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1. Object and Limits of the Work, . . . ix 

2. Account of the Chronicles and Memorials inserted in 

this Collection, ..... xvii 

3. Name of Scotia, and ancient Topography of the Country, Ixxv 

4. Inhabitants of the Country, their Legends and History 

prior to a.d. 634, .... Ixxxviii 

5. Relative position of Four Nations during the century 

subsequent to a.d. 634, .... cxiv 

6. Variance of Chronicles, and suppressed Century in 

the History of the Scots, .... cxxiii 

7. Substantial agreement of Chronicles subsequent to 

A.D. 850, ..... cxxxiii 

8. Development of the Scottish Fable, . . cxlix 

9. Lidications and Fragments of History of Eighth and 

Ninth Centuries, .... clxxxii 


Tenth Centuby. 

page page 
I. The Pictish Chronicle, dcccclxxl-dccccxcv., . xviii 3 

II. Saxon and Welsh Additions to the Historia 

Britonum, dcccolxxvii., . . . xxiii 11 

III. From the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick, Tenth 

Century, ..... xxix 17 


Eleventh Centurt. 


IV. Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, Jixiv.- 

MXX., ..... xsx 18 

V. Irish and Pictish Additions to the " Historia 

" Britonum," mxl.-mlxxii., . . xxxi 23 

VI. The Duan Albanaeh, mlxx., . . . xxxvi 57 

VII. From the Chronicle of Mariauus Scotus, 

MLXxviii., .... xxxviii 65 

VIII. From the Annals of Tighernac, MLXXxviii., .xxxviii 66 
IX. The Prophecy of St. Berchan, mxciv.-mxcvii., xxxix 79 
X. From the Life of St. Cadroe, Eleventh Cen- 
tury, . xli 106 

Twelfth Century. 

XI. Metrical Prophecy, Mciv.-Mcxxiv., . . xlii 117 
XII. Continuation of Synchronisms of Flann Main- 
istreach, Mcxix., .... xlii 119 
Xni. From the Welsh Bruts, mcxx.-mcxxxiv., . xliii 120 
XIV. Tract on the Picts, before mclx., . . xlvi 125 
XV. Tract on the Tributes paid to Baedan, King 

of Ulster, before mclx., . . . xlvii 127 

XVI. Chronicle of the Scots, mclxv., . . xlvii 130 

XVII. Description of Scotland, mclxv., . . xlix 135 

XVIII. Legend of St. Andrew, mclxv., . . li 138 

XIX. Continuation of the Annals of Tighernac, 

MCLXXVIII., . . . . li 141 
XX. From the Life of St. Patrick, by Joceline, 

MCLXXXV., . . . . lii 142 
XXI. Genealogy of King William the Lyon, 

MCLXXXV., . . . .lii 144 
XXII. From Giraldus Cambrensi.s, Topographia Hi- 

berniae, mclxxxvi., . . .lii 146 

XXIII. Chronicle of the Scots and Picts, mclxxx^ii., lii 148 

XXIV. Description of Britain, Twelfth Century, . liii 153 



Thirteenth Century. 

XXV. From Layamon's Brut, mcciv., 
XXVI. Welsh Chronicle, mccxi., . 
XXVII. From Giraldus Cambrensis, De Instruc- 

tione Principum, mccxiv., 
XXVIII. Prom the Annals of Inisfallen, mccxv., 
XXIX. Chronicle of the Picts and Scots, mccli., . 
XXX. The Metrical Chronicle, commonly called 

the Cronicon Elegiacum, mcclxx., 
XXXI. Legend of St. Andrew, mcclxxix., 
XXXII. Chronicle of the Picts and Soots, mcclxxx., 
XXXin. Chronicle of Huntingdon, Mccxc, 
XXXIV. Description of Scotland, mccxcii.-mccxcvi., 






















Fourteenth Century. 

XXXV. From Tracts relating to the English Claims, 
Mcccr., .... 

XXXVI. Chronicle of the Picts and Scots, siccxvii., 
XXXVIT. Letter by the Barons of Scotland to the 
Pope, Mccxx., .... 
XXXVIII. Chronicle of the Scots, Mcccxxxiii.-iv., 
XXXIX. Chronicles of the Scots, McccxLvin., 

XL. Chronicle of the Scots, Fourteenth Century, 
XLI. Tract on the Scots of Dalriada, before 


XLII. Tract on the Picts, before MccCLXin., 
XLIII. Tract on the Picts, before mcccxci., 



















Fifteenth Century. 

XLIV. Tract on the Picts, before mcoccxviii., . Ixix 323 
XLV. Tract on the Scots, with Metrical Pro- 
phecy, before Mcocxxxvii., . . Isix 330 
XL VI. Metrical Chronicle, commonly called the 

Chronicon Rhythmicum, mcccoxlvii., Ixis 832 




XLVII. From Metrical History, by William Arch- 
bishop of York, MCCCCL.-MCCCCLX., 

XLVIII. From the Annals of Senait Mac Manus, 
commonly called the Annals of Ulster, 
Mccccxcvin., .... 
XLIX. Legend of St. Andrew, before mdiv., 

L. Chronicle of the Scots, mcccclxxxij.- 
MDXXX., .... 


Ixxi 341 




Ixsiii 378 


I. Passages from Isidore of Seville, illustrating 

Pictish Chronicle, 
II. Irish Version of Pictish Chronicle, . 

III. Passages from the Annals of MacFirbis, 

IV. From Life of Saint Adomnan, 
V. Prom Life of Saint Boethius, 

VI. Life of Saint Servanus, 
VII. Legend of Saint Bonifacius, . 
VIII. Legend of Saint Adrian, 

INDEX, .... 




















I]sr the latter part of the fourteentli century, Jolin object akd 
of Fordun, a priest of the diocese of St. Andrews, work. 
and chaplain of the church of Aberdeen, compiled joim^FTor- 
the first formal history of Scotland. He did not '^'"'' 
live to complete it. He left behind him the first 
five books of his history, bringing it down to the 
death of David the First, and the materials for the 
rest of his history arranged by himself, the last date 
in which is 1385. Between the years 1420 and 
1424, Andrew of Wyntoun, a canon-regular of St. 
Andrews, and prior of the monastery of St. Serf's 
Inch, in Loch Leven, wrote his " Orygynale Cronykil 
" of Scotland." He does not appear to have known 
of Fordun's history ; but not long after, in the year 
1441, Walter Bower, or Bowmaker, Abbot of Inch- 
colm, wrote a continuation of Fordun's history, 
bringing it down to the year 1437, in which he 
not only added the history of the additional period 
to the death of James the First, but interpolated 
the five books composed by Fordun with additional 


matter, and styled the whole work the " Scoticro- 
" nicon." The work was now made public, and 
numerous copies of it were made, and transcripts 
preserved, in the principal religious houses, which 
became known under the name of the " Book of 
" Paisley," the " Book of Scone," the " Book of 
" Cupar," the " Chronicle of Icolmkill," etc. In some 
of these copies, the continuation bears to be by two 
other writers ; viz., Patrick Eussell, a Carthusian 
monk of the monastery of Charter-house in Perth, 
and Magnus MacCuUoch, who was secretary to Wil- 
liam Schevez, Archbishop of St. Andrews ; but 
although these names are attached to some of the 
continuations, they are all in substance that com- 
piled by Walter Bower.^ 

The leading features of the early history of Scot- 
chm"s'ristory"' land, as told by Fordun in his five books, are 
these : The Scots derived their origin from Gaythe- 
los, son of Neolus, king of Greece, who went to Egjrpt 
in the days of Moses, where he married Scota, 
daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and led the 
Scots from thence to Spain. Prom this country 
several colonies went to Ireland, the last under 

features of For- 

1 There are twenty-one MSS. of the 
" Scoticronicon " still preserved, 
and, besides the imperfect copy 
printed in Gale's "Scriptures," vol. 
iii., two separate printed editions, 
one by Thomas Hearne in 1 722, the 
text of which is taken from a Jis. in 
Trinity College, Cambridge, which 
appears to contain the work as 
Fordun left it ; and another by 

Walter Goodall in 1759, taken 
mainly from the Edinburgh Col- 
lege MS., which contains Bower's 
additions. A new edition of For- 
dun, from a collation of all the 
MSS., and discriminating between 
the original text and the additions 
of the different continuators, 
would be a great boon to the 
Scottish historian. 


Symon Brek, son of the king of Spain, who brought 
the marble chair on which the kings were crowned 
to Ireland, and under his great-grandson, Ethachius 
Eothay, the Scots passed over into Scotland, and 
gave the name of Scotia to that part of the island 
formerly called Albion. Some time after, the Picts 
settled in Scotland, and married wives of the 
Scots. In the year 330 before the Christian era, 
the Scots, who had come over from Ireland and 
settled in Scotland, elected Fergus, the son of 
Ferehard, their king, who brought over from 
Ireland the marble chair, and whose kingdom 
extended from the sea and the Western Isles to 
Drumalban. His great-grandson Eether brought 
another colony of Scots from Ireland, and united 
them with the Scots inhabiting the islands and 
maiidand of Scotland. In the year 203 after 
the Christian era, the Scots were converted to 
Christianity, and in the year 360, Eugenius, king 
of the Scots, was slain by the Picts and Britons, and 
the Scots, under his brother Ethodius, and Erth 
the son of Ethodius, were diiven by them out of 
the country and expelled to Ireland. Immediately 
after, the relics of St. Andrew are brought to Scot- 
land and received by Hurgurst, king of the Picts. 
In the year 403, the Scots return under Fei'gus, the 
son of Erth, and occupy Ergadia. Fordun states, 
that from Fergus, son of Ferehard, there reigned 
forty-five kings over the Scots, but he does not give 
the names of any of them, except the two above men- 


tioned. From Fergus, the son of Erth, he gives a 
succession of kings down to Kenneth Macalpin, 
who led the Scots out of Ergadia, conquered and 
destroyed the Picts, and became monarch of the 
whole of Scotland ; and he then gives the reigns of 
the kings of Scotland from Kenneth Macalpin to 
David the First. 
Extent to which In the year 1729, Thomas Innes, a priest of the 
nicies have been Scotch College at Paris, pubHshed his critical essay 
printed. q^ ^]jg ancicut inhabitants of Scotland. This ad- 

mirable essay was the first attempt to siibject the 
early history of Scotland prior to the reign of 
Kenneth Macalpin, as given by Fordun, to a critical 
examination, and to bring such fragments as re- 
mained of the more ancient Chronicles of Scotland 
to bear upon it ; and, in the appendix to the first 
volume, he printed six ancient pieces, which were 
then for the first time made public. Four of these 
were taken from the MS. in the Imperial Library 
at Paris, called the Colbertine ms., viz., the " Pict- 
" ish Chronicle," which he divided into two pieces 
(No. I.) ; the " Description of Scotland " (No. xvii.) ; 
and the " Chronicle of the Scots " (No. xvi.) ; the 
fifth was the " Chronicle of the Picts and Scots," 
in the register of the priory of St. Andrews 
(No. XXIX.) ; and the sixth was the " Chroni- 
con Rhythmicum" (No. XLVi.) John Pinkerton, 
in his Inquiry into the History of Scotland, first 
published in 1789, printed a collation of the first 
four pieces which had been published by Innes, and 

PEEFACE. xiii 

added to them the " Legend of St. Andrew " (No. 
XVIII.) ; the "Metrical Prophecy" from the Col- 
bertiue MS. (No. xi.) ; the " Legend of St. Andrew," 
from the register of the priory of St. Andrews 
(No. XXXI.) ; and three pieces which had been fur- 
nished to him by Charles O'Connor of Belnagare, viz., 
the " Albanic Duan" (No. vi.) ; the extracts from the 
" Annals of Ulster " (No. XLViii.) ; and a very inac- 
curate copy of part of the Irish Nennius (No. v. d.) 
The pul^lication of the ancient " Irish Annals" by 
Doctor O'Connor in 1812, made the text of these 
valuable documents accessible to the public ; and in 
the " Collectanea de rebus Albanicis," published by 
the lona Club, a collection of extracts from these 
Irish annalists were printed along with a better 
text and translation of the " Albanic Duan ;" and 
a series of extracts from the Norse Sagas of all 
passages bearing upon the early history of Scotland. 
In 1848 the Irish version of Nennius was published, 
with a translation and copious notes, by the Irish 
Archaeological Society, and, in that work, various 
tracts bearing upon the early history of Scotland, 
contained in the Irish MSS., were brought to light ; 
and in the works printed for the Bannatyne and 
Maitland Clubs, several short chronicles, contained 
in MSS. in the British Museum, were contributed 
from time to time by the Eev. Joseph Stevenson ; 
but these are accessible only to their members. 

Such is the extent to which the ancient chronicles Plan of this 
and other early memorials of Scottish history have °^ ' 


already been published ; but the field is by no means 
exhausted. There still remain a considerable number 
in MSS., which have never yet been published, while 
the text of those contained in the foregoing works 
is, to a eonsideral)le extent, either not strictly accu- 
rate, or not printed from the best MSS. "When 
the series of the Scottish Record Pubhcations 
was projected, it was suggested by the late Dr. 
Joseph Robertson, under whose superintendence the 
publication was placed, that the series should com- 
mence with a volume in which the whole of these 
scattered pieces should be collected together, and 
printed after careful collation with the original MSS., 
and that as many more documents should be added 
to them as stdl existed in MS., so as to form a com- 
plete collection of the early Chronicles and Memo- 
rials of Scotland, prior to the works of Fordun and 
Wyntoun. As it was proposed to include in this col- 
lection such materials as could be found in Irish and 
Welsh MSS., for which some knowledge of the Celtic 
dialects was indispensable, the present Editor was 
requested to undertake the task. Though feeling 
that, in some respects, he was not fully qualified to 
do justice to the work, and that his other avocations 
would prevent him from giving as much time as 
was desirable to an undertaking necessarily requir- 
ing frequent and lengthened -visits to the various 
libraries in which these MSS. are deposited for the 
purpose of collation, he was induced to do what he 
could towards editing the work. 


The object of this work therefore is, to form and 
bring together into one volume as complete a col- 
lection as possible of the fragments which still 
remain of the early chronicles and memorials of 
Scotland, prior to the publication of Fordun's 
History. It will contain a reprint of those pieces 
which have already appeared in scattered publica- 
tions, after collation with every MS. which was 
accessible to the Editor, with the addition of all 
such pieces as still remain in MS., including the 
materials bearing upon the history of Scotland in 
Welsh and Irish Mss. The great object of the 
Editor has been to make this collection of the 
materials for the early history of Scotland com- 
plete, and in his anxiety to attain this object, he 
may occasionally have included pieces which hardly 
seem to deserve a place in this coUectiou. In 
making the selection, it was, of course, necessary 
to do so within certain defined limits. His geo- 
graphical limit has been the kingdom of Scotland 
in its present extent ; and every event, which can be 
supposed to have happened within the Limits of 
that territory, has been considered as falling within 
the scope of this work. As the Anglic kingdom 
of Northumbria extended to the Firth of Forth, 
and the Cymric population to the Firth of Clyde, 
this has led him to include many events connected 
with the early Saxon and Welsh annals. He has 
fixed his limit in point of time at the conclusion of 
the reign of Alexander the Third, in the year 1285, 


and he has not thought it necessary to include 
documents containing a record of events subsequent 
to that date. As a general rule, he has confined 
this collection to pieces which appear to have been 
compiled prior to the fifteenth century. 

The work will thus present, it is hoped, an accu- 
rate text of these ancient fragments of the early 
annals of Scotland. It will include every thing 
which the Editor could find in the MS. collections in 
the British Museum, in the Bodleian, in Cambridge, 
in the Advocates' Library at Edinburgh, in the Impe- 
rial Library at Paris, and in the private collection of 
Sir Thomas Phillipps of Middle Hill, bearing upon 
the early history of Scotland within these limits ; 
and in addition to this, the Welsh mss. in the 
British Museum, in Jesus College, Oxford, and in 
the Heng-wrt collection now the property of Mr. 
Wynne of Peniarth, and the Irish mss. in Trinity 
College, Dublin, the Royal Irish Academy, the Bri- 
tish Museum, the Bodleian, and the Advocates' 
Library, have been carefully examined, and every 
thing tending to illustrate the early history of Scot- 
land extracted and printed, with a translation. For 
the ready access which the Editor obtained to these 
MS, collections, he has to record his oblisfation to Mr. 
Coxe of the Bodleian ; the Principal and Fellows of 
Jesus College, Oxford ; the Master and Fellows of 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ; the Reverend 
Doctor Todd of Trinity College, Dublin ; Mr. Clib- 
boni of the Royal Irish Academy ; Monsieur Claude 

PKEFACE. xvii 

of the Imperial Library, Paris ; and especially to 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, and Mr. Wynne, for the kind 
manner in which they made their valuable private 
collections available to him. 

Throughout the greater part of this work, the 
Editor has had the advantage of the valuable and 
ready assistance of the late Dr. Joseph Eobertson, 
who permitted liim to refer to him in all matters 
of doubt or difficulty; and it is while these sheets 
were passing through the press, that this distin- 
guished archseologist and able man has been taken 
from us. The Editor has also to record his thanks 
to the Eev. Dr. Eeeves of Armagh, Professor Con- 
nellan of Dublin, and Professor Cosmo Innes, for 
assistance which they readily afforded to him when 
he applied to them. 


The Chronicles and Memorials contained in this account of 
collection are placed in chronological order, so far^^nflxD 
as the Editor has been enabled, from indications m™okial3 


aflforded by each document, to determine the this collec- 
period at which it was probably compiled, and 
the date so assigned to it is placed after the title 
of the document. This date is to some extent 
conjectural ; but the reasons wliich led the Editor 
to assign it will be stated in the account of each 
piece. This date has no reference whatever to 
the date of the MSS. from which the documents 
are printed, the oldest copy found being often 

xviii PEEFACE. 

much posterior to the date contained in the docu- 
ment itself. These pieces are in some cases to be 
found in one MS. only, and in others, there are 
different editions of them found in different MSS. 
Where only one ms. authority exists, the text has 
been carefully printed from it. Where there is 
more than one MS., the oldest MS. is as a general 
rule selected for the text, and the collations with 
the other MSS. printed at the foot of the page. 
The reference to the MS. used for the text is placed 
under the title, and where there is reference to more 
than one MS., the first named is the one from which 
the text is taken. Where it is written in old French, 
Welsh, or Irish, a translation has been appended. 

As these pieces consist in the main of fragments 
of old chronicles and other early memorials, in which 
the exact form of every name, and the exact con- 
struction of every sentence, may be of importance, 
the Editor has, as a general rule, resolved, after full 
consideration, to make no conjectural emendations, 
either in the orthography or in the construction, 
but to present the document in the exact shape in 
which he found it, and he has rarely departed from 
this rule, 
x. century. 1. The Pictish Cheonicle. — The first piece, both 

The Pictisli . . p- ip* i_ ' it i n 

chrouicie. ui poiut 01 time and of importance, is that usually 
known by the name of the " Pictish Chronicle." It 
has already been printed, both by Innes and by 
Pinkerton ; but a more correct text is now given, 
with a facsimile of the entire chronicle as it appears 



in the Colbertine MS., from which it has been 
printed. This MS. is of the fourteenth century, 
and has evidently been transcribed at York, by 
Eobert de Populton, as there appears in folio 
211, " Ora pro Popilton qui me compilavit 
"Eboraci," and again at folios 213 and 262, " Ora 
"pro fratre Koberto de Populton."* He ajDpears 
to have transcribed it from another MS., and not 
always correctly.^ It contains five pieces relating 
to the early history of Scotland, all of which are 
printed in this collection ; and these pieces seem 
to have been known to Eanulph Higden, as he 
quotes from them in his " Polichronicon," while the 
preface, and a great part of his chronicle, down to 
the reign of Edward the Third, is contained in this 
MS., the last year mentioned being the year 1316. 

The Pictish Chronicle, which is the most im- 
portant piece in this MS., consists of three parts : 
first, a preface, containing passages extracted 
and adapted from the " Origines " of Isidore of 
SeAdlle ; secondly, a list of Pictish kings, from 
Cruithne, the eponymus of the race, to Bred, the 
last king ; and, thirdly, a chronicle of the kings 

1 On 19th May 1334 the Arch- 
bishop o£ York mentions " Wil- 
" liam de Poijulton seneschal of 
" our hospice." 

^ At page 6, line 35, he has 

" Nectonius in vita julie rtianens" 
which has no meaning, and has 
probably been incorrectly copied. 

On referring to the facsimile, a 
line seems to be omitted, the one 
ending with m, and the next be- 
ginning with liens. 

At page 9, line 5, he has " Ciri- 
" ciumfilium,'" omitting the name 
of the father, which, from the 
Irish editions, appears to have 
been Dungal. 


from Kenneth Macalpin to Kenneth, son of Mal- 
colm, with the leading events under each reign. 
Innes, however, was mistaken in supposing that 
this latter appears in the Colbertine MS. as a 
separate chronicle. AU three pieces are evidently 
transcribed as one chronicle, though possibly com- 
piled from different sources ; but there appears to 
be something omitted between the second and third 
division of the chronicle, as, in giving the events 
under the reign of Kenneth Macalpin, the expression 
occurs in the latter, " Pictavia autem a Pictis est 
" nominata quos ut diximus Cinadius delevit," 
while there is no mention of the destruction of the 
Picts in the previous part of the chronicle. "What 
the omitted part was, may be gathered from Higden's 
" Polichronicon," where his quotation of this very 
part of the chronicle is preceded by a short account 
of the destruction of the Picts by the treacherous 
slaughter of their nobles at a meeting with the 
Scots. It is the same account which is narrated at 
large by Giraldus Cambrensis in a chapter of his 
work, " De instructione Principum," printed in this 
collection (No. xxvii.), also, in the same connexion, 
in the chronicle extracted from the " Scalacronica " 
(No. XXXII.), and in the chronicle (No. xxxix.), in 
which it is given in the very words of Higden. On 
the margin of Giraldus' account is the expression, 
" De Pictis Scotorum prodicione cleletis," and the 
account in the latter chronicle concludes with the 
expression, " Sicque de duobus populis gens bellico- 


" sior totaliter est deleta." The tale is certainly an 
old one, as it is alluded to in the " Prophecy of St. 
" Berchan," and probajbly originally preceded the 
third division of the chronicle. 

The second and third divisions of this chronicle 
have obviously been translated into Latin from an 
Irish or old Gaelic original, as the translator has 
left some words untranslated, which he appears not 
to have understood. Thus, in the second division, 
he gives " Dadrest" as the name of a king who 
reigned one year ; but it is followed by " Drest 
" filius Girom et Drest filius Udrost 5 annis 
" conregnaverufit." It is plain that the syllable 
Ba is the Irish numeral Hvo, and the meaning is 
two Drests, viz., Drest son of Girom, and Drest son 
of Udrost, reigned five years together. Again, in 
the third division, under the reign of Constantine, 
son of Kenneth, he writes, " Occisi sunt Scoti co 
" Achcochlam," where co is the Irish preposition 
at, and the meaning is " at Achcochlam." Again, 
under the reign of Constantine, son of Ed, he men- 
tions the death of " Adhelstan filius Advar rig 
" Saxan," which is Irish for " king of the Saxons." 
Then in the following reign, he mentions that 
Malcolm plundered the English to the river Tees, 
and adds, " quam predam vocaverunt Scotti predam 
" albidosorum idem nainndisi." Na is the genitive 
plural of the Irish definite article ; Fionn is Irish 
for alhus or white, and forms fhinn, the / when 
aspirated being silent ; Dese is a mtdtitude or 



troup ; and alhidosorum is thus an attempt to 
translate na\_fli]inndisi. Fodresach, now Fetteresso, 
is also mentioned as being in Glaideom, and this, 
appears also to be an Irish word, as Fetteresso is in 
the district of the Mems, known to the Irish by the 
name of Maghcircin, or the plain of Circin ; and in 
two of the Irish legends of the Picts, they are said 
to have occupied this district as their Claideam- 
tir, or sword land/ Several other instances 
might be noted ; but it wiU suffice to add that 
the Irish word Dun appears to be translated by 
oppidum, " oppidum Fother" being a rendering of 
Dunfotlier, and " oppidum Eden" of Duneden; and 
that the chronicle concludes under the reim of Ken- 
neth, son of Malcolm, " Hie est qui tribuit magnam 
" civitatem Brechne Domino." Brechne is in Irish 
the form for the genitive case of the word Brechin. 
The chronicle is evidently connected with this 
part of the country, for, under the reign of the later 
kings, it records the deaths of the Maormors of 
Angus, and in giving the names of the seven sons 
of Cruithne, who are mythically supposed to have 
reigned after their father, but who represent seven 
districts of Scotland, whde all other editions of this 
part of the chronicle commence the series with Fibh 

• See Nos. sLii. and XLiv. 
M'Firbis, in his smaller genealo- 
gical work, states that there were 
six classes of Daer-chlanna, or 
servile tribes, among the ancient 
Irish. The third were the race 

of Saer-clilaiina, or free tribes, 
whose land was converted into 
Fearann ■ doidhimh, or sword- 
land, in their own territory, and 
who remained in it, in bondage, 
under the power of their enemies. 

PREFACE. xxiii 

or Fife, and place Circin at the end, the Pictish 
chronicle transposes these two, and commences the 
list with Circin, maintaining in other respects the 
same order. It is in Maghcircin, or the plain of 
Circin, that Brechin is situated ; and as the chronicle 
terminates with the foundation of an ecclesiastical 
settlement there, this chronicle was probably com- 
piled by the monks of Brechin. The termination of 
the chronicle in the middle of the reign of Kenneth, 
son of Malcolm, and the fact that while the years 
of the reign of the other kings are given, the years 
of Kenneth's reign are left blank, point to his reign 
as the period of its compilation. Kenneth reigned 
from 977 to 995, and the chronicle has accordingly 
been placed in this series between these dates. 

2. Saxon AND Welsh additions to the " His- saxon and 
" toeia Beitonum." — Some time in the course of the ^0^3 ^ the' 
seventh or eighth centuries, a work was composed " S'^'°"'' ^'''- 
termed the " Historia Britonum," containing an ac- 
count of the early traditions of the different races 
inhabiting Britain, with the events of their history, 
partly legendary and partly real, from the departure 
of the Romans till the final subjugation of the island 
by the Saxons. The original work appears to have 
terminated with the foundation of the kingdom of 
Northumbria in 547. It seems to have been at 
once adopted by the Britons as the most popular 
exposition of their early history, and to have be- 
come the basis upon which subsequent writers 
interwove or attached additional matter ; and edi- 



tions of this work were produced from time to 
time with such additions as had been then added 
to it. It would not, in the opinion of the Editor, 
be an altogether impossible task to disentangle it 
from these interpolations and additions, and to 
reduce it to what was probably its original form ; 
but the attempt would be out of place here. It is 
enough to say that the date and authors of two of 
the editions can be pretty well established : one by 
Mark the anchorite in 822, and another by Nennius 
in 858 ; and althougli the work is attributed by 
many of the Mss. to Gildas, yet it has generally been 
identified with the latter edition attributed to 
Nennius. So popular was this work, that there 
exist no fewer than thirty-three mss. of Nennius, 
and the Editor believes that in the traditions con- 
tained in this work, and in the interpolations and 
additions to it, is to be found the earliest state- 
ment of the legendary annals of the diflferent races 
who peopled Britain. He has therefore included ex- 
tracts from these additions, so far as they bear on the 
history of Scotland, in the present collection. The 
MSS. of Nennius may be divided into five classes : 
first, the Harleian MS., 3859, of the tenth century,^ 
and those which correspond with it. Second, the 
Vatican MS. of the same period,* and the Paris MS. 
(Bib. Imp. Latin, 11108), which corresponds with 

• The text of Mr. Stevenson's 
edition of Nennius, 1838, is taken 
from this MS. 

2 Published by Mr. Gunn in 


it. Third, a class of later MSS., with additions 
written on the margin. These MSS. are all more 
or less connected with Durham. Fourth, a class 
of MSS. in Avhich these marginal additions have 
been incorporated into the text ; and it is from 
one of these that the usual text of Nennius has 
been edited. And fifth, the Irish translations. The 
dates of the Christian era in Nennius are given 
in two forms ; either " a passione Christi," or " ab 
" incarnatione Christi," and sometimes both are 
given together, on the principle that the date from 
the Passion is thirty-three years prior to the real 
date. It was, however, a custom among early 
writers to use the date from the Passion as equi- 
valent to that from the Incarnation, on the idea 
that the Passion or sufferings of Christ really com- 
menced with his assumption of humanity in his 
incarnation ;^ and a closer examination of the dates 
in Nennius will show that he used it in this sense ; 
that his date from the Passion is equivalent to the 
true date ; and that the later date added from the 
Incarnation is an interpolation. Thus, in the Vati- 
can MS. the dates are thus given : "a passione 
" Christi peracti sunt anni Dcccc.xlvi. Ab incarna- 
" tione autem ejus sunt anni Dcccc.lxxvi. et v 
" annus Eadmundi regis Anglorum." The fifth 
year of King Edward, however, corresponds with 

* Du Cange says, " Passio Do- 
" mini pro ejuadem incarnatione 
" interdum accipi, ex Charta ann. 
" 108.S, in Talmlar. Eccl. Caruot 

" supra observatum est in voce 
" minus" where he gives some 
other instances of it. 


xxvi PEEFACE. 

the year 946 of the Christian era, and not with the 
year 976. It is therefore plain that the latter date 
is an interpolation, and that the passage originally 
ran, " a passione Christi peracti sunt auni Dcccc.xlvi 
" et V annus Eadmundi regis Anglorum." In pre- 
cisely similar terms, the date in the Harleian MS. is 
thus given : " a passione autem Christi peracti sunt 
" anni septingenti nonaginta sex, ab incarnatione 
" autem ejus anni sunt octingenti triginta unus," 
when, no doubt, the year 796 is the true date in- 
tended, and the later date is a subsequent interpola- 
tion. Some of the MSS. in the third class have the 
date from the Passion, of 8 7 9 in place of 796. When 
the date 946 in the Vatican MS. is said to be the fifth 
year of the reign of King Edmund, there must have 
been some reason for connecting that date with a 
pai'ticular year in the reign of a Saxon king. The 
Editor believes that reason to have been that, in the 
fifth year of King Edmund, he conquered the Welsh 
kingdom of Cumbria or Strath Clyde, and the con- 
quest may have brought the " Historia Britonum " to 
the knowledge of the Saxons. This conjecture is 
supported by the fact that the Paris MS., which 
almost entirely corresponds with the Vatican MS., is 
the only MS. of Nennius in which the proper names 
appear in the Saxon and not in the Welsh form. 

The Harleian ms. attaches to the text of Nennius' 
additions, consisting, first, of genealogies of the Saxon 
kings ; secondly, of a Welsh chronicle ; and thirdly, 
of Welsh genealogies. The Saxon genealogies are 

PEEFACE. xxvii 

also attached to the text in other Mss. ; but it 
appears that they had abeady existed prior to 858, 
as, in the edition of 858 by Nennius, they were 
rejected by him, while the genealogies and events 
recorded in them come no lower down than the year 
738. There is therefore every reason to conclude 
that they belong to the edition of 796, if not to an 
earlier edition. Those parts of the genealogies which 
relate to that part of the Northumbrian kingdom, 
afterwards included within the limits of the king- 
dom of Scotland, are here inserted from the Harleian 
MS. in the extracts marked a and B. The chronicle 
marked c, from which extracts relating to events 
connected with Scotland are here printed, is the 
chronicle which, combined with two later chronicles, 
has been edited first by Mr. Petrie in his " Monu- 
" menta," and afterwards by Mr. Williams, under 
the title of " Annales Cambrise." It bears, in point 
of fact, no such title, and in its original form in the 
Harleian MS. is a true addition to the text of the 
" Historia Britonum." This is plain from a compari- 
son of the earlier part of the chronicle with the 
genealogies of the Saxons ; for the events there re- 
corded are likewise recorded in this chronicle, the 
names of the battles are the same, the same spell- 
ing of the proper names is preserved, and a pecu- 
liarity in the designation of one of the Northumbrian 
kings, Oswald, who in the " genealogia " alone of all 
the kings is termed " Eex Nordoram," appears in the 
chronicle where the same designation is applied to 

xxviii PEEFACE. 

him. The chronology of this chronicle is indicated 
by the repetition of the word annus for each suc- 
cessive year, whether blank or otherwise, and every 
tenth year is marked by a number. Although the 
last event recorded corresponds with the year 956, 
the word annus is repeated till the last recur- 
rence of it corresponds with the year 977, in which 
year the chronicle in its original form was no doubt 
written. Mr. DufFus Hardy, in his Introduction 
to the " Monumenta," observes that " the era on 
" which its chronology rests would concur with 
" the year 444 of the Incarnation, though no pro- 
" bable reason can be assigned for this particular 
" period having been selected for its commence- 
" ment." He also states that the earher portion 
appears to have been taken from an Irish chronicle. 
The present Editor is of the same opinion ; but the 
following entry from the " Annals of Ulster " may 
explain why the era of the MS. was 444 : " Anno 
" Domini cccc.xliiii Ardmacha fundata est." It 
was the era of the foundation of Amiagh, and 
the Irish chronicle, on which it Avas based, may 
have been connected with Armagh. The Welsh 
genealogies, extracts of those parts of which con- 
nected with Scotland are printed under letter D, 
are as plainly connected with the " genealogia " 
as the chronicle is. In the " genealogia " it is 
stated, in connexion with the reign of Hussa, 
" Contra ilium quatuor regis, Urbgen, et Eiderchen 
" et GuaUauc et Morcant dimicarunt ;" and in the 

PEEFACE. xxix 

Welsh genealogies, the pecligxees of Urien, Eederch, 
Guallauc, and Morcant follow in the same order. 
The pedigree of the kings of Wales, which is 
not here given, commences with Uen, son of 
Hywel dda, who reigned from 949 to 987, and 
thus the date of the compilation of these genealo- 
gies corresponds with that of the chronicle. The 
Welsh genealogies attached to this MS. of Nennius 
have not been hitherto published, and their main 
value for the history of Scotland consists in the fact 
that they contain a pedigree of the British kings of 
Strath Clyde, terminating with Run,^ the father of 
Eocha, king of Alban, by the daughter of Kenneth 
Macalpin, in which most of the recorded kings of 
Strath Clyde will be found. 

3. The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick. — The Tripartite 
Among the lives of St. Patrick published by Col- Patrick. 
gan in his " Trias Thaumaturga," appears a Latin 
life, which he terms " Vita Tripartita." He so calls 
it, Ijecause it was a Latin translation, made by him- 
self from three Irish Mss., containing editions of the 
same life in old Irish. The Irish mss. used by 
Colgan cannot now be found or identified ; but the 
late Professor Currie, when employed to catalogue 
the Irish mss. in the British Museum, discovered 

^ In the copies of the Pictish 
chronicle published by luiies and 
Pinkerton, this name has been 
printed Ku, but the letters K and 
R in the original can hardly be 
distinguished. If compared ^dth 
the name Ru, the twenty-eighth 

in the list of the Pictish kings, it 
will be seen that the letters are 
the same, and the letter u has 
a — over it, which has been 
omitted in their copies. Tho 
name is Ru7i, a common British 


an Irish life of St. Patrick, which, on comparing it 
with Colgan's Latin version, he ascertained to be 
an Irish version of the " Tripartite Life," and subse- 
quently another Irish version of the same life was 
discovered by Dr. Todd in the Bodleian, which he 
considered to be still older. Professor Currie, in 
his lectures on the ms. materials of Irish history, 
considers this life to have been compiled in the 
eighth century. The Editor cannot place so old a 
date upon it, at least in its present form. The lan- 
guage even of the Bodleian ms. is not older than 
the eleventh century, and, after consideration of aU 
the circumstances, he has, with some hesitation, 
placed the compilation of the life itself in the tenth 
century. This life contains a very important notice 
of the settlement of the Scots in Britain under Aedan, 
king of Dabiada. There are indications that this 
notice formed a part of the oldest forms of the 
lives of St. Patrick, and it is here printed from the 
Bodleian ms., collated with that in the British 
Museum, as probably the earhest authentic notice 
of the Dalriadic colony. 


synciironisms ^(^jjiQng the aucicnt pieces in the Irish Mss. which 

of Flann Mam- o r 

istreach. throw light ou the historjr of Scotland, and which 

have not yet been published, are the " Synchron- 
" isms of Flann Mainistreach," or "of Bute," who 
died in the year 1056, in which he synchronizes the 
pi'ovincial kings of Ireland with the monarchs of 
the whole island, and includes among the former 

PEEFACE. xxxi 

the kings of Dalriada in Scotland, and the subse- 
quent kings of Scotland down to Malcolm the 
Second. These synchronisms were continued by 
another hand to the death of Muircheartach 
O'Brien in 1119, sixty-five years after Flann's 
death. The synchronisms with their continuation 
are preserved in the " Book of Lecain," a MS. of 1418, 
and the Editor has found another copy in the older 
" Book of Glendaloch," in the Bodleian (Eawlinson, 
B. 512). There is, however, a MS. in the Kilbride 
Collection, in the Advocates' Library, which gives the 
synchronisms, without the continuation, terminating 
with Malcolm the Second, who died during the life of 
Flann ; and as the rest of this ms. consists of poems 
which are the undoubted works of Flann himself, 
there seems little reason to doubt that it contains 
the work of Flann in its original shape. Professor 
Currie considers that these poems and prose pieces 
were written between the years 1014 and 1023. 
The lists of the kings of Scotland contained in the 
synchronisms are now printed from these Mss. for 
the first time. Since the text of this work has 
gone to press, the Editor has found another copy of 
the synchronisms, corresponding with those in the 
Kilbride MS., in ms. Eawlinson, B. 486, in the Bod- 
leian, a MS. of the fourteenth century.^ 

5. Irish and Pictish Additions to the " His- iiish aud Pict- 

ish additions to 
the " Historia 

' In page 22 the Editor has 
omitted to notice that b and c in- 
sert after Dub mac Malecolaim — 

A ear mac Maelcolaim. This king Britonum." 
does not occur in a nor in the Hst in 
MS. Bodl. , RawHnson, B. 486. 

xxxii PREFACE. 

" TORiA Britonum." — The Irish mss. contain several 
versions of an Irish translation of the " Historia 
" Britonum," with additions connected with the 
legendary history of the Picts and of the Scots 
of Ireland. This translation is said in one MS. to 
have been the work of Gillacaemhin, who died in 
the year 1072, and every indication afforded by the 
translation itself corresponds with this date. The 
earliest copy of the version appears in the " Leabhar 
" na h-uidhre," a MS. compiled by Maelmure, who 
died in the year 1 1 6, of which a fragment only is pre- 
served. A complete copy is preserved in the "Book 
" of Ballimote," a MS. of 1391. Another complete 
copy, and part of a fourth, in the " Book of Lecain," 
a MS. of 1418, and another copy in a MS. in Trinity 
College, Dublin, which cannot be dated earlier than 
the sixteenth century, and which was probably com- 
piled in the ye<ar 1577. The Irish version of Nen- 
nius has been published by the Irish Archaeological 
Society, edited by the Rev. Dr. Todd ; but it is much 
to be regretted that the latest MS., that of the sixteenth 
century, has been selected for the text of this work. 
That MS. differs very much in its order from the 
older MSS., and bears evident marks of more modem 
interpolation and alteration. The whole text has 
been brought to correspond too much with the 
Latin text of Nennius, instead of presenting the 
version of Gillacaemhin, with its additions inter- 
woven into the text in their original form, which 
in the Editor's opinion are better represented by the 

PREFACE. xxxiii 

older versions in the books of Ballimote and Lecain. 
In the notes, various other pieces are inserted, which 
certainly formed no part of the Irish translator's 
additions. The notes marked T are judicious and 
valuable, and worthy of aU attention. Those marked 
H are of no value in elucidating the version, and 
are only calculated to mislead the unwary reader. 
The character of these notes, and the school to 
which their author obviously belonged, ought, in 
the Editor's opinion, to have excluded them from 
any work published by the Irish Archaeological 
Society. The " Irish and Pictish additions to the 
" ' Historia Britonum' " in this translation are here 
printed from the "Book of Ballimote," collated with 
that of Lecain. The other pieces, which do not 
belong to the additions to the " Historia Brito- 
" num," are inserted in their proper places, where 
they will be duly noticed. The passage marked A, 
taken from the text, seems to contain the original 
form of a passage which is much corrupted in the 
Latin text, and presents probably the oldest form 
of the legend of the settlement of the Picts. The 
passage under letter b, which is the first of the 
additions made to the text, contains what may be 
called the Pictish legend of their settlement, and 
is, in point of fact, an amplification of the previous 
passage. It describes the settlement of the Picts 
under their eponymus Cruithne, and the division of 
Alban among his seven sons, and corresponds with 
the first part of the second division of the " Pictish 

xxxiv PEEFACE. 

" Chronicle." This legend is expressly said to have 
been taken from the books of the Picts. The copy 
in the "Book of Ballimote" and the second copy in 
the " Book of Lecain" have apparently been tran- 
scribed from some older copy, without adverting 
to its being written in double columns, as the 
list of the thirty Brudes is mixed up with the rest 
of the text ; but fortunately the first copy in the 
"Book of Lecain" is without this element of con- 
fusion, and enables the correct text to be easily 
restored.^ It is followed by a fragment, which 
has been printed under c, from a MS. in the Bod- 
leian, which appears to have contained a copy of the 
Irish Nennius, and gives the list of the subsequent 
kings as they are found in the " Pictish Chro- 
" nicle." The passage in Irish, which is printed in 
italics, having apparently been inserted by the Irish 
scribe to adapt it to Irish traditions, and the last 
four kings having, from the use of Irish words, been 
likewise apparently added by him. The additions 
under letter d, appear to contain the Irish form of 
the legend of the settlement of the Picts, in con- 
nexion with the Milesian fable, in which they are 
brought direct to Ireland, and from Ireland to Scot- 
land. This addition consists, first, of a prose state- 
ment, and, secondly, of a poem, which bears within 
it evidence of having been compiled not later than 
the end of the reign of Macbeth, in 1058. It is to 

^ See No. XLiv. for a transcript of the same piece, coutaiuing a 
similar confusiou. 


this form of the tradition the statement belongs, 
that seventy kings reigned over the Picts from 
Cathluan, the first king, to Constantin, the last of the 
Picts ; and the statement first appears in connexion 
with these additions to the " Historia Britonum." 
By the " Pictish Chronicle," this Constantin is iden- 
tified with Constantin, king of the Picts, the seven- 
tieth king in that list, who reigned from 790 to 
820. As he was succeeded by his brother Angus, 
and Angus by Drust, the son of Constantino, he 
could in no sense have been the last king of the Picts, 
and this expression could only have been applied to 
him, if the passage was first written in his reign. 
It is remarkable that the first edition of the " His- 
" toria" which can be dated, that of 796, falls 
within his reign. By the poem, which follows the 
prose tradition, Constantin, the last of the Picts, ap- 
pears to be identified with Constantin, termed in the 
" Irish Annals" king of the Picts, who reigned from 
862 to 876, as it is stated that sixty-six kings reigned 
over the Picts before Kenneth Macalpin, which 
would make him the sixty-ninth king. But he like- 
wise was succeeded by his brother ; the annals have 
antedated these reigns two years, which places his 
death in 878 ; and another edition of the "His- 
" toria Britonum" is dated in 879, one year after 
his death. The passage under letter E is a separate 
legend, found in the " Book of Lecain" only. Among 
the additions to the Irish Nennius found in the "Book 
" of Lecain " is a poem, prefixed to which, in a later 

xxxvl PEEFACE. 

hand, are the words Maehmiru cecinit ; there is an 
older copy of this poem in the book of Leinster, a MS. 
of 1160 ; Maelmuru, the author, is said to have died 
ia the year 884 ; but whether the poem be as old 
as that date, it certainly contains the oldest form of 
the tradition of the Picts havrug obtained Irish 
wives ; and being attached in the " Book of Lecain" 
to the Irish Nennius, as much of the poem is here 
inserted under letter r as has any bearing on the 
early legendary history of Scotland. The tract in- 
serted under letter G is found in the Irish version of 
Nennius, contained in the " Book of Ballimote" 
alone, and immediately precedes the account of the 
reign of Vortigern and the arrival of the Saxons, 
as contained in the text of Nennius. Dr. Todd's 
translations of these pieces have been adopted with 
some modifications. 
The Duan 6. The Duan Albanach. — The " Duan Albanach" 

was first printed, but very incorrectly, by Pinkerton, 
who received his copy from Charles O'Connor of 
Belnagare, but whence he derived it is not stated. 
A more correct copy M^as printed by his son. Dr. 
O'Connor, in his " Rerum Hibernicarum Scrip tores 
" veteres," and his text was adopted in the " Collec- 
" tanea de rebus Albanicis." In the Irish Nennius 
published by the Irish Archaeological Society, a still 
better text was printed from a MS. compiled by 
Dudly M'Firbis, one of a celebrated race of Irish 
Sennachies, in the year 1650. No older version is 
now known to exist ; but it is quoted by Colgan in 

PREFACE. xxxvii 

his " Trias Thaumaturga," which was published 
a few years earher, and it is said to have originally- 
formed part of the " Psalter of Cashel." The poem 
itself bears to have been written in the reign of 
Malcolm the Third, and contains within itself abun- 
dant marks of its authenticity. It has usually been 
dealt with as if, because it treats of the history of 
Scotland, it must necessarily have been written by 
a Scotchman, and aflford an early specimen of the 
Scotch dialect of the Irish language. But there is 
nothing whatever in the poem itself to show this ; 
on the contrary, the presumption is that it is an 
Irish document. It contains the Irish form of the 
traditions, and the opinion of the Editor is, that it 
is the work of Gillacaemhin, the Irish translator 
of Nennius. His reasons are : first, that it bears 
to have been written in the reign of Malcolm iii., 
and GiUacaemhin died in that reign, in the year 
1072 ; secondly, that the statement of the early 
settlements in Scotland exactly correspond with 
those stated in the Irish Nennius, of which Gilla- 
caemhin was the translator, under letter D ; and, 
thirdly, that the poem begins with the line, 

" A eolcha Alban uile j" 

and Gillacaemhin wrote a precisely similar poem 

regarding the kings of Ireland, which is his uu- 

doubted work, and which begins with the line, 

" A eolcha Eireann airde," 

showing an obvious similarity of style. 

The text of this poem is taken from M'Firbis' 

xxxviii PEEFACE. 

MS. of 1650, and Dr. Todd's translation is adopted, 
with some modifications. The last stanza of the 
poem appears to be a later addition. 

The Chronicle 7. ThE ChRONICLE OF MaEIANUS ScOTUS. The 

Scotus. Mss. of Marianus Scotus in this country, and the 

usual printed copies, do not contain the passages 
here printed, with the exception of the well-known 
passage regarding Macbeth, in 1040. They are, 
however, contained in the version of his chronicle, 
edited by Waiz, in Pertz's magnificent collection 
of historians, from the Vatican MS., which he con- 
siders the autograph. This MS. is not accessible to 
the Editor, but he has printed these passages from 
that MS., because they are of great importance for 
the histoiy of Scotland : first, as containing the 
earliest notice of the name of Scotia applied to 
this country ; and, secondly, because Marianus, 
having been born in the reign of Malcolm the 
Second, in the year 1028, and having died in that 
of Malcolm the Third, in the year 1081, is narrating 
events which occurred in his own lifetime. 
The Annals of 8. The Annals OF TiGHERNAC. — These anuals 

ig ernac t^qj-q written by Tighernac of Cloinmacnois, who 
died in the year 1088, and were continued ])y a 
subsequent hand to the year 1178. The text of 
these annals was first made public by Dr. O'Con- 
nor, who printed them, but somewhat incorrectly, 
from two MSS. in the Bodleian. Besides these 
MSS., there is a later MS. of these annals in Trinity 
College, Dublin, and an older fragment of a part 

PEEFACE. xxxix 

of the annals wMch seems to present them in their 
earliest form. The Mss. in Trinity College appear 
to have been unknown to Dr. O'Connor. The dates 
given by Dr. O'Connor were not taken from any MS. 
of Tighernac, but were affixed by himself from the 
dates of similar events in the "Annals of Ulster." 
Tighernac's chronology is indicated by prefixing 
to each event the character Kl. for Kalends, accom- 
panied by the feria or day of the week on which 
the first of January fell in each year. He seems to 
have written them in their order, one after another, 
and to have annexed to each the event he had to 
record under that year. On comparing his dates, 
as indicated by the ferice, with the dates in the 
" Annals of Ulster," they appear to precede the true 
date by four years ; but he has apparently mis- 
calculated the day di-opped out in each period of 
six days by the recurrence of leap year, and the 
fericB are irregularly given, and are entirely omitted 
after the year 651. 

The extracts from the annals here given have 
been carefully collated with the oldest MS., that in 
the Bodleian (Rawlinson, B. 488). The dates 
added on the margin are those indicated by the 
feriw in the " Annals of Ulster," which appear 
to correspond with the true date.' 

9. Prophecy of St. Berchan. — About this period Prophecy of 

St. Berchan. 

' A new edition of the " Annals Currie enumerates seven, and with 
" of Tighernac," from a collation i a correct translation, is greatly to 
of all the MSS., of which Professor ' be desired. 


a fashion, which seems to have commenced in 
Wales and spread to Ireland, came in, of writing 
history in the form of prophecy, supposed to 
have been uttered by some one who lived long 
before the time of the actual writer. The " Cy- 
" voesi Myi'ddin" is a good example of this, in 
which a history written, part of it in the reign 
of Hywel dda in the tenth century, and part as 
late as the reign of Henry the Second, is given in 
the shape of a prophecy supposed to be uttered by 
Myrddin in the sixth century. In some cases the 
proper names of the kings are plainly given ; in 
others they are cloaked under epithets. There are 
several specimens of this kind of prophetical history 
in the Irish Mss., but the most remarkable are the 
prophecies of St. Berchan. They contain a his- 
tory of the Irish kings down to the reign of Muir- 
cheartach O'Brien, who died in the year 1119; 
and likewise an account of the mission of St. 
Columba to Scotland, of the reign of Aedan, king of 
Dakiada, and of the kings of Scotland, from Ken- 
neth Macalpin to Donald Bain, in whose time this 
part of the poem appears to have been written. 
The whole is attributed as a prophecy to St. Berchan, 
who lived towards the end of the seventh century. 
The latter part of the poem, relating to Scotland, is 
here printed. The names of the kings are concealed 
under epithets, but there is little difficulty in iden- 
tifying them, and it is full of cmious allusions to 
the character and events of their reign, which are 


not to be found elsewhere. It is now printed for tie 
first time from two mss. in the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

10. The Life of St. Cadeoe. — This life is of The Life of 

St. Cadroe. 

importance for the history of Scotland for the 
traditionaiy account which it gives of the settle- 
ment of the Scots in Ireland, and of their emigra- 
tion to Scotland, which is not to be found elsewhere, 
and likewise for the indications of contemporary 
history connected with the visit of Cacboe to 
Scotland, in the reign of Constantine, in the early 
part of the tenth century. Cadroe himself died 
about the year 976, and the author of the Ufe states 
that he received his information from disciples 
of St. Cadroe. The Editor has therefore placed the 
life in the eleventh century. It was first printed 
by Colgan in his " Acta Sanctorum," from a MS. 
which belonged to the Monastery of St. Hubert, in 
the Ardennes, a copy of which was sent by the 
abbot to Colgan. It is likewise printed by BoUan- 
dists in their " Acta Sanctorum," but they omit the 
part containing the Irish tradition, and it is obvious 
that they have taken their text from that of Colgan. 
The Monastery of St. Hubert was dismantled in the 
French revolution, and its library dispersed. A few 
remains of it were purchased by Sir Thomas Phillipps 
of MiddlehiU, and are now in his collection ; but 
this MS. is not among them, and the original MS. 
appears to be irretrievably lost. Neither is the copy 
used by Colgan to be found. The parts of this Ufe 
which relate to Scotland are too important, from the 

xlii PEEFACE. 

early period at which it was written, to be excluded 
from this collection ; but the Editor has been obliged 
to print these extracts from Colgan's text, though it 
bears the marks of being extremely inaccurate. 
xii. centviT)-. 11. Metrical Prophecy. — This is another in- 
phecy'!'' '^° stance of the prevalent fashion of writing history 
in the form of prophecy. It has been very incor- 
rectly printed by Pinkerton from the Colbertine 
MS., and the correct text from that MS. is here 
given. The Princeps Noricus, who had annexed 
to himself lands surrounded by the sea, can only 
refer to Magnus Barefoot, king of Norway, who 
conquered the Western Islands, and the period of 
twice three years and nine months, during which 
the land was without its king, probably refers to 
the interval between the termination of the reisrn 
of Malcolm the Third and the firm establishment 
of Edgar on the throne. The compilation of this 
prophecy is therefore attributed to the reign of the 
latter. The prophecy is referred in the poem itself 
to Gildas and to Merlin. There is an imperfect 
copy in the Royal Library, 9. B. ix., with which the 
text has been collated. 


isms^ofFiImi Fi-ANN Mainistreach. — This passage, containing 
a list of the kings of Scotland fr-om Malcolm the 
Second to Malcolm the Third, is taken from the con- 
tinuation of the " Synchi'onisms of Flann of Bute," 
before referred to. It is incorrect in so far as it 
supposes that there were two Duncans who suc- 


PEEFACE. xliii 

ceeded each other ; Duncan Mac Malcolm having 
in point of fact no existence. 

1 3. The Welsh " Bruts." — The publication of the The weish 
so-called History of Britain by Geoffrey of Monmouth 
produced a complete revolution in the traditionary 
history of the country ; and the legends which had 
hitherto prevailed as to the origin of the races in 
Britain assumed a totally new shape. Instead of the 
mythic genealogy contained in Nennius, in which 
the population of North and South Britain appeared 
under the form of two brothers, Brutus and Albanus, 
the sons of Isicon, Brutus now appears as the leader 
of a colony to Britain, and as having three sons, 
Locrinus, Camber, and Albanactus, among whom 
Britain was divided into three parts : Ijoegria, or 
England ; Cambria, or Wales ; and Albania, or Scot- 
land. This fable played so conspicuous a part in 
the controversy between England and Scotland, that 
it is desii'able to include it in this collection in the 
form in which it appears in the Welsh mss. Whether 
Geoffrey of Monmouth deduced his statement of these 
fables from older authority, or whether he himself 
invented them, is a question of much difficulty. His 
work is dedicated to Robert Duke of Gloucester, son 
of Henry the First who died in 1135, and appears 
to have been composed while his father still lived. 
In his epistle dedicatory, he states that he translated 
his work from an ancient book in the British lan- 
guage, given him by Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford. 
That there was such a person at the period is 

xliv PEEFACE. 

tincloubted, though he has been confounded with 
Walter de Mapes, a very diflferent person, who 
Hved somewhat later. In the Welsh Archaeology 
there have been printed from Welsh MSS. two ver- 
sions of this history in Welsh, one containing the 
substance of Geoffrey's history, but leaving out a 
good deal of matter, and said to be taken from the 
" Red Book of Hergest ;" another, to which the title 
of " Brut G. Ap Arthur" has been given, and which 
exactly corresponds with the Latin version of 
Geoffrey of Monmouth. It has been supposed that 
the first is the Welsh book which Geoffrey obtained 
from Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, and that it is 
an older work which has been conjectured to have 
been composed by Tyssilio, who Hved some centuries 
earlier. An examination of the MSS. does not bear out 
this theory. The Welsh version of the " Brut" in the 
" Red Book of Hergest " is not the same as the text 
of the " Brut Tyssilio," printed in the Welsh Archae- 
ology, but is in point of fact almost the same as 
the " Brut G. Ap Arthur," and corresponds with 
the Latin version of Geoffrey. The Editor has 
found another copy of this version in a MS. of the 
commencement of the fourteenth century, in the 
HengTVTt collection, and a third in the same collec- 
tion, which varies slightly from it. These are obvi- 
ously Welsh versions of the Latin text of Geoffrey 
of Monmouth. There is, however, in the Cottonian 
Library (Cleopatra, B. v.) a Welsh version, which 
approaches more nearly to what is termed the " Brut 
" TyssUio." The whole of the MSS. agree in the 


statement that Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, had 
a Welsh book which he translated into Latin ; that 
Geoffrey wrote his history from it, which he then 
re-translated into Welsh ; and if we add the as- 
sumption that Geoffrey added additional matter 
to Walter's Latin text, the existing Welsh versions 
correspond very well with that statement. But 
they all differ as to what the original of Walter's 
text was. The "Eed Book of Hergest" says that 
it was a MS. written in the Breton language ; 
the Hengwrt MS., that it was a MS. in the Cymric 
or Welsh language ; and the Cottonian MS., that 
the original was a Latin version. Be this as it 
may, there seems clearly enough to have been a 
Welsh version prior to the composition of Geoffrey's 
Latin text, and a Welsh version into which the 
latter was translated. The AVelsh tradition as to the 
origin of the races of Britain, and as to the settle- 
ment of the Picts, is here given from the first Welsh 
version, and the additions in the latter Welsh version 
are added in the notes below. They are included 
in this collection mainly as affording the Welsh 
form of the Pictish tradition, and the explanation 
of their Welsh designation of Gwyddyl Ffichti. 

In the conclusion of Geoffrey's history, he states 
that he leaves the history of the kings that suc- 
ceeded in Wales subsequent to his history, which 
terminates with the reign of Cadwallader, " to Cara- 
-'f-doc of Llancarvan, my contemporary ;" and, ac- 
cordingly, most of the MSS. of the Welsh text are 
followed by a chronicle, which appears in two forms. 

xlvi ' PEEFACE. 

one combined with events in Saxon history, and 
called " Brut y Saeson," and the other containing 
purely Welsh events, to which the title of " Brut y 
" Tywysogion " has been given. The Welsh version 
in the Cottonian MS. (Cleopatra, B. v.) is followed by 
the former, that in the " Eed Book of Hergest" by the 
latter. The present Editor does not agree with the 
opinions of previous editors, that the "Brut y Saeson" 
was a bad copy of the " Brut y Tywysogion," which 
was afterwai'ds combined with the " Winchester 
" Annals" of Richard of Devizes. On the contrary, he 
thinks the " Brut y Saeson " the older of the two, 
and the original form- in which Caradoc composed 
his chi'onicle, and that the Saxon ev^ents have been 
omitted in the so-called " Brat y Tywysogion ;" but 
the events which relate to Scotland are the same in 
both, and therefore he has given under letter D the 
text from the Cottonian MS.,^ collated with that 
from the " Red Book of Hergest." 
Tract on the 14. Tract ON THE PiCTS. — Several of the Irish 
MSS. contain a tract termed the " Leabhar Gabhala, 
" or the Book of Conquests or Invasions." This tract 
contains an account of the wanderings of the Mile- 
sians, and their settlement in Ireland, and, in con- 
nexion with it, the Irish form of the Pictish ti'adition. 
One of the oldest mss. in which this tract appears, is 

' In the preface to the " Mo- , a. xiv.) It may be as well to 

" niimenta," Mr. Diiffus Hardy I note here that this is a mistake. 

states in a note that a copy of | That MS. does not contain the 

the "Brut y Saeson" is also in I "Brut y Saeson," but a cojiy of 

another Cottonian sis. (Cleopatra, the laws of Hywcl dda. 


PEEFACE. xlvii 

the "Book of Leinster," a MS. of 1160, and this 
notice of the Picts is extracted from it. The date at- 
tached to it is the date of the MS. in which it appears. 

15. Tract on the Tributes paid to Baedan, Tract on the 
King of Ulster.— This curious little tract is found IfXTJl^g" 
in several Irish Mss. The oldest which the Editor °^ ^^^*^''- 
has met with is the book of Leinster. The coast 

of the province of Ulster over against Scotland 
was occupied in the sixth century by three dif- 
ferent tribes. The most northerly, extending from 
the north coast to Lough Neagh, was the tribe 
of Dalriada, from which the Scottish colony of the 
sixth century proceeded to Aa-gyleshii-e. Imme- 
diately south of them were the Dalnaraidhe, who 
were the remains of the old Cruithne, the original 
inhabitants of the whole province of Ulster. Their 
territory was called Dalaradia. The third tribe, 
who were the most southerly, were the Dalfiatach, 
who were of the same Scottish race as the tribe of 
Dalriada. The kings of the Dalnaraidhe and the 
kings of the Dalfiatach were alternately provincial 
kings of Ulster, and Baedan was of the latter tribe. 
The tract is here given on account of its connexion 
with the history of Aedan, king of Dahiada in 
Scotland. The date assigned to it is that of the 
oldest MS. in which it appears. 

16. Chronicle of the Scots. — This chi-onicle is cimmicieof 
one of the six pieces printed by Innes in his * ^ '^°'^' 
appendix. It is now reprinted from the Colbertine 

MS., and is the earhest in date of the series of Latin 

xlviii PEEFACE. 

lists of the Scottish kings which have come down to 
us. A very slight examination will show that it is 
made up of two separate chronicles which have been 
pieced together. The title is " Chronica regum 
" Scotorum. ccc. et iiij. annorum," and this is fol- 
lowed by twenty-two kings, reigning from Fergais 
to Alpin inclusive, whose years, as stated, make up 
nearly that amount. AVhen added, they amount to 
302. Then follows "Kynedus filius Alpini primus 
" rex Scottorum," which shows the commencement 
of another chronicle, and then occurs, after the 
accession of William the Lion, " Ab anno primo 
" WUlielmi regnum Scottorum anni cccxv.," the 
period during which the kings from Kenneth 
Macalpin reigned. 

The first year of King William the Lion was the 
year 1 1 6 5, it follows therefore that the era from which 
the duration of this latter kingdom of the Scots 
was counted was the year 850. As the years of the 
reign of William the Lion are left unfilled up, and 
the duration of the kingdom of the Scots is reckoned 
to the first year of his reign, the natural inference 
is that the chronicle was put together in that year. 
It is followed by a genealogy of King William the 
Lion. It appears from the terms in which the 
writer speaks of King David the First, that he was 
an ardent admirer of that monarch ; and the epithets 
which he applies to the Cistercian monastery at 
Melrose, seem to indicate that he was himself a 
Cistercian monk. It is hardly possible to avoid the 

PEEFACE. xlix 

suspicion that the compiler was no other than 
Ailred, the biographer and panegyrist of King 
David, and the abbot of the Cistercian monastery 
of Eievaux. That such a compilation was not 
foreign to his literary habits we know, as he wrote 
a genealogy of the kings of England, and a part of 
the " Chronicon Elegiacum," written probably in the 
same year, is attributed to him. 

17. Description of Scotland. — This tract is Description of 

„ , . . -TIT • Scotland. 

also one of the six pieces printed by Innes m 
his appendix, and it is now reprinted from the 
Colbertine MS. That this coUation was very ne- 
cessary appears from this, that Innes, in printing 
that part of it which gives the various theories for 
the etymology of the name Arregathel, has the 
following sentence : " Vel id circo quia Scoti ibi 
" habitabant primitus post redditum suam de 
" Hibernia," while in the original, the people named 
are not the Scoti only, but Scoti Picti. In the 
previous sentence he states that the Scoti "gener- 
" aliter Gattheli dicuntur," from which we may in- 
fer that he uses Scoti as equivalent to the Irish 
Gaidhecd, and to the Welsh Gwydchjl; and the 
expression Scoti Picti is simply the Latin render- 
ing of the Welsh Gwyddyl FJichti, The same 
statement occurs in this tract as in the chronicle, 
that the Scots had reigned for 315 years to the 
year when William the Lion succeeded to the 
throne, which places its composition in the same 
year. Innes was of opinion that this tract was 


the work of Giraldus Cambrensis. He founded 
this view on the fact that Eanulph Higden quotes 
the following sentence from this tract under the 
nanae of Giraldus : — " Nunc autem corrupte vo- 
" catur Scotia a Scotis cle Hihernia venientibus 
" et in ea regnantibus per spatium trecentorum 
" quindecim annorum usque scilicet ad regnum 
" Willelmi Eufi fratris Malcomi ;" and that in his 
" Topographia Hiberniae " Giraldus mentions his in- 
tention of writing upon the topography of Scot- 
land ; but the Editor cannot adopt this opinion. 
Passages are frequently given in Eanulph to which 
a name is prefixed, when perhaps only a word or 
two is taken from that author, and the rest of the 
passage from another source. As an instance of 
this, in the end of the same chapter he gives, under 
reference to Giraldus, " Distinctione prima capitulo 
" octavo decimo," a long passage containing an 
abstract of the " Legend of St. Andrew," while in 
point of fact the first ten words only are quoted 
from Giraldus' " De Instructione Princij^um ;" and 
in the quotation before referred to the words printed 
in italics are not in this tract. They seem taken 
from the passage in his " Topographia Hibemiee," 
printed in No. xxii. a. In a subsequent chapter he 
has another quotation fi-om this very tract, which he 
places under the name of Marianus ; further, Giral- 
dus did not write his topography of Ireland tdl 
the year 1186, and this tract is unquestionably an 
earlier work. In fact, Higden, who was acquainted 


with these pieces in the Colbertine MS., interweaves 
quotations from them with a few words from 
Giraldus and other writers, to which alone the 
names prefixed apply. 

From the reference to Andrew, Bishop of Caith- 
ness, as nacione Scotus, the author was not a 
Scotchman, and from his using Romane instead of 
Anglice, in reference to the word Scottewattre, he 
was probably an Angle. The tract is apparently of 
the same date, if not by the same author, as the 
previous chronicle. 

18. Legend of St. Andrew. — This tract was Legend of 
first printed by Pinkerton in the appendix to his 
introduction of the History of Scotland, and is here 
reprinted from the Colbertine MS. It belongs evi- 
dently to the same period with the two previous 
tracts. Mr. Dufi'us Hardy, in his descriptive 
catalogue of materials relating to the history of 
Great Britain and Ireland, mentions another copy 

of this tract as existing in a MS. of the twelfth or 
thirteenth century, belonging to Lord Gosford. The 
Editor has made every efi'ort to obtain access to this 
MS., but without success ; the impression, however, 
made upon his mind by the title quoted by Mr. 
Hardy is, that it is a later and not an earlier version 
of this tract. 

19. Continuation of the Annals of Tigher- continuation 
NAC. — -This extract is taken from the continuation "f T^titmal 
of the "Annals of Tighernac," from the year 1088 

to the year 1178. They have not hitherto been 



The Life of 
St. Patrick, 
by Joceline. 

Genealogy of 
King William 
the Lyon. 


Chronicle of 
the Scots and 

printed, but this is the only event recorded in them 
which relates to Scotland. 

20. The Life of St. Patrick, by Joceline. 
— This passage is given from Joceline in illustra- 
tion of the passage previously extracted from the 
Irish " Tripartite Life," and as a later form of the 
same legend. It has been coUated with two MSS. in 
the Bodleian. Joceline wrote in the year 1185. 

21. Genealogy of King William the Lyon. — 
This little tract has not been before printed. It is 
taken from one of the Cottonian MSS. (Faustina, A. 
VIII.), and bears on the margin the date of 1185. 

22. Giraldus Cambrensis, Topographia Hi- 
BERNi^. — As one of the most important notices 
of the Picts is printed in this collection from an 
unpublished MS. of Giraldus, it has been deemed 
advisable to insert here, under its proper date, the 
passages which relate to Scotland in his " Topogra- 
" phia Hibernise." The mss. of this work are very 
numerous, but the passages have been collated with 
two MSS. in the Bodleian. 

23. Chronicle of the Scots and Picts. — This 
chronicle has not hitherto been printed. It is con- 
tained in a MS. in the Advocates' Library (34. 7. 3.), 
written by James Gray, priest of the diocese of Dun- 
blane, in the reign of James the Fifth. The chronicle 
itself, however, is an older com^josition. It contains 
within it the indication of its own date in the state- 
ment, " Summa Scotorum post Pictos cccxxxvii. anni 
" et V. menses." Taking the year 850 as the era from 

PEEFACE. liii 

which these calculations were made, this places the 
compilation of this chronicle in the year 1187. The 
transcript by James Gray, however, is a very bad 
one, and the proper names are most inaccurately 

24. Description of Britain. — This description Description 
is printed from one of the Cottonian MSS. (Claudius, 

D. II.), and is here inserted for the notices of the 
provinces of Scotland which it contains. The MS. is 
probably not older than the fourteenth century, but 
the expression, " Albania que modo Scocia vocatur," 
points so plainly to the twelfth century, that the 
Editor has no hesitation in placing the compilation 
of the document at that period. 

25. Layamon's Brut. — This extract from Laya- xiii. century. 
mon's " Brut" is inserted in illustration of the extract Brut."'°"^ 
from the Welsh Bruts, containing the Welsh legend 

of the settlement of the Picts. Sir Frederick Mad- 
den states, in the preface to his edition, that Laya- 
mon's " Brut " is taken from the Anglo-Norman 
metrical chronicle of the Brut translated from the 
well-known " Historia Britonum " of Geoffrey of 
Monmouth by Wace, but that it contains additions 
and amplifications which are not to be found in the 
original ; among these he includes the narrative of 
the settlement of the Picts in Caithness, and the 
introduction of the Irish language among them. 
It has therefore been inserted here to complete the 
collection of Pictish legends. The text and trans- 
lation of this passage are taken from Sii" Frederick 




Girakliis Cam- 
brensis, De 

The Annals of 

Maclden's edition. He places the composition of 
the work in the year 1204. 

26. Welsh Chronicle. — These few extracts are 
taken from a Welsh chronicle in the " Red Book of 
" Hergest," which appears to have been composed in 
the reign of King John of England. They are col- 
lated with another copy in the Hengwrt collection. 
The events are the same as those mentioned in the 
chronicle annexed to the Harleian MS. of Nennius. 

27. GiEALDUs Cambrensis, De Instructione 
Principum. — This tract is printed from the Cot- 
tonian MS. (Julius b. xiii.) containing Giraldus' 
work, " De Instructione Principum," which was 
completed about the year 1214, as the oldest ver- 
sion of the legendary destruction of the Picts by 
the treachery of the Scots. A few passages from 
this chapter were printed by Mr. Brewer in his 
edition of that work, but the whole chapter is now 
printed for the first time. 

28. The Annals of Inisfallen. — Two versions 
of the "Annals of Inisfallen" were printed by Dr. 
O'Connor in his " Rerum Hibernicarum Scrip- 
" tores veteres ;" one from a MS. in the Bodleian, 
and the other from a Dublin MS. The Bodleian MS. 
alone, however, contains the real " Annals of Inis- 
" fallen," Avhich were compiled in the year 1215. 
The Annals contained in the Dublin MS. have no 
good claim to that title, and are a much later com- 
position. The extracts here printed have been care- 
fully collated with the MS. in the Bodleian (Rawlin- 



son, B. 503). The dates on the margin of this MS. 
are in a late hand. The chronology of the Annals is 
indicated by the occasional occurrence of a date, and 
the repetition of the letters Kl., marking each sue 
ceediug year, and the dates contained in O'Connor's 
copy, are added by him as the corresponding years ; 
but, as the years marked by the letters KL, in which 
no events are recorded, seem to be frequently 
omitted, this does not aiford an accurate clue to the 
real dates, which thus occasionally fall far behind 
the true date. The dates on the margin of these 
extracts are taken from the " Annals of Ulster." ^ 

29. Chronicle of the Picts and Scots.— This chronicle of 

1 • T • 1 pji • • 1T111 the Picts and 

chronicle is also one oi the six pieces published by s^ot^ 
Innes in his appendix, from the register of the 
priory of St. Andrews. The principal register, ac- 
cording to Dalrymple, has been missing ever since 
1660, when it was last seen in the hands of James 
Nairn, minister at the abbacy of Holyrood House. 
A list of the contents of the register, and some ex- 
tracts from it, had been previously taken, and passed 
into the library of Sir Eobert Sibbald, who commu- 
cated them to Innes. Sibbald's MS. seems also to be 
now missing ; but a copy, taken from it, is preserved 
in the Harleian MS., 4628. This copy must have 
been written in or after the year 1708.^ The title 

» In the text, p. 167, the 
Editor has inadvertently omitted 
to insert the date of the compila- 
tion of these Annals, Mf;cxv., after 
the title. 

- The MS. contains a copy of a 
dissertation by the Earl of Cro- 
marty, which he presented to the 
General Assembly in 1708. 


of it is " Excerpta qusedam de magno registro prio- 
" ratus Sanctas Andrese," and then follows the table 
of contents, beginning with the sentence, " In regis- 
" tro prioratus Sanctse Andreae sunt," and conclud- 
ing with the sentence, " et sic finitus registrum, fol. 
" 121." Then follows the extracts with the title, "A 
" registro prioratus Sanctse Andrese. fol. 46," and 
the first extract is the chronicle here printed. It is 
of course a late copy, and full of inaccuracies. 

It contains the foUowinoj calculation of the date 
— " Summa annoruni a Kinat mac Alpin ad regnum 
" Alexandri 501 annis," and the date of the corona- 
tion of Alexander as given in the following para- 
graph is 1251.^ From 850, the era of Kenneth 
Macalpin, to the year 1251, is exactly 401 years. 
It is therefore plain that an additional century had 
now been added to the period of the duration of 
the kingdom of the Scots founded by Kenneth 


mon'iy caned"" THE Croxicon Elegiacum. — The Only complete 
EieMacrm"" ^^^J ^^ ^^^ chrouicle is to be found in a ms. in the 
Bodleian, of the middle of the fourteenth century 
(c. IV. 3), and this copy bears to have been composed 
in the reign of Alexander the Thii'd, from the ex- 
pression in the last line, " qui modo sceptra tenet." 
It is inserted in a fragmentary manner in the 
" Chronicle of Melrose," under the reign of the 
diflferent kings, to whom the verses refer, terminat- 

' The true date of the coronation is 1 249. 



ing, however, with the reign of Malcolm the Fourth. 
The " Chronicle of Melrose " appears to have been 
written in the reign of Alexander the Third, and 
terminates with the year 1270, which was probably 
about the time when the " Cronicon Elegiacum" 
was completed. There is reason, however, to think 
that part of the Cronicon is much older, and was 
composed by Ailred, Abbot of Rievaux, as John, 
Abbot of Peterborough, refers, under the year 975, 
to a chronicle, " in libro sancti Aldredi abbatis 
" qui intitulatur Epitaphium regum Scotorum." 
Ailred died in the second year of King William the 
Lyon, in the year 1166, and he probably composed 
that part of the chronicle which terminates with Mal- 
colm the Fourth, and concludes with these lines — 

" Quatuor hii reges jam sunt in pace sepulti, 
In tuinbaque jaceut Rex ubi Malcolmus." 

This part of the chronicle may have been written 
by him in the year succeeding Malcolm's death, viz., 
1165, and continued by another hand in the reign 
of Alexander the Third. 

Part of the Cronicon also is inserted in " Wyn- 
" toun's Chronicle," along with part of a prose chro- 
nicle, and more of it by the continuators of Fordun 
in the " Scoticronicon." The Editor has collated 
the copy in the Bodleian MS. with that in the " Chro- 
" nicle of Melrose," and in " Wyntoun's Chronicle."^ 

^ The Editor has not collated 

with the MSS. of Fordun, because 
he considers these copies, like 

every document inserted in For- 
dun's history, tainted with altera- 
tions made to adapt them to 




Legend of 

St, Auclrew. 

Chronicle of-tlie 
Picts and Scots. 

31. Legend of St. Andeew. — This legend was 
incorrectly printed by Pinkerton in the appendix to 
his work ; it is now printed from the copy in the 
Harleian MS., 4628. From the reference to the 
bishops of St. Andrews which follows it, it occupies 
a place in the register, which suggests the date of 
1279. It is an amplification of the " Legend of St. 
" Andrew" in the Colbertine MS., and is remarkable 
as quoting a supposed grant by Bang Hungus 
before a number of witnesses, said to be " ex regali 
" prosapia." An examination of the names, however, 
will show that they are taken almost without excep- 
tion from the names of the early kings in the Pictish 
lists. The passage, " Thana filius Dudabrach hoc 
" monumentum scripsit Eegi Pherath filio Bergeth 
" in villa Migdele," is more curious, and may have 
some foundation in fact, as the King " Ferat filius 
" Batot" appears in the "Chronicle of St. Andrews" 
as the second last king of the Picts, and the " villa 
" Migdele," obviously refers to the town of Meigle ; 
but how much of the legend may be intended to 
be referred to as having been then written, it is 
impossible to say. 

32. Chkonicle of the Picts and Scots. — This 
chronicle is quoted at length in the " Scalacronica," 
and has been carefully collated with the original MS. 
at Cambridge. It has obviously been translated 

Fordim's history, and that they 
do not contain a genuine edition 
of the poem. It would only 

mislead to collate with MSS. 
which substitute Abthanus for 
A bbas. 


i uto Norman French from a Latin original. It is 
stated at the end of tlie chronicle that the sum of 
the years between Kenneth Macalpin and King 
Alexander was 430 years one month and seven days, 
which, added to the year 850, as the era of Kenneth, 
fixes the date of the chronicle at the year 1280. 
But though the substance of the chronicle may have 
been compiled in this year, it is obvious that the 
narrative is interspersed with statements of a later 
date, such as the reference to the marble stone 
having been removed to Westminster. There is a 
peculiarity in this chronicle which seems to indicate 
its source. The king of the Picts, usually termed 
Brude, son of Derili, is here called Brude son of 
Dergert, and it is added " in which time came St. 
" Servanus to Fife." This is the only chronicle 
which contains any notice of St. Servanus ; and in 
the chartulary of St. Andrews (p. 113) there is a 
note of the foundation charter of the priory of the 
island of Lochleven, said to have been granted by 
Brude filius Dergard to St. Servanus and the Cul- 
dees. It may therefore be inferred that the chronicle 
inserted in the " Scalacronica " was the " Chronicle 
" of Lochleven." 

33. Chronicle of Huntingdon. — In the year chionicieoi 

11 -ni 11 TT Huutiugdoii. 

1290, writs were addressed by Ldward the l^irst to 
the cathedrals and principal monasteries through- 
out England, commanding them to search their 
clu'onicles and archives for all matters relating to 
Scotland, and to transmit the same to the king 


under their common seals. The returns made to 
these writs, which are still extant, contain nume- 
rous extracts and fragments of chronicles, which 
are printed by Sir Francis Palgrave in his " Docu- 
" ments and Records illustrative of the History of 
" Scotland," published by the Eecord Commission ; 
but among them is one chronicle so important for 
the history of Scotland that it is included in this 
collection. It was sent by the canons of the priory 
of St. Mary of Huntingdon, founded in the year 
1140 ; and as David the First acquu-ed the honour 
of Huntingdon through his wife Matilda, which was 
afterwards conferred upon his son Henry in the 
year 1136, the earlier part of this chronicle, prior to 
j\Ialcolm Canmore, was no doubt derived from a 
Scottish source. The chronicle commences with 
the contest between Alpin, king of the Scots, and 
the Picts, in the year 834 ; and the marginal title 
bears that, according to their chronicles, the Scots 
had possessed the country for four hundred and 
forty-six years from Alpin, from whom King Mal- 
colm derived his descent, which, added to 834, 
brings us to the year 1290 as that in which the 
return was made. The original us. is preserved in 
the Record House in London, but it has suffered so 
mucli from time, that many words cannot now be 
decyj^hered. Some of these blanks occur in the 
most important part of the chronicle for Scottish 
histoiy, viz., the narrative of the reigns of Alpin and 
his sou Kenneth ; but this narrative has fortunately 


been interwoven by Forclun into his own account 
of these reigns, and the obliterated words can be 
supplied from his text with every presumption of 

34. Description of Scotland. — This short de- Description 
scrip tion of Scotland is contained in one of the 
Cottonian MSS. (Nero, D. 11). It was printed for 

the Maitland Club by Mr. Joseph Stevenson, and is 
rightly placed by him between the years 1292 and 
1296. It has again been collated with the original 
MS., and is here printed to complete the early 
topographical tracts relating to Scotland. 

35. Tracts relating to the English Claims. Tracts relating 

-f , -, -,. . to the English 

— In the years 1300 and 1301, a discussion arose claims. 
between the Pope, the king of England, and the 
Scottish Government with regard to the indepen- 
dence of Scotland. It commenced in the year 
1300, by a bull directed by Pope Boniface the 
Eighth to Edward, king of England, which was 
replied to by the English Parliament, and after- 
wards by the king himself The Pope then directed 
a buU to the bishops of Scotland, while the Govern- 
ment of Scotland sent instinictions to their com- 
missioners in Eome, and this was followed by an 
argument written by Baldred Bisset, rector of 
Kinghorn, in the diocese of St. Andrews, who was 
one of these commissioners. The discussion is 
valuable, because each party founded their argument 
upon premises deduced from facts in the early 
history of the country. They thus show the 


form which the legends had then assumed, and 
the view which was taken on both sides of the 
early history of Scotland. Four of the documents 
in this discussion are here printed. Under letter 
A is the bull of the Pope to the King of Eng- 
land, and under letter B the King of England's 
reply. They are to be found in Fordun's history, 
and they have also been printed in the last edition 
of Rhymer's " Foedera," from MS. copies in the public 
records in London. They have been collated with 
the latter for the Editor by his friend Mr. Joseph 
Stevenson. Under letter c are the instructions to 
the Scotch commissioners, and under letter d the 
argument by Baldred Bisset. These two documents 
are to be found in the MSS. of Fordun's history alone. 
They have been printed by Hearne from the ms. in 
Trinity College, Cambridge, which, it is supposed, 
contained the original of that part of the work com- 
posed by Fordun himself, with the materials prepared 
by him for the rest of his work. They are also printed 
by Goodall in his edition of Fordun. Goodall's edi- 
tion of Fordun is mainly taken from the fine MS. 
in Edinburgh College, which contains the continua- 
tion of Fordun by Bower, but, on examining these 
documents in the Edinburgh College ms., it appears 
that the " Instructions" differ very materially from 
the copy printed by Hearne, and that while Goodall, 
in the rest of his work, has mainly followed the Edin- 
burgh College MS., he here deserts it, and prints the 
text of his " Instructions" from a MS. which contains 



nearly the same version of it as that printed by 
Hearne. The Editor has had the advantage of 
examining the fine MS. of Fordun in the library of 
the Earl of Moray at Donibristle, which formerly 
belonged to the monastery of Inchcolme/ and the 
conclusion he has come to on examining the differ- 
ent Mss. is, that the differences do not consist merely 
of the ordinary variations of transcribers, but that 
there are, in point of fact, two entirely distinct ver- 
sions of this document ; of one of these versions, the 
text in the Edinburgh College MS. may be taken as 
an example, and of the other, that printed by Hearne. 
The differences between them consist to a great ex- 
tent of intentional alterations. At the first view, it 
might be supposed that Hearne's copy, being taken 
from the oldest MS., is probably that nearest to the 
original, but, on the other hand, the differences consist 
of additions and interpolations in Hearne's edition, 
and, when these additions are examined, they appear 
to have been made for the purpose of bringing the 
document nearer to the statements in Fordun's own 
history. Thus, in stating the conversion of the Scots 
by relics of St. Andrew, the copy in the Edinburgh 
College MS. says, " ibidem Hungo rege tunc reg- 
" nante." Hearne's edition adds, " et super Scotos 
" Erth filii Echadii fratris Eugenii." Now, the 

' This MS. has at the end the fol- 
lowing sentence : — "Hunc librum 
" scribi fecit Domiuns Symon 
" Fynlay Capellanus Altaris Sancti 
"Michaelis ecclesie Sancti Egidii 

" de Edinburgo quern post smmi 
" obitum reliquit canonicis mo- 
" nasterii insule Sancti Columbe 
" de Emonia. Orate pro eo. Eius 
" alienator anathema sit." 


introduction of Erth, the son of Echadius, the 
brother of Engenius, was first made by Fordun in 
his histoiy, and in Book iii. chap, i., he appears in 
almost the same words, "Fergusius filius Erth filii 
" Echadii, qui fuit frater Eugenii regis." Again, 
when the Edinburgh College version mentions 
Duncan, the son of Malcolm the Third, he calls 
him simply " Duncanus primogenitus ejusdem Mal- 
" colmi regis," whde Hearne's edition inserts after 
" primogenitus" the words " sed nothus." This 
epithet is unknown to the early Scottish chronicles. 
It appears for the first time in the English part of 
the " Chronicle of Huntingdon," and was adopted 
by Fordun in his history, as in Book v. chap, xxiv., 
in mentioning " Duncanus Malcolmi regis," he adds 
" filius nothus." 

Taking the \'iew, then, that these difi"erences con- 
sisted of additions subsequently made to the original 
document, and not of passages omitted from it, the 
text in the Edinburgh College MS., and in the 
Donibristle MS. which closely corresponds with it, 
has the best claim to represent the original, and the 
probabHity is that the text in Hearne's MS. was 
altered by Fordun to adapt it to his owti history, 
as he has altered most documents which he made 
use of, and that the other text most nearly repre- 
sents the original. The Donibristle MS. indicates 
the source from which this text was taken, as after 
the "Instructiones" is the following addition in the 
same hand — " Cujus copia cum processu ipsius Bal- 


" dredi contra regem Anglie in quodam libello scrip to 
" per Alanum de Monross habetur cum multis literis 
" ad eandem litem pertinentibus." The Editor has 
printed his text from the Edinburgh College MS., 
collated with the Donibristle MS. ; but he has printed 
Hearne's edition below, to show the variations 
between the two. 

The "Processus" by Baldred Bisset does not re- 
quire to be treated in the same way, as the text is 
nearly the same in all the mss. 

36. Chronicle of the Picts and Scots. — ciironicieof 

the Picts and 

This chronicle is contained in a ms. of the four- Scots. 
teenth century, in the collection of Sir Thomas 
Phillipps of Middlehill. It very closely resembles 
the chronicle which was contained in the register of 
the priory of St. Andi-ews (No. xxix.), and the same 
mistake occurs in it of adding a century to the 
duration of the Scottish monarchy. The "summa 
" annorum" from Kenneth Macalpinis here stated to 
be 567 years, and, deducting the added century, and 
calculating the duration from the year of Kenneth 
Macalpin, viz., 850, this gives 1317 as the date of 
the compilation of the chronicle. The date of the MS. 
corresponds with this period. It may be observed, 
with regard to this chronicle, that it states the num- 
ber of Pictish kings prior to Kenneth as sixty-five. 
This corresponds very closely with the statement in 
the old Pictish poem, page 44, in which the number 
of the Pictish kings is stated to be sixty-six ; but 
on comparing this chronicle with the " Chronicle of 


" St. Andrews," it will be seen that, in order to bring 
out this number, the compiler has repeated four of 
the kings after Nectan, son of Derile. 


fandtotL^™'' THE PoPE.— TMs document is contained in the 
Pope. continuation to Fordun's history, and has also been 

printed in the first volume of the " Acts of Parlia- 
" ment of Scotland," published by the Record Com- 
mission. The original is in the Reoister House at 
Edinburgh, and it is here reprinted after collation 
with the original, because it contains the dehberate 
statement by the baronage of Scotland at that time 
of their conception of the early history of the 
Chronicle of 38. CHRONICLE OF THE ScoTS. — This chronicle 
was printed by Mr. Joseph Stevenson for the Ban- 
natyne Club, and it is here reprinted after collation 
with the original MS. It is a chronicle of the kings 
of Scotland, from Kenneth Macalpin down to David 
the Second, and has been correctly dated by Mr. 
Stevenson as having been compiled in the year 
1333-4. This chronicle is remarkable as containing 
a reference to variations in the list of kings con- 
tained in other chronicles. The first of these is, 
that Constantine, the son of Kenneth, reigned, ac- 
cording to others, only six years. The second is, 
that Grig was succeeded by his brother Constantine. 
It is very remarkable that the only document which 
supports these two variations is the " Prophecy of 
" St. Berchan." Another variation in this chronicle is 
that Duf, the son of Malcolm, was succeeded by his 

the Scots. 


son Kenneth, and he, by Culen the son of Indulf ; 
and this variation is to be found alone in the 
" Chronicle of Huntingdon." 

39. Chronicles of the Scots. — These chronicles chronicles of 
are taken from a document in one of the Cot- 

tonian MSS. (Vitellius, A. xx.) bearing the title of 
" Historia "AngUae a Bruto ad annum Domini, 
" 1348," and the MS. appears to be of the fourteenth 
century. They have not been hitherto printed. The 
second of the two chronicles is obviously a copy of 
part of the " Chronicle of St. Andrews," as it closely 
corresponds with it, and the " summa annorum " is 
the same, viz., 501 years. The prologue is taken 
verbatim from Higden's " Polycronicon." 

40. Chronicle of the Scots. — This chronicle ciironicie of 
has been printed from one of the Harleian MSS. 
(1808). The "summa annorum," from Kenneth Mac - 

alpiri to William the Lyon, is stated to be 506 years, 
which is an obvioiis mistake, and the chronicle must 
have been compiled at a later date, and probably 
by an Englishman, as it shows great ignorance of 
the history during the latter part. Thus, Henry, 
the son of David the First, is made to have reigned 
after him, and the three sisters, Margareta, Ysabella, 
and Ada, the daughters of his youngest son David, 
Earl of Huntingdon, are here made the daughters of 
King David the First and the sisters of Henry. The 
date 1465 has been added in a different hand, but the 
Editor is of opinion that the chronicle cannot have 
been written after the publication of Fordun's his- 
tory, and that it belongs to the fourteenth century. 



Tract on the 
Scots of Dal- 

Tract on the 

Tract on the 

41. Tract on the Scots of Daleiada. — This very- 
curious document is to be found in three different 
Irish MSS., viz., the " Book of Ballimote," the " Book 
" of Lecain," and the Trinity College MS. (h. 2. 7). 
The two former pretty nearly correspond ; the 
latter is somewhat different. Lynch, in his " Cam- 
" brensis Eversus," published in 1662, quotes this 
tract without hesitation as the work of John 
O'Dugan, a well-known Irish Sennachy. He was 
one of the compilers of the " Book of Hy Many," 
and died in the year 1372. As the Trinity College 
MS. is a transcript of part of the "Book of Hy Many," 
and the text of this tract contained in it appears to 
the Editor to be the most correct, he has selected 
it for the text. 

42. Tract on the Picts. — This tract is contained 
in the " Book of Lecain," and the latter part of it 
was printed by Dr. Todd in the Irish Nennius. 
Why the whole was not printed the Editor does not 
know, but the Editor has found an older copy of it in 
a MS. in the Bodleian (Eawlinson, B. 506). This MS. 
is stated to have been written by John O'Cianan for 
his brother Adam O'Cianan. The latter was a well- 
known Sennachy, who died in the year 1373, and 
this copy has therefore been taken as the text. 
This tract contains an entirely different form of 
the Pictish legend, and is mainly valuable for the 
account which it gives of the districts in Scotland 
conquered and occupied by them. 

43. Tract on the Picts.— This little fragment is 


taken from the version of the " Leabhar Gabhala, or 
" Book of Conquests," contained in the " Book of 
" BaUimote." So far as it goes, it corresponds very 
closely with the preceding legend. The date at- 
tached to it is that of the " Book of BaUimote." 

44. Teact on the Picts. — This tract is taken xv. century. 
from two separate versions of the " Leabhar Gabhala, p[^j*g °" 

" or Book of Conquests," contained in the " Book of 
" Lecain." It consists, in point of fact, of a resumS 
of the Pictish legends which were attached to the 
Irish translations of Nennius, with some additions 
which are not without value. The date attached to 
them is that of the " Book of Lecain." 

45. Tract on the Scots, with Metrical Pro- Tract on the 
PHECY. — This little tract is found in the beginning MeWcri'pio- 
of the Eoyal MS. of Fordun (13 E. x.) The metrical P''«'=y- 
portion of it consists of three lines which occur in 

the " Chronicon Rhythmicum," and of twenty-five 
lines, of which the first four are taken from the old 
" Metrical Prophecy" (No. xi.), and the last twenty- 
one lines are quoted in Fordun's history, and were 
afterwards interpolated in the " Chronicon Rhyth- 
" micum." This tract is here printed, as, if it was 
the original from which Fordun made his quota- 
tion, it must precede him in date. 

46. Metrical Chronicle, commonly called the Metrical ciiro- 
Chronicon Rhythmicum. — This metrical chronicle "iild thT"" ^ 
is one of the six pieces printed by Innes in his ^wi^^uni 
appendix. It is to be found only in the MSS. of 
Fordun, either prefixed to or added to his work ; 


and there are two editions of it — one in the MS. of 
Fordun, which belonged to the Scotch College of 
Paris ; the other a version containing numerous ad- 
ditions, which is to be found in the Edinburgh Col- 
lege MS., the Royal MS., and several others. Innes 
considered that these additions were later inter- 
polations, and that the Scotch College MS. presented 
the poem in its original form. He also considered 
that the poem consisted of two parts : the first of 
which was composed in the reign of Alexander the 
Third ; and the second in the year 1447, the date 
given in the end of the poem itself, as that of 
its composition. Pinkerton, in a paper in the ap- 
pendix to the first volume of his essay, has con- 
troverted this opinion of Innes, and argues that 
the whole poem was composed at the same time, 
viz., the year 1447 ; but the Editor concurs with 
Innes in his opinion that a part of the poem must 
have been written in or shortly after the reign of 
Alexander the Third, for in the " Instructiones," 
and in the "Processus" of Baldred Bisset in 1301, 
reference is made to the " Versus," — 

" A muliere Scota vocetatur Scocia tota ;" 

and this Hue is found in the early part of the 
" Chronicon Ehythmicum." In both versions there 
is a prose prologue ; that in the Scotch CoUege MS. 
is as foUows : — 

" Quum huius precedentis Scoticronicon voluminis prolixitas, 
" hominum quoque memorie labilitas et incerti temporis brevitas, 
" non sinunt universa que inibi scripta sunt animo scire multa 


" cupientes, similiterque semel comprehendi ; ideo mihi' visum 
" est pro ingeniosi mei capacitate quedam inde estrahere ; et in 
" unius corpus codicili quodam compendio, scripto veteri metrico, 
" et nouo^ ad propositum respondente, quasi sub quodam epilogo 
" summatim redigere, precipue que facere videntur ad noticiam 
" temporum inclitorum regum Scotorum ; de qua stirpe, quave 
" origine ad istas oras deuenerunt ; et quoto tempore et quanto 
" ante Pictos, cum eisdem, et post eos, vicissim regnauerunt ; et 
" qualiter nunc stirps Scotigena miscetur cum Saxonica, qualiter- 
" que Britannia stirpe multigena variatur, et quomodorex Scocie 
" modernus de jure delicto debet tarn Anglie quam Scocie 
" prefici regnis." 

It shows that the poem consisted partly of an older 

poem incorporated into one more recent. 

The Editor likewise concurs with Innes in his 
preference for the copy in the Scotch College MS. 
He considers that this was the original form of the 
poem, and that it was subsequently added to, proba- 
bly by the same author, after the completion of the 
" Scotichronicon," who inserted in it the lines quoted 
by Fordun, to whom the poem itself was apparently 
unknown, from another poem, and added several 
chapters to give it a more ambitious appearance. 
These additions are of no importance for the early 
history of Scotland, and the Editor has printed his 
text from the Scotch College MS., which is now in 
the Cathohc library in Edinburgh, and collated it 
with the Edinburgh College MS. 

47. Metrical History by William, Arch- Metrical His. 

torv bv Wil- 

bishop of York. — This poem, written by William uam, Arch- 

1 The Edin. College Ms. inserts 2 xhe Edin. CoUege MS. reads, ^i^l^opof York. 

here, " tameu subsequens croni- " partem ex metris veteribus et 

" carum magnum volumen per me " partim ex recentibus." 
" presens scriptum reuoluenti." 



Annals of 
Senait Mac 
Manus, com- 
monly called 
the Annals of 

Legend of 
St. Andi-ew. 

Bosche, Archbishop of York, is found in one of the 
Cottonian mss. (Cleopatra, c. iv.) It contains a 
chapter " De aduentu Scotorum in Britannia ;" and 
as William Bosche was archbishop from 1452 to 
1462, it appears to fall within the limits of this 
collection. It has not previously been printed. 

48. Ankals of Senait Mac Manus, commonly 
CALLED THE Annals OF Ulstee. — The text of the 
" Annals of Ulster " was first printed by Doctor 
O'Connor in his " Rerum Hibernicarum Scrip tores 
" veteres," from the Bodleian MS. (Rawlinson, b. 489). 
It is by no means accurate, and there is an equally 
fine MS. in Trinity College, Dublin, which O'Connor 
appears not to have consulted. He priated the 
text down to the year 1131 only, though the Annals 
were compiled in the year 1498. The extracts 
here printed have been collated with both MSS., 
and those subsequent to the year 1131 have not 
been hitherto printed. In both mss. a date is pre- 
fixed to the events of each year, and likewise the 
kalends and ferice. The date of the Christian era 
given is, generally speaking, one year behind the 
true date, but the ferice invariably represent one 
year in advance, and that date has been selected as 
the marginal date for all the extracts from the 
" Irish Annals " given in this collection. 

49. Legend of St. Andrew. — This legend has 
been taken from the " Breviary of Aberdeen," and 
has been added in order to complete the " Legends 
" of St. Andrew " in this collection. As the " Pro- 

PREFACE. Ixxiii 

" pria Sanctorum " in the " Breviary " was compiled 
by Bishop Elphinstone in the year 1504, that date 
has been attached to this form of the legend. 

60. Chronicle of the Soots. — This chronicle, chronicle of 
which is written in the Scottish language, is found 
in the Eoyal ms. (17. d. xx.), at the end of " Wyn- 
" toun's Chronicle," and appears to have been tran- 
scribed about the year 1530, as the writer states 
that the conquest of the Picts was " donne seiuyn 
" hundir zeire synne, yat is to say, ye zeire of oure 
" Lord aucht hundir xxx. and od zeiiis ;" but the 
chronicle itseK is brought down to the year 1482 
only, in which year it may have been compiled. 
At the end is the signature, William le Neue, York. 
The latter part, from the year 1400, has been printed 
in Pinkerton's " History of Scotland " (Vol. i. Ap- 
pendix, No. xxi.), but the former part has not been 
previously printed. It is here inserted as fitly 
concluding the series of Chronicles and Memorials 
contained in this collection. 

In the Appendix are inserted several pieces either AppENDii-. 
illustrative of the foregoing documents, or which 
the Editor has been unable to place in their proper 
position in the chronological series. No. i. are pas- 
sages from the " Origines " of Isidore of Seville, to 
illustrate the introduction to the "Pictish Chronicle." 
No. II. is an Irish version of the " Pictish Chronicle " 
contained in the Trinity College ms. (h. 3. 17.) It 
is obviously transcribed from an older text, and the 
scribe appears not to have understood the Latin he 



was copying. No. iii. are extracts bearing upon the 
yj. early history of Scotland, from the " Fragments of 
^r " Irish Annals transcribed by MacFirbis," printed 
V o by the Irish Archaeological Society from a MS. in the 
Burgundian Library at Brussels. The date of these 
annals cannot be ascertained, but some of the events 
recorded in them are probably taken from older 
authorities. No. iv. is an extract from an Irish life 
of St. Adomnan, of uncertain date, but evidently 
containing^ genuine tradition. The Editor is in- 
debted to the Eev. Dr. Reeves, of Armagh, for this 
extract. No. v. is an extract from a Latin life of 
St. Boethius, the Buite son of Bronaig, whose death 
is recorded in the " Irish Annals " in the same year 
with the birth of St. Columba. There is a good 
co])j of this life in the Bodleian (Rawlinson, B. 505), 
and a very bad one in the British Museum (Claren- 
don, XXXIX.) The former has been selected as the 
text. No. VI. is a life of St. Servanus, contained in 
a MS. in Bishop Marsh's Library, Dublin, along 
with a version of Joceline's " Life of St. Kentigern." 
It is here inserted, because it is manifestly a ver- 
sion of the life which Wyntoun made use of in the 
" Legend of St. Serf," or Servanus, which he in- 
serted in his chronicle. Nos. vii. and viii. are the 
legends of Saint Bonifacius and Saint Adrian, from 
the Aberdeen Breviary. They are here inserted 
from their bearing on the early history of Scotland. 




Such being the series of the fragments of our n,- 
chronicles anterior to the time of Forclun, which ^!°!'!t,„^™ 
are still to be found, it remains to say something of 
their bearing upon the scheme of the early history 
of Scotland presented by that writer in his " Scoti- 
" chronicon ;" and for this purpose it will be neces- 
sary first to advert to the ancient topography of the 

TakiuQf the frontier of the kingdom of Scotland 
in the time of Fordun, viz., the Tweed, the Cheviots, 
and the Solway, as the geographical limits of our 
inquiry, it may be stated as an undoubted fact, and 
one lying at the very foundation of the real history 
of the country, that, prior to the tenth century, 
the name of Scotland, or Scotia, whether in its 
Saxon or in its Latin form, was not applied to the 
whole, or any part of this territory. Prior to that 
period, these names were appropriated exclusively 
to Ireland. The territory forming the kingdom of 
Scotland was included under the general term of 
Britannia, the name applied to the whole island, 
but the northern part of Britannia was likewise 
known by the Celtic name of Alba, or Alban. The 
more ancient name of Ireland was Hibernia, and 
its Celtic name Eire or Erin, or, in its Welsh form, 
Ywerdon. From an early period, Ireland likewise 
received the name of Scotia, as the patria or mother 
country of the Scots. But while the name of Scotia 


was exclusively applied to Ireland prior to the tenth 
century, it is not correct to say, as many Irish 
Avriters do, that the term Scotus or Scoti was ex- 
clusively used to designate its inhabitants. Scotia 
was a territorial or geographical term, and was 
limited to the country which bore it for the time, 
but Scotus was a name of race or generic term, im- 
plying people as weU as country. The geographical 
and the generic terms, though connected witb the 
same people, are rarely co-extensive, and as the race 
extends beyond the limits of their original country, 
so does the generic term. The name of Scotus was 
no doubt applied to those of the race of the Scoti 
wherever they were found. While Bede talks of Ire- 
land as being the " Patria Scotorum," and applies the 
name of Scotia exclusively to that island, he also 
mentions the Dalriads as the " Scoti qui Britanniam 
" inhabitant ;" and there can be little doubt that" 
while the geographical term of Scotia was confined 
to the island of Ireland, the generic term of Scoti 
embraced the people of that race whether inhabiting 
Ireland or Britain. As this term of Scotia was a 
geographical term derived from the generic name of 
a people, it was to some extent a fluctuating name, 
and though applied at first to Ireland, which pos- 
sessed the more distinctive name of Hibernia, as the 
principal seat of the race from whom the name was 
derived, it is obvious that, if the people from whom 
the name was taken inhabited other countries, the 
name itself would have a tendency to pass from the 



one to the other, according to the prominence which 
the different settlements of the race assumed in the 
histoiy of the world ; and as the race of the Scots 
in Britain became more extended, and their power 
more formidable, the territorial name would have a 
tendency to fix itself where the race had become 
most conspicuous. The name, under its Saxon 
form of Scotland, passed from Ireland to Britain in 
the beginning of the tenth century, and was ap- 
plied by the Saxon historians to the kingdom of 
Constantino, king of the Scots of Britain, who 
reigned from the year 900 to 940.^ The name, 
in its Latin form of Scotia, was transferred 
from Ireland to Scotland in the reign of Malcolm 
the Second, who reigned from 1004 to 1034.^ It 
was thus in the beginning of the tenth century 

^ According to the best autho- 
rities, that jiart of the ' ' Saxon 
" Chronicle " which precedes the 
death of King Alfred in 901 was 
compded in his reign, and in this 
part of the chronicle the name of 
Scotland is nowhere applied to 
North Britain ; while, in King 
Alfred's translation of " Orosius," 
he translates the passage " Hi- 
" hernia qni a gentibus Scotorum 
** cohtur," '* Igbernia, which ire 
" call Scotland." Down to that 
period the name of Scotland was 
appUed to Ireland ; but in that 
part of the chronicle which ex- 
tends from 925 to 975, and which, 
if not contemporary, was at least 
compiled in the latter year, there 
is, in 93.3, "Her for Aethelstan 

" Cyning in on Scotland," plainly 
applying that name to North Bri- 
tain ; and in the contemporary 
poem on the battle of Brunan- 
burg, in 937, Coustantine's people 
are called Sceotta, and the name 
applied to Ireland is Yraland. 

2 The "Pictish Chronicle," com- 
piled before 997, knows nothing 
of the name of Scotia as applied 
to North Britain ; but Marianus 
Scotus, who lived from 1028 to 
lOSl, calls Malcolm the .Second 
" rex Scot'.ce," and Brian, king of 
Ireland, " rex Hihe.rnice." The 
author of the " Life of St. 
" Cadroe," in the eleventh cen- 
tury, likewise applies the name of 
Scotia to North Britain. 



that the name of Scotland was applied to any pai*t 
of the subsequent kingdom of that name, and in the 
beginning of the eleventh century that the name of 
Scotia was so used. It is equally clear that, when 
first applied to any part of North Britain, its use 
was restricted to a district, bounded on the south 
by the Firth of Forth, on the west by the mountain- 
range which separated Perthshire from Argyleshire, 
and on the north by the river Spey,^ and that it sub- 
sequently spread over the whole of the territory 
which formed the later kingdom of Scotland, as the 
diflerent provinces lying beyond these limits were 
fully incorporated into the kingdom. 
Firths of Foitii The great natiu-al features of the Firths of Forth 

and Clyde a 

great natural and Clyde, approacHug, as they do, within no gxeat 
distance of each other, and leaving an isthmus of 
little more than between thirty and forty miles in 
breadth, could not fail to exercise a powerful influ- 
ence in fixing the limits of the difi'erent races occupy- 
ing the country ; and even as early as the expedition 
of Agricola, his historian Tacitus notices that the 
tides of the opposite seas, flowing very far up the 
estuaries of Clota and Bodotria, almost intersect 
the country', leaving only a narrow neck of land, and 
throwing the territory beyond it as it were into 
another island. The Celtic term of A Iha or A Ihan 
seems to have been confined to the country north 

> Scotia is repeatedly distin- 
guished from Arregaithel on the 
west, Moravia on the north, and 

Laodouia on the south, which im- 
plies that it was confined to a dis- 
trict within these limits. 



of the Firths of Forth and Clyde, and it is to part 
of this country that the name of Scotia was first 

South of the Fu-ths, on the east, the kingdom of Lothian. 
Northumbria extended from the Humber to the Firth 
of Forth, and certainly reached as far west as the 
river Esk, while the Angles possessed settlements 
beyond that river along the south shores of the Firth 
as far as Abercorn. The Scottish chronicles apply to 
this part of the south of Scotland the general name 
of Saxonia ; but after the district from the Tweed to 
the Firth of Forth was ceded by Eadulf Cudel, Earl 
of Northumbria, to Malcolm the Second, in the year 
1020, and became part of his dominions, . it went 
under the general name of Laodonia or Lothian. 
On the west, the kingdom of Cumbria, or Strath strathciyde 
Clyde, inhabited by a Welsh population, and 
governed by its own proper monarchs, extended 
from the Firth of Clyde far into England, and in- 
cluded Cumberland and part of Westmoreland.^ On 
the north of the Solway Firth, and surrounded by oaiioway. 
the territories of the Strathciyde Britons, was the 
district of Galloway, comprising the counties of 
Wigtown and Kirkcudbright. The ancient Celtic 
name for this district was, in Irish, Gallgaedhel, 
and in Welsh, Galwydel, which is its equivalent 
in that language ;^ in Welsh, the letter d is 

^ Its southern boundary ap- 
pears to have been the river Der- 
weut, which now divides the 

diocese of Carlisle from that of 

2 Though the Gallgaedhel, aa 



Calatria and 
Campus Man- 

softened by aspiration to th, and from this name 
was formed tlie Latin denominations of Gallovidia 
and Galhveithia. The kingdom of Cumbria was 
conquered by Edmund, king of the Saxons, in 946, 
and transferred to Malcolm, king of the Scots ; and, 
when the boundary between England and Scotland 
was finally fixed at the Solway Firth, the name of 
Gallovidia or Galloway was applied to the whole of 
the western districts, extending from the Solway 
Firth to the Firth of Clyde. 

Between the kingdom of Northumbria and that 
of the Strathclyde Britons lay two small districts, 
termed Calatria and Campus Manann. Calatria 
was the district extending from Falkirk to the shore 
of the Firth, comprising what is called the Carse of 
Falkirk, and probably equivalent to the ancient 
parish of that name, which included the modern 
parishes of Falkirk, Denny, Polmont, and Muir- 
avonside. The Celtic name of this district was 
Calathros. It was bounded on the noi-th by the 

the name of a people, probably in- 
cluded the inhabitants of the 
Western Isles, Gallgaedel, as a 
territorial name, was Galloway. 
This is proved by the entry in 
the "Annals of Ulster" in the 
year 1199, in which Roland, Lord 
of Galloway, appears as " Kolant 
"mac Uchtraig ri Gallgaidhd" 
and by comparing the entry in the 
" Chronicle of Melrose," under 
the year 1234, "obiit Alanus filius 
" Rolandi domimts Galwethie," 
with that in the " Annals of 

" Ulster " in the same year, " Ailin 
" mac Uchtraig ri GaUriaidhel mor- 
"tuus est." It appears in its 
Welsh form of Galwydel in the 
" Prit Cyvarch Taliessin, Eingl 
" Galwydel gvinaont eu riifel" 
" the Angles and Galwegians made 
" their war." Galloway was also 
called simply Gall or Gal. JlacFir- 
bis terms the Lord of Galloway, 
Maormo7' Gall. Urien is called 
by Llywarch hen Hryr Oal, or the 
Eagle of Gal. Aili-ed calls the 
Galwegians also Galli. 



Carron, on the south by the Avon, and on the east 
by the Firth.^ West of this lay the district called 
Campus Manand or Manann. The name Manand 
is the same in form with the Irish name of the 
Isle of Man, also caUed Manand. The epithet 
Campus or plain was probably applied to it to dis- 
tinguish it from the island. The Welsh form of the 
name is Manau, and the Isle of Man was hkewise 
known to them by that name. The district they 
termed Manau Gododin, to distinguish it from 
the island, and it is described in the Saxon and 
Welsh additions to the " Historia Britonum " as 
" Kegio que vocatur Manau Gododin in parte 
" sinistrali," or the north of Britain. This name is 
stiU preserved in that flat and barren moor forming 
the parish of Slamannan, and called of old Slaman- 
nan Muir." The name Slamannan is the Gaelic 
Sliabh Mannan, the word Sliahh meaning a moor, 
but it certainly extended as far as the river Almond, 
and may possibly have included the whole of the 
modern county of Linlithgow ; and as this county 
approaches at the Queensferry within a short dis- 
tance of the opposite coast of the Fixlh, it may have 

' Ailred, in his history " De 
" Bello Standardi," puts the fol- 
lowing expression into the mouth 
of Walter Espec : — " Isti sunt 
" utique qui nobis quondam non 
" resistendum sed ccdendum puta- 
" runt cum Anglise victor Wil- 
" lelmus Laodoniam, Calatriam, 
" Scotiara usque ad Abernith 
" penetravit." In the " Chartu- 

" lary of Glasgow," p. 9, Dufotyr 
de Calatcria witnesses a charter of 
King Bavid. Calathros appears 
frequently in the " Irish Annals." 
^Tighemac, in 7 11, has "Strages 
" Pictorum iu Camjio Manand a 
" Saxonis." The " Saxon Chroui- 
" cle" gives the same event as hap- 
pening " betwix Haefe and Caere" 
— the Avon and the Carron. 



Two great 
chains, the 
Mounth and 

even extended beyond it, and left another trace of 
its name in the county of Clatkmannan. 

Beyond the Firths of Forth and Clyde the great 
leading physical features which influenced its terri- 
torial distribution were two great mountain-chains. 
One, termed the Mounth, extended right across the 
island, from sea to sea, ia one continuous and un- 
broken ridge. Its western termination was the 
great mountain of Ben Nevis, rising in one unbroken 
mass from a plain a little above the level of the sea 
to the height of 4370 feet, from thence it extended 
along the south side of Glen Spean and by the hill of 
Ben Alder between Loch Laggan and Loch Ericht ; 
it then forms the boundary between the counties of 
Perth and Inverness, till it reaches the hills at the 
head of the Dee, rivalling Ben Nevis in height, and 
it continues along the south side of the Dee, forming 
the great barrier between the county of Aberdeen 
on the one hand, and those of Forfar and Kincar- 
dine on the other, untU it finally sinks into the 
plain near the eastern sea. Its name is stiU pre- 
served in the latter part of the range in the pass 
over the hUls called the Cairn o' Mounth. The 
second great mountain-chain cuts it at right angles, 
and forms the great wind and water shear which 
separates the waters flowing into the western sea 
from those running eastwards. It was called in 
Latin Dorsum Britannice and Dorsi Monies Brit- 
annici, and its Gaelic name was Drumalhan, the 
Gaelic word Drum being the equivalent of the Latin 



Dorsum. It might be fitly viewed as the backbone 
or ridge of Scotland, from which the rivers and 
glens radiated like ribs on each side. It takes its 
rise north of the level isthmus which separates the 
Firths of Forth and Clyde in the mountains lying on 
the east side of Loch Lomond, of which Ben Lomond 
is the chief, and proceeds by the head of Loch Kat- 
rine to the Braes of Balquhidder, and then forms the 
chain which di^ades the county of Perth from that 
of Ai-gyle. This part of the range is termed, in the 
description of Scotland (No. xvii.), the "Montes 
" qui dividunt Scotiam ab Arregaithel," and traces 
of the name are found in Cairndrum and Tyndrum, 
at the head of Glen Dochart, meaning " the cairn of 
"the Brum" and "the house of the i)rMm."^ The 
chain is broken by the great moor of Eannoch, 
but intersects the main ridge of the Mounth or 
Grampians at Ben Alder, and proceeds north, cross- 
ing the great glen of Scotland between the Oich and 
the Lochy at a place called Achadrum, or "the 
" field of the Drum ;" it then proceeds through 
the centre of Eoss-shire, dividing the eastern and 
western waters, and crosses the strath called the 
Dearymore, extending from Dingwall to Loch 

' In the " Description of Scot- 
" land" (No. xvii.), Albania is said 
to have in it the figure of a man. 
The head and neck are in Arre- 
gaithel. The body is " mens 
" Mound" extending from the 
west to the east sea. The arms 
are the " montes fjui dividunt 

" Scociam ab Arregaithel," pro- 
jecting from each side of the 
" mous Mound" at right angles. 
The legs are the Spey and the Tay. 
When the diocese of Dunkeld 
was divided into deaneries, the 
first was " in limitibus Athola; et 
" Drumalbaue." 




Broom, at a place where the waters, running east 
and west, flow from a little lake called Loch Droma, 
or " the Lake of the Brum" tOl it finally loses 
itself in the mountains of Sutherland.^ 
Provinces north Of the early territorial divisions of the country 
and Clyde*'* north of the Firths of Forth and Clyde, two accounts 
have been preserved to us, in the " Description of 
" Scotland" (No. xvii.), which, though difi"ering 
in detaU, state the provinces into which it was 
divided as having been seven in number. The 
first account states the seven provinces as having 
consisted, first, of Angus and Mearns, or the coun- 
ties of Forfar and Kincardine ; second, Athole and 
Gowrie, being Perthshire east of the Tay and north 
of Dunkeld ; third, Strathearn and Monteath, form- 
ing the south-western part of Perthshire ; fourth, 
Fife and Fothreve, fonning the modern counties of 
Fife and Kinross ; fifth, Mar and Buchan, or the 
counties of Aberdeen and Banfi"; sixth, Murray 
and Ross, or the counties of Elgin, Nairn, Inverness, 
Ross, and Cromarty ; and seventh, Cathanesia, or 
the counties of Sutherland and Caithness. 

The second account states the seven pro\'inces as 
follows : — The first consisted of a district described 
as extending from the Forth to the Tay, that is, of 
Monteath and Strathearn : the second is a district 

^ This range was likewise called 
Brunalban or Brunhere, that is, 
the Bruinrt, borders or limit of 
Alban or of Eire, according as it 
was viewed with reference to Al- 

bania on the east, or to Erin and 
its colony of Dalriada on the west. 
The slopes or "braes" on the east 
were termed Braighanalban, now 
softened into Breadalbane. 


described as extending from the Tay to the HUef, 
and then as the sea sweeps round the district till it 
reaches a mountain at Athran, near Stirling. If 
by Hilef is here meant the Isla, the description is 
inapplicable to the boundary of any district ; but 
the county of Perth meets the county of Forfar 
on the shore of the Firth of Tay at a stream called 
the Liff, and there is a tradition that the Isla once 
flowed into the sea here. If the Litf is the stream 
meant, the description is plain enough, as there is 
no doubt that Athran is the modern Aithrey, for- 
merly called Atheray, near Stirling. This pro- 
Adnce, then, included Gowrie, Fife, Kinross, and 
Clackmannan. The third district is described as 
extending from the Hilef or Liff to the Dee — 
that is, the modern counties of Forfar and Kincar- 
dine. The fourth extends from the Dee to the 
Spey, includiag the counties of Aberdeen and 
Banff ; the fifth, from the Spey to Brunalban, or 
the district of Athole ; the sixth, Murray and Eoss ; 
and the seventh, Arregaithel. These two different 
accounts of the seven pro^'inces obviously belong to 
different periods in the history of the country, and 
probably both existed in their own period. The 
leading differences between the two are that, in the 
second account, Gowrie is detached from Athole and 
included in the same district with Fife and Fothreve, 
and that this district is extended west as far as 
Aithrey, near Stirling; and, secondly, that Catha- 
nesia is omitted, and Arregaithel substituted for it. 

Ixxxvi PEEFACE. 

The first account probably belongs to a period 
prior to the Scottish conquest, while the little king- 
dom of Dalriada on the west coast was independent 
of the kingdom of the Picts, and these seven pro- 
vinces belonged to the latter kingdom only. They 
formed the territory which was termed by the old 
Irish writers Cruiihintuaith, and by the Latin 
chroniclers Pictavia. 

The second account probably belongs to a period 
after the Scottish conquest, when the country form- 
ing the centre of the Pictish kingdom, of which 
Scone, in the district of Gowrie, was the chief seat, 
was more immediately subjected by them ; when 
Cathanesia had been taken possession of by the 
Norwegian Earls of Orkney ; and Arregaithel united 
to the rest of the Idngdom. 

In the twelfth century, the territory forming 
the later kingdom of Scotland presented itself as 
consisting of the following provinces : — South of 
the Firths of Forth and Clyde, the districts were 
comprised under the two designations of Lao- 
donia on the east, and Gallowedia on the west. 
North of the Firths, lay a district bounded by 
the Firth of Forth on the south, Drumalbau on 
the west, and the Spey on the north, which first 
acquired the name of Albania, and afterwards that 
of Scotia, when that name was first applied to any 
part of Scotland. It was usually termed in docu- 
ments of that period Albania, qucB modo dicitur 
Scotia. North of it, beyond the Spey, lay the dis- 



trict of Moravia, consisting of Murray and Eoss ; 
and west of it extended the great district of Ergadia, 
divided from it by the monies qui dividunt Scotiam 
ah Arregaithel. This district extended as far north 
as Loch Broom, and seems to have consisted of 
three parts : the southern part, Ergadia quce ad 
Scotiam pertinet ; the middle part, Ergadia quce 
ad Moraviam pertinet; and the northern part, 
Ergadia Borealis quce est comitis de Ros. It was 
also termed Oirirgael and Oirir Alban, and was 
divided into Oirir an deas, or the southern Oirir, 
and Oirir an tuaith, or the northern Oirir. West of 
this, in the sea, lay the Inchegall, or Western Isles, 
termed by the Norwegians the Sudreyar, or Sudreys.-'' 

^ In the " Description of Bri- 
" tain " (No. xxiv.), the provinces 
%yithin the limits of Scotland are 
thus enumerated : from Tede to 
Forthi, (l)Looniaand (2) Galweya, 
then "(3) Albania tota, que modo 
" Seocia vocatur, et (4) Morouia, 
" et (5) omnes insule oecidentales 
' ' oceani usque ad Norwegiam et ns- 
** que Daciam, scilicet, Kathenes- 
" sia, Orkaneya, Enchegal, et Man, 
" et Ordas, et Gurth, et eetere in- 
" sule occidentalis oeceani circa 
" Norwegiam et Daciam." In one 
of the laws of King William the 
Lyon (de lege que vocatur Clareraa- 
than) these provinces are very 
clearly indicated. It commences — 
" De catallo furato et calumpniato 
" statuit dominus Rex apud Perth 
" quod in quacutique proiniicia sit 
" inventum," etc. It then re- 
fers to them thus : — " Si ille qui 

" calumpniatus est de catallo 
" furato vel rapto vocat warentum 
" suum aliquem hominem man- 
" entem inter Spey et Forth vel 
" inter Drvmalban et Forth,'" that 
is, a district bounded by the 
Spey, Drumalban, and Forth. 
Then we have " Et si quis ultra 
" illas divisa^ valet in Moravia vel 
" in Eos vel in Katenes vel in 
" Ergadia vel in Kintyre." Then 
we have " Ergadia que pertinet 
"ad Moraviam." Then "Si 
" calumpniatus vocaverit waren- 
" turn aliquem in Ergadia que 
" pertinet ad Scociam tunc veniat 
" ad Comitem Atholie," showing 
that the part of Ergadia next 
Athole was said to belong to 
Seocia as distinguished from Mo- 
ravia. Then we have " Omnes 
" illi qui ultra Forth manserint in 
" .Laudonia vel in Galwedia." In 




of the coun- 
trt, their 
legends and 
history prior 
TO 634. 

There can be no question that the territory 
forming the subsequent kingdom of Scotland was, 
in the seventh century, when we have sure historic 
data to go upon, peopled by four races, the Picts, 
Scots, Angles, and Britons or AVelsh. For this we 
have the authority of Bede. AVritiug of a period 
when his testimony cannot be questioned, he says 
of Oswald, king of Northumbria, who reigned from 
634 to 642 : " Denique omnes nationes et provin- 
" cias Brittanise, quse in quatuor linguas, id est, 
" Brittonum, Pictorum, Scottorum et Anglorum 
" divisae sunt, in ditione accepit" (Lib. ITI. c. vi.) ; 
and this statement affords us a certain basis to start 
from. What the earlier relations of these four races 
towards each other had been, we learn from a pas- 
sage of the Eoman historian, Ammianus Marcellinus, 
who describes the first great outburst of the Bar- 
baric tribes upon the Roman province in Britain, 
in the year 360, when he says, under the year 364, 
" Picti Saxonesque et Scoti et Attacoti Britannos 
" Eeioimnis vexavere continuis." The Britons were 
the inhabitants of the Roman province, which then 
extended to the Fii'ths of Forth and Clyde, and was 
protected from the Barbaric tribes by the Roman 

the charter by Robert the Fii-st to 
Thomas Randolph of the king's 
lands in Moravia, they are said to 
extend " ad marchias borealis 
" Ergadie que est comitis de 

" Ros." The names of Oirirgael, 
Oirir an tuaith and Oirir an. deas 
occur frequently in M'Vurich's 


PREFACE. Ixxxix 

wall between these estuaries ; and the Picts, Scots, 
and Saxons were then the assailants of the pro- 

Two centuries and a half afterwards, all four 
nations occupied fixed settlements in Britain, and 
had formed permanent kingdoms within its limits. 

When Bede states emphatically that, in the year Tie Angles. 
449, the " Gens Anglorum sive Saxonum " had 
been invited by King Vortigern to protect the 
Britons against the Picts and Scots, and then 
settled for the first time in the island, there can be 
little doubt that he had affixed a purely artificial 
date to what was a mere legendary account of their 
first settlement ; and there is every reason to believe 
that tribes of the great confederate nation of the 
Saxons had efi'ected settlements on the east coast of 
Britain long before that period. The author of 
the " Historia Britonum," certainly writing at a 
period equally early, dates the first arrival of the 
Saxons in the 347th year after the Passion of 
Christ ; and in a AVelsh chronicle printed in this 
'collection (No. xxvi.), the age of Vortigern is said 
to have been 128 years before the battle of Badwn, 
which the chronicle attached to the " Historia 
" Britonum " dates at 516, thus removing him to 
the year 388. When Bede, however, in the short 
summary contained in his last chapter, states, 
" Anno DXLVii. Ida regnare coepit, a quo regalis 
" Nordanhymljrorum prosapia originem tenet, et 
" duodecim annis in regno permansit," lie probably 



states a fact, the date of which was well ascertained, 
while the narrative in the " Historia Britonum " is 
brought down, " usque ad tempus quo Ida regnavit, 
" qui fuit Eobba fihus, ipse fuit primus rex in 
" Beornicia, id est, im Berneich." It is with 
Bernicia alone that we have here to do, though it 
formed only a part of the kingdom of Northumbria ; 
but being that part of it which lay to the north of the 
river Tyne, it alone was comprised within the limits 
of the kingdom of Scotland in the days of Fordun. 
We may hold it then as certain that, prior to the 
year 547, there were settlements of Angles on the 
east coast of Britain, lying between the Humber and 
the Firth of Forth, and that in that year, Ida had 
formed a kingdom in the old British district called 
Bryneich, the chief seat of which was the Castle of 
Bamborough, and which extended by degrees north- 
wards till it reached the Firth of Forth. Ida, 
according to Bede, died in the year 559, but while 
the possessions of the Angles in Deira, which lay 
south of the Tees, fell under the sway of Ella, a 
chief of the Angles, to whom a different pedigree is 
given, Ida was succeeded in Bernicia by eight of 
his sons, who reigned one after another. Their 
names are given in the additions to Nennius, but in 
the order in which they are stated to have reigned 
by him, by Florence of Worcester, and by Simeon 
of Durham, they diflPer very much from each other. 
AU the lists agree in making Adda the successor of 
Ida, but a comparison of the lists shows very clearly 

Ill CI a. 

PEEFACE. xci ■ 

that the author of the Saxon additions to Nennius 
has simply inverted the order of his successors. 

The following table will show the real order of 
their reigns, with the event noted by Nennius 
under each : — 


547-559. Ida, first king of Bernicia, reigned 12 years. Table of the 

559-566. Adda, son of Ida, . . . .„ 7 „ kings of Ber- 

566-567. Clappa, son of Ida, . . . • » 1 
567-574. Hussa, son of Ida, . . . ■ >, 7 
Contra iUum quatuor reges Urbgen 

et Riderchen ot Guallauc et Morcant 

574-580. Freodulf, son of Ida, . . . . „ 6 „ 
580-587. Theodric, son of Ida, . . . . ,, 7 ,, 
Contra ilium Urbgen cum filiis dimi- 

cabat fortiter. In illo tempore aliquan- 

do hostes, nunc cives, vincebantur. 
587-594. Athelric, son of Ida, . . . . „ 7 „ 
594-617. Ethelfrid, son of Athelric, . . . „ 24 „ 
Rex fortissimus et glorias cupidissi- 

mus, qui plus omnibus Anglorum pri- 

matibus gentem vastavit Britonum. 
Nemo enim in tribunis, nemo in 

regibus plm-es eorum terras extermi- 

natis vel subjugatis indigenis aut tri- 

butarias genti Anglorum aut habita- 

biles fecit. 
617-633. Edwin, son of EUa, . . . . „ 17 „ 
633-634. Anfrid, son of Ethelfrid, . . . „ 1 „ 
634. Oswald, son of Ethelfrid, rex Nordorum. 

On the death of Ethelfred, Edwin, the son of 
EUa, king of the Angles of Deira, drove his sons out 
of Bernicia, and united both divisions of North- 
umbria under his own rule. Three of the sons of 
Ethelfred who afterwards reigned, viz., Eanfrid, 

xcii PEEFACE. 

Oswald, and Osway, according to Bede, had taken 
refuge with the Picts or Scots, and remained in exile 
during the whole of the reign of Edwin. We know 
from Bede that Oswald took refuge in lona among 
the Columban monks of the Scottish race. Eanfrid 
seems to have been received by the Pictish king, 
and to have married a Pictish princess, whose son 
afterwards reigned over the Picts. After a reign of 
seventeen years, Edwin was slain in battle by Cead- 
walla, king of the Britons, who had invaded his 
territories in conjunction with Penda, king of the 
Mercians. The battle in which he was slain was 
fought, according to Bede, on 12th October 633, at 
a place which he calls Haethfelth, supposed to be 
Hatfield, in the AVest Biding of Yorkshire ; but in 
the additions to the " Historia Britonum," it is 
called the battle of Meicen. On the death of Ed^vin, 
Eanfred, the son of Ethelfred, was recalled, and 
placed over Bernicia, but was slain by the British 
king after a year, who was in his turn slain in battle 
by Oswald at a place called by Bede, Denisesbuma, or 
Hefenfelth, near the Roman wall, but which, in the 
additions to the " Historia Britonum," is called the 
battle of Catscaul. Although Bede does not name 
the British king who was slain in this battle, he cer- 
tainly implies that it was the same Ceadwalla who 
slew King Edwin in the previous year ; but Tigher- 
nac seems to indicate that they were different per- 
sons, for he calls the king who fought with Edwin 
" Con, Rex Britonum," while he terms the king 

PKEFACE. xciii 

who slew Eanfrid, and was himself slain by Oswald, 
" Cathlon, Eex Britonum." 

The short notices of events under the reigns of The Briton 
the sons of Ida, given in the additions to the " His- 
" toria Britonum," show that soon after Ida's death 
they had come into contact with kings of the north- 
ern Britons, and they appear, before the accession of 
Edwin, to have extended their territories to the Firth 
of Forth, and to have wrested the whole of the east- 
ern districts from them, — conquests which were com- 
pleted and firmly established by Edwin himself, 
who, according to Bedc, "Omnes Brittanias fines, 
" qua vel ipsorum vel Britonum pi*ovinciae habitant, 
" sub ditione acceperit" (Lib. ii. c. ix.) The Britons 
appear from the notices of their conflicts with the 
sons of Ida to have been divided into several petty 
states, under their own kinglets, and were now con- 
fined to the western districts, extending from the 
Mersey to the Firth of Clyde. A great battle, how- 
ever, was fought in the year 573, at a place called 
Ardderyd, which can be clearly identified with 
Arthuret, on the banks of the river Esk, about five 
miles north of Carlisle, in the narrow plain which 
forms, as it were, a great pass between the British 
territories lying north and south of the Sol way. 
This battle, though the subject of much bardic 
tradition, seems undoubtedly to have been a his- 
torical event, and the result of it was to unite 
the greater part of these districts under the 
sway of one monarch, termed, in the additions to 

xciv PEEFACE. 

the " Historia Britonum," RyderclieD, who fixed 
his seat at the strong fortification termed by Bede 
Alclyde, and known to the Gaelic population by 
the name of Dunbreatan, or the fort of the Bri- 
tons, afterwards corrupted into Dumbarton. We 
are now on historic ground, as this king is men- 
tioned by Adomnan in his " Life of St. Columba," who 
entitles one of his chapters, " De rege Roderco filio 
" Tothail, qui in Petra Cloithe regnavit, Beati viri 
" prophetia ;" and a succession of kings of the same 
race followed him till the reign of Constantine, king 
of Scots, in the beginning of the tenth century, 
when, on the death of Donald, king of the Britons, 
the brother of the Scottish king was elected his suc- 
cessor, and, in the year 946, the kingdom of Strath 
Clyde, or Cumbria, was invaded and conquered by 
Edmund, king of England, and given by him to 
Malcolm, the Scottish king. A genealogy of these 
British kings of Strath Clyde is fortunately pre- 
served in the additions to the " Historia Britonum " 
(No. II. D.), and serves to connect the scattered 
notices of them which occur in the chronicles. The 
following table w^iU show their l:)earing upon each 
other : — 


Ceretic guletic 
Dungual hen 















Table of the 
kings ot Strath- 



Tutagual Clinog Eitin [Clinog of Eidin) 

Riderch hen 

573-601 Rodercus filius Totail reg- 
navit in Petra Cloithe. — Adorn. 

658 Mors Gureit regis Aloch- 
luaithe. — Ari. Ult. 

693 Brude mac Bile rig Fortren 
moritur. — Tlgh. 

694 Domnall ms^a Auin rex Aloch- 
luaithe moritur. — Tigh. 

722 Beli filius Elfin rex Aloch- 

luaithe moritur. — Tigh. 
750 Teudubr filius Beli rex Aloch- 

luaithe moritur. — Tigh. 
760 Dunnagual filiua Teudubr 

moritur. — An. Cam. 

872 Artgha rex Britannorum 
Srathcluade consilio Constantini 
filii Cinadon occisus est. — Ayi. 

878 Echodius filius Run regis 
Britonum. — P. C. 

If that part of Scotland which lay to the south Tiie Picts. 
of the Firths of Forth and Clyde was thus divided 
between an Anglic and a British or Welsh popu- 
lation, the northern regions beyond these great 
natural landmarks were apparently shared between 
the Pictish and the Scottish nations ; while Bede, 
who makes the Scots a colony from Ireland, indi- 

xcvi • PEEFACE. 

cates that before their arrival, the Picts were in 
the exclusive possession of that part of Scotland. 
The tradition of the settlement of the Picts is repre- 
sented to us in several distinct forms. By Bede, by 
the " Historia Britonum," and by the Welsh tradi- 
tions, they ajjpear as a people coming from Scjiihia, 
and acquiring first Orkney, and afterwards Caith- 
ness, and then spreading over Scotland from the 
north. In the "Pictish Chronicle" the Picti and 
the Scoti are both derived from the Albani of 
Albania in Asia, and are made two branches of the 
same people. In the additions to the Irish Nennius 
they appejir under the name of Cruithne, and are said 
to have been originally Agathyrsi, and to have taken 
possession of the islands Orkney, from whence they 
spread over the north of Britain, under their epomj- 
mus Cruithne, who had seven sons, who di\aded the 
land into seven divisions ; from thence "a portion of 
them go to France, and buUd the city of Pictavis or 
Poitiers, and return from thence to Ireland, from 
whence they are once more driven to Scotland ; and 
part of this tradition appears in a more extended 
shape, and is said to have been taken from the books 
of the Picts (No. v., a. b. c.) In another form of 
the tradition, they come from Thrace, under six bro- 
thers, and land in Ireland, where a part remain and 
colonize the plain of Bregia, in Meath, and the rest 
go to Scotland, under the leading of Cathluan, from 
whom seventy kings reign in Scotland to Constantine,* 
the last of the Picts (No. v., D.) In another form, it 

PREFACE. xcvii 

is Ciiithnechan who is sent by the sons of Milesius 
from Ireland to assist the Britons of Fortren against 
the Saxons, and wrests from the latter the district 
of Mashcircin, or the Mearns, which he retains as his 
sword-land (No. v., e.) In another form, they are 
eighteen soldiers of Thrace, who encounter the Mile- 
sians in Germany, on their wanderings from Egypt, 
and accompany them to Ireland, where they are put in 
possession of Cruithintuaith or Pictavia, in Scotland ; 
and in one form of this tradition, the Cruithne of 
Ulster are likewise identified Avith them (Nos. XLii., 
XLiii.) In all of these traditions it is obvious that 
they are taken in their wanderings to every part of 
Europe where the name of Picti or Pictones could 
be found, and connected with every people who re- 
sembled them either in name, or of whom the custom 
of painting the body, by puncturing the skin, which 
was their peculiar characteristic, is recorded. Of 
these traditions, some are probably of British origin, 
some are the traditions of the Picts themselves, 
and some connected with the Irish fables. It is 
undoubted that a gTcat part of the population of 
Ulster, though latterly confined within narrow 
limits, consisted of a people termed likewise Cruithne, 
and that there was also a settlement of them in 
Meath ; and there can be little doubt that they were, 
in point of fact, the same people. There is even 
reason to conclude that, down to the beginning of 
the seventh century, they were so closely connected 
as to form but one nation. At a time when the 

xcviii PREFACE. 

whole of the north of Scotland and part of the 
north of Ireland was peopled by the same race of 
Cruithne, there must have been much intercourse 
between them, and both countries must have been 
viewed by them as one territory. Whether, there- 
fore, the traditions represent them as first arriving 
in Ireland and proceeding to Scotland, or first arri\njig 
in Scotland and passing over to Ireland, it amounts, 
in point of fact, to no more than that Cruithne of 
the same race were to be found in both countries. 

One common feature, however, accompanies almost 
every form of this tradition, viz., that the Cruithne or 
Picts were a colony of soldiers who married wives 
whom they had obtained from the Irish. This 
feature existed at a very early date, as it is men- 
tioned by Bede, and acquired strength from the 
fact that it was connected with a peculiar form of 
succession through females among the Picts, of 
whom it was supposed to indicate the origin. Ac- 
cording to Bede, they applied for and obtained 
wives from the Scoti. In the Welsh traditions, they 
are said to have applied first to the Britons, by 
whom they were refused, and afterwards gone to 
Ireland and obtained ^vives of Gwy^ddyl. In the 
Irish traditions, they apply to the sons of Mdesius 
to give them the wives of a party of Milesians who 
had been drowned on their voyage to Ireland. The 
original form of the tale probably is, that they are 
said to have obtained wives of the race of Gwyddyl, 
or Gael. 

PEEFACE. xcix 

All such legends, however fanciful or childish 
they appear to be, express some truth, or contain 
within them some ethnologic fact, and it is the 
existence of the peculiar truth or fact which creates, 
as it were, the legend which is supposed to ac- 
count for it. Such legends either express the 
popular explanation of some social or ethnologic 
peculiarity, or a genuine tradition is conveyed 
under the form of a symbolic or allegoric tale. 
This kind of legend of a colony of soldiers marry- 
ing wives from a population which preceded them 
in the country is not peculiar to the Picts, and 
its meaning is well indicated by the analogous case 
of the Britons of Armorica. Nennius, in relating 
the legendary settlement of the Britons in Armorica 
under Maximus, has this addition in some copies : 
" Acceptisque eorum uxoribus et filiabus in con- 
" jugium, omnes earum linguas amputavemnt, ne 
" eorum successio matemam linguam disceret ;" 
that is, in order to prevent their descendants speak- 
ing the language of their mothers' race, they cut out 
their tongues. According to the legend, if this had 
not been done, the colonizing Britons would have 
spoken the language of the people from whom they 
had obtained wives. The legend is based upon the con- 
ception that children learn their language from their 
mothers, and is conveyed in the popular expression 
" the mother tongue." As soon, therefore, as the idea 
took root that the Picts were not the old inhabitants 
of the country, but a foreign colony who settled 


among them, if their language was at all akin to 
that of the older population, the popular explanation 
must at once have arisen, that they had married 
wives of the older race, from whom they learned 
their language ; but while the primary idea in this 
legend is a linguistic one, it certainly may also have 
been intended to account for an obvious mixture of 
race. In the Welsh legends, the Picts are said 
from this marriage with wives of the race of the 
Gwyddyl, to have been called Gwyddyl Ffichti; but 
in the form of it in Layamon's "Brut" it is un- 
doubtedly used to explain the language of the 
Picts :— 

" Through the same ■women, 
Who there long dwelt, 
The folk gan to speak 
Ireland's speech ;" 

and the same idea is expressed in the chronicle 
quoted in the " Scala Chronica," which states that 
they obtained their wives from Ireland, " on condi- 
" tion that their issue should speak Irish." 

The other peculiarity, which this legend was sup- 
posed to account for, was the law of succession among 
the Picts through females. Bede states that they 
obtained their wives from the Scots, " ea solum 
" conditione, ut ubi res perveniret in dubium, magis 
" de feminea regum prosapia, quam de masculina, 
" regem sibi eligerent, quod usque hodie apud 
" Pictos constat esse servatum" (Lib. i. c. i.) This 
testimony of Bede shows that such a rule of sue- 


cession undoubtedly existed and was in force among 
the Picts in his day. It implies that succession 
through males took place up to a certain point, and 
that, when that failed, succession through females 
was preferred. The same idea is espressed in the 
Irish legends in different forms. On examining the 
list of the Pictish kings down to the times of Bede, 
we find that there are numerous instances of brothers 
succeeding each other, but that in no one instance 
does a son succeed his father. Where, therefore, 
there were several sons of the same mother, they 
appear to have succeeded each other according to a 
law of male succession of very general application, 
which preferred brothers before sons ; but when the 
last brother had succeeded, the period seems to have 
arrived expressed by Bede in the words, " ubi res 
"perveniret in dubium," and then the succession went 
through daughters in preference to sons. Such a cus- 
tom must manifestly have arisen from an originally 
lax relation among the sexes, when no filiation could 
be predicated with certainty, except between a son 
and a mother, and thus alone the continuance of 
the royal blood could be secured. 

But the lists of the Pictish kings present, on 
examination, some further peculiarities. Fi^'st, 
The names of the fathers and of the sons are 
quite different. In no case does the name borne 
by any of the sons appear among the names of the 
fathers, nor, conversely, is there an instance of the 
father's name appearing among the sons. Second, 


The names of the sons consist of a few Pictish 
names borne by sons of cliiFerent fathers. There 
are — 6 Drusts, 5 Talorgs, 3 Nectans, 2 Galans, 
6 Gartnaidhs, 4 Briides. In no case does the 
name of a father occur twice in the list of fathers. 
Third, In the list there are two cases of sons 
bearing Pictish names whose fathers are known to 
have been strangers, and these are the only fathers 
of whom we have any account. They are — 1. 
Talorg Mac Ainfrit. His father was undoubtedly 
Ainfrit, son of Aethelfrit, king of Northumbria, 
who took refuge among the Picts, and afterwards 
became king of Northumbria. 2. Brude Mac BUe. 
His father was a Welshman, king of the Strath- 
clyde Britons. In an old poem, Brude Mac Bile is 
called son of the king of Ailcluaide, i.e., Dumbarton ; 
and when, by the battle of Dunnichen, he became 
king of the Picts, another old poem says, " to-day 
" Brude fights a battle about the land of his grand- 
" father." Mr. M'Lennan, in his very original 
work on primitive marriage, to whom these facts 
were communicated by the Editor, states that they 
raise a strong presumption " that all the fathers 
" were men of other tribes. At any rate, there re- 
" mains the fact that, after every deduction has been 
" made, the fathers and mothers were in no case of 
" the same family name ;" and he refers its origin to 
the existence among them at an early period of 
what he calls " polyandry," wdth which he considers 
that the system of kinship through females only is 

PEEFACE. ciii 

invariably connected. To this it may be added 
that the children of foreign parents by Pictish 
mothers bearing exclusively Pictish names show 
that they were adopted into the tribe of their 
mothers ; and if it was a social law of the Picts 
that the women could alone marry either strangers 
or men of a different tribe, while the language of 
the people was akin to that spoken by the Gwyddyl 
or Gael, it may not unnaturally have given rise to 
the legend that the Picts were a stranger people, 
who had married wives of the race of the Gwyddyl 
on condition that their succession should take place 
through females only. 

Turning now to the legend which is expressly said 
to have been taken from the books of the Picts, and 
therefore applies more peculiarly to their kingdom in 
Scotland, we find it there stated that Cruithne, the 
eponymus of the race, had seven sons, Fib, Fidach, 
Fodla, Fortren, Cait, Ce, Ciric, and that they 
divided the country into seven portions. This 
means simply that the territory occupied by the 
Cruithne in Scotland consisted of seven provinces 
bearing these names. Five of these can be 
identified. Fib is obviously Fife, Fortren can 
be identified with the western parts of the 
county of Perth, including the vale of Strathearn ; 
Fodla appears in the name Atfodla, the old form of 
the word now corrupted into Athole ; Ciric or 
Circin, as he appears in the "Pictish Chronicle," 
is found in the name Maghcircin, now corrupted 


into Mearns ; Cait is Catlianesia or Caithness ; and 
tlie only two names unidentified, are Fidach and 
Ce. In one of the legends, the Picts are said to 
have extended from Cait to Forcu. The former is 
Caithness, the latter obviously the word Forch or 
Froch, the name given to the Forth, in which it is 
still preserved ; and this whole territory, which was 
divided into these seven provinces, was called 
Cruithintuaith. This legend proceeds to say that 
Oenbecan, the son of Cait, was king over the whole 
seven provinces, and that Finechta was king over 
Erin, that is, over the Cruithne of Ireland ; and it is 
added that he took hostaoes of the Cruithne. This 


little fact stated, affords a clue to the date of the 
foundation of the great kingdom of the Picts ; for 
the same legend states that thh-ty kings of the Picts 
ruled over Albau and Erin for 150 years ; and 
another form of the Irish legend states that there 
were thirty kings of the Cruithne oyer Erin and 
Alban, viz., of the Cruithne of Alban, and of the 
Cruithne of Erin, from OUamhan to Fiachna 
Mac Baedain, who fettered the hostages of Erin and 
Alban. Finechta is there given as the son and 
successor of Ollamhan, and if he took hostages of 
the Cruithne, and Fiachna Mac Baedan fettered the 
hostages of Erin and Alban, we seem to have a 
termmus a quo and a terminus ad quern for the 
union of the Cruithne of the two countries under the 
same supreme sovereignty. Fiachna Mac Baedan 
reigned over Dalnaraidhe, or the Irish Picts, from 


592 to 626, and a period of 150 years taken from 
these dates gives us a year between 442 and 476 
for the commencement of the Pictish monarchy, 
— a date not many years after the event recorded 
by Gildas, where he says, " Picti in extrema 
" parte insulse tum primum et deinceps requi- 
" everunt." Finechta is followed by four kings, 
the last two of whom are Gest and Urgest, and 
then follows Brude Pont, and it is added, that 
there were thirty Brudes, but twenty-eight only 
are enumerated ; fourteen of them have a mono- 
syllabic epithet after then' name, and the other 
fourteen the same monosyllable, with the prefix Ur. 
It is probable, therefore, that Gest and Urgest should 
be added to make up the thirty. It is added that 
these are the names of the men, and the portions of 
the men ; and the whole is said to be taken from 
the books of the Picts. That these monosyllables 
enter into the composition of the Pictish proper 
names is plain enough ; but they probably also 
entered into the names of smaller districts, which 
cannot now be identified. 

The southern portion of the Picts, which, according 
to Bede, were divided from the northern, " Arduis 
" atque horrentibus montium jugis," had been before 
this time converted to Christianity by the preaching 
of St. Ninian ; and Bede states that in the ninth 
year of Brude, son of Maelcon, who reigned over the 
northern Picts, that division of the nation was con- 
verted to Christianity by St. Columba. We now 



find ourselves upon historic ground, for this king is 
likewise mentioned by Adomnan in his " Life of St. 
" Columba," who describes him as having his palace 
on the banks of the river Ness, where it issues from 
the lake of that name. He also occurs in all the lists 
of the Pictish kings as having reigned thirty years, 
and his death is recorded by Tighernac in the year 
583, which would place his ninth year in the year 
562, while he records the mission of St. Columba in 
the following year. The chronicles, in the main, 
agree in his successors down to the period of the 
reign of Oswald. Brude was succeeded by Gamait, 
son of Donald, and he by Nectan, son or grandson 
of Verb,' after whom comes Cinoch, son of Luchtren, 
and he is followed by three brothers, who reigned in 
succession, Garnad, Bredei, and Talorc, sons of Wid 
or Foith, who occupied the Pictish throne during 
the whole of the reign of Oswald. 

The Picts then possessed the whole of Scotland 
north of the Firths of Forth and Clyde, with the 
exception of the comparatively small district lying 
to the north of the Firth of Clyde, termed Dalriada, 

' The " Irish Aunals" mention 
the death of Garnad in 599, of 
Cinaeth mac Luchtren in 531, and 
of Garnad mac Foith in 633, 
Bnide mac Foith in 641, and 
Echtolarg mac Foith in 653, but 
omit Nectan. He is also omitted 
in two of the lists of Pictish kings, 
Nos. XXIII. and xxxii. The 
"Pictish Chronicle" has an earlier 
Nectan, son of Erp, who founds 

Abemethy. This foundation is 
attributed by the other lists to 
Garnad, who died in 599 ; and as 
the " Chronicle of St. Andrews" 
adds after this Kectan, " Hie 
" fundavit Abemethy," it is pro- 
bable that the later date of the 
foundation has caused the rein- 
sertion of the same Nectan after 

PEEFACE. cvii 

and occupied by the Scots, and were separated from 
them by Drumalban. This part of their kingdom was 
termed Gruithentuaith or Fictama. 

South of the Firths, they formed the population of 
the two districts of the " Campus. Manann"^ and of 
Galloway. This statement appears at first sight to 
be inconsistent with the language of Bede, which 
certainly implies that he knew of no Picts south of 
the Firth of Forth ; but what he states so emphati- 
cally is, that the Firth of Forth divided the Regnum 
Anglorum from the Regnum Pictorum. This ex- 
cludes the idea that the kingdom of the Picts extended 
south of the Firth, or that there was any independent 
kingdom of the Picts south of that estuary ; but it 
does not exclude the possibility of districts embraced 
within the "Eegnum Anglorum" having had a Pictish 
population any more than it does districts having a 
British population, which we know existed within 
the limits of the Anglic kingdom. In the pas- 
sages of Bede which are founded on, he is obviously 
talking more of the boundaries and extension of 
kingdoms and governments, than of the under 
population ; and from his mere silence in a work 
of this kind, no safe argument can be adduced. 
The few and scattered notices of the "Campus 
" Manann " evidently point to a Pictish population 
subject to the Anglic kingdom, whose attempts at 

^ The tract on the Corca Laidhe, 
contained in the Books of " Balli- 
" mote" and " Lecain," mentions 
" Seal balbh ri Cruithentuaithi 

" acus Manahul," that is, Seal 
balbh, king of Gruithentuaith and 
Manann, showing the two as 
formins one kingdom. 

cviii PEEFACE. 

resistance were suppressed by the Anglic Ealdermen ; 
while the existence of a Pictish population in Gal- 
loway at a later period is so undoubted, that the 
only question is how and when they came there. 
Chalmers maintains that they were a settlement of 
the Irish Cniithne in the eighth century, and he has 
been followed by subsequent writers ; but there is 
absolutely no authority whatever for this supposed 
settlement ; his theory having obviously been based 
upon passages in the " Irish Annals," in which he 
mistook the fort of Maghline in Ulster, which plays 
a great part in Irish history, for the town of 
Mauchline in Ayrshii-e, and applies notices of the 
Irish Cruithne to the latter which belong to the 
former ; but the language of Gildas, when he says 
of the last incursion of the Plots, " Omnem aquil- 
" onalem extremamque terrse partem pro indi- 
" genis murotenus capessunt," implies so strongly 
that they settled in these districts as permanent 
inhabitants, that we can hardly avoid the conclu- 
sion that the population of these two districts were 
the remains of that settlement. 

Bede likewise states that the Picts originally 
occupied the district north of the Pirth of Clyde, 
afterwards possessed by the Scots ; and this tradi- 
tion appears in the old description of Scotland in 
the Colbertine MS., which states that the first inha- 
bitants of Arregaithel were the Scoti Picti, an obvi- 
ous rendering Lato Latin of the Welsh name for the 
Picts, the Gwyddyl Ffichti. 


The Scots first appear in the year 360, as one of The Scots. 
the barbaric tribes who then assailed the Roman 
province in Britain, and continued to ravage it till 
they were finally driven back by Theodosius in 369, 
and the Roman province restored. The language of 
Claudian leaves no room to doubt that these Scots 
came from Ireland, and again returned to Ireland 
when the province was finally freed from their 
ravages. They again joined the Picts in their in- 
cursions upon the Roman province after Maximus, 
who usurped the empire, had left the country ; but 
the language of Gildas, who records these incursions, 
is equally clear that these Scots likewise came from 
Ireland, and again returned to Ireland. While he 
describes the Picts as coming ab aquilone, i.e., the 
regions north of the Roman wall, he adds that the 
Scots came a circione, that is from a more westerly 
direction ; and he concludes by saying, that while 
the Picts settled down in the country, the Scots, 
whom he denominates "Hiberni grassatores," re- 
turned home. 

The first permanent settlement of the Scots, for 
which there is any real basis in historic record, is 
the colony led from Irish Dalriada by the three sons 
of Ere, Lorn, Fergus, and Angus. Flann Mainis- 
treach and Tighernac record this, and know of no 
other, nor is any other mentioned in any authentic 
document. The allusions to earlier settlements 
which occur in Irish legends may all be referred to 
the two occasions above mentioned, when the Scots 


temporarily invaded the country. Flann Mainis- 
treach gives the date of this settlement thus : — ^he 
says that forty-three years had elapsed from the 
coming of St. Patrick to the battle of Ocha, and 
twenty years from that battle to the arrival of the 
sons of Ere in Britain. Taking the date of 432 as 
that of the coming of St. Patrick, and adding sixty- 
three years, will give us the year 495 as the date 
of the colony. Tighernac has under 501 the fol- 
lowing : — " Feargus mor mac Earca cum gente 
" Dalriada partem Britannias tenuit et ibi mor- 
tuus est ; " but while this passage states the fact 
of a colony, the date obviously refers to the death 
of Fergus. Almost all the chronicles agree that 
he reigned three years, and this makes the date 
of the colony 498. We may therefore assume 
that it took place only two or three years before 
the commencement of the sixth century. Tigh- 
ernac terms the next three kings, Righ Alhan, or 
kings of Albania. He has under 505 the death of 
Domangart ^acm?,?,\, Righ Alban. Under 538 he 
has the death of Comgall, son of Domangart, Righ 
Alhan, in the thirty -fifth year of his reign. Under 
560 he has the death of Gabran, son of Doman- 
gart, Righ A Ihan. Under the same year, he has 
" Flight of the Alhanich before Bruide, son of 
" Maelcon, king of the Cruithne ;" and after this, he 
changes the designation of the king from that of 
Righ Alhan to Righ Dalriada. It is ob\dous that 
the event referred to as the flight of the Alban- 
ich before Bruide, son of ]\Iaelcon, was a defeat of 


the Scots by the Pictish king, who were then driven 
back, and that in consequence of it their designation 
was narrowed from that of kings of Alban to that of 
kings of Dah-iada. The Dublin MS. of the " Annals 
" of Ulster " uses instead of " flight" the still stronger 
expression ofinmirge, or"expidsion;" and the expla- 
nation probably is, that the invading Scots extended 
themselves at first beyond Drumalban into the dis- 
trict termed Albania, and were driven back by the 
Pictish king in 560, and confined within the limits 
of Dalriada proper. Three years after this defeat, St. 
Columba came over from Ireland to Britain to con- 
vert the northern Picts. And we are now on historic 
ground, as his biographer Adomnan states that he 
appeared on his arrival, " coram Conallo rege, filio 
" Comgall." Bede and Walafred Strabo state that 
the island of lona was given to Columba by the 
Picts ; on the other hand, Tighernac states that it 
was given to him by Conall, king of Dalriada ; but 
if lona and the neighbouring islands formed a part 
of the territory which had been at first overrun by 
Scots, and from which they had been afterwards 
expelled by the Picts, it is intelligible enough that 
the British historians should have recorded the grant 
as having been made by the Picts, and that the 
Irish annalists should have equally confidently 
asserted that it had been made by the king of 
Dabiada. On the death of Conall, Columba solemnly 
inaugurated Aedan, the son of Gabran, king of Dal- 
riada ; and at the council of Drumceat, held in 
Ireland in the same year, he obtained that the kings 



of Dalriada and Scotland should no longer be subject 
to tbe kings of Irish Dalriada, as the mother state, 
but should in future be independent monarchs. 
It is clear that after the defeat of 5 6 0, a part of the 
Scots remained in Britain, but it is probable that a 
part also returned to Ireland, and that Aedan brought 
a fresh colony over, as the old Irish lives of St. Patrick 
refer to him as the first who established a monarchy 
in Britain, and the " Prophecy of St. Berchan " 
takes the same view. Aedan reigned thirty-seven 
years, and appears to have thoroughly estabUshed the 
kingdom of Dalriada. He is recorded as having 
fought four battles, — the battle of Manann in 582 
or 583 ; that of Leithrig in 590 ; that of Circhind 
in 596 ; and finally, the battle with EtheUred, king 
of Bernicia, in 600, which is obviously the same 
battle as that recorded by Bede in the year 603, in 
which Aedan appears to have led an army of Britons 
and Scots into Northumbria. He died in the year 
606. We have the authority of Adomnan for the 
fact that he was succeeded by his son Eochodius or 
Eocha Buidhe, and he by his sons. These were 
Conadh Cerr, who reigned but three months after 
him, and Donald Brec, who was king of Dalriada 
at the time that Oswald ruled over Northumbria.^ 

^ The chronicles insert Ferchar, 
son of ConacUi Cerr, between him 
and Donald Brec, and give him a 
reign of sixteen years. The "Irish 
" Annals" do not mention him. 
If he reigned, he must either 
have reigned in conjunction with 

Donald Brec, or have followed 
him. The latter is most pro- 
bable, as in the "Annals of 
" Ulster" the death of Ferchar, 
son of Conadh Cerr, is misplaced in 
694, after the last of the equally 
misplaced notices of Donald Brec. 

PEEFACE. cxiii 

The territories which constituted the petty king- 
dom of Dah'iada can be pretty well defined. They 
were bounded on the south by the Firth of Clyde, 
and they were separated on the east from the Pictish 
kingdom by the ridge of the great mountain chain 
called Drumalban. They consisted of four tribes, — 
the genus or Cinel Lorn, descended from Lorn, the 
elder of the three brothers ; the Cinel Gabran and 
Cinel Comgall, descended from two sons of Doman- 
gart, son of Fergus, the second of the brothers ; and 
the Cinel Angus, descended from the third brother, 
Angus. The Cinel Comgall inhabited the district 
formerly called Comgall, now corrupted to Cowall. 
The Cinel Gabran inhabited what was called the 
Airgiallas, or the district of Argyle proper, and 
Kintyre. The Cinel Angus inhabited the islands 
of Islay and Jura, and the Cinel Lorn, the district 
of Lorn. Beyond this, on the north, the districts 
between Lorn and the promontory of Ardnamurchan, 
i.e., the island of Mull, the district of Morven, Ard- 
gower, and probably part of Lochaber, seem to 
have formed a sort of debateable ground, the popu- 
lation of which was Pictish, whUe the Scots had 
settlements among them. In the centre of the 
possessions of the Cinel Gabran, at the head of the 
well-sheltered loch of Crinan, lies the great Moss 
of Crinan, with the river Add flowing through it. 
In the centre of the moss, and on the side of the 
river, rises an isolated rocky hiU called Dunadd, the 
top of which is strongly fortified. This was the 



capital of Dalriada, and many a stone obelisk in the 
moss around it bears silent testimony to the con- 
tests of which it was the centre. The picturesque 
position of Dunolly Castle, on a rock at the entrance 
of the equally sheltered bay of Oban, afforded another 
fortified summit, which was the chief stronghold of 
the tribe of Lorn. Of Dunstaffnage, as a royal 
seat, history knows nothing. 



Eelativb posi- Such, then, were the four kingdoms which, in 


FOUR NATIONS thc ycar 634, when Oswald ascended the throne 
of Northumbria, are found within the limits of the 
territory of the subsequent kingdom of Scotland. 
The kingdom of Bernicia, with its Anglic popu- 
lation, and its chief seat Bamborough, extending 
from the Tyne to the Firth of Forth ; the kingdom 
of Cumbria, with its British population, extending 
from the Firth of Clyde far into Westmoreland, and 
on the banks of the Firth of Clyde, the striking rock 
of Dumbarton, with the fort of Alclyde on the 
summit, its chief seat. North of the Firth of Forth, 
the great monarchy of the Picts, extending over the 
whole of the northern and eastern districts of Scot- 
land, and embracing within its compass all the east 
flowing waters from their sources, with its capital 
near the town of Inverness ; and on the west the 
small Scottish kingdom of Dalriada, corresponding, 
with the exception probably of Ardnamurchan, very 
nearly to the modern county of Argyle, with the 


hill fort of Dunadd as its chief seat, called also, 
from its situation in the centre of the moss of 
Crinan, Dunmonaidh, or the fort of the moss. 
And in the centre of Scotland these four kingdoms 
met in a sort of neutral ground or debateable land, 
extending from the river Forth to the river 
Almond, and comprising the modern counties of 
Stirling and Linlithgow, which was occupied by a 
mixed population of Picts, Angles, and Britons, 
and into which the kings of the Scots frequently- 
carried their arms. In it lay the small districts of 
Calatria and Manann ; and within its limits, the 
different races generally encountered each other in 
the struggle for the mastery, and most of the 
battles were fought. In these contests the Scots 
and the Britons usually combined, on the one 
hand, and the Angles and Picts on the other, — the 
nations of the west against the nations of the east. 
Here, during the reign of Oswald, Donald Brec was 
defeated in the year 638, according to Tighernac, 
in the battle of Glenmairison,^ and Etin, probably 
Caeredin, was besieged, and here, two years after 
the death of Oswald, who, after a reign of eight 
years, was slain by Penda, king of the Mercians, at 
a place called by Bede, Maserfelth, in a battle, which 
is called, in the additions to the " Historia Brito- 
" num," the battle of Cocboy, on the 5th of August 

' Glenmairison must not be 
confounded with Glenmoriston in 
Inverness-shire. The transactions 
are clearly in the south, and a 

misplaced entry of the same trans- 
action under G78 implies that it 
was in Calathros. 

cxvi PEEFACE. 

642, a battle was fought in Strathcarron, between 
the Britons and Donald Brec, king of the Scots of 
Dalriada, in which the latter was slain, in the year 
642, according to Tighernac, which corresponds to 
the year 644 of Bede ; and in the same year a 
battle was fought between Oswy, king of Bemicia, 
and the Britons. 

Ten years afterwards, Penda, the Pagan king of 
Mercia, invaded Bernicia. He is described by 
Bede, in one passage, as coming to Bamborough 
with a hostile army, destroying aU he could with 
fire and sword, and burning down the town and 
the church ; and after a vain attempt to buy him off 
with gifts, Oswy encountered him at a place near 
the river, called by Bede, Uinuaed, where he was 
entirely defeated, and, of thirty royal commanders 
who were with him, almost the whole were slain. 
Bede adds that Oswy brought this war to a conclu- 
sion in " Regione Loidis," in the thirteenth year of 
his reign, on the 17th of the Kalends of December, 
that is, on the 15th of November, 655. Tighernac 
mentions the same battle under two different years, 
650 and 656. The identity of the events is 
shown by the mention of thirty kings on each 
occasion. It has generally been assumed that 
Penda was kdled in the battle of Uinuaed, and 
that it must therefore have been fought within the 
" Eegio Loidis." Bede uses this latter expression, 
undoubtedly, for the district around the town of 
Leeds ; but it is admitted that no trace can be 



found of the name of Uinuaed having been applied 
to a river in that district. Bede, however, does not 
say that the battle of Uinwaed was fought there. 
He first describes the battle, and then adds after- 
wards that the war was brought to a conclusion by 
the slaughter of Penda within that district. In the 
additions to the " Historia Britonum," this battle 
is termed the " Strages Gai Campi " and the thirty 
kings are said to have been kings of the Britons, 
who had gone out with King Penda in an expedi- 
tion as far as the city which is called Judiu, and 
this city appears from the same passage to have 
been either within or in the neighbourhood of 
Manau or Manann. The battle, therefore, proba- 
bly took place in the extreme north of the territo- 
ries of Bernicia, and Penda appears to have fled 
after his defeat into Deira, where he was slaui near 
the town of Leeds.^ By this defeat the Britons of 
Strathclyde appear to have fallen into the power of 
Oswy, and the Scots of Dahiada seem to have shared 
the same fate. 

Three years afterwards Oswy is said by Bede to 
have subjected " Gentem Pictorum, maxima ex 

1 The view that the battle was 
fought in Scotland was first 
broached by Mr. Nash, in a very 
ingenious paper in the "Cambrian 
"Joiu-nal" for 1861, p. 1. The 
Editor has been driven to the 
same conclusion, but he cannot 
adopt Mr. Nash's view, that Bede's 
regio Loidis was Lothian. This 
is inconsistent with the language 

of Bede in another place ; but he 
thinks Bede's meaning has been 
misunderstood, and that it does 
not foUow that the battle and the 
slaughter of Penda were the same 
event. He has come to be of 
opinion that the river Uinuaed 
of Bede is the Carron, the old 
forms of which were Caruin and 

cxviii PEEFACE. 

" parte regno Anglorum." This falls under the 
year 658. 
Subjection of Oswy had now completed the subjugation of 
byoawy. the Britous of Strathclyde, the Scots of Dalriada, 
and a considerable part of the Picts ; and the 
mutual relations of these four nations to each 
other were so far altered that the Angles had, tem- 
porarily at least, established their supremacy over 
the other thi'ee. Tighernac records, in 657, the 
death of Tolargan, son of Ainfred, king of the 
Cruithne ; and the "Annals of Ulster" record, in 658, 
the death of Gureit, or Guxiad, king of Alclyde. 
The Irish annalists do not record any king of Dal- 
riada after the death of Donald Brec in 642. 
Tolargan, the king of the Picts, was no doubt the 
son of that Ainfred, son of Ethelfred, king of Ber- 
nicia, who had remained in exile among the Picts 
during the reign of Edwin, and succeeded him in 
Bernicia as king for one year. Tolargan must have 
obtained the Pictish thi'one through his mother, 
according to the Pictish law of succession ; but 
Oswy thus stood to him in the relation of father's 
brother, and may have made this the pretext for 
invading the kingdom of the Picts. Oswj main- 
tained possession of the Pictish territory he had 
conquered during his life, as Bede records that, in 
669, WUfrid not only presided over the church 
of York and of all Northumbria, " sed et Picto- 
" rum, quousque rex Osuiu imjDerium protendere 
" poterat " (Lib. iv. c. iii.) Oswy died, according 

PEEFACE. cxix 

to Bede, in the year 670, and was succeeded by his 
son Ecgfrid : and in 681, when he divided the 
diocese of York into four portions, he appointed 
Trumwin " ad provinciam Pictorum, quae tunc 
" temporis Anglorum erat imperio subjecta" (Lib. 
IV. c. xii.) The province of the Picts thus remained 
still subject to the Angles, but some attempts seem 
now to have been made to throw off the yoke ; for, 
in 681, the " Annals of Ulster" record the siege of 
Dunfother, and in 683, the siege of Dunnat and 
Dunduirn. Dunfother and Dunduirn were the chief 
seats of two of the seven provinces of the Picts, and 
Dunnat was the capital of Dalriada. In 685, Bede 
records that Ecgfrid led an army " ad vastandum 
" Pictorum provinciam " (Lib. iv. c. xxvi.), and 
that having been led by a feigned flight of his 
enemies in " angustias inaccessorum montium," 
he was there cut off with his whole anny on 
the 15th day before the Kalends of June. Tigh- 
ernac records the same battle as having taken place 
on Saturday the 20th day of May, which was 
the 15 th before the Kalends of June, in the year 
686, at a place called Dunnechtan, between Ecgfrid 
Mac Ossu, rex Saxonum, and Brude Mac Bile, rex 
Fortrenn ; but the 20 th day of May fell on a Satur- 
day in the previous year, 685, which confirms the 
date of Bede. Dunnechtan is the modern Dunni- 
chen, which is situated in a narrow pass in the 
range of the Sidlaw hills, which separate Strath- 
more from the plains of Forfarshire. It is obvi- 


ous, from the language of Bede, that the " Provincia 
" Pictorum " which Ecgfrid devastated, was the 
same province which was subject to the Angles, and 
which must have extended at least as far as the Sid- 
law mountains. Brude, who defeated him, is called 
king of Fortren, which was one of the seven provinces 
of the Picts, and lay to the west of the river Tay. 
Dundurn was its chief seat, as Dunfother was the 
chief seat of Maghcircin, or the Mearns, and these 
parts of Pictland probably remained independent, 
while the part subject to the Angles lay between 
them, and consisted apparently of Fife, Kinross, Gow- 
rie, and part of Forfarshire ; in short, very nearly the 
same district which forms the second province in 
the second List of seven provinces contained in the 
" Description," No. xvii. The effect of this defeat 
upon the four nations is thus described by Bede : 
Termination of " Ex quo tempore spcs cospit et virtus regni Anglo- 
ng ic ru e. j< ^^^ fluerc ct rctro sublapsa referri. Nam et Picti 
" terram possessionis suae quam tenuerunt Angli 
" et Scoti qui erant in Britannia, Britonum quoque 
" pars nonnulla, libertatem receperunt, quam et hac- 
" tenus habent per annos circiter quadraginta et 
" sex ;" and he adds, that Trumwin retired with 
his clergy, "qui erant in monasterio Aebbercurnig, 
" posito quidam in regione Anglorum, sed in vicinia 
" freti quod Anglorum terras Pictorumque deter- 
" minat " (Lib. iv. c. xxvi.), which shows still more 
clearly that the lands of the Picts subject to the 
Angles lay north of the Firth of Forth. The Irish 

PEEFACE. cxxi 

annalists now record Brude, son of Bile, as king of 
the Picts. He is said in the Irish " Life of St. Adom- 
" nan" (Ap. No. iv.) to have been the son of the king 
of Alclyde, so that his right to the Pictish tlirone 
must have been through his mother ; and Bile ap- 
pears in the line of the British kings of Strathclyde 
in the Welsh additions to the " Historia Britonum." 
He is also said in an old poem, quoted in the " Annals 
" of MacFirbis," (Ap. No. iii.) to have recovered 
the kingdom of his grandfather ; and in the Saxon 
additions to the " Historia Britonum," he and Ecg- 
frid are said to have been " fratrueles," that is, 
descended from brothers. His mother must there- 
fore have been the daughter of Tolargan, son of 
Ainfred who was the brother of Oswy, the father 
of Ecgfrid. The death of Brude Mac Bile ri For- 
tren is recorded in the " Irish Annals," in the year 
693, and all the lists agree in his three successors : 
Taran, son of Entefidich, expelled in 997 ; Brude, 
son of Derile, whose death is recorded in 706 ; and 
Nectan, his brother, whose " Clericatus " is men- 
tioned by the " Irish Annals " in 724. Ferchar fada, 
or the tall, now appears as king of Dalriada. Prior 
to the conquest of Oswy, the kings of Dalriada were 
exclusively of the race of Fergus ; but Ferchar fada 
was the head of the rival race of Loin, who appear 
to have taken the lead in recovering the indepen- 
dence of the Scots. His death is given by the 
"Irish Annals" in 697. The Latin lists agree in 
making his successor, Eocha rinamuil, grandson of 


cxxii PREFACE. 

Donald brec, by his son Domangart, and giving him 
a reign of two or three years, and in placing after 
him AinbhceaUach, son of Ferchar fada ; but the 
" Irish Annals " do not mention Eocha, and record, 
under 698, the " Expulsio AinbhceaUach de regno," 
thus making him the immediate successor of his 
father. Donald, the son of Ewen, appears as king 
of Alclyde, and his father Ewen, or Eugene, is to 
be found in the genealogy of the Strathclyde kings, ^ 
and, in 722, the " Irish Annals " record the death of 
Bile Mac Elpin, king of Strathclyde. 
Position of Bede closes his history in the year 731, and up to 

inTsi.* '°"^ that date no change appears to have taken place in 
the condition of the four nations. He states, " Pic- 
" torum quoque natio tempore hoc et fcedus pacis 
" cum gente habet Anglorum, et catholicge pacis ac 
" veritatis cum universali ecclesia particeps exister» 
" gaudet. Scotti qui Brittaniam incolunt suis con- 
" tenti finibus nil contra gentem Anglonim insidia- 
" rum moliuntur aut fraudium. Brittones, quamvis 
" et maxima ex parte domestico sibi odio gentem 
" Anglorum, et totius catholicse ecclesise statum 
" Pascha minus recte moribusque improbis impug- 
" nent ; tamen et divina sibi et humana prorsus 
" resistente virtute, in neutro cupitum possunt ob- 
" tinere propositum ; quippe qui quamvis ex parte 
" sui sint juris, nonnuUa tamen ex parte Anglorum 
" sunt servitio mancipati" (Lib. v. c. xxiii.) 





After the valuable light afforded by the narrative variance op 
of Bede forsakes us, we are left almost entirely to the ^nd snp- ' 
guidance of the lists of the kings contained in the ^^'^f^;;^"' 
chronicles, with the few and scattered notices ofs's™^^'^^ 
them in the " Irish Annals." From the termination 
of the Anglic dominion over the Picts and Scots, to 
the close of Bede's history, the chronicles in the main 
agree, but after that date there occurs considerable 
variation in the lists of the Pictish kings, and like- 
wise in those of the Scots. In the list of the Pictish 
kings, this variation exists between that of the 
" Pictish Chronicle " and the lists in the Irish ad- 
ditions to the " Historia Britonum " on the one hand, 
and the lists in the Latin Chronicles on the other. 
The following table will show wherein they differ : — 

Pictish Chronicle. 
Brude filius Bile, . . . 
Taran filius Entifidich, . 
Brude filius Derile, 
Nectan filius Derile, . . 
Drest et Alpin conregnave- 


Onnust filius Urgust, . 
Brude filius Urgust, . 
Cinoid filius Uradech, 
Alpin filius Wroid, 








Drust filius Talorgen, 4 or 5 

Talorgen filius Ounist, . 2h 
Canaul filius Tarla, . . 5 

Latin Chronicles. 

• Brude filius Bile, 
Taran filius Anifedech, 
Brude filius Derile, . 
Nectan frater ejus, . 
Garnath filius Fcrath, 
Oengusa filius Fergusa, 
Nectan filius Derile, 
Alpin filius Ferat, . . 
Oengus filius Brude, 
Alpin filius Ferat, iterum, 36 
Brude filius Oengus, . 2 
Alpin filius Oengus, . 2 
Drust filius Talorgan, . 1 
Talargan filius Drust, . 4 
Talargan filius Oengus, 5 


Table of kiiiga 
of the Picts. 



Constantin filius Urgust, . 35 
Unuist filius Urgust, . .12 
Drust filius Constantin et 

Talorgen filius Uthoil, . 3 

Uen filius Unust, ... 3 

Wrad filius Bargot, . . 3 

Bred, 1 

Constantin filius Fergusa, 42 
Hungus filius Fergusa, 10 
Dustalorg, .... 4 

Eoganan filius Hungus. 
Ferat filius Batot, 
Brude filius Ferat, 
Kinat filius Ferat, 
Brude filius Fotel, 
Driest filius Ferat, 




The first four kings correspond in both. They 
reigned in the period from the termination of the 
Anglic subjection of the Picts and Scots to the close 
of Bede's history. The main differences after that 
are, that the "Pictish Chronicle" gives the joint 
reign of Drest and Alpin for five years, and then 
the reign of Angus, son of Fergus, for thirty years ; 
while the other lists give, during this period, Gar- 
nad, son of Ferat, twenty-four years, followed by 
Angus, son of Fergus, only sixteen years ; again, 
the " Pictish Chronicle " gives Kenneth, the son of 
Uradech, twelve years, followed by Alpin, son of 
Uroid, three and a half years ; while the other lists 
make Alpin, son of Ferat, reign thirty or thirty- 
six years, embracing the whole period of Kenneth's 
reign. Again, the Latin lists insert a family, con- 
sisting of Angus, son of Brude, and Brude and Alpin, 
sons of Angus, who are unknown to the " Pictish 
" Chronicle ; " and, finally, they add three kings 
at the end of the list in addition to those in the 
" Pictish Chronicle." 

The "Pictish Chronicle" is entirely supported in 

PEEFACE. cxxv 

its statements by the Irish annalists. They know 
nothing of Garnad, the sou of Ferat ; but, accord- 
ing to them, Angus, the son of Fergus, made his 
way to the Pictish throne by defeating the three 
previous kings, — Drest, Alpin, and Nectan. They 
record, in 724, the Clericatus of Nectan, king of 
the Picts, and that Drust succeeded him. Then, 
in 726, that Drust was driven out, and that Alpin 
succeeded him. Then two battles between Alpin 
and Angus, the son of Fergus, at Moncrief and 
at Caislen Credi, or Scone, in which Alpin was de- 
feated, and Angus took his territories, while Nec- 
tan, the son of Derile, resumed the kingdom. 
Then, in 729, the battle of Monitcarno, be- 
tween Angus and Nechtan, in which the latter was 
defeated, and the battle of Drumdearg, between 
Angus and Drust, king of the Picts, in which the 
latter was slain. Again, in 775, the "Irish Annals" 
record the death of Cinadon, regis Pictorum. 

On examining the differences between these two 
lists, it wiU be seen that the Latin list mainly inserts 
kings not to be found in the other, and that these 
generally belong to the same family. Thus, Garnad 
is the son of Ferat ; Alpin, who reigns so much 
longer in the one list than in the other, is also the 
son of Ferat, and two of the three kings added at 
the end of the list are likewise sons of Ferat. It 
is clear, even from the " Pictish Clironicle," that 
more than one king reigned at the same time in 
different parts of the country, and it is probable 

cxxvi PEEFACE. 

that these additional kings are local kings, recorded 
by the one chronicler and not by the other. The 
" Pictish Chronicle " is, in fact, the " Chronicle of 
" Brechin," and probably records the kings of that 
part of the country ; on the other hand, the kings of 
the house of Ferat seem peculiarly connected with 
the district of Gowrie. Alpin is defeated at Mon- 
crief, and afterwards at Scone. Ferat, the son of 
Bargot, had his seat at Migdele, or Meigle ; and 
Druskin, the son of Ferat, was defeated, according 
to some, at Forteviot, according to others at Scone. 
It is probable that while the "Pictish Chronicle" 
records the kings who reigned over that part of the 
Pictish territories in which Brechin was situated, 
the later lists include those who reigned at Scone, 
whether they were kings of the whole of Pictland, 
or of the district around Scone only.^ 

The variation between the list of the Scottish 

' f the SciTtf kings of Dakiada subsequent to the close of Bede's 

narrative is of much more importance, and enters 

far more deeply into the veiy foundation of Scottish 

V.iriation in 

1 Tlie " Irish Annals" record in 
780 the death of " Elpin rex 
" Saxonum," which corresponds 
with the end of the reign of Alpin, 
son of Uroid or Ferat, and the 
district in which Scone and Meigle 
are situated appeai-s to have 
formed part of Oswy's conquest, 
so that this family may have been 
mainly supported by the Saxons. 
If he reigned thirty years in this 
district, it brings us to 750, in 
which the "Annals" record a 

great battle between the Picts and 
the Britons, in which the Picts 
were defeated, and the brother of 
Angus, son of Fergus, slain. His 
reign of sixteen years, allowing a 
year for the short reigns there 
given, brings us to 733, the year 
after the death of Nectan, son of 
Derde, in 732, and Garnad, son of 
Ferat, must have reigned in this 
district during the reigns of Nec- 
tan and Drust, that is, from 706 
to 729. 



history, than that between the lists of the Pictish 
kings. The lists of the Scottish kings which thus 
diverge so radically from each other, consist, on the 
one hand, of the lists contained in the " Synchron- 
" isms of Flann Mainistreach," and in the " Albanic 
" Duan ; " and, on the other hand, of the lists con- 
tained in the Latin chronicles, and it may be as 
well to give them from the commencement to the 
end of the Dalriadic kingdom. 

They are as follows. The dates added to the 
latter part of the Latin list are taken from the prose 
chronicle interpolated in the " Chronicle of Mel- 
" rose." 

Lists of Eleventh Century, 

Latin Lists. 

Table of the 

Five kings, 478-565. 

kings of T>a\ 

Fergus mor mac Ere, 


Fergus filius Eric, . . . 


Angus mor mac Ere, 


Domangart mac Fergus, . 


Domangart filius ejus. 


Comgall mac Domangart, 


Congel filius Domangart, . 


G-abran mac Domangart, . 


Goueran frater Congel, . 


Two kings, 565-598. 

Conal mac Comgall, . . 


Conel filius Congel, . . 


Aedan, son of Gabran, 


Edan filius Goueran, . . 


Four kings, 598-642. 

Eocho buide mac Aedan, . 


Eochad flavus filius Edan, 


Conad cerr, bis son, . . 


Kinat sumetes Alius Conal 

> 0^ 

Ferchair mac Conaing, 


Ferchear filius ejus, . 


Donald brec mac Eocho 

Dovenald varius filius 





Nine kings, 642-743. 

Conall Crandomna, 
Dunchad mac Duhan, 


Domnal Donn, .... 


Mailduin mac Conall, 




Ferchar Longus, ... 21 
Eochalhabenscurvumnasum, 3 
Arinchellac filius Ferchar, 1 
741 ob. Ewen filius Ferchar 

longi, .... 13 
744 ob. Murechat filius Arin- 
chellac, .... 3 

747 oh. Ewen filius Murechat, 3 

777 ob.Edalbus filius Eocbal, 30 
781 ob.FergusfiliusHedalbi, 3 

804 ob. Selvach filius Eogan, 24 

834 ob. Eochal venenosus 

filius Hedalbi, . . 30 
841 ob. Dunegal filius Sel- 
vach, 7 

843 ob. Alpin filius Eochal, 3 
Cinaed filius Alpin, . 16 

The blank which occurs in the Latin lists from 
Donald brec to Ferchar fada exactly corresponds 
with the period of the Anglic dominion over Dalriada, 
when there was no independent king, and may be 
thrown out of view as amounting to any substantial 
disagreement.^ The three following kings agree in 
both lists. 

After that the difference between them is very re- 

Ferchar Fada, .... 


Eocho Rianamhail, . . 


Ainbhceallach mac Ferchai 

•, 1 

Selbach mac Ferchar, 

Eochaig Angbaidh 

Thirteen kings, 743-879. 

Dungal mac Selbaig, . 


Alpin mac Echach, . . 


Muredac ua Daiti, 


Aed Aireatach, . . . 




Domnall mac Custantin, . 


Conall Caemh, .... 


Conall, his brother, . . 


Ciistantinmac Fergiisa, . 


Aengus mac Fergiisa, . . 


Acd mac Boanta, . . 


Eoganan mac Aengusa, . 


Cinaed mac Alpin, . . 


I The continuator of " Tigher- 
" nae," who wrote in 1178, after 
the first of the Latin Hsts appeared, 
seems to have extended the reign 
of Donald brec over the blank, and 
has re-inscrted the battle in which 

he was defeated in 638, under 
678, and the battle of Strath- 
carron, in which he was slain, 
under 686, the same year in which 
Ecgfrid was slain and the Scots 
recovered then- independence. 

PKEFACE. cxxix 

markable, and is obviously artificial. There are six 
kings wMch agree in both, Edfin, Fergus, Selvach, 
Echadh, Dungal, and Alpia. In the one list the 
last four, i.e., Selvach, Echadh, Dungal, and Alpin 
are placed first. Then, after a King Muredach, Aed 
and Fergus are placed, and then follow eight kings 
which are not in the other list at all. In the 
Latin lists the four kings, Selvach, Echadh, Dungal, 
and Alpin, are placed last. Before them are 
placed Aedfin and Fergus, and before them are 
placed three kings who are not in the first list. 
Now the remarkable thing is this, that the deaths of 
Aedfin Mac Echach Ei Dalriada and Fergus Mac 
Echach Ei Dalriada are given in the " Irish Annals" 
as occurring in 778 and 781 respectively, and this 
agrees with their date in both lists ; the amount of 
the reigns after them in the one list amounting to 
sixty -five years, and in the other to sixty-four. The 
real diff'erence between the two lists consists in 
this, that the four kings, Selvach, Echadh, Dungal, 
and Alpin, commence the list in the one and termin- 
ate it in the other. They reigned, according to the 
one, in the eighth, and, according to the other, in 
the ninth centuries, and there is a difference of a 
century between the period of each. This is obvi- 
ously a difierence arising from an intentional altera- 
tion in one or other of the lists for chronological 
purposes, and it is of course of importance to ascer- 
tain which represents the true history. In the first 
place, the lists which place those four kings in the 

cxxx PEEFACE. 

earlier century belong to the eleventh century, 
while the oldest of the Latin lists which place 
them in the ninth century, was compiled in the 
year 1165, a century later ; and the oldest of the 
eleventh century lists, i.e., that by Flann Mainis- 
treach, synchronizes these kings of Dalriada with 
the monarchs of Ireland, so as to leave no doubt 
as to the period to which he refers them. In the 
second place, the Irish annalists entirely support the 
older lists. The question is whether these four 
kings reigned in the first half of the eighth century, 
or in the first half of the ninth century ; but the 
"Irish Annals" mention in the year 719 the battle 
of Finglinne between the two sons of Ferchar fada 
(Ainbhceallach and Selvach) in which AinbhceaUach 
was slain, and the sea battle of Ardeanesbie, be- 
tween the genus Gabhran under Duncan Bee, and 
the genus Lorn under Selvach ; and in 723 the 
clericatus of Selvach regis Dalriada. They mention 
Dungal as being expelled from his kingdom in 
726, and Echadh, son of Echadh, beginning his reign 
in that year. In 727 they mention a conflict at 
Eossfeochan between Selvach and the "fanulia 
" Echdach nepotis Domnall," that is, the family of 
which Eocha, a son of Echach, the grandson of 
Donald brec, was the head. They have the death 
of Echadh, son of Echadh, king of DaMada in 733, 
and mention an expedition by Dungal, the son of 
Selvach; and in 736 they again mention Dungal, son 
of Selvach, as having been taken and bound by the 

PEEFACE. cxxxi 

king of the Picts. Alpin is not mentioned in the 
" Irish Annals," but they clearly show that the first 
three of the four kings in question reigned in the 
early part of the eighth century, and not in that of 
the ninth century. Further, they likewise show that, 
at a period coincident with the last of these four 
kings, DaMada was conquered by the king of the 
Picts ; and that the kings who are mentioned in the 
older lists as succeeding Alpin must have been of 
the Pictish race. In 734, Talorgan, son of Drostan, 
king of Athole, is taken and bound near Dunolly, 
and Dungal, the king of Dalriada, flies to Ireland 
from the power of Angus ; and, in 736, Angus, 
son of Fergus, king of the Picts, lays waste the 
regions of Dabiada, obtains Dunad, burns Creich, 
and puts the two sons of Selvach, Dungal and 
Feradach, in chains. Dunad was the capital of Dal- 
riada, and Creich is in the Eoss of Mull, opposite 
the Sound of lona. In 741, coincident with the 
last year of Alpin, we have the following signifi- 
cant entry : " Percussio DaLriatai la Oengus Mac 
" Ferguso ; " thus showing the complete conquest 
and subjection of DaMada by the king of the Picts 
at the very time when this variance between the 
lists commences. The connexion of the subsequent 
kings of Dalriada in the older lists with Fortren is 
equally apparent. Thus, in 768, there is a battle 
in Fortren between Aedh and Kenneth, at the same 
period when Aedh appears as king of Dalriada ; and 
the older list of the Dahiadic kings shows Con- 

cxxxii PEEFACE. 

stantin, son of Fergus, succeeded by an Angus, 
son of Fergus, at the same time when the "Irish 
" Annals " record a Constantin, son of Fergus, king 
of Fortren, succeeded by an Angus, son of Fergus, 
king of Fortren ; and, finally, the two last Dalriadic 
kings are Aedh son of Boanta, and Euganan son of 
Angus ; while, in 839, the "Irish Annals" record a 
" battle by the Gentiles against the men of Fortren, 
" in which Euganan son of Angus, and Bran son of 
" Angus, and Aedh son of Boanta, and innumerable 
" others fell." These notices clearly identify the kings 
who followed Alpin in the older lists with the kings 
of Fortren and with the men of Fortren, who were 
undoubtedly Picts. The matter, therefore, stands 
thus, that by both lists the Scottish kings of Dal- 
riada terminate with Alj^in ; but in the Latin lists 
Alpin is brought down to the year 841, and identified 
with Alpin the father of Kenneth ; while by the older 
lists Alpin reigned from 736 to 741, and is followed 
by a list of eleven kings ; and the " Irish Annals " 
show that in 741 Dalriada had been completely 
conquered by the king of the Picts, and that the 
eleven kings who intervened between that Alpin 
and Kenneth Mac Alpin were of the Pictish race. 

That the lists of kings of Dalriada given by the 
" Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach," and the 
" Albanic Duan," agreeing so entirely with each other, 
supported as they ai'e by the " Irish Annals," and in 
direct antagonism to the later forms of the Scottish 
fable, present the true history, can hardly be 

PREFACE. cxxxiii 

doubted ; and the result of the comparison of the 
two lists is, that the compilers of the Latin lists 
suppressed the conquest of Dalriada by the Angles, 
by extending the reigns of the early kings till Donald 
brec is made the immediate predecessor of Ferchar 
fada, and that they, in like manner, suppressed the 
conquest of Dalriada by the Picts, and the century 
of Pictish rule in that kingdom, by placing the 
reigns of the last four Scottish kings a century later, 
and interpolating kings before them to fill up the 
vacant period. 


Such being the variation in the lists of the substantial 

T->- • 1 1 • T Tl • • 1 (• 1 1 • AGREEMENT OF 

Pictish kmgs, and likewise in those of the kings chronicles 
of Dahiada, whether Scottish or Pictish, we find to'sw?^'^'*^ 
that in all of these lists Kenneth Mac Alpin appears First fo^ 

as their immediate successor ; that in him the lines ^-^ ^^ ^^^ 

kings — called 

both of the Picts and of the Dalriads unite ; and that ^''^'^■ 
there is little variation in the accounts given by the 
different chronicles of his successors. By all he is 
made a Scot, and is usually termed " Primus Scot- 
" torum," and " Primus rex Scottorum." By Flann 
Mainistreach he is said to have given the kingdom 
of Scone to the Gael ; and by St, Berchan he is 
called Ferhasach, the besieger, and the first king 
of the men of Eiin ; he destroys the Cruithneach at 
Scone, and dies on the banks of the Earn. The 
"Pictish Chronicle" places his death at his palace 
of Forteviot, and the " Irish Annals" record it in the 



year 858. He is succeeded by his brotlier Donald 
Mac Alpin, who reigned, according to all the lists, 
four years. According to the " Pictish Chronicle," 
he died at his palace of Cinn Belachoir, according 
to the " Cronicon Elegiacum," at Scone, and to the 
Latin lists, at Rathinveramon. The two latter are 
separated from each other by the Tay. St. Berchan 
terms him the son of the Gaillsigh, gives him a reign 
of three years and three months, and places his 
death at Loch Adliblia, or the loch of the palace. 
His death is recorded by the " Irish Annals " in 
862. He was succeeded by Constantino, the son 
of Kenneth, and he by Aedh, his brother. By the 
" Pictish Chronicle," Constantine is said to have 
reigned sixteen years ; in his second and third 
years, Amlaib,^ with his Gentiles, laid waste Pictavia, 
and is slain by him ; in his fourteenth year, a battle 
is fought between the Danes and the Scots at Dollar, 
and a short time after, the Scots are slain at Ach- 
cochlum. His successor Aed reigned one year, and 
is slain at Nrurin. The " Irish Annals " record the 
invasion of Amlaiph in 8 6 6 ; the slaughter of Artga, 
king of the Strathclyde Britons, by the advice of 
Constantine, in 872 ; a conflict between the Dugalls 
and the Picts in 875 ; and the death of Constantine 
in 876, and that of Aedh by his own people in 878. 
By the Latin lists, Constantine is said to have been 

■^ According to the " Annals 
" of MacFirbis," iirinted by the 
Irish Archseological Society (p. 
173), the wife of Amlaib was a 

(laughter of Kenneth Mac Alpin, 
so that his invasion may have 
been connected with claims on the 

PEEFACE. cxxxv 

slain in battle by the Norwegians in Werdofatba or 
Inverdufatha, and Aed in Strathallan. St. Berchan 
gives the successor of Donald, without naming him, a 
reign of only five and a half years ; but the identity 
is clear, for he says he fought three battles against the 
Gentiles, and a fourth battle at Luaire, probably Car- 
lo wiie, against the Britons, and that he died in pools 
of blood at Inbherdubhroda ; but St. Berchan gives 
his successor, whom he terms the Dasachtach, or the 
fierce, a reign of nine years, making up the sixteen 
years between them, and says he died in a dangerous 
pass. In the chronicle annexed to the " Historia Bri- 
" tonum," Kenneth Mac Alpin is also termed Rex Pic- 
torum, while in the " Pictish Chronicle" the country 
in which he ruled is still called Pictavia. In the 
" Irish Annals " these four kings are termed Reges 
Pictorum. Although, therefore, they were Scots 
by race, they were evidently viewed as having 
ascended the Pictish throne, and the Pictish mon- 
archy was held to have still subsisted in their persons. 

The succession, however, having been maintained (^"s '">'i 

° . Eoclia. 

in the famUy of Kenneth, was not in accordance with 
the Pictish law ; and after the death of Aedh an effort 
seems to have been made to enforce the old Pictish 
law of succession through females, as we find from 
the "Pictish Chronicle" that Eocha, son of Eun, 
king of the Britous, by the daughter of Kenneth 
Mac Alpin, is placed on the throne, to the exclusion 
of the direct male descendant, and along with him 
is associated in the government, Grig, son of 



Dungal, who appears in most of the Latin lists as 
sole king. By the " Pictish Chronicle," he is said 
to have been expelled from the kingdom with Eocha, 
after a reign of eleven years ; and by the Latin lists, 
Grig is said to have died at Dundurn, after a reign 
of twelve years according to some, and of eighteen 
years according to others. St. Berchan mentions 
Eocha as Tuiltigh the Brit from Cluaide, and gives 
him a reign of thirteen years. He terms Grig 
Mac Rath, the son of fortune, and states that, after 
reigning seventeen years, he was slain by the Firiu 
Fortren, or men of Fortren, at the noble house on 
the banks of the Earn. Grig is mentioned by Flanu 
under the name of Ciric ; but both he and Eocha 
are omitted by the " Albanic Duan," and are un- 
noticed in the " Irish Annals." It is difficult to 
ascertain whether Grig was of the Pictish or of the 
Scottish race, but the probabilities are rather in 
favour of the former. At this time, two of the old 
provinces of the Pictish kingdom south of the 
Grampians seem stiU to have been possessed by the 
Picts. The one was Fortren, of which Strathearn 
undoubtedly formed a part. The Firiu Fortren, 
or men of Fortren, are repeatedly mentioned during 
this time ; and their stronghold appears to have 
been the hiU-fort of Dundurn, at the east end of 
Loch Earn, not far from St. Fillans.^ The other 

• Dundurn was, by later his- 
torians, identified with Dunadeer, 
in Aberdeenshire, and upon this 

Chalmers built his theory, that 
Grig was Maormor of the region 
betwixt the Dee and the Spey ; 

PREFACE. cxxxvii 

province was that of Maghcircin, corrupted into 
Mearns ; and the " Viri na Moerne," or men of the 
Mearns, appear likewise as a distinctive people ; 
their stronghold was Dunfother, the old name of 
Dunnottar, on the bold headland on which the 
ruined castle of Dunnottar now stands.^ The dis- 
tricts lying between these two outlying provinces, 
probably formed the heart of the kingdom ruled 
by Kenneth and his successors, having Scone for 
its capital. Grig appears in remarkable connexion 
with both of these Pictish provinces. The old form 
of his name is Giric, which is the same as the name 
of one of the seven sons of Cruithne, from whom 
Maghcircin took its designation. There is a curious 
notice in the " Pictish Chronicle," that in his ninth 
year an eclipse of the sun took place " die Cirici." The 
day of St. Cyiicus fell on the 16 th of June, and there 
actually was a great eclipse of the sun on the 16th of 
June 885, which corresponds tolerably well with his 
ninth year. This seems to show some connexion 
between his own name and that of the saint ; and it 
is curious that a church in the Mearns, dedicated to 
St. Cyricus, is called in old charters Ecclesgreig, 

but St. Berchan conclusively 
shows that it was Dundurn on 
Loch Earn. The " Statistical 
" Account " says, " A dun, or f orti- 
" fied hiU at the east end of Loch 
" Earn, gave name to Dundurn, or 
" Dun-d-earn." It is a short dis- 
tance from St. Fnians, and FiUan 
is caUed in the Irish calendars of 
Batherend, or the Rath of the 

Earn. It is probably the royal 
" Castellum de Heryu," mentioned 
in a charter of King William the 
Lyon, in the " Chartulary of Inch- 
affray, p. 6. 

> The law of King WiUiam the 
Lyon, " De locis ad que Warenti 
" debent venire," has "In Mernys 
" apud Dounnotter." 


cxxxviii PREFACE. 

or the Church of Greig. He seems, therefore, to have 
founded a church among the Picts of Maghcircin ; 
and, when expelled from the kingdom, to have taken 
refuge among the Picts of Fortren, where he was 
slain at Dundurn. His omission by the "Irish 
" Annals," and the " Albanic Duan," rather favour 
the conclusion that he was not of the Scottish race, 
and that the omission of his name by the " Albanic 
" Duan" was intentional, appears from this, that 
fourteen years have been added to the reign of Con- 
stantine, making the whole period of his reign thirty 
years, so as to extend his reign, and that of his suc- 
cessor, over the period of that of Grig. If Grig had 
completed his eighth year on 16th June 885, this 
places his accession in 877, which agrees sufficiently 
well with the dates in the " Irish Annals ; " his 
eleventh year would be completed in 888, his twelfth 
in 889, and his eighteenth in 895. 
Kings of Aiban. His succcssor Douald, son of Constantine, son of 
Donald, son of Kenneth Mac Alpm, is said by the "Pictish Chro- 

Constantm. ■•■ •' 

" nicle " to have ruled eleven years, and his death 
is placed by the "Irish Annals" in 900, which 
places his ascension in 889, after the expulsion of 
Grig and Eocha, while the death of Grig at Dun- 
durn would fall in the seventh year of his reign. 
It is remarkable that the " Albanic Duan," though 
ignoring Grig, gives Donald a reign of only four 
years, thus commencing at that date, St. Berchan 
terms this king An Garbh, the rough, and gives 
him a reign of nine years, but interposes a king 

PEEFACE. cxxxix 

termed An Bhaoili, the foolish, between liim and 
Grig, whose reign commences at Dundurn, and 
lasts three years ; but, according to one of the 
chronicles, Grig was succeeded by his brother Con- 
stantine, who reigned two years. The " Pictish 
" Chronicle" records a battle in his reign, "in 
" Uilibcollan inter Danarios et Scottos, Scotti 
" habuerunt victoriam," and adds, " oppidum Fother 
" occisum est a gentibus." The expression occisum 
can hardly be used to a fort or town, and is probably 
a mistake for occisus est, viz., that Donald was slain 
at " oppidum Fother." The Latin lists remove his 
death to Forres, in Moray, but "oppidum Fother" 
is Bun/other, and St. Berchan indicates its situa- 
tion, for he states that he fought with Galls and 
with Gael, and that he dispersed his foes at Fother- 
dun, now Fordun, in the Mearns, where he lies on 
the brink of the waves. 

After the accession of this Donald, there is a 
marked change in the designation of the kings and 
in the appellation of the country. In the "Irish 
" Annals " they are no longer called Reges Pictorum, 
but Ri Alhan, or kings of Alban. Pictavia disap- 
pears from the " Pictish Chronicle," and the country 
in which they ruled is now called A Ihania. This im- 
plies that the contests by which Eocha and Grig 
had first been placed on the throne, and afterwards 
expelled by the male descendants of Kenneth, had 
really effected a revolution, under which the last 
vestiges of the Pictish monarchy had disappeared ; 


and instead of a Pictish kingdom, ruled by a 
Scottish dynasty, it had become to all intents 
and purposes a monarchy, in which the supre- 
macy of the Scots was fully established. 

In each successive reign the power of the Scots 
Constantm, son ijecame Still further extended. Constantin, the suc- 

of Aed. ' 

cessor of Donald, was the son of Aed, son of Kenneth 
Mac Alpin. The " Pictish Chronicle " gives him a 
reign of forty years, in which it is supported by some 
of the Latin lists, while others limit it to thirty and 
thirty-five years. The chronology of his reign is 
distinct enough. The " Pictish Chronicle " states 
that in Ms third year the Normanni laid waste 
Dunkeld and all Albania, and in the following year 
were slain in Strathearn, and that in his eighteenth 
year the battle of Tinmore was fought between 
Constantin and Regnall, in which the Scots were 
victorious ; and the " Irish Annals " have the slaugh- 
ter of Ivor OTvor by the men of Fortren in 904, 
and in 918 a great battle between Regnall, king of 
the DugaUs, and the men of Alban. In the latter 
part of his reign he was brought into contact with 
the Saxons, and, according to the " Saxon Chronicle," 
placed himself in 924 under the protection of Ed- 
ward, the elder king of England. In 926 he entered 
into a treaty Tsath Athelstane, Edward's successor, 
who, in 934, on the plea that the treaty had been 
broken, invaded Scotland both by sea and land, sent 
his fleet as far as Caithness, and penetrated with his 
land army as far as Dunfceder and Wertermore. The 

PREFACE. cxli 

former is no doubt the fort of Dunfother or Dun- 

nottar ; and in 937 the great battle of Briinanburg 

was fought between Athelstane on the one hand and 

the whole Danish force of the islands, on whose side 

was ranged the Scots, with their king Constantin, on 

the other. In the prominent part taken by him in the 

struggle between the Danes and the Anglo-Saxons, 

he always appears as king of the Scots ; and finally, 

towards the end of his reign, the Saxons applied the 

term of Scotland to his kingdom,— a name which 

had previously been given by them to Ireland. The 

" Pictish Chronicle" states that in his old age he 

entered the Church, and transferred his kingdom to 

Malcolm, the son of Donald, and the Latin lists all 

agree that he became Abbot of the Culdees of St. 

Andrews. The " Albanic Duan " gives him a reign 

of forty-five years, and St. Berchan, who calls him 

Midhaise, forty-seven years, but the identity is clear, 

as he makes him retire to the " monastery on the 

" brink of the waves," and states that he died in 

" the house of the apostle." In the reign of Con- 

stantine, his brother Donald had been elected king 

of the Strathclyde Britons ; and in the reign of 

Malcolm, the son of Donald, his successor, the Maicoim, son 

kingdom of Cumbria was conquered by Edmund, ° 

king of the Saxons, and given to him. The " Pict- 

" ish Chronicle" gives Malcolm a reign of eleven 

years, and the Latin lists of nine ; and the only 

other event recorded of him is his ravaging North- 

umbria as far as the Tees in his seventh year ; 

cxlii PEEEACE. 

but the " Pictish Chronicle " adds that some attri- 
bute this expedition to Constantin, who resumed 
his kingdom for the purpose, and this will account 
for the reign of the latter being prolonged by some 
to forty-five and forty-seven years, and for the 
" Albanic Duan" assigning only four years to Mal- 
colm. The "Pictish Chronicle" says he was slain 
by the Viri na Moerne at Fodresach. The Latin 
lists, as usual, remove the scene of his death to 
Moray, at a place they call Ulurn ; but St. Berchan, 
who calls him the Bodhdhearg, or dangerous red 
one, and gives him a reign of nine years, confirms 
the " Pictish Chronicle," as he places his death on 
the brink of Dun/other, and thus estabhshes its iden- 
tification with Dunnottar, which is close to Fetter- 
esso. The " Irish Annals" place his death in 954. 
induif, son of He was succccdcd by Indulf, son of Constantin, 
to whom the " Pictish Chronicle" gives a reign of 
eight years, and the Latin lists of nine. In his reign 
the " oppidum Edin," or Dunedin, that is Edinburgh, 
was yielded to the Scots by the Angles, and along with 
it probably the country between Stirling and Edin- 
burgh. St. Berchan, who calls him the lonsaight- 
heuck, or aggressor, and gives him a reign of nine 
and a half years, says that he lost no part of his 
territories, but added to his kingdom by an addi- 
tion from a foreign land. The Latin lists say that 
he was slain by the Norwegians at Inverculan, but 
St. Berchan expressly states that he died "in the 
" house of the same pure apostle where his father 

PKEFACE. cxliii 

" died," that is, St. Andrews. The " Irish Annals" 
do not record his death. 

Indulf was succeeded by Duf, the son of Malcolm, uuf, son of 
to whom the " Pictish Chronicle" gives a reign of five ^ ™ ""' 
years, and the Latin lists of four and a half. The 
only event recorded in his reign is a battle between 
him and his successor, Culen, son of Indulf, at 
Duncrub, in which he was victorious, but was after- 
wards expelled by Culen. The Latin lists say he 
was slain at Forres, and add a strange story of his 
having been concealed under the bridge of Kinloss, 
during which time the sun did not shine.^ St. 
Berchan, who calls him Dubh, or black, and his 
antagonist Culen Finn, or white, mentions the 
battle as an expedition to Magh Fortren, and adds 
obscurely that Dubh went where he did not turn 
back, and there fell. The " Irish Annals" record 
his death by the Albanich themselves in 967. 

Culen, the son of Indulf, who succeeded him, also Cuien, son 
reigned, according to the "Pictish Chronicle," five 
years, and the Latin lists, four and a half. St. 
Berchan assigns nine years to both reigns. The 
only event recorded of him is his slaughter by the 
kinor of the Britons in Lothian. St. Berchan also 
says he got his death by the Britons, and that his 
grave is " on the brink of the waves." The " Irish 
" Annals" record his death by the Britons in 97L 

He was succeeded by Kenneth, son of Malcolm ; Kenneth, son 
and here the " Pictish Chronicle," after naiTating ° 

1 There was an eclipse of the sun on 10th July 967. 

cxliv PKEFACE. 

the events of the early part of his reign, deserts us, 
as it appears to have been then compUed. It states 
his ravaging Britannia, by which is meant the 
territories of the Strathclyde Britons, and likewise 
Saxonia, by which those of the Northumbrians are 
intended ; his fortifying the banks of the fords of 
Forth, which shows the then southern limit of his 
kingdom ; and his donation of Brechin to the 
Church. By the Latin lists he has a reign of twenty- 
four years, and is said to have been slain by the 
treachery of Finuele or Findle Cunchar, Earl of 
Angus, corrupted into Finella, daughter of Cunchar, 
at Fettercau-n. St. Berchan calls him the Fingaktch, 
or fratricide, gives him a reign of twenty-four years, 
and says that he went to Maghsliahh at the great 
Monadh or Mounth, where he met his end. The 
" Irish Annals" record his slaughter by his own 
people in 995. 
constantiii, son Hc was succcedcd by Constantin, the son of Ciden, 
to whom the Latin lists give a reign of one year 
and a half, but the " Albanic Duan" of seven years ; 
while St. Berchan, who calls him the feeble king, 
gives him also a reign of one year and a half. He 
was slain by Kenneth, son of Malcolm, at Inver- 
amon. St. Berchan calls it a great battle, at the 
Sruthlmn, or stream pool, which is called Toe, by 
which the linn of Campsie on the Tay, not far from 
where it is joined by the Almond, is probably meant. 
His death in a battle among the Albanich them- 
selves is recorded by the "Irish Annals" in 997. 

PEEFACE. cxlv 

He was succeeded by a king who is called by cinead, i 
some of the Latin lists, and by Flann Mainistreach, ° 
and the " Irish Annals," Cinaed, son of Duf ; but 
by others of the Latin lists, Gi'ig, son of Kinet, son 
of Dubh, to whom a reign of eight years is given here ; 
by some lists Kinet, son of Duf, is made to succeed 
his father before Culen, and to have reigned one year 
and a half The "Albanic Duan" calls him simply 
Macduih, and gives him a reign of four years. St. 
Berchan calls him the Bonn, or " brown from strong 
" Duncath," and gives him a reign of eight years and 
a half. He is also apparently meant by the Ken- 
neth, son of Malcolm, who slew Constantin. It is 
obvious that there is some confusion here which the 
loss of the " Pictish Chronicle" leaves no means of 
clearing up ; but the probability is that the king who 
now reigned was Kenneth, son of Dubh, also called 
son of Malcolm, and that he had a son Grig, who may 
have reigned along with him. He is said by the 
Latin lists to have been slain by Malcolm, son of 
Kenneth, in Moighenard, now Monzievaird. St. 
Berchan says he was killed at his " stone of blood 
" between two glens" on the banks of the Earn. 
The " Irish Annals" record in 1005 a battle among 
the men of Alban, in which the king of Alban, i.e., 
Kenneth, son of Dubh, was slain. 

For the reign of Malcolm, son of Kenneth, and his 
successors to Malcolm Canmore, we have the almost 
cotemporary authority of Marianus Scotus ; and the 
confusion which exists in the short interval be- 

cxlvi ■ PKEFACE. 

tween the termination of the " Pictish Chronicle " 
and the reign of Malcolm the Second shows the 
value of that authority, and the danger of trusting 
exclusively to the Latin lists. 
The two royal From the abovc short sketch of the reigns of the 
thl^priudpai successors of Kenneth Mac Alpin, it is plain that 
^^^- after the termination of the reign of Grig, the son of 

Dungal, the kings belonged to two families, both 
descended from Kenneth Mac Alpin through his 
two sons Constantin and Aed, and that the mem- 
bers of each family occupied the throne alternately. 
It will also be apparent that the one family was 
more peculiarly connected with the northern dis- 
tricts, and the other with the southern. Thus, 
Donald, son of Constantin, died at Dun/other. His 
son Malcolm is said by the "Pictish Chronicle" to 
have invaded Moray, and died also at Fetteresso, 
or Dun/other. One of his sons, Dubh, died at Forres ; 
his other son, Kenneth, died at Fettercairn, and 
founded the church of Brechin ; and his son Mal- 
colm at Glammis. On the other hand, Constantin 
fights in Lothian, and retires to St. Andrews, where 
he dies. His brother Donald is elected king of 
Strathclyde. His son Indulf acquires Dunedin and 
the territory around it, and also dies at St. Andrews. 
Indulf's son, Culen, is slain in Lothian by the 
Britons, and his son Constantin is slain at Inver- 
amon, on the Tay. This family seems to have come 
to an end in the person of Constantin, when their 
possessions probably fell to the other house, which 


PREFACE. cxlvii 

at this time also divided itself into two branches, 
descended from the two brothers, Dubh and Kenneth, 
sons of Malcolm. In Kenneth, son of Dubh, and his 
son Grig, this line of kings came to an end ; but the 
" Irish Annals" record a Boede, son of Kenneth, 
whose grandson was slain in the year 1033 ; and it 
appears from the chartulary of St. Andrews that 
Gruoch filia Boede was wife of Macbeth, son of 
Finnloech, and reigned along with him, while 
Lulach, his successor, is termed in one of the Latin 
lists, " nepos filii Boede ; " and thus the rights of that 
family may have passed to her husband and to 
Lulach, and given rise to their claims upon the 

Malcolm, the son of Kenneth, is termed by Maicoim, son 
the chronicles, " Rex Victoriosissimus," and, by St. 
Berchan, the Forranach, or destroyer. He gives 
him a reign of thirty-five years, and says that 
" ten hosts were defeated before him." He reia;ned 
from 1004 to 1034, and to him the province of 
Lothian, or that part of Bernicia which extended 
from the Tweed to the Forth, was ceded. 

The kings of the race of Kenneth were now in pos- 
session of the four kingdoms of the Picts, the Scots, 
the Strathclyde Britons, and the Angles, north of 
the Tweed, and with Malcolm another change takes 
place in the designation of the king and of the 
territory he ruled over. The king is now termed liings of ScoUa. 
Rex Scotice, and the latter loses the name of Alba- 
nia and assumes that of Scotia, but the name of 

cxlviii PEEFACE. 

Scotia was still applied to that part of his king- 
dom which had been previously termed Albania, 
and which lay between the Firth of Forth, the river 
Spey, and Drumalban. Although he ruled as king 
over the other districts, they appear still to have 
preserved their distinctive appellations, and to have 
been considered as separate provinces. It was only 
when they were fully incorporated into the kingdom 
of Scotland that the name of Scotia extended over 
the whole. Malcolmus Rex ScoticB died, according 
to Marianus Scotus, on the seventh day before the 
Kalends of December, or on the 25th of Novem- 
ber 1034. Duncan Rex Scotice, the son of his 
daughter, succeeded him, and was slain by Macbeth, 
whom he calls dux suus, on the nineteenth of the 
Kalends of September, or the 14th of Augnast 1040, 
having reigned five years from St. Andrew's Day, 
and till the day which Marianus calls the Nati vitas 
Sanctae Marise, but by which the Feast of the 
Assumption, on the 15th of August, is meant. 
Macbeth, also called Rex Scotice, was slain in August 

1057, having reigned seventeen years to the same 
Missa Sanctae Marise ; Lulach on the 17th March 

1058, having reigned from the Missa Sanctas Marise 
to the Missa Sancti Patricii ; Malcolm, son of Dun- 
can, regit Scotiam, and had reigned twenty years 
to the same Missa Sancti Patricii, that is 17th 
March 1078, when these notices were written. 

PREFACE. cxlix 



This sketch of the history of the four nations development 
which occupied the territory of the subsequent king 
dom of Scotland, shows the Scots as occupying a 
very different position in true history from that as- 
signed to them in the scheme of the early Scottish 
history propounded by John of Fordun. Appearing 
for the first time in the year 360 as a people of 
Ireland, inhabiting Ireland, and joining with other 
barbaric tribes in incursions upon the Eoman province 
in Britain, it was only about the year 498 that the 
Scots formed their first permanent settlement on 
the western shores of North Britain ; and, confined 
within limits differing but little from those of the 
modern county of Argyle, they remained a small 
Scottish colony in Britain for about 250 years, i.e., 
to nearly the middle of the eighth century, under 
their Scottish kings, without extending their terri- 
tory beyond these limits. During this time they 
were subjected for a period of between thirty and 
forty years to the rule of the Angles, and at the end 
of it they were entirely crushed and subdued by the 
Pictish monarch. There was then an interval of as 
nearly as possible one century between the termina- 
tion of the small Scottish kingdom of Dahiada and 
the subsequent Scottish kingdom founded by Ken- 
neth Mac Alpin, during which we find a series of 
Pictish princes in Dalriada. In the middle of the 
ninth century a Scottish dynasty was placed on the 


Pictish throne under Kenneth Mac Alpin, who, after 
ruling for four reigns as kings of the Picts, succeeded 
in establishing the succession permanently in the 
Scottish line, while the Scots obtained so com- 
pletely the supremacy under the monarchs of their 
own race that the kingdom became essentially Scot- 
tish, and their kiags were termed either Reges 
Alhanice, or Reges Scotorum. Under this line of 
kings and their successors, the different provinces 
forming the subsequent kingdom of Scotland came 
by degrees under their sway, until eventually they 
became kings of the whole territory of Scotland, and 
as these provinces became incorporated into the 
kingdom, it formed one compact monarchy. Such 
seems to be the true deduction from our oldest his- 
torical documents, compared with the narrative of 
Bede and other historians, writing at a period to 
make their statements of paramount authority ; and 
the question remains as one, the solution of which 
seems necessarily to complete the inquiry. How did 
this history of the Scots come to lose its true aspect, 
and transform itself into one of so different a char- 
acter as that to which it had attained when John of 
Fordun compiled his histoiy, and to what extent 
can the cause of this transformation be still traced ? 
Throughout the whole of the true history of the 
people, as recorded in the scattered notices of the 
annals, and the meagre lists of the chronicles, it is 
very apparent that the ecclesiastical element entered 
very largely into the course of their history, and 


exercised a powerful influence in the direction 
which it took ; and there seems little reason to doubt 
that this element enters equally largely into the 
causes which led to so great a change in the state- 
ment of their history, if it did not give the first im- 
pulse to it. The annals of the Christian Church in 
Scotland shed, therefore, a great light upon the 
course of its civil history ; and it is hardly possible 
to read the one aright without clearly apprehending 
the bearing and influence of the other. 

When Church historians of Scotland commence introduction of 
their narrative by stating that the period of 
the introduction of Christianity into this country is 
uncertain, and its early history involved in obscu- 
rity, they express an opinion about as completely 
opposite to the real facts of the case as can well be 
imagined. The date of its introduction into every 
part of Scotland can be stated with more than usual 
precision. The Strathclyde Britons looked to St. 
Ninian as their first apostle, and as it is recorded of 
him that he heard of the death of St. Martin of 
Tours while the first Christian Church in that 
country was being built at Whitherne, its date is 
fixed to the year 397. The Angles of Northumbria 
were converted to Christianity by Paulinus in the 
year 625. Of the Picts, the southern division were 
converted by St. Ninian of Whitherne, and the 
northern Picts by St. Columba, who came from 
Ireland in the year 563 ; and the Scots were already 
Christians when they landed in Argyleshire in the 
year 498. 

clii PEEFACE. 

Two sources, The Christianity of Scotland was thus derived 

from whence t n^ iriTi- 

derived. from two diflerent sources : that oi the Britons, the 

Angles, and the Southern Picts came from south 
Britain ; and that of the Scots and the northern 
Picts from Ireland ; and the Churches derived from 
each were very different in spii'it and in character. 
The Church of the Britons of Strathclyde and of the 
Southern Picts was more immediately founded by St. 
Ninian, who derived his teaching from Eome ; the 
Church of the Ancjles was an offshoot of that founded 
by Augustine, a direct missionary from Rome. The 
Church of the Northern Picts and of the Scots 
was derived from that founded by St. Patrick in 
Ireland. The former seem not to have differed in 
their constitution from the churches of other coun- 
tries. They possessed an episcopate in the full 
exercise of its ordinary jurisdiction and functions, 
and a secular clergy ; and, although monasticism 
existed in them to a great extent, it entered into the 
system as a distinct element attached to, but not 
coincident with, the clergy. On the other hand, 
monasticism had attained to a much more influential 
position in the Columban Church when it emerged 
from Ireland. It was a monastic church, in the 
fullest sense of the term, not merely that it pos- 
sessed monastic institutions, and that these institu- 
tions occupied a wide and prominent position in the 
Church, but that the entire Church was monastic, 
and her whole clergy embraced within the fold of 
the monastic rule. As Bede expresses it, in talking 

PEEFACE. cliii 

of her offshoot at Lindisferne : — " Omnes Presbyteri, 
" Diaconi, Can tores, Lectores, ceterique gradus eccle- 
" siastici, monachicam per omnia, cum ipso Epis- 
" copo, regulam servent" (Vit. S. Cuth. c. xvi.) 
She required the exercise of episcopal functions 
within her as much as any other chiirch, and had 
the superior order of bishops, according to canonical 
rule, for the purpose ; but, just as the tendency of 
all monasteries within a church was to obtain ex- 
emption from the rule of the diocesan Bishop, and 
even to have within themselves a resident Bishop, 
for the exercise of episcopal functions in the monas- 
tery, to whose abbot he was subject, as being under 
the monastic rule ; so when the entire Church was 
monastic, the whole episcopate was necessarily in 
this position. There was nothing in it derogatory 
to the power of episcopal orders, and to the episco- 
pal functions of which they are the source, but the 
mission, and the jurisdiction which flowed from it, 
was not in the Bishop, but in the monastery, and 
was necessarily exercised through the abbot, who 
was its monastic head. 

These two Christian systems, derived from Two churches 
churches of different character, and entering Scot- 
land from different quarters — the one from the 
south, and the other from the west— necessarily 
came ia contact with each other in the common 
field of their missionary labours, and occasionally 
superseded each other, according as the one or other 
prevailed in the different districts, and, though the 


cliv PEEFACE. 

prominent points of difference were the proper 
time for keeping Easter and the tonsure, there can 
be Httle doubt that much of the antagonism between 
them lay in the different spii'it and organization of 
The ciiurcii of ^jjg Churchss. The church founded by St. Ninian 

Nmiaa and *' 

Kentigera. originally embraced the whole of the country south 
of the Firths of Forth and Clyde ; while its popula- 
tion was entirely British, and extended beyond the 
former estuary into the regions occupied by the 
southern Picts ; but the Saxon colonies on the 
eastern shore, and the Angles who formed the king- 
dom of Bernicia, within the limits of his church, were 
pagans ; and the influence of this pagan population, 
and the decay of the Church naturally caused what 
is termed by the monastic writers an " a^iostasia." 
The Church was revived among the Britons of 
Strathclyde in the sixth centurj^, by Kentigern, who 
thus re-founded the Church in the same century with 
the arrival of St. Columba. The earlier part of his 
acts is probably fabulous ; but this seems certain, 
that, when the battle of Arderydd, in 573, estabhshed 
Rederchen as monarch of all the Strathclyde Bri- 
tons, Kentigern came from Wales with a number of 
clergy, from the monastery of Llanelwy, which he 
had founded, and re-established the Church in 
Strathclyde, of wliich Glasgow became the chief 
seat. Although the Northumbrians were converted 
m the reign of Edwin by Paulinus in the year 625, 
according to the narrative of Bede, there is reason 
to conclude that the Church of Kentigern had a 


large share in their conversion; for, according to 
the additions to the " Historia Britonum," they are 
said to have been baptized by Eun, the son of 
Urien ; while Kentigern was, according to Welsh 
tradition, either the son or the grandson of the same 
Urien. The seat of this Church was fixed at York. 
If we may judge by the dedications of the churches, 
there is reason to believe that the Church of Ken- 
tigern Hkewise extended itself beyond the Firth of 
Forth into the regions of the southern Picts. On 
the other hand, the Columban Church, the prin- The ciiurch 
cipal seat of which was the Monasteiy of lona, soon 
advanced beyond the frontiers of the northern 
Picts, and completely superseded the other Church 
over the whole territories of the Picts. In 633 the 
conquest of Northumbria by the pagan Penda, king 
of the Mercians, and the semi-pagan CeadwaUa, 
king of North Wales, and the death of Edwin, ex- 
tinguished the infant Church which had been 
founded at York ; and when the Christian Church 
was again restored by Oswald, who had dwelt in 
exile at lona during the reign of Edmund, and been 
educated by its monks, he introduced the Columban 
Church into Northumbria, which remained the sole 
Church of that country for thirty years, having its 
chief seat in the small island of Lindisfarne, where 
they founded a monastery on the exact model of 
that of lona. It is when alluding to lona at the 
time of the introduction of the Columban Church 
into Northumbria, that Bede says of it, " Cujus 



The Church 
of Wilfrid. 

ment of Colum- 
ban Church. 

" monasterium in cunctis pene Septentrionalium Scot- 
" torum, et omnium Pictorum monasteriis non parvo 
" tempore arcem tenebat, regeuclisque eorum populis 
"praeerat." (Lib. in. c. iii.) When Oswy conquered 
the province of the Picts and added it to his domin- 
ions, the Church of Northumbria was still Columban, 
and therefore that conquest produced no change in 
its ecclesiastical relations ; but when the result of 
the CouncU of "Whitby led to the departure of the 
Columban Church from Northumbria, and to the 
establishment of the ecclesiastical party of which 
Wnfrid was the head, and which identified itself 
with Eome, its influence must have extended itself 
wherever the dominion of the Angles reached. The 
chief seat of this Church was removed from Lindis- 
farne to York, which shows that the Church of 
WUfrid considered itself the representative of the 
older Church at York ; and when Wilfrid himself 
was established as bishop in that city, we are ex- 
pressly told that his diocese included the province 
of the Picts. The influence of this party must have 
been stiU further increased when Trumwin was con- 
stituted a separate bishop over the province of the 
Picts. The defeat of Ecgfrid in 685, and the over- 
throw of the Anglic rule, terminated for a time, at 
least, that influence ; and any Anglic clergy, who 
had penetrated beyond the Forth, must have fol- 
lowed Trumwin in his hasty flight from Abercorn. 
The Columban clergy Avere no doubt completely re- 
established in their possession of the whole Pictish 

PEEFACE. clvii 

Church. The influence of the Angles and of their 
Church upon the Picts had not been without its 
effect ; for Bede informs us that, in 710, Nectan, 
king of the Picts, renounced the error by which he 
and his nation had till then been held, in relation 
to the observance of Easter, and submitted, together 
with his people, to celebrate the Catholic time of 
our Lord's resurrection. He sent messengers to 
Ceolfrid, Abbot of Jarrow, in Northumberland, re- 
questing instruction, and likewise that he would 
send architects that he might build a church after 
the Eoman manner, which he promised to dedicate 
in honour of the blessed Peter, and that he and all 
his people would always follow the custom of the 
holy Eoman Apostolic Church. Ceolfrid accord- 
ingly wrote a long letter in support of the Eoman 
usages ; and Bede goes on to say, that this letter 
being read in the presence of the king, and carefully 
interpreted into his own langviage by those who 
could understand it, he rejoiced, and declared that 
he would continually hereafter observe the Eoman 
time of Easter, and that the tonsure should be re- 
ceived by his clergy. The cycles of nineteen years 
were sent throughout all the province of the Picts, 
and the nation, thus reformed, rejoiced, as being 
newly placed under the direction of St. Peter, and 
made secure under his protection. 

This change must have been accompanied by the Expulsion of 

^ i ./ Columban mon- 

introductiou of clergy of the Eoman party from astio clergy, 

^ . , and intruduc- 

Northumbria. And the contest between the secular tion of secular 


clviii PREFACE. 

clergy of that Church and the monastic priests of 
the Columban Church soon led to the latter being 
completely driven out of the Pictish territories ; for 
Tighernac records, in 717, "Expulsio familie lae 
" trans dorsum Britannic a Nectano Rege," which 
implies that Nectan had driven the whole of the 
Columban clergy across Drumalban, which separated 
the Pictish kingdom from Dalriada ; and thus the 
entire Pictish people passed over from the Columban 
to the Anglic Church. This great change evidently 
forms the subject of the "Legend of Bonifacius," on 
16th March (A pp. No. vii.) It shows us the intro- 
duction of a new clergy, and the foundation of new 
churches, which were dedicated to St. Peter, in the 
reign of a King Nectan. And the clergy thus intro- 
duced appear to be secular, as opposed to monastic. 
That such was the tradition appears from Wyntoun, 
who teUs us of this King Nectan : — 

" In Ros he fowndyd Rosmarkyne, 
Dat dowyd wes wyth kyngys sjTie, 
And made was a place cathedrals 
Be-north MuiTaue severale ; 
Quhare chanomvnys ar seculare 
Wndyr Saynt Bonyface lyvand thare." 

The legend imphes the same thing, for Bonifacius 
is accompanied by six bishops, seven presbyters, 
seven deacons, seven sub-deacons, seven acolytes, 
seven exorcists, seven lectors, and seven hostiarii. 
These formed the orders of the secular clergy ; and 
the number of bishops, including Bonifacius, being 


exactly seven, points so strongly to the seven 
provinces of the Pictish kingdom, that it seems to 
indicate the establishment of a diocesan episcopacy. 

The "Legend of St. Servanus" (App. No. vi.) also 
belongs to this period, for he is said, according to 
the chronicle in the " Scalacronica," to have entered 
Fife in the reign of Brude, brother of this Nectan ; 
and that he belonged to the same mission seems 
indicated by the fact that both he and Bonifacius 
are said to have been natione Israelitici, and that 
one of the seven bishops mentioned in the " Legend 
" of Bonifacius " is Servandus or Servanus. 

With the departure of the Columban clergy, the 
veneration of St. Columba as the apostle of the 
northern Picts seems to have been given up, at 
least by the southern portion of that people, and St. 
Peter now became the patron saint of the kingdom, 
and continued to be so till the year 736, when 
Angus, the son of Fergus, established his power by 
the defeat of Nectan himself, and the other compe- 
titors for the throne. As this king rapidly brought 
the territories of the other Pictish families under 
his sway, and even added Dalriada to his kingdom, 
he seemed desii'ous to connect a new ecclesiastical 
influence with his reign, for, in the same year that 
he completed the conquest of Dabiada, he founded 
a church at St. Andrews, in which he placed a new 
body of clergy, who had brought the relics of St. 
Andrew with them, and this apostle soon became 
the more popular patron saint of the kingdom, while 

clx rREFACE. 

the previous patronage of St. Peter disappeared from 
its annals. 

During the century which extended from the 
conquest of Dahiada by Angus MacFergiis to the 
re-establishment of the Scots under Kenneth Mac 
Alpin, St. Andrew remained the patron saint of the 
whole kingdom, and the church at St. Andrews the 
head of the Pictish Church. 
Return of Co- It is hardly possible to suppose that the Columban 
cCTgy- Qjj^-jj.(,]j ^l^^g ejected from the Pictish kingdom, and 
her clergy deprived of their ecclesiastical establish- 
ments in that part of the country, should have 
quietly acquiesced in their defeat, or given up the 
desire and the hope one day to recover their footing 
among the people whom their founder had con- 
verted ; and we may well believe that the whole of 
the Irish Church, of which they were but an offshoot, 
shared in the feeling. It is hardly possible, there- 
fore, to doubt that, among the causes which led to 
the revolution which placed a Scottish dynasty on 
the Pictish throne, not the least influential must 
have been an effort on the part of the Columban 
clergy to recover possession of their old establish- 
ments. That such was one great cause of the over- 
throw of the Pictish kingdom, is indicated in the 
" Pictish Chronicle," which states, " Deus enim eos 
" pro merito sue maUtie alienos ac otiosos heredi- 
" tate dignatus est facere : quia illi uon solum Domini 
" missam ac preceptum spreverunt ; sed in jure 
" equitatis aliis equiparari noluerent." They were 

PEEFACE. clxi 

overthrown, not only because they despised Domini 
missam ac precei^tum, i.e., the doctrine and ritual 
of the Columban Church, but because they would 
not tolerate the Church itself. If the influx of the 
secular clergy under King Nectan is indicated by 
the "Legend of St. Bonifacius," the return of the Col- 
umban clergy under Kenneth Mac Alpin seems like- 
wise shadowed forth in the "Legend of St. Adrian," 
on 4th March (App. No. viii.) He is said to have 
arrived "ad orientales Scocie partes que tunc a 
" Pictis occupabantur," and to have landed there 
with 6606 confessors, clergy, and people. These 
men, with their bishop Adrian, the Pictish kingdom 
being destroyed, dilati regno Pictorum, did many 
signs, but afterwards desired to have a residence on 
the Isle of May. The Danes, who then devastated 
the whole of Britain, came to the island, and there 
slew them. Their martyrdom is said to have taken 
place in the year 875. It wUl be observed that 
they are here said to have settled in the east part of 
Scotland, opj^osite to the Isle of May — that is, in 
Fife, — while the Picts stiU occupied it ; that the 
Pictish kingdom is then said to have been de- 
stroyed ; and that their martyrdom took place in 
875, thii'ty years after the Scottish conquest under 
Kenneth Mac Alpin. Their arrival was therefore 
almost coincident with the Scottish conquest ; and 
the large number said to have come — not the modest 
21 who arrived with Regulus, but 6606 confessors, 
clergy, and people — shows that the traditionary 


history was really one of an invasion, and leads to 
the suspicion at once that it was in reality a part of 
the Scottish occupation of the Pictish kingdom. 
That they were Scots appears from this, that the 
year 875, when they are said to have been slain 
by the Danes, falls in the reign of Constantin, son 
of Kenneth Mac Alpin, in his fourteenth year ; and 
this year the " Pictish Chronicle" records a battle 
between the Danes and the Scots, and adds that 
not long after it occisi sunt Scoti co Aclicochlam, 
which seems to refer to this very slaughter. 
The "Pictish Chronicle" likewise records that 
Kenneth Mac Alpin, in his seventh year, transferred 
the relics of St. Columba to a church which he had 
built. We learn from the " Irish Annals " that these 
relics had been removed to Ireland in the year 849, 
by the Abbot of lona. They must now have been 
brought from thence ; and there is no doubt that the 
church which Kenneth had built was that of Dun- 
keld. During the first four reigns of the house 
of Kenneth, when the kings were termed Reges 
Pictorum, Dunkeld seems to have possessed the 
primacy, as in 865 the "Irish Annals" record the 
death of " Tuathal mac Artguso primus Episco- 
" pus Fortrenn 7 Abbas DuincaiUenn ;" but when, 
after the expulsion of Eocha and Grig, the sue-, 
cession was firmly established in the main line of 
the descendants of Kenneth, and their kings came 
to be called Rigli Alhan and Reges Scotorum, 
a new change took place in the ecclesiastical re- 

PEEFACE. clxiii 

lations of the country. In the reign of Constantin 
Mac Aed, the " Pictish Chronicle" tells ns that " Con- 
" stantinus rex, et Cellachus episcopus, leges discip- 
" linasque fidei, atque jura ecclesiarum ewangeli- 
" orumque, pariter cum Scottis in coUe Credulitatis 
" prope regaU civitate Scoan devoverunt custodiri." 
We are now on historic ground. Cellach was un- 
doubtedly Bishop of St. Andrews, and the scene of 
this event was Scone, the capital of the kingdom. 
On comparing the language of this passage with 
the passage previously quoted from the same chro- 
nicle, giving the cause of the overthrow of the 
Picts, the contrast between the two is very signi- 
ficant. In the one, the Picti in jure equitatis 
aliis, that is, the Scottish clergy, equiparari 
noluerunt ; and in the other, the king and the 
Bishop of St. Andrews vowed to preserve the laws 
and discipline of the faith, pai'iter cum Scottis, — 
the thing" that the Picts would not do. From tliis 
time the church of St. Andrews became the head 
of the Scottish Church, its bishops were termed 
epscop Alhcin or episcopi Albanie, and it became 
thoroughly identified with the Scottish kingdom 
and Scottish people. 

The legends of the saints above quoted are not 
referred to as documents of historic authority, but 
as shadowino; forth ecclesiastical legends in har- 
mony with the facts indicated by the chronicles and 
annalists. This much seems certain, that the Colum- 
ban Church remained the Church of the Pictish 

clxiv PREFACE. 

kingdom till the year 710 ; that between that year 
and 7 1 7 it was superseded by a church of a different 
character, and her monastic clergy diiven out, while 
secular clergy of a different race replaced them ; 
that the kingdom, which had venerated St. Columba 
as its apostle, was placed under the patronage of St. 
Peter, and that the great power acquired twenty 
years later by Angus, son of Fergus, was accom- 
panied by the foundation, in the year 736, of the 
church of St. Andrews, and the general adoption of 
St. Andrew as the patron saint of the kingdom ; 
that a century later the establishment of a king 
of the Scottish race on the Pictish throne was 
accompanied by the return of the Scottish clergy ; 
and that the Scottish Church again acquired the 
supremacy in the reign of Constantin, under the 
primacy of St. Andrews and its bishop. This 
Church now represented in a peculiar manner the 
Scottish population, and was intimately connected 
and closely allied with the Scottish royal house 
that occupied the throne. The territory forming 
the diocese of St. Andi'ews would almost seem to 
point out the limits of the Scottish population and 
the districts actually occupied by them as a people. 
North of the Firth of Forth it comprised the whole 
of Fife, Kinross, and Gowrie — what may be called 
the central portion of the Scottish kingdom, which 
was peculiarly, the kingdom of Scone. In Angus 
and Mearns it shared the churches with the diocese 
of Brechin in a manner so irregular and unsystematic 



, 'vrith England. 

as to point to a mixed population, of whicli some of 
the villages were Scottish and some Pictish ; while 
south of the Firth of Forth it comprised the dis- 
tricts acquired from time to time by the kings of 
the Scottish race from the Northumbrian kingdom. 

Prior to the reign of Alexander the First, the Controversy 
question of the independence of the kingdom of 
Scotland, or of its subjection to the king of England 
as its Lord Paramount, had not become- the subject 
of discussion between the two countries. This 
controversy first arose under the Norman kings of 
England. It is true that, in the year 1072, King 
William the Conqueror entered Scotland with an 
army, penetrated as far as Abernethy on the Tay, 
and there received the homage of King Malcolm 
Canmore. It is true that his son William Rufus 
placed two of the sons of Malcolm, first Duncan, 
and afterwards Edgar, by force of arms upon the 
throne of Scotland. It is likewise true that several 
of the kings of the Scots of the line of Kenneth 
Mac Alpin are alleged to have done homage to the 
Anglo-Saxon kings of England, as Bretwaldas of 
Britain ; but though these facts were founded on in 
the subsequent discussion of the question, the con- 
troversy itself had not then arisen,^ and hence our 

1 Mr. Eobei-tsou, in tlie Ajjpen- 
dix to his " Scotland under its 
" Early Kings" on the English 
Claims, appears to the Editor to 
have completely disposed of the 
claims founded on the passages 

in the monkish historians prior 
to the Norman conquest. This 
paper appears to the Editor one 
of the acutest and most satisfac- 
tory of these very able essays. 

clxvi PKEFACE. 

oldest documents, the native record of the " Pictish 
" Chronicle," the " Albanic Duan," and the Irish re- 
cords, consisting of the " Synchronisms of Flann 
" Mainistreach," the " Irish additions to the Historia 
" Britonum," and the " Prophecy of St. Berchan " 
appear untainted by the introduction of fictitious 
matter through the exigencies of this controversy. 
They seem to have preserved genuine traditions of 
the early history of the country. AVhen the contro- 
versy first arose it regarded more the independence 
of the Scottish Church than that of the Scottish 
nation, and was called forth by the elections of the 
bishops of St. Andrews. In the year 1072, the 
same year in which WUliam the Conqueror invaded 
Scotland, a compact was formed by the Archbishop 
of Canterbury and the Archbishop of York, by 
which all Britain north of the Humber was given 
to the jurisdiction of the latter. The Archbishop of 
York claimed the right of consecrating the Bishop 
of St. Andrews as his suffragan, which was resisted 
by Alexander the First, who maintained that the 
Bishop of St. Andrews, as the Ejnscopus Alhanice, 
was the head of the Scottish Church, and that the 
Scottish Church was independent. It is unneces- 
sary for our purpose to follow the details of this 
controversy ; suffice it to say, that Robert, Prior of 
Scone, who had been elected during the reign of 
Alexander the First, but remained unconsecrated, 
was, in the reign of David the First, consecrated by 
Thurstan, Archbishop of York, in the year 1138, 

PREFACE. clxvii 

under reservation of the claim of the See of York, 
and the right of the See of St Andrews ; and that 
Arnold, the next bishop, was consecrated by William, 
Bishop of Murray, as the Pope's legate, in the pre- 
sence of the king, and of the bishops, abbots, and 
princes of the land. He was succeeded by Richard, 
chaplain to King Malcolm the Fourth, who was 
elected in 1163, and consecrated in 1165, "apud 
" Sanctum Andreiam in Scotia, ab Episcopis ejusdem 
" terrae." This controversy regarding the indepen- 
dence of the Scottish Church, and the independence 
of the See of St Andrews as its head, seemed to in- 
volve that of the Scottish nation likewise ; and we 
can well believe that the discussion called forth the 
highest pretensions to antiquity on behalf both of 
the Church and of the people. It is in the year 
1165, the year of the consecration of Richard, 
Bishop of St. Andrews, by the bishops of the land, 
and the year in which William the Lion commenced 
his reign, that the first of the series of Latin lists 
purporting to contain the early history of Scotland 
appeared. They consist of the Chronicle, the Descrip- 
tion of Scotland, and the " Legend of St. Andrew," 
contained in the Colbertine MS. And the form 
which the chronicles had now assumed was simply 
this, — the foundation of St. Andrews by Angus, 
the son of Fergus, king of the Picts, in the eighth 
century, is transferred back to the fourth century, 
and connected with the removal of the relics from 
Constantinople to Patras in the reign of Constan- 

clxviii PREFACE. 

tine the Great. The interval between the death of 
Alpin, the last Scottish king of Daliiada, and the ac- 
cession of Kenneth Mac Alpin, the first Scottish king 
who ruled over the Picts, extending to a century 
of Pictish rule in Dalriada, and during which time 
the foundation of St. Andrews really took place, is 
suppressed, and Alpin is made the immediate pre- 
decessor of Kenneth, and identified with his father, 
so as to unite the Scottish kingdom of Dalriada 
with the subsequent Scottish kingdom of Kenneth ; 
and, finally, the chain of connexion between them 
is completed by a genealogy of William the 
Lyon, in which his pedigree is taken through 
Kenneth Mac Alpin and the Scottish kings of Dal- 
riada to Ireland through a long catalogue of Irish 
names. By this device, the monarchy of Scotland 
appears as a continuous Scottish kingdom as far 
back as the beginning of the sixth century, while 
the foundation of St. Andrews is removed to a 
period two centuries earlier. The artificial nature 
of this junction of separate lists is apparent from 
the expression of primus rex Scottorum being 
connected with the name of Kenneth Mac Alpin. 
This was true, when he was considered as the suc- 
cessor of the old Pictish kings, — and though himself 
of the race of the Scots, removed by a century from 
the last Scottish king of Dalriada, — but it was quite 
inconsistent with the supposition that he was the 
immediate successor of the Dalriadic Scots. This 
difficulty appears to have struck the compilers of 

PEEFACE. clxix 

the subsequent chronicles, and they try to evade it 
in diiFerent ways. In the prose chronicle attached 
to the " Cronicon Elegiacum" it is said, " Iste voca- 
" tus est rex primus, non quia fuit, sed quia primus 
" leges Scotianas instituit, quas vocant leges Mac- 
" alpin." And in a later chronicle, in similar form, 
it is said of the Scottish kings of Dalriada, with a 
view to explain the apparent anomaly, " Isti omnes 
" fere interfecti sunt sed nee fuerunt reges quia non 
" dominabantur per electionem neque per sanguinem 
" sed per prodicionem." 

In the year 1174 William the Lyon was made 
prisoner by Henry, king of England, and carried 
over to Normandy. The Scots purchased his liberty 
by surrendering the independency of the nation ; 
and with the consent of the Scottish barons and 
clergy, William became the liegeman of Henry for 
Scotland and all his other territories, and in 1176 
the Church of Scotland was required to yield obe- 
dience to the English Church. In 1189 Henry, 
king of England, died, and his successor Richard 
agreed to renounce his claim to the dependence of 
Scotland for a sum of money. During this period 
the question of the right of England to supremacy 
over Scotland must have been the subject of dis- 
cussion. In the whole of this discussion, in w^hich 
both parties referred to the early legendary history 
of their respective countries, as if they possessed 
historic authority, great use was made by England 
of the Welsh tale, that Brutus was the first colonist 


clxx PREFACE. 

of the country, and had divided it among his three 
sons, Locrinus, Camber, and Albanactus. The 
forcible argument derived from it was that the kings 
of England represented the eldest son, Locrinus, and 
that the early kings of Scotland, representing the 
younger son, Albanactus, must have been in subjec- 
tion to them. This fable, in some shape or another, 
had hitherto been accepted by the Scotch, as we find 
it in the " Albanic Duan," and it is likewise alluded 
to in the " Metrical Prophecy" in the Colbertine MS. ; 
but as the controversy grew hotter, its bearing upon 
the discussion became more distasteful to the 
pleaders of the Scottish side. It was felt, as the 
" Metrical Prophecy" expresses it, — 

" Candidus Albanus, patriotis causa ruine, 
Traditione sua Scotia regna premet ;" 

and it was resolved, apparently, to get quit of it 
altogether. Accordingly, the " Cronica Brevis," 
which bears to be compiled in the year 1187, com- 
mences with this statement, " Summa annorum pri- 
" morum Scotorura, qui ante Pictos regnaverunt 
" cclx. annis et iij mensibus." In the " Albanic 
" Duan," Albanus had first settled in Scotland, and 
was succeeded by the seventy kings of the Picts, 
who in their turn were succeeded by Kenneth Mac 
Alpin, the first of the Scots. The tradition of 
Albanus or Albanactus was now put aside altogether, 
and a Scottish kingdom was placed before the Picts. 
They are said to have lasted for 260 years, which is 
as nearly as possible the duration of the Scottish 

PREFACE. clxxi 

kingdom of Dalriada, omitting the fictitious kings 
introduced ; and when we examine the list of kings 
in this chronicle, we find that it commences with 
the kings of Dalriada, from Fergus, son of Erth, to 
Alpin, the last king of them. Then follows the ex- 
pression, " et tunc trauslatum est regnum Scotorum 
" in regnum Pictorum ;" and this is succeeded by 
the Pictish kings from Cniithne, the eponymus 
of the nation, to Drust, son of Ferat, their last king, 
who was followed by Kenneth Mac Alpin. In this 
form of the chronicle, the Scottish kings are re- 
moved from their position as the immediate pre- 
decessors of Kenneth Mac Alpin, and placed bodily 
before the kings of the Picts, so as to give them a 
high antiquity, and make the Scottish kingdom 
commence 443 years before the Incarnation. 

In the year 1251, Alexander the Third did homage 
to the king of England for his English possessions. 
Henry demanded homage also for the kingdom of 
Scotland, " prout evidenter in cronicis locis multis 
" scribitur;" but Alexander excused himself on the 
ground that he could not take a step so important 
without the knowledge and approbation of his Par- 
liament. If the King of England referred to chro- 
nicles, similar documents were soon provided in 
Scotland to meet them, and we find one of them in 
the chronicle transcribed from the register of the 
priory of St. Andrews. It bears to have been com- 
piled in the year 1251. It commences with the 
names of the kings who first reigned in Scotland ; 

clxxii PEEFACE. 

and these are no other than the twenty-three kings 
of Dalriada, from Fei'gus Mac Erth to Alpin. Then 
occurs the expression, " et tunc translatum est 
" regnum Scotorum in regnum Pictorum." Then 
follow the sixty kings of the Picts, with the title 
Nomina Region Pictonim, and after them se- 
quuntur nomina regum Scotorum commencing 
with Kenneth Mac Alpin, in whose reign we are 
again in historic ground. It is remarkable that in 
this chronicle, by the addition of a hundred years to 
the period said to have elapsed from the time of 
Kenneth Mac Alpin, it is removed back one century, 
so as to meet the date when the Scottish kingdom 
of Dahiada, in point of act, came to an end. 

In 1269, the question of the independence of the 
Scottish Church was again raised, by an attempt on 
the part of the King of England to levy the tenths 
of the benefices in Scotland ; and if the prose 
chronicle attached to the " Cronicon Elegiacum" in 
the copy inserted in the " Clironicle of Melrose" 
has been rightly assigned to the year 1270, we have 
the theory again asserted that the Scottish kings 
of Dabiada were the immediate predecessors of 
Kenneth Mac Alpin ; and we find the later kings of 
Dalriada brought down a hundred years after their 
true date, and a few fictitious kings added to suit 
this theory. 

In the year 1278, in the Enghsh Parliament, 
Alexander the Third of Scotland swore fealty to 
Edward the First of England in general terms. 

PEEFACE. clxxiii 

Edward accepted it, " salvo jure et clameo, de 
" regno Scotise, cum inde loqui voluerint." Every 
act of homage on the part of Scottish kings 
seems to have revived the controversy and given 
birth to a new chronicle ; and this was followed 
in 1280 by a still more elaborate edition of 
the Scottish version of the story. It is contained 
in the chronicle quoted in the " Scalachronica," 
and bearing to be compiled in this year. The tale 
is here much more circumstantially told. We have 
the origin of the Scots, their wanderings from 
Egypt to Spain, from thence to Ireland, and from 
Ireland to Scotland, where they settled under 
Fergus son of Ferthard. Then follows the statement 
that Fergus, son of Ferthard, was the first king of 
Scotland, and he is foUowed by the Scottish kings 
of Dalriada, ending with Alpin, who is said to have 
been the last of the Scots who reigned immediately 
before the Picts, and that the duration of their reign 
before the Picts was 305 years. We have then the 
tale of the arrival of the Picts, followed by the list 
of their kings, down to Drust, the son of Ferat, 
the last of them. We have then the introduction of 
a new colony of Scots from Ireland, and the destruc- 
tion of the king and nobles of the Picts by them 
by stratagem, and the statement of the recommence- 
ment of the reign of the kingdom of the Scots after 
the failure of the kingdom of the Picts, which 
kingdom of the Scots had commenced before the 
Picts, 443 years before the Incarnation. Then 


clxxiv PEEFACE. 

follows the statement that the Picts, having been 
destroyed in this manner, Kenneth Mac Alpin reigned 
over the Scots, and was the first Scottish king after 
the Picts. This chronicle advances the fable one 
step further, for it substitutes for Fergus Mac Erch, 
Fergus son of Ferthard, who appears in the genealogy 
of William the Lyon as his remote ancestor, and 
thus suits better the distant period in which he is 
Two forms of There were thus two forms of the Scottish 
chronicle : one which seems to have originated in 
the discussion regarding the independence of the 
Church, in which the Scottish kings of Dalriada, who 
reigned historically from 498 to 741, are extended 
over the interval of a hundred years, between their 
last king and Kenneth Mac Alpin, by the interpola- 
tion of fictitious kiugs, so as to bring the last king of 
the earlier Scottish kingdom in direct contact with 
the first king of what was the real commencement 
of the dynasty of the Scottish monarchs ; while the 
foundation of St. Andrews by Angus Macrergus,king 
of the Picts, which really took place in the interval 
between the two Scottish kingdoms, is removed back 
to an early period, so as to precede the first of them. 
The second form of the chronicle seems to have been 
produced by the exigencies of the controversy with 
England regarding the indejiendence of the Scottish 
kingdom. In this form of the fable, the Scottish 
kings of Dak-iada are removed back to a distant 
period, so as to place the commencement of the 

PEEFACE. clxxv 

Scottish kingdom in the year 443 before the 
Christian era. They are followed by the whole 
list of the Pictish kings, and the last of these is suc- 
ceeded by Kenneth Mac Alpin, the founder of the 
later Scottish kingdom. 

In 1290, Edward king of England produced a 
vast body of extracts from chronicles collected from 
the monasteries in England ; but no further statement 
appears on the Scottish side till the year 1301, when 
the controversy again broke out in a stUl more 
formal shape, in consequence of the interposition of 
the Pope, who addressed a letter to the king of 
England, which was followed by his reply, and 
by two documents emanating from the Scotch. In 
these the question was fully discussed, according to 
the aspect in which it was viewed on both sides, and 
in the Scotch documents the statement now first 
appears, that the Scotch were converted to Christi- 
anity by the clergy who introduced the relics of St. 
Andrew, and that they had been converted 400 
years before the conversion of the Angles. 

The Pope again interposed in the year 1317, after 
Eobert the Bruce had firmly established himself on 
the Scottish throne ; but this time the intervention 
was on the side of the English, and had no other 
effect than to draw forth from the high-spirited king 
of the Scotch an assertion of his rights as an inde- 
pendent monarch ; but the date of this event coin- 
cides with that of the next chronicle, which was 
compiled in the same year. The lists of the kings 

clxxvi PEEFACE. 

of this chronicle is obviously taken from the same 
source as that of the "Chronicle of St. Andrews,", 
but the order of the different groups of kings is in- 
verted. It commences with the kings of the Picts, 
then follows the Scottish kings of Dalriada, who 
are immediately succeeded by the kings of the 
later Scottish kingdom, commencing with Kenneth 
Mac Alpin. That this was an artificial alteration of 
the one series of chronicles, with a view to bring 
them into conformity with the other, is apparent 
enough, because, while the Scottish kings of Dal- 
riada are placed after the Pictish kings, the ex- 
pression at the end of the former is retained, " et 
" tunc translatum est regnum Scotorum in regnum 
" Pictorum,"— an expression only applicable to a 
chronicle in which the Scottish kings of Dalriada 
precede the Pictish kings. 

This chronicle was followed three years after 
(1320) by the celebrated letter of the Scottish 
barons to the Pope, in which they vindicate the 
independence of Scotland. In this letter the 
statement is repeated, that the Scots were con- 
verted to Christianity by St. Andrew ; and the 
statement is added, that from the arrival of the 
Scots in Britain, 113 kings had reigned in the 
kingdom of Scotland. 
Two forms Such was the shape which the chronicles had 

by'ronhin. assumed when John of Fordun compiled his 
history. His object appears to have been to 
place the antiquity and continuity of the Scottish 

PREFACE. clxxvii 

kingdom upon a firmer basis, by interweaving the 
statements of these previous chronicles into one 
harmonious whole, and interpolating matter of his 
own invention where it became necessary, in order 
to compact the somewhat discordant materials 
into one consistent narrative. The leading feature 
of his scheme of history is the combination of 
the two series of chronicles into one consistent 
system. He adopts the view of the one set of 
chronicles, that the Scottish kings of Dalriada 
were the immediate predecessors of Kenneth Mac 
Alpin ; but not content with extending them over 
the century which really intervened between the 
kingdom of the Scots of Dalriada and that of Ken- 
neth Mac Alpin, by the interpolation of supposititi- 
ous kings, he likewise extends them a century further 
back, by a similar process of interpolation, so as to 
make the kingdom commence under Fergus Mac 
Erch, in the year 403, instead of the subsequent 
century ; but while he adopts the one series of 
chronicles in this respect, he likewise gives effect to 
the scheme of the other, by placing an older Scottish 
kingdom of Scotland, v/hich commenced under 
Fergus, son of Ferthard, 443 years before the Chris- 
tian era. Instead, however, of terminating this 
older kingdom with the commencement of the long 
line of Pictish monarchs, he continues it to the year 
360, when he supposes this older settlement of Scots 
to have terminated, and the Scottish people to have 
been expelled out of the country, — a part going to 

clxxviii PEEFACE. 

Ireland and part to Norway. This is immediately 
followed by the arrival of tlie relics of St. Andrew, 
and the foundation of St. Andrews. The Scots are 
then made to return under Fergus Mac Erch, forty- 
three years after their expulsion. While, however, he 
follows the earlier chronicles in placing the founda- 
tion of St. Andrews at that early period, he does 
not adopt the statement that the Scots were then 
converted to Christianity ; but finding it hkewise 
stated that this conversion took place 400 years 
before that of the Angles, he applies that to the 
date of the conversion of the Saxons in 603, and 
thus brings out that the Scots were converted to 
Christianity in the year 203. Having thus effected 
his twofold object of assigning a great antiquity to 
the Scottish kingdom, and of bringing it down so as 
to place the last king of Dalriada in immediate con- 
tact with the first king of the later Scottish king- 
dom, Kenneth Mac Alpin, his next object is to show 
that the Scots whom Kenneth led into the kingdom 
of the Picts had been brought by him out of Dal- 
riada, and were the same Scots which had formed 
the Dalriadic kingdom. He adopts as the basis of 
his narrative the same statement as that which is 
contained in the " Chronicle of Huntingdon," and a 
comparison of that chi'onicle with the text of For- 
dun will show how ingeniously he interpolates the 
matter necessary to adapt his materials to the 
scheme of his history. 



Chronicle of Huntingdon. 

Anno ab incarnacione Domini 
octingintesimo tricesimo quarto 
congressisunt Scotti cum Pictis 
in soUempnitate Paschali. Et 
plures de nobilioribus Fictorum 
ceciderunt. SicqueAlpinusRes 
Scottorum victor extitit, unde 
in superbiam elatus ab [eis altero 
conserto] bello tercio decirao 
Kl Augusti ejusdem anni a 
Pictis vincitur atque truncatur. 

cujus filius Kynadius [successlt 
in regno patris], 

qui vii9 regni sui anno, cum 
pirate Danorum, occupatis li- 
toribus, Pictos sua defendentes, 
strage maxima pertrivissent, in 
reliquos Pictorum terminos 


Postquam Dungallus obisset 
Alpinus filius Achay statim 
coronatus, regni regimen susce- 
pit, anno Domini Dcccxxxi. reg- 
navitque trihiis annis. Bellum 
contra Pictos a prcedecessori- 
bus cmptum, infatigabili labors 
continuavit, eos semper exerciti- 
hiis aid crebris irrupcionibus 
devastando: Igitur anno tercio 
sui regni, in solemnitate Pas- 
chali, Scoti cum Pictis con- 
gressi sunt, et plures de suis 
nobilibus ceciderunt ; unde fit, 
lit rex Alpinus victor existens, 
in superbiam elatus, eodem 
anno xiii. Kal. Augusti, temere 
cum eis altero conserto praslio, 
vincitur, capitur, et omni neg- 
lecta redemcione, capita de- 

Filius autem Alpini Kene- 
thus successit in regno patris, 
anno Domini Dcccxxxiv. et in 
regno Pictorum, ipsis superatis 
Anno Domini Dcccxxxix. 

Hie mira calliditate duxit 
Scotos in regno Pictorum, cujus 
hoec, ut sequitur causa fuit. . . . 

Anno deinde regni sui sexto, 
cum piratae Danorum, occu- 
patis litoribus, Pictos sua de- 
fendentes non modica strage 
prsedando maritima protrivis- 
sent, similiter et ipse Kynnedus 
in reliquos Pictorum terminos, 
montana finiuni suorum viz. 
dorsum Albanice, quod Scotice 



arma vertit, et multis occisis 
fugere compulit, sicque 

qxie nunc 

tocius Albanie 
Seocia dicitur 
p[rimus'] Scottorum Ite[x con- 
guisivit] el in ea prima super 
Scottos regnavit. 

Qui anno xii? regni sui septies 
in una die cum Pictis congre- 
diturmultisque pertritis regnum 
sibi confirmat. 

Drumalban dicitur, transiens, 
arma vertit, et, multis Pictorum 
occisis, reliquos in fugam com- 
pulit, et amhorum regnorum 
monarchiam conquisivit. Picti 
vero, reparatis aliquantulum 
Anglorum auxilio virihus, 
quatuor annis Kynnedum in- 
festabant. Sed consequenter 
postmodum inopinatis incur- 
sihus, et variis eos stragibus 
debilitans, duodecimo tandem 
anno regni sui septies uno die 
congreditur, et innumeris Pic- 
torum populis prostratis, reg- 
num deinceps de fluvio Tyne 
juxta Northumbriam ad Or- 
cadum insulas totum sibi ratifi- 
cat confirmatum. 

It is needless to follow further this gradual deve- 
lopment of the Scottish fable till it reaches the 
full-blown romance of Hector Boece. But it 
is remarkable how thoroughly it is connected 
throus;hout with St. Andrews. The ecclesiastical 
fable which disowned Columba as the apostle of the 
Picts, and lona as his chief seat, and gave an ex- 
travagant antiquity to the foundation of St. Andrews, 
commenced with that community. The perversion of 
the true history, called forth by the exigencies of the 
controversy with England, originated more or less 
with them ; and every exponent of the Scottish feble, 
as it assumed, period after period, larger dimensions, 
was connected with that diocese, until at last John 
of Fordun, a priest of the diocese of St. Andrews, 

PEEFACE. clxxxi 

undertook the task of weaving the whole into a 
formal history of the kingdom ; but while his nar- 
rative is thus distorted, Scots made to assume 
undue dimensions, both in antiquity and in import- 
ance, and a system of artificial dates applied to 
their history, yet as his narrative consists of frag- 
ments of genuine chronicles woven into a fictitious 
scheme of history, there can be no doubt that true 
events are often narrated, though accompanied by 
false dates. When John of Fordun narrates that 
the Scots were expelled in the year 360 by 
Hungus, son of Hurgust king of the Picts ; that 
this was immediately followed by the arrival of the 
relics of St. Andrew and the foundation of St. 
Andrews, and that after that the Scots returned and 
founded a new Scottish kingdom, he has in point of 
fact transplanted the true events of the century 
which mtervened between Alpin, the last king of 
Scottish Dalriada, and Kenneth Mac Alpin, the 
founder of the later Scottish kingdom, when a real 
Angus, son of Fergus, king of the Picts, conquered 
the Scots of Dalriada, received the relics of St. 
Andrew, and founded St. Andrews. That Fordun 
has in reality transplanted the events of this century 
to the earlier period is clear from this, that in the 
list of the Pictish kings he has Oengus, the son of 
Fergus, in his proper place, and seventy-nine years 
prior to him, Talargan filius Amfrud, who imme- 
diately preceded the Anglic conquest under Oswy ; 
while among the early kings he interpolates Hurgust 

clxxxii PEEFACE. 

filius Forgso, who received the relics of St. Andrew, 
and sixty-nine years prior he likewise interpolates 
Thalarger Amfrud, obviously the same kings. 


Indications From the prccedins; sketch it will be seen that 


OF HISTORY OF thc old Chronicles and Memorials which form the 

EIGHTH AND , . r 1 • 11 • f 11 • 

NINTH CEN- subject 01 this collection lall into two groups, first, 
those written in, and prior to, the eleventh century, 
which present the traditions of the country un- 
tainted by the bias produced by the subsequent 
controversy regarding the civil and ecclesiastical 
independence of Scotland ; and secondly, -those 
which have been changed and distorted by the 
pressure of the exigencies of that controversy, and 
the oldest of which is dated in 1165. 

According to the view which we have taken of 
the import of the older chronicles, written in, and 
prior to, the eleventh century, the kingdom of the 
Picts, comprising the territories reaching the Firth of 
Forth to Caithness, and from the Eastern Sea to the 
great wind and water-sheer dividing the eastern 
from the western watersheds, and known by the 
name of Drumalban, extended from the fifth cen- 
tury till the middle of the ninth centuiy, when it 
was superseded by the later kingdom of the Scots, 
founded by Kenneth Mac Alpin. The smaller Scot- 
tish kingdom of Dalriada, restricted within the 
limits of the modern county of Argyle, existed 
parallel to the great Pictish monarchy, from the 

PREFACE. clxxxiii 

year 498 to the middle of the eighth century. 
Between Alpin, the last king of Scottish Dalriada, 
and Kenneth Mac Alpin, the first king of the later 
Scottish kingdom, they place an interval of a cen- 
tury, during which Dalriada was under Pictish rule ; 
and Alpin, the last king of Scottish Dalriada, was 
thus a difierent person from Alpin the father of 
Kenneth, who lived a century later. 

The great events of this interval, which were 
affected by the subsequent controversy regarding 
the independence of Scotland, were first the foun- 
dation of St. Andrew by Angus, son of Fergus, 
king of the Picts ; and secondly, the existence 
of a Pictish kingdom in Dalriada, between the 
older and the later Scottish kingdoms ; and the 
change caused in the later chronicles by the pressure 
of the controversy regarding the independence of 
the Church was, regarding the first event, its trans- 
ference from its true date to the fourth century, by 
attaching the legend connected Avith the arrival 
of the relics of St. Andrew into Scotland in the 
eighth century to the earlier legend connected with 
their removal from Constantinople in the fourth 
century, so as to give a remote antiquity to the 
church of St. Andrews. With regard to the other 
event of the Pictish rule in Dalriada, — -the change 
produced on the chronicles by the controversy 
produced regarding the independence of Scotland 
was twofold, and led both to its suppression and 
amplification. In order to preserve the continuity 

cLxxxiv PREFACE. 

of the Scottish kingdom, the two Alpins were iden- 
tified, and the Scottish kingdom of Dakiada was 
extended over the intei'vening century. But the 
necessity of giving a much greater antiquity to the 
settlement of the Scots in the country, and a priority 
of occupation over the Picts, led to the Scottish 
kings of Dalriada being removed back, so as to 
place them entirely before the Pictish monarchy, 
and to give them a settlement in Scotland lonw 
prior to the Christian era. In this form of the fable 
the truth was preserved, that a period of Pictish 
rule did intervene between the two Scottish king- 
doms, although it was extended to the whole dura- 
tion of the Pictish monarchy, instead of being 
limited to the century of Pictish occupation in 
Dalriada. These two forms of the Scottish fable 
were finally combined in the scheme of history pro- 
pounded by John of Fordun. 

Chalmers, in his " Caledonia," early perceived an 
inconsistency between the legendary events of the 
life of Alpin, the father of Kenneth, with the facts 
recorded in the chronicles of Alpin, the last king of 
Scottish Dalriada ; for the former is said to have 
attacked the Pictish kingdom, to have fought his 
battles in the east of Scotland, and to have been 
defeated and slain at Pitelpin, said to be a corrup- 
tion of Basalpin, or the death of Alpin, in the 
Carse of Gowrie, while aU the chronicles state that 
the latter " occisus est in Gallowethia postquam eam 
" penitus destruxit et devastavit." Chalmers refers, 

PEEFACE. clxxxv 

in corroboration of the truth of this statement, to a 
charter by William the Lyou to a town of A}t, 
which implies that a place called Laicht Alpin 
was in the border between Ayrshire and Galloway ; 
and he identifies it with an old ruin called Laicht 
Castle, on the bank of Loch Doon, which separates 
the county of Ayr from that of Kirkcudbright. The 
identification, however, is wrong, for the name of 
Laicht Alpin really belongs to the farms of Meikle 
and Little Laicht, on the eastern shore of Loch 
Eyan, which are within the county of Wigton, but 
adjoin that of Ayr, and on the very line of separation 
between the two counties is a large upright pillar- 
stone, to which the name of Laicht Alpin, or the 
monument or grave of Alpin, is actually appropriated. 
There can be little doubt that a fragment of true 
history has been preserved in the chronicle, which re- 
lates that he was slain by a man who lay in wait for 
him in a wood overhanging the entrance to the ford 
of a river as he was riding through it (No. xxxii.) 
The farm of Laicht is, in point of fact, on ground 
rising up to the north from the bank of a stream 
falling into Loch Eyan. It seems strange that 
Alpin, the last Scottish king of Dalriada, should 
have borne a peculiarly Pictish name, and that, 
when driven out of Dalriada, he should have seized 
on the province of Galloway, which had a Pictish 
population. We have his designation, even in the 
oldest lists, as the son of Echach, which was as pecu- 
liarly a Scottish name. It raises the presumption 

clxxxvi PEEFACE. 

that, if his father was a Scot, his mother must have 
been Pictish, and that he had been adopted into her 
tribe. The case is exactly analogous to that of Tal- 
lorgan Mac Aiufrid, whose father was a brother of 
Oswy, king of the Angles, but whose mother was 
Pictish, through whom he had a Pictish name, and 
finally succeeded to the Pictish throne. The " Irish 
" Annals" know of but one Alpin, i.e., the Alpin who 
succeeded Drust as king of the Picts in 726, and 
was driven out, and his territories taken from him, 
by Angus, son of FergTis, king of the Picts, in 728. 
Neither the " Irish Annals " nor the " Pictish Chro- 
" nicle " give the name of his father, which raises a 
suspicion that he was an interloper ; and it is hardly 
possible to suppose that there should have been an 
Alpin king of the Picts from 726 to 728, who was 
expelled, and his territories taken from him, by 
Angus, son of Fergus, king of the Picts, and whose 
existence is known to the " Irish Annals," and that 
there should have been some years afterwards a 
different person appearing as king of Scottish Dal- 
riada, who also bore the Pictish name of Alpin, and 
was expelled from Scottish territories by the same 
Angus, but whose separate existence was unknown 
to the " Irish Annals." On the assumption that they 
were the same person, and that there was but one 
Alpin, his history becomes clear and consistent. 
The son of the Scottish king Echach, by a Pictish 
princess, he became king of the Picts in 726, by the 
ejection of his predecessor, Drust, while his brother 

PKEFACE. ekxxvii 

Echaid became king of Dalriada by the ejection of 
Dungal ; and probably the succession of the two 
brothers to their respective thrones was produced 
by the same revolution. Expelled from his Pictish 
territories in 728, he took refuge in Dalriada, where 
he succeeded the same Dungal, who had again ob- 
tained the throne. After the death of his brother 
Echach, and after he was again expelled from Dal- 
riada by the same Angus in 741, he seized upon the 
Pictish territory in Galloway, where he was slain 
after having subdued it. 

The father of Kenneth who lived a century later, 
bore likewise the Pictish name of Alpin, from which, 
as the chronicles are agreed in stating Kenneth, 
his son, to be of Scottish race, we may infer that 
his mother was Pictish. The " Chronicle of Hun- 
" tingdon " contains an account of events in the 
life of this Alpin and his son Kenneth which are 
not to be found elsewhere, and which have been 
adopted by Fordun. It states that, " in the year 
" 834, the Scots encountered the Picts on Easter 
" Day, when many of the Pictish nobles fell, and 
" Alpinus rex Scotorum was victorious, and that 
" on the 1 3th day of the Kalends of August in the 
" same year he was defeated by the Picts and slain. 
" That his son Kenneth, in the seventh year of his 
" reign, when the Danish pirates have occupied the 
" shores, destroyed the Picts with a great slaughter, 
" passed into the remainder of their territories, 
" turned liis arms against them, and having slain 

clxxxviii PEEFACE. 

" many, compelled them to fly, and that thus he re- 
" gained the monarchy of the whole of Albania, and 
" first reigns in it over the Scots. That in the twelfth 
" year of his reign he encountered the Picts seven 
" times in one day, and having destroyed many, 
" he confirmed his kingdom, and reigned twenty- 
" eight years." This seems likewise a fragment of 
true history. If Kenneth succeeded Alpiu in 834, 
and reigned twenty-eight years, this would place 
his death in the year 862. The "Irish Annals" 
record his death in 858, but the " Pictish Chronicle" 
enables us to fix the exact year, for it states that he 
died in the Ides of February, on the third day of 
the week ; and the Ides of February fell on a 
Tuesday, in the year 860. This chronicle, there- 
fore, post-dates the commencement of his reign two 
years, which really began in the year 832. The 
seventh year of his reign thus falls in the year 839; 
and in this year the " Irish Annals " record the great 
battle by the Genntib or Danes against the Firu 
Fortren, or men of Fortren, in which Euganan Mac 
Angusa, king of the Picts, Bran his brother, Aed 
Mac Boanta the Pictish king of Dalriada, and many 
others were slain. It was this great defeat of the 
Picts which enabled Kenneth with his Scots to 
obtain possession of the rest of their territories. 
The " Pictish Chronicle " records the reigns of two 
Pictish kings after Euganan, viz., Wrad son of 
Bargot, three years, and Bred, one year, whose joint 
reigns thus amounted to four years. This brings 

PREFACE. clxxxix 

us to the end of 843,^and in his twelfth year, which 
falls in the year 844, he defeated the Picts seven 
times in one day, and confirmed his kingdom. If 
he reigned twenty-eight years, this leaves sixteen 
years of his reign, which is the length of the reign 
given to him in the " Pictish Chronicle," after the 
last king of the Picts. The later chronicles add 
three more kings to the Picts, Kinat son of Ferat, 
one month, Brude son of Fotel, two years, and 
Drust son of Ferat, three years, whose joint reigns 
amount to six years, and the last of whom was slain 
at Scone. This brings us to the year 850, the era 
from which the dates are reckoned in the later 
chronicles, which seem to have regarded Scone as 
the centre of the kingdom, and framed their lists of 
kings with esjaecial reference to its occupation ; and 
this is the year to which the tale of the slaughter of 
Pictish nobles by the Scots at Scone belongs. 

If in these events, then, some fragments of real 
history have been handed down to us, the question 
naturally arises. Where did the Scots come from 
who founded this later Scottish kingdom under 
Kenneth Mac Alpin ? It is thus answered by the 
later chronicles, " Hie mii-a caUiditate duxit Scotos 
" de Ergadia in terra Pictorum ;" but this ob- 
viously belongs to the artificial system by which 
the later kingdom of the Scots was immediately 
connected with the earlier Scottish kingdom of 
Dalriada. The older documents are silent on the 
subject, with the exception of St. Berchan, who 


calls Kenneth the first king of the men of Erin. 
It is true that the " Pictish Chronicle " states of 
Kenneth, " Iste vero, biennio antequam veniret 
" Pictaviam, DaMete regnum suscepit ;" but this 
chronicle places the accession of Kenneth in a year 
corresponding to the twelfth year of his reign 
according to the " Chronicle of Huntingdon," or 844, 
and this would place his accession to the kingdom 
of Dabiada in the year 842, three years after the 
great battle in which Euganan mac Angus, a king of 
the Picts, and Aed mac Boanta, king of Dalriada, 
were slain. The expression. in the "Pictish Chro- 
" nicle," " Pictavia autem a Pictis est nominata ; 
" quos, utdiximus, Cinadius delevit," implies that it 
had originally contained some account of the de- 
struction of the Picts which has been omitted by 
subsequent transcribers. The two authors to whom 
the documents of which transcripts are preserved in 
the Colbertine MS. appear to have been known are 
Giraldus Cambrensis and Ranulph Higden. In the 
treaty " De Instructione Principum" by the former, 
there is preserved an account of the destruction of 
the Picts (No. xxvii.) In this account the Scots are 
said to have been settled in Galloway, and to have 
slain the chief men of the Pictish nation by a 
stratagem, at a meeting to which they were invited 
by the Scots. The same account is given in an 
abridged form by Ranulph Higden, and is repeated 
in precisely the same terms in the chronicle (No. 
XXXIX.) In the two latter it immediately pre- 

PEEFACE. cxci 

cedes an account of the reign of Kenneth Mac Alpin, 
obviously taken from the same source with the 
" Pictish Chronicle." In the chronicle preserved 
in the " Scalachronica," the same account is placed 
between the last king of the Picts and the reign 
of Kenneth Mac Alpin. By this account a colony 
of Scots settled in Galloway, where they were 
mixed with the Picts, spread from that country 
into Argyle and the Isles, and in the reign of 
Drust, the son of Feradac, destroyed the Picts 
by inviting them to a general council, where they 
slew the king and the chief nobles. As the 
chronicle says of Drust, the last king, that he 
was slain at Scone ^^(^''^ traisoun, it is clear that 
this event falls under the year 850, when Kenneth 
Mac Alpin obtained possession of Scone ; and the 
" Prophecy of St. Berchan" alludes to the same event 
as having taken place at Scone. According to these 
authorities, the Scots whom Kenneth led into Pict- 
land were not the same colony of Scots who had 
founded the kingdom of Dalriada, but came out of 
Galloway, where they had lived mixed with the 
Picts, and spread from thence into Argyle and the 
Isles. There is, however, in the " Life of St. Cadroe," 
a very remarkable account of the wanderings of the 
Scots, which differs from aU others. They are there 
said to have entered Ireland, " to have obtained pos- 
" session of Cloyne, then Armagh, and the whole 
" country between Loch Earne and Loch Neagh, then 
" Kildare, Cork, and finally to have entered Benchor 

cxcii PREFACE. 

" in Ulster ; then, after the expiration of many years, 
" they pass over into lona, and proceed by the river 
" Rosis to occupy the region of Rossia, and finally 
" possess the cities of Eigmonath and Bellathor, 
" situated at a distance from it." The whole of the 
cities here mentioned were celebrated ecclesiastical 
establishments, and this legend seems to indicate the 
progress of an ecclesiastical party. The latter part 
of it can be identified. From Ireland they proceed 
to the isles, from thence they enter Rossia by the 
river Rosis. Rossia is of course the province of 
Ross; and the Rosis is the river Rasay, the old name 
of the Blackwater, which rises in the small lake 
called Loch Droma, on the ridge separating the 
eastern and western watershed, and flows through 
the long valley leading from near the head of Loch 
Broom till it falls into the Conan at Contin, some 
miles above Dingwall. From thence they proceed 
southwards to Rigmonath, the old name of St. 
Andrews, and to Bellathor, which must have been 
situated at or near Scone. The termination of the 
wanderings of this colony of Scots connect them at 
once with the invasion of Kenneth Mac Alpin, and 
the settlement of the Scots in his time at St. Andrews, 
his brother and successor, Donald Mac Alpin, having 
died, according to the " Pictish Chronicle," at Bell- 
athor, and according to the " Cronicon Elegiacum " 
at Scone. The founder of the settlement of the 
Scots in Galloway is said, in the " Scalachronica," 
to have been Redda, and he seems to have been 

PREFACE. cxciii 

the same person who is placed by Fordun among 
the early kings under the name of Rether, and 
is said to have brought a large body of men from 
Ireland, and to have entered Britain with them, 
along with the Scots of the islands, and those in- 
habiting the mainland of Albania. It is remarkable 
enough that Hector Boece gives this colony a direc- 
tion which exactly corresponds with the line of that 
invasion given in the " Life of Cadroe." He 
says, " that he passed over from Ireland into the 
" Hebrides, and there having collected forces in 
" Albion, he entered Loch Broom, and proceeding 
" to the south, arrived at DingwaU, and thence 
" penetrated into the south of Britain." 

By these legends, the Scots, led by Kenneth 
Mac Alpin, are made to emerge from Galloway, the 
very district, to which Alpin, the last king of Dal- 
riada, led his Scots on his expulsion by Angus king 
of the Picts. We know, from the "Chi'onicle of 
" Huntingdon," that the Danish pirates played a 
great part in the revolution which placed Kenneth, 
a man of Scottish race, on the throne of the Picts. 
The Norwegian or Danish pirates appeared on the 
west coast in the end of the eighth century, and the 
" Irish Annals " record their frequent incursions on 
the coasts of Ireland and Scotland, while, at this 
very time, the Gallgaeclhel, or Gallwegians, appear 
as a body of Celtic pirates, taking part in their 
ravages ; and at the same period a great effort 
appears to have been made by the Scottish clergy 


cxoiv PEEFACE. 

to repossess the churches in Scotland of which they 
had been deprived in the early part of the preced- 
ing century. It would appear, therefore, that these 
several bodies were combined in the revolution 
which overthrew the Pictish kingdom, and placed 
Kenneth Mac Alpin, with his Scots, on the throne ; 
and this exactly corresponds with the indications 
given us of the causes which led to this revolution ; 
for the Picts had, according to the " Irish Annals," 
sustained a great defeat from the Danish pirates, 
and Galloway was the very region to which Alpin 
the last king of Scottish Dalriada had fled, and 
which he had subdued, while the return of the 
Scottish clergy, who had been expelled by Nectan, 
king of the Picts, and their recovery of their old 
benefices, formed an important element in the 
foundation of the new kingdom. 

Such considerations are offered more as specula- 
tions than as positive deductions from historic facts ; 
but in this attempt to discriminate between what 
are artificial alterations made in the structure of 
these old chronicles and hsts of kings to suit the 
exigencies of a controversy in which the feelings of 
the nation, and the supposed honour of the country, 
were deeply involved, and what are the fragments 
of real history conveyed under the form of legendary 
narrative, it may not, it is hoped, be considered 
foreign to the object of this Preface to place them, 
such as they are, before the reader. 

The Editor has gone over the ground of the early 

PREFACE. cxcv 

civil and ecclesiastical annals of Scotland, perhaps 
too minutely, at the risk of wearying the reader 
with a twice-told tale ; but his object has been to 
endeavour to indicate the causes which appear to 
have led to the gradual development of a fictitious 
scheme of history, and the extent to which the few 
and scattered facts contained in these meagre lists 
and annals can be used in reconstructing, at least 
in its leading features, the true history of that early 



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^]' mMou>^ ^lid awi^.-vjv^w ati;|adim- tua?rifitn(2n?t»t^'' 

6^t>AMeiiAxttt!(iy'v '*st(»t^.fr tin ii^ffiuTtpirtcyT^rc^flia']' 

pitt.^T vCeOithttf *)t^ ffmwdlr V^^l*ftl5^irH;iivmo dj .vw 

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4Vii wdi . 61 " Utni .yvv. fl" '^T^- 

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m if^ ut] t)ittttiii3 ci uatn?ftic 
tift/jj^ CI ics^nvto (u<2 ma 
"Unf alinioiJ AroKio(c& "inix 

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ivudftauV^f wmmfl d^ filHrtimit 
fr5»ttu«I^pn 'Cc\^\^f raVti »nt^<» 

regnu Ae^^tnws amiodjiiifta 
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vt^Tjilhii etx(umai'ii)ief- op*^ 

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IT£T8 ^tawoy 


THE PICTISH CHRONICLE, dcccclxxi.-dccccxcv. 



PICTI propria lingua nomen habent a picto corpore ; yo\. 27. 
eo quod, aculeis ferreis cum atramento, variarum '■*'^*''- 
figurarum stingmate annotantur. Scotti qui nunc corrupts 
vocantur Hibernienses quasi Sciti, quia a Scithia regions 
venerunt, et inde originem duxerunt ; siue a Scotta filia 
Pharaonis regis Egypti, que fuit ut fertur regina Scottorum. 
Sciendum vero est quod Britones in tertia mundi etate 
ad Britanniam venerunt. Scite autem, id est, Scotti, in 
quarta etate Scociam, siue Hiberniam obtinueruut. Gentes 
Scitie albo crine nascuntur ab assiduis nivibus ; et ipsius 
capOli color genti nomen dedit, et inde dicuntur Albani : 
de quibus originem duxerunt Scoti et Picti. Horum 
glauca oculis, id est, picta inest pupilla, adeo ut uocte 
plusquam die cernant. Albani autem vicini Amazonibus 
fuerunt. Gothi a Magog filio Japheth nominati putantur, 
de similitudine ultime sillabe ; quos veteres Greci magis 
Gethas, quam Gothos, vocaverunt. Gens fortis et poten 
tissima, corporum mole ardua, armorum genere terribilis. 
De quibus Lucanus, 

Hinc Dacus premat, inde Gethi incurrant Hiberis. 

Daci autem Gottorum soboles fuerunt : et dictos putant 
Dacos quasi Dagos, quia de Gottorum stirpe creati sunt : 
de quibus ille, 

Ibis arcos procul usque Dacos. 

Scithe et Gothi a Magog origiuem traxerunt. Scithia, 
quoque et Gothia, ab eodem Magog filio Japhet fertur cong- 

til I) ttrf|EitK.ift^ fA^xuA cUd 

4Vnnn^^ ♦4Vw4W Wnt^ft 
rt»latiu vf^' att.ftdti^witT 

imcnu tmtc^iAt'fcmifai 

^'cAjeA ^}li0 annul tm{u,^t\? 
itegmt}) filJ! Wiicufll uanf.ut* 


THE PICTISH CHRONICLE, dcccclxxi.-dccccxcv. 



PICTI propria lingua nomen liabent a picto corpore ; yo\. -n. 
eo quod, aculeis ferreis cum atramento, variarum ""*''• 
figurarum stiugmate annotantur. Scotti qui nunc corrupts 
vocantur Hibernienses quasi Sciti, quia a Scithia regions 
venerunt, et inde originem duxerunt ; siue a Scotta iilia 
Pharaonis regis Egypti, que fuit ut fertur regina Scottorum. 
Sciendum vero est quod Britones in tertia mundi etate 
ad Britanniam venerunt. Scite autem, id est, Scotti, in 
quarta etate Scociam, siue Hiberniam obtinuerunt. Gentes 
Scitie albo crine nascuntur ab assiduis nivibus ; et ipsius 
capilli color genti nomen dedit, et inde dicuntur Albani : 
de quibus originem duxerunt Scoti et Picti. Horum 
glauca oculis, id est, picta inest pupilla, adeo ut uocte 
plusquam die cernant. Albani autem vicini Amazonibus 
fuerunt. Gothi a Magog filio Japheth nomiuati putantur, 
de similitudine ultime sillabe ; quos veteres Greci magis 
Gethas, quam Gothos, vocaverunt. Gens fortis et poten 
tissima, corporum mole ardua, armorum genere terribilis. 
De quibus Lucanus, 

Hinc Dacus premat, inde Gethi incurrant Hiberis. 

Baci autem Gottorum soboles fuerunt : et dictos putant 
Dacos quasi Dagos, quia de Gottorum stirpe creati sunt : 
de quibus ille, 

Ibis arcos procul usque Dacos. 

Scithe et Gothi a Magog originem traxerunt. Scithia, 
quoque et Gothia, ab eodem Magog filio Japhet fertur cong- 


nominata : cujus terra olim ingens fuit ; nam ab oriente 
Indie, a septentrione, per paludes Meotidas, inter Danubium 
et oceanum, usque ad Germanie fines porrigebatur. Postea 
minor effecta est a dextra orientis parte qui oceanus Siri- 
cus conditur, usque ad mare Caspium, quod est ad occasum. 
De hiac a meridie usque ad Caucasi jugum deducta est ; 
cui subjacet Hircania ab occasu : habens pariter gentes 
multas, propter terrarum infecunditatem, late vagantes, ex 
quibus quedam agros iticolunt ; quedam portentuose ac 
truces, carnibus humanis, et eorum sanguine, vivunt. 
Scithie plures terre sunt locupletes, inhabitabiles tum 
plures. Namque in plerisque locis auro et gemmis afflu- 
ant ; griphorum immanitate accessus liomiaum rarus est. 
Smaragdis autem optimis hec patria est. Cianeus quoque 
lapis, et cristallus pui'issimus Scithie est. Habent et 
flumina magna, Oscorim, Fasidem, et Araxen. Prima 
Europe regio Scithia inferiorum, que e Meotidis paludibus 
incipiens inter Danubium et oceanum septentrionalem, 
usque ad Germaniam porrigitur : que terra generaliter 
propter barbaras gentes quibus inhabitata barbarica dicitur. 
Hujus pars prima Alania est, que ad Meotidas paludes 
pertingit. Post banc Dacia, ubi et Gotliia. Deinde Ger- 
mania, ubi plurimam partem Suevi incoluerunt. In partes 
Asiatice Scithie sunt gentes que posteros se Jasonis cre- 
dunt : albo crine nascuntur ab assiduis nivibus. De 
his ista sufficiunt. 

Oruidne filius Cinge, pater Pictorum habitantium in 
hac insula, c. ahnis regnavit. 

Vij. filios habuit. Hec sunt nomina eorum : Fib, Fidach, 
Floclaid, Fortrenn, Got, Ce, Circinn. 

Circin Ix. regnavit. 

Fidaich xl. 

Fortrenn Ixx. 

Floclaid xxx. 

Got xij. 

Ce XV. 

Fibaid xxiiij. 


Gede olgudach Ixxx. 
Denbecan c. 
Olfinecta Ix. 
Guidid gaed brechach 1. 
Gest gurcich xl. 
Wurgest XXX. 

JDrude bont, a quo xxx. Brude regnaverunt Hiberniam 
et Albaniam per centum 1. annorum spacium, xlviij. annis 
reguavit. Id est 

Brude pant. 

Brude urpant. 

Brude leo. 

Brude uleo. 

Brude gant. 

Brude urgant. 

Brude gnith. 

Brude urgnith. 

Brude fecir. 

Brude urfecir. 

Brude cal. 

Brude ureal. 

Brude cint. 

Brude urcint. 

Brude fet. 

Brude urfet. 

Brude ru. 

Brude eru. 

Brude gart et urgart. 

Brude cinid. 

Brude urcnid. 

Brude uip. 

Brude uruip. 

Brude grid. 

Brude urgrid. 

Brude mund. 

Brude urmund. 

(jrilgidi c. 1. annis regnavit. 


Tharain c. 

Morleo xv. 

Deocilunon xl. 

Cimoiod filius Arcois vij. 

Deoord 1. 

Bliesblituth v. 

Dectotr'ic frater Diu xl. 

Usconbuts XXX. 

Carvorst xl. 

Deo ardivois xx. 

Vist 1. 

Ru c. 

Gartnaith loc, a quo Garnart iiij. regnavere, ix. annis reg- 

Breth filius Buthut vij. 

Vipoig namet xxx. annis regnavit. 

Canutulachama iiij. annis regnavit. 

Wradech uecla ii. annis regnavit. 

Gartnaich diuberr Ix. annis regnavit. 

Talore filius Achivir Ixxv. annis regnavit. 

Drust filius Erp c. annis regnavit et c. bella peregit ; ix 
decimo anno regni ejus Patricius episcopus sanctus ad 
Hibernian! pervenit insulam. 

Talore filius Aniel iiij. annis regnavit. 

Necton morbet filius Erip xxiiij. regnavit. Tertio anno 
regni ejus Darlugdach abbatissa Cilledara de Hibernia exu- 
lat pro Christo ad Britanniam. Secundo anno adventus sui 
inimolavit Nectonius Aburnethige Deo et Sancte Brigide 
presente Dairlugdach que cantavit alleluia super istam 

Optulit igitur Nectonius niagnus filius Wirp, rex omnium 
provinciarum Pictorum, Apurnethige Sanote Brigide, usque 
ad diem judicii, cum suis finibus, que posite sunt a lapide in 
Apurfeirt usque ad lapidem juxta Ceirfuill, id est, Lethfoss, 
et inde in altum usque ad Athan. Causa autem oblationis 
hec est. Nectonius in vita julie manens fratre suo Drusto 
expulsante se usque ad Hiberniam Brigidam sanctam petivit 


ut postulasset Deum pro se. Orans autem pro illo dixit : Si 
pervenies ad patriam tuam Dominus niiserebitur tui : reg- 
num Pictorum in pace possidebis. 

J_)rest Gurthinmoch xxx. annis regnavit 

Galanan erilich xij. annis regnavit. 
Da Drest, id est, Brest filius Gyrom, id est, Brest filius 
Wdrost V. annis conregnaverunt. Drest filius Girom solus 
V. annis regnavit, 

Garthnach filius Gii'oni vij. annis regnavit. 

Cailtram filius Girom uno anno regnavit. 

Talorg filius Muircholaich xi. annis regnavit. 

Brest filius Munait uno anno regnavit. 

Galam cennaleph uno anno regnavit. 

Cum Briduo i. anno. 

Bridei filius Mailcon xxx. annis regnavit. In octavo anno 
regni ejus baptizatus est sancto a Columba. 

Gartnart filius Bomelch xi. annis regnavit. 

Nectu nepos Uerd xx. annis regnavit, 

Cinioch filius Lutrin xix. annis regnavit. 

Garnard filius Wid iiij. annis regnavit. 

Breidei filius Wid v. annis regnavit. 

Talore frater eorum xii. annis regnavit. 

Tallorcen filius Enfret iiij. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait filius Donnel vj. annis regnavit et dimidium. 

Drest frater ejus vij. annis regnavit, 

Bredei filius Bill xxi. annis regnavit. 

Taran filius Entifidich iiij. annis regnavit. 

Bredei filius Derelei xi. annis regnavit. 

Necthon filius Derelei xv. annis regnavit. 

Drest et Elpin congregaverunt v. annis. 

Onnist filius Urguist xxx. regnavit. 

Bredei filius Wirguist ij. annis regnavit. 

Ciniod filius Wredech xij. annis regnavit. 

Elpin filius Wroid iij. annis regnavit et dimidium. 

Drest filius Talorgen iiij. vel v. annis regnavit, 

Talorgen filius Onnist ij. annis et dimidium regnavit. 

Canaul filius Tarl'a v. annis regnavit. 


Castaiitin filius Wrguist xxxv. aiinis regnavit. 
Unuist filius Wrguist xij. annis regnavit. 
Drest filius Constantini, et Talorgen filius Wthoil iij 
annis conreguaverunt. 

Uven filius Vnuist iij. annis regnavit. 
Wrad filius Bargoit iii. et, 
Bred uno anno regnaverunt. 

ivinadius igitur filius Alpini, primus Scottorum, rexit 
feliciter istam annis xvi. Pictaviam. Pictavia autem a 
Pictis est nominata ; quos, ut diximus, Cinadius delevit. 
Deus enim eos pro nierito sue malitie alienos ac otiosos 
hereditate dignatus est facere : quia illi non solum Domini 
missam ac preceptum spreverunt ; sed et in jure equitatis 
aliis equi parari noluerunt. Iste vero, biennio antequam 
veniret Pictaviam, Dalriete regnum suscepit. Septimo 
anno regni sui, reliquias Sancti Columbe transportavit ad 
ecclesiam quam construxit, et invasit sexies Saxoniam ; et 
concremavit Dunbarre atque Marios usurpata. Britanni 
autem concremaverunt Dubblain, atque Danari vastaverunt 
Pictaviam, ad Cluanan et Duncalden. Mortuus est tandem 
tumore ani, idus Februarii feria tertia in palacio Fothuirta- 

Dunevaldus, frater ejus, tenuit idem regnum iiii. annis. In 
hujus tempore, jura ac leges regni Edi filii Ecdach fece- 
runt Goedeli cum rege suo in Fothiurthabaicth. Obiit in 
palacio Cinn Belachoir idus Aprilis. 

Oonstantinus filius Cinadi regnavit annis xvi.Pi-imo ejus 
anno Maelsechnaill rex Hibernensium obiit ; et Aed filius 
Niel tenuit regnum ; ac post duos annos vastavit Amlaib, 
cum gentibus suis, Pictaviam, et habitauit earn, a kalendis 
Januarii usque ad festum Sancti PatriciL Tertio iterum 
anno Amlaib, trahens centum, a Constantino occisus est. 
Pavdo post ab eo bello in xiiij. ejus facto in Dolair inter 
Danarios et Scottos, occisi sunt Scoti co Achcochlam. Nor- 
manni annum integrum degerunt in Pictavia. 


Jiidus tenuit idem i. anno. Ejus etiam brevitas nil his- 
torie memorabile commendavit ; sed in civitate Nrurim est 

iliochodius autem filius Run regis Britannorum, nepos 
Cinadei ex filia, regnavit annis xi. Licet Ciricium filium alii 
dicunt hie regnasse ; eo quod alumpnus ordinatorque Eoch- 
odio fiebat. Cujus secundo anno Aed filius Neil moritur ; ac 
in ix. ejus anno, in ipso die Cirici, ecUpsis solis facta est. 
Eochodius, cum alumpno suo, expulsus est nunc de regno. 

JLfonivaldus filius Constantini tenuit regnum xi. annos. 
Normanni tunc vastaverunt Pictaviam. In hujus regno hel- 
ium est factum InnisibsoUan, inter Danarios et Scottos : 
Scotti habuerunt victoriam. Opidum Pother occisum est a 

Oonstantinus filius Edii tenuit regnum xl. annos. Cujus 
tertio anno Normanni predaverunt Duncalden, omnemque 
Albaniam. In sequenti utique anno occisi sunt in Sraith- 
h'erni Normanni, ac in vi. anno Constantinus rex, et Cel- 
lachus episcopus, leges discipHnasque fidei, atque jura 
ecclesianun ewangeliorumque, pariter cum Scottis in colle 
credulitatis, prope regali civitati Scoan devoverunt cus- 
todiri. Ab hoc die collis hoc meruit nomen, id est, collis 
credulitatis. Et in suo octavo anno cecidit excelsissimus 
rex Hibernensium et archiepiscopus, apud Laignechos, id 
est, Cormace filius Culemian. Et mortui sunt in tempore 
hujus, Doneualdus rex Britannorum, et Duuenaldus filius 
Ede rex eligitur; et Flann filius Maelsethnaill, et Niall filius 
Ede, qui regnavit tribus annis post Flann, etc. Bellum 
Tinemore factum est in xviii. anno inter Constantinum et 
Regnall, et Scotti habuerunt victoriam. Et bellum Duin- 
brunde in xxxiiij. ejus anno ubi cecidit filius Constantini. 
Et post imum annum mortuus est Dubucan filius Indrech- 
taig, mormair Oengusa. Adalstan filius Advar rig Saxan, et 
Eochaid filius Alpini, mortui sunt. Et in senectute decrepi- 
tus baculum cepit, et Domino servivit : et regnum mandavit 
Mael filio Domnail. 


JMaelcolaim fiKus Domnaill xi. annis regnavit. Cum exer- 
citu suo Maelcolaim perrexit in Moreb, et occidit Cellach. 
In vii? anno regni sui predavit Anglicos ad amnem Thesis, et 
multitudinem rapuit hominum, et multa armenta peco- 
nim : quam predam vocaverunt Scotti predara Albidosorum 
idem Nainndisi. Alii autem dicunt Constantinum fecisse 
banc predam querens a rege, id est, Maelcolaim, regnum dari 
sibi ad tempus hebdomadis, ut visitaret Anglicos. Verum 
tamen non Maelcolam fecit predam, sed instigavit eum 
Constantinus, ut dixi. Mortuus est autem Constantinus in 
X. ejus anno sub corona penitenti in senectute bona. Et 
occiderunt viri na Moerne Malcolaim in Fodresach id est 
in Claideom. 

Indulfus temiit regnum viii. annis. In hujus tempore 
oppidum Eden vacuatum est, ac relictum est Scottis usque 
in hodiemum diem. Classi Somarlidiorum occisi sunt in 

Niger filius Maelcolaim regnavit v. annis. Fothach epis- 
copus pausA\it. [Bellum] inter Nigerum [et] Caniculum 
super Dorsum Crup, in quo Niger liabuit victoriam : ubi 
cecidit Ducliad abbas Duncalden et Dubdon satrapas 
Atboclilack Expulsus [est] Niger de regno, et tenuit Cani- 
culus brevi tempore. Domnal filius Cairill mortuus est. 

Culenring v. annis regnavit. Marcan filius Breodalaig 
occisus est in ecclesia Sancti Micbaelis. Leot et Sluagadach 
exierunt ad Eomam. Maelbrigde episcopus pausavit. Cel- 
lach filius Ferdalaig regnavit. Maelbrigde filius Dubican 
obiit. Culen et frater ejus Eochodius occisi sunt a Britoni- 

Cinadius filius Maelcolaim regnavit annis. Statim 

predavit Britanniam ex parte. Pedestres Cinadi occisi sunt 
maxima cede in Moin Vacornar. Scotti predaverunt Saxo- 
niam ad Stanmoir, et ad Cluiam, et ad Stangna Dera'm. 
Cinadius autem vallavit ripas vadorum Forthin. Post 
annum perrexit Cinadius, et predavit Saxoniam, et traduxit 
filium regis Saxonum. Hie est qui tribuit magnam civi- 
tatem Brechne Domino. 



" HISTORIA BRITONUM," dcccclxxvii. 

MS, BRIT. MUS. HAKL. 3859. 

[_vxJuoDEN genuit Beldeg, genuit Beornec, genuit Gech- 
brond, genuit Aluson, genuit Inguec, genuit Aedibrith, 
genuit Ossa, genuit Eobba, genuit Ida. Ida autem duode- 
cem filios habuit, quorum nomina sunt Adda, Aeadldric, 
Decdric, Edric, Deothere, Osmer, et unam reginam, Bear- 
nocli, Ealric. Ealdric genuit Aelfret, ipse est Aedlferd Fle- 
saur : nam et ipse habuit filios septem quorum nomina sunt 
Anfrid, Osguald, Osbiu, Osguid, Osgudu, Oslapf, Offa. 
Osguid genuit Alcfrid et Aelfguin et Echfird. Echgfrid 
ipse est qui fecit bellum contra fratruelem suum qui erat 
rex Pictorum nomine Birdei et ibi corruit cum omni rubore 
exercitus sui, et Picti cum rege suo victores extiterunt : et 
nunquam addiderunt Saxones iVmbronum ut a Pictis vec- 
tigal exigerent. A tempore istius belli vocatur Gueith 
Lingaran. Osguid autem habuit duas uxores quarum una 
vocabatur Eiemmelth filia Eoyth filii Run, et altera voca- 
batur Eanfled filia Eadgiiin filii Alii. 


L vJ"J uoden genuit Beldeyg Brond, genuit Siggar, genuit 
Sebald, genuit Zegulf, genuit Soemil. Ipse primus separavit 
Deur Birneich. Soemil genuit Sguerthing, genuit Giulglis, 
genuit Usfrean, genuit Iffi, genuit Ulli [genuit] Aedguin. 
Osfird et Eadfird duo filii Edguini erant et cum ipso cor- 


ruerunt in bello Meicen, et de origine illius nunquam ite- 
ratum est regnum quia non evasit unus de genera illius 
de isto bello sed interfecti omnes sunt cum illo ab exer- 
citu CatguoUauni regis Guendote regionis. Osguid genuit 
Ecgfird, ipse est Etgfird. Ailguin genuit Oslach, genuit 
Alhun, genuit Adlsing, genuit Echun, genuit Oslaph. Ida 
genuit Eadric, genuit Ecgulf, genuit Liodgiiald, genuit 
Aetan, ipse est Eata Glinmaur ; genuit Eadbyrth et 
Eegbirth episcopum qui fuit primus de iiatione eorum. 

[I]da filius Eobba tenuit regiones in sinistrali parte Bri- 
taunie, id est, Umbri maris, et regnavit annis duodecim et 
junxit Dinguayrdi Guurtli Berneicli. 

[T]unc Dutigirn in illo tempore fortiter dimicabat contra 
gentem Anglorum. Tunc Talhaern Tatagueu in poemate 
claruit, et Neirm et Taliessin et Bluclibard et Ciau qui 
vocatur Gueinthguaut simul uno tempore in poemate Bri- 
tannico claruerunt. 

[MJailcunus magnus rex apud Brittones regnabat, id est, 
in regione Guenedote, quia attavus illius, id est, Cunedag, 
cum finis suis quorum numerus octo erat venerat prius 
de parte sinistrali, id est, de regione que vocatur Manau 
Guotodin, centum quadraginta sex armis antequam Mail- 
cun regnaret; et Scottos cum ingentissLma clade expul- 
erunt ab istis regionibus, et nusquam reversi sunt iterum 
ad habitandum. 

[A]dda filius Ida regnavit annis octo. 

Aedlric filius Adda regnavit quatuor annis. 

Deoric filius Ida regnavit septem annis. 

Friodolguald regnavit sex annis. 

In cujus tempore regnum Cantiorum, mittente Gregorio, 
baptismum suscepit. 
Hussa regnavit annis septem. 

Contra illos quatuor reges Urbgen et Riderch hen et 
Guallauc et Morcant dimicaverunt. 


Contra ilium Urbgen cum filiis dimicabant fortiter. 
In iUo autem tempore aliquando hostes, nunc cives 
vincebantur et ipse conclusit eos tribus diebus et tribus 


noctibus iu insula Metcaud ; et dum erat in expeditione 
jugulatus est Morcanto destinante pro invidia, quia in 
ipso pre omnibus regibus virtus maxima erat instaura- 
tione belli. 

Eadfered Flesaurs regnavit duodecem annis in Berneich, 
et alios duodecem in Deur : viginti quatuor annis inter 
duo regna regnavit, et dedit uxori sue Dinguoaroy que 
vocatur Bebbab, et de nomine sue uxoris suscepit nomen, 
id est, Bebbanburch. 

Eoguin filius Alii regnavit annis decem et septem ; et 
ipse occupavit Elmet et expulit Gertie regem illius regionis. 
Eanfled filia illius, duodecimo die post Pentecosten bap- 
tismum accepit cum universis hominibus suis de viris et 
mulieribus cum ea. Eadguin vero in sequenti Pasca 
baptismum suscepit, et duodecem millia hominum bap- 
tizati sunt cum eo. Si quis scire voluerit quis eos bap- 

[R]um map Urbgen baptizavit eos, et per quadraginta 
dies non cessavit baptizare omne genus Ambronum, et per 
predicationem illius multi crediderunt in Christo. 

Osuuald filius Eadfred regnavit novem annis. 

Ipse est Osuuald Lamnguin. Ipse occidit Catgublaun 
regem Guenedote regionis in bello Catscaul cum magna 
clade exercitus sui. 

Osguid filius Eadlfrid regnavit viginti octo annis et sex 

Dum ipse regnabat venit mortalitas hominum, Calgual- 
art regnante apud Britones post patrem suum, et in ea 
periit. Et ipse occidit Pantha in Campo Gai, et nunc 
facta est strages Gai Campi, et reges Britonum interfecti 
sunt qui exierant cum rege Pantha in expeditione usque 
ad urbem que vocatur ludeu. 

[T]unc reddidit Osguid omnes divitias que erant cum eo 
in urbe, usque in Manau. Pende et Penda distribuit ea 
regibus Britonum, id est, Atbret ludeu. Solus autem 
Catgabail rex Guenedote regionis cum exercitu suo evasit 
de nocte consurgens ; qua propter vocatus est Catgabail 


Ecgfrid filius Osbiu regnavit novem annis. 

In tempore illius Sanctus Cudbertus episcopus obiit in 
insula Medcaut. 

Ipse est qui fecit bellum contra Pictos et corruit ibi. 

[PJenda filius Pybba regnavit decern annis. 

Ipse primus "separavit regnuni Merciorum a regno Nor- 
dorum, et Onnan regem Easter Anglorum et sanctum 
Osuualdum regem Nordorum occidit per dolum. Ipse 
fecit bellimi Cocboy, in quo cecidit Eoua filius Pippa frater 
ejus rex Mercionum et Osuuald rex Nordorum, et ipse 
victor fuit per diabolicam artem. Non erat baptizatus gt 
nunquam Deo credidit. 

A.D. ^ 

444 Annus i. 

516 Annus Ixxii. BeUum Badonis in quo Arthur portavit 

crucem Domini nostri Jesu Christi tribus diebus et tribus 

noctibus in humeros suos et Britones victores fuerunt. 
521 Annus Ixxvii. Sanctus Columcille nascitur. Quies Sancte 

537 Annus xciii. Gueith Camlann in qua Arthur et Medraut 

corruere ; et mortalitas in Brittania et in Hibernia fuit. 
55 S Annus cxiv. Gabran fiUus Duugart moritur. 
562 Annus cxviii. CokmicUle in Britannia exiit. 
5^0 Amius cxxvi. Gildas obiit. 
573 Annus cxxix. BeUus xVrraterid. 
580 Annus cxxxvi. Guurei et Peretur moritur. 
584 Annus cxl. Bellum contra Euboniam. 
589 Annus cxlv. Conversio Constantini ad Domiuum. 
596 Annus cli. Columcille moritur. 
607 Annus clxiii. Aidan map Gabran moritur. 

612 Annus clxviii. Conthigirni obitus. 

613 Annus clxix. Gueith Cair Legion, et ibi cecidit Selim filii 
Cinan, et Jacob filius Beli dormivit. 

616 Annus clxxiv. Ceretic obiit. 

626 Annus clxxxii. Etguin baptizatus est, et Eun filius LTrb- 
gen baptizavit eum. 

630 Annus clxxxvl Gueith Meicen, et ibi interfectus est Et- 
guin cum duobus filiis suis. Catguollaun autem victor fuit. 







Annus clxxxvii. Bellum Cantscaul in quo CatguoUaan 

Annus cc. Bellum Cocboy in quo Osuuald vex Nor- 
dorum et Eoba rex Merciorum corruerant. 

Annus ccxii. Strages Gaii Campi. 

Annus ccxiii. Pantha occisio. 

Annus ccxxi. Bellum Badonis secundo. Morcant moritur. 

Annus ccxl. Terre motus in Eubonia factus est magnus. 

Annus cclx. Dormitacio Adomnan. 

Annus celxxviii. Beli Alius Elfin moritur. 

Annus cclxxxiv. Bellum montis Carno. 
" Annus ccxcii. Ougen rex Pictorum obiit. 

Annus cccvi. Belluin inter Pictos et Brittones, id est 
gueith Mocetauc, et rex eorum Talargan a Brittonibus 
occiditur. Teudubr filius Beli moritur. 

Annus cccxvi. Dunnagual filius Teudubr moritur. 

Annus cecxxxii. Cemoyd rex Pictorum obiit. 

Annus ccccxii. Cemoyth re.x Pictorum moritur. 

Annus ccccxxvL Arx Altclut a gentibus fracta est. 

Annus dii. Strat Glut vastata est a Saxonibus. 

L-tCJ un map Arthgal 
map Dunnagual 
map Ridercli 
map Eugein 
map Dunnagual 
map Teudebur 
map Beli 
map Elfin 
map Eugein 
map Beli 
map Neithon 
map Guipno 
map Dungual hen 
map Ginuit 
map Geretic guletic 
map Gynloyp 
map Cinhil 


map Cluim 
map Gursalen 
map Fer 
map Confer ip- 
se est uero 
dimor. me 
ton. uendi 
tus est. 

LxtJiderch hen 
map Tutagual 
map Glinoch 
map Dumgual hen. 




map Cinbelim 
map Dungual hen, 

L U J rbgen 
map Cinmarc 
map Merchianun 
map Gurgust 
map Coil hen 

LixJ uallaiic 
map Laenauc 
map Masguic clop 
map Ceneu 
map Coyl hen. 

map Coledauc 
map Morcant. hulc 
map Cincar brant 

map Bran hen 
map Dungual 

map Garbaniaun 
map Coyl hen 
map Guotepauc 
map Tecmant 
map Teuhant 
map Telpuil 
map Urban 
map Grat 
map Jumetel 
map Eetigini 
map Oudecant 
map Outigir 
map Ebiud 
map Eudos 
map Eudelen 
map Aballac 
map Beli 





a MS. BODL. KAWLINSON. B. 5 12. 
') MS. BRTT. MU.S. EGERTON. 1)3. 

x) OEANic Patrice failti isin tir la da mac deacc Eirco j 
ro radi Fergus mor mac Eircc fri Patrice. Dianam airmi- 
tesi mo brathir oc raind a feraind atlioperainsi duit.siu j 
ro edpart Patrice do epscoj) Olcaii in raindsin .i. Airther 
maigi Aspert Patrice fri Fergus. Ciiiip mor do brig lat 
braithri indiu, is tu bes ri. Bid liuait rig eu brath isin- 
tirsi 7 for Fortriiin j ised ou ro comallad in Aedan mac 
Gabran ro gab Alban ar eicin. Foracaib Patrice mor do 
cellaib 7 do congbalaib i crich Dalriata. 


Patrick received welcome in that territory [i.e., Dalriada] from 
the twelve sons of Ere ; and Fergus mor, son of Ere, said to 
Patrick : If thy venerableuess would sway my brother in dividhig 
his land, I would give it to thee. And Patrick granted this divi- 
sion to Bishop Olcau of Airthermuighe. Patrick said to Fergus : 
Though not great is thy land at this day among thy brothers, it 
is thou who shalt be king. From thee the kings of this territory 
shall for ever descend, and in Fortreun. And this was fulfilled 
in Aedan, son of Gabran, who took Alban by force. Patrick left 
many of his churches and erections in the territory of Dalriada, 






C MS. BODL. RAWLiySON. B. 512. 

III. bUadhna ar xl. o thanic Patraic in Erinn co cath 

Fichi bUadhna o cath Oclia condechatar clanna Eircc 
mic Echach Muindremair in Albain .i. se meic Eire .i. da 
Aengus, da Loom, da Fergus. 

XXIIII.^ bliadhna o chath Ocha co bas Diarmata mic 
Fergusa Cirrbheoil. 

Coic righ for Albain friu sin .i. 

Fergus mor mac Eircc. 

Oengus mor mac Eircc. 

Domangort mac Fergusa. ' 

ComgoU mac Domangoirt. 


Forty-three years from the coming of Saint Patrick to Erin to 
the battle of Ocha. 

Twenty years from the battle of Ocha till the children of Ere, son 
of Echach Muindremhar, passed over into Alban ; \dz., the six 
sons of Ere, the two Anguses, the two Lorns, and the two Ferguses. 

Twenty-four [eighty-four] years from the battle of Ocha to 
the death of Diarmed, son of Fergus Cerbheol (478-565). 

Five kings over Alban during this time ; viz., 

Fergus mor, son of Ere. 

Angus mor, son of Ere. 

Domangart, son of Fergus. 

Comgall, son of Domangart. 

' XXIIII. seems written by mistake for Lxxxiiii. 


Gabran mac Domanguirt,* 

VI. bliadhna ar xxx. o has Diarmata mic CerbaiU co 
has Aedlia mic Aenmirech. 

Da righ don for Albain fri sin .i. 

Conall mac Comgaill y. 

Aedan mac Gabraiii. v. bliadhna do Aedan tareisi 
Aedha mac Aiumirecli. 

Tri bliadhna Ix. o bas Aeda mic Ainmirech co bas 
Domnaill mic Aeda. 

Ceithri rigli for Albain fri sin .i. 

Eocho buide (mac Aedain) 7. 

Gonad Cerr a mac, is lais adrochair (Fiacha) mac 
Uemain q. 

Ferchair mac Conaing 7. 

Domnall brec mac Ethach buidlie. 

Coic bliadhna ar ced o bas Domnall mic Aedha mic 
Ainmirech co bas Aeda Allain mic Fergaile. 

IX. righ don for Albain fri sin .i. 

Gabran, son of Domangart. 

Thirty-six years from the death of Diarmed, son of Cerbail, 
to the death of Aed, son of Aenmirech (565-598). 

Two kings over Alban during this time ; viz., 

Conall, son of CJomgall. 

Aedan, son of Gabran. Five years to Aedan after Aed, son of 

Sixty-three years from the death of Aed, son of Ainmirech, to 
the death of Donald, son of Aed (598-642). 

Four kings over Alban during that time ; viz., 

Eocho buidhe, son of Aedan. 

Gonad Cerr, his son ; it was by him that Fiacha, son of 
Deman, was slain. 

Ferchar, son of Conaing. 

Donald Brec, son of Ethach Buidhe. 

One hundred and five years from the death of Donald, son of 
Aed, son of Ainmirech, to the death of Aeda Allan, son of Fergal 

Nine kings over Alban during this time ; viz., 

' The preceding part of this of the text is from a, and the names 
tract is not legible in o, and i.s in- I within parenthesis are added from 
inserted from h. The remainder I 6 and c. 

20 synchronis:ms of flann mainisteeach. 

Conall Crandomna 7. 
Duncliad mac Diibain y. 
Dondcad^ Doiiii 7. 
Duncad^ 7. 
Ferchair Foda "j. 

Eocho Riaoamhail (mac Aeda Find) 7. 
Ainbhceallach mac Ferchair 7. 
Selbach mac Ferchair 7. 
Eochaig Angbaid a meadon flaith. 
Da bliadlma ar xxx. ar ced o bas Aeda AUain co has 
Aeda Finuleith. 

III.* righ deg don for Albain fri sin .i. 

Dungal mac Selbaig 7. 

Ailpin (mac Echach) 7. 

Muredac ua Daiti 7. 

Aed Aireatec^ 7. 

Fergus" 7. 

Conall Crandomna. 
Duncan, son of Dubain. 
Duncan Don. 
Fercbar Fada. 

Eocbo Rineambail, son of Aeda Fin. * 

AinceUaob, son of Fercbar. 
Selvach, son of Fercbar. 

Eoobaig Angbbaid to the middle of his cbiefship. 
One hundred and thirty -two years from the deatli of Aeda Allan 
to the death of Aeda Finnleith (743-879). 

Thirteen kings over Alban during that time ; viz., 

Dungal, son of Selvacb. 

Alpin, son of Echach. 

Muredach, grandson of Daithi. 

Aed Aireatech. 


' h and c read Cianngammx. 

^ h ami c read Doiitnall more 

^ b and r read Maildutn mac Co- 
nall, which seems the right reading. 

* instead of III. rii/It deq, h and 
(• have XIIII. righ. 

■'' 6 and c have Airgncch. 

" Not in b and c. 


Eochoid 7. 

Domnall (mac Custantin) /j. 

Custantin' (mac Fergusa) y. 

Da Couall reime (.i. Gonall Caeim 7 Conall aile a bra- 
thair) 7. 

Aengus (mac Fergusa) j. 

Aed (mac Boanta) 7. 

Eoganan (mac Aengusa) 7. 

Cinaetmac^ Ailpin, ise cet righ ro gab righe Sgoinde, do 

VIII. m-bliadlma ar xxx. ar ced bas Aeda Finnleith 
CO bas Briain mic Cennedig. 

Ceithri ri dec^ for Albain fri sin .i. 

Domnall mac Ailpin. 

Custantin mac Cinaeta. 

(Aedh mac Cinaedha.) 

Girg mac Dungaile 7. 

Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin). 


Donald, son of Constantine. 

Constantine, son of Fergus. 

Two Conalls together, Conall Caemli and another Conall, his 

Angus, son of Fergus. 

Aed, son of Boanta. 

Eoganan, son of Angus. 

Kenneth, son of Alpin ; he was the first king, who possessed 
the kingdom of Scone, of the Gael. 

One hundred and thirty-eight years from the death of Aeda 
Finnleith to the death of Brian, son of Cenedig (879-1014). 

Fourteen kings over Alban during that time ; viz., 

Donald, son of Alpin. 

Constantine, son of Kenneth. 

Aedh, son of Kenneth. 

Grig, son of Dungal. 

Donald Dasachtach, son of Constantine. 

' 6 and c place Cusantin after the two Conalls, which is preferable. 

^ Cinaet mac not in b and c. 

^ b and c read I', rid dfc fifteen kings. 


Custautiii mac Aeda 7. 
Maelcolaiui mac Domnall '7. 
Illolb mac Custantin 7. 
Dub mac Maelculaim 7. 
Guillen mac Illiulb 7. 
Cinaet mac Maelcolaim 7. 
Custautin mac Cuileii 7. 
Cinaet mac Duib 7. 
Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta. Finis. 

Constantine, son of Aeda. 
Malcolm, son of Donald. 
Illolb, sou of Constantine. 
Dubh, son of Malcolm. 
Cullen, son of Illolb. 
Kenneth, sou of Malcolm. 
Constantine, son of Cullen. 
Kenneth, son of Dubh. 
Malcolm, son of Kenneth. Finis. 



"HISTOEIA BEITONUM," mxl.-mlxxii. 


J- ANGADAR iarsin damh achtor gona loingis go ro 
aitreib in Erenn 7 go ro gaib raind mora indte. 

Firbolg umorro ro gabsad Manaind 7 ro gabhsat alaile 
indsi orcheana .i. Ara 7 Ha 7 Recca. 

Clanda Gleoin mic Hercoil ro gabsat indsi Orcc ..i. 
Histoirend mac Histoirim mic Agom mic Agathirsi ro 
scailsead doridhisi a h-indsib Ore .i. do coidh Cruitbne 
mac Cinge mic Luctai mic Parthai mic Hi.stoirech co 
ro gaib tuaiscert indsi Breatan 7 go ro roindsed a secht meic 
in fearand i seacht randaibh 7 co ro gaib Onbecan mac 
Gait mic Cruithne airdrige na seacht rand.' 



Afterwards caine a company of eight, with a fleet, and dwelt 
in Erin, and took possession of a great portion of it. 

The Firbolg, moreover, took possession of Manand and certain 
islands in like manner, Ara and Ila and Eecca. 

The children of Gleoin, son of Ercol, took possession of the 
islands of Orcc, that is, Historend, son of Historrim, son of Agam, 
son of Agathirsi, and were dispersed again from the islands of Orcc ; 
that is, Cnithne, son of Cinge, son of Luctai, son of Parthai, 
son of Historech, went and took possession of the north of the 
island of Britain, and his seven sons divided the land into 
seven divisions ; and Onbecan, son of Caith, son of Cruthne, 
took the sovereignty of the seven divisions. 

' This seems to be tlie original 
form* of the passage in the Latin 
Nennius, which is manifestly cor- 
rupt ; " Novissime venit Damh- 
" octoret ibi habitavit cum genere 

' suo usque hodie in Britanniam. 
• Istorith Istorini filius tenuit Dal- 
' rieta cum suis. Builc autem 
cum suis tenuit Euboniam insu- 
' lam et abas circiter." 


Fiiiach ba flaith Erenn is in re siu ro gabh giallu Cruitli- 

Do codar umori'o coigear do Cruithneachaibh a h-indsibli 
Ore .i. cuig bratbar athar Cruithuec co Fraug co go ro 
cundaigbsead catbraigb and .i. Pictauis a b-ainm co 
tangadar doridbigi docum na h-indsi .i. go b-Erenn go ro 
badar re ciana ann co ros dicoirsead Gaedhil dar mxiir 
docum a m-brathar. 






Oruithne mac Cinge mic Luchtai mic Parrtbalan mic 
Agnoinn mic Biiain mic Mais mic Fathecbt mic Jafeth 
mic Noe. 

Ise atbaii- Cruitbneach j cet bUadbna do irrigbe. 

Secht meic Cruithneacli annso .i. Fib, Fidacb, Fodla, 

Finach was lord of Erin at that time, and took hostages of the 

Five of the Cruthneach of the islands of Ore, moreover, viz., 
five brothers of the father of the Cruthneach, went to France and 
founded a city there, viz., Pictavis its name, and came again to 
the island, that is, to Erin, where they were for a long time, till 
the Gael drove them across the sea to tlieir brethren. 



Of the Origin of the Cruthneach here : 
Cruithne, son of Cinge, son of Luctai, son of Partalan, son of 

Agnoin, son of Buain, son of Mais, son of Fatliecht, son of Jafeth, 

son of Noe. 

He was the father of the Cruthneach, and reigned a hundred 


These are the seven sons of Cruithne, viz., Fib, Fidach, Fodla, 


Fortrend cathach, Cait, Ce, Cirigh. Et seclit raudaibh ro 
roindset in fearand, ut dixit Columcille.' 

Moirsheiser do Cruitline clainn, 
Eaindset Albain i seclit raind, 
Cait, Ce, Cirig, cethach clanii. 
Fib, Fidach, Fotla, Fortrenn. 
Ociis is e ainm gach fir dib fil for a fearand, ut est. Fib 
J Ce J Cait j reliqua. 

XIII. ri dec do gabsad dib.^ 
Fib xxiiii. bliadhna irrige. 
• Fidhach xl. bliadhna. 
Fortrenn Ixx. 
Cait da bliadhan ar xx. 
Ce xiL bliadhan. 
Cirig Ixxx. bliadhan. 
Aenbecan mac Cait xxx. bliadhan. 
Finechta Ix. bliadhan. 
Guidid gadbre .i. geis i. bliadhan. 

Fortrend, warlike, Cait, Ce, Cirig ; and they divided the land into 
seven divisions, as Columcille says : — 

Seven children of Cruthne 

Divided Alb&n into seven divisions. 

Cait, Ce, Cirig, a warlike clan. 

Fib, Fidach, Fotla, Fortrenn. 

And the name of each man is given to their territories, as, Fib, 
Ce, Cait, and the rest. 

Thirteen kings of them took possession. 

Fib reigned twenty-four years. 

Fidhach, forty years. 

Fortrenn, seventy. 

Cait, twenty-two years. 

Ce, twelve years. 

Cirig, eight years. 

Aenbecan, son of Cait, thirty years. 

Finechta, sixty years. 

Guidid gadbre, that is, geis, one year. 

' b has, amail adbert in t-eolach, as the learned man saitl. 
-' This line in h only. 


Gest giu-id xl. 

Urges XXX. bliadhan. 

Brude pont xxx. rig uad' y Bruide adberthea fri gach 
fir dib 7 randa na fear aile ; ro gabsadar .1. ar. c. ut est 
illeabraibh ua Cruithneach. 

Brude pout. 

Brude urpont. 

Brude leo. 

Brude uleo. 

Brude gant. 

Brude urgaut. 

Brude guith. 

Brude urgnith. 

Brude feth. 

Brude urfeichir. 

Brude cal. 

Bmde ureal. 

Brude cint. 

Brude urcint. 

Brude feth. 

Brude urfeth. 

Brude ru. 

Brude ero. 

Brude gart. 

Brude urgart. 

Brude cuid. 

Brude urcind. 

Brude uip. 

Brude uruip. 

Gest gurid, forty. 

Urges, thirty year.s. 

Brude pout, thirty kings of them, and Bruide was the name of 
each man of them, and of the divisions of the other men. They 
possessed an hundred and fifty years, as it is in the books of 
the Cruithneach. 

Brude pont, etc. 

' a. and r. read ri tilad kings of Ulster. 


Brude grith. 
Brude urgrith. 
Brude muin. 
Brude urmuin. 


MS. BODL. LAUD. 610. 

Bruide urinuin. Regnaverunt cl. anuis ut diximus 7 ro 
hoe Alio eetrig fria re huile co h-aimsir Gud cet ri ro gab 
Alhain h-uile tri clwmairli no ar eicin. Atberat araile 
comad he Cathhian mac Catmind no gabad rige ar eicin hi 
Gruthentvaith 7 in Eirind .i. Ix. bliadain '■j iar sin ro gab 
Chid .i. l.^ 

Tarain c. anuis regnavit. 

Morleo xv. annis regnavit. 

Deocillimon xl. annis regnavit. 

Cinioiod mac Artcois vii. annis regnavit. 

Deort 1. annis regnavit. 

Blieb'litli. v. annis regnavit. 

Deototreic frater Tui xl. annis regnavit. 

Usconbuts XX. annis regnavit. 

Crantreic xl. annis regnavit. 

Deordiuois xx. annis regnavit. 

Uist .1. annis regnavit. 

Rn. c. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait bole. iiii. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait ini ix. annis regnavit. 
Breth mac Butliud iiii. annis regnavit. 
Uipo ignaviet xxx. annis regnavit. 
Canutnlahina iii. annis regnavit. 



'^ Aud Alban was without a king all that time, till the period of 
Gud, the first king who possessed all Alban by consent or by force. 
Others say that it was Cathluan, son of Caitmind, who possessed 
the kingdom by force in Cruthiutuath and in Erin for sixty years, 
and that after him Gud possessed fifty years. 


Uuradech uetla, ii. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait diuperr, Ix. annis regnavit. 

Talorc mac Achiuir, Ixxv. 

Drust inac Erp c. annis regnavit 7 cet cath rogni}' Nono 
decimo anno regni eius Patricius sanctus episcopus ad 
Hiberniam pervenit insolam. 

Talorc mac Ainel uii. amiis regnavit. 

Nectan morbrec mac Erip xxiiu. annis regnavit. Tertio 
anno regni eius Darlugdach abbatissa CiUe Dara de Hiber- 
nia exulat pro Christo ad Eritaniam, secundo autem anno 
aduentus sui immolavit Nectonius anno uno Apxu-nige 
Deo 7 sancte Brigte precente Darlugdach que cantavit 
alleUuia super istam. 

Drest Gurtliimoth xxx. annis regnavit. 

Galan arilith xv. annis regnavit. 

Dadrest .i. Drest filius Giron 7 Drest fin Budros xv. annis 

Drest fin Giron solus v. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait fin Giron vii. annis regnavit. 

Cailtarni fin. Girom uno anno regnavit. 

Talorg filius Murtholoic xi. annis regnavit. 

Drest filius Munaith uno anno regnavit. 

Galam cennaleph iiii. annis regnavit. 

Cum Bridiuo i° anno regnavit. 

Bruide mac Melcon xxx. annis regnavit. In octavo anno 
regni eius baptizatus est a Sancto Columba. 

Gartnait f. Domecli xi. annis regnavit. 

Nectan nepos Uerb xx. annis regnavit. 

Ciniatli filius Lutrin xix. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait mac Uuid v. annis regnavit. 

Talorc frater eorum duodecim annis regnavit. 

Talorcan filius Enfreth iiii. annis regnavit. 

Gartnait filius Donuel vi. annis regnavit j dimidium 

Drust frater eius vii. annis regnavit. 

Brude filius File xxi. annis regnavit. 

'' And fmiixlit a Imiulrcil b.attles. 


Taran filius Eiifidaig iiii. annis regnavit. 
Brei filius Derelei xi. annis regnavit. 
Nechtan filius Derilei x. annis regnavit. 
Drest 7 Elpin conregnaverunt v. annis. 
Onuis filius Urguist xxx. regnavit. 
Brete filius Uurgut xv. annis regnavit. 
Ciniod filius Uuredeg xii. annis regnavit. 
Elpin filius Uuroid vi. annis 7 diniidio regnavit. 
Drest filius Talorcen i° anno regnavit. 
Talorcen filius Druisten iiii. vel. v. annis regnavit. 
Talorcen filius Oinuist xii. 7 dimidio annis regnavit. 
Canaul filius Tang v. annis regnavit. 
Constantin filius Uurguist xxx.v. annis regnavit. 
Uidnuist filius Uurguist xii. annis regnavit. 
Drest filius Constantin 7 Talorc filius Uuthoil iii. annis 

Unen filius Unuist iii. annis regnavit. 

Uurad filius Bargoit iii. annis regnavit 7. 

Bred i° anno regnavit. 

Cinaed fiUus Alpin xvi. annis regnavit. 

Domnall filius Alpin iiii. annis regnavit. 

Custantin filius Cinaeda xx. annis regnavit. 

Aed filius Cinaeda ii. annis regnavit. 

Giric mac Dungaile xi. vel. iii. annis regnavit. 

DomnuU filius Constantin xi. annis regnavit. 

Custantin filius Aeda xl. annis regnavit. 

Maelcolaim filius Domnaill ix. annis regnavit. 

Culen filius Ildoilb filii Constantin iii. annis regnavit. 

Cinaed vel Dub filius Maelcolaim vii. annis regnavit. 

Culen filius Ildoilb iiii. annis regnavit. 

Cinaed filius Coluim xxiiii. annis regnavit. 

Custantin filius Culcan i° 7 diniidio. 

Cinaed filius Duib viii. annis regnavit. 

Maelcoluim filius Cinaeda xxx. annis regnavit. 

Donnchad hua Maelcolaim vi. annis regnavit." 

Duncan, grandson of Malcolm, reigned six years. 


Macbetliad viae Fin 7nic Laig xvi. annis regna\'it. 

Luluch i: mis. 

Maelcolaim raac Donnchatlia iarssin.^ 




A tir Traicia tra tangadar Cruithnigh .i. clauda Gleoin 
mic Ercoil iad. Agantliirsi a n-aumanda, Seisiur brathar 
tangadar toiseach .L Solen, Ulfa, Nechtan, Drostan, Aen- 
gus, Letend. Fatha a tiachtana .i. Policomus ri Traigia 
do rad gradh da siuii' co ro triall a breth gan tocra. Lodar 
iar sin tar Eomanchu co Frangcu et cumtaigit sit cathair 
ann .i. Pictavis a pictis 1 o u-armtaibh. Ocus do rat ri 
Frangc gradh dia shiur. Lodar for miiir iar n-deg in t-sbei- 
seadh brathar .1 Leitcind. I cind da laa iar n did for 
muir atbath a siur. Gabsat Cruithnigh inbher Slaine in 
Uibh Ceindselaigh. Atbert riu Cremhtliand Sciathbhel ri 

'" Macbeth, son of Fin, son of Laig, reigned sixteen years. 
Luluch five months. 
Malcolm, son of Duncan, thereafter. 



Of the Cruthneach incipit. 
The Cruthneach came from the land of Thracia : that is, 
they are the children of Gleoin, son of Ercol. Agathirsi was 
their name. Sis brothers of them came at first, viz., Solen, 
Ulfa, Nechtan, Drostan, Aengus, Leithenn. The cause of 
their coming : Policomus king of Thrace fell in love with 
their sister, and proposed to take her without a dower. They 
after this passed across the Roman territory into France, 
and built a city there, viz., Pictavis, a pictis, that is, from 
their arms, and the king of France fell in love with their 
sister. Thej' put to sea after the death of the sixth brother, 
viz., Leithinn, and in two days after going on the sea, their 
sister died. The Cruthneach took possession of Inbherslaine in 
Ibh Cennselaigh. Crimthann Sgiathbhel, king of Leinster, said 


Laighen do beradli failti doibli ar dichur Tuaithe Fidhbha. 
Adbert Drostan drui Criiithneach .i. bleagon vii. xx. bo find 
do dhortugh m-baille is fearfaidh in cath. Do ronnadh indi 
sin 7 do ronnadh in cath doibh .i. cath Ardaleamnachta in 
Uibh Ceindselaigh. Gach aen no ghontis no laighedh is in 
leamnacht ni cumgadh a neimh ni do neoch dibh. Eo marbh- 
tha dan iartain Tuatha Fidhbha. Marb ceathrar do Cruith- 
neachaibh iar sin .i. Drostan, Solen, Neachtain, Ulfa. Gabais. 
Gub 7 a mac .i. Cathhian neart mor a n-Erenn gor indar- 
badar Erimhoin '7 go tarda mna na fear ro baitea immaile 
fri Dond doibh i. nina Breisse y Buanaisse 7 rl. 

Anais sheiser dibh os Breaghmaigh. Is uaidibh gach geiss 
y gach sen 7 gach sreodh y gotha en y gach niana. Cath- 
luan ba h-airdii orro iiili 7 is e cet ri ro gabh dibh a 
n- Albain. Ixx. righ dibh for Albain Chathluan gu Con- 
stantin y is e Cruithneach deidhenach ros gabh. Da mac 
Cathluain .i. Catinolodhor 7 Catinolachan. In da churaidh 
Im mac Pirn 7 Cind athair Cruithne. Crus mac Cirigh a 

that he would give them welcome on the expulsion of the Tuatha 
Fidhbha. Drostan, the Druid, of the Cruthneach, ordered that 
the milk of seven score white cows should be spilled when the 
battle should be fought. This was done, and the battle was 
fought by them, viz., Ai-dleamhnachta, in Ibli Ceiunselaigh. 
Every one when tliey were wovmded used to lie down in the new 
milk, and the poison did not injure any of them. The Tuatha 
Fidhbha were then slain. Four of the Cruithneach afterwards 
died, viz., Drostan, Solen, Nechtan, Ulfa. Gub and his son, 
Cathluan, acquired great power in Erin, until Herimon drove them 
out, and gave them the wives of the men who had been drowned 
along with Donn, viz., the wife of Bress and Buanaisse, etc. 

Six of them remained over Breaghmuigh. From them are every 
spell, and every charm, and every sreod, and voices of birds, and 
every omen. Cathluan was sovereign over them all, and he was 
the first king of them who acquired Alban. Seventy kings of 
them over Alban from Cathluan to Constantin, and he was the 
last Cruthneach that possessed. . The two sons of Cathluan were 
Catinolodar and Catinolachan. The two champions, Im, son of 
Pern, and Cind, the father of Cruithne ; Crus, son of Cirigh, their 


milidh. Uaisnemh a filidh. Cruithne a ceard. Domnall 
mac Ailpin is e toisech go ro marb Bvitus imni Isicon. 
Clanna Neimidh ro gabsat iar m-Britus .i. larghxn. Cruith- 
neacli ro gabsat iar sin iar techt doibh a h-Erenn. Gaedil 
imorro ro gabsat iar sin .i. meic Eire mic Eaclidhach. 

Crnitlinigh cid^ dos farclam 

I n-iath Alban n-amhra ? 

Go n-a m-brigh bil beldha'^ 

Cia tir as nach tarlla ?^ 

Cia foconn fos ro gluais 
cricaib in cogaidh ? 
Cia liu long as teagar. 
Fri snini tond do lodar ?* 

Cia slondud fria tiachtain. 
Do riachtain ua righe ? 
As a n-airm fadhe.* 
Is cia n-ainm a tire ? 

soldier ; Uaisnemh, their poet ; Cruithne, their artisan. Donald, 
son of Alpin, he was the first, till Britus, son of Isacon, slew him. 
The clan Neimhidh possessed after Britus, viz., larglun. The Cruith- 
neach possessed after that, after they had come from Erin. The 
Gael possessed after that, viz., tlie sons of Ere, son of Eachdach. 

The Cnithneach, who established them 

In the land of noble Alban ? , 

With glorious illustrious might 

From what region did they come i 

What cause also moved them 

From the countries in war ? 

lu what number of ships did they embark ^ 

And set out to traverse the waves ? 

How were they named before they came 

To attain their sovereignty? 

From their own weapons. 

What was the name of their country ? 

' Cid in b only. 

2 li reads helija. 
^ h reads targa. 

* h reads : — 

Frl snim tond dor ureatltar. 

Cia U)i long do Indar. 
° h reads bodenf. 


Traicia aiiim a tire, 
Go sire a seolta, 
lar ua thairciul teaclita, 
A n-airthiiir na h-Eoi-pa. 

Agantirsi a n-anmann 
Am rand Erchtbhi.' 
cearptardi a cuctli 
Adbertar cid Picti. 

Picti in aicme at raibli 

Ros taitne teacht miiii-, 

Gan gnim n-deii'eoil n-dodchaidh,- 

Sil n-Geleoin^ mac Ercoil. 

H-uadibh* seisear brathar, 
Fri lathar gan liun,^ 
Do sherc blad go sood, 
In seachtmadli a sinr. 

Thraoia was the name of their country, 
Till they spread their sails, 
After they had resolved to emigrate, 
In the east of Europe. 

Agathyrsi was their name 

In the portion of Erehbi, 

From their tattooing their fair skins 

Were they called Picti. 

The Piets, the tribe I speak of, 
Understood travelling over the sea, 
Without mean, imworthy deeds, 
The seed of Geleoin, son of Ercoil. 

Six brothers of them 
With alacrity, tmflinchiug, 
For glory's sake set out ; 
The seventh was their sister. 

h reads Ercail-ithi. 

I) reads : — 
Ct'd gidm n-Ercail n-otchaid 
The liundi-ed deeds of mighty 

' h reads Eolchoin. 
^ b reads H-uaithir. 
^ b reads Imd. 


Solen, Ulpa, Neachtain, 
Drostan, dechtaiii dretell, 
A n- anmand, a n-aebdus, 
Aengus 7 Leitend. 

Lan ri Traigia treabhtha, 
Do dechra^ a siuir sochla, 
Eo bo damna deabhtha, 
Gan tarba, gan tochra. 

Tangadar lea in deigh-fhir, 
thiribh, treabhaibh,^ 
Lucht nae^ long go lormiidli, 
Nonbhur ar tri cedaibb. 

Cingset seach ann crichu* 
Frangcu, fiacliu failgis, 
Gnid^ cathraigh aii-m aiblis 
D-iar ba ainm Pictabis. 

Solen, Ulpha, Nechtain, 
Drostan the powerful diviner, 
Were their names and their order, 
Aengus and Leithenn. 

The absolute king of populous Thrace 
Sought their lovely sister, 
It was the cause of conflict, 
Without gift, without dowry. 

They came away with her, the good men. 
From their lands, from their houses, 
A company of nine ships in good order, 
Three hundred and nine persons. 

They passed through the oountries 

Of France, they cut down woods, 

They built a city, with their many weapons. 

Which was named Pictabis. 

^ ft reads do cheathra, admired. 
' ft reads tredaibh, flocks. 
■* h reads tri, three. 

^ b reads tuind cricJu. 
•> Gnid added from ft. 


Pictabis a Pictis 
Atbertis a cathraigh. 
Ba slonnudh slan soehraidh, 
larum dar sin rath-muir. 

Ei ro char a siur, 

Tre gliadh go n-aii-ge,' 

Di focoim a ferge, 

A to[th] fund^ for fairge. 

For tracht niara meadhbhaidh 
Long lelaigh lucht lathair. 
Anais ar a feisuir^ 
Accu* in seiseadli brathar. 

Badar iu Pictaue, 
Go^ n-grane Dia n-glenail, 
A n-ainm ro bo aedlia,^ 
Airm irraba Elair. 

Pictabis a Pictis 

Tiiey named their city. 

It remained a g(jod and free name 

Afterwards upon the fortress. 

The king sought their sister 
By battle valiantly, 
And in consequence of his anger, 
They were driven upon the sea. 

On the shore of the sea was shattered 
A ship swift sailing well manned, 
There remained, as we know, 
With them, the sixth brother 

They were in Pictave, 
With success attaching to them. 
Their name was renowned 
At the place where Elair was. 

' /) reads ii-r/airije, fiercelj'. 
- A dtothfund in h. 
^ n reads aeisuir. 

* Acin in h. 

"' Oe in ri, 

" h reads //lacfa, long. 



Elaid ass a chele, 
Co n-dliene fo cliud, 
Cind da la gacfi laclitu,' 
Atbath accu a siiu'. 

Seach breatnaibh na reuuiiii 
Co h-Erinn na h-aine, 
Eo toghsat a tiudremli 
Goblisat inber Slaine. 

Sligsit sluag fea^ foglach, 
Dia fognam i nemni,' 
Tria a n-glundu'' garga, 
I cath Arda-leamuacht. 

Laich angbaidhe, amble,* 
Fea faidbhe fudar," 

They stole away thence together 
In haste, uufler sorrow, 
At the end of two tempestuous days, 
Their sister died with them. 

Passing by Britain in their voyage, 
To Erin the delightful 
They directed their course, 
And reached luver Slaine. 

They cut down the plundering host of Fea, 

Who were aided by poison, 

By their fierce deeds, 

In the battle of Ardleamnacht. 

The heroes, valiant and numerous, 
Cut down knotty woods, 

b reads : — 

Cinta fa co loch fa 

From the fault of a stormy 
Fea in !i only. 
From h. a reads : — 

Pia fitrinadli a n-dcmna/^hf. 

^ a reads Drian a n-gluiignu. 
^ /) reads /a«W)e, cutting. 
" /) reads : — 

CO iHjinrhe re pudar, 

with roughness, with hurt- 


Gona danaibli go u-dliechraibli,' 
Do bhreathnailih a biniadli. 

Ba marb nech no sectis," 
Acht teilgteis a f huile, 
Go bom tni doenne,^ 
Cidh cu no cidh dune. 

Drui Crixithneach in cardais, 
Fuair ic amtis anilaidh, 
Lemlacht is innaladri 
An a-thamadh for tamail.* 

Tiigtha tainte treabh-clann, 
La Cremhtand coir cenn-balc,'' 
Co tomlilacht an aicmidli," 
For fraichthi^ Ardlemnacht. 


With wonderful arts, 

From the Britons their origin. 

Dead was every one they followed, 
If but his blood they shed, 
So that he wasted away on thut account, 
Whether a dog or whether a man. 

A Druid of the Cruithnech, of friendship, 
Discovered a cure for the wounded, 
New milk in which were washed 
In powerful bathing. 

The herds of the tribes were brought, 
By just Cremthand the headstrong, 
Until the herd was milked 
On the green of Ardleamnacht. 

' 6 reada CO namib co n-decraib. 
^ b reads theigdi-n, struck, 
•* b reads con bo tru de sen e. 

The meanmg is the satae. 
* h reads : — 

fri ihamadli for talinain. 

Those who lay upon the 
b reads Cetbalc. 
b reads a rack ne.m. 
Not in b. 



Slaigseat' sluagli Fea febacli," 
Gan treibh is gaii toLacli,'' 
Eo cliobhradh don tuatli'' gliaidli, 
Cremtand sciathbel scoracli. 

Sguirsit auu iu Cruitnigli^; 
Fri tuirtib tri maige,'' ^ 
Comdar ecla t'aebair'' 
Na n-Gaedil^ go n-gloine. 

Gar iar siu go n-apadh'* 
Cethur blathach bratliar," 
Solen, Neachtain,'" Drostau, 
Aengus, fosdau fathach. 

They cut down the host of Fea Febach, 
Without peopling and without wresting, 
Protected by the host of battle, 
Was Crlmthan Sciathbel of horses. 

The Cruithnech settled themselves 
On the lands of the three plains. 
Until dread of their arms 
Had seized the noble Gael. 

Soon after that died 
Four of the noble brothers, 
Solen, Nechtau, Drostan, 
Aengus, the prophetic piUai-. 

' In a Slir/feat. 

■^ 6 reads Faehrach, of sharp 

^ h has gan irebad iv gan torml 
without tillage and without 
'' h has din n-d'tth, by their ile- 

'' h reads : — 

C'uirid and tri tnaigi 
.Na Cruithnigh m n-gniri. 

On the tliree plains planted 
The Cruithnigh with jiro- 

Faehair from /<, a has oihil. 

h has Gaeigil. 

h reads co-ngabad. 

Ii has hralhtr bkulach. 

From h. a reads incorrectly 




Eo faitli a n-dheas Ulfa, 
lar n-urchra a charad. 
In a charnn^ i m-Breagaibh, 
And ro meadair^ malart. 

Morthar^ occaib Catliluain, 
Mr bo a truag aii'e, 
Do rig foraibh iiile 
Eia n-dul a tir n-aile. 

Ar asbert friu* Erimon 
As in Erin seachtar/ 
Ar na dearn dais* deabaidh, 
Immon Teamair tectaidb. 

Tri cet ban do breatha 
Doibh, ros tetlia^ tlathaigh, 
Cidbeadli ro lio tuacbad, 
Gach bean go n-a bratbair. 

From the south Ulfa was sent, 
After the death of his friends, 
In his Cam in Bregia, 
Did he meditate a curse. 

Cathluan was elevated by them, 

No despicable chieftain, 

As king over them all, 

Before they set out to another country. 

For to them spake Erimon, 
Out of Erin they should go. 
Lest they should make battle, 
For Teamhar as a possession. 

Three himdred women were given 
To them, they were agreeable. 
But they were most cunning, 
Each woman with her brother. 

^ h reada Iii Rachraind, in Eachrin. 

^ h reada mebaid. 

^ h reada marhthar, was killed. 

"* b haa A duhrad riu. 

'•' a repeats Erimon instead of 

Erin, which is obviously the read- 
ing, b gives the line thus, sin n- 
Erirul sin n-eitair. 

" Dais not in b. 

' a reada cethea for lellui. 


Badar ratha forro,' 
Frid reiiuix" fri dire, 
Conidh soire a mathar, 
Eo gnath gabh^ irriglie. 

Kerdair as iu u-Erinn, 
Ina reimim rath-glind, 
Gen mureii', gan marc luag, 
Im Cathluau mac Caitmind.'' 

Cath-molodhor cnap cruaidh,'' 
Is Cath-machan cnap gluair," 
Bhadar gilli^ glordha, 
Da meic crodha Cathluain. 

A coraidh cruaidh comnart, 
Ba dorun* Laic a thoirin seomh, 

There were oaths imposed on them, 

By the stars, by the earth, 

That from the nobility of the mother, 

Should always be the right to the sovereignty. 

They set out from Erin, 
On tlieir oath-bound expedition, 
Without families, without cavaliy, 
With Cathluan son of Caitmin. 

Catmolodar the hard knobbed, 

And Cathmaehan the bright knobbed, 

Were glorious youths, 

The two valiant sons of Cathluan 

His hardy puissant champions. 

Strong their blows and their trampling, 

' a reads erru iorforro. 
'^ b reads demnu for reiinti. 
' a reads (jnatliaUjh for fjnath 

* a reads Ctiituidh. 

^ h reads dechtis toicnap cruaidh. 
" h reads cnap maid, red 

'' h inserts gtunci, pure. 
" '/ reads Irum, licavy. 


Cing cocerrun clia cerrn-seomh, 
Im mac Peirmi a h-aiiini-seom. 

H-Uaisem' ainm a file, 
No sired insed-gin," 
Eo bo rus dia milidh, 
Crus mac Cirigh Cetlim;' 

Cruithne mac coir Cinca 
Doibh ro thincha tochmorc'' 
Co tuc banntrocht m-blath-glan, 
Dar Athmaig* dar Athgort. 

Anait dibh a u-Ealga," 
Go lin eerda is curach' 
Na roceised^ breagmacli 
Seisear demnach druadh. 

Cing, victorious in their victories, 
Im son of Pernn their names. 

Huasem was the name of his poet, 
Who sought out the path of pleasantry. 
Ruddy was his hero, 
Crus son of Cmgh Cetlim. 

Cruithne son of just Cing 

Attended to their courtship, 

So that he brought a company of fair women. 

Over Athmagh, over Athgort. 

There remained of them in Ealga, 
With many artificers and warriors 
They would not leave Breagmach, 
Six demonlike Dniids. 

1 b reads h- Uahneam. 
- b reads set (jean. 
^ b reads cheitlem. 
^ This line from b, a reads Ro 
tinea athcochmor. 

5 Not in a. 

^ a n-Ealga from ft. (( lias 

' curacli from b. a. has cruari. 
* b reads nad ceaeadfor. 



DruicUieacht is idlacht, maitli, 
In ailc min glan^ mur glau,^ 
Bare clibeirgi duan gil, 
Is uaidibh^ ro muuadli. 

Moradli sred* is mana, 
Raga sin am sona,® 
Gotha en do faire 
Cairi gach ceol cona.** 

Cnuic as chorrthe" archora, 
Cen troga tuath taille, 
Eo rotogsat* a tindi-emh, 
Gabsat^ inber m-Bhoinde. 

Ba headh^" lodar h-uaine 
Go-n-gluaire na gribhe, 

Necromancy and idolatry, illusion, 
In a fair and well-waUed liouse, 
Plundering iu ships, bright poems 
By them were taught. 

The honouring of sredhs and omens, 
Choice of weather, lucky times, 
The watching the voice of birds. 
They practised without disguise. 

Hills and rocks for the plough, 
Their sons were no thieves, 
They prepared their expedition, 
They reached Inver Boinne. 

They passed away from us, 
With the splendour of swiftness, 

' a reads mai'c mm hale. 
- a reads gles ilibh gn. 
^ b reads vaib rib. 

* sred in b. a reads slewjh. 

* From b. II has Hinjlm sm ni 

" From Ii. a has Cliaire qan eel 

^ b has coirci. 
' b reads ttmri/aibsel. 
'■' b reads iStiml a. 
'" b reads l}a li-Emkir, byEdar. 



Imma iath' co dreue 
I tir iath seaeh^ He. 

Is as gabsat Albain, 
Ardglaiu ailes thoirthiu, 
Cen dith lucht^ la treblitu 
chrich Chath* co Foivciu. 

Ro bris Cathluaiu cathii 
Geu tachu ceu techtu/ 
Mr bo ingarg tuchtu® 
Co ro marb Breatnu. 

Ba de gabsat Albain 
Ard-glain talcain tlach-miu/ 

To dwell by valour 

In the land of the country beyond He. 

From thence they conquered Alba, 
The noble nurse of fniitfulness. 
Without destroying the people 
From the region of Cat to Forchu. 

Cathluan gained battles, 
Without flinching or cowardice. 
His onsets were not without fierceness 
Until he had slain the Britons. 

Thus did they conquer Alban 
Noble, gentle hilled, smooth surfaced, 

' h reads tairjh. 

^ i.e., Scotland, h for tir iath 
.seorA reads tir niaisencli, the lieauti- 
t'lil land ; but tile reading in a is 
more in accordance with history. 

^ a reads ilacht. 

' a reads rhrichath. * 

^ a reads la trehhtu. 

a reads tiiiciti. 

h gives these two lines : — • 
Ba de gabsad Cruithniij 
Albain turthig tlacht min. 
Thus did tile C'ruithnig ac- 

Alban the fruitful, 



Co n-imad Amlaebh,' 

Co Chinaeth mac n-Ailpiu. 

Ar creachadli n-ard n-aicnaidli, 
For aitcliibh cen uchneim 
Ni celldar in coclilaigh 
As de adberar Cruithnigh.^ 

Coeca I'igh ceim crechach, 

Mar aen do sil Echdach, 

O Feargus ro firad, 

Co mac m-brigach m-bhretach. 

Se riga ar se deichib, 
Dibh fri feithim full crech. 
Carsat sithe suichlech, 
Gabsat rige Cruithneach. 

Cruithnigh dos farclam.'* 

To many Ainlaebhs, 

To Ciuaeth sou of Alpin. 

For plundering known places, 

And greens without remorse, 

For not practising inactivity, 

For this they are called Cruithneach. 

Fifty kings of plundering career. 
Every one of the race of Eochaigh, 
From Fergus, most truly. 
To the vigorous MacBrethach. 

Six kings and six times ten 

Of them, who attended to bloody plunder, 

They loved merry forays. 

They possessed the kingdom of the Cruithneach. 

The Cruithneach established 

' 6 has Erclod amlael. 
This line is hopelessly corrupt in 
both copies. 

remaining two stanzas are m a 

■* A repetition of the first line, 
which always marks the termina- 
rhe poem emls liere in ''. The tiou of a poem. 




\jo chuaidh o macaib Milead Cruithnechan mac Lochit 
mac Ingi la Breatnu Eoirtren do chathugud fri Saxaiii f 
ro chosain tir doib Criiitheiitiiaith j anais fen aco. Acht 
iii badar mna leo, ar bebais Ijaudthrocht Alban. Do luid 
iaiiim Cruithnechan for cnlu do cum mac Miled j ro gab 
neam j talam j grian j esca, driicht j daithi, muii- j tir 
ba do maithriu flaith forro co brath j do bert da mna dec 
forcraidi badar oc macaib MUead aro bate a fir is in fairrge 
tiar ar aen re Donn conad do fearaib h-Erind fiaith for 
Cruithnib o sin dogxes. 



Oan a m-bimadas na n-Gaedel 
Gair cloth n-gledend? 



Cruithnechan, the son of Lochit, son of Ingi, went over from 
the sons of Mileadh to the Britons of Fortrenn to fight against 
the Saxons ; and he defended the country of Cruitlientuaith for 
them, and he himself remained with them. But they had no 
women, for the women of Alba had died. And Cruithnechan 
went bade to the sons of MUeadh, and he swore by heaven and 
by earth, and the sun and the moon, by the dew and the ele- 
ments, by tlie sea and the land, that the regal succession among 
them for ever should be on the mother's side ; and he took away 
with him twelve women that were superabundant with the sons 
of Mileadh, for their husbands had been drowned in the western 
sea along with Donn ; so that the chiefs of the Cruithneach have 
been of the men of Erin from that time ever since. 


Whence the origin of the Gaedhel 
Of high renown in stiff battles t 



Canas tarla' tondgur dilend 
Dochum n- Erend ? 

Citne in ferand^ in ro threbsat 
Tuirfer fene 

Cidh dos fuc i terce tii-e 
Do flminiud grene. 

Ciarso thucait rodos fogluais 
Eem do thastiul,'* 
In do theched, no in do cenacli, 
No ind gasciud ? 

Ciad e as dilsin doib for dhonnm 
Ind a taedin 

Dia n-anmnigud in a n-atreb^ 
Scuitt no Gaedil. 

Whence did the mighty stream of ocean 
Waft them to Erin 1 

What was the land in which they lived 
LorcUy men, The Fene ? 
What brought them for want of land 
To the setting of the sun ? 

What was the cause that sent them forth 

Upon their wanderings 1 

Was it iu flight or for commerce 

Or from valour ? 

What is the proper name for them, 

As a nation, 

By which they were called in their own country, 

Scuitt or Gaedhil 1 

' b reads Ca7i dos rala. 
'^ h reads Cassi nrrand, what 
was tliu cKvisiim. 

•' These two lines thus in h . — 

Ciasl lucait in ro/oghioit 

Rem iar laistuU. 

' These three lines thus in b : — 
( V ilkie asn dixliu daih 
Tbidiu taiden 

Dia n-ttvimedvij ina ii-dair- 



Ciamdis Fene atbertha 
Do anmand doib 
Acus Gaedel andos gleid 
Can dosroid.' 

Cidne remend fossa robdar 
Eiuch fergach ? 

No cia mac do maccaib Milead 
Cuis a m-bearrthar ?^ 

[Thirty-nine Stanzas omitted.]'"' 

Euc Cruithne mac Cinge a mna uadib. 

Eossar* n-direcb 

Inge Tea lien h-Erimon 

Mic Miled. 

Mor saethair cesait uili 
For each mh- buadre 

Why was Fene said to be 

A name for them ? 

And Gaedhil — which is the better, 

Whence was it derived 'i 

What adventure were they upon 
In their angry course 1 
Or what sons of tlie sons of MUidh 
Are they to be traced to ? 

[Thirty-nine Stanzas omitted.] 

Cruthne, son of Cing, tooli their women from them, 
It is directly stated. 
Except Tea wife of Herimon 
Son of Mileadh. 

Great labour did they all undergo 
In every tumult 

' This stanza in b : — 

Cetis/eiie a.?a vi-beardaia 
Friu mbu ainm doib 
Ocus in Gaeidil rus gleiij 
Can dos rodi/j. 

* This stanza is in b only. 

* These stanzas contain a curi- 
ous account of the wanderings of 
the Milesians from Scitia till they 
landed in Ireland ; but it has no 
bearing upon Scotland. 

^ h reads Lerech. 



La mna Bresse, la nina Basse, 
La mna Buaigne. 

Banba a sleib Miss co na shluagaib 

Sii'iuc tuislech' 

Fotla ill Eblinne asnac 

hEriii in Uisnrich. 

Adocorsat Tuatha Dea 
Triu chert cUtach," 
tir tidach^ dar noi tonnaib 
Don lir lethan. 

Eo gab* h-Erimon colleith in tshhiaig 
lar n-urd tolgdai 
TimcheU atuaid ba gen mergle" 
D'inber Cholpthai. 

With the wife of Brass, with the wife of Bass 
With the wife of Buaighue 

Banba at Sleibh Mis with her hosts, 
Faint, wearied ; 
Fotla at Eibhliune, raurmiiring, 
Eire at Uisneach. 

The Tuatha Dea sent them forth, 
According to the laws of war, 
From the firm land over nine waves 
Of the proud sea. 

Herimon went forth with half the host 
In proud array. 

Round the north, it was without sorrow, 
To Inbher Colptha. 

' /) reads sererh Itiislead. 

- h reads ire chert chrechach, 

with plundering might. 

•* b reads o l/iir tluilt/ilcc/i. 

From the plcasaiit land. 
^ li reads iiiid, went. 
" h reads bain can merga. 


Ro gab Dond do sin leith aile 
lar n-iird innaiss 
Ba marb ic ascnam cen chomais^ 
Descert h-irrais. 

Co tuarcbad^ corn la lia a cheneoil 
As lir lethach^ 

Sen treb tontecli'' conid tech Duinn 
De don garar. 

Ba h-esin a h-edacht adbiil^ 
Dia chlaind chetaich 
Ciicum dom tic tissaid uili 
lar bar n-ecaib. 

Ic Inbiur Scene ro saurset 

Seel cen dunad 

Sruth dian dermar in ros fhothraic 

Fial ben Lugdacb. 

Donn went with the other half 

In progressive order, 

He died as he was sailing, without strength, 

At the south of Irrus. 

There was raised a cairn with the stone of liis race, 
Over the broad sea, 

An ancient stormy dwelling ; and Tech Duinn, 
It is called. 

This was his great testament 
To his numerous children. 
To me, to my house, come ye all 
After your deaths. 

At Inhber Scene they landed 

The story is not concealed 

The rapid great stream in which bathed 

Fial, wife of Lughadh. 

^ b reads tungais. 

^ b reads ar tocbad. 

•* b reads uaisle ar laimtheach. 

* b reads sorUcch, bold. 

^ b reads Combat tekichl adbul. 


Luid Eremon do Inber Boinde 
Faitoinn n-dene, 
Gabais Emer o sar Duind 
Do Inber Feile.* 

Eos dailset fo h-Erind oraig, 
Mar atberid, 

Gniset cora fri Firu Bolg, 
Fri eland Nemid. 

Nis batar mna soirbe soii-e, 

Ce a noglea," 

Ar n-gait^ a m-ban gabsat clemnas 

Tuath Dea. 

Do breth* doib leth cech forba,* 
Co muir medbas,^ 
lar sin charddine choir chomdes/ 
lar sLu clemnas. 

Herimon went to Inber Boinde 
With impetuous endeavour, 
Heber took from noble Donn 
To Inber Feile. 

They spread themselves thro' Erin, to her coasts, 
As is recorded, 

They made an alliance with the Firbolg, 
With the clan Nemhedh. 

There were no charming noble wives 

For their young men. 

Their women having been stolen, they made affinity 

With the Tuatha Dea. 

Unto them was given the half of each territory 

To the boisterous sea. 

After this just and judicious alliance, 

After this aflSnity. 

' This stanza in h only. 

2 b reads Cia ro tnjlea. 

^ b reads Tardijarl. 

* b reads Dorata. 

" a reads arba. 
" ') reads meblas. 
^ b reads : — 
lar sin chairl mkltaim diomhrus. 


Ro gab** h-Eriuion in tiiascert 
Du dia ciniud," 
Co na sencus, co na solud,^ 
Co na n-dligud. 

Co na n-dunib, co na cathaib, 
Gairge regtlie, 

Co na n-debthaige tria oilihiie, 
Co na cethre.'' 

Eg gab Eber desceit n-Erenn, 
Ord ro chinnius, 

Co na utmaille, co na chommus,''' 
Co na binnius. 

Co na buadaib, co na li-uile," 
Co na aege/ 

Herimun took the north 

As the inheritance of his race, 

With their antiquity, with their prosperity, 

With theii- rights. 

With its fortresses, with its troops, 

Fierce, active ; 

With theii- rash fights, 

With their cattle. 

Eber took the south of Erin, 
The order was agreed on, 
With its activity, with its power. 
With its harmony. 

With its victories, with its grandeur. 
With its hospitality, 

^ h reads ijabals. 
- b reads Cona chintad. 
With his race. 
^ h reads tholach. 
* b reads : — 

Cona dnhiucn, cma chadchai, 

Gairchur eigni power. 

With its pride, with its wars, 

Shouts of distress 

With its failures from its 

With its wings. 
b reads cen chomai<, without 

Co na theipthich iria opni | ^ b reads umla, humility. 
Cona citri. ' ' b reaAs flicigi. 



Co na dersaide tria dure/ 
Co na chaine,^ co na dene.^ 

[The rest omitted.]'' 


ij'ABAS Sarran rigi mBretan iartain '^ gabais neart Saxan 
7 Cruithneacli 7 tug do shetigli iugean rigli Alban .i. 
Babona ingean Loairnd mic Eire 7 ni h-i ro naisced do aclit 
a siur .i Ere inghean Loaii'nd gor trulla la Miiiredhach 
mac Eoghain mhic Neill co h-Erind y co rue ceithri raacu 
do .i. Muirceartacli mac Erca 7 Fearadliach 7 Tighearnach 
7 Maiau. 

Clanais umorro Sarran Babona co ro tuisnieadh leo .u. 
meic .i. Luirig 7 Cairnech 7 Epscop Dalian 7 Caemlach 
7 atbail iar coscur 7 iar m-buaidh i taigh Martain. 

With its vivacity, witli hardiness, 
With its loveliness, with its purity. 

[The rest omitted.] 


Sarran assumed the sovereignty of Britain after this, and 
established his power over the Sasous and the Crutlmeacli, and 
he took to wife the daughter of the king of Alban, viz., Babona 
daughter of Loarn, son of Ere, and it was not she that was 
married to him but her sister, viz.. Ere, daughter of Loam, until 
she eloped with Muredach, son of Eoghan, sou of NiaU, to Erin, 
and she bore him four sons, viz., Murcertach mac Erca, and 
Feradach, and Tighernach, and Maian. 

SaiTan moreover had issue by Babona, and there were begotten 
by them five sons, viz., Liurig and Cairnech, and Bishop DaUain, 
and Caemlach, and he died after victory and after triumph, in 
the house of Martan. 

^ b has cen didr'i, without harsh- ■* The rest of the poem contains 

ness. a list of the trilies in Ireland, tie- 

- not in h. scended from the sons of Mile- 

^ 4 has/eite, festiWty. sins. 


Luirig imoiTO ro gab iar sin go n-ereeht a neart for 
Saxaua 7 con 11-era catair foirechneach i uail mainistrech 
Cairuich .i. a brathair. Muirceartach mac Erca in tan sin 
i uail rig Breatan ig foglaim gaiscidh iar ua clichur a 
h-Erind ar na Crossana domarbadh "j iar na diclior iartain 
a h-Albain ar marbadh a seanathar .i. Loairnd rig Alban ; 
conas tarla do coisearcadh a airm in tan sin co Caii-ndech 
CO mac deirbhsheatliar a mathar ; co n-ebairt Caimech ris 
bod rig Erenn 7 Bretan tu clraidhchi 7 do gebha neamh 
iardain aclit co n-dichuirea Luirig do neart ata for in n-ec- 
lais. Andsin luigli mac Erca ga righ y atbert ah-aitheasc 
iar ruachtain i. Na cumtliaig do chathair i uail Cairnich 
epscop. Dar mo De bliroth ar Luirich as calma form in 
peata aighi alltai fil aicci andas feiu 7 in Coimdhe dia 
n-adhair. Teid mac Erca fria chidu Caimech iartain agus 
sloridis a h aitheasc. Gabais fearg mor Caimech dothain 
"l dixit m-itchi romchoimdit rom Dia co rop in adbur na 
h-aighi sin ro gaba bas 7 leatsuamic Erca. h-Erailis Cair- 
neach annsin ar mac Erca techt do dichur a brathar 7 

Luirig moreover took after this, so that he extended his power 
over the Saxons, and forcibly built a fort within the precincts of 
the monastery of Caimech his brother. Miucertach mac Erca 
happened to be at the time with the king of Britain, learning 
military science, after he was expelled from Erin, for having 
killed the Crossans, and after having been subsequently expelled 
from Alban, for having kUled his grandfather, Loarn, king of 
Alban. It happened that he was at the time getting his arms 
consecrated by Caimech, the son of his mother's sister ; then 
Caimech said to him, Thou shalt he king of Erin and of Britain 
for ever, and shalt go to heaven after, provided thou canst pre- 
vent Luirig from exercising his power against the Church. Then 
MacErca went to tlie king, and after he came, he told his mes- 
sage, viz.. Build not thy city in the precincts of Cairnech the 
Bishop. As God is my judge, said Luirig, I think more of the 
power of the pet wild fawn he has, than of his own, or that of 
the Lord God whom he adores. MacErca returned to Cairnech 
and told him the result. Great wrath suddenly seized Cairnech, 
and he said, My prayer to my Lord, to my God, is, that that 
very fawn may be the cause of his death, and by thee, MacErca. 


gabais dothain ar aedh comrac 7 ua luidh di h-erail Cair- 
nicli do (liclmr in righ. Co n-dearna Dia mor mirbhuili ar 
Cairneach andsin .i. cor fhaedh agh n-allaigh as in 
t-sleibh CO h-aerecht ind righ gor derlaii- in sluagh na 
dliiaidli acli in righ gona bandalaibh ; 7 dixit Mac Erca 
mat ciaUa chach a tigearna frit clereach daig bud fidli 
gach aimnedh lene in ciinithachta fri Liurigh. Andsin 
suidis Mac Erca in lorg catha i slis in righ cor comtrom ; 
y curthaid ga clerigh y cend lais re comartha 7 dixit cend 
do brathar duid a Cairnic ; et dixit Cairneach leic damsa 
an cnaimh 7 tomailsiu in smir 7 rofia gac treas comarba 
sund CO brath 7 in Erind. 

Techtais geill y neart in tiri annsin 7 Gaimech fri secht 
m-bliadhua im mor rigi Bretan y Cat 7 Ore 7 Saxan, 

Co n-dearua Mac Erca fnillind in peccaidh .i. bean Lnii'ic 
do tabairt iar cathagad 7 iar comleugaibh co mor fri righ 
Frangc a cosnam a ingene fris co n-dorchair ic Mac Erca 

Cairnech then omnmauded MacErca to go forth and destroy his 
brother, and he immediatel}- took upon himself to fight him, and 
he went forth at the command of Cairnech to destroy the king. 
And God worked a great miracle there for Cairnech, viz., He 
sent a wild fa^Tn out of the mountain into the king's assemWy, 
and the host all went in pursuit of it, e.xcept tlie king himself 
and his women. And said MacEi'ca, If you had been just, my 
lord, towards your Cleric, it is certain that it would give in- 
creased happiness to have the royal robe on Luirig. Then Mac- 
Erca thrust his battle staff into the king's side, so tliat it was 
balanced, and lie returned to his cleric with tlie head with him 
as a tokpn, and said. Here is thy brother's head for thee, Can- 
nech. And said Cairnech, Leave me the bone, and eat thou the 
marrow, and every third Coarb shall be thine for ever, here and 
in Erin. 

Then he took hostages and power in the land, and Cairnech, 
for seven years, as also the sovereignity of Britain, and Cat, and 
Ore, and Saxony. 

MacErca committed an additional sin, that is, he took the 
wife of Lnirig after many battles and conflicts with the king of 
France, to take his daughter from him ; until at last the 
daughter fell into MacErca's hands, and she bare him four sons, 


fodheoidh in ingen '•j cu rue ceithri meic do .i. Constantin 
"l Gaedheal Ficht o taat ruirigli Bretan ■y rig Breatan 
Cornd ; Nellend a quo gens Nellan 7 Scandal in mac ele 
a quo gens Scandail .i. a n-Erinn o tait clanna na desi sin. 

Co ndernad mor-thinol clerech n-Eorpa co Torinis Mar- 
tan .L secht n-espuic .xxx. ar. cec. ma comarba Peadair do 
saighidli Cairnich epscop Toirindsi 7 Bretan cornd 7 na 
n-uili Breatnach do dichur cacha h- eirsi 7 do cheartugudh 
gacha tiri immurt na h-ecalsa; 7 adrophart condacht 
martra in beatha do Chairnech ar rob e a thogha beatha 
martra ; 7 fuair Cairnech .111. epscop do thoghmar mar 
mailli re Cairndech dia n-eletri 7 do choidli in Lien da 
h-eilithri .i. a dualus Mic Erca 7 Muireadaig. 

Do luidh Caii'udech reimhe go Bretuaibh Cornd no 
Carnticeon 7 ro cumdaigead cathoir fo talmain lais ar 
doigh na faicidli se tir na talumh na h-eoir ; cor fuillestair 
nert 7 righi Mic Erca re bliadhna 7 co tainic co n-Erind 
remhe conadh h-e cet epscop claindi NeiU y Temrach 7 gor 

viz., Constantine, and Gaedel Ficht, from whom descend the 
provincial kings of Britain, and the kings of Cornwall, NeUen 
from whom the Gens Nellen, and Scandail the other son, from 
whom the gens Scandal. It is in Erin the descendants of the 
two last are. 

Now a great synod of the clergy of Europe was made at Tours 
of Martin, viz., three hundred and thirty-seven bishops with the 
Coarb of Peter to meet Cairnech, bishop of Tours and of Corn- 
wall, and of all the Britons, to cast out every heresy, and to 
reduce every country to the discipline of the church. And the 
chieftainship of the martyrs of the world was given to Cairnech, 
because martyrdom was his own choice. And Cairnech found 
thrice fifty bishops, who made it also their choice to accompany 
Cairnech in pilgrimage, and that number went to Lien in pilgri- 
mage for the sake of Mac Ei-ca and Muredach. 

Cairnech then set out to the Britons of Cornwall or of Carnti- 
ceon, and a city was built by him under ground, in order that he 
might not see the earth, nor the country, nor the sky ; and he 
increased the power and sovereignty of MacErca for a year, and 
he went to Erin before him, so that he was the first bishop of 
the Clann Neill and of Temhar, and he was the first martyr and 


bhe ced mairtir -y ced manach Erend 7 cetna bretheanih 
fear n-Erend fos 

Cor chaithaidlisedar iimorro Fraingc 7 Saxain dia eis 
fri Mac Erca y gor togladh a crich y a cathair re cian 
d-aiinsir 7 gor milleadh crichadh -y cumacMa na tiri ba 
neassa do re mete a chiimhaclita 7 a nert ; 7 go tanic iar 
sin a mor longeas do gabail righi na h-Erend ; go deisidh 
ic Fan na long for Boind gor loiscthe lais a longa .i. 
gonadh uadlia Fan long 7 gor marbad coigedhaigli na 
h-Ereud iartain 7 go ro gaib a righi do dhiles co brath do 
fein 7 da chloind. Gor milleadh cumachta 7 neart Bretan 
dia h-eisi indsin. 

the first monk of Erin, and the first Brehon of the men of Erin 

Now after this the Franks and Saxons made war against Mac- 
Erca, and he destroyed their country and their cities after a long 
contest, and the country, and the power of the territories adjacent 
to him were also destroyed by the greatness of his power and of 
his strength, and after this he came with a large fleet to take 
the sovereignty of Erin. He landed at Fan-na-long, on the 
Boyne, when he burned his ships, from which comes the name 
Fan-nadong, and he kUled the provincial kiiiffs of Erin afterwards, 
and took their sovereignty by right for ever for himself, and for 
his descendants. And then the power and strength of Britain 
was destroyed after him. 





A. EOLCHA Alban iiile, 
A shluagh feuta foltbhuidhe, 
Cia ceud gliabhail, an eol duibh, 
Eo ghabhasdair Albanbruigh. 

Albanus ro ghabh, lia a shlogli, 
Mac sen oirderc Isicon, 
Brathair is Briutus gan brath, 
raitear Alba eathrach. 

Eo ionnarb a brathair bras, 
Briotus tar muir n-Icht n-amhnas, 
Eo gabli Briutus Albain ain, 
Go rinn fliiadhnacli Fotudain. 

all ye learned of Alban, 

Ye well skilled host of yellow hair, 

What was the first invasion — is it known to you ? 

Which took the land of Alban? 

Albanus possessed it, numerous his hosts, 
He was the illustrious son of Isacon, 
He and Briutus were brothers without deceit. 
From him Alban of ships has its name. 

Briutus banished his active brother 

Across the stormy sea of Icht, 

Briutus possessed the noble Alban 

As far as the conspicuous promontory of Fotudain. 


Foda iar m-Briutus m-blaith, m-bil, 
Eo ghabhsad clanna Neinhidh, 
Erglan iar tteacht as a loing, 
Do aithle thoglila thiiir Conviing. 

Cruithnigh ros gabhsad iarttain, 
Iar ttiachtain a h-Ereami-mhuigh, 
.X. rigb tri ficliit righ ran 
Gabhsad diobh an Cruithean-chlar. 

Cathhian an ced righ diobh-soin, 
Aisnedhfead daoibh go cmnair, 
Eob e an righ degheanach dliibh 
An cur calma Cusaintin. 

Clanna Eathach ina n-diaigh, 
Gabhsad Albain iar n-airdghliaidh, 
Clanna Conaire an cliaomhfhir, 
Togliaidhe na treun Ghaoidhil. 

Long after Briutus the prosperous, the good, 
The race of Neiuihidh took it, 
Erglan, after coming out of his ship. 
After the destruction of the tower of C'onung. 

The Cruithnigh took it afterwards. 
After coming from the plain of Erin, 
Seventy nohle kings of them 
Possessed the Cruitlmian plain. 

Cathluan was the first king of them, 
I teU unto you hriefly. 
The last king of them was 
The brave hero Cusantin. 

The children of Eochadh after them 
Took Alban, after great wars, 
The children of Conaire, the mild man, 
The chosen of the strong Gael. 



Tri mec Ere mec Eachdach ait, 
Triar fuair beannachtair Patraicc, 
Ghabhsad Albaiu, ard a n-gus, 
Loam, Fearghus is Aonghus. 

Dech m-bliadhna Loarn, ler bladh, 
I fflaitheas Oirir Alban, 
Tar es Loarn fhel go n-gus, 
Seacht m-bliadhna ficheat Fearghus. 

Domhangart mac d'Fearghus ard, 
Aireamh cuig m-bhadhan m-biotligarg, 
A .xxiiii. gan troid, 
Do Comghall mac Domhangoirt. 

Da bhliadhan Conaing gan tair, 
Tar es ComhghaUl do Gobhran, 

The three sons of Ere son of Eochaidh, the valiant, 
Three who obtained the blessing of Patrick, 
Took Alban, exalted their courage, 
Loarn, Feargus and Aongus. 

Ten years Loam, it is known to fame, 
In the government of Oirir Alban.' 
After the generous courageous Loarn, 
Seven and twenty years, Feargus. 

Domangart son of noble Feargus, 
Numbered five turbulent years. 
Twenty-four without a battle, 
To Comgall sou of Domangart. 

Two prosperous years without contempt, 
After Comgall, to Gabran. 

' Oirir Alban was a name ap- 
plied to the districts on the west 
coastoflnvemess-shire and Argyll- 

shire. It was divided into Oirir 
an tuath and Oirir an dea.f, the 
northern and southern Oirirs. 


Tri bliadhna fo cuig gan loiim 
Ba ri Conall mac Comhghoill. 

Cethre bliadhna ficheat tall 

Ba ri Aodhan na n-iol-rann, 

Dech m-bliadhna fo^ seaclit, seol n-gle, 

I fflaitheas Eathach biiidhe. 

Connchadh Cearr raitlie, rel bladh, 
A. xvi. dia mac Fearchar, 
Tar es Fearchair, feaghaidh rainu, 
.xiiii. bliadlma Domhiiaill. 

Tar es Domlinaill brie na m-bla, 
Conall, Dunghall .x. m-bliadlma, 
.XIIT. bliadhna Donihuixill duinu 
Tar es Dimghail is ChonuUl. 

Three years five times, without intemiiition, 
Was king, Conall son of ComgaU. 

Four years and twenty in possession 
Was Aodhan king of many divisions. 
Ten years and seven, a glorious career, 
In the sovereignty, Eochaidh Buidlie. 

Connchead Cearr, a quarter, renowned in tame. 
Sixteen, his son Fearchar, 
After Fearchar, inspect the jjoems, 
Fourteen years, Domnall. 

Alter Domnall breacc, of the towns, 
ConaU, Dungall, ten years, 
Thirteen years Domnall donn. 
After Dungall and Conall. 

' Fn is here obviously written in mistake for nr. 


Maolduin mac Conaill na ccreacli 
A. xvii. do go dlightheach, 
Fearchair foda, feaglia leat, 
Do cliaith bliadliain ar .xx. 

Da bliadliain Eachdach na-u-each, 
Eo ba cabna an ri rightbeach, 
Aoia bhliadhain ba flaitb iarttaiii, 
Aiaceallach maith mac Fearchair. 

Seacht m-bliadhua Dunghail dein, 
Acus a ceathair do AUpen, 
Tri bliadlma Miiireadhiogh mhaitb, 
.XXX. do Aodh na ardflilaith. 

A ceathair ficheat, nir f hami, 
Do bliliadluiaibh do chaith Domhnall, 
Da bhliadhain Conaill, cem n-gle, 
Is a ceathair Chonall ele. 

Maolduin son of Conall of forays, 
Seventeen years legitimately, 
Fearchar tlie long, behold thou, 
Passed one year over twenty. 

Two years, Eochaidh of steeds. 
He was brave, the king of royal mansions. 
One year was chief afterwards, 
Aincheallach the good son of Fearchair. 

Seven years, Dungal the impetuous, 
And four to Alpin, 
Three years, Muireadhach the good, 
Thirty to Aodh the high chief. 

Four-and-tweuty, not imbecile. 
Of years spent DomnaU. 
Two years, Conall, of glorious career. 
And four, another Conall. 


Naoi m-bliadhna Cusaintin chain, 
A naoi Aongiisa ar AJbaiu, 
Cethre bliadhiia Aodha ain, 
Is a tri deug Eoglianain. 

Triocha bliadhaia Cionaoith cliruaidh, 
A ceathair Domhnall drechruaidh, 
.XXX. bliadliain co na bhrigh, 
Don churadh do Cusaintin. 

Da bhliadhain, ba daor a dath, 
Da brathair do Aodh fliionnscothach, 
Domlmall mac Cusaintin chain, 
Ro chaith bliadhaia fa cheathair. 

Cusaintin ba calma a ghleac, 
Eo chaith a se is da fhicheat, 
Maolcoluim cethre bliadhna, 
londolbh a h-ocht aii'driashla. 

Nine years, Cusantin the fair, 
And nine, Aongus over Albau, 
Four years, Aodh the noble, 
And thirteen, Eoganan. 

Thirty years, Cionaoith the hardy. 
Four, DomnaU of the ruddy countenance, 
Thirty years, with his vigoiu'. 
To the hero, to Cusantin. 

Two years, hard was his complexion, 
To his brother, to Aodh of white flowers, 
Domnad son of Cusantin the fair. 
Reigned a year foui' times. 

Cusantin, brave was his combat, 
Reigned six and twice twenty. 
Maolcoluim, four years, 
Indolbh, eight of supreme sovereignty. 


Seacht m-bliadhna Dubhoda den, 

Acus a ceathair Cuilen, 

A .xxvii. OS gach cloinn, 

Do Cionaoth mac Maolcholuim. 

Seacht m-bliadhua Cusaintin cluin, 
Acus a ceathair Macdhiiibh, 
Triochadh bliadhain, breacaid rainn, 
Ba ri Monaidh Maolcolaim.' 

Se bliadhua Donnchaid glam gaoith, 
.XVII. bliadhna mac Fionnlaoich, 
Tar es Mecbeathaidh go m-blaidh, 
.Til. mis i fliaithios Luglilaigh. 

Maolchohiim anosa as ri, 

Mac Donncliaidh dhata dhrechbhi. 

Seven years, Dubhoda the vehement, 
And four, Cuilean, 
And twenty seven, over every clann, 
To Cionaoth son of Maolcoluim. 

^ Seven years, Cusantin, listen ! 
And four, Macduibh, 
Thirty years, verses mark, 
Was king of Monaidh, Maolcoluim. 

Sis years, Donnchad the wise, 
Seventeen years, the son of Fionnlaoch, 
After Macbeathadh, the renowned, 
Seven months in the lordship, Luglaigh. 

Maolcoluim is now the king, 

Son of Donnchad, the florid of lively visage, 

' Monaidh is applied to great i Mounth ; but it may also mean 
mountain ranges iu Scotland, as ; Dunmonadh, the capital of Dal- 
the Monadh liath, the Monadh I riada, and is therefore left un- 
ruadh, and the ilonadh mor or I translated. 


A re nocha n-fidir neach, 
Aclit an t-eolach as eolacli. 

A eolclia.' 

Da righ for chaogad, cluine, 
Go mac DomichaicUi di'ech riiire, 
Do shiol Ere ardghlain anoir, 
Gabsad Albain, a eolaigh. 

His duration knoweth no man 
But the wise one, the most wise. 
ye learned. 

Two kings over fifty, listen, 
To the son of Donnchadh of royal countenance, 
Of the race of Ere, the noble, in the East, 
Obtained Alban, ye learned. 

1 The repetition of the first words of the poem marks its original 

termination, and the stanza which follows must have been a later 





MON. GERM. HIST. SCRIPT. V. .'l. PP. 556-558. 


1034. M.OELCOLUIM Rex Scotise obiit 7 Kal. Decembr. 
Donchad, filius filise ejus, sibi successit aimis 5, men- 
sibus 9. 

1040. Donnchad rex Scotioe in autumno occiditur (19 
KaL Sept.) a duce suo Macbethad mac Finnloech, ciii 
successit in regnum annis 1 7. 

1050. Rex ScottiiB Macbethad Romse argentum pauperi- 
bus seminando distribuit. 

1057. (Macfirdaeg occiditur in Augusto. Lulag successit 
et occiditur in Martio ; cui Moelcol. successit.) Moel- 
coluim filius Doncbaed regit Scottiam. (Donchad 
regnavit annis 5 hoc est a missa sancti Andrese ad 
eandem et insuper ad nativitatem sancte Mariae. 
Inde Macfinlaeg regnavit annis 1 7 ad eandem missam 
Sancte Marite. Lidach a nativitate sanctte Mariae 
ad missam sancti Patricii in mensi Martio regnavit. 
Inde Moelcolum regnavit annis 20 usque ad missam 
sancti Patricii.) 





K. i. [k. ii 501] 1| eaegus Mor mac Earca cum gente 
Dalraida partem Britannia tenuit -7 ibi mortuus est. 

K. vi. [k. V. 504] Cath Manand la h-Aedhan mic Gah- 

K. i. [506] Bass Bruidi mic Maelcmi Ri Cruithnech. 
Bccss Domanguirt mic Nissi Righ Allan}' 
K. iii [508] Cath Arda- coraind." 
K. iiii. [520] Buitte mac Bronaig obit. Colamchille 
natus est de quibus dictum est. 

Gen chain Colaim an cleirig, 
Indiu OS Erin eolaig, 
For aen lith ni radh nuahair, 
Bas bain huadhaig mic Bronaigh.^ 
536 K. i. [534] Nati\'itas Baithine dalta" Choluimchille. 







^ The battle of Manan by Aedan, son of Gabrain. 

^ The death of Bruidi, son of Maelcon, king of the Cruithnech. 

The death of Domangart, son of Nissi, King of Alban. 
" The battle of Ardcorain. 

'' The beloved Columba the clerk is born, 
This day in Ireland the most learned, 
On the same festival, I do not speak ignorantly, 
With the fair triumphant death of the son of Bronaig. 

'■ fosterchild. 

' The jiassages in Irish are alone 
translated. The Irish words, cath 
battle, bos death, Ri king, la by, 
itlr between, often occur in sen- 

tences the rest of which are in 
Latin. It has not been thought 
necessary always to translate these 


538 K. V. [537] Comgall mac Domanguii't iJt^Alban obit 

XXX. suo auno regni sui. 
560 K. L [k. ii. 557] Bass Gahrain mic Domanguirt Mi 

Alban. TeicJiedh do Albancliaib ria m-Bruidi mic Macl- 

chon Ri Cruithnech.^ 
563 K. i [562] Navigacio Columcilli ad insulam Jeetatis 

sue xlii". 
570 K. ii. [k. iii 569] Gillas qiiievit. 
574 K. vii. [k.^vi. 572] Bass Conaill mac ComgaUl Ei Dalriada 

xiii. amio regni sui qui oferavit Insolam Ja Colaimcille. 

Cath Delgon a Cindtire in quo Duncliadh mac Conaill mic 

ComgaiU J alii multi de sociis filiorum Garbain cecidorunt. 

577 K. iii. [575] Primum periculum Ulad aw Eamain. OaiA 
locha da Eiges. 

578 K uii. [576] Abarversio Ulad de Umania. 

580 K. viL [578] Cendaeladh Eex Pictorum mortuus est. 

582 K. i [579] CatJi Manand in quo victor erat. Aedan 
mac Gabrain mortuus est. Feargna mac Caiblene mortuus 
est. Baidan mac Cairill Ri Uladh obit.s 

583 K. ii. [580] Cath Manand in quo victor erat Aedan 
mac Gabhrau. mors Fergna mac Caiblene agus ise a /hir}* 

584 K. ui [k. iiii. 581] Mors Bruidhe mac Maelchon Rig 

588 K. iii. [586] Conversio Constantiniad Dominum etnix 

589 K. iiii. [587] David Cillmuine} 

590 K. V. [588] Cafh Leithrig la h- Aedhan mic Gabrain.'^ 
Obitus Lughdach Lismoir. 

592 K. i. [590] Obitus Lugdach Lissmoir .i. Moluoc. 

f The death of Gabraiu, son of Domangart, King of Alban. 
Flight of the Albanich before Bniide, son of Maelcon, King of the 

s Baidan, son of Cairill king of Ulster, died. 

'' and that is true. 

' Battle of Leithrig, by Aedan, son of Gabran. 

' Cillmuine the Irish name of Meneria or St. Darnels. 


595 K. iiii. [k. v. 593] Quies Coluimcille in nocte Dominica 
Penticosten v. Id. luni anno perigrinacionis sue xxxv ; 
etatis vero Ixxvii. 

Te<y)-a. Uiadhna bai cen less 
Golum in a duib rcgless. 
Luid CO h-aingliu as a cacht 
lar vii m-hliadhna scdhmogad} 
Bass Eogain mac Gabrain. 

596 K. vi. [594] Cath Eatha in druadli j eafk Ardsendoitu. 
Jugulacio filiorum Aedan, .i. Bran y Domangort 'j Eochach 
find n Artuir i cath Chirchind in quo victus est Aedhan 
fj cath Coratnd. 

598 K. i. [596] Quies Baethiii Abbatis Ea anno Ixvi etatis 

599 K. ii. [k. iii. 597] Bass Gartuaidh Eegis Pictorum. 
Saxanaig do dul cum credim.^ 

600 K. V. [599] Cath Saxanmn la li- Aedan ubi cecidit Ean- 
fraich frater Etalfraich la Maeluma mac Baedain in quo 
victus erat. 

605 K. iii. [603] Obitus Lasren Abbas lea. 

606 K. iiii. [604] Bass Aedhain mac Gabrain anno xxxviii 
regni sui, etatis vero Ixxiiii. 

608 K. vii. [606] Bass Fiachrach chraich mic Bacdan la 

611 K. ii. [608] Neman Abbas Lesmoir. 

613 K vi. [611] Cath Caire Legion ubi Sancti occissi simt 
et cecidit Solon mac Conain Rex Bretannorum j Cetula 
rex cecidit. Etalfraidh victor erat qui pro statim obit. 

J Thirty years without dispute was 
Columba in his dark mouastery ; 
He passed with the augels out of the body 
After seven years aud seventy. 

^ The Saxons come to the faith. 

^ The death of Fiachracli chraich, son of Baedan by the Picts. 


617 K. iiii. [615] Combustio Donnain Ega hi xv. kalendas 

Mai ciun clericis martiribus et vastatio Toraighe. 
621 K. ii. [619] Duncaclli mac Eoganain et Necthan mac 
Canand et Aed obierunt. Hoc tempore constructa est ecclesia 
Toraidlii. Cath Cindelgthen in quo ceciderunt da mic 
Libren mic Illaind mic Cerbaill. Conall mac Suibne victor 
erat et Domnoll breacc cum eo. Conaiag mac Aedaiti mic 
Gabrain dimersus est. Bimudine eiceas cecinit. 

Tonda mara mwglan 

Gi'ian rodotoicsitar, 

Ma crach, fieacliadh find 

Fcrr Conccmg cond coseatar. 

In hea7i rola a mong find. 

In churac fri C'onaiiig, 

lacd ro tibhi agen 

Andmfri Bill fortan.'^^ 
Bass Fergna Abbas lae. 

624 K. vi. [622] Bass Adomnaiu Abbatis Hie. 

625 K. i. [624] Baptismum Etun mic Elle qui primus 
credidit in regionibus Saxonum. 

627 K. ii. [k. iii. 625] Cath Au-dcoraind in DaHiiada ; Laclit- 
nene mac Toirbene Abbach victores erant in quo cecidit 
Fiaclma mac Demain la Connadli Cerr Ri Dabiada. Visio 
Fursii ostensa est. 

629 K. V. [627] Oa^^Fedhaeoin in quoMaelcaithmacScan- 
daU Eex Cruithniu victor erat. Dalriada cecidit. Condadh 
Cerr Rex Dah-iada cecidit j Dicuill mac Eachach Eex 
Ceneoil Cruithne cecidit j nepotes Aedan ceciderunt, id 
est, Eigullan mac Conaing j Failbe mac Eachacli j 

The resplendent billows of the .sea, 
The sun that raised them. 
My grief, the pale storms 
Against Conang with his army ; 
The woman of the fair locks 
Was in the curach with Conang; 
Lamentation for mirth witli us 
This day at Bili Tortan. 


Oisiric mac Albriiit Righ domna^ Saxan cum strage 
maxima suonim. Eocha Biiidhi mac Aedain victor erat 
in quo cecidit Guaii-e Gaillsecli mac Foraunain. 

630 K. vi [628] Conaing Chirr ut alii dicunt anno 
primo regni sui qui victus est in ccdh Fhedhaeoin. Bas 
Ailli Ri Saxan. 

631 K. vii. [k. L 629] Cath itir Etuin mac AiUi Eegis 
Saxonum qui totam Britanniam regnavit, iu quo victus est 
a Chon Eegi Britoniun '7 Panta Saxauo. 

Bas Ciuaetha mac Luchtren Eegis Pictonmi. 

632 K. ii. [630] Cath la Cathlon '■^ Anfraith qui decollatus 
est, in quo Osualt mac Etalfraith victor erat y Cation 
Eex Britonimi cecidit. Inis Metgoit^ fundata est. 

633 K. iii. [631] Cath ludruis Ri Bretan qui iu eo cecidit. 
635 K. iiii. [G32] Seigine Abbas Je Ecclesiam Eecharnn 

fundavit. Congregatio Saxonum contra Osualt. Eocha 
Abbas Lismoir quievit. 

Cath Seghuisse iu quo cecidit Lochene mac Nechtain 
Cennfota j Cumascach mac Aengusa. 

638 K. i. [635] Cath Glinne Mairison in quo muindert 
Domhnaill bricc do tciched° j obsessio Etaiu. 

639 K. iL [636] Cath Osuailt contra Planta iu quo Osualt 

642 K. V. [638] Domhnall brecc m cath Srathacauin'P in 
fine anni in Decembre interfectus est xv regni sui ab 
Oban rege Britonum. Cath Ossueius inimuni j Britones. 

643 K. vi. [639] Cath Cirulcon, loscadh iar n-Duidb mac 

645 K. i. [k. ii. 641] Lochene mac FingeniZz GniithTic mor- 
tuns est. 

" future king. 

° The battle of Glenmairison, in which the people of Donald 
brec were put to flight. 

1' the battle of Strathcauin. 

<i between him. 

^ The battle of Cindcon, the biurning afterwards of Duibh, 
son of Gartuaidli. 

' Inis Metgoit was the Irish name for Linclisfame. 


650 K. i. [64G] Cath Ossu fri^ Pante in quo Panta cum xxx. 
regibus cecidit. Bass Catasaigh mac Domhnail bricc. 

651 K. vi. [G50] Qiiies Aidaiu Episcopi Saxan. 

652 K. Obitus Segliine Abbas lea .i. filii Fiachna. 

653 K. Bass Ferich mac Totalain. Ectolairg mac Fooith Eegis 

654 K. Cath Sratha Ethairt re Tolartach mac Anfrait Riij 
GTwithnc i torchair D^mcadh viae Conaing 'j Coiu/al mac 
Ronain.^ Aed Eoiii mac Mailcoblia mortuus est. 

656 K. Cath Pante regis Saxorum in quo ipse ciuu xxx 
regibus cecidit. Ossiu \dctor erat. 

657 K. . Qiiies Suibne mac Cuirthre Abbatis lea. Cath 
Delend in quo interfectus est Maelded mac Conaing. Bas 
Tolarcain mac Ainfrith Ri Cruithney- 

660 K. . Obitus Finaiu mac Eimeda Episcopi 7 Daniel 
Episcopi Cindgaradh. Conall Crandamna mortuus est. 
Eoganan mac Tuathalain mortims est. 

663 Kl. Mors Gartnaith mac Donmaill Rig Cruithneach j 
Domlmaill mac Tuathalain j Tuathal mac Morgainn. 

664 Kl. Terre motus in Britannia. 

668 Kl. Navigatio Colmaui Episcopi cum reliquis sanctorum 
ad insolam Vacce Albe in quo fundavit Ecclesiam 7 Navi- 
gatio filiormu Gartnaith ad Iberniam cum plebe Scitli. 

669 Kl. Obitus Cumaiue Ailbe Abbatis lea 7 Critau abbatis 
Benchair. Itharnan 7 Coruidu apud Pictores defuncti sunt. 

670 KL Jugulatio MaiUduiu nepotis Eonain. Venit gens 
Gartnait de Hibernia. Mors Duncada nepotis Eonain. 

671 Kl. Mors Ossu mac Etilbrith Ri Saxan. Maelruba in 
Britanniam navigat. 

072 Ivl. Expulsio Drosto de regno 7 combustio Bennchair 

673 K. L Guin Domainguirt mic Domhnuill bricc Ri Bail- 

^ against 

' The battle of Strath Ethart by Tolartach, the son of Anfrait, 
King of the Cniithne, in which Duncan, the son of Conan, and 
Congal, the son of Ronau, were slain. 

" The death of Tolarcau, son of Ainfrith, King of the Picts. 











riataJ Navigatio Failbe Abbatis lea in Hibemiam. Mael- 
ruba fundabit ecclesiam Aporcrosau. Combustio Muighe 

Ivl. Mors ix. mic DaineL Mors filii Pantea. 

KL Failbe de Hiberiiia revertitur. Comgal mac Maile- 
duin et filii Scandail /j Urthuile jugulati sunt. 

Kl. Beccau Euimean quievit in insula Britannia. 

Kl. Etir Fcrchair fectio generis .i. fotai j Britones qui 
victores erant Loairu itir inn} Bass Drosto mic Domuall. 
Cath i Calitros in quo victus est Domhuall breacc.'" 

Ivl. Quies Failbe Abbatis lea. Dormitacio Nechtain. 

Kl. Cath Saxonum ubi cecidit Aknuine filius Ossu. 

Kl. Bass Conaill chail mic Dunchadh i Cimltire. Bass 
Scchnusaiffh mic Airmidhaig 'j Conaing mic Congall.^ 

Kl. Orcadeis delete simt la Briudhe. 

Kl. Dormitacio Airmedhaigh na Craebe. 

Kl. Cath Duin Nechtain xx° die mensis Mali Sabbati 
die factum est in quo P^cfrit mac Ossu Eex Saxonum, xv 
anno regui sui consummato magno cum caterva militum 
suorum iuterfectus la Brudhi mic biH Rege Fortrenn. Tolair 
aithicain obit. Domnall hreacc mac Eacha huidhi do toitim 
la Haan Righ Brcatan in cath Srath CarnJ Jugulatio 
Eotechtaigli j Dargarto filii Fingaine. 

Kl. Adomnauus captives reduxit ad Hiberniam Ix. 

Kl. Occisio Canonn mic Gartnaiii. 

■*' The slaughter of Domangart, the son of Donald brec, King 
of Dalriada. 

"' The slaughter of the tribe of Lorn, in a battle between Fer- 
char fata and the Britons, who were victorious. The death of 
Drost, the son of DonaUl. Battle in Calitros, in which Donald 
brec was vanquishrd. 

" The death of Conall cail, the son of Duncan, in Kintyre. 
The death of Sechnusagh, the son of Armidhag, and Conan, the 
son of Congal. 

y Donald brec, the son of Eacha buidhe, fell by Hoan, King of 
the Biitons, in the battle of Strathcarn. 

^ This j)aasage is coFi'upt. It 
should read — " Tnterfectio generis 
" Loarn itir inn. .i. etir Ferchair 

"fotai M Britones (jui victores 
" orant." 


689 Kl. lohana Episcopus Ciudgalarath obit. Mors Catha- 
saig hua Domlmall bricc niic Feredhaig niic Tuathail mic 
Maileduiu mic Conall Crandomuai. 

690 Kl. Coblait filia Canond mortua. 

692 Kl. Adomiiauus xiiii annis post pausam Failbe Ea ad 
Hiberniam pergit. 

693 Kl. Bruidlie mac Bile Eex Fortrend moritur y Alpiii 
mac Neclitain. 

694 Kl. Domhuall mac Auin Eex Alochluaithe moritur. 

696 KL Jugidatio Gonad Crandomna. 

697 Kl. Tarachin ar na scriss as a flaithius. Fearcar fota 
moritur. Adomnan tuc recht lecsa in EriTid an lliadhna 

698 Kl. Cathetir Saxones 7 Pictos idji cecidit filius Bernith 
qiii dicebatm- Brechtraig. 

704 Kl. Strages Dailriada in Glenlemnae. Adamnanus 
Ixxvii anno etatis sue, in nonas kalendis Octobris Abbas 
le pansat. 

706 Kl. Bruide [mac] Derile mortuns est. 

707 Kl. DunchacUi Prrncipatimi lae tenuit. 

710 Kl. Conmael mac Abbatis Cillidara lea pausat. 

711 Kl. Strages Pictorimi in campo Manand ab Saxonis 
nbi Findgaine mac Deleroith inunatura morte jacuit. Con- 
gressio Brittonimi et Dah-iadha/(/>- Loii'geclat, ubi Britones 

712 Kl. Ceode Episcopus lea pausat. 

713 Kl. Cinaedh mac Derili 7 filius Mathgernan jugulati 
sunt. Dorbeni Cathedram Jae obtinuit, f v mensibus 
peractis in prunatu, v. kalendis Novemliris die Sabati, 
obit. Tolarg mac Drostaiu ligatus apud fratrem suimi 
Nechtan regem. 

714 Kl. Dunollaig construitur apud Selbacum. Ailen na 
ingen struiljitm-. 

715 Kl. Dorbene Abbas lae. 

716 Kl. Pasca in Eo civitate commotatur. Faelchu mac 

^ Tarachin was driven out of his kingdom. Ferchar I'ada 
dies. Adomnan brought a law witli him this year to Ireland. 


Doirbeni Cathedram Columbe Ixxxvii etatis anno, in iiii kl. 
Septembris die Sabbati, siiscepit. 

717 Kl. Uuncliadh mac Giudfaeladh Abbas le obit. Ex- 
pulsio familie le trans dorsum Britannie a Nectono rege. 
Congi-essio Dalriada 7 Britoniim in lapide qui vocatur 
Minvircc 7 Britoues devicti sunt. 

718 Kl. Tonsura Corona super famUiam lea datur. 

719 K. Cath Finnglinne itir da mcic^ Fearcbair fota in quo 
Ainbhcellach jugulatus est die quinte ferie Id. Septem- 
bris. Cath maritimum Arddeanesbi etir Dunchadb m-becc 
cum genere Gabrain j Selbac cum genere Loairn j ver- 
sum est super Selbacum ii Non. Octobris die iii. ferie 
in quo quidam comites corruerunt. 

721 Kl. Duncadh becc Ri Cindtiri mortuus est. 

722 Ivl. Maelruba in Apui'croson, amio Ixxx etatis 7 tri- 
bus mensibus 7 xix diebus peractis, in xi kl. Mai, tercie 
ferie die pausat. Bili mac Elpliine rex Alochluaithe niori- 
tur. Feidhlimidh principatimi lea tenet. 

723 Kl. Clericatus Selbaigh regis Dahiada. 

724 Kl. Faelchu mac Dorbeue Abbas dormivit. Cillenius 
longus ei in primatuni le successit. Clericatum Eactain 
regis Pictorum. Druxst post eum regiiat. 

725 Kl. Siiual filius Druist constringitur. 

726 Kl. Nechtain mac Derili constringitur apud Druist 
regem. Cilleniis longus Abbas le pausat. Dungal de regno 
ejectus est 7 Druist de regno Pictormn ejectus 7 Elpbin 
pro eo regnat. Eochach mc Eachach regnare incipit. 

727 Kl. Adamnani reliquie transfermitur in Hiberniam et 
lex renovatur. 

728 Kl. Cath Monaigli cracbiitir Picardaclmib fcin. i. Acn- 
gus 7 Alpine issiat tuc in cath 7 ro nichaigh ria n-Acngus 
7 "-0 marbhadh mac Ailinn andsin 7 ro gab Aemjus ncrt}' 

^ between the two sons of. 

•^ The battle of Monaigh Craebi between the Piccardach them- 
selves. Angus and i^pin fought that battle, and the victory was 
with Angus ; and the sou of Alpin was slain there, and Angus 
took his power. 


Cath truadh itir Picardaclmihh ac Gaislen Credhi 7 ro 
mebaigh ar in Al^nn cetna, y ro bcaradh a criclia 7 a daine 
de uilc J ro gab Nechtain mac Dcrili Righi na Picardach." 
729 KL Tri .1. long Piccardach do hrisidh invis Cuissine sa 
hliadlma cetna. Cath Broma Dcrg Blathmig etir Piccar- 
daibh A. Druist 7 Aengus Ri na Piccardach j ro marhh- 
adh Brust andsin in dara la deg do mi A ughuist.^ 

731 Kl. Cath itir Cruithniu j Dalriada in Murbidg ubi 
Cruitime devicti. Cath etir mac Aengusa j mac Congusa 
sunt, Brudlieus vicit Talorcum fugientem. 

732 Kl. Neclitan mc Derile mortuus. 

733 Kl. Bunged meic Selbaig dorindi toisc a Toraigh 7 toisc 
aile an inis Gumcnnraighe corairg.^ Mureadbach me Ainbh 
cellaig regmmi generis Loairn assumit. Flaithbertacli 
classem Dalriada ia Iberniam duxit y cedes magna facta 
est dels in insola Honie, ubi hi trucidantur viri Concobar mc 
Lochein 7 Branchu mc Brain 7 multi in flumine dimersi 
sunt dels in Banna. Eochach mac Echach Ri Bailriada j 
ConaU mac Concobair mortui sunt. 

734 Kl. Tolarg mac Congusa a h-athair fen dia gabail 7 tuc 
illaimh na Piccardach 7 7V baighcd kosiden h-e.^ 

736 Kl. Aengus mac Fergusa, Eex Pictorum vastavit re- 
giones Dailriata 7 obtiuiiit Dunad 7 compussit Creic 7 

<= An unfortunate battle between the Piccardach at the Castle 
of Credi, and the victory was against the same AJpin, and his 
territories an<l all his men were taken, and Nechtan the son of 
DerUi obtained the kingdom of the Piccardach. 

d Three times fifty ships of the Piccardach were wi-ecked this 
year on Irois Cuissine. The battle of Dnunderg Blathmig between 
the Piccardach, that is, Drust and Angus king of the Piccar- 
dach, and Drust was slain there, on the twelfth day of the month 
of August. 

" Dungal, the son of Selbaigh made an expedition to Toraighe, 
and another expedition to the island of Cumennraighe for 

f Tolarg, the son of Congus, was seized by his own brother, and 
delivered into the hands of the Piccardach, and drowned by them. 


duos filios Selbaiche catenis alligavit .i. Dondgal 7 Feradach 
7 paido post Brudeus mac Aengusa mic Fergusa obit. 

737 Kl. Bass Eonain Abbatis Cindgaradli. Failbc mac 
Guairc. Mad cire bai eiris .i. Apuorcrosain^ in profundo 
Pelagi diniersus est ciuu snis naiitis uiimero xxii.? 

739 Kl. Tolarcan mac Brostan Rex Athfhotla a hathadh la 

747 Kl. Mors Tuathalain Abbas Cind Eigh Monaigh. 

749 Kl. Jugulatio C'atbasaig mac Aillella Ei Cruithne in 
Eaith Betheach. Ventus magnus. Demersi familie lea. 

750 Kl. Cath etir Ketones 7 Britoues id est a Tolargan 
mac Ferg-usa 7 a brathair J ar Piccardach imaillefriss} 

Ibl KL Mors Cilluie Droictigh Ancorite lea. Taudar mac 
Bile Ri AlocJilandaih^ mortuus est. Cath a srcith in terra 
Circin inter Pictones invicem in quo cecidit Bruidhi mac 
Maelchon. Bass Cilline mac Congaile in Hi. 

754 Kl. Sleibine Abbas lea in Hiberniam venit. 

756 Kl. Combustio Benchair moLr i feria Patricii. 

757 Kl. Lex Coliun cille la Slebine. 

758 Kl. Elpine Glaisinaidin. Eeversio Slebine in Hiberniam. 

759 Ell. Aengus iJi ^^&aw mortmis. 

761 IC Aengus mac Fergusa Eex Pictorum mortuus. 
763 K. Bruidhi Ri Fortchernn mortuus est. 

[J. leaf wanting from 756 to 973.] 

8 The death of Eonan, abbot of Kingarth. Failbe, the son of 
Guare, the successor of Malruba in Apurcrossan, was drowned in 
the open sea with all his sailors, to the number of twenty-two. 

'» Tolarcan, the son of Drostan, king of Atholl, drowned by 

* A battle between the Pictones and the Britons, viz., Tolargan, 
the son of Fergus, and his brother, and the slaughter of the 
Piccardach along with them. 

J Taudar mac Bile, king of Alochluaithe died. The battle of 
Strath in the land of Circin, between the Pictones, in which Bruidhi 
mac Malcon was slain. Deatli of Cilline mac Congaile in Hi. 

' This passage is corrupt, it I ^ Alochandalh is here written 
shoiikl read, — Failbe mac Gtuiiri \ior A lochluaith or Alclyde. 
eiris Mailrubai .i. Apuorcrossan. \ 


975 Kl. Domnall mac Eoain Ri Bretain in ailitri.^ 

976 in. Serin Colaimcille do argain do Domnall mic Mit/r- 
chadlia. Creach la Gillacolaim hua Cajiandan Ri Ccneoill 
Conail in JJib Failge cwfagaib Fergal mac Fogartaig Ri 
Cairpre moire, Cellach mac Findghaine, Cellach mac 
Bairedha, Bonnchadh mac Morgaind, tri Mormair Alban 

977 Kl. Amlaim mac Illuilb Ri Alban domarbadh la Cinaeth 
mic Maelcolaim}"- 

989 Kl. Qofraig mac Arailt Ri Indsi Gall do toitem la Dail- 

995 Kl. Cinaeth mac Maelcolaim Ei Alban a suis occissns est. 
997 Kl. Cath etir Albanclio itorchair Constant in mac Cuilin- 

dain Ri Alban et alii multi. Bomnull mac Dondcadlia find do 

dalladh do Maelscchnaill mic Bomnall. Maelcolaim mac 

Domnaill Ri Brcatain tuaiscert mortuus est.° 
1020 Kl. iii. f. 1. ii. [k. iiii. 1. xiv.] Findlaec mac Euaidhri 

Mormaer Moreb a filiis fratris sui Maelbrigdi occisus est. 
1029 Kl. iii. f. 1. xii. [k. ii. 1. iv.] Maelcolaim mac Maelbrigdi 

mic Ruadri Ri Alhan mortiius est. 
1034 lO. Maelcolaim mac Cinaetha Ri Alpan ordan iarthair 

Eorpa uile deg. Suibne mac Cinaetha Ri Gallgaedel moritur.P 

^ Donald, son of Eoain, king of Britain, goes into pilgrimage. 

1 The shrine of Columcille plundered by Donald mac Mur- 
chadha. Foray, by GillacoUum Canandan, king of the Cenel 
Conail, in 0' Failge, and Fergal, son of Fogartaig, king of Cairpre 
mor ; CeUach, son of Findgaine, Cellach, son of Baireda, Dun- 
can son of Morgaind, three Mormairs of Alban, were there. 

"> Amlain, son of Illuilb, king of Alban, slain by Kenneth, son 
of Malcolm. 

" Gofraig, son of Aralt, King of Innsegall, slain by the Dalriads. 

° Battle between the Albanich, in which Constantin, son of 
Cuilindan, king of Alban, was slain, and many others. Donald, 
the son of Duncan the fair, was blinded by Maelsechnall, the 
son of Donald. Malcolm, son of Donald, King of the Northern 
Britons, died. 

V Malcolm, son of Kenneth, king of Alban, head of the nobi- 
lity of the whole of Western Europe, died. Suibne, son of Ken- 
neth, king of Galloway, died. 


1040 Kl. Donncadh mac Crinan Airdri Alban immatura etate 

a suis ocissus est. 
1045 KL iii. f. luan ix. [kl. i. 1. 1 8] Cath ctir Albancho araen- 

rian mi- marbadh andsin Crinan Ab. Duincalland j 

socliaighe maillefris .i. nae xx laech.^ 

1054 KL iii. f. L xvii. [kl. v. L 27] Cat etir Albaricho 7 
SaxancJio in artoitset moran do miledaiby 

1055 Kl. L f. L xxix. [kL vi. 1. 28] Maelduin wmc Gillaodran 
espcoj) A Iban 7 ordan Gacdel clcircib in Christo quievit.^ 

1057 Kl. .iL f. 1. ii. m. .1. viii. Lulach Rig Alban domarbadh 
Golum mic BonncJmda per dolum. Longes la mac Ri Loclv- 
land con gallaib indsi One 7 indsi Gall 7 Atacliath do 
gabail rigi Saxan aclit no cor de onaig dia sin. Mac 
Bethadh mic Findlaich Airdri Alban domccrbad do Mael- 
colaim mic Bondcadha} 

1062 Kl. ui. f. 1. xii [kl. i L 7] Hua Maildoraig comarba 
Colaimcilli qiiievit." 

1072 KL Biarmuit mac Mailnambo Ri Brcatan J indsi Gall 
J Athacliat y Lcithi moghanuadhad domarbadh la Conco- 
bur hua Maelsechnaill a Cath Odba j ardiarimthe do Gall 
"l do Laing uime7 

1 Battle between the Albanich on both sides, in which Crinan, 
abbot of Dunkeld, was slain there, and many with him, viz., nine 
times twenty heroes. 

"■ Battle between the Albanich and the Saxons, in which many 
of the sokliers were slain. 

'i MaUduin, son of GUlaodran, Bishop of Alban, the giver of 
orders to the clergy, died in Christ. 

' Lulac, king of Alban, slain by Malcolm, son of Duncan, by 
stratagem. Maritime expedition by the son of the king of Loch- 
Ian with the GaUs of Orkney and Innse GaU and Dublin, to .sub- 
ject the kingdom of the Saxons, but God was against them in 
that affair. Macbeth, son of Finlay, supreme king of Alban, 
slain by Makiolm, son of Dimcan. 

" Maikkiraig Corbe of Cokiimcille dies. 

■'^ Diarmcd, son of Malnambo, king of the Britons, and Innse- 
GaU, and Dublin, slain by Concobur Malsechlan in the battle 
of Odba, and great slaughter made of the Galls and men of 
Leinster with him. 




a MS. R. I. A. D0BL. NO. 6. 5. 
6 MS, R. T. A. DUEL. H. & S. NO. 221 . 

J. EI fichid bliadhain o a marac, 
Ait learn cliraoidh cia raladh, 
Go n-geine Mac i Rath cro.^ 
Dia mo Ian Alban i.s Eire. 

Ba saoith, ba faidh, ba file, 
Ba eccnuidh mic De neimhe, 
Ba laoch, ba cleirech, glan, gharcc, 
Ba mac oighe, ba saccart. 

Is e bliias priomMhaidh dar meis, 
Is e nach epscop^ re an eis, 
Ba Ian Nemh is talamh dhe, 
Don mhac ga ta tairngaire. 

Three .score years from to-morrow, 
Pleasant to my heart what happens, 
Till the youth .shall be born at Rathcro 
Of whom was full Alban and Erin. 

He was a sage, he was a prophet, he was a poet, 
He was a wise one of the son of the Goil of Heaven, 
He was a hero, he was a cleric, pure, austere. 
He was a sun of virginity, he was a priest. 

It is he that shall be a prime prophet beyond measure. 
It is he that was not a bishop thenceforth. 
Heaven and earth was fuU of him. 
To the youth belongs the prophecy. 

1 On margin .i. Colaimcille an \ ^ b has a n-aire epscop, the chief 
Mac. Columba was the youth. I bishop. 


Ni bhia Eire gan eagna, 
Deis Bhrigde is Pattruig eachtaigh/ 
Lais in Mac athbuir aimne 
Anbadh cath Ciila Dreimhne. 

Marcc Eire ro cliluine in cath, 
Marco maccu,^ mairg rioghraidh, 
Marcc saor, marcc daor, marcc daoine, 
Miiir is tir da eaccaoiiie. 

Do lar Daire theid in Mac, 
Colmn, seach CuaUe Ciannacht, 
Go gcluin tri gaire dia eis, 
Adbear fria chnrchaii' na adhruis. 

Loch Feabhail fa thmmaibh cro, 
Gol na h-eanlaithe ni go, 
An gaoth fri Dou-e at asfruigh, 
Ag caoine inn adithrigh. 

Erin shall not be without a wise one 

After Bridget and Patrick of great deeds ; 

With the youth himself was the cause of 

The great slaughter of the battle of Cul Dremhne. 

Woe to Erin when that battle shall be heard, 
Woe to the youths, woe to the kings, 
Woe to freemen, woe to bondmen, woe to the people, 
Sea and land complaining. 

From the middle of Derry goeth the youth, 
Columba, past Cuaille Ciannacht, 
When he hears three shouts after him, 
He speaks with the boatman in worship. 

Loch Foyle under waves of blood. 
The lament of the Birds, no deceit, 
The wind at Derry is furious, 
He lamenting in pilgrimage. 

^ h has Eachtraif/h, .in .adven- i - h re.ails Macn Macha, or Ard- 
turer or foreigner. | ma.s;h. 


Conidh annsiii adbheara, 
Aittesg fir, nach do chela, 
Go fras dear dar gruadh gorm-glan 
Do mhacraidh nimhe is talmlian. 

Mo ratli in h-I gau chaire, 
Ocus m'anam a n-Doire, 
Ocus mo chorpan fo'n leic 
Fo tta is Brighid is Pattruig. 

Dom blieraid Aingil a nair 
Do chum n-Erenn as Albaiu, 
lonmhain aoidhidh tiucfadh aim 
As Albain do chum n-Eirenn. 

Ocus is dearbh leom, cath lii, 
Ni ba easbhathach in li-I, 
Gach n-aon la a n-Doire 'na chlais, 
Ocus i chorp i Lethghlaiss. 

It is then that he shall speak 
A true saying, which I shall not conceal, 
While a shower of tears on his clear blue cheek 
To the sons of Heaven and Earth. 

My grace in Hi without crime. 

And my soul in Derry, 

And my body under the stone 

Under which are Bridget and Patrick. ■; 

Angels shall bear me from the East 
Unto Erin out of Alban, 
Beloved the who shall come there 
From Alban unto Erin. 

And I am certain, altho' he comes, 
That he shall not be wanting in Hi, 
Every day in Derry in his choir, 
And his body in [Dundajlethglas. 


Adchim Atliair ociis Mac 
Ocus Spirit chaimh choimhnert, 
Gair cian conacli tias ar ceal, 
Daicc iiir in Ailithrech. 

Maircc Cniithiiigh cos roicfe soir, 
Da bfestaois an ni da bftiil, 

Nil- ba samh leis gnr ba righ thair 
Erinn fa Cliruithnechaibh. 

Fa gairde bheid da reir thaii-. 
No tliingfa dar a bhreithir, 
A trath no chraidhfeadh ui ba righ 
Fo ciochra Cruithnigli a n-dimbrigh. 

Ise ced fliear thurgblias tsoir, 
lar na cliradh do Cliruitlmechaibh, 
Ba lasair dhearcc, dliiiisfeas catli, 
In taistearach imneadhach.^ 

I beseech the Father and the Son 
And the mild co-powerful Spirit, 
That it be long till he goes to death, 
To the pure mould, the pilgrim. 

Woe to the Cruithnigh to whom he will go ea.stward. 
He knew the thing that is. 
Nor was it happy witli him that an Erinaoh 
Should be king in the east under the Cruithnigh. 

Short shall he be at their bidding in the, 
He will oppose their words. 

When he shall embitter them, he would not be king 
Under the ravenous Cruithnigh in weakness. 

He is the first man who shall possess in the e;, 
After the vexation to the Cruithnigh, 
He was a red flame, he awakened battle, 
Tlie anxious traveller. 

1 In margin .i. Aodhan mac Gahhrain. 


Sceinnfid gai do bliile sciaitli, 
Lais ba imtheachtaidh a leith, 
Marcach m eich luaith, ui go, 
Shirfes Eirinn an aon lo. 

Tri bliadhua deag, ciim ar clmin, 
Eri shluagh Cnxitliuech, cain in mhinn, 
An trath ad bliela, ni ba righ, 
Dia dardaoin hi Ciiin-tire. 

Geabhaidh mac do chloinu a mliic 
Eiglie Alban a los a neirt, 
Fear bhiaidhfeas baidhbh, blirisfeas cath, 
Diam bo ainm an Ferbasach. 

Is e ced Ei gheabhas tsoir 

D'fearaibh Eirenn in Albain, 

Ba iar uert gai is claoidheimh 

lar n-dian bhas, iar n-dian aoidhedh. 

Darts shall bound from the edges of shields, 
With him shall go forth his grey men, 
The rider of the swift horse, no lie, 
Shall traverse Erin in one day. 

Thirteen years altogether 

Against the hosts of the Cruithnigh, mild the illustrious, 

When he died, he ■was not king. 

On Thursday in Kintyre. 

A son of the Clan of his son will possess 
The kingdom of Alban, by virtue of his strength, 
A man who shall feed ravens, break battles. 
His name was the Ferbasach.^ 

He is the first king who possessed in the east 
Of the men of Erin in All^an, 
It was by the strength of darts and swords. 
By violent deaths, by violent fates. 

' The conqueror. The prophecy here passes from Aedan mac Gab- 
ran to Kenneth MaoAlpin. 


Is lais brectair thaii- na buirb, 
Tocblait talmhan, tren an chard, 
Brodlaiim bodbbha, bas, n-airgne, 
For lar Scoiiie sciatb-airde. 

Seacbt m-bliadbna deag, dingnaibh gal, 
In aii'drigbe na b -Alban, 
lar nar Cruitbuecb, iar ccradb Gall, 
Adbail for bruinnibb Eirenn. 

Ba olc bbias Albam de, 
Cian go ttiucfadb a letbeid, 
Gair cian conus gabhaidb in Ei, 
An uiear mbac na Gaillsightbe. 

Tri bliadbna do ua Ei, 
Ocus tri mis, cia runhi. 

By him are deceived in the East the fierce ones, 
He shall dig in the earth, powerful the art, 
Dangerous goad blades, death, pillage, 
On the middle of Scone of high shields.' 

Seventeen years of warding valour 

lu the sovereignty of Alban, 

After slaughtering Oruithneach, after imbittering Galls, 

He dies on the banks of the Earn. 

It was bad with Alban then. 
Long ere another like him shall come. 
It was a short time tiU took the kingdom. 
The wanton son of the GaiUsighe.- 

Three years to the king, 

And three months, wlio shall number them, 

' AUuJes to the stratagem by which the Pictish nobles are said to 
have been slain. See Giraldus, De I iistructione Principum, dis. in. 
cap. xviii. 

- This was Donald ujae Alpin, who reigned four years. 



Os Loch Adhbha bhias a leacht, 
Adbail do galar ainfhecht . 

Nos geabha oicc Ri eile, 
Mo chion bliias ga arnaighe, 
Buachaill buaile bo Cruithnech, 
An finn fada finn-shoichleach. 

Gnuis treas mebhsad tri catha 
For Gheiiitibh, glaine datha, 
Cethramlia catli, catli Liiaii'e, 
For Ri m-Bretan m-bratuaiue. 

Mo chin Albain ins n-gebhaidh , 
Acht is gairid dos meaJadli, 
Cuig bliadhna co leith, lathair glaiu, 
Don Ri na Ri Alban. 

On Loch Adhbha^ shall be his grave,^ 
He dies of disease suddenly. 

Another young king shall possess, 

Happy those who are in expectation, 

The herd of the cowshed of the cuws of the Cruithneach, 

The tall fair man, the wine bountiful.^ 

The hazard thro' which three battles are gained 
Against the Grentiles, of pure colour, 
The fourth battle, the battle of Luaire, 
Against the king of the Britons of green standard. 

Happy Alban that shall possess him. 
But short the time she enjoyed him, 
Five years and a half, of pure vigour. 
To the king as king of Alban, 

' Adbha signifies a palace. It 
may be rendered the loch of the 

^ Leacht means a grave or a 

^ The king meant was Constantin 

mac Kenneth, who reigned, accord- 
ing to the Pictish Chronicle, ten 
years ; but, according to another 
chronicle, only six years, and was 
slain at Inverdutatha. The allu- 
sion in the third line I am unalile 
to explain. 



Dia dardaoiii na liiintibh fola, 
For traigh Inbhir Dubliroda. 

Nos ghebhaidh Ei aile aim, 

Bee do tliarbhadli nis eomhbraiini, 

Maircc Albaiii o sin a maeh 

Dia mbiaidh h-aimn in Dasachtach. 

Fodh gairde bhias for Albaiu, 
Ni bhiaidh deighrnis ^ gau argaiii. 
Mairce Albain lais in n-geille, 
Mairg al liubhra, maircc a ttiomna.* 

Naoi m-bliadhna do ina righe 
Sloiaiifed dioibh, ba sgeal fire, 
Adbliail gau cMocc, gan chonilina, 
Feasgul a m-bealacli bodhbha. 

On Thursday, in pools of blood. 
On the shore of Inbhir Dubhroda. 

Another king shall possess it, 
Little of gain is his portion, 
Woe to Alban from that time out, 
Whose name shall be Dasachtach.'* 

Though short he shall be over Alban, 
There shall not be a highway without robbery. 
Woe to Alban in subjection to him. 
Woe its books, woe its testaments. 

Nine years to him as king, 
I shall relate to you, the tale was true, 
He dies without beU, without communion, 
In the evening in a dangerous Pass. 

1 Tliese two lines left blank in 
both M.S.S. 

^ a reads Deighnnis. 
^ a reads aniomna. 

^ The ffrce. This epithet is 
;i,p])lied by the Dnan Albanach to 
a later king, Donald, son of C'on- 



lar sin nodas gheabhaidh in Ei, 
Dia m-ba h-ainm in Tuilti, 
Ucli ! mo cliraoidh, siar is tsair, 
Britt do bhreith for Ghaoidhelaibh. 

Nos gheabliaidh an Britt a Cluaide, 
Mac mna o Dhun Guaire, 
Tri bliadna deag, diongiiaibh gail, 
In airdrighe^ na h-Alban. 

Conas ragha an Mac Eath, 
Shuaitlifes for Albain d'aon-fhlaitli, 
Ba isel Breatain friaa linn, 
Ba ard Albain chatliair^ bhinn. 

Is ait learn chroidhe is learn chorp,^ 
Feibh ro sliloinn damh mo spiorat, 

Afterwards a king shall possess, 
Wliose name was the Tuiltigh^ 
Ah ! my heart, west and east, 
A Briton shall rule the Gael. 

The Briton from Clyde shall possess, 
Son of the woman from Dun Guaire, 
Thirteen years of warding valour. 
In the sovereignty of Alban. 

Till the Mac Rath^ shall come. 
He shall sit over Alban as sole chief. 
Low was Britain in his time, 
High was Alban of melodious cities. 

Pleasant is it to my heart and body. 
My spirit relates good to me, 

' In a is interlined mire, lord. 

^ a reads eathar, ships. 

' a reads sport. 

^ The floods. This was Eocha,, 
son of Run, king of tlie Britons, and 
grandson of Kenneth Macalpin. 

* Soil of Fortune. 
Grig, son of Dimi,'ail( 

This was 
who is said 
by the Pictish Chronicle to have 
reigned along with Eocha, and 
who died at Dundurn. 


Eigh an Mac Eaith iia thir soir, 
Fo chiochra dochoir d' Albaiii 

Seacht m-bliadna deag, diongna gal, 
I n-airdrighe na li-Albain. 
Biaidh daora leis in a thigh, 
Saxain, Gaill is Brethnaigh. 

Is lais fichtir in teach teann, 
Uch ! mo chraoidhe, ar bhrughadh Eirenn. 
Biaidh dath dearg atteagh mo 'cheann, 
Do faoth le Feraibh Forthrenn. 

Ba olc bhias Albain de, 
Tiufac dhoibh mo thairngau-e, 
Deis an Mheic Eaith, vathaibh clann, 
Do faoth la Feraibh Forti'enn. 

lar sin nos geabhaidh an Ei 

Do lar Diiine Duiru, drechbhuidhe, 

As king the son of fortune in the eastern land 
Under ravenous misfortune to Alban. 

Seventeen years, of warding valour, 
In the sovereignty of Alban. 
There shall be slaves to him in his house, 
Saxons, Galls, and Britons. 

By him shall be attacked the powerful house. 
Ah ! my heart, on the banks of the Earn. 
Red shall be the colour in the house before him, 
He shall Ml by the men of Fortrenn. 

Bad shall it be in Alban then, 

To them shall come my prophecy. 

After the son of fortune, of a prosperous clan, 

Shall fall by the men of Fortrenn. 

Afterwards the king shall possess 

From the middle of Dundiirn, yellow faced. 


lu Bhaoth as Dun Duim duanach, 
Cidh adhmhar ni h-ilbhuadhach. 

Tri bliadna do na Eigh, 
Sloiniifed dioibh ba sgel fire, 
Is ann bhias a leaclit an troch 
Idir Leitir is Claonlocli. 

lar sin nos geabhaidh in Garbh, 
Lais babeg brigh mionn is psalm, 
Ba aistrech Albain lais, 
Ni thiubhraidh fior for eislis.^ 

Bia imarcai creach fria re, 
Fria righe an Ghairbh, cia be, 
Mescfaidli Albain ima cherm, 
Ba fiiis fe bheufas beimenn. 

The Baoth^ from Dundurn of songs, 
Though fortunate yet not all conquering. 

Three years to the king, 
I shall relate to you, the tale was true, 
The grave of the coward shall be 
Between Letir and Claonloch. 

Afterwards the Garbh^ shall possess, 

With him were shrines and psalms of little worth, 

Alban was changed with him. 

He will not deliver what is true to neglect. 

There wUl be abimdance of forays in his time, 
During the reign of the Garbh whoe'er he be. 
Alban will be disturbed on liis account, 
He was active when blows shall be struck. 

ceeded by a brother, Constantine, 
who reigned two years. 

^ The rough one. The king 
presents is not clear. According ] meant is Donald, son of Constan- 
to one Chronicle, Grig was sue- \ tine, who reigned nine years. 

' a reads eis lais. 

- The iBPcik one. Whom this re- 


Traochfaid Gaidhela geala, 
Fasaiglilid a n-iubhera, 
Coifed ba briiidhte mairlili, 
Fri righe au eactaigh a Ghairbh. 

Naoi m-bliadna do ina Ei, 
Ag imtheclit a ccoigri, 
Ciim ar cliiun, for each du, 
Fri Gallaibh, fri Gaidlielu, 

Saoifid GaidhQ fris a run, 
Ar au luircc os Fother-dliun, 
For bhru tviinne tinne do, 
Soir, na leabaidh leatlian-chro. 

lar sill uos gebliaidli Ei, ui clieal, 
No cliaufad air, cidh adbear, 
Leath an laoi^ nos geibh, becc ni, 
Teid ria n -aidhche for nemhni. 

He shall put down the fair Gael, 

He shall lay waste their Invers, 

It shall be seen, they were crushed and skin, 

During the reign of deed-doing Garbli. 

Nine years to the king, 
Traversing the borders. 
One after another, in every place, 
With Galls, with Gael. 

He will ilisperse the Gael for a purpose, 
At the end over Fotherdun, 
Upon the brink of the waves he lies. 
In tlie east, in his broad gory bed. 

Afterwards a king will possess, I wiU not conceal, 
I wiU not sing of him, though I mention him. 
Half a day he wiU possess, a little thing. 
He will fall before night into nothingness. 

■ a reads tan. 


Ni mor ro' marbhthar i ccath, 
Ni dian ar, ni duine bath, 
Bail as ticc, as eadha teide, 
Mo uuar ! is taibhse bhreige. 

Mo chen ! mo chen ! maiseadh e ' 
Eada ata a ttairnguire, 
Righ na righ, ni rudli m-braisi, 
Dianad ainm an Midliaise. 

Ba lomlan Albain o a la, 
Ba h-i an riglie fliinn-fhoda, 
Ba ba caire coimse cath, 
Seacht m-bliadna ocus da i'liichid. 

Go mes for chraobhaidh caola, 
Go ccuiim, go cceol, go ccaomha, 

He is not great, killed in battle, 

It is not violent slaughter, he was not a man of slaughter, 

The place whence he comes, thither he goes, 

Alas ! he is a false apparition." 

My joy ! my joy ! If it be he, 
Long is the prophecy, 
King of kings, 'tis no rash saying, 
Whose name is the Midhaise.^ 

Albau was brimful from his day. 
His was the fair long reign. 
He was just, competent to battle 
Seven years and two score. 

With fruits on slender trees, 

With ale, with music, with fellowship, / 

* a reads ba. i ing to some chronicles, forty, to 

2 Who this was does not appear, othevs forty-five, years, and retired 
■> The king meant is Constantine to the monastery of St. Andrews, 
son of Aed, who reigned, accord- I where he died. 


Go nith, go m-bliocht, go m-buar m-bmis, 
Go nuaill, go nadh, go nerbhas. 

Ni gheabhaid catha fria a ghnuis, 
Ba ban gach aigbedh fria dhuis, 
Ni rachaid rinne triana chnes, 
Mac an fhir Dia do diles. 

An tratli bhias deine righ an Ei, 
lar gcur namhad ar nemhni, 
Eo f hichfa an Ball dearg iar sin, 
Cona marbh a h-Albain. 

Cona iar sin is lor truadh, 
Fir Alban fa cliosaibh cuain, 
Amail scuaba lin da m-badhadli, 
Gan aii'dri gan iomshnaige. 

Iar sin ro chongair Dia de, 
Go Eecles for bhru tuinne, 

With corn, with milk, with active kine, 
With pride, with success, with elegance. 

Battles will not be maintained against his face, 
Pale was each complexion in his presence. 
No spear shall pierce through his skin, 
Son of the man, God loves him. 

When the kingdom of the king was more violent, 
After anniliilating his enemies. 
He will fight the BaUdearg then, 
Till he kill him in Alban. 

Afterwards are greatly to be pitied 
The men of Alban under the feet of wolves, 
like unto sheafs of flax, when steeped, 
Without a sovereign protecting them. 

Afterwards God did call him 

To the monastery on the brink of the waves, 



A ttig an Apstail theid ar ceal, 
Ba iodhan an t-Ailither. 

Is an Albain ard dhrechlercc, 

Gair cian nos geabhaidh au Bodlibhdercc, 

Beitt astruigh gradhadh leis, 

I n-iath aineoil gan eisleis. 

Nid ba fadhal a righe, 
Sloinnfed daoibh ba sgeal, fire, 
La each gacli uair as gaeh du, 
La Galla, la Gaedhelu. 

Naoi m-bliadna do na righe, 
Ag initheact a ceoigrioghe 
For bhru Duua Foitheir feact 
Gairfid Gaidhil im a lecht. 

Nos gebliaidh daigh ri dathrach, 
Albain dar eis dagh athar. 

In the house of the apostle he came to death, 
Undefiled was the pilgrim. 

In high slope-faced Alban, 

Short the time Bodhbhdearg^ possesses, 

There shall be on the strand graduates with him, 

In a strange land without neglect. 

No fable was his reign, 
I shall reveal to you, the tale was true, 
With each, every time, and every place, 
With Galls, with Gael. 

Nine years to his reign, 
Traversing the borders, 
On the brink of Dun Fother, at last, 
Will shout the Gael around his grave. 

A good well coloured king will possess, 
Alban had after that a good father. 

^ Dangerous red man. This 
was Malcolm, son of Donald, who 
reigned, according to some chroni- 

cles, eleven, to others nine, years, 
and was slain at Feteresso, in the 


Maircc a naimMe lais a mach, 
Dianad aimn an t-Ionsaighthech. 

Bretain, Saxain, maircc fria a linn, 
Fria a re an lonsaiglithigh airmglirinn 
Mo glienar Albancha leis 
Idir Thuaith is Eglais. 

Ni ghearrfaicUi gearradh aga 
Albain ethracli f hionn-fhada, 
Is tuille cuige ro glieibli 
Do thuaith aineoil ar eiccin, 

Naoi m -bliadna go leith, lathair n-gle, 
Doib for Albain in aiixlrigh, 
I ttigh an Apstoil chetna chaigh 
Adbail, adbeala a Athair. 

Da rigli iar sin for Albain 
Inn dis doibh ac comharoain 

Woe to his enemies without, 

Whose name was the Jonsaightheach.' 

Britons, Saxons, woe in his time. 

During the time of the Jonsaightheach of fine arms 

Happy the Albanach with him 

Between land and church. 

No severance will he sever. 

Of Alban of ships of long territories. 

It is an addition to his kingdom he will take 

From a foreign land by force. 

Nine years and a half, of bright fame. 
For him over Alban in the sovereignty. 
In the house of the same pure apostle 
He died, where died his father. 

Two kings after that over Alban, 
Both of them at mutual strife, 

' The aggressor. This was Indulph, son of Coastantine, who reigned 
nine years. 


Fionn is Dubh ima leith, 

Maircc dar geabhadh ccoimhrighe. 

Naoi m-bliadlana doibli na righ, 
Maii'cc dar geablia a ccomihdhiiie, 
Ba h-olc bhias Albaiu dlie, 
Maircc bhias aga ni arnaidhe. 

Rachaidh Ri dhiobh for fecht fann 
Dar Muna i Maigh Forthrenn 
Cia dig nocha ttig for cul 
Dos faoth Diibh na ttri n-dubhrann 

Nos geabhaidh an Fionn, da eis, 
Albain, iar m-beith fo aiudeis, 
Go teacttain deinais aga 
Albain ettroctt fliionn-foda 

Leclit an Fliinn for bhru tiiinne 
Tinnfes rinn, 

Fionn and Dubh' together, 

Woe ! who took them iu joint reign. 

Nine years for tliem in their reign, 

Woe ! ■wlio took them in joint sovereignty, 

It will be bad for Alban then. 

Woe ! those who were in expectation. 

One of the kings shall go upon a weak expeiiitidu 

Over Munna to Magh Fortrenn, 

Who goes wUl not turn back, 

Dubh of the three black divisions fell. 

The Fionn wiU possess, after him, 
Alban, after being under affliction, 
By right of violence he holds 
Alban the splendid, fair, and long. 

The grave of Fionn on the brink of the waves, 
A spear shall sever, 

' The White, the Black. Fionu | of Malcolm ; they each reigned 
seems to be intended for CuUeau, j four years and a half, 
son of Indulph, Dubh is Dul>h, son ] 


A n-iath aineoil ar ttaighidli, 
Ba le Brethnaigh a bhith aidhidh. 

Albain gan ri o shin a macli 
Conus gabhaidh an Fionnghalach, 
Maircc, maircc a naimhde aga, 
Maircc a gcairde go foda. 

Do bhera for chach baoghal, 
Ni ba faigside a saoghal, 
Ceithre bliadlma fichid, iar fior, 
Is e a remhes an Airdri 
Ace argain Gaidlieal na taigh, 
Cinn ar chinn fria bliiodhbha. 

Fo cingfe ceim, ni chomhaigh, 

Go Maigh-sliabb an mhoir Mhonaidh, 

Gairfid Gaidhil ima chenn 

Ba h-e a aidhe a fhoirchenn. 

In a strange high valiant land, 

It was by the Britons shall be his death. 

Alban without a Iving thenceforth 
Till the Fingalacli' shall 
Woe ! woe ! his enemies witli him, 
Woe ! his friends afar off. 

He brings upon every one peril. 
Not shorter was his life, 
Four and twenty years, of a truth, 
Is the power of the sovereign, 
Plundering the Gael in their liouses, 
One after another with his enemies. 

He will bend his steps, no neighbourly act. 
To Maghsliabh at the great Monadh, 
The Gael will shout around his head, 
His death was the end of it. 

^ The fratricide. This was Kenneth, son of Malcolm, who reigned 
twenty-four years. 


Nos geabha Ei, iia ba righ, 
Albain dia eis ba nemhni, 
Ba e an fann dar eis an treoin, 
Cidh fior no raidhedh mo blieoil. 

Ei CO n-aithis uachtaii' cinn, 
Mairg Albain fria ghairid linn, 
Beid fir faona imbe, 
I n-iath Scoine sciath-bhinne. 

Bliadhain go leith, lathar n-gle, 
Ba h-e sin a Ian righe, 
Do ghabhail Gaidheal, teid ar ceal, 
Do faoth, do thuit a mhuiutir. 

Ferfaid a n- Albain mor catha, 
Ei aithes cinn claoifid datha, 
A ccoman catha ba h-e, 
De Sruthlinn frisi n-abar Toe. 

A king shall possess, who was not king, 
Alhan after him was nothing, 
He was feeble after the strong, 
Though true what my mouth will say. 

A king with reproach on the top of his head, 
Woe to Alban through his short time. 
Men will be feeble around him 
In the land of Scone of sounding shields. 

A year and a half, bright the deeds, 
That was his full reign. 
Seizing the Gael, he goes to death, 
He fell, they fall his people.^ 

A great battle shall be fought in Alban, 

With the shame of his head colours shall be changed, 

The leader of the hosts was he 

Of Sruthlinn which is called Toe. 

' This king was Constantine, I and a half. The alhiaions are very 
son of Cuilean, who reigned a year I obscure. 



Nos geabhaidh an Donn dhailfes graicc, 
ScaoHfes catha a Saxanchaibh, 
lar lo chatha nos gheablia, 
Meabhra leam a airdsgela. 

Ba labar i righe shoir, 

Fo gairde bliias for Albain, 

Ba iieartmhar fri a naimhde a macb, 

In Donn as Dunchath cruadhacb. 

Ocbt m-bliacbia go leith, latbar n-gle, 
Donl Donn i n-airdri 
Fo gairde go ttisad fris 
Mo nuar Gaidhil do ritbes. 

Condreaccaid Gaidbil imme, 
An lo no mairbhfid linne, 
Na ligbe cro eidir da gUenn 
Ni cian o bbrmnnibh Eirenn 

The Donn 2 will possess who will dispense steeds, 
He will scatter hosts of the Scoxons, 
After the day of battle he will possess, 
I remember the high tale. 

Told is his reign in the east, 

Short shaU it be over Alban, 

Great strength was against his enemies without, 

The Donn from strong Duncath. 

Eight years and half, bright the deeds. 
To the Donn in the sovereignty, 
'Twas short till they came against him, 
Alas ! the Gael again. 

The Gael gathered around him. 
The day in which he will be killed by us, 
At his stone of blood between two glens 
Not far from tlie banks of the Earn. 

' a inserts linne before Don. I son of Kenneth, sou of Dubh, who 
- The brown one. This was Grig, | reigned eight years. 


lar sin nos geabhaJh Albain ard, 
Cathach, rathach, raidhid baird, 
Craoidlie fergach fheras cath, 
Dianid ainm an Forranach. 

Ba dath lana fir dhomhain de, 
Aingil ga ttu tairngire, 
Tromcliatliacli tuaithe tinne, 
Daigh-ri dherccfas dercc rinne. 

Mac mna Laighean learn tre catli, 
An fordhercc, an Forranach, 
Biodbha Bretan, badhudh Gall, 
Loingseach He ociis Arann. 

Mace bo bronn as brugh Lifle, 
Ba dearg slioclit a luaith chreiche, 
On cliu is as Albain uile, 
Lais teidsead Gaidhil glan uile. 

Afterwards shall possess high Alban, 
A warrior, fortunate, praised of bards, 
A wrathful heart which fights the battle, 
Whose name is the Forranach.* 

The men of the world were full of good of hiin, 

Angels are prophesying of him, 

Heavy warrior of a strong people, 

A good king who will redden red spears. 

Son of the woman of Leinster, strong thro battle, 
More excellent, the Forrannach, 
Danger of Britons, extinction of Galls 
Mariner of He and Arann 

The son of the cowbreast from the banks of the LifFy, 
He was of the red race of swift spoil, 
A wolf-dog who shall eat up all Alban, 
With him shall come all the pure Gael. 

• The oppressor or destroyer. This waa Malcolm, son of Kemieth, 
who reigned thirty years. 


Deich ccatha meibhsed roimhe, 
Aingil ga ttu tairnguire, 
Coig bliadna triochadh a re 
For Albain in aii-drighe. 

Cos in la teite don chath, 
A ccomhdhail na bfionglialacli, 
Do luaith leim maidne Mona, 
Maircc Alban na n-er cbomhair. 

Do faothsad Gaidhil san gcath, 
Dreifid re sin Fhoirranach, 
Mairg cos rig, maircc cos teidi 
Sloinnfed dibh ni sgel breige. 

Ba h-olc tra bhias Eire de 
Ricfidh chuca in f haistine, 
La each uair as gach du, 
La Gallu, la Gaoidhelu. 

Ten hosts were defeated before him, 
Angels it is that prophesy, 
Five years and thirty his time 
Over Alban in the sovereignty. 

Till the day he goes to the battle, 
At the meeting of the fratricides, 
To the quick morning leap of Monaigh, 
Woe to Alban over against him. 

The Gael will fall in the battle. 

They wiU contend with the Forrannach, 

Woe to whom he comes, woe to whom he goes, 

I will reveal it to you, no false tale. 

Bad was the time Eire shall be of him. 
The prophecy wiU be fulfilled to them, 
With each time and each place, 
With GaUs, with Gael. 


Nos geibh da eis gan anadh, 
Ei dianid ainm an t-Oghalrach, 
Ni ba occ in ri, acht ba sean, 
Fuithfeas* for ghiallaibh Gaoidhl. 

Ni leimlithar Albain fria linn, 
An fhir ilghalraigh, ilbhinn, 
Meirge dearg oir* dhuisgfes cath, 
Ba li-e an Seanoir somhartliain. 

Mo chion Albaiu fris n-geabha, 
Acht as gairid dos meala, 
Coig bliadna go leith, lathar n-gle, 
For Albain in airdrighe. 

lar sin nos geibh Ei gallrach, 
Dianid ainm an t-Hghalrach 
Don ghalar sin adbeala, 
Ba iad sin a ardsgela. 

Then shall take after him without delay, 
A king whose name is Ilgalrach.^ 
The king was not young, but was old. 
He will send for the hostages of the Gaeh 

Alban shall not be defended in the time 
Of the many diseased, many melodied man. 
The banner of red gold wiU awaken battle. 
He was the senior of sufficiency. 

Happy Alban with his possession. 
But short does it enjoy him. 
Five years and a half, bright the deeds, 
Over Ablan in the sovereignty. 

Afterwards the diseased king takes 
Whose name was the Ilgabrach, 
Of that disease he dies, 
Such were his high tales. 

' a reads suithfes. I ' Much diseased. Duncan, son of 

^ o reads deigor. I C'rinan, and grandson of Malcolm. 



lar sin nos geibh in Ei deircc 
Righe Alban ard dreachleircc, 
lar n-ar Gaoidheal, iar n-ar Gall, 
Nos geabliaidh fial-ri Foii'threnu. 

In ruadh ba fionnbuidhe foda, 
Ba aoibhinn damhsa occu, 
Ba lomlan Albain shiar, shoir, 
Eri righe an Deircc dasachtaigh. 

Fiche bliadbna is deich m-bbadhna 
For Albain in airdri riagbla, 
For lar Scoine, sceitMdh fuile, 
Fescur aidhcbe iar n-iomargain. 

Iar sin nos geabha Tairbidh, 
Mac laidh as aedhidh, 
Ba lana fir domhain de, 
'S CO Loch Debhiu a librine. 

Afterwards the red king will possess 
Tlie kingdom of high slope faced Alban, 
After slaughter of Gael, after slaughter of Galls, 
The liberal king ■will possess Fortrenn. 

The red one was fair yellow tall, 
Pleasant was the youth to me. 
Brimful was Alban east and west. 
During the reign of Dearg the fierce. 

Twenty years and ten years 

Over Alban the sovereign reigned, 

On the middle of Scone, it will vomit blood, 

The evening of a night in much contention.' 

Afterwards the Tairbith^ will possess. 
Son of death and slaughter. 
The men of the world were full of him, 
And at Loch Deabhra his habitation. 

' Macbeth. Fichedli, twenty, 
seems here written iorseacht, seven. 
Macbeth reigned seventeen years. 

^ Misfortune, under this name 
Lulach seems to be meant. 


An Fionn, an Donn, dliailfes graigli, 
Ei as fearr gheabhas Albain, 
Ba li-e Eigh na Eigh go rath, 
Ba h-e an brath bmidte biodhbha. 

Ni rug ben, ni bhearadh soir, 
Eigh bus mo reacht for Albain, 
'S ni gheinfe go m-brath m-brais, 
Ba mo agh ocus ernas. 

Triocha bliadhna, seacht m-bliadhna, 
Is seadh ro shloinn damhsa an fiadhedh, 
In airdri n-Ghaidheal n-glan, 
Mo gheanar firu Alban. 

Ni bhearaidh gai na claidheamh^ 
Ni theid do rinn na d'aighedh, 
Ba ir Eoimh Lethu adbela, 
Biaid" sin a airdscela. 

The fair, the brown will give love 

A king the best who possessed Alban,^ 

He was a king of kings fortunate, 

He was the vigilant crusher of enemies. 

No woman bore or will bring forth in the East 
A king whose rule will be greater over Albau, 
And there shall not be born for ever, 
One who had more fortune and greatness. 

Thirty years and seven years 
Is what the Lord declared to me 
In the sovereignty of the pure Gael, 
Happy for the men of Alban. 

Nor spear nor sword shall take him, 

He comes not to the knife point nor to death, 

It was at Rome in Latium he died. 

They shall be there the high tales. 

' a reads sciaith, shields. 1 ' Malcolm Canmore, who reigned 

^ b reads Ba h-iad. \ thirty-seven years. 


Mo nuar ! ann' nos gebhadh righe 
Ceithre oidche is aon mlii, 
Truagh learn no miiirfeidh Gaidhel, 
Maircc bhias co a chomh-maidhemh. 

Nos geabhaidh an Ri ruaimnes gail 
Mac na mna do Saxanaibh, 
Ni ba gairid, acht ba fada, 
Ba lomlan Albain occu. 

Tiocfaidh^ bliadhain is da bliadhain 
Sloinnfid dibh uair as diamhair, 
Ba lomlan Albain shiar is shoir 
Truagh learn nos mairfe a bhrathair. 

lar sin nos geabhaidh Domnall Ban, 
Uch ! Uch ! mo chroidhe aga chradh, 
Is fria re tiaghaid a nail, 
Fir Albain do chum n-Eirenn. 

Alas ! a king wUI possess 
Four nights and one month. 
Woe is me ! the Gael wUI slay him, 
Woe will be to the common joy. 

The king will possess, casting slaughter, 
Son of the woman of the Saxons, 
It was not short but it was long, 
Brimful was Alban with him. 

A year and two years will come, 
I wUl declare to you, the time is dark, 
Brimful was Alban, east and west. 
Woe is me, his brother will slay him. 

After him will possess DonmaU Ban, 
Alas ! alas ! my heart is pain to me, 
It is in his time will come over, 
The men of Alban to Erin.^ 

1 Not in b. 

^ a rea,Aa jiche, twenty. 
' These stanzas allude to the 
rcigna of Donaldbane and of Dun- 

can, whose death is said to have 
been caused by his brother Ed- 
mund, who reigned after him in 
conjunction with Donaldbane. 


Ceithre Ei fichid sin, 
On gced Ei gheabhas Albain 
Go Domhnall Ban dhailes graigh, 
Fhagbhas Albain do Gheintibh. 

Co n-denaid a ttighe 'sa fhos, 

Fir Albain gan iniarbhos, 

Ceithre ' Eigh diobh go m-brath m-bras 

For Eirinn in airches. 

Four and twenty kings are there 

From the first king who will possess Albau 

To Domnall Ban who gives love, 

He will leave Alban to the Gentiles. 

May they build their houses and their camps 
The men of Alban without sorrow, 
Four kings of them for ever 
Upon Erin in hostility. 

' In a, coig, five, interlined. 





X lETAS omnipotentis Dei sciens humanam naturam 
assidue inhiare caducis, iit tandem valeret aspirare man- 
suris, ex incomprehensibilis et jsterni jure consilij ordinato 
tempore apparuit cum gratia erudiens nos, ut abnegantes 
impietatem et sseciilaria desideria sobrie et iuste et pie 
vivamus, et tersa caligine vetusti erroris, portas vitse cum 
exultatione intremus. Ne vero ia extrema hiiius exulatus 
quis patriam petens deficeret. Venite, inquit, ad me omnes 
qui laboratis et onerati estis et ego reficiem vos. Et ne 
ignotum iuclioetis iter : Ego, ait, sum via. Quid autem 
prseniij euntem maneat, ostendit : per me, inquiens, si quis 
introierit, saluabitur. Huius ergo pactionis promissor, quo 
ad spem vitte animaret consortes fragilitatis, mortalitatisque 
nostrse ad iter salutis excitatos, debHitati infirmorum, in 
speculum exempli assidue proponere voluit ; quorum multi 
ad justitiam verbo erudentes plurimos, iam fulgent ut 
stellse in perpetuas seternitates. Plurimi exemplo suorum 
actuum, ad portam beatitudinis alios appulere, atque in 
domo Dei, qui ubique pro se laborantibus hilaris remxme- 
rator occurrit, ut eorum quisque potuit insudavere. 
Verum quia nostri iam ajvi inertia, quibus ex iniquitatis 
abmidantia refriguit charitas, usque adeo detorpuit, ut non 
modo collaboret, aut laborantes attendat, sed nee oUm in 
vinea nostri Patris-familife laborantium actus, qui nobis 
solatio conscripti sunt, perscrutari curet ; indeficiens 
largitas Dei semper invenit quos prteferat, uti si priorum 
negligimus lectionem, prtesentium excitemur visione. 
Quorum, videlicet, monumentum bonorum operum, et si 
cohors imitatores habet decorum est habeat scriptores. 


qiiia mauus Domini non erit invaUda, ut per id aliquando 
aliquos suae servituti adjiciat, in hoc insistentibus mercede 
ffiternse re nunc rationis salua. Quani mrdti appetentes, 
ad profectu, in quos fines sseculorum devenerant, non 
tantum visa sad audita transmittentes, in domo Dei, 
aurum, argentum, lapides pretiosos, obtulerunt. Et nos qui 
piles capraruin vix consecuti sumus, ad htec applicuerunt, 
ut si imitandos sequi tardi simus, tamquam si csecus iter 
monstrare velit, aliquem qui imitari debeat et possit, de- 
scribere audeamus : et si diu' non valeamus, olim volen- 
tibus et valentibus styli materiam prsebeamus. 

Pactolus igitur Asiaj fluvius, Choriam, Lydiamque re- 
giones dividit super queni Chorischon urbem manus 
antiqua fundavit ; cujus incolse lingua et cultu nationeque 
GrjBci, multimodi laboris negotiis serviebant. Quorum 
obtentu navibus conscensis per Pathmos Abidosque, 
HeUespouti Insulas, Tliraciam superiorem devenerunt : 
opulentiaque regionis capti, patriam repedarunt : nee midto 
post constructa classe cum conjugibus et liberis univer- 
saque supellectili, junctis sibi Pergamis et Lacedemoniis, 
ut cupitam terram possessuri peterent delegerunt. Jam 
ingressis HeUespontum exoritur aquilo cui frustra reni- 
tentes, eis Ephesus et Melos insulse devolvuntur : sicque 
Ortigiam translegentes secus Cycladas insulas per mare 
Curpaticum, Cretam incurrisse mirati simt. Unde spe 
patriae, conscensa classe, vulturno a prora exorto, in 
SicLaum siaum detorquentur : moxque ut mare magnum 
Affriciun devenissent, nisi nimia vi ventorum acti, later 
Corciam et Inclytam, qui, mirum dictu, Isesis oculis prse- 
bent niedelam furibus afferunt csecitatem ; per GaUicum 
pelagus, lUirios sinus errantes intrassent Quid enim 
facerent ? Sol occiiltaverat, lima et astra, profusa caligine 
damnaverant diem. Nusquam erat terra, hyems liorrida 
cselestibus, ut ita credas, terrenas miscuerat undis, ut, 
antique redeimte, chaos omnia crederes miscuisse. Ablata 
erat miseris spes vivendi : quis enim tanta eerum non hor - 

' Dine in orig. 


reat pericula ? Nam neque ^Eneas aut Ulisses, quos his- 
toriae tradunt pliirima pertulisse, tanta perferre potuerunt. 

Itaque lUiricos exeuntes fluctus, inter Baleares 
insulas devecti, Ebusum Hispanicum intraverunt. Nee 
multo post per Gaditanas undas occidentale pelagus 
ingressi, appulsi sunt, rupibus qute visus liominum alti- 
tudine excedentes, antiqui erroris fama, columnaj Herculis 
dictae fiierunt. Hinc illinc AfPrico vento exurgente post 
immensa pericula in Tyle ultimam detorquentur : ibi 
vero superno intuitu, qui futiu-a, miseratione, vocabo, 
inquit, non gentem meam, gentem meam, et non miseri- 
cordiam consecutam, misericordiam consecutam ; Ventos 
compescuit, sequora placavit. Tunc quo venissent quia 
nesciebant, aliquantisper recreati aliquando refectis navi- 
bus ut gentiles se fortune, vela ventis, classem Neptuno 
committunt, et Deo jubente tandem prospero cursu juxta 
Cruachan feli, montem Hibemiae applicuenmt. 

Crassus Chaldseam in suo sanguine cruentaverat : Magnus 
Pompeius Reipublicfe urbis consulebat : Julius Cccsar 
Gallos rebeUes septennali congressione damnabat. Igitur 
ad terram egressi, ut moris est, situm loconmi, mores et 
habitum hominum explorare, gentem Pictaneorum repe- 
riunt. Cloin urbs est antiqua Hibernise, super Synam 
iluvium; liujus habitatores advenientium naves succendere 
volentes mox amiis devicti privati sunt : post vero Choris- 
chii videntes terram lactis et mellis fertilem frequenti 
congressione insulanos illos debellantes Artmacham 
Metropolim, totamque terram inter lacus Erne et Ethioch 
invaserunt, longe lateque diffasi : Celdar civitatem, Corach 
quoque Muminensium urbem ceperunt. Jamque consor- 
tati Benchor Vllidiae urbem obsessam intraverunt. 

Fluxerunt [alijquot anni, et mare sibi proximum trans- 
fretantes Eueam insulam, qure mmc loua dicitur, repleve- 
runt. Nee satis, post pelagus Britannise contiguum 
perlegentes, per Rosim amnem, Rossiam regionem manse- 
runt ■} Rigmonath quoque Bellethor urbes, a se procul 

^ Manserunt probably for invaseiuiU. 


positas, petentes, possessuri vicerunt ; sicque totam terram 
suo nomine Chorischiam nominatam, post cujusdam 
Lacedemonii ^nese filium nomine Nelum, sen Niulum, 
qui Princeps eorum fuerat, at olim ^gyptiam conjugem 
beUo meruerat, nomine Scottam, ex vocabnlo conjugis, 
patrio sermone depravato, Scotiam vocaverunt, atqiie post 
annorimi curricula, per beatum Patricium, armis induti 
fidei, Christo Domino colla submiserunt ; quorum multi 
fuere, qui legitime in stadio fidei decertantes, seternse 
remunerationis pabnam adepti, in sacrario Divinitatis 
laureati, Christo assistunt. Sed quia beati eorum actus, 
proprias repleverunt paginas, ne alieno labori onerati^ 
simus, quae nota siuit supersedenda judicavimus. 

Quoniam vero in ignem semel manum externae gentis 
viros describendo, misimus ab eis minus recedentes. 
Meet inculto sermone filium ecclesise novellam olivam, 
ortam in campis sylvce statuere promisimus. Eegii 
igitur sanguinis, opibus eximiis vu- quidam nomine Fait- 
each fuit, qui divitiis et nobUitate similem sibi sortitus 
est conjugem, nomine Baniam, quae in flore juventutis 
suse ex priore viro suo filios susceperat, sed post huic 
conjuncta sterUis permanebat. Unde post multa sanc- 
torum sufPragia, quse ad piissimas Dei Omnipotentis aures 
admoverat Beati Columbani, cum viro suo adivit merita ; 
nee suo vote est frustrata, namque cum ad sepulchrum 
ejus, cum jejuniis et orationibus pemoctassent vix obdor- 
mierunt, et singulas se tenere candelas cum lumine indis- 
similiter videbant, quas cum attenderimt Isetantes, subito 
in unum lumen compactas mirabantur : et ecce vir prae- 
clari habitus apparuit, tuae, inquiens, mulier, meam infe- 
cerunt stolam lachrymse et in conspectu Dei astiterunt 
preces ; et qui oranti Annae concessit Samuelem, peten- 
tique Jacobo conceptimi dedit Eebeccae, jussit ut concipias 
et parias filium, nomine Kaddroe, futurum lumen Eccle- 
siae, qui juxta nominis sui virtutem [habuit]. Bellator in 
castris Domini invictus ascendet ex adverso opponens 

' Oneri in orig. 


murum, paratus stare in prselio pro domo Israel. Somno 
itaque excitati, cum gratiarum actione congratulantur 
visioni, nee incerti de promissa misericordia domum cum 
exidtatione redeimt ; quod talem suscepturi essent prolem, 
fit commune gaudium. 

Interea concepit muUer et peperit filium cui juxta 
Domini mandatum, Kaddroii imposuit vocabulum. Fama 
nati pueri finitimas repleverat regiones ; ut moris est 
patrias, accurrit vulgus nobUe, diversum sexu et letate, 
avidus puerum educare. Mater ergo tantorum nobilium 
potentiuni cavens, scilicet, iiiimicitias, cui Deus juberet 
dari, respondit se subtrahere non posse. Forte strato 
decubuerat, cum illi inter tantos somnus obrepsit, vixque 
leniter per membra diffusus videre fecit quasi domimi 
circumvolasse accipitrem, et omnibus semotis matrons 
ciijusdam vertici insedisse. Expergefacta, dehinc circum- 
stantibus, quid viderit, narrat. Tunc vero communi 
omnium considtu, matronte nutriendus traditur. Qui 
sublatus in domum mulieris atque ablactatus est. Cujus 
pater jam in tenera indole futuram pr;T3sentiens iudus- 
triam ssecularibus rebus innutrire tentabat. 

Erat autem pueri patruelis, Beamis nomine, ab 
ineunte fetate Christi gaudens, servitute, pervigil in ora- 
tionibus, eleemosinis intentus, servator sui : qui, si fieri 
posset, omnes ad Christum trahere volens, conversus ad 
Deum pro pueri salute totis incubuit precibus : mox Divina 
dementia affuit, atque in visu senem, a patre puenmi 
ad scholas reposci jussit. Paruit senex, et viro, super 
negotio convenit. Abnegat ille et senem quasi eiTantem 
risit; denuo vero rem repetere jussus, patrem pueri 
repetivit, mandata pandit, utque puer ei, qui dederat, reddi 
debeat insistit. Tunc homo aegre se feiTC a vii'o impor- 
time infestari, qure nolebat reposci, senem errare judicio, 
noil posse se amittere filimn sibi per repromissionem in 
senectute matris generatum, baculum senectutis parentum, 
qiiem tanta familia expectabat Dominum. 

Itaque sene recedente sine effectu, visitavit Domi- 
nus matrem pueri, concepitque iterum et genuit filium 


nomine Mattadanum, adjecitque Dominus admonere 
senem, vade, inquiens, die patri pueri ; age homo, repeto 
abs te puerum, jussus a Deo, qui tibi substituit alteram 
illius loco : qui si noluerit, die illi imminere iram Divinse 
animadversionis. Nee mora virum adiit pro re allo- 
cuturus. Cui renuenti ; adquiesce, inquit, ne contra- 
dicentem te invadat districtio supemse ultionis. Quod 
si me non jussum ex meo dicere adscribis, imminentis 
tibi irse indicio, equus, qui tibi melior est, moritur. Mira 
velocitas. Adliuc volvebantur ia ore senis verba, cum 
puer stabularius interitum nunciat. Quo audito irruit 
viro terror, diriguitque et calor ossa reliquit. Tandem 
viro Lllachrymans licet invitus cum matre pergens ad 
tumulum Beati Columbani, infantem Deo qui petebat af- 
ferens, seni prsedicto nutriendum tradidit. Susceptimi 
igitur puerum senex curavit atque in Divina lege, ut 
potuit erudivit. Jam infantia emerserat, et adolescentise 
proximus, acris ingenii acie coaevos prjeibat. 

Interea quidam pestifero spii'itu agitati, nutritores oUm 
infantis devastabant. Qui virium resistendi inhabiles, 
adolescentulum adeunt, suse miserise querimoniam pan- 
dunt. Moris namque est patrife, ut, si qui nobilium 
infantem nutriant, deinceps non minus genitoribus ejus in 
omnibus auxilium exquirat. Ut autem juvenem in suo 
adiutorio incenderent ; cum te, inqiiunt, nutrimus si oves 
vel equos lavassemus, horum lacte pasti equorum vehiculo 
melius hostium rabiem declinaremus, qui te prresente, 
prjedse et vastitati sixccumbimus. Forte Beanus aberat 
cum juvenis commotus arma corripuit; et socios incla- 
mans, hostes insequi deliberavit : jamque ripse fluminis 
inundantis trans quern hostes erant, astiterant et navium 
usus exquirebatur et unus ex munero comitum, ordine 
clericus custos juveni deputatus, seni reverse rem renun- 
ciat : tunc vero complosis manibus in lachrymis resolutus, 
■bonum te, ait, custodem juvenis dereliqui. Cumque ille 
non potuisse se resistere satisfaceret ; moras, ait Beoanus, 
rumpe, et ut me prtestoletur coge. At iUe, cum adoles- 
centem cseptis non destiturum omnino diceret ; senex 


proferens, quo solebat uti, Evangelium hoc, inquit, defer, 
et me, ut aperiatur, contestare. Praecedit clericus mandata 
senis cum signo deferens, et lachrymantem, et contra- 
dicentem in ripa stare compulit : sequitur Beanus, et 
causam irse adolescentis exquirit. lUe vero rem retulit, 
nee sibi aiebat esse posse integrum, ut dolorem nutritorum 
pateretur manere inultum. At senex ejus efferos animos 
mitigabat. IIH autem non acquiescenti ait senex ; super 
hoc ergo exquire ejus voluntatem cui promisisti fidem, et 
ut scire valeat aperit librum quem ab eo receperat et 
versum quem primum invenit arripuit ; erat autem : Si 
quia quod tuum est tulerit ne repetas. Hoc autem cum 
ei non satisfaceret, denuo revolvit sententiam et incurrit 
juveni contrarium, quae erat, omnes qui acceperint 
gladium, gladio peribunt ; tertioque revolventi occurrit : 
Serve, nequam omne debitum dimisi tibi quoniam rogasti 
me, omne ergo oportuit te misereri conserventui, sicut et 
ego tui misertus sura ? Cumque his contradicere non 
posset, in pace cum viro Dei reversus lectioni et orationi 
Vacabat attentius. 

Quadam autem die, festa senex membra stratulo col- 
locaverat, et Cathroe cum sociis baud procul quiescebat, 
cum homini Dei virgo apparuit, fulgore vultus fulgorem 
solis vincens, adeo annosa, ut non eam putares nostri 
temporis licet videretur juvenis septiformi veste induta, 
cui quidquid dici et excogitari potest intextum erat. 
Quam senex miratus, quse et unde esset inquirit. Tunc 
iUa ego, ait, sum sapientia, quae habito in consiliis et 
eruditis intersum cogitationibus, et hunc veni assumere 
juvenem, visu evanuerat ab oculis intuentis, et juvenis 
amore corripitur discendi ; quem, nisi Sfficularibus, tra- 
datiir studiis, moritumm putares. Intellexit vir Dei, 
quod viderat, et paratis quse vise et scholte erant 
necessaria, adolescentem Hibernife Metropolim apud 
Ardmacham in pristino disciplinarum se reclusit, non 
veritus post dogmata divina mundanas Htteras quserere, 
ut his lucidius cUmatus, quse olim didicerat melius posset 
examinata proferre, cum legeret Platonem gentium Philo- 


sophiim fama eximise accitum, ^giptum petiisse, atque 
cum eodem propheta coloratis verbis unum super omnia 
Deum, quern ante ignorabat, recepisse. Instruitixr itaque 
et coieros contubernalesque suos longe prjecedens gymna- 
sium sapientiae, ipsa ductrice, augulatim percurrebat. 
Quid ultra ? quod poeta cecinit ; et orator dixit, quidquid 
philosophus excogitavit expertus, niliil ilium fugit. 
Quidquid numero, mensura et pondere, tactu et auditu, a 
quoquam vestigatum est, ebibit : et ultimum astronim 
occultos tractus et cursus radio doctius Egino, quo nescio 
an aliquis in cseli hierarchia probatior sit, designavit. 

Taliterque edoctus, sequore remenso ad Beanum rediit 
et per totam Scotiam conservis suis triticum sapientiag sibi 
creditum fideliter erogavit. Licet enim Scoti multa millia 
psedagogorum liabeaut, sed non multos patres. In disciplinis 
enim artium hie illos genuit : unde quia labia ejus erudi- 
erunt plurimos, non sociabatur si afflicto ; nam a tempore 
adventus sui, nullus sapientum mare transierat ; sed 
adhuc Hiberniam incolebaut. Lsetabatur seuex juvenem 
proficere et ad cuncta, quae tentabat, neminem similem 

Interea prteteribat tempus, utque Dominus adolescen- 
tem in viam salutis dirigeret homo Dei precabatur : nee 
longinqua Dei miseratio fuit, qua se in veritate in- 
vocantes semper audit. Cumque unius noctis vigiliis 
fatigatus, post hymnos, membra lectulo collocasset, ut saepe 
mane incfeptus et latus est, somnus subierat senem ; 
neque pleniter obdormierat, nee pseue vigilabat, sed 
quandam in extasim raptus ; vidit magnorum virorum 
fieri conventum, quos admirans, aUquid magni acturos 
sperabat. Turn illorum unus cseteris reverentior, militiam, 
inquit, Eegis seterni a saeculis ordinatam augers expedit ; 
vos, ait, reliquos, ex his qui hie quiescunt, juvenibus quos- 
dam adscribatis, qui iu conspectu imperatoris, saltus dare 
debeant. Ille qui venit saliens in montibus, transiliens 
colles dixerit : huicque qui nos aspicit, quid transilire 
debeant, ostendere preecipit. Ducitur itaque Beanus et 
videt tres ten'se defossos specus, quorum primus et secun- 



dus non parvos erunt quantitatis, tertius altitudine nimii 
horroris, immensse latitudinis. Hnjus xilterior ripa plena 
splendoris erat et gaudii. Quid sibi hsc velleut non 
cunctatiu seuex inquirere : responsumque est, lios debere 
jiivenes transilire si gratiam imperatoris velleut habere : 
at vero seni, periciilum Catliroe timenti, ne, inquit, magni- 
ficus ille, vir, paucas : transilient enim, licet dispariliter, 
sed iste faslicius prtecedet, cui magis times ; et ne caus- 
sani visionem existimes, quid specus significent attende : 
primus itaque, rerum est spontanea amissio : secundus 
patriae relictio : tertius monasticEe vitse exercitatio. 
Porro ripa iUius exultationis, vitaj perennis perceptio. 
Disparuit ergo visio et senex excutitur lecto. 

Non multi post transierunt dies et ipsi a Domino 
dicitur; Cathroe, exi de terra tua et de cognatione tua etde 
domo patris tui et veni in terram, quam monstravero tibi et 
constituam te ducem populi mei atque sustollam super alti- 
tudinem nubiimi et citabo liajreditate Jacobi Patris tuL 
Expergefactus juvenis amore corripitur peregrinationis, 
et relictis omnibus, viam peregrinandi ingreditur. Fama 
rem vulgaverat, et cimctos divites et pauperes msror et 
luctus invasit. Accumt omnis setas et omnis conditio, et 
velut exitium et vastitas totius Scotise appropinquaret 
omnium laclir}TnabLlis acclamatio : cur nos, Pater, deseris 
aut cui laboris tui fructum derelinquis ? quare tibi peregre 
ire placuit, cum omnes advente apud Deum simus : et 
habitatione cedar incolatum nostrum, te docente, plan- 
gamus ? prolongaris ? Aspice quassumus fructum quem 
tantos docendo facere potes et quibus necesse est opem 
scientise impertire. Nunquid in Joannis visione non 
attendis, Patris setemum verbum, quid te moneat ? Qui 
audit, inquit, dicat veni. Motus ergo his fletibus aliquan- 
tisper ibidem moratus, in semetipsum ipse insurrexit. 

Propter manabat amnis cursus validissimi ; juxta 
quem, ut crebro contingit, succreverat moles cujusdam 
arboris ; noctibus itaque, solo Deo teste, illuc accedebat ;^ 

' Accednes in orig. 


exutus vestibus, in maximi horrores frigoris se mittebat 
in fiumen ; et ne vi fiuctus prteceps rueret, manu tene- 
bat, quem arbori cii'cumligaverat, funem ; et tamdiu ibi 
stabat quamdiu compleret a centesuno decinio octavo, 
usque ad centesimum tertium Psalmum. 

Interea ruente hyenie fequora detumebant et pro- 
positse peregrinationis denuo aggreditur viam. Tunc 
vero mseror et luctus iterum totam occupabat regionem, 
atque accurrentibus omnibus, Eex, qui prteerat Patriie, Con- 
stantinus nomine, hominem retenturas accurrit Parte itin- 
eris jam emensa, Beatse Brigidse. Cathroe oraturus subin- 
traverat asdem, cmn e diversis partibus accitum vulgus, 
nobile et rusticum complevit Ecclesiam. Virum omnes 
rogant ne deserat patriam. Ad quos Hie conversus, Eegi 
et omnibus hoc tantum respondit. Vos, iniquit, non de- 
seram, dum ubicunque fuero, vestram babebo memoriam. 
Tunc clamor populi attollitur et Sanctorum reliquiis ante 
exun positis, eorum obtestatione, ut sibi adquiesceret roga- 
bant. Illo vero si ad hoc, ait. Sanctorum reliquias attuletis 
ut me a voluntate proposita compesceretis, mecum eorum 
suffragia petite, ut utrum viam salutis ingressus sini 
dignentur ostendere. Christus eniin cum reUnquentibus 
patrem et matrem, fratres et sorores, et sua quaeque prje- 
poneret ; nihil consilii vestri subintulit. Abrahse quo- 
que, quia obediens Deo exivit de terra sua et de dome 
patris sui reputatum est ad justitiam. Frustra itaque 
Eegi cum plel^e laboranti et maxima qureque promittenti, 
dum non adquiesceret, parentes ejus moti, tumentesque 
cum jurgio ; si, inquunt, precibus non valeamus, ferreis 
vinculis et carcere cohibebimus. Hoc, ait vestrse est 
potestatis ; verum quamdiu in vinculis ero, nullo modo 
bibam vel manducabo. Forte cum Eege, Abbas quidam 
nomine Mailodarius advenerat ; qui, ut erat tequus con- 
silio, si, ait, virum hxmc a voluntate proposita non valeamus 
avertere, prout quisque potest, auxiUum viee impendamus, 
ut remunerationis ejus laborum consortes esse valeamus. 
Tunc omnes certatim auri et argenti, vestium et equorum 
adjutoria impendentes, cum benedictione Dei dimiserunt 


et Eegis ipsius ducamiiie veiiit usque ad ten-am Cum- 

Douenaldus Eex illi prajerat plebi, et quia erat pro- 
pinquus viri, cimi omui gaudio occurrit, et secum ali- 
quamdiu retinens, couduxit usque Loidam Cmtatem quae 
est confinium Normaunorum, atque Cumbrorum, ibique 
excipitur a qiiodam vii'o nobili Giuiderico, a quo perduci- 
tur ad Eegem Ericbiimi in Eiu'oacum Urbem, qui scilicet 
Eex liabebat conjugem, ipsius Divini Cathroij propin- 
quam ; uude egi'essus Lugdinam Civitatem expetiit atque a 
quodam sene Heyfrido nomine, susceptus mausit noctu. 
Itaque per incuriam urbs ipsa incenditur et maxima 
jam exparte consumpta, quod supererat, victrix flamma 
lambebat. Tunc vero Deus quid Cathroe apud se haberet 
meriti declarare voluit. A sene igitur rogatur, ut orando 
pereuuti succurat. Cui confisus in Domino inter ignem 
et quod residuum erat currens, conversus ad Dominum 
dixit : Tibi, Domine, ornere quod est famulatur. Jube 
ergo terrores sestuantium cessare flammanim. Htec 
breviter dixit, elevataque manu, retro abire jussit incen- 
dium. Videres flammam velut vi venti retortam paulatim 
deficiendo emori. Sic lajtantibus omnibus civitas liberata 
est. Tua sunt hsec opera Deus, qui gloriosus in virtu- 
tibus tuis, ad gloriam tui nominis ; qui olim in populum 
murmurantem, exortum incendium, orante Moyse, absor- 
beri jussisti, tunc per famulum tuum Cathroe flammis 
urbem Hberasti. 

Fama tunc transvolens et totam replens regionem 
ad Eegem usque, qui in Vindecastra Civitate erat, 
Hegmundum nomine devenit. Qui continuo accer- 
situm hominem ad se, venire petit et aliquandiu secum 
esse rogans ejus coUoquiis delectatus, per Arcbiepiscopum 
ejusdem urbis, Otthonem nomine, in portum usque, qui 
hymen dicitur, deduxit. Ibi igitur conscensis navibus, 
cum in altum irent, vento excito, littori sunt restitutL 
Putasne, lector, et auditor, Deum noUe ut homo iste mare 
non transirct. Nonne Paulus ad coronam Eomam navi- 
gans naufragium, hycmem et famcm vix evasit. 


METRICAL PROPHECY, mciv-mcxxiv. 

a MS. COLB. BIB. IMP. PARIS, 4126. 
b MS. BRIT. MBS. BIB. BEG. 9. B. IX. 

JtvEGNUM Scotorum fuit, inter cetera regna 

Terranmi, qiiondam nobile, forte, potens. 
Eeges niagnifici, Bruti de stirpe, regebant 

Fortiter, egregie, Scotia regna priu.s. 
Ex Albanacto, trinepote potentis Enee, 

Dicitur Albania : littera prisca probat. 
A Scota, nata Pharaonis regis Egyjiti, 

Vt veteres tradunt, Scotia nomeu habet. 
Post Britones, Danaos,' Pictos, Dacosque," repulsos 

Nobiliter Scoti jus tenuere suum. 

Facta ducis Celebris, super omnia, Scocia flebit ; 

Qui loca septa salo junget ubiqxie sibi. 
Principe magnifico tellus viduata vacabit ; 

Annis bis ternis, mensibus atque novem. 
Autiqiios reges, justos, largos, locupletes, 

Formosos, fortes, Scotia mesta luget.^ 
Vt Uerilinus * ait, post reges victoriosos, 

Regis more carens, regia sceptra feret. '' 
Serviet angligeno regi per tempora quondam, 

Proh dolor Albania ; fraude subacta sua. 
Quod respirabit, post funus regis avari, 

Versibus antiquis prisca sibilla canit. 

' h has Danacos. I ^ h read.s Merliniis, which seema 

" h has ducesqite, I the correct reading. 


These six lines not in h. 1 ^ /; has grruiit. 



Rex borealis enim, mimerosa classe potitus, 

Affliget Scotos ense, furore, fame ; 
Extera gens tandem Scotorum fraude peribit ; 

In bello princeps Noricus ille^ cadet. 
Gallia qiiem gignit, qui gazis regna replebit, 

dolor ! gemitus ! primus ab ense cadet. 
Candidus Albanus, patriotis causa ruine 

Traditione sua Scotia regna premet.^ 
Posteritas Bruti, Albanis associata, 

Anglia regna premet morte,^ labore, fame. 
Quem Britonum fundet Albani juncta juventus ; 

Sanguine Saxonico tincta inibebit humus. 
Elumina manabunt, hostili tincta cruore 

Perfida gens omni lite subacta ruet.* 
Regnabimt Britones, Albani gentis amici ; 

Antiquum nomen insula tota feret, 
Ut profert aquila veteri de turre locuta, 

Cum Scotis Britones regna paterna regent. 
Regnabunt pariter, in prosperitate quieta, 

Hostibus expulsis, judicis usque diem.* 
Hystorie veteris Gildas luculentus orator, 

Quem retulit, panio carmine plura notans : 
Mens, cor, cur capiunt ; lex Christi vera jocunda, 
Primam cunctorum tibi dat formam futurorum. 
Draco draconem rubens album superabit ; 
Anglorum nomen toUet ; rubei renovabit. 
Solis in occasu leopardi viscera ft-igent ; 

Vertices et cerebrum Cambria toilet ei. 
Quo duce sublato, tria ovantia regna peribunt, 

Saxonie soboli lilia frena dabunt. 
Vernus Germanici leopardi tincta veneno 

LUia vincendi fugere presto cadet. 
Eufrates, et Tigris, Forth Thamesis Ronaque Nilus, 

Per mundi metas lilia subtus erunt. 

' b reads ense. 
- 6 reads teret. 

^ for xiremel morte, h reads terenl 

* These four lines not in h. 

^ The poem in h ends here, and 
does not contain the conchiding 
fourteen lines. 





Oeithri bliadhna 7 ced cath Briain co bas Muircer- 
taidh meic Toirdhelbaig. 

Coic ri for Alliain Ms sin i. 

Donnchad mac Crinain 

Dounchad mac Mailcolaim. 

Macbethad mac Findlaecli 

Lulach mac Micbethadh 

Malcolaim mac Domichada, ise do cear le Francu y 
Eduuard a mac. 


Four years and one hundred from the battle of Brian to the 
death of Murcertach, son of Toirdelbach. (1014-1 119.) 

Five kings over Alban during that time ; viz., — 

Duncan son of Crinan, 

Duncan .son of Malcolm, 

Macbeth son of Finlaech, 

Lulach son of Macbeth, 

Malcolm .sou of Duncan. He was slain by the Normans, with 
his son Edward. 


FROM THE WELSH " BRUTS," mcxx-mcxxxv. 



C MS. HENGWRT. 536. 

d MS. HENGWKT. 313. 


JhiBYTAlN yw henw yr orev or ynysset a elwit weith 
araU gynt Albion, sef oed hynny y weu ynys yssyd 
ossotedec y r\vng Freinc ac Ywerdon. 


Ac ynydiwet hwu pymp kenedyl yssyd yny chyuanliedu, 
nyd amgen, Normanyeit. Bryttanyeit. Saesson. Fichtieit 
ac Ysgottieit. ac o liynny oU nyd oed gynt yny niedu or 
mor pwy gilyd namyn Bryttannyeit eu lum, yny doeth 



Britain is the name of the best of the Isles which formerly was 
otherwise called Albion, which implied the white island, and is 
situated between France and Ireland. 


And in the present juncture there are five nations that inhabit 
it, viz., Normans, Britons, Saxons, Picts and Scots, and of all 
these, there were formerly none who possessed it from one sea to 
the other except the Britons themselves, until the Divine ven- 


dwywaiil dial arnadimt am eii pecliodeu ac yn bennaf am 
eu syberwyt ydarystjoigassant yr Fichtieit ac Saesson ; 
mal j doethant ac or He y doethant ef ageffir rac llaw. 


Agwedy gwneithur y dinas kysgu a oruc Brutus yiia 
gyntaf gan Ignogen y wreic, a thri meib ami ydaw o 
honei, nyt amgen, Locrinus, Camber ac Albanactus. A 
gwedy gwledychu o Vrutus ar ynys Brydein yn hedy- 
chawl pedeyr blyued ar ugeint y bu varw, ac y cladpwyt 
ef yny gaer a adeiliassei e liunan yn anrydedus. 

Ac yna y rannwyt yr ynys yn deir ran rwg y tri broder, 
nyd amgen, nogyd y Locrinus canys hynaf oed a ganaf o 
hen deuawd gwyr groec y lie pemmf, sef oed hynny Lloy- 
gyr mal y dycho yteruynev o vor Humyx liyt yn Hafren. 
Ac oy lienw ef ehun y dodes ar y ran Lloygyr. Ac y 
Albanactus y doeth o Hiuuyr hwnt, ac y dodes ynteu oy 
henw ehvn ar y ran ef or ynys yr Alban. Ac y Camber 
y doeth or tu arall y Hafren ac y dodes ynteu ar y ran 
Kymre oy henw ehvn. 

geance came upon them for their sins, and chiefly for their pride, 
they were subjected to the Picts and the Saxons. How they 
came, and from what place wiU be found in the sequeL 


And after he built the city, Brutus had by Inogen his wife 
three sons, viz., Locrinus, Camber, and Albanactus. And after 
Brutus had reigned peaceably over the island of Britain twenty- 
four years, he died and was honourably buried in the city he had 
himself built. 

And thereupon the island was divided into three portions be- 
tween the three brothers. That is to say, to Locrinus, as the 
eldest, according to an old custom of the people of Greece, the 
chief part which is Lloygyr, extending from the Humber to the 
Severn, and from his name he called it Lloygyr. And to Alban- 
actus, all beyond the river Humber, and lie also from his own 
name called his share of the island Alban. And to Camber, the 
other side of the Severn, and he called his portion Oymmry from 
his own name. 




JLn oes hwiinw y doetli Eodric breuhjn y Ffychtieit 
Ssithia allynges gantliaw lift yr Alban a goresgyu 
yr Alban aoriic. Agwedy gwbot or brenliyn bynny. 
k^Tiiillan llu aoruc adyiiot yn ev herbyn ac ymlad ac 
M'yiit yn MTaul, ac ev kymell ar fo gan ev llad.^ Ac 
yny fo b\\Tinw y lias Eodric acban mwyaf y hi, ar liyii 
adieng hys ra- wasgaredic llu, wynt a ymrodassant yn 
gerth yr brenhyn yr caftel ev beneydev. Ac yntev arodes 
ydunt ran or Alban y presswfiliaw yndy.^ Ag^vedy y 
chyvanledu onadunt wynt a doethant ar y Bryttannyeit 
y er^'ynnyeit ev merchet yn wreich ae ydunt, ac nyt oed 
deylwg gan y Bryttannyeit dywediev ev mercbet ar all- 
tudion arall wlat beb wybot o ba genedyl yd banoedynt. 
Ac \vynt yn alltudyon ydunt heuyd. Ac am bynny ev 
nacbau ar gwbyl a orugant. Agwedy ev nackan wynt 


In his time [the reign of Meuric] Koderic, tlie king of the Picts, 
came from Scythia with a fieet to Alban, and made conquest of 
Alban. As soon as the king heard this, he collected an army 
and went against them, and fought valiantly with them, and put 
them to flight with slaughter, and in this flight Roderic was slain, 
with the greater part of his army ; and those who escaped of the 
dispersed army submitted themselves openly to the king to obtain 
their lives, and he gave them a district in Alban to inhabit ; but 
when they had settled themselves, they went to the Britons to 
ask their daughters in marriage, and the Britons would not 
marry their daughters to foreigners of another country without 

1 b and c insert here : Agwed;/ 
kaffel Veuric y uudiujohjaetli honno 
drychauel maen mawr a wnneth yn 
arvyd haffel o honaw hymi;/ yr 
wlat a elwit oe enw ef W/'stynmr. 
Sef yw hynny yghjmraec Gn/s 
Meuruc ac ynij maen hwnnw yd 
yscriuenw yt gveithredoed Meuruc 
irrth r/adw cnfbyth. 

After Meurxic gained this vic- 

tory, he set up a great stone as a 
token of it in the country, called 
from his name Westymar, I)ut in 
Welsh Gwysmeuruc, and on this 
stone there is an inscription to re- 
tain the memory of Meuruc for ever. 

2 h and c add : A r wlat y rodm 
rfudunt hici/ elicit Katneis. 

And the country which he gave 
them is called Caithness. 



a aetliant hyt yn Ywerdon achymryt y Gwydellesseu yn 
wi'aget yduut ac or rei hynny ' yd hiliws yv Yscottieit yv 
hynny hyt hediw. 


Dccxxi Ac yny blwydyn honno y bu varw Beli vab 

Dccxxviii y bu ryual^ Mynyd Carno. 
Dccxxxvi. y bu varw Owein brenhyn y Pictieit. 
Dccl. yny vlwydyn lionno y bu ymlad^ rwng y Brit- 

knowing of what race they were, and aliens they were, moreover, 
and tliey altogether refuised their petition, and after tlieir refusal 
they went to Ywerdon, and married women of the Gwydyl, and 
from them have the Scots descended to this day. 


A.D. 721. In this year died Beli, son of Elphin. 

728. In this year was the battle of Mynyd Carao. 

736. In this year died Owen, king of tlic Picts. 

750. In this year was the fighting between the Britons 

' 6 and c conclude the passage 
thus : Ac or rei hynny kynydu 
plant ac etitiedyon ac araylhau 
pohyl. Ar bohil honno yw y Gwy- 
dyl Ffcliti. A Uyma megys ydoe- 
thant ac y kynhwysgicyf yn gyntaf 
yn yr ynys hunn, ac yr hynny hyt 
kediw ymaent yn ormes heb wynet 
o dyina. A chynnyt arueitheis i 
draelhu or gwyr hyny nac or Yssco- 
tyiet y rei henyt adechreuassajU 
kynydu ev kenedyl or rei hynny 
ac or Gwydyl: y peideis a hynny 
ac ymchoelut y draethu oin defnyd 
by hun. 

And their children and offspring 
increased, and the people midti- 
plied. This people are the Gwydyl 
Fichti, and it is thus they came 
and were first continued in this 
island, and to this day the host 
has remained without aoin" from 

hence. I purposed to relate the 
increase o£ these men, or of the 
Scots, who commenced to increase 
their rate from them and from the 
Gwydyl. I cease from this, and 
turn to relate other matter. 

d concludes it thus : Ac velly 
yd ymsaassant yr bobyl honno ar 
bobyl honno a elwir Gwydyl Ffich- 
dieit a Uyma yr achaws yrj elwir 
hwynt Gwydyl Fjichtieit ac ymaent 
etto yn ormes ar Brittannyeit. 

And thus arose this people, and 
this people were called Gwydyl 
Ffichtieit, and this is the reason 
that they were called Gwydyl 
Ffichtieit, and they are still a tribe 
among the Britons. 

^ b reads : pan bu brwydyr ym 
Mynyd Cam, when there was war 
in Mynyd Cam. 

^ b reads : pan bu y brwydyr. 



tanyeit ar Pictieit yr hwnu a elwyt gweith Mecgetawc^ 
ac yno y llas^ Talargan brenhin y Pictieit. ac yny vhvydyn 
honno y bu varw Teudwr vab Beli. 

Dcclx. y bu varw Dyfnaual vab Teudur. 

DccLxxiiij. y bu varw Cemoyd brenliin y Pictieit.* 

Dccclvi. y bu varw Cemoji;h brenliin y Pictieit.* 

Dccclxx. y torret Twr Alclut.'' 

DccccxliiiL y diffeith^vyt Stratclut y gan y Saesson. 

Dcccclxxiiii. y kyrchawd Dungwallawn brenhin Strat- 
clut Euvein. 

and the Picts, which was called Gweith Mecgetawc, and in it was 
slain Talargan, king of the Picts, and in this year died Teudur, 
son of Bcli. 

760. Died Dyfnwal son of Teudur. 

774. Died Cemoyd, king of the Picts. 

856. Died Cemoyth, king of the Picts. 

870. The tower of Alclyde was destroyed. 

944. Strathclyde was ravaged by the Saxons. 

974. DnnwaUawn king of Strathclyde, went on a pilgrim- 
age to Kome. 

1 Maesydawc in b. 

2 b reads : y lladainl y Britann-, the Britons slew. 

^ These entries not in b. 

* h reads : Kaer Alclut ; and 

adds : y tjan y Paganyeit, by the 


TEACT ON THE PICTS, before mclx. 


JiissiN aimsir sin tancatar Cruthnigh congabsat inber 
Slane in h-Cendselaig. Eos leic Crimthan chuce ar in 
leges fuair cb-ui Cruitbnech do do chath fri Tuaith Eidga 
.i. tuath de Bretnaib. Cach oen for i n-dergtais ba marb 
7 nis gaibtis acht iarna nemide. Conid e in leges blegon 
se ficliet bo mael find do dortud is na h-ettrigib bale 
iferfaithe in catb. Unde cath Arddalemnacbt. Et do 
rochratar uile Tuatb Fidba trias in ceilg sin. 

Co ro gaib Catliian mac Cing do Chruthentuaid nert 
mor for h-Erinn. Co ros innarb h-Erimon. 


It was at that time [the time of Herimon] the Cruithneach 
came to Erin and landed at lubher Slaine, in Ui Cennselaigh. 
Crimthan allowed them to settle in his territory on account of 
the remedy which the Druid of the Cruithneach discovered for 
him for making battle with the Tuaith Fidga, viz., a people of 
the Britons. Every one whom they wounded was sure to die, 
and they used no other than poisoned weapons. And the remedy 
was to spill the milk of six score white hornless cows into the 
furrows of the place on which the battle was to be fought, whence 
the battle of Ardleamnachta. And the whole of the Tuath Fidhbha 
were cut off through that artificr. 

And Cathluan, son of Cing of Cruithentuath, acquired great 
power over Erin, and Herimon banished him. 


Is audsin tanic Cniithneclaan mac Cinge do cliuingid 
ban for h-Erimon. Co tarat h-Erimon do muaa na fir 
ro batte oc na Diimacliaib .i. Bres 7 Brois 7 Buagne. Et 
rath grene 7 esca forra co na bad lugii ro gabtba ferand o 
feraib i Crmthentuaith quain mnaib co brath. 

After tliat, Cruithnechan, the son of Cing, came to beg for 
wives from Herimon. And Heiimon gave him the wives of the 
men that were drowned at the Dumachs, viz., Breas, and Broes, 
and Buagne. And they were obliged to give the sun and the 
moon as guarantees that not less should territorial succession be 
derived from men tlian from women for ever. 



KING OF ULSTER, before mclx. 





e MS. BODL. LAUD. 610. 

I3a rig h-Erenn j Alban Baetan Mac Cairill. Giallais 
Aedan mac Gabrain do irrois na rig i Semiiivi. Is do ro 
cet icbrith cbisa Miiman do fo thuaid — 

Is mor do milib fichet 
Duin Baetain illetet. 
Is cian do thii-, laar do muir 
Etarrii is Imlech Ibair.^ 

(Cid misi o Eaith chruachan chain 
Tanic sund rem dligeadaib 

TKANSLATION. son of Cairill was king of Erin and Alban. Aedan 
son of Gabran submitted himself to him at Ross ua Eigli in 
Seimhniu. Of him was said when he was taking the tribute of 
Muuster nortliwards — 

Many score of miles 
From Dun Baetan in Letliead, 
And much of land as of sea 
Between it and Imlech Ibhair. 

Even I from Rath Cruachan the pleasant 
Who liave come with my tributes, 

'• What is contained within jiar- 
enthesis is in c only. 

'' c reads : — 

Fota do thir, cian do muir 
Uaind siar co h-Imleach Ibair 
Far of land, much of .sea 
From us west to Imlech Ibar. 


Is fota m-agaid iar praind, 
An-dun Baedain meic CamU. 

Cid misi thanic o Sci, 
Do ruaclitus fo di sa tri 
A coimed set ro clai dath ; 
Is aduar in t-Albanach. 

Caeca, seasgad, fil fon lind 
Iter Manaind is Erind 
Fil siind nonbar ro saig nem, 
Is uamon a u-ailithir. 

Cid misi o sleib Elpa, 
At cormacus mor n-eaccra ; 
Tucus mor n- arcaid is n-oir, 
Cen CO fuaris onoii'. 

Is mor) 

Et is leis glanta Manand (o gallaib conad re n-Ulltaib 

Long is my face after dinner 

In Dun Baedan of the son of Cairill. 

Even I who have come from Sky, 
I have come twice and three times 
To convey gems of varying hue, 
The Albauach feels neglected. 

Fifty sixty are on the water. 
Between Manand and Erin, 
Here are nine who seek for heaven 
And sorrowful is their pilgrimage. 

Even I from the Sliabh Elpa 

I have seen great dangers 

I have brought much silver and gold. 

Although I have received no honour. 

And it was by him Manand was cleared of the Galls, so that 


a for flaithius o sin ille) 7 issind dara bliadhna iar 11a ec 
dolleicset Gaedil Manaind. 

its sovereignty belonged to the Ultonians thenceforth, and the 
second year after his death, the Gael abandoned Manand.^ 

1 Baedan died, according to 
Tigliernac, iu the year 5S1 ; and 
in 583, tlie second year after his 
death, he records the battle of 

Manaud by Aedan, king of Dal- 
riada, evidently connected with 
the above events. 


Fol. 2fl. 




Jb ERGUS filius Eric ipse fuit primus qui de semine 
Chonare suscepil regnum Alban, id est, a monte Drnmalban 
usque ad mare Hibernie et ad Inchegal. Iste rcgnavit iii. 

Doniangrat filius ejus v. annis. 

Congel filius Domangrat. xxxiii. 

Goueran frater Congel xxii. annis. 

Conal filius Congel xiiij. annis. 

Edan filius Goueran xxxiiij. annis. 

Eochod flavus filius Edan xvi. annis. 

Kinat sinister filius Conal iij. mensibus. 

Fercar filius ejus xvi. annis. 

Dovenald varius fiUius Eocliid xiiij. 

Fergar longus xxi. 

Eoclial liabens curvuni nasuni filius Donegartli filii 
Doneual varii iij. 

Arinchellac filius Ferchar longi i. anno. 

Ewen filius Ferchar longi xiii. 

Murecliat filius Arincliellac iij. annis. 

Ewen filius Murcerdach iij. 

Edallnis filius Eochal curvi nasi xxx. 

Fergus filius Hedalbi iij. 

Seluach filius Eogan xxiiij. 

Fochal venenosus filius Edalbi xxx. 


Dunegal filius Seluach vii. 

Alpin filius Eochal veneuosi iij. 

Kynedus filius Alpini priaius rex Scottorum xvi. 

Dolfnal filius Alpini iiij . 

Constantinus filius Kinet xx. 

Hed filius Kiuet i. anno. 

Grig filius Dunegal xii. 

Duneval filius Coustantini xi. 

Constantinus filius Hed xxv. 

Malcolin filius Dimeuald ix. 

Indolf filius Constantin ix. 

Duf filius JMalcolin iiij. annis et vi. mensibus. 

Culen filius Indulf iiij. annis et sex mensibus. 

Kinet filius Malcolin xxii. annis et ii. mensibus. 

Custantin filius Culen. i. anno et iiij. mensibus. 

Chinet filius Duf. i. anno et dimidium. 

Malcolin filius Kinet xxx. Hie magnum bellum fecit 
apud Carrun. Ipse etiam multas oblationes tam ecclesiis 
quam clero ea die distribuit. 

Macbeth filius Findleg xvii. 

Lulac nepos filii Boide iiij mensibus et dimidium. 

Malcolin filius Dunecan xxxvLi. et dimidium et iiij. 
mensibus. Hie fuit vir Margarite regine filie nobilissimi.^ 
Matildis et Marie, sui generis celsitudinem conjugio.morum 
ingenuitate, scientie magnitudine, rerum temporaliura larga 
in pauperes et in ecclesias dispensatione decenter orna- 
verunt. Matildis enim matrimonio juncta fuit Henrico 
Anglormn regi strenuosissimo, qui de Erancorum exceUenti 
regum prosapia duxit originem : quorum sublimitas pre- 
dicts scilicet, et regis et regine ab hoc usque perducta est, ut 
ipsorura soboles Eomani imperii tenuerunt dignitatem. 
Eorum namque filia .N. prudencia forma diviciis digna im- 
perio, imperatori nupsit Eomano. Maria vero lege conjugii 
Eustachio comiti Boloniensi tradita, regina sorore non 
minor extitit probitate, licet regina caruerit potestate. 
Hujus itidem filia strenuum virum comitem Stephanum 

' sic. Some words seem here omitted. 



sponsiim accepit de regali simul et consulari stirpe pro- 
genitum. Omitto filias adhuc viventes matres defunctas 
exemplo propoiio viventibus que cum secidi pompa quod 
raro iiivenitur divites Sanctis extitere virtu tibus pauperes 
utriusque sexus cujuscuuque condicionis essent, ac si mem- 
bra coluerunt Christi, religiosos clericos monaclios stncero 
amore velud patronos et suos futures judices cum Christo 
dilexerunt. MatUdis regina kal. maij migravit de hac vita. 
Anno ab incarnatione Domini MCXViii. sepultaque est hono- 
rifice in ecclesia Beati Petri apostolonmi principis West- 
monasterii juxta Loudoniam Anglorum urbem nobilis- 
simam. Maria autem comitissa ii°. kal. Junii anno ab 
incarnatione Domini Mcxvi. apud Bermundseiam ex altera 
parte prefate ui'bis monasterio Sancti Salvatoris in paec 
quievit ; ubi a domino Petreio admirande sanctitatis 
viro tunc priore ejusdem loci Cluniacensis sed ad 
caritatem specialiter pertiuentis gloriose sepulta est. 
Tumulus vero marmoreus regum et reginarum ymagines 
habens impressas genus quiescentis demonstrat. In su- 
perficiem ejusdem timiuli titulus aureis Uteris sculptus 
nomen et vitam et originem breviter ita comprehendit. 

Nobilis hie tumulata jacet comitissa Maria. 
Actibus liec nituit, larga benigna fuit. 
Regum sanguis erat morum probitate vigebat. 
Compatiens inopi, vivat in arce poli. 

Edmvmdus vero frater earum vir strenuissimus et' in Dei 
servicio, dum vitam ageret pr^-psentem valde devotus apud 
Montem Acutum in quadam videlicet cella Cluniaccensi 
que ibi sita est requiescit humatus. 

Dolfnal frater ejus regnavit annis iii. et vii. mensibus. 

Duncbad filius Malcolin dimidium annum. 

Eadgarus filius Malcolin ix. annis. 

Alexander frater ejus xvii. annis et iii. mensibus. 

David frater ejus xxx. Erat autem rex David vir piis- 
simus, in religione catholicus, in principes munificus, in 
recuperandis basUicis studiosus, satis vigilis, et orationibus 
in tantum studens ut plus supplicationibus ad Devmi pro- 


fusis quam annis bellicis victoriam de inimicis optineret. 
Eex vero piissimus David multa dona fecit precipue turn 
edes sacras ubicunqiie in toto regno suo uectate' collapsas 
conterat,^ pontificibus et patribus ad quorum curam 
pertinebant ut restaurentur imperavit : adhibens curam per 
legatos ut imperata perficerentur. Unde sub ejus imperio 
multa siuit reparata, immo funditur edificata monasteria. 
Sed he precipue, monasterium puellare Sancte Marie 
et m[onasterium] puellare S[ancti] N[icholai] et multa 
alia puellaria et cetera plurima utriusque videlicet sexus 
virorum et muHerum, quibus veluti quibusdam lichinis 
totum decoratur Scocie regnum. Que omnia ipse piis- 
simus David rex magnus auri et argenti ponderibus 
gemmarumque preciosarum exomavit muneribus, amplis- 
simis etiam honoribus dicavit ; et insuper, quod preciosius 
est sanctissimis reliquiarum patrociniis insignivit. Has 
omnes idem rex potens et piissimus honorabiliter multis 
excolebat muneribus, sed Mebosensem precipue inter 
omnes ecclesias et fideliter defensabat et dulciter diligebat 
et suis opibus exornabat. Ceterum omnia ejus gesta que 
vulgo narrantur, non sunt hie propter vitandum fastidium 
legentis pleniter explanata. 

Malcolin filius filii David xii. annis et vi. mensibus et 
xiii. diebus. 

Willelmus frater ejus Ab anno prime WUlielmi 

regnum Scottorum anni ccc.xv. 

W iLLELMUS rex rufus filius Henrici, filii David filii Mal- 
colaim filii Donnchada, qxii fuit nepos Malcolaim filii 
Cinada, filii Maelcolaim, filii DomnaUl, filii Constantin, filii 
Cinacha, filii Alpin, filii Echacli, filii Eda-find, filii Echad- 
ach, filii Echach, filii Domongrat, filii Domnail-bric, filii 
Echach-buide, fihi Edan, filii Gabran, filii Domangrat, filii 
Fergusa, fiUi Eire, fUii Echach-muiureniuir, filii Oengus- 
aphir, filii Fedelinthe-aislingig, filii Oengusa-buiding, filii 
FedeUnthe-ruamnaich, filii Senchormaic, filii Cruitlinde, 


filii Findfece, filii Achii'cir, filii Achachantoit, filii Fiaciuch- 
cathnmil, filii Echdacli-riada, filii Conore, filii Mogalanda, 
filii Luigdig, filii EUatig, filii Corpre-crampchimi, filii 
Dare-dorumoir, filii Corbre, filii Admou', filii ConaiTe-moir, 
fUii Etersceiiil, fUii Eogami, fUii Elela, filii Jair, filii Dedaid, 
filii Sin, fdii Eosin, fUu Their, filii Eotliir, fdii Eoin, filii 
Arandil, filii Maiiine, filii Forgo, filii Feradaig, fUii Elela- 
arami, filii Fiachra, fUii Firmara, filii Oeiigusa-turmig, filii 
Firce-chairroid, filii Ferroid, filii Firanroid, fiUi Firaibrig, 
filii Labchore, filii Echachalt-lecliin, filii Elela-casiaclaig, 
iilu Coiilaich, filii Erero, filii Moalgi, filii Cobthaig-coel- 
breg, fUii Ugaiae-moir, filii Ecdaig-buadaig, filii Duach- 
logi'aicli, filii Fiachraig-duadach, filii Diiach-lograich, filii 
Fiachraig-tollgreich, filii Muredaich-bollgreicli,fUii Semoin, 
filii Bricc, filii Emidinb, filii Edom, filii Glais, filii Nuadat- 
fail, filii Elchada-olcliaim, filii Sirna, fUii Dem, filii Demail, 
filii Eodchada, filii Ogmaich, filii Oengussa, filii Olmo- 
chada, filii Fiachrach-laibrinne, filii Finergnaid, filii Sme- 
reta, filii Eiimocha, filii Tigernaig, filii FaUaig, filii Etheoir, 
filii Jair, filii Dernieom, filii Mele-despain, filii Bdi, fUii 
ISTema, filii Brige, filii Brigoind, filii Bracha, filii Tlieacha, 
filii Ercliada, fdii Aldoit, filii Noda, fUii N^ouaiU. liemir, 
fUii GoildH-glais, filii Neuil, filii Fenius-farsaid, filii Eogani, 
filii Glunud, fiJii Lanind, filii Etlieoir, filii Jaii-, filii 
Agmemnom, filii Thri, filii Boi, filii Sem, fUii Mair, filii 
Esro, filii Aduir, filii Hieridach, iilii Aoth, fUii Sran, filii 
Esro, filii Bold, filii Eiafich, filii Gomur, filii Jafeth, filii 
Noe, filii Lameth, filii Matussalem, filii Enoc, fUii Jarech, 
filii Malalethul, filii Caiuau, fUii Euos, filii Sed, iUii Adam, 
filii Dei vivi. 





Opeee pretium puto mandare memorie qualiter Albania, Foi. 26. 

et a quibus habitatoribus primitus liabitata, quibus nomi- .' 

nibus nuncupata, et in quot partibus partita. 

Legimus in historiis et in cronicis antiqiioruni Britonum, 
et in gestis et annalibus antiquis Scottorum et Pictorum, 
quod ilia regio, que nunc corrupte vocatur Scotia, antiquitus 
appellabatur Albania ab Albanecto juniore filio Bruti 
primi regis Britannoruni majoris Britannie. Et post 
multum intervallum teniporif? a Pictis, Pictavia : qui 
reguaverunt in ea per circulum mlxx. annorum. Secundum 
quosdam MCCCLX. Nunc vero corrupte vocatur Scocia. 
Scoti vero regnaverunt per spacium cccxv. annorum 
anno illo quo Willelinus rex rufus, frater Malcolmi viri 
honeste vite et virtutis, regnum suscepit. 

Regio enim ista formam et figuram hominis in se habet. 
Pars namque principalis ejus, id est, caput, est in Arre- 
garchel in occidentali parte Scocie supra mare Hybernie. 
Pedes vero ejus sunt supra mare Northwagie. Montes 
vero et deserta de Arregarcliel capiti et collo hominis 
assimilantur. Corpus vero ipsius est mens qui Moimd 
vocatur, qui a mari occidentali usque ad mare orientale 
extenditm-. Brachia autem ejus sunt ipsi montes qui 
dividunt Scociam ab Arregaichel. Latus dextere partis 


ex Muref, et Eos, et Marr, et Buchen. Cmra enini 
illiiis sunt ilia duo principalia et preclara flumina, que 
descendunt de monte predicto, id est, Mound, que vocantur 
Tae et Spe : quorum unum fiuit citra montem, alterum 
vero ultra in mare Norwegale. Inter crura hujus homi- 
nis sunt Enegus et Moerne citra montem, et ultra montem 
alie terre inter Spe et montem. 

Hec vero ten-a a septem fratribus divisa fuit antiquitus 
in septem partes : quarum pars principalis est Enegus 
cum Moerne ab Enegus primogenito fratrum sic nomi- 
nata. Secunda autem pars est Adtheodle et Gouerin. 
Pars etiam tertia est Sradeern cum Meneted. Quarta pars 
partium est Fif cum Fothreue. Quinta vero pars est Marr 
cum Buchen. Sexta autem est Muref et Eos. Septima 
enim pars est Cathanesia citra montem et ultra montem, 
quia mons Mound dividit Cathanesiam per mediimi. 
Quelibet ergo istarum partirun regio tunc vocabatur et 
erat, quia unaqueque earum subregionem in se habebat. 
Inde est ut hii septem fratres predicti pro septem regibus 
liabebantur, septem regulos sub se habentes. Isti septem 
fratres regnum Albanie in septem regna diviserunt, et 
unusquisque in tempore suo in suo regno regnavit. 

Primum regnum fuit, sicut mihi verus relator retulit, 
Andreas, videlicet, vir venerabilis Katanensis episcopus, 
nacione Scottus et Dunfermelis monacbus, ab ilia aqua 
optima, que Scottice vocata est Froch, Brittanice Werid, 
Eomane vero Scottewattre, id est, Aqua. Scottorum ; que 
regna Scottorum et Anglorum dividit et currit juxta op- 
pidum de Strivelin, usque ad flumen aliud nobile, quod 
vocatmu est Tae. Secundum regnum ad HHef, sicut mare 
circuit, usque ad montem aquilouali plaga de Strivelin qui 
vocatur Athran. Tertiuni regnum ab Hilef usque ad De. 
Quartimi regnum ex De usque ad magnum et mirabUe 
flumen quod vocatur Spe, majorem et meliorem tocius 
Scocie. Quintum regnum de Spe usque ad montem 
Bruinalbau. Sextum regnum fuit Muref et Eos. Sep- 
timum regniun erat Arregaitliil. 

Arrcgathel dicitur quasi Margo Scottorum sen Hiber- 


nensium, quia omnes Hibei-nenses et Scotti generaliter 
Gattheli dicimtur a quodam eorum primevo duce Gaethel- 
glas vocato. Ibi enim semper Hibernienses applicare 
solebant ad dampna facienda Britannis. Vel idcirco quia 
Scotti Picti ibi habitabant primitus post reditimi suum de 
Hibernia; vel quia Hibernienses iUas partes occupavere 
super Pictos ; vel, quod certius est, quia ilia pars regionis 
Scottie affinitima est region! Hibernia. 

Fergus fiUus Eric ipse fuit primus qui de semine 
Cbonare suscepit regnum Alban, id est, a monte Bnm- 
alban usque ad mare Hiberiiie et ad InchegaU. Deinde 
reges de semine Fergus regnaverunt in Brunalban, siue 
Brunliere, usque ad Alpinum filium Eochal. Kined filius 
bujus Alpiiai primus Scottorum annis xvi. in Pictinia 
feliciter regnavit. 






Foi. 31. Andreas, qui interpretatiir, secundum Hebreara etlii- 
mologiam, decoris siue respondens, sermone enim Greco, a 
viro, virilis interpretatur, germanus Beati Petri Apostoli, 
clioeres autem ejus gratia,^ secundum Jolianem Evangel- 
istam primus Apostolus a Christo Jliesu Domino nostro 
electus ; secundum vero Matheum, Marcimique, secimdus. 
Hie sorte predicationis aquilonales nationes Cithias. 
Pictouesque, postreme Achaidas, ipsamque civitatem no- 
mine Patras accepit. In qua etiam cruci suspensus est ii. 
kalendarum decembrium, ibique obcubuit, et in qua cus- 
todita sunt ossa illius usque ad tempus Coustantini magni, 
fib'i Helene.atque filionun ejus Constantini cum Constante ; 
quasi spatio ccLxx.tium annorum. In quorum regno a 
Constautinopolitanis, miro famosoque ductu, inde suscepta, 
atque translata sunt Constantinopolim, et cum magna 
gloria et maximo honore ibidem recondita sunt ; et 
manserunt semper usque ad tempus Theodotionis, chris- 
tian! imperatoris, spatio scilicet ex. annorum. 

Tunc ^ divine instinctu Hex Pictorum, nomine 

^ A word here erased. 


Vngus filius Vrguist, cum exercitu magno consurgens, 
Britaimicas nationes dexteram ejus insule iahabitantes, 
crudelissima vastatione interficiens, postremo pervenit 
usque ad campuin Merc. Illic hiemavit. Eo tempore, 
omnes pane totius insule gentes, unanimo impetu veni- 
entes, circumdedenmt eum, volentes eum cum exercitu 
suo peuitus delere. Altera autem die, evenit Eegi pre- 
dicto, cum septem comitibus amicissimis, ambulare, et 
circumfulsit eos divina lux, et proni in facies suas, non 
valentes earn sustinere, ceciderunt in terram, et ecce 
vox de celo audita est " Ungus, Ungus, audi me Apostolum 
" Christi, Audream nomine, qui missus sum ad te defen- 
" dendum, atque custodiendum, sed vide signum crucis 
" Christi, quod stat in aiere, atque procedat contra inimicos 
" tuos. Veriunptamen decimam partem hereditatis tue, par- 
" tem et elemosinam Deo omnijjotenti, et in honore Sancti 
" Andree ejus, offer." Tertia autem die, divina voce ammon- 
itus, suum exercitum m xii. turmas divisit : et signum crucis 
unamquamque partem precedebat ; lux autem divina de 
uniuscujusque signi capite fulgebat. Tunc victores facti, 
Deo omnipotenti, atque Sancto Andree Apostolo, gratias 
egerunt. Patriam autem venientes incolimes, decimam sue 
hereditatis partem Deo, et Sancto Andree Apostolo venera- 
bili, volentes offerre, implendo quod scriptum est, Date ele- 
mosinam et omnia munda sunt vobis. Incertiun vero 
habebaut in quo loco specialiter vectigalem Deo, princi- 
palem civitatem Sancto Andreo Apostolo, ordiiiarent. 

Tunc, inito concHio, binis, teruis, quatriduanis diebus, 
jejunantes, atque Dei omnipotentis misericordiam postu- 
lantes, unus custodientiuni corpus Sancti Andree Apostoli 
Constantinopoli, visione divina et revelatione ammonitus 
atque instructus est, dicente. " Exi de terra tua, et de 
" cognatione tua et de domo tua, et vade in terram quam 
" monstravero tibi," tunc venit, Angelo comitante, atque 
viam illius custodiente, prospere pervenit ad verticeni 
montis regis, id est, Rigmimd. 

Eadem autem hora, qua illic lassus sederet cum suis 
septem comitibus, lux circumfidsit divina Regem Pictoruni, 


venientem cum suo exercitu ad specialem locum, qui 
dicitur Kartenan, et claritatem non ferentes ceciderunt 
in facies suas et sanati sujit claudi et ceci numero sep- 
tem; et unus a nativitate cecus illuminatus est, et iude 
vidit locum plenum visitatione angelorum, et tunc voce 
magno clamavit, dicens, video plenum visitatione angel- 
orum. Postremo Dei ordinatione Eex, cum suo exercitu, 
venit ad locum, quern Domimis illo ceco qui illuminatus 
fuerat ostendit. 

Eegulus vero monachus, a Constantinopolitana urbe 
peregrinus, regi obviavit cum reliquiis Saucti Andree 
Apostoli, quas secum hinc hue adduxerat, ad portam 
que dicitiu- Matha, id est, mordurus, salutavenmt se 
iuvicem cives et hospites, atque tentoria ibi fixerunt, ubi 
nunc est aula regis. Eex vero Ungus liunc locimi, et banc 
civitatem, Deo omnipoteuti, Sanctoque Andree Apostolo, ea 
semper libertate dedit, ut sit caput et mater omnium eccle- 
sianmi,que sunt in regno Pictorum. Ad istamenim civitatem 
conveniimt peregriui palmarii de Jerusalem. Eomani, Greci, 
Armenii, Theutonii, Alimanni, Saxones, Dani, Gallicani, 
Galli, Anglici, Britones ; viai et femine, divites, et pauperes, 
sani corpore et egri ; claudi ; ceci ; in equis et curribus 
debUes hue deferuntur atque per Dei misericordias, ad 
honorem et gloriam sui summi Sancti Apostoli Andree, 
infestissime curantui'. Virtutes, et signa, et innimierabilia 
prodigia per suum Sanctum Apostolum Andream, Dominus 
fecit hie, facit et facturus est, que hie non possint scribi. 

Eegulus vero abbas, atque monachus, cum suis caris 
comitibus, habitavit in loco isto in monachica vita, ser- 
viens Deo die ac nocte, in sanctitate et justitia, cunctis 
diebus vite sue. Quorum corpora hie requiescunt. Iste 
Eegulus tertiam partem tocius Scotie in manu sua, et 
potestate habuit, et per abbatias, ordinavit atque distribuit. 
Patria ilia siquidem Pietis, Scottis, Dacis, Norvagensibus, 
ceterisque qui ad vastandum insulam applicuerant situ 
locorum, amenitatique faverat. Et si aliquando refugii 
opus fuisset, tutum receptaculmu eis semper prestabat; 
et sese infra cam quasi in propria castra receperunt. 



OF TIGHEENAC, mclxcthi. 


1093 JW-AELCOLAIM mac Donnchadha Ei Alban occisus est 
Frangcaib 7 Edabard a mac y Marita ben Mailcolaim do 
eg da cumaig. 

1099 DomnaU mac Donnchada Ei Alban do dalladh da braith- 
ribh fein. 


1093 Maelcolaim, son of Duncan king of Scotland, is slain by the 
Normans, and Edward his son and Marita the wife of Malcolm 
died of grief. 

1099 Donald, son of Duncan king of Alban, blinded by his own 





a MS. BODL. RAWllNSON. B. 485. 

ap^cxxxv. JJuoDEClM fratres patre recenter defuncto, qui domina- 
batur in Dalredia, ad hsereditatem inter se dividendaui, 
in unum convenerunt, siiumque germauum minimnm, 
nomine, Fergussium habentes despectui, a portione qne 
iRum contingebat exortem et inanem dimisenmt. Ado- 
lescens ille prtecabatur Sanctum Patricium, ut se, suarum 
obtentu preciun efficeret hiBreditatis patenife participem, 
promittens se daturum Ecclesise Dei construendoe atque 
sustentandae sute portionis partem potiorem. Pontifice 
vero sancto pro eo exorante, atque negotium illius pero- 
rante, itatribus suis annimieratus Fergusius, competentem 
sibi^ paternse possessionis portioiiem percepit, cujus 
medietatem meliorem sanctissimo Prfesuli ad aidificandam 
Ecclesiam obtidit. Quam Sanctus ne suam interventionem 
vendidisse videretur suscipere renuit, sed Olcano prre- 
nominato illam confeni jussit. Sanctus autem Olcanus 
infra territorium sibi collatum in loco qui dicitur Derekan 
Ecclesiam sedificavit, ibique factus Episcopus, in sancti- 
tate et justitia perseveravit. Sanctus vero Patricius bene- 
dixit prredictum Fergusium et voce prophetica dixit ad 
nium : Licet hodie videaris humilis, et despectus in con- 
spectu fratrum tuorum, eris in brevi Princeps et Dominus 
omnium illorum. De te optimi Eeges egredientur, ([ui 

' sibi in a only. 


lion solum in terra propria, sed et peregrina principa- 
buntur. Elapse non magno temporis spatio, Fergusius, 
jnxta vaticinium viri Sancti/ principatimi in tota terra 
ilia obtiniiit, semenqiie illius per miiltas generationes 
in ea regnavit. Ex ejus stirpe processit strenuissimus 
Edauus filius Gabraui, qui Scotiam, qufe dicitur Albania, 
subegit et alias insulas ; cujus in eis regiiat adliuc suc- 
cessiva posteritas. 

' ^ viri sancti in a only. 




M.c.lxxxv. (jm/l Symon comes iUius Symonis comitis de Nor- 
hamton sine Hberis decessusscit^ Rex reddidit comitatum 
Huntedoiiie cum omnibus pertinentiis suis Willelmo regi 
Scottorum qui fuit filius Henrici Comitis filii regis Dauid 
qui fuit filius Malcolmi, filii Dunecani, filii Betocli, filii 
Malcolmi, filii Kynath, filii Malcolmi, filii Dunenald, filii 
Constantini, filii Kynath, filii Elpini, filii Ecach, filii 
Eclia-pliind, filii Ecdach, filii Douenald, filii Brich, filii 
Eccach, filii Binde, filii Edaim, filii Cobran, filii Douen- 
gard, filii Fergus-mor, filii Erch, filii Eccach-muinremor, 
filii Engussa fit, filii Feclielmech-aslingic, filii Enegussa- 
butim, filii Fetlielmech-romaig, filii Sencormacli, filii 
Cruichlinde, filii Findachai, filii Akirkii-re fiilii Eccach- 
andoth, filii Fiachrach-cathmail, filii Ecdac-riede, filii 
Conere-mor, filii Eders, filii Luctacli-etothlach, filii Corbre- 
crimgen, filii Dere-di'onmor, filii Corbre-findmor, filii Cone- 
re-mor, filii Ederskeol, filii Ewein, filii Ellela, filii Jair, 
filii Dethach, filii Sin, filii Eosin, filii Ther, filii Eether, 
filii Eowein, filii Aruidil, filii Mane, filii Fogso, filii Fere- 
dach, filii EUela-earin, filii Fiachach-finmora, filii Ene- 
gussa-turbung, filii Firketaroch, fiUi FiiTocht, filii Auroth, 
filii Firalmai, filii Lamcure, filii Lietlian, filii Eccach-alde- 
than, filii Elela-cassieclai, filii Couletlia, filii Iretro, filii 
Melge, filii Cobthai-cailbrech, filii Hugune-mor, filii 
Eccach-rothai, filii Duacli-lotherai, filii Fiecach-bolgai, 
filii Sinon-brich, filii Eno-duf, filii Etheon, fiUi Glachs, filii 
Noethach-fail, filii Elcata-olcaim, filii Sime, iilii Dein, 


filii Demail, filii Eothotlia, filii Ogmain, fllii Eiiegus- 
olmuchata, filii Fiacliach-labrahim, filii Smimai, filii Sin- 
reclia, filii Embata, filii Tluernai, filii Faleg, fUii Etheor, 
filii lairol-fatha, filii Ermon, fiUi ]\Iiscel-espaiiie, filii Bile, 
filii Neande, filii Brige, filii Brigain, filii Bratha, filii 
Deatlia, filii Erchata, iilii Aldoith, filii Node, filii Nonael, 
filii Eber-scoth, filii Gettel-glas, filii Neoil, filii Fenias-far 
seth, filii Owan, filii Glouiu, filii Lamin, filii Etheor, filii 
Achnomen, filii Thoe, filii Boib, filii Eeiu, filii Mail', filii 
Ethecli, filii Abiur, filii Ai'cthech, filii Aoich, filii Ara, 
filii Fera, filii Esrau, filii Eegaicht-scoth, filii Gomer, 
filii Jafeth, filii Noe. 

A regione quadam que dicitur Scitliia, dicitur Scita, 
Scitius, Scoticus, Scotus, Scotia. Similiter a regione qua- 
dam, que dicitur Getia, dicitur Geta, CJeticus, Goticus 
Gotus, Ostrogotu.s, Withsigotus. 



FR0:M CxIRALDUS cambrensis, topographia 

HIBERNIAE, mclxxxvi. 



D. III. A nomiue vero predict! Heberi, secundum quosdam, 
Hybernenses nomen traxerunt, vel potius, secundum 
alios, ab Hybero Hyspanie fluvio unde provenerant. Dicti 
sunt et Gaideli ; dicti sunt et Scoti, sicut enim antique 
referunt hystorie. Gaidelus quidam Phenii nepos post 
linguarum confusionem, apud Nembroticam turrim in 
variis linguis peritissimus fuerat. Ob quam peritiam rex 
Pharao filiam suam Scociam ei sociavit uxorem, unde et 
quoniam Hyberniensis ab istis, ut aiunt, originalem lin- 
eam ducunt, a Gaidelo et Scotia, Gaideli et Scoti, sicut et 
nati sunt, sic et nominati. Gaidelus iste, ut asserunt, 
Hibernicam linguam composuit, que et Gaidelach dicitur : 
quasi ex omnibus linguis collecta. Scotia quoque pars 
insule Britannice dicitur Aquilonaris, quia gens origi- 
naliter, ab his propagata, terram iUam habitare dinoscitur. 
Quod tam lingue, quam cultus, tam armorum etiam, quam 
morum, usque in hodiernum probat aflinitas. 


Cap. xvi. Hie quoque notandum videtur, praedicto Nello Hiber- 
nie Monarchiam obtinente, vi filios Muredi Regis Ultouie, 
in classe non modica, Boreales Britanuie partes occupasse. 


Unde et gens ab hiis propagata, et specificato vocabixlo 
Scotica vocata, usque in hodiernum angulum ilium inhabi- 
tant. Sed quibus ex causis hue advenerint, qualiter et 
quantis proditionibus potius quam expeditionibus, Picto 
rum gentem pervalidem, armis quoque et animositate 
longe prestantem, a partibus illis expulerunt ; cum 
nobilem illam Britannie topographiam declaravimus, enu- 
cleatius expedietur. Aliud auteni hinc beneficium sua 
forte dignitate laiidabile studiosisque, mentibus appetibile, 
suis temporibus emanabit. 



MS. BIB. FAC, JURID. EDIN. 3-t. 7. 3. 


feuMMA amioruiii priiuorum Scotorum qui ante Pictos 
reguaverunt cclx. aiinis et iij. mensibus. 

Siunma Pictorum 1" IxL annis. 

Sumnia Scotorum post Pictos cccxxxvii. anni et ^•. 

Summa totalis xvj? Ixviij. anni et viii menses. 

Notandum quod regnimi Scocie incipit ante incarna- 
cionem Domini ccccxliij. annis. 

Fergus filius Hertli primus regnavit in Scotia iij. annis 
ultra Drutlim et a Drutlim Albane usque Scuagh mnnere 
et usque ad InchgaL 

Donengarth iilius Fergus v. annis regnavit. 

Congal filiiis Donegartli xxij. annis regnavit. 

Com'au filius Donegartli xxij. annis regnavit. 

Conal filius Congal xiiij. amiis regnavit. 

Edane filius Gonran xxxiiij. annis regnavit. 

Hetliglied bud xv. annis regnavit. 

Knatli kere filius Conal tribus mensibus regnavit. 

Ferthar filius Euin xvL annis regnavit. 

Fercar foda xxi. annis regnavit. 

Heched monanle filius Donenghark filius Donvald brek 
xxij. annis regnavit. 

Amernikelletlie filius Findan xvi. annis ri--2;navit. 


Heoghain filius Findan xvi. aimis regnavit. 

Fertliam filius Murdathe duobus aniiis regnavit. 

Hethfyre filius Heorghet rannal xxx. aiinis regnavit. 

Fergus filius Hetlifyue iij. annis regnavit. 

Sealthant filius Regagane xiiij. annis regnavit. 

Herglaed annime filius Hethefyn .xxx. annis regnavit. 

Duughel filius Fralnatli vij. annis regnavit. 

Aropin filius Hethed annune iij. annis regnavit Eex et 
occisus est in Galwitliia postquam eani penitus destruxit 
et devastavit et tunc translatum est regnum Scotorum in 
regnum Pictorum. 


Cruchine filius Kyan clemens judex accepit nionarchani 
in regno Pictorum et .1 annis regnavit. 
Gede 1. annis regnavit. 
Tliaran c. annis regnavit. 
Duchil xl annis regnavit. 
Derordegele xx. annis regnavit. 
Derothet Ix. annis regnavit. 
Combust x.K. annis regnavit. 
Fevanacliertlie xl. annis regnavit. 
Gernarg bolg i.\. annis regnavit. 
Poponeuet xxx. amiis regnavit. 
Fiacua albus xxx. annis regnavit. 
Tonacaduiel vi. annis regnavit. 
Donornauch nerales i. anno regnavit. 
Ferdach fyngal ij. annis regnavit. 
Canath dives xl. annis regnavit. 
Balarg filius Keothere xxv. annis regnavit. 
Drust fiKus \Vs c. annis vLxit et c. pergit bella. 
Tolarag filius Anuf ij. annis regnavit. 
Nethan chelemot x. annis regnavit. 
Drust filius Guruni v. annis regnavit. 
Ih'ust filius Hudrossig viij. annis regnavit. 
Itcruni primus Drust iiij. annis regnavit. 


Canatli filius Gigurum vi. annis regnavit. 

Kelturan frater ejus vi. annis regnavit. 

Tolorg filius Mordeleg xi. annis regnavit. 

Drust filius Monetli i. anno regnavit. 

Talalad iiij. annis regnavit. 

Brud filius Metlion xxx. annis regnavit. Istum conver- 
tit Sanctus Coluniba ad fidem. 

Caniac filius Domiatli xx. annis regnavit. Iste edifica- 
vit Abbernethyn. 

Kynel filius Luthren xxiiij. annis regnavit. 

Netlian filius Fide viiL annis regnavit. 

Brude filius Fruth v. annis regnavit. 

Tollarg filius Fethar xi. annis regnavit. 

Talargn filius Amfrud iiij. annis regnavit. 

Gernatli filius Dunal v. annis regnavit. 

Durst frater ejus 'vtL annis regnavit. 

Brud filius Bile xx. annis regnavit. Ejus tempore floruit 
Sanctus Adamnanus. 

Taran filius Amfredeth xiiij. aunis regnavit. 

Nectan frater ejus x^dn. annis regnavit. 

Brud filius Dergard xxxi. annis regnavit. 

Carnach filius Feratli xxiiii. annis regnavit. 

Onegussa filius Frud vi. mensibus regnavit. 

Alpin filius Feret, Brud filius Denegus viii. annis 

Durst filius Talargugani i. anno regnavit. 

Thalargane filius Drustan iiij. annis regnavit. 

Falargan filius Denegus v. annis regnavit. 

Constantinus filius Fergusari xlv. annis regnavit. Iste 
edificavit Dunkelden. 

Hungus filius Fergusane Lx. annis regnavit. Iste edifi- 
cavit Kilremouth. 

Dostolorg iiij. annis regnavit. 

Eogana filius Hungus iij. annis regnavit. 

Fergus filius Barot iij. annis regnavit. 

Brude filius Ferant i. niense regnavit. 

Kynat filius Ferant i. anno regnavit. 

Brud filius Fodel ii. annis regnavit. 


Durst filius Ferant iij. regnavit annis. Iste occisus est 
apud Fertlieviot, secundem quosdam Scoiiam a Scottis. 

Kynat mac Alpiii xvi. annis regnavit super Scottos, dis- 
tructis Pictis et mortuus est et in Fethertauetlin et sepul 
tus in Yona insula, ubi tres filii sc. Ere, Fergus, Loaran, 
Tenagus, sepulti fuenint. Hie mira caliditate duxit Scotos 
de Ergadia in terra Pictorum. 

Douenald mac Alpin iiij. annis regnavit et mortuus est 
in Eatliinueramon et sepultus in lona insula. 

Constantinus mac Kynat xv. annis regnavit et inter- 
emptus est a Noruagiensibus in bello de Merdo fatha 
et sepultus in lona insida. 

Edh mac Kynnath i. anno regnavit et interfectus in 
beUo in Strathalan a Girg filio Dungal et sepultus in lona 

Girg mac Dungal xii annis regnavit et mortuus est in 
Dundurn et sepultus est in lona insula. Hie subjugavit 
sibi totam Yberniara et fere totam Angliam et liic primus 
dedit libertatem ecclesie Scoticane que sub servitute erat 
usque ad dlud tempus ex consuetudine et more Pictorum. 

Donald mac Constantine xi. annis regnavit et mor- 
tuus est in Fores et sepultus in lona insula. 

Constantine mak Edlia xl. annis regnavit et dimisso regno 
sponte Deo in liabitu religionis abbas factus est in Keldeo- 
rum Sancte Andree, quinque annis sei-vivit ibi et mortuus 
est ac sepultus. 

Malcom mac Donald ix. annis regnavit et interfectus est 
a Morauiensibus per dolum et sepidtus est in Yona insula. 

Indolf mac Constantin ix. annis regnavit et interfectus 
est a Noruagiensibus in Innercolan et sepultus in lona 

Duf mac Malcobn iiij. annis regnavit et mensiljiis sex 
et interfectus in Fores et alisconditus est sub ponte de 
Kynloss et sol non apparuit quamdiu ibi latuit et inventus 
est et sepultus in lona insula. 

Ciden mac Indolf iiij. annis regnavit et mensibus sex et 
interfectus est ab Amdarch filio Donvald propter filiam 
suam in Ybandonia. 


Kyimatli mac Malcolm xxiiij. aniiis regna\at ij. mensi- 
l)us et iiitertectus es a suis homiuibus in Fetherkem per 
pei-fiilias riiiUL4e filie filie Cuiitliar comitis de Auguss 
cujus Finuele imicum tilium i)redictus Kynnet interfecit. 

Constantiii mac Culeu i. amio vi. mensibus regnavit 
et iiiterfectus est a Kyimet filio Malcobiii in Eatliinuera- 
mou et sepiiltus in Youa insula. 

Malcolm mac Kyimat Eex victoriossissimiis xxx. aunis 
regnavit et murtuus est in Glammes et sepnltus in Yona. 

Doucliath mac Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok 
ti1i n. Malcolm mac Kynnet vi. annis reg"na\it et interfectus 
est a !Maketh mac Fyngel in Botlmgouane et sepnltns in 
Yona insula. 

Maket mac Fyngel xvii. annis regnavit et interfectus est 
in Lufanan a Malcolm mac Dunkat et sepultus in lona 

Lulacli fatuus iiij. mensibus regnavit et interfectus est 
in Esseg in Strabolgin et sepultus in Yona insula. 

In anno gracie primo natus est Jhesus Cbristus Domiuus 
uoster in Betlielem Judie. Anno septimo mortuus est 
Herodes. Eodem anno natus est beatus Johamies evan- 
gelista. Aimo xxix predicavit beatus Johannes baptista. 
Anno xxx. baptizatus est Christus et apostoli Christum 
sequebantur. Anno xxxiiij crucifixus est Dommus et Ste- 
phanus lapidatus est. Anno xxxiii. conversu.s est sanctus 
Paulus. Anno xl. Matheus scripsit evangelium. Anno 
xliiij. Marcus scripsit evangeliimi. Anno xl\di. Lucas 
scripsit evangelium. Amio li. assumpta est Domina nostra 
Sancta Maria, anno etatis sue Ixvi Eodem anno obiit 
beata nostra magistra. Anno iui'^xxxiij. Palladius lidcm 
Scotis predicavit (pii cam recipermit et usque in hoiliernam 
diem sine apostasia firmiter et ferventer servaverunt. 
Anno iiii<^xxxiiii. Patricius iidem predicavit \nieniiis. 
Anno iiii^' xxxix. uala est sancta ISrwida. 




J_/E numero Pi'ovinciariuu et Patriarum et Comitatuum 
et lusiilarum que dc jure spectaut et sine dubio per- 
tinent corone et dignitati regni Britannie, scilicet, quod 
modo vocatur regnum Anglorum. In tribus divisorum, 
consuetudi[ue] que tre.s leges dicuntur, scilicet, [WJEssex- 
enelaga, Mircenelaga et Denelaga, verum de iure potius 
appellari potest et debet excellencia illustrissime predicte 
corone imperimn quam regnum. 

Loegria, que modo Auglia vocatur, medietas insule 
Britannie est et continet in se Cornubiam et Deiram. Cor- 
uubia est ab occidental! mare Britannie usque ad magnum 
flumen Tanaii. Deira est a magno flumine Himibre 
usque ad magmun flumen Forthi. S\int autem in Loegria 
consulatus triginta quinque. 

Cambria est, que modo WaUia vocatur, ab aquilonari 
mare Britannie usque ad magmun flumen Sabrini et con- 
tinet in se Demeciam et Venedociam. Sunt autem in 
Cambria decern et vii. considatus. 

Albania est, que modo Scocia vocatur, scilicet, a magno 
flumine Fortbi usque ad magnum mare Norweye et con- 
tinet in se Orcaneiam, Ordasiman, Gurtli et Enchegalliam. 
Sunt autem in Albania decern et octo consulatus. 

Sunmia consulatuum tocius regni Britannie septuaginta. 

To Wessexenelaga belimpet quod Latine dicitur incum- 
bimt et pertinent, scilicet, due provincie et novem comi- 
tatus, scilicet, Wallia, que quondam \'ocabatur Cambria, 
cum insulis suis circunijacentilius, que sunt de appendiciis 
Cornubie, et Devonia cmn suis appendiciis, que Anglice 


dicitur Deueuescliire. Schire eniai Latine dicitur comitatus. 
Cheslre enim Aiiglice dicitur quod Britonice dicitur Kaer, 
Latine vero civitas, et Sumersetesire, Britonice vero vocatur 
Glatenelon, et Dorsetesire, et Wyltesire, et Berehtsire, 
et Suthamptonesire, et Suthereysire, et Sutlisexesire cum 
suis appendiciis, et Chentsire cum suis appendiciis. 

To Mircheuelaga hilimpet, quod est Latine spectant et 
pertinent, octo schire, scilicet, Anglice, Chestrescliire, 
Schropschire, et Staffordeshire, et Ware^ykshire, et Here- 
fordschire et Gloucestreschire, Cirecestrescliire, et Oxene- 

To Danelage, hilimpit, quod Latine dicitur incumbunt 
et pertinent, scilicet, quinque provincie cum omnibus suis 
appendiciis, scUicet, Deira que modo vocatur Northumber- 
land, scilicet, tota terra que est inter magnum flumen 
Humbri et Tede flumen et ultra usque ad flumen Fortlii 
magni, scilicet, Loohia, et Galweya, et Albania tota, que 
modo Scocia vocatur, et Morouia, et omnes insule occiden ■ 
tales occeani usque ad Norwegiam et usque Daciam, scili- 
cet, Kathenessia, Orkaneya, Enchegal, et Man, et Ordas, et cetere insule occidentales occeani circa Norwegiam 
et Daciam, et Fyftonscliirc, quod Latine dicitm- quindecini 
comitatus, scilicet, Everwykshu-e, Notinghamscliire, Derby- 
shire, Leycestreshire, Lincolneshire, Herefordshire, Bokyng- 
hamschire, Suftblkshire, Norffolkshire, Bedefordshire, Es- 
sexshire, Grantebreggeshire, Huntedoneshire, Norhamp- 
toneschire, Middelsexshire. 

Summa Schirarum tocius insule Britannie, scilicet, 
comitatuum Latine septuaginta, provinciarum vero septem 
cum insulis suis circumjacentibus et cum ceteris appen- 
diciis suis. 

Archiepiscopatus duo sunt in regno Britannie, olim 
fuerunt tres temporibus Britonum ante adventum Saxonum. 
Episcopatus enim viginti octo per provincias et civitates 
constitute sunt per confeideracionem regni et per constitu- 
cionem bonorum patrum et predecessorum ut expedit et 
(lecet et oportet ad \itilitatem et ad salutem et ad profectum 
animarum populorum tocius regni predicti. 





MS. a. 

A J)issen ilken hit ftod : 

pet com ouer see flod. 

an king fe hsehte Eodric : 

elclie otSer unilic. 

lie com ut of Scice : 

elclies londes vniliche. 

he brolite mid Mm fe Peolites 

folc of mucliele malite. 

SeoSSeii Eodic- wes serft mon : 

& he milite uuel don. 

a he ferde hi fse Hod : 

& dude he uuel & naeuere god. 

monie hundi-eS biu'ije : 

he hsefde imakede blaeSe. 

He ferde hi fee flronde : 

iato Scotlonde. 

J>at lond he al Wfelle : 

mid hermeii fan mefte. 

MS. b. 
Ac' fh'ilke hit ftod : 
forte com ouer &e flod. 
a king pat hehte Eodrich : 
eche opere onUiche. 

he brohte mid liin pe Peutes : 

men of moche mUite. 

Fram pat Eodrich was ereft man 

and cupe eye vuel don. 

he verde hi f^e flod : 

and dude vuel and iieuere god. 

mani hundred borewes : 

he hadde for-fare. 

He verde bi fee ftronde : 

in to Scotlonde. 

pat lond he al wefte : 

mid harme pan mefte. 


lu this same wise it stood until there came over sea-flood a king that hight 
Rodric, to each (every) other unlike ; ' he came out of Scythia, to each 
land unlike ;' he brought with him the Peohtes (Picts), "folk [men] of 
much might. "After [From the timel that Rodric first was man, and "he 
might [could] do evil, ' ever' he fared by the sea-flood, and ' he' did evil 
and never good ; many hundred burghs he had "made destitute [destroyed]. 
He fared by the sea strand into Scotland ; the land he all wasted with the 

1 AV 

R. Rodric. 



|)m-h Jiat loud he airnde : 

& hre^adc' and hpermde. 

Coiiien ]>a tiSende : 

to !Maurius ))on kinge. 

liu ]>& king Rodric : 

Hs rajflac makede. 

Sone he sende fondc : 

jeond alle filTe kine-londe. 

hiJehte a;iier«lciie mon : 

pa his monfcipe uSe. 

|)at he wcl iwepned : 

comen' to liirede. 

pil'folc wes ifomned : 

and fe king fufde. 

ferde into Scotlonde : 

jiere ho Rodric king fond. 

Heo fuhton swiSe feondliohc : 

i^ feollen pa Peohtes. 

& Rodric J>er wes of-flajon : 

& leo8Sen mid heorleu to-dra^au. 

per dude jNIauiius Jie king : 

a wel fwu'So lajllech J>mg. 

nppen |)cu ilke ftude : 

per he Rodi-ic uor-dude. 

he lette a-rairen anan : 

enne swTit5e fielcuS ftau. 

he lette per on grauen : 

SBelcuSe run-ltaueu. 

porh Jiat lond he hearude : 

and (loh folk and barude. 

Come pe tidind : 

to Maunis pan kinke.' 

hou pe king Rodrich : 

his lond al for-verde. 

Sone he fende fonde : 

^eond al his kinelonde. 

hehte echne man : 

pat him god wolde. 

mid al his wepne : 

come to ))an kinge. 

pis folk was ifomned : 

and hit forp fnl'de. 

wende into Scotlond ; 

par lie Ro(.b'ich fond. 

Hii foliten mainliche : 

and folle pe Rentes. 

and Rodrich par was of-flawe ; 

and fuplie mid horfo to-drawe. 

par dude Maurus ])e kuig : 

a fmpe fellich ping. 

vppen pan ilke ftude : 

par he Rodrich for-dudc. 

he lette arere anon : 

ane felcujie fton. 

he lette par an gi-auie : 

of Rodiiches deajie. 

most harm, throufjli the laml he ran, and 'harried aud harmed [slew folk 
iiud burnt]. The tidings came to Maurius the king, how the Icing Rodric 
'made his ravage [his land all destroyed]. Soon he sent messengers over 
all 'this [his] kingdom ; ordered 'every [each] man, who 'his honor granted 
[would good to him], ' that he' 'well weaponed shoidd come [with all his 
weapons to come] to 'court [the king]. This folk was assembled, and 'the 
king [it forth] marched ; proceeded into Scotland, where he found ' king' 
Rodric. They fought 'most fiercely [strongly], and the Peohtes fell, and 
Rodric was there slain, aud afterwards drawu in pieces by horses. There 
did Maurius the king an exceeding marvellou.^ tiling ; upon the same spot 
wliere he destroyed Rodric he caused anon to be reared a ■ most' wonderful 

htcrjede ! 

' R. kinge. 

* come? 



liu he RoJric of-floh : 

& liino mill horfen to-ili'uh. 

& hu lie pa Peohtes : 

oiier-com mid his fashtes. 

Vp he fette ))cTne ftan : 

jet he Jier ftondetS. 

swa he detS al fwa longe : 

swa fa woreld ftondeS. 

Nome him fcupte |)e king : 

& hehte f one Ihxu West-mering. 

a muchel d-jA lonJes : 

pe fer litS ahuten. 

non fie king to liis hond : 

& hsehte liit Weft-merelinge lend 

Nu fu hafiieft foS iherd : 

for whan hit swa hatte. 

pa fe' Jieo Peohtes : 

weoren ouer-cumne i fon fehte. 

and Eodric wes dted : 

& his iueren for-demed. 

))a flujen Jier bUiselues : 

fiftene hundred. 

])at weoreoren^ ])a feu-eft men : 

pe weoren i Jwn fehte. 

hwfden he^ to here-to^ : 

emie ha^h iborene mon. 

peof weolden heom ibuijen : 

& bi-halues fleon. 

ou he Rodrich of-sloh : 
and mid horfe to-di'oli. 
and ou he |)e Peutes : 
ouercom mid fihte. 
Vp he fette [lane fton : 
jet he fare flondeji. 

Name him fcopte |iane king 
and hehte hine Weftmering. 
for name of )?an Hone : 
pat lond liis fo hi-hote. 

po Rodrich was of-ftaje : 
and idon of lif daje. 
J'O fleh fare bi-hahies : ' 
fiftene hundred, 
fat weren fe fairefte men : 
J)at weren in fan filite. 
hadden hii aime heuedling 
of on hcje ibore man. 
peos wolden hinne bouwe ; 
and bi-halues wende. 

stone pillar ; he caused thereon to be graven "strange characters, [of Kodrics 
death, and] how he slew Rodric, and with horses drew him in pieces, and 
how he overcame the Peohtes with ' his' fight. Up he set the stone ; yet 
it there standetli ; ' so it will do as long as the world standeth.' A name 
the king shaped to it, and called "the stone [it] West-mering ; ' a great 
part of the land that there lieth about the king took in his hand,' "and 
named it West-merelinge land [for the name of the stone the land is sn 
called]. ' Now thou hast heard the sooth, for what cause it so bight. When 
that the Peohtes were overcome in the fight,' "and Rodric was dead, and 
his companions destroyed [When Rodrich was slain, and done of life-day], 
then fled there aside fifteen hundred, that were the fairest men that were 

' A letter has been erased after he. 

'^ R. weoren. 

:* heo? 



& bujen vt of londe : 

to helpen heore liue. 

■p i-feli^en preo eorles : 

fe i feon felite weoren ohte. 

whudereward fa ferde : 

heore fl<em makeden. 

fe eorles heom fijen to : 

mid felen lieore cnihtes. [wude : 

driuen heom in to senne htehne 

per heo heterm foleden. 

Stod pe wimdliche wude : 

amidden ane wselde. 

bi-uoren na bihinden : 

ne mihten Jiaer nan atwinden. 

ah alle hi heom nomen : 

& nane heo ne a-flojen. 

fsefte heom heo bimden : 

& brohten to pen kinge. 

f pe king heom fculden' don : 

otSer llan oSer hon. 

Anan swa pe king heom fpec wiS 

swa heo ^eornden his griS. 

jeorne heo hine beden : 

purh his tedmeden. 

pat he nomen^ heon to prallen : 

& heo him wolden piwien. 

& heo him wolden beon li8e : 

and fleon vt of londe : 
to helpe hire lifue. 
pat ifehja preo eorles : 
pat in pan filite were, 
woder pe ferde : 
hire fleen^ makede. 
peos eorles heom fette to : 
mid alle hii-a cnihtef. 
driuen heom into one wodc : 
par hii harm hadde. 
Stod pe wonliche wode : 
a-midde one wolde. 
bi-vore ne be-hinde : 
ne miht par non atwende. 
ac alle hii heom neme : 
nanne hii ne flowe. 
fafte hii heom bunde : 
and brohte to pan kinge. 
pat pe king heom folde don : 
oper flean oper an-hon. 
: Anon fo hii pe king Ipeke wip 
anon hii jeornde his grip, 
jeorne hii hine bede :- 
porh his edmode. 
pat he neme heom to paile : 
and hii him wolde be peouwe. 
and hii him wolde beo lipe : 

in the fight ; they had 'for leader [a cliieftain of] a hi2;h-born raau. These 
would 'shelter themselves [lience depart], and aside 'flee [go], and 'depart 
[flee] out of the land, to save their lives. That saw three earls, who in the 
fight were ' brave,' 'whitherward [wliither] the party made their flight. 
'The [These] earls them followed, with "their good [all their] knights, and 
drove them into a 'great' wood, — there they 'suffered [had] harm! The 
fair wood stood amidst a weald, before nor behind might there none escape, 
but all they them took, ' and' none they slew ; fast they bound them, and 
brought to the king, that the king should dispose of them, either slay or 
[up] hang. Anon as 'the king [they] spake with 'them [the king], 'so 
[they] yearned his grace, they prayed him earnestly, through his mercy, 
that he would take them 'for slaves [in peace], and they would 'serve [be 

1 flemV 

fculde ? 




a to heore liue. 

Al fe king weorhte : 

alfo heo bi-fohten. 

& heom an lieond felde : 

muchel drel of londe. 

al abuten Catenes : 

per heo caSel wroliten. 

pat lond wes AviSe god : 

ah leoSSen wef ]>& mucliel flod. 

nes hit neuere itiled : 

))urh nseime eorSe-itiUe. 

no nauere fer ne wimeden on : 

nanes cunnes qiiic mon. 

Sonen heo guiinen to serien : 

fat lond wes swiSe se^ele. 

heo tileden heo feowen : 

lieo repen heo meowen. 

vnS inen fan from jeren : 

fa nomen heo twaelf iueren. 

& heo uerden fone : 

fat heo to fiffe londe comen. 

Bruttes heo gretten : 

mid grfeilichen worden. 

beden. heom beon on fele : 

& aUe ilunde. 

We eow to-^erneS : 

jeue fwiSe deore. 

f et je uf jiuen wifmen : 

to habben to wiue. 

euere to hire lifue. 

Al f e king wrohte : 

afe hi liim bi-fohte. 

and heom an hond folde : 

mochil deal of londe. 

al aboute Catenas : 

far hii homes makede. 

Ac fat lond was fwife god : 

for fuffe was fe mochele flod. 

nas hit neuere itiled : 

forh non erfe-tilie. 

no neuere far ne wonede on : 

no manere cwike mon. 

Sone hii gonne herie : 

fat lond was fwife murie. 

liii tilede hii fewen : 

hi repen hii mewen. 

wif in fan fridde jiere : 

f nemen hii twealf veres. 

and wende fone : 

fat hii to fife londe come. 

Bruttef hii gretten : 

mid fwife faire wordes. 

beden heom be feale : 

and aUe ifunde. 

We of ou jernef : 

jiftes swif e deore. 

fat ^e vs jifue wifmen : 

for habbe to wifue. 

slaves to] him, and they would be obedient to him, ever in their lives. All 
the king wrought as they besought [him], and gave them in hand a great 
deal of laud, all about Caithness ; there they "chattels wrought [made 
homes]. [But] the laud was most good, "but [for] since the great flood 
was, never was it tilled by any earth-tillage, nor ever thereon dwelt any 
"kind [manner] of man alive. As soon as they gan to plough, the land was 
most fertile; they tilled, they sowed, they reaped, they mowed, within the 
"three years [third year] ; — then took they twelve companions, and ' they ' 
proceeded soon, so that they came to this land. The Britons they greeted 
with "peaceful [most fair] words ; bade them be prosperous, and all in 
health : — '■ We yearn of you gifts most dear (precious), that ye give us 
women to have for wives ; then may we 'hold love to this people [have love 



penne maje wc heokk'ii lime : 

to fifleu Icod-folke. 

pa J)ir iherden Bnittes : 

heokerlicho heoni fuhte. 

(fe hehten hcon faren awrci : 

& fleon of heore londe. 

for nolJe heo heom gotten : 

Jia fmges fe heo ^ernilen. 

Peohtes weoren ifcende : 

& heore wfei forS wende. 

ham to heore ciinne : 

& cudden' heom heore ercnde. 

Heo nomen heore sonde : 

& fende to Irlonde. 

to ])es londes kinge : 

Gille Caor ihaten. 

& biden hine heom senden : 

■\\'ifmen of his londe. 

& \ie king heom ^ettc : 

al fat heo ^eorenden. fc ■>.] 

purh ]>a, Uke ^^dfmeu : 

pa, per wuiioden longe. 

fat folc gan to fpelien : 

Irlondes fpeche. 

& auer seoSSen ])a lajen : 

■\vunieS a fan londe. 

swa heo beo6 fere : 

nu and aeuere mare. 

fan mawe' loue : 

habbe bi-twine. 

po fis Uiorde Bruttef : 

hokerliche heom fohte. 

and hehten heom faren awei : 

and fleo of hire londe. 

for ne loldeu hii neiiere habbe 

fing fat i- jomde. 

Peutes weren ifend : 

. . . a-wei wende. 

horn to h . . . cunne : 

and tolde hire h . . . . de. 

Hii nemen hire fonde : 

and fende to Yrlonde. 

to fane leod-kmge : 

Gillekaor ihote. 

and beden liim ham fende : 

^^■ifnlen of hi.s londe. 

and fe king ihorde : 

al fat hii ^ornde. 

porh fe Uke wifmon : 

fat fare wonede longe. 

fat folk gan to vli : 

Yrlondcs fpeche. 

and euere fuff e : 

hii d of in fan londe. 

between us]. When the Britons heard this, disdainful it seemed to tlicni. 
and thei/ ordered tliem to go away, and iJee from their land, for tliey 'would 
not grant them the things [slionld never have the thing] tliat they yearned. 
T!ie Peohtos were shamed, and went ' forth' their way home to I heir kin, 
and told ' to them' their errand. They took their messengers, and sent to 
Ireland, to 'the king of tlie land [the sovereign], named Gille Caor, and bade 
him send them women of his land : and the king 'granted them [heard] all 
that they desired. Tlirough the same women, who there long dwelt, the 
folk gan to 'speak [use] Irelands speech : and ever since 'the usages dwell 
[they do] in the land ; ' so they shall be there, now and evermore.' 

mawe we : 


' cu'Sden '? 



b MS. HENGWRT, NO. 8.^ 

yj OES GOrtheym GOrtheneu hyt weith Bad6n yd ymla- 
daOd Arthur ae hyneif ar Saesson ac y gorfuv Arthur ae 
hyneif wyth mlyned ar hugeint a chant. 

weith Baddn hyt Gamlan dOy vlyned ar hugeint. 

Gamlan hyt var(5 MaelgOn deg mlyned. 

varO Maelgvn hyt weith Arderyd (xxv. blyned. 

O'r gOeith Arderyd hyd) pan las GOrgi a Pharedur seith 

O'r pan las GOrgi a Pharedur hyt weith Kaerlleon naO 


From the age of Guortigern Guortlienau to the battle of 
Badwn, wliich Arthur and his elders fought with the Saxons, and 
in which Arthur and his elders were victorious, one hundred and 
twenty-eight years. 

From the battle of Badwn to Camlan, twenty-two years. 

From Camlan to the death of Maelgwn, ten years. 

From the death of Maelgwn to the battle of Arderydd, twenty- 
five years. 

From the battle of Ardevydd till when Gwrgi and Paredur 
were slain, seven years. 

From the slaugliter of Gwrgi and Paredur to the battle of 
Cairleon, nine years. 

' What is contained within parentheses is in h only. 


O weith KaerUeon hyt weith Veigen pedeir Llyncd ar 

O weith Veigen yny aeth Kadwaladyr vendigeit y 
Ruuein wyth mlyned a deugeint. 

From tlie battle of Caerleon to the battle of Meigen, fourteen 

From the battle of Meigen till CaJwaladyr Vendigeit went to 
Rome, forty-eight years. 





(c^uONiAM autem de Pictis et Scotis facta est hie men- Folio 96, b. 
tio, que gentes et quihus ex partibus, quibusve de causis Vnde Picti 
in Britanniam advecte sunt, sicut ex diversis coUegimus Britanniam 
historiis, hie explanandum, praeter rem non putaviinus. advecti et 

^ '■ , '■ quare sic 

Pietos itaqne, quos et Agatirsos Virgmus vocat, Seitieas ilicti. 
circiter paludes habitationes habuisse, referunt historie. 
De quibus et Servius super Virgilium eommentans et hunc 
locum exponeus, scilicet "Pietos Agatirsos," ait: "Pietos 
" eosdem quos et Agatirsos appeUamus, et dicuntur Picti 
" quasi stigmatizati, quia stigmatizari, id est, cauteriari 
" Solent, propter abundanciam fleiunatis. Et sunt hii 
" populi hiidem qui et Gothi. , Quoniam utique ubi ex 
" crebris stigmatibus cicatrices obducuntur, corpora quasi 
" picta redduntur ; ex cauteriis hujusmodi in cicatrices 
" obduetis Picti quoque sunt vocati." 

Cimi ergo Maximus ille tirannus de Britannia in Fran- 
ciam, cum robore virorum ae virium uecnon et armorimi 
insule toto, ad occupandum imperium transvectus fuisset, 
Gracianus et Valentinianus fratres et consortes imperii 
gentem banc Goticam, rebus in bellicis fortem ae strenuam, 
sibi quoque vel confederatam vel subjectam, et imperiali- 
bus tam beneficiis, a Scicie finibus in aquilonares Bri- 
tannia partes ad Britones infestandum et tyrannum cum 
juventute regni tota quam abduxerat non redituram sen 
revocandum, navigio transmiserunt. 



Gildas et 
Pictis et 

lUi vero turn qiioniam imiata Gothonim liellicositate per- 
validi fuerunt, turn etiani quouiam iusulam, viris ac viribus, 
lit diximus, vacuaiu iuveiieriiut, boreales ejusdem partes 
ac provincias non modicas ad siiam non reversuri, quippe 
de predonibus domum accole facti sibi usiirpatas occu- 

Processu vero temporis qiioiiiain iixores de Hybernia 
sibi vicina duxerant, quas a Britonibus habere non pote- 
rant, gentem Hybemicam, que et Scocia dicituv, sibi in 
consorcium allexerunt ; partemque terre occiipate mari- 
tinmm siieque patrie, ubi mare angiistiun, proximiorem, 
que et Galweidia dicitur, ad habitandum contiilerunt. 
Ubi et unanimes postmodum ad Britones infestandiun et 
fines suos dilatandmu sunt effecti. 

De qiiibus et Gildas liistoricus, de excidio Britonum trac- 

tans ait : " Exinde Britannia omni armato niilite destituta 

" atque valida juveiitute regni spoliata, que supradictimi 

" tjTannum comitata domum nunquam idtra rediit. Jam 

" omnis belli usu prorsus ignara, duabus primiim gentibus 

" vehementer sevis, Pictorum ab aquilone, Scotoriun a cir- 

" cio, opprimi cepit et calcari." Iterumque post pauca 

vexatis ad gemitiim Britonum legionibus jam pluries 

Romanis constructis demum muris et vaUis a mari ad 

mare et turribus erectis quamqiiam incassum et annis ad 

Britonum tutelam demum in insula relictis Gildas sub- 

jungit " Illis itaque ad sua reversis certatim emergimt tan- 

qiiam de cauernis sole incalescente vermiculorum cuuei. 

tetrique Pictorum Scotorum gTeges moribiis quidem mul- 

' tuin dissidentes liabitu tamen et cultu necnon una eadem- 

' que sanguinis fundendi aviditate Concordes, furciferosque 

' magis vultiis pilis quam corponim pudenda pudendisque 

■ proxima vestibus tegentes, cognita legionum reversione 

' reditusque denegacione ; solito confidencius. Omnem 

' aquilonarem extremamque terre partem primiim muro- 

' tenus, postea murum ipsum et turres irrumpendo ac 

' deiciendo, fines illos ex toto et incendiis vastaverunt." 

Vnde et Gildas, gentis sue gemens imbeciUetatem, in 

eodeni libro ponit de epistola Romani propter anxilium 


ab ipsis trausmissa. Verba eorundem hec. " Barbari 
" nos ad mare propellunt, mare qiioque ad barbaros. 
" Inde trucidamur; liinc submergimnr." Et non longe 
post de eisdem dicit, quia Britones non sunt in bello 
fortes, nee in pace fideles. Propter harum itaque gen- 
timn graves infestaciones et liostiles jugiter irrupciones 
cum ipsis de cetero Eoniaui deessent, nee ipsi de suis 
viribus defendere possent, propter stipendiaries milites in 
Germaniam nuncios, omine sinistro sibi suisque nimis 
infausto trausmiserunt. Advenientes etenim Saxones [D]e Saxon- 
tanquam pro Britonilnis pugnaturi, immo verius ipsos tanmam "!i 
oppugnaturi, nee sacramenta nee fidem respicientes quin [sti]pendia 
eciam cum hostibus quos oppugnare debent, statim federa ad iii[ceii]- 
jungentes, totum denique processu temporis per enormes [tjts'^e.ld" 
et inauditas prodiciones perque conflictus grandes et graves f^^ ["]oca- 
Bi'itannie regnura civibus expuJsis occupaverunt. 

Porro de Pictorum gente pervalida post tot victorias 
qualiter evanuit, succiucte dicemus. 

Occupata ut dixinius a Saxonibus insula, stabilique cum 
Pictis pace finnata, Scoti qui Pictis adjimcti, et ab eis ad 
terram inhabitandam accersiti fuerant, videntes Pictos, 
quamquam propter affinitatem Hibernie jam pauciores, 
longe tamen armis et animositate prestanciores, ad soli- 
tas et tanquam sibi innatas prodiciones, quibus ceteris 
preminent gentibus, recurrerunt. Convocatosque tan- Nota. 
quam ad conviviuni magnates Pictorum cunctos, captata 
tam cibi quam potus crapula et ingurgitacione forsan nimia 
et, oportunitate notata, clavorum extractione qui tabulata 
tenebant, in bancorum concavitatem quibus sedebant, mira 
decipula poplite tenus, ita quod se nidlatenus erigere pos- 
sent, communiter undique lapses, de subitos quidem et 
inprovisos, nee ab affinibus et consideratis suoque bene- 
ficio confeodatis et bellorum sociis quicquam tale timentes, 
statim trucidaverunt universes. Sic itaque de duobus De Pictis 
popnlis gens bellicosior et validior totaliter evanuit. Altera prod'idoue 
vero longe modis omnibus impar, tanquam in tempore fl<'l''t'«- 
tante prodicionis emolumenta assecuta, totam a niari 
vsq\xe ad mare, terram illam quam a suo nomine Scociam 


dixerunt, usque in hodiemuiu obtinueruut. Sicut autem 
a Bruto duce, Britones nomeu traxerunt, sic Hybernici 
ab Hebreo duce, vel secundum alios, ab Hibero Hispanic 
fluvio vnde pervenerant. Dicti sunt et Gaideli a duce sic 
dicto, sicut ab uxore Gaideli illius, que vocata est Scocia, 
dicti sunt Scoti. Quidam tamen autumant a Wandalis 
de quibus originalem lineam duxere, sicut originem sic et 
nuncupacionem Gaidelos traxisse. 




434 Jqll. prima feria. Conversio Scotorum in fideiu 


435 Kl. Prima preda Saxonorum ab Hibernia. 

466 Kl. Cath Arddacorain?' 

471 Kl. Secunda preda Saxonorum ab Hibernia. 

507 Kl. Quies Domangairt Cindtire. 

508 Kl. Bellum Ardacoraind, 

519 Kl. Nativitas Columbaecbill. Dormitacio But! 

meic Bronaig. 
538 Kl. Mors Comgaill meic Domongairt Regis. 
560 Kl. Mors Garbain meic Domongairt. 

563 Kl. Gol'umcilh in ailitre.^ Prima nox ejus in 
Albain in Pentecosten. 

564 Kl. Mors Daimin meic Domongairt. 
570 Kl. Quies Gilldais Episcopus. 

573 Kl. Oath Tala.'^ 

574 Kl. Mors Conaill meicc Comgaill annis xvi. regni. 
582 lO. Cath Manann la Aedan mac Gabrain^ 


Battle of Ardcoran. 

Columba in pilgrimage. 

Battle of Tola. 

Battle of Mauan by Acdan son of Gabran. 


584 I\J. More Bruidi meic Maelcon. 
589 Kl. Quies David Cillmuine. 

595 KL Quies Coluimbcille nocte Dominica hi v. Id 
Juin, anno xxxv. perigrinationis sue, etatis vero Ixxvi. 

596 Kl. Cath Ratha in Druad y Cath Airdsendain^. 
Hui Fin fugerunt, Araid victores. 

598 Kl. Baithine quievit in Christo, anno etatis sue 

606 Kl. Mors Aedain meic Gabrain. 
613 Kl. Cath Legeoin, in quo ceciderunt multitudines 

Sanctorum in Britannia, inter Saxones et Bri- 


616 Kl. Mors Tolorggain 7 Fergusa meic Colmain. 

617 Kl. Orgain Donnaincga hi. xv. kl. Mai.* Mors meic 
ComgaUl 7 quies Eogain Epscoip. 

623 Quies Fergnai abbastis lae. 

624 Kl. Nati vitas Adamnatn. 

625 Kl. Mors KonaLn meic TuathaU. 

629 Kl. Mors Echdacli buide meic Aedain. 

631 Kl. Mors Cinaeda Rig Alban 7 Edain Rig Saxan. 

634 Kl. Mors Oengusa meic Nechtain. 

642 Kl. Mors DomhnaiU bricc. 

645 Kl. Mors Oengusa Leithoane ic Glennamain. 

652 Kl. Quies Segene abbatis lae. 

686 Kl. Cath mor etir Cndthncchii.S 

687 Ivl. Quies Fergusa Episcopi 7 Righ Cruithnech. 
704 Kl. Adamnan abbas lae 7 sapiens quievit in 

754 Kl. Mors Sleibue abbatis lae. 
794 Kl. Orcain lae Coluimchille.^ 
807 Kl. Guin Congail meic Thaidg in Albain} 

* Battles of Kathindruad and Ardsennain. 
'' Plunder of Donnanega on the fifteentli day before the 
Kalends of May. 

K Great battle between the Cruithnech. 

•i Phinder of Hi ColumciUe. 

' Slaughter of Congal son of Tadg in Alban. 


819 KL Mors Aeda meic Neill Rig Temrachfor slua- 
gud in Alham) 

820 Kl. Mors Causantin meic Fergusa Rig Albain. 
854 KL Indreclitaig hua Finechta Abbas lae hi mar" 

dochoid oc did do Roim Saxanu?- 
858 Kl. Quies Cinaed mace Alpin Rig Albain. 
862 Kl. Mors Domnail meic Alpin Rig Albain. 
870 KL Quies Feradaich abbatis lae Coluimchille. 
891 Quies Faelain meic Maelduin abbatis lae Coluim- 

900 Kl. Mors Domnail Rig Allan} 
980 KL viL f. xxi. 1. [983] Quies Mugroin Comarbai 

986 KL vi. f. xvL lun. [988] Indred dan Coluimchille 

do Gallaibh J na insc do fasugud doih i^ Eps lae do- 

marhad doibJ^ 
995 KL iii. f. xx-vd. lun. vii. Bas Cinacda meic Mail- 

choluimb Ardri AlhanP- 
1008 Kl. Ferdomnach Gomarha Coluimchille quievit." 

1033 KL En. f. luan. Cormacc mac Foclain Comarha 
meic Hii quievit.P 

1034 KJ. En f. mairt 'j viL Maelcolaim mac Cinaeda 
Ri Alban moritur.*^l 

1093 KL Enair. Maclcholuim mac Donnchada Ri Allan 

J Death of Aed mac Neill, king of Tara while hostiug in 

^ Indrechtaig, grandson of Finechta, Abbot of la, martyred 
on his journey to Rome by the Saxons. 

' Death of Donald king of Alban. 

™ The laying -waste of Dan' Coluracille by the Galls and the 
islands ravaged by them, and the Bishop of la slain. 

° Death of Cinaed son of Malcolm, sovereign of Alban. 

° Ferdomnach Corb of Columba died. 

P Cormac son of Foelan Corb of the sons of Hi died. 

1 Malcolm son of Kenneth king of Alban died. 


7 a mac domarhad do \F'\rancaib a boegul clmtha 7 

Margareta .i. a hen doec da chumaidy 
109i KL Enair. Donnchad mac Maelcohiim Ri Allan 

occisus est Domnaill meic Donncliada. Domnaill 

sin dan do gabail rige Alhan iarscin.^ 
1105 Kl. Isin hliadin sin tucad in Camall quod est 

aiiimal mirse magnitudinis rig Alhain do Murcher- 

tach ua Briain} 
1111 KL Domnaill mac Taidg do dulfordunaig i tuais- 

ccrt h-Erend j coragaib rigc Insegall ar cgein.^ 
1130 Kl. Ar fer Muriamh in Alhain7 

' Malcolm son of Duncan, king of Alban, and his son slain by 
the Franks in battle, and Margareta his wife died of grief 

>* Duncan son of Malcolm, king of Alban, slain by Donald, son 
of Duncan. That Donald then took the kingdom of Alban after 

' In this year a camel, which is an animal of wonderful size, 
was presented by the king of Alban to Murcertaoh O'Brian. 

" Donald son of Tadg carried war into the north of Ireland, 
and acquired the kingdom of Insegall by force. 

^' Slaughter of the men of Moray in Alban. 






1. JJ ERGUS filius Erth primus in Scotia regnavit tribus 
aiiiiis ultra Drumalbin usque Sluaghmaner et usque ad 

2. Domenghart filius Fergus 5 annis regnavit. 

3. CongaU filius Donenghart 24 annis regnavit. 

4. Gouran filius Donenghart 22 annis regnavit. 

5. ConaU filius Congal 14 annis. 

6. Heogliedbad 16 annis. 

7. Kiueth Ker filius Conal 3 mensibus. 

8. Edhan filius Garan 34 aunis.^ 

9. Ferchar filius Ewini 16 annis. 

10. Dovenald Breck filius Heogliedbad 14 annis. 

11. Malduin filius Douewald dunn annis 16. 

12. Ferthar Foda 21 annis. 

13. Heoghed monanel filius Dondgliart filii Donevald 
brek 3 annis. 

14. ArenkeUeth filius Findan 1 anno. 

15. Heodgan filius Findan 16 annis. 

1 6. Murdac filius Arinkellath 3 annis. 

17. Geoghan filius Murdac 2 annis. 

18. Hethfin filius Heoclietramele 30 annis. 
11). Fergus filius Hethfin 3 annis. 

' MS. adds Iransponi debet. 


20. Icaliilanc filius Eooafran 24 annis. 

21. Heogled aniiine filius Hethfine 30 annis. 

22. Dungal filius Heogled annine 7 annis. 

23. Alpinus filius Heogled annine 5 annis. Hie occisus 
est in Gallowathia postquam earn penitus destruxit et 
devastavit et tunc translatum est regnum Scotorum in 
regnum Pictorum. 


1. Chruthneus filius Kinne Clemens judex accepit 
Monarchiam in regno Pictorum et 50 annis regnavit. 

2. Gede 101 annis regnavit. 

3. Thoran 100 annis, 

4. Duchil 40 annis. 

5. Duordeghall 20 annis. 

6. Deokleth GO annis. 

7. Cimibust 20 annis. 

8. Karanetlireclit 40 annis. 

9. Garnatlibolus 9 annis. 

10. Wmpopwall 30 annis. 

11. Fiacha albus 30 annis. 

12. Canatulmet 6 annis. 

13. Donarmahl-netalec 1 anno. 

14. Feredak filius 2 annis. 

15. Garnard dives 60 annis. 

16. Talarg filius Keother 25 annis. 

17. Drust filius Irb vixit 100 annis et 100 bella peregit. 

18. Tholarg filius Ajuile 2 annis. 

19. Netthan thelcliamoth 10 annis. 

20. Durst Gemot 30 annis. 

21. Gidam 25 anni.s. 

22. Drust filius Gigurum 5 annis. 

23. Drust filius Hudresseg 8 annis. 

24. Ganat filius Gigurum 6 aunis. 

25. Kelhiran frater ejus 6 annis. 

26. Golors; filius Madoleg xi annis. 

27. Drust filius Moneth 1 anno. 


28. Tagaled 4 annis. 

29. Brude filius Melcho 30 annis. Hunc ad fideni 
convertit Sanctus Cohimba. 

30. Gernerd filius Dompneth 20 annis. 

31. Netthad filius Irb 21 annis. Hie sedificavit Aber- 

32. Kinet filius Luthren 14 annis. 

33. Nectan filius Fotle 5 an:iis. 

34. Brude filius Fathe 5 annis. 

35. Tolerg filius Fetebar xi annis. 

36. Tlialargon filius Confrud 4 annis. 

37. Garnard Donnall 5 annis. 

38. Drust frater ejus 6 annis. 

39. Brude filius Bile 21 annis. Cvijus tempore floruit 
Sanctus Adamauus. 

40. Turan filius Amsedeth 14 annis. 

41. Brude filius DeciU 31 annis. 

42. Fertben frater ejus 18 annis. 

43. Garnath filius Ferath 24 annis. 

44. Oengusu filius Ferguse 16 annis. 

45. Nettlian filius Decili 9 mensibus. 

46. Alpin filius Feret 6 mensibus. 

47. Onegussa filius Brude 6 mensibus. Idem iterum 36 
annis regnavit. 

48. Brude filius Tonegus 8 annis. 

49. Durst filius Talergan 1 anno. 

50. Talargau filius Drustan 4 annis. 

51. Talargau filius Tenegus 5 annis. 

52. Constantinus filius Fergusa 42 annis. Hie sedificavit 

53. Hungus filius Fergusa x annis. Hie sedifieavit 

54. Drustalorg 4 anuis. 

55. Coganan filius Hungus 3 annis. 

56. Ferat filius Batot 3 annis. 

57. Brunde filius Ferat 1 mense 

58. Ktnat filius Ferat 1 anno. 

59. Brude filius Fetal 2 auuis. 


GO. Drust fiKus Ferat 3 aniiis. Hie occisus est apiid 
Forteviot, sed, secundum alios, apud Scouam. 


1. Kinart mac Alp in 16 annis super Scotos regnavit, 
destnictis Pictis. Mortuus in Forteviet, sepultus in lona 
insula ubi tres filii, scilicet, Fergus, Loern, Teuegus sepulti 
fuerimt. Hie in ira caliditate duxit Scotos de Argadia in 
terram Pictorum. 

2. Doneuall mac AJpin 4 anuis. Mortuus in Eaith Inve- 
rament sepultus in lona insula. 

3. Constantinus mac Kinet 16 annis. Interfectus fuit a 
Norvagensibus in bello Inuerdofacta. Sepultus in lona 

4. Edli mac Kinet 1 anno. Interfectus in bello in Strath- 
alien a Girg filio Dmigel. Sepultus in lona. 

5. Carus mack Dmigall 1 2 annis. Mortuus in Drmdurn et 
sepultus in lona. Hie subjugavit sibi Hiberniam totam et 
fere Angliam et hie primus dedit libertatem Ecelesire 
SeotieanEe, quge sub servitute erat ad illud usque tempus 
ex eonstitutione et more Pictorum. 

6. Dovenal mack Constantin xi. annis. Mortuus in 
Fores, et sepultus in lona. 

7. Constantin mack Ethu 40 annis. Hie dimisso regno 
sponte Deo in habitu religioso Abbas factus Keledeormn 
Sancte Andrese 5 annis. Ibi mortuus est et sepultus. 

8. MaleoLm mack Dovenal 9 annis. Interfectus in "N^urn 
a Moraviensibus. Sepultus in lona. 

9. Indulf mack Constantin 9 annis. Interfectus a Nor- 
vagensibus in Inertolan. Septdtus in lona. 

10. Duff mac Colm 4 annis et sex mensibus. In- 
terfectus in Fores et abseonditus sub ponte de Kinlos 
et sol non apparuit quamdiu ibi latuit. Sepultus in lona, 

11. Culen mac Indulf 4 annis et G mensibus. Interfec- 
tus ab Andarch filio Dovenald propter filiam suam in 

12. Kinath mac Colm 24 annis et 2 mensibus. Inter- 


fectus in rotherkern a suis per perfidiam FincUe Ciuinu- 
cliar comitis de Anegus cujus Findle filium uuicum pre - 
dictus Kenath interfecit apud Dunismoen. 

13. Constantin mac Culean 1 auno et sex mensibus. 
Interfectus a Kiuatli filio Malcolmi in Rathveramoen et 
sepultus in lona. 

14. Girus mac Kinath mac Duff 8 annis. Interfectus a 
filio Kiuet in Moeghauard et sepultus in lona. 

15. Malcolm mac Kinat rex victoriosissimus 30 annis. 
Mortuus in Glemmis et sepultus in lona. 

1 C. Doncliath mac Trim abbatis de Dunkelden et Betli- 
ocli filije Malcolmi mac Kinoth 6 annis. Interfectus a 
Mackbeth mac Fialeg in Botligauenan et sepultus in lona. 

1 7. Macbeth mac Finlen 1 7 annis. Interfectus in Lun- 
faneu a Malcolm mac Donechat et sepultus in lona. 

18. Lulacli fatuus 4 mensibus. Interfectus est in 
Esseg in Stratlibologia, sepultus in lona. 

19. Malcolm mac Donechat 37 annis et 8 mensibus. 
Interfectus in Inweraldan et sepultus in lona. Hie fuit 
vir Sancta3 Margaritie. 

20. Donald mac Donehatprius regnavit sex mensibus et 
postea expulsus et Donechet mac Malcobn regnavit 6 
mensibus. Hoc interfecto a Malpeder Mackcolm coniite de 
Merns in Monacheden, rursus Donald mac Donehat reg- 
navit 3 annis. Hie captus est ab Edgar mac Malcolm, coe- 
catus est et mortuus Eosolpin. Sepultus in Dmikelden. 
Hinc translata ossa in lona. 

21. Edgar 9 annis. Mortuus in Dunedin et sepultus 
in Dumferline. 

22. Alexander 17 annis et 3 mensibus et dimidio. 
Mortuus in Crasleth. Sepultus in Dmifermlme. 

23. David 29 annis et 3 mensibus. Mortuus in Car- 
lelle. Sepultus in Dumfermline. 

24. Malcolm filius Henrici filii David annis 12, sex 
mensibus et 20 diebus. Mortuus apud Jedwarth. Sepultus 

25. Willielmus 52 annis. Mortuus in Stirlin. Sepultus 
in Aberbrothock, cui successit mitissimus rex Alexander. 


Summa annorum a Kinat mac Alpin ad regnum Alex- 
andri 501 annis. 

26. Alexander fiUus puer septem annorum coronatus 
apud Sconam 3 Idus Jixlii a Davide episcopo Sancti 
Andi'eae 1251. Hie rex perrexit in Angliam et honori- 
fice siisceptus a rege Anglise apud Eboracum, factus 
est miles, et crastino die desponsavit regis iiliam. Nescio 
quo infortuitu Diabolus seminatus discordiam inter mag- 
nates terrae hujus, Cancellarius et Justiciarius Scotise 
apud regem Anglite accusati, ah officiis deprivati, et alii 
in loco illorum substituti. 





a MS. BODL. C. IV. 3. 


C MS. BRIT. MUS. BIB. BEG. 17. U. XX.^ 

i: RIMUS in Albania fertur regnasse Kynetus 

Filius Alpini, prelia multa gerens 
Expulsis Pictis regnaverat octo bis annis 

Apud^ Ferthevioth mortuus ille fuit^ 
Eex Dovenaldus ei successif* quatuor annis 

In bello miles strenuus ille fait 

^ MS. a contains the only com- 
plete and separate copy of tlie 
Cronicon Elegiacum. MS. b is the 
Chronicle of Meh-ose, in which the 
verses applicable to each king are 
inserted in a different hand under 
the date of his death in connexion 
with a prose chronicle. MS. c is 
Wyuton's Chronicle, in which the 
verses ai-e inserted in a similar 
manner umler the reign of each 
king. MS. a has been selected as 
the text. The prose Chronicle, 
which precedes the beginning of 
the Metrical Chronicle in h, is as 
follows : — 

Anno DCCXLJ. obiit Ewain rex 
Seottoriim, cui siiccessit Murezaut 
filius ejus. 

Anno DCCXLiv. obiit Murezaut 
rex Scottorum, cui successit Ewen 
filius ejus. 

Anno DCCXLVIJ. obiit Ewen rex 
Scottorum, cui successit Hed Abbus 
filius ejus. 

Anno DCCLXXVIJ. obiit Hed rex 

Scottorum, cui successit Fergus 
filius ejus. 

Anno DCCLXXX. obiit Fergus rex 
Scottorum, oui successit Seluad 
filius ejus. 

Anno DCCCiv. obiit Seluad rex 
Scottorum, cui successit Eokal 

Anno Dcccxxxrv. obiit Eokal 
rex Scottorum, cui successit Dun- 
gal filius ejus. 

Anno DCCCXLj. obiit Dungal tsk 
Scottorum ; Alpinus filius Eokal 
ei successit. 

Anno DCCCXLUJ. obiit Alpinus 
re.TC Scottorum, cui successit Kined 
filius ejus, de quo dicitur. 

^ 6 reads Adr/iie; c reads £t post. 

^ b inserts here, Iste vocatus 
est rex primus, non quia fuit sed 
quia primus leges Scoticanas insti- 
tuit, quas vocant leges Macalpin. 
Anno DCCCLix. obiit Kinedus rex 
Scottorum, cui successit Dovenal- 
dus de quo dicitur. 

* c reads erat in Scotia. 



Eegis predict! frater fuit ille Kyneti 

Qui Scone fertur subditus esse iieci' 
Fit Constaiitinus post liunc rex bis terni aunis" 

Regis Kyneti filius ille fuit 
In bello'pugnans Dacorum corruit armis 

Nomine Nigra specus est ubi pugua fuit' 
Ejusdem frater regnaverat Albipes Edlius 

Qui Grig Dungalide'' saucius ense perit. 
Hie postquam primiuu regni compleverat annum, 

In Stratalun vitam ulnere finierat.^ 
Girg sua jui-a gereus aimis deca tetra et octo^ 

In Dunduren probus moite retentus erat. 
Hie dedit ecelesie libertates' Scoticane, 

Que sub Pictorum lege redacta fuit. 
Hujus ad imperium fuit Anglia tota subacta,* 

Quod non leva dedit sors sibi bella terens.* 
Post hunc in Scocia regnavit rex Douenaldus ; 

Qui^" Constantino filius ortus erat. 
In villa fertur rex iste perisse Eorensi, 

Undecimo regni sole rotante sui.^* 
Constantinus item, cujus pater Edh fuit Albus, 

Bis deca Rex annis vixerat atque decern. 
Andree sancti fuit hie quinquennis in urbe ; 

Eeligionis ibi jure fruens obiit.'^ 
Huic rex Malcolmus succeSsit ter tribus annis, 

Eegis Donaldi filius iste^^ fuit. 

' 6 insertshere, Anno DCCCLXiu. 
ohiit Doiienaliius rex Scpttomni. 
^ h reads quiii'/ue ter ann'is. 
c reads — 

Jam Constantinus fuerat rex 
quinqut ter annis. 
•> b inserts here. Anno 
DCCCLXXviij. oceiditur Constanti- 
nus rex Scottorum. Rex Scotonun 
Hed frater ejus. 

■* h reads Dofnalide. 

c reads makDuugal. 
* b inserts, Anno DC(CL.\XIX. 
rex Scotoriim Het [frater ejus] 
occiditur ; post qiiem [rex Scotto- 
rum Grig filius Doucualdi.] 

" /) and c read rex Jit el octo. 

' c reads Uhertatem. 

^ b reads peracta. 

^ b inserts, Anno Dcccxcvij. 
obiit Grig Scottorum rex ; rex 
Scottorum Douenaldus filius C'ou- 

'" h and c read Hie. 

^^ ?< inserts here, Anno Drcco'iij. 
eodem anno periit Dofnaldus rex 
Scottorum, post qnem rex Scotto- 
rum Constantinus filius Hedi. 

'- b inserts here, Anno 
rcrccxLiij. obiit Constantinus 
Rex Scottorum. 

'■^ b and c read ille. 


Interfercerunt liiinc Ulrum* Morauienses : 

Gentes apostatice fraude doloque cadit.^ 
Post hunc Indulfus totidem regnaverat annis : 

Ens Constantini filius Ethaide. 
In bello pugnans ad fluminis hostia Colli ^ 

Dacorum gladiis protinus occubuit.* 
Quatuor et senis rex Duf reguavit arestis, 

MalcoLmo natus, regia vita^ gerens. 
Hunc interfecit gens perfida Moraiiiensis, 

Cujus erat gladiis casus in urbe Fores. 
Sol abdit radios, ipso sub ponte latente, 

Quo fuit absconsus, quoque repertus erat.® 
Filius Indulfi totidem quoque rex fuit annis, 

Nomine Culenus ; vir fuit insipiens. 
Fertur apud Lemias' ilium truncasse Eadhardus, 

Pro ritpta nata quam sibi rex rapuit.^ 
Inclitus in Scocia^ fertur regnasse Kynedus 

Malcolmi natus, quatuor et deca bis. 
Iste Forchirkeru'"' talis et arte peremptus, 

Nate Cunicari Finglene^' fraude cadens.'^ 
Rex Constantinus Culeni filius ortus. 

Ad caput amnis Amon'^ ense peremptus erat, 
In jus regale ;^'* regens uno rax et semis annis, 

Ipsum Kinedus Malcolomida ferit.'^ 
Annorimi spacio rex Grym ragnaverat octo, 

Kyneti natus qui genitus '® Duf erat. 

'" b reads Fotherkerne ; c Fethyr- 


'^ b reads Cuncari Fimberhele ; 
c Cuncari Flmbel. 

'^ 6 inserts here, Anno 
Dccccxcilij. rex Scottorum Kined 
occiditur ; post queni rex Scotto- 
nim Constantinus Calwus, filius 

'^ 6 reads A veil ; c A wi/ne. 

^* b reads Teyalere. 

^^ b inserts here, Anno Dccccxov. 
rex Scottorum Constantinus neca- 
tur ; post quern [rex Scottorum 
Grim, sivf' Kinedus, filius Duf.] 

' 6 reads in Ulmn. c in Wlru. 

^ b inserts here. Anno dccccli.t. 
rex Scottorum Malcolmus interfi- 

^ 6 reads Collin ; c Collyne. 

* b inserts here, Anno DccccLXj. 
rex Scottoriuu ludulfiis occiditur ; 
post quem. 

^ b and c reaA jura. 

•^ b inserts here, Anno dcccclxv. 
rex Duf Scottorum interficitur ; 
post quem. 

' 6 reads Loinas ; c Lovias. 

* b inserts here. Anno 
DCCCCLXI.\. rex Scottorum Culenu.s 
perimitur ; post quem. ! Two last lines omitted in < 

^ c reads — 

Poslquem rex fertur Scot is. 


Quo truncatus erat, Bardoruni campus habetur, 

A nato KjTieth nomine Malcolomi.^ 
Idem^ Malcolmus deca ter regnavit aristis, 

In pugnis miles bellicus atque probus;* 
In vico Glammes rapuit mors improba* regem ;^ 

Sub pede paratis." hostibus ille ruit/ 
Abbatis Crini, jam dicti, filia regis, 

Uxor erat Bethoc, nomina digna sibi.^ 
Ex ilia genuit Duncanum nomine natum, 

Qui senis annis rex erat Albanie, 
A Finlath^ natus percussit eum Macabed 

Funere'" letali rex aput Elgyn obit." 
Rex Macabeda decem Scotie septemque fit annis : 

In cujus regno fertile tempus erat. 
Hunc in Limphauan'^ truncavit morte cruente^' 

Duucani natus, nomine Malcolomus.'* 
Mensibus infeHx Lulach tribus extiterat rex 

Armis ejusdem Malcolomi cecidit. 
Fata viri fueraut in Stratlibolgyn aput Essy :''' 

Heu sic incaute Rex raiser occubuit.'^ 
Hos in pace viros tenet insula lona sepulta 

In tumulo regum, judicis usque diem.'' 
Ter deca quinque'* valens annis et mensibus octo 

Malcolmus dictus'" rex erat in Scocia 
Anglorum gladiis in bello sternitur heros : 

Hie rex in Scotia primus humatus erat.°" 

^ b inserts here, Anno m.iij. ' obiit Duncanus rex Scottorum, cu- 
res Scottorum Grim necatiir ; post jus reguum Macbet sibi usurjiavit. 
qiiem. \ ^'- b reads Lavfnaut. 

2 r r^nrla P/s-T nii^ntlfi ^^ 

c reads Rex qxwijue. 

^ h and c read victoriosus erat. 

■" b reads libera. 

' c reads (juandamrjue puellare. 

''• b and c read prostratis. 

' b and c read peril. 

* b reads .SHJ.and inserts here, An- 
no M.xxxiiiJ. iste Malcolmus non 
hahuit filium, set iiliam ; que erat 
uxor abbatis Dunoaneli Crini, et. 

b and c read crudeli. 

'•' b inserts here. Anno 
Lulach quatuor menses et dinii- 
dium regnavit. 
'•> b and c read Essen. 
^^ a reads opprhnibur. 
'" b inserts here, Anno M.LVI. 
The ])oera terminates here in c. 
^^ 6 reads vjque. 
'^ b reads decus. 

^ b reads Fiiileg ; c Fynluke. j -" b inserts here. Anno m.xciij. 
'" b and c read viJnere. ! Douenaldus regnum Scotie invasit, 

" 6 inserts here, Anno M.xxxix. de quo dicitur. 


Jleusibus in regno sex regnavit Douenaldus, 

Malcolmis regis frater, in Albania. 
Abstulit liuic reguiim Dimcanus Malcolomides ; 

Mensibus et totidem rex erat in Scocia. 
• Hie erat^ occisiis Mernensibus in Monehedne f 

De male vivendo plebs premit omnis euni.^ 
Eursus Dofnaldus, Duncano rege perempto 

Ternis rex aimis regia jura tenet. 
Captus ad Edgaro vita'* privatnr at ille, 

Eoscolpin obiit ; ossaque lona tenet. 
Post hunc Edgarus regnavit ter tribus annis, 

Eex Edinburgo fertiir obisse probus. 
Eegis Alexandri regnuni duravit aristis 

Quinque bis et septem, mensibus atque tribus.'' 
In Scocia tota postquam pax firma vigebat, 

Fertur apud Strivelin mors rapuisse virum.® 
Bis deca rex annis David fuit atque novenis, 

In Scocia, caute provida prospiciens. 
Postquam castellis regnum munivit et arniis, 

Eex Carduille fertur obisse senex. 
Istius in regno quidam fuit insidiator, 

Quem cum cepisset, lumine privat eum, 
Hunc ex pane cibat : cui regis uata solebat. 

Currere ludendo ; quam fodit ultor atrox. 
Cum videt nate pregnans regina cruorem, 

Anxia quem peperit ut caro nuda fuit. 
Ille comes fuerat Henricus, ductor ad arma ; 

Malcolmi, Wilhelmi pater, atque David ; 
Conditus in Keltou prevenit morte parentem. 

Malcolmi laudem vita pudica perit.' 
Hie successit avo tractando regia Septra.* 

Bis senis annis, mensibus atque tribus. 

' b reads /ai J. 

'■' b reads Monodedhiio. 

^ b reads ilium. 

* o reads visu. 

' b reads octo. 

^ h reads reyem. 

" These ten lines are in a onlj-. 

* b reads — 

IhcUIus in Scotia regnavit 
Mulcolmus Rex. 


Non satis in regno jam tunc pax firma vigebat: 

Fertiir apud Gedwdde^ Eex sine labe mori. 
Quatuor hii reges jam^ sunt in pace sepulti, 

In tnrahaqne jacent^ Eex ubi Malcobnus.* 
Flos regum, regnique vigor ; decus omne virorum, 

Viulehnus, celum, rex probus, ingreditur 
Annis in regno jam quinquaginta peractis 

In Strivilino mors rapit atra senem. 
Pridie rex obiit Nonas, in pace, Decembris : 

Qui Prodocensi conditur almus humo. 
Tunc agitur regimen facientis regia septra 

Eegis Alexandri, nobilis et pii. 
Cleri protector ; rigidi quoque jiu'is amator ; 

Munificusque dator ; inclitus iste fuit. 
Ter deca, cum quinque, regni cum fecerat annis ; 

Fuit in Ergadia ; set sine fine manet. 
Fine caret jure, cujus probitatis honestas 

Per famani vivit ; per bona facta viget. 
Ergadia moritiu- Octo cum fecerat Idus 

Julius. Ac Melros ossa seprdta tenet. 
Nomen habet patris ; utinam patris acta sequatur, 

Filius, Albanica qui modo sceptra tenet. 

' h reads Gedewrlie.. 
- h reads tunc. 
■' 6 reads resident. 

* The poem terminates here in 
b. The rest is in a only. 


LEGEND OF ST. ANDEEW, mcclxxix. 


Anno ab incamatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi 345, 
Constantinus nepos Constantini filii Helena, congregavit 
exercitum magnum ad depopulandum Patras civitatem, in 
vindictam suspensionis beati AndrecB Apostoli Christi, et 
ut inde aiifferat reliquias ipsius. Tertia autem nocte, ante- 
quam Imperator cum exercitu intraret civitatem, angelus 
Dei descendens de ccelo apparuit Sanctis viris, qui cus- 
todiebant reUquias Sancti Andrete Apostoli, et praecepit^ 
sancto episcopo Eegulo, ut ipse cum clericis suis iret ad 
sarcophagum, in quo erant recondita ossa beati Andreas, 
et inde tolleret tres digitos manus dextrte, et bracbium 
inter cubitmn et bumerum, et patellam genu Ulius, et 
unum ex dentibus suis. Ipsi vero has partes de reliquiis 
tollentes, sicut angebis illos jusserat, ia loco secretissimo 
reposuerunt. Die vero sequente post harum reliquiarum 
repositionem, sub ortu sobs, venit Imperator Constantius 
cum exercitu suo, et urbem depopulavit, et provinciam ; et 
secum Eoma; asportavit scrinium, in quo cetera ossamenta 
Sancti Apostoli invenit reposita. Quo adveniens depredavit 
insula:n Tyberis, et Colossiam, et inde tulit secum ossa 
Sancti Lucte Evangelistje, et Timothei discipuli beati Pauli 
Apostoli, usque ad Constantinopolim cum reliquiis beati 

Tunc temporis Hungus, filius Ferlon, magnus Eex Pic- 
torum, congregavit exercitum suum contra Adhelstanum 
Eegem Saxonum, et castrametatus est ad ostium fluminis 
Tyne. Nocte vero ipsa, ante congressionem duorum exer- 
cituum, beatus Andreas apparuit Eegi Pictorum Hungo 


iu somniis, dicens ei quod ipse Apostolus, in die sequeute, 
iniinicuin exercitum ita expugnaret, ut ipse Hungus piece 
de inimicis triumpharet. Cui rex ait " quis es tu ? et imde 
" venis?" Beatus Andreas respondens ait, " ego sum Andreas 
" Apostolus Cliristi, et nunc de coelo veni, a Deo missus re- 
" velare tibi quod in die crastino expugnabo inimicos tuos, 
" et tibi subjugabo, et Iceta victoria potitus ipse cum exer- 
" citu tuo incolumis reparabis, et iu regnum tuum reliquiae 
" mese efferentur, et locus ad quern deferentur cum omni 
" honore et veneratione Celebris erit, usque in ultimum diem 
" seculi." Rex autem, ex somno evigilans, enarravit omni - 
bus suis ea qute dormienti revelaverat beatus Andreas. 
Quibus auditis Pictorum populus exhUaratus, jurejurando 
affirmavit, perpetuo ciim omni diligentia se beato Andi-eae 
venerationem exhibiturum, si ea qu£e Regi suo monstra- 
verat ad eflectum ducerentur. Die autem postero Picti, ex 
sponsione Apostoli letificati, prelium pararunt ; et, diviso 
exercitu, cii'ca Eegem suum septem agraiaa statuerunt. 
Saxones vero suum dividentes exercitum, Eegem suum 
Adhelstanum bis septem constipati simt agminibus. Facto 
autem cougressu, Saxones omni virtute illico destituti, Deo 
volente, et Sancto Apostolo Andrea pro Pictis inter- 
veniente, in fugam detorsi sunt. Regis autem Saxonum 
Adhelstani capite amputato, innumera Saxonum facta 
est caedes. Eex vero Hungus victoria potitus, cum exer- 
citu non modico in ten-a[m] suam rediens, caput Adhelstani 
secum precepit adferri, et iu loco qui dicitur Ardchin- 
nechun, infra portum qui nunc dicitur Portus Eeginse, 
ligno fecit affigi. Post istam ope coelesti adeptam vic- 
toriam, in Pictos postmodum non ausi sunt insurgere 

Post hujus belli felicem victoriam non multis evolutis 
diebus, angelus Die iterum de coelo venit ad beatum 
Episcopum Eegulum, quem ita alloquitur : " Ex Dei 
" summi priscepto partes aquilonares adire non differes, 
" adversus solem orientem, cimi reliquiis discipuli Christi 
" Andrece ; quos ex monitu nostro jamdudum reservasti, 
" et quocunque loco navis ilia quae te et tuum vebet per 


" mare couveutum, coiiquassata fuerit, te cum sociis salvo et 
" incolumi, ibi in nomine Domini et Apostoli siii Andreee 
" jace fundamentum ecclesiae. Locus enim iUe vobis erit per 
" seculum reqiiies, et ibidem erit resurrectio in die extremi 
" examinis." Eegulus vero episcopus, juxta praeceptum an- 
geli, Sanctis viris comitatus, cimi reliquiis Sancti Apostoli, 
erga aquilonem teudit navigio, et per uuius anni spatium 
et dimidii, multis tempestatuum jactus procellis, per insulas 
Greci maris quocunque appulsus fuit, oratorium in 
honorem Sancti Andreas constituit. 

Innumeros itaque Sancti viri labores perpessi, per marina 
Uttora, Deo ducente, in aquilonem vela direxerunt, et in 
terra Pictorum, ad locum qui Muckros fuerat nuncupatus, 
nunc autem Kylrimont dictus, nocte Sancti Michaelis, 
applicuerunt. Muckros vero nemus porcorum dicitur. 
Navi vero qua vehebantur ad scopulos conquassata, crucem 
quandam, quam secum de Patras portaverant, ibidem sibi 
erectis papilionibus in terra fixenmt, in signum quod por- 
taverant sacrorum, et contra demoniun insidias curamentum, 
et ibidem per dies septem et totidem noctes manserunt. 
Ibidem dimissis senioribus Sancto Damiauo et fratre suo 
Meriuach, in ipsius loci custodiam, Eegulus et cseteri viri 
cum Sanctis reliquiis Sanctissimi Apostoli Andrese ad For- 
tevieth perrexerunt, et iUic tres filios Eegis Hungi reperie- 
runt, scilicet, Howonam, et Nechtan, et Phinguineghert. et 
quia pater iUorum in expeditione in partibus Argathelise 
tunc temporis extitit, de ciijus vita filii multum soliciti 
erant, Deo et Sancto Audrete dederunt decimam partem 
de urbe Fortevieth. Ibidem vero crupe quadam erecta, loco 
et loci babitatoribus Eegis filiis, benedixerunt. Inde per- 
rexerunt Moneclatu, qui nunc dicitur Moniclii, et ibi Eegiaa 
Finehem Eegi Hrmgo filiam enixa est, qu^ Mouren vocata 
est. Corpus illius virgiiiis Mouren apud Kylrimont sepulta 
est, nuUo ante hoc ibidem sepulto. Finehem vero Eegina 
domum in qua filiam Mouren pepererat dedit Deo et 
Sancto Andrese, et totum atrium regale perpetuo. Inde 
transierunt montana, scilicet, Moneth, et venerunt ad lacum 
qui vocabatur Doldencha, nunc autem dictus Chondroch- 
edalvan. Ibi Hungus Eex sublimis de expeditione rediens, 


viri[s] Sanctis obveuit, et coram reliquiis Sancti Andreae 
Apostoli sibi ostensis, cum omni hmnilitate et reverentia 
se prostravit ; Pictis omnibus nobilibiis qui cum illo erant, 
similiter cum Eege himiili, prostratis coram reliquiis. Eex 
vero locum ilium, scilicet, Doldaucha, dedit Deo et Sancto 
Andreas Apostolo, et ecclesiam ibi edificavit ubi reliquiae 
sibi nudfE ostensse erant. lude Eex cum Sanctis viiis mon- 
tana, scilicet, Moneth, transiens, venit usque ad Moiiichi. 
Ibidem et in honore[m] Dei et beati Apostoli ecclesiam 
edifica\'it, et ita venit Eex cum Sanctis viris ad Fortevietli, 
et ibi Deo et Apostolo basilicam sedificavit. Postea vero 
Eex Hungus, cum Sanctis viris, venit Chilrymont, et mag- 
nam partem loci illius circumiens, obtulit illam Deo et 
Sancto Andreoe Apostolo, ad edificandum ibi basilicas 
et oratorias. Locimi vero ipsum, nota e\'idente desig- 
natum, ex magna devotione septies circumierunt. Eex 
Hungus et ipse Episcopus Eegulus, et viri cajteri, cir- 
cuitione et perambulatione ita disposita septena prae- 
cessit Episcopus Eegulus, super caput suum cum omni 
veneratione reliquias Sancti Apostoli deferens, suo sacro 
conventu episcopum cum comitibus hpnnidicis sequente. 
Illos vero devotus secutus Eex Hungus est pedentim, Deo 
intimas preces et gratias fundens devotus. Eegem vero 
secuti sunt viri optimates totius regni nobiliores. Ita 
locum ipsimi Deo commendarunt, et pace regia munierunt. 
In signum vero regia3 commendationis, per loci cii'cuitum 
divisim 1 2 cruces lapideas viri sancti erexerunt ; et Deo 
cceli humiliter supplicabant, ut omnes in illo loco mente 
devota, et intentione pura, orationis suse petitionis effica- 
ciam obtinerent. 

Postea Eex Hungus basilica Sancti Apostoli in paro- 
cliiam dedit quicquid terrte est inter mare quod Ishun- 
denema dicebatur, usque ad mare quod Sletheuma voca- 
batur ; et in adjacienti provincia per circuitum de Largaw, 
usque ad Sii-eis canuni ; et de Sireis usque ad Hyliat- 
nouhten Machehirb, qure tellus nunc dicitur Hadnacliten. 
Eex vero dedit hunc locum, scilicet, Cliilr^Tnonth, Deo et 
Sancto Andrea; ejus Apostolo, cum aquis, pratu, cum agris, 
cum pascuis, cum moris, cum nemoribus in eliemosynam 


perpetuo ; et tauta libertate locimi ilium donavit, ut illius 
inhabitatores liberi et quieti semper existerent de exercitu, 
et de operibus castellorum et pontium, et de iuquietatione 
omniimi secularium exactionum. Eegulus vero episcopus 
Deo cantavit orationem Allej. ut Deus locum istum in 
eleemosinam datum in sempiternam protegeret, et custo- 
diret in honorem Apostoli. In memoriale datse libertatis 
Eex Hungus cespitem arreptum, coram nobilibus Pictis, 
hominibus suis, usque ad altare Sancti Andrese detulit ; 
et super illud cespitem eundem obtulit. In presentia 
testium horum hoc factum est, Thalarg filii Ytherubuthib, 
Nactan filii Chelturan, Garnach filii Dosnach, Drusti filii 
Wrthi-osst, NaclitaUch filii Gigherti, Shinah filii Lxitheren, 
Anegus filii Forchete, Pheradach filii Finleich, Phiachan 
sui filLi, Bolge, Glunmerach filii Taran, Demene filii 
Aunganena, Duptalaich filii Bergib. Isti testes ex regali 
prosapia geniti sunt. 

Postea in Chilrymont sancti viri septem construxerunt 
ecclesias. Unam in honorem Sancti "Eeguli ; secundam 
in honorem Sancti Aneglas diaconi : tertiam in honorem 
Sancti Michaelis Archangeli : quartam in houorem Sanctae 
Marife virginis : quintam in honorem Sancti Damiani ; 
sextain in honorem Sanctse Brigidae virginis : septimam 
in honorem Muren cujusdam virginis, et in ilia ecclesia 
fuerunt 50 virgines, de semine regio procreatse, omnes Deo 
dicatse, et velatte undecim annis, et sepultae sunt omnes 
in orientali parte ipsius ecclesise. 

Hsec sunt nomina illorum sanctorum virorum qui sacras 
reliquias Sancti Andrese Apostoli attulerunt in Scotiam. 
Sanctus Eegulus ipse, Gelasius diaconus, Maltheus liere- 
mita, Sanctus Daniianus presbyter, et Meriuachus frater 
ejus. Neruius et Crisenius de Nola insula. Mirenus : 
et Thuluculus diaconus. Nathabeus, et Silvius frater ejus. 
Septem heremitfe de insula Tiberis, Felix, Juranus, Mauri- 
tius, Madianus, Phihppus, Eugenius, Lunus ; et tres vir- 
gines de Collossia, scilicet, Kiduana,' Potentia, Cineria. 
Hae virgines sepultae sunt ad ecclesiam Sancti Anaglas. 

' sic, probably for Trkluaiw. 


Thana filius Diulabracli hoc monumentum scripsit Eegi 
Pherath filio Bergeth in villa Migdele. 

Hsec ut prsefati sumus, sicut in veteribus Pictonim 
libris scripta reperimus, transcripsimus. Affinnant plerique 
ycotonim beatum Apostolum Andream viventem in corpore 
ibidem fuisse; hoc argiimentum assertionis suae assiunentes, 
quod terram Pictorum, scilicet, Scythicam, m sortem prse- 
dicationis accepit ; et ideo locum istum praj cunctis locis 
carum habebat ; et quod non explevit vi^^^s expleat came 
solutus. Quod quia scriptum non reperimus, in neutram 
partem, negando, vel affirmando, nimium incHnamus : sed 
quoniam de virtiitibus et miraculis qute per Sanctum 
Apostolum suum Deus et fecit et facit, facta est mentio, 
imde et quredain illorum scribendi obtulit se occasio, quae 
vel scripta reperimus, vel a veridicis audivimus relatoribus, 
vel etiam ipsi perspeximus, scribere Deo donante disposui- 
mus ; et hoc non fratres postulaverunt. Interim autem 
distulimus donee inceptiim compleamus. 

Deleto igitur funditus Pictonun regno, et a Scotis 
occupato, vicissim res et possessiones ecclesise crescebant, 
aut decrescebant, prout reges et principes devotionem ad 
Sanctum Apostolum habebaut. De quibus non est dicendum 
modo per singula, sed qyix ad nos spectant compendiose 
tractanda. Erat autem regia iirbs Eymont, Eegius Mens 
dicta, quern pra?fatus Eex Hungus Deo et Sancto Apostolo 
dedit. Sublatis vero a present! vita Sanctis, quorum supra 
mentionem fecimus, qui cum reliquiis beati Apostoli adven- 
erant, et eorum discipulis atque imitatoribus, cultus ibi 
religiosus deperierat, sicut et gens barbara et inculta fuerat. 
Habebantur tamen in ecclesia Sancti Andrese, quota et 
quanta tunc erat, tredecim per successionem carnalem 
quos Keledeos appellant, qui secundum suam jestima- 
tionem et hominum traditionem, magis quam secundum 
sanctorum statuta patrum, vivebant. Sed et adliuc simiKter 
vivunt, et qua?dam habeut communia pauciora, scilicet, et 
deteriora ; quredam vero propria plura, scilicet, et potiora ; 
prout quisque ab amicis suis aliqua necessitudine ad se 
pertinentibus, viz. consaugiiiueis et aftinibus, vel ab iis 


quorum animae charse sunt, quod est amiciarum^ amici, 
sive aliis quibuslibet modis, poterit quis adipisci. Post- 
quam Keledei effect! sunt, non licet eis habere uxores suas 
in domibus siiis, sed nee alias de quibus mala oriatur 
suspitio mulieres. Personse nihiLominus septem fuerunt, 
oblationes altaris inter se dividentes; quarum septem 
portionum, unam tan turn habebat episcopus et hospitale 
unam ; quinque vero reliqute in quinqvie caeteros divide- 
bantur, qui nullo omnino altari vel ecclesife impende- 
bant servitium, prseterquam peregrinos et hospites, cum 
plures quam sex adventarunt, more sue liospitio suscie- 
piebant, sortem mittentes q\us quos vel quot reciperet. 
Hospitale sane semper sex et infra suscipiebat. Sex quod 
nunc, donante Deo, postquam in manum Canonicorum 
devenit, omnes suscepit eo advenientes. Statuerunt etiam 
Canonici ut si quis eo seger deveniat, vel infirmatus ibi 
fuerit, cura ipsius agatur in omnibus necessariis, juxta 
domus facultatem, usque dum convaleat, vel moriatur. 
Si quid autem liabuerit, faciat inde quod voluerit ; et dis- 
ponit ad libitum siium, quoniam in domo ilia nihil exige 
tur ab Ulo. Constitutus est etiam a Canonicis capellanus, 
qui et infirmatis et morientium curam agat, et duo 
fvatres, qui custodimit domum, et hospites suscipiuut, 
atque infirmis ministrarent ; qui tamen ibi neque come- 
dunt, neque bibunt, neque induuutur. Ad hoc quoque con- 
cesserunt Canonici decimas propriorum suorum laborum, 
et reliquias ciborum suorum. Si quid vero necessarium sive 
sanis sive infirmis in cellario eorum fuerit, quod de hospi- 
taU haberi non poterit, sme contradictione donetur. 

Personte autem supra memoratse redditus et possessiones 
proprias habebant ; quas, cum e vita decederent, iixores 
eorum, quas publico tenebant, filii quoque, vel filise, pro- 
pinqui, vel generi, inter se dividebant. Nihilominus altaris 
oblationes cui non deserviebant, quod puduissent dicere, si 
non libuisset eis facere. Nee potuit tantum aufferri malum 
usque ad tempus fehcis memoriae regis Alexandri, sanctae 
Dei ecclesiae specialis amatoris ; qui et ecclesiam beati 


Andrete Apostoli possessionihus et redditibiis ampliavit, 
multisque et magnis muueribus cumulavit ; libertatibus 
et consuetudiuibus, quse sui regii muneris erant, cum 
regali possessions donavit. 

Ten-am etiam quse Cursus Apri dicitur, quam cum allatae 
fuissent reliquire beati Andrefe Apostoli, Eex Hungus, cujus 
supra mentionem fecimus, Deo et Sancto Apostolo Andreas 
dederat, et postea oblata fuerat, ex integro instituit ; eo 
nimirum obtentu et conditione, ut in ipsa ecclesia con- 
stitueretur religio ad Deo deserviendum. Non enim erat 
qui beati Apostoli altari desei-viret, nee ibi missa celebra- 
batur, nisi cum Rex vel Episcopus lUo advenerat, quod 
rare contigebat. Keledei namque in angulo quodam 
ecclesise, quse modica nimis erat, suum offieium more sue 
celebrabant. Cujus douationis regime testes multi sunt 
superstites. Quam donationem et Comes David, frater ejus, 
concessit ; quem Eex heredem destiuaverat et in regno 
successorem, sicut est hodie. Ob cujus etiam donationis 
mouumentum regium equum Ai-abicum, cum proprio freno, 
et sella, et scuto, et lancea argentea, opertum pallio grandi 
et pretioso, prsecepit Eex usque ad altare adduci, et de 
predictis donis, libertatibus, et consuetudiuibus omnibus 
regalibus, ecclesiam investrri; arma quoque Tm'chensia 
diversi generis dedit, qute cum ipsius scuto et sella in 
memoriam regise munificentiae, usque hodie in ecclesia 
Sancti Andreee conserventur ; qiue undecunque advenien- 
tibus populis osteuduntur, ne oblivione uUatenus delentur, 
quod tam crebro ad memoriam revocatur. Hujus nempe 
Eegis Alexandri diebus, prope vitse temporalis finem, Domi- 
nus Eobertus primus Sconensis ecclesite prior (quam et idem 
Rex Canonicis dederat et multis donis atque possessioni- 
bus ditaverat), in episcopum Scotorum electus fuit. Sic 
quippe, ab antiquo, episcopi Sancti Andrete dicti sunt, et in 
scriptis tam antiquis quam modernis inveniuntur dicti 
Summi Archiepiscopi sive Sunimi Episcopi Scotorum. 
Unde et conscribi fecit in tlieca Evangelii Fothet epi- 
scopus, maximse vir authoritatis, versus istos : 

Hanc Evangelii thecam construxit aviti. 

Fothet qui Scotis Summus Episcopus est. 


Sic et nunc quoque in vulgari et commvuii locntione 
Escop Alban, id est, Episcopi Albauitc, appellantur. Sic et 
dicti sunt, et dicuntur per excellentiam, ab universis Scoto- 
runi episcopis, qui a locis quibiis prsesunt appellantur. 

Sed ante ipsius electi consecrationem meinoratus Eex 

Alexander, ad extrema deductus, fratrem suum Regem 

David, qui solus ex fratribus supererat, et superest, non 

tarn regui quam devotionis erga Dei ecclesiam, et pauperum 

tutelam, reliquit heredem. Satagit enim, et sataget, ut quod 

frater ejus Eex, saepe dictus, inceperat, ipse ad finem Deo 

juvaute perduceret. Plures et ecclesias, et plura monasteria, 

tam monachorum, quam canonicorum, necnon et sancti- 

monialium constituit ; quibus et mu.lta beneficia contulit. 

Prseterea in servos et ancillas Christi multa operatus est 

opera misericordise ; quae non est nostrte facultatis evolvere. 

Impetravit autem consecrari antistiteni ecclesite Sancti 

Andreffi jam dictum Dominum Eobertuni, a pise memorise 

Thurstino Eboracensi Arclnepiscopo, sine professione, vel 

qualibet exactione salva duntaxat utriusque ecclesise digni- 

tate, et sanct;-B atque apostolicse sedis autlioritate. Ordinatus 

igitur episcopus, atque ad sedem propriam reversus, quod 

anhelabat in pectore, exercere studebat in opere, ut eccle- 

sia, viz. ampliaretur, et cultui divino dedicaretur. In multis 

tamen, et ante ordinationem et post, adversatus est ei 

Satanas ; niultas sustinuit injurias et contunielias, juxta 

quod ait Apostolus, "omnes qui volunt pie vivere in Christo 

"persecutionem patiuntur." Portiuncula[na] autem septi- 

mam altaris, qute eum contigebat, et quam de propriis 

usibus suis substrahebat, in ecclesiaj opus exijendebat. Sed 

quoniam impensa erant modica, modice erigebatur et 

fabrica : donee, Domino cooperante, et proxime Eege David 

annuente, oblationes in manibus laicorum, tam virorum 

quam mulierum, exceptse, injisus ecclesise sunt receptae. 

Dein ubi magis quod daret ad manum haberet, magis ac 

magis opus accelerabat. 

Basilica igitur in fundamentis incboata, et ex majori jam 
parte consummata, domibus quibusdam inceptis, quibusdam 
ita exactis, cum claustro ut jam possiut habitationes intro- 
duci, qui non nimia qusererent, et interim per patientiam ex- 


pectarent Domiiium Adebolduni episcopum Carleolensem 
expetiit, tarn per literas, quam per luissalicos, per vivam 
quoqite vocem, Eegi David sibi concedere ecclesiam Sancti 
Oswaldi, cui ipse episcopus jure prioris praeerat, personam 
quam in partem sui laboris assumeret et Canonicis, quos in 
ecclesia Sancti Andrens statuere disponebat, priorem con- 
stitueret. Familiarius siquidem sibi videbatur et diilcius 
de ipsa ecclesia ibi se Deo devoverat, et habitnm religionis 
susceperat, unde et Scoueusi ecclesiaj primus Prior desti- 
natus fuerat : de qua, ut prefati sumus, in Episcopum 
electus et assumptus erat ; quam aliunde personam acci- 
pere. Nee tamen quamlibet postulavit personam, sed 
fratrem Eobertum, non quidem fama notum, vel conver- 
sione, sed tantum nomine, quem juxta quod ab amicis et 
familiaribus suis qui eum uoveruut, ad hoc idoneuni esti- 
mabant. Petiit ergo eum et accepit, nee enim ei de ipsa 
ecclesia negare poterat vel debebat quicquid rationa- 
biliter postularet. 

Memoratus autem frater Eobertus ex prsecepto Domini 
Episcopi aliquandiu apud Sanctum Andream conversatus 
est, et sine Canonicis, non tamen sine Clericis, prebente 
Domino Episcopo necessaria sibi et suis. In ecclesiam 
vero nullam liabebat, nee habere volebat, potestatem, 
donee ei Dominus procuraret quam optabat ad Dei servi- 
tium societatem. Nihil tamen de se presumerit ; sed totum 
se Deo deferens, et se ordinationi submittens, Deum sedulo 
deprpecabatur ut eum visitari et consolari dignaretur, ut 
tale donaret, si religionis fundamentum pouere supra 
quod constructum edilicium firmimi esset, et stabile. Sicut 
enim in corde statuerat nequaquam in aUenos labores 
intrare volebat, quod fortasse sibi facile foret de aliis et 
diversis ecclesiis, sibi fratres sociare, ne forte diversi 
diversa sentientes, dum qui essent videri appeterent, in 
unitatem non convenirent ; et sic antequam jaceretur 
fundamentmn, pateretur fabrica detrimentum. Si quos 
tamen, modo quo ipse disponebat vivere paratis, ei Deus 
adduceret, eos benigne susciperet. 

Interea fratre Roberto ex precepto Episcopi ut dictum 
est ibidem commorante, Domino Episcopo autem circa 


inceptum segnius agente, venit Eex, una cum filio suo 
Henrico Comite et Eege designate, ad Sanctum Andream, 
orationis gratia ; multique cum iis comitum et potentium 
tense. In crastino autem, audita missa, et horis ex more 
et oblatione factis, veniens Eex in claustrum, quale illud 
tunc erat, simul cum iis qui secum venerant ; et residen- 
tibus cunctis, primum multa qute niliil attinet, tandem 
causam pro qua precipue venerat apperuit Eex. Convenit 
igitur Episcopum cum sicut disposuisse dixerat, et Eex 
Alexander constituerat opus, et servitium Dei non accelaret, 
ut in ecclesia beati Andrea; religionem constitueret. Cum- 
que post multas contraversias causareter Dominus Epis- 
copus possessione[m] Episcopii non licere sibi minuere, vel 
dispergere, ne forte a successore suo, a servis Dei aufer- 
retur quod ipsis ab eo conferretur, respondet Eex, et dixit, 
ut de terra ilia quse Cursus Apri dicitur, qua3 de epis- 
copatu non erat, quam Eex Alexander, frater ejus, prop- 
ter hoc Deo et Sancto Andrese devoverat, ut in ecclesia ejus 
religio constitueretur, sufficienter eis tribueret; et tam 
ipse quam filius ejus concederent, et ad instaurandam 
terram auxilium ferrent. Quod et fecerunt, et alios quos- 
dam cum juraudo juvare compulenmt. Tunc Dominus 
Episcopus, quasi sponte coactus, de terris personarum quas 
abeuutibus eis in manum ejus obvenerant, quam libuit 
portionem, consilio et assensu Eegis et filii ejus, et ceter- 
orum baromuu qui aderant, fratri Eoberto in manum 
tradidit; unde fratres ut Dei servitium Ulo venientes 
interim sustentari debiiissent. Nee tamen circa opus 
ecclesise segnius egit ; sed quo citius consumaret omnibus 
modis satagit. Ipsa die pise memoriae Eobertus presbiter, 
Domini Episcopi irater uterinus, corde, voce et opere secu- 
lum abrenuncians ad Deo deserviendum in ecclesia beati 
Andrese sub canonica regula Sancti patris nostri Augus- 
tini, in manum fratris Eoberti Prioris se reddidit, cimi 
ecclesia sua de Tinningham, annuente Domino Episcopo, 
ita sane ut vel ecclesia[m] illam habere[n]t Canouici, vel 1. 
solidos per annum. 





Foi. 193. b. Jjjj. fait asauoir qe solonc lez cronicles Descoce, nestoit 
vnqes tiel difficoulte qi enserroit lour roys de droit lingne, 
qe outriement estoit faiHy en le hour de troys roys suc- 
ciement, chescun fitz dautre. Et pur ceo voet cest 
cronicle toucher la originaute dez roys, et la processe de 
caux qen Escoz ount regne. En la vie saint Brandane 
est troue qen le pays de Attenys, en Grece, estoit vn 
noble cheualer, qi out vn fitz, qy auoit a noun Gaidel, 
qauoit en espouse la feile Pharao le roy de Egj'pt, qe out 
a noune Scota, de qey il auoit bele eugendrure. Gaidel 
estoit cheualerous ; se purchasa lez juuinceaux de soun 
pays, se mist en mere en uese od sa femme Scota, et sez 


* And be it known that according to the Chronicles of Scot- 
land, there never was such difficulty as that which would set 
down in writing their kings of the direct line, who entirely 
faUed in the time of three kings successively, each the son 
of the other ; and for that, this chronicle would touch upon the 
origin of the kings and the succession of those who have 
reigned in Scotland. In the life of Saint Brandane it is found 
that in the country of Athens in Greece there was a noble 
chevalier who had one son whose name was Gaidel, who had for 
his wife the daughter of Pharao, king of Egypt, whose name was 
Scota, by whom he had fair offspring. Gaidel was chivalrous ; 
he gathered the youth of his country, put to sea in a vessel with 


enfanntz, se qiiist mansioun al auenture en biaunce de le 
conquer, arryua en Espa}Tie, ou, sure vn liaut mountayn, 
au couster de la mere Hiberynie, fist edifier vn fort 
chastel, et le noma Brigans. II viuoit od lez soens de 
rauyn sure lez paisens du pays. Sez pesclieours furount 
chacez vn iour par tempest parfound en la mere, qi ly 
reuindrent renouncier qils auoit aparsceu, par voler dez 
flores, dez cliardouns et autres enseignes, qe il y out terre 
pres de outre mere. Gaidel od sez fitz, qui a surnoun 
auoient Scoti apres lour mere Scota, se mist en mere en 
trois naueaux, seglerent anal la mere, trouereut vn Isle 
grant, mounterent a terre, trouerent le pays herbous et 
plesaunt de boys et reueres, mais noun pas bien poeple 
dez gentz. Et com est ymagine et suppose, procheigne- 
ment deuaunt auoit Gurguyns le fitz Belin, roy de Bretaigne, 
assigne eel He as gentz extretiz Despayne, queux t1 troua 
en Orkany com venoit de Denemarc, com auaimt est 
especifie. Gaidel repaira a soun chastel de Brigauns, 
ymaginaunt de realer al He troue ; mais ly surueint vn 
tresgref malady dount ly coueint murrir ; si deuisoit a sez 
fitz qils alasent a eel He, et y demurasent com a vn pays 

his wife Scota and his children, sought a dwelling on chance, 
with desire to conquer it, arrived in Spain, where on a high moun- 
tain, on the coast of the Hibernian sea, he built a strong castle 
and called it Brigance. He lived with his people on rapine 
upon the peasants of the country. His fishermen were driven one 
day by a deep tempest on the sea, and on their return announced 
that tTiey had seen, by the floating of flowers, thistles, and other 
signs, that there was land near, beyond the sea. Gaidel with his 
sons, who had the surname of Scoti, from their mother Scota, put 
to sea in three vessels, sailed over the sea, found a large isle, 
landed on it, found the land grassy and pleasant, with woods and 
rivers, but not well peopled ; and as is imagined and supposed 
shortly before Gurgiiyns, tha son of Belin, king of Britain, had 
assigned that island to some people come out of Spain, whom he 
found in Orkney as he came from Denmarc, as is before specified. 
Gaidel repaired to his castle of Brigance, proposing to return 
to the discovered island ; but he was attacked by a giievous 
sickness, of which he must die ; he desired his sons to go to that 


saunz grant defens, leger a conquere. Eberus, le eyne 
fitz Gaidel et de Scota la feile Pharao, se addressa od sez 
freirs al auaunt dit He, qi le seisy, et tuerent et soutz- 
mistrent a lorn- obeisaimce ceaux qe ils y trouerent, et 
plus appellerent le He Ibemiam, apres lour freir eyne 
Eberus, ou apres la mere Eberiaco, qe nomez estoit ensi dez 
Espaynolis ; mais le surenoun Scoty demura od lez autres 
freii's, et od lour issu bon pece en eel He, qe entre nous 
est appelle Irrelande. En quel He apres arryua Syinound 
Bret le fitz pusne du roy de Espayne, qi od ly aporta vn 
pere sur quoi lez roys Despayne soleient estre coronez, qi 
soun pier ly baiUa en signifiaunce qil en fust roys, com 
cely qil plus amast de sez enfauutz. Cesty Symound 
deuient roy du pays de Ireland de par vn feile extreit de 
Scoty, qi enmyst le auaunt dit pere en le plus souerain 
bele lieu du pays, qe au iour de buy port le noune, li 
Lieu Eeal. Apres qoi veint vn dez fitz de vn dez roys de 
Ireland extreit de Scota, qy out a noun Eergous fitz Fer- 
tbaiiy, en le plus loiutisme pays outre Bretaiae deuers 
septentrioun, et, de cost lez Bretouns, occupia la terre 

island, and to inhabit it, as a country without great defence and 
easy to conquer. Eberus, the eldest son of Gaidel and Scota, the 
daughter of Pharao, departed with his brothers for the said Isle, 
which he seized, and they slew, or subjected to their obedience, 
those whom they found there, and then called the Isle Hibemia, 
from the eldest brother, Eberus, or from the sea Eberiaco, thus 
named by the Spanyards ; but the surname Scoti remained with 
the other brothers, and their issue a long time in that Isle which 
among us is called Irrelande. In which Isle afterwards arrived 
Symond Bret, the youngest son of the king of Spain, who brought 
with him a stone, on which the kings of Spain were wont to be 
crowned, which his father gave him as a token that he was made 
king of it, as the one whom he most loved of his children. This 
Symond became king of the country .of Ireland, by a daughter, de- 
scended of the Scoty, who placed the foresaid stone in the most 
sovereign beautifid place of the coimtry, called to this day the 
Eoyal Place. After which came one of the sons of one of the kings 
of Ireland, descended of Scota, who was caOed Fergus, son of Fer- 
thair, to the most remote country beyond Britain, towards the 


deiier Cateneys outre la laund Porry, et y endemurerent, 
et tout estoit il du nacioun de Ireland. Et lez soens touz 
vnqor lez firent nomer Scoty, et la terre Scocia apres 
Scota, la feile Pharao roy de Egypt, de qei enuindrent lez 
Scotois ; mais lour propre pays est Ireland, lour coustom 
et patoys acordaunt, qi puis furount meUez od Pices, com 
apres serra recordez. Icesti Fergus aporta hors de Ire- 
land la pere real auaunt nomez, et la fist mettre ou ore 
est labbai de Scone, siu'e quoy furount faitez assise et 
establis les roys Descoce, touz puscedy, tanque Edward 
le primer roy Dengleter apres la conquest, len fist aporter 
a Loundi'es a Westmoustre, ou ore le sege du prestre a le 
haute auter.* 

Jlit fait asauoir qe Fergus fitz Ferthair de Ireland, ex- 
trait de Scota, estoit le primer qi se disoit roy Descoce. 
Si regna iij. aunz outre Dimbretaine en Ynchgalle.'' 

Dimgal fitz Fergus regna v. aunz. 

Congal fitz Dimgal xxij. aunz. 

Constan fitz Doengard xxij. aunz. 

Edhan fitz Godfray xxxuij. aunz. 

north, and beside the Britons, occupied the land towards Cateneys, 
beyond the heath Porry, and there dwelt, and he was entirely of the 
nation of Ireland, and his followers all again had themselves called 
Scoty, and the country Scocia, from Scota, daughter of Pharao, 
king of Egypt, from whence came the Scots ; but their proper 
country is Ireland, their customs and language according, who after- 
wards were mixed with the Picts, as shall be afterwards recorded. 
This Fergus brought out of Ireland the royal stone before named, 
and placed it where il now the Abbey of Scone, upon which were 
made, seated, and established the kiugs of Scotland all since that 
day ^n order till Edward the First king of England after the 
Conquest, had caused it to be brought from hence to London, to 
Westminster, where now is the seat of the priest at the high altar, 
i* And be it known that Fergus, son of Ferthair of Ireland, 
descended from Scota, was the first who called himself king of 
Scotland, and reigned three years beyond Dunbretain in Inch- 


Conel fitz Congelle xiiij. aunz. 

Eokebrid xvj. aimz. 

Kyuather fitz Conel iij. moys. 

Eerthaire fitz Ewyne xvj. aunz. 

Eercarfod xxj. aiiiiz. 

Dopnaldebreck [fitz] Eokebrid xiiij. aunz. 

Maldun fitz Dopnaldebrech xvj. aunz. 

Eorlietinen Dauel fitz Donengard fitz Donald Brec iij. 

Armelecli fitz Findan j. ane. 

Congan fitz Findan xvj. ans. 

Moredath fitz Arnikelec iij. ans. En le temps de qy 
estoit le primer batail entre lez Bretouns et lez Pices, qi 
eiderent les Escoces." 

Seluacli fitz Cogan xxiiij. aunz. 

Ergheclie fitz Achfin xxx. aunz. 

Donald fitz Sealuech vij. aunz. 

Alpyn fitz Beghacb iij. aunz. Cesty fust tue en Golo- 
way, com il le auoit destruyt, de vn soul hom qi ly gayta 
en vn espesse boys en pendaunt al entree dun ge de_ yh 
ryuere, com clieuaucheoit entre sez gentz. Cely estoit le 
darain de Escotoys qi al hour regna procheynemeut 
deuaunt lez Pices. 

La sum dez aunz du regne dez Escotois auaunt lez 
Pices ccc. et v. aunz et iij. moys.*^ 

<= In whose time was the first battle between the Britons and 
the Picts, who assisted the Scots. 

'' He was killed in Galloway, after he had destroyed it, by a 
single man who lay in wait for him in a thick wood overhanging 
the entrance of the ford of a river, as he rode among his people. 
He was the last of the Scots, who at that time reigned imme- 
diately before the Picts. 

The sum of the years of the reign of the Scots before the Picts 
was 305 years and three months. 


Lez cronicles tesmoignent qe lez Pices vindrent de Syke, 
et eutrerent Albanye, qor est Escoce, procheinement apres le 
mort cesti Alpin. Et entrerent Bretaigne, qor est Engleter, 
en le temps Vaspasian le Romayn, et en le temps Maurius 
fitz Arniragoun, roy de Bretaigne. Si estoint lez Pices vn 
nacioun bataillour norriz et charniz toutditz en gere, qi 
sez acompaignerent one Eoderik al auenture pur terre 
conquere. Qi Eodrik fust tue de Maurius, le roy de 
Bretain, en batail pres de Cardoille. Plusours de sez Pices 
fuerent au boys, reenuoyerent au roy Maurius requerant 
sa merci, qi lour graunta sa peise, lez assigna pur lorn* 
homage vn pays outre Albany, qe de gentz Irroys estoit 
en parti comense a habiter, qi Escocez sez appellerent. 
Lez queux Pices, qi counbatauntz estoient, suremounterent 
lez Ecoces Irroys, lez tindrent en subieccioun. Lez queux 
Pices ne anoint my moUlers, et par cause qe lez Bretouns 
ne voloint my marier od eaux, sez qistrent femmes hors 
de Ireland, sure condicioun qe lour issu parlascent Irrays, 
quel patois demurt a iour de buy bu haute pays entre lez 
vns, qest dit Escotoys.** 

" The chronicles testify that the Picts came from Scythia, and 
entered Albany, -which is now Scotland, immediately after the 
death of this Alpin, and entered Britain, which is now England, 
in the time of Vespasian the Roman, and in the time of Maurius, 
son of Arviragon, king of Britain. The Picts were a warlike 
nation, bred and always armed to battle. They associated them- 
selves with Roderic, on chance to conquer land. This Roderic 
was slain by Maurius, the king of Britain, in battle near Carlisle. 
Many of those Picts iied to the woods, and sent to king Maurius, 
begging his mercy, who gi-anted to them his peace, and assigned 
them for their homage a country beyond Albany, which some 
Irish people had in part commenced to inhabit, who called them- 
selves Scots. The which Picts, who were combatants, overcame 
the Irish Scots, and held them in subjection. The which Picts 
had no wives, and because the Britons would not be married to 
them, they sought women out of Ireland, on condition that their 
issue should speak Irish, which language remains to this day in 
the Highlands among some who are called Scotch. 


wruthene Kenek, deboner, fust le primer qi se fist 
nomer roy du nionarc du regne dez Picis, qi regna 1. 

Gede cl. aunz. 

Taren c. aunz. 

Dinortechest xx. aunz. 

Dugil xl. auns. 

Gamaldebold ix. aunz. 

Verpempnet xxx. aunz. 

Fiachna le blank xxx. aunz. 

Calnatuhel vj. aunz. 

Denornacb Lecdales i. ane. 

Stradach Fingel ij. aunz. 

Garnard le riche Ix. aunz. 

Talarg le fitz Kecter xxv. aunz. 

Drust fitz Irb c. aunz, et sy conquist c. batails.s 

Talarg fitz Amil ij. aunz. 

Nectane Celtaniech x. aunz. 

Drust Gortinoch xxx. aunz. 

Galan xv. aunz. 

Drust fitz Gigurnus L aunz. 

Drust fitz Hidrofigus viij. aunz. Autrefoitz le primer 
Drust iiij. aunz. 

Garnarde fitz Gigurnus vj. ans. 

Kyburcan soun freir vj. auns. 

Talarg fitz Mendeleghe xj. ans. 

Drust fitz Menech i. ane. 

Talagach iij. aunz. 

Drust fitz Methor xxv. aunz. Saint Columbe et Paladius 
conuerterent cesti a la foy Cristieu. Et fait a sauoir, qe 
cest nacioun nestoit vnqes conuerty fors vn foitz, qe 

' Cnithene Kenek, the gentle, was the first who was named 
king of the monarchy of the kingdom of the Picts, who reigned 
fifty years. 

K And fought a hundred battles. 


tanque en sa ount perseure, et pur ceo ne vssent lours 
prestres point despaulers a lour aubes, ou lez prestres 
Engles ount dieus, pur ceo qe dieus foits ount este 

Garnald fitz Dompnach xxx. aunz. Cesti edifia leglis 
de Abiruithin, cc. aunz, et xxv. aunz, et xj. moys deuaunt 
qe leglis de Dulkeldiu fust ediiie du roy Constentin, roy 
des Picis.' 

Kenecb fitz Sugthen xxiiij. aunz. 

Nectan fitz Fode viij. aunz. 

Bride fitz Fathe v. aunz. 

Drust soun freir vj. aunz. 

Drust fitc Hole xx. aunz. En soun temps fust Saint 

Tharan fitz Amfodech iiij. aunz. 

Brude fitz Dergert xxxi. ane. En quel temps ueint 
Sains Seruanus en Fiffe.'' 

Jactan frer Brude xviij. aunz. 

Garnarde fitz Feradhegh xxiiij. aunz. 

Denegul fitz Fergusagin xvi. aunz. 

Nectan fitz Fergaleg ix. moys. 

Fergus fitz Frude vn moys. 

Alpin fitz Eferadlieche vi. moys a vn foitz, qi fust en- 
chace, mais puis regna xxx. aunz.^ 

Brude fitz Tenegus ij. aunz. 

^ Saint Columba and Palladius converted Lim to the Christian 
faith and be it known that this nation was never converted but 
once, so that henceforth they have persevered, and therefore their 
priests do not use shoulder straps on their albes, whUe the 
English priests have two, having been twice converted. 

' He buOt the Church of Abernethy two hundred and twenty- 
five yeai-s and eleven months before the Church of Dunkeld was 
budt by Kijig Constantine, king of the Picts. 

J In bis time was Saint Adomnan. 

^ In which time came Saint Servanus to Fife. 

• Sis months at one time, who was expelled, but afterwards 
reigned thirty years. 


Alpiu fitz Tenagus ij. annz. 

Drust fitz Talargbin vn ane. 

Talargan fitz Drustane iiij. aunz. 

Talargan fitz Tenagus v. aunz. 

Costautin fitz Fergusa xl. aunz. Cesti fist edifier Dun- 

Hungus fitz Fergusa x. aunz. Cesti edifia Kelrimoneth, 
ore Saint Andrew, quel temps veint Saint Fegulus od sez 
disciples al egUs de Saint Andrew." 

Duf Tolorg iiij. aunz. 

Egganus fitz Hiingus iij. aunz. 

^eradag^^s fitz Badoghe iij. ans. 

Brud fitz Feradhach i. moys. 

Kenech fitz FeracUiach i. ane. 

Brude fitz Fochel ij. auns. 

Drust fitz Feradhach iij. ans. Cesti fust le darain roy 
dez Picys, si fust tue a Scone par treisoun." 

Qe com les eronicles tesmoignent, vn fitz dun roy de Ire- 
land, qi out a noun Eedda, arryua en Galeway, et aukes 
par pruesce, et affinite du sank Yrois, de quoy lez Pices 
furoimt mellez, occupia eel pays et auxi ErgeiUe et autres 
dez iles, le issu de qy, qi sez nomerent Scoty, coumpasserent 
toutdice encountre lez Picys, issi qen le temps cesti Drust, 
fitz Feradhach, lez Escoces ietterent couyne, et a vn coun- 
sail general estoient priuement armez, et dedenz la mesoun 

■" He caused Dunkeld to be built. 

° He built Kilrimonth, now Saint Andrews, at wliicli time 
Saint Kegulus with his disciples came to the Church of Saint 

° He was the last king of the Picts, and was killed at Scone 
by treason. 

P As the chronicles testify, a son of a king of Ireland, called 
Redda, arrived in Galloway, and, partly by prowess and by affinity 
of Irish blood, with whom the Picts were mixed, occupied that 
country, and also Argyll and others of the isles, the issue of whom, 
who called themselves Scoty, always plotted against the Picta 
until in the time of this Drust, son of Feradhach, the Scots 
contrived a conspiracy, and at a general council were privately 
armed, and in the council-house slew the aforesaid king and all 


du counsaille tuerent lyauaunt dit roy et lez grantz seignours 
dez Picys touz, qi ne pensoient si bien noune. Si enuoi- 
erent apres aiitres qi lour plust, et, com ils venoient, tout- 
dice lez tuerent, tanque ils auoint fait ceo qils desiroint, et 
de eel hour en auaunt faUly le regne dez Picys, qauoit 
durre mde clxxxvij. aunz, et recomence le regne Descoce, 
quel regne comensa deuaunt lez Pices, ceccxliij. aunz 
deuaunt le incarnacioun.P 

Xjes Picys destruytz a la maner, Kjmet fitz Alp in regna 
sure lez Escoce, et fust le primer roy Escotoys apres lez 
Picys. II soutzmist a sa seignoury la ten-e tout a Twede, 
en fist enchacer lez Engles et Bretouns, qe y euhabiterent, 
fist nomer la terre Escoce. II estably lez loys qe vuqor ea 
Escoce durent, et ceo estoit en le temps tost apres qe 
Egbright auoit vny les vij. realmes dez Saxsouns en Bre- 
taigne, qe taunt auoint a faire lez roys Engles en lour 
terre demeyn a estabHr lour conquest, qils ne sez entre- 
mistrent rien deuers Albany, si longemeut tanque lez 
Escotz auoint jDris tiel reaul saunz empediment, qe asseitz 
le tenoient estable et droiturel.l 

the great lords of the Picts, who did not think of evil. They 
sent afterwards for such others as they wished, and slew them 
as they came, so that they did as they desired ; and from that 
time henceforth the kingdom of the Picts failed, which had lasted 
for eleven hundred and eighty-seven years, and the kingdom of 
the Scots recommenced, which had commenced before the Picts, 
four hundred and forty-three years before the incarnation. 

1 The Picts destroyed in this manner, Kynet son of Alpin reigned 
over the Scots, and was the first king of the Scots after the Picts. 
He subjected to his government the whole country to the Twede, 
expelled the Angles and Britons who inhabited it, and caused the 
country to be called Scotland. He established the laws which 
still exist in Scotland, and this was in the time just after Egbert 
had united the seven kingdoms of the Saxons in Britain, so that 
the English kings had so much to do in establishing their dominion 
in their country that they did not undertake anything against 
Albany for so long that the Scots had taken such royalty without 
impediment that they held it sufficiently established and of right. 


Kynet fitz Alpin regna xvi. aunz, et morust a Ferteu- 
yoth, et fust enterrez en le isle cle Yona, pres de Hert, 
Loern, et Fergus, trois frers qy amenerent lez Escotz en 
Arcliady sure les Picys.'i 

Donald fitz Alpin regna iiij. aunz. 

Costantia fitz Kynache xyj. aunz. Qestoit tue dez Nor- 
ways en bataU. 

Athe mak Kinath i. ane. Qi fust tue de Tirg fitz Dun- 

Tirg Mac Dungald xij. auns. Lez cronicilis Descoce 
tesmonent qe cesti Tirg soutzmist a sa seignoury tout -Ire- 
land et grant party Dengleter. Cesti dona primerment 
francliiz as eglis Descoce, qauaunt le hour estoint en ser- 
uitude dez lays as vsages de Picys. , 

Donald Mac Dunstan ij. aunz. Edmound, freir Athelstan, 
duna a cesti Donald, roy Descoce, tout Conibirland, piir 
quoi lez Escoces ount fait clayme, tanque al Eeir croiz de 
Staynmore ; mais eel doune ad este souent conquys pus- 
cedy et relesse en maint peise fesaunt. 

Kynet son of Alpin reigned sixteen years, and died at Forte- 
viot, and was buried in the isle of Yona near Hert, Lorn, and 
Fergus, three brothers who brought the Scots into Archady upon 
the Picts. 

Donald son of Alpin reigned three years. 

Constantine son of Kynache sixteen years ; he was slain by 
the Norwegians in battle. 

Athe mac Kinath one year, who was slain by Girg, son of 

Girg mac Dungal twelve years. The chronicles of Scotland 
testify that this Girg subjected to his government aU Ireland and 
a great part of Enghmd. He first gave freedom to the churches 
of Scotland, which before this had been in the servitude of the 
laity to the usages of the Plots. 

Donald mac Dunstan two years. Edmond, brother of Athel- 
stan, gave to this Donald, king of Scotland, aU Cumberland, upon 
which the Scots laid claim as far as the Eere Cross of Stayn- 
more ; but this donation was often conquered since then and 
released in making ofttimes peace. 


Constantin mac Edha xl. aunz regna. Qi guerpy soun 
realme, se rendy en religioun, et fust abbe de saint 
Andrew v. axxnz, et illoeque fust enterrez. 

Malcolme mac Donald sxi. ane regna. Qi fust tue par 
treisoun dez Norways, et ceo fust en le temps le primer 
Edward pier Athelstan. 

Indel mac Costantin regna x. aunz, et fust tue des 

Duf mac Maucloun iiij. aunz et vi. moj^s. Qi fust mour- 
dri a Forays et musse desoutz le pount de Kinlos, et tan- 
com il ieust la le solail ne se aparust. Si fust troue et 
aporte al He de Yona, ou touz sez auncestres de Kinek 
mac Alpin furount enterrez, fors cely qi abbe estoit de 
Saint Andrew. 

Culen mac Indolf iiij. aunz regna et vij. moys. II fust 
tue de Amthar fitz Donald, pur sa feile, qe fust tue en 

Kinec fitz Malcol. xxiiij. aunz et ij. moys, et fust tue de 

Constantin mac Edha reigned forty years. He abandoned his 
realm, gave himself to a religious order, and became Abbot of 
Saint Andrews five years, and was buried there. 

Malcolm mac Donald reigned twenty-one years. He was slain 
by treason by the Norwegians, and this was in the time of the 
first Edward, father of Athelstan. 

Indel mac Costantin reigned ten years, and was slain by the 

Duf mac Maucloun four years and six months. He was mur- 
dered at Forays and concealed below the bridge of Kinlos, and as 
long as he lay there the sun did not appear. He was found and 
taken to the isle of Yona, where all his ancestors from Kinek 
mac Alpin were buried except that one, who was Abbot of Saint 

Culen mac Indolf reigned four years and seven months. He 
■was slain by Amthar, son of Donald, for his daughter, who was 
killed in Lownes. 

Kinec son of Malcolm twenty-four years and two months, and 
was slain by his men by the treason of Fumel, the daughter of 


SOS homs par treisoun de Fumel la feile Cunithar, zayn de 
Angus, fitz de qi Kinak auoit deuaunt fait tuer. 

Costantin mac Culen i. ane et vi. moys, et fust tue de 
Kynnecli fitz Malcolm. 

Grige mac Kyneth mac Douf viiij. aunz, et fust tue de 
MalcoLme fitz Kynech. 

Cesti Malcolme regna xxx. aunz noblement et fust 

Duntan mac Kryn de Dunkeldy et de Betowe, fitz 
Malcolme mac Kynech, vi. aunz, et fust tue de 

Macbeth mac Sinley, qui regna xvL aunz, et fust tuez 
de Chalcolme mac Duncan. 

Lulach le fole regna i. mois, et fust tue en Strabolgy. 

Toutz ceaux roys furount enterrez en Lile de Yona. 

Malcolm Kenmour mac Duncan regna xxxvij. aunz et 
vi. moys, et fust tue a Alnewyk et enterrez a Tynmoth. 
Cesti estoit le marry Saint Margaret de Diuifermelin. 

Donald soun freir mac Dunkan regna primerment vi 
moys, qi fust enchacez de Dunkan fitz Maucloun, qi regna 
vi moys, qi fust tue de Malpedre mac Loern, count del 

Cunithar the thane of Angus, whose son Kinak had previously 
caused to be killed. 

Costantin mac Culen one year and six months, and was slain 
by Kynnech son of Malcolm. 

Grige mac Kyneth mac Douf nine years, and was slain by 
Malcolm son of Kynech. 

This Malcolme reigned thirty years nobly and was victorious. 

Duncan mac Kryn of Dunkeld and of Betowe, son [daughter] 
of Malcolme mac Kynech six years, and was slain by Macbeth 
mac Sinley, who reigned sixteen years, and was slain by Chalcolme 
[Malcolm] mac Duncan. 

Lulach the mad reigned one month, and was slain in Strabolgy. 

All these kings were interred in the isle of Yona. 

Malcolm Kenmour mac Duncan reigned thirty-seven years and 
six months, and was slain at Alnewyk and buried at Tynmouth. 
He was the husband of Saint Margaret of Dunfermelin. 

Donald, his brother, mac Duncan, reigned first six months, and 
was driven out by Duncan son of Malcolm, who reigned six 
months. He was slain by Malpeder mac Loern, Count of the 


Meiemys, et gist en Lile de Yona. Donald mac Dunkan 
regna autre foitz iij. aunz, qi fust enuoegle et mort par 
Edgar fitz Maucloun, et fust enterre a Dunkeldin, et puis 
translatez en le Isle de Yona. 

Edgar regna is. aunz et iiij. moys, et gist a Dunfermelyn. 

Alexandre, soun freir, et fitz Maucloun, regna xvij. aunz 
et iij. moys et demy, et gist a Dunfermlyn. 

David, soun freir, regna xxxix. aunz. et iij. moys et 
morust a Cardoil, et gist a Dimfermelin. 

Maucloun le fitz Henry, count del Gamyaghe, de 
Huntiugdoun, et de Northumbreland, qi fust le fitz Dauid 
le roy, regna xij. aunz et vi. moys et xx. iours, qi morust 
auaunt la pier a Jedworth, et gist a Dunfermelin. 

Willam, soun freir, et fitz meisme cely Henry count de 
Northumbreland du doune le roy Esteuen, regna .1. aunz, 
et morust a Streuelyn, et gist a Abirbrothock, qe meismes 

Alexandre, soun fitz regna, xxxAaj. aunz, qi morust a 
Kenbray en Orkauy, et gist a Melros. 

Memys, and lies in the isle of Yona. Donald mac Duncan reigned 
a second time three years. He was blinded and slain by Edgar 
son of Maucloun, and was interred at Dunkeld, and afterwards 
translated to the isle of Yona. 

Edgar reigned nine years and three months, and lies at Dun- 

Alexander, his brother, and son of Maucloun, reigned seventeen 
years and three months and a half, and lies at Dunfermlyn. 

David, his brother, reigned thirty-nine years and three months, 
and died at Carlisle, and lies at Dunfermlyn. 

Maucloun, the son of Henry, Count of the Garuyaghe, of 
Huntingdon, and of Northumberland, who was the son of David 
the king, reigned twelve years and six months and twenty days. 
He died before his father at Jedworthe, and lies at Dunfermelyn. 

William, his brother, and son of the same Henry Count of 
Northumberland by the gift of the King Stephen, reigned fifty 
years, and died at Stirling, and lies at Aberbrothick, which him- 
self had built. 

Alexander, his son, reigned thirty-seven years, who died at 
Kenbray, in Orkney, and lies at Melrose. 


Alexandre le fitz Alexandre, qi de viij. aunz de age 
comensa a regner, regna xxxvij. aunz. Qi roumpy le cole 
a Kinkorn, sours de quoy en iieint grant mal. 

La soiune dez aunz entre Kenach fitz Alpin, et cesti 
Alexandre sount cccc xxx. aunz, un moys, et vij. iours. 
Et si est la sum dez aunz de touz les roys Picys et Escotes 
mille Dcccc Ixxvij. aunz et ix. moys et viij. iours, tanque 
lencoronnement Johan de Badlolf. 

Alexander, the son of Alexander, who at eight years of age 
commenced to reign, reigned thirty-seven years, and broke his 
neck at Kinkhom, from which arose great evil. " 

The sum of the years between Kenach son of Alpin and this 
Alexander are four hundred and thirty years one month and 
seven days, and this is the sum of the years of all the kings of 
the Picts and Scots, one thousand nine hundred and seventy-seven 
years and nine months and eight days to the coronation of Johan 
de Baillolf. 




Anko ab incarnaeione Domini octingiutesimo tri- sicutmCronicis 

, . nostris reperimiis 

cesimo quarto concrressi sunt Scotti cum Pictis m soUemp- scotti quadrm- 

.... -^. . gentis U-i. anuis 

nitate Pa.schaU. Et plures de nobilioribus Pictonim ceci- scociam, que 

... primo Albania 

derunt. Sicque Alpinus Eex Scottorum victor extitit, vocabatur, [possi- 

J. . ^ Tin • tl«^™nt ab] Alpino 

unde in superbiam elatus ab Feis altero conserto 1 bello tercio prfmo tocius 

■^ *- . .^. . . . insule Mon.arcli.i, 

decimo Kl. Au£;usti eiusdem anni a Pictis vmcitur atque ae quo recta suc- 

_ . . ... cessiouis linea, 

tnmcatur. Cuius filius Kynadius successit m regno patris sicut infra iiabe- 

■' •' • -r-v . turjus hereilita- 

qui vii? regni sui anno, cum pirate Dauorum, occupatis rium usque Mai- 

-'■ ^ ini • i-*» colmum tercium 

litoribus, Pictos sua defendentes, strage maxima pertrivis- [regem scocie] 

. . qui Margaretam 

sent, m reliquos Pictorum termmos transiens, arma vertit, sanctaminmatri- 
et multis occisis fugere compulit, sicque Monarchiam rite de^cendit. 
tocius Albanie, que nunc Scocia dicitur, p[rimus] Scottorum 
Ee[x conquisivit] et in ea primo super Scottos regnavit. 
Qui anno xii" regni sui septies in una die cum Pictis con- 
greditur multisque pertritis reguum sibi confirniat et reg- 
navit xxviii. annis. 

Cui successit Dovenaldus frater ejus qui regnavit xiii. 

Cui successit Constantinus filius Kynat qui regnavit 
xxiii. annis. 

Cui jEthus .1 Adam qui regnavit .ii. annis. 

Cui successit Gii-ge filius Dovenald qui regnavit xiii. 

Cui successit Dovenal filius Constantini qui regnavit ix. 

Cui successit Constantinus filius Heth qui regnavit xlv. 



Anno milesimo 
seplimo decimo. 

Milesimo quadra- 

Milesimo quadru- 
gesimo .iio. 

Milesimo septua- 

Milesimo . . . . 
Rex Maleolmus 
interfectus est. 
Milesimo xlviii. 
Edgarns filiiis 
JIalciibiii in 
Regem elcvatur. 

Cui successit Maleolmus filiiis Dovenald qui regnavit 
XX. annis. 

Cui successit Indolf filius Constantini qui regnavit ix. 

Cui successit Duf filius Malcolmi iui. annis et vi. 

Cui successit Kynet filius Duf qui regnavit uno anno et 
iii. mensibus. 

Cui successit Culen filius Indolf qui regnavit v. annis et 
tribus mensibus. 

Cui successit Maleolmus filius Kynet qui regnavit xxx. 

Cui successit Duncan nepos ejus v. annis et ix. men- 

Oceisus est Eex Anglie Edmundus Ferreum latus insidiis 

perfidi Duels Edrici Et [Knut] Eegnum ejus in- 

vadens filios Edmundi, scilicet, Edmundum et Edwardum 
ad Eegem Suevorum oecidendos misit. Qui nolens inno- 
centes perimere . . . Eegem Hungarie Salomonem nutri- 
endos misit. 

Iste Edwardus genxiit Margaretara Eeginam Scottorum 

et Edgarum. Edgarus [genujit ISIargaretam. De 

qua natus est Henrieus dictus Lupellus. Predictus Knut 
regnavit super Anglos xviii. annis. Cui successit Harral- 
dus filius et regnavit v. annis. Cui successit Hardekuutus 
filius Knuti et Emme Eegiiie et regnavit ii. annis. 

Anno Domini milesimo Comes Northumbrie 

Sywardus Seoeiam ingressus, Maket Eegem nepotem dieti 
Malcolmi cum xv. annis regnaret, a regno fugavit. Et 
Malcolmo filio Duncani regnum suum restituit. 

Edwardus filius Ed 

regnavit xxiiii. annis. 

Maleolmus filius Duncani .... Margaretam filiam 

dicti Edwardi in 

ex ea sex filios, scilicet, Edwardum qui obiit sine 
lierede, Ecbnundum qui obiit sine herede, Edeldredum 
qui obiit sine lierede, Edgarus qui reguavit, et obiit 
sine herede, Alexander qui regnavit [et] sine lierede obiit. 


David qui regnavit et duxit MatQdam Coinitissam Hun- 
tingdon neptem Willelmi Eegis Anglie filiam Ivette que 
fuit filia Lamberti de Louns Comitis. De qua genuit Hen- 
ricum Comitem. Qui duxit Ade filiam Willelmi Comitis 
de Warenne. Et genuit ex ea Malcolmum .... reg- 
navit et obiit sine herede, et Willelmum Eegem patrem 
Alexandri Eegis, et David Comitem. Alexander vero Eex 
duxit Johannam filiam Johannis Eegis et genuit Alexan- 
drum Eegem qui duxit Margaretam filiam Eegis nostri 
Henrici ultimi. 

De predictis et Malcolmo et Margareta exierunt Matil- Mi'^simo centc- 

^ o sinin Henncus 

dis et Maria. MatHdis vero nupsit Henrico primo Eegi primus Rej 

^ ID Anglie in Regem 

Anglie de quibus exiit MatQdis que primo nupsit Henrico eievatur. 
Imperatori. Deinde Gajfrido Comiti Andegavie. De Miiesimo cente- 

r. . . sinio primo Hen- 

quibus Henncus secundus, qui genuit quatuor filios, scili- "cus iste Matii- 

„ , „ . . dam filiam 

cet, Galiridum Comitem Andegavie, Hemicum tercium, Maicoimi et iiar- 

° garete in matri- 

qui coronatus fuit vivente patre, sed obiit ante patrem. mouimn sumiisit. 

Et Eicardum qui obiit sine herede Eegem qui wiuetouiet'"'"' 

genuit illustrissimimi ac Sanctisshnum Eegem Henricum He'^nricrR^p's 
patrem Domini Eegis nostri excellentissimi Edwardi qui ^T"^° ^''"" 
nunc est. 

Predictus Malcolmus regnavit xxxviL annis. Et tan- ^mrx^Hif''''^" 
dem cum maximam in Angliam predam faceret, ex ander^cocte^^Et 
impreviso interemptus est. Invasit autem Eegnum Scocie J^^R'^em^Lva-^ 
Dovenaldus frater predicti Maicoimi legittimis . . . here- ^J^: . 

^ " Milesimo cente- 

dibus, scilicet, Edgaro, Alexandro, David, quia iiinioris simo xxyii. Rex 

, ' 1 J Scocie et omnes 

etatis eraut, exilio relegatis. Sed Duncanus predicti Mai- Magnates Angiie 

D r jliraverunt quod 

colmi filius nothus tamen, qui erat obses in Curia Willelmi M»t''^'* impera- 

^ tnci Regnrnn 

Eufi Eegis Anglie auxilio Eegis et suum Angijejure 

o CD o hereditarie post 

fugavit, et susceptus est in Eegem et regnavit anno et patrem sen^arent. 
dimidio. Cui quidam Comes Scocie, scilicet, Comes de 
Morifth consiho predicti Dovenaldi, viribus collectis necem 
nequiter intulit. Dovenaldus autem .... Eegnum in- 
vadens, regnavit annis tribus et dimidio. Itaque post 
mortem Maicoimi illi duo, scilicet, Duncanus filius ejiis et 
Dovenaldus invasor Eegni frater ejus licet minus fidelis. v. 
annis regnaverunt, legittimis interim exulantibus, sed 
tandem Dovenaldo capto et careen perpetuo dampnato, 



Milesjmo [c] 
xxxviii"' fuit bel- 
lum quod dicitur 

Milesimo cv- Uiii" 
Henrii:us filius 
Imperatricis et 
Dux Nonnannie 
diademate insig- 

Edgarus, legittimus heres predict! Malcolmi filius jure 
liereditario Eegnum Scocie suscepit et regnavit ix. annis. 

Cui successit Alexander frater ejus legittimus qui reg- 
navit xvi. annis. 

Cui successit David frater ejus legittimus, filius, scilicet, 
predicti Malcolmi et Margarete qui regnavit triginta 
novem annis. Iste David vastavit fere totam North- 
umbriam quern Eex Stephanus cimi exercitu Anglorum 
veniens redire compulit in terram suam, et usque 
Eokesbourgtli persecutus est. In estate iterum transivit 
Eex David fluviam Thesam. Et occurrit ei exercitus 
Anglorum in Cutenemor ubi commissum est prelium 
quod dicitur Standard et victi sunt Scotti multis captis 
multisque Decisis. Sed instancja Matildis Eegine Anglie 
que erat neptis Eegis David, filia Marie sororis ejus 
yiax reformata est inter Eegem Stephanum et Eegem 
David. Et Nortliumbria et Combria date sunt Henrico 
Comiti filio David. Eex vero David fecit fortissimam 
arcem. . . . Karlioli et muros urbis plurimum exaltavit. 

Isti David successit in regnum Malcolmus nepos ejus 
filius Henrici Comitis qui regnavit xii. annis et dimidio. 
et xiiii. diebus. Nortliumbria vero subjecta est Wil- 
lelmo fratri ejus. Anno Domini m? c? Iviii. Eex Anglie 
Henricus secundus Tholosam cum exercitu adiit et in redi- 
tu suo Malcobnum Eegem Scocie Turonis Militem 

ab eo Karliolum. 

Isti Malcolmo successit Willelmus frater ejus legit- 
timus qui regnavit xlviii annis. Iste Willelmus ix? 
anno regni sui captus est juxta Alnewyk et anno se- 
quenti relaxatus et anno xxv? regni sui Eicardus il- 
lustris Eex Anglie restituit eidem opida sua. Idem 
Willelmus anno regni sui xxxii" cum ingenti exercitu 
Kathenesiam penetravit. Et ibi omnibus inimicis suis de- 

victis in Scociam rediens prius Haralduni postea fil 

pro eo in custodiam posuit. Et anno secundo sequent! 
natus est Alexander filius ejus die Sancti Bartholomei. 
Cui magnates tocius Scocie fidelitatem fecerunt apud 
Muscleburgum anno etatis sue. iiii" Et anno ix" sequent! 


venit Johannes . . . exercitu magno apud Noreham M'lesimo cente 
contra Willelmum Eegem Scocie, sed statim facta est pax Johannes Angiie 

^ ^ ^ in Regeni eleva- 

inter Reges, Johanna Rege a Rege Willehno multas j)ecunias '"■ 
accipiente. Et filie Willelmi Regis scilicet Margareta M'lesimo cc-xvi. 

^ . Henncus dims 

et Ysabella tradite sunt in custodiam Domino Regi Angiie. Kegis.johaimisin 

^ *^ Regem elevatur. 

Et anno ii" sequenti factus est miles Alexander filuis Regis Jiii^simo cc-- 
Willelmi a Johaime Rege Angiie. Rcgum exceien- 

Qui, decesso patre, regni gubernacula suscepit pacifice, et natur. 
regnavit xxvi. annis. Et tercio anno regni sui circa As- 
sumpcionem Beate Marie . . . usque . . . cum exercitu 
magno penetravit. Et eodem anno sanus in Scociam cum 
omni exercitu suo rediit. Anno vero regni sui viii° Johan- 
nam filiam Regis Angiie Johannis apud Eboracum xiiii" 
KL Julii desponsavit. 

Cui successit Alexander filius ejus. 

Rex Scocie Malcolmus tercius duxit Margaretam filiam 
Regis Edwardi que dicitur Sancta. De qua genuit David 
Eegem Scocie et Matildam que nupsit Regi Angiie Hen- 
rico primo. De quibus Angiie Henrici 

Secundi qui genuit Johannem Regem patrem Regis nostri 
Henrici ultimi. 

David vero Eex de Matilda Comitissa 

filia Ivette Willelmi conquestoris neptis genuit Henricum 
Comitem patrem Willelmi Regis [qui genuit] Alexandrum 
Regem patrem Alexandri vUtimi. 

Et super hiis ad mandatum incliti Regis nostri comune 
sigillum .... Beate Marie de Huntingdon est appositum. 



DESCEIPTION OF SCOTLAND, mccxcil-mccxcvi. 


In primis Tyndale contiuet xxx. leucas iu lougitudine 
et XX. leucas in latitudine. Postea vero est Loudian de 
eisdem longitudine et latitudiue. In Tindale sunt castra 
subscripta, Eokesborw, Geddewortbe. In Louthian sunt 
castra, Berewick, Edeneborw, Doubar, et Striuelyn. Iste 
due provincie extendunt se usqiie Erlesferie et Queneferie, 
id est, aqua xii leucas in latitudine et in alio loco ij. leucas. 

Postea est terra de Fif in qua est burgus Sancti Andree 
et castrum de Locres. Est enini in longitudine xxx. leuca- 
rum et in latitudine triimi. Et tunc est i. aqua longitu- 
dine ij. leuce. 

Et tunc est terra de Anegos latitudinis xx. leucaruni 
et longitudinis plus quam xxx. Et sunt ibi ij. castra, 
Dunde et Forfare. 

Et itaque est quoddam vastum quod vocatur, Le Mounth, 
ubi est pessimum passagiuni sine cibo, longitudinis be. 
leucarum et latitudinis xvj. leucarum. 

Postea est [terra] de ]\Iar latitudine xxx. leucarum et 
longitudine trium. Et plus deinde est terra de Bouwan 
latitudine xxiiij. leucai'um et longitudine xxx. leucamm. 
Et ibi (castrum de Elgyn et castrum de Spyny*) est burgus 
de Aberdene cum castro. 

Deinde est terra de Morref latitudine xxiiij. leucarum 
et longitudine. xxx. leucarum. Et ibi castrum de Elgyn 
et castrum de Spiny. 

' The sentence placed withiu ]iarentheses lia.s been oliviously nii.^- 
placed. It occurs again in its right place. 


Et postea est terra de Eos latitiidine xxiiij. leucarum 
et longitudine xl. et plus. 

Deinde est terra de Cateneys longitudinem xxiiij. leu- 
carum et latitudinem xl. 

Deinde est terra de Orkenneye latitudine xiiij. leucas et 
longitudine xl. leucas. 

Item Novum Castnim super Are in Orewin prope Gale- 
wey. In Galewey est Anandresdale terra domini Roberti 
de Brus. Et postea est castrum de Dounfres regis Scocie, 
Kirkudbrythe, Willelmi de Ferres, castrum de Baleswyn- 
toun, Johannis Comin. Et est Galewey in longitudinem 
Ixx. leucas et in latitudinem ubi plus est xxiiij. leucas. 

Summa leucarum in longitudine v" in latitudine cum 
passagio aquarum ccc. et xviij. leucas. 



CLAIMS, Mccci. 



XJONiFACros episcopus, servus servorum Dei, carissimo 
in Cheisto filio Edwardo Eegi Anglie illustri salutem 
et apostolicam beuedictionem. 

Scimus, fili, et longi jam temporis spatio magistra nos 
rerum experientia docuit, quaUter erga Eomanam ruatrem 
ecelesiam, quae te gerit in visceribus caritatis, regie devo- 
tionis aflectus exuberat, reverentie zelus viget, quodque 
promptus et sedis ejus votis obtemperas, beneplacitis ac- 

Quamobrem iirmam spem gerimus, plenamque fiduciani 
obtinemus, quod regalis sublimitas verba nostra benigne 
recipiat, diligenter intelligat efficaciter prosequatur. 

Sane ad celsitvidinem regiam potuit pervenisse, et in 
tue libro memorie nequaquam ambigimus contineri, qua- 
liter ab antiquis temporibus regnum Scocie pleno per- 
tiauit, et adhuc pertinere dinoscitur ad ecelesiam supra 
dictam ; quodque illud, sicut accepimus, progenitoribus 
tuis, regni Anglie Eegibus, sive tibi feudale non extitit nee 

Qualiter etiam, clare memorie, Henricus Eex Anglie 
pater tuns, tempore discordie, sive querre, inter ipsum et 
quondam Symonem de IMonteforti, suosque fautores et 
complices suscitate, ad, recollende memorie, Alexaudro 


ejusdem Scocie Eege, ac ipsius Henrici genero, auxilium 
sibi petiit exhiberi. 

Et, ne hujusniodi auxilium, jure cujusUbet subjectionis 
aut debiti, petitum, seu prestitum notaretur, prefatus 
Henricus, eidem Eegi Scocie, suas pateutes duxit litteras 
concedendas, per eas firmiter recognoscens, predictuni 
auxilium se recipisse, vel se recepturum duntaxat de gratia 

Preterea, cum, successu temporis, prefati Eegis Scocie, 
tui sororii, tunc viventis, in tue coronationis solenniis, 
habere presentiam affectares, sibi per tuas patentes cavere 
litteras curavisti, quod ia ipsis solenniis, ejus habere pre 
sentiam, non ex debito, sed tantiim de gratia intendebas. 

Et cum etiam Eex ipse pro Tyndahe, ac de Peynerrie^ 
terris, in regno Anglie positis, se ad tuam presentiam per- 
sonaliter contulisset, tibi fidelitatem sohtam impensurus ; 
idem in prestatione fidelitatis hujus modi, multis tunc 
presentibus, vive vocis oraculo publice declaravit, quod 
pro terris eisdem sitis tantiim in Anglia, non ut Eex 
Scocie, neque pro Scocie regno fidelitatem, exliibebat 
eandem ; quinimmo palam extitit protestatus, quod pro 
regno ipso tibi fidelitatem prestare, seu facere aliquatenus 
non debebat, utpote tibi penitus non subjecto ; tuque sic 
oblatam fidelitatem hujusmodi admisisti. 

A tua quoque creditiu" non excidisse memoriS,, qualiter, 
eodem Eege Scocie sublato de medio, quondam Margareta 
puella, uepte tua, tunc minoris etatis, herede sibi relicta, 
non ad te, velut ad dominum, regni pervenit custodia 
memorati, sed certi ejusdem regni proeeres, ad ejus electi 
custodiam extiterunt. 

Quodque postmodum, dispensatioue ab apostolica sede 
obtenta, super matrimonio contrahendo inter dOectum 
filium, nobUem virum Edvardum natum tuum, et Marga- 
retam predictam, dum viveret, si ad id procerum dicti 
regni accederet vel haberetur assensus, tui eisdem proceri- 
bus per tua scripta cavisse dinosceris, priusquam vellent 


hujusmodi matrimouio consentire, qu6d regnuiu ipsum 
penitus liberum, nullique subjectum, seu quovis modo 
summissum, in perpetuiun remaneret ; quodque in pristi- 
num, seu talem ipsius statiim restitueretur omnino, si ex 
hujusmodi matrimonio contraliendo liberos non extare 
contingeret ; ac nomen et honorem, ut prius, pariter reti- 
neret, tarn in suis sibi servandis legibus et prseficiendis 
ofJficialibus dicti regni, quam parlamentis tenendis, trac- 
tandis causis in ipso, et nullis ejus incolis extra illud ad 
judicium evocandis, et quod in tuis patentibus litteris, 
indfe confectis, hsec plenius et seriosius contineri noscuntur; 

Prefata insuper Margareta de presenti luce subtracta, 
et tandem super successione dicti regni Scocie suborta dis- 
sensionis materia inter partes ; ipsius regni proceres, 
metuentes sibi dictoque regno posse occasione bujusmodi 
prejudicium generari, non aliter ad tuam presentiam, 
extra ipsius regni accedere limites voluerunt, nisi per te 
patenti scripto caveretur eisdem, quod id non fiebat ex 
debito, sed ex gratia speciali, quodque nullum exind^ 
ipsius regni libertatibus posset dispeudium imminere. 

Et licet, utdicitur, super statu ejusdem regni Scocie, ac 
ejus prius habita libertate, regno ipso tunc carente presi- 
dio defensoris, per ipsius regni proceres, tunc velud ace- 
plialos, et ducis vel aurige suffragium non habentes, sive 
per ilhmi, cui prefati regni regimen licet indebitfe diceris 
comisisse, contra morem solitum, aliqua fuerint hactenus 
innovata, ea tamen, utpote per vim et metum, qui cadere 
poterat in constantem, elicita, nequaquam debent de jure 
subsistere, aut in ejusdem regni prejudiciimi redundare. 

Ceterum nobis nullatenus venit in dubium, quin potius 
certi sumus, quod cum apostolice sedis precellens aucto- 
ritas per suas litteras in Anglie ac Scocie regnis, simul 
alicui legationis commitit officium exequendum, vel pro 
quavis causa, quam rationabilem reputat, decime solu- 
tionem indicit, hujusmodi apostoKcai littere ad prefatum 
Scocie regnum se aliquatenus non extendunt, speciali 
predicte sedis priveligio, Scotis indulto, penitus obsistente, 
prout tempore, felicis recordatiouis, Adriani Pape prede- 


cessoris uostri, tunc Sancti Adriani diaconi cardinalis, et 
per ipsius sedis litteras simul in regnis ipsis legati, cum 
quo familiariter tunc eramus, coutigit evidenter. 

Nam legatus ipse ad prefatum regnum Scocie aliquate- 
nus admissus non extitit, donee per litteras speciales apos- 
tolicas sibi legationis fuit commissum officium in eodem. 

Preterea nosce potest regia celsitudo, qualiter regnum 
ipsum per beatti Andrese Apostoli veneraudas reliquias, 
non sine superni Numinis gi-andi dono, acquisitum et con- 
versum extitit ad fidei Catholice uuitatem. 

Qualiter etiam, antiquis temporibus Eboraceucis Archi- 
episcopus, qui tunc erat, mota per eum, super jure metro- 
politico, adversus prelates Scocie questione, in qua dierum 
antiquitus fuisse commemorat, memento quod sumus tui, 
ut cetera quse ind^ secimtur silentio relinquamas, pro se 
sententiam obtinere nequivit, quamvis alia plura et varia, 
que in hac parte rationabiliter proponenda se offerunt, ex 
quibus etiam ad Lee tibi scribenda movemm-, pretereat 
calamus, ne ind^ forsitan sensibus regiis tedium generetur. 

Hsec profect6, fill carissime, infra claustra pectoris sol- 
licit^ considerare te convenit, et attendere diligeuter, ex 
quibus nulli in dubium veniat, regnmn Scocie prelibatum 
ad prefatum Eomanam ecclesiam pertinere ; quod tibi nee 
licet, nee licuit in ipsius ecclesie ac multorum prejudicium, 
per violentiam subjugare, tueque subjicere ditioui 

Cum autem, sicut habet fide digna, et nostris jam 
pluries auribus inculcata relatio, fameque prse curentis 
affatibus divulgatur, tu premissa, ut debueras, non atten- 
dens, neque debita consideratione discutiens, et ad occu- 
pandum et subjugandum ditioni regie regnum ipsum, 
tunc Eegis auxilio destitutum, vehementer aspirans, et 
tandem ad id exercens potentie tue vires, venerabiHbus 
fratribus nostris, Eoberto Glasguensi et Marco Sodoreusi 
episcopis, et nonnuUis clericis, et aliis personis ecclesi- 
asticis dicti regni, ut dicitur, captis et carceralibus vinculis 
traditis (quonmi aliquos, sicut asseritur, squalor carceris 
inolentus extinxit) ac etiam occupatis castris, et, prout 
fertur, monasteriis, aliis ve religiosis locis quam pluribus 


dirutis seu destructis, ac dampnis gravibus ejusdem regni 
habitatoribus ixrogatis, in ejusdem regni partibus officiales 
regies posiiisti ; qui prelates, ceteros clericos, et ecclesi- 
asticas ac etiam seculares dicti regni personas multimodis 
perturbare niolestiis, et afifiictionibus variis et diversis 
impetere non verentur, in divine Majestatis offensam, 
sedis memoratse contemptum, regie salutis et fame dis- 
pendium, juris iujuriam, et grave scandalum fidelium 

Regalem itaque magnificentiam rogamus, et hortamur 
attente, ac obsecramus in Eo, qui est omnium vera Salus, 
quatinus solerter attendens quod, ex debito pastoralis 
officii nostris liumeris incumbentis, ad conservanda et 
gubernanda sollicite bona, juraque omnia ecclesie supra- 
dicte tenemur, quodque homini, plusquam Deo defferre 
non possumus, nee debemus, ~predictos episcopos, clericos, 
et personas ecclesiasticas, quos adhuc career regius tenet 
inclusos, pro divina, et apostolice sedis, ac nostra rever- 
entia, sublato difficultatis et dilationis objectu, benign^ 
restitui facias pristine libertati, dictosque officiales de 
regno Scocie revoces memorato. 

Sic te in hiis, prout speramus et cupimus, promptis et 
efificacibus studiis habiturus, ut apud celestem Regem, 
pro minimis grandia rependentem, non immerito reddaris 
acceptior, gratior habearis ; et, prefer laudis humane 
peconium, tibi proind^ proventuruni, apostolice sedis 
favorem et gratiam possis uberius promereri. 

Si vero in eodem regno Scocie, vel aliqua ejus parte jus 
aliquod habere te asseris, volumus quod tuos prociu-atores 
et nuntios, ad hoc specialiter constitutos, cum omnibus 
juribus et munimentis tuis hujusmodi negotium contin- 
gentibus, infra sex menses, k receptione presentium 
numerandos, ad nostram presentiam mittere non omittas ; 
cum parati sumus tibi, tanquam dilecto fdio, plene super 
premissis exhibere justicie complement um, et jm-a, siqua 
habes inviolabiliter observare. 

Nos enim nichilominus ex nunc lites, questiones, et 
controversias quaslibet, inter te, dictumque regnum Scocie, 


ac prelates, clericos, ac personas seculares ejusdem, sub- 
ortas et que possunt imposterum ex qiiibusvis causis pre- 
teritis exoriri, totumque negotium predicta contingens, 
aut aliquod eoriuidem, ad cognitionem et determinationeni 
sedis ejusdem, presentium tenore, reducimus, et etiam 
reservamus ; 

Decementes irritum et inane, si secus scienter, vel 
ignoranter k quoquam in hac parte contigerit attemptari. 

Datum Anagnie, v. kal Julii, pontificatus, nostri anno 




feANCTissiMO in Cliristo patri, domino Bonifacio diving, 
providentia, Sancte Iiomane, ac universalis ecclesie summo 
Pontifici, Edwardus, ejusdem gratia, Kex Anglie, dominus 
Hibernie, et dux Aquitanie, devota pedum oscula bea- 

Infrascripta, non in forma nee in figura judicii, set 
omnino extra judicium ; pro serenanda sancte paternitatis 
vestre conscientia, vobis transmittimus exhibenda. 

Altissimus inspector cordium nostre scrinio memorie 
indelebili stilo novit inscribi, quod antecessores et pro- 
genitores nostri, Eeges Anglie, jure superioris et directi 
dominii, ab antiquissimis retro temporibus, regno Scocie, 
et ipsius Eegibus, in temporalibus, et annexis eisdem, 
prefuerunt : 

Et ab eisdem Eegibus, pro Eegno Scocie, et ejusdem 
regni proceribus, k quibus habere volebant, ligia homagia 
et fidelitatis jurameuta receperunt : 

Et nos, juris et dominii possessionem continuantes 
hujus modi, pro tempore nostro, eadem t^m k Eege Scocie, 
qnkm ab ipsius regni proceribus recipimus. 


Quinimmo taiita juris et dominii prerogativa super 
Eegnum Scocie, et ejusdem Reges gaudebant, quod regnum 
ipsum suis fidelibus conferebant : Eeges etiam ex causis 
justis amovebant ; et constituerunt sub se, loco ipsorum, 
alios recjuaturos. 

Que procul dxibio ab antiquo notoria fuerunt, et exis- 
tunt, licet aliud forte paternis aiuibus, per pacis emulos, 
et rebellioiiis filios, fuerit falsa iusinuatione suggestum ; 
quorum machinosa et imaginaria figinenta vestra provi- 
dentia quesumus, aspernetur. 

Sub temporibus itaque Ely et Samuelis prophete, vir 
quidam strenuus et insignis, Brutus nomine, de genere 
Trojanorum, post excidium urbis Troje, cum midtis nobi- 
libus Trojanorum, applicuit in quandam insulam, tunc 
Albion vocatam, k gigantibus inliabitatam : quibus sua 
et suorum devictis potentia, et occisis, earn nomine sue 
Britanniam, sociosque suos Britones appelavit ; et edifi- 
cavit civitatem quam Ti-inovantum, nuncupavit, que modo 
Londonia nominatur. 

Et postea regnum suum tribus filiis suis divisit ; 

Locrino primogenito, illam partem Britannie, que nunc 
Anglia dicitur : 

Et Albanacto secundo natu, illam partem que tunc 
Albania, ci nomine Albanacti, nunc vero Scocia nuncu- 
patur : 

Et Cambro filio minori, partem illam, nomine suo tunc 
Cambria vocatam, que nunc Wallia vocitatur ; 

Eeservata Locrino seniori regia dignitate. 

Itaque, biermio post mortem Bruti, applicuit in Albania 
quidam rex Hunorum, nomine Humber et Albanactum 
fratrem Locrini occidit ; quo audito Locrinus, Eex Brito- 
num, persecutus est eum : qui, fugiens, submersus est in 
flumine, quod de nomine suo Humber vocatur, et sic 
Albania revertitur ad dictum Locrinum. 

Item, Dunwallo, Eex Britonum, Staterium, Eegem 
Scocie, sibi rebellem occidit, et terram ejus in deditionem 


Item duo filii DunwaUonis, scilicet, Belinus et Brennius, 

inter se regnum patris sui diviserunt. 

Ita quod Belinus senior diadema iasule, cum Britannia, 
Wallia, et Cornubia possideret : 

Brennius vero, sub eo regnaturus, Scociam acciperet; 
petebat enim Trojana consuetude, ut dignitas hereditatis 
primogenito proveniret. 

Item, Arturus, Rex Britonum, princeps famosissimus, 
Scociam sibi rebeUem subjecit, et pene totam gentem dele- 
vit : et postea quendam, nomine Anguselum, in Eegem 
Scocie prefecit. 

Et cum postea idem Rex Arturus apud civitatem 
Legionum festum faceret celeberimum, interfuerunt ibidem 
omnes Eeges, sibi subjecti ; inter quos Anguselus Rex 
Scocie, servitium pro Regno Scocie exbibens debitvim, 
gladium Regis Arturi detulit ante ipsum ; et successive 
omnes Reges Scocie omnibus Regibus Britonum fuere 

Succedentibus autem Regibus Anglis in predicta insula, 
et ipsius monarchiam et dominium optinentibus subse- 
quenter, Edwardus dictus senior, filius Eluredi Regis 
Anglie, Scotorum, Cumbrorum, et StregwaUorum Reges 
sibi, tanquam superiori domino, subjectos habuit et sub- 

Adelstanus Rex Anglie Constantinum, Regem Scotorum, 
sub se regnaturum constituit ; dicens, " Gloriosius est Re- 
" gem facere quim Regem esse." 

Et est dignum memoria, quod idem Adelstanus, inter- 
cedente Sancto Johanne de Beverlaco, quondam arclii- 
episcopo Eboricensi Scotos rebellantes ei dimicavit ; qui, 
gratias Deo devote agens, Deum exoravit, petens quatinus, 
interveniente beato Jobanne, sibi aliquod sigmun evidens 
ostenderet, quatenus tam succedentes, qukm presentes 
cognoscere possent, Scotos Anglorum regno jure subjugari : 
et videns quosdam seopulos, juxta quendam locum prope 
Dumbar in Scotia, prominere ; extracto gladio de vaginji 
percussit in silicem : qui lapis, ad dictum gladii, Dei 
virtute agente, ita cavatur, ut mensura nine longitudini 


possit coaptari : et hujus rei hactenus evidens signum 
apparet, et in Baverlaci ecclesia in legenda Sancti Johannis 
quasi singulis ebdomadis per annum, ad laudem et hono- 
rem Sancti Johannis, pro miraculo recitatur; et de hoc 
exstat Celebris memoria, tarn in Anglia, quam in Scocia, 
usque ad presentem diem. 

Item, Constantinus Rex Scottorum, et Eugenius Rex 
Cumbrorum, ad predictum Regem AngHe Adelstanum, 
post aliqualem dissentionem inter eos habitam, venientes, 
SB cum suis regnis eidem Adelstano dedidere ; cujus facti 
gratia fiUum Constantini ipse Adelstanus de sacro fonte 

Item, Edredo Regi AngUe Scoti sine bello se subdi- 
derunt; et eidem Regi Edredo, tanquam domino, fideli- 
tatem debitam juraverunt ; quodam Yricio Rege super 
ipsos Scotos statute. 

Item, cum Edgarus Rex Anglie Regem Scotorum, 
Kinadium, et Cumbrorum Malculmum Regem, plurima- 
rum insularum Makkum, aliosque quinque subregulos, 
scilicet, Duvenaldum, Syferth, Huwal, Jacob, et Inchil, 
Regem ipsuni Edgarum, in navi qiiadam prope proram 
sedentem, per fluvium Dehe, remigare fecisset; fertur 
ipsum dixisse, successores suos gloriari se Reges Anglorum 
esse, cum tanta honorimi prerogativa fruentur, ut subjec- 
tam haberent tot Eegum potentiant 

Post dictum Edgarum successive successerunt Reges 
Anglie, Sanctus Edwardus Martir, Egelredus frater ejus, 
Edmundus dictus Hii'eneside filius Egelredi et Knutus ; 
qui eorum temporibus regnum Scocie in suS, subjectione 
pacifice tenuerunt : hoc duntaxat excepto, quod, anno 
quindecimo Regni Knuti predicti, idem Knutus Scotiam 
rebellautem expeditioiie illuc ducta, Regem Scocie Mal- 
colmum parvo subegit negotio, subditusque est ei idem 

Quibus Haraldus filius Knuti, et Hardeknutus frater 
ejus, unus post alium. Regis Anglie successerunt ; qui, eis, 
sic regnantibus, sibi subjectionem regni Scocie pacific^ 


Item, Sanctus Edwardus, Eex Anglie, regnum Scocie 
dedit Malcolmo, filio Eegis Cumbrorum, de se tenendum. 

Item, WiUielmus, dictus Bastardus, Eex Anglie, cog- 
natus dicti Edwardi, a Malcolmo Eege Scotorum, tanquam 
a suo homine, sibi subdito, homagium cepit. 

Item, Willielmo Eiiifo, Eegi Anglie, predictus Mal- 
colmus, Eex Scotorum juramento fidelitatis subjectus fuit. 

Item, predictus Eex Willielmus, Dovenaldum de regno 
Scocie ex justis causis amovit, et loco ejus, Duucanum 
filium Malcobni Eegem Scocie prefecit, et recepit ab eo 
fidelitatis juramentum ; dictoque Duncano dolose per- 
empto, dictus Eex Willielmus prefatum Dovenaldum, 
qui iterum regnum Scocie invaserat, amovit ab eodem, et 
Edgarum filium dicti Malcolmi Eegem Scocie constituit, 
et eidem illud regnum donavit ; cui successit Alexander 
frater ejusdem Edgari, concessu Eegis Anglie Henrici 
primi, fratris dicti Eegis WilLielmi Eufii. 

Item, Matildi Imperatrici, filie et heredi Eegis Hen- 
rici predicti, Eex Scocie David fecit homagium et fideli- 

Item, Eegi Anglorum Stephano, Henricus filius dicti 
Eegis David homagium fecit. 

Item, Willielmiis Eex Scotorum, pro Eegno Scocie, et 
David frater suus, et comites et barones Eegni Scocie, de- 
venerunt homines Henrici, filii Eegis Anglie Henrici 
secundi, in crastino coronationis predicti Henrici, fihi 
Henrici secimdi, patre vivente, et fidelitatem ei jurave- 
runt contra omnes homines, salva fidelitate debita patri 

Anno vero vicesimo regni Eegis Henrici secundi pre- 
dicti, dictus WilUelmus Eex Scotorum, rebellare incipiens, 
venit in Northumbrian! cum exercitu magno, et exercuit 
in populo stragem magnam ; cui occurrentes milites comi- 
tatiis Eboracensis apud Alnew'yke, ipsum ceperunt, ac dicto 
Henrico Eegi Anglie reddiderunt, annoque sequenti, 
scilicet, XV. kal. Martii, est idem Willielmus permissus 
liber abire. 

Postea vero apud Eboracum anno eodem, xvii. kal. Sep ■ 



tembris, idem Willielmus Eex Scotorum de consensu 
prelatorum, comituni, baronum, procenim, et aliorum 
magnatum regui Scocie, domino sue Eegi Anglie Hen- 
rico, filio Matildis Imperatricis predicto, suis litteris 
patentibus cavisse noscitur, quod ipse, et lieredes et suc- 
cessores sui, Reges Scocie, episcopi, et abbates, comites 
etiam et barones, et alii homines regni Scocie, de quibug 
dominus Rex habere voluerit, facient Regibus Anglie 
honiagium, fidelitatem, et Ugantiam, ut ligio domino con- 
tra omnem hominem. 

Et, in siguum subjectionis hujusmodi, idem Willielmus 
Rex Scocie capellum, lanceam et sellam suos, super 
altare ecclesie beati Petri Eboracensis optulit, que in 
eadem ecclesia usque in hodiernum diem remanent et 

Item, episcopi, comites, et barones dicti regni Scocie, 
conventionaverunt, ut verbis ejusdem conventionis utamur, 
domino Regi, et Henrico filio suo predictis, quod, si Eex 
Scocie aliquocasu a fidelitate Regum Anglie, et conven- 
tione predicta recederet, ipsi cum domino Eege Anglie 
tenebunt, sicut cum ligio domino suo contra Eegem Scocie, 
quosque ad fidelitatem Regis Anglie redeat. 

Quam quidem compositionem, felicis recordationis, Gre- 
gorius Papa ix. in diversis rescriptis, Regibus Anglie et 
Scocie directis, mandavit firmiter observari ; continentibus 
etiam, inter cetera, quod Willielmus et Alexander Eeges 
Scotorum, Eegibus Anglie, Johanni et Henrico, ligium 
homagium et fidelitatem fecerunt, que tenentur succes- 
sores eorum, comites et barones regni Scocie, ij sis et suis 
successoribus exhibere : et iterum quod, cum idem Eex 
Scocie homo ligius sit ipsius Henrici Eegis Anglie, et 
eidem fidelitatis prestiterit juramentum, quo se principa- 
liter astrinxit quod in ipsius Eegis et regni Anglie detri- 
mentum, nichil debeat penitus attemptare. 

Et Papa Clemens, scribens Regi Anglie pro Johanne 
episcopo Sancti Andree, expulso ab episcopatu suo per 
Eegem Scocie inter cetera rogavit, quod Willielmum 
Regem Scocie moveret et induceret, et, si necesse fuerit, 


districtione regali, qua et preminet, et concessa sue regie 
celsitudini potestate compelleret, ut dicto episcopo omnem 
rancorem, remitteret, et episcopatum suum eum habere in 
pace pennitteret. 

Et, post conventionem predictara, in ecclesia beati Petri 
Eboracensis, coram predictis Eegibus Anglie et Scotie, 
et David fratre suo, et universo populo, episcopi, comites, 
barones, milites de terra Eegis Scocie, juraverunt domino 
Eegi Anglie, et Henrico filio suo, et heredibus eorum 
fideUtatem contra omnem hominem, sicut ligiis dominis suis. 

Et idem, Willielmus Eex Scotorum, ad mandatum Eegis 
Henrici predicti, venit, apud Norhamptoniam, ad parlia- 
mentum domiui sui, adducens secum omnes episcopos, 
abbates, priores totius regni sui. 

Et venit etiam ad ejusdem Eegis Anglie mandatum in 

Et idem Eex Willielmus, post decessum dicti Eegis 
Henrici veniens Cantuariam, Eichardo Eegi Anglie, filio 
et heredi dicti Henrici, fecit homagium. 

Quo Eicardo, viam universe camis ingresso, sepefatus 
Willielmus Johanni Eegi Anglie, fratri et heredi predicti 
Eegis Eichardi, extra civitatem Lincolnie supra quendam 
montem, in conspectu omnis populi, fecit homagium, et 
juravit ei fidelitatem super crucem Huberti, tunc Cantua- 
riensis archiepiscopi. 

Et eidem Johanni, tanquam domiao suo, per cartam 
suam concessit quod Alexandrum filium suum, sicut 
hominem suum Hgium, maritaret; promittendo firmiter, 
in carta eadem, quod idem Willielmus Eex Scotorum et 
Alexander filius suus, Henrico filio Eegis Anglie Johannis, 
tanquam ligio domino suo, contra omnes mortales fidem et 
fidelitatem tenerent. 

A quo quidem Willielmo Eege Scotorum postmodum, 
pro eo quod desponderat fiUam suam comiti Bolonie, 
preter ipsius Eegis Johannis domini sui assensum, pro 
transgressione et temeraria presumptione hujusmodi, debi- 
tam satisfactionem accepit. 

Item, Alexander Eex Scotorum, sororius noster Eegi 


Anglie Henrico, patri nostra, pro regno Scocie, et postea 
nobis homagium fecit. 

Vacante deinde regno Scocie, post mortem Alexandri 
Regis illius, et subsequenter per mortem Margarete, ejus- 
dem regni Scocie Regine et domine, neptis nostre, epi- 
scopi, abbates, priores, comites, barones, proceres, et ceteri 
nobiles, et communitates totivis regni Scocie ad nos, tan- 
quani ad legitimum defensorem, ducem, aurigam, capi- 
taneum et dominum capitalem, ejusdem regni sic vacantis, 
gratis et spontanea voluntate accedentes, prout tenebantur 
de jure, jus nostrum progenitorum et antecessorum nos- 
trorum, ac possessionem superioris et directi dominii in 
regno eodem, et ipsius regni subjectionem, ex certa scien- 
tia pure, simpliciter et absolute recognoverunt. 

Et prestitis nobis ab eisdem, tanquam superiori et 
directo domino Scocie, debitis et consuetis fidelitatem 
juramentis ac civitatibus, burgis, villis, castris, ac ceteris 
munitionibus regni ejusdem in manu nostra traditis, ad 
custodiam ejusdem regni certos, jure nostro regio, officiales 
et ministros deputavinius ; quibus ipsi, tempore vaca- 
tionis hujusmodi, concorditer fuerent obedientes, et inten- 
dentes in nostris preceptis regiis et mandatis. 

Postmodum autem diverse persone, super successione 
in dictum regnum Scocie jure hereditario inter se con- 
tendentes, ad nos tanquam ad superiorem dominum regni 
Scocie, accesserunt : petentes, super jure succedendi in 
regnum predictum.sibi pernos exhiberi justicie complemen- 
tum : volentes et expresse consentientes coram nobis, tan- 
quam superiore et directo domino regni Scocie, stare juri. 

Et demum, earundem partium petitionibus et juribus 
coram nobis, tanquam coram superiore et directo domino, 
judicialiter propositis, ac sufficienter auditis, rimatis, exa- 
minatis, et diligenter intellectis, in presentia omnium pre- 
latorum et nobilium, quasi totius regni Scocie, et de 
vohmtate et assensu expresso eorumdem procedentes, 
Johannem de Balliolo debite prefecimiis in Regem Scoto- 
runi ; quem tunc in successione ejusdem regni heredem 
legitimum, et jura habere invenimus potiora. 


Qui quideni prelati, comites, barones, comunitates, ac 
ceteri incole ejusdem regni, hiijusmodi sententiam nos- 
tram expresse omologarunt, acceptarunt, et expresse 
approbarunt : et ipsum Johannem, de mandato nostra, 
virtute hujusmodi judicii, in Eegem suum admisenmt. 

Ac idem Johannes Eex Scocie, pro regno suo, prestito 
nobis liomagio debito et consiieto, ac fidelitatis juramento, 
ad parliamenta nostra de mandato nostro veniens, eisdem, 
tanquam noster snbditus, sicut alii de regno nostro, inter- 
fuit, et nostris, tanquam domini sui superioris dicti regni 
Scocie, paruit beneplacitis et mandatis, nobis in omnibus 
obediens et intendens. 

Quousque idem Johannes Eex Scocie, et prelati comi- 
tes, barones, nobiles, communitates, ac ceteri incole majores 
regni ejusdem, ex preconcepta malitia, et prelocuta, ae 
preordinata proditione, factiones, confederationes, con- 
spirationes, et conjurationes, in exheredationem nostram, 
et heredum nostrorum, ac regni nostri, contra debitum 
homagii sui et fidelitatis juramentum, inter se inierunt, in 
crimen lese majestatis nequiter incidendo. 

Unde, cum premissa, ex fideli relatione, fama publica 
consentiente, ad aures nostras pervenissent ; volentes futu- 
ris periculis precavere, que ex hiis et aliis possent nobis 
regno nostro, et regni nostri incolis verisimiliter provenire, 
pro assecuratione regni nostri accessimus ad confinium 
regni utriusque, pluries mandantes eidem Johanni, tunc 
Eegi Scocie, quod ad certa loca, in confinio predicto, ad 
nos accederet, super premissis et aliis, pro statu, tranqui- 
litate, et pace utriusque regni, assecurationem facturus : 
et alia, per nos et consilium nostrum sibi exponenda, audi- 
turus ; et super hiis et ea contingentibus justitiam recep- 

Qui, spretis mandatis nostris, contumaciter in sua per- 
sistens perfidia, ad belUcos apparatus, cum episcopis, pre- 
latis, et clericis, comitibus, baronibus regni Scocie, ac 
etiam aliis exteris conductitiis, contra nos, regnum nos- 
trum, et iucolas regni nostri, hostiliter se convertens 
accinxit : et, ad hostiles aggressus et incursus procedens 


regnum nostrum invasit : quasdam villas regni nostri 
Anglie per se et suos depredatus est, easque vastavit 
inceudio ; homines nostros interfecit ; et, nonnullis nautis 
nostris per eos peremptis, naves hominum nostrorum regni 
Anglie comburi fecit. 

Et e vestigio, redditis nobis homagio et fidelitate per 
Eegem Scocie, tarn pro se, quam pro aliis quibuscunque 
regni sui incolis, per verba, effectmn diSidentie expri- 
mentia, comitatus nostros Nortlnunbrie, Cambrie, et 
Westmerlandie, regni nostri Anglie, congregato ingenti 
exercitu, hostiliter per se et suos invasit : stragem in- 
numeram hominum nostrorum, incendia monasteriorum, 
ecclesiarum et villarum inhumane perpetrando : et pat- 
riam undique depopulando ; infantes in cunis, mulieres 
in puerperio decimibentes immisericordi et atroci sevitia 
trucidarunt ; et, quod auditu horrendiuu est, a nonnullis 
mulieribus mamillas atrociter absciderunt ; parvos cleri- 
culos, primas litteras et gramaticam addiscentes, ad nu- 
merum circiter ducentorum, in scolis existentes, obstructis 
hostiis scolarum igne supposito concremarunt. 

Nosque, cernentes tot dampna, obprobia, facinora, et 
injurias, in exheredationem nostram, et destructionem 
popuH regni nostri, proditionaUter irrogari : nee volentes, 
ratione juramenti, quo ad conservationem jurium corone 
regni nostri simius astricti, tarn execranda, detestanda, et 
nefanda facinora ulterius tolerare : nee jura nostra relin- 
quare indefensa : cum idem Johannes et gens Scotorum, 
nostri subditi, per leges se justificari minime permisissent 
ipso regno Scocie, quod a longissirnis temporibus, sicut 
superius exprimitur, nobis et progenitoribus nostris feudale 
extitit ; 

Ex causis premissis commisso deinde bello, juxta leges 
et consuetudines regni nostri, contra eos, de consilio pro- 
cerum et magnatum nostrorum, indicto : contra dictum 
Johannem et gentem Scotorum vires poteutie nostre ex- 
tendimus, prout de jure nobis licuit, et processimus contra 
ipsos, tanquam notorie proditores contumaces, et publicos 
hostes nostros. 


Subacto itaque regno Scocie jure proprietatis nostre 
ditioiii, prefatus Johannes Kex Scocie ipsum regnum 
Scocie, quatenus de facto tenuit, sponte, pure, et absolute 
reddidit in manum nostram : proditiones et scelera me- 
morata coram nobis et proceribus regni nostri public^ 

Quo peracto prelati, comites, barones, nobiles et com- 
munitates regni Scocie, quos ad pacem nostram regiam 
suscepimus subsequenter, homagia et fidelitates nobis, 
tanquam immediate et proprio domino ejusdem regni 
Scocie, fecerunt ac etiam prestiterunt. 

Ac, redditis nobis ejusdem regni civitatibus, vHlis, 
castris, munitionibus, ac ceteris locis omnibus, ad dic- 
tum regnum spectantibus, officiales nostros et mini- 
stros ad regimen ejusdem regni Scocie prefecimus jure 

Cumque, jure pleni dominii, in possessione ejusdem 
regni existere dinoscamur, omittere non possumus nee 
debemus, quin insolentiam subditorum nostrorum rebel- 
lium, si quos invenerimus, preeminentia regia, prout jus- 
tum fuerit, et expedire viderimus, reprimamus. 

Quia vero, ex premissis et aliis, constat evidenter, et 
notorium existit quod prelibatum regnum Scocie, tarn 
ratione proprietatis, quam possessionis, ad nos pertinet 
pleno jure : nee quicquam fecerimus vel caverimus, scripto 
vel facto sicuti nee possemus, per que juri aut possessioni 
predictis debeat aliqvialiter derogari. 

Sanctitati vestre humiliter supplicamus quatinus, pre- 
missa provida meditatione pensantes, ex illis vestri motum 
animi dignemini informare suggestionibus contrariis emu- 
lorum, in bac parte vobis factis, fidem, si placet, nulla- 
tenus adhibendo ; quinimo statum nostrum, et jura nostra 
regia supradicta habere velitis, si placet paternis affec- 
tibus commendata. 

Conservet vos Altissimus, ad regimen ecclesie sue 
sancte, per tempora prospera et longeva. 

Datum apud Kemeseye, septimo die Maii Anno Domini 
Mccc. primo et regni nostri vicesimo nono. 





XER apostolica dudum scripta citatus Dominus Rex 
Anglie, qui, temporis ad hoc oportunitate captata, more 
insidiantis ut noceat ex abscondito, reguum Scoeie sibi 
vicinum, quia vacans, acephalum, laceratum in partes, ut- 
pote proprii regis viduatum regimine, Romanaque tunc va- 
cante ecclesia, carens presidio cujuslibet defensoris, duplicii 
nihilominus persecucionis, et turbacionis patenti periculo, 
proprie scilicet intestine discordie, et infestacionis extrin- 
sece regis memorati tarn vicine ; tunc primo impetisse de 
nouo noscatur, et quasi ex insidiis inquietasse super statu 
suo injuste priore habite pristine libertatis. Subsequenter- 
que afflixisse non solum regni ipsius iacolas, iteratis hosti- 
libus multis incursibus, injuriis, dampnis gravibus variisque 
pressuris, regnum Scoeie et ecclesiam ejus, verum eciam 
more Antiochi, abhominacionibus multimodis ausu sacrUego 

Ed. Hearne. — Pee apostolica dudum scripta citatus Dominus 
Rex Anglise, qui, more insidiantis, ut noceat in abscondito, temporis 
ad hoc oportunitate capta, tribulacionis et discordise tempore, reg- 
num Scocise, sibi vicinum, quia vacans, acephalum, laceratum in 
partes, utpote suique regis viduatum regimine, et sic carens praesidio 
cujuslibet defensoris, Komana ecclesia tunc vaeante, espositum 
est nichilominus patenti periculo persecucionis, et tribulacionis 
dupliciis intestiniB, proprise scilicet discordise et infestacionis 
hostilis extrincicse regis ejusdem Anglia;, tarn vicine tunc primo 
impetisse de novo noseitur, ac illud ex prseconceptis maliciis in- 
quietasse injuste super suo statu priori pacifico habitse libertatis. 
Subsequenter, quod afflixisse non solum regni ipsius incolas 
iteratis hostibus, multis incursibus, injuriis, dampnis gravibus 
variisque pressuris, verum eciam ausu sacrilegii regni ejusdem, 
Dei timore postposito, obstinata raalicia, more Antiochi, abhomi- 

' The few words within parentheses are from b. In other respects 
the two MSS. exactly correspond. 


tirannice, Dei timore postposito, ipsam polluisse, prelatis 
ipsius regni ecclesiasticisque personis aliis datis exilio, et 
aliis carceribus mancipatis, deque nonnullis ejusdem regni 
ecclesiis solempnibus et cathedralibus factis per ipsum et 
suos, more Sarracenorum, stabulis, pro ! dolor, equis suis ; et 
ut, preter hec, nmltarum ecclesiaruni commissa per ipsum 
in dicto regno taceantur incendia, immanitates alie, cedes et 
scelera infinita, quod apud sedem Apostolicam, certo sibi 
ad hoc statuto termino, per instructos suos procuratores 
ac nuncios, cum suis juribus et munimentis comparet, 
de jure suo, si quod haberet in ipso Scocie regno, ostensurus 
ibidem, et suscepturus super ipso per summum Pontificem, 
ordinarium et competentem judicem, quod juris esset ; toto 
regno ejusdem negocio, tanquam una de causis majoribus, 
ad examinacionem et decisioneni sedis Apostolice, racione 
preuia, per literas Apostolicas reuocato solempniter, et 
decreto Apostolico ne quid tieret in contrarium subsecuto. 
Idem rex, prefato sic sibi statuto termino, nee comparere 
curauit, ut debuit, in curia, nee de suo jure quicquam 
ostendere sufficienter, ad hoc etiam expectatus, ymmo, elap- 

nacionibus multimodis conculcasse tirannice et inimimdiciis 
polluisse, prtelatis ipsius et elericis aliis datis exOio, et aliis 
carceribus publicis mancipatis, deque nonnullis regni ejusdem 
ecclesiaj solemnibus et cathedralibus factis per ipsum et suos 
more Saracenorum, stabulis pro equis suis, ut prseter hoc ecclesia- 
rum multarum commisso per ipsum in dicto regno taceantur in- 
cendia, inhuniauitates, aliae coedes et scelera infinita, quod apud 
sedem apostolicam, certo ad hoc sibi statuto termino, per instruc- 
tos suos procuratores, et nuncios cum suis juribus et munimentis 
compareret, de suo jure siquidem haberet in ipso Scocise regno 
ostensurus ibidem ; et suscepturus super ipso per suum pontificem 
ordinarium et competentem judicem, quod juris esset, toto regni 
ejusdem negocio, tamquam una de causis majoribus, ad examina- 
cionem et decisionem sedis apostolicaj racione prima per litteras 
apostolicas revocato solempniter, et decreto apostolico, ne quid 
fieret in contrarium, subsecuta. Idem rex praefato sic sibi 
statuto termino comparere nee curavit, ut debuit, in curia, nee 
de suo jure quicquam ostendere sufficienter ad hoc eciam expec- 
tatus, ymmo, elapsis im. mensibus post eundem sic sibi statutum 


sis quatuor mensibus post eundeni sibi sic statutum tenni- 
num, sine procuratorio ad causain necessario vel sufficienti 
mandate, Domino nostra eidem siimmo Pontrfici solam 
suam niidam destinauit epistolam, loco probacionis et decla- 
racionis omnimodi juris sui, quod sibi asserit in regno 
competere supradicto. 

In qua sua epistola, dissimulatis racionibus et juribus 
certissimis, per ApostoHca prius sibi scripta expositis, que 
regni ejusdem Scocie manifesto comprobant babitam liber- 
tatem, ad discribendam seriose exorditam cujuscunque 
vetustatis historiam, quasi ignotam se convertit. Que 
historia ex remotis, veluti ex gemino ovo, sic descripta, 
in principio videatur suauis, superficialiter polita et satis 
pulcra, sopbistica tamen esse committitur, et omni fide 
vacua, exquesita funditus radice negocii, et rei geste 
detecta medullitus veritate, prout ex sequentibus apparebit. 
Et dato, quod Bruti uel Biitonum Saxonumve, tacta per 
ipsum regem, ignota memoria et remota time haberent 
aliquid veritatis, quo ad moderna tamen tempora, uel 
dominia, locum sibi non vendicant, utpote subsequencium 

terminum, sine procuratorio ad causam necessario vel suflBcienti 
mandato Domino nostro eidem summo pontifici solam suam nudam 
destinavit epistolam, probacionis loco et declaracionis omnimodi 
juris sui, quod sibi asserit competere in regno Scocise supradicto. 

In qua sua epistola dissimulatis caUide racionibus et juribus 
certissimis, per apostolica sibi prius scripta expositis, quae regni 
ejusdem Scociae manifeste comprobant habitam libertatem, pro- 
paUiandis et excusandis in ipso regno Scocise commissis per ipsum 
modemis excessibus, ad discribendam seriose exhorditam cujusdam 
vetustatis historiam, quia innotam et incertam, se convertit. 
Quse licet historia ex remotis, veluti ex gemino ovo, sic descripta, 
principiis primis videatur suavis, superficialiter poUita et pulcra 
satis, sopbistica tamen esse convincitur, et omni fide vacua, exqui- 
sita funditus radice, negocii, et rei gestse detecta medullitus veri- 
tate, prout ex subsequentibus apparebit. Et dato, quod Bruti vel 
Britonum Saxonumve, tacta per ipsum regem, ignota memoria et 
remota tunc haberet aliquid veritatis, quo ad moderna tamen 
tempora vel dominia regnorum locum sibi ut tunc vendicant, 


gestarum rerum et temporum mutacione, et innouata 
varietate sublata. Sed nee ipse Dominus Eex, illam 
vetustatem Britonum, juste continuat oppressionibus siiis 
modernis nouissimis subsecutis circa statum regni Scocie 

Quique vero, seipso teste, actore simul et judice in 
causa sua, per scripta sola propria astruere et probare 
justiciam cause sue. Nee mii-um, si, veris destitutus 
assercionibus, justi judicis formidat judicium et eventum 
contra ipsum promulgande. Si juste maxima examinaren- 
tur facta sua, quamvis absens ipse citatus, fit contumax. 
Prime cum sedis Apostolice nisus est per sola sua eulogia 
deelinare examen, Leuitici generis sacerdotis et judicis, 
cuncta rimantis, Eomani Pontificis, refugere judicium; 
spoliatisque et a Deo prouisum in terris singulare refu- 
gium et ultimum vi oppressis : reuocationisque ejusdem 
negocii, per sedem ipsara facti ad curiam, eneruare effec- 
tum, per sola mendicata sibi suffragia, non probata, friuola, 
tam inualide vetustatis, nudaque sua sola assercione, Scotis 
ipsis auferre juris respirandi remedium, et subsidium diete 

utpote subsequenciam gestarum rerum et temporum mutacione, 
innovata varietate, sublata. Sed nee ipse Dominus rex, vetus- 
tatem illam Britonum, interruptam ymmo sublatam omnino, juste 
continuat oppressionibus suis modernis novissirais subsecutis circa 
statum regni Scociae supradicti. 

Quique vero, seipso rege teste, actore simulque eciam judice in 
causa sua, per scripta sola propria studet iujuste astruere et probare 
justiciam causae suae, ad se regnum Scocise pertinere praedictum, in- 
sulaeque eciam ipsius Britannise, nuUo sibi certi juris justiciae pos- 
sessionis alio noto titulo quolibet suffragante. Nee mirum, si, veris 
tantura sic ipse destitutus affercionibus, et propter hoc justi judicis 
formidans judicium, et eventum seuteuciae contra ipsum promul- 
gando, si juste maxime examinarentur facta sua, quamvis absens 
ipse citatus, sic contumax primse tantum sedis apostolicae nisus est 
per sua sola eulogia deelinare examen, Levitici generis sacerdotis et 
judicis, cuncta rimantis, Romani pontificis rofugere judicium (tam 
injuste spoliatis utique adeo pruvisum in terris siugulare refugiam 
ultimum et vi oppressis) necnon eciam et revocacionis ejusdem nego- 


sedis, cujus est ipsum regnum Scotie, non sine ipsius sedis 
contemptu, jurisdictionisque ipsius prejudicio non modico 
et ausu restringendi Eomane ecclesie jurisdictionem soli- 
tam inter reges et regna maxime, et ipsius amplissimam 
habitam potestatem, et hoc non sine expressi mali pernicie, 
vias, scilicet, aperiendi subterfugiis vetitis, jurisque nota 
injuria, quod sine ulla fore prescripcione aliave causa legit- 
tima, in foi-ma juris per procuratorem, ad hoc constitutum, 
proponenda ordinarii judicis possit jurisdictio declinari. 

Sed quia regnum ipsum Scocie, quod, ut dictum est, 
ad Eomanam noscitur ecclesiam pertinere, de jure com- 
iini, per quod, par in parem non haberet imperium, et 
per quod rex regi non subest, uel regnum regno, sicut 
nee consul cousuli, uel pretor pretori, quo ad ipsum 
regem Anglie, fuit semper oninino libermn ; et, a tem- 
pore, a quo non extat memoria, modoque eciam sit in 
hujusmodi libertatis possessione, contra ipsum super hoc 
legitima prosecucione, mimitum, et asseratur eidem regi 
omnino, uec esse feodatimi uel feodale, de cujus con- 
trario non sit eciam facta, sed nee fieri possit debita fides : 

cii, per sedem ipsam facti ad curiam, enervare efFectum per sola 
mendacia sibi siiffragia, non probata, frivola tani invalidse vetus- 
tatis nuda sua sola assercione, Scotis ipsis auferre juris respirandi 
remedium, et subsidium dicta; sedis, cujus est ipsum regnum Sco- 
cise, non sine ipsius sedis contemptu, jiuisdictiouisque ipsius prse- 
judicio, cum non modico et ausu restringeutibus Romance ecclesice 
jurisdictionem solitam inter reges et regna maxime, et ipsius am- 
plissimam habitam potestatem, et hoc non sine eciam exempli 
mali pernicie, vias scilicet aperiendi subterfugiis vetitis, jurisque 
nota injuria, ac sine ulla fore descripcione alienae causa legittima, 
in forma juris per procuratorem, ad lioc constitutum, proponenda 
et probanda, ordinarii judicis summi pontificis jurisdictio taliter 

Sed quia regnum ipsum Scociae, quod, ut dictum est, ad 
Romanam noscitur ecclesiam pertinere de jure comuni, per quod, 
quod par in parem non habet imperium, et per quod rex regi non 
subest, vel regnum regno, sicut nee consul cunsuli, vel prtetor prse- 
tori, quo ad ipsum regem AngliiB, fuit semper omnino liberum, et 


Judexque eciam alius non reperiatur idoneus in dicta 
causa, nisi ipsa Eomana ecclesia, ad quam possit per Sco- 
tos, suam ecclesiam Scoticanam, lesam tarn enormiter et 
oppressam per dictum regem, pro justitia optinenda super 
sibi illatis injuriis, et dainpnis datis, haberi recursus; 
ejusdemque Domini regis, ut partis testisque solius non 
jurati in causa ipsa sua propria, assercionibus, testimoniis, 
aut eulogiis prelibatis, que pro se summo Pontifici desti- 
nauit, in prejudicium, partis adverse, cujus assercionibus, 
mutuoque judiciali conflictu, et non Uteris vel libellis, 
causarum merita declarantur. Nee possit, preterea, idem 
Domiaus rex judex esse idoneus in causa predicta, ubi 
regnum predictum Scocie sibi subjectum uel feodale non 
existit penitus, ut est dictum. Precellens ejusdem Aposto- 
lice sedis autoritas, que non sinit in subditos fieri qiiod 
enim potencie, sed quod juris ; nee in exhibenda justicia ad 
se confugientibus, maxime suis, deesse ullatenus consue- 
vit, impedire uel supersedere non deberet de jure in pre- 
fato, ad se sic reuocato, Scocie negocio, pretextu niorum, ad 
hoc productonmi per ipsrmi regem in partis absencia. 

a tauto tempore, a quo non extat memoria, modoque eciam sit in 
hujusmodi libertatis possessione, contra ipsum, super hoc legittima 
prosecuracione, munitum, et asseratur eidem regi omnino, nee esse 
subditum nee feodale, de cujus contrario non sit facta, sed nee 
fieri possit debita fides : Judexque eciam alius non reperiatur 
superior competens in dicta causa, nisi ipsa Romana ecclesia, ad 
quam possit per Scociam, suamque ecclesiam Scoticanam, Isesam 
tarn enormiter et oppressam per dictum regem, pro justicia opti- 
nenda super sibi illatis injuriis, et dampnis datis, habere recursus 
ejusdem Domini regis, ut partes testesque solius non jurati in 
causa ipsa sua propria assercionibus, testimoniis, aut eulogiis pr»- 
libatis, qui pro se summo pontifici destinavit in prsejudicium, 
credi non debeat, alienum, quantacumque rex ipse prasemineat 
dignitate, sed pr<ecipue in absencia partis adversse, cujus asser- 
cionibus, mutuoque judiciali conflictu, et non litteris vel libellis, 
causarum merita declarantur. Nee possit, pneterea, idem Domi- 
nus rex, judex esse idoneus, in causa sua supradicta, ubi regnum 
prsedictum Scocise sibi subditum vel feodale non existit penitus 


juste ut incepit procedere, et ea facere in dicto regno, 
que sunt juris, maxime quia ejusdem regis Anglie, tan- 
quam sacrilegi, in multis arguenda, et per judicem eccle- 
sie perpetrata venit audacia, et sua multimoda per eundem 
ecclesiasticum judicem punienda, ut inuasoris, de quo, 
quamquam magno, ipsius est ecclesie facere conquerenti- 
bus quibuslibet lesis, tamen maxime ecclesiis ecclesiasti- 
cisve personis, per ipsum et suos sic afflictis et oppressis, 
justicie complementum. Potissime tamen, ut renovacio 
ejusdem negocii, dudimi facta ad curiam tam deliberate 
per sedem ipsam, loco beneficii satis grati, per regis ejus- 
dem abrogate vetustatis figmenta non probata, invasion- 
esque regni ejusdem Scocie subsecutas per ipsum, notorie 
tam injustas, non sic fiat delusoria, lubrica, irrita, et in- 
firma, sine causa cognita in presencia parcium, quin pocius 
efi6.cax, stabilis et mansura permaneat, beneficium 
validum cujuslibet principis et dicte sedis, duratarum. 
Cujus sedis venustati, honori et jurisdictioni detraheretur 
manifeste, si indebita et violenta regnorum unio sic in- 

ut est dictum, praecellens apostolicae sedis ejusdem autoritas, quae 
non sinit in subditos fieri, quod potencise, sed quod juris est, nee 
in exhibenda justicia ad se juste confugentibus, maxime suis, 
deesse nullatenus consuevit, impendere vel supersedere non debent 
de jure in prsefato, ad se sic revocato, Scocias negocio, praetextu 
illorum, adlmc productorum per ipsum regem, in partis absencia, 
juste ut incepit procedere, ea facere in dicto regno, quae sunt 
juris, maxime quia regis ejusdem Anglise, tamquam sacrilegi, in 
multis arguenda, et per judicem ecclesise perpetrata venit audacia, 
et sua multimoda per eundem ecclesiasticum judicem improbitas 
pimienda, ut invasoris, de quo, quamquam magno, ipsius est eccle- 
sise facere conquerentibus quibusUbet laesis tantum, maxime eccle- 
siis ecclesiasticisque personis, per ipsum et suos sic afflictis et 
oppressis, justicias complementum. Potissime tamen, ut revocacio 
ejusdem negocii, dudum facta, ad curiam, tam diliberate per 
sedem ipsam, loco beneficii satis grati, per regis ejusdem abrogata 
vetustatis figmenta non probata, invasionesque regni ejusdem 
Scocise subsecutis per ipsum notorie tam injustas, non sic fiat 
delusoria, lubrica, irritatur, infirma sine causa cognita in partis 


cepta, subreptive procederet, sine sedis ipsius auctoritate, 
per potenciam solam regis memorati, que regnorum unio 
non nisi per sedem ipsam fieri deberet uUo modo. Ipsius 
eciam regis epistola supradicta, que annexam habet, et 
continet eciam in sui narratione notoriani falsitatem, asser- 
ciones suas et omnia contenta in ipsa, propter admix- 
tionem falsi tatis ejusdem, notorie suspecta faciimt, et 
suadent merito repellenda, quemadmodum fermento modico 
corrumpitur tota massa. 

Scripsit etenini in dicta sua epistola, summo Pontifici 
destinata, ad majorem expressionem juris sui in regno 
Scocie supradicto, falsum dud . notorium toti mundo, se, 
scilicet, esse jure pleni domiuii, in possessione ejusdem regni 
Scocie, suarum date tempore literarum ; cum tamen notorie 
in ipso regno civitatem sedemve episcopalem, aut ullam dio- 
cesis iutegram de duodecim episcopatibus, qui sunt ibi, 
ipso regno et populo gaudente quasi totaliter pristina liber- 
tate : propter quod vicium tam notorie falsitatis annexe, ad 
reliqua examinanda uel probanda, que rex asserit, eidem 

praesencia, quin pocius efficax, stabilis et mansura permaneat, tam- 
quam beneficium validum cujuslibet principis et dictiE sedis 
duratarum, cujus sedis venustati, honori et jurisdictioni detrabe- 
retur non modicum, si indebita et violenta regnorum unio, sic 
incepta, subreptive procederet, sine sedis ipsius auctoritate, per 
potenciam solam regis memorati, cum tamen regnorum unio non 
nisi per sedem ipsam fieri deberet ullo modo. Ipsius eciam regis 
epistola supradicta, quae annexam habet et continet eciam in sui 
narracioue notoriam falsitatem, asserciones suas et omnia contenta 
in ipsa, propter commixtionem falsitatis ejusdem, notorie suspecta 
faciunt et suadent merito repellenda, quemadmodum fermento 
modico corrumpitur tota massa. Et idem eciam rex sic citatus 
quia, ad prsefixum sibi terminum non comparens, de jure suo, ut 
debuit, in ipso regno Scocise nichil ostendit super statu prredicti 
regni libero, sic defamati per ipsum indebite, post terminum super 
hoc non deberet uUatenus exaudiri. 

Scripsit eciam in dicta sua epistola, summo pontifici destinata, ad 
majorem expressionem juris sui in Scocia regno supradicto, falsum 
illud notorium toti mundo, se scilicet esse, jure pleni dominii, in 


deberet aditus interdici ; sed ex hoc potissime, quia 
nee in termino sibi prefixo comparere non curauit, ut 
debuit, in curia, aut sufficienter aliquid osteudere de jure 
suo, quod in ipso regno, super sua libertate habita incon- 
cusse, et sic postea defamato per eum et turbato, asseru- 
erat se habere. Verum quamquam ex predictis regis ejus- 
dem non procedat intencio, nee regno Scocie nocere 
debeant scripta que scripsit, dejuribus etrationibus supra- 
dictis ; quia tamen idem Domimis rex, pro suo coadunando 
proposito colorato, et intercisa historia succincte apparenter 
multa scripsit, tangendo breuiter statum, primum Bruti et 
insule Britannie, populorumque et regum qui ipsi Bruto in 
insula Britannie successerunt : et qualiter Brutus insulam 
inter tres filios suos, Cambrum, scilicet, Albanactum, et 
Locrinum, tunc primo divisit lq tres partes, Cambriam, vide- 
licet, Albaniam, et Loegriam. Quia tamen rei geste veri- 
tatem scribere rex omisit, ea tangens sollummodo que suo 
viderentur proposito convenire ; reliqua veritate suppressa ; 
ad noticiam historie pleniorem, oportet plenius dicere, que 

possessione ejusdem regui Scouise, suaniin tempore datae litterarum, 
cum tamen notorie in ipso regno civitatem sedemve episcopalem, aut 
ullam diocesim integram miUatenus optineret de xii. episcopatibus, 
qui sunt ibi, ipso regno et populo tunc gaudente quasi totaliter 
pristina libertate : propter quod vicium tarn notoriie falsitatis an- 
nexjB, ad reliqua examinanda vel probanda, quse rex idem asserit, 
deberet eidem aditus interdici ; eo potissime, quia nee in termino 
sibi prsefixo comparere curavit, ut debuit, in curia, nee sufficienter 
aliquod ostendere de jure suo, quod in ipso regno Seocise super sua 
libertate habita inconcusse, et sic postea dcstinacio per eimi et tur- 
bacio, asseverat se habere. Verum quamquam ex prtedictis regis 
ejusdem assercionibus non procedat sua intencio, nee regno Scociae 
nocere debeant scripta, qure scripsit de juribus et racionibus supra- 
dictis, quia tamen idem rex, pro suo coadjuvando proposito, colo- 
rata et intercisa hi.storia succincte et apparenter multa scripsit, 
tangendo breviter statum primum Bruti et insuhB Britannise, 
popidorunique et rcgum, qui ipsi Bruto in insula Britanniie suc- 
cesserant, et qualiter Brutus insulam Britannia; inter tres filios 
suos, Cambriun, scilicet, Albanactum, et Locrinum, tunc post divi- 


nondum rex scripsit. Et primo, qualiter de ipsa Britannie 
insula, partis ejusdem, scilicet, Albanie, exulauit nomen 
et memoria Britonum gentis sue, in ejusdemque locum 
Albanie successit nomen nouum Scotie, cum sua gente, ex 
cujus vera et plena descripcione historie apparebit, quod 
scripta per ipsum regem super hoc intentum suum non 
adjuuant, sed eidem pocius obviant manifeste, si latens sub 
cortice noticia educatur historie, et si vetustatis inducte 
per regem, tenebre delegantur, apparebit, quod indebitum 
sibi vendicare ipse non poteruut tenebre, ut pretenditur, 
locum lucis. 

Postquam igitur Scotorum populus antiquissimus, a 
quadam nomine Scota, filia Pharaonis regis Egipti, sic 
vocatus, descendisset de Egipto, et post occupatam per 
ipsos primo insulam in oceano Hiberniam, ab Olo Hibero 
fluuio Hispanie, sic vocatam, expulsis gigantibus, ab Isidore 
Scotorum dicitur insula, et, secundimi Bedam, post occu- 
patam ab eis, secundo Ergadiam adjacentem ipsi Albanie, 
partim predicte Britannie, que Ergadia ab Erk filio Scote, et 

sit in tres partes, Cambriam, viz., Albaniam, et Loegriam, quia 
tantum rei gestae veritatem plenius scribere rex omisit, ea tangens 
solummodo, qua? suo viderentur proposito conveuire, reliqua veri- 
tate, ad noticiam historise pleniorem, expedit plenius 
dicere, quse rex non scripsit. Et primo, qualiter de ipsa Britan- 
ni£8 insula tereise partis ejusdem, scilicet, Albanise, exulavit 
nomen, et memoria Britonum gentis suae, in ejusdem locum Alba- 
nise successit novum nomen Scocias cum sua gente, ex cujus vera 
et plena descripcione historiss apparebit, quod scripta per ipsum 
regem super hoc intentum suum non adjuvant, sed eidem pocius 
obviant manifeste, si latens sub cortice educatur noticia historia;, 
et si vetustatis inductee per regem tenebrse delegantur, apparebit, 
quod indebitum sibi mendicare ipsse non poterunt tenebrae, ut 
prsetenditur, locum lucis. 

Postquam igitur Scotorum populus antiquissimus, a quadam, 
nomiue Scota, filia Pharaonis regis Egipti sic vocatus, primo ad 
Hispaniam, regionem juxta Ibrum ilumen, descendisset de Egipto, 
et post occupatam ab ipsis Scotis primo Hibernife insulam, et 
omnes Hibernicos, ab illo Hibro, fluvio Hispanias, sic vocatam, expul- 



Gaelo ejus Scote viro, time duobus inde vocata Ergadia 
usque diem istuin, nominibus compositis Erk et Gael 

Subsequenter et successiue tercio idem populus, ejectis 
Britonibus de Albania, occupauit Albauiam, partem illam 
predictam terciam insule Britannie supradicte : de qua rex 
scribit, jure eodem et titulo, qua Brutus totam prius occu- 
pauerat Britanniam, imposito ipsi parti insule, sic occu- 
pate per ipsos Scotos, nouo nomine Scocia, a prima ilia 
Scota, Scotorum Domina, juxta versum, 


Quibus exactis, tali modo Britonibus de Albania per 
Scotos, cum suo rege, legibus, lingua et moribus Bri- 
tonum, exulauit et inde notorie nomen Albanie, cum 
dominio pristine Britonum, in locumque ejusdem nominis 
Albanie nomen successit nouum Scocie, una cum Scoto- 
rum noua gente, suisque regibus, lingua et moribus, quibus 

sis per Scotos ipsos prius inde gigantibus, quae Hibemia ab Ysidero 
Scotorum inde dicitur insula, et, secundum Bedam, post occupatam 
ab eis secundo Argadiam, adjacentem ipsi Albanise, parti praedictse 
Britannise, quoe ab Erk, filio Scotce, et Gathelo, ejusdem Scotse 
viro, tunc Scotorum duce, bino inde vocatam Ergadiam, duobus 
nominibus compositis Erk et Gayel eorundum, subsequenter et suc- 
cessive m. ejectis Britonibus de Albania, idem Scotonuu populus 
occupavit et Albaniam partem illam pra;dictam terciam insulse 
Britannise supradietre, de qua rex idem scribit, jure eodem et 
titido, quo Brutus totam prius occupaverat Britanniam, imposito 
ipsi parti insulin, sic occupatre per ipsos Scotos, novo nomine 
Scocia, a prima ilia Scota, Scotorum Domina, juxta versum. 


Quibus actis tali modo Britonibus de Albania per Scotos, cum 
suis rege, legibus, lingua et moribus Britonum, exulavit et inde 
notorie nomen Albania; cum dominio pristino Britonum, in locum- 
que ejusdem nominis Albanias nomen successit novum Scocise, 
una cum Scotorum nova gente, suisque ritibus, lingua et moribus, 


nichil commune est cum Britonibus, uucaque cum suo rege 
et dominio nouo Scotorum ; et hec pars insule Bri- 
tannie, dicta prius Albania, ut rex scripsit, ex tunc, 
mutatis condicionibus cum nomine, vocata est Scocia ista 
de causa semper postea inuiolabiliter et inconcusse. Sed 
tamen hoc, non sine causa, scribere rex omisit, eo quod suo 
proposito nullatenus conueniret, sed pocius repugnaret. 
Scoti insuper inimici per hoc facti Britonum, associatis 
sibi aduenis Pictorum populis, partitaque cum eis sic 
adepta Scocia terra sua, in tantum sunt Britones, Bruti, 
scilicet, posteritatem altemis persecuti, partemque illam 
aliam Britannie, sibi vicinam, que tunc Loegria, nunc 
uero Auglia vocitatur, hostibus itaque incursibus moles- 
tarunt, quod compulsi sunt tunc Britones, habitatores 
ejusdem partis Loegrie, constituto tribute, se Eomanis 
subjicere, et ipsorum auxilium contra Scotos et Pictos in 
suam defensionem invocare. Ita quod, dum, Seueri im- 
peratoris tempore, sub tutela misse eis Eomane milicie, in 
subsidium contra Scotos, murus ille antiquissimus lapideus. 

quibus nichil commune est cum Britonibus, unaque cum suo rege 
et dominio novo Scotorum ; et hsec pars insulas Britanniie, dicta 
prius Albania, ut rex scripsit, ex tunc, mutatis condicionibus cum 
nomine, vocata est Scocia ista de causa semper postea inviolabUiter 
et inconcusse. Hoc tantum scribere non sine causa rex omisit, 
eo quod suo proposito nullatenus conveniret, sed pocius repugna- 
ret. Hii quoque eciam Scoti, inimici per hoc facti Britonum, 
associatis sibi advenis Pictorum populis, partitaque cum eis sic 
adepta Scocia terra sua, in tantum sunt ulterius Britones, Bruti 
scilicet posteritatem alterius, persecuti, partemque illam aliam Bri- 
tanniiB, sibi vicinam, qufe tunc Loegria, nunc vero vocatur Anglia, 
hostUibus itaque incursibus molestanmt, quod compulsi sunt tunc 
Britones, habitatores ejusdem partis Loegrise, constituto tributo se 
Eomanis subicere, et ipsorum auxilium contra Scotos et Pictos in 
suam defensionem advocare. Ita quod, dum, Severi imperatoris 
tempore, sub tutela missse eis Romana3 mUicise, in subsidium contra 
Scotos murus illi antiquissimus lapideus, per mediam Britanniam 
se extendens, a mari usque ad mare, et dividens tunc Scociam a 


per mediam Britanniam se extendens a rnari usque ad 
mare, et diuidens tunc Scociam a Loegria, cum foueis ante 
murum, turribus et portis certis, claudentibus versus Sco- 
ciam, longitudinis centum triginta miliarium, ad hoc tan- 
tummodo est constructus, ne in Loiigriam contra Britones 
Scoti et Picti de Scocia possent imiere, uel nocere, ut 
solebant ; prout de liiis omnibus satis constat ex historiis 
non suspectis, sicut ex Romanorum, vestigiis pariter super- 
stitis adhuc muri illius veteris operis lapidei testantur. 

Ex quibus patet, quod, quia non est verisimile Bri- 
tones murum hujusmodi tarn sumptuosum, et sibi alias 
inutilem, nisi pro sua sola tuicione contra Scotos con- 
struxisse, nullatenus, inuocato ad hoc tam remote sibi 
auxLUo Romanorum, si penes se tocius ipsius insule man- 
sisset directum dominium, ut pretenditur et rex asserit, 
siue eciam monarchia ejus insule, uel Britonibus Scoti sub- 
diti prius fuissent ; scripta regia eadem sic conficta, quo ad 
ilia tempora prima Britonum, ad intencionis sue regie 
juvandum propositum, et ad propriandum sibi rectum 

Loegria, cum foveis ante muram, turribus, et portis certis vel 
ceris claudentibus versus Scociam, longitudinis centum triginta 
miliarum, ad hoc tantummodo est constructus, ne in Loegriam 
contra Britones Scoti et Picti de Scocia possent irrnere, vel nocere, 
ut solebant, prout de hiis omnibus satis patet es historiis non 
suspectis. Constat eciam Eomanonim et ex vestigiis pariter 
superstitis adhuc muri illius veteris lapidei supradicti. 

Ex quibus patet, quod, quia non est verisimile, Britones murum 
hujusmodi tam sumptuosum, et sibi alias inutOem, nisi pro sua sola 
tuicione contra Scotos, constraxisse, nullatenus invocato ad hoc tam 
remoto sibi auxilio Kumanoruin, si penes se tocius ipsius insulse tunc 
mansisset directum dominium, ut praitenditur et rex asserit, sive 
eciam monarchia ejusdem insuloe, viz., eis Britonibus Scoti subditi 
prius tunc fuissent, scripta regia abinde sic conficta, quo ad Ula 
tempora prima Britonum, ad intencionis suae regia? juvandum pro- 
positum, et ad propriandum sibi directum dominium Scocioe, et 
firmandum per hoc fundamentum juris sui in regno ipso, non pro- 
desse, sed nee inniti uUius rolwri debito veritatis. Colligiturque 
eciam evidenter ex prsedictis, quod prima iUa de tempore Bri- 


dominium Scoeie, et firmandum per hoc fundamentum juris 
in ipso regno, non prodesse, sed nee inniti ulli roboris de- 
bito veritatis. Colligitur eciam euidenter ex predictis, quod 
prima ilia de tempore Britonum allegata juris possessio, in 
regem ipsum uel suos contiauata non extitit, sicut scribit, 
sed quod naturaliter, sicut patet ex predictis et aliis, fuit 
sepius interrupta, quodque ilia omnia que rex ipse in ipso 
regno Scoeie asserit se habere loco primi sui juris, in eo 
quod Britonibus se dicit in regno Loiigrie successisse, 
tanquam ex defectiuo exorta principio operum mortuorum, 
collocataque eciam super tam infirmo illius temporis Bri- 
tonum, sublato postea, fundamento, una cum suo medio, 
deinde naturaliter interrupto, fore inualida vetustate sub- 
lata, et varia penitus, subsecutaque, deinde ex ipsis et super - 
edificata singula apparenter loco juris dicti Domini regis 
in dicto regno Scoeie, veritate detecta negocii, in presencia 
parcium, debere tendere merito in ruinam. Sed ex eo 
potissime quod, mutatis condicionibus temporum, mutata 
sunt eciam jura regnonim et gencium. Et quod non per- 

toniun allegata juris possessio, in ipsum regem vel suos continuata 
non existit, sicut scribit, sed quod naturaliter, sicut patet ex prse- 
dictis et aliis, pocius fuit interrupta, quodque iUa omnia, quae rex 
ipse in ipso regno Scocise asserit se habere loco primi sui juris, in 
eo quod Britonibus se dicit in regno Loegrise successisse, tamquam 
ex defectivo exorta principio openim mortuorum, collocataque 
eciam super tam infirmo illius temporis Britonum, sublato postea, 
fundamento, una cum suo medio, postea sic naturaliter interrupto, 
fore invalida vetustate sublata, et vota penitus, subsecuta, quod 
ex inde ex ipsis et superaedificata singula apparenter solummodo 
loco juris dicti Domini regis in dicto Scociaj regno, veritate detecta 
in prsesencia parcium, debere tendere merito finaliter in ruina. 
Ex eo potissime, quod, mutatis condicionibus temporum, mutata 
sunt eciam jura regnonim et gencium. Et quod nun idem per- 
manet illius temporis status qui tunc fuit, sicut et qui nunc est, 
prout patet in Romanis, qui non sic modo, ut solebant, dominan- 
tur toti orbi, ad quos Romanes sicut orbis monarchia, qui primitus 
Affrico fuisset noscitur, de gente ad gentem transiens, ultimo 
noscitur ad eos pervenisse, et adhuc subsistere penes ipsos. Sic 


inanet illius temporis status qui tunc fuit, qui et nunc est, 
prout patet in Romanis cronicis, qui aliqui dominantur toti 
orbi, ad quos Romanos sicut orbis monarchia, que primo 
fuit Assiriorum, de gente ad gentem transiens, ultimo nosci- 
tur peruenisse, et adhuc subsistere penes ipsos. Sic si quo 
jure prune Britonum, insule tocius Britannie regnum Loe- 
grie obtinuerit aliquando monarchiam, ut rex asserit, sed 
non est verum, postquam, mutatis illis primis condicionibus 
temporum, insule ipsius Britannie ocupauerunt postea 
Scoti terciam partem, scilicet, Albaniam, et inde nomen et 
memoriam Britonum notabiliter deleuerunt, et notorie, ut 
est dictum, ab antique, ipsius insule monarchia, si qua fuit, 
Britonum ipsorum esse desiit per processum temporum 
nee penes regnum Loegrie noscitur permansisse ; ymmo 
ad Romanam ecclesiam, tam Diuina disposicione quam 
subsequencium deuotione fidelium, et ex dono Magni Con- 
stantini indubitanter pertransiit, et manifesto residet penes 
ipsam. In cujus ecclesie prejudicium quantum rex ipse 
AngUe presumpserit, appropriando sibi indebite ipsius 

si quoque jure primo Britonum insuloe tocius Britannias regnum 
LoegricB optiuuenint aliquam mouarchiam, ut rex scripsit, sed non 
est venim, postquam taiitum mutatis illis primis condicionibus 
temporum insula; ipsius Britannia ocuparunt, postea Scoti terciam 
partem Albaniam, et inde nomen et memoriam Britonum notabi- 
liter deleverunt, et notorie ab antique, ut dictum est, insula; 
ipsius monarchiam, si qua fuit, primus Britonum ipsonim esse 
desiit, et per processiun temporis nee penes regnum Loegrise 
noscitur permansisse, ymmo ad Romanam ecclesiam, tam divina 
disposicione, quam subsequencium devoeione fidelium, et ex im- 
peratoris, Constantini dono, indubitanter pertransivit et manifesto 
residet penes ipsam. In cujus ecclesife prwjudicium quantum rex 
ipse Angliae prresumpserit, appropriando sibi indebite ipsius insulas 
monarchiam, qua; non est sua, in prtejudicium alienum, et 
appropriando sibi de novo per vim et metum regnum ipsiun Sco- 
cia;, tunc acephalum, sede Apostolica ipsius regni directa Domina 
tunc vacante et inconsulta, Romana ecclesia satis potest advertere, 
et videre quamquam gi'ave detrimentum ei possit imminere pro 
tempore, si in insula Britannite rex rcgnaret unicus, et in regno 


insule monarchiam, que non est sua, in prejudicium ali- 
enum, et appropriando sibi eciam de dono, per vim et 
metum, regnum Scocie tunc acephalum, sede Apostolica 
ipsius regni dii'ecta Domina tunc vacante et inconsulta, 
Eomana ecclesia satis potest aduertere et uidere quam 
graue detrimentum ipsi ecclesie possit imminere pro tem- 
pore, si in insida Brittannie rex regnaret unicus, in regno 
Scocie sic obtentus honor cessaret regius indebite, et honor 
regis. Quia Scocie regnum, ab olim semper infestum regno 
AngUe, nulli regum Britonum uel Saxonum subfuisse nos- 
citur uel probatur, nisi quatenus refert antiquitas, quod 
sicut Arthurus sibi subjugauit Daciam, Galliam et Nor- 
wegiam per potenciam, sic et eciam Scociam pro suo so- 
lummodo tempore. Quo tamen Aithuro perempto per 
Modredum filium Loth regis Scocie in belli certamine, 
restituta fuit per hoc Scocia in tantum sue pristine hber- 
tati. Quod, ejectis postea de Loegria Britonibus^ per Sax- 
ones, non minus dolis quam potencia, vi uel armis, et denuo 
ejectis de eodem regno Loegrie per Dacos ipsis Saxonibus, 

Scocise sic optentus honor cessaret regius et nomen regis, quod 
Scocise regnum, ab olim semper infestum regno Anglite, nulli regum 
Britonum vel Saxonum subfuisse uoscitur vel probatur, nisi, qua- 
tenus obscura refert antiquitas, quod, sicut Arthurus sibi subjuga- 
vit Daciam, Galliam et Norwagiam, per potenciam, sic eciam 
Scociam pro suo solummodo tempore. Nam eo jam Arthuro 
perempto per Moredredum, Loth Domini Laudinaj filium, in 
belli certamine, restituta fuit per hoc Scocia iterum suae pristinse 
libertati. Quod, ejectis postea de Loegria Britonibus per Saxones, 
non minus dolo quam potencia, vi vel armis, et denuo ejectis de 
eodem regno Loiigrias per Dacos ipsis Saxonibus, et iterum Dacis 
expulsis inde per Saxones, primo regni Loegrite nomine sic in 
Anglia commutacio, suum tamen Scocia nomen, vel Scotorum 
populus statum liberum non mutavit, sub tanta regni Loegrioa 
mutacione et incolarum ejusdem, ymmo firmum mansit, laudetur 
Deus, et immobile, nulli alteri regi Britonum Loegriffi, vel Saxonum 
Anglise, subditum, nichil, ut prsedictum est, Arthuro, quicquid per 
suas epistolas in contrarium rex affirmet. 

1 a reads Baronibiis. 


et iterum Dacis expulsis inde per Saxoues, primo regno 
Loegrie nomiiie sic in Angliam commutato, suum tamen 
nomen Scocia, uel Scotorum populus statum liberum non 
mutanit, sub tanta regni Loegrie mutacione incolarum 
ejusdem ; ymmo firmiim mansit, et immobile, nuUi alteri 
regi Saxonum Loiigrie, uel Anglie, nisi soli Arthuro sub- 
jectum, quicqmd per suas epistolas in contrarium rex affir- 

Per venerandas etenim reliquias beati Andrea Apostoli, 
de Grecia nauigio delatas in Scociam, ibidem Hungo rege 
tunc regnante, propter magnam a Deo Scotis et Pictis 
concessam uictoriam de Saxonibus, ad ostium Tiny flumi- 
nis, ut habet historia ipsius, Scoti primo sumpserunt fidem 
Christi, priusquam Saxones uel Anglici per annos quad- 
ringentos. Et, pro tanta a Deo consecuta victoria, recog- 
nitum fuisse traditur ex tunc dictum regnum Scocie in 
Romane feodum ecclesie, et una cum regno Scoticana 
ecclesia, tarn remota, non sine grandi misterio et dono Dei 
soli subesse cepit, sine metropolitano alio medio, Petro, 
principi ecclesie, et Beati Andree germano, successorique 
ejus Romano pontifici, et in alienam superioris ecclesie 
metropolitanam familiam non transiuit. 

Quinymmo regno Anglie facto postea Romane ecclesie 

Quinymmo per venerandas reliquias beati Andrese Apostoli, mira- 
culose de Grsecia navigio delatas in Scocia, ibidem Durst sive Hur- 
gust super Pictos tunc regnante, et super Scotos Erth, filii Echadii, 
fratris Eugenii, Scocia fidem Christi recepit solidius quam longe ante 
priusquam Saxones vel Anglici per alios quadringentos, et, pro tanto 
divinae miseracionis dono, dictum ex tunc regnum Scociae traditur in 
Romauum ecclesiae feudum transisse, cum Scoticana ecclesia, tam 
remota, non sine causa cum grandique misterio et dono Dei sibi 
subesse coepit, sine metropolitano alio medio, Petro, principi eccle- 
sise, et beato Andrese, germano beati Petri, successoribus eorum, 
I. Romano pontifici, in alienam superioris ecclesia metropole 
familiam non transivit. 

QuinjTnmo regno Anglias facto postea Romanae ecclesise 
notorie censuali, onus census hujusmodi, sicut Anglia, Scocia 
non suscepit, utpote in vero sibi conveniens jure Dominii. 


notorie ceusuali, onus census hujusmodi, sicut Anglia, Sco- 
cia non suscepit, utpote in nuUo sibi conueniens jure 
dominii. Sed regnum iUud Scocie, velut precipuum et 
peculiare allodium ecclesie, pleno jure cum sua ecclesia, 
separatum omnino ab Anglia, Apostolice sedis presidiis, 
beneficiis pocioribus et priuilegiis, defensum fuisse legitur 
ab ipsa Eomana ecclesia ex tunc, contra Saxones, et eorum 
successores Anglicos, Scotis infestos opido, ut infideles fidel- 
ibus esse solent. In aUis eciam partibus, pro domandis 
nacionibus (vicinis) rebellibus, aliquaudo usa est Eomana 
ecclesia veluti Assur, et adhuc eorum usu et auxilio, ut in- 
diguit, poterit forsitan processu temporis indigere. Quid si 
Scocie regnum pro, ut asseritur, ab Anglie regno depende- 
ret, non esset ipso magis liberum in solucione census et 
in aliis, nee ab illo in hoc et in aliis jure diuerso ullatenus 
censeretur. Nam sicut Scocia certum censum non sol- 
uit, sic nee comitatus Ciunbrie, Northumbrie, Westmer- 
landie, quamvis ad dominium peruenerint Anglicorum. 
Ideo, quia, tempore constituti census hujusmodi, comitatus 

Sed regnum idem Scociee, velut principium et peculiare alodium 
ecclesise Romance, pleno jure cum sua ecclesia separatum om- 
nino ab Anglia, ApostoHcse sedis prsesidiis, beneficiis pocioribus 
et privUegiis, defensum fuisse legitur ab ipsa Romana ecclesia ex 
tunc, contra Saxones, et eorum successores Anglicos, Scotis infes- 
tos opido, ut fidelibus infideles esse solent. Quibus Scotis in illia 
partibus, pro domandis nacionibus vicinis rebelibus, aliquando usa 
est Romana ecclesia velut Assur, et adliuc eonindem usu, ut ali- 
quando indiguit, poterit forsitan processu temporis indigere. Quod 
Scuciae regnum si, ut per regem asseritur, ab Anglife regno sic 
dependet, non esset ipso magis liberum La solucione census, et in 
aliis, nee ab illo in hoc et aliis jure diverso nuUatenus conferetur. 
Nam sicut Scocia certum censum non solvit Romauas ecclesioe, sic 
nee comitatus Cumbrife, et Northumbrise, seu Westmorlandiae, 
quamquam ad dominium pervenerint Anglorum, et hoc ideo, quia, 
tempore constituti census hujusmodi, comitatus prsedicti Scotis 
omnino suberant, et sic in solucione census omnino liberi reman- 
serunt. Ad quorum comitatuum populos, utpote tunc Scotis sub- 
ditos, non nisi per Scotos piimos doctores fidei Colurabam, 


predict! Scotis omnino suberaiit, et sic in sohicione census 
hujusmodi omnino liberi remanserunt. Ad quorum comi- 
itatuum populos, utpote tunc Scotis subjectos, non nisi per 
Scotos primos doctores iidei in iUis partibus, Columbam, 
scUicet, Aidanum, Finanum, et Colmanum, et alios, diu 
antequam ad Anglicos, peruenisse conuincitur noticia fidei 
et nomen ChristL Nee reuocatur in dubium, quin Gre- 
gorius, Dungalli iilius, rex Scotoriun, totam sibi aliquando 
subjugauerit Angliam. Et de subjectione Scotorum 
Saxonibus, que negatur, onmino non sit fides, nisi per 
assercionem solam regis Anglie, et per suspecta domestica 
et conficta scripta sua, de quibus non est idonea probacio 
pro seipso. Sed nee tactis per ipsum miraculis uel reue- 
latiouibus Sancti iilius credendum esse autoritate conuin- 
citur. Eciam si martirum essent ipse, quamvis probentur 
reuelaciones ipse a Deo processisse, quarum probacio ex 
regis epistola non est certa, sed nee in nostri temporis judi- 
ciis consueta, eo quod in angelum lucis angelus Sathane 
se transformat, et Sauli in Samuelis specie respondisse 
legitur Phitonissa. Inauditum est quod nunquam fuerit 
fania ulla uel sermo in Scocia, de reuelatione ulla facta 

Aidaniim, et Finanum, et Colmannum, et alios, diu antequam ad 
Angliam, pervenisse convincitiu noticia fidei et nomen Christi. 
Nee revocatur in dubium, quin Gregorius, DungaUi filius, rex 
Scotorum totam sibi aliquando subjugaverat Angliam, et de sub- 
jectione Scotorum Saxonibus, quae negatur, omnino nescit fides, 
nee per assercionem solam regis Anglite, et per suspecta domestica 
scripta sua, de quibus non est ydonea probacio pro seipso. Sed 
nee tactis per ipsum miraculis vel revelacionibus Sancti nullius 
credendum esse aut convincitur, eciam si martir esset ipse, per 
quem probentur revelaciones ipsa; processisse a Deo, quarum pro- 
bacio exempla regia non est certa, sed nee in nostri temporis judi- 
ciis consueta, eo quod in angelum lucis angelus Sathanaj ssepe se 
transformat, et Sauli Samuelis specie respondisse legitur Phito- 
nissa. Inauditum est, quod nuucquam fuerat foma ulla vel 
sermo in Scocia, de revelacione facta illi Johamii, quam pro se 
res ille domestice allegat. Veiiimtamen licet, allegata per ipsum 
regem, mii'acula, gestave singida ipsius temporis probari possent, 


iUi aancto Johanni, quam pro se domestice rex aUegat. 
Verumptamen licet allegata per regem ipsuin, miracula, 
gestave singula Olius temporis probari possent time vera 
esse, cum suit falsa, quia tamen ab Ulis vetustatibus om- 
nino recessum esse dinoscitur, et a tempore, de quo non 
extat memoria, gauisum est ipsum reguum Scocie omni- 
moda libertate, et prescripsit eandem, jure communi sibi 
in hoc suffragante, ita quod allegate vetustates per regem 
eciam si uere essent, cum sint false, sibi modo locum non 
vendicant, nee est ipsis aliquatenus insistendum ; eo quod 
translato ipsius partis insule Albanie dominio iu ipsos 
Scotos, facta est legis et juris prioris mutacio, que dm-auit 
semper postea et ex nouissimis actis et peractis subsecutis, 
que spectanda sunt, derogatum est hiis scriptis per regem, 
quorum probacio uel memoria non existit. Et est certum, 
quod, sicut ipsum regnum Scocie nuper coniuncitur fuisse 
liberum, quando obiit ultimus rex suus, sic et liberum 
fuisse presmnitur ab antiquo, sumpta presumpcione de 
tempore nuper preterito ad precedencia preterita tempora 
plus remota, prout jura dicant, et gesta subsequencia 
indicant ita esse. 

De ultimo uero tempore regum Anglie Normannorum, 

tunc nam vera fuisse, tamen sunt falsa, quieque turn ab iUis vetus- 
tatibus omnino recessum esse noscitur, et a tempore, de quo non 
extat memoria, gavisum est regnum ipsum Scociaj omnimoda 
libertate, et praescripsit eandem, jure communi sibi in hoc suffra- 
gante, ita quod aUegare vetustates per regem eciam si verie essent, 
cum sint faLsas, sibi modo locum non vendicant, nee est ipsis ali- 
quatenus insistendum, eo quod ex novissimis actibus et pactis, 
quse spectanda suut, derogatum est hiis, quorum memoria vel pro- 
bacio non existit. Et est certum, quod, sicut ipsum regnum 
ScociflB nuper convincitur fuisse liberum, quando obiit ultimus 
rex suus, sic et liberum fuisse prsesumitur ab antiquo, sumpta 
praesumpcione de termino nuper praterito ad prtecedencia praiterita 
tempura plus remota, prout jura dictant, et gesta subsequencia 
indicant ita esse. 

De ultimo vero tempore regum Anglise Normannorum, sicut de 
prsecedentibus temporibus et regibus Britonum et Saxonum, dicta 


sicut de precedentibus temporibus et regibiis Britonum et 
Saxonum, dicta continuanda diuersa, idem rex Anglie 
niulta scripsit suo conuenieucia proposito, vacua tamen 
omnimoda veritate, ad quern omnia potest breuiter veri- 
tatis serie responderi. Nam si rex ullus Scocie regi alicui, 
post aduentum Normannorum. in Angliam, fecisset fideli- 
tatem, uel homagium, asseritur, posset legitim.e compro- 
bari homagium bujusmodi, non pro regno Scocie de jure 
communi, uel de facto libero, ad factum extitit ipsi regi 
Anglie, sed pro terris sitis in Anglia, quas habere ibidem 
pro tempore reges Scocie consueuerunt. Nee huic obuiat 
tacta per regem historia de institucione Duncani et Ead- 
gari regimi Scocie, Douenaldique destitucione, si rei geste, 
sicut se habet, Veritas plenius attendatur. Eo quod, 
occupato dudum regno Scocie per quendam Douenaldum, 
ejectis de regno legittimis ipsius heredibus jMalcolmi regis 
filiis, cujus Malcolmi filiam, Matildem nomine, Hen- 
ricus primus rex Anglie duxerat in uxorem, Duncanus, 
primogenitus ejusdem Malcolmi regis, fretus forte ipsius 
Henrici tunc regis Anglie, et sui sororii uel affinis, auxilio, 

continuanda diversa. Idem Dominus rex Anglise miUta scripsit 
suo conveniencia proposito, vacua tamen omnimoda veritate, ad 
qnx omnia potest veritatis serie responderi. Nam si rex ullus 
Scoeiae regi alicui Anglire post aditum Normannorum in Anglia 
fecisset fidelitatem, vel homagium,. ut asseritur, posset legittime 
comprobari, hujusmodi homagium non pro regno Scoeise de jure 
communi, vel de facto libero id factum non extitit regi Anglise, sed 
pro terris sitis in Anglia, quas idem pro tempore habere reges 
Scocise consuevenmt. Nee huic obviat tacta per regem historia 
de institucione Duncani et Edgari regum Scocise, Donaldique des- 
titucione, si rei gestae, sicut se habet, Veritas plenius attendatur. 
Eo quod occupacio dudum regni Scociie per quemdam Donaldum, 
ejectis de regno legittimis ipsius heredibus Malcolmi regiis filiis, 
quorum sororem, Matildem nomine, Henricus primus, rex Anglise, 
uxorem duxerat, Duncanus, primogenitus, sed nothus, ejusdem 
Malcolmi regis, fretus forte ipsius Angliaj regis, ut sui sororii vel 
affinis, auxilio, et non ut domini, regnum Scociee sibi recuperasse 
noscitur, inde ejecto Donaldo supradicto. Quo Duncano perenipto. 


et Qon lit domini, regnum Scocie sibi recuperasse noscitur, 
inde ejecto Douenaldo supradicto. Quo Dimcano perempto, 
Eadgarus frater suus regniun Scocie, per Douenaldum 
eundem occupatum iterate, sibi recuperauit, fauore forte 
vel auxilio regis Anglie, ut sui sororii vel affinis ; quemad- 
modum regnum Anglie postea occupatum per Stephanum, 
Matilde imperatricis regis Anglie herede legitima, tunc 
exclusa ipsa Matildis, et filius suus Henricus secundus, 
rex Anglie, auxilio et favore Dauid, regis Scocie, Matildis 
ejusdem auunculi, regnum Anglie recuperasse noscitur 
pari forma. Per hec tamen presidia mutua, solita fieri, 
sicut vicinos pariter et affines, qui, cum res exigit, mutuo 
sibi fauent, argiutur uel probatur regnum Scocie subjec- 
tum non esse regi Anglie, aut ab ipso aliquatenus dependere. 
Quinymmo tenens idem Dauid rex Scocie tunc comitatus 
Cumbrie, Northmnbrie, et Westmerlandie, quem, ut Domi- 
num eorum, construxisse in eis certum est quedam castra, 
ac monasteria plurima ex solo fuudasse in eisdem, pro 
regno Scocie ipse ulli regi Anglie nullum imquam fecisse 
noscitur liomagium,uel.subjectionem, sed tantum pro terris 
suis in Anglia quas habebat. 

postea Edganis, frater suus, regnum Scocise, per Donaldum eun- 
dem occupatum iteratum, sibi recuperavit, favore forte vel auxilio 
sic regis Anglite, ut sui sororii, quemadmoilura regnum Aiiglia3 
postea, occupatum per Steplianum, Matilde imperatrice regni tunc 
herede legittima, ejecta ipsa Matilde, et filius suus Henricus 
secundus, favore et auxilio David, tunc regis Scocise, Matildis 
ejusdem avuuculi, regnum Anglise recuperasse noscitur pari forma. 
Per haec tamen prsesidia mutua, solita fieri sicut vicinos pariter et 
affines, qui, cum res exigit, sibi mutuo faveat et assistunt, injuste 
arguitur et probatur, regnum Scocise subjectum esse regi Angliae, 
aut ab ipso aliqualiter dependere. Quinymmo tenens idem David, 
rex Scocise, tunc comitatus Northumbrife, Ciunbrise et Westmore- 
landiae, tamquam suos (quoniam ut Dominum eorum construxisse 
in eis certum est qusedam castra, et monasteria plurima ex solito 
eciam fundasse in eosdem), pro regno Soociaj prsedicto regis Wil- 
lelmi Anglia; nullum umquam fecisse noscitur homagium, aut 
alterius subjectionis signum, sed tantum pro terris quas in Anglia 


Quod ex hoc probat eciain manifeste. Heru'icus enim 
filius Daviid regis Scocie meniorati, et premortuus eidem 
Daiiid regi Scocie patri suo, comes Huntyngtonie in 
Anglia tunc existens, cum fecisset homagiiun, quod regi 
Anglie fecisse asseritur, non fecit pro regno Scocie, cum 
ad]iuc uiueret pater ejus Dauid rex Scocie supradictus, sed 
pro comitatu suo in Anglia Huntyngtonie supradicte. Non 
enim pro feodo paterno, dum pater superest, et feodum 
tenet, filius facere homagium consueuit. Et illud idem 
probatur intelligi debere de introducto subsequenter homa- 
gio facto per Dauid et Willelmmn filios Henrici comitis 
Huntyngtonie memorati, qui, auo suo Dauid rege Scocie 
adhuc superstite, patreque suo Henrico comite jam defuncto, 
facto regi Anglie debito homagio pro eisdem terns suis, 
sitis in Anglia, eidem Henrico comiti, defuncto patri suo, 
scilicet, successeinint. Nee ad regmun Scocie uel pro regno 
referri possunt facta homagia predicta Hem'ici, Dauid uel 
Willelmi predictorum, superstite tunc Dauid adhuc rege 
Scocie supradicto. Eex tamen ipse Anglie, facti ignarus 
predicti ad aliud credendimi nititui' introducere premissa 
sophistica scripta sua. 

Porro, mortuo dicto rege Scocie Dauid Karleoli, in pos- 

Quod probatiir manifeste, dum Henricus filius David, regis 
Scocise memorati, et prcemortuus patre suo fuisset tunc comes 
Huntindonise in Anglia, homagium, quod regi Anglioe fecisse 
asseritur, fieri non potuit pro regno Scocias, superstite adhuc 
rege David patre suo, sed pro comitatu prtedicto sito in Angha, 
quem tenebat. Quia non est juris aliarum parcium, quod pro 
feodo, quem superstes adhuc pater tenet, faciet homagium nullo 
modo. Et hoc idem debet intelligi de introducto facto subse- 
quenter homagio per David et WUlelmum, fiUos Henrici comitis 
prsedicti, nepotis pariter ejusdem David regis Scocise, qui, patre 
suo defuncto Henrico comite, in eisdem terris, sitis in AngUa, 
successenint, et ipsi regi Angha; pro ipsis fecerant homagium 
consuetum. Qui David, ]\Ialcolmus, et Willelmus, superstite 
adhuc David Eegc Scocioe, non videntur pro regno Scocioe fecisse 
homagia, prout juncta regis Anglise epistola audientibus videtur 
innuere, et asserere sophistica scripta sua. 

Porro, mortuo eodem rege Scocite David CarleoU, tamquam in 


sessione pacifica Cumbrie, Northumbrie et Westmerlandie 
predictorum comitatuiun, regnoque Scocie per hoc vacante, 
et per absenciam dicti Daiiid nepotis et beredis, sibi in 
regno Scocie successuri, qui tunc, expedicionis causa, fanore 
fidei et ecclesie, erat contra bereticos Albigenses in partibus 
Tbolosanis, Henricus rex Anglie, fibus MatHdis Impera- 
tricis precUcte, sub quo passus est Beatus Thomas, cui idem 
Dauid restitucionem procurauerat regni Anglie memorati, 
reddens malum pro bono, ut ingratus, predictos comitatus 
Cumbrie, Northumbrie et Westmerlandie violenter inua- 
dens occupauit eosdem ; et erexit Karleoli sua auctoritate 
sola, ut creditur, ecclesiam cathedralem, cum tamen prius 
fuerat de diocesi Glasguensi in Scocia, ad fidem conuersa 
per Scotum Sanctum Kentigernum, in cujus Sancti hono- 
rem ejusdem diocesis ecclesie ab antique fuerunt plenarie 
dedicate, in predictoriun memoriam et exemplum. Ad 
quorum recuperacionem comitatuum WOlelmus predictus, 
promotus in regem Scocie, vehementer intendens, facto 

possessione pacifica comitatuum Cumbria;, Northumbrise et West- 
morelandiie, et vacante per ejus mortem regno Scociffi, et per absen- 
ciam Willelmi, dicti David regis nepotis, sibi in regno Scocia succes- 
sit, expedicionis causa tunc degentis contra hsereticos in partibus 
Tbolosanis ; postquam Henricus, rex Anglise, Matildis imperatricis 
predictse filius, cui regni Anglios, oecupati per Stephanum, ut est 
dictum prius, fuerat restitucio per David, regem Scociae, procurata, 
prasdictos comitatus Cumbriae, NorthumbriiB et Westmorelandife vio- 
lenter invailens occupavit eosdem ; et erexit Carleoli, quje prius fuerat 
de diocesi Galwidiag vel Glasgw in Scocia, ecclesiam cathedralem ; 
idem Willelmus, in regem Scocise promotus, ad recuperacionem 
eoruudem comitatuum, prout licere sibi videbatur, vehementer 
intendens, facto esercitu, ingressus est Angliam, et ibidem quo- 
curaque ingenio captus, per Anglicos ductus est in Normanniam regi 
Anglioe sic captivus. Si sic jam existens in carcere, pro sua libe- 
racione, super statu regni Scocise aUqua innovavit insolita, et ipsa 
adimpleverit liberatus, ut rex scribit, quse tamen nee vera cre- 
dimtur nee probantur ; promissa tamen talia per ipsum WiUel- 
mum regem, in prsejudicium regni sui Scocise, factions sua alia, si 
qua tunc fecisse noscitur, sublata tamen postea per pacta posteri- 


exercitu captus fuisse perhibetur in Anglia per Anglicos 
quocunque ingenio, et ductus in Normanniam regi Anglie 
sic captiuiis. Ubi sic existens in carcere, pro sua libera- 
cione, ut rex asserit, super statu regni Scocie aliqua 
insolita innouauit, promittens ea adimplere, postmodum 
liberatus, datis pro seciuitate promissorum ipsi regi Anglie 
forcioribus regni Scocie qiiatuor castris : Et si propter hoc 
adinipleuerit premissa, in prejudicium regni sui, facta sua 
hujusmodi regno uel libertati ejusdem non debent preju- 
dicium generare ; turn quia idem rex Willelmus, sic incai"- 
ceratus, nee liber uel sui juris compos extitit, turn qxiia 
postea recessum fuit a statu illo pactis et composicioni- 
bus sic initis, et ad libertatem regni Scocie primevam et 
debitam habitus est recursus, mimita legitima prescripcione 
subsecuta, pactaque nouissima super regni statu Scocie 
subsecuta postea composiciones et promissiones singulas, 
quas rex Anglie adducit, contra libertatem regni Scocie, 
per eundem regem Willebnum, uel alium, si que ali- 
quando precesserunt, inualidas, cassas, et irritas, effecerunt. 
Eo quod Eicardus, rex Anglie filius Henrici memorati, 

ora subsecuta, pactis contraria prioribus, regno Scocise, vel liber- 
tati ejusdem habitse prsejudicium generare non debebunt ; turn 
quia idem rex Willelmus, sic incarceratus, non fuit tunc liber 
uUatenus, vel sui juris ; tum quia prius recessum fuit a statu iUo, 
pactus et composicionibus sic initis, et ad libertatem regni Scocias 
primsevam et debitam habitus est recursus, munita legittima prse- 
scripcione subsecuta, pactaque novissima super regni statu Scociae 
subsecura postea composiciones et promissiones singulas, quas rex 
Angliaj adducit, contra libertatem regni Scocise, per regem eun- 
dem Willelmuni, vel alium, si quoe aliquando proecesserunt, in- 
validas, cassas, et irritas, fecemnt. Quod probatur evidenter ex 
eo, quod constat, Eicardum, regem Angli», filium Henrici regis 
memorati, revertentem ad bonum consciencise, recognovisse patrem 
suum Henricum prsjedictum injuste egisse contra regem Willelmum 
Scocise, et regnum suum, qui, recepta ab ipso magna summa pecu- 
niae, tam castra, qute pater suus tenebat in Scocia pro securitate 
prsedicta, eidem regi Willelmo restituit notorie, obMgacionesque et 
promissiones quascumque extortas, prsedicta; capcionis de causa. 


recognoscens bonam fidem, et patrem siium in predictis 
injuste egisse contra regera et regnum Scocie memoratum, 
recepta ab eodem (rege Scocie) Willelmo magna summa 
pecunie, et castra, que liabuerat in Scocia pro securitate 
predicta, eidem regi Scocie Willelmo restituit, obligacion- 
esque et promissiones oranes exortas, sine extortas, pre- 
dicta de causa, in regni ipsius Scocie prejudicium, eidem 
(regi) Wnielmo remisit, ipsumque et regnum suum Scocie 
liberauit ipsis totaliter, quatenus de facto sine de jure 
tenuerat, per instrumenta publica confecta de omnibus et 
singulis supradictis. Et inde est, quod non extat me- 
moria, quod vassali, uel subditi regis Scocie iilli regi 
Anglie homagia fecerunt, ut pro se rex ipse allegasse 
videtur, semperque fuit locus tutus refngii de uno regno 
in aliud, propter commissa delicta, fugientibus reis et 
criminosis, ut est notorium, in regnorum partibus pre- 

et omnia jura, quae ei competerent in regno Scocise, ipsi regi Wil- 
lelmo remisit penitus, et ab sis liberavit eundem, quatenus de 
facto tenuerant, vel de jure, per confecta inde publica et notaria 

Inde est, quod, Gregorii Papas ix. et Honorii tercii introducta 
pro rege Angli* apostolica rescripta, quae per suggestionem regis 
Anglise accepta nosc\mtur, regni Scotise libertati non obviant, 
tamquam abrogata per pacta novissima, et liberaciones postea 
subsecutse, juxta quae rescripta, secundum statum illius temporis, 
vel pro terris sitis in Anglia rex Scotice tantum regis Anglise 
nominatur homo legius, ut aUigat. Aliudque eciam ejusdem 
Papse Gregorii rescriptum, innuens fidelitatem per comites, barones 
regni Scotise factum aliquando fuisse regi Anglise, regni Scocise 
libertati simili modo non obviat, pro eo, quod narracionem ejus- 
dem regis Anglise secundum ilia tempora tantum continet con- 
dicionalem conclusionem et responsionem summa pontificis ad 
suggesta, quibus nulli fit prsejudicium, sed narratis in ipso re- 
scripto derogatum esse probatur, patente postea in eo, quod, 
composiciones easdem taliter roboratas per Gregorium, non extat 
memoria, quod nulli vassalli regni Scocise regi alicui alii subjec- 
tionem, homagia, fidelitatemve fecerunt, ut in eodem Gregorii 
rescripto asseritur, nisi pro terris sitis in Anglia, quas ibidem de 
rege Anglise tenere Seoti proceres consueverunt. Notoriumque 



Rescriptaque Gregorii ix. et Honorii tercii, que, juxta 
suggestionem regis Anglie, inde facta, rex Scocie nomi- 
natur homo liegius regis Anglie memorati Uel debet 
hoc referri et intelligi pro terris siiis in Anglia, quas 
de eodem tenebat rex Scocie, et non pro regno Scocie 
libero, quo ad eiun, ut juxta jus commune fuit hujus 
dubii interpretatio, libertative regie aut juri ecclesie 
exinde nullatenus derogari videatur. Referrive eciam 
possent rescripta eadem ad ilia regis Willelmi tempora 
et conuenciones inualidas irritas per eundem, occasione 
sue iQcarceracionis, que postea noscitur fuisse totali- 
ter denegata, et non ad tempora in quo ad libertatem pris- 
tinam habitus est regressus ab ipso regno Scocie, diutissime 
semper postmodum obseniatus, prout hec libertatemque 
regni ejusdem Scocie subsequencia facta comprobant mani- 
feste, et regum gesta Anglie pariter, et Apostolica diuersa 
rescripta et priuilegia regno concessa Scocie memorato. 

Rex etenim Scocie Alexander, predicti Willelmi regis 
filius, per xxxvi. annos rex regnauit in Scocia, nulla 
umquam regum Anglie, ut rex pro regno Scocie, homagiimi 

est eciam, et nulli dubium, quod, evacuatis eisdem composicioni- 
bus omnibus, a tempore iUo, a qua non extat memoria, criminosis 
quibuscumque fugientibus de regno Angliee in Scociam, et e con- 
verso, locus fuit tutissimus observativus refugii per omnia, et pari 
juri hie ut ibi, et hoc contra formam et tenorem composicionum 
et rescriptorum eorundem, qua eo tempore servierunt modemis 
usibus, et juribus in suo statu suis omnino temporibus duraturis, 
et sic evacuatis composiuionibus sic initis regis Willelmi tempore, 
si quae assent per actum vel per usum eis omnino contrariuni 
subsecutum, et observatum postea tempore longissimo, priorum- 
que vetustatis earum erroiibus non probatis, constabit luce clarius, 
tarn jure communi prsescripcioneque legittima, quam privilegiis 
et rescriptis Apostolicis novissimis usque longissime libertatis 
habitae, gestisque pariter et actibus regum ipsorum Anglise ultimo 
regnancium, eaudem regni Scocise annuentibus et approbantibus 
libertatem, regnum ipsum et regem Scocise esse omnino liberum, 
quo ad regem Angliae et regnum suum, prout evidenciie infra 
scriptse modernse indicant, quibus sedes irrefragabilis adesse dinos- 
fitur veiitatis. 


fecit, nee de uUo homagio facto per ipsiun regem Alexan- 
drum, ut per alios reges Scocie, rex ipse Aiiglie fecit in 
suis domino summo Pontifici memoratis missis litteris men- 
cionem, Alexanderque etiam tercius, dicti Alexandri regis 
filius, et ultimus rex Scocie, jam defunctus, suuiliter per 
XXXVI. annos regnauit post patrem, faciendoque liuic Ead- 
wardo regi Anglie pro terris suis de Penrith et de Tindale 
sitis in Anglia, volens caute agere, et sibi in suo jure et 
libertate precauere in postenun, publice protestatus est, 
quod non pro regno Scocie, sed pro terris suis sitis in 
Anglia, sibi dictum homagium faciebat Eexque iste Anglie 
hujusmodi homagium sic admisit. 

Per quod presumitur et datur intelligi, talia fuisse et 
simdia prius facta homagia regi Anglie per reges Scocie, 
de quibus fuit mencio in ipsius regis epistola, si qua fece- 
runt, quale fuit istud ultimum tam publice expositum et 
declaratum homagium coram multis, eo quod talia subjecta, 
qualia predicata permittunt. Et hoc idem declarant mani- 
feste gesta nouissima regum Anglie modernorum eciam 
subsecuta per regem Wdlelmum eundem, Henrici, scilicet, 

Nam Alexander, rex Scocise, ipsius regis Willelmi filius, 
per triginti sex annos rex regnavit in Scocia, nulli regi Anglia) 
pro regno Scoeiffi fecit homagium, nee de aliquo per ipsum 
facto homagio tamquam per regem fecit rex Anglise nullam 
omnino mencionem, sicut de aliis regibus Scocias prsedecessoribus 
suis, de quibus memoria non existit, Alexanderque eciam iii. dicti 
Alexandri regis filius, et nunc ultimus rex Scocife, qui xxxv. 
eciam annis in omnimoda regnavit libertate post patrem, fiiciendo 
homagium huic Edwardo regi Anglice pro terris tantum de Pen- 
reth et Tyudale sitis in Anglia, volens caucius agere, et sibi in 
jure suo et libertate habita prsecavere in futuriun, qualibet super 
hoc anibiguitate submota, publice protestatus est, quod non pro 
regno Scoci£e, sed pro terris praedictis sitis in Anglia, homagium 
faciebat. Eexque iste Anglioe Edwardus oblatum hujusmodi 
homagium sic admisit. 

Propter quod prresumitur et datur intelligi, talia fuisse et 
simUia priora facta homagia regibus Anglise per reges certos 
Scocise, de quibus fit mencio in ipsius regis epistola. si qua 
feeerunt, quale fuit istud ultimum factum pro terris sitis in 


quondam regis Anglie, et Edwardi nunc regnantis, diuer- 
saque rescripta Apostolica et priuilegia manifeste com- 
probant illud idem. Primo quidem Henricus ultimus 
rex Anglie, ciun ab Alexandre rege Scocie, suo genero, 
contra Symonem de Monteforti et sues complices sibi 
petiuisset impendisse auxiliiun, per suas super hoc dictas 
literas recognouit, se hujusmodi auxilium non suscipere 
ex debito, sed ex gratia speciali. Ejusdemque patris sui 
Henrici hie Edwardus, rex Anglie vestigia imitando, dum 
ejusdem Alexandri, regis Scocie, sui sororii, in sue corona- 
cionis solempniis habere presenciam affectaret, eidem regi 
Alexandre alias accedere recusanti cauisse noscitur suis 
literis, quod non ex debito, sed tantummodo ex gratia, 
hoc fiebat. 

Vacanteque deinde regno eodem per mortem Alexandri 
regis predicti, non ad regem ipsum Auglie, uelut ad ipsius 
directum Dominum regni, peruenit custodia regni memo- 
rati, ut de feodis fieri consueuit, sed ad ipsius regimen per 
regni ejusdem proceres certi electi custodes (liberi) extite- 

Anglia, tarn publice expositum coram multis, et approbatum 
ab ipso rege, eo quod talia sunt subjecta, qualia praedicata 
permittunt. Et hunc statum libertatis regni ipsius Scocise mani- 
feste declarant et innuunt gesta novissima, et actus varii, diver- 
saque eciam rescripta Apostolica et privilegia manifeste comprobant 
iUud idem. Primo quidem Henricus ultimus rex Anglise, cum 
ab Alexandro, rege Scociie, suo genero, contra Simonem de Monte 
forti et suos complices sibi peciisset impend! auxUium per suas 
patentes super hoc datas litteras, regi Scocise ad cautelam recog- 
novit, ad libertatis ipsius manifestum judicium, se hujusmodi 
auxilium non suscipere ex debito, sed ex gracia speciali. Ejus- 
demque patris suis Henrici filius hie rex Edwardus, progenitoris 
sui imitando vestigia, et approbando priora fa«ta sua, dum ejus- 
dem Alexandri, regis Scocise, sui sororii in suie coronacionis 
solempniis habere prsesenciam affectaret, eidem regi Alexandro, 
alias illuc accidere recusauti, cavisse noscitur suis eciam litteris pa- 
tentibus, quod non ex debito, sed tantummodo ex gracia hoc fiebat. 
Vacantisque deinde regni eju.sdem Scocice, post mortem Alex- 
andri regis priedicti, non ad ipsum regem Anglian, velut ad 


runt ; qui, rege ipso Anglie sciente, et toUerante nullumque 
jus sibi competere tunc in dicto regno, nonduni, postea, lace- 
rate in partes, (penitus) vendicante, nulloque eciam per 
ipsum inipedimento prestito, regni regimini prefuerunt per 
sex annos et ultra, quousque in dicto regno suboriri cepit 
dissencionis materia inter partes super jure pociori succe- 
dendi in regnum ipsum, lierede ipsius Margareta pue]la,dicti 
Alexandri regis filia, jam defuncta. Per cujus mortem audita 
sit suscitata discordia inter Scotos, idem rex Anglie, fin- 
gens se velle tractare, que pacis essent, veraciter inter ipsas 
partes, sub ouile vellere se ingerens non vocatus, quicquid 
scribat rex ipse fallaciter ex aduerso lupus utique interius, 
allecta sibi callide -ejusdem regni Scocie procerum ima 
parte, et sic, reliqua sibi resistere non ualente, de facto sibi 
regni ejusdem usurpauit custodiam per oppressionem tarn 
notoriam, vim et metum, qui cadere possent in constantes. 
Et licet Eomaua ecclesia tunc pro parte dicti regni fuisset 
nominata Domina regni ejusdem coram ipso, ipse tamen 
allegacionem hujusmodi non admisit ; ymmo dixisse dicitur 
coram multis, ut a uerbis suis nuUatenus recedatur ; " Quod 
"si presbyter (iUe) Eomanus vellet pro libertate Scocie, quo 

rectum Dominum, regni pervenit custodia Scociae memorati, ut 
(le feudis fieri cousuevit, sed ad ipsius regis per regni ejusdem 
proceres certi electi custodes extiterunt, quod, rege ipso Angliae 
sciente, tolerante et approbante eorundem custodum regimen, 
nullumque jus sibi competere in dicto regno, utpote nondum, ut 
postea, lacerato in partes, vendicante, nulloque eciam per ipsum 
super irapedimeuto prajstitit, regni ipsius regimini prsefueruut per 
sex annos et ultra, quousque in dicto regno Scociee suboriri coepit 
discensionis materia inter partes super jure pociori succedendi in 
regnum ipsum, herede ipsius Margareta puella jam defuncta. 
Per cujus mortem suscitata discordia inter Scotos, idem rex 
Anglia;, primo fingens exterius se ea velle tractare, quae pacis 
esset, in Scocia inter partes, et sic sub agnino vellere se ingerens 
regni ipsius tractatibus, et non vocatus, quicquid scribat, in lupi- 
nam interius cummutatus effigiem, allecta sibi callide ejusdem 
regni Scociae procerum una parte, et sic reliqua sibi parte resistere 
non valente, de facto regni ejusdem sibi usurpavit custodiam per 


" ad eum, dicere aliqua, oportebat eum venire Londonias, et 
" ilia ibi proponere coram ipso." Non autem idem rex, ia 
aduentu primo suo ad regmim ipsum Scocie, procerum ejus- 
dem regni extra ipsius Scocie limites coram se habere potuit 
presenciam, antequam scripto ipse caueret, eisdem proce- 
ribus, eciam sic diuisis, quod in regni ejusdem uon redun- 
daret prejudicium, quodque non debito, sed ex gratia, hoc 

Per suosque solempnes nuncios episcopos, comites et 
barones, ad hoc specialiter deputatos, promisit solempni- 
ter rex prefatus Anglie, dudum autem et regno vacante, 
quod, si de matrimonio prelocuto contrahendo inter filium 
suum Eadwardum, et Margaretam, dicti regni Scocie Domi- 
nam, et heredem, tunc superstitem, contingeret liberos non 
extare, reguiim ipsum Scocie remanaret libervim regni 
ipsius proceribus, sine omni ullave subjectione, ut de hoc 
potest confestim fieri satis fides ; quod verisimile non est, 
regem ipsum Anglie voluisse promittere iiUo modo, si tunc 
jus sibi competere in regno eodem Scocie estimasset. Multa 

oppressionem turn notoriam, vim et metum, qui cadere possent in 
constantes. Et licet Romana ecclesia tunc pro parte ipsius 
regni ScociDe fuisset nominata Domina regni ejusdem coram ipso, 
sicut erat, ipse tamen rex allegacionem hujusmodi non admisit, 
ymmo dLxisse tunc noscitur coram multis, ut a verbis suis non 
reeedatur, et si presbiter Romanus vellet pro libertate Scociaj, quo 
ad eum, aliqua dicere, oportebat ipsum venire Londonias, et iUa 
ibi proponere coram ipso. Nee autem eciam idem res, in adventu 
suo proprio tunc ad regnum ipsum Scoeias, proceres ejusdem regni 
extra ipsius regni limites coram se habere potuit petitam de gracia 
licenciam, quam patent! prius scripto ipse caveret ad eautelam Hber- 
tatis obtentiB eisdem proceribus, eciam jam divisis in partes, quod 
hujusmodi accessus ad eum extra regnumin regni ejusdemnon redun- 
daret pnejudiciimi, et quod uon ex debito, sed ex gracia hoc fiebat. 
Per suosque eciam nuncios solemnes episcopos, comites, et 
barones, ad hoc specialiter deputatos, promisit solemniter rex pras- 
fatus Angli«, dudum autem et regno Scociaj vacante, quod, si de 
matrimonio pru^locuto contrahendo inter filium suum Edwardum, 
et Margaretam, dicti regni Scociaj Dominam, et heredem, tunc 
superstitem, contingeret liberos non extare, se regnum ipsum Sco- 


quidera alia, que scribi non poterunt brevi stilo, regni ejus- 
dem Scocie manifeste comprobant libertatem, cui suffra- 
gari videntur antiqua, et moderna alia gesta multa Apos- 
toUcaqiie priuilegia et rescripta, ususque inconciissus et 
continuus observatus. Inter que Honorius tercius, prede - 
cessorum suorum iinitando vestigia, regno Scocie inter alia 
noscitur indulsisse, quod, super terris uel possessionibus 
sitis in ipso regno, ad extrapositorum judicium Scotus idlus 
non extraliatur exaraen, auctoritate sedis Apostolice semper 
salua in appellationibus interpositis ad eadem ; super quibus 
terris et possessionibus sitis in Scocie nuUatenus appella- 
retur ad sedem Apostolicam, si regnum alii regi, quod 
absurd um esse videretur, et contra jus commune, non 
immediate ecclesie Eomane subditum, eciam in temporali- 
bus, nosceretur. 

Et quod immediate subjectum sit Eomane ecclesie reg- 
num ipsum, recenti comprobatur exemplo. Nam cum 
causa comitatus de Menteth, sicut in causa non spiritual! 
uel ecclesie, sed potius criminali, a sentencia lata in curia 

else restiturum libere regni ipsius proceribus, et sine omni ulla 
subjectione, ut de hoc potest fieri confestim satis fides, quod veri- 
simile non est, regem ipsum promittere voluisse ullo mode, si tunc 
jus tibi competere in regno eodem ScociiB fuisset probabiliter opi- 
natum. Multa quidem alia, quce scribi non possunt brevi stilo, 
regni ejusdem Scocioe manifeste comprobant libertatem, inniteutem 
juris communis fortissimo fundamento, quod coadunare convin- 
cuntur antiqua, eciam moderna alia gesta multa, apostolicaque 
privUegia et rescripta, usque communis hiis temporibus ultimis 
observatis inconcusse. Inter quie Honorius tercius Papa, prajde- 
cessorum suorum imitando vestigia, regno Scoci* noscitur indul- 
cisse, quod, super terris vel possessionibus sitis in ipso regno, ad 
extra positorum judicium Scotus nullus extrahatur examine, sedis 
ApostoliciB auctoritate semper salva in appeUacionibus interpositis 
ad sedem ipsam ; super quibus terris et possessionibus suis in 
Scocise nuUatenus appellaretur ad sedem ipsam, si regnum ipsum 
alii regi, quod esse videretur absurdum, jurique communi contra- 
rium, et non immediate Romance ecclesias subditum, eciam in 
temporalibus nosceretur. 

Et quod in temporalibus immediate sit subditum eidera Ro- 


regis Scocie, non est diu ad sedein extitit appellatum, et 
appellacionis causa per ipsaui sedem certis noscitur fuisse 
comiuissa judicibus termmanda. Cui facto rex Auglie 
contradicens, minime tolleraudo sedem ipsam agere et 
disponere adeo quod sibi prius competebat, et nunc sibi 
asserit, prejudicare cum nemine injuriatur, utens jure suo. 
Verisimileque non est sedem Apostolicam causam appel- 
lacionis commisisse eandem, si non ad ipsam, sed ad regem 
Anglie, directum spectaret regni Scocie dominium supra - 
dicti Sed et mundus nouit, quod, quamdiu Scocia rege non 
caruit, et in ipsa materia dissencionis exorta non fuit, rex 
Anglie in regno Scocie nullum sibi jus penitus vendicauit, 
sed tantum ex eo tempore dictum regnum cepit sine causa 
legitima molestare, ex quo orta est dissencio inter Scotos. 
Et inde processit solummodo suus titulus ad regnum ipsum, 
inutiUs, si quem liabet. Preteria eciam eodem rege Anglie 
ab Innocencio Papa quarto, petente quod rex Scocie non 
posset se facere, ipso inscio, in regem coronari vel inungi, 
Innocencius idem Papa peticionem hujusmodi repulisse 
noscitur, presentibus procm'atoribus parcium, in consQio 
Lugdunensi, satis per hoc determinans regnum Scocie 

maniB ecclesioe regnum ipsum Scocioe, non est diu ad sedem 
extitit Apostolicam appellatiun, et appellacionis causa per ipsam 
sedem certis noscitur commissa fuisse judicibus terminanda. 
Cui facto rex Angliaj tunc minime contradicens, tollerando 
sedem ipsam agere et disponere adeo quod sibi prius com- 
petebat, et nunc asserit sibi pra?judicasse noscitur super ipso. 
Verisimile non est, sedem apostolicam sic causam appellacionis 
commisisse eandem, si ad regem ipsum Angliae, et non ad ipsam, 
directum spectasset Scociffi regni dominium cognovisset. Sed et 
mundus novit, quod, quamdiu Scocia rege non caruit, et in ipsa 
materia discensionis exorta non fuit, rex Angliae in regno Scociaj 
nullum sibi jus penitus vendicavit, sed tantum ex eo tempore dic- 
tum regnum sine causa legitima molestare, ex quo orta est dis- 
cencio inter Scotos, i. inde processit solummodo suus titulus ad 
regnum ipsum, inutilis si quem habet. Petenteque eciam ali- 
quando rege Angliie ab Innocencio Papa quarto, quod rex Scocire 
se non posset facere ipso nescio in regem coronari vel inungi, 


regi Anglie non subesse. Et ideo dicte cause sic facte 
decisio in recidiuam non debet amodo venire ques- 
tionem. Petenti insuper eidem regi AiigUe regni Scocie, 
in subsidium Terre Sancte, ipsam deciinam, idem Inno- 
cencius concedere denegauit, adjiciens, quod regi alii alieni 
regni decima concedi minime consueuit. Manifeste per 
hoc innuens, quo ad ipsum regem Anglie reguum eciam 
Scocie penitus esse alienum, et eidem nuUatenus subjectum. 
Concedendoque idem Innocencius tunc regi Anglie deci- 
mam regni sui, teiTanimque omnium sue jurisdictioui sub- 
jectarum, per hoc regni Scocie decimam non concessit 
eidem, sed omnino alteri, innuens manifeste idem regnum 
Scotorum regi Anglie non subesse, et pro ipso regno Scocie 
regem ejusdem non esse uUatenus, ut ipse asserat, liegius 
homo suus. Et priuilegio eciam sedis Apostolice Scotis 
indulto, et Domino nostro summo Pontifici satis notis, lega- 
tum sedis Apostolice Scoti admittere non tenentur per 
literas Apostolicas, in quibus simid utriusque regni Anglie 
et Scocie ahem legacio sit commissa. Ex quo patet, dis- 
tincta esse regna eadem, et eorum alteram ab altero nuUa- 

Innocencius idem Papa peticionem hujusmodi repulisse noscitur, 
priesentibus procuratoribus parcium, in consilio Lugdunensi. 
Satis per hoc determinatur, regnum Scocias regno Anglise non 
subesse, et ideo dictce causfe sic facta decisio in recidivam venire 
non debet amodo qusestiouem. Petentique insuper eidem regi 
Anglise regni Scocias decimam, idem Innocencius concedere dene- 
gavit, adiciens, regi alicui alieni regni decima concedi minime 
consuevit Per quod non inutiliter, quo ad ipsum regem Anglioe, 
regnum esse Scocise penitua alienum, et ei nullatenus subjectum. 
Concedendoque eciam idem Innocencius tunc regi Anglice decimam 
regni fui terrarum omnium sive jurisdictionum sibi subjectarum, 
per hoc regni Scocite decimam non concessit eidem, sed omnino 
alteri, indicans evidenter, ut juri.s est idem regnum Scocioe regi 
Anglise prsedicto suteve jurisdictioui non subesse, et quod rex 
ScocitS pro ipso regno non ullatenus legius homo suus est. Ex 
privilegiis eciam sedis apostolicte Scotis indulto, et Domino nostro 
summo pontifici satis noto, legatum sedis apostolice Scoti admit- 
tere non tenentur per litteras apostolicas, in quibus simul utrius- 


tenus dependere. De hiis autem omnibus et aliis regni 
Scocie defensionibus, libertatibus et juribus, existencia 
munimenta publica in thesauraria regni Scocie idem rex 
Anglie inde abstulit, et, quando regni ipsius habuit cus- 
todiam, vi et metu ipsa fecit, cum munimentis aliis omni- 
bus quibus fixmabantur jura regni Scocie, in Anglia aspor- 
tari, una eciam cum sede regali antiquissima dicti regni 
subtrahens, per hoc omnio Scotis copiam omnem promp- 
tam probacionis juris sui et defensionis cujuslibet contra 
ipsum nihil ominus, eciam ex hoc ostendens injustam 
causam se fouere in predictis, spemque omnem sua desti- 
tucione Scotis auferens, pro suo posse alium ab ipso uel 
Bids regem ulterius (in Scocia) regnaturus. Eorundem 
tamen instrumentorum tenor, et facta per ipsum subtractio, 
creditur ad hoc legittimis testibus comprobari 

Ceterum per hujusmodi obtentum per ipsum regem 
Anglie, non vocatum a quoquam, qiucquid scribat, nee 
recognitum in Scotorum dominum nisi metu tantum, 
ipsius regni vacantis tempore, postquam primum suum 
qualemcunque titulum, et extortum principatum ejusdem 

que regni Seocite et Anglia3 legacio altri sit commissa. Ex quo 
patet manifeste, distincta esse eadem regna, et corum alterum ab 
altro nullatenus dejiendere. De autem omuibus, et aliis regni 
Scociae defensionibus, libertatibus, et juribus, existencia muni- 
menta publica . . . regni Scocife idem rex Angliie inde abstulit, 
et quando regni ipsius habuit custodiam, vi et metu ipsa fecit 
cum mimimentis aliis omnibus, quibus confivmabantur regni 
Scocise memorati et libertas ejusdem, in Anglia asportari, una cum 
sede eciam regni Scotorum antiquissima, subtrahens per vim h«c 
et omnia alia qu;e potuit Scotis copiam omnem promptam proba- 
cionis juris et dcfencionis habit;e contra ipsum, et ex hiis osten- 
dens manifeste injustam causam se fovere in proedictis contra 
ipsos, quibus omnimodam subesse fiduciam alium ab ipso vel suis 
regem ulterius in Scocia regnaturum. Eorundem tantum instru- 
mentorum tenor, et sic facta per ipsum subtractio, creditur adhuc 
posse legittimis testibus comprobari. 

Cetemm post hujus obtentum per ipsum regem Angliae, non 
vocatum a Scotis, quicquid scribat, nee recognitum in Scotorum 


regni notorie, per sedicionem solam parcium intestinam, 
qualiter Scotis in pristinam prouocantibus Libertatem, 
ipse rex Anglie sine judice jus sibi dicens de re et de 
regno sibi penitus alieno, sueque potencie, juribus regniim 
primus ut aduena inuaserit supradictum ac in ipsum, 
velut in messem aHenam missit quam temere falcem suam. 
Scribi insuper non potest breui stilo, qualiter, post 
captum regni ejusdem nobile oppidum Berwicum, ipse, et 
sui prinii regni inuasores, seuierunt tirannice in ipsius 
oppidi incolas ad ecclesias fugientes a facie multitudinis 
et furore persequentis, passim necando sacerdotes eciam in 
ecclesiis, mulieres et paruulos, nulla data venia sexui 
uel etati, usque ad numerum octo milium personarum. 
De ipsius oppidi ecclesiis solempnibus, fedatis multiplici 
sanguine occisorum, et eisdem eciam spoliatis suis omni- 
bus ornamentis, quam notorium est ipsum regem et suos 
fecisse fieri stabula equis suis. Sed et singula facta sua 
immania, commissa ibidem et alibi, tediosum esset scri- 
bere et horribile auscultare. Quibus irritamentis tarn 
horrendis et attemptatis dolorum sequencium iniciis, per 

Dominis, nisi metu tantum, regnum ipsius vacantis tempore, 
postquam primum smim qualemcumque titulum, et introitum, 
regni ejusdem extortura principatum notorie per sedicionem solam 
parcium intestinam, qualitercumque Scotis eisdem in pristinam 
provocantibus libertatem, rex ipse Angliai sine judicio jus sibi 
dicens de re et regno sibi penitus alieno per solam potenciam, 
suam vim et metum, in messem alienam mittens temere falcem. 

Ac delude qualiter ipsum prsecessit negocium scribi non 
potest, alias responderi diotis suis brevi stilo, eo quod pro- 
lixius est nimium mundo tam notorius, tam injustus processus 
negocii, in quo confidit, si justi judicis examine et statera 
justiciae librarentur singula facta sua, in quibus si confidendum 
crediderit, justi judicis Romani pontificis nidlatenus declinaret 
examen, ut declinat, ut ipsius saltem negocii Veritas exa- 
minata ssepius in luce magis pro ipso splendesceret, et partis 
adversse pernicies, quam allegat, in judicium revocata, sine 
pcenitencia gravius deprivaretur vel dampnaretur. Et quia 
de veritate causae non habet considerare con est mirum ; frena- 
ciones quffirit, et ad subterfugia confugit, quserens per eulogia 


ipsum regem, causam et primum actorem malorum om- 
nium commissorum, postea, si Scoti prouocati, justoque 
deuicti dolore hujusmodi, postea resumptis viribus pro- 
cesserunt ad vindictam qualemcunque contra Anglicos, 
immania tamen eis ascripta per epistolas easdem regias 
destinatas minime committendo, non est eis imputandum 
tantum quantum regi, uel quantum, si prime prouocantes 
fuissent ad scelera hujusmodi suscitanda, ut rex fecit. 
Sed quia de predictis et circumstanciis singulis omnium 
predictorum constare non poterit, nisi presentibus parti- 
bus et coram judice competenti, reuocatum est totum 
negocium ad examen dicte sedis, quod non poterit idem 
rex ullatenus juste declinare ruente judicio in inuitum, 
ubi nocentis conuiucetur cujuscunque partis iniquitas, 
lucebit negocii ueritas, et fiet innocencia magis nota. Ad 
quod solum Scoti tendunt, queque parcium fiat unicui- 
que, cognito negocio, quod est juris. Ideoque cum in 
dicta causa tarn ardua dicte sedis non posset declinari 
examen per regem ipsum, multiplici pretacta sepius 

absens injustam reddere pro justa causam suam. Nam certo 
cercius est, quod rex ipse, actor omnium scelerum quse sunt 
postea subsecuta, primus seminavit, delude de die in die 
inter regna primus convolavit ad arma, primus hostiles commit- 
tens incursus, incendia, caedes et scelera in regno Scocise perpe- 
trando, prout hoec capcio et de.solacio nobilis tunc opidi Berwiei 
manifeste declarant. Post cujus capcionem opidi, et coedem ibi 
commissam octo milium personarum, fugientibusque eciam muli- 
eribus, sacerdotibus, parvulis et clericis ad refugium ecclesiae, nulla 
data fuit per ipsum vel per suos venia ; quinymmo de ipsis eccle- 
siis solempnibus, spoliatis, suis omnibus ornamentis, et foedatis 
effusione multiplici sanguinis fugiencium et occisorum in eisdem, 
facta, more gentilium, per ipsum regem et suos stabula, proth ! 
dolor, equis suis ; propter quse malorurn talium inicio si ipsi Scoti 
quomodolibet se defenderent in faccione, dolore devicti, processe- 
runt ad vindictam, nee liesse majestatis possunt criminis per regem 
argui (crimiiu non suberant) sed nee de regno ipso sibi peccata 
fuisse probari poterit spontanea cessio, quoe de jure non prsesumi- 
tur fieri invasori aliquo sibi regi Scocia, quod constat regno eodera 
spoliatum per regem ipsum Anglise primitus jam fuisse. Et quia 


racione, regnumque ipsum Scocie de jure commimi sit 
liberum quo ad regem Anglie supradictum, et legitima 
super hoc aliisque adminiculis euidentibiis contra eum 
sufficientissime communitum. De cujus regni subjec- 
tione sibi debita, idoneara ipse fidem penitus nullam 
fecit. Et inter alia discucienda in ipso negocio possessiuo 
judicio, et de sacrilegii crimine agendum sit ecclesiastice 
contra ipsum; ipseque rex judex competens non sit in 
causa sua, nee sibi licuerat sola potencia, vi et metu, se in 
regnum sic vacans et acepbalum intrudere alienum, fuer- 
itque contuuiax ad prefixmn sibi terminiun, ut doceret 
de jure suo in regno Scocie memorato ; summoque in- 
super Pontifici non erubuerit notorie falsa scribere tan- 
quam vera. Nee sit eciam judex ullus superior alius, 
quam dicta sedes, ad quam, pro obtinenda justicia de 
dampnis datis et spoliacionibus commissis, possit haberi 
recursus, deperireque non debeat, aut per silencium con- 
culcari, jus quod in regno Scocie Romana ecclesia 
noscitur obtinere, ut non vilescat sedis ejusdem aucto- 

de hiis, et aliis causis mutatis et circumstanciis negocii non alias 
constare bene potuit, nisi assercionibus parcium et probacionibus 
narratorum, faciendo, ut fieri debent, coram judice competenti ; 
non sine deliberacione debita revocatum fuit totum ipsum nego^ 
cium tam arduum per summum pontificem et apostolicas sedis 
examen debitum, ut ibidem de ipso fieret quod est jims ; cujus 
sedis examen ruente judicio et munitum idem non potest rex 
Anglise, sine causa magis manifesta, prout jam nititur aUqualiter 
declinare. Potissime qui, post notificatam sibi revocacionem 
ejusdem negocii, jam bis congregato exercitu irruit de novo in 
dictum regnum Scocise hostiliter, in ipsius sedis contemptum, 
juris injuriam, et scandalum phirimorum, per hoc notorie ineidens 
in poenam constitucionis Uliug, Si quis in tantam, et meminerunt 
cuncti, etc. Et ob hoc privandus esse noscitur omni jure, si quod 
in ipso primitus habuisset. Quare cum fit de jure communi 
Scotorum fundari intencio, et liberum sit ipsum regnum SeociiB 
quo ad regem Angliae, et de jure quam de facto, gavisumque sit 
a tempore, de quo non extat memoria, hujus in libertatis posses- 
sione pacifica, potissime cum toto tempore clarse memoriae Alex- 
andri, regis Scotoriun ultimi, et post ipsius eciam obitum, tempore 


ritas et potestatis plenitudo, qui ad suuni examen juste 
idem negocium reuocauit; prefatam deceret Eomanam 
ecclesiam, regnum suum Scocie perdicioni expositum neg- 
ligere non debere, quia ei juris remedia apponeret op- 
portuna, cui aperire tenetur favorabilius, tantis precipue 
exposito periculis, materna viscera pietatis, et persequen- 
cium suorum conatus reprimere, prouisis subsidiis et 
congruis viis juris. Sed regis ejusdem potissime, qui 
Apostolicas exhortaciones in predictis, et salubria ipsius 
monita uidetur assumpsisse actenus ia derisum, et nichU 
penitus facere propter ipsam, prouisum Scotis amodo, non 
obstantibus productis per ipsum regem multis friuolis, 
expedit facere remedium contra presumptiones ipsius 
innouatas : potissime, eo quod post reuocacionem factam 
ejusdem negocii ad curiam, et decretum Apostoliciun sub- 
secutum, Ne quid fieret in contrarium. Ipse vero rex, bis 
congregato exercitu,invasit de nouo hostiliter regnum ipsum 
Scocie, in contemptum dicte sedis manifestum : per hoc 
manifeste incidens in constitucionem, et in penis Dlius 

custodum regni ejusdem tunc vacantis per vi. annos, usque ad 
extortam turbacionis regni materiam, ex quibus continuatis tem- 
poribus praescripcio est completa ; sicque notorium est eciam, 
regem ipsum Angliae, regni ejusdem Scocife vacacionis tempore, 
auctoritate propria in illud indebite irruisse, ac illud occupasse per 
solam poteneiam, vim et metum, infinitis datis dampnis in ipso 
regno ecclesioe ecclesiasticisque personis et secularibus ejusdem, 
nullo sibi omnino opitulante justo titulo ad ipsum regnum Scocias 
optinendum : Et propter ista non nisi ad Komanum ecclesiam 
potuit regni ejusdem incolis, laesis per dictum regem, opportunius 
recursua pro justicia obtinenda : Sicque propter hoc ad examen 
dictse sedis idem negociiun, sicut debuit, fuit revocatiuu, in cujus 
seilis contemptum, spretis mandatis apostolicis super hoc susceptis, 
idem rex AngUas hostUibus repetitis incursibus notorie inquietare 
prsesumpsit ipsum regnum tam injuste : Supplicant Scoti Domino 
nostro summo pontifici, quateuus, ex ejusdem regis Anglise sub- 
tectis eulogiis, partim vetustate sublatis, et partim maculatis 
admixta, uotoria turpitudiue falcitatis notoriae, ut est dictum, 
infonnacionem illam nullam dignetur suscipere, nisi quam susci- 
pere convenit ex partis adveuisse scriptis suspectis et eversis vetus- 


constitucionis, Si qviis in tantum. Propter quod priuari 
meretur totaUter omni jure, si quod in regno Scocie primi- 
tus habuisset, et puniri condigne alias pro contemptu. 
Sed ut de predictis omnibus propositis hinc inde et eciam 
propondendis iiat, vocatis partibus, de jure ipsoram debita 
discussio per sedem ipsam, pro parte Scotorum supplica- 
tur humniter et instanter Domino nostro sununo Pontifici, 
quod, ut expedit, prouideatur ipsi regno et ecclesie Scoti- 
cane de congruo et utUi remedio contra violencias notorias 
et oppressiones, quas ipse rex regno predicto infeiTe adhuc 
iudebite non desistit ; quodque de jure parcium judicialiter 
cognoscatur per sedem ipsam, et iiat eidem Domiuo Eegi et 
Scotis, auditis allegacionibus parcium presencium, et non 
per eulogia uel literas, super toto negocio justicia, actis 
interim beUicis interdictis. 




Memoriter retinet Sanctitas vestra, qualiter, cito post 
festum Penthecostes idtimo preteritum, ex parte prela- 
torum, comitum, et baronum, et tocius communitatis regni 
vestri Scocie, supplicauimus vestre Sanctitati, ut, contra 
duricias injuriosas et persecutiones seuissimas, quibus 

tatibus non probatis. Quodque sicut eadem sedes ad suum exa- 
men duxit juste idem revocare negocium, sic revocacioni eideiu 
inheerendo, prout deberet et incepit, negocium ipsum, causam et 
quajstionem inter partes apud sedem istam audire dignetur, et 
illud, eis praesentibus, ad subjeetorum eciam perpetuam memoriam 
futurorum apostolica sentencia determinare, proviso paternis affec- 
tibus ipsi regno Scociae et ecclesi.e suae' sic afflictis per regem 
ipsum, ac luinis expositis, de oportuno remedio interim, quo ad 
secundum innovata per ipsum sui hostiles reprimantur incursis, 
pendente discucione ipsius negocii in curia, ut possint tute et 
libere ibidem Scoti prosequi causam suam. 


rex Anglie, cum suis complicibus, regiiiim Scocie pre- 
dictum et ipsius incolas, in graue prejudicimn ecclesie 
Romane, cui idem regnum in temporalibus et sptrituali- 
bus dinoscitur subici sine medio, hostUiter dilacerauit, 
nee desinit lacerare, remedium opportunum dignemini ad- 
hibere. Et qualiter vos, paterno aff'ectu regno et incolis 
ejusdem compacientes, in visceribus caritatis, de salubri 
remedio in premissis celeriter apponendo concepistis, 
super hoc, de vestro speciali precepto, cum idem nego- 
cium perfici debuisset, superuenerunt duo mUites nuncii 
regis Anglie, qui, ex parte ejusdem, qiiamdam epistolam 
sigillo ipsius consignatam vobis presentarunt, in qua 
multa continebantur que, prima facie, pro jure regis 
Anglie ad regnum Scocie facere videbantur. Unde vos, 
pater sanctissime, nolentes aliquod ipsum negocium tan- 
gens apud nos latere, ad presenciam vestram fecistis nos 
vocari, exponentes nobis, qualiter litera hujusmodi fuit 
missa vobis. Cujus copiam placuit Sanctitati vestre 
nobis debere fieri, et, ex precepto vestro speciali, per ves- 
tnim notarium specialem nobis facta fuit, ut, prehabita 
deliberacione pleuiori, possemus vestram Sanctitatem super 
jure Romane ecclesie et nostro plenius informare, et 
racionibus iu dicta litera regis Anglie contentis respon- 
dere. Verum quia contenta in eadem litera consistunt 
in facto nedum recenti, sed antiquo et antiquissimo, con- 
sulimus majores nostros, ut oportuit, super ipsis, de quorum 
consilio quedam notorie vera, non conficta, pro parte 
nostra premittentes, racionibus exhibitis ex aduerso re- 
spondebimus consequenter. 

Pro parte regis et regni Scocie facit imprimis jus com- 
mune, quia nee consulatus consulatui, nee episcopatus 
episcopatui, nee regnum regno, aut rex regi, subjicitur de 
jure communi. Et, sicut notat Dominus Imiocencius 
quartus, quasi contra jus naturale est et miraculosum, 
quod qui sui juris est, aliene subjiciatur potestati. Unde 
talia ab alio, quam a Principe Papa uel Imperatore, ne- 
queunt impetrari. Tale aliquod indultum non ostendit 
ipse rex, unde d cetera. 


Pro ipsis eciam facit decisio seu declaracio ejusdem Inno- 
cencii in duobus factis. Cum enim rex Scocie, super sua 
inunctione et coronacione ab hac sacra sede procurandis, 
cum suis magnatibus et proceribus tractatum haberet, 
rumor de hoc ad regem Anglie prelatus est, qui statim 
per nuncios suos et literas Domino Innocencio predicto 
supplicauit instanter, ut in hac parte votis regis Scocie 
non annueret absque consensu suo, quia hoc in prejudi- 
cium ipsius regis Anglie cederet, cum rex Scocie homo 
suus liegius esset, et sibi homagium faciebat. Hanc suam 
supplicacionem Dominus Innocencius admittere recusauit, 
supponens regnum Scocie, quantum pro regno Scocie, fore 
liberum omnino a rege Anglie, licet forsitan, pro quibusdam 
terris quas reges Scocie optinent in Anglia, ipsi regi 
Anglie fidelitatem et homagium faciebant. Ad idem facit, 
quod ipse Dominus Innocencius regi Anglie decimam 
omnium proueutuum ecclesiasticorum regni Anglie, et 
omnium terrarum sibi subjectarum, ex causa concessis- 
set, cito postea instanter eidem Domino Innocencio 
supplicauit, ut sibi decimam bonorum ecclesiasticorum 
regni Scocie concedere dignaretur. Eescripsit, Se hoc 
sibi concedere nolle nee debere, cum insoHtum esset et 
inconueniens, sibi uel alii in regno alieno talia concedi ; 
dicens autem simpliciter, Regnum Scocie esse alterius, et 
per consequens omnino videtur quod non sit Ulius, cum 
in regalibus simiKter loquens, omne jus undecunque et 
qualitercunque complecti videatur. Item, si terra Scocie 
fuisset regi Anglie subjecta, nee ipse rex Anglie, post 
gratiam sibi factam de decima omnium terrarum sibi sub- 
jectarum, pro decima terre Scocie specialiter supplicasset, 
nee ipse Dominus Papa, qiu sibi hujusmodi gratiam con- 
cesserat, ipsam in terra Scocie eidem denegasset. 

Ad idem facit precedens ad fidem catholicam Scotorum 
conuersio, qui fidem ipsam susceperant ante conuersionem 
Anglicane gentis per quadringenta annos, et triginta sex 
reges cathoUci, antequam conuerterentur Anglici, in regno 
Scocie libere regnauerunt. Unde, supposito quod Scoti 
fuissent prius subjecti, per fidei suscepcionem ab ipsorum 



Anglicorum, infidelitate permanencium, fuissent exempti. 
Et liciiisset ex tunc Scotis Anglicorum infidelium, bona 
quecunque occupare, ex tunc etinim exortum est odium 
naturale inter Scotos et Anglicos, quia fideles infidelibus 
sunt exosi, et converso, quod et usque hodiernum diem 
tenaciter perseuerat. 

Ex tunc etiam rex et incole regni Scocie ecclesiam 
Eomanam, in qua fidem susceperant, tarn in temporalibus 
quam in spiritualibus, suam Dominam ex directo dominio 
recognouerunt. Quorum deuocionem Imperator Constan- 
tinus, quo ad temporalia, plenius adimpleuit. Ipse nam- 
que Constantinus donauit ecclesie Eomane omnes insulas 
occidentales, de quarum numero est regnum Scocie, 
id est, jus quod habebat in eisdem, scilicet, directum 
dominium. Et si directum dominium regni Scocie est 
ecclesie Eomane, ergo non est regis Anglie, cum idem 
genus dominii, sicut nee possessionis, possit simul et semel 
esse dixorum. Hoc auteni dominium apud ecclesiam 
Eomanam non fuit vacuum aut ociosum, cum frequenter 
usa sit inter Scotos ipsius dominii debita potestate. Patens 
exemplum ad presens in duobiis aducimus. Cum enim 
super comitatum de ]\Ienteth regni Scocie, quedam nobilis 
Domiua, ipsum comitatum de jure tunc optinens heredi- 
tario, tralieretur in causam in curia regis Scocie, ibidem 
contrariam sententiam reportauit. A qua, tamquam ab 
iniqua, ad banc sacram sedem, uelut ad suam Dominam 
superiorem, appellauit : ubi optinuit literas Apostolicas in 
causa appellacionis ejusdem ; uirtute quarum judices dati 
de meritis dicte cause, multo tempore, sciente rege Anglie 
et non contradicente, publice cognouerunt. 

Item Domini Celestinus primus, Honorius tercius et In- 
nocencius quartus, incolis regni Scocie priuilegium indul- 
serunt, quod eciam super possessionibus temporalibus, ad 
examen vel judicium extrapositormn nullatenus per literas 
Apostolicas trahereuter, nisi ad sedem ipsam Apostolicam 
contingeret appellari. Constat autem quod super temporal- 
ibus se summi pontifices non intromittenmt, ut hujusmodi 
priuilegia indulgendo nee appellationes in talibus, ut ipsas 


delegarent, nulli eas ducerent committendas, sibi specialiter 
per quandam prerogativam specialem in illo regno reser- 
uarent, nisi ecclesie Komane dominium directum sentirent 
et scirent competere in temporalibus et in eodem regno. 

Predicta comprobantur euidenter per publicam confes- 
sionem partis aduerse. Nam cum, defuncto bone memo- 
rie domino rege Scocie Alexandro tercio, nobilis puella 
Margarita, fdia quondam regis Norwegie, neptis Alexan- 
dri predicti, ipsi regi Alexandro jure hereditario succes- 
sisset, rex Anglie, qui nunc regnat, predictum regnimi 
Scocie pro se uel pro suis anhelans habere, filium suum 
primogenitum et heredem eidem domicille matrimonialiter 
concepit copulare. Quod cum non posset expedire absque 
licencia sedis ApostoUce, specialiter quia se in secundo et 
tercio gradu consanguinitatis contingebant, dispensacionem 
bujus sacre sedis optinuit in hac parte. Ita tamen, dum- 
modo hoc magnatibus, et aliis incolis regni Scocie com- 
placeret. Varum quia hoc ipsum magnatibus et incolis 
penitus non placebat, nisi regno, et ipsis super libertate 
regni et ipsorum, pleniiis caueretur ; tandem in personis 
Dimelniensis et Karleolensis episcoporum, Lincolniensis et 
Waranie comitum, Magistri Henrici de Newerk, tunc 
decani Eboracensis, et Domini WiUelmi de Vessy militis, 
ad hoc specialiter a Domino rege Anglie deputatorum, 
et ad hoc speciale mandatum habencium, confessus est, 
Quod regnum Scocie est regnum omniuo separatum a 
regno Anglie, et penitus liberum ab omuimoda subjec- 
tione et dominio regni et regis Anglie. Que quidem 
confessio redacta fuit in instrumentum authenticum, pre- 
dictorum prelatorum et nobiUum sigdlis consignatum, et 
ex abundauti, hoc similiter habemus in publico instru- 
mento, quod et cum aliis instrumentis Apostolicis, de 
quibus superius fit meucio statim, ad Sauctitatis vestre 
preceptum, poterimus exhibere. 

Pro nobis eciam facit legitima prescripcio, quia, licet pre- 
dicto regi jus aliquod hujusmodi in regno Scocie ex aliquo 
titulo speciali competisset aliquo tempore contra jus com- 
mune, spacio lougissimi temporis, cujus non exstat memoria. 


contra ipsum regeni et regmim Anglie, ut res ad suam na- 
turam redeat, prescripsimus libertatem. Nulla siquidem 
extant indicia prestite subjectionis a nobis ad illos, sed 
pocius recens extat memoria quampluribus fide dignis sub- 
jectionis ipsis Anglicis denegate. Nam cum ultimiis Hen- 
ricus rex Anglie ab Alexandre rege Scocie, suo genero, 
contra Symonem de JVIonteforti et suos complices, sibi 
suppUcasset auxilium impendi, per suas literas super hoc 
datas, recognouit, se hujusmodi auxilixmi non accipere ex 
debito, sed ex gracia speciali. 

Item, cuni iste rex Eadwardus suam coronacionem in- 
tenderet solempniter celebrare, supplicauit instanter Alex- 
andre regi Scocie predicto, ut sue coronacioni curaret 
interesse. Qui nequaquam hoc facere voluit, donee per 
literas patentes dicti regis Anglie, sibi pro se et regno 
suo Scocie caueretur, quod ex amicicia, quia sororius suus 
erat et vicinus, non autem ex debito aliquo illud faciebat. 
Item cum peteretur homagium, ex mandate ejusdem regis 
Anglie, a dicto rege nostre, ipse pro regno Scocie simpli- 
citer hoc facere recusauit, cum liber esset quo ad regnum 
et regem Anglie ipse et regnum suum. Et tandem cum 
hac pretestacione, Qued hoc pro regno suo nuUatenus 
faciebat, sed pro terris quibusdam quas habuit in Anglia, 
prestitit homagium antedictum. Non autem ipse rex 
Eadwardus, in aduentu primo suo ad regnum ipsum Scocie, 
procerum ejusdem regni extra ipsius Scocie Umites habere 
potuit petitam presenciam, quam prius scripto ipse caueret 
eisdem proceribus, quod in regni ejusdem hoc non redun- 
daret prejudicium, et quod non ex debito, sed ex gracia, 
hoc fiebat. 

Non enim ejusdem regni, vacantis per mortem Alex- 
andri regis predicti, ad regem ipsum Anglie, veluti ad 
ipsius rectum Dominum, peruenit custodia, ut de feudis 
fieri consueuit, sed ad ipsius regimen, per regni ejusdem 
proceres, certi electi libere quatuor aut sex custodes exti- 
terunt. Qui, rege ipso Anglie sciente et tolerante, nuUum ■ 
que sibi jus competere tunc in dicto regno vendicante, 
nulloque per ipsum impedimento prestito, regni regimini 


prefuerunt per sex annos et iiltra, quousqiie in dicto regno 
suboriri cepit dissencionis materia inter partes, super jure 
petitorio pociori succedendi in ipsuni regnum, Marga- 
rita, fiUa regis Norwegie, ipsius regni herede, jam defuncta. 
Post cujus mortem, audita sic suscitata discordia inter 
Scotos, idem rex Anglie, fingens se ea veUe tractare que 
pacis essent inter Scotos, sub agnino vellere, se ingerens, 
Don vocatus, quicquid scribat, aUecta sibi caUide ejusdem 
regni procerum Scocie una parte, parti jus in regno Scocie 
non habenti tunc temporis adherencium, et sic reliqua sibi 
resistere non valente, de facto regni ejusdem sibi usur- 
pauit custodiam prime, et postea superius dominiiun, per 
oppressionem tarn notoriam, per vim et metum, qui 
cadere poterant in constantes. Et licet Eomana ecclesia 
tunc proparte dicti regni fuisset nominata domina regni ejus- 
dem coram ipso, ipse tamen rex Anglie allegacionem hujus- 
modi non admisit ; ymmo se dixisse dicitur coram multis, 
lit a verbis suis non recedatur. " Quod si iUe presbyter 
" Eomanus veUet pro libertate Scocie, quoad eum, dicere ali- 
" qua, oportebat ipsum venire Londonias, et ilia ibi propo - 
" nere coram ipso." Mimdus autem nouit, quod quamdiu 
Scocia rege non caruit, et in ipsa non fuit exorta dissencio 
intestina, rex Anglie in regno Scocie nullum sibi jus peni- 
tus vendicauit, sed tamen ex eo tempore cepit dictum reg- 
num, sine causa, molestare, ex quo orta est dissencio inter 
Scotos, et inde processit solummodo suus titulus, inutiUs 
ad ipsum regnum, si quem habet. 

Item, Gregorius primus, DmagaUi iilius, rex Scotonim, 
totam sibi Angliam subjugauit, nee de subjectione quacun- 
que Scotorum Saxonibus, Normannis uel Anglicis, que 
negatur, omnino sit fides ullatenus, nisi per assercionem 
solam regiam et domestica scripta sua, de quibus non est 
idonea probacio pro seipso. Predictis accedit et iUud noto- 
rium, quod si aliquociens hec sacra sedes regno Anglie, uel 
eciam Anglie et Scocie scribat conjunctim, hujusmodi 
mandatum regnum vel incolas Scocie in aliquo non astrin- 
git, sed pocius expectatur mandatum separatum, ut omni- 
modo ipsorum regnorum separacio, et quod nichil commune 


habeant, denotetur. Pro nobis facit equitas et uigor jus- 
ticie, ut, ciim auctoritate sua regnum nostruna hostiliter 
iniiaserit et occupauerit, temeritate sua jus, si quod habuit, 
in dicto regno Scocie, perdere debet auctoritate juris, et alias 
puniri debite pro coutemptu. Pro nobis est, quod cum 
citatus legitime ad jus suum, si quod haberet, in regno 
Scocie per ipsum defamato, infra certum terminum, sibi 
prefixum, ostendendum, coram vobis non curauit compa- 
rere, non est ulterius super hoc audiendum. 

Ad exbibita pro parte regis AngUe sic respondemus ; 
primo in geuere, deinde ad particularia descendendo. 
Multa refert, sed pauca probat. Trausmisit vobis epis- 
tolam quandam, in qua, prima facie, pro ipso facere 
videntur quasi seriose conscripta. Cui quidem epistole 
nuUa fides est adhibenda, quia nee ratione forme cum 
tam pubHca forma careat, quam authentica, nee in racione 
uel auctoritate scribentis ; ymmo, pocius ex persona scriben- 
tis fidei ipsius litere et in ipsa contentorum, debeat derogari 
quadrujilici racione ; tum quia noster capitalis inimicus est, 
contra quos scribit ; tum quia deponit in sua propria causa ; 
tum quia vocatus super hoc (eodem) negocio, necnon ad 
examen vestrum, contempsit, ut premissum est, comparere : 
et, quod contumacius est, expresse dicit in principio pre- 
dicte litere, quod coram vobis non intendit litigare, nee in 
figura judicii procedere, sed, ad vestram conscienciam super 
jure suo serenaudam extrajudicialiter vobis banc transmisit, 
per quod suspectus est et malam causam presumitur 
fouere ; quarto, quia multa notoria falsa, ut patebit ex 
dicendis, immiscet dictis suis, per quod totum dictum 
suum decolorat. 

In sue narracionis serie utitur triplici tempore, anti- 
quissimo, scilicet, autiquo, atque nouo. Autiquissimum 
vocamus tempus, ante incarnacionem Christi ; antiquum, 
post incarnacionem ipsius usque ad tempus in quo ipse 
rex Auglie, qui nunc regnat in Anglia, regnum Scocie 
nisus est indebite usurpare ; nouum tempus vocamus 
quod fluxit postea. 

Eefert siquidem, quod illo tempore antiquissimo fuit 


quidam Brutus nomine, qm in omnibus insulis occiden- 
talibus regnauit, que quidem integra regio ab ipso Brute 
Britannia vocabatur. Qui, cum haberet tres filios, scilicet, 
Locrinum, Albanactiun et Cambrum, ipsam regionem 
suam diuisit inter eos. Loegriam, que nunc vocatur Anglia, 
dedit Locriuo ; Albaniam, que nunc vocatur Scocia, Alba- 
nacto ; et Cambriam, que nunc vocatur Wallia, Cambro 
assignando : ita tamen quod alii duo cum suis principati- 
bus Locrino subessent. Quodque postea, Albanacto a 
quibusdam suis inimicis interfecto, regnum Albanie, sine 
Scocie, ad Locrinum, tanquam Dominum superiorem, rediit 
et ipse de dicto regno sic sibi obueniente, disposuit pro 
sue libito voluntatis. Sed ista non procedunt. Nam die it 
Brutum illam monarchiam integram habuisse, et quod 
diuiserit inter filios suos, non diffitemur ad presens ; sed 
quod sic diuiserit, quod alii subjicerentur sibi, plane nega- 
mus triplici racione; tum quia divisio dicit partes, ergo 
equales, cum non appareat de contrario, quicquid ipse 
scribat. Hinc est quod appellacione partis, ubi non sunt 
plures partes, dimidia continetur; tum quia omnia non 
liquida, si possint, ad jus commune debent redigi, per quod 
rex regi, seu regnum regno, non subest, ut superius est 
notatum ; tum quia divisiones hujusmodi paterne solent 
fieri, ut occasio inuidie inter liberos, post mortem patris, 
euitetur. Et certe aliter intellecta, seu ficta, diuisio non 
toUeret banc occasionem, sed pocius induceret inter eos. 
Major namque inuidia est inter fratres in talibus preemi- 
neuciis seu prerogatiuis, quam inter aHos, ut jura attes- 
tantur. Unde, et cetera. Quod autem dicitur, Albanacto 
mortuo, regnum Albanie ad Locrinum, tanquam directum 
Dominum, rediisse, nullo modo potest niti veritate, quod, 
eciam supposito quod Albanactus regnum suum a Locrino 
in feudum tenuisset, quod negamus, jure successionis, nisi 
omnes alii gradus et stirpes deficerent, quod non fuit hie, 
cum saltern alium fratrem haberet, scilicet, Cambrum, ad 
ipsum Locrinum non posset obuenire. Sic se habet con- 
suetude que optinuit et optinet in illis partibus, h, tem- 
pore cujus memoria in contraxium non existit. Preterea 


tunc temporis omnes incole regni Anglie fuerunt Bri- 
tones, qui dejecti erant postmodum per Saxones, Saxones 
per Dacos, et iterum Daci per Saxones, et ipsi Saxones 
per Normannos, scilicet, per Willelmum Bastard et suos 
complices, a quibus, non a Britonibus, iste rex dinoscitur 
descendisse. Teneat igitur, quod iste Willelmus conqui- 
siuit regnum Anglie, in quo regnum Scocie, uel aUqua pars 
ipsius, non reperitur contineri. NichU autem ex persona 
Locrini, sen Britonum aliorum, potest in regno Scocie, 
uel etiam Anglie, vendicare. Similiter in Scocia, cum 
vocaretur Albania, omnes fuerunt Britones, sed ipsos deje- 
cerunt Picti, et postea Pictos Scoti. 

Filia namque Pharaonis regis Egipti, cum armata 
manu et maxima classe nauium, applicuit in Hibernia. 
Postea, assumptis quibusdam Hibernicis, in Scociam naui- 
gauit, deferens secum sedile regium, quod iste rex Anglie, 
inter cetera regni Scocie insignia, secum per violenciam 
de regno Scocie in Angliam asportauit. Ipsa deuicit et 
dejecit Pictos, et regnum ipsum optinuit : Ac ab ipsa Scota, 
Scoti et Scocia nuncupantur. Unde versus ; 


Qui Scoti nomen et locum usque in hodiemum diem 
noscuntur optinere. Nil ergo ad regem Anglie de Scotis 
uel de Scocia. Nee plus juris Anglici, quam Egiptii, in 
regno Scocie possent vendicare. 

Quod dicit de Belino et Brenio non procedit. Verum 
est quod fuerunt duo fratres, ut Britonum tradit historia. 
Belinus regnauit in Anglia, Brenius in Scocia, sed 
eque libere, cui consonat jus commune. Et cum Hie 
Belinus Brejiium fratrem suum niteretur sibi subjugare, 
Brenius congregauit exercitum non modicum, paratus 
secum dimicare. Et cum essent in campo parati ad 
congressum, mater ipsorum flens et ejulans, stans in 
medio, ostendebat eis ubera que lactauerunt; et sic, 
pietate et precibus matris moti, concordiam inierunt. Ita 
quod libere qiulibet in statu suo remaneret. 

Dicit insuper, quod quidam rex Anglie prefecit in 


regno Scocie Duncanum et Eadgarum, quod non est 
verum. Ymmo, cum ipsi expulsi essent de regno, per 
potenciam cujusdam Douenaldi Ban, cum auxilio regis 
Norgwegie, et cum aliquo adminiculo regis Anglie, 
recuperarunt statum, non quod rex Anglie, pretextu 
dominii quod haberet in regno Scocie quia nee habebat 
quod hoc faceret, sed affectione familiari, cum esset 
eorum sororius, quia sororem ipsorum, videlicet, Matildem 
reginam Anglie, duxerat in uxorem, subsidium illud facie- 
bat. Sic et e contrario uisimi est quod ex simili racione 
reges Scocie regibus Anglie mutuum auxilium ex gracia, 
in sms aduersitatibus, impenderunt. 

Quod dicit de Arthuro, non procedit. Arthurus de 
adulterio fuit genitus, nee cuiquam successit : sed quic- 
quid optinuit in variis locis, per potenciam et violen- 
ciam acquisiuit, per quam nedum Scociam, sed eciam 
Angliam, Walliam, Hiberniam, Galliam, Norgwegiam 
et Daciam occupauit. Quo per Mordredum, filium 
Loth, regis Scocie, et heredem Britannie interfecto, 
Scocia, sicut alia regna sibi subjugata, ad statum pris- 
tinum redierunt, et ad propriam libertatem. Item 
Arthurus Brito fuit, et iste rex Anglie Britonibus non 
successit, sed Normannis. Preterea dominia rerum et 
regnorum de jure gentium sunt distincta, et de populo in 
populum, et de gente in gentem, ex variis titulis et racioni- 
bus frequenter transferuntur. Tempore Arthuri regnum 
Erancie non regnum, sed ut jura videntur sonare, fuit 
antiquitus quidam presidatus. Per quod patet, quod, in 
hiis que antiquitus optinuerunt, multe mutaciones per 
rerum naturam, que in eodem statu nescit permanere, 

Ad hoc (quod) dicit, quod Malcomus rex Scocie, vir quon- 
dam beate Margarite regine Scocie, Dauid filius ejus, Wil- 
lelmus nepos ejusdem Dauid, Alexander filius Willelmi, 
Alexander ultimus filius ejusdem Alexandri, et incole 
regni Scocie, regibus Anglie fidelitatem et homagium 
prestiterunt. Fatemur quod pro terris, quas in regno 
Anglie de rege Anglie tenuerunt ; nunquam reges Sco- 


cie pro regno Scocie, nee incole ipsius pro terris suis in 
Scocia, sibi homagium uel fidelitatem feceriint. Huic con- 
sonat commune jus, ut dictum est. Hunc intellectum 
comprobat factum satis receus, quod in persona regis Alex- 
andri ultimi supradicti, in coronacione istius regis Anglie, 
dinoscitur contigisse, ut ex premissis de lioc tangentibus 
pleuius apparet. Sed nee etiam adductis pro rege Anglie 
tactis miraculis uel reuelacionibus Saucti Johannis de 
Beuerlaco authenticum creditur, quam probentur reuela- 
ciones ipse processisse a Deo, cujus probacio nou est usque- 
quaque facilis sivie certa, sed nee in jvidiciis consueta, quia 
in angelum lucis se angelus Satbane sepe transformat, ut 
in Samuelis specie respondisse legitur Sauli Pbitonissam. 
Et non est aliqua uel unquam fuit fama vel sermo in 
Scocia, de reuelacione hujusmodi facta iUi Sancto Jolianni, 
quam rex allegat. Litera Domini Pape Gregorii ix., quam 
allegat, cujus copiam habemus ex registro vestro, pro ipso 
nichn facit, cum in ipsa suggestio regis Anglie sibi facta 
duntaxat recitetur, et concludat condicionaliter, Quod si 
ita sit, quod sit homo liegius regni sui, et homagium sibi 
fecerit, ut rex Anglie jam suggesserat, ipsi regi Anglie 
pre ceteris adhereret. Et certe uunquam fuit homo liegius 
regis Anglie, nee homagium sibi fecit pro regno Scocie, 
nee eciam hoc in ipsa suggestione regis Anglie continetur, 
quod pro regno Scocie ad talia tenebatur. Sed dicit hoc 
simpliciter, et nos intelligimus hoc secundum quod pati- 
tur jus commune, ut non pro regno Scocie, sed forsan pro 
quibusdam ten'is quas ab ipso tenebat in Anglia, ad pre- 
dicta fuerat astrictus. 

Quod dicit de nouo tempore nichil facit. Notorium 
est toti mundo, quod vi et armis ac metu, que possent 
cadere in constantem, adjuncta et adducta secum omni- 
moda potencia Anglie, WaUie, et Hibemie, et cum 
non modico subsidio comitis Sabaudie, qui person- 
aliter fuit ibi, necnon cum parte potencie Vasconie, 
superius dominium, tunc tarn sede Romana, quam regno 
Scocie, vacante, contra Deum et justiciam usurpauit. 
Deinde, quicquid dicat, a prelatis et aliis regni Scocie 


incolis fidelitatem et homagium, nou absque uota excom- 
municacionis majoris, a canone late in concilio Lugdun- 
ensi, contra talia a prelatis extorquentes promulgate, de 
facto per hujusmodi metuni liabuit et exegit. 

Ab ipso eciam rege nostro Johanne de Balliolo, qui jure 
hereditario in regno Scocie juste et legittime secundiim 
usus et laudabiles consuetudiues ipsius regni, tandem ab 
omnibus regni incolis in hoc negocio merito comprobatas 
tanquam racionabiles et prescrijjtas, succedens, regnum 
ipsum Scocie pacifice optinebat, per vim et metum consi- 
mUem fidelitatem et homagium extorsit post creacionem 
ipsius, quod in prejudicium ipsius et regni, maxime cum 
vi extorsum sit, non debet redimdare. Dicit eciam quod 
iste rex noster sponte confessus est, se prodiciones et con- 
spiraciones contra regem Anglie commisisse, et per hoc se 
incedisse in crimen lese majestatis, ac se perdidisse 
regnum suum ipso jure. Certe non est verum, nee est 
verisimile, talem, in tarn arduo negocio, contra seipsum 
tales confessiones, graues et detestabUes sponte emisisse. 
Sed verum est, quod, cum regem nostrum per potenciam 
cepisset, et regnum ipsum nequiter occupasset, in cujus 
regis nostri capcione suum et regni sigiUum ab ipsius 
cancellario per vim et metum abstulit et accepit, tunc, 
ut dicitur, literas hujusmodi confessionem, post missionem 
ipsius regis nostri et filii sui in Angliam pro carcere 
subeundo, fecit fabricare; et coram incolis regni Scocie 
publicauit literas easdem, quas nimquam postea ratas 
habuit rex noster nee habebit. 

Dicit eciam quod possidet regnum Scocie, et vadit 
ad Scociam ad suos rebelles corrigendos. Sed certe 
non est verum, ymmo notorie falsum. Nam Johannes 
rex noster per suum custodem ibidem deputatiim pos- 
sidet plenarie totum regnum, exceptis tribus castellis 
uel qviatuor in marchia regni Scocie constitutis. Et 
certe nee ilia rex Anglie possidet in pace, et ilia, juxta 
mandatum vestrum alias sibi directum, debuerat evacu- 
asse, et restituisse nobis. Sed in hoc, sicut in aliis, 
coutumax et inobediens pertinaciter perseuerat. Ad 


suos non iuit, quia non sumus sui, nisi dicamiir inimici ; 
igitur ad nostram justam defensionem resistendo. Nee 
iuit ad correctionem, sed ad finalem et puram con- 
fusionem nostram, et tocius sanguinis et gentis et 
nominis Scotorum perpetuam delecionem. Ad cujus 
sui iniqui propositi complecionem non peruenit, nee 
profecit hac vice. Et si nunc uel alias dampna nutu 
Divino recepit, de hoe non potest conqueri, quia que 
patitur sua culpa sentit. Nee parcendum est militi, cui telo 
obuiandum est, ut latroni. Unde, sicut alias, vestre Saneti- 
tati supplicamus humiliter et deuote, quatenus, rejectis 
vetustatibus et spretis ambagibus ex aduersa parte pro- 
ductis, pro parte Scotorum, ex efficacibus et veris allega- 
cionibus ipsorum, vestre sanctitatis conscienciam dignemini 
reformare, et de salubri remedio, si placet, prouidere, ut, 
hostili persecucione cessante, stragis infirmitas euitetur, et 
deuoti homines vestri Seoti Deo, vobis, et eeclesie Eo- 
mane, more soUto, valeant pacifice militaie. 






Cede centum 1. annis. 
Tharan c. annis. 
Ducliil xl. annis. 
Diiordegel xx. annis. 
Tethothrecht Ix. annis. 
Conbust XX. annis. 
Karanochrecht xl. annis. 
Gercnath bolgh ix. annis. 
Vipoguenech xxx. annis. 
Fyahor albus xxx. annis. 
Canatumel vj. annis. 
Douernach uetalec v. annis. 
Feradach finlegh ij. annis. 
Gauiach dines Ix. annis. 
Talargh filius Keocher xxv. annis. 
Drast filius Yrb c. annis. 
Tolarg filius Anul ij. annis. 
Nectan celchamocli x. annis. 
Drust gocinebt xxx. annis. 
Galany xv. annis. 
Drust filius Gygurn vj. annis. 
Drust filius Hudrosig viij. annis. 


Gauach filius Gygurn \j. annis. 

Kelturan frater ejus vj. aniiis. 

Tolorg filius Tauxdelog xj. annis. 

Drust filius ]\Ioneliet i. anno. 

Tagalad iiij. annis. 

Brude filius Melcon xxx. annis. Hunc conuertit Sanctus 
Coliunba. Aduentus Sancti Columbe ad Pictos Dlxv. et 
superuixit duobus et triginta annis cum eis. Tempore 
Brude filii Malcon Dlxxxxij. obiit Columba. 

Aduentus Anglorum ad Britanniam cccc. et Ixix. ab in- 
carnacione Domini. Obsessio Badonici montis ab aduentu 
Anglorum xliiij. Aidan filius Gobren ab incarnacione 
Dxiij.^ cum bellum commiserat Aidan et Cadfred in loco 
qui dicitur Dexastan. 

Gauiach filius Donath xx. annis. 

Nactan filius Yrb xxj. annis. 

Kynel filius Luclirem xiiij. annis. 

Nactam fidius Fochle viij. annis. 

Brude filius Fochle v. annis. 

Tolarg filius Fecliarus xj. annis. 

Talargan filius Anfnid iiij. annis. 

Garcuad filius Domnal vj. annis. 

Drust frater ejus vj. annis. 

Brude filius Bile xxj. annis. 

Taran filius Anfudeg xiiij. annis. 

Brude filivis Decili xxxj. annis. 

Nectan frater eius xviij. annis. 

Garnacb filius Ferach xxiiij. annis. 

Oengusa filius Fergiis xvj. annis. 

Nectan filius Derili ix mensibus. 

Oengus filius Brude vj. mensibus. 

Alpinus filius Engus viij. annis. 

Drust filius Tarlargan v. annis. 

Hungus filius Fergus x. annis. 

Engus filius Brude iterum xxxvj. annis. 

Brude filius Engus ij. annis. 

^ sic for Dciii. 


Alpiu filius Engus viij. annis. 
Drust filius Talargan i. anno. 
Talargan filius Drustan iiij. annis. 
Talargan filius Engus v. annis. 

Constantinus filius Fergus xlij. annis. Iste primo 
edificauit ecclesiani Sancd Andree. 
Hiingus filius Fergus x. annis. 
Dustalorg iiij. annis. 
Doganan filius Himge iij. annis. 
Ferach filius Bacoc iij. annis. 
Brude filius Ferech i. anno. 
Kineth filius Ferech i. anno. 
Brude filius Fokel ij. annis. 
Drust filius Ferech iij. annis. 



Fergus filius Here primus Scottus regnauit tribus annis 
ultra Drumalban usque Stuagmuner et usque luscegal 

Douenard filius Fergus v. annis. 

Congal filius Douengard xij. annis. 

Goueran filius Douenghard xxxiiij. annis. 

Edhan filius Goueran xxxiiij. annis. 

Heokebude regnauit xvj. annis. 

Kineth Ker filius Conal iij. mensibus. 

Ferchar filius Cuin xxj. annis. 

Dounald brec filius Heokebud iiij. annis. 

Malduin filius Dounald duin xiij. annis. 

Ferchar fode xxj. annis. 

Heochet rounauel filius Dongard filius Dounald brec 
regnauit iij. annis. 

Armkellach filius Findan i. anno. 

Heochgaiu filius Findan xvj. annis. 

Minredhach filius Armkellach iij. annis. 
. Heochgain filius Muredach ij. annis. 

Edhfin filius Heochet [miniele]^ xxx. annis. 
1 Interlined in different ink. 


Fergus filius Edhfiu iij. annis. 

Sealuach filius Heocligain xxiiij. annis. 

Heochet anuine filius Edhfin xxx. annis. 

Dunglial filius Sealuach vij. annis. 

Alpin filius Heochet anuine iij. annis et hie occisus 
fait in Galwya postquam earn penitus destruxit et deuas- 

Et tunc translatum est regnum Scotorum ad terram 


Kinetli filius Alpin xvj. annis Scotos regnauit, de- 
structis Pictis, et mortuus est in Eerteuioth et sepultus est 
in lona insula, uhi tres filii Here, Fergus, Lorin, Engus, 
sepulti fuerunt. Hie mira calliditate duxit Scotos de Erga- 
dia in terram Pictorum. 

Douenald filius Alpin iiij. annis et mortuus est in Eait 
inueramon et sepultus in lona insula. 

Constantinus filius Kineth xvj. annis et interfectus est 
a Norwagiensibus in bello in Inverdufatha et sepultus in 
lona insula. 

Edh filius Kineth i. anno et interfectus est in bello in 
Strathalun a Girg filio Dongal et sepultus in lona in- 

Girg filius Dungal xij. annis et mortuus est in Dundum 
et sepultus in lona insula. Hie subiugavit sibi totam 
Berniciam et fere Angliam et hie primus dedit libertatem 
Scoticane ecclesie, que sub seruitute ad tunc tempus erat 
ex constitucione et more Pictorum. 

Dounald filius Custantin xj. annis et mortuus in Fores 
et sepultus in lona insula. 

Custantin filius Edha xl. annis et dimisso regno sponte 
Deo in abbatem religionis sancte Keledeorum Sancti 
Andree v. annis seruiuit et ibi mortuus et sepultus. 

Malcolin filius Dounald ix. annis et interfectus est in 
Ulnem a Morauiensibus per dolum et sepultus in lona 


Indolf filius Custantin ix. annis et interfectus a Norwa- 
giensibus in Invertolan et sepultus in lona insula. 
i'j Duf filius MalcoHn iiij. aniiis et vj. mensibus et inter- 
fectus in Pores et abscouditus sub ponte de Kinlois et sol 
non aperuit quamdiu ibi latuit et interfectus est et sepul- 
tus in lona insula. 

Culen filius Indulf iiij. annis et vj. mensibus et inter- 
fectus a Eadharc filio Dounald propter fiHam suam in 

Kinet filius Malcolin xxiiij. annis et ij. mensibus et 
interfectus ab hominibus suis in Forthkerne per perfidiam 
Finiiele filie Cunchar comitis de Engus cujus Finuele 
unicum filium predictus Kineth interfecit apud Dunsion. 

Custantin filius Culen i. anno et vj. mensibus et inter- 
fectus a Kineth filio Malcolin in Eathinueramon et sepul- 
tus in Zona insula. 

Grig filius Kinet filii Duf viij. annis et interfectus a filio 
Kineth in Morgoauerd et sepidtiis in Zona insula. 

Malcolin filius Kinet rex uictoriosus xxx. annis et mor- 
tuus in Slines et sepultus in Zona insula. 

Donchat filius Crini abbatis de Dunkeldin et Betoc 
filia Malcolin filii Z^tnet vj. annis et interfectus a Macbeth 
filio Finled in Bothgouanan et sepultus in Zona insula. 

Macbet filius Finled xvij. annis et interfectus in Lun- 
fanin a Malcolin filio Donchat et sepultus in Zona insula. 

Lulach fatuus iiij. mensibus et interfectus est in Esseth 
in Strathbolgin et sepultus. 

Malcohn filius Doncath xxxvij. annis et viij. mensibus 
et interfectus in Znveralden et sepultus in Dunfermelin. 

Douuenald filius Doncath vj. mensibus et postea expul- 
sus a regno ; et tunc Doncath filius Malcolin vj. mensibus 
et interfectus est a Malpedir filio Lorin comite de Mar ; et 
rursus Douuenald filius Doncath iij. annis et postea cap- 
tus ab Edgar filio Malcolin et secatus est et mortuus in 
Eoscolbin et sepultus in Dunfermlin, cujus ossa translata 
sunt in Zona insula. 

Edgar filius Malcolin ix. annis et tribus mensibus et 
mortuus in Dunde et sepultus in Dunfermlin. 



Alexander xvij. annis et tribus mensibus et dimidio et 
naortuus in Strafleth et sepiiltus in Dunfermlin. 

Daiiid filius Malcolin xxix. annis et tribus mensibus et 
mortuus in Karieil et sepultus in Dunfermlin. 

Malcolin filius Henrici filii Dauid regis xij. annis et sex 
mensibus et xx. diebus et mortuus in Gedwrd et sepultus 
in Dunfermlin cum predecessoribus regibus. 

Willekaus frater ejus 1. annis et mortuus in Striuelin 
et sepultus in Abirbrootli. 

Alexander filius Willehni xxx. annis et tribus et mor- 
tuus in Ergadia et sepultus apuid Meuros. 

Alexander filius Alexandri xxxix. annis et mortuus 
apud Kingorin et sepultus in Dunfermlin. 




TO THE POPE, Mcccxx. 



I^ANCTissiMO Patri in Christo ac Domino, Domino Jo- 
hanni, divina prouidencia Sacrosauncte Romane et imiver- 
salis Ecclesie summo Pontifici, Filii sui humiles et deuoti, 
Duncanus Comes de Fyf, Thomas Ranulpi comes Moraiiie, 
Dominus Mannie et Vallis Anandie, Patricius de Dumbar 
Comes Marcie, Malisius Comes de Stratheryne, Malcol- 
mus Comes de Leuenax, WilleLnus Comes de Ross, Magnus 
Comes Cathanie et Orkadie et Willelmus Comes Sutliii'- 
landie, Walterus Senescallus Scocie, Willelmus de Soules 
Buttelarius Scocie, Jacobus Dominus de Duglas, Rogerus 
de Moiibray, David Dominus de Brechyn, David de 
Graham, Ingeramus de Umfraville, Johannes de Menetetho 
Custos Comitatus de Menetethe, Alexander Fraser, Gil- 
bertus de Haya Constabularius Scocie, Robertus de Kethe 
Marescallus Scocie, Henricus de Sancto Claro, Johannes de 
Graham, David de Liudesay, Willelmus Olifaunt, Patricius 
de Graham, Joharmes de Fentone, Willelmus de Abir- 
nithy, David de Werays, Willelmiis de Montefixo, Fer- 
gusius de Ardrossane, Eustachius de MaxweUe, Willelmus 
de Ramsay, WiUebnus de Montealto, Alanus de Morauia, 
Douenaldus Cambelle, Johannes Cambrune, Reginaldus le 


Chene, Alexander de Setone, Andreas de Lesceljne, et 
Alexander de Stratone, ceterique Barones et libereten- 
entes ac tota Communitas Eegni Scocie omnimodam rever- 
enciam filialem, cum deuotis pedum osculis beatonim. 
Scimus, Sanctissime Pater et Domine, et ex antiquorum 
gestis et libris colligimus, quod inter ceteras naciones 
egregias, nostra, scilicet, Scottorum nacio multis preconiis 
fuerit iusignita : que, de maiori Schithia per mare Tirenum 
et Columpnas Herculis transiens, et in Hispania, inter 
ferocissimos per multa temporum curricula residens, a 
nullis quantumcunque barbaricis poterat allicubi sub- 
jugari. Indeque veniens, post miUe et ducentos annos 
a transitu popidi Israelitici, sibi sedes in occidente, quas 
nunc optinet, expulsis Britonibus, et Pictis onmino deletis, 
licet per Norwagienses, Dacos et Anglicos sepius impug- 
nata fuerit, midtis sibi victoriis et laboribus quamplurimis 
adquisivit, ipsasque ab omni seruitute liberas, ut priscorum 
testantur liistorie, semper tenuit. In quorum regno cen- 
tum et tresdecem reges de ipsorum regali prosapia, 
nullo alienigena intei-veniente, regnaueruut. Quorum 
nobiLitates et merita, licet ex aliis non clarerent, satis 
patenter effulgent ex eo, quod Eex regum et Dominus 
Jbesus Christus, post passionem et resurrectionem suam, 
ipsos in idtimis terre finibus constitutos, quasi primos 
ad suam fidem sanctissimam conuocauit. Nee eos 
per quemlibet in dicta fide confirmare voluit, sed per 
suum primiun Apostolum quamuis ordine secundum, vel 
tercium, scilicet, Andream mitissimum, beati Petri ger- 
manum, quem semper ipsis preesse voluit ut patronum. 
Hec autem sanctissimi patres et prsedecessores vestri, 
soUicita mente pensantes, ipsum regnum et populimi, ut 
beati Petri germani peculiimi, multis fauoribus et priui- 
legiis quamplurimis munierunt. Ita quod gens nostra 
sub ipsorum proteccione libera, hactenus deguit et quieta, 
donee Hie Princeps magnificus Eex Anglorum Edwar- 
dus, pater istius qui nunc est, regnum nostrum acephaliun 
populumque nuUius mali aut doli conscium, nee bellis 
aut insultibus tunc assuetum, sub amici et confederati 


specie, inimicabiliter infestaiiit. Cujus injurias, cedes, 
et violencias, predaciones, incendia, prelatonim incarcera- 
ciones, inonasterionun combustiones, religiosorum spolia- 
ciones et occisiones, alia quoque enormia, que in dicto 
populo excercuit, nulli parcens etati aiit sexui, religioni 
aut ordini, nullus scriberet, nee ad plenum intelligeret, nisi 
quern experiencia informaret. A quibus malis innumeris, 
ipso juuante, qui post uulnera medetur et sanat, liberati 
sumus per strenuissimum Principem Eegem et Dominum 
nostrum, Dominum Eobertum, qui, pro populo et heredi- 
tate suis de manibus inimicorum liberandis, quasi alter 
Macliabeus aut Josue, labores et tedia, inedias et peri- 
cula, leto sustinuit animo, quern eciam diuina disposicio, 
et juxta leges et consuetudines nostras, quas usque ad 
mortem sustinere volumus, juris successio, et debitus 
nostrorum omnium consensus et assensus, nostrum fece- 
runt Principem atque Eegem. Cui, tamquam Uli, per 
quem salus in populo facta est, pro nostra libertate 
tuenda, tam jure qiiam meritis, tenemur, et volumus in 
omnibus adberere. Quem si ab inceptis desisteret, Eegi 
Angloram aut Anglicis nos aut Eegnum nostrum volens 
subicere, tamquam inimicum nostrum et sui nostrique 
juris subversorem, statim expeUere niteremur, et aliiuu 
Eegem nostrum, qui ad defensionem nostram sufficeret, 
faceremus. Quia, quamdiu centum viui remanserint, 
nuncquam Anglorum dominio aliquatenus volumus sub- 
jugari. Non enim propter gloriam, diuicias aut honores 
pugnamus, sed propter Hbertatem solummodo, quam nemo 
bonus, nisi simul cum vita, amittit. Hinc est, Eeuerende 
Pater et Domine, quod Sanctitatem vestram omni precum 
instancia genuflexis cordibus exoramus, quatenus siiicero 
corde menteque pia recensentes, quod apud eum, cujus 
vices in terris geritis, non sit pondus et pondus nee dis- 
tinctio Judei et Greci, Scoti aut Anglici, tribulaciones et 
angustias nobis et Ecclesie Dei lUatas ab Anglicis, paternis 
oculis intuentes, Eegem Anglorum cui sufScere debet quod 
possidet, cum olim Anglia septem aut pluribus solebat 
sufficere regibus, monere et exhortari dignemini, ut nos 


Scotos, in exili degentes Scocia, ultra quam habitacio 
non est, nichilque nisi nostrum cupientes in pace dimittat. 
Cui pro nostra procuranda quiete, quicquid possimus, ad 
statiun nostrum respectu habito, facere volumus ciun 
affectu. Vestra enim interest, Sancte Pater, hoc facere, 
qui paganorum feritatem Christianorum, culpis exigentibus, 
in Christianos seuientem aspicitis, et Christianonim ter- 
minos artari in dies, q[uamcunque vestre] Sanctitatis 
memorie derogat si quod absit Ecclesia in aliqua sui parte 
vestris temporibus patiatur eclipsim, aut scandaliun, vos 
videritis. Excitet igitiir Christianos principes, qui non 
causam vt causam ponentes se fingTint, in subsidium terre 
sancte, propter guerras quas habent cum proximis, ire non 
posse. Cujus impedioienti causa est verier, quod in minori- 
bus proximis debellandis vtUitas propior, et resistencia 
debUior estimantur. Sed quam leto corde dictiis Domiaus 
Eex noster et nos, si Eex Anglorum nos in pace dimitteret, 
illuc iremus, qui nichil ignorat satis novit, quod Christi 
vicario totique Christianitati ostendimus et testamur. Qm- 
bus si Sanctitas vestra, Anglonim relatibus nimis credula, 
fidem sinceram non adhibet, aut ipsis in nostram confu- 
sionem fauere non desinat, corporum excidia, animamm 
exicia, et cetera que sequentur incomoda, que ipsi in 
nobis et nos in ipsis fecerimus, vobis ab altissimo credimus 
imputanda. Ex quo sumus et erimus in hiis, que tene- 
mur, tamquam, obediencie filii, vobis, tamquam ipsius 
vicario, in omnibus complacere. Ipsique tamquam Simimo 
Eegi et Judici, causam nostram tuendam committimus, 
cogitatum nostnun jactantes in ipso, sperantesque finniter, 
quod in nobis virtutem faciet, et ad nichilum rediget 
hostes nostros. Sanctitatem ac sanitatem vestram con- 
seruet altissimiis Ecclesie sue sancte per tempora diu- 
turna. Datum apud monasterimn de Abirbrothoc in 
Scocia, sexto die Aprilis, Anno Gracie miUesimo trescen- 
tesimo vicesimo. Anno vero Eegni Eegis nostri supradicti 
quinto decimo. 





J: EIMUS rex fuit Kynetus, vel Kynet, filius Alpini, qui 
regnauit xvj. annis. 

Kyneto successit Douenaldus filius Alpjn, frater eius- 
dem Kyneti, qui regnauit iuj. annia. 

Douenaldo successit Constantinus filius Kjnieti, qui 
regnauit xx. annis, et in alio libro vj. 

Constantino successit Ath filius Kyneti, frater eiusdem 
Constantiai, qui regnauit i? anno. 

Ath successit Grig filius Douenaldi qui regnauit x. 
annis, in alio 18. 

Gryg filio Douenaldi, successit frater eius Constantiaus, 
qui regnauit ij. annis ; alibi dicitur quod post Grig regna- 
uit Douenaldus xj. annis, et post eum Constantinus filius 
Ath vel Edh xxx. annis. 

Constantino successit Constantinus filius Ath, qui reg 
nauit xlv. annis. 

Constantino successit Malcolmus filius Douenaldi, qui 
regnauit xx. annis ; in alio 9. 

Malcolmo successit IndoK, siue Indulfus, filius Con- 
stantini, qui regnauit ix. annis. 

Indulpho successit Duf fiilius Malcolmi, qui regnauit 
iiij. annis et vj. mensibus ; et in alio 10. 

Duf successit Kynetus, filius eius, qui regnauit vno anno 
et iij. mensibus; alibi dicitur quod Duf successit Culen 
filius Induf, X. annis ; et post eum Kynnetus filius Mai- 


colmi, 24 annis ; et post eum Constantiuus filius Culen 
vno anno et dimidio ; et post eum Grim filius Kyneti, 8 
annis ; et post eum Malcolmus, filius Kyneti, 30 annis ; et 
post eimi Duncanus 6 annis ; et post eum JMacbeth, et 

Kyneto successit Culen filius Indulfi, qui regnauit iiij. 
annis et vj. mensibus. 

Culen successit jSIalcolmus filius Kyneti, qui regnauit 
XXX. annis. 

Malcolmo successit Duncanus nepos eius, qui regnamt 
V. annis et ix. mensibus. 

Duncano successit Macbeth, fynleth, qui regnauit xvij. 

Machbeth successit Lutblath, qui regnauit iij. mensibus 
et dimidio. 

Lucblach successit Malcolmus filius Duncani, qui reg- 
nauit xxxvij. annis et iiij. mensibus, et iste Malcolmus 
fuit vir Sancte Margarete regine, qui geuuit ex ea iiij. 
filios Duucanum, Edgarum, Alexandrum, et Dauid. 

Malcolmo siiccessit Douenaldus, frater eius, qui regnauit 
iij. annis et vj. mensibus ; in alio libro vj. mensibus 

Douenaldo successit Dimcanus filius Malcolmi primo- 
genitus, qui regnauit dimidio anno. 

Duncano successit Edgarus, frater eius, qui regnauit ix. 
annis ; alibi dicitur quod inter Duncanum et Edgarima 
iterum regnauit Douenaldus iij. annis. 

Edgaro successit Alexander tertius frater, qui regnauit 
xyj. annis et iij. mensibus ; in alio libro 7l' annis. 

Alexandre successit David, frater eius, qui regnauit 
xxxix. annis ; in alio 29. 

Dauid successit Malcolmus filius Henrici Comitis 
Northumbrie, filii Dauid regis, qui regnauit xij. annis et 
dimidio et iij. diebus. 

Malcolmo successit WUlelmus frater eius, qui regnamt 
xlix. annis preter xvj. dies. 

• Sic, written for 17. 


Willelmo successit Alexander filius eius, qui regnauit 
XXX vj. annis et ix. mensibus ; et in alio 35. 

Alexandre successit Alexander iilius eius, qui regnauit 
annis xxxvj. et ix. mensibus. 

Alexandre, post vij. annos sequentes, successit Johannes 
De Ealliol, qui regnauit annis iiij. 

Johanni successit Eobertus de Brus intrusor, qiii reg- 
navit xxiiij. annis. 

Eoberto successit Dauid filius ejus, Eex inunctus, sicut 
nullus erat predecessorum suorum, vno anno et dimidio ; 
hunc supplantauit per diversa bella verus lieres Edwardus 
filius supradicti Johannis, qui regnauit annis ; Sed 

non fuit inunctus sed nee predecessores sui preter vnum. 
Hunc prinio anno suo eiecerunt Scotti a regno, qui per 
Edwardum regeni AngUe restitutus est in regniun suum, 
datis sibi quinque Comitatibus in niarcliia Scocie pro 

Sciendum quod in aliis cronicis Eegum Scocie inuenitur 
diuersitas, tarn in nominibus quorumdam Eegum supra- 
scriptonun quam in numeris annorum quibus dicuntur 

Item sciendum quod hoc nomen Malcolmus in nomini- 
bus predictorum regum metro versificatum est nomen iiij. 
sillabarvmi, quia ponitur in fine versus quinque pedimi, et 
penidtima est correpta, communiter tamen pronunciatur 
per iij. sillabas, et secunda sillaba terminatur in L. et tertia 
iucipit ab M. litera vt dicatur Malcolmus. 





Jgjst aiitem aduertendvun quod Scotti quasi Sithi a 
Scithaa originem duxerimt quorum propria patria est 
Hibernia. Tempore autem Vespasiani gens Pictorum de 
Sithia per occianum Britanniam ingressa, regnante apud 
Britannos Mario filio Aruiragi. Cuius rex Rodricus 
Albaniam deuastauit, quem Marius rex Britonum prelio 
interfecit iuxta Lugubaliam, que est nunc Karliolum et 
populo deuicto quibus Roderico uenerat borialem partem 
Albanie que Katensis dicitur ad habitandum dedit. lUi 
uero uxoribus carentes cum de nacione Britonum habere 
non possent, transfretantes Hiberniam sibi Hibernien- 
sium filias copulanmt, eo tamen pacto ut sanguis mater- 
nus in successionibus preferatur. Processu uero temporis 
Scoti, duce Reuda, de Hibernia, que proprie Scottorum est 
patria, progressi uel amicitia uel ptigna sibi iuxta Pictos 
sedes statuerunt et Galwediam inhabitauerunt. Regna- 
uenint autem Picti antequam fuerant per Scottos deleti, 
annis MLxx. uel secundum alios Mccclx. annis. Ocupata 
igitur post hoc ab Anglicis, expulsis Britonibus, insida sta- 
bilique cum Pictis pace firmata. Scotti cum Pictis habi- 
tantes, videntes Pectos quamquam propter affinitatem 
Hibernensium pauciores longe tamen armis et animositate 
prestanciores, ad solitas tanquam sibi innatas prodiciones 
Nota. quibus ceteris preeminent gentibus recurrerimt. Eduo- 
catos itaque tanquam ad conuiuiimi magnates Pictormn 
captata crapule oportvmitate ipsos insimiil peremerunt. 


Sicque de duobus popidis gens bellicosior totaliter est 
deleta. Altera uero longe modis omnibus impar ex prodi- 
cione quodammodo emoliunentum consecuta totum a mare 
usque ad mare terram illam quam suo nomine Scociam 
dixerunt usque hodie possedunt quibus eo tempore Kynna- 
dius filius Alpini perfidens Eictauiam inuasit Pectos 
deleuit et Saxones sexcies expugnauit et terrain dudiun 
Anglicis subactam, que est a mari Scocie usque ad Mailros, 
que est in ripa Twede fluminis suo dominio subiugauit. 
Sunt autem Scotti, secundum Erodotum, animo leves, bar- Nota de 
bari satis et silvestres seui, in hostes servitutem detes- """^^ 
tantes, in lecto mori signiciem deputant, in Campo mori 
gloriam arbitrantur parci victu diucius famem sustinent, 
raro ante soils ortum comedunt. Carnibus lacticiniis 
piscibus et fructibus magis quam pane vescuntiu-. 
Quorum reges nee coronari soliti erant nee inungi 
Igitur quia nostra intencio in presentibus est declarare 
jus regis Angiie in superius dominium Scocie, antequam 
de processu Scocie vlterius protractemus, reges peccatores 
qui in Scocia post Pictos deletes per prodicionem Scotto- 
rum reguauerunt iuxta quod in cronicis Scottorum inueni- 
mus nominemus. 

Nam primus Kynnetus filius Alpini qui regnauit 16 Nomina 

regum nobi- 

annis. lii^m q,,; 

Kynneto successit Douenaldus filius Alpini et frater post Pictos 

•' ... . Scociam 

eiusdem Kyneti qui regnauit quatuor annis. regna- 

Douenaldo autem successit Constantinus filius Kynneti 
qui regnauit 1 6 annis. 

Constantino successit Aetbus filius K)Tieti frater eius- 
dem Constantini qui regnauit vno anno. 

Aetho successit Grig filius Douenaldi qui regnavit decern 
uel decem et octo annis. 

Grig filio Douenaldi successit Douenaldus vndecim 

Et post eum Constantius filius Aeth qui regnauit xlv. 
que annis. 

Constantino successit Malcobnus filius Douenaldi qui 
rejmauit vijrinti annis. 


Malcolmo successit Indolfus filius Constantini qui reg- 
nauit ix. annis. 

Indolfo successit Duf filius Malcolmi qui regnauit iiij. 
annis et sex mensibus. 

Duf successit Kynetus filius eius qui regnauit uno anno 
et tribus mensibus. 

Kyneto successit Culen filius Indolfi qui regnauit iiij. 
or annis et sex mensibus. 

Culen successit Malcolmus filius Kyneti qui regnauit 
XXX. a annis. 

Malcolmo successit Duncanus nepos eius qui regnauit v. 
annis et ix. mensibus. 

Duncano successit Machbeht fynleth qui regnauit xvij. 

Machbeth successit Luthlach qiu regnauit tribus men- 
sibus et dimidio. 

Luthlach successit Malcolmus filius Dunkanni qui reg- 
navit xxxvj. annis et iiij. or mensibus. Et iste Malcolmus 
fuit maritus Sancte Margarete Eegine qui genuit ex ea 
iiij. or filios, scilicet, Dunkanum, Edgai-um, AUexandrum et 
Dauid et vnam filiam nomine MatUdam que fuit vxor 
regis Anglie Henrici primi post conquestum. 

Malcolmo successit Douenaldus frater eius qui regnauit 
tribus annis, et sex mensibus secundum aliquos tantum. 
Douenaldo successit Dunkanus filius Malcolmi primogeni- 
tus qui regnauit dimidio anno. Dunkano successit Edgai-us 
frater eius qui regnauit nouem annis. 

Aliqui tamen dicunt quod inter Dimkanum et Edgarum 
iterum regnauit Douenaldus frater Malcolmi tribus annis. 

Edgaro uero filio Malcolmi successit Alexander tercius 
filius Malcolmi qui regnauit xvj. annis et tribus mensibus. 

Alexandro successit David frater eius qui fuit quartus 
filius Malcolmi et regnauit xxxix. annis. 

David successit Malcolmus filius Henrici comitis Nor- 
thumbrie, qui Henricus fuit filius David regis Scocie. Et 
iste Malcolmus regnauit xij. annis et dimidio et tribus 

Malcolmo successit Willelmus frater eius qui regnauit 


xlix. annis et iste rex Willelmus fuit captus apud Alnewik 
per proceres comitatus Eboracenses et ductus usque Eiche- 
mundiam et deinde usque ad regem Anglie perductus sue 
perfidie penas soluit. 

Willelmo regi Scottorum successit Alexander filius 
eius qui regnauit xxx. a sex anuis et ix. mensibus. Iste 
Alexander duxit filiam regis Anglie Henrici tercii post 
conquestuni, qui ex ea genuit vnuni filium qui ante 
patrem mortuus est, et vnam filiam que fuit data regi 
Norwagie ex qua genuit vnam filiam Margaretam nomine 
que debuit fuisse desponsata Edwardo de Karnaruan qui 
fuit filius et heres Edwardi primi jjost couquestum. 

Kynacli mac Alpyn 1 6 annis regnauit super Scottos, de- Et nota 
structis Pictis, et mortuus est in Fetliirtliant vel Fertebeith aiuerTn- 
et sepultus est in Hyona insula, vbi tres filii Ere, scilicet, j'.™' ^^ ^M° 
Fergus, Loaran, Tenogus sepulti fuerunt. Hie mira caU- 
ditate duxit Scottos de Ergadia in terram Pictorum. 

Douenald mac Alpyn 4 or annis regnauit et mortuus in 
Eaich, in ueramon et sepultus est in Hyona insula. 

Constantin mac Kynach 16 annis regnavit. Interfectus 
est a Norwagiensibus in bello in Werdo fata et sepultus est 
in Hyona insula. 

Edh mac Kynach i? anno regnauit et interfectus est 
in bello in Strathalin a Girgh filio Duugal et sepultus in 
Hyona insula. 

Girgh mac Dimgal 12 annis regnauit et mortuus in 
Dundurn et sepultus est in Hyona insula. Hie subiu- 
gauit sibi totam Hyberniam et fere Angliam. Et hie 
primus dedit libertatem ecclesie Scoticane, que sub serui - 
tute erat usque ad illud tempus ex consuetudine et more 

Doiienald mac Constantini ij. annis regnauit et mortuus 
est in Fores et sepultus in Hyona insula. 

Constantin mac Edha 40 annis regnauit et dimisso 
regno Deo sponte in habitu religionis Abbas factus Kel- 
deorum Sancti Andree 5 annis seruiuit, ibi mortuus est et 

Malcolim mac Douenald 9 annis regnauit et interfectus 


est in Vlurn a Morauiensibus per dolum et sepultus est 
in Hyona insula. 

Inclolp mac Constantini 9 annis regnaiiit et interfectus 
est a Norwagiensibus in Innircolam et sepultus est in 
Hyona insula. 

Duf mac Malcolmi 4 annis regnauit et 6 mensibus et 
interfectiis est in Foreis et absconditus est sub [ponte] de 
kynlos et sol non aperuit quamdiu ibi latuit et inuentus 
est et sepulta in Hyona insula. 

Culen mac Induf 4 annis regnauit et sex mensibus et 
interfectus est ab Amdrach filio Douenald propter filiam 
suam in Laodonia. 

Kynach mac Malcolini 24 annis regnaiiit et duobus 
mensibus et interfectus est a suis hominibus in Fether- 
kem per perfidiam Finuele filie Cunthar comitis de 
Anegais cuius Fiuiele unicum filium predictum Kyneth 
interfecit apud 

Constantini mac Culeon vno anno et 6 mensibus reg- 
nauit et interfectus est a Kynach filio Malcolmi 
Eath in ueramon et sepultus est in Hyona insula. 

Grig mac Kynach madulf 8 annis regnauit et inter- 
fectus est a filio Kynech in Moegohanard et sepultus est in 
Hyona insula. 

Malcolim mac Kynach rex victoriosissimus 30 annis 
regnauit et mortuus in Glaities et sepiUtus in Hyona 

Dunchach mac Trini de Dunkelden et Bethoc filie Mal- 
com mac Kyneth 6 annis regnauit et interfectus est a 
Macbeth mac Fyngel in Bothergouenan et sepultus est in 
Hyona insvda. 

Macbeth mac Fingel 1 7 annis regnauit et interfectus est 
in Limfanan a Malcolim mac Dunchat et sepultus est 
in Hyona insula. 

Didach fatuus 4 mensibus regnauit et interfectus est in 
Esseg in Strathbolgin et sepidtus est in Hyona insula. 

Malcolim mac Duncath 37 annis regnauit et 8 mensibus 
et interfectus est iuxta Alnewik, et sepultus apud Tyne- 
mutham. Hie fuit uir Sancte Margarete regine. 


Douenald mac Dunchath prius regnauit 7 mensibus et 
postea expidsiis est a regno, et tunc Dunckach mac Mal- 
colmi 6 mensibus regnauit et interfectus est a Malpedir mac 
Loren comite de Meorne tamen Monethefoen et rursum 
Douenald mac Dunekach 3 annis, predicto tempore connii- 
merato et postea captus est ab Eagar mac Malcobn et 
cecatus est in Eoscolbyn et sepultus est in Dunekeldyn, 
cuius ossa translata sunt ad Hyonam insulam. 

Eadgar 9 annis regnauit et 3 mensibus et mortuus est 
in Dunedenn et sep\iltus est in Dimfermelyn. 

Alexander 17 annis et 3 mensibus et dimidio regnauit 
et mortuus est in Cruilet et sepultus in Dunfermelyn. 

Dauid 29 annis et 3 mensibus regnauit et mortuus est 
in Karliolo et sepultus est in Dunfermely. 

Malcolmi filius Henrici fQii Dauid regis 1 2 annis et 6 
mensibiis et 20 diebus regnauit et mortuus est apud 
Gedworth et sepidtus est apud Dunfermelyn. 

Willelmus rex 52 regnauit et mortuus est in Streuelin 
et sepultus est in Abirbrotok. 

Cui [sucjcessit mitissinius rex Alexander. 

Summa annoram a Kjoieth mac Alpyn vsque ad 
tempus Alexandri mitissinii regis Scottorum v.D.etunus 

Alexander filius WiLLelmi regis regnauit 32 annis et 
mortuus est in Konerlay et sepultus est apud MeUrose. 

lUustrissimus rex Alexander 3! filius regis Allexandri 
2' mitissimi regnauit 36 annis et mortuus est apud Kyn- 
gorn 4'° Kl. aprilis anno etatis sue 45 et sepultus Dun- 
feimelyn cimi magno honore. Iste dilectus Deo et 
homioibus, gentes terre sue semper pacificare studuit nee 
aliquis predecessonun suorum tante pace et tanto gaudio 
regnum tenere potuit. 




MS. BRIT. MtJS. HAKL. 1S08. 


JjRiTANNiA post fugam Cadwalladri vltimi Regis Bri- 
tonum, postque diram regni calamitatem et generalem 
pestilenciam, per nouem quasi annos vacua iacebat, paucis 
vel nuUis inhabitata cultoribus, miseris tamen qui reman- 
serimt Britannis, superuenenint igitur Saxones cum ianu- 
merabili multitudine in Northumbrian! et ab Albania usque 
Cornubiam totam terram occupauerunt. Ab illo enim 
tempore potestas Britonum cessauit et a Britannica nobi- 
litate degenerati nunquam monarchiam recuperauerunt. 
Sed in Wallia latitantes nunc sibimet, nunc Saxonibiis in- 
grati domesticas clades incessanter agebant jam non Bri- 
tones sed Gualenses a Gualoe regina eorum. At Saxones 
inter se paeem habentes agros colentes et ciuitates reedifi- 
cantes duce Athelstano post longa tempora diuersorum 
regnum in terra regnancium diademate insignito monarchal! 
creuerunt in gentem magnam et tunc non Britannia sed 
Anglia vocabatur. Eodem modo Scoti a nobilitate Bri- 
tannica degenerati fures facti sunt et latrones vnusquisque 
insidiabatur alteri vt posset dominarL Et in tantum fuerunt 
degenerati vt nomen proprium amitterent, iam non voca- 
bantur Albanenses sed Scoti a Scota regina fiHa Pharaonis. 
Primus autem eorum, qui dominabantur in Scocia a 
monte Alban vsque ad !Mare Scoticum, vocabatur Fergus 
mak Her et ipse dominabatur tantum iij. annis et inter- 
fectus est a suis. 


Domangal dominabatur quiiique armis et interfectus est. 

Conerham xx. annis et interfectus est. 

Congel XXX. annis et interfectus est. 

Conal xuij. annis et interfectus. 

Edom xxxiij. annis et iaterfectus est. 

Edith vj. annis et interfectus est. 

Kynad iij. mensibus et interfectus. 

Ferkare xvj. annis et interfectus. 

Douenhal xiij. annis et interfectus est. 

Malclom xvj. annis et interfectus. 

Fercar xx. annis et interfectus. 

Etal iij. auuis et interfectus. 

Ormekellet vno anno et interfectus est. 

Ewain tribus annis et interfectus. 

Hedaldus xxx. annis et interfectus est. 

Fergus iij. annis. 

Seluak xx. annis. 

Conegal vij. annis et interfectus. 

Alpin iij. annis et mortuus est. 

Isti omnes fere interfecti sunt, sed nee fuerunt Eeges 
quia non domiaabantur per electionem neque per san- 
guineni, sed per prodicionem. 

Jr EIMUS itaque Rex Scotorum fuit Kynad mak Alpin 
qui, destructis Pictis, regnauit xvj. aunis et sepultus est 
in Hiona insula. 

Donewaldus mak Alpin iiij. annis et sepelitur in Hiona 

Constantinus mak Kynald xx. annis et interfectus est 
a Norwagensibus. 

Grig mak Dungal xv. annis. Hie subiugauit sibi 
Hiberniam et Northumbriam et dedit libertatem ecclesie 
Scoticane, sepultusque est in Hiona insula. 

Douenbald mak Constantiu xj. annis et interfectus est 
propter filiam suam. 

Constantinus regnavit xl. annis. Hie religionis habitu 
indutus Keledeorum Sancti Andree quinque annis Deo 
seruiuit. Ibidemque sepelitur. 



Indolf ix. annis qui interfectus est a Norwagensibus. 

Duf iiij. annis qui interficitur a suis et absconditus, 
solque non aperuit donee inventus est. 

Malclum ix. annis et sepultus in lona insula. 

Culen iiij. annis et interfectus est propter filiam suam. 

Kynaldus xxuij. annis et interfectus, sepelitur in Hiona 

Constantinus ij. annis et interfectus, sepelitur in Hiona 

]\Ialclum Eex gloriosus xxx. annis et sepultus est in 
Hiona insula. 

Dunkan v. annis et interfectus, sepelitur in Hiona 

MakFingel xvij. annis et interfectus, sepelitiu- in Hiona 

Gulak iiij. annis et interfectus, sepelitur in Hiona in- 

Mauclum regnauit xxx. annis. Hie fuit uir Sancte 
Margarete Eegine. 

Douewaldus iiij. annis et expulsus est a regno. 

Edgar x. annis et sepultus est Dunfermelyn. 

Malcolm xij. annis et sepultus Dunfermelin. 

Dauid frater eius xx. annis et sepultus est Dunfermeljm. 
Hie genuit Henricum et tres filias, videlicet, Margaretam, 
Ysabellam et Adam. 

Henricus regnauit xx. annis et sepultus est Dunfer- 

Willelmus filius Heurici reguauit 1. annis et sepultus 
est apud Aberbrothok. 

Summa anuorum a Kynald mak Alpin prime Eege 
Scotorum vsque Willelmum V vj. annis. 

Alexander filius Willelmi regnauit xxxv. annis et sepul- 
tus est in ]\Ielros. 

Alexander fibus Alexandri regnauit xxxvij. annis. Hie 
cecidit de equo suo in Kinkborue et sepultus est in Dun- 
fermelyn. Tunc cadebat regnum inter filios trium sororum, 
scilicet, Margarete, Ysabelle et Adam. Ex Margareta 
genita fuit DeuorgoU. De qua exiit Johannes BaiUoU 


qiiem sublimauit in regnum Scotie Edwardus Eex Anglie 
illustris. De Isabella exiit Eobertus Bruys de quo 
Eobertus de Bruys 2"? De quo Eobertus Bruys tercius qui 
seipsum fecit coronari in Eegem Scocie apud Sconam et 
interfecit Johannem Comyn. Anno Domini Millesimo 
cccc"}". lxv°.^ 

• This date is added in a different hand. 




a MS. TRtN. COLL. DUBL. H. 2. 7. 



Incipit-mmmoxsV) senchusa fie n-alban (annso). 

JJa meic Eachach muindramar .i Ere 7 Olchu. 

Da meic deac umorro la h-Erc (meic Eachach) .i. ase dib 
gabsat Albain .L da Loariin .i. Loarnn beg 7 Loarmi mor, 
da meic Misi .i. Misi beg 7 mac Misi mor, da Fergus .i. 
Fergus beg 7 Fergus mor. A se ali in h-Erind .1. mac 
Deicill, Aengos mjus tamen semen in Albania est^ Enna, 


Incipit THE explanation of the histoky of the men of 
alban here. 

Eachach muindramar had two sons, viz., Ere and Olchu. 

Ere son of Eachach, moreover, had twelve sons. Six of them 
conquered Alban, viz., two Lorns, Lorn beg and Lorn mor ; two 
Maumisis, Macmisi beg and Macmisi mor ; two Fergus', viz., 
Fergus beg and Fergus mor. Six others in Erin, viz., Macdeieill 
Angus, his seed are however in Alban, Enna, Bresal, Fiachra, 

^ The words placed within par- I ^ j and c have this sentence in 
entheses are from b and c. | Irish : we a siljil a n-Atbain. 


Breasal, Fiaclua, Dubthach. Alii dicunt h-Erc hdbuisse 
aliuTnfilium cujits nonien vocabatitr^ Muredac. 

En mac deac la h-Olclioin meic Echach muindreamair 
qui habitant in^ Muirbulc^ la Dailriata .i. Muredach bole 
7 Aed 7 Dare* 7 Aoed^ 7 Dare 7 Aengos 7 Tuathal 
an blomaidh 7 Eocbaid 7 Setna 7 Brian 7 Omii 7 Cormac. 

Fergus mor mac Eire ainm ele do Macmise mor. Unum 
filium hahuit^ A. Domangort. Da meic imorro la Doman- 
goirt .i Garban 7 Comgall, da meic Feidlimigh ingine 
Briuin mac Eachach muighmedoin. Oen mac la Comgall 
.i. Conall. Secht meic imorro la Conaill .i. la Conaill .1 
Loingsech 7 Nechtain 7 Artaiu 7 Tuatan . . / Tutio, 
Cairbri . . .' Coic meic imorro la Garban .i. Aedan,^ 
Eoganan, Cuildeach, Domnall, Domangart. 

Dubthach. There are others who say that Ere had another son, 
whose name was Muretlao. 

Olchu, son of Echaoh muindreamar, had eleven sons, who 
dwelt in Murbulg in Dalriada, viz., Muredach bolg, and Aed, 
and Dare, and Aoed, and Daire, and Angus, and Tuathal an 
blomaidh, and Eochaidh, and Setna, and Brian, and Omu, and 

Fergus mor, son of Ere, was tlie other name of Macmise mor. 
He had one son, viz., Domangort. Domangart had two sons, 
viz., Gabran and Comgall, the two sons of Feidlimidh, daughter 
of Briuin, son of Eachach muigmedon. Comgall had one son, 
viz., Conall. Conall had seven sons, viz., Lougsech, Nechtan, 
Artan, Tuathan, Tuitio, Cairbre. Gabran, moreover, had five 
sons, viz,, Aedan, Eoganan, Cuildeach, Domnall, Domangart. 

^ b and c have this sentence in 
Iriali : ata drong aga raga goroibe 
meic eile oc Earc dnrbainm. 

^ b and c have this sentence in 
Irish : neoch atrehead i. 

' c reads Muirburg. 

* b and c read Guaire. 

^ b and c omit Aoed. 

^ h and e have this sentence in 
Irish : En mac Ids. 

' These are holes in the parch- 
ment in a, and as the names are 
left blank in b and c, this shows 
that these Mss. are taken from a. 

^ b and c read Acdjind. 


Seclit meic la Aedan^ .i. da Eochduig i. Eocho buide 7 
Eoclio find, Tuathal 7 Bran '7 Baithiue, Conaing, Gartnait. 
Ocht meic la Eocho buide meic Aedain .i. Domnall brec 
y Domnall dond 7 Conall cranndomna '7 Conall becc^ 
7 Comnudh cearr 7 Failbi 7 Domangart 7 Cucenmathair. 
Ocht meic dan la Echdaig find .i. Baedain, Pardan, 
Pledan, Cormac, Cronan, Feradach, Feidlimigh, Caplin. 
Hit suntfilii^ Conaing meic Aedain .i. Eigiillan, Ferchar, 
Artan, Artur, Donnchach, Domangort, Nechtain, Nam, 
Crumene. Ceitri meic Gartnait meic Aedain .i. da meic 
Tuathail meic jMorgaind meic Eachdach find meic Aedain 
meic Garbau.* 

Fergos beg dan mac Eire gegnai a brathair. Oen mac 
lais .i Setna a quo Ceuel Concridhe in liQe .i. Conchriath 
mac Boilc meic Setna meic Fergiisa bicc^ meic Eire meic 
Eachaidh muim'emair. 

Aedan had seven sous, viz., the two Eoebos, viz., Eocho buide 
and Eocho find, Tuathal, Bran, Baithine, Conaing, Gartnaidh. 
Eocho buide, son of Aedan, had eight sons, viz,, Domnall brec, 
and Domnall donn, and Conall crandomna, and Conall beg, and 
Comnudh cearr, and Failbi, and Domangart, and Cucenmathair. 
Echdaigh fin had eight sons, viz., Baedan, Pardan, Pledan, 
Cormac, Cronan, Feradach, Feidlimidh, Caplin. These are the 
sons of Conaing, son of Aedan, viz., Eegullan, Ferchar, Artan, 
Artur, Duncan, Domangart, Nechtain, Nem, Crumene. Four 
sons of Gartnait, son of Aedan, viz., two sons of Tuathal son of 
Morgan, son of Echdach fin, son of Aedan, son of Gabran. 

Fergus beg, son of Ere, slain by his brother, had one son, Setna. 
from whom sprung the Cenell Concridhe in Isla, viz., Concriath, 
son of Boilc, son of Setna, son of Fergus beg, son of Ere, son of 
Eachaidh Muinreamar. 

' b and c reail Aedfind. 
- b and c read brectfj. 
^ b and c have this sentence in 
Irish, Is iad so meic. 

* This sentence is corrupt, or 

there is something omitted. It is 
the same iu all the MSS. 

5 b reads Seine a quo Cencl Selna 
no Seine meic Fergusa beg. 


Aengus mar 7 Loarn 7 Macmisi mar tri meic Eire insin. 

Oengos mar mac Eire duos filios habuit^ .i. Nadsluaig j 
Feargnai. Vii.^ meie la Feargna i. Tuathal, Aed, Letho, 
Eiaegan, Fiaeho, Giiairi, Canntan, Eoeha. Da meic imorro 
la Nadsluaigh .i. Bairfind y Caplene. Da meic Bairfinde, 
Nem J Tulelian. Ceitri meic la Tulchau .i. Cronan, 
Brecan, Daman, Conmend. Alii- dicunt Barfind e\indem^ 
Nadsluaig tres filios habmsse* .i. Lugaid, Conall, Galan. 
Caplene mac Nadsluaig iiij. filios habuit^ A. Aedan, 
Lugaid, Crumaine, Gentine aretnem. Bairfiude mac Nad- 
sluaig in. filios habuit^ .i. Lugaid, Conall, Galan. Cruith- 
neach a mathair ejus!' 

Is iad e randsaide orba inili. 

Aengus beag dan mac Eire unicm filium habuit^ .i. 

Cet treb inile. 

Aengus raor, and Loru, and Macmisi mor, the three sons of 
Ere there. 

Oengos mor, son of Ere, had two sons, viz., Nadsluag and 
Fergna. Fergna had seven sons, viz., Tuathal, Aed, Letho, Riagan 
Fiacha, Guaire, Canntan, Eocha. Nadshiag, moreover, had two 
sons, viz., Bairfind and Caplene. Bairfind had two sons, Nem 
and Tulohan. Tulchan had four sons, viz., Cronan, Brecan, 
Daman, Connien. Others say that Bairfind [son of] Nadsluag 
had three sons, viz., Lugad, Conall, Gidan. Caplene son of Nads- 
luag had four sons, viz., Aedan, Lugad, Crumaine, Gentine 
aretnem. Bairfind son of Nadshiag had three sons, viz., Lugad, 
Conall, Galan. A Cruthneach was their mother. 

These are they who divided land in Isla. 

Aengus beg, then, the son of Ere, had one son, Muredach. 

He first inhabited Isla. 

^ b and c have this ia Irish, 
da meic lais. 

^ b and c read in Irish, Seacht. 
' Eundem ior filium. 
* b and c read in Irish, Adrait 
drong eile tri meic ay Nadsluaig. 

^ b and c read in Irish, ceitri 
meic lei.i. 

^ b and c read in Irish, tri meic 

' 6 and c read iu Irish, a 
mathair sin. 

^ b and c read ia Irish, Ici-s. 


Odeich, xx. tech. 

Freag, c* tech. 

Cladroi.s, Ix. tech. 

Eos deorand, xxx. tech. 

Ardbes, xxx. tech. 

Loichrois, xxx. tech. 

Aitha cassil, xxx. insin.^ 

Cinel Aengusa xxx. tech Caillnae acht itbeca iii na 
feranna taige Cenel n-Aengusa .i. fer trichot. 

Fecht airmi slosrad Cenel Oengusa .L Coic cet fer. 

Fecht aiiTui Ceuel n-Gabran .i. ccc. fer, mad fecht 
imorro for imram vij. vij. sese uaidibh .i. fecht (mara).^ 

Ite teora* trena Dalriatai i. Cenel n-Gabran j Cenel 
n-Oengusa j Cenel Loarn moir. 

Hii sunt filii^ Loarn mou' .i. Eochaidh, Caithbad, Mure- 
dach, Fuindenam, Fergos salach, Danmaine. Alii dicunt 

Odeich, twenty houses. 

Freg, a hundred houses. 

Cladrois, sixty houses. 

Eos deorand, thirty houses. 

Ardbes, thirty houses. 

Loichrois, thirty houses. 

Atheashel, thirty there. 

The Cinel Angus, thirty houses, CaUlnae ; but smaU were the 
lands of the houses of the Cinel Angus, viz., one man and thirty. 

The armed muster of the host of the Cinel Angus was five 
hundred men. 

The armed muster of the Cinel Gabran, three hundred men. 

If the muster, however, is for rowing, twice seven benches of 
them, the (sea) muster. 

These arc the three powerfuls of Dabiada, viz., the Cinel 
Gabran, the Cinel Angus, and the Cinel Lorn mor. 

These are the sons of Lorn mor, viz., Eochaidh, Cathbad, 
Muredach, Fuindenam, Fergus Salach, Danmaine. Others say 

^ b and c read cxx. 

2 b and c read in iiisin, which 
Diay mean in the islands. 

3 Inserted from c. 

* b and c read imorro, more- 

* b and c read iu Irish, /« iat 


Loarnd non hahuisse nee tres filios tamen^ .i. Fergus salach 
7 ]\Iuredacli J Maine. 

Ite teora treua Cenel Loairnd .i. Cenel (Fergusa^) salach 
J Cenel Cathbath j Cenel n-Eachach meic Muredach. 

Cenel Fergusa salaig, Ls. teach leo. 

Fecht airmi Cenel Loarnd vij.^ cet far, acht is dinaibh 
AirgiaU in sechtmadh cet. Mad -fecht imorro for imram 
da secht seis * cacha fichit taigi dibh. 

Coic meic Fergusa Salaig .i. 

Caeldub, xxx. tech lais. 

Eogan garb, xxx. tech lais'' j uxor ejus^ Crodu ingeu 
Dallain mac Eogan meic Neill. 

Fergna xv. tigi' leas. 

Eogan V. tige leas. 

Baedan v. tigi lais. 

Da meic la Mm-edach meic Loairn .i. Cathbud j Eochaid. 
Cuic meic imorro la h-Eochaid meic Muredach .i. 

that Lorn mor had only three sons, viz., Fergus Salach, Mure- 
dach, and Maine. 

These are the three powerfuls of the Cinel Lorn, viz., the Cinel 
(Fergus) Salach, the Cinel Cathbath, and the Cinel Eachaidh 
son of Muredach. 

Cinel Fergus Salach, sixty houses. 

The armed muster of the Cinel Lorn, seven hundred men, but 
it is of the Argialla that the seventh hundred is. The muster, 
however, for rowing, twice seven benches to each twenty houses of 

Fergus Salaig had five sons, viz., — 

Caeldub, thirty houses to them, and his wife was Crodu, 
daughter of Dallain son of Eogan, son of Neill. 

Fergna, fifteen houses to him. 

Eogan, five houses to him. 

Baedan, five houses to lum. 

Muredach son of Lorn had two sons, viz., Cathbud and Eochaid. 
Eochaid son of Muredach had five sons, viz., — 

' b and c read iu Irish, Aderait 
drong ele nach roibe acht tri meic aij 

'^ Inserted from b and c. 

^ b and c read iiij. e. 

* b and c read bes. 

^ This line not in c. 

^ b and c read in Irish, a bean. 

' h and c read in Irish, C'oig liiji 


Feradach, xx. teach lais. 

Cormac, xx. teach lais. 

Bledan j Cronan, xx. teach ettorru. 

Tri meic Cathbadha dan i, Brenand, j Arnmire 7 Cronan. 

Tri Caicait fer ind longas do lodar la macu Eire as. 
Is he in tres coeca Corpri cona muindtir. 

Cenel n-Gabran inso tri xx. taige' ar coic cetaib Cend- 
tire 7 Crich Comgaill cona Insib. Da seacht seis each xx. 
tigi a fecht mara. 

Cenel n-Oengusaxxx. taige ar cccc. leo, da vij. seis gach 
XX. tigi a fecht mara. 

Cenel Loam xx. teach ar cccc. leo. Da secht seis gach 
XX. tigi a fecht mara. 

Is amluid fo teora trena i. Dalriadai. 

Incijpit GENEALA.CH Albanensium.^ 

Cnnsantin mic Ilduib 

mac Ciolunn^ mic Causantin 

Feradach, twenty to him. 

Cormac, twenty houses to him. 

Bledau and Cronan, twenty liouses each. 

Cathbad had three sons, viz., Brenan, Ainmire, and Cronan. 

Three times fifty men passed over in the fleet with the sons of 
Ere. The third fifty, Corpri with his people. 

The Cinel Gabran, five hundred and three score houses in 
Kintyre, the district of Cowall, with the Islands. Twice seven 
benches to each twenty houses, their sea muster. 

The Cinel Angus, four hundred and thirty houses to them. 
Twice seven benches to each twenty houses, their sea muster. 

The Cinel Lorn, four hundred and twenty houses to them. 
Twice seven benches to each twenty houses, their sea muster. 

And thus are tlie three powerfuls in Dalriada. 

6 reads teach. I Alhain ; r, adds annso, here. 

b and c read in Irish fer n- | ^ Omitted in b. 


mic Aeda 

mic Conairi moir 

mic Cinaeda 

mic Etirsceoil 

mic Alpin 

mic Eogain 

mic Eachach 

mic Aillella 

mic Aeda find 

mic Jair 

mic Eacliacli 

mic Dedad 

mic Domangurt 

mic Sin 

mic Domnall bricc 

mic Koisin 

mic Echacli buide 

mic Thrir 

mic Aedaiu 

mic Eothrir 

mic Gabraiu 

mic Arndil'' 

mic Domaiigart 

mic Maine 

mic Fergusa 

mic Forgo 

mic Eire 

mic Feradaigh 

mic Echach munremair' 

mic Aillella eraind 

mic Aengusa 

mic Fiacliac firmara 

mic Fergusa ulaig 

mic Oengusa turbig tem- 

mic Fiachacli tathmail 


mic Feidlimidh lamdoit 

mic Cingi 


mic Guairi 

mac Cinaeda 

mic Gindtai 

mic Maelcoliiim^ 

mic Corpri rig fliotai^ 

mic Domnaill 

mic Conairi clioem 

mic Cusantin 

mic Mogalama 

mic Cinaeda 

mic Corpri cromcind 

mic Ailpin^ 

mic Daire dorndmair^ 


' omitted in 6. 

^ 6 reads riata. 

^ c leads Jindnioir. 

' 6 reads Arnall ; c Earnail. 

5 h and c prefix to Maelcoluim, 
David righ Albatn mac Coluim mic 
Dondcaid mic. 

^ not in b. 

' b and c add liere, the words in 
parentheses not being in c, mic 
Eachach mic Aeda find mic Each- 
ach mic Domangoirt (/ siam con- 
drecaidh Cenla n-Gabrain y Cenla 

Comgaill, mic Domnaill bricc mic 
Eachach buide) I sunn condrecaidh 
clann Fergusa gtiill mic Eachach 
buide A. Oabranaig 7 clann Conaill 
cirr mic Eachach buide J. Fir ibe 
fris in rigraig, A. clann Cinaeda 
mic Ailpin mic Aedain. I sund 
condrecaidh clann Eachach buide 
fir leithrind Conaing (don leth 
tuaidh) mic Aedain mic Oabran 
mic Domangoirt mic Fergusa moir 
mic Eire. I sund condrecaidh 
Cenla Loairn mic Eire 7 Cenla n- 


Cethri prim cenoil Dailriadai .i. Cenla n-Gabrain, 
Cenla Loarnd mair, Cenla n-Oengusa, Cenla Comgaill. 
Gabran '7 Comgall da meic Domangart y Fedelm foltchain 
ingen Briuin mic Echach muigmedon a mathair.^ 

Genelach Cenel Gabrain,*^ 

mac Consamla 
mic Canai gairb 
mic Gartnait 
mic Aedain 
mic Gabraiu. 

Genelach Cenla 
Loairnd mair,*= 
mac Ferchair fotai 

mic Feradaich 

mic Fergusa^ 

mic Coluim 

mic Boetain 

mic Ecdacli 

mic IMuredaig 

mic Loairnd mair 

mic Eire 

mic Eachach muinremair. 

mac Domnall 


* Four chief tribes of Dalriaila, viz., Ciiiel Gabran, Cinel 
Lorn mar, Cinel Angus, and Cinel ComgaU. Gabran and Comgall, 
the two sons of Domangurt and FedUmidh, fair hair, daughter of 
Brian, son of Eochaidh Muighmedon, their mother. 

^ Genealogy of the Cinel Gabran. 

"= Genealogy of the Cinel Lorn mar. 

Aengusay Cenla 71-Gahran 7 Cenla 
Comgaill mic Eachachmninreamatr, 
mic Aengusa mic Feidlimiclh ais- 
lingthi mic Aengusa buadnid mic 
Feidlimidh mic Sen Cormac mic 
Laigh luaithi mic Aithir mic Ech- 
ach antoit mic Fiach tathmail. 
Son of Eachach, son of Aeda find, 
son of Domangart ; here branch off 
the Cinel Gabran, and the Cinel 
Comgaill ; son of Donald brec, son 
of Eachach buide ; here branch off 
the clan Fergusa gall, son of Each- 
ach buide, id est, the Gabranaig 
and the clan Conall Cerr, son of 
Eachach buide, id est, the men of 
Fife in the sovereignty, id est, the 
clan of Kenneth, son of Alpin, 
son of Aedan ; here branch off the 

clan Eachach buide, the men of 
the half share of Conaing (of the 
half land) son of Aedain, son of 
Gabran, son of Domangart ; son of 
Fergus mor, son of Ere ; here 
branch off the Cinel Lorn mac 
Ere, the Cinel Angus, the Cinel 
Gabran, and the Cinel Comgall ; 
son of Echach muinremar, son 
of Angus, son of Feidlimidh Aes- 
lingthi, son of Angus buadnid, son 
of Feidlimidh, son of Old Cor- 
mac, son of Laith luaithe, son of 
Aithir, son of Echach antoit, son 
of Fiach tathmail. 

' b and c insert after Fergusa, 
mic Nechtan. 

2 b reads Morgan ; c, Mogan. 


mic Cathmai^ 
mic Euadrach 
mic Ferchair 
mic Muredaig 
mic Boetan^ 

Genelach Cenla^ Comgaill,'^ 
mac Neaclitaia 
mic Ferchair 
mic Fhingin 
mic Eaclidach 
mic Loingsich 
mic Comgaill 
mic Domangoirt 

mic mic Misi mair 

mic Eire 

mic Ecliach munremair 

Genelach Cenla* Oengusa,^ 
mac Boidb 
mic Eonain 
mic Aedain 
mic Cablein 
mic Nadsluaig 
mic EonaiQ 
mic Oengusa 
mic Eire* 

^ Genealogy of the Cinel ComgaU. 
^ Genealogy of the Cinel Angus. 

* c reads Caithnia. 

2 6 add c and mic Echach mk 

2 6 reads Clann. 

* ft and c read Clann. 

^ b and c add inic Echach 
Muinreamair, and conclude with 

the following additional pedigree : 
— Maelsnechta mac Lulaig mic 
Gillicomgan mic Maelbrigde mic 
Ruadri mic Morgaind mic Dorfi' 
nail mic Cathmail mic Ruadri mic 
Aircellach mic Ferchair fhoda. 



TRACT ON THE PICTS, before mccclxxiii. 



Oland Conaill cearnaicli .i. Dalnaraide o carraic ind- 
beruacht^ co lind huachalla. Ainm n-aile doib Cruith- 
nig .i. niath cmtliaige no nia Crodai* ut poeta dixit. 

A mailduin anasrubairt 
Frithr iiin inirubairt 
Do gae cruaith rodamar 
Do lobor buaith no trenfir. 

Crodai M Irial glunmar mac Conaill Cernaich for ceta 


The clan of Conall Cernach, id est, the Dalnaraidhe from the 
rock of Inveruacht to the pool of UachaiU. Another name for 
them was Cruthnigh, id est, the proved champion or the sister's 
son of Crodai, as the poet sings : — 

MaUduin what thou hast said 
Has happened, one day he was struck 
From the very keen hard spear 
Of the victorious leper or strong man.- 

Crodai was [a name applied] to Irial glunmar, son of Conall 

1 The words within parentheses 
are in h only. 

^ b reads I ndbeiruisci. 

^ h oDiita Niath Crathaige, and 
reads, .i. nath Crodu. These are 
fanciful explanations of the name 

Cruthnigh, as being derived from 
Cruthaige and Niath, or Crodu and 
Nia or Nath. 

■* The sense of this stanza ia 
obscure, and its connexion with 
what goes before not ajiparent. 


ar baradh Cruithniu .i. nia Cruitline .i. mac seathar 
Cruithne.^ Lonchetuae ingean Echdhi eachbeoil dia Albae 
a mathaii'. Ithe abbae do nacht Cuculaind 7 Curoi mac 
Daii-e a Albae in Erenn. Colgu mac Mongain dixit. 

Masa comram^ condaigi ■ 
Cuideas,^ eacna rummar 
Coica catha deiTuaid* 
Eo fich Irial glunmar 

Da n-ocht dec milead de tlmathaib Traiciae da lotar ar 
ceand loingse meic Mdedh Easpaine do Gearman do 
bertadar leo co m-batar h-im miUteacht. Leo ni taultatar 
mna leo statim conid do sil meic Miled anro froetar mna 
iarsiQ. Do brith ingeani oigtigearu daaib flaithnio h- 
Erind 7 ar n-glanad a claideam-tir doib allae itir Breatnaib 
.L Mag Eortrein j:)?'mo f Mag Cirgiu (.i.^josfea) fo conid iar 
mathru gabait flaith y gach comarbus olclieana ar naisa 

Cemach, primarily as descended from the Cruithniu, id est, 
the nephew of Cruithne, id est, son of the sister of Cruithne. 
Loneetna, the daughter of Echdhe eaclibheoil of Alba, was his 
mother. This was the cause which brought Cuchulain and 
Curoi, son of Daire, from Alba to Erin. Colgu, son of Mongan, 
sings : — 

If it be a connexion of relationship 

That proves secret wisdom, 

Fifty battles to Easroe 

Did Irial glunmar fight. 

Twice eighteen soldiers of the tribes of Thracia went to the 
fleet of the sons of Mileadh of Spain, to Germany, and they took 
them away with them and kept them as sokliers. They had 
brought no wives with them at that time. And it was of the 
race of the sons of Mileadh they took wives afterwards. They 
received the daughters of chieftains from the sovereign champions 
of Erin, and when they had cleared their swurdland yonder among 
the Britons, viz., Magh Fortrein, primo, and Magh Girgin, postea, 
so that it is in right of mothers they succeed to sovereignty 
and all other successions to which they were bound by the 

' Mac seathar Cruithne not iu i. I ^ b reads Cruitheas. 
^ b reads romrair. , ^ b reails co heasrtiaidh. 


fomi o feraib Erind .1 tri chaicat ingean ro h-uicset a 
h-Erenn do inaithrib mac mde Aldind na h-ingi i crich 
Dalaraidhe (isead adlotar leo). 

Trica rig do Cruitlmib for Erind j Albain .L do Criiith- 
nib Alban j (do Criiithnib) Erenn .i. di Dailaraidhe. Ota 
Ollaman dia ta mur n-Ollamhan h-i Teamair coinici 
Eiaclini mac Baetain ro ne naisc sidhe giallu Erenn j Alban. 

Seact riga dan do Chruiueachaib Alban ro follamnaigea- 
staii- Erenn a Teamair. 

OUamb ainm .i. cbet rig ro gab (Erind a Teamar) j a 
Chruachnaib xxs. aimis Is de ata Mur n-OUaman h-i 
Teamair h-is leis ceta n-dernad feis Teamrach. 

H-Eilim^ ollfinsnectha tareisi n-Ollaman ri for Eirinn 
uili a Teamar xxx. minis. Na [f ]laith sidhe fearais insnecta 
fina CO timteth fer isan gaimriath. 

Findoll cisirne tareisi n-Eilim xxx. annis h-i Teamair 
ocus i ceand. Nach n-ad ro genair ina flaithusidhe robo 
cheanand isde ata Ceannandas ina lochtae. 

men of Erin. They took with them from Erin thrice fifty 
maidens to become mothers of sons, whence Altnaninghean, in the 
territory of Dalaraidhe, from which place they departed with them. 

Thirty kings of the Cruithneach, over Erin and Alban, viz., of 
the Cruithneach of Alban and of Erin, viz., of the Dalaraidhe. They 
were from Ollamhan, from whence comes Mur Ollamhan at 
Teamhair to Fiacha mac Baedan, who fettered the hostages of 
Erin and Alban. 

Seven kings of the Cruitneach of Alban governed Erin in 

Ollamh was the name of the first king that governed Erin at 
Teamhair and in Cruachan, thirty years. It is from him Mur 
Ollamhan at Teamhair is ; by him was the Feast of Teamhair 
first instituted. 

Eilim oUf hinachta after Ollamhan king over all Erin at Team- 
hair, thirty years. It was in his reign the wine snow fell which 
covered the grass in winter. 

Findoll cisirne succeeded Eilim thirty years at Teamhair and at 
Ceanannus. Every cow that was calved in his reign was white 
headed, and it is from him that the name of Ceanannus is given 
to his place. 

' b reads Ailill. 


Geithe ollgothach ina diaidsidhe i Teamair 7 for Fain- 
laibe h-i tirib Mogorna ro fallnastar xxx. annis. Ina flaitha 
sidhe ba bindnitbir la each gutb araili bidh crot ar naed 
in caincomhraich ina iiaitha sidbe. 

Slauoll tareisi n-Geith is na flaithtis in raib gallra for 
dainib in Ere ; ro allnastair b-i Teamair j slan for Ere xxx. 

Bagag ollfiacba tareisi Slanuill ro fallnastair for Eirenn 
i Teamair xxx. annis. Is na flaitb sidbe tinscanta coicce 
in Ere. 

Bearngal tareisi in B[agog] ro fallnastair for Ere a 
Teamair xxx. annis. Is na flaitbnus sidbe a rocuir ith in 
Ere acbt miacb co leitli ar med coictbe in Erinn 7 ara lin. 

Ite sin na vii. riga ro gabsat Erenn di Cniitbnib Alban. 

Di Cruitbnib Erinn din di Dalnaraidbe, na vij. Laicbse 
Laing 7 na vij. Sodban Erind 7 cacb CouaiUi fil in Erind. 

De genelacb Dalnaraidbe. 

Geide olgotliaeh after him at Teamhair, and over Fain-Laibe 
in the county of Mughdorn. He ruled for thirty years. In his 
reign the voices of all sounded as the music of the harp to eacli 
other, so great was the peace in his reign. 

Slanoll after Geide. In his reign no person in Erin was dis- 
eased. He governed at Teamhair, and health was over Erin thirty 

Bagag ollfhiacha after Slanoll. He governed Erin at Teamh- 
air thirty years. It was in his reign that wars were first begun 
in Erin. 

Bearngal after Bagag. He governed Erin at Teamhair thirty 
years. It was in his reign that all the corn of Erin, except one 
sack and a half, was destroyed on account of the wars in Erin, and 
for their frequency. 

These then are the seven kings that ruled over Erin of the 
Cruithneach of Alban. 

Of the Cruithneach of Erin, i.e., of Dalaraidhe, are the seven 
Laighsi of Leinster, and the seven Soghains, and all the Conailli 
that are in Erin. 

Of the de.sccnt of tlie Dalnaraidbe. 



TEACT ON THE PICTS, before mcccxci. 


An tan don thaim'g loingis meic Milidh gnr gabsad i 
n-Gearmain ina h-oirrtiir, do lodar da n-ocht deg milidh do 
mUeadaibh Traicia for loiageas gu macu Milidh .L fo clu 
uirdracus na loingsi combadar iu naentaidh meic Milidh 
7 do rarngairseadar saidhe doibhsium soighe thire leo dia 
n-gliabhdais tir feisiu de sin tra rothsealgadar Gaidhil ar 
eigin in tir a f hUead Cruithneachu. In mileidh sin tra 
do lodar a Traicia i Cruitheantuaith. 


New when the fleet of the sons of Milidh came to possess in 
Germany in the east, there came twice eighteen soldiers of the 
soldiers of Thrace in ships to the sons of Milidh, that is, from the 
fame and renown of that fleet, tiU they united with the sons of 
MUidh, who promised them that they shoidd obtain lands with 
them if they should themselves acquire a country. The Gaidhil 
afterwards landed them by force in the land in which are the 
Cruithneachu. These soldiers thus went from Thrace to Cruith- 


TEACT OlSr THE PICTS, before mccccxviii. 


a FOL. 13. b FOL. 286.^ 

J-Sin bliadin cetna sin tancatar Cruithnigh a tir Tracia, 
.i. clanna Geleoin mac Ercail iat (Icathirsi ananmanda) 
.i. Cruithne mac Cinge^ mic Luchtai mic Partholain mic 
Agnoin mic Buain mic Mais mic Fathecht mic Jafed mic 
Noe. Ise athair Cruithnech 7 ced bliadhain do irrigi. 

Seclit meic Criiithnec andso .i. Fib, Fidac, Fotla, For- 
treann, Gait, Gee, Girig^ 7 a vij. randaib ro raudsat a 
forba* (amail adfed in file). 

Morseisser meic Cruithne iarsin 
A vii. ro randsat Albain* 


In the same year came the Cruithnigh from the land of Thrace, 
viz., the clan Geleoin, son of Ercal they, Icathirsi was their 
name, viz., Cruithne son of Cinge, son of Luchtai, son of Partolan, 
son of Agnoin, son of Buan, son of Mais, son of Fathecht, son of 
Jafet, son of Noe. 

He was the father of the Cruithnech, and was a hundred years 
in the sovereignty. 

These were the seven sons of Cruithne, viz.. Fib, Fidac, Fotla, 
Fortrean, Gait, Gee, Girig, and they divided the land into seven 
portions, as the poet relates. 

Seven sons of Cruithne then 
Into seven divided Alban, 

^ The words within parenthesis 
are in b only. 
2 b reads Inrje. 
^ b reads A irirj, and adds cetacli. 

* b reads fcaranna. 

^ b reads randsad ar seacht a 
fearand, divided into seven their 



Cait, Cee, Ciri[g], cetach claim. 

Fib, Fidacli, Fotla, Fortreud. 
Et ise ainm each a fir dib fuil for a fearunn- 
Fibh xxiiij. bliadna^ inigi n-Alban. 
Fidacli xl. bliadhain. 
Fortrend Ixx. 

B. Urleo. 
B. UHeo. 
B. Grant. 
B. Urgrant. 
B. Gnith. 
B. Uirgnitli. 
(B. Feth.) 
B. Uirfeachtair. 
B. Gal. 
B. Ureal. 

Bruide pont xxx. b.^ irrigi n-Uladh. Is de asberta 
Briiige fer a gach fer dib edrenda na fer 

Cait xxij. 
Ce xij. 
Ciriee Ixxx, 
Aenbeean v. 
Cait xxx. 
Finnechta Ix. 
(Guidit Gadbre). 
Feth .i. Gas." 
Gest,^ (Guirid) xl. 
Urgeist .xxx. 

Cait, Cee, Cirig, a warlike clan, 

Fib, Fidac Fotla, Fortren. 
And this was the name of each man of them aud their territoiy. 
Fibh twenty-four years in the sovereignty of Alban, — 
Fidach forty years. 

Fortren seventy [years] 
Cait twenty-two [years]. 
Ce twelve [years]. 
Ciricc eighty [years]. 
Aenbeean five [years]. 
Cait thirty [ye;ii-s]. 
Finnechta sixty [years]. 
Guidid Gadbre. 
Feth, id est, Ges. 
Gest Guirid forty [year.s]. 
Urgeist thirty [years]. 

Brude Urleo. 
Biiide Uileo. 
Brude Grant. 
Brude Urgrant. 
Brude Gnith. 
Brude Urgnith. 
Brude Feth 
Brude Uirfeachtair. 
Brude Cal. 
Brude Ureal. 

Brude pont thirty years in the sovereignty of Uladh. They 
were called Bruige each man of them, and the divisions of the 

'■ h has iliadainar/hichit,twenty- 
one years. 

^ b omits FHh, aud has Oe^ only. 
■^ b. iiKiv be the contraction for 

hniide or for hliadhain, that ia, 
thirty Brudes or thui;y years ; b 
reads hliadain. 



Bruige Cint (B. Urchind), B. Fet, B. Urfet, B. Eu. 
aile. Eo gabastair .1. ar da. c. bliadhain utcst a leabharach 
na Cruithnech. 

Brude Ero, Brude Gart, Bnide Urgart, Brude Cind, 
Brude Urcind, Brude Uip, Brude Uruip, Brude Grith, 
Brude Urgritli, Brude Muin, Brude Urmuin, Brude.^ 

Do rigaibh Cruithneach audsiii. 

Seissir tosech tancatar co li-Erind i. vj. braitre, Solen, 
Ulpa, Nechtan, Trostan, Oengus, Letenn. Fath a tiachtna 
(a n-Erinn) .i. Policornus righ Tracia do rat gradh dia siaii- 
cor tinall a breith cen tochra. Lotar iarsin (co ro triallsad) 
tar Eomhanchu co Francco 7 cumdaigsit caitir andsiu, .i. 
Pictairus a Pictus (a li-ainm) i. na rannaibh y do rat 
righ Frangc gradh dia siair. Lotar for muir iar nee in 
tseisidh^ brathair, .i. Lethenn. I cind da la iar n-dul ar 
muir adbath a siur. 

Gabhsat Cruithnigh an Inberslaine ann lb Cendsealaigh. 

Bruige Cint, Brude Urcind, Bruide Fet, Brude Urfet, Brude Ru. 
other. They possessed two hundred and fifty years, as it is in 
the books of the Cruithnech.^ 

Brude Ero, Brude Gart, B. Argart, B. Cind, Bruide Urcind, 
B. uip, B. Uruip, B. Grith, B. Urgritli, B. Muin, B. Urnuiin, B. 

Of the kings of the Cruithneach there. 

Sis tosechs came to Erin, viz., sis brothers, Solen, Ulpa, Nectan, 
Trostan, Angu.s, Letenn. The reason of their coming to Erin, 
viz., Policornis, king of Tracia, fell in love with their sister, and 
he attempted to get her without a dowry. They then set out 
and passed through the Romans into France, where they built a 
city, viz., Pictairis, a Pictis, was its name, viz., from the points, 
and the king of France fell in love with their sister. They set 
out upon the sea after the death of the sixth brother, viz., Letenn. 
In two days after they had gone tu sea died their sister. 

The Cruithneach landed at Liverslaine in the Cennselaigh. 

^ Bruide not in 6. 

^ b reads cimiced the fifth. 

3 This jjart of the tract appears 
to have been transcribed from an 
older copy written in double co- 
lumns, and copied without advert- 
ing to that, so as to interperse the 

thirty Brudes through the text. 
It is here printed so as to show 
how the confusion arose ; these 
two hues should follow the sen- 
tence which precedes " Bruige 
" Cint," and all the Brudes should 
come after this sentence. 



Atbert friu Crimtliand Sgiathbel righ Laigen do berad 
failte doib ar dicur Tuaithe Figdha doibh. Atbert Dros- 
tan drai Cruithneach riu co foirfedh iat ar log dfagbail 7 
ise med^ .i. bleglian vij. xx. bo fmd mail do dortad h-i fail 
ferfaiglie in cath doibh. Uncle Cath Ardlemnachta an 
lb Cendselaig re Tuathaibh Figda .i. tuath do Bretnaib 
to bai hi Fothardaib 7 (nem) ar an armaib. Marb each oen 
ar an dergtais (7 ni gebdis acht iarnaidi nemi umpu. Cach 
aen do gobtha) do Laigen isin cath ni deutais acht loighi 
isin lemnacht 7 in cuimgitis neim ni doibh. Eo marb- 
tha iarsin Tuatha Figda. Marb cethrar iarsin do Chruthen- 
tuath .i. Drostan, Solen, Nechtau, Ulpa (iar n-dichar in 
chatha), 7 is bert isin duain." 

Ardlemnachta as tirsi thess 
Finnat cach aen bus eces^ 
Cret dar len iii-tainm sin sloinn 
Eo gab aimser Cruuthaind. 

Cremthand Sciathbel, the king of Leinster, told them that 
they should have welcome from him on condition that they 
should destroy the Tuath Figda. Now Trostan, the dmid of the 
Cruithneach, said to them that he would help them if he were 
rewarded. And this was the cure, viz., to spill the milk of seven 
score hornless white cows near the place where the battle was to 
be fought, viz., the battle of Ardleamnachta in Ui Cennselaigh, 
against the Tuatha Figda, viz., a tribe of Britons, who were in 
the Fotherts with poison on their weapons. Any man wounded 
by them died, and they carried nothing about them but poisoned 
iron. Every one of the Leinster men who was pierced in the 
battle had nothing more to do than lie in the new milk, and 
then the poison affected him not. The Tuath Figda were all 
killed afterwards. Four of the Cruithneach died after that, viz., 
Trostan, Solen, Nectan, Ulpa, and this poem was sung. 

Ardleamnaota in this southern country 
Each learned one may ask, 
Why it is called by this distinctive name 
AVhich it bears since the time of Crimthand % 

' b reads leUjes. 

" b reads conad doibsin rodian 

in senchaid so, it was for them the 
poet sang this. 

^ b reads cach an cach egia. 


Crimthaind Sciathbel e ro gabh 
Dar saerad ar cliatli cruadh^ 
Da n-din ar neimib na n-arm 
Na n-atliach n-uathmhar n-agarbli. 

Seisiur Cruithneach ro cind Dia 
Tancatar a tir Tracia 
Solen, Ulpa, Neclitan nar 
Aengus, Ledend is Drostan. 

Eo thindlaic Dia doib tre tlus 

Dia n-dil dia n-utrus 

Dia n-dia ar nemib an arm 

Na n-athach n-uathmar na garb. 

Is e eolus do uair doib 
Drai na Cruithneach nir b-esgoir 
Tri .1. bo mail don mhuigh 
Do blegon do n-aen chuithidh. 

Eo cuireadh an cath co cacht 
Mon chuithigh imbi leamnacht 

Crimthan Sciathbel it was that engaged 
To free him of the hard battle, 
When defenceless against poisoned arms 
Of the hateful horrid giants 

Six of the Cruithneach — so God ordained — 
Came out of the land of Tracia, 
Solen, Ulpa, Nectan the heroic, 
Angus, Ledend, and Trostan. 

God willed unto them in munificence 
For their faithfulness, for their reward. 
To protect them from the poisoned arms 
Of the hateful horrid giants. 

The knowledge made for them 

By the Druid of the Cruithnech, who was no enemy. 

Thrice fifty cows of the plains 

To be milked by him into one pit. 

The battle was closely fought 

Near the pit in which was the milk ; 

1 b reads curad, of heroes. 



Eo maigh in catli co calma 
For aitheacliaib arcl banba. 


Et issin n-aimsii h-Erimon gabais Gub acus a mac 
.i. Cathluan macGuib .i. Ei Cruithnech nert mor for Erind. 
No CO rus indarba h-Erimon a h-Erind j co n-dernsat 
sidh iarsin^ ^co tard h-Erimoin doib mna na fear ro baigedh 
niaille Donn^ .i. mna Bress mna Biiass j Buaigne^ j ratha 
n-gren j escu conabugh lugu do gebthai do rigi j du 
doman o mnaib inas o feraib a Cruitlientuaith co brath 
J anais sesiur dib os Bregmaigh j is uaithibh each gess j 
each sen j each sregh j gotha en j gach mana j gach 
upaidh (do gnithear). 

Cathluain imorro ba h-ardri forro uile j ise ced righ 
rogab Alban dib. Lxx. rigli dibh for Alban o Chathluau 
CO Constantin y ise Cruithnech deigenach rogab dib. Da 
mac Cathkiaiu .i. Cathanolodar y Catanalaehan. A da 
curaidh I mm mac Pirn j Cing athair Cruithne. A da 

Tlie battle was bravely won 
Against the giants of high Banba. 

And in the time of Eriinon, Gub and his son, viz., Cathluan, son 
of Gub, acquired great power in Erin, until Erimon banished 
them out of Erin, and they made peace after that, and Erimon 
gave them the wives of the men who were drowned along with 
Donn, viz., the wife of Bress, the wife of Buass and Buaigne, and 
they declared by the sun and moon that they alone should take of 
the sovereignty and of the land from women rather than from men 
in Cruthentuath for ever ; and six of them remained in possession 
of Breaghmagh, and from them are derived every spell and every 
charm and eveiy sneezing, and the voices of birds and all omens 
and all talismans that are made. 

Cathluan, moreover, was sovereign over them all, and he was 
the first king of them that possessed Alban. There were seventy 
kings of them over Alban from Cathluan to Constantin, and 
he was the last Cruthnech that took of them. The two sons 
of Cathluan, viz., Cathanolodar and Cathanalacan. His two 

^ b iusei'ts here the last jiara- 
gr.aph, containing tlie account of 

2 This sentence not in b. 

^ b adds 7 «o. faiseck ro haJtea 
iiU(', and of the other toseclis who 
were drowned, and omits the two 
lines which follow. 


sruitli i. Cms 7 Ciric. A da milidh Uasneni a fili, 
Cruithne a cerd. Domnall mac Alpin ise a taisecli y 
isadli asbertait araile comadh h-e Cruithne mac Loichit mac 
Cinge tisadh do chuindgidh ban for Erimon 7 comadh do do 
beradh Erimon mna na fear do baithedh maill fri Donn. . . . 
An t-ochtmud bliadain iarsain. . . . No comad isin 
bliadaiu siii^ do dechaid Cruithneacban mac Cinge meic 
Loichit la Bretno Fortrend do cath^ fri Saxancho 7 ro 
selaig (a clann y a claideam) tir doib .i. Cruithentuaith 
acus tarastair tir acco^ acht ni batar mna leo ar beabais 
bandtracht Alban (do gallroib). Do luid imorro Cruith- 
neacban for culo CO macaib Miledh "j ro gabad neamh y 
talamh griau ^ escca muir y tir drucht 7 daithe* comad o 
mnaib® flacht forro co brath (7 adbert) di mnai dec for- 
craid batar ic maccaib Miledh ro baitca a fir issin fairgi 
thiar ar aen ri Dond conad do feraib Ereand flacht for 
Cruithentuaith o sin do gres. 

heroes, Imm son of Pirnn, and Cing, the father of Cruithne. 
His two wise men, Crus and Ciric. His two soldiers, Uasnem the 
poet, Cruitliue the artificer. Domnall son of Alpin was his toseoh. 

And others say that it was Cruthne, son of Lochit, son of Cinge, 
himself that came to ask women from Erimon, and that it was to 
him Erimon gave the wives of the men who were drowned with 

In the eighth year after that went Cruthnechan, son of Cinge, 
son of Loichit, to the Britons of Fortren to battle against the 
Saxons, and they yielded the children and the sword-land to them, 
viz., Cruthentuath, and they took possession of the land, but they 
had no wives, because all the women of Alban died of diseases. 
Cruthnechan therefore went back to the sons of Jliledh, and he 
swore by the heaven and the earth, the sun and the moon, the sea 
and the land, the dew and the elements, that of women should be 
the royal succession among them for ever. He obtained twelve 
women that remained with the sons of Miledh, whose husbands had 
been drowned in the western sea along with Donn, so that of the 
men of Erin has been the chiefship over Cruthentuath from that 
time ever since. 

^ h inserts here o macaib MiUadli, i •'' tarastair tir acco, not in b. 
from the song of Miled. '' drucht 7 daithe not in b. 

^ b reads ca/hugad, to war ] ^ b reads beith do maith sin, to 
against. | be propitious to tliem . 



TEACT ON THE SCOTS, before mccccxxxvii. 

MS. BKIT. MUS. DIB. BEG. 13. E. X. 

Fol. 20. JDoMiNUS Neyile siue Neolus rex Schithie in Grecia 
fuit a Noe xx™ descendens de iuniore filio Japliet a quo 
milicia. Hie fuit pater Gatlielos sponsi Scote. Daxdanus 
rex Erigie in Tiirk pater Erotomi, cuius filius Bus, cuius 
filius Leamidon, qui fuit pater Priami et Ancliisee. 

Priamus fuit pater Hectoris, Ancliises pater Enee, cuius 
filius Asclianeus, cuius filius Bri^tus. 

Scota fuit a priucipio imiudi iij™ vj? lyy-xiy annis. 
Ante destruccionem Troie iij° ix. auuis. 
Ante Eomam conditam vij° Ix. annis. 
Ante Nativitatem i" v? Lxj. annis. 
Scoti r[egnaverunt] ante Pictos ij*: xlix. annis iij. men- 

Picti regn[averunt] in Scocia i™ ccxxiiij. annis et novem 

Quingentis mille cum sexaginta monosque 
Annis ut repperi, precessit tempera Christi ; 
Kex Pharao populum fugientem per mare rubrum. 

Eegnum Scotorum fuit inter cetera regna 

Terrarum quondam nobile forte potens 

Post Britones Noricos Dacos Anglos quoque Pictos 

Expulsos Scoti ius tenuere suum 

Et Eomanorum spreuenmt vim validorum 

Exemplo quorum pensate preteritormn 

Inclita Scotoriun proles laudem geuitorum 

Scocia Eomanis vi metu subdita vanis 


Non fuit ex euo nee paret imperio. 

Albion in tenis rex primus germine Scotis 

Illorum turmis rubri tulit arma leonis 

Fergusius fuluo Ferthard rugientis in aruo. 

Christum tercentis ter denis pre'fuit amiis 

Litifer ille leo rosidus nunc piugitur auro. 

Christi transactis tribus aunis atque ducentis 

Scocia catholicam cepit inire fidem 

Eoma uictorie primo, papa residente 

Principe sereno, martir et occubuit. 

C. quater deca ter, a came Dei numerabis 

In Scocia quando legem Christi renouabis ; 

Lex Christi colitur banc pallidio renouante, 

Quem Celestinus Scocie miserat prior ante 

Annis quingentis Anglos Scoti periere, 

Hos tamen et Brutus precessit in ordine tutus. 

Sunt tria que misenun faciunt de diuite clenim 

Sumere sepe merum gula uentris amor mulierum. 






V^UISQUE loqui gaudet validus, de sanguine puro 
Quorimdam precibus de Scotis dicere euro ; 
Unde fui generis, ortus priineuus habetur : 
Quorum posteritas^ trans tempera perpetuetur. 
Quicquid narabo, per cronica scripta^ probabo 
De ueterum gestis, reliquonun sum quia testis : 
Scribere nam volui, mihi que presentia vidi.^ 
Adam primeuum non incipiam numerare, 
Quomodo uec dicam Noe cepit generare. 
Hoc genus a Japbet ejus nato juniore 
Quamvis descendat, referam tamen a propiore : 
Per quem dicatur stirps hec et maguificatur, 
Quingentis mille cum sexaginta monosque 
Annis ut reperi, precessit tempera Christi ; 
Agnus sub lege primus mactatus in ede. 
Biblia testatur quod tunc reuocare paratur 
Eex Pharao populum, fugientem per mare rubrum ; 
Cujus rex Pliaro mergitur in medio. 
Ex tunc Scotorum describam tempus et horum 
Progeniem referam, per tempera continuatam. 

' 6 reads proipentas. - b reads prUsca. 

2 b inserts here : — 

Si verum scriham, vervw credo fore scribam ; 

Sa-ipsero si vanum, caput est quasi non mihi sanum. 



X osTQUAM passus erat Pliaro, miserabile funus, 
Nobilis exierat ab Egipto Sithicus unus 
Exul, qui lapidem Pharaonis det'ulit idem : 
Ut liber fatur, Gaizilglas ille vocatur. 
Hie bis undenus fuit a Japheth alienus : 
Ut sic credatis, dat linea sanguinitatis. 
Naufraga nauigio qui plura pericula passus. 
Ad terrain tandem venit sic equite lassus, 
Sed lapis hunc erexit, ij)sum qui per mare vexit. 
Hie lapis, ut fatur, hec ancliora vite vocatur. 
Cumque locum petiit securus ad residendum, 
PluribvTS hunc annis Hispania cepit alendum, 
Cujus progenies niniis augmentatur ibidem, 
Sicut scriptura testatur condita pridem. 


J: OST obi turn regis Pharaonis mille duobus 
Annis, ut recolo, tunc quidam nomine Milo, 
Eex Hispanorum, qui plures magnos habebat 
Natos, Ulorum tamen itnum plus recolebat, 
Scilicet hiis Symon cognomine Brek fuit unus, 
Cui pater exhibuit quoddam prenobile munus, 
Scilicet hanc petram : GaizOglas quam tulit equam, 
Perque fretum gessit, ab Egypto quando recessit. 
Milo prophetavit nato, qui quern recreauit 
Letare cepit, hanc petram quando recepit ; 
Quod sua regnaret stu-ps, hanc quocunque locaret. 
Ecce Deo dante sicut factum' fuit ante, 
Sic fit in instante Symon Brec, quo mediante, 
Sic augmentante sobolis partem venientis 
Ad se suscepit Hibernia : quo residentes 
Annos per multos, horuni quos vidit adultos. 
Quosdam deduxit validus Lorinionie quidam 
Primus ad Ergadiam ; quo tempore concito dicam 

' h xeaAs fatitm. 


Isti sunt ducti, dicuutur postea Scoti. 
Nam velut a Gitia Geticus, seu Gothia Gothi, 
Dicitur a Sitliia Sithiciis, sic Scocia Scoti 
Que prius Albania sic fertur Scocia terra. 
Scoti a Scota ; de Scotis Scocia nota : 
A muliere Scota vocatur Scocia tota.^ 


Quod jam promisi, tempus sic ecce relisi : 
Bis bis centeno quater endeca, sed minus uno, 
Anno quo sumpsit primes Ergadia Scotos, 
XJt refenmt isti, fuit incarnacio Charisti. 
Annorum summam Pictis preocupatonun, 
Hie dat Scotorum deca quiaque centibinorum 
Et annos quindecim, tres menses jungito quidem, 
Tunc Scoti quemnt anni quot preterierunt 
Postquam vicerunt Pictos, qui tunc coluerunt 
Albaniam, citra Drumalban, sed minus iiltra ; 
Ut Scoti valeant memoratmn tempus habere. 
Per Scociam totam quo ceperunt residere ; 
Qui Picti terram rexere mille ducentis 
Et pariter juuctis viginti quatiior annis. 
Ut verum renouem, mensibus atque nouem. 
Pictis amotis, datur hec responsio Scotis ; 
D. semel et ter C. post X. ter, et X. quater inde, 
Istorum numeri monstrat,^ quo tempore Cliristi 
Sed trans Drumalban cepit regnare Kenedus, 
Pilius Alpini, Pictorum fraude perempti, 
In beUo pridem quos Alpia vicerat idem. 
Sed cum septenis Kaned regnauerat annis, 
Nititur in Pictos, ulcisci funera patris ; 
Quosdam sternendo beUo, quosdamque fugando. 
Ex tunc Albanie regnum totale regebat. 
Que prius in parte regni dicta refidebat ; 
Progenies cujus jus regni nunc tenet liujns. 

' These two lines not ill h. - h reads movstraniur. 



Ex annis Domini qui continue renouantur, 
Apparet per quot annos Scoti dominantur : 
Sic patet in genere de tempore sufficienter. 
Eeges nunc referam qui regnauere frequenter.^ 
In tanien Ergadia vixit per tempora multa 
Hec gens sub lege nature, sed sine rege, 
Donee ad Ergadiam tulit aiulax nomine quidam 
Fergusius lapidem de quo fit mencio pridem. 
Hie primo rexit Scotos, lapidem quia vexit. 
Quem Scoti lapidem sanxeriint pouere sedem, 
Eegibus inde suis tantum, sed non alienis.^ 


Primus ia Ergadia Fergus rexit tribus annis, 
Post Donegard quinis, Congal quater octo bis, 
Endeca bis Gouren, sed quatuor et deca Conal, 
Quatuor et deca bis Edhan, x. sex Eogledbod, 
Kynath Ker per tres rexit tantummodo menses, 
Sed Ferquliarth annos per quatuor et duodenos. 
Bis septem Douenald, octo bis Maldoia annis, 
Ter septem Ferard, tredecim sed rexit Eoged, 
Armkelloch uno, sed tredecim regnauit Eogain, 
Eex IMurdaliw trinis, Noegaw uno quoque biais, 
Hetfin per deca ter, Fergus tres sed Sealvanacli 
Quatuor et deca bis : sed Eogadaninque tricenis, 
Dungal septenis, Alpinus sed tribus annis. 
Annis septenis Kenedus filius Alpyn. 
Hii cum predictis regnauerimt tempore Pictis, 
Quod trecenteuos quatuor octoque coutinet annos ; 
Hiis annis et tres debetis jungere menses.^ 

^ h reads seqnentfr. 

2 6 adds the following line : — 

Ut Scona teslatur tuique tunc lapis iste locatur. 
^ b inserts here the following lines, taken from the poem in No, 
XLV. They are manifestly interpolated — 

Ckristi traiisactis tribus annis atque dueentis, 

Scotia cathoUcam cepit inirefidem. 



Et postqiiaiu Kenedus Pictos oinnino fugauit, 
Annos octo bis reguando continuauit. 
Douenald Machalpyn post rexit quatuor annis, 
Sed[ecim] Constantiuus, Ed vuo, Greg duodenis, 
Donald vudenis, Constautiu Lisque vicenis. 
Malcolmus primus, sic Macduf/ qiiisque nouenis ; 
Sed Duf per senos menses et quatuor amios. 
Per tantum Culen, sed Kened sex quater annis, 
Mensibus et binis : Constantinusque per annum, 
Et menses senos tantum, Greg octo per annos, 
Malcolm per deca ter, Duncan sex, sed deca septem 
Macbeth, sed Lahoulan per menses quatuor, atque 
Malcolm Keuremor annos per ter deca septem, 
Et ]nenses octo : cujus frater Douenaldus 
Annos compleuit trinos regnando \'icissim. 
Dum Duncan medio sex menses tempore vixit. 


Tunc stirps Scotigena, Saxonum sanguine mixta, 
Cepit regnare ; quod propono reserare 
Qualiter hoc esset, ut quiuis discere possit. 
De dicto nati Kenremore tres generati 
Eegnum rexerunt, quod successim tenuerunt, 
Quos Margarita peperit, regina beata, 
Heres Anglorum regum, regina Scotorum. 

Roma Vktore 2>rimo Papa resklente. 
C. quater et deca ter a came Dei numerabis, 
In Scocia quando legem Christi renoiiabis. 
Lex Christi colitur, hanc PaUadio renouante, 
Primiis Celestinus Scocie quern mlserat ante. 
Precedunt Scoti quingentis Anglicls annis, 
Quamvis et cedit ante lios Brutis, et obedit. 
Albion in terris rex primus (jermine Scotus, 
lUorum ttirtnis ruhri tulit arma leo)iis 
Fergusius fuluo Ferchard rugientis in aruo. 
Christum ter centis ter denis prefuit annis. 
Lilifer ille leo rosidus nunc pingiiur auro. 
' h reads correctly Jndulf. 


Ex quo qui' dubitat Anglorum cronica querat : 
Per quam coniugium Scotis prebetur in vsum. 
Non erat istorum generacio dico duorum 
Fratrum primorum ; genuit tamen ultiinus honim ^ 
Eegia stirps, quorum successio nunc referatur. 
Annis ter trinis et trinis mensibus Edgar 
Primus regnauit de uatis quos generauit 
Malcolmus cum dicta Margarita beata.^ 
Hinc Alexander annis rexit deca septem 
Mensibus atque tribus, septimanisque duabus. 
Iste secundus erat fratrum ; sed tercius extat, 
Dauid, vicenis regnans annisque nouenis, 
Mensibus et trinis ; Tunc Malcolm filius Henri 
Annis bis senis, et semis regna regebat. 
Ut rumor* gessit hie Malcolm ^drgo recessit. 
At Henricus erat natus regis quoque Dauid, 
Quem rex is Dauid ex Matilda generauit ; 
Heres quse fuerat Hundingtonie comitatus, 
Cujus sic esset, si posset viuere natus ; 
Qui beUo moritur de Cothon, sed sepelitur 
In abbacia nomine Calcouia. 
Hec Matilda datur de Sanlice, que tumulatur 
In Scona ; cujus templum bustum tenet hujus. 
Quadraguita ix. Wdlelmus rexerat annis, 
Cujus WiEelmi genitor dictus fuit Henri ; 
Et pariter comitis de Dunde, nomine Dauif.L 
Tres sibi sorores fuerant, Britan. comitissa, 
Que Margarita Conano eonjugi data, 
Hec junior datur germana, sed altra vocatur 
Nobilis Adissa ; fuit hec Holand comitissa, 
Conjugioque datus erat liuic de Rosse comitatus 
Morte preuentam Matildam die, et innuptam. 

1 h reads hoc instead of qiLO qui. ^ h inserts after this line- 

Pee quem Scotorum generando continu.atur. 

2 h reads benedicta. ^ h reads iit res se. 



Hactenus hec dicta noui' per cronica scripta, 
A modo que noui scriptis describere voni. 
Alter Alexander, quem rex Willelmus habebat 
Natum, ter denis annis et quiuque regebat. 
Hie Alexander alinni fertur genuisse, 
Hunc alinm terntim pro certo dico fuisse. 
Termis Alexander ter denis rexerat annis 
Et septem fere. Ve Scotis, qni caruere 
Principe tarn grato, largo, mitique, beato. 
Qui qninquagenns regiun fuit ordine primus. 
Hie princeps annos Domini post mille ducentos 
Atque nouem nouies, sed qiiatuor hiis superaddes 
Kyngorn non rite persoluit debita vite. 
Scilicet AprOis decimo quartoque Kalendas ; 
Quo decet exequias^ celebrari perficiendas, 
Ne valeant obitimi monachi seraare sopitum, 
A quibus iucolitur Dunfermelin, sed sepelitur. 
Tanti tumba viri stixdio meliore poliri 
Debuit, artificum si funus haberet amicum. 
Post mortis morsum vertit dilectio dorsum, 
Finita vita finit amor, et ita. 
Corpus predicti regis sine prole relicti. 
Post annis fere septem Scoti doluere. 
Quod regem vere tot aristis non habuere.^ 

^ b reads send. 

- h reads ohsequias. 

^ b inserts here the following chapter : — 

Tunc re<ini proceres in reijem non potuerunt 
Consentlre noniim ; quia diuersi petierunt 
Diuersum reyem nee erat jus soluere legem : 
Scilicet, ut junior soboles, sprcla seniore 
In regno regeret, dixerunt jrro meliore. 
Sine dieti proeeres Edwardiim conxxduerunt 
Anglorum regem, cujus responsa fuerunt 
Seilicet errorum se dixit per decretalem 
Ipsum si/acerent Scocie dominum eapitalem, 
Donee judicio Scolorum diaeuleretur, 



Andree festo, Domini post mille ducentos 
Atqvie decern nouies, cum binis insimul annis, 
Seriiando morem sibi sumpsit regis lionorem ; 
Quern quinquagenum regum facit ordo secundum, 
Dehiuc ex toto Johanne rege remote, 
De Brois Eobertus, regum de stirpe repertus, 
Suscipit in Scona regni Scocie diadema ; 
Hec in Aprilinas sexto sunt facta Kalendas. 
Promittunt veteres quod erit hie belliger heros, 
Qui sua rura nouans regna sudabit ouans ; 
Stragibus imensis sudabit Scoticus ensis ; 
Corruit Angligena per eum gens non sine pena. 
Actenus hii toti fuerant ut plebs sua Scoti ; 
Atque Deo daute sic amodo sic velut ante. 

Qtiisnam rex verus illorum preficeretur. 

Istud concessit pars inagna coacta Scotorum, 

Legibus obtentis, et Ubertatibus hormn, 

Qiias juramento rex se servare fatetur, 

Ne quid communi sine consilio renouehir. 

Inuito populo, Magnates sic pepigerunt ; 

Fructus nunc audi, Scoti quos hide tulerunt. 

Scotos elegit rex, quos jurare coegil 

Ut verum legerent regem dum rege carerent: 

Sic rex eligitur talis, quia de seniore 

Sanguine regali Scocie, spreto veriore, 

Qui comitis Danid de semine proveniebat. 

Regis Willelmi dum sanguis deficiebat. 

Si petis, a comite quotus hie erat in genitura, 

Quce tibi nunc referam, si nescis discere euro. 

Hunc comitem Dauid dico natas Imbuisse 

Tres : quarum senior matremferlur peperisse 

Predicti regis, electi robore legis 

Scotorum, qualis lex non est imperialis. 

Que lex ilia datur, que Scotis appropriatur, 

Postquam uenerunt ab Egipto quo dedicerunt, 

Qualiter ornandus rex esset quisque creandus, 

Sic rex preficitur Scocie qui jure potitur, 

Si querat quisnam quisquani fuit hie modo dlcam, 

Qracia cui nomen diuina non dedit omen. 



Est totum ceuum cujus caput est alienuni 
Sic populus ceims quando fit rex alienus.^ 


De Brois Eobertus, regum de stirpe regali,* 
Bis deca rex Scotos regnauit quatuor annis, 
M. semel et ter C. bis et X. nouem siiperadde, 
Tunc rex Eobertus bonus est de fuuei'e certus. 
Ante suam mortem genuit similem sibi fortem, 
Mawnanimum Dauid Eex Eobertus generauit. 
Hie rex regnauit deca terque nouem simul annis, 
Nullum superstes heredem corpore gignit. 
Marjoria tamen soror ejusdem generauit 
Galtero Stewart Eobertum rite secundum : 
Qui regnando decemque nouem feliciter annis 
Eegeni Eobertum generauit denique tenium. 
Hie xvi. stetit annis, Jacobum quoque gignit 
Primum, qui regit annis deca terque duobus ; 
Ac Jacobum nostruiu genuit rex iste modernum 
Tempore scripture, tunc lector sit tibi cure 
Quod fuit aunorum septemque decern numerorum 
Quem Deus exaltet, regnum regat, atque gubernet. 

' b inserts here sixteen chapters, 
which it is not thought necessary 
to add here ; they are obviously 
interpolated, and will be found 
in the cojiy of the "Chronicon 
" Rhythmicum" printed at the end 
of Goodall's edition of Fordun, in 

six chapters, under the following 
headings : — De captione Berwici, 
De perjidia Eadwardi Angli, De 
Wllielmo Wallace, De variis regi- 
bus Anglice, De Danis regibua, De 
Normannis regibus. 
^ b reads repertun. 



ARCHBISHOP OF YORK, mccccl.-mcccclx. 


X ERUAGA Scotica gens : hibernica rura reliiiqiiens ^oi. is. 

Occiduis residet : partibus Albanie, 
Occidue primo : sed post Ergadia iuncta, 

Cesserunt Scotis : pristina scripta ferunt 
Federe cum feiTo : Picti Scotis sociantur 

Ficta fides fuerant : exitus acta probant 
Mensa funesta : Picti cum fraude Scotorum 

Artis, noil martis, deperiere dolo. 
Expulsis Pictis : dampnanda caUiditate 

Ad loca montana : preripuere Scoti, 
Montes predicti : fines sunt Bemiciorum 

Juris et Anglorum : scribit ut inde Beda, 
Vitro citro que : Scoticum mare Berniciorum 

Transalpes sola : Scocia dicta fuit. 
In cunctis planis : Anglorum lingua choruscat 

Ast in montanis : barbara Scota sonat. 
Gregorius sedem : decreuit sic renouandam 

Vt perseueret : metropolis et honor 
Gentes finitimas : duodenos pontificesque 

Gregorius statuit : metropoli subici 
Omnibus Edwynus : populis quos iure regebat 

Pastor Paulinus : prefuit ille pater 
Sicque Deironim : Scotorum Berniciorum 

Primas Orchadibus : et patriarcba fuit 


Hos pater Egbertus : Anglus sermone disertus 

Ecclesie ritum : catholice docuit 
Eeges Scotorum : Kalixtus pontificesque 

Metropoli pariter : obseqiiiare hibet 
Sic Eboracensem : Scotorum meuropolitam 

Declarant sumini : pontifices varii 
Dampnaut electos : sacrari posse vicissini 

Archipontificis : sed proprii inanibus 
Regum Scotorum : Manie simul et Noriconim 

Singula premissa : signaque scripta probant. 





ULSTER, Mccccxcviii. 

b MS. TKIN. COLL. DUEL. H. I. 8.' 


434 xLax. Jan. ij. i. L v. Anno Domini ccccxxxiiij. 

{Get nahrat Saxan di Ere)^ 
446 Kal. Jan. iij. f. 1. 18. Anno Domini ccccxlvj. 

Bellum Femin in quo cecidit filiiis Coerthni filii 

Coelboth. Alii dicmit di Gruithnibh^ fuisse. 
464 Kal. Jan. 4. f. 1. 7. Anno Domini cccclxiiij. 

Primum belhim Airdacorainn ria Laighnih." Anglici 

venerunt in Angliam. 
466 Kal. Jan. 7. f. L 29. Anno Domini cccclxvj. 

Domangart mac Nissi quievit. 
471 KaL Jan. 6. f. 1. 24. Anno Domini cccclxxj. 

Preda secnnda Saxonum de Hibernia, ut alii dicunt, 

in isto anno deducta est, ut Mocteus dicit. Siq in 

libro Caanac inveni. 

504 Kal. Jan. v. f. 1. 29. Anno Domini ccccc3? 
BeUum Mhanauu la Aedan. 

505 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini ccccc4? 
Mors Bruidi meic Mailcon. 

''Tie first foray of the Saxons in Ireland. 
^ Of .be Cruithne. 
■= by the Leinstermen. 

' The words within parentheses are in 6 only. 


507 KaL Jan. Anno Domini ccccc6? 
Bellum Ardacorain y ut alii dicunt, Doniangart mac 
Nisse Episcopus Conere hie quievit.i 

508 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini D7? 
Vel hie, Cath Ardacorann. 

511 Kal. Jan. 7. f. 1. 16. Anno Domini Dx. 

Vel hie, Bellum secundum Ardacorann, ut alii dicunt. 
519 Kal. Jan. 3. f. 1. 15. Anno Domini Dx8° 

Nativitas Coluimcille eodem die quo Bute mac 

Bronaig dormivit. Quies Darerce que Moninne 

nominata est. 
523 Kal. Jan. 1. f. 1. 29. Anno Domini Dxxij? 

Vel hie nativitas Coluimcille.^ 
538 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dxxx7. 

Mors ComgaiU yneic Domangairt xxxv?^ anno regni. 
542 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dxlj. 

Mors Comgaill meic Domangaiit. 
545 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dxl4° 

Vel hie, Mors Comgaill ic Domangairt (ut alii dicunt). 
558 KaL Jan. 3. f. L 26. Anno Domini D17. 

Mors Gabrain meic Domangairt. 
560 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dlix" 

Mots Gabrain nuic Domangairt, fere alios {Inmirge 

re vieic Maelcon .i. Bruide rex.*^) 
563 Kal. Jan. 2. f. 1. 21. Anno Domini DLxij" 

Navigatio Sancti Columbae de Hibernia.* 
568 KaL Jan. i. f. 1. 16. Anno Domini Dbi;7" 

Feet in iardoman la Golman in-hecc nuic n-Diar- 

mato 7 Conall meic ComgliaiU.'^ 
570 KaL Jan. 4. f. L 9. Anno Domini Dlxix? 

Gillas obiit. 

'' Expulsion by the son of Maelcon, viz., Brude the king. 
" Expedition to the western region by Colman beg, son of 
Diarmait, and ConaU son of Comgall. 

' b reads >seces.nt. I ^ h reads xxxlj'. 

^ h reads Coluimcille natus M. ^ Xot in J. 


574 Kal. Jan. 2. f. 1. 23. Anno Domini Dlxx3. 

(Belliun Tola 7 Fortola in regionibus Cruitne) Mors 
Conaill meic Comgaill anno regni xvj. sui qui obtulit 
insolam lae Coluimcille. 

576 Kal. Jan. 4. f. 1. 15. Anno Domini Dlxx5. 
Bellum Telocho i Gmnntire, sintilla leprae 7 habun- 
dantia uucum, in quo ceciderunt^ Duncath mac 
Conail meic Comgaill et alii mrdti de sociis filiorum 

577 Kal. Jan. 6. f. L 26. Anno Domini Dlxx6. 
Bellum Telocho. Primum periculum Ulot in 

578 Kal. Jan. 7. f. 1. 7. Anno Domini DLxx7. 
Eeversio Uloth de Eumania. 

579 Kal. Jan. 1. f. 1. 18. Anno Domini Dlxxviij. 
Occisio Aeda mac Geno. 

580 KaL Jan. 2. f. 1. 29. Anno Domini Dlxx°ix" 
Fecht wc la haedan ic Gahrain.^ Cennalat rex Pic- 
torum moritur. 

581 Kal. Jan. 4. f. 1. Anno Domini Dlxxx? 
Mors Baetain mac CairilL Vel hie, Fecht orc.^ 

582 KaL Jan. 5. f. 1. Anno Domini DLxxxj" 
Bellum Manonn in quo victor erat Aedhan mac 

583 KaL Jan. 6. f. 1. 2. Anno Domini DLx;xx?ij? 
Bellum Manonn, fere alios.^ 

584 KaL Jan. 7. f. 1. 13. Anno Domini Dlxxx"3'' 
Mors Bruide mac j\Iaelcon regis Pictorum. 

588 Kal. Jan. 5. f. L 27. Anno Domini Db!:xx°7? 

Mors nepotum Geno. Conversio Constantini ad 

dominimi 7 nix magna. 
590 KaL Jan. 1. f. 1. 20. Auno Domini DLxxx°ix? 

Bellum Leithreid la Aedan ic Gabran. 

f Expedition to Orlcney by Aedan son of Gabran. 
s Expedition to Orkney. 

^ b reads cecidif, and adds at j ^ For fere alios b rea,da frl Aed- 
the end of the sentence ceciderunt. \ han, against Aedan. 


592 Kal. Jan. 3. f. 1. 12. Anno Domini Dxc°j? 

Obitus Luigide Lismoer. 
595 Kal. Jan. 7. f. 1. 15. Anno Domini Dxc?4? 

Quies Coluimcille v? idus Junii anno etatis sue 

Lxx?vi?^ Mors Eugain meic Gab brain. 
696 Kal. Jan. 1. f. 1. 26. Anno Domini Dxc5. 

Bellum Radio in druaclh. Bellum Airdscndwin. 

Jugulatio filiormn Aedain .i. Brain y Domangairt. 

Bellum Corainn. 
598 Kal. Jan. 4. f. 1. 18. Anno Domini Dxc7. 

Quies Baetini Abbatis Jae. 

600 Kal. Jan. 6. f. 1. 10. Anno Domini Dxc°ix? 
Bellum Saxonum in quo victus est Aedlian. 

601 Kal Jan. 1. f. L 21. Anno Domini Dcj. 

Vel hoc anno, quies Coluimcille in nocte dominica. 
606 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcv. 

Mors Aedain vuic Gabrain. 

608 Kal. Jan. 2. f. 1. 9. Anno Domini Dcvij. 
Mors Fiacrac craic meic Baetain la Cruitniu.^ 

609 KaL Jaa 4. f. L 20. Anno Domini Dcviij. 
Occisio Seacbnasaig meic Garbain. 

613 Kal. Jan. 2. f. L 4. Anno Domini Dcxij. 

Bellum Caire-legion ubi Sancti occisi sunt et cecidit 

Solon mac Conaen rex Britannorum. 
617 Kfl. Jan. 7. f. 1. 18. Anno Domini Dcxvj. 

Combustio Donnaiiiega martirum in 15 KaL Mail 

cum .c.L martiribus.^ 

621 Kal. Jan. 5. f. 1. 2. Anno Domini Dcxx° 
Duncath mac Eugain, NecMan mac Canonn et Aedh 

622 Kal. Jan. 6. f. 1. 13. Anno Domini Dcxxj. 
Belliun Cindeilggden. ConaU mac Suibne victor 

^ Death of Fiacrac Craic, son of Baetan, by the Cruithne. 

' b reads Ixxiij. ; ij. and v., iij. | distinguished in the Irish annals, 
and vi., iiii. and vii. can hardly be | - b has Combustio Marlir Ega. 


erat. Duo filii Libieni meic Illandon mcic Cerbaill 
cecidenmt. Conaing mac Aedain dimersus est. 

623 KaL Jan. 7. f. 1. 24. Anno Domini Dcxx2. 
Obitus Fergnai Abbatis lae. 

624 KaL Jan. 1. f. 1. 5. Anno Domini Dcxx3. Adomna'i Abb(atis Tae). 

627 Kal. Jan. v. f. ]. ix. Anno Domini Dcxxvj. 
Bellum Ardacorain. Dalriati victores erant in quo 
cecidit Fiachna filius Demain. 

629 Kal. Jan. 1. f. 1. 1. Anno Domini Dcxx°8° 

Bellum Fedha-euin in quo Mailcaich mac Scannail 
rex Cruitne victor fuit. Dalriati ceciderunt. Conid 
cerr rex Dalriati cecidit. 

Vel Bellum Fedo-euin ubi ceciderunt nepotes 
Aedain, Eeguillon, Faelbe. Mors Echdach buidhe 
regis Pictorum filii Aedain. Sic in libro Cuanac 
inveni vel sicut in libro Duibdalethe narratur.^ 

631 Kal. Jan. 3. f. 1. 23. Anno Domini Dcxxx. 
Bellum filii Ailli et mors Cinedon filii Lughtreni 
regis Pictorum. 

632 Kal. Jan. 4. f. 1. 4. Anno Domini Dcxxxj. 
Bellum Cathloeu regis Britouum et Anfrit. Insola 
Medgoet fundata est. 

633 Kal. Jan. 6. f. 1. 15. Anno Domini Dcxxx2. 
Bellum ludris regis Eritonum. 

635 Kal. Jan. 1. f. 1. 7. Anno Domini Dcxxx4. 

Mors Gartnain meic Foitli. Echuidh Lismoer obiit. 
Bellum Seguise in quo ceciderun . Lochne mac 
Nechtain cennfhotai 7 Cumascach mac Aengusa 7 
Gartnaith mac Oith. 

638 Kal. Jan. 5. f. 1. 10. Anno Domini Dcxxx7. 
Bellum Glinneniui-eson 7 obsessio Euin. 

639 Kal. Jan. 6. f. 1. 21. Anno Domini DcxxxB" 
Jugulatio Conghaile meic Dunchada. Obitus Duin- 
sicae uxoris Domlinaill. BeUum Osualdi regis 

' Vel sicut in libro Duibdalethe narratur not ia b. 


641 Kal. Jan. 2. f. 1. 13. Anno Domini Dcxl" 
Mors Bniidi filii Foitli. Nanfragium Scaphe familie 
lae. Combustio jMaeleduiii in insula Caiiii. 

642 Kal. Jaa 3. f. L 24. Anno Domini Dcxli. 
Mors Domhnaill mac Aedo regis Hibernie in fine 
Januarii Postea Domhnaill breacc in bello Sraith 
Cairinn in fine anni in Decembre interfectus est ab 
Hoan rege Britonum/ regnavit annis xv. Bellum 
Oissu inter Britones. 

643 KaL Jan. 4. f. L 5. Anno Donuni Dcxl.2. 
Bellum Cincon. Loscoth iar m-Boidh mcic Gari- 

645 Kal. Jan. 7. f. 1. 27. Anno Domini Dcxl4. 
Lochaii mac Fingin ri Cruitne obiit.J 

646 Kal. Jan. 1. f. L 9. Anno Domini Dcxl5. 
Guin Scantmil meic Becce meic Fiachrach regis 

649 Kal. Jan.5.f. 1. xj. al.xij. Anno Domini Dcxl8. 
Cocat huae Naedain y Gartnait meic Accidain} Quies 
Fursei in Britannia. 

650 KaL Jan. 6. f. 1. 22 aL 23. Anno Domini Dcxlix. 
Bellum Ossu fri Pante. Mors Catusaig meic Domh- 
naill bricc. 

651 Kal. Jan. 7. f. 1. 4. Anno Domini Del? 
Quies Aedain Episcopi Saxonum. 

652 Kal. Jan. 1. f . L 15. Anno Domini Dclj. 
Obitus Seigni Abbatis lae .i. fnii Fiachne. 

653 Kal. Jan. 3. f. L 25. Anno Domini Dcl?2" 
Mors Ferit mcic Totolain et Tolairg 7'/icic Fooith regis 

' The burning after of Buidb, son of GartnaiJh. 

i Lochene, son of Fingin, king of the Cruithne, dies. 

1^ Slaughter of Scannal, son of Becc, son of Fiachrach, king of 
the Cruithne. 

' The war of the grandsons of Naedan and of Gartnait, son of 

' b reads Sraith Ca'truin. Ab Hoan reije Britonum not in 6. 


654 Kal. Jan. 4. f. 1. 7. Anno Domini Dcl°3° 

Bellum i Ratho Ethairt^ ubi Duncath mac Conaing 
cecidit. Aedo roin mac Maelcobo. 

656 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcl5. 
Bellum Pante regis Saxonum, Ossu victor erat. 
Bellum Annae. 

657 KaL Jan. 1. f. 1. 10. Anno Domini Dcl°6° 
Obitus Suibnii meic Cuirtri abbatis lae. Bellum 
Delend in quo interfectus est Maeldeiit mac ConaiU. 
Mors Tolargain meic Ainfrit regis Pictorum. 

658 Kal. Jan. 2. f. L 21. Anno Domini Dcl7" 
Mors Gureit regis Alocluaithe 7 Eergail filii DomnailL 

660 Kal. Jan. 4. f. 1. 13. Anno Domini Dcl9. 

Obitus Finnani Episcopi filii Eimedo et Daniel 
Episcopus Cinngarad. Conall crannamna moritur. 
Euganan mac Totalain defunctus est. 

663 Kal. Jan. 1. f. 1. 16. Anno Domini Dclx2. 
Mors Gartnaid filii Domhnaill 7 Domhnaill meic 
Totolain. (Mors) Tuathail meic Morgaind. 

664 Kal. Jan. 2. f. 1. 27. Anno Domini DclxS. 
Bellum Luto-feirnn et terre motus in Britannia. 

666 Kal. Jan. 5. f. 1. 20. Anno Domini DclxS. 

Maelcach mac Scannail di Gruitnib obiit." Eoclia 
larlait rex Cruitne moritur. 

668 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxvij. 
Navigatio Columbani Episcopi ciim reliquis Sancto- 
rum ad Insulam vaccae albe in qua fundavit Ecclesiam 
J navigatio filiorum Gartnaid ad Hiberniam cum 
plebe ScetL 

669 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxviij. 
Obitus Cummeni albi Abbatis lae. Itarnan j Corindu 
apud Pictores defuncti simt. Jugulatio Maelduin 
(mac Maenaic). 

'" In Rath Ethart. 

" Maelcach, son of Scannal of the Cruithne, dies. 


670 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxix. 

Jugulaliio Maelduin (nepotis Eonain.) Venit gens 

Gartnait de Hibernia. Mors Dunchadlia mac ^ Eonain. 
571 Kal. Jan. Anno Domiai Dclxx. 

Mors Ossu fiUi Eitilbrit regis Saxoniim. Mael- 

rubai in Britauniam navigavit. 

672 Kal. Jan. 5. f. 26. Anno Domini Dclxxj. 
Mors Cumascaich meic Eonain. Expiilsio Drosto de 
regno et combustio Bennchari Britonum. 

673 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxxij. 
Combustio MaigUiiinge. Jugxilatio Domaingaii-t meic 
DomhnaUl bricc regis DalriatL Navigatio Faelbei 
Abbatis lae in Hiberniam. Maelrubai fiindavit ec- 
clesiam Aporcroosan. 

675 KaL Jan. 2. f. 1. 29. Anno Domini Dclxxiv. 
Jugidatio Annetaig ic^ Guaire. Mors Nae meic Danel. 
Mors filii Pante. 

676 Kal. Jan. 3. f. 1. x. Anno Domini Dclxx5. 
Columbanus Episcopus Insolae vaccae albae pausat. 
Jugulatio Maelduin filii Eigullan et Boidb filii Eonain 
hoc est^ Congaile. Multi Pictores dimersi simt 
illaind Abae." Faelbe de Hibernia revertitur. 

G77 Kal. Jan. 5. f. 1. 21. Anno Domiai Dclxx6. 
Jugulatio Cuandai ic Euganain. 

678 Kal. Jan. 6. f. 1. ij. Anno Domini Dclxx7. 
Interfectio generis Loairn i Tirinn.^ Bellum Duin- 
locho et bellimi Liaccmaelain et Doiradeilinn. Mors 
Drosto filii DombnaUL Bellimi i Galathros'i in quo 
victus est Domlmall brecc. 

679 Kal. Jan. 7. f. L 13. Anno Domini DclxxS. 
Quies Failbe Abbatis lae. Dormitacio Nechtain 

° lu Ldndabae. p In Tirinn. i In Calathros. 

' b reads hui, grandson. I ^ b reads hoi Comjulle. 

^ b reads hui, grandson. | 


680 KaL Jan. Anno Domini DcLxxix. 
Bellum Saxonum ubi cecidit Ailumne filius Oissu : 
Obsessio Duinbaitte. Dunchad filius Euganain jugu- 

681 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxxx? 
Jugnlatio Conaill coil filii Diuichad ic Ciunntirey 
Jugulatio Seacbnasaig meic Aii'metaig et Conaing 
meic Congaile. Obsessio Duinfoitber. 

682 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxxxj. 
Orcades deleti sunt la Bruide. 

683 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxxxij. 
Obsessio Duinatt et (obsessio) Duinduirn. 

685 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxxxiv. 
Saxones Campum Breg vastant 7 ecclesias plurimas 
in mense Junii. Mors Congaile mac Guaire. 

686 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxxxv. 
Bellimi Duinnechtain xx? die mensis Mail die Sab- 
bati factum est (in quo) Etfrit mac Ossu rex Saxon- 
um 15? anno regni sui consummata magna cum 
caterva militum suorum interfectus est et combussit 
Tula-amain Duinollaigh. Talorgg mac Acithaen et 
Dombnall brecc mac Eacbacb mortui sunt. Jugu- 
latio Rotansaige.; Dargarto mac Finguine. 

687 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxxxvj. 
Jugulatio Feradaig mac Congaile. Adomnanus cap- 
tives duxit ad Hiberniam Ix. 

688 Kal. Jan. Auno Domini Dclxxxvij. 
Occisio Canonn fibi Gartnaid. 

689 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxxxviij. 
Jolan Episcopus Cinngarat obiit. Mors Catusaig 
nepotis Dombnall bricc. Mors Feradaig mac Tua- 
talain. Mors Maileduin meic Conaill crunamna. 
Obscurata est pars solis. 

690 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dclxxxix. 
Mors Finguine longi et Ferataig meic Neiclitleicc 
et Coblaitli filia Canonn moritur. 

In Kintyre. 


691 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcxc. 
Dalriati popiilati sunt Cruitniu y Ultu. Ventus 
niagnus 16 kal. Octobris quosdani vj. ex familia 
lae mersit. 

692 Kal. Jan. 2. f. L 7. Anno Domini Dcxcj. 
Adomnamis 14 anno post pausam Falbei ad Hiber- 
niam pergit. Jiigulatio Maelditraib meic Euganain. 
Obsessio Duindeauae dihsi. 

693 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcxcij. 
Bruide mac Bill rex Fortrenn et Ailphin mac Nectin 
mortui sunt. Jugulatio Ainftig y Niethneill 7 filio- 
rum Boendo. Mors Doergairt mac Finguine. Bellum 
contra Pante. 

694 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcxciij. 
Jugulatio CerbaiU mac Maellodrae. Obsessio Duin- 
fother. Mors Fercair mac Conaet Cirr. Domhnall 
mac Auin rex Alocluate moritur. 

695 Kl. Jan. b. f. 1. 10. Anno Domini Dcxc4. 
Tomnat uxor Ferchair moritur. Mors Conaill filii 

696 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcxcv. 
Jugulatio Domhnaill filii ConaiU crandamnai. 

697 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcxcvj. 
Tarachin de regno expulsus est. Ferchar fota mori- 
tur. Adomnanus ad Hiberniam pergit et dedit legem 
innocentium populis. Euchu nepos DombnaUl 
jugulatus est. 

698 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcxcvij. 
Bellum inter Saxones et Pictos ubi cecidit filius Ber- 
nitli qui dicebatur Brectrid. Combustio Duinon- 
laigli. Expulsio Ainfcellach filii Ferchir de regno et 
vinctus ad Hiberniam veliitur. 

699 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcxcviij. 
Bovina strages in Saxonia. Bellum Finamla meic 
Osseni. Tarain ad Hiberniam pergit. 

700 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcxcix. 
(Dormitacio Jarnlaigh Abbatis Lismoir.) Fiannainn 
nepos Dunchado rex Dalriati et Flann meic Cinn- 


faelad meic Suibne jugulati sunt. Aurtuile nepos 
Cruinmail de regno expulsus in Britanniam pergit. 

701 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dec? 
Feidelmidh mac Fergusa meic Aedain moritiir. 
Jiigiilatio Aedo odbae. Aed mac Conlutli, Congal 
mac Euganain, mortui sunt. Imbairecc iscii^ ubi 
cecidit Conaing mac Diinchado j filius Cuandai, 
Destructio Duinonlaigh apud Sealbach. Jugulatio 
generis Cathboth. Occisio Neill mac Cernn. Irga- 
lach nepos Conaing occidit ilium. 

702 KaL Jan. Amio Domini Dccj° 
Irgalach nepos Conaing a Britonibus jugulatus in 
Insi mic Nechtan. 

703 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dccij? 
Feargusan mac Maelcon moritur. Obsessio Eitlii. 

704 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcciij. 
Strages Dalriati in vaUe Limnae. Adamnanus lxx7 
anno etatis sue Abbas lae pausat. 

705 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcciv. 
Jugulatio Conamlo mac Cannon. 

706 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccv. 
Brude mac DerUe moritur. 

707 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccvj. 
Becc nepos Dunchado jugulatur. Dimchada princi- 
patuni lae tenuit. 

708 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Decvij. 
Canis cuaran rex Cruithne jugulatur. 

709 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccviij. 
Bellum for Orcaibh^ in quo filius Artablari jacuit. 
Jugulatio ConaUl mic Feradaig. 

710 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dccix. 
Conain mac Failbi Abbas lae pausat. Imbairecc^ 
apud genus Comgail ubi duo filii Nechtain meic 
Doirgarto jugulati sunt. Oengus mac Maeleanfaig 

^ Sea battle. 

' Against the Orkneys. 

" Battle. 



insci jugulatus. Fiachra mac Dungaile apud Cru- 
itline jugulatus. 

711 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccx? 
Strages Pictorum in Campo Manonn apud Saxones 
ubi Finguine fUius Deileroith immatura morte jacuit 
Congressio Britonum et Dalriati for Loirgg-ccclct^ 
ulji Britones devicti. Murgal filius Nae moritur. 

712 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxj. 
Coed'li Episcopns lae pausat. Combiistio Tairpirt 
Boetter. Congal mac Doirgarto moritur. Obsessio 
Aberte apud Selbacum. 

7 1 3 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxij. 
Filia Ossu in monasterio lid moritur. Ciniod mac 
Derili y filius Maitgernain jugulati sunt. Dorbeni 
kathedram lae obtinuit et 5 mensibus peractis in 
primatu 5? KaL Novembris die Sabbati obiit. Tol- 
argg filius Drostain ligatus apud fratrem smim Nech- 
taiu regem. 

714 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxiij. 
DuinoUaigli conslruitur apud Selbacum. Alenda- 
ingen destniitur. 

71 G Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxv. 

Jugulatio regis Saxonum Osrit filii Aldfrit nepotis 
Ossu. Garnat filius Deileroit moritur. Pasca commu- 
tatur in Eoa civitate. Faelcu mac Dorbeni kathedram 
Columbe lxx4 etatis sue anno 5° Kal. Septembris 
die Sabbati suscepit. Mors Artbrain mac Maelduin. 

717 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxvj. 

Dunclia mac Cinnfaelad Abbas lae obiit. Etulb 
mac Ecuilb obiit. Expulsio familiae lae trans Dor- 
sum Brittannie a Nectano rege. Congressio Dalriati 
7 Britonum in lapide qui vocatur Minvirc et Britones 
devicti sunt. 

719 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxviij. 

Drostan dairtaiglie quievit in Ardbreccain. Cuii 

■" At Loirgeclet. 


Dimerggo moritur. Belluin Finnglinne inter duos 
filios Fercliair fotti in quo Ainfceallacli jugulatus 
est die quiiite ferie Id. Septembris. Bellum mariti- 
mum Ardeaneisbi inter Dunchada mbecc cum genere 
Gabhrain et Selbacum cum genere Loairn et versum 
est super Selbacum pridie nonas Octobris (vel Septem- 
bris) die 6 ferie in quo quiddam comites corruerunt. 

721 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxx. 
Duncha becc rex Cinntire moritur. 

722 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxj. 
Maelrubai in ApurcroSon anno Ixxx. etatis sue, Mael- 
cargis o Druiming, Bile mac Eilpiu rex Alocluate, 
moriuutur. Feidlimid Principatum lae teuiut. 

723 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxij. 
Clericatus Selbaich. 

724 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxiij. 
Faelchu mac Dorbeni Abbas lae dormit. Cillenius 
longus ei in principatu lae successit. 

72-5 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxiv. 

Simul filius Druist constringitur. Congal mac Mael- 
eanfaitlibrecc fortrenn, Oan princepsEgo, mortui sunt. 

726 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxv. 
Nectan mac Deirile constringitur apud Druist regem. 
Tolarggau maphan moritur. 

727 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxvj. 
Congressio Irrois-foichnae, ubi quidam ceciderunt den 
dihh Airgiallaihh,^ inter Selbacum 7 familiam Ech- 
dach nepotis Domhnaill. Adomnani reliquie traus- 
feruntur in Hiberniam et lex renovatur. Dubdainber 
mac Congail rex Cruitne jugulatus est. 

728 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxvij. 
Bellum Monidcroib inter Pictores invicem ubi Oengus 
victor fuit et multi ex parte Eilpini regis perempti 
sunt. Bellum lacrimabile inter eosdem gestimi est 
juxta Castellum Credi ubi Elpinius effugit. 

" Of the two AirKiallas. 


729 Kal. Jau. Anno Domini Dccxxviij. 

Belliim Monitcarno juxta staguum Loogdae inter 
liostem Necbtaiu et exercitiim Aengusa et exactatores 
Nechtain cecidenmt, hoc est, Biceot mac Moneit y 
filiiis ejus ij Finguine mac Drostain, Ferot mac Fin- 
guine et alii multi. Familia Aengiisia trinmpliavit. 
Belliim Dromaderggblatlimi" in regiouibus Picto- 
rum inter Oengus et Drust regem Pictorum et cecidit 
730 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcexxix. 

Eeversio reliquarxim Adomnani de Hibernia in mense 
Octoliris. Bran filiiis Eugain, Selbach mac Fercair, 
mortiii sunt. Interfectio filii Cinadon. Commixtio 
Dunaidh for Donilnuiill vieic Murcado iculaib, id est, 
adaiffh noidc Kephain vel imlccho Senaich? 

731 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Decxxx. 
Clericatus Ecbdacb filii Cudini rex Saxonum 7 con- 
stringitur. Combustio Tairpu't Boittir apud Dungal. 
Bellum inter Cruitne et Dalriati in Muirbuilgg ubi 
Cruitne devicti fuerunt. Bellum inter filium Oengusa 
'J filium Congusa sed Brudeus vicit Talorcau fugien- 

732 Kal. Jau. Anno Domini Dccxxxj. 
Teimnen Cillegarad religiosus clericus quievit. 

733 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxxij. 
Dungal mac Selbaich debonoravit Toraic cum traxit 
Brudeum ex ea 7 eadem vice iusolam Culrenrigi in- 
vasit. Muredac mac Ainfcellach regnum generis 
Loairnd assumit. 

734 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxxiij. 
Caintigcrn ingcn Ccallach (niallann^ jaoritTiT. Talorgg 
mac Congusso a fratre suo victus est, traditur in 

y The commotion of Dunad against Domnall, son of Mur- 
chad, in the Culs, id est, on the night of the death of Nephan, 
or at Imleach Senaich. 

^ Kentigerna, daughter of Ceallaeh cualan, dies. 


nianus Pictonim et cum illis in aqua demersus est. 
Talorggan filius Drostain comprehensus alligatur 
juxta arcem Ollaigh. Dunleithfinn destruitur post 
vulnerationem Dungaile 7 in Hiberniam a potestate 
Oengusio fugatus est. 

736 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxxv. 
Oengus mac Fergusa rex Pictorum vastavit regiones 
Dailriatai et obtinuit Dunat et combussit Creic et 
duos filios Selbhaic (.i. Doungall y Ferdacli) catenis 
alligavit y paulo post Brudeus mac Oengusa iilii 
Ferguso obiit. Bellum Cnuicc Coirpri i Galathros uc 
etar Linnclu^ inter Dalriatai et Fortrenn et Talorg- 
gan mac Ferguso filium Ainfceallach fugientem cum 
exercitu persequitur in qua congressione multi nobiles 

737 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxxvj. 
Mors Eonain Abbatis Cinngaraid. Faelbe fiHus 
Guaire Maelrubi (.i.) heres Crosaiu in profundo pelagi 
dimersus est cum suis nautis nuniero xxij. 

739 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxxviij. 
Talorggan mac Drostain rex Atfoithle dimersus est 
.i. la Oengus}' Mors Aeda mac Garljain. 

740 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxxxix. 
Terre motus in Hi ij. Id Aprilis. Cubretan mac 
Conguso moritur. 

741 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcc.xl" 
Mors Fuirechtaig principis Insio Coil. Jugulatio 
Ernain nepotis Eciulb. Bellum Dromacathmail 
inter Cruitniu et Dalriati for Innreclitac. Percussio 
Dalriatai la Oengus mac Ferguso. 

747 Kal. Jan. .i. f. c. x. Anno Domini Dccxlvj. 

Mors Tuatalain abbatis Cinnrighmonai. 
749 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxlviij. 

Jugulatio Catusaigh filii Aillello irraith hcithech'^ 

* Knock Cariber at Etar Liiuidn. 

^ By Angus. 

"= In Ratlibethech. 


regis Cruitline. Combiistio Cillemoire Aedain filii 


Veutus maguus. Dimersio familie lae. 
750 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini DccxlLx. 

Bellum Catohic inter Pictores 7 Brittones in quo 

cecidit Talorgan mac Fergussa frater Oengusa, 
752 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclj. 

Mors Cilleine droctigh aucorite lae. Mors Cilleni 

filii Congaile in Hi. 
754 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccliij. 

Sleibhne Abbas lae in Hiberniam venit. 
761 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclx. 

]\Iors Aengusa mac Fergusa regis Pictoi-um. 
763 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxij. 

Bruide rex Fortrenn moritur. 
765 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccl.xv. 

Suibne Abbas lae in Hiberniam venit. 
767 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxvj. 

Quies Sleibeni Lie. 
7C8 Kal. Jan. Aimo Domini Dcclxvij. 

Bellum ifortrinn ittir Aeclh y CinaedhA 
772 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxxj. 

Mors Suibne Abbas lae. 

774 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxxiij. 
Flatruea mac Fiachrach rex Cruitne moritur. 

775 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxxiv. 
Mors Cinadhon regis Pictorum j Conall Maighi- 

778 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxxvij. 

Aed finn mac Ecdacli rex Dalriati mortuus est. 

Eithni incjcn'^ Cinadon moritur. 
780 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxxix. 

Combustio Alocluade in Kal. Jan. Elpin rex Saxon - 

um moritur. 

'^ War iu Fortren between AeJ and Cinaed. 
^ Daucrhtcr of. 


781 Kal. Jan. Anno I>omini Dcclxxx. 
Fergus inac Echacli ri Dalriati defuuctus est. 

782 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxxxj. 
Dubhtolargg rex Pictorum citra Monotli et Muredac 
mac Huairgaile equonimus lae perieruut. 

789 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxxxviij. 
Bellum inter Pictos iibi Conall mac Taidg victus 
est Y evasit ■y Coustantin victor fnit. 

790 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcclxxxix. 
Mors Noe Abbatis Cinugaradh, vel hie, Bellum Co- 
naill '1 Constantin secundum alios libros. 

792 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxcj. 

Donncorci rex Dalriatai obiit. 
794 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccxciij. 

Vastatio omnium insolarum Britannie a gentibus. 

801 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccc. 
Bresal mac Eegeni Abbas lae anno Principatus sui 
31 dormivit. 

802 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccj. 
Mac Oigi Apuircrosan Abbas Bencliair defunctus. 

806 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccv. 
Familia lae occisa est a gentibus .i. Ix. octo. 

807 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccvj. 

• Jugulatio Conall mac Taidg o Conall mcic Aedain i 

814 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxiij. 

Ceallach Abbas lae finita constructione templi Cen- 

indsa reliquit principatum j Diarmicius alumpnus 

Daigri pro eo ordinatus est. 
816 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxv. 

Conan mac Euadhrach rex Britonum defunctus est. 
820 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxix. 

Custantin mac Fergusa rex Fortren raoritur. 

' Slaughter of Conall, son of Taidg, by Concill son of AeJan 
in Kintyre. 


825 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxxiv. 

Martre Blaimhicc meic Flainn ogentib in Hi Coluim- 

829 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxxviij. 

Diarmait ah. lae do dul an Alhain cominnaib Coluivi- 

831 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxxx. 

Diarmait totiachiain in h-Erin covmiinaih Coluim- 

834 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxxxiij. 

Oengus mac Fergusa rex Fortrenn moritur. 
839 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxxxviij. 

Bellum re genntih for firu Fortrenn'^ in quo Enganan 

mac Oengusa 7 Bran mac Oengusa 7 Aed mac 

Boanta et alii (pane) inuumerabiles ceciderunt. 
849 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxlviij. 

Innrechtach ah. lae do tiachtain do cum n-Erenn 

comm inda ih Coluimcilley- 
854 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcccliij. 

Heres Columbe ciUe sapiens optimus 4 Id. IMarcii 

apud Saxones martirizatur. 

856 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dccclv. 
Cocadh mor ettir Gennti 'f Maclsechnaill con Gall- 
go idhel leis} 

857 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccclvj. 
Rohmid rcn Iviar y ren Amlaijjh for Caittil find 
con Gall-gaedhcl hi tirihh MumhanP^ 

B The martyrdom of Blaimec, son of Flann, by the Gentiles in 
Hi ColumciUe. 

*" Diarmait, Abbot of la, went to Alban with the reliquaries 
of ColumciUe. 

' Diarmait came to Erin with the reliquaries of ColumciUe. 

J Battle by the Gentiles against the men of Fortrenn. 

^ lureehtach, abbot of la, came to Erin with the reliquaries of 

' Great war between the Gentiles and ]\Iaelsechnall, with the 
Galwegians along with him. 

™ Victory by Imar and by Amlaebh against Caithil fia with the 
Galwegians in the territories of Munster. 


858 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccclvij. 

Cinaeth mac Ailpin rex Pictorum, Adulf rex Saxon- 

um, mortui sunt. 
862 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccclxj. 

Domhnall mac Ailpin rex Pictorum mortuus est. 

865 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccclxiv. 
Ceallach mac AiUello Abbas Cilledaro j Abbas la 
dormivit in regione Pictorum. Breatain du innarbu 
as a tir do Saxanacaihh con ro gabh cacht for aibh in 
Maencomain.^ Tuathal mac Artguso primus Epis- 
copus^ Fortrenn y Abbas Duiucaillenn dormivit. 

866 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccclxv. 
Amlai;ph y Auisle do dul i Fortrenn con gcdlaih 
Erenn y Alhan 7 con rinnriset Cruitintuait n-uile 
J con tiigsat an gialloP 

870 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccclxix. 
Obsessio AUeccluithe a Nordmannis .i. Amlaiph f 
Imliar ii. regis Nordmannorum obsederuut arcem 
niam y destruxerunt in fine 4 mensium arcem et 

871 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccclxx. 
Amlaiph 7 Imhar do tkuidhecht afritJiisi du Athacli- 
ath a Albain dibh cedaih long'P n preda maxima 
hominum Anglorum 7 Britonum y Pictorum deducta 
est secum ad Hiberniam in captivitate. 

872 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccclxxj. 
Artgba rex Britannorum Sratha-cluaidlie concilio 
Constantini filii Cinaedo occisus est. 

" The Britons expelled from their land by the Saxons, who 
made captives of many of them in Maencoman. 

° Amlaebh and Anisle went to Fortrenn with the Galls of Erin 
and Alban, and laid waste aU Cruithentuaith, and carried off 

P Amlaebh and Imar came again to Athcliath from Alban, 
with two hundred ships. 

1 6 reads in Irish prim Epscop. 


873 Kal. Jau. luan 27. Anuo Domini Dccclxx2. 

Imar rex Nordmannorum tocius Hibernie 7 Britannie 
ill Cliristo quievit/ Flaitlibertacli mac jNIurcertaigh 
Priiiceps Duiucaillden obiit. 

875 Kal. Jan. lun. xx. Anno Domini Dccclxx4. 
Congressio Pictorum for Buhgallu'i 7 strages magna 
Pictorum facta est. Oistiu mac AmLiipli regis 
Nordmannorum ab Albanensibus per dolum occisus 

876 Kal. Jan. luu. i. Anno Domini Dccclxx5. 
Constantin mac Cinaeda rex Pictorum moritur. 

878 Kal. Jan. lun. 23. Anno Domini Dccclxx7. 

Aedh mac Cinadan rex Pictorum a socus suis occisus 

est. Serin Goluimcille y aminna olchcna du thiach- 

tain do cum n-Ercnnfor tcicJieadh ria GallaihhJ 
880 Kal. Jan. lun. xij. Anno Domini Dcclxxix. 

Feradach mac Cormaic Abbas lae pausat. 
891 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxc. 

Flann mac Maileduin Abbas la in pace quievit. 
Bansccd rolai in muir a n-Alhain, cxcv. do troigib 

in a fot, sechi troigi dec in a trillsi, rij. troigi fat mcoir 

a laimhc, vij. troigi fot a srona gilithir gcis uilc lii.^' 
900 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccxcix. 

Domlmall mac Caustantin ri Alhain moritur. 
904 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccccuj. 

Imhair ua h-Imair do marbadh laflru Fortrenn 7 ar 

mar nimhi} 

1 Against the Dugalls. 

■■ The shrine of Cohuncille and all his reliquaries were brought 
to Erin in refuge from the Gall.s. 

' A woman was thrown out of the sea in Alban. She w<ui 
195 feet long, seventeen feet the length of hor hair ; the fingera 
of her hand were seven feet long, seven feet long her nose, and 
she was all whiter than a swan. 

' Ivor O'lvor, slain by the men of Fortren, and great slaughter 
around him. 

' b reads vitamjinwil. ' Added in 6 in a different hand. 


913 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dccccxij. 

Malmaire inghen Cinacda meic Ailpin, Etidhh ri 
Saxan tuaisceirt^ moriuntur. 

918 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccccxvij. 

Gaill Locha Bachaech do dcirgiu Erenn .%. Ragnall ri 
Duhgall 'j na da larla .i. Ottir y Ch-aggabai 7 sagaith 
do dib iarsin co firu A Ibain. Fir A than dono ara 
cennsom co comcdrnedar for brutinc la Saxanu tuais- 
ceirt ; do gensat in Gennti cetkrai catha dibh .i. cath 
la Gothbrith ua n-Ivihar, cath las na da larla, cath 
las na och-tigcrna, cath dano la Raghnall in eroloch 
nad acadarfir Alban. Roinis rcferaib Alban fors na 
tri catha ad conncadar corolsat ar n-dimar cli na 
Gcnntib im Ottir y im Gi'aggabai. Raghnall dno do 
fhuabairt iarsuidiu illorgfhcr n-Alban corola ar dib 
acht nad fliarcbat Ri na Mormoer disuidib^ Nox 
prelinm deriniit. 

93 7 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini 936. 

Bellum ingens lacrimabile atque horribile inter 
Saxones atque Nordraannos crudeliter gestum est, 
in quo plurima niillia Nordmannorum que non 
numerata sunt ceciderunt sed rex cum paucis evasit 
.i. Amlaipli. Ex altera vero parte multitudo Saxonum 

" Maelmaire daughter of Kenneth JIacalpin, Etalbh king of 
Northern Saxons, ilie. 

'' The Galls of Lochrlacaech expelled from Erin, viz., Ranald, 
king of the Dugalls, and the two Earls, viz., Ottir and Gragabai, 
and afterwards they invade the people of Alban. The men of 
Alban, however, prepared to meet them, with the assistance 
of the northern Saxons. The Gentiles divided themselves into 
four battalions. The first battalion under Gotbrith O'lvor ; the 
second under the two earls ; the third under the young lords ; 
and a battalion under Ranald, in ambuscade, which, however, the 
men of Alban did not see. The three battalions which they saw 
were routed by the men of Alban, and there was a great slaughter 
of the GentOes round Ottir and Gragabai. Ranald, however, made 
an attack upon the men of Alban from behind, and slew many of 


cecidit. Adalstan vero rex Saxonum magna victoria 

dilatus est. 
938 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini 937. 

Diibtacli Co7nharha Coluimcille 7 Adomnain in pace 

952 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccccli. 

Custantin mac Aeda ri Albain moritur. 

Cath for firu Alhain y Bretain ■y Saxanu ria Gal- 

954 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccc°l°iij? 

Maelcoluim mac Domhnall ri Albain occisus est. 

Eobartach Comharba Coluimcille j Adomnain in 

Christo pausavit. 
959 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcccclviij. 

Dubdnin Comharba ColuuncOle. 

964 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccclxiij. 
Dubscuile mac Cineda Comhorha ColuimcLUe quievit. 

965 KaL Jan. Anno Domini Dcccclxiv. 
Cath ettir fhiru Alban imoncitir iibi multi occisi 
simt im Donnchadh .i. Ab. Duincaillcnn.^ 

967 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccclxvj. 

Duh mac Maelcolaim ri Albain do marbhadh la 

h-A Ibanchu fe,in? 
971 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccclxx. 

Cuhn lUuilb ri Albain do viarbhadh do Brctnaibh 

975 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccclxxiv. 

Domhnall mac Eorjhain ri Brctann in ailitri.^ 

them ; but neither their King, nor any of the Maormors fell by 

" Battle against the men of Alban and Britain, and Saxony, 
by the Galls. 

" Battle between the men of Alban among themselves, where 
many were slain about Duncan, abbot of Dunkeld. 

y Dub, son of Malcolm, king of Alban, slain by the Albanich 

^ Culen [son of] Illuilb, king of Alban, slain by the Britons in 

" Domnall, son of Eogan, king of Britain, in pilgrimage. 


977 Ival. Jan. Anno Domiui Dcccclxxvj. 
Amlaim mac Ailuilb ri Albain do marbhadh la Cinaet 
mac n-Domhnall}' 

978 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccclxxvij. 
Fiachra Aircinneach la" quievit. 

980 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccclxxix. 

Mugron Comharha Coluimcille ittir Ercnn y Albain^ 

vitam felicem finivit. 
986 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini DccccLxxxv. 

/ ColumciUe do arcain do Danaraibh aidhci n-otlac 

coromarblisat in Apaidh 7 xv. viros do Sndthibh na 

989 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dcccclxxxviij. 

Gofraigli mac Arailt ri Insegall do marbhadh in Dal- 


Dunchadh hua Robacan Comhorba Coluimcille mor- 

tuus est. Dubdalethe Comharba Patraicc do gabhail 

Comharbam ColumciUe a comhairle fer n-Ercnn y 

995 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccccxciiij. 

Cinacd mac Maelcolaim ri Albain do marbhadh per 

997 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccccxcvj. 

Maelcolaim mac Domnaill riBretain tuaisceri^ inovi- 


^ Amlain, son of Illuilb, king of Alban, slain by Kenneth, son 
of Domnall. 

•^ Fiacra Erenacli of la died. 

•i Mugrou Corbe of ColumciUe, in Erin and Alban. 

" I Coluimcille plundered by the Danes on the night of the 
nativity, and the Abbot and fifteen men of the clergy of the 
church were slain. 

* Gofraigh, son of Aralt, king of Inchegall, slain in Dabiata. 
Duncan Robacan Corbe of ColumciUe died. Dubdalethe Corbe 
of Patrick takes the Corbeship of ColumciUe by the advice of the 
men of Erin and Alban. 

B Cinaed, son of Malcolm, king of Alban, slain by treachery. 

^ Malcolm, sou of Domnall, king of the northern Britons, 


998 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Dccccxcvij. 

DxMahthe Comlwrha Patraicc j Coluimcillc'^ Ixx.xiij. 
anno etatis sue vitam finivit. 

1005 Kal. Jan. ij. f. L vj. Anno Domini Miiij. 
Raijhnall mac Gofraigh ri na n-insi, Madbrigda hua 
Rimcda Abbas Ja in Cliristo. Cath etir firu Allan 
imonetir itorcair ri Allan A. Cinacd mac Duib?- 

1006 Kal. Jan. iij. f. xxvij. Anno Domini Mv. 
Bellum firu Albain >j Saxanu coromaid for 
Alhancliu co fargahsat ar an degh doinc} 

1007 Kal. Jan. iiij. f. 1. ix. Anno Domini Mvj. 
Muredach mac Cricain do deirgiu coniarbus Colum- 
cille ar Dia. Ferdomnacli i comorhus Columcille con a 
comairhfer n-Erenn isin oenach sinJ^ 

1011 Kal. Jan. ij. f. 1. xxiij. Anno Domini Mx. 

Muredach hua Crican comorba Columcille j fer 
leighinn Ardmacha in Christ o dormivit." 

1014 Kal. Jan. vj. f. I. xxvj. Anno Domiiii IVLsiiij. 

Slogedh la Brian mac Ceinitig mic Lorcain la rig 
Erenn j la Maelsechlan mac Donall la righ Temrach 
CO h-Atacliaih. Laigin idle do leir itinol ar a cinn 7 
Gall Athacliath j a coimlin do Gallaibh Lochlain leo 

' Dubdalethe Corbe of Patrick and Columcille. 

^ Ranald, son of Gofraigh, king of tlie Isles ; Maelbrigd of 
Rimeda, abbot of Ja, in Christ. Battle between the men of 
Alban among themselves, in which the king of Alban fell, viz., 
Cinaed, son of Dub. 

' Battle between the men of Alban and Saxony ; the Albanich 
■were overcome, and great slaughter made of their nobles. 

™ Muredac, son of Crecan, resigns the Corbeship of Colum- 
cille for the service of God. Ferdomnach elected to the Corbe- 
ship of Columcille by the advice of the men of Erin at that fair 
[of Tailten]. 

" Muredach O'Crican Corlie of Columcille and Ferlegin of 
Armagh died iu Christ. 

" Hosting by Brian, son of Cennetig, son of Lorcan, king of . 
Erin, and by MalscclilaD, sou of Domnall, king of Tara, to Ata- 
cliath. All Leinster was assembled to oppose them, and the Galls 
of Atacliath and a company of the Galls of Lochlan, viz., teu 


A. X. c. luircch. Gnifir cath crodo etorra donafrith inn 
tsamail. Maidhis iarom for Gallu j Laigniu i tosaig 
cor^tsdiligait uile doleir in quo bello cecidit ex aduersa 
caterua Gallorum Madmorda mac Murchada ri Lai- 
gcn 7 Domnall mac Fergailc ri na Fortuath. Cecidit 
vero a Gallis Duhgall mac Amlaim, Siuchraid mac 
Loduir iarla insi h-Orcc y Gillaciaran mac Gluniaran 
ridomna Gall 7 Oittir dub 7 Sicartgair j Bonnchach 
hua Eraill 7 Gersene J Luimne 7 Amlaim mac Lag- 
maind j Briotor A. toisech na loingsi LocJdanaighe 7 
vj. mile iter mcvrhhadh 7 hathadh. Dorochar iviorro 
a fritguin, Gaidhelaibh A. Brian mac Cincitig Ardri 
Gaidhel Erenn f Gall y Bretan, August iartJmir 
tuaiscert Eorpa uile j a mac A. MurecJiach j a mac- 
side A. Toirdcalbach mac Ihirechach j Conaing mac 
DuincJmain mic Cincitig rig domna Mumhan 7 Motla 
mac Domnall mac Failan ri nan Dcisi Mumhan. Eoco 
mac Buadaigh 7 Niall him _ Cuind 7 mac Ccnetig tri 
Coimte Briain. Da rig hua Maine, hua Ceallach 7 

hundred coats of mail A cruel battle was fought between them, 
of which tlie like was never seen. Victory was obtained against 
the Galls and tlie Leinster men in the beginning, who were put 
to flight, in wliieh battle there fell of the opposite bod}' of Galls, 
Maelmorda, son of Jlurchad, king of Leinster, and Domnall, son 
of Fergale, king of the Fortuath. Tliere fell, however, of the 
Galls, Dubgall, son of Amlaim, Siuchraid, son of Lodur Earl of 
Orkney, and Gillaciaran, son of Gluniaran, king of the Galls, and 
Oittir the black, and Suartgar and Duncan O'Erulb, and Gersene 
and Luimin and Amlaim, son of Lagman, and Briotor, viz., the 
commander of the fleet of the Lochlans and six thousand were 
slain or drowned. There were slain, moreover, on the side of the 
Gael, Brian, son of Cinetig, sovereign of the Gael of Erin and 
Gall, and Britain, the Augustus of the west of northern Europe, 
and his son JIurechach, and his grandson, Toirdcalbach, son of 
Murechach, and Conaing, son of Dunchuan, son of Cineitig, future 
king of Munster, and Motla, son of Domnall, son of Faelan, king 
of the Deises of Munster. Eoco, son of Duadag, and Niall 
O'Conn, and Mac Cenetig, the three companions of Brian. Two 


Maelruanaigh hua Eiclin rig Aidtie 7 Geibinac hua 
Duibagain ri Fernmaige y Macheatad viae Muredaigh 
Cloin ri CiaraidJie Luachre j Domnall mac Diarmada 
ri Corcohaiscind y Scannlain mac Cathail ri Eogan- 
aclita Locha Lein y Domnall mac Eimin mic Cainig 
Mormaer Mair in Alhain et alii multi nobiles. 

1020 Kal. Jan. vj. f. ij. Anno Domini Mxx. 

Flnnlocch mac Ruadri n Allan a suis occisus est. 

1025 Kal. Jan. vj. f. 1. xxvij. Anno Domiai Mxxv. 
Flannobra Comliorha la in Christo qnievit. 

1027 Kal. Jan. ij. f. 1. xx. Anno Domini ]\Ixxvij. 
Duncaillenn in Alban do uile loscadh.v 

1029 Kal. Jan. iiij. f. 1. xij. Anno Domini Mxxix. 

Maelcoliiim mac Maolbrigde meic Eiiaidhre mortuu.s 

1032 Kal. Jan. vij. f. 1. xj. Anno Domini Mxxxij. 
Crillacomgan mac Maclhi'igde Mormacr Murele do 
loscadh CO coecait do dhuvnibh imme.'^ 

1033 Kal. Jan. ij. f. 1. xx-vj. Anno Domini Mxxxiij. 
Mac meic Bode meic Cinacdha do marhhadh la Mael- 
colaim meic CinaedaJ 

1034 KL Jan. iij. f. 1. vij. Anno Domini Mxxxiiij. 
Maelcolaim viae Cinaeda ri Alhain obiit. Mac Nia 
hua Uchtan fer leighinn Cennannsa do bathadh ac 
tiachtain a h-Albain j culebadh Coluimcille j tri 

kings of O'Many, O'Kelly, and Maelruanag O'EiJen, king of 
Aidne, and Geibinac O'Dubagan, king of Fermoy, and Macbeatad, 
son of Muredag Cloin, king of Kerryluachra, and Domnall, son 
ofDiarmad, king of Corcobaiscin, and Scanlan, son of Cathal, king 
of the Eoganaclits of Locha Lein, and Domnall, son of Eimin, son 
of Caiuig, Mormaer of Marr, in Alban, and many other nobles. 

P Duukeld in Alban entirely burnt. 

•i Gillacomgan, son of Maelbrigde, Mormaer of Moray, burnt 
■with fifty of his men along with him. 

■■ Tlie son of the son of Boete, son of Cinaed, slain by Mal- 
colm, son of Cinaed. 


minna do mhinnaib Patraic 7 tricha fcr impu. 

Suibhne mac Cinaeda ri Gallgaidhel mortuus est.^ 
1040 Kl. Jan. iij. f. 1. xiij. Anno Domini MxL 

Maebnuvre hua Uchfan Columicille in Cliristo dormivit. 

Bonnchach mac Crinan ri Alhain a suis occisus est.* 
1045 Kl. Jan. iij. f. 1. ix. Anno Domini Mxlv. 

Cath iter Albancu etarra fein itorcair Cronan Alb. 

1054 Kl. Jan. vij. f. 1. xviij. Anno Domini Mliiij. 

Cath etir fhiru Alhain '^ Saxanu itorcradar tri mile 

do feraib Albain j mile coleth di Saxanu im Dolfinn 

mac Finntuir^ 

1057 Kal. Jan. iiij. f. 1. xxj. Anno Domini Mlvij. 
Eobartach mac Ferdomnach Comorba ColmmciUe 
in domino dormivit. 

1058 Kl. Jan. v. f. 1. ij. Anno Domini MlvLij. 
Lulach mac Gillcomgain Ardri Albain domarbhadh 
la Maelcolaim mcic Donchadh i Cath. Macbeathadh 
mac Finnlaich Airdri Albain domarbhadh la Mael- 
colui7n meic Donnchadh i cath.'" 

1062 Kal. Jan. iij. f. 1. xvj. Anno Domini Mlxij. 

Gilchrist hua Maeldoradh comorba Coluimcille etir 
Erin j Albain in Christo qnievit.'' 

^ Malcolm, son of Cinaed king of Alban, died. Macnia O'Uch- 
tau Ferlegin of Kells, drowned when coming from Alban, and 
the Cidebad of Columcille, and three of the reliquaries of 
Patrick, and thirty men with him. 

Suibhne, son of Cinaed, king of Galloway dies. 

* Malmure O'Uehtan [Corbe of] Cohimcille slept in Christ. 
Duncan, son of Crinan, king of Alban slain by his own people. 

" Battle between the Albanich among themselves, in which 
fell Cronan, abbot of Dunkeld. 

^ Battle between the men of Alban and Saxony, in which 
fell three thousand of the men of Alban, and one thousand 
and a half of the Saxons, with Dolfin, son of Finntur. 

" Lulach, son of GUlacomgan, sovereign of Alban, slain by 
Malcolm, son of Duncan, in battle. Macbethad, son of Finlaech, 
sovereign of Alban, slain by Malcolm, son of Dimcan, in battle. 

" GUlchrist O'Maeldorad, Corbe of Columcille, in Erin and 
Alban, rested in Christ. 

2 A 


1065 Kal. Jan. vij. f. 1. xx. Anno Domini Mlxv. 

Buhtach Albannach prim Annchara^ Erin 7 Albain 

in Ardmacha quievit/ 
1070 Kal. Jan. vj. f. 1. xv. Anno Domini Mlxx. 

Ahbas la .i. mac mic Baetan domarbhadh do mac 

ind ah. hua Maeldoraid.^ 
1072 Kal. Jan. i. f. 1. vij. Anno Domini lllxxij. 

Fraingc do dul in Allan co tucsat righ in Albain leo 

in etirecht.^ 
1085 Kal. Jan. vij. f. 1. i. Anno Domini Mlxxxv. 

Maelsnectai mac Lulaigh ri Muireb suam vitam 

feliciter finivit. Bomhnall mac Maelcoluim ri Albain 

suam vitam infeliciter finivit.'' 

1093 Kal. Jan. vij. f. 1. xxix. Anno Domini Mxciij. 
Fothudh ardepsvop Albain in Christo quievit. 

Maelcolaim mac Donncha Airdri Albain j Ech- 
hard.a mac domarbhadh do Francaibh. A rigban vero 
.i. Margarita do ec dia cumaidh ria cenn nomaidhe." 

1094 KaL Jan. i. f. 1. x. Anno Domini Mxciiij. 
Donnchadh mac Maelcolaim ri Albain domarbhadh 
hraitribh fein (.i. o Domnall 7 Etmond) per dolum.*^ 

y Dubtach Albanach, chief anchorite of Erin and Alban, rested 
in Armagh. 

^ The abbot of la, viz., the son of the son of Baetan, slain by 
the son of the abbot O'Maeldorad. 

" The Franks enter Alban till they brought the king in Alban 
with them in security. 

* Malsnectai, son of Lulag, king of Moray, ended his life 

Domnall son of Malcolm, king of Alban, ended his life un- 

' Fothud, archbishop of Alban, rested in Christ. 

Malcolm son of Duncan, sovereign of Alban, and Edward, his 
son, slain by the Franks. His queen, viz., Margarita, died 
through grief before the end of [three] days. 

^ Duncan, son of Malcolm, king of Alban, slain by his own 
brothers (Donald and Edmund) by treachery. 

' This word has been translated I for anmchara, soul friend or con- 
anchorite, but it may be Intended | feasor. 


1098 KaL Jan. vj. f. L xxiiij. Anno Domini Mxcviij. 
Tri longa do longaibh Gall na indsi do shlat do 
Ultaihh y afairenn domarhhadh .i. xx. ar c. vel paulo 

Domhnall mac Rohartaig comorha Coluimcille 
fri re in pace dormivit.® 

1099 Kal. Jan. vij. f. 1. v. Anno Domini Mxcix. 
Donnchadh mac vicic Moenaig ah. la in pace pausavit/ 

1106 Kal. Jan. ij. f. 1. xxtij. Anno Domini Mcvj. 

Etgair ri Alhain mortuus est. 
1109 Kal. Jan. vj. f. L xxvj. Anno Domini Mcix. 

Ociigus Jma Donnallan prim Anncliara samhtha 

1116 KaL Jan. vij. f. 1. xiij. Anno Domini McxvL 

Ladmitinn mac Domhnall hua righ Alban doviarbh- 

adh doferaihh Moriab.^ 
1124 Kal. Jan. iij. f. L xij. Anno Domini Mcxxiiij. 

Alaxandair mac Maelcoluim ri Alhain in bona peni- 

tentia mortuus est. 
1130 Kal. Jan. iiij. f. L xviij. Anno Domiui Mcxxx. 

BeUum etir firu Alhain i^ feru Moreh i torcraAar iiij. 

Tnile do feraihh Morehh im a righ .i. Oengus mac 

ingene Luluigh, mile vero d- feraihh Alhain ifritghuin.^ 

* Three ships of the ships of the GaUs of the isles destroyed 
by Ulster men, and their warriors slain, viz., over 120 or more. 

Domnall son of Robartaig, Corbe of ColumciUe at that time, 
slept in peace. 

^ Duncan son of the son of Maenag, abbot of la, died in 

s Oengus O'Donallan, chief anchorite of the community of 

'' Ladmuu son of Domnall, grandson of the king of Alban, 
slain by the men of Moray. 

' Battle between the men of Alban and the men of Moray, in 

^ There ia a hiatus in a of I 1155, and in i of forty-eight years, 
twenty-four years, from 1131 to | from 1115 to 1163. 


1164 Kal. Jan. iiij. f. L iiij. Anno Domini Mclxiiij. 
(Maithi muinnteri la .i. in sacart mor Avgitstin "j in 
ferleighinn .i. Dubside j in discrtach .i. MacG-illa,- 
duibh '1 cenn na Ceile n-De .i. Mac Foircellaigh j 
maithi muinnteri la arcliena do thiachtain ar 
cenn comarba Coluimcille .i. \F'\laithhertach hui 
Brolcain do gahail abdaine la a comairli Shomar- 
lidh J fer Aerergaidhel j Innsigall coro astaei co- 
morba Patraic n ri Eirenn .i. Ua Lochlainn 7 maithi 
Cencl Eoghain e.) 

Somhairlid mac Gilleadhamhnan '•J a mhac do 
mharbhadh y ar fer Aerergaedhel 7 Cinntire J fer 
Innsigall 7 Gall Athacliath ime? 

1165 KaL Jan. vj. f. 1. xv. Anno Domini Mclxv. 
Maclcoluim cennmor mac Aenric ardri Alban in 
cristaidhe as ferr do bai do Ohaidhclaibh re muir 
anair, ar deirc j ainech j ci-abhadh, do cc)^ 

1195 Kal. Jan. i f. 1. xvj. Anno Domini Mcxciiij. 
Sacart mor la do ec} 

which fell four thousand of the men of Moray, with their king 
Oengus, son of the daughter of Lulag, a tliousand also of the 
men of Alban in heat of battle. 

■i The chiefs of the family of loua, viz., the great priest 
Augustin, the Ferleighin or lector Dubsidi, the hermit Macgilla- 
duibh, the chief of the Culdees Mac Foircellaigh, and the other 
chiefs of the family of Zona came to the chief Corbe of Columba, 
Flaithbertach O'Brolcain, to take the abbacy of lona by the advice 
of Somerled, and the men of Aerergael and InsigaU ; but the 
Corbe of Patrick, and the king of Ireland, O'Lochlan, and the 
nobles of Cinel Owin prevented it. 

Somerled son of GiUeadamnan, and his son killed, and slaughter 
of the men of Aerergail, and the men of InsigaU, and the Galls 
of Dublin with him. 

■^ Malcolm cenmore, son of Henry, sovereign of Alban, the best 
Christian that was to the Gael on the east side of the sea, for 
almsgiving and fasting and devotion, died. 

' The great priest of la died. 


1199 Kal. Jan. vij. f. 1. xj. Anno Domini Mcxix. 

Sanctus Muritius uo Baetan in h-I ColuimciUe in 

pace quievit. 

Rollant mac Uchtrcdgli ri Gallgaidliel in pace 

1208 Kal. Jan. v. f. 1. xxj. Anno Domini Mccviij. 

Cath tucsat mcicRaghnaill raic Somairligh for feraihh 

Sciadh du in ra marbliadh an ar.^ 

1212 Kal. Jan. i. f. 1. xxiiij. Anno Domini Mccxij. 
Tomas mac Uclitraigh co macaibh Raglmaill mic 
Somarlidh do tJiaidecht do Dhaire ColuimciUe co vi. 
longaihh Ixx. j in haile do milliudh dhoihh co mor j 
Iniseoghain co h-uilidhi do mhilliudh dlioihh y do 
ceneol ConaillP 

1213 Kal. Jan. iiij. f. 1. xvj. Anno Domini Mccxiij. 
Tomas mac Uchtraigh 7 Ruaidliri mac Raghnaill do 
argain Bairi go h-uilidhi 7 do breith slut muinntere 
Daire y tuaisccrt Erenn archena do lar tcmpaill in 
reiclesa imacli. Ri Alhan do ec A. Uilliam garmJ? 

1214 KaL Jan. V. f. I xxvij. Anno Domini Mccxiv. 
Uilliam ri Alhan do cc. Alaxandcr a mliac do 
oirdnedh ina inad.'i 

1215 KaL Jan. vj. f. 1. is. Anno Domini Mccxv. 
Trad h-ua MailfhahhaUl toisech Ceneoil Fergusa cona 

'" EoUant, son of Uchtraig, king of Galloway, rested in peace. 

" A battle given by the sons of Kanald, son of Somerled, to 
the men of Skye, who were slain with great slaughter. 

° Thomas son of Uchtraig, with the sons of Ranald, son of 
Somerled, came to Derry ColumciUe with six ships and seventy. 
The town was spoiled by them very much, and Inisowen alto- 
gether was spoiled by them and the Cinel ConaU. 

P Thomas, son of Uchtraig, and Roderic, son of Ranald, plun- 
dered Derry altogether, and carried away the goods of the men of 
Derry and the north of Erin out of the temple, in the monastery. 
The king of Alban died, viz., William Garbh. 

'i WLUiam, king of Alban, having died, Alexander his son was 
put in authority in his place. 


braithrihh J gu n-ar men' do mharbhadh do Mhuir- 

eadhach mac Marmair Lemhnachy 
1234 Kal. Jan. Anno Domini Mccxxxiiij. 

Ailin mxm Uchtraigh ri Oallgaidhel mortuus est.* 
1262 KaL Jan. i. f. 1. 7. Anno Domini Mcclxij. 

Ehdonn ri Lochlann do eg an Imisibh Ore ig techt an 


' Trad O'Mailfeabhaill, chief of the Cenel Fergusa, with his 
brothers, with great slaughter, was slain by Muredach, son of the 
Mormair of Lennox. 

' Allan, son of Uchtraig, king of Galloway, died. 

* Ebdonn, king of Lochlan, died in Orkney, on his way to 


LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW, before mdiv. 


OoNSTANCio Eomanonun imperatore feliciter reguante, Fo'- ixxxii. 
nostri virginei partus salutiferi anno tricentesimo et sexa- 
gesimo, in Achaia regione inclita eiusdem regionis civitate 
nomine Patras, vir sane magne sanctitatis et deuocionis 
nomine Eegulus feliciter claruit, miraculis hie beati Andree 
apostoli et Scotorum incliti regionis patron i Sanctissimi 
ossium et reliquiarum que in dicta civitate in qua ipse 
beatus Andi'eas passus est martyrium custos fidelissimus 

Interea, dum idem Constancius mortem ipsius beati 
Andree in dictos crucifigentes vindicare proposuerat, et 
dictam civitatem invaderet, ut ipsius Apostoli reliquias inde 
secum asportaret, ea nocte Angelus Domini beato Eegulo 
apparuit, dicens; Eegule, serue Dei, applica tibi fratres 
ydoneos viros sanctos et timentes Deum et de theca 
ossium et reliquiarum beati Apostoli Andree, que tibi cus- 
todienda committitur, inde auferas ipsius dextre manusdigi- 
tos tres, OS brachii ab humero dependens, dentem vnum et 
genu patellam ; ac vbi tibi in loco quem monstrauero cause 
custodias donee redeam. 

Imperatore vero predicto reliquias ipsius ossium partes 
Constantinopolim confestim transferente, Angelus eidem 
beato Eegulo denuo reuersus est mandatum satis salubre 
eidem imponens ; beati Andree Apostoli reliquias quas tibi 
committendas tuli accipies, et electonmi virorum tecum 
assumes, concionem et vsque ad ipsius mundi partes occi- 


duas transferre non postponas, atqiie A'sque ibi veniens in 
dicti Apostoli Sanctissimi houorem laudem et gloriam per- 
petuam ecclesie fundamina jaceas. Erit enim ille locus 
edificandi adeo electus firmaque et sempiterna et illius 
regionis sedes caputque et fundamentum. 

Gloriosus igitur Confessor Eegulus, de tarn ingenti lega- 
cione eidem celitus commissa, Dominiim nostrum lesum 
Christum beatum Andream deuotissimis coUaudauit can- 
ticis et suam legacionem in ipsorum nomine complere 
exorsus est, cumque duorxim annoriun spacio marinis agi- 
tatus procellis nauigaret dubius admodum quo velum 
verteret a Domino, tandem confortatus ipse cum sociis 
incolumes quarto kal. Octobris, terram Scotorum applicu- 
erunt; crucisque eodem precedente signaculo nauimque 
descendermit et porcorum nemoribus primitus aggre- 

Beatus inquam Eegulus ex ipsius summi Dei providen- 
cia supremeque legacionis sue non immemor, ostenso diui- 
nitus loco per Angelum beato Andree Apostolo basilicam 
construere properabat, ac quos secum adduxerat -sdros 
vbique per reguiun Scocie Pictoram et Britonimi verbum 
Dei predicandum misit ; et quo facto iunumerabiles ferme 
populi midtitudines ad fidem Christi perfectam couversi ac 
in eius nomine per eosdem baptizati variis interim mira- 
culis ipsius beati Eeguli Lnteruenientibus meritis suffulti 
et eterna premia eorundem predicacione consecuti sunt. 

Sed cum beatus Eegulus vnde dictam basilicam suis 
sumptibus minime construere non liabens, visus est tunc 
temporis per regem Hiingus, qui Pictis imperabat, angelo- 
rum super dicti Apostoli reliquias maxima clioruscacio, et 
dicto Sancto Eegulo et sociis ibidem suo cum exercitu se 
contulit, et ab eodem cimctis cum ministris baptizatus est, 
terramque cultam quam copiose in honore beati Andree 
et beati Eeguli instancia liac die in perpetuum concessit 
huiusmodi loco, talem imponens titulum hec est ciuitas 
ciuitatum et mater ecclesiarum et sedes apostolica in 
omnium Scotonim provincia. Post liec beatus Eegulus in 
continuis laboribus vigiliis et lugubracionibus variis, quam 


strenue die nocteque cum omnium sanctitate, oracione et 
ieiunio usque ad sue vite sanctissime exitum se exercita- 
tus est. Sed annorum multitudine vsque ad decrepitiuu 
perueniens in Dei nomine super ethera celos conscendit et 
apud Kilremontht digua cum veneracione sepultus re- 



CHEONICLE OF THE SCOTS, mcccclxxxij.-mdxxx. 



In ye fyrst it is to be wryttynn yat ye natiounn of 
Scottis begowthe in ye tymm of Moises, as is contenyt in 
ye Bibill ; and in yat tymm ye Ethiops warrayt all Egipte 
wyt cruell weris, for ye quhilk ye Egiptiance callit yair 
alaye in helpe ye Grekis, yat was alyite yan wyt yamme, as 
now is in France alyite with as Scoctis ; yir foir ye king of 
Athenes in Grece, callit Neobns, his sonne Gayelglas, eftir 
qnhomme oure langage callit is Gayelige, wyt ane gret 
powere of men in to Egipt, and discumfyt ye Ethiops, and 
abandonit yamme ay to the tymme yat Moises rase for ye 
quhilk victory ye king of Egipte gaif his aunly dochtir 
and heir callit Scota to yis Gayelglas in mariage, of ye 
quhilk Scota we eftir was callit Scottis, as ye customme 
was yan to call natioim eftir women, and not eftir mann, as 
is Asya, AfPrica, and Europa, ye thre pryncipale partis of 
ye warld. Versus : 

A Scota nata Pharaonis Eegis Egipti, 
Ut veteres credunt Scotia nomen habet ; 
A muliere Scota vocitatur Scotia tota 
Nomen habet vetito Gathelas ducis adaucto. 

And sa ye opyuyoun of yamme may not stand yat trowis 
we comme [from] Brutus, quhilk comme of ye traytouris of 


Troye, as is weill kennyt, and is contenyt in ye storye of 
Troye maid be anne clerk callit Gwido de Columpna, bot 
we ar cuminyn of ye maist werschipful natiounn yat evir 
was in erd, yat is ye Grekis, on ye mannis side Gayelglas, 
and of ye Egiptians onn ye womannis side Scota, quhilk 
was before ye distructioiinn of Troye thre liundir zeire, and 
sa ye natiounn of Scottis was sa lang before yamme, and ye 
Grekis was ye maist wirscipfull natioujm yat evir was, for 
yai haif benne twise conquirit of ye warld be Ercules and 
Alexandir, and ye Trojance nevir bot at yaire defence, and 
vincust at ye last, and suppoise of yamme sen synne ar 
cummyn worthy men zite yan yai ar cummyn of yamm 
yat baire ye foule surnamme, yat is to say, of Anthenor and 
Eneas and Helye, quhilk thre procurit ye tresonn of Troye 
wyt Pelymades in ye losyng of ye Grekis ; and sa wraite 
ye famous clerc — 

Grecia cum suis provinciis, regnorum est 

domina, mUitie nutrix, prophesie omnium scientiarum 

invictrix, ac magistra, cujus gens bellicosissima 

dono sapientie et scientie predita, sermone decertissima, 

legibus subdita pia, circa extraneos pacifica, 

circa incolas et domesticos quieta, contra 

hostium injurias nimium intollerabilis et infesta, 

cujus ydoneum omnium clarius et sonantius est. 

This forsaid Scota and Gayel war maryite to gyddir in ye 
tymme yat ye bairnes of Israeli passyt in ye Eeide See, and 
ye dede of King Pharoo yat govirnyt ye land of Egipte, 
and, for yai saw ye cruele plage yat comme onne Egipt, yai 
decretit to pas with yair follt yat yai brot of Grece, and 
monye of Egipte, for to seik woid landis, and to inhabyte 
yamme, for he wald not pase in his cimtre aganne as ye 
maner was yat tymme ; and gyf ony wald saye tyU us yat 
we ar cummyn of Egipt of ye ta syde quhilk oppressyt ye 
bairnes of Israeli, argue us not wyt ye werst, for rycht sa 
comme Christ of ye Jowes. Versus : 

Sicut spina rosam genuit Judea Mariam. 

And alsua full worthye men ar cummyn of ye traytouris 


of Troye, and suppoise yat yai persuyte ye bairnis of 
Israeli, yai resavyte Christ in to Egipt and nurest him 
nere sevin zere, qulien ye generatioimn of ye sammyu 
bairnis persuyt him to ye ded, and at ye last yai crucifyte 
him. This Gayele and Scota, wyt yair folk, passyt out of 
Egij^t wyt gret riches and mony schippis, and be ye maist 
part yai war lordis and gentill men yat passyt wyt yamme ; 
and first yai arifyt in Aiifrice, and remanyt yarin foiirty 
zeiris in gret weire and wexatiounn, and be cause yai 
drecretyt to inhabyt woid landis, as yai consalyt be yir 
paganu goddis ; and soun eftire yat yai ternyt yin and 
passyt ye vase of Jubiter, and at ye last yai comme in to 
Spaynzee and aryfyt in Portingale, ye quhilk has zit ye 
namnie of Gayele, our foirfadire ; and eftir yat yai comme 
in to Itavernn of Biscaye, and duelt upoun ye Eyvere of 
Ibire, quhare he gat onn Scota Iber Scot ; and quhen Iber 
comme to eild, Gayele send him in yat cuntre, yat now is 
callit Irland, and fand it vakande, bot of a certanne of 
Gewictis, ye quhilk he distroyt, and inhabyt yat land, and 
callit it eftir his modir Scota, Scotia ; ye quhilk it in aid 
crony clis and storyes is callit Scotia Major to ye tymme 
yat sum part of ws comme out of it in oure Scotland, yat 
now is inhybyt, and it was callyt Scotia Minor ; and yan 
Scotia Major begowth to be callyt Ibernia eftir yis said 
Iber Scot; and yan oure namme was foundyt and oure 
land inhabyt lang tymme on to Troye was distroyt, and 
or Brutus was bornne ; and synne lang eftir yat comme 
Brutus in our He, and callit it Britan, ye quhilk was nevir 
callit Bertan, bot to ye Scottis See, and not be northe, and 
we war nevir subgectis to ye Britonns, no to Eamannis, no 
to nanne oyir natioimn fra Scottis See northe. 

Scotia Eomanis vi metu subdita vanis 
N"on fuit ex uno nee paret imperio. 

Alsua ye first yat comme of mare Scotland in ye lesse yat 
now is ouris be ye gi-ace of God was callyt Eathus Eothia, 
eftir quhomm is callit ye lie and ye castell of Eothissaye, 
quhilk now is callit Bute eftir Saynte Brandan ; and synne 


yir comme aue oyii callit Symon Brieke and inhabyt oure 
Scotland, or Bruk comme in ye North partis and in ye 
He; synne comme Bructe and inhabyt ye south partis, 
and sa remanyt lang tymm tyll ye tymme yat ye Pechtis 
comme for yai [war] chasyt out of yir awin landis callit 
Sichia, be ane Prynce of Egipt callit Agenore, and yai in 
thretye schippis, but wemen, and comme in Scottis Ireland, 
and askit at yam me land to duell aponn, and yai denyit 
yamme, hot yai consalyt yamme to pas in our He, ye lesse 
Scotland, yat was not sa weill inhabytyt as yaire, and yai 
suld help yamme gyf ony wald agamie stand yamm, and 
sa yai dide ; and be cause [yai war] all men, and had na 
wemen, yai gaif yamme wedois and madynnis to mak gene- 
ratiounn, and ye lufe of ye Pechtis comme be lufe of ye 
wemen of Scoctis blude, and lang tymme eftir yai comme in 
oure Scotland and multiplyt greitlye, and begowth to con- 
tempin oure Scottis yat duelt yir before ; and yis was to 
Prince of Gret Scotland, and he was greitlye amufyt 
yir at ; and yan ye kingis sonne, calHt Eerguse Farchare, 
tuk ane gret powere of menn and comme in oure Scotland 
and tuke ye crounn of it and brot in ye armis of Scotland, 
ye quhilk is a reide rampand leonn in ane scheild of gold. 
Versus : 

Albioun in terris rex primus germine Scotus 
Ipsorum ternus rubri tulit arma leonis, 
Fergusius fulvo Farchare rugentis in arvo 
Christum tercentis terdenis prefuit aunis. 

And sen synne failzit nevir king in oure Scotland, to 
yis day of richt lynne donne to oure Sovirane Lord yat 
now is king, ye quhilk God kepe, na zit fra Gayele oure 
fyrst king to ye said Ferguse, ye quhilk nowmir cummis 
neire to sax scoir of kingis na nevir strangeare rignyt on 
ws, na zit had dominatiounn. Suppose yat Arthur ye tyran 
maid were onne ws agane his fayth, and alia for before 
him foure or fyfe kingis eftir yat ye Eomanns subjeckit ye 
Britonns, maid aha wyt ws to helpe yamme aganne ye 
Eomanns, ye quhilk we dide, and eftir had ye wictory agane 


yamme, and qiiliil had ye were, and sa we occupyt ye 
Eomanns at we gert yamm byg twa wallis fra ye est see 
to ye west see to kepe ws fra ye Britonns yat yai sub- 
jeckit, and we brak yamme ay donne, and slew yir 
Empriour Severus at Zork, sa ganstude in all thingis 
Julius Cesar and Claudius, and Waspasius, Empriouris of 
Eomme, quhilk wald liaf subjeckit ws as yai dide ye 
Britonns, and for to tell all ye process of yis it war to lang. 
Bot jds Arthure not gaynstandand yat we and ye Pechtis 
lielpji; ye Britonns to put out ye Eomanns, he brak his 
alya on ws, and maid were on ws a quhUe, and tuke ye 
rewmm of Brytan in dedbete resonne fra richtwis heire, 
yat is to say, Moldreid and Gawann yat war Loth of 
Lowdianis sonnys gottyn onn ye Kingis dochtir, and heire 
of Brytan, ye quhilk was Arthuris sistir, and maryit wyt ye 
said Loth or Arthure was gottyn, and becaus at ye heire 
of Brytau was maryit wy tane Scottis man quhen ye Kin- 
rik wakit, and Arthure was xv. yere aid, ye Brytannis 
maid him king, be ye devilrie of Merlynge, and yis 
Arthure was gottyn onn ane oyir mannis wifle, ye Due of 
Caruele, and sa was Arthure spurius, yat is bastard, and 
ane hureis sonne, saife revirence, and maid king, but not 
of law, and Moldreid ye sonne of Loth of Lowdian yat was 
richtwis heire, he was put by. The said Moldreid, quhen 
yat Arthure was out of ye cuntre, in his tyraneale, ye 
estaitis of Br}i;an, and Scottis had him to Loudoun, and 
crownyt liim king of Brytan, and synne in his richtwis 
quietlye slew ps Arthure, and he him as ye Brate sais, 
and ye king of Scotland, yat yan was callyt Govan, send 
his ost of Scottis men, with Moldreid agane Arthure away 
be cause of Moldredis richt, and anne ojdr way be cause 
yat Arthure maid were onn huu, and brak his alia for fra 
ye Eomanns subjeckit ye Bi-j'tomis, and not ws ye Bry- 
tannis was contrare, and wald haif put ws out of yis alia, 
or subject ws as yai war, bot, be ye help of God, we and ye 
Pechtis gaynstude yamme, sa yat ye Eomanns was faynne 
to lefe yamm quhen yai and yai maid were on ws thre 
hundir zeire, sa yat ye Britamiis war oure natm-aU enemys 


to ye tymme yai maid alia wyt ws, ye quhilk yis Arthurs 
brak, bot eftir his dede it was evir weill kepit, and ay 
trew frendschip betwyx ws and ye Brytannis to yis day, 
and yir is mekill thing said of yis Arthure, ye quhilk is 
not such bot fenzit thing yai say yat he slew Stallo, ye 
king of France, and S"^ Lucius procuratour of Eomme, and 
in his dais yare was nanne sic, and many oyir lesingis ar 
maid of him as Maistir Walter Napillis fenzit in his buke 
of him, callyt Lancilot de Lac, bot all ye storyis of France 
beris witnes in ye contrare, and in yis cruell were yat we 
and ye Pechtis maid in cure defence aganne ye Eomanns 
and Brytannis, quhen ye Eomans and ye Brytannis had 
maid Vorage, king of Brytannis, yat falsly usurpyt ye 
crounn of Brytannis, quhen yai myt nocht gaynstand ws, 
yan callit he in help ye fals Saxionns, ye quhilk wexit oure 
land mekill before Arthuris dais, ann evir sen synne has 
remanyt in ye land, and als in ye tymme of Arthure 
aganne his will, yirfore it is not lyk yat he conquest xxx. 
kingis yat in his awin myt not put out ye Saxonns, ye 
quhilk evir maid him were, and quhen ye Saxonns war 
rutyt in ye laud, and bundyn to ye Brytannis, and swornne 
falsly, yai brak yare fayth, and rase aganne yamme, and 
at ye last put yamme out of ye land, of ye quhilk ye pro- 
ces war lang to wryte, yirfore I maun be schort, and yai 
may be callyt Serpens in gremio, Mus inpera, Ignis in sinu, 
and eftir yis yir fell ane discord betuyx ws and ye Pech- 
tis, and we warrayt on yamme lang tymme, and put 
yamme out utralye of ye land of Scotland, be oure king, 
Kenauthe Makalpynn, ye quhilk was donne sewyn bun- 
dir zeire synne, yat is to say, ye zeire of oure Lord, audit 
liundir xxx. and od zeiris, and sa remaynit ye Saxonns in 
ye south, and we in ye north, to ye tymme, yat ye Danys 
subjeckit ye Saxonns and rygnyt on yamme xx zeire, 
and synne comme Wylzamm, Bastard of Normondy, ye 
Duke of Normondis bastard sonne, and put out ye Danys 
and mony of ye Saxonns, and held ye land zit ye quhilk 
of grond ryt suld be ye kingis of Scottis be ye ryt of 
Edmonnd Irnsidis sonnys dochtir, Sanct Mergreit, yat 


was maryit wyt ye king of Scoctis, callyt Macolm Cham- 
nar, fi'a ye quliilk yir is discendit lynne be lynne, till 
oure king yat now is, and yir Edmond Irnsidis was wn- 
weddit king of Ingland, and it is such yat a bastard may 
not succeid till heritage, ye heire beand onn lyfe. Alsa, 
ye Pechtis war put out be Scoctis, and ye Brytannis be ye 
Saxonns, and synne ye Saxonns and ye Danys be ye 
bastard of Normondi, and sa remanys ye He alannly 
occupyt now be ye Scoctis men in Scotland, and wyt Nor- 
manns and Inglis menn ra Ingland to yis day, suppose 
yat Scotland was lang tynune wexit wyt were of divers 
natiounn[s], yat is to say, Eomanns, Brytannis, Saxonns, 
Danys, Norweis, Pechtis, Gotis, and Inglis men, nevir ye 
les yai war put out evir be Scoctis, be cruele force of 
batell, and be na mornen slepis. 

Post Brytones Moricos Adacos Pictos Anglosque, 

Nee non Eomanos belli sudor repulses, 

Nobniter Scoti jus tenuere suimi. 

Sa yat we may say yis day in veryte yat yir is 
na land, no na natiounn sa fre fra begynnyng of ye 
warld, na has standyn sa lang tymme in fredomme as has 
ye Scottis, for yai hafe beynne xviij. hundir zeiris and 
mare unconquest, and nevir was subjeckit to na natiounn 
or king to yis day, bot evir undir our awin king of 
oure awia blude be ryt lynne discendand fra oure first 
king Eerguse before said to him yat now rygnys, 
quhome God keip, and gyf yir fals Inglis men wald 
say yat sum tymme oure king aliyt to yare IngUs king, 
and maid fewtee to yamme gyf yat be such, it was not 
fore 3'e kinryk of Scotland, ye quhilk ye worthye king of 
Scottis briikit of ryt wise tytiU mony zeire before yat, 
Inglis menn or Biyt-annis comme in yis He, bot for ye 
landis yat yai held of hun in Ingland, ryt as ye Inglis king 
held and suld hald of ye king of France ye land yat he 
has and had in France. Alsa, gyf any of yamme wald 
say yat France has standyn lang tym imconquest, it is 
Weill wrytynn be aid Croniclis yat Gallica, yat now is 
callyt France, was lang tymme tributaris to Eomanns, and 


war kingis of it, and sen synne comme dounne ye Tranche 
king, and optenyt France, bot wyt in yir thousand zeris, ye 
storye here of war lang to rehers, and of oyir natiounis, 
subjectionis, and conquestis, and changis of kingis, ye 
quhilk I couth schaw and I had tynun and oportunyte. 
Alsa, ze sail wit yat of yis thousand and viij. hundir zeris 
yat we Scottis has rignyt in yis land, we war never thre 
hundir zere in pese, bot ay presyt wyt ye nationis befor 
said, and langast wyt yir Eomannis, now caUand yamme 
Inglis menn, and yis foresaid land caUyt Anglia, is said 
fra a cuntre in Almanze, callyt Angulus, of ye quhilk sum 
tymme yai war callyt Anglici or Anguli, fra Angulo. 
Sed Veritas non qua'rit A^igulos juxta vcritatem Evangelii, 
yir for yai may nevir be trew yat comme fra Angulo, and 
now ye Eomans has tanne yair namme and yare falsched 
to gyddir, and it is na wondir for yir king is cummyn 
dounne lynne be lynne fra ye Devill as aid cronyclis of 
Ingland beris witnes, callyt Policroniconn. It beris 
witnes of Henry ye secund, yat slew Sanct Thomas of 
Cantirbery, yat was ye Emprice sonne, ye quhilk Emprice 
was weddit wyt ye Erie of Angeaun, and he gat onn hir 
yis Henry ye tyraud, ye quhilk Erie was ye secund fra ye 
DevUl as aid croniclis beris witnes, and all ye kingis of 
Ingland sen synne ar cummyn of yat progenye, and ye 
manere heire of is oure lang to tell, and in ye sammyn 
croniclis of Ingland, it is said yat yis Henry, quhen he 
was zingir and nurysyt vryi ye king of France, Sanct Bar- 
nard maid prophesie of liim and said : A Diaholo existi 
et ad Biaholum ibis, and suppose yat yai dispysit ws 
oftymme in yare colatounis, zit at ye last as yir awin 
croniclis beris witnes, we may say such of yamme, bot not 
alannly yis, bot ane oyir hundir thingis, ye quhilk I couth 
schaw, bot it war lang to wryt as now and trestis hardily 
yat yis is ye manere of yamme, yat quhare evir yai mak 
straitast oblysing of fayt and pese yai dissaife erast for 
sikkirly yai kepe nevir such langir yan yai may see ane 
opynn tymme, and a wantage and coulouris all yir deidis 
wyt solphestry, and exquesyt fals fenzit coulouris, and yis 

2 B 


yai did evir all tymine till ws, ye quhilk yai suld not half 
donne, and yai had beynne trewe, for we gaif yamme 
first Christyndomme, and fayt and doctrynne of Haly 
Kirk, for we war Clirystynyt before yamme, foure hundir 

Scotland was zeire and maire. Yersus : 

Christinyt be- 
fore iiig''^i'fi Christi transactis tribus annis atque ducentis 

ieiris and mair. Scotla catholicam cepit inire fidem. 

And for all yis yai kepyt till ws ye kjradnes yat ze 
knowe, and in ye revengeance of yare falslied ye king of 
Scottis Gregour subjeckit yamme to ye watir of Temys 
maire yane xxx. ye quhilk yare awin croniclis sais, callyt 
Wilzamm Mamrenence, sayand yis. 

Magna pars Danys datur, sed maxima Scotis, 
Et pars Affrido Eegi sic parva remansit. 

Sic as yir I fynd in yare awin bukis, ye quhilk is ye maire 
aiitentice aganne yamme. 

Here fouiioms Era ye begynnyng of ye warld onne to Christ was v. 

wardiii'fra ^^ thousand a hundip foure score and xix. zeris, fra Adam to 

h?cl?il^tione*of '^®^ *^^ thousand twa hundir and xlij. zeris. The thred 

Crist. fra Abraham to Moisen was fife hundir zeir and fife. The 

ferd fra Moises to David foure hundir score of zeris. The 

fift fra David to ye transmigratiounn fife hundir and xij. 

zeris. The sext fra ye transmigratiounn to Christ fife 

hundir and xviij. zeris. 

Scottis men. — The first Scottis men was foure thousand 
thre hundir and xv. zeris fra ye begynnyng of ye warld. 
Eomme was byggyt eftir ye begynnyng of ye warld be 
twa breyir, Eemus and Eomulus, foure thousand twa 
hundir and xviii. zeris, and it had in cumpas lij. hundir 
myle and thre hundir and Ix. towris. Alex'' conquest ye 
warld fra ye begynnyng of it foure thousand and nynne 
hundir zeris. Julius Cesar conquest ye warld fra ye be- 
gynnyng of it, all bot Scotland, fife thousand a hundir 
nynne and thretty zeris. 

. " ^ Sic. 


Yir thingis before wrytynne was all before ye Incarna- 
tiounn, and it yat foUowis was eftir j^e Incarnatiounn. 

The saxtyt and tend zeir eftir ye Incarnatiounn of ye 
Lord, Jerusalem was distroyit be Titus and Waspasiauus. 

The zeir of God thre hundir and xij. zeris, Constantynn 
first relesyt Haly Kirk. 

The zere of God foure huiidir xxxiij. Haly Palladius 
prechit ye fayth to Scottis men, quliUk yai kepyt to yis 

The zere of God four hundir xxxiiij. zeris, Sanct Patrice 
prechit ye faith to Irlandis menu. 

The zere of God foure hundir liiij. zeris, ye Saxonns, 
quhUk ar now calHt Inglis men, wyt yare dukis Horse 
and Hengest, comm in Brytan, qubare yan riguyt Vorti- 
gern king, and in yat tymme was Merlyn. 

The zere of God fife hundir and xv. zeris, Sanct Augus- 
tynne was send in Inglaud to preche ye fayth to yamme. 

The zeire of God sevynn hundir Ixj. ye relikis of Sanct The reiikis of 
Androw ye Apostle com in Scotland. tn^^ittZt. 

The zere of God sevyn hundir and foure score, gret ''""i- 
Charlis wan Spanze, France, and Galice fra ye Sarazenns. 

The zere of God a thousand Ixvj. zeris, Malcolm, ye sonne 
of Duncan, tuke ye rewmm of Scotland in Heritage, and 
rignyt xxxvj. zeris. 

The zere of Christ a thousand Ixvj. Mergret ye Quvenne 
was spowsyt wyt Malcolm, and gat on hir vi. sounys, 
Edward, Edgare, Edmund, Etheldred, Alex'', and David, 
and twa dochtiris. Maid, Quvenne of Inglaud, and Marie, 
Cowntasie of Balanne. 

The zeire of God a thousand a hundir and viij. zeris, 
Edgar, sonn to ye said Malcolm, in heritage tuke ye kinrik 
of Scotland and rignyt ix. zeris. 

The zeire of God a thousand a hundir and [x]vij. zeris, 
Alex'', broyir to ye said Edgare, tuke ye kinrik be succes- 
sioun and rignyt xvij. zeris, and he in ye sewynt zere of 
his rigne foundyt Sconne, ye abbay. 

The zeire of God a thousand a himdir and vj. zeris, xwa monis 
twa monys was senne in ye lyft. ''>'°' '" ^'^ '>'*'• 


The zeire of God aiie thousand a hundir and xxiiij. zeris, 
yis Alex'' ye sonne of Macolm discesyt, and yat sammyn 
zere David, his broyir, tuke ye kinrik. 

The zere of God a thousand a hundir xxxvj. zeris, yis 
David, king, foimdyt ye abbay of Mekose. 

The zere of God of a thousand ane hundir xlij. zeris, yis 
King David foundyt ye abbay of Nowbatile, and in ye nixt 
zere folowand, he foundyt ye abbay of Jedward. 

The zeire of God a thowsand a hundir and 1. zeris, he 
foundyt ye abbay of Homeolens' and Kynlose. 

The zeire of God ane thousand ane hundir liij. King 
David discesyt at Carlele, and to hiin succedyt Macolm, 
j'e Sonne of Henry Erie of Huntyngtoiinn, sonn to ye fore 
said king, King Davy, quhilk in ye zere of God a thou- 
sand a hundir ixj. foundyt ye gret kirk of Sanct Androis 
Bischop Arnaid. in ye tymme of Arnald, Bischope of ye sannnyn, quhilk 
alsa ye zere of God a thousand a hundir liiij. foundyt ye 
abbay of Cowpir, and in j'e nixt zere folowand discesyt ; 
and he rignyt xij. zeris, and to liim succedyt Wyllzamm, 
his broyir. 
Sane Thomas The zerie of God a thousand a hundire Ixx. Sanct Thomas 

of Cantirbery r ry j.- i • i -x 

vos mirtyrit. of Cantirbery was mirtyrit. 

The zere of God a thousand ij. hundir, Ingland and 
Walice war intirdytyt for yir trespas vj. zeris, and ay sen 
synne yai ar tributaris to ye Pope for yir relescliing. 

Tlie zeire of God a thousand ij. hundir, and xvij. zeris. 
King Wilzamme discesyt, and he rignyt lij. zeris. 

The zere of God a thousand ij. hundir and xlj. deyt 
King Alex"^ ye secund, yat rignji; xxxij. zeris. 

The zere of God a thousand ij. hundir, and xliiij. zeris, 

Frederic ye Emperour be Innocence ye Pape was put 


King Aiexr, ye The zeir of God a thousand ij. hundir and Ixxx. King 

seeund, descesit Alex'' ye [sone of Alex'' ye] secund descesyt at Kingornne. 

at mgornn. rpj^^ ^^^^^ ^^ q^^ ^ thousand ij. hundir and x[c]ij. zeire, 

wos Jut'outh 0° Jlionne of Balyole was maid king at Sconne. 
Scotland. The zeire of God a thousand ij. hundir x[c]vj. zeris, ye 

Inglis menu was put out of Scotland, and ye batell of 


Diinbar was strykyn, and yat sammyn zere was strikyn ye 
batell at ye bryg of Stirlyng. 

The zere of God a thousand ij. hundir and x[c]vij. zeris, 
ye batell of ye Fawkirk was strykyn at ye fest of Sanct 
Mare Magdaleine. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and twa zere, 
strikyn was ye batell of Eosslyn. 

The zeire of God a thousand iij. hundir and ij. zere, The ded of 
WUzamme Wallace was slanne, and King Eobert ye Broice 
slew ye Cummyn. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and vj. zeris, Eobert Robert Bruce 
Broice was maid king at Sconne ye vij. callend of AprUe, ""*' '°^' 
and ye sammyn zere was strikin ye batell of Mechwjmn 
and ye discumfyt of Dalrye in ye partis of Argyle. 

The zere of God ane thousand iij. hundir and xiiij. zeris, 
was strykyn ye batell of Bannokburn in ye fest of Sanct Banokbume. 
Johnne ye Baptiste, quhare oure aid enemys gat a gret fall. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and xviij. zeris, 
ye greit kirk of Sanct Androis was hallowyt. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and xx. zeris, 
haldyn was ye Blak Parliament at Perth. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and xxix. zeris. 
Bang Eobert ye Broice discesyt ye vij. day of Jime. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and xxx. zeris. 
King Davy was crownyt in ye vii. zere of his eld ye King David 
xxiij. day of November, and ye nixt zere folowand was ^*° ^rownit. 
strykyn ye batell of Duplyn and ye batell of Annad. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and xxxiij. 
zeris, was strikyn ye batell of Holdounn Hill. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir xliij. zeris, was 
strikyn ye batell of Duramm at ye fest of Sanct Luce. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and 1. zeris, was 
ye first mortalite. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundyr and Iv. zeris, 
was ye brynt Candilmes. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir Ixvj. zeris, was 
ye coronatiounn of King Eobert Stewart ye xvij. day of 


The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and Ixij. zere, 
was ye second mortalite. 

The zere of God a thousand iii. hundir and Ixx. zeris, 
King David ye Broice discesit. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and Ixxviij. 
zeris, was ye gret divisioun in Haly Kirk begunyynn. 

The zere of God a thousand iij. hundir and Ixxx. zeris, 
was ye thrid mortalyte. 

The zeire of God a thousand iij. hundir and Lxxxv. 
zeris, was ye cummyng of Eranche men in Scotland. 
The cummyng Tlie zeire of God a thousand' iij. hundir and Ixxxviij. 
menn. zeris, was strykin ye battle of Otirburnu. 

The zere of God ane thousand iij. hundir, foure score and 
ix. zeris, was ye disces of King Eobert Stewart. 

The zeire of God a thousand iij. hundir boac. and xviij. 
zeris, was ye batell of Sanct Jonstounn xxx. for xxx. 





fecOTi^ propria lingua nomen habent a picto corpore, 
eo quod aculeis fevreis cum atramento variarum figurarum 
stigmate annotentur^ (Lib. ix. ij. 103). 

In parte AsiaticEB Scytise gentes, quse posteros se lasonis 
credunt, albo crine nascuntur ab assiduis nivibus ; et 
ipsius capilli color genti nomen dedit, et inde dicuntur 
Albani :' Horum glauca oculis, id est, picta inest pupLUa, 
adeo ut nocte plus quam die cernant. Albani autem vicini 
Amazonibus fuerunt (Lib. ix. ij. 65). 

Gothi a Magog filio Japheth nominati putantur, de 
simUitudine ultirase sillabfe ; quos veteres magis Getas, 
quam Gothos, vocaverunt. Gens fortis et potentissima, 
corporum mole ardua, armorum genere terribiUs. De 
quibus Lucanus, 

Hinc Dacus premat, inde Getes occurrant Iberis. 

Daci autem Gothoriim soboles fuerunt ; et dictos putant 

» The " Pictish Chronicle" reads 
Picti for Scoti. 

2 The "Pictiah Chronicle" in- 
serts here the following passage, 
the words in italics being taken 
from Nennius : " Scotti qui nunc 
" corrupte vocantur Hibernienses 
" quasi Sciti, quia a Scithia regioue 
" venerunt, et inde originem cluxe- 
" runt ; sine a Scotta filia Pharao- 

" nis regis Egypti, que fuit ut 
" fertur regina Scottorum. Scien- 
" dum vero est quod Britones in 
'* tertia mundi etate ad Britanniavi 
" veneruttt. Scite autem, id est, 
" Scotti, in quarta etate Scociam, 
" siite Hiherniam oblinuerunt." 

' The " Pictish Chronicle" in- 
serts here : De quibus originem 
duxerunt Scoti et Picti. , 



Dacos, quasi dagos, quia de Gothorum stirpe creati sunt : 
de quibus ille, 

Ibis arctoos procul usque Dacos (Lib. IX. ii. 89). 

Magog a quo arbitrantur Scythas et Gothos originem 
traxisse (Lib. ix. ii. 27). 

Scythia, sicut et Gothia, a Magog filio Japhet fertur 
congnomiuata : cujus terra olitn fuit ingens ; nam ab 
oriente India, a septentrione, per paludes Mceotidas, inter 
Danubium et oceanum, usque ad Germaniae fines porrige- 
batur. Postea vero minor effecta a dextra orientis parte qua 
oceanus Syricus tenditur, usque ad mare Caspium, quod 
est ad occasum, dehinc a meridie usque ad Caucasi 
jugum deducta est; cui subjacet Hircania ab occasu 
habens pariter multas gentes, propter terrarum infecundi- 
tatem late vagantes. Ex quibus qusedam agros incolunt ; 
qusedam portentuose ac truces, carnibus humanis, et eorum 
sanguine, vivunt. Scythise plures terras sunt locupletes, 
inhabitabiles tamen plures. Nam dum in plerisque locis 
auro et gemmis affluunt ; gryphonmi immanitate accessus 
hominum rarus est. Smaragdis autem optimis hsec patria 
est. Cyaneus quoque lapis, et crystallus purissLmus 
Scythise est. Habet et flumina magna, Moshoram, Phasi- 
den, atque Araxen (Lib. xiv. iii. 31). 

Prima pars Europse regio Scytbia inferior, quae a Mceo- 
tidis paludibus incipiens inter Danubium et oceanum 
septentrionalem, usque ad Germaniam porrigitur; qu^ terra 
generaliter propter barbaras gentes quibus inhabitatur bar- 
barica dicitur. Hujus pars prima Alania est, qu^ ad 
Meotidas paludes pertingit. Post banc Dacia, ubi et Gothia, 
deinde Germania, ubi plurimam partem Suevi incolue- 
runt (Lib. xiv. iv. 3). 

In parte Asiaticse Scythise gentes quse posteros se 
Jasonis credunt : albo crine nascuntur ab assiduis nivibus^ 
(Lib. IX. ii. 65). 

' The " Pictish Chronicle" ter- 
minates here the introduction with 
the words : De his ista sufficiunt. 

The passages from Isidorus which 
are added are not in the " Pictish 
" Chronicle." 



1. Quibusdam autem nationibus sua cuique propria 
vestis est, iit Parthis sarabarse, Gallis lenae, Germanis rhe- 
nones, Hispanis stringes, Sardis mastrucae. 

6. Dignoscuntur et gentes ita habitu, siciit et Lingua 
discordes. Persse brachia et crura linamentis, caput tiara 
tegunt. Eminent apicibus fastigiatis Alani; horrent et 
male tecti cum latratoriis Unguis Scotti ; sagati sunt 
Alemanni ; liateati Indi ; gemmati Persje ; sericati Seres ; 
pharetrati Armenii. 

7. Nonnullse etiam gentes non solum in vestibus, sed 
etiam in corpore aliqua sibi propria, quasi insignia vindi- 
cant, ut videmus cirros Germanorum, granos et cinnabar 
Gothorum, stigmata Britonum. Circumcidunt quoque 
Judsei prseputia ; pertimdunt Arabes aures ; fiavent capiti- 
bus intectis Getae; nitent Albani albentibus crinibus. 
Mauros habet tetra nox corporum ; Gallos Candida cutis, 
sine equis inertes exstunt Alani ; uec abest genti Pictorum 
nomen a corpore, quod minutissimis opifex acus punctis, 
et expressus nativi gramiius succus illudit, ut has ad sui 
specimen cicatrices ferat, pictis artubus maculosa nobilitas. 



MS. TEIN. COLL. DFEL. H. 3. 17. 

KjndthTie mac Cinge patar Pictorum habidann in aca 
insola c. annis renebait ; ^nj. meic ro teacht ; ate ami so a 
n^anmaiid .i. Fib, Fidach, FoUlaig, Fortrend, Caitt, Ce, 

Circin Ix. annais regnau[it]. 

Fidach xl. annis r[egnauit]. 

Fortrend xL annis r[egnauit]. 

Foltlaid XXX. a[nnis] r[eguauit]. 

Gatt xij. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Ce xij. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Fidbaiid xxiiij. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Geide Ollgothach bcxx. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Oenbegan a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

OUfinachta Ix. a[nnis] r[egnaiut]. 

Gxiidedh Gaeth Breatnach 1. a(nnis] r[egnauit]. 



" Cniithne, son of Cing, pater Pictorum hahitantium in lute 
insula c. annis regnabat. He had seven sons. These are their 
names, viz., Fib, Fidach, Foltlaig, Fortrenn, Caitt, Ce, Circing. 


Bont . . . XXX. and uad ■y Bruige ha h-ainm do gach aen 
fear 7 renaiierunt Hiberniam "j Alboniam per cl an. uit 
inuenitur i leahraib na Cruithneach. 

Bruide Pante ainm in ced Bruide.^ 

Bruide Urpante. 

Bruige Leo. 

Bruigi Gant. 

Bruide Gund. 

Bruige Urgann. 

Bruide Urgaint. 

Bruigi Fet. 

Bruide Urfexu-. 

Bruigi Feoir. 

Bruigi CaL 

Bruigi Ureal. 

Bruigi Cint. 

Bruigi Arcint. 

Bruigi Fet. 

Bruigi Urfet. 

Bruigi Ru. 

Biiiigi Eru. 

Bruigi Gart. 

Bruigi Cinit. 

Bruigi Cind. 

Bruigi Uip. 

Bruigi Uirup. 

Bruigi Gruith. 

Braigi Urgi-ith. 

Bruigi Munait. 

Bruigi Ur. 

Bruigi Gidgie. 

Bruisi Crin. 

^ Bont, . . . thirty of them thenceforth, and Bruige was the 
name of each man of them, et regnaverunt Hiberniam et Albaniam 
per cl, annos ut invenitur in the books of the Cruithneach. 

Bruide Pante was the name of the first Bruide. 


Bruigi Urcrin. 

Bruige Urmain. 
Eegnauerunt cl. ann[os] ut diximus 7 rohai Alba cen rig 
fria re uile co h-aimsir Gud cet rig ro gab Albain uile tri 
comairli no ar eigin. Atberait arailc comad h-e Catluan 
mac Caitming no gabad rige ar eigin i Cruitlieantuaith 
Y a n-Erind .i. Ix. bliadain ij iarsin ro gab Gud .i. l." 

Taram c. aii[iiis] regnauit. 

Morleo a xij. a[unis] re[gnauit]. 

Deocillimon xl. aii[nis] regnauit. 

Cimoiod mac Airtcois vij. a[miis] r[egnauit]. 

Deort 1. a[iims] r[eguauit]. 

Blieblitli v. a[iinis] r[egnauit]. 

Deototreic f rater Tui xl. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Usconbest xx. a[nnis] r[eguauit]. 

Crutbolc vij. a[unis] r[egnauit]. 

Deordiuois xx. a[nnis] regn[amt]. 

Uist I annos r[egiiauit]. 

Eu c. aii[nis] r[egnauit]. 

Gartnait iiij. ix. a[niiis] re[gnauit]. 

Breth mac Bviithed vij. a[ams] r[egnauit]. 

Uipo ignauit xxx. 

Canatulacma iij. annis r[egnaiiit]. 

Uradach uetla ij. a[iiiiis] r[egnaiut]. 

Gartnait duipeir Ix. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Tolorc mac Aithiuir Ixxv. 

Drust mac Erp c. regnauit j c. catha ro gein.^ Nono 
decimo anno reigni eius Patricius Sanctus Episcopus ad 
Hiberniam peruenit. 

Tolorc mac Aniel iiij. a[nnis] r[egnaxiit]. 

° Regnaverunt cl. annos ut diximus, and Alban was without a 
king all along, until the time of Gud, the first king that pos- 
sessed all Alban by consent or by force. Others say that it was 
Cathluan, son of Caitming, who possessed the kingdom by force 
n Cruithentuaith, and in Erin for sixty years, and that after him 
succeeded Gud for fifty. 

^ And gained a hundred battles. 


Nectan mor breac mac Eirip xxxiiij. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Tertio anno regni eius Darlugdach Abbatista Cille- dara 
de Aberniam axulat pro Christo ad Britiniam. Proximo* 
anno aduenitus tui immolaueit Nectonnius anno imo 
Apuirnige Deo 7 Sanctaae Brigitea preseute Darluigdeach 
que cantauit All[eluia] super istam. 

Dartguitiimoth xxx. a[nnis] reg[nauit]. 

Galamarbith xv. a[nnis] reg[nauit]. 

Da Drerst .i. Drest fi[lius] Budros xv. annis reg[na]ue- 

Derst fi[lius] Girum solus v. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Galum cenamlapeh iiij. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Gartnait fi[lius] Girom uij. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Cailtaine fi[lius] Girom anno r[egnauit]. 

Talorg f[ilius] Murtolic xj. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Drest fi[lius] Manaith uno a[nno] r[egnauit]. Cum 
Brideno i. anno. 

Bruide mac Maeleon xxx. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

In ochtaauuo anno regni eit baibtizatus est e 



Gartnait f[ilius] Domnaeh xj. a[niiis] r[egnauit]. 

Neachtan nepo[s] Uerp xx. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Cinlioint f [iUus] Luitriu xix. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Gartnait mac Uiud v. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Tolorc frater eorum duodecim a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Tolorcan f [ilius] Enfret iiij. 

Gartnairt f [ilius] Donuel vj. a[nnis] r[egnauit] 7 deimi- 
dium anni. 

Druse frater eius vij. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Bride f [ilius] Fie xx. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Taran f [ilius] Enfidaid iiij. 

Brei f[ilius] Deirilei xj. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Nechtan f[ilius] Deirile x. a[unis] r[egnauit]. 

Drest y Elf)en conneganaueint v. a[nnis] r. 

' This is a contraction in the 
original text, proximo is evidently 
the word meant. 

2 This is a contraction, but 
tierunt seems meant. 


Onbes f [iliiis] Urgust xxx. a[niiis] r[egnauit]. 

Breite f [ilius] Uugut xv. a[nnis] ifegnauit]. 

Ciniod f [ilius] luuredeg xv. a[nnis] ifegnauit]. 

Alpin f[ilius] Uuoid iij. annis regnauit 7 dimidon 

Drest f[ilius] Tolorcan i. a[nno] ifeguauit]. 

Talorcan f[ilius] Drostan uel v. deg. 

Talorcen f[ilius] Onust xij. 7 dimidoia a[nnis] ifeg- 

Canul f [ilius] Tang. v. annis ifegnauit]. 

Cuastantin f[ilius] Uurguist xxxv. 

Uidnust f[ilius] Uurgust xij. an[nis] ifegnauit]. 

Drost f [ilius] Consatiii ^ Tolorc f [ilius] Uuthoil iij. 
a[nnis] r. conregnauerunt. 

Uuen f [ilius] Unest iij. 

Urad f[Llius] Bargoit iij. afnuis] 7 Brod 1? a[nno] ifeg- 

Cinaed f [ilius] Ailpin xvj. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

DomnaU f [ilius] Ailpin iiij. ifegnauit] 7. 

Custantin f[ilius] Ciuaeda xx. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Aed f [ilius] Cinaed 1? a[nno] ifegnauit]. 

Girig mac DungaUe xj. uel iij. a[nnis] r[egnauit]. 

Domnall f [ilius] Cousantin xj. a[uni3] ifegnauit]. 

Constautin f [ilius] Aed xlv. a[nnis] ifegnauit]. 

Maelcolaim f [lUus] Domnall ix. a[nnis] ifegnauit], 

Ouilein f[ilius] Ildoilb f[ilii] Constandtin iiij. a[nnis] 

Cinaed uel Dub f[ilius] Maelcolaim vij. a[unis] ifeg- 

Culein L dimidoin ifegnauit]. 

Cinaed f [ilius] Duib oc7;<a[nnis] ifegnauit]. 

Maelcolaim mac Cinaeda xxx. a[uiiis] reg[nauit]. 

Dondcbad iia MaUcolaim vij. ifegnauit]. 

Macbeatliad mac Fin mic Laig xvj. a[niiis] r[egnauit]. 

Lulach V. mis. 

Maelcolaim mac Colaim mic Donncaid iarsin. 









581 IvAL. Oath Manann in quo Aodhan mac Gab 
rain uictor erat. 

724 KaL Faolchu Abbas lae. 

72 G Kal. Cillene fota Abbas lae. 

727 Kal. San hhliadaiii si so hhris Aongas, ri Foir- 
treann, tri caihafor Drust righ Alhan.^ 

734 Cath do ihrisedh do Aodh allan mac Fergail for 
Flaitlibheartach mac Loingsigh ri Eirenn go d-tug 
Flaithhheaj-tach loingius a Forireannoibh chuige a n- 
aighidh Cineil Eoghain, aclit clwna ra baidheadh 
earmhor an cobhlaigh sin.^ 


^ In tliis year Aengus, king of Fortrenn, gained three battles 
over Dmst, king of Alban. 

•> A battle was gained by Aedh AUan, son of Fergal, over 
Flaithbhertach sou of Loingsech, king of Eriu, so that Flaith- 
bhertach brought a fleet out of Fortrenn, to assist him against 
the Cinel Eoghan. The greater part of that fleet was, liowever, 

2 C 



669 Kal. Cuimin Fionu Abbas lae quieuit. 
678 Kal. Cath Duinloclm. Cath Liagmaolain. Catk 
i. Calatros in quo uictus est Dombnall breac.° 
Quies Failbe Ab lae. 
6b3 Kal. Adanman do gdbail ahdaine lae. 

686 Kal Domnall breac mac Eachach buidhe mor- 
tuus est. 

687 Kal. Cath Duinneachtain ittir mac Ossa J Bruite 
mac Bile uictor fiiit.'^ 

693 KaL Briiide mac Bile ri Foirtreau moritur. 

704 Mors Flaimi Fiona mic Ossa ri Saxan, in tegnaidh 

amhra, dalta Adamnain, de quo Riaguil Bemicuir 


Iniu /eras Bruide cath, in forba a senathar, 

Manad algas la mac De, conide ad genathar 

Initt ro hith mac Ossa a ccathfria claidhme glasa 

Cia do rada aitrige, is hi ind hi iar nassa. 

Iniu ro hith mac Ossa, las ambidis duba deoga 

Ro cuala Crist «?• n-guidhe roisaorhiit Bruide hregha^ 


•= Battle of Dunlocha. Battle of Liagmaolan. Battle in 
Calathros iu 'which Donald Bree was defeated. 

^ Battle of Dunnicheu, between the son of Ossa, and Bruide, 
son of BOe, who conquered. 

"^ The death of Flann Fiona, son of Ossa, king of Saxonland, 
the famous wise man, the pupil of Adamnan, of whom Riagal of 
Bangor sung : 

This day Bruide fights a battle for the land of his grandfather. 
Unless the son of God wish it otherwise, he will die in it, 
To-daj' the son of Oswy was killed in a battle with green 

Although he did penance, he shall lie in Hi after his death ; 
This day the son of Osv.y was killed, who had tlie black drink, 
Christ heard our supplications, they spared Bruide the brave.' 

• These lines are obviously mis- 
placed, anil belong to the previous 
entry in 687. The dc.itU of Kia- 

gal of Bangor is recorded by the 
Four Masters in SSI. 


70-1 Ba 7narhh d7io Adhamhnan sin hhliaghainsi 
Ixxxiij? setatis suae.* 

852 Kal. Indrechtach Ab la do thiachtain i n-Eirinn 
go mionnaibh Goloimcille lais. 

Cath no thdbhairt d-Aodh do righ Ailigli A. don rigli 
as f err engiiamh na aimsir, do loingius na n-Gall n- 
Oaoidheal .i. Scuit tad fj daltai do Normannoibh iad 
y tan ann ad herar cid Normainnigh friu. Maidhidh 
forra re n-Aodh agus cuirthear a n-deargar na n- 
Gall n-Gaoidheal fj cinn imdha do hhreith do Niall 
his, ij ra dhligJisiot na h-Eirennaigh an marbhadh 
soin, uair amhail do nidis na Lochlannaigh do 

858 Kal. Ra chuaidh Maoilseachlainn don Mumhain, 
go rabha re re mis og ionnradh Mumhan ann Eim- 
ligh go ttug braiglule Mumluin o Comur tri n-uisge go 
hinnsi Tarbhna iar n-Eirinn. Cath Cairn Lugli- 
dhach sain. Is in cath soin ro marbhadh Maolcroin 
mac Muircdaig leithrigh na n-Deisi.^ 

' Adamnan died in the eighty-third year of his age. 


s Indrechtach, abbot of la, came to Erin with the relics of Colum- 

A battle given by Aedh, king of Ailech, the most valiant 
king of his time, to the fleet of the Gallgael. They were Scots 
and foster-cliildren of the Northmen, and at one time used to be 
called Northmen. They were defeated and slain by Aedh, and 
many of their heads carried off by Niall with him, and the Irish 
were justified in committing this havoc, for these men were 
wont to act like Lochlauns. 

^ Maelsechlan proceeded into Mimster, and remained for the 
space of a month at Emly plundering Munster, aud he obtained 
the hostages of Munster from the meeting of tlie three waters to 
Inistarbhna, in the west of Erin. This was the battle of Carn 


Gen go ttiosadh Maoilseachlann an turns so do 
ghahhail righe Mumhan do fein, rdbo thuidheachta 
do marhhad an ro viharhadh do Ghallghaoidhealaibh 
ann, ^lair daoine iar ttrcgadh a m-haiste iadsaidhe 
<1 adhertais Normannaigh frm, uair hes Normannach 
aca, J a n-altrum forra fj gcr ho olc na Nm-man- 
naigh hunaidh do na h-Eglaisihh ha mesa go mor 
iadsaidhe i. an lucht sa, gach corair for Eirinn a 
m hidis} 

Maidm re Cerhhall mac Dunlaing y re Niar fo 
Ohallghaoidhealaihh i n-Aradhaihh Tire} 
858 Kal. Cionaodli mac Ailpin rex Pictorum moritur ; 
conadh do ro raidheadh an rami. 

Nad mair Cionaodh go lion sgor, 
Fo dhera gol in gach taigh 
Aon ri a loghafo nimh, 
Go hrvAnne Romha ni hhfail.^ 

862 Donmall mac Ailpin rex Pictorum moritvir. 

869 Millcadh 'j innrcdh Foirtrenn la LocMannaihh go 

Lugdach. lu this battle was slain Maelcron, son of Muredag, half 
king of the Deisi. 

' Though Maelsechlan had not come on this expedition to take 
the kingdom of Munster to himself, he ought to have come to 
kill all the Gallgael who were kUled there, for they were a people 
who had renounced their baptism, and they were usually called 
Northmen, for they had the customs of the Northmen, and had 
been fostered by them, and though the original Northmen were 
bad to the churches, these were by far worse in whatever part of 
Erin they used to be. 

J A victory gained by Cerball, son of Dunlang, and by Niar, 
over the GaUgael in Aradhtire. 

^ On whom this verse was composed. 

That Cinaed with the number of studs liveth not, 
Is the cause of weeping in every house. 
Any one king under heaven of his work, 
To the borders of Rome there is not. 


riujsat hraighde ionida leo i n-gill re cios ; ro has go 
fada iarttain ag tabhairt ciosa dhoihh} 

869 Kal. Ceallach mac Ailella Ab. Cilledara j Ab. lae 
dormiuit in regione Pictorum. 

Tuathal mac Artgossa prim epscop Foirtrenn j 
Ab. Duin-Caillenn moritur. 

870 Is in bliadhain ri do ronsad na rigli Lochlann 
forhaisi for Sraithduaide i m-hrcathnaibh ; re cethre 
miosaibh ag forhaisi doibh fuirrc,fa deoigh thra iar 
fforrach an lochia ro bhaoi inntc do gliorta 7 d- 
iotaidh, ar ttraghadh go hiongnaidh an tobair ro bhaoi 
acca ar medlion : ro cuas forro iaiTtain. Rugadh 
tra ar tus gach maithius ro hhui innte. Rugadh 
slogh mor eiste i m-hraidJ^ 

871 Amhlaoibh j Imar do thoidhccht aridhsi a h- 
Albain go h-Atheliath 7 brad mor Bretan 7 Alban 
Y Saxon leo, da died long a lionP- 

909 As beg nach is na laithihhsi ro cuirsed Foirtren- 
naigh 7 Lochlonnaigh cath. As cruaidh imurro ro 
cuirsiot fir Alban an cath so, uair baoi Columcille 
ag congnamh leo, uair ro ghuidhsoid go diochra e, 
uair ha he a 7i-apstol e'^ as trid ro ghabhsad creidemh. 

' Fortren was plundered and ravaged by the Lochlans, and they 
carried off many hostages with them as pledges for tribute, and 
they were paid tribute for a long time after. 

™ In this year, the king of Lochlan laid siege to Strathclyde in 
Britain, and they continued tlie siege for four months. At 
length, however, after having wasted the people who were in it 
by hunger and thirst, having wonderfully drawn off the well they 
had within, they entered upon them. At first, they carried oft' 
aU the riches that were within it, and afterwards, a great host of 
prisoners were brought into captivity. 

" Amhlaebh and Imar came again from Alban to Athcliath, 
having a great number of prisoners, both Britons and Albans and 
Saxons. Two hundred ships was their number. 

° Almost at the same time, the men of Fortrenn and the Loch- 
lanns fought a battle. Vigorously, indeed, did the men of Alban 
fight this battle, for Columcille was a.ssisting them, for they 


JJ air f edit oile anuair ro baoi Imar Coming na giolla 
og >j tainig d-inredh Alhan, tri catha mora a 
lion, asedh da ronsadjir Alban eidir laoch j cleirech, 
bheith go maidin i n-aoine j a n-iornaidhe ra Dia 7 
ra Colamcille 'j cighme moi'a do dcnamh ris in 
Choimdhedh, "j almsana iomhda hidh j edaig do 
thabhairt dona lircgalsaibh 7 do na bochtaibh 7 corp 
an Glwimdlicdli do chaitJiem allamlmibh a sagart 7 
geallaidh gach maithiiisa do ghenamh amail as ferr 
no ioralfaidis a cdeirigh forra y comadh eadh ba 
meirge dJioibh i gccnn gadi catha, bachall Colaim- 
cille, gonadh aire sin adberas Gathbhuaidh fria sin 
alle ; 7 ba hainm coir, uair is minie rugsadsomh 
buaidh a ccatJiaibh le ; amhail do ronsat iaram an 
tan sin dola a muinighin Colaimcille. Bo ronsaid an 
modh ccdna an tan sa. Ra cuiriodh iaramh an 
cathsa go cruaidh feocliair ; rugsad na li-Albanaigh 
buaidh 7 cosgar ; ro marbhaid imurro na Lochlon- 
naigh go h-iomdha ar maidhmforra f marbhtJiar a 

prayed to him fervently, because he was their apostle, and it was 
through him they had received the faith. On a former occasion, 
when Imhar Conung was a young man, he came to plunder Alban 
with three large battalions. What the men of Alban, both laity 
and clergy, did, was to remain until morning fasting and praying 
to God and to Columcille, and they cried aloud to the Lord, and 
gave many alms of food and clothes to the churches and to the 
poor, and to take the body of the Lord from the hands of the 
priests, and to promise to do every good as their clergy would 
order them ; and they would have as their standard at the head 
of every battle the crozier of Columcille, for which reason it is 
called the Gathbhuaidh from that time forth ; and this was a be- 
fitting name for it, for they have often gained victory in battles 
by means of it, as they did afterwards at that time when they 
put their trust in Columcille. They acted in the same way on 
this occasion. This battle was afterwards fought fiercely and 
vigorously. The Albanich gained victory and triumph. The 
Lochlanns were slain in great numbers and defeated, and their 


righ ann .i. Oittir mac larngna. As dan iarttain na 
ro saighsiod Danair na Loclilonnaigh orra, acht to 
hui sidh j comslianadh doibh.° 
931 Taitiig ri LocMann iarttain 7 ra airg Srait- 
duaidhc A. ra air an tir, acht ni ro cumm/ng namaid 
do Sraitliecluaide."^ 

king was slain, viz., Otter, son of largna ; and it was long after 
this until either Danes or Lochlanns attacked them, but they 
enjoyed peace and tranquillity. 

P The king of Lochlann afterwards came and plundered Strath- 
clyde, that is, lie plundered the land, but the enemy was not able 
to take Strathclyde. 



MS. BRUSSELS, NO. 5101-4. 

h ECHT do bert corp Briiide mic Bile, ri Criiithneach, 
do cum n-Iae, agus ba saeth agus iagar la h-Adamnan a 
ecc, agus asbert ara tabharthae corp Bruide cuccae hi 
teach ind oidchi sia. Frithairidh Adamnan oc in corp co 
mataia isiii tech sin. Is in matain ar abharach an tan ro 
gabh an corp gluasacht agus a shuUe d-erslucadh, is arm 
tainic araile craibhdheach chonercil co dorus an tighe 
agus asbert. Masa doigh todiusccadh marbh di Adamnan, 
atberim cona dingeutar. Appaidh do nach clerech do rega 
ina inad mina todiusca marbu. Ata ni do dligudh ann, 
ol Adamuan. Masa chora din tabhram bennachtaia fors 
iu corpsa, agus in anmain Bniidi. Eo faidh do ridhisi 


The body of Bruide, son of Bile, king of the Cruithnigh, was 
brought to la, and his death was sorrowful and grievous to Adam- 
nan, and he desired that the body of Bruide should be brought to 
him into the house that night. Adamnan watched by the body 
till morning. Next day, when the body began to move and open 
its eyes, a certain pious man came to the door of the house, and 
said, " If Adamnan's object be to raise the dead, I say he should 
" not do so, for it will be a degradation to every Cleric who shall 
" succeed to his place, if he too cannot raise the dead." " There 
" is somewhat of right in that," replied Adamnan. " Therefore, 
" as it is more proper, let us give our blessing to the body, and 
" to the soul of Bruide." Then Bruide resigned his spirit to heaven 


Bruidi a spiorad do cum nime, co m-bennachtain Adamnan 
agus samhtha lae. Is and asbert Adamnan : 

Mor do inganta do ni, 
In ri genair o Muire, 
Betha scuab an im miiili, 
Ecc do Bruide mac Bile. 
Is annamh [Is annamh] 
lar mbeith ir righe tuaithe, 
Ceppan cane crin dara, 
Im mac rig Ala Cluaithi. 

again, with ttie blessing of Adamnan, and the congregation 
of la. Then Adamnan said : 

" Many wondere doth he perform, 
The king who was born uf Mary, 
He takes away life. 
Death of Bruide sou of Bile : 
It is rare, It is rare. 
After ruling in the northern kingdom 
That a hollow stick of withered oak. 
Is about the son of the king of Alcluaith." 




MS. BODL. EAWLIN30N B. 505. 

U T igitur plenius aquas sapientie salutaris hauriret et 
peregrinus existens Deo secnrius deseruiret. Natale solum 
deserens, nauem ascendit et Ytaliam perueniens, Sancti 
patris Tyliani monasterium ingressus, ibi monastice vite 
disciplina, et sacre scripture .sciencia, ad prime erudicionis 
liumilitate et mansuetudine, omnibus acceptabile erat. 
Transactis vero aliquot idem annis, divine oraculo admoni- 
tus est repatriare. Accepta igitur benedicione, atque licen- 
cia Sancti patris Tyliani, et missus cum eo ipso Sancto 
seniors Codro, qui sententias eius in malignates tempera- 
ret, datisque eis sacris voluminibus ac uestibus, nee non 
et sociorum reliquis, xxx" peregrinacionis sue anno, iterum 
regressus est. Fama vero eius in itinera demulgata iunxe- 
runt se ei quidam viri sancti de Germania numero Ix. 
quorum decern fuerimt germani fratres et x. virgines. Per- 
venientes itaque ad mare navem ascendunt, et prospero 
navigio in Pictorum finibus applicuerunt. 


Contigit autem tunc temporis, Nectanum iUius terre 
regem viam universe carnis migrasse. Ad eius quoque 
exequias invitantur et illi, ut super defunctum regem vigil- 
arent et pro ipso ad Dominum orarent, cujus domum 


in qua exanime corpus jacebat, pervenirent, ceteris exclu- 
sis, vir Dei Boecius se in oracionem dedit. Completa igitur 
oracione, ecce defunctus a mortis faucibus resurrexit. 
Stupent omnes, luctus in gaudium vertitur, et Deus in sue 
Sancto glorificatur. Denique rex castrum iUud in quo 
factum miraculrmi, cum omni sua possessione, beato Boecio 
contulit, quo ipse in cellam consecrato, quendara suorum 
in custodem reliquit. 


Post hec ad Hybernicum mare pervenit, et in navem 
ascendit, in regione, Daylriata nomine, portum tenuit, ubi 
regis eiusdem terre filiam iam defunctam resuscitavit. 
Quapropter et rex terram ei optulit, in qua ipse ecclesiam 
fundauit, et relicto ibi presbyterio quondam de suis, in 
primum solum .i. Kyanacteorum gressum direxit. Et, cum 
regem adiret, eum, quia gentilis erat, non admisit. 



MS. BIB. EP. MARSH AP. DUEL. V. 3. 4. 16. 

J? uiT quidam rex nobilis in terra Chanaan nomine 
Obeth filius Eliud, et nomen uxoris ejus Alpia filia regis 
Arable. Ambo viguiti annos in.simul viventes prolem nul- 
1am habuerunt. Inde sepissime Deum rogaverimt et obla- 
tiones et uictimas ei optiilerunt, ut eis ad expeUendum 
obprobrium eorum sobolem condignam donaret. Qua prop- 
ter rex mandavit i)er imiversam regionem ut omnes homines 
a miaoribus usque ad majores tribus diebus ac noctibus 
jejunarent et assidue pro rege et regina Dei misericordiam 
exorarent, ut sterilitatis ab eis ignominiam averteret. In 
tertia vero nocte, iiltimo gaUi cantu regi pai-umper dor- 
mienti in sompno angelus Domini apparuit cUcens, Ite in 
civitatem que vocatur Eliopolis, et in ea iuvenietis 
fontem pulcherimum et in eo ter balniate. Et exinde 
quod vos hanelatis habebitis, exeuntes et ad fontem pre- 
nominatum pervenientes juxta dictum angeli fecerunt. 
Mandragora est Ac herbam juxta fontem crescentem scilicet mandragonem 
cujus radix ad regina concupiens eum manducavit. Postquam ergo com- 
ni3'cre™cit°et' Eaedit et copula maritab. acta ilico concepit. In nocte 
mniieressteriies yero subsequente angelus regine apparuit, confortans earn 
et dicens, Noli regina contristari et mesta esse, quia ecce 
habes in utero et paries duos filios, fide et opere optimos. 
Nomen erit uni Generatius, id est, ardens gemma et erit 
honorabilis rex super omnem terram Cananeorum. Est 
nomen alteri Malachias siue Servanus. Que nomina ei 
postea peracto secularis vite cursu bene convenerunt. 
Malacliias enim interpretatur angelus Domini, hoc est 


aptum nomen ei, qui legatus sedis apostolice extiterit 
nuncians verbum per quatuor plagas mundi. Servanus Regiones, vei 
vero servando dicitui- Deo ea quod operando serviebat ^^ 
Domino nostro Jesu Christo in omni opere bono nocte 
dieque. Hiis itaque dictis et angelo discedente regina 
exporrecta est, et dicta angelica marito suo nunciavit. 
Inde igitur ambo exultantes, grates Deo habundanter 

Postquam natus est puer, ductus est ad Episcopum 
Alexandrie civitatis Magoniura nomine ut baptizaretur ab 
eo. Episcopus vero baptizavit eum et nomen ei imposuit 
Servanum. Beatus igitur Servanus nutritus est usque ad 
vij. annos, et pater eius defunctus est. Defuncto autem 
patre suo, obtulerunt ei totius regni eorum regimen. Ipse 
vero a juventute adherens Deo et despiciens mundum, 
omnes voluntates eorum refutavit. Frater autem ejus 
Generatius pro ipso regnavit. Sanctus autem Servanus 
perrexit ad civitatem Alexandrinam ut divino studio 
vacaret ibi, et artes disceret. Et ibi mansit per tresdecim 
annos, et monacliilem habitum ab Episcopo ejusdem civi- 
tatis sumpsit. A prenominato Episcopo post triginta 
annos dOigenter ammonitus est ut ad sacros ordines 
quoniam dignus fuit promoveretur. Igitur usque ad 
sacerdotii gradum licet nolens et contradicens promotus 
est. Postquam autem ordinatus est, venit in terram suam, 
et omnes Channanei cum multa exultatione eum in Epis- 
copatum elegerunt. Episcopatum autem ilium construens 
in eo monasteria et ecclesias Deo die noctuque serviens 
per viginti annos rexit in pace. Tunc angelus Domini 
adiit eum dicens ei, Mandatum est tibi a Domino Deo ut 
exeas et discedas de terra et de cognatione tua. Beatus 
Servanus ad bee respondit, Libenter ibo, sed ignoro quo 
Dominus mens vult me pergere. Angelus ad hoc Beato 
Servano dixit, Ego ero tecum quocunque perrexeris, de- 
liberans te ab omni temptatione diaboHca et ero comes tui 
itineris prosperans viam tuam in mari et in terra, ab hoc 
die usque diem dissolutionis corporis tui. Tunc Sanctus 
Servanus ab omnibus clericis et laicis Episcopatus sui et 
cognatis et amicis suis licentiam accepit et eis benedixit. 


lUi autem de discessu suo dolentes, ne eos desolatos dimit- 
teret rogavenmt attente. Ille autem despiciens lacrimas 
et preces eorum ciim magna multitudine sociorum et 
angelo eum ducente iter ampuit. 

Postea Sanctus Servanus cvun quinquaginta et decem 
milibus ad ripam Nili fluminis devenit, et cum omni comi- 
tatu sua flimien prospere transsivit. Delude ad litus 
Maris Rubri cum totidem advenjt, et sicco pede Ulud mare 
omnes pertraussienmt. Post duos inde menses pervenit 
ad civitatem Iherlem et septem annis honorabOis patriarcha 
in ea extitit, in loco Jacobi patrlarche lerosolimitaneorum 
Episcopl. Quadam autem die angelus Servano Sancto 
dixit, Ascende in montem Syon et cii'cui eum. Sanctus 
Servanus ascendit et circuit. Ostensum est ei lignum de 
quo salutlfera crux Christi incisa fuit. Tunc angelus ait 
ei, Incide de llgno Isto quatuor baculos et affer tecum, et 
in magna virtute et reverentia post vos erunt. Sanctus 
Servanus in voce angeli tres baculos incidit. Quorum 
vero majoris baculi lignum angelus ipse amputavit, et 
ipse Sancto Servano tradidit et commendavit. Propterea 
Sanctus iste in majori honore et reverentia tenuit et 
custodivit. Postea cum gaudio reversus est in Iherlem. 
Et Uico ait ei angelus, Tempus est ut dimittas civitatem 
istam, et pergas ad civitatem Constantinopolim quia prope 
est locus iste terre et cognationi tue. Surrexit ergo 
Beatus Servanus et benedixit omnibus lerosolimitanis 
licentiam accipiens ab eis. Pervenit postea cum omni 
multitudine sociorum suorum ad Constantinopolim, et fuit 
in ea honorifice receptus per tres annos. Inde eodem 
monitus angelo venit ad ten-am et ad insulam Salvatoris. 
Dicitur enim insula Salvatoris quia ad earn propicius nobis 
venit Salvator noster. Postea venit cum maxima turba 
Eomam. Et Eomani audientes famam ejus habundantem 
per terras et regiones quas circuit honorifice susceperunt 
eimi. Erant autem in illis diebus sine Papa et Doctore. 
At tunc censors cleri et populi Piomanorum voluntas elegit 
eum in apostolatum. Et fuit ibi in cathedra Petri regens 
et populum Eomammi docens signa et mirabilia agens 
septem annis. 


Angelus Domini ad Sanctum Servanum loquitur dicens. 
Mandat tibi Deus tuus exire de loco isto, quia nimis jocun- 
dum tibi est hie esse. Tunc Beatus Servanus clerum et 
populum Eomanum advocat dicens, Viri fratres a vobis 
omnibus licentiam sumo, et benedictionem meam vobis 
omnibus dimitto. Oportet enim me Domino ammonente 
ill longinquas partes ire, et Domino Jesu Christo per omnia 
obedire. Vocem Ulam omnibus Eomanis valde displicuit 
audire, omnis enim populi Eomani fuit una voluntas cum 
ipso pergere, quia in tantum doctrina, moribus, et nobUi- 
tate virum valde preclarum dilexerunt. Maluerunt enim 
dura et aspera mundi in peregTinatioue cimi ipso sustinere, 
quam ejus presentia et melliflua doctrina post ipsima 
carere. Exivit tamen civitatem Eomam cum multitudine 
graudi cleri et populi virorum ac mulierum de discessu 
suo nimis dolentium usque ad coUem Lacrimarum. Beatus 
Servanus stetit in loco iUo vertens se ad populum ait, 
Viri fratres et popide delecte a Deo, nolite dolere de 
discessu meo et contristari, sed dividite vos in duas partes, 
una pars hie Eome maneat, altera in banc peregrinationem 
postponens hujus seculi curam mecmu veniat ; pro ipsis 
remanentibus et nobiscum venientibus Deum rogabo, ut 
ipse vobis cuucta peccata condonans vobiscum sit et nostri 
misereatur. Eespouderunt omnes, Amen. Et divise sunt 
turbe et benedixit illis lacrimans et oscvdans eos ait, 
Valete et in Christo manete. 

Postquam autem Beatus Servanus cum omni comitatu 
suo Alpes aggreditur, venit ad vaUem que dicitur Nigi'a 
siue vaUis bestiarum. Et quia Servanus scivit quod in 
iUa nocte temptaretur a Diabolo, propterea in valle dla 
pemoctavit. Tunc angelus ad Beatum virum dixit, Narro 
tibi penas quas passurus es tu et tui omnes in hac nocte. 
Et dixit ei confortare turbas et predic eis quod amplius 
non pacientur penas inferni transactis penis et noctis 
hujus tormentis. Angelus post hoc discessit. Et Sanctus 
Servanus venit ad turbam confortans earn dixit, Confor- 
tamini vos et estote parati in parandis penis que super- vel paciendis. 
venient vos in hac nocte. Ponens eis versiculum in 


exemplum propheticum scilicet, Super aspidem et basi- 
Hscum ambulabis et conculcabis leonem et draconem. Hoc 
est, Vos omnes si in fide Sancte Trinitatis perseverabitis 
super aspidem et basiliscum super Diabolum videlicet et 
pompas ejus arabulabitis et nichil vobis nocebit. Time 
Sanctus ait, Prandete et ad bella ftitura preparate vos. 
Commestione avitem peracta, et versu dicto quantocius 
venit atratissima et nebvilosa caligo super vaUem in 
qua erant. Tunc venerunt terremotus magni, tonitrua et 
fulgura, grandines et ignes sulphurei, et diversa genera 
bestiarum biped\un quadripedum, et impleverunt circa 
eos vaUem. Tunc venerunt culices ossea rostra habentes, 
dracones serpentes alas et omnia tormenta que Sathanas 
inferni hominibus poterat monstrare. Videndo hec omnia 
magna pars turbe defuncta est. Videns autem Sanctus 
Servanus socios suos hec non posse pati surrexit et 
benedixit vallem, evanuerunt omnia et ad nichilum redacta 
simt, et mdli bominum amplius nocuerunt. Deinde 
Sanctus Servanus venit ad Icteum mare, quod distat 
inter Angliam et Franciam cum septem milibus milium 
et sicco pede transsierunt. Ita Deus in mari prebuit 
eis aditum et adjutoriuni. Et postea venit de loco ad 
locum usque ad amnem que Forthe nuncupatur. Sanc- 
tus uero Edheunanus fuit abbas in Scocia tunc temporis, 
et ipse ivit obviam Servano usque ad insidam KeS et 
suscepit eum cum magna veneratione quoniam audivit 
multa bona de illo. Peracto ibi noctis spacio et post 
tempus in quo placuit eis melliiluo coUoquio perfrui 
Sanctus Servanus ait, Quomodo disponam familie et sociis 
meis. Sanctus Odau'Sdanus respondit, Habitent terram 
Fif, et a monte Britannorum usque ad montem qui dicitur 
Okb^l. Et ita factum est. 

Postea Sanctus Servanus cum centiun tantummodo 
sociis in comitatu suo venit ad Kinel et virgam quam 
tenuit transmare projecit, et de ea arbor pomifera crevit, 
que apud modernos IMorglas dicitur. Time angelus ad 
Beatum virum dixit, Ibi erit requies operis tui ubi arbor 
ilia perpulcra crevit. Sanctus inde Servanus venit ad 


locum qui dicitur Culenros volens liabitare ibi, dispersit 
omnes spinas et dumeta que erant ibi habundantes. Eex 
autem Scocie audieus, scilicet, Brude filius Dargart, qui 
Pictorum tunc temporis regnum tenuit, ira valde com- 
motus est, quia sine licentia sua habitabat ibi. Misit 
autem Eex spiculatores suos ut interficereut Sanctum Ser- 
vanum cum omni familia sua. Eegera interim pessimum 
gutta invasit ut vix suum spiritum subito uon emisit. Et 
sic festinanter propter Sanctum Domini mandavit. Sancto 
igitiu? veniente Eex egrotans loqiiitur dicens, Sancte Dei 
pro Christo in quern credis restaura me sanitati, et locum 
in cpio habitas in perpetuam elemosinam habeas. Sanctus 
precibus et pietate motus regem saluti restituit. Postea 
Sanctus Servanus cymiterium et ecclesiam suam in Culen- 
ros fundavit et dedicavit. Peracto ibi temporis spacio 
pervenit ad insulam Leuene ut loqueretur Sancto Edaunano 
presentialiter. Sanctus vero Eudananus Beatum virum 
gaudens honorabiliter suscepit et animadvertens quia 
locum aptum sue religion! adquireret ipsam insulam in 
elemosinam concessit bona voluntate. Servanus igitur 
per septem annos fvmdans monasterium in ea mansit et 
multorum animas lucrifecit. Exinde exiens totam regi- 
onem Fif construens diversa divina edificia summo Creatori 
circuit et perambulavit. 

Quodam tempore fuit Sanctus Servanus in iEa spelunca 
in Deserto et quidam frater monaclius infirmabatur cum 
eo, et voluit vini potum habere et non potuit adipisci. 
Tunc Beatus Servanus accepit aquam de fonte qui ibi habe- 
tur, et benedixit, et mutata est in vinum, et sanatus est 
eger. In iUa autem spelunca Sancto SeiTano in lecto suo 
jacente post matutinas accessit Diabolus ad eum temptans 
et disputans cum eo. Et dixit ad eum. An clericus sapiens 
es tu Sen'ane ? Quid vis tu miserrime omnium creatura- 
rum. Ait diabolus, Disputare tecum et aliqua te interrogare 
desidero. DLxit Sanctus Sei-vanus, Incipe, tu miser, incipe. 
InteiTogavit eum Sathanas, Ubi Deus fuit antequam celum Questiones Dia- 
et terram creavit et ante omnes creatm-as suas. Ait ei gervanum!"^ """ 
Beatus Servanus, In seipso fuit quia uon est localis, et a 

2 D 


nullo loco capitiir, neque distenditur, neque temponim 
motionibus subjacet, sed est totus ubique. Dixitque Dia- 
bolus, Qua de causa creavit Deus creaturas ? Ait Sanctus 
Quia non posset Creator esse sine creatiiris. Quare fecit eas 
valde bonas ? Sanctus ad hoc ait, Quia Deus noluit ope- 
rari nialiun, vel ne videatur invidus, quod nollet aliquid 
bouum esse preter se ipsum. Dixit diabolus, Ubi plas- 
mavit Deus Adam. Ait Sanctus, In Ebron. Dixit Sathanas, 
Ubi fuit postquam dejectus est de paradiso ? Sanctus ait, 
Ubi formatus est. Dixit Sathanas, Quamdiu fuit in para- 
diso post peccatum suum ? Ait Sanctus, Per vij. tantiuu 
horas. Dixit Sathanas, Cur Deus permisit ut Adam et Eua 
peccarent in paradiso ? Sanctus ad hoc ait. Quia presci\it 
Deus magnum inde fore venturum Christus enim natus non 
fuisset secundum carnem nisi Adam et Eua peccassent. 
Dixit Sathanas, Cur non potuerit Eua et Adam bberari per 
semetipsos ? Servanus ad hec, Quia non ceciderunt per 
semetipsos, sed per alium id est per Diabolum suadeutem 
eis. Ideo per ahum id est Christum de prosapia eorum 
natum liberati sunt. Cur Deus non formavit noviuu homi- 
nem et misit eum ut liberaret genus humanum? Ait 
Sanctus, Quia non pertineret ad nos nisi esset de genera 
Ade. Cur vos homines liberati estis per passionem Christi 
et non nos demones ? Quia a nobismet ipsis casus origi- 
nem non habuimus, sed a vobis demonibus. Vos autem 
demones quia non estis fragihs nature nee vultis penitere 
et a vobismet ipsis originem peccati contraxistis, ideo 
passio Christi vobis non profuit. Videns igitur Diabolus 
contra virimi Sanctum se nichil posse proficere, interroga- 
tione victus ait, Sapiens es tu Servane et non possum 
amplius tecum disputare. Ait ei Servanus, Vade tu miser, 
vade et festinanter hiac recede et nidli hominum amplius 
in hoc loco audeas apparere. Et locus ille ia honore 
Sancti, Sancti, Sancti Servani factus est sacer usque in 
hodierniun diem. 

Quodam autem tempore fuit Beatus Servanus iu Tidig- 
botuan malignus spiritus intravit iu quendam hominem 
miserum ibi et tantum appetitum commedendi habebat 


quod nuUo modo saturari poterat. Sanctus Servanus pol- 
licem suum posuit in os suum et Diabolus tribiliter damans 
et exiens dimisit iUum. Alio tempore fuit Beatiis Ser- 
vanus in Tuligcultrin, et quedam mulier paupercula peperit 
duos filios mortuos ibi et attulit eos ad Beatum Servanum 
et lacrimabiliter oravit eum ut sibi eos vivificaret. Sanc- 
tus vero prostratus in terra Dominum Deum nostrum 
deprecatus est ut fidem hujus muliercule aspiceret et sibi 
prolem suam caritative vivam redderet. Exaudiens igitur 
Deus precem Sancti vui filios sues vivos reddidit matri 
ambos. Alia vero nocte Sanctus idem fuit in Alueth hos- 
pitatus cum quodam paupere rustico qui plus substantie 
non habebat preter unum porcum et illvim Sancto viro in 
ilia nocte mactavit quem vivum surgens in crastino in ara 
sua invenit. Alio tempore fuit ille vir in Atheren et 
habuit quendam multonem quem diUgebat et nutriebat in 
domo. Sed fm- quidem veniens furtitn eum ei abstulit. 
Quesito autem ariete per totam parocliiam, illo non in- 
vento ecce adductus fur iUe in presentia Beati viri et inter- 
rogatus a Sancto si culpam criminis sibi illati haberet, sub 
juramento renuit quod uon habuit. Et incipiente eo ite- 
rum per baculum Sancti viri jurare, vervex in gutture sue 
balavit. Et Ule miser confitens peccatum suum veniam 
a Sancto Servauo quesivit et accepit. 

In lUo tempore fuit Sanctus in cella Duneuensi et tunc 
nunciatum est ei qixod draco magnus et terribilis et deter- 
rimus veniret in civitatem suam cujus aspectum nemo 
mortaUum posset pati. Sanctus autem Servanus exiens in 
obviam ei et accipiens baculum in dextera in valle quadam 
pugnavit cum dracone et interfecit eum. Ab Olo autem 
die dicitur vallis ilia Vallis draconis. Et postea venerunt 
ad Beatum Servanum de Alpibus tres viri ceci et tres viri 
claudi et tres viri surdi et dictum est eis quod suam recu- 
perarent sanitatem ad Beatum Servanum si venirent in 
scociam. Postquam ergo venerunt adlocuti Sanctum 
virum salutantes eum et sui magni laboris et itineris causam 
revelaverunt et ut ab iufirmitatibus suis eos curaret roga- 
verunt attente. Sanctus vir timens ne causa eum temp- 


tandi hec dicerent, loquitur eis dicens, Viri fratres numquid 
ego sum Deus, aut vos temptatis me supra id quod videtis 
ia me, videlicet dum istam rem grandem sanari vos a me 
postulatis. lUi autem prosteruantes ad pedes ejus et flo- 
rantes cimi juramento dixerunt, Nou Domine pater non, sed 
credimus preces et orationes tuas multum valere apud 
Deum, et per te a summo creatore uos posse adipisci sani- 
tatem. Audiens igitur Beatus Servanus fidem illorum bene- 
dixit fontem quendam, et in eo ter fecit eos lavari. Et 
inde exeuntes merito Sancti viri salvi facti simt. Et sic 
Sanctissimus Servanus, cecis visum, claudis gressum, surdis 
auditum, hiis et aliis pluribus diversa genera morboram 
patientibus Deo auctore sauitatem tribuit et paravit. Post- 
quam Sanctus iste fratres karissimi occupatus est grandi 
infirmitate et vi febriimi detentus est et voca\'it omnes 
fratres suos et diem dissolutionis sue imminere eis prenim- 
ciavit. Fratres inde multum dolentes et Deum assidue pro 
ipso orantes responderunt, Cur nos pater deseris ? aut cui 
nos desolatos relinquis, ]\Ialumus enim commori tecum 
quam post te in seculo vivere. Sauctus vero vir post multa 
miracula, post diversas virtutes, post multas ecclesias in 
Christo fimdatas, pace data fratribus in cella Duuenensi in 
primo die kalendarum luUi paulatim spiritum summo Crea- 
tori tradidit et commendavit. Post obitum suum disci- 
puli sui et tocius provincie fere populus, corpus ejus ad 
Culenros deportaverunt. Et ibi cum psalmis et ymnis et 
canticis honorifice eum sepelierunt, ubi florent merita et 
virtutes ejus meritorum usque in hodiernuni diem, ad 
laudem et honorem omnipotentis Dei, qui in Trinitate per- 
fecta vivit et regnat per infinita seculorum secula. — Amen. 




Ijonifacius nacione Israliticus de radie sororis Aposto- Foi. ixix. 
lorum Petri et Andree prosapia natus. Et in vico Beth- 
saida Galalee prouincie ortus. Hie in papali dignitati 
Beato Gregorio Pape successit et annis septem tribusque 
mensibus ac septem diebus presidebat. Iste enim Septi- 
mus vir a lolianne apostolorum Petri et Andree et sextus 
a radia, hie ab infancia Spiritus Sancti gratia est repletus, 
qui in adoleseeneie sue etate Deo placere studebat et 
ad superne vite palacium probis actibus verum Deum cole- 
bat et sic castitatem anime et corporis seruans irreprehen- 
sibiliter viuebat. 

Octauo vero etatis sue auno diuinarum seripturarum se 
deditum prebuit, vbi veram verbi sapieneiam affluenter 
inuenit, variasque ex omni genere linguas didicit et recte 
loquebatur, in tantum quod lohanne Episcopi lerosolimi- 
tano et Patriarcha, etatis sue anno trieesimo sexto in sacer- 
docium est ordinatus, vbi postque Apostoli Petri Sanctissimi 
vitam insecutus est et mores. 

Attingente autem eo annum circiter quadragesimiim 
sextum, Mamicio Eomanorum regnante Imperatore,Eomam 
venit, vbi aliquanti temporis in Episcopum et Cardiualem 
constitutus est : delude omnium Cardinalium electione et 
ipsius Summi Dei prouidencia Spiritus Sancti etatis sue 
quadragesimo anno diuiuitus ad Papatum assumitur. De 
hinc certas horas canonicas et aUorum in ecclesia Dei 
diuinorum celebraciones varlas imposuit : constitutiones ac 


salubres orandi dicendique modos rite et legittime ordi- 

Demum de siiis fratribus in oratorio quosdem eiusdem 
clam revocauit ut inde sui cordis archana eisdem reuelaret. 
Ita inquiens, Fratres mi in Domiao nostri lesu Christo 
cuius fides vbique profitetur : ab iUo tempore quo paternas 
nostras deseruimus lares ob eiusdem Dei amorem et iUorum 
populorum qui vltra fines Europe vsque in aquilonales 
plagas citra parumper terre fines peregrinare disposuimus. 
Cui reudendo dixerimt, Mitte ibidem vivos religiosos et 
prudentes in ea parte quemadmodum diui Celestinus et 
Gregorius antecessores tui Palladium Patricium et Augus- 
tinum eisdem premitus destulerunt. 

Sanctus itaque Bonifacius respondebat dicens, Deiim 
nostrum omnipotentem per Sanctum Petrum rogauimus : 
ut per illius meritum graciam banc peregrinandi recipere 
meruimus, qui sibi in seculo Apostolo Paulo creditum est 
euangelizare Hlis in Europa verbum Dei vnde illius gracia 
corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri lesui Christi sacrifi- 
cium super hoc altare libauimus, vt idem ab eodem nobis 
crederetur quod quidem profecto angelica visione per Sanc- 
tum Petrum nobis nuper revelatum est et deinceps adhuc in 
orations perseuerans de eadem visione firmatus sum. Cui 
omnes dixerunt : Tribuat tibi Dominus secundum cor 
tuum et omne consilium tuum in bono confirmet. 

Hec cum peracta fuissent per orando dixit Ulis, Benedicti 
sitis a Domino qui fecit celum et terram. Orantes autem 
alterutrum et benedicentes iUic abeundi facultatem in Dei 
benedictions ab illis recepit paratisque omnibus ad itine- 
randum conuenientibus paulo post Eomam deserit : et sui 
itineris iuicicum sumpsit vbi inter fratres et tocius vrbis 
Eome populos clamor amarissimus et luctus non minimus 
interfuit eiulatuque maximo dicentes, Ha pater sanctissime, 
cur nos derelinquis orphanos, et hec chcentibus benedixit 
iUis et recessit. 

Arrepto autem per eundem itinere Bonifacius, Benedictus, 
Seruandus, Pensaudus, Beneuolus, JNIadianus, Principuus, 
Episcopi viri deuotissimi eundem pie et denote iasecuti 


sunt ; ac due preclare virgines Abbatisse, Crescencia et 
Triduana ; septem presbyteri ; septemque diaconi ; septeiu 
subdyacoui ; septem accolite ; septem exorciste ; septem 
lectores ; et septem hostiarii ; ac vtriusque sexus virorum 
et mulierum maxima multitude timencium Deum. Con- 
stitutisque singulis in ordine per dictum virum Dei Boni- 
facium prospero itinere ac prospera nauigacione miani- 
miter ad Pictauiam peruenenmt ; sed signo de celo 
diuinitus emisso per Mare Scoticum vsque pene locum de 
Eestinoth peruenerunt quem quidem locum liumiliter 
adeuntes maiorem letaniam psallentis glorificabant Deum. 

Accidit interea Nectanium Pictorum Eegem viso signo 
ad liunc locum sue cum exercitu accessisse, videndo pere- 
grinonmi tantam multitudinem admirando stupore non 
modico effectus est ; sed Spiritus Sancti gratia repente iu- 
spiratus in ilia hora a Beato Bonifacio et sius Epyscopis 
baptism! sacramentum, cum omnibus maioribus et mini- 
stris suis, nomine Domini nostri lesu Cliristi receperunt. 
Eex vero ipsorum virorum timencium Deum locum baptis- 
terii in nomine Sancte Trinitatis Beato Bonifacio tradidit 
et deliberauit. Quo in loco infinitus pene populus per 
eundem in fidei Christiane crismate sancto insigniti sunt, 
ac ad eosdem in eiusdem fide imbuendos in ecclesiarmn 
et alionun locorum deuotorum constructione vsque in 
senium cum omni vite sanctitate et exemplo se exerci- 
tatus est. 

Demum Beatus Bonifacius,post plurimaalia miraculorum 
presagia, cecos illuminabat, leprosos mundabat, ac surdos 
audire fecit ; et mutos loqui, mortuos septem a morte ad 
vitam suscitauit ; variosque captiuitate ad libertatem suis 
propriis muneribus redemit. Centum et quinquaginta 
euangeliorum scripsit libeUos, et totidem Deo templa fun ■ 
dauit, Episcopos totidem, ac presby teres miUe. Et ad 
Christi fidem virorum et mulierum triginta sex mHia con- 
uertebat et baptizauit. Etatis autera sue anno quarto et 
octaugesimo plenus gracia et virtute decimo septimo kal. 
Aprilis migi-auit ad Christum. 




FoMxij. J^N partibus Viigarie regionis prouincie Paiinonie, egre- 

gius atlileta Christi, Adrianus oriundus fuit, cuius quanta 
fides quantaque apud Deum meriti illius diuine virtutis 
opera tarn gloriosus exitus luculenter approbarunt ; hie 
Sanctus vir regia stirpe genitus in iuuenilibus annis quam 
senectutem mentis liabebat immensam et ob preclare vite 
eiiisdem insignia ad Epyscopatus gradum sublimatur, vbi 
diuinis mancipatus obsequiis, quot facta egregia et gesta, 
quot ve probitates exercuerat, quot auinias Domino acqui- 
siuit, copiosa multitude clericorum et secularium populi 
secum profecti testantur. 

Iste siquidem diuus pater post diuturnos sudores 
laboresque suis in partibus circa diuinum gregem impensos 
volens et aliis prodesse populis, assumpto secum comitatu 
venerabili, peregre profectus est zelo Christians religionis 
ad orientales Scocie partes, que tunc a Pictis occupabantur, 
nauigio deuenit, habens secimi confessorum clericorum 
%iilgarisque populi sex milia sex centos sex, inter quos 
erant iste notabilis Glodianus inclitus martyrio coronatus, 
Gayus et Monanus coniessores candidi, Stobrandus, et alii 
summi sacerdotes infula decorati. Ceterorimi nomina in 
libro vite purpureo sanguine scribuntur. 

Hii viri, cum presule Adriano dilati regno Pictorum 
plurima signa fecere populo incessanter verba salutis im- 
miscentes, et in multis profuerunt, sed postea in Maya 
insula virtutis operibus uitenti solum habere mansionem 


desiderabant, vbi expulsa demonum ac belluarum inulti- 
tudine per gloriosos Dei seruos fieret loci;s oracionis omni 
plenus sanctitate. 

Ubi vigiliis et oracioui vacantes aliquot temporis iu- 
tente impendebant, et iutenti postea seiiieiite temulenta 
Dannonim rabie, qui totam fere Brittaniam, que nunc 
Anglia dicitur, deuastauerant, vsque insulani prefatam 
deunemnt, vbi secuti Dei confessores armis spiritualis 
milicie aduersus, paganani genteni demicabant, quorum 
viuam predicacionem et incessabilem confessionem glorio- 
sissimi nominis Christi Dani non i'erentes fuiiestis ereptis 
ensibus fremibundi irruere in Lostiam Domini Adrianum 
que verba pro lege Dei sui certantes vsque ad mortem 
glorioso martyrio coronarunt. 

Et, vt propbetarum verba rursus de eisdem verificaren- 
tur, vbi inconsolata Eachel filios plorasse dicitur, in tarn 
celestem, tarn sanctam multitudinem et in Christi confes-