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Copyright, 1911 
By Robert Appleton Compant 

Copyright, 191S 
By the encyclopedia PRESS, INC. 

The articles in this work have been written specially for The Catholio 
Encycbpedia and are protected by copyright. All ricchts, includ- 
ing the right of translation and reproduetiont are reserved. 



Contributors to the Eleventh Volume 

AHAUS, HUBERT, S.T.D., Ph.D.. St. Joseph's 
CoLLBQE, Mill Hill, London: Ordere, Holy. 

AHERNE, CORNELIUS, Rector, Professor of 
New Testament Exegesis, St. Joseph's Col- 
lege, Mill Hill, London: Pasch or Passover. 

AHERNE, JAMES, South Omaha, Nebraska: 
Omaha, Diocese of. 

ALDASY, ANTAL, Ph.D., Archivist of the Li- 
brary OF the National Museum, Budapest: 
OUh, Nicolaus. 

ALLARIA, ANTHONY, C.R.L., S.T.D., Abbot of 
S. Tbodoro, Lector of Philosophy and Theol- 
ogy, Genoa: Peter de Honestis; Peter Fourier, 
Saint; Peter Nolasco, Saint; Peter of Arbues, 
Saint; Peter of Verona, Saint. 

rior OF Parker's Hall, Oxford: Oates's Plot; 
Oblati; Otivetans. 

AMADO, RAMON RUIZ, S.J., LL.D., Ph.L., Coi/- 
LBOB OF St. Ignatius, Sarria, Barcelona: 
Orense, Diocese of; Orihuela, Diocese of ; Osma, 
Diocese of; Oviedo, Diocese of; Palencia, LHocese 
and University of; Pamplona, Diocese of. 

Puisne Judge, Supreme Court of Canada, 
Ottawa: Ontario. 

ARENDZEN, J. P., Ph.D., S.T.D., M.A. (Cantab.}, 
Professor of Sacred Scripture, St. Edmund's 
College, Ware, England: Occult Art, Occult- 

Periodical Literature, Catholic, England. 

Capuchin Monastery, Dublin: Nugent, Fran- 

Catharine's Convent of Mercy, New York: 
O'Reilly, Hugh. 

AVELING, FRANCIS, S.T.D., London: Phenom- 

tory, Birmingham, England: Pachomius, Saint; 
Pammachius, Saint; Pamphilius of Ciesarea. 
Saint; Pantsanus; Paul the Hermit, Saint; Paul 
the Simple, Saint; Peter of Alexandria, Saint; 
PhilastnuSy Saint. 

BANDELIER, AD. F., Hispanic Society of Amer- 
ica, New York: Pedro de Cordova. 

BANGHA, ADALBERT V., S.J., Member of the 
Cathouc Philosophical Society of Thomas 
Aqthnas (Budapest), Innsbruck, Austria: 
Pton&ny, Peter. 

(OxoN. AND Cantab.), Cambridge, England: 
Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels. 

BARRETT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Buckie, Scotland: 
Ogilvie, John, Venerable. 

BARRY, WILLIAM CANON, S.T.D., Leamington, 
England: Oxford Movement; Parables. 

BAUMBERGER, GEORG, Knight of the Order 
OF St. Sylvester, Editor-in-Chief, "Neub 
ZttRiCHER Nachrichten", ZuRit^H: Periodical 
Literature, Catholic, Switzerland. 

S.T.D., Rome : Old Catholics. 

BECHTEL, FLORENTINE, S.J., Professor of 
Hebrew and Sacred Scripture, St. Loins 
University, St. Louis: Noe; Paralipomenon, 
The Books of; Pharao. 

BENIGNI, Mgr. UMBERTO, Prothonotary 
Apostolic Partecipante, Professor of 
.Ecclesiastical History, Pontificia Accademia 
DEI NoBiLi Ecclesiastici, Rome: Nicastro; 
Nicosia; Nicoteraand Tropea, Diocese of; Nocera, 
Diocese of; Nocera dei Pagani, Diocese of; Nola, 
Diocese of; Non Expedit; Norcia, Diocese of; 
Noto, Diocese of; Novara, Diocese of; Nusco, 
Diocese of; O^iastra, Diocese of; Oppido Mamer- 
tina, Diocese of; Oria, Diocese of; Oristano, Dio- 
cese of; Orvieto, Diocese of; Osimo, Diocese of; 
Ostia and Velletri, Diocese of; Otranto, Arch- 
diocese of; Pacca, Bartolommeo; Padua, Diocese 
and University of; Pagano, Mario; Falermo, 
Archdiocese and University of; Palestrina, Dio- 
cese of; Parma, Diocese of: Paruta, Paolo; 
Passaglia, Carlo; Passionei, I>omenicO; Patti, 
Diocese of; Pavia, Diocese and University of; 
Penne and Atri, Diocese of; Periodical Literature, 
Catholic, Italy; Peru^a, Archdiocese of; Pesaro, 
Diocese of; Pescia, Diocese of. 

BERTRIN, GEORGES, Litt.D., Fellow of the 
University, Professor of French Litera- 
ture, Institut Catholique, Paris: Olivier de 
la Marche; Ozanam, Antoine-Frid^ric. 

BEWERUNGE, H., Professor of Church Music, 
Maynooth College, Dxtblin: Organ. 

BIHL, MICHAEL, O.F.M., Lector of Ecclesiasti- 
cal History, Collegio San Bonaventura, 
QuARAccHi, Florence: Orbellis, Nicolas d'; 
Pacificus of Ceredano; Pacificus of San Severino, 

BLANC, JOSEPH, S.M., Nukualofa, Tonga 
Islands: Oceama, Vicariate ApostoUc of. 

BLANCHIN, F., O.M.L, S.T.D., Oblate Scholas- 
tic ate, Ottawa, Canada: Oblates of Mary 

BLENK, JAMES H., S.M., S.T.D., Archbishop of 
New Orleans, LomsiANA: Pefialver y Cardenas, 

Director, "Canoniste Contemporain", Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law, Institut Catholique, 
Paris: Nomination; Nomocanon; Notaries; 
Notorietv, Notorious; Ordinariate; Ordinary; 
Parish; rarochial Mass; Penitential Canons. 

London: Oratory of St. Philip Neri, The. 


Valkenburq, Holland: Pallium; Pectorale. LL.B., Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nova Scotila. 

LEGE, Valkenburg, HOLLAND : Peter Canisius, Bouro-la-Reine, Seine, France: Ouen, Saint; 

Blessed. Perpetuus, Saint. 

BRfiHIER, LOUIS-RENfi. Professor of Ancient CONWAY. KATHERINE ELEANOR, Boston: 
AND Medieval History, University of O'Reilly, John Boyle. 

Clermont-Ferrand, Puy-de-D6me, France: 

Nogaret, Guillaume de; Palaography; Pastou- COSSIO, ALUIGL S.T.D., S.S.D., J.U.D., Bacca- 
reaux. Crusade of the; Peter de Blois; Peter the laurbus and Licentiatus of the University 

*' " OF Padua, Rome: Paulinus II, Sidnt, Patriarch 


BRENNAN. M. H., Devil's Lake, North Dakota: 
North Dakota. 

BRIDGE, JAMES, S.J., M.A. (Oxon.), Liverpool, 
England: Norris, Sylvester; Persecution. 

TON Castle, Perthshire, Scotland: Perugia, 
University of. 

BRUCKER, JOSEPH, S.J., Editor of "Etudes", 
Paris: Parrenin, Dominique. 

BRUNAULT, J. S. HERMANN, S.T.D., Bishop of 
Nicolet, Province of Quebec, Canada: 
Nicolet, Diocese of. 

Archdiocese of Ottawa, Canada: Ottawa, 
Archdiocese of. 

BURTON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F.R.Hist.Soc, Vice- 
President, St. Edmund's College, Ware, 
England: Nicholson, Francis; Noble, Daniel; 
Northcote. James Spencer; Norwich, Ancient 
Diocese oi ; Odo, Saint, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury: Off a. King of Mercia; Old Hall (St. Ed- 
mund's College); Oldham, Hugh; Palmer, Wil- 
liam; Pandulph; Panzani, Gregorio; Paulinus, 
Saint. Archbishop of York; Pecock, Reginald; 
Penal Laws, I. In England, II. In Scotland; 
Pendleton, Henry; Peyto, William. 

BYRNE, JEROME FRANCIS, Superior General, 
Brothers of St. Patrick, Jullow, Ireland: 
Patrician Brothers. 

CABROL, FERN AND, O.S.B., Abbot of St. 
Michael's, Farnborough, England: Noctums; 
None; Occurrence; Octavarium Romanum; Oc- 
tave; Office, Divine; Office of the Dead; Pax in 
the Liturgy. 

CAL^S, JEAN, S.J,, Professor of Old Testament 
Exegesis, Enghien, Belgium: Osee. 

CALLAN, CHARLES J., O.P., S.T.L., Professor 
OF Philosophy, Dominican House of Stud- 
ies, Washington: Orthodoxy. 

the''Soci£T£ Belge de Sociologie", Professor 
OF Sacred Scripture and Sociology, Episco- 
pal Seminary, Bruges, Belgium: Philemon. 

CARROLL, JAMES J., S.T.D., Bishop of Nueva 
Segovia, Phiuppine Islands: Nueva Segovia, 
Diocese of. 

CASTETS, J., S.J., Professor of Philosophy and 
Political Science, St. Joseph's College, 
Trichinopoly, India: Nobili, Robert de'. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), Prior, 
St. Thomas's Abbey, Erdington, Birmingham, 
England: Novatian and Novatianism; Optatus, 
Saint; Papias, Saint; Patrology; Paul of Samo- 
sata; Per^rinus. 

of Aquileia. 

Architects, President, Boston Society of 
Architects, Boston: Niche; Pailadio, Andrea. 

Maryland: Oblate Sisters of Providence. 

CRIVELLI, CAMILLUS, S.J., Professor of Gen- 
eral History, Instituto CiENTfeioo, City of 
Mexico: Periodical Literature, Catholic, Mexico. 

Diocese of Nottingham, Lincoln, England: 
Nottingham, Diocese of. 

CROFTON, K., New York: Parahyba, Diocese of. 

Rector, English Colle.oe, Rome: Petitions 
to the Holy See. 

Llanishen, Cardiff, Wales: Newport, Diocese 

CUTHBERT, FATHER, O.S.F.C, Crawley, Sus- 
sex, England: Persico, Ignatius. 

D* ALTON, E. A., LL.D., M.R.I.A^ Athbnry, Ire- 
land: G'Connell, Daniel; O'Fihely, Maurice; 
O'Hanlon, John; O'Neill, Hugh; O'Neill, Owen 
Roe; O'Reilly, Edmund; Omory, Diocese of; 
O'Sullivan Beare, Philip; Penal Laws, III. In 

DALY, JOSEPH J., S.J., Professor of English 
Literature, Ateneo de Manila, Philippine 
Islands: Nueva Cdceres, Diocese of. 

DEASY, JOHN A., M.A., LL.B., Cincinnati, 
Ohio: Ohio. 

DEDIEU, JOSEPH, Litt.D., Instttut Catholiqub, 
Toulouse, France: Peter of Auvergne; Peters- 
sen, Gerlac. 

DEGERT, ANTOINE, Lrrr.D., Editor, "La 
Revue de la Gascoigne", Professor of Latin 
Literature, Institut Catholique, France: 
Nicolas, Auguste; Noailles. Louis-Antoine de; 
Nonnotte, Claude-Adrien; Ossat, Amaud d'. 

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., Instructor in 
French, College of the City of New York: 
Nic^ron, Jean-Pierre; Paris, Alexis-Paulin; Paris, 
Gaston-Bruno-PauUn; Perrault, Charles. 

DELANY, JOSEPH, S.T.D.^ New York : Obedience; 
Occasions of Sin; Omission; Parents; Perjury. 

DEVINE, ARTHUR, C.P., St. Paul's Retreat, 
Mount Argus, Dublin: Passionists; Passionist 
Nuns; Passions; Paul of the Cross, Saint; Per- 
fection, Christian and ReUgious. 

DE WULF, MAURICE, Member of the Belgian 
Academy, Professor of Logic and iEsTHETics, 
University of Louvain: Nominalism, Realism, 



Gbeensboro, North Carolina: North Carolina. 

DRISCOLL, JAMES F., S.T.D.j Nbw Rochellb, 
New York: Nicodemus; Ointment in Scrip* 
ture; Onias; Oriental Study and Research; 
Osias; Patriarch; Pectoral; Pharisees. 

Fonda, New Yo]^k: O'Callaghan, Edmund 

DRUM, WALTER, S.J., Professor op Hebrew 
AND Sacred Scripture, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Pu^allelismj Patrizi, Francis Xavier; 
Paul of Burgos; Pereira, Benedict; Perrone, 
Giovanni; Pewdi, Tilmann. 

Passos (Santos Paasos). 

DUBRAY, C. A., S.M.. S.T.B^ Ph.D., Professor 
OF Philosophy, Marist College, Washing- 
ton: Nourrisson, Jean-Felix. 

DUHEM, PIERRE, Professor of Theoretical 
Physics, University of Bordeaux: Oresme, 

DUNN, JOSEPH, Ph.D., Professor of Celtic 
Languages and Literature, Catholic Uni- 
versity OF America, Washington: O'Braein, 
Tl^ernach; O'Growney, Eugene; O'Hussey, 

EGAN, ANDREW, O.F.M., Professor of Theol- 
ogy. The Friary, Forest Gate, London: 
Pecnam, John. 

Barbara, California: Padilla, Juan de: Palou, 
Francisco; Pareja, Francisco; Payeras, Mariano; 
Peres, Juan. 

Ph.D., Professor of the Spanishuaengao L, 
Lelano Stanford University, San Francisco, 
Caufornia: New Mexico; Penitentes, Los 

Newton, John. 

FANNING, WILLIAM H. W., S.J., Professor of 
Church History and Canon Law, St. Louis 
University, St. Louis: Obreption; Oratory; 
Pi^Mil Elections; Parish, In English Speaking 
Countries; Pension, Ecclesiastic^. 

FENLON, JOHN F., S.S^ S.T.D., President, St. 
Austin's College, Washington: Professor 
OF Sacred Scripture, St. Mary's Seminary, 
Baltimore: Olier, Jean-Jacques. 

FERET^ P. CANON, Saint-Maurice, France: 
Pans, University of. 

FISCHER, JOSEPH, S.J., Professor of Geogra- 
PHY AND History, Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch. Austria: Nicolaus Germanus; Orte- 
lius (Oertel), Abraham. 

FLAHERTY, MATTHEW J., M.A. (Harvard), 
Concord, Massachusetts: O'Meara, Kathleen. 

FLOOD, J^MES, New Norcia, Australia: New 

FORD, JEREMIAH D. M., M.A., Ph.D., Profbs- 
bor of the french and spanish languages, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachu* 
9wrm: Ojeda, Alonso de; Parini, Giuseppe; 
Pellico, Silvio; Petrarch, Francesco. 

FORGET, JACQUES, Professor of Ddgmatig 
Theology and the Syriac and Arabic Lan- 
guages, University of Louvain: Nicole, 

worth, Hertfordshire^ England: Nikon, 
Patriarch of Moscow; Nilus, Saint; Nilus the 
Younger; Nonnus; (EcUmenius; Offertory; Orate 
Fratres; Oremus; Orientius; Orsisius; Orthodox 
Church; Orthodoxy, Feast of; Palladius; Patri- 
arch and Patriarchate; Paulicians; Peter Mon- 

FOX, WILLIAM, B.Sc., M.E., Associate Profe». 
BOR OF Physics, College of the City of New 
York: Nollet, Jean-Antoine; Palmieri, Luigi; 
Peuerbach, Georg von. 

FREELAND, JOHN, Bedford, England: North- 
ampton, Diocese of. 

FRERI, Mgr. JOSEPH, D.C.L., Director General 
IN THE United States of the Society for 
THE Propagation of the Faith, New York: 
Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Blessed. 

FUENTES, VENTURA, B.A.. M.D., Instructor, 
College of the City of New York: Pdrez de 
Hita, Ginds. 

GABRIELS, HENRY, S.T.D. (Louvain). Bishop 
OF Ogdensburg, New York: Ogaensburg, 
Diocese of. 

Louis University^ St. Louis: Nicholas of 
Tolentino, Saint; Nicolas, Armella. 

No's College, St. Asaph, Wales: Person; 

GERARD, JOHN, S.J., F.L.S., London: Perry, 
Stephen Joseph. 

Titular of Barlings, Corpus Christi Priory, 
Manchester, England: Norbert, Saint; Park, 
Abbey of the. 

GHELLINCK, JOSEPH DE, Professor of Pa- 
trology and Medieval Theological Liter- 
ature, Louvain: P^tau, Denis: Peter Cantor; 
Peter Comestor; Peter Lombara. 

GIETMANN, GERARD, S.J., Teacher of Classi- 
cal Languages and ^Bsthetics, St. Ignatius 
College, Valkenburg, Holland: Niessen- 
berger, Hans; Nimbus: Oppenordt, Giles-Marie; 
Orme, Philibert de 1'; rerrault, Claude; Peruzzi, 

GILLET, LOUIS, Paris: Painting, Religious; Peru- 

bishop OF Oaxaca, Mexico: Oaxaca, Arch- 
diocese of. 

GLOUDEN, ATHANASE, Ph.D., Litt.D., Profes- 
sor OF Literature, CoLiisoE St-Michel. 
Editor, ''Le Patriote", Brussels: Periodical 
Literature, Catholic, Belgium. 

GOYAU, GEORGES, Associate Editor. " Revue 
DEs Deux Mondes'', Paris: Nice, Diocese of: 
Ntmes, Diocese of; Normandy: Odo, Bishop ot 
Ba^eux; 0116-Laprune, L^n; Oran, Diocese of; 
Onflamme; Orleans, Councils of; Orl^ns, Diocese 
of; Pamiers, Diocese of; Paris, Archdiocese of; 
P^rigueux, Diocese of; Periodical Literature, 
Catholic, France; Perpignan, Diocese and Uni- 
versity of. 



RoBBMOUNT, ENNiBOORTflT, Ibbland: O'Hagaii, 
Thomas; OOiOghlen, Michael; O'Reilly. Mylee 
William Patrick; Periodical literaturei Catholic, 

GREY, FRANCIS W., LL.D., Ottawa, Canada: 
Ottawa, University of. 

HAGEN, JOHN G., S.J., Vatican Observatory, 
Rome: Nicholas of Cusa; Paul of Middelburg. 

Pisano; Nola, Giovanni Marliano da. 

HANNA, EDWARD J., S.T.D., Professor op Dog- 
matic Thsoiogt anp Patrologt, St. Ber- 
nard's Seminary, Rochester, N. Y.: Penance. 

HANSEN, NIELS, M.A., Copenhagen, Denmark: 
Olaf Haraldson, Saint. 

HARENT, STfiPHANE, S.J., Propessor of Dog- 
matic Theology, Ore Place, Hastings, Eng- 
land: Original Sin. 

HARTIG, OTTO, Assistant Librarian of the 
Royal Library, Munich: Nubia. 

HASSETT, Mgr. MAURICE M., S.T.D., Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania: Orans; Orientation of 
Churches; Palm in Christian Symbolism; Paph- 

HEALY, PATRICK J., S.T.D^ Assistant Profes- 
sor OF Church History, Catholic University 
OF .^fERiCA, Washington: Nicolaites; Para- 

Church History, Franciscan Monastery, 
Washington: Nicholas Pieck, Saint; Peter 
Baptist and Twenty-five Companions, Saints; 
Peter de Regalado, Saint. 

HENRY, H. T., Litt.D., Rector of Roman Cath- 
olic High School for Boys, Professor of 
English Litbrature and of Gregorian 
Chant, St. Charles Seminary, Overbrook, 
Pennsylvania: Nunc Dimittis; O Antiphons; 
O Deus Ego Amo Te; O Filii et Fili»; O Salu- 
taris Hostia; Pange Lmgua Gloriod. 

THE Department of MSS., British Museum, 
London: Odo of Cheriton. 

HIGHLEY, MONT F^^ Assistant Attorney Gen- 
eral, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Oklahoma. 

HILGERS, JOSEPH, S.J., Rome: Novena. 

HOEBER, KARL, Ph.D., Editor, " Volkszeitung" 
AND ''Akademische MonatsblItter" Co- 
logne: Otho, Marcus Salvius; Pertinax, PubUus 
Helvius; Pescennius Niger. 

HOFMANN, MICHAEL, S.J., Professor of 
Canon Law, University of Innsbruck, Aus- 
tria: Nilles, Nikolaus. 

souri: Our Lady, Help of Christians, Feast of; 
Paschal Tide; Passion of Christ, Commemora- 
tion of the. 

side Abbey, Bath. England: Ninian, Saint; 
Obedientiaries; Ooo of Cambrai, Blessed; 
Peterborough Abbey. 

HUGHES, JAMES, LfYBRPOOL, England: Nugent, 

HULL, ERNEST R., S. J., Editor. "The Exami- 
ner", Bombay, India: Parsis (Parsees). 

HUNTER-BLAIR, SIR D. O., Bart., O.S.B., M.A., 
Fort Augustus Abbey, Scotland: Oxford; 
Oxford, University of; Periodical Literature, 
Cathohc, Scotland. 

HYDE, DOUGLAS, LL.D., Litt.D., M.R.I.A., 
Frenchpark, Co. Roscommon, Ireland: O'Car- 
olan, Torlog^; O'Conor, Charles; O'Curry, 
Eugene; O'Daly, Donogh Mor; O'Dugan, John. 

HYVERNAT, HENRY, S.T.D., Professor op 
Semitic Languages and Biblical Archjbology, 
Cathouc University of America, Washing- 
ton: Persecutions, Coptic. » 

INGOLD, A. M. P., Director, "Revue d' Alsace ", 
CoLBCAR, Germany: Oratory, French Congre- 
gation of the. 

Maryland: Oblates of St. Francis de Sales; 
Orange River, Vicariate Apostolic of. 

JARRETT, BEDE, O.P., B.A., (Oxon.); S.T.L., 
St. Dominic's Priory, London: Papal Arbitra- 

JIMENEZ, ENRIQUE, S.J., Lic.Sc., Professor of 
Mathematics, Instituto de Artes t Indus- 
TRiAS, Madrid: Periodical Literature, Catholic, 

JONES, ARTHUR EDWARD, S.J., Correspond- 
ing Member of the MinnesotAvOntario, and 
Chicago Historical Societies; noN. Member 
OF THE Missouri Historical Society; Member 
OP THE International Congress of Ameri- 
canists; Archivist of St. Mary's College, 
Montreal: Petun Nation. 

(Oxon.), St. Beuno's College, St. Asaph, 
Wales: Papacy. 

JUNGUITO, F. X., Bishop of Panama: Panama, 
Republic and Diocese of. 

KAMPERS, FRANZ, Ph.D., Professor of Medie- 
val AND Modern History, University of 
Breslau: Notker Physicus; Notker, n^hew of 
Notker Physicus; Notker, Provost of St, Gall; 
Otto I; Otto II; Otto III; Otto IV; Pepin the 
Short; Peter de Vinea. 



ENDEN Rel.-Wiss.", Frankforton-the-Main: 
Ostraka, Christian; Overbeck, Friedrich. 

KEILY, JARVIS, M.A., Grantwood, New Jersey: 
Penal Laws in the English Colonies in America. 

KELLY, BLANCHE M., New York: Norton, 
Christopher; Notre Dame de Sion, Congregation 

Professor op Law and Dean of the Law 
School, Louisiana State University, Chicago, 
Illinois: Pandects. 

KENNEDY, DANIEL J., O.P., S.T.M., Professor 
OF Sacramental Theology, Catholic Uni- 
versity of America, Washington: Ory, 
Matthieu; Paludanus, Peter; Pelargus, Ambrose; 
Peter of Bergamo. 




KENNEDY, THOMAS, B.A. (National Univer- 
siTT op Ireland), London: New Pomerania, 
Vicariate Apostolic of; Osaka, Diocese of. 

KIRSCH, Mgr. JOHANN P., S.T.D., Professor 
OF Patroloqt and Christian Arcbubologt, 
University of Fribourg: Nicephorus, Saint; 
Nicetas, Bishop of Remesiana; Nicetius, Saint, 
Bishop of Trier; Nicholas I, Saint, Pope; Nicome- 
des, Saint; Notitia Dignitatuin; Notitia Pro- 
vincianim et Civitatum Africs: Nuncio; Nuncia- 

LOFFLER, KLEMENS, Ph.D., Librarian, Uni- 
VERsiTY OF Mt^NBTER: NotkcT, Balbulus: Not- 
ker, Labeo; Odilio, Saint; Odo, Saint, Abbot of 
Cliinv; Ostrogoths; Otto, Saint; Overberg, 
Bemnard Heinrich; Pannartz, Arnold; Panta- 
leon, Saint; Paschasius, Saint; Paulinus, Saint, 
Bishop of Nola; Peasants, War of the; Periodi- 
cal Literature, Catholic, Germany; Pes, Bern- 
hard and Hieronymus; Pforta. 

_^ ^ _^ ♦LOUGHLIN, Mgr. JAMES F., S.T.D., Philadel- 

tu^rR^pSrt^;"0dih^, S^ntj ofdoinCAJi^thlo; phia: Paschal II Pope; Paid III; Paul IV, Paul 

Olympias, Swnt; Ordeals; Orosius, Paulus; Orsi, V, Popes; Philadelphia, Archdiocese of. 

Giuseppe Agostino; Orsini; Palatini; Pallavicino, 
Pietro Sforza; Paschal I, Pope; Paul I, Pope; 
Pelagia; Peter, Saint; Peter of Sebaste, Saint; 
Peter Urseolus, Saint; Petronilla, Saint; Petron- 
ius, Saint; Petrus Bemardinus; Petrus de Natali- 
bus; Philip, Saint, Apostle. 

fessor OF Ecclesiastical History, Convent 
OF the Friars Minor, Woerden, Holland: 
Periodical Literature, Catholic, Holland. 

LAPPIN, HENRY P. A., O.C.C., Carmelite Col- 
lege, Trenure, Ireland: Paoli, Angelo, Vener- 

LATASTE, JOSEPH, Litt.D., Superior of the 
Seminary. Airehsttr-Adottr, Landes, France: 
Pasc^, Blaise; Pellissier, Guillaume; Perraud, 
Adolphe; Peter of Poitiers. 

LAUCHERT, FRIEDRICH, Ph.D., Aachen: Nihus, 
Barthold; Nikolaus von Dinkelsbuhl; GScolam- 
padius, Johann; Ohler, Aloys Karl; Pfefferkom, 
Johannes; Pfister, Adolf; Philanthropinism. 

LECLERCQ, HENRI, O.S.B., London: Nic»a, 
Councils of. 

LEUAY, PAUL, Fellow of the University of 
France, Professor, Institut Cathouque, 
Paris: Paulinus of Pella. 

LEROY, ALEXANDER A., C.SS.P., Bishop of 
Alinda, Superior General of the Congre- 
gation OF the Holy Ghost, Paris: Nigeria, 
Upper and Lower. 

LETANG, H. E., B.C.L., B.D., Pembroke, Prov- 
ince OF Ontario, Canada: Pembroke, Diocese 

LETELLIER, A., S.S.S., Superior, Fathers of the 
Blessed Sacrament, New York: Perpetual 
Adoration, Reli^ous of the: Perpetu^ Adoration. 
Sisters of the; Perpetual Adorers of the Blessed 

Editor-in-Chief, "La Nouvelle France". 
Quebec: Peltrie, Madeleine de la; Periodical 
literature. Catholic, Canada. 

LINEHAN, PAUL H., B.A., Instructor, College 
OF THE City of New York: Nunez, Pedro; 
Ozanam, Jacques; Pacioli (Paciuolo), Lucas. 

LINS, JOSEPH, Freiburg, Germany: Nuremberg; 
OsnabrQck, Diocese, of; Paderbom, Diocese of; 
Palatinate, Rhenish; Passau, Diocese of. 

Assistant Director, Imperial Collection 
OF Coins and Medals, Vienna: Numis- 

MAAS, A. J., S.J., Rector, Woodstock College, 
Maryland: Pentateuch. 

MacERLEAN, ANDREW A., New York: Northern 
Territory, Prefecture Apostolic of the; Nyassa, 
Vicariate Apostolic of; Olinda, Diocese of; 
Pasto, Diocese of; Pelotas, Diocese of; Perth, 
Diocese of. 

MacERLEAN, JOHN, S.J., Professor of Hebrew 
AND Ecclesiastical History, Jesuit Scho- 
LASTicATE, MiLLTOWN Park, Dubun: O'Brua- 
dair, David. 

town, Ohio: Paulists; Penitential Orders; 
Penitents, Confraternities of. 

McGUIRE, EDWARD J., M.A., LL.B., New York: 
New York, State of. 

OF Philosophy, Dominican House of Studies^ 
Washington: Omnipotence. 

McKENNA, CHARLES F., Ph.D. (Columbla), 
Vice-President. Catholic Home Bureau, 
New York: Orpnans and Oiphanages. 

McNeill, CHARLES, Dublin: O'Brien, Terence 
Albert; O'Cullenan, Gelasius; O'Devany, Cor- 
nelius; O'Donnell, Edmund; O'Hely, Patrick; 
O'Herlahy, Thomas; O'Hurley, Dermod; 
O'Queely, Malachias. 

MACPHERSON. EWAN, New York: Nicaragua, 
Republic ana Diocese of. 

MacSHERRY, HUGH, Titular Bishop of Jusma- 
ANOPOLis, Vicar Apostolic op Eastern Dis- 
trict OF the Cape of Good Hope: Orange 
Free State. 

turer IN English, Matnooth College; 


Cross College, Clonuffe, Dublin: O'Dono- 
van, John. 

MAGNIER JOHN, C.SS.R., London: Passerat, 
John, Venerable; Perpetual Succour, Our Lady 
of. . 

MANN, HORACE K., Headmaster, St. Cuth- 
bert's Grammar School, Newcastlb-on-Ttne, 
England: Pelagius I, Pope; Pelagius II. 

French. College op the City of New York: 
Nothomb, Jean-Baptiste. 

MARSH, ERNEST, S.C., New York: Patagonia. 

MARTIN, CAROLINE L., Rel. of the Perpet- 
ual Ador., Washington: Perpetual Adoration, 
Religious of the. 



Ore Place, Hastings, England: Oracle; 

vent, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Notre Dame, 
School Sisters of. 

MEEHAN, ANDREW B., S.T.D., J.U.D., Pro- 
fessor OF Canon Law and LrruRGT, St. Ber- 
nard's Seminary, Rochester, New York: 
Pall; Pax. 

MEEHAN, THOMAS F., New York: Oertel, John 
James Maximilian; O'Hara, Theodore : O'Hig- 

S'ns, Ambrose Bernard; O'Reilty, Bernard; 
'Rorke, Patrick Henry; Farmentier, Antoine- 
Augustin; Periodical Literature, Catholic, Uni- 
ted States; Peter, Sarah. 

sor OF Moral Theology, Canon Law and 
Liturgy, St. John's College, Colleoeville, 
Minnesota: Othlo; Otto of Passau; Palm Sun- 
day; Passion Offices; Passion Sunday; Passion- 
tide; Patronage of Our Lady, Feast of the; Peter 
Gomsales, Saint; Pflug, Julius von. 

MEYNELL, ALICE, London: Patmore, Coventry. 

Lector in Philosophy, Villanova College, 
Pennsylvania: Our Lady of Good Counsel, 
Feast of. 

MOLONEY, WILLIAM A.. C.S.C, Notre Dame, 
Indiana: Notre Dame au Lac, University of. 

MOONEY, JAMES, United States Ethnologist, 
Bxtreau of American Ethnology, Washing- 
ton: Pakaw& Indians; Pano Indians; Pipago 
Indians ; Peba Indians ; Penelakut Indians j 
Penobscot Indians ; Peoria Indians ; Pericm 

MOONEY. JOSEPH F., LL.D., Ph.D., Prothono- 
TARY Apostolic, Vicar-General of the Arch- 
diocese of New York: New York, Archdiocese 

MOORE, THOMAS V., C.S.P., St. Thomas Col- 
lege, Washington: Occasionalism; Optimism; 

Archbishop of Sydney, Primate of Austra- 
lia: Palladius, Saint; Patrick, Saint. 

"Pan-American Union", Washington: Para- 
guay; Peru. 

MULLALY, CHARLES, S.J., Tortosa, Spain: 
Oriol, Joseph, Saint. 

University, St. Louis: Omer, Saint. 

OBRECHT, EDMOND M., O.C.R., Abbot of 
Gethsemani, Kentucky: Obazine, Monastery 

O'CONNOR, JOHN B., O.P., St. Louis Bbrtrand's 
Convent, Louisville, Kentucky: Nicholas of 

Bishop of Peterborough, Province of 
Ontario, Canada: Peterborough, Diocese of. 

O'HAGAN, THOMAS, M.A., Ph.D., Chicago, 
Illinois: Pardons of Brittany. 

O'HARA, EDWIN V., Portland, Oregon: Oregon; 
Oregon City, Archdiocese of. 

OJETTI, BENEDETTO, S.J., Consultor, S.C.P.F., 
CoNsuLTOR, S.C.C., Consultor of the Com- 
mission on the Codification of Canon Law, 
Gregorian University, Rome: Palmieri, Dom- 

O'LEARY, EDWARD, M.R.I.A., Portarlington, 
Ireland: O'Leary, Arthur. 

OLIGER, LIVARIUS, O.F.M., Lector of Eccle- 
siastical History, Collegio S. Antonio, 
Rome: Nicholas of Osimo; Obregonians; Olivi, 
Herre Jean; Pacificusj Panigarola, Francesco; 
Papini, Nicholas; Parkinson, Anthony; Paulinus 
a St. Bartholomfleo; Peter of Aquila. 

OTT, MICHAEL, O.S.B., Ph.D., Professor of 
THE History of Philosophy, St. John's Col- 
lege, Colleoeville, Minnesota: Nicholas 
Justinani, Blessed; Nicholas of Fltie, Blessed; 
Nicholas of Myra, Saint; Nirschl, Joseph; No- 
nontola; Notbur^a, Saint; Odo of Glanfeuil; Oet- 
tingen; Oil of Saints; 01esnicki,Zbigniew; Oliva; 
Or&ndini, Niccold; Orval; Othmar, Saint; Ot- 
tobeuren ; Qur Lady of the Snow, Feast of; 
Pagi, Antoine; Palafox y Mendoza, Juan de; 
Panvinio. Onofrio; Peter Cellensis; Peter FuUo; 
Petit-Dioier, Matthieu. 

OTTEN, JOSEPH, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: 
Okeghem, Jean d'; Oratorio; Palestrina, Gio- 
vanni Pierlui^p da; Passion Music; Pei^olesi, 
Giovanni Battista; Petrucci, Ottavio dei. 

OUSSANI, GABRIEL, Ph.D., Professor, Eccle- 
siastical History, Early Christian Litera- 
ture, AND Biblical Archeology, St. Joseph's 
Seminary, Dunwoodie, New York: Persia. 

PACE, EDWARD A., Ph.D., S.T.D., Professor of 
Philosophy, Catholic University of Amer- 
ica, Washington: Pantheism. 

Nihilism; Periodical Literature, Catholic, Poland. 

PAPI, HECTOR, S.J., Ph.D., B.C.L., S.T.D., 
Professor of Canon Law, Woodstock Col- 
lege, Maryland: Pastor. 

M.A., Master of Parker's Hall, Oxford: 
Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of: Odo of Canterbury; 
Osbald; Osbem; Osmund, Saint; Oswald, Saint, 
Archbishop of York; Oswald, Saint, King; 
Oswin, Saint; Owen, Nicholas. 

PARKINSON, HENRY, S.T.D., Ph.D., Rector, 
OscoTT College, Birmingham, England: 
Oscott (St. Mary's College); Patron Saints. 

PARSONS, J. WILFRID, S.J., Boston: Oostacker, 
Shrine of. 

"Raz6n y Fb", Madrid: Nieremberg y Otin, 
Juan Eusebio. 

♦PfeTRIDfeS, SOPHRONE, A.A., Professor, 
Greek Catholic Seminary of Kadi-Keui, 
Constantinople: Nyssa; Obba; Olba; Olympus; 
Orcistus; Pacandus; Paleopolis; Panemotichus; 
ParsBtonium; Parlais; Parnassus; Parcecopohs; 
Patara; Pednelissus; Perge; Pessinus; Petinessus; 
Phaselis; Philadelphia. 



PFEIL, NICHOLAS, B.A., Cleveland, Ohio: 
Notre Dame, Sisters of (Cleveland). 

(OxoN.)» Professor of Humanities, Univer- 
sity OF Glasgow: Paley, Frederick Apthoip. 

PHILLIPS, EDWARD C, S.J., Ph.D., Woodstock 
College, Maryland: Odington, Walter; Oriani, 
Bamaba; Pardies, Ignace-Gaston. 

PILCZ, ALEXANDER, Member of thb French 
Academy, Extraordinary Professor, Uni- 
versity of Vienna: Pathology, Mental. 

St. Bonaventure's Seminary, St. Bonaven- 
TURB, New York: Nicholas of Lyra. 

POHLE, JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., J.C.L., Profes- 
sor OF Dogmatic Theology, University of 
Breslau: Paschasius Radbertus, Saint; Pelagius 
and Pelagianism. 

POINTS, MARIE LOUISE, Editor, "The Morninq 
Star'', New Orleans, Louisiana: New Orleans, 
Archdiocese of. 

POLLEN, JOHN H., S.J.. London: Oaths, English 
Post-Kef ormation: Oaescalchi, Carlo; Oldcome, 
Edward, Venerable; Percy, John; Persons, 
Robert; Petre Family. 

POYET, CLAUDIO, ParanX, Argentinb Repub- 
lic: Parang Diocese of. 

PRAT, FERDINAND, S.J., Member of the Bibli- 
cal Commission, CoLiJbGE St. Michel, Brus- 
SEUs: Origen and Origenism; Paul, Saint. 

PRESTAGE, EDGAR, B.A. (Oxon.), Commbnda- 
DOR, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago; Corre- 
sponding Member of the Lisbon Royal 
Academy of Sciences and the Lisbon 
Geographical Society, Bowdon, England: 
Oporto, Diocese of; Periodical Literature, 
Catholic, Portugal. 

Teacher of Philosophy and Church History, 
St. John's College, Brooklyn, New York: 
Odin, John Mary. 

REAGAN, P. NICHOLAS, O.F.M., Collbgio S. 
Antonio, Rome: Peter of Alc^tara, Saint. 

S.S.L., Professor of Sacred Scripture, 
Dominican House of Studies, Washington: 
Nicholas of Strasburg; Pagnino, Santes. 

REMY, ARTHUR F. J., M.A., Ph.D., Adjunctv 
Professor of Germanic Philology, Columbia 
University, New York: Otfried of Weissen- 
burg; Peutinger, Conrad. 

Matutina College, Feldkirch, Austria: 
Parlatore, Filippo. 


RUSSELL, MATTHEW, S.J., Dublin; O'Hagan, 
John; O'Reilly, Edmund. 

SACHER, HERMANN, Ph.D., Editor, "Konver- 
bationslexikon''. Assistant Editor, "Staat&- 
lexikon" of the GQrresgesellbchaft, f^i- 
BUBG, Germany: Oldenburg. 

of Theology, University of TtteiNGSN: 
Patron and Patronage. 

ST. EUPHROSINE, SISTER, Montreal: Notre 
Dame de Montreal, Congregation of. 

Province of Quebec, Canada: Perpetual Help, 
Sisters of Our Lady of. 

SALTET, LOUIS, S.T.D., Lrrr.Lic, Professor of 
Church History, Insttfut Catholiqxte, Tou- 
louse, France: Paula, Saint. 

SALZER, ANSELM, O.S.B., Seitbnstetten, Aus- 
tria: Passion Plays. 

SAUVAGE, G. M., CS.C^ S.T.D., Ph.D., Profes- 
sor OF Dogmatic Theology, Holy Cross 
Colleger, Washington: Ontologism; Pelisson- 
Fontanier, Paul; Perreyve, Henri. 

bridge, England: Nicholas V, Pope. 

SCHEID, N., S.J., Stella Matutina College, 
Feldkirch, Austria: Pauli, Johannes. 

SCHEUER, PIERRE, S.J^ Professor of Phi- 
U)soPHY, College of St. John Berchmans, 
Louvain: Para du Phanjas, Franyois. 

St. Ludwig'b College, Dalhed^, Germany: 
Nithard; Nuyens, Wilhelmus; Ostiensis; Otto 
of Freising; Otto of St. Blaise; Paulus Diaconus. 

SCHROEDER, JOSEPH, O.P., St. Dominic's 
Priory, BEmciA, Caufornia: Nicolal, Jean; 
Niger, Peter George. 

College, Worcester, MASSAC^us£TT8: Pach- 
tler, Georg Michael; Pestalozci and Pestaloazian- 

"New Zealand Tablet", Dunedin, New 
Zealand: New Zealand. 

SENFELDER, LEOPOLD, M.D., Teacher of the 
History of Medicine, University of Vienna: 
Paracelsus, Theophrastus; Per6, Ambroise. 

SHANNON, JAMES, Peoria, Illinois: Peoria, 
Diocese of. 

London: Pessimism. 

OF Philosophy, St. Charles Seminary, Over- 
brook, Pennsylvania.: Ontology. 

SLATER, T., S.J., St. Beuno's College, St. 
Asaph, Wales: Obligation. 

O'Conor, Charles; Partnership. 

Ph.D., New York: Pelletier, Pierre-Joseph; 
Pelouse, Thtophil&-Jules. 

SMITH, IGNATIUS, O.P., Dominican House of 
Studies, Washington: Nider, John; Peter 
Chrysologus, Saint. 

SMITH, SYDNEY F., S.J., London: Nonconfor- 
mists; Non-Jurors. 

P.), Philadelphia: Peace Congresses; Penn- 

Francisco: Paraclete; Pavilion, Nicolas; Per- 
severance, Final. 


SORTAIS, GASTON, S.J., Assistant Editor, 
"Etudes", Paris: Orcagna (Andrea ^ Clone); 
Palma Vecchio; Parmigiano, U. 

Professor OF Sacred Scripture, Hebrew, and 
Liturgy, Kenrick Seminary, St. Louis: Offer- 
ings (Oblations); Olivet, Mount; Opldr; Para- 
sceve; Patmos; Pentapolis; Pentecost (of the 
Jews), Feast of; Phasga. 

Dogmatic Theology and Sacred Scripture, 
Capuchin Monastery, Olton, England: Pascal 
Baylon, Saint. 

SUAU, PIERRE, S.J., Castres, France: Olivaint, 
Pierre; Peter Claver, Saint; Peter Faber, Blessed. 

tore of the Order op the Crown of Italy, 
Rome: Oliva, Gian Paolo. 

OF Social and Political Sciences, Professor 
OP Moral Theology and Canon Law, College 
OF St. John Bbrchmans, Louvain: Novice; 
Nuns; Obedience, Religious. 

VOGEL, JOHN, Vicar Provincial of the Pious 
Society of Missions, Brooklyn, New York: 
Pollotti, Vincent Mary, Venerable. 

WAAGEN, LUKAS, Assistant State Geologist, 
Vienna: Palaeontology. 

(OxoN.), London: Nichols, George, Venerable; 
Nutter, Robert, Venerable; Osbaldeston, Ed- 
ward, Venerable; Page, Anthony, Venerable; 
Palasor, Thomas, Venerable; Patenson, William, 

WALKER, LESLIE J^, S.J., M.A. (Lond.), St. 
Beuno's College, St. Asaph, Wales: Parallel- 
ism, Psycho-Physical. 

THURSTON, HERBERT, S.J., London: Numbers, 
Use of, in the Church; Ordines Romani* Osten- 
sorium; Paris, Matthew; Paschal Candle; Pas- WALSH, JAMES J., M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., Dean 

sion of Jesus Christ, Devotion to the; Paten; 

TIERNEY, JOHN J., M.A., S.T.D., Professor of 
Sacred Scripture and Semitic Studies, Mt. 
St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland: 
New Year's Day. 

B.A., Stratton-on-the-Fosse, Bath, England: 
Peter Damian, Saint. 

TOURSCHER, FRANCIS E., O.8.A., Regent, St. 
Thomas's College, Villanova, Pennsylvania: 
Noris, Henry; Paulus Venetus. 

TRABERT. WILHELM, Ph.D., Director op the 
Imperial Royal Central Institute of Mete- 
orology AND Geodynamics, Vibnna: Pemter, 
Joseph Maria. 

URIBE, ANTONIO JOSfi, BogotX, Colombia: 
Nueva Pamplona, Diocese of. 

URQUHART F. F., Fellow and Lecturer in 
Modern History, Balliol College, Oxford: 
Northmen; Ordericus Vitalis. 

VAILHfi, SIMfiON, A.A., Member of the Russian 
archibological institute of constantinople, 
Professor of Sacred Scripture and History, 
Greek Cathouc Seminary of Kadi-Keui, 
Constantinople: Nicsea; Nicomedia; Nicopo- 
lis (Armenia); Nicopolis, Diocese of; Nicopo- 

THE Medical School, Fordham University, 
New York: Nussbaum, Johann Nepomuk von; 
O'Dwyer, Joseph; Pasteur, Louis. 

WALSH, REGINALD, O.P., S.T.D., Professor 
of theology, S. Clembnte, Rome: O'Daly, 

WARD, Mgr. BERNARD, Canon of Westmin- 
ster, F.R.HisT.Soc, President, St. Edmund's 
College, Ware, England: Oakeley, Frederick; 
Old Chapter, TTie; Oliver, George; Oxenham, 
Henry Nutcombe. 

WARREN, KATE MARY, Lecturer in English 
UNDER University of London at Westfibld 
College, Hampstead, London : Occleve, 
Thomas; Oxenford, John. 

WEBER, N. A., S.M., S.T.D., Professor of Funda- 
mental Theology and Church History, 
Marist College^ Washington: Nicholas II, 
Nicholas III, Nicholas IV, Popes; Orange, 
Councils of; Paul II, Pope; Permaneder, Franz 
Michael ; Peter Igneus, Blessed; Petrobrusians; 
Petrus, Diaconus; Petrus Alfonsus. 

WEIMAR, ANTON, Vienna: Periodical Literature, 
Catholic, Austria. 

Edftor. " The Cathouc Magazine for South 
Africa", Cape Town: Pfanner, Franz. 

lis (Epirus); Nicosia, Titular Archdiocese of; 

Nilopolis; Nisibis; Notitiae Episcopatuum; Ole- WILHELM. JOSEPH, S.T.D., Ph.D., Battle, Eng- 
land: Nicene and Niceno-Constantinopblitan 

nus; Ombus: Oropus; Orthosia; Ostracina; Oxy- 
rynchus; Palmyra: Paltus; Panopolis^ Paphos; 
Paralus; Parium; Patras; Pella; Pelusmm; Pen- 
tacomia; Pergamus; Petra; Phacusa; Pharbsetus; 

VAN DER ESSEN, LfiON, Lrrr.D., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor OF History, University of Louvain: 

vain), Professor of Moral Theology and 
Librarian, Grande S^minaire, Bruges, Bel- 
gium: Oaths; Peter, Epistles of Saint. 

VAN HOVE, A., D.C.L., Professor of Church 
History and Canon Law, University of 
Louvain: Nicold de' Tudeschi; (Economus, 
Episcopal; Option, Right of; Paleotti, Gabriel; 
Papiensis, Bemardus; Pefia, Francisco; Person, 

London: Oggione, Marco D'; Orley, Barent van; 
Ortolano Ferrarese; Passignano, Domenico. 

WITTMANN, PIUS, Counsellor for the Ar- 
chives and Archivist for Prince Ysenburg- 
Bt^DiNGEN, Royal Bavarian Counsellor for 
THE Archives, BtJDiNOEi^j Germany: Norway, 

Olmiitz, Archdiocese of; Parenzo-Pola, Diocese 

ZELLE, JOSEPH, S.J., Paray-le-Monial, France: 

ZEVELY, J., New York: Petropolis, Diocese of. 


Tables of Abbreviations 

The following tables and notes are intended to guide readers of The Catholic Enctclopedia ia 
interpreting those abbreviations, signs, or technical phrases wliich, for economy of space, will be most fre< 
quently used in the woric. For more general information see the article Abbreviations, Ecclesiabtigal. 

I. — General Abbreviations. 

a article. 

ad an at the year (Lat. ad annum), 

an., ann the year, the years (Lat. annua, 


ap in (Lat. apud). 

art article. 

Assyr Assyrian. 

A. S. • Anglo-Saxon. 

A. V Authorized Version (i.e. tr. of the 

Bible authorized for use in the 
Anglican Church — the so-called 
"King James", or "Protestant 

b bom. 

Bk Book. 

BL Blessed. 

C, c about (Lat. circa); canon; chap- 

ter; compagnie. 

can. canon. 

cap chapter (Lat. caput — used only 

in Latin context). 

of. compare (Lat. confer). 

cod codex. 

col column. 

concl conclusion. 

const., constit. . . .Lat. conatUuHo, 

cuiA by the industry of. 

d died. 

diet dictionary (Fr. dictumnaire), 

disp Lat. diaputaiio. 

diss. Lat. diaaertatio, 

dist Lat. disHnctio. 

D. V Douay Version. 

ed., edit edited, edition, editor. 

£p., Epp letter, letters (Lat. epistola), 

Fr. French. 

gen. . genus. 

Gr. Greek. 

H. E., Hist. Ecd. .Ecclesiastical History. 

Heb., Hebr. Hebrew. 

ib., ibid in the same place (Lat. ibidem). 

IcL.i the same person, or author (Lat. 


inf. below (Lat. infra). 

It Italian. 

1. c, loc. cit at the place quoted (Lat. loco 


Lat Latin. 

lat latitude. 

lib book (Lat. liber). 

long — longitude. 

Mon Lat. Monumerda. 

MS., MSS manuscript, manusoripta. 

n., no number. 

N. T New Testament. 

Nat National. 

Old Fr., O. Fr. . . .Old French. 

op. cit in the work quoted (Lat. opert 


Ord Order. 

O.T Old Testament. 

p., pp page, pages, or (in Latin ref* 

erences) pare (part). 

par paragraph. 

passim in various places. 

pt part. 

Q Quarterly (a periodical), e.g. 

"Church Quarterly". 

Q-> QQ-> qu£est. . . .question, questions (Lat. quoBsHo). 

q. V which [title] see (Lat. quod vide). 

Rev Review (a periodical). 

R. S Rolls Series. 

R. V Revised Version. 

S., SS Lat. Sanctue, Sancti, "Saint", 

"Saints" — ^used in this Ency- 
clopedia only in Latin context. 

Sept Septuagint. 

Sees Session. 

Skt Sanskrit. 

Sp Spanish. 

sq., sqq following page, or pages (Lat. 


St., Sts Saint, Saints. 

sup. Above (Lat. eupra). 

s. V Under the corresponding title 

(Lat. aub voce). 

tom volume (Lat. tomua). 




tr. tranalatioii or translated. By it- 
self it means "English tnuiala- 
tion", or "translated into Eng- 
lish by'\ Where a translation 
is into any other language, the 
language is stated. 

tr., tract tractate. 

V see (Lat. vide). 

Ven , . . . .Venerable. 

Vd Volume. 

II. — ^Abbreviations of Titles. 

Acta SS AdUk Sandonan (BoUandists). 

Ann. pont. cath Battandier,Anniiatre pontifical 


Bibl. Diet. Eng. Gath.Gillow, Bibliographical Diction- 
ary of the English Catholics. 

Diet. Christ. Antiq... Smith and Cheetham (ed.). 

Dictionary of Christian An- 

Diet. Christ. Biog. . . Smith and Wace (ed.), Diction- 
ary of Christian Biography. 

Diet, d'arch. chr6t.. .Cabrol (ed.), DicHannain d'ar- 

chiologie chriHenne et de tiha^ 

Diet, de th^l. cath. .Vacant and Mangenot (ed.), 

Dictionnaire de ihiologie 

Diet Nat. Biog. Stejdien and Lee (ed.), Diction- 

aiy of National Biography.. 

Hast., Diet, of the 

Bible Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of 

the Bible. 

Kirchenlez. Wetwr and Welte, Kirchenlexi-' 


P. G Migne (ed.), PcUres GrmcL 

P. L. Migne (ed.), Patres LaUni, 

Vig., Diet, de la Bible. Vigouroux (ed.), DieUonnair^ de 

la Bible. 

NoTB I. — ^Laive Roman numerab atanding alone indicate volumes. Small Roman numerals standing alone indicate 
ehaptera. Arabic numerals standing alone indicate pages. In otlier oases the divisions are explicitly stated. Hius ** Rashdall, 
Universities of Europe, I. iz" refers the reader to the ninth ehi4>ter of the first volume of that work; **I, p. ix" would indicate the 
ninth page of the preface of the same volimie. 

NoTB II. — ^Where St. Hiomas (Aquinas) is cited without the name of any particular work the reference is always to 
**Summa Theologioa" (not to *'Summa PhilosophiiD"). The divisions of the "Summa Theol." are indicated by a system which 
may best be understood by the following example: ** I-II, Q. vi, a. 7, ad 2 um " refers the reader to the HverUh article of the 
tixik que8ti<m in the firal part of the aecond part, in the response to the aeeond objection. 

Note III. — ^The abbreviations onployed for the various bodes of the Bible are obvious. Eodesiasticus is indicated by 
Bethu.t to dirtinguish it from Eoclesiastes iBeeUt.). It aliould also be noted that I and II Kings in D. V. correspond to I and II 
Samuel in A. V.; and I and II Par. to I and II Chronicles. Where, in the qwlling of a proper name, there ia a mariced dii 
between the D. V. and the A. V.. the form found in the latter b added* in parenthepcfc 

Full Page Illustrations in Volume XI 

Frontispiece in Colour page 

New Orleans — St. Roch's Chapel and Cemetery, etc 14 

St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York 26 

Norwich Cathedral 122 

Typical Coins of Twenty-five Centuries 152 

Daniel O'Connell 202 

Church of Santa Maria de Naranco, Oviedo 364 

Oxford — ^Balliol, Christ Church, the Sheldonian, and Brasenose 365 

Basilica of S. Antonio, commonly called The Santo, Padua 384 

The Empress Theodora and her Suite 394 

Altar-piece of the Lamb, Hubert and Jan Van Eyck, Ghent 395 

Among the Lowly — L^on Lhermitte 402 

Cathedral, Palencia 418 

Cathedral, Palermo 41^ 

Notre-Dame de Paris 494 

Cathedral and Baptistery, Parma 504 

The Crucifixion — From the Passion Play of Oberammergau 530 

Louis Pasteur in his Laboratory — A. Edelfelt 536 

St. Paul— Ribera (Spagnoletto) 576 

Paul III and his Nephews, Alessandro and Ottavio Famese — Titian 577 

The Certosa, near Pavia 592 

Perugia — ^The Porta Urbica Etrusca, etc 736 

Penigino — Madonna with Four Saints, etc 737 

St. Peter— Ribera (Spagnoletto) 750 

Blessed Peter Canisius — C. Fracassini 758 

Philadelphia 794 


Panama 438 


New Maxleo, a territory of the United States now 
(Jan., 1911) awaiting only the completion of its Con- 
etitution and the acceptance thereof by the Federal 
authorities to rank aa a state. It lies between 31° 20' 
and 37° N. lat., and between 103° 2" and 109° ^ W. 
long.; it ia bounded on the north by Colorado, on the 
east by Oklahoma and Texas, on the south by Texas 
and the Republic of Mexico, and on the west by Ari- 
sona. It is about 370 miles from east to west, 33^ from 
north to south, and has an area of 122,580 sq. miles, 
with mountainjplateau, and valley on either aideof the 
Rio Grande. The average rainrall is 1 2 inches, usually 
between July and September, so that spring and sum- 
mer are dry, and agriculture and grazing siifTer. The 
climate is uniform, the summers, aa a rule, moderate, 
and, the atmosphere being dry, the heat is not opprcs- 
Rve. In the north-west and north-east the winters 
are long, but not severe, while in the central and south- 
ern portions the winters are usually short and mild. 
In the United States census of 1900 the popuhition 
was 141,282, of which 33 per cent was illiterate; in 
the cenaus ollSlO the population waa327 396. About 
one-half of the inhabitants are of Spanish descent. 

The soil in the yalleya ia a rich and sandy loam, 
capable, with irrigation, of producing good crops. It 
ia also rich in gold and silver, and important minee 
have been opened near Deming, Silver City, and 
Ixurdabms, in the south-weetem part of the state. 
Thwe are copper mines near Glorieta in the north. 
and near Santa Rita in the south; while coal is found 
in great abundance near Gallup, Cerillos, and in the 
north-west. The mineral production of New Mexico 
for 1907 was 17,517,843, that of coal alone amounting 
to $3,832,128. In 1909 the net product in coal, 
ahipped from the mines, was 2,708,624 tons, or a total 
value of $3,881,508. A few forests exist in the east- 
ern pluns, and abundant timber is found in the north- 
western and central districts. Though mining and 
commerce as well as agriculture are 

and lucrative industry; cattle-fanning if 
importance. In 1908 and 1909 severe droughts 
caused the sheep industry to decline somewhat. In 
1909 New Mexico shipped 700,800 head of sheep; in 
1008, 836,800; in 1907, 976,800. The wool shorn in 
1909, from over 4,000,000 sheep, waa 18,000,000 Iba., 
which brought an average of 19 cents per lb., yielding a 
cash production of $3,420,000. The shipments of cat- 
tle in the same year amounted to 310,326, and 64,380 
hides were handled in the same period. Farming ia 
successfully carried on in the Rio Grande and other 
valleys, Indian com, wheat, and garden products 
bein^ the principal crops. For the year 1907 the ter- 

prosa overertimate. The important manufacturing 
mterests are those coimected with mining, railroads, 
etc. Lumbering ia beinz developed oy capital 
brought from the East, and large lumber miUs are now 
in operation, notably at Albuquerque. There are 75 
banks (41 national and 34 territorial) in the state, 
with an aggregate capital of $3,274,086. The bonded 
debt of the atat^ is $1,002,000, of which $89,579.49 is 
covered by the sinking fund. 

General HiSTOBT. — In April, 1536, there arrived at 
CuliacAn, in the Mexican ftovmce of Sinaloa, Alvar 
Nilfiez Cabeia de Vaca, Andr^ Dorantes, Alonso del 
Castillo Maldonado, and the negro Estevanico, the 
only survivors of 
the ill-fated expe- 
dition of NarvSei 
whichhad left Spain 
in 1528. Mendoza, 
the Viceroy of 
Mexico was told 
astonishing tales by 
Cf^eza de Vaca 
concerning the 
wealth of the coun 
try to the north 
and he forthwith 
commanded Coro- 
nado, govemo of 

the Province of - 

Nueva Gahcia (o g^ „ i^,„ u^x co 

prepare an expe- 
dition. The preparations went slowly, and Men 
doia ordered Fnar Marcos de N za to make a prelim 
inary exploration of the northern country. The 
Franciscan left CuUacAn in 1539, accompanied by 
Eatevanico and a few Indians. After untold hard- 
ships he reached the famous pu«&Io of Zufii. took pos- 
session of all the surrounding country, planted the 
cross, andnamed the territory "The New Kingdom of 
St. Francis". Marcos de Niia is, therefore, rightly 
called the discoverer of New Mexico and Arisona. He 
then returned to Mexico, and his narrative, especially 
what he said about the seven cities of Cibola, was an 
incentive to Coronado, who set out from Culiac&n in 
1540, accompanied by Marcoa and a large body of 
Spaniards and Indiana. Coronado crossed Sonora 
(now Arizona) and entered New Mexico in July, 1540. 
The expedition returned in 1542, but, although many 
regions were discovered, no conquests were made nor 
colonies established. In 1563 an expedition was led 
into New Mexico by Francisco de Ibarra: it is worth 
mentioning only for the reason that de Ibarra re- 
turned in 1565 with the boast that he had discovered 
"a new Mexico", which was, probably, the ori^ of 
the name. Eapejo entered New Mexico in 1581, but 
accomplished nothing. In this same year a Francift- 



can Friar, Augustin Rodriguez, entered with a few 
companions, and lost his life in the cause of Christian- 
ity. In 1581 Elspejo called New Mexico Nueva An- 
dalucia. By 1598 the name Nuevo M^jico was evi- 
dently well known, since Villagrd's epic is called 
* * Historiia del Nuevo M6 j ico " . 

The exi>editions of Espejo and Father Austin Ro- 
driguez were followed by many more of an unimpor- 
tant character, and it was not until 1598^ when Don 
Juan de Ofiate, accompanied by ten Franciscans under 
Father Alonso Martinez, and four hundred men, of 
whom one hundred and thirty were accompanied by 
their wives and families, marched up alongside the 
Rio Grande, and settled at San Juan de los Caballeros, 
near the junction of the Chama with the Rio Grande, 
thirty miles north of Santa F6. This was the first per- 
manent Spanish settlenient in New Mexico. Here 
was established, also, the first mission, and San Juan 
de los Caballeros (or San Gabriel a few miles west on 
the Chama river?) was the capital of the new province 
until it was moved to Santa F6 some time oetween 
1602 and 1616. The colony prospered, missions were 
established by the Franciscans, new colonists arrived, 
and by the middle of the seventeenth century general 
prosperity prevailed.* In the year 1680, however, a 
terrible Inaian rebellion broke out under the leader- 
ship of Pope, an Indian of th^ pueblo of San Juan. All 
the Spanisn settlements were attacked, and many peo- 
ple massacred. The survivors fled to Santa F6, out, 
after three days' fighting, were compelled to abandon 
the city and were driven out of the province. 

Thus was destroyed the work of eighty years. The 
Spaniards did not lose courage: between 1691 and 1693 
Antonio de Vargas reconquered New Mexico and en- 
tered it with many of the old colonists and many 
more new ones, his entire colony consisting of 800 peo- 
ple, including seventy families and 200 soldiers. The 
old villages were occupied, churches rebuilt, and the 
missions re-established. A new vUla was founded, 
Santa Cruz de la Cafiada, around which most of the 
families which had come with De Vargas under Padre 
Farf^ were settled. The colonies, no longer seri- 
ously threatened b]r the Indians, progressed slowly. 
By the end of the eighteenth century the population 
of New Mexico was about 34,000, one-half Spaniards. 
The first half of the nineteenth century was a period 
of revolutions — rapid transformations of government 
and f oreim invasions, accepted by the Spanish inhab- 
itants of New Mexico in an easy-going spirit of sub- 
mission unparalleled in history. 

In 1821 the news of Mexican independence was re- 
ceived, and, although the people of New Mexico were 
ignorant of the events which had preceded it, and 
knew absolutely nothing of the situation, they cele- 
brated the event with great enthusiasm and swore 
allegiance to Iturbide. ui 1824, just three years after 
independence, came the news of the fall of Iturbide 
and the inauguration of the Republic of Mexico: 
throngs gathered at Santa F^, the people were ha- 
rangued, and the new regime was applauded as a bless- 
ing to New Mexico. When war was declared between 
the United States and Mexico — an event concerning 
which the New Mexicans were ignorant — Generu 
Stephen Watts Kearny was sent to conquer New 
Mexico. In 1846 he entered the territory, and Gen- 
eral Armijo, the local military chief, fled to Mexico. 
Kearny took possession of the territory in the name of 
the United States, promising the people all the rights 
and liberties whicn other citizens of the United States 
enjoyed. The people joyfully accepted American 
rule, and swore ooedience to the Stars and Stripes. At 
one stroke, no one knew why or how, a Spanish colonv, 
after existing under Spanish institutions for nearly 
three centimes, was brought under the rule of a for- 
eign race and under new and unknown institutions. 
After the military occupation by Kearny in 1846. 
Charles Bent was civil governor. He was murdered 

at Taos, in 1847, by some Spaniards whom he had 
grossly offended. In 1847-48 Donaciano Vigil was 
civil governor. 

In 1848, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, New 
Mexico was formally ceded by Mexico to the United 
States, and in 1850 it was regularly organized as a ter- 
ritory (which included Arizona until 1863), and James 
S. Calhoun was the first territorial governor. The 
first territorial Legislative Assembly met at Santa F6 
in 1851 : most of the members were of Spanish descent, 
and this has been true of all the Assemblies until the 
end of the century. Up to 1910 the proceedings of the 
Legislature were in Spanish and English, interpreters 
being always present. During the years 1861-62 the 
Texan Confederates entered New Mexico, to occupy 
Albuquerque and Santa F^^ but Federal troops ar- 
rived from Colorado and California and frustrated the 
attempt. During the years from 1860 to 1890 New 
Mexico progressed very slowly. Education was in a 
deplorable state (no system was established until 
1890), the surrounding Indians continually harassed 
the inhabitants, and no railroad was constructed until 
after 1880. In 1860 the population was 80,567; in 
1870, 90,573; in 1880, 109,793. Nine-tenths of the 
population in 1880 was of Spanish descent: at pres- 
ent (1911) this element is only about one-half, owing 
to the constant immigration from the other states of 
the Union. Since 1890 New Mexico has progressed 
rapidly. Education is now enthusiastically supported 
and encouraged, the natural resources are being rapidlv 
developed, and the larger towns and cities have all 
the marks of modem civilization and progress. Since 
1850 many imsuccessful attempts have been made, 
to secure statehood; at last, in June, 1910, Congress 
passed an Enabling Act: New Mexico is to adopt a 
Constitution, subject to the approval of Congress. 

Missions op New Mexico. — The Franciscan Friar 
Marcos de Niza, as we have seen above, reached New 
Mexico near the pueblo of Zufii in 1539. This short 
expedition may be considered, th^efore, as the first 
mission in New Mexico and what is now Arizona. 
With the expedition of Coronado (1540-42) several 
Franciscans under Marcos de Nisa entered New 
Mexico. There is some confusion about their exact 
number and even about their names. It seems rea- 
sonably certain, however, that Marcos had to abandon 
the expedition after reaching ZufLi, and that two 
Franciscan priests, Juan de radilla and Juan de la 
Cruz, and a lay brother, Luis de Escalona, continued 
with the expedition into New Mexico, remained as 
missionaries among the Indians when Coronado re- 
turned in 1542, and were finally murdered by them. 
These were the first three Christian missionaries to re- 
ceive the crown of martyrdom within the present 
limits of the United States. Forty years after the 
Niza and Coronado expeditions of 1539-42, it was 
again a Franciscan who made an attempt to gain the 
New Mexico Indians to the Faith. This was Father 
Agustfn Rodriguez, who. in 1581, left San Bartolom^ 
in Northern Mexico ana, accompanied by two other 
friars, Juan de Santa Maria and Fr. Francisco L6pez, 
and some seventeen more men, marched up the Kio 
Grande and visited many of the pueblos on both sides 
of the river. The friars decided to remain in the new 
missionary field when the rest of the expedition re- 
turned in 1582, but the Indians proved intractable 
and the two friars received the crown of mart3rrdom. 

When news of the fate of Agustfn Rodriguez reached 
San Bartolom^ in Nueva Vizcaya, Father Bernardino 
Beltrdn was desirous of making another attempt to 
evangelize New Mexico, but, being alone, would not 
remain there. It was in 1598 that Don Juan de Ofiate 
made the first permanent Spanish settlement in New 
Mexico, at San Juan de los Caballeros. Ten Francis- 
can friars under Father Alonso Martinez accom- 
panied Ofiate in his conquest, and established at San 
Juan the first Spanish Franciscan mission. Mission- 


aryvoik wsa befjun in earrieHt, and in 1599 Ofiate Bent 
a party to Mexico for- re-enfrircements. With this 
party vent Fathers Martfnei. Salazar, and Vercara to 
obtain more friars. SaJaiardied on the way, Martl- 
nei did not return, but a new Franciscan comUario, 
Juan de Escalona, returned to Npw Mexico with Ver- 
Eara and eight more Franciacans. New misaions were 
being established in the near pu^ht, and prosperity 
was at hand, but OOate's ambitions proved fatal: in 
leoi he desired to conquer the country to the north 
and weet, and started on an expedition with a small 
force, taking with him two FranciacanB. The people 
who remained at and near San Juan de los Caballeros 
were left unprotected. Civil discord followed, and 
the newly-settled province was abandoned, the set- 
tlers, with the friars^ movinv south. Father Escalona 
remained, at the risk of his life, to await the return of 
Ofiate; but he had written to the viceroy, asking that 
Ofiate should be recalled. Ofiate with a new comi- 
aario, Francisco Escobar, and Father San Buenaven- 
tura, set out on another counter expedition, and Es- 
calona and the other p 

tiieir missionary 
work amons their 
neophytes. New re- 
eoforcements arrived 
between 1005 and 
1608, in spite of 
Ofiate's misrule. In 
1608 Father Alonao 
Feinado came as co- 
mUaria and brought 
with him eight more 
friars. By this time 
8000 Indians had 
been converted. By 
1617 the Franciscans 
had built eleven 
churches and had 
converted 14,000 In- 

In 1620 Father 
Ger6nimo de Z&rate 
Salmertin, a very 
lealous misaionary, came to New Mexico. There he 
worked for eight years, and wrote a book on Chris- 
tian doctrine in the language of the J£mei. By 1626 
the missions numbered 27; 34,000 Indians had been 
baptized, and 43 churches built. Of the friars only 16 
were left. In 1630 Pr. Benavidee desired to establish 
a bishopric in New Mexico, and went to Spain to lay 
his petition before the king. In his memorial he says 
that there were in New Mexico, in 1630, 25 missions, 
covering 90 pue6^, attended by 50 fnars, and that 
theChmtian natives numbeTcd 60,000. The missions 
established in New Mexico in 1630, accordi&K to this 
memorial, were the following: amon^ the Piros, or 
Picoe, 3 misHioDs (Socorro, Senecd, Sevilteta); among 
the Liguas, 2 (Sandia, Isleta); among the Queres, 3; 
among the TompiroB, 8; among theTanos, 1; among 
the Pecos, 1; among the Toas, or Tehuas, 3; at Santa 
Ffi, 1; among the Taos, 1; among the Zufii, 2. The 
other two are not mentioned. However, the wrongs 
perpetrated by local governors exasperated the In- 
dians, and the missionaries were thus labouring under 
difficulties. By 1680 the number of missions bad 
increased to 33, but the Indian rebellion broke out. 
All the miHsions and settlements were destroyed, the 
churches burned, and the settlera massacred. The 
number of victims among the Spaniards was 400. Of 
the missionaries, U escaped, while 21 were massacred. 

With Don Diego de Vargas, and the reconquest of 
New Mexico in 1691-95, the Franciscans entered the 
province again. Father San Antonio was the guard- 
ian, but in le&l he returned to £1 Paso, and, with 
Father Francisco Vargas aa guardian, th< 


were re-established. Not only were most of the old 
missions again in a prosperous condition, but new ones 

were established among the Apaches, Navaios, and 
other tribes. Towards the middle of the ei^teenth 
century, petty disputes arose between the fnars and 
the Bishop of Durango, and the results were unfar- 
ourable to the missions, which at this time numbered 
from 20 to 25, Father Juan Mirabal being guardian. 
In 1760 Bishop Tamar6n of Durango visited the prov- 
ince. From this time on the Franciscan missions in 
New Mexico changed, the friars in many cases acted 
as jjarieh priests, and their work, did not prove so 

During the last half ot the eighteenth century, and 
during the last years of Spanish rule (180O'1821), the 
missions declined more and more The Franciscans 
still remained, and received salaries from the Govern- 
ment, not as missionaries but as parish priests. They 
were under their guardian, but the Bishop of Durango 
controlled rehgious affairs, with a permanent vicar 
in New Mexico. The Mexican rule of 1821-1846 was 
worse than the Span- 
ish rule, and the mis- 
sions existed only in 
name. At the time 
of the American oc- 
cupation, in 1846,the 
' ' US, as such, no 

work in what is now 
Arizona was in some 
cases that of the. 
New Mexican friars, 
who from the begin- 
ning of their labours 
extended their mis- 
sions among the Zufii 
and the Moquis. A 
few of these missions, 
however, had no con- 
the misaionary work 
of New Mexico. After 
Niia's exploration in 
1540, we know little of the misaonanr work in Ari- 
cona proper, until 1633, when Fray Francisco Par- 
ras, wno was almost ^ne in his work, was killed 
at Aguatevi. In 1680 four Franciscans, attending 
three missions among the Moquis, were killed dur- 
ing the New Mexican rebellion of that year. In 
Northern Mexico, close to the Arisona line (or, as then 
known. Fimeria Alta) , the Jesuits were doing excellent 
mission work in 1600-1700. It was a Jesuit, also, 
Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, who explored what is 
now southern Arizona, in 1687. No missions were es- 
tablished, however, in Arizona before Father Kino's 
death in 1711, though churches were built, and many 
Indians converted. The work of Father Kino was 
abandoned after his death, until 1732, when FathMfl 
Felipe Segeaser and Juan B. GrashofTer established 
the first permanent missions of Arizona at San Xavfo' 
del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi. In 1750 these 
two missions were attacked and plundered by the 
Pimas,butthemie8ionariese8caped. In 1752 the mis- 
sions were reoccupied. A rivalry between the Fran- 
ciscans and the Jesuits hindered the success of the 

In 1767, however, the controversy between Jesuits 
and Fruiciscans was ended, and the Jf»uits expelled. 
The Government, not content with their expulsion, 
confiscatHi the mission property, though the Francis- 
cans were invited to the field. Four Franciscans ar- 
rived in 1768 to renew the missionary work and found 
the missions in a deplorable state, but they persuaded 
the Government to help in the restoration and to re- 
store the confiscated property. It is to be observed 



that theae missions of Arizona, as well as many of 
those of Sonora in Mexico, were, until 1873, under the 
control of the College of Santa Cruz (just across the 
^Arizona line in Northern Mexico), separated from 
1783 to 1791, and united in 1791. The two important 
Arizona Missions, San Xavier del Bac and San Miguel 
de Guevavi, became prosperous, the former under the 
famous Franciscan, Father Francisco Garc^ from 
1768 to 1774. Father Garcds laboured continually 
among the Indians until he lost his hfe, in 1781. in his 
missionary work near the Colorado River in Califor- 
nia. The missions of Arizona declined after 1 800, and 
in 1828 the Mexican Government ordered their aban- 
donment. From this time until 1859, when Bishop 
Lamy of Santa F^sent the Rt. Rev, J. P. Machebceuf 
to minister to the spiritual needs of Arizona, there 
'were no signs of Christianity in Arizona other than 
abandoned missions and ruined churches. 

Present Conditions (1910). — Pending the full ad- 
mission of New Mexico to statehood, its government 
is still that of a territory of the United States, regu- 
lated bv the pro vi sons of the Federal Statutes. Ac- 
cordingly, the governor and other executive officers are 
appointed by the executive authority of the United 
States and paid by the Federal Treasury; the Legisla- 
ture (House of Representatives and Council) is elected 
by the people of the territory ; the Territorial Judi- 
ciary (-a chief justice and five associate justices) is ap- 
pointed by the President of the United States for a 
term of foiur years, but justices of the peace are elected 
for two years. 

Education. — The educational system of New 
Mexico dates from 1890 and is still in process of de- 
velopment. The public-school system is governed by 
a territorial Boara of Education consisting of seven 
members. This board apportions the school funds, 
prepares teachers' examinations, selects booka, etc. 
There are also the usual coimty and district officers. 
At present there are approximately 1000 pubUc 
schools in New Mexico, with about 50,000 pupils, of 
whom 20,0(X) are Spanish and 100 negroes. There are 
70 denominational schools, with 5,000 pupils, and 18 
private schools, with 288 pupils. Futhermore, there 
were, in 1908, 25 Indian schools with 1933 pupils. 

The Catholic schools of the territory number 23, 
with about 100 teachers and about 1500 pupils (esti- 
mated m 1910; 1,212 in 1908). The most important 
CathoHc school in New Mexico is St. Michaers Col- 
lege at Santa F^, founded in 1859 by Bishop J. B. 
Lamy. The sisters' charitable institutions (hospi- 
tals, etc.) are state-aided. In 1909 the appropri- 
ations for these purposes amounted to $12,000. The 
other denominational schools are distributed as fol- 
lows: Presbyterian. 25; Congregational, 9; Methodist, 
11; Baptist, 2. The territorial (or state) university 
was estabhshed in 1889 at Albuqueroue. It is sup- 
ported by territorial appropriations ana land revenues. 
For the year 1909-10 the income was $40,000. Its 
teaching force consisted, in 1909-10, of 16 professors, 
associate professors, and instructors, and the number 
of students in attendance was 130. There are three 
normal schools, one at Las Vegas, one at El Rito, and 
one at Silver City; a miUtary school at Roswell; a 
school of mines at Socorro ; and a college of agriculture 
and mechanic arts at Mesilla Park — the best equipped 
and most efficient school in New Mexico, receiving 
both federal and territorial aid aggregating $100,000 
a year (1909-10), having a teaching force of 40 profes- 
sors, assistant professors, and instructors, and an at- 
tenaance of 285 students (1909-10). The combined 
valuation of the territorv^s educational institutions is 
about $1,000,0(X), while the annual expenditures 
aggregate $275,000. 

Keligion. — In 1850, when New Mexico was organ- 
ized as a territory of the United States, it (including, 
till 1863, Arizona and part of Colorado) was made a 
vicariate Apoetolic, under the Rt. Rev. John B. Lamy. 


In 1853 New Mexico (with exceptions noted belpw) 
was made the Diocese of Santa F^ and the vicar 
Apostohc became its first bishop. In 1865 this dio- 
cese became the Archdiocese of Santa F^, and Bishop 
Lamy became its first archbishop. The archdiocese 
includes all of New Mexico, except Dofia Ana, Eddy, 
and Grant Counties, which belong to the Diocese of 
Tucson. The present Archbishop of Santa F6 is the 
Rt. Rev. John B. Pitaval. The Catholic population 
of the territory in 1882 was 126,000; in 1906 it was 
121,558 (U. S. Census Bulletin, no. 103, p. 36). But 
the figures for 1882 (given by H. H. Bancroft) must 
incluae the Catholic population of Arizona and prob- 
ably also of Colorado. In 1906 the Catholics were 
more than 88 per cent of the church membership of 
the territory, which was 137,009, distributed as fol- 
lows: — 

Roman Catholics 121,558 

Methodists 6,560 

Presbyterians 2,935 

Baptists 2,403 

Disciples, or Christians 1,092 

Protestant Episcopalians 869 

Unclassified 1,592 

Total 137,009 

At present (1910) the total Catholic population of 
New Mexico may be estimated at not less than about 
130,000, about 120,000 being of Spanish descent. No 
definite statistics are available on this last point. The 
large Catholic population of New Mexico is due to its 
having been colonized by the Spaniards, whose first 
thought on founding a colony was to build churches 
and establish missions. The recent Catholic immi- 
gration has been from the Middle West, and this is 
largely Irish. 

Catholics distinguished in Public Life. — The fact 
that until about the year 1890 the population of the 
territory was mostly Spanish, and therefore Catholic, 
is the reason why most of the men who have figured 
prominently in the history of New Mexico have been 
Catholic Spaniards. Among the more prominent 
may be mentioned: Donaciano Vigil, military gov- 
ernor, 1847-48; Miguel A. Otero, territorial secretary, 
1861 ; delegates to the Federal (Jongress, Jos6 M. Ga- 
llegos, 1853-54; Miguel A. Otero, 1855-60; Francisco 
Perea, 1863-64; Jos6 F. Chaves, 186&-70; Jos^ M. 
Gallegos. 1871-72; Trinidad Romero, 1877-78; Mari- 
ano S. Otero, 1879-80; Tranquilino Luna, 1881-82; 
Francisco A. Manzanares, 1883-4. The treasurers 
and auditors from 1863 to 1886 were all, with but one 
exception, Catholic Spaniards. 

Legislation affecting Religion. — (1) Absolute free- 
dom of worship is guarante^ by the Organic Act con- 
stituting the territory, and by statute preference to 
any religious denomination by law is forbidden. (2) 
Horse-racing and cock-fighting on Sunday are forbid- 
den; labour, except works of necessity, charity, or 
mercy, prohibited, and the offence is punie^able by a 
fine of from $5 to $15. (3) No religious test shall be 
required as a qualification to any office or public trust 
in this territory. Oaths are administered in the usual 
fashion, but an affirmation may be used instead when 
the individual has conscientious scruples against tak- 
ing an oath. (4) No statutory enactment punishing 
blasphemy or profanity has ever been passed in this 
territory. (5) It is customary to open the sessions of 
the Legislature with an invocation of the Supreme 
Being, but there is no statutory authority either for or 
against this ceremony. Until the present time (1910) 
this function has always been discharged by a Catholic 
priest. (6) Christmas is the only religious festival 
observed as a legal holiday in Isew Mexico. New 
Year's Day is also a legal holiday, but Good Friday, 
Ash Wednesday, All Souls' Day, etc., are not recog- 
nized. (7) There has been no decision in the courts of 
New Mexico regarding the seal of confession, but it is 




to be presumed that, in the absence of any statutory 
provision covering the point, the courts of the terri- 
tory would follow the general rule: that confession to a 
priest is a confidential communication and therefore 
mviolable. (8) Churches are, in the contemplation of 
the laws of New Mexico, in the category of charitable 
institutions. (9) No religious or charitable institu- 
tion is permitted to hold more than $50,000 worth of 
property; any property acauired or held contrary to 
the above prohibition sliall oe forfeited and escheat to 
the United States. The property of religious institu- 
tions is exempt from taxation when it» is being used 
and devoted exclusively to its appropriate objects, 
and not used with a view to pecuniaiy. profit. The 
clergy are exempt from jury and military service. 
(10) Marriage may be either by religious or by civil 
ceremony. The male must be eighteen years of age, 
and the female fifteen, for marriage with parents' con- 
sent; after the male is twenty-one ana the female 
eighteen they may marry regardless of parents' con- 
sent. Mamages between first cousins, uncles, aunts, 
nieces and nepnews, half-brothers and sisters, grand- 
parent and grandchildren, are declared incestuous and 
absolutely void. (11) Education in the public schools 
must be non-sectarian. (12) No charitable or reli- 

Sious bequests are recognized unless made in writing 
uly attested by the lawful number of witnesses. ( 13) 
There are no restrictions as to cemeteries other than 
that they must not be near to running streams. (14) 
Divorce may be obtained for cruelty, adultery, de- 
sertion, and for almost every ^und recognis^ as 
sufficient in any state of the Union. The party seek- 
ing divorce must have been a bona fide resident of the 
territory for more than a year prior to the date of fil- 
ing the action. Service on the defendant must be per- 
sonal, if the defendant is within the territory: but may 
be by publication, if the whereabouts of the defendant 
are unknown. Trials of divorce are without a jury. 

Baiccboft, H. H., Hittory of New Mexico and Arisona (San 
Franciaco. 1888) ; Biennial Report of the State Superintendent of 
Public Inetruetion of New Mexico (SanU F6, 1908) ; Blackmab, 
Spanith Inetituiiona in the Southwest (Baltimore, 1891) ; CompiUa 
Laws of New Mexico (Santa F6, 1897 and 1908) ; Catholic Direc- 
tory for 1910; U. S. Census Burbau, Bulletin no. 103 (Washinc- 
ton, 1906) : Enoelbardt. The Miseione and Mieeionariea of Cali- 
fomia, I (San Francisco, 1908); II (San Francisco, 1910); Yi- 
llaorI, Hittoria de la Nueva Mijico (AlcaU de Henares, 1610; 
Mexico. 1900); lUuUrated Hietory of New Mexico (Los Ancelea, 
1907) ; CouES. On the TraU of a Spanish Pioneer (tr. of the diary of 
Father Francisco Garc^) (New York, 1900) ; lUport of the Oov- 
emor of New Mexico to the Secretary of the Interior (Washington, 
1909) ; Shea, History of the Catholic Church in the United States 
(New York. 1892) ; Register of the University of New Mexico, 1909- 
10 (Albuquerque, 1910); Register of the New Mexico College of 
AgriaJture and Mechanic Arts (Santa F6, 1910); Pmo, Notidas 

roas _ _ 

the New Mexico Historical Society, Santa F6); Publications of the 
New Mexico Historical Society (SanU F6, 1898-1910). 


New Noreia, a Benedictine abbey in Western Aus- 
tralia, founded on 1 March. 1846, by a Spanish Bene- 
dictine, Rudesindus Salvaao, for the christianizing of 
the Australian aborigines. It is situated eighty-two 
miles from Perth, the state capital: its territory is 
bounded on the south and east by the Diocese of Perth, 
and on the north by the Diocese of Geraldton. This 
mission at first had no territory. Its saintly founder, 
like the Baptist of old, lived in the wilderness, leading 
the same nomadic life as the savajges whom he had 
come to lead out of darkness. His food was of the 
most variable character, consisting of wild roots dug 
out of the earth by the spears of his swarthy neophytes, 
with lizards, iguanas, even worms in times of distress, 
or, when fortunate in the chase, with the native kan- 
garoo. After three years of unparalleled hardships 
amongst this cannibal race, Salvado came to the con- 
clusion that they were capable of Christianity. As- 
sisted byjsomefnends, he started for Rome in 1849 to 
procure auxiliaries and money to assist him in prose- 

cuting his work of civilization. While in Rome he was 
appointed Bishop of Port Victoria in Northern Aus- 
trfuia, being consecrated on 15 August, 1849. Before 
he left Rome, all his people of Port victoria had ab^- 
doned the diocese for the goldfields. Bishop Salvado 
thereupon implored the pope to permit him to return 
to his beloved Australian blacks. He set out. for 
Spain, and obtained tiiere monetary assistance and 
over forty young; volunteers. All these afterwards 
became Benedictines. They landed in Australia in 
charge of their bishop on 15 August, 1852. 

Bishop Salvado, with his band of willing worker^ 
commenced operations forthwith. They cleared lane . 
for the plou^, and introduced the natives to habits o 
industry. They built a large monastery, schools anc 
orphanages for the young, cottages for the married, 
flour-mills to grind their wheat, etc. An important 
village sopn sprang up, in which many natives were 
fed, clothed, and made good Christians. On 12 March. 
1867, Pius IX made New Norcia an abbey nuUius and 
a prefecture Apostolic with jurisdiction over a terri- 
tory of 16 square mjles, the extent of Bishop Salvado's 
jurisdiction imtil his death in Rome on 29 December, 
1900, in the eighty-seventh year of his age and the 
fifty-first of his episcopate. Father Fulgentius Tor- 
res, O.S.B., was elected Abbot of New Norcia in suc- 
cession to Bishop Salvado on 2 October, 1902. The 
new abbot found it necessary to frame a new policy 
for his mission. Rapid cnanges were setting in; 
agricultural settlers were taking up the land, dnving 
out the sheep and cattle lords, ana absorbing the la- 
bour of the civilized natives. The mission had now 
to provide for the spiritual wants of the white popular 
tion, and Abbot Torres boldly faced tiie situatiooby 
entering upon a large scheme of improvements in and 
around the monastery. With the approbation of the 
Holy See, he had the boundaries of the abbey extended 
to embrace the country between 30** and 31® 20' S. 
latitude, and between the sea and 120® E. longitude — 
a territory of over 30,000 sq. miles (nearly as large as 
Ireland or the State of Maine). Abbot Torres 
brought out many priests and young ecclesiastics for 
the monastery and parochial work, and built churches 
in the more settled districts of his new territory. 
Since Abbot Torres became superior in 1901, the num- 
ber of churches has increased from one to ten. To 
foster higher education, Abbot Torres has erected a 
magnificent convent and ladies' college, and has in 
hand a similar institution for boys. He has already 
completed a large and commodious girls' orphimage. 
All these works have been accompUshed at the ex- 

Eense of the Benedictine community. Abbot Torres 
as not confined his ener^es solely to New Norcia. 
He founded the * ' Drysdale River Aborigines Mission ", 
2000 miles away, in the extreme nortn-west of Aus* 
tralia, an unexplored land inhabited only by the most 
treacherous savages. This mission was opened on 12 
July, 1908, with a party of fifteen in charge of two 

Abbot Torres was consecrated bishop in Rome on 22 
May, 1910. On the fourth of the same month, by a > 
Decree of the Propaganda, he was appointed adminis- 
trator Apostolic of lumberley, and hsid the ''Drysdale , 
Mission erected into an abbey nulliua. He has now 
under his jurisdiction a territory of 174,000 sq. miles — 
an area nearly as large as five important states of the 
United States — viz., Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, W. 
Virginia, and Maine. The present position (1910) 
of the mission is: churches, 10; priests,- 17 (secular, 7) ; 
monastic students, 9; other religious, 33: nuns, 18; 
high school, 1; primary schools. 4; charitable institu- 
tions, 2; children attending Catholic schools, 350; 
Catholic population, 3000. 

James Flood. 

New Orleans, Archdiocese of (Noyjb Aurb- 
LiiE), erected 25 April, 1793, as the Diocese of Saint 




Louis of New Orleans; raised to its present rank and 
title 19 July, 1850. Its original territonr comprised 
the ancient Louisiana Purchase and East and 
West Florida, being bounded on the north by the 
Canadian line, on the west by the Rocky Mountains 
BJxd the Rio Perdito, on the east by the Diocese of Bal- 
timore, and on the south by the Diocese of Linares and 
the Archdiocese of Duran^o. The present boundaries 
include the State of Louisiana, between the twenty- 
ninth and thirty-first degree of n6rth latitude, bj\ area 
of 23,208 square miles. The entire territory of 
Louisiana has undergone a series of changes which 
divide its history into four distinct periods. 

I. Early Colonial Period. — The discoverers and 
pioneers, De Soto, Iberville, La Salle, Bienville, were 
accompanied by missionaries in their expeditions 
through the Louisiana Purchase, and in the toilsome 
beginnings of the first feeble settlements, which were 
simply military posts, the Cross blazed the way. 
From the beginning of its history, Louisiana had been 
placed under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Quebec; 
in 1696 the priests of the Seminary of Quebec peti- 
tioned the second Bishop of Quebec for authority to 
establish missions in the West, investing the superior 
sent out by the seminary with the powers of vicar-gen- 
eral. The field for which they obtained this authori- 
sation (1 May, 1698) was on tioth banks of the Missis- 
sippi and its tributaries. They proposed to plant 
their first mission among the Tamarois, but when this 
became known, the Jesuits claimed that tribe as one 
aJready under their care: they received the new mis- 
sionaries with personal cordiality, but felt keenly the 
official action of Bishop St-Valfier, in what they re- 
garded as an intrusion. Fathers JoUiet de Montigny, 
Antoine Davion, and Francois Busion de Saint-Cosme 
were the missionaries sent to found the new missions 
in the Mississippi Valley. In 1699 Iberville, who had 
sailed from France, with his two brothers Bienville 
and Sauvolle, and Father Du Ru, S.J., coming up the 
estuary of the Mississippi, found Father Montigny 
among the Tensas Indians. Iberville left Sauvolle in 
command of the little fort at Biloxi, the first perma- 
nent settlement in Louisiana. Father Borden ave was 
its first chaplain, thus beginning the long line of zeal- 
ous parish priests in Louisiana. 

In 1703 Bishop St-Vallier proposed to erect Mobile 
into a parish, and annex it in perpetuity to the sem- 
inary; the seminary agreed, and tne Parish of Mobile 
was erected 20 July, 1703, and united to the Seminary 
of Foreign Missions of Paris and Quebec. Father Roul- 
leaux de la Vente, of the Diocese of Bayeux, was ap- 
pointed parish priest and Father Huve his assistant. 
The Biloxi settlement being difficult of access from the 
sea, Bienville thought it unsuitable for the headquar- 
ters of the province. In 1718, taking with him fifty 
men, he selected Tchoutchouma, the present site of 
New Orleans, about 110 miles from the mouth of the 
Mississippi River, where there was a deserted Indian 
village. Bienville directed his men to clear the ground 
and erect buildings. The city was laid out according 
to the plans of the Chevalier Le Blond de La Tour, 
chief engineer of the colony, the plans including a 
parish church, which Bienville decided to dedicate 
under the invocation of St. Louis. The old St. Louis 
cathedral stands on the site of this first parish church, 
and the presbytery in Cathedral Alley is the site of the 
first modest clergy house. Bienville called the city 
New Orleans after the Due d'Orl^ans, and the whole 
territory Louisiana, or New France. 

In August, 1717, the Due d'Orl^ans, as Regent of 
France, issued letters patent establishing a joint- 
stock compan>[ to be called '^The Company of the 
West", to which Louisiana was transferred. The 
companv was obUged to build churches at its own ex- 
pense wherever it should establish settlements; also to 
maintain the necessary number of duly approved 
priests to preach, perform Divine service, and admin- 

ister the sacraments under the authority of the Bishop 
of Quebec. Bienville experienced much opposition 
from the Companv of the West in his attempt to re- 
move the colony from Biloxi. In 1721 Father Fran- 
9ois-Xavier de Charlevoix, S.J., one of the first his- 
torians of Louisiana, made a tour of New France from 
the Lak^ to the Mississippi, visiting New Orieans, 
which he describes as '^a little village of about one 
hundred cabins dotted here and there, with little at- 
tempt at order, a large wooden warehouse in which I 
said Mass, a chapel in course of construction and two 
storehouses' * . But under Bienville's direction the city 
soon took shape, and, with the consent of the com- 
pany, the colony was moved to this site in 1723. Fa- 
ther Charlevoix reported on the great spiritual 'desti- 
tution of the province occasioned by the missions 
being scattered so far apart and the scarcity of priests, 
and this compelled the council of the company to 
make efforts to improve conditions. Accordingly, the 
company applied to the Bishop of Quebec, and on 16 
May, 1722, Louisiana was divided into three ecclesias- 
tical sections. The district north of the Ohio was en- 
trusted to the Society of Jesus and the Priests of the 
Foreim Missions of Paris and Quebec; that between 
the Mississippi and the Rio Perdito, to the Discalced 
Carmelite Fathers, with headquarters at Mobile. The 
Carmelites were recalled, not long after, and their dis- 
trict was given to the Capuchins. 

A different arrangement was made for the Indian 
and new French settlements on the lower Mississippi. 
Because of the remoteness of this district from Que- 
bec, Father Louis-Frangois Duplessis de Momay. a 
Capuchin of Meudon, was consecrated, at Bishop St- 
Vallier's request, coadjutor Bishop of Quebec^ 22 
April, 1714. Bishop St^Vallier appointed him vicar- 
general for Louisiana, but he never came to America, 
although he eventually succeeded to the See of Que- 
bec. When the Company of the West applied to him 
for priests for the lower Mississippi Valley he offered 
the more populous field of colomsts to the Capuchin 
Fathers of the Province of Champagne, who, however, 
did not take any immediate steps, and it was not 
till 1720 that any of the order came to Louisiana. Fa- 
ther Jean-Matthieu de Saint- Anne is the first whose 
name is recorded. He signs himself in 1720 in the 
register of the parish of New Orleans. The last entry 
of the secular clergy in Mobile was that of Rev. Alex- 
ander Huve, 13 January. 1721. The Capuchins came 
directly from France ana consequently found appUca- 
tion to the Bishop of Quebec long and tedious; Father 
Matthieu therefore applied to Rome for special pow- 
ers for fifteen missions under his charge,.representing 
that the great distance from the Bishop of Quebec 
made it practically impossible for him to apply to the 
bishop. A brief was really issued (Michael a Tugio, 
"Bullarium Ord. FF. Minor. S.P. Francisci Capuci- 
norum", Fol. 1740-52; BLL, pp. 322, 323)^ and Father 
Matthieu seems to have assumed that it exempted 
him from episcopal jurisdiction, for, on 14 March, 
1723, he signs the register "Pdre Matthieu, Vicaire 
Apostolique et Cut6 de la Mobile". 

In 1722 Bishop de Momay entrusted the spiritual 
jurisdiction of the Indians to the Jesuits, who were to 
establish missions in all parts of Louisiana with resi- 
dence at New Orleans, but were not to exercise any 
ecclesiastical function there without the consent of the 
Capuchins, though they were to minister to the French 
in the Illinois District, with the Priests of the Foreign 
Missions, where the superior of each body was a vicaj> 
general, just as the Capuchin superior was at New Or- 
leans. In the spring of 1723 Father Raphael de Lux- 
embourg arrived to assume his duties as superior of 
the Capuchin Mission in Louisiana. It was a difficult 
task that the Capuchins had assumed. Their congre- 
gations were scattered over a large area; there was 
much poverty, suffering, and ignorance of religion. 
Father Raphael, in the cathedral archives, says that 



when he landed in New Orleans he could hardly secure honest wives and mothers. From time to time ships 

a room for himself and his brethiren to occupy pending freighted with girls would arrive; they came over m 

the rebuilding of the presbytery, much less one to con- charge of the Grey Nuns of Canada and a priest, and 

vert into a chapel; for the population seemed indiflfer- were sent by the king to be married to the colonists, 

ent to all that savoured of religion. There were less The Bishop of Quebec was also charged with the duty 

than thirty persons at Mass on Sundays; yet, undis- of sending out young women who were known to be 

mayed, the missionaries set to work and soon saw good and virtuous. As a proof of her respectability, 

theu* zeal rewarded with a sreater reverence for reli- each girl was furnished by the bishop with a ciuiously 

gion and more faithful attendance at church. In 1725 wrought casket; they are known in Louisiana history 

New Orleans had become an important settlement, as "casket girls". Each band of girls, on arriving at 

the Capuchins having a flock of six hundred families. New Orleans, was confided to the care of the Ursulmes 

Mobile had declined to sixty families, the Apalache until they were married to colonists able to provide 

Indians (Catholics) numbered sixty families, there for their support. Many of the best families of the 

were six at the Balize, two hundred at St. Charles or state are proud to trace their descent from "casket 

Les Allemandes, one hundred at Point Coupde, six at girls". 

Natchez, fifty at Natchitoches and the other missions Tlie city was growing and developing; a better class 

which are not named in the "BullariumCapucinorum" of immigrant was pouring in, and Father Charle- 

(Vol. VIII, p. 330). voix, on his visit in 1728, wrote to the Duchesse de 

The founder of the Jesuit Mission in New Orleans Lesdiguidres: "My hopes, I think, are well founded 

was Father Nicolas-Ignatius de Beaubois, who was that this wild and desert place, which the reeds and 

appointed vicar-general for his district. He visited trees still cover, will be one day, and that not far dis- 

New Orleans ana returned to France to obtain Fa- tant, a city of opulence and the metropolis of a rich 

thers of the Society for his mission. Being also com- colony. " His words were prophetic: New Orleans 

missioned by Bienville to obtain sisters of some order was fast developing, and early chronicles say that it 

to assume charge of a hospital and school, he applied to suggested the splendours of Paris. There was a gov- 

the Ursulines of Rouen, who accepted the call. The emor with a military staff, bringing to the city the 

royal patent authorizing the Ursulmes to found a con- manners and splendour of the Court of Versailles, and 

vent in Louisiana was issued 18 Sept., 1726. Mother the manners and usages of the mother country 

Mary Tranchepain of St. Augustine, with seven pro- stamped on Louisiana fife characteristics in marked 

fessed nuns from Rouen, Le Havre, Vannes, Ploermel, contrast to the Ufe of any other American colony. The 

Hennebon, and Elboeuf, a novice, Madeline Hau- Jesuit Fathers of New Orleans had no parochial resi- 

chard, and two seculars, met at the infirmary at Henne- dence, but directed the Ursulines, and nad charge of 

bon on 12 January, 1727, and, accompanied by Fa- their private chapel and a plantation where, in 1751, 

thers Tartarin and Doutreleau, set sail for Louisiana, they mtroduced into Louisiana the culture of the 

They reached New Orleans on 6 August to open the sugar-cane, the orange, and the fig. The Capuchins 

first convent for women within the present limits of establbhed missions wherever they could. Bisnop St- 

the United States of America. As the convent was Vallier had been succeeded by Bishop de Momay, 

not ready for their reception, the governor gave up his who never went to Quebec, but resigned the see, after 

own residence to them. The history of the Ursulines five years. His successor, Henri-Marie Du Breuil de 

from their departure from Rouen through a period of Pontbriand, appointed Father de Beaubois, S.J., his 

thirty years in Louisiana, is told by Sister Madeline vicar-general m Louisiana. The Capuchin Fathers 

Hauchard in a diary still preserved in the UrsuUne refused to recognize Father de Beaubois' authority, 

Convent of New Orleans, and which forms, with Fa- claiming, under the agreement of the Company of the 

ther Charlevoix's history, the principal record of those West with the coadjutor bishop, de Momay, that the 

.early days. On 7 August, 1727, the Ursulines bepan superior of the Capuchins was, in perpetuity, vicar- 

in Louisiana the work which has since continue with- general of the province, and tiiat the bishop could 

out interruption. They opened a hospital for the care appoint no other. Succeeding bishops of Quebec 

of the sick and a school for poor children, also an acad- declared, however, that they could not, as bishops, ad- 

emy which is now the oldest educational institution mit that the assent of a coadjutor and vicar-general to 

for women in the United States. The convent in an agreement with a trading company had forever de- 

which the Ursulines then took up their abode still prived every bishop of Quebec of the right to act as 

stands, the oldest conventual structure in the United freely in Louisiana as in any other part of his diocese. 

States and the oldest building within the limits of the This incident gave rise to some fnction between the 

Louisiana Purchase. In 1824 the Ursulines removed two orders which has been spoken of derisively by 

to the lower portion of the city, and the old convent Louisiana historians, notably by Gayarr^, as "The 

became first the episcopal residence and then the di- War of the Capuchins and the Jesuits". The archives 

ocesan chancery. of the diocese, as also the records of the Capuchins in 

Meanwhile Father Mathurin le Petit, S.J., estab- Louisiana, show that it was simply a question of juris- 

lished a mission among the Choctaws; Father Du diction, which gave rise to a discussion so petty as to 

Poisson. among the Arkansas; Father Doutreleau, on be unworthy of notice. Historians exaggerate this be- 

the Wabash : Fathers Tartarin and Le Boulenger, at yond all importance, while failing to chronicle the 

Kaskaskia: Father Guymonneau among the Metcho- shameful spoliation of the Jesuits by the French Gov- 

gimeas; Father Souel, among the Yazoos; Father emment wnich suddenly settled the question forever, 
audouin, among the Chickasaws. The Natchez In- In 1761 the Parliaments of several provinces of 
dians, provoked by the tyranny and rapacity of Cho- France had condemned the Jesuits, and measures were 
part, tne French commandant, in 1729 nearly de- taken against them in the kingdom. They were ex- 
stroyed all' these missions. Father Du Poisson and pelled from Paris, and the Superior Council of Louis- 
Father Souel were killed by the Indians. As an in- lana, following the example, on 9 June, 1763, just ten 
stance of the faith implanted in the Iroquois about this years before the order was suppressed by Clement XIV, 
time there was received into the Ursuline Order at passed an act suppressing tne Jesuits throughout the 
New Orleans, Mary Turpin, daughter of a Canadian province, declaring them dangerous to royal author- 
father and an Illinois mother. She died a professed ity, to tne rights of the bishops, and to the public 
nun in 1761, at the age of fifty-two with the distinc- safety. The Jesuits were charged with neglecting 
tion of being the first American bom nun in this coun- their mission, with havine developed their plantation, 
try. From the be^nning of the colony at Biloxi the and with having usurped the office of vicar-general, 
immigration of women had been small. Bienville To the first charge the record of their labours was suffi- 
made constant appeals to the mother country to send cient refutation; to the second, it was assuredly to the 




credit of the Jesuits that they made their i)]antation 
BO productive as to maintain their missionaries; to the 
thirdj the action of the bishops of Quebec in appoint- 
ing the vicar-general and that of the Superior Council 
itself in sustaining him was the answer. Nevertheless, 
the unjust decree was carried out, the Jesuits' prop- 
erty was confiscated, and they were forbidden to use 
the name of their society or to wear their habit. 
Their property was sold for $180,000. All their 
chapels were levelled to the ground, leaving exposed 
even the vaults where the dead were interred. The 
Jesuits were ordered to give up their missions, to re- 
turn to New Orleans and to leave on t^e first vessel 
saiHng for France. The Capuchins forgetting their 
difference interfered in behalf of the Jesuits; and find- 
ing their petitions unavailing went to the river bank 
to receive the returning Jesmts, offered them a home 
I alongside of their own, and in every way showed their 
disapproval of the CounciPs action. The Jesuits 
deeply grateful left the Capuchins all the books they 
haa been able to save from the spoliation. 

Father Boudoin, S. J.^ the benefactor of the colony, 
who had introduced the culture of sugar-cane and 
oranges from San Domingo, and figs from Provence, 
a man to whom the people owed much and to whom 
Louisiana to-day owes so much of its prosperity, alone 
remained. He was now seventy-two years old and 
had spent thirty-five in the colony. He was broken 
in health and too ill to leave his room. The^ dragged 
him through the streets when prominent citizens in- 
tervened and one wealthy planter, Etienne de Bor6, 
who had first succeeded m the granulation of sugar, 
defied the authorities^ and took Father Boudoin to his 
home and sheltered him until his death in 1766. The 
most monstrous part of the order of expulsion was 
that^ not only were the chapels of the Jesuits in lower 
Louisiana — ^many of which were the only places where 
Catholics, whit^ and Indians, and negroes, could 
worship Uod — ^levelled to the ^und, but the Council 
carried out the decree even- m the Illinois district 
which had been ceded to the King of England and 
^hich was no longer subject to France or Louisiana. 
They ordered even the vestments and plate to be de- 
livered to the king's attorney. Thus was a vast terri- 
tory left destitute of priests and altars, and the rarowth 
of the Church retarded for many years. Of the ten 
Capuchins left to administer to this immense terri- 
tory, five were retained in New Orleans; the remainder 
were scattered over the various missions. It is inter- 
esting to note that the only native Louisiana priest at 
this time and the first to enter the holy priesthood. 
Rev. Bernard Viel, bom in New Orleans 1 October, 
1736. was among the Jesuits expelled from the colony. 
He oied in France, 1821. The inhabitants of New 
Orleans then numbered four thousand. 

II. Spanish Period. — In 1763 Louisiana was ceded 
to Spain, and Antonio Ulloa was sent over to take pos- 
session. The colonists were bitterly opposed to the 
cession and finally rose in arms against tne governor, 
giving him three days in which to leave the town. 
(See Louisiana.) The Spanish Government resolved 
to punish theparties who had so insulted its represent- 
ative, Don Ulloa. and sent Alexander O'Reilly to as- 
sume the office ol governor. Lafr^ni^re, President of 
the Council, who chiefly instigated the passing of the 
decree expelling the Jesuits from the colony, and the 
rebellion against the Government, was tried by court 
martial and with six of his partners in his scheme, was 
shot in the Place d' Armes. O'Reilly reorganized the 

Province after the Spanish model. The oath taken 
y the officials shows that the doctrine of the Immacu- 
late Conception was then officially recognized in the 

Spanish dominions. "I appointed 

swear before God . . .to maintain . . . the mystery 
of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady, the Vir- 
gin Mary." 
The change of government affected ecclesiastical 

jurisdiction. The Province of Louisiana passed under 
the iurisdictioh of the Bishop of Santiago de Cuba, the 
Right Rev. Jaime Jos6 de Echeverrfa, and Spanish 
Capuchins began to fill the places of their French 
brethren. Contradictory Reports reached the new 
bishop about conditions in Louisiana and he sent 
Father Cirilo de Barcelona with four Spanish Capu- 
chins to New Orleans. These priests were Fathers 
Franciscp, Angel de Revillagades, Louis de Quintan- 
ilia, and Aleman. They reached New Orleans, 19 
July, 1773. The genial ways of the French brethren 
seemed scandalous to the stem Spanish disciplinarian, 
and he informed the Bishop of Cfuba concerning what 
he considered ''lax methods of conduct and adminis- 
tration". Governor Unzaga, however, interfered in 
behalf of the French Capuchins, and wrote to the 
bishop censuring the Spanish friars.* This offended 
the bishop and both referred the matter to the Spanish 
Court. The Government expressed no opinion, but 
advised the prelate and governor to compromise^ and 
so preserve narmony between the civil and eccelsiasti- 
cal authorities. Some Louisiana historians, Charles 
Gayarr^ among others, speak of the depravity of the 
clergy of that period. These charges are not borne 
out by contemporary testimony; the archives of the 
cathedral witness that the clergy performed their 
work faithfully. These charges as a rule sprang from 
monastic prejudices or secular antipathies. One of 
the first acts of Father Cirilo as pastor of the St. 
Louis Cathedral was to have the catechism printed in 
French and Spanish. 

The Bishop of Santiago de Cuba resolved to remedy 
the deplorable conditions in Louisiana, where confirm- 
ation nad never been administered. In view of his 
inability to visit this distant portion of his diocese, he 
asked for the appointment of an auxiliary bishop, who 
would take up his abode in New Orleans, and thence 
visit the missions on the Mississippi as well as those in 
Mobile, Pensacola, and St. Augustine. The Holy See 
appointed Father Cirilo de Barcelona titular Bishop 
of TricaU and auxiliary of Santiago. He was conse- 
crated in Cuba in 1781 and proceaed to New Orleans 
where for the first time the p^ple enjoyed the presence 
of a bishop. A saintly man. he infused new Hfe into 
the province. The whole of Louisiana and the Flor-, 
idas were under his jurisdiction. According to official 
records of the Church in Louisiana in 1785, the church 
of St. Louis, New Orleans, had a parish priest, four 
assistants; and there was a resident priest at each of 
the following points: Terre aux Boeufs, St. Charles, 
St. John the Baptist. St. James, Ascension, St. Ga- 
briel's at Iberville, Point Coupee, AttaJcapas, Ope- 
lousas, Natchitoches, Natchez, St. Louis, St. Gene- 
vieve, and at Bernard or Manchac (now Galveston). 
On 25 November, 1785, Bishop Cirilo appointed as 

Sarish priest of New Orleans Kev. Antonio Ildefonso 
iorenory Arze de Sedella, one of the six Capuchins 
who had come to the colony in 1779. Father Antonio 
(popularly known as "P^re Antoine") was destined 
to exert a remarkable influence in the colony. Few 
priests have been more assailed by historians, but a 
careful comparison of the ancient records of the cathe- 
dral with the traditions that cluster about his memory 
show that he did not deserve on the one hand the in- 
dignities which Gayarr^ and Shea heap upon him, 
nor yet the excessive honours with which tradition has 
crowned him. From the cathedral archives it has 
been proven that he was simply an earnest priest 
striving to do what he thought his duty amid many 

In 1787 a number of unfortunate Acadians came at 
the expense of the King of France and settled near 
Plaquemines, Terre aux Boeufs, Bayou Lafourche, 
Attakapas, and Opelousas, adding to the already 
thrifty colony. They brought with them the precious 
Register of St. Charles aux Mines in Acadia extending 
from 1689 to 1749, only six years before their crud 



♦n Flor- 

nt once 

T^ftva^e, a 


tm, Father 

f s of his 

iliey were 

. Twouge dis- 

.c to Louis- 

- to whom 

■■:■ Holy See 

orcctea the 


Joseph de 

nnd the Right 

"^ -'Mnry, with the 

«hp two Floridas. 

-MP IMocese of Ha- 

♦' a church was pur- 

"Arliest incumbent of 

^ Rev. Francis Len- 

Hjttchea were English 

• iiad sided with Eng- 

religious freedom, no 

• ver made. On Uood 

. Orleans was swept by a 

I hundred buildings, in- 

. iih the adjoinine convent 

of Bishop Cirilo and the 

I need to ashes. From the 

> built French City rose the 

tid New Orleans, practically 

u)-day. Foretnost among the 

that time was Don Andreas 

tt it noble Andalusian family and 

--r tor the colony. He had made a 

<.)rlcans, and at a cost of $50,000 

•o the city the St. Louis Cathedral. 

'tfiv for the use of the clergy and the 

Rt a cost of $114,000. He also re- 

lii and the Cabildo,.the buildings on 

cathedral, the hospital, the bojrs' 

ior the Ursulines, and founded the 

pid assimilation had gone on in 

ricans began to make their homes in 

11(1 in 1791 the insurrection of San Do- 

^re many hundreds of wealthy noble 

archives of the New Orleans Diocese 

King of Spain petitioned Pope Pius VI 

! 7!)0, to erect Louisiana and the Floridas 

ito see, and on April 9, 1793, a decree for 

j'-rment of the Diocese of Havana, Louisi- 

•le Provinces of East and West Florida was 

( j>ro\aded for the erection of the See of St. 

Aevv Orleans, which was to include all the 

i Province and the Provinces of East and 

I Ida. The Bishops of Mexico, Agalopli, 

.:i, and Caracas were to contribute, pro rata, 

T the support of the Bishop of New Orleans, 

. .h K time as the see would be selfHsustaining. 

roe left the choice of a bishop for the new see 

Iving of Spain, and he on 25 April, 1793. wrote 

hop Cirilo relieving him of his office ot auxil- 

.iiid directing him to return immediately to Cata- 

i \Nitb a saliury of one thousand dollars a year, 

i. ( 

which the Bishop of Havana was to contribute* 
Bishop Cirilo returned to Havana and seems to have 
resided with the Hospital Friars, while endeavouring 
to obtain his salary, so that he might return to Europe. 
It is not known where Bishop Cirilo died in poverty 
and humiliation. 

The Right Rev. Luis Pefialver y Cdrdenas was ap- 
pointed firat bishop of the new See of Saint Louis of 
New Orleans. He was a native of Havana, bom 3 
April, 1719, and had been educated by the Jesuits of 
his native city, receiving his degree in the university 
in 1771. He was a priest of irreproachable character, 
and a skillful director of souls. He was consecrated in 
the cathedral of Havana in 1793. The St. Louis 
p£uish church, now raised to the dignity of a cathe- 
dral. was dedicated 23 December, 1794. A letter from 
ike King, 14 August, 1794, decreed that its donor, Don 
Almonaster, Was authorized to occupv the most prom- 
inent seat in the church, second only to that of the 
viceregal patron, the intendant of tne province, and 
to receive the kiss of peace during the Mass. Don 
Almonaster died in 1798 and was buried under the al- 
tar of the Sacred Heart. 

Bishop Pefialver arrived in New Orleans, 17 July, 
1795. In a report to the king and the Holy See he be- 
wiuled the indifference he found as to the practice of 
religious duties. He condemned the laxity of morals 
among the men, and the universal custom of concubin- 
age among the slaves. The invasion of many persons 
not of the faith, and the toleration of the Government 
in admitting ail classes of adventurers for purposes 
of trade, had brou^t about disrespect for rehgion. 
He deplored the establishment of trading posts, 
and of a lodge of French Freemasons, which counted 
among its members city ofiBcials, officers of the garri- 
son, merchants and foreigners. He believed the peo- 
ple' clung to their French traditions. He said that the 
King of Spain possessed ''their bodies but' not their 
souls '\ He declared that "even the Ursuline Nuns, 
from whom good results were obtained in the educar 
tion of girls, were so decidedly French in their inclina- 
tions that they refused to admit Spanish women, who 
wished to become members of their order and many 
were in tears because they were obliged to read spirit- 
ual exercises in Spanish books". It was a gloomy pic- 
ture he presented : but he set faithfullv to work ana on 
21 December, 1795. called a synod, tne first and only 
one held in the mocese of colonial New Orleans. 
He also issued a letter of instruction to the clergy de- 

Sloring the fact that many of his fiock were more than 
ve hundred leagues away, and how impossible it was 
to repair at one and the same time to all. He en- 
joined the pastors to walk in the footsteps of Jesus 
Christ and m all things to fulfil their duties. This let- 
ter of instruction bearing his signature is preserved in 
the archives of the diocese, and, with the call for the 
synod, forms the only documents signed by the first 
Bishop of New Orleans. 

Bishop Pefialver everjrwhere showed himself active 
in the cause of educational progress and was a gener- 
ous benefactor of the poor. He was promoted to the 
See of Guatemala, 20 July, 1801. Before his depart 
ture he appointed, as vicars-general. Rev. Thomas 
Canon Hasset and Rev. Patrick Walsh, who became 
officially recognized as "Governors of the Diocese". 

Territorially from this ancient see have been erected 
the Archbishoprics of St. Louis, Cincinnati, St. Paul, 
Dubuque, and Chicago, and the Bishoprics of Alexan- 
dria. Mobile, Natchez. Galveston, San Antonio, Little 
Rock, St. Augustine. ICansas City, St. Joseph, Daven- 

S3rt, Cheyenne, Dallas, Winona, Duluth, Concordia, 
maha, Sioux Falls, Oldahoma, St. Cloud, Bismarck, 
and Cleveland. 

Right Rev. Francis Porro y Peinade, a Franciscan 
of the Convent of the Holy Apostles, Rome, was ap- 
pointed to succeed Bishop Pefialver. But he never 
took possession of the see. Some old chronicles in 




Louisiana say that he was never consecrated; others 
that he was^ and died on the eve of leaving Rome. 
Bishop Portier (Spalding's ''Life of Bishop Flaget"), 
says that he was translated to the See of Tarrazona. 
The See of New Orleans remained vacant many years 
after the departure of Bishop PefSalver. 

In 1798 the Due d*0rl6ans (afterwards King Louis- 
Philippe of 1^'rance) with his two brothers, the Due de 
Montpensier and the Count de Beaujolais, \'isited 
New Orleans. They were received with honour, and 
when Louis-Philippe became King of France he re- 
membered many of those who had entertained him 
when in exile, and was generous to the Church in the 
old French province. 

III. French and American Period. — By the 
Treaty of San Ildefonse, the Spanish Kin^ on 1 Octo- 
ber, 1800, engaged to retrocede Louisiana to the 
French Republic six months after certain conditions 
and stipulations had been executed on the part of 
France, and the Holy See deferred the appointment of 
a bishop. 

On 30 April, 18Cf3, without waiting for the actual 
transfer of the province. Napoleon Bonaparte by the 
Treaty of Paris sold Louisiana to the United States. 
De Laussat, the French Commissioner, had reached 
New Orleans on 26 March, 1803, to take iK>s8ession of 
the province in the name of France. Spain was pre- 
paring to evacuate and general confusion prevailed. 
Very lie V. Thomas Hasset, the administrator of the 
diocese, was directed to address each priest and ascer- 
tain whether they preferred to return with the Span- 
ish forces or remain in Louisiana; also to obtain irom 
each parish an inventory of the plate, vestments, and 
other articles in the Church which had been given by 
the Spanish Government. Then came the news of the 
cession of the province to the United States. On 30 
April, 1803, De Laussat formally surrendered the 'col- 
ony to the United States commissioners. The people 
felt it keenly, and the cathedral archives show the aif- 
ficulties to be surmounted. Father Hasset, as adn^in- 
istrator, issued a letter to the clergy on 10 June, 1803, 
announcing the new domination and notifying all of 
the permission to return to Spain if they desired. Sev- 
eral priests signified their desire to follow the Spanish 
standard. The question of withdrawal was also dis- 
cussed by the Ursuline Nuns. Thirteen out of the 
twenty-one choir nuns were in favour of returning to 
Spain or going to Havana. De Laussat went to the 
convent and assured them that they could remain un- 
molested. Notwithstanding this Mother St. Monica 
and eleven others, with nearly all the lay sisters ap- 
plied to the Marquis de Casa Calvo to convey them to 
Havana. Six choir nuns and two lay sisters remained 
to begin again the work in Louisiana. They elected 
Mother St. Xavier Fargeon as superioress, and re- 
sumed all the exercises of community life, maintaining 
their academy, day school, orphan asylum, hospital 
and instructions for coloured people in catechism . Fa- 
ther Hasset wrote to Bishop Carroll, 23 December, 
1803, that the retrocession of the province to the 
United States of America impelled him to present to 
his consideration the present ecclesiastical state of 
Louisiana, not doubting that it would soon fall under 
his jurisdiction. The ceded province consisted of 
twenty-one parishes some of which were vacant. 
"The churches were", to use his own words, "all de- 
cent temples and comfortably supplied with orna- 
ments and everything necessary for divine services. 
... Of twenty-six ecclesiastics in the province only 
four had agreed to continue their respective stations 
under the FVench Government; and whether any more 
would remain under that of the United States only 
God knew." Father Hasset said that for his own part 
he felt that he could not with propriety, relinquish his 

Eost. and consequently awaited superior orders to take 
is departure. He said that the Rev. Patrick Walsh, 
vicar-general and auxiliary governor of the diocese, 

had declared that he would not abandon his poet pro- 
viding he could hold it with propriety. Father Hasset 
died in April 1804. Father Antomo Sedella had re- 
turned to New Orleans in 1791, and resumed his du- 
ties as parish priest of the St. Louis Cathedral to 
which he had been appointed by Bishop Cirilo. After 
the cession a dispute arose i>etween mm and Father 
Walsh, and the latter, 27 March, 1805, established the 
Ursuline Convent as the only place in the parish for 
the administration of the sacraments and the cele- 
bration of the Divine Office. On 21 March, 1804, 
the Ursulines addressed a letter to Thomas Jefferson. 
President of the United States, in which they solicitea 
the passage of an Act of Congress guaranteeing their 
property and rights. The president replied reassuring 
the Ursulines. "The principles of the constitution of 
the United States", he wrote, "are a sure guaranty 
to you that it will be preserved to you sacred and 
inviolate, and that your Institution will be per- 
mitted to govern itself according to its own voluntary 
rules without interference from the civil authority. 
Whatever diversity of shades may appear in the re- 
ligious opinions of our fellow citizens, the charitable 
objer os of your Institution cannot be of indifference to 
any; and its furtherance of the wholesome purpose by 
training up its young members in the way tney should 
go, cannot fail to insure the patronage of the govern- 
ment it is under. Be assured that it will meet with all 
the protection my office can give it." 

Father Walsh, administrator of the diocese, died on 
22 August, 1806, and was buried in the Ursuline chapel. 
The Archiepiscopal See of Santo Dominga, the metro- 
politan of the province, to which the Diocese of Louis- 
iana and the Floridas belonged, was vacant, and not 
one of the bbhops of the Spanish province would in- 
terfere in the New Orleans Diocese, though the Bishop 
of Havana extended his authority once more over the 
Florida portion of the diocese. As the death of Father 
Walsh left the diocese without any one to govern it. 
Bishop Carroll, who had meanwhile informed himself of 
the condition of affairs, resolved to act under the decree 
of 1 Sept., 1805, and assume administration. Father 
Antoine had been openly accused of intriguing against 
the Government; but beyond accusations m£^e to 
Bishop Carroll there is nothing to substantiate them. 
He was much loved in New Orleans and some of his 
friends desired to obtain the influence of the French 
Government to have him appointed to the Bishopric of 
Louisiana. However, there is in the archives of the 
New Orleans cathedral a letter from Father Antoine 
to the Bishop of Baltimore declaring that having 
heard that some members of the clergy and laity had 
applied to Rome to have him appointed to the Bish- 
opric of Louisiana, he hereby declared to the Bishop 
of Baltimore that he could not consider the proposi- 
tion, thathe was unworthy of the honour and too old to 
do any good. He would be grateful to the bishop if he 
would cut short any further efforts in that direction. 

Bishop Carroll wrote to James Madison, secretary 
of State (17 November, 1806) in regard to the Church 
in Louisiana, and the recommending of two or three 
clergymen one of whom might be appointed Bishop of 
New Orleans. Mr. Madison replied that the matter 
being purely ecclesiastical the Government could not 
interfere. He seemed, however, to share the opinions 
of Bishop Carroll in regard to the character and rights 
of Father An toine. In 1806 a decree of the Propaganda 
confided Louisiana to the care of Bishop Carroll of Bal- 
timore, and created him administrator Apostolic. He 
appointed Rev. John Olivier (who had been at Caho- 
kia until 1803), Vicar^General of Louisiana and chap- 
lain of the Ursuline Nuns at New Orleans. Father 
Olivier presented his documents to the Governor of 
Louisiana, and also wrote to Father Antoine Sedella 
apprising nim of the action of the Propaganda. Father 
Antoine called upon Father Olivier, but he was not 
satisfied as to Bishop Carroll's authorization. The 




▼icar-general published the decree and the bishop's 
letter at the convent chapel. The Rev. Thomas J'lynn 
wrote from St. Louis. 8 Nov., 1806, that the trustees 
were about to install nim. He describes the church as 
a good one with a tolerably good bell, a high altar, and 
commodious pews. The house for the priest was con- 
venient but m need of repair. Except Rev. Father 
Maxwell there was scarcely a pnest in Upper 
Louisiana in 1807. 

As the original rescript issued by the Holy See to 
Bishop Carroll had not been so distinct and clear as to 
obviate objections, he applied to the Holy See asking 
that more ample and distinct authorization be sent. 
The Holy See placed the Province of Louisiana under 
Bishop Carroll who was requested to send to the New 
Orleans Diocese either Rev. Charles Nerinckx or some 
secular or regular priest, with the rank of administra- 
tor Apostolic and the rights of an ordinary to continue 
only at the good will of the Holy See according to in- 
structions to be forwarded by the Propaganda. Bishop 
Carroll did not act inunediately, but on 18 August, 
1812, appointed the Rev. Louis G.V. Dubourg Admin- 
istrator Apostolic of the Diocese of Louisiana and the 
two Floridas. Dr. Dubour^'s authority was at once 
recognized by Father Antoine and the remainder of 
the clergy. The war between the United States and 
Great Britain was in progress and as the year 1814 
drew to a close, Dr. Dubourg issued a pastoral letter 
calling upon the people to pray for the success of the 
Amencan arms. During the battle of New Orleans 
(8 January, 1815) Gen. Andrew Jackson sent a mes- 
senger to the Ursulinc Convent to ask for prayers for 
his success. When victory came he sent a courier 
thanking the sisters for their prayers, and he decreed a 

Cublic thanksgiving; a solemn high Mass was cele- 
rated in the St. Louis Cathedral, 23 January, 1815. 
The condition of religion in the diocese was not en- 
couraging, seven out of fourteen parishes were vacant. 
Funds were also needed^ and Dr. Dubourg went to 
Rome to ask for aid for his diocese. There the Propa- 
ganda appointed him bishop, 18 September, 1818. and 
on 24 September he was consecrated by Caroinal 
Joseph Pamfili (see Dubourg). 

Bishop Dubourg proposed the division of the dio- 
cese and the erection of a see in Upi>er Louisiana, but 
the news of troubles among the clergy in New Orleans 
and the attempt of the trustees to obtain a charter 
depriving the bishop of his cathedral so alarmed him 
that he solicited the Propaganda to allow him to take 
up his residence in St. Louis and establish his seminary 
and other educational institutions there. He sailed 
from Bordeaux for New Orleans (28 June, 1817), 
accompanied by five priests, four subdeacons, eleven 
seminarians, and three Christian Brothers. He 
took possession of the church at St. Genevieve, a 
ruined wooden structure, and was installed by Bishop 
Flaget. He then established the Lazarist Seminary 
at Bois Brule ("The Barrens"), and brought from 
Bardstown, where they were temporarily sojourn- 
ing. Father Andreis, Father Rosati, and the semi- 
narians who had accompanied him from Europe. 
The Brothers of the Christian Doctrine opened 
a boys' school at St. Genevieve. At his request 
the Rehgious of the Sacred Heart, comprising Mes- 
dames Philippe Duchesne, Berthold, Andrd,and two 
lay sisters reaching New Orleans, 30 May, 1818, 

froceeded to 5t. Louis and opened their convent at 
lorissant. In 1821 they established a convent at 
Grand Coteau, Louisiana. The Faith made great prog- 
ress throughout the diocese. On 1 January, 1821, 
Bishop Dubourg held the first synod since the Pur- 
chase of Louisiana. Where he had^ound ten super- 
annuated priests there were now forty active, zealous 
men at work. Still appeals came from all parts of the 
immense diocese for pnests; among others he received 
a letter from the banks of the Cx)lumbia in Oregon 
begging him to send a priest to minister to 1500 Cath- 

olics there who had never had any one to attend to 
them. The UrsuUne Nuns, frequently annoyed by 
being summoned to court, appealed to the Legislar 
ture claiming the privileges they had enjoyed under 
the French and Spanish dominations'^ Their ancient 
ri^ts were reco^mzed and a law was passed, 28 Janu- 
ary, 1818, enactmg that where the testimony of a nun 
was required it should be taken at the convent by 
commission. It had a far-reaching effect in later days 
upon legislation in the United States in similar cases. 

Spain by treaty ceded Florida to the United States, 
22 February, 1818, and Bishop Dubourg was then 
able to extend his episcopal care to that part of his 
diocese, the vast extent of which prompted him to 
form plans for the erection of a metropohtan see west 
of the Alleghanies. This did not meet with the ap- 
proval of the bishops of the United States; he then 
proposed to divide the Diocese of Louisiana and the 
Floridas, establishing a see at New Orleans embracing 
Lower Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. 
Finally^ 13 August, 1822, the Vicariate Apostolic of 
Mississippi and Alabama was formed with the Rev. 
Joseph Rosati, elected Bishop of Tenagra, as vicar 
Apostolic. But Archbishop Mar^chal of Baltimore 
remonstrated because in establishing this vicariate, 
the Propaganda had inadvertently invaded the rightd 
of the Archbishop of Baltimore as the whole of th3se 
States except a small portion south of the thirty-first 
degree between Perdido and Pearl River belonged to 
the Diocese of Baltimore. Bishop Rosati also wrote 
representing the poverty and paucity of the Cathohcs 
in Mississippi and Alabama, and the necessity of his 
remaining at the head of the seminary. Finally his 
arguments and the protests of the Arcnbishop of Bal- 
timore prevailed^ and the Holy See suppressed the vi- 
cariate, appointing Dr. Rosati coadjutor to Bishop 
Dubourg to reside at St. Louis. Bishop Rosati was 
consecrated by Bishop Dubourg. at Donaldsonville, 25 
March, 1824, and proceeded at once to St. Louis. 
In 1823 Bishop Duboure took up the subject of the 
Indian Missions and laid before the Government the 
necessity of a plan for the civilization and conversion 
of the Indians west of the Mississippi. His plan met 
with the approval of the Government and an allowance 
of $200 a year was assigned to four or five missionaries, 
to be increased if the project proved successful. 

On 29 August, 1825, Alabama and the Floridas were 
erected into a vicariate Apostolic, with the Rev. 
Michael Portier the first bishop. The Holy See di- 
vided the Diocese of Louisiana (18 July, 1826) and 
established the See of New Orleans with Louisiana as 
its diocese, and the Vicariate ApostoUc of Mississippi 
to be administered by the Bishop of New Orleans. 
The country north of Ixiuisiana was made the Diocese 
of St. Louis, Bishop Rosati being transferred to that 
see. ' Bishop Dubourg, though a man of vast projects 
and of great service to the Church, was little versed 
in business methods; discouraged at the difficulties 
that rose to thwart him he resigned his see and was 
transferred to Montauban. Bishop Rosati, appointed 
to the See of New Orleans, declined the appointment 
urging that his knowledge of English qualified him to 
labour better in Missouri, Illinois, and Arkansas, while 
he was not sufficiently versed in French to address the 
people of New Orleans with success. On 20 March, 
1827, the papal Brief arrived permitting him to re- 
main in St. Louis but chardng him for a while with 
the administration of the See of New Orleans. He 
appointed the Rev. Leo Raymond de Neckere, CM., 
vicar-general, and strongly recommended his appoint- 
ment for the vacant see. Father de Neckere, then 
in Belgium whither he had gone to recuperate his 
health, was summoned to Rome and appointed bishop. 
Returning to New Orleans he was consecrated, 16 
May, 1830. Bishop de Neckere was bom, 6 June, 
1800, at Wevelghem, Belgium, and while a seminarian 
at Ghent, was accepted for the Diocese of New Orleans 




by Biflbop Dubourg. He joined the Lazarists and 
was ordained in St. Louis, Missouri. 13 October, 1822. 
On 23 February, 1832, he convoked a synod attended 
by twenty-one priests. Regulations were promulgated 
for better discipline and steps were taken to form an 
aaeociation for the dissemination of good literature. 

Americans were now, pouring into New Orleans. 
The ancient French limits had long since disappeared. 
Such was the enterprise on all sides that in 1830 New 
Orleans ranked in importance immediately after New 
Yoikt Philadelphia, and Boston. It was the ^eatest 
cotton and sugar market in the world . Irish emigration 
also set in, and a church for the English-speaking peo- 
ple was an absolute necessity as the cathedral and the 
old Ursuline chapel were the oi^y places of worship in 
New Orleans. A site was bougnt on Camp Street 
near Julia, a frame church, St. Patrick's, was erected 
and dedicated on 21 April, 1833. Rev. Adam Kinde- 
Ion was the pastor of this, the first English-speaking 
congregation of New Orleans. The foundation of 
this parish was one of the last official acts of Bishop de 
Neckere. The year was one of sickness and death. Chol- 
era and vello w fever raged. The priests were kept busy 
day ana night, and the vicar general. Father p. Rich- 
ards, and Fathers Martial, Tichitofi, Kindelon fell vic- 
tims to their zeal. Bishop de Neckere, who had retired 
to a convent at Convent, La., in hope of restoring his 
shattered health, returned at once to the city upon the 
outbreak of the epidemic, and b^an visiting and min- 
istering to the plague-stricken. Soon he too was seized 
with fever and succumbed ten davs later, 5 September, 
1833. Just before the bishop's death there arrived in 
New Orleans a priest who was destined to exercise for 
many years an mfluence upon the Uf e and progress of 
the Jjhurch and the Commonwealth, Father James 
Ignatius Mullen; he was immediatelv appointed to 
the vacant rectorship of St. Patrick's. Upon the 
death of Bishop de Neckere, Fathers Anthony Blanc 
and V. Lavadi^re, S.J., became the administrators of 
the diocese. In November, undismayed by the epi- 
demic which still continued, a band of Sisters of Char- 
itv set out from Emmitsburs, to take charge of the 
Charity Hospital of New Orleans. The sisters had 
come into the diocese about 1832 to assume the direc- 
tion of the Poydras Asylum, erected by Julian Poy- 
dras, a Huguenot. Seven of the new colony from 
Emmitsburg were sent to the Asvlum and ten to the 
Charity Hospital. Bishop de Neckere had invited 
the Tertianr Sisters of Mount Carmel to make a foun- 
dation in New Orleans, which they did on 22 October, 
1833, a convent school and orphanage beine opened. 

Father Augustine Jeanjean was selected by Rome 
to fill the episcopal vacancy, but he declined and 
Father Anthony Blanc was appointed and consecrated 
on 22 November, 1835 (see Blanc, Anthony) . Bishop 
Blanc knew the great want of the diocese, the need of 
priests, whose raSiks had been decimated by age^ pes- 
tilence, and overwork. To meet this want Bisnop 
JBlano asked the Jesuits to establish a college in Louisi- 
ana. They arrived on 22 January, 1837, and opened 
a college at Grand Co|;eau on 5 January, 1838. He 
then invited the Lazansts and on 20 December, 1838, 
they arrived and at once opened a diocesan seminary 
at Bayou Lafourche. In 1836, Julian Poydras haying 
died, the Asylum which he founded passed entirely 
under Presbyterian auspices, and the Sisters of Char- 
ity being compelled to relinquish the direction, St. 
Patrick's Orphan Asylum, now New Orleans Female 
Orphan Asylum, was founded and placed under their 
care. In 1841 the Sisters Marianites of Holy Cross 
came to New Orleans to assume charge of St. Mary's 
Orphan Boys' Asylum. They opened also an Acad- 
emy for young ladies and the Orphanage of {he Immac- 
ulate Conception for girls. The wants of the coloured 
people also deeplv concerned Bishop Blanc, and he 
worked assiduously for the proper spiritual care of the 
■layeB. After the insurrection of San Domingo in 

1793 a large number of free coloured people from that 
island who were slave-holders themselves took refuge 
in New Orleans. Thus was created a free colour^ 
population among which successive epidemics played 
havoc leaving aged and orphans to be cared for. Ac- 
cordingly in 1842 Bishop Blanc and Father Rousselon, 
V.G., founded the Sisters of the Holy Family, whose 
duty was the care of the coloured orphans and the aged 
coloured poor. It was the first coloured sisterhood 
founded in the United States, and one of the only two 
that exist. 

Bishop Blanc planned the erection of new parishes 
in the (Jity of New Orleans, and St. Joseph's and the 
Annunciation were founded in 1844. The foundation 
of these parishes greatly diminished the conurbation 
of the cathedral and the trustees seeing their inmience 
waning entered upon a new war against religion. 
Upon the death of Father AlOysius Moni, Bishop Blanc 
appointed Father C. Maenhaut rector of the cathe- 
dral, but the wardens refused to recognize his appoint- 
ment, claiming the right of patronage formerly en- 
joyed by the King of Spain. They brought an action 
against the bishop in the parish court, but the judge 
decided against the trustees, and the case was appealed 
to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court decided 
that the right to nominate a parish priest, or the jits 
paironatus of Spanish law, was abrogated in the state, 
and the decision of the Holy See was sustained. But 
the wardens refused to recognize this decision and 
the bishop ordered the clergy to withdraw from the 
cathedral and parochial residence. One of the mem- 
bers of the board, who was a member of the city 
council, obtained the passage of a law punishing by 
fine any priest who should perform the burial service 
over a dead body except in the old mortuary chapel 
erected in 1 826 as part of the cathedral parish. Unaer 
this ordinance Rev. Bernard Permoli was prosecuted. 
The old chapel had long outlived its purpose, and on 
19 December, 1842, Judge Preval decided the ordi- 
nance illegal, and tne Supreme Court of the United 
States sustained his decision. The faithful of St. 
Patrick's parish having pubUcly protested against the 
outrageous proceedings, the tide of public opinion set 
in strongly against the men who thus defied all church 
authority. In January, 1843, the latter submitted 
and received the parish priest appointed by the bishop. 
Soon after the faithful Catholics of the city petitioned 
the Legislature to amend the Act incorporating the 
cathedral, and bring it into harmony with ecclesiasti- 
cal discipline. Even after the decision of the Legis- 
lature the bishop felt that he could not treat with the 
wardens as they defied his authority by authorizing 
the erection of a monument to Freemasons in the 
Catholic cemetery of St. Louis. To free the faithful, 
he therefore contmued to plan for the organization of 
parishes and the erection of new churches. Only one 
low Mass was said at the cathedral, and that on Sun- 
day. Bishop Blanc convened the third synod of the 
diocese on 21 April, at which the clergy were warned 
against yielding to the illegal claims of trustees, and 
the erection of any church without a deed being first 
made to the bishop was forbidden. For the churches 
in which the trtistees system still existed special ref- 
lations were made, governing the method of keepmg 
accounts. At the close of 1844 the trustees, defeated 
in the courts and held in contempt by public opinion 
throughout the diocese, yielded completely to Bishop 

This controversy terminated, a period of remarkable 
activity in the organization of parishes and the build- 
ing of new churches set in. The cornerstone of St. 
Mary's, intended to replace the old Ursuline chapel 
attached to the bishop s house, was laid on 16 Feb., 
1845; that of St. Joseph's on 16 April, 1846; that of 
the Annunciation on 10 May, 1846. The Redemptor- 
ists founded the parish of the Assumption, and were 
installed in its church on 22 Oct., 1847. The parish 




of Mater Dolorosa at Carrollton (then a suburb) was 
founded on 8 Sept. ; that of the Holy Name of Mary at 
Algiers on 18 Dec., 1848. In 1849 St. Stephen's par- 
ish in the then suburb of Bouligny under tne Lazarist 
Fathers and Sts. Peter and Paul came into existence. 
The comer-stone of the Redemptorist church of St. 
Alphonsus was laid by the famous Apostle of Tempeiv 
ance, Father Theobald Mathew, on 11 April, 1850; 
two years later it was found necessary to enlarge this 
'churchy and a school was added. In 1851 the founda- 
tion-stone of the church of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion was laid, on the site of a humbler edifice erected 
in 1848. This is said to have been the first church in 
the world dedicated to the Immaculate Conception. 
The parishes of St. John the Baptist in the upper town 
and of St. Anne in the French quarter were organized 
in 1852. 

The French congregation of Notre-Dame de Bon 
Secours was organized on 16 Jan., 1858. In the 
midst of g^reat progress yellow fever broke out and five 
priests and two Sisters of Charity swelled the roll 
of martyrs. The devoted services of the Sisters of 
Charity, especially durine the ravages of the yellow 
fever, in attending the sick and caring for the orphans 
were so highly appreciated by the Legislature that in 
1846 the State made them a grant of land near Donald- 
sonville for the opening of a novitiate, and a general 
subscription was made throughout the diocese for 
this purpose. The sisters established themselves in 
Donaldsonville the same year. 

In 1843, anxious to provide for the wants of the in- 
creasing German and Irish emigration, Bishop Blanc 
had sunmioned the Congregation of the Redemptorists 
to the diocese and the German parish of St. Mary's 
Assumption was founded by Rev. Czackert of that 
congregation. In 1847 the work of the Society of 
Jesus m the diocese, which had been temporarily 
suspended, was resumed under Father Maisounabe as 
superior, and a college building was started on 10 June. 
In the following year Father Maisounabe and a bril- 
liant young Irish associate. Father Blackney, fell vic- 
tims to yellow fever. The population of New Orleans 
now numbered over fifty thousand, among whom were 
many German immigrants. Bishop Blanc turned over 
the old Ursuline chapel to the Germans of the lower 
portion of the city, and a church was erected, which 
finally resulted in the foundation of the Holy Trinity 

?arish on 26 October, 1847. In 1849 the College of St. 
aul was opened at Baton Rouge. On 13 July, 1852, 
St. Charles College became a corporate institution with 
Rev. A. J. Jourdan, S. J., as president. In 1849 Bishop 
Blanc attended the Seventh Council of Baltimore at 
which the bishops expressed their desire that the See 
of New Orleans be raised to metropolitan rank. On 
19 July, 1850, Pius X established the Archdiocese of 
New Orleans, Bishop Blanc being raised to the archi- 
episcopal dignity. The Province of New Orleans 
was to embrace New Orleans with Mobile, Natchez, 
Little Rock, and Galveston as suffragan sees. The 
spirit of Knownothingism invaded New Orleans as 
other parts of the United States, and Archbishop 
Blanc found himself in the thick of the battle. Public 
debates were held, conspicuous among those who did 
yeoman service in cruslung the efforts of the party in 
Louisiana being the Hon. Thos. J. Semmes, a dis- 
tinguished advocate. Rev. Francis Xavier Len^ and 
Rev. N. J. Perche, both afterwards Archbishop of New 
Orleans. Father Perche founded (1844) a French 
diocesan journal ''Le Propagateur Catholique'', 
which vigorouslv assailed the Knownothing doctrines. 
On 6 June a mob attacked the office of the paper, and 
also made a fierce attack on the Ursuline Convent, 
breaking doors and windows and hurling insults at 
the nuns. 

In 1853 New Orleans was desolated by the worst epi- 
demic of yellow fever in its history, seven priests and 
five sisters being among its victims. On 6 March, 

1854, the School Sisters of Notre Dame arrived in 
New Orleans to take charge of St. Joseph's Asylum, 
founded to furnish homes for those orphaned by the 
epidemic. St. Vincent's Orphan A^lum was also, 
opened as a home for foundUngs and infant orphans, 
and entrusted to the Sisters of Charity. On 29 July^ 
1853, the Holy See divided the Diocese of New Or- 
leans, which at that time embraced all Louisiana, and 
established the See of Natchitoches (a. v.). The new 
diocese contained about twenty-five tnousand Catho- 
lics, chiefly a rural population, for whom there were 
onlv seven churches. The Convent of the Sacred Heart 
at Natchitoches was the only religious institution in 
the new diocese. In 1854 Archbishop Blanc went to 
Rome and was present at the solemn definition of the 
dogma of the Immaculate Conception. In his report 
to the Propaganda he describes his diocese as contain- 
ing forty quasi-parishes, each with a church and one or 
two priests and a residence for the clergy; the city had 
eighteen churches. The diocese had a seminary under 
the Priests of the Mission with an average of nine stu- 
dents; the religious orders at Work were the Jesuits 
with three establishments, Priests of the Mission with 
three, and Redemptorists with two. The Catholic 

gopulation of 95,000 was made up of natives of French, 
panish, Irish, or American origin, French, Germans, 
Spaniards, and ItaliEins. Distinctive Catholic schools 
were increasing. The Ursulines, Religious of the Sa- 
cred Heart, Sisters of Holy Charity, Marianites of the 
Holy Cross, Tertiary Carmelites, School Sisters of 
Notre Dame, and the Coloured Sisters of the Holy 
Family were doing excellent woric. Many abuses had 
crept m especially with regard to marriage, but after 
the erection of new churches with smaller parochial 
school districts, religion had gained steadily and the 
frequentation of the sacraments was increasing. 

In 1855 the Fathers of the Congregation of the Holy- 
Cross came to New Orleans to establish a manual in- 
dustrial school for the training of the orphan boys who 
had been rendered homeless by the terrible epidemic 
of 1853. They established themselves in the lower 
portion of New Orleans, and became inseparably iden- 
tified with religious and educational progress. In 1879 
they opened their college, which is now one of the lead- 
ing iiistitutions of Louisiana. On 20 January, 1856, 
the First Provincial Council of NewOrieans was held, 
and in January, 1858, Archbishop Blanc held the 
fourth diocesan synod. In 1859 the Sisters of the 
Good Shepherd were called by Archbishop Blanc to 
New Orleans to open a reformatory for girls. Bishop 
Blanc opened another diocesan seminary in the same 
year, and placed it in charge of the Lazarist Fathers. 
He convoked the second provincial council on 22 Janu- 
ary, 1860. Just before the second session opened he 
was taken so seriously ill that he could no longer at- 
tend the meetings; he rallied and seemed to regain, 
his usual health, but he died 20 June following. 

Right Rev. John Mary Odin. Bishop of Galveston,, 
was appointed successor io Arcnbishop Blanc, and ar- 
rived m New Orleans on the Feast of Pentecost, 1861. 
The Civil War had already begim and excitement was 
intense. All the prudence and charity of the arch- 
bishop were needed as the war progressed. An earnest 
maintainer of discipline, Archbi^op Odin found it 
necessary on 1 January, 1863, to issue regulations re- 
garding the recklessness and carelessness that had pre- 
vailed m the temporal management of the churches 
the indebtedness of which he had been compelled to 
assume to save them from bankruptcy. The regular 
tions were not favourably received, and the arch- 
bishop visited Rome returning in the spring of 1863, 
when he had obtained the approvsJ of the Holy See 
for his course of action. It was not till some time later 
that through his charity and zeal he obtained the cor- 
dial support he desired. His appeids for priests while 
in Europe were not unheeded and early in 1863 forty 
seminarians and five Ursulines arrived with Bishop Du- . 




bois of Galveston. Among the priests were Fathers 
Gustave A. Rouxel, later Auxiliaiy Bishop of New Or- 
leans under Archbishop Chapelle, Thomas Ueslin, 
^terwards Bi^op of Natchez, and J. R. Bogaerts, 
vicar-general under Archbishop Janssens. In 1860 the 
Dominican Nuns from Cabra. Ireland, came to New 
Orleans to take charge of St. John the Baptist School 
and open an academy. In 1864 the Sisters of Mercy 
came to the city to assume charge of St. Alpfaonsus' 
School and Asyfum and open a convent and boarding- 
school, and the Marists were offered the Church of St. 
Michael at Convent, La. On 12 July, 1864, they as- 
sumed charge of Jefferson CoUego founded by the 
State in 1835, and donated to them by Valcour Aime, a 
wealthy planter. The diocese was incorporated on 15 
August, 1866, the legal name and title bemg '* The Ro- 
man Catholic Church of the Diocese of New Orleans". 
In 1867 during a terrible epidemic of yellow fever and 
cholera. Fathers Spiessberger and Seelos of the Re- 
demptorists died martyrs of charity. Father Seelos 
was regarded as a saint and the cause of his beatifica-' 
tion has been introduced in Rome (1905). In 1866, 
owing to financial trials throughout the South, the di- 
ocesan seminary was closed. In February, 1868, Arch- 
bishop Odin founded "The Morning Star" as the offi- 
cial organ of the Archdiocese, which it has continued 
to be. 

During the nine vears of Bishop Odin's administra- 
tion he nearlv doubled the number of his clergy and 
churches. He attended the Council of the Vatican, 
but was obliged to leave Rome on the entry of the 
Garibaldian troops. His health was broken and 
he returned to his native home, Ambierle, France, 
where he died on 25 May, 1870. He was bom on 25 
February, 1801, and entered the Lazarists. He came 
as a novice to their seminary. The Barrens, in St. 
Louis, where he completed his theological stuaies and 
received ordination (see Galveston, Diocese of). 
He was an excellent administrator and left his diocese 
free from debt. 

Archbishop Odin was succeeded by the Rev. Napo- 
leon Joseph Perche, bom at Angers, France, January, 
1805, and died on 27 December, 1883. The latter com- 
pleted his studies at the Seminary of Beaupr6, was or- 
dained on 19 September, 1829, and sent to Murr'near 
Angers where he worked zealously. In 1837 he came to 
America with Bishop Flaget and was appointed pastor 
of Portland. He came U> New Orleans with Bishop 
Blanc in 1841, and he soon became famous in Louis- 
iana for his eloquence and learning. Archbishop Odin 
petitioned Rome for the appointment of Father 
rerche as his coadjutor with the right of succession, 
fiis request was granted and. on 1 May, 1870, Father 
Perche was consecrated in tne cathedral of New Or- 
leans titular Bishop of Abdera. He was promoted to 
the see on 25 May, 1870. One of his first acts was 
the re-establishment of the diocesan seminary. The 
Benedictine Nuns were received into the diocese in 

The Congregation of the Immaculate Conception, a 
diocesan sisterhood, was founded in the vear 1873 by 
Father Cyprien Venissat, at Labadieville, to afford 
education and assistance to the children of families 
impoverished by the war. In 1875 the Poor Clares 
made a foundation, and on 21 November, 1877, the 
Discalced CarmeUte Nuns of St. Louis sent two mem- 
bers to make a foundation in New Orleans, their mon- 
astery being opened on 11 May, 1878. In 1878 the 
new parish of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was organized 
and placed in charge of the Holy Cross Fathers from 
Indiana. On 12 October, 1872, the Sisters of Perpet- 
ual Adoration opened their missions and schools in 
New Orleans. In 1879 the Holy Cross Fathers opened 
a college in the lower portion of the city. Owing to the 
financial difficulties it was necessary to close the di- 
ocesan seminary in 1881. Archbishop Perche was a 
great scholar, but he lacked administrative ability. In 

his desire to relieve Southern families ruined by the 
war, he gave to all largely and royally, and thus 
plunged the diocese into a debt of over $600,000. He 
was growing very feeble and an application was made 
to Rome for a coadiutor. 

Bishop Francis Aavier Leray of Natchitoches was 
transferred to New Orleans as coadjutor and Apostolic 
administrator of affairs on 23 October, 1879, and at 
once set to work to liquidate the immense debt. It 
was during the administration of Archbishop Perche 
and the coadjutorship of Bishop Leray that the Board 
of Trustees of the cathedral which formerly had caused 
so much trouble passed out of existence in July, 1881, 
and transferred all the cathedral property to Arch- 
bishop Perche and Bishop Leray jointly, for the bene- 
fit and use of the Catholic population. Archbishop 
Leray was bom at Ch&teau Giron, Brittany, France, 
20 April, 1825. He responded to the appeal for 
priests for the Diocese of Louisiana in 1843, and com- 
pleted his theological studies at the Sulpician seminary 
in Baltimore. Be accompanied Bishop Chanche to 
Natchez and was ordained b^ him on 19 March, 1852. 
He was a most active missionary in the Mississippi 
district and in 1860 when pastor of Vicksburg he 
brought the Sisters of Mercy irom Baltimore to estab- 
lish a school there. Several times during his years 
of activity as a priest he was stricken with yellow 

During the Civil War, he served as a Con- 
federate chaplain; and on several occasions he was 
taken prisoner by the Federal forces but released as 
soon as the sacred character of his office was estab- 
lished. On the death of Bishop Martin he was ap- 
pointed to the See of Natchitoches, and consecrated 
on 22 April, 1877, at Rennes, France; on 23 Octo- 
ber, 1879, he was appointed coadjutor to Archbishop 
Perche of New Orleans and Bishop of Janopolis. His 
most difficult task was the bringing of financial order 
out of chaos and reducing the enormous debt of the 
diocese. In this he met with great success. During 
his administration the debt was reduced by at least 
$300,000. His health, however, became impaired, and 
he went to France in the hope of recuperating, and 
died at Chditeau Giron, on 23 September, 1887. 

The see remained vacant for nearly a year. Very 
Rev. G. A. Rouxel administering the affairs of the dio- 
cese, until the Right Rev. Francis Janssens, Bishop of 
Natchez, was promoted to fill the vacancy on 7 Au- 
gust, 1888, and took possession on 16 September, 
1888. Archbishop Janssens was bom at Tillburg, 
Holland, on 17 October^ 1843. At thirteen he began 
his studies in the seminary at Bois-le-Duc; he re- 
mained there ten years, and in 1866 entered the Amer- 
ican College at Louvain, Belgium. He was ordained 
on 21 December, 1867, and arranged to come to Amer- 
ica. He arrived at Richmond m September, 1868, 
and became pastor of the cathedral in 1870. He was 
administrator of the diocese pending the appointment 
of the Right Rev. James (later Cardinal) Gibbons to 
the vacant see; Bishop Gibbons appointed him vicar- 
general, and five years later when ne was appointed to 
the Archiepiscopal See of Baltimore, Father Janssens 
became again administrator of the diocese. On 7 
April, 1881, the See of Natchez became vacant by the 
promotion of Right Rev. Wm. Elder as Archbishop 
of Cincinnati and Father Janssens succeeded. While 
Bishop of Natchez he completed the cathedral com- 
menced forty years before by Bishop Chanche. Not 
the least of the difficulties that awaited him as Arch- 
bishop of New Orleans was the heavy indebtedness 
resting upon the see and the constant drain thus made 
which had exhausted the treasury. There was no 
seminary and the rapid growth of the population aug- 
mented the demand for priests. He at once called a 
meeting of the clergy and prominent citizens, and 
plans were formulated for the gradual liquidation 
of the debt of the diocese, which was found to be 


SSM.799. BddfeliisdeAtkliehMlreiiiieedittodboiit Ike aibiieB of Ike doer for firearms far Ike 1 

fiaO^OOa Kotvitkrtawfi^lliisbiiideB,lke<fioeeBe, tioii of tke dmena ddbl. In October 1900 ke 

tfc— i^l> Aoi^rf Ai glJiiJifl|i T i m i wn fntf iriliqinn tke fitHe fleoimwy at FoBckaloiila and opened a 

a period of nuDBoal acdritj. One of hw finl acts, kUgber one in Xcv OrieoBS, placiBK it in ckuge of tke 

Marek. 1890. «w to foond a fittle flemnmr, vkick L^saiisC Fatkem. Tke Ridbt Rer.G. A. Rooxelvas 

maa opened at PontckatDnkk La^ 3 S ep t e mb er, 1891^ appoin t ed a nriH a r v bishop for IkeSee of NevOrieans^ 

aad placed under Ike Aeetian of tke BenedicCine aindv«5eoDsecvaledlOA|iiiLlS99. Elglit Rcr. J. M. 

Patkers. He vent to Enrope in 1889 to aenne priests Laral w^as made Tica i -g uma l and rector of Ike SL 

for tke ^fioeeae and to ana^e for tke sale of bonds for LooiB Catkedial on 21 April, and Terr Rer. Jamcn 

tke fiqmd^ion of tke debt. In Angost, 1892. after H. Blenk vie appointed Biskop of Porto kico and eon- 

tke lyncking of Ike Itafians who wis fi in ited tke chief secrated in tke St. Louis Cstkedral with ArchfairiKip 

of poliee. tke Mnaonaiy Sstexs of tke Sacred Heart, Bainada of Santiago de Cuba. 2 Jnhr. 1S99. Aiek- 

foonded in Ilalr bj Motker Calwina for woA among bidiop Oiapelle vas absent from tke d Soce s c dariag 

Italian cnii^^aiiitB,anived in Xcv Orleans and opened the greater part of he administration, duties in Ike An- 

a laige mimwi , afreeaehooly and an a sjlum for Italian tillesandtkePhifippineBineonnexionvithhisporitaon 

ospkaas^ and began also m ia aon mixk among the as ApostoSc Delegate rbiming his attention, nerer- 

Italian gsidcnen on Ike outEldrtB of tke citr and ai thefesshe accompnahed much for Xcv Orleans. Tke 

Kenncr, La. The same year a tcirifie cjcione and dioeesan debt vas extinguished, and tke a c ti%iU in 

storm swept the Lodaana Gulf oonst. and laid lov tke churdi work which had bc^gun under Arddttskop Jana- 

lands along tke O a min a da Ck e n ic ie where there was a sen continued ;retuTningtoXcw Orleans he introduced 

aetUemeot of Itafian and Spanish and Malay fisher- into the diocese the Dominican Fathers from tke 

men. Out of a population of loOO orcr ^00 were nufipfMnes. In tke summer of 1905, while tke aick- 

sw^it away. Rev. Fatker Grimaod perfonned tke bishop was administeiing confizmation in the coantzr 

banal semees orer 400 bocfies as ther were aa a hed parishes, vellow f erer broke out in Xew Orleans, and, 

ashore. Father Bedel at Burns buned orer three deeming it his duty to be among his pec^»le, he xe- 

knndred, and went out at mdbt to suceour tke wander- turned immediately to tke city. On the way from 

ing and hdpleas. Archbiabop Janasens in a flmall tke train to his readcnce he was stricken, aixl <fied 9 

boat went among the lonehr and desolate island settle- August, 1906 (see Chapkllk, PLacisb Loins). Aoxil- 

ments comforting tke peo^ and healing them to re- iaiy Biskop Roooel became the administrator of the 

build their broken horoea. diocje a e pending the appointment of a successor. 

In 1893, the centcnanr of the diocese was cdetirated The Ri^t Rev. James Hurbert Blenk, SAI.. D.D., 

witk spkndoor at the St. Louis Cathedral; Canfinal Kdwp of PcmtIo Rico, was promoted to Xew Orleans, 

(^>bons and many of the hierarchT were i^esent. 20 April. 1900. 

Arehbishop Janasens was instrumental, at this time, in IV. CoxmiroRART Coxditioxs. — ArchludK^ 

eatabMiiiy the Louisiana Lepers' Home at Indian Blenk was bora at Xeostadt. Bavaria, 28 Jidy, 1S50» 

Camp, and it was through his offices that the Ssten of Protestant parentage. Wliile a ddld, his^ family 

of Otarithr from Emmitsburg took ckarge of the came to Xew Orleans, and it was hoe that the iigjit of 

kome. He was deeply interested in the work of the the true Faith dawned upon the boy; he was bi^^tiaed 

eofeored Sstera of the Holy Family, now domiciled in in St. Alfdionsus Qiurdi at the age of twdve. Hb 

tke ancient Quadroon Ball RocMn arid Theatre of onle- raimary education having been completed in Xew 

beOum daya, which had been turned into a convent Orleans, he entered Jefferson CoOege whoe he com- 

and boaidiiip-adiooL Through the generoritr of a pleted his daasical and scientific studies unckr the 

coio m ed philanthropist. Thorny Lafon, AiehbidKyp Marist Fathers. He spent three years at the Marist 

Janaaens was enabled to ivovide a larger and more houae of studies in Belley, France, completed his pro- 

oomfortaUe home for the aged eoloured poor, a new batiooary studies at the Marist novitiate at Lyons, 

asyfami for the boys, aixlthrou^ the legacy of $20,000 and was sent to Dublin to follow a hi^Ma* course of 

left for this p u rpoee by Mr. Lafon, who died in 1883, mathematics at the Catholic Univcrsitv. Thence he 

a special home, under the care of the Sisters of the went to St. Mary's CoOege, Dundalk, County Louth, 

Good Shepherd, for the refmm of coloured girb. The whoe he occupied the diair of mathematics. Later 

St. John Berdunan's ch»pel, a memorial to Thomy he returned to the Marist house of studies in Dubfin 

Lafon, was csected in the Convent of the Hoi^ Family adiere he completed his theolo(pcal studies. 16 

wluck he had 80 befriended. At this time Aitkbishop August, 1885, he was ordained pnest, and returned 

Janaaena estimated the number ci Catholics in Im that year to l/wiisiana to labour among his own peo- 

<iioeeae at 341,613; the value of church property at ^e. He was stationed as a pKiofessor at Jeffwson 

S3,861,075; the number of bi^tiams a year 15,000 and Cdlege of wiach he became president in 1891 and held 

tke immber of deaths, 5000. the position for six years. In 1S96, at the invitation 

In 1896 the CathoUc Winter Sdiool of America was of the general of the Marista, he visited all the houses 
ofganiaed and was formally opened by Cardinal of the congregation in Europe, and returning to Xew 
SatoOi, then Apo8l<^c Ddegate to the Umted States. Orleans in F^ruary, 1897, he became the rector of the 
After the deatii of Archbishop Janasens the lecture Churdiof the Holy Xameof Mary, Algias, which was 
eouraea were abandoned. The active life led by the in duuge of the Marist Fathers. He erected the 
nrehbidbop UAd heavily mMm him. Anxious to uqui- handsome pre^3rtery and gave a great impetus to re- 
date enimfy the debt ci the diocese he made arrange- ligionandraucation m the parish and rity, being chair- 
menta to visit Europe in 1897, but died aboarduie man of the Board of Studies of the newly organixed 
steamer Creole, 19 June, on the voyage to Xew York. Winter School. He was a member of the Board of 

Most Rev. Pladde Louis Chi^dfe, D.D., Arch- Consuhors during the administration of Archbishop 

liiriiop of Santa F^, was appointed to the vacant See of Janasens and <tf Archbishop Chapelle; the latter se- 

New Orleana, 1 December, 1897. Shortly after com- lected him as the auditor and secretary of the Apoa- 

ing to New Orleans he found it imperative to go to tolic Ddegation to Cuba and POrto Rico. He was ap- 

Emape to effect a settlement for the remainder S the pointed the first bishop of the Island of Porto Rico 

diocesan debt of $130,000. While he was in Europe under the American occupation 12 June, 1899. A 

war was declared between Spain and the United hurricane overswept Porto Rico just before Bishop 

States, and, upon the declaration of peace. Archbishop Blenk l^t to take possession of his see; through his 

Ckapdle was a^iointed Apostolic delegate extraor- personal ^orts he raised ova* $30,000 in the United 

dinaiy to Cuba and Porto Rico and duufgig d'affaires States to take with him to alleviate the sufferings of 

to the FhiliiqMne Islands. Returning fitHn Europe his new people. The successful work d[ Bishop Blenk 

he anaassd for tke aaseasment of five per cent upcHi is a part of the history of the reconstruction along 




American lines of the Antilles. He returned to New 
Orieans as archbishop, 1 July, 1906, and new life was 
infused into every department of religious and edu- 
cational and charitaole endeavour. Splendid new 
churches and schools were erected, especially in the 
country parishes. Among the new institutions were 
St. Joseph's Seminary and Collie at St. Benedict, 
La.; St. Charles College, Grand Coteau, built on the 
ruins of the old college destroved b^ fire; Lake 
Charles Sanitarium: Marquette University; and the 
Seaman's Haven, wnere a chapel was opened for sail- 
ors. The new sisterhoods aomitted to the diocese 
were the Religious of the Incarnate Word in charge of 
a sanitarium at Lake Charies; the Relinous of Divine 
Providence in charge of the school in Broussardville; 
and the French Benedictine Sisters driven from 
France, who erected the new Convent of St. Gertrude 
at St. Benedict, La., destined as an industrial school 
for girls. A large industrial school and farm for 
coloured boys under the direction of the Sisters of the 
Holy Family was opened in Gentilly Road, and two 
new parishes outlined for the exclusive care of the 
coloured race. In 1907, the seminary conducted by 
the Lazarist Fathers was closed and Archbishop 
Blenk opened a preparatory seminary and placed it in 
charge of the Benedictine Fathers. The diocese as- 
sumea full charge of the Chinchuba Deaf-mute Insti- 
tute, which was established under Archbishop Jans- 
sens and is the only Catholic institute for deaf-mutes 
in the South. It is in charge of the School Sisters of 
Notre Dame. 

New Orleans' priesthood, like the population of 
Louisiana, is cosmopolitan. The trainmg of the 
priesthood has been conducted at home and abroad, 
the diocese owing much to the priests who came from 
France, Spain, Ireland, Germany, and Holland. Sev- 
eral efiforte were made to establish a permanent semi- 
nary and recruit the ranks of the priesthood from the 
diocese itself. At various times also the diocese had 
students at St. Mary's and St. Charles Seminary, 
Baltimore, the Amencan College, Louvain, and has 
(1910) twelve the(^ogical students in different semi- 
naries of Europe and America. Each parish is incor- 
porated and there are the corporate institutions of the 
Jesuits and other religious communities. The houses 
of study for religious are the Jesuit scholasticate at 
Grand Coteau, and the Benedictine scholasticate of 
8t. Benedict at St. Benedict, La. The Poor Clares, 
discalced Carmelites, Benedictine Nuns, Congrega- 
tion of Marianites of the Holy Cross, Ursuline Nuns, 
Religious of the Sacred Heart, Sisters of St. Joseph, 
Sisters of Perpetual Adoration^ Sisters of the Immacu- 
late Conception, Sisters of the Holy Family (coloured). 
Sisters of Mount Carmel, have mother-houses with 
novitiates in New Orleans. In early days there were 
distinctive parishes in New Orleans for French-, Eng- 
lish-, and (jrerman-speaking Catholics, but with the 
growing diffusion of the English language these parish 
fines have disappeared. la all the churches where 
necessary, there are French, English, and German ser- 
mons and instructions; there are churches and chapels 
for Italian emigrants and Hungarians, a German set- 
tlement at St. Leo near Ra3me, domestic missions for 
negroes under the charge of the Holy Family Sisters 
and Josephite Fathers and Lazarists at New Orleans 
and Bayou Petite, Prairie. 

The educational system is well organized. The 
principal institutions are: the diocesan normal school; 
the Marquette University under the care of the 
Jesuits; 7 colleges and academies with hidb school 
courses for boys with 1803 students; 17 academies for 
young ladies, under the direction of religious communi- 
ties, with 2201 students; 102 parishes with parochial 
schools having an attendance of 20,000 pupils; 117 
orphan asylums with 1341 orphans; 1 infant asylum 
with 164 infants; 1 industrial school for whites with 
90 inmates; 1 industrial school for coloured orphan 

boys; 1 deaf-mute asylum with 40 inmates; 3 hospi- 
tals; 2 homes for the aged white, and 1 for the aged 
coloured poor; 1 house of the Good Shepherd for the 
reform of wayward sirls;.a Seaman's Haven. The 
state asylums for the blind, etc., hospitals, prisons, re- 
formatories, ahnshouses, and secular homes for incur- 
ables, consumptives, convalescents, etc., are all visited 
by Catholic priests, Sisters of Mercy, conferences of 
St. Vincent ae Paul, and St. Margaret's Daughters. 
There is absolute freedom of worship. The first St. 
Vincent de Paul conference was organized in 1852. 

The diocese has one Benedictine abbey (St. Joseph's, 
of which Right Rev. Paul Schftuble is abbot); 15o 
secular priests, 123 priests in religious communities, 
making a total of 279 clergy; 133 churches with 
resident priests and 90 missions with churches, making 
a total of 223 churches; 35 stations and 42 chapels 
where Mass is said. The total Catholic population is 
550,000; yearly baptisms include 15,155 white chil- 
dren, 253 white adults, 3111 coloured children, and 
354 coloured adults (total number of baptisms 18,- 
873): the communions average 750,180; confirmations 
11,215; converts, 817; marriages, 3533 (including 323 
mixed). The large centres of church activity are 
the cities of New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Plaque- 
mine, Donaldsonville, Thibodeaux, Houma, Franklin, 
Joannerette. New Iberia, Lafayette. Abbeville, Mor- 
gan City, St. Martin, Crowley, Lake Charles. The 
churches and schools are all insured; an association 
for assisting infirm priests, the Priests' Aid Society, 
has been established and mutual aid and benevolent 
associations in almost every parish for the assistance 
of the laity. Assimilation is constantly going on 
among the different nationalities that come to New 
Orleans through intennarriage between Germans, 
Italians, French^and Americans, and thus is created a 
healthy civic sentiment that conduces to earnest and 
harmonious progress ajonf .lines of religious, charita- 
ble, educational, and social endeavour. The Catholic 
laity of the diocese is naturally largely represented 
in the life and government of\the community, the 
population being so overwhelmi^jgly Catholic; Cath- 
olics hold prominent civil positions, such as governor: 
ma;)ror. and member of the Bar, Stai^ Legislature^ and 
Umted States Congress. A Catiioli<B from Louisiana. 
Edward D. White, has been recently OJ910) appointed 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court\of the United 
States. Catholics are connected withXthe state nor- 
mal schools and colleges, are on the board of the state 
universities and pubhc libraries, and areVrepresented 
in the corps of professors, patrons, and ptspils of the 
Louisiana State and Tulane universiti&. Three 
fourths of the teachers of the public sdiooLrlpf Louisi- 
ana are Catholics. 

The laity take a very active interest in the Religious 
life of the diocese. Every church and convenp ^^ f te 
altar society for the care of the tabernacle, scldalitieB 
of the Blessed Virgin for young girls and women\ "^^^ 
Holy Name Society for men, young and old, isVs^^ab- 
lished throughout the diocese, while conferences V^ 3^- 
Vincent de Paul are established in thirty chuil^^^* 
St. Margaret's Dau^ters, indulgenced like theSolp^^^y 
of St. Vincent de Paul, has twenty-ei^t circl^ 
work, and the Total Abstinence Society is estabU 
in many churches. Besides the Third Order o 
Francis, the diocese has confraternities of the Hi 
Death, the Holy Face, the Holy Rosary, and the 1 
Agony; the Apostlesnip of Prayer is establishe 
nearly all the churches, while many parishes 
confraternities adapted to their special needs. 
Catholic Knights of America and ICni^ts of Co V^~ 
bus are firmly established, while the Holy Spiri^ °^ 
ciety, devoted to the defence of Catholic FaithBt ^^ 
diffusion of Catholic truth, and the establishmrV^t of 
churches and schools in wayside places, is doing Bnoble 
work along church extension lines. Other so^pgtieg 
are the Marquette League, the Society for the i^ivpa- 








gation of the Faith, which traces its origin to Bishop 
Dubourg of Louisiana, the Society of the Holy Child- 
hood, and the Priests' Eucharistic League. Religious 
life in the diocese is regular and characterized by strict 
discipline and earnest spirituality. Monthly confer- 
ences are held and ecclesiastical conferences three 
times a year. 

The religious communities in the diocese are: (1) 
Male: Benedictines, Fathers and Brothers of the Holy 
Cross, Dominicans, Jesuits, Josephites^ Lazarists. 
Marists, Redemptorists, and Brothers of the Sacrea 
Heart; (2) Female: Sisters of St. Benedict, French 
Benedictine Sisters, Discalced Carmelite Nuns, Sis- 
ters of Mount Carmel, Poor Clares, Sisters of Charity, 
Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word, Sisters of 
Christian Charity, Sisters of Divine Providence, 
Dominican Sisters, Sisters of the Good Shepherd, Sis- 
ters of the Holy Family, Sisters of the Immaculate 
Conception, Sbters of St. Joseph, Little Sisters of the 
Poor, Sisters Marianites of the Holy Cross, Sisters of 
Mercy, School Sisters of Notre Dame, Sisters of Our 
Lady of Lourdes, Religious of the Sacred Heart, Ursu- 
line Sisters, Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, 
Sisters of Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment. C6lo\u«d Catholics : The works in behalf of the 
coloured race began in the earliest days, in Louisiana, 
when the Jesuits devoted themselves especially to the 
care of the Indians and negroes. After the expulsion 
of the Jesuits the King of Spain ordered that a chap- 
lain for negroes be placed on every plantation. Al- 
though this was impossible owing to the scarcity of 
priests, the greatest interest was taken in the evan- 
gdisation of negroes and winning them from super- 
stitious practices. The work of zealous Catholic 
masters and mistresses bore fruit in many ways, and 
there remains to-day in New Orleans, despite the 
losses to the Faith occasioned by the Civil War and 
during the Reconstruction Period when hordes of 
Protestant missionaries from the north flocked into 
Louisiana with millions of dollars to proselytize the 
race, a strong and sturdy Catholic element among the 
coloured people from which much is hoped. The Sis- 
ters of the Holy Family, a diocesan coloured order of 
religious, have accompushed much good. In addition 
to weir academy and orphanages for girls and boys 
and homes for the coloured aged poor of both sexes, 
located in New Orleans, they have a novitiate and 
conduct an academy in the cathedral parish and 
schools in the parishes of St. Maurice, St. Louis, Mater 
Dolorosa, St. Dominic, and St. Catherine in New Or- 
leans, and schools and a^lums in Madisonville, Don- 
iJdsonville, Opelusas, Baton Rouge, Mandevilles, 
Lafayette, and Palmetto, Louisiana. Schools for 
coloured children are also conducted by the following 
white relidous orders: Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, 
Sisters of Mercy, Mount Carmel Sisters, Religious of 
the Sacred Heart, Sisters of St. Joseph. Six coloured 
schools in charge of lay Catholic teachers in vari- 
ous parishes, St. Catherme's church in charge of the 
Lazarist Fathers, and St. Dominic's in charge of the 
Josephite Fathers in New Orleans are especially es- 
tablished for Catholic negroes. 

Arehitea of ths Dioce$4 of New Orleans; Arehivee of the St. Louie 
Cathedral; Shba. The Caih. Church in Colonial Daye (New York, 
1886); Idem, Life and Timee of Archbishop Carrol (New York, 
1888) : loBM, Hist, of the Caih. Church in the U. S., 1808-86 (2 voIb., 
New York. 1802); Gatarbb, HisL de la Louisiane (2 voU., New 
(Means, 1846-7); Charlevoix, Journal d*un Voyage dans 
rAmiriiiue Septentrional, YI (Pans, 1744): db la Harpe, Jourruil 
Hiei, de VStabliesemenl dee Franeais d la Louisiane (New Or- 
leans, 1831) ; King, Sieur de BienviUe (New York, 1893) ; Dimitrt, 
Hiel. of Louisiana (New York, 1892) ; Dxtmont, Mimoires Histor. 
sur la Louisiane (Paris, 1763) ; Lb Pagb ou Prate, Hist, de la L. 

gyols.. Paris, 1758); Fobtibr, L. Studiee (New Orleans, 1894); 
■If, Hisi. ofL. (4 vols.. New York, 1894): Martin, Hist, oft, 
from the earliest Period (1727) ; Kino and Ficklen, Hist, of L. 
(New (Orleans, 1900) ; Archives of the Ursuline Consent, New Or- 
leane. Diary of Sister Madeleine Haehard (New Orleans, 1727-65) ; 
LeIUre of Sietsr M. H. (1727); Archives of Churches, Diocese of 
New Orleans 0722-1909); Le PropagaUur Calholique (New Or- 
leans), files; The Morning Star (New Orleans, 1868-1909), files: 
Le MoniUwr de La Louisiane (New Orleans, 1794-1803), files; 

XI.— 2 

French and Spanish manuscripts in archives of Louisiana Hi»> 
torical Society; Chambon, In and Around the Old St. Louis Cathe- 
dral (New Orleans. 1008); The Picayune (New Orleans. 1887- 
1909). files; Camille db Kochementeix, Les Jisuites et la AToic- 
telle France au X VIII* Siide (Paris. 1906) ; Castellanos, New 
Orleans as it Was (New Orleans, 1905) ; Member or the Order 
OP Mercy, Essays BdtuxUional and Historic (New York, 1899); 
Lowenstein, Hist, of the St. Louis Cathedral of New Orleans 
(1882) ; Member op the Order op Merct, Caih. Hist, of Alar 
hama and the Floridas; Centenaire du Ph-e Antoine (New Orleans, 
1885); Harobt, Religious of the Sacred HeaH (New York, 1910). 

Marie Louise Points. 


N<fW Pomerania, Vicariate Apostolic of. — ^New 
Pomerania, the largest island of the Bismarck Archi- 
pela^, is separated from New Guinea byDampier 
Strait, and extends from 148^ to 152^ E. long, and 
from 4° to 7^ S. lat. It is about 348 miles long, from 
12J^ to 923^ miles broad, and has an area of 9^50 sq. 
miles. Two geographical regions are distinguishable. 
Of the north-eastern section (known as the Gazelle 
Peninsula) a great portion is occupied by wooded 
mountain chains; otherwise (especially about Blanche 
Bay) the soil is very fertile and admirably watered by 
rivers (e. g. the Toriu and Kerawat), which yield an 
abundance of fish. The white population is practi- 
cally confined to the northern part of this section, in 
which the capital, Herbertshdhe, is situated. The 
western and larger section also has extensive mountain 
chains, which contain numerous active volcanoes. 
Tlie warlike nature of the natives, who fiercely resent 
as an intrusion every attempt to land, has left us al- 
most entirely ignorant of the interior. 

The natives are finely built, coffee, brown in colour, 
have regular features, and, when well cared for as at 
the mission stations, approach the European stand- 
surd, though their lips are somewhat thick and the 
mouth hau or wide open. While resembling the south- 
eastern Papuan, they use weapons unknown to the 
latter — e. g. the sling, in the use of which they possess 
marvellous dexterity, skilfully inserting the .stone with 
the toes. They occupy few towns owing to the con- 
stant feuds raging among them. One of their strang- 
est institutions is their money ((ietoarrd), composed of 
small cowrie shells threaded on a piece of cane. The 
difficulty of procuring these shells, which are found 
only in very deep water, accounts for the value set on 
them. The unit is usually a fathom (the length of 
both arms extended) of detDorra. The tribes have no 
chiefs; an individual's importance varies according to 
the amount of dewarra he possesses, but the final de- 
cision for peace or war fests with the tribe. This en- 
tire absence of authority among the natives is a g^reat 
obstacle in the way of government. The natives are 
very superstitious: a demon resides in each volcano, 
and marks his displeasure by sending forth fire agiunst 
the people. To propitiate the evil spirits, a piece of 
deiDorra is always placed in the grave with the corpse. 
■The celebrated institution of the Duk-Duk is simply a 
piece of imposture^ by which the older natives play 
upon the superstitions of the younger to secure the 
food they can no longer earn. This ** spirit"" (a na- 
tive adorned with a huge mask) arrives regularly in a 
boat at night with the new moon, and receives the 
offerings of the natives. The standard of moraUty 
among the natives of New Pomerania is high com- 
pared with that observed in New Mecklenburs (the 
other large island of the Bismarck Archipelago), 
where the laxity of morals, especially race suicide and 
the scant respect shown for marriage, seems destined 
rapidly to annihilate the population. In Nov., 1884, 
Germany proclaimed its protectorate over the New 
Britain Archipelago; New Britain and New Ireland 
were given the names of Neupommem and Neumeck- 
lenburg. and the whole group was renamed the Bis- 
marck Archipelago. The great obstacle to the devel- 
opment of the islands is their poisonous climate, 
neither native nor European being immune from the 
ravages of fever. The native population is estimated 
at about 190,00a; the foreign population (1909) at 773 


(474 white). About 13,464 acres are under cultiva- 
tion, the principal products being copra, cotton, coffee, 
and rubb«r. 

The vicariate Apostolic was erected on 1 Jan., 1889, 
and entrusted to the MisaionBTies of the Sacred Heart 
of Issoudun, Since Sept., 1905, when the Marshall 
Islands were made a separate vicariate, its territory is 
confined 1« the Bismarck Archipelago. The lirst and 
present vicar Apostolic is Mgr Louis Coupp^, titular 
Bishop of Leros, The mission has already made re- 
markable progress, and numbers according to the 
latest statistics 15,223 Catholics; 28 missionaries; 40 
brothers; 27 Sisters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart; 
65 Dative catecbista; 77 churches and chapels; 90 st&- 
tions <20 chief); 29 schools with over 40oe pupils; 13 

llomMhfu dti Miuimthavtn nm Hiltnip: DtuUclu Kaloniai- 
bbU (1908), nippl. ,78 Kiq. 

Thohas Kennedt. 
Nsviwrt (ENai.*ND), DiocEaB of (Nboportbn- 
8IS).-— This diocese takes its name from Newport, a 
■a of about 70,000 



, of Mon- 
mouth. Before the 
restoration of hier- 
archial government 
in England by Pius 
IX in 1850. the old 
"Western District" 
of England had, since 
1840, been divided 
into two vicariates. 
The northern, com- 
prising the twelve 
counties of Wales 
with Monmouth- 
shire and Hereford- 
shire, was called the 
Vicariate of Wales. 
When the country 
was divided by an 
Apostol icBrief dated 
29 Sept., 1850, into dioceses, the six counties of South 
Wales, with Monmouthshire and Herefordshire, be- 
came the Diocese of Newport and Menevia. Mene- 
via is the Latin name for St. David's, and the double 
title was intended to signify that at some future day 
there were to be two distinct dioceses. The first 
bishop of the Diocese of Newport and Menevia was 
the Right Reverend Thomaa Joseph Brown, 0£.B., 
who hiul already, as vicar Apostolic, ruled for ten 
years the Vicariate of Wales. A further re-adjust- 
ment of the diocese was made in March, 189-5, when , 
L«i XIII separated from it five of the counties of 
South Wales, and formed a new vicariate, which was 
to consist of all the twelve Welsh counties except Gla- 
morganshire, pincc that date the name of the dio- 
cese nas been simply "Newport", and it has consisted 
of Glamorganshire, Mon month ahi re, and Hereford- 
shire. TheCatholicpopulation (1910) is about 45,000, 
the gener^ population being about 1,050,000. 

The diocesan chapter, in virtue of a Decree of the 
Congregation of Propaganda, 21 April. 1S52, issued at 
the petition of Carding Wisernan and the rest of the 
hierarchy, was to consist of monks of the English 
Benedictine Congregation resident in the town of 
Newport. As the congregation, up to this date 
(1910), have not been able to establish a house in New- 
port, permission from the Holy See has been obtained 
for the members of the chapter to reside at St. Mi- 
chael's pro-eathedral, Belmont, near Hereford. The 
chapter comprises a cathedral prior and nine canons, of 
whomfourareallowedtobenon-resident. Their choral 
habit is the cucutia or frock of the congregation with 


a special almuce. In assisting the bishop they dispense 
with therucu/fa, and wear the almuce over the surplice. 
The present bishop, the Right Reverend John Cuth- 
bert Hedley, O.S.B., was consecrated as auxihary on 

29 September, 1873, and succeeded in February, 
1881, to Bishop Brown. He resides at Bishop's 
House, Llanishen, Cardiff. The pro-cathedral is the 
beautiful church of the Benedictine priory at Bel- 
mont. There are in the diocese about 40 secular di- 
ocesan priests, 21 Benedictines (of whom 15 work on 
the Mission), and 14 Rosminian Fathers. There are 
Eve deanerips. The principal towns are Cardiff, 
Newport. Swansea, and Meiihyr Tydvil. The only 
religious house of men is the Cathedral Priory, Bel- 
mont, which is the residence of the cathedral pnor and 
chapter, and is also a house of studies and n 

the Good Shepherd, Sisters of Nasareth, Ursulines of 
Chavagnes, St. Joseph of Annecy, St. Vincent de Paul, 
and others. There are four certified Poor Law 
schools; one for boys, 
at Treforest, and 
three for girls — two, 
at Herefom and Bul- 
lingham respectively, 
conducted by the Sis- 
ters of Charity, one 
at Cardiff, conducted 
by the Sisters of 
Naiareth, There 
are .^0 churches in 
the diocese, bexides 
several school chapels 
and public oratories. 
There are about 11,- 
000 children in the 
Catholic elemenlary 
schools. There are 
four secondary 
schools' for girls, and 
one centre (in Car- 
diff) for female pupil 

F. A. Crow. 

Hew Twtunent. See Testauekt, The New. 

Newton, John, soldier and engineer, b. at Norfolk, 
Virginia, 24 August, 1823; d. in New York City, 1 
May, 1895. He was the son of General Thomas I>tew- 
ton and Margaret Jordan. In 1838 he was appointed 
from Virginia a cadet in the U, S. Military Academy, 
and graduated in 1842, standing second in a class that 
included Roscncrana, Pope, and Longstreet. Com- 
missioned second lieutenant of engineers, he was en- 
gaged as assistant profeaaor of engineering at West 
Point, and later in the construction of fortifications 
uid other engineering projects along the coasts of the 
Atlantic and theOulf of Mexico. Commissioned first 
lieutenant in 1852 and promoted captain in I8S6. he 
was appointed chief engineer of the Utah Expedition 
in 1858. At the openmg of the Civil War be was 
chief engineer of the Department of Fennsylvania, 
and afterwards held a similar position in the Depart- 
ment of the Shenandoah. Commissioned major on 6 
August, 1861, he woriced on the construction of the 
defences of Washington until March, 1862. He was 
commissioned on 23 Sept., 1861, brigadier-general of 
volunteers, and received command of a brigade en- 
gaged in the defence of the city. He servi^ in the 
array of the Potomac under McClellan during the 
Peninsular Campaign, and distinguished himself by 
his heroic conduct in the actions of West Point, 
Gaines Mills, and Glendale. He led his brigade in 
the Maryland campaign, taking part in the forcing 




of Crampton Gap and in the battle of Antietam, and 
was for his gallant services brevetted lieutenant- 
colonel of regulars. He led a division at Fredericks- 
burg in the storming of Marye Heights, and was 
rewarded on 20 March, 1863, with the rank of major- 
|eneral of volunteers. He commanded divisions at 
Chancellorsville and Salem Heights, and, at the death 
of Reynolds on 2 July, 1863, was given oonmiand of 
the First Army Corps, which he led on the last two 
days of the battle of Gettysburg. On 3 July. 1863, fpr 
gallant service at Gettysburg, he was brevetted 
colonel of regulars. He ensaged in the pursuit of the 
Confederate forces to Warrenton, Virginia, and 
towards the end of 1863 was active in the Rapidan 
Campaign. In May, 1864, he was transferred to the 
Army of the Cumberland, and commanded under 
General Thomas the Second Division, Fourth Corps. 
He fought in all the actions during the invasion of 
Georgia up to the capture of Atlanta. For his gallan- 
try in this campaign, especially in the battle of Peach 
Tree Creek, he was brevetted on 13 March, 1865. 
major-general of volunteers and brigadier-general and 
major-general of regulars. He then took command of 
various districts in Florida until, in January, 1866, he 
was mustered out of the volunteer service. 

Commissioned lieutenant-colonel of engineers in the 
regular service on 28 December. 1865, Wewton was 
ordered in April, 1866, to New York City, where he 
thenceforth resided, engaged on the engineering la- 
bours that made his name famous. He was superin- 
tendent engineer of the construction of the defences on 
the Long Island side of the Narrows, of the improve- 
ments of the Hudson River, and of the fortifications at 
Sandy Hook. He was also one of the board of engi- 
neers deputed to carry out the modifications of the de- 
fences around New York City. The profXMsed en- 
largement of the Harlem River, and the improvements 
of the Hudson from Troy to New York, of the channel 
between New Jersey and Staten Island, and of the 
harbours on Lake Champlain were put under his 
charge. On 30 June^ 1879, he was named coloneJ, and 
on 6 March, 1884, chief of engineers in the regular ser- 
vice with the rank of brigadier-general. Among New- 
ton's achievement, the most notable was the removal 
of the dangerous rocks in Hell Gate, the principal 
water-way between Ijong Island Sound and the East 
River. To accomplish this task successfully, required 
the solution of difficult engineering problems never 
before attempted, and the invention of new apparatus, 
notably a steam drilling machine, which nas since 
been in general use. Newton carefuUy studied the 
problem, and the accuracy of his conclusions was 
shown by the exact correspondence of the results with 
the objects sought. Hallett's Reef and Flood Rock, 
having been carefully mined under his directions, 
were destroyed by two great explosions (24 September, 
1876; 10 October. 1886). This engineering feat ex- 
cited the universal admiration of engineers , and many 
honours were conferred upon him. On Newton's vol- 
untary retirement from the service in 1886, Mayor 
Grace of New York, recognizing his superior skill, ap- 
pointed him commissioner of public works on 28 Aug. 
This post he voluntaiily resigned on 24 Nov., 1888. 
On 2 April, 1888. he accepted the presidency of the 
Panama Railroaa Companjr. which position he filled 
until his death. In 1848 General Newton married 
Anna M. Starr of New London, Connecticut. In his 
early manhood he became, and until his death re- 
mained, an earnest and devout member of the Catho- 
lic Church. 

PowBLL, UM of Officer* of the U. S, Army, 1776-1900; Cni> 
LVM, Bioifra^ical Regiater of the Offioere and OradtuUea of the 
U . S. Mtlitary Academy; Appleton*a Bncyd. Amer. Biog., s. v.; 
SmTB, In Memoriam ofOeneral John Newton (New York, 1805). 

John G. Ewinq. 
New Westmiiister. See Vancouvbb, Abchdio- 


New Year's Day.— The word year is etymologi- 
cally the same as himr (Skeat), and signifies a going, 
movement etc. In Semitic, r\^v, year, sigmfies * repe- 
tition, sc. of the course of the sun '' (Gesenius) . Since 
there was no necessary starting-point in the circle of 
the year, we find among different nations, and among 
the same at different epochs of their history, a great 
variety of dates with wnich the new year began. The 
opening of spring was a natural beginning, and in the 
Bible it^lf there is a close relationship oetween the 
beginning of the year and the seasons. The ancient 
Roman year began in March, but Julius Caesar, in 
correcting the calendar (46 b. c), made January the 
first month. Though this custom has been univer- 
sally adopted among Christian nations, the names, 
September, October, November, and December (i.e. the 
seventh, eigdith, ninth, and tenth), remind us of the 
past, when March began the year. Christian writers 
and councils condemned the heathen orgies and ex- 
cesses connected with the festival of the Saturnalia, 
which were celebrated at the beginning of the year : Ter- 
tullian blames Christians who regarded the customary 

Presents — called alrena (Fr. itrennes) from the goddess 
trenia, who presided over New Year's Day (cf. Ovid, 
"Fasti", 185--90) — as mere tokens of friendly inter- 
course (De Idol, xiv), and towards the end of the sixth 
century the Council of Auxerre (can. I) forbade Chris- 
tians "strenas diabolicajs observare". The II Coun- 
cil of Tours held in 567 (can. 17) prescribes prayers 
and a Mass of expiation for New Year's Day, adding 
that this is a practice long in use (patres nostri «to- 
tuerunt). Dances were forbidden, and pagan crimes 
were to be expiated by Christian fasts (St. Augustine, 
Serm., cxcvii-viii in P. L., XXXVIII, 1024; Isidore of 
Seville, "De Div. Off. EccL", I, xh; Trullan Council, 
692, can. Ixii). When Christmas was fixed on 25 
Dec, New Year's Day was sanctified by commem- 
orating on it the Circumcision, for which feast the 
Gelasian Sacramentarv give^ a Mass (In Octahda Do- 
mini), Christians did not wish to make the celebra- 
tion of this feast very solemn, lest they might seem to 
countenance in any way the pagan extravagance of 
the opening year. 

Among the Jews the first day of the seventh month, 
Tiskri (end of September), began the civil or economic 
year "with the sound of trumpets'' (Lev., xxiii, 24: 
Num., xxix, 1 ) . In the Bible the day is not mentionea 
as New Year's Day, but the Jews so regarded it, so 
named it, and so consider it now (Misnnah, Rosh 
Hash., I, 1). The sacred year began with Nisan 
(earlv in April), a later name for the Bibhcal abhibh, 
i. e. "montn of new com", and was memorable "b^ 
cause in this month the Lord thy God brought thee 
out of Egypt by nigjit" (Deut., xvi, 1). Barley 
ripens in Palestine during the early part of April; and 
thus the sacred year began with the harvest, the civil 
year with the sowing of the crops. From Biblical 
data Josephus and many modem scholars hold that 
the twofold beginning of the year was pre-exilic, or 
even Mosaic (cf. "Antiq.", I, iii, 3). Since Jewish 
months were related by the moon, while the ripen- 
ing barley of Nisan depended upon the sun, the Jews 
resorted to intercalation to bring sun and moon dates 
into harmony, and to keep the months in the seasons 
to which they belonged (for method of adjustment, see 
Edersheim, "The Temple, Its Ministry and Services 
at the Time of Jesus Christ", x). 

Christian nations did not agree in the date of New 
Year's Day. They were not opposed to 1 January as 
the beginning of the year, but rather to the pagan ex- 
travagances which accompanied it. Evidently the 
natural opening of the year, the springtime, together 
with the Jewish opening of the sacred year, Nisan, sug- 
gested the propnety of putting the beginning in that 
beautiful season. Also, the Dionysian method (so 
named from the Abbot Dionysius, sixth century) of 
dating events from the coming of Christ became an 

, / 


important factor in New Yeai^ calculations. The An- should be dominant. It is probable, but not certain, 

nunoiation, with which Dionysius began the Christian that there were priests with Verrazano and Gomez, 

era, was fixed on 25 March, and became New Year's and that from a Catholic altar went up the first 

Day for England, in early times and from the thirteenth prayer uttered on the site of the present great metrop- 

century to 1 Jan., 1752, when the present custom olis of the New World. While pubhc worship by 

was introduced there. Some countries (e. g. Get- Catholics was not tolerated, the generosity of the 

many) began with Christmas, thus being almost in Dutch governor, William Kieft, ^d the people of 

harmony with the ancient Germans, who made the New Amsterdam to the Jesuit martyr. Father Isaac 

winter solstice their starting-point. Notwithstanding Jogues, in 1643, and after him, to his brother Jesuits, 

the movable character of Easter, France and the Low Fathers Bressani and Le Moyne, must be rememberea 

Countries took it as the first day of the year, while to their everlasting credit. Father Jogues was the 

Russia, up to the eighteenth century, made September first priest to traverse the State of New York; the 

the first month. The western nations, however, first to minister within the limits of the Diocese of 

since the sixteenth, or, at the latest, the eighteenth New York. When he reached Manhattan Island, 

century, have adopted and retained the first of Janu- after his rescue from captivity in the summer of 1643, 

ary. In Christian Uturgy the Church does not refer he found there two Cathohcs, a young Irishman and a 

to the first of the year, any more than she does to the Portuguese woman, whose confessions he heard, 

fact that the first Sunday of Advent is the first day of St. Mary's, the first rude chapel in which Mass was 

the ecclesiastical year. said, in the State of New York, was begun, on 18 

In the United States of America the great feast of November, 1655, on the. banks of the lake where the 
the Epiphany has ceased to be a holyday of obligation. City of Svracuse now stands, by the Jesuit mission- 
but New Year continues in force. Since the myste- aries. Fathers Claude Dablon and Pierre Chaumonot. 
ries of the Epiphany are commemorated on Christmas In the same year another Jesuit, Father Simon Le 
^the Orientals consider the feasts one and the same in Moyne, journeyed down the river to New Amster- 
import — it was thought advisable to retain by prefer- dam, as we learn from a letter sent bv the Dutch 
ence, under the title "Circumcision of Our Lora Jesus preacher, Megapolensis (a renegade Catholic), to the 
Christ*', New Year's Day as one of the six feasts of Classis at Amsterdam, telling them that the Jesuit 
obligation. The Fathers of the Third Plenary Coun- had visited Manhattan "on account of the Papists 
cil of Baltiinore petitioned Rome to this effect, and residing here, and especially for the accommodation 
their petition was granted (Con. Plen. Bait., Ill, pp. of the French sailors, who are Papists and who have 
105 sqq.). (See Circumcision, Feast of the; Chro- arrived here with a good prize." The Church had no 
NOLoar; Christmas.) foothold on Manhattan Island until after 1664, when 

SoHBOD in Kirehml^., a. v. Neujahr; Wwot. ibid., ^ v. the Duke of York claimed it for an English colony. 

Sr?ioifS:^^„a^i^%J^.1i5'nd2;f isST)^ SSli Twenty yean, later the CathoUc governor, Thomw 

•HsiM, Th€ TempU, It$ Minittry and ServUet at tfu titne of Juu$ Dongan, not only fostered his own faith, but enacted 

Sf*^'*^* f • ^j ^^^^fr ^v ^^^^*'^• 4,***,**^ ■• . ^- • g«'P«''« the first law passed in New York establishing religious 

New Ttar, iUd. (Jan.. 1907); Thubston. Chri«tma$ Day and the island (30 October, 1683) was m a chapel he opened 

Cknttian Calendar, iWd. (Dec., 1888; J»n., 1899). For Rab- about where the CUStom house now stands. With 

buuo legends ae6/#wMAjy«cyrf....v.isr«yn«.. him came three EngUsh Jesuits, Fathers Thomas 

JOHN J . 1 lERNBY. Harvcy, Henry Harrison, and Charles Gage, and they 

New York, Archdiocese of (Neo-Eboracensis) ; soon had a Latin school in the same neignDourhobd. 

see erected 8 April, 1808; made archiepiscopid 19 July, Of this Jacob Leisler, the fanatical usurper of the 

1850: comprises the Boroughs of Manhattan, Bronx, government, wrote to the Governor of Boston, in 

and Kichmond in the City of New York, and the August, 1689: ''I have formerly urged to inform your 

Counties of Dutchess. Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Hour, that Coll Dongan, in his time did erect a Jesuite 

Sullivan, Ulster, and Westchester in the State of New Colledge upon cullour to learn Latine to the Judges 

York; also the Bahama Islands (Britiidi Possessions); West — Mr. Graham, Judge Palmer^ and John Tudor 

an area of 4717 square miles in New York and 4466 in did contribute their sones for sometime but no boddy 

the Bahama Islands. The latter territory was placed imitating them, the colledge vanished'' (O'Callaghan, 

in 1886 under this jurisdiction by the Holy See because "Documentary Hist, of NT Y.", II, 23) . 

the facilities of access were best from New York: it With the fall of James II and the advent of WilUam 

formerly belonged to the Diocese of Charleston. The of Orange to the English throne. New York's Catholic 

suffragans of New York are the Dioceses of Albany, colony was almost stamped out by drastic penal laws 

Brooklyn, Buffalo, Ogdensburg, Rochester, and Syra- (see New York, State of). In spite of them, how- 

cuse in the State of New York, and Newark and Tren- ever, during the years that followed a few scattered 

ton in New Jersey. All these, in 1808, made up the representatives of the Faith drifted in and settled 

territory of the original diocese. The first division down unobstrusively. To minister to them there 

took place 23 April, 1847, when the creation of the came now and then from Philadelphia a zealous Ger- 

Dioceses of Albany and Buffalo cut off the northern man Jesuit missionary. Father Ferdinand Steinmayer, 

and western sections of the State: and the second, in who was commonly called "Father Farmer". Gath- 

1853, when Brooklyn and Newark were erected into ering them together, he said Mass in the house of a 

separate sees. German fellow-countryman in Wall Street, in a loft 

New York is now the larsest see in population, and in Water Street, and wherever else they could find ac- 

the most important in innuence and material pros- commodationl Then came the Revolution, and in 

perity of all the ecclesiastical divisions of the Church this connexion, owing to one of the prominent politi- 

' m Continental United States. cal issues of the time, the spirit of the leading colonists 

I. Colonial F^riod. — Nearly a century before was intenselv anti-Cathohc. The first flag raised by 

Henry Hudson sailed up the great river that bears the Sons of Liberty in New York was inscribed "No 

his name, the Catholic navigators Verrasano and Popery". When the war ended, and the president 

Gomez, had guided their ships along its idiores and and Congress resided in New York, the Catholic 

placed it under the patronage of St. Anthony. The representatives of France, Spain, Portugal, with 

Calvinistic Hollanders, to whom Hudson gave this Charles Carroll, his cousin Daniel, and Thomas Fitz 

foundation for a new colony, manifested their loyalty Simmons, Catholic members of Congress, and oflScers 

to their state Church by ordaining that in New and soldiers of the foreign contingent, merchants and 

Netherland the "Reformed Christian reUgion ac- others, soon made up a respectable congregation, 

oording to the doctrines of the Synod of Dordrecht" Mass was said for them in the house of the Spanish 

D«ar the Bowline Oreen, in the Vauxhall G&rdene, 
which WM a hall on the river front near Warren 
Street, and in a carpenter's ahop in Barclay Street. 
FiDally, an Irish Capuchin, Father Charles Whelan, 
who had served aa a cliaplain in De Grasse's 
Beat, and tvas acting as private chaplain to the Portu- 
Euese consul-general, Don Joed RoisSilva, took up also 
Uie care of this scattered flock, which numbered leas 
than two hundred, and only about forty of them 
practical in the observances of their faith. 

Through efforts led by the French consul, Hector St. 
John de Cr^vecieiir (q. v.), an act of incorporation 
vras secure*!, on 10 June, 1785, tor the "Truateea of 
the Roman Catholic Church of the City of New York," 
in which Jos6 Rois Silva, 
James Stewart, and Henrv 
Duffin were associated with 
him as the first board. An 
unexpired lease of lots at 
Barclay and Church streeta 
waabou^t from the trustees 
of Trimty church, Thomas 
Stoughton, the Spanish Con- 
sul-general, and Itis partner 
Dominick Lynch, advancing 
the purchase money, one 
thousand pounds, and there 
on 5 Oct., 1785, the corner- 
stone of St. Peter's, the first 


opened 4 Nov., I78C. The 
first resident pastor was Fa- 
ther Whelan, who, however, 
was forced to retire owing to 
the hostility of the trustees 
and of another Capuchin, the 
Rev. Andrew Nugent, before 
the Church was opened. The 
prefect Apostolic, the vener- 
able John Carroll, then 
visited New York to admin- 
ister confirmation for the 
first time, and placed the 
church in chargeof a Domili- 
who may be regarded as the 
oi^nieer of the parish, He had as his 
Fathers John Connell and Nicholas Burke, and, in his 
efforts to ^d the establishment of the church, went as 
far as the City of Mexico to collect funds there imder 
the auspic^ of his old schoolfellow, the archbishop of 
that see. He brought back S5920 and a number of 
paintings, vestments, etc. Father O'Brien and his 
assistants did heroic work durins the yellow fever 
epidemics of 1795, 1799, 1801, and 1805. In 1801 he 
established the parish school, which has since been 
carried on without interruption. The church debt at 
this time was S6500; the income from pew rents, 
S1120. and from collections, S360, a year. The Rev. 
Dr. Matthew O'Brien, another Etominican, the Rev. 
John Byrne, and the Rev. Michael Hurley, an Au- 
gusttnian, were, during this period, assistants at St. 
Peter's. In JuJy, 1807, the Rev. Louis Sibourd. a 
French priest, was made pastor, but he left in the fol- 
lowing year, and then tne famous Jesuit, Anthony 
Kohlmann (q. v.), was sent to take charge. It was 
at this time that the Holy See determined to erect 
Baltimore into an archbishopric and to establish the 
new Dioceses of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and 
Bardstown, Ky. 

II. CEB*TiONOFTHEDiocBBii.— Wehaveapicture 
of the situation in New York when the first Dishop 


was named: a letter sent on 8 Nov., 1808, by Father 
Kohlmann, who was then acting as the administrator 
of the diocese, to his friend Father Strickland S. J., of 
London, England, says, "Your favour of the 6th Sept. , 
WHS delivers to me at the beginning of October in the 
City of New York, where our Right Rev. Bishop Car- 
coll has thought proper to send n^e in the capacity 
of rector of this immense congregation and Vicar 
General of this diocese till the arrival of the Right Rev. 
Hichard Luke Concanen, Bishop of New York. The 
congregation chiefly consists of Irish, some hundreds 
of French, and as many Germans, in all, according to 
the common estimation, of 14,000 souls. Rev. Mr. 
Fenwick, a young Father of our society, distinguished 
for his learning and piety, has been sent along with 
me, I was no sooner arrived 
in the city and, behold, the 
trustees, though before out 
arrival they had not spent a 
cent for the reparation and 
furniture of their clergy- 
man's house, laid out for the 
said purpose above tSOO. All 

very name of the Society of 
Jesus, though yet little known 
in this part of the country." 
What rapid progress was 
made, he mdicates, two years 
later, when, again writing to 
Father8trickland,on 14Sept., 
1810, he tells him: "Indeed 
it is but two years that we ar- 
rived in this city without hav- 
ing a cent in our pocket, not 
even our passage money, 
which the trustees paid for 
Father Fenwick and me . . . 
and to see things ao far ad- 
vanoed as to see not only the 
Catholic religion highly re- 
spected by the first characters 
of the city, but even a Cath- 
olic collie estabhshed, the 
house well furnished both in 
town and in the college im- 

[irovements made in the col- 
ege [tie] for four or five hun- 
dred dollars ... is a thing 
.- n..^, ., fh. I1TSS. "'"'^^ I am at a loss to con- 

"• B*"^"' ^- !"*«' ceive and which I cannot 

ascribe but to the infinite Uberality of the Lord, to 
whom alone, therefore, be all glory and honour. 'The 
college is in the centre not of Long Island but of 
the Island of New York, the most deUghtful and most 
healthy spot of the whole island, at a distance of four 
small miles from the city, and of half a mile from the 
East and North rivers, both of which are seen from the 
house; situated between two roads which are very 
much frequented, opposite to the botanic gardens 
which belong to the State. It has adjacent to it a 
beautiful lawn, garden, orchard, etc." — This spot is 
now the site of St. Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth ave- 

We can judge from the family names on the register 
of St. Peter's church that the early Catholics of New 
York were largely Irish; next in number come the 
French, then the Germans, followed by those of Ital- 
ian, Spanish and English origin. There were enough 
Germans in 1808 to think themselves entitled to a 
church and pastor of their own nationaUty, for on 2 
March of that year Christopher Briehill, John Kner- 
inger, Geoi^ Jacob, Martin Nieder, and Francis 
Wemeken mgned a petition which they sent to Biehop 
Carroll praying him ' ' to send us a pastor who is capa- 
ble of undertaking the spiritual Care of our Souls in the 
German Ijuiguage, which is our Mother Tongue. 


Many of us <Jo not know any Erii^liab at all, and these 
nho nave some knowledge of it are not well enough 
versed in the Rnglish Language as to attend Divine 
Service with any utility to themselves. Aa we have 
not yet a place of worahip ot our own we have made 
appncation to the Trustees of the English Catholic 


I this 

city to grant 
permission to per- 
fonn our worship 
in the German 
Language in their 
church at such 

interfere with 
their regular ser- 
vices. This per- 
mission they have 
readily granted 
us. "During the 
Course of the year 
we shall take care 
to find an oppoi^ 
tunity to provide 
ourselves with a 
suitable building 

we have no doubt 
liderabiy increase." 

n congregftt 

quarter of a century after its date. But Father Kohl- 
mann saw to it that another church should be started, 
and St. Patrick's was begun "between the Broadway 
and the Bowery road" in 1809, to meet the needs of 
the raoidly increasing number of Catholics on the 
east aide of the city. It was also to serve as the cathe- 
dral church of the new diocese. The comer-stone was 
laid 8 June, 1809, but, owing to the hard times and the 
war of 1812 with England, the structure was not 
ready for use until i May, 1S15, when it was dedicated 
by Bishop Chevenis who came from Boston for that 
purpose. It was then far on the outskirts of the city, 
and, to accustom the people to go there. Mass was 
Bfud at St. Peter's every other Sunday. The ground 
on which it was built was purchased in 1801 for a 
graveyard, and the interments in it from that time 
until the cemetery was closed in 1833 numbcred32,- 
1S3. Some of the Catholic laymen prominent durioK 
this period were Andrew Morris, Matthew Reed, 
Cornelius Heeney, Thomas Stou^ton, Dominick 
Lynch, Benjamin Disobrey, Peter Burtsell, uncle of 
the Rev. James A. Neil, the first native of New York 
to be admitted to the priesthood, Joseph Icard, mer- 
chant and architect, Hugh McGinnis, Dennis Doyle, 
Miles F. CloBsey, Anthony Trapanni, a native of 
Meta, Italy, pioneer Italian merchant and the first 
foreigner to be naturalised under the Constitution, 
Francis Varet, John B. Lasala, Francis Cooper, George 
Gottsberger, Thomas O'Connor, Thomas Brady, Dr. 
William James Macneven, and Bernard Dornin, the 
first Catholic publisher, for whose edition of Paato- 
rini's "History of the Church," issued in 1807, there 
were 318 New York City subscribers. 

III. The Hibbarcht. — A. When Biahop Carroll 
learned that it was the intention of the Holy See to 
recognize the growth of the Church in the United 
States by dividing the Diocese of Baltimore and creat- 
ing new sees, he advised that New York be placed un- 
der the care. of the Bishop of Boston till a suitable 
choice could be made for that diocese. Archbishop 
Troy of Dublin, however, induced Pius VII to appoint 
as New York's first bishop an Irish Dominican, Father 
Richard Luke Concanen, who had resided many years 
in Rome as the agent of the Irish bishops and was 
much esteemed there. He was prior of St. Clement's 
at Borne, librarian of the Minerva, and distinguished 


for his learning. He had refused a nomination for a 
see in Ireland and was much interested in the missions 
in America, about which he had kept up a correspond- 
ence with Bishop Carroll, It was at his suggestion 
that Father Fenwick founded the first house of the 
Dominicans in Kentucky. He was consecrated first 
Bishop of New York at Rome, 24 April, 1808, and 
some time after left for Leghorn on his way to his see, 
taking with him the pallium for Archbishop Carroll. 
After waiting there for a ship for four months he re- 
turned to Rome. Thence he went to Naples, expect- 
ing to sail from that port, but the French military 
forces in possession of the city detained him as a 
British subject, and, while waiting vainly to be re- 
leased, he died of fever, 19 June, 1810. Fmding that 
he could not leave Italy, he had asked the jKipe to ap- 
point the "Rev. Ambrose Marfchal to be his coadjutor 
bishop in New York, The Amprican bishops cor- 
dially endorsed this choice and considered that the ap- 
pointment would be made. Archbishop CarroM, 
writing to Father C. Plowden, of Ijondon, 25 June, 
1815, said : "It was known here that before the death 
of Dr. Concanen his Holiness at the Dr's entreaty in- 
tended to assi^ to him as his coadjutor the Rev. Mr. 
Mar£chal, a priest of St. Sulpice, Dow in the Seminary 
here, and worthy ot any promotion in the Church. 
We still expected that this measure would be pursued ; 
and that we made no presentation or recommendation 
of any other for the vacant see." 

B. — Archbishop Troy, of Dublin, however, with 
the other Irish bishops, proposed to the pope another 
Irish Dominican, the Rev. John Connolly, for the 
vacant see of New York, and he was consecrated at 
Rome, 6 Nov., 1814 (see CONNOU-T, John). It was a 
selection which might have proved embarraBHing to 
American Catholics, for Bisiiop Connolly was a 
British subject, and the United States was then at 
war with Great Britain. "I wish," wrote Archbishop 
Carroll to Father Plowden, 25 June, 1815, "this may 
not become a very dangerous precedent fruitful o( 
mischief by draw- 
ing upon our reli- 
gion a false opin- 
ion of the servility 
of our principles. 
Owing to his own 
views of the situ- 
ation in the dio- 
cese, Bishop Con- 
nolly did not 

fellow-members of 
the hierarchy or to 
the administrator 
of the diocese. 
Father Kohl mann 
was, therefore, in 
anticipation of the 
bishop's arrival, 
recalled by his su- 

Eriors to Mary- 
id, the college 
was dosed, and Jobm Cdnmollt 

the other Jesuits Beoood Buhop o( Now York 

soon after left the diocese. Finally, Bishop Con- 
nolly arrived in New York unannounced, and with- 
out any formal local welcome, 24 Nov., 1815, his 
ship taking sixty-eight days to make the voyage from 
Dublin. In the diocese he found that everything 
was to be created from resources that.were very small 
and in spite of obstacles that were very great. The 
diocese embraced the whole State of New York and 
half of New Jersey. There were but four priests in 
this territory. Lay trustees had become so accus- 
tomed to having their own way that they were not 
disposed to admit even the authority of a biahop. 

mw TOBK 2 

Dr. Connolly was not wanting in firmpesH, but the 
prefoinK needs of the times, forcing an apparent con- 
ceasioi) to the established order of thinea, aubjected 
bim to much difficulty and many humiOations. He 
was a miBsionai^ priest rather tnan ^ bishop^ as he 
wrote Cardinal Litta^ Prefect of Propaeanda, in Feb- 
ruary, 181S, but he discharged all his iaDorioua duties 
with humility and earneat real. His diary further 
notes that he told the cardinal: "I found here about 
13,000 CathoUcs. . . . Atprewot there are about 16,- 
000 mostly Irish; at least 10,000 Irish Catholics ar- 
rived At New York only within these last three years. 
They spread through all the other stat«s of this con- 
federacy, and make their religion known everywhere. 
Bishops ought to be granted to whatever here is will- 
ing to erect a Cathedral, and petition for a bishop. 
. . . The present dioeeses are quite too extensive. 
Our Cathedral owes S.^3,000 borrowed to build it. . . . 
This burden hinders us from supporting a sufficient 
number of priests, or from thinking to erect a semi- 
nary. The American youth have an invincible re- 
Duenance to the ecclesiastical state." 
!e Hiade a vintation of the diocese. 

{ mw YORK 

tracted by the commercial growth of the State. But in 
spite of all. he went on bravely visiting all parts of 
ttie State, building and encouraging the building of 
churches wherever they were needed, obtaining aid 
from Rome and from the charitable in Europe. Ho 
found but two churches in the citv when he came; to 
these he added six others and multiplied for bis flock 
the facilities for practising their religion, his constant 
endeavour being to give his people priests, churches, 
and schools. With the trustees in New York Qty 
and in BulTaio he had many sad experiences, but he 
unflinchingly upheld his constituted authority. In 
1834 he organized, with the Bev. John Hafleiner as 
pastor, the first German CathoUc congregation in New 
York in a small disused Baptist church at Pitt and 
De Lancey Streets, which became the church of St. 
Nicholas. It was about this time, too, that a public 
controversy over Catholic doctrine raged between the 
Calviniat ministers, Rev. John Breckenridge and Rev, 
William Browolee, and the vicar-general. Rev. Dr. 

plishment at thattiroe; provided churches for the peo- 
ple in Brooklyn, Buffalo, Albany, Utica, and Pater- 
eon' introduced the Sistera of Charity, started the 
oiphan asylum, and encouraged the opening of parish 
schools. He died at his residence, 512 Broadway, S 
Feb., 1825, worn out by his labours and anxieties. 
Notable men of this period were Fathers Michael 
O'Gorman and Richard Bulger — the latter the first 
priest ordained in New Yoric (1820) —Charles D, 
Ffrench, John Power, John Faman, Thomas 0. Lev- 
ins, Philip Larise^ and John Shannahan. There were 
several distinguished converts, including Mother 
Seton, founder of the American branch of the Sisters 
of Qiarity; the Rev. Virgil Barber and ilia wife, the 
Rev. John Richards, the Rev. George Kewley, the 
Rev. George £. Ironside, Keating Lawaon, and others. 
Two years elapsed before the next bishop was ap~ 
pointed, and the Rev. Dr. John Power during that 

Kriod governed the diocese as administrator. Brook- 
. I's first church was organized during this time. It 
was during Bishop Connolly's adminiBtration also, 
that New York's first Catholic paper "The Tnith 
Teller " was sUrted, on 2 April, 1825. 

G— The choice of the Holy See for the thitid bishop 
was the Rev. Dr. John Dubois, president of Mount 
St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg (see Dubois, Johk), 
and he was consecrated at Baltimore, 29 October, 
1886. The Rev. William Taylor, a convert who had 
come from Cork, Ireland, in June, 1818, at the sugges- 
tion of Bishop England of Charleston, endeavoured 
to be himself made bishop, going to Rome in Jan- 
uuy, 1820, for that purpose. This visit to Rome 
being fniitleBB, Tayior went to Boston, where he 
remained several years with Bishop Chevenis, re- 
turning to New York when that prelate was trans- 
ferred to France. He was exceedingly popular with 
non-Catholics because of his liberality. He preached 
the sermon at the consecration of Bishop Dubois and 
used the occasion to expatiate on what he called "dis- 
astrous experiences which resulted to relipon from 
faiiudidoue iqjpMntmenta", hinting at coming trouble 
for the bishop m New York. He left New York aimul- 
taneoudy with the arrival of the hmhop there, and 
BMled for France, where his old friend Mgr Chevenis, 
then Archbishop of Bordeaux, receiv^ him. He died 
suddenly, while preaching in the Irish college, Paris, 

None (rf the predicted dbturbances happened when 
Bishop Dubois took poasesnon of his see, though the 
abuse of trusteeism, grown more and more insolent 
and unmanageable by toleration, hampered his efforts 
from the very start. Fanaticism was aroused among 
the Protertont sects, alarmed at the numerical in- 
crease (rf the Church through the immigration at- 

Power, assisted by Fathers Varela, Levins, and Schnel- 
ler. It was followed by the fanatical attack on Catho- 
Uc religiouH communities known as "The Awful Dis- 
closures of Maria Monk". Dr. Dubois "had then 
reached the age of seventy and, though still a vigorous 
combatant when necessary, was disinclined to religious 
controversy. Perhaps he did not understand the 
country and the people as well as the younger men 
whe had grown up in America; perhaps he was de- 
terred by his memories of the French Revolution" 
(Herbermann, "Hist. Records and Studies", 1, Pt. 2, 

At length the manv burdens and anxieties of his 
charge told on the bishop, and he asked for a coadju- 
tor, naming the Right Rev. P. F. Kenrick, Coadjutor 
of Philadelphia, as his first choice, and the Rev. 
Thomas F. Mulledy, S.J., and the Rev. John Hughes, 
of Philadelphia, as alternates. Father Hughes, of 
Philadelphia, who had been his pupil at Emmitsburg, 
was selected and consecrated titular Bishop of Baateo, 
7 January, 1838. His youth and vigour soon put new 
life into the alTaira of the Church m New York, and 
were especially efficient in meeting the aggressions of 
the lay tniatees. Bishop Hughes had fully realized 
the d^igers of the system as shown in Philadelphia, 
and he lost no time in meeting and crushing it in New 
York. Bishop Dubois, through ill health, had to re- 
linquish the details of his chaise more and more to his 
youthful aasiatant, whose activity he warmly wel- 
comed. Several attacks of paralysis warned him to 
^ve up the management of the diocese. His remain- 


faig daya he epeot quietljr preparing for the end. hU 
coadjutor ever treating him with respectful kinaness 
and sympathy. He died 20 December, 1S40, full of 
years and merite. Those of his assistants who were 
notably prominent were F'ather Felix Varela, an emi- 
nently pious and versatile priest, an exile from Cuba, 
and uie Revs. Joseph Schneller, Dr. Constantine C. 
I^, Alexander Mupietti, John Kaffeiner, the pioneer 
G«nnan pastor; Hatton Walsh, P. Malou, T. Ma- 
Buire, Michael Curran, Gregory B. FardoWj Luke 
Beny, John N. Neumann, later a Redemptonst and 
Bishop of Philadelphia, and John Walsh, long pastor 
of Bt. James, Brooklyn. 

D. — Bishop Hughes, the administrator, at once as- 
sumed the title of the see as its fourth bishop, and is 
the really great figure in the constructive period of 
New York's history. " It was a day of great men in 
the civil order", b^ the historian, Dr. John Gilmaiy 
Shea, "the day of^Clay, Webster, Calhoun, yet no 
maa of that era spoke so directly or so effectively to 
the American peo- 
ple as Bishop 
Hughes, He was 
not an ordinary 
It had been 
well said that in 
any assemblage he 
would have been 
notable. He 
was full of noble 
thoughts and aspi- 
— *■ — and de- 

a separate article 

(«« HUOHE. 

John)j and it will 
BuflSce to mention here some of the many diatinguished 
men who helped to make hia administration so impor- 
tiwit in local recordB. Among them were the Rev. Wil- 
liam Quarter, afterwards first Bishop of Chicago, and 
his brother, the Rev. Waiter J. Quarter, the Rev. Ber- 
nard O'Reilly, first Bishop of Hartford; the Rev. John 
Loughlin, firet Bishop of Brooklyn; the Rev. James R. 
Bayley, first Bishop of Newarlc and Archbishop of 
Baltimore; the Rev. David Bacon, first Bishop of 
Portland; the Rev. William G. McCIoskey, first rec- 
tor of the American College at Rome and fourth 
Bishop of Louisville, Ky., son of one of the Brooklyn 
pioneers; the Rev. Andrew Byrne, first Bishop of Lit- 
tle Rock; the Rev. John J. Conroy, Bishop of Albany; 
the Rev. Wilham Starra, vicar-«eneral; the Rev. Eir. 
Ambrose Manahan, the Rev. Dr. J. W. Cummings, 

tington, F. E. White, Donald McLeod, Isaac T. 
Hecker, A. F. Hewit, Alfred Young, Clarence Wal- 
worth, and Edgar P. Wadhams, later Bishop of 

E. — As the successor of Archbidiop Hughes, Bishop 
John McCIoskey of Albany was promoted to be the 
second archbishop. He had been consecrated Coad- 
jutor of New York, with the right of succeaaion, in 
1844, but resigned both offices to become the first 
"■ ' ' '" in 1847 (see McClosket, John). 
V York in spite of his own protests 

of unworthiness, but with the unanimous approval 
and rejoicing of the clergy and liuty. He was bom 
in Brooklyn, 10 Mlirch, 1810. and was there^re the 
first native bishop, as he was the second native of New 
York to be ordained to the priesthood. He was a 
gentle, polished, amiable prelate, and accompiished 
much for the progress of Cathohc New York. The 
Protectory, the Foundling Asylum, and the Mission of 
the Immaculate Virgin for homeless children were 
founded under his auspices; he resumed work on the 
new Cathedral, and saw its completion ; the provincial 
seminary at Troy was organized; churches, schools, 
and charitable institutions were everywhere increasea 
and improved. In the stimulation of a gen«al ap- 
preciation of the QeccHBtty of Catholic education the 
cardinal (he was elevated to the Purple in 1875) 
was inceasant and most vigorous. He saw that the 
foimdations of the structure, laid deep by his illustri- 
ous predecessor, upheld an (difice in which all the re- , 
quiremente of modem educational methods should be 
found. Like him, also, as years crept on, he asked 
for a coadjutor, and the Bishop of Newark, Michael 
AuEUStine Comgan, was sent to him. 

F.— Bom in Newark, 31 August, 1830, hie college 
days were spent at Mt. St. Mary's, Emmitaburg, and 
at Rome. Ordained in 1863, Bishop Corrigan be- 
came president of Seton Hall Collese m 1868, Bishop 
of Newark in 1873, Coadjutor of New York in 1880, 
and archbishop in 1885 (see Corrioan, Michael A.). 
He died, from an accidental fait during the building of 
the Ladv Chapel at the Cathedral, 5 May, 1902. It 
was eaia of him by the New York "Evemng Post": 
"Thememory of hie life distils a fragrance like to that 
of St. Francis." By some New Yorkers he was for a 
time a much misunderstood man, whose memory time 
will vindicate. Acute thinkers are appreciating his 
worth as acivilian as well as a churchman, and the fact 
that, for Catholics, he grappled with the first menac- 
ing move of Socialism and effectually and permanently 
checked its advance. He was an administrator of 
ability and, aocially, a man of winning personality. 
To the serious problem of providing for the spiritual 
need of the inrushing thousands of European immi- 
grants he gave successful consideration. The splen- 
did seminary at Dunwoodie is his best memorial. Ita 
beautiful chapel he built at a cost of (60,000 — his 
whale private inherited fortune. During hia admin- 
istration controversy over the school question was 
waged with a certain amount of acrimony. He was 
regarded as the leader of those all over the country 
who stood for uncompromising Catholic education. 
Archbishop Corrigan was also drawn into conflict 
with the Rev, Dr. Edward McGlynn, rector of 8t. 
Stephen's church, a man of considerable ability, but 
whose radical views on the ownership of land had 
brought on him the official censure of Cardinal Si- ' 
meoni. Prefect of Propaganda. In the municipal elec- 
tion 01 1886, in spite of the archbishop's warnings, he 
became the open partisan of Henry George who waa 
the candidate tor mayor of the Single Tax party. Aa 
a consequeace, he waa suapended, and, as an alumnus 
of the College of Propaganda, was summoned to 
Rome to answer the charges made against him. He 
refused to go and waa excommuniceted.^For details 
and text of official tetters, sec Archbishop Corrigan's 
statement to New York papers (21 January, 1887) and 
Dr. McGlyna's formal answer in Henry George's 
"Standard" (5 February, 1887).~Dr. McGlynn'a 
partisans organized themselves into what they called 
the Anti-Poverty Society. He addressed this body 
every Sunday until about Chrietmaa, 1802, when, 
having willingly accepted the conditions laid aown by 
the pope, he waa abaolved from cenaure and recon- 
ciled by Mgr Satulli, the Apostolic delegate. Ac- 
cording to a published statement by Mgr Satolli, the 
conditionswere in this form: "Dr. McGlynn had pre- 
sented a brief statement of his opinions on mor^ 



ecoaomic mattere, and it was judged not contrary" to 
the doctrine eonatantly taught by the Church, and ae 
recently confirmed by the Holy Father in the encycli- . 
cal 'Rerum Novarum'. AIbo it is hereby made 
known that Dr. McGlynn, besides publicly professiDg 
hia adherence to all the doctrines and te&cninBs of the 
Catboho Church, has expressed his regret (saying that 
be would be the first to regret it) for any word or act 
of his that may have seemed lacking in the respect due 
to ecclesiastical authority, and he hereby intends to 
repair as far as he can any offense which may have 
hotn given to Catholics. Finally, Dr. McGlynn has 
of his own free will declared and promised that, 
within the limits of a not lon^ period of time, he will 
go to Rome in the spirit and intention which are be- 
coming to a good Catholic and a priest." In L8M 
Dr. McGlynn was appointed pastor of St. Mary's 
church, Newburg, where he remained quietly until 
his death in 1001. 

Archbishop Corrigan made hia last visit ad limina 
in 1890 and after his return, until his death in 1002, 
devoted himself entirety to the duties of his high 
office. His death brought out the fact that he was 
the foremost figure of the community in the respect 
and affection of his fellow-citizens. His unaaaumiag 
personaUty and his gentle method, his considerate 
kindness and his unanected piety were pathways to 
the loVe and veneration of his own flock. His stead- 
fast adherence to principle, as well as his persuasive 
maimer of, not only teaching, but also of acting out 
the doctrines of his religion, his profound scholarship, 
his experienced judgment, were ever employed when 
there was question of a religious, moral, or civilimport 
to his fellow-men. The truth of this is to be found in 
the testimony of Leo XIH, himself, of the civil digni- 
taries of the land, of his brethren in the episcopate, 
of his own clergy and laity, on the inoumful occa- 
sion of his death. Under the second and third arch- 
bishops, Mgr William Quinn, V.G,, was a prominent 
figure, and among his associates of this era were Mgr 
Thomas S. Preston, Mgr Arthur J. Donnel^, Mgr 
James McMabon, Mgr F. F. McSweeny, Fathers 
M, Ouiran, William EVerett W. H. Clowiy Feiix H. 
Fairelly, Eugene McGuire, Thomas FarrelL^ Edward 
J. O'Reilly, M. J. O'Parrell Oater Bishop of Trenton), 
and Edmund Aubril. 

G. — As fourth archbishop, the Holy See confirmed 
the choice of the diocesan electors, and appointed to 
fill the vacancy the auxiliary, the Right Rev. John 
Murphy Farley, titular Bishop of Zeugma, who was 

gtimoted to the archbishopric 15 September, 1002. 
e was bom at Newton Hamilton, County Armagh, 
Ireland, 20 April, 1842. His primary studies were 
made at St. McCartan's College, Monaghan. and, on 
his coming to New York, were continued at St. John's 
College, Fordham. Thence he went to the provincial 
aeminary at Troy for his philosophy course, and after 
this to the American College, Rome, where he was 
ordiuned priest U June, 1870, Returning to New 
Yoric, he ministered as an assistant in St. Peter's 
parish, States Island, for two years, and in 1872 was 
appointed secretary to the then Archbishop McCios- 
key, in which office he served until 1884, when he was 
made pastor of St. Gabriel's church. New York City. 
He accompanied the cardinal to Rome in 1878, for the 
election ol Leo XIII, which event, however, took place 
before their arrival, la 1884 he was made a private 
chamberlain; in 1892 he was promoted to the domes- 
tic prelacy, and in 1895 to be prothonotary apostohc. 
In 1891 he was chosen vicar-general of the diocese by 
Archbishop Corrigan, and, on 21 December, 1895, was 
con»ecrat«i as his auxiliary, with the title of Bishop of 
Zeugma. At the death of Archbishop Corrigan, he 
was appointed his successor, 15 Sept., 1902, and Pius 
X named him assistant at the pontifical throne in 
1904. He made progress in Catholic education in the 
diocese the keynote of his administration, and witbin 

the first e_j, _, ^ 

primary list, encouraged the increase 
also of high schools, and founded Cathedral Collie aa 
a preparatory aeminan'. 

In the proceedings of the annual convention of the 
CathoUc Educational Association held in New York in 
1903, ondofthe National EucharisticCongress in 1904, 
Archbishop Farley took a most active and directive 
part. Synods were held regularly every third year, 
and theologicBl conferences cguarterly, to give effect 
to every instruction and legislative act of the Holy 
See. A monthly recollection for all the priests of the 
diocese assembled together was institutea. Provision 
was made for the religious needs of Italians and other 
Catholic immigrants — the Italian portion of his flock 
numbering about 400,000 souls. The great work of 
issuing "rHB Catholic Encyciajpedia owed its 
inception and progress to his help and stimulus. 
The centenary of the erection of the diocese was 
celebrated under his direction by a magnificent festi- 
val lasting a week 
(April 27-May 2, ' 
1908); the Lady 
Chapl of the Car 
thedra] was com- 
pleted, the Cathe- 
dral debt was paid 
off, and the edifice 
consecrated 5 Oc- 
tober, 1910, Car- 
Vannutelli, papal 
legate to the 
Twenty -first Eu- 
charistio Con- 
HresB, Cardinal 
Logue, Primate of 
All Ireland, Cai^ 
dinal Gibbons of 
Baltimore,70 prel- 
ates, 1000 priests, 

congregation of 
the laity being 
nresent at the 
Mass of the day. 
Archbishop Farley was pven on auxiliary in the 
Right Rev. Thomas F. Cusack, who was consecrated 
titular Bishop of Tbemisoj-ra, 25 April 1904, Bishop 
Cusack was bom in New York, 22 Feb., 1862, and 
made hia classical course at St, Francis Xavier's 
College where he graduated in 1880. His theol^cal 
Studies were pursued at the provincial seminary, "rroy, 
where he was ordained priest in 1885, He was a very 
successful director of the Diocesan-Apostoiate (1897- 
1904) beforehis consecration aabi,';hop, after which he 
was appointed Rector of St. Stephen s parish, 

IV. — DtocESAN iNanTunoNa, — The Cathedral. — 
St, Patrick's Cathedral, standing on the crest of New 
York's most magnificent thoroughfare, is the noblest 
temple ever dedicated, in any land, to the honour of 
the Apostle of Ireland, It is an edifice of which every 
citizen of the great metropolis is just,ly proud. Its 
style is the decorated and geometnc Gothic of which 
the cathedrals of Reims, Amiens, and Cologne ore 

Srominent examples. It was planned in 1853 by 
omes Renwick of New York; oonstniction was begun 
in 185S, and the building was formally opened and 
dedicated on 25 May, 1879 (building operations hav- 
ing been suspended, owing to the Civil War, from 1861 
-66), The site of the cathedral, the block bounded 
by Fifth Avenue, Fiftieth Street, Fourth Avenue, and 
Fifty-first Street, has been in the possession of the 
church authorities, and used for ecclesiastical purposes, 
except during a very brief interval (1821-1828), wnce 
1 March, 1810, The block on which the Cathedra 
stands was purchased at its then marketable value 



apd therefore never was a gift or donation from the New York Literary Institution, the first collegiate 

city, as has been said sometimes, either ignorantly or school of the diocese, in a house on Mott Street oppo- 

even with conscious malice. The comer-stone was, site the church. It was an immediate success, and 

laid on the afternoon of Simday, 15 August, 1858. by was soon removed to a house on Broadway, and then. 

Archbishop Hughes, in the presence of an assemblage in March, 1812^ to a suburban site in the village ot 

estimated at one hundred thousand. The address de- Elgin, now Fiftieth Street and Fifth Avenue, the site 

livered by the archbishop is regarded as one of the most of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Although well patronized 

eloquent and memorable he ever uttered. The gather- by the best families of the city, the inability of the 

ing may be considered the first public manifestation of Jesuit community to keep up the teaching staff forced 

that great Catholic New York which became the won- the abandonment of the enterprise in 1815. To sup- 

der and admiration of the nineteenth century, and it ply teachers for girls, Father Kohlmann secured sev- 

lent inspiration and power to the magic of his ringing eral Ursuline Nuns from Cork, Ireland, who arrived in 

words of joy and triumph. the city 9 April, 1812. Their convent was located 

St. Patrick's Cath^iral is the eleventh in size among near the Literanr Institution, and the Legislature, by 

the great chiu-ches of the world. -Its dimensions are the Act of 25 March, 1814, incorporated "The Ursu- 

as follows, the Lady Chapel excluded: Exterior: — Ex- line Convent of the City of New York", by which 

treme length (with Lady Chapel), 398 feet; extreme "Christine Fagan, Sarah Walsh, Mary Baldwin and 

breadth, 174 feet; general breadth, 132 feet; towers at others are incorporated for the purpose of teaching 

base, 32 feet; height of towers, 330 feet. Interior: — poor children". After a year, as no other subjects 

Length, 370 feet; breadth of nave and choir (exclud- joined their community, and they were n6t satisfied 

ing chapels), 96 feet; breadth of nave and choir (in- with the location, which was too remote from the city 

cludine chapels), 120 feet; length of transept^ 140 feet; for them to receive daily spiritual direction from a 

central aisle, 48 feet wide, 112 feet liigh; side aisles, ch^lain, these nuns gave up the school and returned 

24 feet wide, 54 feet high; chapels 18 feet wide, 14 feet to Ireland. 

high, 12 feet deep. The foundations are of very large With the advent of Bishop Connolly to the diocese 

blocks of blue gneiss, which were laid in cement mortar (24 November, 1815) St. Patrick's parochial school 

up to the level of the surface. Above the eround-Une, was opened in the basement of the cathedral. The 

the first base-course is of granite, as is also the first "Catholic Almanac" for 1822 relates that ** there are 

course under all the columns and marble works of the in this city two extensive Catholic schools conducted 

interior. Above this base-course the whole exterior upon a judicious plan and supported partly by the 

of the building is of white marble. The cost of the funds of the State and partly by moneys raised twice 

building was about four million dollars. In the origi- a year by the two congregations". The report of the 

nal plan there was an apsidal Lady Chapel, but work trustees of St. Peter's church to the superintendent of 

on this was not begun until 20 July, 1901, during the common schools, in 1824, states that the average num- 

administration of Archbishop Corrigan. It was fin- ber of scholars in St. Peter's and St. Patrick's schools 

ished by Archbishop Farley in 1906. The architect from their opening had been about 500 each. These 

was Charles T. Mathews whose design was thirteenth- two were the pioneer schools of that great Catholic 

century French Gothic. This chapel is 56}^ feet parochial system of free schools throughout the dio- 

long by 28 feet wide and 56 feet high. The building of cese which has been the example and stimulus for 

the Lady Chapel was started by a memorial gift for Catholic education all over the United States. On 

that purpose from the family of Eugene Kelly, the 28 June, 1817, three Sisters of Charity, sent to her 

banker who died in New York, 19 Dec, 1894. Eu- native city by Mother Seton, arrived in New York 

fene Kelly was bom in County Tyrone, Ireland, 25 from Emmitsburg to take charge of the orphan asylum 

Jov., 1808, and emigrated to New York in 1834. and school of St. Patrick's church. In 1830 these 

Here he engaged in the drygoods business, and later Sisters of Charity took charge of St. Peter's school and 

at St. Louis, Mo., whence he went to California in opened two academies. In 1816, owin^ to the con- 

1850 during the gold excitement. As a banker and flict between the French rule of their institute, for- 

merchant there, he amassed a considerable fortune the bidding the care of boys, and other details of discipline 

interests of which took him back to New York to live which greatly interfered with diocesan progress, 

in 1856. He was a trustee of the Cathedral for sever^ Bishop Hughes received permission to organize an in- 

terms and indentified with the Catholic charitable, dependent community with diocesan autonomy. This 

educational, and social movements of the city. In was estabtished 8 December, 1846, with the election of 

the crypt of the chapel the deceased archbishops are Mother Elizabeth Boyle as the first superior. The 

burieci, and the vault of the Kelly family is at the rear novitiate was opened at 35 East Broaciway, but in 

of the sacristy under the Chapel. 1847 was moved to Fifth Avenue and One Hundred 

Education. — In the cause of Catholic education the and Fifth Street, where the academy for girls and 

Diocese of New York can claim the proud distinction mother-house of Mount St. Vincent was established, 

of being the pioneer, the unceasing and uncompromis- Ten years later the city took this property for Central 

ing advocate. In 1685 the Jesuit Fathers Harvey and Park, and the community moved to the banks of the 

Harrison began the first Catholic educational institu- Hudson, just below Yonkers, where the College of 

tion in the state; the New York Latin School, which Mount St. Vincent, and the headquarters of the com- 

stood near the present site of Trinity Church, Wall munity now are. There are about eighteen hundred 

Street and* Broadway, and was attended by the sons of these sisters teaching in more than sixty parish 

of the most influential colonial families. This school schools and in charge of diocesan institutions, 
was closed by the fanatical intolerance which followed In 1841 a community of the Religious of the Sacred 

the Dongan administration in 1638. In 1801, Father Heart was sent to the diocese by Mother Barat, and 

Matthew O'Brien, O.P., pastor of St. Peter's church, established their first school at Houston and Mulberry 

opened the free school of the parish which has been Streets. A year later this was moved to Astoria, 

carried on ever since without interruption. During Long Island, and in 1846 to the present site of the 

the first five years it was supported entirely by the convent at Manhattan ville. where, under the direc- 

people of the parish, but in 1806 the legislature of the tion, for many years, of tne famous Mother Mary 

state, by an act pas.sed 21 March, placed the school Aloysia Hardey, it became, not only a popular educa- 

on the same footing as those of other religious denomi- tional institution but the centre whence radiated most 

nations in the city; all of them received state support of the progress made by the Institute throughout the 

at the time, and Father O'Brien's school received its United States. When the first Religious of the Sacred 

share of the pubhc money. After St. Patrick's church Heart arrived in New York, 31 July, 1827^ on their 

was commenced. Father Kohlmann, S.J., began the way from France to make the first foundation in the 



United StaUfl at St. Louis, Missouri, fii^op Dubois 
was moet favourably ifflprefised by them, and wished 
to have a commuiuty for New York also. A letter 
which he wrote to Mother Barat in the following 
October expresaes this desire and gives a view of his 
charge at that time. "It was my intention", he says, 
"to visit you and your pious associates in Paris in 
order to give you a better idea of our country before 
asking you to establish a house in New York. There 
is DO doubt as to the success of an order like yours in 
this city ; indeed it is greatly needed ; but a consider- 
able sum of money would be .required to supply the 
ureent needs of the foundation. The Catholic popu- 
lation, which averages over tJiirty thousand souls, is 
very poor, besides chiefly composed of Irish emipants. 
Contributions from Protestants are so uncertain and 
property in this city so expensive that I cannot prom- 
ise any asristance. All I can say is that I believe one 
of your schools, commenced with sufficient money to 

Eurchase property and support itself until the ladies 
ave time to make themselves known, would succeed 
beyond all our expectations. ... 1 have the sorrow 
of witnessing an 
abundant harvest 
rotting in the earth, 
throi^h lack of Apos- 
tolic labourers and 
(he necessary funds 
to organise the va- 
rious needs of the dio- 
cese." Although 
Bishop Dubois was 
not able to accom- 

flish ^ desire to 
ave a school then 
established, his 
prophecy as to its 

opened was amply 
justified by subse- 
quent results. 

The Sisters of 
Mercy, Sisters of St. 
Dommic, School Sis- ^' '°'"" 

ten of Notre Dame, and other teaching 

ties followed in ttie course of the succeeding years, 
until now (IfllO) the parish schools of the archdiocese 
are in charge of twenty-six different religious com- 
mumties, twenty-two of Sister? and four of Brothers. 
In I82S an Irishman named Jamee D. Boylan with the 
approbation of Bishop Dubois attempted to establish 
a religious community on the lines of the Irish Broth- 
ers of Charity te teach the boys' schools, and opened 
two schools. The attempt failed in the course of the 
year, owing to want of buaineBs tact and the inimical 
spirit of trusteeism. The Christian Brothers opened 
then- first school in New York in September, 1848, in 
St. Vincent de Paul's parish, at 16 East Canal Street. 
La Salle Academy was opened in Canal Street in 1850, 
moved to Mulberry Street in 1856 and East Second 
Street in 1857, Manhattan College was opened in 
1853. These Brothers have charge also of the De La 
Salle Institute, the Classon Point Military Academy, 
twenty-aix parish schools, and the great Catholic Pro- 
tectory. Bishop Hughes, in 1846, iovited the Jesuits 
to return to the diocese and take charge of St. John's 
Collie and Seminary at Fordham, which he had 
opened there in the old Rose Hill manor house, 24 
June, 1841. The seminary was moved to Troy in 
1864, and St, John's remained as jiart of Fordnam 
University. St. Francis Xavier's Collie was begun 
at the school of the church of the Holy Name of Jesus, 
Eliiabeth Street, in 1847. It was burned down in 
the following year, reopened in Third Avenue near 
Twelfth Street, and fin^y located in West Sixteenth 
Street in 1850, Loyola School was opened by the 
Jeeuits in 1899 at Faric Avraiue and Fifty-third street. 


As baa been said, the state appronriatioa for educa- 
tion was divided at first among all schools. Public 
education in New York, at the opening of the nine- 
teenth century, was denominational, and under the 
direction of the Public School Society organized in 
1806 "U> provide a free school for the education of 
poor children in the city who do not belong te, or are 
not provided for by any religiouB denomination". In 
1808 the name was changed te the " Free School Soci- 
ety of New York" and again in 1826 to the "Public 
SchoolSociety of New York", with power "to provide 
tor the education of all children not otherwise pro- 
vided for". This society gradually became, under 
the control of intolerant sectarian ministers, a com- 
bination against Catholic interests so that, when, in 
1840, the eight Catholic parish schools, with an at^ 
tendance of about 4000 pupils, made a demand for the 
share of the school appropriations to which the law 
entitled them, it was refused by the Board of Alder- 
men after a memorable hearing of the CathoUc peti- 
tion in the City Hall on 29-30 October, 1840, at which 
Bishop Hughes made one of his greatest oratorical 
efforts. As a result 
of this contest the 
Public School Soraetv 
was soon after abol- 
ished, and the pres- 
ent system of public 
school control was 
enacted. The Cath- 
olics of New York 
also determined to 
organize and main- 
tain theirown system 
of frae parish schools. 
"Go", Bishop 
Hu^es told them, 
"bmld your own 
schools; raise argu- 

Xnta in the shape 
the best educat«d 
and most moral citi- 
zens of the Repub- 
lic, and the day will 
come when you will enforce recognition ". 

To supply priests for dte diocese Bishop Dubcns es- 
tablished a seminaiT at Nyack-on-Hudson, in 1833, 
but it was burned aown just as it was ready to be 
opened. Cornelius Heeney then offered the bishop 
the ground in Brooklyn on which St. Paul's church 
now stands, refumng, however, to give the diocese the 
title to the property immediately, and the design to 
build in Brooklyn was abandoned. In 1838 the es- 
tate of John Laf arge, Grovemont, in Jefferson County, 
was purchased and the seminary begun there. The 
place was then so inaccessible and impracticable that 
it was given up, and, on 24 Jdne, 1841, Bi^op 
Hbghes, administrator of the diocese, opened with 
thirty students the new St. John's seminary and col- 
lege at Fordham, then a village just outside the city. 
The Rev. John McCloskey, later Archbishop of New 
York and fii^ cardinal in the United States, was its 
first president. The seminary remained at Fordham 
until 24 Oct., 1864, when it was moved again to Troy, 
where St. Joseph's seminary began with fifty-seven 
students transferred from Fordham. The faculty 
was composed of secular priests from Ghent, Belgium, 
under the direction of the Very Reverend H. Vander- 
hende. Here the seminary remained until 1896, dur- 
ing which period more than 700 priests were ordained 
there. The building was then given over to the Sis- 
ten of St. Joseph of the Diocese of Albany as a noviti- 
ate and training-school, and, on 12 August, 1896, the 
new provincial seminary at Dunwoodie was solemnly 
dedicated by Cardinal Satolli, then Apostolic delegate 
to the United States, The care of this seminary was 
entrusted to the Sulpician Fathere, but these telir«d 


in 1906, and the work was continued by the secular vear by the Legislature — ^the first Catholic Society so 

clerry of the archdiocese. A further step in provid- legalized in the state — and Mother Seton sent three of 

ing facilities for seminary training was taken up by her Sisters of Charity from Emmitsburg to ttJce care 

Archbishop Farlev in September, 1903, by the opening of the children. This asylum was moved in 1S51 to 

of Cathedral College for the preparatory studies of the block adjoining the Cathedral in Fifth Avenue 

ecclesiastical students. and remained there until this property was sold and 

In the cause of education the work done by the the institution located in Westchester County, in 

Catholic publishers must be noted; for New York. 1901. A Union Emira^t Society, to aid immigrants, 

with the increase of its Catholic population, developed the precursor of the Irish Emiflnunt Society and the 

also into a great producing and distributing centre for Emiflrant Industrial Savings Bank (see Emigrant 

Catholic literature of all kinds. It b claimed for Aid Societies) was organiz^ in 1829. St. Patrick's, 

Bernard Domin who arrived in New York in 1803, an the first New York Conference of the Society of St. 

exile from Ireland, that he was the first publisher Vincent de Paul, was affiliated to the Paris Council in 

of exclusively Catnolic works in the United States. 1849, and in the steady, increase of the organization 

His edition of Pastorini's '^History of the Christian throu|^out the diocese opened a new field Tor Catho- 

Qiurch" (1807) was the first Catholic book published lie charity. The sturdy fight that had to be made 

in New York. The next year he issued an edition of against the raids on poor and neglected Catholic chil- 

Dr. Fletcher's "Reflections on the Spirit of Religious dren in the public institutions was mainly through its 

Controversy", for which he had 144 city subscribers, members, and out of their efforts, in great measure. 

There were 318 for the Pastorini book, and these two also grew the Kreat Catholic Protectory, the Mission 

lists make an interesting directory of Catholic New of the Immaculate Virgin^ the Foundling Asylum, and 

York families at the opening of the nineteenth cen- the more recent Fresh Au* and Convalescent Qomes, 

tury. Domin left New York for Baltimore in 1809. Day Nurseries, and other incidental details of modem 

He was followed in New York by Matthew Field who philanthropy. 

published "at his library 177 Bowery within a few V. Statistics. — The following religious communi- 
doors of Delancey St.'' the first Amencan year book, ties now have foundations in the diocese (1910) : 
"The Catholic Laity's Directory to the Church Ser- Men, — ^Augustinians, Augustinians of the Assumption, 
vice: with an almanac for the year 1817". About Fathers of the Blessed Sacrament, Benedictines, Ca- 
1823 John Doyle began to publish books at 237 Broad- puchins, Carmelites, Dominicans, Franciscans, Jes- 
way, and, up to 1849, when he went to San Francisco, uits. Fathers of Mercy^ Fathers of the Pious Society 
he had issued many books of instruction and devotion, of Missions, Missionaries of St. Charles, Missionary 
Most of the Doyle plates were taken over by Edward Society of St. Paul the Apostle, Redemptorists, Sale- 
Dunigan, who had associated with him in business his sian Fathers, Brothers of Mary, Christian Brothers, 
half-brother James B. Kirker. He was the first pub- Marist Brothers, Brothers of the 'Christian Schools, 
lisher to encourctge Catholic authors to give him their Missionaries of La Salette. Women. — Sisters of St. 
writings. John Gilmary Shea's early histories were Agnes, Little Sisters of the Assumption, Sisters of St. 
published by this firm, as was a fine edition of Hay- Benedict, Sisters of Bon Secours, Sisters of Charity, 
dock's Bible (1844) and many school-books and stand- Sisters of Christian Charity, Sisters of the Divine 
ard works. In 1837 Dennis and James Sadlier be^an Comoassion, Sisters of Divine Providence, Sisters of 
to issue Butler's "Lives of the Saints" and an edition St. Dominic, Sisters of the Order of St. Dominic, 
of the Bible in monthly parts, and thus commenced Felician Sisters, Missionanr Sisters of the Third Order 
what later developed mto one of the largest book of St. Francis, Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis, 
concerns in the United States. The hst of their pub- Sisters of St. Francis, Franciscan Missionaries of 
lications is as varied as it is lengthy, and remark- Mary, Sisters of the Good Shepherd, Helpers of 
able for the time was their series of ^'Metropolitan" the Holy Souls, Sisters of the Holy Child Jesus, 
school books. Patrick O'Shea, who had been associ- Marianite Sisters of Holy Cross. Sisters of the Holy 
atedwith the Dunigan concem, began for himself in Cross, Sisters of Jesus Mary, Sisters of the Sacred 
1854 and, until his death, in 1906, was a veiy indus- Heart of Mary. Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of Miseri- 
trious producer of Catholic books, his publications corde, School Sisters of Notre Dame, Sisters of the 
includins^ besides a great number of school books. Congregation of Notre Dame, Little Sisters of the 
many editions of vuuable works, such as Darras Poor, Sisters of the Atonement, Reparatrioe Nuns, 
"History of the Church "j Digby's " Mores "^ Brown- Religious of the Cenacle, Presentation Nuns, Relidous 
son's "American Repubhc", Lingard's "History of of the Sacred Heart, Religious of the VisitatioUj Mis- 
England", Wiseman's and Lacordaire's woiks. Ben- sionary Sisters of the Sacrcd Heart, Ursuline Sisters, 
ziger Brothers, in 1853, opened the branch of their Missionaiy Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate (I!on- 
German house that developed into the great concem, ception. Mission Helpers of the Sacred Heart, 
covering all branches of the trade. Father Isaac X. The jprogress of the diocese is shown by the records 
Hecker, C.S.P., as part of his dream for the evan- kept of the gradual growth of population which made 
gelization of his non-Catholic fellow-countrymen, a great metropolis out of the small provincial city, 
founded, in 1866j the Catholic Publication Society. The notable mcrease begins with the immigration 
Into this enterprise his brother, George V. Hecker, during the canal and railroad-building perioa, after 
also a convert, unselfishly put thousands of dollars. 1825, the exodus from Ireland following the famine 
Its manager was Lawrence Kehoe, a man well versed year of 1847, and the German flight after the Revolu- 
in all the best ideals of the trade, who sent out its tionary disturbances of 1848. In 1826 in New York 
many books, bound and printed in a lavishness of City there were but three churches and 30,000 Cath- 
style not attempted before. olics; and in the whole diocese (including New Jersey) 

CharUiea. — New York gave early evidence of the only eight churches, eighteen priests, and 150,000 

characteristic of heroic charity. In a letter written Catholics. The diocesan figures for 1850 are recorded 

by Father Kohlmann, 21 March, 1809, he mentions as follows: churches, 67; chapels, 6; stations, 50; 

"applications made at all houses to raise a subscrip- priests, 99; seminary^ 1. with 34 students; academies, 

tion for the relief of the poor by which means $3000 9; hospital, 1; charitable institutions, 15; Catholic 

have been collected to be paid constantly each year", population, 200,000. In 1875 the increase is indicated 

New Yoric then had only one church for its 16,000 by these figures: churches, 139; chapels, 35; priests, 

Catholics. An orphan asylum was opened in 1817 in 300; ecclesiastical students in seminary, 71; colleges, 

a small wooden house at Mott and Prince Streets, the 3; academies, 22; select schools, 18; hospitals, 4: 

"New York Catholic Benevolent Society", for its charitable institutions, 23; religious communities of 

support and management, was incorporated the same men, 17, of women, 22; Catholic population, 600,000. 

mw TOEK 2 

In 1900 we find these totob: churohefl, 269 (cit)', 
llli country, 148}; chapeU, 164; etstiona, 34; pnesta, 
676 (regulars, 227); 112 eccleeiaBtical students; 60 
pariah schools for bo^ in city, with 18,653 puptlB; 
61 [oT girls, with 21,199 pupils; parish schools outside 
city for boys, 32, with 3743 pupils; for girls, 34, with 
.4K42 pupils; in colleges and academies, 2439 boys and 
24S4j^la; schools for deaf mutes, 2; day nurseries, 4; 
emigrant homes, 5; homes for aged, 3; hospitals, 15; 
industrial and morm schools, 26; mfant asylum, 1; 
oipban asylums, 6; total of young people under Cath- 
olic care, 68,269; Catholic population, 1^000,000. 
The ^gures for 1910 are: archbishop, 1; buhop, 1; 
churches, 331 toity, 147; country, 184); rfiapels, 193; 
stations (without churches) r^ularly visited, 35; 
priests, 926 (secular, 605; regular, 324); theological 
seminary (Dunwoodie), 1; students, 165; students 
(Rome), 11; preparatory seminary, 1; students, 235; 
pupils in colleges and academies for boys, 3407; in 
academies for girls, 3812; parish schools. New York 
aty, for boys, 90, with 27,896 pupils; tor girls, 60, 
with 31,004 pupils; outade New York City 58, with 
6377 male pupila, 6913 female; total in pansh schools, 
72,193; Bchoola for deaf mutes, 3; day nuTBcries, 15; 
emigrant homes, 5; homes for the aged, 4; hospitals, 
23; mdustrial and reform schools, 36; orphan asylums, 
7 ; asylums for the blind, 2; total of youiu; people under 
C;atholiccare,101,087;CathoUcpopulftUon, 1,219,620. 
Besides those for English-speaking Catholics, there 
are now churches and priests in New York for Ger- 
mans, Italians, Poles, French, Hungarians, Bohemians, 
Lithuanians, Greek Albanese, Greek Syrians, Greek 
Ruthenians, Slovaks, Spaniards, Chinese, for coloured 
people and for deaf mutes. 

Sbu, Hin. 0/ Cath. Ch. in V. B. (Nn YoTk, 1S86): Idem, 
Colli. CKt nf JV, Y. (Now York, 1878]; Saia^aititai ftnnnb. 
atatt Bf Nnc York (Albuy, ieO»: O'Caluohah. Dotvmmiani 
Hit.ofNKB l-DTJKAlbiuiy, 1M9-B1):B»TLI!T, HiWStrfcAi/lA* 
Barla Ui^: CatlL. Ch.ontht Itland of iVw Yvrt (New York, 
ISM); FiNOm, HiWvoiFro»*" Amerieaaa (New York, 1872); 
— - ■' '■' ■nSui/«rj(tK{Morrat*iwii.l90»);WHm, 


:. Fatrici'i Cathidnl {1 

Ura York (New York. lOOfi): Rinis. 

fc_[/. S. {Milwuikee, 1898); TUCaiho- 

U, S. C«Ta. Hut. Socmr. Hitlorieai Rtardt and 

Bide, Clicf,, Calk. /furariAk,r/. 5. (Milnakee. 1898); TU' 
He DiTiHarv; U, 8. C*Tn.THi»r. Bocmrr. Hilmeai Ram 
ainditt (Naw York. 1890-1910); Itmcnat, JVoK An. M. d. 
CiTTWBii (New York, 1903); Hiluu, Lift e/Uu UoH S4i. John 
Huffm (New York, 18M); Bbahh, ifiHt ftn. J«hn Huettt (Kew 
York, IB99); CtHFBiLL, PwnHr JViiito t^ North Aauriea (Sew 
York, 1909-10): Mam Atontia Bardai (New York. IStO); Nev 
Yurk Trulk TdUr, file*; ^r«m<n'( Jounai, Blea; Uttnpelilan 
Rttord, fil»: ToAM. fiJ«; Calhaiic Aim, files; BaowmoH, B. F.. 
Broufuon'i Eirlv. iiiddU and Laitr Lijt (Detroit. 1S93-1900); 
BiHHrrr. CaHiotyi PonttUv in OU Ntte Ycrk (New York. 1900): 
ZwiuuiH, Saifion in New Ntthertand (Rocherter. 1910). 


Heir Toric, State or, one of the tiiirteen colonies of 
Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the 
Declaration of IndependenoB and became the United 

States of America. 

BoOHnAiuEa and Abea. — The State of New York 
lies between 40° 29' 40" and 45° 0" 2" N. lat. ftod be- 
tween 71° 51' and 79° 45' 54" W. long. It is bounded 
by Lake (Ontario, the St. Lawrence River, and the 
DoniinioD of Canaida on the north ; by Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, and Connecticut on the east; by Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey, and the Atlantic Ocean on the 
south, and by Pennsylvania, Lake Erie, and the Ni- 
agara River on the west. It has an area of 46,170 
square miles, of which 1550 square miles is water sur- 
face. From east to west it is 326-46 miles in width; 
it is 3(X) miles long on the line of the Hudson River. 

Phtsioai, CHARACTEaiBTica. — Tho physical geog- 
raphy of New York is very varied. It mcludes the 
high range of the Adirondack Mountains in the north- 
em part. In the southern and eastern part lie im- 
portant portions of the Appalachian svstem, of which 
the principal branches are: the CatskiU Mountains on 
the west bank of the Hudson River below Albany; the 

ranges of the Blue Kdge, which crosB the Hudson at 
West Feint and form the Litchfield and Berkshire 
Hills and the Green Mountuns on the eastern boun- 
dary of the State and in Connecticut, Massachueetta, 
and Vermont, and the foothills of the Alleghanies in 
the south-westem portion. The highest peak in the 
State is Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks, which baa 
an altitude of 5344 feet. The valley of the Mohawk 
divides the mountainous district in the eastern part 
of tlie State, and forms a natural channel in which the 
Erie Canal now lies, and which affords easy communi- 
cation by water and rail between the Great Lakes and 
the Huoson River valley. On the Niagara River is 
one of the great cataracts of the world, Niagara Falls, 
which is a mile wide and 164 feet high. The preserva- 
tion of its natural beauty has been ensured by the 
erection of a State Faric, which adjoins a similar pailc 
established by the Canadian Government. 

"Geolopoally, the State of New York is moat intsi^ 
esting. The Hudson River valley and the Adiron- 
dacks form part of the Aichssan continent, which ia 
regarded as the old- 
est portion of the 
earth's surface. 
The Hudson' River 
rises in the Adiron- 
dack country. It 
isnavigableforlSl J 
miles, from Troy to D 
the sea. The Pah- \ 
uides of the Hudson \ 
are among the most 
interesting and im- 
portant examples 
of basaltic rocks in 
the worid. The 

principal rivers of — 

the State, beeidea 8»*i. or Nbw Yout 

the great Hudson River and its tributary, the Mo- 
hawk, are the Susquehanna River, whicn rises in 
Lake Otsego in the central part of the State; the Dela- 
ware, which rises on the western slope of the Catskill 
mountain country, and the All^eny, which rises in 
the south-westem comer of the State. None of these 
is of commercial importance within the State of New 
York, all pasfdng on to form the principal rivers of 
Penns^vania. The series of large inland lakes in 
central New York form a matked featuie of its phya- 
cal geonvphy. They are of great natural beauty. 
bedaes Demg of importance for tr^isportation and 
commerce, and many of the large cities and towns of 
the State nave grown up on their banks. The land 
surrounding them and tne valleys of the brooks and 
small rivers which form their feeders and outlets are 
of remarlcable fertility. The foreate of the State are 
extensive. They lie principally in the Adirondack, 
CatskiU, and Blue Ridge country. They are the rem- 
nants of the primeval forests that once covered most 
of the State. The State has established by constitu- 
tional provision and statutory enactments an exten- 
sive system of forest preserves. They are the Adiron- 
dack Preserve, containing approximately 1,500,(K)0 
acres, and the Catskill Preserve, contaimng 110,000 
acres. Provinon is made by law for increasing tlidr 
area from year to year. The beautiful valleys of the 
Hudson and its tributaries extend from the sea into 
the foothills of the Adirondaclcs at Lake George. The 
valley of Lake Charoplain on the eastern slope of the 
AdirondaclcB adjoins the valley of Lake George, and 
continues it, except for a divide of about two miles at 
its beginning, into the Dominion of Canada and the 
St. Lawrence valley. The great central plain of the 
State, lying between the mountunous districts of the 
south and west and the Great Lakes and the Adiron- 
dacks and the eastern mountain ranges on the north 
and east, is renowned for the fertility of its soil and the 
extent of its manufactures. 




The only sea-coast of the State is fonned by Lone 
Island, and extends for 130 miles from New York 
Harbour to Montauk Point, which is nearly opposite 
the boundary line between the States of Connecticut 
and Rhode Island. The waters Ijdns between Long 
Island and the mainland form Long Island Sound, one 
of the most important waterways of the United 
States. From the head of navigation on the Hudson 
River at Troy, a distance of 151 miles from the sea, 
there extends across the State to Lake Erie one of its 
great possessions, the Erie Canal, completed in 1825. 
It is 387 miles long. From Troy to Wiitehall at the 
head of Lake Champlain extends another of the State's 
great works, the Champlain Canal, establishing water 
connexion with the St. Lawrence valley on the north. 
Ample communication by water from the Lake States 
on the west and from Canada on the north to the 
Atlantic Ocean at New York Bay is provided by this 
canal system. There are also three other important 
interior canals owned bv the State, the Oswego, the 
Cayuga and Seneca, and the Black River cansSs. In 
1909 the goods carried free on these state canals 
valued nearly sixty million dollars. There is now un- 
der construction by the State the Great Barge Canal, 
wUch it is estimated will cost more than $60,000,000. 
It is intended to provide navi^tion for modem canal 
baijges of 1000 tons from Lake Erie to New York City. 

The physical geo^phy of the State has been an 
important factor in its growth. The easy communi- 
cation afiforded by its great rivers and its convenient 
waterways has made it the favoured highway for do- 
mestic trade and commerce and emigp:ution for more 
than a century, while its possession of the greatest 
seaport of the North Atlantic Ocean has made the 
State the principal gateway for the world's trade with 
North America. The ice-free and deep-channelled 
port of New York, lying at the mouth of the Hudson 
Kiver, with its wide roadsteads and anchorages and 
vast transportation facilities is indeed the greatest 
property of the State of NeW York. The port has a 
total water front of 444 miles. 

Means of Communication. — ^The means of com- 
munication within the State are admirable. 

Railroads. — In 1907 there were 8505 miles of railway 
and 3950 miles of electric railway tracks. The great 
railroad of the State is the New York Central system be- 
tween New York and Buffalo which provides com- 
munication between New York City and the principal 
places in all parts of the United States by its own lines 
and their direct connexions. The great New England 
system, the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railroad, besides having its terminal in New York 
City, crosses the southern part of the State into the 
coal and iron country of Pennsylvania. It controls 
also the extensive New York, Ontario, and Western 
Railroad, extending diagonally across the State from 
Oswego on Lake Ontario to the Hudson River at Wee- 
hawken, oppjosite New York. The Erie system, in ad- 
dition to being one of the trunk lines to Chicago, is 
, probably the greatest freight carrier in the Union. Its 
passenger traffic around New York City is also of 
great extent. Its terminal is in Jersey City opposite 
New York. The Delaware and Hudson Railroad ex- 
tends from its connexion with the Grand Trunk of 
Canada, at Rouse's Point on Lake Champlain, to Al- 
bany, where it forms a connexion with a network of 
roads extending into many of the important centres 
of central and western New York. The Delaware, 
Lackawanna, and Western Railroad runs parallel to 
the southern boundary of the State in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania, and has its eastern terminal at Ho- 
boken on the Hudson River also opposite New York 
City. It extends also to the north a most important 
line from Binghamton to Buffalo, Utica, and Oswego. 
It is the ^atest of the anthracite coa! carriers. The 
Buffalo, Rochester, and Pittsburg Railroad connects 
the three large cities named in its title, and serves one 

of the important agricultural, manufacturing, and 
mining districts of the States of New York and Penn- 
sylvania. The Pennsylvania Railroad, one of the 
great nation^ trunk hnes, with its Hudson tunnels 
and its new vast terminal in New York City, is one of 
the great institutions of New York. Its main lines 
centre about Philadelphia. It owns and operates in 
addition to its other properties the entire railroad sys- 
tem of populous Long Island, whose wonderful growth 
in population and industry seems but a presage of 
still more extensive development. The Hudson Tun- 
neb under the Hudson River connect the City of New 
York with the terminab of most of the railroads on 
the New Jersey side of the Hudson; recently opened 
(1910) tunnels imder the East River bring the Long 
Island Railroad into direct connexion with the Penn- 
sylvania S3rstem, and thus with the rest of the conti- 
nent. These tunnels are a marvellous achievement 
in subaoueous construction. The development of the 
terminals of these trunk lines and of their accessories 
especially about the port of New Yoric is a sreat ob- 
ject lesson in the astounding development of uie West- 
ern Hemisphere in less than eighty years. The first 
railroad in the State, the Hudson and Mohawk, was 
built in 1831. It was 17 miles long and ran from Al- 
bany to Schenectady on the Mohawk. It was one of 
the earliest steam railroads in the world. 

Water RoiUea. — The communication by water 
within New York State is not less wonderful. To the 
ocean navigation that fills the port of New York must 
be added the traffic on the rivers, lakes, and canals of 
the State and upon Lon^ Island Sound. The prosper- 
ous cities and towns which are ranged along the bsmks 
of the Hudson River, across the State on the lines of 
the canals and lakes and rivers, and upon the shores of 
Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, and the St. Lawrence River 
are sustained largely by it. 

Wagon Roads. — The improved system of State high- 
ways, begun in late years, hajs given modem highways 
to many of the rural districts and laid out avenues be- 
tween the cities. It is based upon subventions of 
highway improvements by means of loans and aids 
from the State treasury to the various local authori- 
ties. The growth of vehicular traffic by electric tram- 
ways and by automobiles has greatly promoted this 

Climate. — The climate of the State is salubrious, 
and corresponds generally with that of the north tem- 
perate zone. In 1909 — which was somewhat abnor- 
mal, it is true — the extremes of temperature were 102® 
above zero maximum and 35® below zero minimum. 
For 1909 the mean annual temperature of the entire 
State was 45.8°. The average rainfall throughout the 
State for the same year was 36-03 inches. New York 
State is divided by the Department of Agriculture of 
the United States into three climatological districts: 

(1) the Hudson, Delaware, and Susquehanna basins. 

(2) the Allegheny River, and (3) the Great Lakes and 
the St. Lawrence. The great extent of the State 
causes very variable climatic conditions within its 
boundaries. In 1909 the mean annual temperature 
for one part of the Adirondack region was 39 and for 
the vicinity of New York City 52 . The rainfall dur- 
ing the year 1909 averaged from 18* 10 inches in Liv- 
ingston County to 62-7 inches in Jefferson County. 
The winters in the Adirondack country, the St. Law- 
rence, and the Champlain valleys are generallv severe, 
while the Hudson Valley, Long 'Island, and the vicin- 
ity of New York City have moderate winters and hot 

Population. — New York has been since 1820 the 
most populous state in the Union. The Federal Cen- 
sus returns of 1910 place the population at 9,113,- 
279; the State Census of 1905 placed it at 8,067,308. 
The City of New York in 1910 comprised 4,766.883 
souls. It is one of the centres of the population of the 
world. In a circle of 680 square miles area with ite 




centre at the Battery (the same area as that of Greater 
London) there are dwelling six miUiond of people, or 
scarcely a million less than in^he London district, 
which it is to be remembered is not a municipality. 
This metropolitan district is the most cosmopolitan 
commimitv in the world. Its urban character is most 
varied and interesting. One division of it. the City of 
New York proper, is so large that if divided it would 
Qiake three cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia, and 
Pitt«bur^. Yet n^ly a million and a half of people 
tive outside the limits of the city and within the indi- 
cated area. 

The cities of Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, Albany, 
and Troy are the five next in size; according to the 
census of 1910 they include respectively 423,715, 
218,149, 137,249, 100,253, and 76,813 people. In 
1905 there were 4821 Indians still on the State Reser- 
vations. There were 47 municipalities in New York 
in 1900 having a population of more than 8000 people, 
and in them 68'5 per cent of the people dwelt. In 
1900 there were 3,614,780 males and 3,654,114 females 
in the State. There were 99,232 coloured people. 
1,900,425 of the population or a little less than one 
quarter were foreign bom. Of these there were 480,- 
026 Germans, 425,553 Irish, 182,248 Italians, 165,610 
Russian (mostlv Hebrews), and 135,685 Enelish — ^to 
mention only the largest groups. The popiuation of 
the whole State in 1790 was 340, 120 by the first Federal 
Census. In 120 years it has increased more than 
twenty-six times. 

In 1906, according to the Federal Census Bureau, 
there were 2,285,768 Roman CathoUcs in New York, 
forming 63.6 per cent of the total of 3,591,974 reU- 
gious communicants or church members in the State 
of New York. It is the largest religious denomina^ 
tion in the State. However, onlv 43*7 per cent of the 
people of the State claimed membership in any church 
or denomination. In 1906 there were 278 Roman 
Catholics for each 1000 of the population, a gain of 
8'6 per cent over the figures of the census reports of 
1890. The number of Protestant Epfscopalian com- 
municants at the same date in the State was 24 for each 
1000 of the population. In 1906 the Federal Census 
reports show that in the State of New York the num- 
ber of churches and halls fo^worship was 9193, having 
a seating capacity of 3,191,267. There were also 
presbyteries valued at $22,283,225. The Sunday 
schools were 8795 in number and attended by 1,247,- 
051 scholars. The entire value of all church propeity 
was $255,166,284, on which the debt was $28,382,866. 
The Catholic Annual for 1910 shows the following 
carefully gathered for the dioceses of New York State. 
All these dioceses, it should be noted, are wholly in- 
cluded within the State boimdaries ana together com- 
prise the whole State; 

New York... 


BrooUsm. . . 





.« O 













a jL 





These Catholic estimates are interesting for the pur- 
poses of comparison with those of the official docu- 
ments, and particularly as being in advance of the re- 
sults of the Federal Census of 1910, which are now 
being prepared but cannot be published in detail for 
some years to come. The present population of the 

State of New York, according to the census of 1910, 
is 9,113,279, about one-tenth of the entire population 
of the United States. 

Wealth and Rbsoubces. — New York is the wealth- 
iest State in the Union. The aggregate value of all 
the property within the State in 1904, as estimated by 
the Federal Census Bureau, was $14,769,042,207, of 
which $9,151,979,081 represented real property and 
improvements. The revenue of the State Oovemc 
ment in 1908-9 was $52,285,239. The City of New 
York received the enormous revehue of $368,696,334 
in 1908, and had in the same year a funded debt of 
$598,01^,644. The resources of the State of New 
York lie first in its commerce^ and then in its manu- 
factures, agriculture, and minmg. 

Commerce. — In 1908 Now York City was the third 
shipping port of the world, being surpassed only by 
Lonaon and Liverpool. Its imports were of the value 
of approximately 780 millions and its exports 600 
millions. The tonnage movement of foreign trade 
for the year ending 30 June, 1909, was: entered, 12,- 
528.723 tons; cleared, 11,866,431 tons. The shipping 
of the inland waters and of the Great Lakes controlled 
by the State of New York is of equally vast extent. 
Buifalo, with a population of over 400,000, receives 
in its port on Lake Erie a la^e portion of the shipping 
trade of Canada and of the Lake States of the. Union. 
The other ports of Lakes Erie and Ontario are simi- 
larly prosperous. 

Manyfaciurea. — New York is the leading State of 
the Union in manufactures. In 1905 it had invested 
in manufactures more than $2,000,000,000, and the 
value of its manufactures products was approximately 
$2,500,000,000. In the same year it produced 47 per 
cent of the men's and 70 per cent of the women's 
clothes made in the United States. The value of its 
textile output in the same year was $114,371,226. 

Agriculture. — In 1900 there were in New York 226,- 
720 farms of a total area of 22,648,100 acres, of which 
15,599,986 acres were improved land. The principal 
crops are maize, wheat, oats, potatoes, and hay. The 
wool clip in 1908 was estimated at 5,100,000 pounds. 
The largest dairy interests in the United States are 
within the State of New York. 

Mining. — The mines of the state in 1908 yielded 

Products valued at $45,609,861 ; the quarries produced 
Uildin^ stone valued at $6,137,279. The Onondaga 
salt springs produced in the same year products of the 
value of $2,136,738, while the petroleum wells yielded 
$2j071,533 worth of crude petroleum. 

Public Debt. — The State of New York has no 
funded debt except for canals and highways. Its out- 
standing bonds for these purposes on 30 September, 
1909, aggregated $41 ,230,660. It has no direct taxa- 
tion. It has a surplus in its treasury. The assessed 
valuation of the taxable property within the State for 
1909 was just short of $10,000,000,000. The title of 
"Empire State", given to New York by common 
consent, is well deserved. 

Educational System. — ^The public educational 
system of New York is extensive and arranged upon 
broad plans. It is governed by a general revised stat- 
ute of more than 2000 sections called "Education 
Law ", adopted in 1910. This law provides for a cen- 
tral organization called the "Education Department" 
composed of the regents of the University of the State 
of New York, who are the legislative branch, and the 
Commissioner of Education, who is made the chief 
executive officer of the system and of the r^ents. 
The work of the Educational Department is divided 
into three parts, the common schools, the academic or 
seoondan' schools, and the colleges and universities. 
The head of the regents of the university is the chan- 
cellor. Executive control, however, is entrusted to 
the commissioner of education, who, with his assist- 
ants and subordinates, has charge of the enormous de- 
tails of the entire eaucational system of the State 

mw YORK 



under the legislative control of the regents and the di- 
rection of the statutes of the State passed by the legis- 
lature. The colleges and universities of the State are 
separate' corporations, formed either by the regents or 
by special statutes. They are under either pnvate or 
municipal control. There is no State universitjr as 
such, although Cornell University has been given 
many of the privileges and State aids usually granted 
to such an institution. These corporations are sub- 
ject, however, to the provisions of tne Education Law 
and the jurisdiction of the Education Department. 
The academies or secondary schools are also either 

Srivate or public. The public secondary schools are 
irectly in charge of the school boards and boards of 
education of the various divisions of the State. The 
private academies may enroll themselves under the 
Department of Education, and receive the privi- 
leges of the public academies in respect to examina- 
tions and certificates from the Eaucation Depart- 
ment. There is, however, no legal compulsion put 
upon them in this respect. The common schools of 
the State are divided generally into those which are 
controlled by the local boards of education in the cities 
and more populous centres, and those which are con- 
trolled by the local school officers elected by the peo- 
ple in the school districts in other parts of the State. 
Woman sufTrape is granted in school officers' elections. 
In the great cities of the State the bommon and sec- 
ondary schools are usually placed in charge of school 
boards and officers provided for in the city charters, 
which are in the form of statutes enacted by the legis- 

In New York City is situated the large college 
Jmown as the College of the City of New York, main- 
tained at public expense. It has the most extensive 
buildings for educational purposes in the city and an 
enrolment of more than 3736 pupils. On the Hudson, 
at West Point, is situated the famous United States 
Military Academy for the training of officers for the 
arm\^ It is entirely imder Federal control through 
the War Department, and has 525 cadets in attend- 
ance. The professional schools of the State of all 
classes are controlled by the Education Department 
under stringent provisions. Admission to the secular 
professions generally is g[ranted by State certificates 
awarded after rigid examinations by State examining 
boards. The schools for the training of teachers are 
also either under departmental control or, in the more 
populous centres^ under the control of the several 
boards of education of the localities. Primary edu- 
cation is compulsory between the ages of seven and 
sixteen years. The state does not interfere, however, 
with the hberty of choice of schools b^r parents. No 
discrimination is made against parochial and private 
schools, which have enrolled themselves with the 
Education Department: they receive, however, no 
public financial aid, if the small grant made by the 
Department to defray the cost of examinations in the 
enrolled secondary schools be excepted. 

In 1908 there were 1,841,638 children between five 
and eighteen years of age in New York State; there 
were 1,273,754 pupils and 36,132 teachers in the pub- 
lic schools. The academies or secondary schools of 
the State had 95,170 pupils and 1523 teachers; the col- 
leges and universities 22,097 students and 2699 teach- 
ers. There were 12,068 public school buildings, 144 
public secondary schools or academies, and 30 colleges 
and universities. The appropriation of public mon- 
eys for educational purposes in New York State for 
the year 1907 was $71,838,172. The City of New 
York alone paid in 1909 for public school education 
$36,319,624. Its schools contained 730,234 pupils 
and had 17,073 teachers and directors. The public 
statistics of the Department of Education of New 
York available show that 451 parochial schools, be- 
sides numerous academies ana colleges, were con- 
ducted under the auspices of the Catholic Church in 

New York in 1908. The number of pupils in the 
Catholic educational institutions of the State cannot be 
ascertained with certainty. A large number of Cath- 
olic schools and academies make no public reports, 
but it is conservatively estimated that 210,000 pupils 
were in the Catholic schools in 1908. The State Edu- 
cation Department reported that in 1907, 179^677 
pupils were registered as in the Roman Catholic Ele- 
mentary Schools alone. The CathoUc Annual of 1910 
estimates the number of young people under Catholic 
care including the orphans and other inmates of char- 
itable institutions as 269.420. 

There are many excellent high schools and acade- 
mies in the State conducted bv the Catholic teaching 
orders of men and women and by secular priests ana 
laymen. The colleges under Catholic auspices are: 
Fordham University, St. Francis Xavier College, 
Manhattan College, Brooklyn College, St. Francis 
College, St. John's College, Brooklvn — ^aU in New 
York City; Canisius College at Buffalo, Niagara Uni- 
versity at Niagara Falls, and the College of New Ro- 
chelle, a flourishing college for women in charge of the 
Ursuline Nuns. All of these institutions are under 
the jurisdiction of the Education Department of the 
State of New York. In 1894 there was inserted in 
the Constitution of the State a provision that neither 
the State nor any subdivision thereof should use its 
propert)r or credit or any public money or authorize or 
permit either to be usea directly or indirectly in aid or 
maintenance other than for examination or mspection 
of any school or institution of learning wholly or in 
part under the control or direction of any religious 
denomination or in which any denominational tenet 
or doctrine is taught. The Catholic seminaries for 
the education of priests are flourishing. The great 
novitiates of the Jesuits, Redemptorists, and Christian 
Brothers, and several others maintained by various 
religious orders, are in the Hudson Valley, south of 
Albany. The seminary of the Archdiocese of New 
York at Dunwoodie, Westchester County, which is the 
monument of fhe late Archbishop Comgan, is one of 
the leading seminaries of the United States. The dioc- 
esan seminaries of St. John's at Brooklyn, St. Bern- 
ard's at Rochester, and the Seminary of Our Lady of 
Angels, conducted by the priests of the Mission at 
Niagara Falls, in the Diocese of Buffalo, are of the 
hi^est standing for scholarship and training. 

MiUTiA. — ^The militia of the State, whicn is com- 
posed exclusively of volunteers, numbers 17,038 
trained officers and men in all the arms of the military 
service. It is intended to form the nucleus of a mih- 
tary force in time of need by training; volunteer citi- 
zen-soldiers in the military art. It is most liberally 
supported by the State and most carefully trained in 
co-operation with the Federal Government. 

Libraries. — ^The Ubraries of the State are numer- 
ous and important. The Education Department 
maintains a generous system for the estabhshment of 
libraries and provides generous State aid for their sup- 
port. The great library of the State is the New York 
Public Library in the City of New York, which in 1909 
owned 1,549.260 books and 295,078 pamphlets, in all 
1,844,338 volumes. It will soon (in 191 1) occupy the 
magnificent building erected by the City of New York 
in Bryant Square at Fifth Avenue ancf Forty-second 
Street, which has just been completed. It is largely 
endowed by the testamentary gifts of John Jacob 
Astor, James Lenox, and Samuel J. Tilden, and re- 
ceives aid from the City Treasury. 

History. — The territory which now forms the 
State of New York may, as regards its history, be di- 
vided into two parts. The first part includes the 
Hudson River valley, the valley of the Mohawk, the 
land around Newark Bay and New York Harbour, 
and the western end of Long Island — which, speaking 
generally, were, together with the sparse Delaware 
River settlements, the only portions of New Nether- 




land actually occupied by the Dutch when the prov- 
ince was granted by the English Crown to the Duke of 
York in 1664. The second part comprises the rest of 
the State excluding eastern Ix)nK Island : this was the 
Indian country, the home of the Iroquois and the 
other tribes forming the Five Nations; now mostly re- 
membered from the old romances, but a savage and 
fierce reality to the Dutch and EngUsh colonists. As 
late as 1756 there were only two counties to be found 
in the entire province west of the Hudson River. In- 
terposed between the French and the Dutch (and 
afterwards the English), and brought from time to 
to time into their quarrels for supremacy, the Indians 
kept the land between the Great Lakes, the Hudson, 
and the St. Lawrence truly ''a dark and bloody 
ground " until the end of the eighteenth century, when, 
as part of the military operations of the Revolution, 
the expedition of the American forces, sent by Wash- 
inKton under^Dommand of General John Sullivan, fi- 
nidly broke their power at the Battle of Newton near 
Elmira in 1779. 

Although their military power was thus destroyed, 
the Indians still remained a menace to the settlers in 
remoter districts for many years. Gradually, how- 
ever, their opposition was overcome, and they finally 
became the wards of the State, living on reservations 
set apart for their exclusive occupancy. A remnant 
of them (4821 in the year 1905) still survives. Early 
in the nineteenth centiuy large grants of land began to 
be made by the State at small prices to land companies 
and promoters for the purpose of fostering occupation 
by settlers. Systematic colonization was immedi- 
ately undertaken, and a large emigration from Ver^ 
mont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Dutch 
settlements in the Hudson Valley began to flow into 
the Iroquois country. This continu^ prosperously, 
but not rapidly until De Witt Clinton, one of the 
great figures in the history of New York,upon his taking 
the office of Governor in 1818, pressed forward vigor- 
ously the long-standing plans for the construction and 
completion of the great artificial waterways of the 
State, the Erie and tne Champlain canals. European 
immigration then became essential to supply the la- 
bour needed for the success of these plans. Stalwart 
men and women flocked from the British Islands and 
Germany in astounding numbers, and in forty years 
the i)opulation of New York City mcreased more than 
six times (from 33,131 in 1790 to 202,589 in 1830). 
The labouring men, who worked outside the cities on 
the public works, with their families became settlers 
in the villages and towns that grew up along the 
canals. The general prosperity which succeed^ the 
successful completion of these works and their opera- 
tion, and the consequent enormous development of 
the State's resources, drew others into the territory. 
The population of the State of New York itself in- 
creased from 340,120 in 1790 to 1,918,608 in 1830. 

The European inmiip;ration thus begun included of 
course a large proportion of Catholics. Bishop Du- 
bois estimated that in 1830 there were 35,000 Catho- 
lics in New York City and 150,000 throughout the 
rest of the State and in northern New Jersey, made up 
chiefly of poor emigrants. The Irish element was 
very large, and the first Catholic congregations in 
New YoA were in some cases almost wholly Irish. To 
them soon came their devoted missionary priests to 
minister to them in the Faith which had survived 
among their race and grown even brighter in the night 
of the iniquitous penal days, which had then but just 
begun to pass away. The State of New York, be- 
cause of tne uncertain boundaries of the old Dutch 
province of New Netherland, at first laid claim to the 
country which now comprises the State of Vermont, 
and also to part of the land now lying in western Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut. These claims were set- 
tled by mutual agreement in due course and the 
boundaries were fixed. The State of Vermont there- 
XL— 3 

upon became the fourteenth State of the Union in 1791, 
being the first admitted after the adoption of the 
United States Constitution in 1789. The first com- 
plete State Constitution framed after the Revolution 
was that of New York. It was adopted on 20 April, 
1777, at Kingston on the Hudson. John Jay, George 
Clinton, and Alexander Hamilton were its princip^ 
framers. The City of New York became the capital 
of the State after the Revolution, as it had been the 
capital of the Province of New York before. Upon 
the adoption of the United States Constitution in 
1789 it became the capital of the United States. Presi- 
dent Washington was inaugurated there at Federal 
Hall at the head of Broad Street, the first capital of 
the United States. His house stood at the foot of 
Broadway. Its site is now occupied by the Washing- 
ton Building. In 1790 the capital of the United 
States was removed to Philadelphia, and in 1797 the 
capital of the State was removed to Albany where it 
has since remained. Since 1820 the City of New 
York has been the commercial and financial centre of 
the continent of North America. 

Ecclesiastical History. — On 8 April, 1808, the 
Holy See created the Diocese of New York coinci- 
dently with the establishment of the American Hier- 
archy by the erection of Baltimore to be an Archi- 
episcopal See with New York, Philadelphia, Boston, 
and bardstown (now Louisvule) as suffragan sees^ 
Doctor Richard Luke Concanen, an Irish Dominican 
resident in Rome, was appointed first Bishop of New 
York, but died at Naples in 1809, while awaiting an 
opportunity to elude Napoleon Bonaparte's embargo 
and set out for his see. After a delay of six years 
his successor Bishop John Connolly, also a Dominican, 
arrived at New York in November, 1815, and min- 
istered as the first resident bishop to his scattered 
congregations of 17,000 souls (whom he describes as 
"mostly Irish") in union with the four priests, who 
were au he had to help him throughout his immense 
diocese. He died on 5 February, 1825, after a de- 
voted and self-sacrificing episcopate^ and is buried 
under the altar of the new St. Patnck's Cathedral. 
During the vacancy of the see, preceding the arrival 
of Bisnop ConnoUv (1808-15), the diocesan affairs 
were administered by Father Anthony Kohlmann (q. 
v.). He rebuilt St. Peter's church in Barclav Street, 
and in 1809 bought the site of old St. Patrick s Cathe- 
dral in Mott Street, the building of which he finished 
in 1815. He also bought in 1809 the land and old 
residence in the large block on Fifth Avenue at Fif- 
tieth Street — part of which is the site of the present 
St. Patrick's Cathedral — and there established a 
flourishing boys' school called the New York Literary 

In 1822 the diocesan statistics were: two churches 
in New York City, one in Albany, one in Utica, one 
in Auburn, one at Carthage on the Black River, all 
of which were served by one bishop and eight priests. 
Bishop Connolly was succeeded on 29 October, 1826, 
by John Dubois (q. v.), a Frenchman who had been 
a fellow student of Robespierre and was one of the 
imigri priests of the French Revolution. He was one 
of the founders of Mount St. Mary's, Emmitsburg, 
Maryland — "the mother of priests ', as it has been 
called — and passed through the cholera epidemic of 
1832, when 3000 people died in the City of New York 
between July and October. He increased the churches 
and brought to his diocese zealous priests. It is 
noteworthy that he ordained to the priesthood at St. 
Patrick's in June, 1836, the Venerable John N. Neu- 
man (q. v.), afterwards the saintly Bishop of Phila- 
delphia. After a life of arduous labour, trial, and 
anxiety both as a missionary, an educator, and a pio- 
neer bishop, his health broke down, and he was 
granted in 1837 as coadjutor John Hughes (q. v.), 
who iustly bears the most distinguished name m the 
annals of the American hierarchy even to this day. 


Bishop Hushes was consecrated on 9 February. 1838. have been Catholics. Francis Keman was United 
A stroke of paralysis att-acked the venerable Bishop States Senator for New York from 1876-82. Denis 
Dubois almost inunediately afterwards, and he was an O'Brien closed a distinguished career as Judge of 
invalid until his death on 20 December, 1842, where- the Court of Appeals, the court of last resort, by his 
upon he was succeeded by his coadjutor as Bishop of retirement for age in 1908 after a continuous service 
New York. In April, 1847, the Sees of Albany and of eighteen yea)«. The first Catholic Justice of the 
Buffalo were created. Bishop John McCloskey (q. Supreme Court was John R. Brady, elected in 1859, 
v.), afterwards the first American cardinal, who was and loyal sons of the Church have been on that bench 
then Coadjutor Bishop of New York, was transferred ever smce. Mayors of the great cities of the State, 
to Albany, and Reverend John Timon, Superior of the senators, assemblyman. State officera and represen- 
Congregation of the Mission, was made Bishop of tatives in Congress, and a multitude of other public 
Buffalo. In October, 1850, the Diocese of New York officers have been chosen from the Catholic citizen- 
was erected into an archiepiscopal see with the Sees of ship ever since the beginning of the nineteenth c^i- 
Boston, Hartford, Albany, and Buffalo as its sufifra- tury and have rendered distmguished service to the 

J^ans. Archbishop Hughes sailed for Rome in the State. For many years the two orilUant leaden of the 

oUowing month, and received the pallium from the New York Bar weie Charles O'Conor and James T. 

hands of Pius IX himself. Brady, sons of Irish Catholic emigrants. In medi- 

The career of Archbishop Hughes and the history cine Gunning S. Bedford and Thomas Addis Emmet 

of his archdiocese and its suffragan sees are fully kept for many years the Catholic name^at the top of 

treated under their appropriate titles, and need not the profession, and they have now worthy successors, 

be discussed here. The life of Archoishop Hughes In tne great public works and industries of the State 

marked the great formative period in the history ofthe Catholics have had more than their share of the labour 

pioneer Church in New York. His great work in the and its rewuxis. In the commercial life of New York 

cause of education, in the establishment of the paro- some of the largest fortunes have been honourably 

chial schools, the establishment of the great teaching gathered bv Catholic men, who have been most gen- 

and other religious orders, and the erection of semi- erous to the reUgious and charitable works of the 

naries and colleges for the training of candidates for State. 

the priesthood, as well as in the solution of the tremen- Legal. — ^The State of New York has a constitu- 

dous problems connected with the building up of the tional government. It was the model of that of the 

churches and charities and the preservation of the United States of America. The union of the executive. 

Faith, had a profoimd effect upon the attitude of the legislative, and judicial branches of government under 

State of New York towards religious institutions and a written constitution is its principle. Its execu- 

persons and ecclesiastical affairs. The Knownothing tive head is the governor. The legislature has two 

movement of the fifties (see Knownothingism) was houses, the Senate and Assemblv, which meet annually 

profoundly felt in New York, but the number and im- at Albany, the State capital, its courts are composed 

portance of the Catholic population protected them principaljy of a Court of Appeals (the highest court) 

frdm the cowardlyassaults made upon the Catholics and the Supreme Court, which is divided into four 

in other places. The presence of Archbishop Hughes AppeUate Divisions, and numerous courts of first 

was ever a tower of strength in the conflict and in pro- instance, divided into districts throughout the State, 

ducing the overwhelming defeat which this un-Amer- There are many minor and local courts supplementing 

ican movement met. The only effect of this sectarian the Supreme Court. 

agitation ui)on the legislation of the State was the The State of New York has always been foremost in 

passage in 1855 of a plainly unconstitutional statute the pursuit of freedom of worship and religious toler- 

which sought to prevent CathoUc bishops from hold- ation. It is true, however, that her first Constitution 

ing title to propertv in trust for churches or congre- in 1777 excluded all priests and ministers of the Gospel 

gations. It proved of no avail whatever. In 1862, from her legislature and offices, and put a prohibitory 

after the Civil War began, it was quietly repealed. religious test upon foreign-bom C^thohcs who appli^ 

In 1853 the Dioceses of JBrookl3m in New York and for citizenship. Herein we find an echo of the bitter in- 
of Newark in New Jersey were established, the first tolerance of the eighteenth century, which was strongly 
Bishop of Brooklyn being Reverend John Loughlin opposed in the Convention. The naturalization dis- 
and tne first Bishop of Newark Reverend James ability disappeared very soon on the adoption of the 
Roosevelt Barley (q. v.). who later became Arch- Federal Constitution m 1780, and, by subsequent 
bishop of Baltimore. In i868 the Diocese of Roches- constitutional amendments, all these remnants of an- 
ter was separated from Albany, and the venerable and cient bigot^ were formally abolished. It is remark- 
beloved apostle of Catholicism in north-western New able to find John Jay, otherwise most earnest in the fight 
York, Bishop Bernard J. McQuaid (q. v.), appointed for civil liberty, the leader in these efforts to impose 
its first bishop. religious tests and restraints of liberty of conscience 

In 1872 the Diocese of Ogdensburg was created, upon his Catholic fellow-citizens. This Constitution, 

and in November, 1886, the youngest diocese of the nevertheless, proclaimed general reUgious liberty in 

State, Syracuse. It is unnecessary to sketch further unmistakable terms. The provision is as follows: 

here the hbtory of Catholicism in New York State ''The free exercise and enjoyment of religious prof es- 

during the incumbency of the archiepiscopal office by sion and worship without discrimination or preference 

Cardinal McCloskey, Archbishop Hughes s successor, shall forever hereafter be allowed within this State to all 

and that of his successor Archbishop Corrigan, or of mankind provided that the liberty of conscience hereby 

his Grace, John M. Farley, its present archbishop. It granted shall not be so construed as to excuse acts 

is sufficient to record the continual progress in tne ad- of licentiousness or justify practices inconsistent with 

vancement of Catholic interests, in the building up of the peace or safety of this State." The statutes of the 

the Church, and in adjusting its activities to the needs State which permitted the formation of religious cor- 

of the people. porations without restraint, and gave to them when 

Distinguished Catholics. — The Catholics of New formed, freedom to hold property and conduct their 

York State have produced their full proportion of p>er- affairs unhampered by the civil power^ are conteinpo- 

sons of distinction in the professions, commerciaJ, raneous with tne restoration of order within its bordera 

political, and social life. Of the ninety-seven justices after the British evacuation in November, 1783, and 

who now sit in the Supreme Court seventeen are of were among the first statutes adopted by the legisla- 

the Catholic faith. Among the justices of the lower ture in 1784. The laws of New York which relate to 

courts are many Catholics. Since 1880 three mayora matters of religion have been in many instances models 

of New York City (Messrs. Grace, Grant, and Gilroy) for the other States. The Dutehmen who settled in 

mw tore: 35 new tobk 

New Netherlands and the other emi^ants and their faring people, emigrants, Spanish negroes from the 

descendants who came within their mfluence in the West Indies, and at least part of the 7000 Acadians, 

Province of New York, early learned the value and who were distributed along the Atlantic seaboard in 

reason of religious toleration. The Dutchmen in 1755 after the awful expatriation which that devoted 

America did not persecute for reliodbn's sake. people suffered, although the annals are almost bare of 

The present civil relations of the Catholic Church to references even to their existence. Father Farmer 
the Sfcate of New York and their history form an in- from Philadelphia came to see the oppressed Catho- 
teresting study. The Dutch Colony of the seven- lies during his lon^^ service on the missions between 
teentii century was officially intolerantly Protestant. 1752-86, but his visits have no historv. They had 
but was, as has been noted, in practice tolerant ana no church or institutions of any kina. As Arch- 
fair to people of other faiths who dwelt within New bishop Bayley truly said, a chapel, if they had had 
Netherlana. When the English took the province means to erect one, would have been torn down. The 
from the Dutch in 1664, they granted full religious first mention of their public worship shows them hear- 
toleration to the other forms of Protestantism, and ing Mass in a carpenter shop, and afterwards in a 
preserved the property rights of the Dutch Reformed public hall in Vauxnall Garden (a pleasure ground on 
Church, while recogmsin^ its discipline. The Gen- the Hudson near Warren Street), New York, between 
eral Assembly of the province held m 1682 imder the the years 1781-83 when they had begun to take 
famous Governor Thomas Dongan, an Irish Catholic heart because of the religious hberty which was to be 
nobleman, adopted the Charter of Liberties, which theirs under the new republican government whose 
proclaimed religious liberty to all Christians. Al- arms had already triumphed over England at York- 
though this charter did not receive formal royal sane- town. Their number at this time was reported as be- 
tion,thefactof religioustqlerationwasneverthelessuni- ing about two hundred, with Only twenty odd com- 
versally recognized. In 1688 the Stuart Revolution municants, as Father Farmer lamented, 
in England reversed this policy of liberality, and the . The Revolution of 1776 overthrew entirely the S3r8tem 
Province of New York immediatelv followed the ex- of government churches and all religious proscrip- 
ample of the mother-country in all its bitter intoler^ tion by law, and the State Constitution of 1777 pro- 
ance and persecution by law of the Catholic Church vided. as has been seen, for general religious liberty, 
and its aaherents. In 1697, although the Anglican The Legislature in 1784 carried ou^ the declaration. 
Church was never formally established in the Province It provided ** that an universal equality between every 
of New York, Trinity Church was founded in the City religious denomination, according to the true spirit 
of New York by royal charter, and received many of the Constitution, toward each other shall forever 
civil privileges and the munificent grants of land which prevail *\ and followed this by a general act providinjS 
are the source of its present great wealth. The Dutch for the incorporation of churches and religious sod- 
Reformed Churches continued, however, to enjoy eties under clear general ruleS) few, simple, and easy 
their property and the protection of their rights un- for all. This law made a most unusual provision in 
disturbea by the new Anglican founda,tion, the inhabi- aid of justice for the vesting in these corporate bodies 
tants of Dutch blood being then largely in the ascend- immeaiately of ''all the temporalities panted or de- 
ant. This condition continued many years, for it is vised directly to said church, congregation or society, 
a fact that, when the Revolution occurred in 1776, or to any person or persons in trust to and for their 
the majority of the inhabitants of the Province of New use and although such gift, grant or devise may not 
York were, contrary to general belief, not of English have strictly been agreeable to the rigid rules of law, or 
descent. might on strict construction be defeated by the opera- 

The political conditions at home, and also the long tion of the statutes of mortmain." It made provision 
contest between England and France for the control also with great prescience for the protection of clergy- 
of North America resulted, as has been stated, in the^ men from the exercise of arbitrary i)ower by the lay 
enactment by the provincial legislature from time to , directors of religious corporations by taking from the 
time of proscriptive laws against the Catholic Faith trustees of the church the power to fix the ssJaiy of the 
and its adherents — laws which are savage in ^heir clergyman and by requiring the congregation to fix it at 
malignity. Catholic priests and teachers were or- special meetings. To prevent abuses, nowever, and in 
derea to keep away from the province or, if they by accordance with legal tradition and precedent, restrio- 
any chance came there, to depart at once. Severe tions upon the amount of real estate and personal prop- 
penalties were provided for disobedience to these laws, erty which a church could hold were made, and the 
extending to long imprisonment or even death . These Court of Chancery was placed in control of all such mat- 
laws were directed in' many cases principally against ters by requiring that annual reports should be made by 
the Catholic missionaries among the Iroquois, who the churches to it. The final clause of the act crystal- 
were almost exclusively Frenchmen. They were lize^ the principle of the Constitution, that, wlule the 
adopted also, it is consohng to think, against the pro- State protects and fosters religion in its beneficent 
test of many of the best of the colonial legislators and work, it must not interfere in religious matters. It is 
under the urging of authority, and were rarely en- as follows: ''Nothing herein contained shidl be con- 
forced. This was not so in the case of the unfortunate strued, adjudged, or taken to abridge or affect the 
schoolmaster John Ury. however. In the disturbances rights of conscience or private judgnient or in the least 
and panic of the so-called Negro Plot of 1741 he was to alter or change the religious constitutions or spvem- 
actually tried in New York and executed under these ments of either of the said churches, congregations or 
statutes for the crime of being a "Popish priest'' and societies, so far as respects or in any wise concerns the 
teaching his religion. Although it is held by some doctrine, discipline or worship thereof." 
that Ury was not a Catholic priest. Archbishop Bayley The Constitution of 1777 and the legislation of the 
gives good reason for believing the contrary, citing Revolutionary period in aid of it are remarkable for 
especially the fact that the record shows that he deep sagacity and great grasp of principles, as well as 
never denied the accusation at any time, and therefore for the conservative and sane treatment of the inno- 
died as a priest. The entire body of this legislation vations and novelties which the radical changes in the 
was formally repealed at the first session of the L^s- government made necessary. This is the more re- 
Uture of the State of New York. markable when it is remembered that this Constitution 

The condition of the few Catholics who dared pro- was adopted in time of war by delegates who liud down 

Bcription and persecution in the province of New York their arms in most cases to join in the deliberations upon 

before the Revolution of 1776 was deplorable from a it, and that the legislature first met immediately 

religious point of view. These Catholics must have after the close of this war time. It was besides a ven- 

been recruited in numbers from time to time from sea- ture in an almost virgin field. Its wisdom, knowledge. 


and broadnoBB are priceless treasures of the citisens of in details, agreed ''that the Christian religion was en- 
New Yoric. The wisdom of the Constitution is shown grafted ui)on the law and entitle to protection as the 
particularly in the provision creating the bodv of the Basis of morals and the strength of Government." In 
law for the State. It enacted that the law of the State 1861 a similar question was presented for decision in 
should be constituted of the Common Law of EnMand the well-known case of LinaenmuUer vs. People (33 
and of tne Acts of the Legislature of the Colony otNew Barbour Rei)orts 548) . The plaintiff sought from the 
York, as together forming the law of the colony on 19 court an injunction to restrain the police of New York 
April, 1775 (the day of the battle of (Doncord and Lex- City from mterferin^ with theatrical performances on 
ington). It was expresdy declared, however, ''that Sunday. The opimon of the Supreme Court was 
alTsuch parts of the said Common Law and tdl such of written by Justice William F. Allen, a most distin- 
the said Statutes and Acts aforesaid or parts thereof guished jurist, and was afterwards (1877) adopted by 
as may be construed to establish or maintain any par- the Court of Appeals as the decision of the highest 
ticular denomination of Christians or their ministers, court. It oontams an admirable and exhaustive study 
are repugnant to this constitution and hereby are ab- of the Simday laws. It takes the claim of the plain- 
rogated and rejected." tiff, stated broadly, to be that "the Bible, and religion 

To New York belongs the honour of having been the with all its ordinances, including the Sabbath, are as 
first of all Englishnspeaking states from the time of effectually abolished by the Constitution as they were 
the Protestant Reformation, to protect by its courts in France during the Revolution) and so effectually 
and laws, the secrecy and sanctity of auricular confes- abolished that duties may not be enforced as duties to 
sion. In Jime, 1813, it was judicially determined that the State because they have b^n heretofore asso- 
auricular confession as a part of church discipline pro- ciated with acts of religious worship or connected with 
tects the priest from being compelled in a court of law religious duties." It then proceeds: "It would be 
to testify to statements made to him therein. The strange that a people. Christian in doctrine and wor- 
decision was made bv De Witt Clinton, presiding in ship, many of whom or whose forefathers had sou^t 
the Mayor's Court of New York City on the tricu of these shores for the privilege of worshipping God in 
one Phillips for theft, and the priest, whose protest simpUcity and purity of faith, and who regarded re- 
was there considered, was the revered Father Anthony ligion as the basis of their civil liberty and the founda^ 
Kohlmann mentioned above. The decision is more tion of their rights, should, in their zeal to secure to all 
remarkable because it was contrary to the principles the freedom of conscience which they valued so highly, 
of the English cases, and the opposite view had the solemnl^r repudiate and put beyond the pale of the law 
support of respectable authorities. the religion which was as dear to them as life and de- 

Although no form of religion is considered by the throne the God, who, thev openly and avowedlv pro- 
State of New York as having rights superior to fess to believe, had been their protector and guide as a 
any other, yet the fact of the existence of the Chris- people." The (Dourt announced the broad decision 
tian relimon as the predominating faith of the peo- that every act done, maliciously tending to bring re- 
ple has oeen uniformly recognized by the courts, ligion into contempt, may be punished at common 
constitutional conventions, and legislatures. As law, and the Christian Sabbath, as one of the institu- 
early as 1811, Chancellor Kent, writing the opinion tions of religion, may be protected from desecration 
of the Court in the case of- People vs. Ruanues (8 by such laws as the Legislature in their wisdom may 
Johnson 294), made the celebrated dictum: '^e are deem necessary to secure to the community the privi- 
a Christian people and the morality of the country is lege of an undisturbed worship, and to the day itself 
deeply ingrafted ui)on Christianity." This famous that outward respect and observance which may be 
case arose on the conviction of the defendant for bias- deemed essential to the peace and good order of so- 
phemy in maliciously reviling Jesus Christ in a public ciety, and to preserve religion and its ordinances from 
place. In the absence of a specific statute the question open reviling and contempt. It further held that this 
was presented whether such an act was in New York must be considered, not as a duty to God, but as a 
a crime at common law. The Court held that it was, duty to society and to the State. This decision firmly 
because to vilify the Author of Christianity under the established the proposition that, as a civil and politi- 
circumstanoes presented was a gross violation of de- cal institution, the establishment and regulation of a 
oency and good order, and blasphemy was an abuse Sabbath are within the just powers of civil govem- 
of the right of religious liberty. The court further ment. It remains the law of the State confirmed by 
held that, though the Constitution discarded religious many decisions up to this time, 
establishments, it did not forbid judicial cognizance Many interestmg questions have arisen from time 
of those offences against religion and morality which to time in the courts as to how far the Engli^ doc- 
have no reference to any such establishment or to any trines as to "superstitious uses", mortmain, and 
particular form of government, but are pimishable bo- charities, especially in relation to the ownership of 
cause they strike at the root of moral obli^tion and lands by religious corporations and charitable corpo- 
weaken social tiesj that the Constitution never meant rations and as to their capacity to take charitable oe- 
to withdraw religion in general, and with it the best quests and devises, remained the law of the State under 
sanctions of moral and social obligation, from all the Constitution. As to superstitious uses, it has been 
consideration and notice of the law; ana that the expressly held that that English post-Reformation 
framers intended only to banish test oaths, disabilities doctrine has no place in this State; that those profess- 
and the burdens, and sometimes the oppressions, of ing the Roman Catholic Faith are entitled in law to 
Church establishments, and to secure the people of the same respect and protection in their reli^ous ob- 
the State freedom from coercion and an equahty of servances as those of any other denomination, and 
right on the subject of religion. that these observances cannot be condenmed as super- 

This decision of the Supreme Court that, although stitious by any court as matter by law. The right to 

Christianity is not the religion of the State, consideiid make provision for Masses for the dead by contracts 

as a political corporation, it is nevertheless closely inter- made inter vivos was expressly proclaimed by the 

woven into the texture of society and is intimately con- Court of Appeals. Direct bequests for Masses are 

nected with all the social habits, customs, and modes in law "chanties" and to be considered as such. As 

of life of the people, gave offence in certain quarters, to these charities generally, the Court of Appeals in 

In view of this Ru^^ case, an amendment was pro- 1888 settled finally after much discussion tnat the 

posed in the Constitutional Convention of 1821 to the English doctrine of trusts for charitable uses, with all 

effect that the judiciary should not declare any partic- its refinements, was not the law in New York ; that the 

ular rdigion to be the law of the land. It was rejected settled policy of the State was clear, and consisted in 

afterafulldebatein which itsopponentSyWhilediffering the creation of a i^stem of public cnaritieB to be ad- 




minktered through the medium of oorporate bodies, 
created bv legislative power and endowed ¥nth the 
same legal capacity to hold property for their corpo- 
rate purposes^ as a private person or an ordinarv pri- 
vate corporation had to receive and hold transfers of 
property. It was decided, therefore, in the leading 
case of Holland vs. Alcock (108 New York Reports 
329), that direct bequests for Masses cannot be made 
definitely as such except to incorporated churches or 
other corporations having legal i)ower to take property 
for such purposes. There is no difficulty in practice, 
however, in this regard, as Mass legacies are now 
either given to an incorporated church directly, or are 
left as personal bequests accompanied by requests, 
which in law do not derogate from the absolute 
quality of the ^ft. 

However, it is to be noted that the rules laid down 
by the Court of Appeals in the matter of charities have 
been radically changed by legislation since 1888. The 
decision of the Court of Appeals in the Tilden will case, 
by which the elaborate plans for public charity made 
by Samuel J. Tilden were defeated b^r the application 
of these rules, was followed almost immeaiately by 
Chapter 701 of the Laws of 1893, which provides that 
sifts by will for charitable purposes shail not be de- 
feated because of indefiniteness in designatinjs the 
beneficiaries, and that the power in the regulation of 
the gifts for charitable purposes formerly exereised 
by the Court of Chancery under the ancient law of 
England should be restored and vested in the Supreme 
Court as a Court of Eauity. The Court of Appeals 
construing this statute nas held that the existence of 
a competent corporation or other definable trustee 
with power to take is no longer necessary /or the va- 
lidity of a trust for charitable uses, and tnat any legal 
trust for such purposes may be executed by proper 
trustees if such are named, and, if none are named, the 
trust will be administered by the Supreme Court. It 
is important to note, however, that this act must be 
confined to the cases to which it applies, and that it 
does not enable an unincorporated charity or associa- 
tion to take bequests or devises. 

There exist, however, notwithstanding the liberal- 
ity of the New Yoric system, some important re- 
strictions upon the conduct of religious and charitable 
corporations. The better opinion and the weight of 
judicial authority are, that, notwithstanding the re- 
pealing act of the L^slature of 1788 above noted, 
the English statutes of Elizabeth, which restricted re- 
ligious and charitable corporations, may hold in the 
alienation and encumbering of their real estate, have 
been adopted as the law of this State, and that such 
acts can only be lawfully done under the order of the 
Supreme Court. Limitations upon the value of the 
property and the amount of the income of religious 
and chiuitable corporations have also been uniformly 
made by the New York Statutes. The present law, 
however, is most liberal in this respect, the property 
of such corporations being limited to |i5, 000,000 and 
the annual income to $600,000. and provision is also 
made that no increase in the value of property arising 
otherwise than from improvements made thereon by 
the owners shall be taken into account. By recent 
act also the strict requirements for accounting to the 
Supreme Court, the successor of the Court of Chan- 
cenr, as to their property and income, which in the 
early statutes controlled such corporations, are con- 
fined to cases where the attorney-general intervenes 
for the purpose by petition to the Supreme Court upon 
proper cause being shown. 

The law of New York on the general subject of the 
Chureh and the legal position of the latter before the 
law has been defined oy the statutes and numerous 
decisions. The results may be briefly stated as fol- 
lows: Religious societies as such are not legal en- 
tities, although as an aggregation of the individuals 
composing them, for motives of convenience, they are 

recogniied as existing in certain cases. They can 
neither sue nor be sued in civil courts. They cannot 
hold property directly, althoufjh they may control 
property held by others for their use or upon trusts 
created by them. The existence, however, of the 
Chureh proper, as an organised legal entity, is not 
recognized by tne municipal law of New York. There 
is no statute which authorizes the incorporation of 
the Chureh at large. The incorporation is generally 
made of the congregation or assemblage of persons 
accustomed statedly to meet for Divine worsnip, al- 
though provision has been made for the incorporation 
of special eeclesiastical bodies with governing author- 
ity over churehes. For example, the Catholic dioceses 
of Albany, Buffalo, and Brookl3ai have been thus 
incorporated formsJly. The general plan provides 
specially for the incorporation and government of the 
churches of the separate denominations, as gathered 
into congregations. Each important denomination, 
therefore, has its own particular provisions in the Re- 
ligious Corporation Law, the general statute of the 
State which has codified these laws and decisions. In 
the case of the Roman Catholic Church, incorporation 
is obtained in this way. A certificate of incorpora- 
tion must be executed by the arehbishop or bishop, 
the vicar-general of the diocese, the rector of the con- 
gregation, and two laymen thereof, selected by such 
officials or a majority of them. It must state the 
corporate name of the chureh, and also the municipal- 
ity where its principal place of worship exists or is in- 
tended to be located. On filing such certificate with 
the clerk of the coimty in which the principal place of 
worship is or is intended to be, or with the Secretary 
of State in certain cases, the corporation is created. 

Questions of the civil rights of persons, relating 
either to themselves or to property, whatever may be 
their relations to chureh organizations, are as a matter 
of course the subject of adjudication in the civil tri- 
bimals. But judicial notice will be taken of the exist- 
ence of the church discipline or government in some 
cases, and it is always the subject of evidence. When, 
therefore^ personal rights and rights of property are 
in cases in the courts dependent upon questions of 
doctrine, discipline, church government, customs, or 
law, the civil court will consider as controlling and 
binding the determinations made on such questions 
by the highest tribunal within the Chureh to which 
they have been presented. While a dernnnan, or 
other person, may always insist that his ci^ or prop- 
erty rights as an individual shall be determined ac- 
cording to the law of the land, his relations, rights, and 
obligations arising from his position as a member of 
some religious body must be determined according to 
the laws and procedure enacted by that body for such 
purpose. Wnere it appeared, therefore, in one case 
that questions growing out of relations between a 
priest and his bishop had been submitted by the par- 
ties to an ecclesiastical tribunal which the churen it- 
self had organized for hearing such causes and was 
there decided by it, it was held by the Court of Ap- 
peids that the civil courts were justified in refusing 
to proceed further, and that the decision of the Chureh 
juoicatory 'in the matter was a bar and a good defence 
(Baxter vs. McDonnell, 155 New York, 83). The 
Chureh at laree, however, under the law of New York 
depends wholly upon moral power to carry on its 
functions, without the possibility of appeal to the 
civil authorities for aid either through the Legislature 
or the Court. Where there is no incorporation, those 
who deal with the Church must trust for the perform- 
ance of civil obligations to the honour and good f utb 
of the members. The congregations formed into civil 
corporations are governed by the principles of the 
common law and statute law. With their doctrinal 
peculiarity and denominational character the courts 
nave nothing to do, except to carry out the statutes 
which protect their rights in this respect. However, 


these statutory rishts are, as will be seen, very to be regarded as valid notwithstaadins the statute, 

extensive. Generally speaking, whateyer the oorpo- This amending statute was passed at tne session of 

ration chooses to do that is within their corporate 1907, and there are as yet no important adjudications 

power is lawful except where restricted by express ui)on it. 

statute. Annulment of Marriage. — An action to annul her 

Control of Churches. — From time to time important marriage may be brought by a woman where she was 
restrictions upon the general power of the religious under sixteen years of age at the time of the marriage 
corporations m particular denominations have oeen and the consent of her parents or guardian was not 
made. The present ReUgious Corporation Law, for had and the marriage was not consunmiated and not 
eiuunple, requires the trustees of such a body to ad- ratified by mutual assent after she attained the age of 
minister the temporalities of the church in accordance sixteen years. Either the husband or wife may sue 
with the discipline, rules, and usages of the religious for annulment of marriage for lunacy, nonage, prior 
denomination or ecclesiastical governing body, if any, valid marriage, or because consent was ohtamed by 
with which the corporation is connected, and m accor- force, duress, or fraud, and finally for physical in- 
dance with the provisions of law relatinjp; thereto, and capacity under certain rigid restrictions. The tend- 
further for the supi)ort and maintenance of the corpora- ency of the courts of late years is to construe the pro- 
tion and its denominational or charitable work. It re- vision as to fraud Uberally, and annidment has been 
quires also the consent of the bishops and other offi- granted on this ground where the husband has been 
cers to the mortgage, lease, or conveyance of the real convicted of a felony and concealed the fact before the 
property of certain cnurches. In the case of Catholic marriage, and again where false representations had 
churches it is expressly provided also that no act or been made before the marriage by the woman as to 
proceeding of the trustees of any such church shall be the birth of a child to the plaintiff. The Court of Ap- 
vaUd without the express sanction of the archbishop peals in the last case held, as the reasonfiJ[>le oonstruc- 
or bishop of the diocese or, in case of his absence, of tion of the statute, that the essential fact to be ^own 
the vicar-general or administrator. To prevent the was that the fraud was material to the degree that, 
creation of abuses from the generality of any of its had it not been practised, the party deceived would 
provisions^ the statute cont^ns a further section not have consented to the marriage (Di Lorenzo vs. 
directing that no provision thereof shall authorize Di Lorenzo, 174 New York, 467 and 471). This de- 
the fixing or changmg of the time, nature, or order of cision, it should be noted, was put squarely on the 
pubUc or social or other worship of an^ church in any ground that in New York marriage is a civil contract 
other manner or by any other authority than in the to which the consent of parties capable in law of con- 
manner and by the authority providoi in the laws, tractingisessential, and, where the consent is obtained 
regulations, practice, discipline, rules, and usages of by legal fraud, the marriage may be annulled as in 
the religious denomination or ecclesiasticid ^veming the case of any other contract. Condonation of the 
body, if any, with which the church corporation is con- force, duress, or fraud is required to be assumed from 
necteid, except in churches which have a congrega- the fact of voluntary cohabitation after knowledge of 
tional form of government. the facts by the innocent party, and will, if establLuied, 

Ecdesuistical Persons. — ^The relations of ecclesiasti- defeat the action. Provision is also made for an ac- 

cal persons one to the other have aJso been considered tion for the annulment of a marriage in certain cases 

by the courts. It has been held that the personal ftt the instance of any relative having an interest in 

contracts of a bishop are the same as those of a layman having it annulled or by a parent or guardian or next 

as far as their form^ force, and effect are concerned, friend either in the lifetime of a party or after his or 

It has been determmcKl, however, that the relation her death, where such an action will further the cause 

of master and servant does not exist between a bishop of justice. 

and his priests, but only that of ecclesiastical superior Divorce. — Actions for absolute divorce and the dis- 

and inferior. Finally, the courts have ruled that a solution of marriage can be maintained only for the 

priest or minister in an^^ church by assuming that cause of adultery. The New York Courts will hear 

relation necessarily subjects his conduct in that no action for divorce unless both parties were residents 

capacity to the law and customs of the ecclesiastical of the State when the offence was committed, or were 

body from which he derives his office and in whose married within the State, or the plaintiff was a resi- 

name he exercises his functions. dent of the State at the time of the offence and is 

Marriage. — Until very recent times New York fol- resident when the action is commenced, or finally 

lowed the common law respecting marriage. Ail that when the offence was committed within the State and 

was required for a Valid marriage was the deliberate the injured party is a resident of the State when the 

consent of competent parties entering into a present action is commenced. Divorces obtained by citizens 

agreement. No ceremony or intervention of a civil of New York in the courts of foreign Jurisdiction are 

authority was necessary. not recognized as valid in the State of New York un- 

However, it is now provided that, although the less personal jurisdiction of both of the parties is 
contract of marriage is still in law a civil contract, properly obtained by the foreign courts. Collusion of 
marriages not ceremonial must be proven by writings the parties is strictly guarded against. Condonation 
authenticated by the parties under strict formalities of the offence is made a defence. The action must be 
and in the presence of at least two witnesses and re- brought within five years after the discovery of the 
corded in the proper county clerk's office. . It is now offence. Adultery by the plaintiff is a complete de- 
provided aJso that ceremonial marriages must not be fence to the action. The provisions for the custody 
celebrated without first obtaining a niarriage licence, of the children of a dissolved marriage and for the 
It is to be noted, however, that a failure to procure maintenance of the innocent wife and children are 
the marriage licence does not invalidate a ceremonial very detailed and effective. Remarriage is forbidden 
marriage, but only subjects the offending clergyman to the guilty party during the life of the spouse, unless, 
or magistrate who officiates thereat to the penalties of after five years have elapsed, proof is made of his or 
the statute. All clergymen and certain magistrates her uniform good conduct, when the defendant may 
are given power to solemnize marriages. No partio- be permitted by the Court to marry again. The 
ular form is required except that the parties must ex- practical effect of these prohibitions is very slight be- 
pressly declare that they take each other as husband cause the entire validity of the subsequent marriages 
or wile. In every case one witness besides the clergy- of guilty parties in New York divorce actions^ when 
man or magistrate must be present at the ceremony, they are made out of the State of New York, is recog- 
It is provided, however, that modes of solemnizing nized by the New York courts, the only penalty pro- 
marriage adopted by any religious denomination are vided for the disobedience to the decree being the 


punishment of the offender for contempt of court, benevolent, charitable, or religious institutions, but 
and the infliction of this penalty is unheard of at such disposition is valid to the e^ctent of one-hall. In 
the present day. The divorce law of New York, it addition, certain kinds of corporations are still further 
may be noted, is more conservative than that of any restricted in respect to the portion of the estate of such 
other state in the Union except South Carolina, where persons which they may receive: in some cases it 
no divorce a vinculo is permitted. Limited divorce or is only one-fourth. In respect to the invalidity by* 
decree of separation a menaa et ihoro is granted for statute of legacies or devises made by wills executed 
numerous causes, viz: cruel and inhuman treatment, within two months of the testator's death, this limita- 
abandonment, neglect or refusal to provide for the tion was formerly widely applicable. Recent amend- 
wife, and conduct making it unsafe and improper for ments, however, have restncted it to the corporations 
the plaintiff to cohabit with the defendant. The formed under tne old statutes, and it applies now to 
usual purpose of actions for limited divorce is to pro- very few others, and these mostly corporations cre- 
vide support for the children and alimony for the wife ated by special statutes. Bequests and devises to un- 
out of tne husband's funds after the husband and wife incorporated churqhes or charities, are, as has been 
have separated. These actions are comparatively in- stated, invalid. Foreign religious and charitd[>le cor- 
frequent. The judgmeiit in them has of course no porations, however, may take bequests and devises if 
effect upon the validity of the marriage bond. It is authorized to do so by their charters. They are also 
Kranted only for grave cause, and the necessary bona permitted to carry on unhampered their work in the 
fide residence of the parties in the State is of strictest State of New York. The legacies and devises to re- 
proof , imder the terms of the statute, ligious, charitable, and benevolent corporations are 
Charities. — ^The system of charities which has grown exempt from the succession tax assessed upon legacies 
up within the State of New York, whether religious or and devises in ordinary cases. 

secular, is one of the features of its social Ufe. As was Exemption from Taxation. — ^The Tax Law provides 
said by the Court of Appeals in 1S88 in the famous that the real and personal property of a ''corporation 
case of Holland vs. Alcock above noted: ''It is not or association organized exclusively for the moral or 
certain that any political state or society in the world mental improvement of men or women or for religious, 
offers a better system of law for the encouragement Bible, tract, charitable, benevolent, missionary, hos- 
of property Umitations in favour of religion and learn- pital, infirmary, educational, scientific, literary, U- 
ing, for the relief of the poor, the care of the insane, of brary, patriotic, historical, or cemetery purposes or 
the sick and the maimed, and the relief of the desti- for the enforcement of law relating to children or ani- 
tute, than our system of creating organized bodies by mals or for two or more such purposes and used ex- 
the legislative power and endowing them with the dusively for carrying out thereupon one or more of 
same legal capacity to hold property which a private such purposes", shall be exempt from taxation. Great 
person has to receive and hold transfers of property." care is taken, however, to protect against the abuse of 
A charitable or benevolent corporation may be this rig^t ot exemption. In some few cases further 
formed under the Membership Corporation Law by exemptions are also made; thus, for example, real 
five or more persons for any lawful, charitable, or property not in exclusive use for the above corporate 
benevolent purpose. It is subject in certain respects purposes is exempt from taxation, if the income there- 
to the supervision of the State Board of Charities and irom is devoted exclusively to the charitable use of the 
of the Supreme Court, but this power of visitation is corporation. Prop^y held by any officer of a reli- 
not oppressive and never exercised except in case of gious denomination is entitled to the same exemption 
gross libuse and imder strict provisions as to proce- under the same conditions and exceptions as property 
dure. State and municipal aid to private charitable held by a religious corporation itself, 
corporations is permitted by law. Some of the great Freedom of Worship. — ^It is expressly provided by 
private charities of the Catholic Church receive such statute that all persons committed to or taken charge 
aid in larpe amounts, particularly in the great cities, of by incorporated or unincorporated houses of refuge, 
The pubhc subvention of private charitable corpora- reformatories, protectories, or other penal institutions, 
tions is an old custom in the State, beginning when ad- receiving either public moneys or a per cajnta sum 
most all charities were in Protestant hands and the from any municipality for the support of inmates. 
Catholic charities were very few and poor. Although shall be entitled to the free exercise and enjoyment of 
vigorously attacked in the Constitutional Conven- reUgious profession and worship without discrimina- 
lion of 1904, it was sustained and continued by the tion or preference, and that these provisions may be 
action of that convention and ratified by the people of enforced by the Supreme Court upon petition of any 
the State. The system has done much for tne cause one feeling himseli aggrieved by a violation of it 
of the education and maintenance of defective, de- ' (Prison Law Section 20). It is further provided that 
pendent, and delinquent children, and for the building all children committed for destitution or delinquency 
up of the hospitals for the destitute sick and aged in by any court or public officer shall, as far as practica- 
.ah the religious denominations. The Catholic pro- ble, be sent to institutions of the same religious faith 
tectories of New York and Buffalo and the Catholic as the parents of the child. 

foundling and infant asylums throughout the State Liquor Law. — ^The excise legislation of the State is 

are the models for such institutions in the whole treated in an elaborate general statute called the 

United States. The charities under Catholic auspices " Liquor Tax Law", but better known as the "Raines 

which receive no State aid are, however, in the vast Law from the name of the late Senator John Raines 

majority, and are found in great numbers in every who drafted it. In substance it provides for a State 

quarter of the State, caring for the children and the Department of Excise presided over by a commis- 

aged, the sick and the destitute. They are served by doner of excise^ appointed by the governor and con- 

an army of devoted religious, both men and women, firmed by the Senate, who is given charge of the 

The State institutions for the care of the insane and issuance of all licences to traffic within the State in in- 

1'uvenile delinquents are numerous, and the alms- toxicating liquor, and also of the collection of the li- 

louses, hospitals, and other charitable agencies under cence fees and the supervision of the enforcement of 

the care of the counties and other municipedities the drastic penalties provided for violations of the law. 

abound throughout the State. There are alone six- Its purpose was to take away the granting of excise 

teen great State hospitals for the insane, conducted Ucences by the local authorities, who had in some 

most carefully and successfully. cases greatly abused the power, and also to subject 

Restrictions on Beouests and Devises. — No person local peace and i)oIice officers to the scrutiny, and in 

having a parent, husband, wife, or child can legally some cases the control of the State authorities in excise 

devise or bequeath more than one-half his estate to matters. It has resulted generally in a great improve- 




ment in excise conditions throughout the State, as well 
as incidentally in an enormous increase in the revenue 
of the State from tMs source. It has caused the al- 
most complete disappearance of imlicenced liquor- 
selling, ana has improved general order and decency 
in the ousiness of trafficking in liquor, especially in the 
congested parts of the cities. The principle of high 
licence b carefully followed. The fee for a saloon 
licence, for example in the Borough of Manhattan, is 
$1200 per annum, the charge decreasing, according to 
the circumstances, to $150 per annum in the rural di^ 
tricts. The State is divided into excise districts which 
are in charge of deputy commissioners supervised by 
the staff of the commissioner of excise at Albany. Al- 
though it is an imusual provision which thus central- 
izes the power over the hquor traffic at Albany, and it 
seems to violate the principle of home rule adopted by 
all the public parties, the experiment is on the whole 
re^arde^ with satisfaction. It should be noted that 
this law has created a very great abuse because of its 
provision attaching the rigit to sell liquor on Sunday 
to the keeping of hotels. There have thus sprung into 
existence the ''Raines Law Hotels'', which, satisf3ring 
the very inadequate provisions of tne statute, obtain 
hotel licences without any legitimate business reason, 
and primarily for the purpose of selling liquor on Sun- 
day. They are generally conducted as to their hotel 
accommodations in such a way as to be a menace to 
public order and decency in the poorer residential dis- 
tricts of the large cities of the State. They often defy 
police control, and their legal status makes their regu- 
lation or supervision most difficult. Earnest efforts 
have been made for many years to remedy the evil, 
but have met with but partial success. Ample provi- 
sion is also made for local option as to prohioitive 
liquor licences in all localities of the State excepting 
the larger cities. It has worked well in practice. 

Clergymen, — Priests and ministers of the Gospel are 
exempted from service on juries and from service in 
the militia of the State. A clergyman's real and per- 
sonal property to the extent of $1500 is exempt from 
taxation, if he is regularly engaged in performinff his 
duty, is permanently disabled by impaired healtn, or 
is over seventy-five years old. The dwelling-houses 
and lots of religious corporations, actually used by 
the officiating clerg3anen thereof, are also exempt to 
the extent of $2000. Any clergyman is empowered 
at his pleasure to visit all coimty jails, workhouses, 
and State prisons when he is in charge of a congregation 
in the town where they are located. . 

Holidays. — The l^al holidays of the State are New 
Year's Day, Lincoln iS Birthday (12 February). Wash- 
ington's Birthday (22 February), Memorial Day (30 
May), Independence Day (4 July), Labour Day (first 
Monday of September), Columbus Day (12 October), 
and Christmas Day. . If any of these days fall on Sun- 
day, the day following is a public holiday. The statute 
also provides that the day of the general election, and 
each day appointed by the President of the United 
States or by the Governor of the Stat« as a day of 
''ffeneral thanksgiving, general fasting and prayer, or 
ower general religious observances ". shall be holidays. 
Each Saturday, which is not a holiday, is a half-holi- 
day. There is of course no reli^ous significance in 
the creation of any of these hohdays, as far as the 
State is concerned. Good Friday, by general custom, 
is observed as a holiday throughout the State, al- 
though it b not designated as a legal holiday. The 
rules of the local school boards throughout the State 
also provide liberty to both Christian and Jewish 
scholars to take time from the school attendance 
for religious observances on their respective holy- 

Lamb, Hitt. of City of New York (New York, 1877); Batlby, 
Hiat. ofCath. Church on Island of N. Y. (New York, 1869): U. S. 
Catholic Historical Society, Records and Stttdiea (New York), es- 
peciallv for Oct.. 1900, and Nov., 1907; United States Census 1900; 
Nmo York SUUc Census 1906; Lincoln, Constitutional Hist, of 

N. Y. (Roohesier. 1906) ; Aubxandeb. Politieal Hiat. afihs State of 
N. Y. (New York, 1906) ; Wilson. Memorial Hist, of City of N. F., 
Statesman's Year Book for 1910 (New York. 1910) ; Report of N. Y. 
Chamber of Commerce (New York, 1910) ; U. S. Census Bulletin, 
Relioious Bodiee 1906 (Washington, 1909); O'Callaqhan, Laws 
and (Ordinances of New Netherlands Colonial Laws of N. Y. (Al- 
bany); Documents relating to Colonial Hist. (Albany, 1859-87); 
FowLEB, Introduction to Bradford's Laws (New York, 1894); 
Sampson, Catholic Question in America (New York, 1813); Do- 
bates of the ConUitutional Convention of 1821; Bibosetb, Gum- 
ming AND GiLBEBT, Consolidated Laws of N. Y. (New York, 
1909); Eedesiastieal Records of N. Y. (1901-5): Revised Statutes; 
Reports of Revisers; Smith. N. Y. City in 1789 (New York, 1889); 
Report of Commissioner of Excise (Albany, 1910) ; Shea, Hist, of 
Cath. Church in the U. S. (New York, 1886) ; Glabkb, Lives of the 
Deceased Bishops of the Cath. Church in the U. S. (New York, 
1872) : Booth. Hist, of the CUy of N. Y. (New York, 1880) ; Eedesi- 
astieal Records of N. Y. (official) (Albany, 1901); DeGoubct- 
Shea, Pages of Hist, of Cath. Church in U. S. (New York, 1857); 
Fablbt, Hist, of St. Patrick's Cathedral (New York, 1908); Zwieb- 
LEiN, Religion in New Netherland (Rochester, 1910). 

Edward J. McGuirb. 

New Zealand, formerly described as a colony, has, 
since September. 1907, by royal proclamation, been 
granted the style and designation of ''Dominion", 
the territory remaining, of course, as before imder 
British sovereignty. It consists of three main islands 
(North Island. South Island, sometimes also called 
Middle Islana, and Stewart Island) and several 
groups of smaller islands lying at some distance from 
the principal group. The smaller groups included 
within the dominion are the Chatham, Auckland, 
Campbell. Antipodes, Boimty, Kermadec, and Cook 
Islands, along with half a dozen atolls situated outside 
the Cook Group. The total area of the dominion — 
104,751 square miles — is about one-seventh less than 
the area ot Great Britain and Ireland. The quantity 
and ouality of the grazing land available has made 
New Zealand a great wool, meat, and dairy-produce 
country. Its agricultural capabilities are very con- 
siderable; its forests yield excellent timber: and its 
mineral resources, though as yet but little aeveloped 
and not very varied in character, form one of the 
coimtry's most valuable assets. Volcanoes, one of 
which, Ngauruhoe, the highest cone of Mount Ton- 

gariro, was in active eruption in 1909, and a volcanic 
elt mark the centre ot the North island. In the 
North Island also is the wonderland of the boiling 
geysers — said by geologists to be the oldest in the 
world, with the exception of those in Wyoming and 
Idaho — and the famous ''Hot Lakes" and pools, 
which possess great curative virtue for all rheumatic 
and skin diseases. An Alpine chain, studded with 
snow-clad peaks and mantled with dlaciers of greater 
magnitude than any in the Alps of Europe, descends 
along the west coast of the South Islana. In the 
Soutn Island dso are the famous Otago lakes (Wan- 
aka, Wakatipu, Te Anau, and Manapouri) of which 
the late Anthony Trollope wrote, " I do not know that 
lake scenery could be nner". The south-west coast 
of the island is pierced by a series of sounds or fiords, 
rivalling in their exquisite beauty the Norwegian ana , 
Alaskan fiords; in the neighbourhood is a water- 
fall (the Sutherland Falls) over 1900 feet in height. 
Judged by mortality statistics the climate of New 
Zealand is one of the best and healthiest in the world. 
The total population of the dominion on 31 December, 
1908, was 1,020,713. This included the Maori popu- 
lation of 47,731, and the population of Cook and otner 
Pacific islands, aggregating 12,340. 

I. Civil History. — ^Tasman discovered the islands 
in 1642 and called them "Nova Zeelanda'', but Cap- 
tain Cook, who surveyed the coasts in 1769 and fol- 
lowing vears, first made them known. The colony was 
planted in 1840 by a company, formed in ^England 
and known first as the New Zealand Company, after- 
wards as the New Zealand Land Company, which 
with auxiliary associations founded successively the 
settlements of Wellington, Nelson, Taranaki, Otago. 
and Canterbury. New Zealand was then constituted 
a dependency of the Colony of New South Wales 


(Australia), but on 3 May, 1841, was prod^med robbed and despoiled by the earl^ white civilisation 
a separate colonv. A series of native wars, arising and by trader-missionaries, tardy justice has at length 
ohieny from endless disputes about land, began in been done to the native race. To-day the Maoris 
1S43 and ended in 1869, since which time unbroken have four members in the house of representatives and 
peace has prevailed. A measure of self-government two in the legislative council, all men of high lineage 
was granted in 1852, and full re8i)onsible government and natural orators. Until recent years it was sup- 
in 1866. The provincial governments created by the posed that the Maoris were dyinp out, but later statis- 
Constitution Act were abolished in 1876, and one tics show the contrary. The official figures show that 
supreme central government established. The Gov- the Maori population fell from 41,993 in 1891 to 39,- 
emment consists of a governor, appointed by the 854inl896, increased to 43,143 in 1901, and further to 
crown^ and two houses of Parliament — ^the legislative 47,731 in 1906 (last census year). 
council* or upper chamber, with members nominated HI. Thb Catholic Chttbch in New Zealand. — 
by the governor for life (except those nominated The first Catholic settler in New Zealand was an Irish- 
subsequently to September 17, 1891, after which date man named Thomas Poynton, who landed at Hoki- 
all appointments are for seven years only), and the anga in 1828. Until ten years later the footsteps of 
house of representatives with members elected tri- a Catholic priest never pressed New Zealand soil, 
ennially on an adult suffrage. The first' Speaker of Poynton's brave and pious wife, a native of Wexford 
the New Zealand House of Representatives (1853-60), County, took her first two children on a journey of 
the late Sir Charles Clifford, was a Catholic, and his over two thousand weary miles of ocean to be baptized 
son. Sir George Clifford, one of New Zealand s promi- at Sydney. Throush Poynton's entreaties for a mis- 
nent public men, though bom in the dominion was sionarv the needs otthe country became known, first 
educated at Stonyhurst College, and has shown his at Sydney and next at Rome. In 1835 New Zealand 
fidelity to old ties by naming his principal New Zea- was included in the newly created Vicariate A]X)6tolic 
land residence '^ Stonyhurst''. There are a number of of Western Oceanica. In the following year its first 
Catholic names in the list of past premiers, cabinet vicar Apostolic, Mgr Jean Baptiste Francois Pompal- 
ministers, and members of Parliament who have lier, set out for his new field of labour with seven mem- 
helped to mould the laws and shape the history of the bers of the Society of the Marist Brothers, which only 
dominion. Thepresent premier (1910), the Right a few months before had received the approval of 
Hon. Sir Joseph Ward, P.Cf., K.C.M.G., is a Catholic, Pope Gregory XVI. On 10 January, 1838, he, with 
and out of a iep^lative council of forty-five members three Maoist companions, sailed up the Hokianga 
five are Cathohcs. River, situated in the far north-west of the Aucklajid 

The prominent feature of the political history of the Province. The cross was planted in New Zealand, 

past twenty years has been the introduction and de- and the first Mass celebrated in the house of the first 

velopment of that body of advanced'' legislation for Catholic settler of the colony. Irish peasant emi- 

which the name of New Zealand has become more or grants were the pioneers of (Jatholic c(Monization in 

less famous. The mere enumeration of the enact- New Zealand; the French missionaries were its pioneer 

ments would occupy considerable space. It must ai)ostles. Four years later (in 1842) New Zealand 

si^ce to say that, broadly speaking, their purpose is was formed into a separate vicariate, Mgr Pompallier 

to fling the shield of the State over every man who being named its first vicar Apostolic. From this time 

works for his livelihood; and, in addition to regulating forward events moved at a rapid pace. In 1848 the 

wages, they cover practically every risk to life, limb, colony was divided into two dioceses, Auckland 

heiuth, and interest of the industrial classes. It with its territory extending to 39^ of south latitude 

should be mentioned that there is no strong party of forming one diocese, Wellmgton with the remaining 

professed State-Socialists in the dominion, and the re- territory and the adjoining islands forming the second, 

forms and experiments which have been made have in (See Auckland, Diocbsb of.) Bishop PompaJlier 

all cases been examined and taken on their merits, remained in charge of Auckland, and Bishop Viard, 

and not otherwise. Employers have occasionally pro- who had been consecrated his coadjutor in 1846, was 

tested against some of the restrictions imposed, as appointed administrator of the Diocese of Wellington, 

being harassing and vexatious; but there is no politi- wmch was entrusted to the Society of Mary. By 

cal party in tne country which proi)oses to repeal Brief of 3 July, 1860, Bishop Viaid ceased to l>e 

these measures, and there is a general consensus of coadjutor and was constituted first Bishop of Welling- 

opinion that, in its main features, the ''advanced ton. In 1869 the Diocese of Dunedin, comprising 

legislation" has come to stay. In 1893 an Act came Otago, Southland, and Stewart's Island, was carved 

into force which granted the franchise to women. The out of the Diocese of Wellington, and the Ri^ht Rev. 

women's vote has had no perceptible effect on the Patrick Moran who died in 1895 was appointed its 

relative position of political parties; but it is generally first bishop. His successor (the present occupant of 

agreed that the women voters have been mainly re- the see), the Right Rev. Dr. Verdon, was consecrated 

sponsible for the marked increase in recent years of the in 1896. In 1887^ at the petition of the Plenary 

no-licence vote at the local option polls. Elections Synod of Australasia, held in Sydney in 1885, the hier- 

are quieter and more orderly than formerly. archy was established in New Zealand, and Welling- 

II. Thb Maobis. — The New Zealand natives, or ton became the archiepiscopal see. The Most Rev. 

Maoris, as they call themselves, are generally acknowl- Dr. Redwood, S.M., who had been consecrated 

edged to be intellectually and physically the finest Bishop of Wellington in 1874, was created archbishop 

aboriginal race in the South Sea Islands. Their map- and metropolitan by papal brief, receiving the pallium 

nificent courage, their high intelligence, their splendid from the hands of the Right Rev. Dr. Luck, Bishop oS 

Shysique and nxanly bearing, the stirring part they Auckland. The same year (1887) witne^ed theereon. 

ave played in the history of the country, the very tion of the Diocese of Christchurch. The firslj 8^d( 

ferocity of their long-relinquished habits, have all present bishop is the Right Rev^ Dtv Gfimes,, S;M.^ 

combined to invest them with a more than ordinary consecrated in the same 3rear. Ten years latec Ne^> 

degree of interest and curiosity . Of their origin i t can Zealand, hitherto dependent on Austratia, was inade a 

only be said, broadly, that they belong to the Polyne- separate ecclesiastical province, 
sian race — ethnologists have tried to trace a likeness to Some idea of the rapid: growth of the Catholic popu- 

the Red Indians of North America — and according to lation, both in numbers and in activity, may be gath- 

tradition they came to New Zealand about twenty- ered from the following figures. In 1840^ when New 

one generations ago (i. e^ about five hundred and Zealand was declared a colony, the number of Catho- 

twenty-five years) from Hawaiki, an island of the lie colonists was not above 500 in a total population of 

Pacific not identified with any certainty. After bein^ sonje 5000.. Eleven years later they numbered; 3;i72. 




in a total population of 26,707. At the last Govern- 
ment census (1906) the Catholic total had amounted 
to 126,995. The total population of the dominion 
(exclusive of Maoris), according to the same census, 
was 888,578, so that the Catholic population is sUghtly 
over one-seventh of the whole. To-day (1910) the 
estimated Catholic population of New Zeedand is over 
130,000, with 4 dioceses, 1 archbishop, 3 suffragan 
bishops, 212 priests, 62 religious brothers. 855 nuns, 
333 cnurches, 2 ecclesiastical seminaries (comprising 
1 provincial ecclesiastical seminarv and 1 ecclesiasti- 
cal seminary for members of the Ni arist Order), 2 col- 
leges for boys, 32 boarding and high schools, 18 supe- 
rior day schools, 15 chantable institutions, and 112 
Catholic primary schools. According to tne "New 
Zealand Official Year-Book" for 1909 (a Government 
publication) the total number of Catholic schools in 
the dominion is 152 and the niunber of CathoUc pupils 
attending is 12,650. New Zealand has addra one 
new religious congregation (the Sisters of Our Lady of 
Compassion), founded in 1884 by Mother Maiy Au- 
bert, to "Heaven's Army of Charity" in the (Jatho- 
lic Church. Under the direction of their venerable 
foimdress the members of the order conduct schools 
for the Maoris at Hiruharama (Jerusalem) on the 
Wanganui River, a home for incurables, Wellington, 
and a home for incurable children, Island Bay, Well- 
ington. The order has quite recently extenaed its 
operations to Auckland. 

The ordinary organizations of the laity, as usually 
found in English-speaking coimtries, are well and 
solidly established throughout the dominion. For 
benefit purposes New Zealand formed a separate dis- 
trict of the Hibernian Australasian Catholic Benefit 
Society. Thanks to capable management, due to the 
fact that the society has drawn to its ranks the ablest 
and most representative of the liuty, the organization 
is making remarkable progress. On 30 January^ 1910. 
the membership was reported at 2632; the funeral 
fund stood at £7795:2:2 (nearly $40,000) and the 
sick fund amounted to £12,558 :5K) (over $62,000). 
The Society of St. Vincent de Paul was probably the 
earliest lay organization established in New Zealand, a 
conference formed at Christchurch in July, 1867, by 
the Rev. Fr. Chastagner, S.M., being the first founded 
in Australasia. In almost every parish there are 
young men's clubs, social, literary, and athletic; in con- 
nexion with these a federation has been formed under 
the name of the Federated CathoUc Clubs of New 
Zealand. In 1909 a Newman Society, on the lines 
of the Oxford University Newman Society, but with 
wider and more directly practical objects, was inau- 
gurated by the Catholic gnuiuates and undergraduates 
of New Zealand University. As the number of uni- 
versity men amongst New Zealand Catholics is now 
very considerable, the new society promises to prove 
an important factor in the defence and propagation of 
the faith. 

IV. Missions to the Maoris. — ^From the outset, 
the convernon of the native race was set in the fore- 
front of the Church's work in this new land. When 
the Marist Fathers, having been withdrawn to the 
Dioc^ of Wellington, left the Diocese of Auckland 
in 1850, they had in that 'part of the North Island 
6044 neophytes. In 1853 there were about a thou- 
sand native Christians in the Diocese of Wellington. 
Homes and schools for native children were founded 
by the Sisters of Mercy at Auckland and Wellington; 
and in 1857 the governor. Sir Georse Grey, in his offi- 
cial report to Parliament, gave nigh praise to the 
Cathohc schools among the Maoris. Up until 1860 
the Maori mission was most flourishing. Then came 
the long-drawn years of fierce racial warfare, during 
which the natives kept their territory closed against 
all white menj and the Catholic missions were sumost 
completely ruined. They are being steadily built up 
once more by two bodies of earnest and devoted men, 

the Marist Fathers in the Archdiocese of Wellington 
and Diocese of Christchurch, and the Mill Hill Fa- 
thers in the Diocese of Auckland. The progress made 
during the last twenty-five years may be gathered 
from the following summaries, (a) The Arcndiooese 
of WeUington and Diocese of Christchurch (districts: 
Otaki, EQruharama, Raetihi, Wairoa, and Okato) have 
about 40 stations and 19 churches, served by 7 priests. 
There are also 4 native schools; 1 highly efficient na- 
tive high school, maintained bv the Sisters of Our 
Lady of the Missions; and 1 orphanage, conducted by 
the Sisters of Our Lady of Compassion. The total 
number of Catholic Maoris is about 2000. Several 
very successful conventions of Maori tribes have been 
held in Otaki since 1903. At the last (held in June, 
1909), whioh was attended by His Grace Archbishop 
Redwood, the institution of a Maori Catholic maga- 
zine was decided upon and has since been carried out. 
(b) The Diocese of Auckland (districts: Rotorua, head- 
quarters of the provincial of the mission, Matata, 
Tauranga, Hokiimga, Okaihau, Whangaroa, Whan- 
garei, Durgaville, and Coromandel) has 57 stations 
and 22 churches, served by 16 priests, of whom 9 are 
wholly and 7 are partly engaged on the Maori mission. 
There are 4 native schools conducted bv the Sisters of 
St. Joseph. The total number of Catholic Maoris is 
about 4000. Throughout the three dioceses the Ma- 
ori i)opulation is extremely scattered, and the mission- 
aries nave frequently to travel g^reat distances. As 
the deleterious influence of Maori tohungaism (beUef 
in wizards and '^medicine-men") is on the wane, and 
the rancorous feelings engendered by the war are now 
subfflding, the prospect in this distant outpost of the 
mission neld is most hopeful and promising. 

V. Education. — Primary education is compulsory 
in New Zealand; and of every 100 persons in the do- 
minion at the time of the census of 1906, 83.5 could 
read and write, 1.6 could read only, and 14.9 could 
neither read nor write. As mentioned above, New 
Zealand became a self-governing colony in 1852. 
Each province had its separate l^islature and the con- 
trol 01 education within its borders, and most of the 
provinces subsidized denominational schools. The 
provincial legislatures were abolished by the Acts of 
1875-6^ and one of the eariy measures (1877) of the 
centrahzed New Zealand Government was to abolish 
aid to denominational schools and to introduce the 
(so-called) national svstem known as ''free, secular, 
and compulsory". From that dav to this the entire 
public school system of New Zealand has remained, 
legally, pureW secular. 

From the nrst Catholics have protested against the 
exclusion of Christian teaching from the schools; and 
they have refused, and contmue to refuse (unless 
where forced by circumstances) to send their children 
to schools from which their religion is excluded. As 
in other countries, so here. Catholics have shown the 
sincerity of their protest by creating, at enormous and 
continual sacrifices, a great rival system of educa- 
tion imder which some 13,000 Catholic children are 
nurtured into a full and wholesome development of 
the faculties that God has bestowed upon them. With 
scarcely an exception. Catholic primary schools follow 
precisely the same secular curriculiun as that pre- 
scribed under the Education Act for the public schools; 
and they are every year inspected and examined, under 
precisely the same conditions as are the public schools, 
Dy the State inspectors. The cost of canying on the 
public school system is not derived from any special 
rate or tax, but the amount is paid out of the Consoli- 
dated Fund, to which Catholics, as taxpayers, con- 
tribute their share. Catholics are thus subjected to a 
double impost: they have to bear the cost of building, 
equipping, and maintaining their own schools, and 
they are compelled also to contribute their quota of 
taxation for the maintenance of the public school sys- 
tem, of which, fromtsonscientious motives, they cannot 




avail themsdves. New 2#ealand Catholics have never 
adced or desired a grant for the reli^ous education 
which is imparted in their schools. But they have 
urged) and tney continue to urge, their claim to a fair 
share of that taxation to which they themselves con- 
tribute, in return for the purely secular instruction 
which, in accordance with the Groveniment pro- 
gramme, is given in the Catholic schools. Tneir 
standing protest against the injustice so long inflicted 
on them by the various governments of the country, 
and their unyidding demand for A recognition of the 
riffht of Christian taxpayei*s to have their children 
^ucated in accordance with Christian principles, con- 
stitute what is known, par exceUencef as 'Hhe educa- 
tion question'' in New Zealand, it is unhappily 
necessary to add that of late vears, for no very ol>- 
vious or adequate reason. Catholic agitation on the 
subject has not been so active as it once was; and im- 
less a forward movement is made, the prospects of 
success for the cause, on behalf of which such splendid 
battles have been fought and such heroic sacrifices 
have been endured, are exceedingly remote. 

VI. Literature and Catholic Journalism. — 
There is no New Zealand Uterature in the broad and 
general acceptation of the term. The usual reason 
assigned is tnat so young a coimtry has not yet had 
time to evolve a literature of its own; but perhaps an 
equally important factor in producing anci maintain- 
ing the existing condition of thin^ is the smallness 
of the market for literary wares, in consequence of 
which New Zealand writers possessing exceptional 
talent inevitably gravitate towards Sydney or Lon- 
don. In general hterature the one conspicuous name 
is that of Thomas Bracken, Irishman and Catholic, 
author of several volumes of poems, which have at- 
tained Kreat popularity both in Australia and in New 
Zealand. Amongst scientific writers, notable Cath- 
olic names are those of the late W. M, Maskell, for- 
merly Registrar of New Zealand University, and the 
Very Rev. Dr. Kennedy, S.M., B.A., D.D., F.R.A.S., 
present Rector of St. Patrick's College, both of whom 
nave made many valuable contributions to the pages 
of scientific journals and the proceedings of learned 

As usually happens in countries that are over- 
whelmingly Protestant, by far the greater portion 
of the purely Catholic literature that has been pub- 
lished m New Zealand is apologetic in character. 
"What True Free-masonry Is : Why it is condemned ", 
published in 1885 by the Rev. Thomas Keane, is a 
aetaUed and extremely effective treatment of the sub- 
ject. "Disunion ana Reunion", by the Rev. W. J. 
Madden, is a popular and ably written review of the 
course and causes of the Protestant Reformation. 
One of the most learned and certainly the most pro- 
lific of the contributors to Catholic literature in New 
Zealand was the Very Rev. T. Le Menant des Ches- 
^nais, S.M., recently deceased. His works include 
^"Nonconformists and the Church": "Out of the 
Mase"; " The Temuka Tournament" (a controversy ) ; 
a volume on "Spiritism"; "The Church and the 
World"; etc. The last-named work, published only 
a few years before the venerable author's death, was 
very favourably reviewed by English and American 
papers. A notable addition to the Catholic literature 
of the dominion has been the recent publication of 
three volumes from the pen of the editor of the "New 
Zealand Tablet" the Rev. H. W. Cleary, D.D. 
These works, "Catholic Marriages", an exposition 
and defence of the decree "Ne temere", "An Im- 
peached Nation; Being a Study of Irish Outrages"; 
and "Secular versus Religious Education: A D&cus- 
sion", are thorough in the treatment of their respec- 
tive subjects and possess value of a permanent char- 
acter. A modest beginning has been made towards 
the compilation of a detail^ history of the Catholic 
Qiurch m the dominion by the publication, a few 

months ago. of "The Church in New Zealand: Mem- 
oirs of the Early Days", by J. J. Wilson. 

The history of Catholic journalism in New Zealand 
is in effect the historv of the "New Zealand Tablet", 
founded by the late Bishop Moran in 1873, the Cath- 
olics of this country having followed the principle that 
it is better to be represented by one strong paper than 
to have a multiplicity of publications. fVom the first 
the paper has been fortimate in its editors. In the 
earlv days the work done by its revered founder, in 
his battle for Catholic rights, and by his valued lay 
assistant, Mr. J. F. Perrin, was of a solid character. 
The prestige and influence of the paper was still fur- 
ther enhanced by the Rev. Henry W. Cleary, D.D., 
who made the " New Zealand Tablet " a power in the 
landj and won the respect of all sections of the oom- 
mumty not only for the Catholic paper but for the 
Catholic body which it represents. In February, 
1910, Dr. Cleary was appointed Bishop of Auckland, 
and was consecrated on 21 August in Enniscorthy 
cathedral, Co . Wexford, Ireland. It is safe to say that 
there are few countries in the world in which, in pro- 
portion to size and population, the Catholic press has 
a higher status than in New Zealand. 

PoifPALUER, Earlff Hutory of the CaihoHc Church in Oceania 
(E. T., Auckland. 1888); Moran. Hietory of the Catholic Church 
tn Auwtraiaeia (Sydney) ; Au^ralaeian Catholic Directory for 1910; 
Wilson. The Church in New Zealand: Memoire of the Sarly Daye 
(Dunedin, 1910); Dilkjb, Greater Britain (1885); DAvriT, Life 
and Progreea in Australaeia ^London, 1808); Rbbyss, New Z«a- 
land (London, s. d.); Jose, Hietary ofAuttralana (Sydney. 1901); 
Rbbvbs, The Long White Cloud (London, 1898); WBiairr and 
Rbeves, New Zealand (London, 1908) ; New Zealand Official Year' 
Book for 1906 (last oensuB year) and for 1909; Douolas. The 
Dominion of New Zealand (London, 1909) ; Hocxbn_A BihUoQ- 
raphy of the Literature Rdating to New Zealand (Wellington, 
1909). issued by the New Zealand Govemment-^he most com- 
plete bibliography that has been published. It is no mere list of 
books, but gives a full account of each item, from Tasman'b 
Journal of 1643 onwards, with explanatory notes, biographical 
information and criticism, sjmopsiB of important periodicals, and 
a full index. 

J. A. Scott. 

Niessa, titular see of Bithvnia Secunda, situated on 
Lake Ascanius, in a fertile plain, but very unhealthful 
in summer. It was first colonized by the Battsei and 
was called Ancora or Helicora. Destroyed by the 
Mysians, it was rebuilt about 315 b. c. by Antigonus, 
after his victoi^ over Eumenius, and was thenceforth 
called Antif^oma. Later Lysimachus enlarged it and 
called it Nicsea in honour of his wife. At first the 
Idngs of Bithynia resided there almost as often as at 
Nicomedia between which and Nicsa arose a struggle 
for influence. It was the birthplace of the astrono- 
mer Hipparchus and the historian Dio Cassius. Pliny 
the Younger frequently mentions the city and its 
public monuments. Numerous coins of Nicsa attest 
the interest of the emperors. After the first (Ecu- 
menical Council, held tnere in 325, Constantine gave 
it the title of metroiK)lis, which Valens afterwards 
withdrew, but which it retained ecclesiastically. In 
the fifth century it took three suffragans from the juris- 
diction of Nicomedia, and later six. In 787 a second 
(Ecumenical Council (the seventh) was held there 
against the Iconoclasts, which, like the first, assembled 
more than 300 bishops. Among its archbishops, of 
whom Le Quien (Onens Christ., I, 639-56) names 
forty-six, those worthy of mention are Theognis, the 
first known bi^op, a partisan of Arius at the council 
of 325: Anastasius, a sixth-century writer; Sts. Peter 
and Tneophanes C^raptos, two victims of the Icono-, 
clasts in tne ninth century; Ignatius, the biographer 
of the patriarchs Tarasius and Nicephorus; Gregory 
Asbestus, former metropolitan of Syracuse and the 
consecrator of Photius; Eustratius, commentator on 
Aristotle and polemist under Alexius Comnenus; and 
Bessarion, afterwards cardinal. 

Nicaea grew more important during the Middle 
Ages. Captured by the Seljukids at an unknown 
date, perhaps subsequent to the revolt of Melissenus 


agaioflt Nice^onis Botaniates, it was afterwards Constantine and Silvester came to an agreement (see 

ceded to the Turks by Alexius Comnenus. In 1096 Silyesteb I, Saint. Pope). In order to eiq)edite the 

the troops of Peter the Hermit, having attempted to assembling of the Council, the emperor plac^ at the 

capture the town, were completely defeated and mas- disposal of the bishops the public conveyances and 

sacred. In Jime. 1097, the city was taken, after a posts of the empire; moreover, while the Council lasted 

memorable siege, by the Crusaders and ceded by them he provided abundantly for the maintenance of the 

to the Greek Emperor Alexius I. It was retained, members. The choice of Nicsa was favourable to the 

but with great difficulty, during the twelfth century, assembling of a large number of bishops. It was eaidly 

After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins m accessible to the bishops of nearly all the provinces, 

1204 Niciea, restored, fortified, and embellished, be- butespeciallytothoseof Asia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, 

came imtil 1261 the capital of the new Byzantine Greece, and Thrace. The sessions were held in the 

Empire of the Lascari or Pakeologi. For nearly sixty principal church, and in the central hall of the imperial 

years it played a most important part. It was finally palace. A large place was indeed necessary to receive 

captured by the Turkish Sultan Orkhan in 1333, from such au assexnoly, though the exact number is not 

which time it has formed a part of the Ottoman Em- known with certainty. Eusebius speaks of more than 

pire. To-day Nicasa is called Isnik. It is a village 250 bishops, and later Arabic manuscripts raise the 

of 1500 Greek and Turkish inhabitants in the sandj^ figure to 2000 — an evident exaggeration in which, 

of Erthoprul and the vilayet of Brusa. The Greek however, it is impossible to discover the approxi- 

metropobtan resides at Ghemlek, the ancient Chios, mate total number of bishops, as well as of the priests, 

The ramparts, several times restored and now in a deacons, and acolytes, of whom it is said that a great 

good state of preservation, are 4841 yards in circum- number were also present. St. Athanasius. a member 

Terence. There are 238 towers, some of them verv of the council, speaks of 300, and in his letter "Ad 

ancient. Four ancient gates are. well preserved. Afros'' he says explicitly 318. This figure is almost 

Amon^ the monuments may be mentioned Yechil- universally adopted, and there seems to be no good 

Djami^ the Green Mosque, and the church of the As- reason for rejecting it. Most of the bishops present 

sumption, probably of the ninth century, the mosaics were Greeks; among the Latins we know only Hosius 

of which are very rich. of Cordova, Cecilian of Carthage, Mark of Calabria. 

Smith. Did. Greek and Roman Geog., II (London. 1870). 422; Nicasius of Dijon, Donnus of Stndon in Pannonia, and 

&.V??.£riSS*^?St^T^n'i^.'l^^^^^^ the two Rx)man prieste Victor and Vincentius, repr^ 

NioBa und ihre Moeanken (StrMbuis, 1890). senting the pope. The assembly numbered among 

S. Vailh£. its most famous members St. Alexander of Alexandria, 

Eustathius of Antioch, Macarius of Jerusalem, Euse- 

Nicna, ConyciLS of, respectivelv the First and bins of Nioomedia, Eusebius of Csesarea, and Nicholas 

Seventh (Ecumenical Councils, held at Nicsea in of Myra. Some had suffered during the last persecu- 

Bithynia (see above). tion; others were poorly enough acquainted with 

I. The First Council of NiCiSA (First (Ecumeni- Christian theolo^. Among the membm was a young 
cal Council of the Catholic Church) , held in 325 on the deacon, Athanasius of Alexandria, for whom this Coun- 
ocoasion of the heresy of Arius (see Arianism). As cil was to be the prelude to a life of conflict and of 
early as 320 or 321 St. Alexander, Bishop of AJexan- gloiy (see Athanasius, Saint). 
dria, convoked«a council at Alexandria at which more Tne year 325 is accepted without hesitation as that 
than one hundred bishops from Egypt and Libya of the First Coimcil of Nicsea. There is less agree- 
anathematized Arius. Tne latter continued to om- ment among our early authorities ai^ to the month and 
date in his church and to recruit followers. Being day of the opening. In order to reconcile the indica^ 
finally driven out, he went to Palestine and from there tions furnished by Socrates and by the Acts of the 
to Nicomedia. During this time St. Alexander pub- Council of Chalcedon, this date may, perhaps, be 
lished his ''Epistola encyclica", to which Arius re- taken as 20 May, and that of the drawing up of the 
plied; but henceforth it was evident that the quarrel symbol as 19 June. It may be assumed ¥nthout too 
nad gone beyond the possibility of human control, ereat hardihood that the synod, having been convoked 
SoBomen even speaks of a Council of Bithyma which for 20 Mav, in the absence of the emperor held meet- 
addressed an encvclical to all the bishops asking them ings of a less solemn character until 14 June, when 
to receive the Arians into the communion of the after the emperor's arrival, the sessions properly so 
Church. This discord^ and the war which soon broke called b^an, the symbol being formulated on 19 June, 
out between Constantine and Licinius, added to the after which various matters — the paschal controversy, 
disorder and partly erolains the progress of the reli- etc. — ^were dealt with, and the sessions came to an end 
gious conflict during the years 322-23. Finally Con- 25 August. The Council was opened by Constantine 
stantine, having conquered Licinius and become sole with the greatest solemnity. The emperor waited 
emperor, concerned himself with the re-establishment until all the bishops had taken their seats before mak- 
of religious peace as well as of civil order. He ad- ing his entry. He was clad in gold and covered with 
dressed letters to St. Alexander and to Arius depre- precious stones in the fashion of an Oriental sovereign, 
eating these heated controversies re^ardins questions A chair of gold had been made ready for him, and 
of no practical importance, and advising the adversa- when he haa taken his place the bishops seated them- 
ries to agree without delay. It was evident that the selves. After he had been address^ in a hurried 
emperor did not then grasp the significance of the allocution, the emperor made an address in Latin, 
Arian controversy. Hosius of Cordova, his counsel- expressing his will that religious peace should be re- 
lor in religious matters, bore the imp^al letter to established. He had opened the session as honorary 
Alexandria, but failed in his concihatory^ mission, president, and he assisted at the subsequent sessions, 
Seeing this, the emperor, perhaps advised by Hosius, but the direction of the theological discussions was 
judged no remedy more apt to restore peace in the abandoned, as was fitting, to the ecclesiastical leaders 
Church than the convocation of an oecumenical coun- of the council. The actual president seems to have 
dl. been Hosius of Cordova, assisted by the pope's 

The emperor himself, in very respectful letters, legates, Victor and Vincentius. 
begged the oishops of every country to come promptly The emperor began by making the bishops under- 
to Nicsea. Several bishop from outside the Roman stand that they had a greater and better business in 
Empire (e. g.. from Persia) came to the Council. It is hand than personal quarrels and interminable recrimi- 
not historically known whether the emperor in con- nations. Nevertheless, he had to submit to the in- 
voking the Council acted solely in his own name or in fliction of hearing the last words of debates which had 
concert with the pope; however, it is probable that been going on previous to his arrival. Eusebius of 




CflBearea and his two abbreviatbrs, Socrates and Sozo- 
men, as well as Rufinus and Gelasius of Cyzicus. re- 
port no details of the theological discussions. Runnus 
tells us only that daily sessions were held and that 
Arius was often summoned before the assembly; his 
opinions were seriously discussed and the opposing 
arguments attentively considered. The majority, 
especially those who were confessors of the Faith, ener- 
getically declared themselves against the impious doc- 
trines of Arius. (For the part played by the Eusebian 
third party, see Eubebiub of Nicomedia. The adop- 
tion of the term 6/wo6trtos by the Council is fully 
treated under Homooubion. For the Creed of Euse- 
bius, see Eubebiub of Casarea: Ldfe.) St. Athana- 
sius assures us that the activities of the Council were 
nowise hampered bsr Constantine's presence. The em- 
peror had bv this time escaped from the influence of 
Eusebius Of Nicomedia, and was under that of Hosius, 
to whom, as well as to St. Athanasius, may be attrib- 
uted a preponderant influence in the formulation of 
the symbol of the First (Ecumenical Council, of which 
the following is a literal translation: — 
We believe in one God the Father Almighty, Maker of 
all thiuKS visible and invisible; and in one Lord 
Jesus Christ, the only begotten of the Father, that 
is, of the substance [in rijs oMas] of the Father, God 
* of God, light of light, true God of true God, begot- 
ten not made, of the same substance with the Fa- 
ther l6/uo6triow rtf vATpq, through whom all things 
were made both in heaven and on earth; who for us 
men and for our salvation descended, was incarnate, 
and was made man, suffered and rose again the 
third da^, ascended into heaven and cometh to 
judge living and dead. And in the Holy Ghost. 
Those who say: There was a time when He was 
not, and He was not before He was begotten; and 
that He was made out of nothing (/( oitK Bvrtav) ; or 
who maintain that He is of another hypostasis or 
another substance [than the Father], or that the 
Son of God is created, or mutable, qr subject to 
change, [them] the Catholic Church anathematizes. 
The adhesion was general and enthusiastic. All 
the bishops save five declared themselves ready to 
subscribe to this formula, convinced that it contained 
the ancient faith of the Apostolic Church. The op- 
ponents were soon reduced to two, Theonas of Mar- 
marica and Secundus of Ptolemais, who were exiled 
and anathematized. Arius and his writings were also 
branded with anathema, his books were cast into the 
fire, and he was exiled to lUyria. The lists of the sign- 
ers have reached us in a mutilated condition, disfig- 
ured by faults of the copyists. Nevertheless, these 
lists may be regarded as authentic. Their study is a 
problem which nas been repeatedly dealt with in mod- 
em times, in Germany and England, in the critical edi- 
tions of H. Gelzer, H. Hilgenfeld, and O. Contz on the 
one hand, and C. H. Turner on the other. The lists 
thus constructed give respectively 220 and 218 names. 
With information derived from one source or another, 
a list of 232 or 237 fathers known to have been present 
mav be constructed. 

Other matters dealt ¥rith by this coimcil were the 
controversy as to the time of celebrating Easter and 
the Meletian schism. The former of these two will be 
foimd treated under Eabteb, Easter Controversy; the 
latter under Melbtius of Lycopolib. 

Of all the Acts of this Council, which, it has been 
maintained, were numerous, only three fragments 
have reached us: the creed, or symbol, given above 
(see also Nicene Cbeed); the canons; the ^modal 
decree. In reality there never were an}^ official acts 
besides these. But the accoimts of Eusebius, Socrates. 
Sozomen, Theodoret, and Rufinus m&^ be considered 
as very important sources of historical information, as 
well as some data preserved by St. Athanasius, and a 
history of the Council of Nicsea written in Greek in the 
fifth century by Gelasius of Cyzicus. There has long 

existed a dispute as to the number of the canons of 
First Niccea. All the collections of canons, whether in 
Latin or Greek, composed in the fourth and Mih cen- 
turies agree in attributing to this Council only the 
twentv canons, which we possess to-day. Of these 
the following is a brief rdsum^ : Canon i : On the admis- 
sion, or support, or expulsion of clerics mutilated by 
choice or by violence. Canon ii : Rules to be observed 
for ordination, the avoidance of undue haste, the de- 
position of those guilty of a grave fault. Canon iii: 
AH members of the clergy are forbidden to dwell ¥rith 
any woman, except a mother, sister, or aunt. Canon 
iv: Concerning episcopal elections. Canon v: Con- 
cerning the excommunicate. Canon vi: Concerning 
patriarchs and their jurisdiction. Canon vii confirms 
the right of the bishops of Jerusalem to ^joy certain 
honours. Canon viii concerns the Novatians. Canon 
ix: Certain sins known after ordination involve invali- 
dation. Canon x: Lapsi who have been ordained 
knowingly or surreptitiously must be excluded as soon 
as their irregularity is known. Canon xi : Penance to 
be imposed on apostates of the persecution of Licinius. 
Canon xii: Penance to be imposed on those who up- 
held Licinius in his war on the Christians. Canon xiii : 
Indulgence to be granted to excommunicated persons 
in danger of death. Canon xiv: Penance to be im- 
posed on catechumens who had weakened under pei^ 
secution. Canon xv: Bishops, priests, and deacons 
are not to pass from one church to another. Canon 
xvi: All clerics are forbidden to leave their church. 
Formal prohibition of bishops to ordain for their dio- 
cese a cleric belonging to another diocese. Canon xyii : 
Clerics are forbidden to lend at interest. Canon xviii 
recalls to deacons their subordinate position with re- 
gard to priests. Canon xix : Rules to be observed with 
regard to adherents of Paul of Samosata who wished 
to return to the Church. Canon xx: On Sundays and 
during the Paschal season prayers should be said 

The business of the Council having been finished 
Constantine celebrated the twentieth anniversary of 
his accession to the empire, and invited the bishops to 
a splendid repast, at the end of which each of them re- 
ceived rich presents. Several days later the emperor 
commandea that a final session should be held, at 
which he assisted in order to exhort the bishops to 
work for the maintenance of peace; he conmiended 
himself to their prayers, and authorized the fathers to 
return to their dioceses. The greater number hast- 
ened to take advantage of this and to bring the reso- 
lutions of the council to the knowledge of their 

II. Second Council of Nicjiba (Seventh (Ecumeni- 
cal Council of the Catholic Church), held in 787. (For 
an account of the controversies wbach occasioned this 
council and the circumstances in which it was con- 
voked^ see IcoNOCLASM, I, II.) An attempt to hold a 
council at Constantinople, to deal with Iconoclasm, 
having been frustrated bv the violence of the Icono- 
clastic soldiery, the papal legates left that city. When, 
however, they had reached Sicily on their way back to 
Rome, thev were recalled by the Empress Irene. She 
replaced the mutinous troops at Constantinople with 
troops commanded by officers in whom she had every 
conndence. This accomplished, in May. 787, a new 
council was convoked at Nicsea in Bitn3rnia. The 
pope's letters to the empress and to the patriarch (see 
IcoNOCLABM, II) provc Superabundantly that the 
Holy See approved the convocation of the Council. 
The pope afterwards wrote to Charlemagne: ''Et sio 
synodtun istam, secimdum nostram ordinationem, 
fecerunt" (Thus they have held the synod in accord* 
ance ¥rith our directions). 

The empress-regent and her son did not assist in 
person at the sessions, but they were represented there 
by two high officials: the patrician and former consul, 
Petronius, and the imperial chamberlain and logo- 


thete John, with whom was associated as secretary the biilum of 753 were refuted. The discussion was end- 
former patriarch, Nicephorus. The acts represent as less, but in the course of it several noteworthy things 
constantly at the head of the ecclesiastical members were said. The next session, that of 13 October, was 
the two Roman legates, the archpriest Peter and the especially important; at it was read the tf/>or or dog- 
abbot Peter; after them come Tarasius, Patriarch of matic decision, of the council [see Images, Venera- 
Constantinople, and then two Oriental monks and tick of (6)]. The last (eighth) session was held in 
priests, John and Thomas, representatives of the Patri- the Magnaura Palace, at Constantinople, in presence 
archs of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerus^em. The of the empress and her son, on 23 October. It was 
operations of the council show that Tarasius, properly spent in oiscourses, signing of names, and acclama- 
speaking, conducted the sessions. The monks John tions. 

and Thomas prof essed to represent the Oriental pa- The council promulgated twenty-two canons relating 
triarchs, though these did not know that the coun- to points of discipline, which may be summarized as folf 
cil had been convoked. However, there was no fraud lows : Canon i : Tne clergy must observe " the holy can- 
on their part: they had been sent, not by the patri- ons,'' which include the Apostolic, those of the six pre- 
archs, but by the monks and priests of superior rank vious (Ecumenical Councils, those of particular synodB 
acting 8edibu8 impedUiSf in the stead and place of the which have been published at other synods, and those 
patriarchs who were prevented from acting for them- of the Fathers. Canon ii: Candidates for bishop's 
selves. Necessity was their excuse. Moreover, John orders must know the Psalter by heart and must have 
and Thomas did not subscribe at the Council as vicars read thoroughly, not cursorily, all the sacred Scrip- 
of the patriarchs, but simply in the name of the Apos- tures. Canon iii condemns the appointment of bishops, 
tolic sees of the Orient. With the exception of these priests, and deacons by secular princes. Canon iv: 
monks and the Roman legates, all the members of the Bishops are not to demand money of their clergy : an^ 
Council were subjects of tne Bysantine Empire. Their bishop who through covetousness deprives one of his 
number, bishops as well as representatives of bishops, clergy is himself deposed. Canon v is directed against 
varies in the ancient historians between 330 and 367 : those who boast of navine obtained church preferment 
Nicephorus makes a manifest mistake in speaking oi with money, and recalls the Thirtieth Apostolic Canon 
only 150 members: the Acts of the Council which we and the canons of Chalcedon against those who buy 
still possess show not fewer than 308 bishops or repre- preferment with money. Canon vi : Provincial synods 
sentatives of bishops. To these may be added a cer- are to be held annually. Canon vii: Relics are to be 
tain number of monks, archimandrites, imperial secre- placed in all churches : no church is to be consecrated 
taries, and clerics of Constantinople who nad not the without relics. Canon viii prescribes precautions to 
light to vote. be taken against feigned converts from Judaism. 
The first session opened in the church of St. Sophia, Canon ix : All writings against the venerable images are 
24 Sept., 787. Tarasius opened the council with a to be surrendered, to be shut up with other heretical 
short discourse: ''Last year, in the beginning of the books. Canon x: Against clerics who leave their own 
month of August, it was desired to hold, under my dioceses without permission, and become private 
presidency, a council in the Church of the Apostles at chaplains to great personages. Canon xi: Every 
Constantinople; but through the fault of several bish- church and every monastery must have its own oeco- 
ops whom it would be eas^r to count, and whose names nomus. Canon xii: Against bishops or abbots who 
I prefer not to mention, since everyone knows them, convey church property to temporal lords. Canon 
that council was made impossible. The sovereigps xiii: Episcopal residences, monasteries, and other ec- 
have deigned to convoke another at Nicsea, and Chnst desiastical buildings converted to profane uses are to 
will certainly reward them for it. It is this Lord and be restored their rightful ownership. Canon xiv: 
Saviour whom the bishops must also invoke in order Tonsured persons not ordained lectors must not read 
to pronounce subsequently an eouitable judgment in a the Epistle or Gospel in the ambo. Canon xv: 
just and impartiid manner." Tne members then pro- Against pluralities of benefices. Canon xvi: The 
ceeded to tne reading of various official documents, clergy must not wear sumptuous apparel. Canon 
after which three Iconoclastic bi^ops who had re- xvii: Monks are not to leave their monasteries and 
tracted were permitted to take their seats. Seven begin building other houses of prayer without being 
others who had plotted to make the Council miscarry provided with the means to finish the same. Canon 
in the preceding year presented themselves and de- xviii: Women are not to dwell in bishops' houses or in 
clared themselves ready to profess the Faith of the monasteries of men. Canon xix:Supenors of churches 
Fathers, but the assembly thereupon engaged in a and monasteries are not to demand money of those 
lone discussion concerning the admission of heretics who enter the clerical or monastic state. But the 
and postponed their case to another session. On 26 dowry brought by a novice to a reli^ous house is to be 
September, the second session was held, during which retained by that house if the novice leaves it without 
the pope's letters to the empress and the Patriarch any fault on the part of the superior. Canon xx pro- 
Tarasius were read. Tarasius declared himself in full hibits double monasteries. Canon xxi : A monk or nun 
agreement with the doctrine set forth in these letters, may not leave one convent for another. Canon xxii: 
On 28, or 29, Sept., in the third session, some bishops Among the laity, persons of opposite sexes may eat to- 
who had retracted their errors were allowed to taKe gether, provided they give thanks and behave with 
their seats; after which various documents were read, decorum. But among religious persons, those of op- 
The fourth session was held on 1 October. In it the posite sexes may eat together only in the presence of 
secretaries of the council read a lone series of citations several God-fearing men and women, except on a 
from the Bible and the Fathers in favour of the ven- journey when necessity compels, 
eration of images. Afterwards the dogmatic decree r^^'^^}^^^^^' J^^f^\'^^?^i^o^^' ^®^^' f"^^' 

•.TOO .v^^An^-^^ ««zl »*«<> ^^^^^^ K« «ii i-k^. ..,»».u»..<. -D««. Nxcana tynoda: Syruche Texte (1898); Revillout, Le Con" 

was presented, and was signed bv all the members ^iU d« Nide dW« Ut texu» eoptea (Paris. 1889) (thes^ two w 

present, by the arcmmandntes of the mODasterieS, and fenins to the Pint Nio»a).— For the literature of theArian, 

by some monks: the papal leeates added a declaration t^« Easter, and the Iconoclastic controversies, see bibliographies 

to 4.1%^ aIVa^4- ^uL* *\^^^t w^^-mJ^^^A^, *^ ^^^^:^,^ «ii ™i.^ given under Abianism; Athanabius, Saint; Homoousion; 

the effect that they were ready to receive all who g^ornDK. Batter Contr<niriy; IcovociIbm; IiiioBs. Vmswu.- 

had abandoned the Iconoclastic heresy. In the fifth tion of. 

session on 4 October, passages from the Fathers were H. Leclercq. 
read which declared, or seemed to declare, against the 

worship of imaees, but the reading was not continued Nicaragua, Repttbug and Diocese of (de Ni- 

to the end, and the council decided in favour of the caragua). — The diocese, suffragan of Guatemala, is 

restoration and the veneration of images. On6 0cto- coextensive with the Central American Republic of 

ber, in the sixth session, the doctrines of the concUia^ Nicaragua. This republic (see Chile, Map of South 

n and the Caribbeaa Se&, has , . .. 
of 4S,200 square milee and a population of about 
600,000 inhabitaivts. The great maas of the inhabi- 
tanta are either aborigines, or negroes, or of mixed 
blood, thoae of pure European descent not ^(ceeding 
1500 ID number. The legiBlative authority is vested 
in a single chamber of thirty-six membere, elected for 
•ix years: the executive, in a president, whose term of 
office is also rix yeare, exercising his functions through 
k cabinet of nine responsible ministers The country 
is traversed by a deep depression, running parallel to 
the Pacific coast, within which are a chain of volcanoes 
(among them, Monotombo, 7000 feet) and the great 
lakes,ManaguaandNicaragua (orCocibolga). From 
the latter (a body of water 02 milee long and, at ita 
widest, 40 miles wide) the country takes its name, de- 
rived from Nicarao, the name of the aboriginal chief 
who held sway in the regionH round about Lake Coci- 
bolga when the Spaniards, under Divila, first explored 
the country, in 1522. From that time, or soon after, 
until 1822 Nicaragua waaaSpaniahpoBseaaion, forming 
part of the Province of Guatemala. From IS22 untu 
1839 it was one of the five states constituting the Cen- 
tral American Federation; from 1840 until the present 
time (1911) it has been an independent republic, with 
ita cajjital at Managua (pop,, about 35,000). The 
tUxirigiiieB of the Mosquito Coast, a swampy tract ex- 
lending along the Nicaragutin shores of the Caribbean, 
were nomin^ly under British protection until 1860, 
when, by the Treaty of Managua, this protectorate 
was ceded by Great Britain to the republic; in 1905, 
anotlier treaty recognised the absolute sovereignty of 
Nicaragua over what had been, until then, known as 
tiie Mosquito Reservation. Since the time of its ac* 

r' -ing political independence, Nicara^a has been in 
oat continuous turmoil. Commercially, the coun- 
. try is very poorly developed; its chief exports are 
coffee, cattle, and mahogany; a certain amount of gold 
has been mined of recent years, and the nascent rubber 
industry is regarded as promismg. 

The Diocese of Nicaragua was canonically erected 
in 1634 (according to other authorities, 1531), with 
Die^o Alvarez for its first bishop. It appc&rs to have' 
been at first a suffragan of Mexico, though some au- 
thorities have assigned it to the ecclesiastical Province 
of Lima, but in the eiriitccnth centurv Benedict XIV 
made it a sufTrag&n of Guatemala. The episcopal res- 
idence is at lAon, where there is a fine cathedral. A 
concordat between the Holy See and the Republic of 
Nicaragua was concluded in 1861^ and the Catholic is 
etill recognised as the state religion, though Church 
and State are now separat«d, and freedom is constitu- 
tioiudly guaranteed to all forms of religious warship. 
After 1894 the Zelaya Government entered upon a 
eouise of anti-Catholic le^lation which provoked a 
protest from Bishop Francisco UUoa y Larrios, and 
the bishop was banished to Panama. Upon the death 
of this prelate, in 1908, his coadjutor bisn op, Simeone 
Pereira, succe«ded him. The returns for 1910 give 
the Diocese of Nicaragua 42 parishes, with 45 priests, 
a seminary, 2 colleges, and 2 hospitals. 

theGreeklUte WHsinuseatNicaatro. The first bishop 
of this citv of whom there is any reoord was Henry 
(1090); Bishop Tancredo da MonU Foscolo (1279) 
was deposed by Honoriua iV for having consecrated 
John of Aragon, King of Sicily, but he was reinstated 
by Boniface Vni; Bishop Paolo Capisucco (1533) waa 
1 of the judges in the case of the marriage of Henry 

bm^t thd n 

Martorano, the former Mamertum (the first bishop of 
which was Domnus, in 761), was united to the Diocese 
of Nicastro, The diocese is a suffragan of Reggio in 
Calabria; it has 52 parishes, with 1 10,100 inhabitants; 
71 churches and chapels, 2 convents of the Capuchins, 
! orphan asylum and boarding-school, directed 


SlMrtro{NBOC4aTHi:N8I8), acityoftheProvinceof 
Cataniaro, in Calabria, southern Italy, situated on a 
promontory that commands the Gulf of St. Euphemia; 
above it is an ancient castle. The commerce of the 

Eort of Nicastro consists of the exportation of acid, 
erbs, and wine. The cathedral, an ancient temple, 
with the episcopal palace, was outside the city; having 
been pillaged by the Saracens, it was restored in the 
year 1100, but it waa destroyed in the earthquake of 
1038, with the episcopal palace, under the ruins of which 
most valuable archives were lost. For a long time, 

took him to attend his coronation in Rome, thence U, 
Naples, to complete Castel Capuano and Castel dell' 
Uovo (1221-31). In 1233 Niccola was in Lucca; the 
oIto-riii«w) of the Deposition over the side door of the 
cathedral may be of this date. The marble um or 
Area made to contain the body of St. Dominic in the 
church bearing his name in Bologna, is said to be an 
earlv work, but shows maturity; the charming group 
of the Madonna and Child upon it, forcshaoows all 
the Madonnas of ItaUan art. From Niccola's designs 
was built the famous basihca of St. Anthony in Padua, 
the church of the Feari in Venice is also attributed to 
him, possibly on insufficient grounds. In Florence he 
desimed the interior of Sta. Trinity which Michelangelo 
loved 80 much that he called it his lady, "la mia 
Dama". Having been ordered by the GhibeUines to 
destroy the Baptistery frequented by the Guelphs, 
Niccola undermined the tower catlea Guardthmorio, 
causing it to so fall that it did, not touch the precious 




edifice. Oa his return t« Pisa, the architect erect«d 
the campanile for the church of 8, Niccold which con- 
tiuns the remuksble wioding stair UDaupport«d at its 
centre; an invention repeated by Bramante for the 
"Belvedere", and by San Gallo in the renowned 
well at Orvieto. In 1242 Niccola superintended the 
building of the cathedral of Pistoja, and in 1263 the 
restoration of S. PieCro Magmore. He remodelled 8. 
Domenico at Arezio, the Duomo at Volterra, the 
FSeve and Sta. Marghcrita at Cortona. MiKh of his 
work at Bsa is believed to have perished in the fire of 
1610. A wonderful creation (1200) is the hexagonal, 
insulated pulpit of the Baptistery. It is supported by 
seven columns, three of them resting on hons. The 
panelshavereliefsfrom the New Testament; the pedi- 
ments, figures of virtues; the spandrels, prophets and 
evangelists. The architectural part ia Italian Gothic: 
the sculptures are mainly pure reproductions of the 
antique. A second 
pulpit for the Duomo 
of Siena followed in 
1266. Niccola's early 
sculpture shows 
clumsiness, if we are 
to beheve that the 
figures outside the 
Misericordia Veechia 
in Florence are his. 
In later life, whether 
from Rome or from 
hia own Camposanto 
at Pisa (Roman sar- 
cophagus used for the 
Countess Beatrice of 
Tuscany; Greek vase 
with figures he repro- 
duced) be learned to 
create with the free- 
auty , and 



aptly that he ma^ 

have used clay for his 

and church of La Scoreola, commemorating Charles 
of Anjou'a victory at TMliacoazo, now in ruins: in 
sculpture, the statuettes for the famous Fonte Ma 

giore at Peni^a, erected after his design (1277-~S0). 

CICOONAU, Sltfris d(21a icuJfura (Veoin, 1S13); Pebuhs, 
Tuttan KolBlar' (London, 1864); LObek, HiiUni o/tcutplurt, U. 
BDBNnr iLondon, 18G2-72). 

M. L. Hakdlbt. 

Mice, Diocese ov (Niciensis), comprises the De- 

rtment of Alpes-Maritimea. It was re-established 
the Concordat of 1801 as suffragan of Aix. The 
Countahip of Nice from 1818 to 1860 was part of the 
Sardinian States, and the see became a suffragan of 
Genoa. When Nice was annexed to France in I860, 
certain parts which remained Italian were cut off 
from it and added to the Diocese of Vintimille. In 
1862 the diocese was again a suSragan of Aix. The 
arrondissemcnt of Grasse was separated from the 
Diocese of Frfjus in 1836, and given to Nice which now 
unites the three former Dioceses of Nice, Grasse, and 

I. DiocEBB or Nice. — Traditions tell us that Nice 
was evangelized by St. Barnabas, sent by St. Paul, or 
dse by St, Mary Magdalen, St. Martha, and St. Lai- 
anis; and they make St. Bassua, a martyr under De- 
cius, the first Bishop of Nice. The See of^Nicein Gaul 
existed in 314. since the bishop sent delegates to the 
Council of Aries in that year. The first bishop his- 
terically known is Amanttus who attended the Coun- 
cil of Aquileia in 381. Cimiei, near Nice, where still 
can be seen the remuns of a Roman amphitheatre, 
■Jid which was made illustrious by the martyrdom of 

the youthful St. Pontius about 260. had also a see, held 
in the middle of the fifth century by St. Valerianus; ft 
rescript of St. Iieo the Great, issued after 450 and con- 
firmed by St. Hilarys in 465, united the Sees of Nice 
and Cimiei. Tiiis newly-formed see remained a suf- 
fragan of Embrun up to the time of the Revolution 
(see Q/iF, DiocBSE of). Mgr Duchesne has not dis- 
covered sufficient historical proof of the episcopate 
at Nice of St, Valerianus (433-43), of St. Deutherius 
(490-93), martyred by the Vandals, of St. Syagrius 
(d. 787), Count of Brignolea and son-m-law pernaps of 
Charlemagne, St. Anselm, a former monk of I,^rins, 
is mentioned as Bishop of Nice (1100-07). Bishops 
of Nice bore the title of Counts of Drap since the dona- 
tion of property situated at Drap, made in 1073 by 
Pierre, Bishop of Vaison, a native of Nice, to Ray- 
mond I, its bishop, and to his successors, Charl»- 
magne, when visiting Cinuei devastated by the XJom- 
bards in 574, causrai 
St. Syagrius to build 
on its nilns the mon- 
astery of St, Pon- 
tius, the largest Al- 
pine abbey of the 
Middle Ages. 


Grasse.— The first 
known Bishop of 
Antibes is Armentar- 
iuB who attended the 
Council of Vuson in 
442; Mgr Duchesne 
admits as possible 
that the Remigius, 
who signed at the 
Council of NImes in 
396 and in 417 re- 
ceived a letter from 
Pope ZoMmus, may 
have been Bishop of 
Antibes before Ai^ 
mentarius. About 
the middle of the 
thirteenth century the See of Antibes was transferred 
to Grasse. Bishops of Grasse worthy of mention are; 
Cardinal Agoatino Trivuliio (1537-1648); the poet 
Antoine Oodeau (1636-63), one of the most cele- 
brated habitu^ of the HAtel de Rambouillet, where 
he was nicknamed "Julia's dwarf" on account of hia 
small stature. 

III. Diocese op Vence. — The first known Bishop 
of Vence is Severus, bishop in 439 and perhaps as early 
08 419. AmonK others are: St. Veranus, son of St. 
Eucherius, Archbishop of Lyons and a monk of L^rins, 
bishop before 451 and at least until 465; St, Lambert, 
first aBenedictine monk (d. 1154); Cardinal Alessan- 
dro Famese (1505-11). Antoine Godeau, Bishop of 
Grasse, was named Bishop of Vence in 1638; the Holy 
See wished to unite the two dioceses. Meeting wiui 
opposition from the chapter and the clergy of Vence 
Godeau left Grasse in 1653, to remain Bishop of Vence, 
which see he held until 1672. 

The foBowMg saints are specially honoured in the 
Diocese of Nice: The youthful martyr St. Celaus, 
whom certain traditions make victim of Nero's perse- 
cution; St. Vincentius and St. Orontius, natives of 
Cimiei, apostles of Aquitiune and of Spain, martyiB 
under Diocletian; St. Hospitius, a hermit of Cap Fer- 
rat (d. about 581); Blessed Antoine Gallus (1300-92), 
a native of Nice, one of St. Catherine of Siena's 
confessors. The martyr St, Reparata of Cssarea in 
Palestine is the patroness of the diocese. The chief 
pilgrimages of the diocese are: Our I^ady of Laghet, 
near Mtmaco, a place of pilgrimage since the end of 
the seventeenth century; tne chapel of the Sacred 
Heart of Jesus at Roquefort near Grasse; Our Lady 
of Valcluse; Our Lady of Brusq; Our I^ady of Vie. 





Prior to the application of the law of 1901 agunat 
aasociatioDB, the diocese counted Aaaumptiooista, 
CapuchiiiH, Ciotercians of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, Jeeuita, Priesta of the ChriBtian Doctrine, Fran- 
Giacana, Laiarists, Diacalced Carmelites, Oblates of 
Mary Immaculate, Saledons of Dom Bosco, Camil- 
lians, several orders of teaching Brothers. The Sis- 
ters of St. Martha, devoted to teaching and nurmng 
and founded in 1832, have their mother-house ' 

cr^hea, 16 day nurseries, 2 institutions for crippled 
children, 1 boys' orphanage, 10 girls' orphanages, 3 
aewing rooms, 11 hospitals or asylums, 4 convalescent 
homes, 6 houaea for the care of the sick in their own 
homeSj 1 insane asylum. 1 asylum for incurablefl. 
The Diocese of Nice, whitner every year the warm and 
balmy climate of the COte d'Azur attracts innumer- 
able loreignerB, counted in 1900 about 260,000 inhabi- 
tants, 32 pahuies and 185 succuraal pariahea. 

OaOia ClirMaiia (noH, 1T2S). III. 1100-87, 1212-33. 1267-96, 

that coundl a new form was presented and inserted 
in the Act«, though not accepted by the council. The 
Nicene Symbol, however, continuM to be the only one 

in use among the defenders of the Faith. Gradually 
it came to be recognized as the proper profea^on ot 
faith for candidates for baptism. Its alteration into 
the Nicene-Constantinopoutan formula, the one now 
in use, is usually ascribed to the Council of Congtanti- 
nople, since the Council of Chalcedon (451), which 
deugnated this symbol as "The Creed of the Council 
of Constantinople of 381 " had it twice read and in- 
serted in its Acta. The historians Socrates, Soiomen, 
and Theodoret do not mention this, although they do 
record that the bishops who remained at the council 
after the departure of the Macedonians confirmed the 
Nicene faith. Hefele (II, 9) admits the possibility of 
our present creed being a condensation of the " Tome " 
(rhiiot), i. e. the exposition of the doctrines concerning 
the Trinity made by the Council of Constantinople; 
but he prefers the opinion of R£mi Ceillier and Tille- 
mont tracing the new formula to the "Ancoratus" 
of Epiphanius written in 374, Hort, Caspari, Har- 
nack, and others are of the opinion that the Con- 
stantinopolitan form did not originate at the Council 
of Constantinople, because it is not in the Acts of 
the council of 381, but was inserted there at a later 
date; because Gregory Nazianzen who was at the 
council mentions only the Nicene formula adverting 
to its incompleteness about the Holy Ghost, showing 
that he did not know of the Conatantinopolitan form 
which supplies this deficiency; and because the Latin 
Fathers apparently know nothing of it before the 
middle of the fifth century. 

The following is a literal translation of the Greek 
text of the Coastantinopolitan form, the brackets in- 
dicating the words altered or added in the Western 
liturgical form in present use: — 

"We believe (1 believe) in one God, the Father 
Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all 
things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus 
Christ, the only begotten Son of God, and bom of the 
Father before all ages. (God of God) light of light, 
true God of true God. Begotten not made, consub- 
stantial to the Father, by whom all things were made. 
Who for us men and for our salvation came down from 
heaven. And was incarnate of the Holy Ghost and 
of the Virgin Mary and was made man; was crucified 
also for us under Pontius Pilate, suffered and was 
buried; and the third day he rose again according to 
the Scriptures. And ascended into heaven, sitteth 

at the right hand of the Father, and shall come again 
with glory to judge the living and the dead, of whose 
Kingdom there snail be no end. And (I believe) ii 

I, SB, 3tB, 3S6-8; Tumuni, Ctmiifu dt Prcnntcc.- 

nTw. i4la ciU lit Nia 1 du dtjnrtemenl da Alpa-Ua 
(2 ToU.. Nice. ISSZ) : Albin ■>■ CiaALA, Kit dtrH., guide nui. n 
■riiK. da purDiuu IPsHi, 1900) : Cm de PiiBua add Saiqb, 
Ckartrte' dt TnUaix da Sainl-Pmt hart ki muri lU Niim (Mon- 
•■». 1903); Cau DC Piiblu, Carlulairt d> fancitnnt callMraia 
dt Kiet <Tuiia. 1888): Chapoh. Slatuu tjricdaux (Sign. 1906); 
TlMERAHD. Hit. d> Vtntt, cM. HtclU, boronnie (Farii. ISBO). 

Georges GoTAti. 

Nloanfl and Nlcoiio-Coiutantlnop<dltui CiMd. 

— The orimn and history of the Nicene Creed are set 
forth in the articles: Nic.«a, Codncila of; Arius; 
Arianisuj EusEBiuB OF C««arka; Fiuoque. As 
approved in amplified form at the Council of Constan- 
tmople (381) q, v., it is the profession of the Chris- 
tian Faith common to the Catholic Church, to all the 
Eastern Churchee separated from Rome, and to most 
of the Protestant denominations. Soon after the 
Council of Nicsa new formulas of f^th were com- 
poaed, most of them variations of the Nicene Symbol, 
to meet new phases of Arianism. There were at least 
tour before tlie Council of Sardica in 341, and in 
XI.— 4 

the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of life, who pro- 
ceedeth from the Father (and the Son], who together 
with the Father and the Son is to be adored and glori- 
fied, who apake by the Prophets. And one noly, 
catholic ana apostolic Churcn. We confess (I con- 
fess) one baptism for the remission of sins. And we 
look for (1 look for) the resurrection of the dead and 
the life of the world to come. Amen". 

In this form the Nicene article concerning the Holy 
Ghost is enlarged; several words, notably the two 
clauses "of the substance of the Father" and "God 
of God", are omitted as also are the anathemas; 
ten clauses are added; and in five places the words are 
differently located. In general the two forms contain 
what is common to all the baptismal formulas in the 
early Church. Vosaius (1577-1849) was the first to 
detect the similarity between the creed set forth in the 
" Ancoratus " and the baptismal formula of the Church 
of Jerusalem. Hort (1876) held that the symbol is a 
revision of the Jerusalem formula, in which the moat 
important Nicene statements conoeming the Holy 
Ghoat have been inserted. The author of the revision 
may have been St. Cyril of Jerusalem (315-386, q, v.). 
Various hypotbesea are offered to account for the 


tradition that the Niceno-Constantinopolitan symbol the matter was not openly discussed, he and his fol- 

originated with the Council of Constantinople, but lowers now held virtually no church communion with 

none of them is satisfactory. Whatever be its origin, Nicephorus and the priest, Joseph. But, through a 

the fact is that the Council of Chalcedon (451) attrib- letter written by Archbishop Joseph, the course which 

uted it to the Council of Constantinople, and if it was he and the strict church party followed became public 

not actually composed in that council, it was adopted in 808, and caused a sensation. Theodore set forth, by 

and authorized by the Fathers assembled as a true ex- speech and writing, the reasons for the action of the 

pression of the Faith. The history of the creed is strict party and firmly maintained his position. De- 

oompleted in the article Filioqub. fending himself against the accusation tnat he and his 

, JSP?*'**'"** JBnairidum Symdoiorum (i(Hh ed., Freiburg, companions were schismatic, he declared that he had 

1908), for texts of oreecu in Greek and Latin; Hbfslb, Coneihen' lr*»T** oHowi* no l#^n» od Tw«<ici;ki4k u^A aa.%o«.,»^ ^^ K;«k 

mmcKichu, I and II. Fr. tr. Leclbrq. II. pt. I, 11-13 (trane- ^^pt Silent M long as possible, had censured no bish- 

Utor'e note): iUhmack in Reaimcveiopddie far proteH, Theologie ops. and had always mcluded the name of the patn- 

g^m^,iW7hn,r.KonsUinUnop^ arch in the liturgy. He asserted his love and his 

fre&^r^'SSSJI^iiSSl^i^Ej.'rS:;^!- ¥a^:St attachment to the patriarch, and «ud he would with- 

bob. MV (Chriatiania, 1866 sq.): Swainbon. The Nuxm and draw all opposition if the patriarch would acknowl- 

AjpottUt' Creedt, etc. (London, 1876); Hort. Two Dutaiation*, edge the Violation of law by removing the priest 

II: on the ConstarUinopolttan Creed and the other Battem Creede of Jnoonh P^mnpmr NiAAnhnnia nnw tnnlr vinlAnt mAAA. 

the fourth century (Cambridge. 1876) ; Kuneb. Dae n. k. Symbol ^fOaepH, Jf^mperor iN icepnorus now tOOJC Violent meas- 

in studien mr Geaeh. der Theol. u. Kirehe (Leipiis. 1898) ; Idbm, ures. He Commanded the patnarch to Call a synod. 

Martin Bremita, ein neu» Zeuoe fUr doe aUktrchl. Taufbekennt- which was held in 809, and had Plato and several 

niee (Leipiig, 1896). J. WiLHELM. monks forcibly brought before it. The opponents of 

the patriarch were condemned, the Archbishop of 

NicaphoruB, Saint, Patriarch of Constantinople, Thessalonica was deposed, the Abbots Plato and Th&- 
806-815, b. about 758 ; d. 2 June, 829. This champion odore with their monks were banished to neighbouring 
of the orthodox view in the second contest over the islands and cast into various prisons, 
veneration of images belonged to a noted family of This, however, did not discourage the resolute op- 
Constantinople. He was the son of the imperial secre- ponents of the '^ Adulterine Heresy''. In 809 Theo- 
tuy Theodore and his pious wife Eudoxia. Eudoxia dore and Plato sent a joint memorial, through the 
was a strict adherent of the Church and Theodore had Archimandrite Epiphanius, to Pope Leo III, and later, 
been banished by the Emperor Constantine Coprony- Theodore laid the matter once more before the pope 
mus (741-75) on account of his steadfast support of in a letter, in which he besought the successor of St. 
the teaching of the Church concerning images. While Peter to grant a helping hand to the East, so that it 
still young Nicephorus was brought to the court, mi^ht not be overwhelmed by the waves of the" Adul- 
where he became an imperial secretary. With two terme Heresy". Pope Leo sent an encouraging and 
other officials of high rank he r^resen ted the Empress consolatory reply to the resolute confessors, upon 
Irene in 787 at the Second Council of Nicaea (the which they wrote another letter to him through 
Seventh (Ecumenical Council), which declared the Epiphanius. Leo had received no communication 
doctrine of the Church respecting images. Shortly from Patriarch Nicephorus and was, therefore, not 
after this Nicephorus sought solitude on the Thracian thoroughly informed in the matter; he also desirod to 
Bosporus, where he had founded a monastery. Here spare the eastern emperor as much as possible. Con- 
he devoted himself to ascetic practices and to the sequently, for a time^ he took no further steps in the 
study both of secular learning, as grammar, mathemat- matter. Emperor Nicephorus continued to persecute 
ics, and philosophy, and the Scriptures. Later he was all adherents of Theodore of Studium. and, in addi- 
recalled to the capital and given charse of the great tion, oppressed those of whom he haci grown suspi- 
hospital. Upon the death of Patriarch Tarasius (25 cious, whether clergy or dignitaries of the empire. 
February, 806), there was ^p'eat division among the Moreover, he favoured the heretical Paulicians and 
clergy and higher court officials as to the choice of his the Iconoclasts and drained the people by oppressive 
successor, finally, with the assent of the bishops taxes, so that he was universally hated. InJuly, 81i, 
Emperor Nicephorus (802-1 1 ) appointed Nicephorus the emperor was killed in a battle with the Bulgarians, 
as patriarch. Although still a layman, he was known His sonStauracius, who had been wounded in the 
by all to be very religious and highly educated. He same fight, was proclaimed emperor, but was deposed 
received Holy Orders and was consecrated bishop on by the chief men of the empire because he followed 
Easter Sunday, 12 April. 806. The direct elevation of the bad example of his fatner. On 2 October, 811, 
a layman to thepatriarchate, as had already happened with the assent of the patriarch, Michael Rhangabe, 
in the case of Tarasius, aroused opposition in tne ec- brother-in-law of Stauracius^^was raised to the throne, 
clesiastical party among the clergy and monks. The The new emperor promised, in writing, to defend the 
leaders were the abbots, Plato of Saccadium and Theo- faith and to protect both clergv and monks, and was 
dore of Studium, and Theodore's brother. Archbishop crowned with much solemnit^^ by the Patriarch Nice- 
Joseph of Thessalonica. For this opposition the Ab- phorus. Michael succeeded in reconciling the patri- 
bot Plato was imprisoned for twenty-four days at the arch and Theodore of Studium. The patnarch again 
command of the emperor. deposed the priest Joseph and withdrew his decrees 

Nicephorus soon gave further cause for antagonism, against Theodore and his partisans. On the other side 

In 795 a priest named Joseph had celebrated the un- llieodore, Plato, and the majority of their adherents 

lawful marriage of Emperor Constantine VI (780-97) recognized the patriarch as the lawful head of the 

with Theodota, during the lifetime of Maria, the right- Byzantine Church, and sought to bring the refractory 

ful wife of the emperor, whom he had set aside. For back to his obedience. The emperor had also recourse 

this act Joseph had been deposed and banished. Em- to the papacy in reference to these quarrels and had 

peror Nicepnorus considered it important to have this received a letter of approval from Leo. Moreover, the 

matter settled and, at his wish the new patriarch, patriarch now sent the customary written notification 

with the concurrence of a synod composed of a small of his induction into office {Synodica) to the pope. In 

number of bishops^ardoned Joseph and, in 806, re- it he sought to excuse the long delay by the tyranny of 

stored him to his office. The patriarch yielded to the the preceding emperor, interwove a rambling confes- 

wishes of the emperor in order to avert more serious sion of faith^ and promised to notify Rome at the 

evil. His action was regarded by the strict church proper time m regard to all important questions, 

party as a violation of ecclesiastical law and a scandal. Emperor Michael was an honourable man of good 

Before the matter was settled Theodore had written intentions, but weak and dependent. On the advice of 

to the patriarch entreating him not to reinstate the Nicephorus he put the heretical and seditious Pauli- 

guilty priest, but had received no answer. Although cians to death and tried to suppress the loonodasta. 




The patriarch endeavoured to establish monastic dis- 
cipline among the monks, and to suppress double mon- 
asteries whicn had been forbidden by the Seventh 
CBcumenical Council. After his complete defeat, 22 
June, 813, in the war against the Bulgarians, the em- 
peror lost all authority. With the assent of the patri- 
arch, he resigned and entered a monastery with his 
chiloren. The popular general, Leo the Armenian, 
now beeame emperor, 11 July, 813. When Nice- 
phorus demanded the confession of faith, before the 
coronation, Leo put it off. Notwithstanding this, 
Nicephorus crowned him, and later, Leo again refused 
to make this confession. As soon as the new emperor 
had assured the peace of the empire by the overtnrow 
of the Bulgarians his true opinions began gradually to 
i^pear. Be entered into connexion witn the oppo- 
nents of images, among whom were a number of 
bishops; it steadily grew more evident that he was pre- 
paring a new attack upon the veneration of images. 
With fearless energy the Patriarch Nicephorus now pro- 
ceeded against the machinations of the Iconoclasts. 
He brou^t to trial before a synod several ecclesias- 
tics oppo«ed to images and forced an abbot named 
John and also Bishop Anthony of Sykeum to submit. 
Bishop Anthony's acquiescence was merelv feigned. 

In December, 814, Nicephorus had a long confer- 
ence with the emperor on the veneration of images but 
no agreement was reached. Later the patriarch sent 
several learned bishops and abbots to convince him of 
the truth of the position of the Church on the venera- 
tion of images. The emperor wished to have a de- 
bate between representatives of the opposite dogmatic 
opinions, but the adherents of the veneration of im- 
ages refused to take part in such a conference, as the 
Seventh (Ecumenical Council had settled the question. 
Then Nicephorus called together an assembly of 
bishops and abbots at the Church of St. Sophia at 
which he excommunicated the perjured Bishop An- 
thony of Sykeum. A lar^^ numoer of the laitv were 
also present on this occasion and the patriarch with 
the clergy and people remained in the church the en- 
tire nicpCb in prayer. The emperor then summoned 
Nicephorus to him, and the patriarch went to the im- 
perial palace accompanied by the abbots and monks. 
Nicephorus first had a long, private conversation with 
the emperor, in which he vainly endeavoured to dis- 
suade Leo from his opposition to the veneration of 
images. The emperor received those who had accom- 
panied Nicephorus, among them seven metropolitans 
and Abbot Theodore of Studium. They all repudi- 
ated the interference of the exnperor in dogmatic ques- 
tions and once more rejected Leo's proposal to hold a 
conference. The emperor then commanded the ab- 
bots to maintain silence upon the matter and forbade 
them to hold meetings. Theodore declared that si- 
lence under these conditions would be treason and 
expressed sympathy with the patriarch whom the em- 
peror forbade to hold public service in the church. 
Nicephorus fell ill; when he recovered the emperor 
called upon him to defend his course before a synod of 
bishops friendly to iconoclasm. But the patriarch 
would not recognize the synod and paid no attention 
to the summons. The pseudo-ejrnod now commanded 
that he should no longer be called patriarch. His 
house was surrounded by crowds of angry Icono- 
clasts who shouted threats and invectives. He was 
guarded by soldiers and not allowed to perform any 
official act. With a protest against this mode of pro- 
cedure the patriarch notified Leo that he found it 
necessary to resign the patriarchal see. Upon this he 
was arrested at midnight in March, 815, and banished 
to the monastery of m. Theodore, which he had built 
on the Bosporus. 

Leo now raised to the patriarchate Theodotus, a 
married, illiterate layman who favoured iconoclasm. 
Theodotus was consecrated 1 April, 815. The exiled 
Nicephorus persevered in his opposition and wrote 

several treatises agednst iconoclasm. After the mur- 
der of the Emperor Leo, 25 December, 820. Michael 
the Amorian ascended the throne and the defenders of 
the veneration of images were now more considerately 
treated. However, Michael would not consent to an 
actuaJ restoration of images such as Nicephorus de- 
manded from him, for he declared that he did not wish 
to interfere in religious matters and would leave every- 
thing as he had found it. Accordingly Emperor Leo's 
hostile measures were not repealed, although the per- 
secution ceased. Nicephorus received permission to 
return from exile if he would promise to remain silent. 
He would not agree, however, and remained in the mon- 
astery of St. Theodore, where he continued by speech 
and writing to defend the veneration of images. The 
dogmatic treatises, chiefly on this subject, that he 
wrote are as follows: a lesser ''Apology for the Catho- 
lic Church concerning the newly arisen Schism in re- 
gard to Sacred Images'' (Mi^e,P. G., C, 833-849), 
written 813-14; a larger treatise m two parts; the first 
part is an ''Apology for the pure, unadulterated Faith 
of Christians against those who accuse us of idolatry^" 
(Migne, loc. cit., 535-834); the second part contains 
the Antirrhetici"j a refutation of a writing by the 
Emperor Constantme Copronymus on images (loc. 
cit., 205-534). Nicephorus added to this second part 
seventy-five extracts from the writings of the Fathers 
[edited by Pitra, "Spicilegium Solesmense", I (Paris, 
1852), 227-370]; in two further writmgs. which also 
apparently belong together, passages trom earlier 
writers, that had been used by the enemies of images 
to maintain their opinions, are examined and ex- 
plained. Both these treatises were edited by Pitra; 
the first 'Eirfjcpto'it in "Spicilegium Solesmense", I, 
302-335; the second *Arrf/J^iy<rif in the same, I, 371- 
503, and IV, 292-380. The two treatises discuss pas- 
sages from Macarius Magnes, Eusebius of Csesarea, 
and from a writing wrongly ascribed to Epiphanius of 
C3rprus. Another work justifying the veneration of 
images was edited by Pitra under the title " Antirrhe- 
ticus adversus iconomachos" (Spicil. Solesm., IV, 
233-91). A final and, as it appears, especially impor- 
tant treatise on this question has not yet been pub- 
lished. Nicephorus also left two small historical 
works, one known as the "Breviarium", the other the 
"Chronographis", both are edited b^ C. de Boor, 
"Nicephori archiep. Const, opuscula historica" in the 
"Bibliotheca Teubneriana" (Leipzig, 1880). At the 
end of his life he was revered and after death regarded 
as a saint. In 874 his bones were translated to Con- 
stantinople with much pomp by the Patriarch Metho- 
dius and interred, 13 March, in the Church of the 
Apostles. His feast is celebrated on this day both in 
the Greek and Roman Churches; the Greeks also ob- 
serve 2 June as the day of his death. 

Vita Nicephori audore fgnatio diacono in Acta SS.,MBreh, II, 
294 aaq. (Latin), 704 sqq. (Greek), and in Mionb, P. O., C, 37 
■qq.; Bibliotheea haoiographica grata, ed. BoLLANDiam (2nd ed.), 
186; HBBOBNitOTHER, PhoHua, I (Ratisbon, 1867), 261 oqq.; 
Idbm, Kirchengeschicht6 (4th ed. KinacH). II, 31 sqq.; Kbdm- 
BACHKR, Oetch, der hytantinitchen Litt. (2nd ed. £hrbl*.rx>), 71 
sqq., 349 sqq. 

J. P. KiRSCH. 

Nicephorus Blemmydes. See Blemmioa, Nicne- 


Nicephorus Gregoras. See Hbstchasm. 

Nic^ron, Jean-Pierre, French lexicographer, b. in 
Paris, 11 March, 1685, d. there, 8 July, 1738. After his 
studies at the College Mazarin, he joined the Bama- 
bites (August, 1702). He taught rhetoric in the col- 
lege of Loches, and soon after at Montargis, where he 
remained ten years. While engaged in teaching, he 
made a thorou^ study of modem languages. In 
1716 he went to Paris and devoted his time to literary 
work. His aim was to put together, in a logically ar- 
ranged compendium, a series of biographical and bibli- 
ographical articles on the men who had distinguished 
themselves in literature and sciences since the time of 




the RemuBsance. It required long research ss well as 
Kreat industry. After eleven years he published the 
first volume of his monumental work under the title 
of '^M^moires pour servir k Thistoire des hommes 
illustres de la r^publique des lettres avec le cata- 
logue raisonn^ de leurs ouvrages'' (Paris, 1727). 
Thirty-eight volumes followed from 1728 to 1738. 
The last volume from his pen was published two years 
after the author's death (Paris, 1740). Father Oudin, 
J.-B. Michauld, and Abb6 Goujet later contributed 
three volumes to the collection. A German transla- 
tion of it was published in 1747-1777. It has been 
often repeated that this work lacks method, and that 
the length of many articles is out of proportion to the 
value of the men to whom they are devoted. This 
criticism, however true it may be, does not impair the 

fenuine qualities and importance of the whole work. 
)ven now, these " M^moires" contain a great amount 
of information that could hardly be obtained else- 
where. Moreover, they refer to sources which, but 
for bur author^ would be easily overlooked or ignored. 
Besides this onginal composition, he translated various 
books from English, among wnich should be men- 
tioned: ''Le voyage de Jean Ovington k Surate et en 
divers autres lieux de TAsie et de 1 Af rique, avec This- 
toire de la revolution arrive dans le royaume de Grol- 
conde" (Paris, 1725); "La Ck>nver8ion de TAngle- 
terre au Christianisme compart avec sa pr^tendue 
reformation" (Paris, 1729). 

D'ARTIO^^r. Mhnoirea iPhisUrire el de lUUnUure, I (Paris, 1749) ; 
GouJBT, Eloge de J. P. Nieiron in vol. XL of Mimoiret (Paris, 1840) ; 
CHAUFFBPii, Diet, hietorique et critique (AmBterdam, 1850-56). 

Louis N. Delamarre. 

Nicataa (Niceta), Bishop of Remesiana (Roma- 
tiana) in what is now Servia, b. about 335; d. about 
414. Recent investigations have resulted in a more 
definite knowledge olthe person of this ecclesiastical 
writer. Gennadius of Marseilles, in his catalogue of 
writers ("De viris iUustribus", xxii) mentions a 
'^Niceas Romatianse civitatis episcopus" to whom 
he ascribes two works: one, in six books, for cate- 
chumens, and a little book on a virgin who nad fallen. 
Outside of this reference no writer and bishop of the 
name of Niceas is known. This Niceas^ therefore, 
is, without doubt, the same as Nicetas, " Bishop of the 
Dacians'^ the contemporary and friend of St. Pau- 
linus of Nola. The identity is shown by a comparison 
of Gennadius Goc. cit.) with Paulinus in his "Car- 
inina" (xvii, xxvii), and, further, by the agreement 
in time. In Dacia, where, according to Pauunus, his 
friend Nicetas was bishop, there was a city call^ 
Romatiana (now Bela Palanka) on the great Roman 
military road from Belgrade to Constantinople, and 
this was the see of Nicetas. He is mentionea a num- 
ber of times in the letters and poems of St. Paulinus 
of Nola, especially in Carmen xxvii (ed. Hartel in 
"Corp. Script, eccl. lat.", XXX, 262 sqq.), and in 
Carmen xvii " Ad Nicetam redeuntem in Daciam " (op. 
cit., 81 sqq.), written on the occasion of Nicetas's 
pilgrimage to Nola, in 398. to visit the ^ave of St. 
Feux. In this latter poem Paulinus descnbes how his 
friend, journeying home, is greeted everywhere with 
joy, because in his apostolic labours in the cold regions 
of the North, he has melted the icy hearts of men by 
the warmth of the Divine doctrine. He has laid the 
yoke of Christ upon races who never bowed the neck 
m battle. Like the Goths and Dacians, the Scythians 
are tamed; he teaches them to glorify Christ and to 
lead a pure, peaceable Ufe. Paulinus wishes his de- 

garting friend a safe journey by land and by water, 
t. Jerome, too, speaks of the apostolic labours of 
Nicetas and says of him that he spread Christian 
civilization among the barbarians by his sweet songs 
of the Cross (Ep. Ix, P. L., XXII, 592). 

This is all that is known concerning the life of 
Nicetas. Particulars concerning his literary activity 
are also given by Gennadius and Paulinus. The 

tradition concerning his writings afterwards became 
confused: his works were erroneously ascribed to 
Bishop Nicetas of Aquileia (second half of the fifth 
century) and to Nicetius of Trier. It was not until 
the researches of Dom Morin, Bum, and others that 
a larger knowledge was attained concerning the works 
of Nicetas. Gennadius (loc. cit.) mentions six books 
written by him in simple and clear style {simplici et 
nitido 8ennone)f containing instructions for candidates 
for baptism (competerUes), The first book dealt with 
the conduct of the candidates; the second treated 
of erroneous ideas of heathens; the third, of belief in 
one Divine Majesty; the fourth, of superstitious cus- 
toms at the birth of a child (calculating nativities) ; the 
fifth, of confession of faith; the sixth, of the sacrifice of 
the paschal lamb. The work has not been preserved 
in its entirety, yet the greater part is still extant. 
Four fragments are known of the first book, one frag- 
ment of the second, the third probably consists of the 
two treatises, usually separated, but which undoubt- 
edly belong together, namely, "De ratione fidei" 
and "De Spiritus sancti potentia" (P. L., LII, 847, 
853). Nothing is known of the fourth book. The 
fifth, however, is most probably identical with the 
"Explanatio symboli habita ad competentes" (P. L., 
LII, 865-74); in the manuscripts it is sometimes 
ascribed to Origen, sometimes to Nicetas of Aquileia, 
but there are very strong reasons for assigning it to 
the Bishop of Remesiana. Nothing is known of the 
sixth book. Gennadius mentions another treatise 
addressed to a fallen virpn, "Ad lapsam virginem 
libellus'^ remarking that it would stimulate to refor- 
mation any who had fallen. This treatise used to be 
wrongly identified with the "De lapsu virginis conse- 
cratffi" (P. L., XVI, 367-84), traditionaUy assigned 
to St. Ambrose. Dom Morin has edited a treatise, 
unknown until he published it, "Epistola ad virginem 
lapsam" [Revue Benedictine, XIV (1897), 193-202], 
which with far more reason may be regarded as the 
work of Nicetas. 

Paulinus of Nola praises his friend as a hymn-writer; 
from this it is evident that Gennadius has not given a 
complete list of the writings of Nicetas. It is, there- 
fore, not impossible that further works, incorrectly 
ascribed by tradition to others, are really his. Morin 
has ^ven excellent reasons to prove that the two 
treatises, "De vigiliis servorum Dei" and "De 

Ssalmodis bono", which were held to be writings of 
[icetius of Trier (P. L., LXVIII, 365-76), are in 
reality the work of Nicetas ["Revue Biblique Inter- 
nat.", VI (1897), 282-88; "Revue Benedictine", 
XIV (1897), 385-97, where Morin gives for the first 
time the complete text of "De psalmodis bono"]. 
Particularly interesting is the fresh proof produced — 
again by Morin — to show that Nicetas, and not St. 
Ambrose, is the author of the "Te Deum" [Revue 
Benedictine, XI (1894), 49-77, 377-345]. Paulinus, 
hke Jerome, speaks of him particularly as a hymn- 
writer. (See Tb Deum.) According to the testi- 
mony of Cassiodorus (De instit. divinarum litterarum, 
xvi) the "Liber de Fide" of Nicetas was, in his time, 
included in the treatise "De Fide" written by St. 
Ambrose, which shows that at an early date some 
were found to credit the great Bishop of Milan with 
works due to the Dacian bishop. The first complete 
edition of the works of Nicetas is that of Bum (see 
bibliography below). 

Burn, Nieeta of Remesiana^ Hie Life and Worke (Cambridge, 
1005) ; Wbtman, Die Editio princepe dee Niceta von Remeaiana in 
ArchivfUr laleinieche Lexikofraphie, XIV (1905), 478-507: HOm- 
PKL, Nicetae Biechof von Remeaiana (Erlangen, 1895) ; Ceapul, 
Qennadiw ale Literarhietoriker (Mazuter, 1898). 56-61; Turnkr, 
Niceta and Ambroeiaeter in Journal of Theoloffical Studiee, VII 
(1906), 203-19. 355-72: Patin, Niceta Biechof von Remeaiana ale 
SehriftateUer und TheoUju. (Munich, 1909) ; Babdbnhbwbr, Patrol' 
offy, tr. Shahan (St. Louis. 1907) ; Kxbn, Patrologie^ II (Padei^ 
bom, 1908). 134-36. 

J. P. KiRSCH. 

Nicataa Akominatoa. See Akominatob. 



Nlootius, Saint, Bishop of Trier, b. in the latter 
part of the fifth century, exact date unknown; d. in 
563 or more probably 566. Saint Nicetius was the 
most important bishop of the ancient See of Trier, in 
the era when, after tne disorders of the Migrations, 
Prankish supremacy began in what had been Roman 
Gaul. Considerable detail of the life of this vigorous 
and zealous bishop is known from various sources, 
from letters written either by or to him, from two 
poems of Venantius Fortunatus (Poem., Lib. Ill, ix, 
X, ed. Leo, in Mon. Germ. Hist.: Auct. antiq., IV 
(1881), Pt. I, 63-64 sq.) and above all from the state- 
ments of his pupil Aredius, later Abbot of Limoges, 
which have been preserved by Gregory of Tours (De 
vitis Patrum, xvii; De Gloria Confessorum, xciii-xciv). 
Nicetius came from a Gallo-Roman family; his home 
was apparently in Auvergne. The Nicetius mentioned 
by Sidonius Apollinaris (Epist. VIII, vi) mav have 
been a relative. From his youth he devoted himself 
to religious life and entered a monasteiy, where he d&- 
veloi>^ so rapidly in the exercise of Christian virtue 
and in sacred learning that he was made abbot. It 
was while abbot that King Theodoric I (511-34) 
learned to know and esteem him, Nicetius often re- 
monstrating with him on account of his wrong-doing 
without, however, any loss of favour. After the death 
of Bishop Aprunculus of Trier, an embassy of the 
clergy and citizens of Trier came to the royal court to 
elect a new bishop. They desired Saint Gailus, but the 
king refused his consent. They then selected Abbot 
Nicetius, whose election was confirmed by Theodoric. 
About 527 Nicetius set out as the new bishop for 
Trier, accompanied by an escort sent by the Mng, 
and while on the journey had opportunity to make 
known his firnmess in the administration of his office. 

Trier had suffered terribly during the disorders of 
the Migrations. One of the first cares of the new 
bishop was to rebuild the cathedral church, the resto- 
ration of which is mentioned by the poet Venantius 
Fortunatus. Archaeological research has shown, in 
the cathedral of Trier, the existence of mason-work 
belonging to the Franldsh period ^hich may belong 
to this reconstruction by Nicetius. A fortified castle 
(caateUum) with a chapel built by him on the river 
Moselle is also mentioned by the same poet (Poem., 
Lib. Ill, n. xii). The saintly bishop devoted himself 
with great zeal to his pastoral duty. He preached 
daily, opposed vigorously the numerous evus in the 
moral Ufe both of the higher classes and of the com- 
mon people, and in so doing did not spare the king and 
his courtiers. Disregarding threats, he steadfastly 
fulfilled his dutv. On account of his misdeeds he 
excommunicated King Clotaire I (511-61), who for 
some time was sole ruler of the Prankish dominions; in 
return the king exiled the determined bishop (560). 
The king died, however, in the following year, and 
his son and successor Sigebert, the ruler of Austrasia 
(561-75), allowed Nicetius to return home. Nicetius 
took part in several synods of the Prankish bishops: 
the synod of Clermont (535), of Orleans (549), the 
second synod of Clermont (549), the synod of Toul 
(550) at which he presided, and the synod of Paris 

Nicetius corresponded with ecclesiastical digni- 
taries of high rank in distant places. Letters are ex- 
tant that were written to him by Abbot Florianus 
of Romain-Moiitier (Canton of Vaud, Switzerland), 
by Bishop Rufus of Octodurum (now Martigny, in 
the Canton of Valais, Switzerland), and b^ Arch- 
bi^op ^f appinius of Keims. The general mterests 
of the Church did not escape his watchful care. He 
wrote an urp^ent letter to Emperor Justinian of Con- 
stantinople m regard to the emperor's position in the 
controversies arising from Monophysitism. Another 
letter that has been preserved is to Clodosvinda, wife 
of the Lombard King Alboin, in which he exhorts this 
princess to do ever^hing possible to bring her hus- 

band over to the Catholic faith. In his pergonal life 
the saintly bishop was very ascetic and self-mortify- 
ing; he fasted freq^uently, and while the priests and 
clerics who lived with him were at their evening meal 
he would go, concealed by a hooded cloak, to pray in 
the churches of the city. He founded a school of his 
own for the training of the clergy. The best known 
of his pupUs is the later Abbot of Limoges, Aredius, 
who was the authority of Gregory of Tours for the 
latter's biographical account of Nicetius. Nicetius 
was buried in the church of St. Maximin at Trier. 
His feast is celebrated at Trier on 1 October; in the 
Roman Martyrology his name is placed under 5 
December. The genuineness of two treatises as- 
cribed to him is doubtful: '' De Vigiliis servorum Dei" 
and ''De Psalmodise Bono". 

NicelivM Opera in P. L. LXIII, 361 aqq.; Hontrsim, HitloHa 
Trevirensis aiplotnatieat I (Augsburg, 1750), Ix, 35 aqq.; Iokm, 
Prodromua hi^oria Trniren^it, I (Aiigsburg. 1757), 415 sqq.; 
Mabii4IX>n, Ada Sanct. ord. S. BenedieU^ I (Paris, 166iS), 191 aqq.; 
Makx. GetchichU dea Erxttifla Trier, I (Trier. 1858), 82 sq.; 11, 
377 sq.; Mandkbnach, Die Schrijten dee hi. Nicetius, Bisehof van 
Trier (Maini, 1850) ; Katskb, Leben und Schrifien dee hi. NieeHua 
(Trier, 1873) ; Morxn in Revue b^nSdidine (1897), 385 sqq. 

J. P. KiBBCH. 

Nichei a recess for the reception of a statue, so de- 
signed as to give it emphasis, frame it effectively^ and 
afford some measure of protection. It hardly existed 
prior to the twelfth centur3r, and is one of the chief 
decorative characteristics of Gothic architecture. The 
constant and often lavish use of sculptured images of 
the saints was an essential part of the great style 
that was so perfectly to express the Catholic Faith, 
and that had its beginnings in Normandy as a result 
of the great Cluniac reformation: and from the mo- 
ment the roughly chiselled bas-relief swelled into the 
round and detached figure, the unerring artistic in- 
stinct of the medieval builders taught them — as it 
had taught the Greeks — that fig[ure sculpture becomes 
architectural only when it is incorporated with the 
building of which it is a part, by means of surrounding 
architectural forms that harmonize it with the fabric 
itself. In Romanesque work this frame is little more 
than flanking shafts supporting an arch, the statue 
being treated as an accessory, and given place wher- 
ever a space of flat wall appeared between ihe col- 
umns and arches of the structural decoration. The 
convenience, propriety and beauty of the arrangement 
were immeoiately apparent, however, and thence- 
forward the development of the niche as an independ- 
ent architectural form was constant and rapid. Not 
only did the canopied niche assimilate the statue in 
the architectural entity and afford it that protection 
from the weather so necessary in the north; it also, in 
conjunction with the statue itself, produced one of the 
richest compositions of line, light, and shade known 
to art. The medieval arcnitects realised this and 
seized upon it with avidity, using it almost as their 
chief means for obtaining those spots and spaces of 
rich decoration that gave the final touch of perfection 
to their marvellous fabrics. In the thirteenth century 
the wall became recessed to receive the statue, the 
flanking shafts became independent supports for an 
arched and gabled canopy, while a pedestal was intro- 
duced, still further to tie the sculpture into the archi- 
tecture. Later the section of the embrasure became 
hexagonal or octagonal, the arched canopy^ was cusped. 
the gable enriched witn crockets and pinnacles, ana 
finally in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the 
entire feature became almost an independent composi- 
tion, the canopy being developed into a thing of mar- 
vellous complexity and richness^ while it was lavished 
on almost every part of the building, from the doors 
to the spires, and within as well as without. Protes- 
tant and revolutionary iconoclasm have left outside of 
France few examples of niches properly filled by their 
original statues, but in such masterpieces of art as the 
cathedrals of Paris, Chartres, Amiens, and Reims, one 




may see in their highest perfection these unique mani- 
festations of the subtility and refinement or the per- 
fect art of Catholic civilization. 

Ralph Adams Cram. 

Nicholas X, Saint, Pope, b. at Rome, date im- 
known; d. 13 November, 867; one of the gr^t popes 
of the Middle Ages, who exerted decisive influence 
upon the historical develoi)ment of the papacy and its 
position among the Christian nations of Western Eu- 
rope. He was of a distinguished family, being the son 
of the Defensor Theodore, and received an excellent 
training. Already distinguished for his piety, benevo- 
lence, ability, knowledge, and eloquence, he entered, 
at an early age, the service of the Church, was made 
Bubdeacon by Pope Seigius II (844-47), and deacon 
by Leo IV (847-55). He was employed in all impor- 
tant matters during the pontificate of his predecessor, 
Benedict III (855-58). After Benedict's death (7 
April, 858) the Emperor Louis II, who was in the 
neighbourhood of Rome, came into the city to exert 
his influence upon the election. On 24 April Nicholas 
was elected pope, and on the same day was conse- 
crated and enthroned in St. Peter's in the presence of 
the emperor. Three days after, he gave a farewell 
banquet to the emperor, and afterwards^ accompanied 
by the Roman nobility, visited him in his camp oef ore 
the city, on which occasion the emperor came to meet 
thepope and led his horse for some distance. 

Christianity in Western Europe was then in a most 
melancholy condition. The empire of Charlemagne 
had fallen to pieces. Christian territory was threatened 
both from the north and the east, and Christendom 
seemed on the brink of anarchy. Christieui morsdity 
was despised; many bishops were worldly and un- 
worthy of their office. There was danger of a univer- 
sal decUne of the higher civilization. Pope Nicholas 
appeared as a conscientious representative of the Ro- 
man Primacy in the Church . He was fiilled wi th a high 
conception of his mission for the vindication of Christian 
morauty, the defence of God's law against princes and 
dignitaries, and of ecclesiastical law against powerful 
bishops. Archbishop John of Ravenna oppressed the 
inhabitants of the papal territory, treated his suffragan 
bishops with violence, made unjust demands upon 
them for money, and illegaUy imprisoned priests. He 
also forged documents to support his claims against 
the Roman See and maltreated the papal l^ates. As 
the warnings of the pope were without result, and the 
archbishop ignored a tmice-repeated summons to ap- 
pear before the papal tribunal, he was excommuni- 
cated. Having first visited the Emperor Louis at 
Pavia, the archbishop repaired, with two imperial 
delegates, to Rome, where Nicholas cited him before 
the Roman synod assembled in the autumn of 860. 
Upon this John fled from Rome. Going in person to 
Ravenna, the pope then investigated and equitably 
regulatea everything. Again appealing to the em- 
peror, the archbishop was recommend^ by him to 
submit to the pope, which he did at the Roman Synod 
of November^ 861. Later on, however, he entered 
into a pact with the excommunicated Archbishops of 
Trier and Cologne, was himself again excommuni- 
cated, and once more forced to make his submission to 
the pope. Another conflict arose between Nicholas 
and Archbishop Hincmar of Reims: this concerned the 
prerogatives of the papacy. Bishop Rothad of Sois- 
Bons had appealed to the pope a^inst the decision of 
the S3rnod of Soissons, of 861, which had deposed him; 
Hincmar opposed the appeal to the pope, but eventu- 
ally had to acknowledge the right of the papacy to 
take cognizance of important legal causes (caitsce ma- 
jores) and pass independent judgment upon them. A 
further dispute broke out between Hincmar and the 
pope as to the elevation of the cleric Wulfad to the 
archiepiscopal See of Bourges, but here, again, Hinc- 
mar finally submitted to the decrees of the ApostoUc 

See, and the Prankish synods passed corresponding 

Nicholas showed the saxne zeal in other efforts to 
maintain ecclesiastical discipline, especiadly as to the 
marriage laws. Ingiltrud, wife of Count Boso, had 
left her husband for a paramour; Nicholas commanded 
the bishops in the dominions of Charles the Bold to 
excommunicate her unless she returned to her hus- 
band. As she paid no attention to the summons to 
appear before the Sjmod of Milan in 860. she was put 
under the ban. The pope was ^so involved in a oes- 
perate struggle with Lothair II of Lorraine over the 
mviolability of marriage. Lothair had abandoned 
his lawful wife Theutberga to marnr Waldrada. At 
the Synod of Aachen, 28 April, 862, the bishops of Lor- 
raine, unmindful of their duty, aiyproved of this illicit 
union. At the Sjmod of Metz, June, 863, the papal 
legates, bribed by the king, assented to the Aachen de- 
cifflon, and condemned the absent Theutberga. Upon 
this the pope brought the matter before his own tribu- 
nal. The two archbishops, Gtinther of Cologne and 
Thietgaud of Trier, who had come to Rome as dele- 
gates, were- summoned before the Lateran Synod of 
October, 863, when the pope condemned and deposed 
them as well as John of Ravenna and Hagano of Ber- 
gamo. The Emperor Louis II took up the cause of 
the deposed bishops, while Kins Lothair advanced 
upon Rome with an army and laid siege to the city, so 
tnat the pope was confined for two days in St. Peter's 
without food. Yet Nicholas did not waver in his de- 
termination; the emperor, after being reconciled with 
the pope, withdrew from Rome and commanded the 
Archbishops of Trier and Cologne to return to their 
homes. Nicholas never ceased from his efforts to 
bring about a reconciliation between Lothair and his 
lawful wife, but without effect. Another matrimo- 
nial case in which Nicholas interposed was that of 
Judith, daughter of Charles the Bold, who had mar- 
ried Baldwin, Count of Flanders, without her father's 
consent. Prankish bishops had excommunicated 
Judith, and Hincmar of Reims had taken sides against 
her, but Nicholas urged leniency, in order to protect 
freedom of marriage. He commanded Hincmar to 
bring about a reconciliation between father and daugh- 
ter, and succeeded in obtaining Charles's consent to 
the marriage. In many other ecclesiasticaJ matters, 
also, he issued letters and decisions, and he took active 
measures against bishops who were neglectful of their 

In the matter of the emperor and the patriarchs of 
Constantinople Nicholas snowed himself the Divinely 
appointed ruler of the Church. In violation of ec- 
clesiastical law, the Patriarch Ignatius was deposed in 
857 and Photius illegallv raised to the patriarchal see. 
In a letter addressed (8 May, 862) to the patriarchs of 
the East, Nicholas called upon them and all their 
bishops to refuse recognition to Photius, and at a Ro- 
man synod held in April, 863. he excommunicated 
Photius. He also encouraged the missionanr activity 
of the Church. He sanctioned the union of the Sees 
of Bremen and Hamburg, and confirmed to St. An- 
sehar, Archbishop of Bremen, and his successors the 
office of papal legate to the Danes. Swedes, and Slavs. 
Bulgaria having been converted oy Greek missiona- 
ries, its ruler, Pnnce Boris, in August, 863, sent an em- 
bassy to the pope with one hundred and six questions 
on tne teaching and discipline of the Church. Nicho*> 
las answered these inciuiries exhaustively in the cele- 
brated ''Responsa Nicolai ad consulta Bulgarorum" 
(Mansi, "Coll. Cone", XV, 401 sqq.). The letter 
shows now keen was his desire to foster the principles 
of an earnest Christian life in this newly-converted 
people. At the same time he sent an embassy to 
Prince Boris, charged to use their personal efforts to 
attain the pope's object. Nevertheless, Boris finally 
joined the Eastern Church. 

At Rome, Nicholas rebuilt and endowed several 




ohuichee, and constantly sought to encourage reli- 
gious life. His own personal lite was guided by a spirit 
of earnest Christian asceticism and profound piety. 
He was very highly esteemed by the citizens of Rome, 
as he was by his contemporaries generally (cf . Regino, 
"Chronicon", ad an. 868, in '^Mon. Germ. Hist.: 
Script.", I, 579), and after death was regarded as a 
saint. A much discussed question and one that is im- 
portant in judging the position taken by this pope is, 
whether he made use of the forg;ed pseudo-lsido- 
rian papal decretals. After exhaustive investigation, 
Schrdrs lias decided that the pope was neither ac- 
quainted with the pseudo-Lddorian collection in its 
entire extent, nor did he make use of its individual 
parts; that he had perhaps a general knowledge of the 
false decretals, but did not base his view of the law 
upon them, and that he owed his knowledge of them 
solely to documents which came to him from the 
Prankish Empire [Schrdrs, ''Papst Nikolaus I. und 
Pseudo-Isidor" in "Historisches Jahrbuch", XXV 
(1004), 1 sqq.; Idem, "Die pseudoisidorische 'Ex- 
ceptio spolii Dei Papst Nikolaus I" in "Historisches 
Jahrbuch", XXVI (1905), 275 sqq.]. 

Rot, St, NiehoUu I (London. 1901). in SainU Sertea; Nicolat 
pp. I. BvUtola, in jAwrt, Regetta Rom. PorU., I (2nd ed.). 342 

Hber dot VerhOUnia von Stoat %md Kirehe (Berlin. 1909) ; Langkn, 

Oeaehiehte der rfhnisehen Kirehe^ III: Von NiMatu I hit Qregor 

VII (Bonn, 1892), 1 aqq.; Hkpblb, ConeUienootehiehU, II (4th 

ed.), 112 aqq.. ed. Kxrsch; 236 sqq. See also bibliography to 


Saint; PHonns. J. p. KiRBCH. 

Nieholmi n, Pope (Gerhard of Burgundt), b. at 
Chevron, in what is now Savoy; elected at Siena, De- 
cember. 1058 ; d. at Florence 19 or 27 July, 1061 . Like 
his preaecessor, Stephen X, he was canon at Li^e. In 
1046 he became Bisnop of Florence, where he restored 
the canonical life among the clerfi^ of numerous 
churches. As soon as the news of the death of Stephen 
X at Florence reached Rome (4 April, 1058). the 
Tusculan party appointed a successor in the person of 
John Mincius, Bisnop of Velletri, under the name of 
Benedict X. His elevation, due to violence and coi^ 
ruption, was contrary to the specific orders of Stephen 
X that, at his death, no choice of a successor was to be 
made until Hildebrand's return from Germany. Sev- 
eral cardinals protested against the irregular proceed- 
injES. but they were compelled to flee from Rbme. 
Hilaebrand was returning from his mission when the 
news of these events reached him. He interrupted his 
journey at Florence, and after agreeing witti Duke 
€rodf rey of Lorraine-Tuscany upon Bishop Gerhard 
for elevation to the papacy, ne won over part of the 
Roman population to the support of his candidate. 
An embassy dispatched to the imperial court secured 
the confirmation of the choice by the Empress Agnes. 
At Hildebrand's invitation, the cardinals met in De- 
cember, 1058, at Siena and elected Gerhard who as- 
sumed the name of Nicholas II. On his way to Rome 
the new pope held at Sutri a well-attended synod at 
which, in tne presence of Duke Godfrey and the im- 
perial chancellor, Guibert of Parma, he pronounced 
deposition against Benedict X. The latter was driven 
from the city in January, 1059, and the solenm corona- 
^on of Nicholas took place on the twenty-fourth of 
the same month. A cultured and stainless man, the 
new pontiff had about him capable advisers, but to 
meet the danger still threatening from Benedict X and 
his armed supporters, Nicholas empowered Hildebrand 
to enter into negotiations with the Normans of south- 
em Italy. The papal envoy recognized Count Richard 
of Aversa as Prince of Capua and received in return 
Norman troope which enabled the papacy to carry on 
hostilities against Benedict in the Campagna. This 
campaign aid not result in the decisive overthrow 

of the opposition party, but it enabled Nicholas to 
undertime in the early part of 1059 a pastoral vis- 
itation to Spoleto, Farfa, and Osimo. During this 
journey he raised Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cas- 
sino to the dignity of cardinal-priest and appointed 
him l^ate to Campania, Benevento, Apulia, and 
Calabna. Early in nis pontificate he had sent St. 
Peter Damiani and Bishop Anselm of Lucca as his 
legates to Milan, where a married and simoniacal 
clergy had recently given rise to a reform-party known 
as the " Pataria". A synod for the restoration of ec- 
clesiastical discipline was held under the presidency of 
these envoys who, in spite of a tumultuous upxising 
which endangered their lives, succeeded in obtaining 
from Archbishop Guido ana the Milanese clergy a 
solemn repudiation of simony and concubinage. 

One of the most pressing needs of the time was the 
reform of papal elections. . It was right that they 
should be treed from the nefarious influence of the 
Roman factions and the secular control of the empe- 
ror, hitherto less disastrous but always objectionable. 
To tins end Nicholas II held in the Liateran at Easter, 
1059 a synod attended by one hundred and thirteen 
bishops and famous for its law concerning papal elec- 
tions. Efforts to determine the authentic text of this 
decree caused considerable controversy in the nine- 
teenth century. That the discussions did not result 
in a consensus of opinion on the matter need not sur- 
prise^ if it be remembered that thirty years after the 
pubhcation of the decree complaints were heard re- 
garding the divergency in the text. We possess to-day 
a papal and an imperial recension and the sense of the 
law may be statea substantially as follows: (1) At the 
death of the pope, the cardinal-bishops are to confer 
among themselves concerning a candidate, and, after 
they nave agreed upon a name, they and the other 
caroinals are to proceed to the election. The remain- 
der of the clergy and the laity enjoy the right of ac- 
claiming their choice. (2) A member of the Roman 
clergy is to be chosen, except that where a qualified 
canmdate cannot be found in the Roman Church, an 
ecclesiastic from another diocese may be elected. (3) 
The election is to be held at Rome, except that when a 
free choice is impossible there, it may take place else- 
where. (4) If war or other circumstances prevent the 
solemn enthronization of the new pope in St. Peter's 
Chair, he shall nevertheless enjoy the exercise of full 
Apostolic authority. (5) Due regard is to be had for 
the right of confiimation or recognition conceded to 
King Henry, and the same deference is to be shown to 
his successora. who have been granted personally a like 
privilege. Tnese stipulations constituted indeed a 
new law, but they were also intended as an implicit ap- 
probation of the procedure followed at the election of 
Nicholas II. As to the imperial right of confirmation, 
it became a mere personal privilege panted by the 
Roman See. The same s3rnod prohibited simoniacal 
ordinations, lay investiture, and assistance at the 
Mass of a priest living in notorious concubinage. The 
rules governing the life of canons and nuns which were 
published at tne diet of Aix-la-Chapelle (817) were 
abolished, because they allowed private property and 
such abundant food that, as the bishops indignantly . 
exclaimed, they were adapted to sailors and intemper- 
ate matrons rather than to clerics and nuns. Beren- 
garius of Tours, whose views opposed to the doctrine of 
Christ's real presence in the Eucharist, had repeatedly 
been condemned, also appeared at the Council and 
was compelled to sign a formula of abjuration. 

At the end of June, 1059, Nicholas proceeded to 
Monte Cassino and thence to Meifi, the capital of Nor- 
man Apulia, where he held an important synod and 
concluded the famous alliance with the Normans 
(July- August, 1059). Duke Robert Guiscard was in- 
vested with the sovereignty of Apulia, Calabria, and 
Sicily in case he should reconquer it from the Saracens ; 
he bound himself, in return, to pay an annual tribute. 




to hold lua lands as the pope's vassal, and to protect 
the Roman See, its possessions, and the freedom of 
papal elections. A smiilar agreement was concluded 
with Prince Richard of Capua. After holding a synod 
at Benevento Nicholas returned to Rome with a Nor- 
man army which reconquered Prseneste. Tusculum, 
and Numentaniun for the Holy See and forced Bene- 
dict X to capitulate at Galena (autumn of 1059). 
HSfdebrand. the soul of the pontificate, was now 
created archdeacon. In order to secure the general 
acceptance of the laws enacted at the synod of 1059, 
Cardinal Stephen, in the latter part of that year, was 
sent to France where he presided over the synods of 
Vienne (31 January, 1060) and Tours (17 February. 
1060) . The decree which mtroduced a new method of 
papal election had caused great dissatisfaction in Ger- 
many , because it reduced the imperial right of confirma- 
tion to the precarious condition of a personal privilege 
granted at will: but, assured of Norman protection, 
Nicholas couldf fearlessly renew the decree at the 
Lateran 83rnod held in 1060. . After this council Car- 
dinal Stephen, who had accomplished his mission to 
France, appeared as papal legate in Germany. For 
five days ne vainly solicited an audience at court and 
then returned to Rome. His fruitless mission was 
followed by a German synod which annulled all the 
ordinances of Nicholas II and pronounced his deposi- 
tion. The pope's answer was a repetition of the de- 
cree concerning elections at the synod of 1061, at 
which the condemnation of simony and concubinage 
amonff the clergy was likewise renewed. He lies 
buriea in the church of St. Reparata at Florence of 
which city he had remained bishop even after his ele- 
vation to the papal throne. His pontificate, though 
of short duration, was marked by events fraught with 
momentous and far-reaching consequences. 

JafiiI, Regeala Pontif. Roman,,! (2Dd ed.. LeipBUE, 1885), 557- 
66: DipUmata, BpitUla, Decreta in P. L., CXLIII, 1301-66; 
Ci^VEL, Le Pape NicoUu II (Lyons, 1906) ; Delabc, Le Ponii- 

4ctUde Nicolas II in Ret, dea Quest. Hitt., XL (1886). 341-402; 
^0RM, Die Papeiwafd (Coloime, 1902), 24-8; Hkfeud, Concilief^ 
geuJiichte, IV (2nd ed., Freiburg. 1879). 798-850; Mann, LtM« 
€tf the Popes, VI (St. Lowb. 1910), 226-60; Funk, tr. Cappa- 
DXLTA. Church History, I (St. Louis, 1910). 263-4. 274. For bibli- 
ooraphy of the election decree, see HSBOHNBOraBBrKiBacB, 
KinimoeechiehU, II (Freiburg, 1904), 342^. 

N. A. Weber. 

NichoUl m, Pope (Giovanni Gaetani Obbini)} 
b. at Rome, c. 1216; elected at Viterbo, 25 November, 
1277: d. at Soriano, near Viterbo, 22 August, 1280. 
His lather, Matteo Rosso, was of the illustrious Ro- 
man fanuly of the Orsini, while his mother. Pema 

Gaetana, belonged to the noble house 
of the Gaetani. As senator Matteo 
Rosso had defended Rome against 
Frederick II and saved it to the 
papacy. He was a friend of St. 
Francis of Assisi and belonged to his 
third order, facts not without influ- 
ence on the son, for both as cardinal 
and pope the latter was ever kindly 
disposc^d towards the Franciscans. 
We have no knowledge of his edu- 
cation and early life. Innocent IV, 
gratef\il for the services rendered to the Holy See by his 
father, created the young Orsini (28 May, 1244) car- 
dinal-deacon with the title of St. Nicholas in Carcere 
Tulliano, and gave him benefices at York. Laon, and 
Soissons. Probably at an earlier date the adminis- 
tration of the Roman churches of San Lorenzo in 
Damaso and of San Crisogono had been entrusted to 
him. One of five cardinals, he accompanied Innocent 
IV in his flight from Civile Vecchia to Genoa and 
thence to Lyons (29 June, 1244). In 1252 he was dis- 
patched on an unsuccessful mission of peace to the 
warring Guelphs and Ghibellines of Florence. In 1258 
Louis IX paid an eloquent tribute to his independence 
and impartiality by suggesting his selection as equally 
acceptable to England and to France for the solemn 

Abms op 
Nicholas III 

ratification of the peace concluded between the two 
countries. His integrity was likewise above reproach, 
for he never accepted gifts for his services. So great 
was his influence in the Sacred College that the elec- 
tion of Urban IV (1261) was mainly due to his inter- 
vention. Urban named him general inquisitor (1262) 
and protector of the Franciscans (1263). Under 
Clement IV (1265-68) he was a member of the delepa- 
tion of four cardinals who invested Charles of Anjou 
with the Kingdom of Naples (28 June, 1265). Later 
he played a prominent part at the elections of Gr^ory 
X^ho received the' tiara at his hands, and of John 
XaI, whose counsellor he became and who named him 
archpriest of St. Peter's. After a vacancy of six 
months he succeeded John as Nicholas III. 

True to his origin he endeavoured to free Rome 
from all forei^ influence. His policy aimed not only 
at the exclusion of the evei^troublesome imperial au- 
thority, but also sought to check the growing influence 
of Charles of Anjou in central Italy. At ms request 
Rudolf of Habsburgrenounced (1278) all ri^ts to the 
possession of the Komagna, a renunciation subse- 
quently approved by the imperial princes. Nicholas 
took possession of the province through his nephew, 
Latino, whom he had shortly before (12 March, 1278) 
raised to the cardinalate. He created Berthold, an- 
other nephew. Count of the Roma^na, and on other 
occasions remembered his relatives m the distribution 
of honourable and lucrative places. He compelled 
Charles of Anjou in 1278 to resign the regency of Tus- 
cany and the dignity of Roman Senator. To insure 
the freedom of papal elections, he ordained in a con- 
stitution of 18 July, 1278, that thenceforward the 
senatoriial power and all municipal ofiices were to be 
reserved to Roman citizens to the exclusion of emperor, 
kingj or other potentate.' In furtherance of more har- 
momous relations with the Byzantine court, the pope 
also aimed at restricting the power of the King of Naples 
in the East. To his efforts was due the agreement 
concluded in 1280 between Rudolf of Habsburg and 
Charles of Anjou, by which the latter accepted Pro- 
vence and Forcalquier as imperiial fiefs and secured the 
betrothal of his grandson to Clementia, one of Ru- 
dolfs daughters. The much-discussed plan of a new 
division of the empire into four parts is not sufiBciently 
attested to be attributed with certainty to Nicholas. 
In this partition Germany, as hereditary monarchy, 
was to fall to Rudolf, the Kingdom of Aries was to 
devolve on lus son-in-law, Charles Martel of Anjou, 
while the Kingdoms of Lombardy and Tuscany were 
to be founded m Italy and bestowed on relatives of the 
pope. Nicholas's efforts for the promotion of peace 
Detween France and Castile remained fruitless. Un- 
able to carry out his desire of personally appearing in 
Hungary, where internal dissensions and the devasta- 
tions of the Cumani endangered the very existence of 
Christianity, he named, in the fall of 1278, Bishop 
Philip of Fermo his legate to that country. A synod, 
held at Buda in 1279 under the presidency of the papal 
envoy, could not complete its deliberations owing to 
the violent interference of the people. King Ladis- 
laus IV, instigator of the trouble, was threatened in a 

gapal letter with spiritual and temporal penalties if 
e failed to reform his ways. The king temporarily 
heeded this solemn admonition, and at a later date 
suppressed the raids of the Cumani. The appoint- 
ments of worthy incumbents to the Archbishoprics of 
Gran and KalocssrBacs made under this pontificate 
further helped to strengthen the cause of Christianity. 
The task of Nicholas III in his dealings with the 
Eastern Church was the practical realisation of the 
union accepted by the Greeks at the Second Council of 
Lyons (1274), for political reasons rather than out of 
dogmatic persuasion. The instructions to the legates 
whom he sent to Constantinople contained, among 
other conditions, the renewal by the emperor of the 
oath sworn to by his representatives at Lyons. The 

muDtenance of the Greek Rite wu granted only in bo 
far as papal authority did not consider it opposed t« 
unity of faith; those of the clergy opposed to reunion 
were required to obttun absolution of the incurred 
censures from the Roman envoj^. These were more 
riKorouB conditions than had been imposed by his pre- 
decessors, but the failure of the negotiations for re- 
union can hardly be attributed to them, for the Greek 
nation was strongly opposed to eubmission to Rome 
and the emperor pursued temporal advantages under 
cover of dedre for ecclesisstical harmony. At the 
request of Absf^a, Khan of the Tatars, the pope sent 
him in 1278 five Franciscan missionarieB who were to 
preach the Gospel first in Pcnua and then in China. 
They encountered considerable obstacles in the former 
country and it was not until the pontificate of Nicho- 
las IV that their preachinK produced appreci^le re- 
aults. The realization of the pope's desire for the 
organization of a Crusade was frustrated by the dis- 
tracted state of European poUtics. On 14 August, 
1279, he issued the constitubon "Exiit qui seminat", 
which is still fundamental for the interpretation of the 
lUile of St. Francis and in which he approved the 
stricter observance of poverty (see Francis, Rule of 
Saint). While the Vatican liad been occupied from 
Ume to time by some of his predecessors, Nicholas III 
eetsblished there the papal residence, remodelled and 
enlarged the palace, and secured in its neighbourhood 
landed property, subsequently traneformed into the 
Vatican gardens. He lies buried in the Chapel of St. 
Nicholas, built by him in St. Peter's. He was an ec- 
clesiastical ly-minded pontiff of great diplomatic ^ility 
and, if we except his acta of nepotism, of unblemished 

-iT. La Swulru di Nitotat III (Ptiia. Ig9fr-1904); Por^ 

- ■■ laPonti/.Kc - " 

in Cinlld (_ _. __ 

DnUEI. Awl Kitolata III (MDl 

Kardinat Joliann Oatlan Orn'ni (1244-77) (Berlin, 190SJ ; Mis 

Is TJk A'nc Sdtaff-Umiit Encydopidia, i. v. 

N. A. Wbbeb. 

M IV, Pope (Girolauq MAsa), b. at Ascoli 
b the March of Ancona; d.inRome,4 April,]292. He 
was of humble extraction, and at an early age entered 
the Franciscan Order. In 1272 he was sent sa a dele- 
gate to Constantinople to invite the participation of 
the Greeks in the Second Council 
of Lyons. Two years later he . _ . 
ceeded St. Bonaventure in the gen- 
eralship of his order. While he was 
on a mission to France to promote 
the restoration of peace between 
that country and Castile, he 


efforts of Rudolf of Habsbui^E to receive the imperial 
crown at the hands of the new pope were not success- 
ful. His fMlure was partly due io the estrai^ement 
consequent upon the attitude assumed by the pope 
in the question of the Sicilian succession. As feudal 

kingdom , N ich ola« 
annulled the 
treaty, concluded 
in 1288 through 
the mediation of 
Edward I of Eng- 
land, which con- 
firmed James of 
Aragon in the 
possession of the 
island. He lent 
his support to the 
rival claims of the 
House of Anjou 

Charles II King of 
Sicily and Naples 
at Rieti, 29 May, 
1289, after the lat- 
ter had expressly 
acknowledged the 
suzerainty of the 
Apostolic See and 

promised not to accept any municipal dignity ii 
States of the Church. The action of the pope did not 
end the armed struggle for the possession of Sicily nor 
did it secure the kingdom permanently to the House 
of Anjou. Rudolf of Habsburg also failed to obtain 
from the pope the repeal of the authorization, granted 
the French king, to levy tithes in certain German dis- 
tricts for the proaecutjon of the war agunst the Houae 

created canUnal-priest with the title 
of Santa Pudenziana (1278) and in 
1281 Martin IV appointed him Bish- 
op of Palestrina. After the death 
W1CHOI.A.IY of HonoriuB IV (3 April, 1287), 
the conclave held at Rome was for a time hopelessly 
divided in its selection of a successor. When fever 
had carried off six of the electors, the otheis, with the 
sole exception of Girolamo, left Rome. It was not 
until the following year that they reassembled and on 
16 February, 1288, unanimously elected him to the 
papacy. Ooedlence and a second election however 
(22 February) were alone capable of overeoming 
bis reluctance to accept the supreme pontificals. He 
was the first Franciscan pope, and in loving remem- 
brance of Nicholas III he assumed the name of Nicho- 
las IV. 

The rei^ of the new pope was not characterized by 
Bufiicient mdependence. The undue influence exer- Hohvhiht or Nicbolu IV 

cised at Rome by the Colonna is especially noteworthy ^- Muy Maior'i, Roms 

and was so apparent even during his lifetime that of Aragon. Whenhesppointedhisson Albert to sue-- 
□ wits represented him encased in a column — ceedLadislausIVof Hungary (31 August, 1290), Nich- 

In 1291 the fal) of Ptolemois put an end to Christian 
dominion in the E^t. Previous to this tra^c event, 
Nicholas had in vain endeavoured to organize a cru- 
sade. He now called upon all the GhriHtian princes 
to take up arms against the Mussulman and instigated 
the holding of councils to devise the means of sending 
assistance to the Holy Land. These synods were to 
discuss likewise the advisability of the union of the 
Knights Templars and Knights of St. John, as the 
dissensions among them had partly caused the loss of 
Ptolemaia. The pope himself initiat«d the prepara' 
tions for the crusade and fitted out twenty ships for 
the war. His appeals and bis example remained un- 
heeded, however, aod nothing of permanent value was 

Nicholas IV sent missionaries, among them the 
celebrated John of Montecorvino (q, v.), to the Bul- 
garians, Ethiopians, TataiB, sjid Chinese. By his 
constitution ol 18 July, 1289, the cardinals were 
granted one half of Che revenues of (he Aixwtoiic See 
and a share in the financial aJministr:ition. In 1290 
he renewed the condenmation of the sect known as the 
Apostolici (q. v.). Nicholas was piou3 and learned: he 
contributed to the artistic beauty of Rome, building 
particularly a palace beside Santa Maria Maggiore, 
the church in which he was buried and where sixtus 
V erected an imposing monument to his memory. 

Lanoloib, Ut Rruiilrti di: Niaiiat IV IPara. 1888-031; PoTP- 
BABT. Renata pmificum Affmansrum, II (Berlin, 1STS|, 1826- 
1915; Raltehbrunneb, AtlintUUtt rur CacA. da QtuMlAni 
Riidut unirr SudolJ' I und Albrrehl I (ViiamA. ISSS); Rllb 
HOHT. Gacli. <ter Slodi Bom. II IBcrliu. 1867). SI 1-14: Scmrr, 
Sivdien nir Oitck. FaptI NiiiAaju. IV (Berlin, 1897): MauI, 
Niccaii TV (SinixscliH, 1905); Scimrp. hitttrv of l\e (7AruluM 
Church. V, pt. iTNew York, 1907>, 207, 287, 410. 

N. A. Wbbes. 

Hlcholsi V, Pope (Toumaso Parentttcelli), a 
name never to be mentioned without reverence by every 
lover of letters, b. at Sarzana in Liguria, 15 November, 
1397: d. in Rome, 24-5 March, 1455. While still a 
youtn he lost his father, a poor but skilful physician, 
and was thereby prevented from 
impleting his stuaiss at Bologna, 
e became tutor in the families of 
the Stroisi and Albizai at Florence, 
where he made the acquaintance of 
the leading Humanist scholars of 
the day. In 1419 he returned to 
Bologna, and three years later took 
his decree as master of theology. 
The samtly bishop of Bologna, Nic- 
colAAlbergati, now took him into his 
f service. For more than twenty years 
Parentucellt was the bishop's factotum, and m that 
capacity was enabled to indulge iiis passion for build- 
m^ ana that of collecting bool^. Unlike many biblio- 
philes he was as well acquainted with the matter con- 
tained within his volumes as with their bindings 
and value. Some of them ore still preserved, and 
contain many marginal notes in his beautiful writing. 
His knowleoge was of the encyclopedic character 
not unusual at a time when the learned undertook 
to ai^e de omni re geUnli. His mind, however, 
was receptive rather than productive. Neverthe- 
less, he could make good use of what he had studied, 
as was shown at the Council of Florence where his 
familiarity with Patristic and Scholastic theology 
gave him a prominent place in the discussions 
with the Greek bishops. He accompanied Alber- 
gati in various legatine missions, notably lo France. 
and was always watchful for rare and beautiful 
books. Eugene IV wished to attach such a bril- 
liant scholar to his own person; but Parentucelli re- 
mained faithful to his patron. On the death of the 
latter he was appointed to succeed liim in the See of 
Bologna, but was unable to take possession oning 
to the troubled state of the city. This led to his be- 
ing entrusted by Pope Eugene with important diplo- 

a cardinal's hat (Dec., 1446). Early next year (23 
Feb.) Eugene died, and Parentucelli was elected in bis 
place, taking as his name Nicholas in memory of his 
obligations to Niccol6 Albergati (6 March, 1447). 

As soon as the new pontiff was firmly seated on hia 
throne, it was felt that a new spirit had come into the 
papacy. Now that there was no longer any danger 
of a fresh outbreak of schism and the Council of Con-' 
stance had lost all influence, Nicholas could devote 
himself to the accomplishment of objects which were 
the fum of bis life and bad been the means of rising 
him to his present exalted position. He dengned to 

make Rome the site of splendid monuments, the home 
of Uterature and art, the bulwark of the papac}', and 
the worthy capital of the Christian worla. His first 
care was to strengthen the fortifications, and restore 
the churches in which the stations were held. Next 
he took in hand the cleansing and pavine of the 
streets. Rome, once famous for the number and 
msKnificence of its aqueducts, had become almost en- 
tirely dependent for its water supply on the Tiber and 
on welb and cisterns. The "Aqua Virgo", originally 
constructed bv AKrippa, was restored by Nicholas, 
and is to this aav the most prized by the Romans, un- 
der the nameol "AcquaTrevi". But the works on 
which he esfjeciallj' set his heart were the rebuilding 
of the Leonine City, the Vatican, and the Basilica 
of St. Peter. On tms spot, as in a centre, the glories 
of the papacy were to be focused. We cannot here 
enter into a description of the noble designs which he 
entert^ned (see Pastor, "History of the Popes", II, 
173 sqq., Eng. tr.). The basilica, the palace, and the 
fortress of the popes are not now what he would have 
made them; but their actual splendours are due in no 
small measure to the lofty aspirations of Nicholas V. 
He has been severely censured for pulling down a por- 
tion of the old St. Peter's and planning the destruction 
of the remainder. He defended hia action on the 
ground that the buildings were on the verge of ruin 
(Milnti, "Les ArtsllaCourdesPapes", p. 118); but 
the almost equally ancient Basilica of San Paolo 
tuori le Mora was preserved by judicious restorations 
until it was destroj'ed by fire in 1823. The pontiff's 
veneration for antiquity may have yielded to his de- 
sire to construct an edifice more in harmony with the 
classical taste of the Renaissance school, of which 
he himself wss so ardent an adherent. Nothing but 
praise, however, can be given to him for his work in 
the Vatican Palace. Indeed it was he who first made 
it the worthy residence of the popes. Some of hia 
constructions still remain, notably the left side of the 
court of St. Oamasus and the chapel of Saa Lorenio, 
decorated with Fta AngeUco'- ' 


Though a patron of art in all its branchea, it was of money found their way into the treasury of the 
literature that obtained his hic^est favours. His life- Church, thus enablinjg the pontiff to carry out his de- 
long love of books and his deught in the compan^r of signs for the promotion of art and leammg» and the 
scholajs could now be gratified to the full. His im- support of the poor. As the Jubilee was the proof 
mediate predecessors had held the Humanists in sus- that Rome was me centre towards which all Ghnsten- 
picion; Nicholas welcomed them to the Vatican as dom was drawn, so at its conclusion Nicholas sent 
friends. Clurried away by his enthusiasm for the New forth his legates into the different countries to assert 
Learning, he overlooked any irregularities in their his authority and to bring about the reform of abuses, 
morals or opinions. He accepted the dedication of a Cardinal D^touteville was sent to France; Cardinal 
work b^ Pogfldo, in which Eugene was assailed as a Nicholas of Cusa, one of the most devout and learned 
hypocnte; Valla, the Voltaire of the Renaissance, was men of his day, was sent to North Germany and £ng- 
inade an Apostolic notary. In spite of the demands land; and the heroic Franciscan, St. John Capistran, 
on his resources for buildmg purposes, he was always to South Germany. They held provincial and other 
generous to deserving scholars. If any of them mod- synods and assemblies of the regular clergy, in which 
estly declined his bounty, he would say: ''Do not wholesome decrees were' made. Nicholas of Cusa 
refuse; you will not always have a Nicholas among and St. John preached the word in season and out 
you." He set up a vast establishment in the Vatican of season, thereby producing wonderful conversions 
for translating the Greek classics, so that all might be- among both clergy and laity. If they did not succeed 
come familiar with at least the matter of these masteiv in destroying the germs of the Protestant revolt, they 
pieces. "No department of literature owes so much certainly postponed for a while the evil and nar- 
to him as history. By him were introduced to the rowed the sphere of its influence. It should be noted 
knowledge of western Europe two great and unrivalled that Cusa never reached England, and that D'Es- 
models of historical composition^ the work of Hero- touteville initiated theprocess for the rehabilitation 
dotus and the work of Thucydides. By him, too, of Bl. Joan of Arc. Tne restored authority of the 
our ancestors were first made acquainted with the Holy See was further manifested by the coronation of 
graceful and ludd simplicity of Xenophon and with Frederick III as Sovereign of the Holy Roman Empire 
the manly good sense of Polybius (Macaulay, — the first of the House of Habsburg raised to that 
Speech at Glasgow University). The crowning ^ory dignity, and the last of the emperors crowned in 
of his pontificate was the foundation of the Vatican Rome (1452). 

Library. No lay sovereigns had such opportunities of Meantime the pontiff's own subjects caused him 
oollectmg books as the popes. Nicholases agents ran- great anxiety. Stefano Porcaro, an able scholar and 
sacked t£e monasteries and palaces of every country politician, who had enjoyed the favour of Martin V 
in Europe. Precious manuscripts, which would have and Eugene IV, made several attempts to set up a re- 
been eaten by the moths or would have found their public in Rome. Twice he was pardoned and pen* 
way to the furnace, were rescued from their ignorant sioned by the generous Nicholas, who would not sacri- 
owners and sumptuously housed in the Vatican. In fice such an ornament of the New Learning. At last 
this way he accumulated five thousand volumes at a he was seized on the eve of a third plot, and con- 
oost of more thfltn forty thousand scudi, "It was his demned to death (Jan., 1453). A deep ^oom now 
greatest joy to walk about his library arranging the settled down on the pontiff. His magnificent designs 
books and glancing through their pages, admiring the for the glory of Rome and his mild government of nis 
handsome bindings, and taking pleasure in contem- subjects had not been able to quell the spirit of re- 
plating his own arms stamps on those that had beUion. He began to collect troops and never stirred 
been aedicated to him, and dwelling in thought on the abroad without a strong guard. His health, too, 
gratitude that future generations of scholars would began to suffer seriously, though he was by no means 
entertain towards their benefactor. Thus he is to be an old man. And before the conspiracy was thor- 
seendepictedinoneof the halls of the Vatican library, ou^hly stamped out a fresh blow struck him from 
employed in settling his books" (Voigt, quoted by which he never recovered. We have seen what a 
Pastor, II, 213). prominent part Parentucelli had taken in the Council 
^ His devotion to art and literature did not prevent of Florence. The submission of the Greek bishops 
him from the performance of his duties as Head of the had not been sincere. On their return to Constan- 
Churoh. By the Concordat of Vienna (1448) he se- tinople most of them openly rejected the decrees of 
cured the recognition of the papal rights concerning the council and declared for the continuance of the 
bishoprics and oenefices. He also brought about the schism. Eugene IV vainly endeavoured to stir up 
submission of the last of the antipopes, Felix V, and the Western nations against the ever-advancing 
the dissolution of the S3rnod of Basle (1449). In ac- Turks. Some help was given by the Republics of 
oordanoe with his general principle of impressing the Venice and Genoa; but Hungary and Poland, more 
popular mind by outward and visible signs, he pro- nearly menaced, supplied the bulk of the forces. A 
claimed a Jubilee which was the fitting symbol of the victory at Nish (1443) had been followed by two ter- 
oessation of the schismfand the restoration of the au- rible defeats (Varna, 1444, and Kosovo, 1449). The 
thority of the popes (1450). Vast multitudes flocked whole of the Balkan peninsula, except Constantinople, 
to Rome in the nrst part of the year; but when the hot was now at the mercy of the infidels. The emperor, 
weather began, the plague which had been ravaging Constantine XII, sent messages to Rome imploring 
the countries north of the Alps wrought fearful havoc the pope to summon the Christian peoples to his aid. 
among the pilgrims. Nicholas was seized with a Nicholas sternly reminded him of tne promises made 
panic; he hurri^ away from the doomed city and fled at Florence, and insisted that the terms of the union 
from castle to castle in the hope of escaping infection, should be observed. Nevertheless the fear that the 
As soon as the pestilence abated he returned to Rome. Turks would attack Italy, if they succeeded in captur* 
and received tne visits of many German princes ana ing the bulwark of the east, induced the pontiff to take 
prelates who had long been upholders of the decrees of some action — especiidly as the emperor professed his 
Constance and Basle. But another terrible calamity readiness to accept the decrees of the council. In 
marred the general rejoicing. More than two hun- May, 1452, Cardinal Isidore, an enthusiastic Greek 
dred pilflprinos lost their lives in a crush which occurred patriot, was sent as legate to Constantinople. A sol- 
OQ the Dridge of Sant' Angelo a few days before emn function in honour of the union was celebrated 
Christmas. Nicholas erected two chapels at the en- on 12 Dec., 1452, with prayers for the pope and for 
trance of the bridge where Mass was to be said daily the patriarch, Gregorius. But the clergy and the 
for the repose of the souls of the victims. populace cursed the Uniates and boasted that they 

On this occaaon, as in previous Jubilees, vast sums would rather submit to the turban of the Turk than 




to the tiara of the Roman Pontiff. After many ob- 
stacles and delays a force of ten papal galleys and a 
number of vessels furnished by Naples, Genoa, and 
Venice set sail for the East, but before they reached 
their destination the imperial city had fallen and the 
Emperor Constantine was no more (29 May, 1453). 
Whatever may have been the dilatoriness of Nicholas 
up to this point — and it must be acknowledged that 
he had good reason for not helping the Greeks — ^he 
now lost no time. He addressed a Bull of Crusade 
to the whole of Christendom. Every sort of induce- 
ment, spiritual and temporal, was held out to those 
who shoiild take part in the holy war. Princes were 
exhorted to sink their differences and to unite against 
the common foe. But the days of chivalry were gone : 
most of the nations took no notice of the appeal : some 
of them, such as Genoa and Venice, even solicited 
the friendship of the infidels. 

The gloom which had settled upon Nicholas after 
Porcara s cons{)iracy grew deeper as he realized that 
his warning voice had been unheeded. Gout, fever, 
and other maladies warned him that his end was at 
hand. Summoning the cardinals around him. he de- 
livered to them the famous discourse in which he 
set before them the objects for which he had laboured, 
and enumerated with pardonable pride the noble 
works which he had accomplished (Pastor, II, 311). 
He died on the night between 24 and 25 of March, 
1455, and was laid in St. Peter's by the side of Eusene 
IV. His splendid tomb was taken down b}r Paul V, 
and removed to the crypt, where some portions of it 
may still be seen. His epitaph, the last By which any 
pope was conmiemorated, was written by Mneas 
Sylvius, afterwards Pius II. 

Nicholas was small in stature and weakly in consti- 
tution. His features were clear-cut; his complexion 
pale; his eyes dark and piercing. In disposition he 
was lively and impetuous. A scholar rather than a 
man of action, he underrated difficulties, and was im- 
patient when he was not instantly understood and 
obeyed. At the same time he was obliging and cheer- 
ful, and readily granted audience to his subjects. 
He was a man of sincere piety, simple and temper- 
ate in his habits. He was entirely free from the 
bane of nepotism, and exercised great care in the 
choice of cardinals. We may truly say that the lofty 
aims, the scholarly and artistic tastes, and the noble 
generosity of Nicholas form one of the bri^^test pages 
m the history of the popes. 

Platxna, LivM of the Popea (En^ liah translation, London) ; Vb»- 
PABiANO DA BiBTicci, VtU dt ttomtnft iUu^H del aeeolo X V (Rome, 
1839): SrORZA, Ricerche n* Niccold V (Lucca, 1884); MOnts, 
Lm Arta d la eour de» papes pendant le xi^ et U xvi* eiicle 
(Paris. 1878-9): PAaroR, History of the Popea, II, 1-314, very 
complete and well documented (Ens. tr., London, 1891); Grb- 
aoROviUB, Oeeeh. der Stadt Rom (Stuttgart, 1894) ; Rbum ont, 
Oeach. der Stadt Rom, III (BerUn, 1867-70); Crxiqhton, Hietory 
of the Papacy, III (London, 1897) ; Guiraud, Uigliae romaine et 
Ua originea de la renaiaaanee (Paris, 1904); Miliian, Hiatory of 
Latin ChriatianUy, VIII (London. 1867). 


Nicholas JuBtinianl, Blessed, date of birth un- 
known, became monk in the Benedictine monastery 
of San Niccol6 del Lido at Venice in 1153. When, in 
a military expedition of the Venetians in 1172, sJl the 
other members of the family of the Justiniani per- 
ished in the iGgean Sea near the Island of Chios, the 
Republic of Venice mourned over this disaster to so 
noble a family as over a public calamity. In order 
that the entire family mieht not die out, the Venetian 
Government sent Baron Morosin and Toma Falier as 
delegates to Alexander III, with the request to dis- 
pense Nicholas from his monastic vows. The dis- 
pensation was granted, and Nicholas married Anna, 
the daughter of Doge Michieli, becoming through her 
the parent of five new lines of his family. Shortly 
after 1 179 he returned to the monasteiv of San Niccold 
del Lido, having previously founded[ a convent for 
women on the Isbmd of Amano, where his wife took 

the vdl. Both he and his wife died in the odour of 
sanctity and were venerated by the people, though 
neither was ever formally beatified. 

Qrnnarx, Notiaie apetlanti al B. Niecolo Giuatiniani, monaoo di 
8. Nicdo dd Lido (Padua, 1794; Venice. 1845); GiumnoAMO, 
Bpiatola ad Polyoarpum, vtrum ctariaaimum in Q^a B. Nitholai 
JvUiniani Veneti monachatua a fabulia vaniaqtu commeniia aaaeri" 
tut (Trent, 1746); Muratori, Rerum Ilaliearum acriplorea, XII, 
293 and XXII, 503 sq. 

Michael Ott. 

Nicholas of Clomangos. See Clemanoes, 
Mathieu-Nicolas Poillevillain de. 

Nicholas of Cusa, German cardinal, philosopher, 
and administrator, b. at Cues on the Moselle, in 
the Archdiocese ot Trier, 1400 or 1401 ; d. at Todi, 
in Umbria, 11 August. 1464. His father, Johann 
Cryfts (Krebs), a wealthy boatman (natUaf not a 
"poor fisherman '')j died in 1450 or 1451, and his 
mother, Catharina Roemers. in 1427. The legend 
that Nicholas fled from the ill-treatment of his father 
to Count Ulrich of Manderscheid is doubtfully re- 
ported by Hartzheim (Vita N. de Cusa, Trier, 1730), 
and has never been proved. Of his early educsr 
tion in a school of Deventer nothing is known; but 
in 1416 he was matriculated in the University of 
Heidelberg, by Rector Nicholas of Bettenberg, as 
"Nicolaus Cancer de Coesze, cler[icus] Trever[ensis] 
diocfesLs]". A year later, 1417, he left for Padua, 
where he graduated, in 1423, as doctor in canon law 
(decretarum doctor) under the celebrated Giuliano 
Cesarini. It is said that, in later years, he was hon- 
oured with the doctorate in civil law by the Univer- 
sity of Bologna. At Padua he became the friend of 
Paolo ToscaneUL afterwards a celebrated physician 
and scientist. He studied Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and, 
in later years, Arabic, though, as his friend Johannes 
Andn»Be, Bishop of Aleria. testifies, and as appears f roih 
the style of his writings, ne was not a lover of rhetoric 
and poetry. That the loss of a lawsuit at Mainz 
should have decided his choice of the clerical state, 
is not supported by his previous career. Aided b^ 
the Archbishop of Trier, he matriculated in the Uni- 
versity of Cologne, for divinity, under the rectorship 
of Petrus von Weiler, in 1425. His identity with the 
''Nicolaus Trevirensis", who is mentioned as secre- 
tary to Cardinal Orsim, and papal legate for Germany 
in 1426, is not certain. After 1428, benefices at 
Coblenz, Oberwesel. MUnstermaifeld, Dypurgh, St. 
Wendel, and Li^ge tell to his lot, successively or si- 

His public career began in 1431, at the Council of 
Basle, which opened under the presidency of his for- 
mer teacher. Giuliano Cesarini. The cause of Count 
Ulrich of Manderscheid, which he defended, was lost 
and the transactions with the Bohemians, in which he 
represented the German nation, proved fruitless. His 
main efforts at the council were for the reform of the 
calendar and for the unity, political and religious, of 
all Christendom. In 1437 the orthodox minority sent 
him to Eugene IV, whom he stfongly supported. The 
pope entrusted him with a mission to Constantinople, 
where, in the course of two months, besides discover- 
ing Greek manuscripts of St. Basil and St. John Dam- 
ascene, he gained over for the Council of Florence, 
the emperor, the patriarch, and twenty-eight arch- 
bishops. After reporting tne result of his mission 
to the pope at Ferrara, in 1438, he was createdpapal 
legate to support the cause of Eugene IV. He did 
so before the Diets of Mainz (1441), Frankfort (1442), 
Nuremberg (1444), again of Frankfort (1446), and 
even at the court of Charles VII of France, with such 
force that iEneas Sylvius called him the Herc\iles of 
the Eugenians. As a rewfurd Eugene IV nominated 
him cardinal; but Nicholas declined the dignity. It 
needed a command of the next pope, Nicholas V, to 
bring him to Rome for the acceptance of this honour. 
In 1449 he was proclaimed caroinal-priest of the title 
of St. Peter ad Vincula. 




His new diciity was fraught with labours and cardinal's own foundation. By mutual Bcreement 

croBses. The Dioceae of Biixen, the see of which was with his eister Clare and his brother John, his entire 

vacant, needed a reformer. The Cardinal of Cusa inheritance was made the basis of the foundation, and 

was appointed (1430), but, owing to the opposition by the cardinal's laflt will his altar service, manuscript 

of the imapt«r and of Sigmund, Duke of Austria and librarv, and scientific instruments were beoueathed to 

Count of the Tyrol, coiud not take possession of the it. The extensive buildings with chapel, cloister, and 

see until two years later. In the meantime the cardi- refectory, which were erected in 1461-58, stand t*i this 

oal was sent by Nicholas V, as papal legate, to da^, and serve their original purpose of a home for 

Northern Germany and the Netherlaode. He was to thirty-three old men, in honour of the thirty-three 

preach the Jut^lee indulgence and to promote the years of Christ's earthly life. Another foundation of 

crusade against the Turks; to visit, reform, and cor- the cardinal was a residence at Deventer, called .the 

rect parishes, monasteries, hospitals; to endeavour to Bursa Cusana, where twenty poor clerical students 

reunite the HusBites witn the Church; to end the were to be supported. Among bequests, a sum of 260 

dissensions between the Duke of Cleve and the ducats was left to S. Maria dell' Anima in Rome, for 

Archbishop of Cologne; and to treat with the Duke an infirmary. In the archives of this institution is 

of Burgundy with a view to peace between England found the ori^al document of the cardinal's last will, 

and France. He crossed the Breimer in January, The writings of Cardinal Nicholas may be classified 

1451, held a provincial synod at Saliburg, visited under four heads: (1) juridical writings: "De concor- 

Vienna, Munich, Ratisbon, and Nuremberg, held a dantia catholica" and "De auctoritate pnesidendi in 

diocesan synod at Bamberg, presided over the pro- concilio generali " (1432-36), both writt^ on occasion 

vincial chapter of the Benedictines at Wflrsburg, of the Council of Basle. The superiority of the general 

and reformed the monasteries in the Dioceses ot councils over the pope is maintained; though, when 

Erfurt, Thuringia, **• ■'■-'■■ "' •*•" 

ajority of the 

Magdeburg, HUdeL 
heim, and Minden. 
Through the Nethei^ 
lands he was accom- 

Bmied bv his friend 
enya the Carthu- 
Ban, Inl4d2hecon- 
cluded his visitations 
by holding a provin- 
cial synod at Co- 
logne. Everywhere, 
according to Abbot 
"IVithemius, he had 
appeared as an angel 
01 light and peace, 
but it was not to be 
so in his own diocese. 
The troubles began 
with the Poor Clares 
of Brixen and the 
Benedictine nuns of 
Sonnenburg, who 
needed reformation, 

but were shielded by Boms v wmcH CiaomiL Nicholu 

Duke Sigmund. The mm, Cnw, OM«Minr 

cardinalnad totake refuge in thestronghold of Andras, ignorantia" (1439-40), 
at Buohenstein, and finallv. bv snecial authority re- The Theorv of Knowli 

cdvcd from Pius II, pr . . , -— --, — ,- 

the Countship of the Tyrol. In 1460 the duke made cially in the "Compendium" (1404). In his dkiemol- 
it^ prisoner at Bumeck and extorted from him a ogy he calls the Creator the Pottett (posw-wl, the 
treaty unfavourable U> the bishopric. Nicholas 9cd possible-actual), alluding to the argument: God is 
to Pope Pius II, who excommunicated the duke and possible, therefore actual. Uiemicroccrmot in created 
laid an interdict upon the diocese, to be enforced by things has some similarity with the "monads" and 
the Archbishop of Salsburg. But the duke, himself the emanation " of Leibnii. (3) The theol<WcaI 
an immoral man, and, further, instigated by the anti- treatises are dogmatic, ascetic, tAid mystic. De 
papal humanist Heimburg, defied the pope and ap- cribratione slchorani" (1460) was occasioned by his 
pealed to a general council. It needed the strona in- visit to Constantinople, and was written tor the con- 
fluence of the emperor, Frederick III| to make him veisian of the Mohammedans. For the faithful were 
finally (1464) submit to the Church. 'This took place written: "De qiuerendoDeum"(1445). "Defiliatione 
e days after the cardinal's death. The account Dei" (1445), "DevisioneDei" (1453), ''Excitationum 

ify drew from 

these writing start- 
ling conclusions un- 
favourable to Pope 
Eugene, the author 
seems to have 
changed his views, 
as appears from his 
action after 1437. 
The political reforms 

Rroposed were skil- 
illy utilised by 
Gftrres in 1814. (2) 
In his philosophical 
writinp, composed 
after 1439, be set 
aude the definitions 
and methods of the 
"Aristotelean Sect" 
and replaced them 
by deep speculations 
and mystical forms 
of his own. The best 
known in his first 
treatise, "De docta 
the finite and the infinite. 
itically examined in 
an interdict upon the treatise "De conjecturis" (1440-44) and espe- 

(aee Pastor, □ 

-p- ject c r — — .,. 

infra, II). The cardinal, who had His concept of God has been much disputed, and has 

, II to the Venetian fleet at Ancona, even been c^ed pantheistic. The context of his writ'' 

ma sent by the pope U> Leghorn to hasten the Genoese ings proves, however, that they are all strictly Chriaijan. 

ousaders, but on the way succumbed to an illness, Scnarpfl calls bis theology a 'Thomas AKempis in phil- 

the result of his ill-treatment at the hands of 
mund, from which he had never fully recovered. 
died at Todi, in the presence of hia friends, the phy- 

b luui, ill LUC uivaKiivB ui uiB irmjIUB, 

Toscanelli and Bishop Johannes And) 

The bod^ of Nicholas of Cusa rests in his i 
tar church in Rome, beneath an efiigy of him sculp- 
tured in reUef, but his heart is deposited before the 

osophical language. (4) The scientific wntinga con- 
ustofadoien treatises, mostly short, of which the "Re- 
paratio Calendarii" (1436), with a correction of the 
Alphonsine Tables, is the most important. (For an ac- 
count of its contents and its results, see Lilius, Aloi- 
BiuB.) The shorter mathematical treatises are ex- 
Kftstner's "History of Mathematics", 11. 

altar in the hospital of Cues. This hoepit^ was the Among them is a claim for the exact quadnture « the 




circle, which waa refuted by RegjomonlanuB [nee tended to ^ to a foreien eountry, but when he cams 

MOlleb (Rboiomontanus), Johann). The astro- into the neighbourhood of Basle, a divine inspiratioi) 

nomical views of the cardinal are scattered through ordered him to take up his abode in the Ranf t, a val- 

hiH philosophical treatises. They evince complete ley alonatheMelcha, about an hour's walk from Sach- 

indepeadesce of traditional doctrines, thou^ they are eeln. Here, knownas "Brother Klaus", he abodeover 

based on symbolism of numbers, on combmationa of twenty years, without taking any bodily food or 

letters, and on abstract speculations rather thuiobser- drink, as was established through a careful inveetiga- 

vatJon, The earth is a star like-other stars, is not the tion, made by the civil as well as the ecclesiastical aa- 

centre of the universe, is not at rest, nor are its pwlea thorities of his times. He wore neither shoes nor cap, 

fixed. The celestial bodies are not strictly spherical, and even in winter was clad merely in a hermits 

nor are their orbits circular. The difference oetween gown. In 1468 he saved the town t>l Samen from ft 

theory and appearance is explained by relative motion, conflagration by his prayers and the sign of the croos. 

Had Copernicus been aware of these assertions he God ^o favoured him with numerous visions and the 

would probably have been encouraged by them t« gift of prophecy. Distinguished persona from nearly 

publish his own monumental work. The collected every country of Europe came to him for counsel in 

editions of Nicholas of Cuaa's works are: /ncunobuJd mattersof thetitmostimportance. At first he lived in 

(before 1476) in 2 vols., incomplete; Paris (1514) in 3 anarrowhut, which he himself had built with branchea 

vols.; Basle 

DOi, Dtr deuUehe kardi-tal Nthi- 
louj Km CuH und dU Kirrht m'ner 
ZtH (Ratubon. 1S4TI: Cleuenb, 
Giordana Bruno u. Nikalaui ton Cuta 

^lonn. IS4T); Zihueuuhh. Drr 
ordinal N. C. alt Varlau/tr Leibni- 
WH in Siltuiitibn: PM. Kl.. VIII 
(Vienna. 1S5Z) : JXoiib. Der Streil da 

kardinaU" - " ' 


, Dv 


ibuti, 1888): ScHAi... _ . 

r.MTu. BitdW N. t. C. iTft- 
lHDnD.18Tl):OKDiiB ia Hi^. Jalirb. 
d. airrlt^ltlUxliall. I (1S§0). Dii 

laeZ); .l«nn>n. v«:iii:F><i< u« uciu- 

jcAm VMa. I (Freiburg, 1897). 3-0, 
tr. Cauani (Loadoo and Bt. Lauis, 
1908): Pimm, atxhitlM dtr PapiU. 
11 (IVeiburc, 19(H), Ir. .' 
(St.Lo^, 1902); Mahx.I' 

„n-HotpiioU ... , , . 

leOT); VlLOtB.LaCriKrififfUuHdu 
XV' nicle (Puia, 19091. 

J. G. Haqbn. 

nUa (Db Cabdihal Nichoi^ or Cm 

.b.2r March, Portrait in the ho^uUl at Cue., which 

the FlQeli, a fertile plateau near Sachsein, His feast 

and leaves, and came daily ti 
Mass cither at Sachsein or at 
Kerns. Early in 1469 the 
civil authorities built a cell 
and a chapel for him, and on 
29 April of the same vear the 
chapel was dedicated by the 
vicar-general of Constance, 
Thomas, Bishop of Ascalon. 
In 1479 a chaplain was put in 
charge of the chapel, and 
thenceforth Nicholas always 
remained in the Ranft. When 
in 1480 delegates of the Svia 
confederates assembled at 
fitans to settle their diSet^ 
ences, and civil war seemed 
inevitable, Henry Imgrund, 

priest returned to the 
delegates with the hermit's 
counsels and propodtions, and 
civil war was averted. Nicho- 
las was beatified by Pope 
Clement IX in 1669. Numer- 
ous pilgrimB visit the chapel 


Canton Obwalden, Switzerland; d. 21 March, 1487' 
as a recluse in a neighbouring ravine, called Ranft. 

Hewas the oldest son of pious, well-to-do peasants and _., 

from his earliest youth was fond of prayer, practised fS:'^' ,^' 
mortification, and conscientiously performed the "^''■'*'"'''- 

■6 preserved) 

founded where his relics a 

celebrated on 21 March. 
iliiK Nicolaui Kin Flat, lein Libm ind Wirlitn (t 
ISai-TS); vohAb, Ou itligtn Sinrimdltn Nika- 
iniltrtiiro Ltbm (Einnedsln, 1SS7); BAimiEBOn. 
u Don Flat [Kempten and Munich, lOOfl); Ada 

,„ h. 398-439; WmiL. Dtr uL Nikdaiu wm Flf 

l^nnedeln. ISBT; Ravenabutc, 18ee) O. Into Italian. Mohdad 

laui tm Flat m 


muin, : 

1S88): I 

labour of a peasant boy. At the age of 21 he entered Ww d'aiKreMt (Paris, 1889); Blake, a A(ro«/iA> si.... . 
the army and took part in the battle of Ragai ia 1446. '«'«' ThtCaOaiieWotid. LXV <New York, 1897), asg-«73. 
Probably he fought in the battJes near theEtzelin Michael Ott. 

1439, nearBaarin the Canton of Zug in 1443, and as- 
sisted in the capture of Zurich in 1444. He took up 
arms again in the so-called Thurgau war against 
Archduke Sigismund of Austria in 1400. It was due 
to his influence that the Dominican Convent 

NlchoUa of Gorran (or Gorhain), medieval 
preacher, and scriptural commentator; b. in 1232 at 
Gorron, France; d. about 1295. He entered the Do- 
minican Order in the convent of his native h 

Katharinental, whither many Austrians had fled after became one of its most illustrious alumni. His tal- 
the capture of Dieasenhofen, was not destroyed b^ ents singled him out for special educational opportuni- 
the Swiss confederates. Heeding the advice of his ties.andhewassentaccordiqgly to thefamousconvent 
parents he married, about the age of twenty-five, a of St. James in Paris. In this convent he subse- 
pious girl from Sachsein, named Dorothy Wyeelin^, quentl^ served several terms as prior. His piety and ' 
who bore him five sons and five daughters. His sound judgment attracted the attention of Philip IV 
youngest son, Nicholas, bom in 1467, became a priest of France, whom he served in the double capacitj; of 
and a doctor of theology. Though averse to worldly confessor and adviser. In most of his ecclesiastical 
dignities, he was electedcantonal councillor and judge, studiesbedoesnot seem to have, excelled notably; but 
The fact that in 1462 he was one of five arbiters ap- in preaching and in the interpretation of the Scrip- 
pointed to settle a dirouto between the parish of Stans tures he was unsurpassed by any of his contompo- 
and the monasteiv of^Engelberg, shows the esteem in raries. His scriptural writings treat of all the books of 
which he was held. After living about twenty-five the Old and the New Testament, and possess more 
years in wedlock he listened to an inspiration of God than ordinary merit. Indeed, in such hi^h eeteem 
and with the consent of his wife left his family on were they held by the doctora of the University of 
16 October, 1467, to Uve as a hermit. At first he in- Paris that the latter were wont to demgnato th^ ftu- 

iboraBexedUiupo*t>daloT. Thecomnieptarieflonthe of inn^tuig, m the present work, upon the hteral 

_, ■eat times 

beeo ascribed to a different authorship. His commen- 
tary on the Epistles of St. Paul is remarkably well 
doD^ and hia gloss on the Apocalypse was deemed 
worthy of the highest commendation. Besides his 
ScripturaJ writings he commented on the Lombfird's 
Book of Sentences and on the Book of Distinctions. 
His coinmentariee on the Gospels were published 

pretationa, _. _ . 

fully mastered the Hebrew and drew copiously from 
the valuable commentaries of the Jewish exegetes, 
especially of the celebrated Talmudist Rashi. The 
"Pugio Fidei" of Raymond Martini and the com- 
mentkriea of St. Thomas Aquinas were laid Under con- 
tribution. His exposition is lucid and concise; hia 
observations are judicious and sound, and always 

original. The **POBtillEe" o**"" Kwmmi* tht» fnvm^nta 

His commentaries manual of exegesis. 

Paul were published 
at Cologne (1478); 
(1621); Antwerp 

QoBTir • EcuBD. SS. 
OrS. Prmi., V. Lajird, 
Buteln tin. dt Fraria. XX 
^uig, 1M2), 324-56: 

CkartuJorium E/ni'i. Pan- 
titn., II (Pbtu. 1891). 

John B. 0'C!onnob. 

Hlcbolu of Lyra 
(Docti/r plonua et uti- 
lit), exeget«, b. at 
Lvra in Normandy, 
ll70; Paris. 1340. 
The leport that he 
was of Jewish descent 
dates only from the 
fifteenth century. He 
took the Franciscan 
habitat Verneuil, 
Studied theology, re- 
ceived the doctor'ade- 
gree in Paria and was 
appointed professor 
at the Sorbonne. In 
the famous eontro- 
versy on the Beatific 
Virion he took sides 
with the professors 
against John XXII. 
He laboured very 
successfully, both in 
preaching and writ- 
ing, for the conversion 

oftheJewB. Heisthe ^- Nicho^ab of m.b. (ob < 
author of numerous Bonvicmo (ii Mor.ti. 

theological works, some of which are yet unpublished. 
It was to exegesis that Nicholas of Lyra devoted lus 
beet years. In the second prologue to his monumental 
work,"Po8til!B perpetute in universamS. Scripturam", 
after stating that the literal sense of Sacred Scripture 
is the foundation of all mystical expositions, and that 
it alone has demonstrative force, as St. Augustine 
teaches, he deplores the state of Biblical studies in 
his lime. The literal sense, he avers, is much ob- 
scured, owing partly to the careleesness of the copy- 
ists, partly to the unskilfulness of some of the coi^ 
rectors, and ()artly also to our own translation (the 
Vulgate), which not infrequently departs from the 
origmal Hebrew. He holds with St. Jerome that 
the text must be corrected from the Hebrew codices, 
except of course the prophecies concerning the Divin- 
iUr of Christ. Another reason for this obscurity, 
Nicholas goes on to say, is the attachment of scholars 
to the method of interpretation handed down by 
others who, though they have said many things well, 
have yet touched but aparingly on the literalsense, 
and have so multiplied the mystical senses as nearly to 
intercept and choke it. Moreover, the text has been 
distorted by a multiplicity of arbitrary divisions and 
ooneordancea. Hereupon he decUres his intention 

o became the favourite 
B the first Biblical com- 
mentary printed. The 
solid learning of Nich- 
olas commanded the 
respect of both Jews 
and Christians. 

Luther owes much 
to Nicholas of Lyra, 
but how widely the 
principles of Nicholas 
differed essentially 
from Luther's views IB 
best seen from Nicho- 
las's own words; "I 
protest that I do not 
intend to assert or 
determine anything 
that has not been 
manifestly detet^ 
mined by Sacred 
Scripture or by the 
authority of the 
Church Where- 
fore I submit all I have 
said or shall say to 
the correction of Holy 
Mother Church and 
of all learned men ... " 
(Prol. secund. in Pos- 
tillas., ed. 1498). 
Nicholas taught no 
new doctrine. The 
early Fathers and the 
great schoolmen had 
repeatedly laid down 
the same sound exe- 
getical principles, but, 
owing to adverse ten- 
dencies of the times, 
their efforts had partly 
fmled. Nicholas car- 
ried out these principles effectively, and in this lies 
his chief merit — one which ranks him among the fore- 
most exegetea of all times. 

WiDDTHO, AnnoZo (Roms. 1733). V, 204-7; VI, 237-0; Idem, 
Btriplora (Rome. 1906). ■. v.: Sbasalii, SuppJcmtnlum (Rome. 
ISOe), ■. v.; FtiuciD*. BM. Int. at inj. laiinilaiii, V (Hamburt, 
1736). Itl aqq.: Haih. Siptrimum. bild. (PaHi, 182fl-38), l v.; 
CoFiHQiB. SupvI'mmt to Ham'i Riptrt. bibl. (LoadoD, ISSS- 
1902). 1. v.: Dmhitlb ahs, CliariLi. Unittrrit, Fori,. 
II {Ptiia, lBai),p»iBm;F*MXT, La faaiUi di Uiiot. di Parit tl tu 
diKUur, If pliu eOibtit. Ill (Puii. lS»4-»e), 331-9; Simdh. Hiit. 
'^ -I- ccmmBitairiM d. V. T. (RatUrdun, 1683); Idu. Hi^. 
prtnctp. (onmenlnlflirt d. N. T. (Rotterdun. 1693J; 

, Duan lUtituM linmo Mir. habveninl CAristuni mtd. 

OoUia (Nmcy, lS93).CoKn»l.Y,HM_^<tmi.J>Urod.v ■ 

«, Quam n. 

_ JaUia (Nmcy, 

Ttlt. lifcru H<TH. I 
llu dudu oflht Scn'plii 


in /tinu<lu«udu;i.iHi, XXVI (1893), 
230iqq.;M*B " '' -' ' 

I (Piru, 1885), eeo-2 


.; N'luiiiHii, /n/lH- 
rlapotlitlade Lyra 

^ a. .. I. in i 


_ .. _ .. . im»cA^.XI(1801). a«8 

_„., Suvr. d trHETH dc N. I. L. ill Bludu /randKainH, 

XVI (1906). 383 aqq.; XVII 11907). 489 mn., G93 Kiq.; XIX 
(1908). 41 Hq.. 153 aqq., 368 wq.: Bihl, Hat S. t. L. in Sr/urt 
dotifrlf in ZfiUchr, d. Ytreint /. thUrini " • - .. . 

XXVI (1908). 320 aqq.; b«s ■J»,s pspsr a 

L, Hat'kt 

F. Oh(A. u. ^ItcrtuiH., 
„, _ ,_,,_ _n Nicholu ol Lyr» by 

Amiairt di I'lmiHrnM aUh. de Lovnfn (1910), 

Thom4B Plasbuann. 




he is one of the most popular saints in the Greek as 
well as the I^atin Church, there is scarcely an3rthing 
historically certiun about him except that he was 
Bishop of Myra in the fourth century. Some of the 
main points in his l^end are as follows : He was bom 
at Parara, a city of Lycia in Asia Minor; in his youth 
he made a pilgnma^e to E^mt and Palestine; shortly 
after his return he became Bishop of Myra; cast into 
prison during the persecution of Diocletian, he was 
released after the accession of Constantine, and was 
present at the Council of Nicsea. In 1087 Italian 
merchants stole his body at Myra, bringing it to Bari 
in Italy. 

The numerous miracles St. Nicholas is said to have 
wrought, both before and after his death, are out- 
growths of a long tradition. There is reason to doubt 
his presence at NicsBa, since his name is not mentioned 
in any of the old lists of bishops that attended this 
council. His cult in the Greek Church is old and e&- 
peciidly popular in Russia. As early as the sixth cen- 
tury Emperor Justinian I built a church in his honour 
at Constantinople, and his name occurs in the liturgy 
ascribed to St. Chrysostom. In Italv his cult seems to 
have begun with the translation of his relics to Bari, 
but in Germany it b^an already under Otto II, 
probably because his wife Theophano was a Grecian. 
Bishop Reginald of Eichstadt (d. Q91) is known to 
have written a metric, "Vita S. Nicholai". The 
course of centuries has not lessened his popularity. 
The following places honour him as patron: Greece, 
Russia, the Kingdom of Naples, Sicily, Lorraine, the 
Diocese of Liege; many cities in Italy, Germany, Aus- 
tria, and Belgium; Campen in the Netherlands; Corfu 
in Greece; Freiburg in Switzerland; and Moscow in 
Russia. He is patron of mariners, merchants, bakers, 
travellers, children etc. His representations in art 
are as various as his alleged miracles. In Germany, 
Switzerland, and the Netherlands they have the cus- 
tom of making him the secret purveyor of gifts to chil- 
dren on 6 December, the da^on which the Church cele- 
brates his feast; in the United States and some other 
countries St. Nicholas has become Identified with the 
popular Santa Claus who distributes gifts to children 
on Christmas eve. His relics are still preserved in the 
church of San Nicola in Bari; up to the present day an 
oily substance, known as Manna di S. Nicola^ which is 
highly valued for its medicinal powers, is said to flow 
from them. 

The traditionary legends of St. Nicholas were first ooUeoted and 
written in Greek by Mbtaphrastkb in the tenth century. They 
are printed in P. &., CXVI sq. A Latin translation by Giusn- 
NiANX (Venice, 1502 and 1513) is printed in Surius, De probatU 
tanctorum hiatoriist 6 December. There is an immense amount 
of ancient and modem literature. The followin|; modem authori- 
ties are noteworthy: Gabta, S. Nicold di Ban, vfcovo di Mira 
(Naples, 1904); Bertani, Vita di «. Nicold, tfcovo di Mira 
(Monsa, 1900) ; Gbmma, La oapaeUa delle rdiquie di t. Nicold di 
Bari in Basaarione, X (Rome, 1906). 317-328; Schnbll, 3i. 
Nickolaua der heil. Bischof u. Kinderfreund (BrQnn, 1883-5, and 
Ravensburg, 1886) ; Praxmarbr, Der h. Nikolaua u, «e»ne Vereh" 
rung (MQnster, 1894); Laroche, Vie de t. Nicholas, Mque de 
Myre, patron de la Lorraine (Paris, 1886, 1893) ; Idem, La manne de 
t. Nicholae in Revue Suieee Calholitfue, XXI (Freiburg, 1890), 5&- 
68, 122-137; Katata, Monoffraphxe die Vlgliee grecque de Maraeille 
€i vie dee. Nicholae de Myre (MarseUles. 1901). 

Michael Ott. 

Nicholas of Osixno (Auximanus), celebrated 

Ereacher and author, b. at Osimo, Italy, in the second 
idf of the fourteenth century; d. at Rome, 1453. 
After having studied law, and taken the degree of 
doctor at Bologna, he joined the Friars Minor of the 
Observants in the convent of San Paolo. Conspicuous 
for zeal, learning, and preaching, as companion of St. 
James of the Marches in Bosnia, and as Vicar-Provin- 
cial of Apulia (1439), Nicholas greatly contributed to 
the prosperity of the Observants for whom (1440) he 
obtainea complete independence from the Conven- 
tuals, a privilege shortly after revoked according to 
the aesire of St. Bemardine. He was also appointed 
Visitator and afterwards Superior, of the Holy Land, 

but many difficulties seem to have hindered himi from 
the discharge of these offices. Nicholas wrote both in 
Latin and Italian a number of treatises on moral theol- 
ogy the spiritual life, and on the Rule of St. Friin- 
cis. We mention the following: (1) '^Supplementum 
Sunmise Ma^tratis seu PisaneUse'^ a revised and 
increased edition of the '^Summa" of Bartholomew 
of San Concordio (or of Pisa), O.P., completed at 
Milan, 1444, with many editions before the end of 
the fifteenth century: Venice, 1473 sqq.; Genoa, 
1474; Milan, 1479; Reutlingen, 1483 : Nuremb^^ 
1494. (2) "Quadriga Spirituale", m Italian, treats 
in a popular way what the author considers the 
four principal means of salvation, viz. faith, good 
works, confession, and prayer. These are like the 
four wheels of a chariot, whence the name. The work 
was printed at Jesi, 1475, and under the name of St. 
Bernardine of Siena in 1494. 

Wadding, Seriploree Ord. Min. (Rome, 1806). 179 (Rome. 1906), 
176; Idbm, Annalee Minorum ad an, 1497, n. 13-16, 2nd ed., X 
(Rome, 1734), 119-30; ad an. I4S8, n. 21-23, XI (Rome. 1734). 
39-46; ad an. 1440, n. 29, XI (Rome, 1734), 111 passim; Sbaralba. 
Supplementum (Rome, 1806), 650; Spbbi, Tre Operette toloari di 
Frate Niccolo da Oaimo, teeli di lingua inediii traUi da' codici Volt- 
eani (Rome, 1865), preface; Luiax da Fabriano, Cenni cronolo- 
gico-biografiei deUa Oeeervanie Proeincia Picena (Quaraeohl, 1886). 
161, 221; Hain, Repertorium Bibliogtxtphicum (Paris, 1826), I. 
i, n. 2149^75; von Schulte, Dm Oeechichte der Queilen und Literor 
tur dee Canonieehen Rechtee von OnUian bie auf die Oegenvart, I 
(Stuttgart, 1877), 435-37; Diettbbud, Die Summa Confeeeorum 
in ZeiUchriftfUr Kirchengeechichte, ed. Brisgbb. XXVII (Gotha. 
1906). 183-88. 

LrvARiUB Oliger. 

Nicholas of StrMburff. mystic, flourished early in 
the fourteenth century. Educated at Paris, he was later 
on lector at the Dominican convent, Cologne. Ap- 
pointed by John XXII^ he made a canonical visitation 
of the German Domimcan province, where great dis- 
cord prevailed. Relying on two papal briefs dated 1 
August. 1325, it appears that the sole commission re- 
ceived trom the pontiff was to reform the province in 
its head and members, and to act as visitor to the sis- 
ters. Nicholas, however, assumed the office of in- 
quisitor as well, and closed a process alreadv begun by 
Archbishop Heinrich (Cologne) against Master Eck- 
hart, O.P., for his teachings on mysticism, in favour 
of the latter (1326). In January, 1327, the arch- 
bishop renewed the cause and arraigned Nicholas as a 
patron of his confrere's errors. Almost simultane- 
ously, Hermann von Hdchst, a discontented religious 
on whom Nicholas had imposed a well-merited pen- 
alty, took revenge by having him excommunicated. 
Nicholas, however, was soon released from this sen- 
tence by Pope John, that he might appear as definitor 
at the general chapter of his order convened at Pex- 
pignan. May 31, 1327. He is last heard of after the 
settlement of the process against Eckhart as vicar of 
the German Dominicans, 1329. Thirteen extant ser- 
mons show him to have been of a rather practical turn 
of mind. 

Having realized the inherent necessity of solid piety 
being based upon the principles of sound theology, he 
urges in clear, pregnant, and forceful style the sacred 
importance of good works, penitential practices and 
indulgences, confession ana tne Holy Eucharist. Onlv 
by the use of these means can the love of God be well- 
regulated and that perfect conversion of the heart at- 
tained which is indispensable for a complete remission 
of guilt. Built up on so firm a groundwork, there is noth- 
ing to censure but much to commend in his allegorical 
interpretations of Sacred Scripture, which are other- 
wise consistent with his fondness for parable and ani- 
mated illustration. " De Adventu Christi ", formerly 
attributed to Nicholas, came originally from the pen 
of John of Paris. 

Pbeqbr, Meieier Bekhart und die TnqiUeUion (Munich. 1869); 
Idcm, Oeach. der deutech. Myatik im MittelaUer, II (Leipsig, 1881); 
Deniplb, ActenatUcke tu Meiater Eckharia Proteaa in Zeiiachr, f. 
deutaehee Altertum u. deutache Literatur, XXIX (XVII) (1885); 
Idkm, Der PlagiatOTt Nich, ten Straeab, in Archivf, lAt. «, Kir^m- 




(Leipug. 1845). 

DeutMchs MyaUkw deu I4. Jahrh,» I 

Thos. a. K. Reillt. 

Nicholas of Tolontino, Saint, b. at Sant' Angelo, 
near Fermo, in the March of Ancona, about 1246; d. 
10 September, 1306. He is depicted in the black 
habit of tiie Hermits of St. Augustine — a star above 
him or on his breast, a lily, or a crucifix garlanded with 
lilies, in his hand. Sometimes, instead of the lily, he 
holds a vial filled with money or bread. His oarents^ 
said to have been called Compagnonus de Guarutti 
and Amata de Guidiani (these surnames may merely 
indicate tiieir birt^-places), were pious folk, perhaps 

fentle bom, living content with a small substance. 
Nicholas was bom in response to prayer, his mother 
being advanced in years. From his childhood he was 
a model of holiness. He excelled so much in his 
studies that even before they were over he was made 
a canon of St. Saviour's church; but hearing a sermon 
by a hermit of St. Augustine upon the text: ''Nolite 
diligere mundum, nee ea qu» sunt in mundo, quia 
mundus transit et concupiscentia ejus", he felt a call 
to embrace the religious life. He besought the hermit 
for admittance into his order. His parents gave a 
joyful consent. Even before his ordination he was 
sent to different monasteries of his order, at Recanati, 
Macerata etc^ as a model of generous striving after 
perfection, ae made his profession before he was 
nineteen. After his ordination he preached with 
wonderful success, notably at Tolentino, where he 
spent his last thirty years and gave a discourse nearly 
every day. Towards the end diseases tried his pa- 
tience, but he kept up his mortifications almost to the 
hour of death. He possessed an angelic meekness, 
a guileless simplicity, and a tender love of virginity, 
wmch he never stained^ guarding it by prayer and ex- 
traordinary mortifications. He was canonised by 
Eugene IV in 1446; his feast b celebrated on 10 
September. His tomb, at Tolentino, is held in ven- ' 
eration by the faithful. 

Acta SS., Sept.. Ill, 636; Bxttudb, LtM* of the SainU, III (Baiti- 
more), 440; HJLoblb in Kirehenlex.^ s. v. 

Edwabd F. Garebch£. 


Nicholas Pieck (also spelled Pick), Saint, Friar 
Minor andf martyr^b. at Gorkum, Holland, 29 August. 
1534: d. at Briel, Holland, 9 July, 1572. He came of 
an old and honourable family. His parents. John 
Pieck and Henrica Clavitf, were deeply attached to 
the Catholic faith, and the former on several oc- 
casions distinguished himself by his zeal against the 
innovations of Calvinism. Nicholas was sent to 
college at Bois-le-Duc ('S Hertogenbosch), and as 
soon as he had completed his classical studies he 
received the habit of the Friars Minor at the convent 
in that town. After his profession he was sent to 
the convent at Louvain to follow the course of study 
at the celebrated universitv there. Nicholas was or- 
dained priest in 1558 and tnenceforth devoted himself 
to the apostolic ministry. He evan^lized the prin- 
cipal towns of Holland and Belgium, combating 
heresy everywhere, strengthening Catholics in their 
faith, and distinguishing himself by his singular 
humihty, modesty, charity, and zeal for the honour 
of God and the salvation of souls. He was of an open 
disposition, gay and genial, and his whole bearing 
inspired affection and respect. His superiors, ap- 
preciating his fine Qualities, appointed him guardian 
of the convent at Gorkum, his native town. 

When this place was threatened by the Calvinists, 
Nicholas delivered several discourses to his fellow- 
townsmen, forewarning them against the dangerous 
errors of Calvinism. In particular, he proved by un- 
answerable arguments the dogma of tne Real Pres- 
ence, showing it to be a marvellous extension of the 
Incarnation, and he left nothing undone to bring his 
two brothers back to the true foM. When the citadel 

of Gorkum was taken by the Watergeuzen, the heretics 
detained the priests and religious, and confined them 
in a dark and foul dungeon. (See Gorkum. Thb 
Marttrs of.) DuHng tne first night the Calvin- 
ists vented their rage particularlv against Nicholas. 
Tying about his neck the cord, which girded his 
loinsj they first suspended him from a beam and then 
let him fall heavily to the groimd. This torture was 
prolonged till the cord broke, and the martyr, seem- 
ingly lifeless, fell to the floor. They then applied a 
burning torch to his ears, forehead, and chin, and 
forced open his mouth to bum his tongue and palate, 
either to find out whether he was still alive or in 
order to torture him. Meanwhile, the two brothers 
of Nicholas were busy taking steps to obtain the 
deliverance of the captives. This was promised them 
only on condition that the prisoners would renounce 
the authority of the pope, and, as nothing could make 
Nicholas and his companions waver in their faith, 
they were taken to BneL where they all gained the 
crown of martyrdom. Nicholas and his companions 
were beatified by Clement X, 24 November, 1675, 
and canonized by Pius IX, 29 June, 1867. 

CI4A.RT, Livft of ike SainU and Bleaaed of the Three Ordert of 
Saint Francit, II (Taunton, 1886), 467-65; Skdvuus, Hietoria 
Serajihiea (Antwerp, 1613), 671 sq.; Bchoutbnb, Maiii/rclogium 
Minoritico-Belgieum (Antwerp, 1901), 114-15; Esnus, Hieiorim 
Martyrum Qoreomieneium in Ada SS., II, July (ed. 1867), 804r- 
808; Waodxno. Annalet Minorutn, XX, 381-41& (For further 
bibliography aee QoBKim, Ths Maiittbb or.) 

Ferdinand Hsckmann. 

Nichols (or NicoLLs). Gbobgb, Vbnsrabub, Eng- 
lish martyr, b. at Oxford about 1550: executed at Ox- 
ford, 19 October, 1589. He entered Brasenoee Col- 
lege in 1564 or 1565, and was readmitted 20 August, 
1567, and supplicated for his B.A. degree in 1570-1. 
He subsequently became an usher at St. Paul's School. 
London. He arrived at Reims with Thomas Pilchard 
(q. v.), 20 Nov., 1581; but went on to Rome, whence 
he returned 21 July. 1582. Ordained subdeacon and 
deacon at Laon (probably by Bishop Valentine Doug- 
las, O.S.B.) in April, 1583^ and pnest at Reims (by 
Cardinal Archbisnop Loms de Uuise) 24 Sept., he 
was sent on the mission the same year. Having con- 
verted many, notably a convicted highwa3nnan m Ox- 
ford Castle^ he was arrested at the Catherine Wheel 
Inn, opposite the east end of St. Mary Magdalen's 
Church, Oxford, together with Humphrey Fnchard, 
a Welsh servant at the inn, Thomas Belson (q. v.), 
and Richard Yaxley. This last was a son (probably 
the third, certainly not the sixth) of William Yaxley of 
Boston, Lincolnshire, by Rose, daughter of John Lang- 
ton of Northolme. Arriving at Reims 29 August, 
1582, he received the tonsure and minor orders 23 
Sept., 1583, and the subdiaconate 5 or 6 April, 1585, 
from the cardinal archbishop. Probably the same 
hand conferred the diaconate on 20 April. The priest- 
hood was conferred at Reims by Louis de J3rea6, 
Bishop of Meaux, 21 Sept., 1585. Yaxley left Reims 
for England 28 January, 1585-6. All four prisoners 
were sent from Oxford to the Bridewell prison in Lon- 
don, where the two priests were hanged up for five hours 
to make them betray their hosts, but without avail. 
Yaxley was sent to the Tower as a close prisoner 25 
May, 1589, and appears to have been racked fre- 
quently. Belson was sent to the Gatehouse. The 
other two remained in Bridewell, Nichols being put 
into " a deep dungeon full of venomoue vermin " . On 
30 June all four were ordered back to Oxford to take 
their trial. All were condemned, the priests for trea- 
son, the la3rmen for felony. Nichols suffered first, then 
Yaxley, then Belson, and last Prichard. The priests' 
heads were set up on the castle, and their quarters on 
the four city gates. 

Challonbr, Memoira of Miaeionary Prietta, I, no«. 73-6*. PoL- 
LBN, Catholie Record Society, V (London, 1008), paenm; Dabbnt. 
Acta of the Pnvy Council, XVII (London, 1800-1907), 208, 320; 
Knox, Pirat and Second Diariea of^Bngliah CaUegt, Dottai (London, 
1878), pMsim; Harleian Society PtMioationa, Ul (London, 1004), 




1124; Oziord HitUmeai Society Pvblieaiiont, XXXIX (Oxford. 
1899), 109. 110; LV (Oxford. 1910). 33. 

John B. Wainewrioht. 


Nicholson, Francis, a controversial writer; b. at 
ManchesteTi 1650 (baptized 27 Oct.) ; d. at LiBbon, 13 
Aug., 1731. The son of Henry or Thomas Nicholson, 
a Manchester citizen, when sixteen he entered Univer^ 
si ty College, Oxford, as a servitor, and took his degrees 
as bachelor of Arts (18 June, 1069) and Master of Arts 
(4 June, 1673). Ordained an Anglican clergyman, he 
officiated, first about Oxford, afterwards near Canter- 
bury, where he gained some success in reconciling 
Nonconformists to the Church of England. A ser- 
mon preached at St. Mary's, Oxford, on 20 Jime, 1680, 
l^d to his being charged with unorthodox doctrine 
and the fact taaX he nad been a pupil of Obadiah 
Walker caused him to be suspected of Catholic tend- 
encies. The actual date of his reception into the 
Church is unknown, but during the reign of James II 
(1685-88) he was a professed Catholic and busied him- 
self in the king's interests. At this time he wrote the 
appendix on the doctrine of the Church of England 
concerning the Real Presence, and the ''Vindication 
of two recent discourses'' on tne same subject, added 
to Abraham Woodhead's ''Compendious Eoscourse on 
the Eucharist", published in 1688. After the revolu- 
tion he joined the Carthusians at Nieuport in Flanders, 
but his health was imequal to this austere life, and in 
1692 he returned to England. There he entered the 
service of the Queen Dowager, Catharine of Braganza, 
whom he accompanied back to Portugal. For some 
years he resided at the Portuguese Cburt and then 
retired to an estate which he had bou^t at Pera, half 
a league south of the Tagus, and not, as the writer 
in the " Dictionary of National Biography " oddly as- 
serts^ the "suburb of (Constantinople'^. He spent a 
considerable period there in devotion and studvj until 
reaching his seventieth year he made over all his real 
and personal property to the En^h College at 
Lisbon, subject to the discharge of his debts, the pro- 
vision of board and lodging for the remainder of his 
life, and a small annuity. Three vears before his 
death at the college he sent back to the Catholic anti- 
quary. Dr. Cuthbert Constable, all the surviving 
MSS. of Abraham Woodhead. which had passed into 
his bands as executor of Obadiah Waller. With 
them also he sent his MS. life of Constable, published 
with additions in his edition of that author s "Third 
Part of a Brief Account of Church Government". 

Amthont a Wood, Athtna Oxonienae»t II. reprinted from 
DoDD. Church Hutoru, III. 462; Catholie Maaatine, VI (May. 
1835), 208; FoaxBR. Alumni OxonienMea (Oxford. 1891); Gillow. 
BM. Diet. Bng. Cath., b. v. NiehoUon and ConaiabU; Sutton in 
t>%ti, Nat. Biog.; Cboit. Kirk't Hittorical Aoeouni o/Li$b<m CoUege 
(London. 1902). 

Edwin Bubton. 

NicodomuB, a prominent Jew of the time of Christ, 
mentioned only in the Fourth Gospel. The name is of 
Greek origin, but at that epoch such names were 
occasionally Sorrowed by the Jews, and according to 
Josephus (Ant. of the Jews, XIV, iii, 2) Nicodemus 
was the name of one of the ambassadors sent by Aris- 
tobulus to Pompey. A Hebrew form of the name 
(rnonpo, Naqdimdn) is found in the Talmud. 
Nicodemus was a Pharisee, and in his capacity of 
sanhedrist (John, vii, 50) was a leader of the Jews. 
Christ, in the interview when Nicodemus came to him 
by night, calls him a master in Israel. Judging from 
John, xix, 39, Nicodemus must have been a man of 
means, and it is probable that he wielded a certidn 
influence in the Sanhedrim. Some writers coniecture 
from his question: "How can a man be bom when he 
is old?", that he was already advanced in years, but 
the words are too general to warrant such a conclusion. 
He appears in this interview as a learned *and intelli- 
gent Deliever, but timid and not easily initiated into 
the m3rBterie0 of the new faith. He next appeara 

(John, vii, 50, 51) in the Sanhedrim offering a word 
in defence of the accused Galilean; and we may infer 
from this passage that he embraced the truth as soon 
as it was fully made known to him. He is mentioned 
finally in John, xix, 39, where he is shown co-operating 
with Joseph of Arimathea in the embalimng and 
burial of Jesus. His name occurs later in some of the 
apocryphal writings, e. s. in the so-called "Acta 
Pilati'', a heterogeneous document which in the six- 
teenth century was published imder the title "Evan- 
gjeliUm Nicodemi" (Gospel of Nicodemus). The 
time of his death is unknown. The Roman Mart3rrol- 
o^ commemorates the finding of his relics, together 
with those of Sts. Stephen, Gamaliel, and Abibo, on 
3 August. 

CoNTBEABB. Studia BiUiea, IV (Oxford. 1896). 69-132; La 
Camus. Laviede N.S. J*9ua-Chri$t (Paris, 1883). I, 261 sqq.; II, 
24 sqq.. 577 sqq.. tr. Hickbt (3 vols., New York. 1906-08). 

James F. Dribcoll. 

NicodemuB, Gospel of. See Acta Pilati. 

NicolaI, Jean, celebrated Dominican theolonan 
and controversialist, b. in 1594 at Mouzay in the Dio- 
cese of Verdun, France; d. 7 May, 1673, at Paris. En- 
tering the order at the age of twelve, he made his 
religious profession in 1612, studied pnilosophy and 
theology in the convent of St. James at Paris, obtained 
(1632) the doctorate in theology at the Sorbonne, and 
taught these branches with distinction in various 
houses of the order. He was highly esteemed for 
strict observance of the rule, prudence, rare erudition, 
and power of penetration. Besides Latin and Greek 
he was conversant with Italian, Spanish, and He- 
brew. He was a member of the commission appointed 
to examine the works and teachings of the 
Jansenists and to prevent the further dissemina- 
tion of their doctnne in the Sorbonne. In the 
disputes on grace between the Thomists and Mo- 
linists, which the teaching of Jansenius revived, he ad- 
hered strictly to the Thomistic doctrine. His numer- 
ous works fall into three classes: (a) new editions of 
older theologians which he supplied with commen- 
taries and explanatory notes; (o) his own theological 
works; (c) his poetical and political writing. The 
most important of the first class are '^Rainen de Pisis 
[1351] ord. Fr. Pred. Pantheolo^a sive universa the- 
ologia ordine alphabetico per vanos titulos distributa'' 
(Lyons, 1670): to each of the three volumes of this 
work he added a dissertation against Uie Jansenists; 
^'S. Thonue Aq. ExposiMo continua super quatuor 
evangelistas'' (Lyons, 1670); "S.Thoms Aq. commen- 
taria in quatuor libros sententiarum P. Lombard!" 
(Lyons, 1659): ^'Commentarius posterior super libros 
sententiarum'' (Lvons, 1660); ''S. Thome Aq. qu»- 
stionesquodUbetales" (Lyons, 1660); '^S. ThomsAq. 
Summa theologica innumeris Patrum, Conciliorum, 
scripturarum ac decretorum testimoniis ad materias 
controversas vel ad monilem disciplinam pertinenti- 
bus. . . illustrata" (Lyons, 1663); ''S. Thoms Aq. 
explanatio in omnes d. Pauli Ap. epistolas commen- 
taria" (Lyons, 1689). His important theologica] 
works are: ^'Judicium seu censorium suffragiuin de 
propositione Ant. Amaldi sorbonici doctoris et socii ad 
ousestionem juris pertinente" (Paris, 1656): "Theses 
tneologice de gratia seu theses molinistic» tnomisticis 
notis expunctae" (Paris, 1656); "Apologia natune 
et gratis" (Bordeaux, 1665). Af^ainst Launoy, the 
champion of the "Gallican Liberties", he wrote: "De 
iejunii christian! et christians abstinentis vero ac legit- 
imoritu" (Paris, 1667); "De Concilio plenario, qucxi 
contra Donatistas baptism! qusestionem ex Augustin! 
sensu definivit" (Paris, 1667); "De plenarii Condlii 
et baptismatis hereticorum assertione dissertatio pos- 
terior anteriorem firmans" (Paris, 1668): "De bapK , 
tismi antiquo usu ab Ecclesia instituto, dissertatio" 
(Paris, 1668) ; "De Constantini baptismo, ubi, quando 
et a quibus fuerit celebratus historica dissertatio" 
(Paris, 1680). The purpose of his poetical and politi- 




cal writings seems to have been to extol the dignity 
and glory of France and her kings. Thus, he delivered 
in Rome in 1628 a panegvric in honour of the victory 
of Louis XIII at La Rochelle and in 1661 composed a 
poem in honour of the son of Louis XIV. He was highly 
esteemed at the royal court and received a pension of 
600 francs. He was buried in the chapel of the con- 
vent of St. James in Paris, and a marble stone beside 
the grave bears a lone inscription recounting his vir- 
tues, his learning, ana his services to his country. 

Qtmnr-EcHARO, 0iS. Ord. Prod,, II, 047; Journal dea Sawanit, 
II. 340. 482. 

Joseph Schroeder. 

Nicolaites (Nicolaitanb), a sect mentioned in the 
ApoccJypse (ii, 6, 15) as existing in Ephesus, Perga- 
mus, and other cities of Asia Minor, about the charac- 
ter and existence of which there is little certainty. 
Irenseus (Adv. Hser., I, xxvi, 3; HI. xi, 1) discusses 
them but adds nothing to the Apocalypse except that 
"they lead lives of unrestrained indulgence". Ter- 
tullian refers to them, but apparently knows only 
what is found in St. John (De Prsescrip. xxxiii ; Adv. 
Marc., I, xxix; De Pud., xvii). Hippolvtus based his 
narrative on Irenseus, though he states that the deacon 
Nicholas was the author of the heresy and the sect 
(Philosoph., VII, xxvi). Clement of Alexandria 
(Strom., Ill, iv) exonerates Nicholas, and attributes 
the doctrine of promiscuity, which the sect claimed to 
have derived from him, to a malicious distortion of 
words harmless in themselves. With the exception of 
the statement in Eusebius (H. E., Ill, xxix) that the 
sect was short-lived, none of the references in Epi- 
phanius, Theodoret etc. deserve mention, as they are 
taken from Irenseus. The common statement, that 
the Nicolaites held the antinomian heresy of Corinth, 
has not been proved.. Another opinion, favoured by 
a number of authors, is that, because of the allegorical 
character of the Apocalypse, the reference to the 
Nicolaitans is merely a symbolic manner of reference, 
based on the identical meaning of the names, to the 
Bileamites or Balaamites (Apoc., ii, 14) who are 
mentioned just before them as professing the same 

HiLOBNPCLB, KeUerqMchichte dea UrehrUterUuma (Leipsii^. 
1884) ; Sbbsbman, Die Nikolaiten. Bin Beitrag zur aUeren Hdreti^ 
oloffie in TheoL Siudien und Kritiken (1803). 

P. J. Healt. 

Nicolmi, ARifBLLA, popularly known as "La 
bonne Armelle", a saintly French serving-maid held 
in high veneration among the people, though never 
canonised by the Church, b. at Campendac in Brit- 
tanny, 9 September, 1606, of poor peasants, George 
Nicolas and Francisca JN^^ant; d. 24 October, 1671. 
Her early years were spent in the pious, simple life of 
the haixi-working country folk. Wnen she was 
twenty-two years of age her parents wished her to 
marry, but she chose rather to enter service in the 
neighbouring town of Plodrmel, where she found more 
opportunity for her pious works and for satisfying her 
spiritual needs. After a few years she went to the 
larger town of Vannes, where she served in several 
families, and for a year and a half was portress &t the 
Ursuline monastery. She here formed a special 
friendship with a certain sister, Jeanne de la Nat)vit6, 
to whom she told from time to time many details of 
her spiritual life, and who noted down these com- 
munications, and afterwards wrote the life of Armella, 
who could herself neither read nor write. Even the 
lowly work at the convent did not satisf v her craving 
for toil and humiliation, and she returned to one of her 
former employers, where she remained to the end of her 
life. To her severe trials and temptations she added 
many works of penance and was rewarded by the 
growth of her inner life and her intimate union with 
God. During the last years of her life a broken leg 
caused her great suffenng, patiently borne. Many 

recommended themselves to her prayers and her 
death-bed was surrounded by a great number of per- 
sons who held her in special veneration. Her heart 
was preserved in the Jesuit churchy and her body 
was buried in the church of the Ursuhnes. Near her 
grave was erected a tablet to "La bonne Armelle"; 
her tomb is a place of pilgrimage. Armella has been 
claimed, but without good grounds, as an exponent of 
Quietism (q. v.). If some of her expressions seemed 
tinged with Quietist thought, it is because the con- 
troversy which cleared and defined many notipns con- 
cerning Quietism had not yet arisen. On the other 
hand her simple, laborious life and practical piety 
make any sucii aberrations very unlikely. 

JuNGMANN in Kirehenlexikont a. v. Nicoiaa; Stolti, Legende der 
HeUigen, £4 October; Bubbon, Vm d'Armelle NieoUu etc, (Pftria, 
1844) ; Tbii0ts£obn, SeUd Livea of Holy Soula, I, 2nd ed. (1754). 

Edward F. Garesch^. 

Nicolmi» AuGnsTB, French apologist, b. at Bor- 
deaux, 6 Jan., 1807; d. at Versailles 18 Jan.. 1888. 
He first studied law, was admitted as an aavocate 
and entered the magistracy. From 1841-49 he was 

t'ustice of the peace at Bordeaux; as early as 1842 he 
»egan the puolication of his apologetical writings 
which soon made his name known among Catholics. 
When in 1849 M. de Falloux became minister of pub- 
lic worship he summoned Nicolas to assist him as 
head of the department for the administration of the 
temporal interests of ecclesiastical districte. He held 
this office until 1854 when he became general inspector 
of libraries. In 1860 he was appointed judge of the 
tribunal of the Seine and finally councillor at the 
Paris court of appeals. 

Nicolas employed his leisure and later his retirement 
to write works in defence of Christiani^ taken as a 
whole or in ite most important do^as. He showed his 
accurate conception oi apologetics by adapting them 
to the dispositions and the needs of the minds of his 
time, but he lived in a period when Traditionalism 
still dominated many French Catholics, and this is re- 
flected in his works. He aimed no doubt at defending 
religion by means of philosophy, sood sense, ana 
arguments from authonty; but he also often appeals 
to the traditions and the ^ping moral sense oi man- 
kind at large. The testimonies, however, which he 
cites, are oiten apocryphal, and frequently also he 
interprete them uncritically and ascribes to them 
a meaning or a scope which they do not possess. Be- 
sides, his apologetics speedily grew out-of-date when 
ecclesiastical and critical studies were revived in 
France and elsewhere. His writings also betray at 
times the layman lacking in the learning and pre- 
cision of the theologian, and some of his books were 
in danger of being placea on the Index. Some bishops, 
however, among them Cardinals Donnet and Pie, m- 
tervenecl in his behalf and certified to the upri^tness 
of his intentions. Otherwise the author addressed 
himself to the general public and especially to the 
middle classes which were still penetrated with Vol- 
tairian incredulity, and he succeeded in reaching 
them. His books were very successful in France ana 
some of them even in Germany, where they were 
translated. Among his works may be mentioned: 
''Etudes philosophiques sur le Christianisme" (Paris, 
1841-45), a philosophical apology for the chief Chris- 
tian dogmas, which reached a twenty-sixth edition 
before the death of the author; ''La Vier^e Marie et 
le plan divin, nouvelles etudes philosophiques sur le 
Christianisme" (4 vols.. Paris. 1852, 1853^ 1861), in 
which is explained the r61e of tne Blessed Virgin in the 
plan of Redemption, and which was translated into 
German, and reached the eighth edition during the 
author's lifetime; " Du protestantisme et de toutes lee 
h^r^es dans leur rapport avec le socialisme" (Paris, 
1852, 2 vols., 8 editions) ; "L'Art de croire, ou prepa- 
ration philosophiqueau Christianisme'' (Paris, 1866- 
67), translatea into (xerman; "La Divinity de J68Ȥ- 




Christ, demonstration nouvelle " (1864) : " J^stis Christ 
introduction k I'Evangile 6tu6i6 et medit6 k I'usase 
des temps nouveaux'' (Paris, 1875). As semi-reli- 
eious and semi-political mav be mentioned: "La 
Monarchic et la question du drapeau" (Paris, 1873); 
''La Revolution et I'orde chr^tien" (Paris, 1874); 
"L'Etat contre Dieu" (Paris, 1879); "Rome et la 
Papaute^' (Paris, 1883); and finally the works in his- 
ton co-philosophic vein: "Etude sur Maine de Biran'' 
(Paris, 1858); "Etude sur Eugenie de Gu6rin'' 
(Paris, 1863); "M^moires d'un pire sur la vie et la 
mort de son nls'' (Paris, 1869); "Etude historique et 
critique sur le P^ Lacordaire" (Toulouse, 1886). 

Lapbtrb, Augu^ Nicolat, $a vie et ae$ atuvrea (Vapr^ tee MS- 
moiree irUdile, eee papiere ei ea eorreepondanee (Paris, 1892). 

Antoinb Degbrt. 

NicoIauB OerxnanuB (often called "Donis" from a 
misapprehension of the title " Donnus" or "Donus" an 
abbreviated form of "Dominus''). a fifteenth-century 
cartographer, place of birth, ana date of birth and 
death unknown. The first allusion to him of authentic 
date is an injimction of Duke Borso d'Este (15 March, 
1466) to his referendary and privy counsellor, Ludo- 
yico Casella, at Ferrara, to have the " Cosmographia 
of Don Nicold'' thoroughly examined and then to de- 
termine a recompense tor it. The duke, on the thir- 
tieth of the same month, called upon his treasurers for 
100 florins in gold "to remit as a mark of his apprecia- 
tion to Donnuis Nicolaus Germanus for his excellent 
book entitled ^(Dosmo^aphia' ". On 8 April, 1466, 
the duke again drew thirty golden florins to present to 
the Rev. Nicolaus, who "in addition to that excellent 
Cosmography" (iiltra illud excellens Cosmographie 
opus) had dedicated to the duke a calendar made to 
cover many years to come ("librum tacuini multorum 
annorum''). The "Cosmographia" as preserved in 
the Bibliotheca Estensis at Modena comprises a Latin 
translation of the Geographer of Ptolemy with maps. 
The version of the geographical text is substantially 
the same as that dedicated in 1410 to Pope Alexander 
V bv Jacopo Angelo, a Florentine. la the execution 
of the maps, however, Nicolaus, instead of adhering to 
the flat projection of Ptolemy, chose what is known as 
the "Donis-proiection", because first worked out 
by him, in wnich the parallels of latitude are equi- 
distant, but the meridians are made to converge to- 
wards the pole. He likewise introduced new modes 
in delineating the outlines of countries and oceans, 
mountains and lakes, as well as in the choice of carto- 
graphic proportions. He reduced the awkward size 
to one wnich was convenient for use; the obscure and 
often imattractive mode of presentation he replaced 
by one both tasteful and easily intelligible; ne en- 
deavoured to revise obsolete maps in accordance with 
later information and to supplement them with new 
maps. While his first recension embraced only the 
twenty-seven maps of Ptolemy (one map of the world, 
ten special maps of Europe, four of Africa, twelve of 
Asia), the second comprised thirty (including in ad- 
dition modem maps of Spain, Italv, and the Northern 
countries: Sweden, Norway, ana Greenland). The 
last-named enlarged recension he dedicated as priest 
to Pope Paul II (1464r-71). He dedicated to the 
same pontiff his third recension, containing thirty- 
two maps, adding modem maps of France and the 
Holy Land. The works of the German cartographer 
were of great value in diffusing the knowledges of 
Ptolemy^ Geography. The first recension, probably 
the very copy in the Lenox Library (New Vork)^ is 
the basis of the Roman editions of Ptolemy bearmg 
the dates 1478, 1490, and 1507; on the third, certainly 
the copy preserved in Wolfegg Castle, are based the 
IJlm editions of 1482 and 1486. By combining the 
Roman and Ulm editions Waldseemtdler produced the 
maps of Ptolemy in the Strasburg edition of 1513, 
- which was frequently copied. The modem map of the 

Northem countries, made by Claudius Clavus, which 
Nicolaus embodied in his second recension of Ptolemy, 
was perhaps the source of the Zeni map which had such 
far-reaching influence, and likewise of the maritime 
charts of the Canerio and Cantino type. The revised 
map of the Northem countries ia the third recension of 
Nicolaus, which placed Greenland north of the Scan- 
dinavian Peninsula, was a powerful factor in cartog- 
raphy for a century, especially as Waldseemtiller gave 
the preference to this representation in his world and 
wall map of 1507, "the baptismal certificate of Amer- 
Because of these and other services to geog- 


raphy and cartoeraphy. as for example, by the re- 
vision of Buondelmonte's "Insularium", it would be 
desirable to have it established whether Nicolaus 
was really, as 'I conjecture, a Benedictine father of 
the Badia at Florence. 

FxscHEB, Nieolaue Oermanue in Bntdeekungen der Normannen 
in Amerika (Freiburg, 1902), 75-00, 113 aqq. (Eng. tr., tiondon. 
1903), 72-86. 108 aqq. 

Joseph Fischer. • 

Nicole, Pierre, theologian and controversialist, 
b. 19 October, 1625, at Chartres; d. 16 November, 
1695, at Paris. He studied at Paris, became Master 
of Arts, 1644, and followed courses in theology, 1645- 
46. Under Sainte-Beuve's direction he applied him- 
self earnestly to the study of St. Augustme and St. 
Thomas, devoting part of his time to teaching in the 
schools of Port-Royal. In 1649 he received the de- 

free of Bachelor of Theology^ and then withdrew to 
'ort-Royal des Champs, where he fell in with the Jan- 
senistic leaders, especially Antoine Amauld, who 
found in him a willing ally. He returned to Paris in 
1654 imder the assumed name of M. de Rosny. Four 
years later, during a tour in Germany, be translated 
Pascal's "Provinciales" into classic Latin, adding 
notes of his own and publishing the whole as the 
work of William Wendrock. In 1676 he soudbt ad- 
mission to Holy orders, but was refused by the Bishop 
of Chartres and never got beyond tonsure. A letter, 
which he wrote (1677) to Innocent XI in favour of the 
Bishops of Saint-Pons and Arras, involved him in dif- 
ficulties that obliged him to ouit the capital. In 1679 
he went to Belgium and lived for a time with Amauld 
in Brussels, Liege, and other cities. About 1683 de 
Harlay, Archbishop of Paris, to whom he had sent a 
sort of retractation, authorized Nicole to return to 
Chartres, then to Paris. Here he took part in two cele- 
brated controversies, the one involving Quietism in 
which he upheld Bossuet's views, the other relating 
to monastic studies in which he sided with MabiUon 
against the Abb^ de Rancey . His last years were sad- 
dened by painful infirmities and his death came after a 
series of apoplectic attacks. 

Pierre Nicole was a distinguished writer and a vig- 
orous controversialist and, together with Pascal, con- 
tributed much to the formation of French prose. As 
a controversialist, he too frequently placed his talent 
at the service of a sect ; however, many are of the opin- 
ion that he did not wholly share the errors of the ma- 
jority of the Jansenists. At any rate, we generally 
find m him only a mitigated expression of these errors 
clothed in great reserve. On the other hand, he started 
the resistance fund knownr as "la botte k Perrette". 
(See Jansenius.) Niceron (M^moires, XXIX, Paris, 
1783) enumerates no less than eighty-eight of his 
works, several of which were, however, very short. 
The principal works of Nicole relating either to Prot- 
estantism or Jansenism are: "Les imaginaires et les 
visionnaires'' or "I^ttres sur Fh^r^sie imasinaire", 
namely, that of the Jansenists (Li^e, 1667) ; ^' La per- 
p6tuit^ de la foi catholique touchant TEucharistie", 
published under Amaula's name, but the first three 
volumes of which (Paris, 166^76) are by Nicole, 
the fourth and fifth (Paris, 1711-13) by the Abb^ 
Renaudot ; " Pr^jug^s legitimes contre les Calvinistes" 
(Paris, 1671); "La defense de rEglise" (Cologne, 


1689), being a reply to the "D^fenae de la Rdformar in chaige of sbtera, 28; students, 1800; nonnal school 

tion" written by the minister, Claude, against the . for young ladies, 1; parochial schools, 500; children at- 

"Pr^jug^i l^times''; ''Essais de morale" (Paris, tending parochial schools, 20,000; orphan asylums, 1; 

1671-78); ''Lee pr^tendus R6form69 convaincus de orphans, 120; hospitals, 3; population: Catholic 

schisme^' (Paris, 1684); "De Tunit^ de TEglise" or French Canadians, 90,000; Inah Canadians, 600; 

"Refutation du nouveau syst^me de M. Jurieu" Protestants, 1800; total population, 92,400. 

(Paris, 1687), a condensed and decisive criticism of the J.^S.-GLerman Bbxtnauut. 

theory of the "fundamental «licl«;;; "R^fu^^ ^^^^ ^, Tudeschl ("abbas modemus" or "re- 

des pnncipales erreurs des Qmdtistes" (Pans, 1695); *™*'f," TTuu ^^_:?«™»> II ««a^,i«l»»\^ 

"Initructlons thdologiques et morales sur le^ sacre^ ^^^ / ^^"^^ S'T'^ rS^^u^^nn^^^i^i* 

ments" (Paris, 1706), ''sur le Symbole" (Paris, 1706), fen^ct^^e canonist, b. at Catam* iWit.'^^JfSSi 

"sur roUson dominicale, la sSStation angdlique, la L^^^^^l^o^/ «e3^^^^^^^ 

171^^' oontAininir all that Nimlp W written at ^^ taught successively at Parma (1412-18), Siena 

dSS^t ti^o^KWce- '^^^ (141^0), and Bologmi (1431-32). Meanwhile in 

omerent tunes on grace, ii-aite ae i usure irans, ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ monastery of Man- 

Oouim, HiBtoire delavieeidea outngn dt NicoU (Pam, 1733) ; iacio. near Messina, whence his name " Abbaa " , to 

BuoioNK. Vie <u Nicole in the HiHoire de Pari-Royai, V; (Both which has been added "modemus ' or "recentior" 

of thewj authora are JansemBts and write ae such.) an anonymoua (in order to distinguish him from " Abbas antiquus", 

Btoffrapky of Nicole in the Conixnttation de* eetaie de morale (Lux- 'i i.u;«i.„^«*u ^^^4>,.TLr ».«^««:«4- m^v.,*^ M,^ aU^«.4 i oqqn • 

embuii. 1732) ; Cwiv»au. L'eepnt de NicoU (Paris. 1765) ; k«»- ? tlurteenth centuTV canomst who died about 1288; , 

■AJf. Peneiee de Nicole (Paris, 1806); Floos in Kirehenlex,, a. v.; he 18 also known as " Abbas SlCUlus" on acCOUnt of his 

HuBTEB, Nomendator, u. Sicilian origin. In 1433 he went to Rome where he 

J. HoBGET. exercised the functions of auditor of the Rota and 

Nicolet, DiocESEOF(NicoLETANA),mtheProvince ;?;«?S^^\^T^^;h I?^^ 

of Quebec Canada, suffragan of Quebec. It com- Qjushed these offices and placed ^mseK at the serw^ 

nriflM thrmuntififl of Nioolet YamMka Arthabiwka ®^ Alfonso of Castile. King of Sicily, obtammg the 

pnses tne counties oi XNicoiet, lamasKa, Artnaoasica, g^ ^ Palermo in 1435. whence his name "Panor- 

Drummond, and a small part of Shefford and Bagot. iTu "„„>r i^, Jt^IuI ♦^^ ♦i^^rTj^J, 

The see tak« its name from the town of Nicolet (^o- ?2^f,/ i,,^S^^Sa .f^W 

ulation 3915), situated on the south bank of theSt ^'^^**® r°*u^"^®^^lX! ?"^i!^ ** ^* ^?v^^ ^u 

T r^r-^Jl «^rwJ;*o T'T^ia-n;^A,^ paTty of this pontiff but subsequently alhed himself 

r^^ ;,^^n JXK^; 11 T„lv iw« hv with the anti^e Felix V whoTin 1440, named him 

It was erected mto a^bishopnc on 11 July, 1885, by ^,^;„„, j^^^ ''T,««faf«o a\. «««^iiS/i Roono«r,« " 

separation from 
first occupant o 
He was bom on 
Richelieu. Queb 
1885, and died; 

^Snisf i?f';KJf^ ™7Z S'^^^A^Q.rS^n^ gi^at^auti^rity; hr&o^'w;;te'"'%)'^iir"r"Qu';is: 

occupant oi the see, was oom at bt-JLiavia, Quebec, on ?;^«^m ury^jrAui^^^n «rk;«,*..*„*;«-.*- !4:a^»4>» 

10 jMuary, 1857; Educated at the eemini^ of nIco- ^^^ A .iwSf^nl'^^.iH '%^^tri^.il?^-^ 

let and tfie CaniLliaii CoUege. Rome; ordained, 29 i*°<?„*!!SiS>^*?S?^ '^f„Z^^JJ vS1,^7m 

June im Hajd^minijte^twoyeai^inthecaih^ ^^4tB^^TedUtoL^A^Xl61^: 

dral of St. Hyacinth and taught formany veani in the. ^8 (vS 'in 1^ foUo voiumi b e^aUy notable, 

seminary of Nicolet, first as professor of hterature, "a^^ j6^oiiJ^ iJr (juX, "l«. d^nonicken BmM*,. 

and then of theology, he was named coadjutor to Mgr ii (Stuttcut, 1877), 812-313; Sabbaoihi, Aoria documntata 

Gravel and consecrated titular Bishop of Tubuna, 27 *^ ««i^ ?'»•»»•*» ^ Cofemia (C»toU. iSM), lo aq. Bbahdi- 

^«ember, 1899jand succeeded as fiShop of Nioolet, ^^ S2^ "^ST^jJI^J^tS'to'^^^S^ 

28 January, 1904. The semmary of Nicolet was Bologna, 1 (Bologna, 1909), 1. 18-21. 
founded in October, 1803, and affiliated to the Laval A. Van Hovb. 

^Sfalr^l^iiSu^Sliiti^'StSli;?^ , ''?'?'T»"'ili^k^^b*'''^^^Si>"^^ 

The i^riouflln the diocese are as foUows: SoBurs de 5?"^ ^ inutators place the feast on this date. The 

r AssomptSn de la Saintt^Vierge, teachers, founded at S,'rSS!i?n-'fS^-*M!S: ^TtJ^'^Z^H J^ n!Zn^ 

St-Gi^ire (Nioolet) m 1863, EaUs eighte^ housesin ^^.S^^Jh^ «M^^nT;«nr^L,SStn?M^^ ^S^ 

the di^sese; Soniis Crises (de Nicollo, hospitallers, S\i^!.Si^)^i'^„^* ^P^f*?^*, SnirSS 

three houses; Congregation de Notre-D^e (of Mont^ . Martyrologium HieronymiMum , but was Jnsertwi 

real), teachek, at^abaskaville, and Victoriaville; Si'^*^rTWhT„ri5?5^^4 lC"^^r h^^ 

Soeius de la Pr^ntation de la Bieni^eureuse Vieige Mai °? ??^ •R"''^T \i . ^™' }^,tli^}L3^K.3. 

rie, teachers, at St-David and Drtumnondvilter&Euni «>•** >« without doubt a martyr of the ftoman Church. 

Crises de u'Croix (of Ottawa), teachen and 'nurses, ?* T„''i^!lr.e,5,*i^?'' ^J^ ^.^TZ^ 

with academy and school of hoilse-keeping at St-Pran- ?5" *'^^. «^^ ?' that name Three seventh Mntuw 

9oisduLac,iadaschoolatPierreville(^blnakiIndian SJ^"^!?,,^?^* A*'*,u':fZ^ tt'n^H! mt 

^lage); Religieus« hospitaJiiies de St- Joseph (of S*"^ ^^w" ^ ^*?'«* <*«,?•'""'' ^l***^^ »l5,ut 

Montreil), ho^itallers, at Arthabaskaville: So^s du ^l, ???** 8<>tt«™n«»^ - ^i J^fr/®)' „A *'*^" 

Pr6cieux-Sang,'andSoei^dekSainte.FamifaeatNico- t3^\?i S??""' "Sw""!* v*5!!.S^^ **v^^„I1! 

let; the F^ des Eooles Chr«iennes have schools at dedicated to him (Wu/m. S. Ifl^otn^). Nothmg w 

Niiolet, ArthabaskaviUe, La Baie, and St^i^goire; the ^^^^ °^ the circunwtoncM of hw d^th. The 1^ 

FWree ^e Ui Charit6 ar^ at Druiunondville; and the 5^ *•»« martyrdom of Sts. Nereus and AohiUeus intro- 

Prfties du Sacr^-CcBur teach at ArthabaskaViUe, and ^^rJ^'Sti^^t?'Z^?^'^i,?i^'t^^^^^l' ^l 

VictoriaviUe. <?«i«raiStatM<tM.-Secular priests, 140; *^1?L*''* ^«* '^*'^li ^^'"^'•k^^^*.^ J^f 

brothere, 120; sisten, 400; churches wfth resident 5"^7^°i? "t^*' ^"^^^^ ■"^^^^^^^If.Si 

priests, ^; mi^on, 1 ; theolJ«icaI seminary, 1 ; coUege fA Y ^"P*"" Maximianus (begummg of the 

j«nin«nr, 1 ; commeraal coffeges, and academies for '°!tS'ssTs^Z V, 8 «>q.: AnaUcia BM„M,na. XI. 2e8-ea; 

boys, 11; students, 1500; acadenues for young ladies MomBmin, 5aiM<i«in«(tn, ll. iflo^i; BMMuea hatiatnrkiea 




laiMta, ed. Bouanduts. II, 901-02; Ditvoitboq. Let Gmta Mar- 
itftum romavM, I (Paru. 1900), 209-10; Mabdocbi, Le» eataeombea 
nmainet (Rome. 1900). 254-56. 

J. P. KiRSCH. 

Nieomedia, titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded 
by King Zipoetes. About 264 b. c. his son Nioodemes 
I dedicated the cit^ aneWj gave it his name, made it 
his capital, and aoomed it with ma^niificent monu- 
ments. At his court the vanquished Hannibal sought 
refuge. When Bithynia became a Roman province 
Nicomedia remdned its capital. Pliny the Youneer 
mentions, in his letters to Trajan, several public 
edifices of the city, — a senate house, an aqueduct 
which he had built, a forum, the temple of Cybele, etc. 
He also proposed to join the Black Sea with the Sea of 
Marmora by a canal which should follow the river 
Sangarius and empty the waters of the Lake of 
Sabandja into the Gulf of Astacus. A fire then almost 
destroyed the town. From Nioomedia perhaps, 
he wrote to Trajan his famous letter concerning tne 
Christians. Under Marcus Aurelius, Dionysius, 
Bishop of Corinth, addressed a letter to his commu- 
nitv warning them against the Marcionites (Eusebius, 
"Hist. EccT.", IV, xxiu). Bishop Evander, who 
opposed the sect of the Ophites (P. L., LIII, 592), 
seems to have lived at the same time. Nicomedia 
was the favourite residence of Diocletian, who built 
there a palace, a hippodrome, a mint, and an ar- 
senal. In 303 the edict of the tenth persecution 
caused rivers of blood to flow through the empire, 
especially in Nicomedia^ where the Bishop Antiumus 
and a great manv Christians were martyred. The 
city was then half Christian, the palace itself being 
filled with them. In 303, in the vast plain east 3 
Nicomedia, Diocletian renounced the empire in favour 
of Galerius. In 311 Lucian, a priest of Antioch, de- 
livered a discourse in the presence of the judge before 
he was executed. Other martyrs of the city are 
numbered by hundreds. Nicomedia suffered greatly 
during the fourth century from an invasion of the 
Goths and from an earthquake (24 Aug., 354), which 
overthrew all the public and private monuments: fire 
completed the caUistrophe. The city was rebuilt, on 
a snialler scale. In the reign of Justinian new public 
buildings were erected, which were destroyed m the 
following century by the Shah Chosroes. Pope Con- 
stantino I visited the city in 711. In 1073 John 
Comnenus was there proclaimed emperor and shortly 
afterwards was compelled to abdicate. In 1328 it 
was captured by the Sultan Orkhan, who restored its 
ramparts, parts of which are still preserved. 

Le Quien (Oriens Christ., I, 581-98) has drawn up 
a list of fifty metropolitans, which may easily be com- 
pleted, for Nicomedia has never ceased to be a met- 
ropolitan see. Some Latin archbishops are also 
mentioned by Le Quien (III, 1017) and by Eubel 
(Hierarchia Catholica medii sevi, 1, 381 ) . As early as 
the eighth century the metropolitan See of Nicomedia 
had eight suffragan sees which disappeared by degrees. 
Among its bishops, apart from tnose already men- 
tioned, were: the three Arians, Eusebius, Eudoxius, 
and Demophilus, who exchanged their see for that of 
Constantinople; St. Theophylactus, martyred by the 
Iconoclasts m the ninth century; George, a great 
preacher and a friend of Photius^ Philotheus Bryen- 
nios, the present titular, who discovered and pub- 
lished AtJttx^ tQv 6i,vovTh\uv, To-day Nicomedia is 
called Ismidt. the chief town of a sanjak directly de- 
pendent on Constantinople. It has about 25,000 in- 
nabitants, who are very poor, for the German port 
of Haldar Pacha has completely ruined its commerce. 
Since 1891 the Augustinians of the Assumption have 
a mission and school, and the Oblates of the Assump- 
tion, a school and a dispensary. The Latin Catholics 
number about 250 in the region of the mission, seventy 
of them living in the city. The Armenian Catholic 
parish numbers 120. 

TBxm. ii«M Minmtt (Pwu. 1862), 60-68; Cuniar, La Tur^ 
flttie d^Ane (Paiu). IV, 856-64. 

S. Vailh£. 

Nieopolifl, a titular see, suffragan ot Seba^teia, in 
Armenia Prima. . Founded by Pompey after his de- 
cisive victory over Mithridates, it was inhabited by 
veterans of his army and by members of the neigh- 
bouring peasantry, and was deli^tfully situated in a 
beautiful, well-watered plain lymg at the base of a 
thickly-wooded mountain. All the Roman highways 
intersecting that portion of the country and leering to 
Comana, Polemonium, Neocsesarea, Sebasteia, etc.. 
radiated from Nioopons which, even in the time of 
Strabo (XII, iii, 28). boasted quite a large population. 
Given to Polemon by Anthony, in 36 b. c, Nioopolis 
was governed from a. d. 54, by Aristobulus of Chal- 
cis and definitively annexed to the Roman Empire by 
Nero, A. D. 64. It then became the metropolis of 
Lesser Armenia and the seat of the provincial diet 
which elected the Armeniarch. Besides the altar of 
the Augusti, it raised temples to Zeus Nicephorus and 
to Victory. Christianity reached Nioopolis at an early 
date and, under Licinius, about 319, forty-five of the 
city's inhabitants were martyred; the Church vener- 
ates them on 10 July. St. Basil (P. G., XXXII, 896) 
calls the priests of Nioopolis the sons of confessors and 
mart3rr8, and their church (P. G., XXXII, 834) the 
mother of that of Colonia. About 472, St. John the 
Silent, who had sold his worldly goods, erected a 
church there to the Blessed Virgin. 

In 499 Nioopolis was destroyed by an earthquake, 
none save the bishop and his two secretaries escaping 
death (Bull. Acad, de Belgique, 1905, 557). This dis- 
aster was irreparable, and although Justinian rebuilt 
the walls and erected a monastery in memonr of the 
Forty-five Mart3rr8 (Procopius, " Efe iEdificiis ' , III, 4), 
Nioopolis never reguned its former splendour. Under 
Heraclius it was captured by Chosroes (Sebeos, '' Hi»- 
toire d'Heraclius'', tr. Macler, p. 62) and thenceforth 
was only a mediocre dty^ a simple see and a suffragan 
of Sebasteia in Lesser Armema, remaining sudi at 
least until the eleventh century, as may be seen from 
the various "Notitis episcopatuum". To^ay the 
site of ancient Nioopolis is occupied by the Aircienian 
village of Purkh, which has a population of 200 fami- 
lies and is near the city of Enderes, in the saniak 
of Kara-Hissar and the vilayet of Sivas. Notable 
among the eight bishops mentioned by Le Quien is St. 
Gregory who. in the eleventh centiiry, resigned his 
bishopric and retired to Pithiviers in France. The 
Church venerates him on 14 March. 

Lb Quikn. Orien* ehrittianu* (Paris, 1740), I. 427-30; Ada 
Sanetorumt July, III, 34-45; Cuiiont, Siudiea PonHca (Bruaaela, 
1906). 304-14. 

S. VAILHfi. 

NicopoliB, Diocese of (Nioopoutana), in Bul- 
garia. The city of Nioopolis (Thrace or Moesia), sit- 
uated at the junction of the latrus with the Danube, 
was built by Trajan in commemoration of his victory 
over the Dacians (Ammianus Marcellinus, XXXI, 5; 
Jomand^, "De rebus geticis", ed. Savagner, 218). 
Ptolemy (III, xi. 7) places it in Thrace and Hierocles 
in Moesia near the HsBmus or Balkans. In the ''Ec- 
thesis" of pseudo-Epiphanius (Gelzer, "Ungedruckte 
. . . Texte der Notitise episcopatuum'', 535), Nioo- 
polis figures as an autocepnalous archbishopric about 
640, and then disappears from the episcopal lists, 
owing to the fact that the country fell into tne hands 
of the Bulgarians. Le Quien (Oriens christianus, I, 
1233) has preserved the names of two ancient bishops: 
Marcellus in 458, and Amantius in 518. A list of the 
Latin titulars (1354-1413) may be found in Eubel 
(Hierarchia catholica medii sevi, Mttnster. I, 381). 
The city is chiefly noted for the defeat of tne French 
and Hungarian armies (25 September, 1396) which 
made the Turics masters of the Balkan peninsula. 




The Latin mission of Bulgaria, subject during the six- 
teenth century to the Archbishops of Antivari, after- 
wards received Franciscan missionaries from Bosnia, 
and in 1624 formed an independent province callea 
" custodia Bulgarise ". In 1763 it was confided to the 
Baptistines of Genoa and in 1781 , to the Passionists 
who have no canonical residences in the country, sim- 
pW parishes. One of them is usually appointed 
Bishop of Nicopolis. The Franciscan bishops for- 
merly resided at Tchiprovetz, destroyed by the Turks 
in 1688, but after the war and the pestilence of 1812, 
the bishop established himself at (jioplea, a Catholic 
village wnich the Bulgarians had just founded near 
Bucharest and where his successors resided until 1883, 
when the Holy See created the Archbishopric of Bu- 
charest. The Bishop of Nicopolis, ceasing then to be 
apostolic administrator of Wallachia, chose Roust- 
cnouk as his residence and still lives there. In the 
diocese there are 13,000 Catholics; 24 priests, 5 of 
whom are seculars; 17 Passionists and 2 Assumption- 
ists; 15 churches, and 3 chapels. The Assumptionists 
have a school at Varna, the Oblates of the Assumption 
a boarding-school in the same city, and the Sisters of 
Our Lady of Sion a boarding-school at Roustchouk. 

Ptolemy, ed. MOllbr, I (Paris), &1; Lb Roulx, La France en 
Orient au XIV' aikcU, I (Paria. 1886). 211-99; Bchoe cTOrient, 
YII (Paria). 207-9; Mieeitmee oaiholiea (Rome, 1907). 

S. VailhA. 

Nicopoli8> a titular see and metropolis in ancient 
Epirus. Augustus founded the city (b. c. 31) on a 
promontory in the Gulf of Ambracia, in commemora- 
tion of his victory over Anthony and Cleopatra at 
Actium. At Nicopolis the emperor instituted the 
famous ouinquenmal Actian games in honour of 
Apollo. The city was peopled chieflv by settlers from 
the neighbouring municipiaf of which it was the head 
(Strabo III, xiii, 3; VII, vii, 6; X, ii, 2). According 
to Pliny the Elder (IV, 2) it was a free city. St. Paul 
intended going there (Tit., iii, 12) and it b possible 
that even then it numbered some Christians among 
its population: Origen sojourned there for a while 
(Eusebius, "Hist. eccl. ", VI, 16). Laid waste by the 
Croths at the besinninff of the fif tii century (Procopius, 
"Bell, goth.", IV, 22), restored by Justinian (Idem. 
. "De iEdificiis", IV, 2), in the sixth centuiy it was still 
the capital of Epirus (Hierocles, "Synecaemus'', ed. 
Burchhardt^ 651, 4). The province of ancient Epirus 
of which Nicopolis was the metropolis, constituted a 
portion of the western patriarchate, curectly subject 
to the jurisdiction of the pope; but, about 732, Leo 
the Isaurian incorporated it into the Patriarchate of 
Constantinople. Of the eleven metropolitans men- 
tioned by Le Quien (Oriens christianus, II. 133-38) 
the most celebrated was Alcison who, early in the 
sixth century, oi)po8ed the Monophysite policy of 
Emperor Anastasius. The last known of these bish- 
ops was Anastasius, who attended the (Ecumenical 
Council in 787, and soon afterwards, owing to the 
decadence into which Nicopolis fell, the metropolitan 
see was transferred to Naupactus which subsequently 
figured in the Notitis episcopatuum. Quite exten- 
sive ruins of Nicopolis are found three miles to the 
north of Prevesa and are called Palaio-Prevesa. 

Smith, Diet. Greek and Roman Oeographif, II (London, 1870), 
426; LsAKS, Northern Greece, I, 185; WoLrs, Journal of Geo- 
graphical Society, III, 92 aq. 

S. Vailh^. 

Nieofda, a city of the Province of Catania, in Sicily, 
situated at a height of about 2800 feet above the level 
of the sea. In its neighbourhood are salt mines and 
sulphur springs. The town is believed to stand on the 
site of the ancient Otterbita, which was destrojred by 
the Arabs. It has a fine cathedral, with a magnificent 
portal and paintings by Velasquez. Santa Maria 
Maggiore, also, is a beautiful church. The episcopal 
see was erected in 1818, its first prelate being Mgr 
Cajetan M. Avema. Nicosia was the birthplace of 

the Blessed Felix of Nicosia, a Capuchin lay brother. 
Within the diocese is the ancient city of Triona, which 
was an episcopal see from 1087 to 1090. Nicosia is a 
suffragan of Messina, from the territory of which that 
of Nicosia was taken; it has 23 parishes, with 60,250 
inhabitants, 4 religious houses^f men, and 5 of women, 
and 3 schools for girls. 

Cappbllbtti, Le Ckieee d* Italia, XXI (Venice. 1857). 

U. Benigni. 

Nlcofda, TrruLAR Archdiocese of, in the Province 
of Cyprus. It is now agreed (Oberhummer, "Aus 
Cypem" in "Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fttr Erd- 
kunde", 1890, 212-14), that Ledra, Leucotheon, 
Leucopolis, Leucosia^ and Nicosia are the same city, 
at least the same episcopal see. Ledra is first men- 
tioned by Sozomen (H. E., 1, 11) in Qonnexion with its 
bishop, St. Triphyllius, who lived under Constantine 
and whom St. Jerome (De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis), 
pronounced the most eloquent of his time. Mention 
IS made also of one of his disciples, St. Diomedes, ven- 
erated on 28 October. Under the name of Leucosia 
the city appears for the first time in the sixth century, 
in the "Synecdemus'' of Hierocles (ed. Burckharcft, 
707-8). It was certainly subsequent to the eighth 
century that Leucosia or Nicosia replaced Constantia 
as the metropolis of C3rprus, for at the (Ecumenical 
Council of 787 one Constantine signed as Bishop of Con- 
stantia; in any case at the conouest of the island in 
1191 by Richard Cceur de Lion Nicosia was the capi- 
tal. At that time Cyprus was sold to the Templars 
who established themselves in the castle of Nicosia, 
but not being able to overcome the hostility of the 
people of the city, massacred the majority of the 
inhabitants and sold Cyprus to Guy de Lusignan, who 
founded a dvnasty there, of which there were fifteen 
titulars, and did much towards the prosperity of the 
capital. Nicosia was then made a Latin metropolitan 
see with three suffragans, Paphos, limassol. and Fa- 
magusta. The Greeks who had previously haa as man v 
OB fourteen titulars were obliged to be content with 
four bishops bearing the same titles as the Latins but 
residing in different towns. The list of thirty-one Latin 
archbiwops from 1196 to 1502 may be seen in Eubel, 
''Hierarchia catholica medii sivV'^ I, 382; II, 224. 
Quarrels between Greeks and Latins were frequent 
and prolonged, especially at Nicosia, where the two 
councils of 1313-60 ended in bloodshed: but in 
spite of eversrthing the island prospered. Tnere were 
man^r beautiful churches in the possession of the 
Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustimans, Carmelites, 
Benedictines, and Carthusians. Other churches be- 
longed to the Greeks, Armenians, Jacobites, Maro- 
nites, Nestorians etc. In 1489 Cyprus fell under the 
dominion of Venice and on 9 November, 1570, Nicosia 
fell into the power of the Turks, who committed atro- 
cious cruelties. Nor was this the last time, for on 9 
July, 1821, during the revolt of the Greeks in the Ot- 
toman Empire, mey strangled many of the people 
of Nicasia, among them the four Greek bishops of the 
island. Since 4 June, 1878, C3rpru8 has been under 
the dominion of England. Previously Nicosia was 
the residence of the Mutessarif of the sandjak which 
dep>ended on the vilayet of the Archipelago. Since 
the Turkish occupation of 1571 Nicosia has been the 
permanent residence of the Greek archbishop who 
governs the autonomous church of Cyprus^ The 
city has 13,000 inhabitants. The Franciscans admin- 
ister the Catholic mission which is dependent on the 
Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, and has a school for 
bovs. The Sisters of St. Joseph have a school for 

Lb QursN, Oriens ehriatianue, II (ParU, 1740), 1076; Ada 
Sanctorum, III Junii, 174-78; Analecla BoUandiana (Brunels, 
1907), 212-20; Mas Latub, Hietoire dee Archet4quee latine de 
Vtle de Chypre (Genoa. 1^2) ; Hackbtt, A History of the Orthodox 
Church of Cyprus (London, 1001), paaaim; Phranooudbb, Cyprus 
(Athena, 1890), in Greek; Cbambbblatnb, Lacrim4B Nicosienses 
(Paria. 1894). g. VaILHA. 



knooterm and Tropea, Diocesb of (Nicotsren- 
BiB ST Tbopeiensis), suffragaxi of Reggio di Calabria. 
Nicotera, the ancient Medama, is a city of the Province 
of Catanxaro. in Calabria, Itahr; it was destroyed by 
the earthquake of 1783. Its m*st known bishop was 
Proculus, to whom, with others, a letter of St. Gregory 
the Great was written in 599. With the exception of 
Sergius (787), none of its bishops is known earlier 
than 1392. Under Bishop Charles Pinti, the city was 
pillaged by the Turks. In 181 8, it was united on equal 
terms {cpque principaliter) with the Diocese of Tropea. 
This city is situated on a reef, in the gulf of St. Euphe- 
mia connected with the mainland bv a narrow strip. 
It is the birthplace of the painter Span6, the anato- 
mists Pietro and Paolo Voiani, and the philosopher 
Pasquale Galluppi. It has a beautiful cathedral, re- 
stored after its destruction by the earthquake of 1783. 
Here the Greek Rite was formerly used. Only three 
bishops before the Norman conquest are known; the 
first, Joannes, is referred to the year 649; among its 
other prelates was Nicol6 Acciapori (1410). an emi- 
nent statesman. The diocese has 72 parishes, with 
78,000 inhabitants, a Franciscan nouse, and a house 

of the Sisters of Charity. 

CAPPXLLrm, Le Chit— d^ Italia, XXI. 

U. Benigni. 

Nicth«roy, Diocesb of. See Petbopolib. 

Nlder, John, theologian, b. 1380 in SVabia; d. 13 
August, 1438, at Colmar. He entered the Order of 
Preachers at Colmar and after proiiession was sent to 
Vienna for his philosophical studies, which he finished 
at Colof^e where he was ordained. He gained a wide 
reputation in Germany as a preacher and was active 
at the Council of Constance. After making a study 
of the convents of his order of strict observance in 
Italy he returned to the Universitv of Vienna where in 
1425 he began teaching as Master of Theology. 
Elected prior of the Dominican convent at Nurem- 
berg in 1427, he successively served as socius to his 
master general and vicar of the reformed convents of 
the German province. In this capacity he main- 
tained his early reputation of reformer and in 1431 he 
was chosen prior of the convent of strict observance at 
Basle. He became identified with the Council of 
Basle as theologian and legate, making several em- 
bassies to the Hussites at the command of Cardinal 
Julian. Sent as legate of the Council to the Bohe- 
mians he succeeded in pacifying them. He joume^^ed 
to Ratisbon (1434) to efifect a further reconciliation 
with the Bohemians and then proceeded to Vienna to 
continue his work of reforming the convents there. 
During the discussion that followed the dissolution 
of the Council of Basle by Eugene IV, he joined the 
party in favour of continuing the Council in Germany, 
abandoning them, however, when the pop>e' remained 
firm in his decision. He resumed his theological lec- 
tures at Vienna in 1436 and was twice electea dean of 
the university before his death. As reformer he was 
foremost in Germany and welcomed as such both by 
his own order and by the Fathers of the Council of 
Basle. As a theologian his adherence to the princi- 
ples of St. Thomas and his practical methods made 
nim distinguished among his contemporaries. The 
most important among his many writings is the '' For- 
micarius^' (5 vols.^ Douai, 1602) a treatise on the phil- 
osophical^ theological, and social questions of his day. 
Among his theological works are the following: '^Com- 
mentarius in IV libros Sententiarum'' (no longer ex- 
tant); "PrsBceptorum divine legis" (Douai, 1612, 
seventeen other editions before 1500); '^Tractatus de 
contractibus mercatorum" (Paris, 1514, eight edi- 
tions before 1500); ''Consolatorium timoratse consci- 
entiffi" (Rome, 1604); "De Morali lepra" (Regia, 
1830) ; " Manuale ad instructionem spiritualium Pas- 
torum" (Rome, 1513); "Alphabetum Divini Amoris" 
(Antwerp, 1705, in works of Geison); "De modo bene 

Vivendi" (commonly atttributed to St. Bernard) ; "De 
Reformatione Religiosorum Libri Tres" (Paris, 1512; 
Antwerp, 1611). Besides these there are several letters 
written to the Bohemians and to the Fathers of Uie 
Council of Basle, printed in "Monum. Concil. Gen- 
eral., ssc. XV, Concil. Basil. Scrip.", I (Vienna, 1857). 

QtriTiP-EcHABO. Scrijdore* O. P., I. 792 sqq.; II, 822; Touron. 
Histoiredtt Hommet iUtuire* de Fordre de St. Dominique^ III, 218- 
76; ScHiSLBB in Kirchenlez, q. v. Nider; Ck>LVENSSzuB, J. Nider 
Pormieariiu (Douai, 1602); Btsill, Ord. Prod. Bphemeridee 
Domineano-Mcra, II (Dilling, 1692), 230; Schiblkb, Mogitttr 
Johannee Nider^ aiu dem Orden der Predioer-BrHder (MainB, 
1885); AnrUe Daminieaine, VII (1896). 731-46; Hain. Rep. Bibl., 
Ill (1831); BBumB, Predigercrden in Wien (1867); Chbvauks, 
Ripertoire dee Scurcee hietoriquee du Moyen Age, II, 3360. 

Ignatiub Smith. 

Ntoreniberff y Otin, Juan Eubebio, noted theolo- 
gian and polygraphist, b. of German parents at Mad- 
rid, 1595; d. there, 1658. Having studied the classics 
at the Court, he went to Alcaic for the sciences and 
from there to Salamanca for canon law, where he en- 
tered the Society of Jesus in 1614, much against the 
wishes of his father who finally obliged him to leave 
the novitiate of Villagarcfa. He remained firm in his 
resolution and was permitted to return to Madrid to 
finish his probation. He studied Greek and Hebrew 
at the Colegio de Huete, arts and theology at Alcald, 
and was ordained in 1623, making his profession in 
1633. At the Colegio Imperial of Madrid he taught 
humanities and natural history for sixteen years and 
Sacred Scripture for three. As a director of souls he 
was much soueht^being appointed by royal command 
confessor to the Duchess of Mantua, granddaughter 
of Philip II. Remarkable for his exemplary Ufe, and 
the heights of prayer to which he attained, he was an 
indefatigable worker, and one of the most prolific 
writers of his time. Sevent^r-three printed and eleven 
manuscript works are attributed to him; of these, 
twenty-four at least are in Latin. Though his works 
are distinguished for their erudition, those in Spanish 
being characterized according to Capmani, by nobil- 
ity and purity of diction, terse, well-knit phrases, for- 
cible metaphors, and vivid imagenr, certain defects 
mar his style, at times inelegant and mariced by a cer- 
tain disregard for the rules of grammar and a too pro- 
nounced use of antithesis, paronomasia, and other 
plays upon words. Lack ot a true critical faculty * 
often detracts from the learning. The Spanish Acad- 
emy includes his name in the '' Diccionario de 
Autoridades". His principal works are: (1) "Del 
Aprecio y Estima de la Divina Gracia'' (Madrid, 
1638), editions of which have been issued at Sara- 
gossa, Barcelona. Seville, Majorca, also a second edi- 
tion of the Maorid edition; it has been translated 
into Italian, French. Latin, German, Panayano, and 
condensed into English (New York, 1866, 1891): (2) 
"De la Diferencia entre lo Temporal y Etemo" (Ma- 
drid, 1640), of which there are fifty-four Spanish edi- 
tions, and translations into Latin, Arabic, Italian, 
French, German, Flemish, and English (1672, 1684, 
1884), Portuguese, Mexican, Guaranian, Chiquito, 
Panayano; (3) "Opera Parthenica" (Lyons, 1659), in 
which he defends the Immaculate Conception of the 
Blessed Virgin, basing it upon new, althou(;h not al- 
ways absolutely reliable, documents; (4) "Historiana- 
tur» maxime peregrins Libris XVI, distincta" (Ant- 
werp, 1635); (5) "De la afici6n y amor de Jestis . . . 
Idem de Maria" (Madrid, 1630), of which there are 
five Spanish editions and translations into Latin, 
Arabic, German, Flemish. French, Italian, Portu- 
guese, and an English translation of the first edition 
(1849, 1880); one edition of (6) "Obras Christianas 
espirituales y filos6fica8" (Madrid, 1651, fol. 3 vols.), 
and one of (7) "Obras Christianas" (Madrid, 1665, 
fol. 2 vols.), are still extant. It was customanr in 
many of the Spanish churches to read selections from 
these books every Sunday. 

Andradb, Varonee iluetree de la Compalkia de JeeiU, VIII (2na 
e(L, Bilbao (1891), 691^766; Capmani t om Momtpalav. Teatro 




Biat&rieo erUieo de la Bloeu^neia MptMoia, V (Baroelona, 1848), 
271; R. P. Joannia Buatbii Nxerembergii « SocietaU Jetu Opera 
PoAhenioa. . . . Vita Ven, PatrU. . . . ColUata ex hU qua Am- 
panioe §crip$erunt PP. Alphon»u$ de Andrade et Joannee de Yoarza 
eiua. 8oe. (LyooB, 1669) ; Sommbrvoobz*, Bibliot., V, 1725; Quil- 
KCBifT. MhtMoae de la Compagnie de Jieue, Aeeietance d^Bepagne, 
pt. I (Paris. 1902). 

Antonio P^bez Gotbna. 

Niossenberger, Hans, an architect of the latter 
part of the Middle Ages, whose name is mentioned 
with comparative frequency in contemporaneous lit- 
erature. But information about his personality and 
. his works is somewhat more difficult to find. It seems 
however, that he was bom in Gratz, Styria (''Seckauer 
Kirchenschmuck", 1880, p. 56). He worked on the 
choir of the Freiburg cathedral from 1471 to 1480; in 
the latter year he was compelled to leave the tadk of 
building and to swear that he would not trv to revenge 
himself for this. In 1480 he worked on the church of 
St. Leonhard at Basle; in 1482, on the cathedral at 
Strasburg; and in the following year he probably was 
engaged on the ^at cathedralof Milan with a yearly 
Ba&Tv of 180 guilders — ^at least there is a "Johannes 
of Graz" mentioned as architect in Ricci, ''Storia 
dell' archit. italiana"^ II, 388. The choir at Freiburg 
was turned over to him in 1471; the contract is inter- 
esting and instructive, showing as it do^ the manner 
in which buildings of this kind were erected during the 
latter part of the Middle Ages, and how the working 
hours, wages, etc., were determined upon (Schreiber, 
"Miinster zu Freiburg", Appendix, 15 sq.). The 
choir possesses great beauty, but it also manifests the 
peculiarities of Late Gothic. It is long^ like the main 
church, with the nave higher, the side aisles lower and 
somewhat narrower than in tne front, and surrounded 
by twelve chapels, enclosed on two sides by fluted 
columns. The arched roof, supported by beautifully 
carved columns, forms a network. The windows are 
characteristically Late Gothic, and the arches are 
wonderfully dehcate. The whole is the work of a 

ScHRSXBBR, op. cU.; KuQUBR, Oetch. dor Baukunat, II (1859); 
Orra, Kuna^ArckOolooie (6th ed., 1884) ; Kbmpv, Dae MUnater tu 
Freilntrg im Breiegau (Freiburg, 1898). 

G. Gibtmann. 

Nigwr (NiGRi. Ger. Schwariz), Peter George, 
Dominican theologian, preacher and controversialist, 
b. 1434 at Kaaden in Bohemia; d. between 1481 and 
1484. He studied at different universities (Sala- 
manca, Montpellier, etc.), entered the order in 1452 
at Eichstatt, Bavaria, and after his religious pro- frontier of Sierra Leone and Liberia, enters Nigeria 
fession took up philosophy and theology at Leip- above Ilo, receives the Sokoto River at Gomba, and 
zig, where he also produced his first literary work liie Benue at Lokodja, the chief tributaries in English 
''De modo prtsdicandi" (1457). In 1459 he defended territory. Though the establishment of the English 
publicly in Freiburg a series of theses so success- dates only from 1879, numerous explorers had long be- 
fully that the provincial chapter then in session fore reconnoitred the river and the neighbouring coun- 
there sent Mm to the University of Bologna for ad- try. .^jmong the most famous were Mungo Park 
vanced courses in theology and canon law. Recalled (1795-1805), Clapperton (1822), Ren6 Caill6 (1825), 
after two years, he was made lector of theology and Lander^ Barth, Mage, and recently the French officers 
engaged in teaching and preaching. In 1465 he Gallium, Mizon, Hourst, and Lenf ant. In 1879, on the 
taught philosophy and was regent of studies in Co- initiative of Sir Geoi|;e Goldie, the English societies 
logne; in 1467 taught theology at Ulm; in 1469 or established in the region purchased all the French and 
1470 was elected pnor in Eichst&tt; on 31 May, 1473^ foreign trading stations of Lower Ni^er and in 1885 

obtiJned a royal charter which constituted them the 
"Royal Company of the Niger". The Royal Com- 
pany developed rapidly and acquired immense terri- 
tories, often at the cost of bloodshed. The monopoly 
of navigation which it claimed to exercise, contrary to 
the stipulations of the General Act of Berlin, its opi)o- 
Corvinus, King of, Hungary, he became rector of his sition to the undertakings of France and Germany, ite 
newly-erected Academy of philosophy, theology, and encroachments on neighbouring territories, aroused 
Sacred Scripture at Buda, in gratitude for which numerous diplomatic quarrels which finally brought 
honour he dedicated to his royal friend his "Cly- about the revocation of its privileges (1 Jan., 19()0). 
peus Thomistarum adversus omnes doctrime doctoris ' It then became a simple commercial company with 
angelid obtrectatores" (Venice, 1481), in which he enormous territorial possessions; the conqueredlands, 
defends the teaching of St. Thomas against the reunited to the old jProtectorate of the Niger 0)ast 
Scotists and Nominalists. Niger ranks among the organized in 1884, constituted the British colony of 

most eminent theologians and preachdtB of the latter 
half of the fifteenth century. He was a keen disciple 
of St. Thomas, zealous for the integrity of his teach- 
ings and adhering strictly to the traditions of his 
school. In his few theoloocal works he limits him- 
self almost entirely to the discussion of abstract ques- 
tions of logic and psychology. He devoted most of 
his time to preachmg to the Jews. He had learned 
their language and become familiar with their liter- 
ature at Salamanca and Montpellier by associating 
with Jewish children and attendms the lectures of the 
rabbis. At Ratisbon, Worms, and Frankfort-on-the- 
Main he preached in German, Latin, and Hebrew, 
frequently challenging the rabbis to a disputation. 
He wrote two anti-Jewish works, one in Latin, 
''Tractatus contra Perfidos Judffios'' (Esslingen, 
1475). which is probably tlie earliest printed anti- 
Jewian work, ana in which he severely attacked the 
Jews and the Talmud. The other, written in German, 
is entitled "Stem des Messias'^ (Esslingen, 1477). 
Reuchlin in his ''Augenspiegel" declared them ab- 
surd. Both works are furnished with appendices 
giving the Hebrew alphabet in Hebrew and Latin 
tvpe, rules of grammar and for reading Hebrew, the 
Decalogue in Hebrew, some Messiamc texts from 
the Old Testament, etc. They are among the earli- 
est specimens of Hebrew printing in Germany, and 
the first attempt at Hebrew grammar in that country 
by a Christian scholar. They were afterwards pub- 
lished separately as '^Conunentatio de primis lingusD 
Hebraicffi elementis'' (Altdorf, 1764). Peter Teuto, 
O.P. (Qu6tif, I, 855). and Peter Eystettensis (Eck, 
"Chrysopassus Cent. , XLIX) are most probably to 
be identified with Peter Niser. 

Qnitir-EcHABD, SS. Ord. Proa,, I, 861 aqq.; Toubon, Horn. 
lU. de Vcrdre de S. Dom., III. 632-31; Rbusch. AUg. d. Biogr., 
XXXIII, 247 sq.; Jocher, AUg. Odehrienlexikon, b. v.; Pkantl, 
Oeeeh. der Logik im Abendl. (Leipiig. 1870). 221 sq.; KalhoUk, I 
(1891). 574; II (1902), 310; AnaUda Ord.'Prad,, 11. 367; WoLr, 
BihlioUieca Hebraica (Hamburg. 1721). II, 17, 1037. 1110 sqq.; 
IV, 525 sqq. 

Joseph Schrobdbr. 

Nigeria, Upper and Lower, a colony of British 
East Africa extending from the Gulf of Guinea to 
Lake Chad (from 4** 30' to 7° N. lat., and from 5^ 30' 
to 8° 30' E. long.), is bounded on the north and west 
by French Sudan, on the south-west by the Ekiglish 
colony of Lagos, on the south by the Atlantic, on the 
east b]^ German Kamerun. It derives its name from 
the luver Niger, flowing throu^ it. The Niger, 
French from its source in the Gumean Sudan to the 

the newly founded University of Ingolstadt conferred 
on him the degree of Doctor of theology; in 1474 he 
taught theology in the convent at Ratisbon and in 
1478 became professor of Old-Testament exegesis in 
the University of Ingolstadt. Shortly after, upon 
the invitation of the patron of learmng, Matthias 



Nigeria. France, however, retained two colonies at 
Baajibo-Arenberg and at Forcados; navigation was 
free to all. 

Politically Nigeria is divided into two provinces, 
Southern or Lower Nigeria, Northern or Upper Ni- 

feria, separated by the parallel which passes through 
da. Each division is governed by a high commissioner 
named directly by the Crown. Northern Nigeria with 
an area of over 123,400 square miles is as yet only 

?artly settled, and has mne constituted provinces, 
'he ancient capital, Gebha, is now replaced oy Wush- 
ishi on the Kaduna. The chief cities are Lokodja. Ilo, 
Yola, Gando, Sokoto, Kano, etc. Kano, situatea two 
hundred miles to the north, is a remarkable city and 
one of the largest markets of the whole world. For 
more than a thousand years the metropolis of East 
Africa, Kano contains about fifty thousand inhab- 
itants, is surrounded by walls buUt of hardened clay 
from twenty to thirty ft. high and fifteen miles in 
circiunference. Every year more than two million 
natives go to Kano to exchange their agricultural 
products or their merchandise. The chief articles 
of commerce are camels, cattle, ivory, sugar, ostrich 
plumes, and kola nuts. Kano is also a great indus- 
trial centre, renowned for its hides and its cotton 
materials; sorghum and many kinds of vegetables and 
cereals are cultivated. The natives are very good 
workmen, especially in the cultivation of the fields. 
Although nominally subject to England, some chiefs, 
or sultans, have remained almost independent, for in- 
stance those of Sokoto and Nupe. English money, 
however, has circulated everywhere and three-penny 

f)ieces are very popular. Northern Nigeria has a popu- 
ation of about fifteen million inhabitants, divided into 
several tribes, each speaking its own tongue, the chief 
of which are the Yorubas, the Nupes, the Haussas, 
and the Igbiras. English is the official language of the 

Constantly pressing to the south, Islam has pene- 
trated as far as the markets of the Lower Niger, and 
carries on a vigorous proselytism, aided by the repre- 
sentatives of the English Government. Mussulman 
chiefs and instructors are often appointed for the 
fetishistic population. Powerful English I^testant 
missions have unsuccessfully endeavoured to gain a 
foothold. Catholic missionaries explored a portion of 
these same regions as early as 1883, out only now have 
they undertaken permanent establishments. Nigeria 
is divided into two prefectures AfMstolic; that of the 
Upper Niger is confided to the Society of African Mis- 
sions of Lyons (1884), and that of the Lower Niger to 
the Fathers of the Holy Ghost (1889). The first com- 
prises all the territory west of the Niger from For- 
cados and north of the Benue to Yola. Its limits were 
only definitively constituted by the decrees of 15 Janu- 
ary and 10 May, 1894. The prefect Apostolic resides 
at Lokodja. The mission is chiefly develooied in the 
more accessible part of Southern Nigeria, where Islam 
is still almost a stranger. Its chief posts, besides Lo- 
kodja, are Assaba, Ila, Ibs^l^, Ibi, Idu, etc. The 
twenty missionaries are assi:>ted by the Religious of 
the Queen of the Apostles (Lyons) ; in 1910 there were 
about 1500 Catholics and an equal number of catechu- 
mens. The Prefecture Apostolic of the Lower Niger 
comprises all the country situated between the Niger, 
the Benue, and the western frontier of German Kam- 
erun. Less extensive than that of the Upper Niger^ its 
population is much more dense, almost wholly fetish- 
istic, and even cannibal. Towns of five, ten, and 
twenty thousand inhabitants are not rare ; the popula- 
tion is chiefly agricultural, cultivating the banana and 
the yam. In the delta and on Cross River the palm 
oil harvest is the object of an active commerce. Sev- 
eral tribes are crowded into these fertile districts; the 
Ibo, Nri, Munchis, Ibibio^ Ibani, Ibeno, Efik, Akwa, 
Aro, ete. Their religion is fetishism, with ridiculous 
and cruel practices often admitting of human sacri- 

fices, exacted by the ju-ju (a corruption of the native 
word egugu)f a fetish which is supposed to contain the 
spirit of an ancestor; but purer religious elements are 
found beneath all these superstitions, belief in God. 
the survival of the soul, distinction between good ana 
evil, ete. 

The Mussulmans are located in important centres 
such as the market of Oniteha. Moreover, wherever 
the English Government employs Haussas as militia 
the latter carry on an active propaganda, and where 
they araa movement towaros Islam is discernible. 
This is the case at Calabar, Lagos, Freetown, and nu- 
merous points in the interior and on the coast. Eng> 
lish Protestant missions have long since penetrat<Ml 
into this country and have expended, not without 
results, enormous sums for propaganda. Native 
churches with pastors and bishops have even been or* 
ganized on the Niger, constituting what is called the 
native pastorate. At Calabar the United Presbyte- 
rian Church dates from 1846, strongly established 
throu^out the country. In 1885 the Catholic mis- 
sionaries of Gabon established themselves at Oniteha, 
the centre of the Ibo country and a city of twenty 
thousand inhabitants. Several native kings, among 
them the Kine of Oniteha, have been converted, nu- 
merous schoob have been oiganized^ towns ana vil- 
lages everywhere have asked for missionaries, or lack- 
ing them, for catechists. Until 1903 no establishment 
could be made at Calabar, the seat of the Government 
and the most important commercial centre of South- 
em Nigeria, but once founded the Catholic mission 
became very popular, adherents came in crowds, the 
schools were filled to overflowing. There is need of 
labourers and resources for the immense harvest. 
The Fathers of the Holy Ghost are seconded in their 
efforts by the Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny. The 
progress of evangelization seems to necessitate in the 
near future the division of the mission into two pre- 
fectures, one of which will have its centre at Oniteha, 
the other at Calabar. 

MtMuma catholique* au XIX* tiMfi; Aficnofu d'Afrigue (Pftrit, 
1902); Miwonet CatholiccB (Rome, 1907). 

A. Le Rot. 

Nihilism. — ^The term was first used by Turgeniev in 
hisnovel, "Fathers and Sons" (in "Russkij V&tnik", 
Feb., 1862) : a Nihilist is one who bows to no authority 
and accepts no doctrine, however widespread, that is 
not supported by proof. The nihilist theory was for- 
mulated bv Cemysevskij in his novel "Cto delat" 
(What shall be done, 1862-64), which forecasts a new 
social order constructed on the ruins of the old. But 
essentially. Nihilism was a reaction against the abuses 
of Russian absolutism; it originated with the first 
secret political society in Russia founded by Pestel 
(1817), and its first effort was the miUtary revolt of 
the Decembrists (14 Dec, 1825). Nicholas I crushed 
the uprising, sent its leaders to the scafifold and one 
hundred and sixteen participants to Siberia. The 
spread (1830) of certain philosophical doctrines (He- 
gel, Saint-Simon, Fourier) brought numerous recruits 
to Nihilism, especially in the universities; and, in 
many of the cities, societies were organized to com- 
bat absolutism and introduce constitutional govern- 

Theoretical Nihilism. — Its apostles were Alexan- 
der Herzen (1812-70) and Michael Bakunin (1814- 
76), both of noble birth. The fonner, arrested (1832) 
as a partisan of liberal ideas, was imprisoned for eight 
months, deported, pardoned (1840), resided in Mos- 
cow till 1847 when he migrated to London and there 
founded (1857) the weekly periodical, "Kolokol" 
(Bell), and later "The Polar Star". The "Kolokol" 
published Russian political secrets and denunciations 
of the Government; and, in spite of the police, made ite 
way into Russia to spread revolutionary ideas. Her- 
zen, inspired by Hegel and Feurbach, proclaimed the 
destruction of the existing order; but he did not advo- 




cate violent measures. Hence his younger followers 
wearied of him; and on the other hand his defense of 
the Poles during the insurrection of 1863 alienated 
many of his Russian sjrmpathizers. The "Kolokol" 
went out of existence in 1868 and Herzen died two 
years later. BsJcunin was extreme in his revolution- 
ary theories. In the first number of "L' Alliance In- 
ternationale de la Dtoocratie Socialiste'^ founded by 
him in 1869, he openly professed Atheism and called 
for the abolition of marriage, property, and of all so- 
cial and religious institutions. His advice, given in 
bis ''Revolutionary Catechism", was: ''Be severe to 
yourself and severe to others. Suppress the senti- 
ments of relationship, friendship, love, and gratitude. 
Have only one pleasure, one joy, one rewarff—the tri- 
umph of the revolution. Night and day, have only 
one thought, the destruction of everything without 
pity. Be ready to die and ready to kill any one who 
opposes the triumph of your revolt." Bakunin thus 
opened the way to nihilistic terrorism. 

Propaganda (1867-77). — It began with the forma- 
tion (1861-62) of secret societies, the members of 
which devoted their lives and fortunes to the dissemi- 
nation of revolutionary ideas. Many of these agita- 
tors, educated at Zurich. Switzerland, returned to 
Russia and gave Nihilism tne support of trained intelli- 
gence. Prominent among them were Sergius Ne6aev, 
master of a parochial school in St. Petersburg, who was 
in constant communication with nihilist centers in 
various cities, and Serous Koyalin who established 
thirteen associations m Cemigor. These societies 
took their names from their founders — ^the Malikovcy, 
Ijavrists, Bi^msts, etc. They enrolled seminarists, 
univerraty students, and young women. Among the 
working men the propaganda was conducted in part 
through free schools. The promoters engagea in 
humble trades as weavers, blacksmiths, and carpenters, 
and in their shops inculcated nihilist doctrine. The 
peasantry was reached by writings, speeches, schools, 
and personal intercourse. Even the nobles shared in 
this work, e. g.. Prince Peter Krapotkin, who, under the 
pseudonym of Borodin, held conferences with work- 
ingmen. As secondary centres, taverns and shops 
served as meeting-places, depositories of prohibited 
books, and, in case of need, as places of refuge. Though 
without a central Organization the movement spread 
throughout Russia, notably in the region of the Volga 
and in that of the Dnieper where it gained adherents 
among the Cossacks. The women in particular dis- 
played energy and self-sacrifice in their zeal for the 
cause. Many were highly cultured and some belonged 
to the nobitity or higher classes, e. g., Natalia Armfeld, 
Barbara BatiuSkova, Sofia von Herzfeld, Sofia Pero- 
vakaja. They oo-operated more especially through 
the schools. 

The propaganda of the press was at first conducted 
from foreign parts: London, Geneva, Zurich. In thb 
latter city there were two printing-offices, established 
in 1873, where the students published the works of 
Lavrov and of Bakunin. The first secret printing- 
office in Russia, founded at St. Petersburg in 1861, 
published four numbers of the Velikoruss. At the 
same time there came to Russia, from London, copies 
of the "Proclamation to the New Generation" (Kmo- 
lodomu pokolSniju), and "Young Russia" (Molodaja 
Rosija), which was published in the following year. 
In 1862, another secret printing-office, establiSied at 
Moscow, published the recital of the revolt of 14 De- 
cember, 1825, written by Ogarev. In 1862. another 
secret press at St. Petersbura published revolutionary 
proclamations for officers of the army; and in 1863, 
there were published in the same city a few copies of 
the daily papers, "Svoboda" (Liberty) and "Zemlja 
i Volja'^ (The Earth and Liberty); the latter contin- 
ued to be published in 1878 and 1879, under the edi- 
torship, at first, of Marco Natanson, and later of the 
student, Alexander Mihailov, one of the ablest or- 

ganizers of Nihitism. In 1866, a student of Kazan, 
Elpidin, published two numbers of the "Podpolnoe 
Slovo", which was succeeded by the daily paper, the 
"Sovremennost" (The Contemporary), and later, by 
the "Narodnoe D^lo" (The National Interest), which 
was published (1868-70), to disseminate the ideas of 
Bakunin. Two numbers of the "Narodnaja Ras- 
prava" (The Tribunal of Reason) were published in 
1870, at St. Petersburg and at Moscow. In 1673, 
appeared the "Vpred" (ForwardI), one of the most 
esteemed periodicals of Nihilism, having salient social- 
istic tendencies. A volume of it appeared each year. 
In 1875-76, there was connected with the "Vpred", 
a small bi-monthly supplement, which was under the 
direction of Lavrov until 1876. when it passed under 
the editorship of Smironv, ana went out of existence 
in the same year'. It attacked theolo^cal and reli- 
gious ideas, proclaiming the equafity of n^ts, freedom 
of association, and justice for the proletariat. At Gre- 
neva,'in 1875 and 1876, the "Rabotnik" (The Work- 
man) was published, which was edited in the style 
of the people; the "Nabat" (The Tocsin) appeared 
in 1875, directed by Tha6cv; the "Narodnaja Volja" 
(The Will of the People), in 1879, and the "Cemyi 
Peredgl", in 1880, were published in St. Petersburg. 
There was no fixed date for any of these pi4)erB, and 
their contents consisted, more especially, of proclama- 
tions, of letters from revolutionists, and at times, of 
sentences of the Executive Committees. These prmt- 
ing offices also produced books and pamphlets and 
Russian translations of the works of Lassalle, Marx, 
Proudhon, and BUchner. A government stienogra- 
pher, M3r§kin. in 1870, established a printing-office, 
through whicn several of Lassalle's works were pub- 
lished; while many pamphlets were published by the 
Zemlja i Volja Committee and by tne Free Russian 
Printmg-Office. Some of the pamphlets were pub- 
lished under titles like those of tne books for chilaren, 
for example, "DSdudka Egor" (Grandfather Esor), 
"Mitiu&ka", Stories for the Workingmen, and others, 
in which the exploitation of the people was deplored, 
and the immunity of capitalists assailed. Again, 
some publications were printed in popular, as well as 
in cultured, language; and, in order to allure the peas- 
ants, these_painphlets appeared at times, under such 
titles as "The Satiate and the Hungry": "How Our 
Country Is. No Longer Chirs". But all this propa- 

ganda, which required considerable energy and sacri- 
ce, did not produce satisfactory results. Nihilism 
did not penetrate the masses; its enthusiastic apostles 
committed acts of imprudence that drew upon them 
the ferocious reprisals of the Government; the peasants 
had not faith in the preachings of those teachers, 
whom, at times, they regarded as government spies, 
and wnom, at times, they denounced. The books ana 
pamphlets that were distributed among the country 
people often fell into the hands of the Hnovniki (gov- 
ernment employees), or of the popes. Very few ofthe 
Eeasants knew how to read. Accordingly, Nihilism 
ad true adherents onlv among students of the uni- 
versities and higher schools, and among the middle 
classes. The peasants and workmen did not under- 
stand its ideals of destruction knd of social revolution. 
NiHiUBT Terrorism. — Propagation of ideas was 
soon followed by violence: 4 April, 1866. Tsar Alex- 
ander II narrowly escaped the shot fired bv Deme- 
trius Karakozov, and in consequence took severe 
measures (rescript of 23 Ma^, 1866) against the revo- 
lution, making the universities and the press objects 
of special vigiumce. To avoid detection and sparing, 
the Nihilists formed a Central Executive Committee 
whose sentences of death were executed by "punish- 
er8'\ Sub-committees of from five to ten members 
were also organized and statutes (12 articles) drawn 
up. The applicant for admission was required to con- 
secrate his life to the cause, sever ties of family and 
friendship, and observe absolute secrecy. Disobedi'^ 

Hmro 76 

ence to the head of the association was punishable {Hiatary of Touno R^una] (Moooow, 1908); Rudolv Ubba, Dm 

with death. The Government, in turn, enacted ««o'«<^ »» ^^•^^J^. ^oi*-. P."«^i9(g); Loonk- aw 

^,4*i»<>nf ltt«r« «»«;•«<>* .<w.,w,^ <»L:^^:^ ««Ji uZ!««i.* Silbbb, Terronetet H polteters (Pans. 1909); Byloe {The Pa$l), 

Stringent laws against secret societies and brought j.xil (Paris. 19(»-9). review oonduoted by Bouoerv, oontaiu 

hundreds before the tnbunals. A notable instance document* bearing on the history of Nihilism. 

was the trial, at St. Petersburg in Octob^. 1877, of A. Palmieri. 

193 persons: 94 went free, 36 were sent to Sioeria; the 

others received light sentences. One of the accused. NihUB, Babthold, convert and controversialist, b. 

M3rskin by name, who in addressing the judges had at Holtoif in Hanover, 7 February, 1590 (according to 

characterized the procedure as ''an abominable com- other sources in 15S4 or 1589, at Wolpe in Bruns- 

edy ", was condemned to ten years of penal servitude, wick) : d. at Erfurt, 10 March^ 1657. He came from a 

Another sensational trial (April, 1878) was that of poor rrotestant family, obtamed his early education 

Vera Sassulio, who had attempted to murder General at Verden and C^roslar, and from 1607 studied philoso- 

Frepov, chief of police of St. Petersburg. Her ac- phy and medicine at the University of Helmstedt, 

quittal was frantically applauded and she found a ref- where, on account of his poverty, he was the famulus 

uge in Switzerland. Among the deeds of violence of Cornelius Martini, professor of philosophy. Hav- 

committed by Nihilists may be mentioned the assassi- ing become master of philosophy in 1612, his inclina- 

nation of General Mezencev (4 Aug., 1878) and Prince tions then led him to studv Protestant theology. Con- 

Krapotkin (1879). These events were followed by new tentions among the professors at Helmstedt made 

repressive measures on the part of the Government further stay there unpleasant, and when two students 

and by numerous executions. The Nihilists, however, of noble family went m 1616 to the University of Jena, 

continued their work, held a congress at Lipeck in he accompanied them as preceptor. Later he became 

1879, and (26 Aug.) condemned Alexander II to death, instructor of the voung princes of Saxe- Weimar. 

An attempt to wreck the train on which the Tsar was among whom was the subsequently famous Bemhara 

returning to St. Petersburg proved abortive. Another of Saxe- Weimar. The inability of the Protestant 

attack on his life was made by Halturin, 5 Feb., 1880. theologians to agree upon vital questions caused him 

He was slain on 1 March, 1881, by a bomb, thrown by first to doubt and then to renounce Protestantism. He 

Grineveckij. Six conspirators, among them Sofia went to Cologne in 1622, and entered the House of 

Perovskaja, were tried and executed. On 14 March, Proselytes founded by the Brotherhood of the Holy 

the Zemlja i Volja society issued a proclamation incit- Cross; in the same year he accepted the Catholic 

ing the peasants to rise, while the Executive Committee Faith and, after due preparation, was ordained priest, 

wrote to Alexander III denouncing the abuses of the Chosen director of the House of Proselytes, and in 

bureaucracy and demanding political amnesty, na- 1627 provost of the nunnery of the Cistercians at Alt- 

tional representation, and civil hberty. haldensleben near Magdeburg, two years later he be- 

The reign of Alexander III was guided by the die- came abbot of the monastery of the Premonstraten- 

tates of a reaction, due in great measure to the coun- sians, from which he was en>elied after the battle of 

sels of Constantine Pob^onoscev, procurator general Breitenfeld in 1631. He fled to Hildesheim where he 

of the Holy Synod. And Nihilism, which seemed to became canon of the church of the Holy Cross, thence 

reach its apogee in the death of Alexander II, saw its to Holland where he came into close relation with (jrer- 

ecUpse. Its theories were too radical to gain prose- hard Johann Vossius. In 1645 Nihus was called to 

lytes among the people. Its assaults were repeated; MOnster by the papal nuncio, Fabio Chigi (later Alex- 

on 20 March, 1882, General Strfilnikov was assassi- ander VII), then in Mttnster attending the Westpha- 

nated at Odessa; and Colonel SudeSkin on the 28th of h^^ Peace Congress. A few years later he was in- 

December, 1883; in 1887, an attempt against the life duced to come to Mayence by Johann Philip von 

of the tsar was unsuccessful; in 1890, a conspiracy Schdnbom, Archbishop of Mayence. at whose request 

against the tsar was discovered at Paris; but these he went to Ingolstadt in 1654 to obtain information 

crimes were the work of the revolution in Russia, regarding the Welt-Priester-Institut of Bartholomew 

rather than of the Nihilists. The crimes that reddened Holzhauser, and to report to the archbishop. Schon- 

the soil of Russia with blood in constitutional times horn, in 1655, appointed him his suffragan bishop for 

are due to the revolution of 1905-07. But the Ni- Saxony and Thunngia, with residence in Erf urt, where 

hilism, that, as a doctrinal system, proclaimed the he died. 

destruction of the old Russia, to estabfish the founda- After his conversion Nihus had sent to the Helm- 

tions of a new Russia, may be said to have disap- stedt professors, Calixtus and Homeius, a letter in 

peared; it became' fused with Anarchism and SociaUsm, which he presented his reasons for embracing Catho- 

and therefore, the history of the crimes that were mul- hcism; his chief motive was that the Church needs a 

tipUed from 1905 on are a chapter in the history of fiving, supreme judge to explain the Bible and to settle 

political upheavals in Russia, and not in the history disputes and difficulties. Calixtus attacked him first 

of Nihilism. i^ ^ lectures and later in lys writings, whence origi- 

IsKANDBB (the pseud, of Hbrebk), Du dheloppement dM ydu» "^f^ a bitter controversy between Nihus and the 

xHolyixionrMirt* 9n Btutie (Paris, 1861) ; Schbdo-Fbbboti. Etttdei Helmstedt professors The most important of Nihus 

tor Vavenir d« la Rusne (Berlin, 1867) ; Auaati, Le* nihiluUet ou numerous writings are: (1) " Ars nova, dicto S. Scrip- 

2m damea nuteM imanapiea (London, 1867); Max Nbttlau, ♦,,-«» „«;«-. i.,™«<,i: ^ ibJ«*:fi«:;„ «i„l:^«„ :« .^«-*!l. 

Life of Michael Bakunin (3 vols., London); Golovin, Der ru^ i^ ^^^^ lucrandl e PontlficilS plunmOS m partes 

tUeha Nihilitmu* (Leipsig, 1880); Layionb, Introd, d I'hist. du Lutheranorum, detecta non nihil et suggesta Theolo- 

Mhiium* en BiujtU (Paris. 1880); Lubomibsiu, Le nihiUtme en gig Helmstetensibus, Georgio Calixto pr«sertim et 

Riuate (Pans, 1879) ; Abmando, Ilmhtlismo (Turin, 1879); Idem, ruT»,.o/J-rx Tl-rx»««;^'» /Ti;i^^T>«;«» i aqq\. /"ON « a,.^!^ 

Waeistder l^ihaiemue t (Leipsig. 1881) ; GbrbutwKaklowitsch, ^nrado Homejo (Hildesheim. 1633) ; (2) Apolo- 

Die Attentau-Period in Ruasiand (Heilbronn, 1881) ; Gallt- geticus pro arte nova contra Andabatam Helmsteten- 

BoDTTBviLiJB. TMritme et nihaienu (Paris. 1881); Lirot- sem" (Cologne, 1640), in answer to the response of 

Bbauubu, L'emptre dee tMara et lee rueaee^ II (Pans, 1882), M4- r««i;*^«« ♦^ ♦k^ <?•«♦ ,>«t««,^v.1»4^ . "n:«^«««:« A^ JT^^ ^^„^ 

66; &rBPNiAK (pseud.). La Rueeia sotterran^ (Milan, 1882) ; Cahxtusto the first pamphlet: Digressio de arte nova 

Lee nihilietee et to rHolution en Rueeie (Paris, 1882) ; Der Caaren^ COntra Nlhusium , (3) ''Hvpodlgma, qUO dlluuntur 

nurd am iS-Mdre i««/ (Dresden. 1882); BouaARD, Le» nihi- nonnulla oontra Catholicos disputata in Comelii Mar- 

Itetee rueate {Zuncht 1881); Taus, Oeech. der revoliUxondren Bewe- 4.1 • ♦--,«♦«♦„ j« «„«!,.«: i^^^^n /'o«,l«.«««, taAQ\ a« 

qungen in Ruesland (Leipsig. 1883). tr. Polish (London, 1893), ^^ tractatu de an^ysi lomca (Colome, 1648). As- 

Rufldan (Moscow, 1905) ; Schxrr, Die Nihilieten (Leipsig, 1885) ; sisted bv his fnend Leo Allatius (q. V.) he devoted con- 

lB«oBoy, Auaden Myetenen dee ruee. NihUiemusJUiiMg, 1885); siderable time to researches pertaining to the "Com- 

Btbpniak, Le tMoneme el la rHwutxon (Pans, 1866); Thomirov, «r»i,»»;rx« »» a«%^ i-Ua <<'\vr;«ao «vJnfiAnr.4^;fi^4^«.i«» >' ,^t 4^i«a 

CmeviraUure et patriciene (Paris. 1887) ; FRin*, L^ Ruaeie et U DJUnion ^d the MlSSa prffisanctlficatorum of the 

nihiUeme (Paris, 1887); OLOBNBBRa, Der ruee. Nihiliemue eon Greeks, and also tOOK charge of the editing and pub- 

Minen Anfdngm hie twrQeomwaH (Leipsig, 1888) ; Milinbov, Ushing of several WOrks of Allatius, SOme of which — aS 

i?.:ri^<Sr2f-4S2ir'^.^-i."i'^?8^^^^ the '^De Ecdesl* occidentals et orientalis perpe; 

Ruadand im XX, Jahrh. (Berlin, 1908); Istorja molodoi Roeeii tua consensione" (Cologne, 1648) and "Symmicta" 


(Cologne, 1653)— he provided with valuable addictions a nun and he entered the Solovetski monastery on the 

and footnotes. White Sea, according to Orthodox custom, chang- 

Koch. Du Brfurur WeihbUchAft in Zeiuehrifi /Or thurinffUehs ing his name to Nikon. In accordance also with a 

»i^ ^'Sl^S^-i^- ^'?i.'^-?^r^^^i^^^ common eu-^m he next became a hermit on an id- 

KirehmUex, s. v.; Iobm in AUg, deuuehs Biog., XXIII, 609 aq. and near by, dependent on the monastery. But a dis- 

Fbubdrich Lauchebt. agreement about the alleged misuse of some alma 

caused him to break with the Solovetski monks and 

NikolauB von Dinkelsblihl, theologiazi.b.c. 1360, join the Kojeozenski community in the same neigh- 
at Dinkelsbuhl; d. 17 March, 1433, at Mariazell in bourhood, of which he became hegumen in 1643. 
Styria. He studied at the University of Vienna, Later he made a great impression on the emperor, 
where he is mentioned as baccalaureus m the faculty Alexis, who made him Arclumandrite of the Novo»- 
of Arts in 1385. Master in 1390, he lectured on paski Laura at Moscow in 1646, and in 1649 Metro- 
philosophy, mathematics, and physics until 1397, and politan of Novgorod. Here he fdunded almshouses, 
from 1402 to 1405. From 1397 he was dean of the distinguii^ed hunself by his many good works, ana 
faculty; he studied theology, lecturing until 1402 on succe^ed in putting down a dangerous revolt in 
theological subjects, first as cursor biSlicus, and later 1650. Meanwmle he was in constant correspon- 
on the '^ Sentences" of Peter Lombard. In 1405 he be- dence with the Tsar, at whose court he spent part of 
came bachelor of Divinity, in 1408 licentiate, and in each year. Already during this time he began to 
1409 doctor and member of the theolo^cal faculty, prepare for a revision of the Slavonic Bible and Ser- 
Rector of the university, 1405-6, he declined the hon- vice books. In 1652 the Patriarch of Moscow died 
our of a re-election in 1409. From 1405 he was also and Nikon was appointed his successor, 
canon at the cathedral of St. Stephen. The supposition As head of the Church of Russia Nikon set about 
of Several earlv authors that he was a member of the many important reforms. One of the first questions 
Order of the Hermits of St. Augustine is incorrect, for that engaged his attention was the reunion of the 
he could not have been rector of the university had he Ruthenians (Little Russians) with the Orthodox 
been a member of any order. Eminent as teacher and Church. When Poland held Little Russia, the Synod 
pulpit orator, Nikolaus possessed great business acu- of Brest (1596) had brou^t about union between its 
men, and was frequently chosen as ambassador both inhabitants and Rome. Under Alexis, however, the 
by the university and the reigning prince. He repre- tide turned; many Ruthenians arose against Poland 
sented Duke Albert V of Austria at the Councu of and united with Russia (1653). A result of this was 
Constance (1414-18), and the University of Vienna in that the Russians were able without much difiicult>[ to 
the trial of Thiem, dean of the Passau cathedral, undo the work of the Synod of Brest, and to brin^ 
When Emperor Sigismund came to Constance, Niko- the Metropolitan of Kief with the majority of his 
laus delivered an address on the abolition of the schism clergy back to tihe Orthodox Church. This greatly 
("Sermo de unione Ecclesise in Concilium Constan- increased the extent of the Russian patriarch's juris- 
tiense,'' II, 7, Frankfort, 1697, 182-7). He took part diction. Nikon was able to entitle himself patnarch 
in the election of Martin V, and delivered an address of Great, Little, and White Russia. During the reign 
to the new pope (Sommerfeldt, '^Historisches Jahr- of Alexis, Nikon built three monasteries, one of which, 
buch*', XX VL 1905, 323-7). Together with John, made after the model of the Anastasis and called 
Patriarch of Constantinople, he was charged with the ''New Jerusalem," is numbered among the famous 
examination of witnesses in the proceedmm against Lauras of Russia. 

Hieronymus of Prague. Returning to Vienna in The chief event of Nikon's reign was the reform of 

1418, he again took up his duties as teacher at the uni- the service books. The Bible and books used in 

versity, and in 1423 directed the theological promo- church iu Russia are translated from Greek into old 

tions as representative of the chancellor. Duke Al- Slavonic. But gradually many mistranslations and 

bert V having chosen him as his confessor in 1425, corruptions of the text had crept in. There were also 

wished to make him Bishop of Passau, but Nikolaus details of ritual in which the Russian Church had for- 

declined the appointment. During the preparations saken the custom of Constantinople. Nikon's work 

for the Council of Basle, he was one of the committee was to restore all these points to exact conformity 

to draw up the reform proposals which were to be pre- with the Greek original. This reform had been di»- 

sented to the council. His name does not appear cussed before his time. In the sixteenth century the 

thereafter in the records of the university. Greeks had reproached the Russians for their altera- 

His published works include '' Postilla cum sermoni- tions, but a Russian synod in 1551 had sanctioned 
bus evan^eliorum dominicalium" (Strasburg, 1496), them. In Nikon's time there was more intercourse 
and a collection of ''Sermones" with tracts (Stras- with Greeks than ever before, and in this way he con- 
burg, 1516). Aniong his numerous unpublished ceived the necessity of restoring purer forms. While 
works, the manuscripts of which are chiefly kept in the Metropolitan of Novgorod he caused a committee of 
Court librai^ at Vienna and in the Court and State scholars to discuss the question, in spite of the patri- 
library at Munich, are to be mentioned his commen- arch Joseph. In 1650 a Russian theolo^an was sent 
taries on the Psalms, Isaias, the Gospel of St. Mat- to Constantinople to inquire about vanous doubtful 
thew, some of the Epistles of St. Paul, the "Sen- points. One detail that made much trouble was that 
tences" of Peter Lombard, and, "Questiones Sen- the Russians had learned to make the sign of the cross 
tentiarum"; a commentary on the ''Physics" of with two fingers instead of three, as the Greeks did. 
Aristotle, numerous sermons, lectures, moral and As soon as he became patriarch, Nikon published an 
ascetic tracts. order introducing some of these reforms, which im- 

AacHBACH, Ouch, der Wiener UniveraitdLl (Vienn*. 1885), mediately called forth angry Opposition. In 1654 

430-40: Stamonik in AOg, deut. Bxog., XXIII (1886), 622 aq.; onH Ifi^'f hp aiimmnnAH .^vnorlfi whiph nnnfinupd th« 

Emm in Kireheniex., b. v. Nieoiaua ton DinkeUbufU; Hubtbb, *°^, 1000 ne summonea oynoos wnicn conunueu ine 

Nomen., II (Innsbruck, 1906), 830-32. work. Makanos, Patnarch of Antioch, who came 

Fribdrich Lauchbrt. to Russia at that time was able to help, and there was 

continual correspondence with the Patriarch of Con- 
Nikon, Patriarch of Moscow (1652-1658; d. 1681). stantinople. At last, with the approval of the Greek 
He was of peasant origin, bom in the district of Nish- patriarchs. Nikon published the reformed service 
ni-Novgorod in 1605, and in early life was known as books ana made laws insisting on conformity with 
Nikita. Educated in a monastery, he married, be- Greek custom in all points of ntuaJ (1655-1658). A 
came a secular priest, and for a time had a parish new Synod in 1656 confirmed this, excommunicated 
in Moscow. After ten years of married life, his every one who made the sign of the cross except with 
children having died, he persuaded his wife to become three fingers, and forbade the rebaptizing of Latin con- 




verts (still a peculiarity of the Russian Church). This 
aroused a strong party of opposition. The patriarch 
was accused of anti-national sentiments, of trying to 
Hellenize the Russian Church, of corrupting the old 
faith. Nikon's strong will wouJd have crushed the op- 
position, had he not, in some way not yet clearly ex- 
plained, fallen foul of the tsar. It is generally said 
that part of his ideas of reform was to secure that the 
Church should be independeiit of the state and that 
this aroused the tsar's anger. In any case in the year 
1658 Nikon suddenly fell. He ofifered his resignation 
to the tsar and it was accepted. He hadoften 
threatened to resigft before; it seems that this time, 
too, he did not mean his offer to be taken seriously. 
However, he had to retire and went to his New Jeru- 
salem monast^. A i)ersonal interview with Alexis 
was refused. The patriarchate remained vacant and 
Nikon, in spite of his resignation, attempted to regun 
his former place. Meanwhile the opposition to nim 
became stronger. It was led by a Greek, Paisios 
Ligarides, Metropolitan of Gasa (unlawfully absent 
from his see), who insisted on the appointment of a 
successor at Moscow. All Nikon's friended seem to 
have forsaken him at this junctiue. Ligarides caused 
an appeal to be made to the Greek patriarchs and their 
verdict was against Nikon. In 1664 he tried to force 
the situation by appearing suddenlv in the patriarchal 
church at Moscow and occup3ring his place as if noth- 
ing had happened. But he did not succeed, and in 
1667 a great synod was summoned to try him. The 
Patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch came to Russia 
expressly for this synod; a great number of Russian 
and Greek metropohtans sat as judges. The tsar 
himself appeared as accuser of his former friend. 
Nikon was summoned and appeared before the synod 
in his patriarch's robes. He was accused of neglecting 
his duties since 1658, of having betrayed his Church 
in a certain letter he had written to the Patriarch of 
Constantinople (in which he had complained of the 
Russian clergy), of harsh and unjust conduct in his 
treatment of the bishops. Nikon defended himself 
abl^r; the ^od lasted a week; but at last in its eighth 
session it declared him deposed from the patriarchate, 
suK)ended from all offices but those of a simple monk, 
and sentenced him to confinement in a monastery 
(Therapontof ) on the White Sea. The archimandrite 
of the Trinity Laura at Moscow, Joasaph, was elected 
his successor (Joasaph II, 1667-72). Joasaph con- 
firmed Nikon's reform of the Service books and rites. 
The party that opposed it formed the beginning of the 
Russian dissenting sects (the Raskolniks). 

For a time Nikon's imprisonment was very severe. 
In 1675 he was taken to another monastery (of St. 
Cyril) and his treatment was lightened. Alexis to- 
wards the end of his life repenteid of his harsh treat- 
ment of the former patriaron, and from his death-bed 
(1676) sent to ask nis forgiveness. The next tsar, 
Feodor II (1676-82) allowed him to return to his 
New Jerusalem monastery. On the way thither 
Nikon died (17 August, 1681). He was buried with 
the honours of a patriarch, and all decrees against him 
were revoked after his death. His tomb is in the 
Cathedral church of Moscow. Nikon's fall, the ani- 
mosity of the tsar, and of the synod that deposed 
him remain mjrsterious. The cause was not his re- 
form of the Service books, for that was maintained by 
his successor. It has been explained as a successful 
intriipe of his personal enemies at the court. He 
certainly had made enemies during his rei^ by his 
severit]^, his harsh manner, the uncompromising way 
he carried out his reforms regardless of the intensely 
conservative instinct of his people. Or, it has been 
said, Nikon brought about his disgrace by a premature 
attempt to free the Russian Church from the shackles 
of the stat«. His attitude represented an opposition 
to the growing Erastianism that culminated soon after 
his time in the laws of Peter the Great (1689-1725). 

This js no doubt true. There are sufficient indications 
that Alexis' quarrel with Nikon was based on jealousy. 
Nikon wanted to be too independent ol the tsar, and 
this independence was concerned, naturally, with 
ecclesiastical matters. Some writers have thought 
that the root of the whole matter was that he b^same 
at the end of his reign a Latinizer, that he wanted to 
bring ^x>ut reunion with Rome and saw in that re- 
union the only safe protection for the Church against 
the secular government. It has even been said that 
he became a Catholic (Gerebtzoff, ** Essai ", II, 514). 
The theory is not impossible. Since the Svnod of 
Brest the idea of reumon was in the air; Nikon had 
had much to do with Ruthenians; he may at last have 
been partly convinced by them. Ana one of the 
accusations against him at his trial was that of Latin- 
iiine. A story is told of his conversion by a miracle 
worked by Samt Josaphat, the great martyr for the 
union. In any case the real reason of Nikon's fall 
remains one of the difficulties of Russian Church 
history. He was undoubtedly the greatest bishop 
Russia has yet produced. A few ascetical worlos 
of no special importance were written by him. 

Palicbb, The Palriareh and the T»ar (6 yols., London, 1871- 
76) ; SuBBOTiN. The Trial of Nikon, in Riusian (Moooow, 1802) ; 
Makariob, The Patriarch Nikon, Riusian (Moscow, 1881); 
Philabct, GeediichU der Kirehe Rueelande, German tr. by Blu- 
lOUCTHAL (Frankfort, 1872); MouBAViBrF, A HieUtry of the Chvreh 
of AuMtd, English tr. by Blackmorb (Oxford, 1842); Nikon in 
Livea of BminerU Rueeian PrekUee (no author) (London, 1854) ; 
GBRBBTiorF, Bteai eur Vhiataire de la eitiUeation en Riieeie (Paris, 

Adrian Fobtbscus. 

Nil«, VicABiATB Apostouc OF THE XJpFER. See 
Upper Nile, Vicariate Apostolic of the. 

NilleSy NiKOLAX78, b. 21 June, 1828, of a wealthy 
peasant family of Rippweiler, Luxemburg; d. 31 
Januaiy. 1907. After completing bis gvmnasium 
studies brilliantly, he went to Home where from 
1847 to 1853, as a student of the Collegium Ger^ 
manicum, he laid the foundation of his ascetic life 
and. as a pupil of the Gregorian University, under the 
Kuiaance of distinguished scholars (Ballerini. Franxe- 
fin, Passaglia, Perrone, Patrizi, Schrader, Tarquini), 
prepared tne way for ms subsequent scholarly career. 
When he left l(ome in 1853, he took with him, in 
addition to the double doctorate of theology and 
canon law, two mementoes which lasted throughout 
his life: his grey hair and a disease of the heart, the 
result of the terrors which he had encountered in 
Rome in the revolutionary year 1848-9. From 1853 
to 1858 he laboured in his own country as chap- 
lain and parish priest,and during this time made his 
first literary attempts. In March, 1858. he entered 
the Austrian Province of the Societv of .Jesus and, in 
the autumn of 1859, was summoned by his superiors to 
Innsbruck to fill the chair of canon law in the theo- 
logical faculty, which Emperor Francis Joseph I 
hcui shortly before entrusted to the Austrian Jesuits. 
Nilles lectured throughout his life — ^after 1898 usually 
to the North American theolop;ians, to whom he gave 
special instructions on canomcal conditions in their 
country, for which task no one was better quaUfied 
than he. His ''Commentaria in Concilium Balti- 
morense tertium'' (1884-90) and his short essay, 
"Tolerari potest", gained him a wide reputation. 

His literary achievements in the fields of canon 
law, ascetics, and Uturgy were abundant and fruitful. 
Martin Blum enumerates in his by no means complete 
bibliography fifty-seven works, of which the two 
principal are: ''De rationibus festorum sacratissimi 
Cordis Jesu et purissimi Cordis Marise libri quatuor" 
(2 vols., 5th ed., Innsbruck, 1885) and "Kalenda- 
rium manuale utriusque Ecclesise orientalis et occiden- 
talis'' (2 vols., 2nd ed., Innsbruck, 1896). Through 
the latter work he biecame widely known in the 
world of scholars. In particular Protestants and 
Orthodox Russians expressed themselves in terms of 


the highest praise for the Kalendarium or Heorto- While St. John Chrysostom was patriarch, before 

logion. Professor Hamack of Berlin wrote of it in his first exile (398-403), he directed Niliis in the studv 

the "Theologische Literaturzeitung'' (XXI, 1896, of Scripture and in works of piety (Nikephoros Kal- 

350-2): "I have . . . frequently made use of the listos ''Hist. Eccl.". XIV, 53, 54). About the year 

work . . . and it has always proved a reliable guide, 390 (Tillemont, "Memoires", XIV, 190-91) or per- 

whose information was derived from original sources, haps 404 (Leo AUatius, ''De Nilis'', 11-14), Nilus left 

There is scarcely another scholar as well versed as the his wife and one son and took the other, Theodulos. 

author in the feasts of Catholicism. His knowledge with him- to Mount Sinai to be a monk. They Uvea 

is based not only on his own observations, but on here till about the year 410 (Tillemont, ib., p. 405) 

books, periodicals, papers, and calendars of the past when the Saracens, invading the monastery, took 

and present. The Feasts of Catholicism I The title Theodulos prisoner. The Saracens intended to sacri« 

is self-explanatory; yet, though the basis of these ordi- fice him to their gods, but eventually sold him as a 

nances is uniform, the details are of infinite variety, slave, so that he came into the posse^on of the Bishop 

since the work treats not only of the Latin but also of of Eleusa in Palestine. The Bishop received Theo- 

the Eastern Rites. The latter, it is well known, are dulos among his clergy and made him door-keeper of 

divided into Greek, Syriac, Coptic, Armenian . . J* the church. Meanwhile Nilus, having left his monaa- 

Of the second volume Hamack wrote (ibid., XXXIII, terv to find his son, at last met him at Eleusa. The 

1898, 112 sq.): ''Facts which elsewhere would have bishop then ordained them both priests and allowed 

to be sought under difficulties are here marshalled in them to return to Sinai. The mother and the other 

lucid order^ and a very carefully arranged index facil- son had also embraced the religious life in Eg^rpt. St. 

itates inquury. Apart from the principal aim of the Nilus was certainly alive till Uie year 430. It is un- 

work, it offers valuable information concerning recent certain how soon after that he died. Some writers 

Eastern Catholic ecclesiastical history, also authori- believe him to have lived till 451 (Leo Allatius. op. 

ties and literature useful to the historian of liturgy cit., 8-14). The Byzantine Menolog^ for his least 

and creeds. . . . His arduous and disinterested toil (12 November) supposes this. On the other hand, 

will be rewarded by the general gratitude, and his none of his works mentions the Council of Ephesus 

work will long prove useful not only to every theo- (431) and he seems to know only the beginning of the 

losian 'utriusque', but also 'cuiusque ecclesis'". Nestorian troubles; so we have no evidence of his life 

The Roumanian Academy at Bucharest awarded a later than about 430. 

prise to this work. Soon after the appearance of From his monastery at Sinai Nilus was a well- 

the second edition of the "Kalendarium ' , the Russian known person throughout the Eastern Church ; by his 

Holy Synod issued from the synodal printing office writings and correspondence he played an important 

at Moscow a "Festbilderatlas" intended to a certain part in the history of his time. He was known as a 

extent as the official Orthodox illustrations for Uie theologian, Biblical scholar and ascetic writer, so peo- 

work. Nilles was not only a distinguished university pie of all kinds, from the emperor down, wrote to 

professor, but also a meritorious director of ecclesiasti- consult him. His numerous works, including a mul- 

cal students. For fifteen years (1860-75) he presided titude of letters, consist of denimciations of heresy, 

over the theological seminary of Innsbruck, an inter- paganism, abuses of discipline and crimes, of rules ana 

national institution where young men from all parts principles of asceticism, especially maxims about the 

of Europe and the United States are trained for the religious life. He warns and threatens people in high 

priesthood. places, abbots and bishops, governors and princes, 

BuTM, Dat CoUegium Oennanieum tu Rom u. teiru Zoglingt aut even tne emperor himself, without fear. He kept up a 

wli'aS&^QO^/^^^^^ com»pondence with Gaina. a leader of . the GotL, 

f<r-0«b«to-Kernn, XLI (innsbnick), 37 sqq. endeavounng to convert him from Anamsm (Book I 

M. HoFMANN. of his letters, nos. 70, 79, 114, 115, 116, 205, 206, 286); 

_,, ,, . , , i» I. ^® denounced vigorously the persecution of St. Jolm 

NilopollB, a titular see and a suffragan of Oxyryn- Chrysostomboth to the Emperor Arcadius (ib.,II,265; 

chos, m E^ypt. According to Ptolemv (IV, v, 26) the m, 279) and to his courtiers (I, 309; III, 199). 

city was situated on an island of the Nile m the Her- Nilus must be counted as one of the leading ascetic 

aclean nome. Eusebius ("Hist, eccl.'/, VI, xli) states writers of the fifth century. His feast is kept on 12 

that It had a bishop, Cheremon, during the persecu- November in the Byzantine Calendar; he is commem- 

tion of Deems; others are mentioned a little later, orated also in the Roman martyrology on the same 

"The Chronicle of John of Nikiou" (559) alludes to date. The Armenians remember him, with other 

this city in connexion with the occupation of Egypt Egyptian fathers, on the Thursday after the third 

by the Mussulmans, and it is also referred to by Ara- Sunday of their Adveht (Nilles, "Kalendarium Man- 

bian medieval geographers under its original name of uale", Innsbruck, 1897, II, 624). 

Delas. In the fourteenth century it paid 20,000 di- The writings of St. Nilus of Sinai were first edited 

nars in taxes, which hidicates a place of some impor- by Possinus (Paris. 1639); in 1673 Suarea published 

tance. At present, Delas forms a part of the moudi- a supplement at Rome; his letters were collected 

rieh of Beni-Suef in ihe district of El-Zaouiet, and has by Possinus (Paris, 1657), a larger collection was made 

about 2500 inhabitants of whom nearly 1000 are by Leo Allatius (Rome, 1668). All these editions are 

nomadic Bedouins. It is situated on the left bank of uged in P. G., LXXIX. The works are divided by 

the Nile about forty-seven miles from Memphis. Fessler-Jungmann into four classes:— (1) Works 

l-'i5^Ji^,SJSJ^«?-S;J!i2S^(pISl! »bout Tirtu« and vic« in general :-"PeriBteria" 

f- wm,^ ,^ ,^y g Vailh4. (P' ^'t LXXIX, 811-968), a treatise m three parte 

addressed to a monk Agathios: "On Prayer" {rtpl 

Nilus, Saint (NcTXot), the elder, of Sinai (d.c. 430). rpoawx^, ib., 1165-1200); ''Of the eight spirits of 

was one of the many disciples and tervent defender^ 01 wickedness" (ircpi rQv eWpevfiinov ri^s voptiplat^ ib., 

St, John Chrysostom. We know him first as a lay- 1145-64); "Of the vice opposed to virtues" (rtpl r^ 

man, married, wiUi two sons. At this time he was an dmipSyovt tQv d^prnrQv naKiat^ ib., 1 140-44) ; '' Of various 

officer at the Court of Constantinople, and is said to bad thoughts" {rtpl itwffhfwv TowripQv Xoyirijuavj ib., 

have been one of the Praetorian Prefects, who, accord- 1200-1 234) ; ' ' On the word of the Gospel of Luke ' * , xxii, 

ing to Diocletian and Constantine's arrangement, 36 (ib., 1263-1280). (2) " Works about the monastic 

were the chief functionaries and heads of sJl other life : — Concerning the slaughter of monks on Mount 

governors for the four main divisions of the empire. Sinai, in seven parts, telling the story of the author's 

Thdr authority, however, had already begun to de- life at Sinai, the invasion of the Saracens, captivity 

dine by the endf of the fourth century. of his son, etc. (ib., 590-694) ; Concerning Albianos, 




a Nitrian monk whofie life is held up as an example 
(ib., 695-712); "Of Asceticism" (A67of d<r«|Tiic6f, 
about the monastic ideal, ib., 719-810); "Of volun- 
tary poverty" (vtpl d«Ti;Au»<rtfi^t, ib., 968-1060); "Of 
the superiority of monks" (ib., 1061-1094); "To 
Eulogios the monk?' (ib., 1093-1140). (3) "Admoni- 
tions^' (TvQ/uu) or "Chapters" (we^dXoui), about 200 
precepts drawn up in short maxims (ib., 1239-62). 
These are probabhr made by his disciples from his 
discourses. (4) "Letters".' — Possinus published 355, 
Allatius 1061 letters, divided into four books (P. G.. 
LXXIX, 81-585). Many are not complete, several 
overlap, or are not really letters but excerpts from 
Nilus' works; some are spurious. Fessler-Jungmann 
divides them into classes, as dogmatic, exe^etical. 
moral, and ascetic. Certain works wron^y attributea 

to Nilus are named in Fessler-Jungmann, pp. 125-^. 

NxKBPHOBOB Kalustos. H%^. Bcd., AlV, zliv; Lbo Allatius, 
DicUriba de NUia et eorum acriptia in his edition of the letters 
(Rome, 1668): Tillbmont, Mtmoire* pour aervir d thiatoire 
teeUaiaalivue, XIV (Paris, 1603-1713), 189-218; Fabkicids- 
Hablbs, Bihliotheoa fp-aca, X (Hamburg, 1700-1809}, 3-17; 
Cbxlubb, UiaUnre ohUrale dea auieura focr^, XIII (Pans, 1720- 
1763), iii; FBmLBB-JuNOMAKN, InalUutumea Palrologia^ II (Inns- 
bruok, 1896), ii, 108-128. 

Adman Fortescue. 


Niluf the Younger, of Rossano, in Calabria; 
b. in 910; d. 27 December, 1005. For a time he was 
married (or lived unlawfully); he had a daughter. 
Sickness Drought about his conversion, however, and 
from that time he became a monk and a propagator 
of the rule of St. Basil in Italy. He was known for 
his ascetic life, his virtues, and theological leaminjs. 
For a time he lived as a hermit, later he spent certain 
periods of his life at various monasteries which he 
either founded or restored. He was for some time at 
Monte Cassino, and again at the Alexius monastery 
at Rome. When Gregory V (966-999) was driven out 
of Rome, Nilus opposed the usurpation of Fhilogatos 
(John) of Piacenza as anti-pope. Later when Fhilo- 
gatos was tortured and mutilated he reproached 
Gregory and the Emperor Otto III (993-1002) for 
this crime. Nilus' chief work was the foundation of 
the famous Greek monastery of Grottaferrata, near 
Frascati, of which he is counted the first abbot. He 
spent the end of his life partly there and piui;ly in a 
hermitage at Valleluce near Gaeta. His feast is kept 
on 26 September, both in the Byzantine Calendar and 
the Roman martyrology. 

ViU8. Nili abbatia CrypUB Femta, probably by Babtholoiibw, 
Abbot of Grottaf errato (d. 1065) . in the ileto Sanctorum^ VII, Sept., 
283-343; P. L., LXXI. 509-688; P. (7., IV. 616-618; Minasi, 
S. NUo di Calabria (Naples, 1892) ; Kbumbacbbr, ByzarUintaehe 
LUterattar (2nd ed., Mumch, 1897), 196, 198. 

Adrian Fortebcue. 

Nimbuf (Lat., related to NeMdUf w^A^ properly 
vapour, cloud), in art and archseologv sisTiines a shin- 
ing light implying great dignity. Closely related are 
the halo, glory, and aureole. 

In Nature. — ^All such symbols originate in natural 
phenomena, seientifically accoimted for in textbooks 
on physics (MtUler-Peter, '^Lehrbuch der kosmischen 
Physik": Pemter, " Meteorologische Optik"). There 
are circular phenomena of light in drops or bubbles of 
water and in ice crystals which by tne refraction of 
light reveal in greater or less degree the spectral col- 
ours. Of the accompanying phenomena the hori- 
zontal and vertical diameters, tne "colunm of light '^ 
may be mentioned. The curious rings of light or colour 
sinular to the above, which often form themselves be- 
fore the iris of the eye even in candle light, are more 
S>rgeous on the moimtain mist (Pilatus, Rigi, and 
rocken), if the beholder has the sun behind him; 
they surround his shadow as it is projects upon the 
clouds. The dewdrops in a meadow can proauce an 
i^>pearanoe of light around a shadow, without, how- 
ever, forming distinct circles. Occasionally one even 
sees the planet Venus veiled by a disc of light. The 

phenomena of discs and broad rings are more usual in 
the sun and moon. The Babylonians studied them 
diligently (Kugler. ''Stemkunde und Stemdienst in 
Baber', Hi !)• Tne terminology of these phenomena 
is vague. The disc or circle around the sun can be cor- 
rectly called ''anthelia", and the rin^ around the 
moon ''halo". A more usual name is "aureole", 
which in a restricted sense means an oval or ellipitical 
ray of light like a medallion. If the brightness is 
merely a luminous glow without definitely forming 
ring, circle, or ellipse, it is usually spoken of as a 
"poTv ", The types in nature in which rays or beuns 
of light with or without colour challenge attention, 
suggested the symbolical use of the nimbus to denote 
high dignity or powej*. It is thus that Divine charac- 
teristics and the loftiest types of l^umanity were de- 
noted by the nimbus. 

In Poetrt, this symbol of li^t is chiefly used in the 
form of rays and flames or a diffused glow. Holy Writ 
presents the best example: God is Light. The Son of 
God, the Brightness of His Father's glory (Hebr., i, 
3). An emerald light surrounds God and His throne 
(Apoc., iv^ 3), and the Son of Man seems to the prophet 
a name of wre (Apoc., i, 14 sq.). So also He appeared 
in His Transfiguration on Tabor. On Sinai, God ap- 
peared in a cloud which at once concealed and revealed 
Him (Ex., xxiv, 16, sq.) and even the countenance of 
Moses shone with a marvellous light in the presence 
of God (Ex., xxxiv, 20, sq.). Such descriptions may 
have influenced Christian artists to distinguish God 
and the saints by means of a halo, especiaUy around 
the head. They were also familiar with the descrip- 
tions of the classical poets whose gods appeared veiled 
by a cloud; e. g. according to Virail. divinity appears 
''nimbo circumdata, succincta, enulgens" (bauiedin 
light and shining through a cloud). 

In Art. — In the plastic arts (painting and sculp- 
ture) the s3rmbolism of the nimbus was early in use 
among the pagans who determined its form. In the 
monuments of Hellenic and Roman art, the heads 
of the gods, heroes, and other distinguished persons 
are often found with a disc-shaped halo, a circle of 
light, or a rayed-fillet. They are, therefore, associ- 
ated especially with gods ana creatures of light such 
as the rhoenix. The disc of light is likewise used in 
the Pompeian wall paintings to typify gods and demi- 
gods only, but later, in profane art it was extended to 
cherubs or even simple personifications, and is simply 
a reminder that the ngures so depicted are not human. 
In the miniatures of the oldest Virgil manuscript all 
the great personages wear a nimbus (BeisseL "Vati- 
kanische Miniaturen **). The custom of the Egyptian 
and Syrian kings of having themselves representedwith 
a rayed crown to indicate the status of demi-gods, 
spread throughout the East and the West. In Rome 
tne hslo was nrst used only for deceased emperors as a 
sign of celestial bliss, but afterwards living rulers also 
were given the rayed crown, and after the third 
century J although not first by (jonstantine, theBimple 
rayed mmbus. Under Constantine the rayed crown 
appears only in exceptional cases on the coin, and was 
first adopted emblematically by Julian the Apostate. 
Henceforth the nimbus appears without rays, as the 
emperors now wished themselves considered worthy 
of great honour, but no longer as divine beings. In 
early Christian art, the ray^ nimbus, as well as the 
rayless disc were adopted in accordance with tradi- 
tion. The sun and the Phcenix received, as in pagan 
art, a wreath or a rayed crown, also the simple halo. 
The latter was reserved not only for emperors but 
for men of genius and personifications of all kinds, al- 
though boUi in ecclesiastical and profane art, this 
emblem was usually omitted in ideal ngures. In other 
cases the influence of ancient art tradition must not 
be denied. 

The Middle Ages scarcely rocognised such influence, 
and were satisfiea to refer to Holy Writ as an example 


for wreath and crown or shield shaped discs as marks until towards the end of the sixth century the use of 

of honour to holy personages. Durandus writes: symbols in the Christian Church became as general 

"Sic omnes sancti pinguntur coronati, quasi dicerunt. as it had formerly been in pagan art. 
Fili» Jerusalem^ venite et videte martyres cum ooronis Miniature psdnting in its cvcle represents all the 

quibus coronavit eas Dominus. Et m Libro Sapien- most important personages with haloes, just as did the 

tue: Justi accipient regnum decoris et diadema speciei Vir^l codex, so that the continuity of the secular and 

-de manu Domini. Corona autem huiusmodi deping- Christian styles is obvious. This connexion is defi- 

itur in forma scutirotundi, quia sancti Dei protectione nitively revealed when royal persons, e. g. Herod, 

divinafruuntur, unde cantant gratulabimdi: Domine receive a nimbus. Very soon the Blessed Virgin 

ut Bcuto bonsB voluntatis tuss coronasti nos'' (Thus Mary always, and mart3rr8 and saints usually, were 

all the saints are depicted, crowned, as if they would crowned with a halo. More rarely the beloved dead 

say: O Daughters of Jerusalem, pome and see the or some person conspicuous for his position or dignity, 

martyrs with the crowns with which the Lord has were so honoured. Saints were so represented if they 

crowned them. And in the Book of Wisdom: The constituted the central figure or needed to be difr- 

Just shall receive a kinedom of glory, and a crown of tinguished from the surrounding personages. The 

beauty at the hands of the Lord. And a crown of nimbus was used arbitraril>[ in personification, Gospel 

this kmd is shown in the form of a round shield, be- tvpes, and the like. Official representations clearly 

cause they enjoy the divine protection of the Holy show a fixed system, but outside of these there was 

God, whence they sins rejoicingly: O Lord, Thou hast great variety. Works of art may be distinctly differ- 

crownedusaswith a shield of Thv good-will.) (Ration- entiated according to their birthplace. The nimbus 

ale divin. offic, I, 3, 19, sq.). Furthermore the Mid- in the Orient seems to have been in general use at an 

die A^ea are almost exclusively accredited with the early period, but whether it was fi»t adopted from 

extension of symbolism inasmuch as they traced, ecclesiastical art is uncertain. In general the customs 

sometimes felicitously, allusions to Christian truths of the East and West are parallel; for instance, in the 

in existing symbols, of which they sought no other West the personifications appear with a nimbus as 

origin. Durandus adds to the passage quoted above, early as the third century and Christ enthroned no 

the nimbus containing a cross, usual in the figures of later than in the East (in the time of Constantine). 

Christ, signifying redemption throu^ the Cross, and Their nature m^es it apparent that in every depart- 

the square nimbus whicn was occasionally combined ment of plastic art the nimbus is more rarely used 

with it in living persons, to typifv the four cardinal than in painting. 

virtues. Judging by the principal monuments, how- Form and Colour. — The form of the symbol was 
ever, the square nimbus appears to be onl^ a variant first definitely determined by Gregory the Great, 
of the round halo used to preserve a distinction and who (about 600) permitted himself to be painted with 
thus guard against placing living persons on a par a square nimhita, Johannus Diaconus in his life of 
with the saints. The idea of the cardinal virtues, the th^ pope, gives the treason : '' circa verticem tabulse sim-^ 
firmness of a squared stone, or the imperfection of ilitudinem, quod viventis insigne est, prsferens, non' 
a square figure as contrasted with a roimd one was ooronam'' (bearing around his head the likeness of 
merely a later development. In the cross nimbus the a square, which is the sign for a living person, and 
association of the nimbus with ap annexed cross must not a crown.) (Migne, '^P. L.", 75, 231). ,It appears 
be conceded historical ; but that this cross is a "lignum to have already been customary to use the round nim- 
Christi crucifixi " Durandus probably interprets cor- bus for saints. In any event the few extant examples 
rectly. from the following centuries show that, almost with- 
Origin. — ^As stated above the nin^bus was in use out exception, only the living, principally ecclesiastics, 
long before the Christian era. According to the ex- but also the laity and even women and children, were 
haustive researches of Stephani it was an mvention of represented with a square nimbus. The aweolef that 
the Hellenic epoch. In early Christian art the nimbus is the halo which surrounds an entire figure, naturally 
certainly is not found on images of God and celestial takes the shape of an oval, though if it is used for a 
beings, but only on figures borrowed from profane bust, it readily resumes the circular form. Theradia- 
art, and in Biblical scenes; in place of the simple nim- tion of light from a centre is essential and we must 
bus, rays or an aureole (with the nimbus) were made recognize the circle of light of the sun-god in ancient 
to portray heavenhr glory. Hence it follows that art as one of the prototjrpes of the aureole. The medal- 
Holy Writ furnished no example for the bestowal of a Uon form was for a long time in use among the ancient 
halo upon individual saintly personages. As a matter Romans for the /ma{^ne« c2t2>eato. The Kradations of 
of fact the nimbus, as an inheritance from ancient colour inthe aureole reveal tne influence of Apoc.,iv, 3, 
art tradition, was readily adopted and ultimately where a rainbow was round about the throne of God. 
found the widest application because the symbol of Indeed, in very early times the aureole was only used 
light for all divine, saintly ideals is offered by nature in representations of God as the Dove or Hand, or 
and not infrequently used in Scripture. In contem- of Christ when the divinity was to be emphatically 
porary pagan art, the nimbus as a symbol of Divin- expressed. 

ity had become so indefinite, that it must have been In early Christian times (as now) the round nim- 

accepted as something quite new. The nimbus of bus was by far the most usual designation of Christ 

early Christian art manifests only in a few particular and the saints. The broad circle is often replaced 

drawings, its relationship with tliat of late antiquity, by the ring of lig^t or a coloured disc, especially 

In the first half of the fourth century, Christ received on fabrics and miniatures. In pictures without 

a nimbus only when portrayed seated upon a throne, colour the nimbus is shown b^ an engraved line 

or in an exalted and princely character; out it had al- or a nused circlet, often b}r a disc in relief. In the 

ready been used since Constantine, in pictures of the aureole blue indicates celestial glory, and it is used in 

emperors, and was emblematic, not so much of divine the nimbus to fill in the surface, as are yellow, gray, 

as of human dignity and gjreatness. In other scenes, and other colours while the margins are sharply de- 

however, Christ at that time was represented with- fined in different tints. In many haloes the inner part 

out this emblem. The ''exaltation" of Christ as in- is white. In mosaics, since the fifth and sixth cen- 

dicated by the nimbus, refers to His dignity as a turies, blue has been replaced by gold. From this 

teacher and king rather than to His Godhead. Before period also, the frescoes show a corresponding yelloW» 

long the nimbus became a fixed symbol of Christ and as seen for instance, in paintings in the catacombs, 

later (in the fourth century), of an angel or a lamb Gold or yellow prevails in miniatures, but there is a 

when used as the type of Christ. The number of great deal of variety in illustrated books. Blue as a ' 

personages who were given a halo increased rapidly, symbol of heaven lias the preference, but gold, which 




later became the rule, gives a more obvious impression 
of light. The explanation of the cross nimbus variety 
is obvious. Since the sixth century it has character- 
ized Christ and the Lamb of Gop, but occasionally 
it is given to the other Persons of the Trinity. In 
connexion with it, in the fourth and fifth centuries, 
there was a monogram nimbus. The cross and the 
monogram of Chnst were beside or above the head 
of Clmst and the Lamb. In the fifth century they 
were brought to the upper edge of the nimbus and 
finally both were concentrically combined with it. 
In more recent times the monogram and the mono- 
gram nimbus have become more rare. The letters 
A and Q for Christ and M and A for Mary, were in- 
tended for monograms and frequently accompanied 
the nimbus. 

Development. — In order to understand the nimbus 
and its history, it is necessaiy to trace it through the 
different branches of art. The frescoes in the cata- 
combs have a peculiar significance inasmuch as they 
determine the period when the nimbus was admitted 
into Christian art. The numerous figures lacking 
this svmbol (Christ, Mary, and the Apostles) show 
that before Constantine, representations of specifi- 
cally Christian character were not influenced by art 
traditions. Only pictures of the sim, the seasons, and 
a few ornamental heads carried a nimbus at that date. 
The sinde exception is found in a figure over the well- 
known '^'Ship in a Storm'' of one of the Sacrament 
chapels. But it is to be observed that in this case we 
are not dealing with a representation of God, but 
merely with a personification of heavenly aid, which 
marked a transition from personifications to direct 
representations of holy {>ersonages. The figure 
seems to be copied from pictures, of the sun god. 
On the other hand, several pictures of Christ in the 
catacombs, dating from the fourth century, indicate 
the period when the nimbus was first used in the 
way familiar to us. Besides the Roman catacombs, 
others, especially that of El Baghaouat in the great 
oasis of the Libyan desert, must be taken into account. 
For the period succeeding Constantine, mosaics fur- 
nish important evidence since they present not only 
very numerous and usually definite examples of the 
nimbus, but have a more official character and give 
intelligent portrayals of religious axioms. Although 
allowance must be made for later restorations, a con- 
stant development is a]}parent in this field. The 
treatment of the nimbus, in the illuminating and illus- 
trating of books, was influenced by the caprices of the 
individual artist and the tradition of different schools. 
In textiles and embroidery the most extensive use was 
made of the nimbus, and a rich colour scheme was de- 
veloped, to which these technical arts are by nature 
adapted. Unfortunately the examples which have 
been preserved are only imperfectly known and the 
dates are often difficult to determine. 

Sculpture presents little opportunity for the use of 
the nimbus. In some few instances, indeed, the nim- 
bus is painted on ivory or wood carving, but more 
often we find it engraved or raised in rehet. Figures 
with this emblem are rare. On the sarcophagi we 
find that Christ and the Lamb (apart from the sun) 
alone appear with a circle or disc, the Apostles and 
Mary, never. In ivory neither Mary nor Christ is 
so distinguished. 

In the course of centuries the Christian idea that 
God, according to Holy Scripture the Source of Light 
and Divine thmgs, must sJways be given a halo, be- 
came more pronounced. This appBed to the three 
Divine Persons and their emblems, as the Cross, 
Lamb, Dove, Eye, and Hand; and since, according to 
Scripture, saints are children of Light (Luke, xvi, 8; 
John, xii, 36), as such they should share the honour. 
Preference was shown for the garland or crown (corona 
et gloritB corona) of Christ which was also bestowed by 
God as a reward upon the saints, either spiritually in 

this life or in the Kingdom of Heaven (Ps. xx, 4; 
Heb., ii, 7 sq.). Garlands and crowns of glory are 
frequently mentioned in Holy Writ (I Peter, v, 4; 
Apoc, iv 4, etc.). The nimbus also takes the form 
of a shield to emphasize the idea of Divine protection 
(Ps. V, 13). A truly classic authority for the explana- 
tion of the nimbus may be found in Wis., v, 17: the 
Just shall "receive a kingdom of dory, ana a crown of 
beauty at the hands of the Lord : for with His ri^t 
hand He wiU cover them, and with His holy arm He 
will defend them." (In Greek, ''Holds the shield 
over ihem *\) Whereas in pagan art, the rayless nim- 
bus signifiea neither holinesai nor Divine protection, 
but merely majesty and power, in Christian art it was 
more and more definitely maae the emblem of such 
virtue and grace, which, emanating from God, ex- 
tends over the saints only. Urban VIII formally 
prohibited giving the nimbus to persons who were not 
beatified. Since the eighteentn centuiy the word 
''halo" has been incorporated into the German lan- 
guage. In Western countries John the Baptist is the 
only saint of the Old Testament who is given a halo, 
doubtless because before his time the grace of Christ 
had not yet been bestowed in its fullness. 

We have already found that the aureole may be con- 
sidered exclusively a device of Christian art, especially 
as it was reservea at first for the Divinity, and later 
extended only to the Blessed Virgin. Instead of sim- 
ple beams it often consists of pointed flames or is 
shaded off into the colours of the rainbow. This form 
as well as the simple nimbus, by the omission of the 
circumference, may be transposed into a garland of 
rays or a "glory . A glory imitating the sun^ rays was 
very popular for the monstrances; in other respects 
the lunula suggests the nimbus only because the cost- 
liness of the material enhances the lustre. The aure- 
ole obtained the Italian name of mandorla from its 
almond shape. In Germany the fiish was agreed upon 
for the symbol of Christ, or a fish bladder ifit had the 
shape o& a figure 8. God the Father is typified in later 
pictures by an equilateral triangle, or two interlaced 
triangles, also by a hexagon to suggest the Trinity. If 
there is no circle around the cross nimbus, the three 
visible arms of the cross give the same effect. Oc- 
casionally the mandorla is found composed of seven 
doves (tjrpe of the Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost), or 
of ansels. The latter are used in large pictures of the 
Last Judgment or heaven, for instance in the "glories" 
of Italian domes. In painting, haloes of cloud are 
sometimes used for deucate angel heads, as in Ra- 

EhaePs works. Angels also form a nimbus around the 
ead of the Mother of God. She is also given the 
twelve stars of Apoc, xii, 1. Saint John Nepomucene 
has five or seven stars because of the great light which 
hovered over his body when he was drowned in the 
Moldau by order of King Wenceslaus. Artists have 
developed many varieties of the nimbus and aureole. 
Since tne Renaissance it has been fashioned more and 
more lightly and delicately and sometimes entirely 
omitted, as the artists thought they could suggest the 
characteristics of the personage by the painting. It is 
true that the nimbus is not intrinsically a part of the 
figure and at times even appears heavy ana intrusive. 
A distinguishing symbol may not, however, be readily 
dispensed with and with the omission of tnis one the 
images of the saints have often degenerated into mere 
genre pictures and worldly types. A delicate circlet 
of light shining or floating over the head does not 
lessen the artistic impression, and even if the charac- 
ter of Christ or the Madonna is sufliiciently indicated 
in the drawing, yet it must be conceded that the 
nimbus, like a crown, not only characterizes and dif- 
ferentiates a figure but distinguishes and exalts it as 

Stkphani. Ueher den Nirnbtu v. StrcJUenkranz %n den Werken der 
OUeren Kunat in Mhnoire* de VAcadimie de St.-PHertibourg (1859); 
KrCcke, Der Nimb%L9 u. verwandie AUrihvie in der frtlehrisU. 
KunU (Straaburg, 1905); Mendblsohn, HeilioeneekeiH in der 


Nlmni DiocVEB or (NEMAOBiNeis), auffrogan of 
Avi^on, comprises the civil Dep&rtmeDt of Gard. 
By the Concordat of 1801 its t«mtory was united with 
the Diocese of Avignon. It waa re-estftblighed as a 
separate diocese in 1821, and a Brief of 27 April, 1S77, 
grants to its bishops the right to add Alois and Uzis to 
their episcopal style, these two dioceses being now com- 
bined with that of Ntmes. 

That Ntmes (Nemausua) was an important city in 
Roman antiquity is shown bv the admirable MaUon 
Carrie, the remaiiiB of a supem amphitheatre, and the 
Portl an Qard, four and a naif leagues from the city. 
I.ate and rather contradictoiy traditions attribute the 
foundation of the Church of Ntmes cither to Celido- 
nius, the man "who was blind from his birth" of the 
Gospel, or to St. Honeetua, the apostle of Navarre, 
said to have been sent to southern France by St. 
Peter, with St. Satuminus (Semin), the apostle of 
Toulouse. The true apostle of Ntmes was St. Bau- 
dilus, whose martyrdom is placed by some at the end 
<rf the third century, and, with less reason, by othe:s at 
the end of the fourth. Many writers affirm that a cer- 
tain St. Felix martyred by the Vandals about 407, 
was Bishop of NImes, but Duchesne questions this. 
There was a see at Ntmes as early as 396, for in that 
year a synodtcsl letter was sent by a Council of Ntmes 
to the bishops of Gaul. The firstoishop whose date is 
positively known is SedaCua, present at the Council of 
Asde in 506. Other noteworthy bishops are: St. John 
(aLout 511, before 626); St. Remeaaarius (633-40); 
Bertrand of Languisael (1280-1324), f^thful to Boni- 
face VIII, and for that reason driven from his see for a 
ye&r by Philip the Fair; Cardinal Guillaume d'E». 
toutevule (1441—19); Caidinal Guillaume Brigonnet 
(1496-1514) ; the famous pulpit orator Flftchier (1687- 
1710); the distinguished polemist Plantier (1855-75) 
whose pastoral letter (1873) calledforth a protest from 
Bismarck; the preacher Besson (1875-88). Urban II 
coming t« France to preach the crusade, consecratea 
the cathedral of Ntmes in 1090 and presided over a 
council. Alexander III visited Ntmes m 1162. Clem- 
ent IV (1265-68), bom at S^nt Gllles, in this diocese, 
Kranted the monaaterv of that town numerous favours. 
St. Louis, who embarlced at Aigues-Mortes for his two 
crusades, surroimded Ntmes with walls. In 1305, 
Clement V passed through the city on his way to 
Lyons to be crowned. In consequence of disputes 
about the sale of grapes to the papal household, Inno* 
cent VI lud an interdict on Ntmee in 1358. The dio- 
cese was greatly disturbed by the Relioous Wars: on 
29 Sept., 1567, five yeam before the Massacre of St. 
Bortholemew, the Protestants of Ntmes, actuated by 
fanaticism, perpetrated the massacre of Catholics 
known in French history as the Michelade. Louis 
XIII at Ntmes issued the decree of religious pacifi- 
cation known as the Peace of Ntmes. 

The first Bishop of Uide historically known is Con- 
stantiua, present at the Council of Vaison in 442. 
Other bishops were St. Firminus (541-53) and St. Fer- 
rtol (553-81). In the sixteenth century. Bishop Jean 
de Saint Gelais (1531-60) became a Calvinist. The 
eelebratod missionary Bridaine (1701^7) was a na- 
tive of the Diocese of Viis, This little city wasfor 
seventy days the enforced residence of Cardinal Pacca, 
•fter his confinement at Fenestrelles (1812). The 
town of Pont Stunt Esprit, on the Rhdne, owes its 
luunee to a bridge built there between 1265 and 1309 
with the proceeds of a general collection made by the 

About 570, Sigebert, King of Austrada, created a 
see at Alisitum (Alais), taking fifteen parishes from the 
Diooeee of Ntmes. In the eighth century, when S^i- 
mania was annexed to the Frankish Empire, tJie Dio- 

cese of Alius was suppressed and its territory returned 
to the Diocese of Ntmes. At the request of Louis XIV, 
a see was aeain created at Alus by Innocent XII, in 
1694. The future Cardinal deBaus9et,Bos6uet's biog- 
rapher, was Bishop of Alius from 1784 to 1790. After 
the Edict of Nantes, Alais was one of the -piixeet de 
tureU given to the Huguenots (see HtrauBNora, fftt- 
tory). Louis XIII took back the town in 1629, and 
the Convention of Alais, signed 29 June of that year, 
suppressed the political privileges of the Protestants. 
The chief pilgrimages of the present Diocese of 
Ntmes are: Notre Dame de Grftoe, Rochefort, dating 

CoDKented 1^ Ucbui II in 1093 

from Charlemagne, and commemorating a victoiy 
over the Saracens. Louis XIV and his mother, Anna 

Alais, dating from not later than 900. Notre Dame 
de Bon Secouts de Prime Combe, Fontan^, since 887. 
Notre Dame de Bonheur, founded 1045 on the moun- 
tain of I'AijRiua] in the vicinity of Valleraugucs. Notre 
Dame de Belveiet, a shrine of the eleventh century, 
on Mont Andavu. Notre Dame de Vauvert, whither 
the converted Albigenses were sent, often visited by 
St. Louis, Clement V, and Francis I, The shrine of 
St. Vfr^ime, a hermit who died Archbishop of Avi- 
gnon, and of the martyr St. Baudilus, at Trois Fon- 
tunes and at Valsainte near Ntmes. The following 
Saints are especially venerated in the present Diocese 
of Ntmes: St. Castor, Bishop of Apt (fourth to fifth 
century), a native of Ntmes; the priest St. Theodoritus, 
martyr, patron s«nt of the town of Uite; the Athe- 
nian St. Giles (£gidius, sixth cent.), living as a recluse 
near Uzfe when he was accidentally wounded by King 
Ohilderic, later abbot of the monastery built by Chil- 
deric in reparation for this accident, venerated also in 
England; Blessed Peter of Luxemburg who made a 
sojourn in the diocese, at Villeneuve-lez-Avignon 

Prior to the Associations Iaw of 1901 the diocese 
had Augustiniana of the Aasumption (a congregation 
which originated in the city of Ntmes), CarUku^ans, 
Trappists, Jesuits, Missionaries of the Company of 



Mary, Fra&dflcan Fathers, Marists, Laiarists, Sul- 
pioians, and various orders of teaching brothers. The 
Oblates of the Assumption, for teaching and foreign 
missions^ also founded here, and the Besan^n Sisters 
of Chanty, teachers and nurses^ have their mother- 
houses at Ntmes. At the besinnmg of the century the 
religious congregations conducted in this diocese: 3 
cr^hes, 53 day nurseries, 6 boys' orphanages, 20 girls' 
orphanages, 1 employment agency for females, 1 house 
of refuge for pemtent women, 6 houses of mercy, 20 
hospitius or asylums, 11 houses of visitins nurses, 3 
houses of retreat, 1 home for incurables. In 1005 the 
Diocese of Ntmes contained 420,836 inhabitants, 45 
I>arishes, 239 succursal parishes, 52 vicariates subven- 
tioned by the State. 

GaUia dhruiiana Nova, VI (1739), 426-516; 606-^, 1118-1121. 
1123, and JntirumerUa, 165-226. 203-312; Duchesns, FatUa Bpu- 
copaux, I (1900), 299-302; Gbrmain. Huioire de FiglUe de Nlmet 
(Paris, 1838-42); Qoifion, CaUdogue analytique det Mqusa de 
MmM (1879) ; Dubakd, Nemautiana, I (Ntmee, 1905) ; Boulbn- 
aSB. Le* protettanU d Nltne$ au tempt de Vidii de NanUa (Paris, 
1903) ; Roux, Ntmee (Paris. 1908) ; Durand. L*igliee SU Marie, ou 
Notre Dame de Ntmee, baeilioue eathidraU (Ntmes. 1906); Cha&- 
V ST, Cataloffue dee fviquee d* Ua^ in Mhfunree tt ComvUe vendue 
de la SocUU Scientifique d'Alaie, II (1870), 12^69; Taulbllb, 
L'abbaye d*Ala%e: kuioire de 8. Julien de Valgalgue (Toulouse, 

1805). Geobqes Gotau. 

Nimrod. See Nembod. 

Nlnlan. Saint (Niniab, Nmns, Dinan, Rinqan, 
RiNGEN), bishop and confessor, date of birth unknown ; 
d. about 432; the first Apostle of Christianity in Scot- 
land. The earliest account of him is in Bede (Hist. 
Eccles., Ill, 4): "the southern Picts received the true 
faith by the preaching of Bishop Ninias, a most rever- 
end and holy man of the British nation, who had been 
regularly instructed at Rome in the faith and myster- 
ies of the truth; whose episcopal see, named after St. 
Martin the Bishop, and famous for a church dedicated 
to him (wherein Niniafi himself and many other saints 
rest in the body), is now in the possession of the Eng- 
lish nation. The place belongs to the province of the 
Bemicians and is commonly called the White House 
[Candida Caaa], because he there built a church of 
stone, which was not usual amongst the Britons''. 
The facts given in this passage form practically all we 
know of St. Ninian's me and work. 

The most important later life, compiled in the 
twelfth century By St. Aelred, professes to give a de- 
tailed account founded oh Bede and also on a "liber 
de vita et miraculis eius" {8c, Niniani) "barbarice 
Bcriptus'', but the legendary element is largely evi- 
dent. He states, however, that while engaged in 
building his church at Candida Casa, Ninian heard 
of the oeath of St. Martin and decided to dedicate the 
building to him. Now St. Martin died about 397, so 
that the mission of Ninian to the southern Picts must 
have begun towards the end of the fourth century. 
St. Ninian founded at Whithorn a monastery which 
became famous as a school of monasticism within a 
century of his death; his work among the southern 
Picts seems to have had but a short-lived success. 
St. Patrick, in his epistle to Coroticus, terms the Picts 
" apostates '', and references to Ninian's converts hav- 
ing abandoned Christianity are found in the lives of 
Sts. C}olumba and Kentigem. The 1x>dy of St. Ninian 
was buried in the church at Whithorn (Wigtown- 
shire), but no reUcB are now known to exist. The 
"Clogrinny", or bell of St. Ringan, of very rough 
workmanship, is in the Antiquarian Museum at 

Bbds, uiet. Bcdeej^ tr. Sbuar, III (London, 1907), 4; Asurbd, 
Vita 8, Niniani in Forbes, Hietoriane of 8eoaand, V; Acta 88., 
Sept., V, 321-28; Caporatb, Noea Legenda Anglia (London, 
1516) ; O Conor. Rerum Uibemiearum 8criptoree (Dublin, 1825) ; 
CoLOAN, Ada 88. Hibem. (Louvain, 1647). 438; Challoner. 
Brttannia 8anda, II (London, 1745). 130; Stanton, Menology of 
England and Walee (London. 1887). 448. 669; MacKinnon, 
Ninian und aeinBinfiuae auf die Autbreitung dee Chri^enthunu in 
NordrBritannien (Heidelberg, 1891), this \b the most authorita- 
tive work on the subject; see also Idem. Culture in Barly 8cotland; 
Analecta BoUandiana, XII. 82; Revue Binidietine, IX. 526. 

G. Roger Hudleston. 

Ninive (Ninbveh). See Asstbia. 

Nirschl, Joseph, theologian and writer, b. at 
Durohfurth, Lower Bavaria, 24 February, 1823; d. 
at WQrzburg, 17 January, 1904. He was orduned in 
1851 and graduated as doctor of theology in 1854 
at Munich. He was appointed teacher ot Christian 
doctrine at Passau in 1855 and in 1862 professor of 
church history and patrology. In 1879 he became 
professor of church history at Wiirzburg, and was ap- 
pointed dean of the cathedral in 1892. Of his numer- 
ous works, mostly on patristics, the most important 
are: ''Lehrbuch der Patrologie und Patristik'' (3 vols., 
Mainz, 1881-5): "Ursprung und Wesen des Bosen 
nach der Lehre des hi. Augustinus'' (Ratisbon, 1854): 
"Das Dogma der unbefleckten Empf&ngnis Maria 
(Ratisbon, 1855); ''Todesjahr des nl. Ignatius von 
Antiochien" (Passau, 1869); ''Die Theologie des hi. 
Ignatius von Antiochien" (rassau, 1869, and Mains, 
1880); Das Haus und Grab der m. Jungfrau Maria 
(Mainz, 1900) . He translated into German the letters 
and the martyrium of St. Ignatius of Antioch (Kemp- 
ten, 1870) and the Catecheses of St. Cyril of Jerusalem 
(Kempten, 1871). He defended the genuineness of 
pseudo-Dionysius and of the apocryphal letter of King 
Abgar of Edessa to Jesus. 

Lauchbbt in Biogr. Jahrb. und deutecher Nekrolog (ViennA« 
1004). 169 sq. 

Michael Ott. 

NlsibiSy titular Archdiocese of Mesopotamia, situ- 
ated on the Mygdonius at the foot of Mt. Masius. It 
is so old that its original name is unknown. In any 
case it is not the Achsui (Accad) of Genesis, x, 10. a^has 
been asserted. When the Greeks came to Mesopo- 
tamia with Alexander the^ called it Antiochia Myg- 
donia, under which name it appears for the first time 
on the occasion of the march of Antiochus against the 
Molon (Polybius, V, 51). Subsequently the subject 
of constant disputes between the Romans and the 
Parthians, it was captured b}r Luculhis after a long 
siege from the brotner of Ti^ranes (Dion Cassius, 
XaXV, 6, 7); and by Trajan m 115, which won for 
him the name of Parthicus (ibid., LXVIII, 23). Re- 
captured by the Osrhoenians in 194, it wss asain con- 
quered by Septimius Severus who made it his head- 
quarters and establbhed a colony there (ibid., LXXV, 
23). In 297, by the treaty with Nars€». the province 
of Nisibis was acquired by the Roman Empire: in 363 
it was ceded to the Persians on the defeat of Julian the 
Apostate. The See of Nisibis was founded in 300 by 
Babu (d. 309). His successor, the celebrated St. 
James, defended the citv by his prayers during the 
siege of Sapor II. At the time ot its cession to the 
Persians, Nisibis was a Christian centre important 
enough to become the ecclesiastical metropolis of the 
Provmce of Beit-Arbave. In 410 it had six suffragan 
sees and as early as the middle of the fifth century 
was the most important episcopal see of the Peraan 
Church after Seleucia-Ctesiphon. A great many of its 
Nestorian or Jacobite titulars are mentioned in Cha- 
bot ("Synodicon orientale", Paris, 1902, 678) and Le 
Quien (Oriens christ., II, 995, 1195-1204) and several 
of them, e. g. Barsumas, Osee, Narses, Jesusyab, 
Ebed-Jesus, etc., acquired deserved celebrity in the 
world of letters. Near Nisibis on 25 June, 1839, 
Ibrahim Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali, Vicerov of Egvnt, ' 
won a great victory over the troops of Mahmud il. 
To-day Nezib is a town of 3000 inhabitants in the 
sandjak of Orfa and the vilayet of Aleppo. Its oil b 
considered very fine. 

The first theological school of Nisibis, founded at 
the introduction of Christianity into the town, was 
closed when the province was ceded to the Persians, 
great persecutors of Christianity. St. Ephraem re- 
established it on Roman soil at Edessa, whither 
flocked all the studious youth of Persia. In the fifth 
century the school became a centre of Nestorianiam. 


Archbishop Cynia in 489 closed it and e3q>elled mas- rerum Gennanicarum in usum Scholarum" (Hanover, 

ters and pupils, who withdrew to Nisibis. They were 1830, reprinted 1907). German translations by Jas- 

welcomed by Barsumas, a former pupil of Eklessa. mund appeared at Berlin, 1859; third edition, by Wat- 

The school was at once re-opened at Nisibis under the tenbach, Leipzig, 1889. , 

direction of Narses, called the harp of the Holy Ghost, ^^^i™'^^^' ^^^f^^J"** ??fi*'A^'*^''VSa Ifl?®'^' ^®^^' 

The latter dictated the statutes of the new"^ school. ^33-37; PoTmAw. B^f>l^oiheca, II (Berh^ J8?«). ^^^^ 
Those which have been discovered and published be- j,q^ g„ ^oe ^atricitjs hchlaqbb. 

long to Osee, the successor of Barsumas in the See of 

Nisibis, and bear the date 496; they must be substan- Noailles, LoniB-Ainx)iNB de, cardinal and bishop, 

tially the same as those of 489. In 590 they were b. at the Ch&teau of Teyssi^re in Auvenme, France. 27 

again modified. The school, a sort of Catholic uni- May, 1651; d. at Paris, 4 May, 1729. fiis father^ nrst 

versity, was established in a monastery and directed Due de Noailles, was captain-general of Roussillon; 

by a superior called RaJbban, a title also given to the his mother, Louise Boyer, had been lady-in-waiting to 

instructors. The administration was confided to a Queen Anne of Austria. Louis de Noailles stuofied 

majordomo, who was steward, i>refect of discipline, and theology at Paris in the Coll^ du Plessis, where 

librarian, but under the supervision of a council. Un- F^nelon was his fellow-student and friend, and ob- 

like the Jacobite schools^ devoted chiefly to profane tained his doctorate at the Sorbonne, 14 March, 1676. 

studies, the school of Nisibis was above all a school of Already provided with the Abbey of Aubrac (Diocese 

theology. The two chief masters were the instructors in of Rodes), he was, in March, 1679, appointed to the 

reading and in the interpretation of Holy Scripture, Bishopric of Cahors, and in 1680 transferred to CYA- 

explained chiefly with the aid of Theodore of Mopsues- lons-sur-Mame, to which see a peerage was attached, 

tia. The course of studies lasted three years and was He accepted this rapid removal only at the formal 

entirely gratuitous; but the students provided for command of Innocent XI. In this ofiice he showed 

their own support. During their sojourn at the uni- himself a true bishop, occupying himself in all kinds of 

versity, masters and students led a monastic life under good works. He confided ms theological seminary to 

somewhat special conditions. The school had a tri- the Lajsarists, and founded a TpelU Uminaire, 
bunal and enjoyed a civil personality, being able to The regularity of his conduct, his family standing, 

acquire and possess all sorts of property. Its rich 11- and the support of Mme de Maintenon induced Louis 

brary possessed a most beautifm collection of Nesto- XIV to make him Archbishop of Paris, 19 August, 

rian works; from its remains Ebed-Jesus, Metropolitan 1695. At Paris he was what he had been at Chilons. 

of Nisibis in the fourteenth century, composed his LackinginbriUiantoualities, he was possessed of piety, 

celebrated catalogue of ecclesiastical writers. The zeal^ and activity. He was simple in manners and ao- 

disorders and dissensions^ which arose in the sixth cen- cessible to poor and rich alike. In 1709 he sold his sil- 

tury in the school of Nisibis, favoured the develop- ver plate to provide food for the famine-stricken. His 

men t of its rivals, especially that of Seleucia; how- generosity towards churches was also remarkable, and 

ever, it did not really begin to decline until after the he spent large sums from his private fortune in deco- 

foundation of the School of Bagdad (832). Among its rating and improving Notre-Dame. The decorum of 

literary celebrities mention should be made of its public worship and the good conduct of the clergy 

founder Narses; Abraham, his nephew and successor; were the particular objects of his care. Inspired more 

Abraham of iCashgar, the restorer of monastic life; by customs prevalent m France than by the prescrip- 

John; Babai the Elder; three ccUholicoi named Jesus- tions of the Council of Trent, hecausea the Breviary, 

yab. Missal, and other liturgical books of Paris already 

, cS}SF^\P*^**^^^/- ^.^.^'^,?^^ ,^««?~P>y/ .^ (London, published by his predecessor de Harlay, to be reprinted. 

'^^st^'^^iJS'l^: iT*i^^5;'cH'lT^.^'iSr£ To these, he added the Rituale, the (Wmoniale, and 

Niaibe. Sim hittoire, m« ttattUa (Paris. 1896) ; Labourt, Le ehria- a collection of CanonS for the USe of his Chureh. By 

tianitme dans V empire p«rM (Paria. 1904), «M«m; Duval, La decrees issued on his acccssion (June, 1696) he im- 

^!uu!ai (?2?r269.™' ^' '^•*"''' ""' '^^ P08«i for the first time on aspirants to the ecclesiasti- 

g, Vailh£. ^ state the obligation of residing in seminaries for 

several months beifore ordination. He organized eo- 

mthard, Prankish historian, son of Angilbert and clesiastical conferences throughout his diocese and 

Bertha, daughter of Charlemagne; d. about 843 or 844 conferences in moral theology once a week at Paris; 

in the wars against the Normans. Little is known priests were obliged to make an annual retreat, wise 

about his early life, but in the quarrels between the rules were drawn up for the good conduct and repu- 

8ons of Louis the Pious he proved a zealous adherent of larity of all ecclesiastics, the iJdvine service, the assist- 

Charles the Bald, by whose command he went as am- ance of the sick, and the primary schools. Seminaries 

bassador to Lothair in 840, though without success, for poor clerics were encouraged and supported, and 

At the battle of Fontenoy, in 841, he fought bravely one was founded which served as a shelter for poor, 

at the side of Charles, and afterwards wrote, at the old, or infirm priests. 

request of that prince, the history of the period in or- While still Bishop of Ch&lons he took part in the 

der to establish the right of Charles the Bald. This conferences held at issy to examine the works of Mme 

workj which usually bears the title: ^'De dissensioni- Guyon (a. v.). His part was only secondary, but he 

bus nliorum Ludovici Pii ad annum U8(|ue 843, seu succeedea in having the accused's entire defence 

Historiarum libri quattuor 841-843 '\ recites in rather heard. Shortly afterwiurtds he became involved in a 

uncouth language the causes of the quarrels and de- controversy with F6nelon (q. *v.) concerning the lat- 

flcribes, minutely and clearly, the imjust behaviour of ter's '^ Maximes des Saints, which was condemned by 

liothair, sometimes a little partially, but» with under- the Bishops of Meaux, Chartres, and de Noailles him- 

Standing and a clear insight into the conditions. He self. In 17(X) he was made a cardinal by Innocent 

was the only layman of his tinbe who devoted himself XII. Several months later de Noailles presided at the 

to the writing of a history, and he reported earnestly General Assembly of the French clergy. This assem- 

and tnithf ully what he himself had seen and heard, bly exerted great influence on the teaching of moral 

It is very probable that he was lay abbot of St. theology in France, and after Bossuet no one had so 

Riquier. His body was buried there, and when it great a share as de Noailles in its decisions. He be- 

was found, in the eleventh century, Mico, the poet came prior of Navarre in 1704, head of the Sorbonne 

of the abbey, composed a lengthy rhymed epitaph, in 1710, and honorary dean of the faculty of law. Ex- 

Nithard's historical work has been published by cept for his attitude towards Jansenism the cardinal's 

Migne, in " P. L.", CXVI, 45-76; aJso m the "Mon. career would be deserving only of praise. He always 

Genn. Hist.: Script.", II, 649-72, and in ''Scriptores denied being a Jansenist, and condemned the five 


propositions constituting the essence of Jansenism, to retire to Mylapore. (For an account of his mission- 
but he always inclined, both in dogma and morals, to ary methods see Malabar Rites.) De' Nobili trans- 
opinions savouring of Jansenism; he favoured its par- lated into Sanskrit or composed therein many prayers 
tisans and was ever hostile to the Jesuits and the ad- and several longer works, especially an abridlkment of 
versaries of the Jansenists. Shortly before his eleva- Christian Doctrine and a life of Our Lady, in Sanskrit 
tion to the See of Paris he had approved (June, 1695) verse. Nearly all these productions were lost durine 
the ''Reflexions morales'' of P^re Quesnel, an Orato- his imprisonment in Madura (1639-41). His principu 
rian already known for his ardent attachment to work in Tamil is his ''Larger Catechism", in four books, 
Jansenism and destined soon to be its leader. He ear- printed after his death (partly reprinted, Trichinopoly, 
nestly recommended it to his priests. This approba- 1891-1906). It is a course of theolory adapted to 
tion was the source of all the cardinal's troubles. the needs of the country. In addition ne wrote: "A 
Believingthemselves thenceforth certain of his sym- Treatise on the Eternal Life", "A Dialogue on the 
pathy the Jansenists, on de Noailles' elevation to the Faith", "A Disproof of Transmigration", "A Man- 
See of Paris, published a posthumous work of de Bar- ual of Rules of Perfection", numerous hynms and 
COB (q. v.), entitled "Exposition de la foy", really the several instructions not yet edited, two small cate- 
explanation and defence of the Jansenistic doctrine of chisms still in actual use, "The Science of the Soul", 
grace alreadv condemned by Rome. De Noailles con- and many prayers. He translated into Telugu several 
demned the book (20 August, 1696), at least in the first of his Tamil works, among them the two small cate- 
part of his instruction, but in the second he set forth a chisms. In Tamil and Telugu he enriched the vocabu- 
theory on grace and predestination closely resembling lary with appropriate Christian terms, 
that of de Baroos. No one was satisfied: the ordinance ^ Bbbtband, La MUnon du Madwi (Pftris. 1847) ; LtUrea id%- 

displeased both the Janseniste and the J^^^ The ST-pSSSTedf S^;J^* I^'hS^^^ 

former did not fail to caLL attention to the OOntradlC- 1818). 35; pseudo-Vedaa Mem dearly a Don-Chriotian productioD; 

tory attitudes of the Bishop of Ch&lons, who approved {?"■ cuatribee on de* Nobili, aee D'Obsat. Portuguese D%»coterU$ 

Quesnel, and the Archbishop of Paris, who coiflemned ^^"^""^ i^^^* 264-58. 

deBarcos. An anonymous pamphlet published under ^abtbts. 

thetitle"Probl^meeccIdsia8tique'', placed side by side Noble, Danibl, physician, b. 14 Jan., 1810: d. at 

twenty-nine identical propositions which had been Manchester, 12 Jan., 1885. He was the son of Mary 

approved in the Quesnel's work and condenmed in de Dewhurst and Edward Noble of Preston, a descendant 

Barcos'. Parliament condemned the lampoon to be of an old Yorkshire Catholic family. Apprenticed to 

burned; six months later it was put on the Index (2 & Preston surgeon named Thomas Moore, Noble was 

June, 1699) and proscribed by the Holy Office. in time. admitted a member of the Royal College of 

The controversies occasioned by the pubUcation of Surgeons and a licentiate of Apothecaries Hall. In 

the "Cas de (Conscience" and Quesnel's "Reflexions 1^4 he began to practise in Manchester, and soon 

morales'' (for which see Jansenius, in Vol. VIII, showed the sp^ial interest in mental disease which 

291-2) involved de Noailles deeply in the Jansenist afterwards distinguished his career. In the following 

quarrel. In spite of repeated papal decisions of the year he published his first work, ''An Essay of the 

Holy See, the cardinal, for many ^ears, would not ac- Means, physical and moral, of estimating Human 

cept the Bull "Unigenitus". Finally he yielded in Character' , the tendency of which is indicated by the 

May, 1728, and on 11 October following publiBhed his fact that he is described as President of the Manches- 

unconditioned acceptance of the Bull. He afterwards ter Phrenological Society. His practise increased, 

retracted various writing, which seemed to cast and in 1840 he married Frances Mary Louisa Ward, of 

doubt on the sincerity of his submission; he restored to Dublin; they had eijsht children, one of them Frances, 

the Jesuits the faculties of which he had deprived them the novelist. Cardinal Wiseman stood sponsor to his 

thirteen years before. He died two months later, aged eldest child. From the University of St. Andrews he 

78. regarded by all with respect and esteem. His weak received the degrees of M .D. and M .A., and in 1867 he 

Jmgemtus . 

diBcemment in the choice of his confidants; he bore a life'| (London, 1843); ''The Brain and its Physiolo^, 
great name, and played an important part in his time, & critical disquisition of the methods of determining 

Xi-mBAXTBAiJLMY.Le NoaiuMd^aju^aaeorrtapondance Three Lectures on the (Correlation of Psychology 
istSv* n^,^.StS^3iJ^trjK^ ^mm*. and Physiology" (London, 1854); "The Human Mind 

yon, lo^o;; i^s nor, ua r ranee es aome ae i iuu a iiio ^rans, i. ^ loerVx. iir\ al /i x x* • xi. i ^l 

1892); CRou8iJ,F<n«ton««BM«u«< (Paris. 1895). Chester, 1859); "On the fluctuations m the death- 

Antoinb Degert. rate " (Manchester, 1863) ; " Evanescent Protestantism 

and Nascent Atheism, the modem reli^ous problem" 
Nobili, Robert de*, b. at Montepulciano, Tus- (London, 1877); "On causes reducing the effects 
cany, September, 1577; d. at Mylapore, India, in of sanitary reform" (Manchester, 1878) and several 
1656. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1597. at contributions to various medical journals, the best- 
Naples, and after a brilliant course of studies sailed for known of which was a paper called " Mesmerism True 
the Indian mission in October, 1604, arriving at Goa, —Mesmerism False", which was translated into Ge> 
20 May, 1605. After a short stay at Ck)chin and the man and Dutch. 
Fishery Coast, he was sent in November, 1606, to Gi"^w. BiW. Dxa, Sng, Cath,, V. 181. 
Madura to study Tamil. Within a year he had ac- -^^^^ Burton. 

r' red a complete mastery of Tamil, Telugu, and San- Nocera, Diocese of (Nucerinensis), in Peru- 

t. In his zeal to convert the Brahmins he adopted gia, Umbria, Italy, near the sources of the Tina, 

their mode of life and so had to cut himself off com- famous for its mineral waters, especially the Fonte 

Sletely from intercourse with his fellow missionaries. Angelica. According to a legend^ the first Bishop of 

[e worked in Madura, Mysore, and the Kamatic till Nocera was St. Crispoldus, a disciple of the Apostles, 

old age and almost complete blindness compelled him but his Germanic name renders tms doubtful; more 



credible b the traditioD of the martyrdom of SS. Felix, 
CoDstuice, and Felicienmiu. The Bishops Felix, to 
whom Pope Innocent addressed a. letter m 402, and 
Ccelius LaurentiuB, the competitor of Pope Svmmai- 
chuB {498), were not Umbrian prelates, but, bishops of 
Nocera, near Naples (Savio, ''Qv. Cattol.", 1907). 
The first authentic Bishop was Liutardus (824); other 
prelates were Blessed lUnkldo d'Antienano (1258) and 
Blemed Filippo Oderiu (1285), monks of Fonte Avel- 
Una; Blessea Alessandro Vincioli, O.M. (1363); An- 
tonio Botognjni (1438) restored the cathedral; Varino 
(1545), founder of the seminary; Mario Battaglini 
(1890), diocesan historian; Francesco Luiei Piervisani 
(1800), psiled in 1809 because he refused the oath ot 
allegiance to Napoleon. It is immediately dependent 
on Rome, with 82 paiiahea; 59,731 inhabitants; 7 re- 
iJKious houses of men and 9 of women. 

Cimufm. Li CAi*w d-/laJia, VI. XJ. BENIONI. 

Nocan doi Pac»nl (of thb pagans), Diocbsh of 
(Ndcbrin Paqanorum), in Salerno, Italy, at the foot 
of Mt. Albinio, on the Samo River; it is the Nuceria 
Alfatema of the Nuvkrinum coins, captured by Fa- 
bius MaximuB in the Samnite War (307), and sacked 
. ^Hannibal (215). 
I "nte appellation "of 
the paxana" dates 
probably from the 
ninth century, be- 
cause of a Saracen 
colony established 
there with the con- 
n i V a D c e of the 
t)ukes of Naples. In 
1132 King Roger 
nearly destroyed 
the town because it 
took part with In- 
nocent II, and in 
1382 Charles of Du- 
raiBO besieeed 
there Urban VI. 
Nocera is the birth- 
place of Hugo de 
Paganis (Payus), 
one of the founders 
Ludovipo, Bishop of 




1 of 

Charles II of An- 
jou; Tontmaso de Aoemo, historian of Urban VI; 
and the pwnter Francesco Solimena. St. Alphonsus 
Liguori founded his order there. At Nocera is the 
sanctuary of Maler Domini, which contiuns the tomb 
of Charles I of Anjou; the ancient church was rebuilt 
in the eleventh century, and given (o some hernubi; 
Urban VIII gave it to the Baeilians, and when these 
were driven away is 1809 and 1829, it came into the 
hands of the Franciscans. Among its bishops were 
St. Priscus, the first bishop, not St, PriscuB of Nola; 
and Ccelius Laurentius, competitor of Svmmachus 
(4BS). In 1260 the assassination of the bishop caused 
the suiyjreBsion of the diocese, but Urban VI restored 
it in 1386, Later bishops were Giovanni Cerretani 
(1498), a jurist; the historian Paul JoviuH (1528), suc- 
ceeded by his nephew Julius and his n'eat-n^hew 
Paul, who rebuilt the episcopal palace j SimoneLuna- 
doro (1602), diocesan historian. United to the See 
of Cava in 1818, it was re-established in 1834. A 
suffragan of Salerno, it has 28 parishes; 60,350 inhab- 
itants; 4 religious houses of men, and 11 of women; a 
■chool for boys, and 5 for girls. 

CArruum, La Chit— ^lUUta, XX. IJ. Benioni. 

NoOtnnu (Noetumi or ffociuma), a very old tenn 
^iplied to night Offices. Tertullian speaks of noc- 

turnal gatherings (Ad. Uxor., II, iv)j St. Cyprian, of 
the no^umal hours, "nulla sint hone noctumis pre- 
cum damna, nulla orationum pigra et ignava dispen- 
dia" (De orat., vxix). In the life of Melania the 
Younger is found the expression "noctunue horffi", 
"noctuma temporti" (Anal, BoUand., VIIIj 1888, pp. 
40 sq.). In these passages the term signifies night 
prayer in general, and seems synonymous with the 
word oigilia. It is not accurate, then, to assume that 
the present division of Matins into three Noctums rep- 
resents three distinct Offices recited during the night 
in the early ages of the Church. Durandus of Mende 
(Ration^e,in,n. 17) and others who follow him assert 
that the early Christians rose thrice in the night to 
pray; hence the present division into three Noctums 
(cf, Beleth, Rupert, and other authors cited in the 
bibliography). Some early Christian writers speak of 
three vigils in the night, aa Methodius or St. Jerome 
(Methodius, "Symposion", V, ii, in P. C, XVIII, 
100) ; but the first was evening prayer, or prayer at 
nightfall, corresponding practically to our Vespers or 
Complines: the second, midnight prayer, specifically 
called Vipl; the third, a prayer at dawn, correspond- 
ing to the Office of Ijauas. As a matt^ of fact the 
Office of the Vigils, and consequently of the Noctums, 
was a single Office, recited without interruption at 
midnight. AH the old texts alluding to this Office (see 
Matins; Viqil) testify to this. Moreover, it does 
not seem practical to assume that anyone, considering 
the length of the Office in those days^ could have risen 
to pray at three different times dunng the night, be- 
sides joining m the two Offices of eventide and dawn. 

If it is not yet possible to assign exactly the date of 
the origin of the three Noctums, or to account for the 
sigmficance of the division, some more or less probable 
conjectures may be made. In the earliest period there 
was as yet no <iueetion of a division in the Office, liie 
oldest Vigils, in as far as they signify an Office, com- 
prised c^lain psalms, chanted or sung either as re- 
sponses or as antiphons, intermingled with prayers 
recited aloud, or interrupted by a few moments' medi- 
tation and readings from the Old or the New Testa- 
ment. On certain days the Vigil included the celebra- 
tion of Mass. 

It was during the second period, probably in the 
fourth century, that to break the monotony of this 
long night prayer the custom of dividing it into three 
parts was introduced. Cassian in speaking of the sol- 
emn Vigils mentions three divisions of this Office (De 
ccenob. instit., Ill, viii, in P, L., XLIX, 144). We 
have here, we think, the origin of the Noctums; or at 
least it is the earliest mention of them we possess. In 
the "Per^rinatio ad Iocs sancta", the Office of the 
Vigils, eitherforweek-daysorforSundays, is a: 

Paris, 1895, pp, 37 and 53), A little later St. Benedict 
speaks with greater detail of this division of the VigilB 
into two Noctums for ordinary days, and three for 
Sundays and feast-days with six psalms and leeeons 
for the first two Noctums, three canticles and lessons 
for the third; this is exactly the stmcture of the Noc- 
tums in the Benedictine Office to-day, and practically 
in the Roman Office (Re^ula ix x, xi). The very ex- 
pression "Noctum",tosigni{y theni^tOffice, is used 
by him twice {xv, xvi). He also uses the term AToc- 
lurna laut in meaking of the Office of the Vigils. The 
proof which E. Warren tries to draw from the "An- 
tiphonary of Bangor" to show that in the Celtic 
Church, according to a custom older than the Bene- 
dictino-Roman practice, there were three separate 
Noctums or Vinls, is based on a confusion of the 
three Offices, ''Initium noctis", "Noctuma", and 
"Matutina", which are not the three Noctums, but 
the Office of Eventide, of the Vigil, and of Lauds {cf. 
The Tablet, 16 Dec., 1893, p. 972; and B&umer- 
Biron, ittfra, 1, 263, 264). 




The division of the Vigils into two or three Noc- 
tums in the Roman Chiutjh dates back at least to the 
fifth century. We may conjecture that St. Benedict, 
who, in the composition of the monastic cursust fol- 
lovra the arrangement of the Roman Office so closely, 
must have been inspired equally by the Roman cus- 
toms in the composition of his Office. Whatever 
doubt there may be as to priority, it is certain that the 
Roman system bears a strong analogy to that of the 
Noctums in the Benedictine Office even at the present 
time, and the differences subsisting are almost en- 
tirely the result of transformations or additions, which 
the Roman Office has been subjected to in the course 
of time. On Sunda3rs and feast-days there are three 
Noctums, as in the Benedictine Office. Each Noo- 
tum comprises three psalms, and the first Noctum of 
Sundav has three groups of four psalms each. The 
ferial days have only one Noctum consisting of twelve 
psalms; each^Noctum has, as usual, three lessons. For 
the variations which have occurred in the course of 
time in the composition of the Noctums^ and for the 
different usaees see Matins. These different usages 
are recorded By Dom Mart^ne. For the terms, " Noc- 
tumales Libri^', "Noctumae", see Du Cange, "Glos- 
sarium infimse latinitatis'', s. w. 

See Matikb; Viqxl; Casbxan, Deecmcb. in^U.^ II, z; Bblbtb, 
Rationale, xx; Liber Diumut, P. L., CV, 71; Durandus of 
Mbndb, RaliontUe, III, n. 7; Rupert, De div. officiia, I, z; Mab- 
TtNB, De antiquie Monaeh, fit.. IV, 4 eq. ; Zaccaria. OnomaHxeon, 
£0, 51; BAuMBB-BiBON, HitUnre du BrMaire, I (PBiis. 1905), 74 
eq.. 78. 09, 263, 358-361. etc. 

F. Cabrol. 

N06 [Heb. Hi (N6at), "rest"; Gr. K&; Lat. 
Noe], the ninth patriarch of the Sethite line, ^andson 
of Mathusala and son of Lamech, who with his family 
was saved from the Deluge and thus became the sec- 
ond father of the human race (Gen., v, 25— ix, 29). 
The name Nda^ was given to him because of his fa- 
ther's expectation regarding him. ' ' This same ' ' , said 
Lamech on naming him, ''shall comfort us from ^e 
works and labours of our hands on [or more correctly 
"from", i. e. which come from] the earth, which the 
Lord hath cursed." Most commentators consider 
Lamech's words as the expression of a hope, or as a 
prophecy, that the child would in some way be instru- 
mental in removing the curse pronounced against 
Adiun (Gen., iii, 17 sqq.). Others rather fancifully 
fie« in them a reference to Noe's future discovery of 
wine, which cheers the heart of man; whilst others 
again, with ereater probability, take them as ex- 
pressing merely a natural hope on the part of Lamech 
that his son would become the support and comfort of 
his parents, and enable them to enjoy rest and peace 
in their later years. Amid the general corruption 
which resulted from the marriages of- "the sons of 
€rod" with "the daughters of men" (Gen., vi, 2 soq.), 
that is of the Sethites with Cainite women, "r^oe 
was a just and perfect man in his generations" and 
"walked with uod" (vi, 9). Hence, when God de- 
creed to destroy men from the face of the earth, he 
"found grace before the Lord". According to the 
common interpretation of Gen., vi, 3, Noe first re- 
ceived divine warning of the impencmig destruction 
one hundred and twenty years before it occurred, and 
therefore when he was four hundred and eighty years 
old (cf. vii, 11); he does not seem, however, to have 
received at this time any details as to the nature of 
the catastrophe. After he reached the age of five 
hundred years three sons, Sem, Cham, and Japheth, 
were bom to him (vi, 10). These had grown to man- 
hood and had taken wives, when Noe was informed 
of God's intention to destroy men by a flood, and re- 
ceived directions to build an ark in which he and his 
wife, his sons and their wives, and representatives, 
male and female, of the various kinds of animals ana 
birds, were to be saved (vi, 13-21). How lon^ before 
the Deluge this revelation was imparted to him, it is 
impossible to say; it can hardly have been more than 

seventy-five years (cf. vii, 11), and probably was con- 
siderably less. 

Noe had annoimced the impending judgment and 
had exhorted to repentance (II Pet., ii, 5), but no 
heed was given to nis words (Matt., xxiv, 37 sqq.; 
Luke xvii, 26, 27; I Pet., iii, 20), and, when the fatol 
time arrived, no one except Noe's immediate family 
found refuge in the ark. Seven days before the waters 
began to cover the earth. Noe was commanded to 
enter the ark with his wile, his three sons and their 
wives, and to take with him seven pairs of all clean, 
and two pairs of all unclean animals and birds (vii, 
1-4). It has been obiected that, even though the 
most liberal value is allowed for the cubit, tEe ark 
would have been too small to lodp^ at least two pairs 
of every species of animal and bird. But there can 
be no difficulty if, as is now genendly admitted, the 
Deluge was not geographically universal (see Deluge : 
Ark). After leaving the ark Noe built an altar, and 
taking of all clean animals and birds^ offered holo- 
causts upon it. God accepted the sacrifice, and made 
a covenant with Noe, and through him with all man- 
kind, that He would not waste Uie earth or destroy 
man by another deluge, l^e rainbow would for all 
times oe a sign and a reminder of this covenant. 
He further renewed the blessing which He had pro- 
nounced on Adam (Gen., i. 28), and confirmed the 
dominion over animals which He had granted to man. 
In virtue of this dominion man may use animals for 
food, but the flesh may not be eaten with the blood 
(viii, 20-ix, 17). Noe now gave himself to agricul- 
ture, and planted a vineyard. Bein^ unacquainted 
with the effects of fermented grape-juice, he druik 
of it too freely and was made drunk. Cham found his 
father Iving naked in his tent, and made a jest of 
his condition before his brothers; these reverently 
covered him with a mantle. On hearing of the oc- 
currence Noe cursed Chanaan, as Cham s heir, and 
blessed Sem and Japheth. He lived three hundred 
and fifty years after the Deluge, and died at the age of 
nine hundred and fifty years (ix, 20-29). In the uiter 
books of Scripture Noe is represented as the model of 
the just man (Ecclus., xliv, 17^aech.^ xiv, 14, 20), 
and as an exemplar of faith (Heb., xi, 7). In t^e 
Fathers and tradition he is considered as the type 
and figure of the Saviour, because through him tne 
human race was saved from destruction and recon- 
ciled with God <Ecclus., xliv, 17, 18) . Moreover, as he 
built the ark. the only means of salvation from the 
Deluge, so Christ established the Church, the only 
means of salvation in the spiritual order. 

The Babylonian account of the Deluge in many 
points closely resembles that of the Bible. Four cune- 
iform recensions of it have been discovered, of which, 
however, three are only short fragments. The com- 
plete story is found in the Gilgamesh epic (Tablet xi) 
discovered by G. Smith among the ruins of the libraiy 
of Assurbampal in 1872. Another version is given 
by Berosus. In the Gilgamesh poem the hero of the 
story is Ut-napishtim (or $it-napishti, as some read 
it), sumamed Atra-hasis "the very clever"; in two 
of the fragments he is simply styled Atra-^asis, which 
name is also found in Berosus under t^e Greek form 
Xisuthros. The story in brief is as follows: A council 
of the gods having decreed to destroy men by a flood, 
the fpi. Ea warns Ut-napishtim. and bids mm buila 
a ship in which to save himself and the seed of all 
kinds of Ufe. Ut-napishtim builds the ship (of which, 
according to one version, Ea traces the plan on the 
ground), and places in it his family, his dependents, 
artisans, and domestic as well as wild animals, after 
which he shuts the door. The storm lasts six days; 
on the seventh the flood begins to subside. The ship 
steered by the helmsman Puzur-Bel lands on Mt. 
Ni^ir. After seven days Ut-napishtim sends forth a 
dove and a swallow, which, findine no resting-place 
for their feet return to the ark, and then araveii, which 


feeds on dead bodies and does not return . On leaving of the Templars by announcing the plans for a new em- 
the ship, Ut-napistim offers a sacrifice to the gods, sade, the expenses of which were to oe defrayed by the 
who smell the goodly odour and gather like flies over confiscated goods of the Order. In this IJatin docu- 
the sacrificer. He and his wife are then admitted ment, addrrased to Clement V, the author attributes 
among the gods. The story as given by Berosus the failure of the crusades to the Templars and de- 
comes somewhat nearer to the Biblical narrative, clares that Philip the Fair alone ooula direct them 
Because of the striking resemblances between the successfully, provided that he obtained the help of 
two many maintain that the Biblical account is de- all the Christian princes to secure the funds requued 
rived from the Babylonian. But the differences for the expedition; all the property of the Templara 
are so many and so important that this view must be should be given to the king, likewise all legacies left 
pronounced untenable. The Scriptural story is a for the crusades and all the benefices in Christendom 
parallel and independent form of a common tradition, should be taxed. The other militwy orders, the ab- 

dS'SS^"^^ ro&r ^"SS-IISJi^! 32;igS^ ^tl'^ churches should refaun only the property 

biU. Getch. (Freiburg. 1910), 200 sqq.; Skxnxeb, Critie. and ficcessary for theuT support, the surplus should be 

iffM0. Comin, on Qen, (New York, 1910), 133 aqq.; Dxlliiakn. Gm- given for the Crusade. No one took this document 

Si:^ii,^^^i9^^^^%^V^^J^,SS1n^ ?r'>"«'X. ?t y« probably intended «a.80lenm hoax. 

dScouv. mod., I (6th ©d., Paris, 1896), 309 sqq. ; Schradbb. Die Wo^aret s influence may be seen in the tnal for sorcery 

Knlinsekrift. u. daa A. T. (2Dd ed.. Gieflsen, 1882), 55 sqq.: Jsn- against Guichard, bishop of Troyes (1308). A zealous 

SiSJ?^^^^^'^*JS^'^LfSSS*^ * ®~^J bu* unscrupulous royal partisan, a fierce and bitter 

228 sqq.; VioouBOUX, Dtd. as la BwU, s. w. Ararat, Arche, and ^_^ xt j. j* j l /^ -nt-'f xt. t^ ^^ x Vt 

NoiiHitnxcBT, The earlietttersum of the Batyloniondduoe story epemyi Nogaret died before Philip the Fair, at the 

(Philadelphia, 1910). time when the regime he had devoted himself to 

F. Bechtbl. establishing was beginning to be attacked on all sides. 

Noel Alexandre. See Ai^xanbeb Natalis. ^^i^,'^^^^^^^^ 

NoetUB and Noetianism. See Monabchianb. f'J^'^ ^Sli^^'^Sr aST, S^'^s^': ^^^^^c ^Ifu 

Nogaiet, GuiLLAUME de, b. about the middle of Si'Ju''ifiS!^J*wW^*^/*^^^ 

the t&rteeith century at St. Felix-en-Laura^ais; d. ^™' ^^^^^'^■' ^'^' ^^' ^' ^ '^~*' Xxyi.XXyil.&ioAui/r. 

1314; he was one of the chief counsellors of Philip the 

Fan-, of France (1285-1314), said to be descended from P^JS^J^^^L ^?^' *5l."** ^yvWt^ISSLT 
an Albigensian family and was a protig^ of the lawyer, "* *^' ^"*- '^- * ^ ^"^^ ^^^' ^ms BrAhiuh 
Pierre Flotte. He studied law, winning a doctorate iwi'injun. 
and a professorship, and was appointed, in 1294, royal Nola, Diocese of (Nolaxa), suffragan of Naples, 
judge of the seneschars court of Beaucaire. In 1299 The city of Nola in the Italian Province of Caserta, in 
the title of knight was conferred on him by Philip the Campania, is said to have been founded by the Etnis^ 
Fair. Imbue(r from his study of Roman law, with cans or bjr Chalcideans from Cum®. On the most 
the doctrine of the absolute supremacy of the king, ancient coins it is called Nuvlana. In the Samnite 
no scruple restrained Nogaret when the royal power W&r (311 b. c.) the town was taken by the Romans, 
was in question, and his influence was apparent m the in the Pimic War it was twice besieged by Hannibal 
stru^e between Philip and Boniface \ail. In 1300 (215 and 214), and on both occasions splendidl^r de- 
Phihp sent him as ambassador to the Holy See to ex- fended by Marcellus. In the war with the Marsi, the 
cuse his alliance with Albert of Austria, usurper of lattertookNola, in 90 b. c, but, notwithstanding their 
the Empire. Nogaret, according to his own account, brilliant defence of the city, it was retaken from them in 
remonstrated with the pope, who replied in vigorous the year 89, and its recapture put an end to that war. 
language. After the oeath of Pierre Flotte at the The city was sacked by Spartacus^ for which reason 
the battle of Courtrai (1302), Nogaret became chief Augustus and Vespasian sent colonies there. In a. d. 
adviser and evil genius of the king. On the publica- 410 it was sacked by Alaric. in 453 by the Vandals, in 
tion of the Bull "Unam Sanctam" he was charged 806 and again in 904 by the Saracens. From the time of 
with directing the conflict against the Holy See (Feb- Charles I of Anjou to the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
ruary. 1303). At the Assembly of the Louvre (12 tury. Nola was a feudal possession of the Orsini. The 
Marcn, 1303), he bitterly attacked the pope, and later, battle of Nola (1459) is famous for the clever stratagem 
allying himself with the pope's Italian enemies (the bv which John of Anjou defeated Alfonso of Ara^on. 
Florentine banker, Musciatto de Franzesi, and Nola furnished a considerable portion of the antiquities 
Sdarra Colonna, the head of the Ghibelline party), in the museum of Naples, especially beautiful Gredc 
he surprised Boniface in his palace at Anagni and vases. In the seminary there is a collection of ancient 
arrested him after subjecting him to outrageous treat- inscriptions, among which are some Oscan tablets, 
ment (7 September). But the inhabitants rescued The ruins of an amphitheatre and other ancient re- 
the pope, whose death (11 October), saved Nogaret mains are yet to be seen in this city, where the Em- 
from severe retribution. Early in 1304, at Langue- peror Augustus, who died there, had a famous temple, 
doc, he explained his actions to the king, and received Nola was the birthplace of Giordano Bruno, of Luigi 
considerable property as recompense. Philip even Tausillo, the philosopher and poet, of the sculptor 
sent him with an embassy to the new pope, Benedict Giovanni MerUano, whose work is well represented in 
XI, who refused to absolve him from the excommuni- the cathedral, and of the physician Ambrogio Leo. 
cation he had incurred. Clement V, however, ab- The ancient Christian memories of Nola are con- 
solved him in 1311. nected with the neighbouring Cimitile, the name of 
Noearet played a decisive part in the trial of the which recalls the site of an ancient cemetery. There 
Templars. On 22 September, 1307, at Maubuisson, is the basilica of St. Felix, the martsrr. built, and poet- 
Philip made him keeper of the seal and the same ically described by St. raulinus, bisnop of the city, 
day the Royal Council issued a warrant for the arrest who shows that no sanctuary, £Uter the tombs of the 
of the Templars^ which was executed on 12 October; Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, was visited by as many 
Nogaret himseli arrested the Knights of the Temple pilgrims as came to this shrine. St. Felix, who lived 
in Paris and drew up the proclamation justif3ring the between the middle of the second century and the mid- 
crime. It was he who directed all the measures die of the third, was the first Bishop of Nola. The city 
that ended in the execution of Jacques de Molai has several other martyrs, among them, Sts. Repara- 
and the principal Templars (1314). The same year tus, Faustillus, and Acacius, companions of St. Janu- 
Nogaret, who displayea untiring energy in drawing arius, besides St. Felix, confessor. Other bishops of 
up the documents by which he sought to ruin his Nola were St. Marinus (a^ut the year 300) ; St. Pri»- 
aaversaries, undertook to justify the condemnation cus, who died in 328 or, according to Mommaen, in 




523: St. Quodvultdeus, who died in 387 and was suc- 
ceeded by St. Paulinus. The body of the last-named 
saint was taken to Benevento in 839, and in the year 
1000 was given to Otho III by the people of Bene- 
vento in exchange for the body of St. Bartholomew; in 
1909 it was restored to Nola. In the fifth century the 
archpresbyter St. Adeodatus flouri&hed at Nola; his 
metrical epitaph has been preserved. In 484 Joannes 
Taloias, Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, having 
been driven from his diocese, was made Bishop of 
Nola. It was St. Paulinus III (c. 505) who became a 
slave to free a widow's son; this heroic deed was after- 
wards attributed to St. Paulinus I. Bishop Lupicinus 
(786) restored several sacred buildings. Francis Scac- 
ciani (1370) erected the Gothic cathedral, which was 
finished by Bishop Gian Antonio Boccarelli (1469). 
Antonio Scarampi (1549) founded the seminary and 
introduced the reforms of the C]k)uncil of Trent. Fa- 
brizio Gallo (1585) founded several charitable institu- 
tions^* G. B. Lancellotti (1615-56), who was Apostolic 
nuncio to Poland from 1622 to 1627, did much for the 
diocese; Francis M. Carafa (1704), a Theatine, was 
zealous for the education of the clergy; Traiano Ca- 
racciolo (1 738) constructed the new seminary. 

The diocese is a suffragan of Naples; has 86 par- 
ishes, with 200,000 inhabitants, 9 reli^ous houses of 
men, and 19 of women, several educational establish- 
ments and asylums, and four monthly and bi-monthly 

Cappslletti, Le Chitie d* Italia, XXI; Rbmondiki, Storia della 
citid « dioeen di Nola (Naples, 1747-57). 

U. Beniqni. 

Nola, Giovanni Marliano da, sculptor and archi- 
tect, b., it is said, of a leather merchant named Giu- 
seppe, at Nola, near Naples, 1488; d. 1558 (?). He 
studied under Agnolo Aniello Fibre and then went 
to Rome, being attracted bv the fame of Michel- 
angelo, wnose work he studied closely. On his return 
to Naples he was employed in churches, palaces, 
and piazze. Among his works may be mentioned the 
monument of Galeazzo Pandono in S. Domenico 
(1514) ; the tombs of the three youths Jacopo, Ascanio, 
and Sigismondo (who died of poison) in their family 
church of S. Severino (1516) ; various sculptures in the 
church of Monte Oliveto (1524), notably a fine group 
of the Mother and Child with infant St. John and, in 
the choir, tombs of Alphonsus II and Guerrero Origlia; 
in the church of S. Chiara, the simple and touching 
recumbent figure of the girl Antonia Gandino (1530). 
Outside of Italy the noble monument of the Spanish 
Duke of Cardona (about 1532) in the Franciscan 
church of Belpuch is among the best known. The 
decorations made by Nola for the reception of Empe- 
ror Charles V in Naples (1535) are stiU to be seen on 
the Porta Capuana. In 1537 he carved a beautiful 
standing Madonna and two Saints for the church of 
S. Domenico Maggiore. In 1553 the Spanish viceroy, 
Peter of Toledo, caused him to erect the mausoleum 
to himself and his wife in the church of S. Giacomo 
degli Spagnuoli. Further works of Nola's, also in 
Naples, are the Piet& and tomb of a child, Andrea 
CHcara, in the church of S. Severino; a Madoima della 
Misericordia in S. Pietro ad Aram; an altar-piece 
at S. Aniello, representing the Mother and Child 
seated on a crescent moon; and a fine set of wooden 
bas-reliefs depicting the life of Christ, in the sacristy 
of the Annunziata. Nola is one of the most justly 
lauded representatives of a rather poor school of 
Renaissance sculpture in Naples. 

CicooNARA, Storia deUa teuUura (Venice, 1813 — ); Pebkins, 
Italian 8culptor§ (London, 1868) ; LObkb, Hiatcry of Sculpture, tr. 
BiTBNXTT (London, 1872). 

M. L. Handlet. 
Noli. See Savona and Nou, Diocese of. 

NoUet, Jean-Antoinb. physicist, b. at Pimpr6, 
Oise, France, 19 November, 1700; d. at Paris, 25 

April, 1770. His peasant parents sent him to study 
at Clermont and Beauvais. He went later to Paris to 
prepare for the priesthood. In 1728 he received the 
deaconship and appUed immediatdy for permission to 
preach, soon love of science became uppermost and 
together with Duf ay and Reaumur he devoted him- 
self to the stud3r of physics and especially to research 
work in electricity. Abb4 Nollet was the first to 
recognize the importance of sharp points on the 
conductors in the discharge of electricity. This was 
later applied practically m the construction of the 
lightning-rod. He also studied the conduction of 
electricity in tubes, in smoke, vapours, steam, the in- 
fluence of electric charges on evaporation, ve^tation, 
and animal life. His discovery of the osmosis of wa^ 
ter through a bladder into alcohol was the starting- 
point of that branch of physics. 

In 1734 Nollet went to London and was admitted 
into the Royal Society. In 1735 he started in Paris, 
at his own expense, a course in experimentalphysics 
which he continued until 1760. In 1738 Cardinal 
Fleury created a public chur of experimental physics 
for Nollet. In 1739 he entered the Academy of 
Sciences, becoming associate member in 1742, and 
pensionary in 1758. In April, 1739 the King of Sar- 
dinia called him to Turin to instruct the Duke of 
Savoy, and to furnish the instruments needed for the 
new chair of physics at the universitv. After lecturing 
a short time at Bordeaux, he was caUed to Versailles to 
instruct the dauphin in experimental science. He was 
appointed professor of experimental physics at the 
Royal Collie of Navarre, in 1753. In 1761 he taught 
at the school of artillery at M^zi^res. Nollet was also 
a member of the Institute of Bologna and of the 
Academy of Sciences of Erfurt. He was calm and sim- 
ple in manner, and his letters and papers showed that 
ne had been devoted and generous to his family and his 
native village. Nollet contributed to the '* Recueil de 
r Academic des Sciences" (1740^7) and the ''Philo- 
sophical Transactions of the Royal Society''; his 
larger works include amon^ others: — ''Programme 
d'un cours de physique exp^nmentale'' (Paris, 1738); 
"Lemons de pnysique exp^rimentale " (Paris. 1743); 
"Recherches sur les causes particuli^res aes phd- 
nom^nes ^lectriques'' (Paris, 1749); "L'art des experi- 
ences" (Paris, 1770). 

Grandjkan db FoncHY, Bloge de J.- A. NMdt; Hietoire de 
VAeadhnie Royale dee Seieneee (Paria. 1773), 121-36. 

William Fox. 

NominaliBm, BamUsm, GonoeptualiBm. —These 

terms are used to designate the theories that have 
been proposed as solutions of one of the most impor- 
tant questions in philosophy, often referred to as the 
problem of universals, wnich, while it was a favourite 
subject for discussion in ancient times, and especially 
in the Middle Ages, is still prominent in modem and 
contemporary philosophy. We propose to discuss in 
this article: I. The Nature of the Problem and the 
Suggested Solutions; II. The Principal Historic Forms 
of Nominalism, Realism, and Conceptualism; III. 
The Claims of Moderate Realism. 

I. The Problem and the Suoobsted Solutigns. — 
The problem of universals is the problem of the cor- 
respondence of our intellectual concepts to things ex- 
isting outside our intellect. Whereas external objects 
are determinate, individual, formally exclusive of all 
multiplicity, our concepts or mentiu representations 
offer us the realities independent of all particular de- 
termination; they are abstract and universal. The 
question, therd'ore^ is to discover to what extent the 
concepts of the mmd correspond to the things they 
represent; how the flower we conceive represents the 
flower existing in nature; in a word, whether our ideas 
are faithful and have an objective reality. Four solu- 
tions of the problem have been offered. It is neces- 
sary to describe them carefully, as writers do not 
always use the terms in tiie same sense. 


A. Exaggerated Realiem holds that there are univer^ tioxiB (double, triple), and even negations and noth- 
sal concepts in the mind and universal thines in na- ingness have a corresponding idea in the suprasensible 
ture. There is, therefore, a strict parallelismDetween world. " What makes one and one two, is a participa- 
the being in nature and the being in thought, since the tion of the dyad (ddat), and what makes one one is a 
external object is clothed with the same character of participation of the monad (M^vat) in unity" (Fhsedo, 
universality that we discover in the concept. This is a Ixix). The exaggerated Realism of Plato, investing 
flimpie solution, but one that runs counter to the die- the real being with the attributes of the being in 
tat^ of common sense. thou^t, is the principal doctrine of his metaphysics. 

B. Nominaiiem. — ^Exaggerated Realism invents a Anstotle broke away from these exaggerated views 
world of reality corresponding exactly to the attri- of his master and formulated the main doctrines of 
butes of the world of thought. Nominalism, on the Moderate Realism. The real is not, as Plato says, 
contrary, models the concept on the external object, some vague entity of wl^ch the sensible world is only 
which it nolds to be individual and particular. Nom- the shadow j it dwells m the midst of the sensible 
inaiism consequently denies the existence of abstract world. Individual substance (this man, that horse) 
and universal concepts, and refuses to admit that the alone has reality; it alone can exist. The universal is 
intellect has the power of engendering them. What not a thing in itoelf ; it is immanent in individuals and 
are called general ideas are only names, mere verbal is multiplied in all the repr^ntatives of a class. As 
designations, serving as labels for a collection of totheformofuniversalitv of our concepts (man, just), 
things or a series of particular events. Hence the it is a product of our subjective consideration. The 
term Nominalism. Neither Exaggerated Realism objects of our generic and specific representafions can 
nor Nominalism finds any difficult in establishing certainly be called substances (o^/ac), when they 
a correspondence between the thing in thought designate the fundamental realitv (man) with the ac- 
and tiie thing existing in nature, since, in di£ferent cidental determinations (just, big); but these are 
ways, they both postulate perfect harmony between d€6r€pai oiffUu (second substances), and by that Aris- 
the two. The real difficulty appears when we assign totle means precisely that this attribute of universal- 
different attributes to the thing in nature and to the ity which affects the substance as in thought does not 
thing in thought^ if we hold that the one is individual belong to the substance (thing in itself) ; it is the out- 
and the other universal. An antinomy then arises be- come of our subjective elaboration. This theorem of 
tween the world of reality and the world as repre- Aristotle, which completes the metaphysics of Hera- 
sented in the mind, and we are led to inquire how the clitus (denial of the permanent) by means of that of 
general notion of flower conceived by the mind is ap- Parmenides (denial of chang^e), is the antithesis of 
plicable to the particular and determinate flowers of Platonism, and may be considered one of the finest 
nature. ^ pronouncements of Peripateticism. It was through 

C. Conceptualiem admits the existence within us of this wise doctrine that the Stagyrite exercised his as- 
abstract and universal concepts (whence its name), cendency over all later thought. 

but it holds that we do not know whether or not the After Aristotle Greek philosophy formulated a 

mental objects have any foundation outside our minds third answer to the problem of umversals, Conceptu- 

or whether in nature the individual objects possess alism. This solution appears in the teaching of the 

distributively and each by itself the realities which we Stoics, which, as is known, ranks with Platonism and 

conceive as realized in each of them. The concepts Aristoteleanism among the three original systems of 

have an ideal value; they have no real value, or at the great philosophic age of the Greeks. Sensation is the 

least we do not know whether they have a real value. principle of all knowledge, and thought is only a coUec- 

D. Moderate Realism, finally^ declares that there are tive sensation. Zeno compared sensation to an open 
universal concepts representing faithfully realities hand with the fingers separated; experience or multi- 
that are not universal. '' How can there be harmony pie sensation to the open hand with the fingers bent : 
between the former and the latter? The latter are the general concept bom of experience to the closed 
particular, but we have the power of representing fist. Now, concepts, reduced to general sensations, 
them to purselves abstractly. Now the abetraet type, have as their object, not the corporeal and external 
when the intellect considers it reflectively and con- thing reached by the senses (t&yx*^'')j but the \€kt6p 
trasts it with the particular subjects in which it is or the reality conceived; whether this has any real 
realised or capable of being realized, is attributable value we do not know. The Aristotelean School 
indifferently to any and all of them. This applicabil- adopted Aristotelean Realism, but the neo-Platonists 
ity of the abstract type to the individuals is its univer- subscribed to the Platonic theory of ideas which they 
saiity" (Mercier, "Crit^riologie", Louvain, 1906, p. transformed into an emanationistic and monistic con- 
343). ception of the universe. 

II. The Principal Historical Forms of Nomi- B. In the Philosophy of the Middle Ages. — For a long 

NALiBM, Realism, and Conceftu alism. — A. In Greek time it was thougnt that the problem of universals 

Philosophy . — The conciliation of the one and the monopolized the attention of the philosophers df the 

many, the changing and the ]3ermanent, was a favour^ Middle Ages, and that the dispute of the P^ominalists 

ite problem with the Greeks; it leads to the problem of and Real^ts absorbed all their energies. In reality 

universals. The t3rpical affirmation of Exaggerated that question, although prominent in the Middle 

Realism, the most outspoken ever made, api)ears in Ages, was far from being the only one dealt with by 

Plato's philosophy; the real must possess the attri- these philosophers. 

butes of necessity, universality, unity, and immutabil- (1) From the commencement of the Middle Ages 
ity which are found in our intellectual representations, till the end of the 12th century. — It is impossible to 
And as the sensible world contains only the contin- classify the philosophers of the beginning of the Mid- 
gent, the particular, the unstable, it foflows that the die Ages exactly as Nominalists, Moderate and Exag- 
real exists outside and above the sensible world, perated Realists, or Conceptualists. And the reason 
Plato calls it cTSot, idea. The idea is absolutel^^ stable is that the problem of the Universals is verv complex, 
and exists by itself (fivrw 69\ a^d ica0* a^d), isolated It not merdy involves the metaphysics of the individ- 
(x»p««[Td) from the phenomenal world, distinct from ual and of the universal, but also raises important 
the Divine and the human intellect. Following logic- questions in ideology — questions about the genesis 
ally the directive principles of his Realism, Plato and validitv of Imowledge. But the earlier Scholas- 
makes an idea-entity correspond to each of our ab- tics, unskilled in such delicate matters, did not per- 
stract , representations. Not only natural species ceive these various aspects of the problem. It did not 
(man, horse) but artificial products (bed), not only grow up siK>ntaneouslv in the Miadle Ages; it was be- 
substances (man) but properties (white, just), rela- queathed in a text of Porphyry's "Isagoge", a text 


that seemed ample and imiooent, though somewhat inalism could exist at all in the Middle Ages, as it is 
obscure, but one which force of circumstances made possible only in a sensist philosophy that denies all nat- 
the necejasary starting-point of the earliest medievid ural distinction between sensation and the intellect- 
speculations about the Universals. ual concept. Furthermore there is little evidence of 

Porphyry divides the problem into three parts: (1) Sensism in the Middle Ages^ and, as Sen^sm and Scho- 

Do genera and species exist in nature, or do they con- lasticism, so also Nominalism and Scholasticism are 

sist m mere products of the intellect? (2) If they are mutually exclusive. The different anti-Realist sys- 

things apart from the mind, are they corporeal or in- tems anterior to the thirteenth century are in fact 

corporeal things? (3) Do they exist outside the (in- only more or less imperfect forms of the Moderate 

dividual) things of sense, or are thev realized in the Realism towards which the efforts of the first period 

Jatter? *| Mox de generibus et speciebus illud quidem were tending, phases through which the same idea 

sive subsistant sive in nudis intellectibus posita sint, passed in its organic evolution. These stages are nu- 

sive subsistentia corporalia sint an incorporidia, et merous, and several have been studied in recent mon- 

utrum separata a sensibilibus an in sensibilibus posita ographs (e. g. the doctrine of Ad^lard of Bath, of 

et circa hasc subsistentia, dicere recusabo." Histori- Uauthier de Mortagne. Indifferentism, and the theorv 

cally, the first of those questions was discussed prior to of the coUectio) . The aecisi ve stage is marked by Ab&- 

the others: the latter could have arisen onlv in the lard (1079-1142), who points out clearly the r61e of 

event of denying an exclusively subjective character abstraction, and how we represent to ourselves ele- 

to universal realities. Now the first question was ments common to different things^ capable of realiza- 

whether genera and species are objective realities or tion in an indefinite number of individuals of the same 

not: sive subsistant. sive in nudis intellectibus posita species, while the individual alone exists. From that 

sint? In other words, the sole point in debate was the to Moderate Realism there is but a step ; it was suffi- 

absolute reality of the universals: their truth^ their re- cient to show that a real fundamentum allows us to 

lation to the understanding, was not in question. The attribute the general representation to the individual 

text from Porphyry, apart from the solutions he else- thing. It is impossible to say who was the first in the 

where proposed m works unknown to the early Scho- twelith century to develop the theory in its entirety, 

lastics, is an inadequate statement of the question; for Moderate Realism appears fully in the writings of 

it takes account only of the objective aspect and neg- John of Salisbiuy. 

lects the psychological standpoint which alone can C. From the Thirteenth Century, — ^In the thirteenth 
give the key to the true solution. Moreover^ Por- century all the great Scholastics solved the problem of 
phyry, after proposing his triple interrogation m the the universals oy the theory of Moderate Realism 
''Isagoge'', reuses to offer an answer (dicere recti«a6o). (Thomas Aquinas, Bonaventure, Duns Scotus), and 
BoSthius, in his two commentaries, gives replies that are thus in accord with Averroes and Avicenna, the 
are vague and scarcely consistent. In the second com- • great Arab commentators of Aristotle, whose works 
mentary, which is the more important one, he holds had recently passed into circulation by means of trans- 
that genera and epeciee are both avbsietentia and intel- lations. St. Thomas formulates the doctrine of Mod- 
lecla (1st question), the similarity of things being the erate Realism in precise language, and for that reason 
basis (stAjectum) both of their individuality in nature alone we can give the name of Thomistic Realism to 
and their universality in the mind; that genera and this doctrine (see below). With William of Occam 
species are incorporeal not by nature but by abstrac- and the Terminist School appear the strictly concept- 
ion (2nd question)^ and that they exist both inside ualist solutions of the problem. The abstract and uni- 
and outside the thin^ of sense (3rd question). versal concept is a sign {8ignum)t also called a term 

This was not sufficiently clear for beginners, though {terminus: hence the name Terminism given to the 

we can see in it the basis of the Aristotdean solution of system), but it has no real value, for the abstract and 

the problem. The early Scholastics faced the problem the universal do not exist in any way in nature and 

as proposed by Porphyiy : limiting the controversy to have no fundamentum outside the mind. The univer- 

genera and specieSf ana its solutions to the alternatives sal concept (intentio secunda) has as its object internal 

suggested by the first question : Do the objects of our representations, formed by the understanding, to which 

concepts (i. e., genera and species) exbt in nature {sub- nothing external corresponding can be attributed. 

sislentia), or are they mere abstractions {nuda intel- The r6le of the universals is to serve as a label, to hold 

leda)? Are they, or are they not, things? Those who the place {suppanere) in the mind of the multitude of 

replied in the affirmative got the name of Reals or things to which it can be attributed. Occam's C]k>n- 

Realists; the others that of Nominals or Nominalists, ceptualism would be frankly subjectivistic, if, t>ogether 

The former, or the Realists, more numerous in the with the abstract concept, ne did not admit within us 

early Middle Ages (Fredugisus, R^my d'Auxerre, and intuitive concepts which reach the individual thing, as 

John Scotus Eriugena in the ninth century, Gerbert it exists in nature. 

and Odo of Toumai in the tenth, and William of D. In Modem and Contemporary Philosophy. — We 

Champeaux in the twelfth) attribute to each genus find an unequivocal afiirmation of Nominalism in 

and each species a universal essence {subsistentia), Positivism. For Hume, Stuart Mill, Spencer, and 

to which all the subordinate individusJs are tribu- Taine there is strictlv speaking no imiveraal concept, 

tary. The notion, to which we lend universality, is only a 

The Nominalists, who should be called rather the collection of individual perceptions, a collective sen- 
anti-Realists, assert on the contrary that the individ- sation, ''un nom compris'' (Taine), "a term in habit- 
ual alone exists, and that the universals are not things ual association with many other particular ideas" 
realized in the universal state in nature, or subsistentia. (Hume), " un savoir potentiel emmagasin^" (Ribot). 
And as th^y adopt the alternative of Porphyry, they The problem of the correspondence of the concept to 
conclude that the universals are nuda intetlecta (that reality is thus at once solved, or rather it is suppressed 
is, purely intellectual representations). and replaced by the psychological question: \y hat is 

It may be that RosceUn of Compi^gne did not go the origin of the illusion that induces us to attribute a 
beyond these energetic protests against ReaJism, distinct nature to the general concept, though the lat- 
and that he is not a Nominalist in the exact sense we ter is only an elaborated sensation? Kant distinctly 
have attributed to the word above, for we have to de- affirms the exbtence within us of abstract and general 
pend on others for an expression oi his views, as there notions and the distinction between them and sensa- 
IS extant no text of his which would justify us in say- tions, but these doctrines are joined with a character- 
ing that he denied the intellect the power of forming istic Phenomenalism which constitutes the most orig- 
general concepts, distinct in their nature from sensa- inal form of modem Conceptualism. Universal and 
uon. Indeed, it is difficult to compi^ehend how Nom- necessary representations have no contact with ex- 




temal things, since they are produced exclusively by 
the structural functions (a pnori forms) of our mind. 
Time and space, in which we frame all sensible im- 
pressions, cannot be obtained from experience, which 
IS individual and contingent; they are schemata which 
arise from our mental organization. Consequently, 
we have no warrant for establishing a real coirespond- 
ence between the world of our ideas and the world of 
reality. Science, which is onl^ an elaboration of the 
data of sense in accordance with other structural de- 
terminations of the mind (the categories), becomes a 
subjective poem^ which has a value only for us and not 
for a world outside us. A modem form of Platonic or 
Exaggerated Realism is foimd in the ontologist doc- 
trinedef ended by certain Catholic philosophers in the 
middle of the nineteenth century, and which consists 
in identifying the objects of umversal ideas with the 
Divine ideas or the archetypes on which the world was 
fashioned. As to Moderate Realism, it remains the 
doctrine of all those who have returned to Aristotele- 
anism or adopted the neo-Scholastic philosophy. 

III. The Claims of Moderate Reausm. — ^This 
system reconciles the characteristics of external ob- 
jects (particularity) with those of our intellectual 
representations (universality), and explains why sci- 
ence, though made up of abstract notions, is valid 
for the world 6f reality. To understand this it suffices 
to grasp the real meaning of abstraction. When the 
mind apprehends the essence of a thing (quod ^uid 
est; r6 tI Ijp c7mu), the external object is perceived 
without the particular notes which attach to it in na- 
ture {esse in singularHms), and it is not yet marked 
with the attribute of ^nerality which r^ection will 
bestow on it {es»e in intellectu). The abstract reality 
is apprehended with perfect indifference as regarcts 
both the individual state without and the universal 
state within: abstrahit ab utroque esse, secundum 
quam considerationem oonsideratur natura lapidis vel 
eujus cumque alterius, quantum ad ea tantum quad 

Eer se oompetunt illi natures (St. Thomas, " Quod- 
beta '^ Q. 1, a. 1). Now, what is thus conceived in 
the absolute state (absolute considerando) is nothing 
else than the reality incarnate in any given individual : 
in truthj the reahty, represented in my concept of 
man, is m Socrates or in Plate. There is nothing in 
the abstract concept that is not applicable to every 
individual; if the abstract concept is inadequate, be- 
cause it does not contain the singular notes of each 
being, it is none the less faithful, or at least its ab- 
stract character does not prevent it from correspond- 
ing faithfully to the objects existing in nature. As to 
the univeraal form of the concept, a moment's consid- 
eration shows that it is subsequent to the abstraction 
and is the fruit of reflection: "ratio speciei accidit na- 
turae humans '\ Whence it follows that the univer- 
salitv of the concept as such is the work purely of the 
inteUect: "unde intellectus est qui facit universalita- 
tem in rebus" (St. Thomas, " De cnte et essentia", iv). 
Concerning Nominalism, Conceptualism, and Ex- 
aggerated Realism, a few general considerations must 
suttice. Nominalism, which is irreconcilable with a 
spiritualistic philosophy and for that very reason with 
Scholasticism as well, presupposes the ideological 
theory that the abstract concept does not differ essen- 
tially from sensation^ of which it is only a transforma- 
tion. The Nominalism of Hume, Stuart Mill, Spen- 
cer, Huxley, and Taine is of no greater value than 
their ideology. They confound essentially distinct 
logical operations — the simple decomposition of sen- 
sible or empirical representations with abstraction 
properly so called and sensible analogy with the pro- 
cess of universalization. The Aristoteleans recognize 
both of these mental operations, but they distinguish 
carefully between them. As to Kant, lul the TOnds 
that might connect the concept witn the external 
world are destroyed in his Phenomenalism. Kant is 
unable to explain why one and the same sensible im- 

pression starts or sets in operation now this, now that 
category; his a priori forms are unintelligible accord- 
ing to his own principles, since they are beyond experi- 
ence. Moreover, he confuses rsaJ time and space, 
limited like the things they develop, with idcAl or 
abstract time and space, which alone are general and 
without limit. For^ in truth we do not create whole- 
sale the object of our knowledge, but we beget it within 
us under the causal influence of the obiect that reveals 
itself to us. Ontolofpsm, which is akin to Platonic 
Realism, arbitrarily identifies the ideal types in our 
intellect, which come to us from the sensible world by 
means of abstraction, with the ideal tsrpes consubstan- 
tial with the essence of God. Now, when we form our 
first abstract ideas we do not yet know God. We are 
so ignorant of Him that we must employ these first 
ideas to prove a posteriori His existence. Ontologism 
has lived its life, and our age so enamoured of obser- 
vation and experiment wm scarcely return to the 
dreams of Plato. 

ZsLLBR, D%9 Philoaophie der Qrieehen (5 vols., 5th ed.. Tabiiunn, 
1003), tr. CosTELLOB AND MviBRKAD^AritMU and th» earlier Peri' 
patetica (2 Tola., London and New York, 1897); Piat, AriaMe 
(Paris, 1903} ; Brochabd. Sur la logique dee ^eUctene in Archit far 
Oeaeh. der Philoe. (1892) ; LoBwa, Der Kamp/tto, dem Realiemue «. 
Nominaliemua im MiUelalter in Abhandl. d. k. bOhm, GeeeUeehaft d, 
Wieeeneehaft. VIII (1876); Db Wult. Hiat. of Medieval Philoe., 
tr. Corrmr (New York and London, 1909) ; Idem, Le probUme 
dee unieereaux dane son ivolvUion hielorique du IX* au XIII* 
ei^de in Arehiv fUr Oeech. d, Philoe., IX, iv (1896) ; Tubneb. Hiel, 
of Philoe. (Boston, 1903); Reinbbs. Der arietotel. Realiemiu in 
d. PrUhecholaetik (Aachen, 1907); Idbii, Der Nominaliemue in d, 
FrUhecholaetik in Beitrdge «wr Qeeeh. d. Philoe., VIII, v (Manster, 
1910) ; Si<^CKL, Hiet. of Philoe., tr. Fxnlat (Dublin, 1003) ; De- 
BOTE, Qui vraeipui fuerint labenU XII eoeddo ante introduetam 
ardbum phitoaophiam tetnperati realiami anteeeeeoree (Lille, 1908) ; 
Mbbcibb, CriUrioiogie ghUrale (Louvain, 1905). 

M. Db Wulf. 

Nomination. — ^The various methods of designating 
persons for ecclesiastical benefices or offices have been 
described under Benefice* Bishop; Election; In- 
stitution, Canonical. All these methods are more 
or less included in the ordinary sense of the term nom- 
ination; but in its strict canonical sense, nomination 
is defined as the designation of a person for an ecclesi- 
astical benefice or office made by the competent civil 
authority and conferring on the person named the 
right to be canonically instituted by the ecclesiastical 
superior. It follows the rules of patronal presentation, 
bemg based on the same grounds as the right of pat- 
ronage, vis. the endowment of churches or benefices 
by kings, princes, or communities. Its method of ac- 
tion is designed to keep the prerogatives of the two 
powers clearly separated, the mtervention of the secu- 
uu: power takmg effect in the free choice of a fit person, 
the spiritual jurisdiction being reserved intact to the 
ecclesiastical superior, who alone can give canonical 
institution. At the present time appointments to ben- 
efices by right of nomination, especially to bishop- 
rics, is generally settled by n^tiation and previous 
understanding between the two powers. Under the 
old re^;ime the nominated person himself applied for 
canomcal institution; the superior made inquiry as to 
the applicant and, unless tne inquiry disclosed un- 
worthmess or unfitness, granted canonical institution 
according to the customary forms — ^most often by con- 
sistoriai preconization. Whatever procedure may be 
followed, the person named by the civil power has no 
spiritual jurisdiction until he has been canonically in- 
stituted; and if he should dare to intrude in the acunin- 
istration of the diocese with no other title than his 
nomination by the secular authority, not only would 
all his acts be null and void , but he, and with him those 
who should have consented to his acts, would incur 
excommunication and other penalties; moreover, he 
would forfeit the right resulting from nis nomination 
(Const. ''Romanus pontifex'', 28 Aug., 1873, and the 
texts there cited. Cf. Excommunication, vol. V, p. 
691, col. 1). 

The most important application of the right of nom« 


ination by princes is, without doubt, that which relates immemorial contained the words: "We name him [the 
to the major, or consistorial, benefices, especially bish- candidate] and present him to Your Holiness, that it 
oprics. Without ^oing back to the intrusions of may please Your Holiness, upon our nomination and 
Toyal power in episcopal elections in the barbarian presentation, to provide for the said bishopric", etc. 
kingdoms, or in the Carlovingian Empire, or the By- The Vatican nevertheless declared that it did not de- 
zantine, it must be remember^ that the Concordat of sire to refuse any satisfactory revision; various form- 
Worms (1121), which ended the Conflict of Investi- ulse were proposed on either side, without success; at 
tures (q. v.), included an initial measure for the separa- last the Holy See consented to suppress the word nobis 
tion of the parts and prerogatives of the two powers in in the Bulls, contenting itself with the Govenmient's 
the choice of bishops. The emperor recognized the emplo]pngtne usual formula in drafting letters patent, 
freedom of episcopal elections' and consecrations; the (On this conflict see the '' livre Blanc du Saint Si^ge " ; 
pope, on his side, agreed that elections should be held ''La separation de I'Eglise et TEtat en France", ch. 
m the emperor's presence, without simonv or restraint, vi, in ''^Acta S. Sedis", 15 Jan., 1906.) This conces- 
that the emperor should decide in case of dispute, that sion, as we know, did not delay the separation which 
he should give temporal investiture, by the sceptre, the French Government was determined to have at 
to the bishop-elect, while investiture by rine and any price. (See Benefice; Bishop; Concordat; 
crosier, symbolic of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, ^ould. Election; Institution.) 

be combined with the consecration. The custom of CanoniflU on the tiUe De pr^>endU, III, v; HiwcouBT. LaU 

election of bishops by chapters, which WM the com- ecdUtiaetici, ll (Rome, 1906), 13, 256; 8*vmtiw, Uhietoii-e, u 

mon law of the thirteenth century, left, officially, no teMe et la deetinSe du Coneardal de 1801 (Paris, 1005) ; Vbbixo, 

opening for royal interference, but princes none the ^"'i**!*'^ (Freib™ imBr^i893). « 86; SaomOlleb. Lehrlpueh 

liTendeavbui^d to have thiir candidates elected. «^ *<^.it»rcW«.«**^ (Freiburg. I909).^7|^ 
This became more difficult for them when, bv succes- 
sive reservations, the po{)es had made themselves mas- Noxnooanon (from the Greek i^/Mt, law, and 

ters of all episcopal elections, thus occasioning serious /rdrwr, a rule), a collection of ecclesiastical law, the ele- 

inconveniences. While in Germany the Concordat of ments of which are borrowed from secular and canon 

1448 re-established capitular elections, in France, on law. When we recall the important place given to 

the contrary, after the difficulties consequent upon ecclesiasticai discipline in the imperial laws such as the 

the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), the quarrel Hieodosian Code, the Justinian collections, and the 

ended with the Concordat of 1516. In this instru- subsequent '* Novelise", and "Basilica'', the utility 

ment we find the right of nomination guaranteed to of comparing laws and canons relating to the same 

the kines of France for consistorial benefices, bishop- subjects will be readily recognized. Collections of 

rics, abbacies^ and priorates; and thence the arrange- this kind are found only in Extern law. The GrecJc 

ment passed mto most of the subsequent concordats. Church has two principal collections. The first, dat- 

includmg that of 1801 (cf. Nussi, "Quinquaginta con- ing from t^e end of the sixth century, is ascribed, 

ventiones", Rome, 1869, tit. v). The royal ordinance though without certainty, to John Scholasticus (q. v.), 

of Francis I promulgating the Bull of Leo X says: whose canons it utilizes and completes. Hehadarawn 

"Such vacancy occurring, the King of France shall be up (about 550) a purely canonical compilation in fifty 

bound to present and name [the Bull says only nobis titles, and later composed an extract from the "No- 
nomtnobt^J a master 
months . 

nominate another witnin three months; if not, the seven chapters, JPitra, "Juris ecclesiastic! Grsecorum 
pope can himself appoint. The same right of nomi- historia et monumenta'', Rome, 1864, II, 385). To 
nation is extended to abbacies and priorates, with each of the fifty titles were added the texts of the im- 
some exceptions. The (Concordat of 1801 (articles perial laws on the same subject, with twenty-one ad- 
4 and 5) accords to the First Consul the same right ditional chapters nearly all borrowed from John's 
of nomination, but only for bishoprics, and without eighty-seven (Voellus and Justellus, op. cit., II, GOS). 
fixing a limit of time for its exercise. In other coun- In its earliest form this collection dates from the rei^ 
tries (e. g. Spain) the right of the temporal ruler in- of Emperor Heraclius (610-40), at which time Latm 
eludes other benefices besides bishoprics. was replaced by Greek as the official language of the 
Such being the nature of the. very definite right of imperial laws. Its two sections include uie ecclesias- 
nomination, nothing but malicious provocation can tical canons and the imperial laws, the latter in four- 
be discerned in the conflict brought on by M. Combes, teen titles. 

when Prime Minister of France (1902-5), in regsurd to This collection was long held in esteem and passed 
the nobis nominamtf the expression which figured in the into the Russian Church, but was by degrees sup- 
Bulls for French bishops. By a note dated 21 Dec., planted by that of Photius. The first part of Pho- 
1902, the French Government demanded the suppres- tius's collection contains the conciliar canons and 
sion of the nobiSf as if to make it appear that the nead the decisions of the Fathers. It is in substance the 
of the State nominated bishops absolutely, like gov- Greek collection of 692, as it is described by canon 
emment officials. The Vatican explained the true ii of the Trullan Council (see Law, Canon), with 
nature of the nomination as the designation of a per- the addition of 102 canons of that council, 17 canons 
son by the head of the State, the latter indicating to of the Council of Constantinople of 861 (against Ig- 
the pope the cleric whom he desires as head of such a natius), and of 3 canons substituted by Photius for 
diocese, the pope accordingly creating that candidate those of the oecumenical council of 869. The nomo- 
bishop by canonical institution. The fact was pointed canon in fourteen titles was completed by additions 
out that the word nobis is found in the episcopal Bulls from the more recent imperial laws. This whole col- 
of all nations which have by concordat the right of lection was commentated about 1170 by Theodore 
nomination; also that, with very rare exceptions, it Balsamon, Greek Patriarch of Antioch rending at 
appears in all the Bulls for France under the Conoor- Constantinople (Nomocanon with Balsamon's com- 
dat of 1516 as under that of 1801; that previously, in mentary in Voellus and Justellus, II, 815; P. G., CIV,, 
1871, the French Government having obtained with- 441). Supplemented by this commentary the col- 
out any difficulty the suppression of Uie word prtEsen- lection of Pnotius has become a part of the "Pidalion" 
tavitf had, upon representations made by Rome, with- (w7i8d\tov^ rudder), a sort of Corpus Juris of the 
drawn its demana for the suppression of the nobis; Orthodox Church, printed in 1800 fey Patriarch Neo- 
above all, it was insisted on that the letters patent of phytus VIII. In the eleventh century it had been 
the French Government to the pope had from time also translated into Slavonic for the Russian Church; 




tt is retained in the law of the Orthodox Church of 
Greece, and included in the ''S3mtagma'' published 
by Rhallis and Potlis (Athens, 1852-9). Though 
called the '' Syntagma '^ the collection of ecclesiastical 
law of Matthew filastares (c. 1339) is a real nomoca- 
non, in which the texts of the canons and of the laws are 
arranged in alohabetical order (P. G., loc. dt.; Bev- 
eridge, "Synoaicon", Oxford, 1672). A remarkable 
nomocanon was composed by John Barhebrseus (1226- 
86) for the Syrian Church of Antioch (L^tin version 
by Assemani m Mai, '^ Script, vet. nova collectio'', X, 
3 sqq.). Several Russian manuals published at Kiev 
and Moscow in the seventeenth century were idso 

Vbbxno, Lehrh. de» KirehenreelUa (Freiburg. 1893), M 17-19; 
ScHNBiDBB, Die Lehre wtn den KircKenreekUquttUen (Rktiabon, 
188C2), 50, 199; also bibliographies of Law, Canon; Jobn 8cbola»- 
ncns; PHonns, etc. 


Nonantolay a former Benedictine monastery and 
prelature nvUiu8y six miles north-east of Modena. 
founded in 752 by St. Anselm, Duke of Friuli, ana 
richlv endowed by Aistulph, King of the Longobards. 
Stephen II appointed Anselm its first abbot, and pre- 
sented the relics of St. Sylvester to the abbey, named 
in consequence S. Sylvester de Nonantula. After the 
death of Aistulph (756), Anselm was banished to 
Monte Cassino by the new king, Desiderius, but was 
restored by Charlemagne after seven years. In 883 
it was chosen as the place of a conference between 
Charles the Fat and Marinus I. Up to 1083 it was an 
imperial monastery, and its discipline often suffered 
severely on account of imperial interference in the elec- 
tion of abbots. In the oeginning of the Conflict of 
Investitures it sided with the emperor, until forced to 
submit to the pope by Mathilda of Tuscany in 1(^. 
It finally declared itself openly for the pope in 1111. 
In that year the famous monk Placidus of Nonantola 
wrote his ^'De honore Ecclesiae", one of the most 
able and important defences of the papal position 
that were wntten during the Conflict of Investitures. 
It is printed in Pez, "Thesaurus Anecdot. noviss." 
(Augsburg, 1721), II, ii, 73 sq. The decline of the 
monastery began in 1419, when it came under the juris- 
diction of commendatory abbots. In 1514 it came into 
the possession of the Cistercians, but continued to de- 
cline imtil it was finally suppressed by Clement XIII 
in 1768. Pius VII restored it 23 Jan., 1821. with the 
provision that the prelature nuUiua attached to it 
should belong to the Arehbishop of Modena. In 1909 
the exempt mstrict comprised 42,980 inhabitants, 31 
parishes, 91 churches and chapels, 62 secular priests 
and three religious congregations for women. The 
monastei^ itself was appropriated by the Italian Gov- 
ernment m 1866. 

TiBABOSCHi, Storia delT augueta badia di S. Silveetro di Nonan- 
tola (2 vols., Modena, 1784-5) ; Gaudbnii in Bull delT IstUuio 
ttor, Hal,, XXII (1901). 77-214; Cobbadi. NonanUAa, oibaWa 
imperiale in Riviaia Sloriea BenedeUina, IV (Rome. 1909). 181-9; 
MvBATOBi, Rer. IlaL Serifi., I, ii, 189-196; Noiitia eodtcum mo- 
naaierii Nonanltdani ann% 1186 in Mai, Spicilegium Romanum 
(Rome, 1839-44), V, i, 218-221; Bbckxb, CaUOogi hibHoOieeanim 
aniiaui (Bonn. 1885), 220 sq.; Gioboi in Ruiaia delle Biblioteehe e 
degltarehivi, VI (Florence, 1896). 54 sq. 

Michael Ott. 

NoncoilformigtB, a name which, in its most gen- 
eral acceptation^ denotes those renising to conform 
with the authorised formularies and rites of the Es- 
tablished Chureh of England. The application of 
the term has varied somewhat with the successive 
phases of Andean history. From the accession of 
Elizabeth, to tne middle of the seventeenth century 
it had not oome into use as the name of a religious 
party^ but the word "conform", and the appellatives 

ooniorming'' and ''nonconforming", were oeooming 
more and more common expressions to designate 
tiiose members of the Puritan party who, disapproving 
of certain of the Anglican rites (namely, the use of the 

BurplicCj of the sign of the cross at baptism, of the ring 
in marriage, of the attitude of kneeling at the reception 
of the sacrament) and of the episcopal order of Cnureh 
government, either resigned themselves to these usages 
because enjoined, or stood out against them at all 
costs. However from 1662, when the Fourth Act of 
Uniformity had the effect of ejecting from tJieir ben- 
efices, acquired during the Commonwealth, a large 
number of ministers of Puritan proclivities, and of 
constraining them to organize themselves as separatist 
sects, the term ''Nonconformist" crystallized mto the 
technical name for such sects. 

History. — ^The history of this cleavage in the ranks 
of English Protestantism goes back to the reign of 
Mary Tudor, when the Protestant leaders who were 
victorious under Edward VI retired to Frankfort, 
Zurich, and other Protestant centres on the continent, 
and quarrelled among themselves, some inclining to 
the more moderate Lutheran or Zwin^lian positions, 
others developing into uncompromising Ualvinists. 
When the accession of Elizabeth attracted them back 
to Enj^land, the Calvinist section, which soon acquired 
the mckname of Puritans, was the more fiery, the 
lar|;er in numbers and the most in favour with the ma- 
jonty of the Protestant laity. Elizabeth, however, 
who had very little personal religion, preferred an 
episcopal to a presbyterian system as more in har- 
mony with monarehism, and besides she had some 
taste for the ornate in public worship. Accordingly 
she caused the religious settlement, destined to last 
into our own times, to be made on the basis of episco- 
psucYt yAih. the retention of the points of ritual above 
specified; and her favour was bespoken for prelates 
like Parker, who were prepared to aid her in carrying 
out this programme. For those who held Puritan 
views she had a natural dislike, to which she some- 
times gave forcible expression, but on the whole she 
saw the expediency of showing them some considera- 
tion, lest she should lose their support in her campaign 
against Catholicism. 

These were the determining factors of the initial 
situation, out of which the subsequent history of Eng- 
lish Protestantism has pown by a natural develop- 
ment. The result during Elizabeth's reign was a 
stat« of oscillation between phases of repression and 

Shases of indulgence^ in meeting the persistent en- 
eavours of the Puntans to make their own ideas 
dominant in the national Church. In 1559 the third 
Act of Uniformity was passed, by which the new edi- 
tion of the Prayer Book was enjoined under severe 
penalities on all ministering as clergy in the country. 
In 1566, feeling that some concession to the strength 
of the Puritan opposition was necessary, Arehbishop 
Parker, on an understanding with the queen, pub- 
lished certain Advertisements addressed to the clerp^y, 
requiring them to conform at least as regards wearing 
the surplice, kneeling at communion, using the font 
for baptism, and covering the communion table with a 
proper cloth. These Advertisements were partially en- 
forced in some dioceses, and led to some deprivations, 
but that their effect was small is clear from the bold- 
ness with which the Puritans took up a more advanced 
position a few years later, and demanded the substi- 
tution of a Presbyterian regime. This was the de- 
mand of Thomas Cartwright in his First and Second 
Admonitions, published in 1572, and followed in 1580 
by his Book of Discipline, in which he collaborated 
with Thomas* Travers. In this latter book he pro- 
pounded an ingenious theorv of classesy or boaros of 
clercyr for each district, to which the episcopal powers 
shoiud be transferred, to be exercised by them on pres- 
byterian principles, to the bishops oeing reserved 
only the purely mechanical ceremony of ordination. 
So great was the influence of the Puritans in the coun- 
try that they were ^le to introduce for a time this 
strange system in one or two places. 
In 1588 the Marprelate tracts were published, and 




by the violence of their lanmiage against the queen 
and the bishops stirred up the queen to take drastic 
measures. Perry and Udal. authors of the tracts, 
were tried and executed, ana Cartwright was impris- 
oned; whilst in 1503 an act was passed inflicting the 
punishment of imprisonment, to be followed by exile 
m case of a second offence, on all who refused to at- 
tend the parish church, or held separatist meetings. 
This caused a division in the party; as many, though 
secretly retaining their beliefs, preferred outward con- 
formity to the loss of their benefices, whilst the ex- 
tremists of the party left the country and settled in 
Holland. Here they were for a time called Brownists, 
after one who had bieen their leader in separation, but 
later they took the name of Independents, as inducat- 
ing their peculiar theory of the governmental inde- 

Smdence of each separate congr^ation. From these 
rownists came the "Pilgrim Fathers" ^o. on 6 
December, 1620, sailed from Plymouth in the "May- 
flower", and settled in New England. 

With the death of Elizabeth the hopes of the Puri- 
tans revived. Their ssrstem of doctrme and govern- 
ment was dominant in Scotland, and they hoped that 
the Scottish King James might be induced to extend it 
to England. So they met him on his way to London 
with their Millenary Petition, so called though the 
si^patories numbered only about eight hundrra. In 
this document they were prudent enough not to raise 
the question of episcopal government, but contented 
themselves for the time with a request that the ritual 
customs which they disliked might be discontinued in 
the State Church. James promised them a confer- 
ence which met the next year at Hampton Court to 
consider their mevances, and in which they were 
represented by four of their leaders. These had some 
sharp encounters with the bishops and chief Anglican 
divines, but, whilst the Puritans were set more on 
domination than toleration, the king was wholly on 
the side of the Anglicans, who in this nour of their tri- 
umph were in no mood for concessions. Accordingly 
the conference proved abortive, and the very same 
year Archbishop Bancroft, with the king's sanction, 
carried through Convocation and at once enforced the 
canons known as those of 1604. The purpose of this 
campai^p was to restore the use of the rites in ques- 
tion, which, in defiance of the existing law, the Puritan 
incumbents had succeeded in putting down in a great 
number of parishes. This result was effected to some 
extent for the time, but a quarter of a century later, 
when Laud began his campaign for the restoration of 
decency and order, in other words, for the enforce- 
ment of the customs to which the Puritans objected, 
he was met by an opposition so widespread and deep- 
rooted that, though ultimately it had lasting results, 
the immediate effect was to brine about his own fall 
and contribute largely to the outbreak of the Rebel- 
lion, the authors of which were approximately co- 
extensive with the Puritan party. 

During the Civil War and the Commonwealth the 
Puritan mobs wrecked the churches, the bishops were 
imprisoned and the primate beheaded^ the supremacy 
over the Church was transferred from the Crown to 
the Parliament, the Solemn League and Covenant was 
accepted for the whole nation, and the Westminster 
Assembly, almost entirely composed of Puritans, was 
appoint^ as a permanent committee for the reform of 
the Church. Next the Anglican clergy were turned 
out of their benefices to make way for Puritans, in 
whose behalf the Presbyterian form of government 
was introduced by Parliament. But though this was 
now the authorized settlement, it was found impossi- 
ble to check the vagaries of individual opinion. A re- 
ligious frenzy seizM the coimtry, and sects holding 
the most extravagant doctrines sprane up and built 
themselves conventicles. There was licence for all, 
save for popery and prelacj^Lwhich were now perse- 
cuted with equal severity. When Cromwell attained 

to power a struggle set in between the Parliament 
which was predominantly Presbyterian, and the army 
which was predominantly Independent. The disgust 
of all sober minds with the resulting pandemomum 
had much to do with creating the desire for the Res- 
toration, and when this was accomplished in 1660 
measures were at once taken to imdo the work of 
the interregnum. The bishops were restored to their 
sees, and Uie vacancies filled. The Savoy Confer- 
ence was held in accordance with the precedence of 
Hampton Court Conference of 1604, but proved sim- 
ilarly abortive. The Convocation in 1662 revised the 
Prayer Book in an anti-Puritan direction, and, the 
Declaration of Breda notwithstanding, it was at once 
enforced. All holding benefices in the coimtry were 
to use this revised Prayer Book on and after the Feast 
of St. Bartholomew of that year. It was through 
this crisis that the term Nonconformist obtained its 
technical meaning. When the feast came roimd a 
lar^e number who refused to conform were evicted. 
It is in dispute between Nonconformist and Anglican 
writ^piB how many these were, and what were their 
characters: the Nonconformist writers (see Calamy, 
''Life of Baxter") maintain that they exceeded 2000, 
while Kennett and others reduce that number consi^' 
erably, contending that in the majority of cases the 
hardship was not so grave. At least it must be ac- 
knowleaged that the victims were suffering only what 
they, in the days of their power, had inflicted on their 
opponents, for many of whom the ejection of the 
Puritans meant a return to their own. The fact that 
they organized themselves outside the Established 
Church under the name of Nonconformists, naturally 
made them the more offensive to the authorities of 
Church and State, and, during the remainder of the 
reign of Charles II, they were the victims of several 
oppressive measures, in 1661 the Corporation Act 
incapacitated from holdinjp; ofiice in any corporation 
all who did not first miali^by taking the' sacrament 
according to the Anglican Rite; in 1664 the Conven- 
ticle Act inflicted the gravest penalties on all w^o took 
part in any private religious service at which more 
than five persons, in addition to the family, were 
present; in 1665 the Five Mile Act made liable to 
imprisonment any Nonconformist minister who, not 
having; taken an oath of non-resistance, came within 
five miles of a town without obtaining leave; and in 
1673 the scope of the Corporation Act was extended 
by the Test Act. 

In 1672 Charles II attempted to mitigate the lot of 
the Nonconformists by publishing a Declaration of 
Indulgence in which he used in their favour the dis- 

Ssnsing power, till then recognized as vested in the 
rown. But Parliament, meeting the next year, 
forced him to withdraw this Declaration, and in re- 
turnpassed the Test Act, which extended the scope of 
the Con>oration Act. James II, though despotic and 
tactless in his methods Uke all the Stuarts, was, what- 
ever prejudiced historians have said to the contrary, a 
serious believer in religious toleration for all, and was, 
in fact, the first who sought to impress that ideal on 
the legislature of his country. Bjyr his two Declara- 
tions of Indulgence, in 1687-88, he dispensed Non- 
conformists just as much as Catholics from their 
religious disabilities, and his act was received by tiie 
former with a spontaneous outburst of gratitude. It 
was not to their credit that shortly after they should 
have been induced to cast in their lot with the Revolu- 
tion on the assurance that it would pve them all the 
liberties promised by King James without the neces- 
sity of sharing them with the Catholics. This prom- 
ise was, however, only imperfectly carried out by the 
Toleration Act of 1689, which permitted the free exer- 
cise of their religion to all Trinitarian Protestante, but 
did not relieve them of their civil disabilities. Some, 
accordingly, of their number practised what was 
called Occasional Conformity^ that is, reoeiyed tbo 

" * '^NONS 97 NONS 

Anglican sacrament ]ufit once so as to qualify. This Fourth to the Seventh Century; III. None in the 
caused much controvert and led eventuaOy in 1710 Roman and Other liturgies from the Seventh Cen- 
to the Occasional Conformity Act, which was devised tury; IV. Meanins and Symbolism of None, 
to check it. This Act was repealed in 1718, but many 1. Origin of None. — ^According to an ancient 
of the Nonconformists themselves disapproved of the Greek and Roman custom, the day was, like the night, 
practice on conscientious grounds, and, though it was divided into four parts, each consisting of three hours, 
often resorted to and caused grave scandals, those As the last hour of each division gave its name to the 
who resorted to it cannot be f turlv taken as represen- respective quarter of the day, the third division (from 
tatives of their sects. Th6 Test Act was not repealed 12 to about 3) was called the None (Lat. nontM, ntma, 
till 1828, the year before the Catholic Emancipation ninth). For this explanation, which is open to objeo- 
Act was passea; the Catholics and the Nonconformists tion, but is the oniy probable one, see Francolinus, 
combined their forces to obtain both objects. "De temper, horar. canonicar.'', Rome, 1571, xxi; 

Although by the passing of the Toleration Act of Bona, ''De divina psalmodia". III (see also Matins 

1689 the condition of the Nonconformists was so much and ViGiifi). This division of the day was in vogue 

ameliorated, they lapsed in the second quuter of the also among the Jews, from whom the Church bor- 

eighteenth century into the prevailing reu^ous toipor, rowed it (see Jerome, "In Daniel," vi, 10). The fol- 

and seemed to be on the verge of extinction. Tney lowing texts, moreover, favour this view: "Now 

were rescued from this state by the outbreak of the Peter and John went up into the t^nple at the ninth 

great Methodist movement, which resulted both in hour of prayer'' (Acts, iii. 1); "And C]k>melius said: 

arousing the existing Dissenting sects to a new vigour. Four days ago, unto this hour, I was praying in my 

and in adding another which exceeded them SH in house, at the ninth hour, and behold a man stood be- 

numbers and enthusiasm. fore me" (Acts, x, 30); Peter went up to the higher 

Prssent Condition. — ^At the present day the parts of the house to pray, about the sixth hour" 

Nonconformists in England, the only country to which (Acts, x, 9). The most ancient testimony refers to 

this name with its implications applies, are very nu- this custom of Terce. Sext, and None, for instance 

merous and constitute a powerful relinous, social, TertulUan, Clement of Alexandria, the Canons of Hip- 

and political influence. As they have effectuallv re- poljrtus, and even the "Teaching of the Apostles • 

sisted the taking of a religious census by the State The last-mentioned prescribed prayer thrice each day. 

Census department, it is impossible to ascertain their without, however, fixing the hours (Ac^ax^ tQp 'Airoo^ 

numbers accurately, for their own statistics are sus- roXwr, n. viii). 

gicted of exaggeration. According to Mr. Howard Clement of Alexandria and likewise TertuUian, 

vans's statistics (as given in the Daily Mail "Year as early as the end of the second century, expressly 

Book of ^e Churches^' for 1908), the Baptists then mention the hours of Terce, Sext, and None, as 

reckoned 405,755 communicants, the C]k>n|p^ational- specially set apart for prayer (Clement, "Strom.", 

ists 459,983. and the various denominations of Meth- VII^ vu, in P. G., IX, 455-8). TertuUian says ex- 

odists 1,174,462 — ^to which figures are to be added plicitly that we must always pray, and that there is no 

those of the highly indeterminate number of "adher- time prescribed for prayer; he adds, nevertheless, these 

ents" who are not accepted as communicants. It significant words: As regards the time, there should 

will be seen from this list that the Methodists are by be no lax observation of certain hours — I mean of 

far the larger of these three principal denominations, those common hours which have long marked the di- 

but they are likewise the most subdivided. It will be visions of the day, the third, the sixth, and the ninth, 

noticed, too, tihat the Presbyterians, once so numerous and which we may observe in Scripture to be more 

in the country, have no place among the larger sects, solemn than the rest" ("De Oratione", xxiii, xxv, in 

The Society of Friends, commonlv called Queers, are P. L., I, 1191-3). 

allotted 17,767 communicants by Evans. Besides Clement and Tertullian in these passages refer only 
these there are innumerable small sects, of which the to private prayer at these hours. The Canons of Hip- 
Plymouth Brethren and the Swedenborgians are the poly tus also speak of Terce, Sext, and None, as suitidtlle 
most conspicuous. (For the separate denominations hours for private prayer: however, on the two station 
see the special articles, Baptists; CoNGRBOATioNAii- days, Wednesday and Friday, when the faithful a»- 
ism; Methodism; Prbbbttebianibm; Fbiends, Soci- sembled in the church, and perhaps on Sundays, those 
BTY OF.) hours were recited successively in public (can. xx, xxvi) . 
Nbal, hul of the PuriianM, or ProUttatd Noneonfonmau, 1617- St. Cyprian mentions the same hours as having been 
iSSifii *Si^^ yftJl^^ 'iSSSJi^u^ly^ mfS observed under the Old Law, and adduces reasons for 
vote., London!!l8S)TBooiTE akd Bbnnwt. Hi9t,^l>u»€nUrB. the Christians observing them also ("De Oratione", 
1688-1808 U vols.. London, 1808) ; Bbmnvit. Hiai. cf DiasenUrt, xxxiv, in P. L., IV, 541). In the fourth century there 
1S2^ teS '(f?J JT'SSSorisSSf; ""^iS^f^ " evidence to show that the p«cti«» h^become obU- 
Church and the PiiritaiM. 1670-1860 in CuiamoN. Bpoeha of gatoiv, at least for the monks (see the text Of the Apos- 
Church Hietory (London, 1887) ; Ovurrox, Life in the Bnijlieh telic Constitutions, St. Ephraem, St. Basil, the author 
Cfctje*. i«o-/7/y Ijndon, 1885^ of the "De virginitate'*^ in Battmer-Biron, op. cit. 

Bngheh Chyrehin the BwhteenUi Century (Loodont 1878); Skmatb . iL'^f i.,.. iia ioi lOO lOo 1QA^ Tk«. 

AND MiAix, Hiat. of the Free Churehea of Bngland, 1688-1861 m blbhography, pp. 116, 121j 123, 129, 186). The 

(London. 1801) ; Rbss, Hiai. ofProteakmi Nonconformity in Walea, prayer OtPnme, at SIX 6 clock m the mormng, was not 

1833-1861 (London, 1861); BhraMiKOTOK tfirf. o/^^ WeaA^ ^^^ ^jH ^ later date, but Vespers goes back to the 

mtiuter AaaenMy of Dxwnee (Edinburgh, 1878); Gould, Dotu- "^«f« /•*" •• x^l*^ ^^ i.-«^ ^^La «;„^ «-.. '^T^f^-^ 

mmde rdoHng to the Settlement of the Church of Bnoland by the Act earliest days. The textS We have Cited give no infor- 

o/ Uniformity of 1668 (2 toIs., London, 1862); CALAirr. Ahridff- mation as to what these praycTS consbtcd of. Evi- 

iMfU of Mr, B<uur;a HiaLof hu Life and Timea.with anocamni Gently they contained the same elements as all other 

of many . . . mvMaAera ^aho wtre eiedLtd . . . and a canlxnuainon ^^^^ J f . . ._^ .^„«i^„ ««^:i.,>j «« *i»«,»4.«^ <.o,«4; 

elf their hietory tia the year 1691 (London. 1702); The Nonconform- prayers of that tune— psahns recited or chanted, cantl- 

Mf*« Memorial, bein{f an account of the Miniatera who vera ^eeted clcs Or hymns, dther pnvately COmpOSCd OS drawn 

2rfSs:is^Js«2iSftS alSi^^ ^Ta^"^^ ^"*' '^ ^**°*" "p^y"" p"p«*>y «»■ 

attempt towarda reeoverino an account of the numbera and aufferinqa Callea. 

of the derqyc/the Church of Bngland. , . inthelaU timea of the II. NONE FROM THE FOUBTH TO THE SEVENTH CEN- 

. . . containing matter <^ fact, with notea and referencea towarda die- dicea (between 343 and 381) orders that t^ same 

eoaerino and eonnectwQ the true hiatory of Bngland from the Reatora- prayers be always said at None and Vespers. But it IS 

Ifon <C*oriet // (London, 1728), a oarefnl eritieiraa of Calamy's ^^^ ^i^^^ ^^j^^ meanmg is to be attached to the WOrds 

•••*'"*^ Sydney F. Smith. Xeirov^ta T<Dr f^flr, used in the canon. It is likely 

Nona.— This subject will be treated under the fol- ittet reference is made to the famous litanies, in which 

lowing heads: I. Origin of None; II. None from the prayer was offered for the catechumens, sinners, the 
.—7 - - 




faithful, and generally for all the wants of the Churdi. 
Sosomen (in a passage, however, which is not consid- 
ered very authentic) q>eaks of three psalms which the 
monks recited at None. In any case, this number be- 
came traditional at an eariyperiod (Sosomen, "Hist. 
eccL", III, xiv, in P. G., lJ:vlI, 1076-7; cf. Baumer- 
Biion, op. cit., I, 136). Three psalms were recited 
at Teroe, six at Sext, and nine at None, as Cassian 
informs us, though he remarits that the most common 

Kractice was to recite three psalms at each of these 
ouis (Cassian, "De ccenob. mstit.", Ill, iii, in P. L., 
XUX, 116). St. Ambrose apeaka of three hours of 
prayer, and, if with many critics we attribute to him 
the three hymns " Jam surgit hora tertia", " Bis temas 
horas ezphcas", and "Ter boras trina solvitur", we 
shall have a new constitutive element of the Little 
Hours in the fourth century in the Church of Milan 
(Ambrose, "De virginibus , III, iv, in P. L., XVI, 

In the ''Peregrinatio ad loca sancta" of Etheria 
(end of fourth centuiy), there is a more .detailed 
description of the OfBce of None. It resembles 
that of Sext, and is celebrated in the basilica of the 
Anastads. It is composed of psalms and antiphons; 
then the bishop arrives, enters the grotto of the Ilesur- 
rection, recites a prayer thraie, and blesses the faithful 
("Percpinatio", p. 46; cf. Cabrol, ''Etude but la Per- 
egrinatio Sylvise , 45). During Lent, None is cele- 
brated in the church of Sion ' on Sundays the office is 
not celebrated; it is omittea also on Holy Saturday, 
but on Good Friday it is celebrated with special sol- 
emnity (Peregrinatio, pp. 53, 66, etc.). But it is 
only in the succeeding age that we find a complete 
description of None, as of the other offices of the 


VBOM TH« Seventh Cbntubt. — In the Rule of St. 
Benedict the four Little Hours of the day (Prime to 
None) are conceived on the same plan, the formuLse 
alone varying. The office begins with Deus in ad- 
jtUorium, like all the Hours; then follows a hymn, 
special to None; three psalms, which do not change 
(Ps. cxxv, cxxvi, cxxvii). except on Sundays and Mon- 
days when they are replaced oy three groups of eight 
verses from Ps. cxviii; then the capitulum, a versicle, 
the Kyrie, the Pater, the oratio, and the conducing 

Srayers (Regula S. P. Benedicti, xvii). In the Roman 
iturgy the office of None is likewise constructed after 
the model of the Little Hours of the day ; it is composed 
of the same elements as In the Rule of St. Benedict, 
with this difference, that, instead of the three psalms, 
cxxv-vii, the three ^ups of ei^t verses from Ps. 
cxviii are always recited. There is nothingelse char- 
acteristic of this office in this liturgy. The hymn, 
which was added later , is the one already in use in the 
Benedictine Office — "Rerum Deus teiiax vigor". In 
the monastic rules prior to the tenth century certain 
variations are found. Thus in the Rule of Lerins, as 
in that of St. dJaesarius, six psahns are recited at None, 
as at Terce and Sext, with antiphon, hymn, and capi- 

St. Aurelian follows the same tradition in his 
Rule ''Ad virgines'', but he imposes twelve psalms 
at each hour on the monks, ot. Columbanus, St. 
Fructuosus, and St. Isidore adopt the system of three 
psalms (cf. Mart^ne, ''De antiq. monach. rit.", IV, 
27). Like St. Benedict, most of these authors include 
hymns, the capitulum or short lesson, a versicle, and 
an oratio (cf. Mart^ne, loc. cit.). In the ninth and 
tenth centuries we find some additions made to the 
Office of None, in particular litanies, collects, etc. 
(Mart^ne, op. cit., iV, 28). 

IV. Meaning and Stmbousm of None. — Among 
the ancients the hour of None was regarded as the 
close of the day's business and the time for the baths 
and supper (Martial. '^Epigrams'', IV, viii; Horace, 
**Epifltles", I, vii, 70). At an early date mystical rea- 

sons for the division of the day were sought. St. Cyp- 
rian sees in the hours of Terce, Sext and None, wmch 
oome after a lapse of three hours, an allusion to the 
Trinity. He adds that these hours already conse- 
crated to prayer under the Old Dispensation, have 
been sanctified in the New Testament by great mys- 
teries — ^Terce bv the descent of the Holy Ghost on the 
Apostles; Sext by the prayers of St. Peter, the recep- 
tion of the G^ntdes into the Church, or yet again by 
the crucifixion of Our Lord; None by the death of 
Christ ("De oratione", xxxiv, in P. L., IV, 541). St. 
Basil merely recalls that it was at the ninth hour that 
the Apostles Peter and John were wont toro^to the 
Temple to prayC* Regulae fusius tract.", XXaVII, n. 
3, In P. G., XXXI, 1013 so.). Cassian. who adopts 
the Cyprian interpretation tor Terce ana Sext, sees in 
the Hour of None the descent of Christ into hell (De 
coenob. instit., Ill, iii). But, as a rule, it is the death 
of Christ that is oonmiemorated at the Hour of 

The writers of the Middle Ages have sought for 
other mystical explanations of the Hour of None. 
Amalarius (III, vi) explains at length, how, like the 
sun which sinks on the horizon at the Hour of None, 
man's spirit tends to lower itself also, he is more open 
to temptation, and it is the time the demon selects to 
try him. For the texts of the Fathers on this subject 
it will suffice to refer the reader to the above-men- 
tioned work of Cardinal Bona (c. ix). The same writ- 
ers do not fail to remark that the number nine was 
considered by the ancients an imperfect number, an 
incomplete number, ten bein|; considered perfection 
and the complete number. Nine was also the number 
of mourning. Among the ancients the ninth day was 
a day of expiation and funeral service — naoemdiale 
sacrum, the origin doubtless of the novena for the 

As for the ninth hour, some persons believe that it 
is the hour at which our first parents were driven from 
the Garden of Paradise (Bona, op. cit., ix, § 2). In 
conclusion, it is necessary to call attention to a prac- 
tice which emphasised the Hour of None — it was the 
hour of fasting. At first, the hour of fasting was pro- 
longed to Vespers, that is to say, food was taken only 
in the evening or at the end of the day. Mitigation of 
this rigorous practice was soon introduced. Tertul- 
lian's famous pamphlet "De jejimio", rails at length 
against the Psychics (i. e. the Catholics) who end 
their fast on station days at the Hour of None, while 
he, Tertullian, claims that he is faithful to the ancient 
custom. The practice of breaking the fast at None 
caused that hour to be selected for Mass and Com- 
munion, which were the signs of the close of the day. 
The distinction between the rigorous fast, which was 
prolonged to Vespers, and the mitigated fast, ending 
at None, is met with in a large number of ancient docu- 
ments (see Fast). 

FBAKCOLiirns, De temp, karar. eanoniear, (Rome, 1571), zzi; 
Amalarius, De eedee, ojficiie, IV, vi; DniiAin>us, Rationale, V, i 
aq.; Bona, De divirta pealmodia, iz; Dd Cakob. GbMarium infimm 
Latiniialxe, b, v. Hctcb eanoniea; Idbm, Gloeearium medim OrtBcita- 
IM, 8. y.'OjMc; MABETifeNB, De numaeh. rit., lY, 12, 27, 28, ete.; 
Habftbn, iHequieit. Monaatiea, tract, ii, ix, eto.; PiRoaar, Brtwier 
u. Brenergebet (Tabiosen. 1868). 22 etc.; BaOmxb-Bibon, Hi$t, 
du BrMaire, I, 63, 73, 116, etc.; Cabbol and Lbclkbcq. Monmn. 
lAturg. (Paris, 1002), sives the texts from the Fathers to the 
fourth century; Talhofbb, Handbueh der kathoL lAturg., II 
(1893). 458.. 

F. Cabbol. 

Hon Ezpedit (It is not expedient). — Words with 
which the Holv See enjoined upon Italian Catholics 
the policy of abstention from the polls in parliamen- 
tary elections. This policy was adopted after a period 
of uncertainty and of controversy which followed the 
promulgation of the Constitution of the Kingdom of 
Italy (1861), and which was intensified by laws hos- 
tile to the Church and, especially, to the relisioua 
orders (1865-66). To this uncertainty the Holy 
Penitentiary put an end by its decree of 29 F^ruaiyi 




1868, in which, in the above words, it sanctioned the 
motto: "Neither elector nor elected". Until then 
there had been in the Italian ParUiEtment a few 
eminent representatives of CathoUc interests — Vito 
d'Ondes Reggio, Augusto Conti, Cesare CantCl, and 
others. The principal motive of this decree was 
that the oath taken by deputies might be interpreted 
as an approval of the spoliation of the Holy See, as 
Pius IX declared in an audience of 11 OctoBer, 1874. 
A practical reason for it, also, was that, in view of the 
electoral law of that day, by which the electorate was 
reduced to 650^000, and as the Government manipu- 
lated the elections to suit its own purposes, it would 
have been hopeless to attempt to prevent the passage 
of anti-Catholic laws. On tne other hand, the masses 
seemed imprepared for parliamentary government, 
and as, in the greater portion of Italy (Parma, Mo- 
dena, Tuscanv, the Pontifical States, and the King- 
dom of Naples), nearly all sincere Catholics were 
partizans of the dispossessed princes, they were liable 
to be denounced as enemies of Italy; they would also 
have been at variance with the Catholics of Piedmont 
and of the provinces wrested from Austria, and this 
division would have further weakened the Catholic 
Parliamentary group. 

As mi^ht be expected, this measure did not meet 
with universal approval: the soncalled Moderates 
accused the Catholics of failing in their duty to 
society and to their country. In 1882, the suffrage 
having been extended, Leo XIII took into serious 
consideration the partial abolition of the restrictions 
established by the Non Expedite but nothing was 
actually done (cf. ** Archiv fiir katnol. Kirchenrecht", 
1904, p. 396). On the contrary, as many people 
came to the conclusion that the decree Non Ex'pedit 
was not intended to be absolute, but was only an 
admonition made to apply upon one particular 
occasion, the Holy Office declared (30 Dec., 1886) 
that the rule in question implied a grave precept, 
and emphasis was given to this fact on sevend subse- 
Quent occasions (Letter of Leo XIII to the Cardinal 
Secretary of State, 14 May, 1895; Congr^ation of 
Extraordinary Affairs, 27 January, 1902; Pius X, 
Motuproprio, 18 Dec., 1903). Later, Pius X, by his 
encycucal ''II fermo proposito" (11 June, 1905) 
modified the Non Expeait, declaring that, when there 
was question of preventing the election of a ''subver- 
sive candidate, the bishops could ask for a sus- 
pension of the rule, and invite the Catholics to hold 
themselves in readiness to go to the polls. (See Mar- 


CinUd Caitoliea (Rome), aer. VIII, IV, 652; VI, 61; VIII. 653; 
VIII, 362; QuetHoni polUictHreligioM (Rome, 1905). 

U. Benigni. 

Non-JurorSy the name given to the Anglican 
Churchmen who in 1689 refused to take the oath of 
allegiance to William and Mary, and their successors 
under the Protestant Succession Act of that year. 
Their leaders on the episcopal bench (William San- 
croft, Archbishopof Canterbury, and Bishops Francis 
Turner of Ely. William Lloyd of Norwich, Thomas 
White of Peteroorough, William Thomas of Worcester, 
Thomas Ken of Bath and Wells, John Lake of Chi- 
chester, and Thomas Cartwright of Chester) were re- 
quired to take the oath before 1 August, under pain 
ol suspension, to be followed, if it were not taken 
by 1 Feb., by total derivation. Two of them died 
before this last date, but the rest, persisting in their 
rrfusal, were deprived. Their example was followed 
bv a multitude of the clergy and laity, the number 
of the former being estimated at about four hun- 
dred, conapicuous among whom were (jreone Hickes, 
Dean of Worcester, Jeremy Collier, John Kettlewell, 
and Robert Nelson. A list of these Non-jurors is 
given in Hickes'4s "Memoirs of Bishop Kettlewell", 
and one further completed in Overton's " Non-jurors". 
The ori^nal Non-jurors were not friendly towards 

James II; indeed five of these bishops had been amons 
the seven whose resistance to his Declaration of Induf 
^ence earlier in the same year had contributed to the 
mvitation which caused the Prince of Orange to come 
over. But desiring William and Mary as regents 
they distinguished between this and accepting them as 
sovereigns, regarding the latter as inconsistent with 
the oath taken to James. Deprived of their benefices 
the bishops fell into great poverty, and suffered occa- 
sional though not systematic persecution. That they 
were truly conscientious men is attested by sacrifices 
courageously made for their convictions. Their lives 
were edifying, some consenting to attend, as laym^, 
the services m the parish churches. Still, when cir- 
cumstances permitted, they held secret services of 
their own, for they firmly believed that they had the 
true Anglican succession which it was their duty to 
preserve. Hence they felt, after some hesitation, that 
it was incumbent on them to consecrate others who 
should succeed them. The first who were thus conse- 
crated, on 24 Feb., 1693, were George Hickes and John 
Wagstaffe. On 29 May, 1713, the other Non-juring 
bishops being all dead, Hickes consecrated Jeremy 
Collier, Samuel Hawes, and Nathaniel Spinkes. When 
James II died in 1701, a crisis arose for these separat- 
ists. Some of them then rejoined the main body of 
their co-religionists, whilst others held out on the 
ground that their oath had been both to James and to 
his rightful heirs. These latter afterwards disagreed 
among themselves over a question of rites. The 
death of Charles Edward in 1788 took away the raison 
d*Hre for the schism, but a few lingered on till the end 
of the eighteenth century. In Scotland in 1689 the 
whole body of Bishops refused the oath and became 
Non-jurors, but the resulting situation was somewhat 
different. As soon as the Revolution broke out the 
Presbvterians ousted the Episcopalians and became 
the Established Kirk of Scotland. Thus the Non- 
jurors were left without rivals of their own commun- 
ion, though they had at times to suffer penidties for 
celebrating unlawful worship. Their dimculties ter- 
minated in 1788, when on the death of Charles Ed- 
ward th^ saw no further reason for withholding the 
oath to (jreorge IIL 

Hickes, Memorials of tA« Lift of John KMewXL (London, 
X718) ; Lathbvrt, A hutory of tke Non-juron, their eorUnneraiee, 
and wrUinge (London, 1845): Grub, An EccUeiaetical History of 
Scotland (4 vok.. Edinbursh, 1861): Oyebton, WiUiam Law, 
Non-juror and Myttic (London, 1881) ; Plttmptbbb, Life of Thomae 
Ken (2 vols., London, 1888) ; Cabisr, Life and Timee cf John 
KetUeweU (London. 1895) ; Ovbbton, The Non-juror; their Lipee, 
Princijdee, and Writings (London, 19GK2). 

Sydney F* Smith. 

Nozma, Saint. See Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint. 

Nozmotte, Claude- Adrien, controversialist; b. in 
Be8an9on, 29 July, 1711; d. there, 3 September, 1793. 
At nineteen he entered the ScKsietv of Jesus and 
preached at Amiens, Versailles, and Turin. He is 
chiefly known for his writing against Voltaire. When 
the latter began to issue his ''Essai sur les moeurs" 
(1754), an attack on Christianity, Nonnotte published, 
anonymously, the " Examen critimie ou Refutation du 
livre des mceurs"; and when Voltaire finished his 

Eublication (1758), Nonnotte revised his book, which 
e published at Avignon (2 vols., 1762). He treated, 
simply, calmlv, and dispassionately, all the historical 
ana doctrin^ errors contained in Voltaire's work. 
Nonnotte's work reached the sixth edition in 1774. 
Voltaire, exasperated, retorted in his "Eclaircisse^ 
ments historiques'', and for twent^^ years continued to 
attack Nonnotte with sarcasm, insult, or calumny. 
Nevertheless Nonnotte's publication continued to 
circulate, and was translated into Italian, German, 
Polish, and Portuguese. After the suppression of the 
Jesuits, Nonnotte withdrew to Besan9on and in 1779 
added a third volume to the "Erreurs de Voltaire", 
nameljr, "L'esprit de Voltaire dans ses ^rits", for 
which it was impossible to obtain the approval of the 




Paris censor. Against the ''Dictionnaire philoso- 
phique", in which Voltaire had recapitulatec^ under 
a popular form, all his attacks on Christianity, 
Nonnotte published the ''Dictionnaire philosophique 
de la religion'' (Avignon, 1772), in which he rephed 
to all the objections then broiLKht against religion. 
The work was translated into Italian and German. 
Towards the end of his life Nonnotte published "Les 
philosophes des trois premiers sidles" (Paris, 1789), 
m which he contrasted the ancient and tibe modem 
philosophers. The work was translated into German. 
Be also wrote "Lettre k un ami sur les honn^tet^ 
litt^raires *' (Paris, 1766), and ''R^ponse aux £clair- 
cissements historiques et aux additions de Voltaire" 
(Paris, 1774). These publications obtained for their 
author a eulogistic Bnef from Clement XIII (1768), 
and the congratulations of St. Alphonsus laguori, 
who declared that he had always at nand his ''golden 
works" in which the chief truths of the Faith were de- 
fended with learning and propriety against the objec- 
tions of Voltaire and lus friends. Nonnotte was also 
the author of ''L'emploideTargent" (Avignon, 1787), 
translated from Manei; "Le gouvemement des pa- 
roisses" (posthumous, Paris, 1802). All were published 
under the title"(Euvre8deNonnotte"(Be8anoon,1819). 

L*ami de la reUgion, XXV, 385; Sabatzxb db Castbbb, Lm 
Irow nieUa de la litUraiure Jrancaiee (The Hague, 1781) ; SoMiim- 
YOOBU Bib, delaCde Jiaue (Paris, 1894), V, 1803-7; IX. 722. 

Antoinb Degbrt. 

Honnufl, of Panopolis in Upper Egypt (c. 400), the 
reputed author of two poems in hexameters; one, 
Atowvataxdf about the m3r8teries of Bacchus, and the 
other the ''Paraphrase of the Fourth Gospel". 
Draseke proposes Apollinaris of Laodicea (Theolog. 
Litteraturzeitung, 1891, 332), and a fourteenth-cen- 
tury MS. suggests Ammonius as the author of the 
''Paraphrase , but the similarity of style makes it 
very probable that the two poems have the same au- 
thor. Nonnus would then seem to have been a pagan 
when he wrote the first, and afterwards to have be- 
come a Christian. Notning else is known of his life. 
The "Paraphrase'' is not completely extant; 3750 
lines of it, now divided into twenty-one chapters, are 
known. It has some importance as evidence of tiie 
text its author used, and has been studied as a source 
of textual criticism (Blass. "Evang. sec. loh. cum 
varis lectionis delectu", Leipzig, 1902; Janssen in 
"Texte u. Untersuchungen", XXIII, 4, Leipzig, 
1903). Otherwise it has Tittle interest or merit. It 
18 merely a repetition of the Gospel, verse by verse, 
inflated with fantastic epithets and the adcution of 
imaginary details. The '' Paraphrase " was first pub- 
lished by the Aldine Press in 1501. The edition of 
Heinsius (Leyden, 1627) is reprinted in P. G., XLIII, 
749-1228. The best modem edition is by Scheindler: 
''Nonni Panopolitani paraphrasis s. evang. loannei" 
(Leipzig, 1881). 

Fabricii7b>Hablu, BiH,araea, VIII (Hambms, 1802), 601-12; 
KoBCHLT, Opueeulaj^Uolofficat I (LeipBis. 1881), 421-46; Kinkxu 
Dm Ueberlieferung der Paraphraae dee et. Ion. von Nonnoa, I 
(Zurioh, 1870); Tibokb, Nonniana (Berlin, 1883). 

Adrian Fobtbscub. 

Norbart, Saint, b. at Xanten on the left bank of the 
Rhine, near Wesel, c. 1080; d. at Magdeburg, 6 June, 
1134. His father, Heribert, Count of Gennep, was 
related to the imperial house of German v, and his 
mother, Hadwigis, was a descendant of the ancient 
house of Lorraine. A stately bearing, a penetrating 
intellect, a tender, earnest heart, marked the future 
apostle. Ordained subdeacon, Norbert was ap- 
pointed to a canonry at Xanten. Soon after he was 
summoned to the Court of Frederick, Prince-Bishop of 
Cologne, and later to that of Heniy V, Emperor of 
Germany, whose almoner be became. The Bishopric 
of Cambray was offered to him^ but refused. Nor- 
bert allowed himself to be so earned away by pleasure 
that nothing short of a miracle of grace could make 

him lead the life of an earnest cleric. One day, while 
riding to Vieden, a village near Xanten, he was over- 
taken by a storm. A thunderbolt fell at his horse's 
feet; the frightened animal threw its rider, and for 
nearly an hour he la;y like one dead. Thus numbled, 
Norbiert became a smcere penitent. Renouncing his 
appointment at Court, he retired to Xanten to laid a 
life of penance. 

Understanding, however, that he stood in need of 
guidance, he placed himself under the direction of 
Cono, Aobot of Siegburg. In gratitude to Cono. 
Nori)ert founded the Abbey of FQrstenberg, endowed 
it with a portion of his property, and made it over to 
Cono ana his Benedictme successors. Norbert was 
then in his thirty-fifth year. Feeline that he was 
called to the priesthood, he presented himself to the 
Bishop of Cologne, from whose hands he received 
Holy Orders. After a forty da3r8' retreat at Siegbure 
Abbev, he celebrated his first Mass at Xanten and 
preached an earnest discourse on the transitory char- 
acter of this world's pleasures and on man's duties 
towards God. The insults of some youns clerics, one 
of whom even spat in his face, he bore with wonderful 

Satience on that occasion. Norbert often went to 
iesburg Abbey to confer with Cono, or to the cell of 
Ludolph. a holy and learned hermit-priest, or to the 
Abbey ot Klosterrath near Rolduc. Accused as an in- 
novator at the Council of Fritzlar, he resigned all his 
ecclesiastical preferments^ disposed of his estate, and 
gave all to the poor, reserving for himself only what was 
needed for the celebration of Holy Mass. Barefooted 
and beting his bread, he journeyed as far as St. Giles, 
in Languedoc, to confer with Pope Gelasius concerning 
his future life. Unable to keep Norbert at his court, 
Gelasius granted luun faculties to preach wherever 
he judged proper. At Valenciennes Nori)ert met 
(March, 1119) Burchard, Bishop of Cambray, whose 
chaplain joined him in his apostolic journeys in France 
and Belgium. After the oeath of Pope Gelasius (29 
January, 1119) Nori)ert wished to confer with his 
successor, Calixtus II. at the Council of Reims (Oct., 
1119). The pope ana Bartholomew^ Bishop of Laon, 
reciuested Norbert to found a religious order in the 
Diocese of Laon, so that his work might be per- 
petuated after his death. Norbert chose a lonely, 
marshy valley, shaped in the form of a cross, in the 
Forest of Coucy, about ten miles from Laon, and 
named Pr6montr6. Hu^ of Fosses, Evermode of 
Cambray, Anthony of Nivelles, seven students of the 
celebrated school of Anselm, and Ralph at Laon were 
his first disciples. The young community at first 
lived in huts of wood and clay, arranged like a camp 
around the chapel of St. John the Baptist, but they 
soon built a larger church and a monastery for the 
religious who joined them in increasing numbers. 
Going to Cologne to obtain relics for their church, 
Norbert discovered, through a vision, the spot where 
those of St. Ursula and her companions, of St. Gereon, 
and of other martyrs lay hidden. 

Women also wislied to become members of the new 
religious order. Blessed Bicwera, widow of Count 
Raymond of Clastres, was St. Norbert's first spiritual 
daughter, and her example was followed by women of 
the best families of France and Germany. Soon after 
this, Norbert returned to Germany and preached in 
Westphalia, when Godfrey, Count of Kappenberg, 
offered himself and ^ave three of his castles to be made 
into abbeys. On his return from Germany, Norbert 
was met ov Theobald, Count of Champagne, who 
widied to become a member of the order; out Nor- 
bert insisted that God wished Theobald to marry 
and do good in the world. Theobald agreed to 
this, but begged Norbert to prescribe a rule of life. 
Norbert prescribed a few rules and invested Theobald 
with the white scapular of the order, and thus, in 
1122, the Third Order of St. Norbert was instituted. 
The saint was soon requested by the Bishop of Cam- 




brai to 90 and combat the infamous beresies which 
Tanchehn had propagated, and which had their cen- 
tre at Antwerp. As a result of his preaching the 
people of the Low Countries abjured their heresies, 
andTmany brought back to him the Sacred Species 
which they had stolen and profaned. In commem- 
oration of this, St. Norbert has been proclaimed the 
Apostle of Antwerp, and the feast of his triumph over 
the Sacramentarian heresy is celebrated in the Arch- 
diocese of Mechlin on 11 July. 

The rapid growth of the order was marvellous, and 
bishops entreated Norbert to found new houses in 
their dioceses. Floreffe, Viviers, St-Josse^ Ardenne, 
Cuiflsy, Laon, Li^e, Antwerp, Varlar, Kappenberg 
and others were founded during the first five vears of 
the order's existence. Though the order haa already 
been approved by the pope^s legates, Norbert, ac- 
companied by three disciples, journeyed to Rome, in 
1125, to obtain its confirmation by the new pope, 
Honorius II. The Bull of Confirmation is dated 27 
Fdbniary, 1126. Passins through WQrzburg on his 
return to Pr6montr6, Norbert restored sight to a blind 
woman: the inhabitants were so full of admiration 
for him that they spoke of electing him successor to 
their bishop who had just died, but Norbert and his 
companions fled secretly. Soon after this, on his way 
to Ratisbon, he passed through Spier, where Lothair. 
King of the Romans, was holding a diet, the papal 
legate being present. Deputies from Magdeburg had 
alio come to solicit a successor to their late archbishop, 

The papal legate and Lothair used their authority, 
and obliged Nozbert to accept the vacant see. 
On taking possession of it, he was grieved to find that 
much property belonging to the Church and the poor 
had been usurped by powerful men, and that many 
of the clergy led scandalous lives. He succeeded in 
converting some of the transgressors, but others only 
became more obstinate, and three attempts were made 
on his Ufe. He resisted Pietro di Leoni, who, as anti- 
pope, had assumed the name of Anacletus and was 
master in Rome, exerting himself at the Council of 
Reims to attach the German Emperor and the Ger^ 
man bishops and princes more firmly to the cause of 
Pope Innocent II. 

Though his health was increasingly delicate, Nor- 
bert accompanied Lothair and his army to Rome to 
gut t^e riffhtful pope on the Chair of St. Peter, and 
e resisted the pope's concession of the investiture to 
the emperor. Norbert, whose health was now much 
impaired, accompanied the Emperor Lothair back to 
Germany and for some time remained with lum, as- 
sisting mm as his chancellor and adviser. In March. 
1134, Norbert had become so feeble that he had 
to be carried to Magdebuig where he died on the 
Wednesdav after Pentecost. By order of the em- 
peror, his body was laid at rest in the Norbertine 
Abbey of St. Mary, at Magdeburg. His tomb be- 
came glorious by the numerous miracles wrought 
there. Tlie BoUandists say that there is no docu- 
ment to prove that he was canonised by Innocent 
III. His canonisation was by Gregory XlII in 1582, 
and his cultus was extended to the whole church 
by Clement X. 

On 2 May, 1627, the saint's body was trans- 
lated from Niagdeburg, then in the hands of Protes- 
tants, to the Abbev ofStrahov, a suburb of Prague in 
Bohemia. The Cnancery of Prague preserved the 
abjurations of six hundred Protestants who, on the 
day, or durins the octave, of the translation, were 
reconciled to the Catiiolic Church. On that occasion 
the Archbishop of Prague, at the recjuest of the civil 
and ecclesiastical authorities, proclaimed St. Norbert 
the Patron and Protector of Bohemia. (For history 
of the order, see Prbmonstratensian Canons.) 

Untfl the middle of the leat oentuiy, the principal eouroe for the 
Uognplgr of St. Norbert wee e MS. ueuAlIy attributed to Huoo, 


the aaint's first dieciple and euooefleor, of which n«ineroua eooiflt 
had been made. That beloncing to the Abbey of Romeradorf , 
near Coblenti» Vita Norberti, aueton eanonieo prwadjuwanU Hvf 
pans abbaU, Fottenttt is now in the British Museum. An abrids* 
ment of thia by Subius was printed in 1572: the whole MS., with 
variants, was published by Abbot Vandbb Stbbbb in 1666; a^n, 
with commentaries and notes, by Papkbboch in Ada 88., XX. 
Thm followed: Vandbb Stbbbb, Hei Inen «an den H. Norbvriui 
(Antwerp. 1623); du Pni. La Vie de 8, Norbert (Paris. 162:n; , 
Camus, 1/ Homme apoetolique en 8. Norbert (Caen. 1640) ; C. L. 
Hnoo. La ViedeS. Norbert (LuxemburK, 1704); Illana. Hietoria 
del Qran Padre y Patriaroa 8, Norberto (Salamanca. 1755). • 

In 1856 a MS. Life of 8t. Norbert discovered in the Royal Li- 
brary, Berlin, was published in Pkbts, Mon. Oerm. Hiet., differing 
in many particulars from the Hvoo MSS. mentioned above. The 
discovery occasioned a great revival of interest in the subject, and 
there followed: TBNKorr, De 8, Norberto Ord, Pram, Conditore 
eommerUatio fuetorica (Mdnster, 1855); Scholb, Vita 8. Norberti 
(Breslau, 1850); WxMTBk, Die Prdmofutrateneer der It. Jahrh, 
(Berlin, 1865) ; Robbmhund, Die dUeeten Bioffrankien dee h. Nor- 
beriua (Berlin, 1874); Hbbtbl, Le6«n dee h. -Norbert (Leipaig, 
1881); M^HLBACHBB, Die atreitipe Papttwahl dee Jahree IISO 
(Innsbruck, 1876). In the following three works, the publication 
of Perts and other lately discovered documents have been used: 
QBX7DBN8, Life of 8t. Norbert (London. 1886): Madbulinb. ^m- 
toire de 8. NorbeH (Lille. 1886) (the fullest and best-written biog- 
raphy of the saint so far published) ; van dbn Eubbn, Leeeneg^ 
eekiedenie van den H. Norbertue (Averbode, 1890). 

F. M. Geudsns. 
Hort>ertliiet. See Prbmonstratensian Canons. 

Noreiav Diocese of (Norsin), a city in Perugia, 
Italy, often mentioned in Roman history. In the 
ninUi century it was a republic. The Dukes of Spoleto 
often contended with the popes for its possession; 
when, in 1453, the communes of Spoleto ancf Cascia d&- 
clarea war aeainst Norda, it was defended by the 

pe's general Cesarini. It was the birthplace of St. 

nedict; the abbots St. Spes and St. Eutychius; the 
monk Florentius; the painter Parasole; and the physi- 
cian Benedict Pecgurdati. The chief industry is pre- 
serving meats. The first known bishop was Stepnen 
(c. 495). From the ninth century, Norcia was in the 
Diocese of Spoleto, as it appears to have been tem- 
porarily in the time of St. Gregory the Great. The see 
was re-established in 1820, and its first bishop was 
Caietan Bonani. Immediately dependent on Rome, 
it has 1(X) parishes; 28,000 inhabitants; 7 religious 
houses of women; 3 schools for girls. 

CAPPBLLBTn, Le Chieee d* Italia, IV, 

U. Benigni. 

Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of, Since the Revob- 
MATiON. — Under this title are accounts only of the 
prominent Catholic Dukes of Norfolk since the Refor- 
mation; a list of the Dukes, from the time the title 
passed to the Howard family, is prefixed. 

1. John (1430-1485), created first duke of the 

Howard line in 1483, dieyl in battle in 1485. 

2. Thomas (1443-1524), son. Became duke in 


3. Thomas (1473-1554), son. Succeeded in 1524. 

4. Thomas (153&-1572), grandson. Succeeded 

in 1554. Beheaded in 1572. 

5. Thomas (1627-1677), great-great-grandson. 

Dukedom restored in 1660. 

6. Henry (1628-1684), brother. Succeeded in 


7. Henry (1655-1701), son. Succeeded in 1684. 

8. Thomas (1683-1732), nephew. Succeeded in 


9. Edward (1685-1777), brother. Succeeded in 


10. Charles (1720-1786). descendant of seventh 

duke. Succeeded in 1777. 

11. Charles (1746-1815), son. Succeeded in 1786. 

12. Bernard Edward (1765-1842), third cousin. 

Succeeded in 1815. 

13. Henry Charles (1791-1856), son. Succeeded 

in 1842. 

14. Henry Granville (1815-1860), son. Succeeded 

in 1856. 

15. Henry Fitcalan (1847- ), son. Succeeded 

in 1860. 

Thomas, Truid Dvke, was the eldeat son of mnrtyroli^t", was asaigned aa histator, {»obab1y to 
' " ' """ ' '"'' '~ ' ■'■■-■--■- -J... ... 1 ■ ■.. Protestant priociples. In 1553, when 

Thomas Howard, the aecood duke, and Eliubeth, educate hii 

daughter o[ Sir F. Tilney of Ashnelltborpe Hall, Nor> Mary released his grandfather fi 

la 1495 he was married to Lady Anne, di 
ter of Edward JV. He fought as captain of the van- 
guard at Flodden FieU in 1513. In 1S14 he was 
created Earl of Surrey, and joined his father in oppos- 
ing Woleey's policy of deincrang the old ra^ility. 
. ..».„.,. .., J.., Q Ireland; 

ing Wolsey a policy of dejweming 
In 1520-21 he endeavoured to ke^ 

Whit« of Lincoln became his tutor. Thomas suc- 
ceeded his grandfather, as duke, in 1554, and became 
esrl-maishal. He married, in 1556, Lady Manr 
Fitialan, daughter of Henry, twelfth Earl of Arundd; 
in 1558, Margaret, daughter of Thomas Lord Audley 
of Wa]den;and. in 1567, Eliiabeth, widow of Thomas 

recalled, he took conunand of the English fleet ag^nst Dacre of Gilsland, who had thiiee daughleis. By 

France, and aucceesfully opposed the French in Scot- obtaining a grant of their wardship and intermurying 

land. In 1524 he becEune duke, and was appointed with them his own three sons, the issue of (orroer 

commissioner to treat for peace with France. With marriages, he absorbed the great estates of the Dacre 

peace abroad came the burning question of Henri's family. In 1568, he was again a widower, the only 

divorce. Norfolk, uncle of Anne Boleyn, dded with Endish duke, the wealthiest man in England, popular 

ened the i 
became Henry's tool in dis- 
honourable purposes and he 
acquiesced in his lust for the 

Spiritual aupremacy. With 
romwell, he obtained a grant 
of a portion of the possessions 
of the Priory of Lewes and 
other monastic spoils. He 
was created earl-marshal in 
1533. In 1535 Norfolk was 
a leading judge in the trial 
ofSirThomasMore. In 1536 
he disbanded the "Pilgrim- 
age of Grace" with false as- 
surances, but returned next 
jrear to do "dreadful execu- 
tion". In 1536 he hanged in 
chains, at Yoric, Fathers 
Rochester and Walworth, two 
Carthusians. Drastic meas- 
ures of devastation marked 
his whole career as a mili- 
tarj leader. He shared the 
King's seal against the in- 
roads of German Protestant- 
ism. In 1534 he had "stud 
purgatory" and was always 
m &vour of the old ortho- 
doxy, as far as he might be 
allowed toHupport it. In 1539, 

. „ of 

Norfolk's position and he was 
given a part in the expulsion 
of the French troops from 
Scotland. With other com- 
misBioners, he was appointed 
to sit at York and inquire into 
the causes of the variance be- 
tween Mary Stuart and her 
subjects. Circumstances, at 
the bef^nning of 1569, com- 
bined to awaken the fears of 
English nobles, and Arundel, 
Pembroke, Leicester, and 
others saw the advanta^ to 
be gained by the mamage, 
first suggested by Maitland, 
between Norfolk and Maiy; 
that when married she might 
be safely restored lo the Scot- 
tish throne and be recog- 
nised as Eliiaboth'ssuccessor. 
Protestant nobles, however, 
kMked on the afftdr with sus- 
picion, and Catholic lords in 
the north were impatient of 
long delay. But, even alta: 
the council had voted for 
the settlement of the Eng- 
■ by Mary's 
an Englinb 

Thoiub Howabd, Tbod Dukk or Tiom 
Huu Holbsio tb* YoancH. Windaor Ci 
when the biabops could not agree concerning the prac- with great cautjon, withdrew from court, aroused 
ticesofreIigion,NorfolkpropoaedtheSixArticle8tothe Elisabeth's suspicion and was committed to the 
Lords, theology thus becoming matter tor the whole Tower, in October, 1569. On his abject submission 
Bouse. As an old man he served against a lising in to the queen and renundaUon of aU purpose of his 
Scotland, and in the French wars of 1544. In 1546 he alliance with Mary, he was released in 1570, He did 
was accuaedof high treason. Evidence, however, was not keep his promise; he continued to correspond with 
not conclusive against him until Hertford, and other the Queen of Scots^ was found to be in negotiation 
keen enemies, prevailed upon him, as a prisoner in with Ridolfi, and through him with PhUip and the 
the Tower, to sign his confession and throw hiinself Catholic Powers abroad, concerning an inraaiDn of 
on the King's mercy. A bill of attainder was pawed England. He was arraigned for hi^ treason in 1571. 
in Parliament, and orders for his immediate execution After eighteen weeks' confinement in the Tower, de- 
would have been carried into effect had not Henry prived of books, informed of the trial only on the 
died on the previous evening. He remained a prisoner previous evening, kept in ignorance of the chaiges 
in the Tower the whole of Edward VI's leign but was until he heard the indictment at the bar, and refused 
released on Mary's accession, and restored to the the aid of counsel to suggest advice, on the evidence 
dukedom in 1553. of letters and extorted confessions from others, he 
His long experience as lord high steward and lieu- was condemned to death by the Earl of Shrewsbury, 
tenant-general made him useful to the queen, but the Lord High Steward, and twenty-six peers as as- 
he tost favour by his rashness and his failure to crush sessors (judges, all selected by the queen s ministers 
Wyat'a rebellion. |See Gairdner, "Lollardy and the and many of them his known enemies). After much 
Reformation" (London, 1908); Gairdner, "Hiat. of hesitation on the part of Elisabeth and a petition 
Engl. Church in XVIth Century" (London, 1902); from Parliament, on 2 June, 1572, he was executed. 
"I-etters and Papers, Henry VIH" various vol- His sympathy seemed to be always with the CathoUc 

iinwH- r^rviirhtnn "Dirt, ftf !C«I Rimr'' X " — -■ — ■-■ •— ' ■■- '• — i-.^r.~.J anA ha waa ■ 

; Creighton, Diet, of Nat. Biog. , X (I<)ndon, 

Thomas, Focktb Dukb, was the son of Henry 
Howard, Earl of Surrey and Frances Vere, daughter 
of John^ Earl of Oxford. After the execution of his 
father^ m 1547, be was, by order of priv^ council, 
committed to the charge of his aunt, and >oie, "the 

party, but his policy was two-faced, and he i 
professed adherent of the Reformed relipon. CSr- 
cumstancea made it expedient for him alwaya to tan- 
porise. He seems to have be<ai led on by tiie course 
of events and not to have realised the result trf tarn 
actions. [See State Trials, I (London, 1776), 82; 
Fronde, "Hist, irf Eng,", IV (London, 1866), XX; 




Labanoff. "Lettres, etc. de Marie Stuart" (1844), 
earlier ea. tr. (1842); Anderson, '^ Collections relating 
to Mary" (Edinburgh, 1727); Creighton in "Diet, of 
Nat. Biog.", X (London, 1908). 

Henrt, Sixth Duke, the second son of Henry 
Frederick Howard, third Earl of Arundel and Lady 
Elizabeth Stuart, was educated abroad, as a Cath- 
olic. In 1669 he went as ambassador extraordinary 
to Morocco. In 1677 he succeeded his brother as 
duke, having previously been made hereditary earl- 
marshal. During the Commonwealth and Protecto- 
rate he Uved in total seclusion. In January, 1678, he 
took his seat in the House of Lords, but in August 
the -first development of the Titus Oates Plot was 
followed by an Act for disabling Catholics from sitting 
in either house of Parliament. He would not comply 
with the oath and, suspected of doubtful loys^y, 
withdrew to Bruges for three years. There he built a 
house attached to a Franciscan convent and enjoyed 
freedom of worship and scope for his munificence. 
He was a man of benevolent disposition and gave 
away the greater part of his splendid library, and 
grounds and rooms to the Royal Society, ana the 
Arundetian marbles to Osdord University. Jealous 
of the family honour, he compounded a debt of 
£200,000 contracted by his grandfather. [See Eve- 
lyn's ''MisceUaneous Writings'' (London, 1825).] 

Hbnbt, Sevknts Duks, son of Henry, sixth Duke, 
and Ladv Anne Somerset, was at first a good Catho- 
lic and tor four months held out against subscribing 
to the oath as a peer in the House of Lords. After- 
wards he became a pervert. 

Thomas, Eighth Dxtke, was brought up a Catholic 
but perverted on succeeding to the dukeaom. 

Edward, Ninth Duke, did much to promote a 
more liberal treatment of Catholics by offering a 
home at Norfolk House to Frederick, Prince of Wiues, 
and his wife at the time of the birth of their son, after- 
wards' George III. 

Charles, Tenth Duke, son of Charles Howard of 
Greystoke, Cumberiand, and Mary Paylward, was 
brought up a CathoUc. Though he signed a petition 
for relief from the pressure of the penal laws, he led 
a very retired life. In 1764 he published ** Considera- 
tions of the Penal Laws against the Roman Catholics 
in England and the new-acquired colonies in Amer- 
ica": and in 1768, ''Thou^ts. Essays, and Maxims, 
chiefly Religious and PoHtical . 

Charles, Eleventh Duke, educated at the Eng- 
lish College at Douai, was a man of dissolute life and 
had conformed to the State religion by 1780. 

Bernard Edward, Twelfth Duke, eldest son of 
Henrv Howard of Gloesop, and Juliana, daughter of 
Sir William Molyneux of Willow, Nottinghamshire. 
In 1789 he married Elizabeth Bellams, daughter of 
Henry, Earl of Fauconberg. but was divorced, by Act of 
Parliament, in 1794. On tne death of his third cousin, 
in 1815, he succeeded to the dukedom. Although 
a Catholic, he was allowed, by Act of ParUament 
in 1824, to exercise the hereditary office of earl- 
marshal. After the Relief Bill of 1829 he was ad- 
mitted to the full exercise of his anc^ral privileges; 
he took his seat in the House of Lords, where he was a 
steady supporter of the Reform Bill, and in 1830 was 
nominated as privy councillor. [See Gent. Mag., I 
(1842), 542.1 

Henrt Charles, Thirteenth Duke, only son of 
Bernard Edward and Elizabeth Bellasis. He was 
baptized a Catholic but did not practise his religion. 
In 1814 he married Lady Charlotte Leveson-Gower, 
daughter of George, Duke of Sutherland, and in 1815 
he became, as heu-, Earl of Arundel and Surrey. In 
1829, after the Catholic Emancipation Act, he took 
the oath and his seat in the House of Commons (the 
first Catholic since the Refonnation). In 1841 he 
sat in the House of Lords. In politics he was a 
stanch member of the Whig party. In 1842 he suc- 

ceeded his father as Duke of Norfolk. He died at 
Arundel in 1856. Canon Tiemey was chaplain at 
the time of his death. [See London Times (19 Feb., 
1856); Gent. Mag. (April, 1856), 419.] 

Henrt Granville FrrzALAN, Fourteenth Duke, 
eldest son of Henry Charles Howard and Charlotte, 
daughter of the Dlike of Sutheriand, was educatea 
privately, and at Trinity Coll^^, Cambridge. He en- 
tered the army but retired on attaining the rank 
of captain. In 1839 he married the c&ughter of 
Admiral Sir Edmund (afterwards Lord) Lyons, the 
ambassador at Athens. From 1837 to 1842 he was a 
member of the House of Commons, a Whig, until he 
broke with his party on the introduction of the Eccle- 
siastical Titles Bill of 1850. In 1856, as Duke of 
Norfolk, he took his seat in the House of Lords. In 
1839 he attended the services of Notre-Dame in Paris 
and made the acquaintance of Montalembert. , This 
resulted in his conversion to Catholicism, and Monta- 
lembert describes him as "the most pious layman of 
our times". Cardinal Wiseman, in a pastoral letter, 
at the time of his death in 1860, referred to his benevo- 
lent nature: ''There is^not a form of want or a 
peculiar appHcation of alms which has not received his 
relief or co-operation''. He wrote: "Collections 
relative to Catholic Poor Schools throughout Eng- 
land", MS. foUo, 134, pp. 1843; "A few Remarks on 
the Social and Political Condition of British Cath- 
olics" (London, 1847); Letter to J. P. Plumptre on 
theBull"InC<Bna Domini" (London, 1848); "Ob- 
servations on Diplomatic Relations with Rome" 
1848. He edited from origmal MSS. the "Lives of 
Philip Howard and Anne Dacres" (London, 1857 and 
1861). [See "Gent. Mag." (Jan., 1861); "London 
Times" (27 Nov. and 4 Dec., 1860); "London Table" 
(1 Dec., 1860); H. W. Freeland, "Remarks on the 
Letters of the Duke of Norfolk" (1874); Monta- 
lembert, "Le .Correspondant" (25 Dec.. 1860), 766- 
776, tr. by Goddard at the end of his Montalembert, 
"Pius IX and France" (Boston, Mass., 1861).) 

TiBRNBT, CatUe and AntiguUie* of Arundel (London, 1834); 
HowARO. MmnoriaU of iKe Howard* (Corby Castle, 1834) ; Gii/- 
Low, Bioo. Diet. ofEnd. Catholiea (London. 1885-1902) ; Linqasd. 
HieUnv of Ernfiand (London. 1865); Did. Nat. Biog. (London, 
1908), 8. y. Howard. 

S. Anselm Pabker. 

Hoiil, Henrt, Cardinal, b. at Verona, 29 August, 
1631, of English ancestry; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1704. 
He studied under the Jesuits at Rimini, and Uiere en- 
tered the novitiate of the Hermits of Saint Augustine. 
After his probation he was sent to Rome to study 
theology. He taught the sacred sciences at Pesaro, 
Perugia, and Padua, where he held the chair of church 
history in the university from 1674 to 1692. There 
he completed "The History of Pelagianism". and 
"Dissertations on the Fifth General Council", the 
two works which, before and after his death^ occa- 
sioned much controversy. To^^ther wi th the ' ' Vmdiciffi 
August inians" they were prmted at Padua in 1673, 
having been approved by a special commission at 
Rome. Noris nimself went to Rome to ^ve an ac- 
count of his orthodoxy before this commission; and 
Clement X named him one of the quaJificators of the 
Holy Office, in recognition of his learning and sound 
doctrine. But, after the publication of Uiese works, 
further charges were made against him of teaching the 
errors of Jansenius and Baius. In a brief to the pre- 
fect of the Spanish Inquisition, 31 July^ 1748, ordering 
the name of Noris to be taken off the list of forbidden 
books, Benedict XIV says that these charges were 
never proved; that they were rejected repeatedly by 
the Holy Office, and repudiated by the popes who had 
honoured him. In 1692 Noris was made assistant Li- 
brarian in the Vatican by Innocent XII. On 12 
December, 1695, he was named Cardinal-Priest of the 
Title of S. Agostino. In 1700 he was given full charge 
of the Vatican Library. His works, apart from some 





minor oontrovermal treatises, are hiffUy valued for ac- 
curacy and thoroughness of reseanST In addition to 
those already named^ the most important are: '' Annus 
et Epochs Syro-Macedonum in Vetustis Urbium 
Syria Exposits": ''Fasti Consulares Anonimi e 
Manuscripto Bibliothecse Cfesarese Deprompti*'; 
"Historia Controversue de Uno ez Trinitate Passo"; 
"Apologia Monachorum Scythis"; "HistoriaDona- 
tistarum e Schedis Norisianis Excerpts"; ''Storia 
delle Investiture delle Dignity Ecclesiastiche " . Select 
portions of his works have beea frequently reprinted, 
at Padua, 1673-1678, 1706; at Ix>uvain, 1702; at Bas- 
sano, edited by Berti, 1769. The best is the edition 
of aU the works, in five vols, folio by the Ballerini 
Brothers, Verona, 1729-1741. 

HuBTBB, Nomendaior, KathcUk, I (1884), 181; Pmso and 
GnoLAMO Ballbbini, Vita Norini in their ed. of Noris* works, 
IV (Verona, 1729-41) ; m shorter Life is prefixed to the edition of 
Padua, al 706; Ijurnaa, Poatrema Saada Sex Rdigionie Augu»- 
Uniana, III (Tolentino, 1868), 64 sq. 

Francis £. Toubscbeb. 

Honnandy, ancient French province, from which 
five " departments " were foimed in 1790: Seine-Inf6ri- 
eure (Aitshdiooeseof Rouen), S^ure (Diocese of Evreux), 
Calvados (Diocese of Bayeux), Ome (Diocese of S^es), 
Manche (Diocese of Coutances) . The Normans, orig- 
inally Danish or Norwegito pirates, who from the 
ninth to the tenth century made numerous incursions 
into France, gave their name to this province. In the 
Gallo-Roman period Normandy formed the so-called 
second Lyonnaise province (Secunda Lugdunenaia), 
At Thorigny within the territory of this province was 
found an inscription very important for the history 
of the worship of the emperors in Gaul and of the 
provincial assemblies; the latter, thus meetins for this 
worship, kept up a certain autonomy throu^mout the 
conquered territory of Gaul. Under the Merovin- 
gians the Kingdom of Neustria annexed Normandy. 
About 843 Sydroc and his bands of pillagers opened 
the period of Northman invasions. The policy of 
Chanes the Bald in givine money or lands to some of 
the Northmen for aefending his land against other 
bands was unfortunate, as 'uiese adventurers readily 
broke thdr oath. In the course of their invasions they 
slew (858) the Bishop of Bayeux and (859) the Bishop 
of Beauvais. The conversion (862) of the North- 
man, Weland, marked a new policy on the part of the 
Carlo vingians; instead of regarding the invaders as 
intruders it was admitted that they might become 
Christians. Unlike the Saracens, then disturbing 
Europe, the Northmen were admitted to a place and a 
r61e m Christendom. 

The good fortune of the Northmen began with 
Rollo in Normand^r itself. It was long believed that 
Rollo came by sea into the valley of the Seine in 876, 
but the date is rather 886. He destroyed Bayeux, 
pillaged Lisieux, besiep;ed Paris, and reached Lorraine, 
finally establishing himself at Rouen, where a truce 
was concluded. His installation was considered so 
definitive that in the beginning of the tenth century 
Witto, Archbishop of Kouen, consulted the Arch- 
bishop of Reims as to the means of converting the 
Northmen. Hollo's settlement ii^ Normandy was rat- 
ified by the treaty of St. Clair«ur-Epte (911), prop- 
erly speaking only a verbal agreement between RoUo 
and Charles the Simple. As Duke of Normandy 
Rollo remained faithful to the Carlovinnan dynasty 
in its struggles with the ancestors of the future Cape- 
tians. These cordial relations between the ducal 
family of Normandy and French royalty provoked 
under Hollo's successor William Long-sword ^1-42) 
a revolt of the pagan Northmen settled in Cotentin 
and Bessin. One of their lords {jarU), Riulf by name 
was the leader of the movement. The rebels re- 
proached the duke with being no longer a true Scandi- 
navian and "treatmg the French as his kinsmen". 
Triumphant for a time, they were finally routed and 

the aristocratic spirit of thejorts had to bow before the 
monarchical principles which William Long-sword 
infused into his government. 

Another atteinpt at a revival of paganism was made 
under Richard 1 Sana Peur (the I^arless, 942-96). 
He was onlv two vears old at his father's death. A 
vear later (943) the Scandinavian Setric, lAnHing in 
Normandy with a band of pirates, induced a number 
of Christian Northmen to apostatise; among them, 
one Turmod who sought to make a pagan of the young 
duke. Hugh the Great, Duke of France, and Louis 
IV, King ofFrance, defeated these invaders and after 
their victorv both sought to set up their own power 
in Normanay to the detriment of the young Richard 
whom Louis IV held in semi-a4>tivity at Lcu>n. The 
landing in Normandy of the King of Denmark, 
Harold Bluetooth, and the defeat of Louis IV, held 
prisoner for a time (945), constrained the latter to 
sifpi the treaty of Gerberoy, by which the young Duke 
Richard was re-establishecl in his possessions, and be- 
came, according to the chronicler Dudon ae Saint- 
Quentin, a sort of King of Normandy. The attacks 
later directed against Richard by the Carlovingian 
King Lothaire and Thibaut le Tricheur, Count of 
Chiurtres, brought a fresh descent on France of the 
soldiers of Harold Bluetooth. Ascending the Seine 
these Danes so devastated the country of Chartres 
that when they withdrew, according to the chronicler 
GuiUaume of Jumidges, there was not heard even the 
bark of a dog. When Eudes of Chartres, brother-in- 
law of Richard II the Good, again threatened Nor- 
mandy (996-1020). it was once more the Scandinavian 
chieftains, Olaf of Norway and Locman, who came to 
the duke's aid. So attached were these Scandinavi- 

ans to paganism that their leader Olaf, having been 
baptised by the Archbishop of Rouen, was slain bv 
them. Althoufdi they had become Christian, all 

traces of Scan(unavian paganism did not disappear 
under the first dukes ot Normandy. Rollo walked 
barefoot before the reliquary of St. Ouen, but he 
caused many relics to be sold in England, and on his 
death-bed, according to Adh^mar de Chabannes, 
simultaneously caused prisoners to be sacrificed to the 
Scandinavian gods and gave much gold to the 
churches. Richard I was a great builder of churches, 
among them St. Ouen and the primitive cathedral of 
Rouen, St. Michel du Mont, and the Trinity at F^ 
camp. Richard II, sealous for monastic reform, 
brought from Burgundy Guillaume de St. B^nigne; 
the Abbey of F6camp, reformed by him, became a 
model monastexv and a much frequented school. 

All these dukes protected the Church, but the 
feudal power of the Church, which in many States at 
that time limited the central power, was but little 
developed in Nonnandy, and it was to their kinsmen 
that the dukes of Normandv most often gave the 
Archdiocese of Rouen and otner sees. Ecclenastical 
life in Nonnandy was vigorous and well-developed; 
previous to the eleventh centuiy the rural parishes 
were almost as numerous as they are to-day. Thus 
Normandy for nearly a centuiy and a half was at once 
a sort of promontory of the Christian world in face of 
Scandinavia and at the same time a coign of Scandi- 
navia thrust into the Christian world. Henceforth 
those Danes and Scandinavians who under the name 
of Normans formed a part of Christendom, never 
caUed pagan Danes or Scandinavians to their aid 
unless tniiatened in the possession of Normandy: un- 
der their domination the land became a stronghold of 
Christianity. The monastery of Fontenelle (q. v.) 
pursued its religious and literary activity from the 
Merovingian period. The ''Chronicon Fontanel- 
lense", continued to 1040, is an important souroe for 
the history of the period. The ducal family of Nor- 
mandy early determined to have an histonoffrapher 
whom they sou^t in France, one Dudon, dean of 
the chapter of St. Quentin, who between 1015-30 


wrote in Latin half verse, half prose, a history of the of Poitiers, wrote the ''Gesta" of his'master and an ex« 

family according to the traditions and accounts trans- tant account of the first crusade is due to another 

mitted to him by Raoul, Coimt of Ivry. grandson of Norman, Raoul de Caen, an evewitness. At the 

Rollo and brother of Richard I AUnea. Duke Robert the same time the Norman dukes of the eleventh century 

Devil (10^-35) was already powerful enouKh to inter- restored the buildings, destroyed by the invasions 

fere efficaciously in the struggles of Henry I of France of their barbarian ancestors, and a whole Romance 

against his own brother and the Coxmts of Champagne school of architecture developed in Normandy, ez- 

and flanders. In gratitude the king bestowed on tending to Chartres, Picardy, Brittany, and even to 

Robert the Devil, Pontoise, Chaumont en Vexin, and England. Caen was the centre of this school; and 

the whole of French Vexin. It was under Robert the monuments like the Abbaye aux Hommes and the 

Devil that the ducal family of Normandy first cast Abbaye aux Dames, built at Caen by William and 

covetous jdanoes towards Eiupland. He sent an em- Matilda, mark an epoch in the history of Norman art. 

bassy to Canute the Great, lung of Enjdand, in order In the course of the twelfth century the political 

that the sons of Ethelred, Alfred and Edward, might destinies of Normandy were very uncertain. Henry 

recover ih&r patrimony. The petition having been I of England, master of Normandy from 1106-35, 

denied he made ready a naval eroedition against preferred to live at Caen rather than in England. His 

TCupUnH^ destroyed by a tempest. He died while on rule in Normandy was at first disturbed by the par- 

a pilgrimage to uie Holy Sepulchre. tisans of Guillaume Ciiton, son of Robert Courto- 

It was reserved for his son William the Bastard. Heuse, and later by the plot concocted against him by 
lat» called William the Conqueror, to make England his own dau^ter Matilda, widow of Emperor Henry V , 
a Norman colony by the expedition which resulted in who had taken as her second husband Geofifrey Plan- 
the victory of Hastings or Senlac (1066). It seemed, tagenet, Count of Anjou. When Henry I died in 1 135 
then, that in the second half of the eleventh century a his body was brought to England; his death without 
sort of Norman imperialism was to arise in England, male heirs left Normandy a prey to anarchy. For 
but the testament of William the Conqueror which this region was immediately disputed between Henry 
left Normandy to Robert Courte-Heuse and England Planta^enet, grandson of Henry I through his mother 
to William Rufus, marked the separation of the two Matilda, and Thibaut of Champa^e, grandson of 
countries. Each of the brothers sought to despoil the William the Conqueror through his mother Addle, 
other; the long strife which Robert wa^ed, first against After nine years ot strife Thibaut withdrew in favour 
William Rufus. afterwards against his third brother of his brother Stephen who in 1135 had been crowned 
Henry I Beauclerc, terminated in 1106 with the battle King of Enj^and. But the victories of Geoffrey 
of Tinchebray, after which he was taken prisoner and Plantagenet m Normandy assured (1144) the rule of 
brought to Cardiff. Thenceforth Normandy was the Henry Plantagenet over that land, which being 
possession of William I, King of England, and while thenceforth subject to Angevin rule, seemed destined 
forty years previous England seemed about to become to have no further connexion with England. Sud- 
a Norman country, it was Normandy which became deidy Henry Plantagenet^ who in 1152 had married 
an fiu^hsh coxmtry; history no longer speaks of the Eleanor (Alienor) of A^uitaine, divorced from Louis 
ducal family of Normandy out of the royal family of VII of Finnce, determined to assert his rights over 
E^ogland. Later Hemy i, denounced to the Council England itself. The naval expedition which he con- 
of Reims by Louis VI of France, explained to Callistus ducted in 1153 led Stephen to recognize him as his 
II in tragic terms the condition in which he had foxmd heir, and as Stephen died at the end of that same year 
Normandy. ''The duchy'', said he, ''was the prey of Henry Plantagenet reigned over all the Anglo-Nor- 
brigands. Priests and other servants of God were no' man possessions, his territorial power being greater 
longer honoured, and paganism had almost been re- than that of the kings of France. , A lone series of 
stored in Normandy. The monasteries which our wars followed between the Capetians and Plantag- 
anccastors had founded for the repose of their souls enets, interrupted by truces. Xouis VII wisely fa- 
were destroyed, and the religious obliged to disperse, voured everytning which paralyzed the power of rlan- 
being unable to sustain themselves. The churches tagenet, and supported all his enemies. Thomas k 
were given up to pillage, most of them reduced to Becket and the otner exiles who had protested ag^nst 
ashes, while the pnests were in hiding. Their pa- the despotism which Henry exercised against the 
rishioners were slajring one another. There* may Churph, found refuse and help at the court of France; 
have been some truth in this description of Henry and the sons of Henry in their successive revolts 
I; however, it is well to bear in mind that the Nor- against their father in Normandy, were supported 
man dukes of the eleventh century, while they had first by Louis VII and then by Philip Augustus, 
prepared and realized these astounding political .The prestige of the Capetian kings grew in Nor- 
changes, had also developed in Normandy, with the mandy when Richard Coeur de Lion succeeded Henry 
help of the Church, a brilliant literary and artistic II in 1189. Philip Augustus profited by the enmity 
movement. between Richard and his brother John Lackland to 

The Abbey of Bee was for some time, under the sradually establish French domination in Normandy, 
direction of Lanfranc and St. Ansehn, the foremost A war between Richard and Philip Augustus resulted 
school of northern France. Two Norman monaster- in the treaty of Issoudun (1195) by which Philip 
iesproduced historical works of great importance; the Augustus acauired for the French crown Norman 
"Historia Normannorum". written between 1070-87 Venn and the castellanies of Nonancourt, Ivry, 
by Guillaume Calculus at the monastery of Jumidges; Pacy, Vernon, and Gidllon. A second war between 
the "Historia Ecclesiastical' of Ordericus Vituis, John Laddand, Kin^ of England in 1199 and Philip 
which begins with the birth of Christ and ends in Augustus, was termmated hv the treaty of Goulet 
1141, written at the monastery of St. Evroult. The (1^0), by which John Lackland recovered Norman 
secular clergy of Normandy emulated the monks; in a vexin, but recognized the French king's possession of 
sort of academy founded in the second half of the the territory of Evreux and declared himself the 
eleventh centuiy by two bishops of Lisieux, Hugues of " liege man " of Philip Augustus. Also when in 1202 
£u and Gilbert Maminot, not only theological but also John Lackland, having abducted Isabella of Angou- 
Bcientific and literary questions were discussed. The Itoe, rdTused to appear before Philip Augustus, the 
Norman court was a kind of Academy and an active court of peers declared John a felon, under which sen- 
centre of literary production. The chaplain of tence he no longer had the right to hold any fief of the 
Duchess MatUda, Gui de Ponthieu, Bi^op ofAmiens, crown. Philip II Augustus sanctioned the judgment 
composed in 1067 a Latin poem on the battle of Has- of the court of peers by invading Normandy which 
tin^; the chaplain of Wilhiwitb^ Conqueror, \^^lliam in 1204 became a French possession. The twelfth 




eentmy in NonnandY was marked by the ptoduc- 
tion of important works, diief of whidb was tbs "Ro- 
man de Rou" of Robert or ratlica- Richard Waoe 
(1 100-75), a caiKKi of Baveox. In this, whidi oonasts 
of nearly 17,000 hnes and was continued by Benott de 
Sainte-More, Waoe rdates the history of the dukes of 
Normandy dofwn to the battle of Undb^ray. Men- 
tion most also be made of the great French poem 
which the Norman AmbrtHse wrote somewhat prior to 
1196 on the Jemsalem inlgrimage of Richard Conir de 
lion. As early as tlus twdf th century Normandy 
was an impc»iant oommeroal centre. Guillaume de 
Neubrig wrote that Rouen was one of the most cele- 
brated cities of Europe and that the Seine brou^t 
thither the oommerdal woducts of many countries. 
The "Etabfiasements de Rouen" in whidi was drawn 
up the "custom" adopted by Rouen^ were copied not 
only by the other Norman towns but by the cities with 
whidi Rouen maintained ccmstant commercial inter- 
course, e. g. Angoul^me, Bayonne, Cognac, St. Jean 
d'Ai«!%, Niort, Poitios, La RocheUe, Saintcs, and 
Tours. The gkUde of Rouen, a powerful commercial 
asBodation^ possessed in England from the time of 
Edward the Confessor the port of Dunegate, now 
DungenesB, near London, and its merchandise entered 
London free. 

Once in the power of the Capetians, Normandy be- 
came an iinpoftant strategical point in the strug^ 
against the Engliah, masters of Poitou and Guyenne in 
the south of France. Norman sailors were enrolled 
by Philip \T of France for a naval ramnaign against 
England in 1340 which resulted in the defeat of 
Ecluse. Under John II the Good, the States of Nor- 
mandy, angered by the ravages committed by Edward 
in of' Enj^snd on his landing in the province, voted 
(l34S-n50) subsidies for the conquest of England. The 
VakMs dynasty was in great danger when Charles the 
Bad, King of A avane, who possessed important lands 
in Normandy, succeeded in 1356 in detaching from 
John II of Fnmoe a number of Norman barons. John 
II appraising the danger came suddenly to Rouen, 

Kt several barons to death, and took Charles the 
d prisoner. ShwtlY afterwards Normandy was 
one of thejMOvinces of France most faithful to the 
Dauphin Oiarles, the future Charles V, and the 
hope the T^nglUh entertained in 1359 of seeing Nor- 
mandy ceded to them by the Preliminaries of London 
was not ratified by the treat y of Bi^tigny (1360); 
Normandv remained French. The victories of Charies 
V eonsoliclated the {Hestige of the Valois in this prov- 
ince. In 1386 Normandy furnished 13S7 vessels for 
an expedition against Elngland never executed. In 
141S the <**mp^gn of Henry V in Normandy was 
for a long time paralvxed by the resistance of Rouen, 
which finally capitulated in 1419, and in 1420 all Nor- 
mandv bec^ne again almost English. 

The Duke <rf Qarence, brother of Hairy V of Eng- 
land, was made lieutmant-general in the province. 
Henry VI and the Duke of Bedford founded a uni- 
versitV at Caen which had faculties of canon and civil 
law, to which Charles VH in 1450 added those of the- 
ology, medicine, and arts. This last attempt at Eng- 
Gsh domination in Normandy was marked by the 
execution at Rouen of Blessed Joan of Arc. English 
rule, however, was undermined by incessant oonspir- 
acicss especiallv on the part of the people of Roura, 
and by revolts* in 1435-36. The rewlt of Val de Vire 
is famous and was the origin of an entire ballad litei^ 
atiire, cadled •' Vaux de Vire", in which the poet Oli>-er 
Bass^lin excelled. These songs, which later became 
bdcchic or amorous in character, and which subee- 
quentlv devek>ped into the populju* drama known as 
*^ Vaudeville", were in the beginning chiefly of an 
historical nature recounting the invasion of Normandy 
by the English. Profiting by the public opinion of 
which the ** Vaux de Vire" ga\-e e\'idence, the Consta- 
bk de Richemont opposed the English on Norman ter- 

ritory. His long and arduous efforts in 1449-50 made 
Normandy once more a French province. Thence- 
forth the possesoon of Normandy by France was 
considered so <ijwrnri*l to the security of tbe Idng- 
dom that diaries ths Bold, for a tone victorious 
over Louis XI, in order to weaken the latter, exacted 
in 1465 that Normandv should be hdd by Duke 
Charles de Beny, the king's brotho- and leader of 
those in revolt against him; two years later Louis XI 
took Normandy from his brother and caused the 
States General of Tours to proclaim in 1468 that Nor- 
mandy could fcH- no reason whatever be dismembered 
from the dmnain of the crown. The ducal ring was 
Im^en in the iH«9ence of the great judicial court 
called the EcJuquier (Exdiequer) and the title of 
Duke of Norm^dy was never to be borne again 
except b^ Louis XVlI, the son of Louis XVI. 

The Norman school of ardiitecture from the thir- 
teenth to the fifteenth centu^ produced superb 
Gothic edifices, chiefly diaracterued by the height of 
thdr spires and bell-towers. Throug^ut the Middle 
Ages Normandy, greatly influenced by St. Bernard 
and the Cistercians, was distinguished for its venera- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin. It was under her pro- 
tection that William the Conqueror placed his expedi- 
tion to England. One of the most ancient mural 
paintiny in France is in the chapel of the Hospice 
St. Juhen at Petit-Quevilly, fortneriy the manor 
chapd of one of the wiy dukes of Normandy, por- 
trajring the Annunciation, the Birth of Christ, and the 
Blessed ^'inn suckling the Infant Jesus during the 
flight into Egypt. As eariy as the tw^fth century 
Robot or rather Richard Wace wrote the history of 
Mary and that of the establishment of the feast of 
the Immaculate Conception. The Norman students 
at Paris placed themselves under the patronage of the 
Immaculate Conception which thus became the 
"feast of the Normans '*; this appdlation does not 
seem to date beyond the thirteentii century. During 
the modem period the Normans have been distin- 
guished for their comntercial expeditions by sea and 
thdr voyages of discovery. As ckriy as 1366 the Nor- 
mans had established markets'on the coast of Africa 
and it was frmn Caux that Jean de B<^thenoourt set 
out in 1402 for the conquest of the Camarics. He 
(»ened up to Vasco da Gama the route to the Cs^ie 
ol Good Hqpe and to Christopher Columbus that to 
America. ^ Two of his chaplains, Piene Bontier and 
Jean le Vorier, gave an account of his expedition 
in a manuscript known as "Le Canarien", edited in 
1874. Jean Ango, b<»n at Dieppe about the end of 
the fifteenth century, acquirea as a ship-owner a 
fortune exceeding that of many princes of his time. 
The Pbrtuguese having in time of peace, sdaed (1530) 
a ship which bdonged to him, he sent a flotilla to 
blockade Lisbon and ravage the Poftuguese coast. 
The ambassador sent by the King of Portugal to 
Francis I to negotiate the matto-, was referred to the 
citiien of Dieppe. Ango was powerful «k>u^ to 
assist the armaments of Frauds I against England. 
He died in 1551. 

Jean Parm«itier (14M-1543), another na^gator 
umI a native of Dieppe, was, it is held, the firat 
Frenchman to take ships to Brasil; to him is also as- 
cribed the honour of having discovered Sumatra in 
1529. Poet as well as sailor, he wrote in verse (1536) 
a^'Descnmion Nouvelle des MerveiDes de ce monde". 
The foundation by Francis I in 1517 of the "French 
City" which afterwards became Havre de Grace, 
shows the importance which French roy^ty attached 
to the Norman coa^. Normandv's maritime com- 
merce was much de^-ekiped by Henry II and Cath- 
erine de Medicis. They granted to the port of Rouoi 
a sort of monopoly for the importation of roices and 
drugs amving by way of the Atlantic, and when they 
came to Rouen in 1550 the merchants of that town 
contnved to give to the nearby wood the appearance 


of the country of Brwil "with three hundred naked f^. of the EnglUhl^onnce, s. y., vi. 184; m. 2»i; Ouvra. Co*. 

..^^^ «^.«;.«.wJl i;i,« a<k«r<kflM^ ^f kw^^wJi^^ «.FkA.«<%A M/\n«Aa wrfMWM <oiMird« lUualriUwg the Biography of S. J., a. v.; GxLLOW, 

men, equippedhke wjvages of Amenca, whence coma ^^ j^^ ^^, cath., V. ». v. 

the wood of Braxir . Among these three himdred James Bridge. 
men were fifty real savages, and there also figured in ^ 

this exhibition ''several monkeys and squirrel mon- Northampton, Diocese of (Nortantonibnsis), 

keys which the merohimts of Rouen had brought from in England, comprises the Counties of Northampton, 

BraiiL" The description of the festivities, which Bedford. Buckingham, Cambridge. Huntingdon, Nor- 

bore witness to active commereial intercourse between folk, and Suffolk, mainly compo^ of agricultural dis- 

Normandy and America, was published together with tricts and fenlands, where Catholics are comparatively 

numerous figures. After the Reformation religious few (see, in article England, Map of the Ecclesiasti- 

wars interrupted the maritime activity of the Normans cal Province of Westminster) . The number of secular 

for a time. Rouen took sides with the League, Caen priests is 70, of regular 18, of chapels and stations, 73, 

with Henry IV, but with the restoration of peace the and of Catholics, 13,308 (1910). Among the more 

maritime expeditions recommenced. Normans founded important rehgious orders are the Benemctines, the 

Quebec in 1608, opened markets in Brazil in 1612. Franciscans, the Carmelites, and the Jesuits. Of con- 

vtsited tJ^e Sonda Islands in 1617, and colonized vents the most notable are those of the Benedictines 

Guadeloupe in 1635. The French population of Can- at East Bersholt, the Sisters of Notre Dame at North- 

ada is to a large extent of Norman origin. During the ampton and Norwich^ the Sisters of Jesus and Mary 

French Revolif tion Normandy was one of the centres at Ipswich, the Poor Sisters of Nazareth at Northamp- 

of the federalist movement known as the Girondin. ton^ and the Dames Bemardines at Slough, who at 

Caen and Evreux were important centres for the Gi- their own expense built a fine church for that parish, 

ronde; Buzot, who led the movement, was a Norman, The principal towns are Norwich, Ipswich, ana Cam- 

and it was from Caen that Charlotte Corday set out bridge, the university town where, according to tradi- 

to slay the " montagnard " Marat. The royalist move- tion. St. Simon Stock, of the Order of Carmel, received 

ment of " la Chouannerie '' had also one of its centres the orown scapular from Our Lady. The Decorated 

in Normandy. Gothic Cathohc church at Cambridge, one of the most 

,-RY*^**~"» "^^ JVorwannorum ^ptoreeantiqui (Paris, beautiful in the kingdom (consecrated in 1890), is ded- 

J5/5ii;V^"M1?SS;1JiJl^li*f in"«^ 1 ^3^2 i?»t«d to,qur I^y and the English Marty™ It is 

yiMQtt'd la mart de Guiilaume U Conquirant (Paris, 1866) ; Waits, the gift of inlrs. Lyne Stephens of Lynford Hall, Nor- 

Ueber die QtMtten ntr Qeeeh, der Beorikndungder normannisch^ folk. Norwich pOSSesses One of the grandest Catholic 

gSS^ ^JSirtSt^ riX^ ^^,^1%IZ^^ churchesm En^^TbSlt by the muiuficence of the 

XL und XlL Jahrhundert (Leiptic. 1900); Sakraxin. Jeanne present Duke of Norfolk m the Transitional Norman 

iFArc et la Normandie au X V' niele (Rouen. 1896)^iw»bllk, Style, after the designs of Sir Gilbert Soott, and com- 

irc.yirBt;e'rt;3SrSS:^t Pleted in lOlO.^ tL cathedral at Northampton is a 


jLondon, i9M);MiLTOpi.«ofiifcle« in JVorwa^^ hierarchy: he resigned the see in 1858, and died in 

FmrnmuAV, Hiit. of the Norman Conqueet of Bngland {,OxioTd,lS70- iqrk trio o,,««*J^^- i?.«.«<.;o ITa.-:! k^^u^m^* «*»« 

76) ; Pauibav., Normandy and BrigSnd OiTSte,, 1861-67) ; Lap- ^^^S. HlS SUCCeSSOr, FranclS Kernl Amherst, waS 

PBtrBBBG, Anglo-Norman Kings; Noroatb. Bngiand under the Consecrated 4 July, 1858, and resigned m 1879, the see 

AngpinKinge (Oxford, 1887) ; Keart, TA* TjfAtna* in Weetem being occupied the following year by Arthur Riddell, 

Chrvdendom A, t. 789 to A. D. 888 (London 1891) ^t^^,*^ 15 ^p^^ I9O7 The present Bishop of North- 

UEORCjBS UOTAU. ampton (1910), Frederick William Keating, b. at Birin- 
Norris, Sylvester (alias Smith, Newton), oontro- ing^am, 13 June, 1859, was cons^sratcd 25 Feb.. 1908. 
rersial writer and English missionary priest; b. 1670 Northampton was the scene of the last stand made 
or 1572 in Somersetshire; d. 16 March, 1630. After by St. Thomas of Canterbury against the arbitrary 
receiving minor orders at Reims in 1690, he went to conduct of Henry II. Bury St. Edmund's, ancientlv 
the English College. Rome, where he completed his ^ renowned as the place where the body of St. Ed- 
studies and was ordained priest. In May, 1696. he mund. King and Martyr, was enshrined and venerated 
was sent on the English mission, and his energetic char- ?* ^«1* ^ ^or its Benedictine abbey, has become famil- 

Bridewoll Gaol. From his prison he addressed a letter occumes the central position. The Isle of Ely and St. 

to the Earl of Salisbury, dated 1 Dec., 1606, in which Etheldreda are famous m Enghsh ecclesiastical his- 

he protests his innocence, and in proof of his loyalty ^^- Canute, King of England, was accustomed to 

promises to repair to Rome, and labour that the pope ^^w or skate across the fens each year to be present on 

shall bind all the Catholics of England to be just, true, ^^ Feast of the Purification at the Mass in the Abbey 

and loyal subjects, and that hostages shall be sent Church of Ely, and Thomas Eliensis ascribes to him 

"for the afferminse of those things . He was there- ^^^ well-known lines beginning, "Sweetly sang the 

upon banished along with forty-flix other priests monks of Ely". At Walsingham, also in this diocese, 

(1606), went to Rome, and entered the Society of only ruins are now left of a shrine which, in the Middle 

Jesus. He was for some time employed in the Jesuit Ages, was second only to the Holy House of Loreto, 

colleges on the Continent, but in 1611 returned to the of which it was a copy. Many great names of the 

Engluh mission, and in 1621 was made superior of the Reformation penod are connected with the district 

Hampshire district, where he died. covered by the Diocese of Northampton. Catherine 

He wrote : " An Antidote, or Treatise of Thirty Con- of Aragon died at Kimbolton and was buried at Peter- 

troveraes; With a large Discourse of the Church" boroueh, where the short inscjription, "Queen Cath- 

(1622); "An Appendix to the Antidote" (1621); "The erine", upon a stone slab marks her resting-place. 

Pseudo-Scripturist" (1623); "A true report of the From Framlingham Castle, the ruins of which are still 

Private Colloquy between M. Smith, alms Norrice, considerable. Queen Mary Tudor set out, on the death 

and M. Walker" (1624); "The Christian Vow"; of Edward VI, to contest with Lady Jane Grey her right 

" Discourse proving that a man who believeth in the *o the throne. At Ipswich, the birthplace of Cardinal 

Trinity, the Incarnation, etc., and yet believeth not Wolsey, is still to be seen the gateway of the College 

all other inferior Articles, cannot be saved"(1625). built by him. At Fotheringay^ Mary Queen of Scots 

eoiopRiTooBL, AiW. J., V (1809-09); Foi«T. Bmy wae beheaded (1687), and at Wisbech Castle, where 9Q 


many miBuonarj' prieata, during penal time*, were im- to the eaatem foot of the Blue Ridge, is more or leM 
prisoned, William Watson, the laat but one of the Ma- hilly, but the rich interveiiing valleys produce prao- 
rian biahopB, died, a prisoaerfor the Faith (15S4). Sir tically all the general crope, including cotton and to- 
HenryBedinKfeld, the faithfulfollower of Queen Many bacco, with fruits of all lands, llie soil, though not 
and the gentle "Jtulor of the Princess Ehubeth", is natur^ly rich, is capable of a U^ degree of cultiva- 
MfNxaated with this diocese through Oxburgh Hall, tion. The westward section, which runs to the Ten- 
hie mansion, still occupied by another Sir Heniy Bed- nesaee line, ia mostly mountainous, with rich valleya 
ingfeld.hisairectdeecendant. The PastonsofFaston and sheltered coves. Its principal productions are 
are memorable in connenon with the celebrated " Pas- those of the central section, modified somewhat by 
ton Letters". Many of the priests who suffered its greater elevation. It cont^ns some lofty prab, 
death under the penal laws belonged to the districts Mount Mitchell being the hif^est peak east of the 
now included in the Dioceee of Northampton, in par- Rocky Mountains. The state is well watered, having 
ticular, Henry Heath, bom, 1600, at Peterborough; numerous rivers, which, though not generally naviga- 
Venerable Henry Walpole, S.J., (d. 1595}, a native of bie, in their rapid descent furnish enormous water- 
Norfolk, and Venerable Robert Southwell S.J.,(1S60- power, much of which has been recently developed. 
95), the Catholic poet, also bom in Norfolk. In more They may be divided into three classes, those flowing 
recent times Bishop Mihier was connected with the indirectly into the Mississippi, those flowing into the 
preservation of the Faith in this part of England. Great Pedee and the Santra, and tjiose flowing into 
Alban Butler, the ha^opapber, was bom in North- the Atlantic. The coast line, nearly. four hundred 
amptonshire and was resident priest at Norwich from miles long, includes Capes Fear, Lookout, and Hat- 
1754-56. Dr. Husenbeth resided for some years at teras; and, at varying distances from the ocean, run a 
Cossey, where he ia buried (see Httbbnbbth, Frbi>- aeries of sounds, chief of which are Currituck, Albe- 
KRicK Charles). Father Ignatius Spencer, the Fas- marie, and Pamlico. There are good harbours at 
sionist, son of Earl Spencer, and formerly Rector of Edenton, New Bern, Washington, Beaufort, and Wil- 
BringtoD, was received into the Catholic Church at nungton, including Southport. The climate is gener- 
Norwampton, and Faber, the Oratorian, held the ally equable, and North Carolina produces nearly all 
AngUcan living of Klton, Huntingdonshire, before his the crops grown in the United States with the excep- 

■__ tion of Bub-tropical cane and fruits. Four (rf the wine 

grapes, the Catawba, Isabella, Lincoln, and Scupper- 

g,„r^,^ nong, originated here. It has also large areas of toIu- 

JoBN Fbeeland. able timber of great variety. With a few rare excep- 
tions all the known minerals are found in the state. In 

North CwoUnki one of the original thirteen States 1905, taking the fourteen leading induBtriee, includ- 

of the United States, is intuated between 33° 53' and ing about 90 per cent of the total, there were 3272 

36^ 33' N. lat., and 75° 25' and 84° 30' W. long. It is manufacturing establishments, with a capital of 

botmded an the norUi by Virmnia, east and south-east S141, 039,000, producing yearly products of the value 

by the Atlantic Oceftn, south by South Carolina and of $142,520,776. The pnncipal manufactured prod- 

^^^^^^ Georgia, and west uct was cotton, in which North Carolina nmked 

"^^^^^^^ m, j Dorth-west by third among all the States, and tobacco, in which she 

Tennessee. Itsex- ranked second. 

treme length from Railhoam and Banks. — There are in operation 

east to west is 503 within the SUte 4387 miles of railroads, besides 9U 

miles, with an ex- miles of sidings, with a total valuation of $86,347,553, 

I treme breadth of but capitaliaSd for a much larger amount. The 

187 miles, and an state has 321 banks organiied under the state law; 

average breadth of with an aggregate capital stock of $7,692,767; and 60 

about 100 miles, national ^nks with a capital of S6,760,000. The 

Its area is 52,250 entire reco^ed state debt is S6,SS0,950, the greater 

square miles, of part of which could be paid by the sale of certain 

which 3670 is wa- railroad stock held by the sUte. 

ter. Originally it HisTOav.^North Carolina was originally inhabited 

included the prea- by various tribes of Indians, the three principal ones 

ent State of Ten- being the Tuscaroras in the east, the Catawbas in the 

neesee, ceded to the centre, and the Cherokeee in the west. A small bo^ 

United States in 1790. In 1784-5 the people of that of Cherokees is still located in the mountun section, 

section made an unsuccessful effort to set up an in- In 1534 Queen Elitabeth granted to Sr W^ter 

dependent state named Franklin, with John Sevier Raleigh the right to discover and hold any lands not 

BB governor. It is divided iato ninety-eiKht counties inhabited by Christian people. This charter consti- 

ana has (1910) ten Concessional distncts, with a tutes the flrM step in the work of English coloniaation 

population of 2,206 ,2S7. The capitaIiBRaleigh,Bitu- in America. Five voyages were made under it, but 

MB.: BaoB, HiM. Sed.; Hiloria BUnfiiTw irmKtoii. FitHu 

at^ nearly in the geoin^phical centre of the state; without success in establisliing a permanent settle- 

the principal cities are Wilmington, Charlotte, Ashe- ment. In 1663 Charles II granted to Sir George 

ville, Greensboro, and Winston. Carteret and seven others a stretch of land on toe 

Fhtsicai, CHARACTBaiSTics. — North Carolina has Atlantic coast, lying between Vilginia and Florida, 

a remarkdble varietv of topografriiy, soil, climate, and and running west to the South Seas. The grantees 

production and falls naturmly into three divisions, were created "absolute lords proprietors" of the 

The eastern or Tidewater section begins at the ocean province of Carolina, with full powers to make and 

and extends north-westwardly to tJie foot of the hills; execute such laws as they deemed proper. This ^raat 

the land is level, with sluuisli streams and many was enlarged in 1665 both as to territory and juris- 

marshee aod swamps, includu^ part of the great Dis- diction, and in 1669 the lords propriet^wi promul- 

mal Swamp. Itis the home of the long leaf pine, with gated the "Fundamental Constitutions of Cuolina", 

itaproducteofpiteh, tar,andturpentine,longasource framed by John Locke, the philosopher, but they 

of wealth. Tlie principal productions are cotten, proved too theoretical for practical operation. The 

com, and rice; whHe "truck gardeniiuc" has recently lords proprietors made every effort to colonise thdr 

grown into an important industry, ^e fisheries are province, which already contained one or two small 

also valuable. The central or Piedmont section, com- settlements and for which they appointed governors 

prinng nearly h^ the state and extending westward at variouB times, frequently with local oomicila- 



Albeioarle, the name originally given to what now be a member of either house of the Legislature while 
constitutes North Carolina, was augmented by settle- continuing in the exercise of his pastoral functions, 
ments from Virginia, New Ensland, and Bermuda. All of these provisions, except the declaration of re- 
in 1674 the population was about four thousand, ligious freedom, have since been abandoned. The 
In 1729, Carolina became a royal province, the king Convention of 1835 adopted many amendments, rati- 
havin^ purchased from the proprietors seven-ei^ths fied in 1836; among others, all persons of negro blood 
of theu- domain. Carteret, subsequentljr Earl Gran- to the fourth generation were disfranchised; and 
ville, surrendered his right of jurisdiction, but re- the Protestant qualification for office omitted. The 
tained in sevcaralty his share of the land. It gained Constitution of 1868 restored negro suffrage, but in 
considerable accessions in population by a colo^ of 1900 amendments, adopted by uie Legislature and 
Swiss at New Bern, of Scotch Highlanders on Cape ratified by the people. i>rovided that every qualified 
Fear, of Moravians at Salem, and of Scotch-Irish voter should have paia his poll tax and be able to read 
and Pennsylvania Dutch, who settled in different parts and write any section of the Constitution; but that 
of the state. For many years, however, there has any person entitled to vote on or i>rior to 1 January, 
been veiy little immigration and the population is 1867, or his lineal descendant, might register on a 
now. essentially homogeneous. permanent roll until 1 November, 1908. This is 

The people of North Carolina were among the called the "Grandfather Clause ''. 

earliest anci most active promoters of the Revolution. Education. — ^In early times there were no schools; 

The Stamp Tax was bitterly resented: a provincial private teachers furnishing the only means of educa- 

congress, held at New Bern, elected delegates to the tion. Beginning about 1760, several private classi- 

first Continental Congress m Septembcar, 1774, and cal schools were established in different parts of the 

joined in the declaration of Colonial rights. As state, the most prominent being Queen's College 

early as 20 May, 1775, a committee of citizens met in at Charlotte, subsequently called Liberty Hall. The 

Ch£j*lotte and issued the ''Mecklenburg Declaration State University was opened for students in February, 

of Indei)endence", formally renouncing allegiance to 1795; but want of means and a scattered population 

the British Crown. In December, 1776, the provin- prevented any public school ^tem until long after 

cial congress at Halifax adopted a State constitution the Revolution. The Civil War seriously interfered 

which immediately went into effect, with Richard with all forms ofeducation; but the entire educational 

Caswell as governor. The delegates from this state system is now in a high state of efficiency. The fol- 

signed the Declaration of Independence and the Arti- lowing are under State control, but receive aid from 

cles of Confederation. In 1786 the General Assembly tuition fees and donations: the State University, 

elected deleg^ates to the Federal Constitutional Con- situated at Chapel Hill, endowment, $250,000; total 

vention and its delegates present signed the Constitu- income, $160,000 ; annual State appropriation, $75,000 ; 

tion : but the General Assembly did not ratify it faculty. 101 ; students, 821 ; the North Carolina State 

until 21 November, 1789, after the Federal Govern- Normal and Industrial College for women at Greens- 

ment had been organizea and gone into operation, boro, founded in 1891, buildings, 13; annual State 

During the Revolution the state furnished the Con- appropriation, $75,000; faculty, 63; students, 613; 

tinental army with 22.910 men. Important battles North Carolina College of Agricultural and Mechanic 

were fought at Guilford Court House (between Green Arts at West Raleigh, opened in 1889, annual State 

and Comwallis, 15 March, 1781), Alamance, Moore's appropriation. $37,000; annual Federal appropriation. 

Creek, Ramsour's Mill, and King's Mountain on the $49,450; faculty. 42; students, 446; the Agricultural 

state line. There was a predominant Union senti- and Mechanical College for the coloured race at 

ment in North Carolina in the early part of 1861; and Greensboro, annual State appropriation, $10,000; an- 

at an election held 28 February, Uie people voted nual Federal appropriation, $11,550; facility, 14; 

against caUing a convention for the purpose of seces- students, 173. A training school for white teachers 

sion; but after the firing on Fort Sumter and the has just been established at Greenville. There are 

actual beginnmg of the war, a convention, called by the three State Normal Schools for the coloured race. 

Ledslature without submission to the people, met on The official reports of public schools for the vear 

20 Mav, 1861, passed an ordinance of secession, and 1908-9 show a total school population of whites, 490,- 

ratified the Confedezate Constitution. Fort Fisher 710 ; coloured, 236,855 : schoolhouses, 7670 ; white 

was the only important battle fought in the state, teachers, 8129: coloured teachers, 2828; total avail- 

The State sent 125,000 soldiers into the Civil War, the able fund, $3,419,103. There are a large number of 

largest number sent by any southern state. In 1865 flourishing denominational colleges both for men and 

a provisional government was organized by President, women, several of which belong to the coloured race. 

Johnson, and later the state came under the Recon- Among the State institutions are: a large central pcni- 

struction Act passed by Congress, 2 March, 1867. tentiary, three hospitals for insane, thi^ee schools for 

On 11 July, 1868, the state government was restored deaf, dumb, and blmd, and a tuberculosis sanitarium, 

by proclamation of the president. Rbugious Condhions. — Under the lords propri- 

The Constitution of 1776 had some remarkable etors there was much religious discrimination and 

provisions. It allowed free negroes to vote because even persecution; but there was little under the Crown 

they were "freemen"^ all slaves, of course, being dis- except as to holding office and celebrating the rite 

franchised because m law they were considered of matrimony. The disqualification for office involved 

chattels. Any freeman could vote for the members of in denving the truth of the Protestant religion re- 

the House of Commons; but must own fifty acres of mained in the Constitution until the Convention of 

land to vote for a senator, who must himself own at 1835. In 1833 William Gaston, a Catholic of great 

least three himdred acres, and a member at least abitity and noble character, was elected associate 

one himdred acres. The governor must own a free- justice of the Supreme Court for life. Regarding the 

hold of five thousand dollars in value. The borough religious disqualification as legally and morally in- 

towns of Edenton, New Bern, Wilmington, Salisbury, valid, he promptly took his seat without opposition. 

Hillsboro, and Halifax were each allowed a separate While still remaining on the bench, he was elected a 

member m the House of Commons apart from the delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1835, 

counties. It declared: "That all men have a natural and attended its session. His great speech against 

and inalienable right to worship Almighty Qod, ao- any religious discrimination was conclusive, and the 

cording to the dictates of their own cotiscience" ; but obnoxious clause was stricken out of the Constitution, 

that no person who denied the truth of the Protestant Since then there has been no legal discrimination 

rdigjon should hold any civil office of trust or profit, against Catholics. All persons denying the existence 

No clergyman or preacher of any denomination should of Almighty God have been disquahfied from holding 




office under ever^r constitution. The preamble to 
the present Constitution recognizes the dependence 
of the people upon Almighty God, and their ^titude 
to Him for the existence ot their civil, political, and 
religious liberties. The Legislature is opened with 
praver. The law rec^uires the observance of Sunday, 
aaa punishes any disturbance of religious congrega- 
tions. The following are legal Holidays: 1 January: 
19 January (Lee's birthday); 22 February: 12 April 
(anniversary of Halifax Resolution); 10 May (Con- 
federate Decoration Day) ; 20 May (anniversary Meck- 
lenburg Declaration of Independence); 4 July; 1st 
Monday in September (Labour Day); general elec- 
tion day in November; Thanksgiving; and Christmas. 
Neither Sundays nor holidays are regarded as diet 
non except in certain limited cases. Religious bodies 
may become incorporated dther imder the general 
law or by special act. If not specifically incorporated 
they are r^^arded as quasi corporations, and may ex- 
ercise many corporate powers. The Protestant Epis- 
copal bishop has been created a corporation sole by 
special act of the Legislature. All real and personal 
property used exclusively for religious, charitable, or 
educational purposes, as also property whose income 
is so used, is exempt from taxation. Minist-ers of the 
(jiospel are exempt from jury duty and their private 
libraries from taxation. The only privileged com- 
munications recognized are those between lawyers and 
their clients, and physicians and their patients. There 
is no statute aUowing this exemption to priests, and 
therefore they stand as at common law; but there is 
no recorded instance in which they have ever been 
asked to reveal the secrets of the confessional. 

Mabriaqe and DivoRCE.^Driginally in this colony 
legally valid marriages could be solemnized only by 
ministers of the Church of England, of whom there 
were few, nearly all in the eastern part of the colony. 
In 1715 this ^wer was conferred upon the governor; 
in 1741 upon justices of the peace; in 1766 upon minis- 
ters of the Presbyterian Church, and finally in 1778 
upon the ministers of all denominations. The cere- 
mony can now be performed by an ordained minister 
of any religious denomination or a justice of the peace; 
and the peculiar marriage custom of the Friends is 
recognized as valid. Males xmder sixteen and females 
under fourteen are legally incapable of marriage, and 
all marriages of those related by consanguinity closer 
than the degree of first cousin, and between whites 
and negroes or Indians are void. A marriage licence 
is required, and the Registrar is forbidden by law to 
issue licences for the marriage of any one under 
eighteen years of age without written consent of tiie 
parent or one standing in loco parerUia. Absolute 
divorce (a vinculo) may be granted for the following 
causes: pre-existing natural and continued impotence 
of either party; if they shall have lived separate and 
apart continuously for ten years, and have no chil- 
dren; adultciy by the wife, or pr^piancy at the time 
of marriage unknown to husband and not by him; 
continued fornication and adultery by the husband. 
Either party may remarry, but no alimony is allowed. 
Divorce a mensa el toro may be granted with alimony 
for the following causes: if either party shall abandon 
-his or her family, or turn the other out of doors, or 
shall by cruel and barbarous treatment endanger the 
life of the other, or shall offer such indignities to the 
person of the other as to miUce his or her life intoler- 
able, or shall become an habitual drunkard. Upon 
such a divorce parties cannot remarry. 

Bequests for charitable purposes must be cleariy 
defined, as the cy-^ha doctrine is not recognized; 
and there must be some one capable of taking the 
bequest. Whether a bequest for Masses would be 
specifically enforced by the courts, has not been de- 
cided; but it is not probable that it would be interfered 
with, as the courts have never invoked the doctrine 
of Superstitious Uses. Cemeteries are provided for 

and protected by law. In administering oaths, the 
party sworn must ''lay his hand upon the Holy Evan- 
g;elist8 of Almighty God " ; but those having conscien- 
tious scruples may appeal to God with uplifted hand; 
and "Quakers, Moravians, Dunkers, and Mennon- 
ites'' may affirm. 

Prohibition. — For many years prohibition senti- 
ment has been growing until it culminated, in 1908, in 
the passage by the General Assembly of an act mak- 
ing It unlawful to make or sell any spirituous, vinous, 
fermented, or malt liquors within the state, except 
for sacramental purposes, or by a registered pharma- 
cist on a phvsician's prescription. Native ciders may 
be sold without restriction; and native wines at the 
place of manufacture in sealed or crated padcages 
containing not less than two and a half gallons each, 
which must not be opened on the premises. 


(From the Ceosua of Religious Bodies, 1906) 


AU denominations 

Baptist, white 

Baptist, ooL 


Con^regationalists . . . . 




Methodist, white 

Methodist, ool 

Presbyter, and Refor.. . 
Protestant Episcopal . . 

Roman Catholic 

All other 








of Chi 































































In the above, the Catholic population was reduced 
bv deducting 15 per cent for cnildren imder nine years 
of age. 

North Carolina, Vicariate Apobtouc of, was 
canonically established and separated from the Dio- 
cese of Cliarleston, South Carolina by Bull, 3 March, 
1868, with James (now Cardinal) Gibbons as first vicar. 
It comprised the entire state until 1910, when eight 
counties were attached to Belmont Abbey. The latest 
statistics, for the entire state, show secular priests, 17; 
religious, 16; churches, 15; missions, 34; stations, 47; 
chapels, 5; Catholics, 5870. The Apostolate Com- 
pany, a corporation of secular priests at Nasareth, 
maintains a boys' orphanage and industrial school, 
and publishes ** Truth^', a monthly periodical. There 
is a girls' school and sanatorium at Asheville, and hos- 
pitab at Charlotte (Sisters of Mercy) and Greensboro 
(Sisters of Charity). There are parochial schools 
at Asheville, Charlotte, Salisbury, IXirham, Newton 
Grove, Raleigh, and Wilmington. The vicariate is 
subject to the Propaganda, and its present vicar is the 
Abbot Ordinary of Belmont. 

Belmonl Cathedral Abbey. — By Bull of Pius X, 8 June, 
1910, the Counties of Gastozi, Lincoln, Cleveland, 
Rutherford, Polk, Burke, McDowell, and Catawba 
were cut off from the vicariate to form the diocese of. 
the Cathedral Abbey at Belmont, canonically erected 
by Mgr Diomede Falconio, Apostolic Del^ate in the 
Unitea States, on 18 October, 1910. The vicariate re- 
mains under the administration of the abbot ordinary 
at Belmont until a diocese can be formed in the state. 
Behnont Abbey, situated in Gaston County, was 
erected into an abbey by Papal Brief dated 19 Decem- 
ber, 1884, its first abbot being Rt. Rev. Leo Haid. He 
was bom at Latrobe, Pennsylvania, 15 Julv, 1849. 
ordained priest in 1872, and served as chaplain and 
professor m St. Vincent's Abbey until 1885. Ap- 
pointed Vicar Apostolic of North Carolina in 1887, he 
was consecratea titular Bishop of Messene 1 July, 


1888. The abbey itself haa many extra-territoriBJ de- 
pecdenciee, i. e. military colleges in Savannah, Georgia 
and lUclunond, Vii^jinia, and paruhea in both of these 
cities, bmides varioua misaions in the Btat« itself i and 
forms legal coroorations in Virginia, North Carolina, 
and Georgia. To it aleo is attached a college for secu- 
lar education and a seminary for the secular and regu- 
lar clergy. To the abbey proper belong 32 priests, 2 


iiad entered the novitiate. He returned to Rome to 
complete his ecclemastical studiu, also acquiring 
the profound erudition in Christian antiquities which 
was later to be enahrined in his gr^t work "Roma 
Sotterranea". In 1857 he was appointed to the mis- 
sion of Stoke-upon-Trent, which he served until 1860, 

phonage for girls and a preparatory school for little bOTB. 
Prominent Cat^oJics. —Though there are few Catho- 
lics in the statCj an unusual proportion have occupied 
prominent official positions. Thomas Burke was gov- 
ernor, and William Gaston, M. E. Manly, and R, M. 
Dougjaa were associate justices of the Supreme Court. 
R. R. Heath, W. A. Moore, and W. S. O'B. Robinson 
were Superior Court judges, and R. D. Douglas attor- 
ney general. Prominent benefactors were Dr. D. 
O'Dona^ue, Lawrence Brown, and Raphael Gua»- 
torino. Mrs. Francis C. Tienian (Chiistian Reid) is a 
native of North Carolina. 

Saai. Aid. itft^ CdlAaUe CAurdi (Nbv York.lge2) ; O'CoHHUL, 
CalluliciluiatluCaroliwtandaiaraiaQitw'ioiii.lSVOy. Offieial 
Caltulie Dveaam (Kew Yofk, 1810); Fub. o/ V. 8. fiurHui nf 
Cinnu ud SdwalioFi; Aaii. Rtp. of SlaU Offiart (lUleUh) ; Bah- COm 
CBon. HiM. of V. a. (Barton, 1879)^ Lawion, ^ix. ^Cvalina |nw 
(London, 1714; HiJucb. 1880): Buckkll, WMutoJ Hit. of S. C. Jt' 
iOublin, 1737): ffiLUimaoH, HiU. of H. C. CPhitulclphU. 181!): ^^ 
Makdr. HM. at N. C. (Naw Orl«uu. 1829): Wbiklu. HiH. at 
N. C. (Pkuladslphi*. 1S5II: Hiwu, HiMt. al N. C. (FusllevUlB, 
S. C, 1B57): MoDBi. HiM. of N. C. (Raleigb. 1880); Fo<m, 
aktidm e/ N. C. (Nsw Vorlc, 1S4B) : Rhchhu Hiu. of iXi Uaror 
tiaiu in JV. e. <8^m. N. C. 18S7): BiiNHnii. Hia. ofOu Oer- 
man B^iUmmU in N. C. (PtuUdslpliU, 1872); CABtrrnuui. Tht 
Old NoriliSiaU in 1770 (Philmdclpfais. 1884): Idih. lAJt of Rtt. 
Darid CaUwiU (Qresoiboni. N. C.. IS42): HtJHTH. StUilu^ of 
WuMm ft. C. (iUlfosh. 1877): Va»5, SaMern N. C. (Richmonii, 
Vs.. ISBS); Wbiblwi, Kmuiiuccncu and Unuiri of S. C. (Co- 
in inbiu. Ohio. ISStl; Cotton. Lif' of Uaam (BBltimon, 1840); 
KniiPix. HiM.o/Roim County (S&liibury, N. C., ISSl): Sdurntk, 
N. C. (Ralei^. 1889); A»h«, Hitl. of N. C. (Qnciuboro, N. C, 
1R08): BATTI.E. Hia. ofUu [/•». of N. C. (lUleisb, 1B07); Aub, 
Biot. Hit. of N. C. (OrBeiuiboro. 1905); Clare. N. C. Rogi- 
metilt taei~S (lUleich. 1901): Cohneb, Hiorn of iht OU Nortk 
ataU (Philwlal^iu, 1906): Hilu Yovrm PcoiU'i Hit. of N. C. 
(ChiifctW, N.C., lfi-~ " - - — 

rule, which lasted for seventeen years, the college 
entered on an unprecedent«d degree of proeperitv, 
and his inSuence on education was felt tar outmae 
the walls of Oscott. Failing health caused him to re- 
ngn in 1876, and he returned to the missioD, firet at 
Stone (1878), and then at Stoke-upon-Trent (1881), 
where he spent the rest of hie life revered by| all for hia 
learning, hia noble character, and his sanctity. Dup- 
ing the last twenty years of his life he ButTered from 
creeping paralysis, which slowly deprived him of all 
boduy motion, though leaving hia mind intact. He 
had l>een made a canon of the Diocese of Birmingham 
in 1861, canon-theoto(pan in 1862, and provost in 
1885. In 1861 the pope conferred on him the doctor^ 

witnessed to by many works, chief among whicii 
"Roma Sotterranea", the great work on the Cata- 
combs, written in conjunction with William R. Brown- 
low, afterwards Bishop of Clifton. This work has 
been translated into French and Genoan; and it won 
for its authors recognition as bein^ among the great* 
est living authorities on the subject. Other works 
were: "The Fourfold Difficulty of Anglicanism" 
(Derby, 1846): "A PilnHmage to La Salette" (Lon- 
don, 1852)' "Roman Catacombs" (London, 1857): 
"Mary in the Gospels" (London, 1867); "Celebrated 
Sanctuaries of the Madonna" (London, 1868); "A 
Visit to the Roman Catacombs" (London, 1877); 
"Epitaphs of the Catacombs" (London, 1878). 

leicta. 1834): Put. of If. C. Hiti. Cimmitnon IRAleish, 1900-10); 
SwTB. HitL of Edueation in K. C. (Govt. Piintiu Offin. 1S88); 
TAU.n*»f, Hit. o/Uu (7anpav0n k/ 1780-1 (I^iidoD, 1787); 
PrinetoK CdUw* ivriit l*< BiahUmh Cc^wfv (Nev York, IS73) ; 
DC Bow. frujulnal Raoarcn of Uie Souili ami Wet (r^eir 0> 
lauis. 18S3) : Poobb. Can^ilufuni, Colanial Charton anil Organic 
Lawtofllit U.S..U laon. PiialiDgOaoe, IS7S). 1379: Colonial 
and SlaU Kennji »/ N. C. (25 vols., ISSO-IBOS); PiMic Lam of 
!f. C; Ttii Codt of ISS3; Tht Retitai of 1906 (publiahsd by SUM, 
RBl«(h): Clabk, Tht Suprant Court of N. C. IGncB Bu, Oet., 
Not.. Dm., isez). Tbera u bIh & luce mua ol viliuble tainori- 

it«l mAtUtr in mKffmminp HFti^Tnt BnH tii]bliabed Bdd wCl botb 


Narthcota, Jaues SniHCitB, b. at Feniton Court, 
Devonshire, 26 May, 1821; d. at Stoke-upon-Trent, 
Staffordshire, 3 March, 1907. He was the second son 
of George Barons Northcote, a gentleman of an an- 
cientDevonshirefamilyof Normandescent. Educated 
first at Ihmngton Grammar School, he won in 1837 a 
scholaiBhip at Corpus Christ! College, Oxford, where 
he came luder Newman's influence. In 1841 he be- 
came B.A., and in the following year married his 
counn, SuHnnah Spencer Ruscombe Poole. Taking 
Ai^^ican Orders in 1844 he accepted a curacv at llfra- 
combe; but when hia wife was received into tne Catho- 
lic Church in 1845, he resipied his office. In 1846 he 
himself was converted, being received at Prior Park 
College, where he continued as a master for some time. 
From June, 1852, until September, 1854, he acted as 
editor of ttie "Elambler", and about the same time 
bBlpedtoeditthewell-known"Clifton Tracts". After 
his wife's death in 1853 he devoted himself to prepora' 
tion forthe priesthood, first under Newmannt Edgbas- 
ton, then at the Collegio Pio, Rome. On 29 July, 1855, 
he was ordained priest at Stone, where his daughter 

Korth Dakota, one of the United States of Amer- 
ica, originally included ii) the Louisiana Purchase. 
Little was known of the region prior to the eroedition 
of Lewis and Clark, who spent the winter of 1804-fi 
about tliirty miles north-weet of Bismarck. In 1811 
Uie Astor expedi- 
tion encountered a 
band of Sioux near 
the boundary of 
North and South 
Dakota on the Mis- 
souri. Settlement . 
was long delayed 
on account of the 


wars, and the land 
was practically 
given up to huntore 
and trappers. In 
1849 all that part 
of Dakota east of 
the Missouri and 
White Earth 
Rivers was made part of the Territory of Minnesota, 
and in 1854 all to the west of the sud rivers was in< 
eluded in the Territory of Nebraska. Finally, 2 
March, 1861, President Buchanan signed the bill 
creating the Territory of North Dakota, with Dr. 
William Jayne of Springfield, 111., as first governor; 
and on 2 November, 1889, the State of North DakoU 
was formed. North Dakota is bounded on Uie north 
by Saskatchewan and Manitdsa, on the south by 
South Dakota, on the east by Minnesota (the Red 
River dividing), and on the west b^ Montana. The 
surface is chiefly rolling prairie, with on elevation of 
from eight hundred to nine hundred feet in the Red 


River vaUey, from thiiteen hundred to fifteen hundred any time). Service of process except in criminal 

feet in the Devil's Lake region and from two thou- cases is prohibited on Sunday. A p^son uniformly 

sand to twenty-eight hundredfeet west of Minot. The keeping another day of the week as hol]^ time, may 

chief rivers are the Missouri, Red, Sheyenne, James, labour on Sunday, provided he do not interrupt or 

Mouse, and their tributaries. The state forms a disturb other persons in observing the first day of the 

rectangle, measuring approximately two hundred and week. The fine for Sabbath-breaking is not less than 

fourteen miles from north to south and three hundred one dollar or more than ten dollars for each offence, 

and thirty from east to west, and has an area of 70,795 It is a misdemeanour to serve civil process on Saturday 

square miles, of which 650 is water. The population on a j^rson who keeps that day as the Sabbath. 
(1910) was 577,056, an increase of 82.8 per cent, since Oaths, — Section 533 of the code of 1905, amended 

1900. 1909. provides : '' Tlie following officers are authorised 

Resources, — AffricuUure. — ^The number of farms to aominister oaths: each judge of the supreme court 
in the state in 1910 was 64,442. number of acres in and his deputy, clerks of the district court, clerks of 
cultivation over 13 millions. Wheat is the dominant the county court with increased jurisdiction, county 
crop, the Red River Valley being perhaps the most auditors and registers of deeds and their deputies 
famous wheat-producing region in the world. Oats within their respective counties, county commission- 
flax, and barley are also produced in large Quantities, ers within their respective counties, judges of the 
The prairies offer fine ranching ground ana the state county court, public administrators within their re- 
has 1,315,870 head of live stock. Her forests aggre- spective counties, justices of the peace within their 
gate 95,918 acres; there are 135,150 cultivated fruit respective counties^ notaries public anywhere in the 
trees, a^d 2381 acres of berries. Besides many natural State upon compl3ang with the provisions of sections 
groves, very rich in wild small fruit, there are a vast 545 and 546, city clerks or auditors, township clerks 
number of cultivated farm groves, and some fine and village recorders within their respective cities, 
nurserieSj the largest of which is near Devil's Lake townships, and villages; each sheriff and his deputy 
and consists of about 400 acres. within tneir ren)ective counties in the cases provided 

Mining. — In the western part of the state, North by law; other officers in the cases especially provided by 
Dakota has a coal supply greater than that of any law". It is a misdemeanour to take, or for an officer 
other state in the Union; coal is mined at Minot. to administer, an extra-judicial oath, except where the 
Burlington, Kenmare, Ray, Dickinson, Dunseith, and same is required by the provisions of some contract 
other places; the supply is cheap and inexhaustible as the basis or proof of claim, or is agreed to be re- 
fer fuel, gas, electricity, and power. In 1908 there ceived by some person as proof of any fact in the per- 
were 88 mines in operation and 289,435 tons mined, formance of any contract, obligation or duty instead 
Clays for pottery, fire and pressed brick aboxmd in of other evidence. Blasphemy consists in wantonly 
Stark, Dimn, Mercer, Morton, Hettinger, and Bil- uttering or publishing words, reproaches, or profane 
lings counties. Cement is found in CavaUer County words against God, Jesus Christ, the Holy Ghost, the 
on the border of Pembina. The artesian baon is in Holy Scripture, or the Christian religion. Profane 
North Dakota sandstone at the base of the upper swearing consists in any use of the name of God, Jesus 
cretacean, at a depth of from eight hundred feet in Christ, or the Holy Ghost, either in imprecating 
the south-east to fifteen hundred feet at Devil's Lake. Divine vengeance upon the utterer or any other per- 
Good common brick clay may be found practically son, in a light^ triflmg, or irreverent speech. Bla»- 
all over the state from deposits in the glacial lakes, phemy is a misdemeanour, and profane swearing is 
North Dakota has 5012 miles of railroad, and four punishable by a fine of one doUar for each offence, 
main lines cross the state. There is direct railway Obscenity in a public place or in the presence of 
communication with Winnipeg, Brandon, and other females, or of children under ten years of age is a 
points on the Canadian Pacific. misdemeanour. 

Matters Affecting Religion. — North Dakota is a Exemptions from Taxation. — "All public school 

code State. The civil and criminal codes prepared houses, academies, colleges/ institutions of leaminff, 

by the New York commission but not then adopted with the books and furniture therein and grounds 

by that State, were adopted by Dakota Territory in attached to such buildings, necessary for their proper 

1865; a probate code was adopted the same year, and occupancy and use, not to exceed forty acres in area 

thus the Territory of Dakota was the first English- and not leased or otherwise used with a view to profit; 

speaking community to adopt a codification of its also all houses used exclusively for public worship 

substantive law. The territorial laws, compiled in and lots and parts of lots upon which such houses 

1887, were revised bjr the State in 1895, 1899, and are erected: all land used exclusively for burying 

1905. Section 4, Article 1 of the State Constitution grounds or lor a cemetery; all buildings and contents 

provides: "The free exercise and enjoyment of re- thereof used for public charity) including public 

ugious profession and worship, without discrimination hospitals under the control of religious or charitable 

or preference, shall be forever guaranteed in this State, societies used wholly or in part for public charity, 

and no person shall be rendered incompetent to be a together with the land actually occupied by such in- 

witness or juror on account of his opinion on matters stitutions, not leased or otherwise used with a view to 

of religious belief; but the liberty of conscience hereby profit, and all moneys and credits appropriated solely 

secur^ shall not be so construed as to excuse acts to sustaining and belonging exclusively to such insU- 

of licentiousness, or justify practices inconsistent tutions, are exempt from taxation." AU churches, 

with the peace or saiety of this State." The statute parsonages, and usual outbuildings, and grounds not 

makes it a misdemeanour to prevent the free exercise exceeding one acre on which the same are situated, 

of religious worship and belief , or to compel by threats whether on one or more tracts, also all personal 

or violence any p£u*ticular form of worship, or to di»- property of religious corporations, used for religious 

turb a religious assemblage by profane discourse, in- purposes, are exempt. 

decent acts, unnecessary noise, selling liquor, keeping Matters Affecting Religums Work. — ^The law pro- 
open huckster shops, or exhibiting plays witnout vides for corporations for reli^ous, educational, benev- 
licence, within a mile of such assembuiges. Servile olent, charitable, or scientific purposes, giving to 
labour (except works of necessity or charity) is for- such corporations power to acquire property, real and 
bidden on Sunday; also public sports, trades, manu- personal, by purchase, devise, or bequest and hold 
factures, mechanical employment, and public traffic the same and sell or mortgage it according to the by- 
(except that meats, milk, and fish may be sold before laws or a majority of votes ofthe meinbers. Catholic 
nine a. m., also food to be eaten on premises. Drugs, church corporations, according to diocesan statutes, 
medicines, and surgical appliances may be sold at consist of the bishop, vicar-general, local pastor, ana 




two trustees. No corporation or associatioii for reli- 
gioufl purposes shallacquire or hold real estate of greater 
value than $200,000 (laws of 1909) . Charitable trusts 
are favoured if conformable to the statute against per- 
petuities, which forbids suspension of power or of alien- 
ations for a longer period than the lives of persons in be- 
ing at the creation of condition (Hager vs. Sacrison, 
123 N. W. Rep., 518) . Cemetery corporation may be 
formed with powers of regulation. The net proceeds 
must go to protect and improve the grounds and not 
to the profit of the corporation or members. Inter- 
ment lot inalienable, but any heir may release to an- 
other heir. Cemetery gnrounds are exempt from all 
process, lien, and public ourdens and uses. 

Marriage and Dioarce, — Anv unmarried male of 
the age of eighteen or upwards and any unmarried 
female of the age of fifteen or upwards, not otherwise 
disqualified, are capable of consenting to marriage, 
but if tiie male is under twenty-one or the female undfer 
eighteen, the licence shall not be issued without the 
consent of parents or guardian, if there be any. Mar- 
riages between parents and cmldren including grand- 
parents and grandchildren, between brothers and sis- 
ters, of haJf or whole blood, uncles and nieces, aunts 
and nephews, or cousins of the first degree of half or 
whole blood, are declared incestuous and absolutely 
void, and this applies to ill^timate as well as legiti- 
mate children and relations. A marriage contracted by 
a person having a former husband or wife, if the former 
marriajse has not been annulled or dissolved, is illegal 
and void from the beginnin^,unle8s the former husband 
or wife was absent and beheved by such person to be 
dead for five years immediately proceeding. Judges 
of all courts of record and justices of the peace, within 
their jurisdiction, '^ ordained ministers of the Gospel '', 
and "priests of every church" may perform the mar- 
riage ceremony. The form used by Friends or 
Quakers is also valid. Licences, issued by the county 
judge of the county where one of the contracting 
parties resides, must be obtained and the persons per- 
lorming the ceremonv must file the certificate thereof, 
and such licence with the county judge within thirty 
days after the marriage, such certificate to be signed 
by two witnesses and the person performing the cere- 
mony. Indians contractm^ marriage according to 
Indian custom and co-habiting as man and wife, are 
deemed legally married. All marriages contracted 
outside of tne State and valid by the laws of the State 
where contracted, are deemed valid in this State. 
The original certificate and certified copy thereof are 
evidences of marriage in all courts. Marriages may 
be annulled for any of the following causes existing 
at the time: (1) if the person seeking annulment was 
under the age of l^al consent, and such marriage 
was contracted without the consent of parent or 
guardian, unless after attaining the age ol consent, 
they lived together as husband and wife; (2) when 
former husband or wife of either party was living and 
former marriage then in force; (3) when either party 
was of unsound mind imless after coming to reason 
the parties lived together as husband and wife; (4) 
when consent was obtained by fraud> unless after full 
knowledge of facts the party defrauded continued to 
live with the other in marriage relation; (5) when 
consent was obtained by force, unless afterwards 
they lived freely together; (6) incapacity. 

Actions for annulment where former husband or 
wife is living, and where party is of unsound mind, 
may be broi^t at any time before the death of either 
party. Actions for annulment for other causes must 
be brought by the party injured within four years after 
arriving at age of consent or by parent or guardian 
before such time, also for fraud witnin four years after 
discovery. When a marriage is annulled cMldrcai 
begotten before the judgment are legitimate and suc- 
ceed to the estate of both parents. Marriages be- 
tween white persons and coloured persons of one 

eighth or more negro blood are null and void by Act 
of 1907, and severe penalty is provided against parties, 
officials, and clergy for violation of the law. Divorce 
may be granted for (1) adultery, (2) extreme cruelty. 
(3) wilful desertion, (4) wilful neglect, (5) habitual 
intemperance, (6) conviction of felony. Neither 
party to a divorce may many within three months 
after decree is grsmted. Wilful desertion^ wilful 
neglect, or habitual intemperance must (continue for 
one year before it is a cause for divorce. As to proof 
in divorce cases the Statute provides tiiat no divorce 
can be granted on default of tne defendant or upon the 
uncorroborated statement, adnussion, or testimony 
of parties, or upon any statement or findins of facts 
made by referee, but the court must in aadition to 
any statement or finding of referee, require proof 
of facts alleged. The court has held that the fact 
of marriaji;e alleged in complaint may be admitted in 
answer without other corroboration. Tlie restriction 
as to corroboration applies to testimony, not to plead- 
ing^ and is intended to prevent collusive divorce. 
This statute is more restrictive as to proof than the 
proposed resolution, No. 13, of proceeding of the 
National Congress on Uniform Divorce which reads: 
"A decree should not be granted unless the cause is 
shown by affirmative proofj aside from any admissions 
on the part of the respondent." A residence of one 
year in the State is required for the plaintiff in an ac- 
tion of divorce. Dower and Curtesy are abolished, 
and a deed of the homestead must be si^ed by both 
the husband and wife. Labour of children under 
fourteen years of age is prohibited, and stringent rules 
provide for regulation of those under sixteen, and 
no woman under eighteen years of age may be com- 
pelled to work over ten hours; age of consent is dgh- 
teen years. 

WvU. — ^A woman is of age at ei^teten, and any 
person of sound mind may, on arrivms at that ase, 
dispose of his or her real and personal property by 
will. A married woman may wiU her property with- 
out the consent of her husband. A nuncupative will 
is limited to $1000, and to cases where the testator 
is in military service in the field, or on board ship, 
and anticipates death, or where death is anticipate 
from a wound received that day. There must be two 
witnesses who are requested by the testator to act as 
such. An olographic will is one dated, written, and 
sinied by the hand of the testator, and requires no 
other formalities. Other wiUs must be executed by 
the testator in presence of two witnesses, who in his 
presence and in the presence of each other, subscribe 
as witnesses. 

Education. — ^The educational system in North 
Dakota is on a broad basis. Sections 16 and 36 of each 
Congressional township are given to the common 
schools by Congress, also 5 per cent of the net proceeds 
of the sale of public lands subseouent to a(unission, 
to be used as a permanent fund lor schools, interest 
only to be expended for support of common schools. 
The enabling act also gives 72 sections for university 
purposes, to be sold for not less than ten dollars per 
acre, proceeds to constitute a permanent fund, interest 
only to be expended. Also 90,000 acres for the Agri- 
cultural College, 40,000 acres each for the School of 
Mines, Reform School. Deaf and Dumb School, 
Agricultural College, State University, two State 
Normal Schools; 50,000 acres for capital buildings and 
170.000 acres for such other educational and chari- 
table institutions as the legislature may determine. 
No part of the school fund may be used for support of 
any sectarian or denominational school, college, or uni- 
versity. The Normal Schools are located at Mayville 
and Valley City, the Industrial Training School at 
Ellendale, the School of Forestry at Bottineau, the 
Agricultural College at Fargo, the State University 
(Arts, Law, Engineering^ Model Hieh School, State 
School of Mines, Pubuo Health Laboratory and 




Graduate Departments) at Grand Forks; number of 
professors, instructors, and assistants, 68; lecturers, 
13; students, 1000. Charitable institutions are the 
Deaf and Dumb School at Devil's Lake, the Hospital 
for Feeble Minded at Grafton, the Insane Asylum at 
Jamestown, the School for the Blind at Bathgate, the 
Soldiers' Home at Lisbon, the Reform School at Man- 
dan. The permanent school and institutional fund 
amounted to about $18,000,000 in 1908; the appor- 
tionment from that fund in 1903 was $274,348.80; 
in 1908, $545,814.66. Ample provisions are made for 
State and county institutes, and teachers are required 
to attend. Third Grade Certificates are abolished. 
The minimum salary for teachers is $45 a month. 
Provisions are made for the extension of the High 
School system, and also for consolidated schools and 
transportation of children to the same. The legis- 
lative appropriation in 1909 for the imiversity was 

PrUons and Refarmatoriea. — ^The keeper of each 
prison is required to provide at the expense of the 
county for each prisoner who may be able and desires 
to read, a copy of the Bible or New Testament to be 
used by the prisoner at seasonable and proper times 
during his confinement, and any minister of the Gosf»el 
is permitted access to such prisoners at seasonable 
* and proper times to perform and instruct prisoners in 
their moral and reli^ous duties. Suitable provisions 
are made for reduction of time for good behaviour, for 
indeterminate sentences, and paroling prisoners. 

Sale of Liquor. — ^The manufacture, importation, 
sale, gift, barter, or trade of intoxicating liquors by 
any person, association, or corporation as a l^verajge, 
is prohibited by Article 20 of the State constitution 
and by statute. Exceptions are made in favour of 
sale in limited quantities on affidavit of applicant by 
druggists for medicinal, mechanical, scientific, and 
sacramental purposes, under permit granted at the 
discretion of the district court. Not more than one- 
half pint may be sold to any one in one day and the 
purchaser must sign affidavit stating the particular 
disease for which the same is required. Sales to 
minors, habitual drunkards, and persons whose rela- 
tives forbid, are prohibited. Places where intoxicat- 
ing liquors are sold or kept for sale or where persons 
are permitted to resort for purpose of drinking intox- 
icating liquors are declared to oe common nuisances. 
The keeper is liable criminally and in an action the 
nuisance mav be abated and the premises closed for 
one year. The statute also provides for civil liability 
against persons violating the law. in favour of those 
taking charge of and providing tor intoxicated per- 
sons, and in favour of every wife, child^ parent, 
guardian, employer, or other person injured in person 
or property or means of support by any intoxicated 

SUxtiatics of the Protestant Churches.— The Epis- 
copalian Church has 4664 members; 1224 families ;- 
97 Sunday School teachers; 741 pupils; 42 churches 
and chapels; 5410 sittings; 16 rectories: 795 mem- 
bers in guilds. The value of the churcnes, chapels, 
and grounds is $158,055; rectories $49,000; other 
property $42,850. Tnere are 6 parishes ; 36 organized 
missions; and 44 unorganized missions. Total offer- 
ings for all purposes for the year ending 1 June. 1910, 
were $32,496.28. The Methodist Episcopal Church 
had in the State in 1908, 223 church buildings valued 
at $600,000, and 101 parsonages valued at $150,000, 
with a membership oi about 11,000. The most im- 
portant fact in connexion with this organization is the 
affiliation of Wesley College with the State university, 
where the Methodists aim to give religious and other 
instruction in their own buildings and arrange for 
their pupils to get the benefit of secular instruction 
at the State university. The plan suggests a possible 
solution of the much vexed question of division of the 
school fund. The Presbyterian Church has 7 presby- 

teries; 175 ministers; 7185 members. 9411 Sunday 
School members. They contributed for all purposes 
in the past year $150,635. There are 185 church 
organizations; 50 preaching stations; 132 church 
buildings, and 62 manses. Value of church manses 
and educational property was estimated at $800,000 
in 1908. This denomination has recently located at 
Jamestown, the Presbyterian university, said to have 
an endowment fund of about $200,000. The Lutheran 
Church is composed chiefly of Norwegians and other 
Scandinavians. According to the ' ' Norwegian Amer- 
ican '', published in Norwegian at Minneapolis in 1907, 
there were in the State in 1905, of Norwegian birth 
and descent, 140,000. The Lutheran church had 380 
congregations, and about 240 churches. The Baptist 
Church in 1908 had a membership of 4161, a Sunday 
School enrollment of 3164; 53 churches, valued at 
$191,430; and 28 parsonages valued at $35,772. 

Ecclesiastical History. — ^The establishment of Catho- 
lic missions in North Dakota cannot be' reliably 
traced to an earlier date than 1818. In that year Rt. 
Rev. J. Octave Plessis of Quebec sent Rev. Joseph 
Provencher and Rev. Josef Severe Dumoulin to Fort 
Douglas, as St. Boniface was then called, and after the 
grasshoppers had destroyed the crops, the Selkirk 
colonists went in large numbers to Pembina. Father 
Provencher sent Father Dumoulin in September, 1818, 
to minister to the spiritual wants of the colonists, 
with instructions to spend the winter at Pembina. 
When that place was found to be within the United 
States, Father Dumoulin was recalled. Rev. George 
Anthony Belcourt became the second resident priest 
of North Dakota. A gifted linguist, well versed in 
the Algonquin languages which included the Chip- 
pewa, he taught the latter to the young misedonaries 
and composed an Indian grammar and dictionary, 
still standard works. He was resident priest from 
1831-8 and often said Mass in every camping place 
from Lake Traverse to Pembina and in uie in- 
terior of North Dakota. It was customary in the 
summer for the settlers to go to the south-western part 
of the State to hunt bison on the prairies, and to take 
their families with them. The priest always accom- 
panied them and in those camps for the first time the 
children were given an opportunity of religious in- 
struction. Father Belcourt is said to have evangel- 
ized the whole of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa, a 
circumstance which kept that tribe at peace with the 

Sovemment during the Sioux troubles following the 
linnesota massacre in 1862. Father De Smet spent 
a few weeks with the Mandans on the Missouri in 1840 
and baptized a number of their children. Father 
Jean Baptiste Marie Genin is credited with establish- 
ing a mission at St. Michael's, Fort Totten, in 1865. 
His name is honourably and extensively associated 
with much of the missionary history of the State. The 
first real missionary work among the Sioux of North 
Dakota dates from 1874 when Major Forbes (a Cath- 
olic), Indian Agent at Fort Totten, with the help of 
the Catholic Indian Bureau, induced the Sisters of 
Charity (Grey Nuns) of Montreal under Sr. Mary 
Clapin to establish themselves in his agency. Father 
Bonnin came as their chaplain.' Rev. Claude Ebner, 
O.S.B., was stationed at Fort Totten, 1877-86. 
Rev. Jerome Hunt, O.S.B., has devoted his talent 
and zeal to the welfare of the Indians at Fort Totten 
Reservation since 1882, and has written and published 
in the Sioux language, a Bible history, prayerbook 
with instruction and hymns, and a smaller book of 
prayer, and for eighteen years has published an Indian 
paper in Sioux. The Grey Nuns at Fort Totten have 
conducted .a school since 1874. 

Rt. Rev. Martin Marty, O.S.B., was Vicar Apos- 
tolic of Dakota until 27 December, 1889, when Rt. 
Rev. John Shanley became Bishop of Jamestown; the 
see was later changed to Fargo. The number of 
chuit^es increased from 40 in 1890 to 210 in 1908. 


115 NOB1 

: I ' I H 

After the death of Bishop Shanley. the diocese was cial crisis of 1891 have combined to retard the devel- 
divided. Rt. Rev. James O'Reiliy, as Bishop of opment of the country. John McDouall Stuart, the 
Fargo, has charge of the eastern part, and Rt. Rev. pioneer erolorer, and his successors decUre that large 
Vincent Wehrle, O.S.B., rules over the western part as tracts in the interior are suitable for the cidtivation of 
Bishop of Bismarck. According to the census of 1907, cotton and the breeding of cattle, while the govem- 
th6 Catholic population was 70,000 but a subsequent ment officials at Port Darwin have ^wn spices, fibre 
coimt ^ows the number much larger, and the latest plants, maize, and ceara rubber with great success, 
estimate by Father O'Driscoll, secretary of the Fargo The crown lands (only 473,278 of the total 334,643,522 
diocese, places it at about 90,000. There are in the acres have been leased) are regulated by the North 
two dioceses, 140 j^riests; 14 religious houses; 1 mon- Territory Grown Lands Act of 1890-1901. 
astery; 7 academies; 5 hospitals; and about 250 Northern Territoi^ has a varied ecclesiastical his- 
churches. The Sisters of St. Joseph have a hospital at tory. In 1847, by a decree of the Sacred Conjugation 
Fargo and one at Grand Forks, and an academy at (27 May), it was made a diocese (Diocese of Port Vic- 
Jamestown. The Sisters of St. Benedict have estab- toria and Palmerston), Joseph Serra, O.S.B.J conse- 
lishments at Richardton, Glen Ellen, Oakes, Fort crated at Rome, 15 August, 1848. boiii^ appomted to 
Yates, and a hospital at Bismarck. The Presentation tiie see. He, however, was tranmerred m 1849 before 
Nuns have an academy and orphanage at Farpo. 8i»- taking possessiou to Daulia, and nominated coadjutor 
ters of Mary of the Presentation are established at ''cum jure successionis". and tem]x>ral administrator 
Wild Rice, Oakwood, Willow City, and Lisbon. The of the Diocese of Perth; he retired in 1861 and died in 
Ursuline Sisters conduct St. Bernard's Academy at 1886 in Spain. He was succeeded by Mgr Rosendo 
Grand Forks. Three Sisters of Mercv opened a mis- Salvator, O.S.B., consecrated at Naples on 15 August, 
sion school at Belcourt in the Turtle Mountains among .; 1849, but he was not able to take possession of his see, 
the Chippewa in 1884, and continued to teach until fdr in the meantime the whole Ehiropean population 

1907, when their convent was destroyed by fire. They had abandoned the diocese; consequently he returned 
established at Devil's Lake, St. Joseph's* hospital in to the Benedictine Ab'bey of New Norcia in Western 
1895 and the Academy of St. Mary of the Lake in Australia where he resided as abbot nuUitia, Redgn- 

1908. The State has several active councils of the ing the See of Port Victoria, 1 August, 1888, be wa6 
Knights of Columbus and Courts of the Cadiolio appointed titular Bishop of Adrana, 29 March, 1889. 
Order of Foresters. Among the Catholics distinguished Seven years previously Uie Jesuits of the Austrian 
in public life are John Burke, three times elected Province were commissioned to establish a mission 
|K>vemor; John Carmody, Justice of the Supreme for the purpose of civilixing and converting the 
Court; Joseph Kennedy. Dean^f the Normal College, fdiwrigines: fubout sixteen members of the order 
State University; W. E. Purcell, U. S. Senator; and devoted tnemselves to the work ^nd stations were 
P. D. Norton, Secretary of State. established at Rapid Creek (St. Joseph's), seven 

^?Ht^^^d'^}A^^''°^&i^^ HirtjryomfBftv- nules north-east of Pabnerston, Daly lUver (Holy 

?o*);^wr2?H.t^^?^^^^ ^oS Rosanr) and Serpentine Lagoon (s4ed Heart A 

Dakota Bltu Booka (BiBmi^k. 1899-1909) ; North Dakota Maga- Jesus). There were 2 churches, 1 chapel, and 2 nuxed 

finM, pub. by Comm. of Asiicultjwe (BUmarck. 1908) j Caikoiic schools. In 1891 there Were about 260 Catholics in 

i';^^^^^VJj:iJ^ the mission. However the^ work did not thrive and. 

Pub. iHatntetion (BiamArok, 1908}; Minutea of (7«n. Auembly ef after about twenty years' labour the Jesmts Withdrew, 

Prubvt«nan Chwch (PMladelphujj 1910) ; Larnto, Rfferenct Father John O'Brien, S.J.,beingthelastadministrator. 

^XliJ^O^^^SS^^^ On their withdrawal the dioc^ was ^^^ 

Economie Oeoian, II, no. 6 (Sept. and Oct., 1907); North Dakota Bishop WiUiam Kelly of Geraldton. Somewhat later 

S^ il?^* ^^^^^ ySr;?^.' ^^^^^' ^*^.jfl?.*^it* the mission was confided to the Missionaries of the 

JSiiTilS^eSS'iJg^^^ terlS^Ste'l^'rii^ fr^f^ of Issoudun and es^jished in 1906 as 

M. H. Brennan. ^0 Prefecture Apostolic of the Northern Temtory. 

— _.^ ««< -^ a r^ XT Very Rev. Francis Xavier Gsell, M.S.H., b. 30 Octo- 

Northern m^ons. See Gebm any, Vicariatb ber, 1872, was elected administrator ApostoUc on 23 

AP08TOUC OF Nobthbbn; Dbnmabk; Nobway; April, 1906. He resides at Port Darwin. At present 

SwBDBN. there are in the prefecture 3 missionaries, 2 churches, 

Horthem Territory, Prbfbcturb Apostouc of *^i.l <**P5f- ,. ^ „,,^ , , . ^ , .. ^. 

^ra> Tht» Knrthpm Tprritorv formerlv AlcT&ndpr Mttnonoa CaihoUecB (Rome, 1907); AuatraXoMtan Catholic D*- 

T*"^-~^^? XNOrtnem lemjory, lormeriy Aiexanoer rutory {Bydxuiy, 1910);Qoudos, Autratanan Handbook /or 1891: 

Land, is that part of Australia bounded on the north Babsdow. ArOhropolyiical Notea on the North-Wutem coaatal 

by the ocean, on the south by South Australia, on the tribea of the Northern Territory of South Atulralia in TVttfur., Proc. 

^t by Queensland and on t1,e west by Western Aus- J2tf^.1^/1SSiSSlJ5{^4S53%'^^ 

tralia. It thus hes almost enurely Wlthm the tropics, mineral reeoureee of the North Territory of South Auatralia in Proc 

and b*"" an area of 528,620 square miles. It is crown of the Royal Oeog. Soe. of Auttralasia, South Auatralia Brandi, V 

land, butwas provisionally annexed to South Austra- <A^}^h,^^^* fP?!5!¥*'» ^"^^'^ i?^'7ii' t^V^J^ "^ *** 

!• « » 1 vToSA t1 • "^ «»»*"wkY" wv i^«*vM >jwiM.»- jy,jrtA«m Territory for tropical agriculture (Adelaide, 1902), appen- 

lia, 6 July, 1863. It is practicallv uninhabited: the dix, 17-27. " *- ^ /.-»'»~-- 

population is rouffhly estimated at between 25,000 and Andrew A. MacEblban. 
30,000, of whom less than a thousand are Europeans, 

about 4000 Asiatics mostly Chinese, the remainder Northmen, the Scandinavians who, in the ninth 
being aborigines. There are but two towns. Palmers- ^nd tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of West- 
ton at Port Darwin, with a population ot 600, and em EJurope and its islands and then turned from raid- 
Southport on Blackmore River, twenty-four miles en into settlers. This article will be confined to the 
south. There is transcontinental telegraphic com- history of their exodus. 

munication (over 2000 miles) established in 1872, be- Tacitus refers to the "Suiones" (Germ., xliv, xlv) 

tween Palmerston and Adelaide, but raihoad com- living beyond the Baltic as rich in arms and ships 

rivers in the north, and Port Darwin is probably sur^ dinavians until the end of Uie eighth century, 

passed in the world as a deep water port by Sydney when the forerunners of the exodus appeared as 

Harbour alone. The annual rainfall varies from sixty- raiders off the English and Scotch coasts. In their 

two inches on the coast, where the climate resembles broad outlines the political divisions of Scandinavia 

that of French Cochin China to six inches at Char- were much as they are at the present day, except that 

lotte Waters. Droughts, cattle disease, and the finan- the Swedes were confined to a narrower territory. 


The Finna occupied tke oorthon port of modem Swe- against further invoaioD. Meanwhile, EngUnd h>d 
den, and the Danes the southern extretni^ and the been asstulednotonly from theChannel and the south* 
eastern shores of the Cattwat, while the Norwegians west, but also by Viking ehips croeaing the North Sea. 
stretched down the coast of the Skager-Rack, cutting The Danes for a time had been even more succcwful 
off the Swedes from the Western sea. The inhabi- than in Gaul, for Northern and Eastern districts fell 
tants of these kingdoms bore a general resemblance to altogether into their hands and the fate of Wessez 
the Teutonic peoples, with whom the^ were connected seemed to have been decided by a succession of Danish 
in race and language. In their aocial condition and victories in S71. Alfred, however, succeeded in re- 
reUgion they were not unlike the Angles and Saxons of covering the upper hand, the countty was (mrtitioned 
the sixth century. Though we cannot account satis- between Dane and Weat Saxon, and for a tune further 
factorilv for the exodus, we may say that it was due raids were stopped by the formation of a fleet and the 
generally to the increase of the population, to the defeat of Hastings in 893. 

breakinftdownof the old tribal system, and the efforts To Ireland, too, the Northmen came from two 
of the kings, especially of Harold Fairhair, to consoli- directions, from south and north. It was one of the 
date their power, ana finally to the love of adventure first countries of the Weet to suffer, for at the bwn- 
and the discovery that the lands and dties of Western nin^ of the ninth century it was the w^keet. lie 
Christendom lay at their mercy. Vikings arrived even before 800, and as early as S07 

The Northmen invaded the West In three mun thai ships visited the west coast. They were, how- 
streama; the most southerly started from South Nor- ever, defeated near KUI^ney in 812 and the full fury 

way and Denmark ■__^ of the attack did not 

and, pasmng along MHH^^^H^H^^^^^^B^^^^^^^h^^^^^^^^B fall on the country 
the German coast, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^K^^^^^H t^U Twenty 

visited both ndes of ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H,^^^^^^^| years later there ap- 
theChanne],rounded ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^B^^^^^H P^^ ^ have been 

Breton promon- ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^^^^^^^^H^I^^HM three Norse 
lory, and reaiched the ^L_^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^^H^^^^^HH^^^nH doms" Ireland, 

mouths of the Loire ^H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^BI^^^^^^^H DS^bEI those of Dublin, Wa- 
and the Garonne. ^^^^^^^B^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l HI^HH t/Bifoidj and Limer- 
It had an offshoot to I^HHc '9¥l^^^^^^^^V^^5^^^^^An^^nl '^^^' '"'^ ^^ "ver- 
the west of England tBHTwOW'^w^^I^^^^L'^^^^S^B^H^^^B ''i^'iBj *"i* •** Itiih 
and Ireland and in " ^Bhw^' ^^^^SSME*"^ ' -.^fl^BJ^^^^^H^I **'° ^ series of vic- 
eome caeea it was ' ^^^^BHt^^^HJ^El^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l^l ^t^^> '^^ 

the h^^^^^HlBH^^^^k^l^l^^^^^^^^^^^^^^l ""^ between 

coasts of Spun and iMM^^^^IHR^^^Vi^^^^^^^^^^^^H^^^I the Danes coming by 
Portugal (where Hk. ^C^^BB^^^^aJ^^^^^^^^^^^F^BW W B the Channel and the 
Northmen came into ^S^ f^^^^^^^K^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^ Norwe^ansdeeeend- 

contact with Sar&- .^ ^^^^^^^^^I^BW^^^^ i '"^ from the north, 

cen) and even inta ^'^^^^HPSB^^S^V I ^^^ ^^ ^^^'^ century 

the Mediterranean \. . . ^^^^^^^QBt - ^%1\ f] and a half the Dan- 

and to Italy. The Vuixci Bo*t. No«w*r "^ "t"* continued, 

midmost stream ' Neither party gained 

crossed from the same re^on directly to the east and a dis^ct advantage and both the face of the coun- 
north of England, while the northern stream flowed try and the national character suffered, finally in 
from Norway westwards to the Orkneys and other 1014, on Good Friday, at Clontarf, on the shores of 
islands, and, dividing there, moved on towards Ice- Dublin Bay, the Danes suffered a great defeat from 
land orsouthwards to Ireland and the Irish Sea. The Brian Boru. Henceforth they ceased to be an a^gres- 
work of destruction which the first stream of North- aiveforceinlreland, though they kept their position in 
men wrought on the continent is told in words of do- a number of the coast towns. 

spturinwhatisleftof the Frankish Chronicles, for the During the earlier attacks on Irdand the Scotch Is- 
pagan and greedy invaders seem to have singled out lands and especiallv the Orkneys bad become &pa- 
the monasteries for attack and must have destroyed manent centre of Norse power and the home of those 
most of the records of their own devastation. A whohadbeendriven to a life of adventure by the cen- 
Dantsh fleet appeared off Frisia in 810, and ten years traliiation carried out by Harold Fairhoir. They even 
later another reached the mouth of the Loire, but the returned to help the king's enemies; to such an extent 
systematic and persevering assault did not be^ till that about 885 Harold followed upa victory inNorway 
aoout 835. From that date till the early years of the by taking possession of the Orkneys. The result was 
followingcentury the Vilung ships were almost annual that the independent spirits Amongst tiie Vikings 
visitors to the coasts and river valleysof Germany and pushed on to the Faroes and Iceland, which had been 

Gaul. About 850 thev b. 

atrongholdsn.. , _. . _. 

could winter and store their booty, and to which thev a hundred years later the Icelanders founded a colony 
could retire on the rare occasions when the Frankislt on the atrip of cosst between the glaciers and the sea. 
or English kings were able to check their raids. Such which, to attract settlers, they called Greenland, and 
were Walcheren at the mouth of the Scheldt, Sheppey soon sifter occurred the temporary aettlement in Vin- 
at that of the Thames, Oissel in the lower Seine, and land on the mainland of North America. But the 
Noirmoutier near the Loire. For over aeventy yeara prows of the Viking ehips were not always turned 
Gaul seemed to lie almost at the mercyof theDanes. towards the West. They also followed the Norwe- 
Their ravages spread backwards from the coasts gian coast past the North Cape and established trade 
and river valleys; they penetrated even to Auvergne. relatione with "Biarmaland on the shores of the 
There was little redstanoe whether from king or count. White Sea. The Baltic, however, provided an easier 
Robert the Strong did, indeed, succeed in defending route to theeastandinthenintbanatenthcenturiesit 
Paris and so laid the foundations of what was after- was a Swedish Lake. By the middle of the ninth cen- 
wuds the house of Capet, buthewaskilledia866. In tury a half-mythical Ruric reigned over a Norse or 
the end the success ot the Danes brought this period "Varangian" Kingdom at Nov^rod and, in 880, one 
of destruction to a close; the raiders turned into col- of his successors, Oleg. moved his capital to Kiev, and 
onists, and in 911 Charles the Simple, by granting ruled from the Baltic to the Black Sea. He imposed 
Nonoondy to lUilIo, was able to establish a barrier on Constantinople itself in 907 the humiUation which 


had befallen so many of the cities of the West, and , Siif™";^*^^ *^^ 9^^2^'J.* f^' i?.®^;.^*^ ^ ^^' ^•^ 

"Micklegarth" had. to pay Danegeld to the Norae '»*«-^^-»«=*^^*^^lg;S^J^M. Kelly. 
sovereign of a Russian army. The Varangian ships « t» * »*«»^^x^— « 

are even said to have sailed down the Volga and across Norton, John. See Pobt Augubta, Diocssb of. 
the remote waters of the Caspian. There is, however, Norton, John, Venbbablb. See Palabor, 

a second stage of Norse enterprise as remarkable, Thomas, Vensrable. 

Uiou^^ for dmerent reasons, as the first. The Nor- Norway, comprising the smaller division of the 
man conquests of Southern Italy and of England and Scandinavian peninsula, is bounded on the east by 
in part the Crusades, in which the Normans took so Lapland and Sweden, and on the west by the Atlantic. 
litfge a share, prove wnat the astonishing.vitality of the The surface is generally a plateau from which rise pre- 
Northmen could do when they had received Chris- cipitous mountains, as Snfih&tten (7566 feet) and 
tianity and Prankish civilisation from the people they Stora Galdhdppigen (about 8399 feet). The west 
had plundered. coast is deeply indented by fiords. In eastern and 
It IS impossible to account for the irresistible activ- southern Norway the valleys are broader and at times 
ity of the Northmen. It is a mystery of what might form extensive, fruitful plains. There are several 
be called "racial personahty". Their forces were navigable rivers, as the Glommen and Vormen, and 
rarely numerous, tneir ships small and open, suited lakes, of which the largest is Lake Mydsen. The nu« 
to the protected waters of thdr own coasts, most un- merous islands along the coast, some wooded and 
suitable for ocean navigation, and there was no guid- some bare, promote shipping and fishing; in the Lo- 
ins power at home. Their success was due to the foten Islands alone twentv million cod are annually 
indomitable courage of each unit, to a tradition of dis- caught. The climate is only relatively mild, with rain 
cipline which made their compact "armies" superior almost daily. Agriculture consists largely in raising 
in fitting qualities and activity to the mixed and ill- oats and barley, but not enough for home consump- 
organiaed forces which Prankish and En^h kin^ tion. Rve and wheat are grown only in sheltered 
usually brought against them. Often they are said spots. Bread is commonly made of oats. The culti- 
to have won a battfe bv a pretended flight, a dangerous vation of the potato is widespread, a fact of much im- 
manceuvre except with well-disciplined troops. Until portance. There are in the country only about 160,- 
Alfred collected a fleet for the protection of his coast 000 horses; these are of a hardy breed. Cattle-raising 
they had the undisputed command of the sea. They is an important industry, the number of cattle being 
were fortunate in the time of their attack. Their estimated at a million, that of sheep and goats at over 
serious attacks did not begin till the empire of Charle- two millions. 0? late attention has been paid to the 
magne was weakened from within, and the Teutonic raising of pigs. The Lapps of the north mamtain over 
principle of division among heirs was overcoming the a hundred thousand reindeer in the grassy pasture 
Koman principle of unity. When the period of recon- land of the higher plateaus. The most important 
stitution began the spirit of discipline, which had given trees are pine, &, and birch ; oak and beech are not so 
the Northmen success in war. made them one of the common. 

mat organizing forces of tne early Middle Ages. Porestry was long carried on unscientifically; con- 
Everywhere these "Romans of the Middle Ages" ap- siderable effort has been made to improve conditions, 
pear as organizers. They took the various material and wood is now exported chiefly as wrought or partly 

frovided for them in Gaul, Eln^land, Russia, Southern wrought timber. Silver is mined at Kongsbcrg, and 

taly, and breathed into it hfe and activity. But iron at Rdraas, but the yield of minerals is moderate, 

races which assimilate are not enduring, and by the Coal is altogether lacking. 7?he peasants are skilful 

end of the twelfth century the Northmen had fin- wood-carvers, and in isolated valleys still make all 

ished their work in Europe and been absorbed into the necessary household articles, besides spinning and 

population which they had conquered and governed, weaving their apparel. The Northmen were always 

Then is no eomplete hutoiy of the Northmen ana their work famous seamen, and Norwegians are now found on 

!SjSnth,^i;iJ^fi%tKte^.£?lS&S5;S'^ ^^^^^ all nation, ^e merchant marine of 

tries they attacked, especially in Palgravb. Bngland and JVor- about 8000 vessels IS One of the mOSt important of the 

iiia9Mitf,I;cf.HsLiiouT,MP'or{(2't£rMtory. VI (London, 1007). The world. Good roads and railways have greatly in- 

SacB fiteratura is all of a later date and throws little trustworthy rrwkmtA f raffi#* A nrknaf onf 1v \r\t*vMuAna nnrnVL* nt 

Ught <m this early period of Norse history; cf. Viorussoi*. Pro- creaseo tramc. A constantly mcreasing number of 

Ugommta to ike Siurlunga Saga (Oxford, 1879). strangers are attracted by the natural beauties. Al- 

F. F. Ubqxthart. thou^ in this way a great deal of money is brought 

w..«*i.«**M«. TT««rBv i> a^ Oo an* «omrv^ n«^vr.»«« ^^ ^^^ couutry, the morals and honesty of the people 

Horthrpp. Hbnbt P. See Chablbston, Diocmb unfortunately sliflfer in consequence. The ai^S^ is 

^'* 123,843 sq. miles; the population numbers 2,250,000 

Norton, Chbibtopheb, martyr; executed at Ty- persons, 
bum, 27 May, 1570. His father was Richard Norton Thegreat majority belong officially to the Lutheran 

of Norton Conyers, Yorkshire, and his mother, Susan state Church, but on account of liberal laws there is a 

Neville, dau^ter of Richard, second Baron Latimer, rapid development of sects. Catholics did not regain 

Richara Norton, known as "Old Norton", was the reu^ous liberty until the middle of the nineteenth 

head of his illustrious house, which remained faithful century. Reports as to their numbers vary from 1500, 

to the Catholic religion. Despite this fact he held as ^ven in the Protestant "TagUche Rundschau", to 

positions of influence during the reigns of Henry VIII 100.000, as ^ven in the Catholic " Germania" (see be- 

and Edwiuxi VI, was Governor of Norham Castle low). Norway is a constitutional monarchy, its 

under Mary, and in 1568-60 was sheriff of Yorkshire, ruler since 18 November^905, has been King Haakon 

He had been pardoned for joining in the Pilgrimage of VII, a Danish prince. The colours of the flag are red, 

Grace, but he and his brother Thomas, his nine sons, white, and blue. The coimtry is divided into 20 

of whom Christopher was the seventh, and many ot counties and 56 bailiwicks. Justice is administered by 

their relatives hastened to take part in the northern district courts (adrenakrif verier). Eccleciastically the 

uprising cff 1569. He was attainted and fled to Flan- country is divided into 6 dioceses, with 83 provosts or < 

ders witii four of his sons, two of his sons were par- deans, and 450 pastors. The largest city and the 

doned. another apostatized, Christopher and his royal residence is Christiania (230,000 inhabitants), 

faUio^s brother having been captured proved them- the seat of government, of the Parliament (Storthing), 

selves steadfast Catholics, were hanged, disem- of the chief executive, of the state university, and of 

bowelled, and quartered. Eximund, who apostatized, other higher scheols. The most important commer- 

and a sister are the subject of Wordsworth's "White dal city is Bergen (80,000 inhabitants), important 

Doe of Rylstone ". even in the Middle Ages and for a long time controlled 




by the Hanseatic League. Trondhjem, formerly 
Nidaros, a city of 40,000 inhabitants, was earlier the 
see of the Catholic archbishops, and the place where 
the Catholic kinjgs were crowned and buried. Its fine 
cathedral, now in process of restoration^ contains the 
bones of St. Olaf , the patron saint of Norway. The 
army is not highly trained: men between twenty-three 
and thirtv-three years ot age are lii^le for militaiy 
duty. The modest weU-manned navy is only used for 
coast defence. 

HisTOBT. — Unlike the Swedes and Danes, the Nor- 
wegians were not organised even so late as the nin^ 
century. The name of king was borne by the chiefs 
and heads of separate clans, but tJieir authority was 
limited and the rights of the subjects very exten- 
sive. Only by marauding expeditions were the Vik- 
ings able to gain honour and wealth, and at times also 
to acquire control of extensive districts. Their early 
history is lost in the fabulous tales of the bards. In 
872, Harold Haarfager (Fair-Haired), after a decisive 
sefr-fight near Stavanger, established his authority 
over all the clans. Those refusing to submit left the 
countnr and their possessions were confiscated. When 
Harold, divided his kingdom among several sons, its 
permanence seemed once more uncertain, but Hakon 
the Good (q. v.) restored a transient unity and pro- 
cured an entrance for Christianity. Olaf Trygvesson 
continued the work of union after Hakon's death, and 
promoted the spread of the new faith, but in a se^-fight 
with the united forces of the Danes and Swedes he was 
killed about 1000 near Svalder (of uncertain location). 
The kingdom now fell apart, some portions coming un- 
der Cnut the Great of Denmark. 

Finally Olaf, son of Harold Grenske and a descend- 
ant of Harold Haarfager (1015). re-established the 
boundaries of Norway, and aid^ Christianity to its 
final victoiy. At a later date Olaf became the patron 
saint of Norway. His severity so embittered the 
Ereat families that they oombmed with Cnut and 
u>rced him to flee the country. Returning with a small 
army from Sweden, he was defeated and killed in the 
battle of Stiklestad (29 July, 1030) . His heroic death 
and the marvellous phenomena that occurred in con- 
nexion with his body completely changed the feeling 
of his opponents. His son, Magnus the Good, was 
unanimously chosen his successor (1035), and the 
Danish intruders were driven away. Ma^us died 
childless in 1047, and the kingdom went to his father's 
half-brother Harold, son of Sigurd. Harold had won 
fame and wealth as a viking, and had been an impor- 
tant personage at the Byzantine Court. On account 
of his grimness he was called Hardrada (the Stem). 
Impelled by ambition, he first waged a bloody war 
with Denmark and then attacked E^ngland. On an 
incursion into Northumberland, he was defeated at 
the battle of Stamford Bridge (1066). His son, Olaf 
the Quiet, repaired the injuries caused the country by 
Harold Hardrada's policy. Olaf 's successor, Magnus, 
conquered the Stotch islands, waged successful war 
with Sweden, and even gained parts of Ireland, where 
he was finally killed. One of his sons, Sigurd Jorsala- 
fari (the traveller to Jerusalem), went on a crusade to 
iJie Holy Land, while another son, Eystein^ peacefullv 
acquired Jemtland, a part of Sweden. Witn Sigurd s 
death (1 130) the kingdom entered upon a period of dis- 
order caused partly by strife between claimants to the 
throne, partly by rivalry between the secular and ec- 
clesiastical dignitaries, whose partisans (known as the 
Birkebcinar and the Baglar) perpetrated unbelievable 
outrages and cruelty on each other. The power of the 
king sank steadily, while that of the bishops increased. 
For a time Sverre (1177-1202) seemed successful, but 
lasting peace was not attained until the reign of his 
grandson, Hakon the Old (1217-63). Hakon ruled 
with wisdom and force and was hi^^y regarded by 
the rulers of other countries. During his reign Nor- 
way teached its greatest extent, including Greenland 

and Iceland. He died in the Orkney Islands (1263) 
while returning from an expedition against the Scotch 
His peace-loving son Magnus LagoboiU (the Law- 
Mender) tried to establish law and order and prepared 
a book of laws. His efforts to promote commerce and 
intercourse resulted Unfortunately, as the Hanseatic 
League, to which he granted many privileges, used 
these to the detriment of the country, and gradually 
brotu^ht it into a state of grievous dependence. With 
the death (1319) of the vigorous younger son of Mag- 
nus, Hakon V, the male line of Harold Harfager 
became extinct. The crown went to the three year 
old King Magnus Eriksson of Sweden, son of Hakon's 
daughter, Ingeborg; this brought about for the first 
time a close umon between the two kingdoms of north- 
em Scandinavia. When King Magnus assumed the 
government (1332), it was soon evident that, al- 
though possessing many good qualities, he lacked 
force. He seldom came to Norway, and the Norwe- 
gians felt themselves neglected. They forced him, 
when holding court at Varberg (1343), to send his 
younger son Hakon as viceroy to Norway, where 
Hakon soon gathered an independent court, and in 
1335 became the actual ruler. Seven years later he 
was elected King of Sweden by a part of the Swedish 
nobiUty, but had to yield to Duke Albert of Mecklen- 
burg, chosen by an opposing faction. In 1363 Hakon 
married Margaret^ daughter of King Waldemar of Den- 
maric^ and won with her a claim to the Danish throne. 
As Waldemar, when he died in 1375, left no male de- 
scendants, he was succeeded by their son, Olaf. Olaf 
also became King of Norway upon the death of his 
father, and died in 1387. His momer, an able and ener* 

Stic ruler, entered at once upon the administration of 
snmark. In Norway she was not only made ruler for 
life, but her nephew, Eric of Pomerania. was acknow- 
ledged as the lawful heir. Meanwhile, Albert of Meck- 
lenburg, greatly disliked in Sweden and the estates, 
entered into negotiations with Margaret, whose troops 
took him prisoner (1380). The same year Elric was 
acknowledged King of Norway, and in 1395^ as King 
of Denmark and Sweden. In 1397 the chief men m 
the three countries met at Kalmar to arrange a basis 
for a permanent lc«al confederation (the Umon of Gd- 
mar). The plan tailed, as no one country was willing 
to make the sacrifice necessary for the interest of all, 
but Eric was crowned king of the three unit^ lands. 
Ui> to 1408 Margaret was the real ruler. With un- 
wearied activity she journeyed everywhere, watched 
over the admixustration of law and government, cut 
down the great estates of the nobles K>r the benr£t of 
the crown, and protected the ordinary freeman. 
Denmark was always her first interest. She placed 
Danish officials in Sweden and forced the Qiurdi of 
that country to accept Danish bishops; the result was 
often unfortunate, as in the appointment of tiie Arch- 
bishop of Upsala (1408). Margaret's efforts to re- 
gain former possessions of tne three Scandinavian 
countries were successful only in one case; she pur- 
chased the Island of Gotland from the Teutonic 
Knights. She died suddenly (1412) in the harbour of 
Flensburg whither she had gone to obtain Schles- 
wig from the CJounts of Holstein. Left to himself, 
the headstrong and hot-tempered Eric made one mis- 
take after another and soon found all the Hanseatic 
towns on the Baltic against him. Conditions were 
still worse after the death of his one faithful coim- 
sellor, his wife Philip^ daughter of Henry IV of 
England. In Sweden increasing taxes, constant dis- 
putes with the clergy, and the appointment of bad 
officials aroused a universal discontent, which led 
later to dangerous outbreaks. Vain attempts were 
made (1436) to restore the tottering union. Disre- 
garding his promises, Eric withdrew to Gotland, where 
he remainea inactive. In 1438 his deposition was de- 
clared by Norway and Sweden, and his nephew, Duke 
Christopher of Bavaria, was elected long. Upon 


Chriatopher'B e&Hy death (1448) the union was vir- 
tually dissolved: tne Swedes chose Kari KnutMon as 
king, and the Danes called Count Christian 6f Old- 
cnbuig to tlie throne. At firat Norway wavered 
between the two, but Christian was able to letain 
Oi Christian's two sons Hans was at first only ruler 

woe only after defeating Sten Sture that his position 
in Sweden was secure. King Hans I was succeeded 
(1513) in Denmark and Norway by his son, Christian 
II. Christian's cruelty to the conquered Swedes pre- 
pared the way for the deTection of that country to 
GustavuB Vasa; consequeotly, he was iDdirectly re- 
sponsible for the withdrawal of Sweden from Catholic 

a Iceland, Jon Arason, died a 

_. . the nobility seized the lands 

of the Church. 'Die chief nobles acquired inordinate 
influence, and the landed proprietora, once so proud 
of thai independence, fell under the control of foreign 

As regards territorial development in the Middle 
Ages, Norway had a number of tributary provinces — 
in the north, Finmark, inhabited by heatoen Lapps; 
variousgroupsafislandsBauth-westof Norway as: the 
Farve Mands, the Orkneys, the Shetlands, and the 
Isle of Man in the Irish Sca^ which were added later 
Iceland and Greenland. During the period of the 
union, Norway also included Bohusl^, HarjedBleo, 
Jemtland, and some smaller districts, all now belong- 
ii^ to Sweden. With these islands and outlying t«p- 

Tbi CiTBUiaii, 
unity. Christian soon aroused diaBatisfactton in his 
own country. Undue preference granted to the lower 
olasHea tiuned the nobility against him, and his un- 
disguised efforts to open the way for the teachings of 
Luther repelled loyal Catholics. Serious disorders 
followed in Jutland, and Christian, lodng coursKe, 
sought to save himself by fiidit. With the aid of the 
Baneeatic League his uncle, Duke Frederick of S^w- 
wig-Holstein, soon acquired possesion of his king- 
doms. The new king and his son, Christian III, were 
fanatical adherents of the new doctrine, and by craft 
and force brought about its victory in Denmark 
(1539). In Norway Archbishop Olaf of Trondhiem 
laboured in vain for the maintenance of Catholicism 
and the establishment of national independence. 
The majority of the peasants wei« indifferent and the 
impoverished nobility, who hoped to benefit by the 
introduction of the pure Gospel", urged Christian 
on. After the departure of the church dignitaries 
Christian acquired the mastery of the country (1537), 
Norway now ceased to he an independent state. 
While rotuning the name of kingdom it was for nearly 
three hundred years (until 1814) only a Danish prov- 
ince, administered by Danish officials and at times out- 
rageously plundered. Here, aa In Sweden and Den- 

fore Catholicism v 

completely extinguished, "nie 

ritorieB the monarchy comprised about 7000 aquar* 
miles. The Scotch islands were lost towards the end 
of the fifteenth century, and at a later period the col- 
onies in Greenland were totally neglected. Originally 
the kingdom had consisted of four provinces, each 
with its own laws, but when a system of law for the 
entire country was introduced, it was divided into 
eleven judicial districts. The most closely settled 
districts were the fertile lowlands on the inlets of 
the sea, now Cbristiania and Trondhjem fiords. The 
waterway from Trondhjem (o Oslo, near the present 
Cbristiania, was the most important route for trafGc. 
There was also much intercourse by water between 
Oslo and Bei^en. Through the mountain districts 
huts for the convenience of travellers (SpOloBlvgor) 
were erected, and developed later into inns and tav- 
erns. The country was unprepared for war. The 
topc^raphy and economic conditions made it difficult 
to mobiliEe the land forces. The soldiers were not 
paid, but only fed. The chief state officials lived in 
Bohus, Akerahus, Tunsberg, and the royal fortified 
castles on the harbours of Bergen and Trondhjem. 
Ecclesiastically, Norway was at first under the direc- 
tion of the Archbishop of Lund (1103); later (1152) 
under the Archbishop of Trondhjem, who had juris- 
diction over the Bishops of Bergen, Stavanger, Oslo, 
Hamar, FarvA, Kirkwall (Orkney Islands), Skalholt 
and Holar (Holum) in Iceland, and Gardar (Garde) io 


Greenland. Jemtland was subject to the Swedish diction over the Norwegian Church to the Bishop of 

Archdiocese of Upsala. There were a thousand well- TrondhJem and his successors. The sufifragans ofthe 

endowed churches, thirty monasteries^ and various new archbishopric were: Hamar. Farve, and Kirkwall 

orders of women: Benedictines, Cistercians, Premon- in the Orkneys, Skalholt. and Holar in Iceland, and 

stratensians, Dominicahs, Franciscans, Augustinians, Gardar in Greenland. Tne tithes, legally established 

and Brigittines. Schools were attached to the cathe- before 1130 in the reign of Sigiuxl Jonsalafari, made 

drals and to most of the monasteries. For luygher ed- possible the foundation of a large number of new ^r- 

ucation Norwegians went to foreign universities, es- ishes and strengthened those fuready existing. The 

pecially to Paris. Diocese of Oslo contained the largest number, namely 

From the reign of Christian III Norway shared the 300 parishes; Nidaros had 280. There was a chapter 

fortunes of Denmark. Christian's son, Frederick II for each see. Not much is known of the morals 

(1559-88), paid no attention to Norway, but much was and reUgious spirit of the people; it is certain that 

done for the country during the long reign of Chris- in the Cathohc period much more in proportion 

tian IV (1588-1648), who endeavoured to develop the was given for purposes of religion than after the 

country by encouraging mining at Konsberg and Reformation. There are few details of the pas- 

Roraas, and to protect it from attack by improving toral labours of bishops and clergy, but the works 

the army. Jemtland and Herjudalen, however, had of ChristiaTi charity, hospices, lazarettos, inns for pil- 

to be ceded to Sweden. Frederick III (1648-70) was grims, bear ready testimony to their efforts for the 

also obliged to cede Bohuslan. FrederidcV (1746-66) advancement of civilization. Nor was learning neg- 

encouraged art^ learning, commerce, and manufao- lected. As early as the twelfth century the momc 

tures. Prosperity strengthened the self-reliance of Dietrich of Trondhjem wrote a Latin chronicle of the 

the people and their desire for potitical independence, country, and in 1250 a Fitmciscan wrote an account 

In 1807 they were granted autonomous aomimstra- of his journey to the Holy Land. Norwe^an students 

tion^ and in 1811 a national universitv was founded at who desired degrees went to the Universities of Paris 

Chnstiania. Political events enabled Sweden to force and Bologna, or, at a later period, attended a univer- 

Denmark in the Treaty of KeU to relinquish Norway, sity nearer nome, that of Kostock in Mecklenbuq^. 

Many of the Norwegians not being in lavour of this, With the abandonment of the old Faith and its insti- 

a national diet, hdd at Mdsvold (17 May, 1814), tutions was associated the loss of national independ- 

agreed upon a constitution and chose as king the ence in 1537. As early as 1519 Christian II had be- 

PDpular Danish prince. Christian Frederick. But the gun to suppress the monasteries, and Christian III 

owers interfered and ratified the union with Sweden, abetted the cause of Lutheranism. Archbishop Olaf 

The Swedish monarchs, Charles John XIV, Oscar I, Engelloechtssen and other dignitaries of the Cnurch 

Charles XV, and Oscar II, had a difficult position to were forced to flee; Mogens . Lawridtzen, Bishop of 

maintain in Norway. Notwithstanding zealous and Hamar, died in prison in 1642. and Jon Arason of 

successful efforts to promote t^e material and intel- Holar was executed on 7 November, 1550. 

lectual prosperity of^ the land, they never attained The large landed possessions of the Church went 

popularity, nor could they reconcile national dislikes, to the king and his favourites. Many churches were 

Fnction increased, the Norwegian parUament growing destroyed, others fell into decay, and the number of 

steadily more radical and even becoming the exponent parishes was greatlv reduced. The salaries of the 

of republican ideas. From 1884 the Storthing, which preachers, among whom were very objectionable per- 

now possessed the real power, steadfastly urged the sons, were generally a mere pittance. Fanatics of^the 

dissolution of the unicm. and on 7 June, 1905, (Glared new belief thundered from the pulpit against idolatry 

it- to be dissolved. Tne Swedish Government nat- andthecrueltyof the "Roman Antichrist"; whatever 

urally was unwilling to consent to ^lis revolutionary might preserve the memory of earlier ages was doomed 

action. Negotiations were successfully concluded at to destruction; the pictures of the Virgin were cut to 

the Convention of Karlstad, 23 September, 1905. pieces, burned, or thrown into the water; veneration 

The Norwegians elected as king Fnnce Charles of of saints was threatened with severe punishment. 

Denmark, who, under the title of Hakon VII, has Notwithstanding this, it was only slowly and by the 

since t^en reigned over the country. aid of deception that the people were seduced from 

Ecclesiastical History. — Little is known of the the ancestral faith. Catholicism did not die out in 

religious ideas of the heathen Norwegians, and this Norway until the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 

little rests on later sources, chiefly on the Eadas of the tury. The pope entrusted the spiritual care of Nor- 

thirteenth century. It seems certain that not only way, first to the Nunciature of Cologne, and then to 

animals, but aJso human beings (even kings), were Brussels, but the Draconian laws of Denmark made 

sacrificed to the gods, of whom first Thor (ister Odin) Catholic ministration almost impossible. Whether 

was the most important. Tlie early Norwegians were the Jesuits appointed to Norway ever went there is 

characterized by reckless courage and a cruelty that unknown. A Dominican who reached the country 

alternated with generosity and magnanimity. Hakon was expelled after a few weeks. The Norwegian con- 

the Good and Olaf Tryggoesson laboured to introduce vert Rhugius was permitted to remain, but was not 

Christianity, and during the reign of Olaf Haroldsson allowed to exercise his office. Conditions remained 

Christianity became, nominally at least, the prevail- the same later, when the supervision was transferre^l 

ing religion. Olaf Haroldsson was a zealous adherent from Brussels to Cologne, from Cologne to Hilders- 

of the new faith. He built churches, founded schools, heim, and thence to OsnaorQck. 

and exerted influence by his personal example. After There was no change until the nineteenth century 

his death he was revered as a saint: the church built at when the laws of 1845 and succeeding years released 

Nidaros (now Trondhjem) over his grave was replaced all dissenters, including Catholics who had come into 

later by the cathedral of Trondhjem. the finest Duild- the country, from the control of the Lutheran state 

ing in Norway. The Dioceses of Nidaros, Bergen. Church. From the time of its foimdation the Luth- 

03o, and Stavanger were soon founded, monks ana eran Church had wavered between orthodoxy and 

nuns carried on successful missionary work, and in a rationalism, and was finally much affected by the 

short time the land was covered with wooden churches Pietistic movement, led by Haugue. In 1843 a small 

(StovHrken) of Mn giilitr architecture; the few that Catholic parish was formed in Christiania, and from 

remain still arouse admiration. Gradually stone this centre efforts were made to found new stations, 

churches with a rich equipment were erected. In 1860 Pius IX created an independent prefecture 

The Norwegian bishops were under the jurisdiction Apostolic for Norway. The first prefect was a French- 

of the Metropolitan of^Lund until 1152, when the man^ Bernard, formerly prefect of the North Pole 

papai legate, Nicholas of Albano, transferred the juris- mission. He was followed by the Luxemburg priest 

former ^^mnasial rector Sverenson, and the author 
Kroo^^onning, doctor of theology, ori^:inallv a 
Lutheran pastor at Christiania. All monastic oraers, 


falliie, later Bishop of Alusa. under whom the mission een, and the altar in the Ringsacker church on Lake 

has steadily developed, although not yet large. Nysen; (in painting) the antependium at Gal; (in re- 

Espedally noteworthy among the men who of late lief work) the doorways of the churches at Hyllestad 

years have been reconciled to the Church are the and Hemsedal: the baptismal font at Stavanger, reU- 

quaries, as at Hedal; censers, as at Hadsel; crucifixes 
and vestments. The finest medieval secular building 
is King Haakon's Hall, a part of the former roysil {Mdace 
Jesuits excepted, are allowed, but there are no mon- at Bergen. Beautif iilly carved chairs, rich tap^tries^ 
asteries for men. On the other hand the missionaries and fine chased work are further proof of the degree of 
of the female congregations, Sisters of St. Elizabeth, culture attained by Catholic Norway. 
Sisters of St. Fnmcis, and Sisters of St. Joseph of Hibtobt of Literatube. — Norway can hardly be 
Chambdry,numberingabout thirty, have gained useful siud to have an indigenous literature. As regards 
and active fellow-workers. There are a few thousands material and arrangement, the chronicles and narra- 
of Catholics, for whom there are churches in Chris- lives are very much the same both in the north and the 
tiania (St. Olaf and Halvard), in Bergen, Trondlgem, south (for Icelandic Sagas see Icelandic Litebatube). 
Fredrikshald, Tromso. Fredrikstad, Altengaard, Hiam- We here treat specifically Protestant literature only 
erfest. Catholic hospitals exbt in Christiania, Ber- so far as individual writers, such as the brothers 
sen, Drammen, and Christiansand, and there is a num- Munch, refer in poetry or prose to the Catholic era in 
ber of Catholic schools towards which the Protestant Norway, and thus indirectly furUier the interests of 
population has shown itself friendly. In 1897, for the the Church. The historical investigations and writ- 
first time in three hundred years, the feast of St. Olaf ings of Bang, Dietrichson. Daae, and Bugge have 
was celebrated at Trondhjem. overthrown many historical misstatements and judg« 
Hibtobt of Abt.— Durm^ the Middle Ages art was ments prejudicial to Catholicism. These works nave 
closely connected with religion, and its chief task was influenced even Protestant tiieology in Norway, so 
the building and embellismnent of churches. Some that its position towards Rome is relatively more 
twenty old wooden churches (Stavkirker), still in exist* friendly than in other countries. If heretofore no 
eace, show with what skill Norwegians made use of Norwegian Catholic has made a great contribution to 
the wood furnished by their forests. At a compara- the national literature the reason is obvious. Of 
tively early date, stone was used, first in the Roman- late years, however, various books have been pub- 
esque, then in the Gothic buildings. Some of the li^ed of an edifying, apologetic, or of a polemical 
work thus produced has a singular and characteristic nature. There is a Catholic weekly, the "St. 
charm. Besides primitive churches of one aisle with Olav". 

rude towers and belfries, as at Vossevanger, there are When not otherwiM noted, the place of publication is Chxis- 

In existence churches of three aisles with pleasing, *»^= ^(JS^T^^^'^To ^?~??^"i,x^^S**~"^Vr^-2?'^' ?** 

J /^. *^»"'^ y« " v***^*- <M0<«a . i^ i'*^«*»^> norfJbe folkeU hxstone (8 voU., 1852-63); BAMB^'Udnet over den 

and at times relatively nch ornamentation. The nor«Jfc« Xiatorw (1803— ); ODHN«B,Ldro6oibt5wrve«. ^«»raMoc* 

facades of some of these are flanked by two towers, as Danmarkt hisUria (7th ed., Stockholm, 1886); ZOBN, Stoat tt. 

»t Ake«, B«rg«i and StavMiwn lie mort striking grtr^^"SST^^ I^TJt^S^dVJH^. SS^ 

achievements of Norwegian architecture are the Cathe- Banq, Udntft <ner den Nor%ke Kirket Hietwie under KatoLiciemen 

dral of St. Magnus at Kirkwall in the Orkneys, and, (1887) ; Iobm, Udaint over den Nor»ke Kirket Hietorie efier Refer' 

what is even finer the cathednJ at Trondhjem. . The rjSSTffih^i^^^'OTU^S!^ 

latter has had a chequered history. Bmlt Onginally oartnbr, NordUche Fahnen, II (Freiburg, 1890); Dibtrichbon, 

in 1077 by Olaf the Quiet {Kyrre) as a "Christ De Narike Stavkirker (1892); Idkm, Vore Paedres Verk; Norgee 

Church" of one aisle over the bones of St. Olaf, it 5««« ». ^ftdiWoWa^en (i^^ 

x^***«*.M v«v«*« ««Mw ^Tw ux«^ fxv 1 • txri^' • '«»« Htatene (Copenhacen, 1866-9); ScHWsmsB. Ph%L Oetch. 

servea at nrst as tnebunal place ottne Kings. Wnenm der tkand, LUeratw (3 yoU., Leipxig, 1886—); OuTXBOAiLBD,' 

1152 Trondhjem (Nidaros) was made an archdiocese, lUuetreret Danak lAteraturhittorie (1907); Halyobskm, North 

it by^e a place of pilRimage for the entire kingdom, f^^JSJj-igifiif M"^^ 

and the gifts of the faithful made possible the neces- ;«wiin(F?Sdburg. 187»-); Bbbmxnsaivd KoHLKHMmr. Prcuet. 

sarv enlargement of the eauiedral. In 1161 Arch- TMchenbuch (Leipng, 1906). 

bishop l^stein Erlandson began its restoration in the P> Wittmann. 
Romanesque style. Obliged to flee from King Sverri. 

he became acquainted during his stay in England Norwich (Noroovicxtm; Nobvicum), Ancient 

with Gothic architecture and made use of this style Diocese of. — ^Though this see took its present name 

on his return. This is especiallv evident in the unique only in the eleventh century, its history goes back five 

octagon erected over St. Olaf s grave, evidently an hundred years earlier to the conversion of East Anglia 

imitation of "Becket's Crown" in Canterburv cathe- by St. Felix in the reign of King Sigeberht, who suc- 

dral. Eystein's successors completed the building ceeded to the kingdom of his father Redwald on the 

according to his plans. The cathedral was twice death of his half-brother Eorpweald in 628. St. Felix 

damaged by fire but each time was repaired (in 1328 fixed his see at Dimwich, a sea-coast town since sub- 

and in 1432). It fell into almost complete ruin after merged, the site of which is in South wold Bay. From 

the great fire of 5 May, 1531, and for several hundred Dimwich, St. Felix evangelized Norfolk, Suffolk, and 

years no attention was paid to it. A change came Cambridgeshire, the counties which formed the dio- 

with the awakening of national pride, and the restora- cese. He was succeeded by Thomas (647), Beorhtgils 

tion of the cathedral is now nearine completion. Its (Boniface), who died about 669, and Bisi, on whose 

most valuable treasures, the body of the great Apostle death, in 673, St. Theodore, Archbishop of Canter- 

of Norwajr St. Olaf and the costlv shrine that enclosed bury, divided the see into two, with cathedrals at 

it, have disappeared. In 1537 the shrine was taken to Dunwich and Elmham. The following are the hues of 

Copenhagen, robbed of its jewels, and melted, while episcopal succession based on the most recent re- 

the bones of the saint were buried by fanatics in some search, with approximate dates of accession where 

unknown plaoe to put an end forever to the veneration known : — 

of them. The wood-carvings, paintings, and other Dunwich: .£cci, 673: Alric; .£scwidf: Eardred; 
objects of art, which formerly adorned Norwegian Ealdbeorht I: Eardwult; Cuthwine: Ealdbeorht II; 
churches, have been either carried off or destroyed. Ecglaf ; Heardred; ^Ifhun. 790; Tidirith, 798; Waer- 
This was not so frequently the case in the northern mund; Wilred, 825. Elmham: Beaduwine, 673; 
part of the country, and in other districts some few Nothbeorht; Heathulac; ^thelfrith, 736; Eanfrith; 
objects escaped. Ainon^ the works of art especially iEthelwulf ; Ealhheard; Sibba; Hunfrith; St. Hun- 
interesting may be mentioned: (in wood-carvmg) the beorht; Ciinda (there is some doubt as to whether 
altar of the Virgin in the Church of GNir Lady at Ber- Cunda was Bishop of Elmham or Dunwich). 



oontinued. The ordinary notaries of the chancery, Notary. See Pbothonotabt. 

however, wwe gradually known by other names, ac- Notlnirga, Saint, patroness of servants and peaa* 

cording to their vanoiw functions, so that the t«rm ^^ j, ^^2^ ^^ feattenberg on the Inn; d. c. 16 

ceased to be employed m the pontifical and other September, 1313. She was cook in the family of 

chanceries. The prothonotanes were and stiU are ^^^ g ^^ Rothenburg, and used to give food to 

a college of prelates, enjoying numerous privileges: ^y^^ ^^^ q^^^^ her mistress, ordered her to 

they are known as participants , but outside of feed the swine with whatever food was left. She, 

Rome th«e are many purely honorary prothono- therefore, saved some of her own food, especially on 

**"^^ J^® ®®S*^ u^"^*^ ^^ insenably ahnost pridays, and brought it to the poor. One day, ac- 

oawedibutRusXinhisrwrpamjationoftheRoman eording to legen^her master met her, and com- 

Curia has apTOmtedpartimpant prothonotanes to sanded her to show him what she was carrying. She 

the chancery CCpnst. Sapienti , 29 June, 1908). A obeyed, but instead of the food he saw only shavings, 

corresponding change occurred in the bureaux of the and the wine he found to be vmegar. Hereupon Ot- 

episcppal churches, abbeys, etc. : the officials attached tilU dismissed her, but soon felldangerously iU, and 

to the chancery have ceased to be known as Notburga remained to nurse her and prepared her for 

notaries and are called chancellor, secretary, ete. death 

Lastly, mention must be made of the notari€» of the Notburga then entered the service of a peasant 

pmodal or concihar assemblies, whose duties are j^ the town of Eben, on condition that she be per- 

hmited to the duration of the assembly. netted to go to church the evenings before Sundays 

Society m former times did not reoogmae the separa- ^nd festivds. One evening her master urged her to 

tion of powers; roM«o, m the Church the judiciAl continue working in the field. Throwing Tier sickle 

authority was vested m the same prelates as the ad- -^^ the air she swd: " Let my sickle be jucfee between 

mmistratiye. Soon however, contentious matters ^^^ ^nd you," and the sickle remained suspended in 

were tned separately before a roecially appointed the air. Meantime Count Henry of Rothenburg was 

body. TTie courta required a staff to record the tran*. ^ted with great reverses which he ascribed to the 

actions; iheae clerks were hkewise notanca. In most dismissal of Notburga. He engaged her again and 

cmlcourtath^ are however, caUedr»strM,d^^ thenceforth all went well in hw household. Shortly 

of the court, etc., but m the ecclesiastical tnbunals j^^^ y^^ ^jeath she told her master to place her 

they retam the name notary, though they are ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^1,^^ b two oxen, and to bury 

called, actuaries. Thus the g)ecial law of the higher her wherever the oxen would stand sUh. The oxen 

ecclesiastical tnbun^, the Rota and the Si^atura, ^^ the wagon to the chapel of St Rupert near 

reorgamaed by Pius X. provides for the appointment ^y^ wherelhe was buried. Her ancient cult was 

of notaries for these two tnbunals (can. v and xxxv). ^^^ ^^ 27 March, 1862, and her feast is celebrated 

^^r^f'^'^^'^i^'^^^^J^^'^^rS^^'^i^i'^'^'^ on 14 September, ^he is generaUy represented with 

up the documente of the Holy OflBce is caUed the no- ^„ ^ J ^ Ao^^^ ^^ ^ ^^kle in her hand; 

tary, as were the clerks who m^ former times drew up eometimes with a sickle suspended in the air. 

the records of the Inquisition, W, doubtless, that of all Her legendary Ufe was first compiled in Germany by Guaki- 

the Roman Congregations the Holy Office is the only noni. in 1646, Latin tr. Roschmann in Ada ss., September, iv, 

real judicial tribunal. The notaries of ecclesiastical 717-726; Hattlbh. si. NcOmrg, die Magd de» Herrn, den afaufr- 

«^u..l«..i« ->«^ .,<...»tK, ^i^^^w.. ♦u^ ^..4.:.r^ «»«,. u^«.»..»- vnurdtgen Urkunden treuherztQ nadierxaehU^ 5th ed. (Donauwortn, 

tnbunals are usually clencs; the duties may however i902)r&rAX)L«B, HeUioer^Lexikan, iv (Au«sburE. 1875), 686- 

be confided to laymen, except m criminal cases 692; Dunbab, DittumaTy of SairUlu Women, II (London, 1905), 

against a cleric. 111-112; Babiko-Gould, Li^ea of the Sainte, 14 Sept. 

FinaUy, there is the class of persons to whom the Notburga, legendary daughter of Dagobert I, who 

term notary is restnctedm coimnon parlance to wit, i^ said to have l^ed in a cave near Hochhausen on the 

those who are appomted by theproper^ Neckar in Baden. Many legends are rented as to the 

to witness the dwjumentary proceeainrabetww^^^ sanctity and holiness of her^e. After her death her 

vato persons and to impress them with legal authen- ^od was placed on a chariot drawn by two white 

^2^^*K% "^ ''''15°^^?^ '"^ ^^"^ chancenes, m ^^^ ^ the place of burial, where at piisent stands 

order that they may be witEm easy reach of private ^^^ ^ j^ ^^ Hochhausen. It is very probable that 

!Si!i'*'^'™ ^ ^""^ a pubhc character, so that their ^^e legend of St. Notburga, the daughter of Dagobert 

records drawn up according to rule are received as j ig^erely a distortion of that ofSt. Notb^a of 

authentic accounts of the particular transaction. }(attenbenc 

especially agreements, contracts, testaments, and d^ BlomT'i^ ne et la Ugmde de Madame SainU Notburga 

wills. (Paris, 1868) ; Clock. Bin Bidd aue Badena SaaemaeU (Karlanibe, 

perors, reigning princes, and of course only witnin the (London, 1906), iio. 
limits of their jurisdiction; moreover, the territory Michael Ott. 

within which a notary can lawfully exercise his f unc- «,_..•. wt t» t»i-_aa uo 

tions is expressly determined. There were formerly ^ r^**?^'*' Jban-Baptistb, Belgian statemnan, b. 3 

Apostohc notaries and even episcopal notaries, duly July, 1806, at Messancy, Luxemburg; d. at Berhn, 16 

commissioned by papal or episcopal letters, whose September, 1^1. He received his secondary educa- 

duty it was to receive documents relating to ecclesi- t»o? at the atfiMie of Luxemburg, studied law m the 

astical or mixed aflFairs, especially in connexion with Umvermty of Li^, and was awarded a doctor's de- 

benefices, foundations, and donations in favour of greeinl826. He practised law in Luxemburg, then m 

churches, wills of clerics, ete. They no longer exist; Brussels, where he took an active part in the war that 

the only ecclesiastical notaries at present are the of- ^^ t^®^ wa^ in the press in behalf of the independ- 

fidalsof the Roman and episcopal cutub. Moreover «»oe of Belgium. During the riots of August, 1830, 

these notaries were layman, and Canon Law forbids ^^ ^^ ^^ his native province; but hearing of the fight 

clerics to acts as scrivenere (c. viii, "Ne ckrici vel ^^ch had taken place between the patnote and the 

monachi", 1. Ill, tit. 50). troops of the Prince of Orange he hurried back to the 

Dn Camob, OloMonum, 8. ▼. Nolariue; Fbbbabis, Ptompta capital. 

W******?".* ••7- ^«*«??"' r'AOiKAin, Cortmeniaria in e. Sieut to. t, >rhe provisional government appointed him secre- 

Ne Ciena eel menaeht; and inc. In ordtnando, I, De e%mon%a; x„^, ^t xi,^ «^,v.wJ»:**~k «i.:aI, »aa *%»<>»««:>«»• 4\%a 

IWbicoubt, Lee Uri* eielieiaetuiuee de France (Pari.. 1721), B, i^ry Of the committee whlch WSa prepanng the 

nii; Oibt, Manuel de diplomatique (Paris, 1894). first draft of a new constitution. Three electoral dis- 

A. BouDiNHON. tricts of Luxemburg chose him as their representative 




In the ilnt legidatuie of Belgium. He dedared for 
the district of Arlon to which, in 1831, he gave proof 
of his gratitude by doing his utmost to prevent its 
union with Germany. Nothomb, who was the young- 
est member of the legislative assembly, was appointed 
one of its secretaries and a member ot the committee 
on foreign afifairs. In the chamber he strongly op- 
posed the advocates of the union of Belgium with 
France and those who were for a republican govern- 
ment. His political ideal, which he defended with 
great eloquence, was a representative monarchy with 
two houses, liberty of the press, and complete inde- 

Eendence, in their own spheres, of the secular and re- 
gions powers. 

From 1831-36 he was general secretary for foreign 
affairs; with Devaux he went to London to carry 
on secret ne^tiations at the conference which had 
met in that city to settle the new state of affairs cre- 
ated by the Belgian revolution, and did much to re- 
move the difficulties which had delayed the departure 
for Belgium of Leopold of Saxe-C!oburg. He pub- 
lished in 1833 his "Essai historioue et politique sur la 
revolution beige", a remarkable work which was 
translated into German and Italian and was reprinted 
three times in the same year. In 1836 Nothomb re- 
signed as general secretary for foreign affairs and in 
1837 became minister of Public Works in the Catholic 
administration of de Theux. He gave a powerful 
impetus to the construction of railroads and when he 
resigned in 1840 more than 300 kilometres had been 
built. In the same year he was sent as an extraordi- 
nary envoy to the German Confederation and in 1841 
became minister of the interior in a unionist adminis- 
tration; but the positions of the parties were not what 
they had been in the preceding decade, and Nothomb 
soon realized that a union of the Catnolics and lib- 
erals was no longer possible. In 1845 he withdrew 
from the political arena to enter the diplomatic corps. 
He was for many years minister plenipotentiary of 
Beljpum in Berlin. In 1840 he had become a member 
of nie Royal Academy of Brussels; and he received 
many distmctions from foreign countries. 

NoTHOiiB, Alphonse, broUicr of Jean-Baptiste, b. 
12 July, 1817; d. 15 May, 1898. He had a brilliant 
career in the magistracy, was minister of justice in 
1855, and became a member of the lower house of Par- 
liament in 1859. In 1884 he was made a minister of 
State. Like his brother he was a staunch Catholic; 
in the latter part of his life he had become a convert to 
the political creed of the new Catholic democratic 

JuBTS, Le Baron Nothomb CBniiaels, 1874); Tbokimkk, Hia- 
toire du r^gru de Uopotd /•'' (Louyain, 1861); Htmans, BuUrirt 
partemenUrin de la BMgiqu* (BninelB, 1877-80). 

P. J. Mabiqub. 

NotitU Dignitatuxn (Register of Offices), the 
official handbook of the civil and military officials in 
the later Roman Empire. The extant Latin form be- 
longs to the early fifth century. Tlie last addenda con- 
cerning the Eastern Empire point to the year 397 as the 
latest chronological limit^hile supplementary notices 
concerning the Western Empire extend into the reign 
of Valentinian III (425-55). The bulk of the state- 
ments, however, point to earlier years of the fourth 
century, individual notices showing conditions at the 
be(;inning of this century. The first part of the ' ' No- 
titia " ^ves a list of the officiab in the Eastern Empire : 
"Notitia dignitatum omnium tam civilium quam mil- 
itarium in partibus Orientis"; the second part gives a 
corresponding list for the Western Empire: ''Notitia 
... in partibus Occidentis". Both give, first the 
highest official positions of the central administration, 
^en the officiab in positions subordinate to these, ana 
also the officials of the various "dioceses'* and prov- 
inces, the civil officials being regularly stated alons 
with the military. In addition, .the insignia of the on 

ficials and of the army divisions are shown by draw- 
ings. This register was used in the imperial chan- 
cery; the chi^ official of the chancery {primieeriitM 
notariorum) found in it all necessary information for 
drawing up the announcements of the appointment of 
officials and of their positions. The " Notitia", pre- 
served as it is in an incomplete condition, is partly an 
abstract, partly an exact transcript of this official reg- 
ister. It shows that at various periods, extending as 
late as the first part of the fifth century, additions were 
made to the state re^pster and gives the essential form 
of the list in the era just mentioned. It is, therefore, 
a very important authority for the divisions of the 
Empire, for an understanding of the Roman bureau- 
cracy, and for the distribution of the army during the 
late Roman Empire. The first printed edition was 
"Notitia utraque cum Orientis tum Occidentis" 
(Basle, 1552) ; the latest editions were edited by BGdc- 
ing (2 vols., Bonn, 1839-53), and O. Seeck, "Notitia 
diniitatum. Accedunt Notitia urbis Constantino- 
poutan® et Laterculi provinciarum'* (Berlin, 1876). 

Sbbck. QuaHione$ de Notitia diifnitatum (Berlin, 1872) : Iobm , 
Die Zeit dee Vegetitte in Hermee, XI (Berlin. 1876), 77 aqq.; 
Idsm, Zur Krittk dor NotUia dignitatum in Hermee, IX (1876). 
217 eqq.; Stbvfbnbaobn, Der Gottorfer Codex der Notitia dignita- 

tum in Hermee, XIX (1884), 458 sqq.; Mommbbn, Die Coneerijh 

I Hermca. XIX (1884). 233 Bqq.; 
TBUFTBii-ScHWABB, Oeock, doT rfffltMch^n bittraiwr (Sth ea.. 

tioneordnung der r&m, Kaieerteit in Hermee^ XIX (1884). 233 eqq.; 

Ldpng, 1890), 1163. 

J. P. KiBSCH. 

NotitlSB BpiBCopatuum, the name given to official 
documents that furnish for Eastern countries the list 
and hierarchical rank of the metropolitan and 
suffragan bishoprics of a' Church. Whilst, in the 
Patriarchate of Home, archbishops and bishops were 
classed according to the seniority of their conse- 
cration, and in Africa according to their age, in 
the Eastern patriarchates the hierarchical rank of 
each bishop was determined by the see he occupied. 
Thus, in the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the first 
metropolitan was not the lonsest ordained, but who- 
ever happened to be the incumbent of the See of Cssa- 
rea; the second was the Archbishop of Ephesus, ahd so 
on. In every ecclesiastical province, the rank of each 
suffragan was thus determined, and remained un- 
changed unless the list was subsequentlv modified. 
The hierarchical order included first of all, the patri- 
arch; then the greater metropolitans, i. e., those who 
had dioceses with suffragan sees; the autocephalous 
metropolitans, who had no suffragans, and were di- 
rectly subject to the patriarch; next archbishops who, 
although not differins from autocephalous metropoli- 
tans, occupied hierarchical rank inferior to theirs, and 
were also immediately dependent on the patriarch; 
then simple bishops, i. e., exempt bishops, and lastly 
suffragan bishops. It is not known by whom this very 
ancient order was established, but it is likelv that, in 
the beginning, metropolitan sees and simple bishop- 
rics must have been classified according to the date of 
their respective foundations, this order bein^ modified 
later on for political and religious considerations. We 
here append, Church by \;hurch, the principal of 
tiiese documents. 

A. Constantinople: The "Ecthesis of pseudo-Epi- 
phanius", a revision of an earlier Notitia episcopa- 
tuum (probably compiled by Patriarch Epiphanius 
under Justinian), made during the reign of Heraclius 
(about 640) ; a Notitia dating back to the first years 
of the ninth century and oifferinK but little from 
the earlier one; the "Notitia of Basil the Armenian'', 
drawn up between 820 and 842* the Notitia com- 
piled by Emperor Leo VI the Philosopher, and Patri- 
arch Nicholas Mysticus between 901 and 907, modify- 
ing the hierarchical order which had been established 
in the seventh century, but had been disturbed by the 
incorporation of the ecclesiastical provinces of Iilyri- 
cum and Southern Italy in the Byzantine Patriar- 
chate; the Notitis episcopatuum of Constantine Por* 



phjrrogenitus (about 940), of Tzimisces (about 980), cally accepted that he is the ''monk of St. Gall" (mon- 

of Alexius Comnenus (about 1084), of Nil Doxapatns achus Sangallensis), author of the legends and aneo- 

(1143), of Manuel Comnenus (about 1170). of Isaac dotes ''Gesta Caroti Magni". The number of woiks 

Angelus (end of twelfth century), of Micnael VIII ascribed to him is constantly; increaong. He intro- 

Palsologus (about 1270), of Andronicus II Palaeolo- ducedthe8equence,anew6pecieB of religious lyric, into 

inxs (about 1299), and of Andronicus III (about 1330). Germany, it had been the custom to prolong the 

druckte und 

Notitis episoopatuum" (Mimich, 1900); Gelzer, ker learned how to fit the separate sy^Uabk 

** Georgii Cyprii Descriptio orbis romani '' (Leipzig, text to the tones of this jubilation : this poem was called 

1890) ; Gelzer. " Index lectionum lens" (Jena, 1892); the sequence (q. v.), formerly called the "jubilation ". 

Parthey, "£ueroclis Synecdenms" (Berlin, 1866). (The reason for this name is imoertidn.) Between 

The later works are only more or less modified copies 881-887 Notker dedicated a collection of such verses 

of the Notitia of Leo the Philosopher, and therefore do to Bishop Liutward of Veroelli, but it is not known 

not present the true situation, which was profoundly which or how many are his. Ekkehard IV, the his- 

changed by the Mussulman invasions. After the cap- toriographcr of St. Gall, speaks of fiftv sequences 

ture of Constantinople by the Turks^ another Notitia attributable to Notker. The hymn, ''Media Vita", 

was written, portraying the real situation (Gelzer, was erroneously attributed to him late in the Middle 

"Ungedruckte Texte der Notitise episcopatuum", Ages. Ekkehud IV lauds him as "delicate of bodv 

613-37), and on it are based nearly all those which but not of mind, stuttering of tonpue but not of Intel- 

have been since written. The term Syntagmation is lect. pushing boldly forward in thin^ Divine, a vessel 

now used by the Greeks for these documents. of tne Holv Spirit without equal in his time". Notker 

B. We know of only one "Notitia episcopatuum" was beatined in 1512. 

for the Church of Antioch, viz. that drawn up in the Chbvalibk, B%o4nbl., b, v.; Mbykb von Knonau in RnUneyk. 

sixth century by Patriarch Anastasius (see Vailh6 ff:^Ji3£^^^ 

in "Echoe d'Orient", X, pp. 90-101, 139-145, 363-8). ®''™' ^"""^ '^^*~' ^^ ^^^' ^®"^' 

Jerusalem has no such document, nor has Alexan- (2) Notksr Labeo, monk in St. Gall and author, 

dria, a