

786. On a similar slab of white marble. Length .89 ; breadth -70 ; 
thickness '165. Found in a late wall near the church of 'Ayia Kvpia^ 
(Amyclaeum). 

Collitz-Bechtel 4510. 

APMo$ & Pf x6s. 

The i employed, though roughly formed, has, I think, four strokes: 
Tsountas writes it $. This inscription, like No. 785, is probably a mason's 
mark. This stone and the preceding must come from the same building, 
as also a third whole slab and four fragments found near by (Tsountas, 
loc. cit.). 

787. On a block of grey marble, broken at the foot and lacking the 
1. hand upper corner. In the top are two circular and one rectangular 
dowel hole, and a hollowed groove which may be original. Height '67 ; 
breadth .41 ; thickness -23. The surface of the stone is much damaged. 
Found close to the mill of Mat&la, Sparta. 

Se'iavov. | [At](a)p?/9 ([Aijapovs) '\<ri | SuXov/nepo^] (QiKovfievov). | 

5 Qikcovidas Evk || 2axrtKpa.TT}s | 'loi;(Xio?) Near M S I <t> — ? | KaXXwcpan/p 

10 — — I 27rapriar77s 2a>o-id(8)o[v]. | EvdaipAiaop TLvKrf)[(iovos\. || 'Aptcdpios 'QcpeXloav. I 

'loiikios ('iouXiov). j Zevgnnros Tvv8dp(ov)[s\. | KXavdtos Aiow[cr) | MapKos 

l 5 NeiKT)((p)[6pov]. || KaXXMcpa(r) | Mi>dcr[<oi/] | $tX | <"* 

Forms of letters AEZZTTZ(}>£1; marked apices. 

The title of these officials (? yipovres) and the date were probably 
inscribed on a separate stone : cf. No. 396. 

805. On a fragment of a marble slab. Height '19; width -12; 
thickness -045. 

- - [v](c)uc(o) - - I - - ['Apto-]To/ie[v] --| v( vos). Xf --1 

5 - - [t]6 p. A - - II - - [Vte]iKOK[\ 

Letters have slight apices. 



8 7 



INDICES 



I. WORDS AND PHRASES 



The numbers given are those of the Museum. 



ayaOq ti;x9, 220 ; dyaOy tvxv, [219], 400. 

ayaXfia, [447]. 

ayopavS/ios, 204 I, 214, 220, 267, 784 bis; 

ay. kirl rcLs odovs, 691 ; dyopavopiw, 

204I. Cf. Introd. § 18. 
ayptafiire\ov, 269 bis. 
dykv, 238, 253, 544. 
aywvodirrjs, 204 II, 238, 544 bis. Cf. 

Introd. § 22. 
ae9\o06TT]s, 690. 
'A0aj/ata, 440. 
aOavaros, 398. 
dfynp, 611. 
alyioxos, 61 1. 

atwi'tos, 220, 269, 634, 781. 
a/tepdws, 441. 
"A/ma, 253. 
d\(piTa, 222. 
dpnreKiov, 269. 
dpupiScKaria, 222. 
dvayvtbaras, 203. 
avaKaviTTiKws, 269. 
dmAo/ia, 246, 252, 385, [456], 691. 
dVaf , 690. 
a.va<JTpo<pa, 217 B. 
av£<p(8pos, 400, 781. 
dwoxiW, 440 quinquies. 
dvvrrep$\rjTOS, 246, 691. 
d£(toAo7c«miTos), 243, 544. 
dTTOTrpoAtiTOuaa, 548. 
aprjT-fip, 690. 
dpKTrivdrjs, 400. 
d/MO"roiroA«T€vrt7S, 78 ! > dpiffTonoKireia, 

, [648]. 
'AprtfUTiov, 224. 
dproK6iros, 203; apros, 222. 
dpXaytTTjs, 544. 
d^x^oJ'j 262. 
dpx*«p€vs, 220, 544. 
dpxiTi/CTcov, 203, 217 B. 
ucri/Aia, 217 A. 
dffVVKpiTOS, 243, 246. 

do*<pd\€ta, 2 1 7 A ; dovpaAios, 544. 

d-reAeta, 217 B. 

drpoiros, 268. 

avKrjrds, 203, 205, 206, 207. 

auT€7rd77€\Tos, 400, [647]. 

avTO/ep&Tap, 204 I, 237, 239, 240, 244, 

, 373, 381, 5°7> 529, [6i9]> 62 9 a, 676. 
dipareiv, 203. 



0a\avevs, 205. 
&a<Ti\€vs, 383. 
fiiSeos, 204 II, 400, [781]; Qidvos, 202, 

203, 627. Cf. Introd. § 16. 
&oay6s, 218, 411 Kr, [783] ; &ovay6s, 204 1 

quinquies, 220, 410. Cf. Introd. § 27. 
Polk eras, 69 1. 
/SouAd, 204 I, 217 A, 241 ; QovXJi, 781. 

Cf. Introd. § 17. 
Pv&Kiov, 262. 
fico/xoviKrjs, 252. 
BcupOta, 220, 22i; Bcvpo~ta, 219. Cf. 

'Op0em. 

yan&p6s, 267, [456]. 

7€j/dpx as » 691. 

yepovcias, 203, 204 I Mr, 204 II Mr, 374; 
yepovres, 210, 211,612; ycpovT&joj, 404. 
Cf. Introd. § 17. 

7Au<p€us, 203. 

ypafiixeiTCVs, 205, 206, 207, [238], 441, 
777> 784 J ypapaTtfo, 203; ypa(mxa- 
T€t)s) /3ouAds, 204 I ; ypanparevs rax 
(iovXai, 217 A; [7/xx/z/z]aT€ys avvk- 
[ppaiv ?], 262. 

ypa/jipaTo<pv\a£ } 204 II. 

yvfJivaatapxia, 246 ; yvpvaoiapxos, 246. 

yvvaiKovdfios, 203. 

5d>os, 217 b £«; 5a^<5<rtos, 276, 535, 643 ; 

drjfioaios, 208, 275, 782 11. 
8a7rdVa, 441 bis. 
Ae\<pi5ios, 404. 
A€<T7roT?7S 0€(5s, 506. 
Srjfioaios, see under dapos. 
Srjvapiov, 782 II. 
Sta^fTijs, 204 I, 204 II, 400, 647, [781]. 

Cf. Introd. § 22. 
diSvftos, [447]. 
AiocTKovpeia, 544. 

SlffKlOlf 200. 

b-oyfxa, 441. 
ZoyiMToypaxpos, 441. 
Souk, 548. 
Apo fiaws, 691. 
AufiaTeiras, 691. 

ePdofias, see cvSopi&s. 

kyhor-qp, 21 7 B; l75o/i€j', 441 ; 1780x0;, 
217 B. 



88 



INDICES 



ZyKTTjffis, 217 a, 217 B. 
edenrveirav, 222. 
tlffapiOfios, 218. 
CK/cXrjaia, 241. 
(\ev8epne6s, 269. 
kKwOtpios, see Zevs. 
'EAeuhw/ta, 440 bis, 
evSapia, 217 B. 

€ph77/3a;hcus ht7r7rots, 440 quater. 
eviwpos, 506. 

fvairos, 372; ZvceiTos, 41 1, 569. Cf. 
Introd. § 20. 

CVCfMvifapMl, 24I. 

tiradka, 218. 

kmypcupwv, 205, 206, 207. 

kiwcaXiopcu, 782 II ft£j imKXrjais, 782 II 

tmpieXrjTds, 2 1 6 ; empe\rjTrjs noheos, 204 I. 

Cf. Introd. § 19. 
kmOKoirq, 269. 
1771x0717, 528. 
kmnpia, 782 II. 
h67rra«ti/, 440. 
«/>7cfcvay, 276, 535. 

eo-Tta ir6\ea>s, [456] ; /fo«/d lorta, 217 B. 
evdop&s (= k&hop&s), 269. 
evepyerijs, 217 A Mr. 
tvXapiOTJjpiov, 427. 
^X^, 223, 546. 
2c/>opos, 203, 204 1 &?r, 204 II £«, 215, [241], 

242, 262, 441 fo, 464, 718, [719]. 

?}£0eos, 382. 
?»fycus, 441. 

7»CW, 251, 589. 

OvpeKrj, 383. 

ISiootikSs, 782 II. 
Upair6\os } 217 A. 
fe/>€«k, 203, 220, 254, 544 ^r, 691 ; i'a/>€ik, 

393 5 ^P«a, 203. See ap X iepevs. 
UpoOvrrjs, 213, 217 B. Cf. Introd. § 23. 
Up6v, 217 b, 439, 441, 446,^32. 
imrapxas, 204 1 ; imrdpxvs, 374 ; Inirapxea}, 

204 I. Cf. Introd. § 22. 
iadpidp,os, see dodpiOpos. 

KaOaprfy, 203. 

KaOdriparopiov, 783; Kaaarjpardpiv, 220, 

221. 
KdiXfaav (?), 221. 
Kafcrap, 204 11, 237, 239, 240, 244, 373, 

374, 38i, 5o7, 529. [619], 629 a, 676. 
K&pveios, 691 bis ; /capveoveiicas, 203. j 
/capv£ , 203, 205, 206, 207. 
/cdais, 204 1, 210 ter, 248 quater, 411 &r. 

Cf. Introd. § 27. 
KaoorjpaTopiv, see KaBOrjparopiov. 
tceavav (?), 219. 

itito&t 44° ier - 
KitpaKiK^j di/cr), 782 II. 
KiOapKTT&s, 203. 
KKrjpos, 634. 
KXwar&s, 203. 



KOdKTT)p, 205, 206 ; KOlCLKT-qp, 207. 

tfotvor, 217 a fcr, 253 ; /card /fotj/o*', 217 B ; 

*otvd 4aTia, 217 b; koivol xPW ara , 

[224]. 
Kovporpdrros prjv, 217 A. 
*/>ea?, 222. 
Kpi-rqpiov, 782 II. 

XeiTovpyia, 269, 691. 
AecuvetSta, 544. 

/id7«/>os, 205, 207, 569 ; pdyipos, 203, 206, 

210. 
p£it(Wov, 569. 
/xaj/ts, 447. 

/xavjis, 203, 205, 206, 207. 
p-epis, 222, 441. 
/tc/wSSo/tei/os, 410; puKixiSSopcvos, 220, 

783. 
puaOoopcu, 782 I ; piaOwois, 782 I. 
^ofpo, 382. 
Moucat, 383. 
[_pvard]y ay 6s, 245. 
PXW, 569- 
/*wa, 218, [220], 221. 

NeovoXtrai, 400. 

vi(os) } 210; i/€c£/Te(pos), 204 I. 

vtK&has, 440; vucdaas, 400, 721; ew'ffahe, 

440 for; vi/cfj<jas, 218, [647], 781; 

trfrty, 440 quinquies; veucdap, 219, 

[220]; veucdavrep, 221; vweqaas, 253, 

783- 
>^oy, 203 to, 217 A, 222, 456, [648], 

782 II. 
vono<l>v\.a£, 203, 204 I, 204 II, 213, 225, 

374> 4"» [4 2 8], [672]. Cf. Introd. 

§ 15. 
vovpvrjvia, 222. 

ffVia, 217 B. 

o«yj><$s, 624. 

d/crd/civ, 440 Mr, 

dKvpnrioviKas, 393, 509. 

'OXvpmos, 230. 

67tt8(8)<5/*e»'os, 447. 

'O/>0«a, 218, 783. Cf. Ba>p0&, Bapata. 

dp/ei£co, 634. 

°P<"> 439» 532. 

ovtys, 440. 

Ovpavia, 544. 

Ovpdvia, 204 II ; Ovpavids, 253. 

dif/owots, 205. 

iraiavias, 205, 206 ; neiavias, 203. 

irmdifcSs, 783. 

■napddo^os, 220. 

irapedpevco, 383. 

7rd/>oxos, 203. 

ttott)/) ^/wuj/ (?), 456; tott)/) 7roA.€a>s (?), 

456. 
■narpiaiTis, 544. 
irarpovdpos, 20411 sexies, 213, 219, 220, 



WORDS AND PHRASES 



221, 400, 630, 777 sexies, 783. Cf. 

Introd. § 13. 
neStavdfios, 396. 
ireiavias, see iraiavias. 
irciKa, 254. 
irevTaeTrjpi/cos, 253. 
irfjiroKa, 440. 

TT\ei(TT6v€tKOS, 220. 

irXevacuv, 268. 

irXivdos, 276, 535. 

ir60o8os, 217 B, 241. 

7T(5A€/ios, 377, 386, 387,435, 5<>9 &>, 617. 

Cf. Introd. § 32. 
iro\ia X o<i, 440, 544. 
IlohotScua, 440 £/.y. 
Trpio&vs, 204 I fcr, 210, 311, 213, 215, 

372, 400, 411, [627], [647], 718, [781]. 
vpoKpifm, 782 11. 
irpofrvos, 217 A bis, 217 B; irpo£evia, 

217 B #j. 
irponvdfiouv, 217 A. 

irpoaUxoiuu, 246, 252, 385, 456, 691. 
irpo<r<TTCLTi]$ } 'jig. 
npoarpoird, 441. 
»rv0at;AJ7s, 508. 
ntffca, 253. 

fioytvs, 203. 

ZcfaffrSs, 220,239, 5°7, 529, 544, 676. 
civ ( = 0€^j/) <pepcw, 205, 207. 
cio<p6pos, 206. 

<TlTT)6£vT€S, 20I, 202, 203. 

aKavodrjKa, 276, 535, 712 0. 

CKKparSfJios, 206. 

<rnw5o7rot(fe, 208. 

<rirovdo<p6pos, 213, 411, 719. Cf. Introd. 

§ 20. 
CTcfcAa XiOiva, 217 B, 441. 
ararSs, 689. 
OTaxf>v\odp6/jias, [393]. 
CTe<£>aj'<$7r(yA.ts, 203. 
arparayos, 24 1. 
avfco<pavTQ), 782 II. 
avuTTpofiv&iuuv, 217 A. 
irivapx<Ki 214, 216, 372, 777, 784; 

ovvapxia, 217 B. 
ovvypacpd, 217 B. 

<rui/5t«a)j/, 204 II. Cf. Introd. § 22. 
o-i5v6[5/)ot], 262. 



89 



ffvvtvvos, 383. 

crvvicprjPos, 213. Cf. Introd. § 23. 

avvKaOidpvfievos, 544, 691. 

aiWSos, 417. 

(T<paip€vs, 400, [647], 721,781. Cf. Introd. 

§ 24. 
avrfo, 226-37, 239, 240, [244], 254, 367, 

368, 373, 381, 389, 466, 503, 507, 521, 

5 2 9> 547, 619, 629 a, 669, 670, 676, 

720, 780. 

Taivdptoi, 205, 206, 207. 
TaAertTas, 222. 
ra/iias, 217 B. 
TeOpiinros, 440. 
TirpaKiv, 440 guater. 
rr)\Tjyeros } 382. 
rpaywdos, 253. 
rpia/cds, 222. 
rpierrjpiKds, 253. 
rp&yava, 222 foj. 
Tupfo, 222. 

WTra'/'Stos, 383. 
vwepxpovia}, 224. 
vTTTjpfras, 203, 777. 
VTroypafx/xarevs, 777. 
vtbiaros, 223. 

<pi\dv6pamos, 217 A, 441. 
<pi\6Kai<xap, 212, 220, 221, 400. 
ipiXoirarpis, 220, [221], 400. 
<J>i\oao(f)6rraTos, 456 &>. 
ipiXoavvyanos, 383. 
^A-otatnos, 222. 

X<m>, 26, 28, 255-61, 263, 264, 266, 268, 
300, 370, 371, 379 for, 380 for, 382, 383, 
[395], 448, 522, 523, 524, 564. 

Xa\Kiot/eos, 544. 

X°fc£t 222. 

X 0l pi a , 222. 

X/*o[>uAa£], 204 11. Cf. Introd. § 22. 

XPVWrifr, 456. 

XpvouT&s, 203. 

\pl\lV0TT0l6s, 203. 

404, 270,400, 441 foj, 446, [647], [781]. 



II. PROPER NAMES 

7%* numbers given are those of the Museum. 



'A/3<JAj7tos, 216. 
'A&pias, 206. 

; a t« - ~ 372. 

A7a#as, 247; *u/>wos (?) A., 215. 

' ' A.yaeoic\rjs, 203, 204 1, 205 for, 248, 672, 

, 777- 
Ayaddjv, 523. 



^79 , 612. 

'Ayfinwv, 207. 
'Ayrjaivifcos, 205, 2 1 6. 
'Ayijotitiros, 206. 
'Ayfjra, 206. 
'A7t(fc5as, 210, 784. 
'A[7t'a]s, 205. 



9° 



INDICES 



"Ayiov Hvfvfia, 506. 

T Ayts, 205, 207. 

'AyiriXrjs, 205, 206. 

'ASptavds, 204 1, 237, 239, 240, 244, 373, 

381, 507, 529, [6i9]> 62 9 A > 6 76. 
'A06,va f 2l'jB; 'Adavaia^o; 'AOavaia, 440. 
'Afl^ra, 544 £m. 
'A077J/afos, 363. 
'Atdcvs (?), 600. 
'A/Sjjs, 548. 
AlveriSas, [417]. 

AtJ'fTOS, 386. 

Air^htas, 377. 
Haipfjhiiriros, 387. 
Aiffxivas, 778. 
Ai(TxP lwv t 241. 
Aiaxpw, 241. 
[At<r]xvA.os, 369. 

A/ro/iavTta, 203. 
'Auapvdves, 217 A /Vr. 
'Axivdoivos, 522. 

'A/rw'Swos (Aoifoios 'Airpdjvios), 718. 
"Aktios, 217 A, 253. 
i A\€^dv5pa, 441. 
'AAcfas ('lottos), 2041. 
'A\c£inaxos, 2IO, 217 A. 
' AkKa/xevrjs, 206, 217 A, 242. 
'AA/a«/8pt5as, 220. 
"AA/caoros, 204 I, 2IO. 
'AkKiftaxos, [Oil]. 
"AXkittvos, 206. 
'AA/wffoiSas, 207. 
'A/i&pavTOs, 208. 
'Afx^paKiQjrrjs, 2 1 7 B £«•. 
'Afidviinros, 207. 
'AfiiavTOs, 207. 

'ApvK\at, 690; 'AftvtfXateot, 441 £w; 
'A/i-fiicKiov, 269 ; 'A/iVtfAaiof, 635 A, B ; 
Iv 'A/w/cAai'oi, 636, 637, [637], [638], 
[639]> [ 6 4°L 641, [642], [644], [646]. 

Ap (IVafos), 372. 

AvaKTOpieris, 217 A ter. 

Avdpias, 206 foj. 

AySpojSovAos, 217 A. 

Av8pop.iv7)s, 207. 

AySpow/eos, 203, 672, 777, 784 ter; 'Ar- 
dpuveiKos, 204 I. 

Avdccria, 255. 

Avon os, 201. 

AvTi&Kicrjs, 206. 

Avrlfaos, 721. 

Avt^okos, 510, 784. 

AvripMXOs, 689. 

AvTtpivrjs, 784. 

Avrtoxos, 210 foj. 

AvriiraTpos, 245. 

Ai'Ta;j'€«'os, 227, 228, 228 A, 230-36, 367, 
368, 389* 5°3> 521, 670, 720, 780; 

'AvTOJVlVOS, 226, 229, 466, 547, 669. 

*A7r&Aa>!/, .y^ 'ATroAAcw. 

'A7roXA.o5a;/)os, 206. 

'Air<$AA(w, 635 A, [636], 637, [637], 638, 

639 1 6 4°, 6 4!» [642], [644], [646]; 
'AniWoiv, 635 B, 689; 'A. "Aktios, 
217 A. .SVtf Ae\<pl5ios, Kapvuos. 



' AiroW&vios, 204 I, 363. 
'Airpwvios, see 'Axivdwos. 

'Apa[r"\ , 612. 

" Aparos, 207. 
'Apciuv, 208 bis, 267. 
'Aperiiriros, 207. 
'Ap-qfcunros, 205 &J, 612. 

♦Apt , 250. 

'Apiovria, 440, [440]. 

'Apiovffa, 260. 

'Apiffr , 784 ; Aomios Ov[o\ovo*crr)~\vds 

'Apiar , 281. 

'ApiaravSpos, 206, 217 A, 784 bis. 
'Apiareas {'Iov\ios), 41 1. 
'ApiffTidas, 207. 
' Apiar itritos, 214. 

'Apia™ , 242, 671. 

'ApiffrSPios, 2IO Atr* 

'ApiorSfSovXos, 204 1 foV ; KAauStos 'A., 

627 ; Ti/3. KA.au. 'A. 204 II. 
'Apiaroyiv-qs, 207. 
'ApiardSapios, 205, 206 /dr, [206], 207 bis, 

212, 784. 
'AptarddiKos, 206. 
'AptffT0K\u6as, 206 £zV, 784. 
'ApiOTOK\r)s, 205 &r, 206, 207 zVr, 210 bis, 

777, 784 Mr. 
'ApiaroKparris, 203, 204 II, 205, 207, 214, 

248 *M, 400, 441, 525, 777. 
'ApiffroKparlSas, 203, 207. 
1 ' ApiardicpiTOS, 206 £«. 
'Apiar6\as, 205, 206, 207. 
'ApiarSpiaxos, 206, 207. 

'ApiffropLcv , 805. 

1 Apiffropievrjs, 203, 205, 210, 248 Mr. 

'Apiaropxvihas, 203. 

'ApiaroviKiSas, 210; 'ApiffTOveiKiSas, 204 I. 

'ApiarSviKOs, 207, 214. 

'Apior6iro\ts, 203. 

' Apio-TOTcKrjs, 446 *Vr; Kdo^trios) 'A., 

2041; TtjS. KA. 'A., 212. 
'ApiCToTipos, 207, [212]; 'ApiffT6reip:os, 

215,627. 
'ApiffTwv, 225, 784 ter. 
'Apiojv, 205. 
'AppiSviKos (Ti. KAauStos), 2IO; 'Ap/io- 

vtucos, 432. 
"Aprepas BapOia, 220, 221; 'A. Bcopcea, 

219; "A. 'OpOeia, 783; "A. irarpiurris, 

544. Cf. 'Op6eirj, 218. 
'Aprepuriov, 224. 
'Apx^aekj 634. 
'Apx&ffTparos, 217 A. 
'ApxtaSas, 267. 
'Apxiba/ios, 205. 
"Apx^Tros, 207, 525. 
'Apxiras, 207. 
"Apxoov, 205. 
'Acrta, 253 ; 'Atrfy, 383. 

'AffK\r) , 671. 

'Ac<p6.Kios, see TlocriSajv. 

'Attikos, 204 1 ; Tt/3. KAavSios 'A., 783. 

Av£r)ffia, 222. 

AvTOK\ei8as, 689. 

AvtokAis, 689. 



II. PROPER NAMES 



91 



'AQOovtjtos, 204 I ; Mapfcos OvaAtpios 
OvKmavds 'A., 410 ; M. OvXmos 'A., 
208, 211. 

'A<ppo5eiTr) Ovpavia, 544. 

'A(ppo8ioios, 205. 

'Axai'/ffo, 248. 

Bddiimos, 205 bis. 

BiWwv, 411. 

Bt6vv6s, 779. 

BtdAas, 205. 

Boi/ceras, 691. See Kapvcios. 

Boiimos, 266. 

BpaaiSas, 648, 691 ; KAav(Stos) B., 85. 

BpiffiSrrjs (= Bpvatdjrrjs), 269. 

BoipOia, Bcopoca, see "'Apre/iis. 

Ba;p0td8as, 612. 

Taidfo\os, 440. 

Tat'os, 206; rdi'os 'IoifAios , 247. 

roA7/i'<$s, 400. 
r6j/dpx as i see 'BlpaKXrjs. 
Tipavos, 269. 

IVafos 'Av , 372. 

FopyidSas, 205. 

TopyiiririSas, 61 2. 

rdp7t7nros, 206, 216, 219 £«, 41 1 dis, 777, 

784. 
rdp7ts, 217 A. 
Topyiojv, 204 I, 206. 
To/yyctmas, 206. 
ropyws, 206. 
T/xii'toy, 210 dis. 
Tparrros ('IovAios), 569. 
ruAnnros, 569. 

Acuodafxas, 689. 

Aa/i , 249, 612 bis. 

AafidyrjTOS, 207. 

Aafiai (T&. 'Iou.), 719. 

Aafiaiveros, 400 for. 

Aa/xai(Ti5as, 217 A. 

Aan&pr]*, 205, 213, 216, 281 ; n<5(ir\ios) 

Mififxios A., 204 1. 
Aafidpiaros, 525. 

AafW.<riiTiros (Map/eos OuAthos?), 718. 
AoAtaTTyp, 546 ; Arju-fjTTjp, 544 £«. 
AapaTpios, 398. 
Aa/jLtas, 207, 208. 

Aa/« , 599. 

AaiudSas, 441 to. 
Ad/xtwTTos, 203, 205, 216, 721. 
Aafiicov, 206, 217 B to, 411. 
Aa/xo — , 212, 464. 
Aafioia, 222. 

Aafio/e , 225, 612. 

AafxottXrjs, 205, 206, 225, 242, 248 Mr. 
AafioKpdrrjs, 203 sexies, 205 quinquies, 

206, [206], 207, 208, 210, [212]; Ti. 

KAavSios Aa[ito«/>dT?7s], 210. 
AafioKparidas, 203, 205, 206, 210, 242 ; 

II<J(7rAtos) At\ios A., 220; AafiOKpari5r]Sj 

691. 
AapoKparis, 249. 
AajioAas, 206, [267], 777. 



Aafxovi , 204 II. 

Aafiovifeidas, 206, 2 1 4, 225 (?) ; Aafio- 

veixidas, 247. 
Aa/xovifeos, 208 quater, 612. 
AafioaOivcia (KAavSta), 443, 691. 
Aa/Ji6<TTpaTOs, 203 to. 
Aa/iou<ra, 26 1. 
AayLoxapis, 203, 777 ^'• y * 
Aaficw, 777. 
Aa/jLwvow, 440 sexies. 
A&pvos, 269. 

A«i> — , Jtt Aty . 

Aeieovfuost 372. 
AeA<£t8tos, 404. 
A^avSpos, 217 A. 
Ae£i8afios, 612. 
Ai^iKpdTrjs, 207. 

Ae£ifMx os ) 2 ° 2 > 20 3 ^i 2 °9« 
Ae£ivttcos, 206. 

At£t7T7rOS, 210. 

A^ tS , 525. 

Aefftroiva, 618. 

A«Js (?), 600. 

Arjn^rr}p, see Aafnarrjp. 

Aidprjs, 393. 

AiKTvvvrj, 544. 

AipokAtjs, 203 ; Afivo/fA^r, 205. 

Aivo/cpaTT]s t 203; Aciv ok pdrr)?, 205. 

A*o , 612. 

Aiok\t}s, 203. 
Aid/cXta, 379. 

Aiovvff k 787. 

Atovv(ttos, 204 II, 205, 206, 208, 569. 
AiovvcroSapos, 205. 
At<frv<ros. Atdj/otcos, 544, 628 (?). 
Ai6o/covpoi, 254, 544 to; AidffKwpot, 447 ; 

AioffKovpeia, 544. 
Ato[<£dr]?7S, 210. 
AtW, 205, 411. 
Atuvidas, 205. 
Apo/jiaios, see K&pveios. 
AcufMiTdras, see TloaeiSdtv. 

"EyeiXa, 544. 

Elpfjvij, 618. 

'EAevhuvta, 440 to. 

"EAAaj/, 220; 'EAAds, 253, 383. 

"EAos, 691 ; H^Aos, 440. 

'Evvpiav — , 440. 

'EvvfiavndSas, 210 bis. 

'Eira<pp65etTos, 569 bis, 628 (?) ; neSov/fcuoy 

'E., 400; Map/cos 'Eira<pp6diTOs, 210. 
'Eirqparos, 217 A. 
'Eirtyivcta, 398. 
'Eirfyoyos, 252. 
^Eirt«--, 372. 
'EiriKp&TTjs, 721. 
'EmicnjTOS, 210, 252, 564, 721. 
'EmoT/aa-ros, 206, 777. 
"EpaffTOS, 204 I. 
'Ep/xfjs, 263, 544. 

Eu , 525,612 bis, 787. 

EvafiepiSas, 205. 
Evafiepiojy, 205. 
EvdjL«pos, 205, 206 to, 207. 



9 2 



INDICES 



Ev&vyeXos, 205, 61 2. 

EvfiafBepos, 672. 

Ev0d\K7)s, 205, 393. 

Evfaos, 207. 

EvdaipLcucow, 208, 787. 

EvSaifiicw, 207. 

Ev5cu[io/c\fjs, 203 for, [212], 605, 612, 721. 

EuSat/ioi'tSas, 372. 

EvdaifioriKrjs, 207. 

EvSai/Acw, 411 for, 435. 

Ev5a/udas, 203, [205], 248, 372, 777. 

EuSa^os, 206, 211, 721, 784 ter; rd(t'os) 

'lovXtos E., 204 1; SeKOTos E., 544. 
Eirfiftepos, [215]. 
Evdvtckijs, 203. 
EvOvpos, 441. 

Ev* , 784. 

EvK\€i8as, 206; EfoAiSay, [145]. 

EvKparys, 203. 

EvKpiv-qs, 204 II. 

EvKTrjfUtiv, 208, 787. 

Ei/MoXiwv, 207, 612. 

Ewous, 203, 205. 

Et/£ei/os, 207. 

Etyw , 612. 

Evpvddrjs, 509. 

Evpv&avacoa, 203, 206, 591. 

Evpv/cXrjs, 248 3m, 690 ; I\ 'IoiJAios E., 

204 II. 
EvpvfcpaTrjs, 203. 
EvT€A.i8a?, 777. 
EvTvxiavts, 456 ; M(ap«oj) Avp(^Aios) E., 

456. 
EurvxtSas, 205, 210, 777. 
EvTt/x°s> 208, 777. 
'E X ,612. 

Zerj£unros, 210, 787 ; M(a/>«os) Avp(^Aios) 

Z., 220. 
ZetJs, 544 foj, 611 ; Zevs k\€v9epios, 226- 

36, 367, 368, 389, 466, 503, 521, 547, 

669, 670, 720, 780; Z. 'OAu/mos, 230; 

Z. TaAcTiras, 222 ; Z. (nf/iaros, 223. 
Z^Acutos, 203. 
Z^cur, 712. 
Z&Ci/ios, 569. 

'HpaK\--, 272 (?), 612. 

'Hpa/cXas, 543. 

'UpaKXrjs, 281, 544; 'H. yev&pxas, 691. 

[0]dAios, 205. 

©€ - -, 225 ; Ma(cKos) Qe , 525. 

©eyeiros, 265. 

©co , 212. 

@(68a)pos, 210, 248, 721. 

0c(5k/mtos, 2 i 7 B 6m. 

®e6£evos, 208, 784. 

0€<fc, 506, 634 bis. 

0€O(pdvijs } 784. 

QfvipiXvs, 248. 

@f6<ppaaros, 719. 

Qepdwat, [245]. 

©cacraAta, 253. 

0co'O'oAtaj'<5s {MdpKos TelOuos), 370. 



06u8otos, 217 A. 
0eu£tVoos, 784. 
©tvpia, 440. 
0eW, 207, 685. 
®t)0cuos, 778. 

0/)67TTOS, 383. 

Qvppeios, 217 A. 
®vpaos, 205. 

'Upapxos, 207. 

'Iepaxos, 216. 

'Upo/cXrjs, 205 3m, 210 ter. 

'lov\iav6s (r. 'iot/Aioy), 253. 

'WAios, 374, 376 for, [428], 787 foj. 

"iTTTraoxos, 721, 777. 

'InirSdafios, 207. 

'lmroOpdrjs, 241 foj. 

'iTriropiidajv, 203. 

'I/rt " -1 787. 
['Io*]<5xpi'0'os, 209. 

Ka 1 612. 

Kaj8a»/t5as, 777. 
Kouaa/), j^ Index I. 

KaA ,612. 

KaAAi - -, 456, 525, 672. 
Ka A Am Say, 207 foj. 
K(iAAi/fA^y, 441. 

KaWucpar , 787. 

KaWiKpaTTjs, 7, 203, 204 I ter, 205, 206, 

207 ter, 210 bis, 216, 276 /<?r, 378 bis, 

379> 535, 535 a, 612, 712, 721, 787. 
KaWiKparidas, 205 bis, 206, 209, 225, 

248, 777. 
KaWivlKtjs, 207. 
KaAAiTToAts, 61 2. 
KaWiffdevia, 203. 

KdAAto-T-os, 432 (?) ; rd(i'os) K., 432. 
KaWiarpaTos, 205, 525. 
Ka\\iri\T]s, 206, 525. 
KaAAoOca (AvprjXla), 427. 
Kd/itAAos, 248. 
KapSapuojv, 217 A. 
Kdpj/etos Boitciras, 69 1 ; Kdpj/etos Apofjuuos, 

691. 
KdpTror, 205. 
K7/i7f - -, 502. 
KAau&oy, 787. 

KAcWopos, 206, 217 A, 220, 242. 
KXeavajp, 777. 
K\e6f}ov\os, 2041. 
KAeo5a/*os, 207. 

KA€<5/*axos, 207, 411 bis, 721 for. 
KXeofievrjs, [145]. 
KA€o<£<wtos (r. 'IotJAtos), 247. 
KAeW, 204 II, 205, 206, 207, 208. 
KXcowiSeow, 612. 
KK&Sjvv/jlos, 207, 210, 672, 777. 
K\r]viKr}5, 214. 
KKrjviKidas, 205, 214. 
KA^wkos, 207. 
K^rjrojp, 207. 
KAcwSta, 203. 
Kopa, 691 ; K0/M7, [544]. 
Kopeidas, 206. 



II. PROPER NAMES 



93 



Kopiv0os, 417. 

KopWVT), 268. 
Kpavovnohis, 269. 
KpaTcufievtjs, 207. 
Kparias, 206. 
KpaTtffToAas, 207. 
Kp7S, 253, 524. 

K.TT]ffl<pCVV f 207. 

Ku&wos, 721. 

Acuce8aip:6vtos, 217 A, 241, 262. 
Aa/ceScufKuv, 217 B, 381, [507]. 
AaKiiriridas, 206. 

Aa/*€ , 61 2. 

[A]4/mf, 374. 

Aa/x[rros ?], 205. 

Aaarparidas, 206. 

Aax&prjs, 205, 217 A, 612. 

Acoi'Tas, 208. 

AcoKreus, 218. 

AcvKtinrLScs, 2 20. 

AevKTpidSas, 205, 25 1. 

Acouj', 241. 

Aeajj/a'Sm, 544. 

Ai£t/s, 205. 

Ai/tPaevs, 204 I, 204 II, 270. 

Az/ipaibs, 217 A. 

A07 - -, 623. 

Ao77€«/os, 238; Ild(irAios) M(4fifuos) A., 

411. 
Aot//wos, 779 ; Ao[v/wos ?], 647. 
Avi£evi8as, 205. 
At/*eiVoy, 216. 
Avkickos, 217 A. 
AvKOixfjdrjs, 612. 
Av/covpyos, 215, 250. 
Avo-avtos, [690]. 
AvaiKpaTijs, 208, 441, 525 ; 'Iov(Atos) A., 

718 ; rd(ios) 'Iou(Axos) A., 719. 
Avainaxos, 204 I, 205, 206. 
AvffiviKos, 441. 
Aucrtfevos, 205. 
AuaiTTjros, 203, 204 II, [204 II], 207, 

[372 ?], 400; r(dios) A., 248. 

Maiccdovia, 253. 
MavTiK\rjs, 203. 
Map/eos, 212, 787 ; M(ap#os) AvprjXios — , 

7 8l. 
MaTpono\iTt)s, 217A. 
M^apeiJs, 265. 
McVmro*! 525. 
M«Ad»'t7nroy, 777. 
M^avSpos, 206. 
M€vtK\r}s } [721]. 
MweKpaTTjs, 206. 
Mcwttitos, 432. 
MvaffucpaTT)*, 207 for. 
Myacra»', 204 I, 207, 672, [787]. 
Movca, 26 ; Moucat, 383. 
Mvpwv, 259. 

NdpSos (Map. Avp.)> 238. 
N^as ('IovAtos), 787. 
New -, see N(/c -. 



NeoAas, 206. 

NeovoKircu, 400. 

N«W, 213 ter.~ 

TXr]K\f}s, 205, 441. 

N<* - -, 525 ; N«« - -, 376. 

Nt«o , 212. 

Ni/cayopas. UcucaySpas, 248. 

Nt/caevy, 779. 

Nt«ata, [269]. 

HitcavbpiSas, 203, 206 ; Uo(ir\ios) AiA(tos) 

N., 204 I. 
HiKavSpos, 203, 205, 207 ; 'IovA(jos) N.,411. 
Hi/eapxos. Net/wipxos, 248. 
HiKapwv. Neirc&pcov, 208, 221, 628. 
Hitcdanrnos, 206 for, 672 (?), 784; Net/cd- 

Ciirwos, 215. 
Nt/cactW, 276 fer, 535. 
Nt/ce'as, 44 1. 
TSiicritpopos, 203, 204 I, [395] ; Net/^cpopos, 

221 MT, 787; 'lovXios T$€t/cr]<popos, 215. 
Nt/a'as, 207 fcr, 210 Mr, 213, 225, 525 ; 

Net/ctas, 21 1. 
NtKtmriSas, 210; Ti. KAavSior N., 2IO. 
NiK<S/JouAos, [210]. 
Nt«(55a/*os, 207. 

Nt/eo/fA . Nencoie\ , 805. 

Nt/co/cA^s, 203 ter, 206, 208, 212 for. 
NiK0fcpaT7)s, 205, 210, 605, 721 for; Net«o- 

Kp&rrjs, 248, 411. 
TXiKOfMixos, 203. 
Ni/co/ii^s, 207. 
"NucSaTparos, 205, 525. 
Nt/rwj/, 203. 

N<$77Tos (NepfrVios), 204 I. 
[Ni/f]Aas, 205. 

Heyd/Hyy, 721. 
Hevdp^s, 612. 
HevapxiSar, 7*9« 

EevotfA , 274. 

S«vo/fA€tSay, 784. 
BcvoieXrjs, 20$. 
UfvoKp&Trjs, 204 I. 

B€v6<TTpCLTOS } 2o6. 

Hcj'o<pdi'77s, 206 fo'r. 
Seroxap^s, 206. 
Scvew, 216. 

'OAi//«rtd5as, 207 for, 784. 

'OAu/i7rtos, M* Zeus. 

'OAv/i7rtxa, 251 ; Ovo\ova<r^vij 'O., 254. 

'OAu/i7rtxo?, 784. 

'Oi'dcai'Spoy, 206. 

'Oatrt/cAeiSar, 206. 

'Ovact/fA^s, 202. 

'OvaaiKpdrrjs, 243, 544; SeKffTos Uofivqios 

'O..243. 
Ovi]<n<popos, 248, 407, 628 ; II<$(7rAtos) 

AtAtos 'O., 204 1. 
'OTnrta (Avp^Aia), 456. 
'Optioi, 417. 
'Op0eia, Ml "Aprefus. 
'OpiinriSas, 525. 
OvAtkos (?), 428. 
OvoKovaarjvrj, 254; OvoKovffffrjvos, 281. 



94 



INDICES 



Ovpavla, see 'AQpoHcirr). 
Ovpavia, 204 II; Ovpavi&s, 253. 

TlaiffrpaTos, 612. 
HaWiaTrjs, 370. 
Ila^oX -, 569. 
UavKpariSas, 589 bis. 
TlavTuiua, 203. 
TlavTOK\r}s, 207- 
Ilapa, 257. 
UdpSaKis, 548. 

IIa<rt/c\^s, 204 I bis, [205], 207, 441. 
UaaiKpdTrjs, 204 I, 225 bis, 411, 441. 
Uaaifiaxos, 2 1 4. 
ncwto-eros, 205. 
TlaairiXrjs, 441 foV, 612, 777. 
TLavffavias, 612. 
Tlfiaidafios, 2 1 1. 
TluaiffTpaTos, 214. 

U€piK\f}s, 205, 207; IIo(7rXios) M^flfUOS) 
II., 204 I. 

nfyaat, [245]. 

Ilc/xreiJs, 281. 

Uip<pi\a, 203. 

IlfTpawios, 779. 

n»7V€A.o7r€ta, 456. 

Ilfos (jAinfuos), 204 II. 

nAiytTTtdSas, 447. 

IIA.oCtos, 206. 

IloXtaxos, Mf 'AOavaia, 'ABrjva. 

Ho?^\eicov, 526. 

EtoAAtas, 206. 

IloXvatveidas, 206, 784. 

IIo\ua/i/6Tos, [417]- 

IIoA.t/8a^as, 207. 

Ho\V€VKTOS, 208, 3OO. 

TIo\vK\ei8as, 206. 
noA.1wA.77s, 206, 216, [6ll]. 
HoXvvirerjs, 206. 
IIoAuj/iKos, 206. 
TloXvarpaTiSas, 206. 
noAi/tfTpaTos, 207. 
Il6(ir\io$) - -, 411. 

II($(7r\tos) AfXios , 428, [671]. 

Hloaeidujv Aa> pareiras, 691 ; TloaiS&v 

'Aatp&Xtos, 544 ; nohotSaia, 440 bis. 
Tloaidnriros, 206. 

Ilpa , 271. 

IlpaginevTjs (T&'ios), 525. 

liparias, 247. 

UparoXaot, 204 II (?) ; Tiftepios K\av8ios 

II., 648, 691 ; HiPepios Kkavdios AtXtos 

II., 691. 
IIpaT<5Aas, 203 ter, 207 ; IIo*. Me^/itos II., 

254. 
nparovi/cos, 202, 203, 204 II (?), 206 

quater, 207, 396, 612, 777; Tlpar6- 

vukos, 372. 
TlpoToycvrjs (Tifiepios KXavBios), 508. 
IlpamW, 569. 
Ilu0ia, 253. 
IIouAAiW (rdtos 'Iot/Aios), 210. 

'Pieties (?), 524. 

'Pot/ipOS, 210. 



2aAap.«Vios, 508. 

^a/jiiapxos, 205. 

Sarvpos, 427. 

2,€iav6s, 787. 

Set7ro/x7ros, .r££ 'Siirofivos. 

2«T€i/*os, 204 I, 204 II. 

Xepamojv, 212. 

^rjpavbpidas, 207. 

'Srjpnriros, 205, 207 Mr, 784. 

SiSe/eras, 202, 203 ter, 204 I, 206. 

2ttf\«5as, 784. 

2*acA.^s, 207. 

^i/ios, 207. 

Xiirofiiros, 205, 207 j&; "Zf'nropvnos, 204 II. 

2ixW> 205, 206. 

2<W, 206. 

2«w>'t8as, 206. 

^pvpvcuos, 253. 

2ot'5a?, 207. 

2otft<£5as, 206. 

^Trdprrj, 268, [417]. 

HirapTi6,TT)s, 208, 787. 

SWi/oW, 400. 

St--, 612. 

~2,T«pavoK\Tis, 207. 

5T€^aj/os, 203, 204 I, 207 frTj 262. 

^rp&Ttos, 206, 207. 

"Xrp&Twv, 205 3«. 

5<" - -, 37 2 - 
2&av8pos, 210, 721. 
^QiiviKos, 205, 206. 
2<y«A.€t8as, 216; SawrAftlas, 210. 

'S.oiKpaT , 672. 

^coKparrjs, 203, 267, 448. 
Sawparias, 777. 
^wKparidas, 249, 61 2. 
SaVarpos, 217 A. 

Scutrt , 672. 

2<utrt<£&77s, 787. 

^axriPios, 248 foV. 

"Xooaidafios, 208. 

S.axriKpdrrjs, [203], 205, [376], 410, 787. 

^ouaiuiKos, 247 ; Map. Avp. 2axrtr€t«os, 221. 

'Sooaiirokis, 211. 

"Xwarparos, 721. 

^ojrrjpu (voc), 264. 

^oiTTjpia, 528. 

Zarrrjpidas, 207, 208, 258, 372, 441, 777. 

2<wtV X os, 210, 371, 548. 

^coricov, 217 A. 

2&T0H', 217 A. 

TaXcTtras, MW Zcw. 

Tapas, 206, 207. 

Tac/cos, 509, 689. 

Taxv/cKijs, 612. 

Tct/x -, see T1/1 —. 

Tei<raficv6s, 205, 248,456; Tiffa/xcvSs, 206. 

Te\ - -, 671. 

Tenevias, 691. 

TfTaprtW, 206, 2IO. 

T^rapTos, 441. 

T^cj/os (?), 784. 

Tttwos, 524. 

Iipayopos, 206 foV. 



II. PROPER NAMES 



95 



Tifiapiffros, 777. 

lifxapxos, 525. 

Tip.oyivrjs, 206. 

TifioSafjLOS, 203. 

TifiOKKrjs, 207 bis, 210, 612; TeifiOKXrjs, 

211 (?). 
lifWKparris, 205, [205], 207, 612, 721 ; 

TeifWKpdrrjs, [627]. 
Tl/Z<5*/UTOS, [210], 216. 
TipdKas, 206, 207. 
Tip6£evos, 207, 777 &r. 
T//xa;i/, 207 bis, 210. 
ItvSapiScu, 220, 447; TvvSapidat, 7. 
Tiffaficv6s, see TcKrapevSs. 
Tpouavos, 381. 
Mfpos (?), 546. 
Tpvcpwv, 721. 
T/xwAos, 268. 
Tw&i/H/y, 203 £w, 787. 
TwSapiSai, see TivdapiScu. 
TtixV, 268, 544; tvxv dpxayhrjs, 544. 

Cf. [219], 220, 400. 
Tvxwiros, 204 I, 275. 

'Toach'0ios, 690. 

*aC(TTos, 382 bis. 

*eiSe — , 372. 

*i[A]--, 612,787. 

*iAias, 207. 

&t\4pws, 208, [210]; T. 'IotfAtos *., 208. 

$i\r)fiojv, 624. 

OiA^tos, 219 Mk. 

*iAi - -, 784. 

*tAiir7ro?, 205 bis, 212. 

*iA<cr - -, 784. 

#iA.tcTT€t8as, 277. 

*iA.t<rTto>j', 217 A. 

*iAo , 376. 

$tX(5Sa/xoj, 203. 

*t\o«\6i5as, 205 ; r(ai'os) 'Iov(Aios) #iAo- 

KKidas, 210. 
*t\o*A77s, 204 1 Mr, 206, 207, 209,643, 777. 
&i\oKp6.rr)s, 204 II, 248 bis. 
&i\6fiovaos, 216, 220. 
$i\ovifctdas, 205; *iAoj/«*i8as, 212. 
*i\6£(vos, 205, 206, 225 (?), 777. 
$i\6(TTpa.Tos, 203, 206, 252, 721 bis. 
&i\ovficv6s, 208, 787 bis. 
*tAoi/era, 256. 
$t\6(ppa)v, 207. 
^tAoxapeiVo?, 204 II (?), 372. 
&i\<uv, 206, 778. 

*i\a»a'5as, 203 £w, 206, 376, 787. 
*ot/3t --, 372. 
Qotfiidas, 203. 
«i>oi/3iW, 252. 

*°«V> - - 544- 

^i/pwos (?), see 'Ayadias. 

XaipTjp.ojv, 207. 



Xafpts, 265. 

Xaipojv, 205. 

XaAtvos, 210 bis. 

XaXtcioiKos, 544. 

XapTi'os, 205. 

Xapi£cvos, 206 ; 'IouAtos X., 204 I. 

X« - -, 805. 

Xpvaas ('IouAtos), 411. 

Xpvfftpcos, 212 bis. 

Xpvabyovos, 204 1, 41 1 ; I1&k(kios)X., 204 1. 

'Clpeicov ('IoiJAios), 781. 
'Cl<pc\ifw. (?), 546. 
'JtycAiW ( , AvT<wJ'tos), 787. 

- - afys, 784. 
o/ios, 612. 

• avaySpas, 372. 
. . &pT)S, 787 MX. 
apxos, 689. 

- aoros, 372. 

- ~ ^175, 372. 

- - a X os, 241. 

Sas, 248. 

Supos, 369. 

- - tvvvxo -, 384. 

- cSvikos, 384. 

- ijhm, 440. 

- 0os, 369 #W. 

- - iSas, 205, 225, 372, 374. 

- iKpariSas, 384. 

- i\iav6s, 456. 

- *7ro/t -, 274. 
inviSas, 721. 

- - iiriros, 205, 378. 
. . tpoS . Say, 612. 
i<av, 225. 

- «t'Sas, 721. 

[Kp~\&Tr)s, 348 Mr. 

\ias, 225. 

- - Aip, 372- 

fiaxos, 271. 

--/*€Vos, 372. 

- - /iiros, 510. 

vcarcu, 262. 

veiKO -, 805. 

v6fiio$, 623. 

[fjevos, 612. 

- - 68apios, 384. 
60eo?, 266. 

- o/cXfjs, 204 II bis. 

Ofihrjs, 721. 

6vikos, 617, 623. 

- - ™s, 372. 

- arparos, 612. 

- - TJ7, 28. 

- ~ rpos, 544. 

folKOS, 721. 

(pdi^s, 404. 

. x'8 -, 612. 

wftSay, 719 bis. 



9 6 



TABLES 



PASSAGES IN THE INTRODUCTION DEALING WITH 
EACH INSCRIPTION 



Mus.No. 


Introd.% 


Mus.No. 


Introd.% 


Mus.No. 


Introd.% 


Mus.No. 


Introd.% 


J o 


28 


271, 272 


45 


439 


41 


599 


2-4 


26, 28 


33 


273 


44 


440 


2-4, 29 


600 


28 


85 


11 


274 


45 


441 


7 


605 


43 


H5 


40 


275 


28 


443 


11 


611 


2-4, 32 


200 


2-4 


276, 277 


38 


446 


7 


612 


17 


2OI-3 


26 


281 


9 


447 


2-4, 29 


617 


82 


204 


14, 22 


300 


33 


448 


33 


618 


28 


205-7 


25 


363 


42 


456 


9 


619 


81 


208 


20 


367, 368 


31 


462, 463 


45 


620 


45 


209 


21 


369 


21 


464 


14 


621 


9 


2IO-I2 


17 


37° 


86 


466 


31 


622-4 


45 


213 


23 


37i 


33 


500 


21 


625 


2-4 


214 


18 


372 


21 


5°i 


30 


626 


43 


215 


14 


373 


81 


502 


45 


627 


16 


2l6 


19 


374 


22 


503 


31 


628 


21 


2I7A 


5 


375 


45 


506 


35 


629 A 


81 


217 B 


5, 23 


376 


21 


507 


81 


630-33 


45 


2I8-2I 


30 


377 


82 


508 


36 


634 


35 


222 


89 


378 


45 


509 


32 


635-46 


38 


223 


28 


379> 38o 


83 


510 


45 


647 


24 


224 


8 


381 


31 


521 


31 


648 


10 


225 


14, 15 


382, 383 


84 


522, 523 


33 


669, 670 


31 


2 26-37 


31 


384 


21 


524 


34 


671 


21 


238 


45 


385 


9 


525 


21 


672 


14,15 


239, 24O 


31 


386, 387 


2-4, 32 


526 


32 


676 


31 


24I 


6 


389 


31 


527 


43 


685 


34 


242 


14 


393 


11,12 


528 


28 


689, 69O 


29 


243 


10 


394 


. 45 


529 


31 


69I 


9,18 


244 


31 


395 


33 


532 


41 


707 


28 


245 


33 


39 6 


18 


535 


38 


712 


38 


246 


9 


398 


87 


535 a 


88 


713 


45 


247, 248 


21 


400 


24 


542 


29 


718 


14 


249, 25O 


45 


401 


45 


543 


88 


719 


45 


251 


11, 12 


404 


28 


544 


10 


720 


31 


252 


10, 12 


407 


38 


545 


45 


721 


24 


253 


10 


408 


6 


546 


28 


777 


13 


254 * 


28 


410 


30 


547 


31 


778, 779 


36 


255-61 


33 


411 


14 


548 


34 


780 


81 


262 


6 


417 


37 


564 


38 


781 


24 


263, 264 


83 


418 


45 


568 


21 


782 


8 


265, 266 


36 


427 


28 


569 


20 


783 


30 


267 


11 


428, 429 


45 


589 


11 


784 


18 


268 


34 


433 


21 


59i 


43 


785, 786 


42 


269 


44 


435 


32 


598 


45 


787, 805 


21 


270 


24 















97 



II. SHOWING THE CONCORDANCE BETWEEN THE 
NUMBERING OF COLLITZ-BECHTEL AND THE MUSEUM. 



C.-B. 

1379 

4404 
4408 
4410 
4416 

44 T 7 
4420 
4421 
4422 

44 2 3 

4428 

443o 



Mus. 

217 a 

200 

526 

611 

440 

600 

386 

387 

377 

393 

145 

217 b 



C.-B. 

4435 
4436 
4437 
4439 
4440 
4441 
4442 
4444 
4445 
4446 

4447 
445 « 



Mus. 

509 
435 
509 
224 
203 
202 
201 
207 
205 
206 
777 
612 



C.-B. 

445 2 
4457 
4461 

4463 
4464 

4465 
4478 
4490 
4493 
4494 
4496 
4498 



Mus. 

216 

214 
276, 535 
384 
7 
404 
721 
379 
466 
230 
222 
221 



C.-B. 

4499 
4500 
4501 
4506 
4510 
45 T 3 

4514 
4515 
4516 

45 1 7 
4524 



Mus. 

220 

219 + 501 

218 

251 

785-6 

635-42, 

644, 646 

643 

689 

441 

396 

447 



III. SHOWING THE CONCORDANCE BETWEEN THE 
NUMBERING OF LE BAS-FOUCART AND THE MUSEUM. 



Le B.-F. Mus. 


Le B.-F. 


Mus. 


Le B.-F. 


Mus. 


Le B.-F. 


Mus. 


162 a 221 


163 a (note) 


202 


168 f 


216 


194 


676 


162 b 219 + 501 


163b 


207 


168 g 


411 


194 a 


217 b 


162 c 218 


163 c 


205 


i73a 


210 


194 b 


224 


162 f 7 


163 d 


206 


J 75 


648 


194 d 


217 a 


162 g 254 


164 


721 


i75c 


243 


195 


379 


162 h 404 


167a 


145 


179 a 


253 


203 d 


251 


162 j 220 


168 


777 


183b 


245 


203 g 


264 


162 k 222 


168 a 


215 


189 


227 


211 b 


382 


163 a 203 


168 c 


214 


192 


230 


211 d 


268 


1 63 a (note) 201 


168 e 


396 











PART II 



H. 


- Height. 


L. 


= Length. 


B. 


= Breadth. 


D. 


= Depth. 


D-M. 


= Dressel i 



SCULPTURE 

ABBREVIATIONS, &c. 

Th. = Thickness. 

Di. = Diameter. 

R. r. = Right. 

L. 1. m Left. 
= Dressel and Milchho r er, Die antiken Kunstwerke aus Sparta und 
Umgebung {Ath. Mitt. 7/ (1877), p. 293 seqq.). 
F-W. = Friedrichs-Wolters, Die Gipsabgiisse antiker Bildwerke. 
Perrot. = Perrot and Chipiez, Histoire de fart dans VantiquiU. 
Collignon. = Collignon, Histoire de la sculpture grccque. 
Overbeck. => Overbeck, Geschichte der griechischen Plastik. Fourth Edition. 
Robert. = Robert, Die antiken Sarkophag- Reliefs. 
E- V. = Arndt and Amelung, Einzelaufnahmen antiker Skulpturen (Text to 

1311-1324 by Sieveking). 
S. Q. = Overbeck, Antike Schriftquellen. 

/. H. S. = Journal of Hellenic Studies. 
B. M. C. = British Museum Catalogue. 

All numbers which refer to objects in the ^Museum are given in thicker type, 
e. g. 468. 

For Inscriptions, and Miscellaneous Antiquities, see those two sections of 
the Catalogue. 



INTRODUCTION 



THE LITERARY HISTORY OF SPARTAN ART. 



§ i. A brief account of what is known of the history of Spartan art 
from literary sources should rather precede than follow a discussion of the 
actual monuments. The information that is to be drawn from the litera- 
ture is not great. The earliest Spartan artists of whom we have record 
are various pupils of Dipoenus and Skyllis. These two artists were Cretans 
and pupils of Daedalus. They worked principally in the Peloponnesus x , 
but there is no record of their working in Sparta. But another Cretan 
artist Cheirisophus worked at Tegea 2 , which lies just outside Laconia, 
and was in historical times a close ally of Sparta. Besides we shall see 
later that early Tegean art can be brought into close connexion with 
Spartan. Besides the Spartan artists themselves, there were one or two 
artists from other parts of Greece who were employed at Sparta. A 
tabular list of all these artists will be convenient. 

A. Spartan artists s : — 





Works. 


Material. 


Place. 


Theocles, 
a Lacedaemonian. 
Before 540 B.C. 


(1) Atlas bearing heaven. ] 

(2) Heracles, the five Hes- 1 
perids, the apple-tree, and | 
the snake. j 


> Cedar. 


, Olympia, 
\ Epidamnian 
' Treasury. 


DORYCLEIDAS, 


Themis as mother of the 


Gold and 


Olympia, 


a Lacedaemonian. 


Horae. 


ivory. 


Heraeum. 


Before 540 B. c. 








Dontas, brother 
of Dorycleidas. 
Before 540 B.C. 


(1) Heracles against Ache- 
lous (Zeus, Deianeira, 
Achelous, Heracles, Ares, 
Athena). 
(2) Hera? \ 


Cedar and 
gold. 


Olympia, 
Megarian 
Treasury. 




Zeus? 1 
Ares? ( 

Athena? ) 


Gold and 
ivory. 


Olympia, 
Heraeum. 


GlTIADAS, 
av^ip cmx&pios. 
circa 452 B.C. 


Athena Chalkioecus (Hera- 
cles' labours (including 
voluntary labours), Rape of 


Bronze 
(hammered ?) 


Sparta. 



Leukippids, Nymphs giving 
to Perseus helmet and 
sandals, Birth of Athena, 
and Amphitrite and Posei- 
don on lower part of statue 
which was herm-shaped). 
Aphrodite and Artemis. 



Bronze. 



Amyclae. 



1 S. Q. 321. 3 S. Q. 345- 

8 The necessary references to the following artists will be easily found in Overbeck's 



Antike Schriftquellen. 



H 2 



IOO SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

B. Other artists : — 

Works. Material. Place. 

Theodorus, The Skias. Sparta. 

of Samos. 

circa 576 B.C. 
Clearchus, Zeus. Bronze. Sparta, Temple of 

ofRhegium. Athena Chalki- 

circa 520 B.C. oecus. 

Bathycles, Throne of Amyclaean Amyclae. 

of Magnesia ad Apollo. 

Sipylum. 

circa 556 B.C. 

It is remarkable that none of these artists worked in stone. They 
seem to have preferred to confine themselves to decorative work in 
wood or metal. As regards Clearchus of Rhegium Pausanias elsewhere 
says he was the master of Pythagoras of Rhegium, and was a pupil of 
Eucheirus of Corinth, a pupil of Syagras and Chartas, two Spartiates. 
Clearchus may quite possibly have learnt both from Dipoenus and Skyllis, 
and from Eucheirus. At all events his artistic training was derived from a 
Peloponnesian school taught by the Cretans, Dipoenus and Skyllis. It is 
natural to expect an early artistic connexion between Crete and Laconia. 
Crete was one of the great foci of Mycenaean civilization ; Laconia, to 
decide only by the Vaphio cups and the wall of Las, must have been another. 
Districts possessing the same civilization must have had connexion with 
one another. And if we see in the Eleutherna statue a work of the Cretan 
Daedalids, we should recognize in the Frankovrysis and Hagiorgitika 
statues together with one at Sparta (576) the work of the Daedalids in the 
Peloponnesus 1 . Amongst the early athlete statues at Olympia was one 
of Eutelidas, a Spartiate boy who was victorious in the wrestling and the 
pentathlon in the thirty-eighth Olympiad (6 28 b. a). There is no description 
of it, nor is it known how long after the victory it was set up, It may be 
assumed, however, that the figure was very square and flat with the arms 
glued to the sides like 325. Apart from these no connexion between the 
literature and the monuments can be made out. We might, however, 
instance the Dhimitzana bone reliefs 2 as possibly being similar to the 
decorative work in wood or ivory and gold of Dontas and Dorycleidas. 
In this early period art at Sparta seems to have flourished. But in the 
golden age of Greek art we have little monumental, and still less literary, 
evidence for the existence of art in Sparta. For the fifth century before 
Gitiadas there is only Gorgias, a Laconian, who was also apparently 
active at Athens. Artists of unknown date 3 are Cratinus, a Spartiate, 
who made the statue of Philles, a boy wrestler of Elis, at Olympia : and 
Ariston and Telestas, two Laconians, who made a colossal Zeus, eighteen 
feet high, for the Cleitorians at Olympia. As regards these last artists 
Pausanias remarked that he did not believe they had been famous, else 
the Eleans and still more the Lacedaemonians would have had something 
to tell about them. The Zeus dedicated at Olympia after a Messenian 
War must be assigned to an early period : but its exact date is doubtful. 
To the fourth century belonged the statue of Kyniska : but it is not known 

1 Cf. E. S. Forster, Brit. School Annual, viii. p. 274; also v. below § 14. 

2 /. H. S. 1891, pi. XL 

3 v. Brunn, G. d. g. K.x. 115 ; Overbeck, S. Q. 356 a ; Lowy, /. G. B. 36 ; Lolling, 
Cat. Inscr. Acrop., p. 43, 35-38. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE IOI 

if the artists of these were Spartans or not l . Of later artists we know that 
one of the famous workers of toreumata during the Hellenistic period was 
Callicrates, a Lacedaemonian. Lastly to come to the imperial period, 
a certain Demetrius seems to have been active about the second 
century a.d. His name appears on a headless herm once in Sparta and 
also on two other inscriptions 2 . The base of an honorary statue at Hagia 
Sophia bears the signature of Aurelius Nikephorus, an unknown artist of 
the same period 3 . A work signed by Apollonius of Athens, a Neo-Attic 
artist of the first century a.d., also found its way to Sparta (363). Two 
Athenian artists of this name are known ; one the son of Nestor signed 
the Belvedere torso, the other the son of Archias the bronze bust of the 
Doryphorus from Herculaneum, and perhaps a base from the bouleuterion 
at Athens. The name is also found on a Satyr statue in the Leconfield 
collection, and on an Apollo in the Despuig collection in Majorca 4 . 
We could conjecture that the Apollonius who signed these two latter 
statues was the same artist whose name appears on the Sparta fragment 
(363), and that he worked for an export trade in Athens. It is also 
recorded that there were at Sparta portraits of Lycurgus, Polydorus, and 
Pausanias ; and that at Olympia were portraits of Archidamus III, who died 
338 b.c, of Areus, and of an athlete Seleadas 5 . There was also at Delphi 
a statue of Archidamus standing with a statue of Philip II on either side 
of the bronze Phryne 6 . This portrait Furtwangler wishes to recognize 
in the inscribed bust from Herculaneum as a portrait of Archidamus II 7 . 
Wolters however prefers to take the bust as a portrait of Archidamus III, 
and overlooks the Delphi statue : and it is not definitely known which 
Archidamus this represented. But since the artist of the bust is unknown 
it cannot be brought into a discussion of Spartan sculpture : it seems to 
be a typical portrait of the late fourth century. As regards the other 
portraits mentioned, we know neither their dates nor their artists, and it 
is therefore impossible to attempt to place them in any particular period. 
It will be thus seen that a history of Spartan art cannot be drawn from 
literary sources. But in spite of their character the Spartans would not 
seem to have been unartistic. Several of the artists mentioned above are 
described as Spartiates, and others as Lacedaemonians : these names 
indicate Spartans proper as opposed to Laconians or Perioeki. An 
attempt must now be made to reconstruct a development of art in Laconia 
from the extant monuments. But first it will be advisable to discuss the 
two principal groups of monuments peculiar to Laconia, the Hero and the 
Dioscuri reliefs. In all cases it must be borne in mind that the dates 
assigned from questions of style are assigned only by the analogy of 
Attic art : and so due allowance must be made, since art in Laconia was 
probably backward. In any case the dates are only approximate. 

1 Pans. v. 24. 3; vi. 1. 6; Olympia, Inschriften y 252, 160. 

2 One a headless herm in the church of Hagios Spyridon at Mistra, D-M. 157; the 
other C. I. G. 1330 ; S. Q. 2297 A. 

3 6". Q. 2298; C. I. G. 1402. 

4 S. Q. 2214-2220. The Apollo is now in the Jacobsen collection, No. 47; 
Hiibner, No. 78. 

5 S. Q. 1619, 1628, 1634, 1635 ; Pausanias, vi. 15. 5 ; 16. 4. 

6 S. Q. 1270. 

7 Masterpieces, 321. i,v. Wolters, Rom. Mitt. 1888, p. 113. 



102 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



MONUMENTS. MATERIAL. 

§ 2. As regards the sculpture in the Museum the first point to be con- 
sidered is the material employed. This is almost invariably the local marble 
won from the steep sides of Taygetus. This local marble varies very 
much in grain and in colour. The latter varies from white to dull blue ; 
and it frequently shows greenish veins of mica. From one quarry very 
difficult of approach between Anavryti and Mistra a fine grained white 
marble very like Pentelic is obtained. From the southern ranges of 
Taygetus towards Taenarum comes the red marble known as Rosso antico. 
It is interesting to remark that this was used for sculpture as early as the 
second century B.C. Of marbles imported into Laconia there are several 
varieties. First of all comes Pentelic : all the sculptures in this marble 
are, with one exception only, of the imperial period. There are two pieces 
of what looks like Parian marble. And further we find also a marble 

that looks very like that from Dho- 
liana by Tegea K This might be 
Taygetus marble or come from 
elsewhere in Laconia, for there 
are also quarries inParnon behind 
Chrysapha. There are also in the 
Museum one piece of alabaster, 
three pieces of a peculiar soapy 
marble, and a fragment of green 
granite. Whether these are native 
or imported is not certain ; but 
the soapy marble is probably 
native. Limestone was also oc- 
casionally used for sculpture, and 
also a bluish marble-like stone 
especially in the archaic period. 
And for three fragments in the 
Museum a rather coarse sand- 
stone is the material employed. 
The great majority of the sculptures in the Museum are thus of local 
material, and therefore probably the work of local artists. 

ARCHAIC HERO RELIEFS. 

§ 3. Archaic art is well represented. Its most important monuments are 
the well-known and typical Spartan Hero reliefs. Reliefs belonging to this 
series have been found not only in Sparta and its immediate neighbourhood, 
but also elsewhere in Laconia at Geraki, the ancient Geronthrae. There 
are several besides those in the Museum : it will therefore be convenient 
to give a list of them. 

A 2 . Relief from Chrysapha; now in Berlin: No. 731. Blue gray local 
stone. H. .87, B. .55—65, D. 10-13, Relief height -07. D-M. 7. 
F-W. 58. Fig. 1. 

1 See Washington, Am. Journ. Arch. 1898, p. 1, on the difficulty of deciding the 
provenance of marble. 

2 I follow for the sake of convenience of reference the numbering of Milchhofer, 
Arch. Zeit. 1881, p. 294. For full discussions of these reliefs see Milchhofer, Ath. 
Mitt. 1877, P- 443 5 do - l8 79> P- l6l 5 Arch. Zeit. 1881, loc. cit.; Furtwangler, Ath. 
Mitt. 1882, p. 160; do. 1883, P' 33 6 J Coll. Sabouroff, Introd., p. 25; P. Gardner, 




Fig. 1. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 



103 



The relief is complete and undamaged. The heroized deceased are 
shown enthroned in profile to the right. The throne has a high straight 
back ending above in a palmette seen en face. The front and back legs 
are made to imitate an animal's fore and hind legs. The arm ends in a 
hemispherical ornament, and rests on a lathe-cut support. The head of 
the male figure alone is given en face : his legs are strictly in profile, while 
his body is in three-quarter face. He is clad in a long chiton, indicated 
by vertical incised lines, and a himation rendered by oblique incised lines. 
In his right hand he holds out a cantharus, and his left hand is held out 
with the thumb uppermost and the palm towards the spectator. He wears 
sandals. The shape of the head is round and unnatural : the eyes are 




Fig. 2. 

large, prominent, and ellipsoid. The mouth is pursed up, and the corners 
curve upwards in an archaic smile. The hair is filleted ; it is arranged 
along the forehead in a row of curls, and falls down in two long plaited 
locks over each shoulder. The edge of the chin is flat ; this is probably 
due to the technique of cutting out the relief in parallel flat planes 1 . The 
whole of the lower jaw and chin projects forward considerably. Behind 
is seen the female figure : her feet and legs, head, breast and arms are the 
only parts of her visible. She wears a shoe with an upturned toe, and is 

J. H. S. 1 884, p. 120, and for Totenmahl and other similar reliefs see Rouse, Greek Votive 
Offerings, chap, i ; Miss Harrison, Prolegomena to Greek Religion, p. 350 ; von Fritze, 
Ath. Mitt. 1896, p. 347; F-W. 1052, and Deneken's article' Heros' in Roscher's 
Lexikon. 

1 Milchhofer {Ath. Mitt. 1877, p. 304),Friedrichs-Wolters (p. 29), and Perrot (vol. 
viii. p. 440. 1) believe that the beard was intended to be indicated, and was 
rendered by painting. 



io4 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



clad apparently only in a long chiton rendered by vertical incised lines. 
Her right hand which rests on her knee holds a pomegranate ; with her 
left hand she holds out her veil before her. Her features are sharp and 
angular : the eye is shown en face. Over the back of her head she wears 
a cap : on the forehead the hair is arranged in a broad plait, the end of 
which hangs down before the ear. The feet of both rest on a footstool. 
In profile to left below the cantharus are seen advancing towards the heroes 
two worshippers with offerings. They do not overlap as on B, but are 
placed one before the other. The man in front carries in his right hand 
a cock and in his left an egg. He is clad in a plain long chiton : his hair 
is filleted, but cut short on the neck. Behind him comes the woman 
holding in her right hand a pomegranate flower and in her left a pome- 
granate. Her hair is dressed like that of the heroine, except that there is 
no plait before the ear, and the hair hangs in a long pigtail down the back. 
She is clad in a long chiton rendered by oblique incised lines. Behind 




Fig- 3- 



Fig.* 



Fig. 5. 



the throne curling upwards from beneath it in a decorative manner is a 
great, scaly, bearded snake. 

B. Museum, 3. Fig. 2. 

C. Museum, 316. 

D. Museum, 415. 

E. Museum, 451. 

P. Museum, 4. Fig. 3. 

G. Dressel-Milchhofer, 13. Present whereabouts not known. 

H. Relief at Berlin : No. 732. From Sparta. Bluish marble. H. -20, 
B. .31, Relief height -oi. D-M. 15. Fig. 4. 

Found north-east of Magula. The lower half of the slab is wanting. 
It shows a draped youth in profile to the right; all below his hips is broken 
off. Above his forehead the hair is arranged in two rows of tight curls. 
The eye is not rendered in profile. He is nude save for a chlamys which 
falls over both shoulders. In his left hand he holds a spear, and in his 
right a pomegranate (?). Before him a snake curls up towards the left. 

I. Relief at Athens: Nat. Mus. 1417. Arch. Zeit. 1881, p. 294, pi. 
17.2. Bluish marble. H. .28, B. -16. F-W. 65. E-V. 1265. Fig. 5. 

From Chrysapha. A bearded male figure is represented standing in 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 



I°5 



profile to the left. He is clad in a himation over his left shoulder, across 
the back, and round the legs. The right foot is advanced. His right 
hand holds a cantharus, his left a pomegranate (?). In the air before him 
is an erect snake curling up over the cantharus. The hair is filleted, and 
rendered by long flowing locks. The folds of the drapery are incised, 
and the eyes are big. Very low relief, its average height is -0025. Ordi- 
nary late work of about the third century b. c. 1 

K. Timocles relief, at Dhimitzana. Ath. Mitt. 1879, p. 127. Blue 
marble. H. .42, B. -35. Lower left-hand corner broken away. Fig. 6. 

An unbearded male figure is shown enthroned in profile to the left. 
The legs are in true profile, the body in three-quarter profile, and the head 
is en face. The hair is parted in the centre, and two long locks hang 
down over each shoulder. He is clad in a long, short-sleeved chiton and 
a himation, rendered respectively by vertical and oblique incised lines. 
An end of the himation hangs down between the arm and seat of the 
throne. The left hand, resting on the arm of the throne, holds a pome- 
granate, and the right holds out a cantharus. On the left is a snake erect 
curling over to the right above the cantharus. The throne is similar to 






Fig. 6. 



Fig- 7. 



£L r jr. J 

Fig. 8. 



that on A, but much more coarsely rendered. Both legs of the man are 
shown. The work is flat and clumsy, but not naturally archaic : it seems 
to be a later relief in the archaic spirit by an unskilled artist. 

L. Aristocles relief, at Dhimitzana. D-M. 258. Ath. Mitt. 1879, 
p. 127. Bluish marble. H. -40, B. «28. Fig. 7. 

It shows a bearded man in three-quarter profile to the left seated on 
a high square stool with turned legs. The right foot is drawn back 
and placed behind the left heel. The features are much destroyed : he 
wears a himation over the left shoulder, and round the lower limbs. The 
left hand holds the himation together on the left side : the right hand 
holds straight out in front a cantharus. On the right behind the stool 
is a snake coiled: its body is extended upwards obliquely behind the man : 
in the top left-hand corner its head and neck curve up beak-like to drink 
out of the cantharus. Rather late work. 

M. Relief in Piraeus Museum. From Sparta. Bluish marble-like stone. 
H. -35, B. -20, Relief, height -02. Ath. Mitt. 1881, p. 358 ; Arch. Zeit. 
1881, p. 294; Rev. Et. Grecques, 1902, p. 138. 1. Fig. 8. 

A youth is shown in profile to the left seated on a marble throne, and 
clad in a himation thrown round his lower limbs. His left elbow rests 

1 Lowy {E- V. loc. ciL) suggests it belongs to the fifth century. 



io6 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



on the arm of the throne and his right hand holds out a cantharus of 
narrow and elongated shape. From his right side a snake curls up to 
drink from the cantharus, as on the Aristocles relief. All details are 
rendered coarsely and rudely : the limbs are thick and clumsy especially 
the body which is partly en face : the execution is very unskilful. One of 
the latest of the series. Inscribed NIKuul ANHZHKETVXA. 

N. Relief at Geraki (Geronthrae). In the house of the Demarch, 
G. Papanikolaou. Schroder, Ath. Mitt. 1904, p. 42, fig. 5. Bluish marble- 
like stone. H. -35, B. -41, Relief height -005. Fig. 9. 

Top right-hand and lower left-hand corners broken away. Narrow 
flat border all round. Slightly broader at the bottom where an inscription 
is engraved. On the left a bearded male figure is seated in profile to the 
right. The seat so far as can be seen had a hemispherical top. He is 
clad only in a himation round the lower limbs. The body is in three- 
quarter profile : the left arm and shoulder are fully indicated. The right 
hand holds out a cantharus from which drinks a snake curling up before 
him : his left hand is held over the snake's head as though caressing it. 

Only one leg is shown. 
The man's head is very big : 
the hair is long and hangs 
down all round in a solid 
undetailed mass cut short 
on the neck. The nose pro- 
jects, and the chin recedes. 
Before him on the right and 
higher in the relief field (no 
ground line is indicated) is 
a nude male figure (small) 
standing in profile to the 
left: body in three-quarter 
profile, right arm raised in 
adoration, left dropped at 
side. Both legs are seen, 
the right being in front. The chest is broad and the hips narrow. 
Behind is a similar figure, slightly shorter, in a similar attitude; it is 
apparently female. All above the chest is broken off: but the chest 
seems narrow, and the hips are broad. The relief is very flat and lacks 
detail. All the forms are very sharp and angular, not rounded, and given 
in contour shape only. Archaic work of sixth century l . Below is an 
illegible inscription. 

O. Relief at Geraki (Geronthrae). Built (upside down) into the south- 
east corner of a ruined Byzantine chapel just under the north-west wall of 
the Kastro, about three-quarters of an hour from Geraki village 2 . Frag- 
ment only. H. -31, B. .41, Relief height •01. Ashen-coloured marble-like 
local stone. 

It shows a bearded man seated in profile to the right. His nose is 

1 Schroder however says, ' Das Relief ist nicht das Werk einer jugendlich unbehol- 
fenen Kunst, sondern das eines Stumpers, der ein gegebenes Vorbild nachzuahmen 
nicht imstande ist,' Ath. Mitt. loc. cit. 

2 This relief was discovered by Mr. Tod, who most kindly told me of it and has 
allowed me to publish it. Unfortunately owing to its position it is practically impossible 
either to photograph it or to examine it closely. 




Fig. 9. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 



107 



long, his beard sharp and pointed, the forehead recedes. There are 
incised lines to indicate the neck, the upper edge of the right arm, and 




Fig. 10. 




the end of the sleeve of the chiton. The right arm is held upwards in 
a curve, and the hand grasps a cantharus. The left arm and the details 
of the throne (?) are not distinguishable. 
The right side of the relief is badly 
damaged, and the whole is badly weathered; 
the lower half is wanting, and the left side 
broken. Certainly good archaic work of 
the sixth century. 

P. Museum, 431. 

Q. Museum, 505. Fig. 10. 

R. Museum, 683 \ Fig. 11. 

Their importance. 

§ 4. This long series of reliefs is most 
important. From them it is possible to 

form some idea of the development of local sculpture in Laconia from 
the sixth century onwards, at least as far as relief is concerned. Also as 
development in the style is noticed, a change also is to be seen in the 
actual representation on the relief. The conservatism of religion is well 
illustrated by the archaistic spirit of F, K, and Q. One of the most 
noticeable points is the tendency for the representation to become 
simplified. The discussion of the representations and their style will be 
made more easy by the following classification. 

1 Milchhofer {Arch. Zeit. 1883, p. 227) and Deneken (Roscher, i. 2568) would 
include 18 also in this series : however its connexion hardly seems proved. 



Fig. 11. 



io8 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



And classification. 

I. Heroes enthroned to the right. 



Male figure only. 
II. Heroes enthroned to the left. 



III. 



Male figure only. 
Simpler type. 



Hero standing to the right. 
To the left. 



A. 
B. 
C. 
O. 
D. 
E. 
P. 
P. 
G. 
K. 
Q. 
It. 
L. 



Geraki 
Berlin 
Sparta, 3 
Sparta, 316 
Geraki 
Sparta, 415 \ 
Sparta, 451 
Sparta, 431 
Sparta, 4 



Sixth century l . 



Fifth century. 



Timocles 2 ] 

Sparta, 505 I Fourth century. 

Sparta, 683 J 

Aristocles 



M. Piraeus 



H. 
I. 



Berlin. 
Athens. 



| Third century. 

Sixth century. 
Third century. 



Their explanation. 

§ 5. This series of reliefs are rightly explained as 'Hero Reliefs': that is 
to say they are reliefs set up to deceased ancestors by their descendants '. 
This at once becomes clear on an examination of the symbols 4 present 
on the majority of the reliefs. 

The snake is very common on grave reliefs and hero reliefs ; its signi- 
ficance is to be explained by the following passage from Plutarch 

(Cfeomenes 29) 6 : — eldop evpeyeBrj bpaKovra rfj KeQaXrj (of Cleomenes) nepi- 
irkcypivop' 4k 8e tovtov bciaibaipop'ia Trpoaencae rw ftacrtXei (Ptolemy Philo- 
pator) Kai <poj3os a>s dpSpos dvrjprjpepov 0€O<f)ikoi)S Kai Kpeirrovos rrjv (ftvaip. 
ol 5' 'AXt^avdpiis Kai Trpoo-erpenov . . . rjpcoa top Kkeopevrjv kcu Oecop naiba 
7rpo(Ta.yopevoPT€s. &XP ls °v Ka rif rav ataf avrovs ol ao<fta>T€poi 8i86ptcs \6yop as 
peXirras pep (56e$, o-(j)fJKas 6' lirnoi Karao-dnepres i^apBovai, KapQapoi 8' ovcop to 
avro naBoPTcop faoyopovprcu. to. 8' apQpattnpa (rco/xara, tcop ncpl top pveXop l^oapcop 
avpporjp Tiva kcli avoraap €P eavTols \af36prcop, 6(f)eis dvaSi'Scoo-t. Kai tovto kqt- 
tbopres ol TraXaioi paXtaTa tS>p £ghop top bpaKOPra toIs rjpcoo-i crvvaxeicoo-ap. 

The pomegranate is explained by Prof. Percy Gardner 6 as the 
characteristic food of the shades, based on the use of the pomegranate 
in the Kore legend. The pomegranate fruit and flower might have the 
same significance as the egg, which is said to be a well-known sym- 
bol of life after death. Life brings death, and from the dead are sprung 
the living, just as the flower turns to fruit, and from the fruit when 

1 The dates must be considered as only approximate. In fact C is certainly later 
than D and E : and it is of course absurd to suppose that Class I ended with the sixth 
or that Class II did not begin till the fifth century; this is shown clearly by the 
transitional characters of O, D, and E. 

2 Furtwangler (Ath. Mitt. 1882, p. 162) considers the relief archaic and the inscription 
late. 

8 Dressel and Milchhofer {A th. Mitt. 1877, p. 443 seqq.) first interpreted them as 
votive reliefs to Chthonian deities: von Sallet {Zeit.f. Num. v. (1878) p. 320) 
attempted to interpret them as votives to Asclepius and Hygieia. 

4 Most of the symbols are to be found on the Harpy tomb, B. M. Sculpt. Cat. i. 94. 

8 Cf. Aelian, Hist. An. i. 51 ; Plin. x. 56. 86 ; Serv. Aen. v. 95 ; Orig. c. Cels. 5, 
p. 203. 

«/. H. S. 1884, p. 130. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 109 

planted spring in due time fresh flowers. The pomegranate is said also to 
have been a recognized symbol of fruitfulness ; and for this reason, it is 
supposed, it is carried by Aphrodite V This explanation, however, hardly 
seems fully satisfactory or convincing. 

In the Persephone legend one idea was that by eating food in the 
underworld a bond with the dead was established, as a common meal 
united all the guests. But another idea was no doubt due to the food 
eaten, the pomegranate. The tree sprang from the blood of Dionysus 
Zagreus 3 : a pomegranate was planted on the graves of Menoeceus and 
of Eteocles 3 . The fruit expedited birth, and the flowers, it was said, 
sistunt potu menses feminarum 4 . It was an emblem of Hera which 
Pausanias refuses to explain 5 . The mystae at Eleusis would not eat it 
nor did the Thesmophoriazusae 6 ; and those who took part in the Haloa 
feast 7 were forbidden to eat amongst other things pomegranates, domestic 
fowls, and eggs, all of which appear on these Spartan reliefs. It therefore 
probably had some mystic meaning which is as yet unknown 8 . In fact 
Achilles Tatius, after mentioning a young and rather Apolline statue of 
Zeus Kasios at Pelusium who held a pomegranate in his hand, says 

ttjs 8e poias 6 \6yos ftvariKos 9 . 

Fowls were forbidden to the Eleusinian mystae: and eggs are 
mentioned by Lucian as the refuse of ' purification/ and it seems that they 
were also offered to the dead. Cocks appear on three reliefs to the Dios- 
curi (Museum 356, the Verona relief, and one from Sparta in Athens, 
Nat. Mus. 1439, v. below, p. 113), who were heroes. These too then in 
all probability had a ritual significance still unknown 10 . 

The dog is said to be the constant companion of Chthonian deities ; 
and the horse likewise from its appearance on many i TotenmahV (Funeral 
feast) and Hero reliefs is said to be the attribute of the hero, though some 
authorities attempt to prove that the horse has a Chthonian significance. 
It may also be true that the horse and dog owe their appearance, as 
suggested by some, to the custom of slaying the steed and the hound of the 
deceased and of burying them with him. But it is more probably true that 
owing to the Greek's innate abhorrence of death, the hero is represented 
as he was in this life 11 . If he was a hunter, a hound is shown on the relief ; 
if he was a knight, the horse is represented. This seems to be borne out, 
when it is remarked that neither the hound nor the horse is always shown 
on Hero reliefs ; in fact in the Spartan series they are chiefly conspicuous 
by their absence 12 . 

I v. Famell, Cults of the Greek States, i. p. 216, ii. p. 696. For the egg v. Curtius, 
Arch. Zeit. 1855, pp. 4, 7. 

a Clem. Alex. Protrept. ii. 19. 

3 Paus. ix. 25. 1 ; Philostr. Intag, ii. 29, i. 4. 

4 Plin. N. H. xxiii. 107, 112. 

5 Pans. ii. 17. 4. 

6 Porphyr. de Abstin. iv. 16; Clem. Alex. /. c. 

7 Lucian, Dial. Meretr. vii. 4 ; Miss Harrison, Prolegomena to Greek Religion, 
p. 148. For use of pomegranates at modern Greek marriages see Abbott, Macedonian 
Folklore, p. 177. Mr. Dawkins tells me that in E. Crete the bride breaks a pome- 
granate on entering her new home. Pomegranate seeds are used in making the 
koKv&o. eaten in memory of the dead, Schmidt, Volksleben, p. 55. 

8 This is a brief summary of Sikes and Allen's note, Homeric Hymns, Demeter, 372. 

9 iii. 6. 

10 For the question of fowls and eggs see Miss Harrison, op. cit. pp. 149, 629. 

II v. Frazer on Pausanias vi. 6. 8. 

12 The hound appears twice, on B and Q, ; the horse is represented only once, on Q. 



no 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



The cantharus too has probably the same meaning. The hero is 
represented as feasting, which to the ancient, as it is also to the modern 
Greeks, was practically the greatest pleasure. Many authorities hold that 
the cantharus typifies the libations offered to the dead ; and Prof. Percy 
Gardner suggests it may be a hint to his descendants that he does 
desire libations 1 . Most reliefs on which the snake drinks from the 
cantharus are not earlier than the fourth century, and probably show 
a misunderstanding of the type. But they may emphasize the idea that 
the hero is the snake : he after casting the slough of the mortal body 
renews his existence as a snake, as that reptile by perpetually casting its 
slough perpetually renews itself. 
Analogous reliefs. 

§ 6. These reliefs, then, are practically funereal. At first they are pure 
1 Hero Reliefs/ belonging to the cult of heroized ancestors in general 2 : 
but later they obviously approach very near to the ordinary grave relief, 
especially K, L, and M. On the other side they approach very close to 
the ' TotenmahV reliefs. This is shown by an archaic (sixth century) relief 

from Tegea 8 . (Fig. 12.) This relief 
shows on the left a woman enthroned 
in profile to the right, holding out her 
veil with her left, and a pomegranate 
flower in her right hand. Before her 
stands in profile to the right a nude 
youth holding in his dropped right 
hand an oenochoe and in his raised 
left a wreath. On the extreme right, 
just before the breakage, the end of 
a couch is seen and on it the feet of 
the hero; before the couch stood 
a table. This cult is by no means 
peculiar to Sparta and Laconia. The 
Tegea relief shows it existed in Ar- 
cadia. Two reliefs from Argos prove 
its existence there: one shows a 
warrior riding to the left, before him 
rises a snake, and behind it is a tall cantharus : the other shows merely a 
huge cantharus over which rises a snake as though to drink 4 , 

This latter relief finds parallels in two reliefs from Boeotia, both of which 
show a tall cantharus only 5 . A relief from Livadhia also parallels the 
Spartan series 6 . A beardless, but aged man is represented in profile to 
the right. His lower limbs are covered with a himation. His foot (only 
one is visible) rests on a footstool: it seems to wear a shoe with an 
upturned point. The left hand holds out a staff, and the right a large 
cantharus. The whole relief is very flat, and the hair is not plastically 

Pausanias mentions painted Tombstones on which hounds and a horse appear (vii. 
22. 6; vii. 25. 13). 
x J> H. S. he. cit. p. 129. 

2 v. Furtwangler, Ath. Mitt. 1882, p. 164. 

3 Now in Athens. Cawadias, YXvvrh. rod 'Wvikov Movtreiov, 55 ; Milchhofer, Ath. 
Mitt. 1879, p. 135. 32, pi. VII ; Svoronos, 'Edviicdv Movcreiov, p. 100, pi. XXII. 

4 Ath. Mitt. 1879, pp. 156, 158, nos. 1 and 7. The second relief bears an inscrip- 
tion saying, ' I am the hero's.' 

6 Ath. Mitt. 1878, p. 331, nos. 31 and 32. fl Ath. Mitt. 1878, p. 317, no. 9. 




Fig. 12. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 



III 



rendered. Probably details would have been rendered by painting. A 
vase from Boeotia also shows a similar subject. The hero wreathed 
facing to the left is reclining on a couch before which is a table. His left 
hand holds a fruit, and his right holds out a cantharus from which drinks 
a huge curling snake l . 

And to go yet further afield, a relief from Olbia belongs to the type of 
L and M 2 . It shows a hero enthroned; he is beardless, wears a 
himation about his lower limbs, and holds out in his hand a cantharus. 
From the side of the throne a curling snake erects itself. Above hangs 
a shield and armour ; before him is an altar, and a procession with an 
offering approaches. 

Also a relief in Naples has some connexion with this type. It shows 
Hebe, clad in a Doric chiton and a veil-like himation held by her left 
hand, advancing in three-quarter profile to the right towards Heracles 
seated on the steps of a shrine in three-quarter profile to the left. In his 
left hand he carries the club and the 
lion's skin, his right hand holds out a 
cantharus: Hebe carries an oenochoe 
in her right hand 3 . 

Again the standing type shown by H 
and I finds some analogy in the stele 
of Lyseas, an Attic monument of the 
early fifth century 4 . It is a painted 
stele. Lyseas is shown standing to the 
right holding in his raised right hand 
a lustration branch, and in his dropped 
left the cantharus. 

The * Spende ' motive. 

§ 7. Another Laconian relief, from 
near Areopolis in the western Maina, 
gives further variation of the Hero type 
(Fig. 13). It is only a fragment, but 
enough remains to decide the subject. 
On the left stands in profile to the right 
a maiden clad in a long chiton, and a veil-like himation which she 
holds out with her left hand like the female figure on A, B, and others of 
the Spartan series. With her right hand she pours out wine from an 
oenochoe into a cantharus held out by a hero who was probably enthroned 
in profile to the left. The relief dates from the later sixth century 5 . 
This is what is known as the ' Spende ' motive 6 . The only other archaic 
specimen of this motive was found at Tegea, and it seems now to have 
disappeared. On it the female figure pours wine into a phiale 7 . This is 
the best known type of the Spende motive, and is very common in Neo- 

1 'Ecp. 'Ap X . 1890, pi. VII. 

2 Ouvaroff, Recherches sur I. Ant. d. I. Russie Mir. pi. XIII. 

3 Arch. Zeit. 1862, pi. 163, 3. 

4 Ath. Mitt. 1879, pl- *■ Cawadias, TXvittcL rov 'Edvwov Movvclov, 30. The 
relief at Charuda, near Areopolis, also is connected with this type : v. Schroder, Ath. 
Mitt. 1904, p. 44. 

5 Ath. Mitt. 1 883, p. 364, pi. XVI. Now in the Jacobsen collection, La Glyptothtque 
Ny- Carls berg, pi. 4, A. 

6 Ath. Mitt. 1879, p. 166 ; do. 1883, p. 366. 

7 Le Bas, Voyage, mon.fig. pi. 103. 




Fig. 13. 



112 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Attic work. It appears on third-century reliefs at Sparta * and Leyden 2 . 
It also occurs on later reliefs at Rome, Berlin, Paris, and in the British 
Museum 3 . Since in all these instances the person holding the phiale is a 
god, it is probable that the phiale typifies a libation to a god, while the 
cantharus is the sign of the hero represented as feasting. The Hero 
reliefs where the phiale replaces the cantharus are not earlier than the 
fourth century 4 . Further, on the one relief which shows a god, and on 
which the cantharus replaces the phiale, the god represented is Dionysus : 
and the cantharus is his peculiar cup. This, then, with the above reserva- 
tion may be considered as the general rule for the Spende reliefs, without 
going further into the history of the type, which would not be to the 
purpose here, that the phiale indicates a god and the cantharus a hero. 

§ 8. Thus it will be seen that these Laconian reliefs are not an isolated 
group, at least as far as the subject is concerned. They are a class of Toten- 
mahl ' reliefs, which also illustrate the same custom as the Spartan reliefs. 
The object in every case is to represent the dead as he was in life, and as 
delighting in those things in which he had in life taken delight 5 . This is 
the simplest and most rational explanation, since it applies equally to Hero 
reliefs, ' Totenmahl ' reliefs and grave stelae. There is no need to con- 
nect them with the cult of the dead, which was universal in Greece, and in 
the lands of kindred nations both prehistoric and historic, and which finds 
many parallels amongst uncivilized nations to-day, the cult, that is to 
say, that arose from the belief that where the dead is buried there the 
spirit resides. And if the descendants properly feed and care for the 
spirit with offerings of meat, drink and the like, the spirit remains there 
to help and protect them 6 . It is from this that a rather far-fetched ex- 
planation of the ordinary grave relief like the stele of Hegeso is derived. 
The seated figure is the heroine, the slave girl the worshipper, and the 
jewel casket she bears is the offering 7 . 

It cannot be said that this Spartan series in any way illustrates the 
funeral customs of the Lacedaemonians, unless the fact that only some of 
the reliefs bear names is due to the custom mentioned by Plutarch that only 
the tombs of those Spartans who fell in battle were inscribed with their 
names 8 . It may perhaps be interesting to remark here that the Spartans 
buried their dead in the time of Lycurgus, and that their kings were 
probably always buried. At least, if a king died abroad his body was em- 
balmed and conveyed to Sparta for inhumation 9 . 

Reliefs of a similar character. 

§ 9. There are also in Sparta Museum a few reliefs which are related to 
the class just discussed. The principal monument is the ' TotenmahV relief 
(573), which is a late example and of Pentelic marble, so that it is at least 

1 Museum, 468. 

3 Ath. Mitt. 1883, p. 367, pi. XVIII. 

3 Schreiber, Hell. Reliefbilder, 34, 35, 36. Clarac. 122. 40, 41, 62. Mus. Marbles, 
ii. 13. 

4 i. e. those at Palermo, Ath. Mitt. 1883, p. 370 ; at Paris, Clarac. 150. 266 ; in the 
British Museum, Mus. Marbles, ii. 41 ; and on a terra-cotta at Munich, Arch. Zeit. 
1862, pi. 163. 1. 

5 Cf. Ernest Gardner, Ancient Athens, p. 464. 
4 v. Ridgeway, Early Age, Chapter VII. 

7 Harrison-Verrall, Mythology and Monuments of Athens, p. 590. 

8 Inst. Lac. 18. 

9 Plutarch, Lycurgus 27, Ages. 60; Xen. Hell, v. 3. 19; Diod. Sic. xv. 93. 6; 
Nepos, Ages. 8. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 



113 



doubtful whether the relief is local or imported \ Of the other reliefs one 
(5) shows merely a large coiled snake with erected head. The second 
(355) shows a snake with its mouth against an egg. This may indicate 
an offering to the deceased ; or the relief may refer to the legend of the 
miraculous egg 2 . The third (565) is inexplicable ; it shows a man 
hurling something at a snake, with the obvious intention of harming it. 
It may be a grave relief showing how impiety caused death ; or it may 
indicate that there were bad as well as benign heroes. 

DIOSCURI RELIEFS. 

§ 10. The second important series of monuments in the Museum consists 
of the Dioscuri reliefs. It will be convenient to give a list of them inserting 
those from Laconia and not in Sparta, before proceeding to discuss them 
and their types 3 . 

Sixth Century. 

575. Amphorae «j No]r . w 

447. Fifth Century. 

319. Horses. No nl\ot. 

588. hoKava (no figures). 

613. Amphorae (no figures). 

Third Century. 

Athens, Nat. Mus. 1439. niXot. Cocks. 

H. .45, B. .30. D-M. 213. Gable-topped stele with acroteria. The 
Dioscuri stand facing one another in exactly symmetrical attitudes. Inner 
leg free and crossed over outer. Inner arm rests on spear : outer arm 
resting on hips holds up chlamys falling across back from inner shoulder: 
both wear 7rIXot. Between them by their lances are two cocks. 

Second Century. 
Helen. 



-nlXoi. 



Helen. Horses. 

Helen. 

Horses. 

Horses. Amphorae, no 



201. 
202. 
203. 
8. 
356. 

7TtXoi. 

Verona. Museo Lapidario 
555. Amphorae, homva. Cock. 
IltA.01. 

H. 41, L. .73. Dutschke, 
538. Roscher, i. p. 1171 fig. 

(Fig- 1 4-) 

On left on a square base 
stand images of Dioscuri to right: wear 771X01, are wrapped in chlamydes; 
1. arm on chest, r. dropped at side; 1. foot advanced. Before them 

1 165 is probably also a fragment of Totenmahl relief; it is also apparently of 
Pentelic marble. 

3 Seep. 116. An egg guarded by serpents appears in the gable of the early 
Dioscuri relief 575. 

3 For a full discussion of the Dioscuri see the articles in Roscher's Lexikon, and 
Pauly-Wissowa's Encyclopadie, Eitrem, Die goitlichen Zwillinge, and R. Harris, 
Dioscuri in Christian Legends. 

4 After the numbers are added the attributes shown on the relief. 




s.c 



mxoi. 



114 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

stand on a high base two tall amphorae of the usual type; in front 
of this is a low altar with a boar (horse ?) carved on one side. On the 
right stands a man (Argenidas) clad in chiton, holding with his right 
hand some object against the nearest amphora. Behind him in a har- 
bour in an overhanging cliff is a small boat. Above, on the cliff stand 
two boKava, below which is inscribed A N A K E 1 N : from the 1. one 
a snake curls out towards the nearest amphora. Round the edge of 
the rocky harbour are carved small animals : on the point of the rock is 
a cock. Said to have come from a Laconian seaport. 

First Century. 
490. Horses. 
10. Horses. 

291. Horses. Amphorae. 
7. Amphorae. 

14 b. 

467. ) 

Athens, Nat. Mus. 2371. HiXos. 

H. -49, B. -22. D-M. 206. Right hand Dioscurus only: stands en 
face) 1. free leg ; 1. hand shoulders sword ; wears nTkos ; long hair ; nude. 
On right bordered by fluted column with leaf capital. Fragment. 

Mistra. Table. Amphorae. 

Bluish marble. H. -28, B. .40. D-M. 235. In Museum at Metropolis. 
Only legs of Dioscuri visible en face : inner legs free : outer arms held 
spears, supported chlamydes. Between them a kind of table on which are 
traces of objects: under table stand two tall lidless amphorae. Fragment. 

Gunari. Horses. Wi\os. 

H. -28, B. -17. D-M. 216. In church of Hagios Georgios. Left hand 
Dioscurus only in profile to the r. Behind his horse, which he holds with 
his L hand; r. hand holds a spear, and chlamys hangs over it: r. leg free: 
wears irTXos. Fragment. 

First Century, a. d. 

665. Horses. 

15 a. Horses. 
581. Horses. V nZAot. 
11. 
511. 
Levetzova. Horses. Amphorae. ntXot. 

H. -57, B. -39. D-M. 208. Bluish marble. Dioscuri stand facing 
each other in three-quarter profile. Outer legs free : r. Dioscurus, inner 
arm raised, outer dropped: 1. Dioscurus, outer arm raised, inner holds 
patera. Each wears a chlamys over the shoulder, and a pileus. Between 
their legs in front stand two tall, fat-bodied amphorae. In back and above 
horses just visible. Much worn. 

Second Century, a.d. 
9. Horses (heads only) 1 . nrXoi. 

The 8<5icam. 

§ n. On two of these reliefs the &>Wa appear; these were the oldest 
images of the Dioscuri in Spartan territory, as explained by the following 

1 Two reliefs given by D-M., I have not included, 207 and 220: the former has 
disappeared, and the provenance of the latter is doubtful. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 1 15 

passage from Plutarch 1 : to, 7ra\aid tS>p Aioo-Kovpmp a(f)i8pvfiara 01 STrapriarat 
boKava KaXova-t' eon 6*e Bvo £v\a 7rapd\\T]\a 8vo~\ rrXayiois Iffffffvypmi Kai 8okc7 
t<5 (f>i\a8e\(f)<p t£>p 6cwp oIkciop uvai tov ava6f]p.aros to koivop kcu dhiaipcTov. 
Further information is given by the Etymologicum Magnum as follows : — 
boKava, rdqboi rives eV AaKedaipovia' irapa to degaaOai ras TvvdaplSas, <f)apTao~iap 
ixov&as ra(f)(0v dvearypepoav' j} irapa to 8okc?p, bomvop 2 . From these passages 

put together, the explanation is obtained that the SoWa were grave 
statues to dead heroes. This is proved by the reliefs themselves : on the 
Spartan relief (588) there is a snake on each of the upright beams 
snowing that that was meant to represent the hero. On the later 
Verona relief there is also a snake again brought in close connexion 
with the 86<apa ; but curiously on this relief the 86<ava are reduplicated. 
By the time when this relief was made the fact that the dompa represented 
the twin heroes was forgotten, and it was thought necessary to indicate 
the 86icapa twice over. The Dioscuri were obviously honoured as dead 
heroes 3 . Further proof of this is given by the amphorae which are 
without doubt of a funereal character as shown by the snakes which 
encircle them 4 . They are analogous to the large marble sepulchral 
lekythi so common amongst Athenian grave monuments. The table 
also has possibly some connexion with the ' Totenmahl/ and this 
perhaps explains the £«ua or Otogevia offered to them 5 . The two other 
well-known attributes of the Dioscuri, the irlXoi and the horses, are, as will 
have been seen by the chronological list of the reliefs above, and as has 
already been pointed out by Furtwangler 6 , absent in the earlier represen- 
tations of the heroes; and therefore are probably attributes added by a con- 
quering race, the Lacedaemonians, to the heroes of the earlier popula- 
tion, when adopting their worship. The Lacedaemonians wore pilot in 
battle 7 . It is known that in Central Europe in the Iron Age helmets of 
a conical shape were used amongst the Celts, and helmets of the same 
form spread in the La Tene (late Celtic) period — circa b.c 400-A.D. 100 
— as far as Ireland 8 . Thus it seems certain that the peculiar caps of the 
Dioscuri descended from Central Europe. It is also certain that white 
horses, which are almost always associated with the Dioscuri 9 , became 
known in Greece and Italy from the north 10 , and the sanctity universally 
attached to such horses seems to have accompanied them from their 
original homes 11 . 

These points seem to have escaped the attention of Wide, who suggests 

1 De Frat. amore, ad init. 

3 Suidas, Zonaras, Phavorinus, s. v. Eustath. ad II. 11 25. 59. Cf. Forster, Hochzeit 
d. 2Zeus und Hera, p. 24, who suggests that as hotcav a rightly represented the pair of 
brothers, they were also used to represent the married pair, i.e. avvSvaafids kou. avvodos 
dvdpos teal ywattc6s. There is no proof of this however. 

3 Alcman,/*™^. 5 ; Pindar, Mm. x. 56 ; Homer, Od. xi. 301, //. iii. 243. 

4 e. g. 291, 356, and the Verona relief. Compare also the bronze coins of 
Lacedaemon, J. H. S. vii. p. 60, Imhoof Blumer- Gardner, Num. Comm. Paus. ; 
Roscher, p. 11 71 ; Petersen wrongly calls them agonistic, Rom. Mitt. 1900, p. 41, v. 
E-V. 131 1. 

8 v. Roscher, i. p. 1167 ; Pauly-Wissowa, ix. p. 1109. 

6 Roscher, i. p. 11 72. 7 Thuc. iv. 34. 

8 Ridgeway, 'Date of first shaping of oldest Irish Epic? Proc. Brit. Academy, 1905. 

9 v. Eitrem op. cit., passim. 

10 Ridgeway, Origin and Influence of Thoroughbred Horse, pp. 105, 114, 353, 
307, 186. 
a Ridgeway, op. cit. pp. 105, 186-7, 294. 

I 2 



Il6 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

that the horses of the Dioscuri have a Chthonian significance l . Nor 
apparently was it noticed by von Prott, who asserted that the Dioscuri 
had their origin in phallic symbols 2 . He argued that the boKava were 
phalli, and that the mXos represented the extremity. To prove this theory 
the ttIXos should appear on the earliest Dioscuri reliefs, and the 86icava 
instead of being square at the top should be pointed. The domva of 
course are merely other examples of the early aniconic images of 
divinities, to which we have many references. The earliest Hera image 

at Samos 7rp6repov p.ev rjv o-avis' varepov 8e . . . dvbpiavToeides eyevero : 

similarly it is said of the early Aphrodite by Daedalus that Kareio-i dvrl 

nobSiv is Terpdytovov (T^/na 3 . 

Mythological origin of the Dioscuri. 

§ 12. As regards their mythological origin it seems certain that the 
Dioscuri are twin heroes. Many other instances of twin heroes are known, 
Amphion and Zethus 4 , the Apharetidae, the Molionidae, the Aloadae, and 
Romulus and Remus. It is noticeable that in each case there is a legend 
of miraculous birth ; it was said that Zeus was the father of the Dioscuri, 
and of Amphion and Zethus, that Poseidon begot the Apharetidae, the 
Aloadae, and the Molionidae, that Mars was the father of Romulus and 
Remus. The birth of twins was clearly regarded as a portent : in some 
West African tribes to-day if twins are born, they are at once slain 5 . Thus 
the crime of Antiope and of Rhea Silvia was not that they were mothers, 
but that they bore twins. Then should the twins be hidden by their 
mother, or should they when exposed be found and preserved, and so 
eventually grow to manhood, they would naturally be regarded as extra- 
ordinary men, and so probably after death become heroes. 

On the other hand in East Africa and in British Columbia twins are 
considered lucky, and they and their mothers are believed to have great 
influence on the weather 6 . This would explain why the Dioscuri were 
the patrons of sailors. Thus since different races consider twins lucky 
and unlucky, a combination of both beliefs indicates two racial strata. In 
Laconia the earliest belief seems to have been that twins were unlucky. 
So the lucky twins who influence the weather, ride horses and wear the 
niXos belong to a later, probably Dorian 7 , stratum. Legend relates that 
the two royal houses of Sparta sprang from the twin sons of Aristodemus : 
this and the tale that the twin kings married twin sisters argue that the 
Dorians believed the birth of twins lucky. 

The egg legend : Helen and Eileithyia. 

§ 13. But there is the legend that the Dioscuri were born from an egg. 
This however seems due to contaminatio with the cult of a mother or nature 

1 Lakonische Kulte, p. 316. I. 3 Ath. Mitt. 1904, p. 18. 

s S. Q. 99, 344. Compare also the bronze Apollo at Corone (S. Q. 232), the 
Aphrodite at Thebes (S. Q. 239), the Athena at Lindus (S. Q. 327), and the Eros at 
Thespiae (Paus. ix. 27. 1). Usener remarks that a dotcava sign was and is still used as 
the sign of the Gemini in the Zodiac ; Strena Helbigiana, p. 319, 4. 

* Who are also called Dioscuri, Malalas, p. 234. Cf. the Acamantes, De Sanctis, 
Atthis, p. 108, Am Journ. Arch. 1895, p. 209. 

5 Ploss, Das Weib, ii. p. 267. The mother herself takes an earthen vessel and 
puts the twins in one over the other. They are then exposed, and either die of hunger 
or are eaten by wild beasts or ants. The women of Bonny kill the mother as well as 
the twins. 

• Frazer, Golden Bough*, i. pp. 9T, 123, 466. 

7 Germans and Celts worshipped the Dioscuri, v. Tacitus, Germania, 43 ; Diodorus, 
iv. 56. 4. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 117 

goddess. The egg belongs really to Helen : it was Helen alone who 
sprang from the marvellous egg given by Zeus to Leda or Nemesis \ 
And vase paintings actually show the two Dioscuri amongst the spectators 
of the birth from the egg. Helen guarded by the Dioscuri also 
occurs in 201, 202, and 203 ; somewhat similar representations are 
found on a Sarcophagus from Kephissia 2 , and reliefs from Salonica at 
Constantinople 3 . A similar stiff archaic figure of ' Helen ' wearing the 
polus of a mother goddess occurs on two other Spartan reliefs, 318 and 
362. This Helen is an earth goddess, and in her birth from the 
miraculous egg parallels the Dea Syria. Her connexion with the 
Dioscuri is explained by the archaic group, 364. This group, as shown 
by Marx 4 and others, represents a birth or mother goddess in her travail 
attended by two male daemones. The kneeling position of the figure is 
shown by Marx to have been commonly adopted by women in childbirth. 
It finds analogies in the Auge iv yovaaiv at Tegea, and two kneeling birth 
goddesses, Damia and Auxesia at Aegina 5 : these latter are probably 
the Spartan Damoia and Auxesia (v. 222). There were also Di nixi on 
the Capitol at Rome before the Temple of Minerva : and if von Prott's 
emendation is to be accepted, an exact parallel is found in Ovid's 
• Lucinam Nixosque pares V Eileithyia was worshipped at Sparta, 
and there called 'EXevo-ia; and Wide has shown her connexion with 
Demeter '. Two points about the female 
figure in this group are noticeable, the 
goddess is nude, and has no navel. 
It is well known that not till com- 
paratively late times do nude goddesses 
appear in Greek art. But Pausanias 
records that the Athenians were the 
only Greeks who represented Eileithyia 
as draped to her feet 8 . Again that Fig. 15. 

she has no navel is not remarkable : 

since she is a goddess she would not require to have been born humanly, 
and would not have the sign of human birth. A vase from Boeotia 9 
(Fig. 15) represents a draped female figure wearing a polus with her 
arms upraised; either side of her stand two draped male figures with 
their arms about her body to help the birth. The right-hand daemon is 
practically in the same attitude as that in the group under discussion. 
The left-hand daemon of the Sparta group is probably a parallel to the 
Roman Deus Vagitanus who opened the mouths of new-born infants 10 . 
This group then represents a true mother goddess, that is a birth goddess, 

1 Roscher, i. pp. 1929, 1955. 3 Roscher, i. p. 1951. 

3 Joubin, Cat. des Sculptures, 121, 123; B. S. A. 1896-7, p. 160. 

* See the references given under 364. 

5 Paus. vii. 48. 7; Hdt. v. 86; Wide, Lak. Kulte, p. 219. There was a Hera- 
Eileithyia at Argos, and in Attica, Hesych. s. v. "Upa kv"Apyei, Keil, Philol. 23. 620. 

• Paulus, p. 1 75 ; Metam. ix. 294. 

7 Paus. iii. 17. I, 14. 6; Wide, Ldkonische Kulte., p. 171 seqq. 

8 i. 18. 5. At Aegium P. saw an Eileithyia by Damophon clad in fine linen ; pro- 
bably the sculptor represented the goddess as nude, and her worshippers afterwards 
draped her (vii. 23. 5). v. Baur, Eileithyia, pp. 15, 28; Farnell, Cults, ii. pp. 608-614. 

9 1*. 'Ap X . 1892, pi. 9. 

10 Preller, Rom. Myth. ii. p. 210, I. Cf. the Roman Picumnus and Pilumnus, 
Vitumnus and Sentinus, and Mutunus Tutunus ; Preller, op. cit. pp. 236, 389, 394 ; 
Roscher, s. v. Indigitamenta. 




Il8 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

in travail assisted by two attendant daemones. These two birth daemones l 
were later confounded with the twin heroes, and this coupled with the 
egg legend gave rise to the whole myth. Helen was the Kore of the 
Spartan 'EAeuo-ta. In the Lysistrata the Lacedaemonian women continually 
use the expression vfj to <ria>, which is usually explained as referring to the 
Mother and Maiden goddesses. But since the dual is used it may more 
probably refer to these twin birth-daemones. And in this connexion it must 
be remembered that the expletives peculiar to Roman women were edepol 
and ecas/or 2 . 

THE HISTORY OF SPARTAN SCULPTURE : 
The Sixth Century. 

§ 14. So far our consideration has been confined to the two principal 
series of monuments in the Museum, but only as far as concerns what they 
represent. It is now necessary to discuss their stylistic qualities, and to 
attempt to trace, if possible, the history of Spartan Sculpture. It is not 
necessary to suppose that from the very beginning there was a separate 
Spartan school. The first examples of plastic art in every land are 
always subject to the same difficulties and limitations, and therefore the 
results show some likeness to one another. But the individuality of the 
artist and his material produce technical and eventually stylistic differences. 
Thus, though we may separate early Greek sculpture into Attic, Boeotian, 
Northern Greek, and Island or Ionic groups 3 , it is wrong to assume 
a definite school in each district, with a knowledge of the art of the rest 
of the Hellenic world, consciously keeping to its own artistic traditions. 
In the sixth century artistic communication was not easy : consequently it 
is not the points of likeness shown by one group to another, but the points 
of difference that should call for remark. Again, in considering early 
sculpture it is hardly correct to place reliefs and free statues in the same 
class, since there are considerable differences in the technical difficulties. 
Therefore it is here proposed to treat reliefs and free statues separately, 
so far as technical peculiarities are concerned. The two classes can be 
roughly tabulated in order of development. 

A. Free Statues. B. Reliefs. 

325. Bearded man. Geraki, N. 

576. Seated man. 1. Archaic stele. 

364. Eileithyia group. Geraki, O. 

600. Chthonian deity. 654. Gorgoneion. 

2. Enthroned goddess. 575. Dioscuri. 

Berlin, 731, A. 

3. Hero, B. 

316. Hero, C. 

Maina (Jacobsen) spende relief. 

450. Girl holding flower. 
415. Hero, D. 

451. Hero, E. 

655. Pilaster capital (5th cent, early). 

1 There was a Priapus \v ySvaaiv, Kaibel, 782, Anth. App. Planudea, 239. The 
Vedic twins, the Acvins, were patrons of marriage, Harris, op. cit. p. 15. 

2 Cf. Aulus Gellius, xi. 6. 

3 See E. Gardner, Handbook, chap. ii. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 



Il 9 



A. Free statues. 

The earliest statue is possibly the nude *, bearded male figure (325). 
It is a good example of the rude and coarse work typical of primitive art. 
The flatness of its surfaces, the squareness of the sides, and the lack of 
modelling show it to be little more than a square aniconic pillar, roughly 
hewn into human shape. It is, however, a little advanced from that stage; 
the arms though glued tight to the sides are bent, the fingers are clenched, 
and the head leans slightly forward. This statue is especially deserving 
of attention, since no similar figure has yet been found. On the other 
hand, the seated male figure (576) is of a very familiar type. The draped 
seated type would naturally be popular with a primitive artist. The 
attitude presents the squareness he has to be content with, owing to his 
lack of mastery over his material, and, broadly speaking, it gives more 
scope for generalization of effect than for precision in detail. This figure 
has, apart from its lack of detail, much in common with the statue of 
Chares of Teichiussa 2 (Fig. 16). But its closest parallel is found in a similar 
headless statue from Frankovrysis in Arcadia 8 (Fig. 17). This figure has 





Fig. 16. 



Fig. 17. 



been compared to another found at Hagiorgitika near Tegea 4 , which 
has great likeness to the Eleutherna statue at Candia 5 (Figs. 18, 19). 
If this comparison holds good, we have definite monumental as well as 
literary 6 evidence for the artistic relationship of Crete and the Pelopon- 
nesus. However, such speculations are at present fruitless. The existence 
of this type in Laconia merely shows that the artists in that part of the 
Hellenic world were not inferior to their colleagues elsewhere. The other 
two figures of this type in the Museum, both statuettes (2, and 600), are 
more advanced 7 . The 'Chthonian deity' shows more roundness of 
form ; there is less rigidity in the drapery, and an attempt to show the 

1 Furtwangler (Ath. Mitt. 1882, p. 170) wrongly says it is draped. 

8 B. M. Cat. i. 14; E. Gardner, op. cit. p. 106; Collignon, i. Fig. 77, cf. Figs. 76, 
78, 81. 

3 Cawadias, TKvittcL tov 'E9v. Movcrdov, 6; 'Ecp. 'Apx. 1874, pi. 71, A. 

* Cawadias, op. cit. 57; B. C. H. 1890, p. 382, pi. 11. Cf. the Mycenae metope 
Kourouniotes,ya6r<$. 1901, p. 20, Fig. 1. 

5 Rev. Arch. 1893, pi. iii. 6 See above, p. 99 seqq. 

7 Cf. the seated Athena from the Acropolis, Collignon, i. Fig. 169. 



120 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



contours of the body. The enthroned goddess (2) is yet further advanced, 
and by the rendering of the detail of the drapery, and the more accurate 
proportions of the figure, as well as the careful effort to model the body 
beneath the drapery, indicates the beginning of the formal and dainty 
refinement so characteristic of later archaic art l . The other monument 
remaining for consideration is the Eileithyia group (364). This group, 
from the necessities of the subject, imposed difficulties upon the artist 2 . 
This is probably the earliest nude female statue of Greek art. The 
artist's knowledge of the human figure was superficial : there is no frame- 
work of bone whatsoever. The statue is practically a mass of hard flesh 
roughly modelled to the shape of the female figure. The contours and 
the indications of sex are rendered, but the proportions are impossible. 

B. Reliefs. 

The Geraki relief, N, illustrates the rude and coarse work typical of 
primitive art. However, owing to the figures being represented in outline 
in relief, there is practically no squareness, and the contours are round, 
and though clumsy are more natural. The seated figure however, owing 
to its attitude, is square. It also illustrates another difficulty felt by the 





Fig. 1 8. 



Fig. 19. 



early artist ; it was easy to render the legs in profile, but not en face, and 
while it was difficult to show the body in profile, it was easy to represent it 
en face. This is also well illustrated by the well-known stele (1), especially 
as regards the male figure. This stele in its style has some resemblance 
to the early Selinus metopes 3 , and similar early reliefs. In it a fresh stage 
of archaic relief work is reached. The earliest relief work probably 
consisted of rude outlines rendered by incised lines on a flat surface. 
Next the ground was slightly cut away, and the outlined figures allowed 
to stand out in low relief: this is the stage reached by the Dioscuri 
relief (575), and in a somewhat more advanced form by the two Geraki 
reliefs, N and O. Gradually details were added, and by degrees the relief 
height was increased. At first the edges were probably square and sharp: 
later, owing to the increased height of the relief, it was necessary to round 
them off. Then with the careful addition of detail, the naive precision 
and delicate formalism, the two most pleasing qualities of archaic art, are 
obtained. This stele then has reached the last stage but one. As regards 



1 Cf. Collignon, i. Fig. 78. 
8 Collignon, i. Figs. 118, 119. 



2 See above, p. 117. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 121 

the actual rendering of the human figure, it will be at once seen that the 
heads are much too big. , The women are shown as such rather by the 
thick heavy drapery that entirely masks their forms, for the breasts are 
only faintly indicated. The men have abnormally long legs and feet, and 
prominent and essential muscular forms are exaggerated. As far as 
actual technique is concerned, the small fragment 27 is probably of about 
the same date as the stele. But it shows, as far as can be seen, the long 
slender forms so characteristic of the art of the early fifth century. These 
same slender forms, delicate and graceful, are present also in the oldest 
Dioscuri relief (575), which, though in technique it appears very archaic, 
from its execution seems somewhat later. A little later than the stele 
(1) comes the beautiful relief of a girl holding a flower (450). Although 
in execution it is still somewhat unrefined, there is fine modelling. The 
curves are full and graceful : the detail is stiff but dainty, and the whole 
possesses that delightful naive spirit which is the charm of archaic 
sculpture. But there is no fault in the rendering of the body : the artist, 
so far as his powers allowed, showed the full beauty of the young female 
form. More developed than this is the Jacobsen relief 1 . The forms in 
this are less full and more developed. The body clearly seen beneath 
the dainty clinging garments is long and slender; but all the contours, 
though gracefully curved, are strong in outline. For all the delicate 
beauty of the figure strength is not lacking. The eye is big, and not in 
profile. Both these figures may with advantage be compared to the reliefs 
from the ' Harpy ' tomb from Xanthos a . Totally different from these in 
many ways is the hideous Gorgoneion (654). This finds its nearest 
parallel in a Cyrenaic vase 8 . The lean and wrinkled features are more 
pronounced than in other early Gorgoneia. The teeth are tusk-shaped, 
the tongue hangs out, the hair stands up in flame-like locks, and the two 
long plaits are rendered like beading. It probably served an apotropaic 
purpose. It has recently been identified as male, and therefore as 
Phobos 4 . And so it has been connected with a group of Gorgoneia that 
are all possibly male ; but none show any stylistic likeness to this. This 
however does not illustrate early relief development. The latest develop- 
ment of the stiff and naive but dainty style is shown by the pilaster 
capital from Slavochori (655). The figures on it are represented in motion, 
and this, producing a quaint clumsy effect, shows the limitations of the 
style, which is best suited to figures at rest. 

The older Hero reliefs (Berlin 731, and 732, Museum 3, and 316) how- 
ever are far more interesting. They show how a sculptor, used to treating 
the earlier contour or silhouette relief style, handled a more complicated 
subject. His subject consisted of the enthroned heroes seated side by side: 
and they were to be shown in profile. The artist solved the problem by 
cutting his figures out on parallel planes one behind the other. To 
avoid the overlapping of the heads, the head of the nearest figure is shown 
en face 8 . Still even with this ingenious technique the artist fails ; the 

1 Ath. Mitt. 1883, pi. XVI. See above § 7. 
3 B. M. Cat. i. 94. Perrot, viii. Fig. 145". 

3 Arch. Zeit. 1881, pi. 12. 2. It shows no likeness to the heads on the coins of the 
Macedonian Neapolis, Abydos and Eretria (Head, Hist. Num. pp. 175, 468, 305), nor 
to the Rhodian plate (J. H. S. 1885, pi. LIX) : see also Olympia iii. pi. 8. 8 and 9 ; 
Collignon, i. Fig. 103. 

4 Roscher, iii. p. 2394. 

8 It is interesting to compare an early Boeotian head with this, B. C. H. 1886, pi. VII. 



122 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

planes occasionally merge into one another, and the legs of the further 
figure are on a higher plane than the left arm of the nearer figure : besides 
the background curves at times. The peculiarities of style of this class of 
reliefs are thought to be due to wood technique, derived from the supposed 
practice of splitting away with the help of the grain several layers in 
succession 1 . But more probably it is due to the result produced by 
attempting to place one figure behind another in the silhouette style of 
relief 3 . These figures are stiff and square : no trouble is taken with the 
proportions, the eye is en face^ the hair is rendered like beading as 
already noticed in the Gorgoneion (654), and the hard, square, un- 
modelled edges of varying depth between the planes are distinctly a fault. 
The Thiokles relief (Berlin, 732) gives the effect of a relief of this type of 
a slightly later date showing only one figure. 

The other reliefs of this class (3, 415, 451, 316) carry this type down 
to the fifth century. The one placed first (3) shows a little more develop- 
ment in style ; the edges of the planes are more rounded, and the worship- 
pers are shown one in front of another. This process, as far as can be seen, 
is illustrated also by 415 and 451; the last example (316) presents 
another interesting feature. As the artist's skill and mastery over his 
material increases, there is a marked tendency to lessen the distance 
between the planes, to bring them into closer relation with one another, 
and therefore to make the relief flatter. 

The Fifth Century. 

§ 1 5. This brings us naturally to a consideration of the reliefs of this class 
belonging to the fifth century. These are two in number (4, and 431). 
They illustrate the same tendency just remarked as regards 316. The 
relief is very flat ; there is little or no difference in level between the planes. 
But the whole rendering has much more freedom ; all the lines though 
strong are rounded and delicate. More detail is given, and this, coupled 
with the retention of the old type and fineness of the execution of the flat 
relief, produces an archaistic effect. More truly typical of early fifth- 
century work are the two Dioscuri reliefs (319, and 447). Here the 
forms are long and slender, and are smoothly but firmly rendered. The 
outlines are given by bold sweeping curves, especially in 447 which in 
spite of its damaged condition is a most beautiful piece of work and recalls 
good Attic monuments, but of more developed style, such as the stele of 
Aristion 3 . It is worth remarking that both these reliefs are very flat. 
The other monuments which can be dated to the fifth century are, apart 
from a few reliefs of no artistic value, free statues which are merely later 
copies of fifth-century originals. This presents a serious difficulty, 
since it is impossible to decide whether the originals were of Spartan 
workmanship. The two herm heads are in all probability copies of Attic 
work (57, and 582); they reproduce an original of which the best copy is 
the recently discovered inscribed Hermes herm from Pergamum 4 (Fig. 20). 

1 Collignon, i. p. 235; Perrot, viii. p. 441. 

3 E. Gardner, Handbook, p. 137. A somewhat similar flat technique is shown by the 
new archaic metopes from Selinus, Mon. Ant. Lined, 1892, p. 957, pis. 1, 2, 3. 

3 Collignon, i. Fig. 201. Cf. the Ikaria stele, Am. Journ. Arch. 1889, pi. I. In the 
elongation of the limbs it recalls the Cretan bronze relief, Milchhofer, Anf. d. Kunst, 
p. 169, Fig. 65. 

* Arch. Anz. 1904, p. 76; Jahrbuch, 1904, p. 22; Ath. Mitt. 1904, p. 179, pi. 
xviii-xxi. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 



123 



According to the inscription the original was a work of Alcamenes 1 , 
whether the famous artist of that name or not is not yet proved. There 
are many copies of it, and it is worth remarking that Amelung 2 in discuss- 
ing one of the best before the discovery of the Pergamum replica said it 
was derived from a late fifth-century original. It was very popular in the 
imperial period, to judge from the large number of replicas in Rome, so 
that it must here be excluded from a discussion of Spartan sculpture. 
The Asclepius (58 b) is in spite of the damage it has suffered a copy of 
a fifth-century work. Allowing for variations due to copyists it most 
resembles an Asclepius type, of which there are several replicas 3 , the best 
being at St. Petersburg. This group Furtwangler assigns to Myron 4 , and 
further he also finds kinship in style between this Asclepius and a Hermes in 
the Vatican 5 . This Hermes has some points of resemblance to the torso 
conjectured to be a Dioscurus of which there are two replicas in the 
Museum (92, and 513). The resemblance however is confined to the 
handling of the rather lean, but strong and wiry torso. The position of 




EIAHMTAAKAMENM 
nEPIKAMECATMMA 
-CPMANiaNnfcnfAfiN 
EICATCnEPTAMIOC 



Fig. 20. 




the legs is reversed, and the chlamys which is original if the Sparta type 
is a Dioscurus, seems in the Hermes to be an addition of the copyist 6 . 
Under these circumstances it is impossible to decide whether the Asclepius 
and this Dioscurus type are copies of Spartan works, or not. It seems 
probable that they are not. More important is the splendid Eros torso 
(94) (Fig. 22). This is clearly a good copy of a bronze original, and 
there is in St. Petersburg a replica almost complete, but much softer 



1 v. S. Q. 808 seqq. ; Brunn, G. d. g. K. p. 234; Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 73. 

2 Sculpt, d. Vat. Mus. M. Chi. 671, cf. ibid. 675, Matz — von Duhn, 325, 328, 329, 
340, &c. 

3 v. Furtwangler, Masterpieces, pp. 186, 188, Fig. 79. The modelling of the forehead 
and other details however show some differences. 

* Denied by Arndt, E- V. 306. 

5 Gall. d. Statue, 417 ; Helbig 2 , 221 ; Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 182, Fig. 76; cf. 
Meisterwerke, p. 379, on the Vresthena Apollo and the Sparta Apollo at Athens. 

6 The rendering of the pubes is also different ; in the Hermes it is cut off straight 
above, and in the Sparta torsi it is slightly triangular. 



124 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

in the modelling 1 (Fig. 21). This statue is said by Helbig and Conze 
to belong to the Stephanus series: Helbig says it is a copy of an 
early work, but influenced by later naturalism. Conze asserts that it is 
a true copy, Kekule agrees with Helbig. On careful comparison with 
the Sparta torso which is most unmistakably a true copy, the view 
maintained by Helbig and Kekule* is seen to be right. All the firm, 
strong modelling that suits the well-built square body so well is softened 
and smoothed over in the Petersburg replica. The slightest inspection 
at once shows that this Eros type does not belong to the Stephanus 
series. The Stephanus athlete 2 is of slender build, with delicately shaped 
long limbs. All fine modelling is slurred ; and the hair is rendered by 
close lying, finely chiselled, short curls, treated rather individually. The 
Eros shows a well-proportioned, square, well-knit torso; the limbs are 
muscular and stout ; the face is of a broad, and clean-cut type, although 
severe, the look is frank ; and the hair is handled as a whole in long, thick, 
slightly waving, grained locks. Furtwangler compares it in these respects 
to the Spinario and considers the type Attic 3 . Michaelis 4 believes it 
Peloponnesian, which is perhaps more probable. A bronze male statuette 
from Sparta 5 belongs to this group : the body recalls the Sparta torso, 
while the head shows the same character as the Spinario 6 and the 
Petersburg Eros. This Eros type seems to possess most of the qualities 
of the Choiseul-Gouffier athlete 7 , but in a more advanced stage of artistic 
development. In other respects such as attitude and pose of the head 
it is the forerunner of the Terme Apollo 8 . Its artistic date may thus be 
said to be the second quarter of the fifth century. 

The Fourth Century. 

§ 16. The fourth century presents the same difficulties : only two of the 
monuments, the two Hero reliefs (505, and 683), are certainly Spartan 
originals. The first shows the archaic type preserved through religious 
conservatism, and still handled in the old flat relief. But though the 
artist has restrained himself, there is a freedom in the drawing especially 
of the dog and horse, that clearly points to a later date than the type 
itself would allow. This conclusion is borne out by the well-proportioned 
figure. The Timocles relief at Dhimitzana may probably be classed with 
this as archaistic. In this the artist was less skilful : the relief is higher, 
and the attempt at archaism is a clumsy failure. The bad proportions, 
the thighs for instance, are grotesque, and the vulgar stiffness of the whole 
has no archaic quality. On the other hand, the somewhat free rendering 
of the drapery betrays the archaistic artist. Totally different in style is 
the beautiful relief 683. This is in composition a little severe, but noble 
and dignified. The cantharus and the human figure, in spite of unequal 
size, balance one another perfectly. The relief is perfectly quiet, and all 
the lines are self-contained : and the hero's gaze is directed towards the 

1 Kieseritzky, Hermitage Cat. 153; F-W. 217, Rev. Arch. 1st ser., v. p. 557, pi. 
1 01 ; Bull. Inst. 1867, p. 128 ; Roscher, i. p. 1354; Joubin, Sculpture Grecque, p. 80; 
Olympia, pi. LVI. 2, text. 

2 Brunn-Bruckmann, 301 ; F-W. 225. 3 Meisterwerke, p. 679. 
* Strassburger Festgabe, p. 29. 

8 Berlin, Inv. 8576 ; Arch. Anz. 1904, p. 33, Fig. 2. 

6 The Rothschild Spinario, which is of the later type, was found near Sparta, 
Reinach, Rip. iii. 1437. 7 Collignon, i. Fig. 208. 

8 Furtwangler, Masterpieces, Fig. 8, cf. Meisterwerke, p. 379. Neither of these 
however can be called Peloponnesian. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 125 

cantharus. The somewhat flat modelling of the snake is the only blot. 
But the skilled rendering of curves and curved surfaces is masterly, 
especially in the cantharus, the chair-back, and the arms. The plain 
architectural border appropriately frames this fine, simple work of art. 
The free statues, if defaced heads and limbless bodies can be dignified by 
such a name, which can be attributed to this period, are all copies of the 
imperial period, and with few exceptions bad copies. Most important is 
the Artemis torso (326), which as a copy is superior to all the others. 
It is derived from an original of which we have many replicas, and which 
is attributed to Praxiteles \ It is known as the Artemis Colonna from 
the Berlin replica, which is the best so far identified. One other replica, 
that in the Museo Naniano, came from the Peloponnesus 2 . This Sparta 
replica, however, should rank high as a good copy from its fresh and 
vigorous execution. The attribution to Praxiteles is however not certain, 
and the type seems to be rather pre-Praxitelean, and may even be 
Peloponnesian. Next in importance is the Asclepius head (58 a). From 
the formation of the forehead, the softer lines of the features, and the free, 
curly hair handled as a whole, this clearly goes back to a fourth-century 
original. It however bears no resemblance to any hitherto known type. 
In some respects it may be considered like the Asclepius of the Piraeus, 
and the head from Melos in the British Museum 3 . However, it has no 
stylistic kinship with either of these, which from their florid style seem 
rather to belong to the adaptations of the second century from an earlier 
type. The torso called Asclepius (710) is of good workmanship, and 
depends on a fourth-century original, but there is no existing monument 
which seems to be able to be brought into connexion with it. Similarly the 
battered torso 629, which at first sight suggests a connexion with a fourth- 
century Apollo or Dionysus, owing to its damaged condition cannot be 
here discussed. The ' Ganymede ' (89) is similarly in all probability 
a variation of a type of the same period, but it cannot be definitely placed, 
and at best it is inferior work. The other fragments do not merit detailed 
consideration. 

The Third Century. 

§ 17. In the next century two reliefs of the Hero type, the Aristocles 
relief at Dhimitzana and the Piraeus example, continue that series. The 
influence of good reliefs like 683 can be traced in the composition. But 
the style betrays morbidezza, and gives indications of that fatal ease of 
workmanship which destroys all independence of style. Most important 
is the splendid relief to Apollo and Artemis (468). Wolters 4 concluded 
that since the golden eagles at the Delphic omphalos were taken by the 
Phocians when they despoiled the temple, and since they do not occur in 
any representation of the omphalos except on a stater of Cyzicus 5 , any 
representation of them must be older than the middle of the fourth 
century. His conclusion that this relief is of fourth-century date appears 
to be strengthened by the resemblance between the Artemis and the Nike 
balustrade 6 . The Artemis again is allied to the Aphrodite of Epidaurus 7 , 

1 Klein, Praxiteles, p. 310, 2 ; Amelung, Sculpt. Vat. Mus., Br. N. 92. 
a Pacciaudi, Mon. Pelop. p. 163 ; Reinach, Rip. 318, 5, 6. 

3 Collignon, ii. Figs. 126, 185. 

4 Ath. Mitt. 1887, p. 378. 

5 Head, Hist. Num. p. 453. « Kekute, Pel. an d. Bal. Figs. M. and N. 
7 Collignon, ii. Fig. 242. 



126 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

which is supposed to be connected with the Venus Genetrix, whose origin 
has been traced back to the fifth-century Attic school \ The evidence 
about the eagles by the omphalos hardly seems conclusive : and the over- 
refined style of the relief, especially in the handling of the drapery, is far 
more like third-century work. The whole type too is closely connected, 
as the forerunner, with a neo- Attic relief in the Louvre 2 (Fig. 23) ; and this 
is grouped naturally enough with a series of other neo- Attic reliefs showing 
the same motive 3 . The Apollo is the archetype of a figure common on 
neo- Attic reliefs 4 , where it is usually female, and therefore a muse. The 
finest example of the type is a relief at Constantinople 6 . If, as is now 
usually accepted, the Nike balustrade dates from the fourth century, then 
this relief stands midway between the Nike balustrade and the neo- Attic 
reliefs which it influenced 6 . Next in interest comes the Asclepius and 
Hygieia relief (580). The Asclepius shows considerable likeness to the 
fourth-century Asclepius type illustrated by 710. Most remarkable is 
the very high relief. The figures are almost free, and are set side by side 
on a semi-circular base before a background, from which they stand out 
like two statuettes. However it seems to be only the natural development 
of relief technique, such as is shown in 683. The refined rendering of 
the drapery, and the exaggeration of the muscles of the male figure, are 

both typical of the third century. This 
muscular exaggeration is again shown by the 
powerful torso 301. It is due to the attempt 
to deify the human figure by exaggerating 
the muscular development. Later, towards 
the end of the third century, there was a 
desire to make the gods more human. This 
was done not by decreasing the exaggerated 
muscles, but by transforming them, so to 
Fig. 23. speak, into fat. An example of this is to be 

seen in the Dionysus torso, 487. This torso, 
though so small, is of excellent workmanship ; and a brief examination 
at once makes it clear that what at first sight appear to be muscles are 
merely rolls of fat. The soft, flabby treatment of the whole figure is 
in keeping with this. Of a different character is the Heracles head (52). 
This shows Lysippean influence; but its qualities are rather post-Lysippean. 
The deep-set eyes, which in the Agias have an intense, determined look, 
here are rather cast upward with dramatic pathos. The type is, from the 
deep-set eyes, the free, full handling of the hair, and the strong formation 
of a rather small skull, clearly Lysippean. But it is given a totally different 
expression, owing to the sentimental sensationalism so characteristic ot 
the dramatic ideas of later Greek art, which finds its latest and fullest 
expression in the great Pergamene frieze. The colossal female head 
(571) is interesting as showing the persistence of earlier types in spite of 
the refinement typical of this period. It represents a mother-goddess, 
and is of the Helen type (cf. 318, 362) 7 . 

1 Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 82. 2 Clarac, 122. 41. 

3 Ibid. 122. 40, 62, 120. 39 ; Schreiber, Hell. Rel. 34, 35. 

4 Hauser, Neu-Attische Reliefs, type 37. 5 Inv. 1028, from Pandemia. 
' Hauser, op. cit. p. 70. 

7 Cf. D-M. 97, the statue of the door of the house Kopanitza on west side of square 
by Metropolis; Phot. Inst. 2821. 







INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 127 

The Second Century. 

§ 18. This persistence of earlier types is again illustrated in the second 
century by the archaistic ■ Helen ' figure on the Dioscuri reliefs (201, 
202, 203). In general the monuments in the Museum that are originals or 
are derived from originals of the second century are few and very inferior 
in style. The nude male torso, Apollo or Dionysus (106), is a fair 
specimen of the art of this period, which towards its end was largely 
influenced by a reaction against the dramatic and sentimental type of the 
third and early second centuries K This torso is executed in a simple, 
fresh, and clean-cut style, showing of course the morbidezza which was one 
of the essentials of beauty in art. Similar in style is the nymph holding 
a shell (99), a type that first becomes popular in this period, and which 
continued in favour during the imperial period, principally to serve as a 
fountain figure 2 . With this style the Amazon sarcophagus (279) and the 
Aphrodite and Eros (414) can also be connected. Both are probably 
second-rate local originals of the period. The bearded head (341) shows 
the same tendency, but may be a copy after a fourth-century type. The 
tapering shaft of the Heracles herm (286) is said to be characteristic of this 
period, when more attention began to be paid to sculpture of a purely decora- 
tive character s . The other principal quality of the art of the period is well 
illustrated by the grave relief (257, 294). This shows naturalism of the 
best kind, not realism depending on the close and accurate representa- 
tion of one model, but a naturalistic type formed by observing and uniting 
the best qualities of many models of the class studied. The treatment 
of this relief is fresh and spirited, a naturalistic contrast to the rather 
academic character of the other side of the art of this century. Similar is 
the stele of a woman (28). It is to be remarked that in this century we 
first find grave reliefs of the usual Greek type. It is only to be expected 
that after the battle of Sellasia (222) and the tyranny of Nabis (207-192) 
Sparta must have abandoned to a large extent its former exclusiveness. 

The First Century. 

Of the monuments belonging to the first century only one has any 
real artistic value, a sarcophagus fragment (290). This still shows 
considerable traces of colouring, and in execution is fresh and spirited. 
On Greek sarcophagi of the imperial period the Bucrania are replaced by 
Erotes, and this example, which probably dates from the early Augustan 
period (20 b. a), is one of the earliest specimens on which Erotes occur 4 . 
The Hygieia type of 289, repeated by 293 and 321, goes back to an 
earlier original, from which also a statue in the Louvre is derived 5 . This 
original would have belonged to the Praxitelean School. 

One grave relief (455 a) is a fair specimen of naturalism influenced by 
archaic types. And in this century we first find statuettes of Cybele 
(351, 302). There are four other statuettes of the goddess in the 
Museum, but all of later date. So it might be allowable to place the 
introduction of her cult into Sparta in this period 6 . More interesting still 

1 v. Ftirtw'angler, Masterpieces, p. 399. 

2 Cf. Reinach, Rip. 405, 1-8. 

3 Cf. D-M. 83. = Reinach, Rep. 524, 2. = Roscher, i. p. 2170, said to belong to early 
third century; cf. Schreiber, Alex. Toreutik, p. 452, 71. 

* v. Altmann, Arch. u. Orn.d. ant. Sark. p. 59 seqq. ; cf. 48 which is later in date. 

5 Reinach, Rip. 298, 5, cf. a statue at Munich (Brunn, Glyptothek, 174, Furtwangler, 
Glyptothek, 310; Clarac, 556, 1174). 

6 v. Wide, Lak. Kulte, p. 204; cf. D-M. 194.= Athens Nat. Mus. 1548. 



128 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



is the votive relief to Alexandra (441), but only from a religious stand- 
point. Who this goddess Alexandra was, is a matter of doubt. She was 
in later times identified with Cassandra. From her name she should be a 
warlike goddess, but the relief shows her playing the lyre ; this perhaps 
was due to the Cassandra legend. Our knowledge is limited to the fact 
that there was in Laconia a local goddess Alexandra, ' Helper of men x '. 
The other fragments attributable to this century are of bad local 
workmanship. 

First Century, A. D. 

§ 19. The great majority of the sculpture in the Museum belongs so far 
as the actual date of its execution is concerned to the imperial period. Our 
knowledge of Roman sculpture is as yet so limited that little can be dated 
with any certainty to this or that century. One or two fragments however 
are characteristic of the first century. There are two heads which show 
the peculiar style of the Claudian period (53, and 60). An original of 
the latter part of the century is possibly to be found in 64, perhaps 
a Dioscurus head. The ' Orpheus ' relief, 6, is a good example of bad 
and hasty work, due to the ease with which 
technical skill could then be obtained. The 
resting Heracles fragment (115) is of a type 
very popular with Roman taste. It is related to 
the Farnese type, and in all probability derived 
from a Lysippean original 3 . But the type has 
suffered badly at the hands of the adapter, who 
added the brutal, vulgar elements that ' play to 
the gallery/ The ' Suovetaurilia ' relief (614) is 
characteristic of imperial triumphal monuments, 
and in style suggests works of the Augustan 
period 3 . Of the honorary or memorial statues 
so popular in the Roman period in Greece, 
there are two excellent early examples in 85, 
and 443 4 . Such statues when erected to a 
deceased person had in all probability a two- 
fold purpose. They were on the one hand 
set up by wealthy persons in place of the ordinary grave relief in memory 
of departed relations. On the other hand they might be honorary statues 
erected by friends or some local authority to a public person during his 
lifetime and sometimes after his death. 
Second Century, A. D. 

§ 20. For the following century there are also some good typical works. 
Most remarkable is the bald-headed philosopher (343). This resembles 
the Platonic type as it appears in the heads at Aix (Fig. 24), and in the 
Louvre B . The upward look of the deep-set eyes, and the broad-tipped 
nose are essential features of the Platonic type. This is probably a 
portrait of some local Platonist who cultivated a Platonic appearance 6 . 
Two female heads (62, 338) are apparently an attempt at the ideal, which 

1 v. Wide, op. cit. p. 333 seqq. The S. Italian Alexandra-Cassandra has no 
connexion, v. Pauly-Wissowa, s. n. 

2 v. Amelung, Fiihrer d. d. Ant. in Florenz, pp. 31, 134. 

3 Cf. Relief in Louvre, 1097 ; Clarac, 224, 308. 

4 Others of later date are 87, 88, 110, 111, 126, 330, 616, 673, and 709. 
6 Bernouilli, Gr. Ikonogr. ii. pi. VI. 

6 I am much indebted to Miss MacDowall for these notes on the head. 




Fig. 24. 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 129 

does not seem to have been very successful. More interesting are the 
two engaged Heracles herms (442 a and b), to which should be added 
another Heracles and an Omphale head from similar herms now at 
Dhimitzana 1 (Fig. 25). These engaged herms certainly served some 
architectural purpose, probably in a gymnasium. Possibly they were 
used as Atlantes to support a colonnade, or they may have been placed 
as decoration against an otherwise bare wall to look out between the 
columns of a colonnade. The bearded heads show the hair handled in 
loose curling masses deeply undercut by the drill, and in fact worked 
rather by it than by the chisel. The Omphale head is remarkable for 
the accurate, but hard, unsympathetic treatment of line, and the total 
absence of any feeling for texture. These qualities are noticeable in any 
copy of the Antonine period, and are, apart from a dignified stiffness, the 
only remarkable features in these presumed orginals. Of the portraits 
54 is perhaps an Antinous, 337 is a good typical head of the time of 
Antoninus Pius, and 574 shows the style of the reign of Marcus Aurelius. 
The female head 66 is interesting from the peculiar 
arrangement of the hair, which is a variant of the 
fashion adopted by Faustina the younger, Lucilla 
and Crispina 2 . 

Third Century, A.D. 

§ 21. In this century art which had been more 
or less flourishing under the Antonines, ran to seed 
with great rapidity ; only portraiture flourished. The 
bearded head 63 shows the impressionistic style 
that prevailed in the early part of the century. And 
one fine portrait (70) is typical of the manner of its 
last years ; it shows the beginning of the * crystal- Fig. 25. 

line ' style of the Constantinian period 3 , to which it 
might perhaps belong. The Amazon sarcophagus (488) and a grave 
relief (589) prove that art was otherwise in a very degraded state. 

Popular Roman types, 

§ 22. Of statues popular in the imperial period we have one example in 
the Artemis represented here twice (112, 131). There are many similar 
statues in various museums 4 , but the type cannot with certainty be traced 
any further back than the Artemis of the Pergamene Gigantomachy 5 . 
As far as type is concerned it has some connexion with the 'Diana 
of Versailles ' : the type may go back to the fourth century ; all that is 
certain is that it was popularized in the second century, and was a 
favourite with Roman taste. Also typical of Roman taste are the Dioscuri 
statuettes 118 and 285. They are of the type of the Dioscurus from 
Carthage in the Louvre 6 , and to be compared with two other statuettes 
in the same Museum 7 . Similar too are the figures on the Dioscuri 
relief, 9. 

1 Ath. Mitt. 1879, P* I2 7> 2 and 3« 

2 For portraits of this period see Bernouilli, Rom. Ikon. ii. 2. 

3 Cf. Riegl, Strena Helbigiana, p. 250, &c. 

* e. g. Clarac, 365, 1217 A; 570, 1218A; 570 A, 1224 D; 570 B, 1224 B; 572, 
1224; cf. Reinach, Rip. p. 310. 

5 v. Beschreib. d. Skulpt. a. Perg. p. 23. 

6 Reinach, Rip. 109, 5, Louvre, 1822 ; Furtwangler, Masterpieces, p. 231. 

7 Reinach, Rip. 109, 3, 10, Louvre, 298, 300; cf. also D-M. 89 which is now at 
Dhimitzana. 




130 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

and the Decoration of Houses. 

In fact a study of the sculpture in the Museum leads to the conclusion 
that the bulk of it must have formed part of the decoration of Roman 
houses and villas, which must have been common during the peaceful times 
of the early empire in the fertile Lacedaemonian plain. Other facts point 
to this also 1 . The fountain (143) is of a type common in Roman museums; 
one very similar to it may be seen in use in the cortile of the Belvedere 
of the Vatican. Circular bases (e. g. 188-194, 684, 755) too, like the 
Spartan ones, are common in Pompeii. They were used as supports for 
fountain figures, or for basins by fountains in the impluvia in houses 2 , 
and occasionally perhaps they served as altar bases. There are also three 
fountain figures in the Museum (22, 99, 727) of ordinary Roman types 
such as would be used for house decoration. 

Sarcophagi and Grave Reliefs. 

§ 23. As stated above, the Spartan grave reliefs present no unusual 
features. They are all later than the second century b. c, and mostly of 
very rough and bad workmanship. They are probably such reliefs as would 
have been put up by poorer people. In contrast to these there are the 
sarcophagi and grave statues used by the wealthier Laconians. Amongst 
the sarcophagi it is interesting to note the great popularity of the Amazon 
type. Besides those in the Museum (35, 67, 279, 476-481, 498, 499) 
there are several others noted by Dressel and Milchhofer 3 : and recently 
two have been found at Gunari 4 . The same motives are continually 
repeated, but no two sarcophagi are alike. They seem to fall midway 
between the purely Greek and the Roman classes. There are several 
fragments of purely Roman sarcophagi (51 b, 73, 306, 765, 766) with 
reclining figures on their lids. These are however all of rather late date. 
At least their existence points to a considerable wealthy Roman element 
in Laconia in the imperial period. 

Christian Sculpture. 

§ 24. One late statuette is of considerable interest: this is the Good Shep- 
herd (308). Apart from Byzantine and Frankish work it is the one piece 
of Christian sculpture in the Museum. The type is remarkable since it is 
perfectly obvious that the Christian artist imitated statues of a heathen god, 
Hermes Moschophorus or Kriophorus 5 . There are two Good Shepherd 
types, one directly dependent on the Hermes Kriophorus in which each 
hand holds two legs of the sheep 6 . In the other type, probably created by 
Christian art, all four legs are held together by the right hand. To this 
second type the Sparta statuette belongs 7 ; the type is supposed by De 
Rossi to have originated in the third century a.d., probably in the Eastern 
church. For Byzantine art there are several good examples of ordinary 

1 e. g. the Roman mosaics discovered at Sparta, v. D-M. 279, 280, AeXriov 
1889, p. 74, Arch. Zeit. i88r, pi. xii. 

3 There are four similar bases at Dhimitzana ; whether these came originally from 
Sparta or not is not known. 

3 238, 241 ( = B. M. Cat. 2304), 242 ; cf. Sparta Museum, 717- 

* One very badly damaged still at Gunari in house of Ioannes Nikolopoulos, L. 1.70, 
H. .60. The other in a magazine at Nat. Mus. Athens (no number), H. .65, L. 1.5 1. 
Unpublished: is in type similar to Robert, ii. 69 6, 71 c, 73, 75, 76. So like others it 
comes before the first Roman group. 

6 Cf. Reinach, Rip. p. 551. 

e e.g. the Lateran Statue, Reinach, Rip. 552, 6, 7. 

7 Replicas at Athens, Constantinople and Rome, Reinach, Rip. 553,3; 551, 7 J 553> J « 



INTRODUCTION TO SCULPTURE 131 

decorative work. The carved capitals (39 b, 156, 170, 413, 492) are all 
fair specimens of Byzantine architecture. Of the reliefs 297, like the 
capital 39 b, shows a favourite motive, a bird on a vine pecking at grapes. 
The peacock relief (739) is a very fine piece of work. Another relief 
(770), if not so good or interesting as the rest, proves at least 
that the Byzantine artists possessed considerable technical skill, and 
had great feeling for beauty of design. The one piece of Frankish 
sculpture in the Museum (327) is remarkable if only for the fact that 
Frankish sculpture is not at all common. The Franks were rough 
warriors with no eye for art. This rude grotesque gargoyle represents 
possibly the most they attempted *, 

Spartan and Ionic Art. 

§ 25. Klein has recently asserted 2 that art in Sparta drew its inspiration 
from Ionia. He supports his view by reference to the literary traditions 
of the immigration of Ionian artists. He quotes no monumental evidence 
except Zahn's comparison of a vase fragment from Clazomenae with the 
Hero relief type 3 . On the contrary it seems more probable that these 
artists came to Laconia not as missionaries, but attracted by its fame as 
an art centre. The Cretan Daedalid School was flourishing in the Pelo- 
ponnese long before the Ionian immigration. Also the discovery of 
Minoan pottery 4 in Laconia proves clearly its old and close relations with 
Crete. Till definite evidence is forthcoming, early Spartan art should 
rather be considered as sprung from the Daedalid School, containing of 
course local elements. That this art developed naturally is clear : Furt- 
wangler 5 says that the Jacobsen relief for all its advance in style 
follows the old Spartan traditions. Perhaps the Eros (94) represents 
them in the fifth century, and also perhaps the bronze Apollo of the 
Mantua type from Pompeii. This Wolters 6 , from late coins, tries to 
show is of Spartan origin. But Furtwangler 7 has assigned it to Hegias 
the master of Pheidias, whose name rests on an emendation. 

It should not be said that Spartan art in the fifth century was non- 
existent, since we have no monuments as yet. A region so fertile in 
archaic art, should not have been less fertile in the great period. But the 
spade alone can prove or disprove these conjectures. 

1 There is, however, walled up in the house of Ioannes Sikiotes at Parori a rude 
warrior relief, which is probably Frankish. 

2 G. d.gr. Kunst, p. 120. Cf. Furtwangler, Meisterw. p. 719, 5; Schroder, Ath. 
Mitt. 1904, p. 48, on the Geraki stele. 

3 Ath. Mitt. 1898, p. 61, pi. 7, 1. Zahn's reference to Furtwangler's comparison 
{Coll. Sab. p. 26) of the pointed shoes to Hittite work has little weight. Modern 
Greek peasant shoes have pointed toes. 

4 Bosanquet,y. H. S. 1904, p. 317, cf. Introd. to Misc. Ant. § 3, below. 

5 Ath. Mitt. 1883, p. 365, v. above § 7. 

6 Jahrbuch, 1896, p. 1 ; Klein, op. cit., p. 409, v. B. M. C. Pelop. PL XXV. 2. 

7 Masterpieces, pp. 52, 53. 



K 2 



SCULPTURE 



1. Archaic stele. 

Bluish marble. H. -67. Base, H. -105—110. Relief fields, H. .57. 
Principal sides, W. -42—32. Small sides, W. -24—16. Relief height, -035. 
D-M. 6, F-W. 55. Conze-Michaelis, Ann. Inst. 1861, p. 34. Loeschcke, 
Prog, d. Dor pat. 1879, De basi quadam prope Spartam reperta. Milch- 
hofer, Anf tinge d. Kunst, p. 186. Perrot, p. 445, vol. viii. Overbeck, 
p. 127. Collignon, i. p. 232. Brunn-Bruckmann, 226. Introduction, § 14. 

It is pyramidal in shape : the upper part was in later times bored 
through horizontally, and the top broken off. It was found, according 
to its former possessor (Manusakes), not far from the theatre, across a tomb 
to which it did not belong, at a place called Nepoaovpfii, S.W. of the Acropolis 
and by the aqueduct (Conze-Michaelis). But according to Stamatakes, it 
was found S. of the ruins of old Sparta near Magula. 

A. A long-haired and bearded man advances to r. (both feet flat on 





Fig. 26. 



Fig. 27. 



the ground), towards a woman who faces him and wears a long chiton 
and a veil. Her r. hand rests on his head, and 1. is stretched out towards 
the sword he directs at her throat. His 1. hand holds her head from 
behind. The man s hair is in long plaits down the back and over the 
shoulders. The man's calves and the woman's face show the archaic 
exaggeration of necessary features. No detail of drapery shows on the 
man, though he clearly is draped : the woman's veil and chiton are very 
thickly, stiffly, and flatly rendered. 

B. Similar representation. A similar long-haired and bearded man 
is shown advancing to r. His 1. hand is on the back of the woman^s 
neck, whose hair is long rolled curls. She lays her r. hand on the mans 
head. His r. and her 1. hand seem to have held a wreath between 
them. She is clad in a long plain chiton, and he in a short chiton 



SCULPTURE 



133 



reaching just below the hips. The man's hair is cut short all round, on 
a level with the shoulders. 

C. D. On each small side is a snake curling upwards : these indicate 
that it was a grave stele. 

The scenes have been variously explained as (1) A. Orestes and 
Clytemnestra, B. Orestes and Electra ; (2) A. Eriphyle and Polynikes, 
B. Eriphyle and Alcmaeon; (3) A. Menelaus and Helen meeting at the 
sack of Troy, B. Alcmene and Zeus. It is impossible to say if any of 
these is right or if the true explanation is still to seek. 

Good, characteristic work of 6th cent. B.C. Figs. 26, 27. 

2. Statuette of enthroned goddess. 
Bluish marble. H. -39. D-M. 4. Introd. § 14. Fig. 28. 
The head is missing. The goddess, clad in a long chiton with diplois, 




Fig. 28. 



is seated on a solid throne with curved back and legs. Her arms, over 
which the sleeves fall in regular curving lines, are laid on the sides of the 
throne, her feet are set apart, but are level; and the chiton falls in 
symmetrical folds between them and at the sides. Three locks fall 
forward symmetrically on the shoulders. The build of the figure is 
square, stiff, and broad. At the back the statuette is not worked, but 
roughly rounded off. 6th cent, b.c 

3. Archaic hero relief. 

Ash-coloured marble-like limestone. H. '64, B. -6i. Relief height, «o6. 
D-M. 8, pi. 22, F-W. 59. Introd. §§ 3, 14. Fig. 2. 

Found according to Stamatakes in a later wall outside the E. wall of the 



134 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Acropolis, on the property of D. Matallas. Much defaced, especially the 
head of the man, the throne, the cantharus, &c. 

The heroized dead, man and wife, are shown in profile to r., seated on 
a throne with a high sloping back, ending above in a palmette shown 
en face. The back legs are crooked like an animal's hind leg, and a dog 
is seated by the front leg. Behind the throne a bearded scaly snake curls 
upwards. The man is shown in profile, all but the head which is shown 
en face. He was bearded, and his hair was arranged as on the Berlin 
relief 1 : but all that is actually visible are the two braided locks falling 
forward down the shoulders. He is clad in a long chiton, shown by 
vertical incised lines on the lower leg, and in an ample himation thrown 
obliquely over the body across the 1. shoulder, leaving the r. arm and 
shoulder bare : it is characterized by ten incised diagonal lines, following 
the direction of the garment across the body. His r. hand holds out 
a cantharus, his 1. hand is held out horizontally above with the palm 
towards the spectator. Behind him, and slightly in front, appears the 
woman in profile (head, legs, arms and breast only). The face is angular 
in outline ; the eye is big, almond-shaped, and not in profile. The hair 
was presumably filleted ; short braided locks fall down at the side ; over 
her head is a veil which she holds stretched out in front of her with her 
1. hand. Her r. hand resting knuckles downwards on her knee holds 
a pomegranate. The close-fitting long chiton is indicated by vertical 
incised lines on the lower leg : she wears shoes with upturned toes. On 
the r. there stand facing to the 1. in profile two adoran/es, man and wife, 
both on a very small scale, and barely reaching to the level of knees of 
the heroes. The man on a lower relief plane, but in advance of his wife, 
holds in r. hand a cock, and in his 1. an egg (?). He is clad in a long 
straight chiton, under which both legs show one before the other. The 
woman holds in her r. hand a pomegranate flower, and in 1. a pomegranate: 
her hair falls down her back in a long broad plait: the drapery and 
position of the legs are indicated as on the man. Both faces are angular 
in outline and the hair of both is filleted. Good work, 6th cent. B.C. 

4. Archaic hero relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -32, W. .32 above, -29 below. Relief height, -oi. 
D-M. 12, pi. 24, F-W. 60. Ann. Inst. 1870, p. 278, pi. Q. Brunn-Bruck- 
mann, 227. It was formerly built into the house of G. Vrachnos. Introd. 
§§ 3, 15- Fig. 3. 

Similar representation to 3 : but here the heroes face to 1. The 
throne is slightly raised off the ground; its front legs are straight and 
lathe-moulded ; and the arm ends in a ram's head. The man is shown 
entirely in profile ; his hair is filleted and falls down his back and shoulders 
in regular braids. The under-garment is not indicated : but the double 
edge of the himation is shown where it hangs down from the r. arm, and 
folds are shown on this piece and not on the body : further, its two corners, 
with carefully shown creases, hang down between the arm and seat of the 
throne. In his r. hand he holds the cantharus, and in 1. a pomegranate. 
The woman holds out her veil with both hands, the r. holding it stretched 
out before her and the 1. by her neck. Her pointed shoes cover her 
ankles. There is no snake shown. The style of this relief is much more 
free than 3, and in its restraint is archaistic rather than archaic. 

1 v. Introd. § 3 A. 



SCULPTURE 135 

5. Snake relief (Grave relief). 

Ash-coloured marble-like limestone : edge on r. broken. H. -40, 
B. -20. D-M. 21. Introd. p. 113. 

Bearded and crested snake curling up to r. Style and rendering free, 
but severe. 5th cent. b.c. 

6. Votive relief, to Orpheus (?). 

H. .48, B. .54. D-M. 259. Arch. Zeit. 1883, P- 22 9- F ~ w - I 9 I 3- 
Introd. § 19. 

Found according to Stamatakes in a late wall outside the E. wall of the 
Acropolis. Rock background worked into three shallow caves. On 1. 
a youth seated to r. on the rock, clad in a himation over 1. shoulder and 
the lower limbs. His r. hand rests on the rock, his 1. supports an eight- 
stringed lyre on his thigh. On the rock round him appear in whole, or 
in part, four animals, a sheep, an ox, a horse and a stag. In the centre, 
seated to 1. on a square block, is a short-bearded man in chiton and 
himation : he holds in his lap with his 1. hand a roll, and in his raised r. 
another: over his head appears an eagle just relieved from the background. 
On the r. standing en face on a square block (a statue ?) a youth in an 
ample himation holding a round shield and two spears. 

Ordinary, local work of about the 1st cent, a.d. 1 The explanation of 
this relief is difficult : it is possibly a votive relief set up to Orpheus by 
some local poet. 

7. Dioscuri relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -50, B. '49. D-M. 204. Introd. § 10. 

Upper 1. and lower r. corners broken away, with head and r. arm of 1. 
and legs and amphora of r. hand Dioscurus. 

The brethren are shown standing side by side in corresponding 
symmetrical positions. The inner legs are the free legs : the outer arms 
held bronze lances, as shown by a drill hole through the hand ; the inner 
hands hold uncertain objects (sticks, swords, whips ?). Each wears pileus; 
and chlamys on 1. shoulder, the only instance where the symmetrical 
arrangement is broken. By the outer leg of each stands a tall high- 
handled amphora with a conical lid. The bodies are strongly built, but 
badly rendered. 

Ordinary local work of about the 1st cent, b.c Cf. 201, 356, 575 and 
613. Above, between the heads of the Dioscuri, the inscription : — 

KAAAlKPATHZTYNAAPIAAIS 

Collitz-Bechtel 4464. With the spelling Twbapldais cf. Twbdprjs, Twdapuvs, 
203, 1. 3, 24, and contrast Tivdapidav, 220, 447. 

8. Dioscuri relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -36, B. -6i. D-M. 211. Introd. § 10. 

The brethren, symmetrically arranged, stand facing one another in 
three-quarter face. Both wear pileus, and have chlamys on 1. shoulder. 
The outer legs are free legs. With their inner hands they hold their 
horses. The l.-hand horse paws the air impatiently with his fore leg, and 
holds his head high. 

Flat, hasty work, not earlier than the 2nd cent, b.c 

1 Professors P. Gardner and Fnrtwangler have told me independently that they 
believe this relief to be of a much earlier date, probably of the 5th cent. 



136 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

9. Dioscuri relief. 

Soapy, grainless, white marble. H. ^33, B. .44. D-M. 212. Introd. 
§ 10. 

The Dioscuri symmetrically arranged as before ; both wear pileus ; 
they hold lances in their outer hands, and their inner arms rest on the 
hips, and over them falls the chlamys. The outer legs are the supporting 
legs. They wear boots ; and by the side of the outer legs appear the 
heads and necks of their horses facing outwards. 

Clumsy and proportionless late work, 2nd cent. a.d. 

10. Dioscuri relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -34, B. -22. D-M. 217. Introd. § 10. 

Right upper corner only of a gable-shaped relief, showing only the r. 
Dioscurus down to the knees. He is nude, save for the chlamys, and 
wears a pileus. 

Very rude, local work: probably a similar representation to 291. 
1st cent. b.c. 

11. 12, 13, 14 a. Dioscuri relief. 

Bluish marble. Incomplete, consists only of large piece of upper 1. and 
small piece of lower r. hand corner. Originalsize, H. -6o, B.-59. D-M. 218. 

Relief field enclosed by two Ionic columns supporting a flat entabla- 
ture with acroteria. The brethren stood side by side en face with lances 
in r. hands. They are nude and wear pileus, and their 1. hands hang empty 
at their sides. Introd. § 10. 

Rough, late work, 1st cent. a. d. 

14 b. Dioscuri relief. 

Rosso antico. H. -30, B. .22. D-M. 215. Introd. § 10. 

Right Dioscurus only en face ; r. leg is free leg ; wears pileus; the chlamys 
hangs over 1. shoulder and r. arm ; in r. hand he holds a sheathed sword and 
in 1. a lance. 

Clumsy, but spirited late work of uncertain date. 

15 a. Dioscuri relief. 

Bluish marble. H. «22, B. .37. D-M. 214. Introd. § 10. 

Fragment of a relief similar to 8, but with a flat entablature above : it 
shows only the upper half of 1. Dioscurus with his horse's head, and the 
head of the other horse. He wears the pileus. 1st cent. b. c. 

15 b. Zeus relief. 

H. .31, B. .20. D-M. 191. 

Zeus bearded shown en face draped in a himation over 1. shoulder and round lower 
limbs ; in r. hand he holds a sceptre, in 1. a fulmen. 
Coarse, proportionless work 2nd cent. A. D. 

16 a. Grave relief. 

Coarse, bluish marble. H. -39, B. -20. D-M. 272. 

Profiled border above ; edge on r. broken. A woman is represented in three-quarter 
profile to r. She is clad in a long chiton with a himation over it. In r. hand she 
holds an oenochoe and in her 1. some curved uncertain object. 

Late and bad work. 

16 b. Belief with worshippers. 
Bluish marble. H. -23, B. .30. D-M. 199. 

Much broken : there is a profiled border above. On 1. are visible only part of the 



SCULPTURE 



137 



face, the 1. shoulder and arm which holds a sceptre of a seated bearded male figure. 
Facing it on r. clad in a himation stands a bearded male figure stretching out both 
hands towards it : in 1. is a (pomegranate ?) flower. Behind this appears, also facing 
to 1., the head and the upper part of the body of a draped female figure. 
Bad and flat late work. Cf. 18. 

17. Semicircular relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -26, Di. .37. D-M. 261. Furtwangler, Sitzungsb. 
d. k. bqy.Akad. 1899, ii. 4, p. 599. E-V. 1314. 

Found at Sazanu on the 1. bank of the Eurotas, one hour E. of 
Sparta. On a goat running r. rides Aphrodite Pandemos. She is clad in 
a long chiton, and a himation which covers her legs and floats over her 
head behind. Her 1. hand is round the goat's neck, and her r. hand holds 
the himation behind her head. Also sporting with the ends of the 
himation are two winged Erotes, one over the goat's head, the other over 
its hind legs. Before the goat runs a dog : and in front is a ladder. 
On the forehead of Aphrodite a crescent is visible. Ordinary work of the 
early imperial period. 

The ladder is probably apotropaic, though it may possibly have had 
some connexion with Aphrodite. It was certainly, however, used as an 
evil eye charm: v. Jahn, Sdchsische Beruhte, 1855, pi. IV, 15, V, 3, p. 41, 
note 44; Elworthy, Evil Eye ', p. 371 seqq., figs. 181-183. 

18. Votive relief (?). 

Bluish marble. H. -34, B. «5o. D-M. 260. Arch. Zeit. 1883, p. 227, 
pi. XIII, 2 ; Roscher, i. 2568. Fig. 29. 

Found according to Stamatakes in a later wall outside the E. wall of 
the Acropolis. There is a profiled 
border all round. On 1. is seated to 
r. on a throne with a lion leg-shaped 
foot a male figure. He wears a hima- 
tion, and on his head a wreath (?) ; he 
holds a short staff on his shoulder 
with his 1. hand and in r. hand a 
cantharus. Before him stands a nude 
youth (1. free leg) : in his r. hand 
he holds some uncertain object (two 
jumping weights?), and in 1. a lance. 
On the r. there is seated to 1. another 
bearded, draped male figure ; in his r. hand he holds a patera, in 1., which 
rests on his lap, some uncertain object. 

Imperial period. Cf. 16 b. 

19. Grave relief. 
H. .49, B. .29. 

Gable-topped stele with acroteria and in pediment a shield. A woman draped in a 
long chiton and a himation is shown standing en face. On her r. is a round altar 
raised on two steps. Over this her r. hand held some uncertain object ; her 1. hand 
holds up end of himation ; she wears a crobylos, otherwise her hair falls in long locks 
on her shoulders. 

Ordinary work of the 1st cent. B. c. 

20. Sleeping Eros. 

Pentelic marble. L. .62, B. .30, H. -20. D-M. 40. 
Eros lies asleep on his 1. side on a lion's skin : his 1. hand is under his head (the r. 
is lost). The r. leg is over the 1. He is winged, and by his side lies a torch. 
Moderate decorative work of the imperial period. 




Fig. 29. 



138 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

21. Sleeping Eros. 

L. -37, B. .21, H. .14. D-M. 41. 

Similar to 20. But here there is no lion's skin, and Eros is clad in a chlamys. His 
r. hand clasps the quiver which lies on the ground by his 1. side and by it lies the bow. 
There is no torch. It probably served as the lid to a cinerary urn. 

Inferior decorative work of the imperial period. 

22. Resting satyr : fountain figure. 

L. .50, B. .24, H. -23. D-M. 63. Introd. § 22. 

The satyr rests on his 1. side, with r. leg over 1. He reclines on his 1. arm, which is 
supported by a wine skin ; a bore hole shows where the water flowed. The r. 
hand holds a pedum. His head is missing. On the edge of the base are shown a 
lizard and a syrinx, both out of proportion. 

Very moderate work of the imperial period. 

23. Grave relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -56, B. -30. D-M. 250. Now lost. 
Similar to 19, but without the shield in the gable. According to Philios already 
lost when Georgiades took charge of the Museum. 

24. Grave relief. 

Marble white with bluish spots. H. .48, B. .33. D-M. 251. 

Oblong, but field gable-shaped with acroteria (not cut out). In the gable a mirror : 
rude leaf capitals. In the centre stands a woman en face, dressed in a chiton, and a 
himation drawn over her head. 

Ordinary work of later imperial period. Back rounded. 

25. Grave relief. 

Bluish marble. H. .44, B. .33. D-M. 254. 

Very much damaged, it shows only the body of a male figure from the neck to the 
ankles, clad in a himation. 

Ordinary work of the later imperial period. 

26. Grave relief. 

Blue veined marble. H. -37, B. «30. D-M. 246. 

Bottom broken away. Gable-shaped stele with acroteria. In centre stands en face 
a woman dressed in a chiton and a himation. 

Bad work of the imperial period. On the architrave is the inscription : — 

MOY.A XAIP6 

Moi)[(r]a, x<»P e - Apicated letters. 

27. Archaic relief (to Dioscuri ?). 

Bluish marble. H. -25, B. -24. D-M. 17, F-W. 68. Introd. 
§§ 10, 15. Fig. 30. 

Formerly in the silk factory of G. Durutis. Profiled edge. Top 
r. corner only. It represented two figures sym- 
metrically arranged ; their bodies faced one another 
in profile ; their heads are full face. Their inner 
arms are upraised, the hands being held flat with 
the palm towards the spectator. They wore some 
uncertain object on their heads: their hair hung 
down the back in a long plait : there are traces 
of the dress. Unfortunately only inner hand of 
Fig. 30. the 1. and upper part of r. figure remain; and 

the surface is very badly damaged. It probably 
belongs to the class of Dioscuri reliefs ; 6th cent, b.c 

28. Grave relief. 

Rosso antico. H. .32, B. .24. D-M. 247. E-V. 1313. Introd. § 18. 
. Much broken above and below : was originally a gable stele. It shows 




SCULPTURE 139 

a female figure in profile to 1. pouring a libation from an oenochoe in her 

r. hand. She is dressed in a chiton and a himation which covers her head. 

Fairly good, but hasty work of 2nd cent. b.c. Above is inscribed : — 

TH 

XAIPc 
. . . . tt) I x ai p( e )' The letters are well and carefully inscribed, the forms 
being those of the 3rd and 2nd centuries b.c. 

29. Relief fragment. 

Blue grey marble. H. -28, B. -23. D-M. 271. 

Much defaced : a Bacchante clad in a panther skin girt over a long chiton with 
a diplois stands en face holding in r. hand an uncertain object and in 1. a thyrsus (?). 
Rough and late work. 

30. Sarcophagus fragment : Bacchic. 

Bluish marble. H. -32, B. -40. D-M. 227. 

Very badly damaged. On r. are seen the head and shoulders of a youth inclined 
forward to r. as though advancing vigorously : on 1. is seen a background of vines on 
which a bird is perched. 

Work of later imperial period. 

31. Satyr. 

Rosso antico. H. .45. D-M. 62. 

No head or feet In r. hand he holds a syrinx to his mouth ; in 1. he holds a goat 
by the horns. Nude ; the r. is the free leg. At the back is a pillar. 
Ordinary work of the 1st cent. B.C. 

32. Eros torso. 

Pentelic marble. H. '32. D-M. 39. 

Head, legs, and arms broken off. The r. was the free leg : he is winged and leans 
against a pillar behind. Over the r. shoulder hangs a belt for the quiver. 
Moderate work of the 1st cent. A.D. 

33. Lion relief. 

H..55, L. .76. D-M. 277. 

Lion shown seated to r. Below a palmette border, and on r. a plain moulding. 
Good decorative work (a fragment of a frieze) of the 1st cent. A.D. 

34. Sarcophagus fragment. 
H. .52, B. .38. D-M. 232. 

A youth is shown advancing to r. with r. leg, with his back turned towards the 
spectator and turning partly round to 1. His head facing to 1. is thrown back ; his 
1. arm, on which hangs some drapery, is in a posture of defence ; his r. hand appears 
to have been dropped to pick a stone to hurl at the foe. 

Clumsy work of the later imperial period. Possibly a fragment of a gigantomachy 
sarcophagus. 

35. Amazon relief : Sarcophagus fragment. 

H. -58, B. -68. D-M. 239. Robert, ii. 114, pi. XLVII. Introd. § 23. 

Formerly at the church of Hagios Panteleimon. Fig. 31. 

At the top a border of the egg and dart 
pattern above a beading of the reel and button 
pattern. On 1. a nude warrior (1. leg advanced), 
seizes a kneeling Amazon by the hair, and while 
she clutches with both hands at his 1. arm, draws 
back his r. to deal the death blow. On r. is an- 
other Amazon rushing to 1. to the rescue of her 
comrade : with her uplifted r. arm she holds her 
sword, and on her 1. she carries a round shield. 
Both Amazons are dressed in the usual short chiton. Flg * 31, 

Moderate work of the later imperial period. 




140 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



36. Fragment of a frieze. 

H. .48, B. .27. 

On an acanthus plant and surrounded by its curling stems stands a high-stemmed 
two-handled moulded cup. Cf. 37, 38, and 715. 

37. Frieze fragment. 
H. -40, B. -25. 

Cf. 36, 38, and 715. 

38. Frieze fragment. 
H. .48, B. .53. 

On an acanthus plant and surrounded by its curling stems stand two high-stemmed 
two-handled moulded cups of a slightly different pattern from those on 36 and 37. 
Between them is the head of a long-eared animal (lion ?). Cf. 715. 

This and the two previous fragments are ordinary architectural work of about the 
2nd cent. a.d. 

39 a. Square pilaster capital. 
H. .55, B. .42, D. .18. 

Decorated with a wreath of acanthus ; in the centre in a hollow within round 
moulding is lion's head. Cf. 139, 140, 141, 299, 734, 745, 759 (16), and 655. 

Fair work of the imperial period. Similar capitals (one without a sunk circle in the 
centre) are in the court and campanile of the Metropolis at Mistra. 

39 b. Byzantine capital. 
L. -6i, H. -16. Length of abacus -27. Introd. § 24. Fig. 32. 

Oblong shape; flattened sides; to fit a pillar -14 
square ; only one side of abacus carved. The carved 
side shows a long-tailed bird perched on a vine eating 
the grapes. 

Rather late work. 

40. Relief fragment. 
Dark veined white marble. H. -29, B. -28. D-M. 

268. 

A youth in a high girt coat and a Phrygian cap (head and 
shoulders only left), is shown falling to the 1., his head leaning 
on his 1. shoulder. His eyes are shut and his 1. arm clutches at 
his breast. Probably a wounded Persian from a battle frieze. 

Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

41. Isis statuette. 
H. .23. D-M. 99. 

Head and legs broken off, and otherwise much defaced. Dressed 
in usual tasselled himation over the chiton. In her r. hand she 
probably held a sistrum ; in her 1. the prochoos is clearly 
distinguishable. 

Poor work of the imperial period. 

42. Grave relief. 

Bluish marble. H. .16, B. .13. D-M. 266. 

A female figure (legs missing) is shown en face : the head is in profile to 1. The 
r. hand is uplifted, and the 1. rests on the hip. She is clad in an ordinary girdled chiton. 
Bad work of the imperial period. 

43. Grave relief. 

Bluish marble. H. .15. D-M. 267. 

Small grave relief; it represents a female figure in chiton and himation standing en 
face ; 1. hand rests on the hip, and r. on a small pillar at her side. 
Inferior work of the imperial period. 




Fig. 32. 



SCULPTURE 141 

44. Maenad relief, fragment. 

H. .18, B. .16. D-M. 270. 

On r. a profiled edge. It only shows a Maenad as far as thighs 
advancing to the right beating a tambourine. Her head is thrown back 
and up : her drapery is hung only over the 1. shoulder so as to leave the 
r. side nude. Hauser, Neu-Attische Reliefs, Type 24. 

Fair work of 1st cent. b.c. 

45. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

46. Hecate herm. 

Blue-grey marble. H. -19. D-M. 30. 

One face missing, also the lower part of the shaft which is triangular. The faces 
are flat and expressionless, each has a long lock falling down each side. Cf. D-M. 31. 
now at Dhimitzana. 

Bad work of late, but uncertain, date. 

47. Bacchic herm. 

Bluish marble. H. .35. D-M. 66. 

At the top the shaft is hollowed into a scotia and on this is carved in high relief 
a smiling, archaistic, masklike, bearded head, which is also horned. At the sides there 
are the oblong holes for the insertion of arms ; in the 1. one there is the stump of an 
arm run with lead. Above the face the square shaft is profiled, and on the top there 
is a big round hollow. 

Bad decorative work of the imperial period. 

48. Sarcophagus fragment. 

Bluish marble. H. .90, B. -65. D-M. 230. 

It shows only a nude wingless Eros supporting a long garment on his shoulders. 
Border above and below. Cf. 290. 
Inferior work of the imperial period. 

49 a. Square altar. 

Bluish marble. H. .57, B. .35. D-M. 188. 

Decorated with the usual fruit and flower garlands, hanging from the 
front corners on bearded Pans' heads and from the back corners from 
bucrania. On three sides above the garlands are masks all different, the 
front one being a gorgoneion. On the fourth side, the back, is a rosette. 

Inferior work of the imperial period. 

49 b. Square altar. 
Bluish marble. H. .42. D-M. 189. 

One comer and parts of two sides only remain. The decoration is similar ; on one 
side above the garland is a seated dog, on the other a gorgoneion. The heads at the 
comers seem to be bucrania, but are very defaced. 

50. Gable of grave monument ; L.-hand side only. 

Bluish, very coarse marble. L. 1-02, H. '87. D-M. 256. 

Profiled outer edge. In the centre stands on a base a female figure in high reliei 
clad in chiton and himation, and wearing sandals (height with base .68). As it is 
broken away at the breast the figure when complete must have reached right up to the 
peak. The r. side was made in a separate piece. On 1. was, according to Dressel and 
Milchhofer (who give the total length as 1-68 m.), a large acroterion. This is now 
lost : it is mentioned by Philios, but as his description is a translation of Dressel and 
Milchhofer, and as he gives no length, it is impossible to say if he saw it. 

Bad work of the imperial period. 

51 a. Decorative support. 
Bluish marble. H. ^58, L. 1*77 above, ^90 below, D. -63. D-M. 257. 
According to Stamatakes it was found over a grave : it thus probably 
served as a support for a sarcophagus. The smoothed edge of the other- 



142 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

wise unworked top surface clearly shows it was a support, and the absence 
of dowel holes proves it cannot have been architectural. 

An oblong block like a pilaster capital, but at the ends console-shaped. 
Each end of the flat sides is cut away in a semi-ellipse. On one side in 
the centre is shown Atlas nude and bearded supporting on his shoulders 
with both hands the globe. On the other side stands a Nike (r. free leg) 
with outspread wings, clad in a long chiton with a diplois, and holding in 
both hands a long garland. She wears her hair in a crobylus. Both 
figures are in high relief and run over the profiled edge above. 

Ordinary work of the imperial period, 2nd cent. a.d. Altmann, Rom. 
Grabaltare, p. 31, Fig. 20. 

51 b, 771, 771 a. Sarcophagus lid. 

L. 2-26, H. -24—28, B. 1. 15. D-M. 234. Introd. § 23. 

The deceased, who lay to r. on a cushioned couch supporting himself on 
his 1. arm on a pillow, has been chiselled away, all but the 1. hand. The 
edge of the couch is divided by broad bands arranged in fours into four 
fields. On the first under the pillow is a dolphin. On the second is a 
Nereid clad only in a girdle below the breasts riding to r. on a Triton blowing 
a long shell and carrying a rudder. On the next is a similar scene, only the 
Triton holds a fish in his r. hand. The last shows a Triton to r. blowing a 
long shell. The corner is ornamented with a bird's head and an anthemion. 
This part is in two fragments: the r.-hand end (771, 771a) is in two 
fragments, and lies apart from the rest. At the corner is a similar bird's 
head ornament : the end has an ornamented scotia divided into four fields, 
the two other ends each show an Amazon shield with a rosette in the centre, 
the other two have diamonds also with rosettes in the centre (cf. Hey- 
demann, Ant. Marmorbild. Athen^ 194, from Gytheion, and the ' Alexander 
Severus' sarcophagus in the Capitol, Helbig 2 , 432). 

Ordinary work of imperial period, probably 3rd cent. a.d. 

52. Colossal Heracles head. 

H-6o. D-M. 81. Er-V. 1 32 1. Introd. § 17. 

Much damaged, especially at the back, where it was only blocked out, 
and on the forehead. The head is turned slightly to 1., but it looks 
upwards. There is a full beard and moustache : the central part of the 
beard on the chin was set on. The eyes are deep set and cast up ; there 
is a strong, heavy bar over them ; the mouth is slightly opened ; and the 
cheeks are full. The hair is rendered by short, rather loose, but thick 
curls. It shows, as Sieveking says, Lysippean influence. There is, how- 
ever, more sentiment and pathos in it than in recognized Lysippean works 
such as the Agias. In all probability, then, this head is a work of the 3rd 
cent. b.c. If a copy, it is good copy ; but it might be an original. 

53. Colossal male portrait. 

Bluish marble. H. -43. D-M. 147. Introd. § 19. 

Very much damaged. It is beardless, and the hair is finished. Big, round, expression- 
less face. 

To judge by the hair a portrait of the Julio-Claudian period. 

54. Youthful head (portrait ?). 

Yellowish marble (Pentelic?). H. -37. D-M. 115. Introd. § 20. 
Much damaged. The hair is filleted and falls in long, slightly curling locks over 
the forehead and ears. It bears some resemblance to Antinous. 
Fair work of the imperial period. 



SCULPTURE 143 

55. Ideal female head. 

Pentelic marble. H. .36. D-M. 104. 

Very much damaged. The hair is parted in the centre and waved to the sides over 
the ears to a chignon behind. 

An ordinary work of the early imperial period after a 4th cent, original. 

56. Bearded Dionysus head. 

Bluish marble. H. .38. D-M. 54. 

Hair centre-parted and filleted : each side a big lock is tucked under the fillet, and 
falls down beside the ears. Flat, expressionless, masklike, archaistic type. Unfinished 
work of early imperial period (?). At the back is a shapeless round mass. 

57. Bearded Hermes : Herm. 
H. -29. D-M. 55. Introd. § 15. 

A replica of the Hermes Propylaios of Alcamenes found at Pergamum. 
It has the three rows of curls on the forehead ; the long, square beard 
with each lock ending in a tight curl ; and behind the ears are traces of 
the plaits that fell forward on to the shoulders. Cf. 582. 

Moderate work of the imperial period. 

58 a. Bearded head. 

Fine marble. H. -28. D-M. 92. E-V. 1319, 1320. Introd. § 16. 

Nose broken off. There is a rolled fillet wreath round the head. 
The mouth is slightly open ; the eyes are moderately deep, and are over- 
hung by a heavy, but softly rendered bar. Also all the lines of the face 
are soft. The hair is rendered by soft, short, flowing, curly locks, and 
handled as a mass and very naturally. 

It is in all probability, as Sieveking says, a Roman copy (early imperial 
period) of a 4th cent. Asclepius type. 

58 b. Bearded head. 

Fine marble. H. -35. D-M. 93. E-V. 131 7. Introd. § 15. 

The back of the head, r. ear, the nose, the lips, and part of the forehead 
are broken away. There is a rolled fillet wreath round the head as in 
58 a. But the expression and style of the face are more severe. The 
forms are simple and rather hard; and there is no bar. The hair is 
treated in detail, in short, carefully rendered, wavy locks. The beast-like 
look seen by Dressel and Milchhofer is due, as Sieveking says, to the 
broken lips. He is also right in calling it a Roman copy (early imperial 
period) of a 5th cent. Asclepius type. Philios following Dressel and 
Milchhofer calls it a river-god: Kastriotes thought it a Zeus Ammon. 

59. Youthful head. 

Parian marble. H. -27. D-M. 114. 

Youthful beardless head : traces of attachment of a bronze wreath still 
visible. Chubby, youthful face ; swelling eyes ; the hair rendered by thick, 
not very detailed, tight curls. Unfortunately the face is very badly damaged. 
Philios thought it the best in the Museum. 

It is an inferior Roman copy (early imperial period) of a 4th cent. type. 

60. Male portrait (beardless). 

Bluish marble. H. -22. D-M. 151. Introd. § 19. 
Lower part of face broken away, and otherwise badly damaged. 
Ordinary work of the Julio-Claudian period. 

61. Female head. 

Dark local marble. H. -23. D-M. 126. 



144 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Cross cut in the forehead, and otherwise much damaged by Christians. The hair 
was centre-parted, filleted, and waved back over the ears. 
A copy of the imperial period of 4th cent, work (?). 

62. Female ideal head. 

Very fine, soapy marble. H. -17. D-M. 103. Introd. § 20. 

Expressionless and rather hard but full features: eyes plastically 
rendered. Hair centre-parted, filleted, and drawn down over ears to 
knob on neck. A lock fell forward on to each shoulder from behind the 
ears. There is an iron dowel in the neck. A round breakage on the top 
of the head (-06 in di.) seems to indicate that she wore originally a polus 
or a calathus; cf. D-M. 97, also the Helen figures 201, 202, 203, 318, 
362, and the colossal head 571. 

Moderate work, not earlier than the 2nd cent. a. d. 

63. Bearded male portrait. 

H. .34. D-M. 149. Introd. § 21. 

Very badly damaged. Crisp, short, curly hair and beard. Eyes plastically rendered. 
A portrait of 2nd~3rd cent. A. D. 

64. Helmeted (?) male head. 

H. 17. D-M. 128. Introd. § 19. 

Much damaged in front. There are no traces either of a short beard or of 
a moustache. The forehead is wrinkled, and the eyes deep set. The helmet fits 
closely and appears to be of leather. The hair is rendered by short, rather coarse 
locks. 

Very fair work of the early imperial period. This head seems to be the same as 
that described by Conze and Michaelis (Ann. Inst. 1861, p. 36) as follows: — 'La 
testa d'un giovane pileato mostra bellezza e graziosita, ed e il solo pezzo nella nomar- 
chia che potrebbe essere anteriore all' epoca romana. Ma vi manca il naso ed una 
parte della bocca.' Cf. D-M. 90. It may be, as apparently suggested by Conze and 
Michaelis, the head of a Dioscurus. 

65. Youthful male portrait. 
Bluish marble. H. -20. D-M. 153. 

Badly damaged, and top of head missing. Eyes plastically rendered, hair short and 
straight. 

Inferior work of early 3rd cent. A. D. 

66. Female portrait. 

H. .24. D-M. 165. Introd. § 20. 

Youthful, chubby features. Hair waved straight back to a chignon at the back, to 
which plaits are drawn up from the neck : it is bound round four times by a narrow 
band. 

Ordinary work, to judge from the hair, of the Antonine period. 

67. Sarcophagus fragment ( Amazon omachia). 

Pentelic marble. H. -16, B. .24. D-M. 237. Robert, ii. 118 a, 
pi. XL VIII. Introd. § 23. Fig. 41. 

A small fragment of upper edge, showing only the head of a fully armed warrior to 
1. ready to strike with the spear in his uplifted r. hand. See 279. 

68. Young Dionysus head. 
H. .22. D-M. 56. 

Only the face and part of the hair above remain. The hair is filleted, and there is 
ivy in it. The features are full, but flat and expressionless. 

It seems to be a poor copy of the imperial period of an earlier, probably 4th cent., type. 



SCULPTURE 145 

69. Relief fragment (female head). 
Bluish marble. H. .15. D-M. 273. 

Badly weathered. Flat, round face ; the hair centre-parted and filleted, and waved 
away to sides. Down each side falls a long lock. 

Bad work of late but uncertain date. As rightly stated by Dressel and Milchhofer, 
it belonged to a large vase or basin, as shown clearly by the profiled edge above. 

70. Youthful portrait (male). 
H. .34. D-M. 155. Introd. § 21. 

Turned a little to the 1 . Eyes plastically rendered. Short, straight, coarse hair. 
Good, characteristic work of later 3rd cent. A.D. 

71. Sleeping Eros (fragment of urn lid). 
H. .12. D-M. 43. 

Head only of an Eros similar to 20. Cf. also 21 and 312. 
Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

72. Caryatid-like figure (satyr). 

Blue marble. H. .15, B. -16, D. -13. D-M. 64. 

Head and square plinth above only. Square pilaster behind. At the back of the 
pilaster is a vertical groove. In the hair traces of a pine wreath : no other details dis- 
tinguishable. 

Rough decorative work of the imperial period : cf. 47 and 314. 

73. Sarcophagus lid (small) : fragment. 
V H. .13, B. .25. D-M. 170. Introd. § 23. 

Head only of a youthful male figure reclining on a cushioned couch with 1. hand under 
the head. It seems to have been the r. end of a small sarcophagus lid. 
Ordinary work of imperial period. 

74. Lion's head. 
H. .15, L. .17. 

Gutterspout from a cornice. 
Ordinary late work. 

75. Lion's head. 
H. .15, L. .17. 

Similar to 74, but only the 1. half remains. 

76. Bound pillar. 
H. -30, Di. .14. 

Upper part only : a little below the top is a lion's head carved in high relief. Below 
the head the pillar is broken away. 
Ordinary late work. 

77. Lion's head. 
H. 17, L. -20. 

Similar to 74 and 75, but slightly larger. 

78. Lion's head. 
H. .17, L. .20. 

Similar to 77. 

79. Barbarian (Scythian bowman). 
Bluish marble. H. -26. D-M. 129. 

R. hand resting on r. knee only remains (see 83). He wears trunk 
hose and thick, tunic-like coat with sleeves. Traces of colouring are still 



146 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

to be seen. Not very carefully finished, but good, naturalistic work. 
For the type compare the bowmen from the Dipylon in the National 
Museum at Athens, Nos. 822, 824, E-V. 622, 623. It probably dates 
from the 3rd cent. b. c. and doubtless belonged to a grave monument. 

80. Left hand holding grapes. 
L. -23. D-M. 172. 

Over life size, and very fat. 
Imperial period. 

81. Bight hand (female). 
Pentelic marble. L. -22. D-M. 173. 

Holds fragment of drapery. 
Fair work. 

82. Left hand. 

Fine marble (from Dholiana?). L. -12. 
Fingers broken off: holds fragment of drapery. 
Good work. 

83. Right elbow of barbarian (v. 79). 
Bluish marble. L. -14. D-M. 130. 

In style and other respects it is exactly like 70. It was presented by Matallas, 
a neighbour of Diamantopoulos, the donor of 79. It shows the coat-sleeve. 

84. Left male foot with fragment of base. 
H. -19, L. 23. D-M. 176. 

Broken off above ankle. Wears shoe (caliga) drawn up over the sides in strips. 
(Baumeister, Fig. 614.) 
Ordinary work of imperial period. 

85. Male toga statue. 

H. 1-85. D-M. 142. Introd. § 19. 

Found near the Leonidaeum. Head and 1. hand lost. Wears chiton 
with toga over. L. free leg : by 1. foot to support drapery a square 
scrinium. R. hand on breast, 1. hangs down at side. Wears sandals 
reaching well above the ankles, but leaving the toes bare. 

Fair work of 1st cent. a. d., on the base is the inscription (cf. p. 7) : — 

KAAY-BPASIAANTON 
TTATEPA 

86. Male toga statue. 
H. 1.55. D-M. 144. 

Head and feet with base lost. Stands in similar attitude to 85 : costume also similar. 
Ordinary work of 1st cent. A. D. 

87. Draped female statue. 
H. 1-30. D-M. 160. 

Head and feet with the base missing. Wears himation over long chiton. Stands in 
a similar attitude to 86. 

Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

88. Draped female torso. 

Medium marble with greenish veins. H. 1-25. D-M. 161. 
Head, 1. shoulder, and r. foot missing. Clad in long chiton with himation over both 
shoulders, r. arm and chest, 1. hanging at side : r. free leg. 
Common work of imperial period. 



SCULPTURE 



147 




Figs- 33, 34- 



89. Statue of youth : Ganymede. 

Fine, yellowish marble (Dholiana ?). H. -82. D-M. 51. Introd. § 16. 

Arms from middle of upper arm, and legs 
from above knees missing. L. free leg, which 
was slightly advanced; on the 1. thigh traces 
of the tree trunk support. He wears only a 
chlamys fastened by a fibula on the r. shoulder. 
The hair is in long curling locks. On the head 
is a Phrygian cap ; the strings of the cap were 
drawn up, and probably tied over the peak, 
which is missing. He looks down in a senti- 
mental and pathetic way to his 1. The general 
impression is not unpleasing, but the forms of 
the body are very superficially treated, and the 
hair is confusedly and clumsily handled. It 
resembles a Praxitelean Ganymede at Naples, 
which has no chlamys * : it seems to be a late 
variation of it. Ordinary work of the imperial 
period. Fig. 33. 

90. Youthful satyr (architectural support). 
Bluish marble. H. .45. D-M. 61. Fig. 34. 

Said to have been found on the Acropolis. No arms or body below 
the breast. The r. arm was stretched forward, the 1. hung down behind. 
Long, coarse hair ; grinning, wrinkled face ; small horns. On 
shoulders and head is a thick panther (?) skin serving as a cushion ; on 
its flat upper surface is a dowel hole -io square. Behind, and serving as 
a support at the back, is a small column decorated with pointed leaves ; 
there is a band round the two uppermost leaves. 

Imperial period. It probably ended below in a tapering herm shaft. 
Such a Satyr herm is in the Museo Civico at Mantua (No. 166, Diitschke, 
855) : D-M. mention a similar fragment at Naples. 

91. Draped female torso. 

Yellow, rather transparent marble (Dholiana?). H. '36. D-M. 119. 

No head, arms, or legs below knees. L. free leg : r. arm was stretched out (traces 
of a support on the breast). Clad in high-girt long chiton with diplois, and with a 
himation about the lower limbs. Folds very badly rendered. 

Bad work of imperial period. 

92. Male torso : Dioscurus (?). 
H. .71. D-M. 86. Introd. § 15. 

No head, r. arm, 1. forearm, r. leg, or 1. lower leg. Nude, but for 
chlamys fastened with fibula on r. shoulder: r. free leg: chlamys falls over 
1. elbow: remains of attribute on 1. upper arm. Strong square forms 
superficially worked. 

Moderate work of imperial period derived from a 5th cent. Pelo- 
ponnesian original. Probably a Dioscurus : v. 513, of which it is a replica. 

93. Base of statuette. 
L. -28. D-M. 177. 

Two male feet (1. advanced and ree leg) ; by the r. loot the four paws of a panther 
seated on its hind quarters. 

Ordinary work of uncertain date. 

1 Klein, Prax. p. 129, fig. 17 ; replica at Florence, Amelung, Fuhrer, No. 51. 

L 2 



148 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

94. Eros torso. 

Medium yellowish marble (Dholiana ?). H. .70. D-M. 38. F-W. 
218. Ath. Mitt. 1878, p. 297, 3; Arch. Zeit. 1878, p. 126, PI. xvi ; 
lntrod. §§ 15, 25. 

Head, both arms from elbows, 1. leg, and r. leg from middle of thigh 
broken off. In the stump of each arm is a long dowel hole (B. .02, 
L. .04, D. -oi) : these probably indicate antique restorations : on the 
r. thigh traces of support for arm. In the shoulders behind are two holes 
(D. -04, L. .03) for the insertion of the wings. The body is squarely 
and solidly built ; the shoulders are broad, and the chest high. The 
nipples are sharp and circular; the navel is similarly treated. The 
divisions of the torso are also sharply marked, and the handling of the 
surface as well points to a bronze original. The distance between the 
nipples is -20 : and the proportions of the body are thus :— collar bone to 
line between nipples -13, thence to navel -17, thence to pubes -n. Con- 
sequently the torso is not Polycleitan as stated by Dressel and Milchhofer. 

95. Draped male torso. 
H. .65. D-M. in. 

Head was set in. No legs from above knees, r. arm, or 1. arm from 
above elbow. L. free leg : on the thigh traces of a support. Clad in 
clinging chiton girt at waist, and a chlamys fastened on the r. shoulder. 
A peculiar type. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

96. Enthroned Zeus. 
H. .55. D-M. 24. 

Head, arms, and r. foot missing. Draped in himation round lower limbs and over 
the 1. shoulder. The front edges of the arms and sides of the throne, which are in one 
piece, are ornamented with a lion's head and foot ornament. At the sides there are 
two bands of scroll ornament and in the interspaces a St. Andrew's cross, vertically 
arranged. 

Bad work of imperial period. 

97. Enthroned goddess. 
H. .52. D-M. 95. 

Head, arms, and r. foot missing. Draped in chiton girt at waist with diplois and in 
himation round legs and over 1. shoulder. Plain marble throne with high back, and 
no arms. 

Bad work of imperial period. 

98. Young female statuette. 
H. .79. D-M. 124. 

Head was set in : r. arm and 1. forearm lost. L. free leg. Clad in Doric chiton 
with diplois. L. hand rests on hip. Folds very badly rendered. 
Common work of imperial period. 

99. Nymph holding shell (fountain figure). 
H. .74. D-M. 73. lntrod. §§ 18, 22. 

All above waist, and also r. foot and edges of shell broken away. 
Drapery thrown round legs : shell held at waist. 

Common work of the imperial period. The best example of this type, 
which seems to have originated about the 2nd cent, b.c and was 
very popular under the Empire, was found at Tralles, and is now in 
Constantinople. Edhem Bey, B.C.H. 1904, p. 61 ; Collignon, Mon. 
Piot, x. p. 6, Fig. 1. Cf. 399. 



SCULPTURE 149 

100. Aphrodite with Eros. 
H. .57. D-M. 35. 

Head, r. arm and shoulder, 1. lower arm and feet are broken off. In 
the neck is an iron dowel : drill hole in 1. shoulder. The 1. is the free 
leg. She is clad in a high-girt clinging chiton and also a himation thrown 
round the legs and over the 1. arm and shoulder. The 1. arm rests on 
a pillar : against the hanging end of the himation on the 1. is the barely 
recognizable head of an Eros ; the rest of him is lost. 

A very moderate, late adaptation of a 4th cent. type. 

101. Male statuette. 
H. .44. D-M. 112. 

Head, r. arm, and 1. forearm missing. Iron dowel in neck ; and dowel 
hole in 1. arm at the breakage. Draped in himation round lower limbs 
and over the 1. elbow. Shoes indicated. R. free leg. Stout and solid 
chest ; proportions not good ; drapery fairly well handled. 

Clumsy reduced copy (of imperial period) of an early 4th cent. type. 

102. Aphrodite torso. 
H. .42. D-M. 32. 

The head, the r. arm, most of the 1. arm, and both legs from above the knees missing. 
R. free leg. Front of body nude : a himation covers the back and falls over the 1. arm 
and the r. thigh slightly. Ends of long locks fall on shoulders. 

Badly weathered ; but inferior work of late, but uncertain, date. 

103. Apollo with lyre. 

H. with base -74 (base -16). D-M. 26. 

Head and neck, r. arm, all but hand, and part of lyre missing. R. free leg. The 
front of the base is profiled, the back roughly rounded, and its top slopes down to 
the front. He wears a chlamys falling down the back ; and on a high square pillar at 
his L side holds a six-stringed lyre. The r. hand holds a plectrum on the thigh. 
Behind the figure is a thick, oblong pillar as a support. 

Common late work of doubtful date. 

104. Draped female torso. 

Fine (Pentelic ?) marble. H. 1-20. D-M. 159. 

Head, r. arm, and 1. hand missing. R. free leg. Clad in high-girt 
chiton, and himation round lower limbs and 1. elbow: wears sandals. 
Youthful figure, graceful, and well rendered. 

Very fair work of 1st cent. a. d. 

105. Nude male torso. 

Pentelic (?) marble. H. .50. D-M. 65. 

Head, r. leg and arm, 1. hand and leg below knee, broken off. L. free leg. By 1. 
side a tree trunk with a vine round it, on its top rests the 1. forearm. Flat, soft forms. 
Boyish figure : clearly Bacchic. 

Very fair work of the imperial period. 

106. Young nude torso. 

H. .41. D-M. 108. E-V. 1323. 

Head, arms, and legs below knees missing. L. free leg: 1. arm was raised. 
Two long locks fall on the breast, one on the r. shoulder. Marks of 
supports on each thigh. 

Good work ; and possibly an original of the 2nd cent. b.c. 

107. Heracles (?) torso. 
H. .33. D-M. 78. 

Head, arms, and legs broken off. Over r. shoulder a belt to hold the 



150 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

quiver (still remaining) on the 1. side. Very strong, sturdy forms. 
Modelling good, but rather exaggerated. 
Badly damaged work of 1st cent. b.c. 

108. Male torso. 
H. (?). D-M. 107. 

According to Kastriotes already lost when Georgiades took charge of the Museum. 

109. Female torso (Bacchante). 
Bluish, coarse marble. H. -37. D-M. 70. 

Head, arms, and legs missing. Very badly damaged. Head was set 
on : in stump of 1. arm a dowel hole. Clad in chiton with diplois : over 
it is a panther (?) skin held round the waist by a broad girdle. Traces of 
further drapery on the 1. shoulder. The 1. arm was raised. 

A peculiar type : period uncertain. 

110. Male torso. 

H. .35. D-M. 106. 

Head, r. arm, and body below waist broken off. Clad in himation round lower part 
of body, and over 1. shoulder. 

Stiff, ordinary work of imperial period. 

111. Draped female torso. 
H. .34. D-M. 163. 

Head, and body below waist missing. Clad in chiton and himation which covers 
both arms. The r. hand was held to the face, and the 1. hand (the arm laid across 
the chest) supports the other arm at the elbow. Imperial period. 

112. Artemis (?) torso. 

H. .44. D-M. 98. Introd. § 22. 

R. arm was set on ; as also was all below the waist. Dowel holes, two 
in r. shoulder before and behind, two in lower part of back, and one in 
1. side : also a hollow to set on drapery or part of 1. arm in the 1. side. 
Her head was turned to her r. Clad in loose chiton, and a himation 
fastened in a roll round the waist. 

Fair work, badly damaged, of uncertain date. It belongs to an Artemis 
type, huntress or warrior, of which the earliest dated example is in the 
Pergamene Frieze. Cf. 131. 

113. Draped male statuette. 

Fine marble (Pentelic ?). H. .37. D-M. 135. E-V. 1324. 

The head was set on : the legs are missing from the middle of the 
thighs. Clad in short, loose chiton with short sleeves, and girt at waist 
with a cord, but arrangement of drapery is not clear, since 1. arm held 
across the chest is completely covered by drapery, while r. which lies over 
it, is bare. The 1. hand holds a kind of small spade ■ : in the loose end of 
drapery that hangs from the 1. elbow appear a poppy-head and some ears 
of corn : the kolpos also appears to be full. In the lower edge of the 
chiton is a drill hole bored through. The forms are coarse and fat, and 
in these respects somewhat exaggerated. The motive, however, is not at 
all clear, the figure might be a grotesque or a Priapus : in any case it 
seems to represent a bloated young man. 

Fair work of the imperial period. 

1 Perhaps a tanner's scraper. 



SCULPTURE 151 

114. Artemis torso. 
H. .25. D-M. 29. 

Head, both arms, and all below breast missing. Clad in chiton fastened on the 
1. shoulder ; girdle high just below the breasts ; over the r. shoulder a strap for the 
quiver. The r. arm was raised. 

A late copy (fair work of imperial period) after a 4th cent, original. 

115. Heracles. 

H. .33. D-M. 77. Introd. § 19. 

Head, r. arm, 1. from middle of upper arm, and all below breast broken 
off. Farnese type ; nude, leans on club the end of which covered with 
the lion's skin still remains under the 1. arm. 

Strong, but rather clumsy work of about the 1st cent. a.d. 

116. Aphrodite. 

Parian marble. H. .49. D-M. 33. 

Only remain r. leg from knee, piece of tree trunk by side, before which is a dolphin 
head downwards. Faint traces of colour (?). 
Careful work of about 1st cent. A.D. 

117. Draped female statuette. 
H. .13. D-M. 121. 

Only lower legs and base. R. free leg : clad in long chiton and himation. 
Inferior work of imperial period. 

118. Dioscurus. 

H. .45. D-M. 87. Introd. § 22. 

R. lower leg, and horse's head by side of it only. R. free leg : traces 
of 1. foot on base. Round horse's neck where it springs from the base 
acanthus leaves. Ordinary work of imperial period. Cf. 9 and 285. 

119. Female statue. 
H. .35. D-M. 116. 

R. end of an oblong base ; in the corner base of a square pillar, and by it the 1. foot 
appearing from the bottom of the drapery. Ordinary work. 

120. Winged Sphinx. 
H. -30. 

Lower body, head and wings broken off. Ordinary late decorative work. 

121. Lion's foot. 
H. .30. 

Common, late decorative work. 

122. Seated youthful male figure. 
H. .26. 

Only thighs and hips left, and part of 1. lower leg. Clad in short chiton. L. knee 
drawn up. Probably a funereal figure, a mourning slave, or Eros. Ordinary work of 
imperial period. 

123. Draped figure. , 
H. .40. D-M. 168. 

Stomach and hips only left : apparently female. Ordinary work of the imperial 
period. 

124. Dancing girl. 
H. 39. D-M. 71. 

All above waist broken off: loose drapery round legs : r. foot before 1. Rough work 
of imperial period. 



152 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

125. Male statuette. 
H. .31. D-M. no. 

Thighs and stomach only : 1. free leg ; by 1. side a tree trunk on which hangs some 
drapery in which are traces of the 1. hand. Common work of the imperial period. 

126. Draped female statuette. 
H. .25. 

Lower legs and base only : r. free leg : clad in long chiton and himation. Fair 
work of about 1st cent A.D. 

127. Fragment of base. 
H. -24, L. .30. 

On front edge remains of bottom of drapery. 

128. Draped statue (fragment). 
L. 30. 

Piece of r. thigh and knee only. Ordinary late work. 

129. Draped statue. 
H. .42. 

Lower legs with base only. Already lost when Georgiades took charge of the 
Museum. 

130. Draped female statuette. 
H. .20. 

Knees, and upper part of lower legs only : clad in long chiton and himation. 
Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

131. Artemis statuette. 

H. .15. D-M. 28. Introd. § 22. 

Only left oval base, 1. thigh, r. leg, and tree trunk and dog by side of 
it. It represented Artemis clad in a short chiton (himation rolled round 
waist) advancing briskly (r. foot first) to her r. At her side runs a dog. 
Sketchy work of imperial period. Cf. 112. 

132. Dancing (P) girl 
H. .17. D-M. 72. 

Torso only : clad in high girt chiton and himation. R. arm was raised. Pleasing, 
but superficial work ; possibly 2nd cent. B. c. 

133. Draped female statuette. 
H. .19. D-M. 123. 

Head, r. arm, 1. forearm, and both legs from above knees wanting. Clad in chiton 
with diplois. The figure leans on a pillar under the 1. arm ; on the pillar is drapery 
(a himation or the chiton misunderstood). Possibly an Aphrodite : ordinary work of 
the imperial period. 

134. Male colossal bust. 

Pentelic marble. H. -85. D-M. 145. 

Bearded. Very much defaced. Toga over shoulders : bust hollowed 
behind, and has a central support. Late 2nd cent. a.d. 

135. Female bust. 
H. .19. D-M. 166. 

Headless : drapery over shoulders (chiton) : hollowed behind : pillar 
support (dowel hole): Flavian shape, 1st cent. a.d. 



SCULPTURE 153 

136. Bearded Triton. 

H. .57, L. .50. D-M. 75. 

Head, arms, and end of fish tail wanting. Where fish body begins it is surrounded 
with projecting acanthus leaves ; close-lying scales below. Exaggerated forms : 
ordinary decorative work of the imperial period. 

137. Marble chest (cinerary). 
H. -39, L. .33, square. 

Has lid, through centre of which a hole is bored. Perfectly plain, except that 
bottom edge is cut off obliquely in the centre. Surfaces smooth. 

138. Marble chest (cinerary). 
H. -35> L - -5<>> D. -26. 

Has lid ; front and back rounded ; perfectly plain ; hole in lid ; and on r. hand side 
is damaged where fastening clamp has been forced. Surfaces left rough. 

139. Pilaster capital (P). 
Dholiana marble. H. '40, L. -47. 

Rosette with twelve petals surrounded by acanthus stalks and leaves. Fair archi- 
tectural work of imperial period. Cf. 39 a. 

140. Pilaster capital (P). 
H. -64, L. .94. Fig. 35. 
Poppy with four petals surrounded by 

acanthus stalks and leaves. About the same 
period as 139, but inferior work. Cf. 39 a. 

141. Pilaster capital. 
H. -28, L. .26. 

Profiled edge, piece of acanthus, and part 
of inner circle with olive wreath decoration 
only : cf. 39 a. 

142. Erieze fragment. 
H. .25, L. -27. 

Acanthus scroll pattern : ordinary work of late period. 

143. Octagonal fountain. 

H. -27. D-M. 187. Introd. § 22. 

Between eight fluted pilasters with scroll capitals are set eight shells 
from which the water ran down seven steep steps. In the centre a 
circular hollow (D. .10, Di. -18). Ordinary decorative work of the 
imperial period. 

144. Octagonal column base. 

Bluish marble. H. -50, Di. .38. 

Above circular Attic Ionic base ; then two wide and one narrow square moulding 
to suit the octagonal shape ; then the octagonal shaft decorated below with a scotia 
between two tori with intervening fillets. Late imperial, perhaps Byzantine work. 

145. See Inscriptions. 

146. Marble throne. 

Coarse bluish marble. H. .53, L. ^35, D. .40. 

On the front below the seat an ivy leaf: at the bottom it splays out to form a 
footstool. Cf. 145. 

147. Fragment of Ionic capital. 
L- -35, Di- -37- 

Half of a volute only : volute is a plain circle with profiled rims. In the centre is 




Fig. 35- 



154 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

a projecting aster-like flower. The bolster is merely rough hewn ; a small part of the 
upper surface is flattened and has a hole bored in it. Late work of uncertain date. 

148. Fragment of base with tree trunk. 

H. -40, Th. -20. 

Only left a piece of a tree trunk ; against it at the bottom a semicircular scrinium. 

149. Fragment of frieze (?). 
H. .30, B. .22. 

Shows a portion of an anthemion pattern. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

150. Bottle-shaped object. 
H. -32. 

Broken off at neck : in bottom iron dowel (L. .19) : hole bored through from top 
to bottom. 

151. Acanthus (?) bud. 

H. .15. 

Half only : bored through from top to bottom. Two similar buds are at Dhimit- 
zana (one of rosso antico) : they are possibly pine cones from decorative thyrsi. 

152. Acanthus (?) bud. 
H. -si. 

Nearly complete : in hole is an iron dowel : cf. 151. 

153. Ball (or whorl ?). 
Rosso antico. Di. «i2. 

Half only : ribbed and has a groove round the middle, and a hole bored from top 
to bottom. Cf. 298. Similar ball at Dhimitzana. 

154. Bottle-shaped object. 
H. .34. 

No dowel, or hole bored through. Cf. 150. 

155. Acanthus (?) bud. 
H. .11. 

Similar to 151 and 152 ; but the leaves lie closer : there is a hole bored through, 
but no dowel. 

156. Byzantine capital. 
H. -16, L. .18, B. -20. Introd. § 24. 

Half only : oblong shape : flat sloping sides : curving abacus 
decorated with a pattern of interlaced circles between two 
scrolls. Fig. 36. 

157. Roof tile with anteflx. 
L. .28, H. .12. 
Has an anthemion antefix at its end : ordinary late archi- 

Fig. 36. tectural work. 

158. Ionic capital (Roman). 
H. -33, L. .27, D. .27. 

R. hand volute only. Curved outline. Volute is an acanthus stalk, and the 
bolster is decorated with acanthus leaves : the profiled edge above has a flame and 
tongue ornament. Ordinary work of imperial period. 

159. Ionic capital. 
H. -33, L. .32, D. .20. 

L. hand volute only : decoration same as on 157. 




SCULPTURE 155 

160. Small Ionic capital. 
H. .21, L. .13, D. .14. 

R. hand volute only. Plain bolster, and profiled npper edge is undecorated. 
Volute is grooved. Inferior work of imperial period. 

161. Lion's head and foot support. 
H. .31. 

Foot broken off, and head defaced : to serve as ornament for front leg of a throne. 
Ordinary work. 

162. Byzantine capital. 
H. -29, L. -34, D. -2i. 

Oblong : below at each corner an acanthus leaf; above decorated with lancet-shaped 
leaves ; in centre of each long side a plain, flat, vertical moulding. 

163. Corinthian capital. 
Bluish marble. H. -15, Di. -28. 

Fragment, only showing two acanthus leaves with egg ornament between. Common 
work of imperial period. 

164. Draped female statuette (?). 
H. .28. 

In long chiton, with himation in a roll round the waist. Legs only left (no base or 
feet). Bad work of imperial period. 

165. Byzantine column base. 

H. -36, Di. -16 (above); below -18 (square). 
On a tall square podium an Attic Ionic base. 

166. Corinthian capital. 
H. .23, L. .29. 

One side only. In centre touching plinth above a shell between two acanthus stalks. 
Below three acanthus leaves, then two rows of five small leaves each. Curved outline : 
acanthus stalks in corners. Late imperial period. 

167. Byzantine pilaster capital. 
H. .13, L. .16, D. .06. 

Sides flat, and plain. On front arrow between two curving lancet-shaped leaves. 

168. Anteflx. 

Bluish marble. H. -22. 

Anthemion ornament. Ordinary work of late, but uncertain date. 

169. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

170. Byzantine capital. 
H. -13, L. -29. Introd. § 24. Fig. 37. 

Square, to fit a shaft .14 in diameter. On each side 
of the abacus a vine leaf. At each corner between 
them a pine-apple-like plant with stem and leaves. 

171. Byzantine capital. 
H. -io, L. -16 (square). 

To fit a shaft -13 in diameter. Decorated with eight 
seven-pointed leaves. 

172. Doric capital (fragment). lg * 37 ' 
H. .13, L. .60. 

Abacus flat : plinth above hollowed out. Good work of uncertain date, probably 
Hellenistic period. 




156 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

173. Doric capital (fragment). 
H. .19, L. .36. 

To fit a shaft .33 in diameter: abacus small and nearly vertical. Late work of un- 
certain date. 

174. Ionic base (Attic type). 
H. -25, Di. .50. 

No plinth : late imperial work. 

174 a. Ionic base (Attic type). 
H. .30, Di. .56. 

No plinth : late imperial period. 

175. Ionic base (Attic type). 
H. .30, Di. .50. 

No plinth : imperial period. 

175 a. Ionic base (Attic type). 
H. .16, Di. .36. 

Stands on square plinth : late imperial work. 

176. Ionic base (Attic type). 
H. -22, L. -58. 

Stands on square plinth ; to fit a shaft .48 in diameter ; imperial period. 

177. Corinthian capital (for engaged column). 
H. .45, Di. .35. 

On each side the heart of an acanthus plant springing up between two stalks that 
curl to the corners. The end of the stalks are hidden by four leaves : between them in 
centre of each side an egg ornament. Imperial period. 

178. Corinthian capital (circular). 
H. .45, Di. -30 (below) ; .40 (above). 

Decorated with sixteen lancet-shaped leaves, between their tips others appear. Their 
bases are hidden by acanthus leaves : bottom much defaced. Fair work of late, but 
uncertain date. 

179. Corinthian anta capital. 
H. .65, L. .75, D. .38. 

With end of architrave above, on which is an anthemion. Decoration in front, five 
broad lancet-shaped, and two acanthus leaves ; at the corners, one of each ; at 1. side 
one acanthus and two lancet-shaped leaves ; r. side rough. Imperial period. 

180. Ionic capital (1. hand half only). 
H. -io, L. 17, D. -22. 

Plain ordinary type : very flat : bad work of imperial period. 

181. Ionic capital (volute only). 
Di. .13, L. .14. 

Inferior work. 

182. Ionic base (Attic type). 
H. .35, Di. .60. 

To fit a shaft .40 in diameter on a circular plinth : imperial period. 

183. Ionic base (Attic type). 

Exactly similar to 181. 



SCULPTURE 157 

184. Ionic base (Attic type). 
H. .37, L- -56- 

On a square plinth : to fit a column .42 in diameter : shows ends of fluting : imperial 
period. 

185. Byzantine column base. 
H. .60. 

On a tall podium (.26 square) stands an Attic Ionic base from which rises a broken 
unfluted shaft (.20 in diameter). 

186. Fragment of coffered ceiling. 
L. -8o, B. .70, D. 36. 

Ordinary work of imperial period. 

187. Fragment of coffered ceiling. 
L. .70, B. -42, D. .36. 

Similar work to 186. 

188. Circular base. 

H. -66, Di. -30 (above); -45 (below). Introd. § 22. 

Fluted slender shaft : spreading base and top, latter undecorated. Ordinary work 
of imperial period. Four similar bases at Dhimitzana. Cf. 189-191, 684, 755. 

189. Circular base. 

H. -66, Di. -35 (above) ; -38 (below). 
Similar to 188. 

190. Circular base. 

H. .67, Di. -27 (above); -32 (below). 
Similar to 188, but bottom ornamented with a scotia between two fillets. 

191. Circular base. 
H. -6o. 

Base broken off: top rather flatter, otherwise like 188. 

192. Circular base. 
H. .57. 

Top and base much damaged : similar to 188. 

193. Circular base. 

H. '69, Di. -30 (above); -33 (below). 
Similar to 188, but rougher and unfluted. 

194. Circular base (P). 
H. .45, Di. .38. 

Bottom only : shaft partly hollowed out : decorated below as 189. 

195. Floor tile (or mould ?). 
Rosso antico. L. -12 (square). 

Profiled edge. A meander border: in the centre a circular hollow, round which are 
four small leaf-shaped depressions. Late work of uncertain date. 

196. Floor tile (or mould ?). 
Rosso antico. L. -12 (square). 

Profiled edge. Within an olive-wreath border is a hollow and depressions similar 
to those on 195. Same period. 

197-199. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 



158 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

200. See Inscriptions. 

201. Dioscuri relief. 

Bluish marble. H. .70, B. .48. D-M. 203. F-W. 1848. Ann. 
Inst, 1 861, pi. D. 2, p. 39. Introd. §§ io, 18. Fig. 38. 

Gable-topped stele : in centre of gable a shield. In centre a female 
figure clad in long ungirt chiton and holding in each hand a fillet wreath, 
stands en face on a low base. On her head she wears a kind of basket, 
broader at the top than the bottom, and decorated with horizontal lines. 
On either side looking towards her stands a Dioscurus in profile, in 
similar attitude. Each wears a pileus and a chlamys ; their inner legs are 
advanced and their inner arms hold spears ; their outer arms gesticulate. 
The surface of the stele is much damaged, and on r. side a large hole has 
been cut in it. Work flat and superficial : good archaistic design : dates 
from late 2nd cent, b.c Below is an inscription, for which see Inscrip- 
tions. 

202. Dioscuri relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -68, B. .50. D-M. 202. Ann. Inst. 1861, p. 39, 
pi. D. 1. Introd. §§ 10, 18. Fig. 39. 

Flat-topped stele (profiled edge). In the centre a female figure exactly 
similar to that on 201. Either side facing her stands a Dioscurus in 





Fig. 38. 



Fig. 39- 



profile. They are in similar positions, and have their horses with them. 
The outer legs are the free legs; their inner arms hold their horses' 
bridles. Their outer hands (not in similar positions, that of the r. hand 
Dioscurus raised, and that of the 1. Dioscurus dropped) hold sheathed 
swords. Each wears a pileus. Much damaged : relief rounded, and fair 
in style. Probably also of the late 2nd cent. B.C. Below is an inscrip- 
tion, for which see Inscriptions. 

203. Dioscuri relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -90, B. -50. D-M. 201. Ann. Inst. 1861, p. 39. 
Introd. §§ 10, 18. 

Gable-topped stele : in centre of gable a shield. In centre a female 
figure exactly similar to those on 201 and 202. Either side stands a 
Dioscurus en face. They wear the pileus and are in similar attitudes. 
Their inner arms rest on their hips, their outer arms hold lances; the 
outer legs are the free legs. Good design, but superficial work: 2nd 
cent. b.c. Below is an inscription, for which see Inscriptions. 



204-242. See Inscriptions. 



SCULPTURE 159 

243. Headless herm : male. 
H. .34. D-M. 158. 

Formerly in the factory of Rhallis. Piece of drapery on the 1. shoulder. On the 
broken shaft is an inscription, for which see INSCRIPTIONS. 

244-251. See Inscriptions. 

252. Base of a statue of a Bomonikes. 
H. .31, B. .53, D. .47. D-M. 181. 

Hollows for setting in feet of a bronze statue only visible. In each is a hole for 
a supporting rod, and between the feet a hole for another : 1. was the free leg. On 
the front is an inscription, for which see Inscriptions. 

253-256. See Inscriptions. 
257 and 294. Grave relief (two fragments). 
Bluish marble. H. -64, B. -50, D. .12. D-M. 252. Furtwangler, 
Ath. MitU 1878, p. 297, 3. Introd. § 18. Fig. 40. 

Gable-topped stele: much damaged, and bottom broken away. It 
shows a bearded man (hair in short, tight curls) seated in profile to 1. 
The 1. leg is crossed over r., and on it rests the 1. hand. A small piece 
of drapery appears over the 1. elbow. The r. hand, held up towards the 
face, holds a roll. Before the man is the head of a dog looking round at 






Fig. 40. Fig. 41. Fig. 42. 

him. Dressel and Milchhofer call it bad but characteristic work ; Furt- 
wangler says it is the best grave relief in the Museum, and that it dates 
from the 3rd cent. However, judging by the superficial, impressionistic 
handling, it probably belongs to the 2nd cent, b.c On the architrave 
is the inscription : — 

PAPAXAIPE 
Uapa x<"P € ' The letters are well cut and are of the forms used in the 
3rd and 2nd cents, b.c. The name Uapa does not occur elsewhere, 
and in all probability it is to be regarded as an abbreviation for some 
longer name, e. g. ILapdpov*. 

258-277. See Inscriptions. 

278. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

279. Amazon sarcophagus. 

Pentelic marble. H. -45, L. -84. D-M. 236. Robert, ii. 118, pi. 
XLVII. Introd. §§ 10, 24. Fig. 42. 

Found on land of brothers Sacharopoulos at Karavas, two hours north 
of Sparta. To same sarcophagus belongs 67. Fig. 41. 



160 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

On r. a nude warrior, back to spectator (sword on 1. side, shield on 1. 
arm), stands defending himself against an Amazon galloping against him. 
She rides astride with her r. arm raised to strike. Behind her is another 
Amazon on foot leaning over to the left (shown en face) : her 1. arm was 
raised, her r. seems to hold the bottom edge of her chiton. Both Amazons 
wear a short chiton girt just below the breasts. The relief is badly 
damaged, both Amazons are headless, and the lower legs of the standing, 
the feet and arms of the riding one, are broken off. The horse has only 
one leg left, the off foreleg : its neck is not correctly drawn. The 
warrior is headless, has no r. arm or leg, and no 1. foot. Good, spirited, 
graceful work: possibly dates from the 2nd cent, b.c 

280. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

281. See Inscriptions. 

282. Byzantine (?) doorstep. 

Blue marble. L. -66, H. .41. 

Philios says there exists a slab which may be a doorstep, but gives no measurements. 
These are the measurements of the slab now numbered 282. In Kastriotes' catalogue 
the measurements are given as .70 long and .28 high. 

283. Girl : statuette. 
H. .65. D-M. 140. 

Found in north of town, by house of D. Poulakos. The head is broken off. Clad 
in long chiton and himation, both girt in together just below the breasts. The hima- 
tion seems to be misunderstood, and the two garments are confused. She may wear 
only a chiton with a long diplois clumsily rendered. She wears sandals. The 1. is the 
free leg. Her r. hand holds against her hip a dove (?) : her 1. hand holds against 
her breast, in a fold of her garment, various fruits, grapes, apples, &c. Bad work of 
the imperial period. 

284. Male statuette : reliefs on base : Marsyas. 
Bluish marble. H. -49. D-M. 76. Fig, 43. 

Found by house of D. Poulakos in north of town. All above 
hips lost : stands evenly in a strained attitude on both feet, before 
a tree trunk which serves as a support. On either side of the 
trunk hangs a flute with a beaked mouthpiece and four keys : that 
on the 1. has a straight, that on the r. a curved end. On the base 
before a landscape ground (?) a dog pursuing a boar to r., and 
a hare running from it to 1. : behind a wicker-work pattern. 
Common work (local) of imperial period : reliefs especially bad. 
Prof. P. Gardner suggests that this is part of a Marsyas. It may 
be the other part of Le Bas' Marsyas from Sparta ( Voy. arch. Mon. 
fig., pi. 94, D-M. 67), now in the Louvre {Cat. Somm. 865). 

F . 285. Dioscurus. 

g ' 43 ' H. .50. D-M. 88. Introd. § 22. 

Only 1. leg from knee and horse's head beside it, similar to 118 : on 
top of horse's head traces of the hand (?). Ordinary work of imperial 
period. Cf. 9. 

286. Heracles herm. 
Rosso antico. H. -50. D-M. 84. Introd. § 18. 

Headless : stands on base -22 square : behind is supported by a small pilaster. Herm 
shaft slender, and broadening towards the top. Body and arms covered by lion's skin, 
which fits close to the body and is treated like drapery. Careful work ; probably 
after a 2nd cent. type. 




SCULPTURE l6l 

287. Herm: male. 

Rosso antico. H. -35. D-M. 133. 

Headless, and r. forearm badly damaged. Square shaft, worked at bottom to set in 
ground (?). Body and arms enveloped in a clinging garment. Ordinary work of the 
early imperial period. 

288. Relief fragment : Zeus (?). 
Blue-grey marble. H. -15, B. -13. D-M. 265. 

All below waist broken away. Represents in low relief a standing male figure en 
face, clad in a himation over the 1. shoulder and round the lower limbs. The r. hand 
is dropped : the 1. holds a sceptre, on which is perched an eagle. Zeus is probably 
represented. Bad, late, local work of uncertain date. 

289. Hygieia (?) statuette. 

H. .30. D-M. 46. Introd. § 18. 

Headless, r. forearm wanting, also legs below knees ; dowel hole in 
neck. R. free leg : clad in long-sleeved chiton, and himation over 1. arm 
and shoulder. On r. hip and breast traces of a snake: the dropped 
1. hand holds an uncertain cylindrical (?) object (perhaps a patera). 
Fair work, badly damaged, possibly 1st cent. b. c. 

290. Sarcophagus fragment. 

Bluish, coarse marble. H. .37, B. -28. D-M. 231. Introd. § 18. 

L. hand corner. It shows a winged boy en face (legs and arms want- 
ing). He looks to r. : 1. free leg: both arms were raised supporting 
a garland, to which belong apparently the grapes on the small piece of 
the end that remains. Most remarkable is the colouring. The hair 
(rendered on top by rounded, grained strands falling over the ears in 
corkscrew curls), the eyebrows, and pupils are black ; the lower lip is 
a rosy red : and the face and nude body are covered with a pink tint (?). 
Fair work, probably of 1st cent. b. c. Cf. 48. 

291. Dioscuri relief. 

Rosso antico. H. -26, B. -35. D-M. 210. 

Oblong stele, flat gable top. The two Dioscuri stand in three-quarter 
face toward one another, in similar symmetrical positions. Their outer 
legs are free ; their outer arms, covered with the chlamys, rest on the hips : 
their inner arms hold their horses, of which only the heads and fore- 
quarters appear, by the bridles. Both wear the pileus : their inner hands 
seem also to hold whips. Between them, on a podium with three steps, 
stand two amphorae with tall, square handles and conical lids; across 
their bodies are diagonal bands (snakes?) running down from r. to 1. 
For the amphorae cf. 7, 356, 575, and 613. 

292. Boy statuette. 
H. .36. D-M. 138. 

Formerly in Magula. 

No head, right shoulder or arm, and both legs. L. free leg : hand on hip. Clad in 
himation over 1. arm and shoulder and round the lower limbs. Badly weathered : the 
forms seem fat : late work of uncertain date. 

293. Hygieia statuette. 

H. -75. D-M. 45. Introd. § 18. 

Head and neck (dowel hole) are wanting. L. free leg. Clad in long 
chiton, and himation over both shoulders : shoes on feet. The r. hand 
holds up a piece of drapery at the side, on which rests a snake : the 



162 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

1. hand is covered with an end of the himation. Ordinary work of the 
imperial period. 

294. See 257. 

295. Lion's foot. 
Rosso antico. H. «35- 

Ordinary decorative work : on each side a long dowel hole : broken above. 

296. Bird. 

Coarse, bluish marble. H. -i8. 
Head and legs are broken off. Ordinary Byzantine work. 

297. Belief slab (from a frieze)* 

Bluish marble. H. -15, L. -21. Introd. § 24. 

Shows a bird to 1. pecking at the wave-pattern vine (?) on which it stands. Ordinary 
Byzantine work. 

298. Ball (or whorl P). 
Rosso antico. Di. .II. 

Similar to 153 : much worn, and half (divided horizontally) is lost : hole bored 
through. 

299. Pilaster capital (P). 

Coarse, bluish marble. H. -36, B. .33, D. -20. 

Back rounded : profiled edge above : broken below. In a circular depression (pro- 
filed border), surrounded by the curving stalks of an acanthus plant, is a lion's head. 
Ordinary architectural work. Cf. 39 a. 

300 and 537. Grave relief. 
Bluish marble. H. .50, B. -31. D-M. 244. 

Flat profiled top. It shows a young man en face, clad in himation and chiton : 
r. free leg. Ordinary late work ; imperial period. Above is the inscription : — 

nOAY 

YKTE 

XAIPE 

TIo\v[€~\\victc I x "/*' The surface is much damaged and the letters are exceedingly 
faint. 

301. Male torso. 

H. .35. D-M. 79. F-W. 1614. ^-F.1322. Introd. §17. 

Head, arms, and legs wanting : badly weathered. Remains of drapery 
on 1. shoulder. Body bent a little to its r., r. arm dropped : on 1. side 
was a support. L. free leg (?). The muscular development is very 
marked and strong, but somewhat exaggerated : for this reason Dressel 
and Milchhofer call it Heracles. Sieveking calls it an athlete, and 
attributes it to the 4th cent. Probably it belongs to the 3rd cent.: 
at all events the style is good and fresh. 

302. Cybele, enthroned. 

H. .30. D-M. 48. Introd. §18. 

Much damaged, especially head, arms, and feet. Clad in long 
chiton (girt at waist) and himation over 1. shoulder and round lower 
limbs. In her 1. hand she holds the tympanum. The throne is plain, 
high backed, and armless. By its r. side sits the lion. Ordinary late 
work, not earlier than 1st cent. B.C. 



SCULPTURE 163 

303. Youthful satyr : part of Dionysiac group. 
Bluish marble. H. 21. D-M. 59. 

Head, shoulders, and upper part of torso only. Looks up to his r. : 1. 
hand holds pedum. His r. arm was round the figure (Dionysus) standing 
on that side of him, whose 1. arm is round his shoulders and neck. It 
belongs to a Dionysiac group, but not to one like 416, according to 
Dressel and Milchhofer. It is a part of a Yeduced copy of the type of 
which the two best examples are in the Ludovisi collection and in the 
Museo Chiaramonti (Schreiber, Villa Ludovisi Cat. 77 ; Amelung, 
Sculp. Vat. Mus., M. Chi. 588). This type is a combination of two 
inharmonious elements, a semi-drunken, fat Dionysus standing at ease and 
a lithe satyr moving quickly: it probably dates from the 1st cent. a. d. 
This figure is part of a very bad copy. Cf. 729. Base of small repro- 
duction of similar group from Sparta at Dhimitzana, D-M. 178. 

304. Right foot and base. 
L. .15. 

R. foot of a statuette on half of an oval base : toes much damaged. 

305. Lion's head. 
H. .38. 

Head and neck ; latter curving forward. Broken off below : just at breakage 
acanthus leaves round neck : square pillar behind head. Common late decorative 
work. 

806. Sarcophagus lid : from a child's sarcophagus. 

H. .20, L. .37, D. -31. D-M. 235. Introd. § 23. 

R. hand front corner only. Remains of drapery and 1. arm of reclining 
figure which rested on that arm. Before it towards the edge of the 
cushioned couch is a round gorgoneion, and by it and apparently attached 
to it is a similar round, but plain disk : these are probably the two halves 
of an opened bulla, since a narrow strip attached to them lies by them. 
The edge of the couch in front is decorated with narrow bands between 
which are floral ornaments, in groups of three, and relief fields. Only 
the r. hand relief remains; it shows a winged youth in profile to r. 
(chlamys on 1. arm) attacking with a spear a lion • in the background is 
a pine tree, and plants, &c. are also indicated. The corner is decorated 
by a bird's head to 1. ; on its neck is seen a bird standing on an acanthus 
plant. The small end shows another hunting scene. On the 1. stands en 
face a youth in a short chiton (r. shoulder free), with a chlamys on his 
1. arm ; with his r. hand he holds a hound in leash and with his 1. a spear. 
Next is a similarly clad youth (much destroyed through a later dowel hole) 
holding out his r. arm towards the first ; before him a bitch runs to r. 
Then comes an oak (?) tree. Last is seen a nude winged youth with 
two spears on his 1. shoulder running with a hound to r. Work fair, but 
very superficial : imperial period. 

307. Sarcophagus, for a child. 
L. 1-69, H. .40. D-M. 228. Arch. Zeit. 1880, p. 163, pi. 14. 
Fig- 44- 

Greater part of front, and part of r. end (-31 long) remain. The 
bottom is broken off, so that all the figures lack their lower legs. It was 
found at Hagios Ioannes, where fragments of the scale-decorated, roof- 
shaped lid were left. A triangular fragment from the front side is in the 

m 2 



164 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

National Museum at Athens (No. 2005). It shows nine boys arranged 
in three groups of three. The first group on 1. shows a drunken boy 
(with drapery over the 1. arm, back and r. leg) supported by two others ; 
he clasps his 1. hand supporter who holds him under the r. arm, round 
the neck, while the r. hand supporter, who holds a torch in his r. hand, 
holds him up by the 1. arm. Of the central group, the first facing to the 
1. plays a double flute, the next empties an amphora into a crater on the 
ground, the last facing r. clashes the cymbals (his head and shoulders are 
on the piece in Athens). The last group shows a youth, clad as the 
central one of the first group, staggering against a supporter on his r. 




Fig. 44. 

(their r. and 1. arms respectively are round one another) while with his 
1. arm he clutches at another, who holds his r. hand to his head, and in his 
1. an empty cantharus. It shows a revel just over ; on the 1. is a tired 
party being lighted home and accompanied by music, then the emptying 
of the last amphora, while on the r. the more lively and drunken revellers 
still essay to dance. The whole scene and different degrees of drunken- 
ness are excellently and humorously rendered. At the r. hand corner 
is a calf's head from which a garland hangs on the short side. It is 
noticeable that the figures are surrounded by running drill grooves 
following their contours. Good work: 2nd cent. a. d. (?). 

308. The good shepherd. 

H. .38. D-M. 132. Cf. De Rossi, Bull Comm. Arch. 1889, PI. V, VI. 

L. arm, and all below the waist are wanting. The lamb is headless. 
A young man is represented clad in a short-sleeved chiton and holding 
on his shoulders a lamb by the legs held by his r. hand before his neck. 
The style is bad and flat, the whole figure is treated rather like a relief; 
there is a flat pillar behind. Late, Christian work, 3rd cent. a. d. Introd. 
§ 24. 

309. Boy statuette. 

Bluish marble. H. -54. D-M. 136. 

Head, 1. shoulder and arm wanting. Seated on a rock concave in front : r. foot on 
ground, 1. on lowest part of rock. Clad in a short, short-sleeved chiton, with a chlamys 
over the breast and back. The r. hand rests on the rock at his side and holds some 
broken, uncertain object (a cantharus?). Two dowel holes in back and one in r. side 
of rock : below a semicircular cut along base from back to front ; good motive : 
ordinary work of imperial period. 

310. Heracles torso (nude). 

Pentelic (?) marble. H. -18. D-M. 80. F-W. 1583. 
Head, arms, and legs missing. The r. arm was raised, the 1. hung 
obliquely across the body : position of legs uncertain ; a support on the 



SCULPTURE 165 

upper r. thigh : a small one above r. breast : the head was sunk on the 
breast : hair engraved on chest and torso. Muscles very strongly 
developed : work very dry and hard, of imperial period. The figure 
was probably seated, and so similar to the Belvedere torso (Helbig, 127) 
and a Heracles from Smyrna (Le Bas, Voy. arch., pi. 144). 

311. Resting sheep (?). 

H. -io, L. .18. D-M. 186. 

Headless, lies to r. : fat ; long coat. Rough work, imperial period. 

312. Sleeping Eros. 
L. .20. D-M. 42. 

Lies in similar position to 20 and 21 : r. arm stretched on ground : legs and r. fore- 
arm missing. Chlamys on shoulders : by his side (held by r. hand) bow case and 
quiver. Moderate, decorative work : imperial period. 

313. Eagle and snake (part of a statue base ?). 
Bluish-grey marble. H. -50. D-M. 182. 

Eagle standing erect on a rock ; behind it is supported by a tree trunk. In its beak 
(its head is turned to its 1.) it holds a snake. Ordinary imperial work. 

314. Youthful herm. 

Rosso antico. H. -40. D-M. 134. 

Much weathered : fixed to a pillar behind, the top of which is hollowed into a 
scotia above to accommodate the head and shoulders. Hair, short, but thick ; flat, 
round face : eyes rendered plastically. Ordinary work of imperial period. 

315. Female statuette. 

Pentelic (?) marble. H. -23. D-M. 120. 

Upper part of torso and stump of 1. arm only. Clad in high girt chiton, and in 
himation over 1. arm and shoulder and across back. Ordinary imperial work. 

316. Archaic hero relief. 

Blue-grey (ash-coloured) local stone. H. -29, B. «37. Relief height 
•15. D-M. 9. F-W. 62. Introd. §§ 3, 14. 

Possibly found by Leonidaeum. Similar to 3 : figures enthroned to 
r., but much damaged ; all above the seat of the throne is broken away : 
rough piece at bottom to insert in ground. Drapery hangs between seat 
and arm of chair. Cf. 4, 415, 505. The legs of the throne are lion legs 
adapted. Figures wear two garments, indicated as on 3, and shoes (?). 
There are no worshippers, and the snake is in front of the throne. It is 
later in date than 3 : its style is rounder and freer. It shows the transi- 
tion to the class to which 4, 515, 431, and 451 belong. 

317. Poseidon relief. 

H. .20, B. .16. D-M. 192. 

Upper part with head broken off. Poseidon shown en face, clad in himation over 
the 1. shoulder and arm, and round the lower limbs. The raised r. arm is supported 
on the trident : the 1. arm rests against the hip. Below on either side a dolphin 
springing out head downwards : below possibly water was indicated. Common late 
work. 

318. Helen (?) relief. 

H. -27, B. .11. D-M. 222. Introd. § 13. 

Female figure en face, clad in long, short-sleeved chiton : arms close to 
sides hang down straight : long hair falling on to shoulders. On the head 
a round, basket-like object, broader at top than the bottom : cf. 362, and the 
central figure in the Dioscuri reliefs 201, 202, and 203. Archaic or 
archaistic work of doubtful date. 



l66 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

319. Dioscuri relief. 

Grey-blue, marble-like, local stone. H. .37, B. -40. D-M. 14, 
F-W. 67. Introd. §§ to, 15. 

According to Stamatakes once in house of brothers Loulou : but 
according to Conze and Michaelis it was over the door of D. Maroudhes, 
having been found near by. R. hand Dioscurus and head of horse of 1. 
hand Dioscurus only left : badly weathered. It showed the Dioscuri stand- 
ing by side of their horses facing one another in profile. The r. hand 
one advances with the r. leg, and holds his horse by the mane with his r. 
hand : 1. hand broken away. The horses' noses almost touch. Between 
the hind legs of the horse of the remaining Dioscurus are visible traces 
(feet and drapery below, contour of body above) of another (female ?) 
figure. Style and handling throughout is flat, and no details are given : 
forms of body in general long and thin. Early 5th century work. 

320. Draped female figure (muse ?) seated ou rock. 
H. .75. D-M. 117. 

Head, r. arm, 1. hand, and both feet missing. Clad in high girt chiton, 
and himation on 1. shoulder, arm, and round lower limbs. L. leg more 
advanced, and placed lower than r. : tip of 1. knee broken off, possibly 
1. hand supported something on it. 

321. Hygieia. 

H. .80. D-M. 44. 

Found in foundations of church of Hagios Panteleimon north-west of 
Sparta (Stamatakes). Introd. § 18. 

Head, hands, and legs below knees broken off: 1. free leg. Clad in 
long chiton, with a himation wrapped round the shoulders, and falling 
down again over 1. arm. The r. hand rests against the side, and on the 
drapery between it and the body rests a curling snake. Ordinary work 
(back not worked) of imperial period : for the type cf. 293. 

322-323. Sarcophagus : ransoming of Hector's body. 
Pentelic marble. L. 1-50, H. «88, short side L. -25. D-M. 323. 
Robert, ii. 51, pi. XXIV. Fig. 45. 

L. hand end of long side, 1. corner, and portions of 1. short side only. 
The bottom is broken off all along, so the feet are missing in every case. 

The top of the short side is decorated 
with an egg and dart pattern ; the long 
side has rather an elaborate profiled 
edge. At the corner and shown partly 
on the short side in back view and on 
the long side in profile to r. is a female 
figure clad in a long chiton with a diplois 
(holding a lance in her r. hand, and a 
shield on her 1. arm) advancing to r. 
Fig. 45. from under an arched gateway. There 

is a himation round the lower limbs : 
the head is lost, but the figure is certainly female. The gateway is shown 
perspectively on the short side. Before proceeds a strong, well-developed 
youth holding a huge crater with both hands. Before him is a chariot (biga) 
also advancing to the r. It is driven by a cuirassed warrior (helmeted, but the 




SCULPTURE 



167 



head is badly damaged) : behind him there stands in the chariot a youth 
in Phrygian costume, bonnet, short-sleeved tunic, and trunk hose) holding 
on his shoulders with his r, hand a cuirass, and in his 1. hand a vase ; he 
is seen from the back, whereas the other two are in profile. In the ground 
behind him appear the hind quarters of a horse. At the heads of the 
horses of the biga (the end of the pole and part of the yoke appear be- 
tween their necks) and in the background is a nude youth in three-quarter 
profile to the r. holding them back. Fair, but hard work of the 2nd 
cent. A.D.: cf. 402. 



324. Seated lion. 
Bluish marble. L. 



70, H. .58. D-M. 183. 



Fore legs broken away : mouth open : tail curled round 1. hind leg. Common 



325. Bearded male statue : archaic. 

H. -68. D-M. 2. F-W. 57. Furtwangler, Ath. Mitt. 1882, p. 170. 
Fig. 46. 

Badly weathered ; all below navel, and r. hand missing. Arms slightly 
bent back at the elbow, but tight to sides, and hands clenched. Beard 





Fig. 46. 



rig- 47. 



short, just reaches breast; hair long, a curling lock falls on to each 
shoulder, down the neck the hair falls in a broad, square, flat undetailed 
mass : detail on locks on shoulders rendered by oblique lines. No feature 
of the face is clear. The chest is rather narrow, but high : the front of 
the chest and stomach is continuous in one flat plane : no details given 
except the contours of the breasts, and the navel, a deep circular hole. 
The back is merely roughly rounded : just above the breakage is an iron 
dowel. Good, strong archaic work, 6th cent, b.c Introd. §§ 1, 14. 

326. Artemis. 

H. -8o. D-M. 96. Fig. 47. 

Head and arms, which were set on, are missing : the legs are broken 
off, and the shoulders much damaged. Clad in loose, long, ungirt chiton 
with diplois. A narrow belt across the 1. breast and over the r. shoulder. 
L. leg was advanced. 



i68 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 




Fig. 48. 
chiton and a himation. 



Good, spirited work : drapery naturally rendered. A good copy of a 
4th cent, original: Praxitelean type, replica of 
Artemis Colonna (Fig. 48): v. Introd. § 16. 

327. Gargoyle : lion's head. 
H. -20, L. -47. Introd. § 24. 
Open-mouthed, jagged-toothed, flat-nosed head 

with staring eyes childishly executed : behind cut 
square to set in wall : was never used as a water- 
spout. Probably Frankish work. 

328. Grave relief. 
Bluish marble. H. -52, B. -45. D-M. 253. 

Upper part with head of figure broken away. It shows 
a nude figure in chiton, and a himation wrapped round 
both shoulders en face : r. free leg : r. hand in fold of 
garment, 1. hangs down at side. Rough, late work: 
imperial period. 

329. Draped female torso. 
H. .125. D-M. 162. 

Head, and breast, and 1. arm wanting. R. free leg: 
r. arm on chest, 1. was hanging at side. Clad in long 
Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

330. Male toga statue. 

Bluish marble. H. 1-25. D-M. 143. 

Head and 1. hand, which were set on, are missing : feet broken off : 1. free leg. R. arm 
on chest, 1. hanging at side. Clad in chiton with a toga over it. Common, flat, local 
work of the imperial period. 

331. Basin. 

Bluish marble. Di. -62. 

In four fragments. On outer rim four semi-circular flat handles; one missing. 
Very shallow. Rough, common work. 

332. Hydria. 

Bluish marble. H. .72, Di. .54. 

Handles broken off. In two pieces joined together. Rough, common work. 

333. Draped torso (female ?). 
Pentelic marble. H. '38, B. -40. 

Fragment : lower part of torso only : flat behind : moderate work. 

334. Alabastron. 
Alabaster. H. .18. 

Plain, round shape, flat bottom : traces of unguent inside. 

335. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

336. Bight hand. 
L. '09. 

Dowel hole in wrist, was made to set on : fingers clenched round some long, round 
object that was set in. 

337. Portrait, youthful bearded. 
H. -35. D-M. 154. Introd. § 20. 

Hair treated in thick mass of short curls : beard rendered in short, close, 
tight curls. Bar above brow : eyebrows and eyes plastically rendered. 
Expressionless, ordinary portrait of the Antonine period : fair work. 



SCULPTURE 169 

338. Ideal female head. 

H. -25. D-M. 102. Introd. § 20. 

Inclined a little to its 1. ; and looks upward with a weak sentimental 
expression. Hair centre parted, and waved away at sides to a chignon 
behind. Hard, lifeless work after 4th cent, type : work of Antonine 
period. 

339. Female head : portrait. 
H. .25. 

Face only : badly weathered. Hair centre parted ; small rolled 
fillet (?) round head ; veil (himation ?) over back of head. Eyes plasti- 
cally rendered. 2nd cent, a.d., Hadrianic period. 

340. Child's head. 
H. -i2. D-M. 141. 

Very badly damaged. Round, chubby features ; long, curling, silky hair. Good 
work of imperial period. 

341. Helmeted head. 

H. .15. D-M. 127. Introd. § 18. 

Badly damaged. Full beard, strong features, deep-set eyes, passionate 
expression. Ajax or Menelaus type. The 1. side is not worked. Fair 
work, hasty, but not spiritless. Possibly 2nd cent. b.c. 

342. Silemis head. 

Bluish marble. H. .16. D-M. 68. 

Very badly damaged. Bearded, pointed ears, ivy-wreathed and laughing : further 
details indistinguishable. 

343. Bearded portrait : philosopher. 

Pentelic (?) marble. H. .45. D-M. 150. Introd. § 20. 

Bald, hair at back of head merely chipped out, lies close ; high, furrowed 
forehead, eyes and eyebrows plastically rendered ; loose, fat cheeks, beard 
and moustache in long, tangled, grained locks ; long, oval-shaped head ; 
was made to set in. Moderate work : 2nd cent. a.d. 

344. Helmeted Athena head. 
H. .32. D-M. 25. 

Nose and chin damaged. Corinthian helmet on back of head : hair 
centre parted and waved away at sides to a chignon behind. Hard, 
inferior work after 4th cent, type : imperial period. 

345. Lion's head : gutter-spout. 
H. «22, L. -23. 

From a gutter, acted as a water-spout. Open-mouthed ; shows remains of colour- 
ing : mane and eyes in black, lines and details of mouth and face picked out in black, 
the rest is coloured a brownish pink. Ordinary architectural work. 

346. Altar fragment : circular. 
H. .30, L. .38. 

Bucranium (Roman, skull type) with a decorated band across forehead supporting 
garlands, of which traces of the ends remain : imperial period, very ordinary work. 

347-348. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

349. Cybele enthroned. 
Bluish marble. H. .35. D-M. 49. 
Head, forearms, and feet broken off, also head of the lion : a small 



170 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



dowel hole in stump of 1. arm. Statuette similar to 302. Goddess seated 
on a plain high-backed throne, clad in high-girt chiton, and himation over 
the 1. arm and shoulder. By the r. side of the throne sits a lion, her 
r. hand probably rested on its head : her 1. hand which was raised would 
have held the tympanum. Common work of the imperial period. 

350. Dionysus: statuette. 
H. .56. D-M. 52. 

Legs from middle of thighs, and forearms broken off ; and whole is 
otherwise much defaced. Nude; 1. free leg, and advanced. R. hand 
rested on top of head ; 1. hung down at side, and rested on top of a tree- 
trunk by side of 1. leg. The hair is long, but apart from a lock falling on 
to each shoulder, its arrangement is not clear. The whole figure is 
supported by a square pillar behind. The type seems to belong to the 
4th cent. Ordinary work, rather decorative, not earlier than the 1st 
cent. B.C., v. Reinach, Rip. p. 123. 

351. Cybele, seated on a lion : statuette. 
Bluish marble. H. .39. D-M. 47. Introd. § 18. 

Head broken off. On a lion standing to the r. a goddess is seated side- 
ways. She is clad as 349, her feet rest on a footstool. Her r. hand rests 
on the lion's hind quarters ; the 1. holds a tympanum (?) (decorated with 
an eight-rayed star) on its head. The back is merely roughly rounded. 
Poor work ; not earlier than the 1st cent. b.c. 

352. Head : Apollo (or female P). 
H. .20. D-M. 94. 

Only r. eye and part of forehead and hair above remain. The forehead is low. 
The hair was centre parted, and waved away to the sides ; in front there seems to have 
been a crobylos. Good work, probably 3rd cent. B. c. 

353. Relief. 

H. .14, B. .12. D-M. 274. 

Bottom half only. It shows the legs and hips (all above is broken off) of a nude 
figure (male or female) in profile proceeding to the r. with the 1. leg advanced. 
Rough, late work of uncertain date. 

354. Lion's head : gutter-spout. 
H. -io, L. .18. 




Upper part only : used as water-spout, 
architectural work. 



Ordinary 



355. Snake relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -42, B. -18. D-M. 22. 
Introd. § 9. 

Bearded and crested snake curling up to 1. 
By its mouth an egg (?), perhaps as food. 
5th cent. b.c. 



356. Dioscuri relief. 

Bluish marble. H. .70,6.-52. D-M. 209. 

Introd. §§ 5, 10. Fig. 49. 

Fi S- 49- Gable-topped stele with acroterion in centre : 

in gable two cocks facing one another. Below, 

the stele is divided into two relief fields by a broad horizontal band. In 

the upper field are the Dioscuri en face, standing opposite one another 






SCULPTURE 171 

in similar symmetrical positions. They are nude, and wear no pilei: 
their inner hands hold their horses (seen in profile) by the bridles, their 
outer hands hold lances : their outer legs are the free legs. In the lower 
field are seen the upper parts (the lower part of the stele is broken away) 
of two tall amphorae with high, rounded handles, and conical lids ; round 
each amphora curls a snake. Cf. 7, 291, 575, and 613. Flat work: 
probably not earlier than 2nd cent. b. c. 

357. Draped female statuette. 
H. -34. D-M. 122. 

Head missing : badly weathered : dowel hole in under side of base : r. free leg. 
Clad in long chiton, and himation loosely wrapped about the shoulders. Fair work, 
but badly damaged ; possibly 2nd cent B.C. 

358. Left hand. 
L. .05. 

Very small, much damaged : still holds some flat, round object. 

359. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

360. Statuette. 

Bluish marble. H. -24. D-M. 131. 

It represents a bearded man seated with his hands clasped across his knees which 
are rather wide apart. The breast and stomach are bare; the rest of the figure is 
draped. The back is totally unworked. Extremely rude, local work : possibly un- 
finished. 

361. Female head : (portrait P). 
H. .35. D-M. 167. 

Very badly damaged, and almost completely defaced : it was in later times used as 
building material as the leaf ornament on the back shows. The hair was parted in the 
centre, and waved back at sides. 

362. Helen (?) relief. 

Blue-grey, marble-like, local stone. H. .35, B. -18, D. -n. D-M. 221. 

Gable-topped stele. It shows a similar female figure to that on 318, 
except that the arms hang away from the body obliquely, and the hands 
seem clenched. Cf. 201, 202, and 203. Possibly 4th cent. Introd. §13. 

363. Drapery fragment. 

Pentelic (?) marble. H. .59. D-M. 175. Loewy, /. G. B, 336. 
Introd. § 1. 

Hanging fragment of uncertain garment. Fair Neo-Attic work. On 
the folds the following inscription : — 

AnOAAOJ 

NIOC A0H 

NAIO C 

ETTO IEI 
'A7roXXa>|i»toff 'a6t)\vcuos \ hnUu The letters are very carefully inscribed with 
slight apices, in all probability by the sculptor himself: the forms of the 
(0 A are incorrectly reproduced in D-M., also that of the C in 1. 2. 

364. Archaic group : fragment. 

Bluish marble. H. -48. D-M. 1. Marx, Ath. Mitt. 1885, p. 177, 
pi. VI ; von Prott, ibid. 1904, p. 16, pi. 6 ; Perrot, viii. p. 438, 3 ; Wolters, 
'E0. 'Apx. 1892, p. 225; Baur, Eileithyia, p. 43 ; Rouse, Gk. Votive 
Offerings, pp. 254, 257. Introd. §§ 13, 14. 



172 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 




Fi g s - 50* 5i- 



Found at Magula. It represents a kneeling, nude, female figure with 
a small male figure close to each side. Her head, both arms, 1. shoulder 
and legs below the knees are broken away : nearly all the figure on 
her 1., except the stomach and hips, is lost ; of the other, only the legs 
below the knees are wanting. In the upper broken surface of the woman 
is a small dowel hole above the r. breast. Close against her r. side is 

a small, nude male figure, holding the 
fingers of both hands to its mouth and 
apparently sucking them. The forms 
of its body are small, thin and narrow, 
with no detailed rendering : the head 
is very big, has wide, staring eyes, and 
a blunt nose: the hair is in a thick, 
undetailed mass cut straight round on 
the neck. The other figure is, as far 
as possible to determine, similarly 
handled : but it is slightly higher up 
against the woman's body. Its 1. arm is held down obliquely against the 
woman's body in front : the hand is open and pressed palm inwards 
against her stomach. The female form is fairly well rendered on the 
whole : the chest and stomach are flat and in the same plane : the navel 
is not indicated, but the rtma is : the chest is broad, and the hips rather 
narrow: the back is modelled to the contours merely: the thighs are 
pressed close together, and are shapeless. Good, archaic work : 6th cent. 
b.c. Fig. 50, 51. 

365. Male head. 
H. .25. D-M. 113. 

Very much worn and defaced: a thick round fillet round the head: the hair is 
handled in short, small, flowing locks. Other details indistinguishable. Possibly dates 
from and cent. B.C. 

366. Statuette fragment. 
H. .20. 

A piece of a base with a tree trunk on which a himation is placed and hangs down 
round it. Served as a support : ordinary work of imperial period. 

367-387. See Inscriptions. 

388. Frieze fragment. 
L. .26, H. .11. 

Profiled edge above, below reel and button ornament, between an anthemion and 
bud pattern. Ordinary architectural work. 

389. See Inscriptions. 



390-301. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 



392. Grave relief. 
Bluish marble. H. 



.55, B. .60. D-M. 255. 



Part of lower portion only. It shows the legs of a man clad in himation (r. free leg) 
standing en face. By his 1. side is a circular basin-shaped altar on a fluted base like 
191. Very rough work : imperial period. 

393-396. See Inscriptions. 



SCULPTURE 173 

397. TJninscribed base. 
H. .37, L. .75, D. .48. 

Philios says he found no base to correspond with these measurements. He however 
found a marble block that might be at first sight taken for a base. It was unnumbered, 
but was afterwards numbered by him. It is possibly, as he says, a theatre seat. 

398. Votive relief. 

Bluish limestone. H. .52, B. .28. D-M. 196. Rouse, Gk. Votive 
Offerings, p. 215. 

From Messenia. Two r. hands and forearms in low, round relief, hands upwards. 
The hands are spread out flat palm downwards, and the fingers are all separated. 
Rough work of late, but uncertain date. For similar reliefs v. Heydemann, Ant. 
Marmorbildw. z. Ath., 14; Jahn, Berichte d. sacks. Gesells. d. Wissenschaften^W. 
l8 55> P- 53 J see above, p. 27. 

Above is an inscription, for which see Inscriptions. 

399. Right hand. 

Bluish marble. L. -io, W. .10. 

Fragment of a statue, possibly of a nymph holding a basin ; at least 
the hand still holds a fragment of a circular basin decorated on the rim 
with an egg and dart, and a reel and button pattern. Ordinary work : 
imperial period. Cf. 99. 

400-401. See Inscriptions. 

402. Sarcophagus fragment : ransoming of Hector's body. 
H. .50, B. .57. D-M. 224. Robert, ii. 53, pi. XXIV. Fig. 52. 
Above decorated border, egg and dart and 

reel and button ornament. Similar representa- 
tion to that on 322 + 323. On the 1. is a figure 
in profile to r. (chlamys over 1. shoulder) ; he 
holds in both hands a big metal hydria. In 
the background behind him is a helmeted, 
bearded barbarian. Before him is seen part 
of a chariot filled with shields : driving it is 
a bearded barbarian in short-sleeved chiton, 
Phrygian cap, &c. Very fair work, but badly 
damaged : of imperial period. F . 

403. Archaistic herm head. 

Bluish, fine marble. H. .57. D-M. 100. E-V. 1315-1316. 

Front of bust broken off: dowel hole on top of head to set on 
a separate piece. Filleted, hair in three rows of tight curls on edge of 
forehead : two long locks falling down either side on to the shoulders, and 
a large flat mass falling down the neck (detail given by finely chiselled, 
wavy lines). High narrow forehead with slight conventionalized bar, eyes 
moderately deep set; high, plump, rather hard cheeks; square jaw; 
hard, oval, projecting chin ; all features hard and severe. Dressel and 
Milchhofer, and Philios also call it female. Sieveking says it is male, and 
belongs to a class of Roman Bacchic herms depending on earlier types ; 
from these types the hair is derived : the face he says is Scopaic. Good 
work of imperial period. 

404. See Inscriptions. 

405-406. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 




174 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

407-408. See Inscriptions. 

409. Seat. 
Bluish marble. H. .64, L. -58, D. -43. 

Was missing : Philios could not find it : Kastriotes in his catalogue describes it 
thus : — ' Marble seat broken in two, in the western room of the Museum.' Now 769, 
q.v. 

410—411. See Inscriptions. 

412. Lion's foot on base. 
H. .17, W. .15, L. .18. 

Broken in front of foot, and above : ordinary decorative work. 




413. Byzantine capital. 
L. -6i, H. .14, B. .17. Introd. § 24 

Flat sides, similar to 39 b : to fit a shaft -i 
flat, only one side decorated, on it a couchant lion, 
work. 



Fig. 53- 
square. Abacus 
Very fair 



Fig. 53- 



414. Aphrodite and Eros. 

H. .37. D-M. 34. Introd. § 18. 

Found in Gytheion harbour. The head, r. arm and 
foot and 1. forearm are missing : 1. is the free leg. She 
is clad in a long-sleeved chiton girt just under the 
breasts, and with bands round the shoulders : she also 
wears a himation flung over 1. arm and shoulder, across 
the back, and before the lower limbs. Her head was 
turned round to her L, towards an Eros perched on 
her 1. shoulder ;: traces of the Eros (leg, &c.,) are just 
visible. Pleasing work, rather hasty ; not earlier than 
late 2nd cent, b.c 



415. Archaic hero relief. 

H. .36, B. .35. Relief height, -02-03. D-M. 10, pi. 23 ; F-W. 61 ; 
Perrot, viii. pp. 134, 441, Fig. 74. Introd. §§ 3, 14. 

Similar representation to 4. Much defaced, and lower part broken off 
at the level of the seat of the throne. The heroes are enthroned to 1. 
The throne apparently exactly similar to that on 4. The head of the 
man only is en face, otherwise he is similar to 4. The female figure which 
is only just distinguishable, holds out her veil with her r. hand, and in 
her 1. hand holds a pomegranate on her knee. The snake is before the 
throne, and its head only reaches to the foot of the cantharus. There 
are no worshippers. The relief comes next to 316 in the series ; but it 
shows an alteration in the type, the enthroned figures look to 1. In style 
it is more developed ; the forms are rounder and fuller ; in some details, 
such as the drapery, there is more freedom in the handling. 6th cent. b.c. (?) 

416. Dionysus, Pan, and Satyr. 
H. .45. D-M. 57. 

Dionysus is headless, armless, and legless (from the knees) ; the lower 
legs of Pan are broken off; and the whole of a third figure except the 
r. arm is wanting. On the 1. (of the spectator) stands Pan (r. free leg), 
he has goat's legs, is ithyphallic, and there are traces of drapery across 



SCULPTURE 175 

the back ; with his r. hand he holds a syrinx to his mouth, with his 1. he 
shoulders a pedum. In the centre leaning against him is Dionysus (1. free 
leg). He is nude save for a nebris over r. shoulder : a long lock falls on 
to each shoulder : his r. arm probably rested on his head (cf. 350), and 
his 1. was probably round the body of the missing figure, a satyr (?), who 
had his r. arm round Dionysus' waist. Ordinary work of the imperial 
period : a combination of inharmonious types : v. 303. 

417-418. See Inscriptions. 

419. Lion's paw. 
H. .15. 

Ordinary decorative work. 

420. Base with feet. 
H. .20, W. .25, D. .34. 

R. hand end of base : on it is a 1. foot and ankle : behind the heel appear the toes of 
the r. foot. Base of a dancing Maenad, or Satyr ? 

421. Dancing Maenad. 
H. .23. D-M. 69. 

Head, r. arm and breast, 1. arm, and both legs wanting. Clad in 
clinging chiton, girt just below breasts; it left r. shoulder and breast bare : 
she also wears a himation over the 1. shoulder and round the lower limbs. 
Good, spirited work, drapery well rendered, a trifle superficial in execu- 
tion : probably 1st cent, b.c The hair is long, and hangs down the 
back. The r. arm was dropped across the body, and the 1. stretched out ; 
the head and the body in general were inclined to their 1. For the type 
compare the Dancing Maenad in Berlin, No. 208. 

422. Ape(?). 

H. -12. 

All above navel, and the feet are missing. The figure is seated on a low rock : 
rough work of uncertain date. 

423. Heracles head. 
H. -23. D-M. 82. 

Found north of Acropolis. The neck is inclined to its 1., the head to its r. Short 
hair and beard worked almost entirely with the drill. Very badly weathered. Com- 
mon work of imperial period. 

424. Cybele enthroned : fragment. 
H. .21. D-M. 50. 

Head and shoulders broken off, and the whole very badly weathered. 
Similar to 302 and 349, but there is a lion each side of the throne. 
Cf. 452. 

425. Lion's head : gutter-spout. 
Bluish marble. H. «20. 

Served as waterspout : common, late architectural work. 

426. Aphrodite and Eros. 
Bluish marble. H. -20. 

Upper part of torso only with upper 1. and r. arms. Against her 1. arm and shoulder 
leans a nude Eros (neck to knees only left) : by her r. shoulder is some uncertain 
object (drapery, or other Eros?). Common, rough work. 

427-429. See Inscriptions. 



176 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

430. Relief fragment. 
H. .31, B. .30. 

In high relief are seen the stomach and thighs of a male figure en face , r. free leg. 
Ordinary work, imperial period. Background not flat, and on it there seem to be 
traces of drapery (?). 

431. Archaic hero relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -19, B. -19. Introd. § 3. 

Fragment showing only the r. hand of the male figure (drapery on arm), 
holding the cantharus ; and the two hands of the female figure, the r. 
holding out her veil, and 1. a pomegranate. The figures were enthroned 
to 1. : and this fragment is of the same type as 4, 415, and 451. From 
the rounded forms it seems later than 415 and 451. 

432. See Inscriptions. 

433. Lion's foot. 

Bluish marble. H. 13, D. .12, W. -13. 

The lower part of a square pillar decorated in front with a lion's foot. Ordinary, 
late work. 

434. Draped male statuette. 
H. .11. 

Head was set in ; shoulders and breast, r. arm, and 1. upper arm only left. Clad in 
chiton and himation : r. arm laid on chest : imperial period. 

435. See Inscriptions. 

436. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

437. Female head. 
H. .11. 

Hair filleted, centre parted and waved back to a chignon on neck. The face is very 
badly damaged. Hair in thick, loose locks. Ordinary work of imperial period. 

438. Head and shoulders of a statuette. 
Bluish marble. H. -17. 

In extremely bad condition ; all details unrecognizable. Originally it does not seem 
to have been good work. It is possibly a Heracles with the lion's skin over his head. 

439. See Inscriptions. 

440. Stele of Damonon. 

H. .94, B. -235, D. .16. D-M. 20. 

Formerly in the monastery of Hagioi Saranta, east of Sparta. At the 
top in low relief is a quadriga to 1. It is freely rendered, the second 
horse from the 1. has its head turned to the r. In the car, of which only 
the wheel is visible, is a figure bent forward driving. The whole is handled 
in a very spirited manner, and as far as can be seen from its bad 
condition the work is good; it probably belongs to the 5th cent. 
Below is an inscription, for which see Inscriptions. 

441. Votive relief to Alexandra. 

Bluish marble. H. 1.36, B. -64. Ath. MitL 1878, p. 164. Introd. §18. 

Found in church of Hagia Paraskeve at Mahmoudbey. Gable-topped 
stele with acroteria : gable plain. On 1. is seated on a rock to r. in three- 
quarter profile a female figure clad in a long chiton, girt at the waist, and 



SCULPTURE 



I 77 



a himation over her 1. shoulder and lower limbs ; she wears sandals ; 
her hair is dressed in a crobylos. Her 1. hand holds on her knee an eight- 
stringed cithara which she plays with her r. hand. Before her is a 
round altar on a square base. Towards her advance (1. free legs) three 
male figures. They are in three-quarter profile ; and wear chitons, and 
ample himatia which cover the whole body but the r. shoulder. The 
foremost holds in his dropped r. hand a patera, and the other two hold 
up their r. hands in adoration. Surface badly damaged. Moderate work 
of 1st cent. b.c. Above and below is an inscription, for which see 
Inscriptions. Fig. 54. 

442 a. Heracles herm in high relief. 

Bluish marble. H. 1-85. D-M. 85. Introd. § 20. Fig. 55. 

Found at Arapissa, part of Magula. Broken into eight pieces, but 
practically complete, on a plain base stands a plain pilaster : on the front 
of this pilaster is the herm in high relief. The herm shaft is wider 





Fig- 54- 



Fig. 55- 



above than below. It represents a bearded man as Heracles. The 
hair is handled in thick, curling mass standing away from the head. 
The forehead is broad and high, it is wrinkled, and there is a bar above 
the brow. The eyes are deep set, and plastically rendered ; so also are 
the eyebrows. The beard is in thick, coarse, curling locks. Round the 
shoulders is wrapped the lion's skin held together on the chest by the r. 
hand ; by the hand the lion's head : the 1. hand holds the club. The 
skin is rendered like drapery. Over all are traces of red colouring. 
The forms are strongly and boldly rendered, but lack refinement. Good, 
decorative work of Antonine period. For the type may be compared 
the herm from Ilium, which belongs to the 2nd cent, b.c (Tro/a u. 
Ilion. II. Beil. 53, p. 430.) Similar herms, one Heracles, the other 
Omphale, from Sparta, are at Dhimitzana (Ath. Mitt.^ iv. p. 127, 2, 3). 

442 b. Herm in high relief. 
Bluish marble. H. 1-55. 
Similar to 442 a. Broken across the middle and the upper half lost. 

s.c. N 



178 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Only the 1. hand, which held an uncertain object, is seen, and about 
half the lion's head by it. The lion's skin here also is rendered like 
drapery. Same period and workmanship as 442 a. 

443. Draped female statue. 

Pentelic (?) marble. H. 1-65. Introd. § 19. 

Broken obliquely across chest, and upper part lost. Clad in long 
chiton and himation: r. free leg; sandals on feet. The r. arm is laid 
obliquely across the chest, the 1. hangs down by the side. Fair work 
(portrait statue) of the 1st cent. a.d. On the base is the inscription: — 

AAAMOZ0ENEIAN 
THNGYrATEPA 

[K]X(avdtav) AapovOevaav | tt)v dvyarepa. The letters in 1. 2 are consider- 
ably smaller than those in 1. 1. Slight apices. See p. 7. 

444. Boy's head (Eros P). 
Bluish marble. H. «i2. 

Lies on its r. side. Hair has a plait down the centre from the forehead to the 
crown, and falls in thick, silky curls over the ears. Face much damaged : childish, 
chubby features. Probably part of a sleeping Eros : cf. 20, 21. 

445. Female head. 
H..i 7 . 

Much damaged, especially the face. The hair is centre-parted and waved away at 
the sides to a chignon behind ; some hair hung down the neck, and there was a 
crobylos in front. Fair work: not earlier than the 1st cent. B.C. ; but probably 
after a 3rd cent. type. 

446. See Inscriptions. 

447. Dioscuri relief (votive). 

Bluish marble. H. 1-13, B. .58, Relief height, -03. Furtw'angler. 
Ath. Mitt. viii. (1883), p. 371, pi. 18. 2. Introd. 

§§ 10, 15- 

From Vurlia. Fig. 56. 

Broken into four fragments : the lower legs of the 
1. hand Dioscurus with the ends of the lines of the 
inscription wanting, also all above the waists of the 
figures. The two Dioscuri are represented standing 
facing one another in profile in exactly symmetrical 
positions. They are nude, and have their inner legs 
slightly advanced. The 1. Dioscurus holds in his 1. 
hand a wreath. The forms are thin and graceful, 
but flat and somewhat stiff. Good work : early 5th 
cent. Between their thighs is a metrical inscription, 
Fl g- 56. for which see Inscriptions. 

448. Grave relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -40, B. -27. 

Bordered by plain pilasters and architrave : no gable. A male figure standing 
en face clad in long chiton and himation : r. arm across chest, 1. hangs at side. L. 
free leg. Bad, rough work of imperial period. Above each side of the head is the 
inscription : — 

CCOKPAT HXAIP6 

^wicpaTT) x^P*' The letters are late in form and careless in execution. 




SCULPTURE 



179 




449. Grave stele. 

Blue marble. H. -38, B. -22, D. -12. 

No inscription, nor any relief. It shows plain field, probably once painted, bordered 
by two Tonic columns with the proper entablature above : no pediment, however. Iron 
dowel in base. Good work : 4th cent. B. c. 

450. Girl holding a flower ; Archaic relief. 

H. -30, B. .22, Relief height, .02. D-M. 16, pi. 25 a. F-W. 66. In- 
trod. § 14. 

Broken in two at waist, and all below is lost. It represents a girl 
in profile to r. Her r. arm hangs straight down 
close against her body; her 1. is held up in front of 
her, and her fingers hold (in the usual delicate archaic 
manner) a conventionalized pomegranate flower. She 
is clad in a long-sleeved chiton : drapery rendered by 
oblique lines (cf. 3). Her hair hangs in a pig-tail down 
her back. The outline of the face is angular ; and, so 
far as can be distinguished, there is an effort to render 
the eye in profile. Of arms and body in general the 
contours are merely indicated. Pleasing work : 6th p^ 5 ^ 

cent. b.c. Fig. 57. 

451. Archaic hero relief. 

Bluish, marble-like, local stone. H. -49, B. -49. D-M. 11. Introd. 

§§ 3. 15- 

Formerly walled up in campanile of Metropolis (Hagios Demetrios) at 
Mistra. Surface very badly weathered. Similar to 415 ; the feet of the 
pair enthroned to 1. rest on a footstool. No details recognizable except 
by comparison with other similar reliefs. The snake just traceable. 
About the same date as 415. 

452. Cybele enthroned. 
H. .42. 

Headless. Seated on a high-backed throne, and similarly clad to 302, 
349 and 351. Either side of the throne a lion : cf. 424. Her 1. hand 
holds the tympanum on the low arm of the chair ; her r. lies on her thigh. 
Common work, of imperial period. 

453. Right shoulder of draped statue. 
H. .25. 

Ordinary work. 

454 a. Belief. 

Bluish marble. H. -24, B. '25. 

Fragment within a plain border, a portion oi an ornament 
similar to 454 b. 

454 b. Relief. 

Bluish marble. H. .70, B. .40. Fig. 58. 

Plain border at bottom : from two acanthus leaves two 
stalks curl out upwards enclosing two tendrils ; they then 
curl in, and then out again, each ending in a flower hanging 
down outside. Above the tendrils is a bud which sends up 
a stalk ending up the acanthus stalks in an anthemion with an 
egg-shaped heart. Good work. 

Similar reliefs in house of Georgios Stakos at Slavochori and in Mistra Museum. 

N 2 




Fig. 58- 



180 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

455 a. Grave relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -65, B. -35. D-M. 263. Introd. § 18. 

Formerly in possession of I. Kardses. 

Bottom unworked to let in ground. It shows a youth in three-quarter 
profile to 1. His 1. is the free leg : his r. hand holds a wreath, his 1. a 
prochoos (?) : he wears a short chiton girt at the waist : his head is 
inclined forward to his r. Behind him and by his 1. foot is a low, round, 
decorated base ; on the r. is a nude male figure (Hermes ?) l , then by 
side of him two females clad in long chitons and himatia with their r. 
hands on their hips : all three figures are en face ; in the male figure the 
r. is the free leg, in the female figures the 1. ; further details are unrecogniz- 
able. Above on the base are a phiale mesomphalos (?), and a flat grooved 
object (a flute?) which projects upwards and obliquely from the outer 
edge (of the base) without any support (this is an attempt to render 
perspectively the objects resting on the base). Very badly weathered: 
not earlier than the 1st cent. B.C. 

455 b. Hydria. 

Bluish marble. H. -56. 

No handles. The rim is decorated with an egg and dart pattern ; the neck is plain, 
the body is divided into two sections by a band of cable pattern round the middle, the 
upper section is decorated by a pattern of concave rays, and the lower one by convex 
rays ; there is a plain band between the body and the foot which is ornamented with 
acanthus leaves hanging down ; the base of the foot is plain. Fair, decorative work 
of the imperial period. 

456. See Inscriptions. 

457. Aphrodite statuette. 
H. n. 

All above the navel broken away. R. free leg : himation round legs only, held 
together in front of thighs by 1. hand : by 1. leg remains of some unrecognizable object 
(a dolphin ?). Ordinary work of imperial period, after a common type of Aphrodite. 

458. Left hand : fragment. 
L. «io. 

Four fingers only ; no knuckles, thumb, or finger-tips. Very bad work. 

459. Support with drapery ? 
H. .14. 

Tree trunk with traces of drapery on it ; support for a statuette. 

460. Crater. 

L. -12. 

Part of rim only with a lion's head projection to serve as a handle. Decorative work. 

461. Right thigh of statuette. 
H. -105. 

Nude : only a small fragment. 

462-464. See Inscriptions. 

465. Right heel and shin. 

H. .34. 

Piece of base attached : broken off at instep, and middle 01 calf ; behind is a tree- 
trunk support. 

1 Dressel and Milchhbfer, and Philios call this figure female : if female it certainly 
was never clad as the other two. Dressel and Milchhbfer say it seems ' fast mannlich.' 



SCULPTURE 



181 






466. See Inscriptions. 

467. Dioscurus relief. 

Rosso antico. H. -22, B. -18. Introd. § 10. 

Plain border all round. It shows in three-quarter profile to r. a 
Dioscurus. He had a chlamys about his shoulders, wears a pileus, his r. 
hand holds a lance, and his 1. a sword. His head is inclined down to his 
1. There seems to be some uncertain object before his 1. foot. Very 
flat relief: not earlier than 1st cent, b.c 

468. Votive relief: Apollo and Artemis. 

Fine, yellowish marble. H. .46, L. -57. Ath. Mitt. 1887, p. 378, 
pi. 12; /.U.S. 1888, p. 295; Hermes, 1902, p. 267; Harrison, 
Prolegomena Gk. Religion, p. 322. Introd. § 17. Fig. 59. 

On 1. stands Apollo in profile to r : he is clad in a long high-girt chiton, 
with a himation over it : in his 1. hand he holds a stringless (?) lyre, and 
in his r. a patera : he wears sandals : the 1. is the free leg and is slightly 
advanced. The god's head and r. arm and shoulder are broken away. 
Opposite him and facing him stands Artemis in three-quarter profile to 1. 
She is clad in a long clinging chiton sleeveless and ungirt, but with crossed 
bands under the breasts and over 
the shoulders. There is also a 
himation round her lower limbs 
and over the 1. shoulder. She 
wears sandals; 1. is free leg and 
is drawn back in a resting position. 
Her 1. hand is broken away : her 
r. holds out a prochoos pouring 
into the patera held by Apollo. 
The 1. side of her head is broken 
off : her hair is centre-parted and 
drawn back to a chignon on the 
neck behind. Her face is of 
a beautiful ideal type, and looks 
downwards. Between the two 
figures there is a plain omphalos standing on a square plinth : each side 
of the omphalos on the edges of the plinth stands an eagle ; they face 
each other, but their heads are looking round behind them. The eagles 
obviously refer to the legend that Zeus sent two eagles round the world 
to find its centre, and that they met at Delphi (Plutarch, De defect, orac. 
I). Very good work: the drapery is exceedingly well rendered in its fine, 
small, clinging folds. Possibly a 4th cent. Attic relief imported to Sparta. 

469. Female head (portrait P). 
H. .30. D-M. 164. 

Top and back of head wanting : hair centre-parted and waved back over the ears : 
holes bored for earrings in the lobes. Eyes moderately deep: ordinary idealized 
features, fat cheeks. Was made to set in a torso. Dressel and Milchhofer (if this is 
their No. 164) say the eyes are plastically rendered; on close examination it does not 
seem that they are. 2nd cent. a. d. 

470. Torso of an animal. 
L. .36. 

Fore legs, part of hind legs, and fore part of head missing. Long-haired animal : 
possibly a rough-coated dog, or a ram. Very rough, local work of late period. 




Fig- 59- 



182 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

471. Hygieia. 
H. .42. 

Head, r. arm, 1. forearm missing. Clad in long chiton, with himation 
thrown over 1. shoulder and across the lower part of the body: 1. free leg : 
iron dowel in stump of r. arm rested against the thigh. There is a snake 
over the 1. shoulder, its tail hangs down the back, and its head across the 
body towards ther. hand. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

472. Left leg wearing boot. 

L. -21. 

Small fragment of a statuette. 

473. Right leg wearing boot. 
L. .13. 

Small fragment only of a statuette : this and 472 are probably parts of the same 
statuette. 

474. Right hand of statuette. 

L. «I2. 

Piece of wrist, and hand holding edge of drapery. Perhaps fragment described in 
Am.Journ. Arch. 1893, p. 423 e., where the measurements are L. .95, (?) Di. .18. 

475. Similar hand, smaller. Now lost. 

In a note Philios says this was noted as lost in Kastriotes' catalogue, and in 
Georgiades' notes made when he took charge of the Museum. 

476. Horse's head. 
L. «i5. Introd. § 23. 

Nose broken off: small in size, ordinary work: eyes indicated plastically 
and bridle also. Imperial period. This and 477-481 are fragments of an Amazon 
sarcophagus. 

477. Head in Phrygian cap. 
H. -14. 

Face completely broken off : hair centre-parted, and waved to sides. Ordinary work 
of imperial period. Probably an Amazon. 

478. "Warrior head : helmeted. 
H. .20. 

R. side of face entirely broken away. Neck inclined to r., head turned round back 
to 1. Fair work : imperial period. 

479. Female head. 
H. .10. 

L. side of head, forehead and hair only. Wavy hair, rough chiselled work. 
Imperial period. 

480. Female head. 
H..13. 

Wears sphendone (?) : hair centre-parted and waved back. Expressionless, ideal 
face : brow rendered by a curved incised line. Imperial period. 

481. Warrior head. 
H. .13. 

Face broken off, head is turned to 1. : same style as 478. 



SCULPTURE 183 

482. Youthful head : male. 
H. .12. 

Back and top of skull, and forehead only. Short hair in small, wavy curls growing 
up from the forehead. Hard work : imperial period. 

483. Relief fragment: architectural. 
L. .38. 

Fragment of a slab of a balustrade (?). Narrow border of rosette pattern : within it 
arms, a sword with a beaked hilt, a sword-belt, a shield, &c. Imperial period. 

484. Right hand holding a garland. 
L. .18. 

Very rough work : imperial period. 

485. Fringe of cuirass. 
L. .16, H. -12. 

Part of an imperial armed statue : ordinary work. 

486. Fragment of right thigh and drapery. 
L. 'io. 

Part of a female (?) statuette clad in a short chiton : spirited work. 

487. Dionysus (?) statuette. 
H. .30. Introd. § 17. 

Head, arms, and r. leg below knee broken off; 1. leg, which was set on, 
is missing. A long lock hangs down on each shoulder : the r. arm was 
raised (rested on head ?), the 1. dropped : the r. leg was advanced : possibly 
the 1. was also advanced a little : draped only in a himation thrown round 
the hips and falling over the r. leg in front : he half leans, half sits on 
a tree trunk behind. Modelling of torso good, but soft and rather fat : 
treatment fresh and natural : drapery well rendered. Late 3rd cent.B.c. 

488. Left hand on tree trunk. 
H. .20. 

Top of a tree-trunk support round which twines a vine ; on the top rests a 1. hand : 
cf. 105. Bad, late work : imperial period. 

489. Tree trunk. 
H. .26. 

Similar to 488 ; a tree trunk with a vine twining round it, but no hand on top. 
Ordinary work. 

490. Dioscurus relief : fragment. 

Blue marble. H. .30, W. .25. Introd. § 10. 

Portion of horse (front quarters ; no head or hoofs), and r. arm and 
shoulder of r. Dioscurus. The Dioscurus held his horse's bridle with r. 
hand ; the end of the chlamys appears on the shoulder. The position of 
the Dioscurus and horse is similar to 356. Fair work, rather superficial: 
1 st cent. b.c. 

491. Dolphin. 
L. .13. 

Part of a support of a statuette : cf. 116. It rests head downwards on a rock : on 
its back remains of the 1. leg of a nude male (?) figure : the tail is broken off. 
Ordinary work. 



184 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 




492. Byzantine capital. 
L. .61, H. .20. Introd. § 24. Fig. 60. 

Flat sides : oblong shape : to fit a shaft .15 square : abacus 
slightly curved : one side only decorated, on it in high relief 
a winged lion seated to r., before its head a bunch of grapes (?), 
conventional flower pattern between its paws. Good work. 

493. Draped female statuette. 

Part of base and 1. foot and leg from knee only : clad in long 
chiton and himation ; sandal on foot : tree-trunk support behind. 
Ordinary work of imperial period. 

494. Oblong base with fish. 
H. -12, L. .60, B. .43. D-M. 180. 
Formerly in possession of P. Rusakes. It is broken at one 

short end ; and on top, and in general, is badly weathered. 
There is a plain square plinth round the base, above that the 
whole surface is indicated as sea by deep drill-cut wavy lines. 
On the still existing short side there are in the centre two fish 
(rather like cod) facing open-mouthed, and behind them two 
conches. On the long side to 1. there are seen (from 1. to r.) 
Fig. 60. a dolphin (head only), an octopus, and a small dolphin-like fish. 

On the other side there are (again 1. to r.) the tail of a large 
fish (body broken off), a crab, and an octopus. Decorative work of imperial period. 

495. Grave relief : fragment. 
H. .35, L. .22. 

Broken all round : it shows the legs of a figure standing en face, and clad in a long 
chiton and a himation that flies open in front: r. free leg. Rough, common work of 
the imperial period. 

496. Bearded head : Silenus. 

H. .36. Cf. Amelung, Sculpt. Vat. Mus., Br. N.\\\ Helbig 2 , I. 4; 
Collignon, ii., fig. 301. 

Much weathered. Full beard and hair falls down neck : pine wreath 
round the head : pointed ears : the hair is rendered in thick, loose, curling 
masses of rather coarse texture. So far as the mutilated features are 
distinguishable there is rather a noble character in them. The type of the 
head seems to be derived from the well-known statue of Silenus carrying 
the infant Dionysus. In that case the original of this head would go back 
to the 3rd cent, b.c 

497. Male bust. 
H. .30. 

Head and r. shoulder broken off. Drapery over 1. shoulder. Back 
hollowed out, leaving a central support. 
Ordinary work : Hadrianic shape. 

498. Sarcophagus : Amazonomachia. 
L. «93, H. -64, Length of fragment of 
front .30. Robert, ii. 128, pi. XLVII. 
Introd. §§ 21, 23. Fig. 61. 

R. hand short side, and r. hand end of 
front only : top broken off so that all figures 
lack heads, and otherwise much disfigured. 
Short side : on r. riding to r. on a horse that 
has sunk on to its knees is an Amazon (all above waist gone) clad in 




Fig. 6i 







SCULPTURE 185 

a short chiton and wearing high boots; she sits on a lion's-skin saddle. On 
the horse's hind quarters are the knees of a warrior attacking the Amazon 
from behind. Then there is an Amazon to 1. beaten to her knees. She 
kneels on her 1. knee only, her r. leg is stretched straight out in front of her. 
She wears a short high-girt chiton that leaves her r. breast free : with her 
r. hand she strives to thrust away her opponent, while with her 1. she 
attempts to free her hair from his grasp. Her opponent, a nude warrior, en 
face, holds her by the hair with his 1. hand while with his right he draws 
back his sword for the last stroke. The remaining portion of the long side 
shows the legs of a female figure standing en face (1. free leg), and clad in 
a long chiton : by her r. foot is a serpent (?). The bottom of the sarco- 
phagus all round is decorated by a scotia between two narrow tori. 
Very rough work : 3rd cent. a.d. 

499. Sarcophagus fragment : Amazonomachia. 

L. -45, H. -30. Robert, ii. 123, pi. XLVII. Introd. § 23. Fig. 62. 

Broken away on all sides. It shows 
only the lower part of the torso and the 
thighs of a male warrior striding to r., 
and the torso of a kneeling Amazon clad 
in the usual short chiton leaving the r. 
breast free. In the background behind 
the warrior's legs appear the hips of a 
fallen warrior, and on the r. a bent knee Fi g> 62. 

above which is a horse's hind leg. It is 

probably a fragment of a group in which a warrior seizes a kneeling 
Amazon by the hair (cf. Robert, ii. 80, 86, 87). Fair, vigorous work 
of the imperial period. 

500-503. See Inscriptions. 

504. Silenus torso. 
H. .64. 

Upper part of head, r. hand, 1. arm, all but hand, and legs from knees, are missing. 
He is bearded, and looks down to his r. : his r. arm leans on a tree trunk at his side : 
the r. is the free leg : the 1. hand rests on the hip : there is a panther's skin thrown over 
the r. shoulder. The body is fat, and the proportions are bad : the beard is handled 
in thick, coarse, curling locks. Inferior work of imperial period. 

505. Archaic hero relief. 

Limestone. H. -6o, B. -40, Relief height -005. Furtwangler, Ath. 
Mitth. vii. (1882), p. 160, PI. VII ; E-V. 1312. Introd. §§ 3, 16. From 
Chrysapha. Fig. 10. 

Bearded male figure in profile enthroned to 1. The throne is similar to 
that on 451, except that the arm ends in a circular disk, and there is a 
cushion on the seat. The figure is clad as that on 4, and the tail of the 
himation hangs down between the arm and seat of the throne ; his feet 
rest on a footstool, and he wears pointed shoes ; the beard is pointed ; his 
hair, which is filleted, hangs in a long plait on his r. shoulder, and in a 
broad mass down his back; his r. hand holds out the cantharus, his 1. 
holds a pomegranate on the arm of the throne : the eye is in profile. A 
dog is jumping up at his knees and fawning on him. In the extreme upper 
1. hand corner is seen a horse in profile to the r. standing on a narrow 



186 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

fillet: this recalls Attic 'Totenmahl' reliefs, There is a rough piece 
left at the bottom to let into the ground. There is no snake, and no 
worshippers. The whole type is conventionalized and stiff, but certain 
details, such as the eye, the horse, the dog and the cantharus, are more 
freely rendered, and clearly show the archaistic character of the relief, in 
spite of its extreme flatness. Work of 4th cent. 

506-510. See Inscriptions. 

511. Dioscuri relief : fragment. 

Blue marble. H. .30, B. .28. Introd. § 10. 

Piece of 1. hand border, and head and r. arm of 1. hand Dioscurus only. 
The Dioscurus is shown en face with his r. arm raised : he wears the 
pileus. Hair rendered by long, coarse locks that curl at the end. 
Ordinary work of imperial period. 

512. Youthful statuette : male. 

Bluish marble. H. .78. 

Head, r. arm, 1. forearm, r. leg and 1. leg from the knee are broken off. 
The 1. is the free leg : there is a chlamys fastened round the shoulders, 
which fell over the 1. elbow. The r. arm hung down straight at the side, 
there is the stump of a support on the hip. The position of the 1. arm is 
uncertain, though there was a support on the 1. thigh ; it seems to have 
been held out at the side. The forms of the body are thin, slender, and 
somewhat long : the chest and the hips are narrow : the muscle over the 
hips projects considerably. Ordinary, rather careless, work of the 
imperial period. 

513. Male Torso : Dioscurus (P). 
H. .60. Introd. § 15. Fig. 63. 

Head, legs, and arms from middle of upper arm broken off. R. free 
leg : chlamys round neck fastened with a fibula, and falling down back 
over 1. elbow : the 1. hand shouldered some attribute, there is a part of it 
left on the upper arm, and it seems to be the end 
of a sword-sheath. The forms of the body are strong 
and well modelled. In the main proportions it is 
similar to 92 (collar bone to line between nipples 
.14, thence to navel .14, thence to pubes -13, 
distance between nipples -18), and in every respect 
it bears an extremely close likeness to it. As said 
above this statuette is, as regards the torso, very 
well and strongly modelled: the divisions of the 
torso are clearly defined, but the transitions are not 
Fig. 63. sharp : the whole form is solidly and squarely built, 

and suggests a Peloponnesian original of the 5th 
cent, of which this statuette is a better copy than 92. The Dioscuri do 
hold swords as this figure does, cf. 7 and 291 ; for the chlamys cf. 9 and 
14 b. The r. arm probably held a spear. A good copy of the imperial 
period. 

514. Male torso. 

Medium marble, bluish veined. H. .62. 

Head, arms, r. leg, and 1. leg from the knee broken off. The head was 
thrown back : the r. arm dropped, and the 1. raised : the r. was the free 




SCULPTURE 187 

leg : the whole body is bent forward and is slightly turned to its 1. The 
forms are lean, hard, dry and shrunken as of an elderly man, or 
a semi-human creature. Probably the torso of a dancing Satyr. Fair, 
characteristic work of 1st cent. a.d. 

515. Youthful torso. 

Bluish marble. H. -35. 

All above waist, and all below knees, is broken off. The 1. is the free 
leg : clad in a panther (?) skin over the 1. shoulder, and under the r. ; it 
covers the stomach, and hangs down each hip. The whole body inclines 
a little to its 1. and leans on a tree trunk that is on that side. There are 
remains of the r. hand on the hip. The skin is rendered like drapery, 
and even as drapery is badly treated. A bad variation of the Satyr of 
Praxiteles : imperial period. 

516-518. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

519. Female head : from a relief. 
H. .10. 

R. hand half of head only. Hair filleted, centre parted and waved back over ears : 
eyes half shut : expressionless ideal features. Figure to which it belonged was repre- 
sented in profile to r. Ordinary work of imperial period. 

520. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 
521-529. See Inscriptions. 

530. Draped female torso. 
H. 1.65. 

Found in the field of Boretes near the Leonidaeum. Head and 1. fore- 
arm were set on and are missing: r. arm and foot are broken off. Clad 
in long chiton, and ample himation over 1. shoulder and round body, but 
leaving r. arm free : r. free leg : 1. arm was held out horizontally from 
the elbow, and the r. hung down at the side. Good ordinary work 
(portrait statue) of early imperial period. 

531. Club (of Heracles). 
H. .52, Di. .18. 

Ordinary work. 

532. See Inscriptions. 

533. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

534. Male torso : statuette. 
H. .37. 

Head, arms, and legs all broken off. L. free leg : traces of attachment 
of a support on 1. flank : body leans a little to the 1. Muscles very strongly 
marked, and exaggerated : the forms, however, are not hardly or sharply 
indicated. Workmanship good, possibly an original of the 3rd cent, b.c, 
or at least a good adaptation of an earlier type, made not later than the 
1 st cent. b.c. Probably a resting Heracles. 

535-535 a. See Inscriptions. 

536. Colossal male head. 
H. .30. 

Almost entirely defaced : short hair : very thick neck : looks upwards : no beard. 






188 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

537. See 300. 

538. Sarcophagus fragment. 
Bluish marble. H. -50, B. .30. 

_ Upper edge decorated with egg and dart pattern above a reel and button ornamenta- 
tion : broken away on the other three sides. It shows a nude youth standing en face ; 
1. free leg : his r. hand rests on his head, and his 1. holds a cornucopia (?) against his 
shoulder. Very much worn, and further details unrecognizable. Imperial period. 

539. Base of Dionysus statuette. 
Blue marble. H. .1 5. 

Oblong base : in centre the feet broken off at ankles side by side : on 1. tree trunk 
with a vine twining round it : on r. paws of seated panther. Ordinary late work. 

540. Draped female statuette. 
Blue marble. H. -40. 

Legs and base only left: 1. free leg: clad in long chiton and himation : wears 
sandals. Ordinary work \ imperial period. 

541. Sarcophagus fragment. 
Bluish marble. H. -24. 

Only remain elaborately moulded border, and head of youth in high relief. The 
head is shown en face, but turned a little to its r. : filleted, short, curly hair treated in 
a mass, and growing up off the forehead. Clumsy work, similar in style to 482. 
Imperial period. Fragment of Heracles' labours sarcophagus ? 

542-543. See Inscriptions. 

544. Headless herm. 
Bluish marble. H. -8o, W. -26, D. .25. 

Broken off at neck (in it there is a hollow to set on the head, or is it modern ?) : 
oblong holes for arms : traces of drapery or long hair on the bust : square shaft. On it 
is an inscription for which see Inscriptions. 

545-548. See Inscriptions. 

549-553. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

554. Draped statuette. 
H. .36. 

Female (?). All above waist, and all below knees broken away. Clad in long chiton 
and himation : 1. free leg. Ordinary work of imperial period. 

555. Female statuette. 
H. .20. 

Upper part of torso only : head was set in : clad in clinging high-girt chiton. 
Inferior work of imperial period. 

556. Draped male statuette. 
H. .13. 

Lower part of torso, thighs and 1. hand only. Clad in himation tightly 
wrapped round the body : 1. hand holds a roll : 1. free leg. Fair work 
of imperial period; suggests in type the Sophocles of the Lateran 
(HelbigU. 683). 

557. Head of lion's skin : relief fragment. 
Bluish marble. H. .35, B. .25. 

Ordinary work, decorative : not earlier than the and cent. a.d. Possibly from 
a Herm like 442 a, and 442 b 



SCULPTURE 189 

558. Grave relief. 

Blue marble. H. .32, B. -30. 

Broken obliquely from r. to 1. It represents a nude youth standing in 
three-quarter profile to 1. ; all below the hips is broken away. The r. 
hand which rests on the hip holds some uncertain object, a chlamys (?) : 
the 1. arm is held out and up. Before the 1. arm is a snake curling 
upwards to the offering held in the hand ; cf. 565. Badly weathered, 
and relief very flat; but work seems good. Ordinary work of good 
period. 3rd cent. b.c. (?). 

559. Cornice block. 
H. .25, W. .32, L. .60. 

Found on land of P. Zervulakes near the Leonidaeum. L. hand comer block of 
a Doric entablature : overhanging moulded edge with small, square consoles below. 

560. Fortuna. 
H. .39. 

Head broken off. Clad in long, high-girt chiton and a himation over the 1. shoulder 
and lower limbs : with both hands (the 1. holding it near the top, and the r. near the 
bottom) she holds on her lap and against her 1. shoulder a large cornucopia : she sits 
on a plain square block ; in the middle of its upper edge behind is a dowel hole. 
Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

561. Votive relief : Heracles. 
H. .25, W. .18. 

Head and shoulders broken off. Stands en face : r. arm rests on end of club at side, 
1. holds lion's skin hanging at side : in bad condition. Common late work of uncertain 
period. 

562. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

563. Decorative support. 

Rosso antico. H. -45, B. .22, D. -24. 

Foot broken off: cut flat on top with projection to let in: back flattened, and has 
a hole for the insertion of a dowel. At the top square with a profiled edge ; below it 
takes the form of a lion^s leg, and probably ended in a lion's foot. On the front, just 
below the profiled edge, is a female head in high relief (a Medusa head ?) : the hair is 
parted in the centre, and hangs down either side in long waving strands. Face oval 
and rather flat : ordinary expressionless ideal features. Fair work of the early imperial 
period. Cf. 121 and 205. 

564. Grave relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -6o, B. .40. 

Oblong stele : upper edge adorned with gable and acroteria not cut out. It shows 
a youth standing en face, clad in a long chiton, and a himation over both shoulders. 
R. free leg : r. hand laid on breast, 1. hangs at side. Common work of the imperial 
period. Each side of the head the following inscription : — 

'EmKTT)T€ I X a ^P e ' 

Forms of letters A E E H TT : a P ices st ™ngly marked. 

565. Grave relief? 

Bluish marble. H. -26, B. .22. Introd. § 9. 

Lower 1. hand corner broken off. It shows a youth in three-quarter 
profile to 1. advancing with r. foot. Over 1. arm and shoulder and about 
his waist he wears a chlamys, held up at his side by 1. hand. His r. hand 
raised above his head holds some uncertain object, a stone, or stick, which 



190 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 




he is about to throw at the snake curling up before him. It is strange that 
he should desire to injure the snake instead of worshipping it. Perhaps 
a grave relief illustrating how the deceased met his 
fate. Flat relief: good style. 4th cent. B.C.: cf. 
558. Fig. 64. 

566. Hare. 

Sandstone. L. -32. D-M. 185. 

Once in possession of Saranda Charvouros. Fore and hind 
legs broken away : between hind legs an iron dowel : ears laid 
back : decorative work. 

567. Aphrodite statuette. 
H. .14 

All above navel broken away : drapery round hips 

p. 6 and legs fastened in front. R. free leg : hands were 

probably raised doing her hair: ordinary work of 

imperial period : in bad condition. For the type cf. Reinach, Rep. 

PP- 339> 344, 1. 

568-569. See Inscriptions. 

570. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

571. Colossal female head. 

Bluish, marble-like, local stone. H. .45. E-V. 13 18. Introd. § 17. 

Found at Xerokambi. Very much damaged: only the face left; a large 
piece of the r., and a small part of 1. cheek, and part of the chin are cut 
away, also the top of the polos : it was cut flat at the sides and back for 
building material : on the forehead and eyes are crosses, and in other 
respects it is very badly defaced. Hair parted in the centre, and drawn 
away to sides in regular wavy strands : there is a polos on top of the 
head. Eyes deep set : features serene and noble. For the type cf. 318 
and 362. Good work : perhaps an original of 3rd cent. b.c. ; at least 
a very good copy of imperial period of a work of that period. 

572. Votive relief. 

Bluish marble. H. .26, B. .21. 

Topped by a plain gable. It shows three similar female figures en face. Each 
wears a long chiton and a himation over her shoulders. The hair falls down on either 
shoulder in two long locks, and in front is made into a crobylos. The r. hand is laid 
across the breast, 1. hangs down at the side : r. is the free leg. Flat relief : work rude 
and clumsy, not earlier than 1st cent. B.C. Votive relief to Charites, or to Nymphs. 

573. Funeral feast relief. 

Pentelic marble. H. .27, B. -27. Introd. § 9. 

Lower r. hand corner only remains. It shows a nude youth, a slave, 
in profile to 1. standing at the end of an oblong table on which are various 
vessels. Below the table is a dog to r. on the ground, gnawing at a bone 
held between his forepaws : by the dog is seen a r. foot on a footstool. 
Of the figure reclining to r. on the couch, only part of the drapery 
hanging down in front remains. Behind the table appear the leg and 
seat of the couch. 

574. Roman portrait. 

H. .28. Meader, Amer. Journ. Arch. 1893, p. 422. Introd. § 20. 
Found in excavations of round building on Acropolis. Long hair 



SCULPTURE 



I 9 I 



handled as a thick mass of fine, curling locks : falls over forehead. Eyes 
plastically rendered. Short beard rendered by small finely cut, close 
clinging, wavy strands, in contrast to the hair. Features much damaged. 
Philios considered it a portrait of Antoninus Pius. Meader thought 
it resembled Caracallus. It however seems to be neither : 2nd cent. a.d. 

575. Dioscuri relief : archaic. 

Fine, blue local marble. H. -53, B. -50, Relief height -005. B. C. H. 
1899, p. 599. E-V. 1311. Perrot, viii. p. 442. Introd. §§ 10, 14. 

Found under the shop of G. D. Kechagias in Leon Chamaraites Street. 
Gable-topped stele: in the gable an egg in the centre with a snake 
approaching it from each corner. Below are seen the Dioscuri facing 
one another in profile. They stand in exactly symmetrical attitudes; 
their inner legs are advanced, their inner arms are held up, their outer 
arms carry long spears. They each wear a chlamys over both shoulders : 
their hair is filleted and hangs down the back in a long plait : the 1. hand 
one is certainly bearded ; the other seems not to be, but probably was (the 





Fig. 65. 



Fig. 66. 



point of his chin, however, is worn away ; and in any case the cutting of 
the relief is not always true, one amphora has a thicker neck than the 
other). Between them stand two tall amphorae, with high, crooked 
handles, and peaked, conical lids. The relief is very flat : there is no 
rounded surface anywhere. The forms are sharp and angular, and given 
in contour merely : the eyes seem to be en face, and the brow is marked 
by two incised lines above it : the drapery is rendered by oblique curving 
lines. In general the style is similar to 3, and the relief dates from the 6th 
cent. For the amphorae cf. 7, 291, 356, and 613. Fig. 65. 

576. Seated draped statue : archaic. 

Limestone. H. -70. Introd. §§ 1, 14. Fig. 66. 

Formerly at Magula in the house of Stathopoulos, who found it there 
by the church of Hagios Demetrios. Headless, r. forearm broken off, 
and 1. arm almost worn away. The figure is probably male, since 
breasts are not indicated. It sits in a stiff symmetrical position on an 
armless throne with a solid square seat and a rounded back : the back 
and the sides of the seat are panelled : the bottoms of the legs splay 
out a little right at the bottom. The arms are held close against the 
sides and the forearms and hands are laid evenly on the thighs and knees. 
The feet (there is a semicircular projection of the base in front to sup- 



192 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

port them) are separated a little, but placed side by side symmetrically. 
The drapery is thick, solid, and stiff; the bottom border is decorated 
with a horizontal line ; and there is an oblique line running down from 
the 1. shoulder across the body to show where the garment folds over. 
Good archaic work of the 6th cent, b.c 

577. Pan. 

Blue marble. H. -82. 

Found at Magula. R. thigh, and 1. thigh and hip only. He has goat's legs, and 
a tail. There is a support on the 1. hip : the figure is not worked at the back, and is 
solid, the thighs not being separated. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

577 a. (1) Three round fragments (of a staff?). 

Two fit together, total L. -15, Di. .02; third is smaller, L. .05, Di. .015. 

(2) R. hand with forearm. 
L. .06. 

It holds some uncertain object. 

578. L. leg of male statue, with part of base. 
H. .98. 

Found at Magula on land of M. Karolas. It is supported on the outside by a tree 
trunk against which leans a lyre. Probably part of an Apollo statue. 

579. Seated female statuette. 
Blue marble. H. -45. 

Formerly in the house of Rousopoulos. Head and r. arm broken off; also 1. arm, 
dowel hole in stump. Clad in long, high-girt chiton and a himation over 1. shoulder 
and round the lower limbs : feet rest on footstool, 1. foot in advance : throne high- 
backed, but armless : cushion on seat. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

580. Votive relief to Asclepius and Hygieia. 

H. -46, B. -35, Relief height -io. Introd. § 17. Fig. 67. 

Found with 228 a at the north end of the town at the foot of the 

Acropolis; formerly in the house of Elias Karagiannakes. The top of the 
relief is broken off: the figures stand out in very 
high relief, to accommodate them the relief has 
a semicircular base projecting in front. On r. 
is a female figure, Hygieia, standing en face ; 
r. free leg: she wears a long chiton with a 
himation over it and sandals. Her body above 
her waist is entirely broken away. On the left 
also en face stands Asclepius clad only in a 
himation over 1. shoulder and round his lower 
limbs : 1. is free leg. His head is broken off : 
1. hand holds the himation together at the side : 
r. hand was dropped at the side against the 
background. Below it against the background 
lg * •' is a coiled snake. The figures are in extremely 

high relief, but are not undercut, or cut in the round at all. Good, 

spirited work; probably 3rd cent. b.c. 

581. Dioscuri relief. 

Rosso antico. H. -28, B. «4q. Introd. § 10. 

Formerly in the house of N. Antonopoulos in Gytheion Street, under 
which it was found. The Dioscuri are shown in profile facing one 




SCULPTURE 



193 



another on horseback : both they and their horses are in exactly sym- 
metrical positions. Their inner hands rest on their horses' necks (holding 
the reins ?), their outer hands hold spears : their legs on the other sides 
of their horses do not appear. They have long hair, and each wears 
a pileus : both are entirely nude. Rather flat relief, but the forms are 
rounded. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

582. Bearded Hermes : Herm. 
H. .20. 

Found with 580 and 228 a. Introd. § 15. 

Upper part of head alone remains, and that is very badly damaged. 
It was bearded : the hair is filleted and seems to have been arranged in a 
triple row of tight curls on the forehead; behind the ears are the beginnings 
of long grained locks that fell down over the shoulders. Eyes, cheeks, 
and forehead, so far as can be seen, well rendered. In all probability a 
replica of the Hermes of Alcamenes, cf. 57. 

583. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

584. Lion's head : gutterspout. 
L. -28, H. -25. 

Formerly walled in in a house on the road to Gytheion. Ordinary late decorative 
work. 

585. Lion's head : gutterspout. 
L. -17, H. -io. 

Similar work : much broken. 

586. L. hand. 

H. -12. 

Portions of thumb and three ringers resting on the top of a circular object, which has 
a profiled edge. In the back of it is a dowel hole. 

587-587 b. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

588. Relief, votive to Dioscuri. 

Bluish marble. H. -44, B. -34. Introd. §§ 10, 11. Fig. 68. 

Found at Rivi6tissa in vineyard of Zavras. At the bottom is a piece left 
rough to set in the ground ; from the centre of the 
bottom edge a semicircular 'root 7 (now broken) 
projected. From the ground strip rise two broad 
parallel vertical beams on each of which is a snake 
curling upwards. These are joined at the top by 
a broad horizontal beam whose rounded ends 
overhang, and are decorated with a hand-like floral 
ornament: in its centre is a lotus bud. At half 
their height the vertical beams are joined by a 
narrow horizontal cross beam. From this spring 
two parallel and equidistant narrow vertical beams l 
joining the top horizontal beam either side of the 
lotus. This construction represents the A6<ava of the Dioscuri. 

1 Miss Harrison suggests to me that the nearest parallel to these Soicava, especially 
the additional vertical beams (not present on the Verona relief, Introd. § 10, fig. 14), 
is to be found in the type of the Temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, shown on some 
Cypriote coins, where the development from two upright pillars is clear: v. B> M. Cat. 
PI. 15, 16, 17, 25, p. cxxvii seqq. 




Fig. 68. 



194 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

589. Grave relief. 

Blue marble. H. .48, B. -28. Introd. § 21. 

According to Georgiades found outside the Museum. Broken in two, and lower 
half missing. Decorated at top with gable and acroteria which are not cut out, cf. 564. 
It shows a youth in three-quarter profile to L, clad in long chiton and himation over 1. 
shoulder and round the lower limbs : r. hand is held out in front and dropped slightly, 
1. holds the himation at the waist. All below the waist is lost. The eyes are rendered 
plastically. Very bad work of imperial period, not earlier than 3rd cent. A. D. Each 
side of the head is the inscription : — 



FTANKPA 


TIA 


UavKparid- 


AZnAN 


KPA 


as TlavKpa- 


TIAANT 


ONY 


Tibav rbv v[l 


ONHP<^>A 




bv rjpaa. 



The execution is careless and the letters are hard to decipher. Possibly vov was 
written, as often. For the formula cf. 251 and Collitz-Bechtel 4507. 

590. Youthful statue. 
H. .70. 

Head, r. forearm, 1. arm, and r. leg from knee broken off. L. leg was free leg : 
wears chlamys fastened on r. shoulder with a fibula, it covers 1. shoulder and side, and 
at r. side it is drawn forward to rest on the top of the tree-trunk support on that side : 
r. arm rests on it : against the front of the support some uncertain object. On to each 
shoulder fall the ends of two long, wavy, silky locks. Soft, fat forms moderately well 
rendered. Ordinary work of the early imperial period. 

591. See Inscriptions. 

592. Female head. 
H. .12. 

Much damaged, especially the face. Hair centre-parted, and waved back to 
a chignon behind ; in front it is drawn up into a crobylos. Features of an expression- 
less, ideal type. Moderate work not earlier than the 1st cent. B.C. 

593-595 a. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

696. Grave relief. 

H. -12, B. -08. Amer.Journ. Arch. 1893, p. 422, c. 

Small fragment only. It shows the thighs and lower part of body of a female figure 
clad in a long chiton and a himation over her 1. shoulder and round the lower limbs. 
Thel. hand holds the himation on the hip : r. free leg. Ordinary work of the imperial 
period. 

697. It. elbow. 
L. -12 and -09. 

From a statuette : elbow and adjoining parts of upper arm and forearm. 

598-599. See Inscriptions. 

600. Chthonian deity enthroned : statuette. 

Blue marble. H. ^40. D-M. 3. Arch. Zeit. 1181, p. 297, pi. 17. 3. 3a. 
Fig. 69. 

Found at Magula, where it was formerly in the house of Panagiotes 
Thaniotes. The god is seated on a high-backed throne : his head is 
broken off, and in the neck is a dowel hole. The arms rest rigidly on 
the arms of the chair ; the legs and feet are held perfectly stiff side by side 
(the base projects a little in front to accommodate them). The whole body- 
is wrapped in a long, clinging garment, with no rendering of any detail. 



SCULPTURE 



!95 



The legs of the throne splay out a little at the bottom, and on either side 
of the throne is a seated animal, a dog (?), which serves to support the low 
arms. The back is merely roughly blocked out. The whole figure is 
badly weathered. The body is very thick and the chest well developed : 





Fig. 69. 

in proportion the torso is too short : the shoulders are broad, and the 
arms and legs well developed, but too thick. It is a good example of 
archaic art, and must date from the 6th cent. Across the thighs of the 
figure is an inscription for which see Inscriptions. Introd. § 14. 

601. Eros riding a dolphin, with part of base. 
H. .25. 

From the same house as 600. Only head and body of dolphin, and legs and hips 
of Eros remain. The dolphin's head is distinguishable, but much is worn. Probably 
part of the decoration of a fountain ; or it might have been an attribute on the base of 
an Aphrodite statue. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

602. Statuette base. 
Pentelic(?) marble. L. -15, B. .08. 

From the same house as 600 and 601. Half of base only : on it the I. foot, and by 
it the support of a statuette. 

603. Base of Apollo (?) statuette. 
Pentelic (?) marble. L. -22. D-M. 27. 

Formerly in the house of Panagiotes Ritzinas at Magula. On it two feet wearing 
sandals : by the left foot an omphalos covered with a fillet net, by the right a tree 
trunk with a snake round it. Perhaps the base of an Asclepius statuette. 

604. Grave relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -15, B. '23. 

From the same house as 603. Broken above and below : only central portions 
preserved. It shows a youth standing en face (neck to ankles) : he wears a chlamys 
over 1. shoulder: 1. arm is uplifted, r. hand rests on the hip, and holds a torch (?) 
leaning against his arm : the r. is the free leg. By r. side is a circular altar. Fair 
work : not earlier than 2nd cent. B.C. 

605. See Inscriptions. 

606. Seated male statuette. 
Bluish marble. H. .22. D-M. 91. 

Formerly over door of K. Georgopoulos at Magula. Headless and much 
weathered. Seated on plain, high-backed throne with low arms. Nude but for himation 
over 1. arm and shoulder and round the lower limbs. Feet rest on footstool : r. arm 
on arm of throne, 1. on knee. Inferior work of imperial period. 

O 2 



196 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

607. Base with support decorated with relief. 
H. -26. D-M. 179. 

Formerly at Magula in the house of Mavrikiotes. Support probably of 
1. foot ; just below breakage of support are claws of a lion's skin hanging 
down. On the front of the support at the bottom a boy is shown seated 
in profile to 1. : his head is upraised ; his r. arm held up ; his 1. arm serves 
to support him, the hand resting on the ground ; r. leg is over 1. Behind 
him in profile to r. is a doe resting beside him, her head is turned back 
towards the boy. Probably Telephus and the doe : possibly also the sup- 
port of a statue of Heracles. Imperial period. Sketchy work. Similar 
base to a Heracles from Stadium at Athens is figured in Pacciaudi, 
Man. Peloponnesia, I, p. 135. 

608. Cybele statuette. 
H. .28. 

Formerly at Magula in the house of N. Stathopoulos. Head, r. arm 
and shoulder broken off, also 1. forearm: badly weathered. Seated on 
plain, high-backed, but armless throne. Clad in long chiton and himation 
over 1. shoulder and round the lower limbs. Her feet rest on a footstool. 
Her 1. arm probably rested on her lap on the head of a small lion(?) 
couchant to the right. Moderate work of early imperial period. 

609. Fragment of a tree trunk with a left hand. 
L. -23. 

The tree trunk is encircled with a vine : against the side of it, clasping it, is a L hand 
(female ?). Ordinary work. 

610. Archaistic herm. 
H. .38. 

Formerly at Magula in the house of A. Grammatikakes. Broken off by holes for 
arms, and at the top of the neck; and of this part the whole r. side is broken away 
vertically. Remains of a long curling lock on the 1. shoulder, and of oblong mass of 
hair, rendered by fine, wavy strands, falling down the back. Cf. 57 and 582. 

611-612. See Inscriptions. 

613. Votive relief (to Dioscuri ?). 

Blue marble. H. -82, W. -49. Introd. § 10. 

Found in the ruins of the house of Vrachnos, when it was destroyed. 
Topped by plain gable. It shows two tall amphorae with smallish curved 
handles, long bodies, and low, conical lids standing side by side. Seems 
to be work of a good period. Cf. 7, 291, 356, and 575. 

614. Belief: suovetaurilia ? 

H. .50, W. .52, D. .10. D-M. 264. Conze-Michaelis, Ann. Inst. 1861, 

P-I37- 

Found in the same place as 613. Incomplete, and very badly defaced : 
all the high relief has been purposely chiselled away. On r. is an ox 
standing in profile to 1. Before the ox was something in high relief. In 
front of the ox appears, also in profile to 1., a ram whose head and fore- 
quarters alone are visible. Behind the ox stands a figure (?) facing to 1. 
clad in a long chiton and himation ; I. arm seems to have rested on the ox. 
Facing these figures stands in profile to r. a horse (slab broken through 
behind its fore legs) : on it appear traces of a rider, and above it in the 
background a wing. It seems to have been a portion of an imperial 



SCULPTURE 197 

triumphal frieze: this slab then showed the victorious general crowned 
by Nike, and the suovetaurilia l . It probably dates from the 1st cent. a.d. 
Introd. § 19. 

615. Funeral feast relief. 

Pentelic (?) marble. H. -35, B. -22. 

Formerly walled up in the house of (?) (Philios left a blank for the name which 
he never filled in). Originally a rough semicircular shape, now the r. hand half is 
missing. It shows standing on the r. a boy en face (head and feet in profile to 1.) : 
his 1. arm hangs at his side with elbow bent outwards : he is clad in a short chiton 
girt at the waist. With his r. hand he takes by 1. arm a girl standing at his side en face: 
she wears a similar chiton : her r. arm is dropped at her side. Over their heads is a 
snake leading to the r. Bad work : imperial period. 

616. Draped female statue. 
H. 1.70. 

Found on the land of Kechagias, near the road from Sparta to Castania. 
Head missing, was set in. Clad in long chiton, and himation over both 
shoulders and round the body. L. free leg : r. hand holds himation 
together on chest : 1. hand dropped at side holds some uncertain object 
(flowers) : shoes on feet. Fair work of early imperial period. 

617-628. See Inscriptions. 

629. Male torso. 

Fine (Pentelic?) marble. H. -42. Introd. § 16. 

Head and arms broken off, and all below the waist missing. A long, 
curly lock falls on each shoulder. The r. shoulder is dropped, and the 1. 
raised : the head was inclined to its 1. Broad chest, well modelled. Good 
work, after 4th cent, original : imperial period. 

629 a-648. See Inscriptions. 

649. Youthful male torso. 
H. .33. D-M. 109. 

Formerly in the house of Tsakonakes (originally the house of N. Neoneles). Head, 
arms, and legs broken off. L. free leg : 1. arm was raised : r. arm was dropped 
at side, remains of support on thigh. Fair work : strong forms, well modelled 
with some exaggeration. Probably of the early imperial period, after 3rd cent, 
original. 

650. Seated female statuette. 
Bluish marble. H. «i9. 

From the same house as 649. Head and hands partly broken away. The figure 
is seated in a stiff, symmetrical position on a plain, armless, high-backed throne. 
She is clad in a long, sleeved chiton, and a himation wrapped tightly round the 
lower part of the body. The arms are laid on the edges of the seat : the feet and 
legs are held close together. Inferior work of imperial period : after an archaic cult 
type (?). 

651. Grave relief. 

Blue-grey marble. H. '36, B. -32. 

From the same house as 649 and 650. Gable-topped stele with acroteria: in 
centre of gable a rosette. It shows a youth standing en face; he is clad in a chiton, 
and an ample himation over both shoulders and wrapped closely about the body : his 
r. hand holds the himation together on the chest, the 1. hanging at the side holds a 
roll : all below the thighs is missing as the relief is there broken across horizontally. 
By r. side appears the head of a snake. On his 1. appear three things, a staff leaning 
against a tall vase (body in shape of a half oval) with a semicircular handle across 
the top, and an uncertain grooved object. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

1 Rouse {Gk. Votive Offerings, p. 25) calls it a hero relief. 



198 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



652. Sarcophagus, Bacchic. 

Fine (Pentelic?) marble. H. .50, B. -25. 

Formerly in the house of Papagiannopoulos. Fragment only. Background of vine 
loaded with grapes. To 1. a satyr (1. hand, legs, and r. arm lost) in profile to 1. : his 
head is turned back downwards to his 1. : his r. arm held a pedum (visible) over 
his head: on his 1. shoulder traces of another figure. Behind him against the 
background a r. hand holding a hollow stem : above this and to r, is a 1. arm (female) 
supporting a wicker basket (liknori) filled with fruits. This liknon is against the 
overhanging edge over which runs the vine background. Moderate work : 2nd 
cent. a.d. 

653. Semicircular relief. 

Di. -57- 

It was formerly in the house of S. Karagiannakes. In shape three- 
quarters of a circle. In centre depression marked by a moulded rim : 
in this inner circle to 1. in profile is a stag being pulled down by 
a lion (?) which has jumped on its back from behind. In the 
outer ring four animals : two wolves (?) on 1. side in profile to r., two stags 
on r. in profile to 1. Much weathered ; good decorative work of imperial 
period. 

654. Semicircular relief : Gorgoneion (Acroterion). 

Blue marble. Di. .32. D-M. 18. Arch. Zeit. 1881, p. 282, pi. 17, 1. 
F-W. 56. Roscher, I, 17 16, III, 2394. Furtwangler, Coll. Sabouroff, 
p. 57. Introd. § 14. Fig. 70. 

Found to the north of the town : formerly in the house of Diamantopou- 
los. Similar in shape to 653. Surrounded by a broadish moulded, round 





Fig. 70. 



Fig. 71. 



border is a central depression : in this is the gorgoneion. Above a low 
forehead the hair stands up in regular flame-like locks : the eyes project 
from below raised brows: the nose is snub. Horns above forehead (?). 
A mouth stretched open shows a tongue protruding between two rows of 
projecting teeth : the chin is sharp. The shoulders are broad, and the 
neck is thick : there seems some trace of drapery on the bust. From 
behind each ear fall two thick, woolly locks so plaited as to resemble 
strings of beads. Long, rounded projection behind to attach it : it seems 
to have been used architecturally, and for an apotropaic purpose. Good 
characteristic work of the late 6th or early 5th cent. It is interesting 
to contrast it with the gorgoneion on 563. The brown colouring is 
modern. 

655. Pilaster capital, decorated with relief. 

H. .30, L. .54, D. -ii. Height of volute -09. Schroder, Ath. Milt. 
1904, p. 32, pi. 2. Introd. § 14. Fig. 71. 



SCULPTURE 199 

From the church of Hagios Nikon at Slavochori. Broken away at the 
top and on r. side. Also, as explained by Schroder, the lower 1. corner is 
worked to admit of a corner-piece being fastened on to complete the 
pilaster in that corner : it was attached by a swallowtail clamp. In the 
under side is a square dowel hole. The relief field is bordered by a 
narrow (inside) and a wide fillet, which at the upper 1. corner curl into 
a simple volute. The narrow border outside the wide fillet is at the 
bottom replaced by a beaded fillet, or astragalus. The bolster is thicker 
towards the front: and this thicker part is separated from the rest of 
the bolster, which is otherwise quite plain, by a scotia and an angular 
torus. 

On the relief field is shown in high relief a male figure (Heracles) 
running to r. in pursuit of a deer whose fore quarters are missing. He 
wears a chlamys over both shoulders : it is not fastened and both ends 
hang down to front in the precise archaic fashion : the arms are held 
upwards and outwards, and the whole body is inclined towards the deer. 
This represents Heracles' pursuit of the Ceryneian hind. As regards 
the scene itself, no similar representation of this labour of Heracles 
is known either in archaic or later art. From the style of the relief 
it would date from the early 5th cent. Schroder places it in the 6th cent, 
from the form of the volute to which the nearest analogies are found in 
early Ionic architecture *. On the other hand the actual shape of the 
capital most resembles late pilaster capitals from Didyma, Pergamum, 
Magnesia ad Maeandrum, and Priene 2 . Schroder attempts to show 
a connexion between the style of this relief and early Ionic art 3 : from 
this he conjectures that this capital formed the head of one of the 
supports of the Amyclaean throne, since Slavochori is not far from 
Hagia Kyriake (the site of the Amyclaeum), and it is known that 
Bathycles, the artist, was a native of Magnesia ad Sipylum. This 
conjecture does not seem probable. The capital is a more developed 
form of an early Ionic pilaster capital of which 763 is an example. 
Similar capitals are at Palaea Episkope by Tegea, and in a Turkish 
fountain at Mistra (with a lotus and palmette ornament). The Maeander 
valley group shows its fully developed form : an Italian version is found 
in some Pompeian capitelli figurati^. This type is therefore not purely 
* Ionic/ but was common to all Greek architecture. Possibly 39 a, 139, 
140, 141, 299, 734, 745, 759 (16), show its latest development. 

656. Youthful male torso : statuette. 

H. .50. 

Formerly in the house of B. Zerveas. Head, both forearms, and legs 
from above knees broken off. R. arm hung close to side, support on thigh ; 
r. free leg : wears chlamys buttoned on r. shoulder, its tail fell forward over 
the bent 1. elbow. Good, strong forms : anatomy well rendered : pubes 
indicated. Good work of the early imperial period: possibly a copy 
after an original of the 4th or 5th cent. 

1 Ephesus, J.H.S. 1889, p. 9. Cyzicus, Brit. School Annual, 1901-2, pi. 6. 
Neandria, Mytilene, Perrot, vol. vii, pi. 52, figs. 275, 276. 

2 Botticher, Tektonik, pi. 37, 39. Wiegand-Schrader, Priene, figs. 101-103. 
Kohte- Watzinger, Magnesia a. M., fig. 171. 

3 Cf. Homolle, B. C.H. 1900, p. 427. 

4 Mau, Pompeii, fig. 254, p. 431. 



200 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

656 a. Male torso : statuette. 

H. -12. 

Formerly in the house of Leopoulos, where also were 657-675. R. side of 
chest with r. shoulder : chlamys knotted round neck. Ordinary work : imperial 
period. 

657. Male torso: statuette. 
H. -35- 

Torso only. At back of neck remains of a fillet. On r. side of chest a support. 
Well-developed muscles on chest and stomach, and rather exaggerated. L. free leg. 
Fair work after a 4th or 3rd cent, original. 

658. Male torso : statuette. 
H. .17. 

Torso only : navel to neck. On the shoulders the ends of two curly locks each side. 
Strong forms, well modelled, though rather fat. R. shoulder slightly higher than 1. 
Fair work of the early imperial period. 

659. Bacchic statuette : male. 
H. .32. 

Only left legs to ankles, and stomach of a young male figure. L. free leg : by 1. leg 
a tree trunk with a vine twining round it, on top of it rests 1. hand. The whole figure 
is supported behind by a square pilaster. Common decorative work of imperial 
period. 

660. Draped female statuette. 
Pentelic marble. H. -42. D-M. 125. 

Formerly in the house of Leopoulos. Head, r. foot, and 1. arm broken off. Clad 
in long, high-girt chiton with a himation over 1. shoulder and round the lower limbs. 
R. free leg. The r. hand holds against the thigh a cylindrical object with a hole 
bored in each end. Common work of imperial period. 

661. Draped herm. 
Pentelic (?) marble. H. .15. 

Head, r. arm and bottom of shaft broken off. The shaft gradually narrowed 
towards the bottom. Clad in short chiton, and chlamys over both shoulders, fastened 
on r. shoulder. L. arm rests on the chest. Ordinary work of imperial period. 

662. Draped female statuette. 
H. .27. 

Base, and feet and ankles only. R. foot broken off: clad in long chiton : wears 
shoes. Ordinary work : imperial period. 

663. Statuette base. 
L. -ii, D. -i2. 

L. hand end broken off. Towards 1. edge the two feet (the 1. the more advanced) 
in such a position as to show that the figure leant on a support on its 1. side. 

664. Statuette base. 
L. -12, D. .10. 

Front edge profiled. Two feet, r. foot advanced ; by r. foot base of square support; 
by 1. foot broken base of uncertain object. Cf. 603. 

665. Dioscuri relief (?). 

Blue marble. H. -17, B. .17. Introd. § 10. 

Small fragment only, showing a horse's head in profile to r. : it is bridled. 
Ordinary work of the imperial period : cf. 8, 9, 15 a, 202, 291, 319, 
356, 490, and 581. 



SCULPTURE 20 1 

666. Grave relief. 

Blue-grey marble. H. -35, B. '35. 

Broken in two horizontally, and upper portion lost. It shows a draped male figure 
standing en face, head missing ; clad in long chiton, and himation over 1. shoulder and 
round lower limbs ; 1. free leg ; r. arm stretched out at side held some uncertain object, 
1. arm holds himation together on the hip. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

667. Draped female statuette. 
H. .20. 

Fragment of torso only : clad in himation : very badly damaged, used in later times 
as building-material. 

668. BaU. 

Bluish marble. Di. -09. 

Not a true sphere : grooved and ribbed : at top contracts to form a neck : hole 
bored through vertically. 

669-672. See Inscriptions. 

673. Draped male statue. 
H. 1. 32. 

Head, legs from middle of thighs, and 1. hand broken off. Clad in long chiton, and 
ample himation (toga) over both shoulders. R. hand rests across breast : 1. arm hangs 
at side : r. free leg. Ordinary work of the imperial period. 

674. Dioscuri relief (?). 
Bluish marble. H. -48, B. «40. 

Broken above, and below, and a little on r. side. Plain border on 1. : 
it shows the upper part of the body of a tall amphora with high curved 
handles. Cf. 613. 

675. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

676. See Inscriptions. 

677. Doric capital. 
H. .23. 

To fit a shaft .36 in diameter : abacus rather flat. Found in front of the Museum. 

678-680. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

681. Female head : fragment. 
L. -23. 

L. eye, and hair over forehead only. Hair centre-parted, drawn back in wavy 
strands : on crown plaits heaped into a knob. Imperial period. 

682. Grave relief. 

Bluish marble. H. -90, B. -52, D. -28. 

It shows a female figure standing en face : she is clad in a long, high-girt chiton, 
and a himation over 1. shoulder and round the lower limbs. She has long hair falling 
down either side on to her shoulders. Her 1. hand hanging by her side holds some 
fruits, her r. hand held out at the side makes an offering at a circular altar, round 
which twines a snake. Bad work of imperial period. 

683. Hero relief. 

H. .53, L. -6i. Introd. §§ 3, 16. Fig. 11. 

Bordered by square pilasters at sides, supporting a plain, flat gable : this 
border projects considerably. The relief is much damaged, and the 
bottom part is missing. It shows a bearded hero, seated in three-quarter 
profile to 1. The chair on which he is seated has a round back supported 
by two vertical supports rising from the back of the seat. He is clad in 
an ample himation over his 1. shoulder and round the lower limbs. His 



202 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



hair is filleted, and it and the beard are rendered by crisp, tight, curling 
locks. The face unfortunately is badly damaged. The 1. arm rests on 
the back of the chair ; the r. arm is stretched out in front, and holds a 
cantharus. From behind the god's arm a snake rises and bends down its 
head to 1. to drink at the cantharus. Good work ; certainly belonging 
to the 4th cent. B.C. 

684. Circular base : decorated with, relief. 
H. .62, Di. 32. 

Found on the land of Matallas. Similar to 191 seqq., but unfluted. 
However, on the front of the shaft there is shown in relief a winged 
youth. He stands en face ; 1. is free leg and is placed in front of r. He 
leans against a pillar on a high base on his 1. side : 1. arm hanging down 
holds a wreath : his r. hand rests on his 1. shoulder, and his head is 
turned towards that side. There is a chlamys hanging from the 1. 
shoulder. Rough work and badly weathered, so that details are 
not distinguishable : design good. Ordinary local work of imperial 
period. 

685. See Inscriptions. 

685 a, b, c. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

686. Right shoulder of statuette. 

L. -22. 

686 a. Right shoulder of statuette. 
L. .17. 

Slightly larger than 686. 

687. Fragment of drapery. 
L. .18. 

Am.Journ. Arch., 1893, p. 423, f. 

688. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

689. Votive relief to Apollo. 
Blue marble. H. 1-76, B. .82, D. .20. 

Tsountas, 'E$. 'Ap*., 1892, p. 78. Schroder, 
Ath. Mitt., 1904, p. 24, fig. 2. Fig. 72. 

From the Amyclaeum. Gable-topped stele. 
The whole of the relief, including the 
ornamentation of the gable, has been carefully 
chipped away, very probably by Christians. 
The gable carries acroteria, the central one 
being «n high. The relief field is in two 
bands. 

A. Upper band. On 1. standing in profile 
to r. is the archaic statue of the Amyclaean 
Apollo, helmeted and holding spear and bow 
as described by Pausanias 1 and as represented 
on the Lacedaemonian coins ascribed to 
Antigonus Doson (229-220 b.c) 2 . Before the 
god stands an altar, and on the r. is seen 
a man drawing a bull towards the altar. 
III. 19. 1. 
Imhoof Blumer — Gardner, Num. Comm. Pans. N. xvi. 




SCULPTURE 203 

B. Lower band. Five female figures are discernible. The first (from 
1.) is dancing : the second and third are probably dancers resting (not 
spectators as suggested by Schroder). The fourth, as shown by the 
plectrum in her r. hand, is a lyre player, also resting. The fifth is a flute 
player. 

Below the lower band is an inscription, for which see Inscriptions. 
Work of the 3rd cent, if the inscription is dated correctly. 

690-691. See Inscriptions. 

692. Right hand of statuette. 
L. -09. 

693-705. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

706. Female statuette : nude. 
Fine, soapy marble. H. «io. 

Upper part of torso and 1. arm only. Dowel holes in stumps of neck and r. arm. 
L. hand held against the shoulders a cornucopia (?) : drapery also hangs over 1. elbow, 
which seems to have been supported on a pillar. Ordinary work of imperial period. 

707. See Inscriptions. 

708. Sarcophagus. 

L. 2-00, H. .85. Short sides, L. -85. 

Found at Kalogonia. The top of the 1. end is broken off, and so is 
the 1. end of the top of the front. The back is unworked : the ends have 
rough hewn borders at top and bottom. The front has a rough profiled 
border below, and the top is decorated with a garland of fruit and flowers. 
At the four corners stand bearded Herms, himation held round the 
shoulders by the r. hand, and in the 1. hand an aryballos (?). On 1. end 
is a winged sphinx standing to r. with 1. fore paw raised over an uncertain 
object. On the front, first on 1. is a youth (A) seated on the ground 
(back to the spectator) supporting himself on his r. arm, just floored in a 
boxing match, and raising his 1. arm to keep off the victor (B), who with 
r. foot on A's r. thigh, attacks vigorously (all above his waist is lost). 
Behind them is seen an uncertain figure, a referee. Next is another 
youth (C) seated as A, and with his 1. arm keeping off the attack of his 
victor (D), who, standing across his legs boxes at him actively. Then 
stands a referee (E) to the 1., watching this last contest and holding his 
staff of office in his r. hand : he wears a himation about his shoulders. 
Next is seen a youth (F) beaten to knees and fallen forward on the 
ground to r. ; his victor (G) kneels on his back, and, holding him down 
with his 1. hand, hits hard with his r. Lastly stands en face a victor (H), 
(himation over 1. shoulder and body) holding a palm branch in 1. hand. 
On the r. end, first on 1. are two youths wrestling and just about to close ; 
the one on 1. has his 1. arm round the other's back, and is about to clasp 
him in front with the r. arm ; the other has his r. arm round his opponent, 
and his 1. at the side. Finally is a youth as a hoplitodromos running in 
profile to 1. Rough work ; coarse execution : not earlier than 2nd 
cent. a.d. Cf. Gall. Gwstim'am, ii. 124. 

709. Draped female statue. 
H. 1.55. 

Formerly in the house of Vamvakides. Head (which was set on, dowel hole in 
neck), 1. arm, and r. hand are missing, also the feet, which apparently were set on. Iron 



204 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



dowel in base. Clad in long chiton, and himation over both shoulders : r. free leg : 
r. arm laid across waist. Flat work, drapery badly rendered. Common work of 
imperial period. 

710. Asclepius. 

H. .65. Introd. § 16. Fig. 73. 

Formerly in the house of Vanilakes, which is near the Europa mosaic, 
and possibly was part of the decoration of the baths (?) on that site. 
Head, r. arm, 1. hand, and legs from above knees wanting : dowel holes 
in stumps of neck and arms. L. arm dropped, r. raised ; clad in himation 
over 1. arm and shoulder and round the legs : 1. free leg. Good work, 
forms of body strong, but somewhat fat : drapery well rendered. A good 
copy of the early imperial period after 4th cent, original. 

711. It. elbow. 
L. -14. 

Elbow and part of forearm ; formerly in the gymnasium. 
712-713. See Inscriptions. 
714. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 





Fig. 73- 



Fig. 74- 



715. Frieze fragment. 

Bluish marble. H. .38, B. .30. Amer.Joum. Arch. 1893, p. 423, h. 

It shows a tall two-handled cup between an acanthus stalk on its 1. and a small 
lion's head on its r. Cf. 36, 37, and 38. Common, decorative work of imperial 
period. Similar fragment walled up in 39 Otho Street. It also resembles the small 
metopes of the altar entablature built into the old Metropolis at Athens. 

716. Slab of frieze. 
H. .75, B. .90. 

In centre at top a bucranium (Roman type, a skull), from either side hangs down 
a garland of fruit and flowers. The pattern must have been continued on other slabs 
at the sides and bottom. Ordinary work : imperial period. 

717. Amazon frieze, with triglyph. 

Bluish marble. H. .50, L. 1-33. D-M. 240. Fig. 74. 

Formerly over the door of the house of Kopsomanikos. Two metopes 
each -50 long, between them a triglyph .33 wide. In 1. metope is seen 
a nude warrior advancing with r. leg (drapery over 1. shoulder and arm) ; 
his r. arm raised to strike the Amazon fallen before him. She is beaten 
to her knee (kneeling on r. knee, 1. leg stretched out in front) ; leans back 



SCULPTURE 205 

supporting herself on her r. arm, holding up her 1. to protect herself. 
She wears a long-sleeved chiton, a himation rolled round the waist trunk, 
hose, boots, and a Phrygian cap with a long tail hanging down the back ; 
her 1. breast is bare ; on her 1. side she wears a quiver. The r. metope 
shows two Amazons similarly clad. One on 1. is en/ace, and running to 1. : 
her 1. arm is raised in front of her, and her r. stretched out behind. The 
other (with a cloak fastened on her shoulders behind) is in three-quarter 
profile to 1., has the r. leg advanced, and holds up both hands in front 
of her, palm upwards. This scene is inexplicable. All four heads have 
been broken off. Good design : inferior work : not earlier than the 1st 
cent. b. c. The scene on the 1. metope is derived from the type shown 
by two slabs of the Mausoleum, 1006 and 1014. 

718-721. See Inscriptions. 

722. Youthful male torso. 
H. .34. 

Stomach and hips only : navel ellipsoid : 1. free leg : fat forms, but not bad work. 
Imperial period. 

723. Youthful male torso. 

H. .18. 

Found in the foundations of the new prison. Stomach and hips only : 1. free leg (?) : 
navel circular : remains of support on 1. flank. Fair work of imperial period. 

724. Female torso. 
H. -33- 

Found with 723. Upper part only, all below waist wanting : badly defaced : a long 
curling lock falls on each shoulder. Inferior work of imperial period. 

725. Belief: Aphrodite. 
H. .24, B. .21. 

Found at Magula. The goddess stands en face, and semi-nude : her head and feet 
are broken off. The 1. leg is free ; the r. hand rests on the hip ; she leans on her 
1. elbow on a pillar by that side : she wears a himation round her hips and legs. 
In the top r.-hand corner are the thighs and torso of a flying Eros. Inferior work 
of imperial period. 

726. Youthful male torso. 
H. .25. 

Neck to navel only : a long curling lock on each shoulder : r. arm was close to side, 
1. extended. Soft forms, but rendering hard. Imperial period. It was found on the 
land of M. Limberopoulos at Karavas. 

727. Sleeping satyr : fountain figure. 
H. .24, L. .55, B. .28. Introd. § 22. 

Found near the Eurotas, close to Aphisu. R. leg and forearm broken 
off. He lies, with a nebris over his 1. shoulder, on his 1. side. The r. 
hand held a syrinx on the ground in front of him. His head rests on his 
1. arm which lies on an askos : there is a hole in the front of the askos 
from which the water flowed, the part of the base under the askos is 
hollowed out. He has pointed ears, thick, woolly hair, fat features, and 
a swollen stomach. A favourite motive for a fountain, a drunken satyr 
fallen asleep on his wine skin, and, by the weight of his head, forcing the 
wine to escape. Imperial period. 



206 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

728. Colossal head of Dionysus. 

H. .42. Perhaps D-M. 53. Exptd. de More'e, ii. pi. 42. v. p. 81. 

Hair centre-parted, and drawn back in regular waves : top and back 
of head not worked : from behind r. ear a lock fell forward. Round the 
head a wreath of ivy. High, open, noble features, but almost totally 
defaced : deep-set eyes, and fat cheeks. A fair copy of the imperial 
period of a 3rd cent. type. It was found at Mistra. Two dowel holes 
(modern) on top of head. 

729. Dionysus and satyr. 
H. -57- 

It shows Dionysus standing nude: 1. free leg: he has long hair which 
falls on to his shoulders : his r. hand rests on his head : he leans to the 1., 
and his 1. arm is placed round the shoulders of a satyr by his side. The 
satyr's r. arm is round Dionysus' body ; his r. arm held a pedum ; he is 
advancing to his 1. with the 1. leg. Both heads are badly damaged. The 
group is in high relief against a small square pillar, with projecting square 
plinths at top and bottom. It has a square hollow at the top, and is 
architectural : ordinary work of imperial period. For the type see 303. 

730. Portrait head. 
H. .35. 

Found at Klada. Young ; short, crisp, curling beard and moustache ; hair long in 
coarse strands : made to set in a statue : eyes plastically rendered. Ordinary work of 
2nd cent. A. D. 

731 a. Frieze block. 
L. 1.88, H. .20. 

From the church of Prophetes Elias at Slavochori. Decorated with 
lotus bud pattern. This, 732 and 733 are from the Amyclaeum. 

731 b. Similar fragment from same frieze, with same ornament. 
L. .50, H. -20. 

From Hagia Kyriake. Fragments similar to the above two exist in 
the Museum at Mistra, and at the church of Hagios Georgios at Gunari. 

732 a, b, c. Three fragments of a frieze. 

Bluish marble. Length respectively, ^59, -56, «30, H. «20. 
From Hagia Kyriake. Decorated with a pattern of a lotus bud and 
an anthemion alternately. 

733. Architectural fragment : cornice slab. 
H. .25, L. 1-06, D. .72. 

From Hagia Kyriake. Five fragments. Plain mutules: three over- 
hanging members, the upper having a horizontal line along its centre. 

734. Pilaster capital. 
H. .43, L. .55, D. .23. 

Wider at top than bottom ; decorated with an acanthus plant whose leaves and 
stalks at each side enclose a circular depression with a moulded rim in which is 
a small rosette : cf. 39 a. 

735. Decorated support. 

Bluish marble. H. -50, L. -47, D. -2%, 

Profiled edge at top : at each corner a lion's foot with curved leg decorated with an 
acanthus leaf above : between them an anthemion over an acanthus leaf. 



SCULPTURE 



207 



736. Byzantine capital. 
Bluish marble. H. ^23, Di. .22. 

A square profiled plinth on top. The abacus is ornamented with a row of lancet- 
shaped leaves above a row of acanthus leaves. The centre of one side (the back) is 
left rough. Good work. Similar capitals at Mistra in the Metropolis and in the 
Museum. 

737. Archaic capital : Ionic type. 

Bluish marble. H. .23. Fig. 75. 

Oblong shape to fit a shaft .18 by -16. On front and back a pomegranate flower 
between two acanthus volutes ; above is a leaf ornament. At the sides the bolsters 
are ornamented with four pointed leaves hanging downwards : cf. 731-733. 

738. Frieze. 

Total length, .28, H. -n. 

Three fragments, with a simple anthemion ornament. 

738 a. Architectural (?) fragment : Byzantine. 
H. .10, L. .10. 

Corner of a square slab ; on it is a circle with a profiled rim within which is a leaf 
pattern. 





Fig. 75- 



Fig. 76. 



739. Byzantine relief. 

H. .36, L. .32. Introd. § 24. 

Fragment; top r. corner. Within a profiled border a peacock erect 
standing on a vine. Good, characteristic work. Somewhat similar relief 
in Museum at Mistra. Fig. 76. 

740. Volute of Ionic capital. 
Di. .16. 

740 a. Belief from Sarcophagus or altar : two fragments. 

Total height, .54. Total length, .38. 
Bucranium (Greek type) with olive garland hanging from it : imperial period. 

740 b. Similar fragment. 
L. .25, H. .36. 

Fruit and flower garland ; bucranium not visible : imperial period. 

740 c. Similar fragment. 
L. «34, H. .22. 
Bucranium (Greek type) with piece ot wreath : imperial period. 



208 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

740 d. Tree trunk : fragment. 
H. .20. 

Bottom part of a support for a statue. 

741. Door moulding (?). 
Bluish marble. H. -50. 
Plain profiled edge. 

742. Grave relief. 

Blue marble. H. .30, B. -20. 

Upper 1. corner, and r. upper and lower corners broken off. It shows a male figure 
standing en face in chiton and himation as 564, the r. being the free leg : the head has 
been purposely chiselled out. Imperial period. 

743. Byzantine capital. 

Bluish marble. H. .18, L. 4l, W. .48. 

Ends of long sides decorated with slightly hollowed semi-ellipses. One short side 
is ornamented with seven leaves with blunt round points, the other with three broad 
sharp-pointed leaves. 

743 a. Fragment of similar capital; 
Bluish marble. H. .22, L. .42, W. -52. 

Long sides as 743 : the one short side left has three narrow and two broad, sharp- 
pointed leaves with arrow heads between. , 

744. Grave relief : fragment. 
Bluish marble. H. .15, B. -13. 

Top only of a naiskos-shaped stele, a gable with acroteria supported by plain antae 
(•05 deep). 

745. Architectural fragment : Byzantine. 
Bluish marble. H. .57, t,. -57. 

Corner of a flat slab with edges cut obliquely : on one side the outline is curved. 

746. Byzantine pilaster capital. 
H. .19, L. «2i, B. .24. 

Square plinth above : plain abacus rounded, to fit a shaft in the shape of a half 
ellipse. 

747. Architrave (?) block. 
L. -50, H. «2o. 

Three overlapping members : then above a beaded fillet a leaf ornament. 

748. Pilaster capital. 
H. -37, B. .44. 

Similar to 734 : cf. 39 a. 

749. Bowl. 

H. .16, Di. .33. 

No bottom : four small plain handles on rim. 

750. Door moulding (?). 

H. -35- 
Cf. 741. 

751. Architectural fragment. 
Sandstone. H. -io-'i5, L. -50, D. -37. 

From a cornice (?). 



SCULPTURE 209 

752. Doric capital. 
L. -40. 

Fragment. 

752 a. Doric capital. 
L. -42. 

Fragment. 

753. Ionic capital. 
L. -57, H. -22. 

To fit a shaft -35 in diameter. In two pieces, and half missing. Ovolo projects and 
is flat : is ornamented with three eggs and an acanthus leaf at each end : three hands 
round bolster in centre. Imperial period. 

754. Door jamb. 

Rosso antico. L. -40, B. -20. 
Rounded edge. Byzantine work (?). 

755. Circular base. 
H. -62, Di. .21. 

Similar to 191, but unfluted: very common work of imperial period. In two 
fragments. 

756. Architectural fragment. 
Bluish marble. H. -18, L. -25. 
Overhanging moulded edge. 

757. Drapery fragment. 

Bluish marble. L. «2 2. 

Amer. Journ. Arch. 1893, p. 42a, d. 

758. Hydria. 
Sandstone. H. -41, Di. -44. 

Neck and top of body only : curved handles ending in two plain spirals in relief. 

750. Box containing following fragments (ordinary marble where 
not otherwise stated). 

1. Piece of green granite. L. -27, B. .19. 

2. Two diamond-shaped floor tiles: limestone. L. .23, B. «I3. 

3. Acanthus leaf, and volute in relief: medium marble. L. .21, B. .12. From 
a Corinthian capital (?). 

4. Egg and acanthus leaf from ovolo of Ionic capital similar to 753. L. .17. 

5. Anthemion antefix. H. .18. Cf. 168. 

6. Bluish marble shaft. Di. .09, L. .11. 

7. Piece of a flat slab. L. '19. 

8. Sword sheath of colossal statue (?). L. .28, B. -II. 

9. Profiled corner of flat slab. L. .23, B. .11. 

10. Flat slab with curling acanthus stalks. L. -20, B. .16. 

11. Fragment of lion's leg support (?) : acanthus leaves round top. L. -22. 

12. Fragment of bolster of Ionic capital. L. .19. 

13. Rim of bowl : egg and dart pattern. L. «ii. 

14. Nine triangular floor tiles. L. .17. 

is, a, b, c, d. Four architectural fragments: plain mouldings : length, .17, .16, .20, .22. 

16. Pilaster capital : anthemion between two curling stalks. H. -22, L. .34. Cf. 39 a. 

17. Two whetstones (?) ; black stone. L. .22, .25, B. .13, .16. One side flat, the 
other rounded. 

18. Byzantine capital : bluish marble. L. .17: fragment. 



2IO SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

760. Box containing following fragments (ordinary marble where 
not otherwise stated). 

i. Half acanthus bud similar to 151. L. .15. 

2. Lower jaw of lion from gutterspout. L. .10. 

3. Fragment of flat slab. L. .10. 

4. Piece of moulding. L. .15. 

5. Similar piece. L. -12. 

6. Similar piece. L. .15. 

7. Similar piece. L. .09. 

8. Similar piece. L. .11. 

9. Similar piece : rosso antico. L. -125. 

10. Similar piece : rosso antico. L. -115. 

11. Fragment of Doric capital. L. -22. 

12. Acanthus stalk from Corinthian capital. L. .11. 

13. Corner of plinth of Byzantine capital (Corinthian type). L. •12. 

14. Piece of round moulding. L. .105. 

15. Piece of leaf ornament. L. -085. 

16. Piece of tree trunk. L. -09. 

17. Leaf ornament from an anta capital. L. .13. 

18. Shapeless fragment showing piece of circle. L. .12. 

19. Frieze fragment : beaded fillet and scroll. L. .11. 

20. Piece of support. L. .09. 

21. Tree trunk. L. -26. 

22. Ionic capital ; half. H. .13, L. -32, Di. (?). Very flat; imperial period. 

23. Relief (?) fragment. L. .20. Indistinguishable: rough work. 

24. Plain anta capital : half. H. .17, L. .20. 

25. Corinthian capital. Fragment: three acanthus leaves. L. -24. 

26. Fragment of Byzantine floral relief. L. -iS. 

27. Frieze fragment : rosso antico: anthemion. L. -09. 

28. Elbow of statuette (?). L. .07. 

29. Acanthus leaf. L. '07. 

30. Drapery (?) fragment. L. .12. 

31. Corner of flat slab. L. .14. 

32. Piece of tile. .12 square. 

33. Top of Byzantine column. H. .15, Di. -095. 

34. Fragment with garland (?) in relief. L. .24. 

35. Relief fragment with acanthus leaf. L. .20. 

36. Fragment of relief with quiver (?). L. -25. 

37. Neck, and hair at back of head of small bust. H. .17. Face was set on. 

761. Fragment of curved architectural member. 
Bluish marble. L. .31, H. -16, D. -25. 

761 a. Corner of slab. 
L. .33, B. .15. 

Byzantine work. 

762. Doric capital. 

Limestone. H. .28. 
To fit a shaft -365 in diameter : flat and short abacus. 

763. Pilaster capital. 

H. .30, L. .77. Fig. 77. 
Small volutes at corners, otherwise plain 
moulding : good work : 6th cent. ; v. 655. 

764. Handle of Bowl. 
Rosso antico. L. -io. 

£■ «?' Beaded rim : Silenus face on handle : fair work. 

765. Fragment of sarcophagus lid. 
H. -23, L. .70, B. .56. Introd. p. 130. 




SCULPTURE 211 

Cf. 51 b. Edge and figure on top purposely chiselled away. This shows 1. end of 
the front of the couch. The front of the couch was divided into small oblong fields for 
relief ornamentation : two of these remain, that on 1. shows a dog seizing a hare, the 
other a lion bringing down a stag. Ordinary work of imperial period. 

766. Corner of sarcophagus lid. 

H. -45, L. -6o, W. -40. Introd. p. 130. 

R. front corner. Rounded cornice ; above that continuous scroll pattern all round. 
At the corner a nude boy (?) standing in the centre of an anthemion which spreads 
round on to each side. Imperial period. 

767. Cornice block with gutter. 
Bluish marble. H. -40, L. -6o, D. -55. 

Plain cornice overhanging plain consoles : above is a gutter decorated with an 
acanthus scroll and a lion's head waterspout. Ordinary work- 

768. Cornice block. 

Bluish marble. H. -26, L. -76, D. -23. 

Plain mutules : edge composed of three overhanging members with a leaf ornament 
above. 

769. Throne (former number 409 q.v.). 
Bluish marble. H. .58, B. .38, D. .38. 

Top of back broken off : very low arms grooved above : it splays out at the bottom 
in front, showing a cushion (?) plastically represented. Only one piece. 

770. Byzantine relief. 

H. i-oo, B. -70. Introd. § 24. 

L. side broken off. Plain flat border all round. In the centre a cross 
with broadening ends surrounded by an ivy leaf in each corner : their 
stalks entwine at the sides. Good work. 

771-771 a. See 51b. 

772. Byzantine column. 
H. .65, Di. .18. 

Decorated with flutes that curl round it obliquely. 

772 a. Edge of cornice (?). 
Bluish marble. L. .40, B. -35. 

773. Cornice block, with guttae. 

Slab of bluish marble. L. .50, B. .50, H. .10. 

One side rough hewn : on under(?)-side remains of guttae : a narrow vertical band 
with two flat guttae one at the top and one in the centre ; above is a broad horizontal 
band which shows eight similar guttae arranged close together in two rows. 

774. Cornice fragment (?). 

Bluish marble. H. .20, L. -65, B. «56. 
A corner : rough work. 

775. Fragment of relief (P) architectural (?). 
Bluish marble. H. -20. 

On one side three curving lines : the rest is rough. 

776-776 a. Two anta capitals. 
H. -28, L. .51, D. .20, and -14. 
Ordinary plain mouldings. 

P 2 



212 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

776 b. Lion's foot. 
H. .08. 

Dowel hole in bottom : broken above. 

776 c. Architectural fragment. 
H.-i 3 . 

Complete only on top and 1.: on 1. profiled border ; on r. half a rosette and an 
acanthns volute. 

777-787. See Inscriptions. 

788-794. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

795. Box containing thirteen small fragments. 

From the Amyclaeum. One is a piece of Byzantine ornament ; another a piece of 
a bowl ; another an architectural fragment showing a flame and tongue pattern ; 
another a piece of a round table (?) ; and the rest unintelligible pieces of drapery or 
the like. 

796-804. See Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

805. See Inscriptions. 

806. Hygieia, statuette with base. 
H. -41. Base -13 x '09. 

L. leg free : clad in chiton and himation. Over 1. shoulder a serpent curls down- 
wards. Wears shoes. Head which was set on separately is lost ; forearms (in stumps 
iron dowels) and hands broken off. Found at Magula by the house of M. Psychoguios, 
the donor. Imperial period, ist-2nd cent. A.D. 

807. Male head. 
H. .05. 

Bearded : hair waved and curled on edge of forehead and cheeks. Coarse, sketchy 
work : possibly a Zeus. Ordinary work of imperial period. 



INDEX 

The Numbers given are those of the Museum. 



Acanthus, 36, 37, 38, 39 a. 

Bud, 151, 152, 155, 760 (1). 

Leaf, 760 (29). 
Alabastron, 334. 
Alexandra, 441. 
Altar; Circular, 346. 

Square, 49 a, 49 b. 
Amazon; Frieze, 717. 

Sarcophagus, 35, 67, 279, 477-481, 498, 
499. 
Amyclaeum, 689, 731, 732, 733, 795. 
Animal, 470. 
Antefix, 157, 168, 759 (5). 
Antinous?, 54. 
Ape, 422. 

Aphrodite, 102, 116, 133 ?, 457, 567 ; 
and Eros, 100, 414, 426. 

Pandemos on a relief, 1 7. 

Relief, 725. 
Apollo, 6, 103, 352, 578?, 603? 
and Artemis, 468. 

Votive relief to, 689. 
Apollonius, 363. 
Archaic ; Group, 364. 

Hero Relief, 3, 4, 316, 415, 431, 451, 

505. 

Relief, 27, 450, 575, 654, 655. 

Sculpture, 2, 325, 576, 600. 

Stele, 1. 
Archaistic Art, 56, 57?, 403, 582?, 610. 
Architecture : 

Antefix, 157, 168, 759 (5). 

Architrave, 747. 

Capitals; Byzantine, 39 b, 156, 162, 170, 
*7*i 4*3, 49 2 , 736, 743, 743 a, 759 
(18), 760 (13). Byzantine Pilaster, 167, 
746. Corinthian, 163, 166, 177, 178, 
179» 759 (3), 76o (12), 760 (25). 
Doric, 172, 173, 677, 752, 752 a, 760 
(11), 762. Ionic, 147, 158, 159, 160, 
180, 181, 740, 753, 759 (4), 759 (12), 
760 (22). Pilaster, 39 a, 139, 140, 141, 
299. 734> 748, 759 (16), 763. Pilaster 
decorated with relief, 655. 

Ceiling, 186, 187. 

Column ; Base, Byzantine, 144?, 165, 
185. Base,Ionic, 174, 174^175, 175a, 
182, 183, 184. Byzantine, 760 (33), 
772. 

Cornice, 74, 75, 77, 78, 559, 733, 767, 
768,772 a, 773,774- 

Door; Jamb, 754; Moulding, 744,750; 
Step, Byzantine ? 282. 



Architecture {continued) : 
Floor tile, 195, 196, 759 (2), 759 (14), 

760 (32). 
Fragments, 751, 756, 759 (15), 776 c, 

795 ; Byzantine, 738 a, 745, 795. 
Gargoyle, Frankish, 327. 
Guttering, 74, 75, 77, 78, 345, 354, 425, 
584, 585. 76o (2), 767. 
Member, curved, 761. 
Moulding, 760 (4-10), 760 (14). 
Relief, 483, 775. 
Roof tile, 157. 
Support, Satyr, 90. 
Arm; Fragment, 597, 711, 760(28). 
Artemis, 112, 131, 326; 

and Apollo, 468. 
Artist Inscription, 363. 
Asclepius, 58 a, 58 b, 710; 

and Hygieia, votive relief to, 580. 
Athena, 344. 

Bacchante, 109?. 
Bacchic ; Herm, 47. 

Relief, 29. 

Sarcophagus, 30. 

Statuette, 659. 

Torso, 105. 
Ball, 153, 298, 668. 
Barbarian, Scythian, 79, 83. 
Base, 93, 127, 148, 304, 313, 397?, 420, 
494, 602, 603, 663, 664. 

Bomonikes, of statue of, 252. 

Byzantine, 165, 185. 

Circular, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 
194, 684, 755. 

Ionic, 174, 174a, 175, 175a, 182, 183, 184. 

Octagonal column, 144. 

Statue, with relief, 284. 
Basin, 331. 
Bird, 296. 

Bottle-shaped object, 150, 154. 
Bowl, 749, 759 (13), 764. 
Boy, 292, 309. 

Head, 444. 
Bust; Female, 135. 

Fragment, 760 (37). 

Male, 134,497. 
Byzantine ; Architecture, fragments, 
738 a, 745, 795. 

Art, 296. 

Capital, 39 b, 156, 162, 170, 171, 413, 
49 2 , 736, 743, 743 a, 759 (18), 760 
(13). 



214 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



Byzantine {continued) : 
Column, 760 (33), 772. 
Column base, 165, 185. 
Doorstep, 282. 
Octagonal column base, 144. 
Pilaster capital, 167, 746. 
Relief, 297, 739, 760 (26), 770. 

Capital; Anta, 760 (24), 776, 776a. 
Byzantine, 39 b, 156, 162, 170, 171, 736, 

737, 743, 743 a, 759 (18), 7&> (13). 
Byzantine pilaster, 167, 746. 
Corinthian, 163, 166, 177, 178, 759 (3), 

760(12), 760(25). 
Corinthian anta, 1 79. 
Doric, 172, 173, 677, 752, 752 a, 760 

(11), 762. 
Ionic, 147, 158, 159, 160, 180, 181, 740, 

753, 759(4), 759(12), 760(22). 
Pilaster, 39 a, 139, 140, 141, 299, 655, 

734, 748, 759 (16), 763. 
Caryatid, Satyr, 72. 
Ceiling, 186, 187. 
Century, B.C. Sixth, 1,2, 3, 27,316, 325, 

364,415, 4 5 o?,4 5 i?, 575, 576, 600, 654?, 

763. 
Fifth, 4, 5, 57, 58 b, 92, 94, 319, 355, 

431, 440, 447, 513, 582, 588, 655. 
Fourth, 55, 58 a, 59, 61, 68, 89, 100, 101, 

"4, 326, 338, 344, 449, 505, 629, 656 ?, 

<>57?> 683, 710. 
Third, 52, 79, 83, 301, 352, 445, 468, 

478, 481, 487, 496, 534?, 558?, 565 ?, 

571, 580, 649, 689, 728. 
Second, 8, 28, 99, 106, 132, 201, 202, 203, 

257+294, 279, 286, 341, 356, 357, 365, 

414, 449, 604. 
First, 7, 10, 19, 31, 44, 107, 289, 290, 

302, 350, 35 1 , 421, 44ii 445, 455 a , 

467, 490, 572, 592. 
Century, a. D. First, 6, 11, 32, 33, 53, 60, 

64, 85, 86, 104, 115, 116, 126, 307, 443, 

514, 614. 
Second, 9, 15 b, 36, 37, 38, 54?, 62, 65, 

66, 307, 322 + 323, 337, 338, 343, 442 a, 

442 b, 569, 557, 574, 652, 708, 730. 
Third, 51 b, 63, 70, 308, 498, 589. 
Chest; Marble, 137, 138. 
Christian Sculpture, 308. 
Chthonian Deity, 600. 
Club, of Heracles, 531. 
Crater, 460. 
Cuirass Fringe, 485. 
Cybele, 302, 349, 351, 424, 452, 608. 

Damonon, 440. 
Dancing Girl, 124, 132. 

Maenad, 420?, 421. 
Dionysus, 56, 68, 350, 487, 539, 728; 

and Satyr, 303, 416, 729. 
Dioscuri, Reliefs, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 b, 
15 a, 27 ?, 201, 202, 203, 291, 319, 356, 

447, 467, 490, 5", 575, 58i, 588, 613, 
665, 674. 
Statues, 92, 118, 285, 513. 



Dioscurus Head, 64?. 
Dolphin, 491. 
Doorstep, Byzantine?, 282. 
Drapery, Fragments, 363, 687, 757, 760 
(3o). 

Eagle and Snake, 313. 
Eros, 32 ; 

and Aphrodite, 100, 414, 426. 

On Dolphin, 601. 

On Sarcophagus, 48. 

Sleeping, 20, 21, 71, 312, 444?. 

Torso, 94. 

Pish, 494. 

Foot ; left, male, 84. 

Fortuna, 494. 

Fountain; figures, 22, 99, 727. 

Octagonal, 143. 
Fragment, shapeless, 760 (18). 
Frankish Sculpture, 327. 
Frieze, 36, 37, 38, 40, 142, 149, 388, 
715, 7 l6 , 73ia, 731b, 732, 738, 760 
(19), 760 (27). 

With metopes and triglyph, 717. 

G-anymede, 89. 
Gargoyle, Frankish, 327. 
Gigantomachy, Sarcophagus, 34 ?. 
Girl, holding flower, Archaic relief, 

45°- 
Goddess, enthroned, 2, 97. 
Good Shepherd, 308. 
Gorgoneion, 563, 654. 
Granite, green, 759 (1). 
Grave ; Monument, 50. 
Reliefs, 16 a, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 42, 

43, 257 + 294, 3oo + 537, 328, 392, 448, 

495, 558, 5 6 4, 5 6 5, 589, 59 6 , 6o 4, *5*i 

666, 742, 744. 
Stele, 449. 
Gutterspout, 74, 75, 77, 78, 345, 425, 

584, 585, 76o (2), 767. 

Hand; left, 80, 82, 358, 458, 474, 488, 
586, 609. 
Right, 336, 399, 484, 577 a, 692. 
Right, Female, 81. 
Hands on relief, 398. 
Hare, 566. 
Head, Apollo?, 352. 
Child's, 340. 

Colossal, Female, 571 ; Male, 536. 
Female, on relief, 69. 
Ideal, Female, 55, 61, 62, 338,35 2 ?,437?, 
445, 480, 592. 
Male, helmeted, 64?, 341, 478, bearded, 

807. 
Portrait, Female, 66, 339, 36^,469, 479?, 
681?; Male, 53, 54?, 60, 63, 65, 70, 

134, 365 ?, 730. 

Warrior, 481. 

Youthful, 482. 
Hecate, 46. 
■ Helen* Relief, 318, 362. 



INDEX 



215 



Heracles, 52, 107, 115, 310, 423, 438?, 

534?; 

and Ceryneian hind, 655. 

Herm, 286, 442 a, 442 b. 

Labours, sarcophagus, 541. 

Votive relief, to, 561. 
Herm, Archaistic, 403, 610. 

Bacchic, 47, 403. 

Hecate, 46. 

Heracles, 286, 442 a, 442 b. 

Hermes, 57, 582. 

Male, headless, 243, 287, 544, 661. 

Youthful, 314. 
Hermes, of Alcamenes, 57, 582. 
Horse's head, 476. 
Hydria, 33 2 ,455b, 758- 
Hygieia, 289, 293, 321, 471, 806; 
and Asclepius, votive relief to, 580. 

Imperial period, 6, 9, 11, 15 b, 17, 
18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 30, 
31, 32, 33, 34, 35. 36, 37, 38, 39 a , 4°, 
4*i 4 2 , 43, 44, 47, 4 8 > 49 a, 49 b , 5°, 
51a, 5 lb , 53, 54, 55, 57, 58 a, 58 b, 
62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 
73, 80, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92, 95, 
96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 104, 105, no, in, 
113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 122, 124, 
125, 126, 130, 131, 133, 134, x 35, i3 6 , 
139, 140, 142, 143, 144?, 149, 158, 159, 
160, 163, 164, 174, 174a, 175, 175 a, 
176, 177, 179, 180, 182, 183, 184, 188, 
189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 283, 285, 
287, 293,300+537,306,307,309,310, 
311, 312, 313, 3M, 321, 322 + 323, 328, 
329, 330, 337, 338, 339, 34°, 343, 344, 
346, 349, 365, 392, 399, 403, 4 l6 , 423, 
430, 434, 437, 442 a, 442 b, 443, 452, 
455 b, 457, 469, 47i, 476, 477, 479, 
480, 482, 483, 484, 485, 488, 493,494, 
495, 49 6 , 498, 499, 5°4» 5 11 , 5 12, 513, 
5H, 5 J 5, 5i9, 53o, 538, 54°, 54 1 , 554, 
555, 556, 557, 563, 564, 567, 574, 577, 
579, 581, 589, 59o, 59 6 , 6oI > 6o6 > $°7, 
608, 614, 615, 616, 649, 650, 651, 652, 
653, 656, 656 a, 658, 659, 660, 661, 662, 
665, 666, 673, 681, 682, 684, 706, 708, 
709, 710, 715, 716, 722, 723, 724, 725, 
726, 727, 728, 729, 730, 740 a, 740 b, 
740 c, 742, 759 (36), 7 6 ° C 22 ), 7 6 5, 
766, 806. 

Ionic, Base, 174, 174 a, 175, x 75a, 176, 
182, 183, 184. 
Capital, 147, 158, 159, 160, 180, 181, 
737, 74o, 753, 759 (4), 759 C 12 ), 7^o 
(22). 
Pilaster capital, 655, 763. 
Isis, 41. 

Leg, fragment, 465. 

Left, 578. 

Left booted, 473. 

Right booted, 472. 
Lion, Foot, 181, 295, 412, 433, 735, 
776 b. 



Lion {continued) : 

Head, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 305, 327, 345, 
354, 425, 460, 584, 585, 76o (2). 

Head and foot support, 161. 

Leg, 759 (")• 

Paw, 419. 

Relief, 33- 

Seated, 324. 

Skin, on relief, 557. 
Lost, 23, 108, 129, 409, 475. 

Maenad, 44. 

Dancing, 421. 
Marble, Alabaster, 334. 

Blue, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 15 a, 16 a, 
16 b, 17, 18, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 
42, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49 a, 49 b , 5©, 5 1 a , 
53, 5 6 , 6 °, Mi 6 5, 69, 72, 79, 83, 9°, 
109, 144, 146, 163, 168, 201, 202, 203, 
257 + 294, 282, 284, 288, 290, 296, 297, 
299, 300 + 537, 303, 3°9, 313, 324, 328, 
330, 33i, 332, 342, 349, 35 1 , 355, 35^, 
360, 364, 392, 399, 4°3> 409, 425, 426, 
431,433, 438, 44 1 , 442 a, 44 2b , 444, 
447, 448, 449, 454 a, 454 b, 455 a, 455 b, 
49°, 5"i 5 12 , 5H, 5 J 5, 538, 539, 540, 
54 1 , 544, 557, 558, 564,565, 57 2 , 575, 
577, 579, 588, 589, 6o °, 6o 4, 6 o6, 613, 
650, 651, 665, 666, 668, 674, 682, 732, 
735. 736, 737, 74*i 742, 743, 743 a, 
744, 745, 756, 757, 759 (18), 761, 7^7, 
768, 769, 772 a, 773, 774,775- 
Dholiana (?), 82, 89, 91, 94, 139. 
Parian, 59, 116. 

Pentelic, 20, 32, 54?, 55,67, 81, 104?, 
105?, 1131,134,279, 310?, 315?, 322 + 
323, 333, 343 h 443?, 573, 602, 603 ?, 
615,629?, 652?, 660. 
Rosso Antico, 14b, 28, 31, 153, 195, 
196, 286, 287, 291, 295, 298, 314, 467, 
563, 58i, 754, 76o (9), 760 (10), 760 
(27), 764. 
Soapy, 9, 62, 706. 

Marsyas, 284. 

Messenia, 398. 

Metopes and Triglyph, 717. 

Muse, 320. 

Neo-Attic, 363. 

Nymph, Fountain figure, 99, 399. 

Omphalos, 468, 603. 

Ornament, leaf, 760 (15), 760 (17). 

Orpheus, Relief, 6. 

Pan, 577. 

Panther, 93. 

Parian Marble, 59, 116. 

Pentelic Marble, 20, 55, 67, 81, 104?, 
105?, 113?, 134, 279, 3io, 315?, 3 a2 + 
323, 333, 343 ?, 443 ?, 573 h 602 ?, 603 ?, 
615, 629?, 652?, 660, 661?. 

Persian, 40. 

Philosopher, 343. 



2l6 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



Pilaster Capital, 39 a, 139, 140, 141, 
299, 734> 748, 759 (16), 763. 
Byzantine, 167, 746. 
With relief, 655. 
Polychromy, 345. 

Portrait; Female, 66, 135, 339, 361?, 
469. 
Male, 53, 54?, 60, 63, 65, 70, 134, 337, 

365, 730- 
Male toga, 85, 86, 330. 
Philosopher, 343. 
Statue, Female, 87, 88, 91, 530. 
Poseidon Relief, 317. 

Relief; Acanthus, 760 (35). 
Alexandra, 441. 
Aphrodite, 725. 
Apollo, votive, 689 ; 
and Artemis, votive, 468. 
Archaic, 27, 450. 
Archaic Hero, 3, 4, 316, 415, 431, 451, 

505. 

Archaic on pilaster capital, 655. 

Architectural, 483, 775. 

Asclepius and Hygieia, 580. 

Bacchic, 29. 

Bucranium and garland, 740 a, 740 b, 
740 c, 760 (34). 

Byzantine, 297, 739, 760 (26), 770. 

On circular base, 684. 

Decorative, 454 a, 454 b. 

Dioscuri, 7, 8, 9, 10, II, 14b, 15 a, 27?, 
201, 202, 203, 291, 319, 356, 447, 490, 
5", 575, 5 8l > 5 8 8, 613, 665, 674. 

Fragments, 353, 430, 541, 760 (23). 

Frieze, 40, 717. 

Funeral feast, 573, 615. 

Grave, 16 a, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 42, 
43, 357 + 294, 300 + 537, 328, 392, 448, 
455 a, 495, 558, 564, 565, 589, 596, 
604, 651, 666, 68a, 742, 744. 

Head, female from, 519. 

1 Helen,' 318, 362. 

Heracles, votive, 561. 

Hero, 683. 

Lion, 33. 

Lion's skin, 557. 

Maenad, 44. 

Orpheus, 6. 

Poseidon, 317. 

Quiver, fragment ?, 760 (36). 

Semicircular, 17, 653, 654. 

Snake, 5, 355, 565. 

On Statuette base, 284. 

Suovetaurilia, 614. 

On support, Telephus, 607. 

Vase, 69. 

Votive, 6, 18, 398, 441, 468, 561, 572, 
580. 

With worshippers, 16 b, 689. 

Zeus, 15 b, 288. 

Rosso Antico, 14 b, 28, 31, 153, 195, 
196, 286, 287, 291, 295, 298, 314, 467, 
563, 581, 754, 76o (9), 760 (10), 760 
(27), 764- 



Sarcophagus, Amazon, 35, 67, 279, 

477-481,498,499. 

Bacchic, 30, 652. 

Erotes, drunken, 307. 

Fragments, 48, 290, 538. 

Gigantomachy, 34?. 

Gymnasium scenes, 708. 

Hector's body, ransom of, 322 + 323, 
402. 

Heracles' labours, 541. 

Lid, 51 b, 73, 306, 765, 766. 
Satyr, 31. 

Architectural support, 90. 

Caryatid, 72 ; 

and Dionysus, 303, 416, 729. 

Praxitelean, variation, 515. 

Resting, fountain figure, 22. 

Sleeping, fountain figure, 727. 
Scythian, 79, 83. 
Seat, theatre?, 397. 
Shaft, 759 (6). 
Sheep, 311. 

Shepherd, the Good, 308. 
Shoulder, right, 686, 686 a. 
Silenus, 342, 496, 504. 

Face, 764. 
Slab, 759 (7), 759 (9), 759 (10), 760 (3), 

760 (31), 761 a. 
Snake Relief, 5, 355, 565. 
Sphinx, 120. 
Stags, 653. 
Statue, Draped fragment, 453. 

Female, draped, 119, 123?, 443, 616, 
709. 

Male, draped, 85, 86, 330, 673. 

Seated male, draped, archaic, 576. 

Youthful male, 590. 
Statuette, Base, 663, 664. 

Female, draped, 98, 117, 126, 128?, 
130, 164, 283, 315, 320, 357,493, 540, 
554, 579, 66 °, 662, 667. 

Fragment, 366, 438, 461, 486. 

Male, draped, 113, 309, 360, 434, 
556. 

Nude, 101, 125, 284, 292, 512, 656, 
656 a, 657, 658. 

Seated, 606. 
Stele, Archaic, 1. 

Of Damonon, 440. 
Stone, Bluish, 316, 319, 362, 451, 571. 

Lime, 3, 5, 398, 505, 576, 677, 759 (2), 
762. 

Sand, 566, 751, 758. 
Suovetaurilia, 614. 
Support ; Decorated with relief, 607. 

Decorative, 51a, 76?, 121?, 161, 563, 
735. 

For statue, 760 (20). 
Sword Sheath ?, 759 (8). 

Telephus, 607. 

Throne, 145, 146, 409, 769. 

Tile, floor, 195, 196, 759 ^2), 759 (14), 

760 (32). 
Toga Statue, 85, 86, 330, 673. 



INDEX 



217 



Torso; Female draped, 104, III, 329, 

333, 53°- 
Female nude, 724. 
Male draped, 95, no. 
Male nude, 105, 106, 301, 514, 515, 
629, 722, 723, 726. 
Tree Trunk, 459, 488, 489, 578, 609, 

740 a, 760 (16), 760 (21). 
Triton, 136. 

Urn Lid, 21, 71. 



Vase, with relief, 69. 



"Whetstone, 759 (17). 

"Whorl, 153?, 298?. 

Worshippers, Belief with, 16 b, 689. 

Youth, 89. 
Seated, 122. 

Zeus ; Enthroned, 96. 
Relief, 15 b. 



TABLES 

GIVING THE CONCORDANCE BETWEEN THE NUMBERINGS OF 
DRESSEL AND MILCHHOFER AND THE MUSEUM 

I. MUSEUM— DRESSEL-MILCHHOFER. 



Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M 


i 


6 


5ib 


234 


103 


26 


288 


265 


2 


4 


52 


81 


104 


157 


289 


46 


3 


8 


53 


J 47 


105 


65 


290 


231 


4 


12 


54 


115 


106 


108 


291 


210 


I 


21 


55 


104 


107 


78 


292 


138 


259 


56 


54 


108 


107 


293 


45 


7 


204 


57 


55 


109 


70 


294 


257 


8 


211 


58 a 


92 


no 


106 


295-299 


- 


9 


212 


58 b 


93 


III 


163 


300 


244 


IO 


217 


59 


114 


112 


98 


301 


79 


n-i4a 


218 


60 


151 


113 


135 


302 


48 


14 b 


215 


61 


126 


II 4 


29 


303 


59 


15a 


214 


62 


103 


115 


77 


304-305 


- 


15b 


191 


63 


149 


Il6 


33 


306 


235 


16 a 


272 


64 


128, 90 


117 


121 


307 


228 


16b 


199 


65 


153 


Il8 


87 


308 


132 


n 


261 


66 


165 


II 9 


116 


309 


136 


18 


260 


67 


237 


I20-I22 


- 


310 


80 


19 


249 


68 


56 


I23 


168 


3ii 


186 


20 


40 


69 


273 


I24 


7i 


312 


42 


21 


4i 


70 


155 


125 


no 


313 


182 


22 


63 


7i 


43 


I26-I3O 


- 


314 


134 


23 


250 


72 


64 


131 


28 


315 


120 


24 


251 


73 


170 


132 


72 


3i6 


9 


25 


254 


74-78 


- 


133 


123 


317 


192 


26 


246 


79 


129 


134 


145 


3i8 


222 


27 


17 


80 


172 


135 


166 


319 


14 


28 


247 


81 


173 


I36 


75 


320 


117 


29 


271 


82 


- 


I37-H2 


- 


321 


44 


30 


227 


83 


130 


143 


187 


322-323 


223 


31 


62 


84 


176 


I44-2OO 


- 


3 2 4 


183 


32 


39 


85 


142 


20I 


203 


325 


2 


33 


277 


86 


144 


202 


202 


326 


96 


34 


232 


87 


160 


203 


201 


327 


- 


35 


239 


88 


161 


204-242 


- 


328 


253 


36-39 b 


- 


89 


5i 


243 


158 


329 


162 


40 


268 


90 


61 


244-25I 


- 


330 


143 


41 


99 


9i 


119 


252 


181 


331-336 


- 


42 


266 


92 


86 


253-256 


- 


337 


154 


43 


267 


93 


177 


257 


252 


338 


102 


44 


270 


94 


38 


258-277 


- 


339 


- 


4 I 


262 


95 


in 


278 


5 


340 


141 


46 


30 


96 


24 


279 


236 


34i 


127 


47 


66 


97 


95 


280-282 


- 


342 


68 


48 


230 


98 


124 


283 


140 


343 


150 


49 a 


188 


99 


73 


284 


76 


344 


25 


49 b 


189 


100 


35 


285 


88 


345-346 


- 


50 


256 


IOI 


112 


286 


84 


347 


219 


51a 


257 


102 


32 


287 


133 


348 


278 



TABLES 



219 



Mas. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M 


349 


49 


393-397 


- 


440 


20 


603 


27 


35o 


52 


398 


196 


441 


- 


604-605 




35 1 


47 


399-401 


- 


442 


85 


606 


91 


352 


94 


402 


224 


442 b-449 


- 


607 


179 


353 


274 


403 


100 


45o 


16 


608-613 


- 


354 


- 


404-413 


- 


45i t _ 


11 


614 
615-648 


264 


355 


22 


414 


34 


452-454 b 


- 


- 


356 


209 


4*5 


10 


455* 


263 


649 


109 


357 


122 


416 


57 


455 b-468 


- 


650-653 


- 


35 8 -359 


- 


417-420 




469 


164 


654 


18 


360 


131 


421 


69 


47°-493 


- 


655-659 


- 


361 


167 


42a 




494 


180 


660 


125 


362 


221 


423 


82 


495-565 


- 


661-727 




363 


175 


424 


50 


566 


185 


728 


53 


364 


1 


425-435 


- 


567-599 


- 


729-770 


- 


365 


113 


436 


105 


600 


3 


771-771 a 


51b 


366-391 


- 


437-439 


- 


601-602 


- 


772 seqq. 


- 


392 


255 

















II. DRESSEL- 


-MILCI 


1H0FEI 


I— MUSEUM. 




D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus 


1 


364 


38 


94 


7 f 


136 


112 


101 


2 


325 


39 


32 


7^ 


284 


113 


365 


3 


600 


40 


20 


77 


"5 


114 


59 


4 


2 


4 1 


21 


78 


107 


"5 


54 


1 


278 


42 


312 


79 


301 


116 


119 


1 


43 


7i 


80 


310 


117 


320 


7 


• 


44 


321 


81 


52 


118 


- 


8 


3 


45 


293 


82 


423 


119 


9 1 


9 


316 


46 


289 


83 


- 


120 


3i5 


10 


4*5 


47 


35i 


84 


386 


121 


117 


11 


45i 


48 


302 


u 


442 a 


122 


357 


12 


4 


49 


349 


86 


92 


123 


133 


13 


- 


50 


424 


87 


118 


124 


98 


14 


319 


51 


89 


88 


285 


125 


660 


*l 


- 


52 


35o 


89 


- 


126 


61 


16 


450 


53 


728 


90 


64 


127 


34i 


17 


27 


54 


56 


9i 


606 


128 


64 


18 


654 


55 


¥ 


92 


58 a 


129 


79 


19 


- 


56 


68 


93 


58 b 


130 


83 


20 


440 


57 


416 


94 


35 2 


131 


360 


21 


5 


58 


- 


95 


97 


132 


308 


22 


355 


59 


203 


96 


326 


133 


287 


23 


- 


60 


- 


97 


- 


134 


3i4 


24 


96 


61 


90 


98 


112 


135 


"3 


25 


344 


62 


3i 


99 


4i 


136 


309 


26 


103 


63 


22 


100 


403 


137 


- 


27 


603 


64 


72 


101 


- 


138 


292 


28 


131 


65 


105 


102 


338 


139 


- 


29 


114 


66 


47 


103 


62 


140 


283 


30 


4i 


67 


- 


104 


55 


141 


34o 


3i 


- 


68 


342 


105 


436 


142 


85 


32 


102 


69 


421 


106 


no 


H3 


33o 


33 


116 


70 


109 


107 


108 


144 


86 


34 


414 


7i 


124 


108 


106 


145 


134 


35 


100 


72 


132 


109 


649 


146 




36 


?? 


73 


99 


no 


125 


147 


53 


37 


- 


74 


- 


III 


95 


148 


- 



220 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


D-M. 


Mus. 


149 


63 


182 


313 


215 


J 4 


248 




150 


343 


183 


324 


216 




249 


x 9 


151 


60 


184 


- 


217 


10 


250 


23 


152 


- 


185 


566 


218 


n-i4a 


251 


24 


153 


65 


186 


3ii 


219 


347 


252 


257+294 


154 


337 


187 


143 


220 


- 


253 


328 


I5 I 


70 


188 


49 a 


221 


362 


254 


2 5 


156 


- 


189 


49 b 


222 


318 


2 55 


392 


157 


- 


190 


- 


223 


322, 323 


256 


50 


158 


243 


191 


15b 


224 


402 


257 


51a 


159 


104 


192 


317 


225 


- 


258 




160 


87 


193 




226 


- 


2 59 


6 


161 


88 


194 


- 


227 


32 


260 


18 


162 


329 


195 


- 


228 


307 a-e 


261 


17 


163 


in 


196 


398 


229 


- 


262 


45 


164 


469 


197 


- 


230 


48 


263 


455 a 


165 


66 


198 


- 


231 


290 


264 


614 


166 


135 


199 


16 b 


232 


34 


265 


288 


167 


361 


200 


- 


233 




266 


42 


168 


123 


201 


203 


234 


51 b 


267 


48 


169 


- 


202 


202 


235 


306 


268 


40 


170 


73 


203 


201 


236 


279 


269 




171 


- 


204 


7 


237 


67 


270 


44 


172 


80 


205 


- 


238 


- 


271 


29 


173 


81 


206 


- 


239 


35 


272 


16 a 


174 


- 


207 


- 


240 


717 


273 


69 


175 


363 


208 


- 


241 




274 




176 


84 


209 


356 


242 


- 


275 


- 


177 


93 


210 


291 


243 


- 


276 


- 


178 


- 


211 


8 


244 


300+537 


277 


33 


179 


607 


212 


9 


2 45 


- 


278 


348 


180 


494 


213 


- 


246 


26 


279 




181 


252 


214 


15a 


247 


28 


280 


- 



PART III 
MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 

All numbers which refer to objects in the Museum are given in thicker 
type, e.g. 804. 

For abbreviations, fyc, see page 98. 

INTRODUCTION 

Prefatory Note. 

§ i. The other antiquities in the Museum beside the inscriptions and 
the sculptures are indeed miscellaneous. In consequence it is impossible 
to give any connected account of them however brief. The majority 
also are so ordinary and worthless that they need not be mentioned here. 
In fact the two monuments (714, 804) which most interest the modern 
Spartans will not be discussed at all. A large number of the objects 
came from the three sites excavated in the neighbourhood. These are the 
Vaphio Tomb and the Amyclaeum dug by Dr. Tsountas in 1889 and 1890, 
and the Menelaeum whose excavation, already begun by Ross in 1834 
and 1841, was completed by Dr. Kastriotes in 1889 and 1900. The 
various finds from these sites will be mentioned: and to the leaden 
figurines from the Menelaeum with those from other places will be 
devoted a special section at the end of this introduction. But first 
of all the objects will be discussed in chronological order as far as 
possible. 

Early Civilization. 

§ 2. Some of the smallest and most unimportant, intrinsically, of the 
objects in the Museum are archaeologically of great value. Such are 
the various stone implements chiefly from Xerokambi (595, 595 a, 
678, 702, 703), and the small flake of obsidian (693 (19)) from the 
Amyclaeum. These are the evidence for the existence of early civi- 
lization in Laconia. It must not, however, be assumed that stone 
implements all belong to the neolithic period. The use of stone 
weapons and tools, particularly of obsidian, survived well into the 
succeeding bronze age of Greek civilization (Minoan and Mycenaean 
period). Obsidian has been found in many places in Laconia, at Vaphio, 
Geraki, Cranae, and Xerokambi. It is almost certainly all of Melian 
provenance, and forms one more piece of evidence for the importance 
of the obsidian trade in the early age of Greece *, Stone tools and celts 
have been found in all parts of the Peloponnesus, but no neolithic site has 
yet been excavated in this region. So Tsountas's find of celts in Arcadia 
remains the most important 2 . Laconia has recently yielded two celts, 

1 Phylakopi, ch. viii (Bosanquet). a *E<£. 'Apx« 1901, pp. 85-90, pi. v. 



222 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

from Koutiphari and Daemonia. Stone polishers and pounders have also 
been found at Geraki and Koutiphari. But these may even belong to the 
historical period. 

Minoan and Mycenaean Period. 

§ 3. The few fragments of pottery from the Vaphio tholos tomb 
(551) are of considerable interest. This, the only unplundered tholos 
tomb yet discovered, was excavated by Tsountas in 1889 l , It lies on 
a low hill on the right bank of the Eurolas over an hour south of Sparta 
and half an hour from the site of the Amyclaeum. All the finds, which 
include the famous gold cups, are now in the National Museum, Athens. 
These Spartan fragments are however interesting ; they belong to large 
jars of the Cnossus palace style and therefore to the period called by 
Evans ' Late Minoan II V Many of the fragments at Athens are similar 
in style and technique. The gold cups with their high embossed work 
are the natural development of the Cretan carved steatite bowls, such 
as the harvest-home procession bowl from Phaestos. These steatite 
bowls were originally covered with gold leaf 3 , and are assigned by 
Evans to ' Late Minoan V Two other tholos tombs have been found 
in Laconia, at Arkina, and at Kampos 4 : both had been thoroughly 
plundered. 

To the same period as the Vaphio fragments belong a large number 
of similar pieces from the Amyclaeum (798 (a), 802). These though 
of the same style differ in material and fabric from the corresponding 
Cretan ware. The ware itself is thicker and the clay finer : therefore 
we must consider them as local imitations of the Cretan style. This 
is a most important fact since it points, if not to a Cretan settlement 
in Laconia, at least to very close trade relations between the two districts. 
Further, other fragments of vases, and the many terra-cotta figurines, human 
and animal, from the Amyclaeum of the usual 'Mycenaean' type (794 
A. 1, B. 1, 2; 798 (b)) belong to the period called 'Late Minoan III.' 
Thus we not only find the Cretan style settled, but also developing 
in Laconia. It must be remarked that the Mycenaean or Minoan 
civilization in Laconia depended not on Mycenae, but on Crete. The 
settlement at Amyclae 6 with which the Vaphio tomb was undoubtedly 
connected was independent of Mycenae and was in very close touch 
with Crete. This Cretan connexion is brought out very strongly by 
the literary traditions concerning the beginnings of sculpture in the 
Peloponnesus 6 , and it is confirmed by two recent discoveries. A biigel- 
kanne of Cretan fabric has been found in the excavations of the British 
School at Koutiphari (Thalamae) ; and on the hill at Vaphio a fragment 
of a small bowl of the green porphyry from Krokeae (Levetzova) has 
been picked up. A store of blocks of this famous porphyry was found 
in the palace at Cnossus 7 . Further, the two painted terra-cotta heads 

1 *E<p. 'Apx. 1889, p. 136 seqq., pi. 7-10; Frazer, Pausanias, vol. 3, p. 134. 
3 Evans, Report Brit. Ass. 1904, p. 719. Cf. Dawkins, B. S. A. x. 1903-1904, 
p. 193 seqq. 

3 Bosanquet,y. H. S. 1904, p. 320. 

* 'E<j>. \Apx- 1889, p. 131 ; ibid. 1891, p. 189. 

• Probably the tomb of Hyakinthos over which the Dorians built the throne of 
Apollo was a shrine or heroon of the people possessing this civilization. 

e v. Introd. to Sculpture, §§ 1, 14. 
7 B. S. A. viii. 1901-2, p. 78. 



INTRODUCTION TO MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 223 

from the Amyclaeum resemble very much in style the painted plaster 
head from Mycenae l . And Tsountas in publishing this head remarked 
that it could be compared with the Cretan work in painted plaster. 
These heads are painted in dark red brown on a white slip. Both have 
big mouths, wide staring eyes rendered by a dot in an ellipse, and big 
projecting ears. The technique is childish and primitive. Both have 
long curly hair. One wears a tasselled three-cornered hat decorated with 
a meander. The other wears a kind of stephane and ear-rings: is it 
female, for ear-rings are not common on male figures 2 ? These heads 
are two of the most remarkable monuments of the late Minoan period 
yet found. 

Geometric and Succeeding Periods. 

§ 4. The vase fragments from the Amyclaeum (791 (1), 792, 793, 
798 (2), 799 (9)) are sufficient proof that in Laconia as elsewhere in 
the Hellenic world the ' Mycenaean' was followed by a geometric period. 
Two more or less complete vases were taken by Tsountas to Athens. 
These are the only examples of Laconian geometric given by Wide 3 , 
who observes that it seems to be very simple. He collected many 
fragments at the Amyclaeum itself, yet failed to notice the fragments 
in the Museum. The great variety of different ornaments shown by 
these fragments prove that Laconian geometric was by no means simple 
and that it indulged in all the peculiar 
designs and patterns common elsewhere. 
For one thing the majority of these fragments 
is indeed remarkable; that is the bright black 
metallic glaze with which they are decorated. 
It is peculiar to the Laconian geometric 
pottery : its occurrence on some whorls, 
&c. (796 (4)) proves that these also belong 
to this period. Not enough attention has 
been paid to these fragments, which are 
important, if not from their peculiar glaze, Fig. 78. 

from the fact that they are the only examples 

of geometric ware yet found in Laconia. The styles succeeding the 
geometric are represented only by two small fragments, one of Corinthian, 
the other of red figure ware (798 (3), (4)), both from the Amyclaeum 4 . 
The ordinary black glazed ware of the fifth and following centuries, 
though not represented in the Museum, is common on all historical sites 
in Laconia. 

The fragment of a pithos decorated with low relief (520) can be 
paralleled by a similar fragment bought by Le Bas at Magula and now in 
the Cabinet des Me'dailles at Paris 5 (Fig. 78). This fragment represents 
two warriors, one with a round and the other with a Boeotian shield, 
fighting with spears over the body of a third warrior who carries a Boeotian 
shield. Each wears a crested helmet, a cuirass and sword, and has long 

1 Tsountas, 'E<p. 'Apx- 1892, p. 14, pi. 4; ibid. 1902, pi. 1, 2. 

2 E. S. Forster, B.S.A. viii. p. 274. 

3 Geometrische Vasen, p. 23, fig. 41, 42; v. Couve-Collignon, Cat. d. Vases peints, 
396 bis, ter. 

4 Tsountas found some Corinthian ware at the Amyclaeum, 'E<f>. 'Apx- 1892, p. 13. 

5 Le Bas, Voy. Arch. Mon.fig. pi. 105; De Ridder, Cat. Vases Bibl. Nat. 166; 
D-M. 19. Cf. Pottier, Mon. Grecs, 14-16, p. 56. 




224 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 




S51&. 



552 




Fig. 79. 



INTRODUCTION TO MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 225 

hair and a beard. Behind the left-hand warrior part of an archer bending 
his bow is observed : and part of another warrior is visible on the right. 
The representations on both fragments have considerable likeness, allowing 
of course for the different technique, to black figure vases * : but they 
do not show very much likeness to any of the other known examples of 
vases decorated with reliefs. 

Miniature Vases. 

Amongst the other vases the miniature vases (553 B (1-5), 799 (1), 
803 (1, 2)) found at the Menelaeum, the Amyclaeum 2 , and else- 
where near Sparta undoubtedly belong to the historical period. They 
are clearly of cheap, local fabric: the majority are uncoloured, but 
some are black glazed. Judging by the prevalence of the cantharus 
shape, and remembering that the cantharus is the vase held by the 
heroes on reliefs, we may conjecture with great probability that these 
miniature vases served as cheap dedications at shrines, especially at those 
of heroes. Menelaus, we know, was worshipped as a hero ; a vase of 
this kind seems to have been found with the hero relief at Chrysapha 8 . 
More recently a large find of similar vases has been made in the 
excavations of the British School near Angelona on the probable site 
of a heroon 4 . 

The Hellenistic age is represented by one lamp of excellent work 
(685 a). Its style is refined and dignified, and the type is somewhat 
unusual. 

The Amyclaeum. 

§ 5. This shrine, the most important site in the neighbourhood of 
Sparta, was excavated by Tsountas in 1890 5 . More recently in 1904 
it has been partly re-excavated by Furtwangler, with the result that the 
decision arrived at from the first excavations must be abandoned. The 
site lies about an hour south-east of Sparta on the low hill above 
the hamlet of Tsausi where stands the church of Hagia Kyriake. This 
church is built over the foundations of the throne of Apollo 6 , which are 
clearly visible in the middle of the south wall. The earlier excavation 
yielded many remains of the Minoan civilization 7 , proving that this site 
was inhabited before 1500 b. c. These consist of vase fragments, 
terra-cotta figurines, human and animal, and steatite whorls. Many 
fragments of geometric ware were found, and are still to be seen in 
quantities on the site together with ordinary black glazed pottery. 
Corinthian and ordinary Hellenic pottery was also discovered. A large 
quantity of very much damaged miscellaneous bronze implements was 
found : the bronze rods (693, 4, 5) with rounded knobs resemble those 
from the Argive Heraeum 8 . Three bronze statuettes now in Athens 
are from these excavations 9 . One represents a nude woman wearing 
long hair, a necklace and a belt over her right shoulder, and clanging 

1 Cf. Reinach, Rtp. vases peints, pp. 82, 199. 
a 'E</>. 'Apx. 1892, p. 11. UpaKTiKa, 1900, p. 80. 
3 Ath.Mtt. 1877, p. 303, 1. * B. S. A. xi. 

5 y B<p. 'Apx- 1892, p. 1 seqq. pi. 1-4. Winter, Ant. Terrakotten, III, p. xxxiii. 
• Tsountas thought that the late semicircular foundation to the west of the church 
was the tomb of Hyakinthos which was underneath the throne. 

7 See above, § 2. 8 Waldstein, Argive Heraeum, II, pi. 130-132. 

9 De Ridder, Cat. des Bronzes, 150, 814, 815. 



226 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 




Fig. 80. 

cymbals. It is of the archaic period, and can be compared to 
Cypriote work 1 : it was apparently a mirror handle. Another shows 
a nude male figure standing evenly on both feet on a square base. 
The right hand is lost; but the left which is held out horizontally 
before him possibly held a lyre, to judge by the traces of attachment 
remaining. The greatest peculiarity is the head-dress, which is apparently 
some kind of stephane. The eyes are rendered by large solid circles 
in ellipsoid sockets. The forms of the body are slender, but have the 
archaic exaggeration of necessary muscles, e. g. in the chest, hips, and 
calves. It is ordinary work of the late sixth century b. c. The third 
is similar to this last. Other bronzes yielded by these excavations are 
fragments of tripods, animals (oxen, rams, &c), and disks 2 . The 
remaining finds from this site include a female terra-cotta figure with 
the sex very strongly marked, miniature vases, some iron weapons, 
bones of animals, rams and oxen, and lead figurines like those from the 
Menelaeum which will be discussed below. 

The Menelaeum. 

§ 6. This shrine stood on the left bank of the Eurotas, on one of the 
southernmost points of a range of low hills which are to Sparta what 
the Ianiculum is to Rome. Near the site now stands a small chapel 
of Hagios Elias, which contains ancient worked blocks. Excavation 
was first begun here by Ross in 1833 and continued in 1841. More 
recently Kastriotes, in two campaigns in 1889 and 1900, has cleared 
the site and made many interesting discoveries 3 . He found that the 
shrine itself consisted of three stepped terraces one above the other. 
The construction is more or less regular, and the foundation walls 
are of poros. In plan it was oblong: the lowest terrace being i6«5ox 
23-70 metres, and the uppermost 5-50 x 8-70 metres. The narrow ends 
face north and south : traces were found on these sides of steps leading 
from one terrace to another. The majority of the finds (553) are of 
little importance, but the miniature vases already referred to are very 
interesting. The terra-cottas, both the archaic ones and those of more 
developed style, resemble those from Hagios Sostis near Tegea 4 . 
Amongst the latter the hydrophoroi are remarkable, and also the polus- 
wearing figures ; these last possibly have some connexion with Helen 5 . 

1 v. Furtwangler, N. Denk. ant. Kunst, III {Bay. Sitzitngsberichte, 1905, ii), 
p. 265. 

2 v. De Ridder, op. cit. 2, 3, 530, 815, 846, 992, 997, 1004, 1017. 

3 IlpaKTiKa, 1900, pp. 74-84. 

* v. Winter, Antike Terrakotten, III, p. xxxiv. 
5 v. Introduction to Sculpture, § 12. 



INTRODUCTION TO MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 227 








Q 2 



228 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



But most important of all are the little figurines cast in lead which have 
been found in such numbers on this site. 

The Leaden Figurines. 

§ 7. The importance of these figurines lies in the material of which 
they are made, and in the fact that they are apparently peculiar to 
Laconia, or at least to the Peloponnesus. They have been found at 
the Menelaeum, the Amyclaeum, near Vavyka (No. 679), and on the 
right bank of the Eurotas, a little below the iron bridge. Lately some 
similar figurines were purchased at Corinth for the Ashmolean Museum. 
Their exact provenance is unknown : but since they are of the same 
types as the Laconian examples, they possibly came from the neighbour- 
hood of Sparta. Therefore it would be quite justifiable to conclude that 
these figurines are peculiar to Laconian shrines. Since the variety of the 
types is great, a tabulated list giving the provenance of the figurines and 
their present whereabouts will be useful 1 . Figs. 79, 80, 81. 







■ • S 


"S • 6 


ii 


c 




« S 

t: 8 


Z B 9 


•5. 11 


ich, 
arii 
aeu: 






|i 


thens 
Muse 
mycl: 


thens 
Muse 
lenel 


Mun 
Antiqu 
Menel; 


,0 s <u 

lis 






< < 


< * 




Fig. 79. 




Fig. 80. 


Fig.81. 




1. Warriors in profile to 


18. 


12. 


2 (P. 20. 2 1) 


7 3 . 


*£• 


r. and 1., patterns on 


(552 a, 552 a, 




+ 35 3 . 






shields, rays, wheels, con- 


552 d, 679.) 










centric circles, Catherine 












wheels and dots. 












2. "Warriors charging. 




2. 








3. Running men (nude). 






1 (P. 26). 


1. 


1. 


4. Nude men. 






1 (P. 27) +3. 






5. Hermes (?). 




2. 


1 P. 25). 






6. Centaurs. 




1. 


+ 1. 


1. 




7. Horsemen. 






1 (P. 28). 






8. Flute players. 






i (P. 18). 




1 (nude). 



1 The principal literature on the subject is : Ross, Arch. Aufsatze, II, p. 243, pi. 1 ; 
id. Arch. Zeit., 1854, P 1 - 65, p. 217; Perdrizet, Rev. Arch. 1897, p. 1 seqq., pi. 1,2 
(cited in tabulated list as P ) ; Kastriotes, TlpaKTiKa, 1900, p. 74 seqq. ; Perrot, VIII, 
p. 183, where it is stated that these figurines are of the same date as geometric and 
Corinthian vases. 

J The + sign indicates figurines not exposed in the Museum, and not described 
by Perdrizet. 

8 Dr. Riezler writes as follows concerning these figurines : — ' Ich mochte bemerken, 
dass die Stiicke nicht von Ross ausgegraben sind, sondern erst neuerdings an dem von 
Ross ausgegrabenen Platze, dem Menelaion, gefunden worden' ; cf. Kastriotes, op. cit., 
p. 76. 6. This seems perfectly correct. The figurines found by Ross seem to have 
been taken to Athens ; and have since been mixed in the Museum with those from 
Kastriotes' later excavations. Some can be identified ; Ross 5 = Perdrizet 4, R 6 = 
P 26, R 7=?, R 8 = P 20 or ft. R 9=?, R io = P 19, R n =P 28, R 12-P 6, 
Ri3«=P8. 



INTRODUCTION TO MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 229 







rt . 


a 


"S . i 


. is 


Oxford, 

Ashmolean 

Museum. 




I! 


Athens, N 

Mu?eum 

Amyclaeu 


Athens, N 

Museum 

Menelaeui 


Munich. 
Antiquarh] 
Menelaeui 




Fig. 79- 






Fig. 80. 


Fig.81. 




9. Female figures in profile 


23. 


16. 




8 (P. 10-17) 


n. 


34- 


to r., and 1., they wear 


(552, 552 a, 






+ 72. 






polus, long hair, pointed 


552 b, 678.) 












shoes; arms sometimes 














free, sometimes carrying 














votive offerings ; some 














play flute, cymbals, &c. ; 














clad in long chiton girt 














at waist, texture indicated 














by network, diamonds, 














meanders, oblique, ver- 














tical and horizontal lines 














alone or combined. 














10. Athena (?). 








4 (P- 6-8, 
19)+ 1. 






11. Artemis (?). 


1 (694). 






1 (P. 2). 






12. Winged goddess. 














(a) "Wings drooping. 








1 (P. 1). 






(6) Wings curled at ends. 


4 (552). 


i(P.40- 


1 (P. 3) + i. 






(V) Wings straight. 


1 (694). 


2. 




. 






13. Nike (winged figure 








2 (P. 4, 5) 






running). 








+ 1. 






14. Woman on horseback(?). 




1. 










15. Lion. 








2 (P. 32, 33) 
+ 1. 






16. Horses, cattle, sheep, 


1 (552 a). 


2. 




3 (P. 29, 30, 


3- 




dogs, &c. 








30+8. 






17. Cocks (crested and un- 












2. 


crested). 














18. Palm branches. 


1 (552). 


2. 




1 (P. 34) + 2 


2. 


2. 


19. Wreaths. 


316 (552, 

552 a, 552 £). 


64. 




4 (P- 37-4o) 
+ 15°- 


5- 


29. 


20. Grilles 1 . 










1 frag- 
ment. 


7 frag- 
ments. 


(a) 4 squares. 


1 (552). 












(6) 6 squares. 


2 (552,552 a). 






1 (P. 35) + 6 


3- 




(c) 8 squares. 










1. 




(d) 10 squares. 








1 (P. 36) + i 






21. Anthemion. 




2, 










22. Caduceus. 


2 (552, 679). 












23. Lyre. 










1. 




24- Jug. 












1. 



The variety of the types is so great that no clue as to the meaning 
or intention of the figurines can be derived from them. In any case 
there is litrie doubt that these figurines were intended as votive offerings. 
Were the polus-wearing female figures found only at the Menelaeum, 
they might have been said to represent Helen. But these figurines 

1 Rouse (Gk. Votive Offerings, p. 301) suggests that these grilles are the bases of 
animal figurines, comparing them to the gridiron-like bases of some of the Olympia 
bronzes. This seems incorrect. None of the leaden figurines were intended to stand 
upright, and on the upper surface of the grilles there is no trace whatsoever of the 
attachment of the legs of animals. 



230 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

are common to all the sites. Perdrizet thought that the costume of 
some of these figures resembled the Mycenaean. This seems incorrect : 
as far as can be seen, the female figures wear a long chiton simply girt 
at the waist. Of the other costumes that of the warriors is alone 
interesting. They wear large crested helmets without cheek pieces, and 
carry round shields with a central boss. The Macedonian shield was 
of this character, and this shape of shield was typical of the central 
European tribes \ Therefore the makers of these leaden figurines were 
invaders from the north. Probably they were Dorians ; but on this point 
certainty is unattainable. 

At Sparta we know that under the laws of Lycurgus iron and not gold 
or silver was used for coin 2 . It seems then probable that these leaden 
figurines were the Spartan substitutes for votive offerings in precious 
metal. Offerings of gold and silver must have been common at nearly 
all Greek shrines. Similarly to-day flat plates of silver representing 
human beings, animals, &c, are commonly suspended as votive offerings 
at Italian and Greek shrines. Such silver offerings are, as remarked by 
Perdrizet, the modern counterparts of these Spartan lead figurines. 
Leaden figurines would have been cheap, and as they could not be 
sold or turned to any useful purpose, there would be great accumulations 
of them at the shrines. 

As regards style the figurines are always archaic. Stylistically none 
of them appear to be later than the first quarter of the fifth century. 
There is one trace, however, of the development of style. Some of the 
female figurines are in true profile. Others are in half profile in the 
archaic fashion, the heads and legs being rendered in profile, but 
the bodies en face. Apart from this all the figures appear to be of the 
same date. It is impossible, however, that they can all be of the same 
period. We must then assume that these figurines began in the sixth 
and lasted till the fourth century, the retention of archaic types being 
due to the conservatism of religion. Perdrizet compared these lead 
figurines to some gold work from Corinth 3 . There does not seem, 
however, to be much similarity between the two. They are all of the 
archaic period, and the technique is the same : but closer comparison in 
style, &c, is impossible. 

The technique of the lead figurines is simple. They are cast from 
flat moulds. Apparently the type was engraved in low intaglio in the 
stone, a flat stone was placed on top and the molten lead was then 
poured in. Such a process would easily produce the low relief and flat 
backs of the figurines. The wreaths seem to have been cast together. 
The apparent stalk is really the ends of the ribbon tying the wreath. 
This was used as a channel for introducing the molten lead from a long 
narrow channel uniting the ends of the stalks of several wreaths. Thus 
in two cases some wreaths are found joined together by a narrow bar 
joining the ends of their stalks (552 a, 6). 

These figurines are, with the miniature vases and the Mycenaean 
objects, the most interesting of the Miscellaneous Antiquities. It is to 
be hoped that further excavation in Laconia will throw more light on 
these subjects. 

1 Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece, I, ch. vi. 

3 [Plato], Eryx. 400; Plutarch, Lycurg. 9, Lysandr. 17; Pollux, ix, 79. 

s Arch. Zeit. 1884, pi. viii, 1. 2. 



231 



MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 

45. Eros on ram: semicircular antefix : terra-cotta. H. '19. L. -23. 
D-M. 262. 

Eros, winged, is shown clinging to a ram moving swiftly to 1. He has his 
arms about the ram's neck, and his body hangs against its left side : the 
tips of his wings curl over. Good composition ; spirited, but not very 
detailed work, probably of the 2nd cent. B. c. But for the position of the 
figure and the wings it might be thought to represent Phrixus. 

169. Amphora : terra-cotta. H. -6o. 
No neck or handles. 

197. Pyramidal weight : terra-cotta. H. -13. 
Top broken off : probably a loom weight. 

198. Pithos fragment : terra-cotta. H. -12. L. -13. 

Shows two bands of a plait pattern : cf. 199. 

199. Pithos fragment : terra-cotta. H. -08. L. -08. 
Shows one and a half bands of plait pattern : cf. 198. 

278. Male statuette : terra-cotta (two fragments only). H. -21. 
D-M. 5. Winter, Antike Terrakotten, III, p. 177, 3. 

Found N. E. of the town near the Eurotas at the place called <povpvos, where 
other terra-cottas and vases were found. The head, lower left arm, and all 
the body below the waist are lost. The left arm is completely preserved 
(1. .21, height of remaining portion of body • 10 x ). The forms are youthful : 
the figure is in a very stiff position, and the back is bent in behind. The 
left arm curves inward ; and, as is shown by the broken surface, the 
hand rested flat against the thigh with the thumb outwards. 

280. Glass bottle. H. -18. Di. 10. 

Semicircular-shaped body with long neck, top broken. It was found in 
a tomb in the house of D. Krites (?). 

Kastriotes notes that under this number the first catalogue described the 
body of a pyxis showing a seated woman. This, according to a telegram 
of Stamatakes (11/23 J un e 18 ?), was stolen from the Museum. 

335. Pyramidal weight : terra-cotta. H. -08. 

Similar to 197, but complete and has a hole bored through the top. 

347. Dioscuri riding : terra-cotta antefix. H. a 7. L. -25. 

Both Dioscuri are seen riding to the right. Both wear the pileus : and their 
chlamydes flutter out behind. The foremost Dioscurus appears from 
behind the other. It is considerably damaged on the right, and below 
in the middle. Spirited work, probably 2nd cent. B. C 

348. Two warriors fighting : handle of vase (fragment) : terra-cotta. 
H. .06. D-M. 278. 

At the base of the handle where it springs from the body and on the outside 
of it are two nude warriors fighting. Their inside legs cross, and their 

1 Dressel and Milchhofer say it was -19 high ; they also describe the head. This 
is now lost : if it was .09 high, as seems probable, this would account for the difference 
in the measurements. Kastriotes notes that it was lost as long ago as the time when 
Stamatakes made the first catalogue of the Museum. 



232 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

bodies are bent away from one another. The warrior on the ri jht has 
his shield on his left arm and strikes with his right. The one on the left 
covers himself with his shield on his left arm, and looks as though about 
to return the blow with his right. Good composition, sketchy work, 
2nd cent. B. c. 

359. Pyramidal weight : terra-cotta. H. '09. 

Complete, hole bored through top : cf. 197 and 335. 

390. Amphora: terra-cotta. H. «78. 
Two handles : complete. 

391. Pithos: terra-cotta. H. -58. Di. at mouth -23, of body «40. 

It is plain except for two bands, each of three raised lines round the body, 
and a similar one just above the foot. 

405. Brooch (?) : bronze. L. -09. 

Pin broken away. Decorated with linear ornamentation. Its shape in 
general is that of a wedge, joined at its thick end by a narrow piece to 
a semicircle, whose edge is ornamented with seven knobs. The edges of 
the wedge end are decorated with an open work scroll. 

406. Miscellaneous lot of coins : 1 silver and 237 bronze. 

(a) Hadrian ; silver denarius, 1. 

Obv. Head to r. ; HADRIANVS AVG. COS. III. P. P. 
Rev. Female figure en face holding cornucopia in 1., and scales in r. 
hand : MONETA AVG. Cohen, 324. 

(b) Maximianus; small bronze, 1. 

Obv. Head to r. ; IMP. C. M. VAL. MAXIMIANVS AVG. 
Rev. Victoria crowning resting Hercules ; VIRTVS AVG. ; in exer- 
gue XXI AT. Cf. Cohen, 426. 

(c) Constantine; small bronze, 1. 

Oku Head to r. ; CONST ANTINVS MAX. AVG. 
Rev. Two soldiers either side of a signum ; CONCORDIA EXER- 
CITVS; in exergue SHNS. 

(d) Laconia, 146-32 B.C., bronze, 7. 

(1) Apollo, head to r. ; rev. Eagle, AA *I. B. M. C. 26. 

(2) Similar, but inscribed AA Afe. 

(3) Heracles, head bearded, to r. ; rev. club in wreath, AA 21. B. M. C. 42. 

(4) Lycurgus, head to r. ; rev. club-caduceus in wreath, AA *I. B. M. C. 

20. 

(5) Similar, but inscribed AA NI. B. M. C. 17. 

(6) Dioscuri, heads to r. ; rev. two amphorae in wreath, AA AIE. B. M. C. 

36. 

(7) Similar, but inscribed AA AT. 

(e) Byzantine; bronze, 47 : (in bad condition). 

(/) Venice, colonial issues ; bronze, 9. 

{g) Miscellaneous illegible coins ; bronze, 172. 

436. Ideal female head : terra-cotta; hollow. H. -20. D-M. 105. 
Bull. Inst. 1873, p. 212. 

Formerly in possession of Kopsomanikos : badly damaged. The head is 
a little inclined to its right. The hair is centre-parted, and waved away 
behind. It hangs down behind the ears in two corkscrew curls. Round 
top of head is a stephane ; on the hair before it are traces of an ivy (?) 
wreath. The ears, hanging curls and the diadem were probably separately 
modelled and set on. The face is oval-shaped and suggests an Aphrodite 
type. The cheeks are high and narrow, the lips parted, and the chin 



MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 233 

divided in the centre. Empty, ideal type, not earlier than second century 
b. c. Dressel and Milchhofer do not believe that its provenance is Sparta. 

516. Griffin's head : bronze. H. -09. L. -08. 

Found at Riviotissa near Amyclae. Open mouthed : broken off at neck 
which was hollow : horn growing on top of head : upright ears : pro- 
jecting eyes. Good work : fifth century B. c. 

517. Various coins of bronze and silvered bronze, in all 517. 

A. Salonina. 

Small bronze and silvered bronze : inscr. SALONINA AVG., head to r. 

(1) Rev. Fecunditas to 1. with cornucopia, FECVNDITAS AVG., 2. 

Cohen 35. 

(2) Rev. Goddess seated to 1. holding patera and two cornucopiae, CON- 

CORD. AVG., in exergue A. P., 1. Cf. Cohen, 20-22. 

(3) Rev. Ceres seated to 1. holding ears of corn and sceptre, CERERI 

AVG., 4. Cohen, 18. 

(4) Rev. Juno to 1., holding sceptre and patera, peacock by her side, IVNO 

REGINA, 12. Cohen, 48. 

(5) Rev. Aequitas to 1. with scales and cornucopia, AEQVITAS AVG., 4. 

Cohen, 10. 

(6) Rev. Veiled goddess seated to 1. holding sceptre, PVDICITIA, 1. 

Cohen, 63. 

(7) Rev. Hygieia to r. feeding snake, SALVS AVG., 4. Cohen, 69. 

(8) Rev. Goddess armed with shield and spear, holding helmet to 1., 

VENVS AVG., 12. Cohen, 76. 

(9) Obv. Inscr. CORN. SALONINA AVG., head to r. 
Rev. Goddess (?) standing to r. VIRTVS (?) AVG. 

(10) Illegible, 1. 

B. Gallienus. 

Small bronze and silvered bronze : inscr. G ALLIEN VS AVG., head to r. 

(1) Rev. Aequitas to 1., AEQVITAS AVG., 9. (One inscr. GALLIENVS 

P. F. AVG.). Cohen, 34, 35. 

(2) Rev. Sol standing to 1., AETERNITATI AVG., 10. (Four inscr. 

GALLIENVS P. F. AVG.) Cohen, 50, 51. 

(3) Rev. Saturn holding sceptre to r., AETERNITAS AVG., 1. Cohen, 44. 

(4) Rev. Aesculapius standing en face, CONSERVATOR AVG., 9. 

Cohen, 96. 

(5) Rev. Felicitas with globe and sceptre (?) to r., FELICIT. AVG. 1. 

Cohen, 119. 
(5 a) Similar, but goddess holds cornucopia, 1 . 

(6) Rev. Fortuna holding rudder and cornucopia to 1., FORTVNA 

REDVX, 2. Cohen, 175. 

(7) Rev. Fortuna redux holding caduceus and cornucopia to 1., FOR- 

TVNA REDVX, 7. Cohen, 173. 

(8) Rev. Genius before altar to 1., GENIO AVG., 1. Cohen, 181. 

(9) Rev. Genius to 1., GENIVS AVG., 1. Cohen, 183. 

(10) Obv. Inscr. IMP. C. P. LIC. GALLIENVS P. F. AVG. 

Rev. Gallienus receiving sceptre and globe from Juppiter, IOVI CON- 
SERVATOR!., 1. Cohen, 225. 

(11) Rev. Juppiter Stator en face, IOVI STATORI, 20. (Five inscr. GAL- 

LIENVS P. F. AVG.) Cohen, 233, 234. 

(12) Rev. Goddess seated to r. INDVLGENT. AVG., 1. Cohen, 198. 

(13) Rev. Gallienus armed to 1., IVBENTVS AVG., in exergue vn c, 1. 

Cohen, 245. 

(14) Rev. Laetitia holding wreath and anchor to 1., LAETITIA AVG., 6. 

Cohen, 249. 

(15) Rev. Diana Lucifera to r., LVNA LVCIFERA, 6. Cohen, 345. 
(i 6) Rev. Mars to 1., MARTI CONSERV., 3. Cohen, 350. 

(17) Rev. Mars to r., MARS VICTOR, 3. Cohen, 548. 

(18) Rev. Couchant ram to r., MERCVRIO CONS. AVG., 3. Cohen, 362. 



234 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

19) Rev. Minerva to 1., MINERVA AVG., in exergue vil c, 1. Cohen, 364. 

20) Rev. Pax to 1., PAX AVG., 1. Cohen, 390. 

21) Rev. Gallienus to 1., sacrificing, PIETAS AVG., 6. Cohen, 416. 

22) Rev. Lion to 1. P. M. TR. P. XII. C. VI. P. P., 4. (One with head 
to left.) Cohen, 454. 

23) Obv. Inscr. GALLIENVS P. F. AVG. 
Rev. Serapis en face, P. M. TR. P. XII. COS. V. P. P., 1. Cohen, 452. 

24) Rev. Neptune to 1., P. M. TR. P. XV. P. P., 7. Cohen, 458. 

25) Rev. Mercury to 1., PROVIDENTIA AVG., 10. Cohen, 470. 

26) Rev. Goddess to 1., PROVID. AVG., 1. Cohen, 464. 

27) Rev. Roma seated to 1., ROMAE AETERNAE, 6. (Three inscr. 
GALLIENVS P. F. AVG.) Cohen, 491, 493. 

28) Rev. Stag to 1., SAECVLARES AVG., 2. (On one head of emperor 
to 1.) Cohen, 497. 

29) Rev. Apollo by tripod to 1., SALVS AVG., 6. Cohen, 499. 

30) Rev. Hygieia to r., feeding serpent from patera, SALVS AVG., 2. 
Cohen, 503. 

31) Rev. Sol en face, SOLI AVG., 1. 

32) Rev. Pegasus to r., SOLI CONS. AVG., 1. Cohen, 524. 

33) Rev. Sol to 1., SOLI INVICTO, 5. Cohen, 529. 

34) Rev. Uberitas standing to 1., VBERITAS AVG., 1. Cohen, 541. 

35) Rev. Goddess with spear holding helmet, VENERVICTRICI, 10. Cf. 
Cohen, 55°~552. 

36) Rev. Similar goddess holding shield, spear and helmet, same legend, 1. 
Cf. Cohen, 550-552. 

37) Rev. Victoria running to 1., VICTORIA AVG., 9. (Four inscr. GAL- 
LIENVS P. F. AVG.) Cohen, 587, 589. 

38) Rev. Virtus to r., VIRTVS AVG., 7. Cohen, 661. 

39) Rev. Virtus to 1., same legend, 6. Cohen, 656. 

40) Rev. Gallienus fully armed to r., same legend, 4. Cohen, 664. 

41) Rev. Mars to r., same legend, 3. Cohen, 650. 

42) Obv. Inscr. IMP. C. P. LIC. GALLIENVS AVG. 
Rev. Mars to r., same legend, 1. Cf. Cohen, 652. 

43) Rev. Hercules to r., same legend, in exergue vil c, 8. Cf. Cohen, 662, 
663. 

44) Rev. Hercules resting to r., VIRTVS AVGVSTI. 
and 37 illegible coins. 

C. Volusianus, small bronze, 1. 

Obv. Head to r., IMP. CAE. C. VIB. VOLVSIANVS AVG. 
Rev. Pax to 1., PAX AVG. Cf. Cohen, 39. 

D. Macrianus, small bronze, 2. 

(1) Obv. IMP. C. FVL. MACRIANVS P. F. AVG., head to r. 
Rev. Sol to 1., SOLI INVICTO. Cohen, 9. 

(2) Obv. Similar inscr. and type. 
Rev. Roma seated to 1., ROMAE AETERNAE. Cohen, 8. 

E. Galerius, small bronze, 1. 

Obv. Head to r., GAL. VAL. MAXIMIANVS. NOB. CAES. 
Rev. Galerius to r. before Juppiter carrying Victoria, CONCORDIA 
EXERCITVS. Cf. Cohen, 59. 

F. Laconia, bronze, 3. 146-32 B.C. 

(1) Heracles, head bearded, to r. ; rev. club in wreath, AA HET. 1. Cf. 
B. M. C. 4T. 

(2) Dioscuri, heads to r. ; rev. two amphorae, AA A. 2. Cf. B. M. C. 37. 

G. Sicyon, bronze, 1 : dove in wreath to 1., rev. 21 in wreath. 

Ptolemy Euergetes, 1 : head to 1., rev. eagle, BA5IAEH2 nTOAEMAIOT. 
Byzantine, 7. 
Ionian islands, 1. 
Illegible, 17. 




MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 235 

518. Hexagonal block : terra-cotta. Di. -075. H. -04. 

Top concave with central boss. In the concave part around the boss 
are the letters : — 

N 
B E 

Form of <p d>. It was found on the land of Matallas near the iron bridge 
over the Eurotas. 

520. Fragment of pithos: thick, coarse clay. L. 'ig. H. -14. 
Th. «02. Introd. § 4. Fig. 82. 

The fragment comes from the upper part of the body on the left of one 
of the handles, whose root still exists on the right of the fragment. It 
is decorated with very low relief. At the top there is a projecting rim 
ornamented with an ovolo pattern. 
Below this on the body is a similar 
pattern ; and then an astragal. Under 
this part of procession of warriors 
is visible. On the left, driving a 
chariot to the right, is a bearded man 
clad in a chiton with ornamentation 
on its lower edge, and a himation 
over his right shoulder. Only the 
curved tail of the chariot is visible. 
Behind him walking to the left is 
a fully armed warrior. He wears 
a large crested helmet, carries one 
spear in his right, and two in his left 
hand. On his left arm he also wears a large round shield, whose pattern 
consists of rays springing from a central circle within which is a similar 
pattern. Good work : sixth century, B.C. 

533. Spear-head, bronze. L. -53. B. -025. 

Found in a tomb at Anogeia. Part of socket broken away ; on each face 
a projecting midrib. 

549. Contents of tomb found by the mill of Matallas on the right 
bank of the Eurotas. 

(1) Sleeping dog to r. ; terra-cotta ; H. .02, L. .035. 

(2) Bone die. L. .03. H. .02. 

On upper side : : : , bottom blank, on opposite sides • . and : • : , 
and : : . The hollow part of the bone in the centre was filled up. 

(3) Seven pieces of bone split in half, each -08— 10 long. There is a hole 

in the centre of each as though they were meant to be strung together. 
One piece is ribbed, and another has three belts of three incised lines 
on it. 

(4) Five flat pieces of bone pointed at one end. L. -07—13, B. .02—03. 

Four have holes bored in their flat ends. Three pieces are plain. 
Three pieces are decorated with belts of three engraved lines and 
concentric circles. 

(5) Three oblong pieces of bone. Two decorated with concentric circles 

and belts of three engraved lines. One has a scroll pattern. 

(6) Small piece of bone. L. .03. D. -015. One end pointed, other end runs 

to a narrow shaft, at whose base a hole is pierced. On it by lines 
and circles is a rude representation of a human face. 

(7) Eight fragments of bone : four are pierced at one end ; and one is carved 

and cut by incised lines into a double row of squares. L. -05— 1 1. 

(8) Mouthpiece of bone. L. -035. 

(9) Two strips of lead. L. .13. 

(10) Three pieces of lead wire. 

(11) Iron nail. L. .06. 

(12) Fragment of strainer in thin black ware. L. .06. 

(13) Foot of statuette : bone. L. -05. H. -03. Coarse work. 



236 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

(14) Ribbed bronze rod. L. .12. 

(15) Bronze ring. Di. -04. 

(16) Bronze lid. Di. -05. H. .03. Peaked top. 

(17) Neck and mouth of oenochoe, bronze : trefoil shape. H. .03. 

(18) Flat bronze lid. Di. .06. 

(19) Eleven fragments of bronze vessels. 

(20) Fragment of bronze belt. L. 08. W. .05. It is decorated at regular 

intervals with silver (?) gilt cone-shaped bosses (H. .03, Di. -03), 
two of which are still attached to belt, and two are loose. 

(21) Two pieces of petrified bone. L. .09. 

550. Various objects from the Amyclaeum. 

(1) Bronze ram. L. .06. H. -035. 

(2) Fragment of Mycenaean terra-cotta figurine. Female ; head, arms, and 

feet broken off. Ordinary late Mycenaean type, crescent-shaped body 
(of which the arms are the horns) on a columnar stand, the two legs 
close together ; breasts indicated by the attachment of two circles of 
clay with a dab of brown paint in the centre. Body decorated with 
light brown oblique vertical stripes. Band of dark brown round the 
waist. H. .06. W. •04. 

(3) Four fragments of Mycenaean pottery : all pieces of handles. Two 

show dark brown, and the other two light brown linear ornament. 

(4) Two fragments of coarse common ware. 

All these were found during Tsountas's excavations in 1890. 

551. Vase fragments from the Tholos tomb at Vaphi6. Introd. § 3. 

(1) Fifteen fragments similar in style to the Cnossus Palace ware (Late 

Minoan II). They show light and dark brown floral ornament on 
pale brown clay. 

(2) One piece of coarse thick unornamented ware. 

552. Figurines in lead. Introd. § 7. Fig. 79. 

Found during Kastriotes' excavations at the Menelaeum in 1889. 
Various types as follows : — 

(1) Warriors with large round shields, spears, and large crested helmets. 
Fragments of eight of these shields only with attachments of limbs. 

Size varies from .03 to .015 long. Patterns of shields, rays (4), 
concentric circles (2), concentric circles and rays combined (1), St. 
Andrew's cross and Greek cross combined (wheel) (1). 

(2) Female figures in long chitons girt at the waist and with long hair. 

Body rendered en face, rest of figure in profile to the left. Fragments 
of three. H. ^03. 

(3) Oblongs pierced with squares ; two types (a) pierced with six squares. 

H. 02. B. -015 (one specimen), (J8) pierced with four squares (one 
specimen), .015 square. These have at the middle of one of the 
shorter ends an attachment, which shows which end was originally 
uppermost, and that they were fastened on to something else. 

(4) Wreaths: or rather rayed rings. About 274, either whole or in 

fragments. The rays vary in shape, as also does the distance between 
them. Usually the rays are narrow and pointed : in a few cases they 
are clove-shaped : once or twice their place is taken by round knobs, 
and in two cases the rays are not cut out but merely stamped on a flat 
band of metal outside the ring. There is a narrow ribbon-like attach- 
ment (broken) to each wreath in two cases. One wreath by means 
of this is still attached to a narrow curving bar. Di. •01—03. 

(5) Fragment of palm (?) branch. -025 long. 

(6) Plain leaden ring. Di. .025. 

552 a. Figurines in lead. Introd. § 7. Fig. 79. 
Found by Philios on the right bank of the Eurotas near the garden 
of Tagares. 

(1) Warrior in profile to r. : shield decorated with concentric circles, spear, 
and large crested helmet. H. -03 (one specimen). 



MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 237 

(2) Oblong pierced with, six squares : attachment at one short end. H. -02. 

B. -015 (one specimen). 

(3) Ox in profile to right, on stand. L. -025. H. .02. 

(4) Winged female figures. They wear long chitons, and high peaked caps : 

their wings curl up at the ends ; chiton ornamented with oblique or 
vertical net-work; all in profile to 1. Three large broken specimens, 
H. .04 ; and one small, one complete, H. .03. 

(5) Female figures, votaries. Clad in long chitons decorated with vertical 

and horizontal ribbed lines ; the body is represented en face : they 
wear big plumed hats, and carry in each hand a patera : all in profile 
to r. : they have long hair. About ten specimens. H. -035—025. 

(6) Eighteen wreaths ; all but one, which has round knobs, are with pointed 

rays. Two are still attached by their supports to a narrow curving 
bar : one is small (Di. -015), and the other large (Di. -025). 

(7) A kind of caduceus. H. .034. At its bottom it was attached to 

something. 

552 b. Figurines in lead. Introd. § 7. 

(1) Two warriors, broken; shields with ray pattern. H. '025. 

(2) Four female figures in long chiton and high peaked caps. Three in 

profile to 1., and one en face : chitons decorated with oblique net- 
work. H. -035. 

(3) Two fragments of other unintelligible figures. 

(4) Twenty-four wreaths or fragments of wreaths : four have round knobs, 

the rest pointed rays : all have attachment supports. Di. •01—02. 

553. Figurines and small vases from the Menelaeum : terra-cotta. 
Found in Kastriotes' excavations, 1889 and 1900. Introd. § 6. 
A. Figurines: none are complete: the heads have been broken from 
whole figures. 

(1) Seated archaic type : pinched bird-like face ; arms folded on breast ; 

arms and eyes put on separately : one specimen, broken. H. -07. 
Winter, Antike Terrakotten, III 1 , p. 28, 9. 

(2) Standing archaic male type : back bent in ; pinched bird-like face ; eyes 

put on separately. Three specimens. One has a crested hat : all 
broken. H. 'io. 

(3) Head of a figure similar to those classed under (2), but it wears a necklace 

with a round stone hanging from its centre ; eyes and necklace put 
on separately. H. '05. Winter, Antike Terrakotten, III 1 , p. 26, 3. 

(4) Man riding horse : much broken ; clumsy late archaic work : one 

specimen. L. .08. H. .05. 

(5) Horses : broken : clumsy late archaic work. L. .06. H. .04. 

(6) Male head : long hair ; prominent nose ; type of Apollo of Tenea : 

one specimen. H. -05. 

(7) Male head : long hair behind ; formal curls over forehead ; large staring 

eyes ; heavy projecting jaws. Early fifth-century work : one specimen. 
H. .05. 

(8) Seated goddess : long hair ; wears polus ; arms rest on knees ; wears 

himation with heavy decorated edge ; clumsy work : one specimen. 
H. .08. 

(9) Female head : wears stephane ; hair arranged in three rows of curls 

over the forehead : one specimen. H. -07. 

(10) Long-haired youthful female figure, clad in short sleeved chiton, and 

carrying on her head a hydria with a peaked lid. In four specimens 
she holds the hydria with her right hand : in three specimens her 
arms hang stiffly at her sides ; and in one specimen she holds with 
both hands a fawn (?) before her. H. .12 (none complete, hollow 
moulded). Winter, Antike Terrakotten III 1 , p. 157, Nos. 1, 5, 8. 
Figs. 83, 84, 85. 

(11) Seated goddess, clad in a long chiton with diplois, right arm on breast, 

left rests on knee ; throne high backed ; feet rest on footstool ; wears 
polus ; hollow moulded : three specimens. H. .08 and .12. 



2 3 8 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

(12) Veiled female figure in long chiton and himation drawn over back of 

head: three specimens (1) right arm laid across waist, and left on 
shoulder, H. .17; (2) himation drawn across at neck, H. -08 ; (3) 
himation drawn across below breasts, H. .16 : all hollow moulded. 

(13) Female head, long hair ; wears polus\ one specimen. H. -04. 

(14) Female head, hair in curls, himation over back of head : two specimens. 

H. .05. 

(15) Female head, wearing helmet on back of head : one specimen (face only). 

H. .06. Hollow. 

(1 6) Female figures in chiton, ungirt : right arm hangs at side, left arm 

rests on hip ; hollow: two specimens. H. »tf. 

(17) Female head: long hair, ear-rings, polus : one specimen. H. .05. 

(18) Female figures in chiton and himation: wear stephane; arms hang at 

sides; hollow: two specimens. H. -14. 

(19) Head, aged female : hair centre-parted and waved away to sides ; 

hollow : one specimen. H. -04. 

(20) Male figure: legs only; remains of drapery hanging behind; hollow: 

one specimen. H. -12. 

(21) Female figure in chiton and himation: headless; carrying with left 





Fig. 83. 



Fig. 84. 



Fig. 85. 



arm on shoulder a child ; right arm on breast ; hollow : one 
specimen. H. .11. 

(22) Female figure in doric chiton: headless; arms hang at sides; hollow: 

one specimen. H. .17. 

(23) Female figure in chiton and himation (complete but much worn) ; wears 

polus ; solid ; r. arm on breast ; 1. arm at side ; one specimen. H. .11. 

(24) Female torso in ribbed doric chiton : arms bent up at sides : one 

specimen. H. .055. 

(25) Feet, from complete figures : two specimens ; one wears a sandal. 

H. .08. L. .07. 

(26) Bird : one specimen. L. .07. 

(27) Hand and arm, broken : one specimen. L. .06. 

(28) Two unintelligible fragments. 

(29) Fragment of seated female figure clad in chiton and himation. H. >IX. 

B. Vases. Introd. §§ 4, 6. 

(1) Cantharus shape: eight specimens ; size .025—05 ; one unbaked of grey 

clay ; two not true canthari, but more like two-handled cups ; all 
unpainted; handles do not come above the rim. Cf. 799 (1), 
803 (1). 

(2) Aryballus-shaped ; eight specimens ; size -04—015 ; two black glazed, 

the rest unpainted. 

(3) Cups with two horizontal handles close to bottom : nine specimens ; 

size -045—02 ; eight black glazed and one covered with dark red 
paint. 



MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 239 

(4) Single-handled cups: two have vertical, and two horizontal handles; 

size .02—03 ; one black glazed. 

(5) Two-handled cups: five specimens; four small, .02 high; one large, 

H. -025. Di. -05, and black glazed; it has horizontal handles. 

(6) Lamp ; black glazed. H. .02. Di. '04. 

(7) Three fragments of black glazed bowls. 

(8) Whorl, and clay ball; one specimen of each. Di. -03 and -02. 

(9) Small fragment of black Megarian bowl ; moulded ware. L. «05. 

(10) Fragment of bowl with horizontal handles ; shows black and red-brown 

linear ornament on yellowish slip ; thin, well-moulded ware. The 
decoration consists of a scroll pattern between two lines of dots on 
the outward curving up ; the handle at the top of the body springs 
from a black belt, below this is a red-brown broadish belt between 
two narrow black lines, and then springing out from the base to 
a narrow black line is a ray pattern. 

(1 1) Four fragments of handles, three of black glazed ware ; and trefoil top 

of a black oenochoe ; and seven odd vase fragments. 

(12) Tall three-handled cup ; elongated hydria shape. H. .09. 

(13) Three fragments of a black glazed handle, studded with flat round 

knobs. 

562. Miscellaneous lot of coins : thirty-nine bronze and one silver. 

(1) Achaean League : silver; illegible: I. 

(2) Gallienus, inscr. GALLIENVS AVG. with head to r. : 2. 

(1) Rev. Gallienus standing to r., VIRTVS AVG. Cohen, 664. 

(2) Rev. Goddess standing to 1, holding shield, spear and helmet, 

VENERI VICTRICI. Cohen, 550. 

(3) Byzantine ; miscellaneous : 10. 

(4) Venice ; colonial issues : 10. 

(5) Illegible : 25. 

570. Small lion : bronze. L. -05. 

Now lost ; was open mouthed ; first noted as lost by Philios. 

583. Antefix : terra-cotta. H. «20. B. -17. 

Between two acanthus stalks which curl outwards at the top into volutes 
is a draped youthful male bust. It appears to be of an Apollo type ; the 
hair waves away to the sides, is tied in a crobylus on top, and falls in long 
locks on the shoulders. Late, sketchy work ; imperial period. Formerly 
in house of Kechagias. 

587. Pyramidal weight : terra-cotta. H. -14. 
Top broken off, cf. 197, 335, &c. 

587 a. Pyramidal weight : terra-cotta. H. '13. 
Top broken off, cf. 197, 335, &c. 

587 b. Pyramidal weight : rosso antico. H. -io. 
Top broken away, cf. 197, 335, &c. 

503. Various objects of bronze. 

Found near Magula on the road to Varsova. 

(1) Two bronze pigs. L. .05. H. .04. 

(2^ Bronze horse. L. .05. H. .06. 

All these three animals are shown in profile to the right; at the bottom their 

four legs are joined together to a kind of point as though they were 

intended to be set in to some object. 

(3) Fragment of small bronze plate. Di. -07. 

(4) Fragment of terra-cotta tile. L. .10. H. .07. 

Complete above with an egg and dart pattern ; below are remains of what 
is apparently an Eros supporting one end of a garland ; badly damaged. 

(5) Two pieces of iron. 



240 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

594. Nude female statuette: bronze. H. -14 ; mirror handle. 

Cf. Korte, Arch. Studien H. Brunn dargebracht, p. 25 seqq., and the 
bronze found by Tsountas at the Amyclaeum, 'E<£. s Apx- 1892, pi. 1 : 
De Ridder, Cat. des Bronzes, 150; cf. Introd. § 5. 

Feet close together rest on a square base; hands raised above the head, 
palms outwards and brought close together ; hair apparently filleted and 
arranged in formed curls. Not good work ; late archaic period, early 
fifth century B.C. 

595. Stone hammer. L. »o8. Introd. § 2. 
Pale green stone. 

595 a. Stone celt. L. .04. B. .03. Introd. § 2. 

Dark greenish black stone with yellow veins. Found at Hagios Basileios 
near Xerokambi. 

675. Antefix: terra-cotta. H. -23. L. «i6. 

Shows part of an acanthus scroll decoration ; imperial period. 

678. Stone implement. L. -io. Introd. § 2. 
Pole-axe shape ; of red stone. 

679. Figurines in lead. 

v. UpaKTucd, 1900, p. 76, 6. Introd. § 7. Fig. 79. 
Said by Georgiades to have been found at Vavyka. 

(1) Warriors with large crested helmet, shield and spear. H. .03. 

(a) In profile to r. : three specimens ; two have the two-cross pattern on 
their shields, and the other seven dots in a circle. 

(/3) In profile to 1. : six specimens ; four have simple ray patterns on their 
shields, one a plain central circle with rays outside combined with 
seven dots, and one a plain shield. One has a double-crested 
helmet. 

(2) Female figures in long chitons, and high peaked caps ; holding paterae 

bodies en face. H. .035. 
(o) In profile to r.; four specimens; chiton has a vertical network 

pattern. 
(/3) In profile to 1. : two specimens ; chiton has an oblique network 

pattern. 

(3) Unintelligible object, two ribs spring out obliquely from a broadish 

piece, and are joined across above by two attachments at regular 
intervals. L. .03. 

680. Antefix, semicircular. L. -23. H. -21. 

It shows a Medusa head of a young, refined type, en face, but slightly turned 
to the left ; long flowing hair ; marked bar ; wings on head above. Un- 
even late work. 

685. Lamps: terra-cotta. 

Found in tombs by Matallas on his land near Sparta. 

(a) Large lamp. Di. -18. Introd. § 4. 

Solid handle with four holes pierced through it vertically, centre is sunk and 
has a plain border. It shows Athena standing en face, but slightly turned 
to the left. She wears a long chiton with the aegis and a helmet ; her 
left hand rests on her spear held vertically at her side. Her shield leans 
against a pillar on which sits an owl on her left. On her right is a table 
with griffin (?) shaped legs ; on it is coiled a serpent to which Athena holds 
out her right hand as though to feed it. Above, on the left, appears the 
branch of a tree. Much broken ; good work of third to second century B. c. 



MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 241 

(/?) Small lamp. Di. -io. 

Half the sunken centre is broken away ; but enough remains to decide the 
subject. It shows the Dioscuri wearing pileus and chlamys facing each 
other with their horses. Their right legs are free. Only the right-hand 
Dioscurus remains. Late work, not earlier than first century B. c. 

(y) Small lamp. Di. '07. 

Sunken centre with hole in it ; dot border round edge ; in centre merely ray 
pattern inside three concentric circles. Complete : imperial period. On 
the bottom in low relief the inscription APKAD ; probably the maker's 
name. 

688. Whetstone. L. -26. 

Ellipsoid : of dark blue stone full of small holes. 

693. Various objects from the Amyclaeum : bronze and iron. Introd. 
§§ 2, 5. 

Found by Tsountas during his excavations in 1890. 

(1) Two bronze oxen. L. .06, H. .03. j j^ archaic ^^ 

(2) Bronze horse. L. ^04, H. .02. \ r 

(3) Twenty-nine pieces of bronze wire : armlets (?). 

(4) Five pieces of bronze rod with rings and round knobs projecting at 

intervals. 

(5) Piece of big bronze rod with three round knobs gradually decreasing in 

size. L. .18. 

(6) Piece round knobbed bronze handle. L. .055. 

(7) Four bronze rings. Di. -02, H. .01. Three plain bands of metal, one 

of bronze wire wound spirally. 

(8) Horse's hoof, and lion's paw of bronze. 

(9) Two pieces of bronze bands, one with a single, and the other with 

a double anthemion pattern. 

(10) Bronze knife blade. L. .09. 

(11) Bronze handle. L. -io. 

(12) Bronze wheel (half). Di. .14. 

(13) Flat bronze ring. Di. -05. 

(14) Bronze base. Di. .15, H. .03. Edge scotia shaped and bears an 

anthemion pattern ; hollow ; in centre a hole -05 in diameter ; good 
work. 

(15) Iron knife. L. .07. 

(16) Sword blade, fragment, iron. L. -23, B. -04. Double edge. 

(17) Sword blade, fragment, iron. L. .19, B. 04. Double edge. 

(18) Eleven bronze hair-pins ; various patterns, some with rings and some 

with knobs at the end. L. a 4. 

(19) Obsidian knife. L. .035. 

694. Figurines in lead. Introd. § 7. Fig. 79. 

Found near the right bank of the Eurotas about the same place as 
552 a. 

(1) Winged female figure : one specimen. Clad in long chiton with oblique 

network pattern ; body en face ; long hair hanging down her back ; 
wings curve gently upwards, in profile to the left. H. ^04. 

(2) Female figure armed with bow : one specimen. Wears long chiton with 

a hatched pattern ; long hair hanging down the back ; peaked head- 
dress ; in profile to left ; holds before her with both hands a bow and 
arrow as though in the act of stretching the bow. H. -04. 

695. Silver coins. 

Found on the right bank of the stream running north of Sparta. 
(a) Athens, tetradrachms (527-430 b. c.) 3 : cf. B. M. C. 46-61. 

(1) Head of Athena, to r.: archaistic style, eye en face ; helmet decorated 

with three olive leaves, and sprig of olive behind ; wears ear-rings ; 

hair in two stiff loops above the eye. 

s.c. R 



242 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

Rev. Owl, archaic, to r. : above on left twig of olive with two leaves and 
an olive, and a small crescent, on r. reading downwards A O E : all in 
incuse. 

(2) Similar coin : olive twig on helmet more curly, and olive leaves thinner; 

loops of hair hang over the eyebrow, and left-hand loop droops before 
ear. 
Rev. Similar, with similar inscription; olive leaves longer, and olive 
round. 

(3) Similar coin: more spread. Hair and olive twigs as on 1, but olive 

leaves narrower, ear-rings larger. 
Rev. Similar to 1, but more carelessly executed. 

(t>) Argos, diobol: 1. 

Head and fore quarters of wolf to 1. ; below wolf's head SO. 
Rev. "A" in incuse. Cf. B. M. C. 54 seqq. 

696. Stele: terra-cotta. H. -15. 

Hollow and pyramidal in shape, back rounded, top broken off. It shows 
a nude youth en face (head lost). Round his left arm hanging at his side 
is some drapery ; r. leg is free ; he apparently rests his right arm on 
a beam at his side holding in his right hand some unintelligible object 
formed of coils. Coarse work. 

697. Female torso : terra-cotta. H. -n. 

Head, arms, and legs lost ; clad in chiton with diplois, and himation on 
left shoulder, fastened on the right shoulder ; back much bent in. 

698. Female statuette : terra-cotta. H. -io. 

Legs only ; right leg free ; wears long chiton and himation. Found in the 
garden of the Museum. Good work ; third to second century B.C. 

699. Female statuette : terra-cotta. H. -095. 

Feet lost; clad in a skirt, and a bodice with puffy sleeves both fitting 
tightly ; veil-like cap on back of head ; arms hang at sides. Covered 
with creamy slip ; red stripe round edge of cap in front, and down each 
side of bodice and skirt ; marked waist. Probably modern. 

700. Female head : terra-cotta. H. '05. 
Left cheek, nose, mouth, and chin only. 

701. Seven vases. 
From Locris. 

(o) Deep two-handled bowl; black glazed; handles horizontal. H. .11, 

Di. .13. Good ware. 
(/3) Brown glazed stemless kylix. H. .06, Di. -io. Coarse ware. 

(7) Brown glazed kylix. H. .05, Di. .08. Coarse ware. 

(8) Black glazed stemless kylix. H. .05, Di. .10. Good ware. 

C«» C *7) Three two-handled (horizontal) cups; white slip, red-brown and 

black linear ornament ; belt of short vertical lines round top, rest 

of decoration thick and thin horizontal belts. H. .03, Di. .05. 
Moderate work. 

702 a-f. Seven stone pounders. Introd. § 2. 

Round, of compact greenish stone. One (a) is .04, six are .085 in di. ; some 
flattened at top and bottom, others cuboid. 

703. Stone knife. Introd. § 2. 

Dark, slaty stone ; rounded wedge shape ; at pointed end is a hole bored. 
L. .06. 

704. Whetstone. 

Same stone as 703 ; oblong, hole bored through in centre of one of the 
short ends. L. .08, B. .02. 



MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 243 

705. Terra-cotta spool. 

Shaped like an 8 with perforation at the waist; black glazed. L. .05, B. -03. 
For the glaze, cf. 792. 

714. Human head, of mummy. 
Provenance unknown. 

788. Miscellaneous coins : one silver and sixteen bronze. 

(a) Faustina senior : large, bronze : 1. 
Head to r., inscr. DIVA FAVSTINA. 

Rev. Goddess standing en face holding sceptre in right and palladium in 
left hand ; S. C. Cohen, 268. 

(b) Constantine, Rome : small bronze: 1. 
Helmeted female head to 1. : inscr. VRBS ROMA. 

Rev. Wolf to 1., suckling Romulus and Remus, in exergue SMKB. 
Cohen, 13. 

(c) Laconia: bronze: 1. 
Bearded head of Lycurgus to r. 

Rev. Club-caduceus in wreath, inscr. A A Cf. B. M. C. 14. 

EA?A 

(d) Byzantine : silver : 1 ; bronze : 7. 

(e) Venice: colonial, bronze : 1. 
(/) Illegible : bronze : 5. 

789. Miscellaneous coins ; one silver and twelve bronze. 

(a) Numerian : small, bronze : 1. 

Head to r., IMP. C. NVMERIANVS P. F. AVG. 
Rev. Emperor and soldier sacrificing over an altar before the statue of 
a goddess ; — NTIA TEMP ; in exergue xxi. Cohen, 21. 

(b) Venice; colonial, bronze: 2. 

(c) Byzantine : bronze : 4. 

(d) Turkish : silver : 1 . 

(e) Ionian islands : bronze : 4. 
(/) German token (?) : bronze: 1. 

790. Miscellaneous fragments : bronze, iron. 
Provenance unknown. 

(1) Piece of bronze chain. L. .05. 

(2) Bronze ring. Di. -02. 

(3) Thirteen small pieces of bronze. 

(4) Three iron nails, and four small flat pieces of iron. 

(5) Round knob of lead. 

(6) Root of stag's horn. 

(7) Two vase handles, terra-cotta. 

(8) Oenochoe; H. -u ; coarse work, covered with red-brown glaze except 

in centre where there is a belt of five narrow stripes. 

(9) Piece of round clay tile : L. .10 (broken in two pieces) : on upper 

surface are stamped a number of small rosettes. 
(10) Blue mosaic tessera. 

791. Miscellaneous terra-cottas and vases. Introd. § 4. 

(a) Antefix, semicircular; H. .16; on it a Medusa similar to 680. 

(6) Lion's head spout. L. •09. 

(7) Female statuette : in chiton and himation, r. leg free, 1. arm on waist, 

r. hand to chin, head lost. H. .13. 

(8) Male torso. L .06. leg, H. .07. arm, L. .08. 

(«) Two pyramidal loom weights; complete, holes bored through tops; 

one -03, and the other oS high. 
(0 Head (upper part) of herm-like figurine, back hollow. H. .05. 
(17) Black glazed aryballus. H. .03. 
(6) Two kylikes; one black glazed, H. -05, Di. .08, one red-brown paint on 

reddish slip (uncoloured belt round centre of body), H. .07, Di. -06. 



244 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

(t) Miniature hydria with metallic black glaze on red; three handles; in 

panel on front hatched triangular ornament black on red. H. .08. 

For the fabric compare the fragments from the Amyclaeum, 792. 
(k) One-handled (horizontally placed) cup; plain. H. -05, Di. .10. In it 

a paper containing three mosaic tesserae, and five illegible small 

bronze coins. 
(A) Five fragments of black glazed ware ; two with geometrical ornament, 

the rest plain. 

792. Tin containing vase fragments. Introd. § 4. 

From the Amyclaeum. 

Thirty-two fragments: about half of late geometric pottery, the rest or 
coarse local ware covered with a metallic glaze that varies from red-brown 
to black. Cf. 713, 791 (1), 799 (9). 

793. Tin containing vase fragments. Introd. § 4. 
From the Amyclaeum. 

A spout of an oenochoe, and two other fragments of geometric style. One 
geometric fragment showing a scroll pattern ; and a piece of a geometric 
pithos showing a scroll pattern with the spaces filled with small dots. 
A roller of coarse burnt clay. L. .07. 

Two fragments of tiles showing a curving wing pattern with the stripes 
consisting of black and red-brown alternately. 

794. Figurines : terra-cotta. Introd. § 3. 

From the Amyclaeum : found during Tsountas's excavations in 1890. 

A. Human. 

(1) Mycenaean female type : sixty ordinary specimens. Legs joined together 

into a column splaying out at base (in one case the base is bell-shaped) : 
crescent-shaped body of which the arms are the horns : pinched 
bird-like head flattened on top. Eyes and breasts indicated, and in 
many cases put on separately. Decoration linear, consists principally 
of zigzag wavy lines, and straight lines variously combined. Paint ; 
slip pinkish to pale yellow ; linear ornament rendered in red, red- 
brown, or brown-black lustrous paint. H. •12—07. 

Three specimens of same type unpainted. H. .12—06. 

One specimen, with columnar legs and body, and pointed arms set in at 
right angles; head lost. H. .08. 

One hand, grasping foot of a vase, may well be Mycenaean. The fingers 
are well modelled. On the wrist remains of a snake-like body, 
possibly a snake drinking from the vase. 

(2) Nude male torso : archaic. Head, left arm, right leg, left foot and right 

hand lost. Solid, rudely executed. Right arm was upraised as though 
brandishing something. H. .12. 

(3) Late terra-cottas ; two female heads ; head of enthroned goddess ; head 

and shoulders of female figure in chiton and himation. Torso, right 
leg free, hands at sides, male (?). All much damaged. 

B. Animal. 

(1) Unpainted early terra-cottas. 

Two rams; one dog; five cows, and one cow's head; eight horses (?), 
one horse's head with remains of bridle, piece of horse's body with 
legs of rider. Clay grey to reddish; greatest H. .07 ; greatest L. .10. 

(2) Mycenaean. 

(a) Small. Two cows ; thirteen horses ; all solid. Paint, red or red- 
brown lustrous colour. L. •11—045, H. '06—05. 

{6) Large, hollow. Four cows' heads ; fifteen pieces of quadrupeds' 
bodies ; eight legs. Decoration : linear ornaments of straight and 
zigzag lines, scrolls, and rosettes. Slip pinkish; paint lustrous red 
to red-brown in colour. 



MISCELLANEOUS ANTIQUITIES 245 

(3) Geometric (?). One whole bird with outstretched wings ; and three 
birds' heads, two large and one small. Complete bird, L. -06, H. «o6. 
Colour, black-brown on pinkish slip. Ornament, rude linear. 

796. Whorls, &c. Introd. § 4. 

From the Amyclaeum. Found during Tsountas's excavations. 

(1) Stone whorls: twenty-one specimens, all conoid in shape; of dark 

purple steatite, and highly polished, probably by use. 

(2) Bone whorl : one specimen, flat and ring-like. 

(3) Clay whorls: fourteen specimens ; two flat and ring-shaped ; nine conoid; 

and three of a flat spherical shape. 

(4) Clay whorl, with geometric ornament in black glaze paint. Eight conoid 

specimens, one of which is hollow : six of a flat spherical shape. 

(5) Two clay rings with geometric ornament in black glaze paint. 

(6) Stone axe; pole-axe shape ; of crystalline limestone. L. .06. 

(7) Fragments of stone polisher; flattened sphere shape; of crystalline 

limestone. 

797. Loom weights : terra-cotta. 

From Tsountas's excavations at the Amyclaeum. 

Seven specimens; of coarse clay; pyramidal; holes bored through their tops. 
H. .08-013. 

798. Vase fragments. Introd. §§ 3, 4. 

From the Amyclaeum : found during Tsountas's excavations. 

(1) Mycenaean. 

(a) Cnossus palace style (Late Minoan II). Eight selected fragments (see 

802) all showing bold floral patterns. Fabric rather thick, but of 
finer clay than the corresponding Cretan jars ; probably local imitations. 
Yellowish slip ; decoration in lustrous paint varying from red to brown. 

(b) Mycenaean proper (Late Minoan III). Eight fragments: fine fabric; 

conventionalized floral patterns; lustrous colour varying from red 
to dark brown, which seems to be painted on the vase directly without 
any slip. In one case white dots are added to the pattern. 
With these is one fragment of thin ware covered with black paint showing 
a wavy leaf pattern in white. 

(2) Geometric. 

Forty fragments of typical geometric pottery. Paint, lustrous brown-black 
applied directly to the clay which varies from dull pale red to brick red. 
Patterns show typical geometric motives, swastika, zigzag lines, hatched 
triangles, oval dots, diamonds, meanders, and hatched crosses. They also 
represent a procession of narrow-waisted, triangular-bodied nude men, 
antelopes, long-necked and long-legged birds, and fish. Several of the 
fragments from their thickness and shape seem to come from large pithoi. 
In one case six pieces formed part of a large vase round whose edge was 
decoration consisting of meanders and antelopes (or horses ?) arranged 
alternately. In another case, to judge by fabric, colour, and style, seven 
pieces come from a large pithos decorated with men and birds. 

(3) Corinthian. 

One small fragment showing a flame and tongue pattern between two animal 
friezes, possibly lions and griffins or sphinxes. 

(4) Red figure. 

A small fragment showing only part of a draped human figure. 

799. Miscellaneous vases. Introd. § 4. 

From Tsountas's excavations at the Amyclaeum. 

(1) Five small cantharus vases. H. .04-055. Cf. 553, B. 1. 
(a) Two-handled mug on four feet which are ornamented with deep-cut 
incised lines. H. .09. 



246 SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 

(3) Two flat circular dishes, one stands on four feet, incised line ornament. 

Di. '08—09. 

(4) Two cups with one handle and a round bottom, incised line ornament. 

H. .04-05. 

(5) Similar cup with six pointed knobs round the body, no incised lines. 

H. -04. 

(6) Jug, incised circles. H. .04. 

All these of common local fabric and uncertain date. 

(7) Single-handled flask, red linear pattern. H. .05. 

(8) One single-handled and one two-handled cup, red linear ornament 

(scrolls, &c, Mycenaean in character). H. .04, Di. .05. 

(9) Two round saucers, two-handled, geometric decoration in lustrous black 

paint. Di. .06—08. 

(10) Two-handled cup, red-brown with white stripes round the body and 

the lip. H. .03. 

(11) Fragment of bowl of thick, coarse fabric: has red painted coil pattern 

attached separately round the neck; on top it was pierced like 
a strainer. L. -14. 

800. Various fragments from the Amyclaeum. 
Found in Tsountas's excavations in 1890. 

(1) Two pieces from a large terra-cotta pithos. Moulded lip, with projecting 

dentil ornament, coloured with red and black lustrous colours. L. -u 
and .16. 

(2) Fragment of circular like stamped with rosettes. L. .17. 

(3) Piece of circular stamp showing geometric linear patterns. H. .06. 

(4) Three antefixes, terra-cotta; anthemion patterns; late work. H. -13, 

•i5i -16. 

(5) Three fragments of yellow glazed pottery with pattern in green and 

brown. Turkish ? 

(6) Base of white glazed bowl with linear pattern in blue. Turkish ? 

801. Box containing potsherds from the Amyclaeum. 

Found during Tsountas's excavations. A large quantity of unimportant vase 
fragments mostly unpainted, also a packet of bronze coins in very bad 
condition. 

802. Box containing fragments from the Amyclaeum. Introd. § 3. 
Found during Tsountas's excavations. Contents : a large quantity of vase 

fragments in very bad condition, apparently similar in style to 798, I a ; 
quantity of miscellaneous iron and bronze fragments all very broken and 
damaged, including many bronze rings (of these objects 693 is a fair 
sample). 

803. Miscellaneous vases, &c. : terra-cotta. Introd. § 4. 
Found near Magula. 

(1) Three small cantharus-shaped vases. H. .04. Cf. 553, B. 1, and 799, 1. 

(2) Three two-handled vases similar to 553, B. 3. H. .03. Painted black. 

(3) Flattened spherical loom weight. H. .04. 

(4) Hydria; three-handled. H. .08. 

(5) Torso and legs of nude male figurine, right leg free, very badly damaged 

and bad work. H. -09. 

(6) Roman lamp : in centre horse galloping to r. ; round rim squares and 

rosettes alternately. L. .12. 

(7) Christian lamp: in centre studded cross; round rim studded scroll 

pattern. L. .11. 
(8} Two fragments of a lamp, and four fragments of small vases. 
(9) Plain bowl. Di. .18. 
(10) Fragment of bowl. Di. .18. 

804. Stuffed crocodile. 



INDEX 



The numbers given are those of the Museum. 



BRONZES. 



Amyclaeum, 550 (i), 693, 802. 

Brooch, 405. 

Fragments, 549 (14-20), 593 (3), 

693(3-14), 790(i-3), 802. 
Griffin, head, 516. 
Horse, 593 (2), 693 (2). 
Knife, 613 (10). 
Lion, 570. 



Mirror handle, 694. 

Oxen, 693 (1). 

Pigs, 593 (1). 

Pins, 693 (18). 

Ram, 550 (1). 

Statuette, female nude, 594. 

Sword, 533. 



COINS. 



Achaean League, 562 (1). 

Amyclaeum, 801. 

Argos, 695 (b). 

Athens, 695 (a). 

Byzantine, 406(e), 517(g), 562 (3), 

788 (d), 789 (c). 
Constantine, 406 (c), 788 (b). 
Faustina senior, 788 (a). 
Galerius, 517 (e). 
Gallienus, 517 (b), 562 (2). 
German token ?, 789 (f). 
Hadrian, 406 (a). 
Illegible, 406 (g),517 (g), 562 (5), 

788 (f), 801. 



Ionian islands, 517 (g), 789 (e). 

Laconia, 406 (d), 517 (f), 788 (c). 

Macrianus, 517 (d). 

Maximianus, 406 (b). 

Numerianus, 789 (a). 

Ptolemy Euergetes, 617 (g). 

Salonina, 517 (a). 

Sicyon, 517 (g). 

Turkish, 789 (d). 

Venice, 406 (f), 562 (4), 788 (e), 

789 (b). 
Volusianus, 517 (c). 



MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS. 



Amyclaeum, 796, 797. 

Bone, 549 (2-8, 13). 

Crocodile, stuffed, 804. 

Glass bottle, 280. 

Horn, 790 (6). 

Iron. 549 (11), 593 (5), 790 (4), 

802. 
Lamp, 553 (b), 685, 803 (6, 7). 
Lead, 549 (9, 10), 693 (15, 17). 

figurines, 552, 552 (a), 552 (b), 
679, 694. 



Loom weights, 197, 335, 359, 587, 

791 (c), 797. 
Menelaeum, 552, 553. 
Mummy, head, 714. 
Obsidian, 693 (19). 
Stone implements, 595, 595 (a) 

678, 702, 703. 
Tomb, contents, 549. 
Whetstone, 688, 704. 
Whorls, 796. 



248 



SPARTA MUSEUM CATALOGUE 



TERRA-COTTAS. 



Amyclaeum, 550, 794. 

Antefix, 45, 347, 583, 675, 680, 

791 (a). 
Apollo, 583. 
Dioscuri, 347. 
Dog, 549 (1). 
Eros, 45. 

Geometric (?), 794 b (3). 
Head, female, 436, 791 (£). 
Lion's head, 791 (£). 
Medusa, 680, 791 (a). 
Menelaeum, 553. 



Statuettes : 

Animals, 553 a (5), 553 a (26), 

794 b. 
Archaic, 553 a (1-4). 
Female, 553 a (9-19, 21-24, 29), 
697, 698, 699, 700, 791 (y), 
794 a (3). 
Male, 278, 553 a (6, 7, 20), 

791 (8), 794 a (2). 
Mycenaean, 550 (2), 794. 
Stele (?), 696. 
Tile, 593 (4). 
Tool, 705. 



VASES. 



Amphora, 169, 390. 
Amyclaeum, 550, 792, 793, 798, 

799, 800, 801, 802. 
Cantharus, 553 b (1), 799 (1), 

803 (1). 
Corinthian, 798 (3). 
Fragments, 792, 793, 801, 802. 
Geometric, 791 (1), 792, 793, 

798 (2), 799 (9). 
Locrian, 701. 
Menelaeum, 553 b. 



791 



Miscellaneous, 790 (7, 8) 

(17-A), 799, 800, 803. 
Mycenaean, 550(3), 551, 798 (1) 

802. 
Pithos, 391. 

Fragment, 198, 199, 520. 
Red figure style, 798 (4). 
Relief, on handle, 348. 

On pithos, 520. 
Vaphi6, 551. 



CASTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 



For the convenience of directors of cast museums and archaeological 
libraries, &c, the following lists are given. 

CASTS. 

Obtainable from the Royal Museum^ Berlin. 



Sparta 
Museum. 


Cat. No. 


Mould No. 


Berlin Cat. No. 
(from Sparta). 


Mould No 


I 
4 


781 
782 


1296 
1297 


731 421 

732 422 


1378 
I303 



It is said that the first two casts are from moulds by Martinelli, which 
were bought after his death when his collection of moulds was sold by 
auction in Rome. What became of his other moulds is apparently not 
known. At Sparta he also cast Nos. 3, 6, 27, 94, 201, 301, 307, 316, 
319, 415, 450, and at Dhimitzana the Timocles and Aristocles reliefs. 
Casts of all these are extant at Berlin and in many other Museums. 



CASTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 



249 



PHOTOGRAPHS. 



English Photographic Company : 


German Archaeological Institut 


Messrs. Beck and Barth, Athens. 




Athens. 


Sparta Museum. 


Cat. No. 


Sparta Museum. 


Invent. No. 


i A and B 


Ij 2 


6 


2787 


4 


4 


20 


7473 


468 


3 


49 a 


7472 






51a 


7469 






136 


2822 






293 


2820 






3 6 4 


747i 






416 


2789 






45o 


3730 






468 


585 






565 


3729 






594 


3728 






708 


2791, 2792,2823 






717 


7470 




British Sch 


ool, Athens. 




Obtainable from 


Hellenic Society, 


22 Albemarle Street, London, W. 


Sparta Museum. 


Invent. No. 


Sparta Museum. 


Invent. No. 


1 A 


750I 


441 


7518 


1 B 


7502 


442 a 


7519 


2 


7503 


447 


7520 


2 


7504 


454 a 


7521 


3 


7505 


492 


7506 


27 


7505 


504 


7507 


39 a 


7506 


505 


7505 


89 


7507 


513 


7522 


90 


7507 


520 


7523 


94 


7508 


553 (10) 


7523 


140 


7508 a 


575 


7524 


156 


7509 


576 


7525 


170 


7509 


580 


7526 


201 


75IO 


588 


7527 


202 


75io 


594 


7523 


203 


75IO 


600 


7504 


257 


75ii 


655 


7528 


3 2 5 


7512 


683 


7529 


325 (Profile) 


7513 


710 


7522 


326 


7514 


717 


7530 


356 


7515 


737 


75°9 


364 


75i6 


739 


753i 


364 (Profile) 


7517 


763 


7528 


413 


7506 






Gerald Relief (Introd. Sculpt. 


§3N) . 


7532 


Dhimitzana, 


Timocles Relief 




7533 


» 


Aristocles Relief 




7533 



OXFORD 

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BY HORACE HART, M.A. 

FRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY 



DF Sparta. Central Museum 

^3 A catalogue of the Sparta 

S7 museum 



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