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f 

■ 



OLD MAP OF MANILA. 

3IA,DB CrKUra THE ADXIMSTKATION UF COVEEN'OK VALDES 
1730-17B9: IVOX OBIGIKAL SKIZED by TBE BHOLIiH AT THI 
CAJTUKX OF XAKILA CT 1783: SOW IN BBITIBH XUSKUX. 



A CATHEDRAL. 

B GOVERNOR'S PALACE. 

C AUDIE^'CIA REAL. 

D COLLEOE OF i=T. PHILIP. 

E AUDITOR'S OFFICE AXD SOLDIERS* QCABTERS. 

r NAVAL WAREHOUSES. 

G BOYAL CHAPEL. 

H ASCIEXT WAREHOrSES. 

Y 8ASTA CLARA. 

J ROYAL HOBPITAL. 
K TOWN HALL. 

L. COLLEUE OF ST. THQMAS AND PRESS. 
LL CHCBCH AND CONVENT OF SANTA DOMINOO. 
H BCBOOL OP .-iANTA CATALINA DE SKNA. 
N COLLEGE OF !*T. JUAN DE LETRAN. 
S ASYLUM AND IIOSPIT.VL OF HT. JLAX UK DIOi=. 
O RETEtE.VT AND i/OXVENT OP ST. FltANCI>i(0 
AND l'HAi'i:i. OK SAMK. 

t' CHURCH AM) (:<JXVi:\T UK TIIK BAKKF"1HITKD 

AUClSTIMANf:. 
Q ARMdKY (jK TIIK FnUTKH-^S. 
R BKUTIIKRIIOOD {iF .IKSIS. 

» UfJLLKiiK OF ST. YCiSAClo. 

T BARltACKS OF THE FOKTKE,i~. 

V CFIUmiE AND roNVEN'T OF ;?T. Al'lllSTIN. 
X COLLKiiE OF ST. YSABEI,, 

z trea!jt:ky and ai'ditok > (jkkice. 

AA AKrHIEPIsrOPAL I'ALACE. 




GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND 
POPULATION 



Director 

GEN. J. p. SANGER, U. S. A. 

Assistant Directors 
HENRY GANNETT VICTOR H. OLMSTED 



UNITED STATES BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
~" WASHINGTON, 1905 



^ 



i 



V.l 

ia690.2 



wrfMnttvnt fMnflnp CNkv 



* •* * * •■ -* .b- k« «• «■■■ ?■■ ■• ■•*■••••* 

ft # ■*■•*»■ • «■«■■ 



CONTENTS. 



VnLVTiiK I. — Geography, History, und Popiilntion. 

VoiAMK U. — Poptilatiim. 

VuLr«K in. — Mortality, DnfoctivR CIuhkos, K<tncatioi), and Fnnii* 

\u*M niid Uwoliinpj. 
Vi>L.iT»F. IV. — Agiiciiltunv und Social arid IndiiMtrinl Slatirtics. 

VOLUME I. 



INTKOUUCTIUN. 

■' the t'nnwts, I ] . Plan Bud ur^nisatinn, IS. A ppuint- 
i r>(i-«>ru<u«mipervUin«aiiil i-iiiiinorutt)n<, IH. Eotinicm- 
Hiia nfrtirwtuuitrtbe^, 21. Non-l!brislian tribes, 22. h««Dlti)nftherenfliu, 
JtT. H«n*r|p» on tJitf gJVi^fitpliy ftniJ tiLilury of tho Philip[)iiie»i, 2X. ikmi*; 
ricnitinmt buy> cooraraiiig the population, ai{ricnlture, edooitioD, mor- 
lallty, nx-UI etaliatlva, Ami monafactons, :^. Powible tuiutv ettvcte of 
tbr cmiBiM, 47. 

GEOtiRAPHY. p,^ 

L Pbjvaod tDcnutina »-8« 

Stofltton aiid chamcteri^m of the arvhiiwlngo, 4H. Knrimra, 52. 
Are*. 56^ MoQDtaiiU) and riven, (U. Fatma and flora, 73. For- 
e«ta, 7&. .'klinpnU rvKnorcoi, 71>. 

n, atawie 87-18S 

tnlloBtirea atTectla^ climatokifiival cunditioni^ 87. TMiipereture, SI. 
WMerTBpor, IM. Movouieotof UioaluKMplierv, 128. 

n. Vi^caiMMaiid atdsinic c«nu-ra 184-284 

BHiOatifin and nahire '^1 Die archipelagic 184. Active- aitd domiaat 
*olcaaui4, 187. Hixluricat K>xi)<JKy, IM. f^thiiiixkm, 1^. 
Cftwrvntinti ol Basnic disturbaQuee^ 196. Volcanoea and <3artb- 
qnakfw In Hindaoao and the VIsajroB. 200. In eoutheaetern. 
cmUml, nud uurtbem lAtM^a, 3S1. Relattve Iregnvm-y u( uurth- 
Haakm, 2M. 

IV. eiifVMl**iN> 256-262 

id liit nf th» pfindpal ekratioiis in tho Philippine 

'■■' *^5. 

ibiuiilr vl thf Philippine nirhipolflgo 28.3-308 

((cuuituirj- (if UUutiU ol thf Phllippin» archipetaffo, 203. Islands a( 
thft PhdlppiiKi arrliiimlaKn having an an-a largta- thun lOOaqitaK 
tnilcM, SM. Ijilandi> i>f Ibe Philippine an-htpeliLgo, armnpxt goo- 
gnphloally frritu north to mutL. 'i^4. Lflandit o( th« Philippine 
aRlilp«]«i{u, nlpiiatietiiialtr amuifced, with lucatiou. 2B7. 

(6) 



6 



CONTENTS. 



HISTORY. rtg^. 

1. Wat-over)' and projnw* 30(*-38« 

>ieltlciucnt AiiJ *i»r\y bistory, 309. InunigraUoa of C'liiuoH.', 318. 
lAter l)iflUir>-, 330. Slavery, 324. Local pivemniont, 33S Power 
nt Ifu' tiiniiiwdt' onlent, S-Kl, Cmnmerfli' and rev«ine«, 346. Gov- 
ernment, 3iil. Kinkncipfttinn from Hiwin, .174. 

n. Tlw ii«lidar> 38»-nO 

Early i£o\'enmieat, 389, Opprewion, 3W, Conrls of Qnt iustuice, 
400. Municl]»l oouru, 402. Special oourts, 4M. 

POin!l«\TIOS. 

1. KUtury of the population 41]'49l 

(Tbriiitisii or civiliiH^I tribes, 411. Non-Cbrindan or wild Iribes, 4SS. 
l^iiiieau luul ullivr furvijEii ekiiiejiU'. 477. 

11. Chanict«riHti<7 of thp ririliBPil or Christian tril««i 4lRi-fi.tl 

Extmctj< frotn tfurly nHrniliv««8iir1 rt'jKirl)s4H2. CumnimtHof re<c«nt 
Iraveters ami of <leri:>''"*n. ^WS. Opininiifiuf iwnie ot tin.- .Viiiuri- 
^tui )^>vl■^nura miJ ci.-DNUfi aii].>eniiR>ii>, o!l. Guvurnor Tuft'e ile- 
Bitription of Filipino trailH uiul i-i iHtoiu)>, 529. 

in. Cliinicteriirtics of tlrc nun-C])ri)>tiitii tnlK-t< !i3l^-68& 

Negritof), 6S2. Igorots, TiSS. IIohkoFh, 54fi. ManjryiUM*, M7. Tft;i- 
bantiM, MH. Tirtiniyf-K, ^4». Siil)iiriu)<. »>2. Bifiuw, 560. Bago- 
boaand Mmndayaa. Ml. .MoriM, 561. ^^^^ 

APPKNDICKH. ^^H 

Apjiendix I. — An art to provltle dir idkiiig a cennuH of the Philippine H 

IslnndH i>H"-n95 ■ 

Appendix II. — Uiyanization of the Fhilipiune CenMis fi97-flOI 1 

Apifndix III.— BibliograpKy Hai-607 

Index (m-^M 

MAPS. DIAGRAMS. AND OUTUNES. 

Old nwpof MftniUi Fn>ntiiipi«ce. 

Pliilipliine iHlaitdx, ciklon^l map ■,..... oppottite.. 40 

(VnBiiif rniip (if I.lntniy.'n 15 

PNilip]iiiiR IpIhhiIh in I'mtbinr? of 1 ,000 (en'l, rt>lcire<l niaj>. .oppo^te. , ft) 

[iii'l.ril>niion of forcmti!, colorol map ..^.._. . oppoaittf.. 7(1 

Mrju) anniuil U'ni|ji>mtiire, coUirc-d map ,.,.,. ......(ipjHwit<>.. 88 

Mean annual rsinCHlE, colorwl map oppumtp. , 108 

Plate I. Annual \'ariution of U*iup«r»ture at Manila, I&80-1902, iliaKruni 10<^ 

II. AuuuilI variutiuDof tiiv^i-tB^'scy of Die Nun't- niyit at .^lanila, diat;nuu.. 107 

III. Aunnal variation of ntin at Manila. l^LVIODZ, diairmin Ill 

IV. Rain at Manila irom ISAS-UKIl!, annual rainfall in niillimctcn'. dia- 
gram 113 

V. Annual variation of rain in %'hHouh plwH-* of th* Hiilippitie anrhipol* 

ago, of the Antilles, and of the t*mti>d Stiitex, diatcmm 121 

VI. Ajinual variation of tlii- Tvlativt> humidity at MnniJn, 1K.40-I9(i'i, dia- 

irrain 128 

VII. Thermic oaciUalion, hygrorartrie state, nnd oebulomty at Manila, 

diagram 125 

VIXl. AuQiial variation of tli» t«n«iQn of aqueniu vapor al Mamila, 1S83- 

1W2, diagram 127 



CX)NTKKT& 



I IX. AuumI prqgrenioo o( tb* vitvte At Manila. diaKmn ISS 

X. Stwiiniwit pracnawm of tbe ariad* ai MftaiU. (tiasnn ISS 

XJ. 4— ■ t y»ritioQ of thedail^ v«Iocily of thr vIimI Bt Maoilik ISffi- 

ias,i&«nin W 

Xn. Qmtnl ■wranflMB •! the Mwxplw'rv ftl MuiK diagiftiit 147 

XIII. GOBMKl dKDiBtka at the atmmflx»n m1 diBenoi fatitndm, dia- 
gmn - 161 

XIV. 3(m)Ui1? dietnlmtiHt of the bacvfo* or crcbma in Uw Rw Kut. 
U80-I8BB. it^cntn KW 

XV. Ojrckateol the MkriatiM or MaedUoes, map IflS 

XVI. CyckuMB which reaure fau from the iMiriilian of ManlU, tiutp IM 

XVII. Ofehotm which fvran-*' iM«r the tneridiMi <)f U«nil« belim or 

after CTOMDjc it. map 1<& 

XVIII. Cyrloonof Funnwe*, map IW 

I XIX. CydoaaThich recarvc in the inl^rior of Lus(jo. or iii Uie China 

^K aea not (ar (ram lfa« igJand. map 107 

^H XX. Of donea of China, Tonkin, ancK^whtn Chins, map Iflt 

^M XXI. Cvrlon«> ul China. Tonkin, and Cochin China, vari«<I a Itttfe fiTMn 

^ I'iate .V.\, map IW 

XXn. CycloDcn wliicb croa to tbr eomli of Idanila. map 170 

XXJU. Cy^ones of the VimyaaiUKl Hin<)stta<>, map 171 

XXIV, CyelotkM which nvnrre in the China aea hetw«en the lOth and 
^K aOth paralleLs north latitiido, ciuminf; Bnt to thf kmiUi and thtua 

^^ lo the north of .Manila, map ITS 

■ XXV. CVcloneifonned in the China wB, map ITS 

XXVI. t^lonEe lonnod in the Jo16 (Sulu) am or the interiatand watcm 

Root h of I Ji»6n, map 174 

IVll. Monthly di«tributk>o of the thondemtonua ohaarwd it Manila, 

1888-1897, dUgrain IH 

Active and doruiant volcanovs, map............................. 188 

INiUnnaaof (wnlral lMx6r\, map 191 

Apo volcano, outline W 

MatlSnttn volcano, lookiiiftsoolh, ontlin« SOS 

Catamiin volcano, C^imiKUf n laUnd. ontlitio SOD 

Oatanniii vok-aiio, lakfu from mm looking Kiutliwrwl, pravioua to 

April 30, 1871, notline 2i:i 

Oktarmin volcano aft«r April, lft7l, ootllne ....>.... SIS 

Oalarmin volcano in lfi»7 and 1002, outline S18 

Baloaan volcano, lnokintcnurtbnwt, onUim* 228 

Taal rolimno, outline ..............*.... S81 

Baai|ao volcano, looking nurthwvwl, outline.... MO 

Bui}ao volcano, loukinfteast, onUino MO 

Relative fminenuy of earthquAktw. map .■..■■•■■.. Vt 

[LLUSTRATIONS. 

radacpato. 

I of the oenauFi (Tagiilogi) W 

I of tbo ceoflus (Vimyiuiff) M 

dttpdrrliota of the ixtnatu (Zambalan, (Tacay&n, tluoUHW, I'auf^tiiin. I'am- 

praCUt, BIcpl) 30 

CMbsIogan, capital of Sdnuu- ^1 

iLmaBpl-tTrrlani-ta nionnment, Manila........... ^ 

^ptno (anuly — aifroapof Cny/ma ^1 




CSmviml vi«w of the Liinntu, the MaUosn drire, and the bwiti6n at 8u l>ie|p>. 

Walled aty. Manila 

Typiiwl Ftlipino villap!. Boar, Mariuduqae 

The gap of Vigan, IliKtw Snr 

Street In Baltuag, Bulacdn (TagAloga) 

'■Villaj^of RomMAn , 

DeecendiiiK Maitat river on raft — Nueva Vjwaya 

Mayjii volcano 

Mii^llaii monuiiK^nt, ialand nf Maculn, erected on the epol where he was 

killed 

Giant forart tree of Minnlanao, ahowinK natural butlrMKe* of trank 

Bar( palm 

Tni^' fem, province of B«nf^et. 

Moro watohtower, UunuLcuete, yegroa OrieDtal 

Nalivo buati< ... 

Fort Hlar, ZamlninnKii, Mimlnnao— t\-piral prtIv Spanish fort 

8pAQl8h rv«ldon<-o where .^giiinftldo w»f ontiAne^t, Manila 

Primitive ovens ,.-..,4. 

View of iDDvr liarbor, IloOo, Paiiay 

Loadinjc and diacharginti of veHwK Cebi), C^hil 

General view of Camp Vlmr«. elpvution, 3,000 feet, ahowlog character ol 

country abnul LAke LAnao, Iktlndanao 

General view of CVbd, CvbCi 

Apo volcano, looking we«t from Ditvao river 

Uay<)u vuli^tiu, provincB of Altwy ........... 

Tht green and yellow craler lake.Hof Taal volcano , 

Prineipel erater lake of Taal volcano 

Ml Maiiulliiig, looking 9011th 

The salient I'late oJ Aima, Parian K*i», Walletl City, Manila 

Qi>v-«upcn.'i8or Phillips and preeJdeiites and enumeratur*, Cuyo, provinw of 

Ruaffua (Cuyfius) 

flov-su[>ervi8or l>ichoeo and presidente^, province ol Imhela (("affayaneel 

Uov-supcrvisor Fitxilaand prcsldvotes. provino^of I*anfasinAni i'lini^iritnanea}. 
(iov-t<uiwrviiM:ir Juv^n and prend«Hit«>'i pnivim^e of Paiu|Mn^ (Paaiiwugaim). 

EnumeratorB, provinre o( 8orsofE6n ( Bfcola) 

|PiwideQtes and ennmeniUHfi, province o( \m iMfpiaa (Tneiilo«s) 

Gov-0uper\'lBur Joan Cailleu and pmideutm, pruviucc of La Ijiguna (Tagtf- 

I"«B) 

GoT-cmperxHanr Agcaoili and premdcnies, provinre nf llomn Nort« (Ilntnnaa) . 

OOT-ffuperviaor Crisologo a»d preddentca, proviDoe of llocoa l^r ( lti>can»«) . . 

OoT-fluperviaor Larena and preridunlM, provinee of Ke|{rcM Oriental ( Viaay- 
ant) 

Yoonc Neipito woman 

Negrito)! making fin; by mbhing two piuL'daudiaiubuo tof^tbur.. ............ 

Omap of Ncfrrito*", province of Kftti)lAl««......i,.i..^. ,.i.. 

Negrito allowing fihil tM*lh 

NegritoA in tlie foreut, prKivince of Imbola ......... 

Igorot girl.ahowing melhod of (rtrvlcbiDX bolt Ib lobe ol ear 

Igorot woman, hair liouiid op with gnuw chaplH 

^Jgorotboy - 

>rol father end daogbtar -.,- . 

f Igorot warrior in hi* prime ..n.-,.. ....... .1^,,,.-. - 

Sative woman with Nefcrito Idood (Uvmontado) 



i««* 



6S 
63 
03 
63 
03 
63 
IW 
G» 

68 

72 
72 
201 
322 
S39 
288 
387 
318 

440 
449 
4i}0 
■HO 

451 
481 

4ftl 
4B2 
4A2 

462 
4M 

464 
464 

4&4 

■154 
4W 
189 
4Vi 
I5Q 
466 

4se 



I 



I 



^Yootiit man ( Rflnwmtado) -KJit 

»rt(R«CD(WiU<1o) i ..... 4fiH 

EstiT«maD viih Negrito hloml (Homraifaido) 4AH 

faWttimldiUit , 4BS 

Voom (iimltUn) 4M 

1Vt«nrtws mmtndiuirui nf fnnigna r^nr . .....^ 401 

1^. ' I f.f Mimljiiiii.. ..^.^ ._._ 46S 

T(b^:, Mun— wife uf Cliitff All „ 404 

Xoco vocnen uf Upper oUe». ^lubotaea 4G4 

DaCDUuI briilr 404 

IMitiMnf lakit Ijuiao, Mindaoait.......... .»...< .>.. 404 

rJCgfo, atluli tiial« 4r(4 

I, MwUtito, FlIipUMaeUlcment, rMiii^ncc ol niillOuy gtivcmor,,. 4Wl 

I'hdtuwiit HtitMti, Tnpol itrotip 4W( 

HlBO HEAKMrf TillUKO -irili 

>vlllvt*, 74Uii1<o«ii|,'». H'ljoiuiiiv uid w(*«l of PlIipuioMtleioent. 4tin 

iperriaor 'inuil aii<l pn*iO«nl««. pruviiuvof \A-yut [\"iMy»a») 4flS 

rCoTHmpc^rriMnr iirUynand [•naidenttti, prorint-e ai I A Unii'm (Ili^ran(rii) Ml 

[pRrikkulrv, apticial ■^■qIh »( IIk cenmts, province uf CHl^vAu fil2 

B{iwt«l aprttUsut tht* cutiinu. proviuw at C'nitayAu (2)........... 513 

l'6ov-«apcrvuair KiimoH ami preedileales, province i>f Tiirlair iTaudUipi) SI6 

r-«aperrbw>r Octin[H>anil prcAiiWib!^ aii'1 <mnm<'r»l'ir», pmvinre ot Rulaciiti 

itttfiog^) ,.,„ SIB 

|h«i>Wil«- of Agiwn (ViMvmif) ttTi 

'THnterivoKln^luietn ( VisByaii) .' 622 

rtiafcliMl* III AIiKiiijif (N'i>w>aii) &22 

taaamamlMtn ai )lnrin<liii|ue (l^igdlopt) 522 

bwBMnbmol Miu>iMU~> |\'t««yiinB) KS 

I (toT-a n perf i« u r Hugo Vidal ktul prMidentea, CUpk, island of lluwy (Viaay- 

I) 624 

(Mrv-mpenrhBor UMadnand prvflid«atw,provin(.'e of N^ru« Oi^den tal ( VtMiyaiM ) 626 

'CUiuacu and pre«idenU«, pruviuce of Cebtl (Vkayaiix) 528 

tilu' ti>«iisnf Jaroand I* Paz. willi Uie (mv-HHpi'r\'i«Dr Delgado 

V&i' ' Itrtfld (Visnyaiffl) 628 

^Quf^ttpr! . . |.lurL-ul«un<l prcsridentM, prorioce olK^aiHr (Vtaayana). n2U 

'QnMMcDuiuvmoTw. pri^vinuenf I^ (jigniia (TaHal<;^).„.;....«»w.. 6S0 

1lB|uiaii girt ifpiiitiing 632 

TfagolKn yooDg woman in typical draw 632 

Hairuiaii wontan and i:hlld 632 

TtBgoiao girl opisraliaK foUaa gin..*.............. ................... 6S8 

(«iir-«BiMfTia»f I'ai'k and |tr>'-i<'ifbte«, provluoe of BrngnH (Igorott} 684 

JtomtMumloni, pMviui'*' id I>*pKiitu-BunUM- (Inorota) S87 

■ .tMn iif hi-O'I-liuTiU-r it) BiuiAtiv, (A«[nnto<BonUK% i-liowing th*i 

niivm uutl walvr lititfalu 639 

i irjiwi* of S QTTB V Lxmya 639 

(««rkafMon the Keu^el trail 639 

' id tht* ]i««>nir claw ..^..... B8B 

■ lotwA "bewliuu" ofBanaae 641 

[JfWOl ,.... «1 

hiBl-bunliir, Lcpuito-BonbMi... 641 

.fprl Id fern-loaf roAumi! Ml 

. tgorol. youog woouui 641 



10 CONTENTS. 



Fmdng page. 

Oaddto boose of medium height 543 

IJwelling of the Manday&s, elevated beyond reach of spears 643 

An Ato at Talobin— Igorota 543 

Igorot boose, Bagn^n, Lepa&to-Bontoc 543 

Timray dancer at Cottabato 549 

Ataof DAvao 649 

Groop of Mangyane, of Mindoro 649 

Mangyan, province of Mindoro 649 

Monteeee, province of Misamie 649 

Teacher of murac and dance of the Bagobos 661 

Bagobo warriore, showing elaborate costomes 561 

Bagobo moaciana of Ddvao 661 

Moro showing one way of wearing the sarong 663 

Sangnil Moro warrior in brass helmet and cuiraas 663 

S&mal Moroe, characteristic dreee : 663 

StLmal Moro of Zamboanga 563 

MalanaoMoTO 663 

YakanMoro 563 

Moro houses on Rfo Grande, Cottabato, Mindanao 665 

Moro split-bamboo house of common people and slaves 565 

Mixed native architecture of civilisted tribee. Stone and mortar subetnicture 

and wooden framework 566 

Example of fine oipa structure 565 

Gaddin tree house 572 

A d welling of the Mamanilafl 572 

Tingoian house at Padangita — a feast in progress 572 



INTRODUCTION. 



' (or and Scope ct the Census— Plan and OigsntZAlion — Appointmerd &nd 
Infltmcbon d Census Supcnisors <uid Enumcralorn — Enumenition of CKrislian 
Trbes — Non-ChrislUn Tribes — ^Reatilb d ihc Censui— Renuirt* on the Geog- 
raphy aod History of the Philippines Some Sigaific«nl FacIs Coocerning die 
Pofwkbon. Agriculture. Elduc^tton, Mortality, Social Suiidics, and UaDt^o 
taea— PoksSiilc Future Oects of the Census. 

The report of th(^ Phtlippino Census of 1903, publisheci in four 
T0lam6«f presCDtts the fii-f't eoaiplete returiu of the populutioti Hiid 
rMouroesof the nrcLiptliipo wbit-h have yet been secured in acrord- 
%oee with the high staudunL of American censius taking'. 

The ccuus of the Philippine Uliinds wns token pursuant to section 
6 of u M^ of Congress approved July 1, 1902, as follows: 

TtuU whenever tlie uzi^ng iosumKliun in ttie Philippine [bIuuJb nhall tiave 
aaartl umI a mmiitlnn xf geiu'rel aikI roinplcic iXTHrie nhitll Imro been Mtatllflhed 
ChAMib wi«l Ih*" fau,-t *hall l-c « rtitkvl lo tht Prm«ient hy thi' I'hilippinfi llon^iiii-Mioii. 
tb« Fraittivnt, upiin Wiujt MaliMtiiil llien?**/, xlmll onI»r n crnuMS of ttie I'hilippuit> 
(■luids to bo taken by aaul i'hilippiae CominiMiDn; 9Uch n^neii^ in Uj> iniguirios 
ntkiing Ut Ihv ptipulation ahull tukc and iiiikv «<> tar oe pmcliuiblv full rcpurt iur 
alt iIm inhabitanlB, ii( name, age, wx, nee. or tril>e, whether native or foreifcn horn, 
numcy In ftpanlfcli, native dlalMt or laoguafK', or in Bng]i«ti, school attendance, 
iji of hotni^ ii)iluiitri«l and Mx-ial sldlixtics. and auc-h atli«r iiifoniiatioii wpu- 
li.fr oai-ii ifiland, vaiU pruvim-i.'. and tiiitiiifi|«lity, or other ciril dhMiiin, nr lli«i 
■imI said Coniuiinioii may detiu neceesary: t^fided, 'Thai tliv Prc«idi>Dt 

ly, apnii the (vqutwt at enkl CunmiirMiun, in h\s dl^ort-lion, ouii)]oy tim 8iTvi<-i> of 
(he CcMW Bureau in ivmiinlin^ and pmniul|^tinR thf atatiHtii.'nl infomintion uluive 
pforiiled lor, and may t'oiimvii Ki rmcb Bnreau any pitrt or portion of auch labor iw to 
bim may awoi wW. 

Althuog^h llio M'ope of the ci-nifutt la clearly indicated in this section, 
^it» main ubject in set forth in seclion 7, to wit: 

Thai two ynnrs after the cuuipletlon and puhlication of tho census, hi vaee each 
, fiaadition of K^ncral nnd cfituplcto )m^(« ivith rt^ognition of the authority nf the 
if^l -JtAt.-. almn Iinvi- uintinuml in lint ti'iritury at jwid Ulaiidii not iiihahit<>«l hy 
'iKtinn tribenand luch farta shall have been Lvrtitiixl lu thi* 
>, iiii < -iMii'itiiMj CVJuunlKiou. the Preeidenl upon boiuK eatiBlie>1 thereof 
IdlnctMiid Cumniiieton to call, and the Onnmii^imt shall oull, a general election 
-I a popnlarBBeenihly of the [icopleotaud territory in the 
.lOll be known na the Philippina aanmbly. After aaid 

01) 



IS 



INTRODUCTION. 



BtHombly tjliull Iihvl* uoDvencd uad orgaaiieed, aJI the legielaUve power heratofoce 
eonfenvd nn Uw Philipinne Commuvinii iu all iliat part uf aaid btlauds not inhabilecl 
by Monw or other iiuii-Clirifitiai) Trilwn Rlinll he vi<flt<>(1 in a tpgixlainrip twn^istiiv Of 
two hoiiswh— The I'hilippine C-'omniuwion mwI tlio I'hihppini' amcrnhly. Said AMem- 
biy xhHll •-onKiHt of not l«» Minii bO nor nion* Lhnn KK) inenihen) Ut In* ap}>orl)oiMMl 
by ftaid ComnuBtrioD among the provincvs m nearly sg pntcticablt* snwrdiuji to 
pupulatiuD. 

On September 11, 1902, the Philippine Commission certified to the 
President that— 

Thd recently exifltiUR umurrvction of Lh« IliUippine Inlandfl baa ceased ai»l a con- 
ditioii of genvral and coui|>K'to [(tyu-i? htin iiwn iiftabH^ilK^ tlitrmn; • • • (1,^ 
OotomisBioQ recoromeods to the I*nvidentof th» United Slatee that he order a (Xttwaa 
of the PhHipplno Island a to be luken by ihe l*hiti[>pini< CiiininLttluii, in ucoonlance 
with thft pmvJHiiina i)f naid section. Be it further olKH-rvtvl that tlio forfyoin^ t.'enifl- 
«atf> doivs not and i» not Intended to certify that the i.>indition« t»n«>niing the Ijike 
Lanao Morv> dblrict, which district fomm iHit a »mal] [lart of the territory occupie^l 
by the Monx), arv ll]o«e of absolute and cumpli'te jieaoe, but that, In tbv opinion of 
the CommiaBioQ, the lan^iuiRC of oection 6 and the rertiflcate therein provided ior 
were not intended by CuDirrum lu n^gulrv, Iwfore sik-Ii outuiH Bhoald be laktm, that 
[ootnplete jwace •honid exiat in the t-t>uDtr>- of the wild Moro» who never liave taken 
any part in the imnirrectioM referred to in wetion 0. 

Accordingly, on September 25, the President ordered tlie census to 
be taken b^' the Philippine ConiDiiBsion, mid on the SOth directed that 
the United States Ceii^uH Bureau should conipih^ and tabulate the 
rotuniH and flhould print and distribute the completed reports. The 
preliminaries required by the act of Couj^'rcss thut^ h»nng been com- 
plied with, it became necet^ary to consider at once the scope and organ- 
Utation of the proposed con.*9U8, and at thi» point the undontigned, upon 
'the request of Governor Taft. became officially connected with the 
work. 

Thft act of (.Vingress required that the census "'in it* inquiries relat- 
ing to the population cliall take and make no far a» practicable full 
report forall the inliabitants, of name, a^e, sex, race, or tribe, whether 
native or foreign born, literacy in Spanish, native dialect or language, 
or in English, school attendance, ownership of homes, indtiHtrial and 
social statinticf, and such other information separately for eiuU island, 
each province, and municipality, or other civil division, a« the Presi- 
dent and said C<»ninL>tsion may deem necessary." Thiis*. ajmrt from the 
social, indnslrial, and population statistiCB, Congress wisely loft to the 
Philippine CommiftHinn '*the rollection of such other infontiatiun as 
the President and the Commission may deem necessary." I'nder this 
jButhority llicj Commission decided to add to the data s|»ecified by Con- 
■gress the statislicf* of schools, ag:riculture. manufactures, railroad.s, 
fi^-hing. mining. teJegruph. express tnmsfiurtatjnn, in.suraiice. and 
lianking. so that tin' oxteot of inquiry of lhi« ceuj-a-" of the Philip, 
pme- was almost as wide aa that of the Twelfth C*ui<us of the United 



» 



tn dpft1!n^ with tin? CUritttian or civilized peoples it was decided tn 
fntlovr AmeriruD mothodsor ccni^uH taking, iind in the cDumoration of 
ibi' wild, or non'iJhri^ttaii |)eoples, to fullott^ any plan found prnc- 
tioiblf*. (sfMUli^li ^vut^ Hdupted oh tbe lang^mge of the aensuA, and it 
WBfl tli><-idi'd ttietuploir' Filipinuet OH supemtKura and eniiiuciiitorR when- 
ever practicnble, in order lo identify tlieui with the ('enHu.-> and fast 
tbetr cnpneity to perform dulie.^ never undertaken before, and wbii'h 
hj this country are supposed u» re(|uire at leaj^t avei-age intelligence. 
It would have l»een nntunil (u have adopted liie 8[Minish method of 
emimenition^ to nrhieb the Kiireiiu of Stati.-<ties and the people, more 
efpecinlly the ofEeial elaHs, wore iiLVustonjed. This method was far 
«uicr to follow than the Ameriaui. but as the cen.-<us an a Spanish 
iiKtiliitton waH notoriou.t|y hateful t.o the Kilipinos, lichig regarded 
tbn buaiti of taxation and conscription, and fur that reat^on always^ 
uicoraplele and of very doubtful nocuracy. the ciiHloniary inetJiods of 
proMMiurc were not considered. 

It may be stated for the information of those who are not familiar 
with the subject, that the American plan of taking the censu!> neeesdi- 
t«tM, ap«rt from th*.- Itureau foi-ce, fir!*t, a specially appointed corps 
of (iopen*i*irs. ai)ec.inl agent.*, .special enumerators, and eiuuneratoi's, 
with •JtilGirienl. intelligence to take charge of the tieldwork.or. in short, 
to collect the desired xtatisticn; second, the division of the country to 
he oovei-<?d into i*upervisors' districts having well defined geographical 
)tlait», and the Mubdinvion of the latter Into enumeration districts, 
equally well detinod. containing approximately the number of people 
wbo ran be enuuicmlfd by a ningle enumerator in a given time. In the 
fOllectjiin of the i-e«iuired »tati»tic8, variou-' blank forms known &» 
•chcdulctt arc used^ and it is the duty of the special inreut or enumom- 
totill in tlieanxwerK to the iiuestiouscoutainedin them. In securing 
(lersonal Ntati^tica of tlie population it is neither e:xpected nor 
rM|uire<J that tlio enumerator shall see and interview each person in bJH 
district, but if be doeci not. he uiust obtain his information from a 
reliable Hourtv. Of cour.10, it follows that he must uot only und^'r^tund 
the •)UBstion>t to lie asked, but must a.sk them so as to be understood 
an' ' ■* "'-'f lo judge of the correctni-ss of the answers. 

-Leu) of organiuitiou and inquiry applied to the Philippines 
tnrolvNl at lea>«t ihrer- essential conditions; a degree of tranquillity 
lOMmg th(< people, Iwth civilized and wild, such as to permit the tield 
{bran to lU'coinpliali tt8 work; the [ms-sesaion of reliable maps for the 
fomimtion of ccn-tUK dislrictjt; and a sufficient numljcr of intelligent 

tH— -■ ' '.ing Filipinos to Kll the various position^*. 

I ingal Ibi.i {K>iiit to consider for a moment the difficulties 

irlitch the^e cond)tion>« involved. In the opinion of the foreign reai- 
itaU of Manila. estpe<:ially the Spanish residents, they were ifunr- 



i 



mountahlc, for it was the f^norat belief that the unrest, igTioraii<«, and 
hostilitr of the people made a eensuA of any kind itnpnu'ticable. 

Am to the attitude of the people, it had Ixsen certiHed to the Presi- 
dent by the Commission that a Rtato of peace prevailed throughout the 
islands— the Moros excepted — which was correct. Organi?^., open, 
and armed oppailtion to the Unite.d States bad ceased several months 
prior to this. Neverthcle»ts. iosomeof the provinces, bands of ladrones, 
or insurrectoft, appeared from time to time, and by their atrocities 
caused (jrcat consternation amonj; the natives, whom they rohtwd and 
murdered indiitcriminatcly, fiometimex terrorizing and lootini; an entire 
barrio of several hundred people. The luajority of the provinces, 
however, were absolutely free from these diaordern, and it wa*! believed 
that the army, includinjif the Philippine scouts, the con»tahulary, and 
the police, were amply able to cope with these marauders, or at least 
keep them within reasonable hoimeU while the census was being taken. 
This belief wa** strengthened by the knowledge that whatever their 
feeling might 1>c toward the Americans, the Filipinos universally 
detested these disturbers of the peace and pi-osperity of the islands, 
and would aid the authorities iudividually when they could do so with- 
OHt great peril to their lives and property— and sometimes despite this 
peril — and collectively as h /«W€ cojnmil-alfftr, which frequently hap- 
pened. So. while this difficulty was fully appreciated, it was not 
regarded as likely to affect the census Beriouiily. 

The difficulty in securing reliable ma[>s, however, was more serious. 
But few provtncisl ur municipal map^ could 1>e found as the l^asis for a 
division into enumeration districts, and there was no time to prepare 
them in the usual way. To meet this difficulty, instructions were tele- 
graphed t^arly in September to all the governors of province^^ to liavc the 
presidentes of the towns prepare diagrams of their res])Octivu muniol' 
palities, showing the relative lucatlun and approximate distance of each 
barrio froui the main barrio or seat of municipal government, and, if 
possible, the area of the municipality — the nups to be without other 
topographical featun's. It was very soon dis(x)vered, however, tlmt 
something uiore than written iiislructions would be necessajy in order 
to obtain these maps: and accordingly model census inai>s of the munic- 
ipality of bingay^n went i*ent to the governor of each province with 
instructions to distribute them by couriers to the presidentes, to be 
used by them in preparing the maps cullei) for. A copy of this !<ample 
mop is shown on the next page, and in uinuection with the lists of the 
liarriuis townships, 8itii>s, and rancherlas Furnished by the pre^dentes, 
enabled the census officials to divide the municipulit ies having more than 
'J,4Khi iiilmbiuints and to uniti^ adjacent ones having less than 1,000 
inliiibilanis into unumeratiun districts with the iiequtsittt nnmbi'r of 
urban or suburban population. It may l»u said to have aoawered the 



16 



INTRODlXmON. 



purpose fully, and by no otber ineauB could the euumoration distrif^te 
have been fomiod without grest loss of time id making surveys and 
nups of tbo Boveral provinces. 

The selection of a suffirient nurabor of intelligent Filipinos ablo to 
road, write, and speak the Spanish language as well as the various 
dialects of the people, to serve as enunicraton* and siw^rial agents, waa 
by no means a trivial andertoking. As the civilized or Christian pop- 
. uhition numborcd approximately 7,000,000, and the urban districts 
contained not more than 1,500 and the suhtirban districts not more 
tban 1.000 Inhahitantf, in the neighborhood of (1.000 enumerators were 
needed for the enmncrfition of the civilized popniation—that is to 
Bay, one for eeuih enumeration district, and a substitute for every 10 
enumerators. Innddition to this, between l,IOOand l.^OOspecinl agents 
Wf-ie re(piii*ed, ami a certain number of special eniuiieralors. It 
was estimated that of the T.iKMi,iX»f» of civilized population, 70{».CK»0, 
approximately, could read and write Sp«ni*ih, hut accoi-ding to the 
Aivhbishopof Manila not more tban T.Oi^itl belonged to the educated 
class. There was. therefore, some ground for apprehension on this sub- 
ject, which was not relieved until after the meeting of the supervisor- 
governors in Manila, to which reference will be made later on. 

That the Government might utilize the services of the official class 
throughout the i)»lands it was decided lo make all itiBuIar, provincial, 
and muuieipal olliciiits, and such otlieera and enlisted men of the army 
eerviitg in the Philippines, atid Philippine scouts, as might be desig- 
nated by the commanding goueral. eligible for appointment as super- 
visors, special agents, and enumemtors. Other features uf the ceusuH 
plan were as follows: Commt^^ioniug all census oilicials and requiring 
them to take the uuth of allegiance to the United States and to the faith- 
ful discbarge of their duties; guarding against auy attempt on the part 
of supervisors to use the census for the benelitof their relatives within 
the fourth degree; making eight hours of active enumeration a day's 
work, and withholding unc-ha1f the pay of supcrvi.sors, enumerators, 
and special agents to insure faithful seiTice; authorizing tbo Diroctor 
of thoCcnftUs to recpiire all imperfect work to be done over again; and 
pro^'iding the usual penaltici* for malfeasance, neglect of duty, giving 
false information, signing false returns or reports, impersonating cen- 
sus ofheials to obtain informntion, or asking for information not called 
for by the schedule. Kxcept In ono particular a similar plan was 
employed in taking the ccnsunes of Cuba and Porto Kico, and resulted 
successfully in tho»;e islandK, hut it wa.s of course far more difficult to 
apply it to the PlitlippincH, uwing to the larger population, divei-sity of 
tribes, and the difficulties of communication Iwtwcen islands and prov- 
inces, and even between adjacent nuinicipalities and barrios. 

The one particular in which the Philippine census plan differed from 



I 

I 
■ 



USTRODUCTION. 



17 



followed in Cuba aod Porto Rico was io mnking alt civil officials, 

rs mid enlisted mcu of the anny, aud hcouIs. eligible for appoiDt- 

nt in the Census. lu Cuba and Porto Uii-o tbit^ was not netM««ar.V) 

t io the FbiLippioeii it was considered very important, if not abso- 

tvlr e^Hfential, owing to Che peculiar poltttcaJ and social inlluencea 

rc-v&iUnfir among the people, aud to the uect'^sity for uHing the army 

the Moro country'. In short, a censuH on the Aiaorican plan would 

have Iieeu feasible unles,s the governors of the nr^nni^o'd ]>rtivince8, 

le profiidentes of the luunicipHlitie^, the members of tlio mutiicipal 

couooi), and, Bf< ftir as posHible, all of the ffenU ihtetrada (tho priocl* 

palia) were connuottid wilb it. t>o that il might have Itchind it tho 8tip- 

port of tboM> claasett of the popuIatioD ^o iufiuentml then and now 

with tho mattties, or common people. It was decided, therefore, that 

the orgmoimd provinees should eout^titute supervisors' dii^tricts, of 

wbieb tin goveraorH &bouId be appointed .supervisors; that the presi- 

deates of tbe mumcip«iUUet< and towosbips and the chiefs of rancherfas 

ihould be appointed special agents and be made responsible for the 

oenstL't of tbeir respective municipal divisions; and that as many of 

tbe cotmcilors and of the principalia In general as were qualified 

iboald I>F appointed eoiunerators. For tbe censuH of tho Moros and 

other wild people of Mindanao, it was believed that the army officers 

thro ^erring among them would be more influential tttnn Filipinos, and 

therefore better able to act as supervi^rrf, and that as many datos as 

Mmid be relied on should be appointed us special agents. Thi>t cotir^e 

wtA fallowed. 

I^K The next Ktcp was the preparation and printing of the c«n:4ns sclied- 
^Hl«?i and (tther bluukn, atul of the instructions to tbe Nupcrvisor.-^ ami 
^^^umf!r»tor«, and the purchaM> of the census equipment required in 
i^n« entinwration- Thi« was commenced at once, ho tlut by tho end of 
Ikmoiber tho pftraphernalia necessary for taking the census waj« on 
hud and ready for distribution. 

Tf> tbe mMntime it had been decided to aceurc the service*, as aasist- 
n • to Ihe Director of the Censui!', of Mr. Henry Gannett, of the United 
tJCateA Geological Surrey, and Mr. Victor H. Olmsted, of the Depart- 
ment of Al^icultnrc, well-known atati-tticians, who had taken part in 
oansoaM of Cuba and Porto Kico. They arrived December 1, io 
to fcisbt in twmpleting (he organimtion of the census and the 
n of the ttupenisors. In the division of the tecbnical work 
Ibe ceonu Mr. ( rnuoftt waa given geography aud tbe M:bedule« of 
inpnlatioa, acbooU, aod mortality; Mr. OUnsted, the schedules of agri- 
taibore, wdal mnd industrial statistics, and the special btatistics—such 
■audfiutures, commerce, iueurunce, etc. — while tbe Directorae<sumed 
(^ rahponcibUity of the organization aod adminitttration of the ceosua. 




the descriptive matter of the census report, and its final preparati(m 
for publication. 

Owing to the nianT l4?cbniciiUtie8 of the census and the difficult of 
sending adequate explanations to all pointft, either by nuul or tele- M 
graph, it wax thought advisable to give the pi-ovincial governors early ■ 
intimation of what was cxpect4>d of them, and to a&soDible them in 
Manila for a counso of inHtruction in their duties as superriAoiK. 
Accordingly, on November 5, thoy were notified by the civil governor ' 
that they bad been appointed riuporvisors, the appointment to date 
from Deoember 1, at a salary of $1fiU gold per month in addition to 
their 8alarieH as governors; that they mu£t signify their acceptAooe 
and report to him in person in Manila about December Ifi. They wore 
direcfcwl to make in the meantime a careful study of tlie population 
and geography of their provinces, inclusive of attached islands, and to. 
be prepared to recommend enumeration disfricta on the basis of onei 
district to every I.riOO urban and to approximately every 1»000 of the 
suburban or rural Christian population, and to bring with them a list 
of native cnumeratont able to speak, rejid, and write Spanish and to 
speak the dialect of their districts, and n list of substitutes at the rate 
of one for every ton enumerators. They were also required to bring 
with them the census maps ordered October 7, nnd lists of the munici- 
palities and barrios, with their population, l>oth Christian and non-fl 
Christian, as far as practicable. ™ 

Knowing that the spet^ial agents and enumerators would rcqnirethe 
same kind of instruction ns the governors, the latter, on November 
17, were directed to summon the prestdontes in their provinces to meet 
thom at the respective provincial capitals on or about .Tanuary 15; 
and if, for any reason, a president* was unable to come, to substitute 
for him a vice presidente, or other Spanish speaking member of the 
municipal council, the object being to give them the census pouches, 
portfolios, and blanks and to instruct them in their use, so that they 
could become in turn the instimctors of the enumerators in their ^ 
respective municipalities. Where presidentes could neither read norfl 
write Spanish, they were to be accompanied by one or two other mem- 
bom of the principalia or members of the council who could. 

All the governor-supervisors, save Governor Trias, of Cavite, who 
was unavoidably detained, arrived in Manila, as directed, hringiugj 
with them their i^nsus maps, a tentative division of their provinc 
into enumeration districts, and lists of enumenttorti, special enumni 
tors, special agents, and their substitutes. They were received form-] 
ally by the civil governor and members of the Philippine CommifisioD, 
who used every means to impress upon them the objects of the cenoua,^ 
the importaooe of their duties, and their responsibility as ciupervisora 



1 



INTKODUCXION. 



19 




ider the ccnatw law. The nntire snhomo of thn ccdbuh was nxplainod 
them, onilly and iii writing, liy tho officials of the census, and dur- 
ij the *wo wftcks of their stay in Manila thcj' were iw woll instructed 
circamstjuicea would permit. That they might better undcnttand 
06IISU!« instruction, and he prrpared to towh the president*^, they 
re required to fill out the w'licdiili"^ and other lilunks, using' ficti- 
ui} tkkm&s and hypothctiral oonditiom, and to acquaint themwlvc^ 
witb lit the hlaokti to t>c ui^cd in the ccnsoA. The tentative division 
of the organized provinces into enumeration districtii was carefully 
coQsidered and adjusted by the censuR tnapti to meet the requirements 
OMMU act, the enumerators and their (Substitutes were as.ii(rned 
and the special enumerators for all the wild tribes were 
Iccted, except those for Mindanao and the Sulu archipelajfo. Each 
the gx>vemor-8U|>ervi8orii was then furnished with a correct plan 
r the ceosiw of his provincial dLstrirt, iind was re<]uired to superin- 
id in persoD the packing of the census pouches and portfolios 
lloUed Co bit! district, and to see that tbe requisite number of all 
edules and other blank forma, together with a certain i^urpluH, was 
pUf»si in tbe pouch of each enumerator, special eoumerator, and 
special agent, and that tbe pouches were numbered to correspoad 
with the numbers of the euumeration districts. Some difficulty 
wan experienced in finding a sufficient number of eDumeraiors 
wbu Gould read and write Spanish who were not related to the 
■Ijfforeroor-sapQrriBDr witliin the fourth degree of consanguinity, and, 
^K)r the province of Bohol, special legislation on this point was neoee- 
^Buy. Idany of the presidcntes did not understand Spani(<h at all, and 
Bfor lbs nine reaMin, in a number of instanceti, cnumeraton< had to be 
taken from one municipality to serve in another. This was, of course, 
a diisdrBntage, but was fully cxpcctetl, as it was well known that in 
^^lanjr of the barrios none of the inhabitants could read and write 
^BpanUh. and it was to meet thiH contingency that jmragrapb 2, section 
^B, of the Philippine census law was enacted. 

^V It wan not thought nm;essary to bring the army ofBonrs who wore 
to fiupcrriao the censua in Mindanao and tbe Suln archipelago to 
Manila, hut the censuR blank.^, itistiiictinns, etc., were mailed to tbem 
early in January, and the Director of the Censua, accompanied by Mr. 
(iannett. snb)ie(]uentiy visdted each one, established tbe suporvisors' 
dirfrict*, and made such explanations as were css<'ntial to a com- 
plrtj- iinderMtanding t)f the census within tlie limits of their respective 
dbttrietK. 

As tbe Spani-ih cimt^usfs iuid con.scription or taxation in some form 
M their main object, and were therefore secretly opposed by the people, 
who were mldom willing to give the information required by the 
aoMU, and aA thiA censna had a very different purpose in view, it 




WHS decidod to state it io the proclamation of the civil governor 6xiDff 
the date of the census, to ijuiet the approbensionH of tlie people, 
und, if possible, gain their cooperation, so that the cements itii;^ht bo 
taken without interruption. Accordiog^Iy, on December 34, 1902, the 
following proclamation was iasnod by the civil g'overnor: 

In acoonlanc« with the jwltcj- of PreeiileDt XcKialey. umonnced in hia instmc- 
tioiu of Apri] 7, 1900, the I'Mlippine Commisaioi] has extended Io the people r>f th« 
Philippine Iighuids tmnpletti aiilonnniy in the mxltvr uf muDtcipal tlo^'«niinent. and 
pttrtiiU autoDomy in the matter ol provincial (tovernmeot. By actuAl oxintneDU 
tho qtialiflud electors of ihu Philtitpiiiii lalaniU are Icatning the sdeoce ni »elf- 
gOTemm^nt, The puliryof thf> lale Pruflident McKinleyhaa been siDocr^ly mJopted 
and fotlowed by I*re^rt4-nt II/kmcvHI : and the aim of the- Commismon, in acri>nUtic« 
with hit* ina tract ioD.«, ftradually to extend self-govemineiit to tite [>^)ptv vi tbu 
iifliuid)*, VM Kpproveil tuvi uiloplwl liy the Coagrvu of tlw Coiled States at its laat 
seesinn, in the so-called Philippine set, by which provision vae made for tho eloctloa 

I of a |>opular Philippiuu o^idumbly within two yean aiter the lakin^ of u oomprRhen- 
aive ivHHua of the Philippine Ittlnnda The taking of the eeoaus is tadJspetuable to 
the i.-Mlliiig of a general election forthia popular awembly. No other obje^rt heyonil 
the ixjllectioii of the necessary data for dQtenuiniuii (lie social and indoctiial oandi- 
tiouHof Lhe piwple, att the baeia of inteUlgent l^elative action, ia involved in the 
taking; i>f thU oeiwna By the t<?nii9 nt the ivneaa law, paaBod by the Philippine 
Commiimon, It will be eeen that tho cenaoB Ifl Io bo largely in the hands and under 
the control of the Fllipinw. The taking of the cetutua will tlierefore form « tert f4 
the capxcity of the Filiptnoe to (liecbarife a most important fouctioo of goreroiueQl, 
The infomuition aecnred by the cenaiu will form the baab upon which capital will be 
iRvmleil in the UilandH and the material proctjierily of the people bnin^ht aboot. 
Tlie centfus, ihcrefdre, ie to betakim eolcly for lhe benefit of the- Fili()tnoj>cople,and 
if they dofdre to hare a larger voice in their own ftovcmmentvitbin the near fittnre, if 
they ili^ro to demoiutrate to the world a growing; i-apacity for M-Jf-govemment, and 
if they would aid the inveetment of capital aad the improvetnent of their material 
condition tboy ehoulJ lead their uaaoimoua euppvrt to the auccewful taking of the 
censos. 

Now, therefore, I, William) H. Taft, drtl governor of the Philippine lalanda, in 
pargijance of the dnty imposed on me by wctioa 16 of the act enacted by the PhiUi^ 

' pine Ootumiaiian October 6, 190?, du hereby wiue this my proclainatioii, aiuiouacing 

iiu cauEnu dayUorch 2, 1003, on which day the enumeration ol the Christian iwpu- 
latfoD ohall begin In all porta of the Philippine latanda, and continue until completed. 
It ia the exportation of the goremment that the enumeration of the Christtaa 

jrlK^uIatiDD wfll be carried on by the cnumerAlora of urban districts at the tat* ol SO 
{wraona per day, antl of imburban or mtal districtft at the rate of 33 petBona perday. 
Any reduction in any district in the rate of enuiiienuion thus «<tAbliEhe>.] will be 
made the Dubjuet of invmtigatioo by the supervisor, and uuleaa it shall be found that 
8Uoh reduction in tlie rate of onumeraUon vrm due to csnaca beyond tbo control of 
the enumerator hlD (or her) pay for the pcrio<l beyond which the ennmemtion ritoald 
have been completed, at the apedtied rate^ efaall be withheld pending Cbededoioaof 
tho Director of the Ouunu. 
In witnciB whereof, etc 

This, proclamation, printed in Enf^luh, Spanish, and tho dialects of 
the Christian tribes, was read and fully explained to the (pivernor- 
aupeiTisors and by them to the prcAidc-ntes when they a8<M>mhlcd at the 
proviaoia3 capit&le in Jamtary. The presidenUts were directed to n^ad 



SUPERVISORS OF THE CENSUS. 



TAGALOGS. 

1. GOV. MAXIMIKO PATERNO, CITY OF MANILA. 

2. OOV. RICAKDO PARAS. aUBPROVISCK OF NA- 

RIKDUQUE, 
8. GOV. E. DE LOS SANTOS, PROVINCE OF NfEVA 
^ 6CUA. 

*. (;0V. JfAX CAILLES. PROVINCE OF LA LA- 
(il'NA. 

6. OOV. ARTCRO DANCEL. PROVINCE OF Rl'zAL. 
fi. OOV. ALFONSO RAMOS. PROVINCE OF TXRLAC. 

7. r,OV. PABLO TECS6n OOAMPO. PROVINCE OF 

BULACAX. « 

». OOV. SIMEdN LfZ, PROVINCE OF BATANUAS. 



INTRODUCTION. 



and explain it to the enuoieratora of thoir raunicipatitiRs. snd thn latter 

to thft people ft-s tbcy were enumerated. It may lie slid that if this 

had not ber^n dono, iLnd Uic supervisors and enumerators had not been 

^impressed with the idea that failure to take the ccnKu.s would reflect 

^MRriously on the sincerity and intelligence of the Filipinos and post- 

^Kxino indftinttoly the formation of a legislutive assembly, n eoiLSUs 

Vsocording to the Amerit-an plan would have been utterly impossible — 

w> nu^Hcious were the people and so opposed to a census in any form. 

Bein^ now fully e<iuippod with the necessary census materials, and 

baring learnctl as much in regard to their dutiesas their opportunities 

and rupeetivc abilities permitted, the govcrnor-Ruporviitorit returned 

to their homes, where they met the presidentea, who had a-iserabled in 

1^ conformity with the orders, already quoted, of the ciril governor. The 

^■pre^dentesof theniunicipulities along the ea.st coast of Snrigao, S]imar, 

^Vand Ltyt* met with some difficulty and delay in obeying this order 

H owing lo the prevalence of the northeast monsoon, which at that season 

blows with much forc«, reuderiog communication Itetweeu steameni 

and th« itettlemeutci along the ea«t coast of tho^e provinces mout diffi- 

11 cult and hazardous. Xeverlhele8i«, communication was oiade and they 

^nrere picked up at great ri»k by Captain Mason, of the couHt-guard 

^HlHnier Bu^nmuja. and Captain Feb, of the coast-guaA'd stenmer^V^yv-of, 

^HB werK tniDii«}x>rted to and from their homes without loss of life or 

Nrious accident. 

Tb« preaideotes liavlog assembled, the census instructions and 

»Kbedale8 were carefully explained to them by the supenisoi-s. and they 
Hren* directed to assemble the enumerators on their return home and 
iostnict them in their duties even as they had been instructed. They 
»wcrD cautioned to begin the enumeration promptly on the census day 
in tbeir several muuicipulitieei; to see that the enuuioraturs did not 
bJl behind in their work: to report and. if noceHsnry. to replace all 
ineffirienL, alt^eut, or di.sabled enuniemturM; and to sec tlintthe pracla- 
toaCion of the civil governor wa^ thoroughly understood and couunu- 
nicati^ to the [leopte. Fiiiiilly, they wens made p<>rsoniilly responsible 
fur lb*' 5uc<.-e8s of the cbhsils in their muiitcipulitie.s. and for the col- 
llecUoo of the portfolios and scbiKiulcs and their t^fc return to the 
[«upvrvti»on< wht*n tho census should t>e tini»liod. Thus, every pre- 
Icaution wn.^ taken n'hich previous cxpertenrc and a knowledge of 
fting oonditiuns HUggested, and it seemed probable, therefore, that 
tcenHis of the ChrLstian populatiou would be as accurate as could 
1 expected under the L'ircum.stiine(;t^. 

Scfaedule» 1 to 6 were usitd in collecting this iofomiaiiOD, and will 
b« found in TJXfir apprupriatx; places in this report. 

Tbe cnuioiTation began promptly in all the organized provinces 
ilarrb S, 1903, and wuh carried on without interruption, except in the 




provinoMof Albfly,Sorsog6n, BuIadui,Bnd Rizal.whpresonwdelay was 
cauHod by the opo.rBtion.s of Indronct. In the luiirioH of llolalMig and 
Iit)kaufl, municipality and province of Ocbli, und in the miioicipality of 
Oatanniln, inland of Cami^uln. prorincn of Mlmmia, attempts were made 
to prevent a census by circtilating* malicious refwrts as to iU object, 
which wa.s alleged to he taxation. It was necessary to UMe the contttttbu- 
lary in Cami|riifn, and in the provinces of Albay, BulacJin, and Rizal 
the people of some of the municipalities left their homes and were 
enumerated elj$ewhere. In Cebu all objections to the census disap- 
peared when the proclamation of the eiWI governor had been fully 
explaine<l by the president's. Three enumerators were attacked by 
Iftdrones. One of them, Santiago Cargado, of Batangas, though seri- 
ously wounded, titood off hh assailants and saved his schedules. Sucfa 
devotion indicated a verj- high sense of honor and duty. WTien we 
consider the disturbed state of the country, due to the recent insur- 
rection and to the other calamities which had overtaken the people, 
the presence of ladrones and their tnterferencea with the ceosiu 
abould occasion no surprise. On the conti^ary, it is remarkable that 
more of the enunieratonf were not molested and lliat there were not 
other ioMtunces of forcible resistance on the part of suspiuiouti or di»- 
orderly persona. A very slight effort in this direction would have 
made a census of the ruml districts impossible, or so prolonged as to 
bo unreliable. The fact that no such opposition was made is conclusive 
evidence of the friemUy attitude of the principalia in nil the towns, 
aod hence of the masses, toward the census. In making the enumera- 
tion and collecting the other statistics of the civilized population, the 
methods of the United States census, as already stated, were usually 
followed. The results will l>u discussed further on. 

In dealing with the nun-Christiau or wild tribes a different course 
was followed, and but a single schedule, No. 7, was used. A list of 
theue tribes, with local and correct tribal name, will be found in Doctor 
Iturrows's sket^'h uf the [wputation, which up|>oar» in this volimie, and 
is wortliy of careful study by all iKM'suns interested in the tribul classi- 
fication of the Filipinos. It will bo obsencxl that Doctor Barrows 
reduces the nuuibur of wild trit)cs to sixteen, and it is [wssible timt this 
number will be still further reduced as we Icam more about tlieni. 

These i>eopIe are in various stages between almost complete sav- 
agery and dawning civilization. Undoubtedly' they illustrate the social 
conditions prevailing generally throiighouta large part of the Fhilip- 
l^nes when the islands were first colonized by the S]Auiards. A few 
of the tribes are still charged with ninnibalism, but of this there is no 
reoent evidence from eyewitnesses^, other than natives. 

Fur the purposes of this report the wild i>poples of the Philippines 
iiay be divided into four clattBea: Thos^ who arc esscotlolly savage and 







aoamdic in their habits, such ad the h^d-huuten* of Luz6d and eorUiu 
the Moro«; tboeo who are peaceful and «iedeutary, such as many of 
t»: chose who Hre {Kaceful, nomadic, aud timid, such us the 
tbe Mangyand of Miodoro, and the pugao^ of Miiidaoao, 
who, oa the appearauce of stniugerij, Aee to the fastoesHes of the for- 
MU aad jungles, and can not be npproiu-hed: and, liiiativ, those who 
ooopooe the outlaw element from tli<; Christian tuwii». Hud ui-e known 
u Moate»tis. RemootadoSt Vagoe. Nouiadas, Pulijanes, and Uabylanos. 
Such a wide diilc't'euce in the vtate of the pooplu fiU{:;^ested a variety 
ia Inethod^ of census procedure. Tlio greatest cauiion was enjoined 
in dealing with all tlie non-Christian tribes, more particularly the 
Honx, in order (o avoid raising suspicions and active op]K>sitiDn. and 
every effoi-t was nude to make clear the peaceful {>urpose of the Uov- 
eramcnt; but for the enumerators and special agents who visited the 
faead-huDters and certain parLs of the Mora country, uniicd parties 
WW organized as escorts, and Ihey were instructed to use force, if 
ry, to protect the census ofBcials. Happily a show of force 
Roffictentf and with but a single exceptiuu no hostile uttetiipt was 
,e to prevent the work of the census of the nou-Cliristian tribes. 
Nearly all the wild peoples have settlements more or less permanent, 
hicb arc known as townshii>H, pueblos, or rancheniis, and some kind 
of local government. Tims, in all the orgiinized provinces the gen- 
eral condition of the wild jjeoples, their haunts and settlements, and 
aoiiM of their headmen were fairly well known to the guvernor- 
mperviitorH, wliich gi^eatly fuirilitated the necessary* census orgunization 
and the collection of the required statistics. 

In Volmup 11 of tliis report a ropy of the wild tribe schedule will l»o 
foond. Although this schedule called for a variety of statistics more 
or less interesting and desirable, it was thought that the most important 
fact to ascertain wba the number of (he people, and to this everything 
ebtt was made Hubordinale. Following the phin adopted in organizing 
tiio ceiuOH of the Christian population, as many of the presidcntes or 
hcadmeo of the rancberiu-T and t ribcs as were necessary were apjiointed 
■pedal a|[enta or spcetal enumemtors and instructed in the ut^e of the 
*chi:<Jnle and the methods to be observed, although these matters were 
largely loft to the discretion of the supervisors who were on the 
ground and familiar with existing conditions. 

In tryinj; to deteruiine the namber of inhabitants, several methods 
w«re adopted. The most accurate was a thorough c&nvags of indtvid- 
oaU and families, in much the same way as in the enumeration of the 
Chruftian population In Schedule No. 1. Such an enumeration was 
carried on among the peaceful Igorots of Nueva VizcJiya, T^ Unifln, 
Paiiga«iii^, Lepanto-Bontoc.aiid a large part- of the province of Beo- 
gnet; ahwamonga portion of the Negritos of Zambalcs and the Morosof 




24 ^^^ INTKODUCnON. 



I 



I 



I 



I 



Basilan. In other cnsee, the number of people was counted without 
obtaining their names. 

The population of a majority of the wild tribes, however, was 
estimated hy countinsr thebonscft in the various rancberias, and multi- 
plyingthe total numlicrof the houMca by the averaRe number of natives 
per house, this average having been obtained by a cauva*^ of the 
Uimates of a few houses. This method v/&» pursued unioug the Igo- 
rots of Bontoc and Ii$abcla, uud among many of the tritxiM of the 
southern islauda, A Ic^ o^-curat^ method, which wa^t used when Uie 
last method could not be followed, was to obtain statements of the 
number of people in each rancheria from the lioadmeii, and to verify 
them as far hs possible, by iuquiiies among other pcrsonti of the snuue 
settlement. 

luformutiou concerning the wild, timid peoples of the interior of 
Miudamio wu^. in the main, ohtaiuod from Morou, who liold them in a 
801-t of dependence, and who carry ou with them a so-called trade, and 
therefore have a fairly good idea of their numbers. In some instances, 
however, American army officers and civiliauB were found who had 
gained the coofideoce of i^rtain of these peoples, and they undertook 
to visit them and obtain more correct estimates of their numlwrs. 

In reviewing the census of Nueva Vizcaya, Supervisor Bennett satd:^^ 

The preparations for taking the ccnmu were as maeh voric or nore tboo tta^^H 
eDnmenUiHK- TIk^ Ig»rot» are very xlow in more, And iln not i-otiiit tx^yond ten; 
iilt«r ttiat it w Bu many tetu up to one huiMlred, and Iwjrond on« htuidrwl is an 
iacotDprebensible figure to Ibem wbich tbey never enter into. Tlie eystt^m adopted 
by me whs tu send coumenUiis wme days oh&ui to advin; the Igorut« ut -Khmt we 
wuited. aiid get them to count their honses, people, and dotneeitic animal", and 
mcttMirc, by a iomplc stick |riven them, tlio land ovned and ealUTated by CMb 
family. They ojtmt«<t1 the anininla and people by making notch«M on rattan alicki 
and bringing one handle to rvprwi-nt the nivn, oiw buiMlli* for thv u-uioeo, one (or the 
chickeiiti, ptgt>, and so on, together with tlie name ol the eetllement. 

Capt. J. J. Pershing, who enumeiated the Moroni of the Lake Lanao 
district, said: 

Aiter a thorough inraUgfttion it was Cound Ut be impnctkabte to take thii* cennu 
fai the refrolv way by employing vntuneratore and aasigning them to etmmeTBtioa 
dlstrlde. I dlsruased tbc pubject with many leading Moroe, who (nlly oodentood 
itii pnrpcwp, and tbcy all espnsHMHl the opinion that any attimipt lo directly enu- 
merate the l^ko Lanao Moros in general wonid probably cadiv the people to think 
Hie censai wkm being taken a» a bM[« (or taxation, and tbcy would coaaeqaeotly give 
wnaif Informatioo or rofurc lo give uiy. It is also probable that the live« of the 
eoomeiaton vtnild liave bvea in dan^iier. Eaameistors would Itave to be edected 
from the Moroe tlicnwelveB, aiul it veuu not twiieved they could t>e relied apaa 
perform the work properly or intelligently, except nnder rloeo ftuperviaion. 

It wae themfom ilelennined to interview an many welUpoMted Moron an pnwibhs 
«Dd Mcor* ertimatce ol the population from tlietri. and later compare thera eetimatea, 
vbh *aeb other, and withtha populaUon of a fuw ruucherlM wboM iahaUtantccoul' 
bo munted. 

Tbu plan Itiifl been earetaUy toUowed. and the remit is, I believs. a fairly oon«ct 




INTBODUCnON. 



36 



■IfmxunAlion. I have peTsonall}- traveled oroDnd the lake, and, in adttition to my 
MBMWtff, h»w tiUcpn »dv«iitagvof th» «etinitt(e» made by other officere. Toouike 
■Oowaove (or the popaUtion of thoK nncherlas of which we know ooihtng, or have 
has nnablc to locate, I hate aUdotl 5,000 to the vetimated populatiao of known 
^ ■■fhmfii 

^H Of the methods followed in enumerating the Moros of the Iligan 
^■dutiict, Maj. L. W. V. Keoaon wrote as follovs: 

^^ Mr. Ramon (jaUardo, of Miaamig, was selected to euucnerate the Moroa near Miaa- 
lut, and ae tar tmKt br Point Binuni. The reniairtinx territory wu oororod by u)y»;l( 
yesiDnally, as no soitahle person could be found for thia porpoee. 

The principal mltans aiul dat«s were sent for, the object of the renms explained to 

Umib. and Ibeir coo[>«ration aeciired. SubaHioently, vitaiB were made to the uiort 

■■Bizml points, friviiilly relatioju Mtahliahed with the ni-i){hlx)ring ■.-JiiefH, and lists 

■■de of tbe data reqoired. Tbeee lists were taken by the chiefs to their nmeherfaa 

and SUed oat. Tbey were the moiQ nsdlly Indoood to do tliln by the payment of a 

■ull amonnt or by the fnvinf^ of mina preaenL 

With Mtne, howerer, a considerable amount of diplomacy was neceoary In order 

otwrvntnc their snspidnnii. One of the flQltanii of ttie district refused abaolutely 

^ve any Information whatever. I rnuoiied with him in uvery wuy. but rauld f^t 

from htm— act even his ohjectionx. At la^t I told liini wo were not obtain- 

Ifae data ftir the pvrpoAo of piittiitf; a tax on hia people. At thin ho opened np 

hal, and when I flpolce of llit> ciirtoiDR of the jxviple and ul the Ainerioaiii> lo 

liaTr lUl minor qoc^itinns of thxt i-hanicter to the people it seemed that I had fotind 

tbe taaie of bia objectiona. He brightened ap at once and said he feared that we 

«aDC«d lo make them dreei Uke white folka and FtliptuoB; tliiit we wanted to make 

tbcm w-^«r fboee and liatit and f> rut off their hnir. T^wvnred on this point he 

(a^dily jiave the information desired. The aho%-e example in fi^ven to illustrate tbe 

diSeulty often experience*! in ^ting inln cotnmiini^^lioti with tbe people. 

It b bvUeved thxl ever\- inhabited plane in the district biui V<een T«scbed mtb^ 
Mx^ctiy or indirectly, but from tlie nature of tbiiijn I lie result can be (unfiden^d an 
■Pfmiaimatd only, but it ropreseiitti the bettt obtatimble in the time at my dlspoEal or 
thatnsald beobhilne'lexceptbyahoase-to-honseennmeration. which waa, of roone, 
aotinily trnpiartivable. 

Ckpt. Jttnies BB>'lies, who superrUcU the CotUl>ato diMrict, purauud 
foIlowinfrpUn: 





About thv only mtfsfiutory way of pnvntrini' the ittntlstica wu to {go through the 

oatberiuit onr fliornrenat first tumd. The main objection to this plan was tbe 

• tt ..w-^MTJIy entailed, forgoing around in this district meant going with an 

''liQHtforall p«rti««, aoJlherarryiDK of Mopplie* in that mo*t expensive of all way»— 

•ma avn'a l»ckB- ^e therefore bail logo dowty, cutting our <xj«t aceiinling to 

lb fieth Our plann ooulomplatcd visiting tbe more densely populated diatricla 

wfr imtitut the (ev/ inhatiitante of the barren uplands in dcose JuuglCH antU a more 

ptgpKionp occa al oP. 

Owidtf to the nataral faataiwthedirtnct lent itwlf to oorpUn.aa it is everywhere 

feimmeLd hy «>nrid«ffftble waterways, and it is along these, in a meaaure easy to 

lh« denser eeitletnenls abound- 

jjTT Wttfl divided into four irnbdislricti, thn«^b each of which it wna the 

Tl!»^a a sniiable expedition for the purpoee of procuring soi'h infortnadon 

" ~-^-.»^ would permit. Kvcn this modesl attempt would, however, have 

T^?S!;^of fv-Milion on n^count of the nccei^ary expen«e («ach of the exp<v 

J^^J^^U^vilynpontbeUmltedfondaatonrdlapo*! • • • ) if it b«l 



36 



INTRODUCnON. 



not been fto- tbe intercut taken iu this work by one or two of the army oiffioera of 
thte fpLTHBon, who very kindly offvn^l to take field partie«i into any localities which 
' migbc be selected, an offer which I gladly accepted. 

Fiivt Lieut. G. S. Turucr, Teulh lufiaatry, insde ttia trip Boutli from Cottabato, 
pBodng the inoiinlainR which i^kirt Ilaiia ba}', to almoid the souCherQ liuiite of 
onr diiftrict, returniDf; by m«, Mopping at every coast aettlcmcDl od hia way. 

Het^nd Li*!ut. II. M. (!ooper, Tentli Iiihuitry, travenied a rout« tlirough tb« ««At«ni 
part of the difllrict, traveling Irom th« r«gion uf the largv lak« to tho vicmity of 
Mt. Apo. 

Oar third mibdiatrict wum UlliI lietween the two jiwl Kpokiii of, and included the 
lake region with a (fnrmerty) thickly popiilat^il t^rritnry to the westward, lying 
between thi< lakes and tho mou&taina. This was takon charge of by our utuiauB 
clerk, Mr. J. J. Duulenvy. 

[ took the rent of o<ir territory, taking charge gf a good-oisod party, and workioK 
through the country which lice in proximity to tbe principal riven, vintiiif in about 
two wetik-t nearly all nuichLTfiu within ruach, travuraiug a distance of about 250 
tiiileti. They are tew from the fact that we liaised thtrnigh the territories of tbe 
most powerful dutois coming into conlaci but liltlu with thr niinar i;hieftainfl. 

It was, for obvioDa reaaona, impoanble to make on actual enumeration of tbe 
Mobamniudan pvopk'S, and tlie plan for obtaining ut It-'OHl their numbera wliich 
appc^rr-d thf! inor't ff^sihle wafl to nbtaJn by nciual count in a large iiuml)or of 
auKS the average s1b6 of fomlly per houoo. From this and u cart<Iiil count of all 
lumaeci it would be poarible to compute tbe population. Tbio, of courae, would need 
ei>ntiaual clK'ckirtg, tut, for inxtAtice, by fr«><]uent qiiL'^tioning of the well informed of 
the isncberfaA nRiCe<l. Thia plan wan carried out, and in many waya it gave, X 
bvliove, mon^ autiitfiujlory nsultM ttuui l-uuM bavo btt-u siuuivd by an attvuipt at an 
actual cmiivaso. The great objection to this lattermethod was rcftlly tho intemilnable 
time which miut infallibly have boeo connimed in ita execution. The Moro baa 
mtnv ex(<elleiit <]U»litie». but appreciation of the value uf time \s certainly not one of 
them. Tbe askini; of tbe most neceamryqueetiooB, each, for instance, sa those given 
in Schedule 7, ktvuM, at any rate, or tbe obtaining anHwera to tlictii, trequoutly take 
up a full hour of our limi? at one Moro'a buuiN.>. Quite evidpnily thin wa« too time- 
oonmimlng a method m be of mnrh xu«e with a population of pc.rhapi^ ,10,000, tapo- 
cially once the work had to be complcKd in two or thrvt^ week«. Again, some of the 
try queMtionj^ the Moroa wouldn't anirwer at all; fur instance, no Moro will 
tell bis own uaniv under any circuiuKlancve. I therefore thought that a curefui 
count of all viable hoosee woald give a boHia for iairly ai^curatn work, and that such 
a plan waa about all that woe open to uh. With my own jwrty a careful canvass was 
made of more than 300 hoiitie!). Thf^fte houtK4 wf re taken at random and were w:at- 
torad over a wide urea, and we matle every effort tJr M<curo complete Htatiiitics con- 
oentiog them, inhabitanla being coanted, cultivated fields roughly measured, etc 
Sonwtliing of the aauie iK>rt wa» folio WL'd by all the other portiee. My own inquiriu 
convinced me that cat^h Mom honHehnld might l)e expecL<H] to contain on tbe aver- 
ago nomolhing more then U people, ond I ooiild not find that polygamous marriages 
ni«ed tliis average at all appreciably. These concluatona, however, differ somewhat 
from those anived at by aome of onr other workera, but f have maile no attempt to 
cbaof^e tlieir lltcurce, obtained upon tbe spot, to make them conform to my theoriea. 

Capt. K. W. Walker, supervisor of the Tawi Tawi tiistrict, pursued 
the followiD)^ plan ah described by him: 

The scheme was to viait each island, taking with me an interpreter and a friendly 
dato, wlitim I deidgnated and paid as a apccial agent, and by i^nei^uning the people 
and obeer\'iag them, their cropa, houam, manner of living and customo, gain all 



I 
I 



IKTRODUCnON. 



37 



the infonnatitin poonble. Ail infonuAttoti on tbu uibte ia, mor» or Ism, ajiproxU 
m&te, ttot 1 lieiieve it k> he {airly Mct*iinit*'. Ttii* viifitiii^ of lh«ae isUoilo ww 
()i>D« umler itifficiiltiea, beouw I bad no hoat to tnke m«, am] it ia oq thin airuUDl 
that 1 dill uul viitit ail tbu ifilaiidii pcreuunlly. I Koi. ihu [rivmlly tlatu aiid intei^ 
pnter in a native 1>aal ta vJFit ail t)ie islondij vb«re I did not penonally p>. They 
actually landM and got information Irorii each Tillage on each idlonil in the gn>u{t, 
except the ialauda of Tabaw^, Mantahaiin, and Tmihapian, whure tht* vluiWni waa 
still raging, and th« island of Lataan, and four TiUagee on lite island of L^tndubaa, 
where the nativu refused lo allow the dato to land. The lufonuatiaii nUative to 
Maads not actually vidtod waa obtainL-d fruin ptxiplu on the Duigbboring ialantbi, and, 
in the cane of Landutaa, from people of the villogt^ of the same island. Infnnna^ 
tion from all Islands hu been rapealedly corroborntMl by questioiiing rcsidttit native* 
wherever I hare OQone across them, and by qiuwtioniiig the Bajaua, who liv« in 
boala, and are a cuntinuoiuly moving population tliat go o^1•^ywht■n^ ^Vhvrwrer 
they haw temporarily been found, they have been included in the population of that 
place. 

CkptaiD Hickok. who entimerated the Siassi Moro«. 8aid: 

In numbere they (the Slaan Moroa) oui itot count very high, iMr aru their eeti* 
natea mtich better. A eimple-ininded folk they an, IWing not so wry tar from 
oatare. T had with lae a Moro chief of police known by thf> name of fTailji Omtan, 
He waa a man of considerable natnnd intclltgencv and thrift. He had roceive>l »ome 
Englixb achonUng in Borneo, where he had rewdc-d for several yearm »nil liwl held 
the office of tax collector aitder th* British North Borneo Otnpany. lie seemed to 
exerciao hta office as prieat eo aa lo gain the confidence of the people, and lie had 
probably tuoro Infliutnt.'e in the Siiot groop Ibau any other Muro. Being brotight in 
iDcb cloae totich with them, his knowledge of tbcm, their aettlements, chiela. and 
munbera was freely made urn of. In theae ortimateH he coald give only the nnmber 
of Dkale followfTD which euch chief claimed to have. Theee nomben wure salt* 
aeiioenUy by me verified and luodifled, aa a retialt of penwnal ooaversations with the 
cUefa in qiuaion, and of vimte which t nuuio to rariotlfl parte of the group. 

After nHuddering all the elementfl affecting the matter — mme men being in polyga- 
mooe relations, aome being without wlvcfl at all, the reporta of tnalee Including e^'cry- 
tLiug over 15 yeeni <if age, whether bond or free— and after dutcnaaiug the matter with 
tb» beat informed local autboritims aa well m» with the otScvre of my command, I 
Ted at the factor "4," by whii^ the ntunber of adult malee being mulUiJied 
mid give the total population, and returns were made on tfaia baab. 

The restilts of the census are set forth in the following pagett. In 
idditioo to the tables and analytical text it vf&n cotidtdored eM.>ientia1 
to complete pn^entation to inclitde in the report of the cenaii^ a brief 
geographical sketch of the archipelago; its climate; seismic and rol- 
canic phenomena; it*i general history; a historical and ethnological 
sketch of the iohabitants; and a preface to each cciii^aa i^ubject cover- 
ing, as far &s practicable, its origin and development through Spanish 
and American control to the date of the census, thus presenting as 
accurately Hud graphicitUy as sources of iufomiatiou permitted a 
statistical picture of the Philippine Islands during the past tlit?ee 
hundred nnd seventy-five years. Owing to the fragmentary coudition 
of the Spanish archives, this attempt has not been entirely successful. 
Many of the insular, provincial, and municipal records are either 






missinfi; or are so mutilated as to bo nnrclinbto, while all tboir SpaniRh 
custodians htq pither dnad or havo Irft the iwlandw. A werioiis draw- 
hack, and one which hiui caused much cluha^^R-'^»ment in testiug' the 
accuratiy of results, i« tho eniirn aKsnnco of all data of the Spanisli 
cen8U8«H of 187T and 18^7 other than tho number of tho inluihtttititH, 
such stiitifitic^ baring bceu sent to Spain and never mode public by the 
Spanish Oovcrnment. A part of tho MtatiBtics of the civil census of 
lH9*i worn found in the Bureau of Statiaties. in Manilii, Hhortly after the 
capture of tho city, but furninhed very Uttie infoi'matioQ of value, 
except as to the nnnihcr of inhabitant in certain of the provinces. 
Nevertheless, hy lalM>riou8 ivscarch and a critical examination of all 
available data, tbc conclusions reached regarding tlie various subjects 
covered by tho census are believpd to be fairly accurate, or at least 
sufficiently so for administrative purposes. 

Before I'onsidoring the resultn of the census, the attention of the 
reader is invited to the geographical dojjcription of the islands. 
Through the kindness of Mr. G. K. Putnam, representative of tho 
United States Coast and Geodetic Sun-ey in the islands, an effort wa«i 
made to obtain an accurate list of all the islands and islets risible 
above high tide, wilh their names and areiu;, and this list is presented, 
for the first time, it is Iwlieved, in the history of the islands, together 
with a list of the most prominent altitudes in all the islands. 

In the prosecution of this work an examination was made of alt 
nvnilable map*:, from which and other data the map of the Phillppinca 
presented in this volume was compiled especially for the census. It 
does not pretend to l>e n complete geographical map, but was pivparcd 
more for the purpose of illustrating tlie subject matter of the text 
than tlie general topograpbicftl conditions prevailing. 

To those engaged in agriculture or commerce in the Philippines 
tite climatology of the islands bas always been of great interest and 
importance. 

While the temperature, as indicated hy the thermometer at the sea 
level, is practically the same throughout the entire area of tho archi- 
pelago, the topographical features of the different inlands, and the 
longitudio&l direction of the mountains and hills with reference to 
the prevailing winds, have a marked effect on tbc amount of rainfall 
as well as on the duration of the rainy season. Therefoi-e, while in 
provinces like Kizal, Batangas, and Buliu-iln, there is a rainy seiuion 
and a dry season, whos<> limits can bo fairly well defined, there aro 
other provinces, like AIlHiy, S&mar, and Surigao, where it usually 
rains at short iotervnls throughout the outire year, and when!, as a 
consequence, tho climate is more especially adapted to th<' •■■)»'' hIiod 
of certain important crops than in otlicr provinces. 

The prevalence of Lypboons, or, as they arc called in tUe l*iulippin««. 



I 



i 



INTKODUCTION. 



S9 




"baguios," during tlic siiiumer tiioutim, frequently with disastrous 

results to the Hhipping, lia.s alua^H been tlit; c»u»e of much upprohcn- 

i^BiOD (o the owners of vessel unci to shippcfis, hut with tin; establish- 

^fcent of Uie meteorolog'ical department of the Munila obscrralory in 

^■Mft^ and the M'Ht^inatic Htudy of the^c storm.s. which wiu commf'nrcd 

H^^DTather Faiini, S. J., at tiiat time, and iiirried on tii Inter yrarn hy 

Father Aljfu^ S. J., the laws governing their origin and movement 

hare been ao fully estahlisheJ that (lieir progress, duration, and inten- 

^ji^ can now be predicted with great accuracy, and timely noiiee of 

•ir approach bo given wherever there is a telegraph station. For 

jry of the development of this very iniportiint public service, the 

is referred to the account, in Volume IV of the Keport of tho 

i'irrt Philippine Commission to tho President, January 31, 1900. 

Il i,-t wifficient to say here that all important port^ in the Philippine 

•tandn now have weather observers who are in telegraphic, conmiuni- 

cmtiao with the ceutral weather bureau in Manila, to which daily 

reports of the stiit« of the thermometer, barometer, and the direction 

l^aad force of the wind are telegraphed, 

^H The cable communic-ation recently establiahed with Guam, not far 

^Trom which typhooin* originating in the Pacilic are (<upix)wd to form, 

will add greatjy to the accuracy of the predictions, and will admit of 

tax earlier and more timely notice of the phenomena which precede 

»od attend their forumtion and uiuvement. 

Wliile the e^tiiblishnieDt uf the Weather Bureau in Manila was pri- 
aBarilj for the benefit of the Philippine kland», it has proved of infioite 
•orriCTi to shipping in all parts of the Orient from Singapore to Yoko- 
hamaf from which, and from intermediate points, telegrams from the 
BMstflrsuf veMiels are often received asking information an to the con- 
dition of the weatlier and the probability of encountering a typhoou 
i^in the pB««agc they have to make. In addition to this, the approach 
^Bf all i^mu is telegraphed from Manila to Hongkong, Macjw, Saigoa, 
^Rffaaogfaai, and Tokyo, so that the appi-eheii-sion iti regard to t,v)ihoon8. 
V bom largely of ignontnce an to their protiahh; con^iequeacuy, hati given 
[ilaco to a feeling of greater security, the uatural i-oault of knowing 
Iht '" " I which the vurtex or center of such storms will probably 
lake, -lenci.' of the wind, and the prol«iblc effect of the utorm at 

aay ^ven point withio the area of depre^ion. 
T' i ■/ and seientilic acitinnt of the elimate and stonafi of 

. , was prepared for the Philippine winsus raport by 

r. Joe^ Algu£>, S^ J., tJie Director of the Weather Bureau, Manila, 
tirelew efforts io behalf of the Manihi observatory, aud more 
Eially the meloorological department, which now con&titutct« the 
aiUppine Weather Bureau, and whose ucientitic investigations and 
'^aprovemMits in the iDBtruiueDta used in obuer\ing and recording 



I 



atmospheric changes and in indicating the probable path of the storms, 
whereby the etorui center i-an be avoided, have made )iiin the highest 
living meteorological authority lu the Orient, and plaL-ed him among . 
the foromot^t of the world'H tn'ientidts. M 

The Philippine Itslandi^ lie in a volcanic Iicli, which utretches from^ 
northeaMteiii Asia south weMtwardly nearly to Australia, and includes 
the volcanic peninHula Kamchatka, tho Japan&^e iHlarids, and the Ka^tt 
India archipelago. Thia belt is composed in the main of volcanic 
rockdf and there are in the Philippine Islands several volcanoes which 
have lieen in active eruption in recent years and scores which are 
extinct or dormaut. In recent geologic periods the islands have hcon 
auhjei't to extensive movementji of uplift and depression, and proba- 
bly such movements are now in progress accompanied by earthquakes 
and tremors, which are very frequent and in some cases severe. h 

It is therefore especially fortunate that there has been maintained ^ 
for many years at Manila one of the best equipped seismic observa- 
tories in the world. It contains the tinest and most modern instru- 
ments for recording the force and direction of earthquake shocks, and 
18 manned with tho most f-killed observers, who keep careful reniorda 
of all volcanic and seismic phenomena occurring in the archipelago. 

Following Father Algu^'s account of the climate and storms is tk\ 
historical account of voUanoes and seismic centei-s in the Philippine 
Islands, written for xiw Philippine census report by the leading author- 
ity upon the subject. Rev. M. Saderra Maa6, S. J- Father Maso bag 
been connected with the Manila observatory for tlie past fifteen years^ 
and in 1894 published the first work on Philippine seismology. H«< 
has made a carcftd personal examination of the active and dormant 
volcanoes of the PbiJippioe^ and is the author of some very valuablo 
pttpers on the subject 

The historical sketch preijared by Mr. T. H. Pardo de Tavern, u; 
atated by him, is merely a r^siuu4, and any more extended compilation 
would have been impracticable iu a report of this character. Mr. Tavcr* 
is esi)ecially qualilied, by education and experience, to write the his- 
tory of the Philippines, and white the facts stated by him are gener- 
ally correct, uud his views are entitled to the greatest consideration, it m 
is not thought that he has given to the religious orders in the Philip-^ 
pines the commendation which their efforts iu behalf of the Filipinos 
fairly merit. A more judicial vinw nf this (Subject wa.^ recently 
expreased by tho Hon. W. H. Taft, Het^retary of War, in an address 
delivered before the faculty and students of the University of Notre 
Dame, on October fi, 1904. Mr. Tafi .said: 

MBgellAo, in search of spicn, wu Lho Unt Europmn to land in the PhUJpidaa 
btaiid& lie lost bis life near the prfoent city ol Obit in l&SI. Tb<* archipelaga 
WW not n^ily t«lt«n poweiBioD of u a cnlooy r>( Spain until 1&6&. This wu in tb^ 
r«i(D of f bllip li. Tb« oolonizatioo ol tbe Iliilippinat bid its motive not in B>ia « 



J 



SUPERVISORS OF THE CENSUS. 



1. GOV. POTKNCIANO LEBACA. PROVINCE OF 

ZAHBALES (ZAHBAIAN). 

2. GOV. FBANCI8CO DICHOBO, PBOVINCB OF I8A- 

BELA (CAGAViN). 

s. GOV. gracio qonzaga, province of CA- 

OAVAN {CAQAYAN). 
4. GOV. JULIO AOCAOILI. PROVINCE OF ILOCOe 
KORTE <ILOCANO), 

6. GOV. JUAK VIU.AHOR, PROVINCE OF ABKA 

tILOCAKO). 
«. GOV. MENA CRI80L0Q0. PROVINCE OF IL0C08 
BVR (ILOCANO). 

7. GOV. CEFERINO JOVEN. PROVINCE OF PAM- 

PANt)A (PAMPANGAN). 

8. GOV. MACARIO FAVILA. PROVINCE OF PAN- 

GASINAN (PANGASINAN). 
V. GOV. BERNARDINO MOKREAL, PROVINCE OF 
S0R80G<)N (BtCOL). 



'Imtc li» exlffnd the Christian relifoon. The tttlandH wew indeed aOhrw- 

h - I'ln n»tli«-r than a iv^lnny, mid thii* cbHr«i.-t<>nti4ii' lis* iiff»^-t«il Uieir btfltory 

[b( iim preMDt djiy. It ■!• Irae that LeRaspi, the Eormer alralde of the dly of Mexico, 

tbo WW eeot out wilb Kriar Urdaiiota, of the Autniatiiitau Onit-r, was diretted to 

lint; ihfi iKirlB of tlie Philip|>inp Inlands and (o t-Pla1)li<<)) trade with the ostlTM^ 

lo importaoK of winning tho friendship of tho netlvce was MuphagiEed M 

continain); the trado. Bot the viceroy of Philip II orderkl Logwpi to 

Ire AnciBtiaian friara in hui coni)iany with the utntoet respect and coniid- 

■lllofit to that the oaUvoi chonld alN> hold them in respect, "eluce," aa liv wrote 

"yon arc H»-an> timt thi< chief thing Miuiirht afttT by Hin MajpRty is the 

I oi tho Holy Otholir faith and the Rah-ation of the aonls of Xbosc infidels." 

I other fipaniftti ex^x-dilions the som of nionfry paid for tht> trip wan paid by adven* 

who onatnlmtMl part of tli« fund an<l who wertf aidtsl frotn thv roxid trcitsury, 

laudintt Iwing that there should be an equitable division of the proflls 

Ihr odvcoturc-rs and the king. There wn«. however, no adventurar von- 

tf-f-ml miih tlu8f.-xpc<Iition. It waf< purely a pivemmeotai enterpriw, sent nntby 

«4 I'hilip H. and he paid all the eviieneed, A contemporary writer aays that 

tbfi king was inlomit*! that the I'liilippincs were Itot rii^h in ftoM and p«aHf>, 

tliat tlifir ocni{>atinn might not 1* Im-rative, but the r«ver«u, he answered: 

"FtMt i« nut a matter of rnonieot. I am an jnetrnntent of Divine l*roTidence. The 

ihliiif n tlie oonvenJon of the kliigdom of Los^n and God has prckvlinod me 

nrthat ctul, haviiif; choKn m& Ilia king for that parpose. And »nce He haa inlni)4«<l 

t^Motu a work to m« aod my crown 1 shall hold the inlands of I.ax6n, even 

(Kwb by dolnfc so 1 exhanst. my treasure'." 

A)t»ip. (o li}l^. in Uie tvign of Philip III. It was proposed to abandon the Philip- 
i tl 1 of their ui>elesn expenpe to Spun, and an order to that effect wns 

:i of .Spanish friars from the archipelago^ howorcr, implored the 
: tii>t t> itlatixlixi the 'iOO.noO <:hri!itianji whom they had by that time converted, 
'fcad the twilc-r ww> ctitinlvmiaiirlerl. 

I Qtay illKTcw licre to say that Pome years before the American occupatjon, a pop- 
okr aoliKTipbou waa taken up in Manila U) pay for tho ervvliou ol Uie statue of 
La^Mfii. tlte hrtuidprnt the city. Subsequently the plan was changed so as to indoite 
tlie Augustinian Iriar, who acmmpoDied I.t^:aspi. Qnerol, a Spanish 
al note, designed the monmnent, and it waa cast iu brotize and sent to 
ffau Wlira the AniL'ri<.nu forced captured the [tlacv, tlivre wen.' found in the 
-bouse till' vurioufl pieces of the mimument, but nothing Inokintr to its erection 
bad bean done. The military eoremmunt of Manihi under (leiK^ml Davis dedd«d, 
■mI properijr decider), that it wnald Iw a gnu-efu) art on the part of the American 
Bitfuirttju In errct the monument. This was done, and the monntncnt now stands 
ixi the lumtia, overlitokinf; the bay of Manila, and o<'cupi«H the mmt protiiineiit mte 
is Uw whole archipebigo. It is a work of art. The two figurw are instioct with 
Doangrand enetjcy. hefrasp) on the rinht bears iu bis left hand the standard of 
^ado; oa thv laft, and slightly in advanL-e of lA-gai<pi. rrdanclu. carrius in hie right 
tamdr vkI immediately in fmnl of the fipanu>h ntandard, the croas. The whole, aa 
M artlsttr exprtflsion, satislSea the tiXkte of admiration that one (eels in reading of 
(faw aafeafp*^ ooumge, and ddulily to duty that distinguished those heroes of Spain 
^Invflri the then frightful dangvre of tbcdeep to carry Cbrtstianity and European 
into the far-ofl Orient, 
thf. "trcumstaiicsB I have deKribod, the occupation of the islands took on 
'<-t from that of ordinary seeking for gold and profit, and was not in 
conqiu<«tn of Pixarru and Cnrien. Tb« natives wem treated with 
mnv'deration. Tb« priests exerted every effort to conciliate 
^fovamnunt vm Arvt csiahlisbed at C«bd, subsequently at Ilcflo In 




Panay, and finally at Manila in IS7! . There was at Manila ttotne fighting of a <I«snl' 
torjr and not very Moody t-hanurter : but LeRaspi, obeying tbt; itirectign of his supe- 
rior, at unw unliTod iuto uv^tolintiooa with the Datlvca. Uv fuimd tbat (here wu 
no great vhiel iii commaxtd, bnt that each town had its qwd cluttr and there was no 
other govcrniDMit ihati that of many petty rtikra. Tbny n-crc Jcalow of one another, 
were «afii1y induced to at^know ledge allegiance to the Kingof Biiaiii, aiid were quickly 
brought under ttip infiiienntof thuaclivu mi»ionar>-ef(orl8of tbu frlara whoaixvin- 
pttuied Legsw[H. Hi«>tory aBonla tew iustaut^es in which sovereignty vtm extended 
over 00 large a turrrlorj' and ho many pvoi>lu ( (or tlie iaUind muRt then have had half 
A million inhabitants) with leaa bloi>dahe<). When Legnspi's lieatenant, Salccdo, 
firat visited Manila be found mndence tbut tbore bad been an effort to convert the 
peopitt lo Mdluunrnwibiniiun, btiL it bad not iinx.'vftNltNl far. UndoubteiUy, if Leputpi 
had not at that time l-ooio into the islanda, all th« peoples of the arcliipelaeo, iiwlead 
of only 5 per cent of tlietn, would now have been Mohainuufdoii. Tbo wilHngnBe 
of the nativcfl to embrare ChriMianity, their giintlu nataree, and their love of the 
solemn and beautiful oereiitontee< of the Catholic Chareh enable<1 the (rian to sprcoil 
Chriatianity throqgb the inlanda with remarkable rapidity. 

It should bebonivii) mind that tlit-vearva Malay jieople. and that nowbero in 
the world, except in the rhillppine Islandi), baa the Malay been made a Chriattao. 
In other plocee where tlie meo abide:*, Klohaumiedniiiiaii baij betxiuie il« roUgiao; 
and there is no condition of mind which offers mich miiatance to tlie inculnating of 
Christianity as that found in Lbe followers of the I'ropliet of Mecca. 

The friars learned tlie varioiu dialects of the nativea, and settled down to live 
with thcmaa their protectuni and guardiiuis. In the Orst two hundred years of 
Spanish (locupatloo the Crown liad gnuite<l to various Spmninh Hubjecti) largo tnctii 
of land called ent^oniiemlAii. To ihoau who oc«upiL-«l theau cncorcicndaa it won 
Intended to fi;iv6 the character of feudal torda. They of courw came into cuntact 
with the oaUvea, and attempted to nse tbem lor the de\i>lopraent of their prop* 
eftiw. The history of the islands until ISOOibowsthat the friars, who had incraoed 
In number frxjui time to time, were eonifUinUy exerciasg their inBoenee toTeatiain 
aboM of tbe iiativce by these enooroenderos or largo lando^'nen; and the nmilt of 
their etfortfi is seen in the royal dooeea baaed at their re<]uest, which werv published 
aiKi became known as tbe "\jiw» of the Indies." It in very probable tli«t the 
eDoomenderoH frequently violated the rvetrivtionfl which were put upon them by 
tbeae laws in dealing with tbe natives; but there is nothini: to ahow that the friars 
wUiker) at tliie or that they did not eontinuo 1o act sincerely us the proteoors of tbe 
natlvea down to tlie liefinnins of the past century. fTnder tbe law a native ooald 
not be med unleee llierc was inailc party to the anit an otttctal who wiw onlinarily 
a friar, Lnown as "lbe protector of the Indian." Tbe ertcomeodero wbor hud !•• do 
with the natives was not permitted to live in a town on bis own estutee when) tbe 
nalivw Lived. The friara exerted their inBuence to induc« tbe nalivea to live in 
towns near the church and the convento, or parish hoose, bucausa they thought that 
Uiia would bring tbenstivce moro fully "andertbe hell9,"asthey called it, or within 
reUgioui liiflueuce. One of the friarn laid down as a role, which was adopted bjr his 
onler and approved by the UovcniinenI a> early aa 1860, tlie following: 

1. "It is ptopui that pnoblos abuuld U' formed, tJiu mLaeloaariM being ordered bi 
esla M Jah themselvev uL a oerlfttn point where the cliureh and tbe parish boose (con- 
rento), which will eerve u a point of departure for the tnlsrionti, will bo built. Tbe 
new OhTistiatui u1ll bo obliged to buitd thdr hoosM sbont the church, and the 
heathen will \x- advised to do so." 

3. "Hemeotary sdiools should b« oatabUihcd. In which tbe Indians will b« 
taught not only Christian docliina and reading and writing, but also arta and tndH; 
■0 tbat they may heoome not only good ChriitiBiM, but alao useful dtbtUK." 



I 
I 



I 



80 gnHt aad eomplate became the control whii^b Ibe Iriim exercised orer the 
I bj rcMon of their nncrre devotion Ut tht>ir int^reste, that Spun foanil it pos- 
fiMs to police the talBndfl with rery ieir troops. 

Tbe 8))«nii»h iniliUry forre in Uu- Piiiliiipinv* in 1600 kmm 470 officrn «im1 oicsl. 
In 1030 thb bad incrauvd to 1,762 HponUnlfl Bn<l 140 natives. From IKS (o 1890 the 
t^iwikh (iMi'we variol froui 1,000 to 3,000 officers aod incu. La 1896, Juet before tbo 
frvolatioa. the mnay iacltuled lf>,000 meti, of whom 3.000 wetv SpuiiiUTia; and a 
mcMabolny of 3,S00 men, moet of whom n-ere natlrca. 

Tb« Sp«ai»nlc. Ixil ii»t thf» naCir«#, were, ontil 1S03, subject to the jnruidktiOD of 
tbm InqoMbioD. Idolatrive, beroeieH, and errors of belief mmuititcd by the natives 
mte broaghl bvfuro tbo btsboi* of the dio(>;«e. but not before the Holy Offiw. 

Aldkoogh the natiree held nUvFff, upon the anival of thu SpunlsnlH the- curtom 
mi iliMoanfted by a law forbidding Spaniards to hold sinves, and by probihjttng 
iiklsca tmca deciding in caw» of (Iia|mle whether a man vas a alave; 00 that a alave 
■ppecfin^ befon? tbt onurt ww ordintirily lilwrai*^. 

In Gavlte th« friara m&Int&itted a bo^ital for eick gailors; in Manila, Loe Ballod. 
aad Oinena wen; boqiitals for rick n8tiin«: in Munik. Pilu, and Cdceros weio hoB* 
fttaia tor ffpanurdA, tlie deifcy, and nalivm who rould affnnt to paj. In Manila 
waa mafntained n hospital for fick ncfrro slavMt. 

Bttwaan ISOl and 1616, the friaro of th« Philipp(n«« had mmt miiwonarini to 
Ja|an who iltfroted tbemaelres to tho aoccor of the poor and oitnly tlitru, and vep*^ 
dally the lep(!rs of ttiat roantr>', Bothat there wen> in Japan, when the porta of 
Ihal <<Mintr>' were closed, aboni 33 priestn. Twenty-fiix of them wtnv cmdfled or 
lionwvl alivo. Whpn the Mikado ^xth^IIcxI the Chrifliani*, h^xotit to th(> govemor- 
IpRiml of the IliilippiDUB three jiiuke UidcQ with 150 l^pere, with a leltvr in which 
im fltalvd tlut, u thv Spaoifeb Iriani wen? hu anxious to provide f<»r the poor and 
a gkle d, be Mnt tbem s cargo of mra who were really eorely oppnxeed. Tbesa 
i mlu rl ou atai were taken wborc and housed at Manila, in the hospital of San Laaro, 
wbkb ban ever ainoe been niuHl for l4>p»ni. 

I tlrww morh of what 1 have oaid from an intrudiK-tion l>y CapL John R. M. 
Tkylor, 1^ Ibe Fourteenth Infantry, aeaietaot to the chief of the Inireau of incwlar 
abim, who is eogaRi-fl in compiliu); original doeuniunta caun«cted with the PblUp* 
fiam, with notea. Speaking of what the {Han did in the islands, Captain Taylor 

"T Muliiib llie«e nauliA rMjuinHl untiring cnency am! a high entliusiami 

ani : I -Lxlonariu*, in whom Iho fivrcv firwj of reli;fioua ardor luust ha^-e con- 

ttuMiy uf tbetuure kindly attrihatea of biimanity. Men who ba<t lived among 
trying to teach ihcm tbu advanta^ of peace and the n'osonableneeB of a 
lUgber lilr: who ha«l lived among them Rpenkinf: their tongoos nntil they had almoflt 
fotpKtm thtlr own, most have felt when promoted to the high pbic«A in the religiooa 
hM-nrcby, that tb«ar poleduty wa» to increase Lite bouudarie* of the vineyard in 
wUeh tj»ey hat) worked en long. Spain had ceueed to be everything to tbem; ttieir 
<iad«r waa Ibelr nnintry, and the cure of aoulaand tbeaccoinulntionof means for the 
am ul aDola wari the trwel paLriotii'm * * * . They were ehL'pherda of u very erring 
flodt fipaniah otR<-ialji rame and wont> hot the ministers of the chnrch reamined; 
aarl •'» be the inttrj.rpterB o( the wsntB of the people, and in many 

cwr 'ivagaingl ifiH>llaiJun, |wwer fell into their Iiundl." 

Tbe tndaaun nl Uic triara was thrown against the invesU^tion and development 
of tlie rwmrrea of the PhUippiuc*. The pritvlH ruuoned tlwt the working of the 
(bLiM<a in Wm mxu\ Mexico liad meant snSering and death to many of the natives, 
and that It waa tiettir to U-t tlii> tmnr« in the PliHippinea, if mlnea there were, lie 
■BOfpaoad. Few Spaiiiah inerchanta lived permanently in the islandii, and tbM» 

Stia;»_voL I 06 8 




were chieflj' engaged in the trsusbipnif at of ABiatic merrbandise from Manila and 
had bot little Inlcnwt in Philippine productfl. The internal de%-floprm.'nt of llie 
iilandi wu neglected. Taxfa were light, and there waa little mone}' to make 
impTOvemt'nto or to «)tablti<li mHouIm. One S]i)uii«h-!*[)enl:inK pri^t among lliree or 
four thoumnd nativee could not do mach in epreading tht* knovlE<di{e of the lao- 

^ gaagB. It ifl probable tbaU apart from the t-oiivuiiivn<.-e of tho prioet's learniug the 

'bofiMge of hifl ptuish inateiul of reqiiirinK the pariHiiiDnera to learn his, it waa 
deemed expedient frum a moni Ktandpolnt, to keep the common people t^orant of 
Bpauiah. To know S[iantf>li iii«aiit coiilw!t with tiie outside world, and tbe prieats 
feared — not dviliaatioD, but the vvila of civilizatiou- Mudpni nmtvnal pruKreaa 
seemed to tho Spaniah miouonarios of little worth, compared with keeping their 

I people innrKvnt. 

It ought to be noted, however, that while the pnlicjr of the friara seema to have 
been to keep the common people in a state of ChriMtian ptipilafi;«, they founded a 
nnivenit)-, that of SL Thotniw, wtiicli in oldur than either Harvard or Yaleandiaatill 
doing educational work. The Jeeuitif, Um, founded and an< now csrTjinK on wveral 
rory good academic achoolH in Manila, and therearf" a few others in the ialands. All 
the well-educated FiU[Mno(i owo thi>ir ului-atinn t^i itiHtitntiona of teaming founded 
by (riat« or Jcaait« or conducted under their auaptccs. 

Thiii brief dcacriptiun of the control of the Philippine lalanda and of the Philip- 
pine people by a thouiMud Spanish friara prior to tbv nluctoenth ceatury at once 
prompts the quefllion how it haa cnme about Uiat the Philippine people now mani- 
fest ouch hostility tothoec who were for two bundnsl and fifty years their sincere and 
eamewt frtenda, benefactora, and prol^'tora- There were »<overal cauflni for the 
cbanKe. T'be intimate uod aSectionate rvlationa exiatin]; between tlie friara and 
their native pariahioners liad led to the educaliun of natives as priceta and to the 
aceeptanec of some of thum as membere of the rvligiuus ordera Before 1800, of the 
bishops and archhishoj^ who had l^ecn appointed in the isbUKK t2 were nadvee; 
but after the Bntt yean of the nineteenth century no auch places of preferment were 
onared them, and after 18.12 they were not allowed to beeome memlxtre of th« rtdl* 
giooa ordera. Thia ctiaoRe of policy create)] a cleavaRe between the native cleriEy and 
the friarv, which gratlually widened. In all ix>uutrice in which the Roman Oithollc 
leligioQ haa Itecome fairly eRtablinhed it ban lieen the ultimate poliey of Rome to make 

'the Church as popnlar aa |mssibl<- ))y nppoinling the prieata ati<l the hierarchy from 
the nativea of the country: but in thu Philippines, and eqtoclally in the nineteenth 
century, under Ui« SiHmiafi iufiut-ui'v — whlcb, by meanfi of the concordat botween 
the Spaniah Crown and Itome, lanpely excluded the direct interpositioo ol Rome in 
the PbllipplDes— a different policy waa folIow(>d. and the controlling pricsthoud van 
confined aa macb wt poarible to the dominant and alien race. The inevitable result 
of thia policy, aa »oon M any vinall percentage of the I^ltlpphie people pa mo d out 

I from under the pupilage of the Spaniah Iriura, waa to create an oppoaitiou to tliem 
among the peopJt'. 

In 1707 the Jesuita had been banished from the iaiaada by the Pragmatic Sanction 
of Cbarlui IK. and tbdr proportiea bad been ooofiseated. They were at the time 
Tery powerful and ricli, and the 32 pariahee, to which they had aHminiinerrd, 
were now given orer, Ibmngh the inflnenc« nf h MKrnlar archbiohop, to native priexta. 
The parisheH were cbieHy in the province* ol Cavite, Manila, and Bulacdu. in I8&2 
lh« Jcvuitit wer^ permitted to return, and the order permittiufr their return ditvi-ted 
that they should receive again Iboir 32 pariebeF, hut in the nsnote isdand of Minda- 
nao. Thom pariHbea had been occnpied by ReroU'tm. the barefooted broncli of the 
Ftancnran Onler. The Beculclos detuandMl that if they were tnmed out of their 

[|iatUiea in Mindanao they abouM bo reaton^l to the jmuisboa occupied by the natire 



« 



4 



IHTRODCCTION. 



85 



Mcolar clergy in Oavite, Manila, and BulacilD, wtiicb bad beoD origliuUJy Josuit par- 
nlMB. This propueal wiut nsMi-d by Uic nalivu eceiilar clergy, but True, neveithcilosB, 
rmrrici] Into cflect, incTpoBJng ihe hnatility already exinting on ilie pArt of the nAdve 
dogor lowud the tnan. The bitteniea of Feeling thoD enft«Qdercd (rjiread among 
the people. 

Secondly, lite frian bad becotnt*. Reoerally by purehaw, lar^^ laadownen. They 
buM buKi enuU)|Eh ti) luake up 250.000 oiTuemiiioTapilug pruvincee tn the imiuediaU> 
ndgbtiorhitnd nf Manila. This lam], which was rentnl by them to thonsaniln ni ten- 
■, was the btwt i-i]!ti\-at«d land in thti iHlanda, and wait admirably enitMl for the 
' crmn^nnod of the crops to tnarkel. Char;^ were made that tbt* friars vivtv 
vxurtittant rvnbr: and either diflliailUtfa an»e, whicli, howoi'er free from 
friars may have been, contributed very decidedly to the growing feelii^ 
of the mlivu pooplu agiuiut tiieir fonner frit>nd^ and protectors. 
Snimiif, the cnnfltmction of th«> finee (1anal bniught the Philippines into compwa- 
ckatK.'ouimiiniijfttion with !?pain, and hord«4o( tipnni^b advcnturvricajne lo 
Itcpublii-nti or liberal pulitiral vteuH which vttTo (hen ttjireailing iti 
lirnt Latvr to tbe funnstion lor a short time ul a Spanish republic, reached 
I, flndiog [(Kltfinent among eome of the etlucalcd Fllipiui>s, led to a small 
>ruiaE and Ao-raUlerl inaarrection in It^O. A prominent Filipinn prient named Bur- 
#. «tiu lubl l<een active in th« controrerBiM between tht.' tHars ami the native 
duvj', *H rbarved with comptidty in thio nprieing, was convicted, and was shot on 
> Lniwia. The 8|niiiEb Goverumeut looked to the Spani^tli friare, becaua* of their 
TiotiiiiarT with the people and control orer them, to do what wm* nec««nry in ferret- 
n(> • * ri or treawon, supposed to be then rife. By cueLoni, and snbecquenUy 

lif Ll |>»ri?ih priftft was given iY>iiipletP«niic.rv'):iory power over The iiiiinid)nl 

fprvnsamit oi his town. Hip civil fanctions be<,-an>e verj- many, and one of hie chief 
I vuppuMxl by the people to be to report to the oeotral governmeul at Maulla 
i in Ufl pariah whose political views or nctioas were liostlle to the Spanish 
The friani thus became involved in a reactionary policy, which place<l them 
I c^BMilion U* tlii> people, and made them responsible in the popalar mind for the 
-vhich the .Spanish ffovvmntenl punixlied tlidMe tniHpectMl of lilieiml 
poll- ,.(jir. Ho bitter did the feeling become that in the revolatlon of 18S8 

Llicrv mcrvr 10 friars killH and SOO imprif^inLyl; and the latter were releam^d only by 
llMi advance «>f the A merican forces and the capture of the towns in which they were 

SUiiBtictdly cuusidered. it nmy be iiaid that, ou the whole, tbecetiaiia 
rwKB a success. Thi-s ^ratifyiug icault wua »i;cut'ucl in spite of Che fact 
thai there were niaoy practical difficulties which were obvious enough 
tl Ihc atari, and U-fuiiie iiinrn pronoum^ed a.s the euiuueration pro- 
<L NVhilc. ou llu! face of it. tbe plan of the ceu^UM v;a» ijuitc 
ipto, and the Kchodules and intstructions easily undcr»tood, their 
practicit) applJLTition proved to be beyond the ability of many of the 
^cn unit! ra tors and rt^^bciiil ugeiittf, and even of »ome of the supervii^ors. 
his wmH nut due to mufh to a want of intelligenm as U> a lack of 
Mpericmce. In fai-l, u nuinlfor of the native census olHcials were 
ipimmntly iricajMhle uf rea^unin^ from analogy or of applying the 
iructinnn to any case not covered by them directly, or uf taking 
'the iniliative in meeting emergencies or in pro\'iding remedies. This 



is not meant m a reflection on the natural CApacity of the FiUpinoa, 
because there is plenty of thai, but as illustrating a Filipino trait, 
more or less general, resulting from inexperience and «»uperfi<.-ial study, 
in con»e<|uence of which they often mistake ability to theorize freely 
for practical knowledge. It was this which caused some of the 
governor-supervisors who visited Manila to believe that they fully 
understood the ceniiius plan and iu^tructions aod their practical appli- 
cation when, us a lualter of fw;t, they did not. A.^ a rti^ult, mistakes 
more or less t>eriuu:S wore made. Fortunately, the more r>6rioiu> errors 
of the enumerators wera discovered in time to be corrected. They 
might have been prevented, pottsibly. bad the Director and his aaiiist- 
untt< lM!cn able tu virdl all the NU{H!rvisorei during tbo progresH of the 
work, and had the latter been able to exercise a similar supervision 
over the special agents and enumerators. But with the means of 
transportation and communication available at tluit time, it was impos- 
sible to do so, and this was so fully appreciated at the outlet that the 
prevcnliun rather than the correction of errors was the objp^:'tivi>. 
Hence thu efforts to insure a complete oi'gunizatton and the thorough 
instruction of the census personnel before the work liegan. 

I have dwelt on the orguniiiulion and openitiomt of the census at 
length because Lhi.-* is said to Iw the first attempt, on the port of any 
tropical puopic in modern times, to wake an enumeration of them- 
sclv&H, and beeamic the American plan of taking a census was gener- 
ally considered impossible. 

In the execution of the ficldwork and the preliminary cxuniination 
of the schedules. 7,t!27 persons were engaged, and of this number US 
were Americans, 1 Japanese, and fi Chinese, so that it may bo said, in 
all sincerity, that it was a Filipino census of the Philippine Islands. 
Of the 7,503 natives employed, 40 were women, who fully sustained 
the opinion of Ai-chbishop Nozalcda that "the Filipino women are 
b^tt«r than the men in every n'ay." An outline of the census orgnni- 
Kstion will !)e found in the Appendix. The names of all persons offi- 
cially connected with the census in any capacitj' arc given in che 
Spanish edition of the report. 

Among thofie who hare made valuable contributions to the census. 
without lieing officially conncctwl witli it. arc the Hon. T. H. I^irdo 
de Tttvera and the Hon. Jos<? I^uxuriaga. both of the Philippine Com- 
mis»iOD; the Hon. Tontils del Rosario and Mr. P. F. Jemeguu, of the 
bureau of public in!<tructiou; Mr. VV. S. Lyon and Mr. Hegino <farciii^ 
of the bureau of agriculture; and Mr. Amelio A. y Llure, of the 
province of Al bay. These gentlemen worked without iH)ini><'iwtt-ioi). 
All but two are natives, as are the other oontributors of special urticlod, 
Doctor Barrows, Fathers Algue and Mas6 excepted, su that much of 



I 



Ciofi and ^ eoOecCiaa of tk uiidiitkjk. krv tb« mxttk of ibe F\tipitKew 

1m ti^ « itt aD otker npocto of Uw «um oUnwtar, tW &tat ud 
M— timpoftiMwibiertbthe ymwlniiw A* to tia Iota! uimber gf 
the drilixcd popukliua. tWn had Berer bvea mtack qiwtioQ imnBt 
fifiih ottckk, the rmnoas mil aail puDcbml wB—aoa beisf qtdto 
Bat ia i ^ q ie c t to tlw mmmimr ol VBCOTilned or wild pecplw, 
^Cemcc of ofnaioa pmrkiled, And, as shown by tbe rcMtlts of 
■■■■fe, some inae^naeT alBO^ Uk ttadvorr beii^ la exaggvnto 
■Dfaer fiv beroad nnoakble or profaaUe limits. For example, 
tfae munber of Moras hae been ?voeaUjr stated br a promiDvot Spauif^ 
oCckl ia the Fhilippinf^ to be in the aei^borhoud of 7iKU>iii\ mmriy 
tfaree timee as qmbt as Ken? foaod. llus profaafaly aecounbs ia aome 
Tnfiaimrr for the lai)g« eatiBHtes of the total popubtioa of tlw *'*TiTr'*iT. 
which has beea pot as hijrh &•< 10,000,000, of whkh ^,000.000 were 
mid to belong* to the wild tnbe.s. 

From the report;* of the !ta|>rrvi»ors already quoted, it is sp]Kfcr\*nt 
that the censns returns of the wild tribtvs differ ^n^<allr, some iH^inp 
nore acrunito and comjitetc than others^ depending on xhc plan fal- 
lowed in nuking the enumeialion. Ttkim u a whole, the Oitimatee* 
are probably wiihin 10 per rent of the true numlvr. It i-i quit*; cer- 
tain that the namber haii not been ovi?rut«t«d. Hut in the case of some 
tribes poesiblj it lias been undenrfated, jM) UmI the true uuiubor of 
wild people may be jomewbat larger ttian reprewnted. It U certain 
that a clo^ estimate of tho nuiulter of N<^ril09 and Igorots hw been 
made. The probable error iu the aumt>er of Morw ii* coiuidorable, 
bat that for the wild trit)c» of the interior of Mindanno, knowu kd 
SubanOB, Bagobos, MHaobu.s Mandavafr, etc.. and Uie Mangyuns of 
Mindoro is the ^reatoit. 

The moiit si^ificant fact co[ti-t>ming the wild peoplea istbe redutl- 
ficatioii tuid reduL-tion in Ibo number of trilwa nrndo by Doctor 
BarrowK, to which reforcuco luu« been made. As our investigationH 
proceed and we are brou^dit into cIomm- and more frequent contact 
wtiii tijeiu, thi» nnnibur will, no doul>t, \w Htill further reduced, 
altliough the local tribal nuiues and dialec-te will prulwlily continue 
long after all other othtiolo^iiiil diHtiintions hiiTo iHien rttiuovod. 

Of the other titatihticts coni-eniin^' thi>ni but liUlo nci,*d bo Miid. All 
the people follow ngricultuml purauiUi in noma form or other, an all 
plaiitand raiw* the eanioti-. This ve^tublefjmws in all the tslanrls and 
at all st'flBonH, one crop siUTfMKling miotlicr. This Icniti itself to Llie 
nomadic habits of the Negritos and ^^A^g3'anB, whoH« anntiid jourtieyii 
are so Brruogcd tJiat they can visit HuccesBJvely the canioto potcbos. 




Tliey tunially romain in each place until the crop is nearly exhausted^ 
when tht'v plant imd move to Another putt'li. 

Tbo haliiti*, cititomn, and pergonal charactoristics of the wild tribeaj 
are fully diwcrilicd under Popiilalion. They are in all stages ()f Irar-j 
harism, clinginjr tenmriously to ancient HUpeivtitions and cUKtoms, but 
.are gradually yielding* to the actir(% humane, and just intiuenu'^ of 
American occupation. Kven twme of tho Negrito8 tthow nigna of a 
more settled lifo. 

ITp to this time 447 townships have bc«n orpinizod, and among'J 
theoi are the Negrito* of the former comandancia of Infanta. Undei 
this simple politieal organization the wild tribeji receive their first lets-] 
ttons in local j-plf-govenmient, of which they had no pr-evious t-oncep- 
tioDr It 18 a most excellent plan for dealing w^ith them, and, together 
with the nlwlitiou of involuntary labor without compensation, hat) 
helped niateriftlly to improve their condition. But mauy years miut 
elap&e before they abandon their wild ways, more especially the 
Moros, as they can usually find a .saneliou for their conduct in their 
religion, to which they cling, theoretically, at least, with all tiio tenacity^ 
of wild fanatics. ■ 

It is probable that the margin of error in the number of eivilized > 
Filipinos, Chinese, and other forcigncrii does not exceed a fraction of 
1 per cent It wa^ feared that (|uitti a lat^ nwubcr would try to 
avoid the enumeration, for reasons alri^dy stated. But except in thaJ 
few instances befoit:! mentioned, there is no evidence of Much an inten-j 
lion. On the contrary. Beveral remote and obscure bamos or oitit 
which were not found in the original lists prepared by the supervisors, 
and which had iMX'n overlooked appcLitiutly. sent runners to notify 
the census officialD tliat they had nut heen enumerated. On accounu 
of the absence of wcll-defiiH'd iKiundaries Iwtween nmnicipalitics and 
barrios, some apprehension was felt aa to u diiplieiite enumerattun,^ 
but this was obviated by posting a printe<l notice of the enumeratioi 
on every house, boat, or other place oc<-upied as a dwelling, whlcl 
was not removed until the census was at an end. 

Owing to exaggerated official estimates, the number of Chinese, espe- 
cially in J^fanila, was supposed to It mucli larger than was found to 
bo the case, and consequently some doubt was expresned as to the, 
accuracy of the census count. There 18 little doubt, however, of 
correctness of the census lignres. 

Cftr1o« Pftlanca, a Christian Chinaman, the mo^tt prominent Chine 
merchant in the islands, and for forty-three years ft resident, in hi 
Ceatimony before the Schunnan C-omniission, -itated that he had twic< 
been appointed Chinese captain, or headman of the Chine-ie, and prioi 
to American occapntion was acting Chine«»e consul; and that he had 



),000 (^ineso under biiD, nrhicb includeil all in the Philtppinefl, of 
a3.0(W were in Manila at that time, June, 18&i>. As nvcry 
who arrived in or left the islands was registered by tho 
captain, ih&^ liffures were probably correct. From tho rec- 
1.« of thu i-ullector of the Philippine Inlands it was learned that from 
luary 1, ISaO. to June 30, 1903, lit,3i*i Chinese arrived in tho Philip- 
i«« And 40,334 depart^, makinjf a net gain of 9,012^ or a total of 
fct.'ilL'to be nci'ountcd for. I>edncting the numlwr that arrived in 
tirwt tive mouths of 180^ aud in tlio four months following the 
i. and tfao»ic who probably dird during the period in question, 
have approxiiuately i>,)X)0 Chinese, or ■tO,2i"iO ('hinese to be 
iDlod for. The c*nHua gave, for the Philippines, 41,tHJ0 Chinese, 
a .<«orpluu of about SiHt, which may be considered a close approxi- 
itioD in any censuH of the Chinese. 

By coiutalting the table of occupations it will be seen how few 

kioeoe are employed cither a>< farmers or farm laborers. They are 

! fly engaged as j^nwll storekeeiwjt* and as interoiediarie» between 

ktt fori'igii merchantii aud tho nativej^. Tliey will, however, enter 

into Ltiupctition with the uativett in any gainful occuimtion. 

Of other dtttu given iu the M^hedule^i of population coucemiug tho 

irUiicd or Christian people, the must iniportaul are the large num- 

engaged in agriculture as comp»re<l with all other oceuputions, the 

hrgc uumber of illiterate and uneducated people — greater than in 

jInu and about equal to tho number in Porto Uico^the small uum- 

rr uf coiLseiiHual marriages as oompai'cd with the number in cither 

ilm or Porto Rico, anil the general tendency of the Chri.stian peo- 

)le to iM^tAhlinh and own their homes, no matter how bumble. 

The pniftortion of dRrective.s -that i^, the insane, blind, deaf, and 

if and dumb — was materially larger than in tho United States. This 

oay represent projwrly tlie relative conditions in tho two oonntries, 

ir il may bo tliat a fuller euunteration was obtained in the Philippine 

fnann than has ever been obtained by the United States ceasuH. 

The rhanicteristies of the Christian FilipinoB, described in this 

ntlmue, were {ihtalnt^ fnun iwiitons who, on account of personal 

>ntact with tbeui, were thought com[irtent to express an opinion. 

great deal more might be written about them, but any opinion 

'whieh auy be formed regarding them, unless based on experience 

and clo^ ohservBlton, would prove of vcrj* little value. 

• -r- -trr ^)^^, great dniwlMu-hs to their progress are the superstitions 

em to permento tho entire race. It is needless to say that 

tut'v inlf-rfwre with iho diiily affiiii's of life and are the cause of much 

;innftT« -victy and *iiffering, and sometimes of serious crimes. 

rortiinu: ■ will disappear a^ the people become more mteUigent 



imd rational aod therefore less Inclined to believe in bogies of any 
kind. 

It may bo said that the Filipinos are (fenenUly subordinate to lawfnl 
authority, tliat, under competent officers, they make excellent t^Idiers, 
And will, in the course of time, it is believed, make good citizens. In 
fact, it h not too much to expect tbat^ under the iruidance of a free, 
ju»t, and ^Mieroiut ^overnmoDt. the establishment of more rapid and 
fmiuent means of conuuuaieatiou, whereby they can be brought into 
more frequent eontact with each other, and. w^ith the general spread of 
education, the tribal di»tinction.s which now cxi^t will gradimUy dis- 
appear and the Filipinot; will become a uumerous and homogeaeoms 
English speaking race, exceeding in inleUigeuce and capacity all other 
people uf the Tmpice. 

Schedule No. 2 coverti agriculture. As compared with the total 
area of the islandt* the amount of Uuid under cu)ti\-ation is ^uiall. but 
it Hbonid be remembered that the islaodt! of Mindoro, Faragua. and 
j^Iindanao. which are among the largest of IJio gTou|>, are verv little cul- 
tivated. Again, tlie methudt^ followed, including the implementB in nae, 
are moe>t crude, and t<umething better must be substituted before the 
yield will equal tlie production of intelligent American farmers. 
Kotation in the crops, irrigation, and the n.-?e of fertilizers are almost 
unknown, nature receiving but little aid from artificial meane. 

Amoog the changet* to be made will be. probably, the intrDdnction 
of the American mule and the ttubstiiutlon of American rattle for the 
Indian humped cattle. That i-altle ratsit^ may become ■ profitable 
imltt^try there U no question, as there are large arcikii of gruin|f 
land suitable for rattle nuwfaea, and bovaea, molea, and laUtle thrin ia 
tbe elimatc of the* Philippjnea. 

StBttstics show that the great a^axltorml wealth of the ootmtxj is 
in the ciiJdvatioo of sugar, hemp, tobacco, and colTee. Tohscro of fin* 
quality U raised in tbe pru\iDcet3 of Cagayin and Isabela, and when 
carefully handled and thonw^^ly cured makes e-xrelleat cigar» and dpi- 
rpttes. TTw porrrtT of the average lohacro grower, bowiprer, ooapeb 
him lodi9|naeof hU crop before it is ready fur u^c, aoi thi^, (of«A«r 
vith the enade nwCbod« ofaserrvd in handling it, faaa gmm to Manila 




I 



of tbo crudest kind. Tlji^ vahinblo crop and ibi fall development 
jliMrvly uwxii the influuncti of American invention Hnd cupilaJ. 

The third sciiedule ot tlie census wun applied tu oducatiOD and the 
fecfaoole. In thi! ftcouunta of education prepurcd by Mr. del Kosario 
Kod Mr. .IcrncgHii (Vol. Ill) Uits reotler will 6tiU all that is needed for 
« cutuplute underHtundiiig of the aystem of educaiion under the .Spon- 
ianU, and under the AmoricaoK up to tho date of this census. As 
in other Spaninh colonies education wns in charjfe of tho Spamsh 
Ouhotic Chunrh. The SfMinish Government made ample hfrnl pro- 
riaion for public scbooU, und the cj^tablLshcd curriculum of the pri- 
mary- schools was probably a(Upti>d to the condition of the children, 
ct very little attention appears to hjivc been paid to the requirements 
f tbo ncfaool lawH. This wa^ espccialU* true of the Spnni^ih lan^na^, 
hich was generally neglected, altboa^^h teaching; Spani>ih in all public 
«cbools wftH mandatory. How scriouis wns this neglect can 1>e realized 
ooly when wo consider that Spanish wus the language of the official 
dun mod the nolc one having un educationii] literature within the reach 
of tb« people. Therufore the tribes spcitking the different diaicctH 
bul practically no literature and no educational facilities. In short, 
litemcy in any of the dialects is not incompatible with total ignorance 
on all subjects derived from books. Hence, as shown by tho census, 
wtthbolditig instruction in Spanish from the FilipiuoA kept the groat 
tOBM of them in ignorance, as the number who bad received secondary 
baCructiun was but 1.6 per cent of tbo civili^ted population, and of tlio 
fmuUe population but seven-tenths of 1 percent bad received a second- 
ary cdmiLlion. Tliese wcr-e able to read, write, and speak Spani^th and 
irtjtpd wliat may bo called the educated cla^H. In addition there 
ere Filipinos who <-ould Kpitak S])anish without being able to read or 
write it; although very veil known before, thi^ fact wa>t brought out 
eouHpicuuusly by the census, especially in the selection of the 
uin^rmtors. 

How mncfa tbiH neglect of the Spanish laogaage may be attributed to 
gn and bow much to other causes is not definitely known, but not 
nnttl the return of the .fcHuits to Manila in 1H5!*, and the establishment 
Cbe Ateneo, in which Spunish was made tho language of the tH>hiK>l, 
any effort nuide to ti^ch it elsewhere. It Is noi improlable that the 
I amount of funds annually devoted to education by the insular 
emmejit may have bad something to do with the low condition of 
echool* and the neglect of Sijanish, Thus, for the year I89S-94, 
,596 pcsDA were allowed; for the year lstfD-96, 606,041 ; and for tho 
r 1SUW-9T, but 141, &06. 
The annual appropriation of the Philippine Commission for public 
lOii W in the neighborhood of 3,000,000 pesos, in addition to 



■ compi 



[fbons 



m. 



4» 



IKTRODCCXION. 



I 



the Hmoiint:^ puid by the provincea aad municipalities, which udd 
uiiuthor niilliun. Th<-re in nu quesliun that tho Anmrican i^ehool sys- 
tem is a HUct'BSH, althuugli L-onditiuns uro not a^ satitifactory a^ they « 
might Ite. The recordi^ show that from the rery beginniaK of Amcr- fl 
ican occupation great attootion has been piven to free primary educa- ^ 
tion, first by the miliiarj' and finally by tbo civil government, and 
that the prejudices against the syatcm which prevailed amonff the 
natives are (rradiially disappoanng. 

The fourth schi^ulr is for mortalit}' statistics, and is shown in 
Volume HI. In addition to the church registers of deaths and births 
kept in the different parishf^s. the gcnenil act paAsied by the Philippine 
Commisision for tiio orpmi/ation of municipal government made it the 
duty of the municipal secretarj' to keep a register of deaths and their 
causes, and it was from these registers that the information called for 
in this sche<lule was obtained by municipal presidente.^avtingns special 
agents of the Census. It is I>elieved that all the deathi? which occurred 
during 1902 were not recorded, owing to the prevalence of cholera.. 
It is uot improbable that thousands of deaths were not reported, as 
maay of tiie natives were so adverse to the sanitary measures adopted 
by the pi-ovincial Ixjards of health, and so suspicious of tbo remedies 
applied tliat they resorted to all kinds of devices to conceal the pres- 
ence of cholera in their homes, more especially when death ensued. 
These traits of character, combined with an inadoi]uatc supply of ster- 
ilized water and great scarcity of nutritious food in some secUoDS, 
made the cholera a terrible scourge and prolonged it far beyond ordi- 
nary limiti. 

While the civil regiitCer called for race, sex, age, birthplace, and 
cause of death, no record was made of the oceupotjon of the decedent. 
This omission in the records was supplied by the census officers. TTiiH 
defect in the registration of vital stacistics has since been rectified by 
the Philippine Commission. 

As will bo observed by an inspection of the uibles of mortality, the 
death rate dui-ing the year 1902, was abnormally high, owing to 
the prevalence of cholcni. But notwithstanding epidemics of cholera, 
bubonic jilagne, and smallpox, the prevalence of tulwrculmif*. mala- 
rial fever, dysentery, beri-bori, and leprosy, the Philippine Islands 
are not uuliealthful. Nevertheless, it is customary for every invalid 
who goes to iho islands and breaks down, or who has contracti-d 
disease there, to charge it to tlio climate, usually refusing to acknowl- 
edge that ho is in any sense to blame. It boa been proved that tbo 
discns<>s alnyidy niointioned, which have Iwen so deatnictive tn the past, 
with but cine exception— leprosy — yield in great measure lo preventive 
and curative means, even among a people grassly superstitious con- 



I 




oemiug tbo efficacy of medical treatmenl and violently opposed or 
ntterly iadiSereDt lo HBDiUry tueasurcs of any kind. Notbio;; that 
tuu tHrtiu duDe t>y tbo iostiiar goverDincnt dcsorvc^ inoro comuieudalion 
or rvflwtii more credit on the adniiniNiration than tlie measures takca 
arrettt and I^tllU>p out ctiolura, bulionin pla^uo, and 8i]iall)K>x, to pra- 
the spread of leprosy, and to tjuicb the natives liow lo ^mard 
itbe dread diaaiAt*, tuberculosis, dysentery, and iiialaria! fever. 
nly those aripjainted witli thr native chnracter and the iosimitary 
conditiotlt^ formerly prevailing,' t-vorj'wiier.^, jiiwl |)articttlarty in Manila, 
wo fully approf'iato what ha^ lHM3n done or that many yuin^ iiiustpasa 
before ft majority of tho native jxipulation will recognize ilie hcnofit 
of medical treatment and adopt sanitary rules. On the other hand, a 
largo part of the population bas already been benefitetl, and the expo- 
rienw- thns gained is sure to l>e influential. 
No better illuHtration of the salubrity and heaJtfafulneHH of the 
imato of the Philippine Islands could be given tlian tliat afforded by 
the health rf^jmrt of the Army, both in war and peace. This sbow» 
eotM'IiL-<tvely that., under the intelligent management of our medical 
fUS^ and the care bestowed on the soldiers by their regimental and 
,* officers, men who are in good henltb when they arrive in the 
es, and who observe the health rules laid down for their 

are on the whole a* nearly immune from disease as within 

e t«Titory of the Ignited States. The statistics of the Surgeon- 

cnenJ of the Army show that for the calendar year lnOiJ. the number 

Boldiera constantly sick in the United States was 5.33 per cent of the 

command, and in l(i0.1, 4.85 per cent; in the Philippines, for the same 

rioda. the percentage of constantly sick was (i.8a and 6.62, respec- 

vdy, an average difference of l.C(} per cent. 

lliat long exposure to the climate is encrvatiug, there can be no 

^^oubt, but the ellcct is easily avoided by periodical changes Lo a colder 

iimile. This has been couclusivel}' proven by the old Scotch. English, 

and otbor white resident's of the islands, who, after a residence of over 

r year*, broken by such removals, enjoy excellent health. For- 

rty it wtLH ueces8ar>' to take a sea voyage iu order to liiid relief, 

ul with the completion of the electric railroad to Bagui6, in the 

rorioco of Benguet, this will no longer )>c needful, as the climate at 

that altitude will ittTord tbo retjuisile change. 

A Rcrioos feature ia tiie mortality among tbo natives is tlic large 
InUb rate among young children, and this cam hardly be charged to 
e climate. Aa h* well known, a large iiroportioa of Filipino women 
e uimbti.t to uurtte their children. As a result, tJie children begin 
eat Mjlid fowl long U<fore tbey can digest it, and cholera infantum 
or ouDi'ubtioiu end their lives. It is not difficult to predict tho result 



■forty 



when babicA throe or four months of aj^ are f^von rice, and even 
banaDa^ and nmnj^oejt, un a re^iilur diet. A propaganda anion^ the 
ffomen, having for its object their in.struction in tlie care of infants, i» 
necessary, and it is undorittood baa )>ecti attempted, but an yet has not 
become general. 

In the arningement and grouping of cauaeB uf death the interna- 
tional claasification wfc» adopted. Capt. Charles Lynch of the Medical 
Department of the Army, and of distinguished sciTice in the Tropics, 
was selected by the Surgeon-General to act as advisor to the census 
olficials iu deciding on the death titles to be used in the classification 
of thoye diseases peculiar to and prevalent in the Phitippiues. 

The death rate during the year llKl'i was enormous. H'i.^ per thou- 
sand, which is about double the normal death I'atc of the archipelago. 
Thisexcess was due in the main to cholera. In the following year, 
whenthecholorabadtoalai'geexteutsubsided, the death rate was^7.2^ 
per thousand. ■ 

The fifth schedule waj^ pivpared for the collection of certain Hocial " 
Btatistics, which are fully tabulated and discussed in Volume IV. With j 
the exception of the figures in regard to the value of pi'operty, they H 
are probably a fair and reauonably a<^!curatR account of pawt and exist- " 
ing condttiouB iti the riiilippincfti. The asHCAsed value of itwl pru]>erty 
had not been determined at the date of the ceimus, and although stren- 1 
uoiis effortH were made taoblain thin data from the provincial treasurers, 
aa a check on the ligures of the cenHu.s it huti nut l>euu practicable to 
do so. The probabilities are that the ligures given are much below the 
true valuation of both real and persona) property, as thi-y usually are 
in other countries, and for reasons too well known to mention. As to ji 
the other datji, the conspicuous facts arc the entirealvseuce of hospitals H 
except in a few large cities, the existence of but twelve public libraries ~ 
with 4,019 volumes, the great preponderance of churches, the small j 
number of newspapers, and the comparatively small number of paupers fl 
and criminals. Labor and wages are burning questions, and a great " 
deal has been said aod written to demonstrate the lazy liabits of the 
Filipinos and the worthless character of their manual labor. These 
strictures usually l>egin and end with unfavorable conitMi'isons between 
Filipinos and Chinese, Americans, or other foreign populations. There 
arc two sides to this very interesting and important question, and 
through the efforts of Goveraor Tsft, the Philippine Coiiimissitm, and 
the Army, it has been made perfectly plain to unprejudiced persons 
that the Filipino has gi'eator intelligeDoe and capacity than h« has 
been given credit for. 

What the Filipinott need in order to demonstrate their oapncil^ as 
laborers b a fair opportunity under reasonable coudllions, not as 



INXRODUCriON. 



45 



Chinese or othor peoples, hut of each other, as is the rule 
*d StfttPv-^, whpro, if Chiiiiuiion wttrr permitto/i to enter 
onre-rtricteHlv \ntiO t'onipotition with Aine.ricnn labor, the value of 
wa^r« would soon redti(» the average American laborer to u stale of 
porerly. If Aiueri<'an Inhorfon not ronipptesiipcessfull}* with Chinese 
hor it fthoiild not (h> <^xppcto(i of Kilipino lalior, and the Filipino 
uM mii be judged by such a standard. The so-called averslou of 
* Filipino to lalxir is not (>eliovpd to Iw j*o entirely natural and 
tiuctiveiu* it i'* the result of causes to which very little reference 
usually inade. The habits of centuries, although artificially ac- 
may well In? tnislaken in any people for natural traits*. Thus, 
abuiie of the Filipinos throughout the first two hundred years of 
tr experience with the early colonists, Che assiduous and ceaseless 
ort« of their teachers to humble their pride, sti6e their ambition, 
i im\}T&is upon iheiu the superiority of (he dominant raee, and the 
er hopelessness of any kind of equality with them, have no doubt 
t in causing indillereuoe, Khiftlessnoss. and reckle-flsneus. 
incerniuf; insurance, hanking;;, telegraph litic:^ atid express 
are undoubtedly quite scuuratc, as they were compiled from the 
noord'^. The-se data show the need rather than the existence of these 
«erenl forniH of industry. While the currency question appears to 
bave been adjuste.d, and tlie three principal banks now in operation are 
t^anttMl OH safe fitiiuieial cor|>o ration 8, there in greAt need for Ameri- 
ma banks, organised under the laws of the L'nitcd States, with suffi- 
cieni capital to finanoe the governmental and commercial businetis of 
tJba ialaod^. That such enterpri^eM would be very protitahle to those 
eagaged in them, tlierc is little c|uestion, if the business experience of 
the foreign banks during the past six years van be relied on. 
As to roads and railroa<l8, they are conspicuous by their absence. 
appreeiatt.' their enormous importance it is unl}' necessary to con- 
r what they hure done For the United States, how very helpless 
e would be without them, and how soon we would revert to primitive 
ditions of life in all its aspects. From every point of view, civil 
and miUtoTT, they are of paramount importance— railroads probably 
IMin than roadtt. Aiuonj^ the lines which should be built as speedily 
pofisiblo is ono from Manila passing northeastward through the 
orincn* of Nueva iScija and Nueva Vizcaya, and through the valley 
"ef the Uio (Iraude du C'agayAn to Aparri. This would traverse from 
end to end Uie principal tobacco raising region in the archipelago, 
ud would serve for the collection of this valuable product and its 
tnui- ; ri rn Mnnlla. At pre^nt the only means of getting it is 

Uii^.. -it-t or raft* to A(Mrri, and thence by steamer to Manila — 
, flxpenttive, abd at some times of the year a dangerous route. 



Aooth«r route over which a rood should ho. consti*acted as »oon as 

rpcMtR)lilo 18 through the provhiccs of Cavito, La I^g-uoa. Tayabas, aud 

'Amlxxs Caniarines to Sorsogfiii. This would touch Lamon bay. oue of 

the beiit porta in the islands, landlocketl. affording t>helter in any 

wi^nthcr. and with a depth sufficient for tho largest vesseU to 

appi'oarh iJotHt to shore. With this line built^ the di»tAnec from 

Manila to the United States would bo shortened alraut 700 milea. 

But no great extension of the railroad system may he exported 

nnle8)4 thoBO who emttark in thiit enterprise are protected in some 

way against loss. The neoes-sity for railroads connecting the rich 

^'ligrieulCnral regions with the princi|ml sejiportA is strongly empha- 

by ti^l^ great lack of docks and wharves throughout the inlands. 

But few ports hare docks at which an interialaod steamer cmn 

unload, and consequently every pound of freight and all passengers 

must be landed in small boats. One of the great drawbacks to the 

commerce of the Philippinea has been the lack of dm^k facilities in 

itho harbor of Manila for ocean going ships. As a result^ all vessels 

Fexceeding Ifi feet draft, mu^t be lightered while lying at anchor some 

distance from the wharves and at considerable expense, more espei'ially 

during the prcviilenco of the mmy season, when frequent typhoons 

interrupt the work of loading and unloading. This great obstacle 

to commerce will soon disappear, however, through the foresight of 

the Philippine ('omniiH.sion in making ample appropriations for the 

improvement of the l*iSsig river and the constnicrion of an artificial 

harbor south of and adjoining the entrance to the river, with wharves 

|Oapablo of receiving and dist^harging at all seasons the lar^^est seagoing 

'Tt^ascls. 

These Improvements, wltich are to be completed by June 80, 1906, 
at A cost of about $1,000,000. will make ^faniln one of the great ports 
of the Orient. Direct trade with the United Stute.^ will then bo the 
nde^ and not, as in the past, tlic exception. Manihi will become a 
great mercantile depot and point of dinlribution of American and 
foreign merchandise of all kinds, destined for either the liiilippinc^, 
China, or other |K)ints, The development of tlie abundant coal 
de[wthitM in the Philippines, with the harbor iraprovement.s above 
referred Ui, will make Manila the chief eonling |M)rt in the Kast, sur- 
IHiHititig Nagnaaki in tbia re^^XH-t, for the coal is of a quality equal to 
tlutor.Iapnn* and the coaling facilities of Manila will be much superior 
to tbow of tlie Jatmnese city. The ciinimerciul iiuporlance of ManiU 
will bt»Mniie still muni a[t|]Hrent vThcn the Panama canal is complotodf 
■nd a conHidemhle extension of tlio impnivenieni.<4 now in progrew* will 
then, na doubi, be neeeusiiry in oi-der to m^et the demands of trade, 
which by that tiiue M'ill hftro been vastly increased. Thou, Lf uot b»* 



INTKODUCUON. 



47 




)re, will be fulfilled the prediction that the Philippioedaretobeaf^reat 
for Am(!ritiin products. Ajfrtculture. the domestic arte, und 
ler tndit)<tt-ial put':iruits nre »till in tbeir infAucy, ftnd their devel- 
leDt in hantioa^ with the best modem metliods, uiateriHls and 
faaoisms ie lar^fely a question of eduoiting tbe Filipino to appre- 
their practical value by suitable object lessons, rimI of providing 
Itir capital necessary for that pui-poee. 

The sixth .>icbodule [lertainN tu the products of industry or manu- 
hctures, (he vuluu ^f which during the year ltK)2 watt at hast 1,000 
pBos for each factory. Thii«, of course, left out of the Kchedute the 
pTfal majority of houitehold or family iudui^tries, and was si) designed, 
u the uvailabht data concerning them were too uni'eliabic and jniper- 
Ifct for general tabulation. They are, however, briefly considered in 
the text. The facts collected have been carefully e.\amined and tabu- 
Uled, aod. wliile ovring tu the imperfect bu.siiiess record-i kept by the 
nge manufacturer^when any were kept at all —it has not lieeii 
ihip to present in detail all the information called for in the 
hfdulef enough has l>een given lo show the limited extent of uianu- 
rex, and what a good opportunity exiata for investments in the 
iuu-H indu^tricH of the islands. By referring to the tables and thoii- 
uialysiH, it will he found that the value of manufactured tuhaccu far 
noeedwi any other industrial product; that liquors and other l>ever- 
tf(f4 came next, and that the two combined made 38.5 per cent of the 
iiliii.' (i( all maunfnctun'd prwlucta. 
It should not bo inferred from this that the Filipinos use these articles 
excess, or that intemperance pre vails, for while II early theeiitircpopu* 
aa« liijuur and tobacco in some form, they do iso in gt'eatmodera- 
m. That the state of marmfactures in the Philippines is what it is 
lid occasion no surprise when we renew the colonial .system of 
emment wliich generally prevailed for so many centuries — under 
iich thy political and economic interests of colonies were always 
hiirdinHU^I to those of the home country. Under this system the 
lUpinoH received but tittle cnconmgcment to engage in industrial pur- 
itA, and manufactui'es wore not developed. 

From the subject matter of this report it will be very apparent to 

rrader that the great need of (he Philippines is moi-al, material, 

iad industrial improvement, rather than political ada'ancemcnt, for 

liirh they ai-e not ns yet prepared; and while this is apparent to any 

c»t and inielligcul irivej-tigalor of Philippine conditions, efforta 

ire bficti made from time to time to create a very different impression. 

ill- ; Mtlon of tho census iind the pix'pjiration of the report, wo 

Te - iic fact>< by all availahte means, and if the results »hal1 lie 

Mtruineotiil in ftettling ibeso questions beyond reasonable doubt-. 




48 



INTRODIICTION. 



thus teriniaating false reports and hiirtful ag-itatioD. and makiog plain 
the duty of tlie Cvov^^rnment. as well as of all potriotic Amcricaos 
toward tbe Filipinos, it will have achieved a lasting and beueticial 
purpose. 

In l»ebalf of ray injUcagues and of myself, I desire, to express ouTi 
ackoowlcdgment-s and thunkK to the t^mall amiy of Filipinos and others] 
who prosecuted the work in thL- I'hilippities; to the Civil Govomor 
of the Philippines and the I'Uilippino Commission, and the scrcral 
departments and burejius of the insular government; to the Com- 
manding (reneral of the Army and the Admiral of the Navy in the 
Philippines; to the Bureau of Insuhir Affairs of the War Depart- 
ment; and to the United States Census Bureau, for tbe cordial and 
timely n^^istanec rendered us in the discharge of our duties. 

J. P. Sang EH, 

Maj. Geu., U. S. A., Uetlred, 

J^iractor, 



GEOGRAPHY. 



K 



I. PHYSICAL FORMATION. 

■nd CWaclcnstics of die Archipdogo^Harbors — Area — Mountaira 
and Riven — Fauna and FJora^FoTeaU — Mineral Rejouircea. 

The PtiUippine Xslaadi!! form a part of the gii^ut archipelago known 
tfaeRa«t ludic:^. They lie soutbeastof the coDtiiient of Asia, nearly 
wiillinf thcJH|jaueaeIshinds.aiKl north of Borneo mid C^^JebeH; bi'tw*wn 
l5w oipridians of IW-^ 40' and 126 34' ea«t longitude, and betwrwii the 
ptnlWlA of 4^ 44/ and Sl"^ ]0' DorUt latitude, that is, entirely wiUtio 
,tl"! Tropic.1. The iKiundnries and the limits of the group arcinet (orth 
"(hv jMiragniph com-erning liiuita in the Treaty of Paris betwocii the 
L'ttllod StatflB and Spain, of Deceinlx»r l(t, 1898: 

^tru-Lt HI. — S|iftin rM<^ to Ui«> United Btat£.^ the arcbipelngo known m the 

'1iUip[>ttuT laland*, mkI >^(npnpliendiitg Ibv ialunda lying wilbin the foDoninit line: 

1 lint' rtmnine fr<jin wiwt to eort aloRK or near the twentioib parallol ol north 

labtudq, anil ihrtiugli tbu midillv u( iho navigable cbannvl ul Uadii. Iroiii the one 

lUdfnl awl (•i^liteenLh (USth) to tjie one hamlnnl and twenly-sevenlli (12Tth) 

,*^n« tavriiiUn of longitude caatol Grccnu-itli; thence along tbc one hundred nnd 

venty-Mivvatli {lS7th)tlt^reeni(!ridtanof IonKitude<>aKtoEOr««nwirh toth«[Mrall«l 

- and [ctrty-fiv<; uiinut«8 (4* 4V) north latitude: thence along the 

"trrpMiand {orty-flve toinatee (•f 45') north laliltido'to its inien^tx- 

-■Mi if longitude im- hundred and nineteen degww and tliirty- 

^"1-- ) i-a.'rtof (irct-nwifh; I hence nlong the meridian of longitude one 

noodftvl umi nineteen di^<x:t< and thirly-Gvu luinuteti (119° 35') east oE (ireetiwic-h 

to Ihc {Aralk-I ni UUluJe wveu tl«f[rv^ and fiirty niinutM (7° -KK) uortli; thence 

I'Alt llu' {wnillnl of latilndeof seven degrees and forty minutefl (7° 4(K) north to 

iRCfirpnctir>n with the one hundred and sixteenth (ll6th)degreeiDer1diaD of lon^- 

titrivrwtff t.jr»'tuttlch; thence by a dirert line to the intereeclion of Ihu tenth (lOth) 

'^Vna- israllrlof nnrth lutilndt-wilh theonehnndrrd nnd pighteenth (llRth) dryree 

■iMitliaD of Innjfitudu t«st ol Gte«^nn'icli; and thence niong the one bundriNl and 

el|tit*«»tti [lIKrh ) dtigrve moridian of loitgitode wtt of tireenwlcb to tbo pwnt -ot 

la Jidditjon to the Undn nixive doHniit<^d, the United States Hubse- 
f|tieatlr aojaircd frnm Spain Iho little group of islands known as ('aga- 
jran Sola, and nio«i othor ^nnill islandnt. lying off the noitb t'otmi of 

BOCUHL 

(49) 



50 



GEOGUAPIIY. 



The Philippine Ishiiiils are Btna-turally cdtioeiTto/i with Borneo 
U(?lelji'8 liy three isthmiist's, whicih arb partly auhiufrjfed. The west 
Qrniiiost of thuse connects through Mindoro, tho CalatiiiiLDeH, and Fm 
gua ivitJi the northern point uf Bonieo. The jKis-siigi-y liotwren the' 
Huuthern jHiinl of rnmgtiii and Borneo are i^hallow and much inter- 
tfperved with islandji — the largest of wliieh is BalittjBL — and by many 
eorai reefs. The .second of these isthmtises connects with the north- 
eastern point of Borneo and i^ continued throiij^^h the Tawi Tawi, 
Siassi, Jol6, and Bastlau groups to the southwe^ point of Mindanao, 
at Ziim1>oaDga; thence it follows* the peninsula of Zunihoanga and is 
continued through the Viaayan Islands to central Luzon. Between 
tb««ie two oonncctionH lies the 8ulu sea with a maximum depth exceed- 
ing 3,000 fathoms. The thiixl and ea.-ilernmost of tliese isthmu-scs con- 
nectii the northeastern jioint of the iri-eguhir island of Celebes through 
the Sanguil archipelago to the southeastern point of Mindanao; thence 
ib* course may !«) trrtced northward in n great curve through the eiist- 
orntnost ranges of Mindanao to Leyte and Siimar, and through .south- 
eoatern Luz6n. This incloses Celebes ^ea, which \» much deeper than 
the Sulu !»ea. 

Thecie threo lines of elevation converge in central Lux6u, and these 
combined appear to forot the mountain system in the northern part of 
that i<<lnnd. 

ThuH tho»e two sees, the Suluund C^lebeSf are nearly ineloiMd, thcii 
connecttomt with the Pncr6e and with the China tsem being everj 
where shallow, it resiulti tlmt their waters ai'e, as a rule, mu<!l 
wanner than thoso of the adjacent oceans, ^iuce warm surface wate^ 
only can flon through the passages connecting them. 

Considering the Philippine archipelago by it«olf it maj- l»e regiirdec 
as having the form of a triangle, open tit the base and wiUi its niosf 
wuto angle pointing northward, tlus being represented by uorLher 
h\if.6n and the Itiitdn and Bubuydn inlands. The western leg of thj 
triangle is representeii l>y I'aragua and dei>ondent islands, and th^ 
Rastoni one by tlie Visayau islands and Muidanao, with the Sulu .sf 
lying between thcin. ■-' 

These i.-^huid.-^, luid the mountain ranges upon them, have in genen 
R trend which may be roughly deseril>ed as northward and southw^an 
allhoiigh i-erliiiii of tlieni, such as tlmt forming the huekbune of Pitni 
gua, trend nearly northeast and southwest, while others trend to th 
weat of north and ejut of south. Th^! trend of these ranges seonis 
indicate the diivclion of the forces which produced tlie folds iinj 
faults whirh brought thine landr* alnive the sen. This h appsrentll 
the only iuilicnlian of syntem in the arohipniago, and it may be merclj 
fortuitous. 
, The oooRt line of the arcliipelagD facing the I'acific is oontined almt 



BITUAJIOK AND CHARACTERISTICS. 



51 




50 GEOGRAPHY. 



SITUATION AND CHARACTERISTICS. 51 

tiretr to the ialaDcts of Luz^ti. Sdniar, and Miodaoao, and the west 

t U) Luzon and l^mgua. Witbiu thedeare included mo$t of the 

inyuu Ltlaiids, besides many hundreds of lettHer importaDce. Tho 

coot co(b»t is comparatively siniple. It is subjected during most of the 

JBrnr to the coutinuuutt forc-e of the trade xvind» and a heavy precipJta- 

^Koa. Moreover, it takes the full force of the equatorial current. 

^Bliirt [XNtst L-untain^ very few harbors, and Its indentations of any sort 

^■n; .flight ha conipured willi other fiart-s of the archipelago. 

H The outlines, mountains, principal rivet's and harlmrs, active vol- 

onoea, provinces and Uiuir eapitalis of the archipelago arc repre- 

sealiHi upon the map in thitt volimie as accurately and fully as it 

i*po»^ihlc Lo depii-t them upon the scale and with the information 

eiUuiU Although Spain bad jurisdiction over these islands for more 

Iban tlirco centuries, little to|>ographie information hnd been acquired 

ngarding tbcm, except snch as was of a very pioeral ebaractcr. 

the cuoHtA were badly mapped, and in many places are now known to 

born miles out of position. The coast charts, made from Spanish 

ivK, art' so inao-'ui-atc aa to be, on tho whole, worse than usclesH 

tOnisrinera, while of the interior of the larger islands little wax known 

t what (X)uld l»e .neen fi-om the .sea. Many maps of the nrchipel- 

have been published, embodying tho knowledge which had been 

ttquired, both during the days of Spuni.'jh juri.sdiction and in more 

Wifiit timi'-s but they ai-e all very niueh of the .same eharaeter. 

I Since Ainerienn c>ccu|]ation much e^cploratton and .surveying have 
l<ifl done. Wherever military operation*) have extended, surveys 
■iTt ittptx made and maps jirepnred. In this way there have Iteen 
pMiK-cd niap^ covering a large part of Luzfin, including the entire 
"•ntnil portion of that i.-^lnnd. Map^ have been mode of several of 
WVUaynn Isl:inds. The oporationi* against the Maliinao Moros have 
Aihed in a map of Ijike Limao and its surroundings in Mindanao. 
T* liliiiid of Joh'i has been niap)>ed. 
The great work of charting the coa-sts and harhorsi of the Philip- 
Tmwwiis cnnunenced three years ago by the I'niled States Coast and 
'*dellc Sun'cy, working in cooperation with tho Philippine govoni- 
""•nt, and progrew is being made in the preparation of accurate and 
'"irtvorthy chartn of lhe?ic tlangeroua coasts. It is of the utmost 
'l>|iDilauce liint survey* Ih; pushed as mpidly as possible, those of 
t-. for tlie protection of commerce, those of Uie interior as an 
1 '■ :.;ut aid in tho material development of the islands. 
Hie entire archipelago is mountainous or hilly. In the Islands of 
'■My' -ty^^ (ind Mindanao are broad plains and level valleys, but 

"•^.i !j' n» ia couiiMiratively littJ*? level land. Tropic vegetation 

''JUentL) high up on tho i<lDpea and covers the leveer mountains and ' 
"ilU, Tbua the ruggedncss of a mountain region lif softened into 



roundMi outlinRs. The mounUuD scenery ia cvorywhnr-e beautiful, but 
rarely aptM>iiIs to the eye with the clcrneDt of jjrandeur. 

The ftr4liij->cliigo is, for Um most part, of volcanic orijfin. It con- 1 
taiiLs twelve volraiiocu which have been in eruption within historic I 
times, and scores which arn extinct or quiescent. Most of the surface 
of the islands is floorcxl with volcanic rocks and ash. In northern i 
Jm7.6n there arc, boirever, large areas underlain by mctamorphi>^ fl 
i"ocks, granites, schisf*, and the like; and sevend i-slands. notably CVbCi 
and Hohrd, are covered with a veneer of coral limestone. The occur- 
rence of these coral limestones of very recent deposition, at rariousi 
places in the archipelago and at great altitudes, as in Benguet prov- 
ince at a height alwvo son of 5,000 feet, shows that great oscillationa 
of level have oceurrcd at times geologically very recent. Of tbw^ 
OMc^illationa there are other aliundant evidences in the existence of 
lakei:' and marfthes, waterfalls, and elevated beach lines, xhowing that 
the whole archipelago is in a condition of unrest. 

The coast* of the archipelago are for the moat part intricate— how 
intricate may Ikj realized from the atuteinent that these isUnds, with 
an Bi'ea of about 115,000 square miles, have a coast line more than ■ 
double the length of that of the lunin body of the U^i^?d States. They " 
are in part the result of vulcanic action, and in part the work of coral j 
animaU. Vulcanlsm has brought up the laud from ^reat depths iufl 
the form of tboutsands of large and small iiflands, fringed M-ilh <oral ^ 
reef», some of which have been brought to thd surface, while otbera 
lie immediately below it. 

HARBORS. 

With such a broken coast, harbors of one sort or another are 
ntimerouN. Most of lhe.m are of sufficient depth to admit large vbh- Ji 
hoIh, but are eo difficult and dangerous of entrance, owing to the rooftiH 
which obstruct them and to the absence of lights, channel buoys, range ~ 
stakes, and accurate cliurts, as to bo of little value except to those who 
know them welt. Owing to the alternating character of the winda 
which prevail throughout most of the archipelago, the northeast trade 
wind from October to Juni! and the southwest wind during the rc»t of 
the year, many if not moet of the barbor» furnish shelter during onl3' 
a |Kirt of the year. 

The following table, (ximpilod from the latcat reporta of the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, from Spanish sourceu, and from the aailtn^J 
directions of the United Slates Niivy, contains a list of the principal 
har)K>rs classified according to llieir character and the kind of ^*estMtU 
tbcy will protect in all weather and at different scosomt. 




Bokol 

BocA*.. 

BortM.. 



BOMMtltK 

(^•ivAd SoIu . 
Outuuraui.... 

Oebil , 

OuIUn 



dan 

DInAcat.. 

Jolft 

L«TIe 



LwtAai 



tUataflRulv 

ItorlnilwiDP 

Mutttte 



UtMlaro. 

Htm... 



PalM7 

[«»«■» 






SuStABB^kA.. 

Stenao 

aiam , .. 

Saslir ■■:::: 



TBttl^ M 



Olaoddmnftwr 
TnniMUU. 



Bow Ennto (MMit), 
Pott BttAn. 



l\>n ARttlrru , 

CeM 

BMltj liwbur. PoK Co- 

IMD. 



FonoaliA. 



Dft]rjiB|ilc bnrlmr . 
TMWban 



t«y. SMI MlcB«3 t«r. 
tonoc&n. Silmc. 



Fori ConrcpclftiKutAlll. 



ElanUCm* 

CaialAui. MutMW or 
I^UiMC (mail). Pen 

, Buttim. 

tg»i. fs>lioc hMbor. PMt 
B«il]^. port LetMC. Pwl 
MlMinu. Pnrt NiMlpIt 
rilul4ui Imj). Port 
BuatMUaBan (tunalll. 
l>B]ftil>UT. Suite Ma- 
ria (■aall). ToBalong 



Muwartn b*T, Ponio 

Oakra (souJl). 
BotfllnaAn, C»Kap Oort. 



Ilotlo 

Jfalanpara baf. Port 
Barton, Pnerto Prtiw 
msm. tOtiflan bay. 



RMubWo. 

BomAon, Panbujan 
bay. I-<in Llb4i. 



Pun TitniAMo . 



Boiftu) iamall), Doa 



Muataay. 

CtarrmloH bay. Pari 
CItco. 



Port SIborita. 
Port lltuali«&. 



Port Bagol. or Oiniico. 



Maudvl. fori BlcoUan, 
Pon nolliMO. Port 
MauihiliHo. Pi>rt Ha- 
rtoabUi. l\.rt P otf> 

Buaf!*^A"eiij'a. Klo 
OranA« Ae (.^ofAii, 
al Aparrl. e^a VI- 



l>on UanacaUn. 



Afltinit tivtr. Martofla- 
tuIiljE, ll<itvl«acM 
bay. Port InamDeAn, 
PO(tTaca«ullouK. 



Sail Pvmando. &'l-1 
ran bay. 



Pnn «»%><*>• 



Vandrtabay 



Danaarlrrr. t^nuUi Bal* 
hay. 

HirtBatAn , 

Malanut tav *• »• 



ParaMt) harbor. 
BoUc laUnil, Part PaU- 



TonBOtV. 



BmsII bay . 



U 



PartPU*r<«ttBnr. 



8an JardDto (nnall) 



^ 



harlora awi andwrttgtt. 



BAM Mm^-«onUp avL 



mmuOaa —Co Dtinb^ , 



oood In uflrthCMi muitfonu. 



Far v(«*h-1b -drawing Mt 



I AlnlnTui tar. Mfttnog 
b>r, Flirt UimalkTi' 
•U, Pon Bflbltl, Bui 
EKclMit. 



'^IlUlDIU^. 



For ve9«elti dimirrlng lA 
leei uid over. 



Port Sui PIo Qnlniu. 



Po It CaniMoo . Ptwl Cui- 



Kill b«if . 



DapJtBn buv, ftjiBba- 



bur 

r, Bit 



ton bar, mbuco iMf . 



Pal Had taf. 



S»n AnfajRio bn; . 



OultlBll 



1*011 San Miguel, 3a.n 
J&doU)<niiatll- 



For v»«ie1ii ilrnvrtne "i 
feet i.Dd undor. 



Hmiilii bay . 



Dlrlque, Sua &MMO. 



Ancfaon 



DaloiULii baj-. 

Kftluw bnr- 
T»g1ill»nin. 



PortP*^ 



L I 



Ouyo. 



Bftli 
Ldgn 



P-an Muinglty! . 



d Nun ba;*^ ^ 



KanlaJiEi'lS- 
UaAn Bad. 



C« Ii le mtiay , Cttii «l a- 
ean ct>vi.' Cal«rm^ 
bay, CAiitt bay, Di- 
TaoEUll.DiiioAiiqn]- 
1m Day, Lsvliriin 
{Ddviio Bulls, AlaJl- 
pano (Dflvao gull), 
Oro'iult'W, Ptiit Jl- 
an^n-pE, QutnaUag, 
TfifUA) river. Tlgu- 
miL Find DapuJisiui 
BDCboracei, Zaiubo- 
anga. 

Bftc&lod. 
CApli. 

ClUBCl-BIL b&T, 



Bftcod (Dolorcn), C^I- 
Cbongm BQ change. 



LAmc'DnM, 
Port Ckdorji. 



From this table it appears that all the principal islands and g^oiips 
of islands have harbors for the largest vessels in all kinds of weather 
at all seasons, except the island of Bohol, which has no hnrbtirs, and 
that there are many harbora which arc safe only according to tlw sea- 
son of the year. The prevalence of the trade winds, or monsoons ra 
they are popularly called, and the frequency, character, and path of 
the typhoons, or hiujuios, are fully described in the special report wliiofl 
follows this gec^aphical sketch of the islands, and which wa« oon^ 
suited in the preparation of this table. 

The doajioating' feature of the currents in the islands is the g^reat 
Equatorial current, which, sweepiug across the Pacific from cast to 
west in a broad belt, divides east of these islands. The norlliurn por- 
tion, which farther north is known as the Japan current, sends numcr- 
ous streams through the passages among tlio islands, thus forming a 
complic-ated system of currents almost impossible of description, 
The system is still further complicated by surface drifts, set iu motion 
by the southwest wind in the summer and fall, making currents in 
various directioni^ among the islands at different times of the year. 

lides in the archipelago are exceedingly irregular, differing greatly 
ID different places, owing to the directiotisii in which tidal waves move, 
and ditfering also greatly at different time-s of the month. For details 
regarding them reference should be made to the sailing uircctiuna 
prepared by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

There are few large rivers in the Philippine Islands, the L'agayfin 
of northern Luz^u, the Rio Grande de Mindanao and tiie Agusan of 
Mindanao, being the only three which can l>e classed as large streams. 
These, which are in appiMxinialely the same class, have a length exceed- 
ing 200 miles, and owing to the abundance of pre<^'ipitation carry targe 
volumes of water even during the low stage. The Faiupangn river of 
central Luzon is nearly as large, and this is followed in nmgniltide 
by the Agno of central Luz6o and the Abra in the northern part of 
the same island. Probably there are no other streams in ttie islands 
which exceed 100 miles in length. n 

AREA. ^ 

Mr. 0. R. Putnam, in charge of the United Stat«a Coast and Gi 
detic Survey in the Philippine Islands, at the Instance uf the Dii 
of the Census, made a count and niea><un>nu>nt of all the i.'^laiid.s ai 
laleta comprised in this archipelago, including everything, liowevi 
small, which at high tide appeared a^ a separate island. The lot 
nwnber thii8 enumerated by him was 3,1-41, of which 1.661$ were list 
by luunc, while 1,4^73 are, so far as known, without nnmes, the 
being shown In the tables which follow this article. 

It is not to be undcrsliMxl lliat this table contains all die isIand-CKT ' 
altliough the number found is nearly twice as great as herctufoi 



ituioi^^ 



AREA. 



57 



known, it in certain tliHt as more accurate cbsrUi of the afchippUgo 
Mre made, the ntimhcr will he increaMod. TIk* nuiutier i^ .liniplv Lliat 
shown at present by the best and moat detailed rbarts whiuh hare been 
produced. 

From the tables the foUowiuf;' j^neml fact^ are obtained. Tbe 
total area of tbe islands is 116,0:10 8(itiaru mUe^. It must, however, 
be uuderstood that thU ai'«a, while carefully measured on the be^t 
cbarta obtainable, is subject to (.-onsiderubic correction. Most of these 
cbarta are ue<.-es8arily inaccurate, and it is ijuite probable that when 
the coasts of the islands have been mapped with accuracy, the area of 
the entire j^Toup and of most of the islaud» will be chaugvd uiuterially. 

There are y islands with areas exceeding 10,000 square miles each, 
muouly, Luz6n with 40,tf69, and Mindanao with 30,292. There are 9 
ialandti, each of which has an area of more than 1,000 gquare mites 
and lesH than 10,000. There are 20 between 100 and 1,000 square 
miles^ 73 Imtn&ea 10 and 100 square miles, and 262 between 1 and 10 
»juare miles. The remaining numlicr, 2,775, or seven-eig'bthH of all, 
bare ti.Tv&s lens than a square mile each. 

At the date of the census, March S, 1903, the islands were divided 
into 40 civil provinces, the city of Alaiiila, iind i) militurf districts. 
Thirty-eight of the civil provinces were divided into uiunicipuUties, or 
mnoicipaUtiet! and townships, and two provinces, Benguetand Lefianto- 
Bontoc, into town.sbipa alone, the township bein^f a simple form of 
municipal government adapted to such of the non-Christian or wild 
tribes in the several pro^nncea as were not sufficiently advanced for 
the mnnicipality. The municipalities and township** wore divided into 
barrios, each barrio conswting of a small settlement with outlying ter- 
ritory. There was another municipal subdivision in the Philippine 
lidand:* which, while it had no legal existence, was locally recognized 
and known to the p^^ople an a siiio. This may be described as a aixxoM 
iKttlement forming part of a barrio, although oiany aitios were Mid 
to be isolated, and not part of a barrio. Sometimes a sitio was rep- 
rcauuted by a single hacienda, and agaiu by several. From thijs fact 
it happened that in some provinces all the municipalities were reported 
by the supenisors of tbe census as divided into barrios, others into 
silios only, and otiiers into barrios and sitioy and even caaerios (ham- 
lets). In other words, the municipal divisions created by the municipal 
code had not, at the date of the census, adapted themselves to the 
ideoA of the people, who in some parts of the archipelago still retain 
their ancient municipal designation. 

The following ia a list of provinces and military districts with 
their area.^ and capitals, and here should be interpolated a word of 
caution to tbe reader. The areaa given are tiiose of provinces, which 
in no caisQ are the same as islands, although they may l>ear the same 
name, since the province contains, besides tliu main island, other 



68 



GEOGBAPHY, 



Htuttller OMsociuted islaud.'t. Thti», the Ulaud of SAmar, bun an uren of 
d,<>31 squart' mites, while the proviacv of Siutmr, whicb contHiD.t not 
only Oiin but other ihlanth^, hu» an aitiii of 5,J76 square miles, ur 
ttquire miliis more than the islaad of Sdmar, 

Protmnai antt mitilarf/ flUtrniM teith aruu and ra/Mtttb. 



noTtMot OK tauTisr DHraicr. 



Abnt 

A»*j 

AmbM Cuurtoea 

AnttaiM , 

BuUftD (mllltuydlvDlct) 

BaUAa 

BkUagu „ 

Bengavt 

Bobol 

BuUcAn 

Ca<«rto 

CApl* 

CarIM 

Ce*i<l ^ ... 

Co4UlMto(nillll»nrdIxlrtcl) 

DapltHn (ullluiry ilirtrk't) 

Mvno (mlllurT dliuict) 

DocoiKotU 

UOMMBur 

nollo 

iMbcU 

J«)6(iumcar;dMrl«t} 

LAlArniM. 

L« Pnl4n 

UfMntoBoDtoo. _ 

I#ri« 

ManlUt'itr 

M«nuiluqu« (mbpiwtnec ol TnyKbu) . 

lUilMle 

MIodoro 

Mtemi* 

KoBTwocddamd..... ....■., 

fierru prtenU 

MMntEdJa ...„ 

Nu«r«VlK«7K...„ 

nuipaan 

nmsBrinAa ... 

PftMcn 

PKncuaffurfinnibiTfdInrlct) :.... 

Rcml>16n ----.----■ 

BtatU 

4Um1 (iBDItarrdlMriol) 

HonoffAB 

Huri^n 

T*rW 

T«wlTawt (mlUuirr <ll«trlct) 

TMfttNU .*. 

Vf H'y 

Ztmboangi (raUUUT dMilOt) 



Totol. 



CBtilML 



Buigued 

AliMJ 

Nuei** Ctuerea 

flAn Jo«f dc BuotiAvbik. 

)nt>eU 

B*Ui%« 

Btuaiu 

BvutS 

TaKbUuwL 

Hftloloi 

capiaT. 

cKiw — 

OeW _ 

CMUbttto 

Dapiten 

IMv»o 

■■MM* - 

Vlmn 

nShi 

Uann 

JM 

BaalaCnia 

Saa F«rtwii4o 

Oarruihtt 

Toclobao...., 

HMlHle 

PuvrtoOKlora 

OuATAn _ 

BMOlod , 

DuDMguettt 

atnlfldio 

Bajombonc 

BMolar 

Uugkytti 

Ouro 

PnvnaPrlnemk.. ...... 

FldK 

RambUn 

OUbKlogMl 

mmmi 

BonDfAn 

Buiwia 

TtsSb. V 

Bodkao , 

UlBCIU 

Iba 

Zuatwanck- 






l\ 




iui,aM 



The ortjifiDal SjunUb eommuDitins of the Philippincw conmstort of ihv 
pretntlio, or intlitary (|uurters, the/ntuM/i^ or town, iiml the mission for 
the convorfeion of the nativcH. Tho ground Kplortpd fnr the |iuel>l 
WA8 laid unt in the form of a sqiiart; or roctanglr, noar thr rant 
point of whicb was piacod the plma^ or public square; then foUowe 
Iho streets dividing Iho ]»H'bIo int« bloclta. Thi' public buildings, tho 
fburcb, and adjoining etmvrntn^ or ri'sidencc of tho friar?, and th' 
dwellings of thn officials weru orwctod arotind the pliiza, facing It. 



for 
bM 



Od tbu plan nearly hH the pucMoi* — now iiiunk-ipalilies^-of the 

Tliilipinm'H ncre arningnjd. In most of tW provinc-e* the ong-iniiL 

pui-HIo lieouiK.' Oic* cupihd, and. with some exceptuMi^, tins ^o remained. 

Bx rvlcrring to the outline timp of the iimuieipality of Lingay^n, 

in tbo introduclion to this rupoil, eiouie idea of the iri'of^rapbic nr- 

ingi'ntent of a niunk-ipality can be foruied. It uousi^tft of a coltec- 

ioD of Imrrio^. one of whi(.-h is the seat of the tribunal^ or municipal 

ivornnieiit, and<?orret<pondsinarea toa township in the United Stalest, 

.the barrio!>, to kluuU villages. The niunieipalities are all named, 

the tiarrioii, hut in referring to a muDidptilily in urdinaiT vnn- 

^et^ation, the seat of government is understood to be meant. Some of 

besenn^of such size a!< to hecalludvitiiM^, likellono.t^hu. Vigan, I^oag, 

-ocpiifl. Uataiigas, etc., but there is but one chartered city, Manila, in 

the iitlaiida. A.s will be seen, the tiarrios are usually separate eom- 

^KfntuiitirH, although forming a single unit, and arn laid out in stroctA, 

^ke hou'^es being arntngiid on cither side of the streets and usually 

^Hj^ tt^ctber, except in the rural barrios where they are well sepa- 

^^Bfcd. e*ch one standing in a fair-sized plot of ground in which the 

mideitt raises hid crop of bananas and possibly other fruits and veg- 

elabh>it. The streets, as a rule, are not paved, and the i-oads generally 

j ire in poor condition, esporially in the i-ainy season. For potable 

I water, exa-pt in Manila, ii*liancc Is placed on wells and ci.siems, and 

Terr little attention has ever been paid to sanitation. The bouses of 

penpK* of means are built of stone, brick, or wood, and their homea 

»re provided with all availahht comforts. But it is safe to say that 

line-trnthn of the bou.se;( in the Philippines are built of bamlwo, 

led with nipa, cogon, or other grasses, and are admirably adapted 

cllmaU) and to the condition of the o^'cuiiant.^. 

3ince the oeosiu was taken the territory included in military m- 

- -■. '- .Aj*. or districts, has been put under civil authority". Paragua 

l»een added to the province of Pai'agua; the provinee of Moi-o 

ha* hf«n created with limit* asset forth in Act No, 787, of the Philippine 

Commi't'^ion, June 1, 1903, and conisists of the island of Mindanao 

A adjacent i^landif (except rao?<t of the province of Misamis nrtd all 

Suri^o), the ii^land of Ra.4ilan, and all other islands south of Min- 

including the JoI6, Sia.-wi, and Tawi Taw! grou^w, and it thus 

all the Moros, except a small number in the southern Iialf of 

(k* inland of Paragua. 

For adminiHtratire purpo^s the province i^ divided into live dia- 
Iricla — (Jottabulo, Diivao, Lunao. Sulu and Zamt>oanga — each under a 
!iftrti:t governor apiiointed by the governor of the province. 

At (he date of the census these districts were military' districts 

fonder officera of the United Staler Army, and the tigure.'* of the cen- 

•», M far a# they relate to the Moro province, ur« given by militAry 





districts and not bj civil distric-tH sh now Hrmnged. They are, hoV'^ 
ever, pructicalty identical in area. 

In tbe deLuik'd descriptiun of the jslunds, which followH, aavigable 
river» are .scheduled, with their character and extent of navigability, 
from inforimition furnislied by J. W. Beardnley. contu tilting eiigjneei 
fur the Couinjisi^iun, and fruui the reconls of the Quai'tennaatei 
General's office. 

Excepting the ^mail islands of the Bat^n and I^buyfin grotipH, LtiJ 
is the nio«t northern of the Philippines, lying, as it does, between the 
parallels of latitude IS-" 30' and 18^^ 40' north, and between the me^ 
ridians of longitude 119 HY and 124*^ 10* eaat. It is of irregular 
shape, the extreme length being 530 miles and the greatest breadth, 
which is along the parallel of 17° north latitude, being 140 milas, while 
in the latitude of Manila the breadth is hut 43 miles and at Lam6n bey 
in Tayalms province, only 8 miles. 

The area of Luz6d is 40,969 square miles, being 10 per cent greater 
than Mindanao, the second island in area, Bcsidea being the lai^est 
it i» the moat populous and wealthy island of the aivbipelago. 

MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS. 

Stretching along the east coast aud closely following it, from 
northeastern point of the inland to I.Aguna de Bay, iti latitude 14*^ 
north, is a continuous and simple mountain nuige, the Sierra Madre^ 
broken by a few gaps, or passes, and no water gaps. Throughout thif 
distance of 350 miles it forms the divide between the waters flowing 
to the Pacific direct and those flowing northward by the C'«gayiin 
rirer and westward to the China nea. Near the parallel of latitude 
16° north it is joined by a short cross or east-and-weat range known 
Carabttltos Sur, which connect^i it with the western range of tt 
island, the Caraballos Occidentales. The Sierra Madre has a genei 
elevation of from 3,500 to 4,500 feet, rising above the latter heigl 
in only a fow suGiniitfi. West of this great range lies the broad and' 
fertile valley of the Cagay^n river, 160 miles in length, with a 
breadth between the limiting mountain ranges of about 50 miles. 
'Weal of this valley, and se{)arating it from the China sea, stands a 
broad and complex system of mountains, known an the Caraballos 
Oocidentales. Itii length is nearly 300 miles, and its breadth, includ- 
ing the gi'eat .--purs and Huboi-dinate ranges aod ridges on either sidr, 
is fully one-third its length. The centi-al range of the system forms 
the divide between the waters flowing to Q^y^n river on the east 
and those flowing to the China sea on the west. Its northern pai 
whore it forms Uic Ixiundary between the provinces of Ci^MVim an< 
Docoa Norte, heani the name Cordillera Norte. Farther miuth, whei'e i 
Hepflrat<»s Abra from CagajAn and Bontoc, it is called Coi-dlUern C^-i 
tral, while the southern portion, which tieparatea Lepanto tvom Bout 



MOtTNTAI^'S AND RIVERS. 



61 



uid BoDguet from Nneva Vizraya, in called Cordillera Sur, This 
rmojfe, aJifaougb l^cnrlug the pnoripol water divide, doeu not contain 
Iho hi^hcflt {>caks. whici] arc foiuid on subordiiuite rangcin and Hptirs. 
Tho Cordillera Xorto risCN gradually Hoathward from it.s northern end 
at Point Iju-ay, until tit tbt^ north point of Ahra proviiK-e ilctdminutea 
^^utbe jrn-atHuauQit Pa^sdn. 7,2tll feet. Atthi.spoint a bcavy spur runs 
^■0 to the southweflt, Keparntin^^ flucos Knrte and Altni. On tlii» spur 
^Ke Humrait.'i of 6,a{H), 4. BOO, 4,2<)0, and 8.ti<>0 feot. dluiinit^liing in 
^Blitiide 08 the cooflt ia approached. From this mountain, Pa(C»fin, 
^^poUior spur or sooondary ningo runs off to the northeast^ .sciMniting 
^Bir vaJleyn of tbi- rivers CabiiMin^un and Apolyao. Little i^^ knouii t'on- 
^^peniinK the boii^ht of the sumniit'* of the Cordilleras Central and Sur. 
Id the former arc peaks of 0,lKKf and *i>5ilO feet, and in the latter is 
Ml- Dtitii, 7,8tH feet. It in known that a large part of the surnoiit haa 
a bruad, level, or rolling plaieau-ltkc character, on whkh it. is not eaay 
to tTHTO in detail the course of the divide. C>n the east many long, 
hmvy spun* run off to the northeast, separatingf branches of the 
C4((^yitn river. On the west are several similar spurs running down 
to the coast, and in some cases paralleling it for some distance, giving 
the effect, when seen from the sea, of a continuous rangn along tho 
roaAt. On several of the-se spurs are high peaks, such as Santo Tomds, 
near the niuidcipality of the same name in the province of La Uni6D, 
--> fivt; Mt. Hiuinaca. 5,a«S feet; Mt. TantHgiian, (5,38*2 feet; and 
Ml .Mitni, 5,6yit feet. Among these secotidary ranges is that men- 
tiotied above as separating the provinces of xVhra and llocos Norto, 
which partially incloses the basin of Abra river. Another heavy 
range leAvos the Cordillera Sur at the northeast point of Rcngnet, 
and runniag westward a short distance, divides into two i>arts, which 
tread, respectively, northwest and southwest, 8ei>arating Benguet and 
LepauCo on the ea^t from Ilocos Sur and La Union on the west. The 
■OQthem branch with the Cordillera Sui incloses the basin of tJie Agno 
Tii-ur in Beofuet province. At its south end the Cordillera Sur swings 
to tho oast, and, under the iiame of Caral>allo8 Sur, joins the Sierra 
Uadrt or east coast range. 

North of the head of Lingay^^u gulf the west coast strip of low- 
land IB narrow, the mountains rising but a short, distance inland. Fol- 
kmiDgckMely the coast in Zambales province Is a high range, extending 
frmu the Oulf of Linguy^n to the soutli end of the province. In BattUin 
itseourse it* continued by two detached groups; of mountains, the south- 
CTD u( whit-h. Marivoles poak, an extinct truncated volcano, is a proiu- 
ineiitfcaturc in Clio landscape from Manila. The highest point is 4,0X6 
fcet. The Zamtwles range contains many pealcs exceeding a uiile in 
Mirbt, and for a long distance its avei-ago height exceeds 4,UtK) feet 
Wutof this range and south of Lingay^n gulf and the Carat>allos Sur 
ii a ffnnt valluy or doproasiun extending to the Iwrdeis of Batangae 



62 



GEOGRAPHY. 



and Tuyabas proTiDCce on the MOuth and including Manila luy ari^f 
Ijiif^una do Bay. Tliis \~aUey Is 150 miles long, witli an average width 
not far from 50mUns. It contains l.t5().1)i»itpRoj)lr., or alwuttwa-tiftliij 
(he inhabitants of the entire island. Tbo Hurfaceinvory level, Dowhercjl 
except at( the Imrdenog moiintaiiiM aiv approached, being more than a 
hundred feet ahore sea; and is travei-Med by many Ntreams, the I'bief 
onea being the Agno, from the moiintainn of Benguet^ which ftow 
into IJiigHVi^n gulf, the Panipangn, from the C«rat>alloH Sur, arid 
the P&n\j^ wbirh drnint^ Lagniia di> Ray into Mnnita Itay. Much of 
the land has been built up by alluvial deposits; is raised but a very 
few feet above tide, and in the neighborhood of Manila bay and Lin- 
gay^n gulf ih for many miles nmrshy and iriter»ected by countless 
SKteroa^ fonning a most complicated network, a Heries of great deltaa.fl 
Manila 1>ay from its poeition is evidently a part of fliis great depres- 
sion: most of it is not over 100 feet in depth, and nowhere do sound- 
ings show moi-e than IM) feet. I>aguna de Bay is everywhere very 
t^haUow, the maximum depth shown by soundings being only 20 feet. 
Almost in the center of this valley the extinct volcano of Ar^yat rlsea 
to a height of 8,564 feet. It is entirely isolated, rising out of a low^ 
level plitin. Its summit is tnincated, and itf) slopes have been much 
eroded by streams, indicating that it has long been extinct. 

Soutliero Ijuz6n differs greatly in ite orography from northern 
Luzon, above described. In place of an orderly arrangement of moun- 
tain mngec and ridges, moat of the relief of the southern part of the 
idland cousista of iMlated volcanic peaks, distributed irregularly over 
the surface. 

L«ke Taul, in Batangatj provim'C, judgiug from its shape and sur- 
roundings, is the crater of au iDiniom»e volcano. It has a roughly 
nlliptit^ Nhape, with the longt^r axis north and south, the dimensio 
iHjing ilk by 12 miles, A rim, sharply outbned and several hund 
feet in height, incloses it on all sides except on the south, where it 
Hoparated from Balay&u bay by low land travei-sed by Taal river, 
Standing on the rim are neveral mountains of considerable height an 
evidently of volcanic origin. The surrounding country rises gentl 
to the rim, the whole area thus prt>><cutiug the aspect of a low. Sat, 
truncate*! cone, tlie crater in the summit t>eiug ociiipiod by the take. 
Oti an island iu the lake is tho active volcano of Tool, 1,050 feet high, 
which has been in eruption frequently within liiKt<iric tinies. 

Kising rr<mi Ilie suulJi utiure of I^gunu de Bay is Mt. Maqulling, 
3,7:^ foot, and on the .soulheabt of the hike an the boundary l>etwee; 
La lyiguMH iind TayiiirHs pruviiu-es, aiv Mi^. Sun Criat/tlRil and Itanij 
redpei'tivoly r.,liO(J and 7,SHS feet. All theao ai-e extinct vol 
still showing their origin by their form, although much eroded. 1 
the rKrathcm part of Batangas province, txxiitpying the broad penin 



MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS. 



63 



•lula eM»t of Batuiif^s ba}', vt un iiTe^uUr mas» of bills and moun- 
taitm rtMin^ in si'vi'rul HuniniUs ubov« 3,0<K1 fpot. ^tfirtin^ near Mt. 
Hnniitui, a range of no giTut hpi^bt traverses the island, here very 
turrow. in a KoutlicaxU^rn direction, and Is contiiitiod down tiie ponin- 
t of thf (iulf of Kajjnv- Another rfhort hut liifjh rniijie tnii'- 
■ province of AhiIioh ("amiiricii'M from tiie Buy i>f Ijiim6n to 
m Miganl hay. In thin are Mts. Lat)6 and Baynbas, c&cli about 
feet in hoijibt. Kroni Mt. I*nlwi a low rangn pai"nlU*Is the west 
through Ambon Canuirines and into Albay iirovinw. In the 
itter province it becomes higher and torrainntej* near the town of 
>rM>g6n, with the volcano Pocdol or Baffin, -iififiT feot. to Camarincv 
>tir, a few tnileA cast of Xneva CVtcorcs, rises Mt. I.sarojj to a height of 
,634 fftet. Thi>i iH an extinct truncated volcanic cone, covering with 
slopes n ^-ft^t extent of territory, tt has been but little wasted by 
kntaiion, aud iitiU rntiLin}) its perfr:et conical fomi. 

The matt prominent roluanic peak in the archipelago \» without 
ifuetftioii May6n, in the province of Albay. It rises fix)m the sea, at the 
bead of tfau Gulf of Atbiiy, to a height of T.M16 feet At its Muthcm 
bun «rc the towoa uf Logaspi, Albay, and Daraga. Tliis is a perfect 
eoae, Hymmetrioi] on all t<i(leti, with a ^inall crnter jn the slightly 
Cnuiailed .xutmuit frotu Khii-U is coDtftantly givcu forth steam and 
nnoke. It luu beea in active eruption xuauy times kIocc Spanish occu- 
pKtiun. rtnil has wrought havoc among the towns about ittbiuw. There 
■n Dumeroufi other volcanic poaks of ]ei-s note in this Dcighburbood, 
among Iheni ilhlasanga, 3^244 feet; Mallxmo. 3,066 feet; and Iriga, 
\.'m feet. 
In ^>rwig6n the duininaling peak is the volcano Bulusan, 4,053 foct. 
much eroded and now presnuts little of ita originnl abape. 
sre are two i^niallcr voleanoes now extinct on the jicninsula, 
ila^palan and Hinliiay, but this grefit summit, with its spurs, forms 
icnt n( the relief nf the peninsula. 

prinei|inl rivern of LuzAn in length, drainage basin, and nnvi- 
ty are the Cagay^in, Agno, and the Vumpanga. There are many 
ler fltreamM, but most of them ore comparatively short and of less 
i|iQrt«ooe. 

Tbo Cbigajiln river, the largest in Luz6n, heads in Carabullos Sur, 
the (wutbeni |mrt of the province of Isnlwla; flows northeast 
irongh this province and northward thi-ougb the provineo of ('aga- 
in to itjii month iit .\iHirri; has a total length of npproximiitely 
tijilM, ajwl itA drainage lNu<iu has im area not far from 10,000 
limrc^milex, or one-fourth of thpnrraof iMr/m; and i.-^nnvignble, with 
gu<jd pilot, for -steamers drawing & fc-et U* Tugucgurno, for native 
to Kcbngito, IRO miles from ttM moudi, while mfttt go 40 miles 
up. All of the prixiiicU* of the two provinces traversed by this 



t>4 



river are carried upoo it down to Aparri for shiptneDt. Tbo com- 
merce is largo, confiieting in great part of tobtu-co. The IMnaranuuiin^ 
river 18 a branch of tbn CugayaD, joining it at llagmn. it i^ nuviguble 
for rafts for ^0 milos, and for Hniall craft for (iorH miles. The M igat 
rivet bi also a branch of the Cagayiln, joining it at Gamfi. It i8 navi-^ 
gable for small craft, for 6 or a milns, and for rafts for 40 miles. fl 

The Agno river rises in tlio northern part of licngoot province high 
in the mounlainH, and Aowm sonthward inUi the great central valley ofj 
Luz^n, where it divides and subdivides into many channels^ which tine 
their way to Lingayi5n gulf at Dagiii>an, LingayiSn, San Isidro, and] 
fcittn Fabilin, These various channels are all navigable, but for differ- 
ent distauoea. The San Fabi&n branch ia navigable to ManiioHg; th( 
Oagupan branch to Urdancta; and the San Isidro branch to Resales. 
A large part of the produce of tbe northern portion of this greatj 
valley goes down by tlie branches of this stream to ports on Lingayi^i 
gulf. 

The Pampanga river, which is the second one in e'lze in Luz6i , 
rises in the northern part of the province of Nueva ficija, and flows 
B little west of south to its mouth in Manila bay. In the lower 
of its course, where it Sows through a low alluvial plain, it divide 
into many channels, forming an extensive delta. The most of its 
channels are navigable for small native craft, and, except at lowfl 
water, for steamers of no considerable draft. Steamers can ascend the" 
river from Calumpit, where the railroad crosses it, to An'iyat, and small 
native boats can ascend as high as CabanatuAn. TTic principal hranct 
of this river is the Qui^^ua, which is navigable for small Iwats t< 
Norzagaray. 

The Ahra river rises in Lepanto-Bontoc and flows through Abra 
and IIocoh Sur to its mouth in the China sea near Vigau. Out of it^J 
entiii) length of 55 miles, 30 miles can be traversed by bamboo rafLdJH 
The Chico river is a small sti'cam in Ilocos Sur, which is uavigahlc 
for rafts to a point 8 miles from its mouth. In Ilocos Norte, Li 
Uui6u and Zambales provinces there are no streams of magnitude o| 
of importance for navigation. The same is true of Batain province 
although upon its eaut coast there are »everal short streams which 
be entered for a or 3 miles by small native boata. 

The P^ig river coDoects Laguna de Bay with Manila l>ay. Evci 
at low water this river can bo traversed by launches drawings an( 
« feet of water, and by the Urge native cargo boat« known aw atMt. 
The lake, though sliallow, caQ also be traversed by theue craft iti all 
directions, and as its shores are densely |>opiilatod. the truflic throufrl 
the lake down the river to Manila bay \h i-nonnous. Of all the stream 
flowing into the lake the only one of any importance whatever is Hi 
Lumlwingt which is navigable for small t>oatB to PagsaojAi^ a diictnnc 



ehfl 

1 



■:' 



of 5 miles. Ttie streams of Carite and ButangHs pravinces arc of 
little imporiauco, only two of those of ItHl-RDgiiu. the (-alumptm and 
the Paai-ipit, he'mg navigable for rufts for 5 miles. 

The 8trpamR of Ta,vab&H are Hbortuud of little \-aluc for navigation. 
Anion^ Uiem are the Liicena river, which i^ navigable for 3 miles to 
the toTV'ii of Luceoa; the Tambag river, which can be travcrsod by 
raftfl and fmncat to a point 2 rnilos above its mootb; the Caliljan, on 
which rafts can he taken H miles; the Mayuboc, which ia the most 
important of all (iie titreamn, being navigable for steam limnchcsdraw- 
injf 4 feet of water for the distance of 13 milea from its mouth; the 
Mataiitany, which can lie travei-sod 6 miles by raft; the C-ababiyao, 
^whicJi \» navigable 1 2 miles by steam launch ; and the Calauag, which 

navigable by the same sort of craft for (] miles. 

In Ambo>< Caniarinefl, the chief river is the Bfcol, which heads in 
Lake Bflt6. Thi:* river is navigable for steamers drawing y feet of 
wntiir, i f able to cross the bar, as far as Noeva C^ceres, a distance of 
25 miles. Small native IxMits can go up the river to the lake, a dis- 
tance of t^<t milc« from the mouth. The Basud river, in the same 
province, in navigable to a point miles from its mouth for vessels 
drawing fict of water. In Albny is the Polangui, a .«mall tributary 
to Lulte Itat/>, navigable by small ftteamers to Polangui, a distance of 
7 Diiles, and by rafts for twice that dlf^tancc. In Sorsogoo province 
are several 8Diall streams, which are of some little importauce for uavi- 
gation. The Donsol river heads iu the mountains of Albay and can 
bo traversed by ca8co« as far as JovcUar, a distance of 10 miles, while 
rafts can bo taken double that diittancc. The Putiao is navigable to 
the toM-n of Putiao, a distance of lu mile« for boats drawing 5 feet 
of water, and the Irocin river will ^oat caacos as far as the town of 
Irocin, 13 uiilett from its mouth. 

Cataoduaues Island, a part of the province of Albay, Ilea in the 
Pacific, separated from the mainland of Ambos Camarincs proWnce by 
Mai^ucUu channel. It ho^ an area of 082 square miles and \Xs features 

ICDuaist of a range of hill.v traversing it centrally from north to south 
■rith spurs reaching to the t'oa^'t upon both sides. 
I Polillo Island, a part of Tayabas province, rises in the Pacific ocean 
test of the central part of Luz^n. \is area Is 333 square miles, and 
Its surface is billy, nowhere rising to any considerable height. 
' The island of Marinduque, with an area of 352 i^quare miles, is also 
a part of Tayabas province. It is nearly circular in shape, covered 
with bills which rise near the center to an altitude of probably 2,500 
feet. 

The ishuid of Mindoro lies in the latitude of southern Luz6n, and is 
radely triangular in form, with a maximum length of 100 miles and in 
breadth ia not far from 60 mile8 in its widest part. Mr area is 3,851 

26162— TOb 




square mil^R. Although it h rupreseuted ttpoo most lUHpoaa Iraveraed 
by two mountain ranges, one near rach coast, it is reported hy thow 
who huvc crurtjicd the island that there is but one range which traventee 
it, from thp northwest point to the most southern point, ruuning nearly 
midway of the island. The greatest elevation in this i-ang'e ia Mt. 
Hale6n, ^aid to he K,SO(l feet in altitude. The range is broody Mending 
heavy spiii-^ out to tlie couat from either end, leaving but a. narrow cuufit 
strip. Asa whole the island in hearily forested with many valuable 
apeoie^ of timlwr. With the exeeption of wild people, settlement is 
contined to the eoant, and even the coast is sparsely inhabited. 

Maabate Island, with Burias and Tieao, and a few sumller neighlrar- 
ing inlands, forms the province of Masbate. The area of the island 
is 1 ,286 square miles. Its principal feature is a. mountain range which 
runs from the northwest point southeastward to the southeostero 
point of the island, with a spur running otf to the southwest doM'n the 
hook of the island. This range apparently has a maximum height 
between 2,000 and 2,5(R> foot. Burias and Tieno are tong, narrow 
islands, neither of them rising to an attitude ext'ccding l,irOU feet. The 
former has an area of 197, the latter 131 square miles. 

S^ar is the lui"gest of the Visayan Islands and, next to Mindanao 
and Luzon, the Urgost of the Philippines, having an area of 6,081 
square miles. It^ length fi-om northwest to southeast is 156 miles, 
and its greatest breadth Ls about 7fi miles. It is separated from 
LuK^n on the noilh by the Strait of San Bernardino. The surface ia 
very irregular and hilly, but nowhere rises to great elevations. 
Although little is known regarding altitudes in the interior, it is 
probable that done of tlie summits reach a,ouu feet. There may be 
traced a lino of elevations niuDiDg the length of the island, from the 
norrhwcLSt^^rn to the southeastern poiuts, separating the drainage to 
the Pacitic from that flowing westward, with lateral spura extending 
Bouthwestward and northeastward. 

The coost of Simar is exceedingly irregular and broken, with many 
isUuds and reefs fringing it and with numerous indeutation:^. The 
cast coast, like that of Luzon and Mindanao, ia a stormy one duriDg 
the prevalence of the eastern trades, and is dangerous of approach at 
that season. Although many of the rivers are long, particularly ihoso 
flowing CHiitward to the Pacific, none are of im|wrtaoeo to navigation, 
few of them even l»eing navigable for the light draft Imncas. 

Leyte, one of the larger islands of the Visayas, lies wej*t of Sdmar, 
separated from it by the nsri-ow, tortuous Struit of San Juanii-o. Its 
area is 2.7^2 square miles. It is very irregular in shaiie, lieing eJon- 
gatod from north to south, broad at tJie (wo ends, and narrow in the 
middle. It has a length of about 1^ mites, and its grcatcfit width, 
I which is in the Dorthem part, ts 52 mjlea. 



I 



k 



Hie earfatx is greatly brokeo by iaoUted ralnuiic coae« mad rui|^ 
of mounteips and hUb. Of tbe former, two in the Dortfaem part of 
fcfae ulaod are known to exceed 4.0«J)> feet in altitude, and in the 
■ontbent part there are two. Socripante and OibaUanf wbieh nt-arly 
reach that altitude, wbik there are many summits which exceed 3.000 
feet. Ths islaiid 18 trareRHod by a mountain range from the north- 
waatomiDoet part to (he sontbern and southeastern points, with a spur 
rouning north, »«|nmting the drainage to Carigara hay from Uiat flow- 
tog into the Stimit of Saa Joanico. This range is comparatively low 
in the middle narrow portion of the Island, becoming more elevated 
both toward the north aod soutli, where the island is broader. 

Tbrt coasts are exccodingl}^ broken, abotmding in deep bays and 
harbon> and are fringed by ishinds. (>n the oast, Lojte is separated 
from 8&mar by San Pedro and San Pablo bay, the narrow San 
.Inanico strait, and by Llaram channel. San Juanico strait is nn^fe 
for large vesiwls owing to the mtrrowneau of the channel and the 
Bomeroas abaq) turns. 

The bland of Li>yte contain-s few rivers of any importance for navi- 
gation. Indeed, the only one which aflorritt more than a harbor at its 
mouti] is the Hinahaan, upon which casoos can be taken 15 miles to 
the town of Dagami. 

Biliran Island, with an area of 1^ square mile.s lie« off tbe 
north coast of Ijcyto, from wbich it ii) separated by tlilii^ui strait. 
Its surfaeo U hilly nnd broken, rising to aUitude«( exceeding 2,W)0 
feet. 

Bofaol iii one of the Visayan ].-«landit and lie^i between Leytc and 
Ob6. It has an area of 1,441 square mile.^t, n length from oast to 
west of &8 milc«, nnd a breadth from north to south of about 40 miles. 
The surface prc^nt^ no great relief. Hills ri-^e from the south shore 
toward the interior, reaching possibly 'i.iiOO foct at the summiM. The 
northern part of tbe inland is reported tL» level or undututiug, with an 
altitude in few places exceeding l.(XKt feet. 

Bobol ha» a tiimple const, but it8 northern and eaijtern »<hores are 
fringed with numcrou^! isUiud^^ and reefit umking approach diuigeroutr. 
The capital aud prtncii>al city, T^bilaraii, U situated on the narrow 
struit, which i^ dry at low water, separating it from the iitland of 
Pangliio. The islaod coutaius few rivers of importance for steam 
navigation, but several of these >>tream» can be traversed by boats of 
slight draft for some dLstance. The streams with navigable lengths 
for this sort of eraft are as follows: 

Loboc, which will tloat boats of 8-£oot draft for 3 miles and rafta 
for 4 miles. 

Aimt^n, which is navigable for boats drawing 4 feet for 12 mileB 
and rafts for 15^^ miles. 




Inahan^, which in naWgable for IkjuU of 6-foot draft for 3 miles 
and for rafts for 35 milra. 

fpil, which is navigable for banrus drawing 5 feet for 8^ Dules. 

Cogtong, which is navigable for tho Hiuno size of boat for ^ 
miles. 

Cebfi, one of the Vimyftn Ulands. has au area of 1,762 r^quarc milos. 
It in long and narrow, with a length, in a direction about north-north- 
east and south -south wr.-^, of 131) milcR. ItvS grcatcdt breadth ib '24 
rnile^, with an average breadth of not more than 16 miles. It 'm 
trarersed throughout in the direction of its length by u mountain 
range, the Cordillera Central, whose t-rest line runs nearly midway 
between the two co*st>i. Its highoat snmmits, which are nearly mid- 
way the length of the island, slightly exceed U.OOO feet, while in other 
parts of tho island tho range has altitudes between 1,500 and 2,tiOO 
feet. Although not high, it presents a <terions obstacle to crosiiiog the 
island, only six easy routes across it being known. 

Associated with this island are a few small island» adjacYnt to ita 
coasts, the whole forming the province of Ceb^i, the most [wpulous of 
all tho proviaces of the Pbilippine Islands. This long, nun-ow island 
has a simple coast with few indentations. The harbor of Cebu, it« 
priiiei)>al city, aud after Mauila and Iloilo the largest municipality la 
the islands, is formed by the straits separatiug the main island from 
Mact^D Island. 

Cvbu contains no navigable rivers, if the Cabia^|r6n, up which 
bancas can go for 3 miles, is excepted. 

2^egT08 is one of the Visayan Islands, and has a long and rather nar- 
row shape, being broadest near the two ends. Its greatest length in a 
direction nearly north and south is 130 milefif and its greatest breadth 
is 50 miles. The average breadth is not far from 30 miles. Its area 
is 4^881 square miles. 

A mountain range traverses it fi-om the northeastern comer south- 
westward to the BOutUeastem extremity. This range, which is con- 
tinuous, forming the water divide throughout, has a number of peaks 
exceeding t(,000 feet, among which may be mentioned Tejiasi, 6,'i44 
feot; Cuemoa de Negros, 6,200 feet; and tho volcano (^la6n, K,19a 
feet. This range coutains several other volcanoes, most of wliieh are 
dormant. Around most of the island there is a broad strip of low coast 
land, much of which has boon utilized for the raising of sugar crane, 
which h carried on mostly in targe haciendas. 

This island contains two provini-es, Negros Occidental and Negro* 
Oriental. To the latter Iwlongs the small iaUnd of Siquijor, which 
lies east of the southern point of the island. This has an an^ of ltl6 
square miles and rises at its central summit, Malabalioc, to an altitude 
of 148S feet 



4 



I 



There are few rivers of importance to navigation. Indeed, the only 
river, except the IMsij^, which will wltnit steam vo.«3elis of any ("onsid- 
erable draft is the Danao, up which re,'isel.s drawing 10 feet of water 
cftD be taken to a distonee of 10 miles fi-om its mouth. The other 
rivers on the ii^land are navijfable only for rafts, or /orc/ww, and to dis- 
Uuice.9 %» stAtod below: 

une*. 

GilatMvx , 6 

StthmwDca 4 

Viu. 3 

BdsnnD ...-.i.. 2 

THnao ........_ A 

IliRugaaon 1.. 4 

BicAtM 6 

B^QEWI 2 



^ 



Paouy, the westernmost of the Visayan Islandri, hus nmghly the 
shape of an isosceUw triangle, with aides, n^pectivrly. 10(t, 100, iind 
76 milen, and an area of 1,011 squarn miles. A ninjjfo nf mountains 
traverser the island from tho nortliwcst to the rtoiithwcat comer, its 
creat bcinp only a few miles inland from the west ccMist. This con- 
taiiu a nunilier of peaks of oonsidomble altitude, aiiionf; them Usigan, 
4,300 feet; Ag6tay, HJU feet; Madiails, 7,364 feet; Nnngtud, 6,SM 
fwt; Mayniagui. 5,fi67 feet; Llorcnte, 4,46« feet; Tig-nran, 4-,£»00feet; 
and Igbani^, 4,343 feet. This range fomis the nnstorn boundary of the 
province of Antique, one of tho thrco province.s into which the island 
h* divided. From Maymajjni [wsik a spur loaves thi;* range and crosses 
the bdand in an easterly and then northeasterly direction to the north- 
east corner. This ia not ns high as tho former range, its peaks rang- 
ing in altitude between 2,000 and 8,000 feet. It separates tho provinces 
of C&piz and Iloilo. 

The coast lands in tho province of Antique are nowhere brood, since 
^purs from the mountain range come nearly to the coast, but in the 
otli«>r two provinces there are large area.s of level or rolling lands id 
the valleys of several streams. 

To Uoilo belongs tho isUod of GuimarlSs, with an area of 228 square 
milea. 

The north coast of Panay it, much broken with many indentations 
and ouroeroufl islands and reefs. The northern part of the eastern 
enttJrt. \» tnach the same, while tho southeastern and western coasts are 
toiple. 

i*«tftnd of Paimy contwins luany rivers with & number of fertile 
y», but their uavigability is by no means In proi>ortion to their 
extent Indeed, there are no rivem on the isUnd which are navigable 
for craft drawing much water. The .Tare river, 40 milott long, is 
oarigtMc for bamboo rafta nearly to it« head, as is the case with the 
Jalaur, which is 65 niilns in length. The other rivers of the island 




have a much leas n&v'igahh length, and will adroit only Hmall native 
craft These arc as follows: 

Hollo 8 

Dumagfa „.. , ..,. 8 

Ungtallmy S 

Tinoria 3 

Anilno..... 4 

Bantito 12 

Ajiiy 3 

I'iDutan 10 

BaUslan ^..^ 6 

P&ragua is a long, narrow island stretching ^5 nules in a direction 
nenrlj northeast and southwest, with a maximum breudth of only 26 
miles, and an average breadth not excoeding 15 miles. Its area is 4,027 
S4[uarc miles. It is traversed throughout its length by a range of 
mountains whose summits, aa a rule, run about (our and five thousand 
feet, while a few, such as Cleopatra's Needle, 5,200 feet; Cautarag, 
5,868 feet; Undargan. r.,3i)7 feet; Victoria, 5.6j*0 feet, exceed 5.000 
(oet, and one summit, MautalingAJan, U reported to hare an altitude 
of 6,843 feet. In latitude lo- north the range breaks down to a low 
divide only a few hundred feet high, and the island narrows to a 
breadth of 5 mile^. 

Tablas Island, which with Komblon. SihuylSn, and a few smaller 
islands, forms the province of llomhion, has an area of 324 square 
miles. As the name sugge^s, the i?«Iiind is plntenu-like^ having for 
the most part a level surface considerably elevated above the sea. Its 
highest point is Cabcza de Tahlas, 3,405 feet. 

The great island of T^lindanao, the second largest of the Philippines, 
has an extremely irregular shape and \-aried relief. Its area, as meas- 
ured upon different maps, differs widely, ranging from 33,767 to 
46,721 square miles. The measurement Imsed on the latest and pre- 
sumably the most accurate map, gives 36.'^i^2 square miles, or 4,677 
aquaro mile« less than Luzon. It stretcher in latitude from 5'^ 40* to 
tf^ 50' north, and in longitude from 128''-' 5' to 132^ lu' east 

The irregularity of relief in Mindanao is hii^ely due to extended 
and frequent volcanic action opemting on an immense .scale. The 
longest and proliably the most continuous range is in the east«ru pttrt 
of tiie idlaml, where it follows the east coast from Laguna de Mafnit, ' 
supposed to l)c an ancient ci-ater, southwnnl to Oap4> Sun AgiLsLin, n 
diMtauceof over 200 mile^. In all this distance the range is quite 
continuous, rising to summits exceeding 4,000 feet in altitude in Lhti 
northern and central parts, and fomiing the divide between the waters 
flowing directly into the Paoilic and those lluwing into the great river 
of Surigao, the Agusan. West of this ruuge lies the broad valley of 
the Agusan, one of the two great valleyH of Mindanao, and on the 



(Bonth »h<» Gulf of IMvao. The Apnsan river, second in maj^nitiKle in 

Minilanao ami third of the Philippiiieii, hends In the eastern (.-oast ranjfu 

Ut sadtb and enst of Divao gulf, nnd flows northward iJ40 milea to 

its month In Butiian liay. NeAr it.s source it flows verv near the coaeit 

Pof IMr&o gulf, with a low dinde and indications of a former outlet 

i-Ui the g\i\1. Except near Ua sonrce, it flows in a broad, level valley, 40 

to i*0 mile* in width. In its lower course the river ha« littto full, and 

just north of latitude 8- it flows througli a succession of uwi-shy lake», 

fjnao or Dagun, Sddocfin, and Finuyat, with many bayoua and e«toroH. 

|Froni the mountain ranges on either side the river receives many 

I powerful branches. It is navigable for vessels drawing ii feet of 

water for a distance of *2t) miles above its mouth, and for smaller craft 

a much greater distance. 

West of the Agusan vallej is a succession of ranges, separating it 
from the valley of the Kio Grande de Mindanao river, the second great 
valley of the island. These ranges trend nearly noi-tb and south, and are 
broken, many of theui short, with frequent low gujxH or pushes. The 
higher ranges arc in the northern part of this region, where they attain 
altitudes of from 4,mH) to .'),(iOO feet. Near the head of the Gulf of 
Dsvao these ranges disappear, leaving a broad, low gap connecting the 
ooftet with the valley of the Rfo (rrandc de Mindanao river. Sonth of 
this rise three great volcanoes, Apo, the highest summit in thet<e 
istiuids, i<\312 feet, Magolo, and Matrttuin. The^-^c tlircc^tand nearly 
in a north and south line, and arc practically isolated from one another, 
(to far US any conne*Tting mountain ranges are concerned. The last two 
are apparently extinct, bnt btvo been little worn by streams and are 
»till lioo truncated ('ones. The fii'st is nearly extinct. It is the center 
of an immense mountain moss, spreading with its great spurs in all 
diriKtions^ and has tieen Huhjcctcd to active erosion for a long tinio. 
Kwt of &Iagol6 and Mat^itum the peninsula separating Sarangiini hay 
hom the (itilf of Di'ivao is triversod from north to south by a mountain 
range with a summit altitude of pi-ohably 4/)0(i fceL 
West and south of the lower part of the \'alloy of the Rfo Grande 
lindnnao river stands a broad range trending northwest and south- 
or r&ther panillcl to the coust, separating the Rio (iratulc dn 
Mindanao river from the Celebes sea. This mnge has n summit alti- 
lude of over 4.tnn> feet, and t.s eontinuon.s, with sear<'ely a break. 
from near the mouth of the Rio (tnmde de Mindanao river ahnost to 
li^mngoni luy. Between the Hontheastendof this mnge and MatCitunt 
is ft broad depression, but little above sea level, liy which passage is 
iftuy from Knmngani buy bo the lakes in the valley of tJie Rio Grande 
liie Mindanao river. This route is utilized by the telephone line from 
tVittalulo to Makar. Kiml of Miilrttnin is another depre-ssioii trending 
I north, and connecting the head of Saranjjani Imy witli the uppt-r part 
bof D&TftO gulf. This }M used liy the telephone line from Makarto 
D&vao. 



Tlic Uio (rraiide de ^lindanno. or Pnlatif^iii, a^ it is csIImI in itn upper 
reaches, )m the lurgest Htreani in Miiidatiiuiand l,hc st^oud in the Archi- 
pelago, being exceeded in length iind volume, only try the Ca^yiiu in 
northern Luz6ii. It bcadi' in Mt/<. Sobrac and Quini^nquil. near the 
north coast, west of Mai-ajalar liaj. and afti^ra loti^, 8inuou6 course 
among the short detached rangen of mountai^^> vrent of the Agxisan 
valley, it f«ntor» the great level Kio Grande de Mindanao valley. 
Through thi^ it flows Houthwnrd to I^ke Ligua«an, fixim whieh it 
emerges in a new course which it pun^uea to iti) mouth, after a course 
of nearly 3(Kt miles. It is navigable for small stx^amers to tiie lake, 
and for boats drawing S^ feet, for 15 milejt farther. Lake Ijguasan 
and I^ko ItuKian, a few miles to the south, are large marshy lakes, 
surrounded and connocted by a network of tiayoiis. The divide 
between the diuinage basin of Lake ItulTian and Snrangani hay is 
low, and it is said, shows the former presence of a water coursr across 
it, indicating that in former timos the Rio Grande do Mindanao may 
have hiul its outlet to that bay. That there has occurred an elevation 
in recent times is shown by a ten-ace 500 or BOO feet high on the west 
shore of Sarangani hay, nnd it probably involved the whole of wiutli- 
oast Mindanao. Such an elevation would account for tlie changes 
suggested in the courses of both the Kfo Grande de Mindanao and 
Agusan rivei's, and such changes would explain the lakes in the course 
of the^e streams. 

On high land in the interior, between the Imlvs of Illana and llignn, 
is I^ake liAnao, whose surface is ^,200 feet above the sea. It is drained 
northward to Iligan hay by the Agnn river. On the south shore of 
tlie lake the land rises abruptly to a plateau nearly l.OtK) feet 
above the lake, on which stand several detached hills, pi-obably extinct 
votcanoes, 1,000 or 3,CK»0 feet higher. The lake is nearly surrounded 
hj mountains. On the north is a range trending {taiultol to the coast 
of Iligan )>ay, while on the south a range runs parallel to the coast 
of Illana bay, the two ranges joining in longitude 180'^ east, fonning 
a single range trending west and then southwest, and forming the 
backbone of the ZamlxMinga peninsula. In few places does tliis range 
exceed 5,000 feet in altitude, the summits commonly ranging tietweeo 
4,000 and 5,000 feet, becoming less elevated toward the end t)f tbp 
peninsula. A heavy spur runs southward down the penin-sulu west of 
Illana l>ay lo Point Flechas. On the north, in the eastern part of 
Dapitan, is a mountainous mass, the central point of which is the 
volcano Malindang, from which great spurs run off in various 
directions. 

Although Mindanao has an extremely irre^^ular shape, with maoT 
great bays extending far inland and many long promuntorios, still in 
detail tlie. coasts are i^iinple, and good ImrtMrs are not abundnnt. 

Comiguiu Island, belonging to the province of MisumiM, lioft off ita 



J 



nortli ooa6i. Ite are* is M^ square mileH. The rutire uluid is volcanic, 
sammtt esce^ing a vertical mile in height. 

Dinigat i» a long, aarrow island belooging to the proriocv of 
Surigao mad Iving acroee the entranro to the strait brtwoon Mindanao 
and Lerte. Its are* is 309 square mil(^ The island l-^ travorsod by 
B range of niountainit trending nearly north and south and risiiig in 
one 6ammit,at looflt, to an altitude exceedii^ S^OOO feet 

Tbr island of liasilan, with an arru of 4tS square mileis. lie^; directly 

itth of Zamboanga, from which it is ^paratcd by Itu^ilnn i^traiL 
[The inland U moantainoua, rising in ite highest summit to an attitude 
of 3,MS feet. Isabeln, it>i principal town, is occupied us a navnl 
etalioii and ntarine hospital. 

Jobs is the most important island of the Sulu archipelago, lying 
iwost of Zamboanpit in latitude ^' nortli, nnd has nn area of :id6 
^aqnare miles. Its surface U coveri^i with hilL-^, which, in a few sum- 
mit), snch as Bahfi, 2,810 foet, Butpula, 3,78d feet^ and Tuinatanjruts, 
2,040 fpct, rise to tho dignity of mountains. 

Tawi Tawi, the largest of the Tawi Tawi group, which is tho nio^ 
soutliem of the archipelago, has an area of S33 square miles. Iti sur- 
^ fucc U for the most part low and level, but rises irregularly into sum- 
^mitn, respectively, 1,151, 1,284, and l.StU foot. 

FADNA AND FLORA. 



BUDe 



I Se 

toth 



In the animal life of the Philippines are traced resemblonrtw to 
neighboring regions and differences from tlieni. Tho fauna most 
ly resembles that of the ncighboritig Malayan Islands, but at the 
time shows certain remarkable dlffereni-es from (hem. Thus, 
there are very few niamniiiiia in coniparison with the nundwr in 
Borneo and Java. Then^ are but two 8pct;ies of monkeys, but three 
representatives of the carnivora, ami of the doer tribe but six itpocics. 
Small rcxients are very scaiTe, except in the targe Bcaport«, while on 

le other hand there are at least ^> s[H>cies of Imts. There are no 
Targe mammalia except the carabao, a few of which are still found 
wild, and the timarau, or antcIo(te l>uffalo. of Mindoro. Altogether 
there arc but 23 species of terrestrial mammals known on the islands. 

Not only does the fauna of the Philippine Islands differ in certain 
marked respects from that of the iidjiu'ciit islands of the pjiat Indm 
ai-chipelago, but tho different islands of the Philippines differ among 
themselves in their fauna. The timamu is found only in Mindoro, 
porcupines are found only in Paragua and in the Calamianen Islands, 
and there are numerous other species of animals which have beoa 
found only in certain parts of the Brcliipelago. 




Such peculiarities of distribution of land animals may be explained 
easily, but it h nut »o easy to explain similar farts concerning tlie 
distribution of birds. Panigua and the Calamlunes Inlands pos»esH 
several speL-ie.s wblcti are not found elnewhere in the un^liipolaf^o, but 
which are similar to species found in Borneo. Of tbe 286 species of 
birds found in Luz6n, 51 at le&^t are not known to occur outside of 
that Lslaod. Tbe avi-fauna of HSniar and Leyte contains 32 spez-ios 
not found elsewhere, and similarly in Mindanao and Hasilan are found 
17 »pccies peculiar to those inlands. One of the most striking cases, 
however, is that of Cebfi, which, although a near neighbor to Negros 
on one side and Bohol on the other, contains 9 species of birAn not 
found niscwhcro. The total number of species of land birds known 
is a little over 800, a laiycr number than in Java; of the»c many are 
game birds, »uch as snipe, plover, quail, duck, and geese. In ;4plte of 
this richness of species thei-e are many important genera found In the 
other Malay Islands which arc not represented here, while on the other 
hand more than two-thirds of the Philippine species are peculiar to 
that group of island:^. Tbet»e facts strongly emphasize the isolation of 
tbe archi|>elago. 

There is an abundance of crocodiles, lizards, aud s^uakes. Among 
lizards ir> the common little bou^e or chirping lizard, so often seen 
and heard on tbe walls of the rouius a* to Ije regarded an a sort of 
'^cricket on the hearth.'* Among snakes are pythons, said to have 
been found 40 feet in length. 

iotsect species are numerous, and many of them are Ijeautiful. As 
with other branches of the animal kingdom, they show differences 
from those of tbe other Malay Islands and some affinities with those of 
more eastern islands, a fact probably attributable to the easterly trade 
winds. While the number of species of insects is large, one is struck 
by the small amount of insect life. Coimnon house Qies are few, and 
mustjuitoes are nowhere sufficiently abundant t<o constitute n pest, 
except abcmt the estenM and stagnant pools near the const. 

The land mollusca are abundant and of great interest, us Lhey seem 
to combine tbe characters of the Malayan It>lunds and the Polynesian 
groups. 

Altogether the fauna of the arcbipebLgo is of oxcocding interest to 
the naturalist, as illustrating the etfi-ct of long continued tsolallon 
u{ion aoimal species, and consequent differentiation from the related 
Hi)ecies in tbe neighborhood. There is here a tield for a very valuable 
study of animal and plant adaptntion. 

The waters tcein with fish of a great variety of species, which form 
a very important element in the food supply of tiie people. 



VbORA. 



P 



It is neceasary in this couiiection only to vharactorizn in general 
mirt llic plant life of th« archipolago, iiiasiniich a*: in th** toxt deserip- 

ive of iigriciilture and the art«, many, indued nearly all, of tbo uneful 
s and tn*f}~< of tbn i8land.«, wbetbor indi^cnoiuj or introductnl, are 
bed or nieoUonod, no that it is unneccRsary to go into details 

teganling them. 
The general features of the flora are Malayan, that is, tbey roRenible 
florae of Java. Sumatra, Borneo, and <.'<5Iobe.s, moi-c nearly tliau 
oee of any oilier parts of the earth, and yet it differs fi-oni thoni in 

many important respects. Certain feAtiiro-s of the AiiHtralian florae 
so, are found here, and in the north of Lu//>n are found forms 
sely related to plants of China, among them the pines found on the 
igher mountain)*. While these genera! relationships with neighhor- 
g regiona are plainly marked, there are many wpecitio difTorenees, 
liich give the flora of lbe«e inlands a marked individuality. Thefie 
Ifference» in few cases are sufficiently great to make generic dln- 

'tinctionn. and in 760 oases they are sufficient to make distinct spwies. 

Tbe9*e seem to indicate a pi-oloiiged jwriod of isolation of the*ie islands 

from (heir neigh1>ors, during which this large number of specific 

differences has developed. 

F0KE8TO. 



The forests of the archipelago are of wide extent and embrace 
a great variety of wooda, many of them highly valuable. Woods 
ioitablo for the finest cabinetwork, for veueeriug, and for artistic 
parpoMfi, and al»o woods adapted to sliip or house building,'' and 
other economic uses are found in great abundanee. There are also 
many gutta-|H*n-lia. iiidiu rub)>er. and other gum-producing trecH, d^'e 
and medicinal woods and pIaDt«>. and other foret^t growths, most of 
which are menUoned in conneution with the subject of agriculture. 
The enormous extent and wide range of u*efulnes,s of Philippine for- 
CM products will render thuui, under the careful iiiauagL-ment and con- 

nution provided for by law, second only to agricultural products aa 

MMurcoof iuMilar wenllh and prosiHrity. 

The nmutnT of ditferunt kinds uf trees is not known, but the report 
I the Chief of the Philippioe Forestry Bureau fur 1^2 shows that 

47 ■ tf wwjd were brought to market during the year ending 

uii- 'i. Thf nunilier of useful wooda is undoubtedly larger 

than the nuinlxir nuLrkitlud^ and in addition the foreatd contain many 
trees liie woods of which are not used for domestic or economic 




76 



GEOGl^iU'HT. 



The number of specter of tinilxir marketed in i.!>02 was tm follows 



V\raiKnnp 

.s>-cnnd tinmp . 
Tblrd croup. .. 



of ■p«Mik«. 



FlfUiirroup.., 
Total ... 



Kurot __ 



In explaniitioD of tbt-* nbovc i>tateiiient it should be shIiI that lb 
woo<1h of till' islands ure graded or classillod. under exi.stin}r laws an 
ri'i^uliitioiih!, iitio the six groLi[is iiidicat^'d. aceordiug to thvif vidu 
and iiflefulnesH. All timber cut must be under liceiiHe» ii^sucd by t 
Forestry Bureuu, and lii'en»ee.s |»iy for the amouuts tbey cut accot 
ing to the nite-s piu' cubic foot witaljjished by law. 

Prior to American occupaiioti of the islands, no exaniinatiotr of til 
foreHts had lieen made. Such exploration is now in progress by ex|H'T< 
muter the Forestry Burejiti, who are making iletaile<l iiive«tig«tions 
the species and amounts of standing timlier. From these investig;! 
tions and a large amount of rwonnaissanee. a map was preparvd 
the Fon^stry Bureau, for exhiliition at tlie St. \a)\w KxiHwition. 

Among other matters of interest connected with their provincef 
the supervisors of the censuH were requested to furniHh Inforiimlid 
concerning the amount of timbered land within their jurisdiction an 
its location. In nearly all cases this reiiuest has been complied with 
and this information and some from other sources linve been combine 
with the map of the Forestry Bureau, in the preimration of the foj-ei 
map hci-ewith prosent<^d. 

The climatic conditions arc such that if it wore not for the agency o 
man the islands would he almost entirely (Havered with forests. Th 
ro^oDB not forested at present ai'c, in the main, the populated 
regions, or those which have l»een populated: the population being 
in great measure diiftributed along the seaboai-d, in the gi-e«t ralley 
of Luzon, in the valley of the Oigayan river, in the valley of the 
Kio Grande de Mindanao river in Mindanao, and those of smaller 
streams, it follows that tliose are the principal aroAs now devoid of 

[forests. Indeed, a forest map and one showing the sparsely settled 
parts of the islands are nearly identical. 

On the level hnds and on the mountain slopes up to an altitude of 
8,500 to 4,000 feet, broad-leaved trees comprise the principal, almost 
the only, components of the forests, Alxive that altitude pines are 
found, and often in pure growth. 

' Pnr n lurt of the woods h«re rvfcrred to bcc H«port of tiic E^illpplnc Commlaslon, 




^« /^WyiUADXTV 



F0KEST8. 



77 



Snmniarizing tbo information at hand, U appears that approxinaatolT 

[i per rent of the area of the archipelago, or about (>0,iXHl square miles, 

foiV(<ceH. The forested area wait estimated by Fernando Castro in 

t<int at iil>out 4«,112.920 acres, or 75.160 square miles. ThU estimate 

ichides all the woodland, puhlic and private, and amounts to 66 per 

nt of the total area. An official estimate made in ib7C gave an area 

ahout 8fi,(XH) square luUes. 

Little is known concerning the stand of timber per aero. The 
Forestry fiureau has made careful examinations at several places in 
. the tslands ajul has measured sample acres coutuiDiog more than 
^■,0,<H>u cubic feet, or 1W,LH.MJ t>oai-d feet, per acre, and it reports large 
^Breas of virgin forest, of which the average stand is 7,00n cubic feet 
^^»er acre. It is probable, however, that this is much above the average 
of the ivooded area of the islands, still enough is known to hazard the 
^v'^ecture that the average stand of timber in the islands may exceed 
^J-'.Ol'O cubic feel per acre. 

If this estimate of aveiago stand is not excessive, the amount of 
^_*imbfr in the archipelago is in tUo neighborhood of 1,000,000 million 
^^eet B. M., or more than double the amount in the states of Oregon 

nd VVa.-'bington together. 
^H The stumpage value of the above timber to the (iovommcat, at an 
Hkverage of three cents gold per cubic foot, is not far from three bil- 
lion doUard, and it is easy to foresee that when the lumber industiy 
rcuchf's any considerable magnitude, the receipts from it will form no 
inconsiderable part of the income of the Government. 

kThe inlands are well supplied with streams having sufficient volume 
f water for doating logs. Most of these can !« made good driving 
tr»*iim.'* by a little work in the way of removing snags and sand bars, 
it iiiusi \te remembered, however, that moat of the timber in the Phil- 
ippine^s is too heavy to float and that tho logs must be buoyed by bam- 
boo polo*i. It may be discovered when logging operations on a large 
0nJe are instituted that logging railways will be more economical than 
driving the logs in the streams. 

l4>fi^ag in carried on at present on a small scuJo and with very 

primitive appliances. The logs are dragged out of tho woods by 

niljsoct to the railroad or to the streams, down which they are floated 

the aid of bamboo. 

The following are the tigures for timber production iu the islands 



MINERAL RESOURCES. 



79 



Sptcie* of timber avnxnjwtf in order »J t/nantUia cut durin-j Ifir Jijn.'ul yrar ending Jtine 
SO, t90t, from public lantU vn/y. 




Cnbln 



eracii 



bW.OM 
WKta 

UI,«1S 

ia6.«S7 
7«,]H 
70. OK 
SB. 198 
U.tU 
«,2» 
I&.919 
«Sll4 

a,tm 
a,tu 
«i.m 

n.sri 
n,T» 
n.ioD 

B6,4U 

ae,u7 

»:C83 

n,«M 
n,7« 



Aiuun 

BBtltiDkn.... 
l^1i>lnBttla , 

CupuiK 

rtnt{Ml .... 

A»U««- 

AnDcnls .... 

Bulao 

Apull 

UajruU 

Banftba 

Oiumpii.... 
HuigulnoTD 
BKtuaUgula. 

B«i«l« 

Viutao,,.,.,. 
fttfmtomila. 

BuinTo 

B»roe 

Analiko 

Maidcnlc.... 
OUwn 

ToUl-.. 



ttct. 



».Ge7 
37. M> 
M.aM 

».m 

94,008 
H,OU 
SS.M& 
33,00 

2s.an 
Aon 

31. «« 
21,216 
19, SU 

cm 

18. OK 
n.830 

i«.4g7 

1C.0M 

u.n2 

1ft. DM 

Ktao 

IS. 132 

12.301 

soft. 817 



3.SM.U0 



MINERAL R£&OURC£d. 

Ualehs all indications are deceptive, the mineral wealth of the Phil- 
ippine Itflundii i±t very ^reat. Coal, of Tertiary age. of widely diifenng 
litivs. front lignite so voft and impure aif to be practically worthless 
Lo that equal In steaiu capacity to the best Japauetie coal, is fomid 
tttorod widely over the archipelago. Indeed, there are few prov- 
inceh ill whii.'h it hta^ not heuu found. Many of the prospects which, 
Uiv surface appt-ar almost worthIetft>, owing to weathering, may, with 
eptb, develop into a l>ett«r quality. Gold, also, is ver>' widely dis- 
'tritnitt'd. but LJiuh far the veins and placers are poor and can not be 
wurkcd at a profit under present conditions of transportation and 
labor. Valuable depositu of copper and iron have been discovered, 
and in years puctt have Ijeen worked to a limited extent. Indications 
it asiphaltuni and petroleum have also been dittcuvered, yet the mineral 
production of the islands was, io 1903, practically nothing. 
Thf following li.Ht of mineral occurrences has been made up in |}art 
mi thL' admirable report of l)r. G. F. tieckei-f of the United States 
ieologicail Survey, in part from the publications of the Mining Bureau 
the imiuhtr government, and in part f i*oni the reports of the super- 
)r>4 of the censutt. 

Ooml. — Coal bus Ikh^d found in the following localities: 
0>f(aydu pnivuHc, in the municipalitieii of JJaasipingand Pamplona. 
Abn province, in Uoloroa. 
La Uni6n province, in four or five localitiea. 



Nueva Vizcaya province, uear the uiunicipaJity of Bayonibong. 

Biiluctln. lit Norzuj^iiiy. 

Bizal province, in Tanay. 

Tayabas province, on tbe islandit of I'olillo, Alabat, PagbiUo Grande, 
and Pagbilao Cliico: also in I be luuniripiiHty of Macalel^n. 

Ainbos (Aunarinus province, in AlnmbiUuo, Paracale, PasH<aio. Cara- 
luoan. and Bal6. 

Altwy i^rovince, on the islands of RatiSn, Cftcrarny. and Hapumpu, 
wbicb appear to be evei*}'wbcre underlaid by coal, and in BtUo on 
Catanduanes Island. 

Sorso^6n province, in the municipality of Oiibat. Bac6u, and 
ftiagat lanes. 

Mitidoro province, in Bulal^cao, and on the ialand of Semirai-a. 

Marinduqiie Island. 

Masbatu, in CatuIiT^n and Palanas. 

S^mar, in Calbign, Panibujan, Pamna^, Qilndara, Zumiivi'aga, and 
Catarmrm. 

Leyte, in Babatu^on, and on Biliran lyland. 

Bohol, in Culape. 

Cebfi, at Danao, Compostela, Naga, Bolfao6n, BtdanibiSn, AMturiasT 
Toledo, and Alegrfa; indeed, in neai'ly every nituiicipality on tbe 
eastern coast. 

Negros O'cidental, in Cavancalan, Eecalante, and Calatrava. 

N^ros Oriental. 

lloflo, in DJnglo and Nueva Valencia. 

C&piz, in Madulajf. 

Stirigao, on the islandH of Dintlgat and Siargao, and in the munici* 
palitiea of I^reto, Blslig, Tllnda^, Tag6, and on Point Saucop. 

Misamix, in the Ijarrin of Naaiian. 

Zamboanga, at tbe head of Sibiiguoy bay. 

Dfivao, near Matti. 

Of the alKJve, coal h now Iwing- mined on llatJtn Island by the tTnite" 
States, which has leai^ed a tract of coal land, for the supply of the army 
transports. AualyaeH^how that it equals the best Japanese (*oal. Some 

also mined by private parties. A report upon these \iai&n deposits 
been published by the Mining Bureau. Samples of the C^bfi coal 
have been analyzed, showing that some of them are hut little, if anv, 
inferior to the cotils of Jnpan. The coal dep()sita of CehCi are exten* 
dive, but are twdly broken bi, volcanic action. Much work was done 
in Spaniitti tiwe» in exploiting these deposits, but without a high degi-ee 
of aucce.-*s. The coal found on Sibuguoy bay has been tested on nsral 
vessels, with, it is said, very satisfactory reaulte. 

It is altogether probable that in the near future the Philippine 
Islands will produce not only enough coal for their own aupply, but 




may fnrabb coal for a largo part of the commerce of the Pacific, a 
ct of prime import«tirf in deter mining the t-^yxir^t'of that <;omiiierce. 
'^ith cheap, g:ood cohI aud dock facilitie-^ nt ^fanilit. tlie traffic of that 
)rt may bo vastly increased. 

Gold. — Gold is reported la the followinjf localities: 
LepaativBontoc. 
Ben^et. 

Nueru (tciju. in Uapaii, Perfuratida. Bod^Iwd, and Punc^u. 
I'angiuiinuu, in .Sahuiu and Siu N'icoiiU. 
Rizal, in Mouta]l>do and at tlie mouth of Puary river. 
AmboH Camariueit, in ^lambulao and ParacaLe. 
Allwv- 

Mindoru. in oiountaiiu near the intiDicipality of Calapuc and in the 
barrio of SaMay^n. in the pueblo of Mamb6rao. 
KombL6n, in MagalluneM, 
MaiilMtte, in Sau AgUKtin. 
lar, in Paliipag. 

rte province, on Biliran and Panaon isIandB. 
Ob6, in Toledo and BalanibSn, and in the barrio of TalHml>An, in the 
inii-ipality of Maholo. 
NegroM Occidental, in Calatrava. 
Uofk), in San Enrique. 

C^ipiz, in niountsinp of MaUnno, Maay^n, Oiiartero, and Dumarao. 
i^mgtia province, on Baifibuc Island. 
MtManiis, in rivers flowing into Macajalar bay. 
SoriKao. in 8uriguo. Anaoaon, Placer. Miifnit. Tnganafin, Liafi^, 
iaguij^. CarnuH-uU and N6uoc, and geuerally iu the eastern range of 
lindsnao. 

/amt^Minnga. from placers 40 miles from the city of Zamhoanga. 
Gold iui<f been mined for centurietn by the Igoi'oLs i[) Lepanto- 
itoc and Bengiiet. tioth from veins and placers. The t^ital out- 
\at^ been sninlj. an \viih clawies of deposit are of low grade, hut 
Igorot id contented with low wages, especially if he is working 
himrinlf. Since American occuiKitiun this mountain range has 
proeipAcied by Americans and several hnndreil claims have l>een 
iteil. Little work hu8 t>een done on tliem, and it is not Mieved 
U any deposits likely to prove proHtable under present conditions 
(ir and rrftn.**p«irtalion, have been di«overed. 
depositK of Ciipiz are placers and are said to hare been long 
rkwl by daUvca. It i« reported that 600 taels' worth of ^Id was 
ed from the deposits of Surigao h}* natives in 1902. These are 
only catiroateft of product that have been obtained for that year. 
Cbpprr. — (J'opper is reported in the following localities: 
LepoDto^Bontoc. 

SSMO— >«J. I— « « 



Benguet 

Kuevtt ficija, in Piint-An «nd PantAbafigAn. 

PangiiNmfiu, in .SalaMa. 

IVIasbate, in Milagrus. 

The largest and niont promising of the above dei)08ite are those 
Lepunto-BoDloc. Tbcy are Hitualed on the upper waters of Abm^ 
river near Mt. l>at£, and they consist of enormous ledges of IowtS 
grade ore, outcropping in the bluffs Iwrderlng the river. They liave" 
in years p»3t been mined extensively by Spaniards and Igorots, and 
mueb copper has been extracted by crude methods of mining and 
smelting. At ])rci<ent many claims are held by Americans, bnt no 
work other than the aaaessmcot work necessar}' to hold them has been^ 
done. Hj 

Copper has been mined in Benguet in a small way for centuries by 
the Igv>rot!i. Many claims have been located by Americans in tbiaj 
province, but little work bus been done on them. 

Concerning the copper and gold deposits of LeiMnto-Bontoc, th( 
following statements of Governor Dinwiddle, ceni^us supervisor 
that province, are of interest: 

The future advuDcement an') wealth «f Lepaalo-Bontoe, frooi an indivtriAl and 
comiuerdal vUudpoint, prubably Ht-B iu the lutniiig pooHihilitics. The mineral lands 
10 far prospectpil and Hm't^lnped lie in th« nonthprn hair n( I^psnto, in Uic f>«-tion 
known 80 Mancaj-fin and Suyo. Slrvoe the onrly tortie* the SpaaJarda were am-are 
that valuable mineral waa containr*) in ttw provinn-, by the fdreiam of gohl and cop- 
per broajtht to the cottat hy tlie natives, who minnl in a primitive way. Some 
tw«Dfy yean lat«r, certain Spaiiiard« Kcared urown firante or conci>SBloa8 for luiolng, 
and, from that time to tho Inginning of the inxurra-tion, diioh graats wn« aerond 
bj many different inartini, A complete lint of the Spanish mining conrefldona ma; 
be Aecured from the Mininf( Bureau in Manila. No sysu-niatif work was 
attempted >□ thuf minvral belt, with the exception of the development of the Manca; 
Copper Conveenon, whose Ixiandary linee inctoeed an immenw body of solid ore, 
with a bold and procipttousexpOHUreofthemineral on (he AbrariTer.mmc 1,000 feet 
in length by IGO hvl in height, and which, a« hai< been proven by Umneling, mna 
back under the hill fnr many hnndreds of feci, the width not yd being known. 
A syndicate operating thia mine erected an old-faahioncd flmellcr half a mile from 
the mine, with traila leading upward to the plant from the mine. No atU-inpt wna 
made (o amelt the low •grade ore, but instead all the many rich leads were followed 
where the ore showed from -10 to 60 per cent of copper. The result bar been that 
the hill of copper ore haa been burrowed into in fvery dlrrction along theee mull 
vdns. What the total vahia of the ore extracted was is not known, the sudsdca oo 
the snbject not being known. It Is aaid that the syndicate stopped <-ipenitlag from 
lack of Igorot laloren and the bet that »o much stealing was done and so many 
take-offe takpA that the mine did not pay the sbareboldere. 

There nn> w^vonil other Spanish conce«Bions, of both copper and gnld, on which 
more or lew ilesultory work has been dooe Tho gold-bearing rock has received 
mnrli murr atu>nlioti Uian the a>pper, but the method followed waa extremely \mu\-, 
the rlaimN were fanned out to the Igorota, who were allowed hail the gold for tLolr 
labor. The rorolt was, Daturmlty, that the ownera <iid not receive their ahan, that 
the opt'ratinoe wen* only mrried nn when the Ig<rroc coiner needed a (sw penes to 
buy fuppUee, and be smelted all the silver be dared inu the gold boOoaa. 




Affal^ 



I 



the Igorot mothod of mininic in minmn to the conntr^- and to the ownnr, in rock 
Thirh mtwt be BtoeltM to extract g^ild. u fae balMs d&tnif on tho ed^ea of the sUdett 
or btlle, waits ontll the rainy imwnn 6IIm th«in, and tlieii relKRW? a dulujpe which 
tron <lowQ th« mck and carries the detritua into the %'alley Mow. On thia ma« of 
tiruken-dnwn mawrial bi* works, piclditf; out and ohippiuia: tiny pit>e« ol rot-k which 
flhiw th^ ifold fn>el>', and a^ain pirkin^, ur, ratiier, bntrowin); for a few h^i Into 
the faet^ ■>( the frtsb fxpoflurcof rock. Tbo rock isttincltcd, by hflndfnbi, in rhar- 
tonl iivrn^ ol rock aitd ctar, bnilt on the ground. The clam of rot-k wbidi h« iniiet 
of nocnnity oae in thia primitivE< fnnuicv will often away a thouisand dollnrB a Ion. 
Tliere is no donbt that with the Hune bbowiog of gold'beariuft rock in the United 
SutM there would be creatwl a gold fever which woald bring thoufnada of proe- 
pedat* to the epot and millvons of capital to buck the Jntnylnrtion of modem 
raining mnchintiry and mcthoda. 

The mining ticit, tt now known to the handful of Ameritaui mining proopectore 
who liavo with real fortitode honi; on to this refpon for the last three yeare, w^ting 
for an AniBric&n mining law to be pofleed, lliat ihey nilglil Ic^ly stitko cl^oui, 
nacboi from a point 2 milee north of Mancayiin te> abont 2 milea sonth of Suyo, in 
ilJ a diataac« of aoinc 10 or 12 mllee, and the belt baa poitibly an average width of 
■ mile. 

The American miner aince the pnmngr tA tbe mining Uw last autumn, and the 
mncomilant recording ol his eloim, is rapidly cOBipledng ha flret ycar'^ lueMEinent 
work, and loudly a tunnel or shaft hiu bo fiu* been driven which doe« not show tow- 
grade ctipper OTV, 10 to St) p^r cenl, in It^gca from a foot U> ir> iMtt in thickneee, or 
wltcrv laTfcc intrunve Kold-bearinc qoartx streams have not been uncovered which 
a«Ky Iroiu (4 to (20 per ton. 

It ia trae there ie not enough Igotot labor at band to develop theee minm. It is 
alkj tnw that, while the American miner is tetting about liEs task in a manner a 
ttwoaand time* more intelligent than the Igorot baa ever done, he iit yet, perfon-o, 
doing tbe work in a very primitive why, without powder to vboot a foot of rock, with 
bw tools, and dejiendinK on the uncfTtain and iHiticult attempt of directing the 
IgDfoC how to do the actual work. The troublu ia thuL tlu; Ameriiwi luiner baa, aa 
jrd, beat nnable to display hir< find to the cnpilali^ or luurker. He him eipent three 
ytan grimljr holdinf; on to his claim, without a Eihadow of warrant in law, until the 
paaaKe of the n-cvnt mining Uw, ami naturally h« luut l>eHn loatli to ailvfrtii^e the 
wfAlth ol the region until aucb time as be waa protected by re<cordwl claime, the 
rnaah betng that the little money with which ho came Into the country has lung 
aincr bo^n exhausted, and the wherewithal is not yet in mght lo derenlly develop 
Uf holdings. In any cold clime this prospector would have been frozen out long 
agpaiid left the i-ouutry In deapalr, but here, in the midat of perpetmtl apringtime — 
brthe region iabHwvn Bveandsix ihoDsaod feet elevation — hettima to the soil (or 
■qiport, building a antall cabin of readily aoceoeible materials, planting a gar^leu 
sroond it, and raining cliickcua and bogs to supply himself with food. lu many ways 
Ibft coonlry la hiftl for mtntng de%'elopmenl. The climate ts almoel perfert at. these 
high ol titudea, and the American can labor here as readily aa In any part of the United 
There is ample timber for all mining coottniction. The Abra river^a large, 
iflowing stnam — oSeTP moro power than will ever lie reqolreil, and, while the 
trails to tbe cnaft are admirable for i)ackiiig, the Ahra river gives n practically 
iMy outlet, with gentle grade to the coast, for the oanBtmction of an electric or nteam 
isilniaid. 

Oapltaliata will oome into thia country bringing the neceeamry labor and modem 
minlsfl machinery for the smelting of tbe great areas of low'grade copper ore, and 
)iaT»b«fare them «» great a surety of immense winnings as tl>odeveloi>cr« of tho I..ak« ' 
.^Bprrior rPEirm over had In the United gtat<?«. ftfany of tbe copper dalms will aaaay 
paffirianl gold in pay all tbe operating expenses ol a mill. 



Fnm wbst hw heen bw<1 atwre it will benndentood that Leprato-Bootor in 1902 

, did noidwiwaiiv miuerat uutput wliicli can beiDM0un'<J iu flfturw. Tb« Jf^ruUan 

itl^r wiling gold, Aod the bnyer can always fuemre a few otuicee nf tmttoiw by 

^•ending ont void that be is then: to porcbaae. The price haa increaacd greatly dm^ 

ing th« laMt three yean, gold prerioosly hriRging ooly 10 or 12 p«AO«, or 95 to |S gold 

r jwr Donne and more than double that amount tiMby. Er«n at th« praN-nl pHc«, 

rtvvr, there ia a larjn- profit to the carefol buyer who do«a dqI let the Jgorot palm 

oS hia bnttona filled with melUnl Rpaninh pJWer coius. 

Oofe of the Igorot copper induatriM which is betng slowly mppreesed in the mann- 

facture of thii n/nn^, an extremely rode coootarleit of the Hpauisli copper coin. 

Tbey are much thinner than the geauitte coiiw, bat, owing to Uie almn«4 la<ck of 

■mall change in this province and other parta of northern lAix/m as well, tbey are 

valnetl at a uent and a quart<u- Mexican, or 4 sipingip are equal to 5 eentaw. Bov 

thige the ioaoe haa hef n einre foar yean> agn, when thv indortry began, no one toowBi 

I )ait the entire wc«t«m Itolf of northern I,nz6n has lieen fwpplied with them, and 

idatnand hax N«n greater than the supply. That the manufacturer haa found it 

Fnmunerative there out In- little doul>l, fiir hie outfit tvuntitii ul a miall hammer, a 

'flew Rponiah ooppem with which to make clay models, and a handfal of t:hartxMd 

placed 111 a hulo lined with clay, which constilutM hia smelter. 

It is Raid that in yeare gone by the country waa filled with ropper kettlee of Igorot 

nanulacture, ami it wax tbeee finduig their wmv to market* o( the cwut which first 

'ftttracted the attention of the Spauiatdto to the mineral depoeita of thin rettioa. A 

lew of them primitive hand-beaten IceltleB may BtUl be fooDd among the Igorot^ but 

, the Rtory ginv that they are alt being rapidly couvertetl into the nalahle imping. 

Among the richer Igorote one often finds gold Agnrinn—eaeti! of their aiiifiM and 

>( animal lomiK, prntorahl y the carahao — and again thf^y o(t4>n have very hcHvy gold 

' diaka, Ihougfi the common peojile are content w iUi the nnit* fonae in copper. 

Governor Pack, cohhiis snpomnor of Bcnguet province, adds the 
following dotnilK rc^rdmg the minonil doposito of hiH province: 

The province of Bengnet haa fourdi?tinct monntain rangm. mnning in a northerly 

and Routherty direction. One of these, tbe centml and prinoiiiol one, itt mineral- 

bearing in many placea, showing rich ouli.'roppingti of «'0[i[>er ore, which earned with 

It gold. In other placea there are oulcroppinfEs of Kold, silver, and a Utile lead. 

Wliat would be develo|ied by gf^og to any depth below the aorface or by loUowing 

thew leadff lo tlio molhrr ledge, inn not be wid, (ur It haa never been done. The 

IBpaniards, though here for ocntnriea, and poa wmc d of knowledge that there waa 

Igold in theee mountainii, never tpent & cent in the development of minen. The 

orota wonld liring tii gold in dtut, ttometiniea roorwi, whioh tlie Bpaiiiarda would 

' ^adly porchaee, their pricee nuver exceeding 7 peeoa per ouuw. It ie well known 

that at one pUue, .^Dtomac, there were Igorot diggings. Flanxa, tlie hurt Igorot 

iipaat of thefte landa, told me that he areraged 100 onnoea a year from this one 

^BMontaln. P<ven now gold ean be obtained in small amonnts frmn the tgorota, but 

tbey are ahrewd enough to demand the market prlt-e Tticre arc now 'MO mining 

cbUma on rvcord in tlte pruvioce, located by Ameni.«n prr»ipet-lon<. Perltap half a 

tdoaen tnnnola hare been worked nn tlinse mines bnt without further reaulta than the 

at work required by law for the pnn>ow of retaining poaaoflfllon. 

Iron. — Deposits of ore of this motal have been found in many placet), 
[nnong them the following: 
BttJac^u proviaoef in Anj^t. 
Amboft OunaHneft, milc« south of Panu-ale 
8<buu-« in Piric. 



« 





k 



Nepros Occidflntat, on BJiularcan river. 
C&piz, in Poatcrodra. 
BohoK in Moribojoc. 
Dfimo district, neiir Matt). 

Of Tiie above, the dopoait in ^Vngat and neighlwrin^ partn of Bulapfin 
rovincp nppcjirs to be extensive and rich. The ore is bemntite and 
itttfnotiU!!, principftUy the lattor. and runs from fiO per cent to tljj per 
t of metallic iron. The deixtsit^ extend over a belt 40 miles In 
, varyinjf jjroatlr in breadth, lyin^ on the wwt slope of the 
which fonnn the eastern poition of the province. The ore was 
incd to a ^noatl oxtojit durini^ Spatii<)h domination, but without linan- 
tmcce8& Little prospecting of the doi>ottit>i in place has been made, 
the ore having l>ecn taken mainly from bowlders on the surface. It 
was 8melt«d will) t-harcoal in small erode blast furnaces. 

Thii^ property has been examined and reported on by the Mining 
Bureau of the insular government, and it appears probable that it may 
be made of great value to the archipelago, not only rendering it inde- 
pendent of the rest of tbc world in the matter of pig iron, but it may 
build up exteanive manufactories of iron and steel in the;jc islandt). 

Petroleum. — Indications of tbc existence of petroleum have been 
found in u number of plat.'es, commonly amtociated with coal or lignite. 
The following have been rejxirt*^; 
Kueva ^k'ija, in northern part of province. 
LeytCf in San Isidro. 
Ceb6. ill Toledo, Alegria, and A^turiafi. 
Qoflo, in Le6n, Maa^sin, and .Taniuay. 
This article ha8 Kt yet no commercial value. 

Jfowwry.— Deposifci of ore of thin metal liavo been reported iu the 
pn)vint:e of Alimy, and in Mt. Itiarog, in Ambo8 Camarines. 

— Ores of this metal are said to have been discovered on Point 
inthoprovinceof Sftr.sog<')n,in ParanaMon the if?laiidof Samar, 
and in Cavancalan in the province of NegroB Occidental. 

^ii//*Aur.— Tliis mineral Ik found in many localities, aa might lie 
expected frointbevolcauiccharacternf the archipelago. Itlsreported 
in the province of Horeog^ii, in Murcia in the province of Negros 
Occidental, in Neuron Orir>ntal, in Burauen in the province of Leyte, 
and on Ml Aiki in the dir^trjct of Oiivao. 

MarhU. — DepoititA of marble are in the province of Soi'9(^6n; in 
Tubumn in l}ie province of (VbCi, and in the province of Roniblfin, 
where it in of excellent (juality and \a quarried in considerable 
quontitieii. 

f' ThLt in known to cxi>it in Pctta Blanca, Solana, ttnd Mau- 

aoA: ■ provincn of CagavAn, in the province of Nueva r.4M)a, 

where it is quite generally diatnbutod; in Lo!> BofloH in the province 




86 GEOGHAPHY. 



of La Laguna, in the provinoe of SorBOgdn, in Bali1i]'aii and Danis in 
the province of Bohol, and in Manapla and &ic61od in the province of 
Negroa Occidental. 

Salt. — ^This mineral is said to have been found in Janiuay, Le6n, 
uid A^iasin in the province of Iloflo. 

Ploi^wn. — Platinum is reported in the municipality of P^fij^l in 
La Laguna. 

Boraa. — Borax is reported as having been found in the province of 
Negros Oriental. 




* 



I 



The climate of a country is the complex of tho avorajjo atmnaphorict 
cooditlotiH which have an influence upon orji^anic life; therefore, an 
adequate study of th<> different elements which go to make up tbeae 
ibnospheric conditionrt would give a true idoa of the climate.' 

The more important elements whieh form the elimato may be reduced. 
to three, viz, heat or temperature; water vapor in its different forms, 
lorh an humidity, erapomtion, clouds, and procipitation; and finally, 
the movement or circulation of the atmonphere, which includes the 
direction and force of tho wind, cyclonic and noncyclonio atonns, 
together with local and general storms. Atmoripheric pressure is not, 
properly speaking, a cllroatoloj^ica! element, but, an it serves as an 
indication of the general variations of the climatological elements, 
strictly so called, a few words will be said occasionally on it, in so far 
as it has any relation to the aboi'e -mentioned elements. 

The Philippine archipelago is situated in the Torrid zone or within 
the Tropics. The climate is. therefore, genorally speaking, tropical, 
although there are points in the itjlaods where it can not strictly he 
BO termed. The exceptions are due to the fact that there arc so 
may causeA which influence the cUmatoIogicul conditions of tho 
archipelago, that the different islands, and even different parts of the 
aanie island, have meteorological values so unlike that they possess 
cliuat«s entirely distinct Not only does the latitude affect the climate, 
15 the name "climate" itself seems to indicate,' but also the altitude, 
the relative diatributiou of land and sea, the size and configuration of 
the laknd, the proximity of mountain ranges, the composition of the 
•oU, tbe vegetation, the ocean currents — especially those in the straits 

*T1iat the etnily of the climstuloeical cTinrliliutM be adeqti&te, it U not milScient to 
kaow nuiply ihe mvu3 aniiuul valuosul ib<.-c-lvmunta, wit U It Deoesitry, also, to 
kaow lh<> mean raloM tor months ttnd dajf in the \iirioii8 ro^ns, tocethorwlth the 
ntmne rslom, and tbe tnaximum nmt mvtut om-illitiion. Over Km abov« lh«M dftla 
It ia imifwniji to bo cotnii^ajiL of the c-ireunit;tiuii-L«i nliicli iiifliicncu thisKi valti«e. 

*Id its orifrinil nnd etriotcr ctymolo)^i-al moaning thf vord Llimatc (tirtoliKAfua, 
ilpfir or tiH'.UnKtt<>n ) wns nppliml U> one oF r wrie^ of rvgions or KoneH of th« e«rth 
nmnlns parftUvl to thn e«)iuitur, (mm wUkh the i-arth'eaurfBCO wurappoMd tosk^ 
to ttiB powB, henoe the Lutin ruoderiiiK of icXifta, indtnaHo caeiL 

(87) 



aud the cliannelw — in fino, all tlioso rauses whifh rao id any wmy 
modify tho climatological olemeiiUi alrea<lv luotitioiicd. 

Before speaking of tbese clenienttf we propoRR to sb.v a few words 
concerning the effccte of each of the ahovc causes in the different 
r^ionH of tho archipelago. 

Of all the causes mentioned above which have influence on the clima- 
tological elerueiits iwrhajM the relative latitude haw the leant influence. 
For example, Zmiitioiinga, in Mindanao, and Aparri, in Luz6d, are 
separated from one anotlier by more than eleven degreiw of latitude, ■ 
bnt ftlthongh Zainhoanj^ii i^ mui'h nearer to the *'<]iia(or than Aparri, 
it enjoys a ctiuiate t)uite tts mild a^ that of Aparri, which is at the 
extreme north of Luz6n. The sanie may be said of Jol6, D&vao,, 
Dapitan, and other towns of Mindanao in compariHon with those of tbo' 
nortJi of Lnzfin. 

Altitude h&a a great influence on t«niperatiire, humidity, and direc-l 
tion of the winds in the ishind-s. This may t>e observed by comjmring 
the climate of the relatively high Raguio with that of tho plain of, 
Paropanga. Many other examples of the influence which altitude haH. 
on the I'.limate might be cited, s\.\rh as the towns surrounding I^ke 
Lanao, the altitude of which is a,200 feet above the level of the sea, 
compared nith the climate of (he lowlands around Ilrgan hay; tfaei 
climate of the highlands of Abra and Lepanto-Ikintoc with that of the 
Cagayfin valley; the climate of the rising laud all along the ridgo which 
runs from the river Ptauistpit to its westem idope. with the plain of 
Bolayfu, although this rising ground i^ only 300 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

The archiiHilagu is situated between the Paeilic ocean and the China 
sea, at a distjiiice of fiunie r>0(l miles from the Asiatic continent and 
about 1,000 miles from Australia. On one side of tho archiiwlago is j 
the lower limit of on immense area of high pressure which is caused H 
by the cooling off of tho air in the interior of the coulitient^ aud on ~ 
the other i.s the western limit of Uie onomioiis area of high pre-ssure _ 
situated in the Paciflc. Tho first area of high pressure slowly chancres I 
ita poitition during the course of the year frani oast to we^tt and fram 
west to cast between the parallels 80^ and 40'- nortli. During the 
winter mouths the center of the Siberian high pressure area lends 
force to the polar wind currents, as well as to the northea.st monsoon. 
The permanent center of the Facitic high pressure area, on tho other 
hand, has some influence on the predominance of the east and the 
southeast winds, e.sperlally at the ■i>eriod when the monsoon dies away. 
II is also very proliable tliat the distribution of land and sea in thia 
part of tho Far F^i.'^t is the principal cause of the nonexistence of th« 
southwest monsoon in thearoh!|)elago, although it Idown in the Indian 
ocean. We have had occasion to speak of tliis fact in other publica- 



88 nvruiitA^ 



V%TV 



IKFLUKNCfiS AFFECriNU CLIMATE. 



89 




tfa 



^' 



tionSf where we have prored the nooexistence of tbU monsoon id Um 
Plinippines. 

The climato logical cotidldoDfl of the eastern coastoof the larfi^r islando 
of the archipelago, such aa Luz6n, Mindanao, Panay, Mindoro. Sfimar, 
and Ijti>*te, are t\u\te different froiu those of the iuterior aud western 
co&at of thet«6 islands. This U cdpet^ially the case if the islands extend 
Eroui eatil to weiit, an with Mindanao, Panay , aud Miudoro. If, on the 
h«.-r blind, the islands 81*6 not very hrotid and arc prolonged in th« 
irui-tiun north-south, ah at'u the i^^laudit Ccbii and Paniguu, then the 
erence h not so great^ while if the islands are narrow, like Tublas, 
ioigat, Tioao. aud Burian, then: ia scarwly any diflferenre between 
dUmute of the interior and tltat of the eastern and western coastfi, 
no otttter what lie the general direction 6t their prolongation. The 
climate of the eiiualler i.s1and.s dues nut suffer any modification on 
acuoimt of tbe land, but is generally that of the region they occupy; 
thu«, for example, Capul, Virf, LAgu^n. and Siargao have the general 
ilimaluloifical i*nn<liliun8 of the east of thearchiijelago, and the Ubindit 
(brregidur, Lubang, and (Jalami^n, those of the weiiteru coast of 
,e archipelago. 

Monncain ranges iolluence tlie climate of a countrj* by protecting tbe 
lower plains from the Htrung wiudn. I'bus the Sungay range protects 
the fertile lands of Cavite from the destructive effects of the aouthaod 
Douihwest winds. Manila is shielded from the strong southeast winds 
the Tsyabas hills, and the mountains Maquiling and BaDujiio. Again 
i» owing to the Zambales hills that the climate of the eastern slope 
and the plains of Pangasinfin, Tdrlitc, and Pampanga ia so different from 
at of the province of ZambaJes. 

The well-known province of Benguet owes ita salubrious climate and 
abundant rainfall in .luly und August in great part to the fact that 
»rc U no high land on the east and south. The prevailing winds 
ring the months of March, April, May, and June, on the table-land 
of Bagai6 are from the west and the west- southwest. These winds 
iirtng with them the aqueous vapor with which they are saturated, 
and tbnft cause a modomto rainfall during May and June, which 
Hiini-ilics the temperature much more than tould be espected from 
e height alone. Thus the same cause which helps to rx>o! the low- 
ing plajns in the western part of the archipelago during the months 
June, July, and August, also oontribulen to tlio tempering of the 
t iu Bagui6 during tlie months of March, April, May, and June.' 
The geological constituUon of the soil is one of the circumstances 
hich has t)u> lea'<t influence on the climate, still it has some influence, 
r, as tbe radiation and even tbe calorihc capacity is quite distinct in 
ffcrcnt soiU, it follows that these two factors modify to some degree 

' "Clinuto nl Bagui6, Benjiuet," pages 64-71. 




90 



GEOGRAPHY. 



the gonf^ral conditionH of (he climate. Thus, h1I other conditiotiH being 
the -sanin, the t^^mpenitiiri? of Randy soil will be different from that of 
clayey soil, which in turn will he distinet from the teniperntui'e of rocky 
or of soft soil. For this reason there is a ex)n8iderablp contrast between 
Uie temi>erature of Cavite and that of Marilao in the Bulaedn phiin, 
and hetwren that of Manila and of Riftan in the provint-e of Ijh Laguna, 
both of which places are nitoated at but a itmall height above the level 
of the sea. 

In Kayin^r that the vegetation of a country ha^ itomc influence on the 
climate, we mean it to be tAken in tiie sense of amount of vi>getation 
the amount of land covered by vegetation. Vegetation in general 
ft very direct influence on the eonden-wtion of aqueous vapor lu 
well at) on the radiation of heat, and consequently can modify in a very 
notable degree the cHniatologioal conditions. The two principal ele- 
nientd which it modifies are the rainfall and the temperature; thus, for 

hexample, the$e two elements have somewhat different values in Atimo- 
lum, D&et. and Albay, owing doubtless to the conditious of vegetation 
ID these repon». 

If we look ut a map of the isotherins of the world it will be tjeen that 
in many places they are irregular, and depart greatly from the eaat 
and wetjt cuunto which we would naturally expect them to follow. The 

^reatjou for tlii^ variation b^ to be found in the course of the great ooefta 
cnrrentH which cause the interchange of ocean waters between the 
equator and the poles, und thus cool or warm the .surrouDding land. 
There ai'e two general currents which affect the zone of the arcfaipel* 
ago. The one wliich extends from latitude 5'^ N. to 10° N. has great 
bfluenco on temperature of the archipelago of Jol6 and the whole of 
the Houth coast of Mindanao. The other current, which in some 
respects is like the Gulf Stream, but much greater, oomes from the 

■east in the Pacitic and extends from close to latitude 10*^ N. a-s fur as 
the northern extremity of the Tropica, that is, as far as 23'^ N. This 
immense current inclines to the north on reaching the arohipolngo and 
then ourvos to the south of Japan and flows on from there to the east. 
Aa this current bring*' cool water, it tempers the bent uf the eastern 

lOoasts, espncially during the hot months, when the influonce uf tho 

^north monsoon has bc<x)me a minimum — that is to say during the 
months of Mai-cii, April, and May, during which mouths it is very 
protmblc that thi» current also eontributos to the prevalence of the 
winds from the second quadrant. 

Besides the general oceim currents, of which we have spoken above, 
there ore also smaller currontd in the straits and channels between 
Islands, which are in part. cau.-M*<l by the general currents. These small 
currents have much influenco on the climate, as is shown by the climate 
of Zamboangn and the island of BH.<«ilnn, which is modified by the cur- 
venU of Uie Rasilan chonneL Again, the climates of Aparri and the 



1 
I 



i 



TEMPERATURE. 



91 



itanea are inflnenced by the currents in the Balingt^n and the Rash! 

mnels, and the pt'tiinsuhi of Sorsogon and the north (xwHt of S^nwr 
|»y tilt! curreutii in Ibe San Ik-rnurdino strait. 

Accordingly, as these caui<c:«j cither individually or iu variouH com- 
|»irtatiooj«, ufffct the different regions of tho arfhipnlafro, the climates 
if thetie region!^ havo different chaructcristicfi. These it is thn aim of 
kin paper to group und dassify. 

TEMPERATURE." 

The tf^tnperature probably contttitiLt<»« the principal element of a 
it**, which is eoriHiderjibly moditipd by the thermic oscillations, 
anally by tho annual oscillation. Thid anniml thermic change 
vnricH writhin tho archipelago from 7'^ C. on the Batiin and BalwyJlD 
Ulands to 2-3'-* C in tho Honthornniofit parts of the Philippine group. 
It uiuHt be well underntood timt we t^pi^ak of the variationM of the 
mean monthly temperature, not of tho extreme, which occur during 
10 year. Tliis oscillation does not, however, increase uniformlv from 
ic Jol6 group Ut the Hatanes, but \s distributed somewhat irregularly 
between thcae limita of the Philippine arcliipelago, as the following 
tsble ^ows: 

TaMLB 1. — AnatuU tiurmie eadHalion in (/te PhiUypiae arctapetoffo. 




OonOiWA. orSMoo(S«Uii WuMta). 

nliCM^to. Ljwfin) 

lidTo (Nu«T* BftIK LuiOB} 

ftc (T«rttc, L<uAnI 

.rti>o ( lllnaikii 

Bowurt 






noUo 

lUnilk 

lb« iZmdUOml UnOht 

0$mUiri)^ji 

Vifc«!(L«Ti«) .-, 

Oim (UalHl ot C*tA\ . 



n). 



Annual 
(wHUAtltin 

rc,), 



UUtnds 

i llntth). 



3D 38 

18 S 

IS Zt 

1ft n 

9 47 

i> a 

lA 86 

1( 2 

1« 4 

1« 17 

14 4S 

15 9 
U 15 

lb 21 



« IB 




From tbhi toblo we learn: (1) That, generally Mpcaking, (be thennic 

ilbtion lncre«>«e^ with latitude; (2) that in equal hititudcH the 

lion i.>« Ie!^4 on the coaet than iu tho interior. The \-iiriatioD on 

DJn^uhi of Sutigao hs remarkabte, uod probably due to tlio 

flueiict) of the irurrentef of tlie Pacific and uf the Strait of Surigao. 

Tb« differeocfi between tumpemturw of the wanue.st and coolest 



'To rwIo<M> d<KT4>i-- 
natt)|>l> uumUcj'of 



' f'k df^roM of Ffthrenlinit, if abova fireranng pcAnt, 
^iiiB product br5, and ad<l 32 toqootteat Thus 



99 



UEOGEAPUY. 



months is an important climatic element, namely, the mean annual 
range of temperature. 

In order to give an idea of the distribution of temperatare in the 
archipelago we have arranged the stationa of the Philippine weather 
Mrvice into as many groups as there arc differcat isotherm^ which 
affect them. It is, however, not enough to consider nioroly the ^ 
iiwHherms corresponding to the various stations to ascertain the meanH 
annual range of t4>m[>erature of each station. We uiu^t also take into ~ 
account the moan dally variation of temperature found by comparii^ 
the means of the highent and lowe«it tempemtures, which latter are 
called by wmc the "'nonperiodic amplitude of temperature."' 

In forming the following tabic only those stations liave tieen takeaj 
Into acf'Ount whose elevation above ^ea level is le^ than 80 meters. 

Tablk 3. — Matimum diurnal ratifft nf tanperature al tpeeyud Hatiatu, uith toeation aj 

iMOUiem, bjf monlh*. 



PtaUASV. 



sudun. 



tbttvt 
CO. 



MULlmuia 

diurnal 

turn 



atkHan. 



WtHi 

dlOTBAl 



CBllMloR>n 

P H'tn iHiur .■.■>■..•..>••. 

tMb*U d* BmUui 

rutalWmi 

Rcmbldo... .,..,,,. *,t.«.....H 

TUfWCUM 

Dignpui..... 

BUan , 

DkDllan 

AtUlOBAO , 

Mrmo , 

B»«6lcrf ; , 

Hollo , 

L0611 , 

Koradftoti 

Uuafu 

Cvbd 

CbtIIa 

Barlfoo 

Oiin» 

■MrliM! , 

Aitj»l 

BKiMOtk ....,...,.., 

CMUImIo , 

HsrllBo 

P6IM 

aoiiBu> , 

H«b1U 

!ar':::::::::::::-:::r 

MM 

oirii I 

llMrinloe 

UwUan 

BkrMaboTw 

Ibb naokBdo {iM ridAD)... 

Aponl 

(."KltllAU 

Sank! Doatlnio, or Dmo.... 
VlIU 



IiabxlB ii« B«dlan 

D»»»o 

Zamtiouiga ,,., 

1.160 

Daplun 

C4piU 

Ciqro 

BHUb 

Aiiyat 

OWOBUt 

Oommio 

rbfc.TTr. 

Hollo 

Tvabltann ». 

BwUod 

Ouan 

Okvlb. 

MBMlB 

J<M 

Snrtoto 

cowT. 

aomblM 

SS:?!??.:;::::;:::::::: 

lUrtlM 

Sin J(Mi* SuraftTlA.... 

MaulU 

P6tie 

Tubuna... 

Botliuio 

Ailmonw _. 

OofnctdDT- ■..••••••■•■•••. 

mS3»:;::::::::::::::::: 

Barombone 

OtdUtuA 

CMbiloRBa.- 

SS^::::::::::;:::::;: 

KUlQlOC 

0»n rtovmdo [La VoMn). 
O MWito.. 

iMrTr. 

tauw DdioIiicv. or Bum. . 



%] 



><*HaiidbiMk o( aimatotoRy," by Dr. Joltoa lUnn. New Vorii, vm. ptv» 18. 



^ 



TEMPERATURE. 



98 



Tablb 2. — Maximum d^tmal nmge of temperature at tpedfisd ttatums, vnik location of 
itotherm, by tnonUu — Cootinaed. 



SUtlon. 



IM>- 

theim 



MAximiuii 
dlomal 
nnge 



Station. 



lK>- 

tberm 
CO. 



dlonia] 
moge 



Binpaii 



BaUnAO. 

naUo. 



deBuilui 






Aitr»t. 

Ite 

Cattsteto 

BuAlod 

Mtm 

Lo6n 

Gan Penuuido (La C11I611). 

0»Tite 

0M< 

BomUAti 

CeW 

Cajo. 



Topiesmno 

UaiUao 

lui Jcaf de BnenkvlBta . . . 
tUl.1% - 

F61K 

KuUk 

(UbATos 

(MtMJogao 

Tsbimn 

AtinoD&D _ , 

ImUn 

nffUUnn 

Hulnloc 

ZolobOBIiKB 

Corregldor 

Diet 

tm 

CiniWii 

Vlgsn 

B«yonibon(( 

8«nl»l<ln) 

Blimn 

0l0[)f[kp6 

Ormoc 

Apani 

BoroilRrin 

Uuxin 

}ff^'> 

C«rnr« 

SoTuiao 

H&nin UnmlDKO, or BaflCo . 



38 

28 

28 

28 

28 

27 

27 

27 

27 

27 

27 

27 

27 

27 

27 

37 

27 

27 

27 

2S 

26 

2S 

26 

26 

26 

26 

26 

26 

26 

■X 

26 

26 

38 

26 

28 

28 I 

26 

126 

26 

'25 

26 

25 

■IS 

2.T 

2G 
26 
28 
■•fi 
Vi 
2,1 



17.2 
18.0 
14.6 
U.2 
U.6 
22.B 
21.8 
16.0 

ie.8 

16.9 

16.6 

18.6 

18.2 

12. & 

11.0 

».S 

0.4 

7.4 



21. & 
10.2 
18.1 
17.8 
17.8 
IT. 3 
16.4 
16.2 
16.3 
18.9 
U.S 
12.6 
12.6 
12.0 
11.2 
11.0 
10.2 
10.2 



22.3 
18. .S 
17.6 
17.3 
15.2 
12.5 
12.0 
11.6 
10.9 
10.3 
9.6 



ArAy*t 

DagupAii .... 

Cavltfl 

TArlu 

Tu^eguao , 

Itw 

Baladfea 

Blfian 

Vlgan 

D&plttm 

Cftpl* , 

Boiiiuu) 

llollo 

Marllao 

MuilU 

F&rac 

Oatbklo 

BacAlo 

SftD Jo«£ de BuenavlaUi . . . 

D&VBO 

Tuburan 

Correridor 

T*fbUftnin 

AtunoDAD 

8u) Pemondo ( La Unl6n) . 

Lo6n 

Rombldn 

Cebii 

Cuid6ii 

Mag&lan 

SanUdio 

Olongttpd 

CalSfycw 

Isabela ae Basilan 

Aparri 

Masinloc 

DfteC 

Zamboanga 

Qilbat 

Bayombong 

Ormoo 

Boroilgon 

Maa.=ln 

Kiiiilo Domingo, or Bhhco. . 
Caraga 

JX^!::;:;;;;:::;::;::::: 

Surigao 



19.8 
10,6 
12.0 
21.0 
19.6 
18.0 
16.3 
16.2 
Ift.O 
14.0 
18.9 
18.6 
18.1 
18.1 
17.8 
16.6 
16.1 
14.0 
14.8 
14.8 
14.1 
18.6 
18.4 
18.0 
12.0 
11.9 
10.7 
9.7 
8.8 



22.8 
17.8 
16.0 
14.8 
14.1 
13.6 
11.1 
11.0 
8.4 



15.1 

12.6 
12.3 

10.9 
10.1 
10.1 
9.8 



94 



GEOGEAPHY. 



Tablb 2. — JKaximam diurnal ran^ of temperature at tp^ified statiotu, with toeation of 
iaoUierm, by morUht — Cootinued. 



.liU.'i'. 



StltlOQ. 



SftnMdro 

AtAyM 

Vig*n 

DWUIMUl 

Iba 

Hollo 

Sftn Fernando (La Unl6n] 

(^Tite 

T4rlac 

Taraemno 

MuUao 

P6nc 

Blflan 

Manila 

Boloil^ 

Cottabato 

BoUnoo 

Dopltan 

Atunonon 

6an Josd de Bueuavlata. . . 

CipiB 

Bombl6n 

Cand6D 

01ongap6 

Aparri 

Tnbaran 

laabela de Bodlon 

Bacaiod 

IHvoo 

Hatdnloc 

Togbllaran 

Lo8n 

Met 

Cebd 

Legaq>l 

CUTO 

HagiOan 

Onooc 

CalbAy(« 

Corrnldor 

Hauin 

Coiiwa 

Zam&oonga 

Banto Domingo, or Boaco . 

Gdbat 

BtiTlsao 

Bayombong 

Bon>i%on 



lao- 
thenn 

CC). 



Uaxlmum 
dlomal 
range 



21.6 
20.1 
16.8 
16.8 
1&.& 
14.8 
13.8 
10.9 
21.4 
21.2 
17.2 
17.0 
ie.2 
16.9 
15.4 
14. S 
13.8 
13.2 
13.0 
12.7 
12.2 
10.9 
9.7 
16.8 
14.8 
13.6 
13.3 
13.2 
12.7 
12.1 
11.8 
10.6 
10.6 
10.0 
9.8 
8.9 



17.4 

16.8 
18.7 
13.4 
11.0 
10.3 
10.1 
8.8 
8,7 



11.6 



Station. 



Tngnegarao 

TSlao 

Ariyat 

Ctpli 

Dognpan 

Morlloo 

Vigan 

Atunonan 

Met 

Legaspi 

CavlW 

Blfian 

Sanlsldro 

Apanl 

PArac 

IndAn 

Iba 

CalbAyog 

Balai^ 

Tubnran 

Bollnao 

Rombl6n 

PalAnoc 

CandAn 

OlongapA 

Daplion 

Manila 

Cottabato 

8an Fernando (La UnI6n). 

Iloilo 

Conegldor 

Dirao 

San to Domtngo, or Basco . . 

GObat 

Maalnloc 

Zamboanga 

Snrlgao 

Cobd 

Catbalogan 

Lo6n 

Tagbllaran 

Bao61od 

San Joe« de Buenavteta . . . 

Isabela de Baallan 

BoTOdton 

Caraga 

Cuyo 

Bayombong 

MagAlan 

Maasln 



Iso- 
therm 

CC). 



Maxim am 

dlnmal 

range 

CC). 



19.8 
18.1 
17.9 
16l2 
U.S 
14.9 
11.6 
IS. 4 
18.0 
12.7 
U.8 
U.3 
19.8 
16.8 
16.4 
14.6 
14.4 
XS.4 
1L7 
11.7 
11.4 
10.4 
9.8 
8.8 
Ik 7 
14.2 
18.8 
18.3 
13.7 
11.8 
U.6 
10. S 
10.4 
10.8 
10.1 
10.0 
9.6 
9.4 
9.4 
9.8 
9.t 
IZt 
13.0 
11.6 
11.6 
10. S 
8.8 



14.6 



^^^^^^^^ TEm»ERATURE. ^^^^^^^^^B 


Tabls 3. — J/iizununi (Uumai raruff of iempentwe ol tpe&Jitd tUUim» 
itoUterm, by monlfiit—Coatinutid. 


-_. ■ 


tm.r. 


BKFTeKnin. ^M 


Stulon. 


rao. 
ilicm. 


dliinwt 
CO). 


SuUon. 


Iherai. 

PC): 

a 
a 

28 
28 
28 
28 
28 
38 
28 

a 
a 

a 

37 
27 
37 
27 
27 
37 
27 
27 
27 
3it 

a 

3A 

a 
a 
a 

a 
a 
a 


Uaxinium ^H 

dlanial ^H 

nnga ^H 




a 

9 
9 
N 
» 
39 
IB 
3S 
38 
3S 
3S 
9 
» 

38 
» 

n 

« 
« 

37 

37 


n.7 

IS. A 
IS. 9 
12.8 

1-1. 3 
13.4 
11. & 
11. « 
11-1 
10. i 
10.0 
».2 
l.ft 




12.2 H 

i±ft ^^^H 

7.8 ^^B 

■ 

12.1 ■ 

■ 




f>«|j. 




nr*' 


San rnnuHlo ( La UrMo)... 




fca rWTMiida (Ia ItDtAD).... 










iJKT'.::::::::":::::::::::: 












«S?".::;:::;:::::::::;:::::: 






nSTT ..„..:::i;:::.:::.: 






li.S 
12. H 
13.0 
10. m 
Ul.-) 
«.G 

«.o 










Jol6 




13.3 ^m 

■ 


SSC^::;:::;::::::::;::;::::: 


37 




K^«ibQ 


37 
37 
27 

M 
» 
















10.8 








H 






ttvdxmr. 


gcioiKB. ^M 




3ft 


U.7 
«.A 
H.« 
1S.4 

l^a 

12. S 

110 
11.8 
11. & 
tl.t 
10.fi 
10.1 
10.0 
9.1 
V.S 




a 
a 
a 
» 
a 
a 
a 
a 

21 

27 
27 
27 
27 
37 
27 
37 
21 
27 

a 

37 
31 
31 
21 

a 

21 
27 

ST 

a 
a 

a 


H 

mo ■ 

14.4 ■ 

u.o ■ 

10.8 H 


Km fmuuwhiilA QnMn) .... 


ILtniti *" 


AS^T///^y^'.lly.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 




x 




lUBflOU. ...... 


31 
« 

n 
a 
« 

» 
a 
» 

a 
a 

27 

» 
27 
37 
H 
27 
27 
81 

17 

a 
a 
a 

a 










1&.8 H 
U.3 ■ 

14.4 ■ 

■ 

u.o ^^H 
ma ^^H 

10.5 ^^H 
10l7 ^^H 

■ 

■ 

12,1 ■ 

ILB ■ 


Sr- :::::::::::::■: 












U.7 

U.« 
11,0 
10. « 
IO.B 
«.6 

«.o 

7.8 
T.l 
&4 








dftanmuodofLftUiilAD).... 












9.S 






12.1 
17.2 






I 


E 1 



96 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Tjuilk S. — JtfctrimMin dittmal range o/ tempemturt at tytfijM tlotiofttt wA lovaiion ^ 
isotiurm, bg moNlAf— Ooatiaued. 



NOTUtamx. 



BtoUon. 



Dkpltan 

nrMlamn...,, 

Srer:;;:;:;::;:::::::;: 

Oouabalo 

Conofldor 

BoUnsp 

ItM 

Atimoiuui .'.. 

ZkmbOBiigk 

llollo 

OtpU 

Ckngm 

OebOV. 

Mtm 

JoIA 

HomU^n 

lUnUk 

au bMiD 

Tirka 

ajSwi!'.'""! "!"!'.'" 

an nrnuHo <L» VtMa) 

TufiMgana. 

AMI JoM dB BuvurUta. . . 
tecMod 

TllMUSII 

Jtaulii 

f^ndfrn , 

Surlgno 

w»r 

UicAUn 

Apun 

Onwo 

BB]tatDbon(.... 



lao- 
tborm 
CC). 



iKkxtmuio 
I dlDrokl 



4 



Htation. 



DapiOn 

DUTOMa 

Boltiwu 

AUmoout.,... .,.., 

'AiCbilumn 

ZaabOUMtii 

CoW 

J<»i6 

Anint , 

(^JUvoff 

Tiibamii 

BM«iu<l 

OlpU. ,., 

Bfiw 

ncuo 

UMirin _ 

eurtno 

UmSu 

TlrlM 

CotUbulo 

Dnnur 

TuinunnM) 

CmaAoa 

Diet , 

Ha«AUii 

A|«rrt ., 

OoTTCgUkn 

8uiu>DomliigD, «r Bawo. 

BftjOBlbOBS 



ihetm 



XkXUatUB 

dluniAl 



Some of tbo conclusions saggeetxid by tho prccoding tables ura Iheito: 

!. Tnkin^intORccountthegmeral thormii'n.**pLy:tof the arrhipelapo, 
the period of grcvttest heat comprises the months of April, Miiy, iind 
June, during which the Jaothemi 30^ passes through aeveml iiilaodsof 
the jrroup, 

S. Crivcn equal elevations aboro sfA level, the temperature itt gen- 
erally milder on the coasts than in the interior of the idlands, especially 
if they are of wmnidprablo dimensions. 

8. Tho annual oscillation of tempeniture, aci exhibited by the tables, 
shows abo that only north of tho parallel of 18° north latitude thcio 
is a pronounord differeneo between tlitt extreme tieaaoDB of tlit* year, 
viz, «inU?r and summer. In the greater partuf tho an-hipclugu lying 
south of + 18^ this difference almost dlsappeiir^. There arc, however, 
^tbree different i!K>rmio. conditions met with in those rc^ioDs. Atsonio 

>int« the teniiM-rature in rather high throughout tbo year, the annokl 
itiou twing but small; at othertj the temperature is always soiB- 
iftntly temperate, varyinjf only little durinjr the year. Other pboes 
Snallj cumbiuu the charucl4.>ri.Htic» uf thu two pnjcedinjf claaaOK, being 



TEMPEEATUBK. 



97 



bot daring one part of the year and tempemie during the other; they 
have thus two seasoDB. 

There are consequently ivgions ia the archipelago which we may 
call hotf others which we may desi^ate as int«nnediato. and finally 
■such aa may be termed cool, or belter, mild, throu^^lioui tlii^ year. 

The iirat class comprises all places at which the mean temporaturfl 
of the hottest months reaches Sfi'^ or 81° C, without any great annual 
oecillation. The second class is formed by the yariti of the archipelago 
whose mean temperature during the waruiest months does not exceed 
96P Cf and which Hkewiso do not show great annual thermic varia- 
tion. The third class is made up of those regions in which the mean 
temperatura of April, May. and June is not higher than :^7'^ C. 

The following list gives the regions belonging respectively to each 
of the three claasee: 

I. R^onx of high temperature. 

The great valley of the Cagay^n river, from Lalloc to the northern 
l^part of the provinc* of Nueva Vizcaya. 

Tlie cooat along the provinces llocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, and Lti Uni6a. 

The coast along the province of Zambales. 

The plains of Pangasinan. 

The eastern part of Tarhic and the western part cf Nueva &ija Co 
the south of the Carabullo Sur mountains. 

The lowlands in the provinceif of Pampanga and Bulac£n. 

The bay of Bacoor {aa far as the hur)>or of Cavite) and the south 
sborfi of the Laguoa de Bay. 

The northern coast line along Tayabas and Amt>o» Cauiariue^. also 
Uuf southeast extremity of Luzon (except Sorsogun). 

Tbo northern purt of the isbLud of Panay and the Strait of llotlo. 

U, Regunvt of intennediai-e ti'tiiperature. 

Tho peninanla of Bolinao. 

The portion of the province of I*anii>anga which borders on Zombolea 
,aod BatJiAn. 

The highlands of tho province of UulAc&n. 

jc provinw of Rizal. 

ic northern and eastern parte of Bata&n. 
Manila and it/i surroundings toward the east 
The inland of Corrcgidor. 
'Hie Lay of Sorsog/m. 
Tbo west coast of Somar. 
Tlie KonitilAn group of islands. 
The wont cxiest of Negros, 
The woMt cuutit of Panay. 
»ia!l— vol. 1—06 7 



1 ^^^^^ GEOGRAPHY. ^^^^^^^^^^1 


^1 The island of CehA. ^^t 


^H The west coast of Bohcl. ^^^| 


^H The peninsula of "Zam^yofingB. ^^^| 


^H^^ 111. Segton* of mild UmpffrtUurv. ^^^H 


^^^^ Tbo east coast of the prorioce of Sori4og6n. ^^^| 


^1 The L&laDdd of the Strait of tian Bernardioo. ^^^ 


^B A great p*rt of tbe eastern Visayas — i. ©-, SAmar (especially the east ■ 


^M coast), Leyte^ and the adjacent islands. fl 


^L Tbe peninsula of Surigao. ^^^^ 


^H The east coast of Mindanao, ^^^| 


^H The archipelago of Jol6. ^^^| 


^^^^ THRRMIC mNDI-nONS TN MAKIIA. ^^H 


^V We »hall now discuss particularly the most important features of 


^V the tcrapei-aturo in Manila, inasmuch as they can be applied to many 


^^ other regions of tbe archiiw-rUigo^ iia, for instance, to the interior of 


^H Luz6n south of Caraballos Sur, or the provinces of Nueva f^ijn, Pan- 


^^ f^sinSn, Pani[)an}i(a, BtiliLcdD, Kizul, C^avitc, Batangas, and to the other 


1 islands uf tbe arcbi]X!bLgo where the annual ttiermio oi>cUlation rangeti 


h between S.5^ and 4*^. 


^M Table 3 gives the mean temperature for each month and year I'or- 


H responding to il i^rtwl of twenty yearts, together with tbe resultant 


^M mean normal monthly and annual temperatures. 


^B Tahlr 3. — Mean monlA/y <t0id annual Umpfttttura: ISSS-IffOt. ^^^H 


^H TXtK. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Hu. 


Apt. 


M»T. 


Jcuic. 


JuLir. 


Aug, 


Se^t, 


Oct 


KOT. 


Dea. 


Avar- 1 
^ ■ 




9IlI 


«£ 


27.T 

ie.-i 

26.1 
35.4 

aj-7 

27.6 
17. & 

37.3 
«J.7 
27.1 

ta.ft 

S8.7 


VLZ 
Z7.0 
ZJ.3 
Z^3 
17.7 
2S.T 
29.4 
27. V 

ia.s 
ia.s 

18.3 
9B.1 


38. 7 
W.2 
26.5 

27.7 
29.2 
BO. 3 

■a.tt 

38.8 
27. a 
38.0 
3B.0 
S7.a 
9.4 
9L« 


77.1 
37.0 

27. 6 

r.a 
ST. a 
a7 

JR. 3 

2T.(i 

as. 1 


M.7 

3S,3 
2T.B 
37. J 
27.1 
3a. 1 
27,11 
27. B 
M-R 
27. » 


27.4 

3S.e 

27.1 
37.6 
27.1 
27.3 
27.8 
27.4 
2<.6 
37.0 
27.7 
-A. 8 
27.1 
1C4 
27.1 
37.3 
27.0 
37.4 
U.8 
3>.0 


ie.c 
£;.« 

37.1 
18.S 
37. S 

27.6 
38.6 

a&A 

IS. 7 
30.8 
3C.a 

2a. » 

37.3 
27-2 
37.3 

27. a 

37.^ 

T..7 
SB. 7 


3S.S 
38.8 
27.1 
«.« 

38.4 
36.3 
27.1 
38.1 
27.4 
37.1 
9B.5 
3B.B 
2T.( 
37.8 
SJ.I 
38.3 
27.0 
37.3 
27.0 
38.8 


311.0 
3fi.O 
2B.4 
3B.0 
91.1 
Sll.fi 
16,11 
36.4 
3B.8 
38.B 
9LT 
38^8 
akB 
38.1 

3a.B 

38,1 
3BlB 
M.8 
98.4 
38,1 


34.1 
34.1 
35.3 
«.« 

ISlA 
38.0 

M.9 

a».9 

2S.6 
3B.0 
3S.4 
3S.0 
3B,1 
38.8 
X&.6 
35.7 
36.7 
38.& 
3S.0 
3S.8 


38.3 m 
317 

«.• 

M.« 
38.9 
77,4 
28.8 
S8.8 
11.0 
M.8 
28.8 
117 
98.8 
37.4 

9t.a 

38.8 
97.1 
M.9 
1S.7 




SLS 34.7 


^H jMb 


94.S 

»:> 

SL3 
3«.» 
SI.B 
U.S 
KB 
».B 
H.1 
M.1 
M.7 

sie 

•Jh.l> 
M.H 
2S.I 
25 1 
XS.4 


24.4 
a«.7 
IS. 3 
3ft.» 

3>.« 

9S.0 

ai.0 

A1 

S.8 
28 3 

20.0 
B.2 
24.» 




^H 1H7 




^H UHB 




^M i« 




ZT.7 M-1 




2T.7 
27. S 
38.0 
39. » 
S7.e 
ff.B 
38.8 
3B.I 
38.9 


27.3 
27. fi 
37.8 
27.6 
-JS.T 
27,0 
37.7 
31.0 
37. S 


^M ISOB 


^M IBM „ 

^M imn „ 


Z7.2 ».« 

n.7 39.0 
25. » 'JT. » 




16.7 
17. A 

le.o 
aB.7 


2N.V 1 ».il 




as. 4 


3S.» 
S.B 








».« 


A-l 


2e.9 


3S.I 


38.0 


SR.t 


27.1 


n.i 


27.0 


2a. 9 


».l 


38.3 


ae.s 


L 


J 



rHl 



99 



Tablft 4 gives h t'omparinon of the nontuil tempomture for the year 
in Manila with the t<^mpcratiire peciJiar to each month. 

Taiu 4. — The norm<U montiUy nuDjw amtparK/ KwlA du mtoH annual trmpeMture and 
irtlA the eztremt monthijf mean$: ISSS^HfOS, 



Normal 
■unthlv 

BIMII. 



Monthlj 

■llDIMl 



M.V 



■ ITIIBMB I>SMKttIka ur 
IfWCIRLy lEAKB riOH 



FMtiv«>. 



ftH(U»] 

I.I limj 

I.TllWB 

i.flhm 
&aiitoo 

OlG(18W 

aTiiMl 
aniutft 



NigsUva. 



LOOM* 
LDhw 

0.7 tun 
a.a(ieM 
0.1 (lan 
Littsni 



The extreme departnres of the annual meany from the uonual annual 
loean were: PcwiUve U.6^ in 1889 and lS!t7, and negative 0.6'- in 1884. 

In Table 5 there will bo found the monthly and annual maxima of 
temperature for a period of twenty years, and also the avera^fe monthly 
and annual tempcratureni during this period. 

Tabi-i S.—HonMyandimmutiiHuximai^tempmilurtinMim^- t8SS~I90t. 



TBaB. 


Jab. 


PBh. 


Hat. 


A|W. 


iUr. 


Jna«. 


Jaly. 


lajt- S«fiL 


.. . 

Ocl, 


Kot. 


Dw. 


Attn Dal 
tniuB. 


IT . 


1 


3».e 


$6.8 


».« 


CL« 


83,f 


33,1 


&.S 


32.5 


3I.7 


3».ll 


I'.-. 


... 


S4.1 


U.2 


S8.4 


U.B 


32.2 


3L0 


Kl.ft 


32. S SLl 


3&^3 


i*'-' 


■ ' W.0 


16.7 


l&ll 


HI 


St.ll 


».S 


B.S 


33.1 Ki-Z 


3^7 


wif- 


*l :• 


ii 1/ *j i 


«..A 


U.1» 


H4 


83.3 


».3 


Bt.9 


33.1 


38.4 81.7 


S&S 


^^fi 


)XI 


1U.8 , 13. T 


M,0 


M.Q 


<S.D 


n.3 


SI.X 


32.1 


R3,7 


I2.« BZ.7 


3S.0 


^^K. 


K D 


«.n 1 Rn.t 


SLft 


sa.7 


U.4 


SS-O 


33.4 


34.2 


33.7 


33.4(33.3 


38,7 


^^K 


S.« 


JX.V 1 ».« 


97. a 


r.s 


ia.u 


n.6 


13.11 


H.3 


n.1 


13.1 81.4 


37.8 


^^K 


«3 


tl.H , M.H 


SMI 


36.; 


U.7 


S8.1 


33.3 


83.3 


HI 


>ia 31.1 


as. 7 


^^v 


SI. 4 


SZ.h 


13.7 


».t 


8T.7 


39.0 


S3.S 


31.1 


B1.S 


H.« 


aS.3 31. « 


37. 7 


jH^' 


■r. -. us. 4 


H.0 


».3 


U.tl 


3&0 


13.4 


M.fi 


to.i 


33,3 


SL3 31.1 


36.8 


Ml.. 


M.« 


Ab 


ai.i 


».; 


33,1 


33. ft 


«L7 


e.s 


n.7 


St 3 81.2 


36.1 


^t 


»? 4 


M 1 


St.* 


ut 


UB 


M.» 


•3.1 


13.3 


tS.B 


3L7 1 32.2 


as.> 


taa. 


,1 ■ ■ - - — ! 


aB.3 


lft.4 


MlI 


3!).« 


3X4 


IH.0 


IH 1 


9tV 1 32.3 


8B.a 


am. 


M.) 


Sft.0 


«»■» 


M.i 


ILl 


■>.) 


34.4 


tX7 


33.3 


80.3 


■R . 


,W.l 


17.3 


a.s 


M.I 


&» 


RS.I 


BI.0 


S8 8 


31. V 


37. a 


vm. 


*;i. 1 


/-* » ?ui n 


M.0 


30^4 


n.n 


B.T 


31.7 


34.8 


33 U 


3S.8 


U.T 


S:i 


mt. 


n.7 


u.s 


st.-i 


M.9iU.t 


3f>.l> 


n.b 


&< 


M.S 


314 


W 1 


m.« 


mt 


>L2 


1X3 


M.d 


r.t 


M.3 


3.1.3 


m.9 


3A3 


S2.9 


SK.T 33.4 


31.4 


81.1 




B.0 


HI.* 


gl 


15.6 


17.3 


30.3 


3Bl« 


BL7 


K>a 


34.1 


33. • 


n.« 


n.« 


Mi. ...>.»•—■" 


tt.l 


31.* 


I6.T 


141 


m.9 


n* 


U.3 

■B.0 


34.1 


ttt 


317 


38.1 


8B.1 


l««^ 


«LI 


B.t 


M.B 


t&s 


H.1 


ML* 


».& 


na 


s&a 


«1.9 


•ai 


M.S 



100 



In Table & we f^ve Himilur vslueti for Ui« extreme iiuninu of 
tempersture. 

Tablb 6. — Mcmthly and atotual mittinta of Itrnperaiureia Manila: ISSS-lSOt. 













I 


•C-l 
















TXAK. 


Jan. 


nb. 


Mu. 


Apt. 


JUT. 


Ion*. 


Jailr. AUK. 


Sep*. 


o«i. 


ttiyr. 


Dm. 


Mtll^L 


m 


1B.1 

18.0 
IS. 6 
16.7 
17. J 
17.7 

n.B 

17. « 
U.i 
17. » 
17. S 
U.S 
17. • 
17.* 
17,1 
19; i 
U.8 
17.« 


19. a 

17. » 

IB. 3 
17.6 


30.1 
1«.» 
17.4 
IN.) 


21.0 
3fl.S 

ai.7 

n.i 

21.1 
ZI.1 

31.9 

n.o 

2D. 7 
«.! 
ItsS 

21.0 

19.6 
21.1 
21.0 
2D. 2 
21.8 
19.9 
IA.7 


a.< 

21.1 
21-2 
218 

3ia 

ZIS 
2I.B 
ZL9 
310 

21.7 
21.» 
2t3 
Zt» 
!2.B 
21.9 

3.7 

21.3 
32.0 


318 
21.6 

13.1 
ZLH 
21.9 

Zi.e 

ZLft 
SZ.> 
S.3 
SI9 
tl.7 
218 
21.6 
13.4 
214 
ZLV 
St3 
13.4 
tL-i 
S2.S 


33.8 
::i.o 

22.9 
22.4 
118 
ZZ.S 
318 


12.8 

m.'J 
22.2 
ZL9 
33.1 

sa.x 

313 


a. 8 

!i-B 
ZI.B 
23.9 
313 
2S.1 
33.8 
21S 
22.2 
n.8 
21.7 

a- 6 

21.4 
33.3 
3}.l 
SIB 
3S.1 

a a 

21.7 
30.9 


21.2 
21.8 
31.4 
31.9 
30.8 
31.7 
319 
90.1 
31,2 
31,7 
2J.1 
31,6 
2D. 6 
II. 8 
32.1 

a.7 

31.4 
21. 8 
21.4 
19,6 


21.0 
19.0 
31.0 
2P.7 
31.3 
31.1 
21.4 
ULS 
3L1 

ms 

2lk8 
18.9 
JX.8 
31.2 
21.7 
21.7 


14.7 
17.8 
1&4 

uia 

J7.7 
19.4 
17.8 
19.S 
16.7 
19.3 
19.8 
IS.* 
1B.7 
10.1 
19.1 


18.7 


iSm 


17.6 


ISR 


17.4 


VH 


U.7 


■SB 


17.2 


19 ) 


17.S 


un 

1M 


16.1 
M.0 
U.2 
17.2 

a.$ 

17.9 
17.9 
U.2 
18.9 
18.7 
U.t 
U.4 
U.0 
1S.4 
1&7 


19.3 
IB. 4 
30. S 
U.« 

ap.7 
u.« 

U.4 
U.2 

16,3 
19.9 

n.8 

17.1 
19. S 
17.4 

n.7 


11.] 

18.1 


UBO 


?74 


38.8 


17, • 




12.& 
32.8 
22.V 
21.6 

ia.8 

22.4 
22.9 
21.7 
32.9 

31.9 


22.7 
ZI.1 
23.1 
Zi.8 
tLi 
20.8 
12.* 
Z1.6 
Ztl 
72. 4 
22.» 
22.1 


iT.a 

17.9 
18.3 


1;;;^:;;;;;;: 


»- — 


17.9 
17.9 


HH 


17.1 


IfMl""* 


19.6 19.3 
19.1 '17.7 
21.4 ! 16^6 
18.9 ' 17.7 


17.3 

16.* 


urn., , 


W.t 


UD3 


1K.7 










Avtncv..,. 


17,9 


U.« 


U.6 


VKS 


317 


32.6 


XL* 


33.8 


Sli 


21.1 


9^8 


18.* 


17.1 



It ia also very useful to know not only the absolute extremes of 
temperature, but also the mean of thr estremo temperature of each 
month and year. In Tablfi 7 wo give the mean of thermic maxima for 
each month and year during a period of eighteen years, and in Table 
8y the corresponding minima. 

TAM.C T. — Monthly mtun a/ Ih* laoxinui of temperaturr in XanUa.' 188^19^ 



vauL 



Arm»g9, 



Jkli, I Feb. 



3>.8 



90,8 



U*r. Apr, il»y. Jximt. July. Ang. Bept, Oct. 



83.1 



M.6 



tlS 



U.1 



10.7 



M.6 80.8 



S1.V 



Not, D«. i *J*' 



BCL2 



89.7 



11.8 



TEMPERATUBE. 



101 



Tabli 8. — MonMtf nvtui of the miRima (^UmperfUwt in JVonila.- IS8S-100S. 



TUM. 


Jul 


rM>. 


Mw. 


A*r. 


U%y. 


iva*. 


juir. 


Anc 


fl«lpL 


OOL 


Km. 


Dk. 


A.««f 

•ce- 




SO.ft 


30. « 


21. 4 


3S.0 


H.2 


M.K 


«.t 


M.0 


34.0 


SLS 


23.1 


21.4 


22.8 


Wfr 


tt.l 


20. S 


Sl.l 


acft 


M.6 


U-l 


33.11 


».« 


24-1 


SSfi 


32.1 


31.7 


210 




».8 


30. » 


32.fr 


28.3 


3S.B 


3>.l 


M.a 


a. 7 


23.6 


22. V 


22.0 


21.8 


32.8 


m 


11.4 
20.7 


IB.S 
21. « 
2L1 
IS.« 


93.4 
S.1 
33.3 


31. 

21. a 

21.3 


2< 3 

as.9 

M.8 


21-3 
ZI.7 
23.7 
23. » 


23.T 
24.1 

■ja.7 


a. 7 
21. a 

33. « 

2S.8 


31.0 
H.0 

as. 8 

2&0 


3*.4 

28.8 
21.1 

as 


22.e 

214 
21.7 
21.1! 


31.0 


tt.8 




S.8 




217 

318 




ML. »..-■ 


».< 


a.» 


32.& 


«.« 


M. 1 


34.9 


21. 


n.* 


28.7 


ss.e 


31.4 


u.« 


9.0 


UM. 


19.6 


30.1 


21. ft 


a. 3 


21! 


as: 


-M.n 


21.2 


23.4 


3&2 


22.8 


2!.0 


218 


UH. 


aa. 1 


30.* 21. « 


2S.tf 


2!.« 


2LI) 


28.11 


H.O 


M.> 


3S.3 


21.0 


Zl.fc 


217 


lat. 


5U.2 


■li.t 21. H 


as. a 


ai.4 


-J4.a 


28.7 


a.» 


M.0 


33.8 


21.0 


ax* 


33.8 


IM. 


10. « 


30,* , 23.9 


21. T 


313 


34.S 


34.1 


21.8 


24.0 


23.0 


21.2 


20. T 


ZL7 


\m. 


mr 


■a 7 ■£!.» 


S4.I 


3&.3 


2b. 8 


■H.0 


24.1 


91.1 


MO 


33.2 


33.3 


S.4 


UH 


11. T 


VI. « 1 '.'J. a 


2t.3 


31.0 


'M.3 


3S.« 


».! 


3S.6 


S V 


21.3 


22.0 


38.1 


\am. 


n.H 


30.7 ■a.^ 


2S.I 


34.1 


3.A 


■HA 


2SH 


■u.z 


13.4 


22.6 


21. « 


210 


lao. 


10. » 


■ii.x 1 xi.i 


M.« 


3ft. 


».» 


■tL\ 


14.S 


34.2 


32.8 


21.7 


21. (. 


3.1 


IBO 


19 D 


■5i.t a. 2 


32,8 


23, S 


33.S 


23.3 


13.3 


13. S 


nfl 


316 


10.4 


Zt.8 




31.0 


U.« 3D.T 


21.3 


33.& 


ZLB 


2S.2 


21.1 


-22.8 


13. .1 


31.0 
216 


3a» 


21.8 








WtT 


1D.«| 3i.g 


2S.2 


M.a 


34.1 


33. t 


13.8 


23.9 


21. & 


HI 



In T^hle » we be(rin to treat particuItiHy of the OHciltHtion of the air 
In Manila corrc^'jKtnditi^'' to each month and year for a period of 
cif(fatoen years, 18S5-1902. 



TKA*. 


Ju. 


r«b. 


Vu. 


Apr. 


K.r. 


Jiuxi 


July. 


Aug. 


anpl. 


Oot. 


Nor. 


D«Q. 


Avar- 


UBB.!™!;""""! 

MB 


8.8 
8.4 

0.4 
0.0 
0.4 
0.0 
8.8 
7.0 
*.t 
1« 
0.6 

lai 

10,3 
ILI 
7.7 
0.6 

Ul6 
8.8 


0.4 

g.3 

0.8 
11. A 

ID.O 


0.8 

10.2 
9.S 
lO.A 
■ 1.1 


0.8 

0.S 
0.3 
tl.4 
118 
0.8 
10.0 
10.7 
UL7 
11.0 
10 8 
11.1 
*-0 
8.2 
9.0 
UX7 
110 
11.4 


9.2 
A. 5 
8.6 

10.1 

10.9 
9.0 

10.4 
9.8 
8.0 
9^3 
7.8 
7.0 
8.9 
8.6 
8.1 
9.6 

H>.3 
9.7 


8.2 
T.6 
8.0 
7 1 
8.6 
8.0 
7.8 
&0 
8.8 
7.9 
7,0 
7,8 
8.1 
6.0 
Ii6 
7.7 

ai 

8.8 


6.3 
7.4 

ys 

S.S 
7.8 
8.0 
8.1 
0.9 

aa 

7.9 
7.9 

7-1 

as 
6.0 
&9 

ab 
a4 


8.2 
7.8 
7.7 

a4 

7-0 
7.8 
G.8 

ai 

an 
a 9 
7,0 

as 
e.4 

at 

al- 
as 
a 7 
as 


7.8 

a 4 

6.8 
7.8 
7.7 

as 

6.7 

ai 

0,8 
6.0 

as 
a 8 

7.2 
7.0 

a7 

6.4 

7.1 

aa 


ao 

7.1 
7.6 
7.6 
7.3 

a? 

8.9 
7.1 
7.0 
7.6 
«.9 
7.1 
7,0 
6.9 
7.7 
8.3 
7.8 
0.6 


7,8 
7.8 
7.0 

as 
as 

7.9 
7,6 
7,8 
7,1 

7,8 

a& 

0.3 
7.8 

aa 

7,1 

T.0 
7.7 
0.8 


B.4 
7.0 

a9 

8.7 

a4 

18 

7.3 
7.8 
7.3 
7.8 
11 
98 
7.8 
7.9 
ID 

at 

0.1 
111 


8.1 

it 


vm. 

1#0 


a 6 

3.7 


imn 


0.0 10-7 
10. 1 IQ. I 


8.4 

8 2 


mi... ...:.:.::.. 


UB 

UB3. 

!■• 


10.1 
10.9 
0.S 

10. a 
11. •> 

10.4 
0.8 
B.0 
0.« 
8i.« 
9.0 


0.0 

ia.s 

U.S 
10.1 
U.0 
9.8 
M 
H.8 
10.4 
10.7 
11.4 


a« 
as 

13 

18 
16 

8.4 


53,.,. 


im.... 


HH 


7.9 
T 8 


uS 


ML 

UDl 


as 

9.0 


Awi^gii 


B.I 


9.0 


U).3 


lai 


91 


ao 


a8 


a* 


a a 


7.7 


S.3 


as 



In Tables 10 and 11 we give the mean of maximum usciltation, and 
Tibles 12 ami 13 the ineftti of mioimum OBcillatioo, corresponding 
I C«dl month and year, 1883-1002. 




lOS 



GEOGRAPHY. 



ItiFS-ISitlf. 













pci 
















TK4K. 


Jbh. 


Mb. 


Kar. 


Apr. 


M«y. 


JunA. 


Jnlr. 


AW. 


BCM. 


OoL 


Mot. 


f 


Anniut 

KAJd- 




11.3 

11.3 
U.« 
U.< 
11. A 
U.4 

I2.g 

13. S 

13.7 


12. S 

tit 

11.0 
13.7 
IS B 

u.b 

U.T 
H.» 
)& 

H.I 


U.9 

ll.S 
H.3 
13.1 

u.a 

IS. 4 
14.0 
U.4 
U.« 
IS. 8 
IB.B 

i4.e 

14.9 
1X1 

13.0 


13.0 
11.8 
13.7 
l-i.8 
U.A 
13.3 
14,8 
128 
14.1 
13 4 
13.0 
114 
13.3 
13 7 

i].e 

13.3 


10. t 
11). 8 
11. » 
11 I 

11. e 

13 
13. U 
11 4 
lift 
13 3 
ILl 
11.1 
11.4 
11.2 

lii 

U.8 


10. 
iLD 
It.U 

laa 
u.l 

3 1 
U.3 
11.8 

B.7 
13. D 
11.4 
11.0 
11.3 
Id 3 
12.1 
10.4 


•.« 

H.6 
8.» 
ID- 9 
V.3 

9. a 

10.2 
1U.1 

e.» 

10.0 

«.s 

U.4 
10.1 
10.0 
If. 8 
B.6 


S.4 

A. 8 
».B 
10 
U.0 
VI 
10. A 

10. T 
7.7 

11. & 
B.8 

10.0 
0.1 

».g 

».7 
8^B 


•,4 

3.8 
V.4 

».3 
«.4 
10.9 
10.0 
0.3 
8.3 
9.9 
6.8 
».7 
9.7 
f.9 
V.S 
U.l 


10.0 

v,s 

11.3 
11.1 
11,0 

y.e 

10.7 
11.0 

las 

«.7 
10.0 

ii.a 

11 
9.9 
BlI 


11.0 
99 
10,3 
It H 
to S 
10 7 
tO.ti 
Il-fc 
10.8 
n 4 
11. G 
10 4 
1X3 
11.3 
10. !) 


10. T 
10. S ; 
U.l 
11.1 
13.1 1 
ll.S ' 
10.8 
13.0 
10.8 

13.7 : 

10.8 1 
10.3 

as; 

13.8 

10.« 

n.2 1 


I3.S 




11. f 
14.S 


^:::::":::::" 


IX 1 
13.7 
13.0 




It. I 


jSS 


tS.4 




ILk 


UM 


U.0 


flS 


ILt 




U.7 


IS. 3 
12.9 


16.4 
117 


s 


14.0 
18.0 


12.9 
13.1 


14.* 

U.4 




13.0 


ATamfo •■• 


US 


U.I 


13.4 


13.1 


11.8 


la 8 


P.S 


».I 


0.8 


10.4 


lao 


11.4 


H.« 



Tablb 1 1> — Mnximum tnonlhlg nnd annual mrintioH of Untperatw^ in ittMita; 



VJua. 



Ar«nce 



Ju. 



ftb. 



13.4 
1S.S 
13.3 
18. 3 



13.7 I U.0 



Mm. 



)&.0 
1&1 
M.3 

17.0 



tb.b 



Apr. 



14.8 

1S.fr 

ia.« 

17.0 



aur. 



13.3 
13. i 
10.0 
t1.1 



13.B I 13.7 



June. 



July. 



13.8 9.8 

ii.s! izi 

14.0, l-i.8 

is.ei 13.0 



13.0 I II. « 



Ant. 



l&O 



8»pL 



11. a 
ia3 

Vt-h 
18. S 



ILR 



Oct. Hot. 



13.0 ILft 

11.0 11.S 

11.7 ll.« 

14.3 13. V 



in 



13.1 



jAjiaml 

DaB.||lUKI- 



14.8 



U.1 



These tables are intended to show the absolute variation of tempeiu- 
tarc durinj^ each month by comparing the ubewlute aiaxtmum and the 
Bhsoluto minimum for the month, tuid the highest range for each year 
by comparing the absolatc extji?mefi during the year. 

Tablb lii.— Jfininum monCMy and annaa/ variation of tanpfrahtrt in Manila: 

JS83-JSSa. 



J«n. 



Feb. 



Uur, 



A>f. 



J(«T. 



Joac 



JulT. 



Am. 



e«m. 



0«L 



Not. 



Doc 



Habiwi 
aim- 



3.3 a.T 



il 



Amncv... 4.8 0.8 8.S 8.2 



3.1 1.3 t.1 



3.8 



"B *t 



TEMPER ATLTKE. 




103 



Tabu 19.~~MinimmHaoiMgtmdsitmiial9anatimQyttmpintuf«m Mwmtat 



I 



TSal. 


1 


p*k 


Mm. 


Apr. 


jui:. 


JaiM^ 


' T ^ 

Jnljr. Aitt. 


fte]^ 


Od. 


Xov. 


Dec 


Anniul 

UUM. 




La 
&,« 
».s 

4. a 


1.0 
4.3 


LB 
El* 


4.4 
T.S 
IT 


2.« 
«.3 

&.4 


0.9 
0.0 
4.U 
X.7 


t.ft 
1.3 
IS 

1.6 


11.4 

!.• 
>.7 
LI 


0^1 
1X4 


(La 1 ik« 
o.a , 1.4 
s.a ' lA 
4.3 : ki 


XT 
1.1 


ftfl 


85":,""":"" 


0.4 




D.t 


38™""""::: 


LI 






Atov* ••• 


4.T 


14 


4.4 


4.7! 4.4 


S.0 


LI 


1.1 


Ll 


S.4 Xt 


1.S 


LS 



Table li preaeota an exbauatlve ■oooimt of the sUgfatest changes of 
temperature in Manila. 

Tabli 14. — Dtffertncm Mttvm Iht hourip meant ij,f teMptraiure %A Ma"Ha campared 
bttmem lAnMfbvj, and MiMfn tiu mdw Aovr/y mraiu (iii<f lAi* inrmfAijr rMoiu. 

PC] 



■on. 



Jmi. Feb. Ku. Apt. H»r- 1 Jane. July. Aug. B*f4. Oct. Not. Imcl 



-i.« -1.4 -».* -g.t; - 



-».4 -I 



'0.1 

-9.« 

0.» 

-Cl.t 

i.* 

-f>.i 
a.& 

- 0. 4; - 0. 2 
i.kl 1.1 

-0.2: -0.1, 

I.T]-1.« 

Li L« 



-«.z -o.a - 



ua.B 

•-lOk. n.. 

Uk.MI I 

lO-lLo. m....| 
Uaoon I 

U-12*. m....' 
tp^m 

, U-I^BI I 

' l-3p. n 1 

tp.m 

»4p. a ' 

*!>-»■ I 

. Hp.m , 



o'ft 

t.l 



ii 



7p, 



■«-)"r«: 



• p. » 

t-O p, in. 

10 p. B 

>-io p. m 

Up. ID 



-ft,* -o;oi - 

-0.«~«.T - 



ift-Up. ni....l-0.»-*,8! -I 

Mnldolgbt [ -t.t '1.1 ~1 

U-Up. m.... -O.J-0.*-< 



-aa -0-2 
-i,«i -».i 

- 0. 8,' - 0. R 
-».»! -l.fr 

-as: -0.1 
-0.1 -o,Jl 



An- 
nokl. 



-at -o.» -o.si -0.3 



-0.*, -0.8 

I.e s.« 

-0.* -0.4 
1.1 t.ft 

~o,\ -o.r 
o.£ e.T 

-aS -o.» 
0.1 0.1, 

- 4, - 0, a 

O.t; - 0.2 

~0.&-0,J 



-0,8 -0.3]^ 



iU 



M 



-«.s 


-1.1 


0.0 


0.1 


-fi 1 


—9,7 


'0.1 


'0.a 


-0 4 


-0 ( 


-0.7 


0.(1 


-11 


-6.5 


l.d 


-I.O 


-0.1 


-oa 


-I.I 


-l.S 


-ll.! 


-(!.! 


-1.6 


-I.l 


-Ci.3 


-fl.3 




Conr.luding thid brauch of the subject Table 15 presents a summary' 
o( the most importaot data about the atr t«mpen>tui-c tn Manila for 
periods of twenty and twenty-two years. 



104 



GEOGRAPHY. 



TAUUe l^i.~-JMimiu»yofthtme>diJ't!>oTlnntfenturaofUmpenattrtinMonila. 






Jar... 2M 

l>h.... 26.9 

U«r...- an* 

Aw.... M.4 

Miy ... aR.K 

June... X».o 

Julj.... 17,2 

An«....' s.i 



•UXIMTN. 






Cft 



MUi. 



AKDJkK- 
TBKUB 



11 uc. 



Uln. 



ao.s 



aS 



1S.0 



AWOUTTS ESTXKtfB (St T&tBa). 



UNxlinum. 



33.U 



K.4 U,188a) 



8a,6 
87.3 
87. H 

se.s 



u.]wn) 



38,1(01) 
3a.»86} 

i.ian] 



8A.2 [10.]») 

„ uf 33.ia»i 

"'H 6,1900 

u.e <24,iaBi) 

RS.4 { 8,1900] 



•37.BM«r3>iU>* 



Mtninum. 



U.7 >T.]«» 



17.2 

1B.T 

a. 8 

21.1 



3,UW' 
V.1W 

(.im 

8CI.U8I 
ZLO (II. IW) 
».S |IT,UM) 

30.9 (t3.inq 

IS.e (24,1901] 

17.3 (19,Ua«) 
U.? (81,1601) 



Ma.«I«B.37,UU 



I TbsM tvo raloei uc Um muiltaiiin knd mlnlninni doring tba pHlod IWI-IWJ. 

Plate 1 will illuKtrale the goneral movement of teiupentture duriag 
tbn year in Manila. 

WATER VAPOR, 

Tbeotbcr climatic clomnnt, as hnfora atatcd. is the amount of aqueoiu 
Taper coutaiufd in 1 he air. TIuh is the cause of clouds and cloudinosa, 
or rather, it is made visible by the clouds. It is aUo the real cause of 
the rain, and ita amount constitutes the hj^frromntric condition of th« 
atinosphera We shall (hen treat here first, of clouds and cloudiness; 
iieeond, of rainfall; third, of rohitivo humidity; and finally refer 
briefly to the tension of the aqueous vapor lu the air. 

Cloudiness has a vei-y close relation to temperature, and thus to 
climate, because of the direct influence it baa upon thermic oscillatioo, 
upon the amount of radiatioti of heat, and also upon the hygrometric 
condition of the air; therefore it is closely rclat<?d to that temperature 
which modern authors have called senyiWe temperature.' 

The average cloudiuess for each month in Manila as deduced from 
hourly observations for many years ia as followa, the scale being 
to 10, or from 0, clear sky, to 10, entirely covered: 



J«.. 


FvU. 1 Mar. 


Apr. 


Uftr- Juo(. 


July. Aujt. 


flcirt. 


Oct 


Nov.! Dm. 


.8 


8,8 1 8.A 


15 


i-i \ C8 


r.6( 7.8 


7.1 


1.1 


kej &.« 



The mean cloudiness for the year is 5.6. 

We ahali furthermore consider cloudiness in the different parts of 

the day so as to present the distribution of clouds throughout the 

> " kUmlbook ui Cliiuatology" by Ht. JuUiw Haun, Kow York, lUOO. 



PuA-rei. 



ASSViL TABUHOS OF TEB IBMFRRATTJSS 
1880 - 1803 


JtiM. ft6. Mar. Mpr. Ma§ >uaa Jutf My/f. Btpt-Oat- Mbb- Off, Jon- 


c* 

H.tt 


























H.a 

n.a 

MB 






/ 


/ 


\ 
















ti.ir 

tt.D 






/ 






\ 






"^ 










/ 


/ 


f 














\ 


I 




Z9*l 


/ 




' 




t 










\ 

































106 



GEOGRAPHY. 



day in MaaiU. By diviiiinjr the day into four parts — early morning, 
forenoon, afternoon, nnd ni{rht--Tnbl(? 16 showH the ax'crago cloudinoBS 
for each as the r«iult of hourly uluen'atioui^ made for many years. 
This tablo is baHed iipon the ctassifit-ation of clear, covered, and vari- 
able, uieaulng douduie^ti from to ^, from 3 to 10, and from 3 to 8, 
respectively. 

T.iBLX iQ.—Monthlif raruUton of clatidmtMt, by dmnoru of thr da^. 



J>niyii7 . . 

AnguM... 
Stficenibnr. , . 
Ocufatr 

DocemtMir.. 
Tc*r... 



baaly Ho»nw). 



11,7 



39.3 



J. 8 



t-i.0 



I'fLO I 1U.9 



^T 



(13. fl 



7, J 



I».I 



t7.« 



XrTMMMIOS. 



i.t 



174.1 



43.1 



ILR 



lca.g 



t2.» 
IS. 8 
10.0 
11.fi 
13- » 
10.4 
II, « 
ll.-l 
11. T 
tS.T 

T69.a 



I2.S 



107.4 



A.0 



131. S 



tS.7 
7.1 
LS 
■.« 
ILt 
14.7 

11. a 

11.9 
».• 
1X« 

s.t 

Tial 



Table 16 (XHitains some InUircsttnff facts of importanoe in elimatology, 
which nmy l>e thun miraniarized: 

1. The number of clear forenoons and clear early mornings reach 
a maximum in April, decreasing mpidly from April to August, and 
increa-sing from August to April, in almost reffular progression. 

S. The numlier of overaiat afternoons in greatest from May to 
November bwauw- uf the electric utonnti which u»ually develop in the 
afterooonH during these months. 

S. The clearen^t iiiuntho of the year ure Man^li and April, due to (be 
eaaterly prevailing currenta^ followed by February, Januftr;, and 
December. 

4. Generally from May until Octoberrlear early mornings are more 
nmuerous than elejir nights, uad clear uftomoons are fewer than clear 
oighta and clear foreuuou.<i. 

5. The minimum of clear days occurit in Septemberand the maximum 
in April. 

Other particulars about clouda and cloudinej» in the Philippinea 
may be seen in the volume publlabed by the Manila observatory " Laa 
nubeM en el arcbipii^lago Filipino,'' Manila, 18(>T. 

Sun!!>hine-haM a very close connection with the degree of cloudioesit. 
Plate 11 Bhown the average number of hours of »UQshino in Manila for 
each month, and )tt> distribution nlmost agrees with that of the average 
clear and variable days, for each inontli, which ih aa follows: 



I 

a 



4 





iu. 


Peth 


Umi. 


Apr. 


u*r. 


JVMt. 


taly. 


At*. 


flflpt 


Oct. 


Sor. 


Deo. 


AT«nC« ciMI aiKl Vktl- 


».« 


S.S 


OLD 


».i 


n.9 


i7.» 


U.» 


11.0 


U.1 


u.t 


^_i 


a.B 




■ 


Plate II. 


■ 


^^^^^1 
^^^^^1 


UIBUIL VABIATION OF TAB BFPI0A07 OF THB 
BUI'S UX8 AI MAHn.A 




I'oun 


■/f. ^t»r. 


*sr <■» 


••» 


Jmi» 


Mm 


».,. 


AtBl. 


Ocf, 


Mm. 


On. 


Hc3UF» 


■0 
MO 

Ma 

M* 

■10 

M* 
IM 

m 

US 

>M 














yi 


































AM 














/ 




































tut 












y 














































/ 




1 










































/ 






























— 








~ 


- 






/i 






1 


































1 








\ 






































/ 










































no 








' 














































1 












































tea 


- 


- 


1- 














1 










































1 






























._ 


/ 
















\ 












































\ 






























IM 
IM 

in 

i« 

1*0 




























"" 




















_ 


































































1 














































































































k 












































^ 


\ 








/ 






















' 














/ 




\ 






























\ 














f 






■v. 


■V. 


' 
























^ 


\, 










\ 






































\ 


V 








/ 














-, 


- 


























V 


\ 




/ 








































> 


s/ 














































1 



















108 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Rainfall, which is closol}' related to cloudiness, .^bDuld he first con- 
ddered by 4iistribution over the Brcbipela^''o, Vmu^ed upon obi^ervalious 
made during^ tbe years 1902 and 1903 at tho statiooH of the Fbilippine 
woalber bureau, iiiiJ then oonfiidered particularly with rulation to 
certain features of nuiiftUl iu Manila, wberu water precipitation baa 
been aocuiutely recorded Hince the year 1865. 

Tablh 17. — Sfimthli/ and amnud minfaU, iu miUimeia-4, at digtreui »tatiott4 of thf. ar^i' 
pdiiffo/nm September, lOQf, to Atif/vAt ISOS. 



>TATIO». 


September. 


OQtobor. 


NovoDbor. 


PttMBlMC: 


JadoUT- 


fMnrny. 




i.S9.a 

7B.3 

SO. 7 

ais.7 

001.7 
110. t 
831.0 
473.) 
048.) 
BI7.4 
871.3 
403. S 
330.4 

&U-9 

773.0 
4.18.4 
10.7 

M3.3 

as. 3 

6H.4 

183.8 

see. ft 

888.3 

34S.3 

17S.S 

101.1 

/ 433.1 

CO. 7 

3;«.H 

388.1 
U>.) 
140. S 
71.9 
137.2 

Hi. a 

IB.8 
/ 382.1 

BI.9 


Ga.8 

198.0 
18.4 

113. I 

sse.3 
ma 

114-3 
0.0 

Ul.h 
M.1 
3.4 

X3«.G 

219. 5 

l!r2,G 

1.8 

174.0 

r ii.i 

1UL9 

MIO 

ite.2 

144.8 

3B.7 

lM.8 

141.8 
118.0 

) !7.S 

/ 69.8 
lis. 4 

as.8 

7S.I 

toa.^ 

OILS 

170. 
330. 
IM.3 
108.7 

\ l&t 
1814 


318.4 

U6.8 

421.4 

100.4 

75.9 

70. B 

143. £ 

ZbA.l 

0.0 

laikB 

37.! 
38.1 
171 S 

i aa.7 

S 8 
3911 

I AO.S 

100.0 
1BI.0 
SLB 
U4.S 
00.9 
S4.0 

SI. a 

00.0 
130.4 

148.8 

71.1 
01.7 
11, C 

310 

77.8 
47.3 

m.G 

Ot.0 
tOlB 
130-4 

0.8 
1A7 


ao 
ao.1 

300.4 

882.0 
94.1 

114.8 
3.8 

207.1 
3.8 
AS, 3 
3.0 

MO.ft 

} 130.7 

l&l 
&.I 

190.0 

OO 

4a.i 

118.1 
U>.« 

81.8 
08.0 
Ut-O 

10*. a 

17.0 

m.o 
fii.g 

07.6 
1U.0 
00.8 
IOlS 
•0.8 
H.1 

te.7 

61.0 
W.B 
W.4 

10-1 

f 31. 1 


an 

OBll 

3M.8 

37S.8 

S.I 

Baa 

0.0 
104. s 

ao 

lOEbV 
4.8 
OlO 

138.4 

SlT. 

V2.9 

0.S 
348.0 

ao 

)S.> 
OB.B 

1(0.1 

31B.S 

7.0 

7.B 

1 0.0 

\ (lOdM) 

1.0 
11.4 

■0.9 

m 

0.D 
IB. 7 
17.0 
I5.T 
30.0 
10.1 
11B.0 
7S.B 

30.8 

[ 1G.0 

IK. I 
18.T 
0.1 
0.O 

iat.1 

137.4 
tt.Z 


0.S 




8KI.8 




707 4 




117.» 




0.0 




117.1 
1 3 




9L4 




ao 

00.4 






t.0 


Hollo 


T.O 

1«0.(I 
1.& 




80.3 


Su) F«ra«ndo <U (laUu).... 


ao 

140.8 




0,0 




a* 

■AlO 




flOi.6 




SB.^ 




8.0 




0.4 




31.-1 

m 






0,0 




iao.7 




ao 


Bu Jdi« d« BiwuTlin* 


4.0 

T.l 

10.9 


Huali) 


aa.1 

x.o 




1 G 




S.S 




99 3 








MlI 


7.4 










4 




X'aoo.'o 
t m.t 

[ (U«) 


49.S 
1 179.0 


87.6 
34S.8 
167. 3 


7.0 

tn.o 

so. 4 

187.7 







118.0 
U.0 








At 


^M-i-" 










an).i 


400.1 


10. a 




r 100. & 
ia.s 


11.0 




137. & 

7S-8 
30.0 


OS. 4 

T7 B 








87.8 
7».7 




aM.9 


^ tail 


UT.I 



I 



4 
I 



d 




■ " ol.Tpm I 



The prPCRdinjj tiihle hHows that the distrihiition of rainfall over the 
lipelAjro diffnrrt widoly, Htcordiiig U> locality. Ah far us the distri- 
Jon of prpcipitntion U concerned, the archipelago may be dKnded 
ito two kodch: 

ni rainy and di? seaaon: 
Western coast of Luz6n from Santiago Point to Capo Boinador, 

im-ludinjf Manila bny. 
Interior of t.iix6n from Lamina de Bay to Sontfa C^gay&n valley, 

aud iu tho highlands above 3,000 feet. 
Western coiwl of Mindoro. 



Zxmea of rainy and dry season— Com iuuwi- 

Wostcrn coast of Fanay. 

Calamiannn group. 

Islands in thn North ,1oUt oea. 

Palawan or Parajj^ua Island. 
In these, zoneti the rain is very abundant (frooQ 9,000 to 4,000 mm.) in: 

Zam bales. 

Higbland of lAir/m above 4,000 feet 

Ilocos Xortn and IIocoh Sar. 

La LIni6n province. 

The Lingayi^n gulf. 
While tho rain is niodemtp (below 3,000 mm.) in: 

The Manila hay. 

The interior of Luz6n below 4,000 feet. 

The western coa«t of Panay. 

The western coast of Mindoro. 

The North .loI6 aca. 

Faragua Island. 

West coast of LiizAn south of Corregidor Island. 
Zones of mom even distribution of rain: 

Southeast end of IjUK6n. 

Eastern coast of L«z6n. 

Eastern Visayas (Samar, Leyte, Cebfi, Bohol, and aUjauent islands). 

Eastern Mindoro. 

Northern and eastern Panay. 

Jol6 Archipelago. 

Mindanao, Dinagat. and Camigiifn. 

Batin and Babuyan islands. 

Northern Luzon. 
In t-hese zone.'* the rain is very abundant in: 

Eastern Luzon, from Atimooan to Cape KngaOo. 

Eastern Mindanao. 

Northern Panay. 

Extretno southeast of Luz6n. 

Eastern Sfiniar. 

Eaetom Leyte^ aouth of Tacloban. 

Bobol. 
The rain is ntoderato in: 

North Mindanao. 

West, south, und the interior of Mindaiuo. 

Jol6 archipelago. 

Cebfi. 

Wetilern c-oast of S^niar. 

Weatei-n coast of Leyte. 
Tabtett 25, 20, and 27 may explain also this division. 



1 


1 ^^^^^^^H»r^ Zjtn 

Pl*te III. 


■ 




AHSDAL VARIATION OF SAIS 
iT VAItlLA 

tees - 1903 


1 


Wta, f*^. jr<r Jlsr- l>4« /¥"* Jvli At* S«»(. PM. «M- D*e. ^wi- 


mm. 






1 








1 1 






ran, 

*M 

M« 

•M 
■>• 
IN 

100 

M' 
1 














• 





























MS 

at 














1 




1 


1 







. 








1 




/ 


1 


— 
k — 












^ 




r" 


f- 












■~f 


1 1 


— \ — 




-J— 

1 


t" 














T 




/ 


1 














jl 




f 


1 














1 




1 


\ 










1 






1 






1 


1 






I \ 






I 






1 


1 






i 1 






\ 














/ffi 1 


/ 




1 










— ij 


^-1-; 




-M- 


&b 


± 





— t 


V 




, , 


- 


^ 


/J 


V 


t~ 


\ 


7- 


1 




N« 
■M 


^ 


N 


p 


~ 


y 




^ 




^ 


. — , 






^ 


/ 


^ 


, 


/ 








1 


L 






■ 


' 


J\ 


-A 


f 






_^^_ 


A 


\ 


_ . 


, -_^_ 




— 


-\ 


^ 


:t 




1 . 




H 


-y 








— - 


■ 


-f- 


/— 




I , 


— ' 


1 — 1 


1^ 


^j ' 










i 


/ 












Vi 








— 1 


-I 


[ 












\^ 






^ 












■^ 




i;; 


^ 




T 










— 






— 


\ 








i 




















T 
















\ 


^ 




,> 




















^ 










, 












I 








L-^j , 
















1 


L_ 


^^^^^B 







113 



On Pbte 111 we give aa Uhatrmboo of tbe Boatal rvktioo of nim 
is Muiib coapftnd wilk tb« Tmriitk« to Altwr and *"*—*-' — where 
the rmiafall b nore enolr dietribitfed and rerr aboBdant, aa in Alfaft; 
••d modvBfie, m in Taoootaca. (Mindanao). 

In Tkble 1$ will be food the aawoat of rainfall in Mib& for 
month sinntfaa year IMS, or in a period o( Uurtr-eig^ rcank 
tion is odkd to the fact that, exo^ during the vwra ISTi, U85, aad 
UM. the driest of the whole peiiod, aad tiie jears 1S«7, iSU, and 
UM. the wetteit, the total qaeatitj of the others ie not retr Cv from 
the general ntean. 1,96S Bun. The wune oht be deduced from Tahla 
19, la whkh we gire the dajs of rain^ in MaiuU for the period 
■Mtkmed. 

In Table ^ is presented the amooat of rain for the drr and wet 
aeMoas. The nmlt SHy be taken as a trpe for the reyio n s eamSmxij 
■fleeted and Bentaooed above. 

Table il givea the extreme Tmtoea ua i umiMig tha nmfiUl in MaaiU. 
Other flBBbBee about the raia&ll in Haaik win be shown in TkfaJw aa» 
SS,aadM. 

Apmphic repraeoMiaBaf tlie total ratn&U in Manila for each year 
iiMe IMS will be foowi on Plate IV. 



TmuIS — giiwiirn«<i 



iyift*; 



[=1 



t.1 



IR 



Trj 



■v. 



mi 



lai CI 
ik.« 11.4 



«.i 



4. 2 -as 



JWI. 



on. BM. Dw. I TvmL 



! 



2u.a 






■i Si nae mi 
nri aes «ai 



,»i.M«.4^£: 

^ 1.W18 

Lji urn.! 

Lwa* 
Lwaz 






■il tot? 

■tS ITS 1 

■LA tfir.j 



X«k.a 



lU 



tiEOGliAFUY. 



Table lO.—Dsifa of ram m Manila: hSi^S-lsng. 



^ »«*■- 


Ju. 


Feb. 


Mmr. 




Ape. 


M»jr. 


June 


July. 


AlW- 


Sh|II 


" 

Oct, 


Sot. 


l>tc. 


Tnul. 




II 

U 

D 

t 

I 




1 


10 

1 
! 

1 
1 


f 

to 


1 

3 


S 
B 

4 
9 
4 
1 
t 

4 
■ 
B 
1 
4 
> 


1 
t 

s 
s 
: 
1 

• 
» 

3 
2 
3 
& 
U 
9 
2 
» 


1 

10 

b 

H 

11 

4 

9 

1 
It 


17 

10 

8 

« 

7 
4 
7 
IB 
10 
I 

w 

8 


» 
» 

9 

W 
It 
19 
17 
10 

u 

14 
B 
11 
U 


9 

19 
11 
14 

IB 
17 
IB 
IS 
fi 
19 
IS 
IB 
IS 
19 
18 
IB 
19 
31 
It 
IS 
19 
19 
U 
]« 
IS 
17 
14 
18 

14 
13 
11 
Zt 
SO 

I« 

19 


u 

» 

19 
If 
1& 
U 

n 

10 

u 

97 
H 

as 

u 

a 
a) 

38 
19 
37 
I» 
30 

a 

3> 

u 

IT 
33 
35 
17 

31 

•a 

19 
18 
38 

ss 

31 
21 
M 


to 

38 
17 
Ifi 

18 
19 
2S 
» 

a 

3S 
» 
18 
IS 
U 
11 
16 

^" 
W 
It 
19 
19 
IS 
U 

as 

30 
22 
33 
21 
38 

a 

33 

as 

as 
as 


a 

a 

30 

in 
a 

18 
17 
H 

10 

a 
a 

18 

31 
18 

a 
» 
a 
v: 
a 
11 

31 

n 

14 

a 
a 

IS 

a 

28 

a 
a 
a 

34 

U 

16 
31 
17 

a 


)» 

a 
u 

11 

17 
IS 

n 

■0 

a 
a 

14 

ts 

12 
IS 
H 
IB 

14 

a 
11 

15 
IB 
21 
9 
11 
IS 
16 
IS 
IS 

a 

M 
U 

n 

IT 

9 


M 

10 

8 
A 

U 
1» 
& 

7 
U 

s 

14 
17 
19 
8 
11 

a 

10 
13 
1« 
l« 

IS 

u 

13 

7 

13 
14 
11 
14 

IS 
4 
10 

a 
1ft 

IS 

21 
8 


14 
8 
1 
8 

t 

6 
9 

} 
U 

D 
14 

S 
11 

8 
IS 

1 

a 

3 
U 
11 

c 
u 

7 
IS 

9 
8 

8 

5 

17 

9 

It 

U 

a 

a 


134 




U& 




m 

lU 
Ul 


imV."'Z'"".'." 


IM 




w 




ni 


IS::::::"-::::: 


Nt 




IM 


an 


MB 




Mt 


in*:::"'.""":" 


na 


m 


GB 

lit 


iB»..:i.l„„„.l. 


la 




M 


aB""""""::: 


a 




UB 


jB"::::":;::::: 


US 




is 


iB"""":::::" 


uaj 


is 




us 


jam 


M 


xBh 


la 


imit 


144 




la 


1IV7 


tS 




as 


ues 


171 




lil 


igu 


ttt 




a 


s 


10 










AT«n«« 


« 


8 


8 


4 


' 


10 


21 


a 


a 


U 


13 


8 


m 



WATKB VAFOB. 



116 



TlM»aO. ai iii ^ md4a^^rmaiimth»drrmmdrQl^ma»m^Mmiaa.-lS»-ian, 





DKT BUHR. 


^ =— -^— =--^- . .-,4 

KUKT flKUDV. 


TUB. 


jUnoom of nln. 


D&yiitf rain. 


AffloimtodKlB. 


Bkr«Alt»lA. 




BfllU- 
mvten. 


Pat G«TiL 


HtUDtMr. 


Vvrcexit. 


unii- 
ineten. 


Pwconl. 


Vwai)^, 


PerctDt. 




iih.1 

Otkp 

S3h0 
SfiLt 

IH'.t 
GK.S 

in. 4 

lM.b 

tTV.ft 
340.6 

7K.a 

•MI.0 
MM. 7 

Ba.3 

BOB-S 

ta.i 

I10.B 

agii.s 
U7,e 

RAT 

HS.B 


IS 

M 
11 

H 
» 

13: 
U 
14, 
U 
IT 
U 
1ft 
21 

a 
a 

IT 

as 

U 

10 

» 
» 

H 

71 






l,G8a.B 
l,GGB.l 

3.«a« 
i,a».« 

S,OW.I 
1,430.1 
1,434.4 
1,«2B.4 
l,4a.2 
1. 070, A 
1,401,-4 
l.«l0-4 
2.1»4.b 
J, 1M.9 
V04.S 

i.osr.6 

1.771.« 
l.TS2.fl 

l.T39,4l 

K!0,A 
1.29D.S 
1.6H.1 
I,«9.b 
1,U&.« 
1. 646.7 
3.0S1.4 

«l,l 
1.0H.7 

i.80i.e 

l,iH3.4 


SI 

89 






HM 


U 
B 

3S 

n 
» 

88 
» 
U 
4T 
» 
4T 
4B 

vr 

H 

44 


30 

to 

17 
38 

ai 

38 
9« 
37 
Z! 
90 
B» 
27 
U 

a 

B8 

BO 
B8 

■0 

M 

71 


n 


1t> 
TO 

73 

74 






83 »1 
SJI S4 

71 m 


Itf9. 

w. 




as 
n 

81 

8» 
«l 
81 

n 

Tf 
M 
U 
BS 

77 
77 
M 

M 

Bl 
Tl 


m 

H 

Bl 
7S 
07 
1« 
101 
« 
75 
W 

n 

07 
W 

IW 

T8 

n 

1M 


m 


Bl 




n 


UN 


n 


K.:...." 


70 




B7 
IB 
03 




sa 


Eti::".'!i:i:""i: 


6T 


IM 


70 




S7 


HM 


70 




Ti 




TV 




ee 

Bl 




MN 


Si in 


»1 1 «S 


7i 


HH 


40 
U 
4S 
M 
48 
46 
» 

ta 

47 

a 

70 
■U 
M 
40 


84 

83 

H 

83 

it 

as 

82 
41 
41 
2> 
39 
S8 


n 

06 


^5 


n 

T4 

Tl 
TS 
7T 
m 


n 

01 
OB 
04 

«e 
n 

H 

lis 

101 
10) 

vn 

100 


r**! 


ttZ.1 Ift 






ttl.6 

HA? 
■73.0 
475-1 
332.9 
S1S.I 

esi4 

m.i 
sn.D 

J17.6 
S3S.1 


3^ 
M 
33 

as 

13 
H 

3B 
91 
U 
SB 
IS 


HH 


Ss 




BB 


Ml 


tt 




75 




«0.2 74 

i.«03.s n 

!,1118. 1 19 


ffi 




CO 


i5. 


fiO 


MB. 


l,83e.T 
1,4S41 

i,4Sa6 


Tl 

m 


Jl 




tr 


]fn 


ST 








sn^o 


» 


ii 


32 


l,f56.B 


M 


H 


« 



WATEK VAPOB. 



u: 



Tabib aS.—Maxvmmtlaayniii^altin Manila: iSCH-lBOS—CfiatxTM^. 



I 



I .^ 


Km. 


.r. 


1 iii«i)«r. 




ncToin. 


KOTUtBSB. 


PCCKMBKL 


Mm. 


Dvltt. 


ytm. 


Dniv. 


Mn. 


DkUl 


Uin. 


Dale. 


Xm. 


0«l«. 


R-:-:::::::: 


44. » 

Zl.ft 
Itf-D 
M.0 

101.8 

no 

l».D 

n.s 

7».B 

1H.6 
CL3 

tlLS 
M.S 

WLl 
H.0 

ncB 

1».S 

».i 

lft.0 
IILT 
M*.S 

(6.B 
IM.l 

ea.H 

07.0 
»4.fi 

4L1 

K.I 
SBlO 
HLS 
H.7 
K.1 


n 

13 
17 

U 

• 

t 

t 

u 

17 
IS 
10 
SI 

» 
> 

a 

t» 
u 

M 

11 
21 
JS 

16 
IS 
» 

n 

17 

la 
» 

» 

18 
19 

3D 
U 
10 


•&0 
TftO 
MO 
«X0 

197.0 

72.6 

1«.0 

IM.8 

M.I 

■6.6 
1 I03.7 
1 H.0 

«.S 
1 111.6 
1 1U.S 
1 B5.4 

M.0 
ST. 8 
41.0 
4fr.9 
41.6 
107.4 
S>-0 

1 ST.e 

, 89.6 
40,9 
B8.6 

a. 8 
a.3 

N.; 

B8.ft 
78.0 
88.1 

! ga.B 

M.7 
' 87.1 


a 

30 

9 

n 

3 

u 

80 

39 


Ut.0 
66.0 

aaao 

92.0 

1W.0 

48.9 
U.7 
43.0 

a. 8 

N.3 
M4 


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M 

f 

W 
U 
» 

8 
17 

■JH 

38 
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U 

a 
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1« 

57 
10 
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7 
6 
28 
3 

S 

14 

16 
30 
8 
6 


94.0 
81.0 
173.0 

■3.8 

91.8 

18.7 
«.] 

n.s 

116.0 

«.] 
0.1 
1S.3 
80.0 
311 
74.8 
48.0 
30.8 
166.3 

ii.a 

34.0 
76.0 
118.6 
51. Fi 
76. 
3P.0 
1S.& 
17. B 
a. 8 
3S.9 

3i.a 

IS, -J 

18.2 
H.4 
26- 6 
88.4 

1«.» 
26.S 


3 
19 

7 
16 

1 

27 
IS 
13 
1 

J 

37 

17 
14 

n 

8 
12 
18 
SO 
30 

3 

6 
10 
i> 
13 
19 
11 

9 
16 
It 

9 

1 
U 
19 

8 

a 

8 


87.6 

66.0 

24.0 

138.1 

88.0 

40.6 

60.1 

1 S2.7 

1 14.7 

. 1«.8 

U.S 
26,2 
1 19.1 
' 21.0 
103.8 
68. S 
U.8 
67.2 

14.7 
06.7 
18.9 
16.9 
M.3 
14.0 
G3-8 

ua.6 

UI0.6 
30.1 
84.6 
14.2 
»-6 

».S 

IB.O 
76. H 
HI. 6 
39.2 
56. T 

n.s 


9 
SO 
18 
13 

11 

8 
8 
6 
1 

1 

"! 

30 

8 
8 
6 

U> 

18 
7 

16 

a 

11 

10 
a 

30 
21 
8 

21 

21 
12 
14 

16 

7 

8 


8.8 
«6l0 

AlU 
2,0 

1<K0 

3&:t 

&0 

' 3A0 

< a6 

8.0 

W.3 
83.8 

1-J 

28.0 

2.8 

8.5 

».> 

38.2 

3.2 

17.7 
S.0 
34.7 
88.4 
21. t 

9ao 

30.3 
16.8 
11.4 

2.1 
61.9 

8.1 

0.1 

30.8 
6.7 

».o 

2».S 
39.0 
96.0 


IS 
14 

7 




I'M. 


31 


\m. 

laaL 






ti 




10 






{ .1 


mk. 




8 ^ 117.1( 


IS 

a 


ESh 


17 

» 

4 

30 

B 

'•! 

U 

2fl 
17 
16 
8 

■a 

32 

38 
38 
ft 
36 

« 

SB 
8 
» 
14 
U 
1 


71.2 
M2.3 
Z1B.1 

<L8 

Ado 

) ^0 

Vo 

U.4 

48.8 
1U.H 
47 
40.2 
«3.0 
116,8 
CO. 3 
T7.0 
67.7 
ll&fl 

72.3 

78. 4 

417,3 
180.8 
78.9 

r.e 

139.3 


Hkk 


lb 


^^^v 


2 


^^^F ' 


11 


^^^ 


19 
IX 




UN. 

ift:"::::::::::: 


3 

a 
It 




ft 




»::::-::::;;: 


1 

SI 


»::•:■-::•; 


4 

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ZI 

2 
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hPI- >••**•••••« ••• 








22 




19 


Bm.._ _ 


11 
13 
3» 



Zabui V&^^dnuaaad amtufUUmca uf themtut afjundunt raij^alU wAicA /uire oecurrtd 
OTiMh OM hour or part thereof: UHSS-JOOt. 




OWM nl min. 



Inceu*^ bioitl ttiiini1*nni>nri .. 

1ii3iicnir« of dUtant pmmirr. 
1niea<Mlliiind«ntonBD 

Tbondenionn ltiBnen«i-al by 

dIfUnt bnrrlofto*. 
iDfliteace ol dMuil hnnl- 

oanv. 
l)l*unihtt|rt«uieliitb«itortt>. 
Intfiwnc* ut ■ burrlenne 

Wblch CKMMd DMT Um 

•miUi Of lUnUi. 
Tbnodaralaina lDfiDMi«Ml bjr 

A luurleueuwAnl threuL 
nDndmiiims., 

a» 

tMManl prvnura . . . . 



do 

TbDo4«nrtoni>. 



ObMtTBlIoIU. 



Iiuen*^ kxMl IhtmlHWami .. 

ThuDilrmti^m 

,....Ji. 

<lo.. 



TbcM eu mia. were nvMond 

hr liic pliiTl«graph Omm>IU 

In 80 uUiutM. 
I n 8 minute* 60 tnm. wm« ml. 

l«ci«d. 
The pluvlagrnpb roftotaml 40 

mm. Id SOmliioKi. 
Wti found 20 mm. mlftorad Id 

Ij uJnuUi. 
30 mni. w«t« KcMcKd la 12 

taiatam. 



ln7m1nntMG0mtn,iT«rarar 

Meifi. 
In SOtnlnnkianO mm. noTf nrg* 

launxl. 
In 17mlDal«*2& mm. wcm nf. 

IMnxl In ilw pluvlocni>4i' 

41mm. wf wKWi toll m 8ft mla- 

40mm. ngUuni Ln KidIuuIm. 

36 uuu. roitcrtM In ir. oilnuHa. 

''.Tnin.n-irWtavdtitt6mlnM^<*. 
'1 iom, nT(Wpn»<Vln\ftuiVnnV»-%, 



WATKK VAI*OK. 



Ui> 



Tablk S4.—iIaximum raii^aS in earh mimth, ofc»«r.vfJ in M^tnUa during ili€ pMod 



Mm. pMm. BSV. 



13 



B-7 p.in. 
•-ft p-ni. 

1-3 fLU. 

9-19 p. m. 
4-& p. in. 
O-l v.m. 

0-1 a.u. 
"Il-tt 

1-3 P.1IL 
7^ P.B1. 

'U-IS 

6-; p.m. 

'Jl-l? 

%-\ti p. u. 

»-i p. IB. 

7-e p,iB. 

1-3 «.]>. 



Um. IMU. Uov. 



17 |IU-« 

6 I 1-3 B.n. 

ft-B H, HI. 

5-4 p.m. 

V-3 S.tu. 

1(^11 a.B). 
3-4 p.m. 
l-i p.m. 
»-i fm. 
ft-C [i.m. 

9-8 ;i. m, 

2^ p.m. 
1-3 p. HI. 
S4 p. m. 
7-ft p.ia- 
0-1 p. m. 
10-11 p. ID. 



ai 



Um. Du«. Ba«T, 



0.1 



J-A [MB. 

1 3 ptin. 

3-1 11.01. 

lit p. Ml. 

S-4 I>.tll, 

O-L li.ni. 

O-l ■.». 
■11-12 

0-7 (t-m. 

Vft a.m. 

S-4 ft.n. 

\ &•! |>.m. 

ft-7 k.KI. 

7-« ■.■. 

»-t p.ni. 

1-3 i>.n. 

6-7 PI.BI. 

U-UMM 



The following Tnhlcs, 2Ji, 90, and 97, $iitk>itantiate what ha.-* been 
Mttfi aliout the distribution of rainfall over the archii^elago. They 
aiv iho result of tbo obson'ntion.^ niafln in ililTercnt locaIitie.s .since the 
CMtahltHhmcnt of wcMthor sorviro hi the i.-^landn. Finally, Table 23 
fonipnivii th(> ycArly avcragf^ of rainfall in Manila with that of sereral 
iint*i in thf Far Ka-st and in thr. l^nitrtl Stntf^s. and Plate V shows 
IP annual rai-iutiou of rainfall in variou.s places of the Philippines, the 
LDtiilei!), and tlie United States. 

UA. — ittmthiy ntYrOfffJi of rait\faJl and linyi of mm at diffrrent ^tuva in Liutftl. 



fltftHO*. 



Ttnn(l0T«an) .... 

■H>iW<r/)«n).. 

Mtl|XT««nj 

AdnciMi) (S ) i^n) . . 
Attat7(«TW*i 

Ap«rTl(<()rtBr*) 

Tag n m a novt ]rc«i»j 

- ' i{7rwB) — 




AtBOBM 

{mm.}. 



Ha of 



Amgubt 
(mm.). 



No.a( 
dan. 



Amount Ki).af 
(HUD.). (Uyi. 



Atnuiiot 
(mm.). 



Ro.of 

dKJt. 



(IS «•«»,, 

p»£tJj*M«p. 

f MAm . . . . 



Mav. 



Amoont 
(miB.|. 



Ho. of 
ilajr^ 



ABKiont 

(mm.). 



Ito.ol 

Anjit. 



Amotuit 

(mm.). 



■m-4 
MXft 

IM.9 
l».7 
108 I 

aire 

MS 
U.I 
I1U.7 
86 A 



K0.o( 
ilaytt. 



Amtmcil 

(IBDI.), 



No. or 



289.4 
Uk'l 

a».9 

».3 

in. 7 

MS.1 
171 t 
S>.D 

aa.f 

11.1 



130 



GEOGKAPHY. 




Tablb S5.- 



-ilontktff averapa of raht/nti and dof/t of nun ct df/fetmt piaea (n 





■EPTnuXB. 


DCTOBUk 


KQTEMKEU. 


HBCEHBKB. 


TOTAt. 


nAHoit. 


Anuunv 
(mill.)' 


N0.0I 


Ai&'Oiini 
(mill,). 


Seal 


Amoant 
(nm.t. 


.Vo.o( 


ABUtnnt 

(lam.). 


No. of 
<)a>m. 

V.I 

1-0 

M 1 

24.0 
■il.Q 
H.8 
lfi.S 
14.5 
4.6 
1&7 


(mm.). 


Bo. Of 
daf*. 


'Tlna(10nu»| 

AUBioiian (8 jtMa).. . 
AIb4(«]tmn) 

TtvcuBumo (2 fCM*) . 
Bui JooiQ (1* retn)- • 
ThiataH (7 y«an) 


41)6.1 
AM-O 

3N.X 
ItKLS 
290. » 
213.0 
70.1 
3G1.& 
11B.« 


17. B 
H.4 

H.0 
Lt.0 
10.2 
12.S 
H.0 

at. 7 

15.0 


17S.4 

in.i 

130. S 
X1S.9 
«(L7 
212. & 

Its. 6 
16a.O 
33B.0 


&.« 
7.5 

ZI.O 
■ii.0 
15.5 
11.1 

H.S 
l&fl 


».» 

«.< 
101. e 

NW.7 

aoi.1 

'^41.0 
50.2 
102.0 
383.1 


7.5 
1».0 

IS.6 

II. 6 
8.5 

7.0 


o.« 

8.1 

07.5 
488.9 
138.5 
4B7.0 
3H.5 
80.1 
U.fi 
U5.4 


I,«67.T 
'i,4St.4 

1.512.8 
3.886,8 
3.«00.ft 
2,M0.S 

],a3a.s 

7Da4 
1.772.8 
1.4W.S 


•i.6 
BT.8 
80.5 
I!t6.0 
I75.C 
91S.B 
UO-O 
10816 
115.9 
Ml.; 



XuLS S0.— JtfntfUy mteraga ofrainfaU and dajn o/rwm tadiffifvnt jtlaceu in th«Vimx!ia$ 

(md Mindanac. 



•mbOMO (3 yMtn}.. 

!(J6(S»M») 

lldH^eu*) 

i(lliwu^ 

lvw>Qyeu>) 

:(3y»r») . 



(mm.}. 



So. ot 
dafL 



AmeoDt 

(lUIU.). 



No. of 
d«f». 



Munbano(Z]r«snt... 
Zwnbouin (8 TMn).. 

Jaia(5TMn) 

IloUo(4rau») 

ceM(5rMn]- 

Tunoalaca (treAn) .. 

MviiO<3yMn) 

Tlndifl (a rc«nj 



Amotint 



271.8 

88.6 

MS. 8 

sas.1 

UR.e 

191.3 
U3.B 
217- 4 



No. Ol 

<i«r«. 



l(«uMlrio la ycui). 
Zuabnu>|ii O ji>iLn> 

Jolfrdnui} 

IlolUtftrMn) 

reLa(5TMi^ 

IhiiiinulACB itjuan) 

IMrM>(2]rMn>» 

Tli)4«c(3jaan) 



aKrmniKK. 



AUOOnl 

mm.), 



lie. 4 

7t.G 
UI.G 

tfn.0 

198.8 
160,6 
187.5 



Ko-d 
dark. 



Amotifit 
toun.1. 



No. ot 




Anunnt 

(BUR. I. 



SS7.0 
84.1 

It6.V 

an.s 

&s 

m;.« 
21T.1 



Ha of 

dBTt. 



BOmtBtk. 



48.11 
74.« 
1S7.8 

118. S 
151.2 
08.C 

■JSLl 



tORDnSM. 



Amoonl'Na.d 
[ou&.i. IduyK. 



totai. 



AmouBl|Ma.of 
(mm.). j'Uin. 



14T.S 

121. B 

lOt.- 

IBCLC 

i&i.a 

191.8 
IHT.t 
XB.V 
























Plate V, 






















UnUL VARIAIIOB OF &ilH a VABIO[JS PUQBS 

OPTSe PHILtPPIHB AAOHIEHLAOO, OPTUS ANTILLES 

iHD OF THE mniED BTATE8 OT JlME&IOA 


DUD. 

•V 

M* 
M« 

•M 
MO 

■W 

■N 
NB 

*•• 

m 

M 
4 


^ 


r**. 


Mm. 


4»r.]«w, 


^.>i> 


*wa. 


%. 


- Ot*. 


aa>. 


0M 


tmn. 

MO 
MS 
MO 














1 


i_^ 








f 




- 


4- 














































t 




^^ 










. i 






















1 












- "T/l 






! 
















■ 










J? 


f 1 
























' 








k 




^ 


1 










1 












' ■ 






I'N 


r 


IL 


























1 ' 






/ 


s"-/ 


II 
































/ ^ 


























1 






/I . ■ 1 11 




f 




' 












■ ) i 


■■ ij ; 1 '111 


















"1" ' 








i 


/ 


II 












- 








1 








1 




If 


Ml; 










- 


= 


~ 


r 


— 


— 


=: 


— t- 


-r- 


— 






E± 


H: 


_ 


- 


— 


" 


— 


- 


— 


~ 


— 


=: 





-1— 
1 


= 


— 




— 1 


i 


j- 


1"" 


— 


— 


- 


~T 


~ 


— 














1 










[ 




1 








1 




, 


_^ 





, 







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_ 


, , 




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1 




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i. 


— 


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~- 




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— 


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^ 


^ 






4— 


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— 


— 


^- 


-♦■ 
















: 




1 ISbfl 


ft 1 


I 










1 






















' T" ■■ 


■^4^ 1 










\ 





^ 


1 


1 


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1 











^ 






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_ 





-* 


. , 


. ; 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 1 


— 




— 






1 


TM 




— 


— 


1 


■ — ' 


— 


MO 
HO 

MO 

MW 

IM 

IM 

W 




1 














~ — 












;^ 


/ 1 








T 






• 






















1 JT . 


■7 


1 




r* 




■ 






^ 


— 


— 


— 


^ 

a 


- 




- ——1 


- 


r 


i¥^ 


& 


r 


1 




^ 


— ] 


~ 


— 


- 


-T 


-i 


~ 


— 


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— 




: z 


~ 




# 


- 


*1 


- 


j^^ 




3 


? 


= 


— 


— 


^ 


















If 


r*! 


1 


■ 








1 








i 

















, 






1 


^ 






J 










' 








} 






y 












1 




















1 






















— 


\ 






J 


1 
















lU/ 


t 










,■ 


v^ 


) 
















j 




^ 


- 





- 


k— 





/ 


A 






- 




■~i 


— m 




J 





— 


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5 


i 


■^ 




V - 

FT 


'iw^ 


I 


tie 


^ 


It 


!!^ 


1 


s 


X 


1 — 1 


— 


^ 


s 


§ 


a 

— 




— < 


=i 




i 


?)?^ 


i 





-~ 


^ 


A 


^ 


r-v 


? 




i 


= 9 






^p 


m- ■** 


z 


h^ 


= 


n 


■ •^ 


~ 


V ^l^^ 


r 


3 

^ 


5 

^ 


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i 


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ii 


J. 
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;- 


I 






1.UT.6 

I, -mo 

2.816.* 
]1,S«1.3 
1.771.x 
1.1H.4 
l.(MM 

t.lUL«- 

i.4n.< 

■.iB.a 

gu.! 
aH.4 

atOL* 
i,in.4 

l.«9.< 

I.UL* 

f7D.3 

i,ni.« 



M 

tl 

1 

2 

» 

n 

41 

M 
« 
10 
U 



Tbe quantity of water rapor iu tbo atmosphere haa a din^ct in6iionco 
on cHuiHte, ttecauMe it chirks to Houie extent the rudiutiou, and conso' 
quently tnay diminish the diurtml mid annual rangtiJi of t^^mperuture. 
Hence, tbe knowledge of the ratio between tbe olrtened vapor prosMUiD 
and the vapor pressiire at yaturation under exiHtinp condition!) of 
tem|jerature is of importance in ctiniatobjg'y, 

Tabln 29 present-* tbo retutivu huniiditr for Manibi onlyn nhowinf^ 
tb(^ annuul and uiunthly averages u£ rululive humidity during a poriud 



il 



Plate VI. 



ABirOAL ViKIATIDH OP 
T5B BKU.TIVE HnMIBITY AT HlSIIrA 

1380 ■ 1,9 53 


Jaa, /WiF. Uat. *or. •rem Jpn Jrit tt 


If. St 


pi. 01 


(. n 


H. 01 


IB. M 


■ 


















y 


^ 








■LO 


MB 

mo 

lf.6 

n,i] 
IMI 












1 




r 


\ 










n 








/ 







\ 








ti.e 

•1.0 

taa 

TI.B 

71.0 

TT.a 

M< 

TVS 












/ 






1 


\ 














J 


' 










\, 
























N 


L 










/ 














\ 


7T.B 

TAfi 

»,» 

7t,a 

TI.O 










/ 














\ 


, 
























\ 
























\ 






1 


















\ 






1 




















\ 




1 


















ns 
ri.B 




\ 




j 




















\ 


\ 
























\ 




















^_, 




^_ 



194 



GEOGKAPHY. 



of twenty yoaTs; in Table 50 appeiin tbe comparison of monthly and 
auDuul avcrugos; in Table 31 tbe absolute minitna; in Table 32 the 
average monthly variations of relative humidity; and iu Table 33 the 
monthly and annual averages^ of the ten^^iou of the aqueous vapor. 

l*Iate VI pre^tents graphically the annual variation of the relative 
humidity at Manila; Plate VII comimies tempei-atui-e with humidity 
and cloudiness, confirming what ha^ tieen pointed out conceming^ the 
influenee of humidity and water vapor on the temperature, or on (he 
thinmic oscillation (range of temperature); Plate Vlil shows the annual 
variation of the tension of aqueous vapor. 

Table S9. — Mtmthiy and annnul aventgt* <^ Tfiatitt kHfniditti in itanHa: iSSS-JSOM. 



TMK. 


Jm. 


p 

r«b. 

7a, 7 


Mar. 


Apr. 


M-y. 


JlltW>, 


Jnlf. 


Ailg. 


8©pl- 


Ocl, 


r — ~ 
Not. 


Dw. 


Anuual 
»T«- 


IMt. 


Tfi-T 
TT.l 
;i.2 

TiLfi 

81. S 
B3.lt 
M.2 
TB.< 

7S.4 

nio 

77.6 
TLB 

77.8 
77.9 
77.6 
7&U 
77.0 


7t.« 


74.B 
Cft,< 
M.S 

73.7 
W.-i 

n.0 
os-o 

18.1 
07.0 
07.4 
71.3 

<M.9 

n,9 

00.6 

n.3 

77.6 
73.1 
«.? 
tt.4 
«.7 


rt.i 

75.1 
TlLO 

?&.n 

M. 1 
72.2 

e«.« 

n.s 
m.1 

T5.(l 

BO.! 
77.9 
B}.4 

M.) 
77. a 
79.7 
77. S 
73. & 
7S.9 
75. « 


6S.0 

m.s 

7B.0 
Kf.5 

M.« 
81. 1 

81.8 
M.3 
TB.0 

711. S 

ai.s 

B3.1 

f».t 
7B.0 
M.1 
81.9 
M.6 
81. B 
1W.9 


».l 
81.1 
81.0 
B4.G 
9».0 
«l8 

8i.a 

AS 
lO^B 

81.B 

au 

S.I 

M.ft 

n.8 

8».T 
SS.9 
83.3 

819 


at 

81B 
SIS 

8L» 

•4.B 

a&K 

84.4 

814 
8<L» 

H.1 
•B.S 
88.9 
81. S 

88.8 
BS.1 

RS-I 

BS.1 
88-7 
80.7 

aa8 


88.« 
8S.4 
80.3 
88.1 
8».« 
818 
88.8 
Sff.l 
SB.8 
85.* 
88.7 

a$.7 

aft.7 

85.4 

19. 8 

si.e 

88.8 

81.1 

JB.8 


80.8 
79;0 
B0i8 
Bi.7 
8S.Z 

ia.7 

M.0 

B&.« 
7914 

az.1 

U.4 
83.0 

78L2 
83.1 

lai 

M.« 
82.4 
83.3 
(«.» 

ia.« 


78.4 
77.1 
MA 
81.1 
88.8 
S3.9 
88.9 
80.6 
81.9 
82.2 
79.0 
79.8 
80.9 
M.9 
83.8 
8(1.7 
81.9 
82.8 
8B.4 
80. « 


81.B 
79l0 
79.S 
BLB 
(f7.B 
80.1 
86.B 

nis 

7».7 

78.4 
77.8 
88.8 
77.1 
79.3 
SIO 

n.! 

8014 

81. B 
7>.B 
80.0 


7».« 

78.1 


tuft 


7h. 8 A 7 


76.1 


■nr 


71 3 
TS 6 
7B.6 
•0.1 

74. f 

Taa 

717 
711 

T1.9 
73, < 

717 
71.* 
77 6 
7i0 
7<J 9 
7^1 
TtS 


80, S 
79 4 
71.0 
7ft. » 

«a.t 

70. V 
713 
70.7 

70. e 

71.1 
71.4 
CV.l 
TUB 
73. B 
7».2 
71.4 
70,1 


79.7 
BS.8 

80.1 




nW 


80.4 


^fM ~ 


79 A 


vm'"" 


78.1 
78. S 


E...- 


78.7 
78.8 


^J 


JO. 4 


Sivr 


78.6 


» 


81.4 

79.6 
70.4 


iJR* 


T&8 






Avwracv... 


77.8 


74.3 


71, B 


71X7 


76.7 


81.4 


M.R 


84.8 


m.t> 


aa.7 


IB.fl 


».7 


79.4 



Tablb 30. — T^t normai montUy aivrwftt ofrtlalii* hMmidih/ atmparert trith tit* untiual 
avenge unc/ the ejctnme moatMif avtragCK JSIt4-JiiOt. 




1 


^^ PLATt VII 


■ 


TBBUaO OeOlLLUTOV, HTOBOltBTRIO BTATS 


^1 


1 


AIT HBBDLOem &T HANILA 


1 


i| 


i 


vaa. rtlt. tiar. «itr Mat f*'* Av ^n Sifif- Oar. «ni- Can. 


1 

H 


0- 


•A 
























1 




»-a 


1 




M 






























1 










k 




















/ 






\ 




























\ 
















H 


















V 


«r" 


^ 


} y 


. . 


y 






^1 


^^M 




M 














Y^ 


^h 




V 










^^^H 


H 
















/ 


V 


— - 


.^ 


^ 










^H 


^H 




M 












/ 








> 


\^-' 








^H 


1 




■0 












// 


1 








"^ 


^ 






H 


1 




n 




\ 






/ 


/ 


















H 


^1 












k^ 


/ ' 


















^^1 


1 




'4 




\ 




1 i 




















1 


\ 




f 




















1 


V 




1 






Th«i 


mid 1 


'Hill: 


Un. 






^^1 




n 






N 




f 






-aw 

Nab 


roiae Ttd fi 


(*w_j 








^^^^1 


■ 










\ 


S 


' 






ilotit 












H 


1 




H 














r 
















■ 




J 



126 



GEOGRAPHY. 



The oxtrcmo depei'turcs of the annual moan from the normal annual 
meui wpre: Fositivc. -iA (IKXT); ncKalivo, 3.0 (issr.). 

During the wboln period lSK3-l;>i»ij the absolute monthly maximum 
of relative humidity was only four time^ below 95 percent, namely, 
98 per cent (March 6, 1H84 and April 2>?, 1900), i.H per cent Olarch 0, 
18^&aud April 14, 1893), while it frequently i-eacliud 99 and KXl per 
cent (saturation). The minima of the same meteorolo^t'at element 
corresponding tu oacb month in the year are ethowu in the foUowinif 
table: 

Tamuc 3 1 .—.Waima ttj rdnHK immiditti m ManiUi: tSSi'SifOt. 



Pwoout. 



u.« 



S,U«T I 
U,».lKlj 
13,l»t 
JB,IM7 
IB,1BW 

*•(»• 
U.1MK 



Jnne...,» 
Jolj 

AWOM.... 

Scptembor 
Ooto1>flr... 

NDWCOtW 

December 



PmoooL 



ae.D 

Bt.O 
M.0 

M.o 
4e.o 
».o 

l»5 



lani 

ULU»( 
Z1.UM! 

aa,isN> 



Henoo the lowest relative humidity during the whole period was 
observed on February 12, 190L 



Tablb 3ii. — Average monthly variaiumt oj Tfkxtire hamidU^ ■» Mnruin: ISSS-ISM. 



TUB. 


Jan. reti. 


Mur. 


Apr. 


M«r-'jtiiHi. 


Joir. 


1 

AOR. 


MpU 

80l» 

98.3 

a. J 

S1.4 

».0 
34.9 
C-5 

22.8 


OCL 


rtov. 


DW. 


Atw 


un 


BZ.0 
38.7 
tl.4 


B3.0 
SLS 

3S.S 

8IL7 


n.4 

SL» 

UlI 

as.1 
ss.» 

M.7 

«.« 

SS.1 
M.fr 

a&o 

S1.S 

aB.0 

S6.« 

15.1 


K.4 
8.S 

n.8 

«xt 

H.0 
■7.0 

16.4 
«.« 

■4.7 
aSi.8 
■tLS 

g^ 

£■; 


88.7 


84.3 


98.8 

SD.4 

10? 

10. 1) 

38.(1 

az.3 

35.1 

3a7 

38LS 
».i 
98.8 
38.4 
17.8 
3H.6 

a.5 


9,0 
83.4 
81.1 
38. B 

n.f. 

Sl.B 
M.7 
80.6 
Id.] 
S8.H 
38.8 
18.9 
SS.8 
30.x 
tt.3 
22.0 
31.8 
21.3 


81.1 
28.0 

38.6 
80.1 


AS 
U.0 

r.« 
n.i 


94.8 
ak.D 
98.0 
■17 
3tT 
■4.0 
38.4 
9».8 
37.8 
■2.0 
88^8 
■Bi8 
94.8 
71. 1 
81.0 
37.1 

9|Lt 

•8.8 


80.7 




Bl.» 
8L7 
U.1 
88.* 

81.3 

8&8 
88.1 
M.S 
88.9 
18.8 

si.a 

80.1 
81.2 
88. ■ 
8S.0 
83.S 


80.1 

».o 

U>.4 
M.8 
B.l 
98. S 
8S.S 
■8.8 
8Q.« 
38.1 
3T.S 
80.8 
38.t 
31.3 
38.1 
».l 
38.8 


KLS 


-jfSi 


98.9 


fifff* 


■1.8 


mW 


■1.3 ,n.i 

».7 At 

S1.D MH 
MB S7.8 


17. < 


38.3 


■Lll 




BH.0 T<.1 
3S.5 , 39.7 


K* 




■OlX 


(no 


no 


un 


t4.S 27.* '38.4 
36.0 iDLft aa.B 


KlO 


MM 


n.* 




SI 3 

M.0 
21. < 
SI. ft 

«.? 

SI.« 


SJ.l 

s&» 

SIS 

314 

SD-e 


33.4 
38.1 
3t.» 
38.0 

31.7 
18.7 
91.3 


sLi n.i 

■8.7 SB,? 
37.7 97.3 
K.0 31H 
98.4 14.7 
3B.C at. 7 
38.2 MS 
80.S{88.I 


97. 8 




l&j 


91.5 


ilW 


910 


BS:::::;:::::::::: 


18.9 
88.S 




».» 


»,* 


•S.3 


8S.3 


SD;1 


38. » 


3&.« 


98.3 


S.« 38. 1 


38.8 


■0.8 



PlATC VIII. 



&fffftJAL VARIAffll OF TE£ TEHBIOH 

OF IQUEOUS VAPOR AT HAMTLA 

1883 - 1902 




Jam, Pmb- Mar^ fi/iit- May Jvna Juiv Ana. Gtat^Gni. ^v*. I^hil ^on. 




mrni 

CD 


























tnn. 

■La 












/ 








\ 




















11.9 

iii.a 



















\ 


\ 














' 












\ 


V 




if,a 








/ 














■ 


\ 


; 




s^ 


/ 


y 


















\ 




na 


\ 


/ 


















































^^ 




^ 





128 



QEOGiurar. 



Tajjui 33> — Xonthig an<j mtrnKil averoj/fa of <kf Inm/jn vj othmmu ropir m Mart^ai 

JS8S~190£. 

{WSOXD.vxan.'i 



TBAB. 


jkii. 


F«b. 


Mar. 


A|ir. 


M»r. 


inn*. 


Jalr. 


AW*. 


Bept. 


Oc.t- 


Nm. 


Dec 


Aver- 

MtC- 


m.^ 


I*. 8 
IS. 7 

to.i 

IS: A 
20.11 
1».0 
17-8 
18. S 
17. D 
17.3 
IJ.S 
U.8 
IA.S 
1S.8 
U-6 
IS. 8 
J7.8 

i».a 


IT.S 
17. S 
17.0 
U.9 
16.0 
17 S 

ai.1 

18. -i 

16. ( 

17,9 
17.8 
l«.8 

n.a 

17. e 

18.0 
IV. s 

17.1 
IV. 

17. a 

16,0 


19. & 
17.7 
17.2 
U.9 
20.4 
]».« 
30. S 
\H.t 
17.9 
18. » 
MO 
l».l 

ie.9 

19. V 

J7.9 

3ao 

ltl.3 
l».l 


ai,B 

1A,3 
31.9 

ms 

IS. 7 

a>.o 

MLS 
StLB 
18.9 

3CkO 
31.8 

a2 
\%* 

tV.1 


XL8 
21.0 
30.7 
21.8 
23.0 

■n.t> 

22.1 

21. a 
ij « 

-il.6 

■a.s 

33.9 
28.2 
23.5 
2J.7 
U.6 

23.1 


23.0 
21.4 
30.9 

■A.h 

xLti 
23.1 
2t.9 
22.8 
2^.0 
21.1 
XL3 
2S.3 
23.S 

ia.0 

33.0 

22.1 

B.7 
J3.1 
XL8 


11.9 
jl.6 
«.6 

2Lfi 
21.8 
21.A 

U.3 

ILA 
22.1 
Xtl 
XZ.7 
XZ.7 
t2.& 
2Lt 
ZZ-tt 
210 
216 
33.8 


31.8 
21. S 
31.« 
23.6 
32. « 
22.8 
32.6 
32.0 
22-4 
23. t 
22.0 
32.6 
22.4 
32.« 
22.« 
23.4 
2S.4 
23.4 
22.7 
23.9 


SZ.1 

IL3 
SI. 8 
210 
22.7 
22.6 
33.8 
22.2 
21. J 

ia-8 
sea 
XLa 

2X7 

a. It 

3X3 

22.0 
316 
Stl 
32.8 


30.7 
20.8 
2L6 
22.0 
21.1 
21.0 
23.4 
21.4 
Sl.l 
21H 
21.0 
31.7 
21.4 
32.3 
32 2 
312 
21 7 

Via 

Sit 
31.3 


10.3 
19:1 
«■> 

SCL2 
31. S 
21.2 
21.6 
19.3 
20.6 
■3). 2 
ltf.3 
10.4 
1S.B 
20,S 
21.8 
21. S 
31.8 
21. 1 
21.9 
30.1 


18.6 
17.7 
18.7 
19.8 
30.9 
20l1 
30.0 
U.7 
19.3 
18.4 
■&.« 
U.» 
Ifcl 
U,9 
SCkO 
I9lS 
19. C 
19.8 
W.7 
19.7 


30.4 


K"::::::::::::: 


19.6 
lliT 


c::::::::::::::: 


20.6 

21.6 


H 


21.1 


M 


3L8 


M 


20. & 


M 


20.B 


•A 


30.4 


M 


213 


a:::::::::::::::: 


30.7 
31.1 




■R 


HSd 


31.3 


BS 


301.7 


p;;;:;;;;;;;;;;;; 


214 




l(.S 


IT. 7 


u.e 


IliB 


32.1 


2L6|tt.5 


n.6 


316 


ILS 


19.2 


9».y 



MOVEMENT (>K Tllli AT.M(W1'HICKE. 



BDRFACE WINDB. 

Aiiotbor iinportanl climntic factur i.s the nriod, because the move- 
numt of air iocmiscs ovii[k( ration am] dric?H tbi* soil, (bus iniTeasing 
tliH deiuaiid of urgiinisiiLs fur waiter iind tJie evuporuting cii(Mieity uf a 
climate. BesidcH, the wind affects directly the Heunible tcmperaluro 
or the physiological temperature which is not indicated )>y dry-imlb 
themionieters. 

Under thiti head are included surface currents, their frequency and 
direction and the averag-o velocity of these currents: the average direc- 
tion of higher currents, viz, direction of high cloudi^, interuiediate 
clouds, and lower clouds; extraordinary currents, viz, general aod 
cyclonic storms, electric storms, mostly local. 

The frequency and direction of the winds in Manila ahoutd be drst 
coosidered, since they suggest the prevailing winds iu the remainder 
of the archipelago. 



In tb* foUavins aatmomry wiO be imb the 
fnqaeocj or ng titiii o n ni the wtada ta the 
ymr. 



mmdwmimam 
of tba 




JTW. 



The prBTailing wind in VmitlT, tfaerefore. u from tbe mntli 
from M«7 until Octoljer, lodonTe; that ht to av. for About six 
iDonUuf. From Norember to Jaaour, mclnnre^ north wincb prcTsil, 
sad during tbe other three months, Febnar;, March, and April, the 
uutcTly winii't prev'aiL Tbe loweHt freqoencjof the north and north- 
went w-indN uijciim from February to October, and that of the eontb 
and Mnidi-flOfltibeMt winde in the months of November, December, and 
Jaattar7, 

Table 34 t>hows that in tbe months in which the north wind has ihe 
gnateat per fv^nt tito iiorth-northrHst and northeast wimU prevail mostly 
after that, and hImi thut in tlnMnonths in which the cast winds are mottt 
prevalant the OPxt frequency corresponds to the east-southeast and 
■ootheaflt, if wo leave out the month of February, which gives tbe 
oortboMt wind a larger per cent than that from the southeast Accord- 
ingly it can be wid that from November to January, both inclusive,.] 
Ihe nortli and iiorthcn^it winds prevail, while in the months of Feb-' 
niary, Man:b, and April llui caHt and HOiitheasl winds prevail. 

An U) tlin montliN in which tbe southwest winds ?jre\'ailf it is to be 
■eeii tlmi May und ()ct:oh(>r am not far tielow tbe maximum frequency of 
Mui nnr] north-ftorlhraixt winds, from which it appears that May is the 
month of the vrwring of the windo from east to thoee of southwest, ■ 
and thill OhIoInt is the month wheiv.iri they change from aouthwedt to 
ihoHO of ^h^^ north. 

Applying LamU'rt's complete form and Kulielituting each of the 16 
dlreetlnuH instead of the corrcHponding per cent the table gives u^, wo 
will have ftmnd Um mitdlum or re.sultant directions for each of 
twelve moDthn in the year, as follows: 



I 



I 



Mann .. 



fcwll—t 



r 



H trtvK 



Mr 



S«ntMBL 



a MP WW. 
a M^jrw. 
a www. 

».«•«- a 



4 



J 



MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSPilEKE. 



181 



From tbe anntutl ritiiiit^ or toUilsand the corresponding perccnU^ 
ih\>h we \\ave giv^*n in Tublf 34 tho imnual vuriutionof tho winds ran 
<io<liiccd, wli'u.h !■* herewith graphically represented in the rlrawing 

110 PlHlO IX. 

Th«v*e facts shun that Ihe pivvjiiling wiuda durinjr tho yoar are thoso 
from the •jouthwtwl, followed by those Eroni tho east. The frequency 
or prevalence of those from the other dJrivtionH diniiniflh in the fol- 
lowing order: West -sou thwe^^t, north, northeast, north-northeast, east- 
soniliea-Ht. Miutheast, south -to nth weat, west, onst- north east, uoutH, 
mmlb southeast^ west -northwest, northwest, and north- northwest. 

Wr have divided the year into two period-s, from November to May, 
ineluitive, and from June to October. incliLsivc, and we have added to 
l^ble ^ tbe corresponding fact8 which have helped us to give in tho 
two ilniwinijs on Plate X the semiannual viiriatioii of the wind dircc- 
Jon in Manila. During tlie |>erio<l from June to Octol>er those from 
]e»ooihweHt are most prevalent, those from the cast and north having 
lo nuiximum prevalence in (he other period. 

jiiiiui] uieiUuni or nisiilUtnL dircvtlon B. W ^S' E. 

IpiUnni KPRiiatinital ilirvetuin: 

June to CtPtoU-r. IrM-lnsivo a S2» 41' W. 

NovctuUtIo .May, indnsive N. 70" SO* E. 

From the continuous record of the forc« and direction of the wind 
"n many years, the following important eoncluMlons are drawn: 

J. The calnw or very light winds prevail in nil tht months during 
le houra of the night, their uiaximuni prevalence being from 6 to 7 
m., and nioiit commnnly at 7 in tbe morning, except in tbe months 
>f Nov*enib4.>r and flecember, when, according to observations, calms 
occur mostly at 9 o'clock at night. 
2. The minnuuuj pn-valence of catmit takett plau«at about 13 o'clock 
>u, or, in otlier wonU, at the time of groateft beat. 
8. From tlio month of December to April, both inclusive, the winds 
tbe third quarter very rarely take place dui-iug tbe night, or after 
i o'clock in the momiug. 

4. KevertiieleM, thi^«e winds from south to went generally prevail 
all tbe ffiontbii of tbe year from ^, lU, or II o'clock in the morning 

IDtil S or i </clot;k iu tlie afternoon, owing to the sea breezes, which 
Manila blow in that direction or (juarter. In the month of April 
breeses often prtfvail until 1 p. m., giving way then to the winds 
I aut-BOUtbcoii^t, which are proper in this month and which are often 
strong in tho fow houru of tiie afternoon. 

5. In those niuDtha in wlitrh thi- winds of tlie third tjuudraut prevail, 
tbe tint few liouru of the <lay tbe winds of the lirst and second 

ita abto prevail to a certain extent. In the month of .fune tlieso 
vn ft maximum frequency from 8 o'etock at night until b o'clock iu 
imiiig. 



Plate tx. 
UtXttAL EBffffEEBKOl OF TEE WHM AT KUILA. 




** ^ ^ 

(L P a 



I 





134 



GKOUKAPHY. 



in Table y5 we jfive ihe final results of hourly ohscmitions, thnt is 
to jwy. the vuioomrv for tlu- jwHod lHi>ij-ls;»s. the convspnudhiff prr- 
centugu for each of llic tueiity-foui' hours of the day, and the prin- 
cipal direction. 

Tabim 36. — .FWftuney t/i&r wind in Monilit, \mlh direelion noted Oj/ htmn, far period 

laoi-tsaa. 





lA. M. 


SA.V. 


>A 


m. 


4a. 


K. BA.II. 


tA 


U. 


nrakcnoy. 


NniD- 
tMral 


cent. 


btrot 

OMBi. 


P»r 


Knin- 
berof 

OUtO. 


P« 


Run- 
bwQi 


ease. 


Num- 
ber ol 
auea. 


Par 
MHIL 


Kiun- 
b«tof 


TV 

toaU 


„ 


3ao 




MS 


O-U 

O-V 


350 


7.S 

7.7 


301 
JOS 


T.J 
7.0 






227 

ai 


S.4 


fil^ . . 




ISO 


4.9 


2S& 


(D 


ais 


OCX 


»r 


7.0 


tM 




2X0 


0.* 




lOO 


4.0 


1>5 


&4 


183 


&,8 


KM 


a.1 


li« 




la 


xs 




100 


v-a 


lU 


a.4 


141 


8.2 


14:: 


^■i 


m 




UM 


XT 


JK::n:::: 


m 


B.« 


ua 


S.3 


LOO 


XV 


♦7 


U.S 


M 




1«3 


XS 


IM 

m 


4.S 


117 
•0 




IIM 


za 




2.0 
1.2 


02 
33 




a 
a 


l.T 


IT" 


X* 




S.0 
1.2 


a 
w 


t.2 
1.0 


OB 
OB 


X.0 
2.6 


40 


1)1 
2.4 


47 




a 

4& 


XI 




LA 




M 


l.B 


7» 


i.e 


n 


Ld 


<H 


1.3 


01 




4^ 


1.0 




s 


LS 


<a 


La 


BB 


L2 


ia 


1.0 


a 




31 


0.0 




1.0 


n 


1.0 


33 


0.7 


» 


«.» 


a 




IB 


0.0 


JSr.:::::: 


W 


n 


35 


LB 


10 


LI 


IS 


L4 


u 




7 


0.6 


3» 


30 


xe 


30 


XO 


10 


XO 


» 


Xft 


IB 


XO 


KKW 


47 


4.0 


4a 


LB 


BO 


LL 


u 


0.1 


a 


4.0 


«N 


L« 




W 


a.0 


157 


a.B 


ST3 


6.0 


! M& 


0.3 


000 


7.J 


l,Mt 


7.0 




7*^ 


■- 


04. 


v. 


»A 


v. 


10 A 


. H. 


lt«.K. 


IX HOOK. 


oikarrMn. 


Kmn- 

berof 


Per 


Hani* 

CNM*. 


MOlt. 


Hum- 
biral 

caatt. 


eont 


Nmir 
banf 


(MIL 


Hunw 
bn-of 
cmaw. 


1^ 

eOBL 


InuL- 
kerof 

OHM. 


Par 

c«aL 


K 


sn 

aa 


0.6 


SB 


o.t 

0.0 


170 

U» 


6.1 

4.* 


n 

a 


XI 


04 

« 


1.8 
t.9 


u 

(0 


Lfl 






M7 


&S 


lil 


0.4 


u» 


3.0 


01 


X) 


«» 


k\ 


a 


1.7 




IW 


«.« 


IIH 


4.7 


» 


H.4 


41 


1.7 


M 


« 


L7 




IM 


3,4 


iH 


V.> 


1)4 


X« 


101 


XS 


01 


1.4 


M 


Xt 




» 


IS 


« 


2.7 


W 


Z6 


00 


X4 


» 


Xft 


a 


XT 




« 


Lt 


7» 


S.* 


Ml 


2.0 


00 


X4 


a 


xa 


• n 


xc 




» 


ZO 


U 


H.4 


tt 


0.7 


u 


xz 


n 


IB 


40 


x« 




41 


*s 


n 


4.ft 


in 


7.4 


UM 


&,» 


iS 


hi 


72 


LI 


w 


« 


II 


71 


2.0 


ISO 


0.0 


too 


0L1 


0.B 


1*1 


6.1 


M 


1.0 


7i 


Lfi 


m 


S.0 


on 


0.0 


»w 


7.0 


173 


7.0 


WBW 


a 


ae 


f& 


LI 


, 2tO 


6.0 


4U 


3.1 


HO 


IA7 


oa 


11.7 




u 


ft4 


W 


L3 


IVT 


0.3 


40B 


1X9 


47S 


U.1 


410 


16. B 


jraw 


10 


9.S 


21 


LC 


\ a 


0.4 


lU 


1X1 


ITS 


U>.lt 


ISl 


1X6 




a 


&4 


H 


8.» 


1 >fr 


8.T 


UM 


10^7 


a 


■kB 


a 


o.i 


ffflS 


« 


4,1 


on 


6.« 


or 


0.0 


TB 


7.0 


00 


LI 


a 


XX 


I.VH 


«:t 


«8T 


CC 


430 


t.t 


104 


LS 


a 


Ol7 


70 


Ob« 



I 

a 



I 



^^^B^ MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 135 ■ 


r Tabus 35. — Awwney W (Ac wind m Uanila, iritA diredion nalrd hy tumn, for period ^M 


^^ ;.8M-i«a9— ConOaued. H 




IP. K. 


Ir.K 


»r.«. 


4r.x. 


6r.K. 


g 




Num- 
ber or 
GUM. 


MOt. 


tierof , 
OUM. ' 


Pftr 
sent. 


Man-' 
berot 


Per 

•.'«UI. 


Hum- 
berot 

CHOk 


Per 
mat. 


Hnm- 

berof 

OHBI. 


PW 

C*Klt. 


Num- 
ber ot 
owea. 


P«r H 
outl. ^H 




a 


t.1 

IS 


U 

HO 


LI 




2.1 

3.5 


n 


a.a 

8.0 


78 

m 


X3 

a.6 




^1 
^1 




UK '.,.. 


n 
« 

H 


l.ff 
11 

1.1 
l.'J 

8.4 


no 
» 

U6 


8.4 
4.0 


111 
SI 
Itf 

14S 


Z8 
S.3 

a6 

4.0 

^4 


ita 
so 

182 

v» 


S.fl 
S.S 
4.1 
6.7 


HI 
HI 

247 
303 
338 


a4 

&.a 
6. ft 
fi.B 


143 
130 
830 
303 

ail 


^1 

^1 


m........ 




MS 


S?.":;:;:: 




M 


S.B 


» 


4.n 


116 


0.6 


141 


11.4 


121 


«.s 


SB 


■ 




» 
UO 

an 


a. 9 

B.4 

7. J 

n.7 

1S.T 


»1 
IM 

a» 

681 


i.l 
S.« 

7. a 
10. e 

10.4 


Iff 

IH 
403 

430 

3ia 


4.S 

»i7 

as 

&7 


U7 
ISI 


6.5 
6. ft 


StI 
140 
MS 

341 
60 


6.S 

6.4 

7.1 
4.8 
1.0 


80 
l» 

IM 


■ 

H 

■ 
■ 
H 




Sr," 


S7T 7.7 

tt3 *■■ X 


*w." 


™j: 


fa 


US 




in 

BS 

IB 
BO 


11.1 
6.4 
2.6 

0.1 


ao 


S.7 
&.4 
S.1 
V.T 


87 

M 

18 

121 


€.7 

ai 

LB 

aiB 


43 

36 
tM 


!.7 
4.4 

3.6 
1.2 


U 

M 
34 

170 


1.C 
8.6 
1.4 
Z.0 


30 
38 
17 

am 


1.7 ^^H 

2.8 ^^H 




■miw 


iMm 






» 1 


■ 


7r-a. 


Sr.K. 


ar. H. 


10 f. M. 


II r. u. 

i_ .^ . 


ismnmaBf. 


TOUl ^1 


F" vatto- 










■ 


1 






( 


1 nox. 


Num. 
bnol 


MM. 


NniiL- 
berol 


eooL 


bcroc 


Per 

c«ni. 


Hnin- 
trarof 

CMM*. 


P., 
cent. 


Kuat* 
Iburol 


«eBI- 


'wor, "; 

11IW1 '°™'- 


tlooa H 


^^M-. 


7T 


s.a 


m 


IS 


toi 


2-« 


las 


8.4 


i~~ 


4.0 


183 


a.3 


B,6M ^^H 


^^^^^^^E 


W 


a.ft 


71 


£a 


HS 


2.4 


U4 


8.3 


m 


3.; 


10) 


4.7 


B.tl4 ^^H 




IM 


S.3 


11A 


IS 


113 


3.0 


131 


3.1 


144 


3.7 


Ids 


4.8 


>.Boa ^^H 


■■■ 


110 


4.7 


10 


aLii 


08 


a.9 


IM 


4.1 


f4 


8.7 


V2 


8.0 


ifln ^^M 


W. 


MO 


11.4 


MB 


79 


2K 


B.« 


366 


6l« 


m 


6.3 


18H 


4.3 


4.4U ^^H 


ff::::: 


tn 


7.8 


3H» 


«7 


MS 


0.7 


»)( 


4.8 


S16 


&S 


m 4.8 II 


t.aa ^^H 


2I» 


«.3 


a»a 


«l9 


Iftt 


7.S 


3S« 


«.!! 


air> 


to 


Ifll 


6.6 


>.«f ^^H 




11 


6.3 


■ 


6.a 


SB 


6.4 


OO 


6.6 


» 


4.S 


76 


4.8 


I.7M ^^M 


t 


M 


fi.O 


M 


&} 


as 


11.0 


7)1 


4.4 


73 


4.1 


43 


3.4 


urn ^^H 


RT.::; 


IM 


6.4 


Ml 


kl 


tas 


4.6 


106 


8.8 


IW 


8.0 


106 


S.B 


1761 ^^H 


m 


6.S 


3DT 


4.3 


im a.3 


ta 


2.n 


100 


2.0 


N7 


1.8 


4.B2r ^^M 


WIW... 


tn 


S.« 


JU 


Z8 


93 l.« 


Gt 


1.3 


<a 


1.3 


ae 


1.4 


Sim ^^H 


w 


«a 


].& 


» 


l-fl 


as I.I 


w 


I.X 


M 


I.a 


30 


0.9 


a.u3 ^M 


wnw... 


ts 


1,4 


M 


i.e 


SB 3.0 


K 


I.S 


IS 


1.6 


18 


L4 


1.390 ■ 


aw-::: 


n 


1,» 


M 


2,0 


34 


3.6 


SI 


3L4 


u 


8.3 


at 


2.* 


971 ^1 


IS 


i.a 


n 


3.A 


44 


4.6 


«* 


4.1 


u 


6.8 


4S 


B.0 


983 H 


t »hi— 


m 


%.i 


a» 


4.0 


n4 


0.0 


7U 


&4 


ne 


6lU 


UO 


0.4 


18,800 H 


^H From lhii< table, end considerlnif the whole twriod, we reach the fol- H 


^B lowinir ro»clusion»: H 


^H !• The frequency of the calms reaches its itiaxiitmin at 7 in the H 


^Vmominir. then ditninisheA from 8 to l)i, nml iricrca.sc«i from 1 in the ^^H 


^r aft«nioon until 1 in the mumin^; tlie freiinencv at *i, 3, and 4 h. m. is ^^H 


[ a trifle leas than that of 1 il m.. increar^inir ainiin front 5 to 7 a. m. V 


S. Between 1 and 8 a. ni. the preralence of the wind^ from the north H 


^^ and nortlicaitt is very apparent, H 


^H 8. In liko manner the prevalence of the windu of the third niuidrant H 


^H Ea more nDoai-ent at 4 and 5 in the afternoon. H 


^H 4. Fh'im ti p. m. to M midniffht, winds from the eant and southeast ^M 


^M moDtly prevail. 1 


^B Tahle fid contains the monthly and annual nvernifi-'^ of thi> daily H 


^H velvcttjr uf ih*' wind in kiloniei^r;-, tako.u from liiiurly ohst^rvuUunA iu H 


^ J 



136 



GEOGRAPHY. 



the obsor\'atory duriiig 1886-1898. In asKOrtaiDitig the average of Ihe 
whole pL'i'iud of fourteen years we have obtained for each month the 
Donual Bveragejt which are at the foot of the table. Accordingly, they 
show that the forc« of the wind?) iacreaseti gradually from Jaouary to 
May, deci'ea^es a very little in May, iiicrea8e!^ a^in in June and 'Tuly, 
and decreases for the eecond time in August, reaching Its maximum in 
Sopteinbor, and derreu-Hos again from October to I>ci.'emt>er, in which 
lutter month the ininimum annual velocity is attained. The antmal 
average of thu daily velocity of wind resulting from tlie fourteen years 
of study is 217.8 kilometers. The greater or less degree in wliich they 
differ from this annual average and different monthly averages i-au be 
seen from the following bible: 

Taiils Stt.^JtfontJUy and anJMol aren^/a of the daHy tttoritjf of tht tcind m Xaniia 
durinjf the period f/t8S-18H8. 

[]U\amr\vnt.] 



TEJR. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


V«T. 


Apr. 


Umr. 


JllDB. 


July. 


Aim. 


»«|il. o«t. 


Mur. 


Dm;. 


A»«if 




lao.* 

110.4 
11S.T 
100.4 
II&O 
ISLS 
]W.» 

au-i 

114. X 

31 e. 4 


SOI. 5 

SAN. A 
lGO.i 
l(«.7 
11A.C 

no. 3 

108.1 
132.1 
219.3 

2ti.f. 

lit. 7 


3KJ.4 
845.9 

in. 5 

].».a 

1H.0 
1».9 
IIV>.4 
lOB.) 

23H.9 
260. S 
•i!*h 1 
131.5 
»il,S 
340.3 


svi.a 

321C 
nrr.G 
1R».A 
19B.S 

H7.a 

IM.U 
1S7 
23ff.U 
SS7.S 

seui 

3S».M 

ST7.8 
IW.l 


SI. 8 
329.& 
178.4 

iM.; 

IRCl 
110.5 

iHT.e 
wT.a 

93S.< 
an. -.2 

tXt.2 
■iV>.\ 
333.1 


414.? 

213. » 

ua.« 

St9.S 

ITS. a 

ID4.0 
IH.O 
172. J 

17t.! 

m.s 

'A6.E 
3DS.e 
S33.S 


44). 7 
1U.4 
4IA.4 
BM.« 

174. t 

3Ta,7 

«sa.2 

Sftl.A 

2»i.'i; 

JT4.7 
3(8.1 
140. A 


421.8 
228.1 

141. a 

an.i 

191.4 
IW.Ai 

1I7.« 
29g.8 
3K3 
3W.G 
»».« 
ZI0.1I 

447. 1 


■oliJkis.? 

tW.« IS3.* 

aea.a iu.s 
m.i 131.3 
ito.a 1M.I 

2S7,) 1«1.« 
»6.& 71. 4 


913.8 
1318 
1:23:1 
106.3 
II0.fi 
M».0 
IW.B 
IO«.S 
210.9 
M.I 

tn.1 

1BS.( 

I8B.f 

ao8.« 


MT.S 
130.8 
100.1 
108. G 
lU.) 

ioa.G 
Jii.1l 
t&8 
19&G 
30IL4 
171,8 
IMlS 
U7.1 
lAl 

149il 


mft 

3W.t 






in. 4 

IMLO 
IU.4 








lan 


I8L4 


IWI ..- 

WM ^ 


«3.0 
4M.I 

8)7.8 

«l.<t 


llXi.0 
Mi. I 
314. G 
I8L1 
SIS. 4 


17L4 
fida.» 

atOLft 

sn.» 

288.0 








Arencv 


1A.9 


laifl ate 


Bl,' 


m.i 


334.E 


380.0 


■08. B sn.t 


ISLS 


iM.e 


217.8 


wnrtH. 


Hon till) 

■TsncA 


Din 


■raooB. 




mf 

2M.8 

ill 

WI.D 

3ms 

91.0 

l«Z.S 
IH.8 

Ha a 




-U.t 




—M.* 


lE^f. ::;;::;::;;::::::;:::::::: :;:;n"i";i:;;;™":;™::;;;::;::;;;::;n 


+ 7.0 
■M4.t 
+U.0 
+-10. T 










102.3 




4-u.a 




4^78.2 
•t8h& 
-OB.S 






nnMmltrr 


-^tiS 










HI?.! 


..„. 














The groitest annual arerage was 880.5 km. (1885); the least, 152.5 km. 
(l^itu). The maxitnum montblj average rewchml 464. L km. inSeiHem- 
ber, 1893; the minimum, 77.4, in October, IV&l. 





^V Platl XI. 


^ 




USUAL VABUTIOV OF TEE DULY VELOOnT 

or THE VriHD AT HAHILA 

1885 - 1898 




km 

HO 
IN 

no 

SM 

IN 
IN 


^M. 


ft*. 


"" 


**e. 


»at 


^H 


/./, 


n-m- 


»nt. 


0«(. 


Hi*. 


Dm. 


km 
wo 

an 

aM 


1 














































1 






























































































































































































































/ 














































._j 


i" 








































1 


V 


« 


/ 




1 






































/ 




^^ 


'^ 




I 






































/ 










1 






































f 










1 




































; 










I 








' — ■ 






" 


- 




















J 












1 
































/ 












1 




































/ 












1 








— 


- 


- 






















f 



































^ 


.. 


^ 


-- 




























— ' 


— 


- 






/ 






































1 










































f 






































— 


- 




i 


f 












































































— 


— 


i 


I 
































































































































/ 














































f 








































- 


i 




































V 










/ 




































\ 












' 


































— 


1 


1 








/ 
















— 
























V 








' 




































\ 






, 










































V 


-. / 


















'■ 




























- 




















































































































































































































































^_ 














































































































































































































































































































; 

































MOVEMKNT OF TH£ ATMOSPUERE. 



189 



Tauli 38. — Jfitnmum daily rtlocHy of the wind in JtanUa dttrinff the period ISSS-JSlfg. 



I 



Taia. 


JAXDAlt*. 


rMxscAKT. 


HABCH. 





1 

NAT. 1 


iCHB. 


Km. 


iMtie. 


Cm. 


1 

u 
s 

1 
u 
s 

B 

» 

12 
4 
1 
ft 

11 

n 


1^ 


IMU. 


'cm. 


Itaie. 


JCm. 


Dklik. 


Km. 


DUO. 




UMift 

IST.B 
SLO 
«l 
UlB 
MLS 
Tt7 
6T-7 
UX.B 
U10 
1U.H 
1*3 

una 


> 190.9 
4 1 IB.O 
» , IKLb 
34 1 iw.:t 
10 Tfi.9 

1 1 n.T 


11QS.U 
in. ft 

m.t 

M.I 
107.8 

n.H 

IIH.S 
IBS. 7 
110.0 
48.8 
1*8.8 

tllB 


U 

u 
n 

11 

i» 

ift 


2U.0 

ue.i 

87.7 
l».ft 

iii.b 
dN.d 

1IS.9 
lOT.l 
IaA.& 
190.8 
Its. 3 
1&2.* 
181.6 
114.fi 


3> 

nol 

8 
10 
3 

» 
s 

2S 
23 
18 
8 


tas.0 

122.8 
78.9 

n.8 

Olf 

U.4 

U.8 
loo. 8 

la&s 

1^8 
H6.8 
lULO 

lai.o 


U 

21 
SO 1 
1> : 

ab 

90 
81 
29 
30 

20 

ss 

» 

34 


SI1.0 
&I.4 
40.8 

108.1 
U.S 
18.8 
48.8 
78.6 
1B.0 

1:2.0 

121.8 
90.8 

U&.0 
9S.& 


It 


IMI 


'J4 




20 


im 


18 




28 

•a 

SI 

10 
10 

13 
9 

II 
8 


un 


ma, 

Ulk^ 

iS:;:::::::: 


10 
9 

ft 
aft 

33 

31 


' SCO 

\to.t 

II '*■* 

1K.0 

1; KXft 

!»,» 

87. ft 






AVOMf*--- 


fi.a 




iin.2 


128.1 




148.1 


I 


118.1 . 


; 


90.A 








i 






JCLT. 


nwaoBt. 




1 Dcnnui. 

1 


SOTTKUKKK. 


SKSMBKK. 


An- 
niul 

nlul* 
mum 
lkBi.». 




Kb. 


Dale. 


Km. 


DMCL 


Km. 


ttate. 

9 

as 
1 

19 

17 
Zl 
]» 
IJ 
1( 
■I 
'» 
W 
18 

i7 


Em. 


Date 


tCm. 


Dale. 


1' 

Km. 


IM*. 


laa. 

ias7 „.., 


M..6 

«4 
•919 
A.* 

M.S 

<r.ft 

MA 

tso.a 
iai.& 

tOLft 

MID 


U 

7 
7 
U 

al 
a 
■a 

4 

IB 
IS 

n 
I 

B-n 


U.7 
SS.5 
W.l 

l«.ft 
M-D 
ftt.s 

no 

lOU I 
71 S 

US.1 
70.(1 

lll.fr 


18 

13 
2S 
* 

W ' 
17 
31 
3S 


1U.« 
18.4 
M.8 

70.» 
«.l 

«.a 

&7,6 


IdtLK 

84.8 

».7 
13.9 

37.« 

46.7 

' ZS.4 

H.(l 
IF7.2 
1IU.0 
115.7 
1 M.ft 

; IU.5 


4 

« 

29 
8 
38 
2 
17 
lA 
80 
23 

He 
11 

l»-33 


4:j.n 
45. 8 
10.1 
41.4 

18.2 
13.5 
10.1 
IW.D 
!0i.8 
106, « 
78. {1 
02.1) 
8.1) 


10 

■to 

I 
9 

7 
IS 

■n 

a 

■3 

Fi 

9 
t 

80 


ULfr 

iu.-.( 

47.4 

wi.e 

XLO 
M.8 
42.1 
41.0 

1 n.b 

111.4 

1DI.:i 

! 7U.7 

!KI.& 

3i.b 


3 

81 
1 
18 

6 
11 
IS 

9 
21 

'J2 

H 

a 


134.0 

40.1 
38.8 


mo „.. 


IB. 4 

».g 

IE. 4 

11.5 

ID. 1 






72.8 




■1\ 1 icn i. 


74.8 


m":::::::; 
aSf:::::::::: 




\21.0 
18.6 


101. S 
19.1 

88.0 




8.0 


AnMo... 


n.s 




SZ.1 




77. 7 


•■ 


.... 


7^^ 




BS.9 




K.i 




CI. 4 


1 














_ _ 





According to Uio results ut the foot of Tuhlett 37 and 'SH^ the uvera^ 
of tbe aDiiitat nmximiim velocity is 1,0^1.4 km., and ttin minimum 
annual volijrity ^2A km., there beiuff a diffei-ence of l,i)Ul km. 

A gmdimt iiitTC<a»« is to bo olwer^'wi from ono nionlli to another in 
thf; average values of the maximum and the minimum velocttioa. 

The first increa-**? i- from February to July, inelusivo, ilecreasin^* 
•omewhat in Auyiwt, and increaainjj to the uunual maxinuuu average 
in September. lu the following month it decreases gi-adimlly until 
U reaches the annual iiiioiiuuni aventge vekH-ity in February. 

Fur different i.-^ the relation l>etween the monthly average difference 
nod that of the daily minimum averages. In effect the uuiximiuu 
aromgc \ii1u('m corre-^pond to the month of April, detireasiii^ later 
without Moppiiip until they reach the miuiuiuni uvi-rnge v«*i<M-ity in 
Ibe month of Novcmtx>r. From December they again increase without 
tfllerniption until ihcmontJiuf April. Thcgreute-Httuiniuiumavemged 
arc thu.<te of Febniury, Alarch, April, and May. This we lielieve is 
duo to Ihu fact Uiat in normul liavr^ Lhi'Mi are tlie four inouthn in which 



140 



GEOGUAPHY. 



thfl windj* often increase in (orce, and even though in the Mttaon of 
atmosphcnc disturhanccs there arc nonual days to be found in which 
the mininium velocity of the wind ia recorded, generally more in tlie 
remaining months of the year than those above mentioned. 

The maximum daily velocity during the period 1885-1898(1,477.8 
km.), was recorded the 30th day of September, 1890, when a violent 
typhoon crossed the center of Luz^n, north of Maitila. 

The miuimum velocity was recorded ou the SOth of November, 1898, 
during which the wind blew S kilometers. 

Id the following suiimmry i» tthown the niuxiuium and niiuiiuum 
daily velocitJeM during the whole periods corre»pouduig to each of the 
twelve months ia the year: 

{KUonMUn.] 



Jiuiuut/... 
FvbniuT • 
U&fch .... 
April 

*fty 

Jtuu 

juir 

AOffUM.... 
BmttaObm 

oAeibv... 
MotmnbcT. 
Veetmbtt. 



MBiimuin. 



4n.6 

CB.D I 
SK.S 

1,041.0 
1,081. ft tub) 

1.088,0"" 
1, ITT. « (1880) 

i,iin.6(Mae( 

1,IA».6(1«M) 
6)2. 1 (18811) 



SlltaiDiiB), 



113 
4S.8 

•ao 

15.4 

ns 

i&v 
»i 

MO 
S.0 

ao 



IMti 

iwf 

188»> 

umj 
iswl 



The manner in which the maximum and mininuun annual velocities 
of the winds are distributed in each month is seen in the following 
statement: 



Maximmu: 

Jane .................-.•.•••••. 1 

July 8 

Aogurt 2 

September ^ 

October * 

November 1 



Minimum: 

Jonuarj' 1 

Hay 1 

Auput 9 

September 1 

novfltnber .......••••...•••. a 

neeamber 8 



The maximum velocities occm- most frequently in the month of Sep- 
tember, and the minimum in the mouth of November; that is to say, 
in the tirHt mentioned mouth the average of the maxima li jrre4te«t, 
and in the last mentioned month the average of the minima is greatoNt. 
In September there have occurred the greatest number of annual 
maxima, it being the month in which typhoons most atMund; and for 
thit4 Hiuiic cuusQ the next inaxiinuiu fret^ueucy of velocity is fuujHl lu 
the montbH of July and Augu^ 



^^^^^* MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. Ul ■ 


^^M TABlJt 39. — Monthtji, >ntmmt, and tfimanmuit ncrragt ral*u» of the Koarty veiocit]/ ^f Utg ^M 
^H amd in ManiJa: JSfit-JSM. ^^H 

^H [RlU)tBM«ra.) ^^^1 


^^F Moirra. 


0-1 

a.ia. 


1-8 


>4 

■.BD. 


>-4 


4-A 


6-4 


ft-7 
u.m. 


7-S 


8^ 
•.ID. 


B. n. 


10-TI 
a. m. 


11-18 ^^H 




4.1 

4.1 

4.7 
4.1 
4.5 

4.3 
7.4 
t.0 
It 
4,7 
IB 
4.1 


4.6 
S.S 

4.1 
%.» 

6.1 
&.B 
7.4 
».\ 
9.1 
S.» 
l.« 
4.« 


1.7 

8.a 

8,7 
6.11 
CO 
7. ft 


B.O 
Ml 
4.1 
1.4 
B.I 

d.o 

7 7 


48 
4.0 
4.0 

6.6 
t.7 
7.2 
T.4 
f..6 
4.(1 
1.2 
4.7 


4.4 
8.S 

1.1 

8.8 
4.8 
B.3 
4.3 
L8 
8.0 
S.8 

4.7 
4.8 


4.7 
8.5 
8.0 
8.8 

8.8 
5.8 
G.7 
7.0 
8.0 
6.7 
4.H 
5.0 


4.0 
8.3 

il 
>.« 

5.8 
4.8 

6.7 
7.5 
8.7 
4,8 
6.8 
5.1 


S.4 
4.4 
8.4 
4.8 

7. a 

7.8 
7.0 
8.8 
0.8 

7.4 
CD 
8.1 


7.8 
7,6 

mi 

11.0 
1ft 4 
AS 
1ft f) 
J1.7 
*4 
7.8 
T.4 


laB 

ll.S 
12,7 

U-S 
lAi 
13 4 
1X4 
13.4 
14.6 
11.5 
«.» 
A7 

13.8 


ILfl H 
13.9 ■ 

14.4 ■ 
14.7 ■ 

U3 ■ 

13.5 ■ 

14 9 ■ 
l&B ■ 


fctruHT ., 


;£?:::;::::-:;::; 








1. ft H. 1 
SlT , >.o 
«.& e.s 

i.», 4.1 

4.ftl 4.4 














4.» 


B.S 


fc? 


B,4 


».6 


8.8 


M 


>.« 


t.B 


«^S 


IAS 1 


|H Atrim. Vovwi- 

Ln Arann, Jtn* to 
■h (MiciMr.liietariT)> 


4.7 
7.7 


7.k 


7.ft 


4.4 


4.6 
7.1 


4.4 
8^4 


4.8 




8.0 

8^0 


AB 


11.7 
IS.] 


1A9 H 
111 fl 




p.n. 


1-3 

p.n. 


3-> 


8-4 

l>.m. 


44 

p.m. 


8-6 

p. to. 


6-7 
p.m. 


7-8 
p. m. 


p.m. 


«-io 

p. m. 


to-u 

p.m. 


11-12 

Qirbt. 


•we- ■ 




U.1 

11.4 
U.fe 
U.» 
U.S 
U.» 
U.1 
1C.2 
W.l 

u.» 

II.4 
IL* 


18. a 

U.I 
IS. 4 
17.1 
ILl 
17.1 
lAC 

laa 

10.3 

ia.1 

ILS 
11. N 


11.11 
U.» 
U.9 
1S.1 
17.0 
17.1 
17.6 

n.h 

1».7 
U.4 
11.0 
11.4 


12.5 
11.9 
IT.n 
18.8 
17.3 
17.1 
17.1 
30.3 

3a& 

18.5 

lao 

10.8 
1&9 


11. R 
ILB 
IT. 6 

l&B 
IT.l 
i*.4 
11 T 
I9l3 

mH 

IX (i 

a.s 


9.8 

U.V 
I.V8 

ia.D 
11.1 

|S.> 
17.1 
IK-l 
ILO 
7.3 
7.8 


7.» 

10.7 
12.3 
Ii).D 
lii-.l 
12.1 
\2.9 
Ifi.9 
1A.0 
10.0 
0.5 
6.1 


T.2 
V.3 
10.0 
11. a 
Ul 
10.8 
13 8 
H.O 
15 4 

s.n 

4 

La 


&0 

7.7 

Hi 

W.-i 
10.7 
8.3 
M.8 
11. V 
12.0 
8.3 
A.1 
4.8 

8.S 
7.4 


&.8 
41.8 
7,7 
8.3 
9.3 

ti.a 
».o 

1ft s 
11.4 
7.2 
6.0 
4.S 

7.0 


4.8 

4.0 

(10 

7.8 
7.0 
7.3 
8.5 
9.9 

ma 

S.B 
5.1 

Li 

7.2 


4.e 

1.7 

6.6 
4-9 

(.a 

9.6 
»,0 
4.4 
6 1 
4.1 


10,8 ■ 
10.1 ■ 
10.B ■ 
13.1 ■ 
18,0 ■ 

H 

H 




F SKfr.::::::"" 




)iS7.:::"::":":: 
















AmngM 


14. C 


Ul4 


».; 


mi 


1S.8 


U.4 


UlS 


4,4 


A*«cu:«. Nn«B- 
b«r to IU7, 1&- 


U.T 


14.1 
18.1 


14.4 

17.5 


14.0 
17- J 


14.1 
14. U 


tLO 


ll).a 
18.4 


4.0 

13.8 


47 

».5 


AO 

AB 


A3 

Al 


M Annn. Joiib 10 

^^K Oetobar.UieltBtT* 


^H Tiible S9 contaiDR the areraf^es of the monthly, annual, and tteini- H 

^^ BBDual vrJociticM corrcHponding to each of thn twenty -four hours of the ■ 

^_^ day, obtained from hourly observations during tJie period ISii^iHQS. H 

^H From the monthly average values, as well as the aoDual and »emi- ^^ 

annual onefl, we obtain the result tbat tho minimum force of tlie wind^^H 

19 felt Kencrally from 6 to 7 in the morning, and the groatoHt foroe^^H 

from 3 to 4 in the afternoon—chat h to Hay, almost in the bouru of H 

moirt healu Nevertheless, in October, Xovombor, Deeombcr.aad .lanu- ■ 

arr thti maximum average \s from 1 to 2 in the iifternoon. The hourly H 

average of the period from November to May are always lower H 

tiwB thoM of tbe period from June to Octxiber. The force of the ■ 

^H ^od from 1 to ^ tu m. iwemi* to bo greater in lUe luuulliH of Nuvciu- H 



142 



GEOGRAPHY. 



her, Deoonher. uid Jumary ihmn in tiw three fidlovi^ 
f ebraary, Harcii, Mid April. On the ooolxmnr, in UHse Ihrae 
mootlWt ID whid tha winds from cui to soutfaeast pnmil, IbBBvengv 
Tflority ia the bvurs from ll«.m.tollp. m.ts gnmter Uma in the 

ire« foniK-r nootliSf the windii from north to northesst prerulmg. 
}'rl in tbo naootfa of April the meui en* avenge rvkn-itv from S 
to T p. ui. id rn<>ra than that of the raootha of May, June, and Julv. 
Acronlin^ to the last ramlt obtaiiiH in the table we fiad that 

ir hoiirlv HverHge of the obeenraliotiH during the period lf)93-18S8 
wan fl.S Ion. per hoar, or 2.ft m. per meond. Tbo monthly arerages 
varied fH4wr«a 1S.0 km. (SBptemlKr) and 6.S km. (December), a differ- 
ence of ii.2 km. 

Comparing TaMcM 35 and 4ii jt in readily seen that the winds which 
are acctutonicd to 1>low in Mntiiln with jfrcat^^t force arc thoAc of the 
MutiiwoMt^ which iirei\om'ma.U: from M»y to October, and tho!«eof the 
•wt-MtilbeMt, which belong to Fobniary, March, and April, and jn 
part to May. 

Taiua 40,-->f(urt<mtm i«&Myy o/ Ate wimJ recorded m JTen^ 
fhtriof tti0 fvriod JS8S-JS99. 



TtAk. 



■oMmi, 



aaa 



DbU. 



amn. 



t-ftp-m. 

O-l >. m. 

1-3 p. ni. 
4-«i>, m. 

»-II>.Bt. 



KOe- 



CwMk 



» 



Boor. 



a^p-v. 

1-3 p. ■. 
»«p.a. 

' 1-3 p. m. 
»4p.tB. 
1-4 p. B. 

s-4p.m. 
ft-4p.n. 
a-lp-B. 

T^p.B. 

*-6p.a. 
1-4 p. n. 

Mp. m. 



Kllo- 
meUn. 



lDU«. 



»,0 



M.1 



Bonr. 



l-«p.i 
»4p.i 
4-5 p.1 

4-&n.i 

0-1 ^ I 

ft^pLl 

t-6pLi 

».4p^l 

Mp.1 

ft^Wp.) 

»4p.i 
IMp.1 



Table 44) oontainfl the munthly msxiniiini velocities of the wind in 
Manila in tho interval of a HiDgle. hour during the period 1886-181^. 

The maximum velocity recorded was tlitt from 7 to 8 on the morn- 
ing of tlie 30th of Sci>tember, 1890, when the wind blew at the raiuof 
100 kilometent; that ih to Hay, at the rate of 27.8 meteru per second. 
ThiH \aiii Hum ifl the hourly averajre of 100 kilometers; but during' that 
hour there were wind mjiuII^ or puiTri whiuh mctuured 40 meters per 
Beroiid. 

The next greatest velocity wa« 06 kilometers (26.7 meters per sec- 
ond), i-eoorded from 3 to 4 p. ni. on the 7th of November, 1885. The 
third greatest hourly velocity was 90 kilometers (25 metent per eec- 
ond), taken from 11 to 12 midnight on tlie 30th of September, 1893, 
and from 3 to 4 a. m. on the 3d of October^ 18{H. 

All the86 maximum velocities were occasioned and recorded during 
the passing of some cyrlone north of Manila. 

The. niikNimum hourly vclocitic8 of caitfa month can bo aaen in the 

following (Statement: 

EUunMen. 

Janimr^- S70 0886) 

Febrniiy 897(1886) 

Mmich 434(1886) 

AprU 6S7(I880) 

£f 636(1898) 

Jons. B80(1WO) 

JolT... 600(1880) 

AflCBrt. 630(I«W) 

fWmUmber 1,000(1880) 

Octoter - - »W(1(»H0) 

Kowmbor - 960(1886) 

Decmbv ^--^ 670(1880) 

The fourteen Mnnual maxima are distributed among the different 

months of the year aa follows: 



JODO ' 

July 2 

Augiut 8 



September 

October 2. 



Unfortuiuitcly it is impo«8iblo to discu^8 the frequency of the winds 
in distinct islands and localities of the archipelago, and it is oeceswry 
to iT^trii't consideration to the three stations of Aparri, Alhay, and 
Iloflo, north luid south of Lu7>Sn and in the center of Uiu Visuyan 
lidands. To accomplish this end we give in Tables 41 and 42 the aver- 
age fn*(]ucticy of the winilw of Ajjarri and Alhay. obtained by six daily 
obseriations tnken during 1886-181t5. Hy rcasuu of tlio fact tliat the 
rorordii of mid stations are lacking in the observatiuns of some days 
and hours, we are obliged to umit from both tahleif three entire 



I 



MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 



145 



months aud here and there some isolated tIayB scalterud through the 
different y(!aiv of that [i«riiMl. This, however, <hjey not in aiiy way 
change the relation tK>tweeii the monrhly, anriiiat, and Keiniaiinual 
are rages. 

Table 43 contaiti^ the average frequemy of the wimls in Uuflo 
(though not txjniplnte) ubiaiued during liie |x-riod 1S1H-1807. 

TaMJI 41. — MonMff, anmuxt, and tamamwal mtrugt of frttjaatcy i^i i\\e vmd» at tlu 
mittcntogitat ttation of Aporri (north ef Lut^ ): J886'IS9S. 



■ 



JkDUuy ... 

PMT1MUT.- 
lUrdi 

AM. 



DaMmbtr . 



AvpMf*. 






^mtrt 



lUr. Id. 



Anmp, Jdim lo 
October, toda- 






JT.S 



U.4 

22.S 



UW. 
WKW. 



T.S 



II, n 



W, 
W8W. 



3.» 



1.9 



8W. 






11.4 U.1 U.4 Ml W.7 M.0 






CKlm. 



5m. 



l.HB 

l,«B 
1, 19a 
I an 

l.OM 
1,00 
1,M« 
l.«80 
l.ffiO 

i,na 
i.m 
i,no 



1 4U. — Uonlhlg, anmtal, and sfmiiMnuai areroj^ of /nquenCf/ oftha vibtdt ot th$ 
titAforologicat ffof ion <!^ Atbaj/ ( fCm/A o/ Lu«Ai ) ; lS8$~JS9fi. 



^P 




















Toua 




H. 


NW. 


w. 


fiW. 


S. 


BK. 


R. 


NE. 


Cslm. 


ob- 


KXir. 


«-NW. 


*gw. 


asw. 


BSK. 


ESS. 


BSK- 


NKH. 


Mm. 






















Uotii. 


^„a^ 


It 


0.1 


ai 


0.0 


0.0 


0.9 


W.9 


B0,S 


12.0 


I,M8 


"Kir^iBi . . . 


>.v 


0,0 


0.9 


7,» 


0,1 


I.fe 


07.1 


09.3 


S.0 


I,t80 


Itor>'^ 


I.U 


1.1 


it.s 


4.4 


0.0 


8.9 


».S 


89. ft 


80.0 


1,880 


tSS 


fl < 


o.t 


i.« 


O-i 


4.0 


4.9 


SO. 3 


at. 3 


49. S 


1^740 


ID 


1.0 


Zk 


IlS 


7.1 


ILO 


78.4 


11.0 


70.8 


1.014 


fur 


1.9 


B.1 


ILO 


11. 1 


7.1 


5.0 


40.0 


12.3 


0T.4 


1,740 


j«ir 


l.B 


S.I 


U.T 


a? 


ao 


7.0 


17.0 


7.4 


00.8 


1,044 


Aatu*' 


«.» 


11.3 


31.3 


».e 


0.8 


S.3 


U.» 


7.0 


•0.0 


1,030 


Utrl 


i.a 


».l 


27, i 


«,4 


7.3 


8.3 


7,9 


B,3 


eo.3 


1,740 


OMMirr 


s.t 


1.3 


e.« 


IM 


4.B 


4.0 


»,] 


08.0 


00. > 


LOU 


VoVHObcr ... 


IkS 


1.S 


3.8 


<l4 


1.4 


4.0 


47.6 


00.3 


16.9 


1,403 


IMMaDvf ... ..... 


a.1 


o.a 


LT 


10. S 


I.B 


1.0 


40.0 


77. 8 


■0.0 


1,0M 




111 


10. S 


1S.S 


4.7 


4.3 


ia.t 


■8.0 


&1.8 




I Wrto )b7. In- 






















^nraa*. Jane 1* 
OeuMr. UuJa- 


2.4 


a,s 


B.« 


M 


4.1 


1. 1 


00.3 


U.1 


41.7 


























a.9 


&; 


IB. 3 


«k4 


4.0 


5.T 


M.0 


H.7 


S0.0 









3616^— TOL 1- 




146 



GEOGBAPHY. 



Table 43. — yordhl^. annual, tmd Kmiannuat average of frfifamt\f of the mnd$ at tin 
agriatUiuvtttationftfJtotli}: :SS4-lSff7. 



watnn. 



lumuT 

VkbnuuT 

SUreb 

igl::::::::::::: 

Jaoar. 

,\^T. 

Ungun 

LBeptcobar 

fOeXatmt 

"RorefDtwr 

Bbar 

Arenvu.... 

AtCTMr, NnTCio- 
i»T to liny, lu- 

clusivu 

kT«lW«, June to 
Oet)>b«r, Inrlu- 
dn. 






WNW, 



1H.4 



9.0 



W. 
WSW. 



XI 



8W. 

ssw. 



U.4 



12.3 



SE, 
BBE. 



■.t 



1D.1 



NX. 



Okln. 



».« 



•U.S 
las 



IT.O 
AO 
2.ft 



C.6 



UOM. 



b.9 
(1.1 



From these tables we fiud: 

First. That at.thc station io Aparri the winds most prevalent, even 
in the months from July to September, are those from north to east, 
and those lea«t prevalent are from the west. 

Second. That at the ijtation in Alliay the most, prevalent winds dur- 
ing the year are Oiow from north to east, with the exception of only 
three months — July, Au^fust, and September — in which the greater 
frequency prevailt* in those of the third quadi-ant. During the months 
of March, April, May, and June there w to bo Been a marked inclina- 
tion in the prevailing winds from the east, vorredponding to ea*t to 
east- northeast^ the maximum monthly frequency, so that in other 
months when windy of the first quadrant prevail those from northeast 
and north-norlhtittHl give a higher degree of prevaleucy. 

Third. In llotlo the north winds pi'ovail in the months of January, 
February, Mareh, April, October, November, and December, and winds 
from the nouth, principally those composed of south and southwest 
winds, prevail in the other months— ^lay, June, July, August, aud 
Bepteml>er. 

moUER CUBKEXTS OF AIB. 

A practical result of the ubAervations of clouds baa been the deter- 
mination of their medial direction. For this purpo«>e observatloos 
were made in the observatory in Manila frrjm the year 18!N) to 1807, 
hCho practical result' of which is shown in Table 44, which we do not 



1 



IM 



«73 
IN 



'See work entiUed "Clondfl iti the I'hilijtpiae Ambipdlago." 



Plate XII. 
ftHMHft^r. MOTBKEnS OF THE AZKOSEHEKB 



W-*- 




-* E 



H 148 ^^^^ GEOGBAPHY. ^^^^^^^^^ 


^H doubt will be of great practicnl utility' in aBcortaining* the oxlstcnce, 1 
^H locution, and dii*ection of c^'clonic vortiec>8 b}' means of thn direction 1 
^B of the'douda.' fl 

^H Tabu 44. — QenenU nuwewfltl oftiu attnotphfte in .VaRtld. ^^^| 
^H h:oh CLouDe (SKtwesn isjxd a'Sr ^oea ueteb^— cirri's and cinR&arBATTm. ^^H 


^^^^^K Hownr. 


UK. to 
NW. 


FnmR. 
btN. 


Tnm 
flW. u> 


pKm W. 
lOllL 

aoosn 

O.0O0O 
O.OOOB 
O.OOW 

(Looei 

o.oote 
o.aoi» 
aooos 

o,oan 
aoooi 

0.0011 
HOOIS 


NW. U. 

8E. 


Piraio s. 
tos. 


FKtm 
NK to 

BW. 


Fmtn 
E. t«vr. 


TMj*I, I 




aoow 
Choaw 
aooa 

0.0001 

o.oau 
aoosD 

0.0020 
aDOM 

o.anic 

0.W>I7 
0.0(>M 


0.0M( 
OlOOBS 

Oloos; 

o.flmi 
aooi7 
O-oaoT 

coorj 

o.eoo7 

0.WOI 

aoctc 
o.«Bg 


U.OMI 
ccooe 

u.axA 
o.a»7 

U.0022 
[1.0018 
O.CO)S 
0.0013 
[1.0010 
O.CHl 
0.003 

[).eo8t 




O-nuM 
O.0WV 

aoooi 
aooio 
aoois 

O.00M 

a 0006 
aooao 
a 0018 
aooot 
a.ooas 
aooot 


auooe 

aoois 

(Mil 
OWill 

auM» 
aijow 
aom 
a 0100 
aoion 

A00»l 

aoosi 

aooi2 


a 0017 
a 0010 
aom 

O.000B 

aoou 
aoooi 
aoiai 
aoin 
aoon 
aoooo 
acoH 
aogaa 


aom 1 
aoKft ^ 
aooM 
actor 
ao2a 
aoats 
aoBfj 
a OOTS 

aOZTQ 

aous 

aos]4 
a OUT 

aasar ^ 




aooDS 

OiOOlO 

aoa29 

0.0«M 

aomi 

aoooi 
aooi7 
a oou 
a 0007 
aoooa 


^M M k 








^^^■i™ 




^^^^HBcptemt^r 


^^^^^^aoTtaim 


^^^" V«r 


o.oin 


o.ezn 


cnan 


&OUB 


amos 


aoin 


aoEOO 


acme 


^B IKTEItMKDUL CLODDS {BBTVrREH S.OOO AND 2.000 METEBSHUIon COMtTUn, CIBBO- ■ 


^^^^L HOIfTa. 


Fmtn 
6E.IO 

UK. 


PramO. 

to ti. 


From 
SR. to 


Frnd 

W.loE. 


tt%mx 

W. W 

hp- 


Frotn 
N.toS. 


From 
itE.to 
8W. 


FlWB 

E-loW. 


TMaI. ■ 

aom m 

aous ■ 

aooM 

anas 

aom 

aotao 

a 0170 

flLUOa 

aom 

aoaoT 

aoan 

aoon 




0.W11 
0,0004 
0.0011 
0.0013 
0.00118 

o.oon 

O.OI>li 
0.0016 
O.OOOI 

a.oon 

0.0001 

0.0099 


0.0001 

aooca 

aooiT 
oioooe 

0.001& 

a 0013 

010018 

auns 

0.000 

auoii 

• oots 


ftOCOO 
OlODOI 
ftOBM 

aom 
aoeoo 

ft OBIT 

aoo» 

0.0M7 

01 sou 

9.9M 


O.0OOt 




aoooT 
aoooa 
aoon 

0L0007 

aooM 
aoooe 

AOOM 

aQtV7 
AOODO 

aooao 
aoDOfr 
aooo) 


aooTt 
aoot; 
aooao 
aooao 
aoois 
aoooi 
aoooa 
aooii 
aouvT 
aoou 
aooto 

O.dOTX 


aoiu 
a.OUti 
0.01M 

ain<« 

O.0DM 

aooa 
aoo» 
o.oaaft 

0.00)0 

aoon 
aoiH 
ao)«r 








aoeoo 

acooB 

OOOM 

aoBii 

O.0MI 
a0066 

aao« 
aoots 

O.0D0O 

aoooi 


0,l»06 
OOOOS 

aoooe 
o.ooi> 
aooii 

a00B7 

aootft 
aooo* 












^^m BfM«mt>«r 




^m V«r 




O.D(fH 


ftoon 


o-oma 


0.D17V 


aoDO 


aODM 


COBM 


f.1311 


0.2t« H 


^V LOW CLODDS (SerWEEK 2/na and an HHTSB8}-C0HDLtnt. KTMftCfi, »TRATU8, CUitVVO. H 
^H STRATCS. ■ 

^^^H ■ . _ . ^H 




trom 

BE. to 

NIT. 


Fran 8. 
toK. 


HW. lo 


From 

W. II. E. 


From 
NW. la 


From 
S. loS. 


Pnun 
NB.U> 


fi.toV. 


T»ML H 




O.I10SJ 
OUM 
«,001l 

aooss 
aooaa 

O.00U 
0.00O 

0.0011 




ftoon 

O.0D0I 

o.(»oa 

0.000 

0.0017 
«.0(BS 
O.00M 

O.0M1 
o,Doe> 

O.00It 
0.0000 






aora 
aoon 


aouM 

O.OCST 
• OUU 

aooit 
annoa 

OOOT 
OOOIO 

aoniD 
aoo)T 
aoou 
aoou 


«.flin 

a Olio 
a OUT 
aom 
aooBO 
a 0091 

QDia 


aouft ■ 

aMn T 
a 0301 






■ 




^^KLI'TL'^ 


0.001 

aooii 

ftCUU 

acoM 
o.uw 

0.0001 

O.OOIU 


o.Doea 

•.OOM 
1.0015 

•.OGoa 
•.oou 
aooeo 
aooao 

aoOtO 
ftOODS 






v.om 

D.UUUO 
O.OOCQ 
O.ODM 

a 0011 
a 0013 
aooov 
asDoo 


aooot 

a coot 

O.00CI 

aooio 
a 0001 

O.0UI1 

a 0007 

0.0007 
0001 










aobai T aotoo 
anno li ooHb 
aooot aotst 
aoim , acau 
aoiw 1 a<M«7 




aooiu 
ooooa 

auois 

uWO 
















a 0901 


acoH 


aoon 


atsn 


o.oeu 


a ram 


aosOB 


aiou 


asofi 


■- ■■■■-— J 



MOVEMENT OF TIIE ATMOSPHERE. 



149 



* 



EmploTing' the fonn u9od by Lambert, wc have deduced from the 
outlioes of the precediug tablei^ the results which^ at lon^th, fHrtlier 
on, we express in regard to each uiontii of the year. Adding the 
rraultant direction of the winda, which were given in the preceding 
aection, wc have so iirrunged them thiit they can be readily compared 
with the changes which verify theniaelvprf in the atmosphere, from 
the surface of the sea to tlie regions of high temperature. 



aoffTU. 


aisheliNMh, 


[atenncdlal 

cloiuls. 


Luweloadi. 


Wlitdi. 




e • 
aoe-ooK. 
au-aoa 
an-^B. 
aex-Mw. 

N.T»-»E 
K.1»-2SE. 
N.Tft-SB. 
N.»^E. 
N.Ot-WR 

e~tJ-»B. 

a«M4K. 

a»-agB. 


N.7>MMB. 
N-Sa-1»B. 
KM-HE. 

B-nw«it. 

8.6] -WE. 
RM-f^W- 

B.aB-a; n. 

K.T7-WE. 
H.K-9DB. 


D > 

V.IMOK. 

N.HMBE. 
N.ST-W E. 
N.m-40K. 
aT1-UB 
8.1IM» B. 

au-i&w. 

B.m-'M Vi. 
N.7i-i6E, 
N.HS-*9E. 
N. 82-10 E. 


O I 




V. R)-1S B. 




e.*>-3i K, 


fisy.:::; ::::::"::::;:"::::: 


8.I(-46BL 




8. 0-41 W. 
aS4-38W. 
^40-48 W. 
S.S»-41 W. 
S-Tft-S-JB. 
r{.27-«Mt 
I(.34^2B. 



These results, which only refer to the currents observed in Manila, 
can be taken, however, ea avei'uge represeDtuttoos of the general 
direction of the atmospheric movements, at Ieai<t a» to the central 
part« of the archipelago; and mariners may consider them as an 
expression of the dominating direction of tlie different aerial currents. 
Dot only in the interinsular sea^, but tlio»e comprehended in the zooe 
of the archipelago. 

For the convpnionce of the nb-jervers, and e«pecially of marincra 
touching at these roast<t. wc reprc-jM^nt in Plate XII the verified aver- 
age direction of currents corrci-ponding to the different regions of the 
atmosphere. 

In Mud plate, wo begin the scries of nwnthn with October, for the 
reafion that in September and October the moat noted changes in 
direction take place, 

Hoferring to each one of the months, the directions arc to he indi- 
ealod as to their relation to cueh other with the cross of interrupted 
linca, in onler to understand it« position. We give to the numtiers 
found and their graphic representation only provisional averages, 
because the otjser\'ationj* from the year lfi90, having been made by 9A 
Dumber of persons and It also being very difficult to obtain exact 
iDformatton of some facts, it is not strange that i^omc oliservations, 
appear mixed up and that some groups are confounded with others, 
rmulting in an alteration of the uvcnigcd. The bni.squc changes in 
tbfl direction of the high clouds of March and April are indeed notable, 
Mperially when we consider the fort tbnt during the month of April 
Ibe falsa rumura are out m abundant aa in May, Juno, July, August, 




150 



GECX3RAPHY. 



and September; nor are there high htirricanea on the China sea, which 
would be the only two causes tJiat could falHify tlie duiiuuI direction 
of the eloudB. This is not the place to di!>cii8» the (^tuse of the^e gen- 
eral movenients of the ntinoHphere of Manila. With special reference 
to the greater convenience of tiie observer, we have calculated tlie 
result of the geueral uioveiuents, grouping Lhe uionthH in cunfomiity 
to the division of the year made with regard to the hurricanes. The 
result we piibli»h in the following continuation of Table 44: 

Tabu* 44,— Gnwra/ momneat of the nlmotjAere m Jtfo»»/a— Continued. 





FrumBE. 
10 NW. 


FtmdB. 
taS. 


FraDifW. 
toNE. 


FPomW. 

inF.. 


From 
NW.to 


FkuoN. 
to 3. 


U.HW, 


1 

1 


OnMpI.... 
Oronprf... 


0.0136 
0.«I79 
9.9ita 


a«i07 

0.0OM 

aooM 


(LOOK 
O.OUNt 
0.O0M 


0.008 
0,11130 
O.IWM 


o.mw 

IK CUM 
O.OMI) 


O.WK> 

a. COM 

D.MN 


D.«ago 
cam 

0.(071 


O.W73 

aoBB 
aoot 


-4 


Totftl. 


0.QW3 


o.moj amsi 


o.atK 


0.0)011 1 0.0131 


COAM 


i>.oTw| «.aftu 



INTESHEDUL CLOUDS. 



Oroupi .... 
Group It ... 
Oraupia.. 


aoocs 

OlOOM 
OiOVIV 


OiOOU 
0.00II1 
0.0017 


0.0001 

aoont 
aoi» 1 


0.I»»1 

o.oxb 

0. 0119 


ft.ocei 
o.Dcm 

0. noi-j 


0.0OIS 

a. con 

0.0031 


0.(033 
O.O0A5 
O.OtlB 


A08S2 
O.OKI t 

aoiTv 


cdtn 
o.ouf 

O.0SB 


Total. 


0.OM4 


O.OOfC 


aoKft 


COIHS 


a. COM 


o.am 


aisN 


o.Mai 



LOW cumnt*. 



Omtpl.... 
Oronplt ... 

OraupIU.. 


0.aN3 1 
o.oioe 
0.tC6S 1 


OiOOM 
(LOOM 


O.OWB 
O.OII« 
O-OSII 


o.can,. 
o.mi« 

D.oab 






0.01C3 

Aoacw 


aotu 
aosM 
(LinBi 


o.oua 
aoM 
aoMi 


O.0O21 
0.0(H» 


0.(017 
0.WM 


-ratal. 


OlOZOI 1 


0.00«l 


a.l03B 


Ol(MS| 


4. DOTS 


O.OMU 


OLOM 


0.113ft 


O-MM 



Applyinjf the formulo of lAuibert there result for each gi-oup the 
following menu directions: 



Orovpl.. 
Onnplt. 
OranpIIi 



UUh clouds. 



8.4°U'S. 
H. W W I. 



lii1«rni*dUI 

floud*. 



s.w»m*a. 



LnwctowU 



R.'WWE, 
a.«°S'W. 



Finally, in order to complete this investigation, on Tlate Xill we 
have traced another gmphic onlline in compariwo with the general 
currents of the atmosphere at four different latitudes— Dfivuo, Manila, 
Zlkawei (China), and Blue Kill (Mae^sachusetla). It is sufheieot to note 
tliiit the direction of the high cloud.-* during the summer, aa regai 
fanila, diffen! little from the observed dii-^^vtion iu .Jauuuca' dt 



)pabUcatiaD"C1oiKi()uidCloud-Driftalii Jmnalca," by U«ll, Janiftk*. Ifififi. 



Plate XIII. 

OESEBAl OlftOUL&TIOS OF THE ITHOSPaSRE 

AT 
DIFFESENT LATTTODEa 

Dtvao Huilli ZIKawal (C1iln«] Blue HIII(E.U.] 

LtrtttnO* 7'of M latltaaw U'SB H Latitude 9^12' H Latrtudt d^ta >/ 




■fadM-flMO" 




■J^,^,'" 



•httimKllatt CHrnat-CI. Ok., ». Cv.. A. S., Cr. M- 



w*- 



-*E 




irm aaiuti-Cii,. n.. a.. Cu. a. 

fiMO-*00" 



/VJ 



30 summer. li slsodiffere verv little from the direction of our ititorme- 
dials ol>serv(.'.d in both tropical illations. The direction of the low clouds 
differ more from tho fact that they an^ iiiflucuced by tho toriiadotw. 

Wo have taken thn directioiiH obrtnrvcd at Zikawei and Blue Hill 
from an interesting book written by Father Marc Decbevrens, of the 
Jesuit order.' Tht3 observnUous regarding D&vm> are the fruit of tho 
patient work of the Jetniit miHsiouary, Pathi^r BaltttHsar Ferrer, who, 
in spite of tho arduou;* duties of his apostolic ministry, found time to 
devote to science, rendering an invalutible 8er\'ice to the name by bis 
notes, since the obyerA'ationti made by him are the only onca up to date 
which have been made with any regularity in a location so near the 
equator aa Ddvao. It will be noted that tho direction in the high 
clouds at Manila is always to the east, while the direction of the high- 
est latitude i« always to the wej^t. It in os|K«'.ially inteivftting- to call 
attention to the ilircction of ttio eloudK at Dfivao, which are exactly 
op]K)e4ite to tho direction of the clonds at Zikawei and Blue Hill. It 
appears that this change, noted most near the tropical line, haw lieen 
obser\'od by Poey iu Habana (Lot. N. 23° ft'). It U important to 
inv&stigatc in which zone tho principal currcnta begin to be occidental. 

It ia to be regretted that the observations niiule in the olswervatory 
at Hongkong (Uit. 2^^ 18') ai-e not sufficientJy full to clear up this 
point. Besides this, during the time the uun is in the eioutberu hemi- 
sphere, or rather, it may be said, during October, Novemlwr, Decem- 
ber, January, February, and Mitrcli, currents of cirri from the second 
quadrant prevail, and during the other mouths of the yeur those of tho 
first quadrant. We content ourselves with these indications, Ijec-ause 
it is nut our geoerul purpose to iuvetiligate here the causes of 
diverse circulation of the zones in the different latitudes. 

Having ni*certBincd the normal direction of the diverse elements o1 
the atmosphere, it remains for the observer to distinguish with greater 

Quracy whatever concerns the value of the signs of the hurriisaea 
taken from the direction of the clouds. 

hi this manner tho obser\'er can utilize the indi<aitions of the direc- 
tioos of the clouds when the norma) directions are known, and tbo 
provisions of Ihe atuios{>ht>ric disturbani;eit< can be seen l>ct>t in the 
pubiicatluu "Philippine Ilurricantts and Cycloucs,"* page 15ti. 

ICXTRAOaWNARY AIR CCRRENTS. 

Two classes of atmospheric changes may be distinguished in tho 
Philippuiu archipelago and the seas which surround it, duo to more or 
leas developed centers of low pressure. One vra simply indicate tuidcr 
the geoertd name of depressions, and tiic other we call tMgufos or 

* "HoovemeatB dw divecstt uoucbwde TatnioephAn)," by Marv Dvclievnjo& S. J., 
tome, 1806. (£xlnct from the records of iho PODtlflc Academj ol Naovl l^oeL ) 



^ 



MOVEME^fT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 



153 



Philippiuo cyclones, tho latter, as u known, not falUtif; short of the 
cyclones of the Indian ocean nor of the liiirruMncs of the Atlttntic. 

Although it Ls our intention to speak in this riectiun Hoiuewluti at 
len^ concerning the bagufos, both becBUiwof ihoir frequency iuthiti 
archipelugo and becnuse of their terrible effect on vesaek which navi- 
gate these seas, we do not believe it inappropriate to any, by way 
of prcunblCf a few words concerning the tir:4t class of atmo.'fpheric 
changes which wc have just indicated. 

For greati^r clearness wo consider these depressions dirided into two 
groups: one of them originating in low latitudes between 4° and 12° 
north latitude, and the other formed in a higher latitude, probably 
between IG~ and 22". 

Tlie first are nothing more tlian extended areas of low pressure 
which extend in a fairly uniform manner over immense regions, and 
occur princijially in the months of December, January, February, and 
March. In the majority of cases it is very difficult to distinguish in 
theflft depressions a true mo\*ement of transference, as also to accu- 
nttely locate the center before the Vieginningof the barometric descent 
or the lowe.Ht barometric pressure, which is often observed at the same 
time in all the archipelago, and pnihably oven in part of tiie Pacific 
and the Chimi acn. Thi^ minimum reading of the barometer is gener- 
ally in tlic Visayan Islands and Mindanao- that is, in the southern 
region of the Philippines — and is 2 or 3 nun. lower than normal. 

The immediate effect of ihiu kind of atmospheric disturbance is 
manifeated by brisk wind» from the first qundrnut and rains of greater 
or le»b abundance in the Viiuyan Islands and Mindanao, which fre- 
quvntly extend as far us the provinces of southern Luzon. When- 
ever it ba5 beeu potttdblu to locate the center of any one uf theso 
deprvHilons between the Visayasand Mimhinuo, it ha«i generally I>een 
oleer\'ed that in the ((outhern part vi the ix'giou moderate or brisk 
wiodK from S. to SW. prevail. 

^Vltliuu^h the data at our diuposition is at present very scanty, it 
would upi>ear that some of thet^ wide centers of low pressure, after 
having crowAHl the southern part of the archipelago as depressions 
aueh atf we have just described, by a movement of transference, better 
icd in tjioiuu cases than in others, acquire, perhaps, a greater devel- 
nent in tliu China sea, being converted into genuine cyclone centers. 

Tlu* other dcpressioa's A\hieh, as already indicated, usually form in 
higlier latitudes, are also wide areas of low prejisure prolonged from 
E. to W., or from EME. to WSW., and which usually remain for 
aome days either to the northwest of Manila, between the northwest 
of Luz^u and the soutli of Chum, or in the Paci6c, towani tiie NE. or 



NNE. of Maoitu: or perhaps tbey attto extend themselves along some 
part of the Ctiiiui sea aod the X*acillc. between the north of Lu26ii, the 
south of Chinu, Furiuvsa, and tbe Kiu Kiu Islands. These depressions 
occur in the months in which b&giiEos are moat frequent, ettpecially in 
Juno and J uly. 

Toward the north of these wide centers of low pressure brisk winds 
from N. to E. prevail, and also to the Miuth of these brisk winds from 
S. to SW. lu Manila, windH neither brisk nor light prevail from 8SE. 
and S. when the depression lies to the NW. in the Chiuu st», and wiuds 
between bri."k and strung prevail from S. to SW., when it is situated 
more to the N. or Lo the NNE. and NE. in the Pacific. 

In the latter cafM> these winds from the third quadi-aiit, together with 
the squalls which accompany them at intervals for several days, con- 
stitute the phenomenon known to the natives by the name of cotla.' 
These depressions sometimes give place to the furuialiou of genuine 
cyclone centers. 

Having given these general ideas concerning depressions of minoi 
iniportunce we pass on to discuss, as briefly and clearly as (lossible, 
part of much tlint might be said concerning true and typical cyclones, 
possessing the two movements of rotation and transference, which are 
known in the Philippines under tbe ufuue of luiguius, and under the 
name of typhoons in the China sea. 

Bagnios or cyclones. — It is uf especial interest and practical value to 
determine the distribution of bagiuos over the different mouths of the 
year, in order to ascertain in what month they occur with greatest 
frequenfy and in what months they do not occur. For this purpose 
those Iwiguios are includwl which have appeared in the archipelago, 
either cratsing it or passing tbrongb it for a greater or less distance, 
and whose trajectory it has been possible to discover.' There are 397 
of Uiese tiagufos, whose distribution, by month and year, can be seen 
from the following table: 

'This Hiine phenomenoD U at times j)ro<]uc«<l bv tuo lypliDon& wtien they move 
with great Hlownem in the Pw-iHc to the NIv or S'NE of Slanilii, or when they fol< 
low each otlif r almost wilhuiit iiit«rni[ttiott in l\\« Pvciflc iteolf. 

'ObaorvAtion bv^ins with the year 1680, as this was the Qret year in which the 
obaervatory aent nottow of tyi>hoonii m the neighboring cotooy ol Hongltoog npon 
tba cMtaUistunent of telegraphic oomtuumcatiou. 





^^ PL*Te XIV 


■ 




HOKTHI.T DIBTBIBOnOH OF THE BAOOIUS 
OS OTOLOHSB HI TKE SAft TMT 

IRBO ■ 1898 




rc 

w 

M 
•a 

•> 


Jaa. 


ft»f. 


Jlm^ 


IP.. 


*•» 


J*** 


/!>/( 


*1* 


Sw( 


Ogr 


«ru. 


Oh 


to 
n 

M 
M 

to 

ao 
n 
■a 

9 






















1 


1 


1 




































[" 






























































- 


- 


- 


- 




























































,, 














































I 










































/ 


\ 










































\ 












































\ 














— 


- 


























i 








































/ 










































s 




l/ 




1 




































'"S 








l 












































1 
































' 










\ 












































I 
































, 












' 














































\ 










































\ 










































\ 




























jf 














1 
































f 
















^ 




























/ 
















\ 






























f 
















' 






























/ 








. 










L 














































1 






— ' 




















i 




















\ 
























1 




















\ 








— ^ 


-^ 


- 


-1 












i 




















1 






' 








J 




























^^^^^^^^^^^^■r 




















1 










■ 
































/^ 


























- 




M 


















1 








— 1 




































/ 


























\ 


It 

• 


















1 


























































































J 












































/ 




























— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


- 








/ 
































,/ 


F 




































1 


/ 


































S, 






y 






1 






















■ 






< 


ri 


J/ 




1 


























- 






\j^ 




1 


1 






























1 






1 






















i 










1 


1 




' 1 


























J 



1&6 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Tablb4B^ 


— JTonl^r onti ywKli diftW^wn of bagaiM 


• t880-19K. 




TZ*I. 


Jan. 


F*ti. 


M«r. 


Apr. 


M*y. 


June. 


July. 


Anr 


e«pu 


Ooc 


Not. 


Dee. 


TonL 


wn 














5 
9 
8 
3 
4 
S 

b 
4 

3 
4 
T 
4 
B 
b 
2 
4 
« 
3 




7 


X 

s 

2 
4 

I 

s 

s 

I 

4 
« 

2 
S 

6 
S 

4 
5 
S 




1 

3 

3 
1 
1 

1 

3 

i 

3 
1 
3 


11 












3 


1 


21 










I 

I 


11 








1 


S 
3 

I 
II 


1 
1 
■i 

2 

I 


a-j 


imu 


1 




''1 








1 
I 
X 
I 


u 


im 








IS 








1 


as 


ItM 






u 










14 




1 








1 


s 

2 
S 
1 
a 

4 
3 

3 

S 


87 








1 


as 


im 


1 

3 






34 










4 

1 
1 


21 


MM 








M 




1 








31 


UM 








30 












g 


^ 


3D 








I 




i 


3ft 










Ttotal 

Aniwc .... 
Pareent.... 


t 

1 




s 

0.2 
1 


9 

a 


1.8 

e 


S6 

1.8 
» 


H 

Kb 
n 


IS 


TO 
4.1 
SO 


U 

IB 
H 


40 

10 


IS 

U.V 

4 


3>7 
30.* 



As will be Hceo, not ono of these 397 bogvloR which Iiavo been reg- 
istereti fruiii 1880 to 180.S litis been observed in the month of Kebruary, 
BD(1 only 3 in the month uf MaiTh. I'iieir frcquoncy then increases 
from April, when 9 occurred, to July, when fl(! occurrtKl. There is 
then a slight decrease for the month of Au^rust, and the luaxiiuum of 
79 is reached in Septenilier, thn.s gii"ing n yearly arci'age of 4.3 for 
this month. From October the number fjrudnally diminishes up to 
Januar}', when but G are reeorde*!. 

Takin),' the average of the total number of liagiifos observed during- 
the nineteen yours included in the previous table, wo find a ^'cttrly 
average of nearly 21. Thia average would be greater if we should 
include only the la^t two years, as, on ae^^'ouut of more available data 
and better methods of observation, it has been luore difficult for any 
typhoon tu occur in these seas without being recorded. This was not 
true of the tir.st few yeai^w, because methods of securing information 
were much more defective. 

In confinuuttonof this it \a sufficient to say that since the year 1892, 
when the Manila olwervatory began to receive monthly roiwrta of daily 
observations taken on the island of Guam (Alariana Islands), wo have 
been able to record various cyclones, as, for example, three for the 
month of February, 1895,' and one for the month of April. 1899,' which 

* A brief soi-ount of thceebaffafwiHtclTenin themeteoroluglcal review InlbeobMrv- 
aton- in[>iitiily hulletiD for XoveiiiWr, 189$. The last of tbesB, which (Kciured In tbfl 
filajianaathe 20Lh, touched the Houtli^ri) fmrt nt the port o( Sua 1.41)8 tie A pra, where 
the banmetu* fell 22 mva. in two hounii au>i ten inlnut^s, tlie lowest nNiuing bdog 
TSftinin. Thftwind blcwBhHmranflfmmNNW.and N. to XR. and SR., causing BTCat 
(lama^ in the UiMit. Tlie thaii^e ln>iii NK. to t^K. M'M4ol)t<frvt>itab<mt half an Iroar- 

*ThiB bflgutowas fcU m(iuamtlie2.')tlia»d2<lth. For the ulMcrvalioos concerning 
it we are indebtec) to the generoRity of Mr. ^rovell, oiptsin of the ste4Uuer .VaiM/um. 
which WAfl anchored 1h«n> at that tijue. Aivonliiifi «■ thwe the baroansler reached 
ita loweat roadinR of 741 mm. at 4 p. iii. on tho 3-Hh, and tlie winds, having a velocity 
of 8, 9, and 10, acrordinR to lieniifort'fi fM-ale. w*Te suci-cssivciy from E. to 6E., 8., 
and 8W.,iuiii wwreaccotiipanii:^! hj'fttriiiiKHEiiialh. Thitt t(Mii{>«i<L movvd aroniid the 
wwt <it Uuaiu without touching the fhilippuic arohlpela^jo. Xlio niovcQient of this 




MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 



157 



near tbiit island on the soutb and wost in the Pacific without 
coming near the Pbilippines, ^"^^ concerning wbicb wb would hare had 
lo information if it had not been for thcae reports. 

Again, in the l^une meteorological review of the monthly bulletin of 
the observatory for the years 1880, 1881, and 1883, wo find various 
phenomena deseribnd for which we could not then give a satisfactory 
explanation, but whieb we now know tahe place whenever a 03xlono 
occurs at »onie distance from the arcbipelago, o^spccially in the vast 
extent of the Pacific ocean east and northeast nf Luz6n. Huch are, 
for example, the winds from the southwojjt, which blow durinjf certain 
days in the months of April and May, and which are accompanied with 
frequent showent and Mqualls. Thix happened among other cases which 
we might cite during the last ten days of April, 18S0, and May, 1883, 
during wbicb months no bagufo was recorded, not because one might 
not have occurred, hut berausc at that time wo did not have the same 
facilitieji as at present for studying and tracing their paths. 

In view of this, taking the bt^uios registered during the last nino 
years separately — that is to say, from the period ISW) to 1898— we find 
an average of 2h Itagufos for each year, as the average of the 226 that 
were registered during these nine years is 25.11. 

Taking as a foundation the 3d7 bugufos registered during the nine- 

in years from 1880 to 1898, we shall consider in this paragraph their 
relative distance with respect to Manila. This we believe will be both 
of interest and utility. For this purpose we hare divided those hufjufoa 
into four groups, according to their minimum distance from the capital 
of the archipelago, as follows: Firsft group, Icas than 10 miles; second, 
from 10 to 60 miles; thinl, from 60 Ut 190 miles; fourth, more than 
120 miles. 

tTfaus grouped, these hagufos are di.«itrihuted throughout the various 
lonths of the year a^^ seon in the following table: 
ABLE 48. — ifininum dittaaawitkmptetto ^anOa of the S87 ba{^lot obterted in tht 
pa<od 1890-1898. 



^fcwi 



DWTAKCB 
<VtNnini). 


iu. 


Fe*. 


Vmr. 


Apr. 


uu. 


JtUI«. 


ivXy. 


AUf. 


Sept. 

1 
T 
» 

at 


Oct. 


Hot. 


Dm. 


Total. 










1 

S 
3 

ta 








t 

8 

• 
8» 


8 
8 

8 

81 


1 
4 

18 


4 










1 

81 


a 
« 

80 


3 
4 


SB 






1 
3 


I 
8 


» 


^^■InUMUKlorw ft 




837 



tMgnfo about the islMDd of Goam is Indicated not only by what wa bavo Jml aold 

oonccTning th^cfaaoeeot winds, bat also by themiLintenanc«of th« barometric pre»- 
mm duriDg all the 2o(h nl abont the t<am« h«ight that it wa« the altttrnoon of the 
2$th. Nevcrthelen the observBtlons of the 26lh and 27th would seom to indicate 
that it again tam«d to the N. or KN W., from which point it waa uot possible to fol- 
•iow ita Either coursn in the PaciSa 





-_ 



From this data it is evident that the monthH vhen the bagnf< 
most dangerous to Manila are folt arc May, Septeralwr, October, am 
Noyenifj«r, for in these months there hare been regi^-tered the f»rtguio» 
which, during the period 18S() to 189S, crossed the island of Liiz6q 
and piL-'sed within 10 miles of the capital. Besides of the 28 bagufoe 
which pa^^^ed within » di.stance of from 10 to 00 mile:* of Manila, 2^ 
occurred during the four months mentioned. la July and Augustjfl 
even though the bagufos are inclined toward the west, they usually 
pass along the higher lutitude*. and are more dangerous to the north_ 
of Luzdo, Formosa, and the coast of China lying between Hongkong 
and Sliangbai. Nevertheless, as rare cases, we should mention certain' 
baguios which cross the archipelago through the Visayan Islands, or 
south of Luz6n, even in these months. Such was the btigufo which on 
tho 1st and 2d of August. 189i>, crossed the southern part of tho island 
of Liiz6u; also tluit on the 3d and 4th of AugiLst, 1897, wbivb crossed 
thfl islands of LuK6n and Fanay.' ^M 

Bagnios may ho divided into five main groups, each one having typ- 
ical and sptMjial characteristics tjuitfi worthy of lieing studied: Those 
which cross north of Manila; those which 01*088 south of Manila; those 
which pass cast or noi'tliea.Nt of the archipelago in the Pacific, but 
which disappear l>ofore reaching tbe>e inlands (which rarely occurs), 
or which rccurre before crossing tho meridian ISl'^east of (ireenwich 
(approximately the meridian of Manila); those which form in the 
China sea to the west of tho Philippines, and tho«e which recurve in 
the China sea between the parallels of 10^ and 30'^. passing first to th^M 
south and afterwards to the north of Manila. The characteristics of^ 
the bagiitos corresponding to each one of these groups arc a^ follows: 

1. Tiiose wbich cross to the north of Mnnila: These are thn hagufos 
most dangerous to Manila, if they cross the island of \Ai7X)i\ not far 
frwiLthc capital. The winds blow from N. to N\V. and from VV. to 
SW., so That— ifei_ vortex approaches our meridian with gradually 
increasing intensity; in gtnw HiLMie most violent winds are thote from 
WSW. and SW. After the Iw-gnEirjiaa-ftrttwed to the north in the 
direction of the China sea the force of the wind gf adiMilLv decrcasoajH 
hut (^pntmucs to blow from the SSW. and S., and even from the 3^Et^ ^ 
in those case's wh*^5=«4}ii! ^to mi 's sufficiently inclined to the west If 
tbo distance of the vortex f roiri "ftfaaik is jiot less than tiO miles, the 
winds will scareely reach a greater foree than 3 or 10-of -fiie JVvmfort 
scale. If the distance is less than 180 miles the influence of the ryclone_ 
Usually lasta in Manila not more than two days. If it is ^nituatod 



■ Tbo ar«t of these bagu/oe im deacribed at k>ji^th in the work which haa juA 
pubUahed, RQtitJcd "tVphoonaof the Philippine Aretiipelg^.-" -—'i ^nrninrntUig 
1896 «nd 1896," by P. Jiwn Doyle. Bobdirector of th*. ..' The wcond (■ 

^ bedbriifl TinihainMiinmliMnr1 »»»awq<*iwot— "HI .r\ i,. nthiT * " "- ' 



^ 

S??^ 



MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 



159 



tbe higher lutitudcH, as tbo vicinity of the BaJ^bi and IklingUin chan- 
nels, or Dear the island of Formosa, then, evnn thou^^h the bagiito is to 
the northeast in the Pacific, .-.trontj winds from WSW. and SW. quickly 
appear; these being Accanipanind by squalls. This bod wcathrr con- 
tinues for three or four eon.*Pcutive days. 

2. Tho^ which cross to the south of Manila: It is worthy of notice, 
and all who have lived in Manila for .sonie years undoubtedly have 
noticed it, that a striking difference is observed when a comparison in 
made of tbc inf ucncc exerted on Manila by a luigulo cro.s6ing to the 
north and that oxeitcd by one crossing to the south, although tho 
minimum distance of both may be the same. The first are felt with 
much greater intensity than tho second; not alone when tbc distancea 
are equal, but also when the distances of the latter are much less. 
Generally speaking, it may bo said: First, that a bagulo whicb croeaes., 
to the north of Manila at a distance of from OO to 4(X) miles cxcrcims 
as much intluenoo upon the capital as one which crosses to the south at 
a distance of from 10 to fil) miles; second, that those which crass to 
the nortli at a distance of from 400 to 700 miles exercise more intlu- 
mcc than Uiose which <toss to tho soutb at a distance of from 60 to 
160 mites. So great is this influence that for Imguios which are moro 
than 400 miles distant, like that of the tith to the Otb of August, 1897, 
which crowed tho meridian of Mnnihi north of Formoisa, it has Ixwn 
neoessar}' in this port to show the second tempest signal; while for 
those which crossed to the south not more tlian Il'O milej^ away the 
winds of the second iiuadront rarely, if ever, acquired sufficient force 
to niUHp the obsen-ntory to display any signal whatever. Tbe causes 
of the.He fact^ we believe to l>e two: Fii'st, that tho typhoons which 
more froraW. or WNW. along parallels lower than 15° are gener- 
ally of great inlonsity if in the vicinity of tbe vortex, which in very 
mocfa reduced in diameter. Those which run farther (o tbe north 
are In general of much larger dimensions, increasing in size accord- 
ing to the latitude where Ihcy occur. Second, that the winds from the 
HE. and S£., which blow in Manila when a bagufo passe<i through 
Ibc Bouth, arc opposed by great mountain ranges; while those from 
the WSW. and the SW. atrike the Bay of Manila without encoun- 
tering any ob-itacle. 

3. Thone which recurve into tbe Pacific without crossing the meridian 
of Manila: The efff^ct of these Imgufos in Manila is similar U) that 
prriduc4-d by thoM which cross t.o the north some di-stancc nwiiy, with 
tbe single difference that tbe strong wind and wind and rain nqualls 
from tho thin! qtinHrant continue at times for five or six days. Tho 
irirfnr>ltv of ihvsf r»iti:t i.H naturally BO much j^roater a^ tbe distance 



which !ieparat«s the vortex from the island of Luz<^n decreases. 
If this distance in luore tbati 700 miles its indueoce is scarcely felt in 
MbdIUi, except for the greater constaacy of those winds which blow 
from theWSW. and SW. These blow e^en outside of the regular 
hours for breezes, as happened in the Iwg^ufo of the 6th to 9th of Sep- 
tember, 1897, and that which damaged Kob^ the l^th of August, 1000. 
4. Those which form in the China sea to the west of the archipelago: 
These bagufos are tho^e which are felt least in Mauilu. As a general 
rule they follow from the point of their formation toward the fourth 
quadrant, and most commonly toward the NW. or WNW, For this 
reason they are soon far from the mxJiipelago. and no influence ISIanila 
Only by means of their uhowerri and mild or brisk breezes from the S. 
to Uio S£. 

Although not frequent, bagufos are occasionally registered which, 
foi-miug ill the China sea, move to the N. and NE., passing thus to the 
north of Manila. When this happens their influence is prolonged for 

^(KHue days, tlie winds veering from SE. to S. aod SW. as the vortex 
Ivaoccs toward the NE. 
6. TboRo which rocurre in the (^hina sea between the parallels 10^ and 
SO'^, passing first to the south and afterwards to the north of Manila: 
The influence of these bagufos, especially if thoy do not go Ear into 
the Cliina sea before recurving, is usually pi*olongcd for six or e^ht 
or more days, being accompanied at first with nearly continuous rains 
and brisk winds, which veer from N. to NE., E. and ErfE., while the 
vortex crosses to the south and passes into the (!Jhina sea. During 
this recurve the velorjty of the stonn usually diminishes notably, rains 
and brisk breezes contmuing at Manila. These breezes from the ESE. 
veer to the SE. and SSE. very slowly. When, at the end of three, 
four, or five days, the baguio has completed thi.s recun'o, it quickly 
continues its ixiurse to the NKE., NE., or ENE. Thia change in post- 
tion of the vortex, if the bagufo is not too distant from Manila, is 

^Accompanied here by a rapid veering of the winds from the SSE. to 
Ihe SSW., SW., WSW., aud W., these increasing in force until the 
uo haa a second time crossed the meridian of Manila to the noilh. 
Co this class belonged the ''Gravuia'' bagufo (so called because of tlie 
wreck of this merchant vessel near the coast of Zambalet<) of the 8th 
to the 17th of May, 1892, and the bagufo of Iloflo and Vigao of the 
Hth to 20th of I^tay, 189H. The vortex of this bugui'o passed Iloflo 
during the first part of it« parabolic path and touched Vigan, when, 
after recurving, it crosee*! the NW. extremity of Luzon, moving to 

[the NE. The paths of these two bagufos and others similar to ihem 

l>e seen on Plate XXIV. 

Knowing thus in general the influence which a bagufo may have on 

Manila, according as it belongs to one or the other of these 6ve groups, 

it is easv to see that it will be useful to know the months in which the 



I 



ri 



MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSPnERE. 



161 



bagfuloa of these differeut groups occur. For tbi(< purpose wo have 
prepared the following^ Ubio: 

Takm 47. — MmUAiy HiHrAfdiim of baipiinr far Ihr perioti 18S0 to 189S, nccor^ing to the 
jtwitioM o/ thfir [Ktth* mtk refped to Jiomla. 





Jut. 


Kb. 


Mn. 


Apr. 


Uar. 


iaat. 


Jul?. 


lAUC. 


StT*. 


OcL 
» 

11 

ID 


.Sot. 


Dec. 


r 

Total. 


Ctllt. 


IbltttiolH^ 

vtta.,, ... 










i 

a 
e 

4 


5 
S 
13 
U 

I 


92 

7 
11 

12 


■a 
t 

•M 

7 


« 


IS 

u 

2 
2 


U 

6 
1 


121 
U 

121 
M 

S 


n 




4 






It 

3 

I 
■ 


21 


■Mt el ue- 

clut«t«co. 




3 


n 
ift 


Tlatt KKUli 
tfcm north 
oIMbbUk. 






1 


3 


















Tt appears that those bngTifos which cross to the north of Manila 
And those which remain in the Pacitic, cast of the meridian 121 - cast 
of Greenwich, arc most frequent. Those which cross to the south 
of Manila aro less fnequent, white thoBC formed west of the meridian 
,121^eiist of Greenwich are still less frequent. Those baguios which 
curve in the China «ca between the parallels 10° and 20^, crossing 
fir^ to the south and then to the north of Manila, occur, A>f will be 
^.seeD in the table, but rarely. 

In regard to the monthly didtnbution of the bagufos of these 6ve 
ip» it U evident. 6rsjt, that thosie which cross to the north of 
lila are more £rc<iuent in the months of September, July, August, 
and Ot^tober. though they occur sometimes in the months of Novem- 
ber, May, and Juno, but never during the rest of the year; t^econd, 
that IhoKC which cro§.s to the south are most comuion in November, 
:totK>r, May, and December, and are rarely seen in April, June, July, 
lAugu.st, September, and January; third, that those wluch recurve 
Untu the I^acilic to the cast of meridian Itfl'^ east of Ore4!nwich are 
rery frequent in September, quite frequent in August and July, less 
BO in June, OctolH-r. and November, and rare in the other months; 
fourtli, that tho.*ie formed in the China t»ea to the west of meridian 
131'^ NWt of Greenwich are fairly frequent from June to October, 
live, in descending grade througli June, July, and August, 
ftitceuding from August to October, the maximum being in the 
montb« uf June and July, this being the so-called typhoon period. 
kVory few liaveol^^prvpd th*;ni in May. November, and April, and none 
■in tike other months; hfth, that of the last group uf bagnios but uine 
hanj been registered in the period under discussion— one in March, 
sne in June, one in Dcwmber, two in Noveml»er, and four in May- 
being pectiliiir, Uierefore, to this Uist month. Thuf^, in the year 
we observed a bagulo of this group from the IHth to the 2Sth 
saias— vuL 1—06 — II 



163 



GEOGKAPHY. 



of May which Brst c^rossed the Visayan Islands, bcing^ sororoly felt in 
Iloiln and Ceb6 on the 30th and ^Ist. It then recun'^od into the ChinA 
8ca to the wuth of Honj^kong, botireon the parallels 17^ and !iO'-', and 
was loet in tho Pacific ocean to the north of Formosa. Its path may 
be seen on Plato XXIV. 
The baguioi4 may bo classiBod in tho following form: 

CrctonM ot lhi> 

lUlsUuiM. 
(^..^n... ^t t. (TbMC whl«b recurre Ur tmm Ibe umdiui al ManUn. 
i;rwneB oi ■'■-JTbow whteh rvctirro new the mcriillHii nf UuilU brion or ntwr Mw»- 

CtcIqdm ot Tot- 



I (oraiocl 
In iltu 
PmUc 



CrdDnM at Uh 
FhiUliI^luw. ' 



CKlonaiof 
uuAn. 



CivloDM whleb ctom to 
lli« uorlli uf MiutU*. 



Cfelonaa wUeh nonrro tn tba low- 
dor Ol I/uta.drln dteCUMMa, 
not f*r frnm Ut« laluid. 

CyD]anM ol China. TonUn, sad 

, Coubin China. 



CTclnau wbieh ctom to 
tbo •□nth ol MKnUii- 
CTclonefi ot the ViatTUAod Uln<lAnu> 

Crcionn which racurru lii Um Cblna tu bciwovn thu IMh anil aoih mi> 
all«ti nonh laUtiMlc. Cfoadarilnt to the Mmih utd then lo th« oonb oC 
HuiU*. 



Cytioniw lonaKi In tlie 
' CblJUKK. 
I Orctona ti>rui(i:1 la ihe 

Jold »«• ot Uio toUrl*- 

latul irnt«n 80Qth ot Lu- 

■ta. 

This classiBcfltion includes all tho cyclones of tho extreme East, but 
it is made principftlly with reference to Manila, or to the influence 
exerted on Manila according to the zone of formation and the course 
of the trajectorieii. 

Of the bagiifoe here specified, 81 per cent 1>eIong to the first main 
branch of this division, 16 per cent to tho socond, and only 4 per cent 
lo the third. 

Of the typhoons of the Vifuyas and Mindanao, those formed in the 
China sea and those formed in tho sea iwuth of Luztfn, some di^ppear 
in the China sen Iieforo reaching the continent, while others, greater in 
number, penetrate tho cHintinont in the south of China, in Tonkin, or 
In Cochin China. Those formed in the China Koa very seldom go in tho 
direction of Fo^no^5a or .Tajmn. Rut this is not true of tboee of the 
Visayas and Mindanao, which in this ca^e belong to the last of the 
l^three grouiw of bagufo«t, which we have called Philippine hagufoa 
becjiuso they cross these islands. 

Of tho bogufos formed in the Pacific, the cyclones called those of the 
MarianaB or Magallanp>< di^^ppear in the Pacific without reaching our 
archipelago »>r recurve in such a manner that the second part of their 
parabolic trajectory does not carry them to Japan nor near it, but 
iTBthcr In the direction of the archipelago of Magntlanes; JapancM 
typhoons include not only tho«c which actiuUly trax'crse •fapau, but 
also those which, after recurving, paws through the sea.i of Japan or in 
the vicinity nf Ihat Empire; cyclones of Formosa, Luerfn, the Visayns, 
and Mindanao aru all such so traverse said isUnds, or at least cro«8 



i 



Plate XV.— Cvcljones of the MAntANAs or Maqallanes. 




Plate XVI.— Cyclones which Recurve far prom the Meridian of 
Manila. 




pute xvii.-cvclones which recubve near the meridian of 
Manila Before or After Crossinq it. 




t^mjUtitiltt} 



Plate XVllt.— Cyclx>ne8 of Formosa. 




I^-BjiLwl lIB'gyiMaJi 



HJ. na rAM nntei L H, «d m iM, Imikmlmlt'ti riiiiMi 
■mill*! n»«<IW»Mt»J4ll^«l*MM l<i ll 






Plate XIX.— Cyclones which Recurve in the Interior of Luzon, 
OR IN THE China Sea not far from the Island. 




~iamiU-l' K.V^I>M*pdiJ 



Plate XX-^Cvclones of China, Tonkin, and Cochin China. 







Plate XXI.— Cyolonei of China, Tonkin, and Cochin China. 




mo; Jtn' i jQi 



Plate XXII.— Cyclones which Cboss to the South of Manila. 




JwnwliL J! HT i n u rn k S 



PLATC XXIII.-CVCLONU OF TW ViSAYAB AND MiNtMNAa 




imfll-UiLrfOrfr^U 



Plate XXIV.— Cyclones which Recurve in the China Sea Between 
THE 10th and 20th Parallels North Latitude, Crossing First 
TO THE South and then to the North of Manila. 




Plate XXV.— Cyclones Formed in the China Sea. 






- II -If- II /UfHtmtn ttilJ 

•■ I -n't! ittt mj 

-- t-t-It N^Ui^ir (HI 

. t-M-ll A-aauU itu 




dUi^i'^*! J^ ^ 1/TWKie/l 



176 



GEO(JR.\PHY. 



Wo haro beon very earoful to eeled trajoctorics of tlic laat two 
jeant oaixwially of thr i»riod ISftf) tn 1899, and ingenenil have takeo 
them from tliosn months in which baguloa of each oiin of these lypea 
ftTP- most frequent. 

Kurthftr partji'ulftii* nhout the cyolonej* in the Far Eiutt may lie seen 
in thp Knglish <'<iition (seeond edition) of tlio hook "The Cyclones in 
the Far East," piihlishofi in Manila by the insular ffovernment in 1904, 
which may he had on application to the Manila observatory. 

TTiund'^rxUirmi.^ — This term refers to those local tempest*, UMUally 
of short duration, which are aceoropaniod by more or less impoBinK 
electrical manifestations, aHsumtng at tho aomc time a sabiimc and 
terrifkr a-spect. 

The annual and monthly diHtrihution of these storms in Manila 
merit brief eonsidei-atioii. A jjraphi*' illiL^tration appears on Plato 
XX VII, and ti.e frequency of these storms and their direction arc also 
discussed. 

Taiile 48. — Annunl awrf tniMlUy dulrihvtiof of thnniUvtiormt n» obttrrfd Jrom the 
3fanUa obtenalorg : lSSS-tS97. 



TU>. 


Jan. 


nb. 


Mm-. 


Apr. 


Mar- 


lunir. 


Jnly. 


An*. 


B«|>I. 


Oct 


Kov. 


D«c. 


ToUL 




t 
ft 
« 

1 

4 

n 


1 

7 

« 

9 


14 
« 

ID 

a 

14 
« 
1 

a 
u 
u 


■n 

18 
« 

■a 
u 

« 

n 

17 

a 


(0 
73 
118 
106 

m 

VB 
llA 

w 

uo 


M 
118 

7a 

110 

w 

71 

88 

n 


■a 
sa 

7B 
U 
W 
VI 
74 
Tt 
M 


48 
M 
W 
90 

tu 

72 
«8 
66 

a 
m 


41 
4S 

711 
4S 
U 
» 
H 

■a 


K 
?6 
43 

u 

n 

«7 
S» 
flSI 


ts 

9 
11 

17 
4 

H 

7 
7 
U 


1* 

• 


888 

tta 

6M 

on 
























S7t 


mr 






at 




"■"" 




TVtal 


» 


M 


n 


SI 


i.on 


sn 


9P7 


KQ 


aa 


ua 


41 


MM 



Uniting by months the thunderstorms obser^'od during the five 
yeari*, 1888-189:2, it appears that these stomis arc very rar« and somo- 
time-s absent during the months of January and February, are a little 
more freqnent during tho montlts of March and April, and reach thoir 
maiinmm during ihe following niondw until October. L'sually there 
are a few thunderstorms oI>slm ved in December similar to tho^ which 
occur in tho second half of January. 

Confining ourselves to the re^ulU which Sgure in the total of 
obsened thunderstorms, it will be seen tliat the minimum is to bo 
found in the month of February- and tho msximum in tho mouth of 
May, there being a uotuhlo difference in this month and tho preceding 

ODO. 



' "ThuDderetomw in Manila," by Rev, M. JW^rrn M»t«, S J 
I lor HcUorolocy at Chini0D, 180S. 



('apw mod in Ui« 



















Plate XXVll 




















^^^~ 


MOJrrHLT DtBTBIBUTIOa OF THE 

THDnBE BTOBMS OBSBKVH!] AT lU]in.i 

IB8S - 1S97 


V. 

MM 
«•* 

n* 
n« 

•M 

«• 

•aa 

MS 

1M 

a 


/M. 


fi*. 


Kar. 


Aar. 


Va, 


A«*« 


Jrlr 


<l-r- 


BmH- 


Ott. 


Hat. 


Dm. 


ion 

■00 


■- 














1 










































K 












































|\ 






























- 














4- 


^: 


- 












































































i{ 


^ 






































- 




1 




\ 




















- 


-^ 


— 


MO 
















\ 




















- 


- 
















\ 




































1 


























- 


- 
















' 










































1 
























rm 


- 




















1 




















~ 


- 




















\ 




































— 




^ 






















- 


- 


... 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


J 


r 




- 


— 




— 


- 


- 


— 




_ 


- 


- 


- 


— 


- 






- 


„ 


-m. 


^ 


4 


-1 


— 


- 


— 


- 


~ 


— 


- 


- 


•DO 
SM 


: 


- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— , 


— 


- 


« 


r 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— ■ 


— 


1 




~- 


' — 




— 


— 


— 


— ■ 




— 


— 


— 


— ' 


■— 


— 




























1 


k 










- 


































\, 










































> 












































I 










































1 










- 




- 




- 


-. 


— 




— 


. — 


-_ 


— 


_ 


— 


— 1 


— 






— 


_ 


— 


-. 


- 


- 










"V 


— - 


"- 


■ — ■ 




— 


— 


— 


— 


- 


- 




~ 


- 


- 


- 


tea 

Ml 

ICO 

• 


















- 


- 


- 


— 


— 


— 


rt 


zz 


- 


— 


- 


- 


- 


- 


















_ 





^ 




_^ 





_ 


' 


" 


- 


- 


~ 


— 


— 


~- — 


— 


-— 


■ — 


— 


— 


— 


H 


— 


— ' 


_L_ 


— 


~ 


— 




































- 


■ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


/ 






























/ 












































/ 
























I 


- 


- 


- 


— 


^ 


— 








' 


























' 1 
























1 













~i 


_j_ 





^ 


_^ 





_ 


— 








_ 













„ 


— 


■-~ 


— 


— 


— 


1 


-p 


— 1 


— 


' — 


— 


"" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


t 


— 


— 












t 




























\ 






- 










i 




























' 












,1 






























^ 


— 


— 




— 


_. 


/ 


_ 






— 


— 


r— 


— 


— 


— 


— 1 


— 


_ 


— 


_ 





N 


■^ 


^ 


t 




1_ 


—i — 


_ _i 


— 


— 




— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


' — 


— 


- 




a*. 






- 




- 


~ 


— 


- 


^ 


- 


- 




- 


c 





28182— vuL 



-12 



178 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Is the month of June a decrease T>e^ns to He noted, and we may 
say it continues until January, although diirinc the month of July a 
amalter uuinber of thunderstorms occur than in the following month. 

Comparing these conclusions with the monthly totals deduced from 
ton years' obserrations, 188a-18i)7, as they appear in Table 4S, no 
marked variation appears. In the last four of the t<^n years tliere 
appears to be a pronounced decrease in the^e phenomena apportioned 
to the mouths December, January, and Febi*u»ry, because during all of 
Ibem the obserralory does not record a thunderstorm in the months 
of January and February, or in December of 1895, and only one in 
December of 18yt», two in December of 1897, and tive in Diecembor 
of 1894, 

Moreover, the second five yeara have been, without exception, the 
ones in which a greater number of thunderstornLs were observed tn 
July than in August, making the total number for the ten ycara greater 
than the total for AugUHt. Between the total for August and the total 
for Septeml^er there is only an iasignifirnnt difference the latter being 
slightly greater. 

The total number of thunderstornw observed in the ten ycBi*s from 
1888 to 181>7, inclusive, rcaehes 5,050, with a resulting yearly average 
of 505, which amount differs little from the yearly average obtained 
during the first five years, 631. 

How much the totala of each one of these years Is separated from 
the yearly average can lie seen in the following outline: 



86 


ises 


88 


1«M 


7 


180r> 


66 


1896 


141 


1897 



From this it apiKurs that the year in which the gi'eate^t number of 
tbundcrHtoruitf oci'urrcd was I8!RJ, the minimum in the year 18!H). 

In the followiug («ummar,v appear the maxima and minima of 
thunderetonnw during the wholi? ten yearn, for each mouth: 



MowrB. 



. Jkooftry.. 
Ptbravr* 
Ibnb.... 

«■.::::: 

JaiM 

:'iHly 

Aonat... 
■•5«ab«r 

DoOMBtej' 



JUKUA. 



HwntMr. Y«r. Huaber. 



Yc«r 



MOB 

urn 
um 

tm 

UN 

urn 

IMS 
LtM 



MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 



179 



The period of greatest frequency- it* tbnt of May, 1897, and the next 
w that of >lDnc, 189^. Tbe smnlL atimber of (h node rst onus occiirriog 
in th<^ month of May, lS9fl, m notable, and is probably due to the 
many days we wero under the inQuence of a cyclone, which, after 
having passed the Visuyas, turned at the west of Luz6n and crossed 
this island in the necond branch of the parabola by way of the prov- 
inces of IloGoe and Cagaydn. 

In onior to dLstingiiish in some manner the relative intensity of the 

Ithunderf-tomis recorded at the observatory during the t*n-year jieriod 

considered, they may be divided into three groups: Fir»t, thunder- 

8tomi8 whi4:h i-age in a locality, or voiy near; second, thunderstorms 

which produce much thunder; and, third, thundcr»torm>f which can 

[only lie perceived by the flauhcs of lightning or peals of thunder 

[.aceompanied by lightning. We represent the first group by the letter 

[T, the second by the letter L, and tlie third by the letter li. 

Table -tO pre^ent^ the total number of thunderstorms for each month 
"during the period from 1888 to 1897, distributed into the three groups 
Jndiniled. 

TabUi 41>. — tietaiive infmnfy ofttormt tAmnvi/rom StaniUt duritty the period 

1888-ISS7. 



■ 


tUfXSMKV. 


rumrABT. 


mArnoK. 


AFBIL. 


MAT. 


jvru. 


^^^ TB4E. 


T. 


L. 


a. 

s 
t 

s 


T. 


L. 


B. 


T. 


L. 


a. 

12 

a 

a 

10 


T. 

8 

.... 

•■;■ 
.... 


L. 

U 
9 

7 
S 
5 

11 
4 
7 
8 

14 

74 


K. 

7 
9 
SM 
lA 
■6 
» 
«• 
19 
14 
«> 

397 


T. 
1 

'ii' 

A 
10 
7 
4 
7 
4 
9 

08 


» 

K 
29 
SS 
SI 
81 
M 
31 
43 

Kb 


K. 

U 
19 

U 
0» 

w 

01 
80 
S8 
84 

79 
US 


T. 

1 

7 
7 

9 
» 
3 
7 
10 
4 

« 


u 

4» 
19 
49 

K 

n 

80 

n 

84 
W 

ise 


B. 


»::::::::::::.-::r. 
iS:::::""n:::::- 


.... 


.... 
.... 

t 

1 




M 


.... 


1 
1 


"«' 


.... 


a 

40 




3 


4n 




'io 


1 


1 
I 


-1 
1 


■*•• 


W) 






s? 


w?',\"\",\ 




40 
















w 


Mt.....^..» 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 


.... 




M 
M 




1 


I 


It 


1 


-1 


11 






1 tMri. 


i 


10 


07 


Mil 










tour. 


unnm. I apmnKs. 


oennn. 




eioBon. 


TRAL 


T. 


U 


B. 


T. 

T 


L. 


a. 


T. 


L. 

« 
U 
M 
U 
» 
U 

u 
a 

B 
MO 


u. 

St 
02 
17 
12 
«9 
U 

u 
tt 

n 

IT 
'BM 


T. 

3 
1 
1 
:i 

■j- 

4 

8 

S 
3 

19 


L. 

» 

19 
17 

n 

4 

U 

u 

• 

13 

1«7 


V 

to 

33 
» 

41 
46 
•» 

36 
11 

88 

MS 


T. 

.... 

.... 
.... 

"i* 


h. 

n 
11 

1 
u 


B. 

7 
U 
10 
17 
14 
8 
J 
S 

32 


T. 


4 
4 

1 


IL 


a> 


1 

7 
S 
• 

11 
1 

U 
1 
■ 


u 

» 

» 

II 

17 

» 


1ft 


30 


li 


ft 
$ 

a 
i 

"i' 

4 
9 

"i" 
o 


n 


fcrn:::::::::::: 


*2 1 

■a i 

» 
40 < fl 


ID BO 
44 ta 
13 U 


3 
7 
1 




to 

28 

19 
IT 
19 


00 
88 
48 

n 

17 


1 


8 


• 

t 






.... 


I 


1 




as 

44 ' 


g 
a 

10 








I 




31 10 

Ml SO 


1 


9 

10 






no ' M 


s 


H 


loe 


m 


rZl 













In the monthly totals for the whole period it will be obtiei-Ted that 
the nutuber of thuodor^toi'iiiti uf the K group i» much greater than 
the number of L thunderstorms, thei-e being very few which rage in 
or near the lo<»]ity. 

The yearly totals for tho ten yoan» can bo seen in the following 
ouUine: 



TKAB. 


T. 


L. 


B. 


»::::::::::::::-:::::::::;::;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


» 

■a 
w 
xt 

K 


'A2 

Ma 
in 

IM 

iia 

tm 

in 


IS 

m 
an 




MS 




S17 
■ISO 


ir::::::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


an 








393 


).?M 









ThiH means that tho tntal nimiber of thundorHtorms during the tnn 
years rasolvas itwilf into the iiniiibei-M ftfi2 T, X.lbh L, and 2,963 R, 
resulting for each year in the following averages: 

IVffWif avtmgt. 
Tbuuderatorua: 

T 88 

I. 176 

B S»6 

Since it is impossible for us to analyze the diurnal diittributioD of 
thunderstorms closely hero, for want of liuie, we will give only a few 
C(Mnuient»( in regard to thU point. In general it may be iiaid that the 
caaea are rare in which some of these electiic phenomena have been 
obsen-ed fn^n 7 U> 1 1 in the morning. .A,t this hour approximately 
the tempt'»t^ Ix^gin to rise and increase iu force during ttie two months 
mentioned in which they are most frequent, and are accompanied by 
great ctoudbuD>t.s and high winds, which gather in force as they move 
townrd the rx'nilh of the horizon, but not reaching their maximum 
force until about uiidduy. or a little after. The greater number of 
thunderstorms T and L rise in the intervening houra t»etwEen midday 
and 10 or 11 p. m. During the later hours of the night the thunder- 
storms R are most frequeul, and tbunderHtorms L not quite so fre- 
quent. In the early hours of the morning thunder is frequently heard, 
though seldom followed by tigbuting or storms. 

In order to investigate the general orientation of the thunderstorms 
wo have grouped tho 5,050 thundurhi tonus of the ten years which wo 
are studying into four groups, according to whether they were 
olisorved on tho first, second, third, or fourth (juadmnt, and we have 

tliis manner formed Table 50. 



i 




^ MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSl'UEKE. 181 fl 


^H Tahlc 50.— (Vi'mfofion of the ttnatdentormt tAiunvd m Mttmla during Ae ptriod ^| 




ISS8-ISS7. H 




JtWiBT. 


ntMKiTAKy. 


MjiacK. ^H 


^^M VBAK. 


w 1 u 


Sd 4tlL 


lal 


M 


ad 


41I1 


l«l 


ad 


ad 


4lh ^^H 




qUMl-^IIMd^ 


qokd- 


qiuid.1 


quad- 


n|Uad- 


quad- 


quad- 


qOodJ 


qiiM- ^^H 




rMil.'nmt. 


rant. ' ntiit. 


nuiL 


nnt. 


rnal- 


ntil. 


mit. 


mnt- 


ntil. 


imnL ^^^H 


^^Hflfr- 


1 

a 






1 










4 

a 
4 
9 
4 

a 
1 


8 


1 


1 




1 

* 


1 


I 
1 








....:. a 


t 


3 


a 


a 
1 

4 
1 






1 






SS:.;:::;::::::::::::::: 


] 

4 


1 

9 




■i 
6 


I 




1 


4 
S 




























I 
3 
4 


1 
3 
a 


X 

1 


^ 1 








::::::::::; 










ua» .„ 
















Trtil 


ft & 


■ 


10 


a 


1 


a 


a 


27 


» 


4 


_" 1 




K 


^PSIL. 


lUT. 


ruvs. ^M 




ut ' as 1 34 


4th 


Ill 


■Jd 


ad 


«h 


in 


2(1 


Sd I itb ^1 




quad- ' guad- 1 ij uHd- 


()tliul- 


quad- 


qoul' 


quad- 


quad- 


qiiad- 


quiul- 


UUIUI'.IIUIUI' ^H 


.1 


imni. 


mnL 


nut. 


null. 


nut. 


rmat. 


nut 


milt. 


mtt. 


nnt. 


Kni, 


rani. ^m 


tm 


* 
7 


t 


1 


to 
s 


ZL 


ID 


la 
u 


aa 

3B 


17 

S3 


Id 

81 


11 


" 1 




* 


un 


4 
7 
« 
» 

4 
» 


S 
3 
U 

u 

8 


& 

B 

S 
7 


14 
18 

IS 

1» 

20 

s 


29 
St 
34 

as 
a2 
u 


19 
24 
S3 

S3 


as 
» 

23 

n 

24 
U 


2; 

80 
29 

w 
US 

30 


in 
as 
ai 

20 

17 
18 


21 
SO 
US 
SB 
IB 
19 


u 

81 
84 
38 
1» 
17 






\m 




yB ::".':::::;::"""::: 




4 B 




U 
74 


1 » 


s 

18 


13 

49 


IS 

30 

~761 


11 

as 


la 

31 


BO 
17 


SI 


19 
17 

' 2» 


ae ■ 

XZB H 




14 

Tl 


ID 
M 






IK 


]»> 


HA 


m 


zw 


■ 


r 


niLif. 


Ai'ovn. 


fiirmBait. ^M 


^L Tk4a. 


1*1 ad 


Sd 1 Itll 


Ul 


-Al 


8d 4ih 


i« ad 


Rit 


H 


H 


<)IMi|- 4IU1]- 


qiwd-qtud- 


qiud- 


qiMd- 


quAd- qiiad- *)iuid 


qtiad- 


qnad- 


niud- ^H 


■ 


nu)l. 


nuii. 


n&t. 


t«iil. 


niii. 


MnL 


mat. 


imuL 


nuL 


nni. 


nuit. 


mnt- ^1 


^^ 


1 

M 


R 


N 


S 

14 

in 

IK 


to 


U 
18 
2t 

4 


7 
t 

n 


U 
U 

IS 


28 

at 

1^ 


22 

a: 
» 

B 


IB 

27 

4 

4 


^4 




H IS 
H LI 

r u 


^^^^^^^^ 


^^^■Br 




g& 


ul a 


21 


S8 


26 


a 


» 


u 


16 


la 


■ 


iBi 


ir 


n 


34 


13 


22 


21 


20 


9 


2J 


U 


10 


H 




77; » 


LI 


14 


sa 


IN 


18 


u 


17 


Iff 


19 


H 


iBo 


n ' 11 


lit 


1» 


30 


■A 


a 


n 


90 


U 


a 


■ 


»:::::::::::;:::::-: 


u u 


B 


10 


It 


7 


• 


7 


1» 


ia 


19 


■ 


Ml » 


IT 


IB 


15 


IB 


IS 

1X7 


14 

lU 


aft 


u 

lEl 


iiT 


: 1 


m| M 


1« 


MB 




TB*m. 


OCTOBRR. 


iKivnuui. 


DacRHBtm. ^H 


m 


Sd 1 III 1 4Ui 


I«t 


2d 3d 


4lh 


Ut 


Sd 8d 


lib 


^ 


giWA' 


qnail o'uul o"ad' 


llUttd- 


quad- qnad- 


qtud- 


qtud- 


qnad-jquad- 


quad- 


IL. 


■wit. 


n^' 


"lit. 


raJii. 


mnt. 
1 


null. 


null. 


nuit. 


rani. 


mtt- 


rant. 
4 




u 


17 ; U 


U 


e 


s 




Z 


1 






a 


!» ' 14 


Ifl 


in 


fi . b 




6 










u 


* 


11 


10 


s 


a s 




X 


3 




1 




u 
u 

1« 


U 
13 
II 


11 

a 
9 


14 7 
IT S 

II 


U T 

7 i » 
1 t 




a 


3 

1 
1 










a 

1 






u 


la 


u 


n 


I 


1 , ^ 




1 


a 




1 


IMl 


1« 


m 


8 


w 


a 


1 8 














t 


s 


7 


u 


1 


1 


a 






1 


■**■*• 






u 


la 


9 


1ft 


10 


4 


la 


14 


1 








^ Jvmt. ■■■ ■ 


t«l 


us 


lU 


141 


48 


it 


« 


44 


14 


10 


IS 


11 


^^^^^ «■ ."i ■- ^*— -*^ - -"^'^ - — ^ ^B 



182 



GEOGKAPHY. 



As can bo seen by tbc montbly totals wbicb wo give, tbundcrstornis 
are least frequent in tbo tbird (juadraat, tbc only cxceptiond being in 
tbe months of Februnn-, Novoiuber, and December, in whicb tba 
second quadrant, shows a smaller total. Tlie greatest frequency has 
been observed in tlie first quadrant in tbo mouths of May, July, 
August, September, October, and December, and in the fourth quad- 
rant in tbe mouths from Jaimary to April, inclusive; in tbe second 
in June, and in the tbird in Novemticr. 

The yearly totals for tbe ten yeara are distributed also as to tbo dif- 
ferent oiientation in the following outline: 



TmAX. 


■fiiwlcont. 


8«coDd 
qnoitnxit. 


TliM 


Fuurtb 




179 
IH 

ut 

U2 
171 


UO 
IW 
Ut 

•1 

Ml 

MT 
U« 

in 

trr 
111 


TO 
US 

m 

» 

m 

m 
vr 
n 
tit 


lU 




10 




Ut 

w 

M 

m 
m 
m 
w 




I.MS 


i.Ma 


l.(W 


l.Ht 







The results in all cases are identical with those obtained by Father 
Sadcrra regarding the thunderstorms during the first five years; that 
is, the greater numlwr, l,-H)S, corresponds to the first quadrant; the 
intermediiitc, 1,949, to the fourth quiulnuit, and the other two, l,^t> 
and l,0iJ5, to the second and third quadrants, respectively. 

This relates merely to tbo location of thunderstorms in general, 
irrespective of other clajssitication. Ijet uh consider the location (ori- 
entation) of the difi"erent clashes of tfaundei-storms, of which wo give 
the following outline: 





THVHtlUtnuUCl T. 


TUDXIlKKKTOKMS 1- 


THrnnKUTOiuu n. 


1 TKAX. 


Ut 
quid- 
not. 


ad 

IIUMl- 


M 
mnL 


qud- 
rnii. 


lid 
qnwl- 


sd 

quftd- 
nni. 


run. 


4lta 

IptMA- 

nun. 


M 

Mai. 


M 
nut. 


SA 

tUkd- 

tui. 


4111 

4IMd- 


piiEiE 


t 
12 
» 

7 
1ft 
H 

a 
u 

w 
u 


IS 

« 
t 
f 
* 
•J 
• 

U 




11 

11 
11 


r 

n 

Bl 
54 

<1 

« 

n 


m 

M 

u 

•> 
m 
m 
» 


H 

n 

as 
m 
la 

w 

i« 

33 

S5 


m 

9 

a 

w 

S7 

a» 

» 
ti 


n 
n 
u 
« 

n 

TI 

» 
n 

m 


IT 
88 
Ti 
M 
101 
9f 

m 

97 

as 

M 


— 

O 

n 
n 

H 
MM 
tn 
TS 

w 


ao 
m 
n 
m 
\n 

107 

n 
« 

aa 
m 


■jH" — — ~ 


S::::::::::::::;::::::: 




ug 


a 


« 


m 


S77 


iM 


SU 


<BI 


tn 


aM 


■I 







MOVEMENT OF THE ATMOSPHERE. 



188 



As seeo by this outline, we have 3S'2 Uiuiidurstorms T, of whirh 139 
boloQfj to thp first iiuadrant. 9(f to the second, 68 to the fourth, aod 40 
to the third. Of tht- l.T:)') Umndcrtitornis L, tliu smalltuil number (S15) 
belong to the third iguadrant, and the gi-nateint number (S77) to the firnt 
quadrant, Ihcrf being a notably small difleronce between tho»e 
the second (43[>) and tbot^o of tJic fourth (4SS). The diintributjon of 
the 2,963 thunderstorni.s li in the four (juadrants is suflicietitly dif- 
ferent. The nuiximum |,S58j belnngfs to tho fourth; followinjj this, 
in deuconding order, liic eccondf tirst, and third (7:^, 69^, and 090). 

The obtiervationB given in the preceding pages refer to Mtations 
placed below SW) metxirH of altitudr ab<ivp the nie-an sea level. On the 
other liand, the climatological oleuiont^ of a sbition situated 4,777 feet 
ftbove tbo mean tea Irvol will give an idea of the climate of other 
similar altitudes, for instance, thonn of I^|mntu-Bontoc, province of 
Abra, Benguet, Givite, and Tayaba^s. Highlands in the ii^land of 
Mindanao, sm around Italic l^nao, the mountain region of (.'agayfin- 
Miaaini^ and of Surigao, have also similar (^limatir feature-s, except 
that the rain is here more evenly difstributcd than in tho high plateaus 
of Lu26n. 

Tlic temperature in Renguet is very remarkable, and is lower than 
tfaeaverageof other corresponding altitude.^. Thi^faet i.s due chiefly to 
the prevailing westerly and south westerly winds during March, April, 
May, and *TuDe, the hottest season of tho year in the archipelago, as 
pointed out in the preliminary notes. 

Tabls til. — Climalu: dementi tn Boftiii (Benfftut). 
(Allllii'lc, l.TTT (««l •btrte mean hm tcvcl.} 



nn. 



T«wr... 



MflB 

MB 

BT.M 
ft7.S 
U» 
M.« 

M.«e 

«.» 

GT.M 
ST.M 

W.BO 



TXHTUArcnt. 



(OC.). 



1B.« 



OfOtH 

■erv*- 
ttoo. 



Bbxl- UIbI 



(«C.). 



num 



U.9 



U.8 



OTOb- 
wrr*- 
tlon. 



BunUd- 

BODt}. 



no 



Rain 
ttXl 

(mio.I- 



97.fr 

48.2 

3a».o 

4H.2 

SW.« 

I. DBS. 4 

4U.4 

IBS-S 
BSL? 
81.* 

a;.«e.« 



HMiar 



m 



III. VOLCANOES AND SEISMIC CENTERS. 

Siniation and Nature of the ArchipeUgo- -Active and Dcrmanl Votcanoea — Hi*' 
tcrical Geology — EUrthquaket ^Observation of Sdsiic Disturbances- Volcanoes 
and Earthquakes in Mindanao and ibe Vkayas — la Southeastern, Central, and 
Northem Luz^n^ Relative Frequency of Eaithquakes. 

Br HKV. M. BADEKRO MA.s6, S. J., 
Aaiaau Olmtor at Lh« PhlllpplnB Vtutitr Oatt^m. 

The numbnr of islands which t-ompom the Philippine archipeli^ Is 
not leflB than 3,141, although up to thr. present tinm no onn can state 
the. Dxact niunbnr. All tbene islandfl are compri.stHl within the north 
Torrid Bone, between i- 40' and iil"' 10' nortli latitude and lonj^itude 
116° 40' and 126^ 34' east of (Jreenwirh. Thoy are Rurrouoded on 
the north and west by the (vbina ^tea, on the east by the Pacific ocesA, 
and on the Houtli by tht; sea of CelBbes. From the extreme point of 
land on the nortliwc^ittothoChinacoaittUadititanoeof *2<30 kilometers. 
The nearest land on the north is the inland of Formosa, on the east 
the PaloM l<4]iind»t, on the eoutheaHt the Molucca archipola^, on the 
Houth the island of (Hebc», on tbo southwest the island of Borneo, 
and on the went Coobin China. 

The waters which nurround the archtpclojiro uro very deep, not far 
from the east coast the FadBc I>cing from 4,000 to 6,000 motors in 
I depth. The •lo]6 ivia. l>otwcen Mindanao nnd Jol6 reaches a depth of 
4,06© meters, off tJie C'-eleboii .S,760 to 4,755, and not far from the south 
cooKt of Mindanao the depth reaches 5,000 meters; nevertheless, the 
Philippines are united (o the Asiatic archipelago at three points where 
the straits filled with islands reach but little depths namely, north of 
Borueo by tlic islands of Ralilbac and Parugna, on the northeast of 
Borneo by thu Jol6 group, and on the northeast of Celebes by the 
Islands of Sanpiir and Tiilur. Without doubt, therefore, the whole 
of the Philippine archipelago belongs to the snme geographic region 
as Borneo, Sumatra^ JavH, and the rent of the islands of the great 
Aiiiatic arrhipulago, and in coasequence to Asia rather than lo Oceania. 
Considering, therefore, ooly geogi'aphic reasons. It is sufficient to uote 
the analogy which l lie situation of the Sutida Islands, the Celebes, tlie 
MoluotMs^and [he Philippines, with relation to Asia, beai-s tothesitu- 
atiot) of the AutilleB witli rvlaiiou to Afflorlca. Tho former bouud tUe 

Ciw) 



SITUATION AND NATURE. 



interior China and Sunda seu^ tlie latter, the Mexican aud Caribboan 
96*8, which hathOf respectively^ the Asiatic and Amerirau coasta. 
Ac(!ordiag tu lliis aoalugy. therefore, if the latter belong to America 
the Former btlurig to Asia. 

" On the other hand." 8ayH O. F. Becker/ **a glance at Kueh a map 
as Stieler's physii^ul iua|) of Asia is sufficient to show that Borni>a, 
Celebes, Gilolo, and tho Pliilippities are very nearly related from a 
atructurat point of view. The south we^ftern ranges seem to gather in 
toward tlie eastern edge of the Philippines tm do the brauchea of a 
treeto iti} tnink. 'Die eastern coast rangi> of Mindanao is continued 
aouthward by the Tulur Islands and othera to Gilolo, in tlie Moluccas. 
Near the wnter of our own island of l^yte there is a fork in the 
mountain system, and the westerly branch is seemingly continued 
southwanl through M t Apo and the southernmost point of Mindanao, 
by way of Sangtur Island, to (Vlebes. In the Vi»«yas, at Mashato^ 
it would seem that a second branch is thrown off, extending through 
NegTos and western Mindanao, llasiUn, and the Jlo\6 group, to the 
Bomean coasts. More obscure is a line which starts apparently in 
Pioay and t-i marked in the JoM sea by tiic Cagayaoes, including 
Cngiyinde Jo16. A rery important lino is repre,sented by the Calatni- 
anesand Palawan, continuwl in Borneo by the rflngc, oneixjintof which 
ifl the lofty Kina RhIu. which is not rolcanic. This mnge extends 
through liorneo to its southwest cnast and, in the opinion of some 
geologist*;, not including Mr. Verbcck, there connects with Rangka. 
In northern lMr.6n the coast range, or Sierra Madre, in clearly oon- 
tioncd by the Itebuyanes and liatancs to the neighborhood of Formosa, 
but the relations of the Zambsilcs range and the Oaraballo Nort« are 
not evident on mere ini*pection." 

But if we turn our consideration from the appan-nt ridges indicated 
bjr the lined islands to the submarine features, then we jibalt lind that 
the whole archiivlngo, excepting weiitern Paragua, lies out of the 
•hallow sea area, connecting the great islands of Borneo, Jara, atid 
Stimatra with the Asiatic continent. The deep sea in which our 
archipelago lies, runs through the Celebes and the Moluccas, between 
the Borneo shallow sea just s|wken of and the eastern one connecting 
Mew Guinea with Auftralia.' Therefore, it would seem that our 
Itrcbipelago i^* really connected with the Celebes and the Moluccas, 
■11 of which lie in this sort of channel dividing Asia from Auiitralia. 
11 luay be that further investigations will show a closer similarity 
betwooo oar Brclui>clago and the Celel^es and the Moluccas. Itvceutly 
A. Wictunan has rejected the supposed homologies between Celebes 
knd Borneo. "The mountain rnDgeu of Borneo are ancient, while 

' Bepon on ttio Geolo0 of the PhUlppioe l«laiid% IMU. 
■Malar An-bipdago, Wallu-v, f«ee7. 



Cclebo8, instead of Tremg the remaining' skeleton of an immerged load, 
got its actual relief from the Tertiary and post-Tertiarj' eruptioos."' 
We liball )?ee further od tliat the Philippinetj had the t^ame origin. 

The chief luoviiitaiD ranges run, generdlly hpeaking, along' the greater 
axi^ of euch iii'land, with oeveral arms branching' llterefrom. Tlius the 
orographic system follows tlie striking ftjaturei? of tlie whole archi- 
pelago painted out in the foregoing quotatiuD. In Lttz6n, tlie largest 
inland of the arcliipelugo, there an: three clearly distinct iiiountaia 
rang&s, running from north to south, as fur as li''' north latitude. 
Below this latitude Uio luomitain mnges of huz6n, as well as those of 
the Yisayas and MindanatA Invuriubly deflect more or less either to tha 
souilicast or to Iho trouthwest. We have to except only the mountain 
system of Mindoro and Bohul. In the island uf Mindanao, besides 
the central ruugo, running southward, theixs arc many grou|>s witliout 
any very upfront directdou, iu the Dapitau, Mjauaiw, Luiao, and 
Cottabato districts. 

VOLCANTC NATtTBE. 

The aiYihipclago is clearly oomprised in the Fftcific volcanic belt, 
one of the chief volcanic belts of the globe. The volcanic linn of our 
archipelago certainly serves to connect the Celebes, Moluccas, aud 
Sunda volcanic lines with thoeo of Formosa and Japan. The Sat«uma, 
Hakurajima or FormoMi line seems to continue along the l*hilippiuea 
soutJiward, through Saoguir and Gilolo. The volcanic belt of the 
Pacific is too well known for ua to dwell on it hero. Great efforta 
have been made by many aut hors to classify the volcanoes of the an^hi- 
pehigo into distinct lines or paniliol systeius. It willsufiico to mention 
some of them:* 

Perry projKiAMl to rlaHHifr the Tolronoee fit LTiu')n into thrpo lines noKtly potaUel 
to 0D6 anotJicr. The three trend nort,hirratcrly. Otia includes MariToles tad Tnl^ 
a ■ecood AHjral and Uaa&jao. tbe tliird Majt^d. Tbo MariTcW-Tnal Hystem, in 
Parry's ofunion, itAMe>:] iwmtbwanl through Siqiiijor aiid MyidAiioo. Inclndiag ibe 
Totomoei) MaivtorCo nud^aoguit; tttuQL)DTvniAt«>, aadproWblyicBdiedlheBaada 
group. Mr. vou I>rBBche caU«d alteutioa to Uie&ui-iba|>ed dUporiUoa of theisbutda 
and to the forkiag of llHebate, ooo praog of wlildi k parallel to mutfaernLia&aaiid 
thaother to Kegros and Cebd. Mr. Cf^nteRo, in hu MemorU, diAJngnlshed two 
BytttaoB, one paoingthioagb Ariiy«t, Tiial, ciMitnd Mindoro, Ouila6n, and Hacaturfia; 
the father thruiigh M8y6Q, Barauen (in Leyta), Oauiigutii d** Mindanao, Apo, ud 
Butulan. Uu rcgnnlt! the two uyisU^nig an uniting 1o the noiitli u( Mutduaao, thdl 
prolongation paaaD$ through Sanpiir and to the Moluccoa. He qIbo rcfen to the 
northerly motlanation of the volcanic eystem of iho Phllipptnti lalnnits toward 
FornMiat, bal without iiperifying Ibc rclationfl of the northem portion to the mon 
lKH]th«rly lines. Hr. Abella called attenlioo to' the coolioQity of lh«> volcanic phe- 
noOKDa in Leyte northward throo)^ BiUnui. Marijiipf, etc., to tb« volcano Bulo- 
am, and to May6u, iu aouthum lAoftu, as well a« Kiuihwarl to thu eaBtorn coaet 



I 
I 



I 



' Die. BiniicoMMD Yon ClelebGfl, t'vtenuBun'fi Mitu-lt. \:XXiX, 1893, paae X3S. 
' llei«rt oo thu tiuology ol Ihw Pbtli|i]>iiiu I'ltuuia, BtxJtcr, ISOl, putfo W, 



ACTIVE AND DOKMANT VOLCAW 



18Y 



TVitge of KIukUiuo. Utr. Koto rivot the Philippineo a nnjcle belt of iirHT« volcaDoSB. 
From the Babnyanw wid C^pe KncaRn it pMSM out to se«, r«tcbiof[ land afiain in 
Cuunriuw Norte, auil indudiu^ BLIinm and Camlgoln do MiiiilaiULO in it)> cotirw. 
In the Gulf of Divao it forks, one branch reaching Banguir and Oelebee and the 
>lhPTTuliuil and Oilolo. This sdieinoootits the octivo volcanoes Macatorfo, Mngiuu, 
iLB6a, and TuL Mr. Koto, however, adda tectonic linea. Two of tbe«e diverge 
MMhato; the eaatoni bniiirli cnMM^ thi* vulcanic bt^lt in hvyX/e aiid follows the 
frrtrm const nnfte of Mindaoso; the other bmacU follows Negroe and western 
UbKiaBau to Jold. A tliird ti-ctbiiii: Itiie fMlIuuH Ihu Sicrni do Zunbalw. LL<aving the 
■hore at Mari^'eW, it intcisei-t^ Atnbil and fallows Pahiwan (PMagua) to Rina Batu, 
In Borneo, reaching the renter of that i^reat inland. 

It may be thut fiirtber study cQucei-uing- the stnicture and lithology 
of t)ie wbtjle volcanic- country will lend to a knowledge of their age, 
and consequently to a more satisfactory eluddation of the volcAoic 
and tectoDJc .systems. 

There are at least twenty well-lcDOwii and recent volcanic cones in 
the archipelago, twelve of which are more or Ie*s active. The active 
and sotfataric volcanoes are given in the following list: 



TjUOJI l.—AeluM and lO^aiaric nplotnom, wUk location, hofht, and datf of fruption. 




B*bai*aClara 

mam. 

SMJn 

OMUM,arChBB 



TMl, 



I*>TlnMv. 



ICvta, 




Chgarln. 
C>^T«n. 

BauxuEuo 



u\»r. 

ftotaofAn 

HtcTM OttcatBl 
KoarMOrlaatal 
Mlnnto 

Mtw> 

Ootttteto 



ArrnaxaUkVm— 



LaUtudc. 



liODCt- 

tu<)ec««l 

of Ur«eB- 

wlcb. 



IB 30 



n a 

u u 



It 'J 



n 47 

w » 

» 1& 

B 13 



m n 






laj 67 



la » 



m 1 

la s 

I2S « 

116 IT 

tU 40 



nelKbi 

CfOBt). 



1,060 



i.na 



8,1« 

"i.'w6' 
10, at I 



Rock. 



Aiuleette 



JLndndt* 



Andcalte 
Andtidt* 
AadalU 

Aadcdte 



DUeofenip- 
tloo. 



1881. IH6a 
Sulbtkrtc. 

SoKatarUi tn 
laiD. 

nm. iTi6i 
in«,i7si. 

ITA.lWi 
UW.UT1. 
1S1«.I7M, 
lSOD,lSt< 

isn.isau 

UH6,1M4 

ttt>.ltt$ 

I8n,lBTl, 

vm.taKt, 

1S89,1N0, 

leai.tna. 
laaaiMG, 
lar.iBOo. 

l«>alltl«lc. 

1871.1070. 

BolfaUrtc. 
8oir«i*r1o; 
firuDUoD In 




e 



PHiLTppno: 

ISLANDS 



AKD DOBMAKT TOLOAHOEe 
■ Aotlvs Volowioaa 




Q 



ACTIVE AND DOKMANT VOLCANOJSS. 



189 



The first three are in tbe Babuyanes Islands; Cagna, Taal^ Maydn, 
and Rulusan lie in Luzun: CunlH^n and Ma^-^ in the island of 
Negroe; Catuiguiii in Ibc island uf Caniigutn, just off the north of 
Mindanao; and finally Apo and Calayu in Mindanao. The volcaiioes 
considered as extinct arc its follows: Arayat, Maqufling^, BanajiLo. San 
Cristtfbal, IsHrog, and Malinao, in Luz6n: Mur'Httirin imd Mati'itum, 
in Mindanao. Their approximate geographic pouitions are given in 
the following table: 

Table 3. — Etiinel telcanna, intA loeaiitm and hfi^hL 



AiAjst 

mnUto 

BuCrimAtMl 
3fM|iilItn(... 

tauM 

M«lluo 

MMWtBrlit.., 
U«ldtil]B.... 



PrarliW*. 



PamtNUisa. 

iMlAgnns., 

tAL«(UBa 

Iji l^«unA 

AlObM CHBMrinM 

aJUt 

ootunio 

IM«o 



ATPKniiitAra— 



wleu. 



IS u 

li 3 



18 41 



UD 43 

I3t 94 

m to 

t3> 21 

134 30 

ra 10 



H«ictit 
(fert). 



3. MO 
;,3i9 
^3ffi 

0,4S0 



RAAk. 



AndMli*. 

AMlMlU. 

Bwwit. 

BUKlt. 

AnilMlt*. 

BMKll. 




The above pHragraphfl refer only to tiie diHtributioD of the best- 
shaped L'ones of the active and the extinct volcanoes in the archipelago. 
ConceiTiing the general distribntiun of the volcanic rocks we take the 
following from G. F. Becker's report: 

The interior ol northern l.ot6n is little known, trat is mppoaed to trotuist mainly 
of cTy«t*llin« K)li>L^ lin>krn tliroi])i1i »l K>m« poiiiU) by iiitnixires and volcaiiitx; 
andanmilar Ptatement i^ true of tht> eoetvm mage ot Lii»6n, the Sierra MaiJre, m f«r 
Knth aa the itroviiK'c of Prfncliw. The aouUitim portion o( th« Ziunbsl«e mnge 
and the greater pari of the territory between the Bay of Manila and tbe 8tnit of 
Hen Bomardino arp occupied by volcanic roi-lr, In tbft Vwayas rolranifl rocks are 
not rare, hut Nesros only ia remarkable in Ibis reaped. Nearly tbe whole of tlie 
taage, Vliiub exloudH frum one end to tbL' 'jthcr of thai exquinlto inland, is volcanfaj. 
AoconUng to Bemper, all the lar^r ViaLVUH itbnw ostinrl volcsnir. cones, except 
Cebd and Bohol. Of ^limtonao, U ia known that there arc (TyHtalline Bchititfl along 
tbe eofltem cna«t ntt'l ftfacajalar bay on the north i^oasl, but the island rantalna at 
least threeaetive volnmom, nottoi^p<vkofthcinun>ntimerouHOxtinctont>ii. Finally, 
much of tbe Jol6 ([Toupifl wlcaiiic, and I>alawan (ParaKna) is knotrn to contain roN 
canic peaks. Thut), wbEle it ia by uo uieanv true, a$ has Bouictimve been alleged, Uiat 
tlie arthtpdago is of volcanir origin, volcanic sreaa ar« distriliutud at abort distances 
from the Batancs to Tawi Tawt. 

The rockfl which have been more or leas inade<ioat«ly determineil as trachyte are 
of liiiiilvd dietribiitioD. Ont> •loubtfu! Npvc'imon tuniii^ (rotn Pnnuy, at Barbuxa, in 
tbe prOT'iQoo cif ^Vntique; tlie remainder are all from Lazdn. Intbat bland, near the 
Hiutbi'm end, inCamarinm Stir, l>otwfivn itie rillagca "iti^ and BtdiJ, a pumioo-like 
laH was conuidered trarhytic by Roth. Mr. von Drasche found the rock bsae of 
Maqnllinf;, not far to tlie sonthward of the town of Oalaiuba, on LAp;nna de Bay, 
wbicli lio r^ardvd as trachyte. Bamn von Richthofen duk^vered trachyte on the 
penitumla of Binad^nan, on tbe north side of tbe aame lake; and Mr. vou Dn«L<Qft^ 
Qohia map, colon the western half of the penioeaUu trachyte. TUeXzwi^i'iXwmcHx 



on tite San Mat<Hi rivtir, Dear the <4T(<fi, abont fire milee fthovotne town ot San Mateo, 
in Manila provinw. Mr. tou DmNcliH {fUQ<l a larjn' ami of trwrhylp Ijutimr north. 
He uocountvrod this rock at P6ntc, ia t*atDpautKB, and ^> the westward ol that town 
In the (oothilla of Lho ConliUem du Mal]W%a; again dwo tv O'Duunell in T&riae, 
BoA oDCw more in the province of Pongaanin, amoog the fnothiUs of the Sierm 
lie 7Mm\miee, not far from the town of .Agnihir. lie Biunmar^BM hia obscrvattonp 
thnp: " On the caHt^rn idnpe of the srjntheni half of the Sierra there are fwperposeH 
OB these roi-ke (gahbro« »c"l (iioritw) thick uianwv of InK'hylic tuff, which iiicloile 
nniDLTuiLH fraguienu of Irachyte. Tbeee tutls cau be followed to the waU-nhvd at 
an altitodtt of 3.OO0 fwl, and on thu tiu't Htatid tn clow rulalmnahip with the itlain of 
Pampanga, the fiarfa(« of which cnnsista principally of Llieir decomposilion prodnda. 
The crystalline rocka mtu* be pierced by numcroua Intniaiona of trachyte, (or ioe 
Qnda great <[uantitiea ofmch rockapeciea inallaccaimilationii of pebblM defivnifrom 
the Sierra." 

In th(! prLivinueof Lopanto-Bontou also Mr. you Dnuiche found trachytes abun- 
dant, but oloaolyaHsociatod with iLtid<i8ilii.' rocks. The iiiit>ortatit copper depoaita of 
Mancaji^n occur, he aayii, in a quarts lens einbed'il«d in uni<iine-tmrhyte. 

Hr. AbclU recognizee the very geoeiral distribution of tnu:h>te« in the CordiUora 
CviiLnil and ihe moan taina east of the great plain of Ltit/m, hut the only precioe 
locality I find ut«.^iitioiieil \» >it C»iiiin, on h tributary of the Patlfn rirer, about two 
miles to the westwanl nf CDonn^lI, in Titrlac province. Here dikeo of porphyritlc 
Hani' lino- trachyte mnkc their appcarancl^, "on the one eido in the riopea of the hilla 
Mantiigla niid CoHpien, anil on the other l>etween the t^tnii and the river Cnjiotian, 
torming the \-olcanic line of the hillii Dayagdag, Taoagan, atid l*atlfn." I ntn not in 
poamiou of mape ahowing tbe»e hills iiy name, but they will doubtleaa bu idooti^cd 
with earn from O'DoooeU. 

Bamltii and andefcitee aeem to be cineely aapodated in the PhiU^tiiuM, ae the^ eo 
frequently arc eisewhrrc, but the quantity of pyroxcn«HUid«dtc prohabty Ear exoeeda 
that of any other volranic rock in tlie arciiipelago. The inland of Talim, in Ijigonji 
de Bay, ia basalt, and much of thv shores of th« lake is also baaaltic. The Marivela 
district, (onaiiii; Uie north headland i>f Manila bay, was pronounced besoJl by Both 
on the strength of Jugor's apeciuiuus, and this detenamatiun was acoepttd by Mr. 
von Drasche, who did not rimt the locality. I sospeii that some of JAgor'a labels 
were ilbplaced, for my pcraooal examinationa and Mr. Semper'ft specirooiw abow 
that tlio region is andeaittc. the pyroxf rii<- variety prt^lominaling. 

The chain of extinct and active volcatiutw which etretchra fK>m lygnuB de Bay to 
lh« fixiremo aoutbeastem point of Luziiu appears to be mainly au'leaiilc, but not 
devoid of baAlts. In hie intcnwting ittudy uf Pansy, )[r. Ahclla flnda that tlie 
ntoontain ayatcm, the skeleton of the islonil, is compoeed largely of mamve rocks of 
two eiM- The older is characterixed by dioritca and diabasm, the younger by andes- 
it««aiid Insltii. Thia latter |)eri[hl niay I>e n^rdttd titliologically us a repiHilion 
of the eariier one. In^thnSamaraquil peak uf Aniui^y, at the aouthweeteco extfemity 
of the liilaad, Mr. Abella found uephelIn(.--loucdte-hBaalti<. He considers the baimlte 
as genKnilly yonngfer tJiun the andoitee. 

In Nfgros a iQagnifln>nt range extends from near the northern end of the bland to 
the active pwk of (VnlaAn. At the Unt glance this range reeolvev it«eli into three 
mcmntaiDS of most unusual auidlarlty, and there can bu uo eob«taiitial doubt that the 
two moro aorthera outaHUi are extinct volcanoes of the mine type as CanlaAn. I was 
nnahte to teach the inain mnge hut the strcflma on both roasts bring down swh n 
nuuM of pyroxene and hambtcude-aniiente a>t to indicate ihMt tli««! are th<- prim-Jpal 
rocks. In tiie eastern foothill». on the TaUbe rix'^-r, I found Inult in pUw wlii.-h 
seemed to be older than a portion of the ooral nxfA, and is curtoioly oMer than tltu 
Istur electa of CudlAiL To the sonthwar*! of the volcaoo Uie ranfp ui lower and !«■ 
; than to the northward, hot at the eoothere and of the lalaiul the I 



Pr-ftka, rtr OiwnKW de N(*(iTfi8. again rioe to sn allitudp o( ppvonil UiooHunl (wt. Xn 
tbJM i^^oii, near OuDiA^uetc uul Valencia, Taiijay, uiiil Buiii, 1 euw only anderite 
rocks. 

Id Otnl mast nt tho country is cotci«<1 «*]th ft btaaKot of coral, bat where the 
RtrtKtnB have cot through this Mr. Alwlla fouii-I koiuo iIecAmpa«e<1 aiid»iitt«. I, too, 
juml on the river abovp Sngh, about two mile* from thi* town. « oonndtfrable slieet 
Jf honiblimdi>pyruxriMv»ndesite. 

In the ialaad of Lt>yti-, Kt Mt Diigunt, wM^vnling In Roth, JUgur coDerbMl fnvih 
. homUendiMUHluiritt.'. DaKami ii^ liw nrnnt^ •>( n low-ti in nnrthpaFlcm I'P>'te which 
IHgOT vitdtoil, hnt h« i>r<'j1xibly i-ol!oct«vi his epty-imrn on Mt, UAnacagSLii, u lie caDi 
Ik, s few Riil»t Mioth of Buraoen. He Hpeftko nf the rork of Ihui inottntain ag "m 
vvry bombleDdir trachyte." On llio ielaiKl of I-imamtui, jtiet eoath a( Lojrte, Mr. 
Semper found homblende-andeeite, and Mr. Reoard hue detennined the rocks of 
Qunigtifii de Uindanao Hs pyroxene and hornblcndo.aiKle«ili<!>. 

In Mindanao, the ^rrcat Apo volcano, Rcrartlinff u> Mr. Ji>«[>h Moutano, it andm- 
ite. He ulao found andeeito north of Laku Diguu on Mt. fiunsnao. This loality 
is fn the valley of the Agruari, in cjuitcrn Mln'lanno. In rnxkeii the aacM ngion ba 
fonnd andesitiw at tho weatem foot of thu Loai't ranp>, on the ri^-er ItUa^ A few 
uiileM npntmun from Bttti'ian, at Urn nioulli nf Uiv Agninn, h<? (oiinti dM-ompoewl 
dolerit«. Mr. Semper alt<o collected aagite-andesitefl froui several poiute olontf the 
Agneiui, an w<>ll rb clow to Zamboanga at th« sonlhweet rxtrrmity of Alindaoao. 
Basalts, this naturalist found near InabelA, no BaNilan, and on the neifchboring lalet 
of Latnpinigui. Iltr. .T, Itivrt!ilHt»ith»t{r<mi JIL Pi(T>, in Uit^ixtntirof Biwlan, btualtio 
riilgwi, nut nv^r 600 niet<»rw in heitiht, mn cast and we«t-nnrthwBel. 

Near JoK-, <>n tliL' inland of thu aune Damo, 1 louud basalt. This i«laud Is meo- 
tioaed by Mr. Koto alnn ae bannUiir, as are the Calamiaoes. 

Vaflt<iiianiitJ<« of pyroclnstlc tuff:^ and voluanic sodimaite aajompany th<s mom 
solid flows almutt everywhere lit the. Philippines. They ore eopedaily aboodant in 
thegmt central plain of Lnx6n, and Menicd to Htretrh in an almij(<'t unbroken, 
nearly flat ar«a from near Lin^ay^n goU sonthward past Manila and Taal to the aea- 
coast of BatangHii. Mr. von Drasche rv^rdit tbcw tuUs as liachytie from the Dorth 
coast of Manila liay northwanl, and an d*dcritic tu the eouthwanl, but Mr. Ocbbeke 
shows that some of the northom tuff U sndesitic. In themoroBOMhcrly area, along 
the IMng, 1 am confident that ntide^itic tuft in abundant. Unfortunately my specf- 
mi>n» are looit. Oo the other hand, much of the boaaltic rock nf the Lognna dr^ Ilay 
region ix tuffan^ona. In a Itu^ iirojiortidti nf i^asea (be titff is t>o decomposed tliat a 
detcnniuation of it/< orlijinal HUiolofiical character would (m* very difficult. There 
van benoqacBlion tliattbis tuff area has bwn laid down in water. SoDoiform a 
difltribatlon and mrh flat mirhoee oould not bare Ufji attained luider 9ubaerlal f;on- 
ditions. Evidence of aqueoos rearrsngetnent of material is fraiuently vlaiblo, and 
plant remaina, or even traces of lignite in minat« scams, arp nM mre. The light 
ecoriaoeoos material of wl)i«;h the tuff^ are lompomd may, aa in well known, be 
carried to almost indelloite difitancee by ri^-w or oceanic rarrenta. There in no 
doubt that ^inie ihu close of the Tertiar>- the sm has flowed lively from Tayabas 
gall t4> Ungny^n gttlf. aod 8tu^h a chaunet must have been tmverwd by correnla 
nuffiinently strong to account for tho widv diittritnitiiin id the tuff. Father Zilfllga 
HCius to have been the flrst 1o see in ancient ernptiona of Taal Ltie origin of the 
greater part uf thu material fomuog ibe southerly tuff area. He has been eulwtanli- 
ally followed by nil who have expreiocd their opinion ou this subject; but ib. 
Aliella iHiiiils out that all ihe volcanic vents from Anfyat tu BanAJao must haw eon* 
tribut«d maU-rial to this au-umuUlkMi, in which opinion I ontirdy »ifne wiUi him. 

Thp preat uiunber of tnineml «r hoi sprinifs in man}' places acoorda 
well with the wido diatribution of volcanic rocki* throughout the 



I 



I 



■ 



whole of the airhipelago. Many of these spring are clearly duM to 
volcanic uetjitii. In his introiliiction (" the DestTiptive Study of some 
Jlinenil Springn uf thy I'liilippines, Afw-lla writj-H: 

in ihc mouml plaiu at UiEun, notvrlllirtandlng iUi nthirr limited area, the noinenl 
^priajet ut^ imly (ouinl at Ute (int of ttie cordillenui which limit it, nr in th«^ ttcigh- 
iK'thomlt* of Ui^ f(>l(-Kni<* tw't wliich riw id iU center, xod tbey roiistitute two 
uKltTfN.'n(lt!tit mill vt cIl-UL'tiiiiHl xroupn, the cu8t«m Matwi lo the cordlUfira which 
lii-m i." ihv iliviifioii trotn tliu Psi-ific and the witi^teni Ut \hv ZnmliBl(!ii rungt!. 

Thf vui^n] f;raa|) mmfMimed ooU'roits from the hi^art of thi^ parlf dioritM und 
diaboM-x within tht- ci>nl ilium, mtd somctimM from thi.^ poM^Tortiary bvdB which lie 
Dpon aiid Mre <'1«!valed hy thv IrachyleM And aiidwntM. 

It is 1>^lk>vt<i] thiU lhc<se m(xli>ni roclu uf ii volmniv chandor, upon liltiufc tho 
BtrntHorthe |KMt-TeniiLn' Innnuiinu and croaraci: them in many places, have pra- 
donxl in tht-m (oMiiifj^s faulta. and oIIilt ^jlof^cul dicpUuxuuents which have been 
ahin In fnrilitstp the hj'dmthcrmal minora) emiaiionfi and those of tho gaaed which 
Du^ifioitAlly ik-ci>TiipAny ihcm; m that ccrtntnly an a priori ar^enntcul ciui be 
aunaiuicnl that Ihu uiiueral flprineH Ihiu originuted Hhould be found in lini«approx> 
iuistely prtRtlK-l to tht^ dir^vtinn uf Uii^ iiiilirliiial aiid Kyncliiiul Hxe« q[ tbew ImkIb 
and to the trend of tliu uordilltni upon which thuy lie. Tfaua it ia, aa a matter of 
(aft, tiiat tho EpringB of Siipanjf-Miitnit in PiintobHiJgAn, of t^ibul in ^*a Mif^l de 
MajriUDit, and of fiihid in Norza^iaray, ocrur in a right line running nortli and j^ouUr, 
appmximatvly psnUlol In I)k> dirM-tiun of thu cordilk-ni and to that followed by the 
outLToppiDi; of the b«dfl of innKlonierateN, Baodstoneai, slates, aad liuicatODM which 
cowtitalo ihL* imid purt'Ti-rtiMry furmutiuu ot tho ceoler of Luz6n. 

Mr. Conteno, in lils Mcmoria Geol6gicx) MiDcru, Hays with refer- 
ence it the rrgioDH of BatanguH and Albay where the volcanic action 
in ypt more active: 

Tbi* pmviu(;« at Bstaugas is also very rich In mineni) waters, far, besides lbs 
inric watom nf th<' voh^mA of Tnal, of which w« «liall i>|>ca.k further on, them 
iMVHral imiMirtant pprin|{8 in it. In thi> township of Han T.uiii, at a ptacv called 
MaJnlt (hot\, 0»mL< jvix of hot water iiveh trota the puuod, which leave an ahiui* 
dant ferni|[inotU! wvlintuiit. The waters of the brouk Panipil, near the town uf 
haa»ry, arv \ety fmlpbiirons and are naed with [zood remits hy tho natives for cntar 
ucoiui dimiaiiei!. In the territory ot the name town, on the roAd which teada to 
Cklart, ut a plmrv i-allnl Mataasnabayan, tltere are aluo itutue i«]>riu)p) which are iitUe 
knoim and used. lu the motintaina of Tayiidi) al«o (hvn> am hot epringa wboea 
cotDpoeitioit ii( unknov>n to lu*, but which are used by the nativne with good reaulta 
ffir diasaars o( tho bladder and cutaoeoiw diwaaw. Buddea^ the water ia used as an 
ctnosrlona pitrgativo In many cases. Finally, to the Honthwevt of Banan, n^^r Point 
Oaiailor, then- in another Bniall Hpriiifc. to whii-h ail afllictM with rheuuiatisro and. 
parvlvfii" rvMort in avart'h of relief frr>ni their HiifferiiiKa, and nrhivh tlify tuiially find. 

Ld the pro>-iD(.'e ot Albay, near the tuwu of Tiuf, and at a place called JisaU), 
Ibm- arr M'vcml thcmdc. f>pring» of diff(.>ronl tenipunttures, mme containing a larj^ 
quantity of milphtir, which is precipitated when the aulpharctM hydroi{cn dorom* 
Iftw, and otiient Imvv a ({elwtiiioiM ailica it> M)hitioii, which tli<r waters on <->>o)inff 
ilef"*it "D >'bjv«'tA dipi>«d into them, incnurtinK tboin in a sliort time with remark- 
aM u. 

1 1. . iirooB iprings apiwnr at KVE!ral pointa along the tliannel of a anudt' 
ffltiAiQ, whoao waters, ut tho ordinary lomporsturc, oonvcnienlly mixed with the 
WaU*r tnim tlie hot Aprin)^, iiialtf halhn of auy tem|ioruture thut may be dcarrd. 
UndanwaLh the ruiuid tftunui which make the beil uf the brtxik tliero an) found 

aBnia— vol- 1— ofi — IS 



mnBll depceits of snlphur mhtimAK^, and At rortain placM in a ptwly state ami onloml 
by nwtailic oxitlw, which are uaed in that locality for faint- Th« i«conil — that is 
to Bay, the nlicwtu Hi>riii)iK--appcar suuie 300 meten from tbe fint, aDt] are much 
mom n!Riarkat)l<>, not only on account of tJie grmtcr tipoce tbuy occupy, but also on 
oocoont of (bolr very high tomp4frBlurv (108° C.) and thv verj- bcnntilul ^llloeoua 
cuncrvCioni* th«y prtHlncc, mmetiuiefl runsiHtini; of flatleoed mtico witli cylindrical 
terminationis perfttclly joinv*! snd with bawh of diffprtoit colon*, winMftirntw form- 
ing ntull cylintlriml aud Hemispheriml hollow rryNtab, wholly filloil with (jutet and 
tiaiiBparent hot waten. In thtwe watcjfi, with a litthi carr, thu ptinM, tilitwoua 
incniBlaliong can tie obtained by simply pnitini; tbn moldo in them for a few days. 

Th<?rti niTi iiiimy othor important centers of volcjinic action shown 
hLm) liy )ii>t ^prin(;s, wliieh wc will inakc mention of whou speaking of 
tlifi difforont volcaiio-sciinnic centoi^. 



HISTORICAL GKOUKiY. 

Tbe geology of tho Philippinn Ittlandw ia sunuuarized by G. F. 
Becker am follows: 

From mrly PB]«DK>ic tluiCH onn-nni an nn-lupclaeo haa iiaually marker! Uie iHwi- 
tion of theaa talaida. Prior tu the l-kiiTrue nothing cipfintte Is known of them, but 
forlhcrinycsligalion will vorj-ltfcelydl«?lo8e PaJcosoic and MesonMC atniU tlicin,as 
in th« Huuda and the Banda ialatidn. During the I->K-cnp it w jirohabln that tho lij^ 
nilK mnt-n uf CWiii was d«puMit>.'<l, aif) tlte nintorltvl in(lunitL<d titrata, which in othor 
loculitiuB also carr>- black lignite rehitivcly fnx> from water, should be referrud pro- 
vinoitslly lo tliie [H>riod. Whether tliu nuuunuUU*^ liinoelonD foand at Binaiigonan 
Is KfKWiii' I'M'iiiR to me to be fui unpnlv'O'l gnaatHWli After Ilic Oltuim lipiltic epoch 
a forest uplift and folding t/x)k place, and tfala may have 1>cen a detail of tbe hite 
FUveiie ino\-em4-nI wliich m* profoundly moilifit^l Aiiia au^l Kiini)H\ It niwrt haw 
brouglit aboat t4rmporur}' continuity of land arva botwnm nome<i and LiuAn. Some- 
where about tlie middle of the Sliooene the country sank to a lowlev«l. Many of 
Ifau present ielanda muel ibcn huvu bocu far below wutur, wh!l« LtuAri and Mttidanao 
wore iv*pr«e''nt<^ hy gmnpfl of inlela ObservBtion.i apptvr to anggert that tlio Agno 
beda repreaenl Llic iMusal conglomerate tormc<l al thia (ralMidfncc-, A alow rise bei^an 
again dnrinK tlit^ later Miocene, and may bavt- (!outinued to the prawnt daywithmiL 
invcntioii, yi>t llic nrttiNJ ilistribation <■( living foruw ir> ma-h m Uy give h>.>iiic gmunitB 
for tielteviDK ihat at some iiitemiediatt.' periiMi the itslands were a lElUe bitther tbaii 
they now are, but mnk again only to Hm' »fri«h. The •tiorit«t< mid aaR>eiat«l 
inai«Te rockR, inclading their totEe, may have made their appmrance aboat thp cloas 
of the Palcosolc. The lees (riliceoux of theoe mcka w>cm lo have followtiil th« mora 
mllcooti!) intniaiona aa a whole. The gold deposila, and perhapH other orrM, an> M 
anocialeil with ll)e«i uiawuvi- rockn ax to indicate a genetic rulatiou. The ni-o* 
volcanic period began m early aa the htgheet Ulooeno horiaon, and ver>- probably at 
tho ]HW[-EM¥no upheaval- If the eemiplaxtic toarla ofC^ehil are all MlMnnitt, ibo 
earlier au'letulic rockn, at least, ilare back n»«rlylo tlte gnat nplienrid. Aunmg 
tlicw rwkjt rIw> lhiT«; i« wmM'timea a tcmlfjiey for Ihe UiiultM hi follow lhi.i andtwqttxL, 
but the one dat-iit* found at Corre^idor i' Uler than Ibe andeeitM of that i^lnf)d. 
mlatiou uf the Irachylta) tu the andc-yilM Ih not ivrlain, but the caniiHnr nx'k 
I probubly the earlier. A vi^ large pari of tho neo-vulisoic ujccta han fallen lulu 
Iter and been rcarmngGd as lnflac«oua plalm. Tlie voleaoo venta appuir to mn Co 
Occur tathor on a network of AiwirMlhan on a clngle Fyxtcm of parallel dlarlaara^ 
iimt the volcnnir activity in lo Im ngtrdwl aa a thonaal luanifMlathiu of tb« energy 
ol upb«av»L 



4 




mi>'iK)K10AL GEOLOGY. 



In Biiothf>r nyport the camn atithor mys: 

VVlx-n Iha cletrKtinn wm« u Um minimiuit the Anrhipclngo vrw nvtiuwl to ft group 
hilly jmI^O, four uf irliirti «^'xii<t(xl wiOiiD tlii> arm now occupied by Ibe 

Ltn^ili. Cebii wn« almotit <.v>iit|>lei«l}' mibiiuTg^xl. 

At or bt'forc Lbu [K.-riod u[ lUBxiuiuiii (^ub^i'Iutitrn Im^^ui a spritie ot eruptious which 
hiB nut >'v( t*loee<l. ^layi'm v<iU-aiii>, in wDtlivni LiuAa, had a viuleiit cniplion in 
ISST. It is probuhly ttii- luoft U-iiuti fully ^'iiiint-trii-«1 volLitni*' cone in tht worM, 
UhI U» 1nini;atioii nl the biii, iloe t<^ Ihv rraU-r, in Mmruely AeiiKiblf.* Tlie wurlc 
dooir in (ueing lnvax kikI vjucting iwU ix pmtmbly h iiutnifraUition uf Uie vaeigy 
Involved In the mighty uuth throes which bring about regionit] upheavals with inci* 
dentiil tiulxLfluucfif. Tbu curlk-r of thi_- vniptiurut uuik-r diM;ui<iw>ti wvn- lui^jfly (hiIj- 
marine ftnri vnstt a/ldiUnnfl w<>m niailo to the puperflcial truiterial of iho anrhipelago 
by tiiitfo oatllow:*, t'spivinlly in the ii-ntrul and sontheni poitJoiis of huxun. The 
rJMTta iiKdwIe aitdtndtea, riiyulitcM, baoalts, and probably other Iwa uomtnott rock 

BpWVM- 

Tbe period of upheaval, miw iiiilitited, do«f nol weui to have bei'ii intcrniplei! by 
anyemuf Mibeideniv, and the tnoilera oonti notti give evidem?e thtt: it in still in 
piqtCrtVB. It iit eoHl tliat iiplifla accompanying Mn-thqunkm linvu actually been 
rvMt by Uitt Spmiiunla, and the varthqaaken IhemnelveR »n- «pat<nir>dic }ara ill 
promv of elevation. The elevntion haM not been, properly Hpeaking, catas* 
liiu. howmur, for llie trvuMH-N which nuiy wrwk a cathedral arc ioaigniAcmnt 
trwn a temetrial HtAodiioinl. On the whole, llie uplift tuu bcwn very gratlosi, flO 
that even the lYtml l-olyp hiLs ]h-*-h able lo juljiitil, hinksiOf to the clmnging condi> 
l>ou», bailditig outwunl into deepiT water an hix old home was ruined too high for 
bhi wellan-. In thin way notrly th<-- wlmle of Celm, lo a lieiglit of over 2,000 l««t, 
has been mvereil with a nearly conlinoniiff slipet of oong.!, which can be followed 
emward into living reeb. Much of Ne^nx* tuui l>een clothed with a t>iiuilar miuitlo. 
On a tniall evaU; aliM, off the eoauts of then.- ieliuids, and particiiLarly a))out MactiUl, 
n«& can nllU In.- Bludie<l in even*' ftagc of upheaval, alt thofle purtious being <l<Hi<l 
vrhieb are expo4)L-<I li> the air even ut the lowest ti^kit. in M>uthom Luzon and to 
tlie iiorthWHnl ol LiuKuyi^ii bay mmilar phenomena <-ati be ohaerved. 

Althungh nphin\nl doi'a not apiMsarat any time i^tnce the done of the Tertiary to 
have given way to Mibxidemv. there have been repeated paufico in tin; uplifling proc- 
em. fm exiioscl eouida tliuse j^uiibw.« uro marked by lR-ucliei< eaten into the land by 
the action of tlie vaveA. Thus the tnothcm endfl of ObiJ and Bohnl am lerrooed 
from top to iMJttom, eaeh termee being au old beQ^uli cut out of tlic rock man by 
Btonny mml l^auam in tli» uidifting prucetM are aliiu marked by a nute fttratiflcatiotl 
of tbe c>)rali. Kvou in thu interior of tbe islands terraces indicative of uplifts are 
Ir«'«jtH-uily vltiible. Sgoio o( tlieiu rcpreflcnt baw h-vil of eroulon, otburs are andeai 
ronul ffH-ffl which liavc been chocktxl in their upward ijmwih by reaching the Burfan 
ot the Mraler. In Hhnrt, ta^nracea miifrtitnte one of the moet prominent lopogmphlcal 
iMtnrva of tbe arcbipeliigu. 

EARTflQrAKFS. 

W'v luuy truly Kuy, iipcakin^ of the Philippine Brchii>clHg'0} what 
llr. A. R. Wallace sayn of the Maluy iirebipclaf^o: 

In tbv whole n^iou o«>m|il4il l>r tlm vtat liiw of volcanoes, an<l for a consideiabl* 
bPBMltli on each nd<- of it, e»rtht]Uakw are of cuntiuunl occurrence, slight shock* 
bving (ell at intarvala of every low days or wonkii; wfaihi niaro auvvre odcb, abaklng 



iLi 



. -■ of any liori«>nta] vortion ia tbe byiwrbollu aine of thu distaniM froiu 
' the sammit. 



dovD wbolo TillAfRfl and doiiiK more or ]«■ iajory to life and pn>pi>K>'. are sire to 
happvii 111 uoF [«rt or uiotlivr ot tbie urcbJpclago almost t-verj' ytar. 

It is an elementar)' principle that the ciLrthquakut^ us well an tho 
volcttnop^ M-cur ulong the lines of relief shown either by ridges or 
UKinritain nioyes or by hcb deeps or depressions, imil esiKfially when 
there rises a high ridge not fur from a sea deep, thus forming a uteop 
tiloiw, as, for instance, along the Japanese and Kurile islands, MOuth 
of Sunda Islands, and in the West Indies. The Philippine archipelago 
on this account may l»c considered as a chistic country. Owing to 
the small brca^Uh of tho inlands and the depth of the seas it is almost 
fonued by ridges. Here occurs also what Milne says of the southern 
regions or the Java district. In this district the suboccanic irregular- 
ities are as irregularly distributed as the islands between whirli they 
oocuT. A!any of these islands are but mountain ranges or peaks 
emerging from the aca. 

The rei-eiit observatioDu of Dr. E. von Rebeur Paschwitz, Milne, 
and other .■^f'ismnlogists about earth tremors, with tlie invention of the 
extremely stin^itivc microseismogmphs, havp thrown much light on 
the charaetnr and extent of the seismic movementi, or earthquakes, 
and open a new field for research. 

We may dinde closely the earthqtULkes into rockfall, volcanic, and 
tectonic. 

The rockfall earthquakes are due to the falling in i»f the roofs and 
^sidcs of subi-errancaii hollows or cave-s. They arc feeble, of very 
ill cxt«nt, and may often bo noticeable only as .sound.s and not as 
sensible .nhocks. 

Tlie volcanic earthquakes are those due to the activity of volcanoes, 
with which may be included earthquakes due to the rending op«;n of 

mrcs by the sudden devclojHnent of .''team under high pressure. ' 

This la.st cause has been inferred in the case of some earthquakes, but 
its reality has never been proved; volcanic activity is well known, how- 
ever, to be associated with eartliquakcs. and these may sometimes 
be of very great severity, though always local in their extent. Within 
ft very moderate distance of a town which ha.s )M;eit laid in ruins the 
lock may be quite insensible. 

To tho i-liLss of tectonic CArthquakes belongs by far the majority 
of carthqiiakK'* and all those whidi can bo classed a.'^ really great, on 
account of their violence or extent. They may be regarded as inva- 
riably due to tho sudden relief of strain, as opposed to the volcanic 
jquaken. properly so called, which may be regarded as due to ibe 
duddcn development of strain. 

' lYilniWy t(H> inrDiijiuiki^ whU-h t>n*rtHjp«l iJn' »-mptli>n of tho Camlicaln vol- 
cam> may U* n-fvm.<<[ l<> tlii' ratav. Tlifv c«iufttl auiklviily wiUi tbe uulUunl of llt« 
nluuto. (Soo CMmlgutu volcano, pavu iiSi.) 



EAltTHQUAKEa 



197 



I 



The in Tfiitt lotions just inentioued led Mr. Milne tij propose u wider 
division:' 

_Tbe e&rthqtnkcfi msy bo (ltvi<le<l into two i^np<3: First, thoBC which disturb 
adiuintal arewi «n<l (r«t)aenlJy tho world ns a whule; and, dDcoQdly, local (mrth-l 
"qoakea, which wnuUly only distnrh t\n arfa of a few ULilcs* radius, und aeldoiu exteoid 
m*er an «n^ with a nulint> of UXl or 200 riiilea. 

Tlu-- lonuer an.' very probably the reeull of flitddca aeoeteiuiona iii the pi 
o( rv»*k (uldinK. atx'uiiipAuiutt hy builihig uud moUr lUapUcemaala of ooo^derable' 
DUf^itiide: whilHt ihe latter are for the moet partfleTtlem^ntfl and adjiuttnonta alon^ 
tho line* ot tbrir |irimary fracturM. The reUtionsbip between ttteeo two group* of 
«artbi)nakffl \a therefore^ that of parentaaod cfaiMren. 

Tba fomutr, whit-li mpr«*«nt a ilirturbani-e, nut oiilyol tlit< cnurt of thu world, 
bat aba of the houiijg«n«ou» nucl«ui9 it covem, will be referre<l to an oiacroaelsmio 
dlMurhoncGa or bajgu earthquakes; oud the lollor, whidi ap{>ear to be tliu elilverinos. 
wHhln Uie cruet, will bo referrml to ax initsiwcisiuii: di^turbanoee or amall farthqiiah«f. ' 
To avoid cindiciirti it mnst be m.^ntif>ned that several otwervcn rcffr to the world 
ahaking di^tiirbauces us iiiierMat^imiiic, the reoMn, no doubt, lieing that they ant 
UMjally rwvinliil hI xodi a great dutanut frunt tlit^ir ori)(tiu' that tlitrir vibnUfona 
Imw eo [ar Uied in utupliludu, and tncreaaed in p«hod, tbuttbeyciuinot be felt or bo 
teca In llm tmrM of oo orrltnary mismograph. It atao must not bo overlooked that 
lh(< term miRroeeiamic hafl been vard to dMrrrihe diiaturttaooea evidenovl by minutti 
md long conUiiiK-d HwiugingM '•( |ie»dtiliiiti)a hniI oUmt Mppamtuo, tbt* c&uae of which 
ip, fo many imttincen at leut, attiibutable to ino\'vai(!Qt8 in the almoapbero rathur 
Uiau In the varth. 

Aocording to tJ»e recent invcstigmions of the same Prof. J. Milne, 
the PItilippine aivlii[>eln},'u in inclinlecl in tbat regiun of tbe (^lolx^ in 
which the greaUist. number of tuucruseistnic cHirthqimkea has ocrurred 
since 189(f. Tliin region of niaximtmi inaerosciBuiie activily take,i iu 
thi- Philippine nrchipehigo, lh« whole of lliu Oulch KtLsl Indies, 
Ceie)M\s, llurneu, the Alolueoui, New Guinea, am] several oihi;r iulund.s 
in the Pacific Forty -one large earthquakes, which were regiHtoreil all 
over tho world, have hnd iheir origin in tliis region during tlie last 
four years. Of these earthquakes at least four had their origin in tho 
Philippine archipelago, or very close to it, viz, that of the 15th of 
December, iOwl," felt in Ltiz6n, which was not destructive; that of 
the 2Ltt of August, Uk>2, which took place in Miniliinno, close to the 
Lanao Legiuia and Illuna Imy; that of the 26tli of Aiigtast, 1903, which 
tnu felt in the province of IloHo; and tinatly tlint which occurred in 
Ciuam on the 21sl of Sepleuiber, 1903. Wbai happened in tho earth- 
qtiakcrt of t>ecember 15, 1901, and August 26, 1002, proves that 
( earthquake**, nondestructive at their origin or epicenter, may 
their waves around and across the globe. 

The Aeat of origin of Ixtth tho Mindanao and tho Guam earth<{uakea 
apputm to be itubmarine, while that of the Luz6n and Panay eartli- 
quakex iM>etiis to lie l«rrcslriul. The seat of origin of the Miudanao 

iii..i.«v,.i-..M.--i ri>.<^.F<^iuion8and Rarth Phyiiirtt, I0O8. 

>l>Hirutluii iif ihi* *;'i)mii>' wavi'!" nrntind the pnrlli in Hit" •■artli- 
Sul£, !:». J., may bu ewu iu the .Miuiila uIjewi vatury bulK-tm fur 



eflTthqnnk? must he quite close to the coast, becAiis^, ncoording to 
report*, it caused ground (■liapUcements not on It on the sea but also 
on land. Further on we shall have occasion to speak again of thin 
center which is situated between Zanibojingii nnd Cottabato. There 
are other important submarine centers in the archipetago; one being 
in the Joio sea, another nut far from the island of Mif*ljate. and prob- 
ably another in the Pacilic opposite the ooa«t of Binangonan, nearly 
east of ^Vlauila. 

We shall treat of these as well as of the terrestrial centers more at 
length later on. At pi-esent we have not sufficient data to say precisely 
how many of the different vulcauo-seismic centers in the archipelago 
give rise to niacroselsniic movements; because it is only within recent 
years that, with the aid of appamtus of Milne, vou lieWur, and 
Vicentini, the existence of these mac rose ism ic centers has been mani- 
fested, and even in the Philippine archipelago uot enough occasions 
have presented themselves for us to distinguish the nature of each 
center. The Vicentini microseismogiuph ha.-* only t«ren Jn operation 
in the Manila observatory' for ii little over a year and a half, and yet 
already many i-arthquakes of ii distant origin have Iwen registered, as 
(or example, the Guatemala and t-bu .-Vndljian. There have also been 
regifitereil In Manila almost all of those earthquakes called by Milne 
microseismic, the origin of which wa^ within the aivhipelago. When 
a fair number of observations of these latter earthquakes shall have 
been collected it will tx; possible to say which of the numerous foci 
in the archipelago which ap|H*ur to give out inici'osGismic earth- 
quakes are really volcanic, nhic-h rockfull, and which tectonic. In 
the short description of the principal otips something will be said un 
this particular. 

Before 6iii;^hing we will add a word or two on the movements called 
microseismic, the cause of which Is. according to Milne, in many 
instances at least, attributjible to mnvemonta in the atmosphere rather 
tlian in the earth. 

An hourly n-gister of these movements has been taken at the Manila 
observatory since the year IH^l by means of the Bertelli ti'omomcter. 
A careful examination of these observations, in conjunction with those 
of the ordinary movemeuLs of the atmosphere, ban le<i to the following 
conclusions: 

First, the greater part of these movements itt MauiUi arc due to 
endogenous causes; second, wheu the movements of the atmosphere 
cause thesT! microseismic movements they do so indirectly, now by the 
movement produced on the sea, at other times by the pressure on the 
mountains. The tir^t movement has greati^r effect than the second; 
so much so that it may be tmid that as soon as there are waves in the 
Pacific, the microseismic movements an; observed in Manila. The 
movements of the other seaa have much less iuflueniM? tlian tboso in 



I 



A 



EARTHQUAKES. 



199 



UiP PbciUc. VThen there arc any extraordinary moveinents in the 
BUnoepher«f or oycIone,s. the tromometer g\vv» i ndi(;Htion>i which ruay 
Berve as indirect ttigOB of a cyclone. 'Die Rev. Father AI^S, in his 
book ''The Cyclone.t of the Far East,'' after )iaviii^ studied the regis- 
lers of the tromometer during' the jimtjiwge of aeveral cyclones over 
the archipelago, comets to the following conclusiooH: 

FiiHL Tb« imuiouiKlrioU iMtcilUttuiiM ami the )liataiti-i> uf CJU« umtor of the cyclone 
VBVy itivi>ncly, tnit tlm prviporlioti in iw\ » lUHlheiiULtiiml otie. 

SecooU. The force u[ tliu vniml in tlii^ looiliiy hus » wrUiiu rvUUoQ with the moTe- 
nKOU at Ow IrouHrtuttUT, but it aui ni>t he coDsldored mt tbeir (»iwe. It vualdl 
appear Ihat the dinvtinn of thn vinil hul a slight iafliWQm uu tli« oetnllslion of the 
troin'iini^tcr. Thin te donbtlcM bocanw the <ljrectjnii of tiiti witKl Jependfl npOD 
ti\» oriciiUition iif ttie cejilcr of the oycione. 

Thin). Tliv gHKlnxl perttirlmttun u( iJit* Iruniometvr coiuilitiiLe« hii itidir^^l sigti of 
Uiv tfxiatenoe ami aiiiJivjaoh of a cyclone, but a sign which hn« wiily n rclaitivu scien- 
lUlc vbIik; iI-.-|x>ii'liii^ iiixjii (far cj^ptLTiviicu ci( Uh4 iiiicroeciHaiii.; movetutmU prtjiier to 
rach locality tatd aim on tho frL-qouncy uf luicniseiHmic itiuvnineiils pruilunHl by 
Htdogianntui cauiw. 

We notice tliree important poiota in tliiii mnvlnmon. The flmt b tliat the taic-n> 
BCHHoii- oocUlatjon ii^ uii iuiiinrt ^fcn of it cyclone; the M>cuncl, that thu !>ciuutlflc 
valot' of thifi ni^ in punOy relativi>an(l ilepenils aixin the t>x|ierim4-nta1 knowlfnl^ 
of thu movemonte in each locality, frtr the gii^pnpliiml position, thu t^ipo^phlcal, 
ainl i-vnn the geological caiwtittitioD of the aoil play a groit part in facilitating orl 
biixWring Die lmiuiniin<ioii i^f the mi.i).'luuti(-Jil inov)-iiK-iib> pmclncwl hy vycloov forcva \ 
All tbwelacton hare ti^* be talien inloa^-mmit aii<l their influence on microaeLeiDiQ' 
tnovttucotii d«tefmiiM)d by vxpi-rimcul. 

FSaally. tba anentlSc value of thfxe niicrowismic tnnvetneots as* a eign of a cyclone 
il«|ieD(l8 upon tho froqucncy of the moveaientf! prmlnoed liy cmdogeuoua tnuMS. 
Tliix it the principal caaat why the microaeinnic movements can not ha\-e an Bb«>- 
lat« vmlD». 

REISMIC SERVICE IS THB PHIUPPINE IELAXD& 

Diirinp the old meteorological tiervice only those stjitions of tho 
ifland of Lti^n cuiiiiected by telegraph with the reulral olKKrvutoi-}' 
were properly metoorolog^ico-sebmuc, although all the stations in the 
reg^ifiter of meteorologii-al obttervation^ iwually notetl the principal 
mrthqiiakes which they had fell. In the new .service all the stations 
in the urchipclago are at tlie same time mcteorologieul and soiHmic, nsi 
almost all of them arc providi*d with a suismotog^icul appHntttis with 
which they run analyze much better the eurtb<tuakes which occur 
with cuch fre<iuency iu ahnotit tho whole of the archipelago. 

To extend tho network of 8oinniic wtations to all the islands it was 
tletcrmined to orect a selsiuograph uf exattly the .saiiie pattern at 
each AlBtioOf so that tlio eurveij obtained f rum tlie different points for 
any one oarthtjuake oould bo compared without the iuconvenienco of 
having to reduce them, a^ would be tlie case if dilferent patterns of 
in.<itrum<<ntM were employed. It wok, moreover, agreed niwn that thia 
pi'jidulum Khinibl only 1k^ ^eninitive enough to record tinwe movenientSi 
of thu earth which are porceptiblti to jmrsotLS moving uliout. 



By t-bis we do not excladc tbo moro perfect instrumeDb^; iDdee<l, so 
far from thiB being our purpose, wo intond to place io seme of what 
yfe, might call tho claitsic poiota of seismic activity, in£triimeD*a of a 
much greater 8onfiitivencs». 

The central ob9€r\'ntorv is at prenont furnished with tho following' 
instrnmonts, most of them twiiig placed on the Kolid pier ri:sing 
throtigh tbo Honrs in the left tower of the main building: 



lyvniuuBKra roR uirkt onuutvATioK. 

BerMlfs horiaontal Diicroeeiamometer nr tromometer. 
Onevertiail microKiamomcter. 
Three ordiiukry Mionometeni — two for horizontal and one for vnrtiral notion. 
One p«5D<luIum for tim dtTvclion of itiiLiHl motion. 

Two cr>i]t<i[>tioQe6— one of which has tUn sarfave of a porabnloid imitheniatically 
traced hy Father Kankin, aiouitaiit dlroctor u( tho Mouilo. obeervatorf in ISStt. 

ttBoufnuiiitb Hauuiiu (smBOHXim. 

Obc^i'b mlcTDwiHaiOffnipU. 

Ooclii'e eeieaiiogmph. 

BoMd'a microsttijimograph. 

Gray-Milne'fi impmvml triple pendulum tteiomnf^ph. 

Viceotini's impr»Tt^l niicrofipi?iiH)gra[<Ii. 

Neooaun'a improved wI(-re<-ordinK tide Kanne. 

There are also several miorosoismographH in the (wtronomtcal 
building a4ju»ted to the solid bases of the equatorinl and transit lel- 

BHCopBH. 

For the purpoaen of the new selsmo- meteorological Hen'ice the 
archiiKlago id divided into four districts or »cctionH; (his division we 
sbuil adopt in thin report, setting aside tbo one used heretofore in 
other iHiDiphleU). 

EAfiTtmN MINDANAO AND THE VIBAYA8. 

This southeastern region, or the Grat meteorological district, is situ- 
ated east of the uieridiun 123'-' 30' east of Greenwich, and south of 12^ 
north latitude. It comprises the greater {urt of Mindauao, tbo isUnds 
of Leyle, QoLol, and Camigufn, and the southern jurt of Sfiuiar and tif 
Cebfi. It includes the active vok-anoes vf Caniiguin. Apo, and Caluyo, 
and some of the moet active volcano- seismic centers of the ardii[ielt^^ 



30S ^^^V GEOGUAPUY. 




TBI! TOIjCANO OF APn (mWDAXAO). 

The seumic retgioa of this locus prububly comprises not ooly the 
lihewst of MiDcUuuio but kI»o the southern port of Mi nam in, the 
pbote (lUtrict of Cottaliato. aud tbe sources of the Agusaa river, 
■kleii the solfalaric voksDO Apo. the giant of the archipela}^, there 
I (tome other volcauic coues ly lag in tblti region. The extinct volcano 
Mat^tuiu. bL the farther end uf tbe Sumngani bay, in very etrikiog, 
owing to itj) clear ouuic »ha|M;; there alitu rises, at the most M>uthern 
MigB of the iHland, Mt. Butulan. geuenlly coiuiidered as a volcanic 
vuni: an well a.** the highertt {Wak of the Saraugam Islanda. 




KATirniH TOLGIBO. LOOKXSO 6 

Tbo Apo volcano (7^ 03' north latitude and longitude 125^ 17' east 
of (rrnenwicb), the summit of which rifles 10,311 foot above the Ht* 
levp.l, gives evidence of its activity by numerous ^wlfatai'as, or jets 
of hulpburouR vapors wbich escape with a nharp, hissing sound and 
hover, cloudlike, over the sununit of tbe mountain. Tlic princi|)nl 
soifataras break out from a nearly Houtlicrn rrovassn which startx from 
the top, or the ancient crater^ down tbo side of the mountain. Tbe 
man wbo tried to ascend this volmno wiut t). .Tom^ Oyanguren, in 
1859, but he failed. In 1870 Mr. Iteal, governor of Diivao. ultciiipttid 
it, but he HURceedcd no tielter. At la.st it was ascended, in 1880, bjr 
Mr. Mnntjiiio, Mr. Joaquin I^jal, governor uf IViVuu, and the Jesuit 
inii^ionary , Kiitbcr Mati'o (tiHbcrt; in LStit! by Met^ri^. Scliadenberg and 
O. Kock; and in 1H88 by the JeHUit^, Ma.rtjn Juan and John Doyle. 
TlicMP two ilrtniitii were taking niii^ietic iniiiiTiureinenls in Mindanao 
in order to draw a luagtiittic cluirt; after ubUiiiiing tbe atMi>luLe mag- 
netic viilucH of doclinatiou, di|i^ and horizontal force al DCivao, 8£mal, 
Maldlag, and !it tbe mouth uf the Ti^gum river, tbey a.4cended tbe vol- 
cano in order to determine on itti Vjp tlm magnetic valuer and to tuko 
photugrapbrt, but, an buppene<l in all the asceniii, tbe stormy weather 

jpped Utn work, tind thus tbey were only able to detemitnfl a fair 
JO of tbe horizontal force at 3,000 meters altitude.' 

>Tli" uMgnutlo vala«s i>ljlaiiiLfl by tbew latlien otav Iw oeea in Ute UunUilr Knl- 
letin firrOcintinr, 1902, iif thp Manila niMrrvatnry, nwl lii the Beporl uf tlui Pfiill|i]iUie 
Cummiatiun lor thu ymr eiuied AtupiatSI, lOtti (AppotMlix V, potrp UTS). 



I 



EARTHQCJAECfiS. 



SOS 



^- and y 



'The*fSports ofTKe'difforont parties show that thoro h not a single 
regular and deep crnter iu tin? summit. Accxirdinp to tha Giila Oticijil 
the sumniit eonni^tK of three peaks, of which the present crater fomia 
the most southwesterly. Mr. Mootano ^ys timt tbiR extinct crater 
meAsares 500 mel<>rM ia dinmet4>r; it.'4 interior slopes, like Iho exterior 
wies, are covered with stunted vo^*tatioii. It seomR pn>liablo, there- 
fore, that the present activity does not exist on the verj' summit, but 
a little below, where the enormous orevasse running' downward npemt 
and which iu reported by all the visitors oh the active crater of tiiiri 
volcano. It opens on the Hontheni side of the mountain, the northern 
being covered with vegetation up to the top. Around this ero- 
, which is about 50 metern wide and ^0 to tiO metena deep, thero 
rutiA the Hpnee reported by Mnntnno att denuded of all vegetation 
and covered with a mantle of ^^idphur, OHhoK, and andesitie Iilocks. 
The crr.va*i«e aoeuis to run up fixim tlie height of :i,40D meters to near 
Lbe top of the crater. Mr. Kajal, who made the OHcent with Doctor 
Montano, dedcrilic8 the summit as follows: 

iJ8U]|{On tli>i lop (ili«y HHri-iiilt^l r>illtiwirig niuiU>m ridgo) W«> mw to the VfHit an 
cnonnotia rrmter, Ihe vrallfl of whi<-h vere formixl n{ andeHiUc edf^w rikI tmhoH, in tliQ 
bottom of wKK-h thtintwwft lak«. Sttuit«il vc)p;latluii cm'ervil Uk* Iovixt [Hurtuf titu 
tnU-riur tlu)x«. Bcone 400 metotB Iwlow we dietinguisltod a HTtitiit lako in iiiii>tlier 
rimilv Init smaller iTat^r. To tht> nonli, hut nejNinilet) hy » lifvj) rmvoaw wlu-ro 
Ihe HirilMUi river hait it^ uri^u, Hsm a luwir mountain cut Dciir ite Hummit liy a deep 
and ridgtxl cavity, i>niln))ly wittw i>th«r annient cratttr 

"We take fr*)ni Otto Kock's r*iport the following dewription; 

At the livighl. i>t 1,330 iuvt«nt we tirdttl tliv rivtr Viuffnuiinit (watiii w'at«r) wlijch 
river, arcjrdioit Ut ll»' tialivtv, 'a very hot at its amrw. A littlu liig)i<T up w <sjne 
mtmm tlieWuinncI of a rivt-r with running wau-r, Iwit which wan nol drinkattk on 
■fniiint of thf> itinount ot HuIjihunMu acid and ttnlEihuhydrute wliicli wiu) hHil in 
•olotion, Th<* ulnKHjihttrv iilt!i> i.iintiiiitr<l h tar^'i.' Hiiiouiil of ><iil|ihuroua a<:Jd. On 
iVMfhing a height nf 2,700 nietere the tir-t liirgc uuitatura wm m.'t with. It w«« in 
thi> t»nu of a very widt< cn-viue, wltli M'vend olh«mt nt>t hj lar^t'- .\ll of llieni ipivo 
ont eo)]ibnnH)B \-apnns in gn»t quantttiii^ and the ground around nxa very bnt, anil 
at tin>«f th«n< wcve hutid loud Kid)l>-rran«aTi nnim^ like thom given by n pow«r(nl 
■team engine. At that height a hrii-k wa^ tonnd having tlic following inMripUon 
whirh rtKiirlnl ihr fommr eY]Mxhtii>n: "A|ii\ tinim i.>xpe(lit:i<!>n Rajal 1880." From 
the region ot Uw voUatami the aiicmit w»« vtmar til] Iha miwi northerly o( tbc three 
pMks WW wiJ i wI . It ia tbu mottt northerly jwuk whlrh LimtjuuD llui vohiuio. Thu 
BoalhWMt patic, whit-]i to liighor tliau the other two, wat; alau very difflcuU of atH^nt 
blcaiiMt Uui icnmiMl wax rr^ry fvill, and in some plwoi* undonnined bo lliat If onn put 
Ul loot carelenly on it the ground ithook and nank. Tbn large crater i." in tlio 
Ugbwt peak and U «>vi<n.<d by a lukv of modt^rmtu diuivuffiooB, ultualM to Uieauuth* 
■■t, Willi a tarite pyramid formed of raomioua blocktj, wliirh ore cx>uiplel(ily oovvred 
wttb Bulpliur whlrh luul been depo8it4.i1 on thenu Tlu- thini i>eak is to the we4- 
noUivrcvt uf lb» prtUcipai onu. 

On dtNOPiidui^ Ml A|mi wr ramv mctxjm two m)w nolfatamn Imlow thr ii<>f1li«-)u>t 
poak. Thpw tw, •KiHalNjas did not exiat on Iht* «m-viit of tho Hn-l <'x|w>littoh. 
A}" lotver down Ihi-ti' waa a l»olu fruui wbicli t»uj(fMgr«al d««l of 

! it'i almuhtU^ly nu BuiuU. 




304 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Looking at tbe volcano from Bavao or Sfimal on a rloiidleM morn- 
ing thero may b« distinptlv seen a wide spai*?, narrowing to the lower 
[part, covonsd with small conw of sulphur, from which burst forth 
intermittent erii])tions of white atilphurou« vapors. Tbiit is a magnifi- 
cent 8pr^tacle when at sunrise the sulphur mantle and cone« are shining 
^imd there then appears a sudden jel of vapors, tM>metiuie«i growing and 
growing until the white, fine vioud rovers the whole t<pot and ereu tiie 
summit of the volcauo. Though Apo ia well known to be active there 
i^ no revoi'd of itK cru]>tiouri. 

The Apo volcano Minmic center i» one of the most active of the 
archipelago; small oeifnoic »Uw?kK are felt weekly, if not daily; very 
often u i-umbling «uund precedes Ihu ntronger tthoclu; »uch a rumbling 
sound, invariably attributed to the volcauo. has been reported also 
without any perceptible t<huck.s. 

The uiuat violent eaiiJiquaked fult in tbia region may be twen in tbe 
following liBt: 

Tablb 3. — Earthquake oftke Ape regimL 



I 



tUR. 



UoBih. 



ttiT. 



Hour. 



KflBwrki. 



Wl... 
Ull... 



vm. 



WIS ,. 

twt... 



J«niury.... 



JtUM.... 
AofUst .. 
Vvtiramrt— 



M) k. n. 



•JO p. m. 
ViM p. m. 

SiOl pi. tn. 



a«B«m MTttiquAJEO acioorapMited, Atvontlnc to aoaie, 

hj Tolrajili' iiruptlnn. 
Tub DMtbquiike wmi felt orer ftlnost tiua wtule laluul 

of llltidBiuu). 1u rifilnnm tn DAcan In nut ktin«^-. It 

was dcKnu-Ure In iIk nortbeio pcovIdl-h toward 

HImidIb. 
VetT TMcnt cuttKinklcd. 
ButhquKko Ml In UiU r*«lon kkim Uian In irwtMii rv 

OlODS. 
SvTOfMl diork* dlmtncUf Ml; doMniriWo prinripklly In 

tlia MOlbeiM of tbe Lduxl. 

rumuoriyw iidMU l(Ki<MMldM»bl«. 

ButttquKk« dunraettn pcliMilpallr Ui tbe x»utli trni of 



SKISMir CENTER «P THE AOtTHAN IcniilL 

Independent of the above-mentioned Apo (*nter there \» another 
aeiitmir center in the sonihpni part of the Aguttan river valley, about 
longitude 126^ 6<t' eaiit of Gri>enwich and 7^ 4^l' north latitude, not far 
from tlie source of the river. Thiit focus U poasewted of great seismic 
aetivity, as i« ovidcncKl by the long series of earthquaktyj observed 
and rarefully recorded by tlio Jc^^uit niisi»ionarief» of thar region since 
the year 1890. In Jnne, lK91,a violent eai-thijuake wati the beginning 
of (I long and fearful selwmic period. This earthquake produced the 
iu(Mt Hwful havoc to the housCi$ and ground; fortunutely, owing to the 
wildnc6s of the country, there was little loss of life or of property. 
TIk- falling iMLuks of Ibe river danuued it in uiHuy .t^KitA. Long and 
wide titif^urcs wore opeued everywhere, especially on the hUb nepanit- 
ing the Agusan valley from tliu Uiju and S&lug Hveiii, which empty 

liemwlves into the Ditvao gulf. The wtr'' . '■ ' i ' l ,,iii. 

and during thb« time, says au eyewiti-' ng 



"B ^ 



EABTHQUAKES. 



205 



■B iht* iroiiblpd Bca. During tbe following' monthH^ or during more 
thaii A yeur. tbo earth tr«mhled wiUi mora or leta* force every day. In 
■Tune, t8!)2. (here wu« a second \-iolent earthquake, shaking the same 
region and renewing the havoc of the preceding year. These two 
Giirtht|uake8 ^honk th)^ Itilatid of Mindanao nearly from end to end, luid 
wert' fairly iwrceptiUIe in ttie eastern VlsiiyaR From tliose dates sniall 
bthock^ have been more f i-e^juenl hi thii^ i-et>;iori (ban iiv any other part of 
Mindanao. Their cause 18 proliahly geoniui*i)hic rather Ihan volcanic. 
There are unmistakable signs that the suuthern coast of Mindanao eom- 
prisrd l>etwe*'n Cnttabato atid Panguiiln point, the mo«t southern one 
of the JHland, Is at present undergoing sulwidence, while, on the other 
hand, an upheaval Heema to be going on in the northrasteni and PatMfic 
coiLsC of the irtland. The southwestern ])art of the epicentral region, 
especially the hillu or low ranges where the widest fisHuro8 were 
ojwned, may l>o. considered as the junction Iwtwocn the ea-itern rangoa 
of Mindtitiiin. nmiiing from 8urtgao to the .Sim Agustin cape, and tho 
central one, slrot<^hing from the Oiuata and Sipa*-a points in the north 
tu PanguiSu ]M)int in the south. All tbe rocks in this range, through 
w*hich niQ tho Si'dug and the Tubuan rivers, are of madrepore and 
po[y|His of re>cent formation, alternating with rlay l>eds and limestono 
Btnita. '*Od going up the Salug river," says Mr. Montuno. ^*I camQ 
aoross frequent rapids and waterfalls. The rocks which form these 
falls are of white limestone mixed with enormous blocks of coral poly- 
pus, dotibtlean Astraea, very similar to those still growing iti the Oavao 
gulf. This is another proof of the rei^ent upheaval of this paii of Min- 
danao." The eastern range is andesitiu, as also are some hills north- 
east of the epicentral n'gion and probably also the central range. 
Owing U» the fart that this epicentral region untJl the year 18ftO waS' 
quite unexplored and only inhabited by wild triheti, there are no 
rejMrtH itmceruing eartliquakes possibly radiated from this rant«r in 
mrlior years. 

rOIiCAKO-HEISXIC CKNTEK OK UAt^ATURfN. 

The region moat atfceted by tho earthquakes from thia center, or 
Itei's, which ar*^ located west of the foregoing ones, is <rompri.s©d 
roen tbo parallels S^ 3K and li- north latitude and the meridians 
1S3^ 88* and 1H° 45' east of (Greenwich. In it ties the himous but 
«lmo-<t unknown volcano MamturJn. From the time of the arrival of 
Uw S[Miniitrds in these islands, in the sixteenth century, three erup- 
tiaos an< reported — one on the SOth of January, 1840; another on the 
1st of NovemlHT, ISiirt; and the third, according to varioiw accounts, 
occnrred u little before the earthquake of the 8th of Deceinl)or, 1871. 
Till* last, oarlliijuake was very destructive in Cotiabalo, Pulloo, and 
voAvard oUmg tho llltina bay coast. The actuitl state of thi>< vohuno, 
whidi 19 supposed to He at ahuut 7^ KK north latitude and longitude 



U4*^ OS' «mst of Greeowich, is not known. Vnriotu authors say that 

rtbe voluanic lioaibs llirown up liy this volcano may bo seen near tho 
port of Pullut*-, wliicli is at a distance of 7 lea^ea from the volcano. 
Many volcanic rockn may \re seen lying^ on tho coniJ bonkii which 
extend alon^ the cuoHt from Polluc in ^lalaban^^. In thi:« mitttan- 
postf wtiirli IK famous for the springs wiiich ititsue from cellular basalt 
mixed with clay beds, there may be seen a kind of porous or scoria^ 

;00ouri dfitritiM, probably due lo some relatively recent eruption. 

Northeast of the Macaturfn, at the soutliern part of the Misamis 
district, somewhere about 7^ 60* north latitude and longitndo 124° 4*f 
east of Grcenwicli, and rloso to the Rfo Grande, otherwise known as 
Pulan^i rivpr, there is n small volcano called Calayo, or Volc4n. 
The first repiirt of it comes from the Jesuit Father Etutebio Barrado, 
perhaps the dn^t white man who traveled across the island of Min- 
danao from the Mi:^amis district to Cottabato, in 1691. His report of 
this volcano is as follows: 

Theri^vr l^ilnngul iRloGnniU-i flomfrom LinsbothRKiRhdiffemit kinds of tao^l 
Willi a veryOTriflcttm'nt,ftnilata»i[>ci(i:a]lei] SaUxap6o Iheiv i» m wonJerful »iiler- 

f IkU. Not far from it and clow lo ih<? manm nrcr is m volcano, whidi banc iotn 
eropUoa eumo four ywra i^ and ouostaotly vmils vspon which bom ewrrthing 
abont. Tlw \maks oif (lie river are hera eo steep, high, and don logetlier that they 
fofm a very outoit cutyoa. On the Iftt of this baok stands an ictive toIcuw. 

iTbcre 19 twi flow ct lnvn, but it emit* a colomo o( vapors ao flQlpburaas a* lo prwaat 
any sppn:«ch. 

Down tho same river, or near Cottahnto, Mr. Centeno in his chart 

imartLSthe Cottabato hill aa a volcano, and be observed many other 

conical bills alon}; the river which hu did not examine. On the slope 

of the Cottabato hill looking toward this town there is a sulphurous 

hot spring. 

In past times tbc n^on Iwrdenng the Illanu bay has doubtless 
been freiiuontly devastated by violent earthquakcis but history records 
inly the following': December, 1630, IS.'iS; January, 1S64; LHreember, 
UTl; March, 1882; February, 1889; and August, 1902. Tho earth- 
quakes of 1858, according to some reports, were the effe(>t of an 
eniption of tho Macaturin volcaDo. Great molar dtsplacerae<it« on 
the surface of the ground and under the sea wpre caiiso<I along the 
Ilkuia bay coast by the earthqtiake of 1636. when the Fleclias point 
was badly cracked. In the last earthquake large displacements were 
produced not only on the seashore but aldo iu the whole of the ttmct 
^wpaniiing it from Lnke Lanao. Some idea may be gathered of the 
vtulenco of this earthquake from the following note published in the 
oewgpaperti of Maniln on the 27th of Augturt:: 

TIm Wand of Uinduao Is rvcelviui; a ptwral thukiag itp tboas iayt, and frooi 

iber at Ibe Mrthqaska rfwcks aad tniuon tbal am ooconing tiHnv it fs e%'l- 

lh>4« are tt™"*^*! distarbuun falb»«arth *< Itw prwnl time. The 

raaLiaDS raMlMtod, and aiaca tha fix* ikock, on the 31A bmani, thar^ 



I 



I 



I 



4 




EARTHQUAKES. 



SOT 



hBwbe«)ftbont foar hmulT«dftlighttremdrs, wiLli pcriwpfltwelveor thirteen nhwks, 
nuny of thifm sev-i-ro enotigli lit ovvrtnrT] ntacka of qiiartpmiatrternml mmmisary 
■Dppliea. Cnptain I'tsTBhinR wiren the divUioii commoji-lcr tliut it Imu been reliably 
reported ihnt twelvf Monw wunj killoU nnir Tuborua on the 21rt l)y falling lionses, 
Eoii tUal bioo- that date nhockH luivn been nlarmlngly frftjnciit; ihikt tlie storee piled 
np for the troops arc freijacntly civertumed, and thnt the banu liave been wrecked. 
The wt>rk of rvconfllrui^nK the ntorehoiuif 8 1.1 prof^iT-sHin^ ilh rapiili y as |x«xihle, hut 
iiie fivqtitiicy of tlw ithcvkK and the trcmore make It exlrfmely difficult to t?build. 
Tbv Horo (ortfi at Bsyiii and Uac^lod are reported to have bwu ci-rioijHly damaged 
tlaring tho first ithock ott the 21:^1. Gent>ml Siiciincr ii]m> wiriv Imin ZoniboangR 
that a Bovere efaoek was felt at tliat filaca on the mominf- of the 2IbI. 

The submarine cable wius brokrn in several plaw-s and it wiw so 
buriod in other placcii that it would f^eein that tlie seji hnd eliangcd its 
depth cotyttdorahly. 

Thettc facb) and the direetions of tlio shocks ohsen'od at Zanilx)An|ra 
and C'ottKlmti), esjiceially in thofieot IS? I, IKK;^, and I8>t!», induce iw to 
believe that there in a flubmarine center of ^reat activity near Illana 

fj. Ccrtaiinly the iwuthcro sea of Mindanao, as well m tho JoI6 tcu, 
nstitutcrt one of the inost irregular and constviuently most unstable 



SEISMIC CKNTKR OK SOKTGAO. 



The seismic region of this very active center extends not only 
throu^bout the peninsula of Suriguo, but also to the i^^Iands of Siargao^ 
DinaguL, and the Koutberu part of Sdmar uiid Loyte. In this rc^'on 

I DO active volcanic centent exist, excepting' the Mahut I^ke, situated 
pouth of SurigAu at '•>'' 28' north latitude and longitude 125^ 33' ea^ of 
tirceawicb, and supposed to be the crater of au extinct voIchdo. Doctor 
plunUno, who vi.site<l ttiis lake, says: **]t is situate<l in the crater oE 
Rn ancient volcano. It is circular in fumi and has steep tmnks. Near 
Ihe shore the ordinary deptli is W feet and more than 600 near the 
oeater. Tlie amount vf the water in it sometimes increuscu very sud- 
denly. But the most certain sign that there is a volcanic center is tlic 
sulphurouH thermic springs issuing from and around the lake." 
Aooordiug to the same Doctor Montauo some recent volcanic rooka ara 
to l>e found in tbo neighl>orhood of tbis lake, but be states also that 
1 the eaatcrn ahore there its a compact limestone formation through 
hich tbeiv are many upon caved. Many of the most violent carth- 
/elt in tbi^t region have heeti referred to the supposed vulcanic 
V and t»^rtainly in many miscs they were most severe in the vit- 
>a cloew to it. Doctor Montano reconhi that in all the above- 
Qtioned limestone caves there are many fistiui'es and overthrown 
<wldcr«, prolwbty due to the earthquakes. The earthquake felt in 
bly, 1879, prolmbly the moRt violent recorded in the la«t few eentu- 
lieft, bad certainly, aocordiog to Ccateno's report, itn epicenter in 



2Ud 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Mafnit Lake. It propBgated northward mainly through tlie umunt&in 
range, eiidiiifif in BM^ii Point, the northern pxtreuiily of Mindanao. 
Thia caithquuk<! cau^trd itutny impoi'taiit displace men Ik. Mr. Centeno, 
who visiUfd tho plaeo Honic days later, reports two visible subwideiic^; 
u ftihmariiie onn in the Bilrvn-bilan port, east of Surtguo, and the 
bodily sinking of a valley nieawnririg some 5,00iD feet in U^igth and 
1,000 in width. This valley, which in situated to tho sontbweet of 
Uiliin Point, Hank some two feet. 

At the north end of the range near RiMn Point wide fissiireA were 
prodiieod in tbo rocks; a little south, bnt. not far from >Surigan, many 
landslide's took place in the alluvini bank.s and sandi^tone hilLs in the 
direction of tho Can»uran river. Thin carthriuako was the t)eginuinjf 
of a long Rcismie period lasting until the end of tho year 1S8I. Tlic 
seismic rwoi-ds at hand, which ."tincc tho year 18"0 are aeeurafce, show 
that the years 1878, 1S79, 1880, and 1881 may bo considered as a period 
of great seismic activity in thin r^ion. Tho stronger earthquakes are 
usually pre(Mided by a stranffo rumbling sound. \Vo will menlion in 
the following Ust a few of the more violent earthquakes felt in this 
region: 

Taki.k 4. — Eartivpinkrt of thr Surigno region. 



I 



TUB. 



UW... 

isn... 



Mn... 

IB*.... 

u»..., 



Month. 



Juinuir 

NoreniMr.. 

Dnc<unb«r.. 

ficptacatMi.. 
Jnly 

Vbbniai7... 

OolDber .... 



V^j. Bout. 



V.OD a. m. 



14. » |>. n. 

I.Oi> p. m. 
^88 a. m. 



3.S> |k. m. 



11. « 



Renurlfi. 



r«!( BlnuiaL thmugboul Iliv vrhole Island. 

Tl)» aliock itilover a vM« ar«a, tomrrlaiRc MtDiUnui 

and tha «a«tani Ttittraa, nllhuiigh ft wa* daMnuttJre 

ouir In tti« dtvMd of ^Eirtgao. 
Felt aloDfl U]« Paclflc aoa«t ol Ulnilanao Irani north, to 

sonlb. 

Oanud CTMi hATnc tbTOtwDont u>e «ountrT, and waa 

Utecninmrnri-iiii-m of aloag and rvr}' acllvr' vimtic 

period, la^lciK Kr mopathaoftmniitb. 
Tfila aim »d«>ct«l all tho ooBut of Mlndaoai) atoiif U>« 

pMllle mouDtAlu ranee trom BuKcao lo Capt Sao 

Agnatln, 
Tli« dMtnwUvi) lotcn extended inon towaid Um iDalh 

thH toward tbanorth. 



VOIjCANO or CAMIGUfN. 

The f mall island of Camlguin lies near the north coajit of Mindanao, 
between 9° 42' and 9° U' .7 north latitude and longitude 194^ 3»' .7 
and 124^^ 47' .4 e«st of Greenwich. Ft consists of a single range of 
mountains, apparently a prolongation of the central range of Min- 
danao, its northem extremity forks, forming the two ridges of Catar- 
fVaSm and Mnmhdjno. Tho island is Y-shaped, with tho base lying 
doutheast. Three principal peaks rise rather sharply, and aw supposed 
to be extinct volcanoes. The w!iole island i» famous for its great fer- 
tility, shown in the exul}erant vegetation which coverd even its steepest 
billsidea. Plantations of abac^ are ^een evei^whero, even on the 



d 



altnoRt inac<:e8siblG slopes. Clcpsc to the foot of Mt. Oatarm^n, to the 
v,-G»i and uear tbe seaahore, r'mea the active volcano, which was in 
eruption from 1871, when it first broke forth, until the year 1876. 
Adhering, as it were, to the ciide of the mountain, and in a 8pot tiut 
v&a fonnerly an extensive depre^ton, it ri^tes to the height of 1,499 
feet a(x>ve the sea. with a bo^ meaauriog more than 3,000 feet in 
diameter. This small volcano, known abroad as tlic Catarmfln volcano, 
is merely a recent mouth or crater of the gigantic and much older 
one that hue l>ecn dormant for many ccnturiej^, but which now Hecms 
to bo waking up. 

Condition of the Cami^in volcano preoiout ttt 1871. — Besidea the 
etoifataras that have made their appearance in recent yearv, ito con- 
ical foiiii and the nature of its rock.'^ give sufficient data for classinf^ 
Alt. Catarmun, which rises 0,(XX> feet alx>ve sea level, tui an ancient 
volcano. The conic shape, the massive blocks of basalt, claystone, 
and andesite, many of tliem resembling the volcanic >x>mb(i thrown 
out by the volcano Mflyon, aflord solid foundation for such an upinion. 
These blocks arc found scattered throughont the fields, almost down 
to the inadrciH>ric formation of the coast. The soil, t)lackish in color, 
also shows a mijcture of the above materials, together with other frog- 
mental ejects. No eruption of this mountain is reported in the history 
of the inlands, nor is there any previous mention of any aigns of 
ai'tivit y in the mountains of Camiguin Island. There are in the Ubr&ry 
of the Manila olwervatory some old documents of unknown origin, 
probably consulted by Mr. Jagor before he published his book in 
1873, wherein it is stated that on top of Mt. Catarmfin, occupying an 
old crater, there existed a lake of some 600 meters in circirniference, 
the water level in which was subject to such fluctuations that at timw 
the lake became practically dry, while at other time* the water over- 
flowed the containing walls. The crater, moreover, was sometimes 
seen in a violent state of ebullition cau«ed by the e-soape of gases 
from tbe bottom of the lake. It is also reported that at Catami&n, 
Mamb^jao, and other towns confused rumbling sounds and detonations 
■were at times heard, which were usually referred to some of the 
neighboring volcanoes of Mindanao, Thus all reports of this volcano 
previous to the year 1871 arc vague and uncertain, though there can 
be no doubt that in past ages it must have I>een one of the most 
active and powerful volcanoes In the an^liipelago, 

Tfte Camigttin eruption o/J^l.—ln the 6r8t montlis of this year, 
aboat February 1«, earthquakes became very frequent; shortly after 
tbe inhabitants of THambdjao and C^tamilin became convinced that the 
radiating center of the seismic disturlance was located in their little 
island, and not vory far di.'iliint In the «ame mountain, wh(:fc»i\ fr-rtilo 
BJde, covered with verdure, had never been suspected of harboring a 



EARTHQUAKRS. 



ail 



duigrroTiH wirmy. An e,3*cwitnes8 of tlio Dvcnts, thn prcsidontc, or 
rapttan, of Catarmin, thus doacribes the bogtoDUig of thetw disturb- 
ancct: 

On Ffhnwrf IB *t 1 oVlock p. m. n diftht fthodc vm felt, vhkh wm repeated At 
r:iO p- 'II- uf thu HUD^dKV- On tWlTtli atfl,30H.ni. another iiml vtrotig^T fhock wm 
[peiienccJ, after which iiin[Lu>i]t tliere began n flciiee of tremi>n!i that continoed 
thronitbont tlie lUy cmd tho MIovrtogtiigliL Grvat alarm Hprviul umon^ the uibabit- 
anU. On the 18th, ehooks wn« feU at shorter intervaln than on lh« prpredinj; 
d^ya, Bu that the earth acemeJ to l>» iti Litnlinuons vibntioa. At 6 p. m. a very 
■tnrag ihocSi aut». Duriiii^ th« tiight (hi^iv waa no thange, exciept that at II pi. m. 
ADoUierrBry siiung shock m-«jj felt, and that rach dfetiucl shock whm pnx-eded by 
mtnbUiig notae*, whicti FecniMl lo come from tliE! mountain to the met of the town. 
Thifl ^aet fact, together with the nmiur that on iho nurthurn slopo o{ ihiu hlLl a wide 
Snare had been openi<<l, which ha<l priKlnrvd heavy hmdaliclpB, gavn rise in the 
^Btinds of thu p(-opli* to the idea that an eruption might take place- from any of the 
irxinlaina of thbi inland. Or tlie I9th tlie diocka became Htranger, and during the 
lillncei' of the folltpwing nt^ht the noieo prodncvd by the hitivy (rtuntn^ nulling dnwn 
' ftlopes of the mountain after tlie shocks could be heard at K^oat (lifitances. On 
'21»t at 4 o'clock n. m. u viuk'iit Liirthi|tniku uhook tlieiaUirid, causioi; conaidorable 
to th^ stone building. On Iht^ ttatik nf tlio mountain thcnght was dnwdful. 
The lolling mwaiw of alone wen* dL«tioying trein and pUnlaliona, while the openinjt 
of fiasom csomd a noiw like tliat of a great storm. Tlie inhabitants of Uic town 
wert lerrifieil and from ihiu momeiit bc^au to eeraiw hi their botttd to the neighbor^ 
rt-oaatA of Mindanao and Bohot in aearrh of safety. 

From the abore the reader may form an idea of the events which 
lonouncfid the eruption of 1871. During the months of March and 
Lpril earthqimk(\>4 oitcc^wled one another with tiie Name frequency and 
rcrc at'4Hini|Miiied by effccliH identical with those just dewribod. The 
area of some of these oarthqtiake« was very extenaive, for they 
felt atrongly throughout northern Mindanao and in the islands of 
Boho[« t Vbu, and Nc^tos. The inhahitantH of the towns in the neigh- 
borbood of Mt. Catarmdii, with the exception of a few of the bolder 
^iritfc and some of the very poor, fled from their housfis. llenco 
it i.-* that when the eruption actually took plare it found very few 
victims. 

At lai*t the shockfl suddenly ecased. When day broke on April .SO, 
tX the foot of Mt. Oibinndn. whieh had been so shaken hy the preced- 
ing earthquakes that it expo<4ed its .skeleton through the landslides and 
Lfiware^, a eoliiinn of thiek vapor was seen ri.«inp up into the sky near 
■the asm. and alxjut 4<XJ yards distant from the town of Catarniiin. This 
column of vapor disappeared completely some hours afterwards. 

\t al>uut 7 p. m. of the same day a tremendous explosion was heard 
[In tho direction of the above-mentioned spot, accompanied br a dense 
cloud of Muokv, whicli caiue from tbe same place. Everything round- 
about wax sot on tire. At the same time a shower of stones, earth, and 
aahiw whm vi>niit4.'d forth from the recently made ojwnings. The ashes 
rtw to A considonLblc height, spreading out and reaching CebA aod 



other Ulands 110 uiUuii uway. Witlun a radius of 2 miles from the 
nevr crnter the de«itrui-ttun cuused by the !ihowor of tiro, stooes, earth, 
and ashes vraa aUnost complete; but fortuuately there is no report of 
many human victims, evidently becuiu^e the inlmbitontfi of Catanudo, 
wtiich tliti destruction reached, bad fled iu due time to safer (luartera. 
The eruption continued for six or seven days, after which the 
paroxysm diod down, but the sili-nt flowing of the semifluid lava con- 
tinued, building' up a rough cone, which in two or three weeks' timo 
measured some eight feci iu height. Some travelers who visited the 
place a few weeks after the emptiou gave us the following details: 

The haaa of the volcano lies eloee to the ahora and abool 35 f«et uhove am level. 
The cone is lM>coining round and looke like a large burning ItmekilD. It oonaJBti of 
black Mtociea vtuck toguther by meflna of pasty incmQdeaoent lava. At preaeat the 
bwe m«n«ur«« 1,500 f«vt in <liuii»tCer. Il ti* stiiolcing, but tb^re Aom not veem to ba 
any Biieam of lava. Thu cnitvr u Eitnply IhrowinK out a kind of paste or cement 
mixLil with curili aixl htttvy 8K)ti(«, nliicb latter, rolling down Uie eldeis caiue 
explnaoos and emit giidM iti lar>ro i|Danlittee, ni aa to iveemble ao many ama]! venta 

The enter continued in this qtiiet eruptive state during three 
years, oonftantly pouring out folid material. This material kept 
buUdiDg up the ifides of the cone, not only by being forced over the 
rim of the crater, but oiring to the feeble emistfive force fr<Hn the 
interior, by accumulating on the interiur surface and pushing outward 
the preceding ejecta that had not yet become hardened. The effects 
of thia outward thrust were frequent laudvlideit and fissures occurriug^ 
oo the sides, thus forming new eacapea for the gases. Owing to the 
character of this eruption, which we might well i-uU laborious, the 
cone gradually took on the form of a rough dome, which gained daily 
iu height and in extent. Thuf, four years after itn birth, when it had 
become to all appearances perfectly extinct, it had readied a height of 
1,9LM) feet, with a Imso nearly a mile in diameter. 

Caniiguin waa visited by the Challeiiger cxi>edition in 1875. It was 
then dofccribed us a dome 1,900 feet iu height, without any crater, 
but still smoking and incandescent at the top. 

With the same fonn, but completely extinct, it can bo seen to-day 
rising out of the western t>lope of the st«ep green hill of Catarm&n, 
appearing like a rough appendage to the mountain, scarred witli 
tisdures and covered with .-harp nigged stones. From the above 
it may be seen that the true eruption, or actual throwing out of the 
ejecta, which forms the existing cone, lasted for a period of abont 
four years. For some timo af tenvardw giLnes and vapors were emitted 
continuously; Iat4>r ononlyat intervals, until at htst Kuch action ceased 
altogether and the volcano lost all nigns of activity and hcnt. Such 
haa been its oonditJon for the last twenty years, and thus it stands 
to^lay, exposed to the deatruotivo influences of the atmoijphcric eJe* 
meotd, which in this cliuuto havu u powerful effect. 




outlub taieh fboh sea lookiso souTHWsar. 

FftSVIOUSTO AFBIL SOth 1871. 




AFTER APHIL 1871. 




A - BOLF&T&&& AFPE&&ED, 1897. 

B - " "OH JTILY 27th, 1902. 



App^anmce of new aotfataras in 1897 and 190S, — After ceoturiea of 
inM^tioii (jiiHt how long is uncertain) the niain cone or bill of CaUinu&a, 
upon which the abovc-tIcscnt>cd crater leans, began in 1897 to show 
Bigtui of awakening. From the previously mcationcd crater lake, at 
the top of the mountain, there begun to issue a constant colamo of 
white sulphiin>UH vapor thiit killed the neighboring vegetation, and 
even destn>yed the plantation.s that exint^xl on the northcastem 
and soiitliweAtern Nlopi^H of the hill. I have been told by some 
gentlemen of ]\Iaml>£]'ao chat when the winds are front the north* 
east and the vaporn arc blown down the southwestern slopes of the 
mountain, the leavert of the trees fade and drop, the earth is made 
bare of vegetation, and the branches become covered with a kind 
of sulphiirouK powder. But when the wind changes, and a little 
rain has u'arih(^d the powder away, the tree.s and earth again don 
their green drcsa. The accompanying sketch was nmdo in the month 
of July, while the southwest wind prevailed. Thus a view of the 
northeast side is presented, which was th^n of a browniiih color. 
According to the gentlemen atwve referred to, no eartht(uake8 nor 
other unui^ual evontii preceded the appearance of the now twlfataras of 
1697. liut it must be remembered that this year wo.^ noted as one of 
cxtraordinanr' volcano-seismic activity in the archipelago. It wa>t tjiis 
occasion tJiat called forth from Father Coronas, S. J., the two 
valuable pamphlets, L« Enipci6u del Volcfin May6u el 2S y 26 de 
Juoio de 1897 and ho, Actividad S€ismica en el Arcbipi<!lago Fili- 
pino duraute el Ano 1897. In the latter he points out the radiating 
centers of the different seismic periods reported up to the end of the 
year: That of Zamboanga, September 21; that of Sfimar, (X^tobor 19 
and 20; and another lasting till March, 1898. The upin-aranco of the 
uewfumaroles of Cumiguin must probably be referred to one of thtwo 
aetsmic periods, although this volcano has apparently never been tho 
radiating center of any of the more important earthquakes of this 
year. Probably ffome of the feeble shocks felt at Ceb6, Negros, and 
Iloflo were connected also with this volcanic center. 

Up to July, 1902, uo further change liad been observed in the moun- 
tain. A cloud of white vapor, more or leas thick according to the 
degree of humidity of the utmoetphere, was continually rising from 
the summit, and that was all. The inhabitants of the neigbhoring 
towns looked at it without tlie least anxiety or fear. However, on 
the 9th of said month, between 3 and 2 o'clock in tJie luoming, hollow 
sounds were beard which seemed t^i proceed from tho mountain. But 
when day broke no change was noted in tfao appearance of the vol- 
cano. During tlie night of the 27th, at about 1 o'clock a tbuo- 
der^lomi was beard rumbling about the mountain and when day 
>roku the people were surprised by the sight of a new solfatara tliat 
nw seen issuing from a fissure uuar tho summit, on the opposite side 



I 



EAliTHQUAKES. 



215 



» 



fFom the cM one and Bepurattxl from it by tlitj large crost that forms 
the easteni ridge uf the tiDcicnt t-niter. It is not known whothcr any 
mmblutg tHJundfl pri-cedcd ilie burstinjj^ uiit uf tbo new sotfalara, or 
if Uiese were confounded witK the i-ulling ttiundi^r uf the stonn. 1 
happenetl to reach tlic port uf Mauibfijao un iKiard the steamer Aldecoa 
at 7 oVloi'k on the morning of the 'iltb, and vuMi a^tuniuhed at l>eing 
Hhown the new solfataru and heing told that it had appeared only the 
night before, during the thiinderst^inn. I min certify to the fact tliat 
when I arrived the vapor wau i.s4iiing in a thin white column from 
only one fissure extending dowiiM'ard fruin tho tup; hut three or four 
houTM later vapors wei-e al*) rising from a little depression that ran 
horizontally farther to the right; later on during that day, and during 
the next, when I left Mamb^jao, no further change could l)e observed. 
We received a letter from Mamtkfijno, dated Scptiimber 8, in which we 
were told that ilie funiarolea that api>carod on July 'i7 diuappeured 
within eight or ten days; but that on the other hand, »ince their dis- 
appearance, frequent subterraneous sounds had issued from the >'o1<»do. 

ISI^ND OP cbbO. 

In this island, whore the most impoiiant coal region of the Philip- 
pinw ia located, there is no seismic center. The few eailbqiiakos that 
bavo been felt there have probably radiated from seismic centers situ- 
ated iu other islands. The most violent were those which came from 
the volcano of Caniiguln. An earthquake occurred on tbo 0th of 
December, 188^, causing damage to the buildings of Bautayiln, a vil- 
lage situated in the north of Cebli. Another violent earthquake 
occurred on the 23d of July^ 1H8&, at 10.&5 p. w., its center being 
near Dapitau (Mindanao). 

8AMAK AND UtTTX. 

From the scant data obtained from those two islands it is dilGcult to 
ascertain whether the radiating center of the earthquakes felt tliere is 
oituuted within or without the islands; whether, for instance, the 
abocks come from May6n in the north, or from Surigao iu the south. 
Thera is no doubt that the May6u earthquakes more frequently exert 
their influence in the diiX'ctiun of these Lslanilr* tluin in that of AnilHJS 
Camarines. A certain re|>ctition or extension of the seismic action of 
Uie May6n eartliquakes lias also been observed in the islands of LejTte 
and 8&nar, and even in Surigao. The only signs of the volcanic 
activity found on these islands are certain solfatanu or sulphuric 
emanations. Mr. Becker sununurizea the volcanic ventrt of Leyte and 
tboae of Bilirau and Maripipf, lying north of it^ as follows: 

In the iRtntuI of Loyto Ui»r« un two votcAuic wnl» in the oolbitKric phttae hom 
whkli mtu^h ^ulfiliiir I^um Im-n gnUH-rrxl. Tht-y Iw to tiii- nouthwanl uf DnraueD, io , 
tbi- tiurtliMuicni [>urt!im uf ittc island, and wet« vuite<l by JS^got. 'Hia uiok nuutb*' 




316 



GEOGKAPHV. 



fcterly Im o*ll«d Mt. Dui^ The other ia called the cnttr of KacUni, and lien, 

wsordlng U* Jigor, od h mooDUin nuueJ iluucagan. Thii) iDOonbun, ot> Mr. 

[■d'AliDnnte'Minap. le caU«] Uimuaai^ii. Jagur deBcribee thi* rock u "very bam- 

blendlc tfadiyip." Itispntbably thcrock dctennined by Roch iii? tuTinblawIe^ndea- 

ite. Both probably ntt^n to Kaeiboi when he stau-a that tbe onrllow of the 

•ottatamM Daganii (w>n>n niiW nortJi fif Bunuu«) fnniuia hroofc with a tempefatnre 

ol 50" It^am. = Kd** F. Th«> Oula Ofidal DwntioQs u vuKvno M BDrancn cal)»d 

ajan, which, 1 mppoae, is auother naine kir oue of tboNe Just referreO to. 

The laluwl of Bilimn ia welt known for lu ralpbar dopantei, the Ih-i^ tn tbi- arcfal- 

[pellga The mlpbur ocnirs in Holfatans, aomeof which are extremely hnU Mr. 

Abella getting tempcralurGa of no IcM than I In^ C. , which would ahow ttiAt the 

water ia a strong aolntion of mme mIIa. Th««6 hot aprinx" contain pyrite of recent 

fonnation '*proda«d by th« rvdocing action eilhvrot an vxtxm of eulphar or of 

[vegetable remains, brooKht by water or wind, oo the iron enlphate which bad pre- 

[vloiuly tunnnl." ^fr. Abolta raya nothing of cnUers. but rufen the Hol&laiaa to 

Ull existing rnk'anic action. He compam the phenomena on Biliran to those near 

rBoimnen in Lcyli-, and ralla alli^ntion to the fact that the volcanic nixge coDtinaea 

■CMithwanl through Panauo to SuriKso, .Miadaoao, while lo the northward it ta 

OOtinactod through ^tariplpi aiwl othttr iimiiil volnuiic ivliuidK witlt Biiltinn oo ljxt6o, 

Uaripipt, by the way, is repreeentvl by Mr. d'Almoate as a conical bland, abnoit 

round, about 3.S mUm In diameter and 3,000 feet high, Its plan Id very much like 

that of a Tolcanic cone. The chief rorit of Biliran ia deocribod by Mr. Abellaas 

containing grtienish and black humblendeuid phonocrynLic rebbpan in a feldapathic 

igroQikd-niaaa, whilea^pte and magnetic iron are Boinetimes viable. This deacriptiou 

Fmakes it subttantiaily certain that the rock ia boniblvndc-andeaite. 

Not far from Maiwin there are some sulphurouR spring and {t b 
Btat(*d uUo thai nt^ar Calnlfan Won an at-tivo iulfatAni. 

The dcstrufttivc carthqiiakr^ which dhook these Ulanda during the 
peat years arc the follon'ing: 

Tablk 5. — Earttuiiiaia in t/u idandt of /^mar md Ltylt^ 



« 



I 



Toia. 



um.... 
itn.... 

Mm.... 

lUW.... 



KDOia. 



ApHI... 

AocuM, 



Mtuvb 

MMVb 

Jaly 

Fcbmuy.. 

OctOtiB.... 



Bar. 



» 



Sour. 



SlW pt.n. 



S.«t a.m. 

AM p. ro. 

0.40 a. m. 

tM a. at. 



Bunarka 



Violent la Lortxt. WbatuceuntdloMiaiirlsaalcnown. 

1«D|| Wlamlc pcrtorl riMaiMiDad. Tlwunly doBlradlvr 
eanixiiMke wm Ibttol tbe iWi of AoguM: li> rn«x«r 
vkdeooa wa* lelt la UMbate, «lict«. ia addlUun u> 
Uw raio cauKd to bulMiiiKi, Um Mrtti wn reol wltb 
loM, <l«ep crerlim, and Mtult htand* vtta ara r»- 
cordad lo bave dMappcared lu lb* rctloo tMctb ol 
Tloa. IiLlonnaUuii ft Wkiuf tran Albajr. when ibe 
ahock waa probably tUU more TloltaUy hli. 

Hot d«alrtK(ln)i, MUfleU toore la SAmar than la L«y1«. 

Ana ol letloB anall, aad iha only daaaca cauad 
tfevrcbr waa to tbe puablo of Memdu (Siaar). 

Viointt.ei»aeiaIirntn Inta. 

Hot* vloleat In 1M nartliof Uiaar Lhan la tbc Ulatid of 

DeMractlTelB lfa»Dortba««lo(aiaiBr. 



WESTERN MINDANAO AKD THK VlfiAYAB. 

Tbi.<t ^outhwestero dtstrict lies aouth of I'i^ tiortb latitude and west 
of the meridian 135° SO* east of Greenwich, and coraprisee the west- 
porrion of Miiidatiiio, the Jot6 and Mindoro aoa^, and Uio islands 
>f NVtrros, Pftiifty, and Para^^. There are few important kumuiu 
loci ia chu district. 



( 




SBIflMlfl CRNTER OP Z^MBOANQA AMI> JOU^. 



The seismic area of this center comprises the most westerly part of 
Mindaoao or the southwestern regiou of the peninsula united to the 
rest of the island hy a narrow neck of land between Panjfiiil and 
IIUuu hays- The Zamhoanga and Jol6 earthriuake^ rarely extend 
their influence Iwyond the said weetorn peninaulii, owing partly to 
conti^irHtiou of land and perhaps more especially to the distance ol 
the center which U situated in the sea north of Jol6 archipelago. 
Consequently Zaiuboanga is located between two submarine centei 
riz, that very probably situated in JJlana bay and the center in 
Jol6 sea. The existence of this latter volcano-seismic center was 
determined with certainty, in the year 1897. In tlie old chronidea 
there is uieutiou of an eruption which took plAce iu some island of tbd^ 
JoI6 group; there is a report of an earthquake and eruption iu the 
laud of llu> Igorot, northern Luz6n; and of two others, which occurred,, 
at the Biium time, one at the Sanguil volcano and the third at Jol6.j 
The record says; 

And although M tho time the darknePK and atmoBphoric d{Bturhanr<p(* wem pn { 
tliatthc peoples of Jol6 contd not pcrccivo whence camo the staff which (ell 
beavAU upon U)<>in, yet whon it l>ecuue li^ht it was ofc«ervMl that at tlie same tima 
wbrn tho volouio bnnit fuiih at Suignil, Mindanao, tlie clmnt^ntM Itierv aim bid 
beeomo exdt«d, and that a eecond volcano hat! opened on a moall island which lies 
opposite the bwr of the chief river of JoW, where bi oor miltUur Btation. 

Thn crater of this volcano is still open. Doctor Becker says: 

6«n])er and Jiigor are of the optntoii that each tax eraption rpally to6\t plaee, hot 
no fnrtlier outbreak ia known to have occart«d there, and the rcuiaina of the crater 
htiw not been described of Int« ye*n>, M ter a« I know. 

The chart* Bhow cratcr-likft dt^prMdona nt tho HOuthpm eacl of Ca^^^n Jol6, on« 
of them broken down at the edge and admitting tlio eea. Oapt. Oharlea 8. Perry, 
D. 8. Nav/, who landed there to raiw tliw Anserican flag, inJormR hia that tliew are 
aDqaeetknably cratcre, bat that they are to some extent coven^ with vettetalton 
and CEO not therefore have bees octivo very recently. Tbey eeeoi Qmt to have beini 
ittx^nUL-d m t-T%t6i9 by Mr. F. R. H. (itiillf mard. 

The origin of the earthquakes of 1897 must be placed in the sea of 
Jol& not far north of this island; the damage to building:^, the dis- 
phoements and fiHsure.>i produced on land, and the waves on the sea 
wirre tremendous. Father CorontLs, S. J., gave all the details of thin 
great disturbance in a pamphlet published soon after the event* 
Omitting ^e description of (he damage done to buildings and the Gd-^ 
surc9 opened, especially tbo^ near the seashore at Zauiboauga, Basilaa, 
sad Jol6, we will deal with the tremendous movements of the sea. 
The memorable sea waves observed ufter the earthquakes uf Lisbon, 
Cmlabria, Chile, and Peru, as well a:> tho^c which occurred after the 
eraptloQ of Krakatoa, were renewed in this district The destructive 




sbocka occurred on the Slid, of September at 1.17 p. m.; two hours 
later wioCiMr ligbtvr eurthquake was felt and imnicdiatciy afterwards 
canus the sea tides and waves. At Zamboauga the swell occurred two 
full hours after the big^ eartbtjuakc; many times the awful wares 
advanced rapidlr loto the town and even swept some places which 
vrere 2U feet above the sea level. Small crufts lying Dear the shore 
were thrown out and even some abips at anchor were carried to and 
fru. AJI the iuhabitontH began to flee to look for a safer pUcio inland. 
All uloo^ the coast, west of Zamboangu, the waves invaded the shores 
with the haine fury and on retreating swept away many native houses, 
not a few of which, unfortunately, were occupied ut the time, 

Tbu iitland of lia^ilan experienced the aama dLstiirtNLnce but sooner 
than at Znmboanga. The waves were higher than at Zamboaaga, prob- 
ably tfecause tlie latter was protected by the flat iHland of Santa Cruz 
lying in front of itiihurhvr. The waves began torushagain^it the island 
Hume thirty minutes after the earthquake, and swept away Home Moro 
Tillages on the western coHMt, uod the luurket and other houses situated 
near the wharf in the town of iHsljela. The gunlioat Leso^ at anchor 
in the harbor, was carried by the Ti-aveu or flood and had a narrow 
escape. The waves advanced against the coast and retreated many 
yards beyond the tide line, ^^itll tiie same rapidity, ai least tiiirty 
limes. There were many victims. At Jol6, the seismic tide b^an 
some fifteen minutes after the earthquake shocks. Ttio first move- 
ment was an ebb, the water retreating fai-thcr than the low tide limit, 
then it vom again with tremendous fury, repeating the process six or 
seven times. No damage was caused at Jold by the waves, because 
their velocity and height was less tlian at Basilan and on the west coast 
of Mindanao. Extraordinary sea movements were noticed all along 
the Honthwcstcrn coast nf Negros, the western coast of Panay, the 
miuthcrn <<oast of Paragua, the eastern coast of liornco, and one might 
say on ail the islands and hinds facing the Jol6 sea. Certainly there 
must liave occuri'od some great flubmarine displacements or eruptions 
to cause such a wide pciturbation. There is an event which is fully 
proved, namely, tlic sudden rising of a mud hank or island at Lubuan, 
near the northwest coast of Borneo, on the same day and hour of the 
dr^tructtvecarthquidte. Mr. Van don llrock, a resident of Labuau, in 
a letter kindly sent to the observatory, gives the following details: 

Tlip (Uiuetwotu u( ihn taluiil'are u rollovn: Length, TfiO iteti breadtli, 4fiO feet; 
hvlKlit, 4& lovt, 

Aa to the K<.*»<'rAJ Bepect of thlei ieUiii'l ^hiuh appeared (ruiu tho depths ut tbv fea, 
I msf eay Umi it w (l»i; Rtill in the tiii'Mli' o( it Hwtv it au t>l<n'aUun in fum cuoo- 
llia()c«l and In (Cftuanil apttriimiic<.'>'«r}'mu(.'hllkt'acnil(>r; tuul (rom it mod and clay 
CDmr foRh. The diameter of the lower put ot the cnU«r li soin* 180 fe«t. lallsm- 
nulilf KaH« &ni omiltnl from ittnny tmu-kw or crfvioM. 

Annthcr now bluvl nlw ipiKan-il the mam dmy, nev Kadst, to tbe MQtheMt of 
I Ulaad ot >*«'""'**«i|p"i It it lecuaipilar in ionu, HMuuKt 360 leot in tonfth, 






EARTHQUAKES. 



aoo K<ct in brcadtli, uid iHit S (oet iu liwiKlit. Ttiia Isliuid ftccordinic to what thtfi 
ostivEV my, roee [rom lbt> wa tlnriJig the monuttg of Uio aame ilny, th<^ 21st. Tbey ' 
mw Oi« iTftVM Bpproach; tlu^y felt, a strong and violent wfnd; Lhey hoard n lood^ 
ttdiw; and in aa butant the island rose on the spot where before the aea had beeji 
moTK than SO feet d««p. 

Id thiA tetter there is not the least indieatioD of any aoa raovomont; 
tbo Koismio tihorkfl were folt there but lightly, sa that thn rise of thcso 
i>.Iaii(is dtx's not spcm to Ikj thn cause of the perturimtion cvp^^Honoftd 
in the Jol6 sen and, therefore, there must have occurred some faults 
or displaocments which produecd it Some days Uter tho newspa- 
pers of the Visaya-s publUhed a letter from .I0I6 in which it was stated 
that sonifl Mom niother-of-jxmrl shell fishers reported timt the island 
Dammi, tying between Sia8.si and Tawi Tawi, di(<appoared during the 
earthqnaUc and in the island of Tubigon, near Pu^utamn, a ere- 
vattse or channel wa.s opened dividing it into two paits. Although 
these data are not entirely tiiistwortby, still big displacements must 
undoubtedly have taken place in the .I0I6 sea north of the J0I6 group 
and west of Zamboangu and Busitan. At Zauiboangn, owing to tho 
fact that the highest wave came almost simultaneously witli tho sec- 
ond violent earthquake, it was believed that some displacement or 
fault had occiirrL'd very near. Not only tlirough the plains but aI.so 
on the northern mountain slopes the ground reiuained. badly fissured 
and great landslides were produced. 

The di^turlniuco which occurred on the Slst of September was a 
very inacroeeismic one, since the vibrations produced were regis- 
tered all over the world by the microbe JHinographs. Afterwards this 
region remained in a very unsettled condition as is shown by mure 
than 500 very perceptible shocks felt during the following eighteen 
months; weaker shocks during this long period were countless. As 
has been indicated in the intro<luctiun, the^ souch seas are considered 
an unstable region, the suboceanic disturbances being very irregu< 
larly distributed; but the history of the islands does not show any 
disturlwnco simihir to that just descrilied. FuKher details and con- 
duatotis may be seen in the pamphlet of Father Coronas. The most 
violent earthquakes recorded for tliia region are the following: 

Tabl> Qt—EorOiqttakn tn the geimme center (^f Zamboanfia and JotA. 



UtNH. 




Beiaarla, 



QiaMil illcht danuse to UUldioKs. 

IlKnik|[«d bulldlnipi, maA tbe srauni) «a> otuehed ml alt 

Vflrj rlohmL 

ApMmUr nuUawd frau %. ■ubnunu* ecDtcr towmid 

TUa «mli(](iBli« wu a v«ry resiuLabto ona- 



HKlSMin CENTER np PANAT. 

Altboujifh many corthqunko ahooks felt in thU Uland rtm ho. referred 
to ihe volcano sflisinic cpntors of thn neighlioriiig island of Xt^jfros, 
nevortlieiess there exists in the southeastern part of Panay u well-knoirD 
seismic center. Many violent eartliqimkeK, which were mainly folt in 
the lloflo province, had their origin in this center. The lust one 
occurred on the 2'iith of AugiiHt^ Ii>ij'2. We will transcribe here the 
report written on that occasion referring to the location and conditions 
of this center. It seems to belong to those called by Milno macro- 
seismic centers. 

Prom tbfl data at hand, then, we vonid locate the qtloenter at the foot ol tho 
abrapt and raf^Kd ftbatnicnta ol tho eaat^m aide of Ht. Tnaman or Dojrao, and SIL 
Tiguran, which are foand deeply itcarT»I by aDy Dumber of atrtiaiuleta aiid torrcota 
that riw in tl>o inountHJiu), flowing tlwncc inlu tb<L< Tit^n and Agaiian, « lilch In turn 
poor their vtaterB into the t^ilof^. which empticv finally into Xhe sea at Nagtaolu. 

Thpanrftkcc of Ihla r^uii \« ^-oiy wild and rugged and is ooapoaftd nf Turtiary 
formatione; oongktmeiBtee and caloareooa or lim<«tAne formaticmfl prpdominal£, with 
andvrlying arsnacootw and ar^IUoeoaa bede. These latter beds contain conaiderablft 
amoonta of lignitic and carbonsceoua matter in many plaoeiL InOanimable gam 
arbe fruni these hoda at \-ariuuH {wintjs thu best known lieing tbxmn at Igpahoii 
rr«¥k, and at ths flpring or well nt th« Irarrio nf Binalod. At other [tointii tiiere ore 
otitj.'r4ps of mit and nainieroaa ealt gpnnge. tho water of which, bcinj^ more or lc£8 
aatiimt^l with WKliiini chloride, the poor |ieof>Ie iililixe by cvafiorating it and obtain* 
ing the salt for domeBtlc purpoaes. 8ach a constitntion of the wn] under the circum- 
stanoes indicates that the aoil ther? is not of the firmest cooHisteDcy and ia liable to 
cave in at times and to bo Hib](!Ct to other dialurbancce. 

Thpre aw at present Tery few maniteetationfl of volranic action in the inland of 
I^nay, and thew are rontinoil to a nombcr nf thermal mlnnal aprlngn thai ore 
■itoated at great diatanoes from tlic rcfpon of which we have been speaking. 



orncH KAin-nQCAKB or pakat. 

11 we look backward throttgh the yean we notice that there are very few impor- 
tant earthqaakew on rts.-on.l ut having l>M>n felt in this island. Tht' lint and nuMt 
diaatrotu one recorded occurred July 13, 1787. All the bouma in tliv province of 
Ilotio wen> almoet completely dottroyod; Dothing was beard from the other proV' 
inres. In Uiuse lait>r yoais there were eomu very violeal an«; fur 4-xatM|)lu, tliu uoo 
o( Jnly 11, 1K8I. Thnae living nt the tirn<> had never experienced one of eqiul 
inteuBly. Othera occurred on Fnbruary 13, 1885, April 10 iod October 20, 1880, 
January 26 and February 3, 1687; thi» lai>t one did wme damage to the buildinga. 
Another tuok pUce <m 3 uty 'JO, 1880. It ahoold l»e noticed that, with the eiccption 
of Uiv «u1li<)iiakv of Ftflintary, 1887, which wa« felt with great violence all uver the 
isLutd vl I^nay and tn the neighboring island u( Gnimaria, all theae earihijnakea 
aecm lo have lieeo tth more violently in the province of lloflo. Secondly. In 
nearly every raw, even in tlio case of these that »-oiild ecarocly l>c denominated 
violent earthqubkee, they were tUttu preceded or ac co mpa ni ed by aibtenaneoua 
souodt. 



EAltTHQUAKES. 



231 



VOIjCAS0E8 of CASUVrtX AXP UAOA86. 

The volciinic vonts of the iitland of Negros are thus described hy 
;or Becker: 

On the iebiul of Ncgroe tfacn* arc two volcoziic veute. Oue ot ihtme in * very small 
attalr at tbe Bouthera eud u( Uio ieluid. eouw 10 miltii from Duinaguete, oa the 
thwnlrm tlope of tlie Ctenim do Negro. It is vailed Masaitd. 1 wsa told 
Damagnete thai vapors ariiw from a anuill craler-Uke vent, and that there are 
lo tb« hot rook in which a attck will inOatne. ThcrB art- mlphar ilepoedte 
wimtg flolpbnr sprinRB at ita base. The C:uitiios ak Inr^ly, m far m I know, 
bully nniltwitic. Tlw volcanu of Ciuil^n ik in the central range of the iaiand, of 
hich it fonuB a culminatinR point, it liwt in Lttitiulv 10° 2-1' 3.V. TIip npper 
part of the cnoontoin has the typitxl fomi of a vnlciuiic uuiit>, hul this portion mt(a 
tijMia a more imignfair matw, which foniu a poiiion of tlie r«rig« tAretoliiiij; nortb- 
icard for txnnn 30 riiilvv. Tlie S|iHiii«b hydrograpbic office givea the elevation at 
8,192 feet, ki that it wotilil rajtk with Dati and bo exceeded (mly by Ilalc6o, Apo, 
id Uay6n. Etia viMblefraai near Iloflo and can bo seen even from veneta cmiaing 
tbo cwrtcm nde of Ccbu. From the ae» on the wasu^ni iride of tbifl inland, called 
PaMBge, CaolftAn int a very imprc«ivt.'' spcotacle, for, in addition to the 
:ctiut«qu0 form of the cone, ftfum ia alwa^f) jKmring out from at least two vents at 
le mnnmit. No violent tviiiilion^i an* remembered, hut a»li baa been ejectnl from 
loe !•> lime. The lai«t oontriderahle aah fall occnrrei), a.>< I vm informed at San 
Oadna, in Joly, 18fl3. Tliere was also an eroption in ISCO. Andcujte ia the prevail- 
ing rodt of thin region, aa shown by the stream pf>bb!cfl, and 1 nupposc Canlo^n 
■lld(!Sll]c> On aome }!^[>anifili maps and in Jagor'a Travels this moontain appears 
and<*r rhe name Molaopina. 

In May and June, 161)4, ashes fell on Diany towns around, and more 
ntly, on the 8l9t of Jatiuary, 19(i2, the volcano was throwing out 
lava during the night in the mid^t of a display of light. An 
.rthqiiake, not very violent hut pei"ceptible at a diatance of many 
ee, coincided with tho outflow of lava. In May, IdOS, in the 
rejriou of the solfataric volcano Magas6, there was a seJanuc period 
which lasted some days, with frequent earth nioveiuents of no great 
inleDdily, while at the eanie time an extraordinary increiise in the 
amount of gases emitted by the volcano w&6 noticed. Owing to tlie 
scan-ity of records of earthquakes felt la the ii^land of Negro«, it is 
impossible to know the seismic activity of these centers. In the year 
S^a Mr. Meucarini, a woU-knowu publicist in the Far East, ascended 
volcano of Oanladu, reaching tho wide terrace where the lowest sol- 
is«ue. He took, also, some photographs, but a coming storm 
rented further examination. 

SOOTH EASTKRy LtTZ^N. 

This repon forms the third meteorological district, and extends 

lorthward from parallel IS' north latitude, and eastward from the 

leridjan 133^ ea*t of Greenwich. It comprises tho southeaatem part of 

including Anibos Caniaruie^, Albay, and Sorsogoo, and the 

of Calamluanes, Ticau, ^tasbate, and Burias, and the northern 

part of Simar. In thi^* dij^trict is t^ituatod the most active volcano and 

>w uf the main seismic centers of the archipelago. 




voLCAxo or hat6k. 



We think it b*wt to repeat the dewription of this rolcaoo made by 
Dfictcr Ueckcr in sumnutrizinf^ those of Mr. Aliella and other authors: 

May6B, or the voltano of Altwy, is, next to Tsal, the roost bunons I%iUppine 
Tcdrsno. It l« powibly tlie moet MynimotricAlly iM-antifnl volcMiic cone in tb« world, 
iftnd at tim«e its <UBla in almost ialliutecBni«l,«o that Ibetneridiotul carve (rf the oono 
||b contlnnoiei nlmoei to tho ajtbi. The hdght has been vaiiowly determined, and 
lis to diange vith each eruption, ^rtce the crater always remaine fimall, the 
It Bhoald tend to inetraat, bat the determlnationfl are probably not sharp 
enough to develop Ihin tendency. J^i^r'a barometrical meaaorentent in 1869 wm 
2,374 mttvre. Th** 8p«niifh HycJrogniphit- CominiMtOQ, accordintf to Mr. Abulia, 
I S,522 meteni. Mr. d'Almonte's map of 1883 tpvm 2,527 metere. Mr. Abella 
elf gjve« 2,734 nieler«. but he did not reach the summit, becaose his \'ijdt wiia 
made dniihg the (•mption of I881-S2, and doee not Htate hia roeana of determining 
the height. Mr, d'.'Mmonte, however, made a sketch map of the mountain for BIr. 
Abella'H memnir, and 1 fancy that bo meaaorvd the height by Iriangalatioa. In 
meaeuiv Mr. Abella'H «levation would be 8,970 fe«L The rock of Albtty is 
Ibed by Both and ron DiwHiie ae dolerite, but Mr. Oebbeke regards it ae an 
olivhiillc! ai^te-andeeite. 

Alhay has had a rast nnmber of emptioD& Father Ooroniu pvcA mme details aa 
to ertiptiorw in ini6, 1766, tRTK), 1814, 18S7, 18S&, IMft, 1M6, I8B1, 1863, IS56, 1860. 
1868,1871,1872, 1873, 1881, 1886, 188ft-87, 1888, 1880, 1891, ISflS, 1898, 1895,and 18B8, 
laod he describee ihe emjition of 1897. According to the newspapers, there was aa 
flniptkin early in 1900. Somu of Iheae eruptionn have been ^-vry ecriuuB. In 1814 
about 1,200 live* were lort (Jilgor, by error of tian»cription. Bays 12,000), and th« 
Dtutrjr waa covered with luh. Many pictun-wjuc detail* may be read in Perry or 
Btlsewhere. Of more permanent interetit than tlto deHtmrtion of life and property is 
the chamrt(^r uf the emanatioiM. Mr. ron Drwchr, ailopting Slulir's hyputbam'a 
of three periodi! in the life uf a volcano (Srst, that of lava llowe; eeeond, that ot 
a^gloweratu flows; tliinl, eruptions of tuh), conslderB H*;6n in the second atage, 
, and Bays tliat the a«h eruptions are Reldom intermpted by small lava flowa frntn the 
immit. Mr. Abella stat«« from olwervation that the aah e)ectioa8 are snail and 
' preliminary to extenirive Qowh, and Father Corona* givea a map of the flowa of 1807, 
when lava from the aomniit poured ilown in variooa dlrMtiooa, weo nMcfaing the 
at a horizontal diatanoe of about 6 milefl from the crater. In 1897, bowevar. 
icre wae ranch anh aa well ae flowing lava. An arm o( about 4 sciuare degreea «m 
)verod with aeh, which, nevertheleaa, formed an orogenioiily insignilicant layer at 
9tnt« oonaiderably removed from the foot of the monntoino. At Tabaco, Im* than 
10 inilM fmni the croter, Uib intiabituntji were reaaonably in fear of Hmotherinx, 
bat Uie ash whit.'h fell waa only 3 or 4 wnlimirteni In depUi. Per contra, on 
the roooutoin aide, the tall waa heavy; the villafie of San .Ajttonio, more tlisn 4 mllen 
fmra tho rnuor, wiu m buried under Inva and oab that the rid^polee of the booaca 
werp hidden. It woold appear from the descriptions that a very mnsidemblR pan 
•■ot MayAn conalsu of a solid fnun^worlc of lava Rowiil which altf>mate more or Inn 
'brvgulariy with oah eruptionv, bat that the external form of ttie mountnin is deter- 
mined by i-bowen of aah and coat^'r (rugiuenta) eje<.-ta. 1 can liAplty beliov» 
thntthrrrt iaordinArityanyanch regularity in thu lifk^-hittory of a volamow isfrnpUwl 
ifiluhr'ft hypotheeia. j>tudy o( tiu' hl^lory of May^n and rompHrimn with other 
Icanoca HhDwthal Uieformol the vertimi crom aec-lion tea dt:finiU-ooe [depeiuling 
en the iwii!tanre of the material to cnul^ing^.and it foUoufi that the material ejected 
Inrlngsnyconpidenibleeraption ia so distributed tlial the vertical rluplhofthvaddwl 
kyor tFciitnuiilially luilforiu from lhc«imudt to the boM. Of coanw, moremalcrial 



I 



! 



EABTUQUAKES. 



223 



Mb near the top thiui near the bottom, hot more ml I i dovn/rom the ^l«eper nkipee 
of bigli«r portion* Uiuu (pjui Uu) j^uUur Blopus auar tb« tooU If i^ivU purttclo wuro 
to renuun vhere it fell tho slope wonid bocnmo erteeper nt <«rh empLiim iu»l the 
moontBin wonld tend towairl the ehnpe uE a c-ylimlricftl column. 

Some months after the eruption of J.T(>ti, in October, havoc was 
produced by a typhoon. It is reported in a letter of the alcalde 
of AJbay as a new, awful cniption, but all probabilities iiidut^'e us to 
believe that there was uo cruptiou at all. *'AItbough in this letter 
and in other old accounts," says Father Coraoas, **all the daiuage is 
attributed to a terrible cruptiou, uerci-theless it secuitt certain that it 
was due to the extraordinary violcnco of one of these j(iratory storms 
known in these regions by the name of ' buguios/ which, with the fury 
peculiar to them when near the vortex, throw down fixim the »ides of 
the mountain iomieDse quantities of lava and loose stones, whicb fell 
upon the plain and over the neighboring towns and completely cov- 
ered them.'' A similar «torm in reported to have taken place on the 
Slst of October, 1875, in which, according to Mr. Abella, the effects of 
a strong boguio wore folt^ which caused tho death of 1,500 people and 
enormous damage, greater, indeed, than any of the volcanic eruption^}. 

The eruption of Ibll is reported by the pariah priest of Guinohatao 
ae follows: 

Repeated esrtbqoakes took plare the night beforp, and they (vmtinned daring the 
aatndttg of tho lat. There waa then a stronger shock, a&d at the Mmo momfrnt a 
ckxid of «noke rocs from the month of tho volfano. The clond rooe in the form of 
ft pymmkl »nd tliwi uiKUmt^) n fwitln^ry *ppf«nm<.t^ whirli w«» V'^'ry lM*«utifnl. As 
IbeiOD wasBhininR the phenomenon preeented varied colors. The top was bUck, 
tb« enter took ou rarloog i.'olot*, while the eidi.'s luid louvr part nppeaKil of an 
ai^ tint. While we weru wattdiinjc thift, u-o felt a Btront; tsrlbquaku, whicb waa 
lollovi^ by load nolsca and mml>liii|?ii. The volcano thon cijntinned to vomit forth 
lira, and the dood extetidetl till it dflrkeutrd the whole dlfttrid, and then nparkM 
and 9jMhMnenied to comv from tho grouinl nnd from tlu> cloud, xo tlmt tW wholo 
pfeeent«d the aspect of b most terrible Elomi. There foUowi^d almost immediately a 
tain of large, hot iitoncH, vhicli broko and burnt whatever they fi>ll upon. A Uttlo 
later snaller Oaam, sand, and anhea vere thrown out for more than three honra. 
The fowiiB of OtnUUig, detnoa, and Rodiao were entirely d(vtroy4>d and bmitt, and 
the towns of Albay, (Ininohatajt, and Buluaao bat partly ilostmyed, becnnse the 
•rnptiOD was not on lltat side of tli« mountain, and alK> bei'aui^ tht) wind w»« from 
Ibe Bonth. The darkneM caoaed by the eroptioo waa nvtioeebla as far as Manila 
■ad Iloflo, and, au'ciflitig to soma, tba aabea eniptod pasKd aa far as Cbioa. 

An account of wimt happeninl during other eruptions, which caused 
much loss of life, may be neon in the list of the eruptions which wg 

.(fire a little further on. We reproduce the notice of the last enip- 
tioo only, whii^h or-curred in March. IflOO. This notice was kindly 

I (tent to the observatory by Col. Walter Howe, of the U. S. VoL 

[lafaotry: 

have tb» lioDor to re^tort an ernpUon of the volcano May6n (8 milw trom 
j\), vnmtnBtuang on Marrh I, in the afternoon alKKit 2.S0. At tiu0 tune the 
}u ol largg fftoom could be ae«n with the naked eye. 




The emptkn flnettwtwl Trom timo ta tioue, bat gnuJOAlljr grw wona>, ontii I*rg(» 
streanu of red-bot Uvm could be awo at oigfat flowing dawn the mounUin. One of 
thcao streanu apiMrenUjr has reached the e«e aboot 6 nules from Iwre. For one dajr 
and night the oniptioa vas accompaninl by a nunbUng uoiae, at timM iocn— itiy to 
aruar, which waa rery tenifyiDg. All the hoiieee in I.«gB8pi shook, windows and 
doon> muting. On the morning of March 3, this ribratioti and noiae was very try- 
ing; thpruwa«no wind, and the doudiiof smoke only could be eeeo, reaching far into 
the liittveiui, {lerhapa S tuileti or more above the top of the volcano. This apread 
out and cowrvd Ihv town; tlie sun betmme ubm-uivd, and a thin cloud of aalies full 
constant] y. It cleared in the afternoon sufficiently to show abont one-half tiie crater 
At BUuect, bat thu ruiubling and roarings with thu flow of lava, cxmUntKHl all nighL 

This morning ( March -t) the erapliooeeeioa to be prarticaJly over, althoogh ainoka 
obacnim the mountain, and atcam la aldll rising from the hot lara. 

The volcano of ]^lay6n lias been asoeoded and examiaed many timee 
since the Conquest. Early in 1592 two FraQciscaus made the first 
ascent, but they did not reach the summit being prevented by two 
mouths or small craters, so turned back, after gathering some ^amples 
of sulphur. In May, 1823, Oapt. D. Antonio Linguieuza reache<l the 
summit. He wrote a report of this aaoent for a Hcicntilie soriety of 
Spain, for which he was rewarded with a silver coin or medal. I^tor 
on, two Scotchmen made another aHcont. Mr. Jfigor, in 1859, and 
Mr. von Drasche, in 187(5, ascended and examined the summit, being 
the first who gave a full description and Kome views of the crater. 

Ml*. Abella says in his report that there were many Spaniards and 
natives in the towns aljout the volcano who bad made the asoenL 
There waa one among the guides of Mr. von Drascho who had reached 
the summit on three different occasions. 

Quite recently (in 1902), a party of Americaus made the ascent and 
took many photographs of the crater. 

Concerning the form and state of the crater, Mr. Abella writes aa 
follows: 

From the deacnptiona of those who have written on the mhject, it would appear 
tiifn wa^ not a true hollow crater, or that, il there had heeo ottet, it has b««n filled up 
with the material from tho interior. 

Wliat vn be seen at the pT^nent liay, «tJi«r from the two towoa or tho slopea of 
the volcano, or from the Ki<k'a when we aaw it, is a sort of enonnooa afove, fonned by 
ihi; fragments of bugo stonea piled on top of one aaothar, thicogb tba ctqvIcm of 
which many liillu Jcto of vapor an riong. When these )et8 of vapor nnite they fonn 
the immense leather-like cload on the topof tho volcano. It would appear, however, 
the only mouths which emit lava are the Mcondary ortoa on the aoutb of the moan> 
lain, especially if we Hz our atteuUtm on th« vegetation on the sides of the volono. 
Toward theamth the vegetation atopeal aht-ight of 700 metere above the level of the 
aea, while on the oortb and wcHt sides it grows op to the very crater. 

This would seem to indicate that the prodoceiof thsvolcaoo have not been thrown 
otit in tliftite directionit for a long time past. Moreover, on the north side th« ground 
is toQcb drui«r aod ojore solid, and is not liaeojud as thesoath ajdo. 



I 



i 



^^^^^^^^V EARTHQUAKKS. ^^^^ 225 ■ 


^^M TitiiMi 7. — Eruptiom of the rcicarto of Slayttu ^^^H 


TEU. 


Ifonth. 


Dky. 


Hotir. FU^nAflu. ^H 


MIA.. . 








Tbv mw KQoUot erojitlun rvportcd, bol (rlttaont pmlM ^H 
date Off <ii9 y rtfULATJi. ^^H 

It luted sU d»y>, durfnff whluli «ii imuivaMi eoCainn of ^| 
mDm and snioke row in lh<ralt Aud k atmua ot lava ^H 
poiued down ibe tail fide u( 1 ho vi'icnuv. It tttvpotted ^H 
Ibat MOM tDOntha itltci tttt* •rraudoD. In October, tba ^H 
Iwsvy rslnUI ■Moaipauyinsa vfoknt typhoon ctnl«d ^M 
dowodl*]niMri«tMtntgiB«tiUili!j«cla,biitxJii)[i>!uiUUoDi ^H 
and wliok TUlaicni AalmnarnonnlireponiKfintitiTooc- ^H 
cnrrcd la Octdbcir, 1635, vhlcfadettToi'edtliv 11 viwuf about ^H 
LMOpenoiu. ^H 

H*ny, iiat not v«ry dcatractlve, •mpiloiu. ^H 

Dreadful craptloa. (rUcliwull-iilglibUTkduiidcrltiMrMsui ^H 
o( Urn cnaubM the whole cciuntrr aruuud the tuwuaof ^H 
Bodiau, OunAUa.and partially dcnrored UolooliataD and ^H 
aitMT. aboiH 1.200 llrca were loat Tbo adMBW«r« car- ^M 
ried ihroogb ibe ati lu (u an tba coaM o( CUaa, and tba ^^^M 
daricDc«|iniduccil by itini-Iuudiuf uhea exlamlwl «T«n ^^^^H 
orer awh Luidn. Hltic« the ytar UI4 many allybt arap- ^^^H 
dona bars oucurred, lutdi u tlioae at Jaljr, U2T, Marcb, ^^^H 
ins, January. 15VS. ^H 

Bmpdonof verrihorlduratlau. DurldBibrMorfonrboura ^H 
ItaeeiBitrbclcbcdfonliaiiioko. HbchaDd buvy Monn, ^H 
which, rollla« dotrn (be alcep alopea of the nxmutalu aide ^H 
dcB9oUabed man y bouaea and bUled 35 paiwtii, ^H 

Not Tinlrnt. ^H 

Lara Bnircd qiilcUy from ihn aiiaiiclt dnrinr tbe (teabir ^H 
[ntn iif iliiK year. ^^| 

email itfupUuM. ^H 

Modenuv enipilon; aomeJaTawraaiDalloirvdtakalwaid. ^H 

Thh one laated fonr dam Mcampanltxl by ationa ramUlot ^H 
aoondi. Ito tcaiot lire or property. ^H 

Lander than the prcccdlnc one. tiut of tbo sama peaeehil ^H 
ctuxscter. ^H 

Vety loDB, but weak: It bMui on the dih of June and ^M 
ended la AuguHt, 1S83, TIib lava flowed rram many ^H 
ercvl'caa nuar lh« (Unuult and wa« accoatpantcd by rucB> ^H 
bllnx Mintitln ^H 

FlnwHollitvAfln tbnaonth.MutheaM, and KiDthweat rides of ^H 


tm.... 
uoo.... 




ao 






Wi.... 

IL 

Ufg 


rvbruur.^ 


] 

ts 














urn.... 
wn.... 

UR.... 


l>Member.. 


n 

• 








ao 




PC.... 

UB.... 


Novemlwr.. 


< 






MM.... 

UM.... 
UW.... 
U«t.. . 

im.... 


Pebraur-- 

Dwoambm.. 

SepUBiber.. 
Orudvr .... 


s 

15 

10-30 
Z 

ao 




till VOICMIO. ^H 

hoag cniptlrc period; lara flnwcd quipilr. except on tbe ^H 

tth, the 21d. and 77ih of Febniary. 18M. and tbe lit and ^M 

Mb ol Hareb, IW;, when Ihu matiltnoatloniiincieaaed. tbe ^M 

crater hurlliic fortn Mhi*. •tonm. and IsneoiuTaport, wttb ^H 

an accompaniment nl rumbUuir aounda. ^H 

Small and alioti eru|i<1ciR. ^H 

Small and abort ervipUnn. ^H 

Small and abort enipil«ii. ^M 

A very nolay «rin(ton, but not dcatrwttlra; tbe Sow of ^H 

lava waa very abuudant and tbe •nmtnll a( tbe crate* ^M 

waa grcAtly dcfonacd. tbe Ibin ed(«* ol which eomplelcly ^M 

dlMppeand. ^1 

SItnllartothcptcoedlngane. ^M 

Veiy weak. H 

Very w«ali. ^H 

VayatrpiyetupaDo.lBatinit tweniT-fonr hnijr«. Oreat km ^^^M 

ol life (IH rlcUnu) aad property. ^^^H 

StfoBg ertipUoD. lanUw four day*. ^^^H 












^Hv»; 


OfUiiet .... 

Juir 


4 

ao 
ai 
» 














^^ Around the 


jGna 


tifol coDe rise nutoy small ones, described by Mr. H 


LAbells as folloi 

^^1 Ttie hill to tbe i 


lurtb 


sast, wbicli dominates the towo of Matilfpot, has two or three ^M 


^^Bbr*. whk-h UK it 


1 n i< 


Lraieht linv. Thev arc rounds, wbicb mitfht indicate that ^M 


^^Bti«r w^^(• w-coiid 


kty c% 


fDt* w hicli have heen tiKfditled bv the eruptions o! MayAa. ^M 


^^Htti- «Mi)<' Iiill. TiLi 


loolui 


>. Miltntwi to tliv routhwiwt of San Antonio, has tlie form of ^M 


^^b rminloil rttft l>et 


ween 


tlie old and actoal conrve of the ri%'«r (Jninali. ^M 


^H TowartI Ibi; uu 


rtlt i 


i ii on HbruDt dUT. at the foot of wbkh tii tho road from H 


^HTbI«<3i> to Liino. 




H 


^^1 V«ry tnucti llkv 


Tnin 


\>lao. thoQKh niaeh krECor, Is Lli%i6ii, Lo the north of Albay. ^M 


P^t U at the fiMiL or 


UlR 


Uaydo, though ita fornutkm is difficoll lo explain, aa Is altto ^M 


f IWorulao; far pv« 


IHOp 


ifonui theut to be Bubordlnato volcanic cones, it is very dilD- ^| 


Bn^alt to Mto tiow at 


OQVp 

Ul. 1- 


icric act)t>o coukl modify them so uoch. ^H 
-05—16 ^1 



32« 



GEOOHAi»HY. 



Northwest nf MayAn risA the extinct ronr%, IsBroj;. Iriga, and 
MaUnao. Itoirug was ascended in the year ltH)8 hy two American 
teachers, who, id tbeir report to Uoo. James Ross^ governor of the 
Oamarine4, describe the crater as follows: M 

The crstor rim u nothing but a knife-«dgv, bcit eTCn on tlio very nommil ni* tai^^ 
■hrotv and ntuilt trvM up to 25 iert in lu-iglit. So (letiHC ih Ui« vegrlalion thul it 
wM tiDpomiblt: to K^l an utttluok in Miy directioa vithoat cliRit»ng into the tieei ukd 
catting away- th** wnall^r liranchvcL 

The crater wax [ifKi-ctly clear, though it wax olouiljr in every direction oQlnde. 
The bottom of th« enter in a oomparativeljr level, wooded plain, almoet ctrcnlw, and 
abont ha]f a. mile in dianiet*.>r. I jnd^ it to Iw aboat S,O00 feet below the general 
level of the rim. To got a better idea of the diatanoca 1 fired two ■hola Irom a Ktag 
cariiineat a white npot on the upper [Wrt of the great landalidc on the Boathwoatride 
of the crater. WiUi the sight Taiard to 2,000 yards, the ball fell below the mark. I 
tbenainuvl over thn top of Ih<^ right framp, anil the halt Htill fell Wluw. eo thedirtuoe 
mtMt be well np toward a milu and a half. A north-and-t<ontli line froffl rim to rim 
mnitt b(! good two milca 

ContTHiy to tha luaal opinion, there ia on eaeh thing tn the rrater aa a lake. Tnm 
the foot of each of th« two great bLnddidtw which full fnim the rim io the bottom in 
Blarch, 1902, runs a little strewn. A. Uurd one appcara to <x>inc from thecleft which, ^ 
on the oatiwle of the monnuunfl, brm the i«nyoi) of the Maabom river. ■ 

Mt. Iriga hoH not been examined, as far as wc know, Tbo Kstado 
Gcogrfitico alho allt^fes that Irigii, in the province of ^ViutxM CaiuariD08, _ 
was in eruption id 16U; but Jfigor gives »eeiuingly good reason ■ 
for believing that this .«tfltenient, not to bo found in earlier worlcs, is 
a mistake. Many of the extinct cones retain tracer of soifnluricacCion, ^ 
or at least give vont ti) hot springs. ■ 

Mt. MaUnao ih doubtless an extinct volcano; its crater is broken op 
opened to the north protxibly by the erosion of the waters which found 
their outlet in that direction. At the foot of the north side of thiaJ 
volcano the most remarkable solfataras and hot spring.'^ in Luz6n arc taj 
!« found; some of the springs here dciKwit siliceous t*inter in \'ari( 
fantastie forms, and pyrilou.s deposits of recent date also are found. 




Btmuaur voLuso, Loocoie is. 



^^ 



EARTHQUAKI-X 



227 



i 



VOLCANO OF BULUfiAN. 

In the most southern part of Luz6n, on the Strait of San Bemardioo, 
lies the voloAno Riilnaan. JOf^v calltt attention to tho Rtriking simi- 
larity of its sbupo to that of Vesuviim. According' to the Guin Oticial, 
Its height ttocniK oompArtibln with that of May6n. ^' At present it is 
neurly extlact, hut t«omctiuiCH emiU aqueoujt and i^ulphurou^ vapors/* 
The Estado GtK^i-atico, page 314, states that it b^aa steamiog in 
1652, after long aecming oxtinct. Around the foot of this volcano 
arc many hot and mineral springu, especially on the eauteru and 
aoutliern Hides. 

Ita crater I^ open to the southwest. Auioog the people there is tha 
belief that this volcano shows greater solfataric activity when the 
May6n volcano \s in eruption. During the eruption which occurred 
in 1S03, the Buhinaii was {^teaming. Between this volcano and that 
of Alhay thorn arc many H|>ots whoro the volcanic activity springs 
ouL Xlic hot spriug ctUled Mauito near Focdol uiouutuin is a romark- 
ible one. *'The reddiijh hot waters,'' saya Mr. Monlano, "issue, 
foruiing a waterfall from an elliptic crater, the diameters of which 
measure nomc 400 and '2(*0 fret, respectively. Thi.-* .iprlng is an inter- 
mittent one, the waters being pushed out by the vapors at very short 
intennls; Uieir temperature is almost constantly 70^ C." 

This volcanic region, the most remarkable of (he archipelago, is 

where the earthquakes also are very frwiuont. Many of the most 

riolent ones have been of a clearly volcanic character, for they hare 

either prooeded or followed volcaiiii^ oruptionH of the volcano of May6n. 

It has been observed on many occasions tlmt within a few days after 
earthquake shocks have been felt in the AJbay region, shocks are 
noticed in M&nur., Lcytc, and Surigao, as if the disturbing force were 
apreading to the wiutheasl along the volcanic belt, running to Surigao. 

Besides the volcano seismic center of Albay, there Bcema to exist 
a soismic Minter ntur the island of Maslmte, or between this island and 
the coa^ft of Sorsog6n and Albay proviucCvS. The last outburst of th\s 
center occurred in May, 181i7, a month before the great eruption of 
tlie volcano of Mayon, which took place on the 25Jh of June. In the 
following table wo mention eomo of the most violent carlhquakct* felt 
in the southeastern region of Luz6n: 

TAMUt a.—£arth^iuak€t of tovUtmiigm ZiwfM. 



fB4B. 



IIH.... 

mi... 



UM.. 

u»... 
vm... 

UR... 



yenUi. 



Jl* 

OrtfttMr.... 



July. 



0.y. 



Sour. 



1IJ0 •.».. 
01 |i. ni... 

7.*i p-u... 



Remarks. 



Tlu>prMiM<taUiorthe ix««nvo««ot tiUN oirtbqnkke l« itn- 

koQwo; It wwdwmHUrodiJcBjr In AmbwCMurlnai. 

Braptlon uoomiMalMl UxTlol«(itabaiJ»durii«Mr<inl 

VOBtll*. 

Long MiMnk p«/1oit: Uie tliocka fell uii tbo &th of Oeut- 

ber duMfMI UMUV cbufctit* ud ottef buUdlon IM 

AllMT «U AmbM CunatiDt*. 
Sv«ll *rnpilou. arcummnloJ by tt vtoloni eutliqislt*. 

lell with iarte thtniDchuiil Lu^iu. 
PuUinnrvunm«lylD .(mbaa C^ntulnM Utan In &llMr< 
Very vlolml Ld Aibky aiMl in Uu^ Ulandi ot llaab*tc and 

Ticau. 
DM(rtic4Jv<< In Ui« talaoda ot Haatat* Md U ma* vlt 

lagv m UW ptDvfOM g| Albar- 



CENTRAL AND NORTHERN LCZ6M. 

This region, which forms the fourth meteorological district, extends 
from parallel IS- north latitude northward, and to the west of the 
nioridian 122^' cast of Groonwich, thiw wiuprising the whole of the 
main part of Luzon and the island of Mindoro. In the southern part 
of thiri district lie the active volcano Taal and the extinct ones Ban&jso, 
Mat^iuiling, and Ai-ftyut. 

TOLOAKO or TAAU 

The volcano of Taal (14'= 03* north latitude and longitude 120° 67' 
east uf Greenwich) U a very remarkable one, and is readily accessible 
from Manila; it lies in the middle of LAke Homh^n. One compara- 
tively largo crater and several other flmall extinct oues virtually form 
the island of Votciin. 

The mo8t important of the secondary concii is tiie Binintian Mala- 
qui. forming the northwest corner of the island; it if a well-sliapcd 
but truni'atcd eono, and is cut through the western side by a ere- 
va&so, whlcli hcrvos hh an outlet; on its interior and exterior slopes) 
many layers of volcanic ejecta can be distinguished, corre^ipondiiig 
to different eruption;*. Not only in the Itottom of the crater but 
also at the we<^tern foot of the cone near tiiu lake there ia still 
aomo .activity, luanifested by ejec-tioos of sulphurous ^'apors. The 
flat bottom of the crater i» only iiome 500 feet above the waters of 
the lake, while the i*emainin); ring or ridge reaches in the southwest 
to a height of 800 feet, or some 300 foet from the bottom. The 
diameter of the Imitoin ia some 660 feet. 

The Ikbntoc crater, southeast of the last one, has an elliptic foraif 
the ]onf,ri>..<t diameter mc4Ufuring more than 1.400 feet; the highest point 
of itri Ixirders rises to some 450 feet. This crater U also broken on the 
west. There is not the least sign of volcanic activity, and the oiinglcd 
volcanic ejecta, disint^mted from the bordering ridges, is Ulling the 
bottom, and vegetation is growing well. Clom; to tbia crater to tho ^ 
south, in a space of not more tlian one square mile, there are the Dumer> fl 
OU8 craters known by the nnme of C^ua.s; all are of circular form, 
some 450 feet in diameter. Many of them have been almost Hllod up 
with the disintegrated volcanic ejecta, in which the cogon (Sacchanim 
Koenigit, Kcts.) is growing. They lie on a slope, tho highest being at 
flOffie 14*) feet above tho lake ami tho lowc.<4t at tiic water level. „ 

In the southwest end of the island there rises (ho old crater Rinin- mjt 
tian Munti. It in completely extinct, and lillcd up with diiiintegrated ^ 
materiahn of tlio falling iKirders ur ridget* uf tlic ancient rim; there 
remain only two edges, situated iu the northeast and .suuthwejit. The 
summit stand;) at 60 feet above the level of the lake, and ita diameter 
or longest axis measures al>out 1,200 feet. On the denuded slopes of 
lhi.s eoni^ Mr. <Vnlciio dUtuigutshcd nine different ond very distinct 
layers uf volcanic ejecta. Just uurthea»t uf tiiuuitian Muuti 



I 
I 

I 



mti d|^j 



l'L\BTHQUAKES. 



229 



Tabaro, h wf^II-shapcd cone, and Taharo-Mnnti, of ttimtlar form. 
Alotiff the rflst^rn Hlwtrp (horo riKPri tho Piimgiilhunn, a fine crater 
formed on Ihc shore line; only tiie we.s(#ni part nn the. shore renmins, 
for the rasl4irn, if it was formed by the ejecta fallen into the waUr, 
has been waahed away. 

The centrol or main crater is nearly round, its diameter on a north- 

Mouth line being 1,900 meters (&,S3d feet) and the cast-west diameter 

2.3(K> metere (7,546 feet). The edge of this crater is somewhat irrog- 

^ ular, but is nowhere broken through, it* highest point standing at ouly 

meters (1,060 feet) above sea level and its lowest at 130 meters 

(42d f«et). It i-*' !iaid that Cosbima. in Japan, h the only other volcano 

:if shaUarly low altitude. Within the rim are two hot pools, known, 

Tespecttrely, as the yellow and the green lake, and a little active oona 

[•boat 60 feet in height, from which escape steam and sulphuroua gaa 

Hn varying quantities. The level of the interior pools, according to 

Ont«no, is approximately that of Lake Domb6n itself. 

In the timaller lake, every few minutes, the water in the center is 

blown up like an immense bubble, which, rising above the surface, 

[fiaallj bursts, revealing a black oi'iGcc and causing the boiling and 

rerr turbulent water to assume all imaginable colors. Tho quantity 

lot aqaeouB and sulphurous vapor escaping from the lakes, from the 

■clave oone, and from the opened crevicott on all aides, is sufficient to 

Drm » broad, smoke-like column of vajmr, which is visible especially 

jdoriag the nighl and in the early morning. At some distance, and 

&fore reaching the edge of tho crater, where a view of the bottMQ 

be obtained, the rumbling K)und produced by the escaping vapor, 

inder the influence of the mysterious subterranean forces, can be 

loard. like that of an immense boiling kettle. 

The changes which thbi volcano ha.s imdergone and the disastem 
fhich it has caused since hbtoric times are very remarkable. Accord- 
ing to the chronicles of the time of the Conquest, the crater waa 
on tho northwestern point of the isliiiid, liaving a cone which 
to-day, and is (tailed IVmintian Miilaqui. A few years after 
Conquest that crater ocosed acting and another appeared on the 
reutem i^eof the island, which in 1 716 whs submerged, leaving a)>ove 
'I3ui8ar&ce the two islands Nabuin and Nupayon. Then a new cmU^r 
approred on the eastern side of Pulo Voledn^ which wa;^ gmdually 
toward the west imtil the present crater was formed, which 
not changed much since 1754. Among the various eruptions !*inc© 
Llie Oooqncst, the most notable are that of 1741)^ when the village of 
8ftU dlaappeanMi. nnd that of 175-1 — ^tho greatest of all— when tho 
rniagiM of Taal, Lipi'i, and Tamiuan, which wero then on the shores of 
Idkk^ Boml>6n, all di.sappcared. All the eiiiptions liavo consisted of 
i^bowen* of burning ashes and scoriae, Iwtweon wliirli phowers, great 
.blocka of biiNall wore thrown out, covering the whoK? region to a 
npth varying from a few ceutimetera to two or tUreQ vaQ>V&v% "wA 




230 



GEOGRAPHY. 



CftUfling^ the dtfferpnt ^ntra r^ volcanic nuit^rial which <**n he ««l 
thi'oughout the province. 

T!io earliest known published refprence is by Father Gaspftr do Sw 
AgTistiii, written in 16S0. This account Is pven in full by Centeno foi 
the light it throws on the condition of the volcftnoes prior to the mora 
recent eriiption.s, and I have examined the original work. Father 
Caspar saye: "In this Lake of Bomb6o there is a small inland upoa 
which h a fiery volcano, wont at times to eject nuiuorotu and very 
large burniug stones, which destroy and lay wai^e many cultiva 
fields which the natives of Taal possess on the slopes of the said vol 
cano." Father AJburquerque, priest of the town of Taal, which la; 
on tho shore of Bonib6n, but \f now destroyed, examined the volcano.' 
He bad himself let down into the crater which had two openings oal 
of sulphur and one of green water which is always boiling. To thii 
plac-e now come many deer, which are attract«<I by the salint; depositi 
{talitralei) existing about the lake of the volcano. Tho opening wbicl 
lies toward the town of Lip£ (east-southeast) is a quarter of a league 
in width. 

Father Alburquorque was prior of Taal during- the period 1572- 
1A75, so that the first historic eruption can \w. placed a lilile earliei 
than the former date. Father Kada mentions it as liaving occurrmi in 
the year 1272. 

Again slK>ut the year 1591, tho volcano began to smoke, wbec 
Father Itariolomd de Alcantara was priest of Taal. After this out 
burst it remained quiet; but during the period 1906-1611, whei 
Father Ahreu was priest at Taal, frequent rumblings were heard 
Mr. Semper thtiK summarizes the early historj' prior to the year 174S 
the date of a more serious eruption: 

Two (tonbtfui ompiions are nienUon«d In the yMni 1634 flnd \Wh, without irtaU 
ment *if Ui« uaiue ol thtt crat^ta. From 1707 to 1733 tliv (wo Biniatiaofl altvrnaie 
with one uiotlrer till lit Ivngtb, in 1749, the middle crat«r banct out, ail«uciiig th 
other two. 

Of tho eruption which occurred on the 34th of Soptembor, 171* 
Father Francinwo Pingarron, rector of Taal, wrote a detailed report 
In 1731 a new eruption took place, which was described by Fathe 
Bucncuchillo, priest of Taal. Doctor Itocker summarizes both report 
as follows: 

SeptenilxT, 17!6, nllir eonndfl mistaken (or dlscbarpee of artillery had l»en hoiPi 
flr« WKO dufttrilx^i Imraliiif; from th« volcano on tbe island nl the h^'m^v towanl 1j[)> 
an a point ixllod Calavite. Thta point la now aUled CaUait and ia in Uio wiiitheM 
«ni comer of the idjuid. The fire then tthiltMl intotlio \»\.v in th«> dirvotioo < 
Ml. &[acoIoi], thro«-itiK np w»t«>r and ubve in itnmviu^e IxibbliiiK Bomea^ rido 
inu.' tuwen iuUi Iha sir. Tlie water grw hot nml Mack, fiwlivii were Mrewn on tfa 
beachHas if they had been cuolied, and tiiuair woa fo (ultotmilphuniua atncllsaw 
the odor of drad IliOi that, tho (nhnUtants aU-ltenod, Thif Htiitt> of Uilngn liinted thn 
(U)>. In 1T3I, w Father UiiODcuclilllo wrilm, "flm broke ottt in the lake is frootc 




u^iii > il il—— ■■ 



BEEIOa.Or XSE liAL 70LCU0. 



the point whirh looks tn the east, obelisks of eartJi and eand ao taigo and liigti nus- 
tng tbcnuclrcfl Irom the water that in a few days on inlRt wax fnnunl with a quart«r 
of a t4>a^ue of rfast Um-." 

Centeno thinks tbe Father reforrfid to tlio Dorthoastcrn iwmt of the 
islaoU, and tliat tbe islets which now exi^t thoi'O wero formed at tliis 
eruption. Poiisibly, however, an island of RJocta may have !«'pn 
formed at CaUuit aod Iiave been wa-shed awa^' at a later date. It 
would be interet^ting to examine tbe existing^ isleis with a view to esti- 
mating their age. 

After eighteeo years of reUtire calm, a great eruption occurred in 
August, 1749. From tbe loug report of Father BueoL-uchillo we take 
only tbe following: 

On tbe Bveuing of tbo Ilth of Angiut A g\Arti woa Men on the Bonunit of the toI- 
cfino, and at 3 n'dock of the following; morning strong iletonatioiu b^;^ to bo 
beard, and ininied)at«ly a colnmnof black amoko iasuctl torth, not onljr from the niain 
crater, hiitaliu from many other atnaJI cratoraopeniii^iii ttM« if*land. Prom liie very 
twttoui ut (hu laku there alao annw awful pyramids of water, wnd, aod smoke, tower- 
ing to the clonda. Theee imTnergetl cratera opened to the northand eartof tlie 
island, or toward the tovna of Sala and LlpA. Aboat 9 o'clock In the looming vlo- 
lent »bock* were f«lt, coinciding with the opening of new immeT)icd f-ratera dowt to 
tbe DoTthvm and «a«t&m dfaort*. Xear Sala a great e-xt«atrion of thv coast of the lake 
aauk down into tlie lake, only tlie hewls of the talltHt treea emerging above the eur- 
lacv. Thv land lui far as the town of Culauila and tht* bank of Laguna do Buy wat^ 
di\'i<led with tremendous noise. The land all around wae cnnriderably ahakrai, no 
that Tunaaan aa well sa Sola were almo«i dwiroycl; tht^ rivora changed their 
conracii, streami) broke ont from new Rprin^, and the groand in oereral jilacea sank. 
While tliia wan taking ptaoe I mw^t^veral (vwo and bongn tTMw, which treva, aa 
everyone knows, are very high, yet I coald touch t]ie bra.Dcfaee with my hands with- 
out any difOcolty; and I also saw sevenil liouscit which beforv, on account of tbvir 
height above the ground, ic waa necessary to make use of a ladder la enter, bnt that 
after the sinking of tbe ground it was n>iy«8Bar>' to go down to enter th«m. But 
what Rtnick raft moat of all waa that the Indiana kept in their bouses, quite happy, 
altbougli tb«y aaw Uutt ttiey v^rv bt^ing bnri«i1 alive. 

This eruption laeled for three weeks and darkneee was produced by the dost and 
uhM nupcndL-d in tbe air, bo that for some days it wai neoeaury to liglit candlw at 
noon. After three weekn the crnption tenninalod, as well as the (reqnent shocka 
of earthqoake which occompaoieil it, bnt a thick colmnn of smoke and vapors con- 
tinued to rifle qoietiy for some years. 

The greatest eruptiou of Taal took place in 1754, It consisted of 
only fragmental ejecta, but tbe#e were sufficient to destroy fourrillages 
lying about the lake. "Tbi^^ ash," Semper says, "has now indurated 
and a new growtb of liamboo and palms has sprung up around the pro- 
jecting ruins.'' Father Buoncuchillo wrote also a patbotic descriptioo 
of this erufitioD, from which we take the following: 

It began on May 13 and did not rnd till the Ist of December. t>uHng this thne 
the tnten^ty and aspect of the entpUon were continually cbanginff. It waa two 
|iDndr«d days of d^vaetation and ruin (or tlw inhabilatiU, to wlu^m Hm time must 
^ faaro appeared an eternity. Ihjrini: ttiis temblelime ihr fnnr principal towns of tbt^ 
ligunaot Boaib6a diwppoarcU, vix, Bala, UyC, Taoaaaii, aad Taal, with tbe ntuasrottl, 
Mhgn atoood tbetn. 



9 



Othi^ tnnun nf thp latn* prorincp ut h grwit <Iio1ftnw, iw well aa towtw nf 1Ji« 
sagbboTiDK province »( Ualaydn, ilatanKBP, and Baunn, hIso imfferMl giVAt tlHmage. 
BoMjio, Sutto TuuuU, Kiid Bail Pablo alei) folt tbo «llvct of tbe run of iu>Ue« and 
fOoriu,aBaIiK>(ii(lalmf«t all the pnmnoed Iielow the renter ff Luzon. Tlio quantity 
tt Mbes Mid woriae w)iirh n-aa Bent up by tin* volcano was m ^ruat tliut n ^vai 
qnaatity of pumice stone appearwl on the Burbioc of the wnter of the lognnn; nnd 
several village* aroand llmaoan and othen around Taal being near the volcann nud 
bccaoM live wind was «wt were totally dtwtn-ived by this rain. 

The eniptioa oontinaed tbns with greater or lea inlettfiity. but continuooa. till tiie 
10th of Jaly, when the nature of the voliKoic rains chan^ied, aa may be ^tluTwl tnna 
Ibe following words: 

There waa not a Binglo night thronghout the whole of This month ol Jtine till July 
10 in wbich flamea were wanting on the rolcano or in which there were not rumbling 
Do ia a g . Tlitx went on till Jnly 10, when it rained mud over the (own of TraI, am) itie 
mod was of so black a character that ink would not have Etained bd bUickly, and 
whvn the wind ctuiuged, tlie uind euvL-n.'d u vilhi^ called Balele, which Is near Sals, 
which Tillage waa the moet fertile of the whole of that diittrirt 

Tlu) volcano oontJnuod to throw out, witli mure or 1c-«h fnteni^lly, flames and black 
■Doke during July and Aogoat and part of September, till on the 2?)th of Lhin lost 
mootli itappoarvda^ if tlie volcano wi*tbMl b) pitrnde all its fortxw againut us, ItwHuee, 
on that date, to the horrible nunbtingR ami the trenuendoiiEi flamofl -kw joined a 
tempeat which originated in the clottd of ttmoke. The tightnlngft which aoi^mpanied 
the Monn continued without intermptinn till December 4. ft in tnily marreloiu 
that th« cloud lasted ior more tluin two mnnthn. Over and above this, there was 
from this same 26tti of September till the morning of the 24th «Qoh a cnpiotu twin of 
inmiOQ stonca that wv were obliged to abandon our huiui« fur fmr the Ktonen would 
Imak through llie roof, an indeed )uippene<l in mme houses. We were thus com- 
peUed to flee throogh thl« min of stone and aevenl were woonded by the Btonca 
falling on their heads. During that one night the ground waa covered with M-oriae 
and ariies to the depth of a font anil a half, thuM deetroying and drying np the trees 
in>l planb as if a Are had paused over them. 

The activity of Uie volcano ecmtinui'd, with abort intervals of quiet, daring the 
moalfaaol October and November. On tlie evening of the fea»t of All Balnla the 
TotcAiKt again began to voinli. (orlli fire, atom's, sand, mud. and aaliea in A greater 
qotDtity than ever. Thin went on till Novemlier 16, nii which date, after venpera, 
there commenced a wiuceMBion of ruiublinga, eoloud aa todiiiftrn one, kikI thi- vuloano 
began to vomit forth amoke so denae and black as to darken the atmosphere, and at 
the OBme time i>Dch n grcAt quantity of hx^ stoned fell into Uie lake a» to canae big 
VkTOa The i«rth trvmbled. the honaea ahook, and yet this was but the pieparatioa 
for a frenh rain of scoriae and ashes, which lasted the whole of the afternoon and part 
of the night 

Od the 27Ui of November another erQptioD occurred, which the 
ciiroDicler deacribes thus: 

Kotwithatandlng the diaaster tliat bad overtaken as, I still remained in the add 
town, together with the chief justice of the province, till, on tlie night of the 27lh, 
the volomo began once again to vomit such a quantity of Hamea that it aeeme*! as if 
all that bad be«n erupted daring the preceding oioutha together did not equal that 
which was tlirown fortli during that hour. 

Every moQient the violence of the eruption increased, ao that the whole of the 
Uind was l'llv(^^(yl with Are. Thia increasing voWnic acti^nty, accompanied aa It 
WM by frightful mibterranean ramhlin^ atiit earlbqiiak)*, cauaeil tlie uiirorlanale 
lohabitanla t>> abandon Uiejr town and at any riak to gain the heigbbi which riae 
batwwm it luid SoRtuiirio de Oaynaay. 




234 



GEOGnAPHY. 



Thn poBBed iha 2Sth, but ud the morniiiR of tbf 391h emoko vas nbeerrad i 
in vnrions points of Uie tHlaad from CaUoit to the crator in a tdmizlit liup jg 
ft flamire bad been opened kll along' tbo line. Bctwcon 4 and 6 o'clock of ihii 
ereaing (Norembor 29) lti» borixoa ilftrkeiied leaving on in fomfilete fUrkne^J 
at the eame timo -U began to rain ntud, asbee, and oaod, and thougb not iai 
qoantitiefl vt before, yet it kept on wltbont inteirupUon tbe wbole of tbat 
tbw momint^ of tbo 30th. 

The rain of mud ccued Bomowhnt at -I o^dor^ In the afternoon. It then i 
a nn-tor in depth in f^antnario de Ca>*sanay, which in distant about fonr lefiglM| 
the volcano. In fumw |ilaim iieaivr the iHlautl lite depth of tbe mud, et4:., : 
more than tlireo yaida 

Thii mill of luhu) complotely cvamd on the let of December, and then a hnr 
which lastf^ two dayit, came to pat the finishing touch to m many diaaaten by 1 
ing up the littJe that had been left etandtng. 

No great eruption hna occurred since 1764. In 1808, 187*, i^' 
IBdO, and recently, in 1003, there were outbreaks, but the datni 
done, if an*', and the outbursts themselvc-s seem to hare been confit 
to Che island itself and to the main crater. 

**In spite of tlie terrible ledums of tbe Uuit century," commec 
Centeno, "atl of thtse loi-alitieH have l)een rejKipiilated. Their fe 
tjlity, their sui'pas.sing'ly l>euutiful topographical situutiun, and 
beHltfafulueutt I'barni tbe people into a prompt forgetfuluess of 
disasters." 

We liave givea a somewhat full account of the greatest erupdc 
which have occurred during the pat^t three centuries, which must 
kept in mind to nee the prolmliility of the following theories concec 
ing the fm-sl history uf this volcano. The Z6Fiign theory Bupj 
that Lake llomb6n, actually surrounding the craters, wan origii 
by the collapH? of a volcanic cone. It is pii)l>iiblo that the prini 
live cone was blown out by huccbssIvo explot^ionii rather tliau by 
colIapBe. Wewill notdcal longerwitb this theory, discussodatlei 
by Mr. Centeno. It will lip enough to repeat what DtJCtor Becker 
written fout-errilng il: 

tdike BoinbAnliaa a nuldyoval form, ivitha mean dtameterofabont twelve miles.' 
I have not been able to ascertain iu l<>v<>l, )mt the sorfaM can not atand many foeC I ^ 
above tbe bm, for tbe Bfo Pansfpi t, which oonn«ct« the lake with the Golf of BalayAn. ~^ 
im only ubont aix mika long and has no catarat^, and it v>-w fomM-rly navi^Ule. tt , 
cots llmjugli a low uam of tuff. The other porliowi of the lake are enootopaeaed by T j 
ft imst considerabty higher than the BorroondinK oouutry. At somo points thbi t*r(si 
comes cIoM.' w tho shore of the lake, whili; at otiiufv a narrow atrip of lowland int 
veneB, Imt, as Mr. von DramJie pointed oat, the watershed is everywhere m near i 
sboru that tho lake baa not a tingle affluent. The entire snrroundinR regjoo ii < 
pond of votouiir materiala, ftlmoft altogether tuff. Fatbt<r Zdfllga ngftrdad 
lake as originating tn tho coUftpso of ft volcanic cone, and to iKm theory von 
MettcT, van l>nsr.hc, and CsnteiKi ment. The theory of volcanic collapao so 
bnply that an empty apace beneath the earth's Boriuoe ia foniMvl by the«;rnpUoa< 
lava and that die intervening rock Is too weak to bear Ihe lutwl put npoa it, aa i 
oonntry over a oiiue Bometimee Dubeidee. I doobt this tbeorj' ai> afrpUed to voIoftD , 
ooD«H. exoepiing when iuvolwd to hcodoqI foe local dvtaOa of stmcUue. It i 



IraprobdMn thot a consiilcmble uivcmoiu FubtnTani-un space U li^fl wben 

extratkd, nor can I think the foci nf vnlmnic ai-ttvity itn dn»e Ui Ui«> ynrfaoe 

icli ft i-«.vcni, il lormni, cowlii W filldi by ruMiuM of Tii^re mlwidence pf Ihe 

If the focal dislance from the surface is maay mil?!*, mich a cavern would lie 

Immcdiiitely by luoldw) or bactured rock from iu own uidat, and uveii tliia 

ihimA likely only partially relieve the teaileDcy 1o npheavKl which »n atmaWy 

nieH activ« volcanism. On tho titlier hand it m well known tlmt mitcr« of 

luiv« bo<^n formed by cxploffions, and 1 can see do reonon to doubt that 

may have been, probably baa lieen, formeil in Ihia way in i^itv of itis lai^ 

ions. 

the aontlieni edge of Bombdo to the Gulf o( Batangos, atul, again, from Hie 
edge of the lake to the nurthom end of Manila bay, etiutches a grval ana 
tn which rpJerpiiTO Ims h*on mode in (liscnssing the dirtrihntion o( voiouiic 
The area to the nurtii of the Inke slopeii with extKtne genllenoaa touranl tbe 
^•ifcaiuiift iti HevHlioii only 600 to 000 mel^T^ in 30 kilmiif la^ro on a woiidt'rfiilly 
t tHopv. All ob(K>rv-era jwem to be forced to the concludon tbat most, at leaat, 
R tall comes Iroca Taal. Under subaerial condUir>u8, 1 should i>ay that thlB 
. be Impoerible. fiueli maflses ooutd not be projected to diBtanrca no givat or 
)nte<] in nirh a manner along no flat a conotry. Xothing is more certain, hoir- 
^uui that Lun'iD stood at a conridcmbly lower level than it now doce in tvcent 
Tttd and Botubdn miurt bave been iDin>er«ed, aud a channel then paaed 
iatangaa gulf to the eastwanl of Zuuibales raogo into the Gtitf of Ungay^n. 
eh circnmatanoes the actual diBtribution of tuff from tho Taal rent would bo 
lligiblc. 

le oonditionn, tliftn, aeem to p<Mnt to tli4> hypolh«iii» that at tho locality of tiake 

l6n there exisleil a volcano, at It-ast tlw lower portion of which was below water 

By uniiiuLry eruptions and Knikatoan cataclysms vast quanlitioi of scoria- 

ejec-ta were expelled, utd iioch of Uieee as fell into the Batangas-Lingay^o 

kI, or its drainage arcs, were distribnU'd an the more or lees stratified tnffs now 

llely pprtad along thlfl couree. Kinally, Taal itself is the small inner eone of a 

crater of ezploaion. Thia liypolhesiit appears to aty^unt [or all the fai-tn at 

pot known to tne, sneb as the rim about the bdce, the contnor of its bed, the 

Ij slope of tho northern tuff plain, the diBtribution and charw-ler of the tuff. 1 

■• no means of the opiuion, liMwever, that all the tuff of Manila provluuo auno 

fBomb^m. 

tr. H. I>. McCankej, B. S-, hail nlso recently written on the same 

t 

w own notes and obHcrvations in these provinocH teml to the belief that Taal waa 
fwtlonably, at a prehistoric period, very hiRb and of tremcndouK adivily; that 
sd partly 8nrTX>nndcid, K not wholly, by a stn'trh of the sea extending from the 
tif fiatangasto the Lingny&i gnif; that during it^ Hftivity large •lonntitioJi of 
sEc ejeda fell into thie inland nea, forming the more or lMWHinititled<l<-]>"«it9ot 
itv (nnilshiog much of the rich soils of the provinces of Bataaijiui, h* Loffuna, 
l)]Uflal,and Bnlacin; that an exploHion, or a series nftliem, blew out the entire 
oone, leaving the rim of the present bonndarles of the lake of Taal; aixl that 
|»ently minor cones were formed and this region was gradually raised to its 
it level. 

lunbcr of points of simElarity between the volcano of Tual and that eonstitat- 
■rren Island, in the Indian ocean, present themwilveH, imd it does not seem at 
likely that these two exceptionally low rotoanocs, that arc now Init moat 
Itly rumuontji of their former eonrs, may have passed through similar mighty 
iwoia to nsolt in their present aimilar tunus. 




386 



GIXX.RAPHV. 



Prof. J. W. Judd, F. K. S.,' bolievcs also that tlio actual conea 
fumiing tbo Knikatoa g'i'oup r(<prc»ient Kmall cones wbioli have fji'OfTn 
inside the grmt crator origiimted tiy the blowing out of n previous 
great vohaiio. 

At the tHJuthorn limits of this tulf area there arc many sulphurous 
spi'ingfl. 

A nummary of the hiKtoiitt eruptions of Taal nuy be Keen in the 
foltowiiig tuble: 

TABUt O. — Eriiptioiu c/tkeMleano <^ TbdI. 



Ti«i- Ucoiili. Dar. 



ITM... 



nu.... mkt 



l«4.... 



UOS.... April 



.1. 



Angoat.- 



Miy. 

JiUjr. 



UA>.... Noreinbar.. 12 



UK.... June 



«.ODii.in. 



U UU p. m. 



Hnu. 



Rwnvki. 



ttntlMi wiUiouilDMof llfp otpropanr. 

Vlolm MVpUon uciamiianiMf by itiODf •'«m»(aakM 
which atioob ihi> ndlxliborlng ngtotnL 

Two Tklleol cnipUoUft. Ib« dm no tbi^ ^trnlncol tb« 
Utb.itivMKtind •( V*. >n. on ill* t2ih, Iho Ui(«r nocon- 
p«ni«lbj-aMoleDl«uthqii^c Niuneraua wUmmm 
npon iliiii luaay czphnloiu tixA pteca In ■ tLn« ntfi- 
nfiiK rraon TttAl lotheHuiulIliisrODeoaibe tMUikaal 

TlWRrraliTrfoniptictnmiartodoftlibmlnan: lttxMtU» 
a«a wUb imerrals uif Peoemiwr L row vlUacn ir 
lug nroiioil Ibc Ikke vrrre oiiiiDptetaJj datragrad. 

ttnf Uon ot bliurk moke and adMSL 

bnptlon t)/ 9*m» whic-lt were ao ralpfaaraa* tbat tbe 
chancwtMle odor wuiKrcciitlbhi uCw ■itiMMwa 
oIT^Khi}. AlargcbtfaaftmillodlediniUwIidMiiidiit 
Tolcin.on whow weWcm Bboro thg nbnmUnt VfH* 
Hon WM aIihmI complpEiilx htimiil. 

Aom Ui« end or <.icu>tior umil ilii.' I3tli ol ^Covmbor 
imblmkiiran luiiifa n «ru licnni fr(-qi9>iiU]r In thi* dl- 
reouon o( xok TglcBoo. Ou iiic 4%y neaUooed Um 
i:Tupli(iii btnti and lajitod tinUI vctm tOUi, eorcrlna 
Uie Hbole iSwd or Vol««B wiUi a llgU tayct ot vol- 
rauijr ubn. 

noiT tlic Mil ol Jimc Ui(> Tolouio wiu otecrved to bo 
moiv Boilvi- Ui*& umul, and ■nmi'lliamat nbbt Ibo 
ctatier wait raTered wiita n KUri'. t>D uu 17ui, Udh 
Utb, 30lfa, and SUI of Jalf RuliicTTannui nolPH i 
bcanl. and nuuir w1in««» at Tnilny, woh aUt i 
ilktant. nfttiit Uwl froin tlina loUBMaxiBalll 
Are (apnareiitir about 'il [rci In dlatnetcf | ap 
nbKira iho crat«r. Tbi« boll. ali«r m<>bli]8 * < _ 
vrable btiibt. bam Intn unall FmnD«iiu, aouftj 
wblch UM back Into tbo ciw^r and ibe r«uir'~ 
npoD Ibeczlcrioraliqiea. 

TboantptlonBOOcatradattnuTvalLaaliiuncDuicolHni 
Of TBpor, iMinca. and »A)t» aboodng up al i^arb i-xplo- 
aloD, wfalob, on aooniot of ih« c«l» autu> "t tiM>um»- 
pbere, teniniHl u Uie CAttb almoM in tbo aune a^ot 
aroond Itio craWr. 



THH VOLCAKO OF UAgUfUNn. 

.Tnut a few milm to the northeast of tho volcano of Taal rises th« 
Mniiuiling, a rough boaaltit! or doleritic cone some 3,800 feet high. It 
pre^nt8 many ridges and <Iiff» on the simitnit and sides. The crater 
is open lo the southwest and eaat-soutbeu^tt and tho rest of the stand- 
ing rim ri'ies to a height of 1,600 feet alxivetha ancient bottom. Tbe 
northern slopes leading into the Laguua de Bay are so ftcvp that tho 
whole of the mouutaiii eieem.s lo be incliuod (u tlie take, va \\& natue 
Ma^^utllug Mguilleij. Around the main cone there rise tiomc subordi- 
nate hillit — all of tbem seoondary craters related (o the [mnctpal one by 



'Tbtf Gniptiou of tbt^ Knlut/xt nni) Miil)w«fiK>til t'htmotui'Du. 



J 



low lava aod tuff ridges. There h a more reuiMtkable one on tbe 
uhure df the lake called the pool of the C«iiuane». A layer of rather 
soft tuff covers the lower part of the numiitain slopes. Tliia tuff Li 
very ttimilar to that employed in the buildiogti in Manila, which is 
obtained from the left bank of the river P&sig, and outcrops at 
Guadalupe. 

Present volcanic activity of MayuUin^. — Among tbe iDOtit remark- 
able evideoeeti of activity are the luud [x>oIh called Natuguos, t<ituut«d 
on the eastern side uf the volcano at a height of some 900 feet Mr. 
AbelU describes these volcauie poob a.s follows: 

n^era Ed ■ tatiall Uku about SO uivtont in cIuiiiit.'liT aruuiiil which ou odur uf HtUpbur 
b noticeable. The laki;^ ifl rompnaed of hoilinginiKl of a dark gtayii^i color. When 
tbe bnbblcM of mud hurst, a iicculiar soontt is prodacod and partii'lM of the Mnulkjaid 
luud an! Hpbutbed on tl3e bordera of the lake. The temperotare of thees vplaiihei cf 
mod b M" C. 

The ebulhtioii luwd have liad periods of increaw, hecawe Uiere b a bnjail trade 
of iiuUUt very (iiiiiilar t» thu lavu or t-unrnTs abvn in activL> vulcanui%«, fmin tbe 
border of the lake a» far an the riv^r Klolautii. It would fleem aa if the lake liati 
QTerflow)-*! and thr mud had run down (he inchDe. 

Clow to the principal lake there are others much scoaller, aouie tieing merely lilUt 
pitH and olhvn* xiniply siuuka veatH, bul all aru fUled will) mud; aad vapor coma 
from theni with great force, while the boiling mud preeentfi difterenl cokirs — nA, 
yellow, gray, and immctimCB mmptctely white. 

Thert an-, not far froui the piwl just deNcrilied, ftome places nrhem the Dotfataric 
action h»» ahiiuot cea«N!(l. The mud baa driod tip and tbu white clay which remain; 
in tiK'd now by the nativva an jvint. In one of them the nilpburoua vapon urv etill 
Isniing (orthj wherever thuj^'Uii'l was touched it showed a high temperature, and 
near the «iuiike ventt) it rmchcnl an hijih ai< 100^ C. The grotuid nien presented the 
t-ario^ted colors of sulphur, of which white, r«d, and yellow predominated. There 
are aI»o found fine milphur <'0)icr«t)oa)i. 

Bwiidee this, therv are fumarolw all around the volcano at different heights from 
Iti barn; in almost all of them there ia tioitie production of the white clay or kaolin 
going on, awing to thu altiirutiao o( the duluritic rocka hy the eulphuruuu vapora. 

An onothe-r frign of the remaining activity of this volcano we mtuit mention the 
timncrouit Ihcnnal ipringH whirFi cxi:<t on the xlopco of Maqufling; which apriagii, 
we ■!aii and ouj^ht U> cuiuiiiier an a r&HuIt uf the exitil«U(>e in tlie interior of lumarolw, 
which, in«U«d uf (.iMiiing In thr Kurfa«.-v, ■.•mploy their activity in raiaiiiK the temper- 
atore and disaolvint; i-iibetaiicee in the watere of the eubterrunean corrxmts whit^ 
they cotuu acroeB. They are, wo ml^t aay, the last traoee left after ibo exiinctioa 
of the volranic foci. 

The most Imporlant and at the aamo time the beat known springi tar their medici' 
daI propertie« are thuae which rise in the town of Loh Bafloa. These MpriuKM wtm* 
kui'tt 11 hy Lbf nalivva from tht timi< of the Gonqueai. They ware thui Itnuwn by 
the name of Itlafnit, that 'm to aay, "hot" 

The cxiiit«nce of Alt. Maqulliug, of Fanwl, ood especially of the 
CaimHDCHLake, togetbr>r with the lnva rock of which they are formed, 
also indicate that after the coniDiencement of the uctivi^ of tlio 
principal fociu of Mafpining, and perhaps even after Its partial or 
total extiuctioii, other Xoc! of Bctivity broke out. The activity of 



I 



J 



i 



these latter waa of l&fis intensity as being tiubordinate to tim principal 
focus. The last of the,^ was uDdoabtedly the annular or crater-like 
hill in the Cainianes Lake. TIiik hill, which is one of the typical on&a 
formed of lava, still preserves the rapilH and peporines which arc 
characteristic of recent activity. Probably there was also a gradual 
rising of the land in the interval between the two eruptions, and at 
tlio same time the volcano itself was raised; for it seems very Qatural 
that the baud of tuff which surrounds it is uot of subaerial formation, 
but that it was deposited in water not very deep and perhaps dis- 
turbed and Imitated, for there are large aud small pieces without any 
apparent order, hut all of them perfectly superposed and sedimentary. 
The peperines and conglomerates of the mountaia are all composed in 
this way, and exist not only at the foot of !Maquiling, but also all 
ftlong the south shore of Laguua de Bay, uud the left b&uk of the 
P£sig, till close to Manila. 



THE VOIjCANO OF HAftXjAO. 









Not far from MaqiiHing, to the southeast, rises the mapnlfirent conn 
of Bandjao 7,Z&2 feet in height. Its ci-ater, now 700 feet deep, waa 
occupied by a lake till 1730 when, acoording lo Fatlier Hucrta, in his 
.EsUido Geogr^ico, a violent eruption occurred bursting the southern 
Peklc of the cmtcr and pouring out water, incandiwceut lava, and big 
rocks which can be seen near Sariaya town. The crater now, as tteea 
from the Aouthf scorns an elliptical deep hole looking to tho south. 
Since 1730 it has been dormant. There are other HulM)i-diiiate rones 
about it, two of them, Mt. San Cristobal to the northwest and Masalacot 
to the southwcht, being vnry well shaped. There am abio near DotorcH 
■t the foot of Mt. San Crisi6bal and ol^cwhoro some deep circular 
pondfl which arc probably extinct craters, to which the natives of tbo 
'country attribute a ruthcr mysterious origin. This volcanic cxmntry 
has not yet been cxiunincd. The volcanic formations of BaniSjao and 
Maquiling very probably extend to Talim Tshind and Jalajala penin- 
aula. In thif*. In-sidcs the volcanic rocks and layers of tuff, there 
exists a liill known as the sulphur hill at the foot of which are thonnio 
(mlphuruus springs. 

Northward from Manila there is tbo stiiking fxiniciU Ar^yat looming 
up over the cxtA'-usive plain between l^impang1L and Nuovn Kclja. 

he Znmljales range Iwrdering the western part of Luz6n was spoken 
of when treating of tlie distribution of volcanic rocks. 



8BS8MI0 0£NTEB8 OF PANOABIKXn AND NUUVA VIZCATA. 



It is not easy to determine whether the seismic center disturbinfif 
the provinces of Pungasinrtn and Nueva Vizeaya furms but one center 
or system situated near the coiuiectiog point uf the two ranges of 





B&a^UO VOLOAHO, LOffKOa IW. 




SU^AOTOLOiVO, LOOXDn B. 



monntaiDo. Domcly, the contral and tho eastern one, called the South 
Caraballo. The volcanic vents and the many Bssures found in the 
Ben^et district show that tlierc once existed at thi:* place a very 
importaot volcanic center, tho relics of whose activity are still to be 
found in the foiin of hot siilphurou.s springs. Tlius the true center, 
mdiating Komctimee wuthwestward and at others northeastward, 
seeniH to he situated near thin district, although tho shocks were moro 
frequently felt with force in tho alluvial plains of Paugasindn and 
Nuetii Vizraya than in tho highlands of Ucnguet. 

To thi?^ region prolahly must Ui referred the cniption or disploce- 
nient.s whieh oci-urred in ItUl ; hnt the rejxjrt of this event is so con- 
lutiptl tliat it is quitP iraposaible to locate tlio place pointed out iu it 
DiHrtor Bei'ker ^unuiiarizes and t'ominonts on the report as follows: 

Tbe Uiirtl umpUoti on Uw mmv Jaiiiiary -t, took pliuv from wlut waa called "a 
water votcano" hy !be arrhhishop's a^nl. The <i«irriptinn imik«» it clwir that by 
lhi« l«rm be bad ao intoiitioQ of in<lk-atiiiff thoniinl plivnomoiia, but merely an oot- 
iiunlof wnteravcompiuiyiogwtuUbobiiuKlf uiilmJatritcbLfulvartbiiuHke. It took 
ptace in Lus}n amoog the Igorotx, "vbo. njlativelj' to Ihf Ili>i-(its live fivednyn' 
joomey vexlwtiM unrl inlnnd/* Thre«> hilli) nml Hi'voml villngm iro raid to bare boon 
throwa Into tUo nir in frKtrmpnttf nml utitrly aniiihilnu^ii. Thin tocalily Uan been 
regtardrd aa Mt. fianUi TodjAh or Tonglon, some IS roilea from ArCii^y, in La Unii'm 
provinoL Tbi* i'lontitimtim) tlww mil apfitMr a<vori1aii t. with Ibe original ilewrip* 
tioo, and how it was readied J hav« not suc(-««c1*k1 in avcertaiuinR. 

In the )%>isniic ooutcr of Pangasimin and Beiiguet there was a violent 
dUtiirbam'e in March, 1892. Alt the intone huildings iu the north uf 
Paiigasin/in and soulli of La L'ni6n and Bengiiet pi"ovinceH wei-o greatly 
daiiiag(Hl by the earthquakca which wore reijeat^'d with uioro or loss 
force during nearly three luunthni; wide fissures were produced every- 
where, e8i>ccially through the low alluvial plains, and htg crfvatt^ee 
were opened and landslides o^-currcd on tho aoiilhern nionntain^ of 
BenguBt Mr. Abellaaays: 

The cpircnler of thcue eartbqnakoa miurt be placed between the tuwna where the 
fOft-x <■( ibuearlbigiiakM wa« tuivo int«ii>f", ami iiutiring tbeir ixwittoti^ on a map, 
ve may eay tlial tbe epicenter appears to be von,' elonj^ted or nlmoet linear. In the 
•oDlh it followB tlie man dlredioii of tbe river wblcb ia known under tbe namw ot 
Boed, AbUuIen, and iVngalacan and in Die north it spreads ont in two iHrecUona, ona 
pMrinfC to the norlh-northwmt by Santn TnmAa and Ago6, the cither tn tho north- 
Bortbeut by Ba^i6 In the dulrict of Uengu^t. 

Tbia north birnrratioD wuat be inon* ap|>ar«nt tJiaii revl and ia owing both to the 
km pninta ot obeerrnitoii in whidi tliu uSecta id ibc oartlniuakes could tm atodiei], 
and to the toc-t tliat when tlie ^nst niai« o( 3Ji. Tun(;)('>ii was violently agitated, 
the direct trantmlflslon of tlio force thufl produced to Ibc Allnrial land of Bunto 
xi^ aiul Ago6, nemsarily raniied in thew townii the greateet effe«i». It does 
at inihtw, howercr, fmm thw tJiat Uio direct actioii cif the Hirtbquako« taken ptao* 

rly onder tbeae rown^. 
HonoTcr ihv oonfipuration ot the sfouud aloutt the inaceenible daSla of Iha 
Boed; tbs (treat namlier u( Uiermal Ppringa whirh are at the bottom of ctta canyon; 
Jba nomt volcanic rocks in Alava, Bignlif, and l^a Trinidad In tbe laaie direction as 
26182— Tob 1-OG IS 



tlie 'lofile; oil Ihie, togeUwr with the relatione which exist between the rituatious of 
the pUccH of umziuiuiu pefemic tdtuxt, make uno Htnpcut that they wan pitxluwJ 
by volmnic action. 

The center of Nneva Vizcayn snenis t^> be moi-e iicUvc than that of 
Ben^iet and Piuigasiniln. The centntl and northern part of the 
Beueaet district seems reaMy more stable than it.-* iwnthem jmrt and 
the neighboring proriuces of ranga.<4in»n and Nuevii Vixi-aya. The 
most violent seismic disturbance on rec<»rd, which ot^ciirred in this last 
province, was that of 18S1. Itwaadescribwl at follows !>y Mr. Abella: 

Brer daco the month of July of the preceding year 1880, in which the great 
eorlliquakuH of ibu Idlaiul of LaeSn happeood, Iho provlneo of Nueva Viicaya baa 
not \n>i:.n without shoclta frcm lime to timo, but Home of th^e were » BUgfat that 
the majority <4 the {nhahitonta did not notU-e tbem. tn the month nf Jnly of this 
j««r, however, those movcniDDtfl began lo become more iwiudblc. On the 37lh of 
thiit Dion|}i, at ^ ji. ui., a Hlniiix[ xlifH'k wiw fdl, lUiiin^tiij^ wrvttnd of tlie few ituwtunr)' 
boiULmeEi. This wne tW Forenumer of tlie wuniUL-al ttclirity do« to be deecribed. 
Train that time bt^ran a ilcci<l«d and aeldom intumiptod series of alight and atmng 
ebookfl, tlie uiazimam inturvuls lietween which did nut exceed thrve dayH. Without 
any interruplion n( th^wsm-Jtof nhocke, ou September 1, at \2.iD |i. m., n aoddeo, 
strong, qnirt Irentbling motion wbh felt, ciniiUr to all the shocks which have ag- 
itated and stUI oontinue ^j a^tuu- tliu du>irii-t. From that momvtit a con^derable 
lncTis»< of s^anucal activity was ih>vo)opf>a], on iinrh a fxxlc that the Dhoc^ka were 
fcltnt intervniflof an hour or n minntf, and nomctimr-a continuously with palpitation 
of the gronnd, only intcrmpted by the tnterpohition o( more eiTiotw shocka. Thia 
of coOTW oonl<l not fail to pnxliice upon tlie terrified inhabilantx nf that splttodid 
province & painful and nervoua tension. 

During tlio month of Svplomber thirtuca vury rtroog rarthquakcs were felt, 
beaides numoroua slight ehocka. Wu miiat otinerve here that only the most impor- 
tant shocks were reoorded, the remainder, althongh cinito Henslble, being too nnmero 
ona to mention. 

1 have been able ti> wtabluih thp pmbabln centrum of the agitated region, my 
obeervationa on which 1 will now eummarixe. 

Tfie thunder, wliich always prvcedea tho Hhudc by a few aoronda, is beard moat 
ditrtinctly toward the middle of the province in the neigh l)oriion<l of Bambang. The 
TDO^t important circonwtanco is that the intcr%-al between the sound and the mov*- 
ment ia alwaya shorlor the nearer (he obtwrrer is to that town, and e«pefaally when 
on the anrroumling heigbta clear of the deaib-ning t^'tfw-tflof the valley'« alluvium. 
The eoond of Uiu shock and Uie movcmt>nt, although seusibly soccetaive In thcOD 
plat3», hecome very often mingled together. On tlie olliiq- hand, toward thu tmtition 
of the provhioe there arc obaervcd: Ptrvt> a sonnd of RubterraiMan thnnder: seoond, 
an InUTval of rest and qtdet sometimea of fi\-e or six Mx^orol^; and third, a vertical 
ahock acoomiutniM by a noise which we may call tbt^ "Mioall" of the seiatnkal 
wavea, followed without interruption by a horixoulal movement of oecillatloa. 
Wbea we ubeeni-e tliv cracks produced in the maeonrj- bnildingsot Bambangwo 
aleo come to an analogone bnt more certain conclusion. 

It is also very important to remeubt^r that while i-rackii produced bi tlie htiildia^i 
of villi^ea at a diatanc« Irom Bamboug show morv or leea vinbly an ipclioatkio I'j 
the borisoD, in this town they are perlectly boriz<^nuil ; so Llul. for luataoce, two com- 
plele cracks In itschorvh tower divide' the lower inUj thnt; cninpletediMim-t blocks, 
_vhich haw not yet hllea, partly, doubtless, on oroonnt of iho oxcoltont miUciial, bat 

'iodpally from the circunutaoce thut the abocki euataiued by th« towt-r wnm 

■rely vertical n»>veuient«i while it is moat pmbablu that if n horixuntnl *hi--k ha>l 
ocKonvd tltd upjjer puTttona ol Uw tower wookl tiav« fi&Uea. 



I 

I 



248 



K 



ThtA tAKu hw aim miSered mach other d&nugo in its mamnry balldin^ ATI 
tbmo p«caiuuitie« 1f«d lui to ivuK'ttirln with mifflcient certainty that tho wimnit^ 
vertex ot movement whiiJi aipulefl th? diHtrict Ii«fl at or sboat Bambaog; tlmt w to 
say, lh« activo center ot mb1t>mui««n viliraliotut must bu a point lu a wrtjcal line 
below the vii-inily of Bamliantc. Whirh ib that point, or at what<l<;pth E& thia active 
center of (W^ittmiral diBlnrbance fltnated? 

It b belitfrTed that it in not far from tho fmrfaiy, and I addooe for your ♦>xoelIency*!i 
OTOsidcntion two pnndpnl rcaM>nH tur aiiiiuUiining LlitN dtxlnclioti; nainHy, tlw 
BloMBt BhuQltoneow oocorreooe ot mood and movement at Bambang, and the com- 
pantive intensity and iuMliuition of the shuckD. 

In tbis report Mr. Abolla U inclin«i to give a volomic origin to tbo 
earthquakes of N'uova Vizaiya. He did the sumo aomo yeaii* later to 
thoflfl of Panifoainfin, considcrinfj thorn as duo to the remaining hut 
prolmbly dyinff aotivity that brought to light the rather volcaniL- rocks 
found in Bpnguot, and also pointed out that there -was probably some 
powihlc gubt(\rranean communication hctwoen the active Mayan vol- 
canic group and the volcanic vent^s of those regions. It may he 90, 
but considering the structure both uf !<outh Benguet and Ihe vnlley 
of Nueva Vizcayu one h* led rather to consider thet*e shocku an rockiall 
or tectonic. Certainly the region lying between Benguet and l*anga- 
f'lDia, through which the Bued river runs, can not l)e u very stable ono, 
being, as Mr. AbcUa reporta, formed principally of ooralline, abrupt, 
aod tiMiured baoks lying on clay, alluviuui, and saudstoDC formations. 
On the other hand, the thermic manifestations and increase of temper- 
aturc in some springs occurred when the earthquakes of 1S92 were 
very doubtful. Mr. Centono visited Xueva Vizcaya some three yeani 
after Mr. Abeitu, and threw much light on the origin of the earth- 
quakes felt there in ItiSl. In bis report on the salt springs, which 
i^ipeiired on Monte Blanco in 1884 or at the end of 1888, ho insistu 
upon the necessary instability of the region west of Bambang. 

To the west of the lawn of Bamhanjc therp apprarpd dnring last March namei Ur^e 
ttMrmal springs. Th^y arc at a hoiglit of 4110 uioion atNivn- the level of liie ae*., and 
170 aUjVP the townof OnmliaiiK. The fun.'eof thf water i« auch thatalaijjeijiiantity 
ol a'Uy nixl Kiunn hfi* tun-n tlirown op from tlie undcrEroaiid paoBBW, and the Vi-atw 
aud clay thoa aent out fornu« n Biream whlcli whvn it joins the river AlNiot, dlwolorB 
the waUT conajdMmbly. 

When we vlajtc^l them, on thf »fi of May, the epringn conabtcd ol 10 or 12 holes, 
alt of tlirm whhin tlip oompajs o( 900 ■cjuaro metera. Within this space thpre were 
alio •i|^]io( other iiprings whirh hml Ixvn dndmynl hy Hit* hlurkiii); up of th« ctian* 
dH. pr<.<l«hly hy tlii> falliiift in o( tb« ridea. Of thu 10 or IS Rpringq whidi were titill 
in anivity only two wen' of any Iniportani-efortli^ainooDt <•( wnluracnt OQt.for in Ihu 
nn the ftOKHUit of watL-r was m amall that Ihey would be runaidamd mmpty m vapor 
Tiata. 

Tbe t«in|irn(iiK yf ihw water differed ponridenibly in the diffcpwil springe, although 
ihey wt^re all ijuito vV<m- to ono anoUior. tn n>me tho lemperatnrv was SO** C. ; 111 
•n, wliluh were only distant eutue Si> meten, )t row to 00* C, which wu the 



Tb»tA*t«ofth»walt>r wan dialiniily bally, aud iiiauuM.-lipciJi(p) it bad a Luitu- fauoi^ 
BoaMilhlnc '"'o that ul iHuu-lMuato of eo<la. 



After Tinting theen oprinips vre went on to see Las Sitlinu a( Mont« Ulajioo, which 

■re about 4 kiluiucU-n) tu Uie Boutfacaet ot Uie spriugi and 200 tuft«rB alwvo tbo IvtdI 

odbusca. Thcflo "mlU pi(»" consist ot M>verBl small ■printp> niih natt-raL thooriU- 

temperatare, whidi apixare on tbe nurfacR u[ a maat of wliitu cbslk, on which 

feommon salt nn<l carbonate ot limo were b»in^ (lepodt«il. Many elalactitcii were 

nlway>i being foniicd by the carbonate of lime. 

TIm iliminntion or nlriiovt loUl vxtitiftion of tli«« lapringii on Monl« BlniiL-o it very 
recent, Iwcauso von Drafcbe, in bu cxp««liUon of iHTQ, found tbeia in full adivily, 
and I ni}'fioU have noticed that tbo sediment lu mmny pluL<<» ubere thu vuter does 
n>ot nr>w II11W b of very recent formation. The existence of epversl Halt pita in different 
|X)intA of tbn CcmUllnm Onnlral Itwis me to mippOBo that there am larige deposita of 
mit. whirli «ro travprw*! liy HiibtormniMn curront» of water, inoru or leas liot, and 
tliiia giro riHe to tbo Bait eprings or pits. 

Wi? Imlievu ncitlicr diruct nor imLinx-t voIcbaIu action was tbo caiue of t]ie earth- 
qimki-« of NiM>va VizcMyiL in 1881; rather we found a certaii) rflatiun l>tTiw<<im ihe 
(•xbtiiux* of tbt* Bult f(i>rin(|> mill tbo phenomena not only in Baniljuiiit;, but also in 
KL-vf nil other i>ointt4 of llie <'-oniilIeni Central ; for thcne eprintps which appeared at 
sui:h a ^r«at hi'ight above tbo lew! of the sea aiul with wati^r »>i rharjied with mJI, 

3Uld Msem to indicate that tinder the ground uf that district there arc rurronts o( 
r miter, paaeinK over Rilt dviKiigiti!, which cun».-(|ui.'iiUy grow lues and leee thus loarin^ 
[laiye cavernfi under tht- ground. 

Tlicse eavoruM are LiHitliiually on thv iaeivaec. owing to thodlseolving action of the 
water, till tlio niomeot vrbeu they give way nud eiiik, causing at the tuimu time ahodta 
or earthquakes. Tho»e shocks are traimmitled to the eurface with mure or luw 
lotcoaity and duration nocordinfc to the neemecv and eiie of the cavern which lias 
hllen ID. This clan of cartliquak«*i, which I have named purely mechanical OOM, 
always presents mntm special (*haractcnirtici>: for example, they am almost aiwaya 
preceded by Mibt^Traneaji noisev; the Inrp^ ctmipaDcnt it* ths Teritcal one, wul the 
xone affected is vftry small. If any Kiipport i» nKiuired to nrtablisli my tlieory I 
would rail attention to several analof^na earthquakes which took place in Gontpe 
Hiid were carefully studied. 

There are no record.? of dpHnictive carthqiiakes fell in those regioof* 
in the past centuries. The roost violent expcrionwd there, exoepfcim; 
thaso mentioned almvoof 1881 in Nueva VizcAva and 18f>3 in Pangasi- 
nitn and Bcn^iet, liad their epicenter to tlie Houth nf Luz6n, betiausc 
they were strong:er in Manila and the neighlx>ring' pi*oviDce8. Betiidee 
the havoc" of 16+1 mentioned in the be^oning there is another stor^ 
coneerning the Henjniet. diylricl. ll rs found in an old chronicle of 
the order of the August inians. According to this atory, at the Iwgin- 
ning of tbe eighteenth ccnlur>' quite a largo number of cottages, aitu- 
ated to tbe east of Ari^ay and oc-cupied by the natives, di^ppeared 
in a grcAt earthquake which produced the submersion of an extenaiij 
trocl of land. 

Mr. Conteno says, commentinjif on the Atory: 

Doobtlsffi tbo tApogmphy of tho hcantifnl plain in whiir-h La Trinlda/I i» KiinatMi 
^htgire Bome reneon tor conjectures on the imbject. A level drcnlor plain ahont 
I ktlometon* in diameter is enrronnded on all sides by hilU who#e height does not 
exceed 130 mi'teni. Tn the Interior of this plain Is a lake, whow only outlet i>> 
thmagh u fi.>«jiin' 1'>w&rd thr northnut, and lliii< outlet, perhaps, gives rise to the 
river which emjitiiti at TUiiuug I ljtil^>n). IiCfiking down on tbli* drcolar depreaAon 
*-nro ibe laut heiicht^ (1.660 nietere attitude) whicii are paiwed in rmctilag 
iiilda*!, Uie valley pn«en(a all the appuarasce ul an oki crater aoU it waa uui 
pramuD that it waa Mie> 



I 
I 



I 



d 



EARTHQUAKES. 



346 



Thoro is on douht lliat »\ic\\ a L'iruular plain is an nDcicnt ntoU. 
Tlio few known viulent t>artb(iuaki!H felt in Oxe^. tvj^ionr* nru the 
following: 

Taslk IO. — J^atthqtutka t^ the PanfftuirUiit aiut Xufra ViieoiHi nmUrg. 



TU*. 


Uontlk 


0^- 


Boor. 


Itwnukii. 


iflL... 








Cbmnlelca report Uubo l««d«Lldw on ibv thi«t«llo 


K... 


DeeMtibor.. 


i 


tMp.xu. 


_MMlOL 

Tbiii Is tbe etnlKiuikc wlileh l«bl Uuilfai lu rulua: U 

M-aaalwi <lr»imrtlve In ihc nnrthrm pronrlrca^ 
WuilcsiruellvT' in iti« tuuitli nutrlct. 


aS:::: 


Norantwr.. 






13.00 nuoii. 


ACBcnxiu'lttwiuiic-i.'oiD]Nknlr4w1ihgn«ln]bt«mticu 

nolw. 
On Itil* dale thrfr conuncnrvxl In Ntierm Vln^yn one 


in.... 


Jumarir •■-■ 


B 


nJOm.m, 










of tbi! loUKtM uul mon dnNuUiil wlunlc uerl»it» va 
i«conl: during Iho month* ol January, May. Juljr, 
Augnat. Uid ttepuunber tL* aLuclu w«r« almiM turn- 
llnuoiu. The arumlc ceiiilvr wm [irotMbly nnr DJ- 


































Mx. Tim atrancnrt aeltmlc waves t!xtciuk>l owr all 
the proTlncMur LuiAii. 
Hliroid rutu LbrouKbouI alnKiat thu wbolq pR(Vlu<!« ol 










uaoL... 


Matrh 


II 


SLdl p. Rl. 










ntninwliitn. t>i>i n ntiiKt'' ■'bino tiulldliid «<ca|>liic 










Wltbl^t WriOU* lliLUUtlR. 



8EI8HIC CGNTEBS OF THE KOSTH OF LDZON. 

In this northern region there probably exist two seismic ccn>rS} 
one to the east and the other to the west of the central range of 
Diountains. lu fact, many eartliqtiakes felt with great force in 
Norll] and Soutli liocos and Abra are uIiiiO!»t imperceptible in the 
easterD proviuceu of CagaySn aud iMabulu. On the otbcr hand, 
many others have been known to be very powerful in the tatter prov- 
inces tbi-uughout the Caguyiiu valley and very feeble in the former. 
Thi« tends to nhovr that tbe two centers are almost independent. 
NevtTtbelebH, they protiubly belong' to one general t«ei5uiic system, 
like the one in Nueva Vizciiya and l^ungasinAn. Neither in tlio 
eutem nor in the western region are there well-known and important 
volcanic centers. 

Not fur from the northwestern point of L,u7j6n or Cape Bojeador 
there exists a lake which the native?) attribute to a submerciiun of tantl 
and of a town during an earthquake. In the central and weMtitm 
rfgions of laizun there tin* aUo to l>e found many hydroiiiilphuric and 
siilphuron.H springs, as well as some null ones similar to thon; of 
Nanm Vizcaya. Mr. Cent«uo deiteribes some of tie panto- I3outo(^ and 
Abmdi-itrietH: 

We i»VL- sliKinly touched on tbo csiet«uc« of Iberaul (Hilplitmiiis waton ou Ihe 
nuebaauf Ma^iilcaii au'l Bugui^ when fi]WttkrtiK of (tiL> votnnupe. Theru arv a 
gnat sombtT ul iMiAt o( wiiU?r which xnieli iHwagly of i<utiiliuj¥t»l hy<lrog«a 
between tJie luiiiilr't of Mafpuiftan and Acnal. The temperature of the water varies 
(rom Ifi* V: U> fiO" C. Froui oiin <i( ilie ]>oobi a largo t|uanlilj n( blwk inuii. having 
th» •ame "mBll aa the water, w \v\ns mn«iljintly Rivpn forih. We <lo not krwiw tlie 
ewDpoiltkiii ol tho raod. About Uieso ikkiIb Uiere mn uumeiuoa sulpliur ilepoaitA, 



S4d 



GEOGRAPHY. 



In the pflstcrn provinres not far from Capo Engailo thei-e in n vol- 
canic cono known as (iiuu or Cagua (18-' 13' uorUi latiUuii; and lungi- 
twio 122^ 04' oast of (ireenwic-b), which la now at tlie HulfHt»i'ic stage, 
and which was sten .smoking: in tbo year 18G0; it U cumiuontjr knowu 
among the natives a» a ""Wra mountain." It was iliBcuveriMl hy Mr. 
Ctaudio Mont«?ro, of the Spuniah Hydi-ographic Commission. Jn 18ft0 
Mr. Semper, from Aparri, saw smoki^ asM'nding fivm this uiountain, 
and his servant, who went to its hose, assured him that it was well 
known among the natives as a " tire mountain." 

There are two active volcanoes, one on the island of Rabuy^n Ciaro 
(19'- 40' norlli latitude and longitude 121'-' 56' cast of Greenwich) and 
the other in the Dedica Uoefs (I'J^ &2' north latitude and longitude 
ISS'^ 09' east of Greenwich). It appeared in September or Oi-tol>er, 
1856, between two rooks well known to the natives, at first as a 
column of soioko. No earthqiuike att4>nded it^^ Hrst appearance, but in 
1S5T it underwent ti violent eruption, atiendud by eai'tlu|uake.s. Krom 
that time to 1860 the volcano was constantly aclivc, and in four years 
it reached a height of TiH) feet. They are known as "'smoking moun* 
tains.'* The well-known volcano of Camigiifn (18*^ 5&' north latitude 
and longitude 121" 62' east of Greenwich) is now in the solfataric stage. 
Mr. Cavada reports that in 1857 there was open on it« southwestern 
Bide at the sea level a hole or vent from which hot water issued and 
8ometime.iii solid ojecta, which formed a small inland in front of it In 
the " Perrotero" we read that neai- thi- point Kscarpaila, west of tbo 
Tolcano, there is a salt boiling spring close to the sea level. 

The earthquakes recordin! in the Ratancs Islands during the last few 
years show that these islands form a seismic region with the northeast 
of Luzon rather than with the northwest- In the following list wo 
uentioQ the strong«r earthquakes felt in northern lMx6n: 

Tabia 11. — HxrAquaka tn nortlunt LvzAn, 



I 



TB>UL 


MOOtll. 


DW. 


Bant, 


lUoutka. 


un.... 








CHrobirlcn 4^X(U!jr^TK''^ ll>o rxtcmlv^ )imilM||(1r« vhlf*!! 


&:■:. 

IBM.... 
VRH... 
1814,... 


SopWnlNn'. . 
Deccmtwr.. 
M.y 

October .... 
DeeenMr.. 

Avfrmt 


t 

ts 

9 
2> 

a 

a 

11 

la 

13 


KOap.m. 


ooctimd on iho C«ntmltn \-^i-. Thv stiocka mttv 
ToyTlolenilrlt'it Uiiiil t!j < i rotlnco^ 
TblaMnliqtiak<>iia<i ti>r>-<1' MnDlIa. It iru 
feltwlth gTt*t lon-r l!l li . . i.«l~li'>l«Men*- 
*arM««r«(q>f^ed in ibtreHn'i iiu>i inauy luge wkd* 
•Utk* ocriiirtil oa the tiUl*. 
VprrAMTucilv«ln tbe whole loanbdbiirlPL 
DHtnKttT)* cbloflf in Iluoo* Sortv. m 
OntrootlTC cbleQr In Uooom None. ■ 
Dwatmotlracblvny InlVKioaKnrt*. ^ 
IlwudtaUDCtlTeonlrltiltic l.ap«niO'li i<L 
lTb«w two cainbaiwkn* irara Mi mtuv iIm 
[ nortlitm tiun In m« noillieMUm pn • . 
TbtavRnluiMii^wiudcMfiictiramily MI i>"j uutihm^t- 

IhwnjKmr rlilvdr In jtlm M»d thwoaaiir. 


S.IJOft.lB. 


vm.... 

MTV.... 


V.COp. 31. 


mt.... 


t-33p. ■). 



BEfSMtO CBNTRBB BSPBOUU.Y AFFEOTIKO MANILA. 

iiiion of Manila. — Manilii is moat advanU^cously situatod for 
ffiXperlencing almoKt all tlii-- sbockti radiating* from the different renters 
of Luzfin; it is no more than ihirty-tivo milcH north of the active 
roluiuo Taal and a little more from thti extinct ones, MaquIIing, 
Bunfijao, and Anlyat. It stands on alluvial soil, prol»ably eovering 
the ji^reat tuff area stre(<:hing" from the (Julf of Bntangfui northward 
through Cavito. Kizal, and Uuloean provinces, and M-hirh ha>t boon 
considered as oritjinally coming from liie southern volcanoes. This 
deep layer of tuff nppejirs as an outcrop east and northeast of Manila. 
The surface groniid of the capital is low and soft and traversed in all 
directions by many creeks or stj-eams called '"esteros," and from cost 
to west by the Pasig river, which flows into the bay after a stnuooa 
course of some eighteen miles. This river flows from the Laguna de 
Bay and forms its outlet. The observatory is situated about a mile 
M)utheast of the Walled City. 

Nuntlw cf earth'juakf^t. — The total iiumlwr of perceptible eartb- 
quakea registered at the obscr\'atory by the atandard seismograph 
during the eighteeu years between ISiiU and 1S9T, inclusive, is 221, as 
may be aeen in the following table: 

Tahlb l^.—BartitqaahMiniftmHe, by montJtui.- isso-issff. 





Ju. 


PKb. 


MU. 


*pr. 


Hat. 


June. 


July. 


AUR. 


Sepl. 


Od. 


Sov. 


Dm. 


TOUl. 






1 

4 



..».. 


1 






t 
1 


X 

3 


I 


5 


t 

1 

a 


...... 


I! 




t 
I 
t 
> 
1 

1 

1 

s 
1 
f 


a 

1 


IT 


4^n 


1 


3 

1 
1 




^Hn «*••***■ *>-•>. 


1 

1 




a 
I 


1 

• 


•i 


10 


8 


1 
1 
1 


1 

1 


J 


16 


nrr 




9 




1 




1 
8 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 






X 


S 




B 


tm 








1 
8 
1 
I 










t 


SB: :::..:::::::: 


1 


1 


I 
1 
« 




1 








13 




1 


9 
1 

1. 


1 
I 
1 
] 


11 


MB- 

ffl::::::::::::::; 


3 


1 
1 


9 


1 


M 


Sk;:::::::::::::: 


1 
1 

2 


s 





> 


I 


2 


1 

X 


3 


le 

h 


MV 




1 




^ 




i 


i 


1 


1 


u 












III 
«.Ti 


H 

IK 72 


U 
LOO 


M 

i.n 


3f 
1.41 


11 
CkTB 


l.« 


If 

i.» 


IT 


1.11 


19 


U 

0.78 


\t9a 



From tho above tabin we see that the average annual number of 
carthquakuH at Manila i.H twelve. In the first six yearn, with tho ex- 
ception of IS84. the number wa.i equal to or greattir llian ihc average, 
while in tho four folKiwing yeari^ it wa--^ i-4>n.stantly tielow the average. 
Afl*r Uut year 1890 the numlier varies, tbn miniiuiun being in 18116. 

The avi-rngn monthly nuni)M?r of perceptible f-artbqimtccs at Manila 
iM one. The numlK<r in each nf the six monthti of (he spring and 
mimmer, or hot dry and rainy .reason, with tho single cxcoption of 



H^ ^^1 


r GEOGRATlir^ ^^^^^^^^H 


^H Juno, la greftter, while tliat in eacb nf the nix autumn And wintei 


^H montlis, or the end of the raiii.v »iid dining the (xiul dry seASOU, in 


^H oiYlinarJly le&s. The moxiDiuiu nunilHjr occurs in May and tbo Diiai- ■ 


^H nium iu January and Pcbrtiary, tbo furuicr beuig just double that of | 


^H the tutU^r. 


■ 


^H The following ligi cotituns the mont violent earthquakes felt in H 


^H Manila and the. ueighlxiring provinecs since tho sixtiM^nth century: fl 


^^H Tablr 1 3. — iVof/ib/f mrthtfwiir^ in thr vicinitj/ of Manila. ^| 


^^B 


Uontti. 


D«if. 


ROUT- 


RoBiftrkii, ^H 


^H UM.... 








Took piMN slUr • long dry porlod. H 


^H IMD.... 


JuDarr.... 


2 


JZaD«.in. 


lUduroiUon of VTMi mintilM won vcty cstf>oi>lliiatr: ^1 

nwny buHdiiun f«1l and m»nr i>««plo «t«r« la]iu«4. H 

Vefjr violent tiiocks nppcartif tn prooced bata taaU ^| 


^H MIO.... 


Navetnber,. 


ai 












■PDttaMUl. ^ 


^m 


liocTmbM .. 


1 


■.DO p. m. 


Alntoal tlic wholo dtjr iraa Inlil In ralni. ijniiriii-tlnn lo 
prapettr wmUdbmdw kq4 much lo« m iil<> raqJieO. 


^^^^, 16111.... 


Uamb 






Louf wrioiul iliocki laMlitg liiljr dayi; nuuijollhoM 










sborfcB « ore vtolcDt. 


^^^H inA.,.. 


Au|ru*< 


ai 


SlQOp. tn. 


Very v^olvtiL of uliciri durntlon; doUmvcd ilw bulldlncii 
ivhlotaibc(;&rtliqiiftlieolI<H&luMl leA. ^ 

Hriiorlii o[ thii a>rtbquak« am Trry fvw; niktiy t>uihl> ^H 
iiUEB wcru ruiD«l and 18 people kiUcd. ■ 

Iit^itiucUvc in tht-ndKhborbundor thoTkalTolesanoBiMl ^^ 
In tbe IfiAiKl t>l Nliiiloro, where man]' flanni ir«rt 
cpmied 111 llti.' graund mid innnr InttdnldaB nccumd. 










^^^H MB.... 


June 


19 






^^^V U7&.... 


Juituu/ or 








ftbmatT- 














^H MB.... 




H 




I>KtiUW«d aoDD'e IiullUluiTii. 


^H INS.... 








Ttie exact dntv of thli c-aiilujuake )« unknown. It la 


^^H 








ntponedbr Mr. ivrry. utioqnotwHr. LsO«oUL 
It )Mimittp(ui1«(l an rnipllon 'i( Tnal. 
CmUKd imt Ion qI propertir in Manila. 


^^H iTii; 


fieptembcr.. 
Norembcr.. 


M 




^H I7'i8.... 


E8 




^B IT<!).... 




12 


9.0UH. m. 


It af^ranpanlffll an cnipilim i>( Tnal, 
LoacpefluduJ Yialrnl»liuckafeU iti UieaiKiU>enipn>v- 
inoM of Lua6n diiriag an vrupttv* pvrlod of Taal. 


^H 


Uay 












^1 ITVT.... 


Nnvambet.. 


IS 


am p.m. 


OaaaM) cruilu In Aiune vriilla ktid Uie (UllDK of 111**. 


^B ITTl.... 
^^B ITU.... 


Fnbtuary.., 


1 




Thm*' Anvm (lio (Thiirrh of Knolta. 
Uah)' otmiiilrlitni repiiri durln* UiU TMt a rmkt niuil- 
tirr r>l violent litiiH'k* Ml tn Manita, but Cbu axaci dat* 




















cj ilii!«^ iiirUiiiUakd U unknown. 


^H 


FvbnMtnor 






CaiMcd iHii kllglic dnmaflf m biilldlnfii. 


^H 


Ooiober .... 


» 




tmmaiml tnany bulldlun In Manila and 1» ihv prar. 








! iDcoanriheiibmh. ^1 


^H^ Uta.... 


S«t>l«inbM-. . 


18 


Q-tAp. in. 


Tb« oanuir of [liU diMinictl«a oarthiguak* apfiann (o ^H 
bue beui in \i\t Taal volnno. Many bnirei wem ■ 
cpMiod In itiai ranti omiiitd I bo volcano:. Oanagoilo ■ 
buikilnp woii- v«ry KTCQl In tbaproTiDBMotHBDllB. ■ 
CaTn«,Buliinlii, Lnljictina. TnTnbu,anilinU>el>lana ■ 
olXlndara. lite lillt rbninha nearMbh) (ZaabdMI 


















WWnpCKtedUiliavobeeiialnicntloTOlMltoUMCfDaad. 
Was dmlracUve only in tbc vic-lniljt ot TwU. ^ 


^^^^ UK.... 




« 




^^^B MM.... 


Haivti 


Zt 




II uixunpuitHl BD orupUon of MarOo, Id Albay. fl 
The damNge It c>iu>«d waa ri.Ty Bllglit. ^| 


^^^H US.... 


ttu«h 


t 


6. 30 p. Id. 


^^^H tMO.... 


"-^ ifiS, 


4.'i3p. in. 


iriiwMjiwoeiiniiquakcawcrQdostriicUrooDlytn Uindta- ■ 
/ Inct ut rrlncipeiuid along thcrjutrm(-iia!i| of Lmb&d. H 


7.80 pL In. 


^^^H im.... JoM 


s 


8.30 p. m. 


Tliraw doni Ibo Mauila catbedr&l and in tbe (own and ■ 










litlgbboiliood dcalroyad 2& public and KO private * 
bulTdiDgi. Htny poimk verc buttad In tbo miiu ol 
lite oatnedraJ. Tba dcMructlrc lorca wa< felt iJilelli' 


















^^^^^^^^^^. 








In iti« MQihem aod eattfrn pravlnvn. 


^^^^^^^^^H|Wa ■ « 


OOMiW .... 


1 


1t.aSK.lii. 


BKCTCutd lu DinM dnti nirtivo fi>ror in t)i« omvlncv of 
BataagH aniuiid ctit) voloanu ol TaaL viukut onlr 










^ 






northward; utruHK in in« Imlnail of Ulndaio. 


^V UR.... 


■WCMBMr,. 


» 


Il.Mu. m. 


IU Fplc«Dcno area no from Tul volcuko to Zambatw. 

Ma>( violently tell fnim Taal Totc^na eaatwaid and 

MUitiward Id tiiu Inland of UindPto and in Um pior- 


^H 187S.... 


Homabcr.. 


]4 


&aap. Dj. 


















Incca of Tnyabnii aiid La L«|ptna. 
DmruoilTo Id liio proviULcs oi TayaAM and Anboi 


^H in*.... 


(tor 


19 


ll.VitL.ja. 










CftmaHnca. ^- 


^B tm.... 




ai 


6.0U 11.10. 


F«lt TioicoUrabaoillMTOiUaaaMT&al. ^1 


^^1 IHM.... 


July..- 


18 


0.4Sp. lu. 


The last dvatrucUve carthqunka t«lt In Manila: It laid H 

In rolDs tlu tovn and tbo netrbbunng pronooM. ^1 

lla diMtnietlr« fun-e wpa rcvutctad to tue vtcinUi' at ^H 


^^^Ku».... 


Uki 


» 


3.'J3k. ID 










Taal voloaao. H 


¥l a 



It w tin undoubted fact tfmt most of the more Tiolent shookfl expe- 
riencfMl in Manila soo-tn t4) rutliatu from about Lliu Taal (H>iitPT, and ilio 
cpiccntrio area of many of (hpni iippciirs to proi-et'd now iiortbeast- 
ward, now northward, from the volcano. Tbese facts fliiggest that 
tho volcanoes of Taal, MaquniB(f. and Bimtijao Iwlong to a single vol- 
canic system. The seismic waves cominji; from thiH center travel more 
easjly northwai-d alonjf the wcat4?rii mnges of mountjiin^, the Sierras 
of Mariveles and Zambalcs, the central hills of Morong, and through- 
out the great tuff nrea stretchinjjf to Bulacfin, and even southward 
to Uie inland of Miudom, than along the mountains of Ambos Coma- 

rines. 

Amonff the shocks affecting Manila very frequently there can be 

distinguished two ver>' different and distinct types, distinguishable by 
the ditference of the area shaken and by the force and character of 
the movement. Tho»e of the lir»t type move an area much more 
extensive and prolonged in a north and south dire<-tion. Tlie oscilla- 
tions are slow, but of great amplitude, reaching, in the neighborhood 
of the volcano, a violent or destructive force. Since the year IH80 
there have been many iristancoa— for example, those of May 29, 1889, 
and December 15, 1901— of earthquakes quite violent or destructive 
southward in Bntaiiga.^ and the inland of l^Iindoro. These were felt at 
Manila iu the form uf large. nIow w&veti. Inclined eltlier to the itouth- 
east or to the southwest. 

EarUnjuakes wf the second type liave an ellipsoidal area prolonged 
also in a nearly north and south direction: the movements, whidi 
seem to have the same dii*ection everywhere, are rapid, with the ver- 
tical component predominating, though they rarely attain great force. 
They are felt strongly m the diivctlon uf lhoZaml>ales and the Marivelea, 
where a secondary center seems to exist It frequently happens, as it 
did this year, that vuhU'rraneiin wounds are heard iu that region. 
Apparently the two foci of the cillipsoid when shaken act Hko two 
simultaneously active centers. Thi» proves that the volcano of Tkal 
and the Zanilwlfs (■4)nlillprii, 8up|xwing tliem to he of volcanic origin, 
form OOP idcnlieal system. Among many others which we might cite 
we shall mention as exaiiiple« of the same type the earthquakes of Sop- 
tember 16, lS5a; January -'♦! «"d Decemlwr *ii), 1872; May 1 and June 
34, 1H77; April a", 1S7H; and July 2ri, 188^. Of these, only the tirst 
was really destructive. Throughout the Taal region and the eordil- 
lenu of Zambal(*s and Mariveles great upheavals and displaoeraonts 
took place, and in Manila mai^v buildings were laid in ruins. 

The seismic center mast dangerous for Manila seems to be situated 
in the tast oreast-nortjipawt rather than in the southern and southeast- 
em volcanic region. The waves radiated from this center are the 
most irregular, Lmtb in direction and force. 



360 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Direriifm. oftk^ niHsm-ic i/'oroff at Manila. — Sint-e iho year 1880, 378 
greater wBves liave l>een registered, distributed aiiioug- 221 jwrccptible 
earlliqiiakes. The directionti of the wavei^ correspond to the Hixtceu 
main directiouN of the L-(.>mpi)ss and nrv. .suiuiiiarized in the following 
table, llie number of the ut«cilIatioti8 registered i^ expresaed after 
the correiipondijLg direction. 



■uirr. 


btr. 


KJtKT. 


bar. it.ucT. 


HatB- 
twr. 

itt 
» 
11 

ID 




KlUB- 

ter. 


th^i&i 


W 
» 
ID 


B-W 


•ja 

10 
M 

2Z 


g-N. 


W-E 


1 


KHK-WNW , . , 




WNW-EtUt 
KW-8B 


4 
26 


E«tt.W8W 


Tfttat 


WBW-EHX . . 


NHw-aas 


1» 




l» 


n 


49 


a 



I 

I 



The above table shows that the smallest number of waros are those 
from tho west and weHt-iiorthwest. This tx'.vma to wugj^t that there 
is DO seismie i-eiiter westwarti under tho sea, such as u very prolmbly 
the case at the western odgo of Mindanao. Besides no tidal wave baa 
ever been mentioned in coune+ition with the destructive earthquakes 
of Manila. 

Ttie direction in wliich the shocks are more frequently felt at Manila 
are southeast, nurtbweijt. and north -northeast, tJic maximum numltcr 
corresponding to the last direction. All t!ie most uniiortunt .teismie 
and volcanic centers of Luz6a. Taal, Maquiling. Bandjao, and tlie 
volcanoes of May6a and BuhiHtn lie to the Muuth and (Southeast. 

The two latter volcanoes do not represent any danger for Manila; 
tlieir seismic waves hardly retahi any force after pat<8ing through the 
mountain ningrs of AmboJH Camarines. 

Tho great numlwr of .'uaitht>aHtern waves fteems to be partly duo to 
the fact that thow* radiating from the southern ccnt^^ra ti'a**h Manila a 
little iuclined to tlmt dinu-tion. 

The investigations of the causes to which wc can attribute these 
deviations of the seismic waves would carry us too far from our present 
purpose, so we (xwlpouo the queintion to a. more opportune occasion. 

The grf©at numl>er of waves proceeding from the northwest might 
urge us to consider the centers oi Pangaain^n and the Ilocos pronnees 
as indejwndetit of Uioso of Nu<*va Vizcaya and Cngayin were it not for 
the fact I hat such a direction has sometimes l>ei.'n registered pvi*n in 
earthquake--* which evidently had tbeir epiceutrio arua in tho north. 

[n the first quadrant, whence tlie grojitest nuuilMT of regisitered 
iraves came, we find not only the center of N ueva Viwiiyu and tie one 
in the northeast eud of the isUnd, but there also exist two cloawr one* 
in the eaMt-norlhe.'i>«t and ea,s(. These last can U* called the Manila 
centers, for their shaken area comprises ordinarily tho city of Manila, 
le provincetf of Uizal and BulacAn, and tlie former diatrict of ln^t*. 



I 



r 




RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF EARTHQUAKES. 361 



* 



» 



All the oont^ps menrionw! are very ncttve, hut only tho last, those 
Ivinjf in the fi.i.st-iiorthpa»t nnd Past, f<ooiii, as far a^ our present 
kiiDwledgp grtes, i-o Up dangeroiis to Mwiila, The destructive waves 

litxperionced in .Itily, 1880, oan very probftbly be ascribed to these 
centrr>L The shocks felt on the 14th and :JOth radiated from the 
eastern center, while thoM? felt on the IWh of July radiated from 

[tho more distant east- uortlieastoni one. There ver}' probably exists 
in that diivction a ijartly sulimarine inacroseismic center. Cuuceruing 
the uorthwestern jj^irt of thit epiceotric region Mr. H. l>. MiiCiuskoy, 

tB. S., has i"ecently written: 

Id my olK^^rxaii'mn in iht- dvl<l I foiiml tiiiiniTons InitanROi of violent twifltinff, 
imcttu«, Aii't faulting, dill' in ttart. nt ipast, Ui voU-anic ortinn and In tticoe antlmlt^ 
•ad trech}-tcs thHt (oriu the modem eniptivcs. Wang tli« Bnyaboii river, lor 
initanc*. In wveml iiUcen the »<trMim in t-tiok»)l with tumhled luaaseH o[ great lim«- 
ftoue l>owlil«rv, fallen intn it, mid liruk«>n from tht- Hirata un itiv liillnialtw abow; the 
Stfala themselves are violeutly fnu-lAire^l and ilisploccd, the shalee farther up the 
■treani uv twisted Hnd faulted, nud lietwiX'n Iji SIua and Bayabtw tliu Htreume 
flow at \'flmrti(i Bnglea CiVcr the fl\-nfUR»l and antiiUnal bxpji of the Ntmta; there are 
frei|Ueut evideneen ul nmrked exlnwionaof tuideeit*^ «nd tnu-hyte, nnd, dually, the 
cacarpmeDU uf ifwIi ditCe we are #ceii ni. >IU Balite, and al jiointM atiovo Bayatias, 
tmd to tlm belief iu exleneive displucenicntit. faultinfc, and tflijipiiiK of the entira 
strata, leaving more or 1e« gradoal nn<l re^lar ><lopes ujHin the we»t and abrupt 
bees to the eoat and northeast, certainly not to be aitcribot entirely to the effects of 
aioaioni 

RELATIVK FREQUENCY OF EARTHQUAKES IN THE ARCHIPELAGO. 

Plate XXXVII «h«w»« th« relative activity of thy ditTdrent centert-, 
or the relative frequency witli which thoeurth<{uakeai have been felt in 
ever? region of (he archipelago. This plate \» chiefly based on the 
UsU gmthorcd during the eighteen yeat-H which inimcdiately preceded 
the war. Thi^ is Ihn iuoii<t coniptele record at our di.tpoea1. The 
scarcity of data from some provinces hws obliged us iu some casett to 
calculate the fretjuency of the shocki* by thai of I he neighl>uring prov- 
ineca, and thua tliu value of the result la but approximate. The 
regions refernnl to are the central diMtrictft of Luz6n. inliabiied by 
wild tribps,nnd the IsUndwof Mindoro, Negros,Cebu. I^oyte.and SAnxar. 
The re|>orta received fi'oni tlKwe i.slandK came generitlly from only one 
phtce in each island, namely, the chief town. The values found for 
Manila are relatively too great, even if we take account of the vary 
perceptible e-arthquakes alone; and the reason for Lhi» is too clear to 
need explanation. The more active centers are those of Surigao. 
Albuy or Mayon, and TniU. But neither in theite nor in other centera 
li tlie intensity of the ulKH-ku proportional to the frequemry of the 
earthquakes, a.s ru shown in the foregoing chapters. 

The mean frequency of earthittutkes in the whole archipelago in the 
eightoen years 1880-1897, is given in the following table, iu which 
Ibc unit taken ii» tho earthquake day as it is considered by many seis- 
mologbts— tiiai ia, omitting tho after Hbocks which are sotuotimcs very 



RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF EARTHQUAKES. 25i 



MDOmeroiu during the day of the eutliquakn \tsf<U, and often tor nwnf 
coneeontive da^vu. 

Table 14. — EarlhguaJux in the Philippine atehipflagfi, hff munJAt, ISSO to tSS7, teitJt 



• 



ZUll. 


Jan. 


r*b. 


H». 


Apr. 


M.r. 


JtOM. 


Jnly. 


A0»- 


Sep*. 


tWt. 


Kov. 


PM. 


ToUI. 


Aver- 




S 

s 

6 
4 

7 
7 
10 


4 
< 
t 

n 
It 

i 

3 

7 
8 
R 
7 


s 

4 
4 
4 

I 
It 
3 
I 

i 

4 

« 

s 

7 
B 


9 

1 

a 


3 

s 

10 


i 




U 
10 


B 

U 


7 


I 
3 

U 


4 
2 


U 

ao 
n 

41 
M 
7» 

a 

41 
M 

sa 

fit 
u 

•0 

m 

« 

H 

107 


4.7 


S&::::::::: 


«.7 
4 6 


s 

ffi:::::::::: 


2.7 
S.4 
4.3 
E.4 


aS:::::::::: 


8.6 
3.4 




B.2 


ili.:;; 


Z.S 


jR:::::;.:: 


4.S 

4.7 


St::::;;::: 


&0 

S.B 










fW«l.... 


7» 
4.!l 


n 

4. A 


«7 
S.7 


75 
4.3 


4.C 


77 
4.S 


n 

4.0 


« 
ft.O 


w 

A.4 


13 

4.0 


7* 
4.4 


LB 


1 n.4 


m4 

4.0 



From thitt lable we liod an average uf 58.4 earthquake days for the 
year, or 4.5 per montJi; no Kinall nutnbrr indeed, when we remember 
that tfio unir ia the canbqiiako day and that it docs not include the 
Bubaequenl nhocitfl. 

The (wme tabh* uUo ttlwwo a niaxinimn frequnacr in 1881 and \H97, 
and a niinimiiui in IS^. Since the year lb;»3 the numbers Rhow an 
ittcrcEHef probably due to the fact that during tbu period there have 
been more private ob-^n-ers of such phenomena throughout the 
islands- llence we may rea»*onably expe<L (hat when our new metcor- 
olo^cal service ik etttabliulied and in working order, the table of the 
frequency of earthquakes will show a ntlll further increase over that 
previou»«iy givon, hewed on somewhat delicipot d-nta. 

If, following ihn meiliud of Mr. Montesan^ de I^llore, opplied by 
him not only t^i iiitmy Kuropran mgionfl, but also to our archipelago, 
wp study the eartlKiuake frequency it«elf, t4Lkiugthc above period of 
eighteen year«, we slmll find Ihe following numbei-s for the principal 
vinces of the archipelago: 



1 — ■ 

rauTuvM. 


1 


■ 


rEanitcH. 


1 


I 
(uDm.) 




8,7 

S,0 
S.0 

s,* 

zo 

XfS 
t.Q 
»D 
1.4 

at 
«s 

IX s 


IB. a 
w.e 
iB.a 
ia.7 
ZL« 
31.0 
W.7 
19,(1 
».l 




«.x 

1.2 
8.« 

4.« 

3.0 
1.4 
1.1 

aT 

1.4 
0.0 
8.0 
1.0 


17.0 


KS^"' "■• 




tLt> 






71.4 






U.I 




hiAf>4'^f P^nnr 


U.B 






^l 


ftOfalAlt. . .... 




Hmtntrit' 




u.* 


IEaBt»]«» 


13.0 
H.8 
10^7 


OMUmIo 


31. S 

717 


L* t«2>l>i» 




U.I 







anilu|KU«u •— Baa •— 47.T nlleft. 



«B4 GEOGRAPHY. 



There is some differenoe between onr numbers and those foand by 
Mr. Montessns de Ballore in his recent pamphlet, Die Seiamen der 
PhUippJTtm, Amsterdam, 1901, because he took a very different period, 
and Bometimes Uie single shock as unity, while we consider only the 
period running from the year 1880 to 1897, and take the earthquake 
day as our unit. 



IV. ELEVATIONS. 



Alphabetical List oF tKe Principal EJevatioiu to the PKilippine Islands. 

The folloTioif table of elovatioiiH Uati been compiled by the Philippine 
msus Bureau fi-oDi all accessible KOurceH, including tho Gu/ottecr of 
thp I*li)lip]>iim Islands of the War Department, und infti>R and nhartei, 
including tlie Atlas uf the Philippine Isliindti, prepared by the 
JeBuit fathera. Mottt of the points whon^ lieightH arc here given 
arc Hittmted near the seauoasi, and the heights have evidently 
been determined by vertical angles from ve.'i»eI.H engaged in sur- 
veying tho cou^t. Few elevationti have been determined in the 
interior, and the^te few probably by means of eiKtem and aneroid 
liaromet*Ms. These elevations are, iheivforo, not of a high degree of 
aceumey, which is ctuphasized by the fact that in many cases f<eveml 
meaeurementa have liecn found of the same point, rliffi^ring from one 
■nother by hundreds of feet. In all such caso^ the altitude selected is 
that which bad the best authority or seemed, from the proltabiUties of 
the case^ to be the most nearly correct. 

Aineipal flerationa in the Phiiippiue Abudl. 



Nrnme. 



Aboolhni 

AtMipwk 

\h6yof moiuiuin 

AnBtinttlaMak 

Af4Uiy peak 

Ataxia |w«k 

Aitoada peak 

Afinrlo inonntiiin .. 

Apiirli) iiKiiiiitain 

Agttdo Rmantata 

AsQtaira Idand 

Aury tnoanlain 

AlbiKD^ Iflland 

Alb^o luoontain 

Alhl<'>n hcwIlMul 

AMcm, OninU'ra <l«i I*. 
AlpiuVi irtoiinloiD ...... 

Albi ()« .UIa^Ia , 

Albi [K-ak ....« 

Af&liil Jeluid ij. 

Amt>'' ■'■ '■■ ■•'fitmin,... 



LocmUob. 



Zambalem.... 
Zunbalfle..., 

Lejrte 

Ilocoi Norte . 

Puuty 

Mhidoro .... 
On^Maod. 

Surieao 

noflo. 

SCamtrnkfl...'. 
Cayo fcroap. . 
Parana 

ST.*::::: 

Psragna 

Ssr.:;;;: 

ijoM&n 

ZambalM.... 
BatugM.... 
Bdiidom 



An»> 



I'J ' Ouimaris Strait.. 



lain. 



?lc)i[>o . .. 
ilcnan. 



Hvito 

Patnpaiiga. 
Zambalce.. 






872 
6, MO 
8,874 
4,700 
3,764 
8,864 

606 
9,300 
2.RI( 
3,737 

960 
3,600 

670 
1,400 

693 

381 
l,B08 
2,473 
3,757 
2,fiOO 

660 

3se 

d,iSS 
10,SI2 

3,M4 
624 



taw) 



S&6 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Prinnpnl tlnation* in the Ptiilippint /*((inii>>— Contmaed. 



Babuyiln Cloro volcano 

Bxci'in or Pocdol 

Baciiynliilt 

BadMii Inland 

BaKaiau iiiouDtaiti 

Ba^iinan nuiiintBin 

liaeitlipaL iiio(iiit»in... 

Italie niuuntatD 

BahdpMk 

Balibw: p«itk 

Baldbac peak. ...i... ...... 

Itataha^peak............. 

iialuK'J j'Wik ..^ 

fiala^uilgiliii yv&k 

BaHungiiiiiiiiitJiin.. ....... 

BabyoMk 

fialiwlslaofl 

BaiU^ao or M«jal^! volcano 
iBsiuoeii mtDiuliLiu 

fiange motintaio 

Baotay^ p««1( ...,.....<.. 

BaDt6ii lafand 

BiiqtiH mountatn 

Banng moantain 

[BasilaaUlBaa 

'BftthaWn hill 

Batui mountain 

Bayueak 

fiayoMa monntaln 

Bvaiifort pMtk 

Blmtii^au uiotijit4un ....... 

BtmoiS^an rooantain 

Binmaca mountain 

Binmkan moantain 

Bitinan Islani) 

Blufil'oint 

Boaysn leJand 

BtwboQbill 

BokwlTlobilJ 

Bold peak 

BondDlan hill..... .. 

Bodj^ Island 

Botae Island 

Botolan luounUin 

^ Brokon head .............. 

iBrow cone ................ 

_ Brow ehoulilvr ............ 

[Btibiuln laUod.... 

'Bw40pmk 

BokanliiU 

Balafmo monntain 

Bulaii prak ............... 

Bulaiijao IjiII)............. 

Buiiponfrpong Island ... 

Btiln rnland 

fioluaaa volcAiw 

Balntinao moantain 

Bunaiwi hill 



Hclctil tn 



Bahnyaueo [xlandg 3,'iOO 

Aibav , ^,«^; 



Minnanan 

W««L ix>a»t of Bimar. 
Mindanao .......... 

Barisfto 

Ma8Dal« 



17& 

1.116 
1,100 
1,82» 



Fluagua 3,406 



Jo16. 

Pttnay 

BaMbac Island 

lloHo and Antique.... 

Alini 

Pantgua 

Tayabaa 

Ivtay 

Banian 

Ia. Lasuna 

ZambaleB 

Oalamianca lalanda 

Poro latand 

Bombldn 

Paragua 

Parasaa 

Banian dintrirt 

Panay 

TawiTawi 

Pamfiua 

Ainbos CWumrini^ 

Fan^ua 

IlocosNnrte 

La Uni^n and Bmgn^t. 

Las^ 

Soreo«6n 

Jol6 *..v. 

DAvao, Mindanao..... 

Panwua ,. 

Zauiualea 

Zani bales 

Paimgua 

(tuiuumis Island 

Tawi Tawigroup 

Oalantbnea Idanda. . . . 

Zawbalw 

Paragua ............. . 

Puaioa 

Paiagoa 

Baamn 

Ob«i 

Sarigao 

IlomifiDr 

BalanguinKni Islanda.. 

Paiagua 

Jol6 group 

AmlxM CaunarinM 

SureogAu 

ilofloand Aotigoe 

8iui|K> 



S,S]0 
4.SSS 
1.800 
1,600 
3.6S& 

W7 
6,860 
5,787 

S2» 
7,3«e 
S.00O 
],S46 

on 

1,«16 

l.SOO 
3,100 
3.348 
4M) 
1,284 
1.800 
K.O00 
S,«fW 
3,900 
6,300 

2,700 

720 

1,670 

910 

777 

882 

3,000 

417 

1, IM 

800 

1,847 

1,090 

1,180 

3,840 

•m 

084 
400 

8,880 

1,184 

3,500 

981 

300 
4.063 
1,900 

787 



ELEVATIONS. 



257 



Fthtcipal flewHont in Oit Philippine ijluiutr— Gontiuued. 



HUM. 



InogByan taoDQUin 

toRuy peak 

Jut OwUn bill 

lutUltopcak 

JiitUfto peak 

latpaU muuDtaln......^.... 

lululan miKinUifls .......... 

CtttiRlt-'ti-iuountain.. ......... 

Otbftluui muuataiii .......... 

Qibeu (Id Boolog 

Ckbeu de Tablai 

CUiicntiftBn volcano 

Oibilo^BDhill 

Oigftyin mountain 

Oa^oapeak, volcano 

Ourilao moonluD 

Cilttvite moontaio 

Oilderapoiot 

CUibngAn moontain 

OUuuipin hill 

Otlnmoun nifmtitain ... 

Odupag iHlanrt 

Caluyn hill 

Calvano peak ............... 

C-jni^liti; ticak ............. 

('aiuauii.<ttiill................ 

CuDBBoeo Island... .......... 

Gunlgnln Island 

Cbmifpi/n Islaod ........ 

Oimigufn voUmno 

Otnaydn Inland 

Gkuten mountain 

OuUgohlll 

Oknipan hill 

CiuilaAo or ^lalaspiDa volcauo 

OuuaangomouDtaiQ.... 

Ouuxuuior peak 

dplMoan hill 

OlptMyan Inland 

Cifpoa»i>iat«a(i 

Gapnluliui moutitaio. ........ 

CuaballoSnr 

Okinbao Ivland 

CtoardDhtil 

QuKada mountoltui . 

QittnAo mountain ........... 

^aavoleaoo 

gwtanie moontain 

I mottntain 

Pfcoa 

lira's Needle 

ad 

Verde 

?ai^:::::::::;:::: 

nuKiitiaiD 

Itlaiid 

aeies-voti-oe — i" 




LODUlOtl. 



Zambalee 

Abra 

8iaen group 

Siaesl e:toup 

BatBin {Mariv^'lM peak*) 

JiH6IbUuic18 

Di.no 

DfaUlg&tMand 

Leyte 

Tayabaa 

Tablaa Island 

Ogay&n 

ZambaitA 

JolA Islands 

CbRar^ 

Cavile 

Uindoro 

Kamboanga 

Paragoa . 

AloflMte 

Lns6n 

TAwiTawi 

BeDiirara izroup ......... 

Cagav4n.. 

Oinahaiun Island 

West coast of Simai 

Mflflhate 

MUaniia 

Babuyanes group. ....... 

Csmigaln Ifluind 

PAnucua 

Dapitan ................ 

Zonibalee.. ...... ....... 

Patagua 

Nogroe OrieDtsI 

Bohol 

Bohol 

Zambaloe 

Cuyos Islands 

Farsgua 

Hasbate 

Lca6n 

BombktD 

TbwiTawi leliuids 

IHn^l Island 

Huamis......... •■.•■.. 

Faagaa 

Osgayin 

LniAn 

FantfTQA 

Bamlan Strait 

LntAn 

Paoay 

Diniiat Island 

BoboT. 

SulaSea 

CUamianeM Islands 



Bstllltltl 
feel. 



4,461 
6,838 

785 
],S73 
4,414 
2,730 
4,BS0 
1,791 
8,180 
1,075 
3,406 
4.SS8 

8S7 
1,106 
4.S89 
3,166 
2,000 
1,702 
B,B27 

461 
1,962 

sei 

023 

3,149 

446 

»S 

633 

S,383 

2,790 

3,392 

827 

2,119 

606 

976 

6,102 

1,814 

767 

600 

449 

8,360 

1,244 

4,666 

720 

767 

2,»B6 

2.047 

8,983 

6,868 

8,461 

8,176 

6.200 

400 

403 

3,666 

1.049 

3,006 

ess 

1,200 



268 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Prmcipai diaUiotta in the Phitipjme IitaniU — Continaed. 



Kune. 



OoirreKidor Isluid 

Co He maun lain 

Oorumf mnunUin ... 

Crown p*wk 

Cotdrado peak 

Cuemofl de Ni?gro.., 
Ouiiayan inomitatn.. 
Cumbre mountain ... 

Cuotinean pf«k 

DaUndein moontAin. 

Duiaopeak 

Daiwliy monntsin... 

Dtt& volcano 

Deliiia Inland 

Didira volrano 

Dinariti Uland 

Dioffo Island 

DitiBlaod 

Z>oe Cuernoe peak ... 

DobPItos 

DoDhio peak .,, 

Drake peak 

Dromedario peak . . . . 

IhUDanMlit hill 

Danunn Island 

Eutpoak 

Eliar>eth peak 

End peak 

EeMmpahlll 

Gift)1et« inonnfAin . .. 
FalM Sharp peak.... 



Tlte peaks , 



Foot peak* 

GaUton moaDtAin 

Gap hill 

OvmmwbUl 

GirayAn moontidn 

GorropeaJc 

OiKP Maliiidang 

GuInduliDan mountain . 
GniQlapA4a tuooatain.. 
Gutti){uitm inountain .. 

Gulutinao tiill 

Ualc^D moiuitaiu 

Harbor hill 

II«racfael peak 

High moiiDtaiii.. ...... 

High Nipple 

High Tnple hill 

Uoagueau mountada... 

Iba moontaln 

P«k 



LdmUoii. 



BataJtn .............. 

Bohol 

Paragna 

Oalanuanea Kvoup . . 

Pampanoa 

^egroe Oriental 

Lepanto-Bontoc 

IMii^ftat Island 

Biqaijor Island 

Laxfta 

CebiS 

lieyte 

Lmianlo 

Calamianea lelanda. 
Batinee Islandn — 
Calamianes group . . 

Bet&nes ffroup 

Coyoal^nds 

Cagayto 

Oarltp 

Paniguu 

Para^ua ........... 

Tawi TaTTi 

Calainifliies lidnnds. 

Paragua ....... 

Parafrua 

Paragua 

Paragua ........... 

Zamnalea 

IlCK.'OB Siir 

Paragua.. ......... 



UalgtillB 
feM. 



6SI 

617 

1,600 

1,200 

6.443 
6,200 
6,200 
3,300 
1,3M 
3,900J 

UO 
700 
6S0 
848 

660 
4,SSS 
1,BOO 
1,400 
1,800 
1,664 

616 

600 
1,600 
3.007 
4,6U 

6S0 
4.446 
2,814 



2,867 

2,9as 

Zam1«lfe { 2,1X19 

2,fl07 
3,030 
4,730 

nwagoa \ 4,800 

I 4,000 

Tabbu laland 

Parutua 

Tawt Ta^-i Islands . 

Miaamia 

aiaaaigpoop 



1,473 
1,810 
013 
6,280 
1,673 
8,080 
1.373 



Oabd 

Bohol I l.tti 

Sibiiyjn Ulaiida 6,963 

Panny , 861 

Miudoro 8.800 

Paragua............. OflO 

Paiagna I 2,316 

ZambalM I 3,711 

hkiagna l.KH 



^tragna 
DA van... 

Zainbdei 
IVoay. . . 



3,632 
1.I4S 
6.362 



ELEVATIONS. 



269 



Pnndpal eieratiunt in iht t'kilip^tt hkmd»~-ConlitkiU3iV 



niwrooantun , ..,. 

Uiu iiKHintain . 

IltDKiiln hill -. 

Iraok luoDntAiD 

Iriga volcano 

Isarog volcano 

IwUg Sierra 

JaUjkla mornitsiD 

Javiel pMtk ... 

Kanpal leUnd 

KaptUaJan mountain 

Keion mountaiii 

Labo motuiUin 

Labo TetAR do I'oluitttna volcano . 

IjibotmoiiDtiiiD..... 

ljf£ii lelanfl 

lanao lAke 

lanw mountain. ................ 

Lanat monotaio 

lAndar>tan peak 

tAp4 monnutn .............. 

lapar monntain 

Lapat lununtain 

I^toril^n mountain 

Letlin mountain 

L«gai>pi ii«ak 

I^epata hill 

Liia motmlam 

IJamft mountain 

UuieDtepeak 

Labo6peak 

Loghl mountain 

Loro monntain 

l.Dlnil|;Itit>i)l Ixlanil 

Mnliiurmi iiKiuiitain... 

Malmf niriiiniain 

MuljujAiiK^iuitain — ............. 

Hftcnuuiy point 

Maoolod mouDtnin .....,.., 

MadiaM mountain 

KMetiedsCampoIslaud.. ., 

ICttdoo moantain 

Kii£a)ap««k ; , 

Maiall volcaao 

Usjavjay voleano 

MuaoBfaoci motintajii , 

Mala})^n lelnnd...... ............ 

KUIauianI Island 

Mnlamet uiountiiiu 

Malanaraiian mountain 

-*Hin ..., 

;luO 

ll ;.i li>ianil , 

IbIiuii) , 

iliCmiaji peak... , 

Maj- iin 

Mx', tno 

M ar a eaflao Island 



Zamtnlee , 

lUng Itdaad 

Zambain 

Bathes Islande ... 
Ambne Camarinea.. 
Ambos Camarinea. . 

PBragaa , 

Oentfal l,nM>n 

HtRamiii 

Joldf:roup 

Maanate 

KamlialtiH , 

Am boa CamarlnM.. 
Am boa Ounarines. 
Lnz6n , 

MitKunno , 

Cebd , 

Znmbalca. ......... 

PXraj^tM. .......... 

Surigtto , 

Lapaclelaada 

LuJi^n 

Daintan 

Oaf^aydnSaln 

Sungao 

Siinar 

Lepaato-IIontor. . . 

Ldi^ 

Panay...... 

Rnftanjp M 

8<mar 

Oavite 

Oatamianea lalanda 

JoW 

Lerte 

Jofe 

Zambalea 

Batangaa 

Panav 

Romoldn „. 

ONi 

Jol6 , 

SnrlKso 

LaLa^na 

Siauijur laland 

Gaumlanca Inlands 

Barilan 

Fangna 

Lerte 

AlbaT 

Utnfuinao ........ 

Ruagna 

Cayoa Islands 

Faraeua 

ZamDal«H ... 

laLafruiia 

Oojrofl lelamla 



Uutelit ill 
foci. 



3.000 
660 
472 

s,8oe 

4,06S 
6,834 
1,814' 
2,S78 
1,663 
1.036 
l,S0O 
3,000 
B.OOO 
5,002 
5,M4 
1,140 
S,S0O 
1,800 
3,766 
&,3»7 
1,060 
1,803 
9,766 
1,297 
1,106 
4,263 

718 
4,616 
6,630 
4,466 
3,461 
1,664 
2,240 

660 
1,6W 
4,430 
1,(K» 
2,467 
2,800 
7.2ft# 

700 
1,202 
1,006 
1,116 
7,SS2 
1,138 

7»8 

Kt8 
1.630 
2,204 
3,006 
0,364 

76H 

714 
6,843 
2.000 
3,724 

600 



260 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Prmciji»t einatiotu tn lAr PhUippmf Idandt — OuDtiaoed. 



K4IIM>. 



lAOUlOD. 



Hetgttt la 
IMI. 



Marlvelm ptAkfi 

MftTOrogan hill 

Maaalawy cucnuiti^ . . 
Klaaalaynay modatain . 
Alttura^ moiiDtain . . . 

Maatio inouutaia 

Maoirigloc monntain . . 

Mataiut tiiauiititiii 

Matanpil Diuiiutnin... 
Mayma^i mountain.. 

May6ti volcano 

Meealiill 

Minapan hill 

Mitrahill 

MiUai^eak 

Mo We mountain 

Monsi^rrat uiouutaia . . 

Mnises nionntain 

MdlinJH monntain 

I'agH mountain 

Nagana^ monntain .. 
Na^pu ninnntain .... 
Nagouliat \'(j]cano .... 
Nangit Inland......... 

Naitfftiid \X'»k. 

Niuiki luouiituiu ..... 
IfsrotKKlfui moimtAln.. 

N^aoD mountain 

I4ippl«pcak 

North Bay hill 

North hill 

>'ortbettet muimtaJti . . 

NorthvMwt pt*k 

Nuogan mountain 

Obeerratorj- rocb 

Odenelepeak 

Fl«UlaolBlacd 

Fagoda cliff 

Puubi iDooDtain 

PSarpeak 

Falucpaadn 

I^ oe JLsi^car 

FaadilD mountain 

Fayte monntain 

i'eel mounlain 

i'icofle Baeilan 

PirodplJanao 

i'iiti (If l.iiro. ........ 

I'icoNoUiWp 

Pfciiiiu mmtiitain 

1*11118 Itrlauil 

FJnachidyan lalaml... 

Wnaiubo wlt-ano 

Finootian muuntain... 

Piqnliopeak 

PIftya Ilunila 

r\.iiMli'y |)cak ......... 

ait uioimtain 



BatMla 4,1 



TayaCw) 

Cavllo 

.\lhfl>-..., 

Bataiitns 

Zambwae 

Baallan 

BattUn... ...... ........ 

PaiuLy.................. 

Altifty 

TawL 'Tan i leiande 

Siaffii gmiip 

I'uK^ilao Orande Iftlanda. 

Lepanto-BoQtoc 

laaoela . 

Lepanto-Bontoc 

JoR I«I*ml 

CebiS 

lieyto 

lloow Btir 

Bataiu 

CalajnianM lelands 

Pauay 

Dnpitan.... 

IIoGoa Norte 

ZambaJe* 

Panigna 

BalibM Island 

I'anigtia 

Tablw bland 

TabUa 

Panay. 



Mindanao &.'. 

Taysbae... 
Parapia... 
Oagayin... 
Tawi "Eaw-i. 

Panay 

IloccM Swte 2, J 

Ticao Island ... 

Liis6n 

Paragua 

Basilan Island . 

Cebii 

Cavite 

Los6d 

Diaiigat Island . 

Banian .. 

Paragna 

Pantpansa 

Bohol 

Cartte.... 

Zambalaa...... 

Abm 

J&lAIalaDda 44..... ..I S,! 



ELEVATIONS. 



261 



principal etf^otioM in t/tt Plulippinf Sdarvit — Oontintied. 



Naiue. 



Palgar monnmin ..... 

Pulvin liato..... 

Pultuc 

IMIutc \K»k 

PupuB mountidii 

Quebnula poik 

Queeo'fl l*ay p*ak 

(joii'ut uioontaiii 

Retlnniln ninuntaiu ... 

Bflrtonclrt pmlt 

Bepoeet moantaui . . . . 
Sunnong moiinlain ... 

BAtiat mountaio 

Ssbro peak 

Sacripantc n«ak 

atddUhill 

Baddle mountaui ..... 

Bagamn hill 

Babcai moantaiD 

8»lakan peak 

8Am«l iHlanil 

8ui liiidit) mouDtaia . . 
fiHigUiigtnoimtaJD ... 

SanKtwoenpenk 

GtaQglMV Uljuid 

Su^ull volcano 

SinHuiiin nioaiilHiii... 
SwiiUi Cruz mouiitaiii . 
Santo KitumonntAin.. 
Saots Ko«a iiKiiintjun . 

Buita Boa peak 

Budacopeak 

Binto raalo raoniitaio. 
Buito Tom^ peak .... 

Stian^tuii volcann 

fiaUliU) moaotoin 

taflftepeak 

Sbarppeak 

SetnenebMn moantaiii. 
SnuniQran moatitain. 

ffldLrkarfn jange 

Bfaarp Slioolder 

flttiico IsUnd 

ffibaui mouotaio 

fSlbayia mooDtain.... 

aUangapeak 

«llani«faabaiu 

SUlaiMiak 

Kmaia bland 

8Ui«gH<mii p«ak 

Bljrae iDoaatain. ...... 

SoKibrvro moODtain .. 

South Bay hill 

Starelv pittk 

8t*«p«l) luoantaifu... 

Bnllibipwk 

fhnfai)- monntaln . . .. . 
Brnwuitf-Jtelaftm 




Puaeiia ., 
MiiKuinai^ 
Ltu6u.... 
PlUI 

HiD 

Ilocce Norte . ......... 

fianuua 

PfttalsUuub 

Zambalw 

Uiniljfiit litluiid. ....... 

lebuynt Ixliiuii ....•.., 

BAinar 

(Tamarines Norte 

Amboti Camarinee 

\jiylet 

l*araKUA 

Ddvao 

BiirtEH Inlands ,. 

Luz6n ............ 

Farapna 

Wvao , 

Zam bales ...... ...... 

T^yabofl 

Fnraona 

Baal&n 

Balnt Island, Ddvao... 

Ilotlu and AntJqati 

Zambalea 

Zumbaloi 

Isbayat laland 

Batain 

Tawl Thwl lilands . . . 

raniKiia 

Lauiiidu 

DAvao 

Sori^ao... ...... ...... 

Dapitaa 

I^iraifUB 

1 locxMf Norte and Abni 

Hitmap 

lUraicaa 

fansDB 

Ziambnanga 

llotto 

Kotabl6a..... 

I^ragtta 

Tayabaa 

Dapitan 

Bombldn 

OApis 

tAxUm 

Zmnboanga 

SalibacbbuMl 

I^mcna 

Balibac Island 

Puagtia 

Ctovltc 

LtuAii..... .......... 



UclKht Id 



4, £60 
1,S4M 
4. MS 
3,0(17 
4,490 
3,040 
l.flSO 
1,330 
1,976 
S,337 

7W 
1,72» 
5,000 
4.S7S 
3,011 
1,000 
8.000 

84S 

3,:^ 

2,816 

820 
2,667 
1.300 
1,8LS 

841 
a,U7 
1,68S 
1.500 
1, OOo 

878 
6.479 
1,187 
8,370 
7.206 
3,100 
3JW8 
3.261 
2,814 
4.800 
1,506 
1.680 
1,680 

736 
1,969 
6,424 
1,700 
S.900 
1,010 

870 
1.148 
1,615 
ft, 200 

(MM 

»,o»a 

860 

3,820 
2,483 
1,462 



269 



GEOGKAPIiy. 



PriiwipaJ fJtvatiotu in the PkUippme /aftnub— CbntJaaetl. 



KuiiF. 



TaalTolcano 

Titblftdo moantain 

Ti^^ipapeak 

TuDepan luountain.. 

Taluu volcano 

Tnlfnavhill 

Tii]<i}(itHyan ntountaia..... 
Tttiuaan inoiintam ........ 

Tntntiftgann Ii^latid 

THiutimn iDiiiHitaiii.. 

TaiKlut I^lBm) 

TnitHnbati^ peak 

Taiiglnii niouDtiuu 

Tantagdan peali ...... 

TipiuitAna Island 

Tun Lfland 

Tating mountain ...... 

Tetraltan Diountain 

TbniliUo uioiintain 

Tepaal or Ang moantainB. . 

TWMd« KaUan 

Tstaa do Pitogo 

TebudflSaotB : 

Thamb peaV ............. 

T1(--bay&t peak 

'Ticrm Alta inounlaJn ..... 

Tiiiuran [h>s)[ 

Tiiu uiouutuiii. ,,........, 

TindikljiDi pimk.,... ...... 

Toutotxiii (n-ak 

TcHigl6n nuHuitaiu 

Tomutjan-aaung mountain 

Tnuisepi hill 

TriiileluU 

Triatin monntain 

Tub hill 

Tulipin moantain 

Tuluraii iHland 

Tuniahu laounlain 

TiiniauntniiB peak 

Tiicdaliiru ^te&k 

Tuii'O peak 

riankaya Abdul peak 

Uling mountain 

UpsomuuntaiD.. 

Uraaneta mountain 

U«gan p*-ak 

Verde mountain 

VioanOamp 

Mctoriap«ak 

■VTgte peak 

Village range 

Vuetunle'fiobaj 

VucItJi Temate hUl 

Yaugie mountain ... 



BatangM 

ZambaleB............. 

Pangua 

ZamEalea 

Rixal 

Bohol 

Zaiubalea 

BatanffBH 

Tawi Tawi icronp .. 

CeM , 

Calamianet) sronp ..... 

'Tawi Tawi Island 

North IvUit^m 

Le|)anto-Bontoc 

BaMlon 

Calatnianii) Ixlaoda,... 

Pbuay 

Oa^yin, Sola 

Songao.... 

SegTM 

IkSo 

Faoay laUuul 

IlocotSurand Abra... 
Par^gua .............. 

Paoay 

Butan^nw 

P^nay 

Lu26n 

Calamiant^ Islandfl 

Panay 

Caiaball un Oectduutalee 

Sonog6n 

BalJbac laland 

Faragua 

Surizao 

TawiTaui Islands 

Jol6 

Paragua 

Jol6 

Jol6 

Uiuuati^a Island 

Pana^ 

Slaan en)up 

Cebii 

Panay 

Snrigao 

Panay 

ZambalM 

Cottabato 

PaiajKoa 

Tawi TawitfTDUp 

Paragua...'. 

Panay 

Aguada Island 

Zambalea... ......--.. 



Holvblln 
t«ci. 



1.060 

3,000 

ft» 
3,000 
I.SIO 

SIS 
1,190 
2.818 

72R 
1.627 
1,200 

ASA 
7,SW 
0,383 

038 

730 
2,788 

760 
3,261 
6,244 

ma 

S8S 
1.400 
4,260 
3,367 
2,846 
4.900 
4,S3B 
2,152 
4.067 
7,8« 

2,m> 

1,300 
MO 

2,074 

n» 

2.107 
1,267 
1.6T3 
2,040 
2, 162 
3.700 
OtW 
■-', 172 
I.MO 
6,707 
4,300 
1.207 
3,100 
S.WiO 
1.161 
1.188 
3M 
741 
l.SOO 



V. ISLANDS OF THE PHIUPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. 

Bv oEOBaE a. nnTHAit. 

01 Uoltnl State* ComI uwI a«od«tb- flurre]'. 

Summary o/ idaniU of the Pkiiij^nr anhip^atfo. 

yumber or idimdii b«vinK area— 

10.000 Bqiiaro miles or uwre 2 

1,000 aquant inileB »r mun-, and less than 10,000 winnr^inilM.... fl 

100 square milee or more, and le« than 1,000 wqiiarB uiUea 20 

10 sqiian* mil«e or more, and )«» than 100 equare lailcs 73 

loquare mile or more, oud Icei tban 10 fliiiuin> niUee aS2 

0.1 squara mile or more, and less than 1 flquaremile... 720 

Lott than 0.1 Bqaaremile.... 2,040 

Total 3,141 

Nmnber o( inland* Urted by name 1,068 

Somber of i«l)UKli)»Hl iMlctanot named 1,478 

Total 3,141 

Total ana of the PhUi|]|»tMi Islands, llf>,028 aqtuK statute milca. 

hiaadi of the Phiiippiae arckifttlago having an area larger than JOO trjuare m&t*. 



bUud. 



1 1 Las6n 

S... Mindaniu; ... 

S S^ar , 

4 Negroa 

6 Panay. ...... 

0.. I PangQB . . . . . 

?.. I Mlndoro...., 

B .„, \MjUt 

S CeW , 

Bohol , 

Uaebale 

OataDdoaoes. 

U Basiltn 

14 1 DuBuailga.... 

16........! Harindaqoe . 

W ( Polillo,.,..., 



ATM In 
Bdllw. 



40,900 

36.292 

6,031 

4,881 

4,011 

4.027 

3,851 

2,722 

1,782 

1,441 

1,236 

683 

478 

300 

86S 



Jol6 

Tablaa.... 
Dimieat .. 
Tawl Tawi 
Quimar^. 

Bmiae 

Bilinm... 
SiUivfU.. 

CttUfin 

SiaiBflo... 

Sinu] 

BaUbac .. 
Damaiin. 

Ticao 

e^nijoi .. 



Areola 



(263) 



361 



GEOGRAPHY. 



L/andi of the PhUijipitte ordiipdago, amuiged geogra^rieeiU^ from nvfih to to*ah. 



ULAKD AH I) l/>CATIaH. 



BATAN islands, north of 
Ijiiis6n (CsgRvAii prov 
ince): 

T'Ami 

North 

HabadiB 

Siayan 

lauiyat..... .,,.,......, 

Kego 

Batin 

SapUtn 

IbllgOB 

D&IQCZ 

40 uaiuuucMJulwtOAiiJrixJcii, 
ajreMQOtepedfied, hiuu. 

50 

BABinfAN IHIANUB, north 
of Laz6u (Cagiyia 
nroTince) : 

BuiDUuu ........ 

BkburtlQ 

Pan ae Acdkar 

Panaitui 

Oalayin 

DalapH 

Irao 

Mabao 

Jngo 

Bad 

CatiilKuiDg 

Foot 

hland Boutbwcet of Ba- 

boyfUi 

6 Wymcrocka 

4 Dcdicu rooks 

3 Guinilpae rockfl 

14 QnnaniodialetaaDdrockB, 
anunotapecifietl, sum. 



LUZdN TSLAXD 

NORTH CX)A8T OFLUZON 
f Oa^yin province) : 

San Vicetite.. 

S Henaanoa 

fiKnicha 

RoOa 

Gran Laia 

7 amunMiAl^androcka. 
antasnotepectlled, sum . 

M 



ATM In 
uture 
mllM. 



0.1 



63.6 



0.2 



80]. 4 



40,960.0 



0.2 



9.4 



m-Um AND U>Ci.THUI. 



WEPT COAST OF LtTZON 

(IlocoeSorle provinw)): 
Bodoc 

2 unnamcdisletfiatidroclu, 
areas not apedflod.sum. 



W2ST COAST OF L0Z6n 
(IlocoB 8ur pro\'ince): 

BalcMiMfrDe 

Pingit , 



WEST COAST OF LPZON 
(P^Domuiin proriuve): 

Cabalttha (LliiKay^n 

Cdpar rodt (L^^[my6u 
BOlf) 

II unxuuned islets and rocks, 
areaanot 8pecified,muii . 

18 

WEST COAST OF LUZ6n 
( ZambaJra province) ; 
Comas (Liogay^i gull)-- 
3S Uondred Iplanda (Lin- 

gaytoBnin 

Alu ( Uneven gulf) 

Anda ( Linpay^n gulf) . . . 
Xarra (LlnKayt'n null I . . 
Cauealayan ( Lingsyt'n 

golf) 

SantiaKO (Lingsy^n gulf) 
l^igsporof iJnpijYn gulf) 
Silaquf (UoKHyf'ti K"") ' 
Tambac (Liogay^^D ^]n 
Gayamant^Ungayi^n sntij 
Maaoc ( LingxyMi gnlf) . , 
Paaac«lBti (Lingay^a 

gulO 

IwidovoQg (Littgay^u 

„gaUl 

Cancaiayan ( Ungay6n 

gulf) 

3 ])oaUermanos(Litigayte 

gnlfl 

Culebm 

BatAn 

H«naana Mayor 

Uwinaaa Mcnor 

SanBalTador , 

Iftpat , 

Matalvi 

Xomlabi 



Aim In 
aman 



0.2 



0.2 



0.4 

0.7 



1. 1 



1.0 



0.1 



1, ! 



0.6 
0.0 

"ao.'6 

0.2 



ISLANDS. 



366 



IlkMU'^tht Philippine arthiptlaffa, ormnQsl ^mgraphicaUy fnim north to mnUh—Ctm, 



MUjnt AJti u/atMO*. 



WEST OOAOT OF LUZON 
(Zun)i&k» provutoe)— 
CoDtioa«d. 
Cbpon Grande (Capoues 

2 Tabonw ,,-.., V,.. 

SilaoKiuii 

PDqDpfla 

Hajru^ 

Gaviota rock 

Cangrejo rock 

Gnnile 

4 LoaFrailCH 

24 nanatDediBleCSAudroctu, 
ur«M not 8pecifled,stm) . 

100 

WEST 00A8T OF LUZ6n 
(Bnta&n protnnoe); 

4 Lm Cocbioiofl 

2 Pnlomonti rockfi 

e 

WEST OOAST OF LUZ^N 
fPaitipanga pnjviiuf^h 
TnDatabo (Maoila Imy) . 

WEST C50A8T OF ],UZ6N 
(Ca\itc proTince): 

Lb Monia 

Conwdor 

HonuliiiU rm'Jc , 

t^ta AioalU luok ...... 

Oit«Ilo 

El Flaile 

Cirabao 

Limbonea 

Oamiamarin 

mmameil islets and rockii, 
aTeaenot»p»iMfl«l,Bnrn . 



WEST OOAKT OF LD26N 
(Batan^a* pnmnve): 

Fortune....... 

MaricaUn 

CbUd 

RotnliKro .............. 

Ojlt'brm 

Malaiibo luoooc. ........ 

V»fde 

uniiani«d itdvlN and rwics, 
} Qot flijecUled, RUiii. 



Arc* In 
Maiu« 
mOtt. 



0.1 
'6."4 



4&.3 



0.7 



i.e 



0.1 



0.1 



2.3 



0.4 
12.0 



8.1 

0.2 



18,7 



iHAHD AMD lounon. 



SOUTHWEtJT OOAgT OF 
I.r^^OX (Taynhw 
prtniin-e ) : 

Paebilao 4.iran<le........ 

I^bilan Chico 

Almijaban .......... 

Faladbank 

P&tayan ...^ 

Ban Jiian............... 

Caeva 

Ran AndiiSa.... 

Talftiiaii 

SipAlun 

Iti unnsRiediBletsaiMlnx-k!^, 
areas nDt«pec)fiwJ,i!um. 



SOUTHWEST OOAST OF 
LD?Av (AmbosCbm- 
arinw province') : 

SuIk/jo 

Oaraban^ 

Galvaney 

Refugio 

2 onnamedialetfl and rocks, 
ansa not Bpecifled,Bam. 



6 



.SOUTHWEST COAST OF 
LUZON (Albay prov- 
inex): 
Solitario 

SOUTHWEST COAST OF 

LUZ6n (8on»086n 

proviuw): 

Bagatao (fioraogAn bay) . 

Bablayto (SoiWM^u bay ) . 

Malamahoaa (Soreogon 

lay) 

Batdn (Hoi«o(t6u bay)... 
3 Mata^ac (6onQii6D 

hay) 

LavauipA(8onMw6iibay) . 
Martrij; (fJoraocSn bay) . . 
2 Tumalaytay (BorsofAo 

bay) 

Lealioec (BonooOn bay) . 
2 Dtbugbin 0^>rwig;6n 

2 SI&lttKimbo islands (Soi^ 

angl'inhav) 

Binaciilaii (SoraogOa bay ) 
Cabulagao (Sorsogt^ 

l«iy) 

Ctflibuma (6omi«6n bay] 



A»aln 
flqoara 

iDlI«a 



0.1 



12.0 



as 



366 



GEOGRAPHY. 



IttaauUofHui PKiUppiw. archiptloffo^ arrau^'i ptttffmphicaBtf from north to south — Con. 



ULl»» AMD LOCATtOK. 



eOUTHWEST COAST OF 

hVmy (Soraogfiu 
lifovinfe)— -Cont'tT 
Guanirdajo [ SonKig^n 

i«y) 

Tinacoa (SoreoeAn bay) . . 
PaouniTau fSoraogou 

bay) 

Poliioc ( ports Piitiao and 

i*uilalijan) 

3 Dofla Ana (portu PiiUuu 

and I'anlatuanj 

Bor6D ( poTte I'utiao and 

Panlfltdan) 

Punahuan (porta Pntiao 

and I'aalatiian) 

Pim> (p(irtn Puuao and 

PanlatViaD ) 

14 tinnamediHletiiiuidroclcy, 

areflAQol spccitied.aiim. 

43 

[EAST COAST OF LUZ6n 
(Cagavin province): 

4 imnamedialetBaDdrocks, 

areaa not epecMed, sum . 

EAST OOAST OF LUZ6>' 
( Isabela proriuce) : 

fiay 

Eataicni) 

10 iinQaine<)i!i]eiiiE)iKlrocki', 
oreaa not sped lied, sum . 

EAST COAST OF LOZON 
(Tayabaa province): 

2 LoflConfltea 

Diatortiig 

10 LoeOarabaoB 

Alaha* 

iMltl 

Palupari 

Baliscaa..... 

in TinnamedialetRaTwIrorlis, 
areMAot«pedB«(l,aum. 

£8 

POLILTX) ATfD ADJACENT 
ISLANDS (Tayahaw 
uroTiikce): 

PoTillo 

Pktaanotlgan 

Puljuao 

itimHSg ....>........... 

Bogultay. 

.O^lda 



iJGAia 
■qokm 
anm. 



0.5 



4.4 



ai 



ai 



a2 



0.2 



107.2 



333.0 

SS.0 

1S.0 

30.0 

O.d 

1 4 



ISLAND *KI> IXXIlTltMI. 



POLILLO AM) ADJACENT 
ISLANDS (Tayubai 
province ) — Ooot'd. 

TtM>1oni; 

Aniluo ............ 

Malagninoao ........... 

Oaeay&n 

Galooot 

Oabungvoto 

Pnngflun ............... 

Malaniit! ............... 

CatabuQan 

Macaeiuna ............. 

Uai-affuilir 

Minalolo i. 

Minaman 

Cococ 

MinMona 

CaLuKuiaii 

lijuioon . 

Leutao 

Maolauat. ........ ...... 

1 unnamed iaiet, ar» not 
a|>«cifled 



EAST OOAST OF L0Z6N 
(Ambot) Cainannee 
province) : 

Jaalo 

5 Dajican (iocladiiiK Ta- 

buBau) 

TSnagA(OaliifRiaalalaniU) 
GoiuUntia [Calaguaa la* 



landsl.. 
abo 



(CalafHuu Is- 



Macula! 

laoda) 

Samur (Calanaa Islaiida) 
Pinacnapan (Oalaguaa la- 

Unds) 

Oalania (Oalaffoas Is- 

UndH) 

OlKbairi«y(CBlaeuaa hf 

aauU) 

(Ulaguaa lHlan«ls). 



liwuan (Calagoaa 

n Tanao. ...'...'. 
ThuntOQ rork . 
Mataudumaten 
Quinamanaci. . 
Qoinalaasf ..., 

I>amit 

Caoioid ....... 

Caot&n , 

Carigno 

2 BosidetR 

Glmms , 

Cnhfiit , 

8ui Miguel 



Is- 



Arealn 

MtUM 

mUea 



430. B 



0.2 

0.4 
12.0 

7.0 



0.6 
1.4 



BA8T O0A8T OF LUZ^tN 
(Ajobos CamvineB 
province) — Oont'd. 
Rotaiiaiun 

Paoi(|ui 
6 ^ibaiuu) 
Bscac«v 
LalR 
Ijilniy 

Quiualugui 
BRaoe . 

Autaliji 

Paqaiu 

Lungnipto 

3 CnUnaKoan 

Pttogo .... 

3 IttompoD L«l«te 

Boea 

Atflloyan 

53 imnaiiit>«lit>)ptHRn<lrot':l['!i, 

onsB nut Kpecitiud, iMini 




EAST COAST OF LUZ6n 
(AJbay province): 
•1 



Sao Migtiel 



B»panpu , 

Buriaa 

Oaabulaiuut 

Gwninyu) 

Minoro 

14 uiuiam«di)det»androeks, 
anwDot specified, ■am, 



CATAXDaANES AXD AD- 
JACENT ISLANXI6 
1 Allny province}: 

Oauuiilaiiim 

4 Palumbontia ..... 

MaUlln 

^ lloradaUi nx-lu 

fumy 

UJniM] 

bkM w«sL of Panay 

IbIaivij iri Port Btt&a en- 
tntnee 

UlAod off Cabdgao river 
mootb -. 

unnuDfld iilotouui rocks, 
uMHooiqwdtoltKUD . 

SI 



(SEOGttAl»HY. 



lalantU of the Philippine arvhipeia^o, arrrmfied yeofiraphiailt^ from norlft to Kvth — Oon. 



■ LAKV Jkint LOCATIOH. 



MISDOKOATTOADJAOKNT 

ISLANDS (Mindom 

province )— Continued. 

2PBDdfiu 

Black rook 

Libasao 

Nftgabat 

SemiroiB 

Stbolon 

etbalAo 

Oftluya 

Sibay 

Piiu>KaUn 

17 QnnainediB!«UiitiilrockB, 
areafi nul t>pi:L:ili>(Ml,Htiiii . 

MARrNDtlQITE AND AD- 
JAt;ENT ISLANDS 
(Taj'Hbaa prmnncw): 
Marin(lui[ue 

2 Sftii AndtV* 

Bftnot 

SanuCniK 

Maniwa^ra.. 

H OQgpon^ 

Island east of Maiin- 

diu|iif- 

Elebute 

Oaspar (Tm Reyee Is- 
IflndH) 

Melclior (Tres Iteycs Is- 
lands) 

Baltaear (Ttm R«y«e I»- 
laods) 

Agpit$D (Port Botiaoa- 

Atai (Pon'BarLAaLlaii)!! 
Madomug ( Port Banacft- 

Ian) 

Salvsrtft (Fort Batiaca- 

Ub) 

IVbgapawm ( Purt ^• 

nacaaui) 

Oarlota (Dos Hormnniu 

Inlands) 

iMbd (I>06 Htsnnonaa 

lalaikdii) 

3 tmnaioedtRletfianilrockB, 

areoanot Hpecifiad,muu . 

22 

rowblOk. tabi.as. and 
adjacent is- 
LANDS (KomblAu 
prnvinoa): 

Miu«tnt do Oarapo 

BaiitAn 

nocillo............. 



AtM In 
•qUUi! 

bUm. 



0.1 



as 



S.S.'M. 1 



862.0 



0.9 



3«1.1 



BLAXD ASD LOCATIOX. 



BOUBLON, TABLA8, AND 
ADJACKST 18- 
LANDS (Rombl6n 
province)— Conllnued. 

Biiiutra........ ......... 

Tablas 

Oarabao 

Oababaa 

Cobrador 

3 Coacano 

AUd 

LogboD 

Tinang 

SailbQd 

RombUSn 

Sibnyin 

Cnwta de Gal lo 

IT nnnaniiylialeUantl rocks, 
srvae not specified, sum . 

86 

BaRL&8 I8L.\KD (Mwbatf 
province) : 

Buriaa ., 

Burin 



Tempio 
iKiii 
Qgn: 
2 Hombrero 



Templi 
4 llnaligayaD. 
TaoKniiigrui . 



AotnmHola , 

Arena , 

M^^lin (Port RaMii&a).. 

3 Boca 

Gorri6n , 

20 uiuuunediBletsnndrocln, 
areae not iipocified, Hum . 

"S7 

TICAO ISLAND (Mwbato 

prmbice}: 

Ticao...... 

Bagabiboy (Port San 

Miguel) , 

Son Mi^ (Port 8in Hi- 

goelf 

CMpatln (Port &an Mi- 

Fdlabao ( isJrV San Mt- 

goel) 

Y«» (Port San Mijtuel) 

3 Pnro (Port San Migoel) , 

Matalwo 

Ruju. -., , 

TatUB , 

4 tuuuutirdi'>lpt«iui>lrnck^ 

aivaenot^pccitled.euui. 



Am* In 
■qoarc 



S7.0 

171.0 

0.1 

O.B 



672. 8 



121.0 
0.2 
0.1 



0.1 



ua.3 



\Jthmdtaf t!u nUippuu arMpdago, ammged gaM^aphiealiif from north tomulh — Con. 



nunv un uxunoN. 



[MASBATE ISLA?n> <Mu- 

bftte ptoviaoo): 

Miflbalf 

MmtaKiulanguilan (Port 

Barrviv) 

Amoroii (Port lUirtra).. 
PamontaJvt (Port Bar- 

romi 

BftUfuflc (I'^irt BamTB>. 
TUioUg (Port Bwrem).. 

lfie«a^iil 

luDonon 

DaqoitdaquJt..... 

Adyagan 

J^idao 

B«Uy 

Buptun^ 

UalHutiiiin^^ 

Giiinauayau 

Nuarmo 

VnbusM 

Narotirando 

Naro Chioo 

Pobre 

Gnlnlftba^n ........... 

GilutiKaa-.... 

Kanmt&n 

Ubqoc 

GainlnthiwaR 

Pifla 

Na^ran 

Jlototolo 

OiBauoeofNinbay).... 

Owogo{NItibfty) 

Taioalaytay 

Napa>'auao 

BaKanbanda 

RaWtat 

ICaJaU 

Natimbunan 

0«to 

BcnoBtbaok 

14 muaiDHlhletaaiidroclca. 

area«Dotepecifled,Bmn. 

as 

PANAY ISLAKD 

BOBTH COAST OF PANAY 
(GApIx province): 
Bonicay ..„ 

STa^juliiti 

FloriMiu [Daiiki tjayi... 
PudAolBwftibavV... 




Tftb6a(Bai$il]a7). 



Mahaay (tepiin by | . . 
Uababaur (SapUnbav) 

MaiioM&pUobayJ.... 



Ana In 

AUm 



1,236.0 



0.1 



t.O 



0.1 



ai 



l«.AMlt IKD tOCATtOX. 



0.9 



1,246.1 
4,611.0 

0.8 



Areata 

mllea 



NORTH COAJerOF PANAY 
(OipU province) — 
Oontlnuod. 

Malaya (SaiHio twy) 

Tuat 

Talon (CilpiBbav) 

BatonulM^ (Oapii bay) 

MBiilaliiipl 

Na«ti« 

Alatayan 

ZupaU) tnaror 

Za^to mehor 

Cbinela 

6 antmniedudetflHndrockii, 
areasnot specified, aom. 

at 

NOHTHEAfiT AND SOTTTH- 
F.ART CX>A8T8 OF 
PAiVAY (Uoflo prov- 
mci'): 

MHni^nig6 

Nabonat 

Tolananituti 

ftalbagan 

Band 

North Gigantc (Glean tM 
Wanda) 

8oath Ginote (Giaaotea 
lHland«)7. 

Uaidaion (Gigantea I»- 
lanoa) ............... 

Bantigo) 

GRb6ffUJ 

Antonia 

Potupantao 

TalKiffaa 

Adcaiayo 

Binulnaiii^aii 

MagUe 

UbnA 

Oalaffniin ....... 

Sicogoa , 

OaQOfl 

Tmnafftifn 

tfUdnut 

Bolnbadi^ 

FnriSalancalaiifcan 

Baeampal 

UnnipahSn 

Bayaa 

Maiiuya 

Rasalambi 

CuWbra 

Rflgaifri 

Naborot 

PuideAsdcar 

BUad 



0.1 



0.4 



11.4 



0.8 



0.1 



7.6 



370 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Itland* of the Phiiipinnt arvhipdago, nrranfftd gtogrophitaltyfrotn north to mntth — Con. 



■mMm uftt LocukTiott. 



NORTHEAST ANP SOUTH- 
EAST COASTS OF 
PANAY (lloflo DTOV- 
ince}— ContinuetL 

T«Bil- 

boiubrDro .............. 

Magofao 

Bualuff 

Maimngabfui^ 

Bulabadiai^iUi 

Dunao 

Banbtl 

Baligufui 

TagubftnJMi 

BUuuuui ............... . 

A&au*y«n.. 

SAfcjr 

Barf 

NMitiucaiig 

Bavaog 

CiliibauB BHSt 

ChUIwjwh Wwt 

Pupitiut rutjkt) 

7 Sk>t^ I'ModoB 

Banti^ii rockfl 

Nnbaral 

GnitufLrda 

KKdnlHO (GniniKniB 
strail} 

Nalungi (Guimar^a 
rtnifi.) 

InAmpiuiigan (Gtitm&r^ 
tank) 

BaMD (Guimar^ Etnut] . 

NAtay (Gaimaiisstnut) . 

Numi>o( Qiiiiiiar& strut) 

NiiBbaB(GuuaaTisetn)it) 

GoiuanAn (Guimanla 
«li»it) 

PuiulNtlon (Gaimoris 

itimli) 

S niii«U!i{Guitnfir^atnit). 

Maud MQtliwcstof Goi- 

■nir<B Uand 

44 ailluunedUeta«idn>ckii, 
■rMHOotflpecifled, rom. 

120 



WEST AND SOITH tX>ASTS 
OF PANAY (Antiqmi 
province) : 

Jtmojuno 

Nogas 

Maralison 

BatbatiD 

Maningning 



Arvaln 
•qoara 
B)Il«a. 



0.1 



0.1 
228.0 



2M.2 



■BUltD kVtt LOCATtOK. 



WKSTAJTDeOTTTH COASTS 
OF PAKAY(Antiqtw 
proviiice) — Contiuued. 

Sombrero rock 

Arew not Dpwlfied, sum. 



XEGR08 ISLAND 



COASTS OF N«gro9 Occldcti- 
Ull jjitivinfo: 

Ilacoti (iiorili coart) .... 

Kiiyac (iKTlh coast) 

BocaUw [ nurthewt conrt) 
Bagnnbiuitia (norLhesst 

coast) 

Bchigio, orBipanay (east 

coast) * 

A.naJRii«ii I we«tc9avt)... 

AguUtyan (wecrtvoiafl) ., 

Duojugan (wet coast) .. 

22 nuQiimcdisletaandrocKS, 

iircsaiiotep«dfied,8mn. 

29 

C0A8TS OF Nf^rm Oriental 

provini*: 
fforth Baia (Polodiot), 

(eaat coast) 

South Bais (PnKidacul), 

(eaBtcoaal) 

Pampanga rocks (aonth* 

«aitcc««t) 

AjN) (8outh«aM coan}... 

RHitiijorfftaatiifwrtcCiaet) . 

2 uiinaine(lnl«t« and rocks, 

ainaDotipeciflediSniii . 



CEBt> AND ADJACKPT 18- 
LAND6 (CMxl prov- 
inee): 

Cebi 

Tanguingiii (northwwt 

olCobS) 

GoinlacHD itiorthwestof 

Oebrt) 

Bantaviln (nortliwiet of 

Oobii) 

Don Istnnde lagrtliwut 
al Oebrt)— 
ODeialand...' 
OiMialaiid ....J 



Ana In 
•qoan 



0.1 



a4 



4.881.0 



1.1 



0.4 
100.0 

0.1 



111.0 



ISLANDS. 



271 



lititwiKif th< Philippine arettipHago, nrrangrA geoyraphicaiiy ftvm north to muih — Con. 



nUHO AMD UCAnDK. 



Arm In 

mil**. 



CEBtr AND ADJACENT IS- 
LANDS (Ctebli niOT- 
inoe) — Continued. 
Don ImuuIh (nnnlitrert 
ol C«M ) — Continued. 

Unetsland 

One island 

One bland 

One island 

One inland 

UDoloiwan (north we«t 

o(Oebd) 

Gihimpil (northwfec ol 

Ceboj 

tPBto(Dorthw(«tof Cebd) 
(nnrthwiwt 

ofCebd) 

Choootato (northveet of 

Cpbi'O 

CaJaofrauian (east of 

CVM) 

'r Car^laiiHlU>(eMto(OehtS ) 

I Faaijan ( Camotwlalands) 

I (Ciunolm lalands) . . 

I^n (Ctmotm Ifllmids) 

r(OiuxiotaablandB) 

(MBlofOeM) 

lactin(e*i!tofC«b(t)... 
OUogo (east of CoU) ... 
C^it (OeM harbor) .... 

Lava (Cebii h*rl>or) 

SumiloD (east ul CoM).. 
Badlan (wmtof Oubil) .. 
Pwtrador (wwt of OeM) . 
15 onnamedbletsandrocke, 
areae not q>ecified,«im. 

SAMAR island (SAnur 
provincv) 



WE8T OOAflT OF SAMAR 

l8LAND(8ilmarpmv- 

Utf«<): 

Dalopiri , 

OkjioI , 

Moropom , 

Ban Anilnffl (Naranjos 

Islanda) 

boanada (Naranjoi la- 

, Agnada ( KanuijuM L»- 

laode) 

Mraena (NaiwOos Is- 

lKidi«l 

.Medio (NaranM !>• 
laadB) 



IVLUnt AXO UKAl 



Arm tn 



LO 
0i9 



0.2 



0.1 

0.2 

»R.O 

3ft, 

I ft- (I 

0. L 

0.2 

2i>.0 

3.9 



ai 

0.2 
0,4 
0.3 

0.9 



1,938.8 



&.OSLO 



11.0 
13.0 



WEST COAST OF BAMAK 
ISL.VND (eimarproT. 
law) — Contlnimt. 

Raes (NanuJMi Islands). 

Dinanotan (Narenjoa !#• 
lande) 


0.4 




S.S 




OlI 








18.0 




0.1 


DUaib 


8.6 




Oil 


Ttonaaa 


a9 






AfaWa ,,.,.. 






3.7 


Klar 






8.0 










Irfand cjuitof Dauiita 

Libucan DavO [Libucan 


0.1 
1.0 


Tan((a<l Libocan (Ltbii- 


0.1 


Libncan Guliay (Llbu- 


ai 


8 Curo Coayoo (Ubuuiu 




I.Hyalaya (Libucan 




TimiiHKan (Canaliaiian 


1.0 


Oaoahanan Dac& (Oana- 

hanan Islands) 

BateonSKin (Oanabaoan 


1.1 

0.3 


Boloang (Canahaaan 


0.1 


Cauahauan Ooday (Ca- 

nahaoan Iilands] 
Baloding Dac6 (Caiia- 


0.1 


Onnmamot (Canahausn 




Tainvd (Canahauan 




2 Camblda&a (Caoabauan 




Borobalato (Canahauan 




BsJading Gatiay (Gnna- 




11 CaTaotigtdanM (Cona- 




TsplaranaM, north iaUnd . 
Taplaraiias, Mutb Inland . 


0.1 
0.1 



272 



GEOOUAPHY. 



Jdanda of the miippine ardtiptiago, urranged geoffraphicaUif from north Utaouth — Con. 



BLUfO Aft) LOGATIOI'. 



WEST OOAOT OF SAllAB 
ISLAND (SimarproT- 
isce) — ContiQDea. 

Bfi^acob 

AiflflBBUnfftUBO .......... . 

Borf 

2 OagilulWn 

CHuibtuiunui rock 

Mnlntagniii 

Dsntiuiiy, ttouUi itiUtiil .. 
Dftnjuuy, north island .. 

Dimim 

Fftnwui 

Tftntara 

OsoAOdinaaan 

BuiciU*70t 

_ Cktambft] 

Handag&ran auUs)' 

Han<laauaa uac6 

B»aian 

Mariquitdanuit 

3 Fuiitaan laloodH 

3 Aoeon 

Bacnl, ea«t tsJand 

Bacsal. west Idand 

Solop 

Nnniing 

Mondon 

Gointarcan, or lintar- 

CWl 

Macamtii 

Balubalnan 

Uahol 

MHlapandan 

Mariuuboc 

Lamiii]^ . 

Qnindoc 

Bind 

Hacatul 

Bfaroponi 

Bontay 

M4jaba 

BflSao 

HaJanton ........ 

AlactiAa 

POro 

Uacuac 

44 onnamedUleUuidivdta, 
areasnotspedfled.Ktiin. 

Iftl 



>*ORTH COAST OF RA^IAH 
ISLAND (SAiniirp«.v- 

BiHiBaliraatrolfllBQde). 
Tuiimy (Baliciwtro Im- 
UnoB) 



AraL III 
aquara 
oltcs. 



nuj(i> A»v uKunott. 



0.fi 



0.1 
3.4 



0.1 



1.5 



0.4 

"iio 



0.1 



1.0 



128.8 



NORTH COAST OF bAhAB 
I£LA^ D(Kiinar prov- 
ince )—ContiroM. 

M^fHwiiff ( Balicuatro lit- 
Iflndfl) 

Makadlan ( Balicoatrols- 
latiilii] 

Inland Dorth of Makad- 
Ino ( Rslicnatm Islands) 

Tifljui ( B<diriialtX] Ia> 
lands] .............. 

Cwnina (Balicoalro It- 
lands) 

Maoarito (Baticumtro b- 
lands) 

Han Jnan 

Banl 

Maimvilla 

Nagnasa 

Elonbarbid 

Cocoimnt . 

Gilbert 

Green 

Ufpunut 

Foot 

Bat 

Obaon 

Palijoa 

UirapMln 

Cajoagan 

Livafl 

Cajavagan 

Bfttag 

LflAtun 

CaGip&n 

Sinobofcban 

Ma^tano 

Ba*^ 

38 tmnamodielotsaadroclDi, 
areas Dot«pedBed,8am. 

70 



Ana in 

Mtwra 

BllOf. 



EAST COAST OF ttAUAR 
ISLAND (Simar prtiv* 
iow); 

Hiffunum 

Natnntiiean 

Oatiabsyiii] 

Blnarajraji..... -, 

A lugsn.... ...... ....... 

TiilMilaU _,., 

IlilabM&Q 

Bonjiln 

Linao... 

Fttlfn 

PiaiK 

UguTfl 



0.4 



0.3 

l.fl 



9S.1 



ISLANDS. 



278 



liIaadM o/ the Philippine tmhipeln^, arrangtii gtognxphicaO^ Jrom north lo tmibr-Coa. 



tktunt ASO UCtTIDK. 



EAST COAST OF SiMAB 
ll^LAN'D <@^auu proT- 
mce)— Continned. 

MuaUi 

IfacSlftTO X 

CW«l»biin 

Uaod eoatbwHHt of Ca- 
UdabAn 

IMC 

Andk 

Wrinabo 

S DoeCocoo 

Maiduuni 

MinaeaKAti ---- 

UuuLOUt 

InijiKi 

Hsauid^i . ,.... 

Lahuiigan 

Pogpacutao 

Ajuijao 

Hiniwlion 

HittAloa 

lino* 

SO Qnnamed tsletaandrocb, 
*n»6 Dottpeciti«(l , mm . 



)tTII 00A8T OF SASIAB 
ISLAND (Sfiuiarnrov- 
ioce): 
Bwya (Soil Jiuuiioo 

■tr^) 

ibon (tten Jaanico 

«ti»m 

StntA BiU (8iui Juaoico 




etnin... 
Torm (SuJuanicofltrait ) 
GnJQtiga&U) (San Juaoi- 

oovbiuC) 

Vi6a (San JuanicoBtnil) 
OibaUiuui (San Jwuuco 

etmit) 

Jlaaniogtfiaii Fe<lro hay) 
Bbonan (Han P«<lni hay i 
PaaabaloQ (Saji Fedro . 

bar) 

f> Camnrouundan (Sao 

I'edroWy) 

Bmo (Han VfAto bay 



tto(t?anP<^rolja7l... 
ldiUM;ba<Imif{ (Sva tV 
dro MX) ^ 



iqniUlaquit (8*d IV 
drobay) , 

' n^ ...t, 



Aran in 

•qnara 
lolla. 



laLAKO um UKATlOJt. 



O.I 



0.5 



1.6 



0.3 



0.1 



0.1 



a& 



as 



HOUra OOABTOF bAmar 
ISLAND (SAmarprov- 
inc«) — Con tiitueo. 

Borabo 

Bode 

2 CuniBaxaa 

Caiitican 

BaAambauua ........... 

Caualsrbui 

Canlnoan 

Tobibao 

loatoulan .............. 

Mamcani ........... 

Rutin 

Cnlicdon J........ 

L(ilL>l)o6n 

Candola _. 

MalhAn 

HiiliiaQ 

91 QaDamtMlislfteand rocks, 
areoH not 6iiecifled,aum. 

134 

L EYTK ISLAND ( U>te prov- 
ince) ; 

Lflyt* 

Maripipt (north itMuX) .. 
Biliraii (north coMt},... 
S 6amhHbuaa( north coast J. 
Tahiti pul (iiorlh coaitj . 
Tomava (uortb coast) ... 
Tincannan (north ooBSt). 
<i»uuri;ian (north coatt) . 
Caiutan (iiurth coa*!) ... 
C^v^n ( north coaat) . . . . 
CiiUjit (north coast).... 

Poro ( north oobA) 

Liunay ^north coast) . . . 
Oauunpijan (north cuaat) 
Oalagnan (Sao JiuoJeo 

BtnJt) 

OuianaT (Sao Juanioo 

Btndt) 

IvAatamt (Ban Jaanico 

Btnit) 

Caltaean (6an Juanioo 

(tnat) 

Navaliay (San Joaninn 

BlTftit) 

Nababay (San Joanico 

rtniit) 

BAool (Ban Jiianiro irtrait) 

3 C-Bracapan (San Jaanico 

ft rait) 

Banaumbut (San Jiuai- 

cDcbait) 

BagAcay (San Jnanico 

rtrait) 



Area in 
tqnan 
milcK. 



■ 274 ^^^^P^ 


GEOGEAPHY. ^^^^W 


■■ 


^^M JUemde of the Phiiippint arckipdofio, ammyti jiraimipMccU/y from north to mruih — Con. H 


^^m OLAint AKD UMUTION. 


Ana la 
•gmn 


tiLAin) AXB bocAnoK. 


AnmlD ^1 
•qnue H 
mllai. ■ 


^B LEYTE ISLAND (Ujrle 
^^B proviace)— CoRtlDved. 
^H_ Bmoado (San Juaniro 




ROHOL ISLAND (Bohol 
proviiioo) — Con tiniMMl. 
Oanleaguyan (nortl) 
coast) 


« 


^^^^B 




Oabulan (north i-oaet)... 
PandoDou fuorih coast . 
SttaririguU (north coast . 
Jau(la)iLn( north coast).. 
BaiiacOu ( north roast) . . . 
Daiuntajtm ( iiurtbioast) . 
Cubijao (north coast) ... 
Tajontajiin (north coast) . 
Mabanav ( north roast) . . 

Tambd (north coafi] 

Jildnlpan (north coast 1.. 
Oalituban (north coast).. 

Talaban (north coiut)... 


0.1 
0.1 
0.8 
1.7 
1.0 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
2.9 
0.4 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.1 


^^^^M fiacalin (8an Jnnnim 




^^^H Pantnnio (8an Jiumlco 








^^^H Polaila rock (cast coosl) . 
^^^^ Oabugan Grande {ejiec 




1.2 

0.4 

71.0 
S.0 
0.1 
0.1 

ai 
ai 

0.1 

o.« 

0.1 


^K OaHogan Oilw (eaeL 


^^B Fluia6n(HiuUi<x»ii[t).... 
^V LimaaagUB (muth cMrt) . 
^^K Obnifiaa ( w«et coast) .... 
^^K Jimuquitaii ( wmst voaat) . 

^^K MajahaR (-n-Eu-t coast).... 
^^1 Oamalac (TTCStcoBBt) ... 

^H TAbgo(wwt coast) 

^^H Dauajon (veBtcoaBt).... 


Oabaiiltlaii (tiorto oOMt] . 
Biuingbilangan (north 


1.4 


0.1 

0.1 

O.I 1 

0.1 M 

0.S ■ 
0.1 ■ 


.Tinntongnn (north ooaet) . 
Daaajon (north coast)... 

Maiimnnnn (nortbooaA). 
Maliiigiii (iiurt)i coast] .. . 


^^^ Qigantai^f^ ( wc«r, coaal) 
^H CwiaaaO^-eeitcout) 


1.4 
0.9 


^H 3 Manocmanoc(wMt coast) 
^H 18 Qiuiaiued iriotiand rockg, 
^H areaenot spe(3flecl,8uni . 

^( BOHOL ISLAND (Bobui 
^^ft provlnro): 

^H Bobol 

^H Cabflao(noTtbiM)aet).... 
^^^ 8andingan (uoith coa«t) . 

^^^^B Mantocut) liiorthcoast .. 
^^^^m Vuauuai) (north coast .. 




1.0 


Mtti^fiia (riiTlh ifMUil;.** 


::::;::;: ■ 


Bnhio (nortli oojwt)..... 


":"."j ■ 


Rttlinvul /nortJ] nMuA^ 


■ 


3.007.8 


I«plidg(nottiieaat coast) . 
Ij^tioig Ohloo (north- 


io.a ■ 

0.3 1 


1.441.0 

2.1 
2.0 
1.7 
0.1 
0.1 


Ttnnibu (north const).. .. 


Tinlhnan (ease coast) 

i*&uiiliican (eouth coast) . . 
Balivasaft (wet coast).,.. 


0.S _ 
0.1 J 
0.4 ■ 
0.1 ■ 
Sl.l ■ 

1.1 1 


6 uanamediHletBandrooka, 
anas aotspodQod , Bom . 

62 

OALAMIANES ISL.AND8 
( Para^oa province) : 


^H JaTaan^ north eowt ... 
^H OaDgiin (north ooaat . . . 


0.1 
0.1 


1,6)0.5 1 


^^H MacDiut (north coast 




aoo.o 

1S3.0 
M.O 


^^H Kta toan (imrthoout i... 




^^M BanAn (tiortb coast) .... 
^H Batfa (north ooMt) 
^^^^ Antbasau (nortiivcBt 


0.1 
0.3 

0.1 




Cotdn 


^^^H Bagambanna (north 


Ufcbflem, ofNorthwMt.. 




^M 


^^^^H MaUeaboc { north coast). 

^^^^H OcMuitng (oorUi ooasL) . . 


0.1 

0.1 




a* ■ 


IkuoMo 


J 









rsi:Ai 



Abnub oflh£ Philippute arrhipftatro, arrouftd ffOfjruphicaUjf /ram norih to aovtK — Coo. 



Mumi AMD ux-ATiax. 



UALAMIAXEB I8LANI>8 
(I>ura(;ua province )— 
C'^nUtiucxl. 

(^locuto nxks 

Dnmimimlit 

Oiboyoyan 

l>uasquiat 

HaiUB Isluule: 

One island 

Oaeialaiid 

One udand 

A no.. 

Mi-nor ...........-.---. 

('Ainsnfrtt 

U«nt-- 

Beintac 

Tiini 

CUutiltiiy dull 

Lahiil^liibat 

hlHRtl ill MmangAi' 1ki> . . 
IiilaDil iu Mtiiaugda Im> ., 

OibUHiMi 

UUndiKntthofC^biUittn 
Idiod 80qUi o( OtblUDKu 

Dtaiute 

M«t«)i 

Ditmluc ................ 

DeUin 

Onintuitgatuiiu........ 

BalAUiinu ....•.■••....■ 

3 Mslapoflo 

M iniolfty 

Calaniljagwi, or Caliini- 

haran 

CiuiiLi<3..... 

Dipulfau . .......... 

<Jaliiit[>it 

Dk«U(to , 

Di toy la van 

4iiiinlc-pen. . 

Ouiulep.... 

Tiitnmniflin ...... ...... 

Dlrabbun 

Ch«ruii , 

5Ialfni'uyan , 

KedraBI«ni3i 

Ditwoca 

TuoMd 

Tampcl , 

Dauiin , 

Ub6ii (P..rt I'«id) , 

DinwotdoKlv-rt U«6itt.. 
Bai|ni( (Pi.rt I'-.n) .,.,, 

I'lftn* (I'lirt l".-iiiii . 

('•hilaiian M'"'" ■"" ■"■r: ' . 
MitvMiii«yaii ' 1 

BkUiiun ' ■'> ' 

Chgtutaii < «ii).. 



Area tn 

lnil*n> 



0.4 



0.1 



0.1 



ULAND Aim LOCATIOK. 



0&LAMIAKR8 ISLANDS 

(Puruguu pravincc) — 

ContiTiuixl. 

V«gi»(Purll-'»Mn) 

Pedrvea (Port. Cwin) 

DlAnglit (Port UM6n) 

CftniUuan (Pyrt U»>ii).. 
Eaat Mu(]urmt (Port 

Uson) 

d Maqulnil 

Bugut (Port C'oK'in) 

Inlulucut (Port Corfin).. 
Chindoiuui (western 

rhanni'l) 

Tanijrat* wealem ohaniwn 
Marily (wuett^rDcliaunel) 
Lnmii ( wexUrn rliannp) ). 
Uimanglet ( w *> b t e rn 

chanuftl ) 

Ijimiid ( wi^ttrn Hmnnet) 
Iajo (w«et«rnctiuiDeU.. 
Naptila (we0t(>ni cliim- 

nel) 

Dicalatuu(«eet«mclian- 

nel) 

CiOiini)>iiyui (wefiterti 

i*1iiujiji.-I ] 

Dic!ott\-ftit (weetern diao- 

ntl) 

lalond Qorth ot JMraiiyaii. 
^IiUoatop ( vrcetfm clinn- 

u»l) 

DiguiUuguo ( weHlern 

(-huanbl) 

Maltulpoi'i ii'Wt«ni cbsii* 

nelj 

Poiiototnn [ w » t o rn 

t-bfiuiwl) 

Maot^'iiguiiy (wiwtcni 

channel) 

Papacbiu ( weetom cban- 

IH-IJ 

Malbinchilao (wcatern 

cbaitnol) 

MaltaUyoc (ireiiteru 

rluuincl) 

Gakic (vesten] cbaonel) . 
Wiwt Nalaut, or Unnju 

(wefltem channel) 

Eaet Nalaut (wartern 

channel) . 

I'amaliaui (western 

i-imniicn 

Talaini'uiBJa (vrestern 

c>i«iui«)j 

MataJAii (wtsteni clian- 

iwl) 

Nlnnd t n«t df Talaiuim. 

tail IbIuihI. ........... 



Ana IB 

■inara 

nUea 



0.1 



0.8 



0.1 



n. I 



ISLANDS. 



3T7 



Uandtirf tlu PhUippint anli^Kiafo. arrmiffttl geuffrapkicaUp frvm north to tentfi—^on. 



wuyo urn loutiok. 



. 



\V¥m 0OA8T OF PABA- 
GUA (pHnguk iiniv- 
inee)— -CdDUDDea. 

Caiuu^o 

9 Needle rocke, or A(caJB8., 

Analo 

Brash wood 

Talamn [UaUupaya 

Boand) 

Ftaked. or F^co (Ms- 

lBO)I«yaHnuadl , 

R PynuiiiJ rvxkii (Malaiii- 

iKOUIlii). 



pays wmnd) 

llliivk rock (Maliitu- 

payiL iKHiiid) 

Entimnc« rock (MalAra- 

Eyu »auiiJ) 
r rock (MkIiiii- 

p«Tft «ooud) 

Kcrtcli (Mtlampayii 

wnnd) 

LATgon rnrk (Malxtn- 

psyftMOQil) 

ujgon (MalanipAya 

•ouod) 

OoDe(lulauipiLTu Muud) 



WhltL* rock (lltUmiiayg 

BouniJ] 

Pillar fuck (Makiupuya 

aounil ) , 

Nnrtli nick (M^juii|uiyti 

iwuiui) 

BiMilli ruok (>U]iua|>ayft 

sound) 

MaUpina (MaljuiipftyH 

•oiuid) , 

TBtwMui (Mmlainp«ya 

nound) , 

[J«y KK-k (MaUinpAya 

sound) 

Hklfwav (Malampaya 

•dunJ) 

'fide rock ( MnlatniwyiL 

■ound) , 

Tftiui (Mulainpaya 

sound) , 

N*orlh4W<t tay (UulAin- 

yanuuntl) 

■OD (Mklauiimva 

■ound) 

Oimtie(M^tD|wya«oUDd 1 
Juet( StatiUDiMiviimiind ) 
BUck rllff (Mnlniupayft 

fuondl , 

Wliilp mck (Malumiwyft 

•otind) 



«^i 



AmkIo 

Mura 



9.0 



BUXD AKb tOUTIOH. 



O.S 



0. I 



I 



WEST 00A8T OP PABA- 
GtTA (PRraEUft prov- 
iiMw >— Caaunueu. 

Small OaJ^buctoitii; {Ma- 
laraiioya Bcnind ) 

CaUbucuii%(MaliuQpnya 
Mtimd) 

Tu r u nil (MatttniiMya 
MUQO) 

Tacbolo {Malampaya 

eound > 

Fltrminliig (Malmnpaya 

MDQd) 

Cooke (Malampaya 
»ond) 

Palcocotaii ( M«l£m[)Aya 

Bound) 

Enlaraa (Malampaya 

aoond) 

Flat njck (Malampaya 

Mtuid) 

rasvagi* (Maliuii[>aya 

8oDim) 

Boflwcll (Malampaya 

ROOQd) 

Canipo (Malampaya 
FK)Und) 

Ihelliel (M a 1 a m paya 
flonnd) 

Vinnlo (Ma lam paya 

•ouud) 

Hallaroia (Malampaya 

•onnd) 

Balolo rock (Halampaya 

Mnnd) 

CaaoearCH-k I Malampaya 

Bound) 

Piinin>an, nr Gnimanifn 

(Maliuni>eya foiind) .. 
MilluiftQ (Malampaya 

flonnd) 

AlltKalor (Malampaya 

matid) 

White rock ( Mal&m^iaya 

•OQnd) 

Doable ooae (Malaut- 

payn ontind ) 

Bay rcK'k (Malam|ioya 

eoaod) 



OntoDhne'in ( Ualam[iaya 
WODd) 

Bartoc (Malampaya 
aound) 

White I^Uar rock (Ma- 
lampaya iKMind) 

M«llar<ilon<<, «ir nlalao* 
bm ( ^1 a 1 a Id paya 
iwunJj 



ArMitn 

■QUan 



0.1 



0.0 



ai 



0.1 



0.1 



0.1 



278 



GEOGRAPHY. 



[$liitid» oftlte Phili}tpinf an^pdago, nmmged geoffmphicaliti /rcan north to nmth — Con. 



ULUfD Axn UKUntM. 



WKyr COAST of paka. 

OVA (Panitfua prov- 
ince) —Ooouii lied. 
Fmked, or Agudo (Ma- 

Umiwyu^ouDd) 

Dwnao (Stnlampaya 

MOUod) 

3 Ceutnl rocka (Ualau- 

pA^a wnutd ) 

CuimcKnui (MiitiuiiiBiyii 

Huuud) 

Talbaguoa (Malampaya 

iwttnd) 

Wbitv To]> rock (Ma- 

Iai»[iA)'K eound ) 

MangulM>l>e ( >laluiiipHya 

sound ) 

Cap rock (Malampaya 

aouQiIl 

Bay ( >rnlanijiay»BoHnd) . 
Cli'fClMHlauipayaitriaiid}. 
ilalut'jiie (Mftlainpaya 

floand) 

White rock (Matampaya 

sound) 

Two Brotbeni (Malaii)' 

paya annnd ) 

Bird rock (Maljuiipayn 

aound) 

Bay TOCK 

AnchotBge 

Thumh rock 

AlUtfator rui-k 

BulRpoksrock 

Uliff 

Black rock 

Wedgfi 

Imuraan ( Bay lalanda) . . 
Ijunpirii|{Mi (Bay Itt* 

las'lfl) 

lOvky islet 

('diiftiMOD rork ......... 

I*aplatiaii rwk.......... 

Ninpftrai 

BriHyaii 

l.uuiu... 

Saddle 

Bet bet 

Ckpailay 

2 I»oubI«ldancIi. 

i£«f»tta 

Moriwm 

Bosh 

De«D 

CoDe...„ 

Bange 

AlbagQi&j.... 

SBdeavooT 



Areata 
MOAin 
auea. 



lUJUm AMD LOOTttdt. 



0.1 



0.1 



O.Q 



0.1 



0.2 



WEBT (:;OABT OF PARA- 
iiVA (Paraf(nn prov- 
ince}— CoDttuneu. 

Wedipe 

Caicaipa 

Peohcil rock 

Oarbolo ,. 

CatflaLorKahoIaa 

lath tniu rock 

Bay 

Zoe 

Bquare 

BUck rock (Ulugaii bat-). 

Three Peaked, or UK- 
inniljpran {Ulofcan 

i*y) 

OlwervAtory rock (Ula* 

^bay) 

RiCti (Uluficuii Ixiy) 

Roof Lik't ( UluAD bay) . . 
Taiacai wan ( Ulugan my 1 
White rock (inugan bay) 

Dry 

Heiianil Chickena...... 

North ruck 

fiouth rock 

Pwikfiii 

Palm 

Baja-Llonura 

SinnaOrOrSepiilrro...... 

Tripl(H»iiui 

Nacoda.. 

niariqiiit 

Maricabin 

Handle fintoan 

BtlarBiitao 

MaUpakknn 

Uti-LiU 

74 amuusedieletsuultodai, 
areuiiot B]«dded, BUm . 

£02 

KASTO0A8TOFPARAGUA 
(IHtiaffUn prurtooe} : 
CaoDllUiii iHlaiiils: 

Mangalao iBlanda, 

north idand 

Naiigalao lalanda, 

weet island 

Nari^Uo UlandB, 

MMith inland 

CabdUuu 

Ciinan^n 

Balimbubuc 

BolitArio 

LinapaoAi) (I.innpncau 
grcupl 



2.0 



9.1 



as 



0.1 



3.H 



41.0 



M.O 



DitMop (Liriapjican 
grou\>) 

PajigiUdauan ( I Jruiparftn 
group) 

BwDa(Lii>a|»uui group) 
Tbtchin (LinapAckn 

gP>U|') 

Dlmaiical (Liospacau 

group) 

Hallobin (Lioapacan 



AlTiars( LinaiMcaii gtoap) 
Munijat (Llnapucan 

group). , 

utapopan (LiDHpscan 




Imnaoglfrt(Liiiapacai] 

group) 

GMniclia (Linapacan 

group) 

Patoyac (Linapacan 

group) 

4 CiirUnoa (Linapacan 

group) 

Ooinliit^uan (Linapii> 

can^rroup) 

Ualnijat (Liu 



cCt' 



apttcan 

(Linapacan 

group) 

dSt^A^AO" (Uiupacfln 

CalibanghaMui 
can Knap) . . 
Van){a ( linauican group) 
(hcayatao (Linapacan 



(Uoapa- 



BTonp) 

lulobatglutkat (Linapa- 
can groop) 

Vangoanlia (Unapa^nn 



A£L°r^ 



I ( LioajHican group) 
Ouuran (IhilariUavni 

ialiada).. !..... 

Dalai^iaeiD (Ddtti^ 

ncffl Islao'laj 

jCteWkdagi (X>alaiSJcia«tu 

Iilaiida) 

lOuirahan (DalarifeAnem 

blaoda) 

0»ball 

IMrocotan 



2.3 
0.6 

0.» 

L4 

0. I 



0.3 
2.1 
0.8 



0.0 
0.4 



QuimbuJuan. 

PalieilnnPH 

Calabadiin (North Tay 

toy) — . 
Malatpnpo . 
IcailMuitianuaii, or South 

Taytay . . 
BlftCK rock 
White rock. 
Calabiii»7, 
Cagdanaon 

Ibobor 

Falj', or Barren . 
Monk and Friar 

CahuiiiO 

Mayattacan 

Capttalon 

North Ciuuiod.. 

BiTooac 

Reef 

bland west ut Dutnnrin. 

Dnmartiu . . 

Baqoit.... 

Otmbary.. 

Qnimitad.. 

Mantohiry. 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Iilandt o/ the PhUippine artAiptiago, aminged fftoffi^phieally from north to aouth — Ocut. 



MUXD AXD LOUTIOX. 



EAST COAST OF PARA- 
GUA iPftrHpM ufov. 

inoe)— <>ititmui«. 

ij»rffeoy 

Hoit, or Puerto 

Green, or Venle 

SlitiU, orOonch* 

Beef, orAiredfe 

Flavor ItoM 

Jofanwii ... 

fitaulakv 

Howley ■ 

Keynarti ■ 

Korth Green .— 

South Green •.— :-' 

Aachgrsge,or FoooeeaO. 

Reef, or Arrecife 

Meara 

Baeh 

nminrBiiin3i or Tuft 

Mftchesi 

Ftuer 

Oina, or Hwbor (Puei^ 
toi*rin«ea) 

River (Puerto Prloottk) . 

VillasB rock (Puerto 
PrlncBHt) 

Haluuto, or Mnltby . . . . . 

Itrj 

Sombreni 

6wid 

Hantaqobi, or Flat 

Templo 

Beet or Arrprife 

Beetle 

Oanliiier 

Tftgalinng, or Kast 

DesUcadA 

2 Seg&n 

Pinte 

UnaU 

Itoef 

Bow«n 

IH nniuuuedisleUaiidrockei, 
ucwootepedfleil.eam. 

248 

balAbac and adja- 
cent ISLANDS : 
f Faragns proviniM^) : 

Bngnik I... 

FKnduuut 

Bowen 

Otaimenui , 

FUooeong 

Apo 



Arra tn 
•qtun 
mllot. 



0.1 



0.1 



Oi» 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 
0.1 
1.4 
l.S 

0.1 
0.4 



O.l 
0.1 



2.0 



0.1 
0.1 
3.9 
0.1 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 
0.1 



0.1 
0.1 

ai 

0.2 
3.3 



263.0 



138.0 
47.0 

12.0 

as 

0.1 
0.1 
0.1 



UL4KO AKB MUnOV. 



BALABAC AND ADJACENT 
ISLANDS (PuagUB 
proviace)— COotiaiwd. 

Qabnng 

Bvan ..,,,.... 

AuliiUNHio 

Banralan 

Mail tiifci lit; 

Canabuilifaii 

Pecam 

Oaxingaa ..........,,., 

Bamo* 

Candamnan 

Baiiz 

Paa 

Albajr 

Nanibata 

SandOar 

Comiran 

Lumbacan 

Gnat Reef Car 

9 tinnaoiedisletBRiKlroclu, 
aruu) nutepecided, aum . 

84 



OAOAYANES AND ADJA- 
CENT ISLANDS OF 
aVLV SEA (Fkragna 
province): 

Cagay^ (Caga)>aiu« Is- 
tandfl) 

Dondonar (Oa^yane» 
lalands) 

Boomboong (Oicayaoes 
bboda) 

OanTancillo (Cagayanea 
laliinds) 

Caluaa (CiigayiuieB Is- 
lande) 

AnuUna (Ongayaoefl la- 
landa) 

MaDuean (CigayaiM* Ia- 
landa) 

GavUli {CaKaranes 
iBlanda) 

Arena .,,.......,. 

Tubbatat* 

J«Hda Btwdey 

Black ml 

10 tinndiTiP(Jii>!i<t>iaii'InK'kj<, 
an-juiiiutBi«ciSod,i!uiu. 



S3 

M1ND.\NA0 ISLAND. 



Aiv« In 
•qnara 
mUM. 



0.3 



aa 



soe.6 



4.0 

1.3 

0.4 

0.2 

0.3 

0.1 

0.3 

0.1 
0.1 

as 



ai 

Oil 



8.2 

86,392.0 



ISLANDS. 



281 



Ittawit f^ tbt JViiUppiiu artltipdnfft; ammgtd ym^irxfAicatlf/ from north to tooth — Cun. 



aLllTD un> LOCATIUH. 



■qoui! 
nOw. 



■ t- 



KORTH OOAST OF MIN- 
DANAO {Mioamis 
province): 
Cuntgufn 

Otiuiuiivor.... ....,...*, 

Bantigui 

SotaUm(I*OTt Miaatnti).. 

Sibaquit 

Idand Dorib tit 8]bitt|iiit. 

4 QiinamedielcL<innc1rDoki<, 

M«iuiuoti5]>eciQe(l,mui. 

10 

NOBTHEAST AXT EAST 

COAS'ISOFMlMiA- 

UAO (8urig»') iirur- 

ince): 

Dinigat 

OibusDO.. 

Geminui 

Pelotee 

Island sooth ot PeloUe .. 

Cabcub 

Unip 

Sibuiag 

licoco 

ViraTiiBV 

Cabaqiitaii 

Tabavaca 

Cktulkn 

Danaodananan 

Bamiko 

8n»te 

Gipd6 

Baio) 

laUnct west of MtUuit 

Uko 

Iflland aoutbwoit of Di- 

ni^t 

hHuid nrathwest of T>i- 

„n<W»t 

Bam 

Jalbn 

Baj'ato^ 

GioBttUiD 

OabOBoan 

lakndaoothirMt of Bay- 

Btnin 

lalaniliwothweal of Bay- 

alndn 

laland Minthw««tot Bay- 

atmtn 

UUndnortliofC^btMian. 
laUnil north ol (linaMbui. 

2 XagAiM 

GaEgin 

AtttKumdao 

Tukgaba 



0.1 



w.s 



soe.o 

8.1 



1.7 



0.2 
12.0 



1.4 

0.4 



ULAXD AKD IjDCATtttX, 



NOBTHEAST AND EAST 
COASTS OF MINDA- 
NAO (Surigao prov> 
inre )— CoD&tiM . 

Amagadpayat 

BiK<aQi«nde 

Bocia Middle 

BDc4aS«et , 

8Iai:Biao 

Island w«0t of giai^gao . . . 

UUnd w««t o(8UiTK«o... 

blond weel of SlaiKao .. . 

Island weat of Sliu^ .. . 

UUuiii wtA of Siaiiao .. . 

bland vtel of Slai^ao . . . 

Janoyoy 

OayaiiK 

Dai6... 

Casultan , 

Lajanoaa ............... 

Anajauaa .... 

Ballena 

General 

Bamillete 

Trit/m 

AtJiiui 

L'namao 

Mat^anjinni 

Island at month of Ttiti- 
daa river 

Maitabao 

Aiufaaa 

Ayninan 

Job6 

bland off Point Baocalio . 

'nml6» 

bland weet of Titfd^. .. . 

bland aouthweot ol Tie- 

dfM 

bland auutliweat of TIk- 

d6« 

Maaahuron 

AgoDoy , 

^7 unnamed ialetaandroclu. 
areMDOtspedBed,aum. 

132 

boutheast coast of 

MINDANAO (Mrao 
district, Moro pror- 
inoe): 

Oabiteao , 

rniana 

Canivan 

Labdn 

Balat(8araiigani blanda) 
Sarannni (Saimnguui la- 



■QOara 



l.« 



ai 



1.8 



687.6 



0.1 
40.0 

22.0 



283 



GEOOAAFUY. 



Jt/andi o/ the Philippmt arcMp^affo, aminjfnl ffmipvphicaUi/ from north hfeouth — Cou. 



IBUKD AJttt bOOATtaX. 



SOUTHEACT COAST OP 
ULNDJLNAO [Vino 
dfDtricU Moro proT- 
tnce ) —Continued. 

Olaoiviut (Sunngwii !«• 
landii} 

Hananul (W^rwngftni It- 
iHiida) 

Miifni (Boiaogao! Ii^ 
lands) 

Dutu^luK' ( DAvao gulf] . . . 

Talicui! (Diivaofjull) 

H^mal (Oilvao piilf) 

2 Arbole* (Divitoculft 

CruXiUurth tslaiiu (Divao 
ga\t) 

Oruz, south ieliind ( Divau 

Copis.(I>^vaoRuIf) 

F&iida«iu (Ddvuo gulf).. 

S^boytlMvaognU) 

9 nniuUDeaisletsandrock?, 
Brauanut (jpuuifiul.Hum . 

88 

SOUTHWEST COAST OF 
MINDANAO (Cotts- 
bttto diHtiirt, Mom 
province): 

BonK6 

TuIxiIwIk') 

Don^oaQK 

7 annAtuea islets and rocks, 
areoB nutapecified, satn . 

10 

>DTUWEaT COAST OF 

MINDANAO (Lbiuo 
duttritd, Hoju prov- 
ince): 



An* Id 
cuU«a. 



I&.O 
147.0 



0.S 



0.3 



m.o 



9.0 



YbUB 


OF 
ubo- 
doro 


0.1 


SOUTH WKST OOAbT 
MlNDA>*AO(Ziu 
anga diettict, !i 
province): 
Saiita Cniz Grande. 


0.8 


8AnlA Omz Chico 


0. 1 




1-tt 


BaltitNu: 


0. 1 


WkinhlUr. 


0.2 




ai 




ie.0 


Malanipi 


1.0 











IKUHD AKI> UXATUMf. 



SOUTHWEST COAST OF 
UU«DANAO(Zainbo. 
■nga dietrict, Mors 
prOTince) — Oontlnoed. 

Tulnalutui 

PItaa 

HMlat - 

Fkri|;uuc 

MolttVQ 

BuruUn 

BuHyiui 

ArvDA Blanca ....... 

Oftbugan 

PHtOQ 

Bacnnton 

falmaDrAva 

4 THgbaou 

Panabulan 

Buliian 

Cabut 

Panda] naan 

Olntadka 

Bibulon 

Letayen 

Mad» . 

Dftcula 

Baya 

Cheril 

Dayana 

Fafima 

(iatas 

PuUU 

TritJSn 

Maculay........ 

Lunqiiisni 

Paniqouui 

Puan 

Saeayaran „., 

ncalA 

TicaUChino 

40 unnamed Ulotaand rockK, 
area* ootapecified, nun . 

88 



NORTinn=ST COAST OF 
MINDANAO{napihin 
rabdisttict, Motojiror- 
incel: 

Marcijtaicofl 

Bipifla 

8ini|>ay Dm-A .., 

Kiupay Pldtay 

Nabofos 

MaiMiUu 

SUinoK 

AllcftT. 



Area In 

•qo»rt 
brIIm. 



0.4 



91.0 
0.1 
0.3 

"o.'i 



0.7 



1IU.B 



ISLANDS. 



283 



\*lftkf ttuiiftifitu: afrhipttaffa, arranfffd geofrntphimlii/ from north to $ovth-^Coo. 



WLUTD AJ>t> UWATHWI. 



SORTHWEST OOAfiT OF 

M LVD AN AO ( Dapitan 
eubdistrict, MDro pro%'- 
incB) — ContiuuM. 

MorcifilRCOfl 

nnnaiued ifiletBuid rocks, 
anMHDi>t0pecified,eiuii. 

LHILAN GROUP, SULU 
ARCHIPELAGO 
(Zamboan^ diatiict, 
Moru provmoe): 

Basitan 

LampiDigan 

llaliiniH >« 

Sloro 

KaiHt 

Ma lama II i , ., 

Cocf. 

Ciirti Cbioo 

LaohU 

Hiliaeo 

Kanlnan 

Ulbinfuitua 

8alupui 

Timburijfan 

TtniiiQlana 

TolmPwa 

Ualutuko 

taaabiuui .............. 

Babiidn ............... 

Uhatlabat 

CaiicniQSn 

Tuonk 

lAnicumato, tauri ialanrl. 
Laosuunate, we«t island. 

Daiian 

T«ii>ono 

Goveoiu OrauUe 

Goren^n Ohira 

Takela 

j|au. .............. 

tU«iiit 

1 near wwt uoaot ot 

jBarilao 

IS umamodialeNaiKlroclu^ 
uraaauutspvufi wl,Btua . 



44 



; IKT antk STTLr AB- 

Cn t (7am- 

Ik':<- ■ ■ ii;i. Moid 



ATM In 
iqnan 



0.1 



1.6 



47S.0 

0.1 



m.H 



IBLiHU AXD LOCATIOH. 



PILAS ISLAlfDS, SULU AB- 
CHIPELAHO (Zam- 
bofuiKu clititrict, Mtm) 
provinc*)— <>)ntiniied. 

Hajijfltoy, nortb iHland... 

HuRKboy, eouth ialaod... 

Kaludluil 

Dafliulaa ,. 

2 BatulinoH .............. 

Cujangan 

Bulriro......... ......... 

HLiiiillo........ ......... 

Tambilonajr ............ 

M&Daugal .............. 

Lemoooo. 

Orell 

Minia 

MaEDaonaJc 

Pacig Paellan .... 

Tinutnntfan .. 

Tiguitabnn ............. 

Ti^tutu 

Mauja 

Balakbaluk 

Areas not apedfled, Bua. 

24 

PTLA8 ISLAXnS, 8TTLU AB^ 
CHIPELAGO (8alD 
dietrict, Moro prov- 
ing!): 

Salkulakil 

SLokitB 



8AMALES IfllJVNDfi, fiULD 
AltGlUPELAGO(Su- 
la district, Moro prov- 
in<^): 

TaUUn 

Bamtiia 

Ralan , 

Dipolod Grande 

Dipolod Ohioo. .., 

Mama<l 

KaatBolod , 

WestBolod 

Tonimil 

Parol 

Manuiaoc 

Balangulnnti (including 

eipte) 

Bnootoaail ............. 

Dawllilawil 

INincaliui 



Am in 
KlMn 
mllei. 



17.1 



384 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Mandt of tiu PkOipfnM arfJiipthgo, ammffed ^toprafihvvUy from iwfrlA Ui nmOi — Can. 



BUn> AXB UMUTION. 



SAMALE8 IBLANUe, SUI.U 
AItOHIPELAUO(8<» 
In dittrict. Mora ni-ov- 
Inoe J — CoDdDUM. 

Kudiiuol 

SimbA , 

Bfani 

Axvae not spLsdAed, mm. 

It) 

JOLdOBOnp.SPLU AROHI- 
PELAGO (Suhi ili». 
trict, Mcov prorince): 

Jol6 : 

pKatoconao 

Kftbacan 

I*haU»h»t 

PalliaAD 

Biibaia 

H^Spul 

Tsuilaui 

Minta 

Panguinin 

llatxjil^ 

Buicongtn 

Fkt%sii>4 .............. 

ChduS^ 

Tnuiui , 

Biiltnitfn 

Ka[>uAl... ....... ....... 

BitioM 

Dons Dong 

TuiiDulfui 

PMa 

Idandinatof Pata I«Iatid. 

Dtinocui. 

Lumblut .............. 

Patiin 

Tvomabttl 

Hnlul« 

TtiliAii 

4 OQiuaMNll^etflaiKlrcM^a, 
anM not spedflediBom . 

33 

panoutArang and ad- 
jacent ISLANUe, 
8CLU AROHIPEU 
AGO (Siilu district. 
Mora province): 

PadfcQtinuig ........... . 

ftnaoctu .i^.^... 

Knliwiin 

Ttibinn 

Islann north of KakeBon. 




BLIXB AHU LUCATIOW. 



40.6 



326.0 
0.6 
7. -I 



0,1 



377.3 



PAITUIT^RAXG AND AD- 
JACENT ISLANDS, 
SUIAI ARCHIPELA- 
GO (SoludiWrict^Moro 
pruviiiw) — ConUna«d. 

Ticul 

XdomfttMU 

Uhk1» 

Oblin 

Conilto 

Malicut 

BmbM 

TnbAlobac 

Si|MUig 

God 

DatnBMd 

Cap 

DMtoBato 

Laparan 

Doocai) 

10 Ti^ aod Zau lolets ( Pearl 

7 'n«iwbuXl*lim^IIII] 

Damml 

Singaao 

DaeaaD 

Island weflt of Daaaan... 

Uwaan 

BLltan^aii 

Mammanuk 

2 LahatliQisI 

Banilnmniu 

10 tuuiAmedislFtsandrodca, 
Areas not Bpecifi«d,Hini , 

67 

TAPTL Le;LANDS, STILr 
AHCHIPELAGO 

(Solu district, Moio 
pmvinoe): 
Uolipongpoog (or La- 

T^:::;:::::;::;::::; 

GODdfB 

IWuc 

Paqoia. , 

CabiDfaui 

S\a^T^. 

Lapac 

Tara 

Tkntara 

Tiocftlan 

Vsaiwiom 

PnnannD .............. 

PnUftSa. 

Tutakipa 

Slbii&Ddaciils 



I»L) 




' nftht Finiipping archipdoQo, armntftd tftoffraphitaSif /rom north to MitfA — Ood. 



iai.AIID iJTD LOOATIOy. 



IHLAM>S. SOLU 
ARCUirELAGO 
(l^In (lintrict, Moro 
(ir 1 1 vi nw 1 — Con Uaoed . 

Sumbieuaib* 

Fkrailgui 

Saada , 

etaai 

PSIulogAS........ 

iJnmiuKn ...-.,.... . 

Ymo 

Lakiktipac 

rTavitari ..,.,. ., 

(Soilton 

|Pan^Da Pataroan , 

r J^ttu^lmll 

BalicDlDt..... 

KaiuunA................ 

Tuugal 

Oalaman .......... 

llaaabol 



FtTnjtol ................. 

Tifftaaati 

[T^pAan 

iFandann ....... ... 

Binin 

3 Dnnftm«i(lii<U*t«&tidrocka, 
areas tioti!p«ctlit9d,8am. 

fAWI TA WI GROTTP. SlTLr 
ARCIIIPKLAGO 
(Stila iliiftrid, Moro 
proviouv) : 
[^•rlT^wl 

Sobain 

Uantaeolat 

MaelambA 

.PanuSfcaaa 

tBahtum 

Ouktain 

Magpaoe 

Th^ 

Klttapnaan 

'BtotouliUi 

Ikbawio 

Koaa 

Pooirpanff 

Lorin 

.Maaoke 

ObUn 

[ XRBCOlaltUU) 

;BuKliuutn 

, TioiiHilean .............. 

^Ikbilan 

^CMaodat 



Aroa tD 

MWU« 

mU«a. 



0.1 



ai 



t.l 



eaa 



232.0 
3.1 
0.9 



0.8 



HLAMD UID tOCATtO!'. 



0.6 
'2.h 



0.1 



TAWI TAWl GROUP, fllTT.f 
ARCHIPELAGO 
(gnin <li.rtnrt, Moro 
province ) — Con Lino^d . 

SJKboye 

Simaluc 

Kuwl IMmii^...... 

Tamhagian 

Baahafl „ 

Pajumaian 

FaoiwalaD ............. 

PankAgbamn 

Tabulurifea 

Dttluiuan 

TanoAD 

ToDkiaii , 

Tubulubo 

Batii rrapa 

Tito baiuiaa..... ........ 

Tanip 

XaUnil Dori h wort of Tame 

Island norlli wset of Taruc 

Tonal 

Nahuan 

Fottouooan 

Indagnn 

TainmtKin])ii 

Qauuol 

^oangbuan 

Taintqluailba 

Sibilyc 

Ilamahamaany 



Tu:Qi%un 
Oarapas.. 



Charuccbaruc. 

Oaldpag Chioo 

Baquwjne 

E^twcgan Gnimbi 

PsMwanSinial 

■2 UjutUjat rocka 

Uacai:> , 

%> Culaltan....... , 

Slpongut 

TanduMtA , 

Pinlmla ^... 

Pltu 

Cltra 

TkadubAif 

Saknbong 

LatuJn 

Calvtt 

laland north of IjituJn . 

ManlAlMAn 

Banarao .......•....••, 

Taafii 

labtiirl wnithiifTuiU... 

lalaud math ul Taata. . . 

Panampanag 

M BMibufi 



ATM In 
•qiwra 
allea 



0.2 



0.1 



286 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Idandtofthel^Uippme ardapdago, arranged geographieaUy from north to aoulh — Con. 



mLUnt AXD LOCATION. 



TAWI TA WI GROUP, SUhU 
AKCHIPELAGO 
(Solo district, Moro 
province) — Continued. 

Boan 

Lopa 

Bi&tan 

15 Tijiji islets 

LaA 

Manoke Mn-nl"^ .. . 

Simonor 

Sangaisiapd .... 

Island west of Lopa 

Island west of Lapa 

Tanga 

Fapahag 

Boi^oo 



Batobato 
TuaangBongao 
Bipayoc 

BasAn I^cnla. . 
Basdn Sibisibi . 
Batoli 
NnsK lajit. 

NnaaTacbli 

Cabancaoan 

Simalac Dacula 

Simalac Sibiaibi 

29 onnamedisletsandroclcs, 
areas iiotepecified,8uin . 

159 

8IBUTU ISLANDS (Sola dis- 
trict, Moro province): 
Sibttta 



aqnore 
miles. 



1.3 
0.6 
4.8 
0.4 
0.4 
6.1 
16.0 
0.1 
0.4 
0.1 




0.1 
0.1 



0.1 



2.0 



358.7 



34.0 



IBLiND Atn> LOCATION. 



SIBUTU ISLANDS (Sola 
district, More prov- 
ince) — Continued. 

Tamindao 

Omapui 

Aodalinang 

Siluag 

Pangoan .' 

Bulubuln 

4 Wooded Islands 

Bipankot 

Areas not spedfled, sum. 

12 

CAGAYAN 8ULU AND AD- 
JACENT ISLANDS 
(Suln district, Moro 
province) : 

Buicoran 

Bancanan 

Manoke Manka 

KeenapiiBan 

Potnelikan 

• Bintoot 

Biaii Bintoot 

BohAn 

BisiiBohfin 

Mandah 

Cagayin Sulu 

Lapimlapun 

Tavotavo 

Tajon^ Tavotavo 

MuUgi, north islsjid 

Muligi, south island 

15 tuinamed isletsand rocks, 
areas notspecified,sum . 

31 



Aie* In 
■qoare 
jnllefl. 



5.6 
2.0 



0.1 



0.4 
O.I 



42.2 



0.1 
0.1 
0.1 
0.6 
0.1 



0.1 



0.1 
27.0 



0.4 
0.1 
0.2 

0.2 



29.1 



^H 


^^^^ ISLANDS. 


^^^^ 1 


^^M Iiiandt qJ Ote Phiiipp\ne urcMpilogo 


alphabtticaJbi arranged, K«tA Imnfum. ^^^H 


^B Wind. 


LocsUon. 


Wud. 


Location. ^1 




But «o«ft of Muiar. 
KBAwut ol Hasbftte IiUud. 
Ewe coart of Uiiiduiao. 
Port RanuiNlui. Mnrln- 

KAranjM UlftniU. urcMeMat 

ul atnwr ulftBd. 
CujrMhbuuhL 

&Mt490MtOi iMltia. 

Kocttiiinit coaat ol Bom- 

bl6n. 
Bftlauj- hartxir, Cdamlmw 

IhIuiiU. 
Vfat tout at PUNTOK. 
K«W BftUlMO IslKud. 
Ubkpmkh sraup, twilh q( 

AdJufCul to Miudofo. 
aouUiWMt cotM cl Liufin, 
HorttamK OOMI ol UlQ' 

UiMpMnii gKMit, north of 

But cOMt o( MlBdmo. 
BalMr hailwr, CiJaaduiM 

Hftlaaip«r8 Muiut. went 

OoaK d[ Puiiciw. 
Won COMt ol {"ancuA. 
Uagsrta mil. west iiohi of 

LoiAn. 
&M ooaat of Btmnr IMuid. 

KMtll OOUt o( I'ftCUir- 

BHt euMt v( MlndftDoo, 
BM eoiU of Uw^n. 
Lubk&f Ulftodt. 
Sonih caul oT Ulmla«K 
SoittawcM eeui or Bofeol l»- 

lud. 
]\irt Burem. Mwbilw l» 

lind. 
Ad]4ceni tD iDndora 
BmI cwm of etaur Uluiil. 
K«ftlMWl caul of HlD- 

<t«ti«i. 
Vwt niMt oJ Rtcna, 
WM OAMI or P&MIIM. 
Kanbout Nut a( Puiky 

WCU WMl ol I^nfflM. 

BmI comi ol r>Msti«. 
t.liWADKaU. trot couiof 

_ _^ — tfc 


AndU , 


BAMooulofSOnuLrUbuid. ^M 
Slbutu Itinnds. ^H 
Adjaconi lo IMUUo Islud. ^^^^ 

But oiMut (it Phubt. ^^^H 
0>f*raii»< loluudi of AUu ^H 

W«n GOut ut SAJnar laUiul. ^| 
But eoHt of LuiAn. ^| 
WwleoutalUytotalaDd. ^| 

CftlstnlaDM ItluDd*. ^H 
BouUMutooMto(Horn«. ^^^1 
Mortboart COMt of Pmgiw. ^^^| 
NonbGutctMnotxiniiiiiiiiio ^^^H 

IttTUO KUlt. •W)Ultl«tEt CtMt ^1 
<jf MlDdftDAO. ^H 

Adjkcvnl U> BuriM I'lkod. ^H 

Oaf&jmnea Ulknd* of SdIu ^| 
ten. ^M 

8ouUiw«n coMrt ul Hindft- ^M 

uoo, ^H 

W«Bteowt at SAmiirI*Uiid. ^H 
Adjacent tn Hlndoro. ^H 
I'ort I)«tuM»l&a. llAXlD- ^M 

dnqup. ^H 
Kftatotnul oILiadn, ^^^^| 
Northciwt kHd out cOMts ol ^^^H 

H1nduiB4. ^^^1 

Tawi Taitl gn)ai», Solu kt- ^^^| 

clit|>olii<o. ^H 
BftbuyAn liUndi, aotth ol ^| 

LuaOn. ^1 
BmI oowt of Lnaao. ^^^H 
Ban Juanico rtnll. ^^^H 
KoRllcoiMofUaarUUKl. ^^^| 
Tairt Tavi group, e«lD ■^ ^H 

chlt>eIa<o. ^^^^M 
Adjaneol to Hlndoiro. ^^^^H 
San Joauko •trail. ^^^^| 
Adjftoeai 10 mndoio. ^^^H 
Won «Mat of Bimar laUod. ^^^| 
I>o. H 
8oiitfaw«at ooaat ol Xloda- ^M 

nmo. ^H 
W«M cean ot Cebd. H 
Wat coaat of SAinar Uaad. ^| 
W«rt ooaat of Uute. ^| 
!teo PfallO baf, autitb cout ^H 

ofMinartilaml. ^H 
Port ean Ulfad, TWM I>- H 

Uod. ~ 
BmI 00>«t of fanar. Jj^^ 

1 






























[ 




^^ If. 






ApUUl..^...^^.... 








AllUjftban 














jUUgMn' 








AiUgsiDt roek 

jU9 






jklngM) 




AiBtMn 






A»ua... 








Aabi^Mi ••■••.... 


1Ui»l 






BwMl,<rtMltlaDd. 
















Aada... 


a«(»Mt><T 


^_ 





■ 888 ^* 


GEOGRAPHY. ^ 


^■i^ 


^^^^■itfandf «/ tht Phmppiiir tirchiptiag</ alp\abelieaUy nrrvngcdy with tooatkn — CoDtiaued. H 


^H 


tjocUIon. 


tdond. 


LockUob. ^M 


^^^BitfimT 


San JiuuUix) alnll. 
ButeoMt ol Puiar. 
NorthAMtoOMt of PuiKua. 
Kortli roMd bt Bohnl blftHd. 
50uUicca«t ol Stmar liluul. 
SmI (7PmI of Paiuir- 
We>tca&atc4 BtiuBr Iiloiiil. 
San Juanloft ainilt. 
SomvAn bar. iouUiwmi 

cvan o( LH6n. 
Norlli Doaal ot Bohol UahiI. 
jbljMMt 10 Hubktc lalAnd. 
Kotibetat cmm or Narra, 
Wen com! cd F%ntru<k 
9mh of p«nrD«. 

8oillh»»t cout ol Hlnilif 

tuo. 
OUMbMiAa laUndit weM 

cvwt or HiiMr Uknd. 

Purl)Wrrcni,Miuibati)biatii]. 
A4JACCUI lo Uwbttte UUnd. 
8uu1m UtUMK Sulo MVht- 

IwlajTtf- 
BMt CDMt ot PuiAjr- 
BHt MMl Of lAUtta. 

BM DoM Ol Bobol Iilud. 
IbtM coaff of huxay. 
■ouUieoMtorSAiiiar Iilkoil. 
Narth otMut i>[ Il4bol UlAud. 
BabuTlu UlaiKb, nortt) of 

LosOn. 
Sut OOHt o( Loato. 
BmI eoart of Uladaiua. 
Ifaluopar* Mund, w«M 

coMtot Rftncttt- 
Tna &«]>«■ laUnda, idjaceni 

WeatocMuRol Stmar hUul. 

pvlacg, 
KofUieMt HMJit ol Pw«gua. 
8«i»nsan1 IUmkU, watlMaat 

ODUt or Ulnilaiuo. 
AdlHovni 10 PadtuUruiir 

IftHDd. Bula BrcblpclMio. 
North ptMUi ot Bbbvl Uluii). 
Ti(wfTawlgTmq>,SD]nuGhl- 

pcJaffo. 
AdjHUit to BKUbae UUnd. 
Weti c<j**i {4 Samar klud. 

Do. 


ButeudNu 


Jo]6 grv'iip, Sniu u«btpol- ^M 
to. H 

Bunalw UlaniK BuJn «rchl- ^| 
pelACO. ^1 

EMt coMBt at Uroar lidaod. ^M 
Mortli court ol IViImi] InUiid. ^M 
AijaioeailoHmntiaarjae. ^^ 
OaiuBlaitM liJjaida. • ^H 
NurtliwwtolCeM. ^^^| 
BmI ooMt of Paur- ^^^| 
Herth cowtol ]UnduiM,^^^H 
Ban oowi ot FuHr. ^| 
AdJooonttoBombUn. ^| 
Da H 
1ft<rtTaiilKrao|i,9uluiu«!bl- ^M 
pcbwO' H 

Cv^oa lalanda. ^H 
AibojAB lataads. north of ^| 

liti«mr«ni awBd. wm H 

coMi of PuagoA. V 
Korth ooMt ol Bobol laUnd. 
Adjacent to PadkmAraiMt 

leluiil, Hulu&RlilptUiO. 
TMwITawlxniup.anJnanU- ^± 

polavo. H 
Woat cowt ol SAnaar laUod. H 
THnlTairim)iip,SaliiueU- H 

|M!U(0. ^ 

BajilUn sraop, Sidii arohl- 

paUco> 
AdJaccDl lo UutMle Ulauil. 
■mI ooiat nf Uladanao. 
BmI ooM ol lAiQn. 
TaiNlTa«ri|T0U|\9ulUmU> ^^ 

f«la(o, S 
Do. ^ 
yonii COM of atBu uuixi. 

I>0. ^J 

Ltu&n. ^1 
SmI MMl ol Lntf II. ^1 
Bo(Mt4ii bar. aontuwwt ^| 

ooMt u' LiuAn. ^H 
Koilb maat ol Robot bland ^M 
KoMbnui roui ut I'atMniB. ^^ 
Wolcoaat ol l%nar. ^| 
Oanafaauan Wanibi, wM ^| 

MMl ol SAuar UaDd. ^^ 


^^^^BBif«mb<MPUi 




^^^^^Ek_^^< 






Banjia 


^^^^hiiCuuntifll. 






















BuilandUo 


^H BkUdlncDMA 

^H BalMlldK Outlay . . 

^^^^VBaluguliwul |ln- 






n^rt 






^^^^Lm.iM. 




Hn/lbti^ , ,,,.. 




Do 














^^B ■^<< 






BkmI 


^^^^ n.i..i 




BaadD Daoidk 

Bac 


ytMlmg 












BaUa 

Iw. 




^^^^^^Ua niH n_ • , 









^H 


^^^V ISLANDS. ■ 


^^H^ 289 ^J 


^ Idand» »/ the PhUippimt arehipdago aiphatietUvUty afran^ed, viih heatkm — Continued. ^| 


^H litond. 


I./ ■»()(»■. 


I>laU'l. 


LoPBtlVll. ^H 


^^P ItalnfMtft I . 


Tfttrl TkwI KToup. Bula aiclil- 
pel«CO. 

ctpui iwr. &onii cout of 
Puuy. 

rUu MmJt. ihiln arobl* 

Port Db6d. OftUmluwB la- 

Uada. 
TMriT>wlgn>t)p,Bii1u ucbi- 

eo«th«n*»li>f Stin»rUdAD<l. i 
lUlKOipapi uiukI, <ri.tl 

<x*M of l^nf ua. 
Vmt (.xmi of F*n«ua. 
K«l*EapAr* antuid, west 

Ma«t of PancUA. 
Po. 
W«it cowl ol l^ntfua. 
aoaOtwtmi coMt ot MUi- 

iTaiii 

But «OMl of WiBJ. 

BmI «aaM o( Nlndsiix). 
AA)a<«at to llMbstit Irinnd. 
BMt c«Mt ol Pantrus. 
WaM DOsM of Pararoa. 
BarflaB Knwp, Sulu arehl- 

Seuthwoat coMl or MlDd*- 

nao. 
NonbBMHol Bobol Island. 
Tawl Tawl troup. Snlu arebl- 

North raait ol Leyte bland. 
Adjaoan t u I'adkut&nutr la- 

laDd. Suln aielitpclago. 
Hoaih tauitol Mnar laiand. 
SonocAo bay. aouthweal 

eoatf ol UiaAn. 


Bltdrock 


Narthgast voaM ot PafmnA. ^| 
Sut man ot PaoBf , ^H 
Malampa^a aauii it. weit ^H 

PTMUit r>r t^ragua. ^^ 
Aaliraauo laUDdj, nortb ^^^| 

eoaat of BAmar UUnd. ^^^^| 
Oafaj-iu Sulii Uliuidi, ^^^^| 

Curoa blantK ^^^H 
Bun coaot ot Panar. ^^^| 
JoMgroup, JinlnaKblpcUfp. ^H 
Jtaat cnaat of rw>«u>. ^M 
IbUanpara aound, w«at ^^^H 

coartof Pancna. ^^^^| 
Adjacent lo Uliuloto. ^^^^| 
Cafafmaea lalaoda of Sniu ^^M 

aca. ^^^1 
Eut ooatf at Pancua. ^^^H 
ilalanpara. aoond. WMI ^^^H 

coaat of Paracoa- ^H 
tHufan bay, ircat ixmkt of ^^^H 

WMt ciM«l ol Par^MS. ^^^^1 
Sonibvan Poaat of Mlnda' ^H 

W(4it rrsM of ParaxtM. ^^| 
JtdJaC«^H to Biiriu lalsDil. ^H 

iTonbean eout of N<«to". ^| 
Owar^ Sulu blandiL ^M 

l.liiap«*n rroup. nortb of ^H 

Parafua. ^H 
Tapul lelaoda, Bnla aieU- ^| 

pelaio. ^1 
Cvuhauaii Inlauda, trat ^| 

eout 4il SAimir Inland. ^| 
TavlTawigroDppSuluarchl' ^| 

pelNIo- H 
Sonlbwaat maul of MlDd^ ^^t 

nao. ^1 
Canjafiea blanda of Snlu ^H 

Sontli oo«n of 8«mar IiUmt, ^^^^ 

fanahanan UaiKb, troM ^^^H 

nan ol DlBiar blaml. ^^^| 

•oaUnre*! umm uf Lnate. ^^^H 
Malanpara wund, woal ^H 

coaM or Parafua. ^H 
bat coaat ol Lutfln. ^^ 
BontbeMai of Wnuu bland. ^^H 
AOJlMHI 10 BaUbae laUnd. ^^^M 
BM«)aa>ofrBTi«i«. ^^^M 


hUMWbMUl 




Bbd BfntooA 


















I» 


Do. 


■ - 




b"'"- 








Kkvu 








BmnMbuik 








BOkOfbllai^BB ... 




Buliul. 


Botlpongponc Of 

LOflL 




BliMbMilan 








■■hnlfit . 


PangM. 
Wait ooaat o( Umarltland. 
■aal eoaat of Paaay. 
Hnanlna UaOdJ, weat ooaat 

EaM Maat Of Hiur laluKl. 
EaM cDMl ot PKngoa. 

BmI uMtof LoiAh. 
CigarUi enln Uudl. 
tkwl nwl jcnntp, MInutU* 
IwlaffD 

L 1-06 18 

r ■ 'i^"' "' - -=— - 


Bortn 

. Botaaanaa 






BtsMlctD. or Bvntli 

"•■I — 






Do 







■ 290 ^B 


^W^ GEOGHAPHV. ^ 


^^^ 


^^^^^kjUllfwf« of tkf IVtiiippint arcMiiitiaffo alpJtabetiailfy arrtxstfftd, iri/A fwdtion— OontinOod. ^M 


^ Mnl. 


LoGBttoa. 


litamL 


LoBBtkni. 


^H Braihwpud 


ITMt eoMt of Fwragiw. 
Wwl court «( NJDiar Ixl^il. 

8mi JnanlcD Mnlt. 

BuOui SnNil>. Sulu MvfaJ- 

Jol6 gtaap. Snla Mcblpul- 

TKwtTKwl|Ti>up,Suluudil- 

|«Usi>. 
KonliMut ouMt of Ulnda- 

Do. 
Ilo. 
8taal«i UAOdi, Bum uoM- 

Kwi c«mI «1 fftDsy. 

Adjacent to MkhImiIc liUuid. 
Port CotAd, c&liunlaiiM 

Itlsnda. 
AdjMcnt to PvUIlo bland. 
Wtat cout oI aAmiu UUnd. 
Adjacent t« TU*o IiJ«n<l. 

Konb MMt of Bobol liUnd. 

pdMu 

Tapul Ulftsd*. Sola uchl- 

Jol4sK)ap,8uIIianhtp«1ttgo. 
Tapul Uanda. 8ula «rcbl- 

BMitbwM ooni «( MlndA- 
niio. 

Do. 
eibutu bUndt. 
Suiwlat UlaniU, fhiln urliU 

|wb|o. 
WeM MM) )ii 841IIAT Uland. 
Ban court of hmy. 
Wf« nxHt ol MK»r M«itd. 
Bwl limit at L41611. 
Vanb of MutMto iRtmnd. 
N«nti rnut ul Fkiuky. 
KaH c^Mrt al Lunbti. 
8aDlli«<*l coul or Nlnifai- 

mm. 
But (VMM ol PuacrtH. 
WMlOOMlAiraiMiM. 
Konli of OnrtM taluid. 




OalunlMna bUiKU 
North ouul i>I Bnbol bland 
Ad)accoi 10 Miadoro. 
AdjMMDl In BalAUe laUnd. 
AdjM«ot \o fCombldn. 
flan Jnauieo atralL 
Soulh OOMI nrSftOMr ItUiitl. 
Unttkr'n ntr. wt mwh ot 

LuzAu. 
WeH nwM ot Latlm. 
AdJ*4^vnt to Pulllto Idand. 
WeM GOMl Bt LaaAa. 
Tawl 1*wi KTOBp, Bum ar> 

cUiMtLgro. 
Vortli coaal ol Bufaol IbIamL 
Baa ooan ol If ItidaaaA. 
N0(ti) Doa« (>( filDuu- UUnd. 
lad coaii ol Itindauao. 
ttotXh coait of Bohol UUad. 
Smut roaul ol Mindanao. 
North mmSLoI BoLoI lalaiid. 
CklaBlasM hhifhi 
Port XMa. CalaBtlanai ta- 

Tapul bfandi. Sola aichl- 
pelii<o. 

LnAaas Uadda. 
BaM coast of Paraiiiiii. 
Southwtrt uoaid of Klmla* 

nao. 
EaM aoaat ol Layu. 

bill eoaat ol RuMf. ^H 
SouUutaat cuatlol MtadauMi 
Sonagba tmj, MHithwau 

ooait ol LudSn. 
Korth coaat of Botinl bland. 
CabiiMua blaiidi, aaai mart 

orPancna. 
Honb eoan ol Pancoa. 
aaKorPotllloIdaDd. 
Baat ooati of lUndanaii. 
SoutliwnR coaal r>r Mtn- 

daaao. 
lavlTawl irroup. 8«)n uvhi- 

palaio. 
Linapanui flrtiup, north ot 

Pnnupia. 
WMt eoaat of PafigtM. ^_ 

Do. ^^^H 
Adjawiil la PuUIIo UUnd, ^| 
■>a«ft)rBnn Iriaoda ttt Bulti ^^ 
















ntbalMian 




^^B 


fkhallff 


^B hK^RHl 

^^^^^K^KiN^Grwiil* 


















r^MMti 










Do 






^^K BulU 








^V *- 


Caburtui 




ChbaguiCblco.... 
Cttbuicau Onadv . . 












^^^^K BnliibwlUn 

^^^^V Bnlulwduilkiii ■ - ■ ■ 








f<i>»>nl 






^^M Dv...„ 






^^^^H BoraiiRbarnqpui . 


[OkIUo 






^■^^■■f "*■ ' -'■■■■- - -■- ' 
D«....,-. . 





^H 


^^^^ ISIiANDS. ' 


^^^ 291 1 


UaivU 0/ Ikf I'ltilippitK archipetago alpH/ibrtieaUji nrrumrtd, «nl/i locaVioN— OoutlDOed. ^| 


Tilinil. 


LoeaUotL 


liUnd. 


LorstloB. ^H 


CaoyAti Sill II. 
Caffajrkncflla 

Oi(tMUS 

CkftmllBaii . 


fhc*T*n'* bland* of 8ii)U 

MM. 

Uael MMut ol LiuAn. 
Cftl«KUu tilKBili. cut euut 

of Li»6ii 
Pan r>6«. CkUwImiv I» 

tondii. 
Halt eoMt ol LiiaOB. 
IUk ooMt ot pArMUH" 
Unaiiwwii ffTonp, noitli of 

I'mi^ua. 
W«rt MMK uf SiBtJir l^Bd, 
BftJlciMUi> KlftUrlK, oortli 

<HNU> ot Mraar Iiluicl. 
Riat riHKt ol LiiiAn. 

HoniiAouioIMniArliilnad. 

Do. 
KorUt Tartar, eu( ooul of 
IWiffua. 

But MMt ol PUMy, 

Do. 
Itat eout ol PuagoK. 

ll>lMII[ilir* MOnd. went 

rout ol Pangna. 
UoapscMi croup, north ot 

Tancttt. 
VonbMM ooMt ol raiujr-. 
OklagOM InbuiiK nut mant 

of LucAd. 
Sui Jiunlcfi Aratt. 
Art)aMDt to PollUo lalaod. 
Tk«rl Tawlfrosp, Ailuanihl- 

pokRo 
npu) UalKte Bull) altrhi' 

KlAOfl^Mnl. 
CUamkuM lalkadii. 
BislMMatolLuBATi. 
Kortb cout of atmar laUad. 
Waal «Nvt of Bahol Uaad. 
Baburtn Uacidi, nonb of 

Lin^Anui fnnit, north of 

Pukrsa. 
Boitlb oa»>d ol Mtoar LdawL 
Bavt «s«i ut Lun6n. 
CalamlauM Uaudii. 
WtMt [OMl ol Panvua. 
' riti ooaa ol Boho) Uliuid. 
' 1,'MNnt Uf PoUllu 1«laa>l. 
Maluupara (Qund. wmtt 

ivK^t III INu«ciia. 


Caljw} rock 

CaltMCMi .. 


UDgayte mK, wtai Lvatl ot ^^ 
LuiAti. ^^k 

9an .Inanleu ainll. ^H 

Tapo] Uluidf, Hatu aicbl- ^| 
|>«4aK0. ^^^^^ 

Olonlamia Iiland*. ^^^^H 

Waacara okantMl. OalaiHl- ^H 

uwaUlsiuU. ^^k 

North ooaai ol lMyt» iiUml. ^H 

TawtT«wlfrou|i.9uluarDU- ^H 

IwUro. H 

(^kgaj&iiM Iijandn ot 8ulU ^H 

Ma. ^H 
N<wtli Oout of Lcfle Inland. ^| 
Iknutacaxt ol UlEidoRi. ^H 
TkwiTawlnoiip.aaluarrbl' ^^k 

peUgu. ^1 
Wrat coafl ut ran^pu. ^H 
Wo*t cowl ol Minar liluod. ^| 
Calanknea lalanda. ^H 
SanPadnibaf.airaUicoBatol ^H 

Umar taluKl. ^H 
NIn bar. Maabatc Inland. H 
WMt «0M( Ol Mmar Ulanil. ^| 
Eaai coaat of t'aia4tua. ^| 
CkiiatiHunii Idniid*. woal ^H 

cuaat of Mmar Iidaud. ^^^^| 
North ooaat of Ulndaiiw* ^^^H 
BatmjAB UaodA, oorUi ol ^^^H 

Wwt ooaai of Lui6o. ^| 

PUETto Prtaw— , aaat i.'aaat it ^H 

["arnfiM. ^H 

Eafll coasi of Btst&r Uland. ^| 

NorttavJRallbavUUiid. ^| 

W««t KNUt of ainiar 1>1ium\. ^H 

Do. H 

OanaliaDan IsUimU <rtal ^H 

coMi of EAinar Iiland. ^^^H 

flan Jnanloo atnll. ^^^H 

of PUiVUa. ^^^H 

■MlOOMlOirMIBr. ^^^H 

Jloitb ooaM of NlndUM. ^^^| 

coaal of Pwairaa. ^H 

UMdlan ymup, Snln arrhl' ^H 

North (if naUlHWi IiJai»1 ^^^H 
■oallt ooati ai auiaf U- ^^^| 


OaiiirabujiBn. 
CallilnpljBn 


^^li>teU«ii(7i 


CaldtmcUhlM 


CkgTUiy.. . 












OtUbwIUn 

<klaMe«7 




CamUBi(l) ..■:. 
Caatampaodao ( B) . 

Camtairn(an rucl: . 
CainbldMa (2) 


ChUtaetndh 
Iklnmhi 


OkUflM 




nana.or HartioT... 

Canacuall6n (3) ... 

ODaguafAii 

Oatiahauan I1m4.. 

OanabauaoOotlay . 








QU«p« 




^^^nu 


^lu 


^^■^.1, 


Candnranan 




^^>l^( 

^^hUIU(N1 


__ 



^^H^^^^^^F GEOGRAPHY. ^^^^^^^^^H 


^^^^BJWohBi <^ tht PliOippint arrfytfago o^pkoAdieallp twrmigtd, «4A iomMon — Omtttmad- ^ 


^^^H Uu4. 


IvMaOoti. 


Mill 


LMaUoa 




UB|PV*B ffBlf. WHt <a«l of 

Uuta. 

Do. 

W«l oowi ot LuMr. 
Korfb Mutof Bohnl filanl. 
««« coMi at Ufi* Iitead. 
HMOii oDMtoraiawriiuiid. 
A4}M«DI i« BaUbu UlaDd. 
Kam mmM of L(ij6r. 

GttyovUftiidi. 

no— < ot f^rajEua. 
Fort DiAn. r-«kmi«nw 1» 
tend*. 

flOHtof Mbbu blind, 
floolb ooui ol Hour Iftlknil. 

EMlOOMlDtI,<U6B. 

Adjuseni lo l^ftdtBUfBBg 
liluid, Balv vcUpclait). 

UaUnpAr* •oand, waM 
caul of IlinifTiB. 

But of Ccbd. 

ooim tatondi. 

OB|mm U«Bd«, woM l-ocm 

WcM cout ttl rwafu*. 
Ban noMI of fMMftt. 
Wwl n»it tA Bftmu Uland. 
Sonihwwt oOMl 91 l/uAa. 
SootliafTablMUiMl. 
Wwl cc*M of LaaiVn. 
tua Junloo Mrmlt. 
Dakd|tii«ni tilaodo, mm 

eoMl ot Pkncna. 
Bui KwM o( Liu6a- 
Do* BvrauDM bUndc, tA- 

]u«nt u HMlndiuitiu. 
Wait ogaat ut L«rl* IiUml. 
Ntn bar. VMtMle Ulanil. 
AdjMBtit to KomblAn. 
KocUiaut ooaM of PUKtia. 

B(M«os4o bv, KKtiliwMl 

coaal of LnaOa. 
PfclMHwt Jalandn. Mrt 

cowl Of PanjpM. 
Kaat ciHun of Mlartaiwo, 
A<l]aoinit to PblUUi laland. 
Eut i-Daal of SftfiMf IiiatKl. 
W«M<«utol PuMua. 


btenacnaB (1) 


bat ciMt of Ln^n. 
■iBtttM «M^ Of iMUn. 

nat an mfMO. tmm ii- 

lud. 

Waat ooa« of Umar blaml. 
Ctt70*MMiaa, 
llilamiiiiw TriMii^ MK 

OOMI ol f'ancaa. 
W««l ooaM ol Pancna. 
Iwt ooaM o( rancua. 
OcMhariMr. 
CttihaiMn ItJaodt. WM 

eoaM of Wkami Itland. 
Cacajraiua Maoda at •ntai 

A4]utiit to fiaUbae Uaod. 
North ooMiol LonelitaDd. 

Ttewl Ta wt KToop, Hqla awM- 

ci»H Dl f^raciu. 
TkwITawl (loap, SvloamU' 

POkffO. 

SomhirfM MHUl of UliMU- 

WoMmi rt—tn^ Otla- 

lillf fit lilanda. 
Konb coan of fitov- 
Malatnpar" TCOiMt, IMM 

ocut otntncoa ^^^^| 
MorUitnatolOtM. ^^H 
Mftlanpar* ■oowt, wM^^fl 

cout ol Panpu. f 
WvrtooaatOlPftfaffiia. 
BOrtli oOHt o< Bobol bUod. 
AiljoMM U> BotablAu. 
Bartlai) vraa|), Inlu arobl- m 

peiKO- fl 

BaiUaii KTonn Suit accbl- ^| 

l>elag« ^1 

Ad>wetittoPo)UloIalM4. ^| 
Cnyo* Uanda. ^H 
OalamlaiMa iMtaiMla ^H 
Uncarte |bU. *>**( onaai of ^| 

A4t«Mnt to B4UIIU btand. fl 
Wm ooaai ol r«n«wt. ^| 
IfaUiBptra Kraiul. mtt ^H 
ooaatol Patafiia. ^H 
Won e«UI of IWa<na ^^^^ 


^^^KCuvfilamk 










! Do 










CkvanllKUlaDca n t ) 










(MM). 




Cfotm ncha (SK- 
CbanuxtMnn 












nhlndonan 




^^^^■j« 1 












^^VttmMVW (B) 


Dn 












CocoClitcD 




^ GHUn, Dt Collin- 






0400014 Kwlu (3). 






^^^^nuibui 







ISLANDS. 



bkmdt of tht Philippine ardiip^ajfo aiphabetieulli/ arrtmffed, with toeaticm — CoQtJnned. 



I 



umkl 


LoMtlon. 




Loeatlnn. 


^^nfMrfnti in>h 


West omAI of PkMgua. 

eooM-ol phvcor, 
Mrw> giiU. KKiifaMn coMl 

a( MlDdaiiHO. 
f^UwitotiiW ("I**!!*' 
Wwt oowt ot Luas. 
NiUuapMVk mud, w«R 

OMut (if rara^EUft. 
AdJac«ii[l(>RoniblAn. 
Mrw KUU, kontheoM eoMt 

ofMlndkBao. 
Do. 

BM O0«Wt Ol MIUdADAO. 

North eowtol BOhol island. 

HubaioblwDd. 

South wgM rani I of Lu*6r. 

Ptlaa hlatiOa, Sulit urchl^ 

JNlUgO. 

KoTtli cout ut LorW llll«Dd. 
EhI cout ol Puur. 
WeX coMl of LuiAo. 

Do. 
OKlkmkoea IdADdiL 
Adjucni to rMHrut&aiis b- 

luid, 9atu uclilpclagv. 
Uiui|«r«n Broiip, northMurt 

OlParkglu. 
f,ftMi»«i uuid*. "ma coMt 

OayoaUuidii. 
■•a JmstcoKmll. 
But cout of UlndkOko 
BniOiiraM Mwt ol ailDda- 

aaa. 
Kut oo«M ot ParagiM. 
Eut oomI ol LuAn. 

Noftli caul ut DolMl l»l*od. 
DklM^iticni Itlawla, eut 

iXM*! ol PataciM. 
Tnwl Tain KTOnp. SdIu ftrchl- 

Bobof An lalatMlM, iiortb uf 

Wcatroul a( Umkr bbud. 
VftlUBlMjrB dtiinil, ircM 

onui (4 t>«iKBiM, 
Wmi r<<Mi ol Mnur L»]au4. 
Ailjtrriil lo rmitutAmriK 1»- 

Ullll, )4«ltll •l<-ltl|>*la)IO' 

JoU vrmr, tsntu iinrtilprl- 

BmI ruM «t yinaUnao. 
Wot uui of SiiiMr UUnd. 




WMt coul of Kccioa. 




Dnqululfiqalt 

DuiOiuy.nofU) ia- 

UlKt. 

D>nijii«r, •outb U- 
Und. 


MMbkto Ulutd. 








Da 




Vo. 






Nortli coui of Puigna. 






Sttmujo* Iilouda, wut ooMl 

of fUmu lalftDd. 
Adjaonil to PaflKvUfftiic l^ 


GmtodatMlo.-. 
Cnu, Donli lalAOd. 








luid, 8a]u uchtpolaco. 
POu hliiDd*, Sulu uobl* 




D*tn BftV^ 


polafo. 
Adjiuwiii to I'atQpilAimnR I*- 
luid, Bui a arctilpeUco. 










Naitboovtof Bobol Idand- 






Wcai eoMt of Ley to Uaitd. 




n»llaTi VTnii[\Hliln krchl- 






peUp). 
MaMlM MftDdi, flnhi tirbl- 






p«bir>. 
SontbwMt ooui of Mla- 


Do 






duMO. 




Weit MMI of PUkfUi. 


Oluo(!ea)rkn{S)... 


I>#l1l4M»Iwk»<4>.. 


Ad}ac«ot to t«d|ottniic l*- 
Uod.^ulu urcJilpalBio. 

B«ba]rAn Iiknda, aoftli of 
LucOa. 

'>'"!r'f'Iir ll*!!!!^" 






BMtia lilandt, uoitii ol Lu- 






tAn. 




ButOOHlol FMaflM. 




Un 


IM« - -- 


D«stMadorock>(3) 

PlMltf" 


NoTtliwetieowtol Panffiw. 


DaJi(aui(6)(liMluiJ- 




laod*. 
Wot ceui of f ancnft. 












Do. 




DlUiiKtiAo (3) 

pitKtinui 


Do. 
BomjiOn bmT. miUiwert 

(io*M of LaaOn. 
KOTitiyrcat owM ol l^mBU*. 




1 




CtUmlftiiM UftOdi. 


^"- 




Do. 

Weriem ctiumel. OaUnl- 


omm 

Dunnl . . - 

[tUOOCtiU 

I*iiiKNlitn«wn . . . 
Do 


Dli'hilvin,aTKonli- 

WLIll. 


«iiM bUodk 
LUUkpiMii noap. aonii of 

Ckbunlanv* W«tid>, 

WMicm rbaiinol, CKhual 




MK« bland*, 



■ 994 ^1 


^^f GBOGRAPUlf. 1 


^^H 


^^^^HftfoMb afthf Philippinr wreUpc^dVO alphahetuoQ^ in'rawyrf, wU lanOiofx — OoatiliD«il. ^| 


^^^^^K I^Bd. 


LockUoo. 


uiud. 


l»c»Uon ^1 


^^^Kl_- 


WcMcni dwoMl. i^Aludi- 

hncna- 
Iki. 

Uoda. 

WMlvm rteno^l, C*1*k1- 
■ii«w blandM. 

Do. 

XonhMM of Mindanao 

But eOMtot Lene Itland. 

pelaco. 
Dot 
KMt cotot or Liu6a. 
CVM Ulftndft. 
Lliwi««a KKHipk aofUi of 

Punfiu. 
QUmdIkdm liUnJa. 
Baa CKHM of PuaciuL 
Ewi (WHl of gAmu- iKUnd . 

A^uvill tu J^UlkOI&nDI 

bluid, Halu ■trhlpvlafto. 
On* bUod nattbwert of 

OeM. 

OukUna. 

Pa. 

Do. 

Da. 

IM. 
tHi. 

l*orialhuJ*ow]d PanltiaKn, 

outbWMt MMi of tMiiVn, 

sontliwwt OMUt of Jlln- 

<l«IMO. 

OtcayuuM talMdi ol Bnlii 

Ji^ ffnwp, flnla •rnhlfNl' i 

AdiKcmt ID KlDdoni. 
Kmi mwt of liau- bUud. 
Uafay to vutf. wmi ounM Of 

LiuMi. 
Wirt notirt ft( parua*. 

M*1*IU)M]-|| HNIIhI, WMI 

XMI ermat nt I*Brmaa. 1 


Dn 


WiM eoa« of rangnft. ^| 

n* ■ 

of NlsdaiMOL ^^H 
■utcoaHDCriuacw. ^^^| 
r'alaiiilaHii fgWin^ ^^^^^^| 
Hm* ooaM of Paaaf . ^^^| 

Wm oaa«o( Lena lalsnd. 
MiUainpaTm ioaDd, WOH 

ciaul itt Panfna. 
BUMiea Uaad^ Snfai anhi- 

Pan (l*6ii, Ohiniliiiei b- 

laodK. 
WcMen rJiaancl. Cahual- 

Wan coui or LujOb. 
Adjaooit to Mutodiupia. 


^^^^^■W«n 








^^^ Dlmai^M 


tanuapalU (S) 


l*mAm 1 


^H PllBlpK, DC UUft- 

^H Tit-. 




nwtiAiL 


KMt tlaqalnli 




^H 




^H D^odClikiv 

^H DtpolMlUnado... 




iBcl 




North moat c< BAiaar blaod. 
WcM MUtfll FWacna. 
MakntMya mnd, wait 

eoNrt of PHncna. 
Bab Pedro faa^, kmUi onat 

of Siaaf Uland. 
W«l OOHI of ParMiu. 
HaloaipaiB iMUHt. waH 

OMil of ParafOL 
Vaiwi)(M lilaiuW mil aooit 

linapaan gfouti. nonfa «f 

Nonb ooaal of LaaOn. 

But flout of Liuan. 

f«tt Su lOful, ncko u- 

SMilbwcat cnul i>r Mtnila- 

■ao. 
SaMcoattoll'aacii*. 
MaUoitwra ttnaA. «mI 

vowt uf INtrafua. 
Do. 
Ba^A bftjr. aflcik Ma« ol 

kalMfiD lilaaiu mrtb of 

ICorUi<«aalDrtt4iiiar tabnit. 

W«at«MMOf LUlOB. 

Bait eowtof Paii^rua. 

Do. 
Kim eean a1 Ei4t&ar Uand. 
Adjami la ii«|*ii^r, Jidaml. 

i 


^H n<. 




















Do 








rial, w Boa 


^^^H t\#i-*i*«.*- 








ftmt... 


^^^^DUhk (!l» ... 

^^^^■kuUa CoDv 













^H 


^^^ ISLANDS. ^ 


^^^^ 995 ^fl 


UhntU ffflhf Philippine arehtpttaoo atphahftirtUlff artanged, mik forafMm—Ootitinnod. ^M 


:«l*n'l 


LocftUoa. 


lalftna. 


LocKdon. ^M 


WMUm dMwuo). CftlftiDl- 

BBWlSlUdi. 

Tkwit^wl (tniup.tiulu nrchl- 

EhA vuM of PktmtiM- 
Adjaoeiil to Mlndoro. 
Tna Reyes laluifU. »dJft»Dl 

In Marlndniqiic 
lSvutli««it c«wrt ut Uludk' 

IMO. 

NMtifttvUIutd. 
NorUiireM a! Vtm. 
WertcoMlot LiuDa. 
iHt oowi ol LuKAn. 

Liu4u. 
Wcft CMiI ot Pftn«v*. 

Do. 
Konh (s)ajt ot Ijrjt* Ula-Qd, 
Kuniiwear of Ccba. 
Butmutol UladAtiao. 
W«t ouHt ot L«rM bUmd. 
Noftfa oo<wl of Mnwr [iil«iid 
AilJaoniK lu M*iilHit« Ulkud. 
But cowt ol HlndAiMM). 

Do- 
A(lJa««nL in Baltbav Id*ii(l. 

UUnd. Sulu wcblpdaco. 
LobknE laloodfi. 
TKpul btendii, Buln uclii' 

pdi«o. 
Adjum to B«iriiui [alKDd. 
BUU4B fTOUp. Suit) krchl- 

pelACo- 

Nortb ouMi ol LaM6n, 
Vtat eoiil of UuAn. 
Kortb ooHt ot (Jinur IiIUMl. 
Ewl r<««t o( PnncTi*. 
a(in<<iK<i4i bajr, luulhiraM 

MHWt III L«u6ti, 
SmiUMuI M«nt ol l^uiajp. 

BabajrUi UtAsdiL north ol 

AdJ»r«itt lo HmIwU bUtid 
ENA MMt ol PUVCtX- 

b« cowt of LQ«6n. 
AdjMvoi to Uubaia btend. 
Cttjw liUadt. 
OUakUbm UIumU, 
Dih 




Atf)M«tit to Itariwto Mud. ^M 
NoniimBi uf Cetid. ^M 
WMt cowl uf Mnur UUikI. ^M 

S&nJuuilcostwt. ^1 
CklKfUM I*lan<K MM eout ^M 
ot l<»*an. ^H 
CaJuoIanea Ii1ku4«. ^H 
UoBpacaD group, north of ^| 

Wwl WMM of PBmiTM. ^1 

OuliBMia ■tntlt, ■otiUuiMt ^| 
ooMt o( Pknar- ^| 

Jol6fIoUp.8ulUATClilp«l^a. ^1 
WoRMMUtuf LvyWliUiHl. ^M 
tMMt OCWilt of UlndkDoo. ^1 
liUlKDi|i*r« tuund, VMt ^1 

OOMl ol nUKfOft. ^H 

Batflu gnap. BbIq »ic1i1- ^| 

TiiwlTairlgivup.StiluanliJ- ^| 

polago. ^H 

KUCfMMliI ol Liu6tL ^^^^1 

JolCKT(^u{i.BaluAtahlpiib(a ^^^^| 

W««t CUUT ot fwifUK. ^^^^1 
Wot rnuit nl l^isAtl. ^^^^| 

HmU) vout of Llu6a. ^^^^| 
Wuft DOHC ol fUafUL ^^^H 

BuiouMtorBAiurliUiKl. ^H 

NarUtwctt of nabd. ^^^| 

Xm ooaM of I'MacOL ^| 

Adjacent lo CfttMMliuiMi ^^^H 

bUnd. ^^H 

TTWl DOUt of UuAD. ^^^H 

But coan of fsncthk. ^^^^| 
LlagMjrAn gnlf, wmt «<omI ol ^^^H 
LiuAn. ^H 
W<a «o«l of LiiMti. ^M 
IJB»t«n>n ttraup, Bonn of ^M 

UkUnipkjm »iinil. mat ^H 

KNKl at PAMgUK. ^^^M 

Bw4 OOMI ot f^fagUB. ^^^H 

bAb. H 
NortbaMt ccMi (d l^nyiM. ^H 

bbtiiU. i^^^l 
NortliMMMof ttectoa. ^^^| 
Sooiti eoaai ot Hiadara. ^M 
NonbfaitaoaalolPuiicua. ^H 




Oulntwui.oi Ui>- 
tarrui. 

UUUtUttt)* 


^„JMI 






OulntttiIK>UMi 

Ho 






^^ fH^t 
























BamahMiMiPg-... 




1 UlbdIUfU. .. 








Bon uid Chkkvu* 

U«niikaB lienor... 








^H Giwi iu-«r ci»r 






B"" 


Bilotoujcan 


^V -i—- 


, Hon, orf^wwi.... 
Hund«bii nwk*{S) 

nanuUdAMMk.... 




OoTMHa UUm.... 


Hundtvd laluub . . 
1 taf>i 








Omm. '-r Von)*... 


ni«ib«j 


fl^ohnr 


Hj^B Oulupwrofkani. 




^H UnlBdKlMtelMll.... 


load«CDb«iiiaui, ur 
Soutb TSrUT- 















H 


GEOGRAPHY. 


^^H 


^^^^^BtUzHtit of tiu PhUipjfW archipelago aiptuibtticaOy orrangM, 


■PtCk iMorioit — Coottaaed. H 


^^^^^ Uud. 


LOMllga. 


blMBd. 


LocaUoa. ^| 




CofOi hlutda. 

Do. 
Bay Idaodi, w«« oomb o( 

Wart «(MM o4 hnfna. 

Do. 
OMlBMiAa itfnll, infc«Ml 

CMvl Of I'luxar. 
l.liLaiinnan Branp. BOttti Of 

IkMthKMiof mmu bkiuL 

UdacKM l>lMMk.aai( «oMt 

ttflAaan. 
IteK ooa« of Mnui- tiduul. 
I^>rt Corta. CKlamUitw b- 

jldjMeal lo fteUIto UuhL 
Bftlnrbi liUaito, tMcth ol 
LmAn. 

AdjKIMI toMIOdOfO- 

Dm n«miuiM Ulandn, adja- 
cent to UaHodnqtM. 
laM cowl of Mbuu-IiUikL 
BkUii lalutdn, north of Li9> 

■An. 
WmI ooMt of Para«uk. 
Baa Jiualco «tnUL 
Sutewut uf Mmduiaa. 

Kortb cowl ul Boho) Uluid. 
MiJampajn aoond, weM 

MUloI fancaa. 
batooutol Mlmlanau. 
Kortb ooaal ol Bohol bhsd. 
BMtOOMtof LBaAn. 
Konk eoMtol Botvol lataad. 
OigMran«t IMKnita o( 6titu 

aa*. 
Hortli eoaal of Bobol bland. 
V(M OOHIOI Lortt litand. 
Salt IMto tar. wotli oa«M 

ol Simu hluid. 
MaaliBie Ulaail. 
North wairtol nabol [lUiul 
Wnl Coaal ot iMnsiW. 
But ooaat ol Uln4aiiaa. 
Emi n<ait uf in^nifVi. 
lolA iraoh Sniu atchl- 

AtlJaoMit lo l>ollllO Ubtnd. 




Sibn|*n Uanda. nortli ol H 

LnMn. ■ 
WbI ooaal ol Tkomj. H 

lotAciotq>.BiilnaicfaI|wUfa. H 
PUa« UaiMb. Aobi an-hl- H 

iwu«o H 

PwHin snmv. sola anht- B 

TBpul Ulanda, »ul« anbl. H 

prUco. H 

JoU vroap, aoln anhtpd- ^| 

auBslaa Urada. Sola anhl- H 

telaitt. H 
Baallan (1019^ 8«)u afcU- H 

ptfWRK ■ 
OMVtii. BBht Uanda. H 
ftwlTawlgrottpblolaaictil- H 

paUfo. B 

Do. ■ 

A4lM«ni lo PMlKiilAiwv V 

Uand, salo anblptlMo- 1 
VcM iwaat or Loatat. ^| 
TawiTaw-ifroap.SiilDarchl- ^| 

■Ml Nan ot Panv< ^| 

Waat ooaatomuBfiM. ^^ 
KocihooMtol UytoUaBd. H 
VonhflOUIofSAnarlJluMl. H 
Ad>cvDt lu Padsnumis H 
Uanil, Suln •tchlpvlago. ^^ 
Baillan croup, Bolu ardU- ^| 

JotO rroutih tfuln anUpel' ^| 
ago. H 

EaM «>a«( of iMt&n. H 
Do. H 
But ooaai of Mindanao^ ^| 
Wauara nbaMicl, Oalaml- ^| 
atiaa ritandf ^H 
Tftpul lalaiuU Sola BKbl- ^| 

Pllw talanda. telu arphlpvl- ^| 
api. ^1 
Baal coant at BAnar bUBd. ^| 
TTtat eoaal of Panfoa. ^| 
IfwWni ehaoDcl. CaJawl- ^H 
anaiMaadL ^H 
Tapul UlaiHla. MlU UUU' ^| 

WoBtooMtof MnulitawL H 
nutonMaoflMOtt. ^1 






^^m liHt[wp«a .. 






CUM<M »., 

Kapu^ 

RtwdBteaiv 




^H 














UMooJa 






1 


^H *-• — • 




^H lalluauinKk 










LahatUlial 










T.K»4n 


^H 1.. 














UJo 










Jt|>nyik*i2) 








UUBanuM 


^^KJ.I<L 


^^^^^4ii» 









^ 


I^iL.\^'Di^^^ 


^^^^ 297 1 


^ , Mmdt ofih* I'hitippiM arciiiptJaffo o/pAoMlooUy arraojfedt with ioeaticn — CoatlBoed. ^M 


Hi Mud. 


tAMwdaa 


laland. 


LooaUon. ^H 




B^ laluid*. wwi tout ol 

BHUan mup, aulu MClil- 
pnUgn. 

Do. 

BkMUn gtiMp. Snla uchl- 

pBllfO. 
^UWBI to rOtaiQ bUBA. 

TWpul Mauda, flulu arehl- 

AdlMcni lo PultaUruix 

bUnd, RiUu ucblpeUffn. 
XgitlMutooMt vt Sobul la- 

tUld, 

Do. 

Cac»7*n Solu Wuda. 

of l'*mn)> 
Du. 
noctbMat omM ol Panwiu. 
Ta wl Tn irl KTonp, Bnln UcJU- 

Cobd hubor. 

SonOtAn tiajr, KMllbWMt 

UtniMii Irikiidi, wen cowl 

of WaiNr l«Un<l. 
tan Juanloaalnill. 
CnjrM Ulttndk. 
fionth DouC of KimKT Ul&ud. 
nia* bland*, Bnia wcUpel- 

aofaofto tmy. wHilhwM 

(XHMolLiuaa. 
MBlbwcM «w«t ot Mtu- 

danau. 

Adiaoeni to Vindora. 
Ubonui Ulanda, wcat ooaat 

Do 
NorlbL-Mt mu I d( HI iwluiau. 
mwl TttMBraap. SDluaKl)]- 

P»U»a 
Bonth KtaM ol Urt* UmhI. 
Wmi eou( ol ainar bland. 
W«a«OMiof LuiOa. 
EiM «D«t ol atmir blanO. 




thiapaiiaii x'vup- outfa u( ^H 

■'■n^ma. ^H 
l^pnl Mand^ ttaUi an>hl- ^^^H 

pelaira. ^^^| 
EMt coaKt o( atmar Uland. ^^^^ 
Wnl <HiMl ol PitriRput, ^H 
JiorttaooaatoIBAinarktaBd. ^H 
Adjacent to RomblAn . ^M 
TawlTavlKnap,Bulnaratil- ^| 

palaiio. ^M 
ButooaatafLaato. ^^^^| 
Wcatooaatof lAi6D. ^^^| 
Eaat eoaat a[ LuaAs. ^^^H 
Wen WNM ol Lua6D. ^^^H 
fluutliMulciMnoflllDdanao. ^^^^| 
Lubaac hlands. ^H 
Cujm IiUodfl. ^^^H 
Oalatnlano* Ixland*. ^^^^| 
SQiaUKait twaat of Pwur- ^^^| 
Jot6 giDQin Suln an4ilp«l- ^| 

aso. ^1 
Adjacrnt lo Bal&bac Uland. ^M 
£ast ooaat of Ikiliol Inland. ^H 
WcatcoaaloIPnnittia. ^| 
Raj>t coain of LniAtL. ^H 
»uuil)n'<L'«i eaatH of Himla- ^| 

TawltKirigivupiSulg arcU- ^| 
polar>' ^1 

H'Mtont ctiaBtMl. (Maaul- ^H 
asM lilawdi ^^^^^| 

Waal ooMl ol Bobol Uaad. ^^^H 
BoulhwMt coaal of Ulnda- ^^^| 

Adjuani to Utodurv. ^^^^| 
B^Un t«T, north ooan ol ^^^H 

Fanaf. ^1 
DabUTtn Idandi, north ol ^M 

Liu6n. ^H 
BaUa Islaixtf, nurlli at Lu- ^M 

Ad^i<mt bv PalUlo Utand. ^M 
Do. H 
Konk ooaai of Boliol bland. ^M 
BaatCoaatotPuaiva. ^^H 
WMlMMutof lAidn. ^^^H 
Eaat «uaal of lUmar lalond. ^^^| 
Saat ooaat of Mindanao. ^^^| 
WMooael of BiBiar bland. ^M 
Ballonatro lalandi. Borth ^H 
oowi of iAmar laUiuL ^M 

WaaiooMlalSAwiilitaud, ^^H 


■ °° 


LanrkHnat*. w«M 
btUnd. 


LI*™ 






LoaOachliK«{4) .. 
LMCanfltca(4).... 
iMPmllM(l) 


ImnUt, . ,. 










Lnblil 


i^piBiir 








1 Luinbiiiwji 












■ 


^~ Ui* .... 


Lnaon ............. 

Luafin. 






liMiiln 




I4in 


















uriB- 








^^H f.lhna..! Anri-a 


MacalaM 


^^B« • 




li]UU)Btrock«(2). 








Iititihuitftiiyn . . 













298 



GEOGRAPHY. 



IilandM of tlu P/iUippmt anhipetofio aiphabaUxUij/ arranj/rd, lath loeation — Oontiaued. 



Utaud- 


IJcit«lloci. 


talaiid. 


Locallait. 




Ext CCNUR of Panutua. 








XMta(C«M. 




Bail oaa«t u( ParacvK. 
tmhanr falanda 


HvUta 




Ualavatdan 




r^ta^iHK IiJuhIi, tut fTMM 




SapUit bay, nortfa ouaai or 
Paoar. 




0IL1U61L 






tknttbwwt optat tA Mind*- 




8on>.«6n bay, MnitiwtM 
ooact of LntAa. 




aaoi. 




IWt Bttnualan. MuiH' 




UiMpaMiii Kroup, Bonb uf 




dnqaii. 




Panvna. 


Haatn dvOaiDpu. 


AilJaceBi 10 RombUko. 


HalUnehUao 






Cml coMt lit Ulndanaa 
Port Bancm. lUatala !»■ 




anca latandi. 


M»j«|pi<l« nfn 1 l»n 


CalamlaiMa lalaada. 




laad. 


lla]MI^» 


CiijrM latanAt. 


UMtnn 


If ortti couM v( Bobol Uaad, 


Do 


Wcatcn ebaoiHl, Oalaal- 




Uaabato lilanil 




anoa iRlanda. 


tfi«m(W 


HallvnalntlBlanda. iwirUi 


HalbAn 


Sovih ooaat ol Mmar la- 








land. 




Nonb ooan ol Umar Uland. 


UaUcabuc 


North roati of Bobol lalaod. 




TanlTaKl groap.SiilDarcbl- 


Uallout. 


AdJaecDl 10 Paiqrni*raii( la- 
land, Sulu areblpvlaRO. 
Nortb ona« of BoImI laland. 








pela^u. 


Slalirikin 




Do. 


SfallllSMMI 


Adjacent 10 Baltbav laland. 
EaM MaM o( Paaajr, 


Mtftlaia mrfc . ■ 


BM cout of Liu6a. 


Maimra 




Km «MM of Panay. 




3ialaxapa]-R MNtMl. wait 
coaaiof l^inifua. 
Do. 




aaplin bar. norib coaM of 
Pnoar. 






HaIlaiMaii«. or 




Honb coan ol Bobol bhuuL 


Halaoloo. 






RaM coast ol Mnmr Ijilaucl. 








Adjarvnt lo Ilai0»l» Inland. 
W«al CMit of a&Biat iHlitnil. 




Panfua. 
Do. 


Do.„ 


Do 




Wot coasi or LvTie ItlMtul. 


Mal[4cfto 


Wm roa«t fit Pantcna. 
n'teieni cbaniM'l. rtUaul- 




Weal OHUl ot SAmaf l*Ui)d. 


)Uk«<UM> 


BalkuMro tdandt. norlli 




anu* IslaiKla. 




tvmal ol 81 mar talaad. 




Do 


tfklabnctan. or 


KonbMM Cdaat or Paracua. 


llalubulctulNit . . . 


Unapaean fnnip, umlb ot 


QlBftin. 






P«m|pu. 




AdlacMit to PoUtlo [alaad. 




tionaiKOo bay. louiliirflM 


MHlaJIbo mandc..- 


W«a( ixiaat of iMi&a. 




rvM ol Luaan, 




Weatcro chaiiitel 4'alaHil- 


Hatulat*"' 


V^mt rtmM at fUmar IbIadiI 




anw ItliiTidti 


Hilai)i|)*ra MMtid. wcat 

nwMol Panjtva. 
Sanalca l«laii<K Siila arrtal- 

Hoc- 
Ilia* litandN. BalM anfalpal- 




BaaUaci wrovp, Bulu arehl- 

polaga 
Adjacwil lo Pollltalaland. 
East wwAof Puacna. 












*'-'-»*"i or Hall' 




bj. 






•fO- 




Baat r«Mt ol Paoar. 




MnalM lilanda, Bain arctkl- 


Ualaati* 


teiilli««l vuut vt Kluda- 




tw1afT>. 
AiUac«(il ti>rain|iit4ran|| la- 




IMO. 




UalUlptkCIilni... 


bo. 




land, Hnln Bn-Uiielaffoi 


Mslwloa 


ytmt caaM o( Umtu bbuid. 
Wmi ooaMul I^nkKna. 


M^r"!" 


Adjacent W MUidoro. 


AUUp«kk<m 


MstianU 


temiiHiil IkUr-K •BiiihmC 


Hkpuidaii 


n'nt ciwd of Santar lalatid. 




ouMt ol M Ifldaxiao. 


B<^Mnw 


Korlbweat of CebQ. 




Plbift lalaoila. fiulit aivlil- 


UalAin paraMxiud,««ai«oMi 
of FMiflqa. 


HMunfal. 




l<elafla 



^H 


ISLANDS. 


^^^^ 299 1 


Mmd» oj Ihe PkHipptHf orchiit^asio nijthiiMkaUi/ arranged, with totatioa — Cbotinucd. ^^H 


^^m IdUld. 


LocaUoa. 


IilatHi 


UvaUan. ^^^H 




W«ai ooMi of Mmar IhIniiiI. 

Do. 
Qicaj-ftn POlt) Ulantl*. 
lAhaiii IfilandR. 
WeM eu««t v[ SLioM LiUnd. 
WtatttTD rbannel, Cnlatnl- 

aaothlaiiib 
Weil eoaai ol Panutna. 
Kalampay ■•anud.wexl ouaal 

uf t^ragna. 
TiwlTawi(TOti(t,Sulu Bichl- 

pekfa 
SmiUi coaat of ^iitiar UlaoO. 
Eul roaifi ol hmaj. 
WeM cooai of Panay. 
But eoaM or Plana j. 
AdJamI lu Mai1iidt>qiH. 
Adlaecnt u> Polillo tdaod. 
LUipXO ga\l. wtat cua»l ol 

LtuAn. 
HastMU- lilnnil. 
Wot cnut of Lcrtc Inland. 
Ta>riTairigr<7Up,doIaan:bl- 

paUfo. 
UacayAii Siilu Ulaiid*. 
Tawl Tawi i[n''U|>, HtHu amlil' 

|)«lagv. 
D« 
North eoaat ot Bobul liland. 
Ad)MMil to Bal&tac Itlaad. 
Ehl coMi ol LubMl 
North mart or Paoar. 
Kaat DUMt of Pamgna. 

Do. 
Tapnl Ulanda, aulu arabl- 

pclairu. 
OigaiwHa Uanib of Sola 

ata. 
MnuUca lilawK 8ulu awhi- 

palato. 
&Mt poaal ol PanguB, 
Rorthwoat ooait iiT Ulnda- 

nao. 

Cnyoa lilanda. 
WmI waai ol htoar 
Waat majii of l^raiiia, 
BaplAn Uiy, iinrlli riA*t ol 

■"aiutr 
Jlorth iXMwt of MMar DIaiul. 
Wtal ruKil >'i l^^ti> ti>lan4. 
W«at iroatt lit SAniar tilaud- 
WMt niaai o( BAinar UlaBd. 
WwtWUIolUuAn. 


Mailixhtn 


Weta coaaioT Paragua. ^H 
Vstfem vbannal. Calami* ^H 

aaoBlalanda. ^^^H 
Adloocnt to UarluduijiM!. ^^^H 
IMri l*«6ii, CalamlaDca la- ^^^| 

land*. ^H 
North coait of Layta Mand. ^H 
VM coaA ot Pangua. ^M 
Sail Pcdio l)ujr, wnch roMt ot ^^^^| 

Slmur Itlanil. ^^^^H 
Weal laiaarl ul t<±inar blaud. ^^^H 
SomoKAn bay. inutliwcjit ^H 

ctNUrt flt LDtAn. ^H 
JolA irrMip, Snlu arehlpet- ^H 

ado- ^M 
\r«M MMwl at Stiiiar taland. ^H 
Eail coa« of UlDdaoao. ^| 
Wnn t-oaal of fiamar hland. ^H 

Nonb ooaM oJ Bobot bland. ^M 
ICa*l coaal tit Biinnr Iiland. ^H 
Adjai^rat to Tlcao I'land. ^M 
t<onoK6n bar, naihwcM ^M 

eoajil ul LuiAii. ^M 
Pllaa IjJandi, Sulu arebt- ^M 

pclago. ^M 
Ad^aofM In Caunduanoa ^M 

bland. ^M 
Waat onaat ol Ltu6t). ^H 
Baallan RTOop, Snlti anbl- ^M 

pclaira. ^^^| 
Kait eoui ol LtnAii ^^^H 
Ouyoa Inland*. ^^^^| 
Calamlane* Itlanda ^^^^H 
Wcat eoaat of Panna. ^^^| 
Korth uoail ol Bohul laland. ^M 
aarantanl btaodti lointwan ^M 

Kaat eoaal ol Paragua. ^^^M 
WwtooaatolUu6o. ^^^^ 
Port IMn, Calamlaaa* !*■ ^^^| 

KorthraM roan of Pangna. ^M 
EutDoaEloiruagu. ^H 
AdJaMni 10 Mladotu. ^H 
Vanuijoa lilaod*. wfpt raaal ^M 

at Usiar htand ^M 
l\>rtBuMUi%B.BuTluit4ai>it. ^^fl 
TMi Rtfe* Ulaortft, ad>acmit^^^^| 

U> MarlDdDqiiv. ^^^H 
OUamUnta Ulaoda ^^^^| 
lCalaini>a|a wund. w«ai ^^^H 

ooaM of Paragoa. ^^^^^ 
SmI ooaal ot NUiuu lalawL ^^^H 








Umttfit Buriuu) ... 

^m MuiUniUi 


Marlplpl 




Han<ialtdaqalt.... 
Do 










lluilCoalg« 

HuilaBnlnc 

HkolpHtOn 




UaMhnron 

UaabaU 






Dg 




MaaliddBl 


lUaaenAnoc (» .. 


Stalflbao 


Mata«aaa|8] 

Malaja...^ 


HasokeHanka.... 


MMiMbBilti 




Huteld..^ 

Uutalli** 

UuiUwinEn.or Plu 




Uaundtuaaton. . . . 


Malayi 


























Harantan , . , 

Mart/- 

MaiavUte 








llaj)a..,„ .,. 

Db-. ..»*.... .. 

MWtaMM 


WllllKatl 









H 800 ^ 


^^^ GEOGRAPHY. ' 


^^H 


^^^ Idandt of tlu Philippine nrvhipttago alpMibfiiealfit ammftd. 


loifA /ocoMon— GonUniUM]. ^M 
Uieallon. ^M 


^^^F btaBd. 


LomUmi. 


IJilud. 




But CDtn of MiDKr likutd. 
A4lMent lo PuUllo blMd. 

Da 
Eut cout ot Maur Uluiil. 

AdljMMitt to Polillu bl*ii<L 

AdlKCcnt 10 CUtaodUtiuva 
Mftnil. 

Piliu InlaiidR, Kulu nrcbf- 

1)«1««0. 
But COUt of LuaAu. 

EUt tout of fURRtM. 

Sguihwwt ODUt ot Mliitla- 

AdJaL-out la Unrlnduquv. 
BMI COMt of IWtM. 

Do. 
ir»l nauil uf faraKU*. 
Budtan group, Solu arctit* 

t>«lairo. 
TTmI COUt u] t^OMkr ItdAQd. 
SotiUiwcDi c>jut ol Uliida- 

IMO. 

OaK>TiJ3 BiUn IiJaimIs. 
Da 

SortJiwaat ouaal ot UlniU- 

nao, 
Do. 
8«u Jouxico MialL 
&Mt coui of r»ragtu. 
AdlMoU lo lto«baie lalMMl 

Da 
8ui eowt ol I'aaiir- 
KarU)irai« cqui oi Kin- 

dutao. 
Kul OmK ot PUUT- 

DO. 
VoM COUt ol Fanunis. 
Qubnarti Mralt, MxitliaMt 

coaM lit PuiB]'. 
A<1]n4«ai to Uubate liUnd. 
QiUicuuti einUt, iratbeut 

roiM of fNinajr. 
Itnnh riNui nt Mmar liUuid . 
North cuaot ot PaoaT- 
Adjaoeal to Mlodgro, 


Nairfltatd) 


But ixmn of HlwUiMu. ^| 
Jl4)afif>Dl lo MulMle Uand. ^| 
TawlTairl BTOoptSnlu ucU- ^M 

PClUlD. ^M 

OnlmuAa itnll, MuUieaM ^| 
onaut of Pann}-. ^| 
Do. " 

A4)aMDl lo Ma«tat«> Iriand. 

UnBiwcmi RToup. ttonii i>t ^_ 
l^irafiiia. ^| 

(^tniulaim talanda. ^| 

Do. H 

Oiliulltm Iiilaodi. vwl immuI ^| 

ot patapM. H 

Do. ^1 

Do. H 

Adjacriil lo MaabalB laland. ^| 

wcHium nliaaiMl. Oalami ^M 

aim lalandc. ^M 

Adjaceni to Uuliaia Idand. ^M 

Uitsarfn fall, wut ooaat ol ^| 
LIU6B. ^1 
Ea« coaat of t^aaajr- ^M 
Adjacent toBsliltwp tiilatid. ^| 
Adjacciil lo H»s[«ti; I»tand. ^| 
San Qoas ol samar bland. ^| 
Guinuuti itratl, lotitliaMt ^| 
coairt of Panaf. ^H 
Ban JHaiil<s>i(ratL ^H 
Wen coast of narafftia. ^H 

Weal Doul ot ranfua. ^H 

WaaUand mtmb coaati ot ^M 

Panar. ^M 

Batin bland*, nortb of La* ^H 

EaM coBM fit Nacna. ^| 

But caaal ol nuagaa. ^^ 
Ql^nUw tklanda. nortbaaal ^^ 

coast ol ratiaj'. ^H 
but ooaa ol Paiafaa. ^M 
W«ai DoaM ol t^nsoa. ^| 
lla]ani|iafa mwimI, waM ^H 

ooaatol l^mfoa. ^H 
NArtlxan o( I'atana. ^M 


^^1 tii^.i^i- 






>*tlltiif 






^H MIiuliiiMi. 
^H Mlndoia. 






^H 


N*njpa tdanda Ct 
' lAUnd). 








Do 




Nadkalau blaiida. 

north idnitd. 
Nadtklao li^nndf. 

votltb liUnO. 
NndBalaw Uuuli. 

w<D[ 111 and, 
Nnpayauau 






^^M MongpcidK. 

^H MoDk Aud Friar. .. 




Nam Gmoda 










^H UoUffL, BOOIb If- 

^H land. 






HMdIe rocin, or 

A«0JM (»J. 
Nvgroa. 






KInefifD. orQnUle . 






Kortti 




HortnUaliotPoto- 

lUoc 
Nortti diuuiDl .... 

DO 














^H Mvtlc 

^H Sutttwt. . 



^H 


^^W^ ISLANDS. ^ 


^^V^ 301 ■ 


r '' Lttmdt of Uu PhUippiHe arrJiipelago tUphabtticail)/ arrtmgtd, viith localiim — Continiwd. ^^^H 


PH iBlUld. 


LocailoD. 


UiDiL 


LocalloD. ^^^H 




Itelsnpftr« MUDd, «ran 

coMtot Panfua. 
IbUmpkjv muid. wMt 

MHrt of H>r>giia 

WM OOUt 01 atBMt ItlMld. 

Vonh maul ol Botaal laUnd. 
Tkiri Tawt Biotip, Sain aK-bl- 

Da 
Do. 

Tawl T> wlKKOtrp. Bui ii archl- 

tlomit b«r. WM( coHii nt 
rarajpw. 


, , ^ 

lUx.or Barren 

Panalleau 


Norlbeasi MWrt ol ranfna. ^| 
riwtTavrlltT<Kip,8Btu«Kbl- ^| 

WaMcm cluiiiiwl. Calatnl- ^| 

U«a Wands. ^1 

Soaib «0)Utot Bubal Islaod. ^H 

Cnyoa lalanda. ^H 

P»rlB&r»ra.Uul]Btel*lMd. ^| 

SoDlheaat ivMMof NccKM ^H 

BaburAn Islanda. north ef ^H 

LiieAn. ^H 

Nortlioan moat <if Paiiajr. ^H 

goulliweat court nf Slliula- ^^ 

OM. ^P 

LlQsarta ^If. weal eoaat of ^^H 

LviOa. ^^^^1 

Ad]ac«at to MIndoni. ^^^^| 

TawlTawlKToup.Batuarchl' ^H 

Sonib ooan of Leyw lalaBd. ^^ 

A(l)a«t!nt to ralandtMBM ^H 

Boll Iliir cat OOU1 oi Htn- ^| 

ilanau. ^H 

TaiMil Iilaiuk. Hotn arnhl> ^H 

[KtIa«o> H 

Bailtt bar. UDtth cowl Ol ^| 

Cajroa Uaad*. ^^^^H 
Adjacent lo Ulndora. ^^^^| 
Kcrlh ol BaKtwc toi&u.l ^| 
TavtTawlRrvup.enltiBKbt- ^H 

IMlago. ^H 
N'orlh maai of Bobol Uaari. ^H 
DAraA ffuU. MmtbeaK mmI ^H 

of llln<lan«i>. ^H 
Adjacwt (o t^dBuUrKOv ^| 

blaod, Sulu arcblpvlaco. ^| 
Tbi'iiI I»Um1. Suln anthl- ^| 

pdaio. ^1 
Ban coaai of fanaf . ^| 
Llnapacao croup, north of ^H 

rantina. ^| 
Tb|ki1 idaiMlB. enlu arcU- ^^ 

tkctaffo. ^1 
J<iUSsivu|M>uluarelUpttae<K ^| 
Smitliwepl ro*>i ol Mln> ^^ 

donao. ^H 
hiri BnnaaaUn. Kutn- ^| 

<laq«t. ^H 
itXbgtoapJM u an bipilaffn. ^H 








VwA 






PamonUkn 

Putpuita nxtka.. 
PW3 4B Asrtcar .... 

Do 


^H 


P 

r OtavmoryKck.. 




^K<wi 


Cdttm Ulamt*. 






• 1 


Olaiilvftn 




AouTliwcM cowt of MlndA- 

luo. 
ntntu Uuidi. 
aonUi ooMiofStiiHu- Unnd. 






Do 








niH IiUnclK Sata areU- 

pabfo. 
But fooal uf rnra^H. 
Pilaa UlancU hliln >rehl- 

pvlago. 
SMilhwMl MMA al Ltutftn. 

tK.. 




rUwUooc* 

hiMtMCfakD.... 
TMgUlMOisnile .. 
RNtduianrocli.... 
fWlBiBkaa 






W«»l oout of l^u1l9Wl. 

Do. 
TVwlTBvl(rroilii Haiti an'hi' 


P>x)(Uii<Z) 




P«l«|o. 
SMthKMl cuaai uf LtaOn. 
PUaa liUiula. 8nlu arcM- 


IVndaJion 


EnuarPalUloIdBDit. 
XOTlli ccaM ol LniAn- 
Halamtoi" •^init, vMt 
raa«[ of puatiU' 




^^ PftluU.- 




naijan 


l^ifkKl AnnAln lAan 


hUtaian 


JolA RTOUp, 9nla irDhl PatmldmnaD 


IWm 


iwlaxo. 
WmI (waH at IhuMfiia. 
>Vviiiti«4at CMrt of MUUta 

nan. 
BaM cowl (il F^nmiin 
Bast coad of LiuAn. 
AdJaMni to OiUBdnuiM 

Ban maat ol LimOo. 


Pangaua l^ttnman 

1 


f lUKIMri 







■ 303 ^1 


^^^ OEOGRAPHY. " 


^^■1 


^^M Trinndt 0/ the fhUif^nt arrhipelago ntphah*Hralt\/ nrrnnffetl, mth lofotitm — ContltiUMl. H 


^^^^ 


Iioaition. 


ta^uA. 


IjoKMitm. 




Ailjancol to PallUo I>Un>1 
Mmlliw^M enMi nl Mtn- 

Bohvl UlMiiI. 
tUbatti laJ^ndi. 

floDthwMt cout ot Mln- 

duua. 
Wrot coMlril SAmur laland, 
Sao Ju*nlfiorrtnit. 
ifAtt icroup. So) n KFi^ bl |>elWD. 
(luliuiirfld •.iinlu M>iithr«it 

iiuul iif fknaf. 
Babuimiw lilUldB, tuinh of 

Lasan. 
SonvgOu b«f. PouUiWfil 

rn«(l nl LiuiOri. 
Wmleni i-tmontl. (Vlnnl- 

MlMltlUwU. 

Ttiwl T&wl im>iip.&0lii4tcbl- 

pelifa 
"ntpul UuidN. flulii Afrill- 

polico. 
Eut OOMI ot LuMn. 

Tktrl'TttrlKTOiip.SalauvJil- 

polBfo. 
Tapul [lUndB, thilu Mehl- 

potaco. 
Vr«t egut of Hin&r lalud. 
SajDAltia taUmtU, Balu aRhl. 

TKviTkvlcrDiip.enliiArtfa]- 

Da 
D<x 

BM ooMt o( atnar Ulud. 
nuBom UaodtL 
U«l>nip«ra mwimI, wm 

rOMi of I^ncua. 
JoM ffTOnp, Snlu ueM- 

pcU«v. 
Botnhrni cout ot LaMn. 
Ji-16 Kroup. Bolfl «ralU- 

jk<tjii«nl tA PdlllU) Uknd. 
fiMtthwHii raairt of hid- 

dan«i>, 
AAJhcwciI In Ralllb^' tilfthd. 
UupMnui Rtoup. iMrili ol 

PanvM- 




CujW lalukdn 

Tap^il UlmxiAii. Sola kkIiI. 

Po. 
A4Jao«at 10 BalflbM- lilatnl. 
WmI cowl of I'aimfna. 
M&IUftllftfB MKiDd. wr^i 
roMt of Pkrvu>- 
Do. 
W«il FOul of PMngiiB. 
Pnn Oa6n. OftUnUnM b- 
luida. 

KmI oomI ol Ulndftnaa. ^^ 
Kwit nuutnl rnukr- ^^^H 
WMt coui of CaiOb. ^^^I 
WMt Of OeM. ^^H 

Cayoa t.^nd*. ^| 
WeatcOaatof rtAmu tilknd. H 
PUm laUndik ftoln «nUpel- H 

lUO. H 
UBlampnja wuud. ircat ^| 

coBil at Parayna. ^| 

AdJMUt 10 HaataM latand. V 
Nonlteaat eoaat nf Panwia. 
OalafUMa Uand^ can ooaM 

OtLuabD. fl 
RMt raftn, OUanlaDCa !>■ H 

Uud*. H 
We« i:oaai of LuaMi. ^| 
Cftlaulaaca |»if fnf* ^H 
Wctf coart ol nu^eua. ^| 
TawlTammnp.SDluaKM- ^| 

pelafO. H 
Eart DoaMort hrasna. ^| 
SoBtliwaat raaai of MlD> ^| 

daoM. ^1 
Sax ce«at Dl iMMa. ^| 
lk«i Tawl grau p, flnln arcM- ^| 

P«la«(- H 

l*omi'aniw>an'lPiinlalilaD. ^| 
nutUwaai ooa* of LoaAn. ^| 

T1a<rlT«trlcK>np.aiUu*feU- H 

palnco. fl 

Oifartn Wlu Uludi. ■ 

THKlTawljttovp.aulDanihl' ^H 

pdacD. ^1 

WoM coan trf PUWM. H 

WoKen cbaoaal. CUEnl- ^H 

aCM Idanda. ^H 


pKluntiui 








Pu 


^^1 hii%inilriiiiK- 


pMkcnl 


I>«alie4, or Andi>. 
Puk«*l nx-k 






^^B PauKiun |Sk 


Polottita) 

TVpTtu rocka 




^^B i^l— -■■<" 




nvdnBSMicii 

no 

W1»T 






Pillkrrock 


^^1 






^^1 Pnnix'iA. 

^^1 ['■rnd^ann 


PfAu 






^H 


PInMfl 


^B iiueguiUulinM.. 
^H PliMCUi atiiwl .... 




FlMit 
















l^tm 




Paldoe 


FollUo. 


^H rrniAti 











I^H 


^^^^ ISLANDS. ' 


^^^ 303 ■ 


Jllimdt of the PUilippifu •trrhipeiago nlphabttic^ln ammged, ivUh location — CoDtliiucl. ^^^| 


Maud. 


Location. 


tdanil. 


txirotlon. ^H 




Kiirtli (VHUt Lryta Mnnd. 

Hut MWM of LnaOn, 

finathooit onui irf Ulnda- 

EMI C0M1 or Mcnftr UlftOd. 
ScMtbuut (vwm ot tUndi- 

nao. 
W«t oout ot LoiAn. 
But ooul fiF Pannjr 
Foftt lliUao ADd Hanlarowi, 

•outhmM ODMt o[ LuaOa. 
WCMCOMt of nuvBUB. 
Baa IMiwbKy. mMlh ammt of 

atnarUaod. 
Tapal lUandm Snln anshl- 

paluo. 
Rut ill C«lit. 
tVirta Patloo and thuitnliUn, 

wDtliwcDt <MMI ol UuAn. 
Port »aa MlpwL Tleao ■■- 

Irad. 
Tapal bUoAt, Sulu «foU- 

CnyMblaoda. 

snitnmi ooui oi Mlnda- 

oao. 
Ualam^yaaoand.wnrt cosM 

BaK Matt ot l^rarua. 

f^joa Idanda. 

Do. 

Bam ooaai of Haaana. 
Ran eoan ot LiuMi. 

Ita. 

IM. 

00, 

WMt ««ut D< 8«Biaf [alaad. 
Ob* Uand, cuycM Itland*. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

DO. 

Do. 
KaM cown of Panay 
WMt ooMt ot Pn nupia. 
KaM eotn of t^Mcua. 

laat cowl of MlHilanaQ. 

K«rtti ol ruittia« Uaud. 


ftAIUni^tMl 


Bkct eoMt at LtuAo. ^^^| 
BartMwat a4 Paragiia. ^^^^H 
BaMMMMfiTltlnilauau. ^^^H 
Naian)M Ulaniti, vrort eoaat ^H 

vl iMiBBr Uiaad. ^| 
Sati tSHltn b^i. math «oaK ^H 

ot SAmar btatwL ^H 
Soatll COMt or tUnutr Iibttid. ^| 
WeM ooaal ul LoiOti. ^^^| 
Son JuanlcoftraJi. ^^^^| 
EftM icikBt u( ParsKua. ^^^^| 
Do. ^M 
Ulttian bar, wou- roMal of ^^^H 

I^ntffua. ^^^H 
RMM coaat ol Parapia. ^^^^| 

BoaihveM ooaal of Luata. ^| 

W<«( M«al uf Panicua. ^^^^| 
But nxut ol ■'■miiia. ^^^^H 
H&la»; harlMr. Calamtaim ^H 
bland*. ^H 
tnujian bar, won cOMt of ^H 

roivlo Prinnwa, eaU ooaat ^H 

ol ramitiM. ^^^^1 

Wan coast of Fuagua. ^^^^| 

Konh ooan nl LiuAn. ^^^H 
BM coaA of Luaan. ^^^H 

MotUi cimit of Dflhul bland. ^^M 

Bonettn Imj, •oiilbwcol ^H 

MtMl ol LiisAn. ^H 

toulbweM cowl ot Loate. ^M 

naoL ^^^^1 
Waal «oaa of f Bra«ua. ^^^H 

WeM ooaei of patairM. ^^^^| 
Bailor liarbor, Cataiataiit* ^H 

1*\»bAw. ^^^^^ 
North ooaal of Bobol Ulaod. ^^^| 
aoatbwen coant ot lunda- ^^H 

nao. ^1 
OalaiiUaDca blandp. ^H 
TawlTai*lt[rDiip,A<tlBaiiobl> ^H 

t>a1a«a. H 
OabuliuQ blanda. mm ooaal ^M 

otpafaiva. ^^^M 
Pttaa bUMda. 8ala araUpal> ^^^H 

Eaat roaal ol Panaf. ^^^H 


Do 

Do 










Rni" 


P~n 

nui^ 

Pnlotnontl racket SI) 










R«( 




PanguUidM) 


Batt. or Arraell^. . . 






Bcfngle, or H pa&ar 
Bcsatia 
















nue «. 




4alalMUti 


RombUn. 






teblajMn 








» QnlwilMitg 

QBtUBAItlHt..... 

^itoilnt 


ffi^'"t 


fladdki.DrBUtA.... 
Saddle rock 


<Mftlliih&n fTDUp. 

MtMKVi. '>f At1d«. . 
RBB<«MBff]', or 
raft. 


Ml roek, or Vela,. 




mit% 





304 



GEOGRAPHY. 



Iilmulg ofltur Pbitippifu archipelago alphaheUmtty arrange^ laith loMriMW— Oontinaed. 



UHmad. 


LociUloa. 


lakod. 


Loottlon. 




Wfwt rOMt «( LniAn , 

Plbu laUnda. Bulti aruhl- 

BuUui gTDWp, 8«l« srabl- 

hut BmiKaAlBn, Majlti- 

Mtsd irul[, «DUlliM«t iiwii 

ol Uliiduuo. 
Ikptil Ulandi, 8iihi an-lil- 

pehfo- 

Xonb cout vT L«ru lataDil. 
CKUgiiM I«l«nil*, «ut coott 

ol LurAii. 
Adjucnl In Mftr1n<TiiiiiM). 
NuMjoB Ututdi. wen OUH 

ot atmu laUnil. 
SouUiwnt «oul ol Ljaa6ii. 
Hurt court of LdiAn. 

Hvnb MkMt <il Wmnr liUud. 
fkHillinvM i-^iMit ol LtuAn. 
Rut coHt of LujAu. 

Do. 
Port Sui MISTid. TlMO I»- 

lum. 

WMt ousjit (il LioAd. 
North cotMt ol LuiAr. 
But MI4NI of Panar- 
isoniliean nxut of PuBcuit, 
Adjacent to BklAbao blanrt. 
North <x>a« of Bobol latutd. 
Tkvl TVwl ^ciDup, (Sul n Mrbl- 

pcla*". 
ntai [alaodai enln aicblpd' 

•CO- 

Do. 

TavlTawlcnnip.flolDBrcbl- 

p»taff). 
Wat ooiwt nl I,,ui6n. 
A<I>ao«it tu Marlndiuioe. 
Bnatbvflot floa«i ol Ulnda- 

MO. 

Do. 
Aan JoantcQ aUUt. 
Ltagarfn gntf , «wt coMt ol 

AdJaeeDt to BiUAba« Uud. 
BaUa Uandb nonb «l Lo- 
l«o. 




BaranitanI blaiid*, MMitk- 

catfd cfwt of Mlndaoao- 






V«M (AMI ot PMMgna. 
AdJMant to BaUbao laUsd. 
Adjwcnt to Pmutr- 
SaatlwMt ivtM ol Panwua. 
Adjaniiil to HlndipTo. 
East raait of PaiasiM. 
rsla^an Inlanitiii rait rnsin 












aavtAB (W 








sticll.ottVMteha... 








ft ljtt6tt 




Norlbuat poaat of U India* 






naA 
Tapnl lilands. Snlti ansbl- 

Butitn Iilanda, north of La- 








BuiLlUMaiS).... 




DuHim Kronp, Said arckl. 
pelaco. 


Se „...• 




Ban BttnafdtDo 




TawlTawI^roap.Suluarrhl- 

p«l»ffO. 

KaM '^^fl ^f HlwlAiiafT 


Ulands. 








Konb ooam of MtndanM. 
AQJaconl to Ulndora. 
IhHl iwa«t »[ LarAn. 


gUlMlsiwI 






Stbaiian<a) 




tan 9«lTiu1n( 

B*n VIcwuM 




'hpnl laluida, SbM areU- 
palagD. 

AdjBMtit (0 Ulndora. 
Weat ooaat of S&mar laiand 










flmttkaraBt rrail of Ulnda' 






UWl 






8ad|«B>dki 




Adjiuwfil to ftonblAn. 
N<irthc«irt ooMt of Panay. 

Do. 
DAvao svU. •oottaoaat ooaat 

or Mindanao, 
Ta w1 Ta wl troup, tlalu a rDhl- 

pdaco. 
Weat ooaat of LoaOn. 






SuiRb07i north bk 
Una. 


Sieiar«>aadai(7).. 


SAUgbOf. KKIlh ti^ 

Und. 








^rt» fS'Fi»"Bii>flf 




Un«a^ giilf, wwi ooaat of 

ItUtbH. 






Manta Cnu CMm. . 


AdJaMntia HlBdoro. 






Ban U Cnu mndc . 




Korthwi*! oc*iil of KlndA- 




nao 




Atl><wnl to UlBdon. 
flibiitu talanAa. 






SUulaa DttHila ... 
flhnalaa fUblalM . . . 


"hill T««rl Rniap,8Bln arrki- 




pelaco. 
Do. 





J^M 


^^^ ISLANDa ' 


^^^^ 305 I 


\ IdandM of Ihe PhUippinf arehipdngo nipbaitftifiUjf arranjwrf, until /oculion— {^ontftiDMl. ^^ 


^V mud. 


1 

LoctUvn. 


Uand. 


Locmtloo. ^1 




Adjioeoi to RomtiWa. 
Stmak* liland*. Stilii wAl- 

T*tHT>wlfToup,BuliikKbl- 

Do. 
AdjMoni M PadBiiUrsiiK 1» 

laod, Bull! iucliilnilato- 

Nonh w«it «oa«t f HI nduua 

Do. 
Konh vomit d Mnar bkod. 
BcMtbweri eoaM uf MtaOa' 

BUO. 

BOQtliweM cout ol LmOn. 
AAJimdt 1(1 PiiillEuikJHnit Is- 

tftiKt, flulu ■.TclilpeUigu. 
Slbutti Ulaudit, 
Ciiyoa lilBUili. 
T»irl TKwlKTonp.Bnlu uchl- 

IMik«o. 
HortliwMt MMWt or MlniU- 

1W0. 
Tnrl Tawt rTOd|>, FHitu nt« hl- 

SoDiliM*! ca«»l of KvKtCB. 
Waft (NMUi of ParnftuL 

rites lilsnda. Sols uctol- 

pclijro. 
nut n^ut ol LwtAn. 
T«pal MuidN, Sato «kIU- 

JCvilb «HU(t of Bohol bluid. 
M*Wnip«ri> muiitl. wcM 

AdjMcnt u> Ut&dcirD. 

Rort yiunil*. luiTih co*M 

of Iflnduuio. 
QUiaUmi Uaoda, tart c«Mt 

BcMt&ven COMI ol iMMn. 
VM eimiA ol Bimar Iiland. 
A^ltccni to ButU* UImiiI 
t»M FOUl nl Pan* 7. 
Kmrtbeannwii ol r«mr» 
Well cowt of LiMt6n. 
AdJaraDi tn Patiaj-. 
KM MNUt «r Ncgroa. 

()ljta(il<<4 lilanda, ncnhaavi 

KMUt uf rmu]'. 
Ra>t ouaM ol l*anffUk 
WM COaal ol >'aiM<u. 

,L|— 06— 20 


Do 


cmM ol Pan^nia. ^^t 
Nnnbfvutof l^raffiia- ^^^^| 
Wart vuiut i>r pDraima. ^^^^| 

But «out of Finca*. ^| 
JolOgmopiSaliianhlpriaio. ^| 
BaullicM«ta(Miiuirblaiid. ^^ 
TafHil Itland*. Balu aivhl- ^^ 

polico. ^H 
Itel coaai of Mtndauao. ^^ 
Eairl uf Ctibd. ^M 
Ummarb Kiratl. Knilh«*al ^H 

«Wfit of Panar- ^H 
Tajwl Uand*. Bulu anihl- ^H 

peUgo. ^H 
North ooaat of N«Kni"- ^H 
Tli<rITitwiyioup,Bu1uarrl)l< ^^t 

W«t of BcuntilAn. ^^^^B 
Wf«t cnul (kl Iji'I'Ii' Inland. ^H 
Barlfci li«]r. oorUi ooaat n( ^H 
PUUT- ^1 
Sui onuit ul B«bol lalaDd. ^| 

WMt OOairt id I.iikAd. ^H 

TawlTawlKTOup.BulnaK'hl- ^H 

pelairo. ^M 

Sail HMKI at Panaf . ^H 

TavlTa«1pQQp,Siilnafrhl- ^^t 

peUi-o. ^^H 

Kaat co*«t of itiitdaoao. ^^^H 

Makuopara ■ound. woK ^^^H 

ooan o( Paiagna. ^^^H 

rufoD Inland*. ^^^H 

Raat imiiM of I'arapu. ^H 

Nonn COMI of l.«ru bUnd. ^| 

Ti«rlTa*n Kroup,Siilmi«hl- ^M 

UnxaTfo full. WMt coaatDt ^H 

LnaOo. ^1 
Vaat c«aM ol Mmar Uand. ^M 
CiijM I*la&<1*, ^H 
Adjaivni to radftvUranB ]» ^H 

Und.diilti arohtpi'lacn. ^M 
a(Killlir«t oeaat of Mlnda- ^M 

nao. ^H 
Wail «>a*t of M mar blaod. ^H 

RmI roaal ol raiMjr. ^^^^| 

Tapul IntawK Soln w«ht- ^^^| 

iwlatfo. ^H 






Do 










fiuupftroidur.... 


gultlaii 




Hn 














«lH~* 


Taata 










Tabliw 






^bo-- 


TDb6ii 


^^^^or 


Do 


ilrtnMi, w Srpal- 
















taallCdatovtiniK 




Tafallnos, ortCart. 


htMAs 


Poll ton 










Tacb«ha«(T) 

Tashaonl*) 

T^dafanaii. noflh 

bland. 
Tat (UnuuM RMitb 

lilaiid. 


Balm 


ajniimi> m 


Ita. 


So ,... 


HeaOillktoot folo- 

OWOL 







H 306 ^ 


^^ GECXJRAPHY. 


^^B 


^^m liiandtoJtKe Philippine ar<Aipebtgit aiphnbeticaltg arronpnf, 


ii<t<A /oeation— ContinueH. H 


^^H Tilarti 


LoctUon. 


laluul. 


LocMbn. ^ 


^H l^BittdUntS} 


If ortb eeoat of PtaKr> 

Swt DQBtl uf Piinsr- 

Pllui Ixlanda. 6u1ii nrohl- 

pelafti. 
Hftlain pAva Mtind.HeMMOA 

P«v) bnnk. •dJoOTitt Ut 

I*ulkuUiiiu( Mnnd. Sufu 

iirditpel^o. 
i-tS^yka Sola IaIukIi^ 
AA]*oeDi to Wodoio 
Kortb cout of Bobol Iidaml. 
ttaalUn (TODp. Bnln luvhl- 

polwo. 
Konh coMi ol BotaDi UUnd. 
flouUiWHC noui of LiuAn. 
Bm* coMt «t Pa»fftiK. 
Watt cowl ol mauu UUnd. 
Wonern ctiaan^l. CklAnl- 

vuwUUiula. 
HKUtnpftjvaou iiit.wMtoout 

ot Parutui. 
Mrko ^l(. «oiiUH>ut cnwt 

I;alMnK InlmmtU. 
Port Bnrrr t*. U nalxi t« Inl aiul , 
B«lUiutro IslkudB. nurlb 
f OOKl ol SAnui lUand. 
Oipl> bKf. Ronb oowt ot 

OUDOtM laJftUd*. 

Tkpul Islftnib, 8ulu ucbJ- 

paUiD. 
Ungtrte r>U. wen miM of 

Luk6ii. 
TftwlTiiwIcToup.SijluBnibl* 

p*Ugo. 
WMt wtui o( p«ncnA. 
Adjw»i)t to Hlndota 

North coul Of Bahol Itknd. 

Jol6 iroop.Svln trchipalacD. 

BlUutaUudB. 

Tnwl TAwlffTOvivSulaMclil- 

pclaco. 
rUuatAAM iHkoda. 
BmOu snap, Snla mhU- 

|wl>vo. 
■MtaoMtolLtuftii. 




lUwlTktrtiReiip.Sulu arcbt- V 

pri«pn. ■ 
lio. ■ 
Un|*)r&D f nlf, wmI eout of 

LuXko. ^ 
Tairllkwl ffniiti, sulu ftreU- ^| 

paUco. H 

Da ■ 

nanftlutua litond*. wmI ^ 

CMi^ ol Hftnuir IdAnd. 
LitoOWD laUlKll^ tTNl OOMt 

ITMlcm channel, CkUail- ^m 

Tswt Tftwl (teup,8iUs ueU- H 

pel«f0. H 

DiX ■ 
Adjacent b> Burba I*luid. ^M 

KottlivMtafL'eM. H 

Tnpul Uluda, 8<ilit w«bt- ^ 

^wlagn. 
BMilaii Kraup. Siiltt wcbb^H 

petWix ■ 
Wgn cmM ot nraxtii. ^ 
TmpaS lalantU. Salii webl 

peUgo. ^J 

Tn|«] Jjduidib Bnin AieU^f 
p«la«o. H 

inngan bar, wwt enut ^'^1 
rarainiB. ^1 

Tnpul IMandi^ Suln urU- ^ 
[wtago. 

W«n coaal (rf MnuLT lalwid. 

Tmyit Tnirf RroiiivSuluaiThl- 
pelMffO. M 

Sainala UUndH. sulu bkIi)- ^| 
IWlajni. H 

AdJUTimt tu Tkwi Mand. ^| 

JalAsroup,aulu aroblpvlaro- 

TftpDl bUndA Solo UcU- 

ntgajin flalu UluxU ^| 
Ta*ITawiKro(ip.Bal«Binfel-H 

PIIm ItlaiMla, Buhl auM- 

poUfo. 
BmUui staup. Sttln mbU- 

Da 
ennUuw« ruurt «f I%iifa& 
AdjMWl l« BVTlo Mud. 






^^H TVonff Tarouvo.. 


T»rtJ*il 


tWngad Ubuoui . . . 


^^H TiiJnnUJdn 

^^1 Tkkaln 






^^M 






^H IK- 1. 111. 














^H TUlnM<6) 






T«t» 




















Talalan 








I^TltMrl 










TiHil^ 


^^1 Tuip«luap< 


Tilflka Uffiill 








T«iiiplo „ 





1^ 


^^^^ ISLANDS. ^ 


^^^ 1 


1 Iitaiidt t}j tUt i'tiSi/jpiue ttrch'iidafio alphalKtiaUlt/ atranffed, with localion — Continoed. ^| 


^H mud. 


LocaUoB. ,. bluuL 






lUtMDp«r* KKUd. west 

CMM of fknfriH. 
pMilLui gioup, Aulu archl- 

Adjaeeni w I^>IUIo IiOaeuI. 
AdJiiMnt to PuUkvAratiR tt- 

JnlA gT>ni|>,tittla •rcblpeU^o. 




BBrilan grtrnp, Buln ueU- ^^^| 

pclago. ^^^^1 
KortliiNMutotLejWtdaiiil ^^^H 
Wot cout of S4siar Inland. ^H 
Su&aJoi talanda, fiulu arehl- ^| 

pvlago. ^1 
Tntri Taw1|[n>u|i.Sii]ii atciit- ^| 

pola(o. ^H 
EaU Juuilco stmt. ^^^^1 
Wwt MMUt Of I'srajma- ^^^^| 
Kutooast oOlludaeMK ^^^^| 
SoulliweitcoaMaiyindanao. ^^t 
NmIIi coaat ot Canaj. ^H 
Boatli ttmn of SUoat l*lanit. ^M 
ttatcotMuimmuMnai. ^M 
A<IJa«nit CO P«)%nt<nti| ^H 

I*laad, Sulu ucbipoUfo. ^| 
f^Varatiaa Uandii of Bulu ^^t 

AdlaeeDi to PankuUranc it- ^H 

laud, aulu arctilp«laiK). ^M 

BontbwwlooMlonilndaoao. ^H 

MtoUa U7. <rert coaat at ^M 

Laaba. ^| 

TawiT>iwlintntp.8alaBf«bl- ^H 

piUgn. H 

Aillaocnl (o UlndorD. ^H 

JnWKroup.SulnaKhTpolico- ^| 

IhiDiliirwuwutollflDdanMt. ^H 
But coaA of Panaj. ^H 
UaUmpara aoand. w«( ^| 

ooMlaf Puifiift. ^^^H 
EaM COM of Puiar. ^^^H 
AdlaoontloUaibaloblaod. ^^^| 
8ono$tfa bar, nuihwrM ^^^H 

eOMt of LUiAll. ^^^H 
BuulaaMandt, Sola aieU- ^H 

peURo. ^1 

polaco. ^1 
UalaiB|«ra mmd, wnt ^H 

iWMiof PMaitiia. ^H 
Ta<rtTawlcnKi|>,Su1uarQU- ^H 

pelaffo. ^H 
Tapul Uand*. Sala an&l- ^H 

pslwo- ^^^1 

nalamlaiua Island*. ^^^^| 
Ualampajra •ooimI. wart ^H 

ooMl ol Faiwna. ^H 
WW eoaat of Mibu himaa. ^M 
i]1|«ni«a lalaMAs HortlMaiit ^M 

eaati ol FWLnr. ^M 


1 ivuoan 

Tcni.or'neiMU... 
















Tkro! PMk«d, ur 

TbttmL rock 

Tktttilmi nek 

T»c«U 

TkaUChtooL 

TkM „ 


I'tuna b*3. vrad c«mi ot 

Panigua. 
Welt cottil ot PangiiK. 
b*l oOkal of LucAn. 
aoaUiwM CMat ol MtaiU- 

t»n. 
Do. 
naniMMof UmUM Ukfid. 
BMvMMof Lua&a. 




1 Do 


' Tnat t 






1 Tnhhatalia 




floattaWMt CMM of UtBdA- ' 




RM. 




^^Irai. »... 


land, Solnuehlpclifu. 

vmat al emtmgat. 
EaU ooKK ot Mindanag. 
Pita* laUoda, flnln ancM* 

|»cla«o. 
Tkw17^wl«Ti»p.StJuaTcJil- 

Do. 
0(K 
flKkn fiMlit, Sdin aivU- 

Oiamimtma Utaniit, mttt 

MMlof adwubkiid. 
aoADCOP tMf. nnUiKraai 

eoMt ol lAMAn. 
ChtagiiM Utei]>ls,«Mt ooaM 

ulLtu6ii 
nvl Tawl KToap, MluaxvLl- 

paUffo. 
AdjMvtt lo Builai Ulaod. 
Adjwwit lo fUmbUa. 
Btllcuktio Matuh. notth 

<taii of atBiar bland 
Tainil UlamU. Rulu an-IiI* 

palar>- 
!tonh«aaMof L«rtel*lnjid. 
EaM. eoaal of Ooho) Uland. 
Rurtk MHI of BolMl UUWt. 
mm btandi, B«In anU- 

Tawl Tftwi tfooph tahi amht 






1 Trilinfii^ 






TlcnlUrtn 


1 

1 Tajud 




njlJlUvUlU).... 










nildftlajta)r(S) 








TlMll«rKD(4|.... 




Tnta ...... 




^Hm.^!.. 


R^ 




TwoBroihen 

Cactwo.^ „„ 

CaMaJan 






1^ 





808 



GEOGRAPHY. 



/•landi o^ tlu I^tUippine archipdago alphahtUcdUy arranged, with location — Oootanaed. 



Iilftnd. 


Looatlon. 


Island. 


Location. 




SoutbeftstcoMtof MlndaruLO. 

KorUi ooest of SAmax laluid. 

East coan of Siniar Island. 

Tftwi Tawl group, Sulu Archi- 
pelago. 

Baat co««t of Hluduiao. 
Do. 

Quinuute Btialt, sonthwHt 
coast of Fanay. 

Tapul Islands, Bala archipel- 
ago. 

Booth coast ol Paragua. 

Adjacent to PutBrutArang 
Island. Sulu archipelago. 

Port Dr6d, Calamlanes Is- 
lands. 

San JnaolcD Htrait. 

Adjacent to Pai^utArang 
Island, Biilu archipelago. 

Llnapacan group, north of 
Paragua. 

Port DsAn, Calamlanes Is- 
lands. 

West coast ol Liizdn. 

East cosHt of Paragua. 

Puerto Prlncesa, east coast 
of Paragna. 

Halampaya sound, weot 
coast of Paragna. 

East coast of Mindanao 

West coast of Paragua. 
Do. 

Samales Islands, Sulu arohl- 
pelaxo. 


West Nalaut, or 

Green. 
White Pillar rock.. 

White rock 

Do 


Western channel, Calaml- 




anes Islands. 




Hahunpaya sound, west 


DltlB 


coast of Paragua. 




Cuyos Islands. 
Halampaya sound, west 
coast of Paragna. 




Do 


CnlMoO) 


Do. 






Do. 




Do 


Do. 




Do 


South coast o( Paragua. 
Ulogan bay, west coast ot 

FBragua. 
West coast of Paragua. 




Do . 










White rock 

White Top rook..,. 
Wilson . .. .. 


Malampaya sound, west 
coast of Paragna. 
Do. 






Do 




Wooded Islands(4} 
WylUe rocks (5) . . . 

Y'Aml 


Slbutu Islanda 

Babuy&Q Islands, north of 

BatAn Islands, north of LU' 

sAn. 
East coast of Uindaoao. 


T*rie 


VitTigitlHi 


Verde, or SignsI ... 




Tftpul Islands, Bulu archi- 
pelago. 
SouthwcHt coast of Ulnda- 


VU1a«« rock 


Ybus 


Vinain 




nao. 




Port S&n Mlgrne], TiCfto 1b- 
lAnd 




VllAnnAn 


Wedge 


North f^oant nf Hnhnl ThIati^ 


Do 


Zapato Mayor 

Zapalo Menor 


Konh coast of Panay. 

Do, 
West coast uf Paragua. 


WeMBolod 







HISTORY. 



I. DISCOVERY AND PROGRESS. 

Settlenient and Eaily Histoiy — Inunigration of Chinese — Later Htttocy— Slavery^ 
Local Gove raincnt- - Power of tlif Monastic Orders — Qmunerccand Ke\-eDues — 
Gorenunent — Emancipation from Spain. 

BY T. H. PARIXJ 1>E TAVKKA, 

<H (be lIUilppUiL- (^lIB^UlaUKl. 

It is not an easy tAsk to write r brief !il-*tori«.ftl reriew of the Philip- 
pine UIaikIs, when the object of the uuthor U to give a truthful account 
of tbi' pritu'lptt! bistoritail evonts iu the development of the eooaotuic, 
aocial, and political life of the country. Tfao bit^tonei> piiblivhed in 
former tiuiw* do not rantain historical data relating to the Kitipino 
pwjpk', l)ut are more iu the nature of ubronicleii of the religious orders 
and Ktalcaieat«« of the doings of the governors of the archiiwlago. 
The luore modem histories have not been prepared iu an impartial 
f«piril. The object of thoir pulilicatioii api*ars to have been to glorify 
the SpaQi.*>b syKtem of eolonizatiou, and no attempt was made to prc- 
wnt the focttt. On the contrary, there wn-s a tendency persistently to 
cover up the truth if it.s publication, iu the opinion of the author, might 
burl the ftelf-luve of the i>piinish nation or detract in any degree from 
the prestige whirh the motJier country t^bould poiwesB in these regions. 

In order, therefore, to write a bistorical review the author must 

necexHiirily expand hia field of investigation lieyond tlie scope of Inwka 

I called "liistories/' and should consult the entire Tbilippiue bibUog-- 

imf^y in order to understand past evontii and their Intent inlluence on 

the present life of the |>eople. 

The Philippine Islands were discovered in IfiUl by Fernando de 
lAigallanes (Ferdinand Magellan). Thh fiimou.s Portugue.su navigator 
bad been in tl»e service of his King in Malacca, and it wuh there that 
be heard of the situation of the Spice iHlandiiT which at that time wei% 
being exploited by the Fortugueno. Upon his return to Portugal, 
Magellan waa tint well received by his 'sovereign, luid thereui>on 
decided to offer his Berviee« to the King of SpaJn. . 

Pope Alexander VI, in order to avoid (li-'puteHanddifficnltief^lwtween 
•S[Miin ami I'ortugal, had divide<l the world into two vquul parttt and had 
given to Portugal that half which lay to the ea«t of a meritUaD, which 
he Sxed 8T0 Itnguus to the west of the Cape Verdo Islands, and to 



810 



HISTOUY. 



Spain he gavp tbc half lyinf^ to tho west of Haid tneridiaa. Mugellan 
insisted that the Molucca l>4landfi were mtuahvl in the Spaimh hemi- 
sphere, and offered to Charles V, then rei^intj in Spiiin, to reach those 
islands hy the western route, the rourne at that time traveled by the 
Portuguese \yeiag around the Cape of Good Hope. 
The Fini)eror ordered that a squadron be fitted out for service. 

[Magellan wad plaeed in command, and .sailed from Seville on Augatit 
10, 1519. His vo.vage was full of adventures. He diiKovered the 
straits to which hi^ name wan given, crossed the Pacifii* ocean in 
the direction in which he knew the Moluix;a Islands were situated, 
and discovered the Philippine archipelago. On March 16, 15S1, he 
arrived at the island of riomonh6n. ne;ir Suriguo, and touched at the 

i island of Limaaagua;' he diacovered the island of Ley te and other small 
Islands which lay near his route and continued on to Cehfi- He was 
killed in I^(Hct&n, having taken up arms against tlie king of that small 
ifetand. The survivors of the expedition made their return voyage to 
Spiuu via the OajK of Good Hope, and in this manner for the first time 
was accomplished a voyage around the globe. It is oaly just to eou- 
cedo to Afagcllan, and not to del Cano (Don Juan Sctjastiau del CJano), 
the glory <if having been the first to make a tour of the world. ioaMmuch 
as the distance traveled by del Cano in order to complete tho voja^, 
after the death of Magelhiu, was a portion of the globe which Magel- 
lan had already traveled when be made his expedition to Malacca. 

A second expedition to seaivli for the Molucca Islands was dispatched 
by the Emperor, under the command of Loaisa and del Cano. It left 
Corunna on July 24, 1525, and visited Mindanao. But although the 
expedition succeeded in teaching the Molucca Islands, it resulted in 
failtirc, and Ijoaisa and del Cano lo«t their livca. 

The Kniperor was not difrcouraged, and throngfa tho efforts of Her- 
nan Cort^Ss foruied another expedition which, under the command of 
Sitavcdra, started from Zaguantanejo, Mexico, on October .SI, 1537. 
This expedition hjid for its objective point the islands of Molucca, and 
did not touch nt the Philippine Islands. The expedition Gnally reached 
Lisbon in 15.Sft. 

After the Kmporor in \5iii* had abandoned his claims to the Mo- 
lucca Islands, which thereupon became tho property of Portugal, the 
Court of Spain no longer gave any thought to the )-«i;landsof Ponionte, 
as our archipelago wils then culled, because tt was believed that these 
islands were very poor. 
Oapt. Andres do Unlanuta, one of the company of Ijoaiaa, arrived 

"^abont that time in Spain after a most eventful trip and recounted to 
tho King what he had observed during his voyage. CbarloH V again 

'Hagdtao did not. toodi at Miodanau, as baa vtvooamlj been stoted In utber 
tiistiiriea of hb voyage. Tbe island of Uoiaaagiia la jtul off the toath end ol Leytc— 



I 




SETTLEMENT AUD £A£LV HlSTOfiY. 



SIX 



ordered an expedition to be made ready, which left Navidad, Mexico, 
on November 1, 1542, under the couiiiiaiid of ViUalobos. Tlie fleet 
wr>nt to pieces off the coaet of S&iuar, and the Spaniards returned via 
the Molucca** to Spain, where they arrived in 1549. The project of 
occupying the islands of Poniente wau then detinitely abandoned. 
During the reign of Philip II that tsnveretji^n decided to Kcnd another 
expedition to the Philippine I^landm. Thin w&s opposed by Captain 
Urdaneta, who had liecome an Aiigustinian friar, and wlio wh^ of the 
opinion that these Islandn were embraced within the hemisphere 

longing to Portugal. The new ex|)editioii left Navidad. or Xalividad, 
texico^ on Noveml>er 21, ISM, under tlic comninml of Migtiel L/ipez 
dc Legampi, wlio was given the title of udelantaflo and appointed 
rernorand i-aplain general for life of all the lands he might occupy, 
Accompanying the expedition was the friar I'rdaneta, whose knowl- 
edge obtained during the voyage of I.<oai8a waM destined to be of the 
greatCHt utility on this trip. 

On November 26. in accordance with instnictions received, Legaspi 
opened on the high snut the seals to the dorumentw which the royal 
audlenciii of Mexico liad delivered to him, and from the instructions 
contained therein he learned that his objective point was to be the 
I^ilippine Islands and not New Guinea, as Urdaneta had advised th« 
King. The friar considered himself insulted and complained bitterly 
that he liad lieen deceived; but as he was unable to avoid making the 
voyage, he decided to direct it by the best route to the Philippine 
Islands. In the instructions I^egaspi was onlered not to touch at the 
Moluccas and to send Father Uitlaneta to New Spain as soon as he 
arrived in the Philippine Islands, a^ the King was anxious to know in 
what manoer the return trip could )>e made. 

On February 13, 1565, liCgaspi arrived at Abfiyog, island of Leyte, 
afterwards touching at the islands of Mindanao and Bohol, and on 
each itjland he formally took ]x>sse^on in the name of Philip 11. The 
expedition 6nally arrived at Cebrt on April £7 of the same year. A 
fort was at onve constructed, houses were put up, and, on June 1, a nao 
(a kind of galleon) was dis|Mitched to Acapuico with information as to 
what had been accomplished. Ui-daneta sailed as captain of this boat 
liecau.He of his knowledge of the^route. 

It was not an easy matter to enter into friendly relations with the 

Lives wbo frequently attacked the small colony, which aUo had to 

fend itself against attacks ))y the Portuguei^e who came by sea. The 
ColouislA at last nucveeded in baptizing Uie niece of Tu|>as, the Teguh 
(a kind of petty ruler) of Ob6, and the new convei't waa subsequently 
married to a Spaniard, which was the tirat event of the kind iu these 
iaUnds. 

On August 20, 1560, Felipe and Juan de Salcedo, two nephews of 
Legaspi, arrived from New Spain; Juan dc Salcedo wa» the captain 




who Bubsequeiitly became famous as a leader in the conquest of the 
nrchipelftgo. 

Thi? r^^ulo Tupad wag baptized on March 21, IbGt, and the niuae 
giren to him was Felipe, after the King, and from that time amicable 
reUlions were established between the Spaniards and the uadves of 
Cebfi. 

Oo Ma>' b, 1570, Capt, Martiu de GoitS, accompanied by Juaii de Sal- 
eedo,' 90 arqucbusiers, ajid 20 Spuiilsb Kailora, sailed for the conquest of 
Manila ia the inland of Luz6u. ntupptu^ at Mindoro. On their arrival 
at Manila they found tbu natire» entrenched behind strong hreastworkit 
located at the muiith of the PiLiig river, wliL-i-e now >«tandH the foil of 
Santiaj^. The attack uf the Spuiiiards was ret<i:>ted with 1:^ cannon, 
but the natives were tiaally routed, and the cannon were captured and 
taken by the Spaniards to Panay. where Legunpi had by that time 
eiitablished himself. 

On January 1, 1571, Legai^pi organized the government of C'eb6 and 
pn^^iared to Ipave for Manila. He natued as rty'uit/r (^>vernor)of Cebii, 
Guido de I^voKaro^. al.so treasurer, and ur^nizetl a luunicipol council 
with 2 alcaltlm (tiiagihtratcta),* 6 otmc^aies (councitmeo), 1 secretary, 
and 3 o^iMU-t/M (constablej^ or sheriffs). He divided the native.sinto 
mtcomiencUu (royal gt-arits)' among the Spaniards who were moat 
deserving, as be had been authorized to do by the King, August 14, 
lEi0M,aud in UieKHine tnantiera^ wat! being doue in Peru and New Spain. 

Lega&pi made prepuratiuns tu take potwetK^iun of Manila in peraon, 
having been informed by Salcedo of its fine location and natumi advan- 
tages. He dei^ided to go with tlie L'xpe<.]itton un itH return, and on 
April 16, 1571, be got together a flotilla, composed of 27 boats, and 
sailed, taking 2t^i soldiers with him. When he arrived at Manila the 
InhabitantH lied, after setting Hre to their houses. In a ^^hort time 
Ijegaspi had won over to his cau^^ ibe r^gnlos who had ruled in the 
newly c-an<|uered territoi^. Rajah Soliman was the sovereign in 
Manilii. but- I<ukiin Dola ruled in Tondo over quite un extent of terri- 
tory with a larger number of subjects and therefore more power 
than Soliman. 

With nil due solernnity. on June 24, Legaspi founded tlie cit}' of 
Manila, and appointed tu rule over it 2 alcaldes, 12 eouncilmetv, 1 

' Grandson of Le«a^i,bont in Mexicn, 1IM9. Hn had great counffe and ablUty and 
liM l>ma c«l)4«l tliQ HiTtiaii Cort^ of tliw ritilippmiw,— Oirrdor. 

' A Spuiisli litlf of Ions tnue applifJ u> a miunt'tniiv. Aflor tlie expultdoa uf the 
toore irom Piiftin it )■«] iJic riniiBcation of stovcmor. —IHreftor, 

* .\t> mointimilu wmm pnicliciuly K unint of iDdiftos, imNmpi-tivv nf th« laml- At 
RiiL tbeirranl <.-JLj>in.i) «iih Uiu ynuicv. U waflsobeeguenUy • ~ ~ 

or three Tlvi«, aihI. hi rffci;), bccanio prrtH^iiial. ilsa re«nll ti. 

A rfTKirtimimtn wiw n KTunt oi \ntti*. ' ■ Iwithiltli' 



I|>D luiliana (Hv'ii[iviiii; it or lirinu w i: 
tb(i K)l). Ttiie Dr)\'ilcffe wan auhaMi-.v. 
uaed in unr kiiul <if \MOnr. —Dintlor. 



limce ut it 

._.t....nl BO tliai ■-..- 



■■\ en bIuvm. 
'nlx>r of 
vaiins 
.... .^iiM 




SBTTLEMENT AND EARLY niSTOEY. 



did 



alffiuicU mayor (bead or chief conHtabIc), and other functionaries; next 
he divided the lands amon^ the roligiouB persons and other SpuniardR, 
so that each one could build a house in the city. The old Rajah Soli- 
man was baptized and ^-alUxl Felipe, the missionaries began to teach 
the catcchttm to the aborigines, while .luan do 8alcedo and other cap- 
tains followed up the conquest of the island. According to a provi- 
sion of the '*X«yti» ds Indma''' the word paci/tcact'iin, and not coni^uiMtik, 
was the term to be used, but, in truth, peac<t alreadjr existed in the 
country before the arrivfll of the Spaniards. 

Juan de Salcedo wn^ distinguished for his valor, his activity, nnd hu 
bamanitarian impulses. When he began his conquost.s he was only 22 
yeai*s of age, and by his tart and pnidence he won the affections of the 
Filipinos. Aj8 a reward his unolrt gave him the encomienda of Vigan, 
and upon bU deatli be divided his possessions among the Todianji (Fili- 
pinos) who belonged to the enconiienHa. The adelantado Legaapi, 
however, died before Sakedo, on Augu>l 20, 1573, and was succeeded 
[by the treasurer, Ouido de Lavczares. in accordance wltb instructiootf 
contiLined in a sealed document i*oceivcd from the uudienciu of Mexico. 

When Lavezares sluccecded to the command the entire archipelago 
ms under the authority of the Spaniards, with the exception of Caga- 
yin which surrenden-d shortly afterwardB; the Batfines Islands, the 
irooqueBt of which occurred much later; and the archii^elago of Jol^> 
(Sulu). The complete submission of the laxt-mcntioned region to the 
Spanish sovereignty wok not obtained until the end of the nineteenth 
century. 

In 1&T4 the colony came near extinction by the incursion of a Chi- 
nese pirate niuned Liniahong, who landetl at rarana(|un and penetrated 
almost to Manila. The c-olony wa.s saved only by the opportune arrival 
from lIocoH of Juaji de Salcedu at the head of bia tixnips. He routed 
and dr<]veout the Chinese soldiers, and, as his arrival was unexpected, 
the priests attrihutctl the salvation of the colony to divine intervention. 

In 1574 the nativon of Manila, TondA. and other towns in the direc- 
tion of BulacTm liecamc riotou.s liecause Ijiivezares, for tlie purpose of 
rewarding a Spanish JMildier for servirew during the tight against Lima- 
hoDgf gave him an encomienda, which included nearly all of the slaveii 
of Lakan Dola, oaciqnti of Tondi'), who had inherited the>-e slavofl from 
hid ancviftors and bad otherwise obtainc-d them by puixhase. The 
fwldjer to whom the encomienda was given had severely chastised his 
slaves ftecause Ihey visited Uikun Dola and took him pret«nt<4. The 
governor intervened and calmed the excitement by promises which be 
made Lo Lakan Doht, and Hucceedod, without returning him bis prop- 
erty, in bringing the insnrrei'tion to nn end. 

The governors of tlie Pliilippiiic Islnndsdid not limit their acta viticfi 
to tbo archipelago, thinking perhaps; that the cares of the colony wore 
not Mufficiunt to fully occupy their time. Tbcy were ambitiouH tu 



intervene in Ihu neighlxjring countries, and not only was ttere nn 
expedition organized against tbe riultan of Borneo, but in tiie political 
[program outlined in Manila were projects for the subjugution of 
Cunihojn. Siani, and even China and Japan. 

While in Madrid (ionzalo Kouquillo, who was governor from 1580 
to 1583, had become wi pleased with the descrtpUons of the Philippine 
Lslanda that he proposed to the King to allow him to go there at his 
own expense and take with him 600 men» married and single. Philip 
11 had long been concerned at the heavy expenditure connected with 
those distant possc5vnons, inasmuch as the revenue of the colony was 
not sufficient to make it self-sustaining. Accordingly he accepted 
the proposition made by Konquillo and appointed him governor of 
the Philippine Islands for life; making aLso certain other concessioDS 
naualiy granted only to those who discovered or were the first to 
Loolonize new territories. 

Before the nrri\'al of Governor Ronquillo there had been only four 
aU'aldiA mayorai (chief magistrates), but he began to appoint prot<5g^s 
until the number of alcaldes i-eacbed seventeen. Of these Bishop 
Salftzar s<aid. ** They came poor and with >*t-ant salaries, and they 
deprived the Filipinos of the vice from their Bold)* and of all the other 
harvested products they could get." As a result of these abuses there 
jrwere frequent insuri-ections against the Spaniards, but these were 
quelled by the governor, whoiie followera raiMxl Panay in the Visayas 
and founded the town of Ar^valo in memory of his natal town. 

He obliged the natives to pay a tax to the treasury on the value of 
the jewelry and golden trinkets which they owned, and decreed the 
confiscation of all precious metals if an attempt was made to conceaJ 
them. As a result many outrages were perpetrated which gave rise to 
innumerable disturttHuces. 

Notwithstanding tiiti orders given by the King that the Filipinos 
should not. be lualtreatud, the friars, encoiuenderuM. alcaldes, and other 
functionaries did as they »tw tit luid endeavored in every uiauner to 
exploit the natives. To the royal decree that Hiaves of alt kinds in the 
islands should at once be set at liberty the governor anKwercd that the 
decree should be auiended, inasmuch as to enforce it would cause great 
discontent among the Spaniards. 

The complaints which were received at court against the arbitrary 

conduct of the govenitnent were such that the King in L584 constituted 

in Manila a royal audiencia, such as existed in certain parts of 

Lmerica, with the object of avoiding in the Pbiltppines the results 

^hich were sun? to follow from the rule of a governor whose caprices 

were subieet«>d to no chock either from a eouncit or anyone else. 

Thn president of the iiudiencia was to be nt the ntune time the gov- 
oruor, and his othcial acts were under the inspection of the uudieneia. 



SETTLEMENT AND EARLY HISTOKY. 



815 



This system lasted only bix years, the audiencia being suppressod in 
1590. The credit for this result was given to the Jesuit priest San- 
chez, who went to Madrid fur that purpose, and also to eonvince th< 
King that it was bi» duty not to abandon the Philippine Islands, 
was proposed, simply Ixicause they were unproductive and an expense 
to the royal exchequer. 

The King decided that there should be sent to the islandi^ the largest 
number of missionaries available, remembering that the main object 
of his predecessors in the conquest of new territories was to extend 
the Christian faith. Thereupon there began to arrive in the Philip- 
pine Islands .\vigustinian. Fmnciscan, Dominican, and Recoleto friurs. 
The Jesuits arrived in 1581, having been among the first to come to 
convert the natives. The friars were not content with the .«tpiritual 
conquests made in the Philippine Islands, and began to .send missiona- 
ries to China and Japan, and offered to send ambassadors representing 
the governor of the Philippine T^tl&nds to the .sovereigns of those king- 
doms, llpon their arrival io China and Japan the missionaries preached^ 
the Catholic faitb. and as i^uch attempts to proselyte the people were 
contrar)' to the custumtj of those coimtries, persecution of the mis- 
8ionarie*i followed, and they were frequently put to death. The ooly 
aubstuntial result obtained from thiM attempt was to exasperate the 
Asiatics againitt tJie Europeans. The King thereupon prohibited the 
friars from leaving the Philippine X-slands for the purjjose of going to 
the neighboring countries in Asia. The only exception was made in 
favorof the Jesuits, and there aix>so between that order and the various 
orderaof friai-s, principally tlio DominicAus, much ill feeling, which at 
timet) broke out into open altercation. 

In 1583 Ilishop Salazar took up the defense of the Filipinos and 
wrote to the King describing their Huflerings and the conduct of those 
who governed them. He declarc^d that the alcaldes mayores who were 
charged with the administration of justice pocketed the tines imposed 
by the King; that the public treasury was empty and the salary list 
unpaid; and that the annual taxes collected did not reach 80,000 pesos. 
Moreover, the f riara refused to obey the authority of the bishop, and 
he advised the King to establish a monastery in each town, with six 
friars in each to insure goofl IfchavJor. 

The royal audiencia was reestablished in 1596 and entered upon ita 
functions in 15DK, thanks to the Atf.im taken at court by Hishop Halazar. 
Dr. Antonio de Morga, who arrived in Manila in 159R, was appointed 
the tirst auditor of the new audiencia.* • * • 

lu IftSO, when the kiiigdom.i of tSpaiti and Portugal became united. 
King Philip II ordered the eonquerit of the Molucca Islands. Oov- 

'Atliihi tHilnt b hlf> sketc-li llie wrik>r lias given Mme wwoont of the aaiUeoclat 
which, t» it ii[i[iean ipeciftll]' under Judiciarj-, lia* b«<a on^ttfld. — Direelor. 




ernor Diego Uooquillu orgauizcd the first expedition for that purpoen 
and put it under tbc couuuand of bii^ nephew, who lx>»:iegcd the town 
of Ternate; but the flicgc was soon L7U»ed and the attacking party 
returned to Manila. A short while after this another expedition was 
sent to besiege and take the tiatue town, but also returned to Manila 
without ac£onipIi»)bing itM objc<?t. In ltK>& the Dutch nucoccdcd in 
expelling tbc I'nrtu^iiRse from the Moluccas. In ItiUtHrovernor Acuila 
decided to attack the Dutch. Accordingly he fitted out a large fleet 
of »hipH and formed an aiiiiy of occupation, consiiiting of 1,800 Spaoiah 
soldiers of tbc reguhtrs, a^^companied by a largo nuiiilM'r of Filipinos. 
The govei*nor assumed [Krsoikal command of the fleet and army and 
succeeded in conijtiertng the Dutch anil taking posttesHion of the ishiodH. 
Up to 160fi tJie S[ianiai-tls, though (ronstiintly at war in tlie Molueca^i. 
acted merely as the allien of the Portuguese and to secure ttieoi in the 
possession of tiiOHO colonies which were the property of Portugal; but 
after the victory (overtlie Dutch) obtaiuwl by Governor Acufia In IfiOtJ, 
and by agreement between the Spanish and Portuguese couits, it was 
decided, and so decreed in the royal ceduia (order) of October 39, 
16*»i, that ttll nf the Moluccas should lie under the exclusive charge of 
8pain, to he niled through the governor of the Philippine Islands. 

The effort to colonize the Moluccas, however, was destined to be 
unsuccessful; after a scries of di^sters and disappointments Spain 
withdrew her troops from Ternate in lOlJft. The cost of maintaining 
her sovereignty in those islands had proved t« be such a henry burden 
on the royal exchequer that no further attempt was ever made to con- 
quer or bold them. 

From 1717 to 17iy Feraaodo de Buatamaote was governor of the 
arcbi[>ebigu. Having discovered gi-eut irregularities in the manage- 
tnent of funda in tbo real hacienda (royal treasury), be decided to 
introduce rcforub in the management of the public moneys. He began 
by cODfioiag tfaoeo who were supposed to tjo the doUnquentfi and pros- 
ecuting them in the courU. The high officials, who thus found them- 
selves involved, had never been accustomed to this method of proce- 
dure and were very indignant with Bustamauto. It having come to the 
guvernor^s ears that a rebolUon was plumed aguiust his government 
and tbat the friars were providing reEuge in their churches for tboae 
who were known to l>e his most determined enemies, he issued a proc- 
lanuition calling on all males over fourteen years of age to form a 
Imttalinii witli which to defend the cause of the King. The i-all was 
answered and a body uf volunteers was formed, llie archltishup and 
a numtwr of lawyers had signed a resolution in which they denied 
BusCiuiiante's right to order the arrest uf the notary CWjo who had 

ten refuge in the lathedral; tbc governor tbereujiun had thentvh- 

sfaop and the lawyers who had taken [>art in the cabtil n(-« arrested. 



SETTLEMENT AND EARLY HISTORY. 



817 



These arrests gave rise to still further disturljftnces, and the friars, 
fearing that tlio governor might take measures against them also, 
decided to load the riotorff. The refugees came out of the churches, 

^secured arms, and lieing joined by certain of the townspeople, marched 
on the palm-e of the governor, which was situated on the south side of 
what is known to-tlay an the Plaza William McKtnley. The friars 

[were in the lend and i-arriod rrucidxcs iu their hands. Governor 
Hu^lauiante wbeu he lietutne awnre of the uprising ordered the guard 
to tire on the rioters; liut the soldiers did not olje,v the order, and 

-when the riutent arrived at the palace the guards lowered their arms 
before tlie tucerdutal ve»«tuiODts of the friars, who held aloft the ci-uci- 
fixes and images of saints. The al(Aardcrm (lialberdiere) alhto made 
way for tlio rioters. 

The iil-faled Bufitanmrile i.aineout with his gun in hand and met the 
crowd on thut<tairwu^-; the rioter^ fell upon hiiuund in a few momenta 
he was mortally wouuded. His sou came to his aid and was also shot 
down. 

The rioters dragged their governor, dying as he was, to a jail in the 
lower flot>r of the audiencia, whore lie died on the evening of the same 
(hiv.Octolmr 11, 17U'; all aid was denied him and he was even refused 
a drink of water. The governor's son was draggv*d to tlie stable of 
the palace, whei-e he died the some afternoon; be also was denied alt 
medi<-a[ aid and other as^it>tuitce. The rioters, under tlio leader^hlpof 
the friars, who eungnLtulated the assassins, then directed their uteps 
to the fort, of Hontiago and liberated the archbishop, who at onue 
assimiL-d fhargi.1 of the government of the islands. These crimes were 
never puni^^hed. 

As revenge for the unjust seizure of a Dutch ship at Mindanao in 
1735 by the Simniards. whoput allof thei-rewin prison, there appeared 
in the l^y of ^lanila in July a Dutch ^uadron under CounuodoreVry. 
The commodore, at once demanded that the prisoners t>e delivered to 
him and threatened if this were not done to bombard the city. As his 
demand wa.s just, and as the means for the defense of the city were 
poor, the governor yielded. This incident closed the desultory war- 
faiN? which was maintained in the Philippine I^^tand.^ against the Dutch 
during Uie sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries.' 

* B«twean the end of tbe fixteentb ceotary and the middle of the eigbtoentli 8p«tD 
ikiid Hollmnd wrro p(i)>Ii<r (•iiffiuu'; Llic Dtitcli Htiip« vrirnr conslaiill)^ <a\ th« lixikmit 
(or th<> Spanish fialleons eailiog tx!twe«a Manila und Acaptiico, Mexico. Tbu vxuili- 
lishmentof Diitt'h trndfitg slAtioni! in tbe Mokicros ^tvaUv facilitated Hii-lropcTA' 
tioas, Ipiit linMie^it upon ttu-in iwvcnil tS{wnii>li vxpeOitionv, uE which the more 
Important ar' ' ' \. lu 1009 a Dutch »qtiadroQ anchored in Harivelw lisy. It 
«■■ defealHl . tlcetroyed liy a tK-ct iimler Govenior Silva. Afinin, in 101 1, 

Ritra with a loiu.ii m ii •ncunnten'*! nml >)«fi«leil tliP Dntrh in the Mohicnia. Thi** 
or (<>itr (lUier iniinir ns^al i'iiirag«tim'jils wcru tuuglii iu fliiU^ijinu watvra Intweeii Uie 
■ ' I ud the DultfU.— Jyirrtrfof. 



Before these ovonto thoro had been Rcvoral encounters between the 
Jpaniai'd.-t and the Dutch. Among those naval batth'.-* may lie men- 
tioned the ti(fht which occurred in IfiOO in Manila bay, when the Dutch 

[corsair OHver van Noort made his ajipearnnce with two ships of war. 
His object was to capturo the nao which annually loft Manila freighted 
with rich merchandise for Aeapidco. When the foe wiw yet a ithort 
distance from Manila he wan discovered and preparationn were made 

.to attack the hostile ships. Two gftlleys were equipped and when the 

■ corsair'.^ two ships appeared at the mouth of the harbor the 'ttdor 
(jud^) r>e Morpa with a fleet of several ves-^Is and 3<)0 Spanish 
soldiers went out to meet them.' The battle occurred on December 
H; De Morga vainly attempted to board the ship on which was the 
Dutch commander, but his own ship was sunk. The Dutch ship waa 

^•et on fire and retreated from the ncene of !\<tion, leaving her consort 
in the possession of the SpaniariU. The Spaniards lost in killed dur- 
ing this action 109 soldiers and 150 Indians and negroes, but they 
celebrated their victory with religious festivities, and hanged the 25 

-captured Dutch iHtUon*, together with their captain, Bic&aiauD. 

IMMIGRATION OF CHINESE. 

By reason of the limited number of Spaniards in the Philippine 
Blandji and the facility with which Chiuameu came to Maoila in large 
natnbers, measures wei-e adopted to limit the immigration of the 
Chinese, Dotwithstanding the recoguized fact that their iiervices were 
indispensable JQ certain kinds of work. 

Fearing that the Chinamen might scatter throughout the islands, 
Governor Romjuillo In 1580 built the Parian* and •dcakvria (Chinette 
silk market), and all of the Chinese, Japanese, and Malays from 
Bornev who lived in Manila were cooped up in these quartci-s. The 
Parian was built under the cannon of Fort Santiago on the opposite 
side of the river, on the spot where the custom-bouse is to-day. 
After a number of years, as the niunber of Chinamen contmued to 
increase, the location of the Parian w** changed to Arroeerm, wheru 
to-day are looati-d the quarters of the £gtado mm/or {Spanish general 
statT) and tlie botuni<-a1 giirdens; these lands\^'erelaidolTina barrio, and 
were covered with buu(*cs inhabited by Chinamen who bad their stores 
on the lower floors. They were also provided with a ohnrch, a cem- 
etery, and a Catholic missionary; their tract of land wa.s surrounded 
by a high fence, and a military guard was ptit in charge. On that piece 
of land were brought together all the Chinamen who lived in l^lantla, 
with the exception of those who were married to Filipino women. 

'For tbi« vxp<-iitj|)[i Be Motya wb» appointed captaui-gciienil nt Ui« flvvt by Don 
^SDciN-u Tcllw. Ilie )ri5vemor o( the islMifia.— f iivrtor. 

*TIir gfrnprnl mitrkel of the C'hineeei aiao the natm <if ■ district in the dtj* of 
UbuUh at that Uiue.— />irN(or. 



IMMTGRATION OF CHrNESE. 




The Parian beciuue the ooinmercial quarter of Manila, where there 
were to be found Clilnese, Japaneiie, iDdian, and Kuropean wares and 
meixhandise. and where were many Chinese trudesiuen. such as silver- 
smiths, shoemakers, barlwrs, and painters, who wore governed by an 
aivalde mayor with certain ministers supported by a military ^urd. 

The Chinamen were the tirNt carpenters, blarksmithfi, Heulptors, and 
jiainters employed in th^^ Philippine IslaniLs, and the friarw encouraged 
their cominj^ to tho country an they hnpcMl to be able easily to con- 
vert them to the C^tholii- faith. In ItJOS there arrived a Chinene 
emlfassy in Miinila ostensibly to aaeortain whothorgold wil^! to bo found 
in Oavite; this aroused a fear in the minds of the authorities and 
throughout the colony that the real intention of the Chinamen was 
to foment a retKjllion. On October S, whether through fear of the 
authorities or Iweause they really contemplated an uprising, the China- 
burned the town of Binondo jind lUisaxsinated Home of the Filipino 
dents. Gov. Luis P^rez Dusmariiias, whose father had some years 
before been asaaasinated by the Chinese crew of a galley on which he 
had emtwrkod, led the trttops against the Chinese rioters; he suffered 
severe losses and had to return to Manila. Then all of the Spaniards, 
including the frtars, took up arms and the rebellion having become 
universal among the Chinese they were pursued from place to place 
and were totally extemiinated. The Chinamen killed in these actions, 
according to certain chronicles, reached the number of 25,000. 

After the extermination of the Chinese the need for diligent work- 
men, so necessary to the colony, was felt very acutely, but the China- 
men continued to arrive from their country and in a short time their 
number in the irilands bad so increased that in 1031) it was estimated 
at 40,UOO. AI>out thii time they were again the victims of a terrible 
slaughter; under the pretext that they had rebelled in Oalamba they 
were all put to the sword and in 6vc months about 22.<X>0 had 
been kill^. Jn l*ie2 the t*paniards. tbi-ougb fear that the Chinese 
pirate Kuc-Sing intended to attack Manila, revenged themselves on 
the unhappy Cliiuamen ashore. In this new persecution the Spaniards 
wore assisted by tho Filipinos. The Chinamen tried to defend them- 
selves and took refuge in the Parian, in Manila, and were killed there 
in large nuudxTs. After the slaufjhter of 1602 the number of Chinese 
residents in these inlands diminished grcatijf and in ItiS5 was not more 
than 8,000. 

On June 30, It^H^ Governor Arandia, in obedience to instrnctions 
received fram the King, ordered tlmt all Chinamen should \ye expelled 
from the Philippine Islands, excepting 515 who had become Christians 
and about l,i>riO more who pretended to be studying the Cthri<4tiau doc- 
trine and pramuod to allow themselves to be converted. The Parian 
Arroceroe ww then abaudonod and another building was put up at Sao 




Fernando for the* pur|Kise of having thnm romplftcly nt tho merry 
of tlio artillcTv of Fort Santiago. The succpssful hnsincw enter- 
prises which the Chinamen had developed in the Parian had aroused 
the envy of the SpanlardK. It was unfIoul)tedI_v dne to the wishes of the 
Spanish nicrchfint'4 that the expul.sion of the Chinanicn wa:9 ordered. 
At the same time tlint the ordew of the governor were beinjf carried 
out the Spaniardti were forming a society, under the protection of La 
Virgen del Rosario, the object of which was to talce possession of the 
buildings and locality whei*e the Chinamen had lived and to carry on 

[the business operations in which they had engaged. This society 
lasted only one year. In 1784 the King ordered that the church aiui 
other buildings in the Parian should be removed or destroyed, as he 
considerwi them a menace to tbe9afet>' of Manila iu caj*e of an attack. 
In the year J 7ti2, during the timeof the English oocupatiooof Manila, 
the Chinamen were accused of attempting an insurrection, and the 
persecutions to which they were subjected provolced their rebellion iu 
Guugua (Pampanga); ihts was followed by another gcueral slaughter 
and by the expulsion of the survivors from the islands. The need of 
workmen a* useful an tlio Chinese bad proved thom.«elves to be waa 
soon felt, and in 117ti the order for their expulsion wais revoked, and 
large nunilrer^ of Chinamen again came to live in these inlands. In 
1804 it wa« decreed that only Chinamen who devoted theniyelves to 
agricultural pur>4uits ahould be. allowed to live in the Philippine Islaoda. 
In 1834 they were privileged to exercise any branch of industry, but 
wera required first to obtain permission from the Government. In 
1849 new rules governing the admi-^iioii of Chinamen were enacted: 
they were divided into transients who were allowed to remain not 
over three months, and into residents who could live as long as they 
chose in the archipelago. In 1850 still another order waa issued 
extending to the Chinamen all of the privileges which were granted 

I to other agriculturists. 

LATER lUfiTORY. 



Upon tho death of Governor Araiidia (17o4-175!t) Miguel Ezpeleta, 
bishopof Cebii, became governor and captain -genera I. Manila was still 
in ignorance of the fact that war had been declared between England 
and Spain, and the 6rst news of it was the entrance of an Eoglisli 
squadron inti) the Bay of Manila on September 22, 17t12. An English 
officer landed and delivered to the governor a demand for the sur- 
render of the city of Manila and tho entire archipelago to the 
King of England. This demarid was signed by Brigadier Draper and 
Admiral Cornish. The governor roftised to accede to the deuiand, 
and in a short time the English had diseatbarkcd at Paj-afiaq^uo and 



LATEE HISTOKY. 



SSI 



hud takon ponsRHsioD of Foil Snn Antonio Ahad and of the rburi'lietii 
uf Malato and Krmtta. and followed it up with an attack on Majiilu. 
The war Rhip:' on their |)Mrt bnmbardcd tho city, and on October 5 
ManiU wils \akvn bv tir'^till. The governor wa^ made reMfiun^^ible 
for this disasti^r; the fact was that Manila had not lieen provided with 
Kufticient nioaii'^ for defense u^inifit a Eurnpran enemy. Aft4?r the 
KnKli>'h bad become masters nf Manila the oidor, Don Siniun de Anr)u 
J Salaair, left tJie city, aci^^mimnied by a ser^'ant, and took refuge in 
Bulaefin. where ho very quickly or^nined troops to resist the En^li^h 
oi-<'U]iatii»n and to prevent them from extending their power to the 
rest of the rouotry. During the time that Anda y Sala7Ar ruled in 
the name of (lie King of Spain the EngltHh were abJe to bring under 
their dominion only the towns of Manila and Clavite, over which 
Brigailier Drake rulwl as governor. 

As a defetiHe against the natives and the attackM of Portugue^, 
Ditt«^h, EngllHli. and Chinese, the (construction of rempomry forts wna 
commenced in the Philippines at an early date. These were fallowed 
by permanent works, which are still to ho sf»en in Manila, Cavite, Cor- 
regidor Inlands, Isnbela de Itiwilan, Polloc, llalabat:, C«bu, Iloilo, 
Antique, Ciipiz, Komhl6n, Negros Occidental, Cuyo, CuU6n, Linapacan 
in the (.Alnmianes, Siirigao, Misamis, Dapitan, .Jold^ Z«mboang8f Mala* 
bang, and Reina Ilegentc. 

The forts are of nuwonry, with flank defenses protected by moats, or 
Hitches. In .--onie of the larger forts there are Wrracks and quarters 
for the officei"!* and enlisted men. and large storeroom*. Many of the 
forte are still well prcjjerved and were utilize.d by the United State* aa 
prisons or storehouses during the recent Filipino relwllion. 

The illu-stration of Fort l*Uar, il^mboauga. from a recent photograph, 
b a good illustration of the type of forts referred to above. The fortifi- 
cationH of Manila were completed »ome years before the attack of the 
Brilif«li, whoestabjiohcd their breaching Ijatterie^* near the middle point 
of what. Is now known as the Luneta and directed their lire against the 
foundry bastion of the Walled Oityf which was breached and carried 
by aA^aull.' 

At thift tiiuR there existed a state of anarchy throughout the art'hi' 
pelago; all kinds of robl>erie», assasaiiiatioos, and other crimes were 
committed in the naiuo of (Mtriotioni, and as a pretext those coui- 
tnilting thcHC crinieti claimed that tlicy were rcsii^tiug the English 
(w.-upalion. The oidor (Anda) did the best he <K)uld find put forth nil 
of hiM energies toward maintaining order and Having tho property of 
his King. 



* A niai> of Mntiilii »^ il ns" ;tl tlml titiio, iiiKile in 17^^ hikI iii|>Uir<il liv I 
EktgUah in 1782, w reproilacvd In tlila rolume. ll was t»titril>ute>l !•■ i)h< < en> 
b7»aj. G*n. Geo. \V.Il»vl».— iWiwtor. 

»16Z— Tot 1- 



lie 



Ill ITtH officinl notice was rocoivcd in Mimiln of ihe Troaty of Poaiw 
of 1763 b^jtwcon France, England, Rnd Spain; therpupon hofttilil.ie« 
oeasixi. About this time there amvod in ManilH the now Kovcmor, 
Lft Torre, to whom Anda turned over the comniand which he hud bo 
Micrt'rtsfnlly exercised. On Marcb 31 the Kntjlisli goxTmnr t*rafuat«! 
the town of Manila and the ypanisnis again took poffses^ion. 

The heroic Auda y Salazar afterwards returned to Spain and cmcm- 
.pied the important ix)»ition of memher of Iht council of His Maje?*ty 
the King: subsequently he returned Ui Manil i ami waj? governor and 
captain-general from 1770 to 1770. 

Ou April iJ, 171)7. Charles III decreed tb;' expulsion of the Jesuits 
from all of his dotninions, and in compli:ii.ce with these rjrders i\ 
Jei?uits were expelled from Manila by Governor Raon in 1770. 

During the time that these ectlesiasticj? rcsidcfl in the IMiilippin" 
Islands tliey had become possessed of great «-f dth, and iheir prestige 
wa:« also largely due to the eminent men to Im found among them. 
They had built niagnitirent churches and convents in many towns, 
among otben^ the handsome church of Hai Ignacio and the college of 
San Jod^, with a mis&ion hou^io where to-day are located the cwtrtti-ai 
flu /^/"J/ia (bHrracks of Spain) in the Walled (-Ity. 

The expulsion of the .Jesuits was acwjmplished without the Iwwt 
difficulty, HB tbey did not attempt to oppose to the order of the King 
the influence which they had over the l"ili])inn,s and over the majority 
of the Spanish resident* in the colony. All of theii good» and hold- 
ings booune the property of the King, ttieir curates wore expelled and 
succeeded by others helonging to the order of the Reiroleto frian*, who 
had arrived in the Philippine Islands at a later ilate and whose jkk^scs- 
aions were much inferior to those of the. .Icauits. The printing ottice, 
the college of .San .1os6, and the seminary where they educated Fili- 
pinos for the clergy were put unde. the adiuini?<tration of the aroh- 
biahop, and their holdings were diridod among the religious ordora 
which remained in the Philippinei^. 

On February U, 1810, there wah i^nied a royal decree that the 
Philippine Islands, as welt as the Spanish posscasiony in America, 
should s4-iid representatives to the Coi-tes, which cxerciwed legislative 
funelionii in Aliuirid. Don Ventura de los Reye>, was elected aa dele- 
gate from the Philippine li^landa. 

On April 17, IHIS, there was puhli.shed in Manila the constitution 
of the year IMa of theSpanisli monarchy, bul. two years afterwards, 
when Ferdinand VII again a.scended the throne, tbiii coiutitiition wa-< 
alKilinhed; it wuf again published in tS2l iind the selection of Filipino 
dopniies again decreed. In 1823 Ferdinand VII agtlin alwli^hed rhe 
constitution. Due to theite radical changes (here wera some upriaingn 
in Ilocos in 18U, but in 1823 tlicre was wo excitement. 



4 




I 



In IR20 Mnoila was visited by the rhoIci-H for thn fiitft tjmo iii its 
hUtory. Tbis epidi^nuc was brouj^lit, from India hy a French vessel. 
The mortality wae verj- great, and ibc puhltc having comt; to lM>liovo 
t the. doutlis werp due to the jKJiHOiiinjr of the wutrrs of the Piiwijf 
ver hy tlio foivigners, who a short time heforc had been ffivfii per- 
isstoD to live iu Maaila. t!iui'e was aD uprising among the Indians 
lid within Ivro day h they tuid ma.s.sacrerl all the foreignei's, lioih Enro- 
nn and American, (icneral Kolgiicru.s did not attempt to stop these 
tr(K:itie.s until the Filipinos l»ogan to kill the (*binanicn, and then bo 
eared that if the exeitement eontinued they might ))e tempted to 
ill the Spuniards also. Atvordingly the anthhi.shop and the religions 
rders formed a procession through the atreetii with the object of 
tuiiiig tlie public excitement. 
In iK23 there bi-oke out an insurrection led by iJuptain Novalos, a 
Filipino, who at the head of 8«Xi men captured the King's iMrracbs in 
lantia and also the palai-e of the governor and the ayunlnmiento. 
ieueml Folguorjv* wii* a-*sa*^inatod in hi;" house. The rebels having 
D defeat^. Novales. together vrith other leaders of the iiwurrec-. 
ion, was nhot. The cau-e for this uprising wn-* the fact tlmt Filipino 
(Beern had l»e<;n reinovefl to make place f<'r SpanianU l:i(ely arrived 
from Europe or had been given poi^itions subordinate to the uewcouicrs. 
In 1S35 there wim again publi.<4bed iu Manila the famous cou^tltu- 
:ion, and shortly aft-orwaixU there were named ajs deputies fruru the 
hllippine b^laiuU to the Cortc», General (jarcta Caniltn and the FiU- 
piiio lawyer, .Ui»ii Fnirii'i«;o Lecaroz. who were electee] in the year 
I«36, but in the following year the Corte;* decided that the representa- 
tion from the Pbilippino Inlands iu that Ijody should be discontinued 
ud that this colony should thei-eafter be governed by i^pecial law*. 
From th<* tii-Mt ilays of the Spanir^h dominion of these islands tho 
intoff of Mindanao and 'I0I6 had iufc^sted tho waters of the arehi- 
•higo, iiuikini.' forays on the coast towiiK. and had even attempted to 
ring their siiip> jntu tlie liay of Manila. The governors of the Phil- 
ipine Utands had UKed all the means in Lbcir power, UHh foi-ce and 
rploniacy, to subjugat*' the chiefj^ of the wo-called Moron of the 
Millu-rn I'hilippine.s but it wa-s not until at the end of the iiiueteeuth 
ury that il tun bo claimed that the Sijani»h (ioveroignty was really 
xteudiNl U) that region. 
During thf Sjianitib domiimtiou there were fretpient uprihingH and 
turlnuceH of tJie pe»i-e in isolated parts of the i.slands, duo Rome- 
iiie.-> to ndigiuus pxi-itenicut among eertatn fnnntio and at othei-s to 
V ploia of the friar;*, the eitcomendeiTrx, tlio alcutde^. and others 
Authority. In 189tl, when them was not even tho remotest reasoo 
'f» appifliond n reftellion which should have for its object seocswion 
rum S|Miri, a n'vutution was htsrted; and two years Uter, when the 



voiidttioiis of Uits tMiuntry wore, froui thr SpanUb point of vifiw, miffit 
doplurnlilc, hostilities wero iiuugunitcd between Spain and the Unitod 
Slates of Amecica. 

On May 1, lUHS, an American a*t*'°^^^<* ^'^'i C-onimodore Dewey 
in comniund. in a few hours destroyed tho Spanish Miuudron under 
the roniinand of Admiral Slontojo. in Manila hay near Cavite. After 
taking the port of C'nvlte, (Jonmnxtofe Dewey hIoebad<^ Manila, and 
on May 19 Sefloi- Kmilio Agiiinaldo returned from Hongkong and 
miinfieil the Filiptnofi in arms against Spain; n lat^n niiinher of Span- 
iardti wei-e taken pri.soners, among them many military, civil, and 
rcIlgiouB oHicials. 

On August IS, IKftS, the United Slntes naval foi-ces under Admiral 
ppwey and the land forces under tTeneral Merritt accepted the sur- 
render of Manila, and the Spiinifh flag was hauled down forever in 
the I^hilippitie Islands, to bo inicccexled by the sovereignty of tho 
United States. 

When the Spaniards arrived in the Pbilippino Islands they found 
tho inhiibitantw of Malay hlood divided into town groups, each having 
its own government. TIioho small grou|xs wero tn many plwtefl known 
by the name of harangay^ which is also the exwitword used to descrilie 
a small craft ubc<I by the indigenes and would therefore appear to 
indii-ate that the pcHiplu fonuing each of these town groups were 
dc.'tcendants of the crews of portieular crafts since the time of their 
original iuiuiigrndon to these islandn. Tho population of the various 
bHrangayoM wa.-> in some caitOH not over 5(» inhabitants, and in otherfi, 
OS was observed by Salcedo in Ilocos. tho number rcachod as high as 
7,000. 

In alt of the bRrangaycK tilflvery was an accepted institution. Tho 
tilaven wera divided into two daiisefi: the TL'al slavc^i, that it>, prisonors 
of war and those who were t>ougbl outright or given in payment of % 
pergonal debt, culled atlpint^ mguiyuiUrf and thoso w ho were gener- 
ally considered as lieing only in a condition of .•^eoiislaver}', the latter 
cla8r« composed of t>uch ^ervantK bh could not be sold^ constituting 
the bulk of the pleiKian population of Uie Ijaraogayee, and called 
tUipiny namitmahay. These names are taken from Tagitlug, but in 
almost the entire^ extent of the archipelago the social and political 
organi/^ition in t)ie various localities was more or le^s sintilur lothe 
de^criptioTi given alwve. C^uite often dilTercnt tiamngaycs would 
come together and recognize some joint chief as in authority over 
theoi. The chief wati usually chosen in such cases beeaufie of hiu [icr- 
»onul ability or by reason of his fiunily (^inticctions, and tho«e chiefs 
tn whom was given the gi>nerie name of ti4iU\ were afterwards given 
tics oUch as nj/'tf. ndtdn^ or Uika^ which tho chiefs ocoiuiotully 



IXXIAL GOVEKSMENT. 



limed of fhpirnwn volition. An Httcrnpl Iuls Ikvii inndp to trans- 
(e the^p wordM into liinj;. r^gulo, or priinT. In addition (o the sIhvc 
class and the chiefs thciv was y(*t (mother class of inhitbitAntiii called in 
TngAlog mahariikrt^ and who in roality constitJiti'rf the wamors of the 
hnrangHV. It was the custom whim any inliahitant of the Imrnnpay 
neode^l money, to offer hini!«*lf as personrtl .security and to serve »-> a 
»la%'e to the creditor who advanced the fttnd^; the creditor had a I'igbt 
to traiw/er both his credit and the secuHty to anotlier. Imiiiiuucb a* 
the wealth and power of each chief de]x?nde<l on t-he niinilter of slaves 
held liy him, it is easy to under^^titnd that e-ach chief tried by nil 
ituaginabli> means to increase the number of slaves he held in the 
buraoi^my. A free man l>ecame a slave if he entered the boiiBe of a 
c^ief without asking; perroissioo; if he crossed the fields planted by 
a chief; or if he looked at a chiePs wife; but it was not a commou 
occurrence for one to enter the state of slavery in this uiauner. as the 
uffensei* described were considered very serious and it was only rarely 
that auyone was guilty of their commission. 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 

The lands of each harangay were divided among the residenteJ 
^that each one had his holding, and no resident of one barangay wu 
allowed to cultivate landn In another Ijarangay unloss he liad ac<]uirod 
such lands by inheritance, gift, or pun^hasc. In (wmc harangayes the 
lands belonged to the «'hicf through purcluwe from the original own- 
era. In Home localities the chiefs or principal personages also owned 
the fiahcrips, and their rights* wore religiously respoctad. 

The chief of the liarangay acted as judge in all cases of litigation 
between his Auhjecbt; at times he was the sole judge, but at other tinie« 
ho wus a-shistcd by ftome neighboring dato or by jtome responsible 
person of hi.* own tribe. It was usually the custom in civil suit-* to 
arrange n compromise between the litigants; in arriving at a decision 
in criminal suits custom alone was followed, as there was no written 
law. Certain crimes were punished by death, such as the »eductioti of 
tfa« daughter or wife of tl principal (leading nicml>er of the coni- 
nmnity); sometimes* aipital punishment was commuted to slavery and 
iu other cases the children of the man condemned to death were made 
xiavus. It was a common thint; for (.-riniiiml offenses to be disuit^^sed 
aft4T th«t defendant had t>aid the plaintilT, or |)erhat>s the dato himself, 
a certain stuu uf money called a tine. 

The real facts were that as Uie judicial system, so called, wa^ founded 
on UM principle uf law . a» is the case in all primitive ^Yiiiiuiuiiities. miffht 
usually nic'imt right. The system of hci-wlilary |wwer liad, theit-fore, 
to be i>uppurtc4l by })Cr«oiud valor, by force, and by activity and energy 
on the {urt of the chief, whose <'oiLslant Hgbt was lo prevent aiiolhoi*, 



more ttti-enuou!^ than liimseU, from deposin^f him. For nnitual pro- 
tection ct'i-Uiin of the cliiffs forniod altianc(\s nnd pact«; thi.^ wns a 
common custom hiiiqh^ the TagtUot; and Vinayan {looplos. 

A-< H general thing' it w!w only the two men who marchwl to battle, 
Init tlif sUve* were oo«.a.»*ioiially rfmfted as .soldiers, e)ipe<.:ially when a 
sea tight was contemplated and whore good rowers were needed for 
the »bipH. The arru» luted were knmj/tia /»*:», (afihtnux, mnilotnhau, 
lUid ktiiiKe^ (lances, javeltu-s, Iwws and arrows, and long knive-s); they 
also used shiuldn and helmets madts of wood or copper, and corselet* 
and ttren-Htplaies made of slripa ol the horn of cai'al»<i,s, a species of 
wa(4.M' biiUalu which oamo from .Siam. The ;>piioiards foiuid the Kili- 
pinoH in pt>s.se8(>ion of cannon in Manila, Caiota, Taytay, and in the 
island of Luhang. In Manila thL-iv was a foundry where cannon weii; 
n'oniy u«>ttmsibly under the niuuagement of a Portuguese, hut a »kille<l 
workman, an Indian named l^nday Pirn, appeared to be io charge of 
the foundry and continued his trade under the direction of the Span- 
iards after they hud oci-upiisl Maziila.' 

Many of the harangayes were in a constant state of warfnre with 
Uieir neigfahors and with distjuit tribes, and, as there wan nu power 
suffiviently strong to maintain order on the high hi'Ah and inland 
waters, pirate^i and bands of ladrt>nes made eonunereial underbtkingB 
very uneet-lain. Tlie war »hi|JM, or war \KmX>^. of the Filiijinofi were 
fitted out for navigation with oars anil sail.s. They wen? all of light 
draft, aiid balance polett made of strung cane or Innitxio were used to 
pi-event their ra|>!sizing. Those craft litul t-onsidemhle speed, and 
were able to navigate shallow streaiim in pursuit of the enemy, or to 
Hee when themselves pni'suod by a stronger force. In order to pro- 
tei^t coninu'ri-e rarh craft nutnlteiT-d among its crew men at anns. uikI 
when tliese precautions were not takon and liosiile Irilies were met en 
route the merchantmen were usually worsted. 

It iw asscrtrtl that the Phili|ipine Islands were «t one time a colony 
of tlieChini'^<e Kmpire, Imt theiv is no proof (tf thi^i fact and ihe prt»b- 
abilitioe are that there Is no foundation for this statement.' It m 



■ In a tetter to the KinK, ()at«d July 2S, IfiTO. Lciganii, In 8|w»kiui^ ui \\w Menw 
found in Pansy, wrolf^: "The latter have nrtiller^ whVh itioy llu-niM-lvos i-aM nml 
iiimli, aii<l liiievi-it>e nowdtr and tillivr Miiiiiuiiiilioit." AIki: "I m-p»1 y<.in Mvo 
hrunze onlviTins made by the MoriM of this Uml, Kt that Yuur Mii^tfty mar.iwu 
what dpst.rily thcypORwem making antl la-MhiKflrtilUTV." Tin- niitivt^nf Muiiin 
pntljtiLilv lenni-^l to makft i-nnnnn from Ihn Mimm ut riiimwu— /Wrw/or. 

*Iii biR HiHiiiry of C'fiina, l.'Sfi, Fulhor Jtmn 'loniuikf iK- Mt-nilout, in writiii;r«t 
the Fhilippini' NlaiulK, Htnt(?< n.-< rollitwti: "TIht«< inlanilii wvn> frirnxTlv mlijpi-t tn 
th*r Kintof '" ■ i! lie reliii , ■! ' ' ' ' -arilr." hi !>.• " -t 

o( the Phil. ikIr an<) ■■ i. traiululfil \ I. 

(iJii.,!.-..- .1-1,1 I,-. <>,.. (I i . ...V.,,,. (.,.-..,...,. 

i' -I 



rriioiiiii'i'il i-mJ li(r? ciiim'L' they i>)i(m)1c ofi i i-, Smrc 

Iwl tli'^ir i!"(nintoii'>VfT llu-)« i«lt>iii|Ft \\w\ I Iti li«ili< v 

Tl 'Itli^cd lliHt theClUuuM.' e\nt luiit (MjUtii^ tjifutn^luvu- tuij 

!■ ' ~ Of rtrior. 



LOCAL GOVEBNMENT. 



827 



tvrtaiii. Iiuwcver, timt tho CliintwG wore; engaged in trado with the 
Filipimis hi.-fQrp the arrival of the SimiiittnlK, which fuct i» corti6etl 
to by TocmberK of I^t^^^pi's (Expedition. It wils asserted that notwith- 
NtiUKliiig the insecurity of the iiigb t^eas the <.)hino»e carried un i!um- 
mcrre with certain of the tribes living on the cuust lamis of the 
Philippine Island>'. The Spauiai'ds found un many of tlio iHland? pur- 
retain antl t-hinu wiire, hut it is not pit>)>aMe that they found a Chinese 
colony or Chinese re^iidontft in any of the irtlnnd», as nowhere In their 
documentH or writings is record made of any .such dineovery. Japan 
«I»o engaged in trade with the.«e ishuids. Comniprcial undeitakings 
were well understrtod in the island of liU/t^n and in the Visayan 
blandn; coinpnnieH for tho transai^tion of business were nrganii^ed, 
and the uses of exchange, bonds, and other buttineHM methods were 
well iindenstooii. 

Money was unknown, and an iin exc^hange tuedinin they mode use of 
gold dust, whji-h wus [xiid and luxepted by weight. The weight.^ used 
were derived from China, suih as the ta^ or f/icf^ which was divided 
into two thigas (which In Malay mean.s *'hnlf"); each tmga was equiv- 
alent to one ai/pa/ui, which was subdivided into seven netua, and the 
smallest weight known was a nnngamh/<. For the weighing of nier- 
chandiso then; was u.<(ed the jnhd, and for measurcH of capacity the 
Aah/tr,y the gunin^ and the tsnpn. The measures of length ui«cd were 
the palm of tho hand and the length of the foreanu. 

The TagfilogH, Viaayan.-), Pamiiangas, Pangasinfines, Tlociinos. and 
probably other trilies, made use uf an alphabet wbii'li cam properly l»o 
called a Filipino national alphalaH, inasmuch its with nlight differences 
it wa>* ill universal use at that time, and was continued in use by the 
TagbanGus of the island of Paragua and the Maiigulane.'^ of the island 
of Mindoro up to ns late a period as t4»n years ago. The alphabet was 
compoited of seventeen letters, tbi-ee of which were vowels. A eon- 
sonant standing alone was always pronounced with an a sound follow- 
ing; by the use of a dot or dash near and above the consonant stem, tn 
roueb the same fashion as U used in certain systems of shorlhand, 
instea<I of the sound of the a the sound of the vowels t or / was pi-o- 
duced; when the dot or dash was placed below the eon^oiiant stem the 
vowel .sound given was equivalent to »> or ". This Nyslem of writing 
waa very imperfect. There wore no signs provided for immerals. 
oome books ^vere writt'Cn on the leaves of palm treet^, the text of 
which coiwLsted of wongs, formulas for enchantments, and probably 
their chronicles and the history of voyages antl wars. All of these hooka 
were burned I'y the iniasionarioH who first arrive<l, probably in ibeir 
real to di'stn^iy all vwftigce of the tincieut tdolatry. 

It b a diflicull matter to determine what watt the religion of thttW' 
poople. It would Ap[)ear that they tjelieved in two or K\\xvv principal 
godn who wpix- put in a suju-rior i-lns-s and given the direction of 



everytliinj.% aad in the nxiateuca also uF oertuin minor <leitif*H nlio 
■wwre responsible for hII the evil occurrenctv*, but who were owa^ion- 
ully lM>iievotuntiy Inclined. To thL-i^e inferior ^oUs the alKiriginus 
utTtirod Hocriticeti either to ealni their ang^r or in );ratiui(le for some 
benefit received. The prineii»al jfod was culled Bathida in Tajjiilog, 
which id H word derived from the Sanskrit, the etYtuology uf which 
has been traced in different ways by persons more or less versed in 
such retieareh. The religion which was known throughout the isluuda, 
and which could therefore be tailed the true religion of the Filipino 
people, consisted of the worship of the artitoa. These were not gods; 
they were the souls of the ancestors, and each family worshiped its 
own dead who wore supposed to have died in order to Iw able to use 
their influence for the benefit of the living. When a noble died it 
was the custom to sacrifice a certain numl»or of slaves in order that in 
the next life the noble should luive a suitable retinue, according to tiie 
importance of the po.sition he held while alive. It would appear that 
among the Visayans the custom olitained of burying slaves alive; thig 
wan done in order that the d^ad grandee might have fitv people to 
wait on hint tn the next world. Sometimes in order lo cui*e a serious 
i1Ine:«.-< wilh which the master had been stricken. »ome of the staves 
were killed in ordi<r that their 8oub«, parsing to the other life and into 
the service of the sick master's ancestors, might plead with (hem and 
calm their anger and induce them to leave Iheir dei^cendant" in peac^. 
Before the time of the arrival of the Spaniards some of tlie Moros of 
the island of Borneo had iiitrodui:ed into the Philippine Islands, prin- 
cipally in Mindanao and Jol6. the Mohammedan faith, and even iu 
Manila were found memberti of that faith. 

The funeral ceremonies were really wakea: it was the custuin on 
thetie oceasioiKi lo cat and drink up a gwKl portiun of Uie foiluni' left 
by the dc(-eH.s<?d. The priests, called katniomin in Tagjlli»g and 
haihaihman in the Visayan dialect, were the principal acton> at thette 
relig'iou^ceiemoniejt: thvy ex<*cu ted war danceH armed with a lance with 
which tlioy ilrst stabbed a swine as a sacrihce. and would probably 
apeur other animals ar< well, and even the slaves themselves. The 
Spani-sh mi!*^'*tonaries looked on these ceremonies with liorrur; they 
believed they were inspii'ed by some .spirit from the infurnul regions; 
they were described as Uicchanal feat^ls, but, us tJie miaKiunanus were 
tilled with repugiuince at wlmt they had seen, the deisi-ripLions left by 
them weiv no doubt exaggerated. 

The dnois uf the men consisted of a kind of shirt, without crillor or 
cuffs. rea4'liing a short liistanee liehiw the wai^t; the IcgN were uHvensJ 
wif.h u piece of clnth tied around the nitisl, hanging in the manner of 
an apron, or else with a pieee of cloth called hiftak*-. 'Iltey did uni as 
A general tiling wear any covurlug on the hi>fld. but when they left 



UX3A.L GOVEBNMENT. 



329 



their hiiuieH to go huiuc distiimv limy lined a upw^ies of tuHmii antl hIsu 
n kind of hiil nillrtl safahif. The <;l(ifliinj» worn liy womt'ii wan r^iniiliir 
Lo tluu. woru by tbe men, but made of eldlli of tiiier tcxtiiru uud mom 
exjictuivc. When Lheir ri)etinsjiiHtitk'dtIieexpenditurL',they decomted 
thiiir tLpjiarcl with ricli laces hikI uthvr trbiuning^. Hutli tlio men uiid 
Lbu women used t)t-ckliici>.s, bracelets, rin^ urouiid tbo uuk \p.^^ Pttmii^, 
(wml>3 in th(! hair, and tinf^er rings of plain and worked ^old. The 
lower rlass went Imrcfoot, but the upper cla^ wore slippcm and low- 
cut sfaueti which were embroidered and made of bri;;htr-<>olured materials. 
It was considered good tante to perfomie the teeth and lill the holea 
with gold and to file the incisoiv to a conical fonn.' lu some If)calitie;t 
it was tho custom to stain the teeth bluek, but the a.spiratioi\ of the 
upper eliu*s was to make constant ebange?' in the shape and color of 
their tooth. 

The dfttos and chiefs were always aec»mpanied by their itciTantii 
when they went out, and each seiTsnt carried with him some ohjoct 
which his master rfquire<l for his |>ersonal u^e or toilet; among these i 
may be m«Qt>on»d, a«( one of the mo^it important, a metal bi>x contain- 
intf the hut/'f^ « native leaf which wa« mixed with lime and chewed 
throughout thp anliipelafjo in the ?*ame manner a** tobacco iseleewUere. 

The houi«c8 were built on liiyh pile* or j*upports made of timber, and 
the space left between the floor of the buutw and the ground wati ui:«d 
mi quarters for the ("ervant**. It was quite coninion to build a town or 
village over Uie water on the edjte of »ome river or take, and even on 
the aeashore. 

From the sap extracted from palm trees or from coconntfi they fer- 
mented a kind of \\g\iX. vine^r which by distillation they converted 
into low-grade ^ipirittt, to whitJi the Spuniardii ifuve the name of vmo. 
It in quitf> rertain that the Filipinos learned the art of distillation of 
Hpiritfi from the Chtnti.'<e. 

They cultivated the groun<l, harvested cro|>s of rice, sweet potatoes 
and otlittr tnburs, knew how to construct impteinentH for the liuliing 
of rice, and how to se[)arate the chatT and whiten the grain by ]Kiund- 
ing it in u mortar; manufaetun'd different kinda of artieleks from 
mother of-|>eai'l, constructed a)>[MinLtus for lishing. made cutlery, and 
wove t*'Xturus from hemp Kber, /^//lu, atid cotton, anil ulttu from Nilk, 
whieji they imported from China: knew the art of nuiking lace 
and embroider}', anu carved statues of their ancestor;^, which they 
csklled anitoH; and worked in gold, silver, and copper, which they 
ronverti*d into jewelry, and which they also umhI to decumte their 
arnw. (.'oinmercc was conducteil l>etween the variou--^ tiHies both by 
Und and nea, and the pi>opIe of a numliei- of barangaycs uu<l in certain 
localities, previoanly solected. for the purpose of trading in various 

'Ttili ijnwlke «Ut1 (irvvjtli* iiiiionn the wiM trilwa— /h'nvfiv. 



'■■^ 



330 



HlsrOBY. 



wareM. The ataples in t jirh tbey dealt were rice, fisb, bonte. cloths, 
Blaves, tiwortls, ttrnis, woixlen pUte^. »a<l other ai-tk>les iiiade of copper 
Bnd porceLun which wero brotig'bt in from Chiun. la the absence of 
any artificial medium of exchange, commerce was carried on by the 
trade or barter of one article for another. Freijuentlv they used gold 
duitt a^ u medium of excliarij^e. the intrin^ir vahie of which wiu more 
uniform. In the mountiiin re^on« the ciistomt< of the at>ori^iap.*i weiv 
Honu'wltat different from tho»e deu'ribed. but t)ie non-Cltristtan tjiljen 
have prettervod to tliir< day nio^t of tlieir ancient cui^Ioul-^, ulmu«l with- 
out change. It in not uecesifiary to refer to tliem in a bi»torica] mketch. 

The encomendero8 were the Unit Spuniards, after the conquest and 
pticitii-atioii of the colony, who represented the civil authority in (he 
islandit: they were obliged to maintain order and tuecure the well- 
Iteing of the Indiati re^identH of their encouiicndas or holdings and to 
defend their tenants against any encrouclmient on their rights by the 
SiMtniardit, rtuldierH, aU'atlde.M. and judges: and lu endeavor ta bring 
tlteir tenants together in towtm ^• kI furnitiji them with op)xirtiinities 
to l>e converted lo the ChriHtian religion and lo help ihetu liuild 
vbiirche8 and oonvent«. The encomenderuH were abw obliged to build 
tiieir living houses of stone in the towns where tliey to^jk up iheir 
reHidcnc«; in Volume IV of the fjaws of the Indiet> is i^^ntained full 
dctanti as to the manner in which this hoiiite should t>e oonstruuted. 
It was prpHcrihed by law that all bachelors who were given an enoo- 
miendii Hhuuld get married within tliree yearn from the lUte of their_ 
appointment. 

The encomienda consisted of a portion of land, of greater or le^ 
extiint, which was donated lo a person as a reward for his services or 
which was given to a religious order for pnr^wses of support, and all 
of the natives resident on such eooomiendas were held in a species of 
slavery by the encoinendero. 

Eacli resident of an encomienda paid a certain tribute to the enco- 
mendero, who in turn [»aid a per capita tax to the general treasury. 
This tribute or tax wa^i the same in amoimt for all kinds of Filipinos 
whether they were on a private encomienda or living on lands belong- 
ing to the Crown. 

The eticomenderos wore charged with the siiooor and support of the 
people on their holdings in case of any calamity, famine, or public 
disaster, and they were prohibited from charging iribtitc In bulk 
agninat the various l)«rnnj,nives — that if to Hwy, tltey should nut 
make the chiefs of a family or tribe responsible for the payment of 
tribute by the various memlK-rs, nor were the enconionderos ftllowcd 
to use forcf' to secure the paymont of a tribute. When an encomendero 
received a trihulo from hU people, he (hereupon was I'onvidered to 
have aiMiuned the duty of acting as their prot(H>tor. The King alwaya 



LOCAL QOVEUNMENT. 



S»l 



showed great sympathy and liuninuity iu the oidew he icitiued for tho 
|car(* of the nalivo tribps. 

Notwith>'tiin(ling the pruvisiona of law whereby the encoDKiidei^M 

were limit<*d in tho amount of service which they could rei|uire the 

Indians to perform, and notwithstanding the !*tTicl instruct ions i.-sued 

hy the King directing that the encomenderos who abused tlieir slaves 

feliuuld 1>« punished, it wiu* iievertheleiw a fet-t that they Ireuted their 

islaveH shamefully. Tbe»e shuses became so great that iu 1573 Gov- 

|emor L^veznres viH>i obliged to adopt measures to control the exceaucis 

[conuuittcd by the owuerts of the Vmyan iitaves. 

The abuse of power by the slave owners finally rw*ulted in an upris- 
ing among the IndiaiiK in tbo year 16HS; and a^ no attempt wum made 
'by the government to remedy the abuser couiiuilted by the slave own- 
ieix, the Pniupangos and Tag^Iogw, in loSo. united In open ivbellion 
which was put down by Governor Santiago de Vera, who altio put a 
i»top to the abuses to which the slaves were subjected. 

In I5K3 the King received a ineniorial sent huu by Bishop Salazar 
contuining a detailed ai^ount of the cunducl of (he slave owners. 
[The bishop give full detoils of the abuses and tyranny to which tite 
Indians were subjei-ied by the encotuenderos, and the King there- 
ui>on issned a uutndate on Matvh 27, 1583, directing the members of 
the Philippine government to prevent such conduct on the part of tho 
slave owners, and re<[ue8ting the bishop to keep hmi informed of the 
.results. 

However, no writ^ order, or instruction issued by the King having 
'for iu* object the protection of the Indians wa.s ever cumpHeil with, 
nor WHS there ever known to )>e a case in whidi any owner of slaves 
yrvi punished for disobedience to the royal mandate. 

The tribute which was commonly collecte<l by the various encomi- 

cndas WHS H nuZ-ti^ payable either in gold or in products of the soil. 

The collection wilh made by the encomendero lumself, accompanieil 

by a detail of arquebusier-^. who obliged the principal in each locality 

to pay tribute for all the Indians in his vicinity. If the payment vrtu* 

ircfwiodf or not made for the total number of Indmus assessed against 

>Huch princiiMtl, he was wliippe<l and otherwise punished in such a man- 

,ncr that deaths from this cause were frequent. After tlie tribute liad 

[been collected llic encomendero did not occupy himsi^tf any more with 

[his slaves until the next year, when the same operation wiw repeated.' 

In 80DI0 of tho royal ninndato^ it was directed that only Christian- 

[ixed Indbttm should l>e given as slaves in cncomiendas, but this pro- 

iirioa of the law was not complied with, as the non-Christianixod 

' I'p t» Uit' .vi«r IS"" itiK Uil>iile wiw it fptUi wmi* or.'* reab" («ir vacli bnUan, 
laJtliutuli suitif {mill Il-m. Ill lliHt ymv ii um H rtals, mid Inter 10 rt-'als, wlucti (roulil 
llw l"lin in iDoiwy, cl"tti, rice, etc. — IHrtrtitr. 



niso wrro often timde slnvc-t. Tlie condition of the Ohri>it!An- 
itlavM WftH improved to a r;ei-tain cxt-onl l)y Uic missionary f riarsj 
pi-otci'ted them from the iibuses of their nutMl^rs. 
i(» (fovornor;* dlstrilmtecl the lands in encomit^ml.'bt to their favor- 
ites, and followed thoir own inclinations. Tlie ("•ncoraiondas rpst-rvcrd 
for the King were in certain localities in whti'h the trihitti; |mid would 
not Btld materially to the royal treasure box. NotwithMtnndinjj nil 
Ihit) the encomeoderos were not rich; few of them ol>tained from the 
encomieDdas any rental of importance, and the majority lived in pov- 
erty. But no otlier result could ha\'e l>eoD expected, for the reiwon 
that the owners occupied theiu-selvex only in the collei'Cion of trilmtes, 
and in no tnaoner encouraged their slave* or tenants to improve the 
lands and their own condition. In thorte town^ whei-e there wei 
Spanish residents no attempt was made to farm the landti, nor waa' 
any lire slock raided. 

The encomenderos failed to jMy the fh'estnoti (chuivh tithes) for which 
they were legally retponsiblo, and when, in 15«a or 15H3, they were 
requested to pay u certain peix-entage for the inaintenance of the triben, 
they refused to do t*o. and made a counter proposition that the trilmt« 
collected from the Indians should be increased by 2 rcalH, and that the 
inci-easo should be paid into the royal treuf«ury. The Sjmniards wen 
not allowed to emignite freely to the rhilippino Ii^landu, and wei 
required to obtain a permit before they could i-onie. The provinioi 
of law regarding such permit were <-ontained in Volume IX of th< 
liiropi/aciwi iJv /«m Leyen lU- India/i. The tcnu durinj; which they 
were allowed to live in the Philippines wbj4 limited, and uiarric<l men 
who left their wives in Spiin were allowed to remain away only tbi'ee 
yen It*. 

When a new govemor arrived he wan always ac^Himpnnied hy an 
official family of bis own, and by a certain numl>nr of painsJteK who 
bad no [Misition n.ssigne<l to them; liut when they had oner arrived tn 
Manila all of the. govcmor'M followers wniv promptly given positions 
by their protector, or new pasitionH weiv created for tiiem, which an 
a rule lastwi during the time the governor remained in the country. 
The laws cIcMirly »i)ecilicd what kind of people wero to be allowed lo 
accompany the governors, adelontadoR, alcaldes, and tnrriyidfnres. In 
this way the attempt wiw made to prevent the coming to the ajlonlen 
of any persons of Moorish blood, Jews, heretics, or persons who hitd 
been disciplined by tho Holy Office. The Spanish soldiers who raine 
to the Pbilippine l.^lands were obliged to return to Spain when tlieir 
term of enlistment expire<1, and were never allowed to remain In tiie 
polonipj*. 

Hut the rivitricUons regarding emigration to the Philippim* l^lamU 



wore nut oDforcc'l againet otbona whu tsuoc to t^ese UUnds for the 
purpose of pennaiiftui t csidom!!!. On the (Contrary, the lutt«r rla»w were 
givoii (tertiiin ])rero>;Rtivps iind <!onccj'»ioii.'*: encoinicnda." wure donated 
thorn and llipy wore giveu opportunities to lieeonie noble-s; they wei-e 
exent]it from the payment of tuxes for a certain nunihcr of yearn; 
and wore allowed other privilej,'es which they used and abused with 
fhfi (^'entojit freedom. 

Oiitftide of (ho cni'onienderos^ alealdc*, correpidorcs, and onliMted 
men and otKeers of the arniy, few Spaniards were known to Mottlo 
in the pntvincej* and devote themrtelvos to agriculture or any other 
induHtr}'. It wan only in Manila that a few wera found engng«d 
in cM>ninieroe, and these were obliged to .submit to the abuses of the 
piihlie ollicialN. DuHnp (be earlier days of the colony when a Spaniard 
arrived he wa^* obliged to enroll hi.s name for milit.iaser\'ir4i,and many 
of tlu-MC who had no means of subMiatonce made m^p of their arms 
against the Indians nniil, an Risliop Sala/Jir says, **It would bap[ien 
that when an Indian had his own dinner cooked a^oldier would come 
in and lake i( away from him» and beat and otherwise ill treat him in 
the bnrpain.'' 

Foreigrncrs were absolutely prohihitpd from living in the Philippine 
Inlands. They were only alloweti to remain in Manila during Mich 
time a* the mon»oons would not allow them to stiil away in their trad- 
ing «hi|>s. Several royal c^dulas were issued directing the governors 
not to allow foreigners who re§ided in the islands to cngago in i-om- 
merce. nor under any pretext whatever to settle in tite provinces or 
towns, or in any locality in the Philippine Islands. 

The Chinese were the only foreigners who, notwithstanding the 
many difficulties thrown in their way and the restrictions to which 
they were i*ubjected by the !aw» and the conduct of the officials, suc- 
ceeded in extending their business operations and in living even in the 
remotest corners of the archipelago. They never remained idle, hut 
engaged in trade on a small scale, and their activity sen'ed to leaven 
the general mass of tDertnes»; they were abused by the natives and 
were protected by the authorities to whom they rendered services 
and whom they attempted to please in every way. As regards the 
Spaniards, one of the Law« of the Indies strictly prohibited them from 
living in any Indian town, even though they bouglit lands*, and even 
when a Spaniard traveled he was not allowed to remain in any one 
locality more than two days. 

The laws compelled the eoconiendcros to instruct their slave.i in tho 
faith, in i-asv tliere wa^ no prieM or friar at hand, and to in-^tru<;t them 
abto in ivuding and writing. The priests and friars wore obliged to 
teach these branches free of clmrge. and to the extent of teaching the 
CbrlHttan doctrine they complied faithfully with the Uw, and iuaddi- 



tion taught their flocks certain arte and trades, for which tb<- Filipinos 
showwl much aptitude. 

I'lidor the direction of the friflfs, piintinjj presses were first umA 
in Manila in 1593, and soon there-after other prense.s were instalted in 
the monasteries under the ehai^ge of the JestiitA, Dominican:*, Fran- 
ciiK'ftnw, and Augustinians: anionjf the workmen were Cilipino.'^, who 
hI»o learned to be good engntvcrs. For the purpose of providing 
ornutncntd and altar pieces for their temples the missionaries recjuired 
the aid of sculptors, tsilversuiiths, and other artisans. Native^* were 
soon educated in these various trades hy luemljers of the religious 
orders and attained such pro6ciency that their ability was soon recog- 
nized as being far above the average. Musicians, both instrumental 
and vot-al. for the church choirs were also instmcted atid dcvoluircd, 
And women soon became ven,- proticicnt in the art of embroidery on 
doniL'i^tic cloth ns well as ou piiia and on fabrics bi-ought from China, 
such us Kilk and velvet. 

All of the stone buildings wore erected, under thedirei^ion of mem- 
Ih»i-s of the religious ordera, by Indian workmen, who h1si> j-howcd 
remarkable ability as niival construe Ixji's^ on which lines r'ince the first 
days of the (^Hjmpip.st the Spaniards had Imen diligently employed. 

The pleasant life which was enjoyed in the newly formed towns by 
the enironienderos and the members of the religious orderw was very 
attractive to the indigenes. Around the churches and the monasteries 
wore grouped the residences of the leading people, who.'^; authority 
received the moral 8up|«>rt of the cumte. The cabesuM ik hiningay 
(chiefs of the tribes) maintained their authority and directed the 
affairs <)f the i>er>ple. as in the olden times. The Simnish laws nut 
only did not conflict with. Imt on the contiiiry protected ihe Filipinos 
in all of their customs and government which were not contrary to 
the teachings of the Christian religion. The method adopted for the 
coloniiiation M-as to teacti the people the Christian religion, to force 
ibem to accept it, and to respect its repre^sentatives, without discus- 
sion, investigation, or suspicion. 

All of the laws and all of the regulations for their enforcement were 
issued with the objex^t of giving to the religious orders the j^reatest 
pcssible prestige, and the King relied on the ministers of the faith to 
act nlwavr^ from purely iviigious motives. 

These laws, while they protected the Indians, al»o forced theiu to a 
condition of peqietual tutelage— tn the eternal condition of minors. 
In their lawsuits l>etwccn themselvc.s iudgnient was pa.s8C.d by thoit 
own native authorities; hnt when one party to a suit was a Spaniard, 
or when a native wa.* in any way injured in his n'ghts f>y n Spaniard, 
tlie suit was pro'^ecuted under the direction of the frtiU'-f-'f </< fint 
Indim (protector of the Indians), of the cncomcndero, or the local 



4 



oiirnte, accowlinfj to tbe requireiiiontfl of onch fttsc. In this manner 
the Siwnish prestijje was preserved, inawmuuh as it wii.-* no Innjfer iin 
lodinn who asked for tha pimishiuont of ono tic-lonjHng to a ^uporior 
nu-e, Imt u Spaniard who took up the IiiiiiBn'.-- rMuae ami conduct4>d 
^thc Hiiit Bgaitiot another Simniuril. 

Till? Kilipinos Imcunn! aw^usUJined to followin(f thr advice of the 

Icurates. who educated tbom to u complete subjocdon of pci-r^onal 

[opinion and who dominated their consciences thiouifh proml'**;:* of 

heaven or fear of cverlastinp punishment whi^n they died. In the 

tonteat for authority lictweon the oiicomcnderos and Iht* friars tfao Iiit- 

[ter grained their object, and from that time the friars were the »mly 

Stmniards in the Philippine towns who exercised (emporal power 

derived from the King and authority in i^piritual mattci-sdcrivwl from 

ithe church. 

As the native eustom» of the ]ndinn.^ became modified and their 

natures more jjentle the wealth and uplendor of the religious ceiv- 

moaietf in the churches attracted tbem greatly. AD of their ancient 

fears of the uiyjiterious and occult powci-s wliich were )>up(>os(Kl to 

bring ill health or miBfortiiue, to reward with victorieH ur punish with 

[defeats, were preserved by these [>eople. The only change in their 

ndigious beliefs wa^ in the perf^oime! of the spirits who governed tJie 

iiitTuint of life and pbenomenu of nature. The patron ^ints, whoso 

mrotectioD they now asked, merely supplanted the ancient unitos of 

ftlKiir ancestorri, who tn their former idolatry had intervened in all of 

'the affaiiit of life. They were simple souls, and by nature credulous, 

timid, and easily led, unable to act on their own judgment and eoo- 

Mtantly directeil by the monks of the new religion which they ha<1 

ndoplcd, in whom they ba<l ahsolute faitii and whom they Imlh feared 

nnd rosiiecled. 

The charHctcr of the Filipino, developed on these lines, wa.-^ exiictly 
what c^uUl have been expected from the [Niternatistic legislation and 
from the teaohings of the cburch sifted through the character of its 
ri'presentiUives in these islimds. The priests and friars had taught 
tlie natives reading and writing in order that they might niiden^tand 
the rnu!ti< and other matter wbii^h were published in the l<x;al dialeetSf 
nnd which coni^tituted the only kind of titeruture allowed to be read. 
ThtvM" tracts were mostly novenan and lives <if the siiints, which in theni- 
Hclvcscould not be considered as objectionable*, but the education thus 
jirovided wu.s cal<>ulated to extend and periwliiate the power of the 
friai'b. to provide tbem with the menus to enforce obedience and iua.in- 
toin them-fclves na the directora and censors of the conscience and 
McntimenL^ of the )M>op1e. 

In 1*K>1 tlie l^)llegc of San .Tob^ wan founded in Manila by the 
jJiwaitit. in 19lii the College of 8nnto Tom&e wh$ founded by the 




DoiniiiicanH. wliu in 164^) bI^o founded Uiit C'oll^o of San Juan da 
Lctniti. TheiiO inslitntions were founded for tlin purpiisft tif provid- 
ing for the »lucalion uf ilm vliildr^ti of the S(mniard>j; anioti^ other 
brant-hes taught worv latiu, ]>hilotioph3', mid thndogy. LiUcr the col- 
|pgi_'« of Swnto Tojufc and Htm .lon6 wpre uierned into a university, and 
n law i*ourMe wtu* addcid to the other branches. In 1714 the SpauLsh 
Government established a univert^ity in Manila for the teaching of 
mxrk'isiiLsticjtl Roman »nd Spanish lawn, and attached to the same waa a 
medical school and a de]MirtmeDl whcru cxiiirsoa were given in niathe- 
maticM. In 1780 the university was closed. 

As has already lieen stated, the primary branches were taught by 
the mcruljers of the religious orders and were Muhject to orders and 
decrees which were issued in an in-egular manner, tmt in 1863 there 
were organi7.e<l classes of higher instniclion and, according to the 
plans adopted, there should have been established in each town a 
school for the teaching of the priinary branrhcH. In Manila the Uni- 
versity of Santo Tomsis added to its other courses one for the instruc* 
tion of notaries public, a mediral course, and a course in pharmacy; 
there vras a normal school e.stablished in Manila, under the direction 
of the Jc-»uits, and in the capitals of some nf the provinces were opened 
schools where secondan- courses were taught to both sexes. After 
the nniver^ties were established, at the beginning of the seventeenth 
ccnttiry, some Filipinos obtained degrees as doctors or licentiates in 
law and theology, iind from that time on there were both lawyers and 
doctors of divinity of the different races, and among them were aonte 
who reached considerable eminence in their time. 

From the tirst days of the Spanish sovereignty until its final teiTni- 
nation the object of all teaching appeared to lie to avoid anything that 
was not genuinely Spanish and absolutely accepted by the tniditional 
orthodoxy of the Catholic church. It was taught that the Spanish 
civilization was the be«t, that the religious teachings of the Spanish 
school wei-fi the only worthy ones, and that all modern ideas were to be 
condemned. All experimental si-ience and all advances of the huaun 
mind in the line of independent thinking, which disregarded tradition 
and the influence of religious and empirical forms, were also anathema. 

Th« Filipino civilisation, bound up as it was by innumerable con- 
ventionalities, was evolved under the influences of intolerance which 
prohil/itcd free thought and delivered the individual to the Spanish 
fuoittinnary to attain prosperity if lie could while on earth, and to the 
alMolute control of the S|Hinish priest to secure salvation in the future 
life, and so it i-ontinucd until the «nd of the nineteenth century. 
Fortunately, however, early in that century certain events mtxliged 
this condition uf affairs. The opening of the ports in the archipelago 
to foreigu commerce and the opening of the Suex cantU, with the 



liOCAL GOVERNMENT. 



337 



facilitieH tliuH providotl for I'ouimiinication with the rest of the world, 
dispelled to ftoiim <>xtRnt tbc atmosphore of the middle agrs in whiiOi 
the people of the Vhilippinfi InlnndR wor« wrappp-d, iind modern idwis 
of liberty bojjan to |Xinetmte tho minds of die natives. The fiiiigi-s- 
Uon of natives to foi-oigii countries, thean'ivnt in Manila of Spaniards 
whose point of view had lieeii rhimged hy the teaching of (lie French 
Hevoluliort, and the dcmoitriitic liitltienee-s whicli onianatj-d from the 
United States, contrilnited to remove from the niindu of (certain Fili- 
pinos the pernicious and false ideas regarding hnitian rights which up 
to that time tmd doniinated mo«t of those exlucat«d in the old methods. 

Although the laws reco^ixed no difference Iteiween the various 
races, nevertheless from the licglnning of the nineteenth century the 
Spaniards cluimed sviperiurily over the Filipinos, and so taught their 
children. On the other hand, tlic Filipinos did not pai-ticipate in 
the ^vermiient of their own oouutry: it is true that some of them 
at times o(-x.nipied positions of importance, but these exceptions were 
so rare that they merely served to emphasize the fact that the anto- 
mfttic machinery of government was a thini; apart- and of which the 
natives served merely as adjuncts. In the towns the municipal func- 
tionaries had no choice except to convey to the people, ami make 
them comply with the orders of the civil and military authorities of 
Spain, and especially with the wishes of the local curate. 

The townspeople were obliged to remove their hats when a Span- 
iard passed, and this was especially the case if he occupied some official 
pOBition; if the Spaniard happened to be a priest, in addition to the 
removal of the hat the native was obliged to kiss his hand. No Indian 
was allowed to sit at the same table with a Spaniard, even though the 
Spaniard wa^ a guest in the Indiaii*^ bouse. The Sjiamai-ds addrett^ed 
the Filipinoti by the pronoun "thou," and although many of the Span- 
iards married pure blood native women, the wive« were always looked 
down oil in society as beloiigiug loan inferior class. From the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century the laws abolished all race distinctions, 
but this distinction could not be abolished from the actual customs 
which obtained, and the racial friction or ill feeling increased in pro- 
portion to the incrensed education of the Filipino people, and to the 
greater influence which the contemporary happenings in Enropo Itad 
un tbo ntiiids of the tiatives. 

Tho favorite weapon used by the friars, for purposes of chastise- 
ment, was the whip, the niuniciiwl officers acting as the -sorvitoi-s of 
the local curate. By a decree, issued in KJfiU, it was ordei-ed tluit oo 
Indian should U'« paid in advance any sum greater than live dollars, 
no matter what the occasion or necessity for such iniynient might Ijg; 
Lbe payment in advance for rice or other pi-oducta which were to be 
deltvoiDd later was also prohibited, and anyone who made au advance 

2S16S— rui. 1~0&— — 22 



of or pare credit to an Indian fur a sum greater tban five doUars was 
by law siibincttotlic loss of tbo amount ttdviincod or credited. While it 
is t.uc that tbe royal instruction i-ccummended tbat ibe ludiuns should 
be encountgod to work, tbo actual retsults obtained were that work was 
diHCOurag((d and a premium put on idleuess and \-icp. In uddition to 
SundayH, thoro were ob-^ervcd tlu-oughout the i«Iand« during the year 
thirty -two othrr holiday.", and to these wore iidded the patron rant's 
day of each town^ whose feast was specially celobratod for a term of 
nine dayn; in addition, each barrio, or ward, had its special patron 
8aint and tbn feast in itH honor lasted three dayB. Besides all these 
the local curate, the alcalde nf the province, nnd otber officials had 
their particular 8aiut\s day, and for these and other rea^onu there 
npver wa« lack of some excuse to quit work for the purpose of doing 
honor to some r«int or some ofiictal. 

Advantage was taken of the Filipino preference for cock fights as a 
method of producing income. Lottcnes were encouraged and run 
under government nuspice-s. In this manner lazincHS liecame tbe rule 
with those who placed their hopc» on making a livelihood or obtain- 
ing a fortune without the necessity of working. 

The sons of the friars wei-e the leadei-H of the unruly element in the 
various towns and were the ones who [-ommcnecd the movement against 
the power of the monks. When about the middle of the nineteenth 
century permission was granted to the S]>aniards to live in the varioiw 
towns and tbe number of Spanish ofliciuls had iniTreaAod, the Fili- 
pinos took their cue from their Spanish neighbors and, having lo«t 
respect for the friars, showed it in their actions. The natives, although 
they feared the power of the friars, nevertheless, owing to racial tem- 
perament, aspired to relieve themselves from the tutelage nnder which 
they had lived nnd did not attempt to conceal the little respect they 
felt for the members of the religious orders. 

The censor of tbe pre-ss held tbe papers publisbed in the ['hilippine 
Islands within the strictest limit,-* as regarded their editoi-ial utteraoces. 
They were not allowed to publish itcnit^ which might im^mmodeany 
funutionary ; nor were they allowed to discmu political matters or even 
to refer to them. They were allowed only to publish items of news, 
happenings on the streets or in public phicc>4, and to copy articles 
referring to foreign occurrences published in the Europcdui excbanges. 
The ceoBor of wligious matters wan even more strict (or orthmlox) in 
blue penciling copy which passed through his hnud.s on the way to the 
printer. Spanish publicattonti, when they arrived iu Manila, met with 
an insurmountable barrier in the juniu </« cenvura (buurd of (wnson*). 
No Filipino wa» allowed to meddle in public matters, nor wbk he 
allowed to oxpi-etfi» an opjuiou regarding jwlitics or the manner of the 
iw*il Mliniuiiiti-ution of atfairK iu bU country. 



I 



All KilipintM were nbliged to belong to the Koman Catholic Apos- 
tolic furth. The}' were also oWigod to l)clinve and luaintaiu that "tho 
rhilippiuu Islands Iwlong entirely to Spain and arc identiticd in 
avorjtiun^ with Spaia/' To attain thi.s object, that is, to make Fili- 
pinoN aut nud think in hannony with the^e ideiui. the entire work of 
Pfirilizution was directed. This |)erforce created a national character 
[which wuh hunible, patient^ it neom plaining, and weak. 

Thoro were other causes for which the Spttniardn woro not respon- 
^ijiblu, hut which were largely duo to the act-s of the friar-s and which 
.■reatod in IbotnindKand hearts of mniiyof the natives an unquonefaabln 
Miwirc to change the order of things. This yearning no [xiwer, how- 
jcvor strong, and no plan, however well doviiscd, has over been able to 
|(>tunip out when it has once taken root. 

From the lime that the American Anny entered Manila, on August 
ilS, 18!>8, the activities of tbo mcmlwrij of rcligiou}^ orders have been 
[iimitcd to rcligiotLs atfatrH. 

By an act of (Vingre.-w the people of (he Philippine Islands aro guar- 
ftjuitecd freedom of thought, sejiaration of cburi-h and state, lilwrty to 
[jU4s>eml)Ie, and freedom of the press. In thus assuming sovereignty 
>ver the Philippine Islands the American people do not intend to 
^extinguish the love of country in the hearts of the KilipinoH and the 
inhabitants of these island-i are given the right to i^ll tbcmsolv&s 
^citiKcns of the Philippine Islands. 

The American nation has (lound itself in honor toasaist tbo Filipino 

[MM)pli>i under its care, direction, and responsiliility to reach the highest 

degree attaiiiul)Ie of culture and civiltaition. Everj* Filipino ran and 

^Khould work for the benefit of his country and to .secure its future 

roll-being. 

There arc now no laws making racial distinctions, and tbrongfaout 

,thc entire archipelago are American teachers, both men and women, 

Itemching Knglish and in charge of the :*chools whei-o the primary and 

'secondary branches are taught. Normal schools also have l>een eslab- 

[^liahed and are well attended by a large number of pupils of l»oth sexes 

id of ail ages, who show great cnthuniasm in their .>)tndieH; and a law 

has Itet'n f'nactc<i liy which Filipino students are sent each year to the 

L'nitcd btates to be educated in such profcsifions or trader as thoy 

ly ooloct. 

The government of the Philippine Islands, inspired by those free 
ind dciuocnttic principles whivh have made of the Atuericau peitple a 
it, Mtroug, and happy nation, in heart whole in its desire fertile 
•labliHlimctil of an itpright administnitiun of ju»>ticL\ an h<>tiumble 
nxpeuditun; of tlie publit- fun<ls, an idticient urganizstiun of .schoolit, 
ind a system of public education which i«hall mold the character 
the Filipino iieople in accordance with the modem t>l4ind»rdM of 
:ivitizatioD. 



TUE K)WER OF TUE MONASTIC ORDERS. 

In view of the fact that the principal object of the kings of Spfiin 
In making the (.-onqucsts of new territoricji was to extend the CatboHc- 
fuitli, it In eniiy to understand the painn which those monarcbs took in 
tending inissionarie*! to the Philippine IslandM. The Fraitcbran. 
Augustinian. Dotutnican, and Uccolcto friars and the Jesuits c-ame to 
31anila in the lii^t di^ys of the Spanish domiiiiuu to preach their don- 
triiif^ and to cottvert the natives. W'hen the ecclesiastical aduiiulstm- 
liun of the various towns waa first organized it was necessary to select 
priost8, but the friars, because of their towh, their obligations to live 
in inouosteries, and the prohibitions they wore under regarding tlie 
IX)«seissiou of property, wei-e disqualified from acting a» curateii iu the 
various towns. For tliis reason niissionarios wore so few that the Pope 
removed the impediments or disqualifications and permitted the monks 
and Jesuits to live outside of their nionasteriej* and to a*!t as curates 
in the same manner as the secular clei-gy; but this eseraption was of 
a touiporary naturo and it wan provided that it should only \)c in force 
until « HuflitTient iiuiiiIht of the secular dergy could be obtained. 

In oixler to prevent friction and conflicts between the various ordei-s, 
the King directed that a specified scope of territory should Ije given to 
each oi*dcr for the purpwiR of establishing mii«ionH. It Iwing (he 
object of the King to give a religiouji character to the colunizutiun 
undertaken by S]min in the Philippine Islands, in accordanoe wltii the 
spirit which (hen dominate the Spanish nation, whore the priestly 
power was parauKiunt, it is easy to iindei*t>tHrid why the conuuercial 
liPcof the colony, which, until the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
depended entirely on the nao running between .\(^«pulco and Manila, 
should have assumed a position of secondary importance as cominred 
with the n^igious institutions and the prominence given to them Imth 
in Spain and in llie colony. 

Hintory make*i the friai-s responsible for the errors committed by 
the Spanish Government in these islands, but it would appear that 
^■without the aid of the religioius oi-dera it would have Ijeen impossible 
lor Spain to have fulfilled, even to the extent she has, her promisea 
of civilizing the Filipinos and of helping them to advance along 
the llncin marked out by thn Kuropean tiation'*. It is impotisibh- not 
to recognize the huntanitjirian impulsen, tndy C'hriHiifm and equitable, 
which guided the kings and the Spanish legislators in what they did 
for the Philii>pine Island**. It is also certain that the Spanish colonial 
legislation, influenced as it wivs by the opinions of pt-rsons so conserva- 
tive and JiaspicioUR of all that was not Spanish and Catholic In iti« 
imtiiro. nhtit the Philippine Istnnds off from JiII rt»nl«ct with other 
cirili2fttifni. These islands, therefoiv, woi-e jealously wat<-hf>d over by 



THE POWER 01 



iSTIC ORDEBS. 



■ 



syfltem of government which itself could not crcatn dtizftnx rapoble 
of coiiAtitutia^ an indnpcndnnt: pnopio able to i^njoy the hnnclits of 
civilizntioii knnnii in other roiiiitrififi; hut thi." n>sult wum not dut^ 
to a system of iiolitic-s t-ivAtr-d spcfially to suit a. ciolony, l»iit ■Ktiti mon" 
iu the uature of a reproduction in the Philippine Inlands of the same 
f>olitirul fiystem iiiidor whirh Spain was f^overnod and known to 
th»' 4)thcr nations of Eiiropft, The friiirs have hocn uiadp to liear thr 
hrunt of many HhortmmingA, but if the othor officials of the Spnninh 
Govt'rnmfnt had compUod with their duties, ftvrn to the extent to which 
the friara complied with theirs, It bt cei-tain that biHtory to-day would 
dhift that burden of nwponsibility to other shoulders; the friars 
undoubtedly were responsible for many thingw, but tbey also ^ihould 
t(i.' rn*diied with the attainment of certain rcsulU in the civilizutiori of 
the Filipino people, the credit for which is now denied them. 

Tho Kinjf of Spain iwiid the exponscH of every eniigi-ant friar from 
Spain to Mexii-o and from there to Manila. The^»^ mii^ionarieti were 
Also fumifihod clothing, breviaries, and missalK, and it was estimated 
that tlie average expt*nse attending the hringirig of i^ch niis'^ionary 
lo Manila was alwul fi<K> [jcsa*. The doctrinarians, as the curates wei*e 
called^ received in the year 168S a salar)' of 1(h) pctos per annum, to 
which was added 1 DO ./Jwit^o*— equal to about 30ft bn»;belfi of rico — and. 
iiuch ornaments aod dooorationtt as were noe<led for the altars in the 
(.■harchra. As these miftsionarini had taken the vow of iraverty— and 
in reality they we!"e poor— they relied on fharity for the wine and oil 
xitmi in celobruting their religioiL*; rites. When the minsionarieM tirst 
arrived in the various towns tbcy protected the Indiana against the 
abuses committed by the encomenderos; tho latter, probably in spite, 
made counter accusations, and in the year 15^*2 they succeeded in 
obtaining an order prohibiting the curates from making servants of 
the menil>ers of their flock. The friars wore very much irritated at 
this order and the Auga*atin)ans asked permission of the King to with- 
draw from the islands. The King was alarmed and wrote to the 
(fovernor lo cooperate with the friars, and this order )ncrea>»ed the 
di«*acis faction of the encomenderos. About this time also arose 
another complicated question which was never decided during the 
entire Spanish r<5gimc in the Philippine Islands; the friar^ denied tho 
authority over them of the bishop of the dio<cse and claimed that they 
w«re obliged to obey only the provtucial superior of tbeir religious 
order. 

The King was in constant receipt of cotnplaints against the mission- 
aries. In which tbcy were charged with specific abuses, aod ho 
attempted, liy i-oyal decrees and uther writs addrefWHsl to tlio bishopo. 
to prevent a repetition of the offcu«e« compUitied of. .Vmong othor 
things, lii> rei{uested that the missionaries be prohibited from luflu- 



eocm^: men on their Wfyitlilicds lo will their |M«rM»ii»1 froodiJ to tb* 
clert'y. thii.^ disinhcritiiiK their thildron: that the rlerg-j- should 1h> 
prohibiU'd from obliging tho indian widowf* imH single wtunen to 
enter their domcjrtjr Hcrrioe under pretext of IpAnittig tlio Chrlstiaa 
doi'trine; that tho i-Iergy should he prohibiU'd from charging tfie 
Indians fr<« for «dininiHt<'ring tho iiacr«n>ont; that lhoM\ of the rlergy 
who wei-e engaged in the sale and barter of memlwrs of their own 
flock should l>e ;^verely pnnishi-d; nnd thnt stepM should )>« taken to 
prevent the repetition of thew ami other well-known vSvw^s. 

In the >«iu« maoDer aa the ciril employees failed to fiilHIl theprovi- 

)n« i>f the royal dec-rees. the uipmbei"» of the religions orders also 

'did ft« liest suited their own interestj!, relying on the influence of their 

orders to secure them immunity from any disag-reeaUle resoltH. In 

this manner the iuiix>rtanee of the church in the colonies became 

greater day by day. 

The power of the f i-iars in Manila soon liecame very great. At the 
start they were \xiov. but cerUiin devotees made thein donations, othera 
left them inheritunccit consisting of hinds and sbires, and in a ^liort 
time the friars bud become wealthy proprietors and indcpeudent of 
their own holdings for their sustenaince. which was fumisliod by almH 
and gifttj made to them by the King and by the followers of their 
church. Their territorial pOHMCwiions incrRasod rapidly; ho much so 
that ill IDl'l the King commissioned the Audit<ir Sierra to i-oinpile dutu 
and send him a report as to the kind of titles and areas and descrip- 
tioD of the viiliuible luuda held by the frianf: but the friars refused to 
furabth nny information to the auditor, stating that they were exempt 
from any such fonnalitie^, and as sutmnjuently they were unable to 
proro the legality of their titles they were dechired to be *^ occupants 
in Iwd fiiith" and an einliHrgo was laid on the hinds held by theni. 
When Archbishop Canmcho arrived in the islands the friars appealed 
to hill) for protection, and tliis prelate urderefl lliu auditor to stop his 
proceedings or he would excomninnicate him. Taking ndvantiigc of 
this crisis, us Lhry alNo did on other iH'casions, the friars thrc^itimcd to 
abandon tho inlands, and tho governor^ in order to aroid a conflict, 
which had taken on alanning pr(iiH>riions, got the new ^mViV'h/w who 
had Muci'ccded Sierra to accept the titles to the lands held by the friars 
aa valid; and when thi^ yrns done the matter waa pigeonholed. 

When, in the year 1«5S, Archbishop Poolete, of Manila, iittempfced 
to nnfoitw the order of Pojw rrlwn VIII to subject ihe friars lo tli« 
authority of the bishops, the momhcni of the variouf moruuttio orders 
oppoaed n determined front to ihir proptwnl Innovntion. ami all of tU» 
curates reaigued their positiouH. The inajne thing happened when 
Archbishop Oaniachi> atu^inpled to enforce the order of the bead of 
be church, and it waN of this prolate that the King, in a ro3ral cMuhi 



THE i»OWER OK THE MONACTIC OKDEBS. 



848 



tlale<l Fehnwrv 17, 17U5, said he "was subjected to tuaiiy liumili- 
utions, especially at the liundtj of certain j/redivadon'Ji iprcachi-rA) of 
the raUg:iou8 ordurH." The friars stiiTed up so much opposition 
a^iriBt Archbishop Oainacbu tbat the {governor, fi'uring an inRiirrco- 
tion. begged the aix-hbiMhop to let the friars do wi they oJio^c. The 
urohbishop wfu* tinuti.v obliged to deitiijt froiu hijj attempt, and noLbing 
wa»> dune tiiereaftvr. 

In 1668 Governor SwU-edo bad certain dLsagrecnienta with thn friars 
and with ibc uix;hbisbop. and a progiiiiu of ruvunifc was fuimcd, in 
which oertain meniben) of the ]'eligiuu;> ordera, iirmy officers, rcgi- 
dorej>, and nicrchunti constitutt^d the jfersonnel of tin* cabal. It was 
proposed to denounce the governor to the Inquisition. The method 
of procedure watt soon t^rreed upon, and one idgbt, while the governor 
wax aslevp. tlio con»piralur!> entered his ix>oni and, before he wn^ awm-e 
of thi'ir object, be w^as securely haiidi-utled and taken to the niuiuistery 
of San FranuitHX). This prison not Innng considered sufficiently secure, 
he wa*i subHeipiLMiily tranHferi-ed t« the inotiawtory of San Apustin, 
where he wus put in a cell and made secure with a heavy chaixu 
A»Mng tlie uonspiratoru who kidnapped the governor was the pro- 
vincial head of the FranciscanB and other uiemliers of the ec«:1esiastical 
orders in Manila. 

Archbi^ho]! I'ardo^ a Pouiiniuui friar, had been furnished with over 
twentj' royal ordei-H which he bad failed toenfort-e. and for this reit-son 
it waa decided by the andieni-ia to get rid of hiiu; he was, thereforo, 
shipped to Lingay<^n. 

On another occjiMioti the niernbei's of the Recoleto friara disiigreed 
among Uieniselvi^ to such an extent that, a number of them, composed 
of Spaniards from the province of Castile, seceded from the main 
body and i-emoved to the mona«fery of Raginnbayan. liotli sidea 
appealed the matter to Madrid, but when the decision rendered was 
received in Manila the friars, who h^id taken up their rettideuce at 
Bftguniliayan. refiwed to move out of the monastery, as they were 
ordered to do by the Sjittnish court; the governor thereujmn pro- 
ceeded to bombard the monastery and kept it up until they capitulated 
and moved away. 

Another still more serious event occurred in 1710, when the friars 
led a mob, which they had organized, against the palace of Governor 
Ktir<tanuintc. The governor was asaoMnatcd and the crime wa« never 
paninhcd. 

Between 1744 and 1753 tlie Pope iA-*ued no b-ss ihan four bulls in 
which th(^ friarn who acted as onratcs woPe put within (he jnrisdirtion 
and under lUv authority of the bishop, and the King, Ferdinand \'I, 
djHi gave utrirt instnintJons to the effect that fho orders of the Poi» 
•hould be enforced in the Philippine Islands; hut neither the bulb 



-t=Bi — 



nor tbi! royol orders were of any avail, and the friars defied both the 
Kip^ and the Poi^e and tiireatencd to alMndon thoir pllstonlt(?(^. The 
heatb of the four monaHiic orders in Spain det^idi^d not to ;*i'nd any 
more friars to the Philippine Ulands^and for lack of priests to supply 
the parucliial neodtt the arctibiHbop was obliged to suspend tndefiiiitely 
the enforcement of the papal bulls. 

Notwilhstaoding all of these vain attcmptn to aubjivt the friars tn 
higher authority, the Archbishop of Manila, Santa Justa y UuSna, 
between the years 1767 and 1787, a^in attempted to make the friant 
roMpect his authority. Referring to the unequal fight which was then 
taken up, the archbishop wrote to the King that '*when the order for 
obliging the friars to submit to their superiors is put in effect they 
will threaten to abandon all of the parishej* under their charge in thcfte 
islands, and rather than bring about that rcault it would he preferable 
to let the present bad state of affairs continue. These caprices of theirjt 
are of too long standing and will not easily be abandoned." A century 
later, in 1865, the airhbisliop of Manila, together with the btshopif of 
Ceb6 and Nueva CiceTe», presented a joint conipUinttothe governor, 
in which wore again denounced the abuws eomaiitted by the friars, 
which had been tolerated for three eenturiea, from the time of 
Salazar to Santa JuKta. But it w&s all iu vaiOf as the bi^ibop declared 
*' the friant mIio acted aa curates were almost sure of immumty; they 
relied on their ofBee to slueld them from punishment, and made it 
obligatory for their ecclesiastical superior^, who desired to avoid 
scandal, to submit to defeat^ to stomach the imiults heaped up<m tbem, 
and to continue iu the ministry persons who wero not up to the 
standards of their holy missions.'* 

The power of the church was thus monopolized for ttie beuelit of 
the friars, and it was a common thing for the bl^hupti to call attention 
to the fact tliat tlits papal bulls and the c^dulas of the King wuru aliku 
iguored — and such was indeed the case whenever the provincial heads 
of the four moiuutic orders tn Manila set thvir veto on tht: bulls or 
c^dtUas. Such was the (rasition occupied by the friars wiLliln their 
own churuh. 

The tinancial affairs of the friars were ver}' soon in a flourishing 
condition. Each community Imd Its pliuitution in the L-ountry und it« 
city property, and wa.s interesteil in the commerce carried on iKttween 
Manila and Acapulco. Each friar who acted as a curate hud every- 
tiling provided fur him, and the rentals from his propcriles, iu some 
ea^es, were from 8,(HK} to 20,00(J pesos a year. In addition to all 
tlii.li they received other emoltuiient,*) or concessions from the Crown, 
which bad been allowed (hum during tbe time of their pastorate. 

ivcmor And» complained to the King regarding the abiiMe uf power 

the port of tlie friars in tlie provinces wheiv the alcalde» were given 



4 



THE POW'EK OF THE MONASTIC OEDERS. 



a45 



subordinate positions. It appeAro that: tho friars, wheo nn alcalde did 
not obey iheir dictum, were iihlr to secure his discharjje from office. 

The Jesuits, who were wealthy, intelligent. and powerful, had often 
been an obstacle to the ambitions of the friars, hut their expuUioti 
left the friars nbdoliite masters of the nitiiation. 

In 182U, when the natives of Manila nssassioated the foreigoei*a, 
whom they accused of poisouiuj,' the water supply and brinf^n^ about 
an epidemic of eholera. until then unknown in these islands, it vas tlio 
opinion of the public at lar^ that the friara were the one» who had 
excited the people to rUe against the foreigners, of whoi^e advanced 
riewa the friars were intolerant. 

In the courta where the matter wa>t iuvc«itigated it was ascertained 
that the accusation made agaiuat the friars wof^ founded on fact. 

The Spanish Government from day to day Iralstered up the power 
of the friars in the Philippine Islands and conceded to them more and 
more the right to intervene in matters of state. If a re|K>rt waa made 
by the municipal autliority i-egarding thowiridiictof any person, it liad 
to be vis^ml by the Uxwl curate, whot« signature was alwj necessary to 
the lists of natives drafted in the local militi»b. the tiiiancial reports, 
and other official documents of the variou.s municipalitk>8, and without 
which theae docuraentH were not valid. The friars were alH> the 
insfKctors of public instruction, and the teachers were subjected aliwi- 
lutely to their control and direction. In Maotla there was only one 
university, and the friars were In charge. The pixniucial beads 
of the various coniutunities wore aflmitted as inenibcrs of the jtmta-^ 
de aiUi/ridaife*' (luard of authorities), and fuially, His Majesty gave 
authority to the friars to sell or barter their lands and other prop- 
ertiea. Hitherto the friars had held the lands without the right 
to sell or dispose of theiit in any manner without permission from 
the King, who always considered the proi>ortics of the religious 
orders as belonging to the state, and that the friars were to be allowed 
to enjoy the usufruct of such pi-operties as long as they were priests 
of a religion which was considered as an integral part of the state. 

The friars who were sent to the Philippine Islands were supplied 
by the various monasteries of the respective rellgioiLs orders in Spain. 
Hy the terms of various royal decrees foreign priests were pnilnbited 
from coming to these islands; all of the membtrrs of the clergy hod to 
bo Spaniards. In Manila each one of the religious orders hud a 
monastery, which was under tho chni^ of a pronncial, who was the 
bmd of the order, and who was assisted in his iidniinist ration by A' 
oooDcil. The representative of each religious order in Matlrid was 
R pntruradfyr (friar), who waa elecli'd in Manila, received a good 
aaUuy, and di'^t directly with the King and hin ministers n-gnrdin{f^ 
the nutttont of the religious coniorations tn the Philippine IsUtnds. 




In (lie bead tuontusterv in Manilft there «a» ali^> » jm/ei^rfK/vr-gentnU^ 
who was in charge ttf tht) manaffvment of tlie funds of the religious 
corporation, kept tbe acrounU of etich pariab prie«( belonging to the 
on^r, and acted at* the represeotative of the order in nil financial trans- 
actions and in itci civil mittf in court. 

Of the 850 nnmicipHtitle^ into wliich the archipelago was divided, C70 
were in the power of the nionlu, leaving 18ii uiun)cipatitte« under tlie 
adniinLitration uf the Jesuits and clericaU of other urdent.* There 
were in addition, in »ome uf the larger towns, large numbers uf friant 
who sen'ed the various cburcbeo; in the monasterieM and convents in 
Manibi there w&>i a lai'ge nuniUir of resident friars engaged in teach- 
ing the various lirunrhes of learnings in iheologit-al »ludieH, and 
adniinistering the tmrious branches of the religious corporatioos. 

Although the large territorial holdings of the reltgiouH orders were 
daiujed as the legitimate pro[H5rtji' of the friars, Uie KiUpinos did nut 
recognize their title to such property. It U argued that tbeae lands 
were obtained illegally, und if the title theret^i was registered it was 
duo to the fact uf the alisuhitti {Hiwer the friars enjoyed under the 
Spani<4h sovereignty, and that, abusing that {xiwer. they diar^ardod 
the rights of the real owners of these land^t. By act of CongreKB the 
inxular govemuioiit was authorized to purcba.se ibcMO lands from the 
friars for the pur]K>sc of resale to the actual residents' 

Having lotit tlic supfwrt of the governnipnt the power of the monastic 
ordcrH has beon completely de-sti*oyed in the Philippine Islandi. 

COM&IEBC'E AND REVENUES. 

It was natuml that the products most prized by the Spaniards in the 
land» they dis<^-overed were gold, silver, and spices, and among the 
latter particularly c!ovet<. i>oppcr, nutuiegK, and rinnaujon. These 
article^ either were not indigenous to the Philippine Islands, or. if found, 
the product was liuiited and unprolitable. The Portuguese brou^t 
spices from their ishinds; Cbiuaiuen imported them, stored them tem- 
porarily in Manila, und Huhseiiuontly exported thcui to Mexico. 

From time iiumemoriul the Chinette and Japanese merchants had 
tnided with the Filipinos, but the traffic was no doubt limited, due to 
the pirates who iufejited the seas in this locality. The arri^'ul of the 

' The Iriara wfre notonly parteli prieWf, or»iMritualf!TiMM, but In efle«-» were rolew 
nf tbe ninnici|ialitif«: ill (net, tliu vrUolc ^)venmivnt oi tli<.> ivlaiida n«lcd ou tbeu. 
OonjvqDentl V fvery ahntte of ttic many vi hicK lc<) to Ihe rcvohilton of IflfX^IMM VM 
clii»rK>^l til thmn hy tlie people. AcTOrxlin^ io tht* chuivli recc»ni» in ManlU tlierw 
wurt- ia ld9S. 6,53(>,9H8 CatlioHce in tbe Philippinw. and tu i»n- fur tbcm thert wen* 
7*6 tMCular p*ri9h«t>, 105 mttwinn pamhwi, llti mimotiB, »4<i j\tipii<>tLntan frlani, 107 
FnudMaiw, 833 Uorainicams 327 ttvcoleioo. -12 Jemitts, in Capiiclkinp, xnd li»auf 
dlrtlnew. The IoIaI numlipr of friaw Janiinr\- 1, IWM. van 246.— /A>fr(ffr. 

'Thr Joint luvltiiil'liiii^uf tti>- fnur .mlt-'niol friar* umaiintod in IWW to 43!0,(NIU 
wrcp, -IIO.IXN) aciva of vrliicli Imve lw«u mM to tiw litwlar iroveriiUM^t (or 97,2X^000 

VL.—Dirtelar. 



4 

n 



Spaniards, hoirc^'er, ^ve RonsUleratile inipHtm to the development of 
oommorco with Oiiiia. Harttly hnd Manitti l>ccn estahlLstietl-^uno 3, 
1571— nliori « wliip iirrivi'd from tlir Cliini'sis Kuipiro hringiiiy i-ou- 
tiidorabie qiiaiititirs of Milks, poi-ccluin, gunpowder, luorcury, pepper, 
cloTBB, cinnaniun, suf^r, iron, copper, lead, wax, lime, aod, according 
(o certain Icjri^ridH. tlie imaj^-j* of naiiits, and crucilixL'-* ami other arti- 
[■le« a«ed in Kurope. In suhsi'iiuent years the iiij[KirtatioriH from 
China iticreftHed conaidemhiy. Jiinku and other small crafi arrived 
dtirtiig the niirttieaHt nionHOons and retnmed to China when the trade 
winds were favorable. 

The coinnieree rarrietl on with Cliina wr..s counlenaneeil or atithorized 
the colonial goverimrH, and, ulllioiijjii the SiwniHli (_iovernineni. at 
ohjeeted to HiieJi traftic, a royal cedula wiw issued in IfHJtt permit- 
ting the FllipiiioH to engage in tnule with China and .la))Hn.' Inaninnch 
as the I'olony had no rnenrhant nmrine. no shipH were sent out from 
thest} iisliinds, hut the arrival uf the Cliinese and Japane^ iMjats, during 
the fovorabie sea^^om^, was eagerly awaited in Manila. Governor P^reK 
l>Mm»rifia»i ijwued an order that all of t\u-- ineivhandise imported in 
each Kttiii}Min or other c-raff from China -ihould Iw appmi.'^od in bulk by 
an official luuneil by the governor, and the imported goods were 
then divided pro rata among the Spunith residents in Manila. This 
opemtion wa-t called •'//lywiMfYw/K.'*' 

The Chinese goods which were then brought to Manila were very 
up, and for many years consritiiied the only articles Mcnt from the 

itlippine Islands to Mexico, (Tualemala, lNinatna,and l*eru. Cloves, 
rom the exportation of which good profits (*outd have been obtained, 
eould not be exporter! to America, due to •■<>rtain prohibitions r-ontained 
iij royal decrees, except in such small (luantitics a,s wore consideied 
necessary to supply the consumption in Mexico. 

On the other hand, no Eiiropoan natiini was able to engage in com- 
merce with the I'hilippine Islands; but. ina.snuich as sliiptt from Siam 
and India wero allowed to enter Philippine harbors, it was an easy 
matter for the Dutch, English, and even French merchants to come 
lo Manila and import their goods, after previously taking the pre- 
caution to put an Asiatic in command as captain of their ship. 

'Ttiu )f<)lii-^ rif tlif <>srly Spanich {^')Tpm^^F) was to pn<-o»nfK> thto tnuie. 11«>tween 

IRS^t ■■- I 1 ■'• ■ t I' '.-t, ortuarktjt |iliuv, wttfll'uilt (i»r IheChiiitwviii Mnniln, to which 

tti' brinK tht'ir iiiorrlmiKlioe Uit ^alc. Thn occnnvd (liiriui; the 

S;i>. : .to, wtK>f«Ul>lt»)ifal Atiil i-<)llfrt4><t ilij|>nr1 ftli>lfX|HiH iliilieflOli 

oi' ' \>!Tw. Ill- Morfn wyv: "lie hiiiMir^Hi 2 \<t% tvn\ diilv <'ii nieix-haodii 

eoi' r Np« Sjiftin vn*\ 3 prr (Titt nn thi^ ycMKb iiit]xir1e>l nv the ChincsB' 

Dk* )'iiilu>|>in»Nr, umI tillli"tit.''i lhi'< xam ilitta|i|ir>rvi.tl of »iv\ \<\»xuv\ Kir liAviriK beoH'] 
llunv wiltiuill unliTf Iniiii Hi- Mni"^lv, thri»* •hi(lf*< rmiliiiisiHl tu Iw iui|>owd Sixl' 
■hlipliMl lhmi-«)(iirwiin1." T' ' ''' t". ' . : ' r the statement that 

iflinuM- hint l>^cii •- <7:i, hot there iff no 

irri nf thi> n>llr-j-ti<'ii uf iltiL..^ |...' ' .-.',■ iIom. — Director. 

* /^uioujct, A coiiUnrL for the dirtrihiiliviii ■ v. — Director. 



848 



HISTORY. 




New .Spain, Peru, and other Spanmb poasfxaBions in tbc Ampriras 
wp.n' s(»0('if!('nlly prohihitcKl from Rnj^iigiiig in rnmuRM'CP with ChinH 
and with thr Philippino Islands up to tho years ifirtl and IS93, when 
orders wcro issued allon-iiif^ a lliiiitod cunmicrciiil iutcrcoursc hntween 
those countries and the Kastom HGintspliere. As a spiMiial act of grace 
ti> the iTsidents of Manila, tlie royal c<^dula of 151*3 allowed this city to 
send Asiatic goods to New Spain, but the owners of the exported goods 
must aecompnny them to their destination, and under no circuinstanccii 
were the poods to Ito sent oonsignod to people living in Mexico. In 
addition, Manila was prohibited from sending to Acapuico more tlwn 
one ship a year, not to exceed ^>0 tons burden, and the cargo of 
which should not exceed in value 'J50,lMiU i>csos. The i-oyal eedula also 
provided that on its return trip from Aeapulco the ahip should not 
bring to the Philippine Islands a grejitor sum of money than /i<«i,(H)0 
pesos. No one eould bring in, diroctly or indii-ectly, from Aeapulco 
silver bullion in any form; thia waa done to prevent the merehantii 
from exceeding the 500,000-pe8o limit. Before an immigrant could 
bring hi.s own nutney into the Philippine Idand^ he had to tile a bond 
guarantoeiug that he would reside in these islands for a term of not less 
than eight years. 

These tymnnioil provlsionsof law were not complied with. As a mat- 
ter of fact. Manila exported to Acapuloo all the goods available, and 
the uaos bix>ugbt back to the Philippine Islands all the money tliat 
anyone cared tu send. 

The sum of 50f>,(KK) pesos, n>entionud altove, which could legally be 

imported from Mexico, represented not only the profit derived from 

the salo of the articles exported from Manila, but »l»>o included what 

was called e/ aitumh^ which represented the fiuids .'♦eot by the King 1« 

the colony to [Wy the costn of the local aduiinixlmtion.' 

/" The moithautM of Cadiz and Seville had a uionopuiy <if the eom- 

\ mercc with Aiueriea and therefore did not look with favor on the trade 

/in silks and Cliinese products which «■«« U»ing built up Wlween 

'\MauiIa and the Kew World, loaHmuch a-^ a certain aniuunl uf com- 

petition was necessarily waged against Spaiiisb (H}uimeroe. It wan 

due to the complaints and the clamor of the Spanish merchants that 

the King decided to issue the c^ula, imposing the i-estriciions on 

commerce mentiooed above; the Spanish merchants did not ceuat! to 

' The Bh«n> <if the tsixnt (or tribute) twrlaininK to llw Govwnment anil colltwlitl 

(p"" " -11— ^^,>- ..imI i-.™«Iy. at ilrei wliylly. Id Ibe pnxtncta of Ih- - rv. 

'I ' 1 in I III' <~iovornincDtston^onseat Man^i i-- 

)■•', ' i-itltoi thc^royiil Ireamry [or goodsbroucl' In 

by onouial ttu'j>:ri4. i'W Uliim-Ht". Inililii. and other tnuva tims obmiiitit y,vn 
parke<l Mich v'*flr trt ■"ta'-ily tlf tyn hniidr'^ b*J« ol (-qiwl -ire and sluiin-, ntwl 
BhijtiNHl iti 'I ■ 1 , Th'wri'nt iii« 

annniilnll" '.tju>lu;" i:' ik 

nhippoi) triiiii >i.in;-ii •*'•• ■■■■■•^ ri-uiu'' :v -'liii' utiI itmnimt to ■..vi-r (■ it 

«tiuul liMlif iWl'-Wnfj' «U)ulile>l III tht> )>r<H.-tw>tfO< lln> carip*,— y>' . 



^^ 



COMMERai-; AND REVENUES. 



S49 



jpetitioD the court, and ia the year 10<>4 tho royal c6dula of 1591} was 

|rtypublisbe<l, und all of the prohibitioD.<! ami i-cKtrictions on the rom- 

^mercc bebveen these ishinds and New Spain wfii'o reiterated. In 

compliaiK:« with tbiti uew maudate thu ^rovcnior of tho Philippine 

Ulaiid^, in the year KKIo, began to enforce the piwisiouti of the 

ro^Til I'fiduin of 1583. 

For tho purpose of diHtrihuting the i-arj^o placed niMiard tho nao 
which yearly sulcd to Aeapulco, tho governor preseribed regulations 
as foItowH: Tho chip's hold wan divided into a e<>rtain niimher of 8paceH 
allied fto/^tan, and caeh sjiace was supponed to <^ontniii a [Mekage of 
merchandiso of given dimoimions; tho spaeen were more or less than 
l,54)»i in nuDiber, and were auhdivided into thi-ee or six parts, and 
many persons wen' able to Hcciire only one or more such milKlivinionH; 
as an indiHpensable prorequiAito. exi)ortei-s had to prove that they were 
memltors of the t-onmlado (tribunal of commcree) and that, together 
with the other mombers of that corporation, they hud eontributed 
their share to the ail,000 pcaoa which wore paid to the captain of tho 
nao for eaeh round trip. Spaees aboard these naos were also nllottcd 
to certain of (he otlinialK, to widows in indigent eondition, and to 
other l»cneliciarie.s, but most of thejfo pei-iwns not being in posseission 
rof the goodn for export, or Wcause they were not niembera of tho 
h'on^ulado, were in the habit, of selling their rights to others who were 
able to engage in the export trade.' 

When the men*hauts needed funds they borrowed them of the ohrM 
\j»iaji (charitable in^ititutions), the profitji from tho transactions of which 

*Toniia (io Comyt) Id hie work, "TI10 Stale of the Vhilippiau blaude," written 

near the rl(wc<)< tho pprirtrt when Ihe rommerrl»I refflrirlldns wen* in foiw, Bap: 

"8c«nvly will it Iw Iwlivretl iti lh<i (mnU-r p«rt of riviliw^l Kuruiie that a Hpatush 

rmloajrexblH K-tui>t:-ii .Vxia uii'l Aiix^ricu whnee n]fn>htti)l« are torbidden to avail 

llbcRinlvcfl f>i l)i*-ir ivJ v«nt«K<->ou[i )>i(iuitit-in. itml thai iw a fipccinl favor nnly are they 

raUowed to vvnA their vtffctB %•> Mwkk-'j uikv » y<wr, bat uouor ihti followina rwttric- 

hiiiDfl: Tl ia a m-'rcMOu-y cuiKlition lliat cvurv fliipfnTHhall Iw ameuiU-r «( the lM)«nl of 

|tnulc, anil thfroin t-iititk^l to a vole, which ituf>pO0M a n>«rideno« of eonio years in 

be oooDtry, bwidwf Uie po»ennoD of properly of bi« own to the luiioiuit 01 $S,000. 

le in coinpt'lltHl to Join with the other ia<!nilH.'ni in ordor t'> In* iraaLlcd to eliip bis 

''froodfi in tM)u») of a ilL-tt-miirM?*! form and dim^n^ioni, in on*^ nn^ilo Teawl, arranjied, 

fitted out, and c-otuiuand«<) by officent of the royal navv, under the cb«i«<,-t«r of a 

i-ot-war. Ht' )iua alHo to i.'uiiirihitlp htH proportion nr^SO.OOu, which. In the form 

. pmwnl, iM ^wvn to llie commaiidtr nt the eod of every nmnd %'Oyi\g<r. lie 

x^n ti'.t i" ■'••%■ wnv iiiti^rfere iii the chMii-e or qualities of the vewul, mHwilhi-tiuiilinii 

!u (><> odventorcd in hnr; and what (XROplplce itirextravaij^uiceot the 

t; tivforeanytliiusiH dont; be must p)iydownlJ5to4tl[-i<r<x-nt forfreislil, 

art-<»nliti|f III i-irriiiiiHtaiit't'a. wnii-b inivn^y itdiMtiibnltsl ainnnx tvrtuiii t-aiionH, aldnr- 

m-^. ■iil-flhf'r'^ of lln> iiriny, and widown of Spaiiinril!', to whom a pvon numlwr o( 

' (>«nnilw to whip are granti>.l, either an a t^tmpenBalion for lh» 

iiiiy or in the way of a privilpK*"*. hut on cicotPHB ntndiliou thai, 

I ' ! .. -• aro nut iii4'nil>i-n> of Ihi- lioitrd of tradi' thpy shall not be 

iii'< imiuifer th<-m to |«-r>>iiH ii<it hiiun^ thut (|iialitT- In the 

' ^■'■''•••i tfiveii. uiiht*- tin- iiriiiilH'r ol bolt-* In it' Biiip(»r"l ar\' 

iptiiiK (a-rinitti, and im il ffMiupnliy liiippi-nB that then 

'■oni: fbi- iHtrtit^* seokinK 1'^ 'ry Iheii f*iTtniK« in lhi« 

I'ldrm (if tliH [If riiiits vt>ry o(t<,>ii hun^t Ijtu'k in Mich manner ituit 

)rffr4v] for till' LnutHff4- of a rinchL Io ship thii^c- hal(^, whldh 

y conlninod ^godfl (o Uie amoanl of fl.OOO. "— A'r«f«f . 



fti' ■ 
all' 




|1 navL* m.fA\ 9.'iO() 



were tised to care for orphans, to endow hospitals, and for oertoin 
(Kimationiil pin-poses. tmwniiK'b as the nnos were seldom seaworthy 
for such long trips, nmritiiiie di.sastors worn coinimm owurrencea Imlh 
on the outward nnd homeward Innnd trifM, and the charitiihle instUu- 
tiona at times suffered such looses that were it not for the exorhiiant 
rates of interest they charged on monej" advanced t^» exiK>rters they 
would have been forced into bankruptcy. Out a.s tiiese imititutions 

[bad the foresijfht to e^tabli-Mh an enormous sinking fund tliey were 

rable to survive almost any low which they jiutfered on the high seas. 

In order to be able to export goods to a greater value than the 
S50,D00-pesos limit, the exporter.-* undervalued their goods, and the 
same system was adopted in the valuation of tlie silver bullion broug-ht 
from Mexico. This gave rise to the peipetration of fmuds to a ron- 
sidemblp extent. On tho return trip the naos were loaded with all 
the silver they could bring, and the ships being of flimsy construction 
the extra amount of cargo added greatly to tlic dangers to which they 
were exposed. 

In 1635 the Spanish merchaDts sent » Hhip to Manila for the object 
of investigating the frauds perpetrated in the trade which was carried 

.on with Acapuico; as a result of this visit tlm Government adopted 
eti'ict nicHT'ures to enforce cumpliance with the royal mandates. 
When the usual amount of exehauge medium Imported from Acapulco 
was forced down to the &00,000-peso« annual limit, tJie merchants 
engaged in itiit>orting Cliinese goods found them(>elveH without the 
Decessary medium of exchange for the paymeots due by them to the 
Chinamen, atid as a necessary sequel the Chinamen (|uit bringing 
goo<lB to thft Philippine Islands and there was nothing to export to 
Acapulco. In 1(>3H the onforcoment of the severe measures which had 

.been adopted for preventing fnualH in the tmdo with Acapulco was 
discontinued, and from that time the colony agalri )>vgau to thrive, or 
at least to get along better tluui when the law was strictly eofori'cd. 

Tlie people liviug in Manila, of all classes, continued to [tetition the 
sovereign tu grunt moi-o liberal ooncessioos to the commerce of these 
islands, and tinalty, in the year 1702, the King ordered that goods to 
the amount of 3<H),000 pesos a year could bo cx^wrtcd to Mexico and 
that money to the amount of 6«().iMKl jx-sos could Iw brought back to 
Manila. But the merchants of Seville and CAdi^ agaixi clamored fur 
prolnttion. so that in 171H un order was issued prohibiting the ship 
merit friiui Manila to Acapulco of any Chinenu silk, whether manu- 
factured or unmanufactured. The vieen>y of New S|min objectud to 
the prnvtsionfi of thi^ niyal c<^dul» and wrote to Mmli-id, making clear 
the daoiMgi^ which It. did to tlie colony, but (hu King n_>fu.scd lo he 
mviiiccd, and in the year J7^0 the royal ctklitla was again published, 
vilb all uf its pivviuuH prohibitious, 



I 
I 



• 



I 



The merchants of Manila then sent a represenlative to Spain, who 
*ue<-cedefl in securing the vepeal of this unwiM! law, and iti IT'^Mnnilu 
px porters ngHin began to send silks to Mexico. But cuimnerco wuh 
hanissed by orders and counter ordoi-s. «ome of whith eocouragi-d and 
others diwoumged the export and import trade of th&re i5Lin<L>, until 
in theyejirl734 it was definitely decreed that Manila «bou]d be allowed 
to engage in the export trade of Chinese silkn, that exports to the 
valne of otHj.txii) p(s*w could Ije sent annually to Mexitxj. aiid that sil- 
ver to the value of 1,UU0,UU0 peHOei could b« imported annually from 
that country. 

It was against these obstat-le^ that the commerce of the colonies had 
to battle during two ccnturie.-«. The i.stands were niade subject to the 
Mine restrictions and inquiKitoi-ial nietbudN which Spain applied Lo all 
of her colonies in America and which api>our lo liavu been Ui« fmlte 
of the economic ideas of that period in the mother country. 



RHiri-lKG. 



As soon as l^ga^pi had c^tabliBhcd himself in Manila he diiTcted 
that a shipyard l>e provided for the cariH>ning of veHSclt> and building 
of naoK, which were the ships of war and the merchantinou in whicti 
were carried all of the imports and exports between Uio archipelago 
and Europe and America. 

Competent engineers and shipbuilders were lacking, and thei-cfore 
such sJii[>s as were buili wei-e defective and clninj?y; they were f mm 
l,iiO<) to 1,6(K) ions burden, resembled frigulej>, and carried a batt«ry 
on the upper deck. Tlie fact that one of these ships croHsed the ocean 
safely and arrived in port without a niisbap wan conMJdored as a kind 
of minu^le, and cveiy time a nao arrived in the harbor the fact was 
celebrated officially, the church IhiIIm chimed, and a solenm To Dnum 
1 was- chanted in the chnrche«. Even though the naos were fortunatre 
enough to escape the tempestM on the high se.as, thrir troubles were 
not over, as when they got closer to land they had to run the gantlet 
of the Dutch, Portiigue*ie, and Rnglish pirate*, who, dnrijig the Hrst 
two centnriea after tlie occupation of the Philippine UlandH, infested 
the South seas and frcqnently visited Philippine waters. 

The English corsair, Tlionun Cavendish, in 15S6 (warded and set fire 
to the nao Santa Ami near the California coast. As was the cus- 
tom on theae ships, they had removed the cannon from the deck 
and bad stored theni Ijelow in the hold. This wa>i done to have more 
room on the deck, and the result was that the Knglisb met witii no 
neUtance whatever from the Spanish sailor»i on the nao. 

In I74:i the Knglish Admiral, Anmn, oipturcd tlie mm (Wm/Z/mt/it^ 

)ming from Mexico, and having nlniaVd the silimdo the government 

fuada. The capture vrtm made near the Cap** of the Holy Gliosis island 




of S^mar. The Spaniards madn n desperate reaustanoe^ but were 
obliged to capitulate, and Anson (■nj>tiirtHi iiIkkiI l,fi(.K1.000pB90B. In 
1762 the English corsair, Drakr, capturtHl tbo nao Trinidad^ with a 
cargo valued at 3,000,000 pesos. 

The custoDi wii!4 for the nno."* to leavcj Manila in July or August, 
expecting to arrivo in Arapulco somo time lietween IV'eeuiJjer and 
February following; the return trip waa made )>Gtwccn March and 
June. Although as a general thing there wa^t only one nao en route 
at any oue time, another wjls held in rwcrve in Manila in order that 
conimeroe should not be intorntpted in cnnc any at.'cident should happen 
the other ship- The trip from Manila to At-apulco took from six 
eight month». It was a common occurrence for the water and food 
supply to b« exhausted, and the suffcringH and hardships which the 
posiKsngerH und crpw had to undergo made this journey a most dis- 
agreeable and porilouei undertaking. 
The cargo was taken aboard at Cavitc, and before the ship loft the 
irbor it returned to Manila, where a priest, who stationed himself on 
to sea wall, blessed the undertaking. The »hip .mailed through the 
Strait of San Bernardino, and once on the Pacific it steered in a north- 
eaifterly direction until it arrived at 30^ north latitude, and from there 
on relied on the southeast trade wiudn to waft it to the California 
coast. From Manila to Acaptilco no port was touched. It is a fact 
that at 4*)''- or 45- north latitude ths ships could have availed them- 
selves of stronger winds and could have increased their speed; but the 
captains of these boats were strictly prohibited from going farther 
north than 30°, as it was feared that the nao, on account of it* faulty 
construction, or the ignorance of the nftvigat^>rs aboard, and of the 
heavy cargo carried, would be in great risk of shipwreck. The return 
from Atftpulco was made with greater speed, usually in about 
jventy days. 

At the beginning the commander of the nao was given tbo Utle of 
cnho. He was appointed by the Governor of the Philippine Islands 
and wft-'^ usually a person of some influence. The pilot, who waa 
second in command, was the only person aboard who really under- 
d anything a!»out navigution. Al a later date the naos carried 
ml a general and an admiral, whose sul>ordiuat«s wore the 
captain, lieutenant, sergeant and 10 soldiers, the pilot, the boatjiwaiii, 
and the clerk. Suh^ucntly there woi'e also added a dmplain. a sur- 
geon, and other petty otficers. The armed force alfoard was also 
increased to 50 men. Strange to say. although these ships i>elonged 
to the King, when they iirrivexj in Manila and were dinuiantled to 
an'ait the next journey, the ofiieer,s Htioai*d took possMi^ioa of all the 
tittings and fumisbing'< of the ship except the nrtillory. It therefore 
liocamo uecesBary to rctit the nao every time abe «ulod; but tbiit did 







COMMEKCE AND REVENUES. 



858 



I 



lOt mean that new articles were piu'obased, it bein^ the custom to 
uy fruDi tLo ship's officers all of the Gttini^ uud furnishingii which 

cy had removed from the ship when it arrived from it« last trip. 
Thiti dbttrihutioii of the articles aboard the bhip auiuDg the officers 
waa called gnje* dd q/loio. 

Each pHAAenger carried with him his own provimons aod ncrvants. 
The rcmiltin^ dir^order and a^'glomomtion of {woplo and personal 
effoctaand chattels of orerj' kind on deck were almost indescribable. 
In 178S the governor iastied regnJations for the carrying of cargoes, 
the loading and unloading of the ships, and the general organization 
and management aboard.' 

NaoH and other larger ships were also bnill in Tayabut, Fampanga, 
Mindoro, and in other ports in the archipelago, wherever a sit^, could 
be selected on the seashore suitable for shipbuilding purpose?), and 
adjacent to some forest from which the proper building timber could 
Iw obtained. Notwithstanding the fact that nothing was paid for the 
lumber used, the building of a nao cost auywhcre from 100,000 to 
130,00<J po«w. 

In order to defend the local shipping and coast towns from the 

rates who infested the inland waters of the archipelago, as well 
the pirates of the high seas who from time to time threatened 

e inlands, ai-marlaj» and annadiUcJi (small squadrons or fleet*) were 



' In the hifltoricBl introdnctko] tn "The Philippine Idlaniifi," by Blair and Bohert- 
SQii, Pmr. EtlwKixlGHylorBittntit', quotiiix Irom tlie tiiBtoriano Le Gentil andZufltinL, 
frtvi» (lio following doKripUoQ of LliRuaiuf tbuKi^leon: 

"Tlic tiOTemmeDt reierved alxwt l.50(> tialf«. The rapAcity alt the wesel was 
measun-d, lakinif ana unit a bale about Sf f<^t loup, lOinrhvebroait, and 'Jf^et hi^h. 
If, Ihcu, tbu rcatel could carry 4.000 of tliE^e balw, vucb bale might Ih> jiavlitxl with 

CB np to a value of tViSt. Tlie rifiht to ithip waa known aaaffolfio, or ticket. 
ili«tributioti of tlieeo tickets was delemiuiw! at the town hall by a board made 
up o( lh« Kovcmor, attomey-generalf the d<«a of the audienda, one ^oaldi, one 
rtgidor, andeiKbt Htizena. 

"To facilitati^ the allotment and iiale of ticketth they were dividf^l into nxtbs. 
TirketJ^ wen* npdinarily worth in the later nighte<-nth i-enlnry in timtw of poiu<e, WO 
to$l<W, and in war time tliey nweto upwanl of $300. Lo (itntil telk us that in 1766 
tbejr Buld f'jr 1200 ami more, aad that the ijalUon that ycnr went loaded beyond the 
timil. Enrh ntlirjal, ap the penjnirdte of (lia office, had tickcta. The re^ioons and 
akixliW» had pi^bt. 

"The rimall holders who did not chid to take a venture in the voyaip, disposed of 
their tirkets to merriuintfl nr RnoruLaton, who liorrowod monev, mnally of the 
j^lKhfUii c»rporatioui>, at 25 t«> »0 \<vr cent )>«r anmim to bay tnein up, and who 
booRbt u moov u two or three hundred. The oomtnand of the Acspulto 
I miB the lalt«flt office within the gift of tlie f^vemor, who twetuwud it u|)on 
ver he deaired to make happy lor the c^mmiimon,' and waa equivalent to 
of from SM.OOO to tlOO,OU). Tliu wna mnilo np from eommiffdonf , part of the 
je ntODoy of lUuwni^rM, {nun tbr Anln of th» frv^iftfat tirkelA, and from the gilts 
the mcrtbarile. Captiuu ArvuellH told Caivri in 1696 that his (timmitinoos would 
auHiont to fS^iOmi, and that in all he would make $40,000; that the pilot woahl riear 
f20,000 luxl U»' ■>ijit.'« t^.OOO narh- Tlio iny of the lailon was $360, of whidi f 79 
advoiicvl belurn? the start Tlif mcrvhoiits expected tocleox 160 to200 per cent. 
" i*Mg(!r fan- at the «id of tlir? fl^ht^^nth century wim 11,000 for Iho voyajfe to 
I, whit'h wan tin? hariliwl and ViUO fur tho n'tnrn. t'artri'H voyajite lo At* 
Sum two hundrtil and four dam The ordinary time (or the voyage to 
kWH from tKvi«ty-flva to ninety uays." — Direetor. 

»ia2— raL 1- 



Of 



fitted out Those fleets conaUted of galleys nnd of old oaos that had 
been used in the Inide hflweon Acapnlro and Mnnila and of smallerj 
craft of dUfcreut kiods, all of which were built in liiese islands. 

INSULAR TBAUS. 

In the year 17S3 there nus organized in Madrid the Chrnpttflia 
JFiliplna^^ which was •^^ranted the exclusive privilege and other oon- 
oe&sions to trade with the.-« i»landi«, lint this c-ODiimny never carriec 
out the objects for which it was or^nixed. An attempt had Iveer 
made in Manila in 1771 to trade with the Asiatic ports. The frigataj 
De^eada was in that year sent to the const of Malahar. The result wi 
not Katisfactory and trade from then on cuntinued to he curried in for-1 
cign bottoms. Kinjr Charles III ordered that direct eommunicntion 
should be established between CMiz and Manila and that n fri^te of 
war should he sent annually with a cargo of goods lo the i^hilippine 
Islands with instructions to bring back a loud of the products of tbeae 
island)* and Chinese merchandii^e. ^ 

The frigate Biun Comejo was the first to leave Oiidiz on this mis^^ 
don. It rounded the Capo of Good Hope and aiTived in Manila in 
I7ft5. These annual trips were continued from that date until 1783^1 
in which year they were suppressed or discontinued. ^^ 

In 1786 the King authorized the creation of another company called 
the li'M O'tnjHtiiia fh Fifiphim, to which was given the monopoly 
of all navigation and commerce betnecn the archipelago and Agnatic 
port^ and Cadiz.' Tliiu company fthould not have interfered with th4 
commerce between Manila and Acapuloo, but Devcrthctosa, owing to the 



ea 

1 



* Manuel AscorrMra, in "La Libcrlad del Coiucrrio do Filipinu," mys: 

"Totliu 'Real <A>mpiififa dt> FiLipiam)' •khs i-oiicvtIeiJ the excliwive privilege o( 
tnde lM?i«-Mtt 8paiii and the im-hipelugo, with ibo excvplioQ of tiia traffic betireen 
Manila aad Acapalco. lU ehipx conl'l fly tlie Itoyal SUiniJard, with a ligtuU to dt^ 
tintcuiEh Iheiu frvni Kiir v»»Htl8. It hm nlluirw] two yv^n, <x>untin2 (rum \h» date 
of charter, to acquire foreign huilt vessula and reeiflter ihum iiudur thf Fpwiteb Sag 
free of (c«s. It oould import, duty fr««, any ^oods for Vhv tittinj^ out of il« ahij 
t\ii\m' tuw. It o.iul'l take into its wn-ici* royal naviil oifirem, and while theee^ 
BO vmployod thoir tvtiiuntv would continue to count, aiid in all nnpectA they 
enjoy the ntroe right« na if they were scn-inj; in tho imv>'. It ctMifd enpape- f 
8a)loniatidofnren<,aIwayi< providixl that thi-captainandchicfofHciT were Spar 

"All cziflUng d(%niv and royal oMcn; forliidding thn ini]inrt«tioii into tliit ' 
mlaof staffil and mnnnfacturtil anicUti from Inditi, China, and Japan wltw abr 
in favor of thi»ooni[iKny. E^lippiDv produw. loo, shipped lo Hpnin by tite' 
panycould enter duty hw, 

"The prohibition oit dir*-i.-t trathc with Cliina and India w*« henceforth nboltiht 
in (avor of all Manila merebaDdiw. and the romiiany's Bhipe ia partteuUu- conld 
at Chineae portx. 

••Tii«««nipiuiy nn<l«rtool( lo mipport Philippine ajpicttltare. and to upend wll 
thia objeet A j-er c-nt "f if? m-t pr'jfits." 

The '-(Mnponr v. ■ ■ ■ . <ail its shi' • 

Cont^nv>'n^l<>ll of >' ' Iwit no M>r 

aaiat, ior-Spiiutt^!' 
mm pot fr-nred \- 

wen pmhiliitwl U ^...^ i ... .,-..,. .,■ .- , ,-.,.!,-. ^ 

they WMV nllowod to briuj; in uriuntal i.roo'l?. — thr^tSor. 




Ennpa via rap4> Mom 

I to tllin HT 



.,,l..--~. 



i 



P 
W 






jonlouaies Irctweeii the rivrU lines, (he old di.spiite was revived regarding 
tlie right nf the nao to carry Chinese, Tndiun, atid .Tu|)utie^ inorchan- 
dLse. and articloi^ of Pliilippine pru<luctiun U) Acapulco. The Kail 
('iiiii[iat1la de Filipinais, with the oliject uf building up a Im-al market, 

istributcd round stmis among the agriculturists for the purposn of 

ucouraging the culiivaMoii of indij^'o. i^oltiin, Hilk. sugar, and spices; 

ut tlie [>eople of Manila wem l)etter MHtisHed with (lie cuuuuorrc that 
was rarried on with Acapulco, which had now become an cstab- 
Unshed line of traffic. The Kejil Couipanla ivccived little encourage- 
ment in its efforts to develop the islands, as ii was generally believed 
that the benelits derived would lie enjoyed by the company an<l not 
by the people. 

In order to advance the interests of tiie Keal CompaR(a the King, 
in 1789, is-4ne<l a decree making Manila a froo port for the importation 
of all kinds of Asiatic products, and allowing the foreign >'hlp» to 
enter freely. This was done to furnish tlie rouipany with cargoes as 
freight to Spain, but notwith.-^taiidiDg the^tc measures the financial 
condition of the new navigation company beeatne worse from year to 
year. The management of the conipatiy was bad; i^me of the con- 
tracts entered into were absurd in their nature and impracticable. Its 
business remained undeveloped because of the amount of red tape 
attending the adniinistration in every branch. In the year 1880 the 
company went into bankruptcy and ceased all operations. The privi- 
leges and concessions which had been granted to it were then repealed 
and the port of Manila was officially o[XMied to foreign ships and 
foreign trade.* 

Besides the encouragement given by the company to the develop- 
ment of agriculture in the Pliilippine Inlands, it attempted to foster 
Other enterprises, such as the manufacture of domestic fabrics, cotton 
cloths, f/iitjiaratf^ and other cloths and fabrics. 

In 17^*0 the company had inve.-jted in r^hips the sum of 591,dOI> pesos, 

nd in buildings and land» the sum of -l2^,U(iO peaoe; in the space of live 

ite gross receipts reached the sum of 9,5iH>,000 pesos, and the 

I value of funds handled for all purposes in conducting \U cnter- 

[prises wa>« 23,488,-kK> peso0. The total profits during the first five 

yo&rs in which it did Itu^incss were CMtimated at H0:d,(j50 pesos. 

The encouragomeiit which the company luid given to industrial 
enterprises, principally agricultural nndortakiiigii, and the opening of 
the port of Manila to the commerce of the world, in a short time 
produced most satisfactory results. While it is true that trade with 

eapuico had ended, another comnierco had been built up on a more 
aoUd basis. Under the changetl conditions the colony was exporting 




■Ttieprivi[4!t{Mot tlw voniiiaay »«i« deerMcl tn have expjretl tiy royal onl«r of 
Stay 2t(, \mi.—DtrtcU>r, 



products of ita own raising' and manufacture, and the markets of 
Euroiw werp now open to its export trade. 

In the year 1S14 the Kngli.sh (JoTcrmucnt obliged Spain to open to 
foreign trado certain ports in its colonics and to allow foreigners to 
establish thpnisnlvfts and l>cM:onie rosidenU in such ports. The insults 
of this action by the English were quickly felt. English, American, 
Gennnn, and French nicrt'hanti^ were soon cstablishod in 3i[&nila,Bgri' 
rCulturo was rnooiiragrd, and tho amount of ex{)orted goods increased 
rapidly; tbc importance of this export trade coiLHtantly increased and 
waa in a flourishing condition at the date of tho loss of these islands to 
Spain. 

For a short period there was a suspension of the import and export 
trade, due to a suspicion on the part of foreigners and the ill feeling 
(produced by the aKsa^isi nation of the foreign i-esidents in Manila by 
Uiepopulat-e in IHdO, who were excited thereto by certain of the friars; 
but within a short time foreigners had again taken up their residence 
in Mnnila, and from that time on their work for the civilization of thoae 
islands WAn uninterrupted.' 

In tho year 18Si> there was created a Junta de arancelat (a com- 
mittccon t'ustonis dnticH) whirh prepared and published a tariff of 
rate>t and llxed the duties on the different kinds of good^. A distinc- 
tion was made in the tariff l>otween goods imported in ships carrying 
tliR SpaniKh Hag and those imported in foreign ships. In 1865 the tariff 
rates were moditicd, but the principle of protecting the Spanish ships 
was prcaerred. After this the tariff rates wore changed several times, 
I and these changes were not always for the best. Opportunities for 
the commission of frauds were made, inasmuch as the tariff rates wore 
fixed on an ad valorem basis until in 1891, when new »chedales were 
provided in which the ad valorem basis was abolished. 

About the middle of the nineteenth century Messr.^ Huasoll, Sturgis 
& Co. and Messrs. Peet, Hubcll & Co., of the United States, established 
themselvcH in business in Manila. In order to encourage the produc- 
tion of bemp and nugnr the representatives of these two hou^^es dis- 
tributed Urge sums of money in the provinces to the agriculturists; 
and owing to this roopcration and to work of a .similar nature which 
Mr. Looey, an English Kubject. did in lloHo and other provinces of the 

' From the tim» of the eiflablulinieiil of ^jp■lush anvem^rity in thu Uilanil« oodl 

181&, when the laat cUite Rnllvon left Acspulco, Mexico. f"r Manila [thp lost one for 

~1exiiu lia^-ing lofl Afanlla in 1811), them was no dtKcl (niil<' with t^poio. anil fur 

lOrc thAn tn-o ivoturics tbc commerce wflfi confined to Tllexiro, daring oeArly the 

.. bole of w hich peno'l Acapaico was the port of dc8tmatir>i). A few ^hiT^eQti wore 

Eat flret maile t<> Naviilail. The galleons not only ronveywl iH' .. ? - 

tand rcfuntinjr, hut alao civil anil reUttioUHfunctir.nari(», ricva.ii> 

' miUtjiry offivoia imd troopa, prisooetv, anil mailB. Xbajr couhui <> ' 

of oonuoanicatJoa anil tnuuportaCion. The janengw Care at ttn' 

eenlh century fnr a rcnrnd trip waa f 1,G0Q, and the voyage laati.! 

moatha.— iArrafor. 



thgniof 

•■ uwaiM 
It' elgbV 

• i to nix 



I 
a 

I 
I 




ex 

el 



ViMyan Islands, tbc exportation^ of heiap and sugar increased from 
year to year, and the export trade of the Philippiiu' Islands was greatly 
uij^cnted. In the year 1S52 the Spanish Bank of the Philippine 
Islands was eatabtisbcd in Manila, with a capital stock of 4l>i)^000 peso6, 
which was suhs«iuently increased to l,500,4XiO pe,sof. Thi» bank was 
the only one authorized to i^uc notes, and it atill claiuuj but does nut 
enjoy that privilege. 

At the present moment the agricultural interests, which are the basis 
of the export, trade, are passing through a period of prostration more 
wriouA than any heretofore known in the history of these islands, due 
to the almost complete loss of the caralmos. which are the work stock 
of the country; to the locnnt pest, which has afiUcted many scctiona 
during the last few years; and to the upheaval caused by the war, 
which has not yet subsided. Owing to the production of hemp, copra, 
lid tobacco, the iMilance of trade in lltOS was in favor of the Philip- 
ines, and in all probability the value of the exports will continue to 
exceed the value of the import** for the year 1903. The monetary 
standard for the Philippine Ulandi* wan at one time gold, which was 
coined in Manila tu a mint establiirhed in iB57. The deaomiiiBtive 
alues of Ibe coins itc^iued wei-e I, 2, and 4 peso pieces; but the Spanitih 
overn me nt having allowed Mexican silver peaOA to circulate in these 
itflaodti at par with the local coins at a time when the price of silver 
was going down all over the world, the stock of Philippine gold coins 
Mion left the archipelago. The insular treasurer hant lately put in 
irculation a new coin of a denominative value of 1 pc^o, and of an 
intrinsic value of 50 cents in money of tho I'nited States, and since 
January 1, 1004, Mexican money ban not been ucc«pt«d an legal 
tender in thc^e i^nlandg. 

SEVEN CK8. 

At the start the Spanish colonists could depend on scant revenues 
for the expenses of the Government in the new colony; tho small 
amount of taxes collected consisted principally of tributes paid by the 
Hiipino tribes. A percentage tax wa8 collectcKl on all gold coined 
into money, and the stantpod imper ai>d otlier taxed collei^ted in iiisig- 
nilicant sums aa fee** on certain official docuinents constituted, with 
tho tribute paid by the Chinese residents, the total revenuei! on which 
the government could rely. It became neceasary that the viceroy of 
Hmico should di-aw on his cash \mx to help the Philippine Istnnda 
meet thoir budget of expenHt^f^; a ccitain sum, called el t^ituadu, was 
8dot unuually from Mexico to JVlauila for this purpoise. 

The Dttuado at the start was in the nature of a loan made by Mexico, 
bnt by the provisions of a royal ctVluIa date<l KebniHry lit, IWH, it 
w»a provided that the total of the custom-house collections in Aca- 
pulco on the ChiuOAc aud Philippine product^ imported from Manila 
abould annually bo sent to thc»o islands, aud that asy additional sum 




rpquired far the expCQMw of tbcric ialandH nbould I»e utade up from the 
Mexican tivusun,*. 

In tho year 1H20 the total revenues coUectod in the Philippine l.-flnndH 
wero Bft3,tfy^ ppMos, und rw tho expcnsea of the uoyemmrnt were 
850.7.14 pTrtos, the Mexioin tn'fL>^iiry liad Ut .^nd the *25B,SI2 pesm 
neif?4,-«r_v Ut Imlan*'* the Imdfjct. As a nintter of fact tliis ^^roat dtf. 
ference between the recoiptn and dUhur^ments would not have 
existed had it not been that the Philippint^ I.-Iiind!* were madf lo pay 
thci expeniMw of the government of the Molucca Inlands, whii-h at that 
time were in round numbei-H approximately 33<i.0(M) pe«>os a year. 

Ill 16W tiie tributes puid by the Indinn:* who lired on the Crown 
Undu were iiS.Tlo pt-^os; the tributes |»iid by the Indians who were 
eneomiendaji of private individunU, i. e.» who lived on Unds belonging 
to concessionarieji of tlie Spanish Gttreninient, iTached » t<»tj»l of :il.l07 
p«80«; the permits and oi-cti{>iitioii tuxos culle<ted from tho Chinese 
subjects yielded 112,000 pe^tov; the trihuto paid by the Chine^te resi- 
, dents wasS.SrjOpe^s; the ^ftinti> y <ii«gTno {&fih a.ni\ tenthl royally tax 
on gold mined in llie inlands wm 750 pesos; the t»x trailed dicemat 
tcUanaxticoi (church tithes) yielded 2,7fiO pesos; the customs duties col- 
lected on goods iniportci into Manila and into Acapulco, Mexico. 
amouatuHl lo 3'.'0,i)oiJ in'^os; there wi-iv nko i-ollet-ted as ijni-s und other 
minor ta>xes about 8,OiJ0 peiKM. 

Tlie tribute paid by the Indians for both the husband and the wifu 
was at the U'giiining 1 peso porannnni; afterward.^ thiA was iucreosod 
to 1.25 {>c»os,and was payable either in <«in or in products of tliesoil, 
or in goods in which the taxpuycr dealt; but by the Laws of the Indioa, 
it was provided that this tribute should l>e paid by the delivery of AO 
gmitojt de. palatj (ITiS.S quarts of rice in tho huitk) or *l^l gantaji of rice 
(tJ9.7(iuarL'i of rloiined rii-e), wbii'h were valued jit 3 reals (ft7t'entsi,and 
of 1 hcu, which wa» valued at 1 real, leaving reaU which were to be paid 
in coin. The <?hiiuiinen, both pure and mixed blood, paid tribuli! in 
higher sumH. 

In the year 1783 the Ouvernnient took over (he monopoly of the 
tolMicoo produced in tlio isIandK, with the ox|)Oi-tation of i-ollcoting 
handMiuie revenues from thnl so»n*e. The ruitiviitii>n of the t<tbaeeo 
plant was quickly extended to cei-tain sectionH believed to be udnptcd 
to its production. In the year 1783 tolmcoo wue being gruwu In the 
Visaynn Islands, in 17H4 in Panfjasinnn, in 17^5 in Nueva fii-ija 
((i»lX'm). in nUi in itulitciin, in 171^^ in C'ngayiin, in 17(>0 in Mindnro 
and Marinduqae, and by the year 1838 the eultJvation of tolioeco had 
t)eeri extiMided to the ^44vtiuTl of eotmtry occupiod by* Lho Igurut, in the 
provineet* of \a\ L'nion and Abra. 

la the y9»x ltiA8 ftbmijM'd {lapcr whr Hrrtt used ait an incmne produc- 
ing luediuni, and In the middle of tho eighteenth cenbiry tlio sale of 



I 



A 



COMMERCE AND UEVEXUES. 



859 



I 



papal biil)» wa^ tiUo takco up by the Lroiuiurer to His Majesty the 
Kiiij^ uf Spain; aootlier source of rcveaui- for the exchequer wero 
cock fi^btt>. wbicb were licenswl. and which had become foifbionabtn 
throut^Uout the Hrchipelairo. Lttter stilly in 1S3J, the iusulur revonucH 
TTcre increased by the Government taking over the monopoly for the 
[tnlv of opium, and uguiu iu iS50 by the e»ttibUsba]eut of an offieiiil 
lottery and Ibe profits derived thercfi'om. 

Prom customhouNudutioif were derived i*evenues which were devoted 
to government expense* from the first days of the establishment of 
the colony. The duties on imjmrted goodi> were estimated ad valorem; 
the a:«.se.s.-iable value was arrived at by increasing the prices given on 
Indian guodi^ 50 per cent and on Chineuc good.s 33^ per cent. 

The Indians were obliged to give forty days' labor in each year to the 
public service, or in default thereof to pHy a. tine to the public troaaury. 
In the year 1884 this tax was aboU.«hedand wa^ substituted by aspocios 
of jK>ll tax I'lilled rdihtla/i jH-rftnuilrv, this tax ranged from l.fiO pcdos 
to 37.50 pesos per annum. By tlie royal decire of IK.S3 all males, 
regardless of nationality, were obliged to prascnt thomselvcv* to the 
authorities for a lenn of fifteen days each year, or iu lieu thereof to pay 
the amount of 3 pnso?(. There i--* nothing contained in thi.-* royal decree 
regarding the date when the Indians were first obliged to comply with 
IlH provisions, but it is safe to assume that all the natives wero obliged 
to present themselves to the authorities annually at certain Umcsainco 
the first days of the Spanish sovereignty. Nevertheless, in the Laws 
of the Indies is contiiined a provision prohibiting anyone from accept- 
ing or enforcing unpaid labor; in Volume VI, Cliapter XII. 16(rit, is 
contained Law No. 40, which speeitically provides that under no pretext 
whati'ver shall the Indians Itc oblige<i to work without remuneration. 

Under another law {I^y<» de Indiax, Vol. VI, lltle 18) each China- 

n was made to p»iy the sum of 8 pesos as a residence tax and a sur- 
tax on this amount of l.iii) pesos to the public treasury, with the pro- 
viso that if. after the expenses for which this tax was collected had 
been p:iid, there was any balance left in the treasuri*, the taxpayers 
•houhl be cretlitcd in the next suceceding year with the proportion 
overpaid by them. In 17!>!> the residence tax was reduced to C pesos, 
but the aliens were made to pay an additional tax to cover the 
expenses of maintaining the hospital, the church, the police, and 
other admiDistrativo cxpensctt connected with tbo Puri&n, a building 
which had Iwen built cxcluaively for Chmese resident^) and In which 
they were obliged to live. 

In the yaar ISSrf the Chinese subjects resident in the Philippine 

nrls were divided into three clftwes according to their busiuees 

imrationH «>r trader: Fir»t, merchant^ of the fimt r1a»>s, who puid an 

annual t4kz of 120 pe^u^: Mcond. those who paid an annual tax of 4S 




kpesofl; and third, tho smaller tnoivhnnts who paid un annual tax of i-i 
Tho Chinese merchants who came, within the first and second 
^classes were allowed to pay their tax for seTcnteen years in advauoe, 
and were thereafter exempt from all taxntion. In 1S30 n fourth dH«a 
Lof Chinese merchant.-) was provided for, which was allowed to do busi- 
on pnynient of an nnniiul tax of 12 pewos. 
In 1850 the rate of taxation for the tirst-clftss merchants was slightly 
reduced, and hi that year tlie total sum collected from the 1^-^ 
Chinese siibjectet resident in the Philippine Islands was 9^817 pesos; 
the mimher of Chinamen resident in the islands whs ascerttiined by 
official reports made at the time of their immigralion. la the year 
1884 the Chinamen paid taxes to the amount of 2*27,751.15 pesos, and in 
' 1893 the taxes paid by them had reached the sum of 4Jty,7oo.iy pesos. 
In 187$ was estAhlished the sy^^tem of taxation calle<l indu»fr!iti^ and 
also a tax on the rent value of buildings, which was called, w^na. 
This new sj'stem of taxation was inauirurated when the Government 
gave over the tobacco monopoly, and the collections from the indui*- 
trial and urbana taxes were intended to toko the place of the amounts 
theretofore collected on tobacco. The industrial tax was paid by all 
persons engii^^cd in any industry, businesH, profession, art, or trade; 
the urbaoa tax rate was 6 per cent on the net rentals obtained from 
city property. 

Under the law of 1883 all males between the agoif of 18 and 00 yearn 
were obliged to furnish the number of days' labor required by law, io 
the Government; the only exceptions made were in favor of ppi-Kons 
belonging to religious orders, officers and enlisted men, sacristans and 
otlier attaches of the churches, and municipal and insular empluyecM. 

The budgets of receipts and dishursoment« for the colony were 
appi-oved b}' the min/^fro de ullrantar (colonial minister), and tlieae 
budgets were not submitted to the Spanish Cortes for the considera- 
tion or approval of that l>ody. In Iho fiscal year 18i»6-»7 the 
exponditurcfl of the colony were estimated at 1 7,293,882. <»r> pesos and 
the receipts at 17,474^,()20 pesos. The appropnations for the navy 
in that year wore S,56f{,S28.fiS pesos; the army, K,(>4B,442.43 pesos; 
the church— that is to aay, the maintenance of the official religion — 
[l^8ff,038 pesos; the judiciary, 414,4(MI pesos; public works, 142,575 
public instruction. 141,900.60 jmnsos. Of the total oxpeodl- 
turea, the sum of 9,824,247.60 pcsoa was paid out in salaries. 

In the year 1S!7 the total trcatniry receipts were 1,499,760 pesoR, of 
which amount 153,288 pesos were collected as castoms duties, 40<>,>*70 
pesos were collecteil from the monojMily on tobacco, 153,641 peson 
were collected on alcoholics, and 25,169 pesos were collected from 
cockpit>t. 
The customs duties now being collected are greater flian tlioso paid 
nder the Spanish r^me. In the Ascal year l!HM-l! the customa 



I 



I 



UOV£HNMENT. 



861 



)lIectioD8 were $y,129.687.73; in the fiscal year 189(>-97 the custonw 

'collectionit were only 6.200.<X"> pesos. 

In ttddjtion to the industrial tax ulill being collected there has uow 
been iixipoDed a land tux. lii the cit,v of Manila the tuaxinium rate for 
the laud lax hau In-en fixed at 2 per cent of the a»te.«i»ed value of the 
lands and improve iiienti!, but up to 11)03 it ha« not lieen neeevsary to 

icollect moi-e tliun li [ler ceut oa the asHetwed valuet^. Outuide of 
Manila the law authorizes the muntci}>til ^''ovetnnienttf to collect a land 
tax at any rate not in exeetu< of uuu-hatf of 1 per cent, and the pixi- 
vincial governments at any rate not in exoetwof three-eighths of 1 per 
vent, which moans that the tax on real property outside of tlie city 
of Manila, for both municipal and pruvineiul purposoH, can in no caae 
exceed a mtudmuni rate of »evrn-eighths uf 1 per cent of the assessed 
value of the property. 

Tho old poll tax, ktiown as ciSdulas porsonales, which was divided 
into various classes ranging from 1.50 to 37.50 posoa, has been 
aholijthrd. All males Itctwnpn IS and 5& yearri are now obliged to 
pay a poll or registration tax of 1 pe-so local currency. The U3e of 
stamped paper \\ajt also )tecn alwlished, and lottericjt are no longer 
used as income pnKlucem. 

GO\'ERNMENT. 

Tlie basic principle of Spanish politico and legislation in their colo- 
nies beyond the .-feas is contained in the instructions which their Catho- 
lic Majostie^i delivered to Coliuiibus when he started on his second trip 
^to the ViVxt Indies. About a century before the Philippine Islands 
under the Spnnlsih dominion the mothereonntry inaugurated thiw 
ni of eoloninl government, and there already existed a body of 
laws applicable to its new dominions. Tlie spirit which prevailed at 
that time in Simnish legi.-^lation and jriri.*»prvideneepcn'Hdes these laws. 

Itt SiMiin it was im|>os.stbIe (o find the slighte-*t indication of any 

{wration Iwtwcen church and etatc; in the Philippine Islands this 
union wasapparenth* even nmre intimate. The kings of Spain, when 
now liiudw ucre- diflcoveri«l by their nubjeeta, recognized tlie right 
of the Pope alwve that of any other power ou earth to dispose of the 
territory no( already M?ttled by Christian people, and this right was 
aflerwiinU contirmed in the concessions made to the clerg}*. 

The Sptuii«h kings openly claimed that the primary object of the 
"dfc»rov*>rv of new lands was for the purpose of converting the nativM 
to the Oilhullc faith; and the Pope, a- a eompensation for tho expense 
incurred by the Spanish G-ovemment in making the conquest and 
in ' I '■ _' the faith, i-*3ued a bull on Septemlwr 3, 1501. giving the 
insi) „ 1 rnment the rit'lil t'l collect the ihureh tithfrf in the Indies. 
Bpain, however, was to uudoM* and maintain the churches established 



in hor uolouieti. The <;8tablishinnnt of the lityio Patronato fjtdia^ 
(Boj^hI PatroiijiU' of thr Indie.-) was therefore different from tbo Pairo- 
nalo J^punof (Simnish Piitroimte). inasmurb an the colonial church 
efltublitituiientit and clnr^y wcro not supported by church funds, but 
inHteod by ii]>prii})riations nmdn for that purpose hy tbo Spoiii^ kings. 
To tbo teiuporHl {KiwerMbii-h the 8paiii<h nionart-h exe^ci^fMl in bis 
new pasuesHJons tbe Pope added certain eoclestaiitical power or rij^bs 
ab provided in the royal [»tronato; tbe Spanbth sovereign tberefore 
enjoyed a f;i-eater Hi;opc of power in the Indian posaession^ than va» 
exercised by any of his royal contcniporarioB. 

To these factH may be attrilmted the rellj^ous nature of the ta 
which ^¥ere etiatited in .Siwin for the ^vernment of their pwsesaions 
beyond the seas in general and of the Philippine Inlands in particular; 
some of these laws were of a political or civil nature, but all were 
impregnated with the religion^ spirit ^o chiiraetcristic of ihat epoch. 
All of the prorislcns of the law«i issued by tiie SimniHh sovereigoa 
egardui^ the jroveniment of SiMUiisb colonial possessions were codi- 
nnd piibli-shi^d for the tirsttime in Spain in 1638 by Aguiar. Tbe 
title jrjven to this code was ^*Stimario de h JitrttpiJact^ Getxeral (/« 
lait /^i/ts </<' /«rfMi«." This work was followed in 1680 by another 
officiiil cwlc, entitled *^ liecopUacitin th- la* Leye* de /itditw." The fir»t 
law whi<:h a]>pears in this code is entitled "An Exhortation to the Holy 
Catholic Faith and How All Tnie Christians Should Practice It" The 
final sentimceof this law is as follows: "If the inhabitants of the Indies 
should obstinately and persistently err and l»ecome hardened against 
the tcachin^f-* of the Holy Mother Church, they shall be punisbeil in 
the niHimei' prescriljed by law." 

At the lieginuing, the legislative power regarding affairs in the 
Philippine IslnutU and in tbe other volouial pos^JssioDS of Spain iu 
America was vested in the King, ast^isted by his council of the ludies. 
Later, after the nclssitude^ which the Spanish monarchy underwent 
in ls;^T and after the council of the Indies had beeu ^iuppi'es&ed, the 
icgislfttion to be enacted for the Pbilippiue Islands wai prepared by 
the couDcil of ministeiv, at lawl under the charge of tJto secretary of 
government; eveotually. after various other systems had tweo tried 
and rejected, these isl»n<U were put under tbe charge of the colonial 
minister, in IWS. In article '/ of the Spuuish constitution of 1837 it 
was provided "I'hat thecfploniul provinces shall bo governed by Hixteiat 
laws.*' Tills provisirm of law was subseipieutly reeoairted in the (nm- 
stitutions of 1845. 18419, tmd 1876. Tlie council of the Indie« was also 
tbe court of tinal ii-sort to which were ap^ieaJed all mall- > dng up 

iin the colony, and to which wci-e up|)ealed certain ciisi . in i from 

:lc of jurisdiction on the |>art of the autburitiet> or beoanse of tin 
levoted position or great inllneucu of tlra contesting parties. Thb 



ins ■ 
ar; | 



I 



J 



GOVEENMENT. 



S6S 



council vmti first ot^nizod in 1542 and was located at ibe Spanish 
t'flurt. For the purpose of conducting wiir a special dopnrtuient w»a 
created within the council of the Indies, com|x>.«ed of four of it«i mem- 
IxjM and four meniliers taken from the War Dopartment. 

Tborewiia also c»ttablished in Madrid a council of state, which acted 
as an advif^ory or cousuUing Inxly for the colonial miuijiter, one of the 
hureaUM of which was charged cutirely with colonial aUair^. There 
was also another bureau, called the "Council of the Philippiui's/* bnt 
thiit bureau was uf little utility and the work it accomplished was 
practically nil. 

Legaspi, the first governor and captain-geueral of the Philippine 
laiaDda, was given the title of adehmtado. TIun title was conferred 
on discoverei-» who brought with Uiem suflicienl people to occupy and 
]x>pulate regiouM wbeu they were tirMt distoveretl or which had up to 
that time tieen little kuown and had remained uno<.'Cupied. LegaMpi, 
following the UMuat cuHtoiu. undertook this expedition of diricovory at 
bis own expeii8e. The return he exijeuted for bis work was to provide 
official |>ottts in the Philippine iHlands in which tu plaiw bin. followers. 
The King bad conferred on Ix^gaspi the right lo govern in hts name; 
indeed, be was ([naliBed to a^^sume nil the puwers uf a governor or 
viceroy over the Pbilippino Islands, which powers be was to exercise 
in ocrordaiicQ with the Laws of the Indies. 

Legiispi's successors until the year 15K4 were also given the title of 
adelantado, and governed the islands under tlie same |x)wers as were 
given to him. In the year mentioned Dun Sunliago (.ki Vera arrived 
in Manila as governor and captain -general uf the Philippine Islands, 
and also ex officio president of the new audicncia which had been 
cstaMisbed. This tribunal was not only a court of justice with appel- 
late jurisdiction, bui was also a superior council lo which were referred 
political and governmental matters of general interest to the colony. 

The president of the audicncia, however, was not Itound by tliu 
advice or vole of that btxly, and was given full discretion to take such 
tinnl action as bo .should deem expedient for the interests uf the govern- 
ment. Tbeotber niember'H of the nndiencia consisted of four alaUiL^ 
dificrtaum (oidores); a, /rj«caj? (attorney); an algtjacil mayor; a tai!ent« 
Ar ywn raif'JUrr (assistant to tlio grand chancellor); and the necohsary 
4uUirdimile officiaU. 

Jii the ftlMtence of the governor the islands were govornc<l by the 
sttdioncia, and all matters civil and political were decided by tbe meui- 
bers of that Iw^dy; the doai» of the tribunal was the presiding officer 
during the absence of the governor, and was given the title of i-aptaiu' 
geoerah' After tbe a«sa9ftioAttoii of bustamante tbe proceeding for 



IT" 



Mtlnn th<n «u(liin)<!i* nt Jtattila mwubuxI the goroniownt o|^ 
thi "11 limn*. Thi- ttoMiior itu<)itor ibtn Benuned tb« J at ha 



the fluccettjtion tcds chtnigod, iind during; t^c ^vcrnor's abBcncG or sny 
vacancy in the office of the chief executive the Archbishop of Manil^ 
asHUnied the dtitieji of ^overnorand eaptain-g;eneral. After the taking 
of Manila by the Kiif^linh in 1762, during the regency of the arch- 
hi.Hhop, the order of .succoiwion was again changed, and the o6Sco of 
[icutenant-govoritor wa8 created. A suli^cquont change watt made in 
the order of succession by -which, during the absence of the governor, 
tho general of the army, or in his ahwnce the admii-al of the navy, 
a$9umed the duties of chief executive of the islands. 

The powers given to a governor of the Philippine islands were prac- 
tically Mnliinit6d,and no kw could l>e enforced or remain in force if it 
was not in accordance with his views. The ancient powers which had 
been conferred on the i-oyal audiencia to govern, and to constitute k 
council to assist the governor in his administratiou of affairs, were' 
transferred about the middle of the nineteentli century to the IxMird of 
authorities and to the cont^o de adminutracwti (council of adminis- 
ti-Rtion). 

.»Tbe board of authorities was created by royal decree of April 18, 
1850, and acted us an advisory board to the governor, and to tbia board 
matters of unusual importance were roferrRd. This board was eom- 
posed of the archbishop, tho general second in command, the admiral, 
the intendmU i^xeaaurvt)^ the di recto i*- general of tho civil adminis- 
tration, the president of the audiencia, the fiscal representing Hia 
Majesty, and later were included us members of this board the civil 
governor of the province of Manila, tho bishops of tho islands, and 
the provincial beadi^ of the religious oi'ders. aThc council of admin- 
istration was e-stablished in January, 1803.* This board was used by 
the governor for purposes of conMnltation regarding the ordinary 
matters of administration, bnt the governor was not neee8sarily guided 
by tho opinion of the council of adminir^tration and was given ample 
power to take such 6nal action as he saw tit 

One of the govcrnor-generars secretaries wasclmrgftd with matters 
relating to the royal patronage, political and executive matters, public 
order, and international ajfairs; to this secretary were also referred 
such matters relating to the administration of juKtice as were not 
refeiTcd to the audiencia and the other courts of the islands. 

The general second in command was at the bead of the entire mili- 
iry force of the colony; tho admiral had comiiiiind of the navy. The 

ioo of dirc ct4>rge noi'nl of the civil administration was created in 
1874, and was charged with the managenient of municipal iind provin- 
cial governments, pulilie education, public work;i, the inspection of 
mines ami forests, pulilic health and charity, agriculture, and tlie 
mtoagemeDt of posts aod telegraphs. 



GOVERNMENT. 



The intendente de fiaei^nd/i (^uporintcndent of the trcAsury) was the 
lend of the treasury depart mrnt., niid wns nUo charged with superrls' 

'ing the duties of the auditor and the administration of the custom- 
house and lottcrio^s. 

Since the end of the sfiventccnth century the governor of the Phil- 
ippine Islands has always been an otficer holding a commis^jion in the 
army. At the beginning the islands were divided into three or four 
)rovincc8, and an alcalde mayor was named as the chief functionary 

'In each province. At tinie.s magistrates (corr^dores) were put in 
charge of provinces. The sulxUvision of these large provinces kept 
with the progress made in the colonization of the islands. New 

' provinc«« were created, and an attempt appears to have been made to 
form them nccording to the dialects of tJie native tribes, i*o that the 

I'language spoken in each province should, be the same. There were 
thas formed the provinces of PangasiniSn, Pampaoga, Uocos, and Caga- 
yiiti, ea«-h compowd of .stveral muiiiciiiAlitie«,aiid lo each one the native 
population spoke the same dialect. 

During the iirst days of the colony the Indian^* were governed under 
system very similar to that which they had heforo the arrival of the 
Spaniards. The chiefs of the various tribal groups were continued 
under the title of cabeza do I*arangay, ajid thoy were contirmed in 
authority in tbe name of the King of Spain. This native title was 

uen,Hlitjiry, and when there were no male descendants to represent any 

[particular cabeza Lho auoccssion wu^ tilled by appointment made by 
the Spanish (lorernmciit. Although the orders of the King .strictly 
prohibited the Spanish colonists from obliging the chiefs of the tribm 
tot'olleet the tribute from the natives, the eustoni neveitheless obtained, 
and many cabezas de barangay were arrested and punished by tines 
»nd otherwise for failing to properly collect and account for the trib- 

' ute from the roemlH-rs of thoir tril>es. These chiefs paid no tribute 
on their own account, and at the end of three year^*" satisfactory »erv- 
ice they wore allowed to resign as cabozus and were thereafter also 
exempt from the piiyment of the tribute. The retired chiefs there- 
upon became meiiitH!rs of a local uiunicipal body ealled la prineipalta^* 
the other meiubers of the Imdy consisting of the other privileged 
classes in the town. 

Each town bad an additional chief called a gobamadoreUlo (petty 
goTomor), which title was given him at the time of the Spanish occu- 
{lation and was (continued in use until the end of the Spanish sover- 
eignty. The goberuadorelllo was elocteil by the cabczaft de liaratigay 
in each uimiicipality. The names of three candidates were sent at the 

' Uniler tbe Spaulania Uiu jrrinriji'tiiii (princijHil poreoos) were andantood hi b» 
ho Binrrofnite lit e«oh [Miftilo •)( lul thow imlividuala wtio hul held ofltct* or were 
tHrfxir wliii t>^<I ■ l>«i<l l3> of 9^- Tlie |iriiii-i|<Hli[t )i)niitiliiN«l Ui4 VOtiog 
■ " -irj •.lov cuultl vote wiiu WM tiot K ujtxiiber ul Uiu ^liucijmlijL — jArtetot. 




httfpnnitig uf each year to the governor- general, or, in certain diataot 
provincoK. lo the \ornl ri-prejienlativf of the central yoverninont, 
and one of the three candidates wati selected and appointed by the 
governor as gobemadorcillo. 

Ill tbt* y«ar 17H2 the jjovemor cbanefcd the name of golwrnador- 
cillo to iihiilde. which vms the uthcial title given to the^e ullicers in 
tbc bw; but the King in a royal c<idula of July 18, 1784, directed that 
the title of gobernadorcillu >ihoiiId he respected, stating, however, thiit 
it WKN u diiuiniiLive form of title not suited to describe an otBcial 
charged with the ndniinistnition of law. In the Laws of the Indies, 
Vol. VI. 'I'illc U, Law 1(1, is pre^-rihed the power of the Indian 
alcaldes: their jurisdiction was limited to the examination, arrost, and 
impriwnmnnt of S])ani.sh rejiidenfc*. but they had power to imprison an 
Indian for a term of one day and to give him from six to eight la-shes 
for failing to attend mass on feast days or for getting drunk; the 
alcaldes under the provisions of the law referred to were charged with 
(he iidmini.stnilion of nmnicipiil iiffaii-f*. Inimmuch as .S|>aniunl.s were 
prohibited from taking up their residence in towns occupied by Indians 
the law referred to was limited in lt« nppltcation to the Indian towns. 
The other towns, wherein SimnJards resided, organized their municipal 
councils in the same manner as was done in Manila. 

Ab haa been stated already the provincial governmonti^ wore in 
charge of tbo corregt<l<jrea and in some cases of the alcaldes mayoro)*; 
the latter were sometimes lawyorK, but as a rule the ah»,ldcs mayorcs 
were political favorites and selectod without regard to the incmnbent'a 
knowledge of law or of the atfairs which he was to administer. Tho 
offiiTCs of (ft'hiTnadorcit were tilled by judges of the tirst Instance, by 
army captain!^ and by protectors of the Indians, and, aA a general rale, 
the incumbent was not fit for the ofHce. The King, on many occnsiona, 
ordered that the alcaldes nhould not engage in business, n<t it was 
feared that they would monopolize certain branches of trade and 
exploit the natives; but on June t7, 1T&4, a royal ci^diilawa* issued by 
which they wore allowed to engage in commercial undertakings upon 
payment of a *'fine for indulging in commerce." This fine ranged 
from 40 pesos per annum, which was the amount pnid by the alcalde 
of ZamJialcs, to ;W0 pesos, which the alcaldes of Cahuiiijines and (,'aragii 
each paid annually. In is-li» some of the offices of alcalde wore wortli 
50.1'KtO pesos per year. 

lu the year 1886 the otEtcc of alcalde mayor wa« abolished, and the 
office of ffcitrrnador civil (civil governor) was established. The civil 
governors were under the inmiediatc direction of the govemorgon- 
eral, and were charged with thn adminJ.'^tmtioD of the laws and with 
thr management of tho financial matters of the various proWnoci; 

]oug other duties they were chai^d with the punishment of offeoMii 



I 



4 
I 



867 



against the rAigtotu of the stAt«. They were oinpowcrc<l to imposr 
loca to ftii nmoiint of $50 and to punish hy imprictoniTienl for a term 
lot cxi'PiHtinjf tliirty days; nppojil from tho sfMitionccs iif Uii- <•!%-!! gov- 
ernor to tho jro\'rm(tr-jjoiir.rtil wiLs allowed. Tlio jndif^Jal ]>ower. which 
lad been vested in tho alcaldes niayores. was given to the jndKes of 
the fourtfl of first instanrc which were croat^xl at the («nie time as 
[^Ktere the offifc.-* of r-ivil governors. Tho oonfliots of authority which 
irose between the civil frovernorm and the judges of first instance 
rere decided on appeal hy the governor-general after be bad consulted 
willi tlie advisory board. 

Itta.<;much a9 a special account i^^ given herein of the judiciary of the 

Philippine Islands, no statement i-s given regarding tho changes which 

irere made noteAsary in the loysil audiencia by the reorganization of 

the lower courts during the last few yeai"B oi the Spanish sovereignty. 

Ill 1!^93 II law was pi-omul gated reorgunizing the muriicipul govern- 

iients in townt in which niore than l.ixiiic^dulas personalis were paid. 

le new law did not change in any manner the munieifml law of 

klanila. At the beginning no nninicipeLlity could la; orguni7.ed unlns8 

heiv were 5()<> residents who paid tribute (axes, which would mean 

at least 1,(XK) rcsidcntj^ in the town.ship. The municipal trlhtmal* was 

)tnposcdof five ofEc-crfi- -the captain and four lirutciiantfi. The head 

Uoutonant was callod mayor; the other three were in charge respectively 

of the police, the ccmetci-ioH. and all live stock in the inunit'i|nlity. 

Tho munioi|i«I offiees were elective, and were filled as follows: The 

provincial governor Hxe-d a day on which the princi[Milia held a town 

looting presided over by tho civil governor, the parish priest, and 

'the mtinicipa] captain. At this meeting twelve cleetors were selected 

from among the resident^ of the town. .Six of the twelve oloetora 

bad to be ex-captains of the municipality, and the re,nuiining nix vera 

selected from among the larger taxjiayers in the town. This commit- 

_tee was composed thei-ofore entirely of persons belonging to the 

»ririlegcd cbix^iw. Tho twelve electors at oneo proceeded to hold an 

feleetion l>ehind closed iloors. and tliose recseiving a inHJority vote were 

10 successful candidaloH. In addition in the niiini<-i[tal ofticers elected 

there were also elected two Kitpfi/^nU's (substitutes^), who had no diitiea 

to (lerfomi exeept in caao of tho death, resignation, or alwonre of the 

prineilMil. Tho twelve eloctorH, as roprcsentJitiveH of the principalia, 

attended the si'^'.ions and joined in the discussion of measure-s coming 

, before the munict^Hil council, the meetings of which were called by 

captain. 

The municipal office^t wore held (or four ycam; they were purely 

*11ie moiitcipal (nWui/ronfluUsl of a captain antl fiiur littitenanta, and lonned tbe 
-tiTB jtnvfniiuKnt of tbe pueblo. Tbe^ wei« uK^'lci) !>>■ tw(.<tve delegates cboesD b; 
iw pnnujjftUa %aii were njqoinjd to serve (wir ywan.— i/iretfor. 



honorary positions and do salary or other emoluments attached to 
them. The quHlilications for (-uptnin wrrc citizenship; that h, he 
should be cither a native or ii lialf-brecd Chinamaii, iib veur^ of age; 
be able to speak and write the Spanish language; be a eabeza do 
haranguy with four yearw' servire at the time of eloetion or have seen 
six yearn' sen'ice at some previous time; or have been a captain or 
lieutenant during the term of two years. 

The captain had the munlcipoil ordinnnees published and it wa-t also 
his duty to enfon-e the niuniripal laws; but he was also given the 
power to siwpend the laws whenever he considered them contrary to 
the public good or to the premie n-ntion of publie peace and order. 

The division of the natives into barangayes was continuwl as in the 
olden times; each barangay was supposed to have at loa.^ lOi) and not 
over 150 families. The barangayes who lived within the city limits 
were snppo.'sed to contain from 50 to 90 families each. The cabeza de 
barangay vas ex officio tettiente de barrio i\\e\\tcx\9kxxi or head of the 
barrio) or municipality, ward, or precinct. 

Taxes, constituting municipal funds, were collected as follows: On 
fiaheries, on billi} of sale of live stock, on rentals from town proper- 
tics, license:! ou bitliard ^loons. theaters, markets, slaughterhouses, 
toUaoii bridges and ferries, pou^d^ for stray animals, street lighting 
and cleaning; a 10 per cent surtax waa aliK) charged on the city prop* 
erty tax. There were also taxes collected on iigricultuml lands and 
certain tines, which were local in their nature and createii accord- 
ing to the necessities of the budget in each town. For the purpose of 
imposing taxes, holding elections, school inspection, and the prepay 
ration of the budgets, the presence of the parish priest was necessary 
at the sitting of the board. The taxes collected on property belong- 
ing to the pi-ovinee were kept distinct from the other taxes ■•ollected 
for municipal purposes, and wore used exclusivolj' to pay the oxpooses 
incurred in making publie improvements. All of the taxes were col* 
lectcd by the caljezos, who were made personally responsible for the 
amounts collected. The luunicipal funds were kept in the safe of the 
provincial government at tbe capital of the province, and a captain of 
the municipality was allowed to keep oa band only ^uch amounts aa 
were nccessani' to pay the running expenses of the municipal admin- 
istration. 

The tax on rurnl propt^rty was imposed at u certain percentage on 
tho assessed i-aluc of tho plantar ion or other holding, whether i;ulti- 
vatcd or not. The rate of taxation was fixed at a mooting of the 
municipal council attended by tho parish priest. 

The governor-general, and e^ his rci>rescntative tho governor of the 
orovinee, waa honorary or ex officio proaldunt of ench and evary 

iDici[Ml council. Tht-« new iayjitem of maoicipal urganlKatioD won 

lbliahe<l on January 1, 1894. 



• 

I 
I 




m: 



Far the purpose of auditiDg the collection abd expenditure of munic- 
ipal funds, and reporting to t!ie governor of the province certain 
tber municipal alfainj, there wa>« established in each locality a/imto 
incia/ (provincial board), composed of the promvtvr- Ji^cal (a 
puty assistant prosccutitij,; attorney), the provincial trea»uror, all 
e vicHi-s who lived in tlw province, and the paritth priest of the 
vlity. The civil governor presided over the meetings of this board, 
which wafi delegated all power over the ditibuniement of the munic- 
I fundti. 

In each town there v/oa a corps of municipal police, called iruadril- 
/^ms. A rural police force waii also pmvided, whose dutiej^ were to 
run down evil doei7> and cooperate with other peace uSieers in the 
province. This body wa» culled the guardia civil- (civil guard), and 
the soldiers of which it was composed were all natives and the officers 
all Spaolarth^, In Manila the police force was ot^nizcd in a wme- 
whut .similar maimer to the civil guard, and was railed the fpmrdia 
vet^rana (veteran guard). Both the civil guard and the veteran 
guard were guilty of man}* acts of cruelty, and committed such 
oxvesBOs for the purpose of di^icovcriug eriminaU and their accom- 
plices, as well atj the insurgents in the last rebellion against the 
Spanish power, that great odium attached to them, and they were 
heartily hat^d by the Filipino people. 
A history- of the govomment of the Philippine Islandi^ would be 
complete unless a sliitpmont itigarding the oiyanization of the Catholic 
Church were included, ina.sniuch ns the clergy were in reality civil 
functionaries. The Archbishop of Manila was at the head of affairs and 
was assisted by the bishops of .JniYj, Xucva Cficorcs, and Nuo\'a Segovia. 
Subordinate to them were the curatp.« or pamh prie-sts appointed to 
each town, who, in addition Co the duties of their onracies, had ex 
officio civil functions and powers in the administration of the municipal 
government in the manner rotated In the note below.' 

' Dnrinp the itiveetigatioii of thp religiouH ordern made by the Philippine Comniis- 
•dm in llKtO, Father Xwau Villefpu, Ihi- provincial or hetd of the Frenci«-aii frisrv, 
tesUdtil flfl foltowa lu) to ttiedvU ilntiee and i-owers t^xerdsed by the meniberaof UU 
rier in the miiniripalitien: 

" Tht! following may Ite mentiooM aa amoo^ thn principal dntieii or pnw(>ni «xer- 

' d bv ibe }«nali pricet: ile wua inepMur of pnmary wboola: president of (he 

1th Doard and board rf rharitirH; prmilont nf the boani of nrhan taxation (ttiis 

kbliabc^ lately); iiu<f>e<:tttrof taxation. I'revioiwly he waa the actual prMiiK*nl, 

I'ly honorary iiraaidpnt, iif tlie board of public works. He wrtifivd to thf t-or- 

A nf lh>* ci'iliiW— {<eeinK Ihat llit^y crmformrd 1o thf Mitrtea tn the purwl) lioolui. 

1i^ 'li'l not h.iv-' I'ivjl regiftratlou be're, aixl ko they bad 1o di-pi-iid upun tlie bouki 

liif," puntih I'rii-t. Tlicse bookj) were Bent in (or tiie piir]K«f of thla (*^-(lula taxo- 

iftn, hut w ftf ii«t received by tlie autboritiet unlcwa vieeeil l>y the privsL 

" Mm MA<t i>i> e>>!''iii of the lioetxl of fftatisticv. becwwe he waa the ooily ptieon wbo 

IL>1 any iiIm-utMn. • • ■ 

" t'ruli-r tlif S|,iuu.->h Inw every man ha*! bo be fumifthed vrilh ■ rn-rtitirate of cliar- 

cl^r If II man u,it>t nn|>ri»oned and \iv wna from another town, they would lend In 

limn (or hU Biil('4'<'4li-nlii. lUid (hi^ foorl would viamtne wliethtr they wefe 

or \w\. Tticy woul<l nut bv rcmved, howeTcr, uulew the paiiib priost had 





30102— VOL 1—06 M 



870 



inSTOKV. 



Tho govcmor-f^GDcnU of tbe Philippiuo Islands, in his character of 
ricp roral pntmn, was charged with settJing^ all mat(er?> roiineL't^ 
with tho patronage. He was kept informed of all tcsiguaiioriiS and 
rarancies arising in tbo i'unLcif?s and other ecclesiastical holdings. 
He wafl supposed to naino candidalL's for appoitilmmit to the vacant 
curacies, to certify thn oaths of office taken by the bishops, and to 
intervene in all religions diflpates. He was supposed to at first odvino 
and warn the disputants, but he was also authorized, if necessary, to 
establish peaco and order by force of law. 

All the high functionaries of tho government were appointed in 
Madrid, and only the suhordinate prnployecs in the public offices were 
selected in Manila. Every item of expenditure in the colony wa« 
incurred subject to the approval of the colonial minister. 

Under the sovereignty of the United State* tho form of the Philip- 
pine goveniment has been completely changed. In«t«ad of the cen- 
tralized form of government, by which ever>'thing was referred to 
.Madrid, under the new r%inie the largest measure of autonomy has 
been conceded, and Manila U now the seat of the executive^ l^isUUve. 
and judicial branches, with certain limitations which are tixed in the 
onfanic law of the Philippine Islands enacted by the United States 
Congress and approved by the President on July 1, li*02. The legis- 
lative functions are exercised by a body known as the Philippine 
Commission, composed of tive American and three Filipino members. 
This body ha*; aiso the power of general supenision over the go^-am- 

hiti via$ CTD them. Tlie prientH uImo ovrtifSud as to tliv civil eUiUm of m-rmnH. Zttry 
year they Jnjw lots (or thuiH) who were lo vktvu iu Uiu araiy, every Sltli man dnwn 
oeing taken. The imrwh priest would certify iw to that man's condition. ■• • • 

"By law he hau to be present when there were elections for ■aiiiiicipnl offices. 
• • • He WM rensor of ihe municipal budgute before they wcru aenl to tho pro- 
Tincial ({ovirnor. • • • He wu also counselor Tor the nionii-ipal cooncit wn«o 
that \Kn]y met. * » * The priests weiu siip<.>rvi«ur>j of tho electioo of the poUoa 
fotve. ' * * lie WW examiiter of the acholsni Rtt<MiiUng the flmt and seoond 
fmuleH in the publie schools. He vna censor o( the ptayH, cnmuliv*, and dnunai in 
the luitruaKe of the country, deciding whether they were aKunst Ihe public peace or 
the piitilic raoralp. Tlietv jilays were presented at the VHrions fuMnx of (he peortle. 
He wiu pre«ident of the prtitoD IxMintaiid inspector (in turn) ol the food provideufor 
the prisoDen, UcMnea member of the (irovmciai bosrd. Beeidce the mrish prteti 
there wei^ two mnitpfi who aer\'ed on ihw lx«r<l. Before Ihe provincia] l»oanl came 
all nmttera relating to |jahlic works ^nd other cof;nate matters. All E«timat«H for 
public buildinBH in the mumdpalitiea were submitted to thU board. He waa aim a 
niembprnflhe l>oanl for partitioning Crown landa After the land waa citrx-cyed 
aiitl (livi<le<!, and a i>eraon wante<l to nell hia land, he would preaent bu •-prtiflcat*, 
and th« board would paaa upon the quention whether or not he waf* the nwnfir. 
Thia would be visaed by the board for the purp<^i!w« of taxnlinti. \Vhfii a prirato 
bidWidual wanted to buy Go%'«rnDieut laiirl^liu would apply to the proper ofUi-er, nay 
bifl money, and the board would deterniino whether the tratwor was accorruag 
to law. 

" In BomQ caseti the pariBh prleert* in the capitals of the provincen i<ronld act u 
aaditora. In othem where there waa an admittlatntor only, tlie camti> wonid act 
a» atidiUtf. 

"Betfdoi the alMvo there went other details nhicli <levolvi-d upon the prUvt 
tl inlg^t be said that tbfro were iimm, howorer, when nothing of raomcot wia done 
in the towns."— iXrertw. 



GOVERNMENT. 



871 



P 



nient of the i^Unds, Tho civil goveruor is Uic cbicf executive of tfae 
idlaatU and ex officio president of the Commission. Tlie vii-e-goveroor 
acts fb< (-hief executive during the alM^erico of the oivil goveruor or 
during a vacancy caused hy any reason. The four exeeulivo depart- 
Dientti uf government —interior, commerce and pulice, linance and jus- 
tire, and public instruction — have each ut the head a secretary, who is 
also an ex oflicio meniher of the Philippine C'oniiiiissiun.' The laws 
enacted by the ConunL'i»ion take etftK^^t and are enforced as Bpccitically 
provided in ea4.-h law. 

The citizens of tht^ Philippine Islands are secured in all of the 
iDdiriduiLl rights wliich arc enjoyed by the citizens of the United 
States^ ext-cpt in tho right to carry arms and to trial by jury.' Tho 
sapromc court of tho {.-iilands has tinal jurisdiction in all criminal casca 
and in all cinl suits in which the amount in dispute docs not exceed 
$25,000. 

Two year^ after tho publication uf the census of the Pbilippioo 
Islands, of which thi>f historical review forms a part, the President of 
the United States i» to call an election to select delegates who will 
constitute the Lower House, which together with the Phihppine 
Commission will constitute the Legi-slative Assembly of the Philippine 
Inlandi^. The number of delegates is to be not less than 50 nor more 
cbno 100, and their term of office is for two years. The elective fran- 
diise, for the selection of delegates to the Assembly, will be exercised 
by all who are now qimlitied to vote in municipal elections. 

' E«ch dcparlnieiU is oooipoaed of bureatia aa follows: 

Xfc7»(irftnfnf o/ ibf Itilrrivr. — BunAQ of public bmlth, boreaa of (orestrVj mining 
litireau, Philippiuu n-i^alher hurvau. btiniii) nf imhlii: landH. Inirpau of afinRultun^, 
tlM eUuMllogical BurTey for the Pliiliptiitie Ulaiidp, buivAxi of j;<ivemiueDt lalviraUi- 
rica. barma of |iatents, cop]rri|;bla aoa tmUe-marks, rhilippine civil boepitaJ, civil 
auiitariutn, B4>n^i(ft. 

D*partni<Til uf l\nnitet and JuMire, — BnnttU ol the iQAiilar trcfunry, bureflO of tbe 
ioaonr aoditor, bureau of mstoota uul immigration, bun-aa of inlemal rcvpnac, 
barean of thn ininilar nild stArngp and iiv plant, the supn'mo rnnrt nf tho Pliilippim* 
Iflantbi, courtH i<{ Grfl iuRtant-e, ontut o( \»tu\ reginUaboD. court of cuittonaa a|>|i«al«. 

tyeptirttna\t uf i'»v\mertt ontf /'o/tor.— Bureau of ports, DUT^Q of Pbilip[^n« oon- 
Htabalarv, BiUtiid prumn, captain of ttic p^^rt, hnrfau of rfMirt Rtiarrl uul tmnmfKvrta- 
tion, liKhl-boiue sorvic<r, burwa of coant anil fitxtiletic (purvey, liun-au of enuitieMriDK. 

tkfMirtmotl of P*it>Ur JrtMrwtiim. — Borcau of educatioii, bareau of nrcnitevture, 
bnraaa of arrhivefl, bureaa nf statietica, bureau of public pnnting, bureau of the 
c«UOS (teoijiorarij.— Wrvrfor. 

*Tbe rieitt to a trial by iury and the right to bear annii have not as yet Iteen 

armrded the Filipinon beraiwp thoy have very little, if any. spnse of pnblic rewpoiisi- 

t'tliiy in re^»r<j to the puniahoient of crime, aod are iuca'iwble, therefore, of acting 

an jtirora. A^in, the average ipiorant Filipion u tv> easily iiiAuem-ed by those vbo 

be (ieli«v<M are \m miperirtn that ht* would rarvlv, if ever, vol^ In i-onviri n peraon of 

that claM, no luatter now auilly b*> uiiKbi tbink ttini. Ai a mibHtitiit*:- for trial by 

jury UiH }ad^8 of flnrt instoni^ niay miminon two oiiOiHura from ihe Htiz^'tu i~.f the 

pn>vin(-«^ to ai-t mm ailvimrt Dpon the facli*. Ajtaiii, an apjieal on thr Ihw and facta 

iiiay alwsyibe niade to tho mprccoe court, which confiMsof three Filipiuoe and four 

: Atueticana. to it is felt that the ri^hta nf tliu FllipinnN ]n tlii^ rett|>ort ftntentlicienily 

t aafdguanlnl. While lh« pvople are not allofttsf to Imy or <-arry fireaiini', it ran not 

'' be aald tfaat Ibey do not exercfee th? rifiht to bear nrmd, liLaainudi aa overv man ntHl 

lioy of (iu* Kuburlen or rtinl population carries a bolo and knows bow to tiae it. — 

Otrcdor. 



The PhUippine Commiaidon liu divided the mrchipelago ioto 39 
proviueuN, not includinf; the Mjutbeni i^'sod^. inhabited bj Malay- 
MotuuuiucdBriH, wUirh coniprbro iIjp Moro provioce; for this province 
« special constitution and form of goreminent btttt been provided 
undor which a curtain degriM! of autouomy. under tho control of the 
i'hiliiipino Coiuuji&titoo, bsH been ronferred.' 

Fronnml governors aro in cba^o of the vuioos provinoee, but are 
given DO judicial or Ic^it^ktivn fitnctionH vliate.rer such an were con- 
ferred on liic rivil ^uvfrnorH under the Kponiiib I't^gime. A pmriodat 
lio&rd conKistinff of the gov«mor, the treafiorer, and the Huperviaor 
ooiuljtutes the lepislatlvn iMxiy in cni-h province. Tbi» board exrrcieort 
Ittf ieg^lative functioriH wiihin iho limits prescribed hy certain avtn of 
tho CouimiaHlon, and a dogriM) of wtpngm^ in tiie adminititradon of 
local aflUra hcrt'tornrr unknown lias thus hf«n necAircd. A secretary 
and a district attorney are the other mcinla^n^ comttitnting the person- 
nel of the provincial Ixmrd. 

Tlie government of each niiinici[>8lity \» ve>t*d, ))y act S2 of the 
Philippine Comn)iK.sion, of Jantmry 31, lOt.il, and the iinicndment« 
made thereto, in a president, vice-president, and municipal council. 
The municiiMilitie)* arc divided into four clauses, acconlin^' to popula- 
lion, and tho nmnicipal council h composed of from eight to eighteen 
alHertnen (fourtli class), according to the class of the town. All the 
municipal offlciaU are elected at large for two years by thequaH6ed 
votcra, who niu)»t po^)«eHt« the following <iualification9: Male citizens 
23 years of age, six months' residence in the municipality, who 
are comprised in one of the following cla»<:iei4, viz, those who during 
the iN{>aiii»ih n^gime occupied the position uf a nutntcipal cupitan, 
goltcrnadurcilto, alealde, teniente, ur CHl>eza do barangay, or niunicipal 
counciluiiin; those who own real prupt>rty worth ut least 500 pesoii, 
Philippine currency, or who i«iy annutiJIy iiny kind of tax to tiiesum 
of 80 pewa ur over; and, finally, all those able to speak, read, and 
write the Bngliiih or SjiuniKh language. Th*? clectonil tuw nlso makes 
the neceanry pt'oviHiunn for hiecuring perfect frecdoui in the exc 
of the fimnchise and a Kccrct ballot.' 



I 
I 



m 



'Tli« Monj jirovince wa* e«<aljtli<)u>U, after Ihix «k«tcfa whi writUu, by Hct iS7 of 
Uie PblUpjiinr OunuaI»4on, lu arvn 'm f(ivon ia the chapter on Geography. — 

* Ah rapidly wt))<<trDO)wiufUi« I'liiltM^tntrH Armv ciulil l)etlwtH^iili-<I (lii> i-Iuiwla 
MMecl tinitcvr inillUi-y rontrol, nntl the lorn! I t^ovcrnvr ! by 

tlio K|MiiiHT>U, wliirn it t'tiBtw) at all, ««» ■ ■ ■ hikIt mi. - nii. 

On Aiiipitft 8, I8(>9, 'joncnil Otis iKrutnl Gviu r;il Utikn No. 43, Khit^li i.iuviJtnl I 
form "(umnU-ltal go\-crnnieiit; ami on Afiitrh 2ft. IWin he WuiflCpnctuI Mftl«*i No, 
4nii, 'iniipnil OMi-ni Nu, 43, v>r ;.■ '. ' ' ' n-i- 

f'lil w L Ai tUe luwiw bw-HUM' ; ' .il>- 

IbIiiiii 1m-_' mnni-'--"' -^ — -r- r-.f ■ 'I'-lu 

WL'ri.'ori{»iii'*^ mill' my 

townn wilhoiil Biiy _. _i_ __l_L II w 

[{nanlcipal Ki>voriirii>Mit In (li<< i't<i < Utu art No. ivt of ttto i'hllippine 

'auimiHitiu, January 31, 1901, wh" [ - "f. 



GOVERNMENT. 



87» 



Tbe otiice of couiicilnma m purclj,' bonurnr}'. The presideul, Iruis- 
urer, and secretary of tbc muDioipulities arc paid salnrics. The presi- 
dent is the chief executive. No insular or provincial official takes any 
part or hiLs any control over the municipal council in the passiuj^ of 
ordinances. Tho municipal or town I'ounril is tho looal le(fi-ilative 
body> ttud it is liy law ^iven Huoh auiplu powers in Ivcal matters that 
the autonomy of the towni^hips is well-nigh (complete. The provincial 
governors ititervune only to the extent of seruring the faithful din- 
charge by the muuicipul employees of their duties mid ihe eiiforuemeut 
oi the municipal code. Iniuiniuch u-s »tate and church are to-day abso- 
lutely divorced, the parish priests no longer have any power or con- 
trol over municipal matters. 

The taxeB collected by municipaliticH are devoted exclusively to the 
local uses nf the municipality, and the insular government is sup- 
ported by other taxes di^tim-t from those collected by the municipali- 
ties. Appropriations are made from intiular funds for the payment 
of the salaries of American schoolieachers, men and women, in each 
munici])nlity, and from municipal funds are appropriated the sums 
Docoesary for tho salaries of the Filipino teachers, both men and 
women. 

Kneh municipality has its own body of police, which preserves order 
within the town proper, und for the niaintenauce of order in the rural 
districts throughout tbc islands the Philippine Constabulary is pro- 
Tided, the chief of constabulary having thn provisional rank and titio 
of a brigadier- general of the Army of the United Stales. 

A fleet of coa«t-guard stearacni* has been provided for the interisland 
service of the iosulsr government, such as for tlie carrying of mails 
and government employees, for patrolling tho coast, and in general for 
doing duty at a species of revenue cutter or maritime police corps. 
Under the Spanish ri5gime one of the greatest har^Ishifis to which the 
people weiv subjectied was tlio obligatory performance of military 
service. Each province had to furnish yearly a oertuin numlwr of 
young men, drawn by lot, for service in the army. lie who was 
drafted could secure a nubstitute for fi-oni l2-t U^ 15U pesos to serve in 
his place. It was a system under which subterfuges were practiced, and 
alllEindHof abuses iirose during the drafting pntceHs, and the jwople 
wore very bitter against the syjitem, as it %vas openly alleged that 
nuoy of the officials, boUi civil and military', were able under the 
Spanish n^gime to enrich them&elve» in this manner. At preitent 
obligatory service in tho unny Is unknown, and involuntary i^ervitudu 
luu l>«»me a thing of the past. The sulTering the Filipino people 
endured under the previous sovereignty waw •iuch that they look with 
horror and buspiciou on any attempt to ruestabliNh those custoois now 
happily u)wlit«hed. 

The bill uf rights of the Philippine Islands to-day guarnntoes ihc 
liberty of the presn, the right in jicHa'ahly assemble, and to bo heard. 




THE EMAXCIPATIOJi FKOM HFAIN. 



The ahusCf) coniinitt«d by the encomcndcroii, the bigh-bandod pro- 
cedure of the ah-Hldofi mayorpR and trciLsury officials, as well as the 
oppt^ssion of the natives practiced by the friars, caused incipient 
relwUions or uprisings aniong the people from time to time, but 
these uprisings were promptly quellpd by the strong arm of the Gov- 
emmcnt and blotted out in blood and tire. Religious intolerance bad 
also brought uboutarmed conflicts of authority, but, with the excflptton 
of the time during which the English ocrnpicd Manila, the Filipino 
people liad never risen in a rebellion against the .Spanish authority 
which had for Hh object secession from the mother country/ 

The loss by Spain of her American colonies at the (beginning of the 
nineteenth centurj-, and the fact, fully recognized, of the poor system 
of goi'emment which Spain provided for the Philippine Islands caused 
gi'eat dissatisfaction and suspieion on the {mrt of the Spaniards who 
resided in these Isluods. The Spanish residents did not conceal their 
suspicions of the intentions of the Filipinos; the colonial government 
at the 9ame time committed a great mistake in refusing to allow the 
natives to participate in the government, in showing its contempt for 
the people and their aspirations, and in disregarding the complaints 
of the victims of oflicial oppressiou. 

The uprising, headed by Novates, and other minor disturbances, 
which occurred in the first half of the nineteenth century, have reoeir^ 
only casual mention in this brief review; the real movement for eman- 
ciputiou from S[)<ain was not started until near the end of the reign of 
liflibelU II. Tliis movement was finally crowned with success ia 1898. 

The effects of the involution of Septcml*er, 1868, which cast Queen 
Isal>ella II from the throne of Spain, were soon fcU in Manila. Since the 
date of the socession of Span's American colonies no event in Spanish 
politics had erratcd such excitement as the fall of the reigning dynasty. 
After the long period of yean* during which the Philippine islands hud 
l)een governed, without friction, imder the then existing political 
maxims of government, suddenly came the re|K>rt of the expulsion of 
the Queen, of the rel>ellioii started by the army and kept going by the 
(Myopic, and of the liberties enjoyed under the provisional government. 
Tlie reports of these exciting event^i coming from Spain changed as it 
were the {)t)lttic4il atmosphere of the islands. The inhabitants awoke 
from the state of contemplative quiescence in which up to that time 
they had ar^4>ptf^ the established system, and whieh bad until then 
appeared to be eternal and immutable. 

' In tbi< Otmenil Hint'in' uf tb<> Philippine*, trf Joe^ Mouten y Vtdal. pnblisbed 
in Mivlri4, I6S7. 1S04, 11^, Uie ill-titrlMuiitsi, apniriug», and UmnvL-tiiuis, aiul *' 
cauw which lea to tbDm, &r« luUy dtMoibed.— iA'rccfer. 



i 
4 



4 
I 



THE EiMANClPATlON FKOM SPAIN. 



876 



The educated Filipinos, tilled with hope in the new governmeDt 
which bad been established in Spain, IfGliered that an era of true 
progress had aiTived for the Philippine Islands. The new colonial 
minister, Bocerra, directed the governor of the Philippine Islands to 
report at once on such changes in the colonial administration of affatrti 
a» might t>e net-es^ry to bring bi» administration into haruiony with 
the prineipIeK enunciated by the revolutionista of 18tt8. 

Tlie new Governar-Guneral, La Torre (1869-1871). was received on 
his arrival with great cordiality, and, for the lirst time in their his- 
tory, the most prominent of Uie Filipino people organized and took 
part in a mauifestaliun of the sutiMf action of the people at large. A 
civic proccsHion traversed the street.s uf Manila and went to the palace 
of the governor to a^ure Kim of the loyalty of the people and of 
the bopeti of all that the National Ooveraroent would now rocogDize the 
needs of the colony. 

The conservative element in the colony, composed of at) those who 
looked with suspicion on all chango and on the Filipinos thcmseh'es 
when they showed any interest in the affairs of their own country, 
was very apprehensive of the results of the revolution in the Fcnin- 
aola and of the friendliness which the Filipinos showed to the new 
goremment and to the men who were charged with the admin int ration 
of affairs. The friai-s cspeciully did not conceal their disgust, and in 
exaggerated terms l>ognn to prophci^iy the dark days that wera coming 
and the '^nncertJiinty of the Spanish sovereignty." This caurtcd much 
ill feeling on the part of the Spanish iTsidenLs toward the Filipinos 
of prominence and re.^poctahility, who no longer concealed their aspi ra- 
tions to cease the Innctive mode of life and to eoopcrate with the 
Government in the work of the regeneration of their country. 

Governor-General La Torre was very unpopular with the resident 
Spaniards, and especially the friars, who as.'^umed an unfriendly and 
even hostile attitude toward the chief executive. Ia Torre, calum- 
niated and treacherously attacked by those of his countrymen who still 
upheld the traditional political methods of Spain, was finally obliged 
to leave the isUnds. His sympathizers among the Filipino* were 
then made the targets for the attacks of his enemies simply because 
they had dared to ask that there be extended to the colony a certain 
measure of the rigbte and liberties which had been secured to Spain 
by the revolution of IHGii. No one in the islands thought of secession 
from Spain, nor wiis any plan considered for the loosening of the l)ondH 
which held the iircliipclago to Spain; on the contrary, the generul dcsiro 
was that the name laws under which the Spaniards in Europe were 
governed and the snmc rights that they enjoyed should be extended 
tu the colony in the hope that the colonial poH80S6ioufi might tiouw day 




be qualified to beoome a province of the mother country; but tbe con- 
ser^atire elomoDt in the islands, whether in good faith or whether for 
political motivQB, let no opportunity pons for representing to the 

hSpanisb authoritio» tbat a revolution was being organized, which had 
for its objei^ the destruction of Spanish sovereignty in the PhiJippiue 
Inlands. 
Tbe arrival of General Tzquierdo (1B71-I87fl) waa the wignal for a 

^complete change in the aspect of affairs. The new governor »oon luade 

[clear that his views were different from thnsr of Ia Torre— that there 

[would be no change in the established fomi of goveniment — and he at 
onoe announced that he intended to govern the people '* with a crucifix 
in one hand and a sword in the other." Hi8 lirst oflicial act was to 
prohibit the founding of a school of art8 and trades, wliich was being 
organized by the efforts and funds raised by natives of standing in 

r|he ooniniunity, but the founding of which did not tally with the views 
of the religious orders. Governor Taiuierdo lielieved tbat the estab* 
lishment of the new school wa>* merely a pretext for the organization 
of a political club, and he not onl}* did not allow it to be oi)cned but 
mBd& a public statement accusing the Filipinos who had charge of th« 
movement. All of those who had offered their support toex-Govemor 
La Torre were classed as pernonas msp^fto^m (suspects), a term that 
since that time ha.t been used in the Philippine Islands to designate 
any person who refused to servilely obey the wishes and whims of 
the authorities. Tbe conservative element in the islands now directed 

kthe governmental policy, and the educated Filipinos fell more and 
more under the displeasure and suspicion of the governor. 

The peace of the colony was broken by a certain incident wliicb, 
though unimportant in its«lf, was probably the origin of the political 
agitation which, constantly growing for thirty years, cuhuinatcd in 
the overthrow of the Spanish sovereignty in tbe Philippine Islands. 
From time immemorial the workmen in tbe arsenal ut CaviCe and in 
the barracks of the artillery and engiuocr corp« liad been exempt 

firom the payment of tbe tribute tax and from obligation to work, cer- 
tain dayji each year on public improvements. General Izquierdo 
believed the time opportune for abolishing these privileges and ordered 
tbat in future all such workmen should pay tribute and labor on public 
improvements. This produced great dissatisfaction among tbe work- 
men affei'ted and the men employed in the ar>>tnuil at C-avite went on 
a i^trike, but, yielding to pressure and UiroaU made by the autlioritie-s, 
they subsequently returned to their tabors. 

The workmen in the Cavite arsenal were all natives of that town and 
of tbe neighboring town of Sun Roque. In a short while the diasalis- 
factiou and discontent with the goverruuent spread all over that sec- 



I 
I 



THE EMANUPATION FEOM SPAIN. 



877 



I 



lion and even the native troopH Wcarae di«nffert^d. On the night of 
January '^i), 1873, there was an uprising iimong rhe soldiers in the 
San Felipe fort, in Cavite, and the conmianding officer and other 
Spanish officers in charge of the fort wei-e assa^^ioat^d. Forty marines 
attached to the arsenal and 22 iirtillerrmen under Set^eant La Madrid 
look part in this uprising, and it waji believed that the entire garri^wn 
in Cavite was disaffected and probably implicated. But if the few 
soldiers who precipitated the attack believed they would tje supported 
by tlie bulk of the army and that a general rebellion against Spain 
would be declared in the islands they were dcc-eived. When the news 
of the uprising was received id Manila, General Izquierdo sent the 
manding general to Cavite, who reeuforced the native troops, took 
ssioii of the fort, and put the i^cbels to the sword. Sergeant La 
Madrid Imd been blinded and badly burued by tlic explosion uf a »ack 
of powder and, being unable to o^api\ was also eut down. A few of 
the relieki were captured and taken to Manila and there u'as no furtlier 
disturbance uf the pence or iutiubordi nation uf any kind. 

This uprising among the Boldieru in Cavite wa^ lined a» a powerful 
lever by tlie Spanish re.8identj> and by the friars. During the time 
that General La Torre was chief executive in the Philippine Islands 
the intliiential Filipinos did not hesitate to announce their hostility to 
the religious orders, and the Central Government in Madrid baid 
announced it;^ intention to deprive the friars in these islands of all 
powers of intervention in mattera of civil government and of the 
direction and management of the university. Moret. the colonial 
minister, bad drawn up a Hcheuie of reform by which ho proposed 
to make a radical change in the colonial system of government, which 
was to harmonize with the principles for which the revolution in 
Spain hotl Itcen fought. It was due to these facts and promises that 
the Filipinos hod great hn])es of an improvement in the affairs of their 
country, while the friars, on the other hand, feared that their power in 
the colony would soon be completely a thing of the past. 

The mutiny in Gtvite gave the consorvativo clement — that is. those 
who favored a continuation of the eoloninl modus vivendi^n oppor- 
tunity to represent to the Spanish (iovemnient that a vast conspiracy 
wait afoot and organized throughout the anhipelago with the object 
of destroying the Spanish sovereignty. They stated that the Spanish 
Uoveroment tn Madrid wus to blauie for the propagation of pernicious 
doctrines and for the hopes that had l>ee>i held out from Madrid to the 
Filipino pcoplo, and also becaiiite of the leanings of ex-Govemor La 
Torre and of otlior public functiouariea who had twen w)nt to the 
Philippine Inlands by the Government that succeeded Queen Isabella. 
The fall of tJie new riders in Spain within a few days, aa well as other 
ocourreucos, seemed to accentuate the cUims made by the coodervative 



deuietiL in the Philippine Islands reg»rding iliv peril which threftt- 
ened Spanish sovereignty in the inhintU; it appeared as though the 
prophecies were alx»iit to be (iiltilleii. The Madrid authorities were 
not able to combat public opiuion in that coaatry; no opportunity 
woH given nor time taken to make a thorough inveefti^'BtioD of the 
real (uctv or extent of the alleged revuiution; the coo.servutivc ele- 
ment in the Philippine Ulonds [minted the lotui condition of affairs in 
8oml)er tinb^: and the Madrid Government raino to believe, or at least 
to suspect, that a scheme was l)eing concocted throughout the islanda 
to shake off Hpani^h sorereignty. Consistont with the procedentA of 
their colonial rule, the repressive measures adopted to (|uell the sup- 
posed insurrection were ntriet and sudden. No attempt appears to 
hnre l>een made to ascertain whether or not the innocent suffered with 
the guilty , and the only end Houjj'ht appeared to t»e to inspire tensor in 

^the minds of all by making examples of a certain number, .so that 
none in the future should attempt, nor even dream of any attempt at 
sewvssion. 

Many of the best known Filipinos were denounced to the military 
authoritie-s and they, the sons of Spaniards horn in the islands and 
men of miiced blood (Spanish and Chinese), a« well as the Indians of 
pure blood, as the Philippine Malays were called, were persecuted 
and punished without distinction by the military authorities. Those 

'■who dared to oppose themselves to (he friars were pumshed with 
special severity; among others may be mentioned the priests Burgos, 
a half-blood Spaniard, Zamora, a half-blood Chinaman, and Gomez, a 

.pure-blood Tagalog, who had vigorously opposed the friars in theHti- 
gatioii over the curacies in the various provinces. ITie three priests 
oioutioned were condemned to death by a military court-martial; aod 
Antoniu M. Itegidor, a lawyer and councilman of Manila, Joaquui 
Pardo du Tavura, lawyer and meml>er of the administrative council. 
P. Mendoza, curate of Santa Cruz, Guevara, curate of Quiapo. the 
prieets Mariuno .Sevilla, Feliciano Gomez, Ballesteros, .1o^ Lasa, 
the lawyers Curritu, lltixa Eariquez. Crisanto Iteyes, Maximo I'ateruo, 
and many others were sentenced to life imprisonment on the Mariana 
I(<tandi>. The Govennnunt tlius secured ita object of terrorizing the 
Filipino people, but the punishments meted out were not only unjust 
but wore from every point of view unneoesaary, as there bad not been 

^tho remotest intention on the part of anyone (o overthrow the Siwuiah 
>vereignly. On the contrary, the attitude of Moret, I.Abiu, Becerra, 
and other high officials iti the Madrid Government bad awakened in 
the breasts of the Filipirnw n lively friendship for the honiw guvern- 
ment, and never had the ties which bound the colony to .Spain beouftM 
do«e MM they vere during the short interval between the arrival of 
lencral La Torre and the time when Generul Izquiurdo, in the name 



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THE EMANCIPATION FROM SPAIN. 



879 



P 



of thv. home govcmiiient. wii8 ^uilt}* of the atr(K-itie<s mentioned above, 
of whifh innocent men won-, mado. victimi*. 

A careful study of tiie hif*tory iind dncuniBnlH of that time brings to 
li|j;ht the part which the rt^ligioui* ordcrin played in that .sad dranuu 
One of the rcHiiltn of the so-called revolution of Cavile was to 
strengthen the power of the friai-s In the Philippine I.slandH in such 
manner that the Ma<1rid Government, which up to that time had con- 
templated redufing the power of the i-eli^ows orden* in these islands, 
was obliged not only to abandon its intention, but to pl&ctt a yet greater 
measure of ofiicial tnduence at the service of the friars, and from 
that time they were considered as an important factor in the preser- 
ratiou of the Spanish sovereignty in the colony. This influence 
was felt throughout the islands, and not only were the friars taken 
into the confidence of the Government, but the Filipino people looked 
upon the religious oi-ders &s their real masteis and as the representa- 
tives, powerful and unspariug, of the Sp&nish Kingdom. 

But there were other itsuIIh following upon the unfortunat<> policy 
adopted by Governor Ixquierdo. Up to that time there had been no 
intention of secession from Spain, and the only aspiration of the peo- 
ple was to secure the material and educational advancement of tlie 
country. The Filipino pcoplt^ had never blamed the S^Mnisb nation 
for the Imckward condition in which the islandH existed, nor for the 
uijuHtices oomniitted in the islands by the Spanish officials: but on the 
contrary it was the custom to lay all the blame for these things on 
the tndividusl officers guilty of maladministration, and no attempt bad 
been made to investigate whether or not the evils under which the 
islands suffered were duo to fundamental causes. The persecutions 
which liognn under Governor Izquierdo were based on tJie false assump- 
tion that the Filipino people were desirous of Independence, and 
although this was an unfounded accusation, there were many martyrs 
to the cause, among whom were found many of the most intelligent 
and well-to-do people, without distinction of color or race or nation- 
ality, who were sentenced to death, to imprisonment, or were expatri- 
ated because they were believed to aspire to the independence of ibcM*^ 
islands. The fear which the people felt of the friars and of tht^ ptin- 
ishmcnts meted out by the Government was exceeded only by the 
udmirution which the Filipino people bad for those who did not hesitate 
to stand up for tfao rights of the country. In this manner the per- 
aeondotu to which the people were subjected served as a stimulus and 
fto educative force, and from that time the rebellion waa nursed in 
secret and tlie piweive resistance to the abuses of the official power 
became greater day by day. 

No att4^nipt wuw nmde lo allay the ill feeling which existed Iwtween 
the Filipinos and the Spaniards, especially the friars, caused by the 




matiny in Oavite and the rruel manner in which the pmuchaieDt was 
leted oaL Many year>^ would have been ncceasorr to heal the 
rounds felt by tbo lai^ number of families whone niRnibeni wpre 
made tlie victims of the unjust sentfinces of the mililory courto-mar- 
tial. Nothing was done by thn Oovi>nimcnt to blot out the reiwllec- 
tiou of these actions; on the contrary, it appeared to be it« policy to 
continually bring up the memory of these oocnrrences as a reminder 
to thi- malcontontfl of what they had to expect; but the only thing 
Bccuniplished VrHS to increase the popular dincontent. It was from 
that time that every disagreement between the Spaniards and FUipi- 
D08, however trivial, wns given « racial or political character; every 
time a friar- weh InHultt'd or injured in any way, it wa« claimed to be 
an act of hostility to tlie Spanish nation. 

The nunit^r of Filipino youthx who went abroad to he educated 
increased yeur by year; aiul UiiH wa^ another cause for the increase in 
the public discontent, as the families of the^e students were made the 
objects of espionage. The authoritie-s susi>ected thiit tlie students, on 
returning from abroa^i, would bring to the archipelago modem poUt- 
!ical ideas and would become imhu»l with the revolutionary spirit 
which had arisen within Spain it«elf. 

Certain SiJaniHh writi^rs l)elieved the moment opportune to inaugu- 
rate a literaiT campaign against the Filipino people. The natives were 
represented as being .so degraded and >n> inferior in every way to other 
THCCi* that nothing was to l>o fenred from them. In the Philippine 
Jslands nothing could be written or published in opposition to these 
attacks, inasmuch a.<4 the press was subjected to a most rigid censor- 
ship; but a nucleus of Filipinos had l>egim to form in Spain itself, 
and they boldly took, up the defense of their compatriotd. Marcelo 
n. del Pilar established in Madrid a Filipino organ called ^'Za 
8olidaru/ad,-^ in which brilliant article* «ppeare«I, written by Kizal, 
Jaeua.and others. This paper was not allowed to circulate in Manila. 

The state of discontent in the Philippine Islands l»ecanie greater 

ly by day, but the people reuiaine<i in ignorance of the real cause of 
their troubles. The work written by Kiaal, entitled " Holt rtif Jan- 
jKvc," brushed aside the veil and exposed to the view of all the reason 
for their sufiferiug and diacontent. The young author of this work 
was a Tftg£log and a native of the town of Calamba, in the province of 
La Ldguna. It was a political novel, in which for the lirst tiuio were 
presented in thoir true colors the sutTerings whidi tlie Filipino people 
underwent; the character delineations were all true to nature, from 
thi! young chil<i to the old man, the obscure types of the lower doss 
and the mombcrs of the cultured class. In this tiook were faithfully 
iwriniyed the everyday life and cuatoms of the iakuda, full of tlw 



4 

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381 




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poetry of nature. For the drst time the att^smpt at caricature, which 
th« Spanish nnthors had always used in describing' the native peo- 
ples, was elimioated. A)) of the defects of the public aduiiiiistnition 
of affairs, tho ignorance of the functionaries and their corruption, 
the vices of the clergy, the incapacity of the jfovernors, and the 
inferiority of Spanish culture in these ishinds were made uuuiifeftt. 
The prestige ivhich the Trial's liad enjaycd, and which was ba^ed 
unly on tho igiioniuce of the masses, crumbled away when tho private 
]ivc8 of the members of the ntligiuus ui'dei-s in tbu provinces were 
deflcribed in the pagos of Rizal'» Uiuk and the immorality undiiL-ious- 
avas of the f riar» wero uncovered to the public gaze. The defecta in 
the tiy»tem of education pursued iu tho cullege^ and in the Filipino 
uuiveniity were also exiK>sed and the evil re«ulUi of the teachings 
pointed out. So \'ividly were the defects in the Spanish colonial 
idtnioistratiun det^cribed that the entire structure tuttt^red, und tho 
prestige which Spunhih civilisation in tlie islands Imd attained up to 
thai time in the minds of the Filipinos was completely discredited. 
Kixul, with ^ri'Ht finet<8e and ahiliLy, conti'astcd the Simnish system of 
government and uf Ihouglit witli wttai was tR'ing done and thought in 
other European countries, especially in Germany, and it can bo truth- 
fully said tliat all who read AWi tut; Tantjer^ from that moment 
detetited tlie Spunish system of colonization and oontddered the friars 
as the greatest ubstaclea to Filipino progress. 

It would sf^em tliat this novel und its effect on the public mind 
would have served us a warning to the Spanish politicians and caused 
them to modify their program, but quite the contrary was the result 
Many prominent Spaniards felt themselves insulted, und ill feeling 
ran high against the educated Filipinos, who found themselves day 
bj day made the objects of yet greater persecutions and treated as 
aiupects. The Spanish Fivemasons, )>eing adnsed by Hizal, endeav- 
ored to organize branch lodges in the I'lillippine Islands for iho pur- 
pose of coiuiteracting tho intolerance and high-handed proceedings of 
the Government nnd of the friars. Their object was to act as intermo- 
diaxicH in a fraternal or protecting character over tho Filipinos; but 
ibeir efforts wore doomed to failure, and the suspicion and ill feel- 
ing of the authoritie.4 toward the Filipino people bocamc yet more 
Bggramted. 

The new teaching spi'cad rapidly, and notwithstanding the fact that 
it was made an offense pieverely punished by law to read Noli me 
Thn^fere, the demand for tliis popular work became greater each day. 
It WIS more widely read jm the time went by, and was issued in piuu- 
phletM and even iti loose sheets in the Tag&lc^ and Visayan dialects, into 
wbirh it had been transhued. Rizal soon published the second part. 




or Boquel to his novel, which he called '^ El /'tlUnuteriamoJ'* In this 
voluQie the uutbor prcsentod in a mastei'ly nmiincr a picture of a coun- 
try on the vor^c of a ravolutimt; hri dopirt(>d (he Filipino people hb a 
loDg-Huffering race which still beliovod in tlie promises of Spain, and 
ho laid the Manie for thie i^tiditioo of affairs at the door of the iwlo- 
nial ulilciials, thinkin|^ only of polities, dc-af to tlie rrieH of juHiii-)p. and 
blind to the dpectaitte of a suffering people, which still hoped, hut which 
faat was appnxwhing the |)oint when patience would cease to In* a 
virtue. El EiUhiuiierismo was intended a« a warning; hut Spanish 
pride would not stoop to rect^nize it, and the author, who was worthy 
of the gmlitudc of Spain and of her sons for what he did to avert a 
L-alaniily, was i-onsidered the worst enemy of Sp^tin. 

Before the publication of £t EtUbmUTismo^ public opinion in 
the Philippine Islands had been much stirred by an event which 
occuiTcd in 1SS8 while fleneral Terrcro wan governor. The people 
of Binondo and the friar who acted as parish priest in that town were 
at cross purposes, and the ill feeling grew to such an extent that a 
number of Filipinos presented to the governor a petition in which 
they begged that the archbishop and the religious orders should be 
expelled from the Philippine Islands. The nction of the petitioners 
was interpreted to mean a threat agatnat the Spanish ttoverelgnty, and 
at a meeting hold by the high oificiahi it was decided to prose- 
cute with the greatest rigor all of the Filipinos who had signed the 
petition, which was said to l>e seditious. A large number of well- 
known persons were arrested and sent to jail, and public atteotaoo 
during many mouthr> was fixed on this occurrence. In the iuvestiga- 
tion and development of this case the government officiaU preserved the 
greatest mystery; peaceable, honomble, and respectable people were 
dail}' arrested am) jailed, accui^d of the i.'riine of cont^piracy; and as 
though this were not enough to alarm the people, an old eliiiui of the 
town of Calamba wati revived. This was a case where the people of 
Calamba had brought a suit against the Doniiniatti friars for the pur- 
'pose of recovering title to certain municipal land-, held by that order, 
and notwithstanding the fact that the trial of the suit waa proceeding 
before the proper courts, Governor-General Weyler inter\*ened, and 
for the purpose of Klrengtheuiug the friar«^ side of the Huit he sent an 
artillery company, composed of Spaniards, who carried their cannon 
and camping outfit to tlie town of Calamlia. Sncli of the people in 
tiiat vicinity as dared to dispute ttie right of the friars to the lands in 
question were driven out of the town, their houses bumetl, and their 
families ix*i-seruted. Rteal's family and other prominent people of 
CaUuuba were expatriatoil, and those who were able to oacajw arrest 
took I'efuge in Hongkong as an ii-syluni from further oulnigo. 

All of these events were narrated without exaggeration and with the 
••'.most fidelity to fact by the author Id £1 FUib\usti!riiimo- From 



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ado 
■tin 

^■11) CI 



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ftU sidea were now received reports of occurrences whioli could 
bo viewed in tbc light of the preciirsord of more &enou» events. 
Durinj^ thi^ time H'lzal ami other educated Filipinos maintained that 
all that Wis needed to culm the people wa» the inauguration of un 
equitable system of government and justice to all, but the colonial 
officials, following the political traditions of Spuiu, were determined 
to thi-ottlo the voice of the people. The most rigorous measures were 
adoptfd; tho Filipinos wei-e occuspjd of lieing ingratca and were per«R- 
..jcuted as ci'iminalB. The nuthorities refused to listen to or to rwognize 
true factrt and condition of things, and all of the acts of govern* 
iient were directed to the one object of terrorizing the pouple and to 
tlie perpetuation of the .Spanish domination over them. 

In tho hope of being able to wecnre from Spain the inauguration of 
certain reforms in the administrative atfairH of the colony, Kizal, 
together with other influential Filipinos, e.Htabtished the Filipino 
Ijeague. The main objeetw of this society woit to secui-e a syMteui of 
public schools and the abolition of the monnstic orders or annulment 
of their powers, whii;h thov ex]x^cted to nttnin Ihnmgh a ropre.senta- 
tion in the Madrid CVirtes of duly constituted delegates. Tho gonciul 
plan of tho movenicnt was to secure tho establishment in the colony 
of the existing system of lawn under which tho mother country wa^ 
governed, and they wero encouraged to hope for tho micccss of their 
plans by readon of tlic policy of assimilation or reconstruction which 
at that time pervaded Spanish councils. * At thin time there were also 
established in Mitnila and in some of the provincc«t Masonic lodges 
of the ""Gran OtumU /Ctp^iRof" The membership of those lodges 
increased rapidly, and large numbemof men of all age^and coadiUone 
were initiated. 

The lower cJaasos had not as yet taken any part in this political 
movement or tu the opposition to the abui»c» of government, but 
finally the excesses to which the civil guard went convinced these 
defenseless crenturcs that the guurdians of the peace had Iweomc their 
mont dangerous enrmie.-^. The friars had also, by reason of their rop- 
rcbensible aetioas. lost their ancient prestige in the various towns; and 
tho people cither hated or had lost their previous affection for tboir 
spiritual advi>«?rs. It was at this moment that Andr*^?* IVinifacio .^oiMd 
his opportunity and organized an assaoialiou known as *'£*/ Katijm- 
ruin," with the object of uniting the masacs of tho people and for tho 
purpose of throwing off u galling yoke. 

Andr^fl Itonifacio n'as alMJut 40 years old, a man of scant education, 
but cut out by nature uh a true organizer of revolutionary movements. 

'The princi]*! retnrms (IpmanilM by the PIDptnfM were expoliion of th<* Man 
aad n>ututi<.iii "i lliv frbtr iHinix u> iti<^-iiiiiiik-iiirtliii«M; repreamtatioQ in ttiu ^^)>4iDiHh 
parUtimtnt; fntslom of the- pru«i n-iijfiijui! lotviBtiuii; the lawflatwl jampntdunce of 
Hpaln. AuA o<|iii(1iiv lM>.torp Xhc law: lulmliiietratlre aikd eODDOmk autoDotny; aod 
ftU>UUuu tA iW n^X to Inuiteh ciLiM-ns.— XKrvdor. 



He wuu Jiuipired b^' aii oxaltod patriotism, and was convinced that the 
FilipiniiM could not expp-ct any rt-mi'dy from 8|ifl.in for the ilb which 
afflicted the jwopU'; lie wa*> convinced of the ah^ohite in-ceysity for 
emancipation from S|»nl8h uovereignty and orgHotzed El Katipu- 
nun OB n preliiiilniiry utep toniird that end and for the purpot^ of 
atTordin^ an opi>oi'tiinity for t4;aching the maases the principles onun- 
ctatod by the Filipino Lea^e. In the or^nization of El Kattpu- 
nan Bonifacio adopted certain of the symbols and methods of pro- 
ctwiure from the KreciiiiL-!ons. 

The fi'iars and the Spaniartis later came to believe that the rovolo- 
tion against the Spanish authority was the work of the KreBmaaonii, 
bafc this ia an error, inasmuch us it was the members of El Katipu- 
nan, under the active and able direclioo of Andrfis Bonifacio, who 
organized and .supported the revolutionary cnusc. In order to be 
admitted to Kt Katipunan the applicant made an inci>fion in his arm 
and siffncd hia nurao with his own blood to a sworn statement in 
which he boand himaelf to blind obedience to any duty or mission 
to which be wa^ ajf«iigaed by the assjociation, to keep niecret all that 
he saw or heard, and to unheaitatingly (five all, even his life, for his 
country. 

Bonifacio thoroughly undertitoodthecbaracter of the Filipino people 
and intuitively knew that the oioiuent had arrived in which an appeal 
to the t^entimeDts and the hearU of the ix*ople would be followud by a 
general uprising and that he would Ikj able to organize a revulutionary 
mov^nent which would bo supported enthuaiatiittcaUy. The erenttt 
justified this belief. 

On August 19, 1894}, tho pricat of the barrio of Tond6, in the city 
of Manila, learned through tho confessional (hat a vastoonspimcy was 
afoot having for its end the extermination of tho Spaniards. AVithin 
a few moments tho governor-general liad been informed of tlio con- 
spiracy. Tho government aliTady knew of the secret oi^nizations, 
and as soon as the details bad boon learntwl from the Tondfi priest 
8usi)ectcd persons in large numtrers were arrested and jailed, (ieneral 
Blanco took mutters coolly, but when the members of El Katipunan 
saw that the jails were lieiiig filled with their brothors thoy decided to 
Btriko the blow before the dat«^ agreed upon. 

On August SO a largo body of revolutionists attacked Satt Juan del 
Monte, but the Spanish artillen,', being well disciplined and Mipplied 
with good guns, defcJited the revolutioni.sts with great ^langhlcr and 
made many prifuners. The cnicltiea ranimitt«d on that day by the 
Spuniyh troops were only what could have been expected by thow 
familiar witli the military hi«t«rj' of Spain. 

There wore .stationed in Manila only 40l> Spanish mldient and a few 
native troops, the main body of the troopa being occupied in Mindo- 



THE EMANCIPATION FROM SPAIN. 



385 



►: 



nao. The authorities and the SpanUh residents in Manila wnm ter- 
rorized by the revolutioaan' movement, and it was <lecidcd to use 
most repressive measures; the persecution of the suapectod parties 
wOiH at once begun and most of tbc inSueotial Filipinos wcro arrested 
and sent to prison. ValenzueJa, Kojos Abella. Franco Salvador, and 
olhers were exet^uted, after beiujf sentenced by a military court- 
martial in which all principles of justice and equity were ignored, for 
the purpose of satisfying the demands of the resident Spaniards. On 
December 3(), 18^, Kizal was executed, after being condemned by a 
courtniartial. the Spanish troop« in triumphal proee;*sion paased by 
is dead body, and the members of the Spanish society who witneastMl 
the public execution cried *'Vivn F>pQfia." It was liolicved that by 
the death of Kizal the revolutionary movement had l>een controlled, 
but iu reality his death only scned to rupture for alt time the bonds 
which until then had united the Spanish and the Filipino people. 

The Manila jails were filled willi prisoners. In Kort Santiago 58 
men were suffocated to death in a single night in a cell in which tho 
commanding general bad placed them. The unfortunate people who 
were taken to the military prisons were aubjected to all kinds of tor- 
ture, and in all parts of the Philippine Islands wore committf)d acta 
of true savagery, of which defensi?Ie«s and loyal Filipinos were made 
tlie victims. The i*enl revolution istw had by this time left the tr>wna 
and taken up arms against the Spaniards. 

The province of Cuvile was by this time in a general state of revo- 
lution, and Ijcfore the rebellion could be reduced Ueueral Lcchamhre 
had to take the field with 14,*HXl Spanish soldiers sup{K>rted by a 
squadron under Admiral Montojo. The Spanish forces triumphed 
in the same waters where within a short time they were to bo sunk by 
Dewey's ships. 

Gmilio A^uinaldo, with a large band of revolutionists, among whom 
fere natives of great influence, escaped from the Spaniards, crossed 

e pmvincea of Carite and Manila, and fortified himself in theprov- 
of BulacAn, at a place called nia«*nabat6. 

neral Primo dc Rivera, who was governor-general of the Philip- 
pine Islands, got General Aguiiialdo and hi:< chicftainft to agree to a 
ty of peace, which wais reported to have been signed on December 
18W. By tho terms of this treaty the Filipinos were promised 
tltat the friarv would lie expelled: that the oBtive« would have freedom 
of the prusH and of public ai<8emblage, and would be given representa- 
tion in tho S)»tni!th C<.>ngre»>: amnesty whs also promised to all the 
revolutionists. Agutnatdo and bis cliieftains on their side agreed to 
remove to Hongkong on payment of the sum of tlOO,OOiJ peson for 
tboir arms, ammunition, and other munitiooa of war which they 
abandoned at Biacnabat6. 

aeiai— VOL i-og — 26 



Aguinaldo appears to have been certain that a treaty of peace had 
really been drawn up, hut subsequently no on** wils nble to produce 
the treaty or to prove its existence; it would therefore appear that 
Aguinaldo and his chieftain* were completely fooled rejjardinp this 
treaty by interested persons in whom tlioy hnd confidonce. Peace 
reigned for a while after the revolutionnry chiefn had left the Philip- 
pine iHiando, but minor disturbances reported fix^ni all pailD of the 
ifulandt* iiidit-ati-d that the revolutionary spirit was hUII kept alive by 
the people at larj^e. 

In 1898, when war between the United States and Sfjain was declared. 
General Augustin, then (governor of the island?*, quickly organized 
the variouH corp-« uf militia and put thorn under the command of the 
revolutionary leaders who yet remained iu the islandti. The Spanish 
fjovemor endeavored to secure the cooperation of the Filipinos in 
dL'fonding the ialauds against foreign inva^sioii by eatabliahing in 
Manila a board known as the ammhl^a txmmMtva., the duties of which 
were toadvi»e the insular government on all matters of intererft to 
the colony. Ah had always been done at ciitical momeut8, the 
Government a^Bumiid an attitude of geueroaity toward the people for 
the purpose of seenring their good will and cooperation. But on 
this occasion, as subsccptcnt events proved, Spanish sovereignty was 
nearing it8 end and thei-e was no opportunity to put in operation the 
time-worn policy of appealing to the forgiving tiature of the natives. 

On May 1» 1898, l>ewey's ships completely destroyed the Siianit^h 
squadron in the Philippine Islands, in the harbor of Manila, in the 
Bej' of Bot'oor. Cavile capitulated the same day and Manila wa.s com- 
pletely blockaded as far us couimunicaiion by sea was concerni^d. The 
Spanish troops to the numlier of 13,000 were at this time distributed 
throughout Luzon and the other islands. The Filipino militia was com- 
posed of 11,000 men, and .the colonial govermnent was confident that 
the natives would believe in the promisee of autonomic govornmeot 
and would take sides with Spain and against the American invaders; 
but on May lit General Agtiinaldo landed at Cavite, and within tiftoen 
days thereafter all of the Filipino militia had roboUod againtit Spain, 
and the militia forces were so disposed thai Manila was completely 
cut off from all comiuunicatioa by land» and the blockade was now 
complete.' 

* The first ex{H<<)itioiuu'v (orco, linger tbe command o( Maj. (ion. Wenlej- MerrilL 
V. S. Armv, arriv«l in the h»r>>or mI Manila June M, 1898. Cavile wm wwuplcd 
Joly 1, and on July VI Panin»qoo, 7 milen aouth of Manila, (mm whirh [loint ihe 
advance aswrvt the dt)- voB oxnmenced. On Aufftut 14 Geiwrnl Menilt tanio] Uie 
foUowinf; proclamation: 

7b Itic penjiU. !■/ (Ar PhiUppinfs: 

" I, War bae existed between Uio Uoited Statw and Spain nnoe April SI nf thi* vcar. 
bmce lliat date yon havo witnowied the dflstnwtion bj- an AtiMirii'axi fiwt i.f tin* Sn*»- 
lib oBval power of theee islonde; tht; tall d ttie priuciiio] citv, Manila, uiJ ita 



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TIIE E^!ANCTPATION FROM SPAIN. 



887 



On the Hurrendcr of Manila (icDcral Aguinaldo »oon oi^nized a 
provbiional government at Bocoor; in September he rpmorod his 
forces to Malolos, where the seat of the revolutionary govcrnmnnt 
WES cstablirthed. 

When (he Paris Treaty of Foace wa« pabli^hed in.hinuarv, 1899, by 
Oonrral Otiw, it croaled great diH-*:it!sfaction among the Filipinojt, who 
believed that the intention of the United Slates in destroying ihe 
Spaniah sovereignty was to secure the independence of the Philippine 
liitlandj': the tight agiiinst the Americans was then re.'*umed with greater 
energy hy the Filipino people. On Kebruar}' i of the same year hos- 
tilities were inaugurated, and from that time the American Anuy began 
the conquest of (iio archipelago. 



■u t 



mu 



m 



'ensee, uiii thu mimtndiv of th« Spnnisti army of uoinipatioa to thu foms of tlio 
ItedBtotta. 

i. Tfa« commaniler of theUnitatI 8tat«>« Ufivat uow Id poweseion Iitw instriidions 

mi bie Oovoniiuent to aanira the peopiV- ilnit hv iitu wA (.-oiim* to uuku mir ii[k>ii 

^m nor upon any part)' or faction among Diein. luit to protiit Ihom in tlivir homw, 

■u tlioiremployioentc, and iu tb<ur pereouul rdJ reti^fiuui^ ritiUtM. AH (intone who 

'-y active aid or hoQ«flt sobmlaBion cooperate with the L'nitcd titatea in it« efforts to 

IVL' effprt to thw beaeficiul purpooe will receive the reward of ite support and 

<ot(.'ctioii. 

"3. Tfw fro%'cmnient (vlabUsbod imonij you by the United Ktatos Army isapov- 
«miDM)t of iittliUry < •cm pat ion; and (or iW pr>>iwnt it \h ordered that the miinicipal 
bws BUch iw atfv^-t privaiti ri^titt^ of iwrauuH and properly, rwutale loi-al infliilutiona 
and provide tor thb punishment of orinic. phiitl }>c coostderea aa continuing id force, 
wo far an citmiuitiliU* vritJi tJie p>ir[K»it' of military (ro\'emment, and that they b« 
adiuinbtcrol Itirou(;li the onliiiary tribunals i-ulwtantially as before oocmpation, but 
f ofBHal)* appointed hy the govi-niincnt of occupAtion. 

"4. A pnivo»t-iiiarHhat-)^-iivnil will Ix-apr-'intwl (or thcHly of Manila and its ont- 
_jintf dblrivts. ThiH ti-riitory will lx> divtdod into tnibdtBtficta. and there will bs 
swiped to cacti a deputy provoat-tnanhal. 

"Th*^ duUev of till* pn>vovt-inai^Ml<geni>nil and htHcleputie« will he set forth lo 
fletail in (utimi ordi-m. In a rauuinU way thuy aro char^tsl witli the duly of ""H^g 
arn«t«of niilitary as wt-ll ah civil offendf>ra, sending mrh of the lonuiT cloae uara 
triable by u>urte-inartiat to thvir proper uofnintuidtf wilb otalvmeubt of thpir otEensai 
and namai of wltnefeea, fttal dutiuning in custody all of tlio ofiendcre for trial bv 
ilitarr commiiwion, provofl courts, or native criminal courte, in act.'ordance wita 
iw and lh*f iiuHnirtions h*rwi(tw to be ii«u«d. 

"5. The tort of Manila, and all other porte and pUtcce in the PliiUppinM which 
may he in tne actmil po«v«ii'>n of our land and naval forces, will be open whilt? onr 
niirilary otiupatton may contiiinv, to IJie uoninic>n-i:< of all neutral iiationn, tm well as 
our own, iu anic^ee not ojnlralianil of war, and upon payment of the prtsecribcd 
ral«e of datv which mav he in force at the time of the importation. 

"6. All cnurcbe* and plartw devoted to religioiw wonihip and to the arte and ocl- 
enoei.Bll t.->lucatioaal iiiautuUoDa,lilrrariea,MientiflcuolleettonB, maw)amH,aret m far 
poembic, to be protected; and all deptmction or Intentional defacMnent of «ach 
Kfm or property, of hiiitoritnl nionnmenta, aruhtvee, or workn of w-ience, it pro* 
Ibitw], nave when re^juircd by untent military Deoenlty. Severe puiiiebinent will 
meteal out for all violationn of lliin regulation. 

'The cuFtoiliaDMot pro[>ertii<e of the character meationo'J in this eoction will mak-> 
A rvtunu iheraof to then headnuartera, atDting chatscler and locattoo and 
iflng mu:h fercnimendationa as their may thintt proper for the full protection 

• • ■'<■■ nnder their care and cnrtody, that proi>er ordent may ivuecnioUi* 

t>< I ion of I •'•111 iiiiliiari- and civil HUthoritif« in secarinx each protection. 

7. I uandiiiK xcncral. in annonnring the nitabliabment of mHltary aov> 

inii-nt anil m ent^nnc nixm hif d<iiip«i n^ niililary governor In paraaance oihia 

[toIntiDout an eorh by the Ihivcnnm-nt of the t'oitnl Statev, deidm to OflBiirs ibe 

Dplu ihul m loni; aa they pn^'rvc (lie pcact'and iM>rform their dutieatownnl the 

ipivai-ntativn ol the Ctutod t^toteB tbey will not be dioUirbed in tbeir psnoo and 



The American conquest of the Philippine Islnnds may be considered 
as having been completed by the year llMil, in whii^h year a cotnmis- 
sloQ from Washington arrived in Manila for the purpose of oi^n- 
ix'iog » local civil goveroment In December of the same year the 
Federal party, the first political organization, was formed; the main 
ohject of this ©ionization was to bring abont peace in the islands and 
tu cooperate M'itb the commi^on, of which the lion. William H. Taft 
was preitidetit. 

With the oxccptiott of a part of the island of Mindanao, of the 
i&lund of .}o\6, aud other small uthinds which belong to the Moro prov- 
ince, peaire has been i-eextablished throughout the archipelago. 

Although the ambition of a largo majority of the Filipinos is still 
for indepeadcm«, yet the educated class who eo thinks is t-onvincod 
that independence may be secured at the proper time by legal meaD«t 
and that a revolution or any appeal to arms would be harmful to the 
interents of the people of the Pliilippincs. 

propertT, c-xcept in m (ar tus may bo fonnd n«c«Mairv for lh« jrooil of the mrvioe of 
, tbo Ututed Statue «iid the beiiuat u( thu uuuplu o[ t1iu FkilippiaaB." 
I G«nentl Mvrritt ninaintyl in roinmanil uid 4:!Xort-isL''l the fnncliooB of mllitarr 
BoramoF until Aiigw^ 2I>, whun Im tvsa ivIu-vcmI hv Muj- tiou. B. 8. Otis, who waa 
niGcaeded by Mnj. Gku. A. MiicArthur. Muy 5, IftOO* 

The tneurroctton of the Filipimi^aguiDfft tno Govemmcot of the United StatM cul- 
minated on Fvbniary 4, I8t)^), in llie gpoi>r3l altM'k ttuule on Manitn, mul from tb»t 
tlmo on hoiitililUw vxieliKl in nil thu loDpir ii^buida, uotably in LuiAu. On July 4, 
1901, Mnj. Ocn. A. R. (!haffoo rclicvtyl (.K'ticml MacArthur, and tfav niilitar>- gov- 
eniinent o( lln^ island>< w«a replaci^d by civil Kovwmment, exct'i>t in th*f rtiilu arcbi- 
^pelagu aud all of Mindaiuio but tbv provtncui of SuriKuu and Miamis. which 
iicmaincf] acdor tho administration of tni^ military governor »n<l oommaDding gen- 
'«r«] until June 1, 1903, when tbc Moro pruvincv was orgauizvd. — Director. 



U. THE JUDICIARY/ 

Early GovcmtnenI - OpprcseJon— Courts o( First Instance- Municipal Courts — 

Special Courts. 

In the roynl order of Aiigiisl 11, 1569, confirming- the title of 
Jjegik«pi as govoruor and captain-geocrul of the Pliilippiues. he wus 
eupowcrcd "to administer our civil and criminal justice in comjjony 
with the officers of jiwtice who may Iw appointed: also to liciir. exani- 
ine, and decide unv civil and criminal suit or case which niuv arise in 
the said i^latvds." 

He waa iltno authorized " to fill the offices of govcmoi' and captain- 
^eoeral, constable, and other offices annexed and suitable to your 
government, and to dismiss and remove these subordinate:; whenever 
you desire. And you may hear, examine, and decide any civil or 
criminal «uit or case that may arise in the said i^^lands." It was made 
the duty of all municipal bodie§, couits, matfistrates, knights, squires, 
citiex, town», and hamlets to acknowledge the authority conferred 
on hiiu. 

To ossiH the governor in judicial matters l>efore and after the abo- 
lition of the audioncia, tbere was a lieutenant -a.s^9aor or legal adviser, 
whose oflice was given, in ISSS, the title of Itcutenaut-generul of the 
governor and captain-general, and who in judicial matters *' beard 
cwaea in appeal which did not exceed a thousand ducats of Castile." 

Under this order Logaspi had original and iippcllato jurisdiction in 
' alt suits, and oou^tituted iii his own peitwn all the authority of a depart- 
mentuf juwtice. with complete governmental and administrative control 
over all judicial ottices. 

In subscqucot c^dulas and orders it was made the duty of all officials 
having' iiutbority, to enforce the royal laws and ordiuauces issued iu 
behalf uf the natives, but they du not upiiear to have done so. In a 
I letter from MauUa, 1583, to Philip II, Bishop Salazar' wrote: 

Bhw» Your Majesi)' ordan by ^our royal decrvo that in case tlio gDvenion do aot 
Iraep tbe royal lawi! aud ordinaiioOH wiiich are nude for them IuiiIb, I adnm Yoar 
Majerty of the fart ; what might in complianoe be iaid with entire tnithfiilnefls I0, 

'jVf the judidarytonrdwdaa important LuflueuMou thocjcwuiivusovmunenlof 
ihtf Pblllppbie^ CM vhldi for many' years It torm^ a 110:1^ It ia appropiiile that a 
brief acMKuit of thin bram-h of tlie gi)%-erani«nt shookt bo iiioJiidivl in the g«tu<m] 
history of th^ i^kods. Tlie tollowiug H